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THE 

METHOD of FLUXIONS 

AND 

INFINITE SERIES; 

WITH ITS 

Application to the Geometry of CURVE-LINES. 

By the INVENTOR 

Sir I S A A C NEWTON,^ 

Late Prefident of the Royal Society. 

^ranjlated from the AUTHOR'* LATIN ORIGINAL 

not yet made publick. 



To which is fubjoin'd, 

A PERPETUAL COMMENT upon the whole Work, 

Confiding of 

ANN OTATIONS, ILLU STRATION s, and SUPPLEMENTS, 

In order to make this Treatife 

Acomplcat Inftitution for the ufe o/' LEARNERS. 

By JOHN CO L SON, M. A. andF.R.S. 

Mafter of Sir Jofeph fFilliamfon's free Mathematical-School at Rochejter. 



LONDON: 
Printed by HENRY WOODFALLJ 

And Sold by JOHN NOURSE, at the Lamb without Temple-Bar. 

M.DCC.XXXVI. 



' 






T O 




William Jones Efq; F.R S. 
SIR, 

[T was a laudable cuftom among the ancient 
Geometers, and very worthy to be imitated by 
their SuccefTors, to addrefs their Mathematical 
labours, not fo much to Men of eminent rank 
and {ration in the world, as to Perfons of diftinguidi'd 
merit and proficience in the fame Studies. For they knew 
very well, that fuch only could be competent Judges of 
their Works, and would receive them with ''the efteem. 
they might deferve. So far at leaft I can copy after thofe 
great Originals, as to chufe a Patron for thefe Speculations, 
whofe known skill and abilities in fuch matters will enable 
him to judge, and whofe known candor will incline him 
to judge favourably, of the fhare I have had in the prefent 
performance. For as to the fundamental part of the 
Work, of which I am only the Interpreter, I know it 
cannot but pleafe you ; it will need no protection, nor 
ean it receive a greater recommendation, than to bear the 
name of its illuftrious Author. However, it very naturally 
applies itfelf to you, who had the honour (for I am fure 
you think it fo) of the Author's friendship and familiarity 
in his life-time ; who had his own confent to publifli nil 
elegant edition of fome of his pieces, of a nature not very 
different from this ; and who have fo juft an efteem for, 
as well as knowledge of, his other moft fublime, moil 
admirable, andjuftly celebrated Works. 

A 2 But 



iv DEDICATION. 

\ 

But befides thefe motives of a publick nature, I had 
others that more nearly concern myfelf. The many per- 
fonal obligations I have received from you, and your ge- 
nerous manner of conferring them, require all the tefti- 
monies of gratitude in my power. Among the reft, give 
me leave to mention one, (tho' it be a privilege I have 
enjoy 'd in common with many others, who have the hap- 
pinefs of your acquaintance,) which is, the free accefs you 
have always allow'd me, to -your copious Collection of 
whatever is choice and excellent in the Mathernaticks. 
Your judgment and induftry, .in collecting -thofe. valuable 
?tg{^tfcu., are not more conspicuous, than the freedom 
and readinefs with which you communicate them, to all 
fuch who you know will apply them to their proper ufe, 
that is, to the general improvement of Science. 

Before I take my leave, permit me, good Sir, to join my 
wiOies to thofe of the publick, that your own ufeful Lu- 
cubrations may fee the light, with all convenie-nt ipeed ; 
which, if I rightly conceive of them, will be an excellent 
methodical Introduction, not only to the mathematical 
Sciences in general, but alfo to thefe, as well as to the other 
curious and abftrufe Speculations of our great Author. You 
are very well apprized, as all other good Judges muft be, 
that to illuftrate him is to cultivate real Science, and to 
make his Difcoveries eafy and familiar, will be no fmall 
improvement in Mathernaticks and Philofophy. 

That you will receive this addrefs with your ufual can- 
dor, and with that favour and friendship I have fo long 
ind often experienced, is the earneil requeft of, 

S I R, 

Your moft obedient humble Servant^ 

J. C OLSON. 



(*) 




THE 



PREFACE. 




Cannot but very much congratulate with my Mathe- 
matical Readers, and think it one of the moft for- 
tunate ciicumftances of my Life, that I have it in my 
power to prefent the publick with a moft valuable 

Anecdote, of the greatefl Ma fter in Mathematical and 

Philofophical Knowledge, that ever appear 'd in the World. And 
fo much the more, becaufe this Anecdote is of an element ry nature, 
preparatory and introductory to his other moft arduous and fubh'me 
Speculations, and intended by himfelf for the instruction of Novices 
and Learners. I therefore gladly embraced the opportunity that 
was put into my hands, of publishing this pofthumous Work, be- 
caufe I found it had been compofed with that view and defign. 
And that my own Country-men might firft enjoy the benefit of 
this publication, I refolved upon giving it in an Englijh Translation, 
with fome additional Remarks of my own. I thought it highly 
injurious to the memory and reputation of the great Author, as 
well as invidious to the glory of our own Nation, that fo curious 
and uleful a piece fhould be any longer fupprels'd, and confined to 
a few private hands, which ought to be communicated to all the 
learned World for general Inftruction. And more efpecially at a 
time when the Principles of the Method here taught have been 
fcrupuloufly fifted and examin'd, have been vigorouily .oppofed and 
(we may fay) ignominioufly rejected as infufficient, by fome Mathe- 
matical Gentlemen, who feem not to have derived their knowledge 
of them from their only true Source, that is, from cur Author's 
own Treatife wrote exprefsly to explain them. And on the other 
hand, the Principles of this Method have been zealouily and com- 
mendably defended by other Mathematical Gentlemen, who yet 

a feem 



x lie PREFACE. 

fern to have been as little acquainted with this Work, (or at leaft 
to have over-look'd it,) the only genuine and original Fountain of 
this kind of knowledge. For what has been elfewhere deliver'd by 
our Author, concerning this Method, was only accidental and oc- 
calional, and far from that copioufnefs with which he treats of it 
here, and illuftrates it with a great variety of choice Examples. 

The learned and ingenious Dr. Pemberton, as he acquaints us in 
his View of Sir Tfaac Newton's Philofophy, had once a defign of 
publishing this Work, with the confent" and under the infpectkm 
of the Author himfelf; which if he had then accomplim'd, he would 
certainly have deferved and received the thanks of all lovers of Science, 
The Work would have then appear'd with a double advantage, as 
receiving the la ft Emendations of its great Author, and likewife in 
faffing through the hands of fo able an Editor. And among the 
other good effects of this publication, poffibly it might have prevent- 
ed all or a great part of thofe Difputes, which have fince been raifed, 
and which have been fo ftrenuoufly and warmly pnrfued on both 
fides, concerning the validity of the Principles of this Method. They 
would doubtlefs have been placed in fo good a light, as would have 
cleared them from any imputation of being in any wife defective, or 
not fufficiently demonstrated. But fince the Author's Death, as the 
Doctor informs us, prevented the execution of that defign, and fince 
he has not thought fit to refume it hitherto, it became needful that 
this publication fhould be undertook by another, tho' a much in- 
ferior hand. 

For it was now become highly necefTary, that at laft the great 
Sir Ijaac himfelf fhould interpofe, fhould produce his genuine Me- 
thod of Fluxions, and bring it to the teft of all impartial and con- 
fiderate Mathematicians ; to mew its evidence and Simplicity, to 
maintain and defend it in his own way, to convince his Opponents, 
and to teach his Difciples and Followers upon what grounds they 
mould proceed in vindication of the Truth and Himfelf. And that 
this might be done the more eafily and readily, I refolved to accom- 
pany it with an ample Commentary, according to the beft of my 
fkill, and (I believe) according to the mind and intention of the Au- 
thor, wherever I thought it needful ; and particularly with an Eye 
to the fore-mention'd Controverfy. In which I have endeavoui'd to 
obviate the difficulties that have been raifed, and to explain every 
thing in fo full a manner, as to remove all the objections of any 
force, that have been any where made, at leaft fuch as have occtu'd 
to my obfervation. If what is here advanced, as there is good rea- 

fon 



PREFACE. xi 

fon to hope, fhall prove to the fatisfadtion of thofe Gentlemen, who 
ikfl darted thefe objections, and who (I am willing to fuppofe) had 
only the caufe of Truth at heart; I fhall be very glad to have con- 
tributed any thing, towards the removing of their Scruples. But if 
it fhall happen otherwife, and what is here offer'd fhould not appear 
to be furricient evidence, conviction, and demonflration to them ; 
yet I am perfuaded it will be fuch to moil other thinking Readers, 
who fhall apply themfelves to it with unprejudiced and impartial 
minds; and then I mall not think my labour ill beflow'd. It fhould 
however be well confider'd by thofe Gentlemen, that the great num- 
ber of Examples they will find here, to which the Method of Fluxions 
is fuccefsfuUy apply'd, are fo many vouchers for the truth of the 
Principles, on which that Method is founded. For the Deductions 
are always conformable to what has been derived from other uncon- 
troverted Principles, and therefore mufl be acknowledg'd us true. 
This argument mould have its due weight, even with fuch as can- 
not, as well as with fuch as will not, enter into the proof of the 
Principles themfelves. And the hypothefn that has been advanced to 
evade this conclufion, of one error in reafoning being ilill corrected 
by another equal and contrary to it, and that fo regularly, conftantly, 
and frequently, as it mufl be fiippos'd to do here ; this bvpothe/is, I 
fay, ought not to be ferioufly refuted, becaufe I can hardly think it 
is ferioufly propofed. 

The chief Principle, upon which the Method of Fluxions is here 
built, is this very fimple one, taken from the Rational Mechanicks ; 
which is, That Mathematical Quantity, particularly Extenlion, may 
be conceived as generated by continued local Motion; and that all Quan- 
tities whatever, at leaflby analogy and accommodation, may be con- 
ceived as generated after a like manner. Confequently there mufl be 
comparativeVelocitiesofincreafeanddecreafe, during fuch generations, 
whole Relations are fixt and determinable, and may therefore /pro- 
blematically) be propofed to be found. This Problem our Author 
here folves by the hjip of another Principle, not lefs evident ; which 
fuppofes that Qnimity is infinitely divifible, or that it may (men- 
tally at leaft) fo far continually diminifh, as at lafl, before it is totally 
extinguifh'd, to arrive at Quantities that may be call'd vanilhing 
Quantities, or whk.li are infinitely little, and lefs than any afTign- 
able Quantity. Or it funnolcs that we may form a Notion, not 
indeed of abioiute, but of relative and comparative infinity. 'Tis a 
very jufl exception to the Method of Indivifibles, as aifo to the 
foreign infiniteiimal Method, that they have rccourfe at once to 

a 2 infinitely 



The PREFACE. 

infinitely little Quantities, and infinite orders and gradations of thefe, 
not relatively but absolutely fuch. They affume thefe Quantities 
finnd & Jewel, without any ceremony, as Quantities that actually and 
obvioufly exift, and make Computations with them accordingly ; 
tlie refult of which muft needs be as precarious, as the abfblute ex- 
iftence of the Quantities they afiume. And fome late Geometricians 
have carry 'd thefe Speculations, about real and abfolute Infinity, ftill 
much farther, and have raifed imaginary Syftems of infinitely great 
and infinitely little Quantities, and their feveral orders and properties j 
which, to all fober Inquirers into mathematical Truths, muft cer- 
tainly appear very notional and vifionary. 

Thefe will be the inconveniencies that will arife, if we do not 
rightly diftinguifh between abfolute and relative Infinity. Abfolute 
Infinity, as fuch, can hardly be the object either of our Conceptions 
or Calculations, but relative Infinity may, under a proper regulation. 
Our Author obferves this diftinction very ftrictly, and introduces 
none but infinitely little Quantities that are relatively fo ; which he 
arrives at by beginning with finite Quantities, and proceeding by a 
gradual and neceffary progrefs of diminution. His Computations 
always commence by finite and intelligible Quantities ; and then at 
laft he inquires what will be the refult in certain circumftances, when 
fuch or fuch Quantities are diminim'd in infinitum. This is a con- 
ftant practice even in common Algebra and Geometry, and is no 
more than defcending from a general Propofition, to a particular Cafe 
which is certainly included in it. And from thefe eafy Principles, 
managed with a vaft deal of fkill and fagacity, he deduces his Me- 
thod of Fluxions j which if we confider only fo far as he himfelf 
has carry'd it, together with the application he has made of it, either 
here or elfewhere, directly or indiredly, exprefly or tacitely, to the 
moft curious Difcoveries in Art and Nature, and to the fublimeft 
Theories : We may defervedly efteem it as the greateft Work of 
Genius, and as the nobleft Effort that ever was made by the Hun an 
Mind. Indeed it muft be own'd, that many uftful Improvement?, 
and new Applications, have been fince made by others, and proba- 
bly will be ftill made every day. For it is no mean excellence of 
this Method, that it is doubtlefs ftill capable of a greater degree of 
perfection ; and will always afford an inexhauftible fund of curious 
matter, to reward the pains of the ingenious and iuduftrious Analyft. 

As I am defirous to make this as fatisfactory as poffible, efptcially 
to the very learned and ingenious Author of the Difcourle call'd The 
Analyjl, whofe eminent Talents I acknowledge myfelf to have a 

J great 



The PREFACE. xlii 

great veneration for ; I fhall here endeavour to obviate fome of his 
principal Objections to the Method of Fluxions, particularly fuch as 
I have not touch'd upon in my Comment, which is foon to follow. 

He thinks cur Author has not proceeded in a demonftrative and 
fcientifical matter, in his Princip. lib. 2. km. 2. where he deduces 
the Moment of a Rectangle, whole Sides are fuppofed to be variable 
Lines. I fhall reprefent the matter Analytically thus, agreeably (I 
think) to the mind of the Author. 

Let X and Y be two variable Lines, or Quantities, which at dif- 
ferent periods of time acquire different values, by flowing or increa- 
fing continually, either equably or alike inequably. For inflance, let 
there be three periods of time, at which X becomes A fa, A, 
and A -+- 7 a ; and Y becomes B f3, B, and B -+- f b fuccefiively 
and reflectively ; where A, a, B, b, are any quantities that may be 
aiTumed at pleafure. Then at the fame periods of time the variable 
Produ<ft or Rectangle XY will become A" fa x B f4, AB, and 
A +- f * x B -+- h, that is, AB T <?B fM. -f- ab, AB, and 
AB -+- f^B -f- 7$ A -f- ^ab. Now in the interval from the firft period 
of time to the fecond, in which X from being A fa is become A, 
and in which Y from being B 7^ is become B, the Product XY 
from being AB f^B iA -f- ^ab becomes AB -, that is, by Sub- 
traction, its whole Increment during that interval is f#B -+- fA 
^ab. And in the interval from the fecond period of time to the 
third, in which X from being A becomes A-f-ftZ, and in which Y 
frcm being B becomes B -hf^, the Product XY from being AB 
becomes AB-f- ffiB -f f 4A -+- -^ab ; that is, by Subtraction, its whole 
Increment during that interval is 7,76 + 7^A -+- ^ab. _ Add thefe two 
Increirents together, and we fhall have <?B -+- bA. for the compleat 
Increment of the Product XY, during the whole interval of time, 
while X fk w'd from the value A \a to A -f- ftf , or Y flow'd 
from the value B f to B +7''. Or U might have been found 
by tne Operation, thus: While X f.ows from A \a to A, and 
therce to A -f- ft?, or Y flows f-om B f3 to B, and thence to 
B -i- f A, the Product XY will flow fiom AB f<?B f3A -f- ab 
to AB, ?nd thence to AB -+- f^B + -J'k -f- ^ab > therefore by Sub- 
traction the whole Increment during that interval of time will be 
tfB-4-M. Q^E. D. 

This may eafily be illuftrated by Numbers thus: Make A,rf,B,/, 
equal to 9, 4, i 5, 6, refpeclively; (or any other Numbers to be af- 
fumed at pleafure.) Then the three fucceffive values of X will be 
7, 9, ii, and the three fucceffive values of Y will be 12, 15, 18, 

reipcciivcly. 



xiv The PREFACE. 

refpeftively. Alfo the three fucceflive values of the Produd XY 
will be 84, 135, 198. But rtB-f-M = 4xic-f- 6x9= 114 = 
19 8_8 4 . Q.E. O. 

Thus the Lemma will be true of any conceivable finite Incre- 
ments whatever; and therefore by way of Corollary, it will be true 
of infinitely little Increments, which are call'd Moments, and which 
was the thing the Author principally intended here to demonflrate. 
15ut in the cafe of Moments it is to be confider'd, that X, or defi- 
nitely A ftf, A, and A -+- a, are to be taken indifferently for 
the fame Quantity ; as alfo Y, and definitely B f/;, B, B -+- ~b. 
And the want of this Confutation has occafion'd not a few per- 
plexities. 

Now from hence the reft of our Author's Conclufions, in the 
fame Lemma, may be thus derived fomething more explicitely. The 
Moment of the Reclangle AB being found to be Ab -+- ^B, when 
the contemporary Moments of A and B are reprelented by a and b 
refpedtively ; make B = A, and therefore b = a, and then the 
Moment of A x A, .or A*, will be Aa -+- aA, or 2aA. Again, 
make B = A a , and therefore b-=. zaA, and then the Moment of 
AxA*, or A', will be 2rfA 4 -f- aA 1 , or 3^A*. Again, make B = 
A 5 , and therefore l> = ^aA s -, and then the Moment of A xA*, or 
A 4 , will be 3<?A 3 -4-rfA 3 , or 4#A 3 . Again, make B==A-, and 
therefore ^ = 4^A 3 , and then the Moment of Ax A 4 , or A', will 
be 4<?A 4 -i-tfA 4 , or 5<zA 4 . And fo on in infinitum. Therefore in 
general, afluming m to reprefent any integer affirmative Number, the 
Moment of A* will be maA" 1 . 

Now becaufe A* x A^ ra = i, (where m is any integer affirmative 
Number,) and becaufe the Moment of Unity, or any other conftant 
quantity, is = p ; we (hall have A* x Mom. A~ m -f- A~ m x Mom. 
A"= o, or Mom. A~"= A- 110 x Mom. A" . But Mom. A" 
= maA m ~*, as found before ; therefore Mom. A"* = A~ iw x 
ma A"-' = maA-"-' . Therefore the Moment of A m will be 
maA m ~ I , when m is any integer Number, whether affirmative or 
negative. 



And univerfally, if we put A" =B, or A"=. B" , where m and 
n may be any integer Numbers, affirmative or negative ; then we 

mall have ma A"-* = ;.^B"^' , or b= mgA< = - a A i, which 



is the Moment of B, or of A" . So that the Moment of A" will 

be 



The P E E F A C E. xv 

be rtill wtfA"*" 1 , whether ;;/ be affirmative or negative, integer or 
fraction. 

The Moment of AB being M -+- aB, and the Moment of CD 
being </C +- cD ; fuppofe D = AB, and therefore d-=. b& +- aB, 
and then by Subftitution the Moment of ABC will be bA +- aB xC 
-f- c AB = MC -+- rfBC -h r AB. And likewife the Moment of 
A*B" will be />B"-'A" -f- maA. m ~ l B n . And fo of any others. 

Now there is fo near a connexion between the Method of Mo- 
ments and the Method of Fluxions, that it will be very eafy to pafs 
from the one to the other. For the Fluxions or Velocities of in- 
creafe, are always proportional to the contemporary Moments. Thus 
if for A, B, C, &c. we write x, y, z, &c. for a, b, c, &c. we may 
write x, y, z, &c. Then the Fluxion of xy will be xy -f- xy, the 
Fluxion of x m will be rnxx*-* , whether m be integer or fraction, 
affiimative or negative; the Fluxion of xyz will be xyz -f- xyz -f- 
xjz, and the Fluxion of x m y n will be mxx m -*y -J- nx m yy"~ s . And 
fo of the reft. 

Or the former Inquiry may be placed in another view, thus : 
Let A and A-f- a be two fucceflive values of the variable Quantity 
X, as alfo B and B -+- b be two fucceflive and contemporary values 
of Y ; then will AB and AB -f- aB-\~ bA+ab be two fucceflive and 
contemporary values of the variable Product XY. And while X, 
by increafing perpetually, flows from its value A to A -f- a, or Y 
flows from B to B -f- b ; XY at the fame time will flow from AB 
to AB +- aB -+- bA. -f- ab t during which time its whole Increment, 
as appears by Subtraction, will become aB -h bh. -+- ab. Or in 
Numbers thus: Let A, a, B, b, be equal to 7, 4, 12, 6, refpectively ; 
then will the two fucceflive values of X be 7, 1 1 , and the two fuc- 
ceflive values of Y will be 12, 18. Alib the two fucceflive values of 
the Product XY will be 84, 198. But the Increment aB -+- t>A -J- 
ah- 48 -f- 42 -+- 24= 1 14= 198 84, as before. 

And thus it will be as to all finite Increments : But when the In- 
crements become Moments, that is, when a and b are fo far dirni- 
nifh'd, as to become infinitely lefs than A and B ; at the fame time 
ab will become infinitely lefs than either aB or ^A, (for aB. ab :: 
B. b, and bA. ab :: A. a y ) and therefore it will vanifh in refpect of 
them. In which cafe the Moment of the Product or Rectangle 
will be aB -+- bA, as before. This perhaps is the more obvious and 
direct way of proceeding, in the t relent Inquiry ; but, as there was 
room for choice, our Author thought fit to chufe the former way,, 

as 



xvi The PREFACE. 

as the more elegant, and in which he was under no neceflity of hav- 
ing recourfe to that Principle, that quantities arifing in an Equation, 
which are infinitely lefs than the others, may be neglected or ex- 
punged in companion of thofe others. Now to avoid the ufe of 
this Principle, tho' otherwife a true one, was all the Artifice ufed on 
this occaiion, which certainly was a very fair and justifiable one. 

I fhall conclude my Obfervations with confidering and obviating 
the Objections that have been made, to the ufual Method of finding 
the Increment, Moment, or Fluxion of any indefinite power x of 
the variable quantity x, by giving that Inveftigation in fuch a man- 
ner, as to leave (I think) no room for any juft exceptions to it. 
And the rather becaufe this is a leading point, and has been ftrangely 
perverted and mifreprefented. 

In order to find the Increment of the variable quantity or power 
x, (or rather its relation to the Increment of x } confider'd as given ; 
becaufe Increments and Moments can be known only by comparifon 
with other Increments and Moments, as alfo Fluxions by comparifon 
with other Fluxions ;) let us make x"=y, and let X and Y be any 
fynchronous Augments of x and y. Then by the hypothefis we 
fhall have the Equation x-fc-X\* =y -+- Y ; for in any Equation 
the variable Quantities may always be increafed by their fynchronous 
Augments, and yet the Equation will flill hold good. Then by 
our Author's famous Binomial Theorejn we fhall have y -f- Y = x n 

-+- nx"~'X -+- n x ^=-^*X * + n x *~ x '-^-V^X 3 , &c. or re - 
moving the equal Quantities y and x", it will be Y = nx n ~ l X +- 
ny. ^-x"--X * -+- n x ?-^- x ^^x'-'^X 3 , &c. So that when X de T 

notes the given Increment of the variable quantity A,-, Y will here denote 
the fynchronous Increment of the indefinite power y or x" ; whofe 
value therefore, in all cafes, may be had from this Series. Now 
that we may be fure we proceed regularly, we will verify this thus 
far, by a particular .and familiar instance or two. Suppofe n = 2, 
then Y = 2xX -+- X l . That is, while x flows or increafes to x +- X, 
.v* in the fame time, by its Increment Y = 2xX -+-X 1 , will increafe 
to .v 1 4- 2xX -j- X 1 , which we otherwife know to be true. Again, 
fuppofe fl = 3, then Y = 3* 1 X -+- 3*X a H- X 3 . Or while x in*. 
creafes to x r+- X, x"> by its Increment Y = 3^ a X -h 3^X J + X 3 
will increafe to x* -f- 3* 1 X -+- ^xX 1 -+- X 3 . And fo in all ,other 
particular cafes, whereby we may plainly perceive, that this general 
Conclufion mud be certain and indubitable. 

This 



Tie PREFACE. xvii 

This Series therefore will be always true, let the Augments X and 
Y be ever fo great, or ever fo little ; for the truth docs not at all de- 
pend on the circumftance of their magnitude. Nay, when they are 
infinitely little, or when they become Moments, it muft be true alfo, 
by virtue of the general Conclufion. But when X and Y are di- 
minifh'd in infinitum, fo as to become at laft infinitely little, the 
greater powers of X muft needs vanifli firft, as being relatively of an 
infinitely lefs vali e than the fmaller powers. So that when they are 
all expunged, we ihall neceflarily obtain the Equation Y=znx*~'X ; 
where the remaining Terms are likewife infinitely little, and confe- 
quently would vanifh, if there were other Terms in the Equation, 
which were (relatively) infinitely greater than themfelves. But as 
.there are not, we may fecurely retain this Equation, as having an 
undoubted right fo to do; and efpecially as it gives us anufeful piece 
of information, that X and Y, tho' themfelves infinitely little, or 
vanifhing quantities, yet they vanifli in proportion to each other as 
j to nx"~ f . We have therefore learn 'd at laft, that the Moment by 
which x increafes, or X, is to the contemporary Moment by which 
x a increafes, or Y, as i is to nx"~ s . And their Fluxions, or Velo- 
cities of increafe, being in the fame proportion as their fynchronous 
Moments, we fhall have nx*-'x for the Fluxion of X", when the 
Fluxion of x is denoted by x. 

I cannot conceive there can be any pretence to infinuate here, 
that any unfair artifices, any leger-de-main tricks, or any Ihifting of 
the hypothefis, that have been fo feverely complain'd of, are at all 
made ufe of in this Inveftigation. We have legitimately derived 
this general Conclufion in finite Quantities, that in all cafes the re- 
lation of the Increments will be Y = nx"~ l X + x ~~x*'- 1 X*, &c. 
of which one particular cafe is, when X and Y are fuppofed conti- 
nually to decreafe, till they finally terminate in nothing. But by 
thus continually decreafing, they approach nearer and nearer to the 
Ratio of i to nx"~\ which they attain to at ihe very inftant of the'r 
vanifhing, and not before. This therefore is their ultimate Ratio, 
the Ratio of their Moments, Fluxions, or Velocities, by which x 
and x n continually increafe or decreafe. Now to argue from a 
general Theorem to a particular cafe contain'd under it, is certainly 
tine of the moft legitimate and logical, as well as one of the mofl ufual 
and ufeful ways of arguing, in the whole compafs of the Mathemc- 
ticks. To object here, that after we have made X and Y to ftand 
for fome quantity, we are not at liberty to make them nothing, or no 
quantity, or vanishing quantities, is not an Objection againft the 

b Method 



XVlll 



Tte PREFACE. 



Method of Fluxions, but againft the common Analyticks. This 
Method only adopts this way of arguing, as a conftant practice in 
the vulgar Algebra, and refers us thither for the proof of it. If we 
have an Equation any how compos'd of the general Numbers a, b, c, 
&c. it has always been taught, that we may interpret thefe by any 
particular Numbers at pleafure, or even by o, provided that the 
Equation, or the Conditions of the Queftion, do not exprefsly re- 
quire the contrary. For general Numbers, as fuch, may ftand for 
any definite Numbers in the whole Numerical Scale ; which Scale 
(I think) may be thus commodioufly reprefented, &c. 3, 2 > 
i, o, i, 2, 3,4, &c. where all poffible fractional Numbers, inter- 
mediate to thefe here exprefs'd, are to be conceived as interpolated. 
But in this Scale the Term o is as much a Term or Number as any 
other, and has its analogous properties in common with the refK 
We are likewife told, that we may not give fuch values to general 
Symbols afterwards, as they could not receive at firft ; which if ad- 
mitted is, I think, nothing to the prefent purpofe. It is always 
moft eafy and natural, as well as moll regular, inftruclive, and ele- 
gant, to make our Inquiries as much in general Terms as may be, 
and to defcend to particular cafes by degrees, when the Problem is 
nearly brought to a conclufion. But this is a point of convenience 
only, and not a point of neceffity. Thus in the prefent cafe, in- 
flead of defcending from finite Increments to infinitely little Mo- 
ments, or vanifhing Quantities, we might begin our Computation 
with thofe Moments themfelves, and yet we mould arrive at the 
fame Conclufions. As a proof of which we may confult our Au- 
thor's ownDemonftration of hisMethod, in oag. 24. of this Treatife. 
In fhort, to require this is jufl the fame x thing as to infift, that a 
Problem, which naturally belongs to Algebra, mould be folved by 
common Arithmetick ; which tho' poflible to be done, by purluing 
backwards all the fleps of the general procefs, yet would be very 
troubkfome and operofe, and not fo inflrudtive, or according to the 
true Rules of Art 

But I am apt to fufpedr, that all our doubts and fcruples about 
Mathematical Inferences and Argumentations, especially when we are 
fatisfied that they have been juftly and legitimately conducted, may 
be ultimately refolved into a fpecies of infidelity and diftruft. Not 
in refpecl of any implicite faith we ought to repofe on meer human 
authority, tho' ever fo great, (for that, in Mathematicks, we mould 
utterly difclaim,) but in refpedl of the Science itfelf. We are hardly 
brought to believe, that the Science is fo perfectly regular and uni- 
form, 



72* PREFACE. xix 

form, fo infinitely confident, conftant, and accurate, as we mall re&lly 
find it to be, when after long experience and reflexion we (hall have 
overcome this prejudice, and {hall learn to purfue it rightly. We 
do not readily admit, or eafily comprehend, that Quantities have an 
infinite number of curious and fubtile properties, fome near and ob- 
vious, others remote and abftrufe, which are all link'd together by 
a neceffary connexion, or by a perpetual chain, and are then only 
difcoverable when regularly and clofely purfued ; and require our 
. truft and confidence in the Science, as well as our induftry, appli- 
cation, and obftinate perfeverance, our fagacity and penetration, in 
order to their being brought into full light. That Nature is ever 
confiftent with herfelf, and never proceeds in thefe Speculations per 
faltum, or at random, but is infinitely fcrupulous and felicitous, as 
we may fay, in adhering to Rule and Analogy. That whenever we 
make any regular Portions, and purfue them through ever fo great 
a variety of Operations, according to the ftricT: Rules of Art ; we 
fhall always proceed through a feries of regular and well- connected 
tranlmutations, (if we would but attend to 'em,) till at laft we arrive 
at regular and juft Conclufions. That no properties of Quantity 
are intirely deftructible, or are totally loft and abolim'd, even tho' 
profecuted to infinity itfelf j for if we fuppofe fome Quantities to be- 
come infinitely great, or infinitely little, or nothing, or lefs than 
nothing, yet other Quantities that have a certain relation to them 
will only undergo proportional, and often finite alterations, will fym- 
pathize with them, and conform to 'em in all their changes ; and 
will always preferve their analogical nature, form, or magnitude, 
which will be faithfully exhibited and difcover'd by the refult. This 
we may colledl from a great variety of Mathematical Speculations, 
and more particularly when we adapt Geometry to Analyticks, and 
Curve-lines to Algebraical Equations. That when we purfue gene- 
ral Inquiries, Nature is infinitely prolifick in particulars that will 
refult from them, whether in a direct rubordination, or whether they 
branch out collaterally ; or even in particular Problems, we may often 
perceive that thefe are only certain cafes of fomething more general, 
and may afford good hints and afiiftances to a fagacious Analyft, for 
afcending gradually to higher and higher Difquilitions, which may 
be profecuted more univerfally than was at firft expe<5ted or intended. 
Thefe are fome of thofe Mathematical Principles, of a higher order, 
which we find a difficulty to admit, and which we {hall never be 
fully convinced of, or know the whole ufe of, but from much prac- 
tice and attentive confideration ; but more efpecially by a diligent 

b 2 peruial, 



xx The P R E F A C E. 

peruial, and clofe examination, of this and the other Works of our 
illuftrious Author. He abounded in thefe fublime views and in- 
quiries, had acquired an accurate and habitual knowledge of all thefe, 
and of many more general Laws, or Mathematical Principles of a 
fuperior kind, which may not improperly be call'd The Philofophy of 
Quantity ; and which, aflifted by his great Genius and Sagacity, to- 
gether with his great natural application, enabled him to become fo 
compleat a Matter in the higher Geometry, and particularly in the 
Art of Invention. This Art, which he poflefl in the greateft per- 
fection imaginable, is indeed the fublimeft, as well as the moft diffi- 
cult of all Arts, if it properly may be call'd fuch ; as not being redu- 
cible to any certain Rules, nor can be deliver'd by any Precepts, but 
is wholly owing to a happy fagacity, or rather to a kind of divine 
Enthufiafm. To improve Inventions already made, to carry them 
on, when begun, to farther perfection, is certainly a very ufeful and 
excellent Talent ; but however is far inferior to the Art of Difcovery, 
as haying a TIV e^u, or certain data to proceed upon, and where juft 
method, clofe reasoning, ftrict attention, and the Rules of Analogy, 
may do very much. But to ftrike out new lights, to adventure where 
no footfteps had ever been fet before, nullius ante trita folo ; this is 
the nobleft Endowment that a human Mind is capable of, is referved 
for the chofen few quos Jupiter tequus amavit, and was the peculiar 
and diftinguifhing Character of our great Mathematical Philofopher. 
He had acquired a compleat knowledge of the Philofophy of Quan- 
tity, or of its moft eflential and moft general Laws ; had confider'd it 
in all views, had purfued it through all its difguifes, and had traced it 
through all its Labyrinths and Recefles j in a word, it may be faid 
of him not improperly, that he tortured and tormented Quantities 
all poflible ways, to make them confefs their Secrets, and difcover 
their Properties. 

The Method of Fluxions, as it is here deliver'd in this Treatife, 
is a very pregnant and remarkable inftance of all thefe particulars. To 
take a cuifory view of which, we may conveniently enough divide 
it into thefe three parts. The firft will be the Introduction, 
or the Method of infinite Series. The fecond is the Method of 
Fluxions, properly fo culi'd. The third is the application of both 
thefe Methods to fome very general and curious Speculations, chiefly 
in the Geometry of Curve-lines. 

As to the firft, which is the Method of infinite Series, in this 
the Author opens a new kind of Arithrnetick, (new at leaft at the 
time of his writing this,) or rather he vaftly improves the old. For 

he 



The PREFACE. xxi 

he extends the received Notation, making it compleatly universal, 
and fhews, that as our common Arithmetick of Integers received a 
great Improvement by the introduction of decimal Fractions ; fo the 
common Algebra or Analyticks, as an univerfal Arithmetick, will 
receive a like Improvement by the admiffion of his Doctrine of in- 
finite Series, by which the fame analogy will be ftill carry'd on, and 
farther advanced towards perfection. Then he fhews how all com- 
plicate Algebraical Expreffions may be reduced to fuch Series, as will 
continually converge to the true values of thofe complex quantities, 
or their Roots, and may therefore be ufed in their ftead : whether 
thofe quantities are Fractions having multinomial Denominators, which 
are therefore to be refolved into fimple Terms by a perpetual Divi- 
fion ; or whether they are Roots of pure Powers, or of affected Equa- 
tions, which are therefore to be refolved by a perpetual Extraction. 
And by the way, he teaches us a very general and commodious Me- 
thod for extracting the Roots of affected Equations in Numbers. 
And this is chiefly the fubftance of his Method of infinite Series. 

The Method of Fluxions comes next to be deliver'd, which in- 
deed is principally intended, and to which the other is only preparatory 
and fubfervient. Here the Author difplays his whole fkill, and fhews 
the great extent of his Genius. The chief difficulties of this he re- 
duces to the Solution of two Problems, belonging to the abftract or 
Rational Mechanicks. For the direct Method of Fluxions, as it is 
now call'd, amounts to this Mechanical Problem, tte length of the 
Space defer ibed being continually given, to find the Velocity of the Mo- 
tion at any time propofcd. Aifo the inverfe Method of Fluxions has, 
for a foundation, the Reverfe of this Problem, which is, The Velocity 
of the Motion being continually given, to find the Space defer ibed at any 
time propofcd. So that upon the compleat Analytical or Geometri- 
cal Solution of thefe two Problems, in all their varieties, he builds 
his whole Method. 

His firft Problem, which is, The relation 6J the f owing Quantities 
being given, to determine the relation of their Fhixiom, he difpatches 
very generally. He does not propofe this, as is ufualiy done, A flow- 
ing Quantity being given, to find its Fluxion ; for this gives us too 
lax and vague an Idea of the thing, and does not fufficiently fhew 
that Comparifon, which is here always to be understood. Fluents 
and Fluxions are things of a relative n.iture, and fuppofe two at leafr, 
whofe relation or relations mould always be exprefs'd bv Equations. He 
requires therefore that all fhould be reduced to Equations, by which 
the relation of the flowing Quantities will be exhibited, and their 

comparative 



xxii f/jg PREFACE. 

comparative magnitudes will be more eafily eftimated ; as alfo the 
comparative magnitudes of their Fluxions. And befides, by this 
means he has an opportunity of refolving the Problem much more 
generally than is commonly done. For in the ufual way of taking 
Fluxions,- we are confined to. the Indices of the Powers, which are 
to be made Coefficients ; whereas the Problem in its full extent will 
allow us to take any Arithmetical Progreflions whatever. By this 
means we may have an infinite variety of Solutions, which tho' dif- 
ferent in form, will yet all agree in the main ; and we may always 
chufe the fimpleft, or that which will beft ferve the prefent purpofe. 
He (hews alfo how the given Equation may comprehend feveral va- 
riable Quantities, and by that' means the Fluxional Equation maybe 
found, notwithstanding any furd quantities that may occur, or even 
any other quantities that are irreducible, or Geometrically irrational. 
And all this is derived and demonitrated from the properties of Mo- 
ments. He does not here proceed to fecond, or higher Orders of 
Fluxions, for a reafon which will be affign'd in another place. 

His next Problem is, An Equation being propofed exhibiting the re- 
lation of the Fluxions of Quantities, to find the relation of thofe Quan- 
tities, or Fluents, to one another ; which is the diredt Converfe of the 
foregoing Problem. This indeed is an operofe and difficult Problem, 
taking it in its full extent, and, requires all our Author's fkill and ad- 
dreis ; which yet hefolyes very generally, chiefly by the affiftance of his 
Method of infinite Series. He firfl teaches how we may return from 
the Fluxional Equation given, to its correfponding finite Fluential or 
Algebraical Equation, when that can be done. But when it cannot be 
.done, or when there is no fuch finiie Algebraical Equation, as is moft 
commonly the cafe, yet however he finds the Root of that Equation 
by an infinite converging Series, which anfwers the fame purpofe. 
And often he mews how to find the Root, or Fluent required, by 
an infinite number of fuch Series. His proceffes for extracting thefe 
Roots are peculiar to himfelf, and always contrived with much fub- 
tilty and ingenuity. 

The reft of his Problems are an application or an exemplification 
of the foregoing. As when he determines the Maxima and Minima 
of quantities in all cafes. When he mews the Method of drawing 
Tangents to Curves, whether Geometrical or Mechanical ; or how- 
ever the nature of the Curve may be defined, or refer'd to right 
Lines or other Curves. Then he {hews how to find the Center or 
Radius of Curvature, of any Curve whatever, and that in a fimple 
but general manner ; which he illuftrates by many curious Examples, 

and 



fbe PREFACE. xxiii 

and purfues many other ingenious Problems, that offer themfelves by 
the way. After which he difcufTes another very fubtile and intirely 
new Problem about Curves, which is, to determine the quality of 
the Curvity of any Curve, or how its Curvature varies in its progrefs 
through the different parts, in refpect of equability or inequability. 

He then applies himfelf to confider the Areas of Curves, and fhews 
us how we may find as many Quadrable Curves as we pleafe, or fuch 
whole Areas may be compared with thofe of right-lined Figures. 
Then he teaches us to find as many Curves as we pleafe, whofe 
Areas may be compared with that of the Circle, or of the Hyper- 
bola, or of any other Curve that (hall be affign'd ; which he extends 
to Mechanical as well as Geometrical Curves. He then determines 
the Area in general of any Curve that may be propofed, chiefly by 
the help of infinite Series ; and gives many ufeful Rules for afcer- 
taining the Limits of fuch Areas. And by the way he fquares the 
Circle and Hyperbola, and applies the Quadrature of this to the con- 
ftructing of a Canon of Logarithms. But chiefly he collects very- 
general and ufeful Tables of Quadratures, for readily finding the 
Areas of Curves, or for comparing them with the Areas of the Conic 
Sections; which Tables are the fame as. thofe he has publifh'd him- 
felf, in his Treatife of Quadratures. The ufe and application of thefe 
he (hews in an ample manner, and derives from them many curious 
Geometrical Conftructions, with their Demonftrations. 

Laftly, he applies himfelf to the Rectification of Curves, and mews 
us how we may find as many Curves as we pleafe,. whofe Curve- 
lines are capable of Rectification ; or whofe Curve-lines, as to length, 
may be compared with the Curve-lines of any Curves that fha.ll be 
affign'd. And concludes in general, with rectifying any Curve-lines 
that may be propofed, either by the aflifbncc of his Tables of Quadra- 
tures, when that can be done, or however. by infinite Series. And 
this is chiefly the fubflance of the prefent Work. As to ,the account 
that perhaps" may be expected, of what I have added in my Anno- 
tations ; I {hall refer the inquifitive Reader to the PrefacCj which 
will go before that part of the Work. 



THE 



; - 



THE 

CONTENTS. 



CT^HE Introduction, or the Method of refolding complex Quantities 
into infinite Series of Jimple Terms. pag. i 

Prob. i. From the given Fluents to find the Fluxions. p. 21 

Prob. 2. From the given Fluxions to find the Fluents. p. 25 

Prob. 3. To determine the Maxima and Minima of Quantities, p. 44 

Prob. 4. To draw Tangents to Curves. p. 46 

Prob. 5. To find the Quantity of Curvature in any Curve. P- 59 

Prob. 6. To find the Quality cf Curvature in any Curve. p. 75 

Prob. 7. To find any number of Quadrable Curves. p. 80 

Prob. 8. To find Curves whofe Areas may be compared to thofe of the 
Conic SecJions. p. 8 1 

Prob. 9. To find the Quadrature of any Curve ajjigrid. p. 86 

Prob. 10. To find any number of rettifiable Curves. p. 124 

Prob. 1 1. To find Curves whofe Lines may be compared with any Curve- 
lines ajfigrid. p. 129 

Prob. 12. To rectify any Curve-lines ajpgn'd. p. 134 



THE 



METHOD of FLUXIONS, 



AND 



INFINITE SERIES. 




INTRODUCTION : Or, the Refolution of Equations 

by Infinite Series. 

IAVING obferved that moft of our modern Geome-- 
tricians, neglecting the Synthetical Method of the 
Ancients; have apply'd themfelves chiefly to the 
cultivating of the Analytical Art ; by the affiftance 
of which they have been able to overcome fo many 
and fo great difficulties, that they feem to have exhaufted all the 
Speculations of Geometry, excepting the Quadrature of Curves, and 
Ibme other matters of a like nature, not yet intirely difcufs'd : 
I thought it not amifs, for the fake of young Students in this Science, 
to compofe the following Treatife, in which I have endeavour'd 
to enlarge the Boundaries of Analyticks, and to improve the Doctrine 
of Curve-lines. 

2. Since there is a great conformity between the Operations in 
Species, and the fame Operations in common Numbers; nor do they 
feem to differ, except in the Characters by which they are re- 

B prefented,. 



'The Method of FLUXIONS, 



prefented, the firft being general and indefinite, and the other defi- 
nite and particular : I cannot but wonder that no body has thought 
of accommodating the lately-difcover'd Doctrine of Decimal Frac- 
tions in like manner to Species, (unlels you will except the Qua- 
drature of the Hyberbola by Mr. Nicolas Mercator ;) efpecially fince 
it might have open'd a way to more abftrufe Discoveries. But 
iince this Doctrine of Species, has the fame relation to Algebra, 
as the Doctrine of Decimal Numbers has to common Arithme- 
tick ; the Operations of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Di- 
vifion, and Extraction of Roots, may eafily be learned from thence,, 
if the Learner be but fk.ill'd in Decimal Arithmetick, and the 
Vulgar Algebra, and obferves the correfpondence that obtains be- 
tween Decimal Fractions and Algebraick Terms infinitely continued. 
For as in Numbers, the Places towards the right-hand continually 
decreafe in a Decimal or Subdecuple Proportion ; fo it is in Species 
refpedtively, when the Terms are difpofed, (as is often enjoin 'd in 
what follows,) in an uniform Progreflion infinitely continued, ac- 
cording to the Order of the Dimenfions of any Numerator or De- 
nominator. And as the convenience of Decimals is this, that all 
vulgar Fractions and Radicals, being reduced to them, in fome mea- 
fure acquire the nature of Integers, and may be managed as fuch ; 
fo it is a convenience attending infinite Series in Species, that all 
kinds of complicate Terms, ( fuch as Fractions whofe Denomina- 
tors are compound Quantities, the Roots of compound Quantities, 
or of affected Equations, and the like,) may be reduced to the Clafs 
of fimple Quantities ; that is, to an infinite Series of Fractions, whofe 
Numerators and Denominators are fimple Terms ; which will no 
longer labour under thofe difficulties, that in the other form feem'd 
almoft infuperable. Firft therefore I mail fhew how thefe Re- 
ductions are to be perform'd, or how any compound Quantities may 
be reduced to fuch fimple Terms, efpecially when the Methods of 
computing are not obvious. Then I fhall apply this Analyfis to the 
Solution of Problems. 

3. Reduction by Divifion and Extraction of Roots will be plain 
from the following Examples, when you compare like Methods 
of Operation in Decimal and in Specious Arithmetick. 



Examples 



and INFINITE SERIES, 3 

. ..ift Av 

Examples of Reduttion by Dhifwn. IjfM/l^^ '* / 

.4. The Fraction ^ being propofed, divide aa by b + x in the 
following manner : 

faa aax aax 1 a a x* aax* . 

" . 



aax 



aax 
O --7 -f-O 



aax* 



o -+- 



o - +o 

flt * ** Jf* 



~ ;. 



-rr^i_ *-\ " v i r * ^^ tf*^ 1 a* x* a* x* . a* X+ ~ 

The Quotient therefore is T _- JT - + - T _ . rr + T7 -, &c. 
which Series, being infinitely continued, will be equivalent to 
j^. Or making x the firft Term of the Divifor, in this manner, 

x + toaa + o (the Quotient will be - - ?4 4. 1^ V & c ~ 
e , , % r~ _ _ * ** n * AV 

found as by the foregoing Procefs. 

5. In like manner the Fraction ~- will be reduced to 
I # -{- x 4 ' A:* H- x 8 , &c. or to x-* #-* _f. ^- ^-8 



2 * " 



9 v 

6. And the Fraction r will be reduced to 2x^ 2x 

i s i+x* 3* 

+ yx 1 13** -j- 34x T , &c. 

7. Here it will be proper to obferve, that I make ufe of x-', 
x-', x-', x-*, &c. for i, ;r 7,' - &c. of xs, xi, x^, xl, A 4, &c. 

for v/x, v/*S \/ x *> vx , ^x l , &c. and of x'^, x-f. x - i &c for 
, i j_^ ' * **** 1Ui 

^ x ^ ? >' y-^.' &c. And this by the Rule of Analogy, as may be 
apprehended from fuch Geometrical Progreflions as thefe ; x, x*, 
x> (or i,) a"*,*-',*'*, *, &c. 

B 2 8. 



x, 




ffie Method of FLUXIONS, 

er for 
', &c. 



8. In the fame manner for -- 1^ + 1^!, &c. may be wrote 



q. And thus inftead of^/aa xx may be wrote aa xxl^ > 
.and aa xv|* inftead of the Square of aa xx; and 

3 

inftead of v/ 






10. So that we may not improperly diftinguim Powers into Affir- 
mative and Negative, Integral and Fractional. 

Examples of Reduction by Extraction of Roots. 

11. The Quantity aa -+- xx being propofed, you may thus ex- 
tract its Square-Root. 

- _i_ V v (a -4- 4- 5 x - 4- J - ' c * 

aa-+- XX ^" 2a Sfl3 r i6* 1287 2560* 

aa 



xx 



4. a* 



x* 

~* 



a 4 64 



X* 

sT* 



64 a 



~ 



64^8 " z$6a'^ 



i; x 



5* 



64^ 



_ 
256 * 



64 a 6 I z8rt 8 



+ 



_- 7^ _ 2^1, & c . 

1 i7R/3 n-- /7lt> 



7' 1 



+ 



,__i!_lll, &c.' 

Jo that the Root is found to be a~\--^- ^ 4- ^T,&C. Where 
it may be obferved, that towards the end of the Operation I neg- 
lect all thofe Terms, whofe Dimenfions would exceed the Dimenfions 
of the laft Term, to which I intend only to continue the Root, 

fuppofe to *' ,2. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 5 

iz. Alfo the Order of the Terms may be inverted in this man- 
ner xx +- aa, in which cafe the Root will be found to be 



a a 



10 A* iz A- 



13. Thus the Root of aa xx is ^ -Jj -- ^7 

14. The Root of x xx is #'" i** 4-.v* T ' r **, 8cc. 

. . AT A.' A' b*X* g 

15. Of -+- f ## is a -f- -- ^ , Sec. 



. i + <z * A- . i 4- '- * * i a * A- 4 + ,'_ n 3 x- 6 . &c- j 

1 6. And v/r^rr, .Ii*--.4-. ;,,. . c . and more - 

over by adually dividing, it becomes 

i -|- -i/^r + |^^4 -+- ^frx 6 , &c. 
-4- T^ -f- T^ H- rV^ x 



17. But thefe Operations, by due preparation, may very often 
be abbreviated; as in the foregoing Example to find \/;_***' 
if the Form of the Numerator and Denominator had not been the 
fame, I might have multiply'd each by </ 1 bxx, which would 

y^i -f-rt* 1 - ab x * 

have produced & and the reft of the work might 

I b x x 

have been performed by extracting the Root of the Numerator only, 
and then dividing by the Denominator. 

1 8. From hence I imagine it will fufficiently appear, by what 
means any other Roots may be extracted, and how any compound 
Quantities, however entangled with Radicals or Denominators, (fuch 

Vx \fi xx V x i! 2x t x i v 

as x"> -}- ; _. j may be reduced to 

^/axx -\- A- 3 * x-{-xx " 2X x.1 ' 

infinite Series confifting of iimple Terms. 

Of the ReduStion of offered Equations. 

19. As to aftedled Equations, we mufl be fomething more par- 
ticular in explaining how their Roots are to be reduced to fuch Se- 
ries as thefe ; becaufe their Doctrine in Numbers, as hitherto de- 
liver'd by Mathematicians, is very perplexed, and incumber'd with 
fuperfluous Operations, fo as not to afford proper Specimens for per- 
forming the Work in Species. I fhall therefore firfl (hew how the 

Refolu- 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

Refolutidn of affected Equations may be compendioufly perform'd 
in Numbers, and then I fhall apply the fame to Species. 

20. Let this Equation _y l zy 5 = be propofed to be re- 
folved, and let 2 be a Number (any how found) which differs from 
the true Root lefs than by a tenth part of itfelf. Then I make 
2 -\-p =y, and fubftitute 2 4-/> for y in the given Equation, by 
which is produced a new Equation p> 4- 6p l 4- iop i =o, 
whofe Root is to be fought for, that it may be added to the Quote. 
Thus rejecting />> 4- 6// 1 becaufe of its fmallnefs, the remaining 
Equation io/> i = o, or/>=o,i, will approach very near to 
the truth. Therefore I write this in the Quote, and fuppofe 
o, i 4- ^ =/>, and fubftitute this fictitious Value of p as before, 
which produces q* 4- 6,3^ 4- 1 1,23? 4- 0,06 1 =o. And fince 
1 1,23^ 4- 0,06 1 =o is near the truth, or ^= 0,0054 nearly, 
(that is, dividing 0,06 1 by 11,23, ^ * many Figures arife as 
there are places between the firft Figures of this, and of the prin- 
cipal QmDte exclufively, as here there are two places between 2 and 
0,005) I write 0,0054 in the lower part of the Quote, as being 
negative; and fuppofing 0,0054 4- r=sg, I fubftitute this as 
before. And thus I continue the Operation as far as I pleafe, in the 
manner of the following Diagram : 



y~' zy 5 =o 


+ 2, IOOOOOOO 


+ 2,09455148, &c. =y 


Z+p=J>. + 7 * 

27 


4 zp 


The Sum 


-i + iop+6p* + p-> 


+ i/ 


+ o 3 ooi+ 0,035 +o, 5 5 2 + 2* 
+ o, 06 + i 3 2 + 6, 

+ 1, + 10, 


1 he 6um 


o, 061 -|- 1 1) 23 i + 6, 3 q * + 2* 


o,oo54 + r= q. <ji 

+ II,2 ?? 

+ 0,06 1 


o, oooooo i f74^+ o,ooo0#7-4&V 0, 0tfai +)' 

+ 0,00018370^ 0,06804: +^;? 
0,060642 +11,23 

+ o, 061 


The Sum 


+ 0,0005416 +II,l62r 


0,000048^2 + * = r. 





21. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 7 

21. But the Work may be much abbreviated towards the end by 
this Method, efpecially in Equations of many Dimenfions. Having 
firft determin'd how far you intend to extract the Root, count fo 
many places after the firft Figure of the Coefficient of the laft Term 
but one, of the Equations that refult on the right fide of the Dia- 
gram, as there remain places to be fill'd up in the Quote, and reject 
the Decimals that follow. But in the laft Term the Decimals may 
be neglected, after fo many more places as are the decimal places 
that are fill'd up in the Quote. And in the antepenultimate Term 
reject all that are after fo many fewer places. And fo on, by pro- 
ceeding Arithmetically, according to that Interval of places: Or, 
which is the fame thing, you may cut off every where fo many 
Figures as in the penultimate Term, fo that their loweft places may 
be in Arithmetical Progreffion, according to the Series of the Terms, 
or are to be fuppos'd to be fupply'd with Cyphers, when it happens 
otherwife. Thus in the prefent Example, if I defired to continue 
the Quote no farther than to the eighth place of Decimals, when 
I fubftituted 0,0054 -f- r for q, where four decimal places are 
compleated in the Quote, and as many remain to be compleated, I 
might have omitted the Figures in the five inferior places, which 
therefore I have mark'd or cancell'd by little Lines drawn through 
them ; and indeed I might alfo have omitted the firft Term r J , 
although its Coefficient be 0,99999, Thofe Figures therefore 
being expunged, for the following Operation there arifes the Sum 
0,0005416 -f- 1 1,1 62?% which by Divifion, continued as far as 
the Term prefcribed, gives 0,00004852 for r, which compleats 
the Quote to the Period required. Then fubtracting the negative 
part of the Quote from the affirmative part, there arifes 2,09455148 
for the Root of the propofed Equation. 

22. It may likewife be obferved, that at the beginning of the 
Work, if I had doubted whether o, i -f-/> was a fufficient Ap- 
proximation to the Root, inftead of iof> i = o, I might have 
fuppos'd that o/** -f- i op i = o, and fo have wrote the firft 
Figure of its Root in the Quote, as being nearer to nothing. And 
in this manner it may be convenient to find the fecond, or even 
the third Figure of the Quote, when in the fecondarjr Equation, 
about which you are converfant, the Square of the Coefficient of 
the penultimate Term is not ten times greater than the Product of 
the laft Term multiply'd into the Coefficient of the antepenulti- 
mate Term. And indeed you will often fave fome pains, efpecially 
in Equations of many Dimensions, if you feek for all the Figures 

to- 



8 Tie Method of FLUXION'S, 

to be added to the Quote in this manner ; that is, if you extract the 
lefier Root out of the three lafl Terms of its fecondary Equation : 
For thus you will obtain, at every time, as many Figures again 
in the Quote. 

23. And now from the Refolution of numeral Equations, I mall 
proceed to explain the like Operations in Species; concerning which, 
it is neceflary to obferve what follows. 

24. Firft, that fome one of the fpecious or literal Coefficients, if 
there are more than one, fliould be diftinguifh'd from the reft, which 
either is, or may be fuppos'd to be, much the leaft or greateft of 
all, or neareft to a given Quantity. The reafon of which is, that 
becaufe of its Dimeniions continually increafing in the Numerators, 
or the Denominators of the Terms of the Quote, thofe Terms may 
grow lefs and lefs, and therefore the Qtipte may conftantly approach 
to the Root required ; as may appear from what is faid before of 
the Species x, in the Examples of Reduction by Divifion and Ex- 
traction of Roots. And for this Species, in what follows, I mall 
generally make ufe of A: or z ; as alfo I fliall ufe y, p, q, r, s, &c. 
for the Radical Species to be extracted. 

25. Secondly, when any complex Fractions, or furd Quantities, 
happen to occur in the propofed Equation, or to arife afterwards 
in the Procefs, they ought to be removed by fuch Methods as 
are fufficiently known to Analyfts. As if we mould have 

y* -+- j 1 >' 1 x"= = o,. multiply by b x, and from the Pro- 
duct by* Kyi'-l-fry* bx^ -+ x*-= o extract the Root y. Or 

we might fuppofe y x b x=v, and then writing ^~ x for y t 
we mould have i; J -+- &*v* fax* -\- 3/5*** ^hx' -+. x 6 = o,. 
whence extracting the Root v r we might divide the Quote by b x,, 
in order to obtain y. Affo if the Equation j 3 xy* -f- x$ = o 
were propofed, we might put y?= v, and x j = z, and fo wri- 
ting vv for y, and z* for x, there will arife v 6 z=v -f- z* = o ; 
which Equation being refolved, y and x may be reftored. For the 
Root will befound^=2-f-s3_|_5~s 5 5cc.andrei1:onngjyandA;, we have 
y* = x^ -f- x -+- 6x^ &c. dien fquaring, y =x^-+- 2X J ~f- 13*", &c.. 

26. After the fame manner if there mould be found negative Di- 
menfions ofx and jy, they may be removed by multiplying by the fame 
x andjy. As if we had the Equation x*-}-T > x*-y~ I '2.x~ I i6y- 3 =o, 
multiply by x and j 3 , and there would arife x*y* -+- 3# 3 jy 1 2_v 5 

A J -r 1 -r-v aa 2ai i 1 a 4 

O. And U tjie Equation were x = ~ + ?r 

y \. 
by; 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



by multiplying into jy } there would arife xy*-=.a' i y* 
And fo of others. 

27. Thirdly, when the Equation is thus prepared, the work be^ 
gins by finding the firfr. Term of the Quote ; concerning which, as 
alfo for finding the following Terms, we have this general Rule, 
when the indefinite Species (x or 2) is fuppofed to be fmall ; to 
which Caie the other two Cafes are reducible. 

28. Of all the Terms, in which the Radical Species (y,/>, q, or 
r, &c.) is not found, chufe the loweft in refpect of the Dimenlions 
of the indefinite Species (x or z, &c.) then chufe another Term in 
which that Radical Species is found, fuch as that the Progreflion of 
the Dimenfions of each of the fore-mentioned Species, being con- 
tinued from the Term fir ft afTumed to this Term, may defcend as 
much as may be, or afcend as little as may be. And if there 
are any other Terms, whofe Dimenfions may fall in with this 
Progreflion continued at pleafure, they muft be taken in 1 ike- 
wife. Laftly, from thefe Terms thus felected, and made equal to 
nothing, find the Value of the faid Radical Species, and write it in 
the Quote. 

29. But that this Rule may be more clearly apprehended, I fhall 
explain it farther by help of the following Diagram. Making a 
right Angle BAC, divide its fides AB, AC, into equal parts, and 
raifing Perpendiculars, diftribute the Angular Space into equal Squares 
or Parallelograms, which you may conceive to be denominated from 
the Dimenfions of the Species x and y, 

as they are here infcribed. Then, when 

any Equation is propofed, mark fuch of 

the Parallelograms as correfpond to all 

its Terms, and let a Ruler be apply'd 

to two, or perhaps more, of the Paralle- 

lograms fo mark'd, of which let one 

be the loweft in the left-hand Column at AB, the other touching 

the Ruler towards the right-hand ; and let all the reft, not touching 

the Ruler, lie above it. Then felecl: thofe Terms of the Equation 

which are reprefented by the Parallelograms that touch the Ruler, 

and from them find the Quantity to be put in the Quote. 

30. Thus to extract the Root y out of the Equation y 6 5xy s -+- 

)'* ja*x 1 y 1 +6a i x*-\-& 1 x4=o, I mark the Parallelograms belong- 

C 



B 



A 4 


ft 


Xlj* 


*4;5 


.1-4:4 


A3 


*3 


X3 


A? 3 


A 5 4 


X* 


A'* 


x*y* 


**. 3 


X 


xy 


*!* 


A - ; 


v,4 


1 


y 


}* 


s 1 


4 



ing 



10 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 



B 



A 



* 



C 



ing to the Terms of this Equation 
with the Mark #, as you fee here 
done. Then I apply the Ruler 
DE to the lower of the Parallelo- 
grams mark'd in the left-hand 
Column, and I make it turn round 
towards the right-hand from the 
lower to the upper, till it begins 
in like manner to touch another, 
or perhaps more, of the Parallelograms that are mark'd ; and I fee 
that the places fo touch'd belong to x 3 , x*-y* y and_y 5 . Therefore 
from the Terms y 6 7a z x*-y <L -}-6a*x*, as if equal to nothing, (and 
moreover, if you pleafe, reduced to v 6 7^*4- 6= o, by making 
$=rv'\fitx t ) I feek the Value of y, and find it to be four- fold, 
-\-</ax, </ax, -+-</2ax, and ^/2ax, of which I may take 
any one for the initial Term of the Quote, according as I defign to 
extract this or that Root of the given Equation. 

31. Thus having the Equation y* 6y*-i-()&x* x 3 =o, I chufe 
the Terms by- -\-gbx*-, and thence I obtain 4-3* for the initial 
Term of the Quote. 

32. And having y">-i-axy-{-aay x* 2rt 3 =o, I make choice of 
y'-i-a^y 2<2 3 , and its Root -\-a I write in the Quote. 

33. Alfo having x*y s ^c^xy 1 c I .v a 4- 7 =o, I felect vV i y f 4-<r 7 J 

which gives ^/ c for the firft Term of the Quote. And the 

like of others. 

34. But when this Term is found, if its Power fhould happen 
to be negative, I deprefs the Equation by the fame Power of the 
indefinite Species, that there may be no need of depreffing it in the 
Refolution ; and befides, that the Rule hereafter delivei'd, for the 
fuppreffion of fuperfluous Terms, may be conveniently apply'd. 
Thus the Equation 8z; 6 _) i3 4-^2 5 >' a 27^5=0 being propofed, whofe 

Root is to begin by the Term ^ I deprefs by s% that it may be- 
come Sz+yt-^azy 2ja !> z~ 1 =o, before I attempt the Refolu- 
tion. 

3 5. The fubfequent Terms of the Quotes are derived by the fame 
Method, in the Progrefs of the Work, from their feveral fecondary 
Equations, but commonly with lefs trouble. For the whole affair 
is perform'd by dividing the loweft of the Terms affected with the 
indefinitely fmall Species, (x, x 1 , x 3 , &c.) without the Radical Spe- 
(/>, q, r } &c.) by the Quantity with which that radical Species 

i of 



and INFINITE SERIES, n 

of one Dimenfion only is affected, without the other indefinite Spe- 
cies, and by writing the Refult in the Quote. So in the following 

Example, the Terms -> ~ } - ~> &c. are produced by dividing 

a l x, TrW", TTT-v 3 , &c. by ^aa. 

36. Thefe things being premifed, it remains now to exhibit the 
Praxis of Refolution. Therefore let the Equation y*-{-a z y-\-axy 
za* x z =o be propofed to be refolved. And from its Terms 
y=-\-a*y 2 3 =o, being a fictitious Equation, by the third of the 
foregoing Premifes, I obtain y a=o, and jtherefore I write -{-a in 
the Quote. Then becaufe -\~a is not the compleat Value ofy, I put 
a+p=y, and inftead of y, in the Terms of the Equation written 
in the Margin, I fubftitute a-\-p, and the Terms refulting (/> 3 -{- 
3rf/ 1 -f-,?,v/>, &c.) I again write in the Margin ; from which again, 
according to the third of the Premifes, I felect the Terms -+-^p 
-H2 l .v=o for a fictitious Equation, which giving p= ^x, I 
write ~x in the Quote. Then becaufe ^.v is not the accurate 
Value of p, I put x-\-q=p, and in the marginal Terms for p 
I fubftitute ^x-t-q, and the refulting Terms (j 3 -^x^+^a^, &c.) 
I again write in the Margin, out of which, according to the fore- 
going Rule, I again feledl the Terms 4^ _ I 3 -drx*=o for a ficti- 
tious Equation, which giving =^> I write -^ in the Quote. 
Again, fince ^ is not the accurate Value of g, I make -^--{-r=q t 
and inftead of a I fubftitute ~--\-r in the marginal Terms. And 

&4 ' 

thus I continue the Procefs at pleafare, as the following Diagram 
exhibits to view. 



12 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



X 3 

2a' 



axp 



; 
643 



axq 









*- 



- X* 



T ' 

a*-x 



* 



* 



'31** 509*4 



37. If it were required to continue the Quote only to a certain 
Period, that x, for inilance, in the laft Term {hould not afcend 
beyond a given Dimenfion ; as I fubftitute the Terms, I omit fuch as 
I forefee will be of no ufe. For which this is the Rule, that after 
the firft Term refulting in the collateral Margin from every Quan- 
tity, fo many Terms are to be added to the right-hand, as the In- 
dex of the higheft Power required in the Quote exceeds the Index 
of that firft refulting Term. 

38. As in the prefent Example, if I defired that the Quote, (or 
the Species .v in the Quote,) mould afcend no higher than to four 
Dimenfions, I omit all the Terms after A-*, and put only one after x=. 

Therefore 



and INFINITE SERIES. 13 

Therefore the Terms after the Mark * are to be conceived to be 
expunged. And thus the Work being continued till at laft we come 

to the Terms -^ -^--H-rfV axr,'m which />, q, r, or 



reprefenting the Supplement of the Root to be extracted, are only 
of one Dimenfion ; we may find fo many Terms by Divifion, 

131*3 _, 509*4 \ as we fl^n e want j n g to compleat the Quote. 

16384(13 / 



5121. 



'SI*' 



509*4 



... XX 13 1.*' kuyAT _ 

So that at laft we {hall have y=a 7*-f"6^-t-^l~*- r^I; icc - 

39. For the fake of farther Illustration, I mail propofe another 
Example to be refolved. From the Equation -L_y< .Ly4_f_iy3 iy=. 
_^_y z=o, let the Quote be found only to the fifth Dimenfion, 
and the fuperfluous Terms be rejected after the Mark, 



_!_ 5j &c. 



+ ^ 5 , &c. 

-L;S 4 Z'p, &C. 



6cc. 



2; 



s , &c. 
% &c. 






40. And thus if we propofe the Equation T 4-rjrJ' '+TT|-T )'' + 
-rT T ;' 7 -t-TW' J -i-r.)' 3 +y =o, to be refolved only to the ninth Di- 
menfion of the Quote ; before the Work begins we may reject the 
Term -^^y" ; then as we operate we may reject all the Terms 
beyond 2', beyond s 7 we may admit but one, and two only after 



Y4 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

z f ; becaufe we may obferve, that the Quote ought always to afcerrd 
by the Interval of two Units, in this manner, z, .s j , z s , &c. Then 
at laft we fliall have ;'=c fs3_j__|_. s _ T _5__ 2; ^_ J _^_' T ^_. 3 9 ) & C . 
41. And hence an Artifice is difcover'd, by which Equations, 
tho' affected hi injinitum, and confiding of an infinite number of 
Terms, may however be refolved. And that is, before the Work 
begins all the Terms are to be rejected, in which the Dimenfion of 
the indefinitely fmall Species, not affected by the radical Species, 
exceeds the greateft Dimenfion required in the Quote ; or from, 
which, by fubftituting inftead of the radical Species, the firfl Term, 
of the Quote found by the Parallelogram as before, none but fuch 
exceeding Terms can arife. Thus in the laft Example I mould have 
omitted all the Terms beyond y>, though they went on ad injini- 
tum. And fo in this Equation 

8 -f-3 1 4S 4 -f-92 lS l6 8 , &C. 



) j' 1 in z* s 4 -}- z 6 z*y &c. 

that the Cubick Root may be extracted only to four Dimenfions of z, 
I omit all the Terms in infinitum beyond -f-j 5 in z, 1 J.-4_|_.L 2 > 
and all beyond y- in z 1 a 4 -(-.c 6 , and all beyond -+-y in .c 1 2z 4 , 
and beyond S-}-;s tt 42 4 . And therefore I aflurr.e this Equation 
only to be refolved, -^z 6 y* z*y* -{-?* ;> s 6 ^ 1 -}-^ 4 ^ 1 z^y* 2z*y 
-i-z'-y 4s4_j_ s i 8=0. Becaufe?. ',(*''- ~^ { ' Term of the Quote,) 
being fubflituted inflead of y in the reft of the Equation deprefs'd 
by z^y gives every where more than four Dimenfions. 

42. What I have faid of higher Equations may alib be apply'd to 
Qi\adraticks. As if I defired the Root of this Equation 



r 




.r 1 A* A 4 - 

h-r-f--; &c. 



as far as the Period x f , I omit all the Terms in infinititm., beyond 
y in <?_[-*+ ' and affume only this Equation, j* ay xy 

2" \ 4 

-y+ =0. This I refolve either in the ufual manner, by making 

& 4-*-* 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 



j-^; or more expedition fly by 
the Method of affected Equations deliver'd before, by which we fhall 
have _}'= 3 #> where the laft Term required vanifhes, or 

becomes equal to nothing. 

43. Now after that Roots are extracted to a convenient Period, 
they may fometimes be continued at pleafure, only by oblerving the 
Analogy of the Series. So you may for ever continue this z-t-i-z* 
^_^.25_j__'_ 2; 4_{_ T i_2;s j &c. (which is the Root of the infinite Equa- 
tion 5r==)'-f-^ i _j_^5_|_y4 j foe.) by dividing the laft Term by thefe 
Numbers in order 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c. And this, z f^-H-rlo-^' ' 
yj l TB .27-f_ TrT ' TTy2 ;9 j &c. may be continued by dividing by thefe Num- 

bers 2x3, 4x5, 6x7, 8x9, &c. Again, the Series 



"-'g , &c. may be continued at pleafure, by multiplying the Terms 
refpectively by thefe Fractions, f } 7, , -, T V, &c> And 
fo of others. 

44. But in difcovering the firft Term of the Quote, and fome- 
times of the fecond or third, there may ftill remain a difficulty 
to be overcome. For its Value, fought for as before, may happen 
to be furd, or the inextricable Root of an high affected Equation. 
Which when it happens, provided it be not alfo impoffible, you 
may reprefent it by fome Letter, and then proceed as if it were 
known. As in the Example y*-\-axy-{-ii*-y x 3 2a>=o : If the 
Root of this Equation y^^-a'-y 2 5 =o, had been furd, or un- 
known, I mould have put any Letter b for it, and then have per- 
form'd the Refolution as follows, fuppofe the Quote found only to 
the third Dimenfion. 



i6 



fbe Method of FLUXIONS, 



y s -\-aay-\rtxy 2 a 3 ; 

, tf^A- 4jC ft 


^=0. Make a--\-T,b 1 =c 2 , then 

ii | (v*r* 




rTTv* .8 ,8 ,10 . 


AT 3 


\-b~i -f-?^ i ^-j-2^/ :1 -f-/ )J 


~" w :; 


5;'3 A 3 

' j &C. 

A' 3 


6<? 1 A.-^ C43.V 1 


3i3,;S /,.4iA* ~X* 3 3 .%3 


i z / 1 4 


~* + t ( , h ^ r 8 



45. Here writing in the Quote, I fuppofe b--p=y, and then 
for y I fubftitute as you fee. Whence proceeds p'^-^bp 1 , &c. re- 
jecting the Terms b'-^a'-b 2tf 3 , as being equal to nothing : For b 
is fuppos'd to be a Root of this Equation jy3_j_ fl *y 2<? 3 =o. Then 

the Terms ^p-^-a^p-^-abx give '/^V* : 1 to be fet in the Quote,, and 



to be fubflituted for p. 

46. But for brevity's fake I write a- for aa-^-^l>l>, yet with this 
caution, that aa-\-^bb may be reflored, whenever I perceive that 
the Terms may be abbreviated by it. When the Work is finim'd, 
I aflume fome Number for a, and refolve this Equation y*-\-?.'-\' 
2^ ; =o, as is fhewn above concerning Numeral Equations ; and I 
fubftitute for b any one of its Roots, if it has three Roots. Or 
rather, I deliver fuch Equations from Species, as far as I can, efpe- 
cially from the indefinite Species, and that after the manner before 
insinuated. And for the reft only, if any remain that cannot be 
expunged, I put Numbers. Thus y'-^-a^y 2^ 5 =o will be freed 
from a, by dividing the Root by a, and it will become y*+)' 2=0, 
whofe Root being found, and multiply'd by a, muft be fubftituted 



inftead of b. 



47- 



and INFINITE SERIES, 17 

47. Hitherto I have fuppos'd the indefinite Species to be little. 
But if it be fuppos'd to approach nearly to a given Quantity, for 
that indefinitely fmall difference I put fome Species, and that being 
fubftituted, I folve the Equation as before. Thus in the Equation 
f}-' ^y* -+- ^y l y* -t-y -\-a x = o, it being known or fup- 
pos'd that x is nearly of the fame Quantity as a, I fuppofe z to be 
their difference; and then writing a-\-z or a z for x, there will 
arife y y* -f- jj 5 y* -{-y + z=o, which is to be folved 
as before. 

48. But if that Species be fuppos'd to be indefinitely great, for 
its Reciprocal, which will therefore be indefinitely little, I put fome 
Species, which being fubflituted, I proceed in the Refolution as 
before. Thus having y* -+-\ l -f-jv x> =o, where x is known 
or fuppos'd to be very great, for the reciprocally little Quantity 

- I put z, and fobflituting - for .v, there will arife y> -f-.)' 1 + y 
~ =o, whofe Root is .y = ^ - ^z + z* -f- ^2', &c. where 
x being reflored. if you pleafe, it will be y=:x - H- H 

J * 3 9* 8 i** 

&c ' 



49. If it fhould happen that none of thefe Expedients mould 
fucceed to your defire, you may have recourfe to another. Thus 
in the Equation y* x^y 1 -+- xy* -f- Z) 1 2y -+- i = o, whereas 
the firft Term ought to be obtain'd from the Suppofition that 
jy-4_j_2yt 2 y + 1 = 0, which yet admits of no poffible Root; 
you may try what can be done another way. As you may fuppofe 
that x is but little different from + 2, or that 2-{-z-=x. Then 
fubftituting 2-{-z inftead of A*, there will arife y* z'-y* -\zy* 
2y -f- 1 = 0, and the Quote will begin from -j- i. Or if you 

fuppole x to be indefinitely great, or l - = z, you will have ^ 4 

>* y 1 

--{-- -+-2y* 2y H- i = o, and -f- z for the initial Term of 
the Quote. , 

50. And thus by proceeding according to feveral Suppofitions, 
you may extract and exprefs Roots after various ways. 

51. If you mould delire to find after how many ways this 
may be done, you mufl try what Quantities, when fubfHtuted for 
the indefinite Species in the propofed Equation, will make it divifible 
by_y, -f-or fome Quantity, or by^ alone. Which, for Example 
fake, will happen in the Equation y* -}-axy-+-a l y x> 20 3 = o, 

D by 

4 



1 8 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

by fubftituting -f-rf, or a, or za, or 2 } | T , &c. inftead 
of .v. And thus you may conveniently fuppofe the Quantity x to 
differ little from -j-tf, or a, or 2a, or za*l^, and thence 
you may extract the Root of the Equation propofed after fo 
many ways. And perhaps alfo after fo many other ways, by fup- 
poling thofe differences to be indefinitely great. Befides, if you take 
for the indefinite Quantity this or that of the Species which exprefs 
the Root, you may perhaps obtain your defire after other ways. 
And farther ftill., by fubftituting any fictitious Values for the inde- 
finite Species, fuch as az + bz 1 , -> ~n^> &c. and then proceeding 
as before in the Equations that will refult. 

52. But now that the truth of thefe Conclufions may be mani- 
feft ; that is, that the Quotes thus extracted, and produced ad libi-* 
turn, approach fb near to the Root of the Equation, as at laft to 
differ from it by lefs than any afilgnable Quantity, and therefore 
when infinitely continued, do not at all differ from it : You are to 
confider, that the Quantities in the left-hand Column of the right- 
hand fide of the Diagrams, are the laft Terms of the Equations 
whofe Roots are p, y, r, s, &c. and that as they vanifh, the Roots 
p, q, r, s, &c. that is, the differences between the Quote and the 
Root fought, vanifh at the fame time. So that the Quote will not 
then differ from the true Root. Wherefore at the beginning of the 
Work, if you fee that the Terms in the faid Column will all de- 
ftroy one' another, you may conclude^ that the Quote fo far ex- 
tracted is the perfect Root of the Equation. But if it be other- 
wife, you will fee however, that the Terms in which the indefi- 
nitely fhiall Species is of few Dimenfions, that is, the greate ft Terms, 
are continually taken out of that Column, and that at laft none 
will remain there, unlefs fuch as are lefs than any given Quantity, 
and therefore not greater than nothing when the Work is continued 
ad infinitum. So that the Quote, when infinitely extracted, will at 
laft be the true Root. 

53. Laftly, altho' the Species, which for the fake of perfpieuity I 
have hitherto fuppos'd to be indefinitely little, fhould however be 
fuppos'd to be as great as you pleafe, yet the Quotes will ftill be 
true, though they may not converge fo faft to the true Root. This 
is manifeft from the Anal'ogy of the thing. But here the Limits 
of the Roots, or the greateft and leaft Quantities, come to be 
confider'd. For thefe Properties are in common both to finite and 
infinite Equations. The Root in thefe is then greateft or leaft,. 

when 



and INF INITE SERIES. 19 

when there Is the greateft or leaft difference between the Sums of 
the affirmative Terms, and of the negative Terms ; and is limited 
when the indefinite Quantity, (which therefore not improperly I 
fuppos'd to be fmall,) cannot be taken greater, but that the Mag- 
nitude of the Root will immediately become infinite, that is, will 
become impoffible. 

54. To illuftrate this, let AC D be a Semicircle defcribed on the 
Diameter AD, and BC be an Ordinate. 
MakeAB = ^,BC=7,AD = ^. Then 



xx 

as before. 



Therefore BC, or y, then becomes greateft 
when iax moft exceeds all the Terms 







Sax -f- f- S^x 4- S ax > &c - that is > when * = ** i but 

la " ga* V i6a> V 

it will be terminated when x a. For if we take x greater than 

a t the Sum of all the Terms ^ S ax s7 V ax TbTs *S ax > 
&c. will be infinite. There is another Limit alfo, when x = o, 
by reafon of the impoffibility of the Radical S ax ; to which 
Terms or Limits, the Limits of the Semicircle A, B, and D, are cor^ 
refpondent. 

Tranfttion to the METHOD OF FLUXIONS. 

55. And thus much for the Methods of Computation, of which 
I mall make frequent ufe in what follows. Now it remains, that , 
for an Illuftration of the Analytick Art, I mould give fome Speci- 
mens of Problems, efpecially fuch as the nature of Curves will fup- 
ply. But firft it may be obferved, that all the difficulties of thefe x 
may be reduced to thefe two Problems only, which I mall propofe 
concerning a Space defcribed by local Motion, any how accelerated ' 
or retarded. ~ 

56. I. The Length of the Space defcribed being continually ( that -*"* 
?V, at fill Times) given; to find the Velocity of the Motion at any ffo^ 

Tune propofed. / SJLJ tt 

57. II. The Velocity of the Motion being continually given ; to find JbotA.*** if* 
the Length of the Space defcribed at any Time propofed. 

58. Thus in the Equation xx=y, if y reprefents the Length of 
the Space t any time defcribed, which (time) another Space x, 

by increafing with an uniform Celerity #, mea/ures and exhibits as 

D 2 defcribed : 




20 ?%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

defcribed : Then zxx will reprefent the Celerity by which the Space 
y, at the fame moment of Time, proceeds to be defcribed ; and 
contrary-wife. And hence it is, that in what follows, I confider 
Quantities as if they were generated by continual Increafe, after the 
manner of a Space, which a Body or Thing in Motion defcribes. 

59. But whereas we need not confider the Time here, any 
farther than as it is expounded and meafured by an equable local 
Motion ; and befides, whereas only Quantities of the fame kind 
can be compared together, and alfo their Velocities of Increafe and 
Decreafe : Therefore in what follows I fhall have no regard to Time 
formally conficter'd,, but I fhall fiippofe fome one of the Quantities 
propofed, being of the fame kind, to be increafed by an equable 
Fluxion, to which the reft may be referr'd, as it were to Time j 
and therefore, by way of Analogy, it may not improperly receive 
the name of Time. Whenever therefore the word Time occurs in 
what follows, (which for the fake of perfpicuity and diftindlion I 
have fometimes ufed,) by that Word I would not have it under- 
ftood as if I meant Time in its formal Acceptation, but only that 
other Quantity, by the equable Increafe or Fluxion whereof, Time 
is expounded and meafured. 

'60. Now thofe Quantities which I confider as gradually and 
2 indefinitely increafing, I fhall hereafter call Fluents, or Flowing 

Quantities, and fhall reprefent them by the final Letters of the 
f Alphabet v, x, y, and z ; that I may diftinguifh them from other 

Quantities, which in Equations are to be confider'd as known and. 
T H > %f& f'df** determinate, and which therefore are reprefented by the initial 
U _' .i V*> i*i~- Letters a, b, c, &c. And the Velocities by which every Fluent 

is increafed by its generating Motion, (which I may call Fluxions, 

( oi V* ffm***4t*'Qr fimply Velocities or Celerities,) I fhall reprefent by the fame 

Letters pointed thus -y, x, y., and z. That is, for the Celerity of 
K t4 JO the Quantity v I fhall put v, and fo for the Celerities of the other 
id tti Quantities x, y, and z, I fhall put x, y, and z refpeftively. 

J '(/ 6 1. Thefe things being premifed, I mall now forthwith proceed 

to the matter in hand } and firft I fhall give the Solution of the: 
two Problems juft now propofed. 



PROF, 






and INFINITE SERIES. 



21 



P R O B. I. 

The Relation of the Flowing Quantities to one another being 
given, to determine the Relation of their Fluxions. 

SOLUTION. 

1. Difpofe the Equation, by which the given Relation is ex- 
prefs'd, according to the Dimenftons of fome one of its flowing 
Quantities, fuppofe x, and multiply its Terms by any Arithmetical 

Progreflion, and then by - . And perform this Operation feparately 

for every one of the flowing Quantities. Then make the Sum of 
all the Products equal to nothing,, aad you will have the Equation 
required. 

2. EXAMPLE i. If the Relation of the flowing Quantities A; and 
y be X' ax*--{- axy ^ 3 =o; firft difpofe the Terms according 
to x, and then according to y, and multiply them in the follow- 
ing, manner. 

Mult. 

by 

makes %xx* zaxx -{- axy * zyy* -f- ayx * 

* 

The Sum of the Produdls is -jx** zaxx -k- axy W*-f- ayx=zo, 

i . 

which Equation gives the Relation between the Fluxions x and y. 

For if you take x at pleafure, the Equation .v 3 ax 1 -{-axy yt 
= o will give y. Which being determined, it will be x : y :: 
7v* ax : yx^zax -{- ay. 

3.. Ex. 2. If the Relation of the Quantities x, y,. and z r be ex- 
preis'd by the Equation 2j 3 -f- x*y zcyz +- yz* z'' = QJ 



* 


ax* 


+ ffxy- 


-r 


>': 


JT axy. 


ax 1 


3* 


2x 


X 




i y . 


_v 







-^ 


V 


o 




~- * 


O 


X 


X 


x 




3 


y 





Mult. 2j 3 -i-xxxy z* 


yx* -+- zy* 


z* -fc- 3_>-2 1 zcyz + x'y 


zcz 
~f"~ 32;* 


' zcyz 


-h zy 3 


ay y 


2X 


; 2 ~ 


DV *"* O . " 


. o . 


. . - o. 


' y y 


x 


z z z 


makes 4^-* % 4-'~ 


zxxy % 


- 2 zz*+6zzy-zc Z y . 



Where- 



22 *The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Wherefore the Relation of the Celerities of Flowing, or of the 
Fluxions ,v, v, and z, is tyy* -\- + 2xxy $zz l -f- 6zzy zczy 



. 

4. But fince there are here three flowing Quantities, .v, y, and 
z, another Equation ought alfo to be given, by which the Relation 
among them, as alfo among their Fluxions, may be intirely deter- 
mined. As if it were fuppofed that x -\-y 2 = 0. From whence 
another Relation among the Fluxions AT-HV z = o would be 
found by this Rule. Now compare thefe with the foregoing Equa- 
tions, by expunging any one of the three Quantities, and alfo any 
one of the Fluxions, and then you will obtain an Equation which 
will intirely determine the Relation of the reft. 

5. In the Equation propos'd, whenever there are complex Frac- 
tions, or furd Quantities, I put fo many Letters for each, and fup- 
pofing them to reprefent flowing Quantities, I work as before. Af- 
terwards I fupprefs and exterminate the afTumed Letters, as you fee 
done here. 

6. Ex. 3. If the Relation of the Quantities .v and y be yy aa 

x\/aa ## = o; for x</aa xx I write z, and thence I 
have the two Equations^' aa %,=.&., and a 3 -* 1 x 4 2* 
i . o, of which the firfl will give zyy z = o, as before, for the 
Relation of the Celerities y and z, and the latter will give 2<j*xx 

o, or a * xx ~ **** = z, for the Relation of the 



Celerities x and z. Now z being expunged, it will be zyy - 

= o, and then reftoring x^aa xx for z, we fhall have zyy 

-./** 4- g*.>* __ 0> for the Relation between x and y, as was re- 

^ aa XX 

quired. 

7. Ex. 4. If .v 3 ay* 4- j4r XX \fay -+- xx = o, expreffes 

the Relation that is between AT and v : I make ^^ = 5;, and 

^x \/~ay-+-xx=v, from whence I fhall Lave the three Equations x- 
a y* + & -u = o, az-\-yz ^ 3 =o, and ax*y + x 6 1^=0. 
The firft gives 3**' zayy + z -0=0, the fecond gives az + 
Z y^-yz 3^ & = o, and the third gives 4.axx>y-+-6xx'-i-a}>x* 
2W= o, for the Relations of the Velocities -y, .v, y, and . But 

the 



and INF i NIT E SERIES. 23 

the Values of & and i', found by the fecond and third Equations, 
iSj ? for z and 






/. /. v-. . 11 . ,. 7n vz 

nrft Equation, and there anies %xx* 2a )y-^-~^T. 

= o. Then inflead of z and v refloring their Values f and 

a > 






. 
XX \/ ay -+- xx, there will arife the Equation fought ^xx*-2ayy 

6*- A- 3 awMf ... . _ . . r , 

= o. by which the Relation or the 

> 



. 
aa -f- 2^ + yy 2 

Velocities x and y will be exprefs'd. 

8. After what manner the Operation is to be performed in other 
Cafes, I believe is manifefl from hence j as when in the Equation 
propos'd there are found furd Denominators, Cubick Radicals, Ra- 

dicals within Radicals, as v ax -+- \/ 'aa xx } or any other com- 
plicate Terms of the like kind. 

9. Furthermore, altho' in the Equation propofed there fhould 
be Quantities involved, which cannot be determined or exprefs'd 
by any Geometrical Method, fuch as Curvilinear Areas or the Lengths 
of Curve-lines ; yet the Relations of their Fluxions may be found, 
as will appear from the following Example. 

Preparation for EXAMPLE 5* 

10. Suppofe BD to be an Ordinate at right Angles to AB, ancL 
that ADH be any Curve, which is defined by 
the Relation between AB and BD exhibited 
by an Equation. Let AB be called A;, and 
the Area of the Curve ADB, apply 'd to Unity, 
be call'd z. Then erect the Perpendicular AC 
equal to Unity, and thro' C draw CE parallel 
to AB, and meeting BD in E. Then conceiving 
thefe two Superficies ADB and ACEB to be generated by the 
Motion of the right Line BED ; it is manifeft that their Fluxions, 
(that is,, the Fluxions of the Quantities i x z t . and i x v, or of the 
Quantities s and x,) are to each other as the generating Lines BD 
and BE. Therefore : x :: BD : BE or i, and therefore 
z = * x BD. 

1 1. And hence it is, that z may be involved in any Equation, 
expre fling the Relation between .v and any other flowing'Quantityjv ; 
and yet the Relation of the Fluxions x and y may however be dif- 
cover'd, 12 . 




24 < fhe Method <J/" FLUXION s, 

12. Ex. 5. As if the Equation zz -\-axz _y*=r=o were pro- 
pos'd to exprefs the Relation between x and; 1 , as alfo \/axxx 
= BD, for determining a Curve, which therefore will be a Circle. 
The Equation zz-^-axz j^=o, as before, will give 2zz-i- 
azX -f- axz 4_y_y = o, for the Relation of the Celerities x,y, 
and z. And therefore fince it is z = x x BD or -x \/ax xx t 
iubftitute this Value inftead of it, and there will arife the Equation 

2xz -t- axx \/ax-r xx 4- axz qyy* = o, which determines the 
Relation of the Celerities x and y. 

DEMONSTRATION of the Solution. 

13. The Moments of flowing Quantities, (that is, their indefi- 
nitely fmall Parts, by the acceffjon of which, in indefinitely fmall 
portions of Time, they are continually increafed,) are as the Ve- 
locities of their Flowing or Increafing. 

14. Wherefore if the Moment of any one, as x, be reprefented 
t>y the Product of its Celerity x into an indefinitely fmall Quantity 
o (that is, by xo,} the Moments of the others <y, y, z, will be 
reprefented by vo t yo, zo ; becaufe vo y xo, yo, and zo, are to each 
other as v, x, y, and x. 



,. p. , 15. Now fince the Moments, as xo and yo, are the indefinitely 

/fc, // natti** cttA u tt i e ^cceflions of the flowing Quantities .v and y, by which thofe 




any 

And therefore the Equation, which at all times indifferently exprefles 
the Relation of the flowing Quantities, will as well exprefs the 
Relation between x -3- xo and y-+-yo, as between x and y: So 
that x -+- xo and y -f- yo may be fubftituted in the fame Equation 
for thofe Quantities, inftead of x and y. 

1 6. Therefore let any Equation #' ax* -+- axy ^' = be 
given, and fubftitute x~\-xo for x } and y -j- yo for y, and there 
will arife 



+ $x*oox -f- x*o'' 

ax 1 2axox ax*oo 


axy +- axoy -h ayox -h axyoo 

y: lyoy- ~ yfooy 



and INFINITE SERIES. 25 

17. Now by Suppofition x 3 ax-- 3 raxy _}' 3 =o, which there- 
fore being expunged, and the remaining Terms being divided by o, 
there will remain ^xx* -f- ^ox -+- x>oo zaxx ax 1 o -f- axy -f- 
ayx _f_ axyo 3_vy* 3y*oy y*oo = o. But whereas o is fuppofed 
to be infinitely little, that it may reprefent the Moments of Qiian- 
tities ; the Terms that are multiply'd by it will be nothing in relbedl 
of the reft. Therefore I reject them, and there remains $xx* 
zaxx -f- axy -+- ayx 3_yj*= o, as above in Examp. i. 

1 8. Here we may obferve, that the Terms that are not multiply'd 
by o will always vaniih, as alfo thole Terms that are multiply'd by o 
of more than one Dimenfion. And that the reft of the Terms 
being divided by o, will always acquire the form that they ought 
to have by the foregoing Rule : Which was the thing to be proved. 

19. And this being now fhewn, the other things included in the 
Rule will eafily follow. As that in the propos'd Equation feveral 
flowing Quantities may be involved ; and that the Terms may be 
multiply'd, not only by the Number of the Dimenlions of the flow- 
ing Quantities, but alfo by any other Arithmetical Progreilions ; fo 
that in the Operation there may be the lame difference of the Terms 
according to any of the flowing Quantities, and the ProgrefTion be 
difpos'd according to the fame order of the Dimenlions of each of 
them. And thele things being allow'd, what is taught belides in 
Examp. 3, 4, and 5, will be plain enough of itfelf. 

P R O B. II. 

An Equation being propofed, including the Fluxions of 
O^uantitieS) to find the Relations of tbofe Quantities to 
one another. 

A PARTICULAR SOLUTION. 

i. As this Problem is the Converfe of the foregoing, it muft be 
folved by proceeding in a contrary manner. That is, the Terms 
multiply'd by x being difpofed according to the Dimenfions of x ; 

they muft be divided by * x , and then by the number of their Di- 
menfions, or perhaps by fome other Arithmetical Progreffion. Then 
the fame work muft be repeated with the Terms multiply'd by v, y, 

E or 



26 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

or z, and the Sum refulting muft be made equal to nothing, re- 
jeding the Terms that are redundant. 

2. EXAMPLE. Let the Equation propofed be ^xx* 2axx 4- axy 
4- ayx = o. The Operation will be after this manner : 



Divide 3 ATA?* 2axx-i-axy 

by - Quot. 3A: 5 2ax* -\-ayx 

Divide by 3 . 2 i. 

Quote A; 5 ax 1 -{-ayx 



Divide 

by ^. Quot. 3 

Divide by 3 

Quote _y 5 



* -f- ayx 

* 4- axy 

2 . i. 

* 4- axy 



Therefore the Sum # 3 ax* -f- axy y* = o, will be the required 
Relation of the Quantities x and y. Where it is to be obferved, 
that tho' the Term axy occurs twice, yet I do not put it twice in 
the Sum x'> ax* -+- axy y* =. o, but I rejed the redundant 
Term. And fo whenever any Term recurs twice, (or oftener when 
there are feveral flowing Quantities concern'd,) it muft be wrote 
only once in the Sum of the Terms. 

3. There are other Circumftances to be obferved, which I mall/ 
leave to the Sagacity of the Artift -, for it would be needlefs to dwell 
too long upon this matter, becaufe the Problem cannot always be 
folved by this Artifice. I mail add however, that after the Rela- 
tion of the Fluents is obtain'd by this Method, if we can return, 
by Prob. i. to the propofed Equation involving the Fluxions, then 
the work is right, otherwife not. Thus in the Example propofed, 

after I have found the Equation x> ax 1 - -{- axy y* = o, if from 

thence I feek the Relation of the Fluxions x and y by the firft 
Problem, I mall arrive at the propofed Equation ^xx* 2axx 4- 
axy i,yy* -f- ayx= o. Whence it is plain, that the Equation 
AT 3 -ax*-+-axy _y 3 = o is rightly found. But if the Equation 
xx xy -\- ay = o were propofed, by the prefcribed Method I 
fhould obtain this ^x* xy + ay = o, for the Relation between 
x and y ; which Conclufion would be erroneous: Since by Prob. i. 
the Equation xx xy yx -+- ay = o would be produced, which 
is different from the former Equation. 

4. .Having therefore premiled this in a perfundory manner, I 
lhall now undertake the general Solution. 



A 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 27 

A PREPARATION FOR THE GENERAL SOLUTION. 

5. Firft it mufl be obferved, that in the propofed Equation 
the Symbols of the Fluxions, (fince they are Quantities of a diffe- 
rent kind from the Quantities of which they are the Fluxions,) 
ought to afcend in every Term to the fame number of Dimenfions : 
And when it happens otherwife, another Fluxion of fome flowing 
Quantity mufl be underflood to be Unity, by which the lower 
Terms are fo often to be multiply'd, till the Symbols of the Fluxions 
arife to the fame number of Dimenfions in all the Terms. As if 
the Equation x -+ x'yx axx = o were propofed, the Fluxion z 
of fome third flowing Quantity z mufl be underilood to be Unity, 
by which the firfl Term x mufl be multiply'd once, and the lafl 
axx twice, that the Fluxions in them may afcend to as many Di- 
menfions as in the fecond Term xyx : As if the propofed Equation 
had been derived from this xz -{-xyx- azzx*- = o, by putting 
z = i. And thus in the Equation yx =}')'-, you ought to ima- 
gine x to be Unity, by which the Term yy is multiply'd. 

6. Now Equations, in which there are only two flowing Quan- 
tities, which every where arife to the fame number of Dimenfions, 
may always be reduced to fuch a form, as that on one fide may be 

had the Ratio of the Fluxions, (as 4 , or - , or ~ ,&c.) and on the 

\ x . y x 

other fide the Value of that Ratio, exprefs'd by fimple Algebraic 

* 

Terms ; as you may fee here, 4- = 2 -h 2X y. And when the 

foregoing particular Solution will not take place, it is required that 
you fhould bring the Equations to this form. 

7. Wherefore when in the Value of that Ratio any Term is de- 
nominated -by a Compound quantity, or is Radical, or if that Ratio 
be the Root of an affected Equation ; the Reduction mufl be per- 
form'd either by Divifion, or by Extraction of Roots, or by the 
Refolution of an affected Equation, as has been before fhewn. 

8. As if the Equation ya yx xa -+- xx xy = o were pro- 
pofed j firfl by Reduction this becomes T-=i-f--^-, or -== 

x ax y 

av+y' And in the firfl Cafe, if I reduce the Term ^^., deno- 
minated by the compound Quantity a x, to an infinite Series of 

E 2 fimple 




28 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

fimple Terms j -f- - -f- ~ -+- ^ &c. by dividing the Numerator 
y by the Denominator a x, I mall have - i +- - -f- ^ -f. 

^ -f- 7; &c. by the help of which the Relation between x and 
y is to be determined. 

9. So the Equation _y_y = xy -j- .XVY.V A: being given, or ^- = 4, 

A-* x 

i- xx, and by a farther Reduction 4=4 +V/T -+- A-* : I extract 

AT 

the fquare Root out of the Terms -J -f- xr, and obtain the infinite 
Series f -{-x* x* -f- 2X 6 5*" -f- 14*', &c. which if I fubfti- 

tute for \/t H- xx, I (hall have - = i -f- x* x* -f- 2x 6 

X 

&c. or. ~ = x^-ir-x* 2X 6 -+- 5* 8 , &c. according as 

is either added to -I, or fubtracled from it. 

10. And thus if the Equation y* -j- axx*y -f- a'-x^y x*x"> ~ 

2x*a>=o were propofed, or ' -f- ax -f- a 1 - >v 3 2rf 3 = o 

A:5 A: x 

I extract the Root of the affected Cubick Equation, and there. 

/- V X XX 111*5 COQi'4 

anfes ~ =a ^-_|_ ^_ _ 4. ^ & c . as may be feen 

x 4 640 5i2 a 16384^3 ^ 

before. 

11. But here it may be obferved, that I look upon thofc Terms 
only as compounded, which are compounded in refpect of flowing 
Quantities. For I efteem thofe as fimple Quantities which are com- 
pounded only in refpect of given Quantities. For they may be re- 
duced to fimple Quantities by luppofing them equal to other givea 

Quantities. Thus I eonfider the Quantities " -> "-TT, rr- 

^ - ^^' c a*4- b' ax-\~bx > 

1 4 

~^, L , x i > v/tfA- H- bx, &c. as fimple Quantities, becaufe they may 
may all be reduced to the fimple Quantities ^ i, -^-, , \/ex (or 

x*} &cc. by fuppofing a -f- b =r= e. 

12. Moreover, that the flowing Quantities may the more eafily 
be diflinguifh'd from one another, the Fluxion that is put in the 
Numerator of the Ratio, or the Antecedent of the Ratio, may not 
improperly be call'd the Relate Quantify, and the other in the De- 
nominator, to which it is compared, the Correlate : Alfo the 

flowing 



and INFINITE SERIES. 29 

flowing Quantities may be diftinguifli'd by the fame Names refpec- 
tively. And for the better understanding of what follows, you may 
conceive, that the Correlate Quantity is Time, or rather any other 
Quantity that flows equably, by which Time is expounded and 
meafured. And that the other, or the Relate Quantity, is Space, 
which the moving Thing, or Point, any how accelerated or retarded, 
defcribes in that Time. And that it is the Intention of the Problem, 
that from the Velocity of the Motion, being given at every Inftant 
of Time, the Space defcribed in the whole Time may be deter- 
mined. 

13. But in refpedt of this Problem Equations may be diftinguifli'd 

into three Orders. 

14. Firft: In which two Fluxions of Quantities, and only one 
of their flowing Quantities are involved. 

15. Second: In which the two flowing Quantities are involved, 
together with their Fluxions. 

1 6. Third: In which the Fluxions of more than two Quantities 
are involved. 

17. With thefe Premifes I {hall attempt the Solution of the 
Problem, according to thefe three Cafes. 

SOLUTION OF CASE I. 

1 8. Suppofe the flowing Quantity, which alone is contain 'd in 
the Equation, to be the Correlate, and the Equation being accord- 
ingly difpos'd, (that is, by making on one fide to be only the 
Ratio of the Fluxion of the other to the Fluxion of this, and on 
the other fide to be the Value of this Ratio in fimple Terms,) mul- 
tiply the Value of the Ratio of the Fluxions by the Correlate Quan- 
tity, then divide each of its Terms by the number of Dimenfions 
with which that Quantity is there afTeded, and what arifes will be 
equivalent to the other flowing Quantity. 

19. So propofing the Equation yy = xy -+- xxxx ; I fuppofe x 
to be the Correlate Quantity, and the Equation being accordingly 

reduced, we mall have - = i -f- x 1 .v 4 -f- 2X & , &c. Now I mul- 



tiply the Value of into x, and there arifes .v-f-AT 3 ' x f -{- 2X\ 

&c. which Terms I divide feverally by their number cf Dimenfions, 
and the Refult x +- fv' fv'-f-fv 1 , &c. I put =y. And by 

this 



30 77je Method ^/"FLUXIONS, 

this Equation will be defined the Relation between x and y, as was 
required. 

20. Let the Equation be -- = a - -4- -f- ' 3 '* 3 &c. there 

x 4 6-}<z 5i2* 

will arife y = ax y -+- ~ j- -^ ' & c . for determining the 

' y ZM OJ.oi.t~ o 

Relation between A; and y. 

21. And thus the Equation = _i_ -, , x* -t- #*, 

v-J *.! I I 

gives y = ^ -f- ^ . + 2 ^ |. x *+ ** . For multiply the 
Value of - into A;, and it becomes - -f. ax^ - . x* -*- v* 

*; Jf^ X X , 

or A:- 1 x' 1 -\- ax* x^-i-x^, which Terms being divided by 
the number of Dimenfions, the Value of y will arife as be- 
fore. 

22. After the fame manner the Equation -. =5-7=== 4- -^ -+- 

\/ f S7- 1. A 



\- cy, gives A- = ^_ -}- H- - v/^)' 3 -i- cy~> . For the 
Value of - being multiply'd by j, there arifes ~ -^ * _j_ 



-{-n'3 or 2^^-y* -h -~i ;' 3 + v/^ + c %y*. And thence 
-the Value of x refults, by dividing by the number of the Dimen- 
lions of each Term. 

23. And fo =? =z\ gives y = $z*. And -1 =- 4 , gives r= 
, ~ * 7 

3f^L 3 . But the Equation ^ = ; , gives 7 = f . For f multiply'd 

into A: makes a, which being divided by the number of Dimen- 
fions, which is o, there arifes ~ , an infinite Quantity for the Value 



_ 

24. Wherefore, whenever a like Term mail occur in the Value 

of -. , whofe Denominator involves the Correlate Quantity of one 

Dimenfion only ; inftead of the Correlate Quantity, fubftitute the 
Sum or the Difference between the fame and fome other given 
Quantity to be affumed at pleafure. For there will be the fame 
Relation of Flowing, of the Fluents in the Equation fo. produced, 
as of the Equation at firft propofed j and the infinite Relate Quan- 

tity 



and INFINITE SERIES. 31 

tity by this means will be diminifh'd by an infinite part of itfelf, 
and will become finite, but yet confifting of Terms infinite in 
number. 

25. Therefore the Equation 4 = - being propofed, if for x I 
write ^4- x, affuming the Quantity b at pleafure, there will arife 

v 11 T^ /* v fl a ^ ax^ ax^ c At 

- = , : and by Divifion 4 = T rr 4- 77 -rr & c - And 

u-^r~X * v O & b + 

now the Rule aforegoing will give_}'= j - ^ 4- 3 ~p ~j^ &c. for 
the Relation between x and y. 

26. So if you have the Equation - = - 4-3 xx; becaufe 

X X 

of the Term ~ x -> if you write i -f- x for x, there will arife 4 
. _f (_ 2 2X xx. Then reducing the Term ~-^ into an in- 
finite Series 4-2 2x4- 2x l 2Ar 3 4- 2x% &c. you will have 4 , 

X 

^ 4* _{_ x* 2x 3 4- 2x 4 , &c. And then according to the Rule 
y = 4.x ax 1 4- fx 3 |x 4 4- ^x s , 6cc. for the Relation of x 

and y. 

27. And thus if the Equation -.-=x'^-i-x- 1 AT* were pro- 



pofed j becaufe I here obferve the Term x l (or ~j to be found, 
I tranfmute x, by fubftituting I x for it, and there arifes 4 
. _' _ L __ - - v/ 1 A;". Now the Term - l x produces 
i _{_ x _|_ x 1 4- x 3 , &c. and the Term \/i x is equivalent to 

j, .i# 4-x 1 V^S an( ^ therefore or i _ v _ JL;( . a ^ is 

the fame as i 4- -i-x 4- 4-x 1 4- |-x 3 , &c. So that when thefe Values 
are fubftituted, I fhall have 4 = i ~f- 2x 4- 4x i 4-4-^-x 3 ,6cc. And 

X 

then by the Rule y =. x 4- x 1 4- 4-x* 4- ri* 4 , &c - An< i ^ oi 
others. 

28. Alfo in other Cafes the Equation may fometimes be con- 
veniently reduced, by fuch a Tranfmutation of the flowing Quantity. 

As if this Equation were propofed 4 = -^ ^^. c ^_ xi inflead 



52 ^ Method of FLUXIONS, 

O i/ 

of .v I write c AT, and then I mall have 4= ^ or 7 5 ~i> 

and then by the Rule y = - J ^ -f,. L. But the ufe of fuch Tranf- 
mutations will appear more plainly in what follows. 

SOLUTION OF CASE II. 

29". PREPARATION. And fo much for Equations that involve 
only one Fluent. But when each of them are found in the 
Equation, fiift it muft be reduced to the Form prefcribed, by 
making, that on one fide may be had the Ratio of the Fluxions, 
equal to an aggregate of fimple Terms on the other fide. 

30. And befides, if in the Equations fo reduced there be any 
Fractions denominated by the flowing Quantity, they muft be freed 
from thofe Denominators, by the above-mentioned Tranfmutation 
of the flowing Quantity. 

31. So the Equation yax xxy aax = o being propofed, or 

i_l _{_ f . becaufe of the Term -, I afiume b at pleafure, and 

x a x * 

for x I either write b -+- x, or b x, or x - b. As if I fhould 
write b -+- x, it will become 4 = - -f- rrr. . And then the Term 



being converted byDivifion into an infinite Series, we mall have 

-1-1 , - - < , &C. 

72. And after the fame manner the Equation = 37 2x + 

J X 

X 2v 

- .. being propofed; if, by reafon of the Terms - and^., 

I write i y for y y and i x for x, there will arife = 

X 

_ o V -4- 2 x -f- ^- = -^ -4- 2 - v ~. 2 r . But the Term '- ^ by 

3/ 1 y I ZX -\- X* 1 y J 

infinite Divjfion gives i x -+-y xy -f-_y a xy* -J-_y 3 xy* t &c. 
and the Term - t _^ 2 ~+ xx by a like Divifion gives 2_y 2 -i- ^xy 
^ x _f- 6 x *-y . 6x a 4- S* 3 ^ 8x 5 + iox*y IOAT*, &c. There- 
fore r-= 3^-i- 3^J -f->' a ' xy* -{- y3 ^y 5 , &c. -i- 6^^ 6x* 

X 

33- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 33 

33. RULE. The Equation being thus prepared, when need re- 
quires, difpofe the Terms according to the Dimenfions of the flow- 
ing Quantities, by fetting down fir ft thofe that are not affected by 
the Relate Quantity, then thofe that are affected by its lead Dimen- 
fion, and fo on. In like manner alfo diipofe the Terms in each of 
thefe Clafies according to the Dimenfions of the other Correlate 
Quantity, and thofe in the firft Clafs, (or fuch as are not affected 
by the Relate Quantity,) write in a collateral order, proceeding to- 
wards the right hand, and the reft in a defcending Series in the left- 
hand Column, as the following Diagrams indicate. The work be- 
ing thus prepared, multiply the firft or the loweft of the Terms in 
the firft Clafs by the Correlate Quantity, and divide by the number 
of Dimenfions, and put this in the Quote for the initial Term of 
the Value of the Relate Quantity. Then fubftitute this into the 
Terms of the Equation that are difpofed in the left-hand Column, 
inftead of the Relate Quantity, and from the next loweft Terms 
you will obtain the fecond Term of the Quote, after the fame man- 
ner as you obtain'd the firft. And by repeating the Operation you 
may continue the Quote as far as you pleafe. But this will appear 
plainer by an Example or two. 

34. EXAMP. i. Let the Equation 4 = i ^x-\-y-\- x*-{-.vy 

be propofed, whofe Terms i T.V -+- A' 1 , which are not affected 
by the Relate Quantity _v, you fee difpos'd collaterally in the up- 





-h I T,X -\- XX 


+'*, 


* -+- A' X,Y-f-l.,V 3 ^.x-4_|__'_,v 


r ,&c. 

J_ ^ V 

' "5""^" 


s ,&c 


The Sum 


I ' 2.V "--I-"- &X * V ^ - 1 * v 4 i T ^_ \s 


, &c. 




y 


A A -X -4*I - >4 + ^,__ Vx 6^ c . 



permoft Row, and the reft ' y -and .vy in the left-hand Column. And 
rirft I multiply the initial Term i into the Correlate Quantity .v, 
.ind it makes x, which being divided by the number of Dimen- 
fions i, I place it in the Quote under-written. Then fubftkuting 
rhis Term inftead of y in the marginal Terms -f- y and -f- .vy, I 
have -\-x and -+- xx, which I write over againft them to the right 
hand. Then from the reft I take the loweft Terms ?.v and --x, 
whofe aggregate zx multiply'd into x becomes 2.v.v, and 

F being 



3-4 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 



beino; divid'-d by the number of Dimenfions 2, gives xx for the 
fecund Term of the Value of y in the Quote. Then this Term 
being likewifc afiumed to compleat the Value of the Marginals -{-y 
and -+- xv, there will arife alfo xx and x 5 , to be added to 
the Terms -j-x and -{-xx that were before inferted. Which being 
done, I again a flume the next loweil Terms -f-xx, xx, and -{-xx, 
which I collect into one Sum xx, and thence I derive (as before) 
the third Term -|-.ix ; , to be put in the Value of y. Again, taking 
this Term -i-x 3 into the Values of the marginal Terms, from the 
next loweft -f-y# 3 and x 3 added together, I obtain ^-x 4 for 
the fourth Term of the Value of y. And fo on in infinitum. 

35. Ex AMP. 2. In like manner if it were required to determine 

the Relation of x and y in this Equation, y - -=. I -f- - -f- -- v -f- r'-f- 

< ^ a &* &* 

- , &c. which Series is fuppofed to proceed ad infinitum ; I put I 

in the beginning, and the other Terms in the left-hand Column, 
and then purfue the work according to the following Diagram. 





-hi 




A" A* *3 .X 4 


-.j 


+ ~ 




h , , &c. 


XV 


A" a v 3 A 4 


A * 


4- 


a 1 2^3 2^4 


h z~ . &C - 


X s " V 


_1_ ' v3 i A ' 4 


, . 5 


4- ~ 




h , &c. 


-4- ~ 


* * * * -+- - 


h S ' &c - 


4-*-? 


* * * * * - 


h-J , &c. 


a* 






Sum 


.V 3** 2\= CAT4 

T _l_ *_ 1 . 1 1 

* I i ^ r i "^~" 


3.V 5 c 

h 4y , &c. 




a ^a i a= z.;4 




y == 


* + T a -+- ili + + ^ - 


^ 6 o 

h j , &c. 



36. As I here propofed to extradl: the Value of y as far as fix 
Dimenfions of x only ; for that reafon I omit all the Terms in 
the Operation which I forefee will contribute nothing to my pur- 
pofe, as is intimated by the Mark, &c. which I have fubjoin'd to 
the Series that are cut off. 

3 37- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 35 

37. EXAMP. 3. In like manner if this Equation were propofed 



= 3,v -+- i*y -4-;* X j* -t-j 3 .vy 3 -4-;- A^ 

6..Y 1 -f- SA- J _V - 8.v 3 4- \oxy* IOA-*, &c. and it is intended to 
extract the Value ot y as far as feven Dimensions of x. I place the 
Terms in order, according to the following Diagram, and I work 
as before, only with this exception, that iince in the left-hand Co- 
lumn y is not only of one, but alfo of two and three Dimensions; 
(or of more than three, if I intended to produce the Value of y 
beyond the degree of x~* ,) I fubjoin the fecond and third Powers of the 
Value of y, fo far gradually produced, that when they are fubftitu- 
ted by degrees to the right-hand, in the Values of the Marginals 





_ 3 . v _ 6X> 8* 3 IO.V^ I2A- M ,&CC. 


+ 3*7 


9 v , 

2" 


6x* 


b zo ' " 


-+- 6x*y 


* * * 


gx* 


I2.V ^V ,&C. 


-f- 8*7 


* * * 


* 


I2AT* l6x 6 ,fxc. 


-f- IOA:^ 


* * * 


# 


* ^[J^ 6 j&C- 


&c. 








+-;* 


* * # 


^|*4 


-f- 6x s -{-~^ 7 x 6 ,&;c. 


xy* 


* * * 


* 


4 * ' 


&C. 








H-.v ; 


* * * 


* 


* ~--x s ,6cc. 


Sum 


3 A- 6x* ^f.v 


3 9' 

4 


-^-'v' -Z.v-6 li-r- 

^ * .X ,tXC. 

h S ' 


3 2 S 


qi 


111 6 ^" 


y= -A 1 2X> -*< 


20 


"16^ "77" r > C ' 


^ A ' 7 
* " 4"^ 8 


, &C. 




y; x 6 , 6cc. 







to the left, Terms may arife of fo many Dimenfions rs I obferve 
to'be required for the following Operation. And by this Method 

there arifes at length y= ^x 1 6.x 13 ^^+, &c. which is the 

F 2 Equation 



3 6 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Equation required. But whereas this Value is negative, it appears 
that one of the Quantities x or y decreafes, while the other in- 
creafes. And the fame thing is allb to be concluded, when one of 
the Fluxions is affirmative, and the other negative. 

38. EXAMP. 4. You may proceed in like manner to refolve the 
Equation, when the Relate Quantity is affected with fractional Di- 
menfions. As if it were propofed to extract the Value of x from 

this Equation, - = iy ^y- -+- zyx* -J.v 1 -f- 77* -f- 2_y ; , in 





H 5-7 * 4-y 1 -+ jy 1 + 2 >' 3 


I 


* * +)'* * 2_)' 3 -|-4}' T 2_y 4 , &c. 
* * * * * * ~y 4 y &tc. 


Sum 


+ y # _ 3r _ f _ 7 / . +4/ 44-VS&C. 


AT T == + 4_y y 1 -+- 2y* ' _)* , &c. 
A;*= -V7 4 > ^ c - 



which ,v in the Term a^'-x 11 (or zy^/x) is affected with the Frac- 
tional Dimenlion -i- From the Value of x I derive by degrees the 
Value of A?% (that is, by extracting its fquafe-Root,) as may be 
obferved in the lower part of this Diagram ; that it may be in- 
ferted and transfer'd gradually into the Value of the marginal Term 
2yx' f . And fo at laft I fliall have the Equation x = .y l y* _|_ 
2_y^ -(- ^ T Vo^' f > & c - by which x is exprefs'd indefinitely in re- 
ipect of y. And thus you may operate in any other cafe what- 
foever. 

39. I foid before, that thefe Solutions may be perform'd by an 
infinite variety of ways. T'his may 'be done if you afiiime at 
pleafure not only the initial quantity of the upper Series, but any 
other given quantity for the firft Term of the Quote, and then you 
may proceed as before. Thus in the firft of the preceding Exam- 
ples, if you affume i for the firft Term of the Value of 7, and 
fubftitute it for y in the marginal Terms -h_y and -t-xy, and pur- 
fue the reft of the Operation as before, (of which I have here given a 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



37 





-f- I 3x4- XV 


4-*V 


-4- i 4- 2x * 4- AT 3 4- .ix 4 , 6cc. 

* -t- X 4- 2Ar l * 4- X 4 , &C. 


Sum 


4-2 * 4- 3** 4- A; 3 4-4-A" 4 , &c. 


y - i -f- 2.v * 4- x"' -\- ix 4 4-^-A' 5 , 6cc. 



Specimen,) another Value of y will arife, i -f- 2x-\- x* -h i* 4 , 6cc. 
And thus another and another Value may be produced, by afTum- 
ing 2, or 3, or any other number for its firfl Term. Or if you 
make ufe of any Symbol, as a, to reprefent the firft Term inde- 
finitely, by the fame method of Operation, (which I fhall here fet 
down,") you will find y = a -+- x -+- ax xx -f- axx -+- ~x*+ax*, 
&c. which being found, for a you may fubfHtute i, 2, o, 4-, or any 
other Number, and thereby obtain the Relation between x and y 
an infinite variety of ways. 





4- i 3 x 4- A* AT 


+y 


_|_ fl _|_ x .v.V - 


H yX 3 , &c. 




4 #^" 4~ ^AT X - 


f- -i^.v 3 , 6cc. 


4-#y 


* -f. tf .v 4- AT 1 - 


- *s , &c. 




-(- ^ZAT 1 - 


f- ax* , &c. 


Sum 


4-1 2X 4- AT 1 - 


AAr 5 , &C. 




4-^4- 2^-4- 2x- 


-f-l^x 3 , &c. 


j = a 4- A; x 1 


-h y-V 3 ^-.V 4 , &C. 


4- ax 4- fl.v 1 - 


f- j.tfJfJ + _ V ^ V 4 5 & C . 



40. And it is to be obferved, that when the Quantity to be ex- 
trailed is affected with a Fractional Dimenfion, (as you fee in the 
fourth of the preceding Examples,) then it is convenient to take 
Unity, or fome other proper Number, for its firft Term. And in- 
deed this is neceflliry, when to obtain the Value of that fractional 
Dimenfion, the Root cannot otherwife be extracted, becaufe oi 
the negative Sign ; as alib when there are no Terms to be diJpofcd 
in the firft or capital Clafs, from which that initial Term may be 
deduced. 41. 



38 tte Method of FLUXIONS, 

41. And thus at laft I have compleated this moft troublefo'me 
and of all others moft difficult Problem, when only two flowing 
Quantities, together with their Fluxions, are comprehended in an 
Equation. But befides this general Method, in which I have taken 
in all the Difficulties, there are others which are generally fhorter, by 
which the Work may often be eafed; to givefome Specimens of which, 
ex abundantly perhaps will not be diiagreeable to the Reader. 

42. I. If it happen that the Quantity to be refolved has in fome 
places negative Dimenfions, it is not of ablblute necefllty that there- 
fore the Equation mould be reduced to another form. For thus 

the Equation y = - xx being propofed, where y is of one ne- 
gative Dimenfion, I might indeed reduce it to another Form, as 
by writing i -f- y for y ; but the Refolution will be more expe- 
dite as you have it in the following Diagram. 





# 


* XX 


I 

y 
Sum 


i 
i 


V* --! ^ V JK* ^CC 


y 


4- .V "'i-YAT -f- |-.V 3 , &C. 

- x-t-^xx, 5cc. 



43. Here affuming i for the initial Term of the Value of y., . 
I extract the reft of the Terms as befoie, and in the mean time 

I deduce from thence, by degrees, the Value of - by Divifion, and 
infert it in the Value of the marginal Term. 

44. II. Neither is it neceffary that the Dimenfions of the other 
flowins Quantity fhould be always affirmative. For from the Equa- 
tion y = 3 -\- zy '- , without the prefcribed Reduction of the 

Term } ~ , there will arife_y = 3 A; xx -f- 2X J , &c. 

4^. And from the Equation y = }'-+--. ~ x > the Value 

of y will be found y == ^, if the Operation be perform 'd after 
the Manner of the following Specimen. 



i 

XX 



and INFINITE SERIES, 



3.9 





I 


. 




*A: 


.V 






I 


V 


* 


" .V 


Sum 


i 


o 




ATA: 




y = 




* X 





46. Here we may obferve by the way, that among the infinite 
manners by which any Equation may be refolved, it often happens 
that there are fome, that terminate at a finite Value of the Quan- 
tity to be extracted, as in the foregoing Example, And thefe are 
not difficult to find, if fome Symbol be aflumed for the firft Term. 
For when the Refolution is perform'd, then fome proper Value may 
-be given to that Symbol, which may render the whole finite. 

47. III. Again, if the Value of y is to be extracted from this 

Equation y = ^. -+- i zx -f- xx y it may be done conveniently 

enough, without any Reduction of the Term ~ , by fuppofing 

(after the manner of Analyfts,) that to be given which is required. 
Thus for the firit Term of the Value of y I put zcx, taking 2<? for 
the numeral Coefficient which is yet unknown. And fubltituting 
2.cx inftead of y, in the marginal Term, there ariies e, which I 
write on the right-hand ; and the Sum i -f- e will give x -f- ex for 
the fame firft Term of the Value of y t which I had firfi repre- 
fented by the Term zcx. Therefore I make 2cx = x-}-ex, and 
thence I deduce e =. i. So that the firfl Term zex of the Value 
of y is 2.x. After the fame manner I make ufe of the fidlitious 
Term 2/x* to reprefent the fecond Term of the Value of r, and 
thence at laft I derive ^ for the Value of y, and therefore that fe- 
cond Term is xx. And fo the fictitious Coefficient g in the 
third Term will give T V, and b in the fourth Term will be o. 
Wherefore iince there are no other Terms remaining, I conclude 
the work is finiOi'd, and that the Value of y is exadtl-y zx x l 
-if-^X', See the Operation in the following Diagram. 



i 



The Method ^FLUXIONS, 





I ~2X +i XX 


y 






? 4~ /A* | - cfxx [ /yv' 


Zx 


6 


Sum 


4"~i ~~~ 2 A" 4~ XX 


Hvpothetically r= zex-{- 2fx*-\- 2gx* 4- 2&c+ 

II II 1l II 


Confequentially y= 4->v A* 4- ^x* 4- ^6^ 


Real Value j'= 2 A* l^ 1 4- ^-A-' 



48. Much after the fame manner, if it were y = ^- ; fuppoie 

y=.ex s , where e denotes the unknown Coefficient, and s the num- 
ber of Dimeniions, which is alfo unknown. And ex' being fub- 

ftituted for y, there will arife y =. - , and thence again 7 = 

* . Compare thefe two Values of y, and you will find ^ = e, 
and therefore s = , and e will be indefinite. Therefore afTuming 

e at pleafure, you will have y = ex*. 

49. IV. Sometimes alfo the Operation may be begun from the 
higheft Dimenfion of the equable Quantity, and continually pro- 
ceed to the lower Powers. As if this Equation were given, ^=: 
2.1.1 _i_T_i_2;r -, and we would begin from the higheft 

xx ~ XX ,. 3 * . 

Term zx, by difpofing the capital Series in an order contraiy to the 
foregoing ; there will arife at laft y = xx -f- 4.* - , &c. as may 
be feen in the form of working here fet down. 





4 ' 


+.i 


* H- i 4-^ * 


i i e 
- -h > &C. 

-v * ^A *r 


Sum 


i 


rr + ^7* ' ^ cc> 


_j> = A' 1 4- 4.v * ; 


+ 1^ SIT > &c - 



50. 



and INFINITE SERIES, 41 

50. And here it may be obferved by the way, that as the Opera- 
tion proceeded, I might have inferted any given Quantity between 

the Terms 4** and - , for the intermediate Term that is deficient, 

and fo the Value of y might have been exhibited an infinite variety 
of ways. 

51. V. If there are befides any fractional Indices of the Dimen- 
fions of the Relate Quantity, they may be reduced to Integers by 
fuppofing that Quantity, which is affected by its fractional D- 
menfion, to be equal to any third Fluent ; and then by ftibftitutii g 
that Quantity, as alfo its Fluxion, ariling from that fictitious 
Equation, inftead of the Relate Quantity and its Fluxion. 

52. As if the Equation y= 3*7* -\- y were propofed, where the 
Relate Quantity is affected with the fractional Index .1 of its Dimen- 
fion; a Fluent z being afTumed at pleafure, fuppofe y^ = z, or 
y = z'> ; the Relation of the Fluxions, by Prob. i. will be 
y = 32Z 1 . Therefore fubftituting ^zz* for v, as alfo z* for y, 
and z* for y$, there will arife yzz 1 = ^xz*- -+- z 3 , or z = x -\-^z, 
where z performs the office of the Relate Quantity. But after the 

Value of z is extracted, as z = x* -f- -f- ^ -J- -^- Q , &c. in- 
ftead of z reftore y\ and you will have the defired Relation be- 
tween x and v ; that is, y? = i.v 1 + -V^ 3 H- T-nr* 4 ; & c - an( ^ ^7 
Cubing each fide, y =.^x 6 -\- T '_.v 7 -+- T Y T X S > ^ c - 

53. In like manner if the Equation y = </^y -+- </xy were 
given, or_y = 2^^ -J- xM ; I make z =)'^ or zz=y, and thence 
by Prob. i. 2zz = y, and by confequence 2zz = 2z -f- x*z, or 
z = i -+- {-x^. Therefore by the firft Cafe of this 'tis z = x -f- 

-i-v 1 ", or y' 1 = Ar-f- -i.v 1 , then by fquaring each fide, v=y>; -+- -|Jf^ 
-i- -i-x 5 . But if you mould defire to have the Value of y exhibited 
an infinite number of ways, make z =. c -f- x -f- -ytf , aiTuming any 
initial Term c, and it will be ss, that is y, = c* -{- zcx + ^cx* 
+ -v 1 -+- -i-x 1 * -t- ^v 3 . But perhaps I may feem too minute, in treat- 
ing of fuch things as will but feldom come into practice. 

SOLUTION OF CASE III. 

54. The Refolution of the Problem will foon be difpatch'd, when 
the Equation involves three or more Fluxions of Quantities. For 

G between 



42 ?$ Method of FLUXIONS, 

between any two of thofe Quantities any Relation may be afiumed, 
when it is not determined by the State of the Queftion, and the Re- 
lation of their Fluxions may be found from thence ; fo that either 
of them, together with its Fluxion, may be exterminated. For which 
reafon if there are found the Fluxions of three Quantities, only one 
Equation need to be affumedj two if there be four, and fo on j 
that the Equation propos'd may finally be transform'd into another 
Equation, in which only two Fluxions may be found. And then 
this Equation being refolved as before, the Relations of the other 
Quantities may be difcover'd. 

55. Let the Equation propofed be zx z -f- yx = o ; that I 
may obtain the Relation of the Quantities x, y, and z, whofe Fluxions 
x, y, and z are contained in the Equation ; I form a Relation at 
pleafure between any two of them, as x and y, fuppofing that x=y, 
or 2y = a -+- z, or x=yy, &c. But fuppofe at prefent x=yy, 
and thence x = 2yy. Therefore writing zyy for x, and yy for x, 
the Equation propofed will be transform'd into this : q.yy z-^-yy* 
= o. And thence the Relation between y and z will arife, 2yy-{- 

^y= =.z. In which if x be written for yy, and x* for y~>, we mall 
have 2X -f- ~x^ = z. So that among the infinite ways in which 
x, y, and z, may be related to each other, one of them is here 
found, which is reprefented by thefe Equations, .v =yy, 2y* +- y* 
= z, and 2X -+- ^x* = z. 

DEMONSTRATION. 

56. And thus we have folved the Problem, but the Demonftra- 
tion is ftill behind. And in fo great a variety of matters, that we 
may not derive it fynthetically, and with too great perplexity, from 
its genuine foundations, it may be fufficient to point it out thus in 
fhort, by way of Analyfis. That is, when any Equation is propos'd, 
after you have finifh'd the work, you may try whether from the 
derived Equation you can return back to the Equation propos'd, by 
Prob. I. And therefore, the Relation of the Quantities in the de- 
rived Equation requires the Relation of the Fluxions in the propofed 
Equation, and contrary-wife : which was to be fhewn. 

57. So if the Equation propofed were y = x, the derived Equa- 
tion will be y={x l ; and on the contrary, by Prob. i. we have 
y xx, that is, y=.x, becaufe x is fuppofed Unity. And thus 

from 



and INFINITE SERIES. 4.3 

from y = I 3* -+-y -f- xx -+- xy is derived _y = tf x* -f- Lx 1 
^v+ -+- ^o x ! -4T' vS > &c - And thence by Prob. i. y = i 2x 
^-x 1 %x> -+- ^-x* -V x! ) &c. Which two Values of y agree 
with each other, as appears by fubftituting x xx+^x> -^x* 
->-J-x s , <5cc. inftead of^ in the firft Value. 

.,8. But in the Reduction of Equations I made ufe of an Opera- 
tion, of which alfo it will be convenient to give fome account. And 
that is, the Tranfmutation of a flowing Quantity by its connexion 
with a given Quantity. Let AE and ae be two Lines indefinitely 
extended each way, along which two moving Things or Points may 
pafs from afar, and at the fame time 

may reach the places A and a, B and A E c p E 

b, C and c, D and d, &c. and let B ' 

be the Point, by its diftance from which, -4 : i ^ ? 

the Motion of the moving thing or 

point in AE is eftimated ; fo that BA, BC, BD, BE, fucceffively, 
may be the flowing Quantities, when the moving thing is in the 
places A, C, D, E. Likewife let b be a like point in the other Line. 
Then will BA and ba be contemporaneous Fluents, as alfo 
BC and be, BD andZv/, BE and be, 6cc. Now if inftead of the points 
B and b, be fubftituted A and c, to which, as at reft, the Motions 
are refer'd ; then o and ca, AB and cb, AC and o, AD and 
cd, AE and ce, will be contemporaneous flowing Quantities. There- 
fore the flowing Quantities are changed by the Addition and Sub- 
traclion of the given Quantities AB and ac ; but they are not changed 
as to the Celerity of their Motions, and the mutual refpect of their 
Fluxion. For the contemporaneous parts AB and ab, BC and be, 
CD and cd, DE and de, are of the fame length in both cafes. And 
thus in Equations in which thefe Quantities are reprefented, the 
contemporaneous parts of Quantities are not therefore changed, not- 
withftanding their ablblute magnitude maybe increafed or diminimed 
by fome given Quantity. Hence the thing propofed is manifeft : 
For the only Scope of this Problem is, to determine the contempo- 
raneous Parts, or the contemporary Differences of the abfolute Quan- 
tities f, x, _>', or z, defcribed with a given Rate of Flowing. And 
it is all one of what abfolute magnitude thofe Quantities are, fo that 
their contemporary or correfpondent Differences may agree with the 
prcpofed Relation of the Fluxions. 

59. The reaibn of this matter may alfo be thus explain'd Al- 
gebraically. Let the Equation y=xxy be propofed, and fup- 

G 2 pole 



44. 77je Method of FLUXIONS, 

pofe x= i -+-Z- Then by Prob. i. x = z. So that for y =-. xxy , 
may be wrote y =. xy -h xzy. Now fince ,v=s, it is plain,, that 
though the Quantities x and z be not of the fame length, yet that 
they flow alike in refpecl: of y, and that they have equal contem- 
poraneous parts. Why therefore may I not reprefent by the fame 
Symbols Quantities that agree in their Rate of Flowing,; and to de- 
termine, their contemporaneous Differences, why may not I uie 

v === xy + xxy initead of y = xxy ? 

60.. Lartly it appears plainly in what manner the contemporary 
parts may be found, from an Equation involving flowing Quantities. 

Thus if y = ~ -+- x be the Equation, when # = 2, then _y = 24. 
But when x = 3, then y =. 3.1. Therefore while x flows from 
2 to 3, y will flow from 2-i to 3.1. So that the parts defcribed in 
this time are 3 2 = i, and 3-^ 2-i = f . 

6 1. This Foundation being thus laid for what follows, I fhall 
now proceed to more particular Problems. 



PROB. m. 

A ltijt'1 ^ determine the Maxima and Minima of H^ 

1. When a Quantity is the greateft or the leaft that it can be, 
at that moment it neither flows backwards or forwards. For if it 
flows forwards, or increafes, that proves it was lefs, and will pre- 
fently be greater than it is. And the contrary if it flows backwards, 
or decreafes. Wherefore find its Fluxion, by Prob. i. and fuppofe 
it to be nothing. 

2. Ex AMP. i. If in the Equation x> ax 1 + axy jy 3 = o the 
greatefl Value of, x be required ; find the Relation of the Fluxions 
of x and y, and you will have 3X.v a 2axx -f- axy %yy l -i-ayx 
= o. Then making x = o, there will remain yyy 1 -\- ayx=o, 
or 3j* = ax. By the help of this you may exterminate either x 
or y out of the primary Equation, and by the refulting Equation you 
may determine the other, and then both of them by 3^* -f- 
ax = o. 

3. This Operation is the fame, as if you had multiply 'd the 
Terms of the propofed Equation by the number of the Dimenfions 
of the other flowing Quantity.^. From whence we may .derive the 

famous 
2. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 45 

famous Rule of Huddenius, that, in order to obtain the greateft or 
leaft Relate Quantity, the Equation mufl be difpofed according to 
the Dimenfions of the Correlate Quantity, and then the Terms are 
to be multiply 'd by any Arithmetical ProgrelTion. But fince neither 
this Rule, nor any other that I know yet publiihed, extends to Equa- 
tions affected with iiird Quantities, without a previous Reduction j 
I fhall give the following Example for that purpofe. 

4. EXAMP. 2. If the greatest Quantity y in the Equation x* 

a y~ + 7+ -- xx ^ a y ~+" xx = be to be determin'd, feek the 
.Fluxions of xand^y, and there will arife the Equation 3^^* zayy-{- 

^^v) 1 + 2^n5 Aaxxy-\-6x\* + atx 2 A j r \ r r 

I __ - _ - = 0. And fince by fuppofition y = o, , 

a 1 -\- zay +j* 2 ^ ay -\- xx 

omit the Terms multiply'd by y, (which, to fhorten the labour, 
might have been done before, in the Operation,) and divide the reft 

by xx, and there will remain %x ^- "*"-'** = o. When the Re- 

a"xx 



duction is made, there will arife ^ay-\- %xx = o, by help of which 
you may exterminate either of the quantities x or y out of the pro- 
pos'd Equation, and then from the refulting Equation, which will, 
be Cubical, you may extract the Value of the other. 

5. From this Problem may be had the Solution of thefe fol- 
lowing. 

I. In a given .Triangle, or in a Segment of any given Curve, ft> 
ir.fcribe the greatejl Reft angle. 

II. To draw the greatejl or the leafl right Line, 'which can lie: 
between a given Point, and a Curve given in pofition. Or, to draw. 
a Perpendicular to a Curve from a given Point. 

III. To draw the greatejl or the leajl right Lines, which pajjin?.- 
through a given Point, can lie bet-ween two others, either right Lines 
or Curves. 

IV. From a given Point within a Parabola, to draw a rivbt 
Line, which Jhall cut the Parabola more obliquely than any other. 
And to do the fame in other Curves. 

V. To determine the Vertices of Curves, their greatejl or lealT 
Breadths, the Points in which revolving parts cut each other, 6cc. 

VI. To find the Points in Curves, where they hcrce the great ejT 
or leajl Curvature. 

VII. To find the Icaft Angle in a given EHi/is, in which the. 
Ordinates can cut their Diameters. 

VIII.. 



4.6 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

VIII. Of EHipfes that pafs through four given Points, to deter- 
mine the greateft, or that which approaches neareft to a Circle. 

IX. 70 determine fuch a part of a Spherical Superficies, which 
can be illuminated, in its farther part, by Light coming from a 
great dijlance, and which is refracted by the nearer Hemijphere. 

And many other Problems of a like nature may more eafily be 
propofed than refolved, becaufe of the labour of Computation. 

P R O B. IV. 

To draw Tangents to Curves. 

Firft Manner. 

1. Tangents may be varioufly drawn, according to the various 
Relations of Curves to right Lines. And firft let BD be a right 
Line, or Ordinate, in a given Angle to 

another right Line AB, as a Bafe or Ab- 
fcifs, and terminated at the Curve ED. 
Let this Ordinate move through an inde- 
finitely finall Space to the place bd, fo 
that it may be increafed by the Moment 
cd, while AB is increafed by the Moment ^ A 
Bb, to which DC is equal and parallel. 
Let Da 1 be produced till it meets with AB in T, and this Line will 
touch the Curve in D or d ; and the Triangles dcD, DBT will be 
fimilar. So that it is TB : BD : : DC (or B) : cd. 

2. Since therefore the Relation of BD to AB is exhibited by the 
Equation, by which the nature of the Curve is determined ; feek for 
the Relation of the Fluxions, by Prob. i. Then take TB to BD 
in the Ratio of the Fluxion of AB to the Fluxion of BD, and TD 
will touch the Curve in the Point D. 

3. Ex. i. Calling AB = x, and BD =jy, let their Relation be 
x -, ax* -h axy _y 3 = o. And the Relation of the Fluxions will 
be 3xx -i 2axx-i-axy ^yy* -+- ayx-=. o. So that y : x :: ^xx 
2ax -4- ay : ^ ax :: BD (;-) : BT. Therefore BT = 
... w* ~~ f!X ~ Therefore the Point D being given, and thence DB 
and AB, or v and x, the length BT will be given, by which the Tan- 
gent TD is determined. 

4- 




and INFINITE SERIES. 47 

4. But this Method of Operation may be thusconcinnated. Make 
the Terms of the propofed Equation equal to nothing : multiply by 
the proper number of the Dimenfions of the Ordinate, and put the 
Refult in the Numerator : Then multiply the Terms of the fame 
Equation by the proper number of the Dimenfions of the Abfcifs, and 
put the Produdl divided by the Abfcifs, in the Denominator of the 
Value of BT. Then take BT towards A, if its Value be affirmative, 
but the contrary way if that Value be negative. 

o o 13 

5. Thus the Equation* 3 ax* -f- axy y*=o, being multi- 

3 z 10 

ply'd by the upper Numbers, gives axy 3_y 3 for the Numerator j 
and multiply 'd by the lower Numbers, and then divided by x, gives 
3-x- 1 zax -+- ay for the Denominator of the Value of BT. 

6. Thus the Equation jy 3 by* cdy -f- bed -\-dxy = o, (which 
denotes a Parabola of the fecond kind, by help of which Des Cartes 
confirufted Equations of fix Dimenfions ; fee his Geometry, p. 42. 
Amfterd. Ed. An. 1659.) by Infpeftion gives ^--"fr+'^v ^ Qr 



7. And thus a 1 r -x* y 1 = o, (which denotes an Ellipfis 
whofe Center is A,) gives ^ , or ^ = BT. And fo in others. 



- X 
1 



1 

8. And you may take notice, that it matters not of what quantity 
the Angle of Ordination ABD may be. 

9. But as this Rule does not extend to Equations afFefted by furd 
Quantities, or to mechanical Curves ; in thefe Cafes we mufl have 
recourfe to the fundamental Method. 

10. Ex. 2. Let A; S ay 1 -+- j- xx \/'ay -+- xx = o be the 

Equation exprefling the Relation between AB and BD ; and by Prob. i. 
the Relation of the Fluxions will be 3*** zayy -f. *"*"* + 2 V 




=0. Therefore it will be <ixx 



*/,.,,, 

4 v ~ 



T^T- :: (y : x ::) BD : BT. 

fay p ^^ 



II. 



TJoe Method of FLUXIONS, 



48 

ii. Ex. 3. Let ED be the Conchoid of Nicomedes, defcribed with 
the Pole G, the Afymptote AT, and the Diftance LD ; and let 




'GA = , LD = c, AB=.v, andBD=;>. And becaufe of fimi- 
lar Triangles DEL and DMG, it will be LB : BD : : DM : MG ; 
that is, v/ 'cc yy : y : : x : b -+- y, and therefore b-\-y ^/cc yy 
=yx. Having got this Equation, I fuppofe V cc yy = z, and 
thus I fliall have two Equations bz ~\-yz =yx, andzz = cc yy. 
By the help of thefe I find the Fluxions of the Quantities x, y, and 
z, by Prob. i. From the firft arifes bz -+-yz -\- yz =y'x -+- xy, 
and from the fecond 2zz = 2yy, or zz -j- yy = o. Out of 

thefe if we exterminate z, there will arife -^ -i-yz =yx 

-+ xy, which being refolved it will be y : z - x : : 

(y : x ::) BD : BT. But as BD is y, therefore BT= .3- 
That is, BT = AL -f- - ~ -; where the Sign 



BL 



iff !- J_l (_J 

prefixt to BT denotes, that the Point T mufl be taken contrary to 
the Point A. 

12. SCHOLIUM. And hence it appears by the bye, how that 
point of the Conchoid may be found, which Separates the concave 
from the convex part. For when AT is the lea ft poffible, D will 
be that point. Therefore make AT = v ; and fmce BT - z 



x 



then v = z -+- 2K -+- 



by -\- yv 



Here to morten 



the work, for x fubftitute - ^l!5 > w hich Value is derived from what 
is before, and it will be - ? -f. z -+- - - = v. Whence the 
Fluxions v, y, and z being found by Prob. i. and fuppofing ^=0 



and INFINITE SERIES. 49 




.,, ... iy, )K ' iy-l-zyy Azy-4-zvy 

bvProb. -3. there will anfe --- ~-t-z + -- --=i; = o. 

J J y jy z za 

Laflly, fubftituting in this : - for z, and cc yy for zz, (which 

values of z and zz are had from what goes before,) and making a 
due Reduction, you will have y'- -+- ^by* -2.be* = o. By the Con- 
ftrudlion of which Equation y or AM, will be given. Then thro' 
M drawing MD parallel to AB, it will fall upon the Point D of 
contrary Flexure. 

13. Now if the Curve be Mechanical whofe Tangent is to be 
drawn, the Fluxions of the Quantities are to be found, as in Examp.5. 
of Prob. i. and then the reft is to be perform'd as before. 

14. Ex. 4. Let AC and AD be two Curves, which are cut in 
the Points C and D by the right Line 

BCD, apply 'd to the Abfcifs AB in a 
given Angle. Let AB = x, BD = y, 

and - = z. Then (by Prob. i. 

Preparat. to Examp. 5.) it will be z = x ~T> ^ ^ B~ 
xBC. 

15. Now let AC be a Circle, or any known Curve ; and to deter- 
mine the other Curve AD, let any Equation be propofed, in which 
z is involved, as zz +- axz =_y 4 . Then by Prob. i. 2zz +- axz 
-+- axz = 4X7*. And writing x x BC for z, it will be zxz x BC 
-+- axx x BC H- axz = 4)7'. Therefore 2z x BC -+- ax x BC -{- 
az : 4jy J :: (y : x ::) BD : BT. So that if the nature of the 
Curve AC be given, the Ordinate BC, and the Area ACB or z ; 
the Point T will be given, through which the Tangent DT will 
pafs. 

1 6. After the fame manner, if 32 = zy be the Equation to the 

Curve AD ; 'twill be (3.3) 3^ x BC = zy. So that 3BC : 2 :: 
(y : x ::) BD : BT. And fo in others. 

17. Ex. 5. Let AB=,v, BD =y, as before, and let the length 
of any Curve AC be z. And drawing a Tangent to it, as Cl, 'twill 

x x C/ 

be Bt : Ct :: x : z, or z = ^- 

18. Now for determining the other Curve AD, whofe Tangent 
is to be drawn, let there be given any Equation in which z is in- 
volved, fuppofe z ==)'. Then it will be z=y, fo that Ct : Bf '' 
(y : x : :} : BD : BT. But the Point T being found, the Tan- 
gent DT may be drawn. 

H 19- 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

19. Thus fuppofmg xzsssyy, 'twill be KZ + zx = zyj >, and 
for z writing ^ there will arife xz -f- ^-^ = ayy. There- 

y-> O/ '' 

fore * -I- f~-' : 27 : : BD : DT. 

20. E x . 6. Let AC be a Circle, or any other known Curve, 
whofe Tangent is Ct, and let AD be any 

other Curve whofe Tangent DT is to be 
drawn, and let it be defin'd by afTuming 
AB = to the Arch AC ; and (CE, BD 
being Ordinates to AB in a given Angle,) 
let the Relation of BD to CE or AE be 
exprels'd by any Equation. 

21. Therefore call AB or AC = x, BD =y, AE=z, and 
CE = v . And it is plain that v, x, and z, the Fluxions of CE, 
AC, and AE, are^to each other as CE, Ct, and Et. Therefore *x 
C7 = i>, and .v x ^ = z. 

22. Now let any Equation be given to define the Curve AD, 

as y = . Then y = z ; and therefore Et : Ct :: (v x ) 
BD : BT. K "' 

23. Or let the Equation be yz+vx, and it will be 

. r~>T? I TT- . y-. 

And therefore CE -4- Et 




t. T 



Ct : Ct :: (y : x ::) BD : BT. 

24. Or finally, let the Equation be ayy = v* y and it will be 
zayy = (3^ =) 3*1;' x . So that 31;* x CE : 2 ay x Ct :: 
BD : BT. 

25. Ex. 7. Let FC be a Circle, which is touched by CS in C; 
and let FD be a Curve, which is de- 
fined by affuming any Relation of the 

Ordinate DB to the Arch FC, which is 
intercepted by DA drawn to the Center. 
Then letting fall CE, the Ordinate in 
the Circle, call AC or AF=i, AB 



CF = /; and it will be tz=(t^=) 




K B 



T ,S 



. . ^.. 

v, and tv = (/x -^ =) z. Here I put z negatively, becaufe 
AE is dirninifh'd while EC is increafed. And befides AE : EC :: 

AB : 



and INFINITE SERIES. 51 

AB : BD, fo that zy = vx, and thence by Prob. i. zy -f- yx 

vx -f- xv. Then exterminating v, z, and v, 'tis yx ty* 

tx* = xy. 

26. Now let the Curve DF be defined by any Equation, from 

which the Value of t may be derived, to be fubftituted here. Sup- 
pofe let ^=_y, (an Equation to the firft Quadratrix,) and by Prob. i. 
it will be / = y, fo that yx yy* yx* = xy. Whence y : xx 
x :: ( y : _ x : :) BD(;') : BT. Therefore BT = x* 

ADa 

- x; and AT = xx+yy = ^/. 




27. After the fame manner, if it is // = ly, there will arife 
= 6r, and thence AT= - x~ . And fo of others. 

z/ / r 

28. Ex. 8. Now if AD be taken equal to the Arch FC, the 
Curve ADH being then the Spiral of Archimedes ; the fame names 
of the Lines ftill remaining as were put 

afore : Becaufe of the right Angle ABD 
'tis xx -{-yy=tf ) and therefore (by Prob. i.) 
xx +yy = //. Tis alfo AD : AC : : 
DB : CE, fo that tv=y t znd thence (by 
Prob. i.) tv -4- vf =y. Laftly, the Fluxion 
of the Arch FC is to the Fluxion of the 
right Line CE, as AC to AE, or as AD 
to AB, that is, t : v : : t : x, and thence 
ix = vf. Compare the Equations now found, and you will fee 

'tis tv -+-ix=y, and thence xx -\-yy = (tt =) ^^ . And there- 
fore compleating the Parallelogram ABDQ^_, if you make QD : 
QP_ :: (BD : BT :: y : x ::) X : y ^ ; that is, if you 

take AP = ; ! > PD will be perpendicular to the Spiral. 

29. And from hence (I imagine) it will be fufficiently manifeft, 
by what methods the Tangents of all fcrts of Curves are to be 
drawn. However it may not be foreign from the purpofe, if I alfo 
fliew how the Problem may be perform'd, when the Curves are re- 
fer'd to right Lines, after any other manner whatever : So that hav- 
ing the choice of feveral Methods, the eafieft and moil fimple may 
always be ufed. 

H 2 Second 




$2 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Second Manner. 

30. Let D be a point in the Curve, from which the Subtenfe 
DG is drawn to a given Point G, and let DB be anOrdinate in any given 
Angle to the Abfcifs AB. Now let the 

Point D flow for an infinitely fmall fpace 

D^/ in the Curve, and in GD let Gk be 

taken equal to Gd, and let the Parallelo- 

gram dcBl> be compleated. Then Dk 

and DC will be the contemporary Mo- --- 

ments of GD and BD, by which they 

are diminifh'd while D is transfer'd to d. Now let the right Line 

~Dd be produced, till it meets with AB in T, and from the Point T to 

the Subtenfe GD let fall the perpendicular TF, and then the Trapezia 

Dcdk and DBTF will be like; and therefore DB : DF :: DC : Dk. 

31. Since then the Relation of BD to GD is exhibited by the 
Equation for determining the Curve ; find the Relation of the Fluxions, 
and take FD to DB in the Ratio of the Fluxion of GD to the 
Fluxion of BD. Then from F raife the perpendicular FT, which 
may meet with AB in T, and DT being drawn will touch the 
Curve in D. But DT muft be taken towards G, if it be affirmative, 
and the contrary way if negative. 

32. Ex. i. Call GD = x, and BD =_>', and let their Relation 
be x ~, ax 1 -f- axy y"= = o. Then the Relation of the Fluxions 
will be ^xx 1 2axx +- axy -f- ayx ^yy- = o. Therefore ^xx 
zax -h ay : ^yy ax :: (y : x : :) DB (y) : DF. So that 

.' V axy , . Then any Point D in the Curve being given, 

~ 1 



and thence BD and GD or y and x, the Point F will be given 
alfo. From whence if the Perpendicular FT be raifed, from its 
concourfe T with the Abfcifs AB, the Tangent DT may be 
drawn. 

3 3 . And hence it appears, that a Rule might be derived here, as well 
as in the former Cafe. For having difpofed all the Terms of the given 
Equation on one fide, multiply by the Dimensions of the Ordinatejy, 
and place the refult in the Numerator of a Fraction. Then multiply 
its Terms feverally by the Dimenfions of the Subtenfe x, and dividing 
the refult by that Subtenfe x, place the Quotient in the Deno- 
minator of the Value of DF. And take the fame Line DF to- 
wards G if it be affirmative, otherwile the contrary way.. Where 

you 



and IN FINITE SERIES, 



53 



you may obferve, that it is no matter how far diftant the Point G 
is from the Abfcifs AB, or if it be at all diftant, nor what is the 
Angle of Ordination ABD. 

34. Let the Equation be as before x* ax* -f- axy J 3 = o ; 
it gives immediately axy 3>' 3 for the Numerator, and 3** 2ax 
-+- ay for the Denominator of the Value of DF. 

35. Let alfo a -+- -x~y=o, (which Equation is to a Conick 
Sedtion,) it gives y for the Numerator, and for the Denomi- 

fly 

nator of the Value of DF, which therefore will be 7 

36. And thus in the Conchoid, (wherein thefe things will be 
perform'd more expeditioufly than before,) putting GA = b, 




= c, GD=x, and BD=^, it will be BD (;) : DL (c) :: 
G A (5) : GL (x <:). Therefore xy cy = cb, or xy cy 
cb = o. This Equation according to the Rule gives ^-^ - , that 

is, x <r=DF. Therefore prolong GD to F, fo that DF = 
LG, and at F raife the perpendicular FT meeting the Alymptote 
AB in T, and DT being drawn will touch the Conchoid. 

37. But when compound or furd Quantities are found in the 
Equation, you mufl have recourfe to the general Method, except you 
fliould chufe rather to reduce the Equation. 

38. Ex. 2. If the Equation 



xv/cr yy =zyx, were gven 

for the Relation between GD and BD ; (fee the foregoing Figure, 
p. 52.) find the Relation of the Fluxions by Prob. i. As fuppoiing 
v/ff )')' = z ) you will have the Equations bz -+- yz = yx, and 
cc yy=.zz, and thence the Relation of the Fluxions bz-\-yx 

= yx -f- yx, and 2yy=2Z,z. And now z, and z being 
i exter- 



T&e Method of FLUXIONS, 
exterminated, there will arife v \/ cc yy 'Jjl v U \x = xy. 



Therefore y : ^/cc yy J2^ .v :: (y : ,v ::) BD (ji 1 ) : DF. 

Third Manner. 

39. Moreover, if the Curve be refer'd to two Subtenfes AD and 
BD, which being drawn from two given Points A and B, may 
meet at the Curve: Conceive that Point 
D to flow on through an infinitely little 
Space Del in the Curve ; and in AD and 
BD take Ak = Ad, and Bc = Bc/; and 
then kD and cD will be contempora- 
neous Moments of the Lines AD and - 
BD. Take therefore DF to BD in 





the Ratio of the Moment D& to the /r 

Moment DC, (that is, in the Ratio of the Fluxion of the Line 
AD to the Fluxion of the LineBD,) and draw BT, FT perpendicu- 
lar to BD, AD, meeting in T. Then the Trapezia DFTB and DM: 
will be fimilar, and therefore the Diagonal DT will touch the 
Curve. 

40. Therefore from the Equation, by which the Relation is 
defined between AD and BD, find the Relation of the Fluxions by 
Prob. i. and take FD to BD in the fame Ratio. 

41. Ex AMP. Suppofing AD = x, andBD=;', let their Rela- 
tion be a -f- e j y = o. This Equation is to the Ellipfes of 

the fecond Order, whofe Properties for Refracting of Light are fhewn 
by Des Cartes, in the fecond Book of his Geometry. Then the 

Relation of the Fluxions will be e - y ==o. 'Tis therefore e : 
d ::(>:# ::) BD : DF. 

42. And for the fame reafon if a ^ y = o, 'twill be 

e : _ d : : BD : DF. In the firft Cafe take DF towards A, and 
contrary-wife in the other cafe. 

43. COROL. i. Hence if d-=.e, (in which cafe the Curve be- 
comes a Conick Section,) 'twill be 

DF = DB. And therefore the Tri- 
angles DFT and DBT being equal, 
the Angle FDB will be bifected by 
the Tangent. v -K A 

44. 




and INFINITE SERIES. 55 

44. COROL. 2. And hence alfo thofe things will be manifeft of 
themfelves, which are demonstrated, in a very prolix manner, by 
Des Cartes concerning the Refraction of thcfe Curves. For as much 
as DF and DB, (which are in the given Ratio of d to e,) in refpect 
of the Radius DT, are the Sines of the Angles DTF and DTB, 
that is, of the Ray of Incidence AD upon the Surface of the Curve, 
and of its Reflexion or Refraction DB. And there is a like reafon- 
ing concerning the Refractions of the Conick Sections, fuppofing 
that either of the Points A or B be conceived to be at an infinite 
diftance. 

45. It would be eafy to modify this Rule in the manner of the 
foregoing, and to give more Examples of it : As alfo when Curves 
are refer'd to Right lines after any other manner, and cannot com- 
modioufly be reduced to the foregoing, it will be very eafy to find 
out other Methods in imitation of thefe, as occafion mall require. 

Fourth Manner. 

46. As if the right Line BCD mould revolve about a given Point 
B, and one of its Points D mould defcribe a Curve, and another 
Point C fhould be the 

interfection of the right 
Line BCD, with another 
right Line AC given in 
pofition. Then the Re- 
lation of BC and BD be- 
ing exprefs'd by any E- 
quation ; draw BF pa- 
rallel to AC, fo as to meet DF, perpendicular to BD, in F. Alfo 
erect FT perpendicular to DF; and take FT in the fame Ratio to 
BC, that the Fluxion of BD has to the Fluxion of BC. Then DT 
being drawn will touch the Curve. 

Fifth Manner. 

47. But if the Point A being given, the Equation ihould exprefs 
the Relation between AC and BD } draw CG parallel to DF, and 
take FT in the fame Ratio to BG, that the Fluxion of BD has to 
the Fluxion of AC. 

Sixth Manner. 

48. Or again, if the Equation exprefles the Relation between AC 
and CD; let AC and FT meet in H ; and take HT in the fune 
Ratio to BG, that the Fluxion of CD has to the Fluxion of AC. A. id 
the like in others. Seventh 




*fhe Method of FLUXION 




Seventh Manner : For Spirals. 

49. The Problem is not otherwise perform'd, when the Curves 
are refer'd, not to right Lines, but to other Curve-lines, as is ufiial 
in Mechanick Curves. Let BG be the Circumference of a Circle, 
in whole Semidiameter AG, while it revolves 

about the Center A, let the Point D be con- 
ceived to move any how, fo as to defcribe the 
Spiral ADE. And fuppofe ~Dd to be an in- 
finitely little part of the Curve thro' which 
D flows, and in AD take Ac = Ad, then 
cD and Gg will be contemporaneous Moments 
of the right Line AD and of the Periphery 
BG. Therefore draw Af parallel to cd, that 
is, perpendicular to AD, and let the Tangent 
DT meet it in T ; then it will be cD : cd : : 
AD : AT. Alfo let Gt be parallel to the Tangent DT, and it 
will be cd : Gg :: (Ad or AD : AG ::) AT : At. 

50. Therefore any Equation being propofed, by which the Re- 
lation is exprefs'd between BG and AD ; find the Relation of their 
Fluxions by Prob. i. and takeAi? in the fame Ratio to AD: And then 
Gt will be parallel to the Tangent. 

51. Ex. i. Calling EG = x, and AD=^, let their Relation be 
A: 3 ax 1 -f- axy jy 5 = o, and by Prob. i. 3^* zax-\- ay : 3^* 
ax : : (y : x : :) AD : At. The Point / being thus found, draw 
Gt, and DT parallel to it, which will touch the Curve. 

52. Ex. 2. If 'tis y =y> (which is the Equation to the Spiral 

of Archimedes,} 'twill be j = y, and therefore a : b : : (y : x : :) 

AD : At. Wherefore by the way, if TA be produced to P, 
that it may be AP : AB :: a : b y PD will be perpendicular to 
the Curve. 

53. Ex. 3. If xx = by, then 2XX = by, and 2x : b :: AD : 
A. And thus Tangents may be eafily drawn to any Spirals what- 
ever. 



Eighth 




and INFINITE SERIES. 57 

Eighth Manner : For Quad ratr ices. 

CA. Now if the Curve be fuch, that any Line AGD, being drawn 
from the Center A, may meet the Circular Arch inG, and the Curve in 
D; and if the Relation between the 
Arch BG, and the right Line DH, 
which is an Ordinate to the Bafe 
or Abfcifs AH in a given Angle, 
be determin'd by any Equation 
whatever : Conceive the Point D to 
move in the Curve for an infinite- 
ly {mail Interval to d, and the Pa- 
rallelogram dhHk being compleat- Jf 
ed, produce Ad to c, fo that 

Ac = AD ; then Gg and D/' will be contemporaneous Moments of 
the Arch BG and of the Ordinate DH. Now produce Dd ftrait 
on to T, where it may meet with AB, and from thence let fall 
the Perpendicular TF on DcF. Then the Trapezia Dkdc and DHTF 
will be fimilar; and therefore D/fc : DC :: DH : DF. And befides 
if Gf be raifed perpendicular to AG, and meets AF in f; becaufe 
of the Parallels DF and Gf, it will be DC : Gg :: DF : Gf. There- 
fore ex aquo, 'tis D : G^ : : DH : Gf, that is, as the Moments or 
Fluxions of the Lines DH and BG. 

55. Therefore by the Equation which exprefies the Relation of 
BG to DH, find the Relation of the Fluxions (by Prob. i.) and in- 
that Ratio take Gf, the Tangent of the Circle BG, to DH. Draw 
DF parallel to Gf, which may meet A/* produced in F. And at 
F creel the perpendicular FT, meeting AB in T; and the right 
Line DT being drawn, will touch the Quadratrix. 

56. Ex. i. Making EG = x, and DH=;', let it be xx = fy; 
then (by Prob. i.)2xx = by. Therefore 2.x : b :: (y : x ::) DH : 
GJ; and the Pointy being found, the reft will be determin'd as above. 

But perhaps this Rule may be thus made fomething neater : 
Make x :y :: AB : AL. Then AL : AD :: AD : AT, and then 
DT will touch the Curve. For becaufe of equal Triangles AFD and 
ATD, 'tis AD x DF= AT x DH, and therefore AT : AD : : (DF or 

JB x Gf : DH or 1 G/::) AD : f- AG or) AL. 

57. Ex.2. Let x=y, (which is the Equation to the Quadratrix 
of the Ancients,) then #=v. Therefore AB : AD :: AD : AT. 

I 8. 




58 *fhe Method ^FLUXIONS, 

58. Ex. 3. Let axx=y*, then zaxx=sMy*. Therefore make 
3;-* : zax : : (x : y : :) AB : AL. Then AL : AD : : AD : AT. And 

thus you may determine expeditioufly the Tangents of any other 
Quadratrices, howfoever compounded. 

Ninth Manner. 

59. Laftly, if ABF be any given Curve, which is touch'd by the 
right Line Bt ; and a part BD of 

the right Line BC, (being an Or- 
dinate in any given Angle to the 
Abfcifs AC,) intercepted between 
this and another Curve DE, has a 
Relation to the portion of the 
Curve AB, which is exprefs'd by 
any Equation: You may draw a 
Tangent DT to the other Curve, 

by taking (in the Tangent of this ^ ^ <f- 

Curve,) BT in the fame Ratio to 

BD, as the Fluxion of the Curve AB hath to the Fluxion of the 

right Line BD. 

60. Ex. i. Calling AB ==x, and BD =y- t let it be ax==yy, and 
therefore ax = zyy. Then a : zy : : (y : x : :) BD : BT. 

6j. Ex.2. Let ^#==7, (the Equation to the Trochoid, if ABF 
be a Circle,) then fX=y t and a : b :: BD : BT. 

62. And with the fame eafe may Tangents be drawn, when the 
Relation of BD to AC, or toBC, is exprefs'd by any Equation; or 
when the Curves are refer 'd to right Lines, or to any other Curves, 
after any other manner whatever. 

63. There are alfo many other Problems, whofe Solutions are 
to be derived from the fame Principles ; fuch as thefe following. 

I. To find a Point of a Curve, where the Tangent is parallel to the 
Abfcife, or to any other right Line given in pofition ; or is perpendicular 
to it, or inclined to it in any given Angle. 

II. To find the Point where the Tangent is moft or leajl inclined to 
the Abfcifs, or to any other right Line given in 'pofition. That is, to find 
the confine of contrary Flexure. Of this I have already given a Spe- 
cimen, in the Conchoid. 

III. From any given Point without the Perimeter of a Curve, to 
draw a right Line, which with the Perimeter may make an Angle of 

Contact. 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 59 

Contaft, or a right Angle, or any other given Angle, that is, from 
a given Point, to draw 'Tangents, or Perpendiculars^ or right Lines 
that Jhall have any other Inclination to a Curve-line. 

IV. From any given Point within a Parabola, to draw a right 
Line, which may make with the Perimeter the greateji or leaft Angle 
poj/ible. And Jb of all Curves whatever. 

V. To draw a right Line which may touch two Curves given in 
pojition, or the fame Curve in two Points, when that can be done. 

VI. To draw any Curve with given Conditions, which may touch 
another Curve given in pojition, in a given Point. 

VII. To determine the RefraSlion of any Ray of Light, that falls 
upon any Curve Superficies. 

The Refolution of thefe, or of any other the like Problems, will 
not be fo difficult, abating the tedioufnefs of Computation, as that 
there is any occalion to dwell upon them here : And I imagine if 
may be more agreeable to Geometricians barely to have mention 'd 
them. 

; : 
P R O B. V. 

At any given Point of a given Curve^ to find the 
Quantity of Curvature. 

1. There are few Problems concerning Curves more elegant than 
this, or that give a greater Infight into their nature. In order to c its 
Refolution, I mufl: premife thefe following general Confederations. 

2. L The fame Circle has every where trie fame Curvature, and 
in different Circles it is reciprocally proportional to their Diameters. 
If the Diameter of any Circle is as little again as the Diameter of 
another, the Curvature of its Periphery will be as great again. If 
the Diameter be one-third of the other, the Curvature will be thrice 
as much, &c. 

3. II. If a Circle touches any Curve on its concave fide, in any 
given Point, and if it be of fuch magnitude, that no other tangent 
Circle can be interleribed in the Angles of Contact near that Point ; 
that Circle will be of the lame Curvature as the Curve is of, in that 
Point of Contact. For the Circle that conies between the Curve 
and another Circle at the Point of Contact, varies lefs from the 
Curve, and makes a nearer approach to its Curvature, than that 
other Circle does. And therefore that Circle approaches nea'-eil to its 

I 2 Curvature, 



60 *fbe Method of FLUXIONS, 

Curvature, between which and the Curve no other Circle can in- 
tervene. 

4. III. Therefore the Center of Curvature to any Point of a 
Curve, is the Center of a Circle equally curved. And thus the Ra- 
dius or Semidiameter of Curvature is part of the Perpendicular 
to the Curve, which is terminated at that Center. 

5. IV. And the proportion of Curvature at different Points will 
be known from the proportion of Curvature of aequi-curve Circles, 
or from the reciprocal proportion of the Radii of Curvature. 

6. Therefore the Problem is reduced to this, that the Radius, or 
Center of Curvature may be found. 

7. Imagine therefore that at three Points of the Curve <f , D, and d, 
Peipendkulars are drawn, of which thofe that are 

at D and ^ meet in H, and thofe that are at D 
and d meet in h : And the Point D being in the / 
middle, if there is a greater Curyity at the part Dj^ 
than at DJ, then DH will be lefs than db. But 
by how much the Perpendiculars /H and dh are 
nearer the intermediate Perpendicular, fo much the 
lefs will the diftance be of the Points H and h : 
And at laft when the Perpendiculars meet, thofe 
Points will coincide. Let them coincide in the Point 
C, then will C be the Center of Curvature, at the 
Point D of the Curve, on which the Perpendicu- 
lars ftand ; which is manifeft of itfelf. 

8. But there are feveral Symptoms or Properties of this Point C', 
which may be of ufe to its determination. 

9. I. That it is the Concourfe of Perpendiculars that are on each 
lide at an infinitely little diftance from DC. 

10. II. That the Interfeftions of Perpendiculars, at any little finite 
diftance on each fide, are feparated and divided by it ; fo that thofe 
which are on the more curved fide D,f fooner meet at H, and thofe 
which are on the other iefs curved fide -Dd meet more remotely 
at h. 

11. III. If DC be conceived to move, while it infifts perpendi- 
cularly on the Curve, that point of it C, (if you except the motion 
of approaching to or receding from the Point of Influence C,) will 
be leaft moved, but will be as it were the Center of Motion. 

12. IV. If a Circle be defcribed with the Center C, and the di- 
ftance DC, no other Circle can be defcribed, that can lie between 
at the Contact. 




and INFINITE SERIES. 



61 



n. V. Laftly, if the Center II or b of any other touching Circle 
approaches by degrees to C the Center of this, till at la it it co- 
incides with 'it ; then any of the points in which that Circle mall 
cut the Curve, will coincide with the point of Contact D. 

14. And each of thefe Properties may fupply the means of folving 
the Problem different ways : But we fliall here make choice of the 
firlt, as being the moit fimple. 

15. At any Point D of the Curve let DT be a Tangent, DC a 
Perpendicular, and C the Center of Curvature, as before. And let 
AB be the Abfcifs, to which let DB be apply 'd at right Angles, 
and which DC meets in P. Draw 

DG parallel to AB, and CG per- 
pendicular to it, in which take 
Cg of any given Magnitude, and 
draw gb perpendicular to it, which 
meets DC in <T. Then it will be 
Cg : gf : : (TB : BD : :) the Fluxion 
of the Ablcifs, to the Fluxion of 
the Ordinate. Likewife imagine 
the Point D to move in the Curve 
an infinitely little diftance Dd, and 
drawing de perpendicular to DG, and Cd perpendicular to the Curve, 
let Cd meet DG in F, and $g in/ Then will De be the Momen- 
tum of the Abfcifs, de the Momentum of the Ordinate, and J/ the 
contemporaneous Momentum of the right Line g. Therefore DF 
-De^.^t . Having therefore the Ratio's of thefe Moments, or, 

LJC ' * 

which is the fame thing, of their generating Fluxions, you will have 
the Ratio of CG to the given Line C^, (which is the fame as that of 
DF to Sf,) and thence the Point C will be determined. 

16. Therefore let AB = x, BD =y, Cg- = i, and g = z ; 

then it will be i : z : : x : y, or z = r- . Now let the Mo- 

X 

mentum S-f of z be zxo, (that is, the Product of the Velocity 

and of an infinitely fmall Quantity o,} and therefore the Momenta 

Dt'==xxo, de=yx.o, and thence DF = .\o -f- . Therefore 

X 

'tisQ-(r) : CG :: (Jf : DF ::) zo : xo + ^ . That is, CG= 




xx \y 



J 7- 



62 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

17. And whereas we are at liberty to afcribe whatever Velocity 
we pleafe to the Fluxion of the Abfcifs x, (to which, as to an 
equable Fluxion, the reft may be referr'd j) make x = i, and 
then y = z, and CG = '-^ . And thence DG = z -^. } and 

J ' ' 



18. Therefore any Equation being propofed, in which the Rela- 
tion of BD to AB is exprefs'd for denning the Curve ; firft find 
the Relation betwixt x and y t by Prob. r. and at the fame time fub- 
ftitute i for ,v, and z for y. Then from the Equation that arifes, 
by the fame Prob. i. find the Relation between #, y, and z, and at 
the fame time fubftitute i for x, and z for y, as before. And thus 
by the former operation you will obtain the Value of z, and by 
the latter you will have the Value of z ; which being obtain'd, pro- 
duce DB to H, towards the concave part of the Curve, that it 

may be DH = - - , and draw HC parallel to AB, and meet- 

ing the Perpendicular DC in C j then will C be the Center of Cur- 
vature at the Point D of the Curve. Or fince it is i -|- r.y. - 7 

PT TM-T PT Tk/-> DP 

make DH== ' or 



z 

19. Ex. i. Thus the Equation ax^-hx* y 1 =;o being pro- 
pofed, (which is an Equation to the Hyperbola whofe Latus redtum 

is a, and Tranfverfum 2 ; ) there will arife (by Prob. i.) a +. zbx 
2zy o, (writing l for x, and z for y in the refulting Equation, 
which otherwife would have been ax -+ 2&xx zyy = o ;) and 
hence again there arifes zb 2zz 2zy = o, (i and z being again 

wrote for ,v and y.) By the firft we have z = C L^L } an( j b y tne 

i ^^ 
latter z = Therefore any Point D of the Curve being given, 

and confequently xand y, from thence z and z will be given, which 
being known, make 7 = GC or DH, and draw HC. 

Z 

20. As if definitely you make = 3, and b=i, fo that 3#-f- 
xx=yy may be the condition of the Hyperbola. And if you 
aliume x=i, ^11^ = 2, z=, z= T 9 T , and DH= gL. 
li being found, raife the Perpendicular HC meeting the Perpendi- 

cular 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 63 

cular DC before drawn ; or, which is the fame thing, make HD : 
HC :: (i : z ::) i : . Then draw DC the Radius of Curva- 
ture. 

21. When you think the Computation will not be too perplex, you 

may fabfHtute the indefinite Values of z and z into - , the 

Value of CG. Thus in the prefent Example, by a due Reduction 
you will have DH =y -j- 4 ' S ^ r * . Yet the Value of DH by 

Calculation conies out negative, as may be feen in the numeral Ex- 
ample. But this only fhews, that DH mufl be taken towards B ; 
for if it had come out affirmative, it ought to have been drawn the 
contrary way. 

22. COROL. Hence let the Sign prefixt to the Symbol -\-b be 
changed, that it may be ax -bxx yy=zo, (an Equation to the 

Ellipfis,) then DH=;--f- ilLll^: . 

23. But fuppofing b=. o, that the Equation may become ax 
yy -- o, (an Equation to the Parabola,) then DH = y -f- ~ ; and 

thence DG = \a -f- 2X. 

24. From thefe feveral Exprefilons it may eafily be concluded, 
that the Radius of Curvature of any Conick Seftion is always 



aa 

25. Ex. 2. If x*=ay* xy- be propofed, (which is the Equa- 
tion to the CiiToid of Diodes,") by Prob. i. it will be firft T > x l =.2azy 

zxzy y-t and then 6x = 2azy-+-2azz -2zy zxzy 2xzz 

1 3*x -4- yy , T.X a%z -4- 2cv+ *~~ n-.! 

2Z\ : So that z= - 3-^. and z= - - ^ . There- 

J zay 2.vy' ay xj 

fore any Point of the Ciflbid being given, and thence .v and y, 
there will be given alfo & and z, ; which being known, make - 

K 

= CG. _ _ 

26. Ex. 3. If b-jf-y^/cc yy =.vy were given, (which is the 
Equation to the Conchoid, inpag.48;) make \/cc y\=zv, and 
there will arife hi) -+- yv = xy. Now the firft of thele, (cc _vv 
= vv,) will give (by Prob. i.) 2yz = 2vv, (writing z for v ;) 
and the latter will give l>v -+-yv + zv =y -{- xz. And from thefe 
Equations rightly difpofed v and z will be determined. But that z 
may alfo be found; out of the laft Equation exterminate the Fluxion 

i>, by fubilituting ^ , and there will arife 7 -I- ~"^ 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



= y -f- xz, an Equation that comprehends the flowing Quantities, 
without any of their Fluxions, as the Refolution of the firft Pro- 
blem requires. Hence therefore by Prob. i. we mall have 

^2* byz Ijzv 2)zs )? \vzv 

" +- ZV = 2Z +- XZ. 



This Equation being reduced, and difpofed in order, will give z. 
But when z and z are known, make ' + zz = CG. 

27. If we had divided the laft Equation but one by z, then 
by Prob. i . we mould have had - -f- ^ -f- --- -f. -i; = 

2 ^, ; which would have been a more fimple Equation than the 

former, for determining z. 

28. I have given this Example, that it may appear, how the ope- 
ration is to be perform'd in furd Equations: But the Curvature of 
the Conchoid may be thus found a fhorter way. The parts of the 
Equation b -\-y ^/cc v\' = xy being fquared, and divided by yy, 
there arifes ~ -f. *" ^ 2by y* = x*, and thence by Prob. i. 



or 



x 

... 



And hence again by Prob. i. ^^ -f- ~ z 1 m By 

*^ J y4 y/9 z, zz 

the firft refult z is determined, and z by the latter. 

29. Ex. 4. Let ADF be a Trochoid [or Cycloid] belonging to 
the Circle ALE, whofe Diameter is AE j and making the Ordinate 
BD to cut the 
Circle in L, 



AB=x, BD 




and the Arch 
AL=/, and 
the Fluxion of 
the fame Arch 
= /. And 
firfl (drawing 
the Semidia- 
meterPL,)the 
Fluxion of the 

Bafe or Abfcifs AB will be to the Fluxion of the Arch AL, as BL 

to 



and INFINITE SERIES. 65 

to PL ; that is, A* or I : / : : v : ~a. And therefore ^ = /. Then 
from the nature of the Circle ax xx = -y-y, and therefore by 
Prob. i. a 2X = 2-yy, or -~~* = v. 

30. Moreover from the nature of the Trochoid, 'tis LD= Arch 
AL, and therefore -y -M =y. And thence (by Prob. i ) v -h / =z. 
Laftly, inftead of the Fluxions v and / let their Values be lubfti- 
tuted, and there will arife a -^ =z. Whence (by Prob. i.) is de- 
rived - -f- - = z. And thefe being found, make 

*ut/ w *v z, 

== DH, and raife the perpendicular HC. 

31. COR. i. Now it follows from hence, that DH = 2BL, and 
CH 2BE, or that EF bifeds the radius of Curvature CO in N. 
And this will appear by fubftituting the values of z and z now 
found, in the Equation ' . **= DH, and by a proper reduction of 

the refult. 

32. COR, 2. Hence the Curve FCK, defcribed indefinitely by the 
Center of Curvature of ADF, is another Trochoid equal to this, 
whofe Vertices at I and F adjoin to the Cufpids of this. For let 
the Circle FA, equal and alike pofited to ALE, be defcribed, and 
let C/3 be drawn parallel to EF, meeting the Circle in A : Then 
will Arch FA = (Arch EL= NF =) CA. 

33. COR. 3. The right Line CD, which is at right Angles to the 
Trochoid IAF, will touch the Trochoid IKF in the point C. 

34. COR. 4. Hence (in the in verted Trochoids,) if at theCufpid K 
of the upper Trochoid, a Weight be hung by a Thread at the di- 
ilance KA or 2EA, and while the Weight vibrates, the Thread be 
fuppos'd to apply itfelf to the parts of the Trcchoid KF and KI, 
which refift it on each fide, that it may not be extended into a 
right Line, but compel it (as it departs from the Perpendicular) to 
be by degrees inflected above, into the Figure of the Trochoid, 
while the lower part CD, from the loweft Point of Contact, ftill 
remains a right Line : The Weight will move in the Perimeter of 
the lower Trochoid, becaufe the Thread CD will always be perpen- 
dicular to it. 

35. COR. 5. Therefore the whole Length of the Thread KA is 
equal to the Perimeter of the Trochoid KCF, and its part CD is 
equal to the part of the Perimeter CF. 

K 36. 



66 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

36. COR. 6. Since the Thread by its ofcillating Motion revolves 
about the moveable Point C, as a Center ; the Superficies through 
which the whole Line CD continually pafles, will be to the Super- 
ficies through whichjthe part CN above the right Line IF pafles at 
the fame time, as CD* to CN*, that is, as 4 to i. Therefore the 
Area CFN is a fourth part of the Area CFD ; and the Area KCNE 
is a fourth part of the Area AKCD. 

37. COR. 7. Alfo fince the fubtenfe EL is equal and parallel to 
CN, and is converted about the immoveable Center E, juft as CN 
moves about the moveable Center C ; the Superficies will be equal 
through which they pafs in the fame time, that is, the Area CFN, 
and the Segment of the Circle EL. And thence the Area NFD 
will be the triple of that Segment, and the whole area EADF will 
be the triple of the Semicircle. 

38. COR. 8. When the Weight D arrives at the point F, the 
whole Thread will be wound about the Perimeter of the Trochoid 
KCF, and the Radius of Curvature will there be nothing. Where- 
fore the Trochoid IAF is more curved, at its Cufpid F, than any 
Circle ; and makes an Angle of Contact, with the Tangent /3F produ- 
ced, infinitely greater than a Circle can make with a right Line. 

39. But there are Angles of Contact that are infinitely greater 
than Trochoidal ones, and others infinitely greater than thefe, and 
fo on in infinitum ; and yet the greateft of them all are infinitely 
lefs than right-lined Angles. Thus xx = ay, x 3 = y, x* ==ry 5 , 
x* = dy+, &cc. denote a Series of Curves, of which every fucceeding 
one makes an Angle of Contact with its Abfciis, which is infinitely 
greater than the preceding can make with the fame Abfcifs. And the 
Angle of Contact which the firft xx=ay makes, is of the fame kind 
with Circular ones; and that which the fecond x*-=by z makes, is of 
the fame kind with Trochoidals. And tho' the Angles of the fucceed- 
in Curves do always infinitely exceed the Angles of the preceding, yet 
they can never arrive at the magnitude of a right-lined Angle. 

40. After the fame manner x ==y, xx=ay, x*=l> 1 y, x4 = c*y, 
&c. denote a Series of Lines, of which the Angles of the fubfequents, 
made with their Abfcifs's at the Vertices, are always infinitely lefs 
than the Angles of the preceding. Moreover, between the Angles 
of Contact of any two of thefe kinds, other Angles of Contact may 
be found ad infwitum, that mall infinitely exceed each other. 

41. Now it appears, that Angles of Contact of one kind are in- 
finitely greater than thofe of another kind ; fince a Curve of one 
kind, however great it may be, cannot, at the Point of Contact, 

I he 



and INFINITE SERIES. 67 

lie between the Tangent and a Curve of another kind, however fmall 
that Curve may be. Or an Angle of Contacl of one kind cannot 
necefTarily contain an Angle of Contact of another kind, as the whole 
contains a part. Thus the Angle of Contaft of the Curve x* = cy*, 
or the Angle which it makes with its Abfcifs, neceflarfly includes the 
Angle of Contacl of the Curve x~' =^y i , and can never be contain'd 
by it. For Angles that can mutually exceed each other are of the 
fame kind, as it happens with the aforefaid Angles of the Trochoid, 
and of this Curve x> = by*. 

42. And hence it appears, that Curves, in fome Points, may be 
infinitely more ftraight, or infinitely more curved, than any Circle, and 
yet not, on that account, lofe the form of Curve-lines. But all 
this by the way only. 

43. Ex. 5. Let ED be the Quadratrix to the Circle, defcribed 
from Center A; and letting fall DB 

perpendicular to AE, make AB = x, 
BD =y, and AE = i. Then 'twill 

be yx yy* yx* =xy, as before. 

Then writing i for x, and z for y, the 

Equation becomes zx zy l zx* 

= y ; and thence, by Prob. i. zx 

zy* zx* -f- zx zzxx zzyy = y m Then reducing, and 

again writing i for x and z for y, there arifes z 




xxxjy 



J, 

But z and & being found, make ' T ** = DH, and draw HC as 

above. 

44. If you defire a Conftrudtion of the Problem, you will find it 
very mort. Thus draw DP perpendicular to DT, meeting AT in P, 

and make aAP : AE :: PT : CH. For * =r 



and zy = g. = -BP; and;ey + x = AP, and -_^_.. 
into zy-\-x-=. z - into AP=2. Moreover it is i-4-zz = 

AE x BTy 

"PT* T> P\ TAT 1 . I nrfr T3T 

r 1 /i f. BlJq U I a \ j i r 1 -j- ** r 1 

:= i-{- rrTT =-T-:T I ,) and tnereiore : = 

Bl? BI? " 2- 



BT 

= DH. Laftly, it is BT : BD :: DH : CH==^^. Here 

the negative Value only mews, that CH mufl be taken the fame 
way as AB from DH. 

45. In the fame manner the Curvature of Spirals, or of any other 
Curves whatever, may be determined by a very mort Calculation. 

K 2 46. 



68 7&e Method of FLUXIONS, 

46. Furthermore, to determine the Curvature without any pre- 
vious reduction, when the Curves are refer'd to right Lines in any 
other manner, this Method might have been apply'd, as has beer* 
done already for drawing Tangents. But as all Geometrical Curves, 
as alfo Mechanical, (efpecially when the defining conditions are re- 
duced to infinite Equations, as I mail mew hereafter,) may be re- 
fer'd to rectangular Ordinates, I think I have done enough in this 
matter. He that defires more, may eafily fupply it by his own in- 
duftry ; efpecially if for a farther illuflration I mall add the Method 
for Spirals. 

A its Center, and B a given Point in 



47. Let BK be 
its Circumference. 



a Circle, 
Let ADd 
be a Spiral, DC its Perpen- 
dicular, and C the Center of 
Curvature at the Point D. 
Then drawing the right Line 
ADK, and CG parallel and 
equal to AK, as alfo the Per- 
pendicular GF meeting CD 
inF: Make AB or AK = 
i=CG, BK=#, AD==y, 
and GF = z. Then con- 




. 

ceive the Point D to move in the Spiral for an infinitely little Spree 
Drf', and then through rfdraw the Semidiameter A/, and Cg parallel 
and equal to it, draw gf perpendicular to gC, fo that G/ cuts gf 
in/ and GF in P; produce GF to <p, fo that G p= < /, and draw 
de perpendicular to AK, and produce it till it meets CD at I. Then 
the contemporaneous Moments of BK, AD, and G<p, will be Kk, De 
and Fa, which therefore may be call'd xo, yo, and zo. 

48. Now it is AK : Ae (AD) :: kK : Je=yo, where I aflurne 
x=i, as above. Alfo CG : GF :: de : eD = oyz, and there- 
fore yz y f Befides CG : CF : : de : dD = oy x CF : : dD : 
d\ = oy x CF?. Moreover, becaufe Z_PC<p (=Z-GG?) = LDAd, 
and /.CPp (= LCdl = - eSQ -f- Red.) = L. ADJ, the Triangles 
CP<p and AD</ are fimilar, and thence AD : Dd :: CP (CF) : 
P<p = o x CFq. From whence take F<p t and there will remain PF 
= oxCF^ ex z. Laftly, letting fall CH perpendicular to AD } 
'tis PF : dl :: CG : eH or DH = LlHf . Or fubftituting i+zz 

CFyx 



for CFa, 'twill be DH = 



y - ya!g 



Here it may be obferved, 

that 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 69 

that in this kind of Computations, I take thofe Quantities (AD and 
Ae) for equal, the Ratio of which differs but infinitely little from 
the Ratio of Equality. 

49. Now from hence arifes the following Rule. The Relation 
of x and y being exhibited by any Equation, find the Relation of 
the Fluxions x and y, (by Prob. i.) and fubftitute i for x, and yz 
for y. Then from the refulting Equation find again, (by Prob. i.) 
the Relation between x, y, and z, and again fubftitute i for x. 
The firft refult by due reduction will give y and z, and the latter 
will eive z ; which being known, make = = DH, and raife 

1 -f- Z.X.Z. 

the Perpendicular HC, meeting the Perpendicular to the Spiral DC 
before drawn in C, and C will be the Center of Curvature. Or 
which comes to the fame thing, take CH : HD :: z : i, and 
draw CD. 

50. Ex. i. If the Equation be ax=y, (which will belong to 

the Spiral at Archimedes,) then (by Prob. i.) ax=y y or (writing i 
for x, and yz for_y,) 7 ^ =yz. And hence again (by Prob i.) o = 
yz+y'z. Wherefore any Point D of the Spiral being given,, and 
thence the length AD or y, there will be given z = - , and z= 

( 3 - or) . Which being known, make i-t-zz-z : 
H-iz :: DA (y) : DH. And i : z :: DH : CH. 

And hence you will eafily deduce the following Conftrucftion. 
Produce AB to Q, fo that AB : Arch BK :: Arch BK : BC^, 
and make AB -+- AQ^: AQj: DA : DH :: a : HC. 

51. Ex. 2. If ax 1 =_)" be the Equation that determines the Re- 
lation between BK and AD; (by Prob. i.) you will have 2axx=. 
3Jy,-*, or 2ax= 3y. Thence again 2a'x= ^zy s -+- gsiyy*. 'Tis 
therefore z = ^7 , and z = ' a ~ 9 ~ z '- . Thefe being known, make 

i-\-zz K : i-t-zz DA : DH. Or, the work being reduced 
to a better form, make gxx 1 -f- 10 : gxx -f- 4 :: DA : DH. 

52. Ex. 3. After the lame manner, if ax* bxy=yi determines 

the Relation of BK to AD ; there will arife I"* ~ ' = z,, and 

bxy -f- $)*. 

. g *~ ; *7~^;~ 9 *'- 8 = g. From which DH/ and thence the. 
Point C, is determined as before. 

5q 
i- 



yo I'he Method of FLUXIONS, 

53. And thus you will eafily determine the Curvature of any- 
other Spirals ; or invent Rules for any other kinds of Curves, in 
imitation of thefe already given. 

4. And now I have finim'd the Problem ; but having made ufe 
of a Method which is pretty different from the common ways of 
operation, and as the Problem itfelf is of the number of thofe 
which are not very frequent among Geometricians : For the illuflra- 
tion and confirmation of the Solution here given, I mall not think 
much to give a hint of another, which is more obvious, and has a 
nearer relation to the ufual Methods of drawing Tangents. Thus if 
from any Center, and with any Radius, a Circle be conceived to 
be defcribed, which may cut any Curve in feveral Points ; if that 
Circle be fuppos'd to be contracted, or enlarged, till two of the 
Points of interfeclion coincide, it will there touch the Curve. And 
befides, if its Center be fuppos'd to approach towards, or recede 
from, the Point of Contadt, till the third Point of interfedtion fhall 
meet with the former in the Point of Contadt ; then will that Circle 
be cequicurved with the Curve in that Point of Contadt : In like man- 
ner as I infmuated before, in the laft of the five Properties of the 
Center of Curvature, by the help of each of which I affirm'd the 
Problem might be folved in a different manner. 

55. Therefore with Center C, and Radius CD, let a Circle be 
defcribed, that cuts the Curve 
in the Points d, D, and <f ; 
and letting fall the Perpendi- 
culars DB, db, <T/3, and CF, 
to the Abfcifs AB ; call AB 
= x, BD = y, AF = v, 
FC=/,andDC=J. Then 
BF=vx, and DB-f-FC 
=_>>-{-/. The fum of the 
Squares of thefe is equal to the 
Square of DC ; that is, -D 1 

2VX -+- X* -f- )" -h 2yt -+- / 

=ss. If you would abbrevi- 
ate this, make v* -f-/ 1 s 1 =f, (any Symbol at pleafure,) and it 
becomes x 1 2vx -f-jy 1 -f- zfy -+- q 1 = o. After you have found 

/, y, and q*, you will have s-=\/ r v 1 -+- 1* q*. 

56. Now let any Equation be propofed for defining the Curve, 
the quantity of whofe Curvature is to be found. By the help of 
this Equation you may exterminate either of the Quantities x or y, 

and 




and INFINITE SERIES. 71 

and there will arife an Equation, the Roots of which, (db, DB, <f/g, 
&c. if y u exterminate x ; or A/>, AB, A/3, &c. if you exterminate 
_y,) are "at the Points of interfedtion d, D, J\ &c. Wherefore fince 
"three of them become equal, the Circle both touches the Curve, 
and will alfo be of the fame degree of Curvature as the Curve, in 
the point of Contact But they will become equal by comparing 
the Equation with another fictitious Equation of the fame number 
of Dimenfions, which has three equal Roots ; as Des Cartes has 
fhew'd. Or more expeditioufly by multiplying its Terms twice by 
an Arithmetical Progreflion. 

57. EXAMPLE. Let the Equation be ax =yy, (which is an 
Equation to the Parabola,) and exterminating x, (that is, fubftitu- 

ting its Value -- in the forego- 
ing Equation,) there will arife * ^~y*_ -+ zty -f- ? a = o. 
Three of whofe Roots ^ are to be _j_ yi 
made equal. And for this purpofe 4*2 I o 

I multiply the Terms twice by an * i o i 

Arithmetical Progrellion, as you 

fee done here j and there arifes -J 1 + 2 J X = - 

Or u = + \a. Whence it is eafily infer'd, that BF = 2x -{- 

\a, as before. 

58. Wherefore any Point D of the Parabola being given, draw the 
Perpendicular DP to the Curve, and in the Axis take PF = 2AB, 
and erect FC Perpendicular to FA, meeting DP in C; then will C 
be the Center of Curvity defired. 

59. The fame may be perform'd in the Ellipfis and Hyperbola, 
but the Calculation will be troublefome enough, and in other Curves 
generally very tedious. 

Of ^uefiions that have fome Affinity to the preceding 

Problem. 

60. From the Refolution of the preceding Problem fome others 
may be perform'd ; fuch are, 

I. To find the Point where the Curve has a given degree of Cur- 
vature. 

6 1. Thus in the Parabola, ax=yy, if the Point be required 
whofe Radius of Curvature is of a given length f: From the Cen- 
ter of Curvature, found as before, you will determine die Radius 



72 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

to be -~^ \/aa -+- ^.ax, which muft be made equal to f. Then 
by reduction there arifes x = ^a -f- 1/^aff. 
II. To find the Point of ReElitude. 

62. I call that the Point of ReEiitude, in which the Radius of 
Flexure becomes infinite, or its Center at an infinite diftance : Such 
it is at the Vertex of the Parabola a*x=y*. And this fame Point 
is commonly the Limit of contrary Flexure, whole Determination 
I have exhibited before. But another Determination, and that not 
inelegant, may be derived from this Problem. Which is, the 
longer the Radius of Flexure is, fo much the lefs the Angle DCJ 
(Fig.pag.6i.) becomes, and alfo the Moment <F/j fo that the 
Fluxion of the Quantity z is diminim'd along with it, and by the 
Infinitude of that Radius, altogether vanimes. Therefore find the 
Fluxion z, and fuppofe it to become nothing. 

63. As if we would determine the Limit of contrary Flexure in 
the Parabola of the fecond kind, by the help of which Cartefius con- 
ftructed Equations of fix Dimenfions ; the Equation to that Curve 
is AT 3 bx* cdx -+- bed 4- dxy = o. And hence (by Prob. i .) arifes 
3*** 2bxx - cdx -4- dxy -f- dxy = o. Now writing i for x t 
and z for y, it becomes 3-v a zbx cd-{- dy -f- dxz=.o ; whence 
again (by Prob. i,) 6xx zbx -+ dy + dxz +- dxz = o. Here again 
writing i for x, & for y, and o for z, it becomes (>x zb -+- zdz 
= o. And exterminating z, by putting b 3* for dz in the 
Equation 3^,v zbx cd -+- dy -f- dxz = o, there will arife bx 
cd-$-dy = o ) ory=c-{-^; this being fubftituted in the room 

of y in the Equation of the Curve, we fhall have x* +- bcd-=z. Q } 
which will determine the Confine of contrary Flexure. 

64. By a like Method you may determine 
the Points of Rectitude, which do not come 
between parts of contrary Flexure. As if the 
Equation x* 4<w 3 -}- ba^x* b>y = o ex- 
prefs'd the nature of a Curve ; you have firfl, 
(byProb. i.)4^3 i2ax*-+- i2a*x faz=o, 
and hence again 12X* 24^7^ -f- 12^' b*z 
=o. Here fuppofe z = o, and by Reduc- 
tion there will arife x = a. Wherefore take 

ABi=fl, and erect the perpendicular BDj this will meet 
Curve in the Point of Re&itude D, as was required. 

III. 




and IN FINITE SERIES. 73 

III. To find the Point of infinite Flexure. 

65. Find the Radius of Curvature, and fuppofe it to be nothing. 
Thus to the Parabola of the fecond kind, whole Equation is A;* = 

<7y a , that Radius will be CD = 4 " 6a q * \/q.ax-\- gxx , which be- 
comes nothing when x = o. 

IV. To determine the Point of the greatefl or leaft Flexure. 

66. At thefe Points the Radius of Curvature becomes either the 
greateft or leaft. Wherefore the Center of Curvature, at that mo- 
ment of Time, neither moves towards the point of Contact, nor 
the contrary way, but is intirely at reft. Therefore let the Fluxion 
of the Radius CD be found; or more ex- 

peditioufly, let the Fluxion of either of the 
Lines BH or AK be found, and let it be 
made equal to nothing. 

67. As if the Queftion were propofed con- 
cerning the Parabola of the fecond kind 
x l = o*y ; firft to determine the Center of 

Curvature you will find DH = aa , 9X -> 

ox 

and therefore BH = 6 ^' ?AV ; make BH 

Hence (by Prob. i.) "- - _j_ ^y == t}. But now fuppofe -y, or the 
Fluxion of BH, to be nothing ; and belides, lince by Hypothecs 
A- "' = rf 1 .y, and thence (by Prob. i.) yxx 1 =<?*.}', putting x= i, fub- 
ftitute ^ for v, and there will arife 4.5x4=0+. Take therefore 




^ 

AB ==a y'^j- =<7 x45| , and raifrng the perpendicular BD, it will" 
meet the Curve in the Point of the greateft Curvature. Or, which 
is the fame thing, make AB : BD : : 3^/5 : I. 

68. After the fame manner the Hyperbola of the lecond kind 
reprefented by the Equation xy l = 3 , will be 
moft inflected in the points D and d, which you 
may determine by taking in the Abfcifs AQ== r, 
and erecting the Perpendicular QP_=z= v /5, and 
Q^/> equal to it on the other fide. Then draw- 
ing AP and A/>, they will meet the Curve in the 
points D and d required. 



V, 




74 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

V. To determine the Locus of the Center of Curvature, or to de- 
fcribe the Curve, in which tbaf* Center is always found, 

69. We have already {hewn, that the Center of Curvature of the 
Trochoid is always found in another Trochoid. And thus the Cen- 
ter of Curvature of the Parabola is found in another Parabola of 
the fecond kind, reprefented by the Equation axx=y*, as will 
eafily appear from Calculation. 

VI. Light falling upon any Curve, to find its Focus, or the Con- 
courje of the Rays that are ref rafted at any of its Points. 

70. Find the Curvature at that Point of the Curve, and defcribe 
a Circle from the Center, and with-the Radius of Curvature. Then 
find the Concourfe of the Rays, when they are refracted by a Cir- 
cle about that Point : For the fame is the Concourfe of the refrac- 
ted Rays in the propofed Curve. 

71. To thefe may be added a particular Invention of the Curva- 
ture at the Vertices of Curves, where they cut their Abfcifles at right 
Angles. For the Point in which the Perpendicular to the Curve, 
meeting with the Abfcifs, cuts it ultimately, is the Center of its 
Curvature. So that having the relation between the Abfcifs x, 
and the rectangular Ordinate y, and thence (by Prob. i.) the rela- 
tion between the Fluxions x and y ; the Value yy, if you fubftitute 
r for x into it, and make y = o, will be the Radius of Curva- 
ture. 



72. Thus in the Ellipfis ax xX=yy, it is -* " = yy ; 

which Value of yy, if we fuppofe^=o, and confequently x = />, 
^writing i for x, becomes a for the Radius of Curvature. And fo 
at the Vertices of the Hyperbola and Parabola, the Radius of Cur- 
vature will be always half of the Latus rectum. 



73- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 75 

73. And in like manner for the Conchoid, defined by the Equation 
zbx xx = yy, the Value of yy t (found by 



zicc + cc 
~T bb 




Prob. i.) will be ^ ""* IT ^ "~~ * Now fuppofing y = o, 

and thence # = c or f, we mail have zb c, or 

2(5 -f- f, for the Radius of Curvature. Therefore make AE : EG :: 
EG : EC, and he : eG :: eG : ec, and you will have the Centers 
of Curvature C and c, at the Vertices E and e of the Conjugate 
Conchoids. 

PROB. VI. 

To determine the Quality of the Curvature, at a given 

Point of any Curve. 

I. By the Quality of Curvature I mean its Form, as it is more 
or lefs inequable, or as it is varied more or lefs, in its progrefs thro' 
different parts of the Curve. So if it were demanded, what is the 
Quality of the Curvature of the Circle ? it might be anfwer'd, that 
it is uniform, or invariable. 
And thus if it were demand- 
ed, what is the Quality of the 
Curvature of the Spiral, which 
is described by the motion of 
the point D, proceeding from 
A in AD with an accelerated 
velocity, while the right 
Line AK moves with an uni- 
form rotation about the Cen- 
ter A ; the acceleration of 

L 2 which 




76 7&? Method of FLUXIONS, 

which Velocity is fuch, that the right Line AD has the fame ratio 
to the Arch BK, defcribed from a given point B, as a Number has 
to its Logarithm : I fay, if it be afk'd, What is the Quality of the 
Curvature of this Spiral 1 It may be anfwer'd, that it is uniformly 
varied, or that it is equably inequable. And thus other Curves, in 
their feveral Points, may be denominated inequably inequable, ac- 
cording to the variation of their Curvature. 

2. Therefore the Inequability or Variation of Curvature is re- 
quired at any Point of a Curve. Concerning which it may be ob- 
ferved, 

3. I. That at Points placed alike in like Curves, there is a like 
Inequability or Variation of Curvature. 

4. II. And that the Moments of the Radii of Curvature, at thofe 
Points, are proportional to the contemporaneous Moments of the 
Curves, and the Fluxions to the Fluxions. 

5. III. And therefore, that where thofe Fluxions are not propor- 
tional, the Inequability of the Curvature will be unlike. For 
there will be a greater Inequability, where the Ratio of the Fluxion 
of the Radius of Curvature to the Fluxion of the Curve is 
greater. And therefore that ratio of the Fluxions may not impro- 
perly be call'd the Index of the Inequability or of the Variation 
of Curvature. 

6. At the points D and d, infinitely near to each other, in the 
Curve AD^, let there be drawn the 

Radii of Curvature DC and dc , and D</ 
being the Moment of the Curve, Cc 
will be the contemporaneous Moment 

of the Radius of Curvature, and -^ 
will be the Index of the Inequability of 
Curvature. For the Inequability may 
be call'd fuch and fo great, as the quan- 
tity of that ratio 7^ mews it to be : 

j Ja 

Or the Curvature may be faid to be fo 
much the more unlike to the uniform 
Curvature of a Circle. 

7. Now letting fall the perpendicular Ordinates DB and db t 
to any line AB meeting DC in P j make AB = #, BD = y\ 

and thence B& = xo, it will be Cc = vo; and 
-1 T^ = , making x = i. 

Wherefore 



> 




II 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 77 

Wherefore the relation between x and y being exhibited by any 
Equation, and thence, (according to Prob. 4. and 5.) the Perpendicu- 
lar DP or /, being found, and the Radius of Curvature i 1 , and the 

Fluxion <y of that Radius, (by Prob. i.) the Index '^ of the Inequabi- 
lity of Curvature will be given alfo. 

8. Ex. i. Let the Equation to the Parabola tax = vy be given ; 
then (by Prob. 4.) BP = a, and therefore DP= ^ a -\-\y=^t. 
Alfo (by Prob. 5.) BF = a -+- 2X, and BP : DP : : BF : "i)C = 

- =1;. Now the Equations 2ax =}'}', aa-\-yy=tt, -and 

t-~ =v, (by Prob. i.) give 2ax = 2jvy, and zyy = ztt, and 
a t + Z fx + 2fx __ ^ Which being reduced to order, and putting 

.v = i, there will arife y = -, / = r^ = ) - f > an< ^ v= - 

And thus y, t, and v being found, there will be had ^ v the Index 

of the Inequability of Curvature. 

9. As if in Numbers it were determin'd, that^=j a or 2#==n > , 

and x= 4 ; then y (== 



+ 7 + "= 3v /2. So that 

j^= 3, which therefore is the Index of Inequability. 

10. But if it were determin'd, that A: =2, then y = 2, ^'=T> 
/ = v/5, f = </, and -17 = 3^/5. So that ^-=) 6 will be here 

the Index of Inequability. 

11. Wherefore the Inequability of Curvature at the Point of the 
Curve, from whence an Ordinate, equal to the Latus reftum of the 
Parabola, being drawn perpendicular to the Axis, will-be double to the 
Inequability at that Point, from whence the Ordinate fo drawn is half 
the Latus rectum ; that is, the Curvature at the firft Point is as unlike a- 
gain to the Curvature of the Circle, as the Curvature at the fecond Point. 

12. Ex. 2. Let the Equation be zax bxx-=.yy, and (by Prob. 4.) 
it will be a &v=BP, and thence tf=(aa 2a6x-lrb 

=) na byy -- yy. Alfo (by Prob. 5.) it is DH =}' -{ 
where, if for yy byy you fubftitute // aa, there ariies DH = 
Tis alfo BD : DP :: DH : DC= - =v. Now (hv Prob.i.) 

f.ll U 1 

the Equations zaxbxx^yy, aa byy-\-y\-=^t!, and 



give 



7 8 77je Method of FLUXIONS, 



give a bx =}')', and yy byy = /'/, and ~ = v. And thus v 

being found, the Index ^ of the Inequability of Curvature, will 
aJib be known. 

13. Thus in the Ellipfis 2X 3 ATA: 
=}'}', where it is a = r, and b=-.^ ; 
if we make x=-, then r- L v 

* * S " a 3 x ~~ ~" 




A 



b P 



Jl 



o 

V 



and therefore ; v =|, which is the In- 

dex of the Inequability of Curvature. 

Hence it appears, that the Curvature of 

this Ellipfis, at the Point D here af- 

fign'd, is by two times left inequable, 

(or 'by two times more like to the Cur- 

vature of the Circle,) than the Curva- 

ture of the Parabola, at that Point of 

its Curve, from whence an Ordinate let fall upon the Axis is equaj 

to half the Latus rectum. 

14. If we have a mind to compare the Conclufions derived in 

thefe Examples, in the Parabola 2ax=yy arifes (~ = > )^ v for the 

V ' s a 

Index of Inequability j and in the Ellipfis zax bxx=yy, arifes 
(^7- =J - - x BP j and fo in the Hyperbola 2ax -+- bxx =yy, 
the analogy being obferved, there arifes the Index ("2- ^ y+3b 

\. t J && 

x BP. Whence it is evident, that at the different Points of any 
Conic Section conn'der'd apart, the Inequability of Curvature is as 
the Rectangle BD x BP. And that, at the feveral Points of the Pa- 
raboh, it is as the Ordinate BD. 

15. Now as the Parabola is the moft fimple Figure of thofe that 
are curved with inequable Curvature, and as the Inequability of its 
Curvature is fo eafily determined, (for its Index is 6x^ll^i,) t h er e- 



.. . 

fore the Curvatures of other Curves may not improperly be compared 
to the Curvature of this. 

1 6. As if it were inquired, what may be the Curvature of the 
Ellipfis 2X $xx=yy, at that Point of the Perimeter which is 
determined by affuming x = : Becaufe its Index is 4., as before, 
it might be anfwer'd, that it is like the Curvature of the Parabola 

6.v 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 



79 



6.v =)')', at that Point of the Curve, between which and the Axis 
the perpendicular Odinate is equal to |. 

17. Thus, as the Fluxion of the Spiral ADE is to the Fluxion 
of the Subtenfe AD, in a certain given Ratio, 
fuppofe as d to e; on its concave fide erect 

AP = - x AD perpendicular to AD, 

y dd ee 

and P will be the Center of Curvature, and 

A P t 

or r=? will be the Index of Inequa- 

1J y a.i ee 

bility. So that this Spiral has every where 
its Curvature alike inequable, as the Parabola 
6x = yy has in that Point of its Curve, from 
whence to its Abfcifs a perpendicular Ordi- 
nate is let fall, which is equal to the 




1 8. And thus the Index of Inequability at any Point D of the 



AB 

Trochoid, (fee Fig. in Art. 29. pag. 64.) is found to be . Where- 

fore its Curvature at the fame Point D is as inequable, or as unlike 
to that of a Circle, as the Curvature of any Parabola ax - yy is at 

AB 

the Point where the Ordinate is ^a x -^ 

19. And from thefe Confiderations the Senfe of the Problem, as 
I conceive, mufl be plain enough; which being well underftood, it 
will not be difficult for any one, who obferves the Series of the 
things above deliver'd, to furnifh himfelf with more Examples, and 
to contrive many other Methods of operation, as occafion may re- 
quire. So that he will be able to manage Problems of a like nature, 
(where he is not difcouraged by tedious and perplex Calculations,) 
with little or no difficulty. Such are thefe following ; 

I. To find the Point of any Curve, where there is either no Inequabi- 
lity of Curvature, or infinite, or tie grcatej?, or the leajl. 

20. Thus at the Vertices of the Conic Sections, there is no In- 
equability of Curvature; at the Cuf] id of the 1 rcchoid it is infi- 
nite ; and it is greatefl at thofe Points of the Ellif.fis, where the 
Rectangle BD x BP is greatefl, that is, where the Diagor.al-Lines 
of the circumfcribed Parallelogram cut the Elliriis, whofe Sides 
touch it in their principal Vertices. 

II. 1o determine a Curve of fame definite Species, l'nfp r je a C r .n:c 
Section, liioje Curvature at any Point may be cqiu:l and Jiitiilar to the 
Curvature of any other Curve, at a given P./:./ of it. 



8 o "The Method of FLUXIONS, 

III. To iL-termine a Conk Sctfion, at any Point of which, the Cur- 
ri?//i7V and Pojition of the tangent, (in refpeSt of the AxisJ) may be like 
to the Curvature and Pofition of the Tangent, at a Point ajfigrid of 
any other Curir. 

21. The ufe of which Problem is this, that inftead of Ellipfes of 
the fecond kind, whofe Properties of refradling Light are explain'd 
by Des Cartes in his Geometry, Conic Sections may be fubftituted, 
which mall perform the fame thing, very nearly, as to their Re- 
fractions. And the fame may be underfhood of other Curves. 

P R O B. VII. 

To find as many Curves as you pleafe y ivbofe Areas may 
be exhibited by finite Equations. 

I. Let AB be the Abfcifs of a Curve, at whofe Vertex A let the 
perpendicular AC = i be raifed, and let CE be D 

drawn parallel to AB. Let alfo DB be a rectan- 
gular Ordinate, meeting the right Line CE in E, 
and the Curve AD in D. And conceive thefe 
Areas ACEB and ADB to be generated by the 
right Lines BE and BD, as they move along the 
Line AB, Then their Increments or Fluxions will 




be always as the defcribing Lines BE and BD. Wherefore make 
the Parallelogram ACEB, or AB x i, =.v, and the Area of the 
Curve ADB call z. And the Fluxions x and z will be as BE and 

BD; fo that making x = i = BE, then z = BD. 

2. Now if any Equation be a/Turned at pleafure, for determining 
the relation of z and x, from thence, (by Prob. i.) may z be de- 
rived. And thus there will be two Equations, the 'latter of which 
will determine the Curve, and the former its Area. 

EXAMPLES. 

3. Aflume ##:=:, and thence (by Prob. i.) 2xx=s } or 2x=c:, 
becaufe x=, i. 

4. Aflame ^=z, and thence will arife =;s ? an Equation 
to the Parabola. 

5. A flume ax* =zz, or a' f x*=z, and there will arife \a^x' =^^, 
or ^(?x = zz, an Equation again to the Parabola. 

i 6. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 81 

6. Affume a 6 x~ 1 =zz,or a*x-' =z, and there arifes a*x f * = z, 
or a'' -j-2xx = o. Here the negative Value of z only infinuates, 
that BD is to be taken the contrary way from BE. 

7. Again if you affume c'-a 1 -+- c^x* = z 1 , you will have zc*x 

= 2zz ; and z being eliminated, there will arife 



8. Or if you affume 



aa-^-xx 



aa -J-.VA- 



'Z. 



\/aa -+- xx = z, make 



- -- , <z -}- ATA- 

= v, and it will be ^ =s,and then (by Prob.i.) ^p ^ Alfo 

the Equation aa -f- xx = 011; gives 2X = zvv, by the help of which 
if you exterminate <u, it will become 3 -j^- = z = j- \/ aa-^-xx. 

9. Laftly, if you affume 8 3^2 -f- ^&=. zz, you will obtain 
32; 3x2; -f- $z = 2Z&. Wherefore by the affumed Equation 
firflieek the Area z, and then the Ordinate z by the reiulting Equa- 
tion. 

10. And thus from the Areas, however they may be feign'd, you 
may always determine the Ordinates to which they belong. 

P R O B. VIII. 

To fad as many Curves as you pleafe, -wbofe Areas fiall 
have a relation to the Area of any given Curve, a/fign- 
able by finite Equations. 

i. Let FDH be a given Curve, and GEI the Curve required, and 
conceive their Ordinatss DB and EC to move at right Angles upon 





A C 





.11 



G, 



/V 



their Abfciffes or Bafes AB and AC. Then the Increments or Fluxions 
of the Areas which they defcribe, will be as thofe Ordinates drawn 

M into 



82 fhe Method of FLUXIONS, 

into their Velocities of moving, that is, into the Fluxions of their 
Abfcifles. Therefore make AB = x, BD = v, AC = z, and 
CE =y, the Area AFDB = j, and the Area AGEC = /, and let 
the Fluxions of the Areas be s and t : And it will be xv : zy : : s : t. 
Therefore if we fuppofe x = i, and v=s, as before; it will be 

zy = t, and thence - =y. 

2. Therefore let any two Equations be affumed ; one of which 
may exprefs the relation of the Areas s and t, and the other the 
relation of their Abfciffes x and z, and thence, (by Prob. i.) let the 

Fluxions t and z be found, and then make - =>'. 

3. Ex. i. Let the given Curve FDH be a Circle, exprefs'd by the 
Equation ax xx = w, and let other Curves be fought, whofe 
Areas may be equal to that of the Circle. Therefore by the Hy- 

pothefis s=:f, and thence s = f, and y = - =^-. It remains 

to determine z, by afluming fome relation between the Abfciffes 
x and z. 

4. As if you fuppofe ax=zz; then (by Prob. i.) a =. 2zz: So 
that fubflituting : [ for z, then y = " = . But it is v = 

(\/ax xx =) - \/ aa s.s, therefore \/ ' aa zz = y is the 

a aa * 

Equation to the Curve, whofe Area is equal to that of the Circle. 

5. After the fame manner if you fuppofe xx =. z, there will 

ariie 2x =s, and thence _)'= (==] ~ ; whence -j and x being 

; I 
exterminated, it will be y=- 7"-' 

2Z 2 - 

6. Or if you fuppofe cc = xz, there arifes o = z + xz, and 

T-V (5 / 

thence -- = y = -- , v az cc. 

2 2^3 

7. Again, fuppofing ax +- '- = z, (by Prob. i.) \t'isa + s=:z, 
and thence -^- y ?> which denotes a mechanical Curve. 

8. Ex. 2. Let the Circle ax xx = w be given again, and let 
Curves be fought, whofe Areas may have any other aflumed relation 
to the Area of the Circle. As if you afliime cx + s = t, and fup- 



pofe alfo ax = ZZ. (By Prob. i.) 'tis c + s = t, and a = 

Therefore 



and INFINITE SERIES. 83 

Therefore y = ~ = 2 ~~; and fubftituting ^ ax xx for j, 
and 5 f for x, 'tis;'= 4- ^ v'^ 

9. But if you affume j =/, and x = z, you will have 

s ^! =/, and i = z. Therefore y- - =j 2!2L O i 

K fl ' 

= i; . Now for exterminating v, the Equation ax xx 
= iJ'u, (by Prob. i.) gives ^ 2x= 2vv, and therefore 'tis y=. 
. Where if you expunge v and A; by fubftituting their values 



\/ ax xx and 2;, there will arile _)=-" \/tf;s 

10. But if you affume ss = f, and x = zz, there will arife 
2w=r^, and i = 2zz; and therefore _y = V = 4^- Anc 

5 and x fubftituting \/ ax xx and &z, it will become y = 
\Sa-zz;, which is an Equation to a mechanical Curve. 

1 1. Ex. 3. After the fame manner Figures may be found, which 
have an aflumed relation to any other given Figure. Let the Hyper- 
bola cc -{- xx = wu be given ; then if you affume s = /, and 
xx=cz, you will have s = f and 2X = cz; and thence _)' = 

.r= -. Then fubftituting v/cc -+- xx for j, and C-z^ for x, it 

s; 

will be y =: - i/cz -{- zz. 

* 2Z 

12. And thus if you affume xv s=zf, and xx = cz, you 
will have v-^-vx s=t, and 2X = cz. But v=.s, and thence 

vx = i. Therefore y= - = ~. But now (by Prob. i.) cc-\-xx 

% *** 

= 1?^ gives x=^-ui;, and 'tis y = ^ Then fubftituting \/i<,-t-xx 
for -u, and c*z* for x, it becomes y =. , ^ c ~ ^ 

13. Ex. 4. Moreover if the Ciffoid ^-^^_- - =1; were given, to 
which other related Figures are to be found, and for that purpofe 
you affume - ^/ax xx +- - s = t ; fuppofe - */ ax xx = h, 

and its Fluxion /' -, therefore h +- - s = /. But the Equation *** - 

M 2 =M 



84 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

=/j/j gives 3 * A ^ .V. ==2.^, where if you exterminate /&, it will be 




And bcfides fuice it is - s - 

3 3 



xx , 



= t. Now to determine z and z, afTume 
\/ aa ax = z ; then (by Prob. i .) a = 2zz, or z = - 

V.. Jaxxx a A; ' 

v/tftf ~. And as this Equation belongs to the Circle, we mall 
have the relation of the Areas of the Circle and of the Ciflbid. 

14. And thus if you had aflumed V ">/ ax xx -h ~ s = f y 

and x = z, there would have been derived y-=.\/as> .22-, an 
Equation again to the Circle. 

15. In like manner if any mechanical Curve were given, other 
mechanical Curves related to it might be found. But to derive 
geometrical Curves, it will be convenient, that of right Lines de- 
pending Geometrically on each other, fome one may be taken for 
the Bafe or Abfcifs ; and that the Area which compleats the Paralle- 
logram be fought, by fuppofing its Fluxion to be equivalent to the 
Abfcifs, drawn into the Fluxion of the Ordinate. 

1 6. Ex. 5. Thus the Trochoid ADF being propofed, I refer it 
to the Abfcifs 

ABj and the 
Parallelogram 
ABDG being 
compleated, I 
leek for the 
complemen- 
tal Superficies 
ADG,byfup- 
pofing it to be 
defcribed by 
the Motion of 
the right Line 

GD, and therefore its Fluxion to be equivalent to the Line GD 
drawn into the Velocity of the Motion ; that is, x*v. Now where- 
as AL is parallel to the Tangent DT, therefore AB will be to BL 
as the Fluxion of the fame AB to the Fluxion of the Ordinate BD, 

that 




and INFINITE SERIES. 85 

that is, as r to -j. So that <u = and therefore xv == BL. 

A h 

Therefore the Area ADG is described by the Fluxion BL ; fince 
therefore the circular Area ALB is defcribed by the fame Fluxion, 
they will be equal. 

17. In like manner if you conceive ADF to be a Figure of 
Arches, or of verfed Sines, that is, whole Ordinate BD is equal to 
the Arch AL ; lince the Fluxion of the Arch AL is to the Fluxion 
of the Abfcifs AB, as PL to BL, that is, v : i :: a : \/ ax .v.v, 
then -y = --/ . Then vx, the Fluxion of the Area ADG, 

2 v ax xx 

will be 7=^=. Wherefore if a right Line equal to --.' 

2V <,* xx ly . .x ATV 

be conceived to be apply 'd as a rectangular Ordinate at B, a point of 
the Line AB, it will be terminated at a certain geometrical Curve, 
whole Area, adjoining to the Abfcifs AB, is equal to the Area 
ADG. 

1 8. And thus geometrical Figures may be found equal to other 
Figures, made by the application (in any Angle) of Arches of a 
Circle, of an Hyperbola, or of any other Curve, to the Sines right 
or verfed of thole Arches, or to any other right Lines that may be 
Geometrically determin'd. 

19. As to Spirals, the matter will be very fliort For from the 
Center of Rotation A, the Arch DG being defcribed, with any 
Radius AG, cutting the right Line AF in G, and the Spiral in D ; 
fince that Arch, as a Line moving upon the 

Abfcifs AG, delcribes the Area of the Spiral 
AHDG, fo that the Fluxion of that Area is 
to the Fluxion of the Rectangle i x AG, as 
the Arch GD to i ; if you raife the perpen- 
dicular right Line GL equal to that Arch, 
by moving in like manner upon the fame 
Line AC, it will defcribe the Area A/LG 
equal to the Area of the Spiral AHDG : 
The Curve A/L being a geometrical Curve. 
And fartlirr, if the Subtenfe AL be drawn, then A ALG = | 
xGL = |AGx GD = Sector AGDj therefore the complernental 
Segments AL/ and ADH will alfo be equal. And this not only agrees 
to the Spiral of Archimedes^ (in which cafe A/L becomes the Parabola 
of Apoliomus,) but to any other whatever; fo that all of them may 
be converted into equal geometrical Curves with the fame eale. 

20. 




86 tte Method of FLUXIONS, 

20. I might have produced more Specimens of the Conftruction 
of this Problem, but thefe may fuffice; as being fo general, that 
whatever as yet has been found out concerning the Areas of Curves, 
or (I believe) can be found out, is in fome manner contain'd herein, 
and is here determined for the moil part with lefs trouble, and with- 
out the ufual perplexities. 

21. But the chief ufe of this and the foregoing Problem is, that 
nffuming the Conic Sections, or any other Curves of a known mag- 
nitude, other Curves may be found out that may be compared with 
thefe, and that their defining Equations may be difpofed orderly in 
a Catalogue or Table. And when fuch a Table is contracted, 
when the Area of any Curve is to be found, if its defining Equation 
be either immediately found in the Table, or may be transformed 
into another that is contain'd in the Table, then its Area may be 
known. Moreover fuch a Catalogue or Table may be apply'd to 
the determining of the Lengths of Curves, to the finding of their 
Centers of Gravity, their Solids generated by their rotation, the Su- 
perficies of thofe Solids, and to the finding of any other flowing 
quantity produced by a Fluxion analogous to it. 

P R O B. IX. 

To determine the Area of any Curve propofed. 

1. The refolution of the Problem depends upon this, that from 
the relation of the Fluxions being given, the relation of the Fluents 
may be found, (as in Prob. 2.) And firft, if the right Line BD, 
by the motion of which the Area required AFDB 

is defcribed, move upright upon an Abfcifs AB 
given in pofition, conceive (as before) the Paral- 
lelogram ABEC to be defcribed in the mean time 
on the other fide AB, by a line equal to unity. 
And BE being fuppos'd the Fluxion of the Pa- 
rallelogram, BD will be the Fluxion of the Area 
required. 

2. Therefore make AB = x, and then alfo ABEC=i \x=x, 
and BE = x. Call alfo the Area AFDB = z, and it will be 

BD=z, as alfo =~, becaufe x=i. Therefore by the Equa- 

X 

tion expreffing BD, at the fame time the ratio of the Fluions - 




IS 



and INFINITE SERIES. 87 

is exprefs'd, and thence (by Prob. 2. Cafe i.) may be found the 
relation of the flowing quantities x and z. 

3. Ex. i. When BD, or z, is equal to fome fimple quantity. 

4. Let there be given ~ = z, r , (the Equation to the Pa- 

rabola,) and (Prob. 2.) there will arife - a = z. Therefore ^> 
or -L AB x BD, = Area of the Parabola AFDB. 

c. Let there be eiven = z, fan Equation to a Parabola of 

J ^ aa * 

the fecond kind,) and there will arife -^ = z, that is, ~ AB x BD 
= Area AFDB. 

6. Let there be given z 

XX ~ ' 

or a^x 1 = x-:, (an Equation to 
an Hyperbola of the fecond kind,) 
and there will arife a 3 x 1 



z 




or 7 = z. That is, AB x BD 

= Area HDBH, of an infinite length, lying on the other fide of 

the Ordinate BD, as its negative value insinuates. 

j. And thus if there were given ^ = z, there would arife 



2XX 



Z. 



8. Moreover, let ax = zz, or a*x* = z, (an Equation again 
to the Parabola,) and there will arife ~a^x^ = z,, that is, i-AB 
x BD = Area AFDB. 

9 . Let ~=zz- t then za*x = s, or 2 AB x BD = AFDH. 

10. Let =zz', then ^ f = s, or 2 AB x BD = HDBH. 

1 1. Let ax* = z~> ; then fV = z, or i AB xBD = AFDH. 
And fo in others. 

12. Ex. 2. Where z is equ.il to an Aggregate of fuch Quantities. 

13. LetAT-H^ij then^-h *- = z> 

, J 

14. Let <z -{- ^ = ~ . then ax \ = &> 

15. Let 3*i ^ z ; then 2x^ +- x 4** = 2r - 

1 6. Ex. 3. Where a previous reduction by Divifion is required. 

17. Let there be given j~, =.& (an Equation to the Apollonian 
Hyperbola,) and the divifion being performed in injinittun, it will be 



l%e Method of FLUXION s 



, 



x __ _ ^ 4. ?f ^l 5 , &c. And thence, (by Prob. 2.) as 

11 1. a * x ^^ 

in the fecond Set of Examples, you will obtain z= -y --^ 



/. "x a U~A ^ 

5^/3 A/4 * 

1 8. Let there be given ^ ==*, and by divifion it will be 

^ 1 ~J XX 

~=i x*-{-x* x 6 , &c. or elfe s= -^ l - -f- -., &c. And 

" X 1 X4 A. ' 

thence (by Prob. 2.) 2 = x ^ 3 -f-^ r 1# 7 , &c. =AFDBi 
or 2 = -i H- ^- - 5 , &c. =HDBH. 

X 3X* SA.'' 

L A 

19. Let there be given , ~!Li X =z, and by divifion it will 
be z = 2x^ 2X + 7^ I3AT 1 -f- 34*% 6cc. And thence (by 

Prob. 2.) z = $x* x' -f- yx* ' T 3x3 + V 8 A< ^ &c - 

20. Ex. 4. Where a previous reduction is required by Extraction 
of Roots. 

21. Let there be given z = \/ aa -\- xx, (an Equation to the 
Hyperbola,) and the Root being extracted to an infinite multitude 

of terms, it will be z=i a 4- * ~\ 7- - r, &c. whence 

* ft a Q f ,9.*if. f ,l I I -7 fit* 



. r . X X x ^x 

as in the foregoing ss = ax+ 6 ~ , -h 77^ TT^ &c - 



22. In the fame manner if the Equation z = \/aa xx were 
given, (which is to the Circle,) there would be produced z=ax 



b ^Oi.J ii2a s 

23. And fo if there were given z-=\/x xx, (an Equation 
alfo to the Circle,) by extracting the Root there would arife 
z = x' f x* 4-** -r'-g-x^, 6cc. And therefore z = .ix* 



1 

V z 

TT . 



___ _ 

24. Thus s === v//z<* -^- AV xx, (an Equation again to the Cir- 



bx 



x .\ 

cle,) by extraction of the Root it gives z=a-\- - - gj s j occ. 

, ^* Jf3 /'*v3 - 

whence 2; = <7Ar -f- -- -, --- , &c. 

4 6< 24^ I 

25. And thus v^~ZT7~ = ^, by a due reduction gives 



z=i-+- T^-V* -h 43^4, &c. then 2 = AT -f- ^ 3 -f- T V^ S &c. 
H-irf -f^ _l_^ + T V^ 

T ' - Vo^ 

26. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 89 



26. Thus finally z=l/a* -t-A' 5 , by the extraction of the Cubic 
Root, gives z=a -+- ~ -+- ~ w &c. and then (by Prob. 2.) 

*=** + -~, gfr + T> &c. = AFDB. Or elfe *= 



C '' A 1 1 ** 

And thence * = 7 



&c. = HDBH. 



567* 

27. Ex. 5. Where a previous reduction is required, by the refo- 
lution of an affected Equation. 

28. If a Curve be defined by this Equation z> + a*z 



2a"' x 3 = o, extradl the Root, and there will arife z = a x . 
j_ : : _j_ !4^-. &c. whence will be obtain'd as before z-=ax 

64.2 5 i zaa 







29. But if z~' cz* 2x*z c *z -f- 2x ? -+- c* = o were the 
Equation to the Curve, the refolution will afford a three-fold Root; 
either z = c + .v f? + Jl, &c. or S = c .v-f- !i' -, 

V 32' 1 <- 



or s = c A - f -- (_ - &c. And hence will arife the 

2" 2rc At T 

values of tb,e three correfponding Areas, z = ex + x* 
-f- T^t, &c. 2; = r^ i.v 1 + ^ ^0, &e. and x = ex 

A 5 X 4 .,S 

~ - -- ! - flrr 
6c 8. 1 24^' CCC> 

30. I add nothing here concerning mechanical Carves, becaufe 
their reduction to the form of geometrical Curves will be taught af- 
terwards. 

31. But whereas the values of z thus found belong to Areas 
which are fituate, fometimes to a finite part AB of the Abfcifs, 
fometimes to a part BH produced infinitely towards H, and fome- 
times to both parts, according to their different terms: That the 
due value of the Area may be alTign'd, adjacent to any portion of 
the Abfcifs, that Area is always to be made equal to the difference 
of the values of z, which belong to the parts of the Abfci/s, that 
are terminated at the beginning and end of the Area. 

32. For Inflance ; to the Curve exnrefs'd bv the Equation 

i-^-'xx 

' m^^ JTC- 




fhe Method of FLUXIONS, 

~, it is found that z=x ^x } 
_l_ 4_,vS &c. Now that I may de- 
termine the quantity of the Area 
MDll, adjacent to the part of the 
Abfcifs /'B; from the value of z, 
which arifes by putting AB = x, 
I take the value of z, which arifes by putting Ab=x, and there 
remains x -Lx* + ^-x', &c. x + x> -J-x', &c. the value of 
that Area WDB. Whence if A*, or x, be put equal to nothing, 
jqere will be had the whole Area AFDB = x x' -+- -^x', &c. 

33. To the fame Curve there is alfo found z, ==. - -+ 

L, &c. Whence again, according to what is before, the Area 

5** 

I 1 1 ^ I I &/~f* *"T * ppr^TOt'f 1 

1 ]V\T\ __ t _. I ,_ -- oCC '- " T - 1 ' ' ^"" 1 -) OCC. J. ijCl CIUI C 

if AB, or x, be fuppofed infinite, the adjoining Area bdH toward 
H, which is alfo infinitely long, will be equivalent to - ^ 
-f- . &c. For the latter Series - -f- ~, &c. will 

CA ^-35 

vanifh, becaufe of its infinite denominators. 

34. To the Curve reprefented by the Equation a-\- = Z,^ it 

:s found, that z=.ax -. Whence it is that x - ax 

i X X 

-4- - = Area &/DB. But this becomes infinite, whether x be fup- 
pofed nothing, or x infinite ; and therefore each Area AFDB and 
&/H is infinitely great, and the intermediate parts alone, fuch as 
&/DB, can be exhibited. And this always happens when the Ab- 
fcifs x is found as well in the numerators of fome of the terms, as 
in the denominators of others, of the value of z. But when x is 
only found in the numerators, as in the firft Example, the value of 
z, belongs to the Area fituate at AB, on this fide the Ordinate. And 
when it is only in the denominators, as in the fecond Example, that 
value, when the figns of all the terms are changed, belongs to the 
whole Area infinitely produced beyond the Ordinate. 

35. If at any time the Curve-line cuts the Abfcifs, between the 
points b and B, fuppofe in E, inftead 
of the Area will be had the difference 
&/E* BDE of the Areas at the diffe- 
rent parts of the Abfcifs ; to which if 
t here be added the Rectangle 

he Area dEDG will be obtain'd. 
t 




G 



and INFINITE SERIES. 

36. But it is chiefly to be regarded, that when in the value of & 
any term is divided by x of only one dimension ; the Area corre- 
fponding to that term belongs to the Conical Hyperbola ; and there- 
fore is to be exhibited by it felf, in an infinite Series : As is done in 
what follows. 

77. Let fl3 ~ glA '= z, be an Equation to a Curve ; and by divifion 

J ax -f- xx J 

it becomes z = - 2a +- 2X _ h^ &c. and thence 



aa y 



2X> l X* 

Z = l^ j 2ax -f- x 1 ^T ' To* &c. And the Area &/DB 

,&*. 



aa 



zax 



xx 



2*5 

, 



I denote the little Areas belonging 



Where by the Marks and 

1-1 1 

- aa aa 

to the Terms and 

38. Now that |^ and |j| may be found, I make Kb, or x y to 
be definite, and bE indefinite, or a flowing Line, which therefore I 
call ;' ; fo that it will be -^; = to that Hyperbolical Area adjoin- 
But by Divifion it will be - - = - 
J x ~ \ y x 

therefore, 



ing to B, that is, j - 






A4 



or - 

x 



-* ' ' 



. and therefore the whole Area required 



WDB = 

X 
2A3 



21 3 . 

xx H -, &c. 

39. After the fame manner, AB, or x, might have been ufed for 

a definite Line, and then it would have been 



40. Moreover, if Z>B be bifefted in C, and AC be affumed to be 
of a definite length, and Cb and CB indefinite ; then making AC 

= i>, and C or CB =_)', 'twill be bd= -^ s=-\- ' -)- ~ 

-{- _i- ^-^-' &c. and therefore the Hyperbolical Area adjacent 

N 2 to 



'A Mt&od of FLUXIONS, 



to the Part of the Abfcifs &C will be 



a V 



r I 



.&c. Twill be alfo DB = -~ = ? - ~ + ~ - ^ + 
&c. And therefore the Area adjacent to the other part of the Abfcifs CB 

1 11 7* st^ 4 Si"*- 1 

= " , + - -f- ' ' , &c. And the Sum of thefe 

f 2f l Jf 1 4' * 5' 1 

Areas 7- -\~ ~r ~r, &c. will be equivalent to -| 



41. Thus in the Equation a 3 -f- z,* ~$- z x~= =o, denoting the 
nature of a Curve, its Root will be z = ,v y 

&c. Whence there arifes z, =-. Lxx -x 



6cc. And the Area 



' Y 
T A 

7 



ox 



8 J A X 8 I A i 

_ _1 _ _!_ 

/^r^ 
Six' KC ' 



T, &c. that is,=:|.v 



.'X ^' 
T A Six 



&c. _ - ^ 



&c. - i - - 



42. But this Hyperbolical term, for the moft pnrt, may be very 
commodioufly avoided, by altering the beginning of the Abfcifs, 
that is, by increafing or diminiihing it by fome gi\ en quantity. As 

in the former Example, where ? v + * v v = z was the Equation to 
the Curve, if I fhould make b to be the beginning of the Ablcifs* 
and fuppofmg Al> to be of any determinate length 4/7, for the re- 
mainder of the Abfcifs B, I fliall now write x : Thst is, if I dimi- 
nifti the Abfcifs by a, by writing x -f- a inftead of x, it will 

-become ^~^,. = ~> and 



_!! & Ci whence arifes s = \ax ' 4 ^ z 4--^' -' &c. = 
273 j bia 



Area . 

43. And thus by affuming another and another point for the be- 
ginning of the Abfcifs, the Area of any Curve may be exr-ivib'd an 
infinite variety of ways. 

44. Alfo the Equation rj-p = z might have been refolved 
into the two infinite Series z, - -- " -+- "-^ &c. a -f .v 

.V 2 X 1 X } 

**--}-; &c. where there is found no Term divided b} the fir ft 

2 Power 



and INFINITE SERIES. 93 

Power of x. But fuch kind of Series, where the Powers of A* afcend 
infinitely in the numerators of the one, and in the denominators 
of the other, are not fo proper to derive the value of z from, by 
Arithmetical computation, when the Species are to be changed in- 
to Numbers. 

45. Hardly any thing difficult can occur to any one, who is to un- 
dertake fuch a computation in Numbers, after the value of the Area 
is obtain'd in Species. Yet for the more compleat illufhation of the 
foregoing Doctrine, I mall add an Example or two. 

46. Let the Hyperbola AD be propofed, 
whofe Equation is \/x-+-xx=z; its Vertex be- 
ing at A, and each of its Axes is equal to Unity. 
From what goes before, its Area ADB=-i.v> 

-+- j'^ A*' 1 " -+- T'T* ? T^P*'"' &c ' that 
is x* into Lx -+- x* T ' T .v * + y ' T .v 4 T 4 T - V s > 
&c. which Series may be infinitely produced by 
multiplying thelaft term continually by the fucceeding terms of this 

Proereffion i- J #. 5 .v ^^r ~~'" q x ^^'v &c. That is 

2 S 47 6-9 A - 8.-n Xi 10.15*. 




the firft term ^..v 1 x I_ 3 x makes the fecond term -L.v* : Which 

2 -5 ' 
multiply 'd by " l -~ x makes the third term T V- vl : Which mul- 

tiply'd by ^ x makes T ' T .v ? the fourth term; and fo ad hifini- 
tuin. Now let AB be affumed of any length, fuppofe ^, and writing 
this Number for .v, and its Root 4 for x*, and the firft term ^x^ 
or y x T> being reduced to a decimal Fraction, it becomes 

-^3333333> & c - This into '- ^ makeso.oo625 the fecond term. 
This into ~ ' v makes 0.0002790178, &c. the third term. And 

4-7 4 

fo on for ever. But the term?, which I thus deduce by degrees, I 
difpole in two Tables; the affirmative terms in one, and the nega- 
tive in another, and I add them up as you fee here. 



-i-o. 



94 "The Method of FLUXIONS, 

+ 0.0833333333333333 00002790178571429 

62500000000000 34679066051 

271267361111 834^65027 

5135169396 26285354 

144628917 961296 

4954581 3 86 7 6 

190948 1663 

7963 75 
35 2 _ 

1 1 0.0002825719389575 

-f- 0.0896109885646518 

4- 0.0896109885640518 "0^3284166257043 

Then from the fum of the Affirmatives I take the fum of the ne- 
gatives, and there remains 0.0893284166257043 for the quantity 
of the Hyperbolic Area ADB ; which was to be found. 

47. Now let the Circle AdF be propofed, 
which isexpreffed by the equation \/x xx = z > 
that is, whofe Diameter is unity, and from what 
goes before its Area AdB will be -!#* ..#* 
T ' T xi -fT^i & c> I n which Series, fince 
the terms do not differ from the terms of the Se- 
ries, which above exprefs'd the Hyperbolical Area, unlefs in the 
Signs -4- and ; nothing elfe remains to be done, than to 
conned: the fame numeral terms with other fignsj that is, by 
fubtracting the connected fums- of both the afore -mention'd tables, 
0.08989 3 560 503 6 1 93 from the firft term doubled 0.1666666666666, 
&c. and the remainder 0.0767731061630473 will be the portion 
A^B of the ciicular Area, fuppoiing AB to be a fourth part of the 
diameter. And hence we may obferve, that tho' the Areas of the 
Circle and Hyperbola are not compared in a Geometrical confidera- 
tion, yet each of them is dilcover'd by the fame Arithmetical com- 
putation. 

48. The portion of the circle A^/B being found, from thence the 
whole Area may be derived. For the Radius dC being drawn, 
multiply Ed, or -^v/S? Ulto -^C, or i, and half of the product 

s-Vs/3' or -54 12 ^5 8 773^5 2 75 w '" ^ e ^ e va ^ ue f the Triangle 
cWB; which added to the Area AdB, there will be had the 
Sector ACd = 0.1308996938995747, the fextuple of which 

whole Area. 

49. And 




and INFINITE SERIES. 



95 



49- And hence by the way the length of the Circumference will 
be 3.1415926535897928, by dividing the Area by a fourth part of 
the Diameter. 

50. To thefe we mail add the calculation of the Area compre- 
hended between the Hyperbola dfD and its Afymptote CA. Let 
C be the Center of the Hyperbola, and putting 



'twill be -^ =BD, and -^ -=.bd; whence 



a+x 






" 



the Area AFDB = bx - - 4- 4 -*, 
&c. and the Area 







4- , &c. and the fum 0aL>&=. 2ox-\ ? c AB /'/.< 

4- ~ 4- ^ ? , &c. Now let us fuppofe CA = AF=i, and Kb 
or AB = T L., Cb being 0.9, and CB = i.i ; and fubftituting thefe 
numbers for a, b, and x, the firft term of the Series becomes 0.2, 
the fecond 0.0006666666, &c. the third 0.000004 ; and fo on, as 
you fee in this Table. 

O.2OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

6666666666666 

40000000000 
285714286 

2222222 
l8l82 



The fum 0.200670695462151 1= Area bdDB. 
51. If the parts of this Area Ad and AD be defired feparately, 
fubtract the lefler BA from the greater dA, and there will remain 

3-+ -^4- - h -- &c. Where if i be wrote for a and b, 

and -jig. for x, the terms being reduced to decimals will iland 
thus; 

O.O IOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

500000000000 

3333333333 

25000000 

2OOOOO 
1667 



The fum o. 



= A^ AD, 



5 2 - 



96 The Method of FLUXIO N s, 

52. Now if this difference of the Areas be added to, and fubtracted 
from,their fum before found, half the aggregate o. 1053605156578263 
will be the greater Area hd, and half or the remainder 
0.0953101798043248 will be the lefler Area AD. 

53. By the fame tables thofe Areas AD and hd will be obtain'd 
alfo, when AB and Ab are fuppos'd T ~, or CB=i.oi, and 
d> = o.gg, if the numbers are but duly transferr'd to lower places, 
as may be here feen. 

O O2OOOOOOOOOOOOOC0 O.O30ICOOOOOOOO3OO 

66666666666 50020000 

4000000 3^ 

28 



Sum o 020000(5667066(195 = 



Sum 0.0001000050003333 AJ AD. 



==AD. 

54. And fo putting AB andA=-~o-> orCB=i.oor, and' 
0^ = 0.999, there will be obtain'd Ad= 0.0010005003335835, 
and AD = o. 0009995003330835. 

55. In the fame manner (if CA and AF= i) putting AB and 
A = o.2, or 0.02, or 0.002, the fe Areas will arife, 

A^=o.223 1435513 142097, and ADz=o. 1823215567939546, 
or A</= 0.0202027073 175194, and AD = 0.0 19802 627296 1797, 
or AW=o.oo2oo2 andAp = o.ooi 

56. From thefe Areas thus found it will be eafy to derive others, 

I f \ 2. 

by addition and fubtradtion alone. For as it is ' into -^ = 2, 
the fum of the Areas 0.693 I 47 I ^5599453 belonging to the Ratio's 
^|and ^- 2 , (that is, infifting upon the parts of the Abfcifs 1.2 o 8 
and 1.2 o.9,)will be the Area AFcPjS, C/3 being = 2, as is known. 
Again, fince ^ into 2 = 3, the fum 1.0986122886681097 of the 

Area's belonging to ^-| and 2, will be the Area AFcT/3, C/3 being 3.. 
Again, as it is ~ = 5, and 2 x5= 10, by a due addition of 
Areas will be obtain'd 1.6093379124341004 = AF^/3, when 
c /3=5; and 2.3025850929940457 =AF < T/3, when C/3 = 10. 
And thus, fince 10x10=100, and 10x100=1000, and ^5 

x 10 xo.98 = 7, and lox i.i = n, and .' x ' ' I ^ ) and 



- =499 ; it is plain, that the Area AF^/3 may be found by 
the compofition of the Areas found before, when C/3 = i oo j i ooo i 

7> 



and IN FIN ITE SERIES, 97 

7; or any other of the above-mention'd numbers, AB = BF being 
llill unity. This I was willing to infinuate, that a method might 
be derived from hence, very proper for the conftrudtion of a Canon 
of Logarithms, which determines the Hyperbolical Areas, (from 
which the Logarithms may ealily be derived,) correfponding to fo 
many Prime numbers, as it were by two operations only, which are 
not very troublefome. But whereas that Canon feems to be deriva- 
ble from this fountain more commodioufly than from any other, 
what if I mould point out its contraction here, to compleat the 
whole ? 

57. Firfl therefore having affumed o for the Logarithm of the 
number i, and i for the Logarithm of the number 10, as is gene- 
rally done, the Logarithms of the Prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 1 1, 
13, 17, 37, are to be inveftigated, by dividing the Hyperbolical 
Areas now found by 2.3025850929940457, which is the Area cor- 
refponding to the number 10: Or which is the fame thing, by mul- 
tiplying by its reciprocal 0.4342944819032518. Thus for Inftance, 
if 0.69314718, &c. the Area correfponding to the number 2, were 
multiply'd by 0.43429, &c. it makes 0.3010299956639812 the Lo- 
garithm of the number 2. 

58. Then the Logarithms of all the numbers in the Canon, 
which are made by the multiplication of thefe, are to be found 
by the addition of their Logarithms, as is ufual. And the void 
places are to be interpolated afterwards, by the help of this 
Theorem. 

59. Let be a Number to which a Logarithm is to be adapted, A- 
the difference between that and the two neareft numbers equally 
diflant on each fide, whofe Logarithms are already found, and let d 
be half the difference of the Logarithms. Then the required Loga- 
rithm of the Number n will be obtain'd by adding d-\- +- gr^, 

&c. to the Logarithm of the leffer number. For if the numbers 
are expounded by C/>, C/3, and CP, the rectangle CBD or C,&T=i, 
as before, and the Ordinates pq and PQ^being raifed ; if n be wrote 

for C/3, and x for p or /3P, the Area pgQP or ^ -+- ~ } + ~, 
&c. will be to the Area pq}$ or *- +- ^ -f- ^, &c. as the diffe- 
rence between the Logarithms of the extream numbers or 2(i, to 
the difference between the Logarithms of the leffer and of the middle 

O one; 



g 8 Tie Method of FLUXIONS, 

dx dx* dx* 

- -+- -f- &C. 

one: which therefore will be . , that is, when the 

x A' 3 A"* a 

- +- -4- &c. 
divifion is perform'd, d-\- -4- - &c. 

* 2n i Zfj s 

60. The two firft terms of this Series d-\- I think to be accu- 

2n 

rate enough for the construction of a Canon of Logarithms, even 
tho' they were to be produced to fourteen or fifteen figures; pro- 
vided the number, whofe Logarithm is to be found, be not lefs 
than 1000. And this can give little trouble in the calculation, be- 
caufe x is generally an unit, or the number 2. Yet it is not necef- 
fary to interpolate all the places by the help of this Rule. For the 
Logarithms of numbers which are produced by the multiplication or 
divifion of the number laft found, may be obtain'd by the numbers 
whofe Logarithms were had before, by the addition or fubtraction 
of their Logarithms. Moreover by the differences of the Loga- 
rithms, and by their fecond and third differences, if there be occa- 
lion, the void places may be more expeditioufly fupply'd ; the fore- 
going Rule being to be apply'd only, when the continuation of fome 
full places is wanted, in order to obtain thofe differences. 

6 1. By the fame method rules may be found for the intercalation 
of Logarithms, when of three numbers the Logarithms of the leffer 
and of the middle number are given, or of the middle number and 
of the greater; and this although the numbers mould not be in 
Arithmetical progreffion. 

62. Alfo by purfuing the fteps of this method, rules might be 
eafily difcover'd, for the conftruction of the tables of artificial Sines 
and Tangents, without the affiftance of the natural Tables. But of 
thefe things only by the bye. 

63. Hitherto we have treated of the Quadrature of Curves, which 
are exprefs'd by Equations confirming of complicate terms ; and that 
by means of their reduction to Equations, which confift of an infi- 
nite number of fimple terms. But whereas fuch Curves may fome- 
times be fquared by finite Equations alfo, or however may be com- 
pared with other Curves, whofe Areas in a manner may be confi- 
der'd as known ; of which kind are the Conic Sections : For this 
reafon I thought fit to adjoin the two following catalogues or tables 
of Theorems, according to my promife, conflructed by the help of 
the jtb and Bth aforegoing Propofitions. 

64. 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 99 

64. The firft of thefe exhibits the Areas of fuch Curves as can be 
fquared ; and the fecond contains fuch Curves, whole Areas may be 
compared with the Areas of the Conic Sections. In each of thefe, 
the letters d, e, f, g, and h, denote any given quantities, x and z 
the Abfcifles of Curves, v and y parallel Ordinares, and s and t 
Areas, as before. The letters and 6, annex'd to the quantity z, 
denote the number of the dimenfions of the fame z, whether it be 
integer or fractional, affirmative or negative. As if =3, then 

JZ1ZZZ2 3 , z l "=z s , z-=z-~> or-' 3 , &+' = z*, and z*-' =z*. 

65. Moreover in the values of the Areas, for the fake of brevity, 
is written R inftead of this Radical \Se-{-f& t or </e-t-fzi-\-gz**>, 
and/ inflead of </b-t-iz* t by which the value of the Ordinate^ is 
affected. 



10O 



"fhe Method of FLUXIONS, 






, 
t 



I 
I 

i 



s 



1 



I 



a 



CO 

rt 



ii 

'5 



CO 

U 

3 



Curve 



u 



+ 



n 

en 

e* 



H N 










- 1 N CO 



* 

1 v, 

N 1 S 1 



' 
T *~ 

1 *J- 

~ 

V ^ 






and INFINITE SERIES. 



101 



T- * 

II II 



a 



CO 



bo 



t 

II 






U 



a 

o 
u 



f ^ 

^ \ 

O ol \O 

iM 

""* I I 

1 I 



cno *?> oa'j j? 
N cr> 



N 



II II 



T 
1 



v 

t 



* 



i 



H- 



T* 

II II 



?r 



-f' 



c 






f 



M 



s 



OJ 






M M 



x 



o 

G 



* ** 

X 



01 



X" 

i 



X X 

s 
CO s: 



x" 



IO2 e jff>e Method -o^ FLUXIONS, 

67. Other things of the fame kind might have been added ; but I 
fhall now pafs on to another fort .of Curves, which may be com- 
pared with the Conic Sections. And in this Table or Catalogue 
you have the propofed Curve reprefented by the Line QE^R, the 
beginning of whole Abfcifs is A, the Abfcifs AC, the Ordinate CE, 
the beginning of the Area a^, and the Area 

defcribed a^EC. But the beginning of this 
Area, or the initial term, (which com- 
monly either commences at the beginning 
of the Abfcifs A, or recedes to an infinite 
diftance,) is found by feeking the length of 
the Abfcifs Aa, when the value of the 
Area is nothing, and by eredling the per- 
pendicular a^/. 

68. After the fame manner you have the Conic Sedlion repre- 
fented by the Line PDG, whofe Center is A, Vertex a, rectangular 





Semidiameters Aa and AP, the beginning of the Abfcifs A, or a, 
or a, the Abfcifs AB, or aB, or aB, the Ordinate BD, the Tangent 
DT meeting AB in T, the Subtenfe aD, and the Re&angle infcribed 
or adfcribed ABDO. 

69. Therefore retaining the letters before defined, it will be 
AC = z, CE=y, a.%EC = t, AB or aB = x, BD = i;, and 
ABDP or aGDB=j. And befides, when two Conic Sections are 
required, for the determination of any Area, the Area of the latter 
mall be call'd <r, the Abfcifs |, and the Ordinate T. Put p for 



and INFINITE 



103 



S 

S 



u 



o 

en 

_2 
3 



rt 



-y 

CO 



5 
U 






o 

U. 



oa 






a 
O 
Q 






V 






V 



Tl 



BL, 
O 



Q 
O 

14 

o 

c 






. 

+ i? 



.V3 
>*, 



Q 
O 

rt 
2 



ea 
Q 
O 

rt 
>s| = 



O 

eg 

Q 



Q 
O 



M 

OH 

Q 

pa 



CO 

Q 
O 









** 












I 

4- 






--V- 



104 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



OJ 



m 

(LI 

3 



Q 

O 
a 
c 
c 

h 

O 

Q 

Pi 
O 
C 



O 

rt 
O 



^1^ 



a 

o 

Q 
O 

o 
.5 

o 
Q 
O 

2 



O 
Q 

rt 
O 
B 



dina 



ed 



C 

3 



- 
3 

U 



I 

o 

fe 



4 



I 



a 
ji 



^ 

H 



- 



4- 



.<v 
fa. 



cj 

o 
o 

n 



X 

15 ^ 



V 

4- 



fr 

SJ 



t 

3| 

s 






"T 



II II 



+ 



+ 






I 

K 
+ 

% 



v 






-V" 



u 

13 



O 



U 

S) 



u 

O 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



U 

<J-. 

o 

1= 
o 



$ 

N 

4- 
H 

Mj 



P s- 



^ ^ 



It tt 



*- 



< 

Q 



CO 

Q 
O 



4 



i 



' 









. 






I.Hf 

Tf- 

1 






+ 1 

5 



+ 1 



V 



1 + 



<5 

+ 
b<j 



+ 



) 



I? 






4- 



E -V 

H-| 

^i t. 



X 



io6 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



s 



J* 



U 



J 

to 



_u 

o 









I 

3 
U 



t/> 

o 

fa 






+ 



X 



v. 



i 



s 



+ 



x 



and INFINITE SERIES, 107 

71. Before I go on to illuftrate by Examples the Theorems that 
are deliver'd in thefe claffes of Curves, I think it proper to obferve, 

72. I. That whereas in the Equations reprefenting Curves, I have 
all along fuppofed all the figns of the quantities d, e, f\ g, />, and i 
to be affirmative ; whenever it fhall happen that they are negative, 
they muft be changed in the fubfequent values of the Abfcifs and Or- 
ninate of the Conic Section, and alfo of the Area required. 

73. II. Alfo the figns of the numeral Symbols and 0, when they 
are negative, muft be changed in the values of the Areas. More- 
over their Signs being changed, the Theorems themfclvcs may ac- 
quire a new form. Thus in the 4th Form of Table 2, the Sign ot 

d ' 

being changed, the 3d Theorem becomes -;_ iv ,.-j- I ~~~' ,-^ -}> ~~^ 



x , &c. that is, 7=^= =}', *"==*, 

' cz -f-/a 

into 2.w 3^===^. And the fame is to be obferved in others. 

74. III. The feries of each order, excepting the 2d of the ift Ta- 
ble, may be continued each way ad infinitum. For in the Series of 
the -;d and 4th Order cf Table i, the numeral co-efficients of the 
initial terms, (2, 4, 16, 96, 768, Sec.) are fonn'd by multi- 
plying the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, ro, &c. continually 
into each other ; and the co-efficients of the fubfequcnt terms are de- 
rived from the initials in the 3d Order, by multiplying gradually by 
1 > A, , , -Li, &rc. or in the 4th Order by multi- 
plying by * i, 4-, f, T> -rV. &C. But the co-efficients 
of' the denominators i, 3, 15, 105, &c. a rife by multiplying the 
numbers i, 3, 5, 7, 9, &c. gradually into each other. 

75. But in the ad Table, the Series of the i ft , 2 d , 3'', 4 h , c; 1 ", and 
io th Orders are produced in infinitum by diviiion alone. Thus having 

= v, in the ift Order, if you perform the diviiion to a con- 
venient period, there will arifo j~ ~z ^ 'j 7 ^ 

==.)'. The firft three terms belong to the ift Order of 



t/x 



.4--1-' 




Table i, and the fourth term belongs to the ift Species cf this Order. 

d 3n Jc --4 <: ~ n 

Whence it appears, that the Area is 7^- - ~ 1^f z + r ?r ~ 

__ _il s . } putting s for the Area of the Conic Section, whofe Abfcifi 

*' d 

is x=r , and Ordinate v = g - : r- -. 

P 2 



io8 7&e Method of FLUXIONS, 

76. But the Series of the ^th and 6th Orders may be infinitely 
continued, by the help of the two Theorems in the 5th Order of 
Table i. by a due addition or fubtraction : As alib the 7th and 8th 
Scries, by means of the Theorems in the 6th Order of Table i. and 
the Series of the nth, by the Theorem in the roth Order of Table i. 

For inftance, if the Series of the 3d Order of Table 2. beto be far- 
ther continued, fuppofe 6 = 4>j, and the ift Theorem of the 

jth Order of Table i. wll become 8fts~ 4l| ~~ 1 . 5/b~ 3>1 ~ 1 into 
=. -^-=^f. But according to the 4th Theorem of 




this Series to be produced, writing ^ for </, it is ~ f%> 

<x=v, and 'Qfr'-'S/*' __ t 

ize 

So that fubtrafting the former values of / and /, there will remain 

4J ' / J- 1 10/1/3 Ii;/?} R S a _,, - , . 

qnez v/^-h/ 2 =/> I2e ft Thefe being mul- 

ij j 

tiplied by - ; and, (if you pleafe) for -~ writing xv*, there will arife 
a 5th Theorem of the Series to be produced,' 



, 1 ! s - 

= v, and -r- = f. 



77. IV. Some of thefe Orders may alfo be otherwife derived from 
others. As in the 2d Table, the 5th, 6th, 7th, and nth, from the 
8th; and the 9th from the loth : So that I might have omitted them, 
but that they may be of fome ufe, tho' not altogether necefftry. Yet 
I have omitted fome Orders, which I might have derived from the ifr, 
and 2d, as alfo from the 9th and loth, becaufe they were affected by 
Denominators that were more complicate, and therefore can hardly be 
of any ufe. 

78. V. If the defining Equation of any Curve is compounded of 
feveral Equations of different Orders, or of different Species of the 
fame Order, its Area mufl be compounded of the correlponding A- 
reas ; taking care however, that they may be rightly connected with 
their proper Signs. For we mufl not always add or fubtra<fl at the 
fame time Ordinates to or -from Ordinates, or correfponding Areas 
to or from correfponding Areas ; but fometimes the fum of thefe, 
and the difference of thofe, is to be taken for a new Ordinate, or to 
conftitute a correfponding Area. And this muft be done, when the 
constituent Areas are pofited on the contrary fide of the Ordinate. 
Huf that the cautious Geometrician may the more readily avoid this 

in- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 109 

inconveniency, I have prefix' d their proper Signs to the feveral Va- 
lues of the Areas, tho' ibmetimes negative, as is done in the jth 
and yth Order of Table 2. 

70. VI. It is farther to be obferved, about the Signs of the Areas, 
that -f- * denotes, either that the Area of the Conic Section, adjoin- 
ing to the Abfcifs, is to be added to the other quantities in the value 
of t , ( fee the ifl Example following ;) or that the Area on the other 
fide of the Ordinate is to be fubtracled. And on the contrary, s 
denotes ambiguoufly, either that the Area adjacent to the Abfcifs is 
to be fubtradled, or that the Area on the other fide of the Ordinate 
is to be added, as it may feem convenient. Alfo the Value of f, if 
it comes out affirmative, denotes the Area of the Curve propoled ad- 
joining to its Abfcifs : And contrariwife, if it be negative, it repre- 
fents the Area on the other fide of the Ordinate. 

80. VII. But that this Area may be more certainly defined, we 
mull enquire after its Limits. And as to its Limit at the Abfcifs, at 
the Ordinate, and at the Perimeter of the Curve, there can be no un- 
certainty: But its initial Limit, or the beginning from whence its de- 
fcription commences, may obtain various pofitions. In the following 
Examples it is either at the beginning of the Abfcifs, or at an infinite 
diftance, or in the concourfe of the Curve with its Abfcifs. But it 
may be placed elfewhere. And wherever it is, it may be found, by 
ieeking that length of the Abfcifs, at which the value of f becomes 
nothing, and there erecting an Ordinate. For the Ordinate fo raifed 
will be the Limit required. 

8 1. VIII. If any part of the Area is pofited below the Abfcifs, 
/ will denote the difference of that, and of the part above the Ab- 
fcifs. 

82. IX. Whenever the dimenfions of the terms in the values of 
.v, i;, and /, (hall afcend too high, or defcend too low, they may be 
.reduced to a juft degree, by dividing or multiplying fo often by any 

given quantity, which may be fuppos'd to perform the office of Uni- 
ty, as often as thole dimenfions mail be either too high or too low. 

83. X. Befides the foregoing Catalogues, or Tables, we might allb 
conftrucT: Tables of Curves related_tp_ other Curves, which may be the 



moftfimple intheirkind; as to <Ja-\-fx* =v, ortox</e-t-fx* =v, 
or to ^/e-\-Jx* = < y, &c. So that we might at all times derive the 
Area of any propoled Curve from the fimpleft original, and know 
to what Curves it llands related. But now let us illuitrute by Ex- 
amples. what has been already delivered. 

84- 



no 



The Method ^FLUXIONS, 




84. EXAMPLE I. Let QER be a 
Conchoidal of fuch a kind, that the Q 
Semicircle QH A being defcribed, and 
AC being creeled perpendicular to R 
the Diameter A Q^_ if the Parallelo- 
gram QACI be compleated, the Dia- 
gonal AI be drawn, meeting the Se- 
micircle in H, and from H the'per- 

pendicular HE be let fall to 1C ; then the Point E will defcribe a 
Curve, whole Area ACEQJs fought. 

^.Therefore make AQ^==a, AC=z, CE=y, and becaufe of the 

continual Proportionals AI, AQ^, AH, EC, 'twill be ECor_>'= --^ 

86. Now that this may acquire the Form of the Equations in the 
Tables, make =2, and for z~- in the denominator write z*, and 
a*z~-* * for 



or 



;]-' in the numerator, and there will arife_y = 
flf > an Equation of the ift Species of the ad Order of Table 2, 

a -\-x, 

and the Terms being compared, it will be^ = rf 3 , e = a*, and 
f= I j .fo that 4/ .J'' i 

/ v ii T-< 



x, 



3 tf 1 .*; 1 = -u, and xv 2s 



t. 



87. Now that the values found of x and v may be reduced to a 
number of dimen lions, choofe any given quantity, as a, by 

which, as unity, a* may be multiplied once in the value of x, and 
in the value of v, a> may be divided once, and ^x 1 twice. And by 

this means you will obtain s/"^niTr =^,^/a l .v 1 =1', and xv 
2s, t: of which the conllradion is thus. 

88. Center A, and Radius AQ^_ defcribe the Qigadrahtal Arch 
QDP ; in AC take AB = AH ; raiie the perpendicular BD meeting 
that Arch in D, and draw AD. Then the double of the Scclof 

ADP will be equal to the Area fought ACEQ^ For 






' AB.?=) BD, or-y ; and .vj 2s= 2 A ADB 2 
or = 2*A ADB'-f- aBDP, that is, either = aOAD, or=2DAP: 
Of which values the affirmative aDAP belongs to the Area ACEQ, 
on this fide EC, and the negative aC^AD belongs to the Area 
RE R extended ad infi.ritum beyond EC. 

89. The folutions 'of Problems thus found may fometimes be 
made more elegant. Thus in the prefent cafe, drawing RH the le- 

midiameter 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



in 



midiameter of the Circle QH A, becaufe of equal Arches QH and DP, 
the Sector QRH is half the Sector DAP, and therefore a fourth part 
of the Surface ACEQ^ 

90. EXAMPLE II. Let AGE be a Curve, which is defcribed by the 
Angular point E of the Norma AEF, whilft one of the Legs AE, 
being interminate, paffes continually through the given point A, 
and the other CE, of a given length, 
flides upon the right Line AF gi- 
ven in pofition. Let fall EH per- 
pendicular to AF, and compleat 
the Parallelogram AHEC ; and 
calling AC = z, CE =_y, and 
EF = rf, becaufe of HF, HE, HA 
continual Proportionals, it will be 

HAor y= 



r, 




91. Now that the Area AGEC may be known, fuppofe = *, 

tr-i 
or 2 = , and thence it will be j== =}' Here fl "ce z in the 

' a ~z^ 1 

numerator is of a fraded dimenfion, deprefs the value of/ by di- 

~ V) ~ I 
viding by z&, and it will be 7=7= = S> an Equation of the 

y a ~ * i 

ad Species of the ;th Order of Table 2. And the terms being com- 
pared, it is </= i, e= i, and /= a*. So that z 1 = 
/- ' __ N A .i jV /^i _ .v 1 -u, and 5 xv = /. Therefore fince 

\*~ ) _ ; 

* and z are equal, and fince ^a-x* = v is an Equation to a 
Circle whofe Diameter is a : with the Center A, and diftancq a or 
EF let the Circle PDQ^be defcribed, which CE meets in D, and let 
the' Parallelogram ACDI be compleated ; then will AC = ^, 
CD=<u, and the Area fought AGEC = ^ xv = ACDP 



92. Ex- 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 



112 

92. EXAMPLE III. Let AGE be the Ciflbid belonging to the 
Circle ADQj defcribed with 
the diameter AQ.. Let DCE 
be drawn perpendicular to the 
diameter, and meeting the 
Curves in D and E. And na- 
ming AC = z t CE =.y, and 
AQj== a ; becaufe of CD, 
CA, CE continual Proportio- 
nals, it will be CE or y = 

:, and dividing by z, 'tis 

X 

y = / ~~ Therefore zr~ l 

' az I 

== ^, or i = ,and thence 



y = 



V aa i-i 



an Equation or 




the 3d Species of the 4th Order of Table 2. The Terms therefore 
being compared, 'tis d-=. I, e = i, and f=a. Therefore 

% = x, </ax xx = v, and 3^ 2x1; = /. Wherefore 

it is *AC = x, CD = v, and thence ACDH = s ; fo that 
3ACDH 4AADC = 3* 2xv = t = Area of the Ciflbid 
ACEGA. Or, which is the fame thing, 3 Segments ADHA = Area 
ADEGA, or 4 Segments ADHA = Area AHDEGA. 

93. EXAMPLE IV. Let PE 
be the firft Conchoid of the 
Ancients, defcribed from Center 
G, with the Afymptote AL,. 
and diftance LE. Draw its 
Axis GAP, and let fall the Or- 
dinate EC. Then calling AC 
=: z, CE =.y, GA = a, and 
Ap . c ; becaufe of the Pro- 
portionals A C : CE AL : : 
GC : CE, it will be CE or y 

04. * Now that its Area PEC may be found from hence, the 
paits'of the Ordinate CE are to be confider'd feparately. And if 

the Ordinate CE is fo divided in D, that it is CD = v/^ , 

and 




and INFINITE SERIES. 



and DE = *\/V ^ ; CD will be the Ordinate of a Circle de- 

fcribcd from Center A, and with the Radius AP. Therefore the 
part of the Area PDC is known, and there will remain the other 
part DPED to be found. Therefore fince DE, the part of the Or- 
dinate by which it is defcribed, is equivalent to -\/e* z* ; fup- 

pofe 2 = w, and it becomes -^/e* z* = DE, an Equation of 
the ift Species of the 3d Order of Table 2. The terms therefore 
being compared, itisd=t>, f = c t , and/= i; and therefore 

1 . j = x, \/ i -+- c* x 1 = v, and zbc l s -- - = t. 

1 



Z Z. 

95. Thefe things being found, reduce them to a juft number of 
dimenfions, by multiplying the terms that are too deprefs'd, and 
dividing thofe that are too high, by fome given Quantity. If this 
be done by c, there will arife ~ = x, </ c * -t- x % = v, and 

-- = t : The Conflruclion of which is in this manner. 

c ex 

96. With the Center A, principal Vertex P, and Parameter aAP, 
defcnbe the Hyperbola PK. Then from the point C draw the right 
Line CK, that may touch the Parabola in K : And it will be, as 
AP to 2AG, fo is the Area CKPC to the Area required DPED. 

97. EXAMPLE 5. Let the Norma GFE fo revolve about the Pole 
G, as that its angular point F may continually flide upon the right 
Line AF given in pofition ; then conceive the Curve PE to be de- 
fcribed by any Point E in the 

other Leg EF. Now that the 
Area of this Curve may be 
found, let fall GA and EH per- 
pendicular to the right Line 
AF, and compleating the Pa- 
rallelogram AHEC, call AC 
= 2, CE=j, AG = , and 
EF=; and becaufe of the 
Proportionals HF : EH : : AG : 
AF, we mall have AF = 

, bz . Therefore CE or y 

V a zz 
b 







But whereas </cc zz is the Ordinate 



of a Circle defcribed with the Semidiameter c ; about the Center A 

let 



*fhe Method of FLUXIONS, 
let fuch a Circle PDQ_be defcribed, which CE produced meets ia 

D ; then it will be DE = ^=rS : B ? the hel P of which EqUa ~ 
tion there remains the Area PDEP or DERQ^to be determin'd. 

Suppofe therefore =:2, and G=^ 3 and it will be DE= i^~ > 

V ft ^ 

sn Equation of the ift Species of the 4th Order of Table i. And 
the Terms being compared, it will be b-= d, cc =e, and j ==/; 

fo that bV cc zz = l>R=f. 

98. Now as the value of t is negative, and therefore the Area 
reprefented by / lies beyond the Line DE ; that its initial Limit 
may be found, feek for that length of z, at which t becomes no- 
thing, and you will find it to be c. Therefore continue AC to Q^> 
that it may be AQ==c, and erect the Ordinate QR.; and DQRED 
will be the Area whofe value now found is b\/cc zz. 

99. If you fhould define to know the quantity of the Area 
PDE, pofited at the Abfcifs AC, and co-extended with it, without 
knowing the Limit QR, you may thus determine it. 

100. From the Value which / obtains at the length of the Ab- 
fcifs AC, fubtract its value at the beginning of the Abfcifs ; that is, 
from b\/ cc zz fubtract &, and there will arife the defired 
quantity A: b\/ LC zz. Therefore compleat the Parallelogram 
PAGK, and let fall DM perpendicular to AP, which meets GK 
in M ; and the Parallelogram PKML will be equal to the Area 
PDE. 

101. Whenever the Equation defining the nature of the Curve 
cannot be found in the Tables, nor can be reduced to limpler terms 
by divifion, nor by any other means ; it muft be transform'd into 
other Equations of Curves related to it, in the manner fhewn in 
Prob. 8. till at laft one is produced, whofe Area may be known by 
the Tables. And when all endeavours are ufed, and yet no fuch 
can be found, it may be certainly concluded, that the Curve pro- 
pofed cannot be compared, either with rectilinear Figures, or with 
the Conic Sedions. 

102. In the fame manner when mechanical Curves are concern'd, 
they muft fir ft be transform'd into equal Geometrical Figures, as is 
fhewn in the fame Prob. 8. and then the Areas of fuch Geometri- 
cal Curves are to be found from the Tables. Of this matter take 
the following Example. 

103. 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 115 

103. EXAMPLE 6. Let it be propofed to determine the Area of 
the Figure of the Arches of any Conic Section, when they aie 
made Ordinates on their Right Sines. As let A be the Center of 
the Conic Section, 

AQ_and AR the ^ " V .' ^\ 

Semiaxes, CD the 
Ordinate to the Axis 
AR, and PD a Per- 
pendicular at the 
point D. Alfo let 
AE be the fa id 
mechanical Curve 
meeting CD in E; 
and from its nature 
before defined, CE 
will be equal to the 
Arch QD. There- 
fore the Area A EC 
is fought, or com- 
pleating the parallelogram ACEF, the excefs AEF is required. To 
which purpole let a be the Latus rectum of the Conic Section, and 
b its Latus tranfverfum, or 2AQ^_ Alfo let AC=z, and CD=_>'; 




then it will be V ^bb -f- -zz =y, an Equation to a Conic Section, 



as is known. Alfo PC= -z, and thence PD = v/^H ~- zz. 

104. Now fince the fluxion of the Arch QD is to the fluxion of 
the Abfcifs AC, as PD to CD ; if the fluxion of the Abfcifs be fup- 
pos'd i, the Fluxion of the Arch QD, or of the Ordinate CE, 

**+"-*~~ 
will be i/ 4 . Draw this into FE, or z, and there 



for the fluxion of the Area AEF. 



will arife z / 




If therefore in the Ordinate CD you take CG - 



-zz 



V 



-zz 



, the Area AGC, which is defcribed by CG 



moving upon AC, will be equal to the Area AEF, and the Curve 

AG 



< 

i; 



n6 77je Method of FLUXIONS, 

AG will be a Geometrical Curve. Therefore the Area AGC is 
fought. To this purpofe let z* be fubflituted for z* in the laft 

Equation, and it becomes &*-* \/^-j-, j-^ = CG, an Equa.- 



M 

tion of the ad Species of the i ith Order of Table 2. And from a 
comparifon of terms it is d = i, e-=.i-bb =,/= - ~ , and 

$= : fo that \/ ^bb ~] zz=x. \/ -f- xx r, i>. and 

a * * a ' Afl a / 



~s = t. That is, CD = x, DP = v, and Jj = /. And this is 
the Conftruction of what is now found. 

105. At Q^ erect QK perpendicular and equal to QA, and thro* 
the point D draw HI parallel to it, but equal to DP. And the 
Line KI, at which HI is terminated, will be a Conic Section, and 
the comprehended Area HIKQ^will be to the Area fought AEF, 
as b to a, or as PC to AC. 

106. Here obferve, that if you change the fign of b, the Conic 
Section, to whofe Arch the right Line CE is equal, will become an 
Ellipfis; and befides, if you make b = , the Ellipfis becomes- 
a Circle. And in this cafe the line KI becomes a right line parallel 



107. After the Area of any Curve has been thus found and con- 
ftrucled, we fhould confider about the demonftration of the con- 
ftruction ; that laying afide all Algebraical calculation, as much as 
may be, the Theorem may be adorn'd, and made elegant,, fo as to 
become fit for publick view. And there is a general method of de-- 
monftrating, which I mail endeavour to iiluftrate by the follow- 
ing Examples. 

Demonftration of the Conjlruflion in Example 5. 

1 08. In the Arch PQ^take a point d indefinitely near to D, 
(Figure p. 113.) and draw de and dm parallel to DE and DM, 
meeting DM and AP in p and /. Then will DE^/ be the mo- 
ment of the Area PDEP, and LM// will be the moment of the 
Area LMKP. Draw the femidiameter AD, and conceive the inde- 
finitely fmall arch ~Dd to be as it were a right line, and the tri- 
angles -D/^/ and ALD will be like, and therefore D/> : pd:: AL : LD. 
But it is HF : EH :: AG : AF ; that is, AL : LD :: ML : DE; and 
therefore Dj> : pd : : ML : DE. Wherefore Dp x DE = pd x ML 

That 



and IN FINITE SERIES, 



117 



That is, the moment DEed is equal to the moment LM;;//. And 
fince this is demonflrated indeterminately of any contemporaneous 
moments whatever, it is plain, that all the moments of the Area 
PDEP are equal to all the contemporaneous moments of the Area 
PLMK, and therefore the whole Areas compofed of thofe moments 
are equal to each other. C^JE. D. 

Demonftration of the ConftruSfion in Example 3. 

109. Let DEed be the momentum of the fuperficies AHDE, and 
A</DA be the contemporary 
moment of the Segment ADH. 
Draw the femidiameter DK, 
and let de meet AK in c -, and 
it is Cc : Dd :: CD : DK. 
Befides it is DC : QA (aDK) : : 
AC : DE. And therefore 
Cc : 2Dd :: DC : aDK :: 
AC : DE, and Cc x DE = 
zDd-x. AC. Now to the mo- 
ment of the periphery Dd 
produced, that is, to the tan- 
gent of the Circle, let fall the 
perpendicular AI, and AI will 
be equal to AC. So that 
zDd x AC = zDd x AI = 4 

Triangles AD</. So that 4 Triangles AD^/=C^xDE= moment 
DE^/. Therefore every moment of the fpace AHDE is quadruple 
of the contemporary moment of the Segment ADH, and therefore 
that whole fpace is quadruple of the whole Segment. Q^E. D. 




Bemvnftratwn 



iiS 



"The Method of FLUXIONS, 



Demonftration of the ConftruRion in Example 4. 

no. Draw ce parallel to CE, and at an indefinitely fmall diflance 
from it, and the tangent of the 
Hyperbola ck t and let fall KM 
perpendicular to AP. Now 
from the nature of the Hyper- 
bola it will be AC : A? :: 
AP : AM, and therefore AC? : 
GLq :: AC?: LE? (or AP V ') :: 
AP? : AM? ; and divlfim* AG/ : 
AL? (DE?) ::.AP?: AM? 
AP?(MK?) ; And invent, AG: 
AP :: DE : MK. But the 
little Area DEed is to the Tri- 
angle CKr, as the altitude DE is to half the altitude KM ; that is, 
as AG to -LAP. Wherefore all the moments of the Space PDE 
are to all the contemporaneous moments of the Space PKC, as AG 
to 4-AP. And therefore thofe whole Spaces are in the fame ratio. 




Demonjlration of the Conjlruftion in Example 6. 

in. Draw c*/ parallel and infinitely near to CD, (Fig. in p. 115-) 
meeting the Curve AE in e, and draw hi and fe meeting DCJ in p 
and q. Then by the Hypothefis ~Dd= Eg, and from the fimi- 
litude of the Triangles Ddp and DCP, it will be D/> : (Dd) 
Eq :: ( P : (PD) HI, fo that Dp x HI = Eg xCPj and thence 
Dp x HI (the moment HI/'/.)): Eg x AC (the moment EF/e) :: 
E ? xCP : EyxAC :: CP : AC. Wherefore fince PC and AC 
are in the given ratio of the latus tranlverfum to the Jatus rectum 
of the Conic Section QD, and fince the moments HI//) and EFfe 
of the Areas HIKQ^and AEF are in that ratio, the Areas them- 
felves will be in the fame ratio. Q-^E. D. 

112. In this kind of demonilrations it is to be obferved, that I 
affume fuch quantities for equal, whofe ratio is that of equality : 
And that is to be efteem'd a ratio of equality, which differs lefs 
from equality than by any unequal ratio that can be affign'd. Thus 
in the laft demon ftration I fuppos'd the rectangle E^xAC, or FE?/, 
to be equal to the fpace FEt/j becaufe (by realon of the difference 
Eqe infinitely lefs than them, or nothing in comparifon of them,) 

they 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



119 



they have not a ratio of inequality. And for the fame reafon I 
made DP x HI = HI//6 ; and fo in others. 

1 13. I have here made ufe of this method of proving the Areas 
of Curves to be equal, or to have a given ratio, by the equality, or 
by the given ratio, of their moments ; becaufe it has an affinity to 
the ufual methods in thefe matters. But that feems more natural 
which depends upon the generation of Superficies, by Motion or 
Fluxion. Thus if the Confbuclion in Example 2. was to be de- 
monftrated : From the nature of the Circle, the fluxion of the right 
line ID (Fig. p.i 1 1.) is to the fluxion of the right line IP, as AI to 
ID ; and it is AI : ID : : ID : CE, from the nature of the Curve 

AGE ; and therefore CE x ID = ID x IP. But CE x ID = to 
the fluxion of the Area PDI. And therefore thofe Areas, being ge- 
nerated by equal fluxion, muft be equal. Q^E. D. 

1 14. For the fake of farther illustration, I fliall add the demon- 
flration of the Confrruc~r.ion, by which the Area of the Ciffoid is 
determin'd, in Example 3. Let the lines mark'd with points in the 
fcheme be expunged; draw the Chord DQ^ and the Afymptote 
QR of the Ciffoid. Then, from the nature of the Circle, it Is 
DQj- = AQ_x CQ^, and 
thence (by Prob. i.) 



Fluxion of DQj= AQjcCQ. 

And therefore AQ_: 



2DQj CX^ Alfo from the 
nature of the Ciffoid it is ED : 
AD :: AQ^: DQ^ There- 




fore ED : AD : : 

and EDxCC^=ADx2DQ^, 

or 4xiADxDQ^ Nowfmce 
DQ __ is perpendicular at the 
end of AD, revolving about 

A ; and i AD x QD = to the fluxion generating the Area 

its quadruple alfo ED x CQ^== fluxion generating the Ciffoidal Area 
QREDO. Wherefore that Area QREDO infinitely long, is gene- 
rated quadruple of the other ADOQ^ Q^E. D. 

SCHOLIUM. 



120 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

SCHOLIUM. 

115. By the foregoing Tables not only the Areas of Curves, but 
quantities of any other kind, that are generated by an analogous 
way of flowing, may be derived from their Fluxions, and that by 
the affiftance of this Theorem : That a quantity of any kind is to an 
unit of the lame kind, as the Area of a Curve is to a fuperficial 
unity ; if fo be that the fluxion generating that quantity be to an 
unit of its kind, as the fluxion generating the Area is to an unit of 
its kind alfo ; that is, as the right Line moving perpendicularly upon 
the Abfcifs (or the Ordinate) by which the Area is defcribed, to a 
linear Unit. Wherefore if any fluxion whatever is expounded by 
fuch a moving Ordinate, the quantity generated by that fluxion will 
be expounded by the Area defcribed by fuch Ordinate ; or if the 
Fluxion be expounded by the fame Algebraic terms as the Ordinate, 
the generated quantity will be expounded by the fame as the de- 
fcribed Area. Therefore the Equation, which exhibits a Fluxion of 
any kind, is to be fought for in the firft Column of the Tables, and 
the value of t in the laft Column will mow the generated Quan- 
tity. _ 

1 1 6. As if \/ 1 -h exhibited a Fluxion of any kind, make it 
equal to y, and that it may be reduced to the form of the Equations 
in the Tables, fubftitute z* for z, and it will be z~ ' </ 1 -+- z 

43 

7y, an Equation of the firft Species of the 3d Order of Table i. 
And comparing the terms, it will be </= i, e=i,f=2. > 

8a + i8z ,~ gz -id -p. _, _ 

and thence - \S i +- - a == R> =/. Therefore it is the 
quantity Z ^~ 1/1 -4- which is generated by the Fluxion 




4" 



3 17, And thus if v'l -f- J^l- reprefents a Fluxion, by a due re- 

9 7 

duftion, (or by extracting & out of the radical, and writing _ 
for 2~^) there will be had -or, */s&--! =7, an Equation of 

z ga* 

the ad Species of the 5th Order of Table 2. Then comparing the 



terms, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 121 

terms, it is d=. i, e = , and/= i. So that x 7 = - = **, 



' 



_j_ ' ^ = -u, and 4 J = - * = A Which being found, the 

7 



quantity generated by the fluxion v/ j + L^Z w ill be known, by 

making it to be to an Unit of its own kind, as the Area j* is to 
fuperficial unity ; or which comes to the fame, by fuppofing the 
quantity t no longer to reprefent a Superficies, but a quantity of an- 
other kind, which is to an unit of its own kind, as that fuperficies 
k to fuperficial unity. _ 

1 1 8. Thus fuppofing \/i 4- l ~ to reprefent a linear Fluxion, I 

9 T 

imagine t no longer to fignify a Superficies, but a Line ; that Line, 
for inftance, which is to a linear unit, as the Area: which (accord- 
ing to the Tables) is reprefented by t, is to a fuperficial unit, or 
that which is produced by applying that Area to a linear unit. On 
which account, if that linear unit be made e, the length generated 
by the foregoing fluxion will be ~ . And upon this foundation 

thofe Tables may be apply'd to the determining the Lengths of 
Curve-lines, the Contents of their Solids, and any other quantities 
whatever, as well as the Areas of Curves. 

Of ^uejlions that are related hereto. 

I. To approximate to the Areas of Curves mechanically, 

119. The method is this, that the values of two or more right- 
lined Figures may be fo compounded together, that they may very 
nearly conftitute the value of the Curvilinear Area required. 

120. Thus for the Circle AFD which is denoted by the Equa- 
tion .v xx = r zz } having found the value of 

the Area AFDB, viz. ** #* /,** 
J-x*, &c. the values of fome Rectangles are to 
be fought, fuch is the value x\/x xx, or x* 
z* T#* T V#% & c - of the rectangle 
BD x AB, and x^/x, or #', the value of AD x 
AB. Then thefe values are to be multiply'd by 
any different letters, that ftand for numbers indefinitely, and then 

R to 




122 2^2 Method of FLUXIONS, 

to be added together, and the terms of the fum are to be compared 
with the correfponding terms of the value of the Area AFDB, that 
as far as is poffible they may become equal. As if thofe Parallelo- 
grams were multiply'd by e and f, the fum would be ex* \ex^ 



{$$, &c. the terms of which being compared with thefe terms 
^ x * ,^ x * T V*% &c. there arifes +/=-!, and i^= 4., 
or e = , and /= % e = T * r So that ^-BD x AB -f- T 4 T AD x 
AB = Area AFDB very nearly. For ^-BD x AB -f. T * T AD x AB is 
equivalent to .!#* 4.** _^.v* - _L.,v*, &c. which being fub- 
tracted from the Area AFDB, leaves the error only T '-# -j- T V#*, 
&c. 

121. Thus if AB were bifected in E, the value of the rectangle 
AB x DE will be x\/x %xx, or x* -^x* 

-2-#* -- x*, &c. And this compared with 

128 1024 r 

the rectangle AD x AB, gives 8DE + zAD into 
AB = Area AFDB, the error being only 

J-x* -\ -- x* &c. which is always lefs than 
560 5760 

TJ^JTJ. part of the whole Area, even tho' AFDB 
were a quadrant of a Circle. But this Theorem may be thus pro- 
pounded. As 3 to 2, fo is the rectangle AB into DE, added to a 
fifth part of the difference between AD and DE, to the Area AFDB, 
very nearly. 

122. And thus by compounding two rectangles ABxED and 
AB x BD, or all the three rectangles together, or by taking in ftill 
more rectangles, other Rules may be invented, which will be fo 
much the more exacT:, as there are more Rectangles made ufe of. 
And the fame is to be understood of the Area of the Hyperbola, or 
of any other Curves. Nay, by one only rectangle the Area may 
often be very commodioufly exhibited, as in the foregoing Circle, 
by taking BE to AB as v/io to 5, the rectangle AB x ED will be 
to the Area AFDB, as 3 to 2, the error being only T f T AT* -fr- 




II. The Area being g hen, to determine the Abfcifs and Ordinate. 
123. When the Area is exprefs'd by a finite Equation, there can 
be no difficulty : But when it is exprefs'd by an infinite Series, the 
affected root is to be extracted, which denotes the Abfcifs. So for 

the 



W^^ ** w 

and INFINITE SERIES. 123 

the Hyperbola, defined by the Equation ^ = z, after we have 
found * = bx -^ -+- - * , &c. that from the given Area 
the Abfcifs x may be known, extract the affedled Root, and there 






will arife x = + ^ + - 4- -JjjL , &c. And 

moreover, if the Ordinate .5 were required, divide ab by /z 4- AT, 
that is, by a -f- } -+ -^ -f- ~ s , &c. and there will arife z=l>> 



124. Thus as to the Ellipfis which is exprefs'd by the Equation 
ax -xx = zz, after the Area is found z = ^a?x* a%x * 

1 i I , x , 

^!^ Hf_, &c. write i;' for , and / for x*, and it becomes 
= t* ^ -i-j, &c. and extracting the root /= 



&c. is equal to x. And this value being fubflituted inftead of x in 
the Equation ax a -xx = zz, and the root being extracted, there 
arifes * = **. ^L 3 38*' __ 4 Q7^ 7 5c c> So that from 

5<: '7Sf* 225018 

z, the given Area, and thence v or ./"I, the Abfcifs # will be 

f za* 

given, and the Ordinate z. All which things may be accommo- 
dated to the Hyperbola, if only the flgn of the quantity c be changed, 
wherever it is found of odd dimenfions. 



R O B. 



124- 



*The Method of FLUXIONS, 



P R O B. X. 

1o find as many Curves as we pleafe, vohofe Lengths 
may be exprcfsd by finite Equations. 

1. The following pofitions prepare the way for the foltirion of 
this Problem. 

2. I. If the right Line DC, ftanding perpendicularly upon any. 
Curve AD, be conceived thus to move, 

all its points G, g, r, &c. will defcribe 
other Curves, which are equidiftant, and 
perpendicular to that line : As GK, gk, 
rs, &c. 

3. II. If that right Line is continued 
indefinitely each way, its extremities will 
move contrary ways, and therefore there 
will be a Point between, which will have 
no motion, but may therefore be call'd 
the Center of Motion. This Point will 
be the fame as the Center of Curvature, 
which the Curve AD hath at the point D, 
as is mention'd before. Let that point 
beC. 

4. III. If we fuppofe the line AD not 
to be circular, but unequably curved, fup- 
pofe more curved towards <T, and lefs toward A; that Center will 
continually change its place, approaching nearer to the parts more 
curved, as in K, and going farther off at the parts lefs curved, as in. 
k t and by that means will defcribe fome line, as KG. 

5. IV. The right Line DC will continually touch the line de- 
fcribed by the Center of Curvature. For if the Point D of this 
line moves towards ^, its point G, which in the mean time pafTes 
to K, and is fituate on the fame fide of the Center C, will move 
the fame way, by pofition 2. Again, if the fame point D moves 
towards A, the point g, which in the mean time paffes to k, and 
k fituate on the contrary fide of the Center C, will move the con- 
trary way, that is, the fame way that G moved in the former cafe, 
while it pafs'd to K. Wherefore K and k lie on the fame fide of 
the right Line DC. But as K and k are taken indefinitely f :>r any 

points, 




and INFINITE SERIES. 125 

points, it is plain that the whole Curve lies on the fame fide of the 
right line DC, and therefore is not cut, but only touch'd by it. 

6. Here it is fuppos'd, that the line <rDA is continually more 
curved towards <T, and lefs towards A ; for if its greateft or leaft 
Curvature is in D, then the right line DC will cut the Curve KC ; 
but yet in an angle that is lefs than any right-lined angle, which is 
the fame thing as if it were faid to touch it. Nay, the point C in 
this cafe is the Limit, or Cufpid, at which the two parts of the 
Curve, finishing in the moft oblique concourfe, touch each other ; 
and therefore may more juftly be faid to be touch'd, than to be cut, 
by the right line DC, which divides the Angle of contact. 

7. V. The right Line CG is equal to the Curve CK. For con- 
ceive all the points r, 2r, 3;-, ^.r, &c. of that right Line to defcribe 
the arches of Curves rs, 2r2s, 3^3;, &c. in the mean time that they 
approach to the Curve CK, by the motion of that right line ; and 
fmce thofe arches, (by polition i.) are perpendicular to the right 
lines that touch the Curve CK, (by pofition 4.) it follows that they 
will be alfo perpendicular to that Curve. Wherefore the parts of 
the line CK, intercepted between thofe arches, which by reafon of 
their infinite fmallnefs may be confider'd as right lines, are equal to 
the intervals of the fame arches ; that is, (by polition i.) are equal 
to fo many parts of the right line CG. And equals being added 
to equals, the whole Line CK will be equal to the whole Line 
CG. 

8. The fame thing would appear by conceiving, that every part 
of the right Line CG, as it moves along, will apply itfelf fuccef- 
fively to every part of the Curve CK, and thereby will meafure 
them ; juft as the Circumference of a wheel, as it moves forward by 
revolving upon a Plain, will meafure the diflance that the point of 
ContacT; continually defcribes. 

9. And hence it appears, that the Problem may be refolved, by 
afiuming any Curve at pleaflue A/'DA, and thence by determining 
the other Curve KC, in which the Center of Curvature of the 
aftumed Curve is always found. Therefore letting fall the perpen- 
diculars DB and CL, to a right Line AB given in pofition, and in 
AB taking any point A, and calling AB = .v and BD = v ; to 
define the Curve AD let any relation be affumed between x and v, 
and then by Prob 5. the point C may be found, by which may be 
determined both the Curve KC, and its Length GC. 



10. 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



126 

10. EXAMPLE. Let ax =yy be the Equation to the Curve, 
which therefore will be the Apollonian Parabola. And, by Prob. 5. 
will be found AL=| 
^ , and DC = 2if 

* a 



-+. ax. 

Which being obtain'd, the Curve KC 
is determin'd by AL and LC, and its 
Length by DC. For as we are at 
liberty to aflume the points K and C 
anf where in the Curve KC, let us 
fuppofe K to be the Center of Cur- 
vature of the Parabola at its Vertex ; 
and putting therefore AB and BD, or 
x and y, to be nothing, it will be 
DC = -irf. And this is the Length 
AK, or DG, which being fubtracted 
from the former indefinite value of 




DC, leaves GC or KC = -^- V aa +. a x \a. 

11. Now if you defire to know what Curve this is, and what is 
its Length, without any relation to the Parabola ; call KL = z t 
and LC = v, and it will be &==. AL \a = 3 x, or ^z = AT, and 
- = ax =yy. Therefore 4v /- = S! = CL = v, or ' == 

2 ''' 27 t aa 2 7 # 

u* j which fhews the Curve KC to be a Parabola of the fecond kind. 
And for its Length there arifes llil ^/^aa -f- az a, by 

writing ~z for >r in the value of CG. 

12. The Problem alfo may be refolved by taking an Equation, 
which fhall exprefs the relation be- 
tween AP and PD, fuppofing P to 

be the interfeclion of the Abfcifs and 
Perpendicular. For calling AP=,v, 
and PD =/, conceive CPD to move 
an infinitely fmall fpace, fuppofe to 
the place Cpd } and in CD and Cd ta- 
king CA and CeT both of the fame 
given length, fuppofe = r, and to 
CL let fall the perpendiculars A^ and 
fy y of which Ag, (which call =z) 
may meet Cd inf. Then compleat 
the Parallelogram gyfe, and making 
x,y, and z the fluxions of the quantities ,v, y, and x, as before 

it 




and IN FINITE SERIES. 127 






it will be Ae : A/ :t A?P ' All* " Q"P : CA] 1 :: TT ' 
And A/: P/> :: CA : C P. Then ? a>quo t Ae:Pp :: ^11 : CP. 
But P/> is the moment of the Abfcifs AP, by the acceiTion of which 
it becomes Ap ; and Ae is the contemporaneous moment of the per- 
pendicular Ag-, by the decreafe of which it becomes fy. There- 
fore Ae and Pp are as the fluxions of the lines Ag (z) and AP (x), 

that is, as z and x. Wherefore 2, : x :: ~- : CP. And fmce it 



is Cgl * = CAI a AgT = i &&, and CA = i ; it will be 

CP_= * ~* z . Moreover fmce we may aflume any one of the 



three x,y, and z for an uniform fluxion, to which the reft are to be 
referr'd, if x be that fluxion, and its value is unity, then CP = 



13. Befides it is CA (i) : Ag (z} :: CP : PL; alfo CA (i) : Cg 
zz ) : : CP : CL ; therefore it is PL = 2Z , and CL = 



~ z 



j Z z. Laftly, drawing /^parallel to the infinitely fmall 

X 

Arch D</, or perpendicular to DC, P^- will be the momentum of 
DP, by the acceflion of which it becomes dp, at the fame time that 
AP becomes A/>. Therefore Pp and Pg are as the fluxions of AP 
(x) and PD (;'), that is, as i and y. Therefore becaufe of fimilar 
triangles Ppq and CAg, fmce CA and Ag, or i and z, are in the 
fame ratio, it will be y = . Whence we have this folution of 
the Problem. 

14. From the propofed Equation, which exprefles the relation 
between x and^x, find the relation of the fluxions x and y, (by Prob. i.) 
and putting x = i, there will be had the value of _)-, to which z 
is equal. Then fubftituting z for/, by the help of the lafl Equa- 
tion find the relation of the Fluxions x,y, and z, (by Prob. i.) and 
again fubftituting i for x, there will be had the value of z. Thefe 

being found make ^21= CP, z x CP = PL, and CP x v/ 1 yy 

Z 

= CL; and C will be a Point in the Curve, any part of which 
KG is equal to the right Line CG, which is the difference of the 
tangents, drawn perpendicularly to the Curve \)d from the points 
C and K, 



I2 8 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

15. Ex. Let ax=yy be the Equation which exprefles the rela- 
tion between AP and PD ; and (by 
Trob. i.) it will be firft ax= 2yy, or 
a = 2yz. Then zyz -f- zyz = o, or 

= z. Thence it is CP = 

y 

I yy l_J 



4-vv 



aa. 




c 



And from CP and PL taking away y 
and x. there remains CD = , 

aa 

and AL = ?a ~ . Now I take 

away y and x, becaufe when CP and 
PL have affirmative values, they fall on the fide of the point P to- 
wards D and A, and they ought to be diminiihed, by taking away 
the affirmative quantities PD and AP. But when they have negative 
values, they will fall on the contrary fide of the point P, and then 
they muft be encreafed, which is alfo done by taking away the affir- 
mative quantities PD and AP. 

1 6. Now to know the Length of the Curve, in which the point 
C is found, between any two of its points K and C ; we rauft ieek 
the length of the Tangent at the point K, and fubtradt it from CD. 
As if K were the point, at which the Tangent is terminated, when 
CA and Ag, or i and z, are made equal, which therefore is fituate 
in the Abicifs itfelf AP ; write i for z in the Equation a= 2yz, 
whence a=2y. Therefore for y write ^a in the value of CD, 

that is in , and it comes out a. And this is the length 
of the Tangent at the point K, or of DG ; the difference between 
which and the foregoing indefinite value of CD, is -- -i#> that 

is GC, to which the part of the Curve KC is equal. 

17. Now that it may appear what Curve this is, from AL (hav- 
ing firft changed its fign, that it may become affirmative,) take AK, 

which will be ^a, and there will remain KL = %a, which 
call /, and in the value of the line CL, which call v, write for 



aa -> anc ^ l ^ ere 






l a "fe \/^at = v ; or = vv, which 
is an Equation to a Parabola of the fecond kind, as was found before. 

i a, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 129 

1 8. When the relation between t and v cannot conveniently be 
reduced to an Equation, it may be fufficient only to find the lengths 
PC and PL. As if for the relation between AP and PD the Equa- 
tion ^x-^-^y _}' 3 =o were affumed; from hence (by Prob. i.) 
firft there arifes a 1 4-^*2 y*z = o, then aaz zyyz y*z=o, 



and therefore it is z = , and z = . Whence are 

yy aa ' aa yy 

given PC = ""'- , and PL = 2rxPC, by which the point C is 

determined, which is in the Curve. And the length of the Curve, 
between two fuch points, will be known by the difference of the 
two correfponding Tangents, DC or PC y. 

19. For Example, if we make a= i, and in order to determine 
fome point C of the Curve, we take y = 2 ; then AP or x becomes 

.y 3"'.v_ _ . -_. - * PC 2 and PI - 

Zaa T' z T> z T> 1V "- 2 > ana rLl ? 

Then to determine another point, if we take ^' = 3, it will be 
AP=6, =i, z = >ir, PC= 84, andPL= ioi. 
Which being had, if y be taken from PC, there will remain 4 
in the firil cafe, and 87 in the fecond, for the lengths DC j the 
difference of which 83 is the length of the Curve, between the two 
points found C and c. 

20. Thefe are to be thus underftood, when the Curve is conti- 
nued between the two points C and c, or between K and C, with- 
out that Term or Limit, which we call'd its Cufpid. For when 
one or more fuch terms come between thofe points, (which terms 
are found by the determination of the greateft or leaft PC or DC,) 
the lengths of each of the parts of the Curve, between them and the 
points C or K, muft be feparately found, and then added together. 

PROB. XI. 

To find as many Curves as you pie of e, whofe Lengths may 
be compared with the Length of any Curve propofed, 
or with its Area applied to a given Line y by the help of 
finite Equations. 

i. It is performed by involving the Length, or the Area of the 
propofed Curve, in the Equation which is affumed in the foregoing 
Problem, to determine the relation between AP and PD (Figure 

Art. 12. pjg. 126.) Eut that z, and z may be thence derived, (by 

S Prob. 



130 7%4 Method of FtuxioNS, 

Prob. i.) the fluxion of the Length, or of the Area, muft be firft 
difcowr'd. 

2. The fluxion of the Length is determin'd by putting it" equal to 
the fquare-root of the fum of the fquares of the fluxion of the Ab- 
fcifs and of the Ordinate. For let RN be the perpendicular Ordi- 
nate, moving upon the Abfcifs MN, and 
let QR be the propofed Curve, at which 
RN is terminated. Then calling MN 
= s, NR=/, and QR='i>, and their 
Fluxions s, /, and <u refpeclively ; con- 
ceive the Line NR to move into the place 
nr infinitely near the former, and letting _ ^ 
fall RJ perpendicular to nr, then RJ, sr, M" v N" 

and Rr will be the contemporaneous moments of the lines MN, 
NR, and QR, by the accetfion of which they become M, nr, and 
And as thefe are to each other as the fluxions of the fame 




lines, and becaufe of the right Angle Rsr, it will be >/R/ -f-Tr* 
= Rr, or \/V -f- f- = <v. 

3. But to determine the fluxions s and t there are two Equations- 
required; one of which is to define the relation between MN and NR,. 
or s and /, from whence the relation between the fluxions s and t- 
is to be derived ; and another which may define the relation be- 
tween MN or NR in the given Figure, and of AP or x in that re- 
quired, from whence the relation of the fluxion s or t to the fluxion 
x or i may be difcover'd. 

4. Then <u being found, the fluxions y and z are to be fought 
by a third aflumed Equation, by which the length PD or y may be 

defined. Then we are to take PC = '-^, PL =y x PC, and 

DC = PC y, as in the foregoing Problem. 

5. Ex. i. Let as ss=tt be an Equation to the given Curve 
QR, which will be a Circle; xx = as the relation between the 
lines AP and MN, and Lv=.y, the relation between the length of 
the Curve given QR, and the right Line PD. By the firft it will 

be as 2ss = 2tt, or a ~ 2 's=i. And thence - =v s*-i-t* ==: v. 



zt zt 



By the fecond it is 2X = as, and therefore - t =. v. And by the 

third u=y, that is, ^ = z } and hence ^ ^'=2;. Which 

being 



and INFINITE SERIES. 131 

being found, you muft take PC = 1 -^. , PL=/x PC, and DC 

== PC y, or PC QR- Where it appears, that the length of 
the given Curve QR cannot be found, but at the fame time 'the 
length of the right Line DC muft be known, and from thence the 
length of the Curve, in which the point C is found ; and fo on the 
contrary. 

6. Ex.2. The Equation as ss = ff remaining, make # = j, 

an d irv ^ax-=.^ay. And by the firft there will be found ^ = -y, 
as above. But by the fecond i = s, and therefore ^ = v. And 
by the third 2iw 4^ = 407, or (eliminating -y) ^ i = z. 

Then from hence " 3L == z , 

j. Ex. 3. Let there be fuppos'd three Equations, aa = st, a + 
*s = x, and A: -f- v =}' Then by the firft, which denotes an 

Hyperbola, it is o=rf+/i, or 7 = ', and therefore '-V" 4- " 

V/M -f- tf = v. By the fecond it is 3* = i, and therefore 
- v/w -+- = v. And by the third it is i + -u == y t or i + 

3' 

</ss-4-tt=:z; then it is from hence w =s, that is, putting w 
3' 

for the Fluxion of the radical -^ </" -t- ^, which if it be made 

equal to iv, or | -f- ~ = 7C'i;, there will arife from thence ^ 
^ = 2W7i;. And firft fubftituting ~ for /', then 1. for s, and 

dividing by aw, there will arife P^ 3 = iv = z. Now _>' and z 

being found, the reft is perform'd as in the fivft Example. 

8. Now if from any point Q_of a Curve, a perpendicular QV is 
let fall on MN, and a Curve is to be found whofe length may be 
known from the length which arifes by applying the Area QRNV 

to any given Line ; let that given Line be call'd E, the length 

which is produced by fuch application be call'd <y, and its fluxion v. 
And fince the fluxion of the Area QRNV is to the Fluxion of the 
Area of a reiTtangular parallelogram made upon VN, with the height 
E, as the Ordinate or moving line NR = t, by which this is dc- 
fcribed, to the moving Line E, by which the other is deicribcd in 

S 2 the 



132 tte Method of FLUXION s, 

the fame time ; and the fluxions v and } of the lines v and MN, 
(or s,) or of the lengths which arife by applying thofe Areas to the 

given Line E, are in the fame ratio ; it will be v= s ~ . Therefore 

by this Rule the value of v is to be inquired, and the reft to be 
perform'd as in the Examples aforegoing. 

9. Ex. 4. Let QR be an Hyperbola which is defined by this 

Equation, aa -+ = // ; and thence arifes (by Prob. I.) =tf, 
or = t. Then if for the other two Equations are aflumed x=s 
and y = v ; the firft will give i = j, whence v = ^ = } and 
the latter will give y = v, or z = -g, then from hence z= ^ , 
and fubftituting or for t, it becomes z = ~ . Now y and z 

ct ft hit 

being found, make -r~ === CP, and_y x CP =n PL, as beforehand 

thence the Point C will be determin'd, and the Curve in which all 
fuch points are fituated : The length of which Curve will be known 
from the length DC, which is equivalent to CP v, as is fuffi- 
ciently fliewn before. 

10. There is alfo another method, by which the Problem may 
be refolved ; and that is by finding Curves whofe fluxions are either 
equal to the fluxion of the propofed Curve, or are compounded of 
the fluxion of that, and of other Lines. And this may fometimes 
be of ufe, in converting mechanical Curves into equable Geometri- 
cal Curves ; of which thing there is a remarkable Example in fpiral 
lines. 

1 1. Let AB be a right Line given in pofition, BD an Arch mov-< 
ing upon AB as an Abfcifs, and yet re- 
taining A as its Center, AD^ a Spiral, at 

which that arch is continually terminated, 
bd an arch indefinitely near it, or the place 
into which the arch BD by its motion next 
arrives, DC a perpendicular to the arch bd t 
dG the difference of the arches, AH an- 
other Curve equal to the Spiral AD, BH a 
right Line moving perpendicularly upon 

AB, and terminated at the Curve AH, bh the ^ ~B~<T 

next place into which that right lane moves, andHK perpendicular to 

bb. 




and INFINITE SERIES. 133 

bb. And in the infinitely little triangles DG/ and HK, lince DC 
and HK are equal to the fame third Line Bb, and therefore equal 
to each other, and Dd and Hh (by hypothecs) are correfpondent 
parts of equal Curves, and therefore equal, as alfo the angles at G 
and K are right angles ; the third fides dC and hK will be equal 
alfb. Moreover fince it is AB : BD :: Ab : bC :: hb AB (Qb) : 
bC BD (CG) j therefore - A * B - = CG. If this be taken away 
from dG, there will remain dG * & = dC = /6K. Call 
therefore AB=*, BD=-y, andBH=>', and their fluxions 
z, v, and y refpedtively, fince B, dG, and /jK are the contempora- 
neous moments of the fame, by the acceflion pf which they become 
A, bd t and bb, and therefore are to each other as the fluxions. 
Therefore for the moments in the lafl Equation let the fluxions be 
fubftituted, as alfo the letters for the Lines, and there will arife-y . 

^ == -.y. Now of thefe fluxions, if z be fuppos'd equable, or the 

~ " *' 

unit to which the reft are refer'd, the Equation will be i; ^=)'- 

12. Wherefore the relation between AB and BD, (or between z 
and v,) being given by any Equation, by which the Spiral is defined, 
the fluxion v will be given, (by Prob. i.) and thence alfo the fluxion 
;', by putting it equal to v. ^ . And (by Prob. 2.) this will give 
the line y, or BH, of which it is the fluxion. 

i?. Ex. i. If the Equation jzrzr-u were given, which is to the 

Spiral of Archimedes, thence (by Prob. i.) - 2 -^ = v. From hence 
take - , or - , and there will remain - =y, and thence (by Prob. 2.) 
2?_-r. Which fhews the Curve AH, to which the Spiral AD i 

2U 

equal, to be the Parabola of Apollonius, whofe Latus reclum is 2??; 
or whole Ordinate BH is always equal to half the Arch BD. 

14. Ex. 2. If the Spiral be propofed which is defined by the 

5 }_ 

Equation a 3 =a'v 1 , or v =;^ , there arifes (by Prob. i.) =-r, 

T 2^ T 

_l_ I 

from which if you take ^, or ~- , there will remain , = v, ano 

fl x 2i T 

i 
thence (by Prob. 2.) will be produced ^l = v. That i. ; ; -BD nrr 

3^ 

EU, AH being a Parabola of the fecond kind, t > 



is 



134 tte Method of FLUXIONS, 

15. Ex. 3. If the Equation to the Spiral be z</"^ =-y, thence 
(by Prob. i.) - a , . ?.~- = v ; from whence if you take away ""- or 

' 2 V ac -\- cz K 

^/- ?, there will remain , ~.. - = y. Now fince the quantity 

generated by this fluxion y cannot be found by Prob. 2. unlefs it be 
refolved into an infinite Series; according to the tenor of the Scho- 
lium to Prob. 9. I reduce it to the form of the Equations in the firft 
column of the Tables, by fubftituting z* for z, ; then it becomes 

=.y, which Equation belongs to the 26. Species of the 4th 

Orderof Table i. And by comparing the terms, it is d=,e=:ac, 
andf=c, fo that -~ 2 - ^ ac -f- cz == f=y. Which Equation 

belongs to a Geometrical Curve AH, which is equal in length to the 
Spiral AD. 

PROB. XII. 

To determine the Lengths of Curves. 

1. In the foregoing Problem we have fhewn, that the Fluxion of 
a Curve-line is equal to the fquare-root of the fum of the fquares of 
the Fluxions of the Abfcifs and of the perpendicular Ordinate. 
Wherefore if we take the Fluxion of the Abfcifs for an uniform and 
determinate meafure, or for an Unit to which the other Fluxions 
are to be refer'd, and alfo if from the Equation which defines the 
Curve, we find the Fluxion of the Ordinate, we mall have the 
Fluxion of the Curve-line, from whence (by Problem 2.) its Length 
may be deduced. 

2. Ex. i. Let the Curve FDH be propofed, which is defined by 

the Equation -- -f- - '- =_y ; making the Abfcifs AB = s, and the 

moving Ordinate DB =y. Then Jr 

from the Equation will be had, 

(by Prob. i.) 3 = y, the ^ J v - 

\ s ' aa 12Z.S. - / ' 

fluxion of z being i, and y being 

the fluxion of y. Then adding the X~ 

fquares of the fluxions, the fum 

v/ill be -h |-f- -^ == it, and extracting the root, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 135 

= t, and thence (by Prob. 2.) ^ ^ = : t . Here / ftands for the 

fluxion of the Curve, and / for its Length. 

3. Therefore if the length </D of any portion of this Curve were 
required, from the points d and D let fall the perpendiculars db and 
DB to AB, and in the value of t fubftitute the quantities Ab and 
AB feverally for z, and the difference of the refults will be JD the 
Length required. As if Ab === ?a, and AB = a, writing La for #, 






it becomes t = ; then writing a for #, it becomes / = 
from whence if the firfl value be taken away, there will remain 
^ for the length </D. Or if only h.b be determin'd to be ^a, and 

AB be look'd upon as indefinite, there will remain - _i_ -1 

aa 1 2ft 24 

for the value of 



4. If you would know the portion of the Curve which is repre- 
fented by /, fuppofe the value of / to be equal to nothing, and there 

arifes z* = , or z= -- .. Therefore if you take AB=-^- > 
12 V*z y, 2 

and eredT: the perpendicular bd t the length of the Arch ^D will be 

t or And the fame is to be underflood of all Curves 

11% 



aa 



in general. 

5. After the fame manner by which we have determin'd the 

length of this Curve, if the Equation ^ -f- -^L =y be propofed, 
for defining the nature of another Curve ; there will be deduced 

^ . _lL -=.t\ or if this Equation be propofed, La*y?~*. 
3" 1 * "* 

2_ 

there will arife ^ -f-i^ 5 '= t. Or in general, if it is cz* -{- 



* _ .- =_>', where 6 is u fed for reprefenting any number, either 

,-8" 

Integer or Fraction, we (hall have cz* = /. 

o 4&Qi od<r 

6. Ex.2. Let the Curve be propofed which is defined by this 
Equation "" + ^ \/ #a -t- =t^,V; then 1 (by Prob. i.) will be had 
_y = ^^-r ^f*-* + 4* ^ or exterminating y t y= '-'</~aa-{- zz. 
To the fquare of which add i. and the fum will be i -J- ~ 4- 4 - 4 . 

aa a* 

and 



136 ttt Method of FLUXIONS, 

and its Root i -f- * = t. Hence (by Prob. 2.) will be ob- 

aa * * / 



tain'd 2 + ^ 

A 



7. Ex. 3. Let a Parabola of the fecond kind be propofed, whofe 
Equation is z* = ay 1 , or ~ =_y, and thence .by Prob. i. is derived 



r==y. Therefore < 1 -+- 2f: = ~ i -+- yy ss . Now fmce the 

2a a 4<* 

length of the Curve generated by the Fluxion / cannot be found by 
Prob. 2. without a reduction to an infinite Series of fimple Terms, I 
confult the Tables in Prob. 9. and according to the Scholium belong- 

ing to it, I have / = ' v/ 1 -t- . And thus you may find 

the lengths of thefe Parabolas Z 1 = ay*, 2? r= ay*, z> = ay*, 
&c. 

8. Ex. 4. Let the Parabola be propofed, whofe Equation is * 

4 * 

= rfy 3 , or ^=:^; and thence (by Prob. i.) will arife 1^ = _y. 

" 



Therefore v/ 1 -f- i^ = </yy -+- i = t. This being found, I 

ga 7 

confult the Tables according to the aforefaid Scholium, and by com- 
paring with the 2d Theorem of the 5th Order of Table 2, I have 

sF = x, v/i -f- 1 ^ = v, and |j=?. Where x denotes the Ab- 

9 7 

fcifs, y the Ordinate, and s the Area of the Hyperbola, and / the 
length which arifes by applying the Area %s to linear unity. 

9. After the fame manner the lengths of the Parabolas z 6 =ay', 
z* :z=y 7 , z' =ay', &c. may alfo be reduced to the Area of the 
Hyperbola. 

jo. Ex. 5. Let the CuToid of the Ancients be propofed, whole 

Equation is ^T^jL" __ ; . an d thence (by Prob. i.) 

V az. 2.Z. ' 



22,* 



v / az zz=y, and therefore -^ ^/"^ = ^ yy -f- i = t ; 

which by writing 2? for ^ or z~\ becomes ^ v/ ' az" -f- 3 = /, 
an Equation of the ift Species of the 3d Order of Table 2 ; then 
comparing the Terms, it is ^ = d, 3 =. e, and ^ =^5 fo that 

i /: 20;' 4</c i 3 

= 'u, and 6; ___.l_into s=f. 

AT My 2iA? 

And 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



37 



= v, and 

a ax 



And taking a for Unity, by the Multiplication or Divifion O f 
which, thefe Quantities may be reduced to a juft number of Di- 

menfions, it becomes az = xx, < 
f : Which are thus conftructed. 

1 1. The Ciflbid being VD, AV the Diameter of the Circle to 
which it is adapted, AF its Afymptotc, and DB perpendicular to 
AV, cutting the Curve in D ; with the 
Semiaxis AF = AV, and the Semipara- 
meter AG = jAV, let the Hyperbola 
YkK be defcribed ; and taking AC a mean 
Proportional between AB and AV, at C 
and V let CA and VK drawn perpendi- 
cular to AV, <:ut the Hyperbola in , 
and K, and let right Lines kt and KT 
touch it in thofe points, and cut AV in 
/and T; and at AV let the Rectangle 
AVNM be defcribed, equal to the Space 
TK&. Then the length of the Ciflbid 
VD will be fextuple of the Altitude VN. 



d 




12. Ex. 6. Suppofing Ad to be an Ellipfis, which the Equation 
i/az 2zz =y reprefents ; let the mechani- 
cal Curve AD be propofed of fuch a nature, that v '' 
if B</, or_)', be produced till it meets this Curve 
at D, let BD be equal to the Elliptical Arch &d. 
Now that the length of this may be deter- 
min'd, the Equation \/ az 2.zz=. y will give 

=y, to the fquare of which if i be added, there ariies 

, the fquare of the fluxion of the arch A.J. To which 



zy az 
aa 4 



02 Szz 



if i be added again, there will arife -^ ^ ^- , whofe fquare-root 
=.* __ is the fluxion of the Curve-line AD. Where if z be ex- 

2y / az 2ZZ 

tracted out of the radical, and for z ~ be written c", there will be 
" -- , a Fluxion of the ift Species of the 4th Order of 

' 



=rt; fo that z= = x, \/ ux _.v.v = < 



Table 2. Therefore the terms being collated, there will arife d=.^a, 
e = 2, 



and -1 + ,= into, 






J3 8 



Method of FLUXION s. 



i-i. The Conftruaion of which is thus; that the right line </G 
being drawn to the center of the Ellipfis, a parallelogram may be 
made upon AC, equal to the fedlor AC/, and the double of its 
height will be the length of the Curve AD. 

14. Ex. 7. Making A/3= tp, (Fig, i.) and CL being an Hyper- 
bola, whofe Equation is v/ a -+ % = $&, and its tangent <TT 
being drawn ; let the Curve 
WD be propofed, whofe 

Abfcifs is , and its per- 
pendicular Ordinate is the 
length BD, which arifes by 
applying the Area a^To. to 
linear unity. Now that the 
length of this Curve VD 
may be determin'd, I feek 
the fluxion of the Areaa<rTa, 
when AB flows uniformly, 

and I find it to be -^ 

v/ ' b ax, putting AB =, 
and its fluxion unity. For 

'tis AT = = </z, and its fluxion is -rV , whofe half drawn 

t>p o za v z 

into the altitude /3<^, or v/ a + - , is the fluxion of the Area 




, defcribed by the Tangent <TT. Therefore that fluxion is 
-p v/ ' b az, and this apply'd to unity becomes the fluxion of the 
Ordinate BD. To the fquare of this ~^~ add i, the fquare of 



the fluxion BD, and there arifes ^~ fl ^+ a l6 ^ ta , whofe root -^ 

</a*b a>z-\- ibfrz*- is the fluxion of the Curve VD. But this 
is a fluxion of the ift Species of the 7th Order of Table 2 : and 

the terms being collated, there will be - = </, aab=e, a*=f, 



=g, and therefore z = x, and \/a l b a*x -f- 
(an" Equation to one Conic Section, fuppofe HG, (Fig. 2.) whofe 
Area EFGH is j, where EF = #, and FG = v ;) alfo *- ==%, 

and */i6bb - a*% + a&t- i = Y ) (an Equation to another Conic 

Section, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 139 

Section, (hppofe ML (Fig. 3.) whofe Area IKLM is <r, where IK 

i T/"T *w* \ T /XT 2aftbb^f fl5^Y*tf4y Aaabb? T.2abbs 

g and Kl_/= TiJ L,aitiy " 2 /\ 

15. Wherefore that the length of any portion DJ of the Curve 
VD may be known, let fall db perpendicular to AB, and make Kb 
= z ; and thence, by what is now found, feek the value of t. 
Then make AB=,s, and thence alfo feek for /. And the diffe- 
rence of thefe two values of / will be the length Dd required. 

16. Ex. 8. Let the Hyperbola be propos'd, whofe Equation is 

=)', and thence, (by Prob. i.) will be had^ = - ( O r 
To the fquare of this add i, and the root of the fum 
= /. Now as this fluxion is not to be found 



aa -\- bz.z. + bits. 



\/aa 4- tzz 

will be ^/ 

in the Tables, I 'reduce it to an infinite Series ; and firft by divifion 

" y i / 3 y 4 / 1 

it becomes t ;= </ 1 -f-jaS 1 ^ 2:4 H-r 2 ' 5 7* z * > & c - a d extracting 



the root, t == 



a- 




c A , 
z & , &c. And 

* 



hence (by Prob. 2.) may be had the length of the Hyperbolical Arch 



17. If the Ellipfis \/aa bz,z=.y were propofed, the Sign of 
b ought to be every where changed, and there will be had z 4- 

& _f- - ^ *-z' -^ 1 i ^t_s 7 , &c. for the length of its 

Arch. And likewife putting Unity for b, it will be z -+- -^ -f- 
3ii_4_ Jil , &c. for the length of the Circular Arch. Now the 

104 I I 2V.'' > O 



numeral coefficients of this feries may be found adinfinitum t by mul- 
tiplying continually the terms of this Progreflion j , , ^- > 

S x 9 ' 10 x i i ' 

18. Ex. 9. Laftly, let the Quadratrix VDE be propofed, whole 
Vertex is V, A being the Center, and AV 
the femidiameter of the interior Circle, to 
which it is adapted, and the Angle VAE 
being a right Angle. Now any right Line 
AKD being drawn through A, cutting the 
Circle in K, and the Quadratrix in D, and 
the perpendiculars KG, DB being let fall 
to AE } call AV =.a, AG = c;, VK = x, and BD = y, and it 

T 2 will 




The Method of FLUXIONS. 

will be as in the foregoing Example, x =.z 4- -r~ 4- j; 4- - 
&c. Extract the root js, and there will arife z= x ^ 4- 

, * 7 , &c. whofe Square fubtract from AKq. or a l s and the 

s 4 " a 4 

root of the remainder # 4- -^ , ; , &c. will be GK. 

2^j 9Aa9 *7?r\/j9 * 



Now whereas by the nature of the Quadratrix 'tis AB = VR = x, 
and fince it is AG : GK :: AB : BD (y), divide AB x GK by AG, 

and there will arife y = a ^ ^ -^--, , &c. And thence, 
(by Prob. i.) y = - ^ ^. ^ , &c. to the fquare of 
which add i , and the root of the fum will be i 4- ^ -f- 

'-J il il 



_6o4^ &c ^ __ \vhence (by Prob. 2.) / may be obtain'd, 

1Z /S~S U 

or the Arch of the Quadratrix ; viz. YD = x 4- ^j -f 



6 4 ' v7 &c. 



895025 




THE 



THE 

METHOD of FLUXIONS 

AND 

INFINITE SERIES; 

O R, 

A PERPETUAL COMMENT upon 
the foregoing TREATISE, 



u 






. 






; 



THE 



METHOD of FLUXIONS 



AND 



INFINITE SERIES. 



ANNOTATIONS on the Introduction : 



OR, 



The Refolution of Equations by INFINITE SERIES. 

S E c T. I. Of the Nature and ConftruElion of Infinite 

or Converging Series. 




great Author of the foregoing Work begins 
it with a fhort Preface, in which he lays down 
his main defign very concifely. He is not to be 
here underftood, as if he would reproach the mo- 
dern Geometricians with deferting the Ancients, 
or with abandoning their Synthetical Method of 
Demonftration, much lefs that he intended to difparage the Analy- 
tical Art ; for on the contrary he has very nauch improved both 
Methods, and particularly in this Treatife he wholly applies himfelf 
to cultivate Analyticks, in which he has fucceeded to univerial ap- 
plaufe and admiration. Not but that we mail find here fome ex- 
amples of the Synthetical Method likewife, which are very mafterly 
and elegant. Almoft all that remains of the ancient Geometry is 
indeed Synthetical, and proceeds by way of demonftrating truths 
already known, by mewing their dependence upon the Axioms, and 

other 



144 : -tb e Method of FLUXIONS, 

other fir ft Principles, either mediately or immediately. But the 
hiiinefs of Analyticks is to invcftiga'te fuch Mathematical Truths as 
really are, or may be fuppos'd at leaft to be unknown. It afiumes 
thofe Truths as granted, and argues from them in a general man- 
ner, till after a .fcries of argumentation, in which the -feveral fteps 
have a. neceftary. connexion wjth each other, it arrives at the know- 
ledge of the propofition required, by comparing it with fomething 
really known or given. This therefore being the Art of Invention, 
it certainly deferves to be cultivated with the utmoft induftry. Many 
of our modern Geometricians have been perfuaded, by confidering 
the intricate and labour'd Demonftrations of the Ancients, that they 
.were Mailers of an Analyfis purely Geometrical, which they ftudi- 
ouily conceal'd, and by the help of which they deduced, in a direct 
and fcientifical manner, thofe abftrufe Proportions we fo much ad- 
mire in tome of their writings, and which they afterwards demon- 
ftrated Synthetically. But however this may be, the lofs of that 
Analyfis, if any fuch there were, is amply compenfated, I think, 
by our prefent Arithmetical or Algebraical Analyfis, especially as it 
is now improved, I might fay perfected, by our fagacious Author in 
the Method before us. It is not only render 'd vaftly more univerfal, 
and exterriive than that other in all probability could ever be, but is 
likewife a moft compendious Analyiis for the more abftrufe Geome- 
trical Speculations, and for deriving Conftructions and Synthetical 
Demonftrations from thence ; as may abundantly appear from the 
enfuing Treatife. 

2. The conformity or correfpondence, which our Author takes 
notice of here, between his new-invented Doctrine of infinite Series, 
and the commonly received Decimal Arithmetick, is a matter of con- 
fiderable importance, and well deferves, I think, to be let in 3. fuller 
Light, for the mutual illuftration of both ; which therefore I fhall 
here attempt to perform. For Novices in .this Doctrine, tJho' they 
inay already be well acquainted with the Vulgar Arithmetick, and 
with the Rudiments of the common Algebra, yet are apt to appre- 
hend fomething abftrufe and difficult in infinite Series ; whereas in- 
deed they have the fame general foundation as Decimal Arithmetick, 
efpecially Decimal Fractions, and the fame Notion or Notation is only 
tarry'd ftill farther, and rendered more univerfal. But to mew this 
in fome kind of order, I muft inquire into thefe following particulars. 
Firft I muft (hew what is the true Nature, and what are the genuine 
Principles, of our common Scale of Decimal Arithmetick. Secondly 
what is the nature of other particular Scales, which have been, or 

may 



and INFINITE SERIES. 145 

may be, occasionally introduced. Thirdly, what is the nature of a 
general Scale, which lays the foundation for the Doctrine of infinite 
Series. Laftly, I ihall add a word or two concerning that Scale ot 
Arithmetick in which the Root is unknown, and thcrefoi-e propofcd 
to be found ; which gives occafion to the Doctrine of Affected Equa- 
tions. 

Firft then as to the common Scale of Decimal Arithmetick, it is 
that ingenious Artifice of expreffing, in a regular manner, all con- 
ceivable Numbers, whether Integers or Fractions, Rational or Surd, 
by the feveral Powers of the number Ttv/, and their Reciprocals; 
with the affiftance of other fmall Integer Numbers, not exceeding 
Nine, which are the Coefficients of thofe Powers. So that Ten is 
here the Root of the Scale, which if we denote by the Character X, 
as in the Roman Notation and its feveral Powers by the help of this 
Root and Numeral Indexes, (X 1 = 10, X 1 = ico, X 3 = 1000, 
X 4 = 10000, &c.) as is ufual ; then by ailuming the Coefficients 
o, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, as occafion (hall require, we may form or 
exprefs any Number in this Scale. Thus for inflance 5X 4 -f- jX 3 -f- 
4X 1 + 8X 1 -rf- 3X will be a particular Number exprefs'd by this 
Scale, and is the fame as 57483 in the common way of Notation. 
Where we may obferve, that this laft differs from the other way of 
Notation only in this, that here the feveral Powers of X (or Ten) 
are fupprefs'd, together with the Sign of Addition -f-, and are left 
to be fupply'd by the Underftanding. For as thofe Powers afcend 
regularly from the place of Units, (in which is always X, or i, 
muhiply'd by its Coefficient, which here is 3,) the feveral Powers 
will ealily be understood, and may therefore be omitted, and the 
Coefficients only need to be fet down in their proper order. Thus 
the Number 7906538 will (land for yX 6 -+- gX 5 -f- oX* -+-6X 3 -f- 
^X* -f-3X' -f-3X, when you fupply all that is underftood. And 
the Number 1736 (by fuppreffing what may be ealiiy -underftood,) 
will be equivalent to X 3 -+- 7X 1 -f- 3X -f- 6 ; and the like of all other 
Integer Numbers whatever, exprefs'd by this Scale, or with this 
Root X, or Ten. 

The fame Artifice is uniformly carry'd on, for the expreffing of 
all Decimal Fractions, by means of the Reciprocals of the ll-vcral 

Powers of Ten, fuch as ^ = o, i ; 5^1 = 0,0 1 ; ^ = 0,001 ; c.:c. 
which Reciprocals may be intimated by negative Indices. Thus the 
Decimal Fraction 0,3172 (lands for 3X~'-j- iX~~ : -f-7X -{- 2\~~ 4 i 
and the mixt Number 526,384 (by {applying what is underfl ; 

U becomes 



Method <?/* FLUXIONS, 

becomes 5 X 4 + 2X> -f- 6X -f- 3 X~' -f- 8X" 1 -f- 4 X- ; and the 
infinite or interminate Decimal Fraction 0,9999999, &c. ftands for 
9 X^' -f- gX- 1 -4- 9X~ 3 H- 9X~ 4 -f- 9 X~ 5 -+- yX~ & , &c. which infi- 
nite Series is equivalent to Unity. So that by this Decimal Scale, (or 
by the feveral Powers of Ten and their Reciprocals, together with 
their Coefficients, which are all the whole Numbers below Ten,) all 
conceivable Numbers may be exprefs'd, whether they are integer or 
fracled, rational or irrational ; at leaft by admitting of a continual 
progrefs or approximation ad infinitum, 

And the like may be done by any other Scale, as well as the Deci- 
mal Scale, or by admitting any other Number, befides Ten, to be 
the Root of our Arithmetick. For the Root Ten was an arbitrary 
Number, and was at firft aflumed by chance, without any previous 
confideration of the nature of the thing. Other Numbers perhaps 
may be affign'd, which would have been more convenient, and which 
have a better elaim for being the Root of the Vulgar Scale of Arith- 
metick. But however this may prevail in common affairs, Mathe- 
maticians make frequent life of other Scales ; and therefore in the 
fecond place I (hall mention fome other particular Scales, which 
have been occafionally introduced into Computations. 

The moft remarkable of thefe is the Sexagenary or Sexagefimal Scale 
of Arithmetick, of frequent ufe among Aflronomers, which expreffes 
all poffible Numbers, Integers or Fractions, Rational or Surd, by the 
Powers of Sixty, and certain numeral Coefficients not exceeding fifty- 
nine. Thefe Coefficients, for want of peculiar Characters to repre- 
fent them, muit be exprefs'd in the ordinary Decimal Scale. Thus 
if ftands for 60, as in the Greek Notation, then one of the/e Num- 
bers will be 53^ -f- 9^' -+- 34!, or in the Sexagenary Scale 53", 9*, 
34, which is equivalent to 191374 in the Decimal Scale. Again, 
the Sexagefimal Fraclion 53, 9', 34", will be the fame as 53^= -f- 
9|f+ 34~ z , which in Decimal Numbers will be 53,159444, &c. 
aa infinitum. Whence it appears by the way, that fome Numbers 
may be exprefs'd by a finite number of Terms in one Scale, which 
in another cannot be exprefs'd but by approximation, or by a pro- 
greffion of Terms in infinitum. 

Another particular Scale that has been confider'd, and in fome 
meafure has been admitted into practice, is the Duodecimal Scale, 
which exprefles all Numbers by the Powers of Twelve. So in com- 
mon affairs we fay a Dozen, a Dozen of Dozens or a Grofs, a Dozen 
of GrofTes or a great Grofs, Off. And this perhaps would have been 
the mod convenient Root of all otherSj by the Powers of which 

to 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 147 

to conftruct the popular Scale of Arithmetick ; as not being fo lig 
but that its Multiples, and all below it, might be eafily committed 
to memory ; and it admits of a greater variety of Divifors than any 
Number not much greater than itfelf. Befides, it is not fo fmall, 
'but that Numbers exprefs'd hereby would fufficiently converge, or 
by a few figures would arrive near enough to the Number required; 
the contrary of which is an inconvenience, that muft neceflarily 
attend the taking too fmall a Number for the Root. And to admit 
this Scale into practice, only two fingle Characters would be wanting, 
to denote the Coefficients Ten and Eleven. 

Some have confider'd the Binary Arithmetick, or that Scale in 
which TIDO is the Root, and have pretended to make Computations 
by it, and to find considerable advantages in it. But this can never 
be a convenient Scale to manage and exprefs large Numbers by, be- 
caufe the Root, and confequently its Powers, are fo very fmall, that 
they make no difpatch in Computations, or converge exceeding flowly. 
The only Coefficients that are here necelTary are o and i. Thus 
i x 2 5 -f- i x 2* -h o x2 3 + i x2* -f- i x 2' -f- 0x2 is one of thefe 
Numbers, (or compendioufly 110110,) which in the common No- 
tation is no more than 54. Mr. Leibnits imngin'd he had found 
great Myfteries in this Scale. See the Memoirs of the Royal Academy 
of Paris, Anno 1703. 

In common affairs we have frequent recourfe, though tacitly, to 
Millenary Arithmetick, and other Scales, whofe Roots are certain 
Powers of Ten. As when a large Number, for the convenience of read- 
ing, is diftinguifli'd into Periods of three figures: As 382,735,628,490. 
Here 382, and 735, &c. may be confider'd as Coefficients, and the 
Root of the Scale is 1000. So when we reckon by Millions, Billions, 
Trillions, &c. a Million may be conceived as the Root of our Arith- 
metick. Alfo when we divide a Number into pairs of figures, for 
the Extraction of the Square-root ; into ternaries of figures for the 
Extraction of the Cube-root ; &c. we take new Scales in effect, whofe 
Roots are 100, 1000, &c. 

Any Number whatever, whether Integer or Fraction, may be made 
the Root of a particular Scale, and all conceivable Numbers may be 
exprefs'd or computed by that Scale, admitting only of integral and 
affirmative Coefficients, whofe number (including the Cypher c) 
need not be greater than the Root. Thus in (Quinary Arithmetick, 
in which the Scale is compofed of the Powers of the Root 5, the 
Coefficients need be only the five Numbers o, i, 2, 3, 4, and yet all 
Numbers whatever are expreffible by this Scale, at leaft by approxi- 

U 2 mation, 



j^B 77oe Method of FLUXIONS, 

mation, to v/hat accu-racy we pleafe. Thus the common Number 
2827,92 in this Arithmetick would be 4 x 5 4 -+- 2 x 5' -|- 3 x 5* -\~ 
ox5 I H-2x5-f-4x5~ I H-3x 5~ s ; or if we may fupply the feveral 
Powers of 5 by the Imagination only, as we do thofe of Ten in the 
common Scale, this Number will be 42302,43 in Quinary Arithme- 
tick. 

All vulgar Fractions and mixt Numbers are, in fome meafure, the 
expreffing of Numbers by a particular Scale, or making the Deno- 
minator of the Fraction to be the Root of a new Scale. Thus is 
in effect o x 3 + 2 x^" 1 ; and 8-f- is the fame as 8 x 5 '-f- 3 x j-'j 
and 25-5- reduced to this Notation will be 25x9 + 4x 9' , or ra- 
ther 2x9' -4- 7x9 -4-4X9"" 1 . And fo of all other Fractions and 
mixt Numbers. 

A Number computed by any one of thefe Scales is eafily reduced 
to any other Scale affign'd, by fubftituting inftead of the Root in one 
Scale, what is equivalent to it exprefs'd by the Root of the other 
Scale. Thus to reduce Sexagenary Numbers to Decimals, becaufe 
60 = 6x10, or|=6X, and therefore | s = 3 6X 1 , ^=2i6X 3 , 
&c. by the fubilitution of thefe you will eafily find the equivalent 
Decimal Number. And the like in all other Scales. 

The Coefficients in thefe Scales are not neceflarily confin'd to be 
affirmative integer Numbers lefs than the Root, (tho' they mould be 
fuch if we would have the Scale to be regular,) but as occafion may 
require they may be any Numbers whatever, affirmative or negative, 
integers or fractions. And indeed they generally come out promif- 
cuoully in the Solution of Problems. Nor is it neceflary that the 
Indices of the Powers mould be always integral Numbers, but may 
be any regular Arithmetical Progreffion whatever, and the Powers 
themielves either rational or irrational. And thus (thirdly) we are 
come by degrees to the Notion of what is call'd an univerfal Series, 
or an indefinite or infinite Series. For fuppofing the Root of the 
Scale to be indefinite, or a general Number, which may therefore 
be reprefcnted by x, or y, &c. and affuming the general Coefficients 
a, b, c, d, &c. which are Integers or Fractions, affirmative or nega- 
tive, as it may happen ; we may form fuch a Series as this, ax* -f- 
lx* _j_ ex* -f- dx l -f- ex, which will reprefent fome certain Number, 
exprefs'd by the Scale whofe Root is x. If fuch a Number pro- 
ceeds in hfif.itum, then it is truly and properly call'd an Infinite 
Series, or a Converging Series, x being then fuppos'd greater than 
Unity. Such for example is x + \x~ '-\-^.x'--+ ^*~ 3 , &c. where 
the reft of the Terms are underftood ad in/initum, and are iniinuated 



and INFINITE SERIES. 149 

bv, oV. And it may have any dcfcending Arithmetical Progreffion 
for its Indices, as x m \x m ~ l -+- ^v* 1 -+-"*.. \s, Gfc. 

And thus we have been led by proper gradations, (that is, by 
arguing from what is well known and commonly received, to what 
before appear'd to be difficult and obfcure,) to the knowledge of 
infinite Series, of which the Learner will find frequent Examples 
in the lequel of this Treatife. And from hence it will be eafy to 
make the following general Inferences, and others of a like nature, 
which will be of good ufe in the farther knowledge and practice of 
t-hefe Series ; viz. That the firft Term of every regular Series is al- 
ways the mo ft coniiderable, or that which approaches nearer to the 
Number intended, (denoted by the Aggregate of the Series,) than 
any other lingle Term : That the fecond is next in value, and fo on : 
That therefore the Terms of the Series ought always to be difpoled 
in this regular defcending order, as is often inculcated by our Author : 
That when there is a Progreflion of fuch Terms-/;? infinitum, a few of 
the firft Terms, or thofe at the beginning of the Series, are or fhould 
be a fufficient Approximation to the whole ; and that thefe may 
come as near to the truth as you pleafe, by taking in ftill more 
Terms : That the fame Number in which one Scale may be exprefs'd 
by a finite number of Terms, in another cannot be exprefs'd but by 
an infinite Series, or by approximation only, and vice versei : That 
the bigger the Root of the Scale is, by fo much the fafter, cafen'.i 
paribus, the Series will converge ; for then the Reciprocals of the 
Powers will be fo much the lefs, and therefore may the more fafely 
be neglected : That if a Series coir e T os by increafing Powers, fuch 
as ax -^ bx* -+- ex* -|-</.v 4 , &c. the Root x of the Scale mull be un- 
derftood to be a proper Fraction, the lefler the better. Yet when- 
ever a Series can be made to conveige by the Reciprocals of Ten, 
or its Compounds, it will be more convenient than a Series that 
converges fafter j becaufe it will more eafily acquire the form of the 
Decimal Scale, to which, in particular Cafes, all Series are to be ul- 
timately reduced. LafHy, from fuch general Series as thefe, which 
are commonly the refill t in the higher Problems, we muft pafs (by 
fubftitution) to particular Scales c; Series, and thofe are finally to be 
reduced to the Decimal Scale. And the Art of finding fuch general 
Series, and then their Reduction to -particular Scales, and laft all 
to the common Scale of Decimal Numbers, is ulmoll the whole of 

j abrtiull-r pares of Amly ticks, as may be fecn in a good meaiiire'by 
the prefent TrcuUic. 

I 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

I took notice in the fourth place, that this Doctrine of Scales, and 
Series, gives us an eafy notion of the nature of affected Equations, 
or fhews us how they ftand related to fuch Scales of Numbers. In 
the other Inflances of particular Scales, and even of general ones, 
the Root of the Scale, the Coefficients, and the Indices, are all fiip- 
pos'd to be given, or known, in order to find the Aggregate of the 
Series, which is here the thing required. But in affected Equations, on 
the contrary, the Aggregate and the reft are known, and the Re ot of 
the Scale, by which the Number is computed, is unknown and re- 
quired. Thus in the affected Equation $x* -j- 3*2 -f- ox* -+- 7*- 
53070, the Aggregate of the Series is given, viz. the Number 
53070, to find x the Root of the Scale. This is eafily difcern'd to 
be 10, or to be a Number exprefs'd by the common Decimal Scale, 
efpecially if we fupply the feveral Powers of 10, where they are un- 
derftood in the Aggregate, thus 5X 4 -+- 3X 3 -f-oX 1 +7X' -4-oX 
= 53070. Whence by companion 'tis x = X=io. But this 
will not be fo eafily perceived in other instances. As if I had the 
Equation 4^+4- ax 3 -f- 3** -f-ox" -f- 2x -f- ^x~ f -f- ^x~ 1 = 2827,92 
I Ihould not fo eafily perceive that the Root x was 5, or that this is 
a Number exprefs'd by Quinary Arithmetick, except I could reduce 
it to this form, 4x5* -+- 2x $ 3 + 3*5* + 0x5' -f- 2 x 5 H- 4x5 * 
-+- 3 x 5~~ ; = 2827,92, when by comparifon it would preiently ap- 
pear, that the Root fought muft be 5. So that finding the Root of 
an affected Equation is nothing elfe, but finding what Scale in Arith- 
jnetick that Number is computed by, whofe Refult or Aggregate is 
given in the common Scale ; which is a Problem of great ufe and 
extent in all parts of the Mathematicks. How this is to be done, 
either in Numeral, Algebraical, or Fluxional Equations, our Author 
will inflruct us in its due place. 

Before I difmiis this copious and ufeful Subject of Arithmetical 
Scales, I fhall here make this farther Observation ; that as all con- 
ceivable Numbers whatever may be exprefs'd by any one of theie 
Scales, or by help of an Aggregate or Scries of Powers derived frcm 
any Root ; fo likewife any Number whatever may be exprefs'd by 
fome fingle Power of the fame Root, by affuming a proper Index, 
integer or fracted, affirmative or negative, as occafion fhall require. 
Thus in the Decimal Scale, the Root of which is 10, or X, not 
only the Numbers i, 10, 100, 1000, &c. or i, o.i, o.oi, o.ooi, &c. 
that is, the feveral integral Powers of 10 and their Reciprocals, may 
be exprefs'd by the fingle Powers of X or 10, viz. X , X' , X 1 , X s , 
or X, X- 1 , X~% X--% &c. refpectively, but alfo all the inter- 
mediate 



and INFINITE SERIES. 151 

mediate Numbers, as 2, 3, 4, Gff. u, 12, 13, Gfr. may be exprefs'd 
by fuch fingle Powers of X or 10, if we aflame proper Indices. 

Thus 2 = X' JOI03> &C- , 3 = X '477",&c. 4 = __ Xo/o-.o, &e. g^ Qr jj 

_.X''4'3!>. &C - i 2=== X'>7i" 8 ' &e> 456 = X*.s89s,&c. And the like of 
all other Numbers. Thefe Indices are ufually call'd the Logarithms of 
the Numbers (or Powers) to which they belong, and are fo many 
Ordinal Numbers, declaring what Power (in order or fucceflion) any 
given Number is, of any Root aflign'd : And different Scales of Lo- 
garithms will be form'd, by afluming different Roots of thofe Scales. 
But how thefe Indices, Logarithms, or Ordinal Numbers may be 
conveniently found, our Author will likewife inform us hereafter. 
All that I intended here was to give a general Notion of them, and 
to mew their dependance on, and connexion with, the feveral Arith- 
metical Scales before defcribed. 

It is eafy to obferve from the Arenariiu of Archimedes, that he 
had fully confider'd and difcufs'd this Subject of Arithmetical Scales, 
in a particular Treatife which he there quotes, by the name of his 
a'^^tl, or Principles ; in which (as it there appears) he had laid the 
foundation of an Arithmetick of a like nature, and of as large an 
extent, as any of the Scales now in ufe, even the moft univerlal. It 
appears likewife, that he had acquired a very general notion of the 
Dodtrine and Ufe of Indices alfo. But how far he had accommo- 
dated an Algorithm, or Method of Operation, to thofe his Princi- 
ples, muft remain uncertain till that Book can be recover'd, which 
is a thing more to be wim'd than expedled. However it may be 
fairly concluded from his great Genius and Capacity, that fince he 
thought fit to treat on this Subject, the progrefs he had made in it 
was very confiderable. 

But before we proceed to explain cur Author's methods of Ope- 
ration with infinite Series, it may be expedient to enlarge a little 
farther upon their nature and formation, and to make fome general 
Reflexions on their Convergency, and other circumftances. Now 
their formation will be beft explain'd by continual Multiplication 
after the following manner. 

Let the quantity a -+- bx -{-ex 1 -+- <A' 3 -+- ex 4 , 6cc. be aflumed as 
a Multiplier, confming either of a finite or an infinite number of 

Terms ; and let alfo - -+- x = o be fuch a Multiplier, as will give 
the Root x= - . If thefe two are multiply'd together, they 



will produce 3 + 2Xf?* + 2f_V + "1^5^ + *i V, &c. 

* a a a n 



152 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

. o ; and if inftead of x we here fubflitute its value - , the Series 

ap fy+"<! f tp+bq f- dp + cq /3 ' ef+t/f p* 

wi 1 become - TTT - x - -f- x -*- x -. -f- -^-^- ? x - > 

q q q if 11* 9 j* 

&c. = o ; or if we divide by -, and tranfpofe, it will be "*" aq . 

tp + bg p dj> + eg /* ep + Jq t* .... 

x y + j x ^ x - , &c. = ,7 : which Series, 

thus derived, may give us a good infight into the nature of infinite 
Series in general. For it is plain that this Series, (even though it 
were continued to infinity,) mufl always be equal to a, whatever 
may be fuppofed to be the values of p, q, a, b y c, d } &c. For 

- , the firft part of the firflTerm, will always be removed or deflroy'd 
by its equal with a contrary Sign, in the fecond part of the feeond 

Term. And x- , the firfl part of the fecond Term, will be re- 

i i 
moved by its equal with a contrary Sign, in the fecond part of -the 

third Term, and fo on : So as finally to leave -- , or a, for the 

Aggregate of the whole Series. And here it is likewile to be obferv'd, 
that we may flop whenever we pleafe, and yet the Equation will be 
good, provided we take in the Supplement, or a due part of the next 
Term. And this will always obtain, whatever the nature of the 
Series may be, or whether it be converging or diverging. If the 
Series be diverging, or if the Terms continually increafe in value, 
then there is a neceflity of taking in that Supplement, to preferve 
.the integrity of the Equation. But if the Series be converging, or 
if the Terms continually decreafe in any compound Ratio, and there- 
fore finally vanifh or approach to nothing ; the Supplement may be 
fafely neglected, as vanishing alfb, and any number of Terms may- 
be taken, the more the better, as an Approximation to the Qium- 
tity a. And thus from a due confederation of this fictitious Series, 
the nature of all converging or diverging Series may eafily be appre- 
hended. Diverging Series indeed, unlefs when the afore-mention'd 
increafing Supplement can be affign'd and taken in, will be of no 
feivice. And this Supplement, in Series that commonly occur, will 
be generally fo entangled and complicated with the Coefficients of 
the Terms of the Scries, that altho* it is always to be understood., 
neverthelef?, ii is often impoffible to be extricated and affign'd. 
But however, converging Series will always be of excellent ufe, as 
Affording a convenient Approximation to the quantity required, when 
it cannot be othei wile exhibited. In thefe the Supplement aforefaid, 

tho' 



and INFINIT E SERIES. 153 

tho' generally inextricable and unnflignable, yet continually decreafes 
along with the Terms of the Series, and finally becomes lefs than any 
aflignable Quantity. 

The. lame Quantity may often be exhibited or exprefs'd by feveral 
converging Scries ; but that Series is to be mod edeem'd that has the 
greateft Rate of Convergency. The foregoing Series will converge 
fo much the fader, cteteris paribus, as p is lefs than q y or as the 

Fraction - is lefs than Unity. For if it be equal to, or greater than 

Unity, it may become a diverging Series, and will diverge fo much 
the fader, as p is greater than q. The Coefficients will contribute 
little or nothing to this Convergency or Divergency, if they are 
fuppos'd to increafe or decreafe (as is generally the cafe) rather in a 
fimple and Arithmetical, than a compound and Geometrical Propor- 
tion. To make fome Edimate of the Rate of Convergency in this 
Series, and by analogy in any other of this kind, let k and / re- 
prefent two Terms indefinitely, which immediately fucceed each 
other in the progrefTion of the Coefficients of the Multiplier a -+- 
bx -if ex* -f-^x 3 , &c. and let the number n reprefent the order or 
place of k. Then any Term of the Series indefinitely may be repre- 

fented by -f- l'-Jf-~*- where the Sign mud be -+- or , accor- 

?" 
ding as n is an odd or an even Number. Thus if == i, then 

k = a, 1 = 1', and the firft Term will be -f- *_LlL^Z . ]f ==2j 

then & = />, l = c, and the fecond Term will be c ^~p. And 
fo of the red. Alib if m be the next Teim in the aforefaid pro- 

grefTion after /, then -f- -^~lp"~ l -f- ^ 7 /." will be any two fuc- 

?" ?" 

cefiive Terms in the fame Series. Now in order to a due Conver- 
gency, the former Term abfolutely confider'd, that is fetting afide 
the Signs, mould be as much greater than the fucceeding Term, as 

conveniently may be. Let us fuppoie therefore that JL^Jp-i j s 

i" 

greater than ' ^p", or ( dividing all by the common factor c" } \ 

r " ~^ ' t" ' 

that ^ + /f? is greater than ^ - , or ( multiplying both by pq, ) 

that Ipq -f- krf is greater than nip* +- Ipq, or (taking away the com- 
mon IpqJ that kf is greater than //.y, 1 , or (by a farther Diviiion,) 

that - x is greater than unity ; and as much greater as may be. 
fl X This 



7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

This will take effeft on a double account ; firft, the greater k is in 
refpecl: of ;;;, and fecondly, the greater 5* is in refpect of p\ Now 
in the Multiplier a -\-bx -f- ex* -\-dx>, &c. if the Coefficients a, b, 
r, &c. are in any decreafing ProgreiTion, then k will be greater than 
/, which is greater than m ; fo that a fortiori k will be greater than 
m. Alfo if q be greater than p, and therefore (in a duplicate ratio) 
j* will be greater than /*. So that (cater is faribus) the degree of 
Convergency is here to be eftimated, from, the Rate according to 
w hich the Coefficients a, b, c, &c. continually decreafe, compounded 
with the Ratio, (or rather its duplicate,) according to which q fhall 
be fuppos'd to be greater than />. 

/ n 

The fame things obtaining as before, the Term .j_ A will be 





i 



what was call'd the Supplement of the Series. For if the Series be 
continued to a number of Terms denominated by n, then inftead of 
all the reft of the Terms in itifinitutn, we may introduce this Sup- 
plement, and then we fhall have the accurate value of a, inftead of 
an approximation to that value. Here the firft Sign is to be taken 
if n is an odd number, and the other when it is even. Thus if 

n= i, and confequently k=a, and /= <, we fhall have 

* == a. Or if == 2, and /= c, then b lX e tll x t + 
q ill 

c\i . f 7 j .i bb-^-a-j ff-> r f-a p <{$ -4- cq 

L---a. Or if n = 3, /= a, then J-If _L_L_I x - -4- - 
f i 1 i q 

x ^ =.$. And fo on. Here the taking in of the Supple- 
ment always compleats the value of a, and makes it perfect, 
whether the Series be converging or diverging ; which will always 
be the beft way of proceeding, when that Supplement can readily 
be known. But as this rarely happens, in fuch infinite Series as ge- 
nerally occur, we muft have recourfe to infinite converging Series, 
wherein this Supplement, as well as the Terms of the Series, are 
infinitely diminifh'd ; and therefore after a competent number of 
them are collected, the reft may be all neglected in infinitum. 

From this general Series, the better to aflift the Imagination, we 
will defcend to a few particular Inftances of converging Series in 
pure Numbers. Let the Coefficients a, />, c-, d, &c. be expounded by 

,, , | ; < , to, refpectively ; then ** _ * x ^ + ^ x 

^ ^c! or L^_fl^ x ^ H _-2^ x ^_^-+5ix / 4, &C. 
5 ' (XC< J ' 27 r.x; ? 7 3 x 4? f 4x55. 5 3' 

'. r . That the Series hence arifmg may converge, make/ lefs 

than 



a?:d IN FINITE SERIES. 155 

than q in any given ratio, fuppofe - = ~, or /> = i, q = 2, then 

A |.x|H-4^x^ T V x -J., &c. = i. That is, this Series of 
Fractions, which is computed by Binary Arithmetick, or by the 
Reciprocals of the Powers of Two, if infinitely continued will 
finally be equal to Unity. Or if we defire to flop at thefe four 
Terms, and inftead of the reft ad infinitum if we would introduce 
the Supplement which is equivalent to them, and which is here 
known to be j x T y, or T V, we Hull have 4 | -+- - T ^ -f- 
T 'o- = i, as is eafy to prove. Or let the fame Coemdents be ex- 
pounded by i, |, -i, i, -f, &c. then it will be - - -+- 

f 4iz^ 1 f = 4f / & Thu Series m ehhei . 

1 3 X 47 J* 4 X 5? i 3 

be continued infinitely, or may be fum'd after any number of Terms 

i, _ n 

exprefs'd by ;?, by introducing the Supplement ; ~ infteadof all 

H-IXJ* 

the reft. Or more particularly, if we make (jr= $p, then -2 _f. 
7-^-. -+- -- - -f ( ^ . &c. = i, v/hich is a Number 

6x5! liXjS 20X^4 30X;;!' 

exprefs'd by Quinary Arithmetick. And this is eafily reduced to the 
Decimal Scale, by writing ~ for -f, and reducing the Coefficients ; 
for then it will become 0,99999, &c. = i. Now if we take thefe 
five Terms, together with the Supplement, we mall have exadly 

-f- r 11 - + - 12 - -f- - + -~ 4- ^-, = i. Again, if 

2x5 6x,i 12x5} 20x54 30x5' 6x; 

we make here 77= ioo/^, we fhall have the Series 

JJ " 

^^- 6 >c -i- + 40 ~ 9 x 9 -f- < co -': x 27 
- x 3 iccoo 3 X 4 i oooooo 4 X 5 locoocooo 

which converges very fa ft. And if we would reduce this to the re- 
gular Decimal Scale of Arithmetick, (which is always fuppos'd to be 
done, before any particular Problem can be faid to be coinplcatly 
folved,) we muit let the Terms, when decimally reduced, orderly 
under one another, that their Amount or Aggregate may be tlifco- 
ver'd ; and then they will ftand as in the Margin. Here the Ag- 
gregate of the firfc five Terms is 0,99999999595, 0,985 
which is a near Approximation to the Amount of the 
whole infinite Series, or to Unity. And if, for proof- 

lake, we add to this the Supplement _ +/ ' = 1L ,- 

+ , ,/' ' 5 '" |OJ 

= 0,00000000405, the wh< . be Unity exaclly. 

X 2 There 




T f6 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

3 *f 

There are alfo other Methods of forming converging Series, whe- 
ther general or particular, which fhall approximate to a known quan- 
tity, and therefore will be very proper to explain the nature of Con- 
vergency, and to mew how the Supplement is to be introduced, when 
it can be done, in order to make the Series finite ; which of late 
has been call'd the Summing of a Series. Let A, B, C, D, E, &c. 
and a, />, c, d, e, &c. be any two Progrcffions of Terms, of which 
A is to be exprefs'd by a Series, either finite or infinite, compos'd 
of itfelf and the other Terms. Suppofe therefore the firft Term of 
the Series to be a, and that p is the fupplement to the value of a. 

Then is A = a -}-/>, or p = ~ a . As this is the whole Supple- 
ment, in order to form a Series, I fhall only take fuch a part of it 
as is denominated by the Fraction - , and put q for the fecond Sup- 
plement. That is, I will afiimie - = (p=) - -XTJ -\-q, or 

/A a b \ A a E b .. .... ., 

q f xi R=7 ~~B~ x ' Again, as 1S 1S the whole 

value of the Supplement q> I fhall only aflume fuch a part of it as is de- 
nominated by the Fradion > and for the next Supplement put r. 

/A a 

orr = (-- x 
Now as this is the whole 
value of the Supplement r, I only afTume fuch a part of it as is denominated 
by the Fraction - , and for the next Supplement put s. That is, ~ 

Bl> Cc A a B /; Cc, A a 

x -7 x = ( r = ) - x - x -rr-a -+- s, or s = -77- x 

^ I ^ ' D ^ U Ij 

B /; Cc 7 A a B '> Cc T>d A j /- c 

x x i TJ r- x r- x 77 x . And lo on as far 

as we pleafe. So that at lafr. we have the value of A.'=a-\-p, 
where the Supplement p = - ~l)-\-q, where the fecond Supple- 

A a B b A a E l> Cc , 

inent q == g x TT-C -}- r, where r = g x ^~ x -]y 4- s, 

A B b C c D d 

where s = '^- x -7- x -rr x r-e-\- 1. And fo on ad tnfinitum. 

D (*. U H, 

_,. r 11 A A a. A a B /; A a Eb C c , 

That is finally A = a -+- b .+- x ^-c -\ x -7 x -jj- 

A a 7, b Cc D d c \ -a r^ TT\ -O Of* 

-\- x TV- x -jj- x -J7- e, Kc. where A, B, C, D, E, ere. and a y 

b, r, d, e, 6cc. may be any two Progreffions of Numbers whatever, 
whether regular or defultory, afcending or defcending. And when 

it 



. . 

= (?=) -g- x 



x rr- x 




and INFINITE SERIES. 157 

it happens in thefe Progreffions, that either A = a, or B=^, or 
___ 5cc. then the Series terminates of itfelf, and exhibits the 
vilue of A in a finite number of Terms : But in other cafes it ap- 
proximates indefinitely to the value of A. But in the cafe of an 
infinite Approximation, the faid Progreffions ought to proceed re- 
"ularlv, according to feme Hated Law. Here it will be eafy to ob- 
fcrvc," that if 1C and k are put to reprefent any two Terms indefi- 
nitely in the aforefaid Progreffions, whofe places are denoted by the 
number ;/, and if L and / are the Terms immediately following ; 
then the Term in the Series denoted by n -f- i will be form'd from 

(v /- 

the preceding Term, by multiplying it by -^ /. As if n = i, 
K = A, k = a, L = B, l=b, and the fecond Term will 



i /t j ', A T f-* 17 L t"1~ipn TC - - L - "R k -- " u 

DC ** 1 r> " H * ' 

A a, B A a B f> 

I z c, and the third Term will be jr-^* ~7cT r == ~tT x ~Tr~ r; 
and fo of the reft. And whenever it fhall happen that L =/, then the 
Series will ftop at this Term, and proceed no farther. And the 
Series approximates fo much the fafter, catcris paribus, as the 
Numbers A, B, C, D, &c. and a, b, c, d, &c. approach nearer to 
each other refpedively. 

Now to give fome Examples in pure Numbers. Let A, B,C, D, 
&c. = 2, 2, 2, 2, &c. and a, b, c, d, &c. = i, i, i, i, &c- then we 
fhall have 2 = i -h 1 H- + T +* -V> & c - And fo always, when 
the given Progreffions are Ranks of equals, the Series will be a 
G<~ metrical Progrefnon. If we would have this Progieffion ftop at 
the next Term, we may either fuppofe the firft given Progreilion 
to be 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, i, or the fecond to be i, i, i, i, i, 2, 'tis all 
one which. For in either cafe we mall have L= /, that is F ==/, 

TC ^ p* 

and therefore the laft Term muft be multiply'dby - , or = i. 

Then the Progreffion or Series becomes 2 = I +T-r-ir~+"T + Tci 
+-TT- Again, 'if A, B, C, D, &c. = 5, 5, 5, 5, &c. and a, b, c, d, 
&c. =4, 4> 4, 4, &c - then 5 = 4 H- T + T + T + TTT -H *-TT, & c - 
or ^. = H- T ' T -i- -4 T + T!T> &c Or if A, B, C, D, &c. = 4, 
4, 4, 4, 6cc. and </, *, f , d, &c. = 5, 5, 5, 5, &c. then 4=5 
i -4- -fV - - *- S T H- ^Tr, &c. If A, B, C, D, &c. = 5, 5, 5, 5, &c. 
and tf, ^, c, d, &c. = 6, 7, 8, 9, &c. then 5 = 6 T7-f-4-Xy8 
^-xf x-f-y -h -^- x-fx AX 10, &c. If we would have the Series 
ftop here, or if we v/oiud find one more Term, or Supplement, 
which fhculd be equivalent to all the reft ad inftnitum y (which in- 
deed 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

deed might be deiirable here, and in fuch cafes as this, becaufe of thc- 
llow Convergency, or rather Divergency of the Series,) fuppofe F==/j 

and therefore ~ - = ""7^ ^ T mu ^ be niultiply'd by the la ft 

Term. So that the Series becomes 5 = 6 1.7 -f- .1. x -^-S - - f x .. 

^ 3 n I * v * ^ ' v 4 TO ' v '* v 3 ' v * f Tf A R CD for --> 

X T9 T X T X T X T 10 T X T X> T x TJ 1 r **> ^ ^> ^> (XU 2 > 

3, 4, 5, &c. and <--, b, c, d, &c. = i, 2, 3, 4, &c. then 2 = 1-4- 
T-+^x^ 3 +|x^xi4-|-|x^xix^5, &c. If A,B,C,D,6cc. 
=^ i, 2, 3, 4, &c. and ^, b, c, d, &c. = 2, 3,4, 5, &c. then i = 

- 13 + T x|4 T XT;<i5 H- T *T X T X T 6 > &c - And from 
this general Series may infinite other particular Series be eafily de- 
rived, which fliali perpetually converge to given Quantities ; the chief 
ufe of which Speculation, I think, will be, to iliew us the nature 
of Convergency in general. 

There are many other fuch like general Series that may be readily 
form'd, which mall converge to a given Number. As if I would 
confliucl a Series that flrali converge to Unity, I fet down i, toge- 
ther with a Rank of Fractions, both negative and affirmative, as 
here follows. 

'* - - - &c 
I --"""""'"' 



-h 


a 

' A 


b 


c 

- c 


e r 


A-\-a 


-+ 


Ab Ba 


-J- 


ti ^/> L De-Ed c _ 


A 


AB 


BC DE ' C * ] 



Then proceeding obliquely, I collect the Terms of each Series toge- 
ther, by adding the two nrit, then the two fecond, and fo on. So 
that' the whole Series thus conftrudled muft neceflarily be equal to 
Unity ; which alfo is manifeft by a bare Infpeclion of the Series. 
From this Series it is eafy to defcend to any number of particular 
Cafes. As if we make A, B, C, D, &c. = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6cc. and a, b, 
i, &c. then A J- ^ __l___i_ 6 , 

&c. And fo in all 



.= . , . 

other Cafes. The Series will flop at a finite number of Terms, 
whenfoever you omit to take in the firft part of the Numerator of 
any Term. As here | -JL ? _ -1- ^ -1--.^ = ,. 

Laftly, to conftru6t one more Series of this kind, which mail 
converge to Unity ; I fet down i, with a Rank of Fractions along 

with 



and INFINITE SERIES, 159 

with it, both affirmative and negative, iiich as are feen here below ; 
which being added together obliquely as before, will produce the 
following Series. 



i 4- 


a f 
A ~*~ 
a 


ab 


(T 


"+" A BCD ~ 

/>:</ 


abcJe /, 
hrvrr 


AB 
a!> 


"t" ABC 

abt 


abctle 

N~C 


A 


AB 


AB^ 


' ABCDE' C ' * 


A a 


l-b 


?4 


_~- L^_ 


D rf , 


E c , , 

I .._ , fjhrii ATP T 


A 






*" AB^DE^' ~ C> J< 



This Series may be made to flop at any finite number of Terms, 
if you omit to take in the latter part of the Binomial in any Term. 
Or you may derive particular Series from it, which fhall have any 
Rate of Convergency. 

For an Example of this Series, make A, B, C, D, &c. = 3, 3, 
3, 3,6cc. and a, b, c,d y &c. = i, i, i, i, &c. then y4-f -+-TV + TT> 
&c. = i, or JL 4- 4- -\ 4- T V, &c. = . And whenever A, B, 
C, &c. and a, b, f, &c. are Ranks of Equals, the Series will be a 
Geometrical PiogrefTion. 

Again, make A, B, C, D, &c. = 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. and a, b, c, d, &c. 

= i, i, i, i, &c. then i-4- 7^ 4- 7777; + r x 3 x 4 x 5 + 2x3x4x5x6 
&c. = i. Or in a finite number of Terms T + T+ 77^ + 2X 3 x S 

_i I = i. And the like may be obferved of others in an 

2x3x4x5 

infinite variety. 

And thus having prepared the way for what follows, by explain- 
ing the nature of infinite Series in general, by difcovering their origin 
and manner of convergency, and by fhewing their connexion with 
cur common Arithmetick ; I mall now return to our Author's Me- 
thods of Oj , or to the Reduction of compound Quantities 
to fuch infinite Series. 

SECT. II. The Resolution of fimph Equations, or pure 
Powers, by I?ifihi.'d Szries. 




3, 4. ' | ^HE Author begins his Reduction of compound ( 

tit ; -, to an equivalent infinite Series of fmiple Tc-ms, 
fir ft by fhevr: j; how the Piocefs may be peiform'd in Divifion. 
Now in his Example the manner of the Operation is thus, in imi- 



taton 



j6o *fi>e Method of FLUXIONS, 

tation of the ufual praxis of Divifion in Numbers. In order to ob- 
tain the Quotient of aa divided by b -f- x, or to relblve the com- 
pound Fraction T|T- into a Series of fimple Terms, firft find the 
Quotient of aa divided by l> } the firft Term of the Divifor. This 
is ^ , which write in the Quote. Then multiply the Divifor by 

this Term, and fet the Product aa -h ^ under the Dividend, from 

whence it muft be fubtracted, and will leave the Remainder ~ . 

Then to find the next Term (or Figure) of the Quotient, divide 
the Remainder by the firft Term of the Divifor, or by b, and put 

the Quotient "~ for the fecond Term of the Quote. Multiply 

the Divifor by this fecond Term, and the Product ^ ^r 
fet orderly under the laft Remainder ; from whence it muft be fub- 
tracted, to find the new Remainder -h "-^- . Then to find the 

bo 

next Term of the Quotient, you are to proceed with th-is new 
Remainder as with the former ; and fo on in infimtum. The Qup- 

r . a* K* c c*x* a*x3 c , - * 

tient therefore is j -+- ^- , &c. (or -j into i 

? .+- ^ ^ , 6cc.) So that by this Operation the Number or 



Quantity ^ , (or a 1 x^-t-*!" 1 ) is reduced from that Scale in 
Arithmetick whofe Root is b -+ x, to an equivalent Number, the 
Root of whofe Scale, (or whofe converging quantity) is . And 
this Number, or infinite Series thus found, will converge fo much 
the fafter to the truth, as b is greater than x. 

To- apply this, by way of illustration, to an inftance or two in 
common Numbers. Suppofe we had the Fraction |, and would 
jeduce it from the feptenary Scale, in which it now appears, to an 
equivalent Series, that mall converge by the Powers of 6. Then 

, we (hall have j = ^ ^ ; and therefore in the foregoing general 

\ Fraction -^- , make a-=. i, b = 6, and #==1, and the Series 

b -"j~ x 

will become f ~ + ^ ^, &c. which will be equivalent to 
Y. Or if we would reduce it to a Series converging by the Powers 
of 8, becaufe f= ~ , make a= i, ^=8, and .v = i, 

then 



and IN FINITE SERIES. j6r 

then ~ = T + ~* -+- & -+- ^ > &- c - which Series will converge fafter 
than the former. Or if we would reduce it to the common Denary (or 
Decimal) Scale, becaufe f -~r- , niake a= i, l> = 10, and 

x= 3 ; then 7 = -rV -4- -4-0- -+- Wo-o- -f- -o-Vo-o- + TO-O-^O-S-J <* c ' 
= 0,1428, &c. as may be eafily collected. And hence we may 
obferve, that this or any other Fraction maybe reduced a great va- 
riety of ways to infinite Series ; but that Series will converge iafteft 
to the truth, in which b mall be greateft in refpect of x. But that 
Series will be mod eafily reduced to the common Arithmetic^, 
which converges by the Powers of 10, or its Multiples. If we 
mould here refolve 7 into the parts 3 -f- 4, or 2+5, or i -f- 6, 
&c. inftead of converging we mould have diverging Series, or : fuch 
as require a Supplement to be taken in. 

And we may here farther obferve, that as in .Divifion of com- 
mon Numbers, we may flop the procefs of Divifion whenever we 
pleafe, and inftead of all the reft of the Figures (or Terms) ad in- 
finituniy we may write the Remainder as a Numerator, and the 
'Divifor as the Denominator of a Fraction, which Fraction will be 
the Supplement to the Quotient : fo the fame will obtain in the 
Divifion of Species. Thus in the prefent Example, if we will flop 

at the firft Term of the Quotient, we mall have -^- = "~ a ^L. . 

^ ' b + X o b X /; |- x 

Or if we will ft op at the fecond Term, then --r\. = j "-~r -f- 
Or if we will flop at the third Term, then ^- = ^ 
_ ^- x . And fo in the fucceeding Terms, in which 
thefe Supplements may always be introduced, to make the Quotient 
compleat. This Obfervation will be found of good ufe in fome of 
the following Speculations, when a complicate Fraction is not to 
be intirely refolved, but only to be deprefs'd, or to be reduced to a 
fimpler and more commodious form. 

Or we may hence change Divifion into Multiplication. For hav- 
ing found the firft Term of the Quotient, and its Supplement, or 

aa ta aax i i *' -i K /lit 

the Equation ^ = - -^ x -, multiplying it by ? , we fhall 
have -^- = T~^- , fo that fubftituting this value of 

IldVC i * 3- a ' 




ant Ml aa aa aaX 

_ffL_ in the firft Equation, it will become ^ = y -^ -f- 

. a>A '*- where the two firft Terms of the Quotient are now known. 

Y Multiply 



162 The. Method of FLUXIONS* 

Multiply this by ^ , and it will become 



* L - , which being fubfthuted in the laft Equation, it will become 

aa ra aav fi^.v 1 a*** a' i x*' i .1 c r- n 

r =. - ---- -4 -- - -- 1- -. r- . where the four nrlt 

t-^-x b b* b* I* iS+i*X ' 

Terms of the Quotient are now known. Again, multiply this 

,-, . , A.4 rf 5 .v4 fl-.v4 a*x* a*x 6 ' 

Equation by ^ , and it will become ^7^ x = * --- JT+ ~ 




-p r- -, r 8 - , which being fubftituted in the laft Equation s 

... , aa a* a z .v a*x* 7 .<3 a**4 a 1 x ! 

it will become - - = 4 - 1 f p- 4- 

i 6 17 i V 8 

fyi- ^- -4 5T- , where eight of the firft Terms are now 

hi b t9-^-6x 

known. And fo every fucceeding Operation will double the num- 
ber of Terms, that were before found in the Quotient. 

This method of Reduction may be thus very conveniently imi- 
tated in Numbers, or we may thus change Divifion into Multipli- 
cation. Suppofe (for inftance). I would find the Reciprocal of the 
Prime Number 29, or the value of the Fraction T ' T . m Decimal 
Numbers. I divide 1,0000, Gfc. by 29, in the common way, fo 
far as to find two or three of the firft Figures, or till the Remainder be- 
comes a fingle Figure, and then I afliime the Supplement to compleat 
the Quotient. Thus I mail have T ~ =. 0,03448^ for the compleat 
Quotient, which Equation if I multiply by the Numerator 8, it will 
give ^ = 0,275844^., or rather ^.==0,27586^. I fubftitute 
this initead of the Fraction in the firft Equation, and I (hall have 
^=1:0,0344827586^. Again, I multiply this Equation by 6, 
and it will give T * 7 = o, 2068965517^, and then by Subftitution T ' 7 == 
0,03448275862068965517^. Again, I multiply this Equation by 7, 
anditbecomes T 7 ? =o,24i3793io3448275862oi|-,andthenbySubfti- 



where every Operation will at leaft double the number of Figures 
found by the preceding Operation. And this will be an eafy Expe- 
dient for converting Divifion into Multiplication in all Cafes. For 
the Reciprocal of the Divifor being thus found, it may be multi- 
ply'd into the Dividend to produce the Quotient. 

. . , c , , aa aa n*x -** **S 

Now as it is here found, that j =7 77 -+ ~jr Z7~> 

&c. which Series will converge when b is greater than A* ; fo when 
it happens to be otherwife, or when x is greater than b, that the 
Powers of x may be in the Denominators we muft have recourfe to 

the 



and INFINITE SERIES, 163 

the other Cafe of Divifion, in which we fhall find -^-^ = ^ 
i _j_ a ^- "^ , &c. and where the Divifion is perform 'd as 

before. 

5, 6. In thefe Examples of our Author, the Procefs of Divifion 
(for the exercife of the Learner) may be thus exhibited : 



o x i +o 

AT 1 .V4 



+7 *- 



Now in order to a due Convergency, in each of thefe Examples, 
we muft fuppofe x to be lefs than Unity; and if x be greater than 

Unity, we muft invert the Terms, and then we fhall have l 

XX "^ 1 

i i 

1 I I I c * 

= ^ ^ + 7* &c - 



ii 



*/* 

7, 8, 9, io. This Notation of Powers and Roots by integral and 
fractional, affirmative and negative, general and particular Indices, 
was certainly a .very happy Thought, and an admirable Improve- 
ment of Analyticks, by which the practice is render'd eafy, regular, 
and univeifal. It was chiefly owing to our Author, at leaft he car- 
.ried on the Analogy, and made it more general. A Learner fhould 
be well acquainted with this Notation, and the Rules of its feveral 
Operations fhould be very familiar to him, or otherwife he will often 
find himfelf involved in difficulties. I fhall not enter into any far- 
ther difcuffion of it here, as not properly belonging to this place, 
or fubject, but rather to the vulgar Algebra. 

1 1. The Author proceeds to the Extraction of the Roots of pure 
Equations, which he thus performs, in imitation of the ufual Pro^ 
cefs in Numbers. To extract the Square-root of aa +- xx ; firft the 
Root of aa is a, which muft be put in the Quote. Then the Square 
of this, or aa, being fubtradted from the given Power, leaves -+-xx 
for a Refolvend. Divide this by twice the Root, or 2a, which is 

Y 2 th 



164 ?$ Method' of FL u X r or N s, 

the firft part of the Divifor, and the Quotient muft be made the 
fecond Term of the Root, as alfo the fecond Term of the Divifor. 
Multiply the Divifor thus compleated, or -za -J- x ~ , by the fecond 

Term of the Root, and the Produft xx + muft be fubtrafted 
from the Refolvend. This will leave , for a new Refolvend, 

4-" 

which being divided by the firft Term of the double Root, or 2tf, 

. A 

will give j for the third Term of the Root. Twice the Root 

before found, with this Term added to it, or 2a -+- ^ -^ , be- 
ins multiply 'd by this Term, the Product ^- 1- muft 

4a* 8^4 640'' 

be fubtrafted from the laft Refolvend, and the Remainder -f- 

. B 

will be a new Refolvend, to be proceeded with as before, 






for finding the next Term of the Root ; and fo on as far as you 
pleafe. So that we (hall have \/ ' aa -+-xx = a+ '- _ -' _i_ ~ 

1 T.a oa* io* 



It is eafy to obferve from hence, that in the Operation every new 
Column will give a new Term in the Quote or Root; and therefore 
no more Columns need be form'd than it is intended there mall be 
Terms in the Root. Or when any number of Terms are thus ex- 
traded, as many more may be found by Divifion only. Thus hav- 
ing; found the three firft Terms of the Root a -f- , by 

2a fcu3 " J 

v^ v4 

their double -za -\ , dividing the third Remainder or Re- 
folvend -\- 7^: , the three firft Terms of the Quotient 

in. 4 04*. ^* l6&^ 

c* 8 7x l 

; H ',- will be the three fucceeding Terms of the Root. 

1 2 Oil ' 2 COrt* fj 

The Series a -f- ^i H TT* > ^ c< t ^ us f unt l f r the fquare- 

root of the irrational quantity aa -f- xx, is to be understood in the 
following manner. In order to a due convergency a is to be (iippos'd 

greater than x, that the Root or converging quantity - may be leis 

than Unity, and that a may be a near approximation to the fquare- 
root required. But as this is too little, it is enereafed by the fmall 

quantity , which now makes it too big. Then by the next 

Operation 



and INFINITE SERIES. 165 

Operation it is diminim'd by the ftill fmaller quantity ^; which 
diminution being too much, it is again encreas'd by the very fmall 
quantity -7-- r , which makes it too great, in order to be farther di- 

minifli'd by the next Term. And thus it proceeds in infinitum, the 
Augmentations and Diminutions continually correcting one another, 
till at lalt ihey become inconfiderable, and till the Series (fo far con- 
tinued) is a lufficiemly near Approximation to the Root required. 

12. Wh-ii a is Ids than x, the order of the Terms muft be in- 
verted, 01 ihe fquare-root of xx -+- aa muft be extracted as before; 

in which cafe it will be x -+- -f-. , &c. And in this Series 

5 ' 



2X 



the converging quantity, or the Root of the Scale, will be -. Thefe 

two Scries are by no means to be understood as the two different Roots 
of the quantity aa -+- xx -, for each of the two Series will exhibit thofe 
two Roots, by only changing the Signs. But they are accommodated 
to the two Caf s of Convergency, according as a or x may happen to 
be the greater quantity. 

I (halt here refclve the foregoing Quantity after another manner, 
the better to prepare the way lor what is to follow. Suppofe then 
yv=.cni-\- xx, where we may fi'-d the value of the Root y by the 
f 11 ,wir ;.j Proccfy ; yy = aa -+- XX= (\f)' = rf-f-/) aa^-zap -\-pp-, 



or zap -+- pp = xx = (If p = + q} xx + zaq -{- ~ 
--qq; or 2rf?-J- ^ -H^= - = (if ?=== _^ 



+ r > or 



rr = '-, . -- 6 - (if r = + j) &c. which Procefs may 

oi,' O-|t. 1 VU* J 

be thus explain 'd in wo-ds. 

In order to find V ua --xx, or the Root y of this Equation 
yy-=aa-\-xx, iuppofc 1 y = ^-f-/', wheie a is to be undeiftood as 
a pretty near Approxii: arion to the value of _y, (the nearer the bet- 
ter,) and p is the lnv.,11 Supplement to that, or the quantity which 
makes it compleat. Then by Subftitution is deiivcd the fir It Sun- 
plementiil Lqu^i'oa zap -+-//; = xx, whole Root/; is to bt fou:,d. 
INOW as 2uJ> is n:iich bigger than ff, (lor za is bigger than the Sup- 

plement/,) v;c fh;.!l have nearly p - , or at leaft ve (hall have 

exactly ;- = : ; -f- -', fuppofmg q to reprefent the fecoiid Supple- 

ment 



j66 *ft>e Method of FLUXIONS, 
ment of the Root. Then by Subftitution zaq -+- ^q -4-^= = 
^1 will be the fecond Supplemental Equation, whofe Root q is the 
fecond Supplement. Therefore q will be a little quantity, and qq 
much lefs, fo -that we mall have nearly q= g-- 3 , or accurately 
q =. ^ -f- r, if r be made the third Supplement to the Root. 
And therefore zar -f- r r -f- r* = f- will be the 

U 4^ ou*r L^," 

third Supplemental Equation, whofe Root is r. And thus we may 
go on as far as we pleafe, to form Refidual or Supplemental Equa- 
tions, whofe Roots will continually grow lefs and lefs, and there- 
fore will make nearer and nearer Approaches to the Root y, to which 
they always converge. For y =5= a -{-/>, where p is the Root of this 

Equation zap-- pp-=xx. Or y =: a~\- -+-g, where q is the 






Root of this Equation zaq -\ -q-\-qq-=z -- ^ . Or y ; a -f- 
* -. -f- r. where r is the Root of this Equation zar -f- r 

Ztt oa> a 

~ I rr-=. -~ ~. And fo on. The "Refolution of any one 

of thefe Quadratick Equations, in the ordinary way, will give the 
refpeclive Supplement, which will compleat the value of y. 

I took notice before, upon the Article of Divifion, of what may 
be call'd a Comparifon of Quotients; or that one Quotient may be 
exhibited by the help .of another, together v/ith a Series of known 
or iimple Terms. Here we have an Inftance of a like 'Comparifon 
of Roots; or that the Root of one Equation may be exprels'd by 
the Root of another, together with a Series of known or fimple 
Terms, which will hold good in all Equations whatever. And to 
carry on the Analogy, we mall hereafter find a like Comparifon of 
Fluents ; where one Fluent, (fuppofe, for inftance, a Curvilinear 
Area,) will be exprefs'd by another Fluent, together with a Series 
of fimple Terms. This I thought fit to infinuate here, by way of 
anticipation, that I might mew the conftant uniformity and har- 
mony of Nature, in thefe Speculations, when they are duly and re- 
gularly purfued. 

But I mall here give, ex abundanti, another Method for this, and 
fuch kind of Extractions, tho' perhaps it may more properly be- 
long to the Refolution of Affected Equations, which is foon to fol- 
low ; however it may ferve as an Introduction to their Solution. 

j The 



and INFINITE SERIES. 167 

The firft Refidual or Supplemental Equation in the foregoing Pro- 
cefs was 2ap -\-pp-=. xx, which may be refolved in this manner. 

Bccaufe />= -^-, it will be by Divilion p = - -{ -f- ^ 

' za + t y 3 " za Aa* 

** ! x*tA 

,-^7 + -^ , &c. Divide all the Terms of this Series (except the 
fir ft) by p, and then multiply them by the whole Series, or by the 
value of />, and you will have p = - + ' 3 -^ -f- 

ia 8*' 8*4 3Z 

^ -g , 6cc. where the two firft Terms are clear'd of />. Divide all the 

Terms of this Series, except the two firft, by />, and multiply them 
by the value of />, or by the firft Series, and you will have a Series 
for p in which the three firft Terms are clear'd of p. And by re- 
peating the Operation, you may clear as many Terms of p as you 

pleafe. So that at laft you will have p = ~ -+- , 7^ 

-+- ^~, &c. which will give the fame value of y as before. 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. The feveral Roots of thefe Examples, and 
of all other pure Powers, whether they are Binomials, Trinomials, 
or any other Multinomials, may be extracted by purfuing the Me- 
thod of the foregoing Procefs, or by imitating the like Praxes in 
Numbers. But they may be perform'd much more readily by gene- 
ral Theorems computed for that purpofe. And as there will be fre- 
quent occalion, in the enfuing Treatiie, for certain general Opera- 
tions to be perform'd with infinite Series, fuch as Multiplication, 
Divilion, railing of Powers, and extracting of Roots ; 1 mall here 
derive fomc Theorems for thofe purpofes. 

I. Let A H- B 4- C + D -+- E, &c. P-f-Q^-R-f-S-t-T, &c. and 
a _l__j_^_{_j\.4_ g) &c. reprefent the Terms of three feveral Series 
refpedlively, and let A-|-B-{-C-f-D-|-E, &c. into P+Q-t-R-f-S+T, 
&c. = a, -\- /B -{- y -i- <f~ -\- e, &c. Then by the known Rules of 
Multip'ication, by which every Term of one Factor is to be multi- 
ply'd into every Term of the other, it will be = AP, /3 = AQ^-j- 
BP, 7=AR-i-BQ^-CP, ^z^AS-i-BR-i-LQH-DP, g=AT-f- 
BS + CR-t-DQ^-4- E'P ; and fo on. Then by Subftitution it will be 

. x 1- 4- "^.-t-K -f- o -t- i7ov. = AP +BP -i-Cf'+DP-f-E,-, <3c. 



And 



1 68 'The Method of FLUXIONS, 

And this will be a ready Theorem for the Multiplication of any 
infinite Series into each other 5 as in the following Example. 

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (P) (QJ (R) (S) (T) 

X* *J A'4 ,, . x 1 

afr*+ + & + &> &c - mto*-fx-f- - 
&>+X^+i*?,rb +~, $cc, =^+t^+tf^ 1 

X* A 4 

JL/rv _ v* a -P. 

= , t* A ^^TT 1 ** V- 1 '- _ 

9# \2a" 

+**'+ +7|? 

i! * 4 _ 

7 a i \a '* 

.3* 

-*- 9 ^ 

And fo in all other cafes. 

II. From the fame Equations above we fhall have A = -. 



.-DQ.-CR-BS-AT ^ And then by Subftitution ^ 

i 

^(A + B-J-C+D + E, &c. =) S + a 



p p 

will ferve commodioufly for the Divifion of one infinite Series by 
another. Here for conveniency-fake the Capitals A, B, C, D, &c. 
are retained in the Theorem, to denote the firft, fecond, third, fourth, 
&c. Terms of the Series refpedively. 

M (0) 
Thus, for Example, if we would divide the Series #* _f. .ax -+. 

(>) (/) (t) ( p J (QJ W (S) (ij 

ii x * _}_ ^-ii^-_{_ . 2 ' " z , &c. by the Series a+^x-i- -f- ~^. , &c. 

the Quotient will . be a -f- - a *"~ T * -f- fx* 



, &c. Or reftoring the Values of 
A, B, C, D, &c. which reprefent the feveral Terms as they /land in 
order, the Quotient will become a f # + _i_ .11 & r 

5 7 z *^ g a 3 ' Ut ^' 

And after the fame manner in all other Examples. 

HI. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 169 

III. In the laft Theorem make .r=r, /3 = o, o>=o, ^ = 0,60:. 

. 

then 



^_ 

V. l' p ~~F~ ~~p 

DQ+CR+BS+AT ^ &( , whkh Theorcm win readl]y find th 

cal of any infinite Series. Here A, B, C, D, &c. denote the feveral 
Terms of the Series in order, as before. 

( p ) (QJ 
Thus if we would know the Reciprocal of the Series a-\- f.v-{- 

<R) (S) (T) 

_|_ ^ 4- ^ , &c. we fhall have by Subftitution I t_i _ 



&c. And reftoring the Values of A, B, C, D, &c. it will be *- 
--- - -- h ^~- > &c. for the Reciprocal required. 

la 1 - 12^ 84 720*' 



^- 2. l ,. x + f ..- A< ..{ i f f . = i + f.v + i*+i<, &c. And 
fa of others. 

IV. In the firft Theorem if we make P=A, Q^==B, R = C, 
S=D, &c. that is, if we make both to be the fame Series ; we mail have 

A+B+C+D+E+F+G7&^ I * tf= A+ zAB + zAC+ zAD + 2 AE + zAF + zAG.tff. 

+ B 1 + zBC + 2 BD + zBE + aBF 
+ L* + zCD+ zCE 
+ D* 

which will be a Theorem for finding the Square of any infinite 
Series. 



Fv i -'_ 



-_ - . 

aa Sa'^lba 5 iz8a 7 256^ 4^* ga^iea* I zSafl" 1 " 25!., .'<> 



64 8 S i 2a s 






i t 1 x' L txl A-4 



- *^c x 1 bx* o 

Ex. 3. --- H -- &c. 

J 2 ^a ^3 ' 



u i TTTI 



.7/4 4 
64*4 



Ex. 4 . _l H _H_l^- Ii ^-, I *_ ii._fil , 30." 

2 J 8 2434" - 9<?4 > 



v. 



Method of FLUXIONS, 
V. In this laft Theorem, if we make A*= P, aAB = Q v , 2 AC 



_f- B 1 =R, 2AD -+- 2BC = S, 2 AE -+- 2BD -f- C 1 = T, &c. we 

O R .- R * S "* BC 

fhallhave A = P^ B = ^-, C==-^- , D = -^- , E== 
T ~ 2BD ~ C - , &c. Or p + Q + K-hS+TH-U, &c. | ^ = pi 



iA 

Q R B z S 2RC T 2BD C^ U 2 BE ^CD 

-4- r -4~ 1 -4- -4- - &c 

zA ^^ 2A zA 2A 2 A ' <xu 

By this Theorem the Square-root of any infinite Series may eafily be 
extracted. Here A, B, C, D, &c. will reprelent the feveral Terms of 
the Series as they are in fucceffion. 

^1 ^i ~ i^- _i_ fli a4 



Ex 2^1- o 

"'~~ 



VI. Becaufeit is by the fourth Theorem a -{-@-i--y-\-<f<-t-t,&tc. |* 
= , a 4-2a/3-f- 2a^ + 2a^H- 2ae, &c. in the third Theorem for 



P, Q^ R, S, T, &c. write a 1 , 2a/3, 2> + j8S 2a^ -f- 2/3y, 2ag- 
/ i , &c. refpedively. Then 



X A 




And this will be a Theorem for finding the Reciprocal of the Square 
of any infinite Series. Here A, B, C, D, &c. ftill denote the Terms 
of the Series in their order. 

VII. If in the firft Theorem for P, Q^ R, S, &c. we write 
A*, 2AB, 2AC + B 4 , 2AD -H 2BC, &c. refpedively, (that is 
A+B+C+D,&c.| 1 3 byTheor.4.)wemallhaveA+B+C+D+E+F 3 6cc.| 5 . 
= A s -i- 3A*B + sAB 1 -h sA*D -j- 3AC 1 -f- 360, &c. 

6ABC+ 36^0 + 3BD 
B' + 6ABD-f- 6ACD 
-- 6ABE 



t 

which will readily give the Cube of any infinite Series. 
" 



v9 A- 11 

r. 13 ^ X ' 



*' *'* ^ yjf^ ^^ 

* *" " "T~ 2* 11 " " 15 3 



Ex. 



and INFINITE SERIES, 171 



Ex.2. t* 1 -i~ 

VIII. In the laft Theorem, if we make A 3 =P, 3A*B O , 
'+.3A'C = R, B'-f-6ABC-|-3A 1 D = S, &c. then A=PT, 

Q_ R 3 AB* _ S-6ABC Bi 

B = p: , C = ?A x , U = - j^ - , fisc. that is 
, Sec. I i^K + +l + ^ 



root of any infinite Series may be extracted. Here alfo A, B, C, D, 
&c. will reprefent the Terms as they ftand in order. 

T? x' 1 8* 15 7*"* 1 7 _ _* x s ;** IPX'* ^ 

-~"I" I ~ - z' I ~ ^ + 8i 8 24 3a "' 



Ex. 2. f* 4 -h T ' 7 A; 7 H- T | T x 8 , 6cc. l^ =t**-t- r ' T ** H-Trr^ 4 , &c. 

IX. Becaufe it is by the feventh Theorem a + -f- y -\- , &c. j J 

a* + 3a i /3 -f- 3 a/3 1 -f- /3 5 , &c. in the third Theorem for P, 



R, S, T, &c. write ', 3j8, 3/S i -f-Sa 1 ^ /3 } -f- 6a/3>-f- 
3'fr &c. refpeflively ; then 



This Theorem will give the Reciprocal of the Cube of any infinite 
Series ; where A, B, C, D, &c. ftand for the Terms in order. 

X. Laftly, in the firft Theorem if we make P=A ; , Q 4 ==3A 1 B, 

> &c. we {hall have 



A+B-f-C-i-D, &c. I 4 =A^H-4A s B-{-6A 1 B 1 -|-4ABs&c. which 



will be a Theorem for finding the Biquadrate of any infinite Series. 

And thus we might proceed to find particular Theorems for any 
other Powers or Roots of any infinite Series, or for their Recipro- 
cals, or any fractional Powers compounded of thefe ; all which will 
be found very convenient to have at hand, continued to a competent 
number of Terms, in order to facilitate the following Operations. 
Or it may be fufticient to lay before you the elegant and general 
Theorem, contrived for this purpofe, by that fkilful Mathematician, 
and my good Friend, the ingenious Mr. A. De Mo'rore, which was 
firft publifh'd in the Philofophical Tranfa&ions, N 230, and which 
will readily perform all thefe Operations. 

Z 2 Or 



172 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Or we may have recourfe to a kind of Mechanical Artifice, by 
which all the foregoing Operations may be perform'd in a very eafy 
and general manner, as here follows. 

When two infinite Series are to be multiply 'd together, in order 
to find a third which is to be their Product, call one of them the 
Multiplicand, and the other the Multiplier. Write dawn upon your 
Paper the Terms of the Multiplicand, with their Signs, in a defcend- 
ing order, fo that the Terms may be at equal diftances, and juft 
under one another. This you may call your fixt or right-tand Paper. 
Prepare another Paper, at the right-hand Edge of which write down 
the Terms of the Multiplier, with their proper Signs, in an afcend- 
ing Order, fo that the Terms may be at the fame equal diftances 
from each other as in the Multiplicand, and juft over one another. 
This you may call your moveable or left-hand Paper. Apply your 
movenble Paper to your fixt Paper, fo that the firft. Term of your 
Multiplier may ftand over-againft the firft Term of your Multipli- 
cand. Multiply thefe together, and write down the Product in its 
place, for the firft Term of the Product required. Move your move- 
abie Paper a ftep lower, fo that two of the firft Terms of the Mul- 
tiplier may ftand over-againft two of the firft Terms of the Multi- 
plicand. Find the two Produces, by multiplying each pair of the 
Terms together, that ftand over-againft one another ; abbreviate 
them if it may be done, and- fet down the Refult for the fecond 
Term of the Product required. Move your moveable Paper a ftep 
lower, fo that three of the firft Terms of the Multiplier may ftand 
over-againft three of the firft Terms of the Multiplicand. Find the 
three Products, by multiplying each pair of the Terms together that 
ftand over-againft one another j abbreviate them, and fet down the 
Refult for the third Term of the Product. And proceed in the lame 
manner to find the fourth, ana all the following Terms. 

I ihall iiluftrate this Method by an Example of two Series, taken 
from the common Scale of Denary 01 Decimal Arithmetick ; which 
will equally explain the Procefs in all other infinite Series whatever. 

Let the Numbers to be multiply 'd be 37,528936, &c. and 
528,73041, &c. which, by fupplying X or 10 where it is under- 
ftood, will become the Series 3X -\- jX -+- jX-'-f- aX-'-f- 8X-* 
_j_ 9 X-44- 3X-5H- 6X- &c. and 5 X* -f- aX 4- 8X -j- 7 X- + 
3X~ l -t- oX- J -+-4X-4-f- iX-s, &c. and call the firft the Multipli- 
cand, and the fecohd the Multiplier. Thefe being difpofed as is 
prefcribed, will ftand as follows. 

Multiplier, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



Multiplier, 



-H4X-+ 

-f-oX-' 



8X 



Multiplicand 

?X 


Product 

Tr Y3 


iX* 

- - - oX 3 


3 A 


*5 A 


8X l 


^X- 1 


-i- 6^^f 


. - 4.X 


2X- 




T** 


- 8X s 


- - -1 . T 1 1 Y x 


AV-i 








?X~ 5 


i i-8X * 


-8X s 


-i- 6X- 5 


1 1JO^\. 

~* ^ ^ ~* ~ ' t" 2 O I ^\. ^ ^ 

r^j /* 


c. 



Now the firft Term of the rrioveable Paper, or Multiplier, being 
apply'd to the firft Term of the Multiplicand, will give jX 1 x 3X 
= i5X 3 for the firft Term of the Product. Then the' two firft 
Terms of each being apply'd together, they will give jX a xyX 
-f- 2X x 3X = 4-iX 1 for the fecond Term of the Product. Then 
the three firft Terms of each being apply'd together, they will give 
5X 1 x5X-'-t-2X x7X -f- 8X x 3X = 63X for the third Term 
of the Product. And fo on. So that the Product required will be 
, 5 X + 4IX 1 -H 63X H- oyX -f- i42X-f- 133%.-*+. I38X-3 
-i-2OiX~ 4 , &c. Now this will be a Number in the Decimal Scale 
of Arithmetick, becaufe X = 10. But in that Scale, when it is re- 
gular, the Coefficients muft always be affirmative Integers, lefs than 
the Root 10 j and therefore to reduce thefe to fuel), fet them orderly 
under one another, as is done here, and beginning at the loweft, col- 
lect them as they ftand, by adding up each Column. The reafon of 
which is this. Becaufe aoiX~4 == aoX" *-f- iX~4, we muft fet 
down iX~ 4 , and add 2oX~ 5 to the line above,- Then becaufe 2oX~ 3 
H- i38X~s= i58X-*=i5X- ir 4-8X-* ) we muft fet down 
and add i ^X.~- to the line above. Then becaufe i^X~^-f- i 
= i48X-*=-i4X-'+ 8X~ l , we muft let down 8X- S , and add 
i4X~' to the line above. And fo we muft' proceed through the 
whole Number. So that at lift we (hall find the Product to be iX 4 
_!_ 9 X 3 H- 8X * -+- 4X -f- 2X -f- 6X + 8X- 1 -f- 8X-J , &c. Or 
by fuppreffing X, or 10, and leaving it to be fuppiv'a by the Ima- 
gination, the Product required wil' be 19842,688, &c. 

When one ihfinite Series is to be divided by another, wiite down 
the Terms of the Dividend, wkh , eir \ >^ er Signs, in a defccnd- 
ing order, fo that the Tunis may be at equal diftances, and juil nn- 

dcr 



174 t ^ }e Method of FLUXIONS, 

der one another. This is your fixt or right-hand Paper. Prepare 
another Paper, at the right-hand Edge of which write down the 
Terms of the Divifor in an afcending order, with all their Signs 
changed except the firft, fo that the Terms may be at the fame equal 
distances as before, and jufl over one another. This will be your 
moveable or left-hand Paper. Apply your moveable Paper to your 
fixt Paper, fo that the firft Term of the Divifor may be over-againft 
the firft Term of the Dividend. Divide the firft Term of the Di- 
vidend by the firft Term of the Divifor, and fet down the Quotient 
over-againft them to the right-hand, for the firft Term of the Quo- 
tient required. Move your moveable Paper a ftep lower, fo that 
two of the firft Terms of the Divifor may be over-againft two of 
the firft Terms of the Dividend. Colleft the fecond Term of the 
Dividend, together with the Product of the firft Term of the Quo- 
tient now found, multiply'd by the Terms over-againft it in the left- 
hand Paper ; thefe divided by the firft Term of the Divifor will be 
the fecond Term of the Quotient required. Move your moveable 
Paper a ftep lower, fo that three of the firft Terms of the Divifor 
may ftand over-againft three of the firft Terms of the Dividend. 
Collecl the third Term of the Dividend, together with the two Pro- 
duds of the two firft Terms of the Quotient now found, each be- 
ing multiply'd into the Term over-againft it, in the left-hand Paper. 
Thefe divided by the firft Term of the Divifor will be the third 
Term of the Quotient required. Move your moveable Paper a ftep 
lower, fo that four of the firft Terms of the Divifor may ftand over- 
againft four of the firft Terms of the Dividend. Collecl: the fourth 
Term of the Dividend, together with the three Products of the three 
firft Terms of the Quotient now found, each being multiply'd by 
the Term over-againft it in the left-hand Paper. Thefe divided by 
the firft Term of the Divifor will be the fourth Term of the Quo- 
tient required. And fo on to find the fifth, and the fucceeding 
Terms. 

For an Example let it be propofed to divide the infinite Series 

I2IA-5 28|X4 ., , 1C' 1 

.a* + tax 4- x 1 H- ^ + 7^1 , &c. by the Series a 4- f x 
_]_ -j_ L -+- -^ , &c. Thefe being difpofed as is prefcribed, 
will ftand as here follows. 



Divifor, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



175 



Divifor, 

; fr 




Dividend 
tf 


^___ 


Quotient 


X4 




-4- itfA: 


-f-y/z.V ,7V ~<7V 


*z 

1 v 


5*3 

X* 

~4^ 

** 




-f- tt-v 1 

( I 2ix3 


4-tt** + f ^ f x 1 = -f- f x* 

121*3 AT* *3 ^J A j 


J' V 

x l 

-*-?= 
^3 


3 

_ * V 




izbca 
281*4 


*~I26oa lOa ""ga 43 7,1 
f 28l.v4 ( A4 A 4 *4 A 4 . A4 


7 * 

*4 


* 






' I2boa' 
&C. 


*~126o*~1 I 4 l , ; * 1 ,2s 1 ra' ~t~ 9 a* 

&c. 


+ 9.. 

&c. 



Here if we apply the firft Term of the Divifor a, to the firft 
Term of the Dividend a 1 , by Divifion we fhall have a for the firft 
Term of the Quotient. Then applying the two firft Terms of the.- 
Divifor to the two firft Terms of the JDividend, we fhall have ^ax 
to be colledled with the Produdl a x f AT, or ax, which will 
make -^ax -, and this divided by a, the firft Term of the Divifor, 
will give x for the fecond Term of the Quotient. And fo of 
the other Terms ; and in like manner for all other Examples. 

When an infinite Series is to be raifed to any Power, or when 
any Root of it is to be extradled, it may be perform'd in all cafes 
by a like Artifice. Prepare your fixt or right-hand Paper, by wri- 
ting down the natural Numbers o, i, 2, 3, 4, &c. juft under one an- 
other at equal diftances, referving places to the right-hand for the 
feveral Terms of the Power or Root, as they fhall be found. The 
firft Term of which Series may be immediately known from the firft 
Term of the given Series, and from the given Index of the Power 
or Root, whether that Index be an Integer or a Fraclion, affirmative 
or negative ; and that Term therefore may be fet down in its place, . 
over-againft the firft Number o. Prepare your moveable or left- 
hand Paper, by writing down, towards the edge of the Paper at the 
right-hand, all the Terms of the given Series, except the firft, over 
one another in order, at the fame diftances as the Numbers in the 
other Paper. After which, nearer the edge of the Paper, write juft 
over one another, fiift the Index of the Power or Root to be found, 
then its double, then its triple, and fo the reft of its multiples, 
with the negative Sign after each, as far as the Terms of the Series 
extend. And alfo the firft Term of the given Series may be wrote 
below. Thus will the moveable Paper be prepared. Thefe multi- 
ples, together with the following negative Signs, and the Numbers 



7^^ Method of FLUXIONS, 

> ij 2 ' 3-4> ^ c - on tne otner Paper, when they meet together, will 
compkat the numeral Coefficients. Apply therefore the fecond Term 
.of the move-able Paper to the uppertnoft Term of the fixt Paper, 
;ind the Product made by the continual Multiplication of the three 
Factors thatftand in a lin-e over-againft one another, [which are the 
fecond Term of the given Series, the numeral Coefficient, (here the 
given Index,) and the firft Term of the Series already found,] di- 
vided by the firft Term of the given Series, will be the fecond Term 
of the Series required, which is to be let down in its place over- 
againft I. Move the moveable Paper a ftep lower, and the two 
Produces made by the multiplication of the Factors that ftand over- 
-againft one another, (in which, and elfewhere, care muft be had to 
take the numeral Coefficients compleat,) divided by twice the firft 
Term of the given Series, v/ill be the third Term of the Series re- 
quired, which is to be fet down in its place over-againft 2. Move 
the moveable, Paper a ftep lower, and the three Products made by 
the multiplication of the Factors that ftand over-againft one another, 
divided by thrice the firft Term of the given Series, will be the 
fourth Term of the Series required. And fo you may proceed to 
find the next, and the fubfcquent Terms. 

It may not be amifs to give one general Example of this Reduc- 
tion, which will comprehend all particular Cafes. If the Series az 
_l_ b^ _j_ c&' -+-dz*, ,&c. be given, of which we are to find any 
Power, or to extract any Root; let the Index of this Pov>er or Root 
be m. Then prepare the moveable or left-hand Paper as you fee 
below, where the Terms of the given Scries are fet over one another 
in order, at the edge of the Paper, and at equal diftances. Alfo 
after every Term is put a full point, as a Mark of Multiplication, 
and after every one, (except the firft or loweft) are put the feveral 
Multiples of the Index, as m, zm, pn, 40;, &c. with the negative 
Sign after them. Likewife a vinculum may be undei flood to 
be placed over them, to connect them with the other parts of the 
numeral Coefficients, which are on the other Paper, and which 
make them compleat. Alfo the firft Term of the given Series is 
feparated from the reft by a line, to denote its being a Divifor, or 
the Denominator of a Fraction. And thus is the moveable Paper 
prepared. 

To prepare the fixt or right-hand Paper, write down the natu- 
ral Numbers o, i, 2, 3, 4, &c. under one another, at the fame equal 
diftances as the Terms in the other Paper, with a Point after them 
as a Mark of Multiplication ; and over-againft the firft 1 erm o 

write 



and INFINITE SERIES. 

write a*"z m for the firft Term of the Series required. The reft ot 
the Terms are to be wrote down orderly under this, as they (hall be 
found, which will be in this manner. To the firft Term o in the 
fixt Paper apply the fecond Term of the moveable Paper, and they 

will then exhibit this Fraction *-* m ~~ - " z , which being reduced 

as,. I 

to this aw* < ~ t &s*+ I , muft be fet down in its place, for the fecond 
Term of the Series required. Move the moveable Paper a ftep lower, 
and you will have this Fraction exhibited + cz*. 2m o. a a z m 



az. 2 



which being reduced will become mu m - l c-{- mx "LL a m --b* xz m +'~, 

to be put down for the third Term of the Series required. Bring 
down the moveable Paper a ftep lower, and you will have the 
Fraction -f- dz,*. yn o. a m z n 
.+- cz*. 



bz?. m 



ma 



*c -+- m x 



L a m - l b 3 - 



az. 3 



for the fourth Term of the Series required. And in the fame man- 
ner are all the reft of the Terms to be found. 



Moveable 
Paper, &c. 



*. m 



az. 



Fixt Paper 



o. 
i. 

2. 



- a^i-o* -f- ma m ~*c x z" 



-3 . m x - -x- -a m *l>>+mx.'- ' a m 1 6c+Ma m l dxz" 

J 7. 1 T 



N. B. This Operation will produce Mr. De Moivre's Theorem 
mentioned before, the Inveftigation of which may be feen in the 
place there quoted, and fhall be exhibited here in due time and 
place. And this therefore will fufficiently prove the truth of the 
prefent Procefs. In particular Examples this Method will be found 
very eafy and practicable. 

A a But 



178 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

But now to mew fomething of the ufe of thefe Theorems, and 
jit the fame time to prepare the way for the Solution of Affected and 
Fluxional Equations; we will here make a kind of retrofpect, and 
refume our Author's Examples of fimple Extractions, beginning 
with Divifion itfelf, which we fhall perform after a different and an 
eafier manner. 

Thus to divide aa by b -f- x, or to refolve the Fraction 
into a Series of fimple Terms ; make r^=y, or by -f- xy - , 
Now to find the quantity y difpofe the Terms of this Equation after 
this manner + *-J J = a 1 , and proceed in the Refolution as you fee 
is done here. 

I a*x a*.* 1 a^J a * x t 

=** -T-*--T* 7T + -77- > &C.. 



+ xy\ h-r TT + -75 , 



C 

IT + -JT- > OCC. 




Here by the difpofition of the Terms a*- is made the firft Term 
of the Series belonging (or equivalent) to by, and therefore dividing 
by b, will be the firfl Term of the Series equivalent to y, as is fet 

a^x 

down below. Then will + be the firft Term of the Series 
-4- xy, which is therefore fet down over-againft it; as alfo it is fet 
down over-againft by, but with a contrary Sign, to be the fecond 

Term of that Series. Then will a ~ be the fecond Term of y t 

to be fet down in its place, which will give a -^- for the fe- 
cond Term of -f- xy ; and this with a contrary Sign muit be fet down 
for the third Term of by. Then will + ~- be the third Term of 

y, and therefore + ~ will be the third Term of 4- xy, which 
with a contrary Sign mufl be made the fourth Term of by, and there- 
fore '~ will be the fourth Term of y. And fo on for ever. 

Now the Rationale of this Procefs, and of all that will here fol- 
low of the fame kind, may be manifeft from thefe Confiderations. 
The unknown Terms of the Equation, or thofe wherein y is found, 
are (by the Hypothecs) equal to the known Term aa. And each of 

thofe 



a?id IN FINITE SERIES. 170 

thofe unknown Terms is refolved into its equivalent Series, the Ag- 
gregate of which muft (till be equal to the fame known Term aa ; 
(or perhaps Terms.) Therefore all the fubfidiary and adventitious 
Terms, which are introduced into the Equation to aflift the Solution, 
(or the Supplemental Terms,) muft mutually deftroy one another. 
Or we may refolve the fame Equation in the following manner : 







a* la* k*a* Ha* . 

y = -- - -4 -- - -- , &c. 

^ A" .V X A;4 

Here a 1 is made the firft Term of -+- xv, and therefore muft 

" x 

be put down for the firft Term of y. This will give + for the 
firft Term of by, which with a contrary Sign muft be the fecond 
Term of -+- xy, and therefore -- ~ muft be put down for the fe- 

cond Term of y. Then will ^ be the fecond Term of by y 
which with a contrary Sign will be the third Term of -|- xy, and 
therefore + - - will be the third Term of y. And fo on. There- 

fore the Fraction propofed is refolved into the fame two Series as 
were found above. 

If the Fraction : were given to be refolved, make - 

1 + * ' + -V" 

v t or y -+- x l y=. i, the Refolution of which Equation is little 
rrxpre than writing down the Terms, in the manner following : 



y = i x+x xx,&cc. y 7 ---- (-x- 1 *-4-|_x- 

. +x*y 3 = i x-'-+x- x~ & , 



, ccc. +x*y 3 = i x-'-+x- x~ & , &c. 

Here in the firft Paradigm, as i is made the firft Term of y, fo 
will x 1 be the firft Term of x*y, and therefore x*- will be the 
fecond Term of y, and therefore x* will be the fecond Term of 
x*y, and therefore -+- x* will be third Term of y ; &c. Alfo in the 
fecond Paradigm, as i is made the firft Term of x*y, fb will -f- x~'- 
be the firft Term of y, and therefore x~- will be the fecond 
Term of x*y, or x~* will be the fecond Term of y ; &c. 

A a 2 To 



180 tte Method of FLUXIONS, 

i 3. 

To refolve the compound Fraction . zx ~* - into fimple Terms, 
i i 

2.y a * 13 i 

make 7 =y, or 2** # v = y 4- AT^ ^xy, which E- 

I+* 1 3* 

quation may be thus refolved : 

= 2A^ * X^ 




1 3** + 34^* 73**, &c. 
34* 3 } &c. 
39**, &c. 

Place the Terms of the Equation, in which the unknown quan- 
tity y is found, in a regular defcending order, and the known Terms 
above, as you fee is done here. Then bring down zx^ to be the firfl 
Term of y, which will give -f- 2x for the firfl Term of the Series 
4- x*y, which mufl be wrote with a contrary Sign for the fecond 
Term of y. Then will the fecond Term of 4- x^y be 2x%, and 
the firfl Term of the Series 3*7 will be 6x^, which together 
make SAT*. And this with a contrary Sign would have been wrote 
for the third Term of y, had not the Term x* been above, which 
reduces it to 4- jx J * for the third Term of y. Then will 4- yx* 
be the third Term of 4- x*y, and 4- 6x* will be the fecond Term 
of 3fly, which being collected with a contrary Sign, will make 
1 3** for the fourth Term of y ; and fo on, as in the Paradigm. 

If we would refolve this Fraction, or this Equation, fo as to ac- 
commodate it to the other cafe of convergency, we may invert the 
Terms, and proceed thus : 



O W f V 1 *- -i- 

3-v / x 



y = f X' -f- 7 4f * 




1, &c. 

ft*- 1 ' , 6cc. 

Bring down AT* to be the firfl Term of 3-vy, whence ~\- ^ 
will be the firfl Term of y, to be fet down in its place. Then the 

firfl 



and INFINITE SERIES. 181 

firft Term of +- x^y will be -f- f x, which with a contrary Sign 
will be the fecond Term of 3*?, and therefore -+- f will be the 
fecond Term of y. Then the fecond Term of -+- x^y will be -f- f#s 
and the firft Term of y being -+- f x*, thefe two collected with a 
contrary Sign would have made *.#* for the third Term of 3*}', 
had not the Term +- zx' z been prefent above. Therefore uniting 
thefe, we fhall have -f- x* for the third Term of 3*7, which 

will g lve ?j-x~* f r the third Term of y. Then will the third 
Term of -+- xh be if, and the fecond Term of y being -+- -%, 
thefe two collected with a contrary Sign will make -f- if for the 
fourth Term of T,xy, and therefore TT*"" 1 will be l ^ e fourth 
Term of y -, and fo on. 

And thus much for Divifion ; now to go on to the Author's pure 
or fimple Extractions. 

To find the Square-root of aa -f- xx, or to extract the Root y of 
this Equation yy = aa-{- xx ; make y = a -+-/>, then we fhall have 
by Subftitution zap -f- pp = xx, of which affected Quadratick Equa- 
tion we may thus extract the Root p. Difpofe the Terms in this 
manner zap-^= xx, the unknown Terms in a defcending order oa 

H-/AJ 
one fide, and the known Term or Terms on the other fide of the 

Equation, and proceed in the Extraction as is here directed. 

-) *4 * 5x8 7 *' 

**/==* - - + s74 5i + H53. 

+ -\.__ + ^ _^i + ^!_^:, 

"J J 4* 8*4 640* 12Sa 8 ' 

x* A4 * 6 CA 9 7* 10 ., 

* -I- , h -t-f-t &C. 

f za 8a l \6a ! izSa 1 25O' 

By this Difpofition of the Terms, x 1 is made the firft Term of 

x 

the Series belonging to zap ; then we fhall have for the firft 
Term of the Series p, as here fet down underneath. Therefore 

will be the firft Term of the Series *, to be put down in its 
4474 

place over-againft p 1 . Then, by what is obferved before, it muft 
be put down with a contrary Sign as the fecond Term of zap, 

which will make the fecond Term of/> to be - ^ . Having there- 
fore 



77jt2 Method of F L n v i o !-; s,- 

/ 



fore the two firft Terms of P = *- ~, we fhall liave, (by any 
of the foregoing Methods for finding the Square of an infinite Se- 
ries,) the two firft Terms of p 1 = ~ . which la ft Term 

AfCi 3 - #4 4 ' 

irmft be wrote with a contrary Sign, as the third Term of zap. 
Therefore the third Term of * is ^ , and the third Term of p* 

* ' L 



zap ---- -f- zax za* -+- 



- * * ,&c. 




(by the aforefaid Methods) will be -~ } which is to be wrote with 
a contrary Sign, as the fourth Term of zap. Then the fourth 

8 

Term of p will be -||_, and therefore the fourth Term of/* is 
""" 7IsI ' which is to be wrote with a contrary Sign for the fifth 
Term of zap. This will give 2^- for the fifth Term of p . and fo 

2^O' 

we may proceed in the Extraction as far as we pleafe. 

Or we may difpofe the Terms of the Supplemental Equation thus : 

> J a* c 

~ x * ^ ' &c ' 

, &c. 

A X 3 y 



Here * a is made the firft Term of the Series/ 4 , and therefore x, 
(or elfe x,) will be the firft Term of p. Then zax will be the 
firft Term of zap> and therefore zax will be the fecond Term of 
p"- . So that becaufe /> 1 = # a 2rfx, 6cc. by extracting the Square-root 
of this Series by any of the foregoiug Methods, it will be found 
/ x a, &c. or a will be the fecond Term of the Root />. 
Therefore the fecond Term of zap will be 2<2% which muft be 
wrote with a contrary Sign for the third Term of/ 1 , and thence (by 

Extraction) the third Term of / will be -- . This will make the 
.third Term of zap to be , which makes the fourth Term of/ 4 

to be - , and therefore (by Extraction) o will be the fourth Term 
of/. This makes the fourth Term of zap to be o, as alfo of / z . 
Then ^ will be the fifth Term of/. Then the fifth Term of 

I zap 



and INFINITE SERIES, 183 

zap will be . , which will make the fixth Term of />* to be 

f 4* 5 

.ll ; and therefore o will be the fixth Term of p, &c. 

Here the Terms will be alternately deficient ; fo that in the given 
Equation yy = aa -\- xx, the Root will be y = a -f- x a -f- "-> 

&c. that is y = x -f- ^- } -h -^- s , &c. which is the fame as 
if we fhould change the order of the Terms, or if we fhould change 
a into x, and x into a. 

If we would extradl the Square-root of aa xx, or find the 
Root y of the Equation yy = aa xx ; make y = a -f- p, as be- 
fore ; then zap -f-/* x = x*-, which may be refolved as in the fol- 
lowing Paradigm : 

J _ .v4 X 6 ^.V 8 

f I" 4fl z 8a4 64,1 

f *4 X' 6 <;* 8 

+ t> 1 \ 1- ; H- ^~; -f- f - -{- 
r J 4 84 6^.6 

^ "4 JC CX "7 X c 

J* . ,^_ __ k~^_ i . . ^^^^ - ^^ ^ J, cSCC* 



Here if we mould attempt to make x 1 the firft Term of -J-/ 1 , 
we mould have ^/ x 1 , or x^/ i, for the fi rfl Term of/ ; which 
being rnpoflible, fliews no Series can be form'd from that Suppofi- 
tion. 

To find the Square-root of # xx, or the Root y in this Equa- 
tion yy = x xx, make y = x^ + p, then x -+- zx^p -f- p 1 = x 
xx, or zx^p -+- /* = - x*, which may be refolved after this 
manner : 






The Terms being rightly difpofed, make x* the firft 
of zx^p; then will x* be the firft Term of p. Therefore 
~\- px 3 will be the firft Term of / a , which is alfo to be wrote with 
a contrary Sign for the fecoiid Term of 2x'-p, which will give f A - * 
for the lecond Term of p. Then (by fquaring) the fecond Term of 
^ will be i^ 4 , which will give - i* 4 for the fecond Term of 



184 ffi? Method of FLUXIONS, 

zx^p, and therefore -V^ for the third Term of p ; and fq op. 
Therefore in this Equation it will be y=z x'* f A-'" f x* rV*''"* 
&c. 

So to extract the Root y of this Equation yy =.aa-\-bx xx t 
make y = a-{-p } then zap -+- p* = bx xx, which may be thus 
refolved. 

=fa X * + *fi, & C . 
L'-x' 1 



tx x* Ixl 



Make bx the firft Term of zap; then will l ~- be the firft Term 

20. 

of p. Therefore the firft Term of p 1 will be -+- b ^ , which is 
alfo to be wrote with a contrary Sign, fo that the fecond Term of 

zap will be -< x* ^- , which will make the fecond Term of 

p to be * gjr ' Then by fquaring, the fecond Term of/* 

will be 7 *-* -g^ 5 which muft be wrote with a contrary Sign 

for the third Term of zap. This will give the third Term of p 
as in the Example; and fo on. Therefore the Square-root of the 

Quantity a^ -f- bx xx will be a -+ ^ ~ -f. -^ _, 



Alfo if we would extract the Square-root of < _ a * , we may ex- 

tract the Roots of the Numerator, and likewife of the Denomi- 
nator, and then divide one Series by the other, as before ; but more 

dire.ctly thus. Make _**! = yy, or i -{- ax 1 = yy b*x*y*. 

Suppofe y = i -f- p, then ax* = zp -+-p z bx*- zbx*-p bx*-p*, 
which Suppplemental Equation may be thus refolved. 

zp 



and INFINITE SERIES, 



185 



bx^p* _ 



ab ^ab 1 , &c. 

~a^b t &c. 



+TT*\ 



, &c. 



Make ax 1 -f- bx* the firfl Term of 2/>, then will frf.v l -f- f &v 
"be the firfl Term of /. Therefore abx* b*x* will be the firfl 
Term of 2bx*p, and ^a*x* -f- -^abx* -f- -^bx* will be the firfl 
Term of/*. Thefe being collected, and their Signs changed, muil 
be made the fecond Term of 2/, which will give abx* -f- |J*A 
%a*x* for the fecond Term of/. Then the fecond Term of 2bx*p 
will be -^ab^x 6 l>*x 6 -f- ^a i bx 6 > and the fecond Term of p* 
(by fquaring) will be found f a l bx 6 +- \ab*x 6 j-a''X 6 -{- $frx 6 , and 
the firfl Term of bx*p l will be ^a^bx 6 -^ab'-x 6 f^'AT 4 ; 
which being collected and the Signs changed, will make the third 
Term of 2p, half which will be the third Term of p ; and fo on as 
far as you pleafe. 

And thus if we were to extract the Cube-root of a* 4- x*, or the 
Root y of this Equation 7' = a 3 4- tf 3 j make y = a -f-/, then by 
Subflitution a 3 -f- 3d 1 / -f- ^ap 1 -+- p> = & -+- x*, or 3 i / -f 
= A: S , which fupplemental Equation may be thus refolved. 




243 l 



B b 



The 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

The Terms being difpos'd in order, the firft Term of the Series 
<ia*p will be #', which will make the firft Term ofp to be *. Thiss 

will make the firft Term of/ 1 to be ^ . And this will make the 

firfl Term of ^ap* to be ^ , which with a contrary Sign muft be 
the fecond Term of 3/z*/>, and therefore the fecond Term ofp will 
be r . Then (by fquaring) the fecond Term of ^ap 1 will be 

. ff! and (by cubing) the firft Term of *"= win be fi . Thefe 

Oa* 27<:< 6 

r y9 

being collected make , which with a contrary Sign muft be 
the third Term of ^a^p, and therefore the third Term of p will be 
_j_ ill . Then by fquaring, the third Term of ^ap* will be - 



__ . 

and by cubing, the fecond Term of/ 3 will be ^^, which being 
collected will make y^-j > anc ^ therefore the fourth Term of-^^p 
will be ^T, and the fourth Term of p will be -- * 11 - . And 

8j<i' ' 2 43 a 

fo on;' 

Arid thus may the Roots of all pare Equations- be extracted, but 
in a more direct and fimple manner by the foregoing Theorems. 
All that is here intended, is, to prepare the way for the Refolution 
of affected Equations, both in Numbers and Species, as alfo of 
Fluxional Equations, in- which this Method will be found to be of 
very extenfive ufe. And firfl we mall proceed with our Author to 
the Solution of numerical affected Equations. 

SECT. II L The Refolution of Nttmeral AffeSted Equations* 

W as to the Refolution of affected Equations, and firft 
in Numbers ; our Author very juftly complains, that be- 
fore his time the exegefa numcroja, or the Doctrine of the Solution 
of affected Equations in Numbers, was very intricate, defective, and 
inartificial. What had been done by Vieta, Harriot, and Oughtred 
in this" matter, tho' very laudable Attempts for the time, yet how- 
ever was extremely perplex'd and operofe. So that he had good rea- 
fon to reject their Methods, efpecially as he has fubftituted a much 
better in their room. They -affected too great accuracy in purfuing 

exact 




and INFINITE SERIES. 187 

exact Roots, which led them into tedious perplexities ; but he knew 
very well, that legitimate Approximations would proceed much more 
regularly and expeditioufly, and would anfwer the fame intention 
much better. 

20, 21, 22. His Method may be eafily apprehended from this one 
Inftance, as it is contain'd in his Diagram, and the Explanation of 
it. Yet for farther Illuftration Lfhall venture to give a fhort rationale 
of it. When a Numeral Equation is propos'd to be refolved, he 
takes as near an Approximation to the Root as can be readily and 
conveniently obtain'd. And this may always be had, either by the 
known Method of Limits, or by a Linear or Mechanical Conitruc- 
tion, or by a few eafy trials and fuppofitions. If this be greater or 
lefs than the Root, the Excefs or Defect, indifferently call'd the Sup- 
plement, may be reprefented by p, and the affumed Approximation, 
together with this Supplement, are to be fubftituted in the given. 
Equation inftead of the Root. By this means, (expunging what will 
be fuperfluous,) a Supplemental Equation will be form'd, whole Root 
is now p, which will confift of the Powers of the affumed Approxima- 
tion orderly defcending, involved with the Powers of the Supplement 
regularly afcending, on both which accounts the Terms will be con- 
tinually decreafmg, in a decuple ratio or falter, if the affumed Ap- 
proximation be -fuppos'd to be at leaft ten times greater than the 
Supplement. Therefore to find a new Approximation, which fhall 
nearly exhauft the Supplement p, it will be fufficient to retain only 
the two firft Terms of this Equation, and to feek the Value ofp from 
the refulting fimple Equation. [Or fometimes the three firft Terms 
may be retain'd, and the Value of p may be more accurately found 
from the refulting Quadratick Equation; Sec.] This new Approxi- 
mation, together with a new Supplement g, muft be fuhftituted in- 
itead of p in this laft fupplemental Equation, in order to form a 
fecond, whofe Root will be q. And the fame things may be obferved 
of this fecond fupplemental Equation as of the firft; and its Root, or 
an Approximation to it, may be difcover'd after the fame manner. And 
thus the Root of the given Equation may be profecuted as far as 
we pleafe, by finding new iiipplemental Equations, the Root of every 
one of which will be a correction to the preceding Supplement. 

So in the prefent Example jy 3 2y 5 = o, 'tis eaiy to perceive, 
that y = 2 fere ; for 2x2x2 2x2 = 4, which mould make 5. 
Therefore let p be the Supplement of the Root, and it will be y = 
2. -{-/>, and therefore by fubftitution i -f- lop -+- 6p* -\-p= = Q. 
As p is here fuppos'd to be much lefs than the Approximation 2, 

B b 2 ty 



i88 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

by this fubftitution an Equation will be form'd, in which the Terma 
will gradually decreafe, and Ib much the fafter, cateris parities, as 
2 is greater than p. So taking the two firft Terms, i -f- io/>=o, 
fere, or p =. T x _. fere ; or affuming a fecond Supplement q, 'tis 
p = T 'o- -h ? accurately. This being fubftituted for p in the laft 
Equation, it becomes o, 6 1 -+- 1 1,237 + 6>3?* 4- <f = o, which is 
a new Supplemental Equation, in which all the Terms are farther 
deprefs'd, and in which the Supplement q will be much lefs than the 
former Supplement p. Therefore it is 0,61 -f- 1 1,23.^ = o, ym?,. 

or q= f^e, or q-=. 0,0054-)^ accurate, by afluming 

r for the third Supplement. This being fubftituted will give 
0,000541554- 11,162;-, &c. =o, and therefore r-= '^^-^ 

= 0,00004852, &c. So that at laft/=2 -{-^> = &c. or_y = 
2,09455148, &c. 

And thus our Author's Method proceeds, for finding the Roots of 
affedted Equations in Numbers. Long after this was wrote, Mr. Rapb- 
Jon publifh'd his Analyfis Mquationum imiverjalis, containing a Me- 
thod for the Solution of Numeral Equations, not very much diffe- 
rent from this of our Author, as may appear by the following Com 
parifon. 

To find the Root of the Equation y* zy = 5, Mr. Rapbfon 
would proceed thus. His firft Approximation he calls g, which he 
takes as near the true Root as he can, and makes the Supplement x, fo 
that he has_y==g-+Ar. Then by Subftitution < g 3 -f-3^ 1 Ar+3^x a -f-x 3 =5, 

2 2 

or if g=2, 'tis iOAr-f-6.v* -4- x* = i, to determine the Supple- 
ment x. This being fuppofed fmall, its Powers may be rejected, 
and therefore iox= i, or ,v = o, i nearly. This added tog or 2, 
makes a new = 2,1, and x being ftill the Supplement, 'tis y = 
2,1 +x, which being fubftituted in the original Equation _y 5 zy 
= 5, produces 11,23^-4- 6,3** + x 3 = 0,6 1, to determine the, 
new Supplement x. He rejects the Powers of x, and thence derives 
^___oj __ 0,0.054, and confequently y = 2,0946, which 

I 1 ,25 

not being exaft, becaufe the Powers of x were rejected, he makes 
the Supplement again to be x, fo that y= 2,0946 -f- x, which be- 
ing fubftituted in the Original Equation, gives 11,162^-+- &c. = 
0,00054155. Therefore to find the third Supplement x, he has 

.v =" ,' 1 6 5 2 4 ' 5S = 0,00004852, fo that y =.2,0946 + *= 
2,09455148, &c. and To on. 

By 



and IN FINITE SERIES. 189 

By this Procefs we may fee how nearly thefe two Methods agree, 
and wherein they differ. For the difference is only this, that our 
Author conftantly profecutes the Refidual or Supplemental Equations, 
to find the firft, fecond, third, &c. Supplements to the Root : But 
Mr. Raphjbn continually corrects the Root itfelf from the fame fup- 
plementaf Equations, which are formed by fubftituting the corrected 
Roots in the Original Equation. And the Rate of Convergency will 1 
be the fame in both. 

In imitation of thefe Methods, we may thus profecute this In- 
quiry after a very general manner. Let the given Equation to be 
refolved be in this form ay m -+- by"-* -4- cy-* -J- dy m ~* , &c. = o, in 
which fuppofe P to be any near Approximation to the Root y, and 
the little Supplement to be p. Then is y = P -4-/>. Now from 
what is (hewn before, concerning the raifing of Powers and extrac- 
ting Roots, it will follow that y m = P -h/> I m = P* -f- wP m -'/>, &c. 
or that thefe will be the two firft Terms of y m ; and all the reft, , 
being multiply'd into the Powers of />, may be rejected. And for 
the fame reafon y m ~ l = P m ~ I -h m iP m ~ l p, &c. y m ~ l = P m ~- -+ 
m 2 P"-=p, &c. and fo of all the reft. Therefore thefe being fub- 
ftituted into the Equation, it will be 
a ]>> .4- niaP n - l p , &c."l 
~ -, &c. 



m 2c n ~*p, &c. >= o ; Or dividing by P" , 
m 7 JP "-"</>, &c. 



&c. 

'- -j-^/P-s , &c. 

-\-m ^dP~*p, &c. = o. From whence taking the Value of />, 
we mail have/ = -- + *P-' + cP- + rfp-* . ar,. _ and 

ma?- 1 + lbV~' -{.m z^~3 + m J^P-4 , Jjff . 

confequently r= 

^ J 



,. 

To reduce this to a more commodious form, make Pi= - , whence 

P=A-'B, P- I =A- i B% &c. which being fubftituted, and 
alfo multiplying the Numerator and Denominator by A" 7 , it will be 

~ ~ ~ 'B +" A."-"-B*+ =4rfA"-?Bi. ^c-. will 



be a nearer Approach to the Rootjy, than jp or P, and fo much 

the 

2 



77je Method of FLUXIONS, 

the nearer as ' is near the Root. And hence we may derive a very 

convenient and general Theorem for the Extraction of the Roots of 
Numeral Equations, whether pure or affected, which will be this. 
Let th,e general Equation ay m -^- by" 1 1 -+ cy m ~~- -f- d) m ~ s , &c. 

=: o be propofed to be folved ; if the Fraction - be affumed 
as near the Root y as conveniently may be, the Fraction 



. iAA m 1 3 1 +7 zcA m -S F 3 4. z 3n/A 4B4,'fef f . 

nearer Approximation to the .Root. And this Fraction, when com- 
puted, may,be,ufed inflead of the Fraction - , by which means a 

Bearer Approximation may again -be had ; and fo on, till we ap- 
proach as near the true Root as we pleafe. 

This general Theorem may be conveniently refolved into as many 
particular Theorems as we pleafe. Thus in the Quadratick Equa- 

A 1 -4- rB z 

tion y 1 + by === c, it will be y = , ,"7 D p , fere. In the Cubick 

if if * f 2t\ J DO X D 

. . .... 2 A 

Equation y* + ty + cy = d, it will be y == 3<i . 
y^r^. In the Biquadratick Equation y* -{- by* -\- cy 1 -+-dy=ze, it 

irt* -+- 2/)AB-4- iB~ x A 1 -f- rB4 _ . 111-1 c i l_ 

be ^ == >/^' And the llke of hl S her 



Equations. 

; For an 'Example of the Solution of a Quadratick Equation, let 
it.be propofed to extract the Square-root of 12, or let us find the 
value of_y in this Equation y 1 #= 1.2. Then by comparing with 
the general formula, we fliall have b =. o, and <: = 12. And 

/I 

taking 3 for the firft approach to the Root, or making g =T> 
that is, Az=3 and B;= i, we fliall have by Substitution y ^==. 
^~ =4-, fora nearer Approximation. Again, making A = 7 



and B = 2, we fliall have y = 12l == || for a nearer Approxi- 

14 X 2 

mation. Again, making A = 97 and B = 28, we fliall have _y= 
97j + i:! x 28i . __ lil7 fo r a nearer Approximation. Aeain, 

'94* 2 S45 2 _ _ _ 

making A= 18817 and B =543 2 > we ^ a11 have y= ' 



7o8ic8o77 /- A i -r i 

== 1|^ ior a nearer Approximation. And if we go on in the 

fame method, we may find as near an Approximation to the Root as 
y/e pleafe, 

This 



and INFINITE SERIES. 191 

This Approximation will be exhibited in a vulgar Fraction, which, 
if it be always kept to its loweft Terms, will give the Root of the 
Equation in the fhorteft and fimpleft manner. That is, it will al- 
ways be nearer the true Root than any other Fraction whatever^ 
whofe Numerator and Denominator are not much larger Numbers 
than its own. If by Divifion we reduce this laft Fraction to a De- 
cimal, we mall have 3,46410161513775459 for the Square-root 
of 12, which exceeds the truth by lefs than an Unit in the lall place.- 

For an Example of a Cubick Equation, we will take that of our 
Author _y j * 2? = 5, and therefore by Companion b = o, 
=. 2, and d==. 5. And taking 2 for the firft Approach to the 

Root, or making ^- = 4., that is, A = 2 and B=i, we mall 



have by Subftitution y ==- = 44 f r a nearer Approach to 

the Root. Again, make A = 21 and B = 10, and then we 
mall have y = 9- 1 + 2500 __ Hj-L f or a nearer Approximation. 

6615 1000 5615 

Again, make A= 11761 and 6 = 5615, and we mall have 

~ . 



y = = 

3x11761 1 ^561 5 2x5615 1 3 J 9759573 16 495 

proximation. And fo we might proceed to find as near an Approxi' 
mation as we think fit. And when we have computed the Root 
near enough in a Vulgar Fraction, we may then (if we pleafe) re- 
duce it to a Decimal by Divifion. Thus in the prefent Example we 
fhall have ^ = 2,094551481701, &c. And after the fame manner 
we may find the Roots of all other numeral affected Equations, of 
whatever degree they may be. 

SECT. IV. The Refolution of Specious Equations by infinite 
Series ; and firft for determining the forms of the 
Series^ and their initial Approximations. 

23, 24. TTT^ROM the Refolution of numeral affected Equations, 
J/ our Author proceeds to find the Roots of Literal, Spe- 
cious, or Algebraical Equations alfo, which Roots are to be exhibited 
by an infinite converging Series, confiding of fimple Terms. Or 
they are to be exprefs'd by Numbers belonging to a general Arithme- 
tical Scale, as has been explain'd before, of which the Root is de- 
noted by .v or z. The affigning or chufing this Root is what he 
means here, by diftinguiming one of the literal Coefficients from the 
reft, if there are feverul. And this is done by ordering or difpofing 

the 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

the Terms of the given Equation, according to the Dimenfions of 
that Letter or Coefficient. It is therefore convenient to chufe fuch a 
Root of the Scale, (when choice is allow'd,) as that the Series may 
converge as faft as may be. If it be the leaft, or a Fraction lefs 
than Unity, its afcending Powers muft be in the Numerators of the 
Terms. If it be the greateft quantity, then its afcending Powers 
muft be in the Denominators, to make the Series duly converge. 
If it be very near a given quantity, then that quantity may be con- 
veniently made the firft Approximation, and that fmall difference, 
or Supplement, may be made the Root of the Scale, or the con- 
verging quantity. The Examples will make this plain. 

25, 26. The Equation to be refolved, for conveniency-fake, iliould 
always be reduced to the fimpleft form it can be, before its Refo- 
Jution be attempted ; for this will always give the leaft trouble. But 
all the Reductions mention'd by the Author, and of which he gives 
us Examples, are not always neceflary, tho' they may be often con- 
venient. The Method is general, and will find the Roots of Equa- 
tions involving fractional or negative Powers, as well as cf other 
Equations, as will plainly appear hereafter. 

27, 28. When a literal Equation is given to be refolved, in diftin- 
guifhing or affigning a proper quantity, by which its Root is to con- 
verge, the Author before has made three cafes or varieties ; all which, 
for the fake of uniformity, he here reduces to one. For becaufe 
the Series mull neceffarily converge, that quantity muft be as fmall 
-,as poffible, in refpect of the other -quantities, that its afcending 
Powers may continually diminim. If it be thought proper to chufe 
the greateil quantity, inftead of that its Reciprocal muft be intro- 
duced, which will bring it to the foregoing cafe. And if it approach 
near to a given quantity, then their fmall difference may be intro- 
duced into the Equation, which again will bring it to the firft cafe. 
So that we need only purfue that cale, becaufe the Equation is al- 
ways fuppos'd to be reduced to it. 

But before we can conveniently explain our Author's Rule, for 
finding the firft Term of the Series in any Equation, we muft con- 
fider the .nature of thofe Numbers, or Expreffions, to which thefe 
literal Equations are reduced, whofe Roots are required ; and in this 
Inquiry we ihall be much aiTifted by what has been already difcourfed 
of Arithmetical Scales. In affected Equations that were purely nume- 
ral, the Solution of which was juft now taught, the feveral Powers 
of the Root were orderly difpoied, according to a fingle or limple 
Arithmetical Scale, which proceeded only in longum, and was there 

fufficient 



#nd INFINITE SERIES. 

fafficient for their Solution. But we muft enlarge our views in thefe 
literal affected Equations, in which are found, not only the Powers 
of the Root to be extracted, but alfo the Powers of the Root of the 
Scale, or of the converging quantity, by which the Series for the 
Root of the Equation is to be form'd ; on account of each of which 
circumftances the Terms of the Equation are to be regularly difpofed, 
and therefore are to conftitute a double or combined Arithmetical 
Scale, which muft proceed both ways, in latum as well as in longum, 
as it were in a Table. For the Powers of the Root to be extraded, 
fuppofe y, are to be difpofed in longum, fo as that their Indices may 
conftitute an Arithmetical Progreffion, and the vacancies, if any, 
may be fupply'd by the Mark #. Alfo the Indices of the Powers 
pf the Root, by which the Series is to converge, fuppofe x, are to 
be difpofed in latum, fo as to conftitute an Arithmetical Progreffion, 
and the vacancies may likewife be fill'd up by the fame Mark *, 
when it hall be thought neceffary. And both thefe together will 
make a combined or double Arithmetical Scale. Thus if the Equa- 
tion y s $xy 4- i!y4 7* #/ 4- -6a* x* 4- fax* =a=-o, were given, 
to find the Root y, the Terms may be thus difpofed : 

y 6 y* V4 yS y* yl yo 



= 0; 



Alfo the Equation v f by* 4- gbx\ x* =o fhould be thus dif- 
jpofed, in order to its Solution : 

y' * * by* * 



x 


y * 


* 


# 


# 


# * 


X 


* -5*7* 


* 


* 


* 


* * 


X* 


* * 


* 


* "~"7 


ga^i.a 


* * 






** 4 




* 




X* 


* * 




* 


* 


* +6a*x* 


X* 


* * 





* 





* 4~^*# 4 



: 1- 

4- tfx* r 



And the Equation y* 4- axy -J- a*y # 2<z 3 = o thus : 

jK J * + a*y za 



za*-* 

* f = > 
*' J 



And the Equation x'y* y*xy* c'x* 4-^ = thus : 

* * 

* * * y*xy* * * ^ sss 0. 

x*y' * * 
And the like of all other Equations. 

C c When 




Method of FLUXIONS, 

When the Terms of the Equation are thus regularly difpos'd, ft 
is then ready for Solution ; to which the following Speculation will 
be a farther preparation. 

29. This ingenious contrivance of out' Author, (which we may 
call Tabulating the Equation,) for finding the firft Term of the 
Root, (which may indeed be extended to the finding all the Terms, 
or the form of the Series, or of all the Series that may be derived 
from the given Equation,) cannot be too much admired, or too care- 
fully inquired into : The reafon and foundation of which may be 
thus generally explained from the following Table, of which the 
Construction is thus. 



za-\-zb 



za+b 



za b 



za zb 




+4* 



b 



zl 



a^-bt, 



a b 



azb 



2-+J* 



b 




3 a 



3 a zb 



40+4^ 



\a-\-zb 



b 



50 b 



; 3 



ba+bb 




bab 



bazb 



ja-\-bb 



711+3^ 



70+ zJ 





73* 



In a Pfor.e draw any number of Lines, parallel and equidiftant, and 
cthers_at; right Angles to them, fo as to divide the whole Space, as 
far as is neceffary, into little equal Parallelograms. Aflume any one 
of thefe,- in which write the Term o, and the Terms a, za, 30, 4.a, 
&c. in-the fuceeeding Parallelograms to the right hand, as alfo the 
Terms -*-^ 2a, 3^7, &c. to the left hand. Over the Term 
o, in. the fame Column, write the Terms ^, zb, 3^, 4^, &c. fuc- 
ceffively",' and the Terms b, zb, 3^, &c. underneath. And 
thefe Ave ma^f call primary Terms. Now to infert its proper. Term 
in any other afitgiVd. Parallelogram, add the two primary 'Terms 
together.., that' ftand over-againft if each- way, and write the Sum 
in the given Parallelogram. And-* thus all the Parallelograms be- 
ing fill's, as-far as there is oecafion every way, the whole. Space 

will 



and INFINITE SERIES. 195 

-will become a Table, which may be called a combined Arithmetical 
ProgreJJion in piano, compofed of the two general Numbers a and t\ 
of which thefe following will be the chief properties. 

Any Row of Terms, parallel to the primary Series o, a, za, ^a, 
&c. will be an Arithmetical Progreflion, whofe common Difference 
is a ; and it may be any fuch Progreflion at pleafure. Any Row or 
Column parallel to the primary Series o, , zb, 3^, &c. will be an 
Arithmetical Progreflion, whofe common difference is ^j and it may 
be any fuch Progreflion. If a ftr-ait Ruler be laid on the Table, 
the Edge of which mall pafs thro' the Centers of any two Parallelo- 
grams whatever ; all the Terms of the Parallelograms, whofe Cen- 
ters mail at the fame time touch the Edge of the Ruler, will conftitute 
an Arithmetical Progreflion, whofe common difference will coniiit of 
two parts, the firfl of which will be fome Multiple of a, and the other 
a Multiple of b. If this Progreflion be fuppos'd to proceed injeriora. 
verjus, or from the upper Term or Parallelogram towards the lower ; 
each part of the common difference may be feparately found, by fub- 
tracling the primary Term belonging to the lower, from the primary 
Term belonging to the upper Parallelogram. If this common diffe- 
rence, when found, be made equal to nothing, and thereby the Re- 
lation of a and b be determined ; the Progreflion degenerates into a 
Hank of Equals, or (if you pleafe) it becomes an Arithmetical Progref- 
fion, whofe common difference is infinitely little. In which cafe, if 
the Ruler be moved by a parallel motion, all the Terms of the Parallelo- 
grams, whofe Centers mall at the fame time be found to touch the Edge 
of the Ruler, fhall be equal to each other. And if the motion of 
the Ruler be continued, fuch Terms as at equal diftances from the 
firfl: fituation are fuccerTively found to touch the Ruler, fliall form 
an Arithmetical Progreflion. Laftly, to come nearer to the cafe in 
hand, if any number of thefe Parallelograms be mark'd out and di- 
flinguifh'd from. the reft, or aflign'd promifcuoufly and at pleafure, 
through whofe Centers, as before, the Edge of the Ruler ihall fuc- 
ceflively pafs in its parallel motion, beginning from any two (or more) 
initial or external Parallelograms, :whofe Terms are made equal ; an 
Arithmetical Progreflion may be found, which ihall comprehend and 
take in all thofe promifcuous Terms, without any regard had to the 
Terms that are to be omitted. Thefe are fome of the properties of 
this Table, or of a combined Arithmetical Progreflion in piano >, by 
. which we may eafily underfland our Author's expedient, of Tabu- 
lating the given Equation, and may derive the neceflary Confequen- 
~es from it. 

C c 2 For 



196 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

For when the Root y is to be extracted out of a given Equation, 
confifting of the Powers of y and x any how combined together- 
promifcuoufly, with other known quantities, of which x is to be 
the Root of the Scale, (or Series,) as explain'd before ; fuch a value 
of y is to be found, as when fubftituted in the Equation inftead of 
y, the whole (hall be deftroy'd, and become equal to nothing. And 
firft the initial Term of the Series^or the firfl Approximation, is to be 
found, wtyich in all cafes may be Analytically reprefented by Ax* 1 ; 
or we may always put y = Ax m , &c. So that we mail have y 1 = 
A*x, &c. _>' 3 = A*x* m , 6cc. _}> 4 = A 4 * 4 *, &c. And fo of other 
Powers or Roots. Thefe when fubftituted in the Equation, and by 
that means compounded with the feveral Powers of x (or z} already 
found there, will form fuch a combined Arithmetical Progreffion in 
flano as is above defcribed, or which may be reduced to fuch, by 
making a=m and = I. Thefe Terms therefore, according to 
the nature of the Equation, will be promifcuoufly difperfed in the 
Table j but the vacancies may always be conceived to be fupply'd, 
and then it will have the properties before mention'd. That is, the 
Ruler being apply'd to two (or perhaps more) initial or external 
Terms, (for if they were not external, they could not be at the be- 
ginning of an Arithmetical Progreffion, as is neceflarily required,) 
and thofe Terms being made equal, the general Index m will thereby 
be determined, and the general Coefficient A will alfo be known. 
If the external Terms made choice of are the loweft in the Table, 
which is the cafe our Author purfues, the Powers of x will proceed 
by increafing. But the higheft may be chofen, and then a Series 
will be found, in which the Powers of x will proceed by decreafing. 
And there may be other cafes of external Terms, each of which will 
eommonly afford a Series. The initial Index being thus found, the 
other compound Indices belonging to the Equation will be known 
alfo, and an Arithmetical Progreffion may be found', in which they 
are all comprehended, and confequently the form of the Series wifll 
be known. 

Or inftead of Tabulating the Indices of the Equation, as above, 
it will be the fame thing in effedt, if we reduce the Terms themfelves 
to the form of a combined Arithmetical Progreffion, as was fhewn 
before. But then due care mufl be taken, that the Terms may be 
rightly placed at equal diftances j otherwife the Ruler cannot be ac- 
tually apply'd, to difcover the Progreffions of the Indices, as may 
be done in the Parallelogram. 

For 



and INFINITE SERIES, 



197 



For the fake of greater perfpicuity, we will reduce our general 
Table or combined Arithmetical Progreffion in piano, to the parti- 
cular cafe, in which a-=.m and b=. i -, which will th.n appear 
thus : 



- 2M+0 



zm-if 3 




2m 3 



_,, +5 



w+4 



- AO-f- 2 



m-\- 1 



m 3 



+ 5 

+ 4 
+ 3 

2 



3 



m+6 



"-+5 



CT+2 



OT+I 



< 3 



2W+4 



2OT-4-2 



2OT+ 1 



JOT+6 



> 3 



4'"+ 4 



4W+2 



3 



5 M-6 



5^2 



3 




601 3 



"'"+5 



7 m +4 



Now the chief properties of this Table, fubfervient to the prefent 
purpofe, will be thefe. If any Parallelogram be feledted, and an- 
other any how below it towards the right hand, and if their included 
Numbers be made equal, by determining the general Number m, 
which in this cafe will always be affirmative ; alfo if the Edge of the 
Ruler be apply 'd to the Centers of thefe two Parallelograms ; all the 
Numbers of the other Parallelograms, whofe Centers at the fame time 
touch the Ruler, will likewife be equal to each other. Thus if the 
Parallelogram denoted by m -+- 4 be feleded, as alfo the Parallelo- 
gram 377* -f- 2 ; and if we make m -t- 4 = ^m -H 2, we mall have 
m=i. Alfo the Parallelograms ;;; -h 6, m -f- 4, 3^7 -|- 2, $m, 
j m 2 , &c. will at the fame time be found to touch the Edge of 
the Ruler, every one of which will make 5, when m= i. 

And the fame things will obtain if any Parallelogram be felecled, 
and another any how below it towards the left-hand, if their in- 
cluded Numbers be made equal, by determining the general Number 
m, which in this cafe will be always negative. Thus if the Parallelo- 
gram denoted by 5/w-i-4be felecled, as alfo the Parallelogram 402 -f- 2; 
and if we make ^m-\-^.-=^.m -t-2, we fliall have>= 2. Alib 
the Parallelograms 6w+6, 5^4-4, 4^ + 2, 3?;;, zm 2, 6cc. 

will 



198 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

will be found at the fame time to touch the Ruler, every one of 
which will make 6, when m = 2. 

The fame things remaining as before, if from the firft fituation of 
the Ruler it (hall move towards the right-hand by a parallel motion, 
it will continually arrive at greater and greater Numbers, which at 
equal diftances will form an afcending Arithmetical Progeffion. Thus 
if the two firft felected Parallelograms be zm 1 = 5;;; 3, whence 
m=., the Numbers in all the correfponding Parallelograms will 
be -j. Then if the Ruler moves towards the right-hand, into the 
parallel fituation %m-\- i, 6m I, &c. thefe Numbers will each be 
3. If it moves forwards to the fame diftance, it will arrive at 
4/7; -{-3, 7/ +- i, &c. which will each be 5^. If it moves forward 
again to the fame diftance, it will arrive at yn -f- 5, %m -f- 3, &c. 
which will each be 8f. And fo on. But the Numbers f, 3, 52., 
8y, &c. are in an Arithmetical Progreffion whofe common diffe- 
rence is 2-i. And the like, mutatis mutandis, in other circum- 
fiances. 

And hence it will follow <? contra, that if from the firft fituation 
of the Ruler, it moves towards the left-hand by a parallel motion, 
it will continually arrive at lefler and leifer Numbers, which at equal 
diftances will form a decreafing Arithmetical Progreffion. 

But in the other fituation of the Ruler, in which it inclines down- 
wards towards the left-hand, if it be moved towards the right-hand 
by a parallel motion, it will continually arrive at greater and greater 
Numbers, which at equal diftances will form an increafing Arith- 
metical Progreffion. Thus if the two firft feleded Numbers or Pa- 
rallelograms be 8m + i = $m i, whence m = ~ ~ } and the 
Numbers in all the correfponding Parallelograms will be 4!.. If 
the Ruler moves upwards into the parallel fituation 5^-4-2, 2;;;, 8fc. 
thefe Numbers will each be i f. If it move on at the fame diftance, 
it will arrive at 2m + 3, m-+- i, 6cc. which will each be i-i. If it 
move forward again to the fame diftance, it will arrive at m -f- 4, 
4/;z -+- 2, &c. which will each be 4^. And fo on. But the Num- 
bers 4,1, i|, i-i, 4.1, &c. or .Ll, i, |, -L, &c. are in an in- 
creafing Arithmetical Progreffion, whofe common difference is , or 3. 

And hence it will follow alfo, if in this laft fituation of the Ruler 
it moves the contrary way, or towards the left-hand, it will conti- 
nually arrive at lefler and lefler Numbers, which at equal diftances 
will form a decreafing Arithmetical Progreflion. 

Now if out of this Table we fhould take promifcuoufly any num- 
ber of Parallelograms, in their proper places, with their refpeclive 

Num- 



and INFINITE SERIES, 



199 



Numbers included, neglecYmg all the reft ; we mould form fome cer- 
tain Figure, fuch as this, of which thefe would be the properties. 



"M-3 



2OT-J-I 



5;;;+ 1 



The Ruler being apply'd to any two (or perhaps more) of the 
Parallelograms which are in the Ambit or Perimeter of the Figure, 
that is, to two of the external Parallelograms, and their Numbers 
being made equal, by determining the general Number m ; if the 
Ruler paffes over all the reft of the Parallelograms by a parallel mo- 
tion, thofe Numbers which at the fame time come to the Edge of the 
Ruler will be equal, and thofe that come to it fuccefllvely will form 
an Arithmetical Progreffion, if the Terms mould lie at equal diftan- 
ces ; or atleaft-they may be reduced to fuch, by fupplyingany Terms 
that may happen to be wanting. 

Thus if the Ruler fhould be apply'd to the two uppermoft and 
external Parallelograms, which include the Numbers 3/w-f-^ and 
^m ~}_ 5, and if they be made equal, we mall have m = o, fo that 
each of thefe Numbers will be 5. The next Numbers that the Ruler 
will arrive at will be m -f- 3, 4;;; +3, 6/ -f- 3, of which each will 
be 3. The la ft are zm -f- i, 5>-f- i, of which each is i. So that 
here #2 = 0, and the Numbers arifing are 5, 3, i, which form a 
decreafing Arithmetical Progreffion, the common difference of which 
is 2. And if there had been more Parallelograms, any how difpofed, 
their Numbers would have been comprehended by this Arithmetical 
Progreffion, or at leaft it might have been interpolated with other 
Terms, fo as to comprehend them all, however promifcuoufly and 
irregularly they might have been taken. 

Thus fecondly, if the Ruler be apply'd to the two external Pa- 
rallelograms 5/72+ 5 and 6m-}- 3, and if thefe Numbers be made 
equal, we mail have m = 2, and the Numbers themfelves will be 
each ic. The three next Numbers which the Ruler .will arrive at 

will 



20O The Method of FLUXIONS, 

will be each 11, and the two laft will be ^ach 5. But the Num- 
bers 15, n> 5. will be comprehended in the decreafing Arithmetical 
Progreffion 15, 13, 1 1, 9, 7, 5, whofe common difference is 2. 

Thirdly, if the Ruler be apply'd to the two external Parallelograms 
6m -f- 3 and 5*0-4-1, and if thefe Numbers be made equal, we fhall 
have tn = 2, and the Numbers will be each 9. The two next 
Numbers that the Ruler will arrive at will be each 5, the next 
will be 3, the next i, and the laft -+- i. All which will be 
comprehended in the afcending Arithmetical Progreffion 9, 7, 

5, 3, i, -+- i, whofe common difference is 2. 
Fourthly, if the Ruler be apply'd to the two loweft and external 

Parallelograms 2m-\-i and 5/77 -+- i, and if they be made equal, 
we fhall have again m = o, fo that each of thefe Numbers will be i . 
The next three Numbers that the Ruler will approach to, will each 
be 3, and the laft 5. But the Numbers i, 3, 5, will be compre- 
hended in an afcending Arithmetical Progreffion, whofe common 
difference is 2. 

Fifthly, if the Ruler be apply'd to the two external Parallelograms 
in -f- 3 and 2m +- i, and if thefe Numbers be made equal, we fhall 
have m = 2, and the Numbers themfelves will be each 5. The 
three next Numbers that the Ruler will approach to will each be 1 1, 
and the two next will be each 15. But the Numbers 5, 1 1, 15, will 
be comprehended in the afcending Arithmetical Progreffion 5, 7, 9, 
II, 13, 15, of which the common difference is 2. 

Laftly, if the Ruler be apply'd to the two external Parallelograms 
pn -f- 5 and m-\- 3, and if thefe Numbers be made equal, we fhali 
have m=. I, and the Numbers themfelves will each be 2. The 
next Number to which the Ruler approaches will be o, the two next 
are each i, the next 3, the laft 4. All which Numbers 
will be found in the defcending Arithmetical Progreffion 2, I, p, 

i, 2, 3, 4, whofe common difference is i. And thefe 
fix are all the poffible cafes of external Terms. 

Now to find the Arithmetical Progreffion, in which all thefe re- 
fulting Terms fhall be comprehended ; find their differences, and the 
greateft common Divifor of thofe differences fhall be the common 
difference of the Progreffion. Thus in the fifth cafe before, the refulting 
Numbers were 5, 1 1,15, whofe differences are 6, 4, and their greateft 
common Divifor is 2. Therefore 2 will be the common difference of 
the Arithmetical Progreffion, which will include all the refulting 
Numbers 5, n, 15, without any fuperfluous Terms. But the .ap- 
plication of all this will be beft apprehended from the Examples that 
are to follow. 30 



and INFINITE SERIES. 201 

30. We have before given the form of this Equation, y< $xy* 

_j_ I!y4 ja*x 1 )* +- 6<? 3 .Y 5 4-^Ar* = o, when the Terms are dif- 

pofed according to a double or combined Arithmetical Scale, in or- 
der to its Solution. Or obferving the fame difpofition of the Terms, 
they may be inferted in their refpedive Parallelograms, as the Table 
requires. Or rather, it may be fufficient to tabulate the feveral In- 
dices of A; only, when they are derived as follows. Let Ax" repre- 
fent the firft Term of the Series to be form'd for y, as before, or let 
y=;Ax'", &c. Then by fubftituting this for y in the given Equa- 
tion, we fhall have A 6 .\- 6m $A s x$ m + l -+- -^xv+s 7*A a .v tIB + -f. 

6fl 3 x J -f-^.x'4, &c. = o. Thefe Indices of AT, when felected from 
the general Table, with their refpective Parallelograms, will ftand 
thus: 



4 














3 








4w-h3 










2/W-J-2 




















5/W-f- I 
















6m 



Here if we would have an afcending Series for the Root y y we 
may apply the Ruler to the three external Terms 3, 2/;;-f- 2, 6/w, 
which being made equal to each other, will give ; = --> an d each 
of the Numbers will be 3. The Ruler in its parallel motion will 
next arrive at $m -+- i, or 37; then at 4; then at 4^-1-3, or 5; 
which Numbers will be comprehended in the Arithmetical Progref- 
fion 3, 37, 4, 47, 5, whofe common difference is f. This there- 
fore will be the common difference of the Progreffion of the Indices, 
in the Series to be derived for y. So that now we intirely know the 
form of the Series, which will refuk from this Cafe. For if A, B, 
C, D, &c. be put to reprefent the feveral Coefficients of the Series in 
order, and as the firft Index m is found to be 7, and the common 
difference of the afcending Series is allo 7, we ihall have here j = 

A^ H- Bx -{- CV-H- DAT% &c. 

As to the Value of the firft Coefficient A, this is found by putting 
the initial or external Terms of the Parallelogram equal to nothing. 

D d This 



2 02 Tfo Method of FLUXIONS, 

This here will give the Equation A 6 7rt*A* -j- 6<z 5 = o, which, 
has thefe fix Roots, A = ,/tf, A ^/2a, A=v/ 3*7,. 
of which the two laft are impoffible, and to be rejected. Of the 
others any one may be taken for A, according as we would profecute 
this or that Root of the Equation. 

Now that this is a legitimate Method for rinding the firft Ap- 
proximation Ax m , may appear from confidering, that when the 
Terms of the Equation are thus ranged, according to a double Arith- 
metical Scale, the initial or external Terms, (each Cafe in its turn,) 
become the moil confiderable of the Series, and the reft continually 
decreafe, or become of lefs and lefs value, according as they recede 
more and more from thofe initial Terms. Confequently they may 
be all rejected, as leaft confiderable, which will make thofe initial 
or external Terms to be (nearly) equal to nothing ; which Suppofi- 
tion gives the Value of A, or of Ax n , for the fir ft Approximation, 
And this Suppofition is afterwards regularly purfued in the fubfe- 
quent Operations, and proper Supplements are found, by means of 
which the remaining Terms of the Root are extracted. 

We may try here likewife, if we can obtain a defcending Series 
for the Root y, by applying the Ruler to the two external Terms 
^ m _j_ y and 6m ; which being made equal to each other, will give 
m =T> an d hence each of the Numbers will be 9. The Ruler in 
its motion will next arrive at $m-\- i, or 8f. Then at zm -f- 2, or 
5. Then at 4. And laftly at 3. But thefe Numbers 9, 8f, 5, 4, 
3, will be comprehended in an Arithmetical Progreffion, of which 
the common difference is i. So that the form of the Series here 
will be y =A.v* -f- Ex -+- Cx^ -f- D^, &c. But if we put the two 
external Terms equal to nothing, in order to obtain the firft Ap- 

A4 I 

proximation, we mail have A 6 + =o, or A 1 -f- - = o, which 

will afford none but impoffible Roots. So that we can have no ini- 
tial Approximation from this fuppofition, and confequently no 
Series. 

But laftly, to try the third and laft cafe of external Parallelograms, 
we may apply the Ruler to 4 and 4^2-4-3, which being made equal, 
will give m = -, and each of the Numbers will be 4. The next 
Number will be 3 ; the next 2m -\- 2, or 2| ; the next 50* -{- i, or 
27; the laft will be 6m, or if. But the Numbers 4, 3, af, 27, 
if, will all be found in a decreafing Arithmetical Progreffion, whofe 
common difference will be f . So that Ax* + Bx H- Cx~* -+- Dx~s 
6cc. may reprefent the form of this Series, if the circumftances of 

the 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



203 



the Coefficients will allow of an Approximation from hence. But 
if we make the initial Terms equal to nothing, we mall have 

a, 

-\- b* o, which will give none but impoflible Roots. So that 
we can have no initial Approximation from hence, and confequemly 
no Series for the Root in this form. 

3 i. The Equation y s by 1 -+- qbx* # ; =o, when the Terms 
are difpofed according to a double Arithmetical Scale, will have the 
form as was (hewn before ; from whence it may be known, what 
cafes of external Terms there are to be try'd, and what will be the 
circumftances of the feveral Series for the Root y, which may be 
derived from hence. Or otherwiie more explicitely thus. Putting 
Ax 1 " for the firft Term of the Series y, this Equation will become 
by Subftitution A'A.-?" M 1 * 1 " -f- gbx* x*, 6cc. = o. So that 
if we take thefe Indices of x out of the general Table, they will 
ftand as in the following Diagram. 

Now in order to have an afcending 
Series for y, we may apply the Ruler to 
the two external Parallelograms 2 and 
2W, which therefore being made equal, will 
give m - i, and each of the Numbers 
will be 2. The Ruler then in its parallel 



progreis will firft come to 3, and then to yn, or 5. But the Num- 
bers 2, 3, 5, are all contain'd in an afcending Arithmetical Progrefiion, 
whofe common difference is i . Therefore the form of the Series 
will here be ;' = AA; -f- B* 1 -f-(*', &c. And to determine the 
firft Coefficient A, we fhall have the Equation bfcx 1 -f- qbx* - - o, 
or A a = 9, that is A = + 3. So that either 4-3*, or 3^ may 
be the initial Approximation, according as we intend to extract the 
affirmative or the negative Root. 

We mall have another cafe of external Terms, and perhaps an- 
other afcending Series for_y, by applying the Ruler to the Parallelo- 
grams 2; and 5;^, which Numbers being made equal, will g;ive 
m =zo. (For by the way, when we put 2;= 5/77, we are not at 
liberty to argue by Diviiion, that 2=5, becaufe this would bring 
us to an absurdity. And the laws of Argumentation require, that no 
Abfurdities muft be admitted, but when they are inevitable, and 
when they are of ufe to mew the falfity of fome Supposition. We 
fliould therefore here argue by Subtraction, thus: Becanfe cm ^t>i t 
then 5//f 2:>i = o, or pn = o, and therefore m = o. This Cau- 
tion I thought the more necellary, becaufe I have obferved f >mc, 

D d 2 who 



204 "The Method of FLUXIONS, 

who would lay the blame of their own Abfurdities upon the Analy- 
tical Art. But thefe Abfurdities are not to be imputed to the Art, 
but rather to the unikilfulnef of the Artift, who thus abfurdly ap- 
plies the Principles of his Art.) Having therefore 777. = o, we {hall 
alfo have the Numbers 2/77. = 577*' = o. The Ruler in its parallel 
motion will next arrive at 2 ; and then at 3. But the Numbers o, 
2, 3, will be comprehended in the Arithmetical Progreffion o, i, 2, 3, 
whofe common difference is i. Therefore y = A -+- Ex -+- CAT*, &c. 
will be the form of this Series. Now from the exterior Terms A* 
bA* = o, or A 3 = by or A = fi, we {hall have the firft Term 
of the Series. 

There is another cafe of external Terms to be try'd, which poffi- 
bly may afford a defcending Series for y. For applying the Ruler to 
the Parallelograms 3 and 5777, and making thefe equal, we (hall have 
7/7=4, an d ea ch of thefe Numbers will be 3. Then the Ruler 
will come to 2 ; and laftly 2777, or -- But the Numbers 3, 2, if, 
will be comprehended in a defcending Progreffion, whofe common 
difference is f. Therefore the form of the Series will be y = Ax^ 
_f. BA" T -|- CA^ -f- D, &c. And the external Terms A r .v 3 A: 3 = o 
will give A= i for the firft Coefficient. Now as the two former' 
cafes will each give a converging Series for y in this Equation, when 
.v is lefs than Unity ; fo this cafe will afford us a Series when x is 
greater than Unity ; which will converge fo much the fafter, the 
greater x is fuppofed to be. 

32. We have already feen the form of this Equation y> -\-axy -f- 
aay A? 3 2# 3 =o, when the Terms are difpofed according to a 
double Arithmetical Scale. And if we take the fictitious quantity 
Ax* to reprefent the firft Approximation to the Root ;', we {hall 
have by fubftitution A'X= m -f- aAx m + l -+- a'-Ax" A' 3 2^ 3 , Sec, 
= o. Thefe Terms, or at leaft thefe Indices of x, being felecled 
out of the general Table, will appear thus. 

Now to obtain an afcending Series for the 
Root y, we may apply the Ruler to the three 
external Terms o, 777, 3777, which being made 
equal, will give m = o. Therefore thefe 
Numbers are each o. In the next place the 
Ruler will come to 777.4- i, or i ; and laftly 
to 3. But the Numbers o, i, 3, are contain'd in the Arithmetical 
Progreffion o, i, 2, 3, whofe common difference is i. Therefore 
the form of the Root is y=. A -+- Ex -{-Cx 1 -+- Dx>, 6cc. Now 
if the Equation A 3 + a 1 A <2a' =o, (which is derived from the 

initial 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



205 



initial Term?,) is divided by the factor A 1 -f- ah. ~t- 2a*, it will give 
the Quotient A a = o, or A=.a for the initial Term of the 
Root^y. 

If we would alfo derive a defcending Series for this Equation, we 
may apply the Ruler to the external Parallelograms 3, yn, which 
being made equal to each other, will give m = i ; alio thefe Num- 
bers will each be 3. Then the Ruler will approach to m-\- i, or 2 ; 
then to //;, or i ; laftly to o. But the Numbers 3, 2, i, o, are a de- 
creafing Arithmetical Progreflion, of which the common difference 
is i. So that the form of the Series will here be y=Ax -+- B -+- 
CA, ' -f- Dx~- , &c. And the Equation form'd by the external Terms 
will be A 3 x 3 .v 3 = o, or A= i. 

33. The form of the Equation x*)' s y+X} 1 c'x 3 - -f- c 7 = o, 
as exprefs'd by a combined Arithmetical Scale, we have already feen, 
which will eafily mew us all the varieties of external Terms, with 
their other Circumftances. But for farther illuftration, putting A,v ra for 
the firft Term of the Root y, we ("hall have by fubftitution A t x^ m + l 
36--A I ,v i " I + I c'x* -+- c\ &c. =o. Thefe Indices of x being 
tabulated, will ftand thus. 

Now to have an afcending 
Series, we mufl apply the 
Ruler to the two external 
Terms o and yn -\- 2, which 
being made equal, will give 
m .*-, and the two Numbers anting will be each o. The next 
Number that the Ruler arrives at is zm + r, or .J. ; and the la ft is 2. 
But the Numbers o, i, 2, will be found in an afcending Arithmeti- 
cal Progreffion, whofe common difference is -i-. Therefore y =. Ax~ 
_l_ B.v '> -f- C -f- D.x^, &c. will be the form of the Root. To deter- 
mine the firft Coefficient A, we fhall have from the exterior Terms 
A'-f-6- 7 = o, which will give A = y^c 7 = c'\ Therefore 
the firft Term or Approximation to the Root will be y ==. J/-^ , 

&c. 

We may try if we can obtain a defcending Series, by applying 
the Ruler to the two external Parallelograms, whofe Numbers are 2 
and 5;-f-2, which being made equal, will give ;;; = o, and thefe 
Numbers will each be 2. The Ruler will next arrive at 2///-J- i, or 
i ; and laftly at o. But the Numbers 2, i, o, form a de Icon cling 
ProgreiTion, whofe common difference is i. So that die form of the 
Series will here be y = A -f. B,v + Cv- J , &c, And putting the 

initial 



2 










; +z 






ZOT-J- I 








O 













206 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

initial Terms equal to nothing, as they ftand in the Equation, we 
ihall have A'* 1 c*x* = o, or A = <r, for the firft Approximation 
to the Root. And this Series will be accommodated to the cafe of Con- 
vergency, when x is greater than c -, as the other Series is accommo- 
dated to the other cafe, when x is lefs than c. 

34. If the propofed Equation be 8z, 6 f> -\- a^y* 27^ = o, 
it may be thus refolved without any preparation. When reduced to 

our form, it will ftand thus, 8z 6 / 3 -}-az 6 \* * * 1 ,, 

y J f=o; and by 

* 27^9 3 * 

putting_y=A B ',&:c.it willbecome 8A*z*" ! + 6 +aA 1 z*' m +' s * * &c.7 

* 27^3 * 

The firft cafe of external Terms will give $A*z* m + s 27.^' = o, 
whence 3/^-1-6 = 0, or m=s 2. Thefe Indices or Numbers 
therefore will be each o ; and the other 2/-f- 6 will be 2. But 0,2, 
will be in an afcending Arithmetical Progreffion, of which the com- 
mon difference is 2. So that the form of the Series will be y=. Az~~- 
-|- B -h Cs. 1 -+- Dz*, &c. And bccaufe 8A' = 27^9, or 2A=3^3, 
it will be A = J-0 3 . Therefore the firft Term or Approximation to 

the Root will be 3 -^- 



2 



2. * 



But another cafe of external Terms will give aA*-z~- mJ c 6 
= o, whence 2w-f-6 = o, or /;; = 3. Thefe Indices or Num- 
bers therefore will be each o j and the other yn -+- 6 will be 3. 
But o, 3, will be found in a defcending Arithmetical P/ogrefiion, 
whofe common difference is 3 . So that the form of the Series will 
be y = Az~* -f- Ez~ 6 -f- Cs-' , ccc. And becaufe ^A 1 = 27^', 
J tis A = + 3v/3 x^ 4 > f r ^ ^''^ Coefficient. 

Laftly, there is another cafe of external Terms, which may pom"- 
bly afford us a defcending Series, by making SA*z3 a + 6 -f- aA*z"- m ^~ 6 
=: o ; whence m = o. And the Numbers will be each equal to 6 ; 
the other Number, or Index of z, is o. But 6, o, will be in a 
defcending Arithmetical Progreffion, of which the common difference 
is 6. Therefore the form of the Series will be _y= A -f- Ez~ 6 -f- 
Oc- 11 , &c. Alib becaufe 8A -+- a A 1 = o, it is A = {a for the 
firft Coefficient. 

I fhall produce one Example more, in order to fhew what variety 
of Series may be derived from the Root in fome Equations; as alib 
to fhew all the cafes, and all the varieties that can be derived, in the 
prefent ftate of the Equation. Let us therefore affume this Equation, 

1,vl 3^ a /. ClI I 6 fl\* 

y* -- _ + x z -- _ + - _ _ _j_ _ _ _ .+. ^ = o, or 

rather y 3 a~ 1 y i x l -\- x> a>y~- x 3 - -+- a\) 3 a \y~ z A. 1 -}- a 6 x~ s 
~ i -+- a= = o. Which if we make }' = A.\ m , &c. and 

difpofe 



and INFINITE SERIES. 207 

difpofe the Terms according to a combined Arithmetical Progref- 
fion, will appear thus : 



* * 

*** 
.*x" m +** * 



Now here it is plain by the difpofition of the Terms, that the 
Ruler can be apply'd eight times, and no oftner, or that there are 
eight cafes of external Terms to be try'd, each of which may give 
a Series for the Root, if the Coefficients will allow it, of which four 
will be afcending, and four defcending. And firft for the four cafes 
of afcending Series, in which the Root will converge by the afcend- 
ing Powers of x ; and afterwards for the other four cafes, when the 
Series converges by the defcending Powers of x. 

I. Apply the Ruler, or, (which is the fame thing,) afTume the 
Equation a s A~=x~^ a"' A- 1 *- 1 " 1 -* = o, which will give 3/77 

= 2in 2, or 7/7= 2; alfo A=^. The Number refulting 

from thefe Indices is 6. But the Pailer in its parallel motion will 
next come to the Index 3 . then to zm-{- 2, or 2 ; then 
to o ; then to zm 2, or 2 ; then to 3 ; and laftly to 3/7; and 2/774- 2, 
or 6. But the Numbers 6, 3, 2, o, 2, 3, 6, are in an af- 
cending Arithmetical Progrellion, of which the common difference 
is i ; and therefore the form of the Series will be y = Ax 1 - --Bx* 

-f- C.v, &c. and its firft Term will be - . 

a 

II. Affume the Equation a 6 x~ l a''A t x-- i ==z o, which will 
give 3 = zm 2, or m = f } alfo A = a*. The Num- 
ber refulting hence is 3 ; the next will be 37/7, or iJL ; the 
next 2/72 2, or i ; the next o ; the next 2/>-f- 2, or j ; 
the next 3/7;, or i ; the two laft zm 4- 2 and 3, are each 3. But 
the Numbers 3, i, j, o, i, i|, 3, will be found in an 
afcending Arithmetical Progreffion, of which the common difference 
is f ; and therefore the form of the Series will be y = Ax^ +- Bx +- 

+ Dx% &c. and its firft Term will be + ^/ax. 

III. 



208 7?je Method of FLUXIONS, 

III. Aflame the Equation a 6 x~* a* A. 1 .* 11 ""- = o, which will 
give 3 = 2?/7 2, or;;;= f; alfo A = + a*. The Num- 
ber refulting is 3 ; the next 3;?;, or if ; the next 2m 2, 
or i ; the next o ; the next 2m -+- 2, or i ; the next 3z, or 
if; the two laft 3 and 2m -f- 2, which are each 3. But the 
Numbers 3, if, i, o, i, if, 3, will be all comprehended 
in an afcending Arithmetical Progreiiion, of which the common dif- 
ference is f ; and therefore the form of the Series will be y - A.y~ 
~h B -f- Cx* -f- Dx, &c. and the firft Term will be a*x~' f , or 

"v/;- 

IV. Affume the Equation A 3 A: 3 ^'A 1 *-'*- 2 = o, which will 
give 3 = 2; 2, or ;/z = 2; alfo A = a*. The Number 
refulting is 6 ; the next will be 3 ; the next 2m -{-2, or 2 ; 
the next o; the next 2m 2, or 2 ; the next 3 ; the two laft 

3/tf and 2#?4-2, each of which is 6. But the Numbers 6, 

3, 2, o, 2, 3, 6, belong to an afcending Arithmetical Progref- 
fion, of which the common difference is i. Therefore the form of 
the Series will be y = Ax~- +- Bx~' -+- C -f- Dx, &c. and its firft 

Term will be ^ 

The four defending Series are thus derived. 

I. Afllune the Equation Au 3 a-'A 1 x"- m + l o, which will 

give 3;;z = 2/w -4- 2, or #2 = 2; alfo A = - . The Number re- 
fulting is 6 ; the next will be 3 ; the next 2m 2, or 2 ; the next 
O; the next 2;;z-f-2, or < 25 the next 3; the two laft 

3/72 and 2m 2, each of which is 6. But the Numbers 
6, 3, 2, o, 2, 3, 6, belong to a defcending Arithmetical Pro- 
greflion, of which the common difference is i. Therefore the form 
of the Series will be/ = Ax* -i- Ex ~f- C -f- D.*- 1 , &c. and the firft 

X S, 

Term will be . 

a 

II. Affume the Equation x* a~ l A i x im ~ Jri = o, which will give 
2m -+- 2 = 3, or ;;:= f ; alfo A = + a*. The Number refulting 
is 3 ; the next wi: be 3;^, or if; the next 2;/z-f-2, or i ; the 
next o ; the next ,/ 2, or i ; the next yn, or if; the 
two laft 3 and 2m 2 are each 3. But the Numbers 3, 
if, i, o, i, - if, 3, belong to a defcending Arithmetical 
ProgreiTon, of which the common difference is i. Therefore the 
form of the Series will be_)' = Ax^-i-Ex+Cx~^-{- DAT*', &c. and 
the firft Term will be + ^/ax. 

III. 



gve 3 



and INFINITE SERIES. 209 

III. Aflume the Equation x 5 <7A-** *+ = o, which will' 
= 2 w H- 2, or TW = f ; alfo A = + a*'. The Num- 
ber refulting from hence is 3 ; the next will be 3;;?, or if ; the 
next 2m -+-2, or i ; the next o ; the next 2m 2, or i ; 
the next 3777, or if ; the two laft 3 and 2m 2, each of 
whichare 3. But the Numbers 3, if, i, o, i, if, 3, are 
comprehended in a defcending Arithmetical Progreflion, of which 
the common difference is f . Therefore the form of the Series will 
bcy=Ax~*-t-Bx~'-i-Cx~~ l -l-Dx- % & c - an d the firft Term will 
be + a*x~* or + a - . 



IV. Laftly, aflume the Equation a 6 A-ix~i m rfA.- I 
which will give 3;;; = 2m -f- 2, or m = 2 ; alfo A ==='#. 
The Number refulting is 6 ; the next will be 3 ; the next zm 2, 
or 2 ; the next o ; the next 2m -f- 2, or 2 ; the next 3 ; the 
two next 3#; and 2m 2, are each 6. But the Numbers 6, 3, 
2, o, 2, 3,' 6, belong to a defcending Arithmetical Progref- 
iion, of which the -common difference is r. Therefore the form of 
the Series will be/=A < x 1 H-BA 3 4-Cx 4-t-Dx- 5 , &c. and the firft 

rn ' 

Term is . 

And this may fuffice in all Equations of this kind, for finding 
the farms of the feveral Series, and their firft Approximations. Now 
we muft proceed to their farther Refolution, or to the Method of 
finding all the reft of the Terms fucceffively, no 

.SECT. V. The Refolution of Affe&ed Specious Equations, 
firofecuted by various Methods of Analyfis. 

35. TTT ITHERTO it has been fhewn, when an Equation is 
~J_ propofed, in order to find its Root, how the Terms of the 
Equation are to be difpoied in a two-fold regular fucceffion/fo as 
thereby to find the initial Approximations, and the feveral forms of 
the Scries in all their various circumftances. Now the Author pro- 
ceeds in like manner to difcover the fubfequent Terms of the Series, 
which may be done with much eafe and certainty, when the form 
of the Series is known. For this end he finds Refidual or Supple- 
mental Equations, in a regular fuccefTion alfo, the Roots of which 
are a continued Series of Supplements to the Root required. In 
every one of which Supplemental Equations the Approximation is 

E e found, 



2io The Method of FLUXIONS, 

found, by rejecting the more remote or lefs confiderable Terms, and- 
fo reducing it to a fimple Equation, which will give a near Value 
of the Root. And thus the whole affair is reduced to a kind of 
Comparifon of the Roots of Equations, as has been hinted already. 
The Root of an Equation is nearly found, and its Supplement, which, 
ihculd make it compleat, is the Root of an inferior Equation > the Sup- 
plement of which is again the Root of an inferior Equation ; and fo on 
for ever. Or retaining that Supplement, we may flop where we pleafe. 
36. The Author's Diagram, or his Procefs of Refolution, is very 
eafy to be underflood ; yet however it may be thus farther explain'd. 
Having inferted the Terms of the given Equation in the left-hand 
Column, (which therefore are equal to nothing, as are alfo all the 
fubfequent Columns,) and having already found the firft Approxi- 
mation to the Root to be a ; inflead of the Root y he fubflitutes its 
equivalent a-\-p in the feveral Terms of the Equation, and writes 
the Refult over-againfl them refpedtively, in the rightrhand Margin. 
Thefe he collects and abbreviates, writing the Refult below, . in the 
left-hand Column ; of which rejecting all the Terms of too high a 
compofition, he retains only the two loweft Terms ^.a i p-\-a i x=.o^ 
which give p = x for the fecond Term of the Root. Then 
afluming/> = -%x-}-q, he fubflitutes this in the defcending Terms 
to the left-hand, and. writes the Refult in the Column to the right- 
hand. Thefe he collects and abbreviates, writing the Refult below 
in the left- hand- Column. Of which rejecting again all the higher 
Terms, he retains only, the two loweft ^a*q T I T -cx i = o i which 

give a for the third Term of the Root. And fo on. 

Or in imitation of a former Procefs, (which may be feen-, ,pag; 
165.) the Refolution of this, and all fuch like Equations, may be 
thus perform'd. 
i)3_|_tf^y= 2fl'= (if y=-a- i rp} a* + '$a*'p-\-T > ap !L -}-p* } Or collecting 

-+.axy-h A? 3 + a * +ay > andexpung- 

J ing, 



r collecting and expunging, 



I 



X 

By which Procefs the Root will be found _y = <z 7* 4- ^, &c. 

Or 



and INFINITE SERIES. 211 

Or in imitation of the Method before taught, (pag. 178, &c.) we 
may thus refolve the firft Supplemental Equation of this Example ; 
w>. W-p -f- axp -f- 3^/ >a -4-/ 3 = a'-x -+ x* -, where the Terms 
muft be difpos'd in the following manner. But to avoid a great deal 
of unneceffary prolixity, it may be here obferved, that y = a, &c. 
briefly denotes, that a is the firft Term of the Series, to be derived 
for the Value of y. Alfo^=* f#, &c. infinuates, that fx 

is the fecond Term of the fame Series y. Alfo y = * * -f- 

644 

&c. infinuates, that -4- r is the third Term of the Series y, with- 

1 643 ** 

out any regard to the other Terms. And fo for all the fucceeding 
Terms ; and the like is to be underftood of all other Series what- 
ever. 

4*'/l == a*x * +* 

^ , &c. 

40963 

13 1x4 c 

7T7T &c - 




To explain this Procefs, it may be obferved, that here a*x is 
made the firft Term of the Series, into which ^a l p is to be re- 
folved ; or 4 t .a*p = a*x, &c. and therefore p = x, &c. which 
is fet down below, Then is -f- axp = ^ax 1 , &c. and (by fquaring) 
_f-3^) a = -t-Tz-ax l , &c. each of which are let down in their pro- 
per Places. Thefe Terms being collecled, will make -V^S 
which with a contrary Sign muft be fet down for the fecond Term 

of ^a*p ; or 4d a /> = * + -r'^ax l } &c. and therefore p = * -f- -?- > 

&c. Then axp=.*-^-^ , &c. and (by fquaring) 3<?/> a = * il. > 
&c. and (by cubing) /> 5 = W^" 3 ' ^ c - T^efe being collected 
will make ^, to be wrote down with a contrary Sign; and 
this, together with A: 3 , one of the Terms of the given Equation, 

will make a*p = * * -f- -- 'x* } &c. and therefore />= * * -f- l -^- ? 

i 1*4 s '*" a 

&c. Then axp= * * -J- ~~ , &c. and (by fquaring) 3^/1* = * * 

E e 2 



212 Ih* Method of FLUXIONSJ 

_, 1&22 & c . and (by cubing) * = * -f- -1^1 , &c. all which 

4096.1 ' N ] ft! 1024* ' 

being collected with a contrary Sign, will make 4tf 1 /> = ***-f- 
59i_* , &c. and therefore /=*** -f- ^ ,' &c. And by the 

40961* 163841 ' 



fame Method we may continue the Extraction as far as we pleafe. 

The Rationale of this Procefs has been already deliver'd, but as 
it will be of frequent ufe, I fhaM here mention it again, in feme- 
what a .different manner. The Terms of the Equation being duly 
order'd, fo as that the Terms involving the Root, (which are to be 
refolved into their refpecttve Series,) being all in a Column on one 
fide, and t,he known Terms on the other fide ; any adventitious 
Terms may be introduced, fuch as will be neceffary for forming the 
feveral Series, provided they are made mutually to deftroy one an- 
other, that the integrity of the Equation may be thereby preferved. 
Thefe adventitious Terms will be fupply'd by a kind of Circulation, , 
which w^ill make the work eafy and pleafant enough ; and the ne- 
ceffary Terms of the fimple Powers or Roots, of fuch Series as com- 
pofe the Equation, muft be derived one by one, by any of the 
foregoing Theorems. , - - 

Or if we are willing to avoid too many, and to0 high Powers - 
in thefe Extraction's, we may proceed' in the following manner. 
The Example mall be the fame Supplemental Equation as before, , 
which may be reduced to this form, 4a* -f- ax -+- ^ap -4- pp -x.p =s 

a*x * 4-# 3 j of which the Refolution may be thus : , 

" ' .' 

-'! ' ' 4rf a H- ax 



__, 3 . . .- $ - . 

5 i 2a 

-4-/ a - h TV** 77^ , &c: 

X* I 3 I*S 



6 4 5i2i 16384^3^ 



The Terms 4^* -f- ax-\- ^p-^-fp I call the aggregate Factor, of 
which I place the known part or parts 4<2* -{- ax .above, and the 
unknown, parts ^ap -f- pp in a Column to the left-hand, fa as that 
their refpeclive Series, as they come to be known, may be placed 
regularly over-againft them. Under thefe a Line is drawn, to receive 

2, the 



and INFINITE SERIES. 2*3 

the aggregate Series beneath it, which is -form'd by the Terms of the 
aggregate Factor, as they become known. Under this aggregate Se- 
ries comes the fimple Factor />, or the fymbol of the Root to be 
extracted, as its Terms become known alfo. Laftly, under all are 
the known Terms of the Equation in their proper places. Now as 
thefe laft Terms (becaufe of the Equation) are equivalent to the Pro- 
duct of the two Species above them ; from this confideration the 
Terms of the Series p are gradually derived, as follows. 

Firft, the initial Term 4^ (of the aggregate Series) is brought 
down into its place, as having no other Term to be collected with 
it. Then becaufe this Term, multiply 'd by the firft Term of />, 
fuppofe q, is equal to the firft Term of the Product, that is, ^.a'-q 
= a*x, it will be q = ~x, cr p = -L.v, &c. to be put down 
in its place. Thence we (hall have T > ap-=. %ax, &c. which to- 
gether with -}-ax above, will make -^^'ax for the fecond Term ; 
of the aggregate Series. Now if we fuppofe r to reprefent the le-- 
cond Term of p, and to be wrote in its place accordingly ; by crofs- 
multiplication we lhall have ^.a^r -'y-ax^ =^ o, becaufe the fecond 

_v^ 

Term of the Product is abfent, or=ro. Therefore r-=. , which 

64*' 

may now be fet down in its place. And hence yap = * -f- -^x 3 -, 
&c. and p* = ^x*, &c. which being collected will make ^~x l , 
for the third Term of the aggregate Factor. Now if we fuppofe 
s to reprefent the third Term of p, then by crofs-multiplication, (or 
by our Theorem for Multiplication of infinite Series,) q.a 1 ; 4- 

^ = * 3 ; (for x 3 is the third Term of the Product.) There- 
256 256 



fore s = l - , to be fet down in its place. Then -lap = * * -4- 
512^* 

&c. and i 1 = * A- , &c. which together will make 

zea 



5 I 2a 

_j_ ^2l 3 for the fourth Term of the aggregate Series. Then putting 
/.to reprefent the fourth Term of p, by multiplication we fliall have 

^ = o, whence / = -^L to be 

' 



2048^ 4096* 

fet down in its place. If we would proceed any farther in the Ex- 
traction, we mufl find in like manner the fourth Term of the Se- 
ries 3/, and the third Term of p*-, in order to find the fifth Term 
of the aggregate Series. And thus we may eafily and furely carry 
on the Root to what degree of accuracy we pleafe, without any 
danger of computing any fuperfiuous Terms ; which will be no mean 
advantage of thefe Methods. 

Or 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

Or we may proceed in the following manner, by which we fliati 
avoid the trouble of railing any fubfidiary Powers at all. The Sup- 
plemental Equation of the fame Example, ^cfp +- axp -f- ^ap* -f- 
p= = a*x-{-x*, (and all others in imitation of this,) may be 

reduced to this form, /\.a*- -+- ax-+- ^a -{- p x/> x/> = a*x + x>, 
which may be thus refolved. 

4#* -f- ax 







The Terms being difpofed as in this Paradigm, bring down 4^* 
for the firft Term of the aggregate Series, as it may ftill be call'd, 
and fuppofe q to reprefent the firft Term of the Series p. Then will 
4^*5' = a*x, or^= ~x, which is to be wrote every where 
for the firft Term of p. Multiply +- 3*2 by x for the firft Term 
of 3#-f-/>x/>, with which product ax collect the Term above, 
or -+- ax ; the Refult ~#x will be the fecond Term of the aggregate 
Series. Then let r reprefent the fecond Term of />, and we fhal'l 

have by Multiplication q.a'-r -r-s-^x 1 = o, or r = ^ , to be 
wrote every where for the fecond Term of^>. Then as above, by crofs- 
multiplication we fhall have 3^ x ~~ a -I- -rV-v 1 = ^V^ 1 ^ or tne third 
Term of the aggregate Series. Again, fuppofing s to reprefent the 
third Term of p, we ftiall have by Multiplication, (fee the Theorem, 

for that purpofe,) A.a 1 s + , ', =x i . that is, s=^^ . to 

' 256 256 5iz a ' 

be wrote every where for the third Term of p. And by the lame 
way of Multiplication the fourth Term of the aggregate Series will be 

found to be \-2L. } which will make the fourth Term -of p to be 

And fo on. 

Among all this variety of Methods for thefe Extractions, we 
muft not omit to ftipply the Learner with one more, which is com- 

mon 



and INFINITE SERIES/ 

mon and obvious enough, but which fuppofes the form of the Se- 
ries required to be already known, and only the Coefficients to be 
unknown. This we may the better do here, becaufe we have al- 
ready fhewn how to determine the form and number of fuch Se- 
ries, in any cafe propofed. This Method confifts in the aflumption 
of a general Series for the Root, fuch as may conveniently repre- 
fent it, by the fubftitution of which in the given Equation, the ge- 
neral Coefficients may be determined. Thus in the prefent Equa- 
tion y= 4- axy 4- aay A' 5 2a 3 = o, having already found (pag. 
204.) the form of the Root or Series to be y = A 4- Bx -+- Cx*, &c. 
by the help of any of the Methods for Cubing an infinite Series, 
we may eafily fubrtitute this Series inftead of y in this Equation, 
which will then become 



A 3 4~ 3 A l ijX 4~ ^n.D l x 1 4~ -D'AJ" 3 4~ 3 ^"*> *^c* 
4^ 3A*C 4- 6ABC4- 36^ 
} 4- 6ABD 



aA.x 4- aBx 1 - 4- aCx* -f- aDx*, &c. 



o. 



Now becaufe x is an indeterminate quantity, and muft continue' 
fo to be, every Term of this Equation may be feparately put equal to- 
nothing, by which the general Coefficients A,B, C, D, &c. will be de- 
termined to congruous Values ; and by this means the Root^ will be 
known. Thus, ( i.) A 3 4- a 1 A 2a~> = o, which will give A=/r, 



as before. (2.) 3A a B -+- aA -+- a*-B = o, or B== 



(4.) B 3 -4-6ABC-j-3A*D4-rfC-H a D i = o, orD'=^_> 
(5.) 3 AO + 3B-C + 6ABD 4- 3 A*E 4- aD 4- ^E = o, or = 

_^2_ . And. fo on, to determine F, G, H, &c. Then by fubfti- 

163^4^^ 

tuting thefe Values of A, B, C, D, &c. in the aflumed Root, we 

(hall have the former Series y =ax + ^4- '+ ;%^> &c. 
Or laftly, we may conveniently enough refolve this Equation, or 
any other of the fame kind, by applying it to the general Theorem, 
ra CT . 1 90. for extracting the Roots of any affedted Equations in Num- 
bers. For this Equation being reduced to this form ; i3 * 4- a 1 4-^x 

2. x/ 



2l b The Method of FLUXIONS, 

x 2rt 3 -+-A:' x.y c = o, we fliall have there #2 = 3. And inftead 
of the firft, fecond, third, fourth, fifth,- &c. Coefficients of the Powers 
of y in the Theorem, if we write 1,0, aa -f- ax, 2# 5 x ? , o, 

.&c. refpectively ; and if we make the firft Approximation - = - > 
or A= a and B = i ; we. fliall have 4 " , , A * for a nearer Approxi- 

4 a -f- * 

mation to the Root. Again, if we make A= 4^' -f- x*, and 
B 4^ -f- ax, by Subftitution we fliall have the Fraction 



.t5 -(- 48a*.v4 -f- i Zfi4 ,* -f- zqSjt .* * +1*9 ,. 



nearer Approximation to the Root. And taking this Numerator 
for A, and the Denominator for B, we fliall approach nearer ftill. 
But this laft Approximation is fo near, that if we only take the firft 
five Terms of the Numerator, and divide them by the firft five 
Terms of the Denominator, (which, if rightly managed, will be no 
troublefome Operation,) we fliall have the fame five Terms of the 
Series, fo often found already. 

And the Theorem will converge fo faft on this, and fuch like oc- 
-cafions, that if we here take the firft Approximation A = a, (ma- 

king B = i ,) we fliall have y = -^ ^ ** , &c. = a ~x, &cc. 
.And if again we make this the fecond Approximation, or A a 
t*, (making B = i,) we fliall have y = 



4 a ax ~T -i * 4 5 1 z 4 

if again we make this the third Approximation, or A=:a 



_ &c. (making 'B== J,) we fliall have the Value of the 

D ti& ^ * *-** 

true Root to eight Terms at this Operation. For every new Oper- 
ation will double the number of Terms., that were found true by the 
laft Operation. 

To proceed ftill with the fame Equation ; we have found before, 
pag. 205, that we might likewife have a defcending Series in this 
form, v = AA'H-B -j-Cx- 1 , &c. for the Root y, which we fliall 
extract two or three ways, for the more abundant exemplification of 
this Doctrine. It has been already found, that A= i, or that x 
is the firft Approximation to the Root. Make therefore y =. x 
and fubftitute this in the given Equation jy 3 -f- axy -f- any x> 
*a= = o, which will then become ^p -f- axp -f- a?p -\- ^xf 
-4- ax 1 -f- a^x 2 3 = o. This may be reduced to this form 



-^ _t_ ax -+- a* -f- 3.v/> -{-/* x/> = ax"- a*x + 2a*, and may 
be refolved as follows. OAT* 



and INFINITE SERIES. 217 

3A' 1 -f- aX -f- rt* 



ax _ a * _+_ IE1 t Sec. 

4_ p* . _ + ^ _+_ _; s &c> 



3-v* * -f- t rfl +- ^ , &c. 

/,.. _i_^ -U_ *""* _i- 64 " 4 c -- 

y ' 3 " 3-v ~~ 81^^ ~ 



The Terms of the aggregate Factor, as alib the known Terms of 
the Equation, being difpofed as in the Paradigm, bring down ^x l 
for lire firft Term of the aggregate Series ; and fuppofing q to repre- 
lent the firft Term of the Series p, it will be 3^^ = ax*, or 
q=- y, for the firft Term of p. Therefore ax will be the 
firft Term of 3^ to be put down in its place. This will make the 
fecond Term of the aggregate Series to be nothing ; fo that if ; re- 
prefent the fecond Term of p, we fliall have by multiplication 3vV 

= a 1 *;, or / = "_ for the fecond Term of p, to be put down 

in its place. Then will a 1 be the fecond Term of $xp, as alfo 
^d"~ will be the firft Term of/ 1 , to be fet down each in their places. 
The Refult of this Column will be -^z 1 , which is to be made the 
third Term of the aggregate Series. Then putting s for the third 
Term of/, we mall have by Multiplication ^x^s -V rt3 == 2(l ' > 
or s= $52- . And thus by the next Operation we fhall have / = 

1 J 



and fo on. 

"Or if we would refolve this reildual Equation by one of the fore- 
going; Methods, by which the railing of Powers was avoided, and 
wherein the whole was performed by Multiplication alone ; we may 

reduce it to this form, 3* 1 + fix -f- a 1 -f- 3* -j-/ x/> x/ = ^.v 1 
d^X _j_ 2n* , the Refolution of which will be thus : 



F f j.v- 



2I 8 tte Method of FLUXIONS, 



3** -f- ax -h a* * 
--+ 3* T* ~ 



a 

fa* + , &c. 






--- . 

3*- 8ix* 243*3' 



The Terms being difpos'd as in the Example, bring down 3*'* for 
the firft Term of the aggregate Series, and fuppofing q to reprefent 
the firft Term of the Series p, it will be yx^q = ax*, or q = 
La. Put down -+- 3* in its proper place, and under it (as alfo after 
it) put down the firft Term of/, or La, which being multiply'd, 
and collected with -j- ax above, will make o for the fecond Term 
of the aggregate Series. If the fecond Term of p is now reprefented 

by r, we fhall have ix^r * = a'-x, or r = , to be put 

3^* 
down in its feveral places. Then by multiplying and collecting we 

mail have -f- a* for the third Term of the aggregate Series. And 
putting s for the third Term of p, we fhall have by Multiplication 

3Ar*j T ' T rf3 =2d 3 , or j= |^ . And fo on as far as we pleafe. 

Laftly, inftead of the Supplemental Equation, we may refolve the 
given Equation itfelf in the following manner : 



* 

28*4 
ax 1 %a*x -f- \a* - , Sec. 

----- f- ax 1 La*x La* +- , &c. 






y= x 'a 



243^5 



Here becaufe it is y~> =x*, &c. it will be y = x, &c. and therefore 
_t_ xy =-f- A -I , &c. which muft be fet down in its place. Then 
it muft be wrote again with a contrary fign, that it may be y= == * 
rfx*, &c. and therefore (extracting the cube-root,) /= * a 
&c. Then -+- a*y = 4- a*x, &c. and + axy = * , j-^^, &c. 

which 



and INFINITE SERIES. 219 

which being collected with a contrary fign, will makers = * * 
JLa*x, &c. and (by Extraction) y = * * , &c. Hence -f- a l y 

= # frt 3 , &c. and -f- ^v>'= * * a*, &c. which being col- 
lected with a contrary fign, and united with -f- 20 J above, will 

make y"' = * * * f^ 5 , &c. whence (by Extraction) y = * * * 4-^ > 

&c. Then -+- a 7 = * * j*, &c. and -f- axy = * * * + ^7' 
&c. which being collected with a contrary fign, will make y* = 
* * * * 177 ' &c ' and l ^ en (by Extraction)^' ==* * * * + 



&c. And fo on. 

37, 38. I think I need not trouble the Learner, or myfelf, with 
giving any particular Explication (or Application) of the Author's 
Rules, for continuing the Quote only to fuch a certain period as {hall 
be before determined, and for preventing the computation of fuper- 
fluous Terms ; becaufe mod of the Methods of Analyfis here deli- 
ver'd require no Rules at all, nor is there the leaft danger of making 
any unneceflary Computations. 

39. When we are to find the Root y of fuch an Equation as 

this, y t)' 1 -+- fj 3 t v4 + t>"> &c - = *> tllis is ufually call'd 
the Reverfion of a Series. For as here the Aggregate z is exprefs'd by 
the Powers of y; fo when the Series is reverted, the Aggregate y 
will be exprefs'd by the Powers of z. This Equation, as now it 
(lands, fuppofes z (or the Aggregate of the Series) to be unknown, 
and that we are to approximate to it indefinitely, by means of the 
known Number y and its Powers. Or otherwife ; the unknown 
Number z is equivalent to an infinite Series of decreafing Terms, 
exprefs'd by an Arithmetical Scale, of which the known Number y 
is the Root. This Root therefore muft be fuppofed to be lefs than 
Unity, that the Series may duly converge. And thence it will fol- 
low, that z, alfo will be much lefs than Unity. This is ufually cal- 
led a Logarithmick Series, becaufe in certain circumftanp.es it ex- 
preffes the Relation between the Logarithms and their Numbers, as 
will appear hereafter. If we look upon z, as known, and therefore 
y as unknown, the Series mull be reverted; or the Value of y muft 
be exprefs'd by a Series of Terms compos'd of the known Num- 
ber z and its Powers. The Author's Method for reverting this Se- 
ries will be very obvious from the confideration of his Diagram ; 
and we mall meet with another Method hereafter, in another part of 
his Works. It will be fuffiqient therefore in this place, to perform it 
after the manner of fome of the foregoing Extractions. 

F f 2 y 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

y 1 = a + |~ a -+- f:i 3 + T V- 4 4- T5o-3 } > &c - 

f V- > * h f * 5 -4- 'f^ 4 -H AS',' &c. 

f S 4 _. fa', &c. 

M L. AX* &C. 

A./ -s J * 

Sec. 

In this Paradigm the unknown parts of the Equation are fet down 
in a defcending order to the left-hand, and the known Number z is 
fet down over-againft y to the right-hand. Then is y = z, Sec. 
and therefore fj* = fa 1 , Sec. which is to be fet down in its 
place, and alfo with a contrary fign, fo that _}'= * -f- f % & c - 
And therefore (fquaring) f^ 1 = * f 2', Sec. and (cubing) 
-h fy 3 =4- fa 3 , Sec. which Terms collected with a contrary fign, 
make y= * * -f- -.^s, Sec. And therefore (fquaring) f_y* = 
* * rV 24 & c - an d (cubing) -4- f_)' 3 = * -|- fa 4 , Sec. and f/ 4 
=: f.?. 4 , Sec. which Terms collected with a contrary fign, make 
y = ***-{- -j 1 -?- 54 ' ^ c - Therefore y_y a = * # * f.s f , &c. 

H- f^ 5 = -{- f^% &c. which Terms collected with a contrary fign, 
make y= #- ***-{- -4-a s , Sec. And fo of the reft. 

40. Thus if we were to revert the Series y -f- f/ 3 -f- ^V>' 5 + TT-T^ 
-f- T .fy T y' -h TTTS->''S ^ c - = ^, (where the Aggregate of the Se- 
ries, or the unknown Number a, will reprefent the Arch of a Circle, 
whole Radius is i, if its right Sine is reprefented by the known 
Number y,) or if we were to find the value of r, confider'd as un- 
known, to be exprefsd by the Powers of a,, now confider'd as known ; 
we may proceed thus : 

Lo*3 ,^1^ f ]_ o* 5 ____'__ *?" 1 -.{ ^9 o^C 

+ 3 5 i>>9 ATr* 

T"T"3""a" 3 vVv 

Sec. j 

The Terms being difpofed as you fee here, we mall have jy==a, 
Sec. and therefore (cubing) fj 5 = fa 3 , Sec. which makes y = * 
fs 3 , Sec. fo that (cubing) we lhall have + f_>' 3 = * -rV^'j 
Sec. and alfo -^y 1 =- 5 ? 5 -a !r , Sec. and collecting with a contrary fign, 

y 



and INFINITE SERIES, 221 



r==* * -+-TT.T-'. &c - Hence \<-> = * * T ' T V 7 > & c. and ^y 
' * T V~ 7 , &c- and TTT.v 7 = TTT~ 7 > &<--. and collecting with a 
contrary tign, v = * * * WT^"' &c< Anct lo on ' 

It" we fhould defire to perform this Extraction by another of the 
foregoing Methods, that is, by fuppoiing; the Equation to be reduced 

to this- form i -+- j-_v* 4- -rV 4 +- TTT.' 6 + TTTT^'^ &<' x ;==;, it 
may be fufHcient to let down the Praxis, as here follows. 



I 


* * * * 


-f- f y* 


h i" 5 -' 1 V"-' 4 4~ TTT^ "~~ TT'po-' 2 > ^ c - 


1 3 V 4 


1 I A i t ft & 




4 ^ _j_ s^ "s - 8 ' &c 


FT^s 


' 11 " 3 5*. ,9* ^ 


1 ' . T * .* 


1 . i 5 l > 




41. The afFedted Cubick Equation, which the Author here affumes 
to be folved, has infinite Series for the Coefficients of the Powers of 
y ; and therefore its Terms being difpoled (as is taught before) accor- 
ding to a double Arithmetical Scale, the Roots of each of which are 
V and z,, it will ftand as is reprefented here below. Or taking As" 
for the fir ft Approximation to the Root y, and lubftituting it in the 
firft Table, it will appear as is here let down in the fecond Table. 

. * S 1 . * * 

A -. ; ,-'"-H- 4. Ai m + z + 



J2-V. C-V. 45V. &f. J 

Now the only cafe of external Terms, to be difcover'd by apply- 
ing the Ruler, will give the Equation A 3 * m + 8 = o, whence 
j;-|-2=o, or w= .1, and the Coefficient A = 2. The 
next Number or Index, to which the Ruler in its parallel motion 
will apply itfelf, will be 2m H- 2, or .1 ; the next will be m -f- 2., 
or ; and fo on. Which afcending Arithmetical Progreflion o, |, 
i, 6cc. will have ~ for its common difference. Therefore y_ A.g~ 
-f- B +Cs^+ D^J -{- E^, &c. will be the form of the Root in this 
Equation. It may be refolved by any of the foregoing Methods, 

bat 



The Method of FLUXIONS. 



222 

but perhaps moft readily by fubftituting the Value of y now found 
in the given Equation, and thence determining the general Coeffi- 
cients as before. By which the Root will be found to be _)' = 

or J - I- Z^ I 3 '_ *;7 i * *_2- I 9 9 fy7 I 6 i i i ~ 3 f, _ 
Z.O 3 gt** TT T i ~ TTTT' 6 T^ T JTT^rT > **-*-. 

42. To refolve this affected Quadratick Equation, in which one 
of the Coefficients is an infinite Series ; if we fuppofe y =. Ax m , &c. 
we (hall have (by Subftitution) the Equation as it ftands here below. 

Then by applying the Ruler, we {hall have aAx m -+- 4 =o, 

whence m = 4, and A = ~ . The next Index, that the Ruler 

in its parallel motion will arrive at, is m -+- I, or 5; the next is 
m-\-2, or 6; &c. fo that the common difference of the Progrel- 
fion is i, and the Root may be reprefented by y = Ax* -{-Ex* -f- 
Cx 6 , &c. which may be extracted as here follows. 



x" 


* 
aAx 


&e. " 


* 


. m-l-i 

A* 


* 




A M-J-S 




# 


~ X 

a 


* 




A_ +? 


* 


* 


^^~ j_X 






_ A VH 


AT4 


* 




? 



-ay 

xy 
x* 



X4 

-7^ 

6T*. 

-fy 



4-2 



A 

,77 7 . &c - 



Here becaufe it is ay = . . &c. it will be y = fl 

4 J 4^5 > 

Therefore xy = ^ , &c, which wrote with a contrary Sign 
will make ay = *-+-,, and therefore y = * ^ & c 

4" ' 4^.4 ' 

Then xy = * -4- - 4 , &c. and 77 = 4 , &c. which 



t" 4~ 

collected will deftroy each other, and therefore ay = * * -f- o, 
&c. and confequently y = * * -j- o, &c. &c. 

But there is another cafe of external Terms, which will be dif- 
cover'd by the Ruler, and which will give A*x"- m a Ax m - o, 
whence m = o, and A =a. Here the Progrefiion of the Indices 
will be o, i, 2, &c. fo that ;> == A -j- B* -h Cx 1 , &c. will be the 
form of the Series. And if this Root be profecuted by any of the 

Methods 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



223 






Methods taught before, it will be found y = a + x -f- _,_ 

g, &c. 

Now in the given Equation, becaufe the infinite Series a -\- x -+- 

1 * vj v4 

-4- ji 4- ^r y &c. is a Geometrical ProgrcfTion, and therefore is 

a 

equal to - , as may be proved by Divifion ; if we fubftitute this, 

the Equation will become _>* - y -f- ^ - o> And if we ex- 
tract the fquare-root in the ordinary way, it will give y r= 
a -~^ a ...4+ -x * or ^ exa R ootj And if this Radical 

ia~ lax 

be refolved, and then divided by this Denominator, the fame two 
Series will arife as before, for the two Roots of this Equation. And 
this fufficiently verifies the whole Procefs. 

43. In Series that are very remarkable, and of general ufe, the 
Law of Continuation (if not obvious) mould be always affign'd, when 
that can be conveniently done; which renders a Series ftill more ufe- 
ful and elegant. This may commonly be difcover'd in the Compu- 
tation, by attending to the formation of the Coefficients, efpecially 
if we put Letters to reprefent them, and thereby keep them as general 
as may be, defcending to particulars by degrees. In the Logarithmic 
Series, for instance, z=y {y 1 -f- .lys y4, &c. the Law of 
Confecution is very obvious, fo that any Term, tho' ever fo remote, 
may eafily be aflign'd at pleafure. For if we put T to reprefent any 
Term indefinitely, whcfe order in the Series is exprefs'd by the na- 
tural Number , then will T = + -j", where the Sign muft be 

4- or according as m is an odd or an even Number. So that the 
hundredth Term is L-y l , the next is -j-_J_^ 101 , &c. In the 
Reverie of this Series, or y = z,~\- f-s* +- fa; 3 -+- -y^a 4 -4- TTo-^S 
&c. the Law of Continuation is thus. Let T reprefent any Term 
indefinitely, whofe order in the Series is exprefs'd by m ; then is 

m 

T= ^p- , which Series in the Denominator mud: be con- 
tinued to as many Terms as there are Units in m. Or if c ftands 
for the Coefficient of the Term immediately preceding, then is T= 

_ <y m 

m 

Again, in the Series y = z fz"> -+- T TO-S' ToV^ 27 + 
_ rT I TT _r' > &c. (by which the Relation between the Circular Arch 
a*nd its light Sine is exprefs'd,) the Law of Continuation will be thus. 



224 *?%* Method of FLUXIONS, 

If T be any Term of the Series, whofe order is exprefs'd by w, and 

_ _im I 

if c be the Coefficient immediately before ; then T = f ". , 

zm I x zm 2 

And in the Reverie of this Series, or z. = y -f- ^v 3 -f- -?)' -f- T A T y~ 
_f-_|^- T r 9 , cc. the Law of Confecution will be thus. If T repre- 
fents any Term, the Index of whole place in the Series is ;//, and if 

c be the preceding Coefficient j then T = "" . . ,,i-i_ And 

2/11 I X 2 2 

the like of others. 

44, 45, 46. If we would perform thefe Extractions after a more 
Indefinite and general manner, we may proceed thus. Let the given 
Equation be v*_ -}- a\v -\- rf.vv 2^x-=o, _ z<jj + fl r , + j5 
the Terms of which Ihould be difpofed as + *, * Q 
in the Margin. Suppofe y = l> -}- p, where _ * ; * * y 
/; is to be conceived as a near Approximation 

to the Root y, and p as its fmall Supplement. When this is fubfti- 
tuted, the Equation will ftand as it 

does here. Now becaufe .v and f> -^ ? + a ~P I + ^'f" + f=~\ 
are both fmall quantities, the moil _i_ '/ 3 ^ " f * 
confiderable quantities are at the be- + /* + */. a s ^ = 

ginning of the Equation, from _ x * ' 

whence they proceed gradually di- 

minifliing, both downwards and towards the right-hand ; as oug;ht 
always to be fuppos'd, when the Terms of an Equation are dilpos'd 
according to a double Arithmetical Scale. And becaufe inftead of 
one unknown quantity _v, we have here introduced two, If and />, 
we may determine one of them b, as the neceffity of the Relblution 
iliall require. To remove therefore the moft confiderable Quantities 
out of the Equation, and to leave only a Supplemental Equation, 
whofe Root is/>; we may put 6* -+- a*b 2^ = o, which Equa- 
tion will determine b, and which therefore henceforward we are to 
look upon as known. And for brevity fake, if we put a 1 -+- 3^* 
c, we mail have the Equation in the Margin. 

Now here, becaufe the two initialTerms 

-f- cp -+- abx are the moft con fiderable of \. aox+axp * ? 

the Equation, which might be removed, if * r = 

for the nrft Approximation to^ we fiiould 

afiume ^ , and the refulting Supplemental Equation would be de- 
prefs'd lower ; therefore make p = _f- q, and by fubftitution we 

-flwll have this Equation following. 

Or 



and INFINITE SERIES. 225 

Or in this Equation, if + J7 . ^+ 3*?* 

e make ^ = ^, 




3 



* 



.e. 

-+- i =/; itwillaffume a ^ > + **? * 

' 1 V 

this form. 

< 3 

x* 

Here becaufe the Terms to be next removed are-f- cq -j-^-x^we may 
put y = -x l +- r, and by Sub- * +<? + 3V -f? 3 l 
ftitution we fhall have another +? _ 1^-^* | 
Supplemental Equation, which ? ^ 

will be farther deprefs'd, and fo 
on as far as we pleafe. Therefore * 

we mall have the Root y = < a -x -- x* Sec. where b will be 

c c 

the Root of this Equation b* -+. a*b za* = o, c = a 1 -f- 3^* 



Or by another Method of Solution, if in this Equation we affumc 
(as before) y = A -\-Bx -}- Cx* +- Dx 3 , &c. and fubflitute this in 
the Equation, to determine the general Coefficients, we fhall have 



. a\ e c -ja' a c , . , 

y = A -- -x -t- x*-\ -- - ,.- - x"' t &c. wherein A is the 

Root of the Equation AS -f. a* A art 5 = o, and c 1 = 3 A* + a*. 

47. All Equations cannot be thus immediately refolved, or their 
Roots cannot always be exhibited by an Arithmetical Scale, whofe 
Root is one of the Quantities in the given Equation. But to per- 
form the Analyfis it is fometimes required, that a new Symbol or 
Quantity fhould be introduced into the Equation, by the Powers 
of which the Root to be extracted may be exprefs'd in a converg- 
ing Series. And the Relation between this new Symbol, and the 
Quantities of the Equation, mu ft be exhibited by another Equation. 
Thus if it were propofed to extradl the Root y of this Equation, 
x = fi-\-y 4/ 1 -Hy}' 3 ^_}' 4 , &c. it would be in vain to expedt, 
that it might be exprefs'd by the fimple Powers of either x or a. 
For the Series itfelf fuppofes, in order to its converging, that y is 
fome fmall Number lefs than Unity ; but x and a are under no fuch 
limitations. And therefore a Series, compofed of the afcendiag 
Powers of x, may be a diverging Series. It is therefore neceflary to 
introduce a new Symbol, which mall alfo be fmall, that a Series 

G g form'd 

4- 



226 Ibe Method of FLUXIONS, 

form'd of its Powers may converge to y. Now it is plain, that x 
ami rf, tho' ever fo great, muft always be near each other, becaufe 
their difference y y* } &.c. is a (mall quantity. Aflame therefore 
the Equation x a = z, and z will be a fmall quantity as required; 
and being introduced inftead of x a, will give z-= y y* -f- 
^y* -ly 4 , &c. whofe Root being extracted will be y = z->t-^^ 
-j-y.2 3 4-TV s4 > ^ cc> as before. 

48. Thus if we had the Equation _> i3 -f-j* -h_y x 3 = o, to find 
the Root y ; we might have a Series for y compofed of the afcending 
Powers of x, which would converge if x were a fmall quantity, lels 
than Unity, but would diverge in contrary Circumftances. Suppo- 
fing then that x was known to be a large Quantity ; in this cafe the 
Author's Expedient is this. Making & the Reciprocal of x, or fup- 

pofing the Equation x= l - , inftead of x he introduces z into the 

Equation, by which means he obtains a converging Series, confining 
of the Powers of z afcending in the Numerators, that is in reality, 
of the Powers of x afcending in the Denominators. This he does, 
to keep within the Cafe he propofed to himfelf ; but in the Method 
here purfued, there is no occafion to have recourfe to this Expedient, 
it being an indifferent matter, whether the Powers of the converg- 
ing quantity afcend in the Numerators or the Denominators. 
Thus in the given Equation y> 4-j 5 - 4- jy * ? 

' 



king y = Ax m , 6cc.) A**'" 4- A 1 *"" 4- Ax m * , &c.? 

j v* .3 

by applying the Ruler we mall have the exterior Terms A 3 A* A' 5 
= o, or m=. i, and A = i. Alfo the refulting Number or Index 
is 3. The next Term to which the Ruler approaches will give 2/11, 
or 2; the laft m, or i. But 3, 2, i, make a defcending Progreffion, 
of which the common difference is i. Therefore the form of the 
Root will be y = Ax 4- B 4- Cx" 1 4- DAT"* , &c. which we may 
thus extract. 

+y ' 

Becaufe > )' 3 =A l} ,&c.it will be _y=x,&c.and therefore _y 1 =A- 1 , &c. 
which will make y* = * #*, &c. and (by Extraction)/ = * -^ 
&c. Then (by fquaring)^* = * ~x } &c. which with A* below, 
and changing the Sign, makes j 3 = * * ~x } &c. and therefore 

y 




and INFINITE SERIES. 227 

v = * * }*~", &c. Then ;* = * * .1, &c. and y = * , 
&c. which together, changing the Sign, make y> = * * * -4- , 
&c. and ;'=*** + T V*~S &c. Then y- * * -f- 44*-', 
Sec. and _>' = * * *""'> &c. and therefore 75 _ ^ # ,. ^ _^_ ^.^-^ 
&c. and _v = * * * * -f- -pT x ~ 3 > & c - 

Now as this Series is accommodated to the cafe of convergency 
when x is a large Quantity, fo we may derive another Series from 
hence, which will be accommodated to the cafe when .v is a fmall 
quantity. For the Ruler will direct us to the external Terms Ax* 
x 5 = o, whence m= 3, and A= i ; and the refulting Num- 
ber is 3. The next Term will give 2m, or 6 ; and the lair, is 3*77, 
or 9. But 3, 6, 9 will form an afcending Progremon, of which the 
common difference is 3. Therefore v =Ax'' -+- Ex 6 -t-Cy 9 , &c. 
will be the form of the Series in this cafe, which may be thus 
derived. 




y -} = x> x 6 -+- # * 4*" -f- 14*' 8 , &c. 
h x s 2X> +- 3AT 11 2x" 7A- 8 , &c. 



Here becaufe_)' = Ar 3 , &c. it will bej>*=x 6 , &c. and therefore 
v = * x 6 , &c. Then y- = * 2x, &c. and ^5=^9, &c. 
and therefore y = * * H- .V, &c. Then y- = * * -j- 3^'*, 6cc. and 
y 3 = * S-^ 11 ) &c. and therefore7= * * * -f. o, &c. 

The Expedient of the Ruler will indicate a third cafe of external 
Terms, which may be try'd alfo. For we may put A=x= m -{- A*x*' K 
-f- Ax m = o, whence m = o, and the Number refulting from the 
other Term is 3. Therefore 3 will be the common difference of 
the Progrelfion, and the form of the Root will be _y= A -{- Bx' -{- 
Cx 6 , &c. But the Equation A 5 -f- A a + A = o, will give A = o, 
which will reduce this to the former Series. And the other two 
Roots of the Equation will be impofftble. 

If the Equation of this Example jy 3 -f- y* -{- r x"' o be 
multiply'd by the factor y i, we mall have the Equation y* y 

X~'y -f- x' = o, or r+ * # y * ) ... 

- t C=o, which when re- 

- A'_) -- AT J 

'folved, will only afford the fame Series for the Root y as before. 

49. This Equation \* x\y l -h xy 1 + 2f' zy -+- i = o, when 
reduced to the form of a double Arithmetical Scale, will ftand as in 

the Margin. 

C g 2 Now 




2 2 8 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Now the finl Cafe of external _> * +2."- 2>-f i 
Terms, fhewn by the Ruler, in _ *- L * 

order for an afcending Series, will Or making y _ Axm> fc 

make A'.**" 1 _|- 2 A^ i " 2 A*" M ^ m # zAljc 
-+- i = o, or ;;/ = o ; where the tm j ri 

refulting; Number is alfo o. The \4-s 

i 11-1 A 1 * ^ 

fecond is zm -h i, or i ; the third 
zm-}- 2, or 2. Therefore the Arithmetical Progreffion will be o, 
i, 2, whofe common difference is i ; and confequently it will be 
v == A -f- Bx -+ Cx 1 -+- Dx*, &c. But the Equation A +- zA* 
"_ zA -H i o, which mould give the Value of the firft Coeffi- 
cient, will fupply us with none but impoffible Roots ; fo that y, 
the Root of this Equation, cannot be exprefs'd by an Arithmetical 
Scale whofe Root is x, or by an afcending Series that converges by 
the Powers of x, when x is a fmall quantity. 

As for defcending Series, there are two cafes to be try'd ; firft the 
Ruler will give us A**** A 1 AT im + l = o, whence ^m = zm -f- 2, or 
fff i } and A=+ i. The Number arifing is 4; the next will 
be zm -f- i, or 3 ; the next 2w, or 2 ; the next m, or i ; the laft o. 
But the Arithmetical Progreffion 4, 3, 2, i, o, has^ i for its common 
difference, and therefore the form of the Series will be y = Ax -+ 
B 4- CAT"', 8cc. But to extract this Series by our ufual Method, it 
will be beft to reduce the Equation to this form, / x* 4- x -+- z 
_ _ 2 y~ l 4- y~* = o, and then to proceed thus : 

-_ x i x 2 -f- ZX~* | A: ~ 1 > & c - 

h A;~ I , &C. 

97' 77 c 

Becaufe jy = x* x 2, &c. 'tis therefore (by Extradlion) 
y _ x JL %x~ l , &c. Then (by Divifion) zy~* = zx-*, 
&c. fo that y = * * * -f- 2*- 1 , &c. and (by Extradion) y = * * * 
_j_ -VAT-% &c. Then zy~ l = * -f- -i-^" 1 ? &c - and y~* == *"*, 
&c.' which being united with a contrary fign, make^ 1 =* * * * 
T A '~ I > & c> ant ^ therefore by Extraction y = ****- 4-i-s- v ~ 3 




. 

In the other cafe of a defcending Series we mall have the Equation 

, A 1 *""^ -f- i =o, whence zm +- z = o, or m = i, and 

A i . The Number hence arifing is o ; the next will be zm + r, 

Cjf 



and INFINITE SERIES. 229 

or i ; the next 2//v, or 2 -, and the laft 4w, or 4. But 
the Numbers o, I, 2, 4, will be found in a defcending Arith- 
metical Progrelfion, the common difference of which is i. There- 
fore the form of the Root is y = A.x~' -+- Bx~'- -+- Cx~*, &c. and 
the Terms of the Equation mufl be thus difpofed for Refolution. 



--- - 2X - I-f- A*"" 1 




Here becaufe it is y~- = x 1 , &c. it will be by Extraction of the 
Square-root y~ l =x, &c. and by finding the Reciprocal, y = x~', 
&c. Then becaufe zy~ l = 2X, &c. this with a contrary Sign, 
and collected with x above, will make_y 1 = * -{- x, &c. which 
(by Extraction) makes y~ I = * -+ i, &c. and by taking the Reci- 
procal, /== * ^^~ i , 6cc. Then becaufe zy~* = * i, &c. 
this with a contrary fign, and collected with 2 above, will make 
y~* = * * i, 8ec. and therefore (by Extraction) y~ l = * * 
4*"" , &c. and (by Divifion) jy = * * -f- ^x~ 3 y &cc. Then becaufe 
2y~' = * * -}- -^"S ^ w iH be y l = # * * %x~*y &c. and 
j- 1 = * * * 4* 1 " 1 , &c - and >'=*** -V*~ J > & c - Then 
becaufe 2y~' = * * * -f- -fA;- 1 , &c. and /* = x~~-, &c. thefe 

collected with a contrary fign will make y~ z = * * * * V- v ~% 
&cc. and y~' = * * * * -V*~S & c - an ^ 7 = ** ** -f- rlT*" 4 * 
&c. 

Thefe are the two defcending Series, which may be derived for 
the Root of this Equation, and which will converge by the Powers 
of x, when it is a large quantity. But if x mould happen to be 
fmall, then in order to obtain a converging Series, we much change 
the Root of the Scale. As if it were known that x differs but little 
from 2, we may conveniently put z for that fmall difference, or 
we rmy aflame the Equation .v 2 = &. That is, irulead of x 
in this Equation fubftitute 2 + 2, and we mall have a new Equa- 
tion y* -- zy* ^zy* 2y + I = o, which will appear as in 
the Margin. 

Here 



230 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Here to have an afcending Se- .'* * * 2; 4- ' 

ries, we muft put A+z*? zAz'" ~ ?*' > = l> 

+ 1=0, whence m = o, and Or k . 

* _ T-l__ -KT 1 1 

A4., 4 



A = i. The Number hence A 4 , 




arifing is o ; the next is 2/H-i, 
or i ; and the laft 2m -f- 2, or 2. 
But o, 1,2, are in an afcending 
Progreffion, whole common difference is i. Therefore the form of 
the Series is y = A -f- B;s -f- Cs a -+- D;s 3 , 6cc. And if the Root y 
be extracted by any of the foregoing Methods, it will be found y =. 
i -+--iz -^s 1 , 6cc. Alfo we may hence find two defcending Se- 
ries, which would converge by the Root of the Scale z, if it were 
a large quantity. 

50, 51. Our Author has here opened a large field for the Solution 
of thefe Equations, by Shewing, that the indeterminate quantity, or 
what we call the Root of the Scale, or the converging quantity, 
may be changed a great variety of ways, and thence new Series will 
be derived for the Root of die Equation, which in different circum- 
/tances will converge differently, fo that the moft commodious for 
the preSent occafion may always be chofe. And when one Series 
does not fufEciently converge, we may be able to change it for an- 
other that (hall converge falter. But that we may not be left to 
uncertain interpretations of the indeterminate quantity, or be obliged 
to make Suppositions at random j he gives us this Rule for finding 
initial Approximations, that may come at once pretty near the Root 
required, and therefore the Series will converge apace to it. Which 
Rule amounts to this: We are to find what quantities, when fub- 
ftituted for the indefinite Species in the propofed Equation, will 
make it divifibk by the radical Species, increaSed or diminished by 
another quantity, or by the radical Species alone. The fmall diffe- 
rence that will be found between any one of thofe quantities, and 
the indeterminate quantity of the Equation, may be introduced 
inftead of that indeterminate quantity, as a convenient Root of the 
Scale, by which the Series is to converge. 

Thus ; f the Equation propofed be y= -f- axy -f- cSy x* 2# 
= o, and if for x we here Substitute #, we Shall have the Terms 
_y 3 -f- 2a i y 3^*, which are divisible by y a, the Quotient be- 
ing y* -h ay -f- 3*2*. Therefore we may fuppofe, by the foregoing 
Rule, that a x = & is but a fmall quantity, or inftead of x we 
may Substitute a z in the propoied Equation, which will then 
become y* -f- 2a*y azy -\- y-z 3"* -t- z= 2# 5 = o. A 

Series 



and INF j NITE SERIES, 231 

Series derived from hence, compofcd of the afcending Powers of z 9 
mull converge faft, crtfcris parifats, becaule the Root of the Scale 
z is a (mail quantity. 

Or in the fame Equation, if for x we fubftitute a, we fliall 
have the Terms \* a 3 , which are divifible by y a, the Quo- 
tient being y* -4- ay -f- a*. Therefore we may fuppofe the diffe- 
rence between a and .v to be but little, or that -a x = z is 
a fmall quantity, and therefore in (lead of .v we may fubftitute its- 
equal a z in the given Equation. This will then become 
r 3 azy -f- T,a l z -f- 303* a* = o, where the Root y will con- 
verge by the Powers of the fmall quantity z. 

Or if for x we fubftitute za, we lhall have the Terms _>' 3 
a*? -4- 6^ 3 , which are divilible by y-\- za, the Quotient being _)* 

zay-i- 3rt x . Wherefore we may fuppofe there is but a fmall dif- 
ference between za and x, or that za x =z is a fmall 
quantity ; and therefore infread of x we may introduce its equal 

za z into the Equation, which will then become jv* a'-y 
azy -4- 6a> -f- iza*z -f- 6az* -f-s } = o. 

Laftly, if for x we fubftitute z~*a, we fliall have the Terms 
jy 3 z^a'-y -4-tf*y, which are divifible by y, the Radical Species alone. 
Wherefore we may fuppofe there is but a fmall difference between 

z^'a and x, or that z^a - x = z is a fmall quantity ; and 
therefore inflead of x we may fubfthute its equal 2?a z, which 
will reduce the Equation to y* -f- i ^z x a"y azy -+- 3^4 x a^z 

-\- 3^2 x az 1 -f- Z' = o, wherein the Series for the Root y may 
converge by the Powers of the fmall quantity z. 

But the reafon of this Operation ftill remains to be inquired into, 
which I mall endeavour to explain from the prefent Example. In 
the Equation y~> -\- axy -f- a*y x 3 za* =o, the indeterminate 
quantity x, of its own nature, muft be fufceptible of all poffible 
Values ; at leaft, if it had any limitations, they would be fhew'd by 
impoflible Roots. Among other values, it will receive thefe, a, a, 
- r - za, z~*a, 6cc. in which cafes the Equation would become y* 
+- za*y 30* = o, 7 ; a 1 = o, y* a 1 y -4- 6a* = o, _y 3 
2^a*y -f- a'-y =. o, &cc. refpedtively. Now as thefe Equations admit 
of jull Roots, as appears by their being divifible by y -f- or an- 
other quantity, and the laft by y alone; fo that in the Refolution, 
the whole Equation (in thofe cafes), would be immediately exhaufted : 
And in other cafes, when x does not much recede from one of thofe 

Values, 



232 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Values, the Equation would be nearly exhaufted. Therefore the 
introducing of z, which is the fmall difference between x and any 
pne of thofe Values, muft deprefs the Equation ; and z itfelf mull 
be a convenient quantity to be made the Root of the Scale, or the 
converging Quantity. 

I (hall give the Solution of one of the Equations of thefe Exam- 
ples, which mall be this, _y 3 azy -f- y-z -4- ^az* a* = o, or 





Here becaufe _>' 5 = # ; , &c. it will be y = a, &c. Then azy 
fl2r, 6cc. which muft be wrote again with a contrary fign, and 
united with 3^*2 above, to make y* = * 2a*z, &c. and 
therefore y ==. * -f-*' & c - Then s>' = * -f- ^az 1 , 6cc. and 



V = * * , &c. Then 

* " 3 a 

ssz # * -f- .Is 3 , &c. and _)'* = *** J-.ss, &c. and y = * * * 

217Z 5 <> 

, OCC. 

The Author hints at many other ways of deriving a variety of 
Series from the fame Equation ; as when we fuppofe the afore-men- 
tion'd difference z to be indefinitely great, and from that Suppofition 
we find Series, in which the Powers of z (hall afcend in the Deno- 
minators. This Cafe we have all along purfued indifcriminately with 
the other Cafe, in which the Powers of the converging quantity 
afcend in the Numerators, and therefore we need add nothing here 
about it. Another Expedient is, to affume for the converging quantity 
fome other quantity of the Equation, which then may be confider'd 
as indeterminate. So here, for inftance, we may change a into x, 
and x into a. Or laftly, to affume any Relation at pleafure, (fup- 
pofe x = az -f- bz\ x = ~- , x 3 J^ 5 &c.) between the in- 
determinate quantity of the Equation x, and the quantity z we 
would introduce into its room, by which new equivalent Equations 
may be form'd, and then their Roots may be extracted. And after- 
wards the value of z may be exprefs'd by x } by means of the af- 
fumed Equation. 

52. The 



and INFINITE SERIES. 233 

52, The Author here, in a fummary way, gives us a Rationale of 
his whole Method of Extractions, proving a priori, that the Series 
thus form'd, and continued in infinitum, will then be the juft Roots 
of the propofed Equation. And if they are only continued to a 
competent number of Terms, (the more the better,) yet then will 
they be a very near Approximation to the juft and compleat Roots. 
For, when an Equation is propofed to be refolved, as near an Ap- 
proach is made to the Root, iuppofe y, as can be had in a lingle 
Term, compofed of the quantities given by the Equation ; and be*. 
caufe there is a Remainder, a Relidual or Secondary Equation is 
thence form'd, whole Root p is the Supplement to the Root of the 
given Equation, whatever that may be. Then as near an approach 
is made to /, as can be done by a lingle Term, and a new Relidual 
Equation is form'd from the Remainder, wherein the Root q is the 
Supplement to p. And by proceeding thus, the Relidual Equations 
are continually deprefs'd, and the Supplements grow perpetually lels 
and lefs, till the Terms at laft are lefs than any affignable quantities. 
We may illuftrate this by a familiar Example, taken from the ufual 
Method of Divifion of Decimal Fractions. At every Operation we 
put as large a Figure in the Quotient, as the Dividend and Divifor 
will permit, fo as to leave the leaft Remainder poflible. Then this 
Remainder (applies the place of a new Dividend, which we are to 
exhauft as far as can be done by one Figure, and therefore we put 
the greateft number we can for the next Figure of the Quotient, 
and thereby leave the leaft Remainder we can. And fo we go on, 
either till the whole Dividend is exhaufted, if that can bz done, or 
till we have obtain'd a fufficient Approximation in decimal places or 
figures. And the fame way of Argumentation, that proves our Au- 
thor's Method of Extraction, may ealily be apply'd to the other 
ways of Analylis that are here found. 

53, 54. Here it is feafonably obferved, that tho' the indefinite 
Quantity fhould not be taken fo fmall, as to make the Series con- 
verge very faft, yet it would however converge to the true Root, 
tho' by more fteps and flower degrees. And this would obtain in 
proportion, even if it were taken never fo large, provided we do 
not exceed the due Limits of the Roots, which may be difcover'd, 
either from the given Equation, or from the Root when exhibited 
by a Series, or may be farther deduced and illuftrated by fome 
Geometrical Figure, to which the Equation is accommodated. 

So if the given Equation were yy =. ax xx, it is eafy to ob- 
ferve, that neither^ nor x can be infinite, but they are both liable to 

H h flv.rul 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

ieveral Limitations. For if x be fuppos'd infinite, the Term ax 
would vaniih in refpedt of xx, which would give the Value ofjyy 
impoffible on this Supposition. Nor can x be negative; for then the 
Value of yy would be negative, and therefore the Value of_y would 
again become impoffible. If x = o, then is^ = o allb ; which is 
one Limitation of both quantities. As yy is the difference between 
ax and xx, when that difference is greateft, then will yy, and con- 
fequently^, be greateft alfo. But this happens when x = a, as 
alfo y = ftf, as may appear from the following Prob. 3. And in 
general, when y is exprefs'd by any number of Terms, whether 
finite or infinite, it will then come to its Limit when the difference 
is greateft between the affirmative and negative Terms j as may ap- 
pear from the fame Problem. This laft will be a Limitation for y t 
but not for x. Laftly, when x = a, then_y = o; which will limit 
both x and y. For if we fuppofe x to be greater than a, the ne- 
gative Term will prevail over the affirmative, and give the Value of 
yy negative, which will make the Value of y impoffible. So that 
upon the whole, the Limitations of x in this Equation will be thefe, 
that it cannot be lefs than o, nor greater than a, but may be of any 
intermediate magnitude between thofe Limits. 

Now if we refolve this Equation, and find the Value of y in an 
infinite Series, we may ftill difcover the fame Limitations from 
thence. For from the Equation yy = ax xx, by extracting the 

3. _5. 

fquare-root, as before, we fhall have y =. a^ L ~ 

za* Sa 1 

X 1 ' i X ** * 3 O TT 

- , c. that is, y == d*x* into i - , &c. Here 

i6a z 

x cannot be negative ; for then x? would be an impoffible quantity. 
Nor can x be greater than a ; for then the converging quantity ~ 

or the Root of the Scale by which the Series is exprefs'd, would be 
greater than Unity, and confequently the Series would diverge,, and 
not converge as it ought to do. The Limit between converging and 
diverging will be found, by putting x=a, and therefore y = o ; 
in which cafe we fhall have the identical Numeral Series i = i 
_l_ ^ -if. _' r , &c. of the fame nature with fome of thofe, which we 
have elfewhere taken notice of. So that we may take x of any 
intermediate Value between o and a, in order to have a converging 
Series. But the nearer it is taken to the Limit o, fo much fafter 
the Series will converge to the true Root ; and the nearer it is taken 
to the Limit a, it will converge fo much the flower. But it will 

however 

4 



and INFINITE SERIES. 235 

'however converge, if A: be taken never fo little lefs than a. And by 
Analogy, a like Judgment is to be made in all other cafes. 

The Limits and other affe&ions of y are likewife difcoverable from 
this Series. When x = o, then y = o. When x is a nafcent quan- 
tity, or but juft beginning to be pofitive, all the Terms but the rirft 
may be negledted, and y will be a mean proportional between a and x. 
Alfo y = o, when the affirmative Term is equal to all the negative 

Terms.or when i= - -f- - u- -? , &c. that is, when x = a. 

z 8a* ib3 ' 

For then i = -f. 4. _f_ _ f rj &c. as above. Laftly, y will be a 
Maximum when the difference between the affirmative Term and all 
the negative Terms is greateft, which by Prob. 3. will be found 
when x = ^a. 

Now the Figure or Curve that may be adapted to this Equation, 
and to this Series, and which will have the fame Limitations that 
they have, is the Circle ACD, whofe Diameter is AD = a, its Ab- 
/cifs AB = x, and its perpendicular Ordinate BC =.}' For as the 
Ordinate BC=^ is a mean proportional 
between the Segments of the Diameter 
AB rrn x and BD = a x, it will be 
yy ==. ax xx. And therefore the Ordi- 
nate BC = _y will be exprefs'd by the fore- 
going Series. But it is plain from the na- 
ture of the Circle, that the Abfcifs AB cannot be extended back- 
wards, fo as to become negative ; neither can it be continued for- 
wards beyond the end of the Diameter D. And that at A and D, 
where the Diameter begins and ends, the Ordinate is nothing. And 
the greateft Ordinate is at the Center, or when AB = ^ 




SECT. VI. 'Trqnfitton fo the Method of Fluxions. 

55. ' | "^HE learned and fagacious Author having thus accom- 
plifh'd one part of his deiign, which was, to teach the 
Method of converting all kinds of Algebraic Quantities into fimplc 
Terms, by reducing them to infinite Series : He now goes on to 
fhew the ufe and application of this Reduction, or of thefe Series, 
in the Method of Fluxions, which is indeed the principal defign of 
this Treadle. For this Method has fo near a connexion with, and 
dependence upon the foregoing, that it would be very lame and 
defective without it. He lays down the fundamental Principles of 

H h 2 this 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

this Method in a very general and fcientiflck manner, deducing 
them from the received and known laws of local Motion. Nor is 
this inverting the natural order of Science, as Ibme have pretended, 
by introducing the Doctrine of Motion into pure Geometrical Spe- 
culations. For Geometrical and. Analytical Quantities are belt con- 
ceived as generated by local Motion; and their properties may as 
well be derived from them while they are generating, as when their 
generation is fuppos'd to be already accomplifh'd, in any other way. 
A right line, or a curve line, is defcribed by the motion of a point, 
a fmface by the motion of a line, a folid by the motion of a fur- 
face, an angle by the rotation of a radius ; all which motions we 
may conceive to be performed according to any ftated law, as occa- 
fion (hall require. Thefe generations of quantities we daily fee to 
obtain in rerum naturd, and is the manner the ancient Geometricians 
had often recourfe to, in confidering their production, and then de- 
ducing their properties from fuch adhial defcriptions. And by ana- 
logy, all other quantities, as well as thefe continued geometrical 
quantities, may be conceived as generated by a kind of motion or 
progrefs of the Mind. 

The Method of Fluxions then fuppofes quantities to be generated 
by local Motion, or fomething analogous thereto, tho' fuch gene- 
rations indeed may not be eflentially neceflary to the nature of the 
thing fo generated. They might have an exiftence independent of 
thefe motions, and may be conceived as produced many other ways, 
and yet will be endued with the fame properties. But this concep- 
tion, of their being now generated by local Motion, is a very fertile 
notion, and an exceeding ufeful artifice for discovering their pro- 
perties, and a great help to the Mind for a clear, diftincl:, and me- 
thodical perception of them. For local Motion fuppofes a notion 
of time, and time implies a fucceffion of Ideas. We eafily diflin- 
guifh it into what was, what is, and what will be, in thefe ge- 
nerations of quantities ; and fo we commodioufly confider thofe 
things by parts, which would be too much for our faculties, and ex- 
tream difficult for the Mind to take in the whole together, without 
fuch artificial partitions and distributions. 

Our Author therefore makes this eafy fuppofition, that a Line 
may be conceived as now defcribing by a Point, which moves either 
equably or inequably, either with an uniform motion, or elfe accor- 
ding to any rate of continual Acceleration or Retardation. Velocity 
is a Mathematical Quantity, and like all fuch, it is fufceptible of 
infinite gradations, may be intended or remitted, may be increafed 

or 



and INFIN ITE SERIES. 237 

or dlminifhfd in different parts of the fpace delcribed, according to 
an infinite variety of fluted Laws. Now it is plain, that the fpace 
thus defcribed, and the law of acceleration or retardation, (that is, 
the velocity at every point of time,) mufl have a mutual relation 
to each other, and muft mutually determine each other ; fo that 
one of them being affign'd, the other by neceflary inference may be 
derived from it. And therefore this is ftrictly a Geometrical Pro- 
blem, and capable of a full Determination. And all Geometrical 
Propoluions once demonftrated, 1 or duly investigated, may be fafely 
made ufe of, to derive other Proportions from them. This will 
divide the prefent Problem into two Cafes, according as either the 
Space or Velocity is affign'd, at any given time, in order to find the 
other. Arid this has given occasion to that diftin<5lion which has 
lince obtain'd, of the dirctt and irrcerje Method of Fluxions, each of 
which we fhall now confider apart. 

56. In the direct Method the Problem is thus abftractedly pro- 
pofed. From the Space defer i bed, being continually given, or affumed, 
or being known at any point of Time ajjigrid ; to find the Velocity of the 
Motion at that Time. Now in equable Motions it is well known, 
that the Space defcribed is always as the Velocity and the Time of 
defcription conjunclly ; or the Velocity is directly as the Spice de- 
fcribed, and reciprocally as the Time of defcription. And even in 
inequable Motions, or fuch as are continually accelerated or retarded, 
according to fome ftated Law, if we take the Spaces and Times very 
fmall, they will make a near approach to the nature of equable Mo- 
tions ; and flill the nearer, the fmaller thole are taken. But if we 
may fuppofe the Times and Spaces to be indefinitely fmall, or if 
they are nafcent or evanefcent quantities, then we fhall have the Ve- 
locity in any infinitely little Space, as that Space directly, and as the 
tempufculum inverlely. This property therefore of all inequable Mo- 
tions being thus deduced, will afford us a medium for folving the 
prefent Problem, as will be fhewn afterwards. So that the Space 
defcribed being thus continually given, and the whole time of its 
defcription, the Velocity at the end of that time will be thence de- 
terminable. 

57. The general abflract Mechanical Problem, which amounts to 
the lame as what is call'd the inverfe Method of Fluxions, will be 
this. From the Velocity of the Motion being continually given, to de- 
termine the Space defcribed, at any point of Time affign'd. For the 
Solution of which we fhall have the afTiflance of this Mechanical 
Theorem, that in inequable Motions, or when a Point defcribes a 

Line 



2 <>8 *!} Method of FLUXIONS, 

Line according to any rate of acceleration or retardation, the indefi- 
nitely little Spare defcribed in any indefinitely little Time, will be in 
a compound ratio of the Time and the Velocity ; or thejpafiolum will 
be as the velocity and the tempiijculum conjunctly. This being the 
Law of all equable Motions, when the Space and Time are any finite 
quantities, it will obtain allb in all inequable Motions, when the 
Space and Time are diminiih'd in infinitum. For by this means all 
inequable Motions are reduced, as it were, to equability. Hence the 
Time and the Velocity being continually known, the Space delcribed 
may be known alfo ; as will more fully appear from what follows. 
ThisTroblem, in all its cafes, will be capable of a juft determina- 
tion ; tho' taking it in its full extent, we mult acknowledge it to 
be a very difficult and operofe Problem. So that our Author had 
good reafon for calling it moleftijfimum & omnium difficilltmum pro- 
blema. 

58. To fix the Ideas of his Reader, our Author illuftrates his 
general Problems by a particular Example. If two Spaces x and y 
are defcribed by two points in fuch manner, that the Space x being 
uniformly increafed, in the nature of Time, and its equable velocity 
being reprefented by the Symbol x ; and if the Space y increafes in- 
equably, but after fuch a rate, as that the Equation y =. xx ihall 
always determine the relation between thofe Spaces j (or x being 
continually given, y will be thence known ;) then the velocity of 
the increafe of y fhall always be reprefented by 2xx. That is, if the 
fymbol y be put to reprefent the velocity of the increafe of y, then 
will the Equation y =. zxx always obtain, as will be (hewn hereafter. 
Now from the given Equation y = xx, or from the relation of the 
Spaces y and x, (that is, the Space and Time, or its representative,) 
being continually given, the relation of the Velocities y=.2xx is 
found, or the relation of the Velocity y, by which the Space increafes, 
to the Velocity x, by which the reprefentative of the Time increales. 
And this is an inftance of the Solution of the firft general Problem, 
or of a particular Queftion in the direct Method of Fluxions. But 
-.vice versa, if the kit Equation y = 2xx were given, or if the Ve- 
locity y, by which the Space y is defcribed, were continually known 
from the Time x being given, and its Velocity x , and if from thence. 
we ihould derive the Equation y = xx, or the relation of the Space 
and Time : This would be an inftance of the Solution of the fecond 
.general Problem, or of a particular Queftion of the inverfe Method 
of Fluxions. And in analogy to this defcription of Spaces by mov- 
ing points, our Author confiders all other quantities whatever as ge- 
nerated 



and INFINITE SERIES. 239 

nerated and produced by continual augmentation, or by the perpe- 
tual acceffion and accretion of new particles of the fame kind. 

59. In fettling the Laws of his Calculus of Fluxions, our Author 
very fkilfully and judicioufly difengages himfelf from all confidera- 
tion of Time, as being a thing of too Phyfkal or Metaphyfical a 
nature to be admitted here, efpecially when there was no abfolute 
neceffity for it. For tho' all Motions, and Velocities of Motion, 
when they come to be compared or meafured, may feem neceflarily 
to include a notion of Time; yet Time, like all other quantities, 
may be reprefented by Lines and Symbols, as in the foregoing ex- 
ample, efpecially when we conceive them to increafe uniformly. 
And thefe reprefentatives or proxies of Time, which in fomc mea- 
fiire may be made the objects of Senfe, will anfwer the prefent pur- 
pofe as well as the thing itfclf. So that Time, in fome fenle, may 
be laid to be eliminated and excluded out of the inquiry. By this 
means the Problem is no longer Phyfical, but becomes much more 
fimple and Geometrical, as being wholly confined to the defcription 
of Lines and Spaces, with their comparative Velocities of increafe 
and decreafe. Now from the equable Flux of Time, which we 
conceive to be generated by the continual acceflion of new particles, 
or Moments, our Author has thought fit to call his Calculus the 
Method of Fluxions. 

60, 6 1. Here the Author premifes fome Definitions, and other 
neceflary preliminaries to his Method. Thus Quantities, which in 
any Problem or Equation are fuppos'd to be fufceptible of continual 
increafe or decreafe, he calls Fluents, or flowing Quantities ; which 
are fometimes call'd variable or indeterminate quantities, becaufe they 
are capable of receiving an infinite number of particular values, in 
a regular order of fucceilion. The Velocities of the increafe or de- 
creafe of fuch quantities are call'd their Fluxions ; and quantities in 
the fame Problem, not liable to increafe or decreafe, or whofe Fluxions 
are nothing, are call'd conftant, given, invariable, and determinate 
quantities. This diftindlion of quantities, when once made, is care- 
fully obferved through the whole Problem, and infinuated by proper 
Symbols. For the firft Letters of the Alphabet are generally appro- 
priated for denoting conftant quantities, and the laffc Letters com- 
monly lignify variable quantities, and the fame Letters, being pointed, 
repreient the Fluxions of thofe variable quantities or Fluents refpec- 
tivcly. This diftinction between thefe quantities is not altogether 
arbitrary, but has fome foundation in the nature of the thing, at 
leafl during the Solution of the prefent Problem. For the flowing 

or 



24-O 7#* Method of FLUXIONS. 

or variable quantities may be conceived as now generating by Motion, 
and the conftant or invariable quantities as fome how o other al- 
.ready generated. Thus in any given Circle or Parabola, the Diame- 
ter or Parameter are conftant lines, or already generated ; but the 
Abfcifs, Ordinate, Area, Curve-line, &c. are flowing and variable 
quantities, becaufe they are to be underftood as now defcribing by 
local Motion, while their properties are derived. Another diftinc- 
tion of thefe quantities may be this. A conftant or given Irne in any 
Problem is tinea qtitzdam^ but an indeterminate line is line a qua-vis 
vel qutzcunque, becaufe it may admit of infinite values. Or laftiy, 
conftant quantities in a Problem are thofe, whole ratio to a common 
Unit, of their own kind, is fuppos'd to be known ; but in variable 
quantities that ratio cannot be known, becaufe it is varying perpe- 
tually. This diftinction of quantities however, into determinate and 
indeterminate, fubfifts no longer than the prefent Calculation requires; 
for as it is a diftinftion form'd by the Imagination only, for its own 
conveniency, it has a power of abolifhing it, and of converting de- 
terminate quantities into indeterminate, and vice versa, as occaiion 
may require ; of which we fhall fee Inftances in what follows. In 
a Problem, or Equation, theie may be any number of conftant quan- 
tities, but there muft be at leaft two that are flowing and indeter- 
minate ; for one cannot increafe or diminifh, while all the reft con- 
tinue the fame. If there are more than two variable quantities in 
a Problem, their relation ought to be exhibited by more than one 
Equation. 




ANNO- 



( 241 ) 







ANNOTATIONS on Prob.i, 



O R, 



The relation of the flowing Quantities being given, 
to determine the relation of their Fluxions. 




SECT. I. Concerning Fluxions of the firft orcler^ and t(f 
Jlnd their Equations. 

HE Author having thus propofed his fundamental Pro-' 
blems s in an abftra<ft and general manner, and gradually 
brought them down to the form mod convenient for* 
his Method ; he now proceeds to deliver the Precepts 
of Solution, which he illuftrates by a fufficient variety of Examples,! 
referving the Demonftration to be given afterwards, when his Rea- 
ders will be better prepared to apprehend the force of it, and when 
their notions will be better fettled and confirm'd. Theie Precepts 
of Solution, or the Rules for finding the Fluxions of any given' 
Equation, are very fliort, elegant, and compreheniive ; and appeal- 
to have but little affinity with the Rules ufually given for this pur- 
pofe : But that is owing to their great degree of univerfality. We 
are to form, as it were, fo many different Tables for the Equation, 
as there are flowing quantities in it, by difpofing the Terms accor- 
ding to the Powers of each quantity, fo as that their Indices may' 
form an Arithmetical Progreflion. Then the Terms are to be mul- 
tiply'd in each cafe, either by the Progreflion of the Indices, or by ' 
the Terms of any other Arithmetical Progreflion, (which yet mould 
.have the fame common difference with the Progreffion of the Indices ;) ' 

I i as 



242 Tfo Method of FLUXIONS. 

as alfo by the Fluxion of that Fluent, and then to be divided by 
the Fluent itfelf. La ft of all, thefe Terms are to be collected, accor- 
ding to their proper Signs, and to be made equal to nothing; which 
will be a new Equation, exhibiting the relation of the Fluxions. 
This procefs indeed is not fo fhort as the Method for taking Fluxions, 
(to be given p relent ly v ) which he el fe where delivers, and which is 
commonly follow' d ; but it makes fufficient amends by the univer- 
lality of it, and by the great variety of Solutions which it will afford. 
For we may derive as many different Fluxional Equations from the 
lame given Equation, as we .(hall think fit to affume different Arith- 
metical Progreffions. .Yet all thefe Equations will agree in the main, 
and tho' differing in form, yet each will truly give the relation of 
the Fluxions, as will appear from the following Examples. 

2. In the firft Example we are to take the Fluxions of the Equa- 
tion x> ax 1 -{- axy y"> = o, where the Terms are always 
brought over to one fide. Thefe Terms being difpofed according 
to the powers of the Fluent x, or being conlider'd as a Number ex- 
prefs'd by the Scale whofe Root is x, will iland thus x> - ax 1 -f- 
ayx* y>x = o; and affuming the Arithmetical Progrefiion 3, 2, 
], o, which is here that of the Indices of x, and multiplying each 
Term by each refpedlively, we fhall have the Terms jx 3 zax- 
H- ayx * j which again multiply'd by i , or xx~ l , according to 
the Rule, will make ^xx 1 2axx -f- ayx. Then in the fame Equa- 
tion making the other Fluent/ the Root of the Scale, it will ftand 
thus, _y 5 -f- oy*-i- axy 1 ax*y = o ; and affuming the Arith- 



- > 

metical Progreffion 3, 2, I, o, which alfo is the Progreffion of the 
Indices of y, and multiplying as before, we fhall have the Terms 

3_)' ; * -+- axy *, which multiply'd by -- , or yy~*, will make 

3i>' a -+ ax J- Tlien colle( ^i n g the Terms, the Equation yxx 1 
zaxx + ayx tyy* -f- axj = o will give the required relation of the 
Fluxions. For if we refolve this Equation into an Analogy, we fhall 
have x : y : : 3>' 2 ax i^x 1 zax -h ay -, which, in all the values that 
x and y can affume, will give the ratio of their Fluxions, or the 
comparative velocity of their increafe or decreafe, when they flow 
according to the given Equation. 

Or to find this ratio of the Fluxions more immediately, or the 
value of the Fraction 4' by fewer fteps, we may proceed thus. Write 
down the Fraction ? with the note of equality after it, and in the 

Numerator 



and INFINITE SERIES. 243 

Numerator of the equivalent Fraction write the Terms of the Equa- 
tion, difpos'd according to x, with their refpective figns ; each be- 
ing multiply'd by the Index of x in that Term, (increafed or di- 
minifh'd, if you pleafe, by any common Number,) as alib divided 
by .v. In the Denominator do the fame by the Terms, when dii- 
pofed according to y, only changing the figns. Thus in the pre- 
fent Equation x"' ax 1 -f- axy ;' 3 = o, we (lull have at once 

y i,x*2ax-\-av + 

* ~ J>* * ax * 

Let us now apply the Solution another way. The Equation x ; 

ax* -f- axy y* = o being order'd according to x as before, 
will be x 1 ax* -(- ayx 1 y*x =. o ; and fuppofing the Indices 
of x to be increas'd by an unit, or aifuming the Arithmetical Pro- 
greffion -j- , -~~ t ^ , ~ , and multiplying the Terms refpectively, 

we fhall have thefe Terms ^.xx* ^axx -}- zayx y-xx- 1 . Then 
ordering the Terms according to /, they will become _)' 3 -f- oy 1 
-\-axy f -i- x*y =.0; and fuppofing the Indices ofy to be diminifli'd 
ax* 

by an unit, or afluming the Arithmetical Progreffion ^ , L Si iJ, 

.> y ' y ' y 
and multiplying the Terms refpecYively, we mall have thefe Terms 

2yy* * * x*yy- 1 + ax*yy~*. So that collecting the Terms, 
we lhall have 4.v.v* -^axx +- 2 ayx y>xx~ l zyy* x'>yy-' -+- 
ax*yy~* = o, for the Fluxional Equation required. Or the ratio 

c ^1 T>1 -11 i y 4 X * T a -f-f- 2ay v'v * . . , 

of the Fluxions will be - = , -. 3_J : _ . w hich ratio 

x Z) 2 * * -f-As, J ax l \< l 

may be found immediately by applying the foregoing Rule. 

Or contrary-wife, if we multiply the Equation in the fir ft form 
by the Progreffion ~ , ? } ~ , ^ v , we flinll have the Terms zxx 1 

axx * -\-ytx\- 1 . And if we multiply the Equation in the fc- 
cond form by - , ^ , l y 5 y - , we fiiall have the Terms 4^* *, 

H- zcixy -+- x=j}~ ! cx-yy~'. Therefore collecting 'tis a.v.v 1 ^v. v 
+ rxx~> ^v}*+ 2axy-i-x>j}- > ~fix 1 y}-'~o. Or the ratio 
of the Fluxions will be | = ^ ^ ~^:^^.,-r , which might 
l.avc been found at once by the foregoing Rule. 

And in general, if the Equation x"> - -ax % -- axy y* o, in 
the form x- a\- -f- <?.yv --> ; ,v = o, be multiply'd by the Terms 
of this Arithmetical Progreffion " ;+ 3 v "L+J. ; r w ;n 

O ) -v, .v JL \> 11 



produce the Terms m -\-y.\-~ m-+-2n>:x-{- m -\- icxt mj'xx-'-, 

I i 2 and 



244 e ^ )e Method of FLUXIONS, 

and if the fame Equation, reduced to the form y*-\- 

_f- K\y= o, b; multiply 'd by the Terms of this Arithmetical Pro- 

ax 1 

grerTion Mjs " 7, ~7~7' "^' ^ w *^ P ro( ^ uce t ^ ie Terms 

* H- H- iaxy-\-nx~>yy-* nax l yy~ l . Then collecting the Terms, 
we ilia 11 have m -\- 3. vx 1 ; -i- arfxv H- m-\-.iaxy my"'.\x~ i 

w ~f- 3.X) 1 * * 4-^-t- irftfy -f- nx*yy~~ l nax*yy* = o, for the 
Fluxional Equation required. Or the ratio of the. Fluxions will be 

m -4- 3*" js -(- z* -j- m -j- I ay m)$x * . . 1 . . . 

- = - - - ^ - - - : - : ; which might have been 

n -j- D * * ;? -j- I ax nx'j r -f- nax^y l 

found immediately from the given Equation, by the foregoing Rule. 

Here the general Numbers m and n may be determined pro lubitu, 
by which means we may obtain as many .Fluxional Equations as we 
pleafe, which will all belong to the given Equation. And thus we 
may always find the fimpleft Expreffion, or that which is beft ac- 
commodated to the prefent exigence. Thus if we make m = o, 
and ;; == o, we mall have 4 = *'*-*"* + "> , as found before. Or if 

X 3j a ax 

n 11 l y 4* a 

we make ; = i, and n= i , we ihall have - = : ^ 

x *- 



as before. Or if we make m=- i, and n = i, we fhall have 

- =. - ax +_> A - _ 

x fy- zax x*j '-\~axij ' 

i n 11 l. V 

and n =. -r- 7, we ihall have - = 

' 



before. Or if we make m = ?, 

J J 



of Qthers _ Now th j s var i ety of Solutions 

y -(- 3^4 ^axi J 

will beget no ambiguity in the Conclusion, as poffibly might have 
been fufpected; for it is no other than what ought neceffarily to 
arife, from the different forms the given Equation may acquire, as 
will appear afterwards. If we confine ourfelves to the Progremon of 
the Indices, it will bring the Solution to the common Method of 
taking Fluxions, which our Author has taught elfewhere, and which, 
becaufe it is eafy and expeditious, and requires no certain order of 
the Terms, I mall here fubjoin. 

For every Term of the given Equation, fo many Terms mufr. be 
form'd in the Fluxional Equation, as there are flowing Quantities in 
that Term. And this muft be done, (i.) by multiplying the Term 
by the Index of each flowing Quantity contain'd in it. (2.) By 
dividing it by the quantity itfelf j and, (3.) by multiplying by its 
Fluxion. Thus in the foregoing Equation x> ax* -f- ayx y 3 

= o, the Fluxion belonging to the Term .v 3 is 3 , or ^x^x. 

The 



and INFINITE SERIES. 245 

The Fluxion belonging to ax 1 is - - , or zaxx. The 

. avxv ayxx 

Fluxion belonging to ayx is 1- , or axy -f- ayx. And the 

Fluxion belonging to / 3 is , or y-y. So that the 

Fluxion of the whole Equation, or the whole Fluxional Equation, 
is 3-v a A- zaxx -f- ayx -f- ayx 3_>' 1 _y=o. Thus the Equation 
x m =}', will give mxx m -* =.y ; and the Equation x m z," y, will 
give mxx m l z" -f- nx m zz"~ t = y for its Fluxional Equation. And 
the like of other Examples. 

If we take the Author's funple Example, in pag. 19, or the Equa- 
tion y = xx, or rather ay x* = o, that is ayx x l y = o, 
in order to find its moft general Fluxional Equation ; it may be per- 
form'd by the Rule before given, fuppofing the Index of x to be 
encreas'd by m, and the Index of y by ;;. For then we {hall have 
diredtly ? = "-'-g+-'* _ For the firft Term of the given 

x nx z y ' n -|- \a 

Equation being ayx, this multiply'd by the Index of x increas'd by 
7/7, that is by ;;z, and divided by x, will give mayx~ l for the firlt 
Term of the Numerator. Alfo the fecond Term being x*y, this 
multiply'd by the Index of A- increas'd by m, that is by w-f- 2, and 
divided by ,v, will give m -h 2X for the fecond Term of the Nu- 
merator. Again, the firft Term of the given Equation may be now 

,Y*J, which multiply'd by the Index of y increas'd by n, that 
is by ;;, and divided by r, will give (changing the fign) nx l y~ l for 
the firft Term of the Denominator. Alib the fecond Term will 
then be cyx, which multiply'd by the Index of/ increas'd by ;/, 
that is by n -f- i, and divided by y, will give (changing the Sign) 

n -|- \a for die fecond Term of the Denominator, as found above. 
Now from this general relation of the Fluxions, we may deduce as 
many particular ones as we pleaie. Thus if we make ///= o, and 

7/r=o, we fhall have -- r -- , or ay = 2xx, agreeable to our 
Author's Solution in the place before cited. Or if we make;= 2, 

1 n II 1 2TA 2tfl> 1 . ., 

aiid ;z= r, we lhall have - = -7^7 = -77 Or if we make 
//v = o, and ;/ = i, we (hall have - = - ^ = - . Or if 

V X j ' A" 

we make n = o. and m-=. 2, we fhall have - = -^-^ . -1-, 

v a m , v 

as before. All which, and innumerable other cafes, may be eafilv* 
proved by a fubftitution of equivalents. Or we may prove it c: 

rally 



246 e tf >e Method of FLUXIONS, 

rally thus. Becaufe by the given Equation it is y=x i a~ I , in the 

~ 



/-i V mayx m-\-zx c r , ,,. . , , 

value of the ratio 4 = gA& -. _7^ri7 f r 7 mbmtute its value, and 

/, 11 V V OT * - + 2X 2X 

we fhall have ~- = - = = as above. 

x na n -+- i a a 

3. The Equation of the fecond Example is 2j 3 -f- x*y 2cysi 
-4- ^z* Z' = o, in which there are three flowing quantities y, x, 
and z, and therefore there muft be three operations, or three Tables 
mufl be form'd. Firft difpofe the Terms according to y, thus ; 
2j3 _j_ oja _{_ x*y z~>y= o, and multiply by the Terms of the Pro- 

- 2CZ 



greffion 2 xjj"" 1 , ixj/y" 1 , oxj/y"" 1 , i xj//- 1 , relpeclively, (where 
the Coefficients are form'd by diminishing the Indices of y by the com- 
mon Number :,) and the refulting Terms will be qyy* * * -f- &yy*. 
Secondly ; difpofe theTerms according to x, thus-> yx*--}-ox-t-2y">x=o 3 . 

2cz 



and multiply by the Terms of the ProgreiTion 2xxx~\ i xxv~ r , . 
oy.xx~ l , (\vhere the Coefficients are the fame as the Indices of x,) 
and the only refulting Term here is -+- 2yxx * *. Laftly, difpofe 
the Terms according to z, thus ; z= -+-^y^ 2cyz--x*yz=o J 

-4- 2}" 

and multiply by the Progreffion 3xs~ I , 2xzz~' f , fx.zz~ ! , oxzz*, 
(where the Coefficients are alfo the fame as the Indices of z,} and 
the Terms will be ^zz* -h 6yzz-~-2cyz * . Then collecting all 
thefe Terms together, we fhall have the Fluxional Equation fyrj 1 + 
~3yy i _|_ av,v.v yzz* -+- 6yzz 2cyz =. o. 

Here we have a notable inftance of our Author's dexterity, at 

finding expedients for abbreviating. For in every one of thefe Ope- 

rations fuch a Progreffion is chofe, as by multiplication will make 

the greateft deftrudtion of the Terms. By which means he arrives 

at the fhorteft Expreffion, that the nature of the Problem will allow. 

It we mould feck the Fluxions of this Equation by the ufaal me- 

thod, which is taught above, that is, if we always a flu me the Pro- 

oreffions of the Indices, we fhall have 6yy* -+ 2xxy -\- xy 2cyz 

zcyz -+- ~}yz* ~r- dyzz 3'zz* = o ; which has two Terms 

more' than the other form. And if the Progreffions of the Indices 

t (-j increas'd, in each cafe, by any common general Numbers, we 

may form the moil: general Expreilion for the Fluxional Equation, 

that the Problem will admit of. 

3 4- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 247 

4. On occafion of the laft Example, in which are three Fluents 
and their Fluxions, our Author makes an ufeful Obfervation, for 
the Reduction and compleat Determination of fuJi Equations, tho' 
it be derived from the Rules of the vulgar Algebra ; which matter 
may be confider'd thus. Every Equation, conlilling of two flowing 
or variable Quantities, is what correfponds to an indetcrmin'd Pro- 
blem, admitting of an infinite number of Anfwcrs. Therefore one 
of thofe quantities being afiumed at pleafure, or a particular value 
being affign'd to it, the other will alfb be compleatly determined. 
And in the Fluxional Equation derived from thence, thofe particular 
values being fubftituted, the Ratio of the Fluxions will be given in 
Numbers, in any particular cafe. And one of the Fluxions being 
taken for Unity, or of any determinate value, the value of the other 
may be exhibited by a Number, which will be a compleat Determi- 
nation. 

But if the given Equation involve three flowing or indeterminate 
Quantities, two of them muft be a/Turned to determine the third ; 
or, which is the fame thing, fome other Equation muft be either 
given or aflumed, involving fome or all the Fluents, in order to a 
compleat Determination. For then, by means of the two Equa- 
tions, one of the Fluents may be eliminated, which will bring this 
to the former cafe. Alfo two Fluxional Equations may be derived, 
involving the three Fluxions, by means of which one of them may be 
eliminated. And fo if the given Equation mould involve four Fluents, 
two other Equations fliould be either given or afTumed, in order to 
a compleat Determination. This will be fufficiently explain 'd by the 
two following Examples, which will alfo teach us how compli- 
cate Terms, fuch as compound Fractions and Surds, are to be ma- 
naged in this Method. 

5, 6. Let the given Equation be y* a* x*/ a* x- = o, 
of which we are to take the Fluxions. To the two Fluents y and 
x we may introduce a third ;c, if we aflume another Equation. 
Let that be z = x\/a*- x~, and we mall have the two Equations 
y- a- & = o, and a'-x 1 x* z* r= o. Then by the fore- 
going Solution their Fluxional Equations (at leaft in one cafe) will 
be 2jy z = o, and a*xx zxx> zz = o. Thefe two Fluen- 
tial Equations, and their Fluxional Equations, may be reduced 
to one Fluential and one Fluxional Equation, by the ufual methods 
of Reduction : that is, we may eliminate z and z by fubftituting 
their values yy a a and zyy. Then we fhall havej 1 a 1 x\/ a 1 .v 1 



248 fix Method of FLUXIONS, 



" " 



- ! Q J and 2yy " "__ = == o. Or by taking away the furds, , 

'tis a"x z ^ 4 y* 4- 2a l y z rt 4 = o, and then a*xx 2xx=. 
-- za* = o. 



7. Or if the given Equation be x 5 ay* -f- - x^^/ay -\-x*- 

= o, to find its corresponding Fluxional Equation ; to the two 1 
flowing quantities ,v and y we may introduce two others .z and i', 
and thereby remove the Fraction and the Radical, if we affume the 

two Equations -~ = z, and x*~i/ay-t-xx=zv. Then we (hall 

T. +_>' ^ 

have the three Equations x= ay 1 -\- z i;=o, az-\-yz 
by* r o, and ayx* -f- x 6 i<-~ = o, which will give the three 
Fluxional Equations ^xx* zayy -+- z V = o, az +- yz -+- yz 
"^byy* = o, and ay'x* -+- ^.ayxx' -f- 6xx s 2vv= o. Thefeby,- 
known Methods of the common Algebra may be reduced to on& 
Fluential and one Fluxional Equation, iavolving x and y y and their 
Fluxions, as is required. 

8. And by the fame Method we may take the Fluxions of Bino- 
mial or other Radicals, of any kind, any how involved or compli- 
cated with one another. As for inflance, if we were to find the 



Fluxion oF-Vwf -\-*/aa xx, put it equal to y, or make ax-i~ 
xx=yy. Alfo make </ aa xx = s$. Then we fhall 



have the two Fluential Equations ax-\-z y 1 = o, and a* AT*; 
z 1 = o, from whence we mall have the two Fluxional Equations 
ax-}- z 2j/y = o, and 2xx 2zz = o, or xx -f- zz = o.' 
This laft Equation, if for z and z we fubftitute their values^ ax~ 
and zyy ax, will become xx -f- 2yy* zaxyy axy* -{- a^xx- 

o ; whence y = ~ " A ' ~ A - . And here if for y we fubfti-- 

' 2\i - 2HX1 * 



tute its value vax-+-\/aa xx, we mall have the Fluxion re- 

ax -J an A Jf xx , , 1 T^ 

quired y = ---------- - : ..., - . And many other Exam-- 

7.1/fta xx x yax + y aa xx 

pies of a like- kind will be found in the fequel of this Work. 

9, 10, 1 1, 12. In Examp. 5. the propofed Equation is zz -{- 
a xz .)' 4 => m which there are three variable quantities x, y, and 
z, and therefore the relation of the Fluxions will be 2zz -|- axz 
_j_ ax ~ 4j/j-3 === o. But as there wants another Fluential Equa- 
tion, and thence another Fluxional Equation, to make a compleat 
determination ; if only another Fluxional Equation were given or < 
afTurned, we mould have the required relation of the Fluxions x and y,.. 

Suppofe 



and INFINITE SERIES. 249 

Suppofe this Fluxional Equation were i=.vv/^-v xx ; then by 
fubftitution we mould have the Equation zz -f- ax x x^/ax xx 
-f- axz 4)7 5 = o, or the Analogy x :y :: 4_>' 3 : 2Z -4- ax x 
v/rftf .vx -f- rf;s, which can be reduced no farther, (or & cannot 
be eliminated,) till we have the Fluential Equation, from which the 
Fluxional Equation z=x\/ax xx is fuppos'd to be derived. 
And thus we may have the relation of the Fluxions, even in fuch 
cafes as \re have not, or perhaps cannot have, the relation of the 
Fluents. 

But tho' this Reduction may not perhaps be conveniently per- 
forni'd Analytically, or by Calculation, yet it may poffibly be per- 
form'd Geometrically, as it were, and by the Quadrature of Curves ; 
as we may learn from our Author's preparatory Proportion, and 
from the following general Conliderations. Let the right Line AC, 
perpendicular to the right Line AB, be conceived to move always 
parallel to itfelf, fo as that its extremity A may defcribe the line AB. 
Let the point C be fixt, or always at the fame diftance from A, and 
let another point move from A towards C, with a velocity any how 
accelerated or retarded. The parallel motion of the line AC does 
not at all affect the progreffive motion of the point moving from 
A towards C, but from a combination of thefe two independent 
morions, it will defcribe the Curve ADH ; 
while at the fame time the fixt point C will 
defcribe the right line CE, parallel to AB. 
Let the line AC be conceived to move thus, 
till it comes into the place BE, or BD. Then 
the line AC is conftant, and remains the fame, 
while the indefinite or flowing line becomes 
BD. Alfo the Areas defcribed at the fame time, ACEB and ADB, 
are likewife flowing quantities, and their velocities of defcription, 
or their Fluxions, muft neceflarily be as their refpeclive defcribing 
lines, or Ordinates, BE and BD. Let AC or BE be Linear Unity, 
or a conftant known right line, to which all the other lines are to 
be compared or refer'd ; juft as in Numbers, r.M other Numbers 
are tacitely refer'd to i, or to Numeral Unity, as being the fim- 
pleft of all Numbers. And let the Area ADB be fuppos'd to be 
apply 'd to BE, or Linear Unity, by which it will be reduced from 
the order of Surfaces to that of Lines j ami let the refulting line 
be call'd z. That is, make the Area ADB = z x BE ; and if AB 
be call'd x, then is the Area ACEB = x x BE. Therefore the 

K k Fluxions 




25 o" 1 Ibe Method of FLUXIONS, 

Fluxions of thefe Areas will be z x BE and x x BE, which are as z 
and x. But the Fluxions of the Areas were found before to be as 
BD to BE. So that it is z : x : : ED : BE = i, or z = x x BD. 
Consequently in any Curve, the Fluxion of the Area will be as the 
Ordinate of the Curve, drawn into the Fluxion of the Abfcifs. 

Now to apply this to the prefent cafe. In the Fluxional Equa- 
tion before affumed z=x</ax xx, if x reprefents the Abfcifs 
of a Curve, and \/ ax xx be the Ordinate ; then will this Curve 
be a Circle, and z will reprefent the corresponding Area. So that 
we fee from hence, whether the Area of a Circle can be exhibited 
or no, or, in general Terms, tho' in the Equation proppfed there 
fhould be quantities involved, which cannot be determined or ex- 
prefs'd by any Geometrical Method, luch as the Areas or Lengths 
of Curve-lines ; yet the relation of their Fluxions may neverthelefs 

be found. 

13. We now come to the Author's Demonftration of his Solutions 
or to the proof of the Principles of the Method of Fluxions, here laid 
down, which certainly deferves to engage our mcft ferious attention. 
And more efpecially, becaufe thefe Principles have been lately drawn 
into debate, without being well confider'd or imderftoqd ; polfibly be T 
caufe this Treatife of our Author's, expreffly wrote on the fubjed, had 
not yet feen the light. As thefe Principles therefore have been treated 
as precarious at leaft, if not wholly inefficient to fupport the Doo 
trine derived from them ; I Shall endeavour to examine into every 
the moll: minute circumflance of this Demonstration, and that with 
the utmoft circumipeclion and impartiality. 

We have here in the firft place a Definition and a Theorem to-r 
gether, Moments are defined to be the indefinitely jmall parts offoiv- 
itig quantities, by the acceflion of which, in indefinitely fmall portions 
of time, tboj'e quantities are continually increajed. The word Moment 
(momentum^ movimentum, a mevcoj by analogy feems to have been 
borrow'd from Time. For as Time is conceived to be in continual 
flux, or motion, and as a greater and a greater Time is generated 
by the acceffion of more and more Moments, which are conceived 
as the fmalleit particles of Time : So all other flowing Quantities 
may be underitood, as perpetually, increafing, by the accellion of 
their fmallefr, particles, which therefore may not improperly be call'd 
their Moments. But what are here call'd their jmalleft particles, 
are not to be underftood as if they were Atoms, or of any definite 
and determinate magnitude, as in the Method of Indivisibles.} but 
to be indefinitely fmall, or continually decreafing, till they are lefs 

than 



and INFINITE SERIES. 251 

than any afiignable quantities, and yet may then retain all poffible 
varieties of proportion to one another. That thefe Moments are 
not chimerical, vifionary, or merely imaginary things, but have an 
existence Jut generis, at leaft Mathematically and in the Underftand- 
ing, is a neceflary confequence from the infinite Divifibility of Quan- 
tity, which I think hardly any body now contefts *. For all con- 
tinued quantity whatever, tho' not indeed actually, yet mentally 
may be conceived to be divided in infinitutn, Perhaps this may be 
beft illuftrated by a comparative gradation or progrefs of Magnitudes. 
Every finite and limited Quantity may be conceived as divided into 
any finite number of fmaller parts. This Divifion may proceed, 
and thofc parts may be conceived to be farther divided in very lit- 
tle, but flill finite parts, or particles, which yet are not Moments. 
But when thefe particles are farther conceived to be divided, not 
actually but mentally, fo far as to become of a magnitude Ids than 
any afiignable, (and what can flop the progrefs of the Mind ?) then 
are they properly the Moments which are to be understood here. As 
this gradation of diminution certainly includes no abfurdity or con- 
tradiction, the Mind has the privilege of forming a Conception of 
thefe Moments, a poffible Notion at leaft, though perhaps not an 
adequate one ; and then Mathematicians have a right of applying 
them to ufe, and of making fuch Inferences from them, as by any 
flrict way of reafoning may be derived. 

It is objected, that we cannot form an intelligible and adequate 
Notion of thefe Moments, becaufe fo obfcure and incomprehenfible 
an Idea, as that of Infinity is, muft needs enter that Notion ; and 
therefore they ought to be excluded from all Geometrical Difquifi- 
tions. It may indeed be allowed, that we have not an adequate 
Notion of them on that account, fuch as exhatifts the whole nature 
of the thing, neither is it at all neceflary ; for a partial Notion, 
which is that of their Divifibility fine Jine, without any regard to 
their magnitude, is fufficient in the preient cafe. There are many 
other Speculations in the Mathematicks, in which a Notion of In- 
finity is a neceflary ingredient, which however are admitted by all 
Geometricians, as ufeful and dcmonftrable Truths. The Doctrine 
of commenfurable and incommenfurable magnitudes includes a No- 
tion of Infinity, and yet is received as a very demonftrablc Doctrine. 
We have a perfect Idea of a Square and its Diagonal, and yet we 

K k 2 know 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

know they will admit of no finite common meafure, or that their pro- 
portion cannot be exhibited in rational Numbers, tho' ever fo fmall, 
but may by a feries of decimal or other parts continued ad infini- 
tum. In common Arithmetick we know, that the vulgar Fraction 
1., and the decimal Fraction 0,666666, &c. continued ad infinitum^ 
are one and the fame thing j and therefore if we have a fcientifick 
notion of the one, we have likewife of the other. When I de- 
icribe a right line with my Pen, fuppofe of an Inch long, I defcribe 
firft one half of the line, then one half of the remainder, then one 
half of the next remainder, and fo on. That is, I actually run 
over all thofe infinite divifions and fubdivifions, before I have com- 
pleated the Line, tho' I do not attend to them, or cannot diftin- 
guifh them. And by this I am indubitably certain, that this Series 
of Fractions i -f- JL _j_ -.-}- _' r> &c. continued ad infinitum, is pre- 
cifely equal to Unity. Euclid has demonflrated in his Elements, , 
that the Circular Angle of Contact is lefs than any aflignable right- 
lined Angle, or, which is the fame thing, is an infinitely little Angle 
in comparifon with any finite Angle : And our Author fhews us 
fHll greater My fteries, about the infinite gradations of Angles of Con- 
tact. In Geometry we know, that Curves may continually approach 
towards their Arymptotes, and yet will not a&ually meet with them; 
till both are continued to an infinite diftance. We know likewife, 
that many of their included Areas, or Solids, will be but of a finite 
and determinable magnitude, even tho' their lengths mould be actually 
continued ad infinitum. We know that fome Spirals make infinite 
Circumvolutions about a Pole, or Center, and yet the whole Line, 
thus infinitely involved, is but of a finite, determinable, and aflign- 
able length. The Methods of computing Logarithms fuppofe, that 
between any two given Numbers, an infinite number of mean Pro- 
portionals maybe interpofedj and without fome Notion of Infinity 
their nature and properties are hardly intelligible or difcoverable. 
And in general, many of the moft fublime and ufeful parts of 
knowledge muft be banifh'd out of the Mathematicks, if we are 
fo fcrupulous as to admit of no Speculations, in which a Notion 
of Infinity will be neeeflarily included. We may therefore as fafely 
admit of Moments, and the Principles upon which the Method 
of Fluxions is here built, . as any of the fore-mention'd Specula- 
tions. 

The nature and notion of Moments being thus eftablifli'd, we 
may pafs on to the afore -mcnticn'd Theorem, which is this. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 253 

(contemporary) Moments of fairing quantities are as the Velocities of 
flowing or increafing ; that is, as their Fluxions. Now if this be 
proved of Lines, it will equally obtain in all flowing quantities 
whatever, which may always be adequately rcprefented and ex- 
pounded by Lines. But in equable Motions, the Times being given, 
the Spaces defcribed will be as the Velocities of Defcription, as is 
known in Mechanicks. And if this be true of any finite Spaces 
whatever, or of all Spaces in general, it muft alfo obtain in infi- 
nitely little Spaces, which we call Moments. And even in Mo- 
tions continually accelerated or retarded, the Motions in infinite- 
ly little Spaces, or Moments, muft degenerate into equability. So 
that the Velocities of increafe or decreafe, or the Fluxions, will be 
always as the contemporary Moments. Therefore the Ratio of 
the Fluxions of Quantities, and the Ratio of their contemporary 
Moments, will always be the fame, and may be ufed promifcu- 
oufly for each other. 

14. The next thing to be fettled is a convenient Notation for 
thefe Moments, by which they may be diftinguifh'd, reprefented, 
compared, and readily fuggefted to the Imagination. It has been 
appointed already, that when x, y, z, v, &c. ftand for variable or 
flowing quantities, then their Velocities of increafe, or their Fluxions, 
fhall be reprefented by x, y, z, -j, &c. which therefore will be pro- 
portional to the contemporary Moments. But as thefe are only 
Velocities, or magnitudes of another Species, they cannot be the Mo- 
ments themfelves, which we conceive as indefinitely little Spaces, 
or other analogous quantities. We may therefore here aptly intro- 
duce the Symbol o, not to ftand for abfolute nothing, as in Arith- 
rnetick, but a vanifhing Space or Qtiantity, which was juft now 
finite, but by continually decrealing, in order prefently to terminate 
in mere nothing, is now become lefs than any affignable Qinintify. 
And we have certainly a right fo to do. For if the notion is in- 
telligible, and implies no contradiction as was argued before, it may 
furely be infinuated by a Character appropriate to it. This is not 
aligning the quantity, which would be contrary to the hypothefis, 
but is only appointing a mark to reprefent it.- Then multiplying 
the' Fluxions by the vanishing quantity <?, we fhall have the fcve- 
ral quantities .\o, yo, zo, r?, cc. which are vanifhing likewife, 
and pioportional to the Fluxions refpedlively. Thefe therefore may 
now reprefent the contemporary Moments- -of x, y, z, v, &c. And 
in general, whatever other flowing .quantities, as well as Lines and 

I Spaces, 



2 54 "*fl je Method of FLUXIONS, 



Spaces, arc reprefented by A-, y, z, -v, &c. as o may (land for a. 
-vanishing quantity of the fame kind, and as x, y, z, v, &c. may 
ftand for their Velocities of increafe or decreafe, (or, if you pleafe, 
fpr Numbers proportional to thofe Velocities,) then may xo, yo, 
zo, i-o, &c. always denote their refpedive fynchronal Moments, 
.or momentary accefiions, and may be admitted into Computations 
.accordingly. And this we corne now to apply. 

15. We muft now have recourfe to a very notable, ufeful, and 
extenfive property, belonging to. all Equations that involve flowing 
Quantities. Which property is, that in the progrefs of flowing, 
the Fluents will continually acquire new values, .by the accefilon of 
contemporary parts of thofe Fluents, and yet the Equation will be 
equally true in all thcfe, cafes. This is a neceffary refult from the Na- 
ture and Definition of variable Quantities. Confequently thefe Fluents 
.rnay be any .how increafed or diminifh'd by their contemporary 
Increments or Decrements ; which Fluents, fo increafed or dimi- 
niihed, may be fubflituted for the others in the Equation. As if 
an Equation mould involve the Fluents x and _y, together with any 
given quantities, and X and Y are fuppofed to be any of their con- 
temporary Augments reflectively. Then in the given Equation we 
may fubflitute x -f- X for x, and y -+- Y for -y, and yet the Equa- 
tion will be .good, or .the equality of the Terms will be prefer ved. 
.So if X and Y were contemporary Decrements, inflead of x and 
y we might fubflitute x X and y Y reflectively. And as this 
inuft hold good of all contemporary Increments or Decrements what- 
ever, whether finitely great or infinitely little, it will be true like- 
wife of contemporary Moments. That is, in flea d of .r and y in 
any Equation, we may fubflitute .v-f- xo and y -t-jo, and yet we 
ihall flill have a good Equation. The tendency of this will appear 
from what immediately follows. 

16. The Author's fingle Example is a kind of Induction, and the 
proof of this may ferve for all cafes. Let the Equation x s a.\* 
+ a xy _>' 5 =o be given as before, including the variable quan- 
tities x and r, inftead of which we may fubflitute thefe quan- 
tities increas'd by their contemporary Moments, or x -- xo and 
y -i-yo respectively. Tlien we ihall have the Equation x -+- xo | 3 
a x x + AO i a -f- a x x -|- xo x y -Jo~ T+"}f > = o. Thefe 
Terms .being expanded, and reduced to three orders or columns, 
according as the vanifhing quantity o is of none, one, or of more 
/limenfions, will ftand as in the Margin. 



and INFINITE SERIES; 255 



17, 18. Here the Terms of the fir ft * 3 + ?* w * +3 A *"* r 1 
order, or column, remove or deftroy one _ fl . v i_ 2f ,^ ox _ a ll'l \ 
another, as being absolutely equal to no- +a.rj> + a.\iy -\-axjs- )>=o, 
thing by the given Equation. They be- _ )3 ^ _,;>, | 
ing therefore expunged, the remaining _ "j. j 

Terms may all be divided by the com- 

mon Multiplier <?, whatever it is. This being- done, all the Terms 
of the third order will ftiil be affecled by o, of one or more dimen- 
fions, and may therefore be expunged, as infinitely lels than the 
others. Laftly, there will only remain thofe of the fecond order or 
column, that is 3.vA.' i zaxx -+- axy 4- ayx Tjy- = o, which 
will be the Fluxional Equation required. Q^. E. D. 

The fame Conclufions may be thus derived, in fomething a dif- 
ferent manner. Let X and Y be any fynchronal Augments of the 
variable quantities A* and y, as befoie, the relation of which quan- 
tities is exhibited by any Equation. Then may tf-J-X and y 4- Y 
be fubfKtuted for x and y in that Equation. Suppofe for inftance 
that x> ax* 4- axy - _y 3 = o ; then by fubftitution we flwll 
have x 4- X | 3 a x .v 4- X | a 4-#x.v4-Xx/4-Y y 4- V | 3 
= o ; or in termini* expanfis .v 5 -f- 3X 1 X -f- 3xX z -+- X 3 ax 1 
2rfxX aX* -t- axy -\- <?.vY4- aXy -f- ^XY j 3 3j a Y 3;'Y 4 

Y 5 = o. But the Terms ,v 3 ax* -+- axy _y 3 = o will va- 
niHi out of the Equation, and leave 3# 1 X 4- 3xX a 4-X 3 2axX 

aX* 4- axV 4- aXy 4- XY y* Y 3/i 7 * Y- == o, for 
the relation of the contemporary Augments, let their magnitude be 
what it will. Or refolving this Equation into an Analogy, the ratio 

,- , ,. A , ,. Y ?r*-|- ^rX-L. X 1 2 ..* /7X -Lv 

of thele Augments may be this, =. - 

X a* ..v _|- -j* - r 3.., + l * 

Now to find the ultimate rc.tio of thefe Augments, or their ratio 
when they become Moments, fuppofe X and V to diminil'h till they 
become vanishing quantities, and then they may be expunged out 
of this value of the ratio. Or in thofe circumftances it will be 



, which is now the ratio of the Moments. And 

- 



P = ~^ - 

- y ax 

this is the fame ratio as that of the Fluxions, or it will be 

.V 1 2f>x--ai . . - 

or 3_)' a axy = $x-x zaxx 4- ayx, as wss 



found before. 

In this way of arguing there is no aflumption made, but what is 
iuflifiable by the received Methods both of the ancient and modern 
Geometricians. We only defend from a general Proportion, which 
is undeniable, to a particular cafe which is certainly included in ir. 

That 



256 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

That is, having the relation of the variable Quantities, we thence 
da-eddy deduce the relation or ratio of their contemporary Aug- 
ments ; and having this, we directly deduce the relation or ratio of 
thofc contemporary Augments when they are nafcent or evanefcent, 
juft beginning or juft ceafing to be ; in a word, when they are Mo- 
ments, or vanilliing Quantities. To evade this realbning, it ought 
to be proved, that no Quantities can be conceived lefs than afiign- 
able Quantities; that the Mind has not the privilege of conceiving 
Quantity as perpetually diminiiLingy/w^w ; that the Conception of 
a .vanishing Quantity, a Moment, an Infinitefimal, &c. includes a 
contradiction : In fhort, that Quantity is not (even mentally) divifi- 
ble ad infinitum ; for to that the Controverfy mufb be reduced at 
laft. But I believe it will be a very difficult matter to extort this 
Principle from the Mathematicians of our days, who have been fo 
long in quiet poiTefTion of it, who are indubitably convinced of the 
evidence and. certainty of it, who continually and fuccefslully ap- 
ply it, arid who- are ready to acknowledge the extreme fertility and 
ufefulnefs of it, upon fo many important occalions. 

19. Nothing remains, I think, but to account for thefe two cir- 
.cumilances, belonging to the Method of Fluxions, which our Au- 
thor briefly mentions here. Firft that the given Equation, whofe 
Fluxional Equation is to be found, may involve any number of 
flowing quantities. This has been fufficiently proved already, and 
we have feen feveral Examples of it. Secondly, that in taking 
Fluxions we need not always confine ourfelves to the progreffion of 
the Indices, but may affume infinite other Arithmetical Progreflions, 
as conveniency may require. This will deferve a little farther illu- 
ftration, tho' it is no other than what muft neceiTarily refult from 
the different forms, which any given Equation may afTume, in an 
infinite variety. Thus the Equation x 3 ax 1 -4- axy j 3 = o, 
being multiply'd by the general quantity x m y", will become #"+*>' 
-r- ax m -$- 1 y" -h ax m+l y"'t' 1 x m y"~^^ = o, which is virtually the fame 
Equation as it was before, tho' it may aiTume infinite forms, accor- 
ding as we pleafe to interpret m and n. And if we take the 
Fluxions of this Equation, in the ufual way, we mall have 
m + i y* -j- nx^rty}*- 1 m -+- zaxx m ^y" nax m ^yy n ~^ -f- 




l -f- n + irf.Y" ! 'j/)- B mxx m ~ I y a ''* n 
.5= o. Now if we divide this again by x"}", we mail have m 
4- nx*j>y~* m -f- 2axx nax*yy~~ l -+- m -+- laxy 4- n-\- \axy 
/xx~*y* n -f- 3j/y a ?= o, which is the fame general Equation as 
was derived before. And the like may be underftood of all other 
Examples. SECT. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 257 

SECT. II. Concerning Fluxions of fuperior orders^ and 
the method of deriving their Equations. 

IN this Treatifc our Author confiders only fir ft Fluxions, and has 
not thought fit to extend his Method to fuperior orders, as not di- 
rectly foiling within his prefent purpofe. For tho' he here purfues 
Speculations which require the ufe of fecond Fluxions, or higher 
orders, yet he has very artfully contrived to reduce them to firft 
Fluxions, and to avoid the necefTity of introducing Fluxions of fu- 
perior orders. In his other excellent Works of this kind, which 
have been publifh'd by himfelf, he makes exprefs mention of them, 
he difcovers their nature and properties, and gives Rules for deriving 
their Equations. Therefore that this Work may be the more fer- 
viceable to Learners, and may fulfil the defign of being an Inftitu- 
tion, I mall here make fome inquiry into the nature of fuperior 
Fluxions, and give fome Rules for finding their Equations. And 
afterwards, in its proper place, I mail endeavour to (hew fomething 
of their application and ufe. 

Now as the Fluxions of quantities which have been hitherto con- 
fider'd, or their comparative Velocities of increafe and decreafe, are 
themfelves, and of their own nature, variable and flowing quantities 
alfo, and as fuch are themfelves capable of perpetual increafe and de- 
crea&, or of perpetual acceleration and retardation ; they may be 
treated as other flowing quantities, and the relation of their Fluxions 
may be inquired and difcover'd. In order to which we will adopt 
our Author's Notation already publifh'd, in which we are to con- 
ceive, that as x, y, z, &c. have their Fluxions #, j, z., &c. fo thefe 
likewife have their Fluxions x, /, z,&c.which are the fecond Fluxions 
of x, v, z, &c. And thefe again, being ftill variable quantities, have 

j. 

their Fluxions denoted by x, y, z, &c. which are the third Fluxions 
of x, y, z, &c. And thefe again, being ftill flowing quantities, 

have their Fluxions x, /, z, &c. which are the fourth Fluxions of 
x, y, z, &c. And fo we may proceed to fuperior orders, as far as 
there mall be occafion. Then, when any Equation is propofed, con- 
futing of variable quantities, as the relation of its Fluxions may be 
found by what has been taught before ; fo by repeating only the fame 
operation, and confidering the Fluxions as flowing Quantities^ the 

L 1 relation 



258 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

relation of the fecond Fluxions may be found. And the like for all 
higher orders of Fluxions. 

Thus if we have the Equation y* ax = o, in which are the 
two Fluents y and x, we fhall have the firft Fluxional Equation zyy 

ax - o. And here, as we have the three Fluents j>, y, and x, 
if we take the Fluxions again, we fhall have the fecond Fluxional 
Equation zyy -+- zy* ax= o. And here, as there are four Fluents 
y, y, y, and x, if we take the Fluxions again, we fhall have the 

.. . 

third Fluxional Equation zyy + zyy -f- ^.yy ax = o, or zyy 4- 

bjy ax = o. And here, as there are five Fluents y, y, y, y, and x, 
if we take the Fluxions again, we fhall have the fourth Fluxional 

Equation zyy + zyy -f- 6yy -+- 6y l ax = o, or zyy -+- Syy -f- 6y* 

ax = o. And here, as there are fix Fluents y, y, y, y, y, and x y 
if we take the Fluxions again, we fhall have zyy + zyy -f- 8yy -{- 

fyy _j_ i zyy ax = o, or zyy +- i oyy -f- zoyy ax = o, for the 
fifth Fluxional Equation. And fo on to the fixth, feventh, 6cc. 

Now the Demonftration of this will proceed much after the man- 
ner as our Author's Demonftration of firft Fluxions, and is indeed 
virtually included in it. For in the given Equation^* ax = o } 
if we fuppofe y and x to become at the fame time y -f- yo and x-)- xo, 
(that is, if we fuppofe yo and xo to denote the fynchronal Moments 
of the Fluents y and x,) then by fubftitution we fhall have ~y +yo\ * 

a x x -f- xo = o, or in termini* expanjis, y 1 -f- zyyo -+-y*o* ax 

axo = o. Where expunging y 1 ax = o, andj/ 1 ^ 1 , and divi- 
ding the reft by o, it will be zyy ax = o for the firft fluxional 
Equation. Now in this Equation, if we fuppofe the fynchronal 
Moments of the Fluents y, y, and x, to beyo } yo t and xo refpedively ; 
for thofe Fluents we may fubftitute y -f-jj/o, y -+-yo, and x+ xo in 
the kft Equation, and it will become zy-t-zyoxy-l-yo axx + xo 
r. o, or expanding, zyy -f- zyyo +- zyyo -+- zy'yoo ax axo = o. 
Here becaufe zyy ax= o by the given Equation, and becaufe 
zy'yoo vanishes ; divide the reft by o, and we fhall have zy* + zyy 

ax = o for the fecond fluxional Equation. Again in this Equa- 
tion, if we fuppofe the Synchronal Moments of the Fluents y, y t 

y, and x t to be yo, yo, yo, and xo refpedively ; for thofe Fluents 

we 



and INFINITE SERIES. 259 

we may fubftitute y+yo, y + yo, y-t-yo, a^id x +- xo in the lad 

.. j a 

Equation, and it will become 2x7 -\-yo \ +- zy -+- 2yo x y -f- yo 
a x x _j_ xo o, or expanding and collecting, 2j* + 6yyo -t- 2y*o l 

_}_ 2 yy -+- 2yyo -t- s;^ 1 ax axo = o. But here becaufe 2j' s 
_l_ 2/_y rfx = o by the laft Equation ; dividing the reft by o, and 
expunging all the Terms in which o will ftill be found, we fliall 

have 6yy -+- 2yy ax = o for the third fluxional Equation. And 
in like manner for all other orders of Fluxions, and for all other 
Examples. Q^ E. D. 

To illuftrate the method of rinding fuperior Fluxions by another 
Example, let us take our Author's Equation # 5 ax 3 - -{-axy y> 
= o, in which he has found the fimpleft relation of the Fluxions 
to be 3x^ a zaxx -h axy +- axy 3^/7* = o. Here we have the 
flowing quantities x, y, x, y ; and by the fame Rules the Fluxion of 
this Equation, when contracled, will be 3#w i + 6x*x 2axx 
zax* H- axy -+- 2axy -\- axy 3vy s 6jf !L y = o. And in this Equa- 
tion we have the flowing quantities x, y, x,y, x, y, fo that taking 
the Fluxions again by the fame Rules, we fhall have the Equation, 



when contracted, ^xx l -f- iSxxx -{- 6x 3 2axx 6axx -f- axy -f- 

%axy -+- T,a.\y -f. axy 3 yy* i fyyy 6y s = o. And as in this 
Equation there are found the flowing quantities x, y, x, y y x, y, 

x, y, we might proceed in like manner to find the relations of the 
fourth Fluxions belonging to this Equation, and all the following 
orders of Fluxions. 

And here it may not be amifs to obferve, that as the propofed 
Equation expreffes the conflant -elation of the variable quantities x 
and y -, and as the firft fluxional Equation exprefles the conftant re- 
lation of the variable (but finite i.nd alTignable) quantities x and y, 
which denote the comparative Velocity of increafe or decreale of x 
and y in the propcfed Equation : So the fecond fluxional Equation 
will exprefs the conftant relation of the variable (but finite and aflig- 
nable) quantities x and y y which denote the comparative Velocity of 
the increafe or decreafe ot .v and_y in the foregoing Equation. And in 
the third fluxional Equation we have the conftant relation ot the variable 

(but finite and aflignable) quantities .v and r, which will denote the 

L 1 2 com- 



260 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

comparative Velocity of the increafe or decreafe of "x and "y in the 
foregoing Equation. And fo on for ever. Here the Velocity of a 
Velocity, however uncouth it may found, will be no abfurd Idea 
when rightly conceived, but on the contrary will be a very rational 
and intelligible Notion. If there be fuch a thing as Motion any how 
continually accelerated, that continual Acceleration will be the Ve- 
locity of a Velocity ; and as that variation may be continually va- 
ried, that is, accelerated or retarded, there will 'be in nature, or at 
leafl in the Understanding, the Velocity of a Velocity of a Velocity. 
Or in other words, the Notion offecond, third, and higher Fluxions, 
muft be admitted as found and genuine. But to proceed : 

We may much abbreviate the Equations now derived, by the 
known Laws of Analyticks. From the given Equation x* ax 1 -+- 
ax y y"' = ^ere is found a new Equation, wherein, becaufe of 
two new Symbols x and y introduced, we are at liberty to aflume 
another Equation, belides this now found, in order to a jufl De- 
termination. For fimplicity-fake we may make x Unity, or any 
other conftant quantity ; that is, we may fuppofe x to flow equably, 
and therefore its Velocity is uniform. Make therefore x = i } and 

the firft fluxional Equation will become 3^* 2ax -+- ay + axy 

3j)/)' 1 = o. So in the Equation 3x.v a -f- 6x*x 2axx 2ax* -+. 
axy -i- zaxy -h axy 3 vj* 6y\y = o there are four new Sym- 
bols introduced, x, y, x, and r, and therefore we may afiume two 
other congruous Equations, which together with the two now found, 
will amount to a compleat Determination. Thus if for the fake of 
fimplicity we make one to be x = i, the other will' neceflarily be 
.v =o ; and thefe being fubftituted, will reduce the fecond fluxionaj 
Equation to this, 6x 2.0. -f- iay -f- axy ^yy- 6y*y o. And 
thus in the next Equation, wherein there are fix new Symbols 

x, }', x, y, x, y ; befides the three Equations now found, we may 
take x= i, and thence x=o, x= o, which will reduce it 

to 6 -f- $ay -+- axy yy* i $yyy 6f> == o. And the like of 
Equations of fucceeding orders. 

But all thefe Reductions and Abbreviations will be beft made as 
the Equations are derived. Thus the propofed Equation being x~> 
ax* + axy y= = o, taking the Fluxions, and at the fame time 

making x= i, (and confequently x, x, &c. =o,) we (hall have 
3** zax + ay + axy zyy* = o. And taking the Fluxions 

again. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



261 



again, it will be 6x 20. -f- zay +- axy 3 yy* 6y*y = i o. 

And taking the Fluxions again, it will be 6 -f- $d'y -+- axy %yy* 
6y*> = o. And taking the Fluxions again, it will be 

axy 3^ 4 2 4-yy'y i%y 1 y 3677* = o. And fo on, as 
far as there is occafion. 

But now for the clearer apprehenfion of thefe feveral orders of 
Fluxions, I (hall endeavour to illuftrate them by a Geometrical 
Figure, adapted to a iimple and a particular cafe. Let us allume 
the Equation y 1 r=ax, otyzs=ia*x*, which will therefore belong to 
the Parabola ABC, whole Parameter is AP = tf, Abfcifs AD = x, 
and Ordinate LD =y ; where AP is a Tangent at the Vertex A. 
Then taking the Fluxions, we fhall have y = yaPsve~~*. And fup- 
pofing the Parabola to be defcribed by the equable motion of the 
Ordinate upon the Abfcifs, that equable Velocity may be expounded 
by the given Line or Parameter a, that is, we may put x = a. Then 



\t\v]\ibey=(a*x *= ~ = "? = ) -?- , which will give us 

zx k 2X ' 2X ' 

this Conftrudtion. Make x (AD) : y (BD) :: a (|AP) : DG = 
= y, and the Line DG will therefore 

zx J 

reprefent the Fluxion of y or BD. And if 
this be done every where upon AE, (or if 
the Ordinate DG be fuppos'd to move upon 
AE with a parallel motion,) a Curve GH 
will be conftiucted or delcribed, whofe Ordi- 
nates will every where expound the Fluxions 
of the correfponding Ordinates of the Pa- 
rabola ABC. This Curve will be one of 
the Hyperbola's between the Afymptotes 

3. 

AE and AP ; for its Equation isjx= -11 , 

Or yy = . 

Again, from the Equation y = " , or 2 *y = ay, by taking 
the Fluxions again, and putting x =a as before, we fhall have 
zay -{- 2xy=aj,ory = J j where the negative fign {hews only, 

that_y is to be confider'd rather as a retardation than an acceleration, 
or an acceleration the contrary way. Now this will give us the 

following 




202 ?2* Method of FLUXIONS, 

following Conftruaion. Make x (AD) : y (DG) : : \a (iAP) ; 
DI = y, and the Line DI will therefore reprefent the Fluxion of 
DG, or of j, and therefore the fecond Fluxion of BD, or of/. 
And if this be done every where upon AE, a Curve IK will be 
comlructed, whofe Ordinates will always expound the fecond Fluxions 
of the correfponding Ordinates of the Parabola ABC. This Curve 
likewife will be one of the Hyperbola's, for its Equation is y = 

/Jy fl* G. * 

a* ^ 1 6*5 

Again, from the Equation y = ^- v , or 2xy = ay' t 

^by taking the Fluxions we mail have 2ay zxy =: ay., or 
~ y=~ , which will give us this Conftrudlion. Make x (AD) : 

y (DI) :: \a (|AP) : DL=y, and the Line DL will therefore 
reprefent the Fluxion of DI, or of y, the fecond Fluxion of DG, 
or of y, and the third Fluxion of BD, or of^. And if this be 
done every where upon AE, a Curve LM will be conflructed, whofe 
Ordinates will always expound the third Fluxions of the correfpon- 
ding Ordinates of the Parabola ABC. This Curve will be an Hyper- 
bola, and its Equation will be y=. '=-1 ; , or yy= 64*"* " 



And fo we might proceed to conftrucl Curves, the Ordinates of 
which (in the prefent Example) would expound or reprefent the 
fourth, fifth, and other orders of Fluxions. 

We might likewife proceed in a retrograde order, to find the. 
Curves whofe Ordinates mall reprefent the Fluents of any of thefe 

3. 

Fluxions, when given. As if we had y = , = La*xx~* } or if 
the Curve GH were given ; by taking the Fluents, (as will be 
taught in the next Problem,) it would be y = (a^x*= ^-r = ) 

- , which will give us this Conftruction. Make \a (|AP) : 

.v (AD) :: y (DG) : DB = 2 -J , and the Line DB will reprefent 

the Fluent of DG, or of y. And if this be done every where upon 
the Line AE, a Curve AB will be con ftru died, whofe Ordinates 
will always expound the Fluents of the correfponding Ordinates of 
the Curve GH. This Curve will be the common Parabola, whofe 

i Parameter 



and INFINITE SERIES. 263 

Parameter is the Line AP = a. For its Equation is y = a*x'* t 
or yy=ax. 

So if we had the Parabola ABC, we might conceive its Ordinates 
to reprefent Fluxions, of which the correfponding Ordinates 
of fome other Curve, fiippofe QR, would reprefent the Fluents. 

To find which Curve, put y for the Fluent of y, y for the Fluent 

/ Iff n I .. .: 

of y, &c. (That is, let, &c. _/, y, y, /, j/, y, y, &c. be a Series of 
Terms proceeding both ways indefinitely, of which every fucceed- 
ing Term reprefents the Fluxion of the preceding, and vice versa ; 
according to a Notation of our Author's, deliver'd elfewhere.) Then 

becaufe it is_y = (div*=<z^x^ =) ^r , taking the Fluents it 

' .x ' % \ 

will be y = [, = 2f!i! = ) Z J2. ; which will give us this Con- 
W 3 y 3* 

ftrudion. Make $a (|AP) : ft (AD) :: y (BD) : -^ =y = DQ^ 

and the Line DQ^will reprefent the Fluent of DB, or of y. And 
if the fame be done at every point of the Line AE, a Curve QR 
will be form'd, the Ordinates of which will always expound the 
Fluents of the correfponding Ordinates of the Parabola ABC. This 
Curve alfo will be a Parabola, but of a higher order, the Equation 



3. I I 



of which is^= * , or yy = . 

3^ 

Again, becaufe y = f zx ~ == 3ilJL = \ 2 ^fl . taking the Flu- 

\ $a? $a l v. a J ->.a.'- 

" / "* i 7 

ents it will be y=( JfL.sff! |x"= W , which will give us this 



Conftruaion. Make | (|AP) : x (AD) : : y ( DQ^J : = _y 

/ 

= DS, and the Line DS will reprefent the Fluent of DQ^, or of_y. 
And if the fame be done at every point of the Line AE, a Curve 
ST will thereby be form'd, the Ordinates of which will expound 
the Fluents of the correfponding Ordinates of the Curve QR. This 

// i //// 

Curve will be a Parabola, whofe Equation is jy= 1^1 , or yy = 

^-. . And fo we might go on as far as we pleafe, 

Laftlv, 



264 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Laftly, if we conceive DB, the common Ordinate of all thefe 
Curves, to be any where thus conftrucled upon AD, that is, to be 
thus divided in the points S, Q^ B, G, I, L, 6cc. from whence to 
AP are drawn Ss, Qtf, B^, Gg, I/, L/, 6cc. parallel to AE ; and 
if this Ordinate be farther conceived to move either backwards or 
forwards upon AE, with an equable Velocity, (reprefented by 
AP = tf = x,) and as it defcribes thefe Curves, to carry the afore- 
faid Parallels along with it in its motion : Then the points s, q, b,g, 
i, /, &c. will likewife move in fuch a manner, in the Line AP, as 
that the Velocity of each point will be reprefented by the diflance 
of the next from the point A. Thus the Velocity of s will be re- 
prefented by Aq, the Velocity of q by A, of b by Ag, of g by A/, 
of / by A/, &c. Or in other words, Aq will be the Fluxion of A.S ; 
Al> will be the Fluxion of Ag, or the fecond Fluxion of As ; Ag 
will be the Fluxion of Ab, or the fecond Fluxion of Aq, or the third. 
Fluxion of As ; Ai will be the Fluxion of Ag, or the fecond Fluxion 
of Ah, or the third Fluxion of Aq, or the fourth Fluxion of As ; 
and fo on. Now in this inftance the feveral orders of Fluxions, or 
Velocities, are not only expounded by their Proxies and Reprefen- 
tatives, but alfo are themfelves actually exhibited, as far as may be 
done by Geometrical Figures. And the like obtains wherever elfe 
we make a beginning ; which fufficiently mews the relative nature 
of all thefe orders of Fluxions and Fluents, and that they differ from 
each other by mere relation only, and in the manner of conceiving. 
And in general, what has been obferved from this Example, may 
be eafily accommodated to any other cafes whatfoever. 

Or thefe different orders of Fluents and Fluxions may be thus ex- 
plain'd abftractedly and Analytically, without the afliftance of Curve- 
lines, by the following general Example. Let any conflant and 
known quantity be denoted by a, and let a" be any given Power 
or Root of the lame. And let x n be the like Power or Root of 
the variable and indefinite quantity x. Make a m : x m : : a : y, or 

m 

y = ^ = a l ~ m x m . Here y alfo will be an indefinite quantity, 

a 

which will become known as foon as the value of x is affign'd. 
Then taking the Fluxions, it will be y = ma l ~ m xx m ~ 1 ; and fup- 
pofing x to flow or increafe uniformly, and making its constant 
Velocity or Fluxion x = a, it will be y = ma* m x m -*. Here if 

for a 1 n x m we write its value y, it will be y = , that is, x : 

ma : : y : y. So that y will be alfo a known and affignable Quan- 
tity, 



and I N FINITE SERIES. 265 

tity, whenever x (and therefore y) is affign'd. Then taking the 
Fluxions again, we mall have^=wxw ia* "xx"- 1 - = ;;; x 
; irtS"""^*"" 1 ; or for ma"-~ m x m ~ l writing its value y, it will be 

y = ~~ x ta - v , that is, x : m la : : y : y. So that y will be- 
come a known quantity, when x (and therefore y and y) is affign'd. 
Then taking the Fluxions again, we fhall have y = m x m i x 
m ?.a*- m \ m -*, or y=.-^~ , that is, x : m za :: y : y 

where alfo y will be known, when x is given. And taking the 
Fluxions again, we fhall have y = rnx m i x m 2 x m 



= - - ; that is, x : m 30 :: y : /. So that y will alfo be 
known, whenever x is given. And from this Inductipn we may 
conclude in general, that if the order of Fluxions be denoted by any 
integer number ?/, or if n be put for the number of points over the 

^_____ n ll-l-i 

Letter y t it will always be x : m na : : y : y ; or from the 
Fluxion of any order being given, the Fluxion of the next imme- 
diate order may be hence found. 

_______ "+t n 

Or we may thus invert the proportion m na : x : : y : y } 
and then from the Fluxion given, we fhall find its next immedi- 

ate Fluent. As if = 2, 'tis m za : A; : : y : y. If n - i 
'tis m \a : x :: y : y. If 72 = 0, 'tis ma : x : : y : y. And 
obferving the fame analogy, if n== i, 'tis m-- ia : x :: y : 

y ; where y is put for the Fluent of; 1 , or for y with a negative point. 
And here becaufe y=.a l - m x m , it will be m 4- la : x :: a 1 -" 1 *" : 

' I ~V+ l v" 1 -*- 1 

y, or y = _ = ^ : which alfo may thus appear. Be- 

m-\-\a m-\-\a 

caufe y = {a*-<"x*> = __Zj__T =) il , taking the Fluents, (fee the 

/ m-f,, 

next Problem,) it will be y = ^ - . Again, if we make = 2, 

m 



. -- I II I +... 

tism-{-2a : x :: y ; y } or y = .. v .. = * - . For 



a 

M m becaufe 



266 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 



becaufe y = .f - x - == 

m 



, taking the Fluents it will be 

w 



-. _ m+ i . Again, if we make = 3, 'tis m -|- 




And fo for 

-t-3 m + l X m -\- 2 x j+3a l "~'~* 

all other fuperior orders of Fluents. 

And this may fuffice in general, to mew the comparative nature 
and properties of thefe feveral orders of Fluxions and Fluents, and 
to teach the operations by which they are produced, or to find their 
refpeftive fluxional Equations. As to the ufes they may be apply 'd 
to, when found, that will come more properly to be confider'd in 
another place. 

SECT. III. Tfte Geometrical and Mechanical Elements 

of Fluxions, 

THE foregoing- Principles of the Doftrine of Fluxions being 
chiefly abftradted and Analytical I mail here endeavour, af- 
ter a general manner, to (hew fomething analogous to them in Geo- 
metry a.nd Mechanicks ; by which they may become, not only the 
objeft of the Underftanding, and of the Imagination, (which will only 
prove their poffible exiftence,) but even of Senfe too, by making 
them adually to exift in a vifible and fenfible form. For jt is now 
become neceffary to exhibit them all manner of ways, in order to 
give a fatisfaclpry proof, thai they have indeed any real exiftence at 
all. 

And fir ft, by way of prepara- 
tion, it will be convenient to con- 
fider Uniform and equable motions, 
as alfo fuch as are alike inequable. 

Let the right Line AB be defcribed 

by the equable motion of a point, 

which is now at E, and will pre- 

fently be at G. Alfo let the Line 

CD, parallel to the former, be de- 

fcribed by the equable motion of a point, which is in H and K, at 

the farne times as the former is in E and G. Then will EG and 

HK be contemporaneous Lines, and therefore will be proportional to 

the 



~ 




and INFINITE SERIES. 267 

the Velocity of each moving point refpedlively. Draw the indefi- 
nite Lines EH and GK, meeting in L ; then becaufe of like Tri-^ 
angles ELG and HLK, the Velocities of the points E and H, which 
were before as EG and HK, will be now as EL and HL. Let 
the defcribing points G and K be conceived to move back, again, 
with the fame Velocities, towards A and C, and before they ap- 
proach to E and H let them be found in g and ^, at any fmall 
diftance from E and H, and draw gk, which will pafs through L ; 
then ftill their Velocities will be in the ratio of Eg and H/, be thofe 
Lines ever fo little, that is, in the ratio of EL and HL. Let 
the moving points g and k continue to move till they coincide with 
E and H ; in which cafe the decreeing Lines Eg and H will pafs 
through all polYible magnitudes that are lefs and lefs, and will finally 
become vanishing Lines. For they muft intirely vanifh at the fame 
moment, when the points g and k mall coincide with E and H. 
In all which ftates and circumftances they will ftill retain the ratio 
of EL to HL, with which at laft they will finally vaniih. Let 
thofe points ftill continue to move, after they have coincided with 
E and H, and let them be found again at the fame time in y and 
K, at any diftance beyond E and H, Still the Velocities, which are 
now as Ey and H*, and may be efteemed negative, will be as EL 
and HL, whether thofe Lines Ey and Hx are of any finite magni- 
tude, or are only nafcent Lines ; that is, if the Line yx.L, by its 
angular motion, be but juft beginning to emerge and divaricate from 
EHL. And thus it will be when both thefe motions are equable 
motions, as alfo when they are alike inequable ; in both which 
cafes the common interfedlion of all the Lines EHL, GKL, gkL, &c. 
-will be the fixt point L. But when either or both thefe motions 
are fappos'd to be inequable motions, or to be any how continually 
accelerated or retarded, thefe Symptoms will be fomething different ; 
for then the point L, which will ftill be the common interfeclion 
of thofe Lines when they firft begin to coincide, or to divaricate, 
will no longer be a fixt but a moveable point, and an account muft 
be had of its motion. For this purpofe we may have recourfe to 
the following Lemma. 

Let AB be an indefinite and fixt right Line, along which anothe: 
indefinite but moveable right Line DE may be conceived to move or 
roll in fuch a manner, as to have both a progreflive motion, as alfo aa 
angular motion about a moveable Center C. That is, the common 
interfection C of the two Lines AB and DE may be fuppofed to 
move with any progreffive motion from A towards B, while at the 

M m 2 fame 




26S The Method of FLUXIONS, 

tame time the moveable Line DE revolves about 
the lame point C, with any angular motion. Then 
as the Angle ACD continually decreafes, and at 
laft vanifhes when the two Lines ACB and DCE 
coincide ; yet even then the point of interfection 
C, (as it may be ftill call'd,) will not be loft and 
annihilated, but will appear again, as foon as the 
Lines begin to divaricate, or to feparate from each 
other. That is, if C be the point of interfeclion 
before the coincidence, and c the point of interfec- 
tion after the coincidence, when the Line dee {hall 
again emerge out of AB ; there will be fome inter- 
mediate point L, in which C and c were united in 
the fame point, at the moment of coincidence. This 
point, for diftin&ion-fake, may be call'd the Node, 
or the point of no divarication. Now to apply this 
to inequable Motions : 

Let the Line AB be defcribed by the continually accelerated mo- 
tion of a point, which is now in E, and will be prefently found inr 
G. Alfo let the Line CD, parallel to the former, be defcribed by 
the equable mo- 
tion of a point, 
which is found 
in H and K, at 
the fame times as 
the other point 
is in E and G. 
Then willEG and 
HK be contem- 
poraneous Lines ; 
and producing 
EH and GK till 
they meet in I, 
thofe contempo- 
raneous Lines will be as El and HI refpedlively. Let the defcribing 
points G and K be conceived to move back again towards A and C, 
each with the fame degrees of Velocity, in every point of their mo- 
tion, as they had before acquired ; and let them arrive at the fame 
time at g and k, at fome fmall diftance from E and H, and draw 
gki meeting EH in /. Then Eg and Hk, being contemporary Lines 
alfo, and very little by fuppofuion, they will be nearly as the Ve- 
locities 




and INFINITE SERIES, 



269 



locities at g and k, that is, at E and H ; which contemporary 
Lines will be now as E/' and H/'. Let the points g and k continue 
their motion till they coincide with E and H, or let the Line GKI 
or gki continue its progremve and angular motion in this manner, 
till it coincides with EHL, and let L be the Node, or point of no 
divarication, as in the foregoing Lemma. Then will the laft ratio 
of the vanifhing Lines Eg- and lik, which is the ratio of the Velo- 
' cities at E and H, be as EL and HL refpe&ively. 

Hence we have this Corollary. If the point E (in the foregoing 
figure,) be fuppos'd to move from A towards B, with a Velocity 
any how accelerated, and at the fame time the point H moves from 
C towards D with an equable Velocity, (or inequable, if you pleafe ; ) 
thofe Velocities in E and H will be refpectively as the Lines EL and 
HL, which point L is to be found, by fuppofmg the contemporary 
Lines EG and HK continually to dkninim, and finally to vanim. 
Or by fuppofmg the moveable indefinite Line GKI to move with a 
progreffive and angular motion, in fuch manner, as that EG and 
HK fhall always be contemporary Lines, till at laft GKI mall co- 
incide with the Line EHL, at which time it will determine the Node 
L, or the point of no divarication. So that if the Lines AE and 
CH reprefent two Fluents, any how related, their Velocities of de- 
fcription at E and H, or their refpe&ive Fluxions, will be in the 
ratio of EL and HL. 

And hence it will fol- ^ 

low alfo, that the Lo- 
cus of the moveable 
point or Node L-, that 
is, of all the points of C 
no divarication, will be 
fome Curve-line L/, to 
which the Lines EHL 
and GK/ will always be 
Tangents in L and /. 
And the nature of this 
Curve L/ may be deter- 
mined by the given re- 
lation of the Fluents or Lines AE and CH ; and vice versa. Or 
however the relation of its intercepted Tangents EL and HL may 
be determined in all cafes ; that is, the ratio of the Fluxions of the 
given Fluents. 

For 



IH 





T> 



270 tte Method of FLUXLONS, 

For illuftration-fake, let us apply this to an Example. Make the 
Fluents AE= y and CH ;= x, and let the relation of thefe be always 
exprefs'd by this Equation y = x". Make the contemporary Lines 
EG = Y and HKs=X.; and becaufe AE and CH are contempo- 
rary by fuppofition, we fhall have the whole Lines AG and CK 
contemporary alfo, and thence the Equation y -f-Y= x -j-X | . This 
by our Author's Binomial Theorem will produce y -+- Y = x" + 

-nx"~ 1 X -+- n x"-^-x*~*X* , &c. which ( becaufe y = x" ) will be- 
come Y= x"- I X-J- x ^-^Ar'-^X 1 , &c. or in an Analogy, X : 

y :: i : nx n ~ l + x ^-^""^X, &c. which will be the general re- 
lation of the contemporary Lines or Increments EG and HK. Now 
let us fuppofe the indefinite Line GKI, which limits thefe contem- 
porary Lines, to return back by a progrefiive and angular motion, 
fo as always to intercept contemporary Lines EG and HK, and 
finally to coincide with EHL, and by that means to determine the 
Node L; that is, we may fuppofe EG = Y and HK = X, to di- 
minifli hi i-nfinitum, and to become vanifhing Lines, in which cafe 
we fhall have X : Y : : i : nx"~ l . But then it will be like wife X : 
Y : : HK : EG :: HL : EL : : x : y, or i : nx"~' : : x :y, ory=nxx'. 
And hence we may have an expedient for exhibiting Fluxions 
and Fluents Geometrically and Mechanically, in all circumftances, 
fo as to make them the objects of Senfe and ocular Demonftration. 
Thus in the laft figure, let the two parallel lines AB and CD be de- 
fcribed by the motion of two points E and H, of which E moves 
any how inequably, and (if you pleafe) H may be fuppos'd to move 
equably and uniformly ; and let the points H and K correfpond to 
E and G. Alfo let the relation of the Fluents AE =r y and 
CH = x be defined by any Equation whatever. Suppofe now the 
defcribing points E and H to carry along with them the indefinite 
Line EHL, in all their motion, by which means the point or Node 
L will defcribe fome Curve L/, to which EL will always be a Tan- 
gent in L. Or fuppofe EHL to be the Edge of a Ruler, of an in- 
definite length, which moves with a progreffive and angular mo- 
tion thus combined together ; the moveable point or Node L in this 
Line, which will have the leaft angular motion, and which is always 
the point of no divarication, will defcribe the Curve, and the Line 
or Edge itfelf will be a Tangent to it in L. Then will the feg- 
ments EL and HL be proportional to the Velocity of the points 
E and H refpeclively ; or will exhibit the ratio of the Fluxions y 
a-nd x, belonging to the Fluents AE=y and CF = x. 

i Or 



and INFINITE SERIES. 271 

Or if we fuppofe the Curve L/to be given, or already conftmcled, 
we may conceive the indefinite Line EHIL to revolve or roll about 
it, and by continually applying itfelf to it, as a Tangent, to move 
from the fituation EHIL to GK.ll. Then will AE and CH be the 
Fluents, the fenfible velocities of the defcribing points E and H will 
be their Fluxions, and the intercepted Tangents EL and HL will 
be the redlilinear meafures of thofe Fluxions or Velocities. Or it 
may be reprefented thus : If L/ be any rigid obftacle in form of a 
Curve, about which a flexible Line, or Thread, is conceived to be 
wound, part of which is ftretch'd out into a right Line LE, which 
will therefore touch the Curve in L ; if the Thread be conceived to 
be farther wound about the Curve, till it comes into the fituation 
L/KG ; by this motion it will exhibit, even to the Eye, the fame 
increafing Fluents as before, their Velocities of increafe, or their 
Fluxions, as alfo the Tangents or rectilinear reprefentatives of thofe 
Fluxions. And the fame may be done by unwinding the Thread, 
in the manner of an Evolute. Or inftead of the Thread we may 
make ufe of a Ruler, by applying its Edge continually to the 
curved Obftacle L/, and making it any how revolve about the move- 
able point of Contadl L or /. In all which manners the Fluents, 
Fluxions, and their rectilinear meafures, will be fenfibly and mecha- 
nically exhibited, and therefore they muft be allowed to have a place 
in rernm naturd. And if they are in nature, even tho' they were but 
barely pofiible and conceiveable, much more if they are fenfible 
and vifible, it is the province of the Mathematicks, by fome me- 
thod or other, to investigate and determine their properties and pro- 
portions. 

Or as by one Thread EHL, perpetually winding about the curved 
obftacle L/, of a due figure, we mall fee the Fluents AE and CH 
continually to increafe or decreafe, at any rate aflign'd, by the mo- 
tion of the Thread EHL either backwards or forwards ; and as we 
(hall thereby fee the comparative Velocities of the points E and H, 
that is, the Fluxions of the Fluents AE and CH, and alfo the Lines 
EL and HL, whofe variable ratio is always the rectilinear meafure of 
thofe Fluxions : So by the help of another Thread GK/L, wind- 
ing about the obftacle in its part /L, and then ftretching out into a 
right Line or Tangent /KG, and made to move backwards or for- 
wards, as before ; if the firft Thread be at reft in any given fitua- 
tion EHL, we may fee the fecond Thread defcribe the contempo- 
porary Lines or Increments EG and HK, by which the Fluents 
AE and CH are continually increafed ; and if GK/ is made to ap- 
proach 



272 ^ e Method of FLUXIONS, 

proach towards EHL, we may fee thofe contemporary Lines conti- 
imallv to diminim, and their ratio continually approaching towards 
the ratio of EL to HL ; and continuing the motion, we may pre- 
fently fee thofe two Lines actually to coincide, or to unite as one 
Line, and then we may fee the contemporary Lines actually to va- 
ntfh at the fame time, and their ultimate ratio actually to become 
that of EL to HL. And if the motion be ftill continued, we mall 
fee the Line GK/ to emerge again out of EHL, and begin to de- 
fcribe other contemporary Lines, whofe nafcent proportion will be 
that of EL to HL. And fo we may go on till the Fluents are ex- 
haufted. All thefe particulars may be thus eafily made the objects 
of fight, or of Ocular Demonftration. 

This may ftill be added, that as we have here exhibited and re- 
prefented firft Fluxions geometrically and mechanically, we may do 
the fame thing, mutatis mutandis, by any higher orders of Fluxions. 
Thus if we conceive a fecond figure, in which the Fluential Lines fhall 
increafe after the rate of the ratio of the intercepted Tangents (or the 
Fluxions) of the firft figure ; then its intercepted Tangents will ex- 
pound the ratio of the fecond Fluxions of the Fluents in the firft 
figure. Alfo if we conceive a third figure, in which the Fluential 
Lines fhall increafe after the rate of the intercepted Tangents of 
the fecond figure ; then its intercepted Tangents will expound the 
third Fluxions of the Fluents in the firft figure. And fo on as far 
as we pleafe. This is a neceflary confequence from the relative na- 
ture of thefe feveral orders of Fluxions, which has been fhewn be- 
fore. 

And farther to mew the univerfality of this Speculation, and how 
well it is accommodated to explain and reprefent all the circumftan- 
ces of Fluxions and Fluents; we may here take notice, that it may 
be alfo adapted to thofe cafes, in which there are more than two 
Fluents, which have a mutual relation to each other, exprefs'd by 
one or more Equations. For we need but introduce a third parallel 
Line, and fuppofc it to be defcribed by a third point any how mov- 
ing, and that any two of thefe defcribing points carry an indefinite 
Line along with them, which by revolving as a Tangent, defcribes 
the Curve whofe Tangents every where determine the Fluxions. As 
alfo that any other two of thofe three points are connected by an- 
other indefinite Line, which by revolving in like manner defcribes 
another fuch Curve. And fo there may be four or more parallel 
Lines. All but one of thefe Curves may be affumed at pleafure, 
when they are not given by the ftate of the Queftion. Or Analy- 
tically, 



' ///. j //'//<'. i , i( //. uvuutm / v /( v Y fa /?//// 



2-3. 




and INFINITE SERIES. 273 

tically, fo many Equations may be aflumed, except one, (if not 
given by the Problem,) as is the number of the Fluents concern'd. 

But laftly, I believe it may not be difficult to give a pretty good 
notion of Fluents and Fluxions, even to fuch Perlbns as are not 
much verfed in Mathematical Speculations, if they are willing to be 
iniorm'd, and have but a tolerable readinefs of apprehenfion. This 
I {hall here attempt to perform, in a familiar way, by the inftance 
of a Fowler, who is aiming to (lioot two Birds at once, as is re- 
prefented in the Frontifpiece. Let us fuppofe the right Line AB 
to be parallel to the Horizon, or level with the Ground, in which 
a Bird is now flying at G, which was lately at F, and a little be- 
fore at E. And let this Bird be conceived to fly, not with an equable 
or uniform fwiftnefs, but with a fwiftnefs that always increafes, (or 
with a Velocity that is continually accelerated,) according to fome 
known rate. Let there alfo be another right Line CD, parallel to 
the former, at the fame or any other convenient diftance from the 
Ground, in which another Bird is now flying at K, which was lately 
at I, and a little before at H ; juft at the fame points of time as the 
firft Bird was at G, F, E, refpectively. But to fix our Ideas, and 
to make our Conceptions the more fimple and eafy, let us imagine 
this fecond Bird to fly equably, or always to defcribe equal parts of 
the Line CD in equal times. Then may the equable Velocity of 
this Bird be ufed as a known meafure, or ftandard, to which we 
may always compare the inequable Velocity of the firft Bird. Let 
us now fuppofe the right Line EH to be drawn, and continued to 
the point L, fo that the proportion (or ratio) of the two Lines EL 
and HL may be the fame as that of the Velocities of the two 
Birds, when they were at E and H refpeclively. And let us far- 
ther fuppole, that the Eye of a Fowler was at the fame time at the 
point L, and that he directed his Gun, or Fowling-piece, according 
to the right Line LHE, in hopes to moot both the Birds at once. 
But not thinking himfelf then to be fufficiently near, he forbears 
to difcharge his Piece, but ftill pointing it at the two Birds, he 
continually advances towards them according to the direction of his 
Piece, till his Eye is prefently at M, and the Birds at the fame time in F 
and I, in the fame right Line FIM. And not being yet near enough, 
we may fuppofe him to advance farther in the fame manner, his 
Piece being always directed or level'd at the two Birds, while he 
himfelf walks forward according to the direction of his Piece, till 
his Eye is now at N, and the Birds in the fame right Line with 
his Eye, at K and G. The Path of his Eye, delcribed by this 

N a double 



274 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

double motion, (or compounded of a progreffive and angular mo- 
tion,) will be ibme Curve-line LMN, in the fame Plain as the reft 
of the figure, which will have this property, that the proportion of 
the diftances of his Eye from each Bird, will be the fame every 
where as that of their refpeftive Velocities. That is, when his Eye 
was at L, and the Birds at E and H, their Velocities were then as 
EL and HL, by the Conftruftion. And when his Eye was at M, 
and the Birds at F and I, their Velocities were in the fame propor- 
tion as the Lines FM and IM, by the nature of the Curve LMN". 
And when his Eye is at N, and the Birds at G and K, their Velo- 
cities are in the proportion of GN to KN, by the nature of the 
fame Curve. And fo univerfally, of all other fituations. So that 
the Ratio of thofe two Lines will always be the fenfible meafure of 
the ratio of thofe two fenfible Velocities. Now if thefe Velocities, 
or the fwiftneffes of the flight of the two Birds in this inflance, are 
call'd Fluxions; then the Lines defcribed by the Birds in the fame 
time, may be call'd their contemporaneous Fluents; and all inftances 
whatever of Fluents and Fluxions, may be reduced to this Example, 
and may be illuflrated by it. 

And thus I would endeavour to give fome notion of Fluents and 
Fluxions, to Perfons not much converfant in the Mathematicks j 
but fuch as had acquired fome fkill in thefe Sciences, I would thus 
proceed farther to inflrudl, and to apply what has been now deliver'd. 
The contemporaneous Fluents being EF=_y, and Hl=.v, and 
their rate of flowing or increafing. being fuppos'd to be given or 
known ; their relation may always be exprefs'd by an Equation, 
which will be compos'd of the variable quantities x andjy, together 
with any known quantities. And that Equation will have this pro- 
perty, becaufe of thofe variable quantities, that as FG and IK, EG 
and HK, and infinite others, are alfo contemporaneous Fluents; it 
will indifferently exhibit the relation of thofe Lines alfo, as well as 
of EF and HI ; or they may be fubflituted in the Equation, inftead 
of x and y. And hence we may derive a Method for determining 
the Velocities themfelves, or for finding Lines proportional to them. 
For making FG =Y,.and IK = X ; in the given Equation I may 
fubftitute y -}- Y inftead of ^y, and x -f- X inftead of x, by which 
I fhall obtain an Equation, which in all circumftances will exhibit 
the relation of thofe Quantities or Increments. Now it may be plainly 
perceived, that if the Line MIF is conceived continually to approach 
nearer and nearer to the Line NKG, (as jufl now, in the inftance 
of the Fowler,) till it finally coincides with it; the Lines FG = Y, 

and 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



275 



and IK = X, will continually decreafe, and by decreafing will ap- 
proach nearer and nearer to the Ratio of the Velocities at G and K, 
and will finally vanifh at the fame time, and in the proportion of 
thofc Velocities, that is, in the Ratio of GN to KN. Confequently 
in the Equation now form'd, if we fuppofe Y and X to decreafe 
continually, and at laft to vanifh, that we may obtain their ultimate 
Ratio ; we mail thereby obtain the Ratio of GN to KN. But when 
Y and X vanifh, or when the point F coincides with G, and I with 
H, then it will be EG = y, and HK = .x'; fo that we fhall have 
y : x :: GM : KN. And hence we mall obtain a Fluxional Equa- 
tion, which will always exhibit the relation of the Fluxions, or Ve- 
locities, belonging to the given Algebraical or Fluential Equation. 

Thus, for Example, if EF=j', and HI = x, and the indefinite 
Lines y and A: are fuppofed to increafe at fuch a rate, as that their 
relation may always be exprefs'd by this Equation x 1 ax* + axy 
y* = o ; then making FG=Y, and IK = X, by fubftituting 
y -f- Y for j, and x -+- X for x, and reducing the Equation that will 
arife, (fee before, pag, 255.) we fhall have ^x"-X -f- 3#X Z -f- X 3 - 
zaxX aX 1 -f- axY -\- aXj -+- rfXY 3y*Y 3jyY* Y ! = o, 
which may be thus exprefs'd in an Analogy, Y : X :: 3** 2 ax 
.+. ay +- 3tfX -h X 1 aX : ^ ax aX -+- 37 Y -+- Y*. This 
Analogy, when Y and X are vanishing quantities, or their ultimate 
Ratio, will become Y : X : : 3** ^ax -f- ay : 3^* ax. And 
becaufe it is then Y : X :: GN : KN :: v : x, it will be y : x :: 
3X 1 zax -+- ay : 3^* ax. Which gives the proportion of the 
Fluxions. And the like in all other cafes. Q^. E. I. 

We might alfo lay a foundation for thefe Speculations in the fol- 
lowing manner. Let 
ABCDEF, 6cc. be the 
Periphery of a Polygon, 
or any part of it, and 
let the Sides AB, BC, 
CD, DE, &c. be of any 
magnitude whatever. 
In the fame Plane, and 
at any diftance, draw 
the two parallel Lines 
/6, and bf\ to which 
continue the right Lines 
AB4/3, BCcy, 




DEes, &c. meeting the parallels as in the figure, Now if we fup- 

N n 2 pofe 



276 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

pofe two moving points, or bodies, to be at $ and b, and to move 
in the fame time to y and c, with any equable Velocities ; thofe 
Velocities will be to each other as @y and be, that is, becaufe of the 
parallels, as /3B and bE. Let them fet out again from y and c, 
and arrive at the fame time at ^ and d, with any equable Velocities ; 
thole Velocities will be as yfr and cd, that is, as yC and cC. Let 
them depart again from and d, and arrive in the fame time at g 
and e, with any equable Velocities ; thofe Velocities will be as S-t 
and de, that is, as J^D and dD. And it will be the fame thing every 
where, how many foever, and how fmall foever, the Sides of the 
Polygon may be. Let their number be increafed, and their magni- 
tude be diminim'd in infinitum, and then the Periphery of the Poly- 
gon will continually approach towards a Curve-line, to which the 
Lines AB^/3, ECcy, CDd, &c. will become Tangents -, as alfo the 
Motions may be conceived to degenerate into fuch as are accelerated 
or retarded continually. Then in any two points, fuppofe and d, 
where the defcribing points are found at the fame time, their Velo- 
cities (or Fluxions) will be as the Segments of the refpeclive Tan- 
gents cTD and dD ; and the Lines /3^ and bd, intercepted by any 
two Tangents J>D and /SB, will be the contemporaneous Lines, or 
Fluents. Now from the nature of the Curve being given, or from 
the property of its Tangents, the contemporaneous Lines may be 
found, or the relation of the Fluents. And vice versa, from the 
Rate of flowing being given, the correfponding Curve may be found. 




ANNO- 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



277 




ANNOTATIONS on Prob.i- 



O R, 



The Relation of the Fluxions being given, to 

o & 7 

find the Relation of the Fluents. 




SECT. I. A particular Solution ; with a preparation for 
the general Solution, by 'which it is diftribitted into- 
three Cafes. 

E are now come to the Solution of the Author's fe- 
cond fundamental Problem, borrow'd from the Science 
of Rational Mechanicks : Which is, from the Velo- 
cities of the Motion at all times given, to find the 
quantities of the Spaces defcribed ; or to find the Fluents from the 
given Fluxions. In difcuffing which important Problem, there will 
be occafion to expatiate fome thing more at large. And firft it may 
not be amifs to take notice, that in the Science of Computation all 
the Operations are of two kinds, either Compolitive or Refolutative. 
The Compolitive or Synthetic Operations proceed neceffarily and di- 
rectly, in computing their feveral qit(?fita> and not tentatively or by 
way of tryal. Such are Addition, Multiplication, Railing of Powers, 
and taking of Fluxions. But the Refolutative or Analytical Opera- 
tions, as Subtraction, Divifion, Extraction of Roots, and finding of 
Fluents, are forced to proceed indirectly and tentatively, by long 
deductions, to arrive at their feveral qutefita ; and fuppofe or require 
the contrary Synthetic Operations, to prove and confirm every llep 
of the Procefs. The Compofitive Operations, always when the 
data are finite and terminated, and often when they are interminate 

i or 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

or infinite, will produce finite conclufions ; whereas very often in 
the Refolutative Operations, tho' the data are in finite Terms, yet 
the quafita cannot be obtain'd without an infinite Series of Terms. 
Of this we mall fee frequent Inftances in the fubfequent Operation, 
of returning to the Fluents from the Fluxions given. 

The Author's particular Solution of this Problem extends to fuch 
<afes only, wherein the Fluxional Equation propofed either has been, 
or at leafl might have been, derived from fome finite Algebraical 
Equation, which is now required. Here all the necefTary Terms 
being prefent, and no more than what are neceflary, it will not be 
difficult, by a Procefs juft contrary to the former, to return back 
again to the original Equation, But it will moft commonly happen, 
either if we aflume a Fluxional Equation at pleafure, or if we arrive 
at one as the refult of fome Calculation, that fuch an Equation is 
to be refolved, as could not be derived from any previous finite Al- 
gebraical Equation, but will have Terms either redundant or defi- 
cient ; and confequently the Algebraic Equation required, or its 
Root, mufl be had by Approximation only, or by an infinite Series. 
In all which cafes we mult have recourfe to the general Solution of 
this Problem, which we fhall find afterwards. 

The Precepts for this particular Solution are thefe. (i.) All fuch 
Terms of the given Equation as are multiply 'd (fuppofe) by x, muft 
be difpofed according to the Powers of x, or muft be made a Num- 
ber belonging to the Arithmetical Scale whofe Root is x. (2.) Then 
they muft be divided by A-, and multiply'd by x ; or x muft be 
changed into A', by expunging the point. (3.) And laftly, the 
Terms muft be feverally divided by the Progreilion of the Indices 
of the Powers of x, or by fome other Arithmetical ProgrerTion, as 
need mail require. And the fame things muft be repeated for every 
one of the flowing quantities in the given Equation. 

Thus in the Equation $xx- zaxx -f- axy . ^yy- -f- ajx -Q^ 
the Terms -^xx 1 zaxx -\-axy by expunging the points become 
^x'' zax*- -+- axy, which divided by the Progreffion of the Indi- 
ces 3, 2, I, reflectively, will give A' 5 ax* -+- axy. Alfo the Terms 
3.X)' a * -+- ayx by expunging the points become 3j 3 * -f- ayx, 
which divided by the Progreffion of the Indices 3, 2, i, refpectively, 
will give y> * -+- ayx. The aggregate of thefe, neglecting the 
redundant Term ayx, is x* ax* -\- axy _}" = o, the Equation 
required. Where it muft be noted, that every Term, which occurs 
more than once, mult be accounted a redundant Term. 

So 



and INFINITE SERIES. 279 

So if the propoied Equation were m -f- ^yxx* m-\- 2(jyxx 1 -f- 
;// -+- i ay* xx m} 4 -v n-\- $xyy> -\-n-\- lax^yy -+- nx+y nax>y 
=. o, whatever values the general Numbers m and n may acquire ; 
if thofe Terms in which x is found are reduced to the Scale whofe 
Root is x, they will ftand thus : m -+- yyxx' m -+- zayx*. 1 -+ 
m-\-\ay*xx my**-, or expunging the points they will become 
m -+- %yx+ m -f- Ziivx* +- m -+- \ay-x 1 m\*x. Thefe being di- 
vided refpedtively by the Arithmetical Progreffion m -f- 3, m-\-2,. 
m-\- i, m, will give the Terms yx+ ayx 1 -f- ay'-x 1 y+x. Alio 
the Terms in which y is found ; being reduced to the Scale whofc 

Root isy, will ftand thus : n -4- ^xyy* * +- n -+ iax*jy-{- nx*y; 

nax"=y 

or expunging the points they will become n -\~^ x ^ * -^~ n ~^~ iaxi )" 
+- nx+y. Thefe being divided reipeclively by the Arithmetical Pro- 



grefTion ^-{-3, ?i-{- 2, ?z-|-i, ;;, will give the Terms xy* -\- 
ax*}' 1 -)- x+y ax*y. But thefe Terms, being the fame as the former, 
mull all be confider'd as redundant, and therefore are to be rejected. 
So that yx* ayx* -f- ay i x i y^x=o ) or dividing by yx, the 
Equation x* ax 1 -\-ayx y* = o will arife as before. 

Thus if we had this Fluxional Equation mayxx~ l m -+- 2xx 
nx*yy~* -+- ;z-f- \ay =. o, to find the Fluential Equation to which 
it belongs ; the Terms mayxx~ I * m -f- 2xx, by expunging the 
points, and dividing by the Terms of the Progreffion m, m-\- 1, w-t-2, 
will give the Terms ay x*. Alfo the Terms nx^yf 1 -+- n-\-iay, 
by expunging the points, and dividing by n, n-\- i, will give the 
Terms x 1 -f- ay. Now as thefe are the fame as the former, they 
are to be efteem'd as redundant, and the Equation required will be 
ay x 1 = o. And when the given Fluxional Equation is a gene- 
ral one, and adapted to all the forms of the Fluential Equation, as 
is the cafe of the two laft Examples ; then all the Terms ariling 
from the fecond Operation will be always redundant, fo that it will 
be fufficient to make only one Operation. 

Thus if the given Equation were ^.yy 1 -f- z 3 yy~ J -f- 2yxx 3:32* 
H- 6}'z.z 2cyz = o, in which there are found three flowing quan- 
tities j the only Term in which x is found is 2yxx, in which ex- 
punging the point, and then dividing by the Index 2, it will be- 
come^* 1 . Then the Terms in which y is found are 4^*4- z*yy~~ l t 
which expunging the points become ^ # * 4-s 3 , and dividing 

by, 



280 72k Method of FLUXIONS, 

by the Progreffion 2, i, o, i, give the Terms aj 5 s ; . Laftly 
the Terms in which z is found are yzz* -J- 6yzz zcyz, which 
expunging the points become 32;"' -f- 6yz* 29-2, and dividing 
by the Progreffion 3, 2, i, give the Terms & + T.yz 1 zcyz. 
Now if we collect thefe Terms, and omit the redundant Term z*, 
we mall have yx z -+- 2y> z"' -f- yz 1 2cyz = o for the Equa- 
tion required. 

3, 4. But thefe deductions are not to be too much rely'd upon, 
till they are verify 'd by a proof; and we have here a fure method 
of proof, whether we have proceeded rightly or not, in returning 
from the relation of the Fluxions to the relation of the Fluents. For 
every refolutative Operation mould be proved by its contrary com- 
pofitive Operation. So if the Fluxional Equation xx <xy xy-\- 
ny'= o were given, to return to the Equation involving the Fluents ; 
by the foregoing Rule we fliall firft have the Terms xx xy, which 
by expunging the points will become x* .vy, and dividing by the 
Progreffion 2, i, will give the Terms ^x 1 xy. Alfo the Terms, or 
rather Term, xy -+- ay, by expunging the points will become xy. 
-+- ay, which are only to be divided by Unity. So that leaving out the 
redundant Term xy, we fhall have the Fluential Equation x l xy 
-+- ay == o. Now if we take the Fluxions of this Equation, we 
iliall find by the foregoing Problem xx xy xy -+- ay =o, which 
being the fame as the Equation given, we are to conclude our work is 
true. But if either of the Fluxional Equations xx xy -f- ay =o, 
or xx xy -f- ay = o had been propofed, tho' by purfuing the 
foregoing method we fhould arrive at the Equation x* xy-\-ay 
= o, for the relation of the Fluents ; yet as this conclulion would 
not fland the teft of this proof, we muft reject it as erroneous, and 
have recourfe to the following general Method ; which will give the 
value of y in either of thofe Equations by an infinite Series, and 
therefore for ufe and practice will be the moil commodious So- 
lution. 

5. As Velocities can be compared only with Velocities, and all 
other quantities with others of the fame Species only ; therefore in 
every Term of an Equation, the Fluxions muft always afcend to the 
lame number of Dimenfions, that the homogeneity may not be de- 
ftroy'd. Whenever it happens otherwife, 'tis becaufe fome Fluxion; 
taken for Unity, is there underftood, and therefore muft be fupply'd 
when occafion requires. The Equation xz -+- xyx az'-x* = o, by 
making z=i, may become -x -f- xyx ax*==o > and like wile 
vice versa. And as this Equation virtually involves three variable 

quantities, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 281 

quantities, it will require another Equation, either Fluential or 
Fluxionai, for a compleat determination, as has been already ob- 
ferved. So as the Equation yx = xyy, by putting x = i becomes 
yx=yy; in like manner this Equation requires and fuppofes the 
other. 

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II. Here we are taught fome ufeful Reductions, in 
order to prepare the Equation for Solution. As when the Equation 
contains only two flowing Quantities with their Fluxions, the ratio 
of the Fluxions may always be reduced to fimple Algebraic Terms. 
The Antecedent of the Ratio, or its Fluent, will be the quantity to 
be extracted ; and the Confequent, for the greater fimplicity, may 
be made Unity. Thus the Equation zx +- 2xx yx y = o is 

reduced to this, y - = 2 -+ 2X y, or making x=i, 'tis y = 2 
_^_ 2 x y. So the Equation ya yx xa -f- xx xy = o, ma- 
king x= i, will become y = ( a ~^+ y = i -f- jdb = ) i + 
_!_ 2L _j_ f!? _|_ ^ , &c. by Divilion. But we may apply the par- 
ticular Solution to this Example, by which we mail have {x 1 xy 
__ ## _{_ tfy = o, and thence y =."- ^~- . Thus the Equation 
yjr = xy-{-xxxx, making x=i, becomes yy =y -+- xx, and ex- 
tracting the fquare-root, 'tis y = -i \/ -j- xx = ~ the Series 
2.-4-X 1 x*-{-2X 6 5X 8 -f- I4x', &c. that is, either y = i -j- 
x * x 4 -{-2x 6 jx 8 -f- I4* 10 , &c. or y = x 1 -f- x 4 zx 6 
_j_ rx 8 I4-.V 10 , &c. Again, the Equation y> -+-axx* i y-{-a 1 x 1 y 
X 3x 3 2x'tf ? =o, putting x= i, becomes _y 3 -\-axy -\-ay x 
2<7 3 - o. Now an affected Cubic Equation of this form has 
been refolved before, (pag. 1 2.) by which we mail have y = a ^x + 

xx iji* ? ^9^ 4 c, 

6^ ~*~ uz" 1 " ' 16384^5 ' 

12. For the fake of perfpicuity, and to fix the Imagination, our 
Author here introduces a diftinction of Fluents and Fluxions into 
Relate and Correlate. The Correlate is that flowing Quantity which 
he fuppofes to flow equably, which is given, or may be arTumed, 
at any point of time, as the known meafure or ftandard, to which 
the Relate Quantity may be always compared. It may therefore 
very properly denote Time ; and its Velocity or Fluxion, being an 
uniform and conftant quantity, may be made the Fluxionai Unit, 
or the known meafure of the Fluxion (or of the rate of flowing) of 
the Relate Quantity. The Relate Quantity, (or Quantities if ieve- 

O o ral 



2 8 2 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

ral are concern'd,) is that which is fuppos'd to flow inequably, with; 

any degrees of acceleration or retardation ; and ts inequability may 

be meafured, or reduced as it were to equability, by conihntly com- 

paring it with its correfponding Correlate or equable Quantity. This 

therefore is the Quantity to be found by the Proble'm, or whofe 

Root is to be extracted from the given Equation. And it may be 

conceived as a Space defcribed by the inequable Velocity of a Body 

or Point in motion, while the equable Quantity, or the Correlate, 

reprefents or meaiures the time of defcription. This may be illu- 

ftrated by our common Mathematical Tables, of Logarithms, Sines, 

Tangents, Secants, &c. In the Table of Logarithms, for inflance, 

the Numbers are the Correlate Quantity, as proceeding equably, or 

by equal differences, while their Logarithms, as a Relate Quantity, 

proceed inequably and by unequal differences. And this refemblance 

would more nearly obtain, if w r e mould fuppofe infinite other Num- 

bers and their Logarithms to be interpolated, (if that infinite Num- 

ber be every where the fame,) fo as that in a manner they may be- 

come continuous. So the Arches or Angles may be confider'd as 

the Correlate Quantity, becaule they proceed by equal differences, 

while the Sines, Tangents, Secants, &c. are as fo many Relate Quan- 

tities, whofe rate of increafe is exhibited by the Tables. 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17. This Diflribution of Equations into Orders, 
or Gaffes, according to the number of the flowing Quantities and 
their Fluxions, tho' it be not of abfolute neceflity for the Solution, 
may yet ferve to make it more expedite and methodical, and may 
fupply us with convenient places to reft at. 

SECT. II . Solution of the Jirft Cafe of Equations. 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. r ~|~^HE firft Cafe of Equations is, wherr 

-i. the Quantity ? , or what fupplies 

its place, can always te found in Terms compofed of the Powers 
of x, and known Quantities or Numbers.. Thefc Terms are to be 
multiply'd by x, and to be divided by the Index of .v in each Term,, 
which will then exhibit the Value of jr. Thus in the Lquationj/ a = .xi/ 

-+- x l x*, it has been found that ~ = i -t-x* x* -f- 2x s $x* -f- 



I4* 10 , &cc. Therefore - =^-4- x* x'-f- 2,v 7 5^' -t- 14*'*, 

&c. and confequently y = x + jX* -fx 1 -f- ^x" 1 J-x 9 -j-l^A" 3 , 
&c. as may ealily be proved by the direct Method. 

But 



and INFINITE SERIES. 283 

But this, and the like Equations, may be refolved more readily 
by a Method form'd in imitation of fome of the foregoing Analyfes, 
after this manner. In the given Equation make x = i ; then it 
will bej)* =j/-l-.v*, which is thus refolved : 



H 

y 4 J 



= X* -+- X* 2X S -f- pC 9 , &C. 

y*- $ .V 4 -f- 2X & 5X 9 , &C. 



Make AT* the firft Term of y ; then will x 4 be the firft Term 
of j/ 1 , which is to be put with a contrary Sign for the fecond 
Term of y. Then by fquaring, -f- 2X 6 will be the fecond Term 
of j/, and 2x* will be the third Term of y. Therefore 

5# 8 will be the third Term of j/, and -f- 5*" will be the 
fourth Term of y ; and fo on. Therefore taking the Fluents, y = 

I..V 5 -+- -fx* ix 7 -f-4-x, &c. which will be one Root of the 
Equation. And if we fubtradt this from x, we (hall have y = x -+- 
x 3 ^.v* -f- -i-A; 7 AX', &e. for the other Root. 

So if - v = a 4-r -4- r h -^ > & c - that is, if ^ = ax 

f 04^ 5 I 2* A' 



c , # I?IA.'4 . 

6? li ' &c " then v=^->^4- + ^, &c. 



* A jj-T ^ 

-^yii: yx i ya &c then Y j. v s . 




or 

ex? 



==f c *. If 4 = -, = , or ^--**. 

* ex? x c 

then _y=^ f . 

Laftly, if '- v = ~, or ' - = ^ = ^v ; dividing by the In- 
dex o, it will be y = a - , or y is infinite. That this Expreffion, 
or value of y, mufl be infinite, is very plain. For as o is a vanim- 
ing quantity, or lefs than any affignable quantity, its Reciprocal - 

or muft be bigger than any affignable quantity, that is, in- 
finite. 

O o 2 



284 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Now that this quantity ought to be infinite, may be thus proved. 
In the Equation 4 = - x , let AB reprefent the conftant quantity a, 
and in CE let a point move equably from C towards E, and de- 
fcribe the Line CDE, of Avhich let any indefinite part CD be x, 
and its equable Velocity in D, (and every where elfe,) is reprefented 

A o, E 



c 


c 


t 

F 

1 


T> -p. 


f 




1 -- - - 

J. & 



by x. Alfo let a point move from a diftant point c along the Line 
cde, with an inequable Velocity, and let the Line defcribed in the 
fame time, or the indefinite part of it cd, be call'd y y and let the 

Velocity in d be call'd y. The Equation 4- = - muft always ob- 
tain, whatever the contemporaneous values of x and^ may be; or 
in the whole Motion the conftant Line AB (a) muft be to the variable 
Line CD (x), as the Velocity in d (y) is to the Velocity in D (x). 
But at the beginning of the Motion, or when CD (x) was indefi- 
nitely little, as the ratio of AB to CD was then greater than any 

aflignable ratio, fo alfo was the ratio 4 of the Velocities, or the 

Velocity y was infinitely greater than the Velocity x. But an infi- 
nite Velocity muft defcribe an infinite Space in a finite time, or the 
point c is at an infinite diftance from the point d, that is, y is an 
infinite quantity. 

24, 25. But to avoid fuch infinite ExpreiTions, from whence we 
can conclude nothing ; we are at liberty to change the initial points 
of the Fluents, by which their Rate of flowing, (the only thing to 
be here regarded,) will not at all be affected. Thus in the foregoing 
Figure, we fuppofed the points D and d to be fuch, as limited the 
contemporaneous Fluents, or in which the two defcribing points 
were found at the fame time. Let F and f be any other two fuch 
points, and then the finite Line CF = b will be contemporaneous 
to, or will correspond with, the infinite Line cf=c ; and FD, 
which may be made the new .v, will correfpond to fd t which wiH 

be the new y. So that in the given Equation - === - , inftead of 



and INFINITE SERIES, 285 

x we may write b +- x, and we fhall have ~ = -- , and then by 

r i i -r-v r vx f ax \ ax "X 1 

Multiplication and Divifion it is -4- = ( :. = J -r -f. 

x V*-}-* / b t l 

~ -77 , &c. and therefore }'= ^- "- \ -f- ~ ~, 6cc. 

2.6. So if ~ = - -J- 3 ' xx, becaufe of the Term -' , which 
would give an infinite value for ^, we may write j -f- x inftead of 
X, and we fhall then have - = ~ -4-2 zx xx, or y = 

X 1 | X X 

-^ 1- 2X 2X 1 x"', or by Divifion y - x - = 4x 4x* -f- x j 

-f- zx s , &c. and therefore y=.^x 2x* -+- ^.x 3 |x 4 -f- 



^x r , &c. 

Or the Equation y ~ = -^^ +- z zx x 1 , that is y -f- xy 
= 4 jx 1 x j , may be thus refolved : 

y^ = 4 * 3* 11 A: J 

^" 4X -J- 4X 1 AT 3 -j- 2X 4 , &C, 

H- xyj h 4^ 4x* 4- x 3 2x 4 , 6cc. 

y = 4 4.x -f- AT* 2x 3 -f- 2x 4 , &c. 

T = 4.V 2X"' -{- ^X3 _ i X 4 _|_ x * t & c . 

Make 4 the firft Term of j, then 4x will be the firfl Term of 
xy, and confequently 4* will be the fecond Term of j. Then 
4x a will be the fecond Term of .vy, and therefore -(- 4x* 3x fc , 
or x*, will be the third Term of_y ; and fo on. 

27. So if -. = AT~^ -f- x~ J x'~, becaufe of the Term x~' 
change x into i x, then == -.' -+- s/ i x. But 

X yi , v I X 

by the foregoing; Methods of Reduction 'tis = i -f- x -+- x* 

* I X 

-+- x 5 , 6cc. and v/i x = I 4-^ r-^ 4 -rr x ^ &c. a"d 

Therefore collecting thefe according to their Signs, 'tis 4- i 4- 

2.v-|- ix 1 -t- T^-x 3 , &c. that is-^ =x4-2x* -f- |x 3 + ^x 4 , &c. 
and therefore y = x 4- x a -f- ix s 4- ^x 4 , &c. 

28. So if the given Equation were == ~ 

X i. * ~^ ii^^C -!- 3t"A* ~ ~" X% " 

. '^ - ; change the beginning of x. that is. inftead of x write 

t A | ' 



x, 



286 7$ Method of FLUXIONS, 

- y f3 c*-X yx 

c x, then -- = Al = c">x~* c l x- 1 , or ^ = c*x~* . 
c*x- 1 , and therefore _>' = ^c=x-~ -\-c*x~ l . 

SECT. III. Solution of the fecond Cafe of Equations. 



2 9> 3- TT^Quations belonging to this fecond cafe are thofe, 
M^ wherein the two Fluents and their Fluxions, fuppofe 
x and y, x and j, or any Powers of them, are promifcuoufly in- 
volved. As our Author's Analyfes are very intelligible, and fee'm to 
want but little explication, I mall endeavour to refolve his Examples 
in fomething an eafier and fimpler manner, than is done here ; by 
applying to them his own artifice of the Parallelogram, when need- 
ful, or the properties of a combined Arithmetical Progreffion in piano, 
as explain'd before : As alfo the Methods before made ufe of, in the 
Solution of afTeclcd Equations. 

31. The Equation yax xxy aax = o by a due Reduction 

.becomes ~ = ~ -+- "- , in which, becaufe of the Term - there 
is occafion for a Tranfmutation, or to change the beginning of the 
Correlate Quantity x. ArTurning therefore the conftant quantity b, 

we may put 4- = ^ -f- -^ , whence by Divifion will be had 

y v a ax ax z ax* e i i -.-, . , 

-j == -^ -I- y -+- -ji 77 > &c ' which Equation is then 

prepared for the Author's Method of Solution. 

But without this previous Reduction to an infinite Series, and the 
Reiblution of an infinite Equation confequent thereon, we may 
perform the Solution thus, in a general manner. The given Equa- 
tion is now 4 = j- -|- - , or putting x = i, it is aby -f- axj 
/y ~+- yx -f- a 1 , which may be thus refolved : 

aby = 



xy 



\ 


ab a* 2/1* 
/7* .. V 1 , 


4. fc at> ^ /34 


-i n *b ab 1 6,3 


c__ 




b 

- 4- "*x -f- 


ab aa 


babl v J 


OCC. 

^x. 


> 


b 


a I , 


2.U 3 J 

/?.6 ^ ifi h^ 


OCC. 
c. 




(IX -( 


ib * + 

" v-J- 


i}ab~ f 
a I, 


OtC. 


) 


a b a z* J - 


b A "^ 

"*-"*.., , I' +2. 


,V, ^ J 6^3 


OCC. 




b 4- h ; ^ -f- 2 , 

a b a -iri' -L- 


i "" 




OCC. 

rt 

Arr 



2 Difpofing 



and INFINITE SERIES. 287 

Difpoiing the Terms as you fee is done here, make a 1 - the firft 
Term of aby, then ~ will be the firft Term of j, and thence -|x 
will be the firft Term of y. So that a x will be the firft Term of 

* b 

axv, and ax will be the firfl Term of by. Thefe two to- 
/ * i i / 

gether, or -,x ax = - x, with a contrary Sign, mud be put 
down for the fecond Term of aby. Therefore the fecond Term of 
y will be '-~-x, and the like Term of y will be A*. Then the 

' t>- -' ^b- 

fecond Term of ..\y will be '-'-~ a A*, and the fecond Term of 



b" 

ab 



ly will be -^~ x *, and the firft Term of xy will be yA*. 
Thefe three together make - ~ 2 * _ ~ A*, which with a contrary 
Sign muft be made the third Term of aby. Therefore the third 
Term of y will be ~-^-'A* and the third Term of y will be 

r ZaL ' * 

t , / * _^_ 7 

- A' 3 . And fo on. Here in' a particular cafe if we make. 






b =. a, we mall have the fimple Series y =. x * -+- ^ 7 , &c. 

Or if we would have a defcending Series for the Root y of this 
Equation, we may proceed as follows : 



xy~\ =<!* a ~f- b x a**- 1 -+- zu\ +- zab -+- i x a*x-*, &c. 
[,y\ --- _f_ a*bx~ l a-i-l) y.a ! -bx~-, &c, 

~' -~ t , &c. 

'-, &c. 
3 6cc. 



JJ/=: rt a A~ ; - ^ -4-/>X 2rt*A-~ 3 , &C. 

Difpofe the Terms as you fee, and make a* the firft Term of the 
Series xy, then will - be the firft Term of y, and a*x~"- will 

be the firft Term of y. Then will -f- a"-bx~ l be the firft Term of 
by, and a"'X~ I will be the firft Term of axy y which together 
make a-\- b x a l x~ t ; this therefore with a contrary Sign muft be 
the fecond Term of xy. Then the fecond Term of y will 
be a-\-by.a 3i x~~ ) and the fecond Term ofj/ will be a-\- l>-x.2a 1 x~ 3 , 

Therefore the fecond Term of by will be a -f- b x tf*Av~*, 

and 



2 88 TZe Method of FLUXIONS, 

and the fecond Term of axy will be a-\-b* 2a*x~*, and tlie 
firft Term of aby will be a^bx~- ; which three together make 
^za 1 -I- zab -+- b* xa 1 *.*. ThiswithacontrarvSisnmuftbethethird 



Term of xy, which will give 2a* -+- zab -+- b % x a 2 x~ 3 for the 
third Term of y ; and fo on. Here if we make b=.a, thenj= 

a 1 za* ca4 . 

-- +- r ^T 3 &C. 

x *' x* ' 

And thefe are all the Series, by which the value of y can be ex- 
hibited in this Equation, as may be proved by the Parallelogram. 
For that Method may be extended to thefe Fluxional Equations, as 
well as to Algebraical or Fluential Equations. To reduce thefe 
Equations within the Limits of that Rule, we are to confider, that 
as Ax m may reprefent the initial Term of the Root jr, in both thefe 
kinds of Equations, or becaufe it may be y = Ax m , &c. fo in 
Fluxional Equations (making #=1, we mall have a\foy=mAx m ~ I ) 
6cc. or writing y for Ax m , 6cc. 'tis y = myx~* t , &c. So that in 
every Term of the given Equation, in which y occurs, or the Fluxion 
of the Relate Quantity, we may conceive it to take away one Di- 
menfion from the Correlate Quantity, fuppofe x, and to add it to 
the Relate Quantity, fuppofe y ; according to which Reduction we 
may inlert the Terms in the Parallelogram. And we are to make 
a like Reduction for all the Powers of the Fluxion of the Relate 
Quantity. This will bring all Fluxional Equations to the Cafe of 
Algebraic Equations, the Refolution of which has been fo amply 
treated of before. 

Thus in the prefent Equation aby -+- axy = by -f- yx +- aa, the 
Terms mufl be inferted in the Parallelogram, as if yx~ ' were fub- 
ftituted inftead of y ; fo that the Indices will ftand as in the Margin, 
and the Ruler will give only two Cafes of exter- 
nal Terms. Or rather, if we would reduce this 
Equation to the form of a double Arithmetical 
Scale, as explain'ci before, we mould have it in this 
form. Here in the firft Column are contain'd thofe 
Terms which have y of one Dimenfion, or what _ y i_ 
is equivalent to it. In the fecond Column is a 1 , + ax i ; J 2 C~ 
or y of no Dimenfions. Alfo in the firft Line is 
. xy, or fuch Terms in which x is of one Dimenfion. In the, 

fecond Line are the Terms by~l , . , 

<f a 1 , which have no Dimen- 

{iqiis of .v, becaufe -j- axy is regarded as if it were ay. Laftly, 
in the third line is aby t or the Term in which x is of one negative 

Dimenlion 




p- 

2.V + Xj~ 



and INFINITE SERIES. 289 

Dimension, becaufe -\-aly is confider'd as if it were -f- abx~~ J )\ And 
thefe Terms being thus dilpos'd, it is plain there can be but two Cafes 
of external Terms, which we have already difcufs'd. 

?2. If the oropofed Equation be = -TV 2 x -4- or 

O jy y xx > 

making x= i, 'tis y -f- 3_v 2.v -f- xy~ l 2yx~ 1 = o ; the 
Solution of which we mall attempt without any preparation, or 
without any new interpretation of the Quantities. Firft, the Terms 
are to be difpos'd according to a double Arithmetical Scale, the Roots 
of which are y and .Y, and then they will Itand as in the Margin. The 
Method of doing this with certainty 
in all cafes is as follows. I obferve in 
the Equation there are three powers of 1 
y, which are y 1 , y, and 7-' ; there- * 
fore I place thefe in order at the top 
of the Table. I obferve likewife that there are four Powers of x, 
which are .v 1 , x, A I , and x~ l , which I place in order in a Column 
at the right hand ; or it will be enough to conceive this to be done. 
Then I infert every Term of the Equation in its proper place, ac- 
cording to its Dimenfions of y and x in that Term ; filling up the 
vacancies with Aflerifms, to denote the abfence of the Terms be- 
longing to them. The Term y I infert as if it were _}'*""', 
as is explain'd before. Then we may perceive, that if we apply the 
Rukr to the exterior Terms, we mail have three cafes that may pro- 
duce Series ; for the fourth cafe, which is that of direft afcent or 
defcent, is always to be omitted, as never affording any Series. To 
begin with the defcending Series, which will arife from the two 
external Terms 2x and -f- xy~ s . The Terms are to bsdifpos'd, 
and the Analyfis to be performed, as here follows : 



- 2JX- 




-J44*-*, &c. 



Make xy~ l = 2X, 6cc. then y- 1 = 2, &c. and by Divifion 
T=4, &c. Therefore 3>'=T, &c. and confequently A-> '= 
" 4, &c. or y- 1 = # -I*" 1 , &c. and by Divifion y = * -f- 
-f.*- 1 , &c. Therefore 2)' = *^ x ~ 1 y & c - an d confequently x\~ l 
r^ % * T*" 1 ) &c. So that y~ l = * * T*"~% ^ c ' anc ^ ^7 ^' v ^" 
fion y = * * -f- - r v f x~'^c . Then 3v = * # -j- 4r A ~% ^ c - anc ^ 

P p y 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

y == * -f- i*-"-, &c. and zyx~* = A % 6cc. Thefe three- 
together make 4- r^x- i , and therefore xy~ l = * * * 44*"% 
&c. fo that y * * * -f- V|T*~~ J & c - A "d fo on. 

Another defcending Series will arife from the two external Terms 
-4- -y and 2X, which may be thus extracted : 

zx f -f- 41*-' i|*- 3 , &c. 
' _ ^4x-*, &c. 

+^ X -, &C. 

i-x-% &c. 




Make 3/ = 2X, &c. then y = ^x, &c. and (by Divifion) y * 
= x~*, &c. and x>'~ 1 =|,&c. and y=- T> & c - There- 
fore 3_y = * , &c. and _y = * T S T) &c. and (by Divifion) 
xy~* = * -g-*" 1 , &c. and _y= * o, &c. and zyx~* = 
~x~\ &c. Therefore 3_y=* * 4- i-j..*- 1 , &c. and jy = * * 4- 
^.i^ J , 6cc. &c. 

The afcending Series in this Equation will arife from the two ex- 
ternal Terms 2yx~* and xy~ l ; or multiplying the whole Equa- 
tion by y, (that one of the external Terms may be clear'd from 
y,) we mall have yy 3^* 4- zxy x 4- 2y i x~ 1 = o, of which 
the Refolution is thus : 

- v \ S v* -1 vl- _I_ 9 - v3 &r 

M^~ t^V # ^S~" ^^* ^ . - "T"*\ LA/V * 

r / ^ *r ' 



Jl 


2 4 


6cc. 


; :* 


v 2 


&c. 





^a J_ ' 35 A 


&c. 



y 

y __ 3 ^.I # 1^.^ 3^^, 



Make aj 1 ^- 2 = ^, &c. then y* = 4-AT 3 , &c. and y = x 
Here becaufe of the fractional Indices, and that the firft Term of 
4- kxy, or 4 x% } may be afterwards admitted, we mufl take o 

for the fecond Term of 2)-A % and therefore for the fecond Term 

i of 



and INFINITE SERIES. 291 

of y. Then y'y = **> &c. and confequently 2v*x~ a = * * A* 1 , 
8cc. and y 1 = * * 4-v*, &c. and by extracting the fquare-roor, 

Then yy = -f- o, &c. and 2.vy = -4--V-' 



&c. and therefore 2)' l x~ t = * * -^^S &c. and _>' = * * * 

|.v 5 , &c. &c. 

33, 34. The Author's Procefs of Refolution, in this and the fol- 
lowing Examples, is very natural, fimple, and intelligible; it pro- 
ceeds Jeriatim & terminatim, by p'afling from Series to Series, and 
by gathering Term after Term, in a kind of circulating manner, of 
which Method we have had frequent inftances before. By this 
means he collects into a Series what he calls the Sum, which Sum 

is the value of - or of the Ratio of the Fluxions of the Relate 

,v 

and Correlate in the given Equation ; and then by the former Pro- 
blem he obtains the value of y. When I firft obferved this Method 
of Solution, in this Treadle of our Author's, I confefs I was not u 
little pleafed ; it being nearly the fame, and differing only in a few 
circumftances that are not material, from the Method I had hap- 
pen'd to fall into feveral years before, for the Solution of Algebraical 
and Fluxional Equations. This Method I have generally purfued in 
the courfe of this work, and fliall continue to explain it farther by 
the following Examples. 

The Equation of this Example i 3^ -f- y + x l -+- xj y 
= o being reduced to the form of a double Arithmetical Scale, 
will (land as here in the Margin ; and the v , v<) 

Ruler will difcover two cafes to be try'd, of ~ 
which one may give us an afcending, and the xI 
other a defcending Series for the Root y. And 
firft for the afcending Series. 





The Terms being difpofed as you fee, makej/=i, &c. then 
y=x, &c. Therefore y = x, &c. the Sign of which Term 
being changed, it will bej/= * -{- x 3 AT, &c. = * 2.v, &c. 

P p 2 and 



292 77->e Method of FLUXIONS, 

and therefore y = * x x , &c. Then y = * -+- #% &c. and 
.vy = *% &c. thefe deftroying each other, 'tis y = * * -+**, 
&c. and therefore _y = * *-t-7.* 3 , &c. Then _y=** ^x*, 
&c. and xy = * -f- x', &c. it will be j- = * * * .I* 5 , &c. 
und therefore y = * * * ^x* y &c. &c. 
The Analyfis in the fecond cafe will be thus : 



h x 4 ~t- 




V = 



AT 



4 



* -+ I2X~ 3 , &C. 

6*- 1 * , & c . 

f~ 2 1 2X~1, &C. 

6*-" 1 +- 6.V~ Z * I2AT~*, 6CC. 



Make xy = x l , &c. then ;' = x, &c. Therefore _y 
= x, &c. and changing the Sign, 'tis xy-=. % x 3*, &c. 
= * 4*, &c. and therefore y = * -h 4, &c. Then jy= * 
4, &c. andj = i, &c. and changing the Signs, 'tis xy 
= * * H- 5 -f- i, 6cc. = * # -l- 6, &c. and y = * * 6x~*, 
&cc. &c. 

35, 36. If the given Equation were ^ == :i-f-^-f.^._f_^- y 
H ^ , &c. its Refolution may be thus perform'd : 



zx'i 



XV 



a* 



a 
X 



A* 

A 1 * 



&c - 

4 > & c - 

, &c. 
1, &c. 
- , &c. 



A* 



A4 



f *" * 2^2 *^ ^^4 "T~ i/)3 "I" o>,4 



Make y 
&c. and y 



i, &.c. then y= x, &c. Therefore 2 f 

o a 

* + ;, &c. and therefore _y =*+-, &c. Then 

therefore 



y = 



* * 



~i = J7 j 
, &c. and j = * * + , &c. And fo on. 



Now 



and INFINITE SERIES. 293 

Now in this Example, becaufe the Series | -+- ^ 4- ^ -+. 
. &c. is equal to =? it will be y= h I, or ay . xy 

4 ' a x ' / A; ' J 

=jy + tf *", that is, jx -f- rfx xx ay -+- A j = o ; which 
Equation, by the particular Solution before deliver'd, will give the 
relation of the Fluents yx ay -{-ax I** = o. Hence y = 
a * -_xx an( j , Divifion y= x -f- * h -, -f- r , &c. as found 

a x J za za~ 2a* ' 

above. 

37. The Equation 
of this Example being 
tabulated, or reduced 
to a double Arithmeti- 
cal Scale, will ftand as 
here in the Margin. 
Where it may be ob- 
ferved, that becaufe of 
the Series proceeding both ways ad injinitum, there can be but one 
cafe of exterior Terms, of which the Solution here follows: 



x-' 





> 


1 




x 


( 


* 


~H j 1 *4" j* *4* ^* > ^ f - 




X* 


3*; 4- 


3 xv 


X)! 1 jyJ Xj4,&c. 




X 1 




6# 1 j' 


* * * 




xt 


8*3 + 


8*5, 


* * * 


'= O. 


Jt4 


1 ox 4 -f- 


0*4y 


* * * 




X* 


I 2X* -j- 


z.'. '_y 







& f . 


1 4 * < 


5^f. 







= , A; 6x l 



iox+ i2x s i4.x s , &c. 



-f- | 



7 3 



- 



-f- 



c s , &c. 

Y 6 &C 

\ j CW . 

X4 6x-' -4- 1 * 6 , &c. 

s , &c. 

X 6 , &C. 
X 6 , &C. 

- 4- * 6 > &c. 



v . i 2%l , X 4 ^'Y' Y 15 ! . 3&7 ,V 7 &C. 



y* 

&c. 



Make y = 3^-, &c. then y = 4x a , &c. Then y = * 
6x*, &c. and_y == # 2 A' 3 , &c. Then 3^ = -f- |x3, &c. and 
therefore j= * * x 3 8^ 3 , &c. = * * "V x 3 , 6cc. and _y 
= * * VAT*, &c. And fo of the reft. 

The Author here takes notice, that as the value of y is negative, 
and therefore contrary to that of x, it fhews that as x increaies, / 
muft decreafe, and on the contrary. For a negative Velocity is a 
Velocity backwarks, or whole direction is contrary to that which 

was 



294 Th* Method of FLUXIONS, 

was fuppos'J to be an affirmative Velocity. This Remark mull take 
place hereafter, as often as there is occafion for it. 

38. In this Example the Author puts x to reprefent the Relate 
Quantity, or the Root to be extracted, and y to reprefent the Cor- 
relate. Bat to prevent the confufion of Ideas, we mall here change 
.v into y, and / into A", fo that y (hall denote the Relate, and x the 
Correlate Quantity, as ufual. Let the given Equation there-fare be 

- = ~x 4** -\- 2xy' i -f^ 1 -h 7#* -+- zx' } whofe Root y is to 

be extracted. Thefe Terms being difpoled in a Table, will ftand 
thus: And the Refolution will be as follows, taking y and -t- x 
for the two external Terms. 



X 1 
X 1 

a 
* x 

X 1 



At 



. 1 



* * * + ** 5 J I _j_ ^i 2J34-4* 1 

* * '* _|- 7A; i: If -t Z- 



J = I*' 1 * - A'H-ZX + I* 



** - 



* * * 

4..1 

x/ # * * 

* * * * 



* * 



y 



j/=|A;, &c. then^ = -l-x a , &c. Now becaufe it is jx=s 
* o, &c. it will be alfo y= * o, &c. And whereas it is^ = |-x, 
&c. it will be zxy^ = x*, &c. and therefore y = * # -f- x* 

4**, &c. = * 3**, &c. then _y= * * >r 3 , &c. Now be- 
caufe it is y = * -f- o, &c. it will be alfo y^ == * -\- o, &c. and 

2Ay 5 = * -f- o, &c. and confequently y E= ***-{- 7^^, &c. and 
therefore y = ***-{_ 2**, &c. And fo on. 

There are two other cafes of external Terms, which will fupply 
us with two other Series for the Root y, but they will run too much 
into Surds. This may be fufficient to (hew the univerfality of the 
Method, and how we are to proceed in like cafes. 

39. The Author mews here, that the fame Fluxional Equation 
may often afford a great variety of Series for the Root, according as 
we fhall introduce any conftant quantity at pleafure. Thus the 
Equation of Art. .34. or j/=i 3* -\-y -j- # -f- xy, may be re- 
folved after the following general manner: 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



295 



r^3*+ ** y = + * * l 

a 4. x -fza* 1 + i<?*', <:. + ax+ax 1 



Ji ax ax 1 ^ 
ax x* , 



axt, isV. 



Here inftead of making ji/ = i, 6cc. we may make _y=o, &c. 
and therefore y = a, &c. becaufe then y = o, &c. then y 
a, 6cc. and confequently y = * -f- <z -+- i, &c. and therefore^ 1 
=; * -+- ax -- x, 6cc. Then y = * ax x, &c. and xy 
== _- ##, &c. and therefore y = * * -f- zax -f- x 3*, &c. = 
* * -f- 2ax zx, &c. and then y = * * -f- ax* x 1 , &c. There- 
fore y = * * ax 1 -f- x 1 , 6cc. and xy= * ax* AT*, 
&C. and confequently y = * * * -f. tax* -f- x*, 6cc. and y = 
a, * * -f- .iflx 5 -f- -i-* 3 , &c. &c. Here if we make a = o, we fhall 
have the fame value of y as was extracted before. And by what- 
ever Number a is interpreted, fo many different Series we fhall 
obtain for y. 

40. The Author here enumerates three cafes, when an arbitrary 
Number mould be affumed, if it can be done, for the firft Term of 
the Root. Firft, when in the given Equation the Root is affected 
with a Fractional Dimenfion, or when fome Root of it is to be ex- 
tracted ; for then it is convenient to have Unity for the firft Term, 
or fome other Number whofe Root may be extracted without aSurd, 
if fuch Number does not offer itfelf of its own accord. As in the 
fourth Example > tisA' = i}' 1 , &c. and therefore we may eafily have 

x^ = -i->'> & c> Secondly, it muft be done, when by reafon of the 
fquare-root of a negative Quantity, we fhould otherwife fall upon 
impoflible Numbers. Laftly, we muft aflame fuch a Number, when 
otherwife there would be no initial Quantity, from whence to begin 
the computation of the Root ; that is, when the Relate Quantity, 
or its Fluxion, affects all the Terms of the Equation. 

41,42,43. The Author's Compendiums of Extraction- are very 
curious, and fhevv the univerfality of his Method. As his feveral 
ProcciTes want no explanation, I lhall proceed to refolve his Exam- 
ples by the. foregoing general Method. As if the given Equation 

werej=:- x 1 , or y /-' = x 4 , the Refolu-tion might 
be thus : 

y 



296 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

'y T = O * * < . X* l<3-7x 3 , &c. 

f 1 f ' a.~ I -f- a~*x \a~$x*- -\- a~ 7 x*, &c. 

J 4-^~*A" ; 



/7 _1_ * ** _I_ 'IL 1^ AT 

-t- - j -4- ,77 g a , , see. 






Make _y = o, &c. then afluming any conftant quantity a, it may 
be y= a, &c. 'Then by Divifion y~ l = > a~ l , &c. and 
therefore _y = * -f- a* 1 , &c. and confequently _y = * -4- a~ l x, 6cc. 
Then by Divifion y~ l = * -{- -3x, &c. and therefore y = 

* * a~ix, &c. and confequently _y = * * 4~ 3 ^S & c - Then 
again by Divifion y-' 1 = 4^ s'x 1 , &c. and therefore y = 

* * *H-|d~5 A ; 1 .vv&c.and confequently/ = * * * a-*x* ^x', 
&c. And fo of the reft. Here if we make a = i, we ihall 
have y = i -f- x IK* -f- .x* |-|-Ar 4 , &c. 

Or the fame Equation may be thus refolved : 

- y~ ' J == - A" 1 -f- 2 AT" 3 -f- I4AT- 8 -+- 2 l6x- J 3, &C. 

8 ' 2i6x'~~ I 3, &c. 



= AT" 2 -f- 2AT~ 7 + l8x- JZ + 28ox- I 7 ) &C, 



Make y~'= A-S&c. or_y=^~ z , &c. Thenj/= 2Ar~ 3 , 
2fc.and therefore y l =z* -\-2x~ 3 , &cc. and confequently by Divifion 
r=* -f-2 .v~ 7 , &c. Then j/=* i4x~ 8 ,&c. and therefore y- 1 
= * *4-i4.v~ 8 , &c. and by Divifion _)'= * *+i8^^ 12 , &c. Then 
y = * * 21 6jf J 3 3 &c. and therefore y~ l = * * * -f- 2 l6x~ l ^ } 
&c. and by Divifion y = * * * + 28o^~ 17 , &c. And fo on. 

Another afcending Series may be had from this Equation, viz. 

y=^/2x \ X' -f- ** -f- ^ , &c. by multipying it by y, and 

then making i the firft Term of yj. 

44. The Equation y = 3 -+- 2y x~ J y- may be thus refolved : 



-4- ojc- 1 , &c. 


r 


y y 


-|- 3-x 11 , &c. ^1 
9x a , &c. x~ l 
l -{- ,?x 3 , 6cc. 


* 


+27+3 ? :=:0> 

' a JV * J 



Make 



IN FINITE SERIES. 297 

Ma ke y = 3 ,Scc. then y = ^x, 6cc. Therefore zy = 6x, &c. 
and x~ I y i = c)x, &c. and confequently_>' = * 3*, 6cc. Therefore 
y == * IA*, &c. Then a_>' = * -f- 3* 1 , 6cc. and x~ I y l = == 
* 9**, 6cc. Therefore^ = * * -f- 6# 4 , &c. and / = * * -f- 2AT 3 , 
&c. &c. 

Or the Refolution may be perform'd after thefe two following 
manners : 

zy 1=3 *-' -f- IA *,&c. ;'*-'\= 



* 



_? v~~ l 1 -* v~~ '4 ' v~"~ 2 &"f* 

_j _/ ^ ^^^r.-v 4 "F^ j A'^* 

T = 2A--j-i 3 A-~' &C. 

Make zy-=. 3, &c. or_y =r ?, 6cc. then j= o, &c. and 
x -iy-- =-j- %x- 1 , &c. Therefore 2_y = * %x~ l , &c. or / 
= * -f- T*"", 1 } &c. and y = * % x ~ z > & c - anc l by fquaring x~'j* 
= * I 1 -'''" 2 , &c. and therefore 2_>'=r* * -f- ^A*~ 2 , 6cc. and 
y = * * I-*" 2 } &c. And fo on. 

Again, divide the whole Equation by y, and make x J y = 2, &c. 
thenj' = 2A;, &c. And becaufe j/=2, &c. and j'^ni^ 1 " 1 , &c. 
'tis^" 1 = Aj 1 "" 1 , &c. and 3>'~~ 1 = I-* 1 "" 1 } ^ c - therefore yx~* 
= * H- T-^" 1 ) ^ C - an( l y = * H- T> & c - Then becaufe j^y" 1 == 
* + o, &c. and y I = * -+- -I-*" 2 , & c - 'tis jx~ l = * * T" v ~ 4 > 
&c. and y * * T X ~*> ^ cc> ^ c - 

45, 46. If the propofed Equation be_y = y -\- x~' X~-, its 
Solution may be thus : 

77 = x-*+x~ 

s 

4-jrJ _!_*- 



/; 


)=A ' A'" 1 




y' y 


^ 

( 


> -f-A" * 


x 


y * ) 


+^: 


! - ' X~ z 


AT" 1 


j -f-A-~'> 




*> 


A 1 


* x ~'j 



Makejj/= x~ z , &c. then y =r A ', &c. Confequently }'=*. 
* o, &c. and therefore _y= * o, &c. that is, y = x~ I . 

Again, make y^ix" 1 , &c. then y =. A-~% 6cc. and confe- 
quently _>' = * + o, &c. that is, y = A'. 

That this fhould be fo, may appear by the direcl Method. For 
ify = x~ l , 'tisj/ = A-A-~ 2 ; a\foyx= .\x~'. Then adding tlieie 
two Equations together, 'tis yx -\-y =xx~ ' xx~*, orj = y 

x~ l x~*. Thus may we form as many Fluxional Equations 

as 



298 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

as we pleafe, of which the Fluents may be exprefs'd in finite Terms; 
but to return to thefe again may ibmetimes require particular Expe- 
dients. Thus if we aflume the Equation y = 2x x* -f- ^ } , 
taking the Fluxions, and putting x= i, we {hall have jr = 2 

|x -f- -for 1 , as alfo ~ = i ^x -+- ~x*. Subtract this laft from 
the foregoing Equation, and we fhall have j/ = i 2#-f-l* t , 

ZX 

the Solution of which here follows. 

47. Let the propos'd Equation be y= -f- i , 2#-{- !#*, of 
which the Solution may be thus : 



\ e fx gx* __ ex' 1 fx 

' 





= o. 



By tabulating the Terms of this Equation, as ufual, it may be 
obferved, that one of the external Terms y -+- ^yx~ l is a double 
Term, to which the other external Term i belongs in common. 

Therefore to feparate thefe, afllime y = zex, &c. then . i- 

= e, &c. and confequently y = i -f- e , &c. and therefore y 
==x -f- ex, &c. That is, becaule 2ex = x -f- ex, or ze=. i -j-e, 
'tis ez= i, or _y= 2x, &c. So if we make _y=* -f- 2/x z , 5cc. 

then i- = * y^j &c. therefore y = * ~\~fx 2x, &c. and 

v = * -+- l/x 1 A-*, &c. that is, 2/= |/ i, or /= -i. So 
that _y == * -f-A'% &c. So if we makejv' = * * +- zgx*, &c. then 

s== * * gx 1 , &c. and therefore jj/ = * * -+-gx* -4- ix 1 , <Scc. 
and/ = * * -f- |*-> -f- ^s &c. or 2g = -jg+, or ^ -_ __. > fo 
that j =# * ^-.v 3 , &c. So if we make / = * *. * 2/^x 4 , &c. then 

-=*#*- /w 3 , &c. and therefore _y= * * * -f- /JA: 3 , &c. 

and /= * * * -f- ^r^ 4 , &c. Butbecaufe here 2^=^^, this Equa- 
tion would be ubfurd except = o. And fo all the fubfequent Terms 
will vanifh in infinitum, and this will be the exact value of y. And 
the fame may be done from the other cafe of external Terms, as 
will appear from the Paradigm. 

48. Nothing can be added to illuflrate this Investigation, unlefs 
we would demonftrate it fynthctically. Becaufe^ =ex* } as is here 

found, 






and INFINITE SERIES. 299 

found, therefore y = e: v+~', or y = Iff! . Here in (lead of ex' ( 



fubftitute y, and we fhall have_y = ~ x , as given at firft. 



49, 50. The given Equation y =yx~- 4- x~- -f- 3 4- 2.V 4*-' 
may be thus reiblved after a general manner. 

y n = 2x 4- 3 4A- 1 4- x- 2 .v-* 4- i-*-* , &c. 
/ -f- i -f- 4-v ' 4-rf.v~ I rtx~~ 3 4- ax~* 

-~ x ~ z )\ ----- * 4 A "~' a *~* + *~ 3 T*~* , &c. 
J -\-ax~* ax~* 



y= x l -f- 4.v + a #-' +- fx~ z .x~* ,.&c. 
^A-"~' -j- ax~ z fax" 3 . 

Make_y = 2* 1 , &c. then; 1 = x 1 , 6cc. Therefore x~ z y = i , 
ficc. conlequently y = * -f- i -+- 3, &c. = * 4, 6cc. and therefore 
j = * -+- 4.x, &c. Then x~ z y = * 4-v~", &c. and confe- 
quently y = * * -f- o, 6cc. and therefore afluming any conftant 
quantity a, it may be y = * * -+- a, &c. Then #-*_y = * * 
^A,-" 1 , &c. and therefore , j = * * * -+- ax~* +- x~ z , &c. and 
y=. * * * fix' 1 x" 1 , &c. And fo on. Here if we make 

a = o, 'tis ^ = * 1 + 4* * ; H- ^ ^ 3 , &c. 

51, 52. The Equation of this Example is y=. ^xy* -\-y, which 
we fliall refolve by our ufual Method, without any other prepara- 
tion than dividing the whole by j*, that one of the Terms may be 
clear'd from the Relate Quantity ; which will reduce it yy~^ ^ 
c= 3r, of which the Refolution may be thus : 

3x -f- f X-- -f- T ' T * 3 -|- ^rx* + -~-x s , &c. 

X * -V^ 3 TTTT^ 4 TT4<T*'> &C ' 

y = f x 6 -+ T '^ 7 -4- TTY*"> &c - 

Make jJ;y"~^ = 3#, .&c. or taking the Fluents, %y~' = |jc% 6co. 

y^ = f x 1 , &c. or y = fAr 6 , &c. And becaufe y$ = fx*, 
&c. it will be jj)T~7 ==*_{- f^ 1 , &c. and therefore ^ = ^ 4- 
^.x 5 , &c. and y^ = * -f- ^x l , &c. and by cubing y= * 4- T V x7 > 
&c. Then becaufe y"' = * rV^'S & c - 'tis ji/y""^ = * * -f- -V v? > 
&c.and therefore 37' = * # -+- T ' T * 4 , &c. and ;-j = * * + T Tr- v ' 4 > 
&c. and by cubing ;= * * 4- T TT- v8 ) & c - And * on - 

Qjl 2 53- 



or 



-oo 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

53. Laftly, in the Equation y = zy^ -+- x ty*, orjj/y i== zx -4- 
xx*, afTuming c for a conftant quantity, whofe Fluxion therefore 
is o, and taking the Fluents, it will be 2V*= 2c -f- 2x -f- ~x'^, or 
y*=c -+- x -f- -i-x'. Then by fquaring, _> = c 1 -+- 2cx -f- A-* -f. 

-icx* + !** -+ f^ 3 - Here the Root _y may receive as many diffe- 
rent values, while x remains the fame, as c can be interpreted diffe- 
rent ways. Make c = o, then y = x 1 -+- -ix* -+- loc*. 

The Author is pleas'd here to make an Excufe for his being fo 
minute and particular, in dilcuffing matters which, as he fays, will 
but feldom come into practice ; but I think any Apology of this 
kind is needlefs, and we cannot be too minute, when the perfec- 
tion of a Method is concern'd. We are rather much obliged to him 
for giving us his whole Method, for applying it to all the cafes that 
may happen, and for obviating every difficulty that may arife. The 
ufe of thefe Extractions is certainly very exteniive ; for there are no 
Problems in the inverfe Method of Fluxions, and efpecially fuch 
as are to be anfwer'd by infinite Series, but what may be reduced to 
fuch Fluxional Equations, and may therefore receive their Solutions 
from hence. But this will appear more fully hereafter. 

SECT. IV. Solution of the third Cafe of Equations, with 
fame neceffary Demonftrations. 

54. TT* O R the more methodical Solution of what our Author 
calls a moft troublejbme and difficult Problem, (and furely 
the Inverfe Method of Fluxions, in its full extent, deferves to be 
call'd fuch a Problem,) he has before diftributed it into three Cafes. 
The firft Cafe, in which two Fluxions and only one flowing Quan- 
tity occur in the given Equation, he has difpatch'd without much 
difficulty, by the affiftance of his Method of infinite Series. The 
fecond Cafe, in which two flowing Quantities and their Fluxions 
are any how involved in the given Equation, even with the fame 
affiftance is flill an operofe Problem, but yet is difculs'd in all its 
varieties, by a fufficient number of appofite Examples. The third 
Cafe, in which occur more than two Fluxions with their Fluents, 
is here very artfully managed, and all the difficulties of it are re- 
duced to the other two Cafes. For if the Equation involves (for 
inftance) three Fluxions, with fome or all of their Fluents, another 
Equation ought to be given by the Queftion, in order to a full De- 

terminationj 



and INFINITE SERIES. 301 

termination, as has been already argued in another place; or if not, 
the Queftion is left indetermined, and then another Equation may 
be affumed ad libitum, fuch as will afford a proper Solution to the 
Queftion. And the reft of the work will only require the two 
former Cafes, with fome common Algebraic Reductions, as we fhall 
fee in the Author's Example. 

55. Now to confider the Author's Example, belonging to this 
third Cafe of finding Fluents from their Fluxions given, or when 
there are more than two variable Quantities, and their Fluxions, ei- 
ther exprefs'd or underftood in the given Equation. This Example 
is zx z 4- yx = o, in which becaufe there are three Fluxions A-, 
y, and z, (and therefore virtually three Fluents x, y, and z,) and 
but one Equation given ; I may affume (for inftance) x=y, whence 
x =JK, and by fubftitution zy z -\-yy = o, and therefore zy 
& + T)'* = Now as here are only two Equations x y== o 
and zy z-\-^y l =o, the Quantities x, y, and z are ftill variable 
Quantities, and fufceptible of infinite values, as they ought to be. 
Indeed a third Equation may be had, as zx z-\-x* = o; but 
as this is only derived from the other two, it brings no new limi- 
tation with it, but leaves the quantities ftill flowing and indetermi- 
nate quantities. Thus if I mould affume zy=a-\-z for the fc- 
cond Equation, then zy=z, and by fubftitution zx zjr-k-yx=;o, 

or y = j^ - = x -f- .Ixv -f- ^x'-x, &c. and therefore y = x -+- ix 1 

H-TT# S J & c - which two Equations are a compleat Determination. 
Again, if we affume with the Author x=j s , and thence x=Z)y t 
we mall have by fubftitution <\.yy z -^-yy 1 = o, and thence zy 1 
z -+- ^ = o, which two Equations are a fufficient Determina- 
tion. We may indeed have a third, zx z -+- ^x^ = o ; but as 
this is included in the other two, and introduces no new limitation, 
the quantities will ftill remain fluent. And thus an infinite variety 
of fecond Equations may be aflumed, tho 1 it is always convenient, 
that the affumed Equation fliould be as fimple as may be. Yet fome 
caution muft be ufed in the choice, that it may not introduce fuch 
a limitation, as fhall be inconfiftent with the Solution. Thus if I 
fhould affume zx z= o for the fecond Equation, I mould have 
zx z = o to be fubftituted, which would make yx = o, and 
therefore would afford no Solution of the Equation. 

'Tis eafy to extend this reafoning to Equations, that involve four 
or more Fluxions, and their flowing Quantities , but it would be 
needlefs here to multiply Examples. And thus our Author has com- 
pleatly folved this Cafe alfo, which at firft view might appear for- 
midable 



302 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

midable enough, by reducing all its difficulties to the two former 
Cafes. 

56, 57. The Author's way of demonstrating the Inverfe Method 
of Fluxions is Short, but fatisfactory enough. We have argued elfe- 
where, that from the Fluents given to find the Fluxions, is a direct 
and fynthetical Operation ; and on the contrary, from the Fluxions 
given to find the Fluents, is indirect and analytical. And in the 
order of nature Synthefis mould always precede Analyfis, or Com- 
pofidon mould go before Refolution. But the Terms Synthefis and 
Analyfis are often ufed in a vague fenfe, and taken only relatively, 
as in this place. For the direct Method of Fluxions being already 
demonftrated fynthetically, the Author declines (for the reafons he 
gives) to demonstrate the Inverfe Method fynthetically alfo, that is, 
primarily, and independently of the direct Method. He contents 
himfelf to prove it analytically, that is, by fuppofing the direct Me- 
thod, as fufficiently demonstrated already, and Shewing the neceSTary 
connexion between this and the inverSe Method. And this will al- 
ways be a full proof of the truth of the conclufions, as Multiplica- 
tion is a good proof of Division. Thus in the firlt Example we 
found, that if the given Equation is y -f- xy y=^x x 1 I, 
we Shall have the Root y=x x 1 -j- f x 3 -* -f- ^.x* -^r* 6 , 
cc. To prove the truth of which conclufion, we may hence find, 
by the direct Method, _y = i 2x -{-x 1 .i* 3 -f-f#* T T X', &c. 
and then fubStitute theSe two Series in the given Equation, as follows; 

y ------- f_ X _ jf 4- ]_ X 1 _ . X < _J_ _>_ X , __ _^ X 6 

_{_ X y --------- 1_ X - __ . #3 _j_ 3.4 __ ^f _{_ _?_ X 6 5 

y -- r -f. 2 X A-* -{- ^ ^ + -rX' ^X 6 



x 1 



Now by collecting thefe Series, we mall find the refult to pro- 
duce the given Equation, and therefore the preceding Operation will 
be fufticiently proved. 

58. In this and the fubfequent paragraphs, our Author comes to 
open and explain fome of the chief My Steries of Fluxions and Fluents, 
and to give us a Key for the clearer apprehenfion of their nature 
and properties. Therefore for the Learners better instruction, I Shall 
not think much to inquire fomething more circumstantially into this 
matter. In order to which let us conceive any number of right 
Lines, AE, ae t as, &c. indefinitely extended both ways, along which 
a Body, or a defcribing Point, may be fuppofed to move in each 

Line, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 303 

Line, from the left-hand towards the right, according to any Law 
or Rate of Acceleration or Retardation whatever. Now the Motion 
of every one of thefe Points, at all times, is to be eftimated by its 
diftance from fome fixt point in the fame Line ; and any fuch Points 
may be chofen for this purpole, in each Line, fuppoie B, I), /3, in 
which all the Bodies have been, are, or will be, in the fame Mo- 
ment of Time, from whence to compute their contemporaneous 
Augments, Differences, or flowing Quantities. Thefe Fluents may 
be conceived as negative before the Body arrives at that point, as 
nothing when in it, and as affirmative when they are got beyond it. 
In the rlrft Line AE, whole Fluent we denominate by x, we may 
luppofe the Body to move uniformly, or with any equable Velocity ; 
then may the Fluent x, or the Line which is continually defcribed, 

A B C J> :E 



a, 



, * /? 9" c/^ 8 

2 ! 1-1 II 

reprefent Time, or {land for the Correlate Quantity, to which the 
feveral Relate Quantities are to be constantly refer'd and compared. 
For in the fecond Line ae, whofe Fluent we call y, if we fuppofe 
the Body to move with a Motion continually accelerated or retarded, 
according to any conftant Rate or Law, (which Law is exprefs'd by 
any Equation compos'd of x and y and known quantities j) then 
will there always be contemporaneous parts or augments, defcribed 
in the two Lines, which parts will make the whole Fluents to be 
contemporaneous alfo, and accommodate themfelves to the Equation 
in all its Circumftances. So that whatever value is afiumed for the 
Correlate x, the correfponding or contemporaneous value of the Re- 
late y may be known from the Equation, and vice versa. Or from 
the Time being given, here represented by x, the Space represented 
by y may always be known. The Origin (as we may call it) of the 
Fluent x is mark'd by the point B, and the Origin of the Fluent y 
by the point b. If the Bodies at the fame time are found in A and 
, then will the contemporaneous Fluents be BA and ba. If 
at the fame time, as was fuppofed, they are found in their refpec- 
tive Origins B and , then will each Fluent be nothing. If at the 
fame time they are found in ^ and c, then will their Fluents be 
-1- BC and -\-bc. And the like of all other points, in which the 
i moving 



304 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

moving Bodies either have been, or fliall be found, at the fame 
time. 

As to the Origins of thefe Fluents, or the points from whence we 
begin to compute them, (for tho' they muft be conceived to be variable 
and indetermined in refpedt of one of their Limits, where the de- 
fcribing points are at prefent, yet they are fixt and determined as to 
their other Limit, which is their Origin,) tho' before w appointed 
the Origin of each Fluent to be in B and b, yet it is not of abfolute 
neceffity that they mould begin together, or at the fame Moment of 
Time. All that is neceflary is this, that the Motions may continue 
as before, or that they may obferve the fame rate of flowing, and 
have the fame contemporaneous Increments or Decrements, which 
will not be at all affected by changing the beginnings of the Fluents. 
The Origins of the Fluents are intirely arbitrary things, and we 
may remove them to what other points we pleafe. If we remove 
them from B and b to A and c, for inftance, the contemporaneous 
Lines will ftill be AB and ab, BC and be, &c. tho' they will change 
their names. Inftead of AB we fhall have o, inftead of B or o 
we fliall have -+- AB, inftead of -+- BC we fliall have -f- AC ; &c. 
So inftead of ab we fliall have ac -{-be, inftead of b or o we 
fliall have be, inftead of-f- /Wwe fliall have -+- bc + cd, &c. That 
is, in the Equation which determines the general Law of flowing 
or increafing, we may always increafe or diminifh x, or y y or both, 
by any given quantity, as occafion may require, and yet the Equa- 
tion that arifes will ftill exprefs the rate of flowing ; which is all that 
is neceffary here. Of the ufe and conveniency of which Reduction 
we have feen feveral in fiances before. 

If there be a third Line a.e, defcribed in like manner, whofe 
Fluent may be z, having its parts correfponding with the others, as 
a/3, &y, y, & c - there muft be another Equation, either given or 
aflumed, to afcertain the rate of flowing, or the relation of z to the 
Correlate x. Or it will be the fame thing, if in the two Equations 
the Fluents x, y, Z, are any how promifcuoufly involved. For thefe 
two Equations will limit and determine the Law of flowing in each 
Line. And we may likewife remove the Origin of the Fluent z 
to what point we pleafe of the Line a. And fo if there were more 
Lines, or more Fluents. 

59. To exemplify what has been faid by an eafy inftance. Thus 
inftead of the Equation y=xxy, we may aflume y = xy -+- xxy, 
where the Origin of x is changed, or x is diminifli'd by Unity ; for 
j -J-- x is fubftituted inftead of x, The lawfulnefs of which Re- 
duction 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



305 



duftion may be thus proved from the Principles of Analyticks. Make 
x i -\-z, whence x=z, which (hews, that xand2 flow or increale 
alike. Subftitute thefe infteadof x and x in the Equation^':=xxy, and 
it will become y = zy -+- zzy. This differs in nothing elle from 
the afTumed Equation y = xy -f- xxy, only that the Symbol x is 
changed into the Symbol z, which can make no real change in the 
argumentation. So that we may as well retain the dime Symbols 
as were given at firft, and, becaufe z-=x- - i, we may as well 
fuppofe x to be diminiih'd by Unity. 

60, 6 1. The Equation expreffing the Relation of the Fluents will 
at all times give any of their contemporaneous parts ; for afluming 
different values of the Correlate Quantity, we ma'!, thence have the 
correfponding different values of the Relate, and then by fubtradion 
we fhall obtain the contemporary differences of each. Thus if the 

given Equation were y = x -{- - , where x is fuppos'd to be a quan- 
tity equably increafmg or decreafing ; make x = o, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
&c. fucceifively, then y = infinite, 2, 2|, 3.1, 4^, 5-^-, &c. refpec- 
tively. And taking their differences, while x flows from o to i, 
from i to 2, from 2 to 3, &c. y will flow from infinite to 2, from 
2 to 2-i-, from 2| to 3.1, &cc. that is, their contemporaneous parts 
will be i, i, i, i, &c. and infinite, i, , -{.I, &c. refpeclively. 
Likewife, if we go backwards, or if we make x negative, we mall 
have x = o, i, 2, &c. which will make _y= infinite, 2, 
2-i-, &c. fo that the contemporaneous differences will be as be- 
fore. 

Perhaps it may make a ftronger impreffion upon the Imagina- 
tion, to reprefent this by a Figure. To the rectangular Afymptotes 
GOH and KOL let ABC and DEF 
be oppofite Hyperbola's ; bifed the An- 
gle GOK by the indefinite right Line 
yOR, perpendicular to which draw the 
Diameter BOE, meeting the Hyperbola's 
in B and E, from whence draw BQP 
and EST, as alfo CLR and DKU pa- 
rallel to GOH. Now if OL is made 
to reprefent the indefinite and equable 

quantity x in the Equation y = x -f- -' 

then CR may reprefent y. For CL = ^ = l - , (fuppofing 

= OL = x , therefore CR =^ LR -4- 

R r or 




306 *The Method of FLUXIONS, 

or y = x -f- ^ Now the Origin of OL, or x, being in O j if 

x = o, then CR, or y, will coincide with the Afymptote OG, and 
therefore will be infinite. If x= i = OQ^ then _y = BP=2. 
If x = 2 = OL, then y = CR = 2 i. And fo of the reft. Alfo 
proceeding the contrary way, if x = o, then y may be fuppofed 
to coincide with the Afymptote OH, and therefore will be negative 
and infinite. If x = OS = i, then y = ET = 2. If x 
= OK = 2, then _y = Dv = 2~, &c. And thus we may 
purfue, at leaft by Imagination, the correfpondent values of the flow- 
ing quantities x and_y, as alfo their contemporary differences, through 
all their poiTible varieties ; according to their relation to each other, 

as exhibited by the Equation y = x +- - . . 

The Transition from hence to Fluxions is fo very eafy, that it 
may be worth while to proceed a little farther. As the Equation 
expreffing the relation of the Fluents will give (as now obferved) 
any of their contemporary parts or differences ; fo if thefe differences 
are taken very fmall, they will be nearly as the Velocities of the 
moving Bodies, or points, by which they are defcribed. For Mo- 
tions continually accelerated or retarded, when perform'd in very 
fmall fpaces, become nearly equable Motions. But if thofe diffe- 
rences are conceived to be dirninifhed in infiriitum, fo as from finite 
differences to become Moments, or vanifhing Quantities, the Mo- 
tions in them will be perfectly equable, and therefore the Velocities 
of their Defcription, or the Fluxions of the Fluents, will be accu- 
rately as thofe Moments. Suppofe then x, y, z, &c. to reprefent 
Fluents in any Equation, or Equations, and their Fluxions, or Ve- 
locities of increafe or decreafe, to be reprefented by x, y, z, &c. 
and their refpedlive contemporary Moments to be op, oq, or, &c. 
where p, q, r, &c. will be the Exponents of the Proportions of 
the Moments, and o denotes a vanifhing quantity, as the nature of 
Moments requires. Then x, y, z, Sec. will be as op, oq, or, &c. 
that is, as p, g, r, &c. So that ,v, y, z, &c. may be ufed inflead 
of/>, ?> r -> ^ c - ni th e designation of the Moments. That is, the fyn- 
chronous Moments of x, y, z, &c. may be reprefented by ox, oy, 
oz, &c. Therefore in any Equation the Fluent x may be fuppofed 
to be increafed by its Moment ox, and the Fluent y by its Moment 
oy, &cc. or x -+- ox, y -{- oy, &c. may be fubftitnted in the Equation 
inflead of x, y, &c. and yet the Equation will flill be true, becaufe 
the Moments are fuppofed to be fynchronous. From which Ope- 
ration 



and INFINITE SERIES, 307 

ration an Equation will be form'd, which, by due Redu&ion, muft 
neceflarily exhibit the relation of the Fluxions. 

Thus, for example, if the Equation y = x -+- z be given, by 
Subftitution we fliall have y -f- oy =. x -f- ox -+- z -+- oz, which, be- 
caufe y = x -+- z, will become oy = ox -f- oz, or y = x -f- z, winch 

is the relation of the Fluxions. Here again, if we afllime z = - > 
or zx = i, by increafing the Fluents by their contemporary Mo- 
ments, we fliall have z -+- oz x A- -f- ox = i, or zx + ozx -f- oxz 
-f- oozx = i. Here becaufe zx = i, 'tis ozx -f- o.\z -+- oozx = o, 
or ~x-f- A- -+- 02X = o. But becaufe ozx is a vanifliing Term in 

refpect of the others, 'tis zx -f- A z = o, or z === -f = 

Now as the Fluxion of z conies out negative, 'tis an indication that 
as A- increafes z will decreafe, and the contrary. Therefore in the 

Equation y = x -+- z, if z = - , or if the relation of the Fluents 
be y = x -+- - , then the relation of the Fluxions will be y = x 



And as before, from the Equation y =: x -+- - we derived the 
contemporaneous parts, or differences of the Fluents ; fo from the 
Fluxional Equation y = x ^ now found, we may obferve the 

rate of flowing, or the proportion of the Fluxions at different values 
of the Fluents. 

For becaufe it is x : y : : I : i \ : : x 1 : x 1 i ; when 

# = o, or when the Fluent is but beginning to flow, (confequently 
when y is infinite,) it will be x : y :: o : i. That is, the Ve- 
locity wherewith x is defcribed is infinitely little in comparifon of the 
velocity wherewith^ is defcribed; and moreover it is infinuated, (becaufe 
of i,) that while x increafes by any finite quantity, tho' never fo 
little, y will decreafe by an infinite quantity at the fame time. This 
will appear from the infpeclion of the foregoing Figure. When 
x= i, (and confequently _)'= 2,) then x : y : : i : o. That is, 
x will then flow infinitely faflrer than y. The reafon of which is, 
that y is then at its Limit, or the leaft that it can poflibly be, and 
therefore in that place it is ftationary for a moment, or its Fluxion 
is nothing in comparifon of that of x. So in the foregoing Figure, 
BP is the lea ft of all fuch Lines as are reprcfented by CR. When 
x=2, (and therefore y = 27,) it will be A- : y :: 4 : 3. Or 

R r 2 the 



Method of FLUXIONS, 

the Velocity of x is there greater than that of^, in the ratio of 4 
to 3. When x=3, then x : y :: 9 : 8. And fo on. So that 
the Velocities or Fluxions conftantly tend towards equality, which 

they do not attain till - (or CL) finally vanishing, x and y become 

equal. And the like may be obferved of the negative values of 
x and y. 

SECT. V. 77je Refolution of Equations^ whether Algebrai- 
cal or Fluxionalt by the ajfiftance of fuperior orders 
of Fluxions. 

ALL the foregoing Extractions (according to a hint of our Au- 
thor's,) may be perform'd fomething more expeditioufly, and 
without the help of fubfidiary Operations, if we have recourfe to 
fuperior orders of Fluxions. To (hew this firft by an eafy Inftance. 

Let it be required to extradl the Cube-root of the Binomial 
a> -f- x 3 , or to find the Root y of this Equation y 1 = a 3 -\- x"' ; 
or rather, for fimplicity-fake, let it be_) 3 =a* -+- z. Then y=.a, 
&c. or the initial Term of y will be a. Taking the Fluxions of 
this Equation, we fhall have -$yy- = z = i, or y = -^y~ l . But 
as it is y = a, &c. by fubftitution it will be y = jtf" 1 , 6cc. and 
taking the Fluents, 'tis y= * -f- \a~ 1 z^ &c. Here a vacancy is 
left for the firft Term of y, which we already know to be a. For 
another Operation take the Fluxions of the Equation jj/=: j/~* ; 
whence y = %yy~* = jy~ 5 - Then becaufe y = a, &c. 
'tis y = ?&"*, &c. and taking the Fluents, 'tis y = * 
$a~ 3 z, &c. and taking the Fluents again, 'tis jy- = * * ^a-^z l , 
6cc. Here two vacancies are to be left for the two firfl Terms of 
y, which are already known. For the next Operation take the 

Fluxions of the Equation y=. ^y~ s , that is, y = -f- - 9 -yy~ 6 =. 

_l_^.ji- 8 . Or becaufe _7=c,&c. 'tis _y=if(S- 8 , &c. Then taking 
the Fluents, 'tis y= * L^. a -*z, &c. y = * * -^a-^z 1 , 6cc. and 
y = * * * -v s T a~*z*, &c. Again, for another Operation take the 

Fluxions of the Equation y =: ~~y^ ; whence y = -*f^~ 9 
= Iry" 11 - Or becaufe y = a, &c. 'tis "y = IT^"", &c. 
Then taking the Fluents, y = * ^a- 1 ^, &c. jy = * * 



and INFINITE SERIES. 309 



H-a-^z 1 , &c. y = * * * _+._ _.rt "z 5 , &c. and _)' = * * * * 
'^-?-a-"z+, &c. And fo we may go on as far as we pleafe. We 

have therefore found at laft, that v = a -\ -. , -f- ~g 

y. 1 9 8i B 

^ , &c. or for z writing x*. 'tis fa + x- = -+- ~ ^ ( 



C* 1* - 

I - - n " ~ l\f\^ 

' XI ,3 ^1 I ' 



bi 



Or univerfally, if we would refolve a -f- x \ m into an equivalent 
infinite Series, make y = a -f- x \ ra , and we fhall have a m for the 

firfl Term of the Series y, or it will be y = a m , &c. Then be- 
j_ i j 

caufe y = a +- x, taking the Fluxions we fhall have ~yy m = 

x = i, or y = my m . But becaufe it is y = a m , &c. it will be 
y = t/m m ~ 1 , &c. and now taking the Fluents, 'tis y = * ma m ~ t x y 

6cc. Again, becaufe it is y = my m , taking the Fluxions it will 









be y = m lyv *= m x ly m ; and becaufe y = a m , Sec. 
'tis/ = wxw ia m ~' i , &c. And taking the Fluents, 'tis y = * 
? x / i~% 6cc. and therefore y = * * m x ^ = - I d m ~ 2 x% &c. 

_ j 2 

Again, becaufe it is y = m x //; 17 "', taking the Fluxions it 
will be y = m - - i x ;// 2j/y m = m x / i x 

and becaufe 7 := a m , &c. 'tis _y = m x 
And taking the Fluents, 'tis /== * m x w i x w/ 
y =**/;/ x '^^- x m 2a m -ix*, &c. and v = * 
x CT ~y-3 X 3, 6cc. And fo we might proceed as far as we pleafe, 
if the Law of Continuation had not already been fufficiently ma- 
nifefl. So that we fhall have here a -+- x I = a* -f- ma m ~ l x -+- 

ftt __ r m ^ 2 ni * * m ~~" ^ 

m x !LU fl x l 4- w x - - x - a m ~^ -+- m x -- x - 

2 2 3 




?^-V-4;c<, &c. 

Vhis is a famous Theorem of our Author's, tho' difcover'd by 

him after a very different manner of Investigation, or rather by .,- lldufr 

Indudion. It is commonly known by the name of his Binomial > '$ vntrrrU*t> *> v 
Theorem, becaufe by its amftance any Binomial, as a + x; may JujJf&rcL f 
be railed to any Power at pleafure, or any Root of it may be ex- -^fajfifa & 
tradted. And it is obvious, that when m is interpreted by any m- Cff 1 ' . 

**'* 








r^ 

t 

r 

.3 

i 


^F 
^ 
fr 

S 

^v 


(*K3 

>\y 

i'r 

NI 

^ ^ 



I'l 

w 



A-i 



310 7%e Method 0/* FLUXIONS, 

teger affirmative Number, the Series will break off, and become 
finite, at a number of Terms denominated by m. But in all other 
cafes it will be an infinite Series, which will converge when x is 
lefs than a. 

Indeed it can hardly be faid, that this, or any other that is de- 
rived from the Method of Fluxions, is a ftridl Inveftigation of this 
Theorem. Becaufe that Method itfelf is originally derived from the 
Method of railing Powers, at leaft integral Powers, and previoufly 
fuppofes the knowledge of the Unci<z, or the numeral Coefficients. 
However it may anfwer the intention, of being a proper Example 
of this Method of Extraction, which is all that is neceffary here. 

There is another Theorem for this purpofe, which I found many 
years ago, and then communicated it to my ingenious Friend Mr. 
A. dc Moivre, who liked it fo well as to infert it in a Mathematical 
Treadle he was then publiming. I mall here give the Reader its 
Inveftigation, in the fame manner it was found. 

Let us fuppofe a -f- x \ m = a m -f- />, and that a -f- x = z, and 
therefore z = x = i. Now becaufe z m =a m -i-f, it will be 

m 

p = niz"' 1 = ^- ; where for z m writing its value a m -+- f, we 

fH fnf, M 

ma . m P . . ma x 

fhall have/ = H 1 . Now if we make/>= 7- -J- q, it 

m m 

will be p = '- "^r -+- q> And comparing thefe two values 

ttn* 1 ?%P 

of p, we mall have q = ^ -f- ~ ; where if for p we write its 

ma m x m 1 a m x m 1 

value as above, it will be q = -^- + ^ + ~ , or q = m x 

_ m . _i_ w j 

m ~\- i x ~ + ~l ; make q = m x " 2 - x ^~ -f- r; therefore 

- m -a 

- -I- r. From which 



m 
a x 



= m x m -+- i x m x m -+- i x 



m 4 OT _ 

two values of <7 we fhall have r = m -x. m -}- i x ^- ~1~ 7" . And 

2 2,3 - 



for y fubftituting its value, it will be r = m x m -h i x 
+ ' ..- OT * a 



mr 

i . 



Or r = m 



AT 1 

Make r-=.m 



4- j ; then, &c. So that we 

mall 



and INFINITE SERIES. 311 

* "'+' *'"*= , 

/lull have a + x I ra = a" -f- m x ^. -f- w x -7- ^7 ~ 

=^*=fX;0i.^ 

Now this Series will Hop of its own accord, at a finite number 
of Terms, when m is any integer and negative Number ; that is, 
when the Reciprocal of any Power of a Binomial is to be found. 
But in all other cafes we mall have an infinite converging Series for 
the Power or Root required, which will always converge when a 
and x have the fame Sign ; becaufe the Root of the Scale, or the 

converging quantity, is ^ , which is always lefs than Unity. 

By comparing thefe two Series together, or by collecting from 

, : m _ a i 

each the common quantity - ^ - , we fliall have the two 




_ . TO x 

equivalent Series - -+- -j- x - -f- -j-x x - , &c. = 
, 11 x x + 11 x "L_ 2 x == ^=- , &c. from whence we 

a + x |* 2 3 a-i-x I 5 

might derive an infinite number of Numeral Converging Series, not 
inelegant, which would be proper to explain and illuftrate the na- 
ture of Convergency in general, as has been attempted in the for- 
mer part of this work. For if we aflume fuch a value of i as 
will make either of the Series become finite, the other Series will 
exhibit the quantity that arifes by an Approximation ad infinitum. 
And then a and A; may be afterwards determined at pleafure. 

As another Example of this Method, we fliall fhew (according 
to promife) how to derive Mr. de Moivre's elegant Theorem ; for 
raifing an Infinitinomial to any indeterminate Power, or for extract- 
ing any Root of the fame. The way how it was derived from the 
abftract coniideration of the nature and genefis of Powers, (which 
indeed is the only legitimate method of Inveftigation in the prefent 
cafe,) and the Law of Continuation, have been long ago communi- 
cated and demonftrated by the Author, in the Philofbphicai Tranf- 
actions, N 230. Yet for the dignity of the Problem, and the bet- 
ter to illuftrate the prefent Method of Extraction of Roots, I lhall 
deduce it here as follows. 



Let us aflume the Equation a -+- b~ -+- cz* -f- itz* -4- ez* t &.c. | * 
= )', where the value of y is to be found by an infinite Series, of 
which the firfl: Term is already known to be a m , or it is y a", 
&c. Make v = a -f- l>z -f- cz, 1 -J- dz> -f- ez*, &c. and putting 
z = i, and taking the Fluxions, we mail have -y r^zi b -+- 2cz -+- 



, I2 Tie Method of FLUXIONS, 

7</jz -f- 4s*. &c - Then becaufe y = u", it is ^ = mviT-', where 
if we make -y = <*, &c. and V = t>, &c. we fliall have _y = 
ma'-'b, &c. and taking the Fluents, it will be _> = * maF*ks t 



For another Operation, becaufe _y = mvv"- 1 , it is _y = 

_l_ ;, ; x ; ii>i;"'~ z . And becaufe <u = 2f -f- 6<fe + 12^2;*, &c. for 

y, v, and -yfubftituting their values a, &c. ^, &c. and 2c, 6cc. refpec- 
tively, we fliall have jy = zmca" 1 - 1 -+- m x OT i6*a m - z , &c. and 
taking the Fluents 7 = * 2fnca m - J z -\-m-x. m i*tf*-**, 6cc. and 
taking the Fluents again, y = * * mca m - l z* -\-m~x. ^^^a m - 2 z 1 ) 

&c. .. 

For another Operation, becaufe/ = mw m - 1 -+- mxm iv 1 v m ~ 1 t 

'tis y m i v"j m ~ l + yn x / iv m ~ z -vv-{-m\m ixw 2 t v m *v">. 
And becaufe -u = 6^+24^2;, &c. for v, v, v, v, fubftituting a, 

6cc. b, &c. 2c, &c. 6^/, &c. we fliall have )"=, 6mda m ~ l -f- 6m x 

w \bca m ~' i -\- m x. m i x m 2l> 3 a m ~*, &c. And taking the 

Fluents it will be y = * 6mda m ~ l z -+- 6m x m \bca m -*z -+- m x 
w i Km 2foa m ~*z, 8cc. l/ = * * 



x ^^ x w 2foa m -iz 1 , &c. and/ = * * * mda m - l z* -+ m x 



m x 









. And fo on z' /- 



finitum. We fliall therefore have tf 



And if the whole be multiply'd by s", and continued to a due 
length, it will have the form of Mr. de Moivres Theorem. 

The Roots of all Algebraical or Fluential Equations may be ex- 
tradled by this Method. For an Example let us take the Cubick 
Equation y* -\~axy -\-a*y x"' 2 3 =o, fo often before refolved, 
in which y = a, &c. Then taking the Fluxions, and making 
x = i, we fliall have ^yy- -+- ay +- axy -f- a*-y 3x z = o. Here 
if for y we fubftitute a, &c. we fliall have ^y -\- a 1 4- axy 3**, 

&c. =o, or>= -j:+^" = ^' &c - =.-- &C ' A " d 
taking the Fluents, v = * -i-x, &c. Then taking the Fluxions 

j again 



and INFINITE SERIES. 313 

again of the lafl Equation, we fliall have 37}* -f- 6y 1 y 4- 2 ay 4- axy 
4- a l y 6x= o. Where if we make 7 = a, &c. and 7 = ^., 
&c. we fliall have y= ZZif+j''-^: __ _!_ &c. and therefore 

' 43% CSV. 32a ' 

AT 1 '"" 

y = * 4 , &c. and y= * * -h z ' & c - Again, ?yy* -{- iSyy'y 

* "\2.ii (3 -I.'? ^ 

_j_ 675 -f- 3^7 -f- axy -\- a*-j 6 = 0. Make 7 = a, &c. 7 = 
^ &c. and 7 = , 6cc. then 7 ^ + ^~ ^- 4 " 6 5j; C- __ 

' 3 2a 4 a 

^|j, , &c. and therefore 7 = * ^^ , &c. 7 ^ * * = ^ , 6cc. 

and 7 = * * * - ^ 5 &c. Again, 377* -1-24777-1- 18^*74- 3677* 
4- 4^7 4- ^7x7 4- a*y = o. Make 7 = a, &c. 7 = ^, &c./ = 
- , &c. and 7 = - |^ , &c. then 7 = 

:, &c. and7=# '- ^-. , &c. 7 = * * 



, &c. and y = * * * * r68a ' ^ C ' ^ nc ^ ^ on as ^ ar as we 
Therefore the Root is y = ai x + f- H-H^ + -|2|fl &c. 

643 12^- ' i68' J 



The Series for the Root, when found by this Method, muft al- 
ways have its Powers afcending ; but if we defire likewife to find 
a Series with defcending Powers, it may be done by this eafy arti- 
fice. As in the prefent Equation y* -\- axy -f- a*y x"' 2a* = o, 
we may conceive x to be a conftant quantity, and a to be a flowing 
quantity ; or rather, to prevent a confufion of Ideas, we may change 
a into x, and x into a, and then the Equation will be _y 5 -f- axy -+ 
x*y rt 3 ax 3 = o. In this we mall have y = a, &c. and ta- 
king the Fluxions, 'tis 3j/y* -4- ay -f- axy -f- 2xy +- x*y 6x* = o, 

ay 2X],"-r- 6-V z n . i r o > "~" #& e> 

or y= 7-1 H r . But becauie y=a, &c. tis y= - , ficc. 
y +<**+* r ^ 3 

== i, &c. and therefore/ = * -i-.v,&c. Again taking the Fluxions 
'tis 3_)^ 4 -f- 6)/ 1 / 4- zay +- axy -\-2y-\- ^.xy -+- x*y I2x = o, or 
- -yj>-^-'j-4y+"* -6^-2^-2, Qr 

/ yJ+flX-f-* 1 y* 

king _y = a, &c. and _y = |, &c. 'tis y == ~^ + f~ 2a , &c. 

3^ 

=s y rt , &c. and _y = ^ , &c. and ;'=** ^ , &c. 

Again it is 3vy* -t- i8;7/ -f- 6y 5 -f- 3^} 4- axy -+. 67 H- 6x/ H- x*_y 

S f 12 



The Method of FLUXIONS, 

_ 12 = O, Or y = -rv- ? -- 






v = a t &c. y = 4-' &c - and y = -, &c.)~ 4 + v -T 2 + 2 + 12 , 
/ y 3> / 3** 

&c. = -^ , &c. Then taking the Fluents, 7 = * , &c. 






y = * * ^T , &c. and y = * * |^ , c. And fo on. There- 

2"<Z Gift 

fore we mall have y = <z . x 7^ + 7^7 , &c. Or now we 
may again change x into #, and a into x ; then it will be y = x 



_ itf _ -. _i_ ii^j , &c. for the Root of the given Equation, as 



3* 

was found before, pag. 2 16, &c. 

Alfo in the Solution of Fluxional Equations, we may proceed in 
the fame manner. As if the given Equation were ay a*x -{- xy 
- o,. (in which, if the Radius of a Circle be reprefented by a, and 
if y be any Arch of the fame, the corresponding Tangent will be 
reprefented by x 3) let it be required to extradl the Root y out of 
this Equation, or to exprefs it by a Series compofed of the Powers 
of a and x. Make x = i, then the Equation will be ay a 1 -J- 

a 

x a -yr=o. Here becaufe_y' = _, = i, &c. taking the Fluents 
it will be y = * x, &c. Then taking the Fluxions of this Equa- 
tion, we (hall have ay -f- 2xy -+- xy = o, or y= -^T 1 . But 
becaufe we are to have a conftant quandty for the firft Term of y, 
we may fuppofe y='~^^ i = o, &c. Then taking the Fluents 
'tisj/= * o, &c. and y =. * * o, &c. Then taking the Fluxions 

again, 'tis a'y -f- 27 + 4*7 -{- xy = o, or y = "J'^.'T* Here 
if for y and_y we write their values i, &c. and o, &c. we mall have 

}'= ^ , &c. whence y * il , & c . y = * ^ , c . 
and 7 == * * * ,71 > ^ c - Taking the Fluxions again, 'tis 

ay +6y + 6xy +xy = o, 01-7 ~*?~^ J = o, <5cc. There- 
fore y = * o, &c. _y= * * o., &c. j.'= * * * o, &c. y =. **# 
Q, &-C. Again, ay -+- I2y 4- 8^,7 -f- A' 4 j = o, or y = ~ l 2 ^!.'' 1 - 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



= + , &c. Then Jr^*^^, &c. ;< = **4- ^ , &c. 
_>>=:***-{- , &c. jy = * * * * 4- , &c. and _}=***** 




45 




- - - } &c. Again, a*y-\- zoy -f- loxy -f- xy = o, whence y=s 

5 "' r56 7? 

***** o, &c. Again, a*j+ 307 -f- i2*y -+- A,"^ = o, or y=. 

y~^=:- 30 x 2 4 rf- 9 , &c. Then > =- . _ !^2f , &c . 



12x30** 4x301-3 

j ==- * * -- ^ , &c. y = * * * - ^ , &c. ; = *** * 

30*4 6*5 o * 6 

-- -, &c. _y = # * * * * -^ , c^c. j)/=****** 



A' 7 



c. and _/ = ******* , &c. And fo on. So that we 

have here y = * # -H ox- 1 ^ + OA ' 4 + ^; > &c - that is, _y = 
fl , . *! & c 

* ' P + 5^ /' ' 

This Example is only to {hew the universality of this Method, 
and how we are to proceed in other like cafes ; for as to the Equa- 
tion itfelf, it might have been refolved much more fimply and ex- 

peditioufly, in the following manner. Becaufe y = -^- - } by 
Divifion it will be y = i ~ + ^ *- 6 -f- *L , & c . And ta- 






king the Fluents, y = x ^ -+- ; - 6 4- ^ > &c. 

In the fame Equation ^ a*x 4- x 1 ^ = o, if it were requir'd 
to exprefs x by y, (the Tangent by the Arch,) or if x were made 
the Relate, and y the Correlate, we might proceed thus. Make 

jc x 

y = i, then a* a?x +- x* = o, or si = 14 - = i 5c c 

J G, 

Then x = * y, &e. And taking the Fluxions, 'tis x = ^ =s 

~-^ , &c. = 04-^, &c. whence A- = * o, &c. and x = * * o, 

&c. So that the Terms of this Series will be alternately deficient, 
and therefore we need not compute them. Taking the Fluxions 



. , * Zxx 2 n i-i->i r 2V 

again, tis x = -j- =: , &c. Therefore x = * -^ , &c. 

A- = * * j-, , &c. and ^== # * * ^ , &c. Again, x=z -^ -l-^r > 

S f 2 and 



Method of FLUXIONS, 



2XX 



>X xx XX c ,n_. tf ,2 

and again, A- = -f- -^ h . Subitituting i, &c. and >- 

&c. for # and x } and alfo o, 6cc. for # and #, it will be x = 
16 c t. i6y c gy* 

, &c. whence x =. * - , occ. * = ** , &c. x = * # * 

<j4 ** * ' 

8v' c 2 >' 4 C J 21* 

_, , &c. A- = * * * * ^ , &c. and . x ==-***#, &c.. 

6 ' " J 7 ' :: 5 6 

. 20xx+ iQAr- 4" 2A ' ;xr J 2n*- I -4--;o.;x4-i2.v.v-(-2.vA- 

Again, x = - - , and again, x = - - -- 
Here for x, x, and x writing i, &c. ^ , &c. and l , &c. re- 
fpeaively, 'tis x = 8 ^U. 6 , & c . ^ , Sec. Then x = 
^i v , &c. J = ..i4\ &c. x=***i^- J , &c. 2==..... 

fi 3^ 

ig 4 , &c. ^= * * * * * 7^ , &c. x= ****** JJpr, &c. and 
*, &c. That is, X =y+.^ + -l. + 



7.1 Cfl 6 

For another Example,, let us take the Equation ^*jj* .y l j> , 



/z*x* o, (in which, if the Radius of a Circle be denoted by a, 
and if y be any Arch of the fame,, then the correfponding right Sine 
will be denoted by x j) from which we are to extract the Root y. 

Make x=i, then it will be a*y*~ x^y 1 = a*, or ;}* = -^^ 
M J} &c. or j/= i, &c. and therefore y=. * x, &c. Taking 
the Fluxions we fhall have za*yy zxy* 2X 1 yy = o ) or a*y> 
X y __ x y = 0, or "y = ^r~7i = ' ^^ ^ nc ^ ta ^ing. the Fluxions 



again, 'tis a*y j/ 3* ^ a /= o, or ^ = __. . y 

Therefore } = * J } &c. ^ = * * , &c. and _y = * * * 1- , 
&c. Then a ;y 4^ 5^' x*y = o, and again <7 a j/ 9 _y , 
x ^=o, orj = i^=,&c. = J,& C . There- 



fore y := * , &c, y ' * * ^ > &c. ^ = * * * 4 , &c. ^5^ 

* * * 



INFINITE SERIES, 317 

* * , . j^- 4 , 6cc. and r = ***#* -IL , &c. Taking the 

6 :: S 6 7 

Fluxions again, 'tis n l y i6y g.y x*y = o, and again, a*jr 

2^Y + i i xv c 

z$y 1 1*7 x*y = o, or ;< = ~ -^ = -/, &c. = 
^ , &c. Therefore j = * ^.v, &c. v = * * ^V, &c. 

' J a* J 2a 6 



y = * * * -2-3 x r t &c. _)' = * * * * gJT x4 > ^ c> y === * * * * * 



^-|x r , &c. y = ****** r 6 , &c. and y = *****#* 
-^-. . &c. Or v = x -i- ~ 4- -^- 4- -^ , &c. 

TI2a 6 J * t><i l 40^.4 II2* 

If we were required to extraft the Root x out of the fame Equa- 
tion, a l y* x 1 )/ 1 rt 1 * 1 = o, (or to exprefs the Sine by the: 
Arch,) put y = i, then a 1 x 1 a** 1 = o, or x* = i 

-*, and therefore x = i, &c. and x = * y, &c. Taking the- 

Fluxions 'tis axx 2a*xx = o, or x= =: o, &c,- 
Therefore x = * o, &c. x =: * * o, &c. Taking the Fluxions 

again, 'tis x = ^ = ^ , &c. Thence x= * ^, &c. 
x = , &c. andx=* * * - , &c. Again, x = ^> 

2^1 Oi fi 

and x = ~ = -+- ^ , &c. Therefore x = ^ , &c. x = 

t 1 ) J j 4 

-^ , occ. x = * * * 7 , &c. x = * * * - , occ. and x 



v* x x 

=== * * - , &c. Again, x = , and x = 

i ?r/24 * O * a fl 



i 6 v ? y 1 

- 6 , 6cc. Therefore x = - ^j , x = * ~ * 

&c. x * -^-j , 6cc. x * * - 1 g , &c. x = * * * 

j.J V* J 

_ -^- t , &c. x = .. - f , &c. and x= ** 

I 2Ofl* 72Ofl 

*__ - -^ - 6 , 6cc. And therefore x= < y> ^ -f- 



&c. 

If it were required to extraft the Root y out of this Equation, 
*y . .x*y* + m*y* w 1 ^ = o, (where x =s i,) we might pro- 
ceed 



3i 8 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

ceed thus. Becaufe y~ ==. '" ^ ~^ - v - = ;*, &c. 'tis ;/ = ;;;, See. 

an d_y= -# w*> &c. Taking the Fluxions, we fhall have 2a*yy 
2xy* 2x*yy -bJzr$*yy = o, or ay xy xy -+- my o, or 
r= p ^r= j ^ c - Therefore taking the Fluxions again, 'tis 



3xy x 1 / = o, or y = -I ^^_ v jf^l; and making y = m, &c. 
'tis y= OTX ' ~ OT &c. and therefore y = * '" x ' "~ ; "'x, &c. y = 

^ X /2 A -^ 



i^LV, &c. and y = * * * OT x ' ~^\-', &c. Taking the 

za'' * zx. ya 

Fluxions again, 'tis a*y -+- m 1 4 x_y $xy xy = o j and again, 
cfy {- in* 9 x y 7xy x 2 i/ o, or y Q "'' x ->' ~t~ " vv ___ 



,--x 9 -^ &c> Therefore y= * ; " x ' ~ g ' lx 9 ~ CT \y & c v 

4 4 ' ^ 




This Series is equivalent to a Theorem of our Author's, which (in 
another place) he gives us for Angular Sections, For if A- be the 
Sine of any given Arch, to Radius a ; then will y be the Sine of an- 
other Arch, which is to the firft Arch in the given Ratio of m to 
i. Here if m be any odd Number, the Series will become finite j 
and in other cafes it will be a converging Series. 

And thefe Examples may be lufficient to explain this Method of 
Extraction of Roots ; which, tho' it carries its own Demonftration 
along with it, yet for greater evidence may be thus farther illustrated. 
In Equations whofe Roots (for example) may be reprefented by the 
general Series y = A -+- Ex -f- Cx 4 + Dx 3 , 6cc. (which by due Re- 
duction may be all Equations whatever,) the firfc Term A of the 
Root will be a given quantity, or perhaps = o, which is to be 
known from the circumftances of the Queilion, or from the given 

Equation, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 



319 



Equation, by Methods that have been abi ^antly explain'd already. 
Then making x= i, we flrall have have y = B -f- 2C.v -+- 30**, 
&c. where B likewife is a conftant quantity, or perhaps = o, and 
reprefents the firft Term of the Series y. This therefore is to be 
derived from the firft Fluxional Equation, either given or elfe to 
be found ; and then, becaufe it is y = B, &c. by taking the Fluents 
it will be y = * Ex, ccc. whence the fecond Term of the Root 
will be known. Then becaufe it is_y= zC -f- 6D.v, &c. or becaufe 
the conftant quantity zC will reprefent the firft Term of y ; this is 
to be derived from the fecond Fluxional Equation, either given or 
to be found. And then, becaufe it is y = zC, &c. by taking the 
Fluents it will be y = * zCx, &c. and again y = * * Cx 1 , cc. by 
which the third Term of the Root will be known. Then becaufe 

it is_y=6D, &c. or becaufe the conftant quantity 6D will repre- 
fent the firft Term of the Series y ; this is to be derived from the 

third Fluxional Equation. And then, becaufe it is y = 6D, &c. 
by taking the Fluents it will be v = * 6Dx, &c. y = * * 3D*'-, 
See. and _)'==.* * * D* 3 , &c. by which the fourth Term of the 
Root will be known. And fo for all the fubfequent Terms. And 
hence it will not be difficult to obferve the compofition of the Co- 
efficients in moft cafes, and thereby difcover the Law of Continua- 
tion, in fuch Series as are notable and of general ufe. 

If you ihould defire to know how the foregoing Trigonometri- 
cal Equations are derived from the Circle, it may be fhewn thus : on 
the Center A, with Radius AB = a t let the Quadrantal Arch BC be 
defcribed, and draw the Radius AC. Draw the Tangent BK, and 
through any point of the Circum- 
ference D, draw the Secant ADK, 
meeting the Tangent in K. At any 
other point d of the Circumference, 
but as near to D as may be, draw 
the Secant A.tte, meeting BKin/ ; on 
Center A, with Radius AK, defcribe 
the Arch K/, meeting A in /, 
Then fuppofing the point d con- 
tinually to approach towards D, till 
it finally c<- : .ncides with it, theTri- 
lineum K//6 will continually approach to a right-lined Triangle, 
and to funilitude w/ith the Triangle ABK : So that when Dd is a 

Moment 



c 




320 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

Moment of the Circumference, it will be K-! = ^4 x = 

Da &.1 L)J ~ AB 

x ^ . Make AB = a, the Tangent BK = x, and the Arch 
BD=y ; and inflead of the Moments Kk and Dd, fubftitute the 
proportional Fluxions x and y, and it will be - = " - + *- , or a 2 v 

J y a* J 

+ x*y a*x = o. 

From D to AB and de let fall the Perpendiculars DE and Dg-, 
which Dg meets de, parallel to DE, in g. Then the ultimate form 
of the Trilineum Ddg will be that of a right-lined Triangle fimi- 
lar to DAE. Whence "Dd : dg :: AD : AE = v / /iJJ$ F D&q. 
Make AD = a, BD=_>', and DE=x; and for the Moments 
Dd, dg, fubftitute their proportional Fluxions y and x, and it will 
be y : x : : a : \/ a 1 AT*. Or^ 1 : x 1 :: a* : a 3 - x 1 , or a^y 1 
- x^y* a'-x 1 - = o. 

Hence the Fluxion of an Arch, whofe right Sine is x, being 

exprefs'd by f^_^ ; and likewife the Fluxion of an Arch, whofe 

right Sine is y, being exprefs'd by i?_ ,. ; if thefe Arches are to 
each other as i to m, their Fluxions will be in the fame proportion, 
and vice versa. Therefore " x , : v x : : i : ;, or . x . 

J a x */ a y da x 

= -T37i } or putting #= i, 'tis a*y l 

== o ; the fame Equation as before refolved. 
' We might derive other Fluxional Equations, of a like nature with 
thefe, which would be accommodated to Trigonometrical ufes. As 
if/ were the Circular Arch, and x its verfed Sine, we mould have 
the Equation zaxy* x'-y'- a^x* = o. Or if y were the Arch, 
and x the correfponding Secant, it would be x^y* a*-x*y l # 4 x* 
= o. Or inftead of the natural, we might derive Equations for 
the artificial Sines, Tangents, Secants, &c. But I fhall leave thefe 
Difquifitions, and many fuch others that might be propofed, to ex- 
ercile the Induftry and Sagacity of the Learner. 




SECT, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 321 

'SECT. VI. An Analytical Appendix ', explaining fome 
Terms and Expreffions in the foregoing work. 

BEcaufe mention has been frequently made of given Equations, 
and others a framed ad libitum, and the like ; I mall take oc- 
calion from hence, by way of Appendix, to attempt fome kind of 
explanation of this Mathematical Language, or of the Terms giver/, 
afligjfd, affiimed, and required Quantities or Equations, which may 
give light to fome things that may otherwife feem obfcure, and 
may remove fome doubts and fcruples, which are apt to arife in 
the Mind of a Learner. Now the origin of fuch kind of ExpreiTions 
in all probability feems to be this. The whole affair of purfuing 
Mathematical Inquiries, or of refolving Problems, is fuppofed (tho' 
tacitely) to be tranfacled between two Perfons, or Parties, the Pro- 
pofer and the Refolver of the Problem, or (if you pleafe) between the 
Mafter (or Inftruclor) and his Scholar. Hence this, and fuch like 
Phrafes, datam reffam, vel datum angtthim, in iniperata rations Je- 
care. As Examples inftrudl better than Precepts, or perhaps when 
both are join'd together they inftrucl beft, the Mafter is fuppos'd to 
propofe a Queftion or Problem to his Scholar, and to chufe fuch 
Terms and Conditions as he thinks fit ; and the Scholar is obliged 
to folve the Problem with thofe limitations and reftriclions, with 
thofe Terms and Conditions, and no other. Indeed it is required 
on the part of the Mafter, that the Conditions he propofes may be 
confident with one another ; for if they involve any inconfiftency 
or contradiction, the Problem will be unfair, or will become ab- 
furd and impomble, as the Solution will afterwards difcover. Now 
thefe Conditions, thefe Points, Lines, Angles, Numbers, Equations, 
Gfr. that at firft enter the ftate of the Queftion, or are fuppofed to 
be chofen or given by the Mafter, are the data of the Problem, and 
the Anfwers he expects to receive are the qii(?/ita. As it may fometimes 
happen, that the data may be more than are neceffary for determining 
the^Qiu ft'.on , and lo perhaps may interfere with one another, and the 
Problem (as now propofed) may become impolTible ; fo they may be 
fewer than are neceffary, and the Problem thence will be indetermin'd, 
and may require other Conditions to be given, in order to a compleat De- 
termination, or perfectly to fulfil the quafita. In this cafe the Scholar is 
to fupply what is wanting, and at his difcretioa miy a (Jit me fuch and fo 
many otherTerms and Conditions, Equations and Limitations, as he finds 

T t will 



322 7&? Method of FLUXIONS, 

will be neceffary to his purpofe, and will befl conduce to the fim- 
pleft, the eafieft, and neateft Solution that may be had, and yet in 
the moft general manner. For it is convenient the Problem fhouM 
be propofed as particular as may be, the better to fix the Imagina- 
tion ; and .yet the Solution mould be made as general as poffible, 
that it may be the more inftrucHve, and extend to all cafes of a 
like nature. 

Indeed the word datum is often ufed in a fenfe which is fome- 
thing different from this, but which ultimately centers in it. As 
that is call'd a datum, when one quantity is not immediately given, 
but however is neceffirily infer'd from another,, which other perhaps 
is neceffarily infer'd from a third, and fo on in a continued Series, 
till it is neceffarily infer'd from a quantity, which is known or given 
in the fenfe before explained. This is the Notion of Euclid'?, data, 
and other Analytical Argumentations of that kind. Again, that is 
often call'd a given quantity, which always remains conftant and in- 
variable, while other quantities or circumftances vary ; becaufe fuch 
as thefe only can be the given quantities in, a Problem, when taken 
in the foregoing fenfe. 

To make all this the more fenfible and intelligible, I /hall have, 
recourfe to a few pradlical inftances, by way of Dialogue, (which, 
was the old didadlic method,) between Mafter and Scholar; and 
this only in the common Algebra or Analyticks, in which I fhall 
borrow my Examples from our Author's admirable Treatife of 
Univerfal Arithmetick. The chief artifice of this manner of Solu- 
tion will confift in this, that as faft as the Mafter propofes the Con- 
ditions of his Queftion, the Scholar applies thole Conditions to 
ufe, argues from them Analytically, makes all the aeceffary deduc- 
tions, and derives fuch confequences from them, in the fame order 
they are propofed, as he apprehends will be mcft fubfervient to the 
Solution. And he that can do this, in all cafes, after the fureft, fim- 
pleft, and readieft manner, will be the beft ex-tempore Mathemati- 
cian. But this method will be beft explain'd from the following 
Examples. 

I. M. A Gentleman being 'willing to diftribiite Abns S. Let 

the Sum he intended to diftribute be reprefented by x. M. Among 
fbme poor people. S. Let the number of poor be _}>, then - would 

have been the fhare of each. M. He wanted 3 fiillings S. Make 

3 = rf, for the lake of univerfality, and let the pecuniary Unit be 
one Shilling ; then the Sum to be distributed would have been x-{-a, 

and" 



and INFINITE SERIES. 32" 

and the fhnre of each would have been ^^- . M. So that each 

y 

might receive $ fallings. S. Make 5=^, then ^ = b, whence 

x = by a. M. "Therefore he gave every ot.e 4 fallings. S. Make 

4=f, then the Money diftributed will be cy. M. And he has 10 

fallings remaining. S. Make io = d, then cy -f- d was the Money 

he intended at firft to diftribute; or cy -+- d = (x =) by- a, or 

y =5 ^jt- f . M. J^rf* w<2J the number of poor people ? S. The 

number was y = 7 = 3 "*"' = 1-2. M. ^W /60w much Alms 

'' ? 4 
tf/tf Of tff ^ry? intend to diftribute ? S. He had at firft x = by a 

= 5x13 3 = 62 fhillings. M. How do you prove your Solution? 
S. His Money was at firft 62 fhillings, and the number of poor 
people was 1 3. But if his Money had been 62-4-3 === ^5 ^ r 3 x 5 
fhillings, then each poor perfon might have received 5 millings. But 
as he gives to each 4 fhillings, that will be 13x4=52 fhillings 
diftributed in all, which will leave him a Remainder of 62 52 
c= 10 fhillings. 

II. M. A young Merchant, at his firjl entrance npon bufmefs, began 
the World with a certain Sum of Money. S. Let that Sum be x, the 
pecuniary Unit being one Pound. M. Out of which, to maintain 
himfclf the Jirjl year, he expended 100 pounds. S. Make the given 
number ioo = tf; then he had to trade with x a. M. He 
traded with the reft, and at the end of the year had improved it by a 
third part. .S. For univerfality-fake I will aflume the general num- 
ber n, and will make ^ = n i, (or n = ;) then the Improve- 
ment was n i xx a = nx na x -f- a, and the Trading- 
fiock and Improvement together, at the end of the firft year, was 
MX na. M. He did the fame thing the fecond year. S. That is, 
his whole Stock being now nx na, deducting a, his Expences for 
this year, he would have nx na a for a Trading-ftock, and 
n ix nx na a, or n'-x n*a nx -f- a for this year's Im- 
provement, which together make n'-x n*a na for his Eftate at 
die end of the fecond year. M. As aljo the third year. S. His 
whole Stock being now ;< a x n x a na, taking out his Expences 
for the third year, his Trading-ftock will be n*x n'-a na a, 
^~ and the Improvement this year will be n i X*A- n'-a na a, 
or J x n=a n'-x -f- a, and the Stock and Improvement together, 
or his whole Eftate at the end of the third year will be n*x n*a 

_ n 1 a na, or in a better form n"'x -+ "-^na. In like manner 

T 2 if 



324 Th* Method of FLUXIONS, 

if he proceeded thus the fourth year, his Eftate being now n*x 
n i a _ rf a na, taking out this year's Expence, his Trading-flock 
will be n>x n>a if a na a, and this year's Improvement is 
n Fx n=x is a if a na a, or n*x n^a n*x -f- a, 
which added to his Trading-ftock will be n*x n*a tfa 72-^2 

na, or 11* x -f- * na, for his Eftate at the end of the fourth 

year. And fo, by Induction, his Eftate will be found n s x -4- - na 
at the end of the fifth year. And univerfally, if I aflume the ge- 

m _ 

neral Number m. his Eftate will be nx -f- ~ l -na at the end of 

i 

any number of years denoted by m. M. But he made his Eftate 
double to -what it was at firft. S. Make 2 = , then n m x -t- 

m m 

- l _^na = bx, or x = - ==-#. M. At the end of 3 years. 

n i x n" b 

S. Then #2=3, a-=. 100, b = 2, n = %, and therefore x=s.. 




64 

400 = 1480. M. j%!2<z/ <was his Eftate atjirji? S. It was 1480 
pounds. 

III. M. Two Bvdies A and B are at a given diftance from each 
other. S. As their diftance is faid to be given, though it is not fo. 
actually, I may therefore aflume it. Let the initial diftance of the 
Bodies be 59 = e y and let the Linear Unit be one Mile. M. And 
move equably towards one another. S. Let x reprefent the whole 
fpace defcribed by A before they meet ; then will e x be the 
whole fpace defcribed by B. M. With given Velocities. S. I will 
aflume the Velocity of A to be fuch, that it will move 7 = c Miles 
in 2 =f Hours, the Unit of Time being one Hour. Then be- 

caufe it is c : f : : x : - , A will move his whole fpace x in the 

time Y Alfo I will aflume the Velocity of B to be fuch, that it 
will move 8 = d Miles in 3 ==:g Hours. Then becaufe it is d : 
g :: e x : j-g> B will move his whole fpace e x in the time 
'-7%. M. But A moves a given time - - - S. Let that time be 
i = b Hour. M. Before B begins to move. S. Then A"s time is 
equal to U's time added to the time h y or ^ = '^g -f- h. 

M,' 



and INFINITE SERIES, 325 

M. Where will they meet., or what will be the fpace that each 
have defcribed ? S. From this Equation we fhall have x = 

* s*i X7== 1^ X7== r x 7 = 35 Miles, which will 

' ' J ' 



x2 



oxz-r7 x 3' / 37 

be the whole fpace defcribed by A. Then e x= 59 35 = 

24 Miles will be the whole fpace defcribed by B. 
. IV. M. Jf 12 Oxen can be maintained by the Pafture 0/37 Acres 
of Meadow-ground for 4 weeks, S. Make 12 = #, 3! = ^, 4=cj 
then aiTuming the general Numbers e, f, h, to be determin'd after- 
wards as occafion Ihall require, we mall have by analogy 

Oxen 



If 





a ' 


Then 


(J j 


f ae 


Alfo ' 


t_ 

Q . 


ae 

T 


And " 


^" 


ace 

T 


Alfo 


.1 


ace 


S-L, i or 


\ " 
. . r <-> ace 

Alf J^J^J 



> require < 



'afture Time 


" b ' 




c ~ 


be 




c 


e 




c 




. during < 


i 


e 




/ 


e 




b 



M, ^4^ tf, becaufe of the continual growth of the Grafs after the 
four weeks, it be found that 2 1 Oxen can be maintain d by the 
pafture of \ o fuc h Acres for 9 weeks, S. Make 2i=J, e= io 3 
f= = 9 ; then becaufe on this fuppofition, the Oxen d require the 

pafture e during the time f; and in the former cafe the Oxen ~ 
required the fame pafture during the fame time : Therefore the 
growth of the Grafs of the quantity of pafture e, (commencing 
after 4 or c weeks, and continuing to the end of the Time f, or 
during the whole time f c,) is fuch, as alone was fufficient to 

maintain the difference of the Oxen, or the number d ^ , for 
the whole time f. Then reciprocally that growth would be fuffi- 
cient to maintain the number of Oxen df ' ' for the time i, 



or the number of Oxen - ~ 

h bb 



ace 
J 

for the time h. And becaufe 
this growth will be proportional to the time, and will maintain a 
greater number of Oxen in proportion as the time is greater j we 
ihall have 

Time 



3 26 7%e Method ^FLUXIONS, 

- ~* 1 

Time Oxen Time Oxen 

,, df ace , h c . df ace 

t - c r - Ti *' " - c 7 - m tO T ' TZ 

* bh f c h bh ' 

which will be the number of Oxen that may be maintain'd by the 
growth only of the pafture e, during the whole time h. But it 
was found before, that without this growth of the Grafs, the Oxen 

^ might be maintain'd by the pafture e for the time h. There- 



fore thefe two together, or ^ _f_ -^-^ x - ~ "" , will be the 

ber of Oxen that may be maintain'd by the pafture e, and its growth 
together, during the time b. M. How many Oxen may be main- 
tain d by 24 Acres of fitch pafture for 1 8 week s ? S. Suppofe x to 
be that number of Oxen, and make 24=^, and h= 18. Then 
by analogy 

Oxen Pafture 

If 

Then ex requ ij. e J <g during the time b. 




. , r i ex ace 

And conlequently = j-r 

T J g bh 

dft a^j ac /> r 

x f ~ jf = T + 




21*9 1 2 x 4 i 14 fi 

I O J-j 

V. M. If I have an Annuity S. Let x be the prefent value 

of i pound to be received i year hence, then (by analogy) x* will 
be the prefent value of I pound to be received 2 years hence, &c. 
and in general, x" will be the prefent value of i pound to be re- 
ceived m years hence. Therefore, in the cafe of an Annuity, the 
Series x -f x* -+- x"' ~+- x*, &c. to be continued to fo many Terms 
as there are Units in m, will be the prefent value of the whole 
Annuity of i pound, to be continued for m years. But becaufe 

+ . r 

-- =x-{- x 1 -f- x'' H-A' 4 , &c. continued to fo many Terms 

I X 

as there are Units in in, (as may appear by Divifion 3) therefore 
*~ y will reprefent the Amount of an Annuity of i pound, 

to be continued for ;;/ years. M. Of Pounds. S. Make 

= a* 



and INFINITE SERIES. 327 

= a, then the Amount of this Annuity for m years will be 

^ a. M. To be continued for 5 years fuccejji'vely. S. Then 
m = 5. M. Which I Jell for pounds in ready Money. S. Make 



= c, then 



-a = c, or x"" 1 -- 



I x 



In any particular cafe the value of x may be found by the Refolu- 
tion of this affected Equation. M. What Interefl am I alfav'd per 
centum per annum? S. Make 100 = ^; then becaufe x is the 
prefent value of i pound to be received i year hence, or (which 
is the fame thing) becaufe the prefent Money x, if put out to ufe, 
in i year will produce i pound; the Intereft alone of i pound 
for i year will be i x, and therefore the Intereft of 100 (or K) 
pounds for i year will be b bx y which will be known when x 
is known. 

And this might be fufficknt to (hew the conveniency of this Me- 
thod ; but I mall farther illuftrate it by one Geometrical Problem, 
which mall be our Author's LVII. 

VI. M. In the right Line AB I give you the ftuo points A and B. 
S. Then their diftance AB = m is given alfo. M. As likenaife the 
two points C and D out of the Line AB, S. Then conlequently the 
figure ACBD is 



in mag- 




given 

nitude and fpe- 
cie ; and pro- 
ducing CA and 
CB towards d 
and <T, I can 
takeA</=AD, 
and Bf=KD. 
M. Aljb I give 
you the indefi- 
nite right Line 
EF in po/iticn, 
pajjing thro' the 

green point D. S. Then the Angles ADE and BDF are given, to which 
(producing AB both ways, if need be, to e and f y ) I can make the 
Angles h2e and B<f/~ equal refpedlively, and that will determine the 
points e and f, or the Lines Ae = a, and Ef=c. And becaufe 
de and <T/"are thereby known, I can continue de to G, fo that^/G. 
= Sj\ and make the given line eG c= b. Likewife I can draw CH 

and 



228 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

and CK parallel to ed and f$ refpeftively, .meeting AB in H and 
K ; and becaufe the Triangle CHK will be given in magnitude snd 
fpecie, I will make CK = d, CH=e, and HK=/ M. Now 
let the given Angles CAD and C BD be conceived to revolve about the 
green points or Poles A .and B. S. Then the Lines AD and CA^ 
will move into another fituation AL and cAt, fo as that the Angles 
DAL, </A/, and CAc will be equal. Alfo the Lines BD and CB^ will 
obtain a new fituation BL and cBA, fo as that the Angles DBL, <fBAand 
CBc will be equal. M. And let D, the Inter feflion of the Lines AD and 
BD, always move in the right Line EF. S. Then the new point of In- 
terfedtion L is in EF; then the Triangles DAL and </A/, as alfo DBL 
andJ'BA, are equal and iimilar ; then^//= DL= cTA, and therefore 
G/==/A. M. What will be the nature of the Curve defer ibed by the 
other point of Inter feSt ion C ? S. From the new point of Interfection c 
to AB, I will draw the Lines ch and ck, parallel to CH and CK refpec- 
tively. Then will the Triangle chk be given in fpecie, though not 
in magnitude, for it will be Iimilar to ^CHK. Alfo the Triangle 
Bck will be fimilar to Btf. And the indefinite Line Bk=x may- 
be aflumed for an Abfcifs, and ck = y may be the correfponding 
Ordinate to the Curve Cc. Then becaufe it is Bk (x) : ck (y ) 

:: Bf(c) :/A = ; = G/. Subtraft this from Ge-=&, and there 
will remain le=.b - . Then becaufe of the fimilar Triangles chk 



and CHK, it will be CK (d) : CH (e) : : ck (y) : ch= 'j . And 
CK (/O : HK (/) :: ck ( y] : hk = -\ . Therefore A/J = AB . 
Bk hk = m X .. But it is A/6 (m x 'f ) : cb 2) :: 



(a) : le (b c - v ) . Therefore m x f x b J = ^, 



or 



dc ae bft. xv demy bdx* + bdmx = o. In which 
Equation, becaufe the indeterminate quantities x and y arife only 
to two Dimenfions, it mews that the Curve defcribed by the point 
C is a Conic Section. 

M. Ton have therefore folved the Problem in general, but you fionld 
now apply your Solution to the feveral fpecies of Conic Sections in par- 
ticular. S. That may eafily be done in the following manner : 
e + l 'f ctl __ 2 p t an( j t h en the foregoing Equation will be- 



come fcf - zpcxj> demy bdx'- 4- bdmx = o, and by ex- 

trading 



and INFINITE SERIES. 329 

trading the Square - root it will be y = -.x -f. -f- 

V I'P ft I 1 *" 1 ''d " </*;* XT . . . , . 

!Z + - x x* + -. . _ XA . + __. Now here it is plain, 
that if the Term j 4- ~ x X L were abfent, or if jj -4- ^ = o, or 
r = ; that is, if the quantity -- (changing its fign) fhould 

be equal to ^ , then the Curve would be a Parabola. But if the 
fame Term were prefent, and equal to fome affirmative quantity, 
that is, if ? -f- - be affirmative, (which will always be when 

is affirmative, or if it be negative and lefs than -. >} the Curve 
will be an Hyperbola. Laftly, if the fame Term were prefent and 
negative, (which can only be when - is negative, and greater than 



y> the Curve will be an Ellipfls or a Circle. 

I mould make an apology to the Reader, for this Digreffion 
from the Method of Fluxions, if I did not hope it might contribute 
to his entertainment at leaft, if not to his improvement. And I am 
fully convinced by experience, that whoever fhall go through the 
reft of our Author's curious Problems, in the fame manner, (where- 
in, according to his ufual brevity, he has left many things to be 
fupply'd by the fagacity of his Reader,) or fuch other Queflions 
and Mathematical Diiquifitions, whether Arithmetical, Algebraical, 
Geometrical, &c. as may eafily be collected from Books treating 
on theie Subjects ; I fay, whoever fhall do this after the foregoing 
manner, will find it a very agreeable as well as profitable exercife : 
As being the proper means to acquire a habit of Investigation, or 
of arguing furely, methodically, and Analytically, even in other 
Sciences as well as fuch as are purely Mathematical ; which is the 
great end to be aim'd at by thefe Studies. 



U u SECT, 




330 7%e Method of FLUXIONS, 

SECT. VII. The Conclufion ; containing a Jhort recapitu- 
lation or review of the whole. 

E are now arrived at a period, which may properly enough 
be call'd the conclujion of tie Method of Fluxions ami Infinite 
Series ; for the defign of this Method is to teach the nature of Series 
in general, and of Fluxions and Fluents, what they are, how they 
are derived, and what Operations they may undergo ; which defign 
(I think) may now be faid to be accompliili'd. As to the applica- 
tion of this Method, and the ufes of thefe Operations, which is all 
that now remains, we mall find them infilled on at large by the 
Author in the curious Geometrical Problems that follow. For the 
whole that can be done, either by Series or by Fluxions, may eafily 
be reduced to the Refolution of Equations, either Algebraical or 
Fluxional, as it has been already deliver'd, and will be farther ap- 
ply'd and purfued in the fequel. I have continued my Annotations 
in a like manner upon that part of the Work, and intended to have 
added them here ; but finding the matter to grow fo faft under my 
hands, and feeing how impoffible it was to do it juftice within 
fuch narrow limits, and alfo perceiving this work was already grown 
to a competent fize; I refolved to lay it before the Mathematical 
Reader unfinifh'd as it is, referving the completion of it to a future 
opportunity, if I mall find my prefent attempts to prove acceptable. 
Therefore all that remains to be done here is this, to make a kind 
of review of what has been hitherto deliver'd, and to give a fum- 
mary account of it, in order to acquit myfelf of a Promiie I made 
in the Preface. And having there done this already, as to the Au- 
thor's part of the work, I (hall now only make a fhort recapitula- 
tion of what is contain'd in my own Comment upon it. 

And firft in my Annotations upon what I call the Introduction, 
or the Refolution of Equations by infinite Series, I have amply pur- 
fued a ufeful hint given us by the Author, that Arithmetick and 
Algebra are but one and the fame Science, and bear a ftridl analogy 
to each other, both in their Notation and Operations ; the firft com- 
puting after a definite and particular manner, the latter after a ge- 
neral and indefinite manner : So that both together compofe but 
one uniform Science of Computation. For as in common Arith- 
metick we reckon by the Root Ten, and the feveral Powers of that 
Root ; fo in Algebra, or Analyticks, when the Terms are orderly 

dilpos'd 



and INFINITE SERIES. 331 

difpos'd as is prefcribed, we reckon by any other Root and its 
Powers, or we may take any general Number for the Root of our 
Arithmetical Scale, by which to exprefs and compute any Numbers 
required. And as in common Arithmetick we approximate continually 
to the truth, by admitting Decimal Parts /;; infnititm, or by the 
ufe of Decimal Fractions, which are compofed of the reciprocal 
Powers of the Root Ten ; fo in our Author's improved Algebra, or in 
the Method of infinite converging Series, we may continually ap- 
proximate to the Number or Quantity required, by an orderly fuc- 
cefiion of Fractions, which are compofed of the reciprocal Powers 
of any Root in general. And the known Operations in common 
Arithmetick, having a due regard to Analogy, will generally afford 
us proper patterns and fpecimens, for performing the like Operations 
in this Univerfal Arithmetick. 

Hence I proceed to make fome Inquiries into the nature and 
formation of infinite Series in general, and particularly into their 
two principal circumftances of Convergency and Divergency; where- 
in I attempt to (hew, that in all fuch Series, whether converging 
or diverging, there is always a Supplement, which if not exprefs'd is 
however to be underftood ; which Supplement, when it can be ai- 
certained and admitted, will render the Series finite, perfect, and 
accurate. That in diverging Series this Supplement muft indifpen- 
fablv be admitted and exhibited, or otherwise the Conclufion will be 
imperfect and erroneous. But in converging Series this Supplement 
may be neglected, becaufe it continually diminifhes with the Terms 
of the Series, and finally becomes lefs than any affignable quantity. 
And hence arifes the benefit and conveniency of infinite converging 
Scries ; that whereas that Supplement is commonly fo implicated and 
entangled with the Terms of the Series, as often to be impoiliblc to 
be extricated and exhibited ; in converging Series it may fafely be neg- 
lected, and yet we mall continually approximate to the quantity re- 
quired, And of this I produce a variety of Inftances, in numerical 
and other Series. 

I then go on to mew the Operations, by which infinite Scries are 
either produced, or which, when produced, they may occasionally 
undergo. As firft when fimple fpccious Equations, or purs Powers, 
are to be refolved into fuch Series, whether by Divifion, or by Ex- 
traction of Roots ; where I take notice of the ufe of the afore-men- 
tion'd Supplement, by which Scries may be render'd finite, that is, 
may be compared with other quantities, which are confider'd as 
given. I then deduce feveral ufeful Theorems, or other Artifices, 

Una for 



332 tte Method of FLUXION s, 



for the more expeditious Multiplication, Divifion, Involution, and 
Evolution of infinite Series, by which they may be eafily and rea- 
dily managed in all cafes. Then I fhew the ufe of thefe in pure 
Equations, or Extractions; from whence I take occasion to intro- 
duce a new praxis of Refolution, which I believe will be found 
to be very eafy, natural, and general, and which is afterwards ap- 
ply'd to all fpecies of Equations. 

Then I go on with our Author to the Exegefis numerofa, or to 
the Solution of affefted Equations in Numbers ; where we mall find 
his Method to be the fame that has been publifh'd more than once in 
other of his pieces, to be very {hort, neat, and elegant, and was a great 
Improvement at the time of its firft publication. This Method is 
here farther explain'd, and upon the fame Principles a general Theo- 
rem is form'd, and diftributed into feveral fubordinate Cafes, by 
which the Root of any Numerical Equation, whether pure or af- 
fected, may be computed with great exactnefs and facility. 

From Numeral we pafs on to the Refolution of Literal or Speci- 
ous affected Equations by infinite Series ; in which the firfl and chief 
difficulty to be overcome, confifts in determining the forms of the 
feveral Series that will arife, and in finding their initial Approxima- 
tions. Thefe circumftances will depend upon fuch Powers of the 
Relate and Correlate Quantities, with their Coefficients, as may hap- 
pen to be found promifcuoufly in the given Equation. Therefore 
the Terms of this Equation are to be difpofed in longum & in latum, 
or at lenft the Indices of thofe Powers, according to a combined 
Arithmetical Progreffion in p/ano, as is there explain'd ; or according 
to our Author's ingenious Artifice of the Parallelogram and Ruler, 
the reafon and foundation of which are here fully laid open. This 
will determine all the cafes of exterior Terms, together with the 
Progreffions of the Indices ; and therefore all the -forms of the fe- 
veral Series that may be derived for the Root, as alfo their initial 
Coefficients, Terms, or Approximations. 

We then farther profecute the Refolution of Specious Equations, 
by diverfe Methods of Analyfis -, or we give a great variety of Pro- 
cefTes, by which the Series for the Roots are eafily produced to any 
number of Terms required. Thefe ProcefTes are generally very lim- 
ple, and depend chiefly upon the Theorems before deliver'd, for 
finding the Terms of any Power or Root of an infinite Series. And 
the whole is illustrated and exemplify 'd by a great variety of In- 
ftances, which are chiefly thofe of our Author. 

The 



and INFINITE SERIES. 333 

The Method of infinite Series being thus fufficiently dilcufs'd, 
we make a Tranfition to the Method of Fluxions, wherein the na- 
ture and foundation of that Method is explain'd at large. And fome 
general Observations are made, chiefly from the Science of Rational 
Mechanicks, by which the whole Method is divided and diftinguiih'd 
into its two grand Branches or Problems, which are the Diredt 
and Inverfe Methods of Fluxions. And fome preparatory Nota- 
tions are deliver'd and explain'd, which equally concern both thefe Me- 
thods. 

I then proceed with my Annotations upon the Author's firft Pro- 
blem, or the Relation of the flowing Quantities being given, to de- 
termine the Relation of their Fluxions. I treat here concerning 
Fluxions of the firft order, and the method of deducing their Equa- 
tions in all cafes. I explain our Author's way of taking the Fluxions 
of any given Equation, which is much more general and fcientifick 
than that which is ufually follow'd, and extends to all the varieties 
of Solutions. This is alfo apply'd to Equations involving feveral 
flowing Quantities, by which means it likewife comprehends thofe 
cafes, in which either compound, irrational, or mechanical Quan- 
tities may be included. But the Demonftration of Fluxions, and 
of the Method of taking them, is the chief thing to be confider'd 
here; which I have endeavour'd to make as clear, explicite, and fa- 
tisfactory as I was able, and to remove the difficulties and objections 
that have been raifed againft it : But with what fuccefs I muft leave 
to the judgment of others. 

I then treat concerning Fluxions of fuperior orders, and give the 
Method of deriving their Equations, with its Demonftration. For 
tho' our Author, in this Treatife, does not expreffly mention thefe 
orders of Fluxions, yet he has fometimes recourfe to them, tho' ta- 
citely and indirectly. I have here ("hewn, that they are a necelTary 
refult from the nature and notion of nrft Fluxions ; and that 
all thefe feveral orders differ from each other, not abfolutely 
and effentially, but only relatively and by way of companion. 
And this I prove as well from Geometry as from Anaiyticks ; 
and I actually exhibit and make fenfible thefe feveral orders ot 
Fluxions. 

But more efpecially in what I call the Geometrical and Mechani- 
cal Elements of Fluxions, I lay open a general Method, by the help 
of Curve-lines and their Tangents, to reprefent and exhibit Fluxions 
and Fluents in all cafes, with all their concomitant Symptoms and 

AffecYions, 



334 f ^ 3e Method of FLUXIONS, 

Aiic&ions, after a plain and familiar manner, and that even to ocular 
view and infpedlion. And thus I make them the Objects of Senfe, 
by which not only their exiitence is proved beyond all poflible con- 
tradiftion, but alfo the Method of deriving them is at the fame time 
fully evinced, verified, and illuftrated. 

Then follow my Annotations upon our Author's fecond Problem, 
or the Relation of the Fluxions being given, to determine the Re- 
lation of the flowing Quantities or Fluents ; which is the fame thing 
as the Inverfe Method of Fluxions. And firft I explain (what out- 
Author calls) a particular Solution of this Problem, becaufe it cannot 
be generally apply 'd, but takes place only in fuch Fluxional Equa- 
tions as have been, or at leaft might have been, previoufly derived 
from fome finite Algebraical or Fluential Equations. Whereas the 
Fluxional Equations that ufually occur, and whofe Fluents or Roots 
are required, are commonly fuch as, by reafon of Terms either re- 
dundant or deficient, cannot be refolved by this particular Solution ; 
but muft be refer'd to the following general Solution, which is here 
distributed into thefe three Cafes of Equations. 

The firft Cafe of Equations is, when the Ratio of the Fluxions 
of the Relate and Correlate Quantities, (which Terms are here ex- 
plain'd,) can be exprefs'd by the Terms of the Correlate Quantity 
alone ; in which Cafe the Root will be obtain'd by an eafy pro- 
cefs : In finite Terms, when it may be done, or at leaft by an 
infinite Series. And here a ufeful Rule is explain'd, by which 
an infinite Expreffion may be always avoided in the Conclufion, 
which otherwife would often occur, and render the Solution inexpli- 
cable. 

The fecond Cafe of Equations comprehends fuch Fluxional Equa- 
tions, wherein the Powers of the Relate and Correlate Quantities, 
with their Fluxions, are any how involved. Tho' this Cale is much 
more operofe than the former, yet it is folved by a variety of eafy 
and fimple Analyfts, (more fimple and expeditious, I think, than 
thofe of our Author,) and is illuftrated by a numerous collection of 
Examples. 

The third and laft Cafe of Fluxional Equations is, when there are 
more than two Fluents and their Fluxions involved j which Cafe, 
without much trouble, is reduced to the two former. But here are 
alfo explain'd fome other matters, farther to illuftrate this Dodlrinej 
as the Author's Demonftration of the Inverfe Method of Fluxions, 
the Rationale of the Tranfmutation of the Origin of Fluents to other 

i places 



and INFINITE SERIES. 335 

places at pleafure, the way of finding the contemporaneous Incre- 
ments of Fluents, and fuch like. 

Then to conclude the Method of Fluxions, a very convenient and 
general Method is propofed and explain'd, for the Refolution of all 
kinds of Equations, Algebraical or Fluxional, by having recourfe 
to fuperior orders of Fluxions. This Method indeed is not con- 
tain'd in our Author's prelent Work, but is contrived in purfu- 
ance of a notable hint he gives us, in another part of his Writings. 
And this Method is exemplify 'd by feveral curious and ufeful Pro- 
blems. 

Laftly, by way of Supplement or Appendix, fome Terms in the 
Mathematical Language arc farther explain'd, which frequently oc- 
cur in the foregoing work, and which it is very neceflary to appre- 
hend rightly. And a fort of Analytical Praxis is adjoin'd to this 
Explanation, to make it the more plain and intelligible ; in which is 
exhibited a more direct and methodical way of refolving fuch Alge- 
braical or Geometrical Problems as are ufually propofed ; or an at- 
tempt is made, to teach us to argue more cloiely, dhtinctly, and Ana- 
lytically. 

And this is chiefly the fubftance of my Comment upon this part 
of our Author's work, in which my conduct has always been, to 
endeavour to digeft and explain every thing in the moft direct and 
natural order, and to derive it from the moft immediate and genuine 
Principles. I have always put myfelf in the place of a Learner, and 
have endeavour'd to make fuch Explanations, or to form this into fuch 
an Inftitution of Fluxions and infinite Series, as I imagined would 
have been ufeful and acceptable to myfelf, at the time when I fidl 
enter'd upon thefe Speculations. Matters of a trite and eafy nature 
I have pafs'd over with a flight animadverfion : But in things of more 
novelty, or greater difficulty, I have always thought myfelf obliged 
to be more copious and explicite ; and am conlcious to myfelf, that 
I have every where proceeded cumjincero ammo docendi. Wherever 
I have fallen fhort of this defign, it fliould not be imputed to any 
want of care or good intentions, but rather to the want of fkill, or 
to the abftrufe nature of the lubject. I (hall be glad to fee my de- 
fects fupply'd by abler hands, and (hall always be willing and thank- 
ful to be better instructed. 

What perhaps will give the greateft difficulty, and may furnifli 
mod matter of objection, as I apprehend, will be the Explanations 
before given, of Moments, -vanifiing quantities, infinitely little quan- 

titles, 



236 The Method of FLUXIONS, 

fjfies, and the like, which our Author makes ufe of in this Treatife, 
and elfe where, for deducing and demonftrating hisMethod of Fluxions. 
I fhall therefore here add a word or two to my foregoing Explana- 
tions, in hopes farther to clear up this matter. And this feems to 
be the more necefTary, becaufe many difficulties have been already 
ftarted about the abftracl nature of theie quantities, and by what 
name they ought to be call'd. It has even been pretended, that they 
are utterly impoffible, inconceiveable, and unintelligible, and it may 
therefore be thought to follow, that the Conclu lions derived by their 
means muft be precarious at leaft, if not erroneous and impoflible. 

Now to remove this difficulty it mould be obferved, that the only 
Symbol made ufe of by our Author to denote thefe quantities, is the 
letter o, either by itfelf, or affected by fome Coefficient. But this 
Symbol o at firft reprefents a finite and ordinary quantity, which 
mu ft be understood to diminim continually, and as it were by local 
Motion ; till after fome certain time it is quite exhaufted, and termi- 
nates in mere nothing. This is furely a very intelligible Notion. 
But to go on. In its approach towards nothing, and juft before it 
becomes abfolute nothing, or is quite exhaufted, it muft neceflarily 
pafs through vanifhing quantities of all proportions. For it cannot 
pafs from being an affignable quantity to nothing at once ; that were 
to proceed per fa/turn, and not continually, which is contrary to the 
Suppofition. While it is an affignable quantity, tho' ever fo little, 
it is not yet the exact truth, in geometrical rigor, but only an Ap- 
proximation to it ; and to be accurately true, it muft be lefs than 
any affignable quantity whatfoever, that is, it muft be a vanifhing 
quantity. Therefore the Conception of a Moment, or vanishing 
quantity, muft be admitted as a rational Notion. 

But it has been pretended, that the Mind cannot conceive quan- 
tity to be fo far diminifh'd, and fuch quantities as thefe are repre- 
fented as impoffible. Now I cannot perceive, even if this impofli- 
bility were granted, that the Argumentation would be at all affected 
by it, or that the Concluiions would be the lefs certain. The im- 
poffibility of Conception may arife from the narrownefs and imper- 
fection of our Faculties, and not from any inconfiftency in the na- 
ture of the thing. So that we need not be very folicitious about 
the pofitive nature of thefe quantities, which are fo volatile, fub- 
tile, and fugitive, as to efcape our Imagination ; nor need we be 
much in pain, by what name they are to be call'd j but we may 
confine ourfelves wholly to the ufe of them, and to difcover their 

properties, 



and INFINITE SERIES. 337 

properties. They are not introduced for their own fakes, but only 
as fo many intermediate fteps, to bring us to the knowledge of other 
quantities, which are real, intelligible, and required to be known. 
It is fufficient that we arrive at them by a regular progrefs of di- 
minution, and by a juft and neceflary way of reafoning ; and that 
they are afterwards duly eliminated, and leave us intelligible and 
indubitable Conclusions. For this will always be the confequence, 
let the media of ratiocination be what they will, when we argue 
according to the ftriet Rules of Art. And it is a very common 
thing in Geometry, to make impoffib'e and nbfurd Suppofitions, 
which is the fame thing as to introduce iinpoffible quantities, and 
by their means to difcover truth. 

We have an inftance fimilar to this, in another fpecies of Quan- 
tities, which, though as inconceiveable and as impofTible as thefe 
can be, yet when they arife in Computations, they do not affect 
the Conclufion with their impoffibility, except when they ought 
fo to do; but when they are duly eliminated, by juft Methods of 
Reduction, the Conclufion always remains found and good. Thefe. 
Quantities are thofe Quadratick Surds, which are diftinguifh'd by 
the name of impoffible and imaginary Quantities ; fuch as ^/ i, 
^/a, v/ 3, v/ 4, &c. For they import, that a quantity or 
number is to be found, which multiply'd by itfelf mall produce a - 
negative quantity ; which is manifeftly impoffible. And yet thefe 
quantities have all varieties of proportion to one another, as thofe 
aforegoing are proportional to the poffible and intelligible numbers 
I, ^/2, v/3, 2, 8cc. respectively -,. and when they arife in Compu- 
tations, and are regularly eliminated and excluded, they always leave 
a juft and good Conclufion. 

Thus, for Example, if we had the Cubick Equation x~> lax" 
-J-4IX 42 =o, from whence we were to extract the Root x ; 
by proceeding according to Rule, we mould have this fiird Ex- 

preffion for the Root, x = 4 -f- y'3 4- v/ -"fr-f- ^J^ - ,/ -^, 
in which the impoffible quantity ^/ -~ is involved ; and 
yet this Expreffion ought not to be rejected as abfurd and ufelefs, 
becaufe, by a due Reduction, we may derive the true Roots of 
the Equation from it. For when the Cubick Root of the firft inn- 
culum is rightly extracted, it will be found to be the impoffible 
Number i -+- ^/ , as may appear by cubing ; and when the 
Cubick Root of the fecond vinculum is extracted, it will be found 
to be i \/- j- Then by collecting thefe Numbers, the 

X.x im- 



338 77je Method of FLUXIONS, 

impoffibie Number </ will be eliminated, and the Root of 
the Equation will be found x = 4 i i = 2. 

Or the Cubick Root of the firft vinculum will alfo be A -f- y/ T ' T) 
as may likewife appear by Involution ; and of the fecond vincu- 
lum it will be | </ _' T . So that another of the Roots of 
the given Equation will be x = 4 -f- 1 -f- A = 7. Or the Cu- 
bick Root of the fame firft vincuhtm will be \ v/ i| J 
and of the fecond will be i H- ^/ .11. So that the third 
Root of the given Equation will be x = 4 - 4 T = 3- And 
in like manner in all other Cubick Equations, when the furd vin- 
cula include an impoffible quantity, by extracting the Cubick 
Roots, and then by collecting, the impoffible parts will be exclu- 
ded, and the three Roots of the Equation will be found, which 
will always be poffible. But when the aforefaid furd vincula do not 
include an impoffible quantity, then by Extraction one poffible 
Root only will be found, and an impoffibility will affect the other 
two Roots, or will remain (as it ought) in the Conclufion. 
And a like judgment may be made of higher degrees of Equa- 
tions. 

So that thefe impoffible quantities, in all thefe and many other 
inftances that might be produced, are fo far from infecting or de- 
ftroying the truth of thefe Conclufions, that they are the neceflary 
means and helps of difcovering it. And why may we not conclude 
the fame of that other fpecies of impoffible quantities, if they muft 
needs be thought and call'd fo ? Surely it may be allow'd, that 
if thefe Moments and infinitely little Quantities are to be elteem'd 
a kind of impoffible Quantities, yet neverthelefs they may be made 
ufeful, they may affift us, by a juft way of Argumentation, in find- 
ing the Relations of Velocities, or Fluxions, or other poffible Quan- 
tities required. And finally, being themfelves duly eliminated and 
excluded, they may leave us finite, poffible, and intelligible Equa- 
tions, or Relations of Quantities. 

Therefore the admitting and retaining thefe Quantities, how- 
ever impoffible they may feem to be, the investigating their Pro- 
perties with our utmoft induftry, and applying thofe Properties to 
ufe whenever occafion offers, is only keeping within the Rules of 
Reafon and Analogy; and is alfo following the Example of our 
fagacious aud illuftrious Author, who of all others has the greateffc 
right to be our Precedent in thefe matters. 'Tis enlarging the num- 
ber of general Principles and Methods, which will always greatly 

i con- 



[ '43 ] 




v 



THE 

CONTENTS of the following Comment. 

I /JNnotations on the Introduction ; or the Refolution of 
*-* Equations by Infinite Series. pag. 143 

Sedt. I. Of the nature and conjlruttion of infinite or converg- 
ing Series. P-H3 

Sedt. II. The Refolution offimple Equations, or of pure Powers, 
by infinite Series. = ~ p. 1 59 

Sedt. III. The Refolution of Numeral Affected Equations, p. 1 8 6 

Sedt. IV. The Refolution of Specious Equations by infinite Se- 
ries ; andfirjifor determining the forms of the Series, ami 
their initial Approximations. P- 1 9 1 

Sedt. V. The Refolution ofAJfe&ed fpecious Equations proje- 
cuted by various Methods of Analyjis. . . p. 209 

Sedt. VI. Tranfition to the Method of Fluxions. P-235 

II. Annotations on P rob. i. or, the Relation of the flow- 
ing Quantities being given-t to determine the Relation 
of their Fluxions. p. 241 

Sedt. I. Concerning Fluxions of the firft Order , and to find 
their Equations. p.24i 

Sedt. II. Concerning Fluxions of fuperior Orders, and the 
method of deriving their Equations. > ] 



Seft. III. The Geometrical and Mechanical Elements of 
Fluxions, i p.266 

[T] III. 



CGNTENTa 



,111. Annotations on Prob. 2. or y the Relation of the Fluxions 
being given, to determine the Relation of the Fluents. 

p.2 77 

Se. I. A particular Solution ; 'with a preparation to the 
general Solution, by which it is dijlributed into three 
Cafes. p.a// 

Sedl. II. Solution of the firft Cafe of Equations. - p. 282 
Sedt. III. Solution of the fecond Caje of Equations. -p.286 

Seft. IV. Solution of the third Caje of Equations, with fome 
neceffary Demonftrations. - . P-3OQ 

Sedt V. The Refolution of Equations, whether Algebraical 

or Fluxional, by the afliftance of [uperior Orders of 
. > diJ j j r j 

r lux ions. - - - p-3o 

Sedt. VI. An Analytical Appendix, explaining Jome Terms 
and ExpreJJiom in the foregoing Work. P-3 2 I 

,Se<5t. VII. The Conclufwn , containing a j}:ort recapitulation 
or review of the whole. - - P-33 




THE Reader is defired to correfl the following Errors, which I hope will be thought 
but few, and fuch as in works of this kind are hardly to be avoided. 'Tis here ne- 
ceflary to take notice of even literal Miftakes, which in fubjefts of this nature are often very 
material. That the Errors are fo few, is owing to the kind affillance of a flcilful Friend or 
two,_ who fupplyfd my frequent abfence from, the IVefs ; as alfo to the care of a diligent Printer. 

ERRATA. 

In tie Preface, pag. xiii< lirt, 3. read which 
is here fubjoin'd. Ibid. 1. 5. for matter read 
manner. Pag. xxiii. 1. alt. far Preface, &e. 
nWConclufton of this Work. P- 7. \.T,i.for 
~{- read =.. P. 15. 1.9. ready !>**+ -&*' 

-',4, &c. P'. 17. 1. 17. read . P. 32. 

9* 

l,'2j. read - . P. 35, 1. 3: for lOtfjr* read 



loxty. P. 62. 1.4. read ~~r'~ . P. 63.!. 31. 

firyreatl-y. Ibld:\.ult.for y - read y ~- 

P. 64. \.q. for 2 read z. Ibid. \. 30. read t. 
P. 82. 1. 17. read zzz. P. 87. 1. 22. read 

+ 2 A>. Ibid. 1.22,24. reaJAVDK. P.t 
\,2-[. read. * P.-gz. 1.5. read-\- .7 -,', . Ibid. 

\.z\.for z read x. P. 104. 1.8. read 6;jt 1 . 
P. 109. 1. 33. dele as ofen. P. I 10. 1. 29. read 



and v / ^ 1 x l '=. P. nj, 1 1 7. for Parabola 



read Hyperbola. P. 1 19. I. 1 2. read CE x \Q 
= to the Fluxion of the' Area, ACEG ); and 



lDxIP = 






P.I3J.1.8. readJf - . Ibid. 



P. 



\. 19, read. ! . P. 135. 1. 15. read 

9" 

13.8. I. 9. ^WAb&Jifs^AB. P. 145. \.fenult. 
read 7\~~ 3 . P. 149. 1. 2O. read whkh irt; 
P. 157. I.i3./-f^ ax. P.i68. l.j. retd^ax. 
P-I7I. \.\j.fir Reread $*. P. 1 77.' \.l$.rcait 



. .... 

P. 204. 1. 1 6. read to 2m, P. 213^ [.-j. far- 
Species read Series. P. 229, 1. 21* for x 5 retu( 
x 4. /i/V. 1. 24. for x 4'readx *. P. 234. 
1. 2. ^or yy ready. P. 236. 1. 26. ;vW genera- 
ting. P. 243. 1. 29. read. ax*yi*. P. 284. 

1. uit. read i . P. 289. 1. 17. fur right read 



j^ 

left. P. 295. 1. i, 2.- read' ', x 4 --^-J-ax*. 
P. 297. \.ig.forjx ' read y* '. P. 298. 1.14. 
read y. 1\3O4. 1. 20, 21 . dil: -(- be. P^og. 

1. 1 8. read a m ~t> . P. 3 1 7. 1. tilt, read a'-j 1 . 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

Lately publijtid by the Author, 

THE BRITISH HEMISPHERE, or a Map of a new contrivance, 
proper for initiating young Minds in the firft Rudiments of 
Geography, and the ufe of the Globes. It is in the form of a Half- 
Globe, of about 15 Inches Diameter, but comprehends the whole 
known Surface of our habitable Earth ; and mews the iituation of 
all the remarkable Places, as to their Longitude, Latitude, Bearing 
and Diftance from London, which is made the Center or Vertex of 
the Map. It is neatly fitted up, fo as to ferve as well for ornament 
as ufe j and fufficient Inftructions are annex'd, to make it intelligible 
to every Capacity. 

Sold by W. REDKNAP, at the Leg and Dial near the Sun Tavern 
in Fleet-jlreet ; and by ]. SEN EX, at the Globe near St. Dunftan's 
Church. Price, Haifa Guinea. 



and INFINITE SERIES. 339 

contribute to the Advancement of true Science. In fhort, it will 
enable us to make a much greater progrefs and profkience, than 
we othervvife can do, in cultivating and improving what I have elfe- 
where call'd The Philofopby of Quantity. 



FINIS. 




3T . 



.. I