(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Methods of studying controlled word associations"

IffiTHODS 0? STUDYING CONTROLLED ViTORD ASSOCIATIONS 
MILDPJCD 7/E3T LORBTG 



A DISSERTATION 

Submitted to the Board of University Studies of the 
Johns Hopkins University in conformity with 
the requirements for the degree of 
. Doctor of Philosophy 



1916 



n-^i^+c 



w 



ACKNOWLEDGIIEIIC 



I wish to acknowledge my greatest obligation to 
Dr. Knight Dunlap, whose supervision, criticisms, and 
suggestions were of foremost importance in the success- 
ful completion of this study, Lly thanks are due also 
to Professor John B. Watson for his assistance in making 
this research possible. 



TaTple of Contents , 

I. History and Development of the Word Association Method, 
II. Methods of Studying Controlled Yiford Associations. 

1. Purpose of the Investigation. 

2. Apparatus. 

III. Experiment I . Unselected Kouns and Adjectives. 

1. Preparation of Material and Llethod of Procedure. 

2. Results. 

3. Conclusions. 



IV, Experiment II . Selected Kouns and Adjectives. 

1. Preparation of Material and Llethod of Procedure, 

2. Results. 

3. Conclusions. 



V. Experiment III . Repetition of Stimulus Words, 

1. Ptirpose and Procedure. 

2. Results. 

3. Conclusions. 



VI. Experiment IV . Double Associations. 

1. Purpose and Procedure. 

2. Results. 

3. Conclusions. 



VII. Sximmary of Conclusions. 

VIII. Pr.rther Problems in the f/ord Association Llethod 

IX. Tables of Results. (I to XIZ inclitsive) 

X. Bibliography. 

XI. Tables of Stimulus Words. 

XII. Vita. 



History and Pevelopement of the Word Association Method . 

The first experimental work on the word association meth- 
od was published in 1879 by Francis Galton (1), He prepared 
a list of 75 words to each of v/hieh he obtained one or sev- 
eral free associations, using himself as subject. The list 
was repeated four times in different environments, and the 
results convinced him that the associations are not governed 
to any extent by rasnory. It took 660 seconds to form the 
505 ideas, which persuaded him that the mental process he 
was investigating could not be revery or continuous associa- 
tion. Of the 505 associations only 289 were different, so 
there was much less variety in the ideas than he had sup- 
posed. He examined the relative number of associations com- 
ing from different periods of life, and found that one-half 
of them concerned events of youth. His associations fell in- 
to three classes, (1) imagined soixnds of words, (2) sense im- 
agery, (3) histrionic representations. His list of words he 
found to be of three types, (1) those that allow of mental 
imagery, (2) those that allow of histrionic interpretation, 
and (3) abstract words. For Galton, histrionic ideas always 
appear as the first association, verbal associations occur 
about equally as first or second association, and imagery 
usually comes second. Even at this early date Galton antici- 
pated the application of the words association method to 
psychoanalysis . 

In 1883 Wujidt published an article on psychological meth- 
ods (2) in which he proposed a statistical method of collect- 



ing a large group of single associations for one subject, in- 
vestigating their origin and getting the association time. 
He suggested, too, a correlation of results between normal 
and pathological subjects. 

In the same year, Trautschold (3), a student of Wundt, 
made an extended investigation of the word association re- 
action, using the Hipp chronoscope and two Morse keys, which 
were released with the finger simultaneously with the speak- 
ing of stimulus and response word. He had four subjects and 
obtained averages on 40 to 256 words for the (1) simple re- 
action time, (2) the v/ord reaction time, that is, simple re- 
action time to the apperception of a word, (3) the word dis- 
crimination time, v/hich is (2) minus (1), (4) the association 
reaction time, and (5) the association time, which is (4) 
minus (2). It is this association time that he v;as most in- 
terested in. Its average for all subjects v/as 0,727 seconds. 
The association reaction time varied from 0,896 secondsto 
1,154 seconds, for different su.bjects. Trautschold obtained 
further results in one type of controlled association where 
the response v/as required to be a subsuraption. The associa- 
tion tifne here is higher than for free association, 0,874 
seconds. He classified his 60 stimulus words into three 
classes, concrete objects, words expressing conditions, and 
abstracts, and found that the association time is increas- 
ingly longer for each class. He further gives a classifi- 
cation of the associations into inner and outer associations 
with various subgroups. 



Cattell, in 1886, workirxg in Wundt's laboratory, was the 
next to take up the problem. His first paper (5) gives the 
time it takes to see and name objects. He exposed through a 
slit various objects on a revolving drum and got the reaction 
times with the Hipp chronoscope. For letters the time is l/E 
second. He finds that a slit width siich that two letters 
are e>qposed at once shortens the time 1/40 second, and on up 
to five letters v/hich shortens the time l/SOO second. The 
time for words having no connection is 1/4 second per v/ord, 
for v;ords making sentences 1/8 second. He gives results al- 
so on the comparative time for different size letters, types 
of script, foreign words, colors and pictures of objects. 
Cattell's second paper (6) in the same year gives results 
for simple reaction time to light and sound, and shov/s that 
the reaction time is shortest for a concentrated state of at- 
tention, greater for normal attention and longest for dis- 
tracted attention, when the distraction is continuous adding 
and the stimulus is light or an electric shock. These varia- 
tions in reaction time are slight however, but sufficient for 
him to argue for a theory of attention. After getting fur- 
ther results on distraction Cattell concludes that (1) the 
ordinary degrees of attention do not affect the raction time, 
(2) perception and v/illing are not factors in the reaction 
time, for they are not necessary for the motor center to act. 
The willing is done before the stimulus occurs and merely 
sets the brain paths in a state of readiness. The perception 
time is the interval betv.-een sensation and perception. It 



is not possible to add a perception to a simple reaction with- 
out adding also a will act. Altering the perception does not 
change the will time making it possible to study the percep- 
tion time. The sul);iect v/as required to discriminate between 
two black discs, one vdth a white spot. By subtracting the 
simple reaction time from this time we get the perception 
time, which was 61 sigma and 95 sigma for the two subjects. 
He repeated this procedure for different colors, and got long- 
er times. He foxmd that practice lowers the perception time. 
The discrimination time for letters is longer than for colors, 
and for words only slightly longer still, for pictures it is 
about the same as for colors. Cattell studied the will time 
by requiring the subject to react to tvi'o stimuli with the two 
hands respectively. He found this perception time plus v/ill 
time greater than for the perception time. This holds true 
for speech reactions, and stimulus colors, pictures, letters 
and words. He has results also on the time taken to see and 
to name letters, words colors, and pictures. Attention has 
little effect on this reaction time, there is a practice ef- 
fect during two years work and fatigue is manifested through 
an increase in the reaction time after the first two or three 
reactions of a series. After this there is no further in- 
crease. In 1887 Cattell gave further results on the associa- 
tion of ideas (7). He gives the time required to name ob- 
jects in a foreign language, for translating words of dif- 
ferent lengths into English and German, and various kinds of 
controlled associations, (1) where there is only one possi- 
ble answer, (2) where the answer allows of some choice, (3) 



where choice is freer than in (2), (4) v;here a Judgment must 
he made. Cattell continued his work in 188S, collaborating 
with Bryant (8). They give results for free association to 
500 concrete nouns, proper noujis and abstract nouns, verbs 
and adjectives, for the authors, and for 10 concrete nouns 
and 10 abstract nouns for University graduates (men), Bryn 
Mawr students and German symnasium students. The association 
reaction time varied from a little more than one second to 
seven seconds, according to the mental development of the 
group, and the type of stimulus word. Abstract nouns gives 
a longer time than concrete nouns. The authors next found 
the average time per word to write continuous associations 
for each word in three groups of nouns for 20 seconds, using 
school, college and graduate students as sixbjects. The re- 
action time decreases with growth and education. There is a 
slightly faster rate as the class rank is higher. The number 
of words written decreases as the series is continued, indi- 
cating fatigue or decrease in attention. There are more as- 
sociations to concrete than to abstract words. -There is a 
summary of all the response words for all subjects for each 
stimulus word, forming a small lexicon of the most frequent 
associations. The associations are further classified as 
objective and logical, with subgroups. 

Scripture, 1892 (9), investigated the problem of mediate 
association. The subject v;as first shown a series of cards 
each having on it a word and some kind of a sign. Another 
series was then given with the same signs and different words. 



The first series was then repeated vrf.thout the signs, and to 
each word the suh^ect was asked to name any v/ord in the ser- 
ies oectirring to him. If the sign is the linl: then the two 
words with the same sign should he associated. Scripture 
found no mediate association in a great many cases, bxit out 
of the 185 experiments there were 79 cases of mediate asso- 
ciation, from which Scripture concludes that the phenomenon 
is possible. 

Mtbasterherg (10) repeated Scripture's method more ex- 
tensively hut got entirely negative results. 

Bourdon, 1893 (13), obtained results on the character 
of the response word for certain types of controlled associa- 
tions; (1) letters or letter couplets as stimuli requiring 
word responses gave responses with a large amount of phonetic 
and syllabic similarity, (E) stim.ulus letters requiring let- 
ter responses gave rise to contiguous letters or to letters 
having a phonetic similarity, in about an equal nrunber of cases, 
(3) stimulus letters requiring colors as responses gave rise 
to associations usually marked by phonetic similarity, (4) 
free word associations were usually determined by meaning, 
v/ith phonetic similarity playing only a chance effect. Names 
of objects and acts are associated with words of the same 
class, qualities with qualities and objects. Some people 
give answers coming under fewer categories, which indicates 
a logical mind. 

Hov/e, 1893, (14), made observations on the problem of 
mediate association. A repetition of Scripture's technic gave 



negative results. Howe argues that free associatiorxs alone 
can give data regarding the existence of mediate association. 

BergstrOm, 1894, (15), studied the interference of dif- 
ferent associations upon each other. The subject v/as required 
to sort 80 cards into 10 piles, each containing 8 cards with 
the same pictures. In the second trial the position of the 
piles was changed giving an interference effect. BergstrOm 
concludes that the interference effect of an association 
hears a constant relation to the practice effect, and is, in 
fact, equivalent to it. 

Calkins, 1894 (16), investigated the relative signifi- 
cance of frequency, vividness, recency and earliness in the 
formation of associations. The method was to expose a color 
and a number successively, and after an interval another col- 
or and number. After the series was finished the subject was 
shown the colors alone in altered order, and asked to \7rite 
dov/n what number v/as suggested, if any. Devices of repeat- 
ing the same colors with different numbers, the same color 
with the same number, of having certain colors and munbers oc- 
cur always at the beginning of the series, or at the end, were 
made use of to secure data on the factors under investiga- 
tion. In every ease the more frequent, recent or vivid as- 
sociations formed the largest niuiiber of correct recalls of 
numbers. The frequency factor was found more effective than 
primacy, vividness than recency, and frequency than recency. 

Jastrow, 1894, (17), made a study of the community and 
association of ideas. Sixty-nine students were shown 10 



words, one at a tiine, and told to vrrite the first five words 
STiggested to them. This gave 69 lists of 50 words each. He 
then classified the ractions into two groups, giving the num- 
ber of different and the number of unique re^ onses, in each 
of the five places in the association series. "The proportion 
of different words, as also of unique or once-used words, in- 
creases as the associations proceed." Data jn men and v;oraen 
indicated that there is less coraraujaity of associations among 
women, TAdiich the author thinks due to too limited data. A 
few results are given on the frequency of certain associations. 
The associations are also divided into nine categories and 
compared. 

Jerusalem, 1894 (18), made a report of a single case of 
mediate association. A scene long since forgotten appeared 
suddenly to the mind of the individual as he was deeply en- 
grossed in his work. But the connecting link, at first ap- 
parently unconscious, was found to be the unnoticed fragrance 
of a flov/er in the room, that had been in the original scene. 

Smith, 1894 (19), investigating mediate association, ob- 
tained entirely negative results as had Mttnsterberg. Scrip- 
ture's technic was used in a modified forra with no results. 

T/undt, 1894 (21) comments on Jerusalem's case of mediate 
association. He claims that the connecting link was not un- 
conscious but only unnoticed; it was perceived but notapper- 
ceived. 

Aschaffenburg, 1896 (24), studied free associations in 
normal individuals. He divided his associations into differ- 
ent subgroups under internal, external, clang and mere reac- 



tion associations. In the first experiment a word was given 
for the subject to write 100 continuous associations. These 
were classified as above. In the second experiment 100 single 
free associations were obtained from each subject. Experi- 
ments were also made similar to these, getting reaction times 
with the lip key. The author found that external associations 
occur more often than internal associations and the reaction 
time is shorter. The reaction time varied from 1180 to 14E6 
Sigma, and the author concludes that the reaction time does 
not distinguish normal from abnormal. It was noted that the 
same stimulus word frequently led to the same response in dif- 
ferent individuals. 

Aschaffenburg next investigated the effect on association 
of extreme exhaustion (24), which was induced by working con- 
tinuously all night vdthout food. The same procedure was fol- 
lowed as in the previous experiment. He found that more as- 
sociations of long standing occur, content becomes a weaker fac- 
tor and clangs are frequent and appear first at the height of 
the exhaustion. The number of repeated responses does not in- 
crease during the night and the exhaustion lengthens the re- 
action time only slightly. The clangs, words completions and 
rhymes are a sign of the reaction degenerating into a pure 
motor reaction. In 1904 (24), he obtained 12,900 reactions 
and 6150 reaction times on 11 pure manic depressive cases, 
using only one and two syllable stimulus words, and fovind that 
during excitement the results are the same as for exhaustion. 
Alcohol and hunger also give these same results. In the de- 



10 



pressive state there are no variations in content from the 
normal, although the reaction time increases. 

Calkins in 1896 (25), continued her work on association 
along the same lines as before, to see the effect of sugges- 
tion. She uses suggestion in the sense of potency of the dif- 
ferent factors, recency, frequency, vividness and primacy to 
form associations. iTrequency is shown to he the strongest 
factor. A monograph (26) incoi^orates these results along 
with an analysis of the association process. 

Kraepelin, 1896 (27), enumerated the psychological meth- 
ods adapted to psychiatry among which the association method 
occupies the major position. He emphasizes the necessity of 
a careful interpretation of lengthened reaction times in 
pathological cases, and regrets that much of the previous 
v;ork v/ith this method has "been useless. He reviews the work 
of Cattell and Mtosterberg, and points out the importance of 
securing data on the content of associations and their stabil- 
ity, and on continuous associations. 

Calkins, 1898 (30), investigated the tendency to combine 
ideas which are unconnected in their presentation. She pre- 
sented one series of pairs of words visually, one series oral- 
ly, and one series of paired pictures of objects. [The sub- 
ject was to v/rite an introspection in regard to the concomi- 
tant imagery. She finds that in 30.8 percent of the 638 
cases, the subject has combined the two concepts into one 
image picture. Nearly one half of the subjects show the ten- 
dency to combination in one third of all possible cases. She 
also obtained results on associations with childhood exper- 



11 



iences as first suggested by Galton, The subjects were 90 
V/ellesley students and 84 people in middle life or advanced 
age. The stimulus v/ords were 15 objects connected with child- 
hood. The results showed that even the older group had less 
childhood associations (33.4%) than Galton (39^), while for 
students there were only 14,7^o. The number of recent asso- 
ciations form 30.95^ and 32,7^ of the total respectively for 
the older and younger group; for Galton these came only to 
157a. Calkins thinks vie live largely in the present which 
accounts for the results. 

Ziehen, 1898 (34), added another to the numberous class- 
ifications of associations. He divides them into spontan- 
eous and judgment associations with various subgroups. 

Sommer, 1899 (35), discusses methods of classification 
of associations and gives the characteristics of the associa- 
tions for certain pathological types. 

Wreschner, 1900 (38), investigated the associations in 
a case of idiocy. He found that (1) the quality of the stim- 
ulus word has great influence on the kind of association, and 
the quality of the reaction is less the greater it is for the 
stimulus, (2) the reactions are predominantly adjectives, (3) 
content associations have longer reaction times than clang as- 
sociations, (4) the poorer the quality of the association and 
the less familiar the stimulus word, the longer the reaction 
time, which holds for both clang and content associations, (5) 
practise shortens the reaction time and improves the quality 
of the association. 



1£ 



Kellor, 1901 (40), investigated associations in white 
and negro criminal and workhc-ase women, and compared them with 
results for University students (women?). Three types of 
tests were used, (l) free continuots associations Vifritten for 
one minute in reponse to each of a group of words, (2) free 
continous associations in response to direct stimulation of 
the five senses by appropriate stimuli, (3) constrained asso- 
ciations, and (4) free continuous written associations to cer- 
tain abstract terras. All stimuli were well vdthin the range 
of the low grade of education of the subiects. The author 
first compared the different subjects in regard to the dis- 
tribution of the associations into the various types of im- 
agery. For all subjects visual imagery predominates. Since 
the negro women could not write, the second experiment was de- 
vised and given only to them and to the white women crimi- 
nals and workhouse irjnates. Again visual imagery predominates, 
The rate of association for students was double that for 
criminals and the workhouse class. Comparison was not possi- 
ble with the negroes. By the second method the rate is high- 
er for negroes than for whites (exclusive of students), due 
to the elementary form of the negro associations, and to the 
fact that the reaction for negroes v/ere spoken, for whites 
written. The difference in rate between stxidents and white 
criminals and negroes is due to the fact of the latter 's de- 
ficient mental training, and to their greater tendency to 
suppression. In students the free associations tend to be 
propressively away from the first word, or of mixed form; the 



associations of criminals of poor ediication tend to refer more 
often directly to the initial word. Data was secured from the 
associations to abstract words on the ethical, ■educational, ^^nd 
environmental conditions of the various classes. The author 
thinks the differences are not so much those between criminals 
and normals as between educated and uneducated. He fails to 
emphasize however the importance as a causal factor of feeble- 
mindedness T;hich must have existed to a large extent in the 
criminal classes he worked with. 

Thumb and Marbe, 1901 (41), found that the associations 
are often reversible. This holds for adverbs, adjectives and 
pronouns, but not for nujnbers to which the usual response is 
a higher number. The associations to all these classes are 
mostly words belonging to the same class. This holds true al- 
so for words expressing family relationship. 

Mayer and Orth, 1901 (42), made a qualitive study of as- 
sociations and concluded from their results with free asso- 
ciations that (1) the response word can occur with or without 
the intermediate occurrence of a conscious experience between 
it and the stimulus, (2) the reactions are quicker when no 
conscious experience intervenes, (3) the reactions are quick- 
er the fewer the intervening conscious experiences, and (5) 
reactions are longer v/hen the intervening conscious experience 
is a will act than when it is not. These conscious exper- 
iences are in most cases without feeling tone, but its pres- 
ence increases the reaction time. 

Bourdon, 1902 (43), obtained results on the frequency of 
identical response words to 100 stimulus words for 100 sub- 



14 



jects of the same grade of intelligence and education. 

Schmidt, 190E, (44) obtained the seme resiilts with verbs 
that ThTimh and Marbe had with other parts of speech. He made 
a more extended investigation in this one group than had his 
predecessors, using 14 conjugation forms of 30 verbs on 8 ten 
year old boys. This gave 3360 reactions. He found that the 
verb responses predominate and formed S9fo of all responses, 
forms of the same verb being more frequent and of shorter re- 
action time than of other verbs. 

Claparede, 1903 (45), made aix analytic study of associa- 
tion, including a bibliography of over 300 names. He dis- 
cusses disputed problems in association, incliiding those under 
laboratory investigation. 

Fuhrmann, 1903 (46), found that in idiots as contrasted 
with epileptics the ability to forni supraordinate and subor- 
dinate associations decreases. 

Pieron, 1903 (47), attempted to explain introspectively 
the failiire of the experimentalists to verify mediate associa- 
tion. He conceives of mediate association as the arousal of 
medially associated images of subconscious ideas. 

Bleuler, 1904 (51), in his introduction to the paper of 
Jung and Riklin discussed the importance of the study of as- 
sociation. All mental processes involve the association of 
ideas so that a thorough Icnowledge of the associations is es- 
sential to an understanding of other mental activities. Every 
association is made up of a group of more or less connected 
ideas, which is called a constellation, and every associative 



15 



aotivity is the product of the whole psychic being of the past 
and the present, with all its experiences and strivings. It 
is an index then of all mental activity, which we only need to 
solve to i-mow the w?iOle man. Bleuler recommends the method 
of single associations rather than continiio-us associations, 
and claims already to diagnose with the association method, 
dementia praecox, epilepsy, imhecility, hysteria, and hopes 
soon to he able to differentiate types of paranoia. 

Jung and Riklin, 1904 (53), made an extended investiga- 
tion into the associations of normal subjects preliminary to 
a study of pathological subjects. Four hundred stimulus 
v/ords of one, two and three syllable adjectives, nouns, verb, 
adverbs and numbers, in random order were used. The reaction 
time was taken between the accented syllable and the response. 
The authors obtained 12,400 associations from 9 educated men 
and 14 educated women, 7 uneducated men and 8 uneducated wo- 
men. The first 200 words were given as simple free associa- 
tions in the usual manner. On the next 100, introspections 
on the free associations were secured as far as possible. Dur- 
ing the last 100 v;ords the subjects made pencil marks at dif- 
ferent rates follov/ing the beating of a metronome. Six sub- 
jects also took tests during fatigue; one on waking in the 
morning and one in a period of irritation. The responses 
v;ere classified according to an extremely lengthy and detailed 
system, from which they conclude that (1) external associa- 
tions are more frequent in educated than in uneducated per- 
sons, making the reaction time of the latter longer, (2) 



16. 



changes in association are due to changing attention. Its 
relaxation causes an increase in inferior associations, its 
concentration causes an increase in inner associations, (3) 
mental disorders characterised hy low concentration have 
therefore a tendency toward external associations, (4) clang 
associations in manic flight are due to attention disorder 
not to motor disorder as Aschaff enburg maintained, (5) v/hen 
the attention is artifically lowered, the type of associa- 
tion is the same superficially as for flight of ideas, fa- 
tigue, acute alcoholism and other pathological types. 

There are two general types of reaction in normal sub- 
jects, (1) a type using the adjective frequently and certain 
accentuated reactions indicating an emotional personal reac- 
tion, due to the arousal of a complex constellation, a sim- 
ple constellation or merely egocentricity of the predicate 
type, (2) an objective impersonal type, with v/hom verbs usu- 
ally give rise to noun responses, adjectives to nouns, verbs 
to nouns or verbs, and adjectives to nouns and adjectives, 

Jung, 1904 (54), obtained resiilts on the associations 
in an epileptic. A study was made of 158 epileptics yield- 
ing 18,277 reactions. The stimulus words included 75 con- 
crete and 25 general noirns, 50 adjectives and 50 verbs. 
Only the one case of epilepsy is reported in detail. The 
subject v;as neither an idiot or an imbecile, and the epi- 
lepsy onset was at the age of forty. His results follov;; 

1. Traits in common with associations in normal individuals 

a. The subject adjusts himself to the meaning 
of the word as do ujieducated subjects. 



17 



b. Associations are partly determined by a 
morbid complex. 

Traits in common v/ith associations of imbeciles. 

a. The adjustment to the meaning of the first 
word is so great that many associations must 
be taken as 'explanations'. 

b. Associations* have sentence form. 

c. Reaction times are longer than the normal, 

d. Words are often repeated. 

Traits different from normals or imbeciles. 

a. The explanation is clumsy; there is much 
tendency to make additions to the reactions. 

b. The reaction is not stereotyped or limited 
except in being egocentric. 

G. Emotional associations are not concealed. 



Rlklin, 1904 (57), obtaL ned results on the associations 
of hysterical patients. He found that the hysterical type of 
reaction is an exaggeration of the dissociated complex type 
in normal people. There are more sentences, quotations, per- 
servations, minus reactions, reactions pointing to a complex, 
and still longer reaction times. 

Watt, 1904 (58), varied experimental i^rocedure in asso- 
ciation work by presenting the words visually, for free asso- 
ciations. He also obtained reaction times. Eis results agree 
with those of Thumb and Marbe in that adjectives, nouns, ad- 
verbs, names of relationship and nujnbers are usually associa- 
ted v/ith words of the same class. He also finds that associa- 
tions are usually reversible, numbers however give higher num- 
bers, which is also in agreement v.-ith Thumb and Marbe. He 



18 



verifies their law, too, that the reaction time diminishes 
v/ith Increasing frequency of the v/ord, at first suddenly, then 
gradually. Results are higher for visual presentation; men- 
tal speaking of the stimulus v/ord does not influence the form 
of the association. 

Wehrlin, 1904-5 (59), obtained results on associations 
in 13 cases of imbecility and idiocy. These were from 17 to 
68 years of age. He found that there are many responses with 
a sentence or a few words, with a tendency toward definitions. 
The results all indicate extreme narrowness of thought. 

?/ertheiraer and Klein, 1904 (60), are given the honor by 
Gross their teacher for making the first application of the 
association method to criminal v/ork. Their procedure was the 
usual one, a series of words both relevant and irrelevant to 
the guilty situation are given to the accused persons for free 
associations. The nature of the association and the length 
of the reaction time indicates the guilty person. They also 
used a method of telling the story of the crime with some mod- 
ifications to all subjects. The innocent retell it as told 
to them, the guilty confuse it with the real situation. 

Ach, 1905 (61), using exposure apparatus devised by him- 
self, in connection v/ith the Hipp chronoscope, investigated 
the relation of memory to simultaneous association. He found 
that retroactive and associative inhibition hold true for si- 
multaneous as v/ell as for successive associations. 

Gross, A. 1905-6 (63), set forth arguments in favor of the 
association method for the detection of guilt and answered 



19 



charges against it, giving examples to emphasize his arguments. 
He is extremely optimistic in regard to the efficacy of the 
method. 

Gross, A. 1905-6 (64), carried out an experiment with the 
association method to detect guilty loiowledge. He used 50 
relevant and 50 irrelevant words and got positive results on a 
large group of subjects. 

Grabowsky, 1905 (65), expressed his scepticism in regard 
to the association method as a Tatbestandsdiagnostik. He con- 
siders it difficult to adapt the method so that intelligible 
instructions can be given to any class of people, and is par- 
ticularly convinced that the emotions aroused in the innocent 
by the accusation militates against the efficacy of the method, 

Jung, 1905 (68), investigated certain peculiarities of 
the reaction time for free associations. The reaction time is 
shorter for men than for women, for educated than for uneduca- 
ted persons; concrete words give faster reactions than gener- 
al concepts, adjectives faster ones than verbs. The reaction 
v/ord influences the association time, general concepts come 
slowest, adjectives fastest; external associations are faster 
than internal and clang associations. Jung, 1905 (69), fur- 
ther developed the association method for psychiatric pur- 
poses, by observing the effect of repeating the list of stim- 
ulus words. He found that words touching on complexes give 
new responses as well as giving longer reaction times. Ir- 
relevant words duplicate their responses. Jung, 1905, (70), 
claims priority over Wertheimer and Klein in the use of the 
association method for the detection of guilt. 



£0 



Kiesow, 1905 f7l), revived the problem of mediate asso- 
ciation. His conclusions bear out most previous experimental 
results that there is no spontaneous arising of ideas. The 
mediating links are in marginal consciousness. 

Kramer and Stern, 1905 (72), carried out an experiment 
in the application of the association method to the detection 
of guilt. They had seven subjects each taking part in one of 
three situations, (l) hearing a story read, (2) seeing a pic- 
tiire, or (3) going through an action. Their results were pos- 
itive but they are a little sceptical as to the safety of the 
method, especially of diagnosis on the basis of long reaction 
times. The content of the association they consider a safer 
guide. 

Peters, 1905 (73), investigated free associations where 
the response was the report of an experience. The results 
showed that in memories, pleasant experiences predominate over 
tmpleasant ones, although indifferent ones predominate over 
both. Memories of recent events have more unpleasant details 
than distant memories. 

Riklin, 1905 (74), after giving a lengthy history of a 
case of hysteria with the results of hypnotic treatment, ana- 
lyzes the resiilts of 100 associations in the subject. His re- 
sults agree with those on hysteria published the previous 
year, and form the basis of definitions of a mimber of clin- 
ical types of hysteria. 

Schultze, 1905 (75), investigated the influence of age 
upon associations, after the manner of Thumb and Marbe's tech- 



21 



nic. His results for children agree with those for adults by 
Thumb and Marbe, that is, that there is a preference for asso- 
ciations between similar word groups. The author also tests 
the method for the detection of guilty knowledge and concludes 
that its value is limited. 

Thumb, 1905 (76), continued his previous work into inves- 
tigation regarding the corruption of certain verbal forms by 
others. He found that associations are usually between words 
of the same word group, which is the philological condition 
for their corruption. The associations of children would not 
account for verbal corruption. 

Arnold, 1906 (77), gives a resume and criticism of the 
historical development of the theoretical aspect of associa- 
tion and its lav;s and brings together for comparison the class- 
ifications of associations used by various investigators. 

Baldwin, 19C6 (78), investigated the results for asso- 
ciations under the influence of different ideas. He found the 
difference in effect of two words spoken one immediately after 
the other on the course of the association. Pictures and 
groups of two or three words were also used. The second and 
fourth are respectively more effective than the first and 
third. Concrete nouns are more efficient than abstract, prop- 
er nouns than common noiuis, and wholes than parts. 

Jung, 1906 (81), reports a case of detected theft in a 
young man by means of the association method. He admits that 
the method is a delicate one and profitable only in the hands 
of the experienced. 



22 



Lederer, 1906 (8.3), expressed his conviction that noth- 
ing useful is to be expected from the new methods of detecting 
guilt through the association method either in its present 
form or after its improvement. 

Levy, 1906, (84), criticised the current method of obtain- 
ing free associations. It is an unnatural situation to be re- 
quired to give the first word occurring to one in response to 
a single word stimulus. He obtained results on the spontan- 
eous and casual free associations in insane patients, who of- 
ten react to a word not addressed to them. The author criti- 
cised the previous classifications of associations as being 
logical not psychological. He adheres to the "constellation" 
concept and attempts to shov/ the influence of constellations 
in a fev; results on insane patients. Levy, 1907 '8^, contin- 
ued his investigation. He concluded that the only legitimate 
classification of reactions is, (1) unquestionably normal re- 
actions, (2) reactions doubtful whether normal or abnormal, 
(3) unquestionably abnormal reactions. He makes various sub- 
groups ujider each of these. He emphasi2es,hov7ever, the im- 
possibility of classifying simply from the objective point of 
view. 

Messer, 1906 (85), investigated the thought process by 
means of free associations and 13 tjrpes of controlled associa- 
tions. Tiiese were, coordinate object, coordinate concept, ad- 
jectives, concept £fc tribute, subordinate concept, and various 
judgments on paired v/ords of different kinds. Introspections 
were detailed, and indicated the presence of both visual and 



23 



motor elements. The associations are usually of meaning, 3ome- 
tiraes clang, though the visual images do not assist in the 
meaning. The author gives a classification of judgments, dif- 
ferentiates between particular and general thinking, and many 
other psychological categories of the thought process. 

Pick, 1906 (86), investigated the effect of persistent 
vocal motor activity on the associative processes of the mind. 
Experiments v/ere made on two pathological cases. An idea of 
an object was presented and suggested until it was firmly 
fixed in mind. Then when asked the names of certain objects, 
the previously impressed object idea was usually given as re- 
sponse and the object used as if the suggested object. Pick 
claims this phenomenon to be pathological only in the matter 
of intensity and degree. 

Wertheimer, 1906 (87), made further investigations into 
the validity of the association method in the detection of 
guilt. He found that both subjective evidence on the part 
of the subject, and objective evidence substantiates it as a 
legitimate method. Critical words give critical responses 
by the guilty person, or If these are inliibited, the reac- 
tion time is long and the response is superficial or nonsens- 
ical. Critical v/ords often give rise to identical superfic- 
ial responses. All this V/ertheiraer considers as conclusive 
of the method's adequacy. 

Mrst, 1907 (89), investigated the influence of sex, age, 
education and family on associations. She concludes from her 
results that all children under 16 years have more inner as- 



24 



sociations than the mother, and all children over 16 years 
have more outer associations than the mother. Husbands in- 
cline more toward oiiter associations than their wives, and 
this is also true for sons as compared with their sisters. 
Children differ more among themselves than from their par- 
ents, they differ more from the father than from the mother, 
and daughters are more like the mother than sons like the 
father. All these comparisons refer to their free associa- 
tions on the basis of Ftlrst's classification. 

■ Jung, 1907 (90), took up Yeraguth's psychogalvanic re- 
flex method and devised a method for recording the oscilla- 
tions on a smoked drum. He then obtained records during a 
series of free associations on various pathological subjects. 
The curve remains more or less of a straight line until a 
word appears that touches upon a complex, when there is a 
corresponding rise of the curve. 

Meumann, 1907 (91), investigated the effect of differ- 
ent types of instruction on the reaction time and the con- 
tent of the association. The first type of instruction was 
to react as quickly as possible leaving everything else to 
chance. The second type of instruction was to react only af- 
ter the meaning of the v.^ord was grasped, and to react logi- 
cally. The same series of words was used on each subject for 
each type of instruction. He found two clases of subjects; 
one group gave exceedingly quick reactions on the first in- 
struction, but they V;-ere largely habit associations, on the 
second instruction the reaction times v;ere longer, but the 



25 



associations v;ere essentially of the seme character. The oth- 
er group became confused on the first instruction and so length- 
ened their time, while on the second instruction they were more 
composed and reacted more quickly and concretely. The author 
argues against a mixture of these two types of instruction. 

Severance and V/ashburn, 1907 (92), examine the loss of 
associative power in words with long fixation. A word was fix- 
ated for three minutes, and a complete introspection of the 
subjective course of the phenomenon was recorded. Meaning ' 
disappeared after a few moments fixation, also its auditory 
motor image. Other images disappeared one by one until the 
word seemed only a group of strange marks. The author ex- 
plain the phenomenon as due to the fact that the visual im- 
age is less closely associated with the meaning of a word 
than the vocal, so that v;hen the latter vanishes the meaning 
goes with it. 

Watt, 1907 (93), observed the influence of the rapidity 
of successive stimulixs v/ords on the associations. Kouns in 
series of 21 or 13 were rotated at different rates on a re- 
volving drum before a slit. The maximum rate for different 
subjects varied; at higher rates the subject had to omit as- 
sociations to some words. The optimim rate for most subjects 
was approximately one v/ord per second. Some subjects give 
nouns more often, some adjectives, but no subjects give more 
verbs, and some give no verbs at all. Repetitions occur more 
often in the second series after the series in which they 
v/ere first used. 



26 



?/reschner, 1907-1909 (94), investigated in a thorough- 
going manner the reproduction and association of ideas. He 
obtained reaction tiroes with the Hipp chronoscope on 22 indi- 
viduals, 15 educated adults, of whom 10 were men and 5 v/omen, 
5 uneducated adults, of v/hon 3 vi-ere men and 2 women, and 2 
hoys respectively 3 and 2 years old. His material consisted 
of 200 concrete object no^ms, 147 abstract noujis, 188 adjec- 
tives, and 144 verbs. Presentation of stimuli was usually au- 
ditory, sometimes visual. His experim.ents were in three 
groups. 

I. Associations were free and no stimiilus words were 

duplicated. There were 6792 reactions in this group. He 

gives the average reaction times for these reactions which 

vary from 1337 Sigma for educated men to 3348 Sigma for the 

children. There are interpretable variations for sex, age 

and education. The reaction times for adjectives are shorter 

than for concrete objects, which in turn are shorter than for 

abstract concepts. According to introsoection the reaction 

the 
tim.e is affected by/degree of apperception of the v/ord, the 

concomitant imagery, and recent events. His results agree 
with Thiunb and I.Iarbe, and others in finding that the associa- 
ted words usually belong to the same class, especially for 
fast reaction times. 

II. The associations were free in this group also, but 
certain stimuli were repeated at intervals of not less than a 
v/eek and in a different context. This gave 3338 reactions. 

He concludes that the variety of reactic: a to a given word in- 
dicates the number and strength of reproduction tendencies. 



27 



The variety of reactions decreases with progressive repetition 
of a stimnlus word. This is most for adjectives and least for 
abstract nouns. Variety of reactions increases with education 
and age, and is more for men than for women. 

III. In this group were obtained 5541 reactions from 
various types of controlled associations. He found that the 
reaction time varies according as the choice of response is 
narrow or wide. Education has less influence here. The au- 
thor argues against a purely objective criterion for the laws 
of association. Subjective evidence is essential to a valid 
knowledge of the factors that play a part in associative re- 
production. 

Baling, 1908 (95), sought to corroborate the results of 
Thumb and I.Iarbe in children. She used 34 girls of 7 and 8 
years, and for stimulus words those of 7/ertheimer, Klein and 
Gross. Her resiilts do not confirm the assumption of symmet- 
rical associations v.lth definite constellations, nor do they 
agree with the restilts of Schultae on 18 adults. Saling gives 
a frequency table of 800 associations as a preliminary effort 
in this direction. 

Stein, 1909 (98), used the free association method on 
actual criminals and accused persons. The group included all 
classes of societj'-, ediicstion and temperament. The nature of 
the associations themselves often betrays the person's guilt 
but frequently the associaticns are nonsensical or uninter- 
pretable, though fixrther analysis might lead to their eluci- 
dation. The reaction times was much greater on the critical 



£8 



words than on the indifferent words. In the control subjeots 
the averages were quite constant. The author emphasizes that 
the chief hope of the method for success lies in a careful 
choice of critical words. 

Yerkes and Berry, 1909 (9S), carried out four laboratory 
experiments on the application of the association method to 
the detection of crime. In the first, two acts were arranged, 
for the experimenter to decide which the subject had done; in 
the second, the experimenter must decide which of two subjects 
had done a certain act. In both these experiments there were 
longer reaction times, and greater range and variability on 
the relevant words. In the third experiment which was similar 
to the first, results were too uncertain to warrant conclusions, 
A repetition of the second experiment gave positive results. 

Bovet, 1910 (100), made a brief study of the frequency 
of identical response word to a given stimulus word for a 
group of individuals, with the purpose of determining the co- 
efficiency o'f this frequency. 

Franz, 1910 (102), employed the association method of di- 
agnosis on a patient. The experiment failed due to the fact 
that the subject had beforehand planned his associations, which 
the experimenter learned only after questioning the patient, 
Franz considers the method inadequate except when used in con- 
junction with introspection. 

Freud, 1910 (103), reviev/ed the history of psychoanalysis, 
shov/ing how the free association method as applied to psycho- 
analysis T/as the natural outcome of the hyponosis method be- 
cause of the difficulty of hypnotizing many patients. 



29 



Geissler, 1910 (104), made an introspection of his con- 
sciousness diJTing the word association experiment, when used 
to detect guilt. He gives an analysis of the differences in 
the mental content for critical and for irrelevant words, and 
concludes with a definition of a complex as a "strongly un- 
pleasant group of ideas (connected with the concealed ohject) 
reinforced by certain organic sensations". 

Jung, 1910 (106), reviewed his work with the association 
method, with a discussion of the "constellation", and the psy- 
chology of the child. The associations on critical words, es- 
pecially in hystericals, may be marked by long reaction times, 
elaborated response words and repetitions of the stimulus 
v/ords. He gives an example of the application of the method 
in detecting crime. The association method does not give data 
on intellectual types. All variations for people of different 
education can be traced to a mere emotional difference, not 
one of intelligence. There are three types of reaction, (1) 
objective and normal, (2) complex type caused by constella- 
tions," (3) definition type. 

Kent and Hosanoff, 1910 (107), using a list of 100 stim- 
ulus words investigated the frequency of identical responses 
in 1000 normal and 247 insane persons for free associations. 
The results are put in the form of frequency tables. The sub- 
jects incltided people of all ages, both sexes, various occupa- 
tions, degrees of mentality and education, and from different 
localities; the insane were of all types of disorder. For nor- 
nal people the authors find that 90^o of the reactions are com- 



30 



raon, and that age and sex have no effect on the frequenoy. 
The authors attempt a new classification of responses on a 
purely objectiYe basis. The general conclusion is that it ap- 
pears to be universal among normal persons to give in response 
to any stimulus v;ord one of a small group of common reactions. 
There is a gradual transition in this respect from the normal 
to the pathological as regards different types of disorder, 
and different degrees of disorder in a given type. There are 
certain characteristic tendencies of various types. 

Langfeld, 1910 (108), observed the effect of negative in- 
struction on the associations. A series of pictures of ob- 
jects were presented visually; the subject was instructed to 
respond with a word other than the name of the object. Intro- 
spections were taken and the series repeated. The author con- 
cludes that both a positive and a negative 'Aufgabe' is car- 
ried out. The negative 'A\ifgabe' is a check on certain asso- 
ciations. Even in positive attitudes, the negative quality 
is active, which is analogous to Freudian inhibition. Sup- 
pression is strengthened by practice. 

Leach and V/ashburn, 1910 (109), made tests on mental di- 
agnosis of guilt with the association method. T;vo separate 
experiments were made with all but one of £6 individuals giv- 
ing 51 experiments in all. \^lien the judgment v;as made by au- 
thor H.M.I, on the basis of reaction time and the response 
word, there was only one failure for the v/hole series. M.F.W. 
independently judged the results on the basis of the associa- 
tions alone and was successful in only 34 out of the 52 ex- 
periments. The authors argue then the superiority of the re- 



31 



action time over the association as a guide to diagnosis. 

llunberg, 1910 (110), fotuod that associations connected 
with a complex are accompanied hy greater movements of the 
hand and arm than are indifferent associations. At the same 
time the complex canses a decrease in the amplitude of respir- 
atory movements . 

Ohms, 1910 (111), devised a method for measTiring inferior 
associations. He gets the time required for a forgotten datura 
to be recognized, the longer time indicating a greater depth 
of the association "below the threshold. 

Heinhold, 1910 (112), made a study of the frequency of 
identical associations in children. There v/ere 30 each from 
10 successive grades, from 7 to 17 years. Pree associations 
are given for 46 stimulus words as a contribution to a fre- 
quency lexicon. He concludes that there is for each word a 
favorite reaction word, that children show greater individual 
differences in their reactions than adults, and that for 
children, individual reactions do not indicate superior intel- 
ligence, nor clang associations inferior intelligence. 

. Ritterhaus, 1910 (113), criticised severely the practi- 
cal use of the association method. He shows that Jung him- 
self has drawn false conclusions fran his own data, and gives 
results of his own to show how precarious their interpreta- 
tion is. 

Rusk, 1910 (114), investigated associations in children 
and found no correlation between age and reaction time, or be- 
tween imagery and reaction time, which leads him to argue that 
thought is possible without imagery. 



32 



Dauber, 1910 (116), found that the preferred association 
is related to the repeated association, to the frequency with 
which the stimulus word and the reaction v;ord occur in ordi- 
nary language, and to clang association. Nonsense syllables 
give meaningful reaction words in spite of instructions to give 
nonsense syllables and there are favorite associations here 
also, showing that this preference is not dependent on the 
close asa? ciation betv/een ^imulus and response. 

Foucault, 1911 (118), concluded from results for associa- 
tions with numbers and nonsense syllables that association is 
not merely a result of resemolance. This plays a part only 
when the resemblance is conscious. 

Huber, 1911 (120), repeated Reinhold's experiment on school 
girls, on soldiers to see the effect of culture and environment. 
He concludes with Jung and Hiklin that uncultured subjects are 
more influenced by the meaning of the stimulus word, also that 
the associations of a group are influenced by the general 'at- 
mosphere' of the group. 

Langfeld, 1911 (121), continued his v/ork on negative in- 
struction, to see the effect of drugs on association, repro- 
duction and suppression. The only effect was to decrease the 
reaction time. Results for pathological patients showed no 
variation in reproduction or suppression, except in some cases 
of dementia praecos. 

Levy-Suhl, 1911 (122), attempted to classify pathological 
cases into different groups on the basis of association reac- 
tions. The subjects are classified into four groups which 



33 



agree extremely v/ell mth the clinical findings. 

Ley and Menzerath, 1911 (123), also investigated the asso- 
ciation r. types of mental a"bnormality, supplementing their re- 
sults with introspections. They find characteristic differ- 
ences in the associations of normal and abnormal persons, and 
each type of abnormality has its own peculiar reaction type. 
V/ells, 1911 (1E4), enumerated certain properties of the 
free association time as the result of 12,000 reactions on men 
and vv'omen subjects. Ee thinks the quiclmess of the response is 
conditioned by linguistic and imagery factors, dominance of cer- 
tain associations, intellectual acceptability of the first word 
thought of and the emotional value of the word. The author 
thinks that most responses are not free at all. The time for 
strictly free association is 1000-2000 sigma and this variation 
may be due to variations in the stimulus words or to individual 
differences. The time is shorter for educated people, and long- 
er for women, though this latter may be due to the fact that 
the experimenter v/as a man. Wells agrees with previous inves- 
tigators who have found the longest reaction times for abstract 
nouns and the shortest for concrete nouns and adjectives. His 
results show the shortest time for conrete nouns, next longer 
for adjectives and longest for abstract nouns. V.'hen series are 
repeated there seems to be a practice effect on words whose re- 
action times are originally high. Long reaction times are not 
necessarily connected with emotion; there are other factors 
such as failure to find a response intellectually satisfying 
and the failure of one association to predominate over the oth- 



34 



ers presented. V/ells, 1911 (125), reduced his previous olass- 
ificatiorxs of associations to five "by telescoping them. The 
five are, (l) egocentric, (2) supraordinate, (-5) contrast, (4) 
miscellaneous, (5) speech habit. 

Wells and Forbes, 1911 (127), obtained results on the 
correlation between reaction time, introspective evaluation 
of the degree of emotion, and galvonometric deflection indic- 
ative of somatic changes. They found that the correlation be- 
tween deflection and time is slightly closer than betv;een in- 
trospection and time , and much closer than between introspec - 
tion and deflection . 

Whitley, 1911 (128), obtained results on sex differences 
for various types of association tests using the written meth- 
od for both stimulus and response. She finds that the free 
association time for women is longer than for men, when the 
method is to get the time for a fixed quantity, and the reac- 
tion time is the same for both when the time is kept constant 
with instjructions to accomplish as much as possible. With 
the opposites test, mature students improve more rapidly than 
do young students. The time is longer for this test than the 
free association test. The author rates the "complete the 
word" test as easier than the free association, becai:ise the 
subject is less suspicious of what is wanted, and parts of 
words are more suggestive of whole words than one v/ord of an- 
other. The time for the subject-predicate test is about the 
saitie as for the opposites test, and practice effect is slight. 
The "difference between" test is a poor one. The Ebbinghaus 



85 



combirxation test is considered to be especially valuable with 
nntrained subjects. The nouji-ad jective test is easy with an 
acctiracy of 95fo, All told, the easy opposites test is the 
best written test. 

Woodworth and V.ells, 1911 (129), reported on the methods 
agreed upon by the committee on the standardization of asso- 
ciation tests. They hold that the association experiment does 
not measure the associative process but the familiarity with 
the particular associations. It serves however (1) to meas- 
ure the speed of the formation of new ones, (2) for mental di- 
agnosis, (.3) as a measure of mental alertness. The written 
method is inferior to the oral, and the stop watch is justi- 
fied for practical use; short lists are preferable to long 
ones, and the best method of instruction is by example and 
trial. Word stimuli must be familiar, unambigruous and uni- 
formly difficult. The opposites test is most standardized in 
these particulars. The authors recommend further work with 
new stimulus v/ords, after the manner of Kent and Kosanoff . In 
expressing results, the distribution curve is preferable to 
any simple measure, and the median is preferred over the aver- 
age. They append a list of 1000 words, including those of 
Kent and Hosanoff, that are familiar and unambiguous. 

Aptekmann, 1912 (130), using normal subjects made a study 
of sex factors in associations, supplemented by the psycho- 
galvanic technic. There are two groups of subjects, one group 
of 5 who received 50 v;ords six times weekly, the other of 4 
subjects who received 25 words seven times daily. The authors 



36 



fonnd that the mtm'ber of changed responses decreases with 
repetition and there is less change in the daily series than 
in the weekly. The changed responses have longer reaction 
times and are more associated with the Komplexmerkmale. The 
galvonometer results show that the deflections tend to drop 
in the later series, though not always in correspondence with 
the reaction times. Deflections above the median are asso- 
ciated with greater change in response than those "below. The 
effect of the sex of the ejrperiraenter and subjects v/as inves- 
tigated in further experiments by both Jung and Aptekmann. Re- 
sults were obtained on 6 men and 6 women. Women with a wom- 
an experimenter shov/ed more constancy in their results, and 
with the man experimenter much greater deflections. The men 
subjects with a man experimenter give about the same results 
as women; with a woman experimenter much smaller deflections. 

Atherton and Washburn, 1912 (131), attempted to estab- 
lish mediate association in the Tichenerian sense, that the 
common link has never been in consciousness and remains at 
the physiological level. Subjects were instructed to react 
with a word having no association with the stimulus 7;ord. He- 
course to surroxmding objects was forbidden. The types of 
reaction found were, (1) stimulus has no associative effect 
(legitimate), (2) stimulus word starts a train of ideas which 
is interrupted on recalling the instructions (legitimate), 
(3) train of ideas not inhibited (failure), (4) meaning asso- 
ciations inhibited but not clangs (failure). The methods re- 
sorted to by subjects were reported as follows (1) v/ord chosen 



37 



from recent experience, (2) word chosen from memories of re- 
mote surroimdings, (3) verbal perseveration, (4) spontaneous 
ocGxirrence of certain letters as initial letter for the reac- 
tion, (5) no reason at all, (6) stimulus word and response 
really associated but not recognized at the time, (7) true 
mediate association, where the link is physiological. The 
authors recognize the difficulty of drawing the line between 
the physiological and the marginally conscious, but claim to 
have gotten 77 successful mediate associations out of 562 re- 
actions. 

Pfenninger, 1912 (136), carried out an experiment simi- 
lar to that of Aptekraann, but on a larger scale. The subjects 
were 8 normal persons, 4 v/omen and 4 men, and 11 dementia 
praecox cases, 6 men and 5 women. Each subject was given 100 
words for 8 trials, one every week. The reaction times for 
women are higher at first than for men but in the end shorter. 
The tendency to change responses is more pronounced in men 
than in women, decreases in both, more rapidly v.lth the men 
at the end, v/ith women at the beginning. Komplexraerkrnale 
are more frequent in women, and do not decrease as much as 
those of men. Reaction times are longer for changed responses. 
Associations which change are attached to the more emotional 
constellations. In pathological cases the reaction time is 
3 or 4 times longer than normal, and the difference is greater 
betv/een men and women. At first the reaction tines for women 
are shorter than for men. The curve for the dementia praecox 
men corresponds more closely to that for normal women, and 



38 



that of dementia praecox women to normal men. Another set 
of experiments on 6 women with a v/oman experimenter gave a 
result similar to that for dementia praecox men with a man 
experimenter, These results are suggestive of the importance 
of recognizing the sex factor in such work. 

Wells, 1912 (138), in an analysis of 10,900 association 
reactions with 28 normal adults investigated the prohlera of 
association types. He found that there seems to be a normal 
type of response whose tendency is to give predicate, subor- 
dinate, contrast, and internal-objective responses, but not 
speech habit responses. This follows his later classifica- 
tion of associations. There is a negative relation between 
commujiity responses and the egocentric category. 

Wohlgemuth, 1912 (139 4, made investigation on the di- 
rection of associations. His stimuli were nonsense sylla- 
bles, figures or colors in pairs or continuous series. He 
found that associations may function in either a backward or 
forv;ard direction, especially v/hen the associations are not 
kinaesthetic. 

Kelley, 1913 (141), obtained free associations for 12 
students using 100 stimulus words, and correlated these with 
their class standings in mathematics, science and foreign 
languages. He took the reaction time from the end of the 
stimulixs word to the beginning of the reaction. He recom- 
mends the distribution ciirve as the best method of recording 
reaction times, and thinks the median superior to the mode or 
the average. On the basis of his classification of responses, 
he telescoped them into three snail groups and correlated them 



39 



with the class standings of the student. He concludes that 
free association yields results indicative of the ability of 
individuals; that the "best correlations are with mathematics, 
science and foreign language, and hopes that the association 
method may be adapted to determine the aptitudes of students. 

Rosanoff and Rosanoff, 1913 (142), investigated associa- 
tions in children to determine at what age the association 
tsrpes of adults become fully developed, what their rate is, 
and manner of development. The Kent and Rosanoff stimulus 
words were used; and results obtained for 300 school children 
from 4 to 15 years, 25 of each age, but not grouped in any 
other respects. The school grade was recorded, also the men- 
tal capacity as expressed by the teacher. The results show 
that below 11 years the associations are different from these 
for adults. In young children doubtful and individual reac- 
tions are numerous and there are many failures due to ignor- 
ance of the word. Common reactions are few. These effects 
are practically gone at 10 years. The rate of change is more 
rapid in the earlier years of growth. The rapidity of re- 
sponse increases with age. The correlations were positive 
between the associations and judgments by the teachers of 
"dull", "average" and "bright", and between the associations 
and school grade. 

Sutherland, 1913 (143), made a critical investigation of 
the T/ord association reaction, using the Vernier pendulum 
chronoscope to obtain reaction times. Fifteen thousand re- 
actions on 25 normal college students v/ere obtained for the 



40 



purpose of (1) analyzing the associations involving intel- 
lectual, emotional and inhabitory tendencies, (2) obtaining 
clues to the causes of these tendencies fron the introspec- 
tions, and (3) discovering to what extent the hypothetical 
entities of the Freudian school are operative in these reac- 
tions. Three lists of words were used (1) a group of £50 
words containing 50 indelicate v/ords, (£) a group of homo- 
nyms, (3) a group of other words. These were given to var- 
ious groups of subjects, some with oral and some with va-it- 
ten instructions. Failures included inappropriate responses, 
and are due to a conflict of muscle habits, rather than to a 
conflict intrinsically conscious. Introspection showed only 
4 out of 204 failures to be accompanied by organic sensation, 
which the aixthor considers evidence against the Freudian hy- 
pothesis. He finds also that the forward order of parts of 
speech in reactions is more freouent than the inverse order. 
Out of 2500 reactions, 220 were automatic, including Thymes ^ 
repetitions and clang associations. The classification of 
responses on a logical basis is considered to be invalid; a 
comparison of the distribution of responses according to the 
same classification by himself and a subject independently 
gave 10^ variation. The problem of the role of the person- 
ality of the experimenter is raised by the author, and is con- 
sidered a further evidence against a logical classification. 
Ambiguous words do not lead to inhibition. The author con- 
cludes that the free association method gives no demonstra- 
tion of the type of associative process. 



41 



T/ells, 1913 (144), claims that mental tests fail in 
practice, because they test only speed, complexity and reten- 
tiYity, which are not necessarily factors that contribute to 
mental balance. Free associations are not an index of the 
thoiight processes btit only of a certain external reaction. 
Jxmg has called the difference between the median and the 
average the coefficient of emotivity. Smotion h-owever, says 
the author, is not the only factor which lengthens the reac- 
tion time. Women ere of tv/o types, one having reaction times 
longer than men, with greater depth of personality, one hav- 
ing reaction times shorter than men with less depth of per- 
sonality. The women with the greater depth probably had great- 
er emotional 'content; but they were the best successes in life, 
showing that mental balance is a function of the interplay of 
qualities.. The attempt to get a more objective basis of 
classification of responses like that of Kent and Rosanoff is 
recommended. The author holds that results agree in claiming 
that education gives rise to a more concrete association type, 
and that women give more egocentric responses due to their af- 
fective sensibility. The author found close agree'ment betv/een 
his judgment of the order of similarity of personality of a 
group of subjects, made on the basis of his classification of 
reactions, the judgm.ent of a non-psychologist, and a judgment 
by the Kent and Hosanoff method. 

Glaparede, 1915 (146), made a study of the relative abil- 
ity to recall free associations and associations given already 
formed. In the first experiment 15 pairs of associated words. 



42 



and 15 words for associations to be formed were given to the 
subjects. Hie subject wrote dovai the second term of each 
of the first group as they were read to him and the free as- 
sociations to each of the second group. Immediately after- 
ward the subject was required to write down the first term of 
each pair from memory. The ratio of correct responses was 87 
to 51 in favor of the free associations. The same reseat was 
obtained when various terms of the stinizlus words v/ere sub- 
stituted by numbers, though the absolixte number of correct 
recalls was lov/er in each case. The author attributes the re- 
sults to the fact that the mind 'creates' the free associations 
and the impressions are therefore more fixed than the given 
associations v/hich come to the mind already 'created'. He 
thinks this has educational significance. It may be remarked, 
however, that the opposite is most likely the case, that free 
associations are remembered better because they are already 
•^created", they already form a part of our stock of associa- 
tions, while the given associations are purely artificial. 

Crane, 1915 (147), made an analysis of the criteria used 
in the association method for the detection of guilty know- 
ledge, more particularly with respect to the frequency of cer- 
tain verbal forms of reaction and their reaction times; the 
effect of certain juxtapositions of stimulus words and the ef- 
fect of ambiguous words. He used four* types of stimulus words, 
(1) pairs of words of the form music-boz , (2) pairs of the for: 
beans - pork and , (3) a group of words ambiguous as to their 
part of speech, (4) a group in which each word was preceded 



43 



by an oral statement of a situation. Stimuli were present- 
ed visually. He found that adjective stimuli give the low- 
est reaction times, nouns next longer, and verhs the long- 
est. When noujis are used as adjectives their reaction time 
is shorter than v/hen used as nouns. Th-^ author thinks that 
according to the normal order of language, adjectives ought 
most often to give noun responses, nouns give verbs, and 
verbs give noun objects. He finds the first and third to be 
true but not the second, for noims usually give noun asso- 
ciations. He considers this to be due to the completeness 
of a noun concept as opposed to the incompleteness of verb 
and adjective concepts. He thinks the reaction time is long- 
est for verbs because this class has the greatest variety 
of possible responses to choose from. If an image precedes 
the verbal association, the reaction time is shortened, if 
it follows the reaction time it is lengthened; tv;o or more 
images increase the reaction time still more, as do also emo- 
tion and conscious inhibition. The reaction time is short 
for habitual associations. The direct and indirect forms of 
influence in stimulus words such as music - box and box - music 
give about the same reaction tine, though these are less 
than the average. The "and" type of influence, beans - pork 
and, does exist but it is the incompleteness of the 
"and" that is the prominent factor, and the habitual word 
is associated, not the preceding word, necessarily. The in- 
terpretation of an ambiguous verbal form is not influenced 
by the part of speech preceding it; nearly all are used as 
nouns. Tlie effect of presenting a situation orally to the 



44 



sutioect before the stimulus word is given is positive in 705^ 
of the cases, and causes a shortening of the reaction time. 
All these types of tests v/ere incorporated into a practical 
application of the method to criminal diagnosis, with the hope 
of obtaining a more delicate diagnostic method, but the re- 
sixlt was not successful. The circumstances of the artificial 
crime were made as realistic as possible, but the author con- 
cludes that the method cannot be depended upon for the de- 
tection of guilty knowledge. 

Dooley, 1916 (148), made a study of normal complexes by 
means of the association method, as a test of the validity 
of the Freudian theories. The author concludes that the meth- 
od does not give complete support to these theories in their 
entirety, as it fails to give data on certain essential points. 
Seven normal individuals and one hysterical acted as subjects, 
154 words including Jung's list of 100 were used and reaction 
times were taken with the Hipp chronoscope. The words were 
presented visually and reaction was made by pressing a Morse 
key simultaneously v;ith a reaction word or an image if this 
came first. Evidence of noi^al complexes was found to be ex- 
tensive, using this term in a broader sense than Freud does, 
and the signs of these complexes were analyzed according to 
the results of the experiment. 



45 



Methods of Studying Controlled Word Associations 

The history of the v:ord association method shows that "by 
far the greater part of investigation has been along only one 
aspect of this prohlem. The usual procedure in both normal 
and pathological fields has been to secure the first word free- 
ly associated v/ith each of a group of stimulus words. Some in- 
vestigators have varied the procedure by obtaining not only 
the first free association to a given stimulus word, but al- 
so the second and third on up to as many as a hundred free 
continuous associations with the original word. This latter 
procedure has obvious disadvantages which have militated against 
an extended use of it. The controlled word association, how- 
ever, has had little investigation, because probably of the 
prevalent idea that free associations represent more truly the 
natural course of ideas in the individual. The classification 
of free associations has been attempted by practically every 
investigator as a natural conseauence of the heterogeneity of 
types of responses obtained by this method. Tliis difficulty 
is avoided in the controlled word association method, where 
the stimulus words are all of the same part of speech, and the 
response words by virtue of the instruction to the subject al- 
so are of one class. The problems then are many in this as- 
pect of the problem because of the comparatively small amount 
of work as yet done. 

The purpose of this investigation then v;as to consider 
the following fundamental and technical problems underlying 
the procedure of the controlled word association method, and 
to determine to v;hat extent these must be taken into account 



46 



in a precise use of this method. 

1. Does the length of the reaction time in controlled 
associations differ for the normal and inverse order of nonns 
and adjectives in the English language? That is, will the re- 
action time be longer or shorter when the stimulus words are 
adjectives to he responded to with nouns, than for the oppo- 
site, when the stimulus words are nouns to be responded to v.'ith 
adjectives? 

Z, Does the length of the reaction tine vary systemat- 
ically, when the stimultis words are nouns and the response 
words are adjectives, according to the logical categories in- 
to v/hich the noiins fall? That is, will there be variation 
in the reaction time according as a stimulus nouji is ab- 
stract, the name of an emotion, an inanimate object, or is in 
some other group of nouns of varying degree of concreteness? 

3. Does the length of the reaction time vary according 
to the number of syllables in both adjective and noun stimu- 
lus words v/hen the response words are noiuis and adjectives, 
respectively? 

4. Does the length of the reaction time vary according 
as the acent is on the first, second or third syllable of the 
stimulus word, for both types of reaction noted in 3? 

5_. If the same set of lists of adjective and nouns 
stimulus words are given for three successive days, requir- 
ing noun and adjective reactions, respectively, and with no 
additional instruction, will there be a systematic change in 
the reaction time from day to day, aside from any question of 
identical response to the repeated word? 



47 



6_. Is there any variation in the length of the reaction 
time for normal and inverse directions of controlled douhle as- 
sociations? If the stimulus word is an adjective, for an as- 
sociation to be made first to a noun (not spoken) and then to 
a verb as response v/ord y/ith this nouns as it subject, will the 
reaction time be longer or shorter than when the control is re- 
versed and the stimulus word is a verb to associate back through 
a noun subject to an adjective modifying this subject? 

A consideration of these questions will indicate, accord- 
ing to the results obtained from their solution, whether such 
factors are important in a precise use of the controlled word 
association method. Stimulus v/ords in such work previously 
have had little consideration in these directions, except per- 
haps in regard to their emotional connotation in Psychiatric 
work, and in the choice of "easy" words for educational tests. 
And yet conclusions have been drawn from variations in reac- 
tion time, disregarding the possibility that such variations 
might well be v/ithin the normal limits of variation for the 
kind of stimulus v/ord used, the length of the word, the accent 
and the type of control required. 

Apparatus ♦ The Johns Hopkins chronoscope, recently con- 
structed by Dr. Knight Diualap was used in this experiment to 
record the reaction times, and in connection with it Dunlap 
voice keys of the small model (97). The auditory method of 
presentation v/as used, both stimulus and response v/ords being 
spoken. The chronoscope is essentially a syiichronous motor 
driven by a 50 D.V. tuning fork. The motor has 10 poles so 
that the armature rotates 5 times per second. Attached to the 



48 



shaft of the armature is a horseshoe electro-magnet, which ro- 
tates with the shaft; anterior to these magnets is a fixed 
magnet facing the rotating one. A light circular metal disc 
lies between the tv/o magnets, attached at its center to a 
light shaft perpendicular to it which passes through a "brass 
bearing to the anterior face of the clock, where it is attach- 
ed to the index hand. This sliding shaft moves back and forth 
according as the circular disc is attracted to the rotating 
or fixed magnet. '.Then the master key of the voice key cir- 
cuit (140) is closed, current flows first through the fixed 
magnets, which are in the branch of the circuit of the stim- 
ulus voice key, causing the disc to be attracted to this mag- 
net, and then also through the rotating magnets. Since the 
current t'nrough both magnets is equal, the disc remains in 
this initial position. Speaking into the stimulus voice key 
breaks the current through the fixed magnet so that the disc 
is attracted to the rotating magnet. It then rotates v;ith 
the armature shaft causing the hand of the clock to turn at 
the rate of the motor, 5 rotations per second. Speaking in- 
to the reaction voice key breaks the current through the ro- 
tating magnet so that the disc jumps back again to the fixed 
magnet and the hand stops. A spur gear on the shaft of the 
index hand meshes v/ith a xarger cog wheel on the dial, serv- 
ing as a rotation cormter. Tlie dial itself is divided into 
100 units, so that each unit measures 2 sigma. In using the 
chronoscope it is only necessary to set the hand at zero, 
press the master key before speaking the stimulus word, keep 
it down loitil after the response word is given, and then read 



49 



tlie reaction time directly. 

The superiority of this chronoscope lies in the fact that 
it has no significant error, is extremely simple in operation, 
and runs continuously and noiselessly. It can run neither 
slow nor fast by the smallest fraction of time, else the motor 
gets out of step with the fork and stops. The only possible 
elements of error lie in fl) a possible change of vibration 
rate of the fork due to temperature changes, which could be 
obviated by enclosing it i-i a box with a thermostat, but which 
for this work is a negligible factor, (Z) a possible error in 
the divisions of the dial, and (3) in a possible difference in 
reluctance of the disc between the magnets, in passing in op- 
posite directions, due to a possible difference in the strength 
of the two fields. 

The chronoscope will run continiiously and noiselessly, if 
the brushes are kept well cleaned and oiled. Otherwise it v/ill 
never stop unless something goes wrong with the fork contact. 
By experimenting, platinum wire v/as found impracticable for 
this,- it burns up too quickly and has not enough spring to 
give the optimiira length of period of contract for the motar 
to "catch". A gold alloy wire was tried, the wire used in 
dental work, and found extremely satisfactory. The gauge of 
the v/ire and its length are important, but these two factors 
must be determined empirically. As the wire burns back, the 
contact must be readjusted to keep the optimum period of con- 
tact for the motor. Only wSien this fails does the motor stop. 
Adjusting and cleaning the contact about twice a day when it 



50 



is being used continuously all day has usually been found suf- 
ficient. The motor was run on the following voltage and am- 
perage; 

Voltage : 10 volts - closed fork contact, but not 

vibrating. 
30 " - broken fork contact. 
25.4 " - fork rnjining on optimum contact 

for mot or -motor dead. 
25.4 " - fork running, motor running. 

Amperage : 1.3 amperes - closed fork contact, but not 

vibrating. 
.3 " - fork running on optim-um con- 
tact for mot or -motor dead. 
,3 • " - fork rumiing-motor running. 

The motor is started by hand. It is equipped with a 
stroboscope if a higher rate is required, but for the low rate 
of 5 rotations per second a slight twist of the axle which 
soon gets to be a knack causes the motor to get in step imme-' 
diately with the fork. 

The experimenter and subject sat on opposite sides of a 
small table with a large black curtain stretched between so 
that the subject could see neither the experimenter nor any of 
the apparatus. The experimenter sat with the master key and 
the chronoscope on his right and the fork on his left, each on 
separate stands, so that neither could affect the voice keys, 
which are so sensitive that the passing wagons or a moving chair 
in an adjacent room often stops the clock. Y/ith this arrange- 
ment too, the experimenter could record results and regulate 
the fork contact without moving from his chair. The subject 
was given his instructions as to the type of response required 
and then given the list of words. The experimenter signalled 



51 



the subject before each word by saying "Ready". Since the 
motor was practically noiseless, the only posable distracting 
noise v/as the lov/ hum of the fork, which might have been elim- 
inated by enclosing in a padded boz or placing it in another 
room. This was a constant, however, through the whole exper- 
iment and apparently was not noticed to any appreciable ex- 
tent e::cept by one subject v/ho worked at night, v/hen the build- 
ing was absolutely quiet and all outside noises were at their 
minimum . 



fiXPERIMEI^T I . 
Preparation of Material and Method of Procedure 

The general plan of the v/hole problem v/as to secure a 
large number of stimulus v;ords,- nouns, adjectives and verbs, - 
to be given to a group of subjects in order that eliminations 
might be made of unsuitable words on the basis of these re- 
actions. This was called Experiment I. In Experiment II 
these revised words vrere given to a new group of subjects for 
more carefxil examination into the problems under consideration. 

To this end a complete survey of an abridged Standard 
Dictionary of 300,000 v/ords v/as made and all one, two and three 
syllables adjectives, nouns, and verbs, transitive and intrans- 
itive separately, were listed. A verb having both a v.t. and 
v.i. meaning was classed as v.t., so that the two verb lists 
comprised verbs which can take objects and which carinot, re- 
spectively. A large munber of all these v/ords were necessar- 



52 



ily omitted, falling into three classes,- (1) technical vords , 
such as enzyme , arrhizous , aod-ulus and titrate , (2) xmi ami liar 
and archaic 7/ords , such as moil , hosky and raorat, (3) obvious- 
ly obscene or valgar words . In this last list are included 
only such v/ords as actually occur in the dictionary, and does 
not inclxide words having their vulgar meaning only in a sub- 
tle and secondary sense. Separate consideration of these was 
made later. This made twelve lists of words, occurring in al- 
phabetical order. (To get these in random order, each list was 
cut up so that one v/ord was v;ritten on each slip. These were 
put into a box, shaken thoroughly and dravm out one by one 
for relisting into groups of 40 words each. When the words 
were in final form there were found to be the following num- 
ber in each class. 





adjectives 


nouns 


verbs (tr) 


verbs (intr) 


1 syll. 


262 


1832 


796 


219 


2 syll. 


975 


2643 


1033 


231 


3 syll. 


737 


1726 


366 


52 



These grorips of 40 each, were now ready for use. The gener- 
al plan was to have two groups of subjects, one to v/ork on 
the adjectives and nouns, the other on both classes of verbs. 
The associations were controlled, adjective stimuli requiring 
noun responses, nouns requiring adjectives, transitive verbs 
requiring objects, and intransitive verbs requiring subjects. 
As the words at this time were not yet all completely cata- 
logued, the several groups of words were given in serial or- 



53 



der, the ad jective-nonn group of subjects going throtigh. the 
whole class of adjectives, in the successive cr der of one, 
tv/o and three syllables, and on their completion going through 
the v7hole g3:*oup of nouns in the same way. The verb group like- 
vd.se first did the tronsitive verbs, and then the intransitive 
verbs. As noted above, the various classes were in groups of 
40 each in this preliminary work, and four lists v/ere given 
per ho;ir on a 12 minute schedule,- that is, IE minutes v/ere 
allowed to a list, any time left over being given up to a 
rest period, during which the subject was allowed to do any- 
thing he pleased, converse vdth the experimenter, walk around 
or sit quietly. It was usually spent in irrelevant conversa- 
tion. The remainder of the hour was allov;ed for possible 
breakdown of apparatus, preparation of material and other de- 
tails. Each day then 160 words were given. In this experi- 
ment all subjects worked three hours a week on separate days, 
as far as possible at the same hour of the day. The one ex- 
ception Y/as subject Ko who reported only tv/ice a week. He 
fell far behind the others of his group, and for this reason 
subject Li was secxired to supplement his work. It will be 
observed therefore that the restilts of these two are not capa- 
ble of intra-comparison to the extent of the others; Ho fin- 
ished all adjectives, part of the one syllable nouns and all 
the two syllable nouns; Li did part of the one syllable nouns 
and all the two and three syllable ones. 

Subjects were instructed as to the required type of re- 
sponse v/ord, and told to speak the first word fitting this re- 
quirement as quickly as possible, even though the v/ord was 



54 



not exactly precise. Subjects were frequently reminded not 
to inhibit reactions that they might think silly or vulgar; 
that the emphasis in this experiment was being put on the re- 
action time, not the reaction word, so they must feel free to 
react v/ithout inhibition. As thorough a spirit of informal- 
ity as possible outside the working period was encouraged. All 
reaction times over 12 seconds were rejected arbitrarily as 
failures. The controls put upon the various types of stimulus 
words were, 

adjectives - nouns 
nouns - adjectives 
verbs (tr) - nouns (objects) 
verbs (intr)- nouns (subjects) 

Since the results on verbs have not been completely compiled, 
they are omitted entirely from this paper and no further men- 
tion will be made of the verb group, except to include the 
lexicon of selected, rejected and homonymous verbs with the 
adjectives and nouns. All statements hereafter refer only to 
the noun and adjective groups. 

Four subjects were used in the adjective noun exi)eriment, 
to give three complete sets of reactions for all the adjec- 
tives and nouns. All the adjectives were done by each of Ch, 
Po, and Ho, three syllable nomis by Ch, Po, aad Li, tv/o syl- 
lable nouns completely by Li and Ro, about half each by Ch 
and Po, one syllable nouns completely by Ch and Po, almost all 
by Ho and the rest by Li. The exact relation of the numbers 
of words done by each v/ill be seen in the number of cases giv- 
en in Tables, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, remembering tMt 
these figures represent the number of successful responses, not 



55 



the entire number of stimulus vrords given to the subject. Ch, 
Ho, and Li were men students, a Sophomore, a Senior and a 
Graduate respectively. Po was a woman Graduate in the depart- 
ment of Psychology. 

Results ♦ The results for this experiment are shown in 
Tables I, II, III, IV, Y, VI, VII. 

Table I . - Here are shown the average reaction times, 
modes and numbers of cases for each of the^six groups of stim- 
ulus words, one, two, and three syllable stimulus adjectives 
and nouns, for each of four subjects. There are no results 
on three syllable nouns for subject Ro nor on any adjectives 
for subject Li. The order in ishich these words were given is 
to be kept in mind. This v/as serially through one, two and 
three syllable adjectives, and the nouns then in the same vjs^ . 
For subjects Ch and Po the results are uniform. There is a 
definite increase in reaction time with the number of sylla- 
bles for both noujis and adjectives, and a uniformly larger re- 
action time for a given group of nouns over the adjectives of 
the same number of syllables. For Li no conclusions can be 
drawn, - the reaction time for the groups of nouns of all syl- 
lables is practically constant. The vocabulary of Li was very 
v/ide; there were probably only two or three failures during 
the v/hole series due to unfamiliarity v/ith the word. This may 
indicate that the increase in reaction time v/ith the number of 
syllables is not dependent on the actual increase in length of 
time for the stimulus word to be spoken, but rather because words 
increase in complexity of meaning and decrease in familiarity with 
their length. In our speaking vocabulary we have a smaller 



56 



percentage of \?ords of tv;o syllables than of one, and a much 
smaller percentage of three syllable words. The results for 
Ro are peculiar but thoroughly eznplainable. It vail be no- 
ticed that for the adjectives,- which were done before the nouns, 
there v/as a steady decrease in reaction time in progressing 
from one syllable to two syllables and to three, the aver- 
ages being respectively 956, 662, and 634, The results for 
nouns agree with those for subjects Ch and Po, The reverse 
order for adjectives is to be explained by the fact that at 
the beginning of the year the subject was not in good health. 
This was not realized by the e:q)erimenter until the subject 
was well started in the work, and then it was thought inter- 
esting to see the effect of improvement in health on the re- 
action time. It v/ill be observed how slov/ his reaction time 
is for one syllable adjectives as compared to the other sub- 
jects, and how much it dropped for the two syllable adjectives. 
It v;as in the middle of this group that his poor health v/hich 
manifested itself in extreme nervousness was suddenly much im- 
proved after being treated by a physician. This .continued 
througli the remainder of the adjectives,- it could hardly be 
said that his reactions v/ere perfectly normal until this time, 
v/hich v/as about a month later. From then on during the noun 
series there was nothing conspicuous in his behavior or reac- 
tions. Notes taken during his period of disturbance may prove 
of interest in emphasizing the dependence of the reverse or- 
der of reaction times upon his health at the time. 



57 



Subject Ro. - Nov. 18 , -a tendency today to respond to an ad- 
jective with a noun cognate to it, - av;kard-av;k- 
wardness . V/hen questioned in regard to this, says 
he has a feeling of going along the line of 
least resistance, v^Lich he cannot control. Went 
to see Dr. X last Friday about his nervousness. 
Dr. X gave him some bitter medicine and it made 
him better the next day, and ever since. Ho 
looks better and is much less nervous. Pace not 
so scratched - scratches it when nervous. Had, 
he says, especially hard attacks twice a year. 
Has been playing heretofore during experiment 
with a collection of clamps, bars, v/ire, etc., 
collected from what is within his reach. No be- 
havior like this today. 

Kov. 19 . -Some tendency to react as on yesterday, 
i.e., peevish-peevishness . Some tendency to re- 
peat the reaction of the previous stimulus word. 
Much repetition of ''being" as reaction word. 
IJervousness present again today. Medicine taken 
last Friday was nux vomica - has been taking every 
day, but not today, because the "effect wearing 
off", Now attributes his well being of yesterday 
to the good weather, and vice versa for today, 
which is cloudy. 

Nov. 26 . -Reactions of this type gone - awkward- 
awkwardness, but nev/ t}fpe has appeared - the 



58 



same reaction word is given many times in the 
same list. " Spirit " was given 15 times in to- 
day's work (160 v;ords). Others of this type 
were " means ", " money " . " mood ". 

Deo. 2 - Reaction types occurred like those of 
llov. E6. 

list I occasion - 3 times 

gift - 3 " 

condition- 5 " 

list II occasion - 2 " 

gift - 2 

condition- 1 time 

List III occasion - 1 " 

- gift - 5 times 
condition- " 
spirit - 6 " 

It may he that " spirit " in the last of these lists 

was a substitution, voluntary or involuntary, fcor 

the word " condition ". In the middle of list III, 

subject said that when he gave a reaction that 

v;as being duplicated so often, it was not the word 

that first came to his mind , but to his lips , i.e. 

maternal - gift (spoken reaction ) 
maternal - care (thought reaction ) 

After being told that hereafter on such reactions 

the thought word as well as the spoken word would 

"be called for, these reactions began immediately 

to fall off, i.e. 

List lY occasion - 1 times 
condition- " 
gift - " 
spirit - 2 
btit mind - 5 " as if a new word 



59 



v;ere being introduced to avoid the anticipated 

qtiestioning. 

There was still some evidence of the first 
type of odd reaction, i.e. " awkv/ard «- awkw^ardness " 

Dec. 3 - Duplicate reactions contintie. 

List I none 

List II conduct - 8 times 

List III conduct - 1 

spirit - 5 " 

action - 5 " 

List IV conduct - 2 " 

spirit - 4 " 

action - 2 " 

condition 1 " 

man - 7 " 

mind - 5 " 

Dec. 10 - Eouns - first day . Likes adjectives "better than 

nouns; nouns call up an object vvith no particular 

emphasis on its qualities, while the adjective 

cannot appear v/ithout an object. Subject feels 

that nouns are going faster, hov/ever . 

Table II - This table shows the variation in reaction 
time T/ith change of accent for three syllable adjectives 
and nouns. It v/as not corisidered worth while or valid to 
make comparisons on accent for two syllable adjectives and 
nouns inasmuch as the percentage of these with the accent 
on tlie second syllable is so very small in comparison with 
those haviiig the accent on the first syllable. And like- 
wise for three syllable adjectives and nouns, comparison 
is really valid only between the first and second syllable 



60 



accented words, inasmtich as the nuni'ber of words with the ac- 
cent on the third syllable is very small. Ho conclusion can 
be drav/n at all in regard to the effect of accent on reaction 
time. The difference in reaction time v/ith change of accent 
varies in direction with different subjects, and by amounts 
that in most cases have no validity as differences. It is in- 
teresting to note thoiigh that with both groups of words here 
subdivided into three classes each, the conclusion drawn from 
Table I still holds, that is, that the reaction time is greater 
for noun stimuli that for adjective stimuli. Of course com- 
parison is possible only for subjects Ch and Po. 

Table III - Here are shovm the results of dividing the 
noun stimulTis words into seven logical categories and one un- 
classified group. Considerable difficiilty was experienced in 
finding a scheme of classification. It v;as intended at first 
to classify them into tv/o groiips only, abstract and concrete, 
but when an actual classification under these simple headings 
was attempted it vms found utterly impossible. There is no 
hard and fast line betv/een these two classes. There are, of 
course, nouns which are obviously concrete, and others unde- 
niably abstract, from a certain point of view, but betv/een 
these and including a very large percentage of all nouns are 
a great horde which are really of widely varying degrees of 
concreteness and abstractness . The terms are only relative. 
Prom one point of view everything is concrete and from anoth- 
er everything is equally abstract. Even the stock illxistra- 
tions of abstract nouns, such as triangularity or virtue may 
be thought of as being just as concrete as furniture or walk - 



61 



Ing . The v/ords that gave the greatest difficulty were those 
of a lov/er level of abstraotness than those which are visually 
■used as illustrations of abstracts, {nouns ending in ity . 
hood , ness ) but which are not of the level of concreteness of 
apple or book . Such words are cost , fate , style , skill . Do 
v/e mean here costness . fatehood , styleness , skillness , or the 
actual money , the actual happening , shortskirts and high boots , 
and manipu.lation of fingers? Or can we say that we are ever 
precise at all in just what we do mean,- is now one meant, now 
the other? For this reason a nev/ classification mas sought. 
Seven categories with an additional unclassified group was the 
smallest number found possible to use. They were chosen as 
follows; 

1. Inanimate objects .- This class is self-explanatory. 

2. Animate objects. - Here are included all nouns denoting 
living objects in the animal kingdom. A corpse or a salt her - 
ring were classified as inanimate. The noun must, too, denote 
the v/hole organism, not just one of its parts, - arm and 
knuckle come in a later category. 

3. Actions .- These nouns express pure action, such as 
leap , riding , for their existence lasts only during the leap - 
ing or riding . After the leap has been leaped there is no 
leap left. This was taken as the test for this class. There 
are a good many noujis which may express either pure action or 
the result of the action. The adjective given by the subject 
was taken as criterion of which was in the mind and it was so 
classified. If ambiguous, it was relegated to the unclassi- 
fied groxip. Such an example of possible double meaning is the 



62 



noixn crack . This may mean the actual space in the side of 
the hroken object, as in the reaction jagged - crack , or it 
may mean the action of cracking itself as in the reaction 
loud — crack . The former and others of its kind were classi- 
fied as inanimate ohjects. 

4. Vegetable kingdom . - Tliis class is self-exi)lanatory. 

5. Parts of the Body , - This class is self-esplanatory. 
It v/as of coui-se not possible to list them under animate ob- 
jects with words denoting a complete organism. Besides, it 
was thought that a separate classification of these might 
through a possible increased reaction time throv/ some light 
on the emotional reaction, inasmuch as many parts of the body 
are of especial erotic significance, such as hair , loin, 
bosom , 

6. :Feelings and emotions , - These are nouns actually 
denoting the feelings and emotions themselves, such as love , 
anger, distress , desire . In this list were not included words 
having an emotional connotation, such as mistletoe has for 
some individuals. 

7. Abstracts .- These have been portly discussed above. 
It was decided to include not only the orthodox abstracts 
v;hich usually end in ity , hood , ness , etc, but also that 
lower hierarchy of abstracts including words like vogue , needs 
and loss , 

8. Unclassified . - Here were put the days, months, sea- 
sons, sounds, diseases, weights and measures, collective nouns, 
directions of the compass, times of day, parts of speech, the 
sciences and arts, and others. 



63 



The result of this classification as indicated in Table 

III shov;s nothing. There is no greater variation in the aver- 

f 
age reaction time than v/ould be expected from the large var- 
iation in the number of v;ords per group, which of course was 
not controllable. This uniformity may indicate that emotion- 
al digturbances, from whatever cause, - the meaning of the 
word, its relative unfarailiarity, etc .,- do not necessarily man- 
ifest themselves in an increased reaction time but through 
some other physiological mechanism than the vocal apparatus, 
such as respiration, heart rate, blood pressure. This is a 
problem already under v;ay in this laboratory. Certainly 
nothing was indicated by this laborious classification tp ' 
give any clue to a possible difference in types of response 
according to the intrinsic nature of the word. Because of 
these negative results, it v/as decided not to compile results 
on the classification of adjectives. These v/ere classified 
under the same heads as the nouns, the basis of interpreta- 
tion being the noun cognate v/ith the adjective. 

Tables lY. V. VI. VII . - Here are shovin the distribu- 
tions of the reaction times, averages, and modes for one, two 
and three syllable adjectives and nouns for each observer, 
with the total number of words for each series, and the aver- 
age reaction time. It will be observed that the relative 
values of the modes follows pretty closely the relative val- 
ues of the average reaction times for the serveral groups, 
and so bear out the conclusions from the averages. 



64 



Conclusions «■ - EXPERIIvIEIIT I . 

1. The reaction time for the noun— ad jective reaction 
is very definitely longer than for the ad jective -noun reac- 
tion. The amount of this increase varies with the numher of 
syllables in the groups compared and V7ith the subj'ect. The 
difference varied from 420 Sigma to 950 sigma. The difference 
does not vary in any fixed way in going from words of one syl- 
lable to those of two and three. The reason accounting for 
this definitely longer reaction time for nouns than for ad- 
jectives is probably to be sought for in the normal order of 
nouns and adjectives in the English language. With the ex- 
ception of a few set couplets such as "durance vile", "choir 
invisible", "infant terrible", the universal order in the Eng- 
lish language is adjective-noun. Because of this the habit 
of reaction in this direction is very stable and as mechan- 
inised as is possible with the permutation of adjectives and 
nouns in language. The reverse reaction therefore always re- 
quires greater effort and gives a longer reaction time. In 
connection with this possible explanation an experiment is un- 
der vmy in this laboratory to test out the same reactions on 
French, Italian and Spanish subjects where the order of ad- 
jectives and nouns on the v/hole is the reverse from the Eng- 
lish order. If this language explanation has validity, we will 
expect to find that the adjective - noun reaction is longer 
than the noun - adjective reaction, 

A contributory reason for the reaction time being longer 
for nouns than for adjectives lies in the fact that many nouns 



65 



are coramonly never used with a modifying adjective, i.e., 
the v/ords "rote" and "ounce", - and adjectives are relative- 
ly difficult to find to modify them. This lengthens the re- 
action time. This hov/ever was no factor in Experiment II, 
v;here all such words were eliminated. Subjects when asked 
which v/ere harder to respond to, all named the nouns. They 
were asked why and their naive explanations all fell into this 
general scheme: an adjective always suggests some object hav- 
ing that quality, but a noun suggests no particular aspect of 
itself, making it necessary to "feel" for an attribute. Some 
of the notes taken of comments by subjects may be of interest 
here : 

Ch. IJov, 17 ( first day on nouns ) - llouns much harder than ad- 
jectives. Have to think backwards then forwards 
to see if adjective fits. Have to think harder 
but time seems to go much faster for a list. 
(This an illusion - time really much longer,) 

Ro. Dec. 10 ( first day on nouns ) - Likes adjectives better 

than nouns, because nouns call up an object with 
no particular emphasis on its qualities, v/hereas 
the adjective cannot appear without an object. It 
feels as if the nouns were going faster. 

Li. Hot. 22 ( first day on nouns ) - Felt as if doing poorly. 
Ought to be able to think of better adjectives - 
less commonplace ones. 

II . The reaction time for these types of controlled re- 
actions increases directly as the number of syllables in the 



66 



v;ord increases. This holds for "both adjectives and nouns. 
Tne one exception foixnd for adjectives was in the results for 
Subject Ho, and for the nouns in the results for Li which have 
been explained above. This increase varies for adjectives 
from 18 Sigma to 196 sigma and for nouns from 20 signa to 33£ 
Sigma. 

III . The position of the, accent for both nouns and ad- 
jectives has no systematic effect on the reaction time. 

IV . V/ith nouns there is no interpretable variation in 
reaction time according to the logical grouping of the stim- 
ulus words, [The reaction time remains relatively constant 
within the limits of word length. The variations are prob- 
ably attributable to a difference in the number of cases in 
each logical group. 

V. From observation of the subjects during the course 

of the experiment it is to be concluded that two or three sep- 
arate hours of work are sufficient for the subject to become 
adapted to the experiment, to lose any emotional disturbance 
due to the fact of sex difference between experimenter and sub- 
ject as far as this last could ever be attained. Inhibition 
from such a source v;e are persuaded was at its minimum dtu-ing 
the Y/hole experiment for all subjects. 

VI. It is impossible for a subject to keep up through 
the whole of one session, and necessarily not for the whole 
experiment, to the top notch of tension that is possible in 
getting reaction times on a few vrords. That v/hich we call 



67 



"tension", whatever its physiological mechanism, V7as evident 
for the first two or three vrords of each list, as indicated 
by a distinctly shorter reaction time. This suddenly became 
longer, and remained more or less toiiform throughout the rest 
of the list. If the reaction times for these observers should 
seem unduly long, which we doubt very much, it is probably due 
to this adjustment to a certain comfortable physiological ten- 
sion that can be maintained through the coiirse of an hour's 
v/ork at a time for three days a v;eek, for several months. 

EXPERILIMT II 
Preparation of Material and Method of Procedure 

From the results of Experiment I it v/as planned to sectire 
a revised list of adjectives and nouns forming a lexicon of 
words suitable for these types of controlled associations; to 
take an equal number of each group for further trial on a 
larger number of subjects, and investigate the same problems 
studied in Experiment I. The first task was to eliminate un- 
suitable words. These v;ere found to fall into the following 
classes : 

1. Unfamiliar words beyond those already eliminated in 
making up the original lists. There was throughout a contin- 
ual conviction of the necessity for distinguishing between the 
reading and conversational vocabulary. In making the original 
lists, the experimenter had unwittingly but naturally chosen 
words familiar as read , many of which on being heaid by the 
subject were pronounced at once unfamiliar. Later his judg- 



68 



ment was changed when the word was spelled for him or he re- 
flected on it. 

E. 7/ords difficult to pronounce intelligibly to the sub- 
ject, such as leak, which was variously taken as leap , link , 
etc., or eoleqtio , understood throughout as epileptic . 

3. 7/ords having an emotional value either obviously or 
subtly, - in the first case words like pregnant , corset , and 
suck , and in the latter case that rather large group of words 
almost entirely confined to the masculine vocabulary whose 
dictionary meaning is perfectly unemotional, but in everyday 
tise have also a subtle sexual meaning, extremely emotional. 

A few of these have already been mentioned above. The elim- 
ination of these words was made by several of the men in the 
department. Since, hov/ever, many of these words are purely 
colloquial, there are doubtless many still in the revised 
lists. 

4. Homonymns in a narrov; sense. A difference of spell- 
ing and identity of pronunciation v/as req^^ired, also that the 
two or more words be of the same part of speech. Fate and 
fete are homonymous for this experiment, but not great and 
grate . It was considered sufficient control that the subject 
knew what part of speech he was being given. Furthermore most 
homonsmins actually do exist in the narrow sense taken. As far 
as realized now, only two of these homonymns slipped past de- 
tection and got into the revised lists. These are chaste , 
chased , and dessert . desert . 

_5. r/ords that are instrinsically difficult to respond 
to with the required type of response, such as the noims 



69 



nothing: and otmce , to give adjectives. 

_6. A small grorip of words eliminated for various un- 
classified reasons, - long reaction times or absurd responses 
attributable to none of the above reasons. 

After these rejections were finished special lists were 
made up from the selected v;ords for ten days' work. Each list 
contained 30 words and siz lists v/ere given in an hoxir making 
180 words per session. Whereas the types of words were run 
through serially in Experiment I, in this experiment one, two, 
and three syllable noims and adjectives were run parallely so 
that comparison between the groups would be entirely valid. 
Therefore each day's series was made up of one list each of 
the following words and given in this order: 

1 syllable adjectives 

1 syllable nouns 

2 syllable adjectives 

2 syllable nouns 

3 syllable adjectives 
3 syllable nouns 

The adjectives and nouns also alternated on sn.ccessive days 
in occupying the first position in the series. Kouns oc- 
curred first on odd days and adjectives on even days. It 
was discovered unfortunately that there v/ere not enough se- 
lected one syllable adjectives to cover ten days' v;ork, in 
fact only 194 of them, enough for six days' work (180) and 
a fev/ over. For this reason it was possible to carry out the 
above procedure for only six of the ten days. The remaining 
days' viTcrk was made up of only tv/o and three syllable adjec- 
tives and nouns. It was necessary of course to drop one syl- 
lable nouns for the remainder of the series in order that 



70 



there might he an equal nuraher of cne syllahle adjectives and 

nouns for the comparison of reaction times. To make the num- 

her of two and three syllable adjectives and nouns come out 

even for the remaining four days' v/orl: the following schedule 

was adopted: 

Days VII and IX .- 2 lists each of 2 syllable nouns and 
adjectives . 
1 list each of 3 syllable nouns and 
adjectives. 

Hays YIII and X .- £ lists each of 2 syllable noxms and 
adjectives . 
1 list each of £ syllable nouns and ad- 
jectives. 

This gave the following distribution of the 1800 stimulus 

words : 

1 syll. adjectives and nouns, each 180 360 

£ and 3 syll. adjectives and nouns, each 350 1440 

This whole group of adjectives and nouns together with the re- 
maining selected v/ords, the rejected words and the homonymns 
can be found at the end of this paper. 

In addition to this 10 days' regiilar work, tlxree days' 
practise work v/as given preliminarily on the basis of our 
conclusion of Experiment I, that the length of time required 
to become adapted to the experimental situation is two or 
three sessions. For stimulus v/ords were taken v/hatever ma- 
terial was available from the rejected words of various kinds, 
and as nearly as possible the scheme of paralelism and alter- 
nation v/as carried out, as can be seen by referring to the 
actual lists used, llo three syllable nouns were included in 
these practise words, because rejections had not been quite 
completed on them at the time Experiment II began, inasmuch 



71 



as the three syllable nouns formed the xast material for 

Experiment L. The actual three days' practise words - 45i9- 

each of novns and adjectives - were distributed as follows: 

1 syllable 2 syllable 3 syllable 

ad.iectives 30 180 60 

noims 120 150 

These lists are to be found at the end of this paper. It was 
contemplated comparing the results for the practise period 
with the regular period to see directly the effect of exclud- 
ing unsuitable words of different kinds. 

Eight subjects were used in this experiment, fotir of whom 
had gone through the experiment on verbs (not reported here), 
IJo, Mj, La, and CI; and four who were entirely new to the 
v/hole experimental procedure, L'lh, Sc, Ba, and Ke. The first 
four as v/ell as the latter took the practise work, for there 
v/as no reason for thinking necessarily that they might be 
adapted to an adjective-noun reaction merely because they had 
been working on another similar type of reaction. Of course 
any emotional disturbance had already been eliminated. At the 
beginning of the regular ten days' work it may be said that 
all subjects had lost as much of any emotional attitude as they 
would lose, and for all except one subject perhaps we would say 
that any remaining emotional upset was practically nil. This 
one exception, Ke, v/as of a naturally shy disposition. No has 
been described above; La, Mj, CI, LCh, So, and Ke were all 
University men, the first of these being a Ph.D. graduate, 
the next tv/o Sophomores and the last three JPreslimen, Ea v/as a 
Jmiior at a woman's College. In all there were seven men and 



72 



one woman. It had been hoped to have an equal niunber of men 
and v;omen but the difficulty of getting women subjects pre- 
vented this. 

Results for this experiment are shown in Tables Yin to 
.XVII inclusive. 

Table VIII . This is similar to Table I, Experiment I. 
It shov;s the averages, numbers of cases and modes for one, tv/o 
and three syllable adjectives and nouns for the regular ten 
days work. 

1_. The results are consistent throughout for each ob- 
server in corroborating the conclusion in Experiment I that 
the noun - adjective reaction is longer than the adjective - 
noun reaction. 

2» The results corroborate throughout the conclusions 
in Experiment I that the reaction time increases directly as 
the number of syllables in the stimulus adjective, and there is 
only one break in the consistency of results for nouns. This 
is in tv/o syllable nouns for subject La, v/here there v/as a drop 
in reaction time from that for one syllable nouns, though it 
increases very markedly for three syllable nouns. Subject La, 
however, was apt to be erratic at times, having an excessively 
long reaction time for very simple unemotional v/ords. This 
may be attributable to his habit of using his hands and fin- 
gers a great deal while talking. This might have caused in- 
hibitions. This one exception has not been considered of suf- 
ficient v/eight to vitiate the otherwise unanimous evidence in 
favor of the above general conclusion in regard to syllable 
variation. 



73 



gable IX . Here are shown the results for the practise 
period. The same conclusions hold here as for the regular 
period. 

1. The reaction time for the noun- adjjective reaction 
is longer than for the adjective- noun reaction. 

2. The reaction time for both adjectives and nouns in- 
creases directly as the number of syllables in the stimulus 
word. There are ej:ceptions for adjectives as indicated in 
the Tables, one for subject La, whose erratic behavior has 
already been commented upon, and one for subject Sc. It will 
be observed that all his averages as compared v/ith the others 
are relatively low. This can be attributed actually to a 
narrovmess in vocabulary, which instead of hara-pering him, 
actually hastened his reaction. He v;as a Freshman, as noted 
above, coming from a technical preparatory school, v/here lit- 
tle attention was given to English that might have stimulated 
a naturally indifferent attitude toward greater precision in 
language. As a result his reactions lay within a narrow com- 
pass, and duplicates were common. This was true particular- 
ly for the adjective responses to nouns. They were made up 
largely of what have been called by Kent and Hosanoff non- 
specific reactions, such as large, small, good, bad, tall, 
short, etc. Pew, if any, adjectives v/ere given of more sub- 
tle or connotative significance. Nouns that v/ere reacted to 
by the other subjects with emotional adjectives such as hor- 
rible, ghastly or beautiful, wonderful got merely bad or good 
from this subject. Necessarily these stock adjectives oc- 
curred many times in one list and allowed of a relatively 



74 



short reaction time. The nouns given too virere meager in 
their connotation and variety, though to a less degree than 
the adjectives. Ovdng to the dearth of words in his vocab- 
ulary a good many words of common knowledge were unkr.own to 
him aad their reactions had to be recorded as failures. 
These reasons may account for the break in his results. 

3_, The reaction times for both adjectives and nouns ar( 
much longer for these rejected words than for the selected 
v/ords of the regular series. This v/as of course to be ex- 
pected. This increase varies for adjectives from about 50 
Sigma to 1000 sigma, and for nouns from 100 Sigma to 1600 
Sigma, but for adjectives the increase is usually abotit 400 
Sigma and for nouns 600 sigma. 

Tables a to XVII (inclusive) . These give respectively 
the distribution of reaction times for each of the eight 
subjects for the regular ten days' v/ork, vifith the mode un- 
derlined and the average reaction time given at the foot of 
each column below the total number of cases. It is to be 
noted that the difference between the actual number of cases 
recorded and the number of stimulus words given in each 
group (180 or 360) is due to 

_1. failures to respond at all, or with a suitable 
word. 

2. Stopping of the motor. 

^. Failure of subject to speak into the voice key 
so as to make the clock stop. 

4. A few cases where 3. occurred for the experi- 
menter. 

These results elaborate the conclusions drav/n from tlie aver- 
ages. It will be noticed that to a great extent the modes 
bear out the same conclusions as do the averages, especially 



75 



for the increase in reaction time for no-uns over adjectives. 

The relatively large ntunber of reactions of four sec- 
onds and over, for some of the stibjeots, must indicate eith- 
er that the Btirr.ulus v/ords need further elimination or that 
these subjects had particularly slov/ reactions for all words, 
therefore bringing a larger percentage into this four second 
group. Both conclusions are valid to some extent. Some fur- 
ther words apparently need to be eliminated to acconmodate 
the vocabularies of even University freshmen. On the other 
hand, subjects Ba, CI, and La were naturally slov/ in reaction 
no matter hov/ simple the stimulus v/ord. 

Conclusions. - EXPERIMENT II . 

1. The reaction time for the noun-adjective reaction is 
longer than the adjective-noun reaction. 

2. The reaction time for both adjective and noun stimu- 
lus words increases directly with the number of syllables in 
the stimulus word. 

3. Conclusions 1. and E. corroborate and intensify the 
same conclusions made in Experiment I. They hold also for a 
group of difficult adjectives and nouns such as were used in 
the practise period of this experiment, although the reaction 
times for both are greatly increased above the normal for the 
large mixed group used in Experiment I or the selected group 
of this experiment. 



76 



EXPERIIvIEU T III 
Prirpose and Procedure 

This experiment was carried out in its present "brief 
scope chiefly to get some indication of the probable outcome 
of the experiment on a large scale. It consisted in repeat- 
ing for tv/o more successive days the identical lists of Day 
10 of the regular series. The purpose was to see the course 
of the reaction time. For this reason the subject v/as not 
instructed that these lists were repetitions, but merely told 
that he might possibly recognise some words as having been 
given before, to take no note of this but to react as usual 
with the first adjective or noun thought of, and to make no 
effort to duplicate his response for the sejne stimulus word. 
Tliis work was done immediately at the close of the regular 
10 days' work on the same eight subjects. 

Results : The results are shown in Table XVIII. On the 
v/hole there is a decrease in reaction time with each repeti- 
tion of the saine stimuliTS v/ords, both adjectives and noiins. 
Subject ITo, however, did not conform to this type of reac- 
tion except in two out of a possible eight drops in reaction 
time. Unfortunately v/e hare no note of any unusual beho.vior 
for the three days that might accotuit for his eccentricity. 
If we exclude his resialts entirely, hov/ever, the exceptions 
are fev/, - only 3 increases as against 25 decreases in reac- 
tion time for adjectives, and only 1 increase as against 27 
decreases in reaction time for noitns. 

The response v/ords given were usually repetitions in 



77 



spite of most ox the subjects- not recognizing on the second 
day that the words v/ere exact duplicates, and in spite of the 
instructions when they did recognize a duplicated word. 
The subjects all "caught on" by the third day that the lists 
v;ere duplicates; if one of them gave a nev; response v/ord he 
usually commented on the fact to himself. 

Conclusions . 

1. Successive repetitions of a list of stimulus v/ords 
cause successive decreases in the reaction times when the 
subject is not informed of the fact of their repetition. These 
reaction times would without doubt ultimately reach a physio- 
logical level. 

EXPERIEMT IV - DOUBLE ASSOCIATIONS . 
Ptirpose and Procedure 

This experiment like Experiment III v;as made only on a 
small scale in order to get an indication of the probable 
course of results on a larger scale. It comprise one hour's 
work only for each of four subjects Mj, CI, La, and Eo. Six 
lists of stimulus words were given, 20 each of one, two, and 
three syllable adjectives and intransitive verbs, run paral- 
lely as in Experiment II. Double associations were required. 
For an adjective stimulus v/ord, the subject must think of a 
noun applicable to the adjective and respond with a verb hav- 
ing this noun as subject. In this v/ay the first association 
was silent, the second spoken. The verb given might be eith- 



78 



er transitive or intransitive, ttit atociliaries v/ere prohib- 
ited, with the intransitive verts, the association was made 
in the reverse order, back to a notin as its subject (silent) 
and then to an adjective (spoken) modifying this noun. In- 
transitive verbs were chosen for this typo of reaction as a 
check on the backward direction of the association, otherwise 
the as33ciation might be made forward to an object of the 
verb and its modifier. 

Results : The results are shown in Table ilX. With two 
exceptions in the three syllable words, there is a uniform in- 
crease in reaction time for the backward association from 
verbs to adjectives. This result agrees v/ith the comments of 
the subjects when asked which was the easier. The backward 
association with exceptions was felt to require the greater 
effort. This increase in reaction time varies, to be sitre, 
betv;een wide limits among the different syllables and differ- 
ent subjects, from 32 sigraa to 1500 sigma, with an average 
increase of about 570 sigma. Tor the tv/o exceptions for sub- 
jects Ho and CI, respectively, the decrease in reaction time 
for the backv.-ard association is small compared to the aver- 
age increase for otlier cases. It is respectively only 162 
and 126 sigma. A larger number of cases v/ould probably throw 
these results in the same direction as the rest. 

Conclusions . 

1. The reaction time is longer for "backv^'ard" than "for- 
ward" double associations from the point of view of the nor- 
mal language order. The reaction time is longer in associa- 



79 



ting from intransitive verbs back through noixn subjects to 
adjectives than from adjectives forward tlirough noun subjects 
to verbs. 



80 



SUTMAHY OF COECLUSIOIIS 

1. The normal order for adjectives and notins in the Eng- 
lish language gives a shorter association reaction time than 
the inverse order. That is, the reaction time for the adjec- 
tive - notm reaction is shorter than the notin - adjective re- 
action. This holds for groups of selected v;ords and mixed 
groups containing both selected and rejected words. 

2_, The reaction time for hoth normal and inverse orders 
of controlled word associations increases directly with the 
ntunber of syllables in the stimulus word. This holds for both 
the adjective - noun and noun - adjective reactions in groups 
of selected words and in mixed groups containing both select- 
ed and rejected ?/ords. 

3. Conclusions 1. and 2. hold also for groiips of diffi- 
cult words made up of rejected adjectives and nouns, although 
the reaction times for both are greatly increased above the 
average for a selected group or a mixed group of v/ords. 

4, The position of the accent in the stimulus word has 
no systematic effect on the reaction time for either the ad- 
jective - noun or noun - adjective reaction. 

5_. There is no interpretable variation in reaction time 
according to the grouping of nouns into logical categories. 
The reaction time remains relatively constant within the lim- 
its of word length. 

_6. Two or three separate hours of work are sufficient 
for the subject to become adapted to the experiment and to 
lose as much as is possible of any emotional disturbance re- 



81 



stilting from sex difference "between subject and experimenter, 
?_. The beginning of each list of v/ords is usually mark- 
ed by three or four reaction times faster than the average. 
There is then a sudden increase which persists through the 
list, and which may be due to the adjustment of the subject 
to a comfortable, steady muscular "tension" adapted to a long 
period of v/ork. 

_8. Successive repetitions of a list of stimulus words, 
for both the adjective - noim and the noun - adjective reac- 
tions, cause successive decreases in the reaction times when 
the subject is not informed of the fact of repetition. These 
reaction times would probably reach a physiological limit 
ultimately. 

9_. The reaction time in double association is longer 
for the inverse order than for the normal order in the Eng- 
lish language. That is, the reaction time is longer in asso- 
ciating from intransitive verbs backrrard through noun subjects 
to adjectives than forward through noun subjects to xerbs. 



8a 



Further Prol^lems in the Word Association Llethod 
The following problems are either already in the course 
of investigation in this laboratory, or are proposed for in- 
vestigation: 

1.. A more detailed study of dotible and triple associa- 
tion along the line suggested by Experiment IV. 

2_. A more detailed study of the course of the reaction 
time for repetitions of a group of stimulus words of differ- 
ent types, as suggested in Experiment III. 

3. The effect of suggestion on the reaction time var- 
iation for different types of forward and backward controlled 
word association. 

4, Comparison of visual and auditory methods of pres- 
entation of stimulus Vi'ords in the vrard association method. 

_5, A comparison of spoken and written types of reac- 
tion in the word association method. 
^ 6_. The variation in reaction time for the adjective - 

noun and noun - adjective reaction in French, Italian and 
Spanish subjects. 

_7. A stTidy of the emotions in the word association meth- 
od, when supplemented by plethysmographic, cardiographic, 
sphygmo graphic, pneumographic, and galvanometric controls. 

8_. Sex differences in various types of controlled word 
associations. 

_9. Investigation into the comparative reaction times 
for the following types of controlled v/ord associations: 

(1) noun subject - intransitive verb 
noun subject - transitive verb 
noun subject - verb (either v.i. or v.t.) 



83 



(2) Intransitive verb - noun subject 
transitive verb - noun subject 

verb (either v.i. or v.t.) - noun subject 

(3) transitive verb - noun object 
noun object - transitive verb 

(4) noun subject - verb 
verb - noun subject 

(5) A comparison of English and German subjects 

for (3) and (4). 

(6) noun subject - (verb) - noun object 
noun object - (verb) - nortn subject 

(7) noun (cause) - verb (effect) 
verb (effect) - noun (cause) 

(8) verb - adverb 
adverb - verb 

(9)- class (genus) - member (species) 
member (species)- class (genus) 

(10) opposites for verbs 

(11) opposites for adjectives 

(12) opposites for adverbs 

(13) coordinate manbers 

10. A study of preferential associations. 

(1) ?o observe whether transitive or intransitive 
verbs occur more often in the noun subject - 
verb reaction . 

(2) To observe v/hether noun subjects or noun ob- 
jects occur more often in the verb - rela - 
ted noun reaction, 

(3) To observe v/hether noun subjects or noun 
objects occur more often in the 

noun - noun (related tiirough action) reaction. 

(4) llo observe v;hich type of reaction occurs 
more often in the noun - logically related 
Y/ord (other than verb ) reaction; adjective, 
subordinate, supraordinate, or coordinate. 

(5) To observe which type of reaction occurs more 
often in the adjective - logically related 
word reaction; substantive or opposite. 



84 



c 










pH 


o 


^ 




c 


bl 




£>• 


o 


s 




fe 


«s| 


' 




o 

rH 


CO 




•c 


a 














c 


C 






O 








tf 


d 


0) 




O 


O 


o 






o 


•o 




o 


O 


o 




c- 


«D|B 


c 


1 


f-l 


CC 


CO 




0. 




El 




I 


1 






> 


.fl 






o 


r- 


c- 




•H 


£ 














+3 


r-" 














o 


rH 














«D 


t> 




•"i- 


to 


O 


1 




•^ 


cn 


>l 


to 


Oi 


<Ti 


1 




•O 




(d| 


«£1 


t^ 


to 






««J 


i« 














13 


^ , 


o 


o 


o 






5 


•^. «D 


o 


o 


c 






*» 


•o -a 


to 


ts 


to 


1 




o 


< o 




1 




1 




9 


el 


lO 


to 


in 


















CI 


(Q 




w 


IC. 


ir; 


CT» 


S) 


c 


^1 


c- 


o 


r~ 


in 


•H 


t=) 


Oj| 


CD 




a 


CD 


CO 


^1 


to 












o 


.s 


c 




o 


o 


o 


O 


:i 


<D 


o 


o 


o 


o 


«H 




c 


•T3 


t- 


oc 


CO 


CD 




c 


c 


E5 


O 


I 


1 


1 


1 


Oi 


o 


r-l 


E| 


o 


c^ 


c- 


^- 


C 


X3 












^ 


-Eh 


Si 
rH 












C 


r-t 




w 


cc 


vf 




i 


O 


W 


>l 


VO 


<r» 


to 


1 


•H 


•H 




cdl 


O 


U3 


to 


1 


4j 


+= 


W 














O 












c 


CD 


ra 


o 


O 


c 




o 


C 


••-. <D 


o 


o 


o 




1-i 


K 


-a; o 


1 


C-- 


to 


1 
1 




O 




vO 


to 


IC 




CO 












^H 


s, 




o 


t~ 


ir; 


^ 


t.^ 


s 


^1 


cr> 


o 


to 


IT. 


rH* 


«5| 


c^ 


o 


CO 


CD 


C 


^ 


ta 






rH 








<D 


c 












4J 


> 


fs 




o 


O 


o 


O 


rH 


•aj 


o 


©1 


o 


o 


o 


C 






<D 


K 


TJ 


c- 


CD 


ts 


t~ 


fc,' 


•D 


iH 


o 


1 


I 








§ 


J3 

OS 


SI 


lO 


c- 


tO 


to 
















CO 


pH 














(D 


>. 


• 


ȣ) 


(T> 


a> 


1 




03 


to 


>l 


IT. 


CD 


to 


1 




O 




«5| 


O 


to 


Ui 






^ 


<H 














«H 


^ 


o 


O 


o 






O 


•-^(D 


o 


o 


o 








ro No 


CD 


c- 


to 






c 


< o 


1 




1 


1 




o 

•H 


E 


c- 


to 


-"^f 






•P 


, 












ql 














^ 


+> 












•H 


o 












Jh 


.® 












•p 














CO 


^ 


, 


, 


, 


, 




tH 


d 


o 


^ 


o 


•H 




P 




Ji 




« 


o 


p. 


t^ 





85 



, 


w 


o> 


cc 


>\ 


iH 


w 


cc 


rtl 


CD 


t- 


t~ 



T3 


•O 


B 








© 


C 


<D 


IT; 


^ 


t-l. 


4J 


w 


02 


vO 


c^ 


t> 


O 




03 


to 


to 


tr. 


0) 


c 


O 








iH 


o 










OJ 












o; 


+> 










C 


c 










tf 


Q} 












O 


• 


«* 


c^ 


o 




O 


> 


O 


Tt 


t- 


03 


OS 


cC 


lO 


to 


c- 



CJ 


CO 


CD 


u. 


U3 


^O 


to 


to 


to 



SI 



u 


0) 




to 


CO 


U5 




cJ 


■* 


fl 


o 




o 






■p 






c 






tt) 






o 


• 


t-- 


o 


> 


<' 


OS 


05 


a^ 



gl 



0) 


iH 


r}< 


O 


Vi 


CO 


<H 


IT, 


c3 
o 


o 


o 


a> 



o -^ 

CD W 



86 









1 


, 


W CT> i-l CO 




, 


t- <?> 00 t}< 








>l 


to rH in CXD 




>l 


cT> cr» to CO 








oil 


CD iH 00 CD 




Oil 


CO O 00 CD 


«H 




pq 






pq 






O 






02 






CO 










0) 


lO Ol CC -^^ 




<D 


W -^ rHO 


OJ 






w 


C- CO rH <D 




CJ 


rH (T> rH rH 


HJ 






ce 


H rH W 




C5 


to rH H CO 


U 






o 






o 




a 






, 


E- iH O iTi 




, 


CD rH OJ O 


s 






>\ 


W C^ Ifi to 




>l 


rH ITJ to OJ 


Ph 






Oil 


CD O Cn OC 




Oil 


O^ rH CO Cr> 






m 




i-l 


p; 




iH 






■a; 


Oj 




< 


CO 




E 






C 


cc CO tfi c<: 




CJ 


to o ^ to 


o 






M 


tD C- O Ifl 




c. 


iH cc in-^ 


rO 






« 


l-t 




ci 


O: rH CV} 


bC 






O 






o 




c 
^ 






, 


lO Cv: t- rj' 
rH Oi cc to 




. 


\Ci t (T> i-t 








> 




> 


CT» to t^ O 


<u 




,^ 




03 


CD iH CD O 




cc 


(T4 rH CD 0> 


rH 






s 




rH rH 


s 




tH 


J3 
05 




-»-' 




CQ 






03 




•P 




o 




(E 


C- CC to U3 




<D 


Tf to rH to 


© • 




<D 




0> 


rH rH CU 






OJ rH iHCVJ 


br.'o 




iH 




K 






03 




© 0) 




(P 




O 






o 




^^ 




c 














ci -H 









• 


rH r-i rH ITi 




• 


e- ICi OCD 


(> w 








> 


rH O O . C 




> 


OJ ^ rJ<««J* 


52 








03 


CD CO CC CO 




0; 


cc rH C- CD 


S0 




m 


pq 






e 




rH 


. iH 




G 


Ph 










CQ O 




3 




CG 






OJ 




c c 




o 




(D 


to tf- to CC 




<D 


C- O CO to 


O 3 




E5 




m 


-<# ID to CVJ 




aj 


to to »:« 


•H 1 


( 




, 


(S 






a 




+» pq 


n 


Jh 


«r 




►o 






o 




o 


M 


o 


rH 






<D 








a 


M 


ttH 


^ 






r-i 








1 . 






Oj 




, 


C- C7» CVJ C^ ^ 




, 


o o to to 


O CJ 


M 


CO 


rH 




> 


C- to O CJ> 05 




> 


O st^l^O 


<S +' 


3 


© 


fH 




cd 


c- o cc c~- ^-^ 




a 


00 O t- CD 


o 


w 


6 


>. 


C? 




r-i rH 


r^ 




rH 


05 


oj 






> 




>; 


> 






• f^ 


E-i 


E-' 






B 


03 




02 




CQ 4^ 






iH 




<D 


<< ^ ^-i cc 




03 


00 CT> CC to 


H^ m 




C 




Ci 


to ifi vo c\; ca 




OJ 


CV Tf OJ c- 


o ,Q 




o 




03 






05 




© 03 . 








o 






o 




•^ 1 05 




+3 
o 














^pq E 
o««5 G 




s 




, 


iTj cvi I-- m 




• 


tO CVJ to to 


•H 




<D 




?> 


ȣ) cc to <D 




> 


Tf to to rH 


® ra 




PI 


o 


0} 


C- CJ> CD CD 


o 


05 


CT> i-^' CO CT> 


05 to J-i 




03 


■Oj 






< 






ECO 




hfi 




CQ 






CQ 




^ O «H 




(0 




0) 


OJ CD UD x^ 




03 


CC rH CC CO 


C -H 




f-l 




CO 


Hi O rH C- 




DJ 


■<t to CCtO 


(8 -H OJ 




a' 




Ou 


rH rH W 




Oi 


OJ rH a 


1 o 




<< 




o 






o 




55 e ^ 






, 


O C^ C- CC 




, 


rH rH en CT> 


-o © 






> 


[ «D cr> CD CM 




f> 


1 rH Tj< Ot}* 


• C E 






03 


CO O cc CD 




CD 


1 cr> rH CnOC 


03 03 -H 




Eq 




' rH 


Si 




rH 


•P -P 




<5; 


CQ 




<lj 


CQ 




03 

© 6.0 C 






(D 


t}« CO C\I to 




OJ 


rH << CT> <J> 


H-s c 






ta 


^ 00 rH C- 




w 


•^ in to to 


^ .H -H 






a 


t-i r-i Oi 




oi 


lO to rHin 


rH -P 






o 






o 




03 

© © c3 
+> «M © 






, 


O^ rH O ^ 




• 


CC ^ rH to 


03 1 Jh 






> 


1 in rH LO lO 




> 


c. c:.into 


5S>. 






03 


l> O CO CO 




ca 


a o CO CO 




^ 




' rH 


a 




iH 


g iH 




M 


CO 


1 


M 


CQ 




03 p4 
sd ••H 






(D 


•^ to Ift vO 




O 


rH (T» CO'^ 


^ >i4^ 






03 


lO t- W »D 




w 


Ift lO -^ OJ 


1 ro rj 






03 


to to O CO 




c3 


O to to O 


S55 






o 






O 


rH r-i 








.... 






«... 






, 




O ^ O 'H 






O Xi O'H 










to 




ft; O P^ Hi 






W O P-i Hi 





C3| to O CD 



in cr. iH 
to rj< c- 

CVI(M CO 



N a> iH 

tr. t-iiCi 
rt O QC 



lO cr. CO 

C- £> (7» 

WWW 



C- ITj O 

cc c- C- 
to ir CD 



. ts o ^ 
f» to t> in 

a3| iH W CD 



> 


1169 

ROD 
702 


CQ 

c6 
o 


00 w o^ 

« •^ to 


> 
cc 


cr> O w 
t;)- to cc 
too cr 


CD 

s 


CJ ^}< to 
W to CO 
WWW 




o to t> 

ITJ ^ f^ 
Cf J O CD 
rH iH 


CO 

© 
to 

o 


W U5 to 
W W -^ 

to CO to 


05 


CTi 00 lO 
U3 C- to 

w cn CD 

rH 


CQ 
<D 

03 


v;!< O to 
CO xj< -<d< 
T}< rf ^ 



I «H 

r5 -H 
> CO 



u 

OD 

• >H 

CQ -P 

4^ CiJ 

O -Q 

CD 03 • 

^ « E 
o -a: 6r 



C6 CQ ^1 

ECO 

•H O ^ 

CO +^ w 
I o 

«; (D ,Q 

• S E 

4-> +J 

•^. c o 

^ -H -H 

O rH -P 

O O 

a> <B c3 

■P «H 03 
Cj I {^ 

C H 
05 P, 

SH • 'H 
•H >j+3 



o 

iH 



87 



031 0} 



+^10 






E^l 



rH a> to 
I^ O Ti* 

I W O CD 

I iH iH 



CQ 


rH 00 tJ< 


q; 


CC o c- 


CO 


1 Ui to to 


05 


1 iH iH rH 


ol 





w m u; o^ 

t> O t- CO 

00 i-H CD CD 



w cr> t^ r- 

W T}< l-H W 

Id to CD IC 

CJ rH W 



O C^ IT. ■r}' 

cr. c to in 

t^ O C) CO 



O rH t- 

Cr> tO rH rH 
rH -.^ <0 CD 
iH M rH in 



O JH O -H 



OJ OltQ l> to iH CO t- to 
CD lO CO O U3 O O IQ Ifi 



O 00 rH CJ 



O'^-^coifi'e'tooooooo 

t- to r-) iH 



00 O 

c: cc 
r- to 



P4 






' 


a 


+J 


C 


O 


:i 


<D 


(0 


O 


T-; 


iH 


C 


,Q 


^ 




ri 


03 




to 


•H 




1 


rH 




CQ 


>! 




0) 


(C 




e 






•H 


w 


w 


Eh 


<D 




> 


C 




o 




-^ 



O Oi 



CO to Tf QOlCD 
tH ai rj* r}* O 



iHOtoc-cnr}cr>iccjOcv3cv: 

Ol <0 rf to rH rH rH 



iH Cvi to r«|C- C^WOvt. tOtOHCOOCOOO 
^ rH IT. t- O <X) W rH 
CV2 CJ iH fH 



© Ol 

rH C| 



r J w o o r- 1 
'e' o> cr> 

rHCv: 



(vDtOTfCJrHCtOt-iHt^-lCWCi 
)|H^-rHCCC-Ti'tOOJlH 

I CJ rH rH 



'kIWrH 



^COOOOOOOOOOO 



S oo o o ooo o o o o o o o o o o o o 

C5 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 

M •^i<iOCOOCO';;<tOCOOCvJ^vOCOOW-5*iOOOO 

CQ rH iH iH rH iH ca Cvj CJ OJ oa to to to to CO -^ 



rH ^ e 

■P . O "H 

O > -H 03 



P9 



! iH W U3 W CJ OOltO Cr>ri<Cr>C^t<2'^<3>tOOvO 
rH iHiH — ' ■ ■ 



' UJ l-~ CJ ^7 -Ui C>J V^ vu 

iCvJCOOC-TfTj^tOlfJ 
I rH f-i 



W rH 00 Uo O r- fi to 






o o to c- o Olio vovoeuc^mcomt^o^GDto 

■^ lO iHIO OCtCir. O^OiO'^rftOWCMUJ 
rH CVJ|W iH t-! iH r-t 



t~ O tOlCD 0^l<iint>-<i<c\JOrHiHOOOO 
lO rH rH Uo ^h ifi ^ ^h 
W CV2 rH fH 



rH to 
C O 

o to 



<D O 
iH C 



W O ^l* ■<* to 10|*0 ICl^rHirjOCCvjaitOWOCClO 
UDO>tOlCia30Ji-^C^<£>lf5cvJtOWrH -rf 
rH W r- ri rH rH 



O O to to 00 



tOtOODfr-tOtOtOrJ'rHOOOOOOOC 
rH lO in |tO W rH 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

ooooooooooooooooooo 

'e<«OOOOCVjTe4<OCOOWT;JHtOODOOJ.^vOOOO 
rHrHrHrHrHWWWWCJtOCOtOtOtO^ 



O CO ,— 

rH ^1 n 

Oj <D Eo 

-P • S "H 
O > -H 63 

EH -oJ-P^-. 



90 



rH to rf If; Uo OciOrj<lCrOfHOOOOiHOO 
t> tOlW CU to rH 
CJ W t~t 



o 






(H 




1 


CO 


+> 


c 


o 


p! 


© 


<D 


O 


"-= 


H 


C 


fi 


• J3 




s 


cS 




^^ 


H 




(0 


>: 




(D 


in 




E 






•H 


w 


CO 


E- 


QJ 




> 


C 




r! 



O iH 0> CD CVJIC- CJC0CT>0^t-lO<O'^lfitO0D«OO 
Ifi Oi iH in <WOrHO)vO'^tOCvJrHr-t tO 
W IC rf IC OJ iH iH 



I vO »;}< tT OIiH t-lfiU;c-rHtQr-lr-lrHOrHOO 
CT> -^ ID UD a to rH 
W W iH 



Htooocr>Oliooco^OOuDcoa>crit--iocv!Wco 

•DrHCTiPWt^iDlOrHiHrHfH 



O rH »0 to C- OlOO incTi"^lOWlOOOWOrHW 

w to m<|n w 



o 

-p 

ooooooooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooooooo 

rHiHrHiHHNMWMCUtOCOtOtOtO'd^ 



rH M ^ e 

CO . O -H 

o cd > -H m 
f-i o <fi +3 -— 



91 



O iH O in t~ Ifilm OCOCGtOCOOlTjWiHt^OiH 
CO O to "^ in vDCOCO^tOiHiHrHpH 
iH tQ « W iH iH 



Jj 


W •>;?' CJ ID O O 


o 


IT. O O t> 


c 


W^ ^' 



t^CjOWcr>«DtOa><OGilfir-i 
CVJ iH rH 



O CJ rH eO rH|a» iH C- tO «£» CC tO 
rHC-nC>CDin<<tOrHrH 



to »X) t;}- O iH to I 



ooooooooooooooooooo 
oooooocoooooooooooo 

r}*tOCDOW-<#OCOOCN.!r^y3COOcjrt<vDCOO 
rHfHfHrHrHCVlWWWCJCOfJtOlQCO-^ 






C~ CD 

lO C- 



r-i CO 
CTi O 
IC t- 



92 



> 




cS" 




«H 


R 


s 


O 


C 


pq 


CQ 


(D 


■^ 


Q) 


E-i- 


Eh 


br 






ec 


>- 




^ 


cc 




a^ 


iH 




> 


::< 




< 


61 




TJ 


« 




C 






«3 





CI 



SI 



SI 



wminocor^om 
o cr> "^ ^ w o i^j c-} 

iH iH iH iH rH 



o oo o 
cooooooo 
ociHOcaooo 

OlCCiHr-'rHa>Cif-< 

I i I I I I I J 

CDtnOOiHODCECJ 



c;t^if;oiHir;c:0 
oo^-Ol-^ocOc^w 



ocoooooo 

OOOOOOOO 
C-tDCCCCC-lSCDrH 
1 I I I I 1 I I 

t^. CO r^ vc a> :^ O ic 

CCoOt^iHOD'^iH 



ccoocooc 
ococoooo 

I I i I i I i I 

OtOCCCCCOOCDCC 



r-<^OC0r-^Ui•^0^<T> 



OOOOOOOO 

cooooooo 

I I I I I I 1 I 

IT. in to to IT. u: in ifi 



WrH0t>aiU)00 

a> O o iH »r. to in to 



OOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOO 
C^ CC O CC iH c- cc c 

I I I t I 1 t I 

tOC^C^C--OtOtOQD 



ODcootocr. oc-co 

asCTiwcctotOTfto 

IfilftCOCCOOtOCDCC 



OOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOO 
tOtOCOOC^tOC^C^- 

I I I I I i I I 

m-^c^iniciuiioin 



60 +-- 



>•■ 


>s 


^ 


O 




C 


© 


© 


£3 


■P 




CQ 


+3 


•H 




CO 


C 


c 


o 


o 


tH 


o 


+3 




o 


c 


85 


•rt 


© 




Vh 


^ 




a) 


t>i 


© 


iH 


^1 


p. 


A3 


tH 




4J 


>i 


i-l 


i-H 


S 


c 


>-J 


o 




* 



O*'-»CiH,ElO03© 



93 



%. 



w w' 

>' 



1-1 H O t- C J i-l OC -^ 
cn o cc li* u, cft cj IT. 

iH r-l rH iH iH iH 



O lO 



-CC t- I 
CZ CO 



U. CO 



cr. c- c t-- o IT. io to 

rHC;rHiHlHO»<jDCC 

oc CC to i<J f ; t- o cvi 



CQ 


CO 


Q) 


(C 


> 


to 




C3 


JJ 


o 


O 




© 




■^' 




c3 


. 




> 




cd 



tO^OrHtOifitOC 

t ; to vo u'. CTj c- O CC 

O O CC vO If J 00 ITj Tf 



toojaovot^tocDio 

CVjCVJCviCUCJCOCVICVJ 



r-cotooc-tococo 

<£)U5tO«OiHOrHVn 
C^iOOOCT>COCOCO 



94 



O O C O CO W WloO IfiC^lftt^-^t^UirHCWW 
CJ t}< «3 £-|tO to C\2 i-H r-i 



to CO 
w 



OOlCCCW|tOOr?<iHf^(Ein 
I-" O CO |UD to « OJ iH 



IT. CU CJ (M O to Ift 



OC<£)tOCi;l'«^C~-OCCrj<CCWi-^u;tOrH 



to 

ITj to 

tfi CD 



C W OJ IT.IrH tOVC^^frHUT. -.^rHOrHWOOOrH 
to O O in CVJ iH rH 



O rH IfJ W 0|in CV3r}<OtOi-ltOtOCrHWCOtO 
iH to M"|W CV2 rH iH 



O vO t-- CCIO tOC-OCCOi-tOOOCOOOO 

to volcvi o: 



ooooooooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooooooo 

•5d<vOCOOCV2-^tOCCOC>j-^OCOOW'<e<^CDO 
rHpHiHrHiHCV2WWCJOJCOtOtOtOtO-<* 



W-^lOtOltOlC-t-CDrH 
to lC|ir;|.s}< to W W 



CDt-rHWt>'*Wi-HCC 



O O 
in r-H 
to C^ 



m 
10 ( 



O <£> -^r W|<0 CCr-liHr*UilOtOC;WWC.'W 
t}* CCJC- T^ to CO iH 



O iH C~ CC vOlm r-< IC C- rf W •^ iH 

i-i tJ! U. I^ lO W W iH iH i-H 



oc CO ^ in iH o 



(O «o 

^ to 

e; cc 



o 
W CO 

Eh 'H 
O 



•<i< «D CVJ |CV2 CJ CD 
OJ CD Oi I^O to rH 



U-itOI>-C\:iCtOrHOOCOCVJ 



O M C^ iH Tf CDliH tOCCC^Cv:tOr-lCOT}<COO 
to to tO|oj r-f 



lO CV3 
t- O 



OyDtOlcapOOlTwtO^OOrHOOCOOOO 



oooooooooooocoooooo 
ooocooooooooooooooo 

'^lOOOOCO^vDCDOCO'^'XJOOOOJ^MDCOO 
iHiHHHHCVJCJCV2CUOJCOtOtOtOtO'^ 



O CO -~ 

tH f-. S 

+^ . G "H 
O > -H U 
EH -35 4^ v_ 



96 



o o w o toiin '<;}'ww<oirso^-r-iu;w'<t-^in 

•^ "^iTf Tj-tO W rH iH W i-ffH W 



o o o M cn (W uDlcj w-e^-'tinTfOOuicco 

iH W CTi 'i'lW nWWr-lrHrHrHrH Ift 



C rH iH C^; ^ll« CO CC tT! to in 
W XC. U3|-<e< to CVl W W iH 



iHrHC-OWtOtOa> 



O O «# IC C^ rH 






occmc^ico^^vo 



OOW'^iHC^-tOiriC-iCCC'J^i^WrHNlCi-lOrH 
i-l CO to tOjH rH 



ooooooooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooooooo 

Tj'vOCDOW^OCOOW'^vOOOOC^^i^tDCOO 
iHHHiHrHWWWWWtOtOtOtOtOrj* 



sf O 
to C> 



H O 
Ifi to 

CO iH 



CO c 

cc 



o 


C3 




, 




<D 




oj 


r-i 


^ 


W 


i) 


-p 


• 


G 


•H 


o 


> 


•H 


HI 


E-' 


<1"P 





97 



C O iH iH U3 t-|in CeiHWlOHOlTjCCtO-^tOO 
CVJ fj •«t|Tf NtQWi-lrHWiH t<; 



s c o iH r- 



rH 00 »n|0 t<:CD-5}<CCtOiHOa>i-l 
rH W tQ|N W W CJ CJ rH i-l rH rH 



OOrHtQtOOO|Wl^'*tOrHlC5rHrH>^W^«^tO 
rH rH |r-l iH rH rH iH rH rH r-l (H 



It- to cr> 

;|CU ^HrH 



■OWCa^-st^rHiHOin 



oooooooocoooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooooooo 

■^vOCOOW-^OODC C3«:J<vOa30C>J';tOCOO 
rHrHrHiHiHWWWCOWCQCOtOCQCQ-^ 



o 


w 


"* 


«£) 


CO 


o> 



<D -P c3 
rH ;h 



98 



^1 



O O C •<;}' ^O O W tOlO U;|W <i)CCtOlCCO*DI>-rH 
CJ CM to C0|0.! tO|w W W iH i-l <i 



OOtOWrHCnCCrHlOO^OC^fcOaC-CtOtfJ 



O C W O tOlvO vOCOirSUirHCClT.rJ'r-'WiOCO^f 
iH •^|C0 COKWWCJiHrHrHrHi-' CVJ 



O iH O ^ItD W C-- VO O CC 
rH e-|lfi •^ to N CO 



lo ic cr IT- c : o to to o 



O iH Ifi C O^ IdlCD C^lr}< Ot^tOCCfHlT, COr-frHITJ 
CVa t-i CO|rH WlrH rH 



> CO rH t- ICOlC- CO^DlOCnvOOJt^ri'WrHtOOtO 
W w|w|rH rH r-l 



s o o oo o o o o o o o o o c o o o o o 

5 o o oo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 

M ^ O CO O W ■<* «J3 00 O <M ■^i^ t£> CO O W ^ vO CO O 

Oj rHrHrHrHrHCVJCMCMCMCMtOtOtOtOtO-^ 



Cr> CO 

to irj 

CM 



Oi Cv2 
CO CV2 
CO c 



to CO 
CO CO 



CO 


O 


to 


to 


CO 


cc 



CO 02 
IS CO 

rH 
C 
Kl O 

to -P 

a) c 

o c3 

© 

rH i^ 

O > -H 

Eh «5)+^- 



99 



O O O O t>- CD cole- COiHOOinOt^tOOrHiH 
to m yD|-0 -^ CO iH rH 



O C Ifi rH 0|Cw tDlCCDlOlXJCOOt^OiHWMO 

to volifi .^ to W W W 



OCrHiniOa|oCr>t^tOtO«3»£)CvJOiHrHOO 
rHt^r-|lfitOrH<Mi-H 



O C rH -^J-ICO WCC->^tOlfi'=fCVJWrHMOOrH 
WO-|c-r-tOCV2Wr-' 



4^ 


<D 


C 


^ 


H 


C 


,0 


^ 




•H 


OS 




Jh 


(H 




•P 


fH 




W 


>. 




•H 


CO 




P 




CQ 




fH 




-P 
C 



O CO Ollft ICi 
rH W tO|tO to 



rHinCCrJ'WOOOOOr-lO 



O W t>- tOlO C>tOC>lfii-ltOiHrHOOOOOO 
CJ 10|CO iH iH 



0000000000000000000 

0000000000000000000 

^»OOOOCvJ';i^<.OCOOW^'£>COOWTt«3CDO 

HiHHiHrHCVJWW<MWtOtOCOtOCOri< 



t}< O 

CO £>- 
rH 



to rH 

to t> 



CO 




to 


t- 




to 


r-i 




CO 




C rH 


v: 














a -p 




d 










CO 




rH 


M 




03 




© 


■P 


• 


B 





> -H 


Eh 


ol-P 



100 



O iH rH vO iH <£) CT> O l««C0'^Ot^rHC0C~Tj't> 
W W tO|tO WtOrHrH r-\ t-i r-i vO 



c iH a» r- w Ic- CO t<^ t^; rH ifi "vf to c "# u^; 



M 


C 


> 


O 


r-^ 






■JJ 


W 


o 


l-J 


cS 


« 


0) 


<^ 


« 


E' 





to t^ Ir- Ice la> vo 

M to (fi |tO IrH CU 



c^CtsincvjOccc--c 



OCcctolcr>CT}'cooto<x3vD,-(Oc:i-it^ccto 

W 10|U. ^f W W rH W iH W 



O O rH -^ <iDUDl'^ (H 



M WiCVilr-' rH i-H rH iH rH 



rfCOCClftWOvOf^Cv:'^ 






UDWt>-O:^0Jrtlf^.WK3r-llC 



ooooooooooooooooooo 
ooooooocooooooooooo 

r*tOOOOW<e'«i5COOW'i+ivOOOOW':fOCDO 
rHrHrHrHrHWWWCVJWtOtfJCOtOtO-* 



CO cv: 
to o 

to o 
to 



o 


00 


IC 


a> 


to 


o 



lOl 



O O CQ O iH CVJ CD C-|C~ IOO^OCDCEvOOOWtJ* 
rH N to W tO|W to to iH iH fH iH H tO 



O C O CE CVJ yD 0> OlH tOtOCDC5lOCCU3vOOo» 
iH iH to W W tO|W W W iH rH iH W 



O U; OC CTilTt rHOWrfC-CCOC-tOtOO 
W to W tO|W tOtOWi-lr-liHrH i-i W 



c w ■■e' wlo ^0'^rol^. locctoociTfuoifttocc 



O to rH t~-|t>|CD WW<OtOWCCCVJ"<e'WrHCr-HtO 
H W|w|rH W i-l rH rH 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

ooooooooooooooooooo 

';}<vOODOW'e<^COOW'^t£iOOOW-^OCDO 
rHiHrHrHiHWWWWWtOtOtOtOtO^ 



to CO 

f;) to 

CO o 



cS 


o 






o 


Cj 




, — . 




(V 




a 


rH 


U 




s 


05 




o 


bO 


4^ 


< 


6 


•H 


O 


> 


•H 


w 


EH 


<; 


-P 





lOS 



iHOtV^C0rHt>-<X3 
C0vO^I>-CDvOCDvO 



or>coooooc- 



N <x)ctrjoa:cctQ< 



rH OOOJiHiHITjWW 

I OUiiHOCCC^iHO^ 

>J r-t-OWOC--tX)CC 

OJl r-f iH rH H rH 



o 




rH 






t^ccr-WiHOCcct^ 


>J 


t^rHt-CViOCt^Uliri 


K 


cx;c-ooccc>tr30 


o 


rH iH t-{ t-i 



rj rH m to C-- Ifi CT> ITJ 

W U3 W V« CC- t- ^f T}- 
O O -^ n. C O IT; O 



> 


rH 


o 


X 




03 




>; 


<D 


^■^ 


05 


P^; 


H^ 


p> 




P5 




0) 


-aj 


«H 


h' 


Eh 


o 


CO 




CQ 


<D 




c 


> 




o 


•=<; 



a 



•^ ©IrH 



PI 



c»c-tou3iooir. c 
c- ■<*< iTj ir. <JD in vo u; 



iH^ir. occait~-c- 



OCOWlOrHCCr-O 
OtOrfC-OOrHCO 
lOiriO^vOOCOrHa 



toificoo«3owr~ 

OiritOCTJC-irjCilTj 



ir;cr>rHrH'5j<yDtO'^ 

O O UD f) W If: O rH 



o Tf If i o lO ■^ o» a» 

GOODtOrHrHOiODO 



S S H? O ^ O- Pn trc* 



O-^CCrHA^oroC) 

fe;S»^oScrjPQM 



103 



iv in f-H 

IS vj- o 

r-; CvJ CO 



W to O 
W IC CO 
■<;?' O H 
(H W W 



a 



ccoin 


CO 


o ts w 




W x^ CO 


<D 


iH rHiH 


i-l 




^ 




c6 




iH 




I-! 


O O^ ^ 


>J 


t- W rH 


K 


CO CJ C-2 




rH iH 


to 




t; 




C 


')« 


cC 


to to CO 




OO W 


cw 


iH to rH 




W W W 


• 



tv CO iH 


o 


■^ C- Oi 


03 


vf CJ rH 


<D 


r-i CO ca 






o 




w 


* 




to Ci o 




to ^ rf 




CO CO ^ 





CD to C- 

r-i to c: 

rH CO Hi 
rH rH rH 



rH 



104. 



Bibliography fin chronolofjical order) 



1. Sal ton, ?. Psychonetrio Extjerircents . Brain, vol. 2., 
1879. 

Galton, ?. Psychometric Extserinents. I-iquiries into 
Human 7ac'ilty, 1883. 

2. Wundt, "'. Ueber nsycholosiische Methoden. Phil. Stud, 
1, 1883. 

3. Trautscholdt , M. Sxnerirnentelle Untersuohuns ueber die 
Association der VorstellunRen. Phil, fitud. 1, 1883. 

4. T7ahle , R. Semerkung zur Becchreibuns and Eintheilung der 
Ideenassooiation. "v.-schr.f .wiss- Phil. 9, 1885. 

5. Cattel, J. Iv!. ^he time it takes to see and name ob,1ects. 
T^nd , vol. 71, 1886. 

6. Cattell, J. l', "}he tine taken uio by Cerebral Ot)erations. 
Mind , vol. XI, 1886. 

Cattell, ^. I'. Psychoraetrische Abtheilungen, I und IT. 
Philoe. rtud. , 3, 1886. 

7. Cattell, J. II. Exnerinents on the Association of Ideas. 
Mind, vol. 711, 1887. 

8. Cattell, J. I', and Bryant, S. Mental Association In- 
vestigated by Exneriment. Mind, vol. 7IV, 1889. 

9. Scrinture, E. '•',', Ueber den associativen Verlauf der 
Vorstellungen. Philos, Htud. VII, 1892. 

10. Mttnsterbers;, H. Ptudien zur Associationslehre. Beitrftsre 
zur exrerinentellen Peychologie. Heft IV. 

11. Titchener, E. B. ?he Leitjsic School of Experimental 
Psychology. !'ind , N. S. I, 1892. 

12. Wundt, ?/. liemerkungen zur Associationslehre. Philos. 
?tud. VII, 1892. 

13. Bourdon, E. Recherches sur la succession des phenoinenes 
Psychologiques. Rev. Phil. 35, 1893. 

14. Howe, H. H. Mediate Association. Am. J. Psych. VI, 1893. 

15. BergstrOm, J. A. Relation of the Interference to the 
practise Effect of an Association, Am. J* Psych , VI, 1B94. 

16. Calkins, M. 'V. Association, studies from Harvard 
Psych. Laboratory. Psych. Rev. 1, 1894. 



105 



17. Jastrow, J. Community and Association of Ideas. Psych. 
Rev. 1, 1894. 

18. Jerusalem, W. Ein Beispiel von Association durcti unbewuaate 
Hittelglieder. Philos. Stud. 10, 1894. 

19. Smith, W. G. Mediate Association. Mind, U.S. Ill, 1894. 

EO. Ward, J. Assimilation and Association. Mind, E.S. Ill, 
1894. 

21. Wundt, V/. Sind die Mittelglieder einer mittelharen Asso- 
ciation bewusst Oder unbewusst? Philos. Stud. 10, 1894. 

22. Allin, A. Ueber das Grundprincip der Association. (Diss. ) 
Berlin, Mayer and Mueller, 1895. 

23. Dumont, L. Le la ressemblance et de la contiguite dans 
I'association. Rev. de Metaph. et de Mor. Ill, 1895. 

24. Aschaffenburg. Experimentelle Stiidien ueber Associationen. 
Psych, ^rbeiten, vol. I, 1896, vol. II, 1899, vol. IV, 
1904. 

25. Calkins, M. W. Association. Studies from Harvard Psych. 
Laboratory. Psych. Rev., 3, 1896. 

26. Calkins, K. V/. Association. An Essay Analytic and Ex- 
perimental. Psych. Rev. Monograph Suppl. , 1, 1896. 

27. Kraeplin, E. Der psychologische Versuoh in der Psychiatrie. 
Psych. Arbeiten Bd. 1, 1896. 

28. Jost, A. Die AssoEiationsfestigkeit in ihrer Abhangigkeit 
der Verteilung der V/iederholungen. Ztschr, f. Psych. XIV, 
1897. 

29. Regnault, P. Des associations d'idees dans le genie. Mede- 
Gine Mod. VIII, 1897. 

30. Calkins, M. W. Short studies in Memory and in Association 
from the Wellesley College Laboratory. Psych. Rev. 5, 1898. 

31. Leffr.or, K. Die Aehnlichkeitsassociation. (Diss. Munich 1898) 
Ztschr. f. psych. . ZVIII, 1898. 

32. Goblot, E. Sur la theorie physiologique de I'association. 
Rev. Phil. XLVI, 1898. 

33. Van der Plaats, K. Vrije Woord-Associate. Akademische 
Proefschrift. Amsterdam, 1898. 

34. Ziehen, T. Die. Ideenassoziation des Kindes. 1 u. 2 
Abh. Sammlung v. Abh. aus dem Geb der p&d. Psych, u. 
Phys. 1, 1898, 3, 1900. 



106 



35. Sommer, R. Lehrbuch der psycliopathologischen 
Untersuohungamethoden. 1899. 

36. Van Erp Taalraan Kip, M. J. Paychiatrisctie en neurologische 
Bladen. VI, 1899. 

37. Bourdon, B. Le type graniroatioal dans les associations 
verbales. C. R. IVe Congres Int. de Psychol. 1900 (1901) 

38. 7/reso'aner, A. Eine experimentelle Studie ueber die 
Assozlation in einem Falle von Idiotie. Allgem. Ztschr. 
f. Psychiatrie. 1900. 

39. Gordes, G. Experimentelle Unterauchungen ueber Associa- 
tionen. Philoa. Stud., XVII, 1901. 

40. Kellor, F. A. The Association of Ideas. Pedag. Sera., 
VIII, 1901. 

41. Thumb, A. and Marbe K. Experimentelle Untersuchungen 
ueber die Psychologischen Grimdlagen der sprachlichen 
Analogiebildung. Leipzig, 1901. 

4E. Mayor, A. and Orth, J. Zur (iualitativen Untersuchung der 
Association. Ztschr. f. Psych. , XXVI, 1901, 

43. Bourdon, B. Contribution a 1' etude de 1' individualite dans 
les associations verbales. Phils. Stud., XIX, 1902 (Festsch. ) 

44. Schmidt, i'. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Associa- 
tionalehre. Ztschr.f .Psych. , XXVIII. 1902. 

45. Claparede, E. L'association des Idees. (Bibliotheque In- 
ternationale de Psychologie Experimental), Paris, 0. Doin. , 
1903. 

46. Fuhrmann. Diugnostik und Prognostik der Geisteskrankheiten. 
Leipzig, 1903. 

47. Pieron, H. L'association mediate. Rev. Philos.LVI, 1903. 

48. Pieron, H. Les experiences sur l'association des idees. 
Rev. de Psychiat. 3e S. VII, 1903. 

49. Smith, W. G. The Range of Immediate Association and Mem- 
ory in normal and Pathological Individuals. Arch. Keur. , 
II, 1903. 

60. Wundt, \'K Grundziige. 6te Auflage.S. 526, Leipzig, 1903. 

61. Bleuler, . Diagnostische studien Vorwart ueber die 
Bedeutung von Assoziationsversuchen. J. f. Psych, u. Keur. 
Bd. 3, H. 1, 1904. 



107. 



52. Pere , C. Kote sur le role dee, conditions soinatioues 
dans I'ars ociation des ideas. Annee Psvch. XI, 1904 
(1905) 

55. Jung, C. Cr. und Eiklin, P. Diagnostische Assoziationen. 
J.f. psych, und Ileurol. Bd . Ill, 1904. 

54. Jung, C. CJ. Analyse der Assor.iationen eines I>-ilep- 
tikers. J.f. Psych. u.I'aurol. vol. V, 1904. 

55. Gross, A. I'on. sohr.f. Krininal-nsychologie und Straf- 
rechtsreform. Zar rsychologische Tatbestandsd iasnostik. 
1904. 

56. Liprimann, 0. Die Wirkimg der einzelnen Tiederholungen 
auf versehieden starke und verschiedan alte Assoziationen. 

57. Riklin, 7. Ueber die d iagnostischen Bedeutung von As- 
sociationsversuchungen bei Hysterischen. Oentralbl.f. 
I^ervenheilkunde u. Psychiatrie. 1904. 

58. Watt, !I. J. Ueber Assoziationsreaktionen, die axxf 
oi^tische Reizworte erfolgen. "tschr. f. Psych. u.Phys.d . 
Pinnesorgane. XXZVI, 1904. 

59. Wehrlin, K. Ueb«r die Assczia''--!on9n von Inbecilen and 
Idioten. J. f. Psych, u. Ileurol. , IV. 1904-5. 

60. Tertheir.er, u. Klein, . Psychologische Tatbestands- 
diagnostik. Arch.f.2;rininalanthrorolo(?ie. ud .XV. 1904. 

61. Ach , N. Ueber eine Hethode zur Untersuchung der simul- 
tanen Assoziationen. Bericht der III. T^ongr-ss f. Ex- 
rerinentelle PsyoholORie. y. F'chunann, Leirizig. 
Barth, 1905. 

62. Edgell, B. ExTierirnentr on Association. J. of Physiol. 
XXXII, 1905. 

63. Gross, A. Die Associationesnethode im EtrafnrocesE. 
Ztschr. f. die ?esante Strafrechtwlssenschaft. Bd.XXVI, 
1905-6. 

64. Gross. A. "ur psychologlschen Tetbestandsdiagnostik. 
Beitr&sre zur Psych, der Aussage. Bd . II, 1905-6. 

65. Cfrabov7Eky, A. Psycholofjisohe Tatbectandcd iagnostik. 
Eonderabdruck, 1905. 

66. Gross, H. "ur nsychologischen "atbestandcdiagnostik. 
Arch.f. ^riminalanthronologie u. Erircinalistik. Bd. 
XIX. 1905. 



108 



67. isserlin, ''. Zur nsychologipch^n xstbestanc'raiagnoetik. 
Monatsschr. f. Psychiatrie a. "eurol. XVIII, 19CP^ 

68. Jung, C. >>. Ileber das Verhalten aer Realctionrzeit bein 
AcroziatioiiFey cerr'mente, Habilitationsschrift, (Anbrosius 
Earth, Leinzig) J.f. Psych. u. Ileur. VI, 1905. 

69. Jung, C. J. Expcrimentells Beobachtunpien ueber das 2rin- 
nerungsvernOgen. Centre.lbl. f . ITervenheilkunde u. Psy- 
chiatric, 1905. 

70. Jung, C. G. Zur losyGholDgischGn Tatbestandsdiagnostik. 
Gentralbl.f. Ilervenheilkuncle u. Pcychiatr.ie , 1905. 

71. Kiesow, ?. Ueber sogenannte fr^i steigende Vorstellungen 
und T)18tzlich auftretende Aenderungen des (Jenfitssustandes. 
Arch.f.d. .Ries. Psych., VI, 1905. 

72. Kramer, u. Ptern. Selbstverrath durch Association. Beitrfi??e 
zur Psychologie der Aussage. Bfl . II, H, 4, 1905-6. 

73. Peters, ','/. Ueber Erinnerun^sassoziationen. Bericht der 
Til. TCongress f, Exr^erinentellG Psychologie. ?, fchuniann. 
leinzig, Barth, 1905. 

74. Riklin, ^. Analytische 'Jntersuchuneren der S.^mrttone und 
Assoziationen eines ?all von Hysteria fLina H.). Psy- 
chiatrisch-neurol. 7ochenrchrif t. 46-52 . 1905. 

75. ""chultze, ?. E. 0. Bericht ilber AsEoziationEversnchG des 
psychologischen Institute der Frankfurter Akaderaie. 
Bericht der TII. Congress f. Erne rirnente lie Psrjrohologie. 
F. Pchunann. Leipzig, Barth. 1905. 

76. Thumb, A. Assoziationsversiiche im Diencte der Soraohwissen- 
GChaft. Bericht der III. Kon^ress f. Exrerimentelle Psy- • 
cholo??ie. ?. Schumann, leifziR. Barth. 1905. 

77. Arnold, F. The Psychology of Association. (Diss.) Colum- 
bia University. Contributions to Philos. and Psych. New 
York. Science Press, 1906. 

78. Baldwin, 3. T. Association under the Influence of differ- 
ent Ideas. Harvard Psych . studies. Vol. II, 1906. 

79. Hahn, P.. Ueber die Beziehun^en zwischen Pehlreaktionen 
und Klan^asEoziationen. (Diss.) Za?ich, 1906. 

80. Jung, 0. 0. Dias?nostische Associationsstudien. Bd . I, 
Leipzig. Berth, 1906. 

Jung, C. G. 

81. Die nsychologische Diagnose des Tatbestandes. Juristisch- 
Psychiatrische Grenzfra(?en, Halle, 1906. 



109 



Jung, C. G. 

82. Ueber die Bedeutuns; des APSociatlonsexrerimGntes f.d. 
"Psycho natholo 3; le. (rross Arch.f. '^^riniinalcnthronoloaie 
u. Xrirninalistik, 1906. 

83. Lederer, 1% Die Verwendans: der nsycholop^ischen Tatbestande- 
diagnostik in der StrafrechtR-nra-jris. Von. schr.f. Zrininal- 
psychologie, 1906, 

84. Levy M, Studien liber die exrerinentelle Bee influssung 
des VorstelluneFverlaufs. I a. II, Zts.f. Pcyoh. JLII-XLIV, 
1906-1907. 

85. Mepser, A. ExT)erirnentell-r)sychologiEche Unterruchtmsen 
flhber das Den'ren. Aroh. f.d. ges. Psych. VIII, 1906. 

86. Pick, A. Hflckwirkung srrschlicher Percervera*;ion auf den 
Associptlonsvoreang. Ztr.f. nsyoh. }'LII, 1906. 

87. ^ertheimer, . Exneritnentelle Untersuohuna;en j^ur Tatbes- 
tandndiagnostik. Arch. f.d. ges. Psych. VI, 1906. 

88. Droirard . De la "Placticite" dans 1 ' areociation dec idees. 
?.ev. ^hil. 64, 1907. 

89. Fllrst, E. ftatistische Untersuchungen ttber ';7ortaEEozla- 
tionen and Uber farailiftre Uebereinstinnung im Reaktionsty- 
pen bei IJngebildeten. J.f. Pnych. a. IJeurol. 9, 1907. 

90. Jung, r,. J. On Psycholr>hysical Relationf^ of the Associa- 
tive Experiment. J. of Abnorn. Psych. 1, 1907, 

91. Meunann, E, Ueber Assoziationsexi^erinente nit Seeinflussung 
der Rerroduktionszeit, Arch.f .d , ges. Psychol. IX, 1907. 

92. Severance, E, and Washburn, V. ?. Loss of Associative 
Power in Words after Long Fixation. An. J. Psych., 1907. 

93. Watt, H. J. Ueber den Einfluss der Seschwindigkeit der 
Aufeinanderfolge von Reizen auf Wortreaktionen. Arch.f. d. 
ges. ^sych. TJ, 1907. 

94. VTreschner, A. Die Produktion und Association von Vorstell- 
unRen. Hts.f. Psych, u. Phys. Erganzun^sband HI Theil 

I u. II, 1907,9. 

95. Palin^:, T. Associative Macsenversiiche . Zts.f. Psych. 
XLLX, 1908. 

96. Pcholl, K, Versuche liber die EinfUhrunpr von Komrlexen in 
Assoziationen von ?esunden und Geisteskranken. Klin. f. 
psychische u. nerv. Krankh. , 3, 1908. 

97. Dunlan, K. A new Tey for Reaction ""ine V/ork. Psych. 
Monog. 10 (2) , 1909.' 



110 



90. Stein, P. '?atbes-*;andE(3iap:nortiFche Versuehe hei Unter- 
Euchun?gefangen. "tcf. Ppych. ill, 1909. 

99. Yerkes, R. M. and Berry, C« £• Aesociatjon Keaotion I'.eth- 
0(1 of I^ental Diagnosis. An. J. Psych. XX, 1909. 

100. Bovet, P. L'orlginalite et la banalite dans les ezneriences 
collectives d 'aesoc iation. Arch, de Psych. 1^, 1910. 

101. Eastman, T^ '^o Reconsider the Association of Ideas. J. of 
T^sych, etc. ]_, 1910. 

102. ?ran2, P. I. Some Considerations of the Association 
Tord Exnerinent. Bull. (Jov. Hosd. for Insane. 2, 1910. 

103. Freud, r. Origin and Develd-^rnent of Psycho-analysis . An. 
J. Psych. ZXI, 1910. 

104. Goissler, L. R. A Prelininary Introsneetive Study of the 
Association-Reaction Consciousness. An. J. Psych' £l ]910. 

lOP. Joussain, A. Le cours de nous idees. Rev. Philos. 70 
1910. 

106. Jun?, C 0. The Association Method. An. J. Psvch. X2I, 
1910. 

107. Kent, G. H. and Rosanoff, A. J. A Study of Association 
in Insanity. An. J. of Insanity, L-XVII, 1910. 

108. Langfeld, H. S. Sunnression V7ith Ile.^ative Instruction. 
Psych. Bull. 7, 1910. 

109. Leach, H. T.!. and Washburn, T'. ?, Some Tests by the As- 
sociation Reaction l!ethod of Mental Diagnosis. An. J. 
Psych. 21, 1910. 

110. Nunberg, H- Diagnostische Assoziationsstudien. J.f. 
Psych. u. Heurol. 16. 1910. 

111. Ohns, Ti. Untersuchune unterwertiger Assoziationen nittels 
der V/orterkennuns:svorgangs. Zts.f.Psych* _F6, 1910. 

112. Reinhold, ^. BeitrSge zur Assoziationslehre auf urund 
von I^assenversuchen. Zts. f. Psych. LIV, 1910. 

113. Ritterhaus, R. Die Konrlexforschung. J. f.Psvch. u. Neurol. 
IJ, 1910. 

114. Rusk, R. It. ExT5erinents on Ilental Association in Children. 
Brit. J. Ps2/ch. 3, 1910. 

115. i.7hiT3r)ie, ■}. V.. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests. 
Balto. 1910. 



Ill 



116. Dauber, J. UebT bevorr.uste Aesoziationen unci vffrwandte 
PhSnonene. ?^ts. f. Peyeh. F9, 1911. 

117. Dunlan, K. ?he Pall-haniriGr , Chronosooine end Chrnnof?rarh. 
Brit. J. of Psych. 4, 1911. 

y 

118. Poncault, r. Ktude exnerimental e sur 1 'association de 
reRsembl ance . Arch.de Psychol. 10, 1911. 

119. aoett, "". Assoc iationsversuche an T^indern. Zts.f. 
^inderhk. 105, 1911. 

120. Huber, E. Assoz iationsversuche an Eoldaten. "tr.f.Psvch. 
59, 191]. 

121. lanfrfelr', !!. ?•. T.u'inrGssion \'d.th TTep^ative Instruction. 
Psych. ':ev. IB, 1911. 

122. Levy-Suhl, ^' . Studien tlber die nxrerinentelle Beeinflus- 
sun.^ des Vorstellunftsverlaufes. Cts.f. Psych. _59, 1911. 

123. Icy and I'enzerath. L'etude exrerinentale de 1 'association 
des ideer dans lee maladies nentales. Oand : Van der 
TIae?^hen, 1911. 

124. Wells, F. L. Sonc Properties of the ?ree Association 
Time. Psych. Rev. _18, 1911. 

125. ^ells, P. L. A Preliminary Note on the Categories of As- 
sociation Reactions. Psych. Rev. _18, 1911. 

126. '.Veils, ?. L. Practice Effect in Free Arsociation. Am. 
J. Psych. 22, 1911. 

127. Wells, F. L. and Forbes, A. On certain Electrical 
Processes in the Human Body and their Relation to Emo- 
tional Reactions. Arch, of Psych. 1_6, 1911. 

128. Whitley, IT. ^. An Emt^irical f^tudy of Certain Tests for 
Inc'ividual Differences. Arch, of Psych. 19, 1911. 

129. Woodworth and Wellsi Association "^ests. Psych. Rev. 
Tlonog. Tunp. 13, 1911. 

150. Aptekmann, E. Excerime ntelle EeitrSge zur Psyohologie 
des psychogalvanischen Phftnomens. Jahr.f .T5sychoanal.u. 
nsychopath. Forsch, 1912. 

131. Atherton, I'. V. and Washburn, I^ 7. T'ediate Associa- 
tions studied by the Method of Inhibitinf? Associations. 
Am. J. Psych. 23, 1912. 

132. Culler, A. J. Interference and AdaDtibility : An Exper- 
imental rtudy of their Relation, with Special Reference 
to Individual Differences. Arch of Pfych. 24, 1912. 



112 



17i7), Dunlar, K. Hi'^r) Chronoscore without Amature f^nrin^R. 
Erit. J. pEych. F, 1912. 

ir54. Eastrnann, ?. C. and Rosanoff, A. J. Association in 
Feeble-ninciea and Delinouent Children. An. J, of In- 
sanity, 69, 1912. 

135. rrafr«T, ?, Ex-oeriinen telle Unters 'jchim^en fiber Grundfragen 
der Assoziationslehre. Arch.f .d. ?ec. Psych. 23, 1912. 

136. Pfenninprer, !V. Untersuchunaen fiber die Konrtans und 
den i,7echsel der •r)cycholo??ischen "^onRtellation bei nor- 
malen und ?r!lhdementen , f Schn 7;ophrenen) . Jahr.f. psy- 
choanal. u. psychoDathol. Forsch, 1912. 

137. Pfersdorff. I'onat.f. Psychiat.u. IJeurol. 31, 1912. 

138. Wells, 7. L. The Question of Association Tyrsos. Psych. 
Hev. 19, 1912. 

139. Wohlgemuth, A. Uebcr die Piichtung der Assoniationen. 
Ber. ttber d.V, Kongress.f. exrser. Psych. Lei^zia:. 
Barth, 1912. 

140. Dunlar, K. A-naeratus for Association Tininfr. Psvch. 
Rev. 20, 1913. 

141. Kelley, ^. L. The Association Experiment - Individual 
Differences and Correlations. Prych.Rev. 20, 1913. 

142. P.osanoff, I. !:. and A. J, A Htudy of Associations in 
Children , Psych. Hev. 20, 1913. 

143. Sutherland, A. H. Critiqu-^ of Word Association Reactions. 
Banta Pub. Co. I^enasha, 7/is. 1913. 

144. Wells, F, L. "^he Personal ?actor in Association Reac- 
tions. An. J. of Insanity, UriX, B, 1913. 

145. Wells, F. L. Professor Ca+:tel's Relation to the Asso- 
ciation I!ethod . Colunbia Contribs. to Phil, and Psych. 
XXII, 1914. 

146. Claparede, E.^ Exr)eriences sur la raenorie des associa- 
tions srontanees. Arch, de Psycholofrie . 59, 1915. 

147. Crane, H. W. A Study in Association Reaction and Reac- 
tion tine. Psych. Rev. I'onog. Sudd. 18, 1915. 

148. Dooley, L, A Study in Correlation of IJornal Gon^lexGS 
by neans of the Association F.ethod. Am. J. Psych JCXVII 
1916. 



113 



C3 


O t-^ 


Ci 


1 f 


,c 


(D 1 


1 


■P c 


<D 


to -H 


Cj 


cS 05 


a 


SZ i-l 


^ 


o f 



•rHOJ-Hoj^Or-i^it-io-Hjirrcrc^io 



Jij:::iE!'H-H(BfHoooaJi-<oo-H 



•HOSaJcScO CO— .OJpHOfiOrHra-H 

a3<D(D<i;o<Dci3fH'H<pf-ioa3rH 
>'D^Eor^E^>f'>&ocoP^cc 



114 



© ^ C 'rl +5 'H c; to -c: c3 iH :i ^ .C Cd «H t>,^ "O 

>s,Q^^CQC3^^0(D•^^o'Hd^^tr) >i-*J p,4^ GprHbConJlH^HH'H 

HajiHc;©o3oojXc:iHOc60>jHC3<DC'-'^<CcJa5+3cac.i^ 

CjHOVH-P*'-5©.Co<D®C<P+'CD'H4::^::iOOOrH^Hta-PCiC 



© !>s >i - 
P C cf. • 



03 o o 



© 

c E 

+^ +^ cu © f-i iH c; 

o©c «H^ C'^v■^^^'^>^>i>><A ^. © 

CS C © >i>s©'H t>st>iOjrHr-l O ^ ©^-P f-i WO f-< A^ -i^ >s 
P, <D ^1 C t3 E ff! ^: iH -C C 4^ © O -H C; r-l "O 4^ -H Jh C -H ^ 
E^HfnP'oai'HaS^HC'PCjHA-lrHtt-H^Cii-lCjEiOr-l 

o©ooiH^s::^:S::!C©>Har-!rH:ic!ca;4^fH«3:i 
ouo'cibrmsc.c E3 fcf 'd iH oJ «h 6ri+j o > CQ "o +3 ,o 



CO "C >^4-^ c—i 0) © O © © i-< 

w!>im ^^fHi-i^V^O E rH&a;rHrH>::: 

H«H©>s©i-'. -P^H©© >srH ©>,EO>Ha3-HT-»t,-i 

■ ' • C ^ 03 0; -P ro 4-- p aJ Jh -o ei r-, +^ 
. d E 
o 
E 



Si ,C O CO O >-i iH 

ricij^'oaJ-HoJc^ 



H-l©P>s©i-'. ■•-')H<I)<D PsrH ©>»fcOHW'<-i--''i-i o*^-*-'a»U-t-'|SH-' 

tHMS::^03o;-P'0 4--Ca3fH'OC;r-, 4JE>C3X'0>-,rHCQ^iCCiH> 

dEEE3oCi::c:PC-PC©i-HwPf-,CKi-HO>-fHOPcaa3H3 
+".H3v-icrx:o©©o5©KC?-<Oj^o©©a3c£+^>H«!cf-i4'i-i 

K CCCOrHCQ t!iO+^ 60-P P- © OJ 03 C/J CC C K P.^ CC 4^ U«H KJ fD «H W P 




CCi 



he 



6r CO C(i 03 4J 

c CO d © c 



E 4^ 

y^ >-. -1-1 uj ^^ I — 1 Ulj t- i O rC t^i — I 4^ 'H 

H © -rH rH 4J iH >v-.H 4^ +-> g CQ tS ^h 03 t>j P r-^ 

^C»Hc3©rHc;oj::o;a3'cao30'C!da;. 

EOrHr(©d"H(D6rC©C 
•H M -H CTlH O ^ ^1 -H O ^1 03 J- (^ -r- w 

Ca3^©<HajCQp. o;o'ox:4-'>o'HX 



CQ 4J ^1 © O 

rI©,QC c04-3fD03t>5C3 

_„-.,,© ,W ^ -H ts^H CQ -H 4J C O 

vL-v>^f-,©OrHOd>&OG3 6!:'C!'HE 

^ -H o: ^ f^ C -^ -H 43 -r-l © f-i f-^ 'H © fn 0) 

__p, , « -'tHOSCJ & CQiH-O P.-D fn-O^H 



+3 pi o 

rt 4^ O <D -H O >; _ _ . _. .... - ^ ^ , 

O C > PhCQiH P-O'H C^'HrH4J 03-H OiH >»|H © 'O C >5'H 
<a 03 ©-H C/i^ 0^ 03 bo 03+3 o C34J4J4J(H c3iH 03rHiH-H^fH 
dO-HMC3jH'HrHc3iH^KC t^-s-H jHWrH+^iH&QOSMCQEi 



>j Gj © o ra 

O '•a iH a rH rH H d C >s bO „ 

P-O'H C^'HrH4J 03-H OiH >»|H © 'O C >5'H 



P,>f>0dOEOrH4^-H 



03 iH ^K C t^-s-H jHWrH+3|H&QOdMCQEi 

^fla5oof-(OOo3'Hoo343oc3d_ 

OlH,QE^O>^flCQ E-OrOCQ 



115 



E 


to oj 


>. 






13 


fn 'H +i "O 


0) 


•H 


•H 


(U ^ 


CJ 


> 


o 


^H 


«H 


f-i 6CO 


•H 


o 


Jh 


c 


O-H 


rH 


M 


c 


o 


•H 


«H ^^ 


O 


O^ 


/=: 



>s,i4 ©rHOO»^C--l©rH!>s>s {s^-H O 
•4->OfH ©•Hrap!OtQ>^<A<rHtsD>-H 
+3'H^ CfH©raora'H(ycQ03tiO<D> 

o-PCotssf-.rCip'Cdcd-PriotiO'H 

P^ OJ -H ^ rH o c3 u P< C w ^ a E P- O ''-2 o c3 b c- O 02 



C3 !>s >s 

}h O f^ >irH M 
o -H © 4J C o $:: 

H G -P «H © -H -H 

C W CO cJ o rC: h 
O P! Ph ?J d P^ 



+^ © t>. 

t>>,V © © r! >.■ © i-H " 
l-PceCCtH-DCOCj 



CQ U 

C >arH C 

O © -O £ "O O > 

oEPtic^,©c:^s:: p +^ 



(H rH 

'C S C >j +3 rH 

oi «H © 4-' +-■> >s j>^ x: r! 

>.+3 4= JZ X: CQ r-1 -C rH W «H 
© J-i fn ^4 



rH4^ce C C^H-DCOej-H O E PtlC^, © C X: C P+^-.H+3 bPc+Jcocj-H E 

oP-pj2aJi-ic3'HrjEC--ifbro:.H©KCJeoriV<^'oKi©J-i^Hf^ 

OEf-iOiC-^XOO^C6^H0O&>HO-H>HErPj-.C6rHrHO+^OP,a3 
P©O©'H^tQECQ4^^iOCQ'OCQ'HCQ<H+3'OC0«H<E«Ha)OaiEaiX: 



^ s x: x: r-i 

t-1 ©rH'o©ES >i©«HK!Ci:a)«Da3 

td fHS'H>OrH'4J4J©'H«HrHflT-l 

•HrHd«H c«Hfsc6oc OH-> c ::;^Mc^o 
oa;G©o3 4--'jH-P(ucwC6:c-Ha;rHrHj3 

03>C>OrHoa3oP©00a3O'HCP. fcf^*H o 



*^ Z B rH^I-^rHCCS P 

aj>Hf-,>5 SH^c^hO >irH 03 

i O -»J -H rH c: <H rQ p. be p r-( 



(-u^OrHOCdo^ 
O -D ^ P (S C +^ 



C-H^^:'(iQOX:fHOC6'HO 

•HCQCJES'ooj'HP'oo^:: 



© 




r- 


•p +5 


t--{ © 


© c3 


0) d -H J-i rH 

>H 03 4:: © CC 


br- E 


m X 


C«H -r. 


•H 4-^ 


C rH b" E 


•M ^H rH 


x: 


C M >^ 03 CO 


> 0? J3 


<D 6!> 


Ki t/3 © -H 


c Qj :i 


f-i -H 


b: P E "o 


fH «H CiJ 


P V. 



^ U © © -«J -o © 

+JS:;-HtiE: rH B CC-O^rH 

© >5 © H C C t>i ^ !>5+^ ^.^ >s ^, C Ci © -H S5 +^ >, 

(D tCo; ©t-H+^rH ©+= P,!x!^ q; ^ ^ f, r-< & r-1 r-1 

tiCt(i«Hoj::5H'crac3cQoo>«H'ca3r-it;;,rr^i 
:i-Hj::'H-^o3:?rH2©'Hd--trHo5^HaJc;cea3 

^4'DSrH>&&j©P£K'0'C!©^<OP-^«H© 



C CO o "o 

E! C C >s >j'0 O >5^ fs 

"D -P >5rH ^ rH «H 

CO p. be (C © 't-t 



fn © >s © 

>s 03 t>j rH -P rH rH 



■^ tu O u^ 



be 

H P^-H rH 



:•''-' (-1 w w -.— K-j I , -T-, ,— , -y-i ,^ ^ »-»5 w t-^) rn ^^ r-i 

;bi<)H Ori^--" CO P,bC(C ©«(-tHJ ^ bobnp-4J c © 

Cp^CErJPCP. ESO. ^b.'!bfEt-l-^N>--»---ipiOrHC6j"E'M 

•Hf^cdSfHCd-HsdO'-^ce^cSaJSffirHoScSV.rHo^iro-Ho^.r!^ 

^ P,.H CQJ2C>-C,it;EJ£tH6f0342X:rHfH«H^Oa!C0'C>CjJx:^O6rOCS 



C3 rH S3 CQ p E -P 

f-jrH ©r;©o3^ (0 x: IV o a p, 

::! OJ -PrH«H+^-H.oC/J>s rHCOfirH^^f^© ^C:>5:=i>st^P^ 

•O «H >j'H <DS:;©^a3rH'HiHN >sro "H O^SH Cl)©-P -PUCOJ^^'^E© 

•H ©4^+> t>»rH © Cj-P >rH'D 60©+^ ErW-HX:^ > 'H >j03+3 CO^ G O © 

fHP.coc3N;^'cis::'^-H-Hs::ho©-p:SOrHbOE©f3Ki^scoc35:!c3orH 

DO::(P-^C;jH(l3(35fHfsCao^HCOOO.C>^OrH'HO«HO^aJMHCO 
rH^rHC0pC0a3c.3«HP,OOJ=:,CI«HC/J.C)O^02O«Hf-|tH^ bO,Q O W) C3 



116 



<D 

C O rH 

C > ::; s:3 Jh -H 0) 

c3^HfcCO>3a)04J^ 

cJoa3iHoiETMc5c6 



Jh 4^ rH (1) 02 O 

CC C. o iH ^ ^, +> -P -H 

OCi-Hr»OCO<L'0 
02 E 'H 05 O nJ 03 p,,0 



+-^ rH«H C 

>i, >5^ C CC <D © >s 

CD-HCOCLXror!® 



^^ -P r-l rt 02 

rH+=-»-- (pfn CBoot^s 

•P+'ci03•-^a;T^>n^^-^ 
EP-rH05KA3b::'C[)a3o 



® 'H ho !>i,-H C iH C. 

C -1-^ c C ,^ 05 a? ^^ oj Qj 

^'Of-.raOcJO-H^rH 

3 02 0Eioj4J^PX3E 



(H 02 

j:: -P Ei 

■p x: >jo 

>5 O H bO 4^ -H 
02t>sos::Ea33>if::o 

" -^ C S f-i O N .H 02 

o c3 pi ^ o c5 :3 
o E ^ +^ O -o H 



>^ 



03 
H O 



117 



u 


■f^ 


iH 


o 


J^ 


CO 


CO 


W 


U 


•H 


•H 


a 


1 


^ 




0) 


1 


P- 


© 


iH 


iH 


f-. 


•P 


oe 


o 


X 


>H 


(Q 


b? 


:i 


•H 


•H 


iH 


-O 


E! 


P, 






<a 


© 






a 


iH 


c 


iH 


rH 




B 


03 


bO 


f 


tC 


rH 


fO 


fC 


© 


CC 


> 


OJ 


C 


E! 


;~i 


JJ 


(S 


!3 


C6 


© 


P, 


CO 


d 


ti 


x: 


«H 



<D r-i O 

ri ,Q -P ^1 
o c3 M c; 

•H 'H c3 ,£3 • 

^ o <D E 



(d r! > 
o Ei M 



O f^ 0) rH 



H W <D W B CD 

d ri -P ;3 o > 

OMOrHO SH^HOC3,Ca? O K'HJ-iO 

•H Co -P -H ^ +J S ID -H > fcO 4= >s O iH W Q) tQ C3 'H 
+3 H C6 +^ +5 C -H p. O 'H -H -H +3 -H -H ::i M W iH +^ 

■"■• c6(DOe3oa5-PCQW<DCfHOrQo::3o 

P^tiOCSBpH-OOfi^OOCQ-P 

a r:i c: O P-'H c5 o -Q M rs PJ c3 

■^ CO'HiHCQO+^raePr 



1-. pi f-4 w w w 

•P ,Q CJ tJ C iH 
O O 'D ^ O O 

«HbDC>P->'0'H 



118 





t>i. 




























CD 








c 








H 




C 






w x: 




iH 


-p 






0) 


c 




H 






CD r-t -P 43 


> 


Q} 






CD 













i 




43 


•i 


fee 


fH -O 


c 


r-^ 






Ci 




CG 


rH 




C 


a 


c 


c 




> 









^1 




iH 


«H 


•H 





CD 


c 





s 


CC 


C 


© 


£ 


CQ 


o 


c 


<c 


O 


cb 


rH 


•H 


•H 


ce 


CD 


K 


1-: 


>itQ 


3 


00 


2 


03 


e 


43 


P-4-> 


(£ 


•H 





o 


<D -O 




rj 


^, iH H 




•H 


OJ^H 


43 


g) 


r-H 




CG 


.i^^ 


2 


iH 


•H 




> 


bt 





br 


•H 


> 





^ 


•H 




;i 


•P 


c 


(L- 


r^ 


•H 


+3 


c 


o 


Jh 


u 


g 


r^ 











C/J 


iH 





CD 


c 


b: 


u 


C 


Pi 


•H 


+3 


>H 


u 


c 


c +-- 


'C 


^, 


o 


CD 




!i; 


m 


•H 




M 


r! -H 


C 


r^ 




E 


CD 


ti. 


CD 


•H 


CD 


P 


p 


£0 


»•-) 


f- c 


•H 


K 


CD 


(D 


ci 


P 


c 


P 


P 


-O 


Ti 


c 


P-i-l 


^ 


03 





p 




t> 


^ 


fC 


<H 


CJ 


Oi 


CD 


>. 


c 


c 




G 


o 


f-i 


n 


^-, 


n 


o 




G 


c 


S 





!s 


c 


<D 


f-, 


CD 


c 


"£ 


CD 4= 


C 


CD ^ 


;:? 


> 


E 


cs 




(- 


o 


TS 


O 


p 


P 


CD 


o 


ti 




•H 


43 


c 


CD 


r! 


0: 


43 


P 


•H 


P 


t^ 


CQ 


:=! 


TD 





cd 






CD re 


43 CD 




%i q; CD 


•C CD C > 


4J 


•rt Ci > -o 


CD t> CD CD 4--' 4-- CD -H 


c:43 


43 rH •'"' -H 43 rH CD 


> -H P > C iH 4 iH 43 CD 03 43 


CD C -D 43 rH 


CDracS4--435:!c6»H 


w ri CD p rH fl rr 


I-! (U C C C CC 


PcdoPoCcCh^S-hoo-h 


d crrH 03 CD «H 


.0 fo -n Ct CD 1-1 t-< 43 


CDraCCC0:?6C'Hc!'HPoCQE'H4- 


CD "H rH V^ E Jh 


•H c br p 43 ^. 43 2 


PCCf-tSr, -cri«H43043CDCDarHO 


•M CO 43 :i .r^ 0) CD 


-o aJ P p fe.'--H43 


PP43C&PP«t-'PPc:ino^«HP(S 


> ,Q CQ XI C J= ^ 


r!HaJj::p-r-PC 


CDC4>PC(DtHOCJCD-H'OCN^ 


CD 3 CD Cd SC CD 


a5oG:::P->od 


P.Sc6 43oP'c3«Hepj::ce-HCDC 


-o to P 43 G > P 



-o 


:,i 43 


ti 


n CD 




4-^ CD 


7t CD P CD >5 <D 


re 43 -a 


r; CD CD > 


43 


c 43 


'D 43 CD 43 i-f rH 43 >o |H 4- 


<D C C CD C" 


C C > P -H 


c 


CD 


^CrH--^43CCSCSS::S4303 


rH a: csj 43 •>-' 


P ri -H p rH CC 43 


•H (S 


m 03 


j:!43CDo:cacGc6PoaiG4rc 


E x: 4r 43 c cC 


QJ 43 43 CC CS rH C 


C -H 


rH P 


cu^P!::'H^pp-r<rH>sfer;p 


r3 -H P m =! + • 


P- Ji K r-1 P :::' CD 


° -t; 


d 43 


>P(UPJ:S0JOCDX:=!'O-HC3 


^ P CD -H Cfl P 


Oi 2 Ti 


JZ P 


ro a 


<D > CD C^ p C 4-" 4^ 43 C6 C; 


"O P "w CQ re C 


P tt E fH -== 


p p 


C -H 


P)^<D+'Ka)6rct>sCDCDpp 


CD CD C to C 


P P -H E -^ i 


!=! :i 


^ -c 


:i p P CD <D P.-H ^ E p- P :i -H 


E4^ ^ c6 S E 


C fC ••-> -H CQ 


CD CC 



zi 


C CQ -H 


43 rl fH 


43 


P 






•rC t>v. 


<D p :::■ 43 43 43 


C £8 CD 03 43 


CO 43 C 


S CD 







P rC ra P 


•rH CD C 43 C 


CD rH CD CD P rH P P 


:i tJ 


eg 43 > 

? CO -H 




■H 


43 43 j:^ 43 


" X -H -H CD I-' 4-' CD 


rHcCPrH-H-QClHcS 


CD 13 





P 


C P c: 


cdooPocCcdP 


J^Of-. rQOC0CD0343 


P P c 


C C2 




43 


CD .M 03 


PaJc343ci5titQC 


C3".-<0-HP43>d-H 


-H CD 


P t3 -H 


P 





^ P CQ 


C CD > " -r-^^J rH 


43r-;X: CQ-HtH 05 WlH 


bO'c 43 


000 


P 


CD 


C li -H 


Op'HCDT3 OOSrH 


oJcDja^PrJCDOi'H 


•H C 4- 


E CD 


CD 


rH 


CD Ei nz) 


043>Pc; C^«Ho: 


CDEa3>Pc.)x:oE 


P -H OC 


•H hr"o 


X! 


CD 



rH E t/J 

03 c3 pi 
P C cfl 

03 >sH 
ft-o P^ 



E O CQ 
O -H 3 

C pi«H 
0"-iCD 



C CD 
CD rH 

P ^ 

CD o3 

«H ^ 
«H P 
•H O 



CQ (D x: 

Ei h>i CQ > C/3 OO 

O 'OH43 4-3rirH •H'H 43 CDO<D rHP 

•HCDfHC3CC!0&3rH43'OrHP rH43rHCDrHC!'H 
OrHCjPcSCDCDOdOCaJCS >jXJ 03 XI rH 03 E Jh 
•H X X: O P fer43 .,-( tH (D d P rH C/3 -H o 'H X P p Cj 
P.«3rH43 Qj.H C p,-HrHrH CD-H Co CQ'Hro Oj O 0*H 
CQpOC0rHrHOo43tH43cX(Da3rHCD43X«H03 
Dr:iOC30'HrHP-HCi;pi'Hrisq.CDCDfHO 



ro ^ CQ O *H P<43 -O Pi+3 Pi P O E ' 



§«s 



'O O p; rH 



u « 

•H ^H 
•H C 





pj 


a 


c 


Q) 


o 


w 


u 


C 


•H 


0) fD 


•H 


o 


^ 


•H 


3 


•H 


tL 


tH 


C<H 


O 


« 


© 


«H 


M 


O 


boo 


P 


O 



a > 



O 'o c3 cC 



O c3 

•H 'H 
O H 

o <v 

Jh O 

P.P 



o 

03 6f 



119 



4^ +^ 
I C « 
O O 



O -H t3 



iH «H iH iH O T* i> 'H 

^+3 >H OJrHrH-P'H'Ci 

J-. oao3c3'H4J3 

rH^E;tOOC!«H3ti 

'ooo3o■^io^^^C 



I E-H 

' r; P 



«J +^ d O C >»-»^ 
4^ P O :3 (U ^1 C 
>H -H H f-. f-i O © 



iH iH 4--' > Oi t: i-, 

O C tf O >■-. CC <D 

•H C e J^ Ci E rH 

> .H td p p, oe O 



•4^ © 
U) c 

fcO'D 



P P 









© 




© 










































© 


> 




t> 








© 
















-c 
















© 4^ 


•H 


03 


•H 


4--' 




4J r-t 


c 












4^ 


m C 




4-' 






w 


rH 


<D 


> 


© 4J 




4-' 


C H 


c ^ 


© 


t^ 






bp© 


C 


c ee 


O 


C 


t>i 






aJ 


P. 




t-'. 


o 


o 


O 


© 


■-' 


ca 


C 13 


P 


B 4^ 




> 


© 


o ^ 


•H 


© 


•c 


P 


o 


o 




CQ 


P 


© 




c 


•o 


tH 4--> 


CC 


ro 


© 


3 


C 


•H 


•H 


•H 


© © 


+^ 


4^' 


rH 


03 


© 


^ 


O 


m 


c 


p 


4^ 




•H 


•rn 


l-H ^ 


•H 


P 


O 


C 


4-3 


Oi 4^ 


4^ P 


o 


g 


© rH 4J 


P 


© 


© 


o 


K) 


© 


4^«H 


c 


w 


03 


P 


P 


£3 


60^ 


•H 


cd 


ri o 


c 


f-i 


^ 


^ -^ 


cc 


o 


o 


O 


O 


aj 


'M 


C 


K 


§ 


fO 


vH 


-O 


© 


O 


P 


P 


C3 tH 


t 


6 & 


P 




o 


c 


i< 


c 


fs 


06 


•r^ 


•H 


ti 


© 


© 


iH 


P r-! k 


© 


E 


© © 


{>J 


o 


§ 


o 


o 


© 


N-l 


o 




P,«H 


ro -D 


«H 


Pi 


P ^ 


K) 


C3 


© 


© fD -rH ^ J3 ;C 


o 


P 


o 


4--' 



c n © 



P 4J 

ri © 

43 iH ' 

4= x: 

;:J 4^ 

bC 03 



C iH iH O © 

■i^ 4J©33'H©0 (H 0-© q; 

CiHC^i*HtHi-!i-'-H -rH cSJ>t\rH 

-• "* © 043-M 3J3 4- CC4-' p O-HrH^ 

iH-Ht5c:of-*H4^K;'HCrHc:c3P4jP{^ 

•rH 43 ri "H O CJ © C P r<; CS -H C8 © © O O i-i 

E03p,EC-<-'O©'oob0s:;*Hp>©T3 o3 



sd © 03 



>srH 



C -H CO iH pH C 



O -H 

p p 



•.-: c3.QEOCC©^^f>s^^•HC0C•H0jI-^r^CH>•^ 
>'HO-Hrt-HO'a p,^ 'HbOE'HrHPffimrCl P-p 



1?.0 



rH+^<DOjHC4::a3(D(H'H+JrH-PrH 

J-^pp,f-iO<UO>c3^0iHK!O^H 
OCcaoarHE<D.HOK!-Pc3fHC3 
CQ::J»-3<H-H<DC8mrHp, c3<J3>PwtQ 



+3 4^ 

03 «H 



HOG 

n 0) 5b 






-P o 
© IH 
•H ^ 

+^> C5 
© o 
p p 



•H O 
02 -H 

c © 

•H O 



d -H 
CO fH 

^ .H -r-l 



O C o 



^ o 

O P 



+= 4-' 

Cj P 

cr 6.' 



•H «H 

CO C 

. 03 -H 

o c 
E 3 



© © © © 

KJ > CC P, © -P 

ri -H iH o 00 4J cc 
o K) 03 e E © -P 

3 C -P -H S rH U >j 

coa3i-i>-ioo©>H 

CIPPO^COPC 

©ko3c8-H^f:> 

KiKOrHOOTHQ; 



CO d © 

P U "H C +' +5 C © rH <u 

C 4-' 4^ .H p, CO -H > a) rH iH 
© OJ COrH E'HP-H+J QJX! 
f-i(i;Q;.HOOPPcQ©C«J 
© 4-^ C ^ ^ M ca -H OJ rH J^ p, 

.COC-E+'PCU H-HQidrH 

'c5m>. c3oSEr:ME^;.Ha3 

C3 P,fC vWO-H-H ©©CIJ-O P- 









P- iH 






to 


E+^ « 






6 


c c f^ 

o a o 






c 


1 GP 






o 


P CC 4^ 






E 


C E-H 


6r 




o 


(3 © i-l 


■P-P c 




K 


0. 1 I 


E! Cth ^h 






•W 4^ rH 


© c6 cfi E 33 






C5 C CO 


iHCrH'C'O OCO'H 






iH © M 


cda3P^,cc22 


^1 




e c © 


fHO^O©£0'a 


ce 




E -HP 


©•H+ooOP^CrH 




O E "-< 


P.^HrHCmj^OCS 


3 




O © 1-4 


a3«HJio©OErH 

rH<SSO'a«Hghr 


o 






o 





























P Tl 






© 




01 






© 








P 




^ 


C C P 




4-T 




ci 




+f 


> 








C 




p> 


03 05 


c 




cn .-c 


iH 


o 


c © 


c 


•H 


>»C 


© 


c 


© 


o 


© 


P,J2 


© rH 


::! bo 


C3 


C! 


fn rH © 


© 


CO 


fn C6 © 


rH 


05 


iH 


•H 


•H 


© 'O 


c 


oi 


O "^ 


4^ 


Jm 


C5,Q rH 


r! iH 


O -H rH -Q P 


O 


a3P 


S-< C 




!::< 


•H ^ 


•H 


bO 


g ^-S 


a 


ri 


m H ^ 


C( 


•H 


c /:: 


O 


O -H 


P 4J 


> «H 


U 


c 


CO -H c6 


P, ^ CO CO 


fH 


>4 


E 


o 


c 


CO x: 


a 


J-, 


f-l iH 


q3 


o 


C rH C; ^H 


(^ 


::i p -H 


O 


^ 


o 


^H 


•H 


•H © 


o 




© © 


B 


o 


rf P^ ti 


CO 


© 


O MH 


ra 


Ph CO 


03 


C^ 13 rO 


o 


V 


Pi Ci 



ISl 



6D-P S-O d H <DtiO+>©^OJ2 

•HC3OC3ErHOC0C3 P,-H C3 CS «H -H cS -H C3 ^ 



•P O 

^ Jh .^ ^ ■■ -, — 
CCo5-H0OfH>Hw„ 



P, O CO O Jh +3 



> -P 60,-M «H -O rH 
i^i-if-iOOCJrHr-IOaJ 



•Dm o 
^4^j^(D4JC>Hbr(c«HEJ^ 



rc©-P>r!05^|X3t:cSc3(r<£r!OSCfHrH-H+3^bCCCoC=i>C&2-PO 

QiOJoJOGJiHPtDvHt'Pxoocoe+^rs^t^stfrf+'fs+^f.iCeeeio 

iH'D>0'0«NCQ^-PP-KO^E'H^HtQbCOE "^^X: Q bOCQja ©H'HJS 



© x: ^x: -p -p 

o -p .^^ >; >-■ K! p, K :i ^ . . 



m^ >oPP CQjo^ pp c 



^ W CO Q) -D ^ 

SrH'rH4J-P<D O C 'D^H^ O© 

• C C >H !5 © b: a) bf C -w 03 rH 13 -p :=f 
■c^!4Ja3•r^QJ4^oc3cC- ■ •-• ■ 



u ^ P B ^ Oi c^ C p CO ^ e 



>5 c M ^ bO 



QJ ^ ^ «f-l ,V -P bl>^ w 

©© O C;©©^^O03,C'C-P©P- 

da;©a5^^iP-f-iC!o©a3«Hap,f-t© 

MfHP<r-iO©OX;OrH^sVi 
«H-PC6P EPi-ICQOJO-PO 



jr -p o f^ p -o ^ 

G -P br c o .M cs .V a o o 

_ ,.. _ _ ?-(C-H.HCo ©oeOoP-H 

>HOoo^,^<'o^ir^o©o^oor^a3^ 



ga 



<Ory©0;5:!E'<HmrHjH+3C^>iOVHO.-VPr>^ 



^ e o3 



kfn^iciroceti-HeSc-HGRJo'HocooooJ-iO©© 
oceP,^p^©cca-H^o^fHripHcdiH^oP,nxp 

^ECO-OtCOCEl C"iH Cj O 'H XI P *H E O OJ fO Kl K P^ aJ 



^ aJ ^nnD e 



P, C rO O 

o-p e o 

fs a) -H ^ 



6 «H W P.fC © 

iH -p -p ^ «H x: r*- w rH -H (u +3 x: P* 

03rHC/i©'H+»O©-HfHC)C502B02 

cq©oP'X*cSo;ho5-pVix:*h>hc5 
P< ^ > w ^ o x: 'o •'-. ti bo o E: ■ ~ 



x: 

o CO -p c; © © 
: >a £3 P* CO a CO -H p> p^ c:i tH 

CSrHCjCOiHC3©'Df3cac!Ji^P> 
tu -r-, rH -H x: -H -H O ,-M O i-l O C3 O C3 3 

p^+3 p ch p> x; f; ?H a CO «H C3 B ci Pj o 



12; 



■*^ - t-i 

60 O CC 
CQ O W 



03 fcC 

to no "O 
r5 ^1 (D 
C3 O r-l 

o & a 



<D fca (13 4^ 

t>0 4J>H O ©OWrH 

©•Hc3ofHOor!o+^+5-p:3^Ha)v-ic3fci)0'Hbooa3 
fc0E:^HrCc3OrHc3oc3©cGoci-P03fHa3e >-ta3,C© 
c cj fcc a rH G rQ ^ c'j fl P o c o K ^ 60 p, ra P-, ra w iH 



© 03 O ^ ^ r-i ^^ ^ +-> NCOiH 

•H©c. nc-<Hocc:wcCVt'Hc:Gooj©cea;'Hbr4'M©oroVi'H© 
j^aiT-iteoJ^P-HOEi+^o^'rirH^Jf., ,H^::!^K£!a:-Hc5.H^,rHaJ^c 
rC ^ b: 40 c o cu ^ Oi E CO *H +3 P- © c. 4- «i-( c +J ti 6: ^ t: tc c «H ^ 4^ «H 



x: ■*-' © © x: +3 

© 4J © ffi 0; © © ^ C3 P- O r-'ri P © 

ClJ-ifnCCbP© ©4^CQP-Eror!bi'HOf-.©©C^E!C •H'CCJ^rH 

•Ha303:r(l;K5>-^4^©03OEe8EW^^•<^•r^©^o^.!^©•r-^©f^O•H^^^^ 

^r-H©fHr-i©x:K;4:::ffio:3:i-ic5r!of-.rCx:r:ic;TH5-i^,^oo 



4- 6r.c 



P /:: 43 «H o PC 



Cf:ra'DrH^44J'Cl3CQ«>-l 60,0 60 



w 

CO 02 C © ^ C 

0^ 05 43 rH JC 6C © Oi eC E w 'H r! 
c; ©rHaSr.cQrCC >sr^ ^^ f-i 

U2 O J= Co Cii 4^ 60 x: -^i rH CD 6 




rH © ^ j:; 60 

©03 ©4^0 M +^ ©©l-lE©C©4^rHC 

©0©CCf-.©'OiH'CrH 60a'iO6':T-'o^r-('.H'O 

x;a;:icO-Ho©c:'Hc:ccip'aoooc:cea3a; ©^(Cl 

.H^iD'^gPrHC;j-,a3©-H-p)^HOfH-^J-itH©&43S 
•i-s^ t)j 0J4:> B«H^«HiH,Cr-|«H'0 03 6.'1X -O P- TD M Ci «H 



© 4' © JC 
© > C ^H O 

Oi G rH -H -H 4-" 



© s: 

•H O Cd 4^ 

:i tH © fo w 
cri 'H ^ O -H 
CO rH a O C 



^ ^ © © 

ox:E'ofc0'O 'ofcO r-icj «H oG4::4J P^ 

434^?H.H:=!C©4^rH0,i<i^rHCjO3O3C6DC3+3©rH^X5E 

o-^©^i-i:io 



C3 O 03 

t^4^}.^^034JCJO 

^W,Q4J>jC0fH^ 



^<©Jhcq ©o3cio:i©r-ioo 

OC3c3g^O,C04JrHf-(rH:^iHi:: 

H P- 60 U P +3 0: r-i C3 604^ U iH P ,i4 



123 



03 S iH © 

C d;y fH cd s:; 



P.roOO'OpOP.JD'H^itDCO ©CJbO P-P,(D -P 

GfHCQ C3 Cj-H C5+3 to Co O c3^^^C-P.Hr-l,E:©C U 
CjO'HOfnX: CC3-P C3 <DO+> O C3MO«HrH ©00©'H 



^ -p+^©a3+^^T3CE rCi P-£ 

^^^•r^©r^^!,C©•HO^3^!a!:i03O©XC^J2CQOV1a5hf'PObCf^C0 
03©^H-ioPp(H^rHd D'^ rH^PiJ-iTHOp!c:f-.e6rHCD-HfHa;OX: 



O bfj^ -P «H m Pi O 03 t>C+^ 



+^ ©,0 4i ® +^ P-^ Ai © C 

la V) n ^ s p ©+3 0J c Eoocoao 

SO>-iOoeO>sCiH-HP,TH600!O05aJOP 

>HOj::OOCerHO05-HOESceOiHfHc!©O^OOpE!'HC 
■P COi C C4::<H*^iHr^ C P,{G'a OrC!.yrH Cl-P O Eo C^ CQ OJ=: 



© ^ © 

©■p o 4^ B © 

C ^ 03 P,rH > 



1^ 



d S: r-i 

W (A C CO-Pr!«rHrV© 

CP. O-HCEKOC'HO^; 

SoPocsJ©a3^-H::i 
«H p bTH P.X E -P O'J a- 



-p • bfi 

c: © fc c 

Ce:*H'c+^+ eoj©>h-hx;43 

.. _ EPiCe;::<©CK!+->rHoerfV4C^fH 

cSrHd:=(rHocr© o cjooj^s-r-i oP. :ia3 

ocQ^HoPEo.i^.ao'ooP+'brcOrOro 



© -o © 6c 

-P C > be CO P- hC C © 

*H ^ET-i©s::©©-t^-Hc:oc 
+:'>5p-Hft:(coee©-<-ip'Hcp-Hj^r' 

OrHO^ 05 Pi OPiH+=4:-H<S+-^X ' 

O P, P. CO P O iH + . 



P,'D 



+3 «H CQ CO 43 -P U £Q E br^H -P «H 4^ P- 



j:: x: c © 

bI-4o 511'+= rH © O C x: 
C iH "H (B til tS P -H ^ 4-- 
p © -H c -H r-! o ••-' 
CU +3 P 



© © © cC 

4^ bCx: S rH O 



■ }^^ ^H r-\ += -t^ 



N © C! 43 © 

CPPt5iHrHf>+3C©©43 

ooJoocJrioJajP'ooo 



O'oC'T3C0o>3P,c}43fHC3r5r3c3OB©oa3ooc3r30jajP'ooo 

^<O'H'HC5X:4^c3P*H4JE;r-HCSrHO©J:3POXrHo03rHOOO03O 
O Ci) -P P bC43 U E O S t3 CQ ,Q J> tH ^ br43 ^ w 43 ,Xi bO<H G3 bOX: O p4,Q 



124 






60 



•H-*-3^HOiHOCDp^OiHr3000Ji^C+3^(U 
JC Oi > Vh CO P- E ,c E: O ftH C3 O OJ t(H >i o- o Q Kl b'.) C 



fH ^rj CO ^ 6DCD n X ^^«H si oo 

jHOrH&OO0ifHOa»Hc!03(DjH>j>rH 
•"■ '■ '^ •- '^ -• fn -H^ CQ P,-P O -H 
O tK-- CG fl CiJ U iH ^H 



r-^^ a: o 

_ceceoj>5Cjoo'o 
- - 



cH-rtC cOf-.j::j-ijnr-ii-iox:cS 
*H «H CO fj; P^ o 6c a^ «H P ,Q o fo 



^ p 

Coo 

r* <-• t. 



(D -P 



CDCKCDP'sKiOO'OIDECrC^-it^a'C^ 
P^ O 6c a^ «H p.,J2 O fO Al r-' O CU iH 03 C ^ U ••". 



J-, th c o o :; ^ 

O Cj Cd C ^ rH O 

iH ^1 f-. ^ ^ p ,a 



^ <E 4-^ «H ^ O 03 

rHSrl^H C-P JS^^C-HEOJ-P-MPC 

iHfl6<rC-HrH-PbCtOO-ME(OS+=fHr-l 
•Hr-<'H(l)jHSO'H3c30C-P;C-HP, vHCjP, 



o c P, jr re CM 

SoofH«H^ac3<c'o 60,0 
B "H 6c,a ooQiHcaic^cEo 



0) O -P +^ <U E =! 

03 60 Ci P,4:> ^H «H 03 p. 6." O O ,y +^ 

4^^o6f6:>Ea3cO--tt;oi-Ht>sbo^,ofHOCCa3a3Mcot6ccoo<D0 
cCCQjH::iooMx:^Ha3o^sa3aioMx:o:Sr:a3^^+^::<fH(i)ri>sXr-i 

>-. CC«H PfH >-i ^ C'DiH'Cl-P"-i,y 6r ^Q C/irH^CCX'O CO EOiHos OCQ p. 



+3 ro ,hc!,C C!«H 

«H«H^E:cC,irigiH60 



,« c ca «H 6 
o ^ 

p, 4= - 

«H -P &j "C O CO 6 



-O ,k«^ C +^ 



•HS::Sr-la3'oCQiHOC3'^6:P,i^ 

^<cSe6c5'Hjic/j03'HO)cSooJo 
pa3r-ia3>HEa3-^-PSP(P(«H,rH 



1—1 tJ 
g: P ,i^ 03 C C 



n .C «H W O- O ,Q iH 4 



^ ,c j:: fC ^ 

n o cii c "o ci 



,C C +3 4J C 03 'D 

otxi^-H:3-Hai)Hce 



iH «(-l fD 03 P: ,-^' 'O P ,H 4J n 60 

OC 0,CfHC3P.Cj3'H(DC/3(DCO-PB5 -OCQCQ-H 

lU O d Cd 60+^ ^f-<4^a3C3'Hprf^H03 4^a3Of-iC3>j03C0ce03'a 
PlO'Ho O OjO+^OrS J^ CCC Jh P, c3rHC5-H+3 :^-Pa3c3 C3^fHC3 

j^ Ki fe ^ tij r^ . . ,^ g ,o ,Q o: -D P- CO K^H G 'H CO j:: U P C «H O CO P, 



Ph+> N ^ ,0 tH ,Q >h 



+3 

^ +^ ^ 

H H O 



CfiA^i -po© +3(1) ©K+3-i^c co-po) 

niOC'OjsdCQbOCQ^+JOiCjrH'HC-PpiO'O 
^ifHOCJOfndbCCTHorirHCd^CS-OroO-'-i 
•P Ph^D 0-P O ^1 <D N GrCi'HtH e-PH''-5N'H^ 



60 
•P O+^.ttJrH+^'D'O © 
'OrHCjrH^HOrHCQ 
•H © Oj Oj ^< O Cfl 



rH ^ -P -P -O 

^ r-\ 42 c; "c bo Jii 03 CQ © (D t; C d X c; © 

•H0g©dce^H<r>HO'co^3f-J-.a;<i5f-, a^^SricCjH+^^ieC'H 

CiO-cCfHrM^^rff-iO>H"HOOV^^Cd©^©a;-PO^rH-P.H=!E!dca 
CrEl'0>r-'«H«H-P'C<H P ^H^,C+3 C3 OX-C d ^ Oi ^-P P V} P,0 G'OfH 



P, C!© COC £0© 

e^©TH«(-i> ^© .H^»^^'^o cwto^-p 

aSCQ^«}'HrHb:+^^r-:caOCGC-P<I'-'-'KV.0}S©»s-H,;OfH«HGa3O 
J-,Tia3XcCCj'Hc0P-Hr3OC8-H-rHOC!0eOt-lOOd^O03^ >-jrH P 
P> 13 CO O ^ > «H r-H tJ O to OJ O iH "O --< C P «(-. O P «l-l O +' ^ P- bC C P- W 



j::©rHCj©©t>f'GfH+>X; -P ©.C © Q 

OiHrH©0JC. 300,000) CC'C'Oj-i.CEb^U P©,-^©rCb 

^P,r-iooo:::'al©^©^HOCa}'HC-Eos::-Ht-ort 

■ ■'—J — '» r-*'— — . . ^-v « , /T< ^> ,-» »■» I —J j^ f-y (-• /-\ c frt fe 



j-i cd © 

o^ e 



P E5 CO 



+2 C3 



P, P p. o o 



P.-P 



I -a p t: 



PiOSOOOiH-HOSC 

^ 4= & ,c: 0^ c:, A«; P.^ 



x: 

P 03 ^ © ::! © 
X 0^ ^ P © 



© +3 © rf p. p. rH fD rC © © 

.Qta'O P> ©©©fc';6L'©©^4Jer-l'ClE Er-tpO>0 ©>)'t-H 

ocOPtC"Hp.^t>oPci+'COocjc;'HCa3'ciH-Ho3Pa3cS br'P o rH 

rHr-iaJaJCO CC'HO CS'f-irH'HCDrH©-POO& SCS^CCCCP P-'r*2^P 

bt!,n o -TTi^Q 4-: ,c; ro «H ro Pr'fi > b.0 C o.^ oa ,c cc o P. c ,c B o; k p Cm p 



© © 

tT; V rH 03 O -P 

bO SsiH >H O S 60 O QJ ^ C3 "H ,0 .H 
ri.CCl}©rHO'Hcd^OX' 



g ^ ^ O tiCC o 



o o 



;3 bP«H © 



^ p, >-l 

.« o Ts n «H E: 
o c 



P< o 

bO 



ri^Cl}©rHO-Hcd^OXe0^HOp-PC>3HT<O©^iHc3PC5j,Cg 
•rT,^+3^6r^,CrHHO(HomOC/JtHGP. KlPWP(0,Q>sbr^0'D'O0P 



1S6 



0+^a><D 0+30rH©nWrMHoW>-«H0^ 

^ O ro P, -H fn , 



C+j.h6Dp;o£:;c3-pc3c'H^hqKP^c5P. OCiO-HKrH 

<^JCJ,t!;rDC;O•HOCCo^^Pif:i0O^5g^^OOr^O^^OO 
-D rH CJ O p. bO e e tCX: b: O M P.-P -H «H ^ Cj U ^O ^^ ^ --^ 



© P O -C 

c x: E f- :^ 
C -H K r! ri c P 

SPCC^^MdC 



Cj J^ ic; 4:: CJ P © i-H © ^ ^ 

J-iC50iH4'4-'Cet-K©P£:'Ha3Ea5rH 



^^w^^.._-^Mc;j=;(5r:oc;i-fr!OrH'oi'^p:io;c'©?i-i-HO 



UC^^aodtH 



© o C e 
..„.,^_„„^r:i-i-Ho 

&2 © ?-. no C',C O >5 i; O P XI 






! ^ © cH 
^j C O H ,- 

© cs -H -H b:' d 



© 0+^ p,c ©O -P+3 

oj S :i +^ ri (d © P--*-' •i-icdws:!Kce©a3 
- - - o u x: }-, 



•*-■ 4.-^ -ri ti v« uw >- ^-^ n i*- ^■' ^- tJ >-« -I— '^^ u^ v^ ui,' r- -*- w^ -» • v^ 

CrJo-HCC'L ©cS-H-Hbiid-HaJS^i+^rioj© p.+J .1-1 cd w c cf/ cC © 
•HeCo^<j-i©;=!iH P.,f<; o4'^^©oo^ioF'.HcO^Hf-ic3-r.of-<j:^ 
j:: br x 00^ br;«H oi &j ,c c: Bs co 4^ ^ k <h 4^ ca +^ P p. b' 4^ co c 4^ o 



+3 4-> © 

^ ^ x: ^ © ,k;c©4^sp»'0'c 

OC:f-Ob.'^C©E O^V4iN4--EP©EF^^OC;^©OOPrH^© 

O©?-,CC.Hci,K'B3>iOOW'HC;JOC0e!-i©-^OOrH©>-)O.HrJn3,bi^ 
rHf^E'.SrHV.r!XOPcCd^©OrH05a!.rHEMf-i-'-!^P>-i'GO4^-H 

«H p P, c-«H ra -o CO 4? ^ ;C ,2 P^^rc <h <( ; «h > w u o E CQ o-i br4^ E oj P. 



©^t/j © E 43©©© P--C © © ^^ 

>, (D O X: -^ r-i K' Lj U -H U iH iH -O C W CS O -C 4^ P O O 

c3cQc6ncJt-ij:::::^a;p;ro^s::o,Q^ P.^h a3Ea3>s?-,J-iCD.H.HOoc: 
>sO4:;ce^i©a3oowrHO.^o.HX2oSP0f-ia5c^4J©jHC s~. x: ^ 
P. C ^'o^'a4^j3 h*tH 04J^'HtH © o croi bTOfo P cj i-,a oj P k^ 



© © X, 

Xi CO ^ j:: t'-i OJ ^^ o o © 4^ © 'o 

bO© rH+=CQ EP.-H ^C43a5t-l=!of-(04^bri br©rH,t^© 

•o*H:i+5t;rH03CQ'o^icad,au^-f-H>H-HOP,rJJHa3fHjH^J-<K)(So 
Op^OOO•>-^oOOa3^^^^©rt•HCliP-OHe30CJ!•^c^330v^©^^& 
Pi © O > > box rH4::^4^ OE^ ^E: O O 0,Q+^0«H^,O^rH ^fStn+J 



127 



-PCQ-PmrH<I).MbDC OCrH-P-P<DK) 

C3c6rHc3OHOC0'H-P>j^EC3 Cfl'HrH'OW 
OOO^CC'H (DJnXincScS-H ©O 00-H.H 



^ E E P^ 



f-; X ns iH -P PiM -t^ +^ O "D TJ 



a; -c P 60+^ b: .ii! +-^ :? CD r-l 

CiCeCJCS-rH-rHCrHCSO+^-H 

o^-ia^<l3<Pr^:^a;^•5Caio 

p. bCP-OidCOJ-) ^CQtQ'O^ 



© © CQ •h 6r+3 O bl OJ +^ (H fn O © ^ © C: C 

©Clca©>sS_*^HO03f3cC3rHUj©P a'^^C© 
^OOP. ©0©a3-HO>sOCC>H^-.©0^©i-40+^-HO 
be O Ui r-i r-t ^ ^ y-, p © O -O O bO C ^ © fO «H O W P. W 



§g 



© © -P ^ . P- 

P p.^ <CI42© ^hCEOC bf:^ '0>i©©«H O-PrH 

oEwc!oP^-po3cqc3cOJhOSO'Ho3nJ^©EoKMP, 
o-H:3.H^Hced©o©^^©f-iT-(ee-P'Ho©a5^ccriaJ 

r-\ r-i E 'H P O X ^ P. 4^ -P D © P. P, U M hO ^, ro +J P h^i C 



P- C -P -P 'o 



© o 

02 "P fC C5 r-l -P 
C © >^ JLi -H 5-1 © -- 



4^ -P © 
CQ O 



bLEl^^O<U^®>-<'-i'^^i<Ur-HCQC3©r!©C:CQO?-<© 
OOO©©©f-(©ceO^C0rHOBS(H'O»HrHC:aJrHO> 
C P .C 'O CO ^^ ^ fl "^^ W ^ «H 4^ «H br O br CtJ 'H E P P © 



^ O P^ +3 

©o 4^ 'as4C45ro,-i ^5:^^+3 cj 

be o Pi o3 >»+= •H©eojcj©P-o3:S©c!©d 
c3c;'Hoc8fMc3»^fc>s-H©^ai©o©pi 

fH,i:!'O0^<flE£^^'HHE:tHN 



^ ©4^ 
bo 5h iH CQ ^ 

o o3 d o ca 



1H8 



CO "O .C ,C ^ 

^«HC -PC0;i<!C^C3hK)-P-P 

fH.H-PriC3Sc3'HC3 t>jrG Jh o -H 
•otHCQ'DOCa^rH "'"S-P +> -P C Vh 



■P ^ 
ffi C C (D H 06 >»^ ^ +^ r-; nH ^ 

fHr^Krfcr-'JMV.•H0n^a3^o 

O fcC' O .C --^tH ro p. E:^ tJ^O«H 



C -r-l O C,. 
•H ^ d O) 



rO -P ^ <D 'O 

r:< 4J hr> oiJ -H }-, o C -.-< 

Ot-It-, Jh+J^ o-'-'-C 

(D +-^ E 4^^ C 'O -P 



rH P.tf 



^>iCEN X© -P 

4^ eS -P •'-' fi <D *n C iH a e U vi 
C^HP:«3(U'^*H;-,r-lpMrSQ3-HfH 
C-P(DjsP-fHE!OCaa)H<U>P'H 

E oj »-^ -c c-i «p ?^ E ^ n^ 'H P, K «H 



fO 4^ QD JS X 

p-CP ® ©.c P^<uajfH-P 

rH Q) f-> CO ^ (C C t- ^ K5 H iH ::* G 

<D Pi CO CO O ^ 03 -H CJ P, -r-l <D p -H 

tH-P^J a3PQ3P)(E»-S'C.QE='HC 



P-OrH fO OP.G j:: 

CSOrHCcDP^COJ 003+^^ P,+3 

jH03-HPi+>iHrf'Dt?-^(DE!ftDEK 
OP-POO(DOC603»HdOOtH^ 

CO 60 K EJ Pi rt^ P -^ S P- C'-l ^ ^ ^ "^ 



129 



•P O O rC -P 

rHfni-l© OfstOf^rH 

•H 03 -H ro >j rH 43 -H O -H ri^ 
J-i03<r)C3OO^4J<D"Hb0OO 
(33^ ^ p.rH ^1 I £5^ I C M 

oi I I I iWol 1+3^03 

OOrHQ)©! lO+^Oro^iOO-Pf^rHl I 

oc5<i;c3«H!>jj-ic3c!a3o:=!-c:jccd<ii::ioM 
OKP.Ef-i'OOrQX: P^^^ rCi p,-p ■: ^ fcr c 05 



C P^pH iH H 



O 03 © CC -H o 
O CO p. e >H -H 






CS pf 



























-c x: 






,i^ 






























t:-p 


ra 


P' 


03 




• 


•p 




5s 


J-. 


w 






C ^ iH 




f- 


© -H P <H © 


^ 


O P- 


© 


§ 


P> 


<D 






•H 


Ov 






•H 


E 


1-1 


P 


O 


^V C -H d iH 


c 


O 03 


P 


O 


(C 


M 


o; 


03 




c 


w 


o; 


o 


c 




© 


C 1 ,Q 03 Oi 


•H 


P © 


o 


© 


o 


«H 


t3 


px 


> 


s 


fV 


p 


^ 


> 


03 


ti 


>5P 1 JC -P (H 


1 rD 




ErH 


1 


«H 


1 


1 


1 


Cf. -P 


1 


1 


1 


I 




1 x: ^ I 1 


I 


© I 


.V 


I 


I 


4^ 


1 


j-1 


o 


(D 




I 


q; 


E 


c 


fM 


c 


,-V fc' P f-l iH 


K -P -P 


© 


P 


© 


CC 


^ 


CC 


p 


O 


p 


c 


r 


r-l 


r-l 


•H 


P rH -H P rH -H 


^ 


S © 


© 


© 


p 


a? 


•H 


(D 


CC 




o 


(T 


o; 


03 


C 


© 


^ 


o p © 05 03 


o © 


P "H 


d 


«H<H 


P X 


> 


O! -P 


PX3 


P> ^ 


^ 


>s^ ^ 4:: +:> rH 


Vh ,q 


o 


E:rH 



© © 



© P> ,C O O iH P fcf © 

4=i-lpf-. 0C6" caPc;©rH KPP" P 

bUKCOj iH"^iH©-H^Mr-l©©K:SC3r!:^ 

r! t © © © p, © •«-! ^ o3 I 03 ^ E ^ Cij O 03 o 
o+3T:Pol^Elf^4^-*^IOi IE©P 

'OJSI 1P>PI l^l^l©OiP©JrQl 

I {H' P P I -H -P rH O © 6' rH rH I W 6: © J -P 
©•Haj©0a3-Hr-i©CrJiHr-<E"^f-'+^^0 

© iH ^ ,-^ w vH © 03 o; c3 © 3 03 



^1 

1 




p p> 




03 © 


g 


P o 


03 




«H 


p +^ 


1 



ca ns p> p p. ^ E ^ p. p p ^ c. ^ 



rO p p m 'f-' p. 



^ p> © ^ CO 

c3 © o ^ 03 p 

•PP©CuS-, KOC ©P 

©O3P0>-HO3rC^^-P© 

© © o> o3 o3 E 0^ ,c E 0'^ o 

«H P I .O «t^ I I I 03 I I 

I I © I I © © ^ -^i © © 
p©^©©tcP5; Irt^W 
K:pa3 02j., i-'r!©EajC,^w-,.w. _ 
©03P''a3rec3^Pa5P©r!oPCvO- 
eHP'CQ.c'HEc.o-^tJcuCjc tr^ o B 



© © 

13 P "C 

p e. oj J-. iH 

© O tH 0^ o -^ 

p ^ p K. x: c3 

1 fc; ^ c E 
p -^ I I I 1 

1 5~i P © 'O © 
P 0) tH tJ P rH 



«H P 
I I 
© P> 
+3 O 



cr> cr 

I I 

■p P 

fcr o 



©© piHf; P-cic 

r-lrHiHHa3rH O ©OP,t^rHCS 

omrrf^r-i© tH cJoroc:©© 
x:<Hoc3P.sEi'f-iiH©-Co'«©& 
I 03 m P-. 1 1 o I ^ ::( is PI E P 1 

©I 1 IPr-lPPOScr'l ( I in 
iH©Ur-l-HrHlrSI IP^PHrHO 

OrHrHrHc3©©OrH©OOPc5© 
^CQOo3rHpOHr-lpSOO-H©-H 

^ -H OJ Ph P.,Q P«H03OrP^EP-P- 





c 


p> 


•H 


(H 




p 


> 


^ 


03 P> tH 


fi 


05 


OS 


P, hCP> 


03 -P 


© 




p 


03 -H 


n 


© w 




fH 


I 


P J-H 


I 


E 1 


"e 


1 


© 


1 1 


© 


1 © 


1 


O 


> 


P^ © 


P P" H 


p 


U 


03 


03 P' 


03 


© t>i 


03 



^^r 



130 



^ 


rH o M ^J +^ ' fD CQ 05 


i 


f-.60 05<B CCQ43 ©ro <0 OJ+^^^+^O-p 


Q) fcC'«-aro 4^<C<D'H<DjHrHrH t>srH >sOWOWO-PJm 
C^ldO(DrS<l)E!0>-'2!^J^roP-C5ftcef-i'O00 
-D 02 «H O ce m P^-O CQ «H P-JC ^ O p. to ^1 O O ^ CJ f.H 


CQ 


iH 


o3 


^ 






+3 O C <u -H rH -f^ 




O ^.OJfHbT O -P ffiOr-'rH C OCJ 4^ 


<D 


t:oo:?ror: ^- f^^ e-c-^o: o of^+^c 


(ti 


c)rH4>f., -c-r^ (E^j^cxwc.c+^.MriJ::::'}-, o) 


M 


E ^ 'rH -p C 4-- -4^ w > <B 05 o P^ Ih -t^ a> cr; <L- OJ 4^ (D 4^ 
::< ,C cC C. e 4^ <D r-1 CC O <D f-. O Ki O Oj K t> 'H fK; ra C 


<H 


<D 


i-'Ojf-.-HrHQj-HCCf-.KCK CCjOCCDCV^'Ha-C 


^( 


PV,4^'OUC'0«HbC<COPCQl. «HOWf^OVi.CO 



ro fee o 

hOH O -H 

OJ :i Jh >>rH 'O en 

Jh «H C3 iH 03 «H no 

::i e 60P,4^ H rH 

O ^H pi Q) CJ o o 

O K5 CQ Jm P- & ho 



c 


•D 4J 


c 


ro 


c 


o 


O "H 


CO 


C 


o 




o o 


>s E 


C3 




J^ 


r«H 


tf Oi 


e 


CQ 


p 


rO fM 


tf c 


E 


c 


ca 


G O 




o 


cd 


o 


J-. «H^ ^ 


o 


E 



^ C -P ?- -a »- P- 

^.i-H4^ oCQ^ajf-,4Jc: t-ro4--'u>-o 
03© Po; s©o^o(Dceo-Hx:j::crcoo; 

G 4^ ^4"- C3 C^ C- iH C I-; fH E -H P .'^ fe: cc 4- i-i ^ 

E4JO ©«HO£<-lS--irH5e bT'iH c! P ^ 
(SO CJSOP ©•Hr-;CO.H©'^ 
E^CU&OJCP ^^4J«HP 



4^ CS >5 C C © 

© 4J bn CQ Pi C3 p -H p 

O-hf-M CO O C'C-H4J«H 
rnv-^-r wCr;P4^ hi --• 3 O C " CI 

::?(c^<t0o3oco::i^:icj0© 

E.C^iH©4^'hE'-'^4^ ..--- 



P O^iH ^ tJ •O ,JQ 



CO© rHXC:>> 4-'©Cl 
W 'H ca rH -a r' W © P P © P •f' ^ ~ r . r . .- . , „ 
_ _::J'O4^CQ"HC0T-l>4-^Oh:«HpC^ro©©©*H^j-'O 

CC © p C W O "O Cii J-i r! G "D C CQ rH hr 4-- ^ ' ' — ' '" 



© hC C 

p P P a) 

S -HOE 

>i^_- 43 C -H © 



ro 4-5 © -H © CQ 

P CQ P C 03 hP © 



43 E 



f-1 nC'oECQrHD: ■♦-'>-• OOtJU— . — ^ .- 

^o© = a3rHcaSO©or'cCE-HEgo©-HP©©o 

^ C tH CQ «H •--. ^ «H ^ E P^'tH C)PO>OC:'n'^-Ha'. Pfe 



© r! 



d C6 O © 



-I H C :2 fO © © © 'i^ w ;-' 
-•> p. 0003 OJSP E*HrH 
■'E'HE!^0©tHP©©vj 
•HrHcCe^^rHroP'ohC 



^ 4J 4J 43 
C P © O -rH p 
© C8 "O t 03 
P-rO Cj 

C> © © 



60 © -H - 

CO CPo ©"o c©*' •"''^'■'■*^.._ 
CQPoroP >©p-hPcq cSa©C.i^C 
©0'Hh-«ho-hP©cS-h©P43 Ej:©m© 

^v v^ r^ r^ 4^' -H 4J CJ rH ^ X E 4^ hO P 4^ © C. cS O 4= g -P 

c:'oziov&:+'oc:rHpoa;«HpEo.«>s©43CE4J 



O'ocroojiioSrS 



OrH-O^Po; E^PaE-^4J 



ci CO 



p O P 4--' Ei O C3 -H 
>P4^O0jX:o'O,ts! 



hn P 

c >, d 

•H E:^ 

O P 43 
O 



o P 
>i43 



O 

ClJ C 43 



© 13 

+3 ^H re 43 P 

6DMOPPrH-P©OCOg43rH©P43rHra©^r-j« t^rH 

C,i2.Hca-Ha3cdiHO-H'C'^P43CT^©p©c343^CSOO© 

- " P ^ O CQ 43 43 © ^ ^' "^ " 



© C fcc E 43 © t. hp 

l+3©OC0043rH©P- 



„ ., .^ -r-i tu •>-• ijj tu n O "H re "^ I-, -. p. 1 ^", '^ ^ rr ■ ' , i; ^, ^ " 
O C ^^ P^-H P,4^ 43 rH O rH 43 hOro 05'OO0:^PrMoCQ43 43ro^^^O 
rHp!p<ErHE0CQ^caroGQcGP©P00PP0EECv2CaP. ^PP 

rHoSo-H§ypHO03p©P-HP!yoPK3c3p©c5-H^pmcDdg 
^Sco^M^dhOPP. P^'o ^tH>a343.D©P-'o'0'ocQPaJcQCQP. 



131 




E Ma. 

■e-pc+^f:;«HooC^o::iooj>Hf^cDccorS(ro::ic2rQOc!+^'o 



(D ^ V, ^ (U C 

>i<D-P fiOOOOrHi-! 



CO W' 03 

f-i «D Q) C CS fcC 






o cj 



<D:If-iOf-i OJO-HOJ 







6f X; 13 4^ be 

CQC s:!raTHrH'oJ-.<D06a;a!ce^f-.»Hfc."Qj Q3fH<Do<D'HC<i3 d 

r! -O -H -H iH +i O rH -c CD ^ -o +-■' C t- p. ro +-^ h: O ,-V += c c t c: *H .Q V* -M 
O'jH60+^<tOT-!MC-»jpr-IOCeEtE:0.P,5-iOKa;^^-,(DfH<D43f-i 

V Ti -r^ C >ir^ U at o 02 p. o o 4^ a o q: c o a ::i ai s: fD ci r-i 0) f-^ i: O 
,0 ^ tj 05 © o PirC ^(ca3ca«Hra,c:£ w.>^ r-^ ^ ja p co^-c P+^ © P 



>H © 4^ W K 

>s©cc.;©f-io ^ce©>sC^H„ ..„ ^^^^ .„„^„ 

+'r«-H©cQ©c;v«t>sO'H©+3^,^©)H^'a^cevio3©©ajci©oo 
©wc:+^o>/:;©^4Jc3^K345o42 6r:a3cjEoJ:E.-VoG+^'ofHbc 
- G 4^ E 0- c oi oi -c >!, ;- ^ ;^ Jm m o <fi o C &t 03 
,.,^.-'.-.„..„, r^._.^^^ o©tScS^sfH •---''"—' 



©ceVio3©©ajci©oo 



^ -H .H c P 05 61 iX ,Q ^ E 4^ E 0- C oi oi -c >!, P ^ ;^ Jm m o <fi o C bt 05 

03^rSO©©'H4Jo©OCCC'j©S''-'O©CO©tSCS^sfH-^C3PrH 

CQ^ cyo>HE:x:©rH'c'DaS-H P,tH m "o ^ br b. 4^ p. e o bco > bo d «h 



be 

c c: © 

. ■ . O -H 43 O 

04^ -H rH -H C 



43 -H 
4J © 

•H fn p, -H Ci P -H O 
ro «H Ph 1h ncj W W 60 



l>! © O 

C8 4J bOfO 



br 
E 



^-•H©4Jtiop:c:boiic5Eo5 

4^4^ P^J-t Qj'o p bO©x: brjo 0} C5 ©iH'H^ 
05 O G -H rH iH 43 C ri bi' bO > M > OJ 43 P K 

oP'H05©P.o5o::io::J 

P.043SMdWPOM£ 



rM p CO 
0^0 



o P 



fcO fn P 
C © C 

■H tin a 

CQ C O 

C.' 05 O 



(H © P 45 O 05 © 



60-P i-*Od >vH+^,ClhrC-r^c3^«c>'0 CQrH P-O'O'H <D> 
60 CQ .H r> C >H fJ CO f-, C3 fc."^ fl pi >:. O rt t: ^ •>-• W >-( fH C fn 

ooc5o-H4^<i)p!o3^pSc$C)'coc3'Hc3+='Hairi-H(u 



60 O rt (D 

c o -H c a f-t 

■H ^ 60 O -H O 

C; n 60 O C3 C 

" 03 03 crj O 



-Op. tQiH'ocr;EerOo^rQa,!sj^^^+3M^4::ot>c:i-H^He 



p. OJ 



-tJ +^ © -H P, t> OJ r-i <U Ce t: ^ O >. K ^ . - 

ttiOlJIIC'. E-Ht-l-HcEriPKH-PP QJrHMo 

rHd=!^^i>s<r<L';iJ-iXeSa5:::^ooooa>'ci 

OK'H+^+'OP. p. CQP-OJOVi^'HGfH 



f-iOS >hO OrHOJPj-PJ-, 

03-p+^oj::: >-<x:>i E-H+-- 003 

P, -P 03 to O 60 r. (JJ -P rH 

fi o o c a- E ci oj Cfj ^ 
^..^-.^oocflJ-iHKioociaS 

P^ C3+^Vh S-t*HtH Xi bU U PfbO 



E 



61 

{«; ,:2 fH ■!--• cc 



6: c; -» 



i^ f^ i-i 

J3 03 p. 



O <fe) p. c;03X:-H<u4^ O^i'-'P PP P(BO-P 

rH >5 >s<fo: a)03><;r:2iH4--'cC6:c;-»-j30)Pci Q;03oa;^-H(cp 

N ^ 03 CO H +-■ Cv ,i-' -P tH -P P iH C -P 'O -H rH iH ^ &j pH p. C; CJ C O 

uPCPliOc. PPcoCPcCiHtCCr5wcC-P'H^E+C::Jts: 
oa;o*Ha3c'oo::i03E!^riC3Cj03O-03'H(]jKia5a5::'03P'H 

C-OX 6lfl)-H,C p^ N OC-Qti f^ ••-< CQ'O'O-P^dOP C-l^^ f> 



03 

> iH C 4^ 

. . « O -P 

CC ^ -H (c P (E 

O P 

N +3 



O >»C3 
iH iH 6f 
rH rH 6. 

CC Cu 03 
^ +^ ^ 



tj ^v; -c 

c-oojrj ^^ ^ S?-^ 

o o6>co oC(S oc:a3r!x:VH 

•H p-ccPo^CoCeclsPoa'P -p powPo-pSP 

rHCP,C<D'rH'C!CrHOOX:a3-rHpa)rHQ3C:KJ::K.C3^:ioa) 

•r-i a- o Oj w 4-" C r cS o cfi -p ^'.^ K j::^ fo o r*** o a> -p 03 ^ >. p fo ^"^ 

" 6; 03 cc :i >i C (tf rH p c :. -P c: > o -h g, a3 a in o) -p P p 

.-- oP-Poo:r;c30K'Hcflec)OcCCo^(i3-HKiPpaJo 

>Q34::pwPrHa:'cc;c3-PPOPC"-.dp^'o " ' ^ 



:i >^ 



br: :i x: ^ 















60 
















C 






CQ 










■H 




03 


W 


03 


o; 


p. 




P 




6! 


03 


O 


6( 


Oj 




P. 03 


Kj 


c 


ce 


•H 


p 


t>_ 


U Oj 


6r 


^ ,i^ 


p 


4^ 


■p 


'C 


03 >D 


E! 


O 


C6 


p 


CO 


>. p 


.V c 


tn 


rc 


03 


03 


03 


rH 


ce 


cS 03 


03 


o. 


& 


-P 


> ch 


o 


E4: 


P 



rH C 

p p p 



x: 

02 p 

•H p fC O p 

P >2 03 -H P,^ , 



CO -P 03 
C p C 'H CO C +^ ... 

P a)0*H-Hi-4a)4J-PC'3 vt/ n k^w--. »- 
03rH0i^K+JpOCQ034J::?O,O^f-,C0 

> -p P Cj o 0. bi b^^C-i^ooBdcix 

aj:=!C0PrHd-Ha3-HOC0rHOSP.CO 
4^ ^ P, C «rH •'^-. CQ'HE'CE'HnriClOCJe 



p p 
^ x: 



«H 60 



p. © 60 60 6.0 ri C 

op P0>CPQ3 ^ C CU-POO 

^ro pQ3a30'H.HOCf-t>rC-P04J'OiH-H P>0 ^ 4^ 

C0j:JOC:3Ort4^rH+2'rH:iO4JOrHOOC*H^Sa3'HC3f-i4JpC0PrH 
,ii! 3 P > -H O -P fO jc: +2 4^ ^ P >,::! rH U ri d O K r-M Cr2 4-^ 03 C3 -H 60 03 (13 
P ohOCSro O-P 03 bO'H P O 1^ P 02 4^ P,rH -P Ci3 60 (S 02 C > P ,ii1 03 P. C 
Ooa3a30fla30)'Hf-(OPOc3o^02 0J03rHHC3'HO-rloCrHCoCo 
{i 02pX!^^HCQ«HO«tH C5^ O P O a -Hro XI O X> G O r-i ^H ^^H O P- 



133 



h '^ ^ 

05 <D o 
O P o 



<D <H ^ © 

O ^ fn "O C3 ^ "^ 



U5 (D C S^ 

cd O rQ C3 "H fo +3 bO+3 fo •H P, 



D CO 



+a © 



» f-i CJ to ^1 ^ C - ~ 
pi04J© ©©OC3'H 
C3 P,<H O CQ ro fiOr-l Q 
a:3cCn^irHc3rH© 
O •< • fn ^ S O ?-< CO J^ 
OCJ'OrtP.^'O-QP- 



x: Jh 

^, fac o 

© -H ^ 



O TS 

E C 

r-i © 
C5 P 
CQ CQ 



© fs J3 O C3 

tC © © - ^ Jh C 



V-l Ci4J trf-s'H^'c E'H ©+=• 

■" g 



I — 1 wj ^^ v&^ ►— f— I MJ vd vo -r-i T— ! bJ ^^ I— r^ ""^ '«"' '<-^ t- T~l y^ 

©OfHE;:3oPc:i.Q3©Or-!THME©-Pr<+'ro«f- 
p. C P ^ P-CSP-OCC^^p. CQ>[S'CO©^^CC&jO 



s: © ^ © 6; 

CO fn +^ b; r-l -P b: O Oj 6fi c 

©•H J-, ©^OC+^-HnHf-iCCO+^CQCi-t-HE 

r-l«.H+'OC+^rH©j::-H©rHCeoO0SpHCQ©T _„„. _....„ 

«i-l >s O .Q O iH pH P,^ x:C-4^C'H;QjCE^J-tMCfjCr-<>CDa.H^(-;P 

•H(£^^bt:c:r!CQCo;^o,oEfHOcoc Pwooo^v* ©•Hc-ntJ'o 
p. f-,^rJc:'D^H©c8^c:cooo?i»i^oEcc^Ecc+'^<2©.. o; 

*^ O a f-i ^ CSc)t>X;aoVHXOO©C0rH'H br«H bC©rH OJ^^^: u -i^ 



fn © O © 

_ © i-H C O © (H 

© cC E +^ o <H 




+= O rH ^ © 

© O © t>s 3 iH 

^ fu ^ -o o b.' 

c p- o G e c 

•H CL' -4^ 05 CC K 

fH P, Cd P r-l fH 



iH © 



br 



^ ce K © 53 

O^OP<HO„_ 
P>irH >•- C OJ O >j bO 

C cC © -H -H j:: © a 

O +^ E r-H "O CC ■><; © 



p x: js 

O +3 O o 

C ^ i-H SII 05 K 

o -a 3 03 E f-' P 

E +^ o o o 

^ ^v w 3 Cfl ■♦■' © fO 

bp,c £ +> CO k: E o 



C -M C 



CiJ "O 

© C3 

p p 

© E 



p p ^ 
c„ o cS 
br;«H ;c 



f^ -a tH 

O C © 4^ Cj © © 

Pf-i>»00'H 0©-H4>©iH 

CQ©ts!^.HmP©PiHS:: ^©rHd©E©©^J.HP-c34^0iH^©P 

EJbDJ24if>Cp^^,s::©•H©o^^3G^^«HS:;>i©43 P-4^ C e; O W OJ 
03fcc©of■^c3bCobDbD>ci0QoNC^J^l-^s2^PP,c3ao;:^PClC 
P -H M p: o P -H G -H C C3 60-H -H ci P C55 oJ -' - ^ 



4= O p C3 P r! • 



43EJtHE!n4^>riJ3c3VHaJE4^P^b0&1^4Ji-iraP4^'O^4iO^O 



17;4 



o U w H ^ CO u ^ o CO to M -P c; ,^4 +> 

^MUfO <DbD© OKCa WCQCJCjO OrH •HC3'H6DooO<D"P 

+^'PS:!rHiH!::e>sWC3&«DP<C3h^fl>5'H'O^i::-HAaii:03OrH,14rH 
O-P piCjP'HOOf^rH'ObO^fHfcDoCc-PC >3+- CJ -ti 'H tH rH p, C3 !^ 
©P^O'OOCJoMO-hJhCJO'DOWJhCIO-H^.^. v4S::fMjH'Dt:*HtQ 
p.rHiHO<DPC<L)(^SC3&3J3(l)fH'H.Ho<DfHriOjHQCdCJ-H^S:; 



CQ 05 

tOO(l;iH,J2+'CC+^C2 4JO-HG) hr+' P C r' O -H -H t)f ,£: O -P -H tG+3 Jh 

K f-, t:\i.' .o C ^H oj M -H -P «H p. c th o <D c cS ce P > c u E K K- s:^ O ^J 

•HG5C;r;<i;03Or-;!i3£Ca<EE«H>H^C>C, ,'-. JnriOO-lrHO'OC.ifHK 

tHXIrH-H f-,^^ c; P, fS-P'O 0) W-P P^OJ itj^S P,0 CM O) CS tO (D t^X- © 



M 6r >s c o © © 

Ceic-HcJc-PfH Wra 

fH C C CC W O CJ C C CC C © r- 

oe -H &; c3 -P C c- t> iH P,rCi 4 



O © -P 

© C OC -H g; fn 



c 
o 

O >j © 

© © J-i +3 



;i ^1 X -H C CC O © -H 'H X •'-' »-> ^1 "J «J -1- 1 



o'i-JOSof:oj::e; 

W «H tf B O rC 



O fH 

© © -p 

P.-H © 
C'J C P> 

O CO iH 

fH P O 

p, m > 



+^ c 

^H © tH 

O +^ 4^ 

E o 0^ 
s ^ c 

!m p.^ 



© c 

E "H 

c > 



4^ -H 

C Ta © XJ tj © k! 

C JriiH C'H ti) C ^ 4^ U C fS M 

•H CJ 03 © tj;; <o H-( be -r^ Pi CC © ^h +' © C2 C © <H IL 

+=^1 N-HrHt^O^ ©W ©rHCJ © ©rH©Or-l©>-'i-! 

(K © N -O 4^ ^o x: j: E 1! 4^ ^ -- 4-" ES 4- 03 iH 4--> -H Q) C 

© tc "H ^M © C 4^ f- -I" >-i 4^ br © B C" 0. 'f-i © 



! ih" iH b © c © 'iH :i o © -H ;-( cc o o Jh 



1—1 ^J U; W U^ -1-1 _* ^J U,- -r-. r' VU 



0.r:,ocC/3^H©> 



o cc 

o ^ 

P c 

P o 

© 4J 
Pi 02 



E C 

v-i O 

P © o 



© 



© -P E 

•Hfi&-.'CjCPiHP0rHCaH-rj©f:343'O© 



a5poooo4^© 

POrHa3H-H©C 



© 4-5 to 

„-_„.. ^>4^ a3©c3 

_ PO«HOH-H©!::43'0©THnJP4J©PP©>»'Hi-HbI- 

E o 'H © cS o © © ^> P t:: P fi ,tiJ "O © C3 C r-l h.'i fe: C iH C3 © iH p r-H iH += 
(iiA24^j2t> P^ © a?E"- EJho^ c:> >se:4-' Wo cdbrEwM p^-hj^ 

^rHP0'OCS04JrH«3P. ©O-^-^-^'-^"^— '' '- '^ -'■"*'• '^ '■-• ^ 
O©CC0j03>42£Q'h 



p J c (T © 05 © ce ^<j o 



>-■ ^u <_> w •'-1 T-i H w ; - T-i H A-i (-.a; u; wj © uo ,;«; t> 
Oj4iO^^Pt-A2 Ot3 p. WCflPP fS^'oOJE 



G O 03 4^ © bo 

o © o c o fo s"; p c TD fco 

oD^ h c 4^ M 45PrHaJ;z;>j Co:::^ ©PC-Hop©^ 

gP-H'f-'OOiHciOfl'-HOOjHO^PdOCQt^ rH004^+50rH'H 
^H^4=P"-l>p<0^©O^>4->4^p.©H-l-OrHtJJ bn4^ rH © W © "O 4^ 
C3Wa3C3bCCj'r-.p+JC;>EPG+=04Jpp©rH'Hhnc2rH©ppOC 

M:ic3oc3©ajc3+--H©-HceodportOP&5^i-H.Hc3,c:oaJorS 
c8 E P.^ E rQ E P< iv) rH f-1 -P E o E +^ G bO o 45 oi -H to ra 60 ra & o C rCi 



135 



rs O 



s:: w 



^ fcO e », Pj,^ C O +' C iH to >sJt4 CO o P< © 

0P©(DJhS:1O0C >»rH C h O CO 03 © iH 

O Vi iH fO Cu ra fi C -*=■ rH K O O ::i <D rH CD Co — .-I -■ w -n -n u >H uj -J u i-f 

-, _ ^ ... _. g,H Q, c-,>«H^ C'O'O U^,M > 03 P.c3X>rHrH 03^^ O P,0 



_ „„'OOOrH«H 

:ic;3 ©(DcSooocQ 

rj ro ?-< D* >sro Ji C) E .y O Ki 



O 



O fO /3 



»-' ►'a-u M t) t: .^ U Ki 
C5-H>Ho5HCOdOrH 



0) +J ^ iH e 

S-H P 03 E 

« ;:! E > "H 



C <U O tH 

G ^H o "o in -H 

O O (t ^-^ C iH ,« o 

03 C t; rH 60 r! Q) E 03 rQ 

ts3 ri 4: o rs 



•H bCP-fH bPP, ^ casino airH+3p-(^ gj f» ^ 



3 o E (D 

Ca -H r-( O r^ 

tjJ iH r^ ^ o 

,c iH P, P r! -H o ~ o P 



'^ c'lH 
Sb3 cfl 



WJE 
J- E 



tj O •^-P P P, Q) to o bo 



•t-l Pi O 'H m Q) 

c q; 03 o x: ofl M 

O C ^ 4-' O H "O 
COD 



.V ^c t' ;C bO 

f^ -u C 60 P o: G © 

nj) 03 C 03 ri 03 4-' -rH P ra 

>s ;- ti 05 -c CO o3 -H rJ p 3 p >:» 

p U; 4^ bo-*-- C6|H >iC.C P-p OfH 

^ ^ _ _ - _ - . . o P '.. «5 Ji o m C 03 -H -H OB o ^ 

i P^ O P P ,Q rHX:'HO«)U2ffiPiO P.-H >? _ T. . - ►- V 



E rH d O 0) P 

O O-HrH JhiH (uX 

« j:: M +^ O rQ a: P 

Ci P- q; C E o5 C3 03 

c o P 'ri (d d c' p 



P- O C, bO+^ ^ 





03 


hC fci-«H 


iH 


r^ 


C t; o 


+^ 1-! 


03 


E -H -' o P 


a 03 


P ^ 4- 


>5 o; O rH 45 P 03 


03 «H 


(E CO -H 


0} 43 v4 r-l 4= P 4^ 


t-i 4^ 


> C .2 


P C fcr 03 -H to 0.' 


06 --f 


O 3 '.-, 


p c3 o pH ::: -H 3 


4^ P. 


P CJ o 


05 rQ i-l CO ,V "O -c 



ri -M p br 

O 03 1-4 O "^ 03 

+3© P-PPPcO+3-.H & r-(OC; 

P«3t3^, a3bC:33So«Pfi. Pr40>iC3Ci > 

a3/«!o;o£i-rHN-'^ turHP-a3s::opt'Ho3 

rj to P E: CO P 1-1 !-.- C3-HCCCCPa34J 

3S-Hp^o-rHxo-HOPci-r^a3«;po 
PS4--C3EVIP. oc^^Q'O03E''^^PLo 



03 



03 



«H to 

3 "H 03 

hl'4J O 

P CO p 

O 05 03 

P, E c 



03 be- 
>i X ■ 
03 P 



P C 03 

03 P 4J 

^ 03 P 

O 03 03 
P-rH 



f.j,-^ br 

4Jl-;OCG 'OCQ03 03 >» 

03 G3 O ^-l p O CO O 4J a -H P p4 

rMr-IPCPa30C3'H-H-HC)'Oa5 
O S^ E -H a^ rH ^ P +5 ro OJ i. C CQ 

•H O 03 p O tH C! P-4-' 03 P. i^ 3 CO 

p!x:x:iHoc3£3c3PQ3ooaiP 



O O r^l^ OJ 02 



'o E 



iHoAo'H>4J>C P,*H 



E 


P 


C2 


C3 


U 03 


05 4J 


c 


rH 


OrM 


N -H 


03 ^ 


>iC5 


N E 


tH 


O 


05 P 


•H -H 


03 


P 


rH,£l rH r-l -O 


P- 



03 ;C W Q rH 

CIPCCQ eoU;C3rD P03 4' rH OC3 

•H 03 O 'O C -H !-i t: P ^, Q; CQ P S^ 03 ii S3 X 'O 

rQ Pi-H rt O +3 :j' vH 03 C3 P > P- C3 C3 Ci t3 03 K 'H 

-a 03 O O -H 03 4^ ro «H P O 05 03 -C p 03 CJ o;' 03 &; 
O 03 P 'H bP«H lJ^,rH04^C3rH43'O^PPP>j 

OPOPa3-Hc)OQ303OrHa303 >iXi -H P ^ Co 

;> o ■" - - - . - 



O 43 ^ 
?iO 03 O 
03 rH P 
CQ bOfO 
3 C P 
03 



ivjMW-f-iqju(UQjur-ia3Kipj,i-:-i-3p^CoCOTH03p 
i4J'HiHr4ti0Pt:rHEoP«H^05 0J-i'^4J|5K)PtJ43 



iob 



60-P 
C35a5rj(DP-^p4JCJ-HO tO-H O bO-H g }s K © M ^^ 

?^flo>M>ocfM+'f»"HooE3^c2'o'cif-iPd 



a p< fl >H 






'H4^'afHH<Do^a3x:ojrHEoP. 



O C f-i 5-1 ^ ^1 

T3 O O © -H C3 QJ 

J_, E +3 ro O -P 43 

03 g N fH n CQ ^ 

O tS 



^^';;^£®I^2'C®F"P°°^'=^'-^-^«'0rH©^0©rH-oP«H© 

ca3a3ai3c:o^+3cac©r<©rJ'Hcoo©>HOx:t>iai!3t<i^i-ic!ort 
>o'M©^n'oftw^r:J£«H^.ffi^^«Srap,oo©S^-PbLdtoE 





o 




to C 




m o 


© 


© >H CS += 


Ur-i 


•O O +» iH E CO 


© -(J 


CC +3 © 60'H fo 


■P U 


J^ +j ca ^^+3 c 


+-^ -H 


E -H c z! o -H 


d ^ 


O M 3 O -H Jh 


o +^ 


o 'H m 4:: > 6r 



e-»-'©0>i©^^Hj::a3rHa; 

•HfH^fnVHiHhC© hn4J +3 (13 

roncoaJcOo8V(&o3©©p 
E crgo-f^E-^oxr-ocosS 



© W 
E >» :^ c ^ o 

Pl © C O ---I O -H 
C+^C-PN+^Jh© 

c:waiKicoP.f-i 
© (>5 >i ri © o 



P,+3 

P- o 



o ojO'C'o a* P,<H 



© © fc ►^ 

bC © C 2 "' O <D O 

$:!P,03O.a r? >-< o w q: ^, U X 

i< 'i;^ ^ ?^f CJ ,C Jh r-H n^ t^r^ .'>i P .H M ^ r-l >j © «H 43 o O O 

00 cr© o''H+^+3 p. PrHuatH p, aJ^ u o Xi ocuja^^c w 



© 
C P, 

ce © c: «H 3 

E t;-'^ O «i-i +3 
© 03 o -H o 
t. © ^ p, d 

Ji rH P O M 
O -H !>s^ 43 
C E ^-' Kl 02 



60 

G © 



4^ Cl3 

fl © 



Pi © 
Pn-O 



rtF <-H043 (D 4JC©P ©C?C 

4.-. ^ rH -H aJ rt 5^»>oo43rfpr:c:P. 0©CQJrH^a!PrarH 

P, feTrH C03©CI;C©^O(J3-hoE©PC3P(tH^©3-H^ 

p. ©rap4:'OO^O3^^rH43M43^^E03 



ce c ^ , , ., 



O 43 4^ 
© 4J © 3 CS C3 

O . C 60 Jh ' n 42 O O 4^4^ 

iHAjH©© CJO.jPibOPM ©CC 

c3©«HobDP^>43c;fH©X©^ G43©© 

E -H 'H 02 g .H 03 C rH C3 Pi4J PL, O >i O 05 E "H 
E4^^^0«5^^©•Hr^43Q343p^PlP^oP 6b+3 

03a3c3pPi3rHPioa5o3©Poc3'H'HaJ 

G P^43 00430P.OOmoP.C30-Q P^«H Pi 



M 43 P! no Pi 

©4343© ^sOOC© 

POf-i4^iHPiP,Ec3rH 

GP^6DOrf©PlCQOH^ 

©G'ox:p,>3c;wfHPi 
Eo-HO©oiHdo3a5c3 
ooGo^H,c:«HojctiO^ 



137 





'Oh[..C>>sOf CQO<DC3r-lni 
OC:-r^+>orJO'CiHiHiH 
h - - - - 



5-, o x: K 
><; E 



OC-r^+>orJO'CiHiHiHP5^><;ECjCQ-JJC,:rHOrSo 

h-HOEJjHOjH^-. p.-(^<DKooc3<Dce-»Ja3ooocj 



•4J rH 


'O 


C <a 


C U zi 


<D 


60 O 03 bC 


<D +^ <D fM «H 


JZ 


•H C rH a 


^^ E f^ Q) -a ox: 


^ w 


03 03 'o -H 


(V O iH -^ rH -P 4^ 


ci ^ 


C 4^ C ^O 


+^ o: iH o rs o ^ 


o o 


E oi -H a 


■P 03 o o o .c3 o 


•H C 


CS C & -H 



03 be m c (c 
+3 C 03 C -H J-i 



o 



O C rH 4^ 



<D(D<H +3C:o3C-H>H c:+^>-i f-i a. ^ , . . ^ ^ ^ ^. .. ^ 

C;ctojHO-H^oa5c!a)0 Q) -P >i o -H . H iHtoo'^t^ P, O'HC^C 

■rHO!:5oCS::0+^rH-PiHJ2^C/JVHfHE+^«UCQ'Ha3<H-PP,>H'H(DOm 



C -P 03 E >:. ^i . . 

O ^ -P ^ ^ ^ P,^ > P-4J ^H ^ C( 



^^ OJ Jh fn E 4^ <u 



OJ Vh fn E +^ 03 CO 'H 03 S-l -P P,>H tH Q) O 05 
COf-tQ3O&CQW03 0JC)O+^«HOEW 
SrHO>-tC;OCS3-H(D'H^+o+3^^(P0> 
W br^ P, E>P->>eP-CJ03ErH^.Q3 



3 

0) fo 03 C 

C;Or-(SJ-4mCQ(C OSUWMoJViE 

( +^ 03 m c< o -H ^V © >5 cj 




M 03 03 
03 pQ ^1 M 

P: C3 +^ 

•H ^ o3 03 c5 
6DK) E & P- 



+^03 O 

Co rC 03 Jh G f- 
03 C3 >s-P C3 03 03 C 



c .t«; 



fcr) 



CQ 



030) -H fOPi 0a3CEK3 ^ 

iH 03 iH fn rH >s'H li >i E G O 03 ^ k3 

B+^CQ+^ C3C3rHOfH'0-P^,CO-P P,c3rH 

«D4-^ fl-HA^ p.03rH M ^4^4^+^ 03 fl E W(H 

O'H(Doc3fHOc3THXa503PrHo*H-HnKia3::jf:iopi 
'HH'D O 0'C3 P OiH 0)rH(H'D 03 P, ^ ^ fi c3,Q^434^n3 



iH bObO^H ^ O 



138 




U 

iH o cd 



o 
C o +=■ , 

•H rH O, 
r-H -H :3 



© - 

P x: 



O -H > O 



>H >H c CO fn x: 



(cocajo+Jaj-Hp-ioajcjHfHCcofHx:® 
P,Ca;s:;'o.i:;>^r-i'DCJEtt''S4J4JaioB 

•0^4JC.ferHO>HeQ<H+JjCOGfefc»J-.D, <••> 






CC^OPCnScaCC^P+^'rHEcdC-rHh CU ■ 

^ <u ^ p, o fcco oj o E 43 o t> o ai 



T3 •*-> C 

•H C O 

O >H O CQ E M o 

>-i Q) f-i 13 a; rp o ■ 



^ „ OJ 03 (I> 
I TJ ^ W '^O "D 



P,rH 



P-iH E 



0) ^H fD +5 



•H -o -P Q) w E 03 bt ^H a^ ?- c: +^ © 
>-,>>carHoa3oaj-Pr!Ea;a3J-,n 



O P- P. c^x: c; 05 p p. tj u o 



o Ei o >s :i S3 

CQO'DQ; jHKl>-orHiH 

C +" ^ j:: C2 O <D rH E O CO +5 !>.. CO Gi rH h." CS 

c3omoc;P,i(!-'-i--<s::o-H+2br(uiH<cC 
ocs5>HjH©-HQ)jHO^ci-HvH>^-H>,cC 



bl'iH O O p. Jh 



o o o 



6C p. O P-'H Q) o 



rt rH-P C 

05 -H <D O P- bf: ca 

d © O r-J -P PHf-l JC-r-i-HEfOrHMOo-P 



CO w 



(H © f-1 



C5 © O I-" -P P^r^ JC: -r-i -H E( O 

■PfsO+^CrHCC^HKC+^ja t>f+i QJ 'O 
CfiLr«4J?-^<n^C:MOOE^C(i-HCfl-PO 

oo-rHodcCca>-i4::o42 



CG >H C +3 

© ce cd cS o ri 



© 
ra >» © -p t." CO CO (H +:> . . ^ 
oao-Ho-Ha5x:do+3f-.rH 

p. p.«H tHr-iP, ^«HECQX)CQ 



(D -H tH OJ 

P o o 2 P 
C g P 



© J-t 

ooj^coMcce^ 
ri iH iH o PiTa -H cj o fs 
cy'ric3^©GC!::-Po 

hP.a)fHOp(-H.HC!^!H.Hp;^WC3C3C0:QO-H2OCC!03«NOW+3 

pE'oO'Ho3M;:ipio:3c3oJoc3f-<fH^o<D::ioo^^iCa3r:icJ 

4^ 'H -H O'J ^ rH O 6D^ CQmjHX:N'Hb0O6r^Ch03O^og-H+3Oi:1 



O O S O -H Jh 

CD^«HCd'H^O _ 

pj ^ CO c3 c3 cd 



>-, M M C2 f1 ?H 

(-.Viy-rn-n^MCjoCn+^OO©© 

^OnD^dO<l3G+^Pd*H-H>-P 

■-'-■-' " e 13 p. p. OJ +J ,C .H ^ 

EOC3o3«NOW+3bO 

Cj -H 



1.^9 



4^ 

©CDCQCDbf© CJbOid M £0 (DfH 

P-C■P0>02I^^:E^^+^OOC3OO^^5-lO-Pr^^^Kl MfedO^H 

•H+^M^nOrQ-r- PC3MrH'OC5rH+3CJ(DO-Hc30(y!>5Eia3,'yO 
Cc;^::ijHGr-i4^-POrHrH hOno +J4J-P+3 p+^ro M'DrHCQO > 
fH«UOtOO-H.rtC(JOC0jirHfHS:;Oj:!a3-PSj-,CrD^«HCQO^ 

PJhiHv-ic3^c5oo(d>4^0Co?hc3ocCoo(j3'coCcjx:« 



f^ (1) <D 



+5-PotHrH+^f-.O5::fHC0^0ij::fc:o,c:E^P-oct3M.HEofHW4J+3p. 



br K c- :i <= e o P 
C C ^ ^ w ^ c; ra 
:^©0'~'(Dr-:o<r 



4^E QJrH racC^C 

CD -M ?-H ^ t) rH 4-'' 03 O O O 

(V ^ 0^ HI Cr C: d U -r- O ^ -^ -r-. (S3 

Ojxi'H^4J(B^CCP. (D'OOJO!?-, 

j::cQJ-.^4J^a)+'rHV,f-,r-!c;o 
a:riJ^oeCo>ir-ir^oceooa 

O E O ^1 P. O: <U CC P.'H O ^ P-rH 



Ji <D 



05 

t:- jr 'o c 

C P CQ CS 

■M 03 ^ CO •r^ ^^ 

►>, p. p r! C P cd 

P <r Oj ?•• -H Zi 4:> 

c «H p c Cam 



'O p 

0) o o 

CQ r: o 4J d 

P he 4J ^ 4J ^ S 4^ 
0JCo4J<Dfei;O<D . 
OCScVl^'HCPb 

C P <H 



0) 



P P QJ 4^ C Cv 

POCCS Cd OG-} 

<D&oo<D^it. EP,oa) 
. - - -J 4J ^ iH a- 0^ Vi o E c 
. . w -^ w be c ra c- c «H tH o ce 4^ c -^^ 
•'-!c;<uPOPP'H2o3"-i::?-HtHP (TOP-H 

p.^'c'D p-^H pcOx: p,P,o P o o-a & ^^^ ^ 



Oj 4^ 

3 fc a; CQ 

P M P o P P tr o: ri t^-s 
©a'O^o^iGcjp© 

4" C fn (D O K( -H -H 4^ ^ 

P C P P C- CC CG P tJ P 

o o •!-! CO -H a- zi w "-'■ vi 

P- o E ^ -o E E oj E 4-- 



P P 4^ 

(Ddibf'jrlPSQj PC Qjj3^ , 

iHCdJ bOCPcC PrHP |;CQC}0 QJOlP&CK-Ha; ^^IhC 

©0'oPc;;•r^c^^>sWPe'>sOcc:lur3>sEr^O(!>oc8:^^c:<DCE: 

K -H C 05 6C4^ 4-- O CS r*^ P 45 Oj -r-l .o 05 ^ hT 4^ Q}^-t^'rJO^VO<V^(n-<-l 
PCQ-rt4^b.'PC'CrHP.HK^WS:10Cs::4-->KOi-'OCCi:c;P<L!a3P 

0(D(cc5::!c3c80(DcCPt>5a33•H(UT^cli^od<^•'-^o•H•H^,T-lfH(ncC 

EiHPi5rHP.rH0;'OiHOO'OE&PPrHP-EEPEO P,^ O OJ ^ CO P- 



O 03 

<D QJ .V fa e W 

P 13 E;Cbf!PP P4^0<D 
PCP>s(i;ctJa3(DoPcS(D4^c;w^ 
p.oa3'o^E^>E5<DNPEPi-HP 

C;POP-H4JrHNPP'HC+j 



bT' <jj 

C o CO 

C: -H E P CQ 4--> 

o "c cd csJ (u P c 



rH 4^ ^ rj Cd P 4^ C 



^CcSo3<DC5©cia)'oSc?t>sc: 
to o x: -o c >sJ2 cr c: -H ^ P. w «♦ 



cc o br p «. ^ ^ 

C0TH3<D-HfHf:;(UOOCiJ-^<DpO4: 
E O J=> X> tj P 034^ b'c •''^^ OJ p.«H 4^ 



4^ (U 0) (D QJ 

CO O p CO P H 0) 

C3 -H +5 ^ (j5 +0 rH 
P'a4JC0OE4J'D 

. „ O E ^ (U O -H 

C :i h,'j cb c P p p 

P o x ^ 






E P(H cdPo 4j<u cOco 

^P:i.Ha3PS-H>5 t>s4= c: rH -H ri C3 4^ 
4^ ajrH«H4J-H4JrH'0 CO O-H Cj«H O ©f-l 

>jm'HoocopO't3P^EP'HopS 
•Gocepdrocjp-HOJOceodPoo 
p p.<H Ph cya >«HS"-»ta«!HePo«HP 



4^ 4^ 

03 (1) rH 
P SrH 

bo 0) a 

OOP 



ts o 
o o 
P o 



o cS © 

P ErH 
4J ^^ 
fl P^ 
3 9 °5 



bP 

TJ O 
•H > p 

P-H P 
4^ 4^ O 

P Pt'H 

cd d (D 

OOP 



fO P -H 
•H O ^ 

^ E ft 



140 



CO C C6 C3 «H ^ 4^ 

0)rH-r^ CD-P <D >iO 0) tQ"-l ?HrCl O 

C -H 03 iH O rM -P -H CO ^ rH O C CQ 

?^ a-' P- O > (1) ^ C >5 E< C O "^ '^ --^ '^ ^^ 
p > O rH 03 ^ P.-H O P-H J3; 



© <D ^ n O 

PL, C -n ^H -P 



C5 cj 



02-P^OCOCQ X^ 

cjojoon-H^sCQO 
>jt::H ?H,!« a;-P;c:-H ^ 

rH-H£:^^S:!^<P-OPfH 



wo I.J ;-^ *-» »-J -n i_> r^-, wo ^ w f-* «»w ,-v MJ wj 



>j-P fV 

G) (D CC •H br +J 

K r, fa ^. rH <S P <U 

•PO>^0•i>•'-^S::«i«D•r^(J}C^:c 

ajc3x:cC^<fHa3o(D<r!rH3"»- 
> f> rn 03 ^3 «H e « ^^ E © o t : 



«H 0) fcc j-( Pi © e 

o oJcd+'-H SCO P-c) 6ca3--<-P^ ca to 
E+^E^iMca;P-^^T-!EP('D(!3c3ri>^ 

^^ CO CJ-^ O O'O-H-HP-r-'rQ ©i-l-P^'O 
0'^Q3^>. K!03iHr-tCS<HC<DiHOQ;'C 
i^'D K+3 Of-lW*H (15*H O-O W<«5 PJh O 



p.^+3 (p+j -PE OJCCS P© 

dOCbCgPiWKP- <D (C SP,P.4Jfc:^-H^fH'OPiC -H fit 

>o^c!ca5o)K<D© 3 t>>i-i PiC^toCc^oo-'-twcororicJ 

C COP-f-t'T-s-l.' «u-4-5 o O-P'D PCOP 6:.^ O'O >^ W P.'O Jh-P P Ojtf-J'Or-l 
:i05K'CO=iE^<©iHP.'D-H-HCE!rQCs:;X:'OJ-. O^KSWf^CrH 
0©C-H^©.H0pC-H0PCCcCC30E0©©S0t>jCb©ced'HT-' 
P OJ-H ^itM C^H C P<P.>P-P'0+'^ •^.iH ^KPViEJXrfiqCi-HOiWP 



o p P 

x: tw -H 
o a> ^ 



© Cfl -P 
r-l ro © 

'>b C P 



rf C P 

o ::^ ce 



Pro© P ^ <r 

CP ^ U*^ iHiHt^CrHCCCCjwP 

•H©fl ;^+^CiC ©=Xa3©iHa3iH-PPO 

p-t--(SPOCQPTHG>cSon?-'C^'°5:2'C'-' 
pC^thc--i-pc/jc3'^co-pp:^P hc^ o c i-f 
cccPS^-o^KsJQ-cio'Hrsps© 



poo 3 -P "M o 



oi p,!:^ i-< ^H «i; ^ tH X! ^ 









^ 


-o 








© 


c 


x: 






P 


:i 


CO 


^ 


P 


O J2 


CD 


o 


© 


03 


&j 


& 


•H 


M^ 


-C 


© P 


bCP 


o 


t^O 


C 


O 


cC 


© 


P,a3 


O "O 



c "o bo c Pd-*-'''co 
© >> C © ca 'H © cS 05 ---I f 

©©OSiHt-I 'HCfi-Hf^fnO'C! 
+>^rH6i;)pJOt3^0j'O-P P Cl 
•HC^CPCSr-lrHOaJr-it^^ai 

•HoOT-tc;pooo:^-H^P 
<H E rH "O B < br: p. ^ O-tH p c-j 



p 6r bc © -t^ 
ce bo CO c ^ c 
d c ,o o ^ © 

>5 b'/.H^ rH P E 
> 2 X -H f^ ^ p 

c: a: -H P ::< o © 



c © 

>5-HP 

C CS -H 

E P ^ 



© © 

60 bo 

+3 -p p t^ cd c3 

. .. _._„_^-s03cS-PPp 

C+=0©P+^0*HpA»^C:bCp P1,«H 

„ . -H O t> P-Pi pHrHP OrH::i-H 0«H 

iUM'"'"WMUj:-)W<i''";->i.jOpPiHa-HoOC3c5Soc50'^"*^'~' 

•P'o p,yE-ip,Q bce>P^J2 O bO cr«N -H ,o - ■ - - - 



© O P to 

©'o ceo© coG+^NCPE© ©cd 

O t^P" ©'OOOJCliH POCQ®Cfl©CjO -H© li. -r--r- 
rHC0'HfH::iCQ.Hc3OCQO'HC)rH>+=CQTH'OP^j::o!>spd 
60 P, P-'O E cS P -o ^ rf -M M > P- - -" •" • '■^ . t. t^ r^ 



C O Kl C r-H © Pi-H fl C O H p e 

a3p©'Hc8Po33cd©'H:3cJo 

-L3 r*-« t . M r_i jji n fxr> c2 ^s. t^ ri c-f «•■* 



o ^' w vo —■ v-* w v-* ,^-. 

o c +3 E o cj ^ o P 



141 



i-irHOfij:::oaja,Cc3a50!:JrHO 
> ©EHCri CO o <a ^ ^ t^^i^ a ^ o 



K <D C3 03 C 



p 

p- fn P, <D CC 



E 
C o f-i 



o X 52 -H o o 6L' r! -»^ ::?•'-' w J-, 4^ 4-^ 

a!OcS+'Vi<l)rHiH;sO«HrafM034^ 
fH^<4^O(D^(EPO»-^C:ia;rH00 

^ p, to p. P,o « t: G .H p. {5 tH ^ 



K 



Q) f. 



EX 



O 05 O tJ Vh 



©Cos:; 

ra O XI ^ ,y <D C r. •<-• rH ^ Jh 

E r-i -^ 0) ---I !i +^ o; -H > cS ai 
" o<i3cr(c4J^o.aocr 






•H 4JOOf-irafHbO 

t>oC34^Ea50Jo<i'<r-c;cJh-'' 



^o w f- c <i> w u 1' 1' — ^ to u; 

C+^gKlCJXP. CLi4^C!OOCC 

tH -H M 53 Q) fO +3 E P O:; Oi O rH -r-i T-l 

»-i:ic3c&j-,oJc(joooo5a)^x>s 

f=q fn p,tfH P, BoOX PE^fsOOM 



•s^ 



tiT 0) c: 4-50G5a;rH 

rtefH!>»«fHOoPfHa} 
r:i+^wriPc50J(DflriciX 

■ ■ " P,03 N W C'J 

Oi P 



J .H +5 4^ S3 



M t^ >-• f tt; VJ 'n t-' -t-- w o-' HS uj CM w w 

0)43o3)=!'H04::P-s:!'oOJ{Qp-Haip 
^c3a;+>'orHOESoa)C3rSEiQ5'Hc6 
+>KitQKia3'Ho-3PwPoa'on<HS 



142 









6r 




m 




+■> 




+3 




c 


_ 


4^ 




c 




c c 


o; 




■p 


c; 


t. 


c3 




C "H 


•P 


u 


^ 


CC 


Ci 


■»-" 




^^ 03 


cC >- 


u 


o 


rr. 


cd 


r. 




>M +- 


C r 


;3 


CO 


r^ 


t> 


c 




C! -H 


tec. 


O 


<D 


C 


C 


•r-i 


iH 


O «^ 


ce,- 


e: 


•o 


P, 


CC 


J- 


K>a 


1 n 


e«H 




1 


1 


c 


c 


•O -P 1 


1 1 


6r+o 


o 


1 


o 




e c -p f-. 


c 


u 


o 


m 


c 


1 


c o 


0) © 


•H 


© 


c 


b 


Oj 


iH 


^.4- 


c ^ 


c 


K 


cC 


> -P 


O 


V. -H 


bro 


f-l 


C-' 


C 


a 


OJ 


TD 


:i ^1 


OjrH 


o 


(B 


(D 


a 


a 




O fP 


E«H 


c 


"O 


C 


c 







a 




3 


+» iH 


rH rH 


H (T 03 


P,-H 


M oc x: w 0) 


CM fH 03 


(D ^C P t/J iH 


ca oi 3 > 


dp C -H 4-> 


E ?- 03 03 


0) O 1 ^< 


03 C O t 1 03 


ci} x: © +5 


E 1 -rH 1 OJ E 


1 O O 1 


1 iH t> -P rH 1 


C 1 -H rH 


p, O 1 .H ^ H 


03 i-H (H © 


O ^ rH «H K CC 


E c3 P > 


C E c3 O 0. 4^ 

03 ^-H f-, -H o 


c3 ^4 Jh cS 


ffi O S ^1 


C w > c E E 


00 O W +3 





4J 




^ 




§ 








•H 




o 




pH 




^) 




fH rH 




o 




•H -H 




© rQ ^4 


Jl -p 


fH O 




+-' I © 


© r. 


rC C 




-t- ^"U 


J>srH © 


1 zi 


f^ 


© O fH 


Jh r-- O 


© o 


© rH V^ Cj 


f^ © 0. 


© o o 


C 


03 ^1 o 


© CC 03 


U C 1 


•H 


P r:!^ 


«H 1 1 


>s 03 r-l 


E 


1 ^ 1 


1 J^ 4^ H -H © 




© 1 f^ 


>iCO C 


1 rH a 


f^-P o © 


^ rH © 


SnrH C! 


o 


03 f^-u 


•H rH CQ 


cd-H ::i 


c 


r-\ U U 


C3 © W 


•H JLh o 




03 3 O 


«H O C3 H,C1 O 


E 


P-^^ 



O U ^d •HOC O 

•HcJ rH<U04^f3 CK t^sr? 6n 03 « § -H 

•PO CSCQ'HnO O«HfHti0c3ErHa-P 

J^ro CC-P-H^+^ra'OfHtlrlOiHfH-H 

CBOfHCCjMOO^H P^rH O ?H >H rQ H ?:: 
oo>(DO?^^^o•<^c3P-0ooogoo 

O Pw-H +5ObDOrH>b0CSCEP-^3-t^O 







4J 








d 
o 




•H 


ri 


> CO 


C 




© C 'H 


© 


O 4^ 


•H Jh 


o 


Q 


^ O-P-P 


CQ 


CJ 


J-l+3 O 


T-l 


05 


d -H 


&" 


•H 


fs 


o 


C •H4^ 


M +^-P 


e >5 


O 


^'H 


OJ'O 


ca 


fcO 


^ 05 


© H 


^ 


■P 


crj 


c fl 


© 


a 


© M 


fo c3 


© 


c 


•H 


C-C5 


^ vH 


P.S 


S§ 


^-i 


c3 


ti 


•HX! 


O 'CI 


C3+3 


© 



© c r: ^ ^ . 

©to© O O d©tiC' 

©©;ccQ"-^CQ>s ra-p -HcC-HO-P o 

fH P- O >i'C CQ Jh CC n -H >5fH © C -H O -H 

•HerH,CO(i3a>C©"fH05rHOKlp!C> 
t>Ori-P«HO>C?^(00+JbDUC!'D'0(S 

•HoPo«HC(dCb0t.EP!::c0^^a36X 

^H©C ec6OJ-iCC'H©>H0j-H©Xl«rH^© 

P,j-4cac8'oO^^*O'T:cS^jHC0a5>05^ 









c 


c 






© 








+J 




f^ 


C 


o 










© 




c 


>- 




© 






o 


•H 


C 


fC 


■P 


o 


c^ 


0+5 -P 


© 




iH 


ca 


cc 


© 


E 


> 


> 


OJ 


c 


•c 


'c 


P, O 


•H 


r-i 


C 


•H 


r-t 


^1 


■H 


© 


o 


05 


•H >, 


C 


a 




^H 


O 


o 


CQ 


«H 


w 


£ 


O ^K 


wH 


e 


h 


■P 


> 


c; 


J=> 


c 


•H 


o 


M Xt 


6r 


C3 


tf 


© 


© 


rs 


o 


P 


© 


•H E 


cS 


CS rH 


c 


U 


J^ 


CJ 


c 


© 


n 


fD © 


G 


E 


o 



>J 








v< 


^. 








© 


u 


C 


© 


Jh 


© 


<D 


O -P 


© 


c 


^ 


Fh 


o 




o 


© 


•^ 


•O iH 


•H 


CQ fO 


•H 


03 ■*-■' 


O -H 4-> 


> 


o 


O 


fi 


c 


d 




b?6C 


K) 


© 


s 



c © += i^ u xt CO 

OEtiOV<-PC©©^«E'»^OrH 

•wrSccCO'cbcooC 

P C-H+JUTJ tlCi+^O 

Jh T-f «H CO J^ © © 

O P © -w © O > 

p> 05 V, C X © O 

(^ iH O -^ -O ^H >M 

© P-^H E 



.. iH OP- C 

i-w>i-ca©'c-Ho 
•H>jCcQ«Hj-,:iP 

TSod-rH^© CJ"© 

©ccevitJCQce 

JhOO©OtHO^ 



E -c 

W ^H CS 

•H O -P 

O © OJ 

>M -P C 

© o 



P.PP. oj::ejh^©ep-ceo 



f^ o 


2 f.5 


© C 


05 © -H 


© 0. 


43 -P O M 


.5^ 


c/i CJ C ^1 




bO^H 


CO !-, 43 E 


d c 


© 03 d E 


© fO 


^rH E-H 



d 


fs 














C3 


c3 


>s 




c P, 






>5 


o 


«H 


o 




© nH 


43 




CO 


P & ;c 


p 


© 


c: x: 


c 




r-{ 


- o 


bo 


p, 


p 


03 CO 


© 


P 


© 


03 43 


r< 




o 


y, EJ 


J 


C 


>» fn 


E ^ 


o 


C r-' 


(0 o 


C3 


m P 


43 <r 


>-l 


J^ 


© 


© «H 


C 


E 


© CO 


^1 n= 


o 


c 


> 


P.H f-l 


(fl 


^-, C 


o C ^ 


« 


c 


c. © 


rH 


fO 


© -H 


p. d 


43 




© 


05 «H 


05 


05 


X E 



o 



© © M f^ o3 CO Jh 

bCd CO© C3r4 CJhO 

fn ©60 StS >-<«Ht>5 -HOCO 

©I-I-^0>JCG4-'■P•Hs:!>s^43» 
CQ tt -H bfj o -^ -M <B CO © c f-l c ca © 
!3«r^Vio5o3 Ea3iH-H>o3©PO«n 

o d c5 >j'H ©©Ea^d>sf-4>jE o 
a3^cocoP.+3fHOfHC.2Po5i:-H © 



O CS 13 ' 
^ © -H ' 
P.jn'rH 



c 


c 








c 


C 


© 








•H 







© 







"O 


© 




P 


o 









© 






cJ 43 




CO 


rH 


43 


§ 


c 


03-0 


43 43 +3 4J 





•H 


U 


p- 


>i © 


C d 


© 





•H 


© 


c ^ 


© 


-< 


^ 


^1 d 


s: 43 




© 


P 


U 


cS 





"2 


fM 


•H 


rH 


-H 


P 


■r-> 


E 


03 





5-. 


c 


5h 


ff 


©<H 


-o 43 


E 








hTrH 


05 


© 





p 


;c c 


05 03 





U 


f-i 


•H 





d 


43 





P -H 


SnH 





P 


P. 





> 


05 



+3 

43 p, 

G >5 C © •'-^ >■; 
iHcO O®©43^03 

05 d -H c E -^ o ^ 

^lP>iP^H©PC2£!j 

©©cicflocoodP 

C.HOf-.43a3P,CiJ'H P,43 

d^dp^p, a5cdc©c3 ox: 



bOO^ ' 



© "OOP c 

U O -H OJ o 

d J-t 43 -H o •'-: 

p ^ C P. E "-< 43 

(^ © © ?-. "H p> -H 

03 p ro O Oi © no 

fn C 

© 



E O © TS ^ bO 03 Ph.C fH 



© 



CO 



^ 




•H 




c 


CO 


P 


tO-M 


ro 


r— 1 




pj 


ca 


c 


© 


a 


05 


rH E 





•^^ 


c 


© 


fH 


~H 


pi d 





rH 


•H 


CQ 





U 


E d 


M 


03 *H 


CQ 


E 


f- 


•H 


© 





c3 




3 


d 


P c3 


> 


CO 


E 


-a 


c^ 


03 > 






>i C ca fn S S S 

fo I— .Q o 43 o C 

© «t- O 43 o rQ C 

bO ^1 fH -H © 03 -H 

C3 © P4 P ^ fcOrO 

^ > O CC -H :5 ^ 

43 o M •'-. "o > o 



© 

43 

©X 

43 c5 • 
C iH 
© CQ 

r-: C. 

05 ca 

> E • 



>s © >> P* 


•H 


fw 

03 


•S^ 


© 43 








^ 


^ 


© f-i 


Jh 





P( © 



© G 

t rH d 

C b?H 

odd 
E c3 fo 

!h •H d 

c3 }-4 © 

^43 p. 



























o 






O 












■^ 












0) 












u 


f" 




© 






0} o 


}-l +^ 








p 






<D 






C+^ 










>s 


© 


© 


(h 








X 


!:i 


c 






^ 


Cu 


© 


m 


> 




^. 


•H^ 




o 


t>s 




-p^ 


© ^ 


© 


ArH 




-P u 


S O 


© 






o 


P 


O rH 


•H 




+^ 60 




o 


^ 


© 


rt 


U -O o 




(3 


03 S 


>jO o 


o -o 


G 






H 


p 


fl 


E! 


4^ 


i 


■P o 


C 'H 


Jh 


^ 


© 


rH 


•H 


•H 


P r-\ 


O 


•H 


» © 


a 


© ,Q -H Cfi 


P, Pi 


O 


© 


© 


© 


^ 


K) 


cd -H 


CS C. 


•H 


C5^4^ 


CS «H 


+=«H 


C 


*> -H U 


© 


P-XM.Q 


a 


© 


o 


^ 


4^ iH 


•H 


u 


03 


P.'H 


^^ ?-- 


M 


60 


O 


U-P 


bO 


"-"iH 


c3 


iJ. 


?-< o 


o 


W 6C 


•H d 


03 


CQ 


•H 


o 


c 


O 4^ 


Jh 


E 


a;s 


03 O •H 


C +^ 


•H 


V< 


C-PH 


a 


O 


p. © 


fn 


C "H 


> o 


o 


C6 iH+J 


Ci 


W 


Q 


cS 


o 


fi > 


iH 


C3 


^ 


P 


© 


•H 


P,rt 


•H 


)m 


(DXi 


CC 


?H © 


C3 Pi 




P 


c3 


c? 


O 


c 


© 


CO 


CQ (D 


C5^ O 


©^ 


,c, 


© 


o 


^ 


cs3 ^ 


«H tH 


fH+^ rH 


P-C 


P.-P 


© 


© 


o 


X! 


o 




> 



O CQ iH 

6C C rH 
1-1 © B; 
P O t^ 

03 CO © 

E ce E 



P © 

© C O P © E 

rH © © > C © C ^^ 4^ 

6:; O C t^^iH fH iH P t>. P 03 >j^ 42 C O Gj c: 

ECC OOj-rH OS © 'C©>Pa34^0)«H+:>ee 

C3©©>. 5::iQWt-IC6r04^>. KC;'H03es:;4JOOt3 
Pt-<PP©P^C3-Ha3P^sr-l-©p'ClX-rtCP'CC 
'C10©c;p©oEc:'0*H©0'D'04:>C;OOC>00© 

o5'c^4^p>-HC3©os::&QCc;pc:?+>a3 p,rH © 4^ 

r3C'CiOC©EC:>P03©©C0aJOCK>a©£C4J 

c— f o!CoPcroo3PE'DEr-;bDO,QE^Pt)a3a3 



6C 




-P c 






43 






C 'H © 


© 43 C © _ 


a o p 






d 






o >; o 


^.CCro-r-ICOrHC^ iHP 


©^ © 






© >i 




e: 


T-t O .H 


E43.^ 


c 


© 


p^Cr. 




p 


4-' O «H 


©cJ-^Ecoo-rHrocc Eo© 


© O fH 








>s 


•H 


03 4^ <t-H 


> 43 C r3 CQ -H 4- P hp C E -H C3 4^ 


bf c o 





c 


c p p 


p 


CO 43 


43 m o 


CJP r!pr'roc©rH'OCQP4>C0 


C :i 'c 


p 





43 03 -H 


© E 


p 


C ©43 


Poo43c::!o^::!e!--i©oe< 


05 p. C 


C3 


s 


•-< E43 d 


c ^ 


d © 


rt :i cj 


WP O Cj c:iH43 C'O'© 043 (DM 


P E c3 


c 




c E 43 cr 


C 'H 


p 


r-; iH O 


CEPCOfH©a3CcQtiOc:p, 03 


p 04: 




> 


ri c 


S 'O 


y. 'H 


P.^ P 


©•HpnHOOS'DC-HP-ffi-^CIjXl 


03 


E 





E c ^ ^ 


p: 


© fO 



© C 

+=■ « o 

E 'o CG 

03 O 03 

G P O 
t>» 03 



4i 

<D p 43 
E O >j CQ 



O P: rH 0! -H 
P E 43 43Ch 

oJ ci 43 ■ • 



fio 03 



•o p. O OJ 03 CG tj 



p 

© © 

>.C3iH * 

P E 03 >5C 

© CO -P iH O 

43 CQ "^ -H E 

C 4^ © c E o 



fl; =! 0; O P © 03 P 
P.©EP'OP«HP 



r. 

O +3 

43 c 

c3 cd 

rH O 
© O 
P O 

o 



0«H 
C -H 



P 
© © 

H t^jiO 
O P ^ 
CD © O 

P fee C 
oj bf C 
cos 
O 43 60 



c 43 ■■: 

O 4-' -r- 

o 03 «J- 



>jP 

p O "0 

© ^ -H 

6: Q- s 

•o -H c3 

j:* > P 

P © t>j 

fo P P, 



60 "C 

a © 

P.OJ 



E >. 

© P © 

© P o 

43 a,. H 

CQ ^ Vh 

© ^ "H 

•H 05 P 

iH P O 



© O 

>» © c; 

c: 6!- c: 

C TD © 

P-HtH 
Oj p O 

03 03 P 



a © 

3 O 



© 



d c PC 

© © c o © o 

O ErHO ©•HrHE:©rH43 

i-tC'COjE C!43a3O'OrH0ip 

43op>Eo6i~iocQtHa3©©© 

K N KS -H .H 60 O C O 43 d C:) rH P 
d -H ^ 43 C/2 -r- rH -H P. O O ^V .Q Q 

•^PEcQP'oo343Mf>Eo^.ci 
Coo©©G'HK'H©oooa: 
•H j:^ .a ^H P-'Hro ©fOrorH^Or-i 



© p 

E P 

o d 

O CQ 



43 iH 

p a 
© > 

•H ^ 



•a 

o 

P o 

© t>j.C 
03 tJ 43 -H 
P O (H rH 
© H 3 © 
E iH o > 



4J o3 

a3 c; P 
& o o 



d E 

S p 



:i P 



© C)2 O © 43 ^ O 

CQ -H E 'tH CJ ~ ■ 

O d © y:: i^ . w ^ 

p pS fO -H -H CQ fa CQ 



OOP 



d 

03 © 
E P 



P -m C3 d 03 , _ 

OCQ^OOP CQ+3d'H 

CQ Ci P -H ^ !>. d P, EJ 43 © CQ G 
CJ©Ob0©fH©EO©iH©O 
©00'H43 o433t3^0p^ 

„ d 43 -H p, p^ 

CQ C3 CQ o h<! o 
©'•H © CQ 



03 d d d 

r-i -H © © © 



b O rCi CQ O CQ rH 

o 3 CQ ::< -H © o . . . . „ ., 

" &:) TD p f> rH Pi 05 H 



o E 

fo :^ 

03 r-\ 

© o 

E o 



E E o 

Ph^O -H 

rf © 03 

CT< E > 

o c3 c3 




OCDflfiOOQ) O^H 

O O O O ■) ^ -H (> 'H Q) QJ 

>5 C3 p, C 'H .H Ci ra 'H C CO fO O l>srH r-H G ^ 

Ph ^1 rH "H O -H C Ci iH -H ^^ J-i Cj (I) CS3 +■' 'H O 
OCCOrQJ^OOCUKWf'iPiCj'rH'HOCCj 

O'H-poP(OoP<0)><r>a«HOO4Jc3PH 



4-"' $:: -H CD +-^ O f-i •<-' 

ti'c; rf Vi o K' w -p oi 05 +^ c :i -p 

f-ic5,c:i.HCK!j::e'cc3o'oo3 

tC! -H rH S bCiH d-HJ-.-PE-Craf-iOj'OOCQOCB 
C5 rH >5.C vH «H C f-M^ Cd C3 C W 03 -^^ C C C3 O ^ 

oC^aScOrQ^brPcCcCoajP-bcPnOtJcPo) 



C t> g r3 "D c 





60 O f-t v 


O 




sr, c -H -JJ J-, 


C 


o 


•H CS Cj t-o o o 
> ^ K O >- CC "d 


C 


c 


(D 


c; 


05 bn (D +J O C'J O 


f-. r-s 




V* o «n ef. 4' C £1 


<r U 


P 


tD C O •*-"■ O K> E 


> 05 


c 


C O fn O OJ fH O 


<D -H 


CQ 


O E P, P-«H +5 o 


^H -0 



^H O 

<D t> C 

> 4^ 05 

<D c r 

G 'D 03 



C 

O © t's'O C ^ 

-I C f-i o c P 

CO o P o •<-< a5 

OQ +3 (D ^ += P 

•H p ^ T-i o h: 

E W Cl oc £■ O 

P 'D o3 P o 

C P o! P o 



<B 



+3 © O w 

C bC-H 43 60 E P © P 

a50JO05s::CCO6£O 

_rHO-PrH6r©OPC! eStO 

aJai-H.rH:iGEw©PrH 

■ _.<■- r- — Fn<p-i^Qj.^ 

P 



Pdo^PEE-c 



1. uj uj "r^ "rn ■,_; ^-i f_; w^ u; r-i i — i ui wj \y 
DCQ-HrHEP-^a;Co©--<©©^ 
:CQj::PPE^HC©0J>OPC!rH 

Da5©f^oo>.. P>'HOr: b:'-H --i 



14:: o 



, ^ > ^ O 7i ^. 

o © "o 61' E n5 



(0 


© 










C 




CJ 


o 


© 








© "C 


c 


G 


"C 




4^ 




P 


O 


e; 


C5 


n 


4^ 


C 


05 


o 


o 


p 


•H 


4=' 


ra 


o: 


e .c^ 


© 


i-H 


•rH 




p 




tQ 


c 


03 


P 


4-5 


c 


a 


© 


61 


05 


r-i 


E 


05 


0) 


4^ 


iH 


C 


E 


•r-l 


o 


P 


•H 


05 -H 


O 




^ 


o 


60 


P 


O -O 


rH 


^ 







O P 4^ C 




x: p © 


c 


C ©C©-PC! "tHC 


c: © p 


-p © > 

© C t .H 


c o 


©©ih6iox:c © c©c 


-POO o 


O -H 


^ C 05 Oj -H O © E >.^ O r-4 -H 


>» © -H 05 4-' 


>.-H © 


Cr04^iH4^43 E >J.CO PE*H o4:> 

<y4J).rH.rHr:c3 ©4i6flCO©*H CCO 


© W © Vj 


P 60 P P- C 


o C -1 


E u o - 


.^..^^''§^ 


05 -H f 


tJ t>jp4-' ©OiH'H'Hco4:>ic.H C © 


05 © o a; <H 


p. E Oi 


c;pK!P-P>>Pc:!n«H-Ha;£C*^. 


E w C © p 
p ,o c: f© ^ 


c © o: cc c 


05 O !=! 


oc5oa5s::tH Co^raC'o-r^c-H^ 


•H P n-l K -H 


P ^3 W 


O pQ X © -H fH -H .© CO -H © "C to 


ro o -H -H p 



O -P 
P 05 

rs -p 

E H-l 

ex: 
o o: 

o JC 



j:: 


s & 




© 


s: 


P CQ -P r-< 




© P 


CO 


O -H P © © 


p. 05 -H 




P 03 M 


•H 


•H tJ 3 C N © 


::^ 4^ m 




[>:, © P, -H 4J 


13 


4:> 4J 6:> 05 C 0} P "O 


r-l O P M 05 W P 




© 4^ j:n P > P 


P >s05 


ooCP©J3o:i 


C3 P -H 03 iH U © 


rH 


© -H P © >s © o3 


o x: P 


•H P -H 05 no X -H 4^ 


> © ^ > O O +3 
•H 4^ 3 -H ro C P 


03 


rH 4-^ CQ 4^ P 'O ;P 


•H C3 Q) 


p ;:! «f-i 4^ c5 o -P -H 


:i 


•H c O P ---1 © P 


P iH CO 


a5-^03QO4^c3-P 


> 4^ crP C P 3 


4^ 


rO 03 E ::? E P © 


:3 M P 


XPX:©©'HtHi-* 


0! rS O P O -rH o 


•H 


r:J :3 4^ o o c3 i-H 


© n( o 


©•-"•oP-c^rooS 


P J3 05 05 bo 05 O 


P 


•'-i c^ 03 o X -c © 


P rH X 



p >. 

r-i P 
© 03 









4J 


p 


















P 


o 


P 




© 






© 






© 


■H 


•H 


© 13 




p 


•§ 


rH 


© 


B -P J3 


P 


a 


P 


o 


05 


"O 


© 


o 


CQ 


o 


p 


© 


•H 


•P 4^ 


03 


> 


•H 


P x: 


© 


■g 


CQ 


•H 


CQ 


P 


o 


P 


© 


P, P 


fH 


+> 


© 


© 


p 


+i ro 


© 


cr c3 


zi 


P fo 


P 


P,CQ 


c5 


rH 


07 


o 


P- 


O 


^ 


© 


e 


© 


© 


© 


03 


© 


© 


«H 


CO 'H 


PH+3 


S 


-o 


P 



p p p p >i6 



o p 

P -HO 
rH 03 P += >1-H 

a3G©©opcoo'H©©©-Po'HO 

W © "O tC ^ 4^ CO 60 p +3 -P f© O © 4J o r> 

OrHpoPCQOPoCQOl'HO^Jg'HCjO 

p,4-3 o-p+^3Po5o-H ©;>-H P, 3-PE P 

O P CQ O CQ f© P<^ >j6CPOpO'OpOP 
P©-HPOP©efH©OPf^P©OP3 
P, 6013 pHrO'HrO © bOP'fH PlC5 Pi"© PnCj+i 



EM 

§ ° 

P X 

to O 





(D 






^ 


C 






fM 








o 


O 




Pi 


o 






O 


C 




(D 


>s fl f^ 


C a> 


>» 


ei C -H 


c 


>^ 


Pi 


o 


c 


U 


M 05 © 


CO ,Q iH 


U o 


X 


o 


J-. 


® 


o 


•H 


o 


<D4^ S 


•H (D ^ 


bO^H 


<D 




-»J 


O © 


E 


K 


cf:i+3 4:> b 


O i-H 


£3 


o a> i-i -P 


C 


60^4 




W 


fH 


^1 •H+5 


•H ^ 


<D 


C P 


U' 


o 


c3 


(3^ 


o 


03 


si 


pi n CO 


CQ E 


u 


o c3 


C 


CJ^H 


J-i O 


c 


o 


•H 


O ro CJ 


;:3 p! 


CQ 


X: rC 


o 


o 


C 


•H O 


o 


o 


p^ 6 cd o 


e^ 


C55 


P- o 


o 


u 


•H 


> ^ ^ 


B 



O C ® 

+2 +3 -H o 60 C 

4:'C+j^.j:!+^--tC 03 P^o 
d © C o (u P,-p o oJ ^ c3 c3 "H 
©C©-Pf••r^o•H+^f^GoC 
Ba5ScoPJ-.:i-P©>HOWc5 

CS S 3 © O O 'D Pi«H O rH iH Pi 

60^Oo'aCQc:O«HBP-OE 

fn-'-IOCCraO'DGi ©-HOO 

eS'Hio o3 ©"o o Cj-p.C'o'fH o 









•p 


© 


■P 


j:; 


o 




+> 




c 


c 


•c 








fl -p 


C 


O 


C 




C! 


JD 


o 


b'-' 






t>=c8 


c 


© 


•H >i (D 


J> 


0) 


C 


T-l 


c( 


O -P 




>j u 


o 


p 


E 


a; -p 


6C >sP 


o 


O -P 


+~ 


^ cc 


>i 


•o 


o 




© 


© 


C IH 


C P 


•H 


H-f 


o 


•H 


•M 


^ -H 


^ 


o 




fa 


^i 


P 


a -H 


•H S 


U 


f^ 


CO 


-D 


c 


C -P 


cf 


IH 


o 


C 


u 


o 


c ca 


^1 P 


C rQ +' 


C 


p 


o o 


CO 


© 


o 


© 


•H 


r-i 


(< fH 


P © 


© 


n 


C5j 


O 


ji 


P> fcr- 




E 


o 


E 


no 


© 


©tfH 


Oj TD 


13 


iH 


o 


o 


«H 


CQ © 



o 

t: ^i © © P -H 

© XOJOCJ ©-p©© 

P-C'H<T3+3C©C0'CO-PQaj 

E!©tHC©a!rHiiC.Hc3roo. 

PE-^OrHPc-PCOPEC^ 

fc o © +^ p 3 a; ai +- p -H .H o 
cd a: !3 P c j 'o P P c;i o: P" ^h cc 
p! ^O ^H CC -H c -H E t^ <u W © fs 
o^cijO^E<uE-h-ciP©'cP' 



B O' 
© c 

o ^ 



iH iH CO O C O 



I x: o 

: tt P :r: c 

ippA^oi^i oce© 

l©©CO>-ipt»^'HP>HP> 

cc; iH -H hr> © p> CO eg © © 

i>"'-^©P'CifH«Hs:;c:CP,ii«HPr-i>iC: 
i'oaj^p!-^ri'fHc8o-Hc;K!'i-o©o>s-x'<4. 
cdPoc6«hP©coEocCooP-PW'0'c 



c5oPt>oct>sE OOS 
>p>o^ca+'>i -HP" 

P O r-' C >i CO O 
. „ PC 

ft- o © o >s o; 



cc 



^ tr: 

a; © 



© o 
J§ 

P rH 
03 -H 

p. br 

© v-i 
t2 > 



P > 0! 

ta P o; 

© © cc 

p,p-' © 

P-H P. 



13 d 

C > 



p> p> 

>, O -H . 
P -H O ■ 
© > .H 
f-l C 'H 

© o © 



rH +- ^ O 

COPP©C PO) •HJ-.>s rH 

>3^ -H O +■> O © O C '^jP" ce p 03 H 03 

OP" P 'C CO -H rH -H -H 60 P.-c P- «H OC > 

PPO'Hc;c/iX:tQpH'Hp)CC0rHC0O 

c3©t;PEScOcoo'aP©-Hcepi>H 

O CO © ^, >..r-i J^-HCOOCCrHC'HOP 

cS c; P o c6 rH c3 E 03 P 'H cC -H rH J-, p. 
P»©P, c P-Hp. ob-CP-DOEaJOjce 



© P rH 

P C O © -H 

03P>sC6C--<O^oE 
P©POOP>0©CJ^ 
^ -H Qi .H -H © O rH CC © 
© p drHP>rH O'D'H^J 
6DP ©C-HrH p 0) t-l 4^ 

rHc5c:^rip(o©©pi 

CSOCifOP-ClEPPrQ 



p 

CO 

p 

03 P 
E ti ® © 'o 

^ rH P >» C 
CQ O -P P -C O 
CO P M O © E 

c 03 o P B o3 
P- © t E 01 -H 
o a; csJ 'H ^ TD 



C P P 

© rH -HO 

B CO O <H -H 

© r! jc t>s'f-; p> 

cj -H o 6r c3 T-i 

3 -o o <D P P" 

E Cj rH rH Oi © 

03 P 03 © P, P 



o © 

C B 



P.rH 

B^ 
© cfi 



E -o 
J-1 © 1= 
03 E 



:?S 



CO aJ 
© t> 



c: o c 
op© 

•H © rO 

CO TD P 
rH " © 

PJ Pi Pi 

BE® 

© -H tD 



OOP" 
C rH Pi' 

cd C3 pi 

•H © P 
P,"^ © 



CO P fD ra © © 

to P o3 c V( p! E 

©c3t>a©'Ho3 C3fc0 r-i 

P'DCP>OB^6fio>sC3 
•H C 'H CQ -H .H 6C © 60 p © C 

r)CdP>'HfHfHOPaj©o4 

C3 p OD P P> P,rH t/J fO CO P C 

© © c3 03 © pi "H 



p >»OrQ Pi^ ©ro plEO'OrC! CJ 



fH © ,c r: c E 
© P pi CO o o qo 

P,©p!CJ©'C>*H>Ha}© 
B rH P' "H t3 -^ P> P" P 6r 

ocj >HCd'oo3aj^c3 

>s > -H >H t-l P P- pi P 

oP-pEP'Poc3© 

H pS Hi o c3 c5 



o , 



O "C fO d 



>s © 

P" p p- 
o3 P> o3 
E P o 

o 03 -H 
(H rH tJ 

P,rH S3 
•H C3 t>j 

fO 60 CO 



147 



^ 



Co >^ 

a -H >tr-t Q) y< a 

. w„M,£'cSfH^oP^c:S>Po) tiO*H n o <D 

p,0CBc300>J>^0 -- .-. --- 
00-H^P,C+30CiOO 



03 
c3 U 






O +3 Q O 

•H ^ fj S C 

■P -P O 'H O O CJ 

o a o ,^ -H > 4J 

d O W to ^^ 



O^PrHOfHOC3 





c 


-p 












© 


o 


« 




<D 








H 


£j 












>s 


-P> 


[3 


t>j 


c3 




03 


C 


05 


c 


o 


c'h 


03 


•H 


o 


M 


•H 


C 


03 


o 


h += ^ 


o 


O 




br 


o 


o 


•H 


P 


c 


P^tH 


o 


o 


bCrH 


& 


fcc 


P 


o 


f-. 




C 


•i-< 


•H 


03 


U 


P 


"o 


cd 


a 


« 



^ '^ i^^ 

rH CO 03 

03 (T 3 

> E rH 

CS (K 03 

O 'O "O 



p; o ^ 

^ -P C3 

C O TD 
rH e •^^ 

f:^fErH 
Coo 
03 C ^ 



fco c o c © 

C o c o o o 

H^fnO C«H i-'4J+2 C 

j_- +3 C) ^ © +' 03 o! C C 03 

©O'UtQC -HP, CCQX:<J-''© >j+5 

© c c w 03 >j c E t>^ c n -p e: E o += 

n'Ho3©a-Po::^^io3©o©-PC-^ 
c:-PE'H-H.H>mm'CrH^H>^^i©£ 
w w E C -P C c c -^ C o -P o c3 -P Jh 

CC-HOOJhOSOOCjKSkCP. O© 



,!>:. E 

^ ft 

© © 



© 

© JC 
iH f-, O 

ci ::! Jh 

C -P © 

•H c J^ 

E c -c 

•■-< > C 

M -o 03 

O 03 JS 





»H M O f^ 




© O -H O 




W 60-P ta rH 




a c o w iH 




C © © -H © 


to 


E > i-t E P^ 




03 H E o 


►3 


rH C O O fn 


o 


o; Ci O O p. 



oC ^C'H c ^4(6>j 

•H o3 C © o -p >siH eo © © Pi 

>s-P EoCPi+^PCoxaS-H-H 4^;+^ ^+3 

-Ps::p-Ho©coc'C+'P'otQC©fs ©c: 

•H © ©-P-Hrc a, +^4^tH+3 >^ o P-H^ O >sP'H 

.j-,t>^-rH+i^^.H^+3 05 a3ooiH-p«H E^ E 
03 c CO tj fi > K "o c ii br C3 o c o -^ E © ^C' © 

^ C -H tJ f> -H X ^ © -H ©-HP, >.. -r-l P O C •'-* X 

.CO'H«30'OOCJ P,'C P'OOCQ> ©o©^^^ 



•r^ -H +J T-l 

fo W Pi na 

o © c3 d 

•H p P p 



iH E tJ 

op© 

•H © P 

> t> p 



C © +^ © © C 

Qj ra© o xp©Coo oc 

tHC! -Ho -H P P,©p©Ci-< -HO 

© fcr: >j p rH c o >j-p C^s© >s>ia;c -^ H a t-^ 4->-h 

•H O P © p r-H C6 r: P O 03 p -O -t^ P P hr: 03 ^. -H P 03 4^ 

f-<iHo&nc3rf---i-Hria;rHo: CEP©hii-<-<E-Poh!E>i 'oo5 

(Da3-PaJdOrHO+3p^P'HjS©C03©OCf-!©OCc!C^ 
^ -P CQ ^ flf> P p. P C P > J2 r-H -rM > C P P -H '.:; P r-' O O © r! O 

fla3o3on3oP. ©©0'HvH>»P-oa3a3ot'-, cErHC©PoP 
s<oE'u*^-i^ c5x:ocCpHOo p,-ij p.<h a3E©ajo3Pa3«Hp. 



.;=! C 

P 0! 

05 ^ 

-Q O 



H 4^ 
O C 

C © 



O rH (U 

p. P «H 

P^ E '-^ 
o © &; 



© c © 

c 4' c a o 4^ c b:' o 

CCOO-H G >i ©4^003 4^ © 

©©0.r4 4J Qjp 'OC'H4^rH O 

iH-OrH+^O !^•^E©t>s•<-^©OJ C03 CCS 
:i'<-< C3'H© C4^4^^0SP © p-r-trH 
P ta4J4JrH'H 04^4^-^ 03 © ©4^ flll^J 

P © cpcHr^Q3 a:a3Eti''^PPCTHP 
OPCfioimoCrHPHO ~" ~ 

o p. p. P- 



02 © C iH 

t>aP>©.a 
© cS E --t 

> P.-H O 
C >^ C 
O rH -H 



P, ©«H 03^rH * P, C O f^tC^ r-f O 



C G 

•H © 

-H E 

o © 

-O 4^ 

C 03 

o3 -Q 

E ei 



JC 4J 

P C 

03 © fl 
P E-H 

bt 05 CQ 

o c CO 

+= p 03 

o :i a 

,C O CQ 

P.4-^ oj 



x:!::'<H4J4Jj:3o3o3'H 



© bO 

rs 4^ -H © 



U P 

p! © 
ra o 



p © tin 

O fO t>i © >s-P P 
.. . . _ t>s4J 3 o -P -H c © © 

_ _ PC0 4J4^0+3C30rH-H.£>P 
© CQ fO iH O -H 4^ .H -H © .H E © ai -P 03 O 

6C C C Pi P-.C p 4J r-H 4= rH p rH ^ 



pic3^*Hod^^:iP 

Q P^ 03 'x; O E " U cri P- 



E Pi © 

P4J -P 

c3 © C o w 



ui„' c^ v^ »-*i ^---w, ^H H^ rn ■«■' I — I Ml — I r^ ;_^ rC 1 — I 

be p 03 U p o O rH 03 O P, Ci 03 CQ p P. P, . -v - 

^_.^.^^^, ■ ^ , ^^.HnHOrHH-P-HOO 

Ph-O ro CQ 03 © 03 Cj P O 



rH 

O 

4= P 

O 4^ 

© >5 C 

4^ c: o 

•H CO O 
,C 4=" «H 



c 


bO 


i 


C 


o 


O 


f^ 


G 






>s Oi -P -H 


^1 


O 




c 




•H 




^ 


•P 


ci 


Jh 






•H 


c 


o 


•H 


W 


pi 


CQ 




© 


fH 


CQ -P H 


B 






o 


I^C: CQ 


+:> 


-P 


G 





© 


Cj 


>s 


+^ 


•H 


•H 


*£3 


•P 


C8 


a 


vH 


>J ^ 


03 


O 


© rH 


CQ 


03 


>^'H 


C 


u c 


C 


U 'H 


03 


•H 


rt 


fO 


CQ 


^ 


}^ 


c 


cd 


E 


o 


O 


u 


3 


CQ 




f^ © 


^ 


O 


G 


^H-P 


o 


t3 © 


© 


53 4j 40 +i 









a 


o 


aJ 


CO 


n 


© 


rH 




•d 


CO 


CQ 


•H 


8)1^ 


© 


J-i 


© 


C5 C5 




•r-l pH 


G 


•H U 


c: 


05 


'fi5 


u 


iH 


f» 


E 


•H 


r- 


o 


C 


c 


d 


0} 


O 


OJ 


•o 


u 


K 


+■> ^ 


■p 


.c o 


© rO ,Q ,a 


f 


43 


•p 


p. 


too 




e 


^ 


,5-< 


c 


>» 


© 


tn rH 


Cj 


•H +3 




o 


o 


O -H 


^ 


O © iH 


d 


pi 


© 


© 





© 


o 


O^ 


o 


CQ 


«H 


•H 


o 


P^© 


bC 


© 


G n 


•H 


o 


© 


> H 


c 


t; TS 


©N CQ 


C2 iH 




h rH 



c 







© © 


-p 


>. 0^ 




4^ re 


•H C 


CQ +^ -P 




CC 


4^ © 


■H P 


t>j 


bOU 


P.-D 


^< © fn 


P' 


<D P> 


G-" 


:i y. c 


© 


^1 


© 


© rCi C 




tC<D 


S^. © 


rH -H 


C3 


br-M 


© 


P rH 


b! 


03 © 



C P 

o © o c 

•H O s r>i J^, C C O 

E C(j P C o oj © P^fu --' c 
ri^HtHo ©>s'H'cP'K;ci-Pf-' 
C © CQ C o rH Jh c: Jh H o G o -P 

a5Cori'crH©jMai~^c3tjO 

toe ""^ i C;©pc-Pa!<HrH}-iO 
E ^ P- C ^ O f" > CQ fH rH P H-' ^ 

+^o,coX-i©tQfH>i'co;c^j:: 



t3 £ 
Pi P 

O o3 



■p 

c 

c © 

c © c 

OEM 

•HO© 
CQ d P' 
•H bC-P 
iH O O) 

© C rC 









c 


C2 






P> 


















© 


C 













c 


© 


3 


© 




c 






© 








c 


G 


©PC 


C 


© 


© 


•H CO 









G 


+' P> 


© c 




^s-O 


E 


d C 


d 





(D 


000 


G 


rH 





4^ C © P" 






•H 


C 


x: 


05 


Cj 


E 




P 


03 


03 


C6 05 >= 







•H 


C! C -H 


© 


h' 


c 


-H © n >j 






ra 


P. 


G 


p> 




tU -H 


>5P rH 




;rt J., p 


•H 


fcr P 


Cd 03 03 


br 


© 


0;,.^ P 03 ^ 
P C bl^ © >s p. 


CQ 




CQ 


S 





C 


c 


•H p> 


t»: 


© 


bPrH 4^ Qj Qj+3 


03 


© 


cos:: 


?-• 


03 


p 


S 




•H 


^0 


p' 


© 


© 


rH 05 


P 


fi 


P 


03 


Qi S: r-i 


O. 4^ 


C 05 


© p © 


05 


p 


© 


P-- C3 -H p P- 


r) 




E 




Ci 


P> 


1H 


P 4^ 


© 


cr 


© 




C P 


60 C 


C 4= 


P» P rH 







03 G rH f 5 -H P 







•o 


13 


c^ 


c 


1—'. 


C3 -H 


G 







a: 


© e; 


© 


c 


03 


0^ t>i 


c 


© 


© ^ 3 -H 6 03 4^ 


tA 




03 


C3 





p 


03 


p 


© 





© 


«H 


>(-)«*-( 


C 


© 


E --1 


© 


© 


P 


p 


C3 ^ t»H P rH 03 


^ 


re 
C 








































-15 


p> 









































r-l 


_U 








































^ 




© 






© 


















© 














JH 


© 


> 






CQ 


© 

















^ 






© 


P 




a 


CQ 


P4 


1-1 


C 




P. 










© 


© 




d 


d 





P 


c >^ 


tr 


© 




tc © 






P> 





p- 


iri 


C 


>J 


vH 


p> 


E 


43 


c 





05 


Oj 


p 


Oj 


XI 




C © -H P, 


ptj 







•H 


03 


c 


c3 


^^4= p 


•H 


•H 


•-; 


•H c6 


•H 


x: 


P -H 


•H +> P 




^rH 


rH .H P P> h-s 


^ 




d "P 


•H 





P 


-r* 


cC 4^ 


£ 


03 


■P OJ "TD 


+5 


c 


© C P» OJ b 


P 




03 


C © rH d P- 




s 


»H 


c 


>H 


© 


C3 4:> 


^ 


C 





C 


P. fi P 


05 


05 


•H CC 


■H .H 02 


P 


^ 


c 


> ^ P 


K 




•«~i 


© 


03 


© 


p.iH C 


P- 


© 


P> 





c- -o 


> 


E 


P jr 


P ^ -H 


ffi 


rC 


c 


•H (V, ^ P 4^ 


E^ 




c 


03 


^ 


4' 


G rH i: 


E 


«*-■ 


c 


P 


00c 







P 


P P, 


G 


r: 


CJ 


r-i t5 fO C U 
03 (D C 03 P 









CQ 


c 


© 


03 c3 


P 


© 


c3 


© 


;^ ;«; 


P 


P' 


d (U 


C! C 


© 


a; 


^ 









05^ 




P 


«H 03 


H 


•0 


P 


05 


•-! © Oj 


P.O. «H E 


C 03 -H 


P 


r-i 


ij 


03 >-5 :i E e 



o a 

•H O 

P> >i-H 

© c +^ 

r-J C5 "H 
P.4J M 
©CO 



<H E © 
?H E > 

0^0 

'H OJ rH 



© © 
C-H 
•H P 

P 03 
4^ P, 

© E 



--< 03 

C 03 

G o 

E P 

o 05 

o C 






P O 

OJ Ih 



n 03 
P -o 



o c © © 



C! 
P 43 o 

O >^ P © -H 

•H 4^ C © l> P" 

05 P -H P e -H p 

C © P O 03 P <p 

■H P CJ © © 05 o 

p G cd -H p b: p 

C tr.i © ■!• 



-PGoEoPP-.O'C03EPc.-oP 



>> 

>» P 
P © 
© be 
> 03 
© 6 

C P P -H 



p © p> c 


© 






OP- PC 


C P © © 


C P :^- 


p 


P C © -H © -H P .H >s >s 03 


©43©CoOC© 


© 03 


c 


•hoPhPEHoojoPc 


CP :i C ©rH 


Qj -H bC'rH -H r-\ 


© 


C"H03©©34ipC'OO 


OJ © Cd tH CJ' © 73 X3 


> 4^ C H -1' C3 


-a E 


©4=(Dp!rH03O©03rHP 


© EE+^©C-Hci 


P P -H -H -H 


05 -H 


> P bD4^ P- E Pi >-5 c:5 -H 


r-> C3 -H ^ -H ^ rH 


CD © ,0 P ::; 43 


•H fO 


r!c3c-jpppcojoP5> 


OrHP"rHoECH 


C C3 P -U -H 


P C 


C •■-< f J CO c3 p -H rj ai C 


W -H C > --^ £3 I;-;, 


•H 03 rH ;.-: c 


!>5 c 


03 -H r© G »^ -P Pi'D rQ ^ © 


© «H vH © <2 tH CQ 


S-O ^ «H T-i -H 


G 



© © 

o ^ C 

fl-H P 

CJ 43 O) 

t-t' o o 

•H © C 

rH C O 

rH C O 
•HOC 

CD o :i 



e 


o 




S 03 






CO 4^ -P C 


CO 






U 'O ^ 


C 


o « 03 


fl o 


•H 




•H ^ 


^ 


O iH 60 O ^H 


O.Q 


-P -P -P 


(A 


O -P 


O 


•H 


ce c5 fl ^sAi 


G oj 


c3 


03 CO 


(0 


•H .H 


& 


+3 




C) H 


g, 


O <D 


C +- bO C -H 


fH 4^ 


a -p 


U 


•H C 


O 





•D +3 C 60 5h 


O 4^ 


o 


bOC 


O 


^ O 


P. 


^ 


O ti C3 -H o 


05 rii 


•o 


05 'H 


o 


O iH 


o 


tH 45 ^ ,0 t> 


K O 



4^ 
d 4^ 

4^ B ra <u o 

•H -H O 'H O 60 iH -!^ 
0'a-HrHrH;:irHOO 

fs o :j pu P. o o -H c 

;i ^ >s CO E •■-! K "D C 

O O ,G "H O p O -H O 

C C P.'a o c; e P o 



4^ aJ o 

03 Pl«H 

o p! © 

© tS) fl 

P c3 o 



>i u o 
Cos 
O P C 
Poo 

•H ^H O 





© 


60 


C 


>.p 


!3 


o 


p 


o 


4' 


p 


© 


C 


P 4= 


E 


cd 


O 


© 


© 


P,Ph 


E 



E 

O'J -P © C C: K! 

s::4>>iCocci OKc3 
cs c fM c3 c tv ce -H l:,,-! 
o I-; afl to © © c 4' P P 

•HcerH0j4--'C-^OC>O 
r-'4^bOeo©aJO'C4J 
^flJ^lHprHEOCO 

ri cC' d © E 'c ^ © ca M 

p Ph^ 43 -H -H f-S ro ^ P- 








cu C K 


p © 


E E E 


C 4^ rJ 


C-o ;::: 


C 03 C X K 


ri -H CO 4= l-l CC 


m ri 


© -H 4--- •r^ 


«i-i 4^ oi 'o d P 


P 40 -r-l 


■•C P -H tH 


cO©Po*H4^ajo 


r! -H 4^ 


© C2 4^ 5h -H 


^-oE-^CcriJn 


4^ 3! 


^ 'H c 4-" 


©<H 03 4^ OrH 04J 


© C6 K 


© P « 604^ 


iH © 4= iH (H Co 


PrH --^ 


^ CO Ci •^^ 


Sep ©O-HKiH 


P.P«tH 


P-^ E rH p; 


CO CO P< P, rO © P. 



13 >i C iH 


C -c 


•H i:: >: t 


© C CO 


s:: -H 


C •r^ P >i 


c3 ri =! 4^ S CD ;^' 


45 -H 4J -C 


4^ d 4J M 


•^ iH o' ca p p 


^1 C. 3 tf 4^ 


-O I-H C S 45 © ;-i 


© iH ,-^ <H 


C © P cr^ E 


> OS -r-! CD d 


M 'H © © "iH 


P^-o ^ 



c c 



en ■ • - 
>s a3 -H 4= oj -H E 



P 
o 



2 ►. "^ 

© C 4J C 'C 



>s 



© Ps to i-< 4^ W •'-1 J-; P r^'i-l © C 4^ C fC 

''H4Joo3orffH:rE©©6ts:©c;^ 

I T-i N-l .H o ri i-i -H -H ^ r4 "H f^ c E > :3 
' r: K P E "^ o ^: 'o C ^, 6;' © J-, ci © 45 
io«H'Hm©c--io>Hsi(uEPOiHc3 
iO*n<3jOKi-Hs::c; E'DP©©0 ©CQ 



E 


1' 


C3 




c 


•H 


tH 


E4^ 





© 


OJ 


CO 


.« 


C 


03 C 





C 


C3 




cs 


© 


Vi © 


© ti 


© 


-!■= 


E 


•0 


604^ 


4^ 


© 


C 


p. 


a. 


«H 


•H C 


c 


f-' 


•H 


>j 




fH 


p. 


© 


•H 





6r 





© 


© C 


Ph«h 




W fH 


CQ 



© © 

P =J o ^ .^ 
oioopEoS C C 

^4-->b.CJME>!0E:©>>0 
a O C^-HTici ©KJ-HOrHO-H 
O © © p d -H -H p,+> -H O d 4-» 

"i'G 4^ P CO 2 O "H 0: -H © C 



f''<-«>jK-f-iPot^fl4J>:: C-4J "o :i tj o 4^ S3 CQ 

•H O 6r O © CO p © © iH © rj d © rH O © O i; "H 

«H«HCi4rHCQC!P PocOpr;PcOc3©>'oCE'o 










ci 




V 




4- 




•H 




© 


Pi-i 




OJ k- 




+5 


c 43 





P, 




ffl a 


rH 


© 





Q ^ 


P 


>>rH - 


Si 


P 


•H 


•H 


P 


CO 


+> 


3 -r- 


■--< 





W 


Oi 


CO 





© 


4- 


a 


CQ 





c 4= 




P 


p ^ 


a 


•H 


P 





© 





n 


© c 


E 


•O 


© 





ErH 


01 


tc C 







43 60 


£ 




c s 


© E cj 0. 




E E © E -1 




oi OQ CQ 43 © E CO £ 'O 


•H 1-1 rH >j © «.^ -J^ 




d -H .H C E h> C -H t-: r-H © C 


CO iH 45 C © © 




rS © E © "^ 6r J- -rH -H 'H 


^ ©•HTHrHH4^tHJ^-H C4^ C*^ COrH ;i P 6; 


P -H 60 C 4-^ 4= li 





•H4^0iOPgJt0^-H^©cC 


45 "O CC -H PhP CO 




S:: 03 P. © d P hC+^ 4^ P 


(0 CS iH P E - P^ 


-O 


cOfl6©K>PPQ)dr:<occ 


E P "H 4^ © © 


•H 


^PP-©O4JC0EP'OOP 



43 XI 

w © 





© 


C 







r: 


d 


b5 





•w 


>! CO 


(:£;.•-< 4J iH 


t— 1 T-t 





© 


c 





•H r-l 




J2 


© 


x: 


E CO 


•H 


© 


E 


p 


4^ 


P 


«H 


© 


35 


,r: M 


© 


P 


ti 






C ■♦^ E © 


© 4^ 


c r^cQ p p 


sg 


•H © M -H d 4^ 


CQ E © rH fll CO -H 


Co c: 


d c0©iHC0 6OC^P 


p 


43 -H P rH 'H -H P © 


Pi 


CrOOOCJQriJG 


f' ^ 


ofl4^PoaE© 





*-< cO 13 OJ f-o © "o 


03 



s 

© o5 © 
© "D ^ +> o >s 

iH >} CO CO C3 ^irH O P 

o+5fcnpp!ocO"-'o 

CJ'H (D4^'H CO d'i^^^ 

C>P!d'ocC'H45 
ce©©oPdCPp 

ErHPOOMCOOC 



o ^ 
o d 



03 

© © 

•H P 

,;c:l -H 

4^ 4^ 

P r-i 

CO S 

o E 



s 

>iO 

•H J^ 
»© -H 
d CO 
P rH 
O O 



^ 4^ 

^' d 
CO S 



rH -P 
O C.2 
^ CO 



'C p! >» O (U e C d CQ _ o 
•H Co -P C >s G Ci <D O -P -H J5 -H 

mfH>:;^^-p o>j©'Hcic:a3.p 

-H a V to O Vi -i^ ^■', +i -P CD fi > O 
CrO-i-THCjOOOO'H+JGOr! 

•OCd^i^^QJGO=^(u:=!J^OO>5 

•flj ti a ca TD o3 G ^'o kJ C o "-a rC 





















X 






d 




J-l 




















4-- 






c 




0) -P 










c 










rH 






o 




rH P 






cr; 


tJ 


o 








G 


03 






03 


03 


rH 03 








fe C^-H 




>» 


C 


o 


S- 






rH 


t-i 


O E 






CO 


•H p 


C- Ci} 




03 ^ 


EX 


•rl 03 


^ 






C 


P- Pi 03 






<D 


O t~. 


CS CQ 




P, o 


03 O 4- CQ 


C 


03 




E 


•H4^ 03 rH 






x: 


•H +^ 


u r! 


03 


i-t > 


to--. 


T-. 03 


o 


o 




o 


O 


P rH P. 






+' 


■^ O 


to o 


+^ 


03 U, 


rH •'H 


'U O 


g 


a 




o 


a 


O rH E 






& 


w c 


•H f-. 


^. 


t: fc 


03 E 


f-, o 




P. 




I 


•r-l 


C3 -H O 






>^-H 


p. C3 


o 


C ;: 


C 03 




O rH 




03 


P. 


1 ^ O 






03 


£ rH 


© p. 


05 


vi c 


C3 "O 


P-rO 


O 


c3 




o 


P- P o 1 


























c 


1 


03^4^ 


















4-' 








03 

OJ 
•H 

c3 
E 


o 


rH t.: P 
rH 1 03 
O =3 E 

P r-i -rH 

45 rH r-. 
P,-H P, 
E P E 


w 




a 


E 


^ 




'O 


E 


03 




P! 




o 


p 


O O O 






m 


01 


C 


>H 


•H -P 


CO 


£ 


4^ 


;:: o 




o 


p 


o h:'c 




•H 


>>>> 


,c 


c 


O 03 


tH 


!>,-4^ 


c 


C3 -H 










o 




»H 


Jh rH 


E 


E 


CO 0'. 


+■> 


ra C 


c3 


bCCQ 










a 




03 


03 O 


to c 


o 


P, f-i 


O -H 


G 03 


4'> 


O CC 














E 


••Ci c3 


CO 4^ 


C 


•H 03 


p^ 


;.". a 


E< 


>H 03 










s 


fo 


CQ 


^ +^ 


•H P 


CO 


IH E 


CJ tH 


f.f 03 


T-; 


+^ o 










03 


03 


J-i i£ iH o; 


•H 


r-; o 


03 r-{ 


u u 


no 


•H 03 


CQ 








pq 


O 


C 


P, o 


05 CO 


E 


C3 0. 


fo 03 


O P 


cd 


u: Jh 


g 








f.:;] 


03 




















r^ 








1-^ 






















O 








>i 


(D 




















E 








00 


W 




















jO 








M 






























(^ 














E 
















g 




4D 


>.u 


t>. 03 






CJ 

•«-" Pi 


4^ 




03 








p 


t< 




<D 


J-.-H 


+^ fl 




■P 


+- o 


03 


5HrH C 








o 






-P 


rH C 


cc :=: 


J^ 


>j-l 


C3n-I 


C -H 


O 


03 (E 








rH 






c 


03 C5 


03 ca 


^ 


tj :^ 


E +^ 


c; 4^ 4^ 


P. Ih 








03 






0? 


+= ^1 


> o 


aj 


03 -c 


d 03 cd X 


n 


c OS 






p 


Cij t-i 






CO 


t^ +3 


(A C 


tiP 


rH C 


03 « 


a to 


^' N 




03 


03 


P o 






,Q 


O CQ 


>H >5 


i 


Oj O rC -.-I 




c 


•H 03 




I-H 


CO 


:3 rH -P 






03 


,C O 


+2 o 


^ 


E c 


J-. ^ 


Ci. 03 


0) 


i-H 25 




O 


•H 


O 05 "H 



CQ E „ 

03 P Oj CQ P E 03 

p ,c: o E >» P o 'H 03 -H c Ci >j p 

•H 03 C5 "O CO 4J -H b:i to P 03 O -H ^ 0) 
rHH '^ OtH-HE-H O03 P, SPo;"-' 
<I>TH0i4J>>ri4:'rHO'H03a3 to45 
E P CQ CQ o; 03 ,Q P iH K) rH p 6; P P 
O03Q3a34JprH(D >-j-H rH C3 P O O 
XSS_;G<SfQ0J>£Ci>Q3p. O^HP- 



'r^ ^» C -H P4 



OS 

o 

Ci t 



I 

r: "u p 
03 i 

I P rH 1 rH 

O; O -H rH 03 

rH C/3 O ce 4J 

O -H d 03 -H 

03 •> b P P 

p -H O 03 Cd 

O ID O O O 





o 












45 


P 


03 


G 




e 


^ 








4^ 


03 CO 03 


OJ 


■0 


CO 




E 03 


4^ 






P 


03 


P-Hro 


•H 


::i 


•H 


a 


w P 


ai 


P 


03 


o 


5-t 


p:^ fo S 


to4^ 43 


•H 


•H 03 




^03 45 


E 


::: 


CQ 04^ 


P 


•H 


(D rH 


O -P 'iH 


o' 




03 




o 


,C -H 


t 


t> 


P-H 


C3 


O «H 


rH 


fC 


•H 


*to^ 


P-4:>^ 


P 


P 


60 E 


§ 


tos H 


CD 


P, G3 


Co 


i-\ 03 03 





C3 


C5-H 


03 c: 


03 


E 


O 


PH^ 


C3 S^ 




CJ 


E CO 



151 



rHiH(r)+J+3fl CrH tDU-*^> a 'Ho o'a^ M era ::id +3 
•Ha}4^«Hrafjfto-H+^C.Hr:i^a3-Hi:3Cc3M-H^HcatQb0ooP<m 



^' iH <D <D m X -IJ 

v-cHrioaSdcjSboa: 



•P ^ ft ^ -i^ a; ^ G -H J-i t; :j r! o C w .y N o 

■r^Pb^'OE^^-POC3a;•H!^Of-^op•Hf-,•r-ld 

Ea3a»ocec--H.CrH^^-HfHO-c:a3oci3r?o 
E. +3 P.HJH e^ CQ^+J+'^ o CQ o P,o.^ cr+-> 



C)VHa5•r^o^i'<DOCc^•H■n>(^)oa3E4J'u^,a)(uc3K•H>iec;r-^o 



a; o f-, r' c P-iH o c3 jc ^ 

r-^ O C D- P- ra P- W P O M C9 Oj "^ p. bf Ki t: 



o ti (J m s:: ^ o &J 



b. ©Ad^Qgfi CO) &Q p.^'i! P-,4^ ^ {> r: o ce +3 ,ii! w 

o-iOc-H^obi=;4^c:KrCKooLiCPiori^P,oP,a3a' 

P.a,pH~-H.HfH^r-ia3oa5c6^0rH-Ct;pa3fCjHrHa3(3Vi:i^}H 



•r^ x: t> 



CO O p: 'H <D 



<ucoc;:::JSf'^c,!y'or^c=;■Poo,i«J 

0) O -H o O -" CS ^H CQ C -.-I C3 -H M ce 4J CD 
MSa;•r^^■eO•<^)MOP(KPlr^r-^-^Jf-^J^ccaS•'^^-^OOQJOO 
ore > rD m,C! >+3 caX P, bCOrQ CiijfurH'O^ C O O P^-P C Cj 



03 C "-^ CQ tH t: •>-< -P © 03 i-H Ki 
J^•Hf^:i(I;•H^'Ct•HJHO 



C(3 ^ -D >. ^ W U ^' P( !h O U ^ iH Pi P^ ^ ft P! M C n «i < " .^ rH 

©Picda3oc>3a3opc3-p+3ti-H-HOs:;oj3e}<urH!:!rJ:ips::aH+3 

Pi©a5rH<,;3©©C3OO'H(DC}CO,C!+Sc54J.HaPi0a3rH-PP'HcJ©'rt 
Pn-r-s Jh P.^ -P rH H ft CQ Ph^H H«H^CQOC;G3:ji3 ftT3 W :,. A^ ^ fs OJ ^ 



1'5S 



43 © id 

^JhH -P O'oDP-O+i-POCIJ'H^ftOrHWCrQOlJ-PCIGCJS 

OC^5f-^J^Cd^>>0^^^^•HrclCC3o^^f^a3CQ^^•HJ-,•HOCDb•'-'CJf^O 
0-Pd;3-PO^^OO0^^Op!oJ-l,C-PJ^•H•Ho^iJ^fHf^ro^O+^O 



O Jh CO G "O CQ ^ 



& U o 



p, p,^ fo -P n bDM 4^ ^ C ft P.^' P. U 02 CO ^ 



O tt rM re TJ X -P 

rH>s>s>-.OOt:(DdO4f«f03r<rH 

p, ;H0SPcJ-Pct5^ioo«oocs32 
cop-P-rap^cj^^Ce P'-c o ^ ^i 



S:: O -I ' C/-' r-l ^^ to .V +J ^^ +^ "O 

•H^iM:3-pn3K!f-,o:io5oc-PrQ 

1-4^-HOOOC'P. OOtDrHCJCCO 
«H +:> 4^ V, ^ GJ f-. W 03 Jh C'J O E ^ .Q 



«H 

I (D ^ «H P 4J ^ P 

l-O bO^'Cr'^i-P 03 ri (PrH E03 
lOdoCO-H+^ccucCoc 



4^J-,bC roO+^CCi-! dON 

O OJ Oi WCOMiH P/::,Q'OrH^ 



r- ,C 

'c -c t.0 -p x: 4^ o a; ro 

.^©ccc; x: <i;4JiHoV)s::c:cjc!c 

O "H o O rC P«H -H o -H cS o f-, 
rH43£W O eS«HtHrH E E 



4^ 4^ O t: O ,Js^ 

CO'OtE'CrH'-, f., 4-> O 

._.. diDErHr'rixaJcbraS 
>^<ur-'jiocScaoOJ-H(Da;^j3,Cc;rif-i 

hf' ^ C bD & ^ 03 4J rH 43 fl > U b::4-3 CO iH 4^ 



© 

Ni a; © 

ffi o: ©ho ©.C fnoP ©G2rH 

S'O©0. ©Ot>c:^r-'' h34' ^©0©-P^4^©E 43r4idC:P-bC'a3iH 
?-l>H©fH>a3'HCOOa3^H©r34^>-H.H'H(Dc3CC!Oj'HfM'HE!©"H 
© ©OrH-H O-CrHrHC ^(•HX:crcCa3C:^C3rH^'H© © P, S rtoJ- P' 

tHx:^X5j::rHC':moo'oc3oKi E P-r**! m ^ <-h o P-o is w -p &2 6c o k 



O O bO 

O^OnsrH •xjOrH rV P^Cti©M iJ©© 

be © bOiH © ,Q rt 4^ rH 4' E S b04^ ,ic!a}«Ho-H©<r!rS'oH i-tf-iiHC 

^i©j::oESS©m©©Mc3piojo'f-f<H4J^)^.H053dM-Ha5rf-HP< 
04J'Hoor<?drHa3^,c:a3jCHOQ5o::^ci543 4Jt3o©+^a3ro^o;c:-'-i 

'H CQ n CO CO OJ ,a -u i,Q {3 ^ 4^ P4 Pi+s CQ P. t> W CO 4^ CQ W M fl M O 03 M +3 



?^ © H -P Cj CJ p. CO O rH © ri^i 

CrfflOiH'OtHOJ O P^'O CQ© p::i^g©©n P,•^^'oW)PlJ^ 

•H-5rH^-HcJO?-'C3-P^©v-:-HC3^/::::!!HO>sO.HrH,c;©rH^©X 



u P- c:! ^H ^ >^,i: 



c3 -P ^ © c .H c3 .c: /:: •_ 

CQ J -P .£3 O tH rH -P -P -S ■ 



rH ^ © X 



,c 



<D 



x: ro +3 +3 05 45 x: -p ho ^. c.i -p 

COJ«H CiH{CC0©brC;6PC(Uf-, hC+3 ClacJrHiH +3jH+'-Hx:a!P, 

^JnfnOJi-P^'H.rHr-Hr-JO-H+s-HOJ-iaJ+JXJ'Hceh:® ©S ^-.-H-Hj-i 
CnO^>-tOCQ4J«H^P,W TT>«H cui^OJ'HpCOKi-Pj^ge-t^'Ci-OrH.isl'O 



C ^ - -PJ3OT-P ©© 

•H-p^>5hc^c3cQoc: >>G'a+^ 
fMOOa3a5a3©c3-Hd^jHa3oceo 60-" t; <-> t: >- •" 

^C^rHiHCXrH^<O©0j©OOfs-HP:iOE:-H+3jH 
WtHCMt bBO*HP-O^OJ2'OrH-P'OtQ,Qf-;Wf^0J 



O © iH ,»si 
P, rH +i CQ H O X 



«D -P 

rax: y 

K C2 ^ 3 © 

(S d c3 f^ -H 

4^ P p ,^1 fO +3 ^j 



© x: 

^ © © © rW O © P. r^ 

cCP. ©b(>p(D'u^ofl>£Tbr c 
s::©'Hc3'cirHTH^-Ha5f-id^H c6 £::+=■»-< 

OCiJHrH^-(30X:a;:r!©43a5©-PC3©r-l 

c, cj x: iH ^ 



© © © 

>;! N > t; 

oc:,M-Hn(i)Mca45-H 

^(©e6fH-Hj-,r3-P::if-<ociJHrH^-(3ox:a;:r!©4 

br:43^<o'H«Hx:worC>tHXio'Hc:raoGW&c 



^. o 



© © CQ 

M >in3 © P,rH ra © ra u 13 © 

cea3>i'OiHr-ir!>©Wi-iO 



C © O © © C ho 

©©c}bcfH^>^^ oJ^-Pt.'°^ r; 
t»;43hri©^HOoa3o©J-iS a3f*©-H4J^ 

■^ - -' ■-Or-t^iOiSOOsnOfH 



^^O''-l'-'i-iO*'-'Mt0C0tt)U)w^,,,^w.,^-, - 

hora'H u x: Mts hCPiP.fHH-p > ^ o 60 w p.^ o o «h 4^ 



43 -D fc © is 



© 43 ^ Cj © 43 C 

JnCOfO^OCrM 'OrH43rM!:i© ©'H 

WCtSf-tCrao^O-OiHrHtHOWJ-iteNO 

oP.j:<oc3x!x;-Hoocd dx:ofl©c3iH 

^CQrQ'HuO-PS:3!5«HO^OOJOrQ'ClO 



f^ a p- CQ c; © ^ 

'04^©!^::) nH©o3 ''^o 
ElooiiidhC'as^© pi'H cj 

.HrHX:x:HC3 ^lOrH-HfH© 

t; PHOoobop<p.os4^^ 



IF^ 






CO xi 

4^ 4jJ iH 03 -p tr o c 

C *^ O (D'H-OM Q^ Cj'OiH C-^rH 

^j >5 ^ p, ^ o x: r-i c^ p. i^ cr 1. o 



O J3 

fcc p. -M o w c: +^ 

;^J-,:3 rHr-ICOC:<SrH<D+J^ 

cS :r! ^H P,-p c3rHa3SHiH(uo:^ 

(13P,C-HCiOCDOOP©Jii-(0 

X CQ CO no cj oj <H J-, ^ c; -P P, ^ 'O 



fo X -^ J=> pfcc^C mm 

(u p,-H -H .H 4J "H -H c -p a) (L- c q; -H 

T^Or-fXr-iOUf-i^ aJrH-P-H^,rH 

£; U P " o C o J2 o ^ Vh CO ,^^ bc c-^ 



^P-COJ'ONi+a-P OErHf-i4JrH 

CQO?-<''-*OC3'HrHCCS5t8-Hr;r-jO 

o3^,rfoJ-iiHrS'H^^i^2P, «o 



60 
P,^ tH 'O C H (13 

W ^ SO'HO dCDOP ^ 

w-;ja5^o3c3pJP,E<DnojHcit>so 

•HCUCC0t5-PiHri::iPi-Hx:fHrHO 

2 p,<H o3cjco^'o^c/2,c-P'o'Hai 



155 



X: 4-'C)E'0 U M CD ©ft 

0+^SCQOC3E3 P-iCSOCD^S:! NCC-PiH-O fiO-H 

rH iH O tH C3 CD O bO-H CD -H N C3 -H -P -H ^ •>-» OJ rH g 'O fn 
O(D-PO^HjH(s'HrHiH-Po|3.VS!-iriaJ-Hp!0Jo+^ 

rOPiU'H^'OOfH'HOO-iOCJQP^ P-iH bCiH O pH iH " 



P-4^ G(DI^ ,Vp:rHx: +3 C 

f-|-P^03(P>54JSHC3rH'Ha3>HjHOf-ir-(OJ(l;CbEiaiCfl 

•o -r 'o -4^ CD -iJ bD+5 o rs P-*H «H ra 02 p.+^ ai ^ CO CO o S 



o 



© w th cQ E p, o <D a; •>-• -p p: S 3 03 

dQ?^>Ha30rH.H-H^iCt5r3C'f^© 

to 4^ +^ & +^ P-** < P. >. be EI 'D CO c o: 



•H ^ M 03 ^ P- En ce 
p:S3oi3SO'H>5-HtfP.(i; 



C CO ^ 



tH +^ -P O E 



bO 

.HV<r-: 4::<J),^rHC©C0OO 
^-lOCd'CO'OC'H.HCCflQ^O 
P OO-Hj-iCSSOW-HaJrH^ 
U C3 '^ ,Q CC 'H C/2 «H P- T3 E 'H O 



A^ 4' >1 ^ 

(UCQC6c30i-'P 43 
K-f-l 0) (ErHi-! Ofl'O'H 
O^^t-t'HdH'cP 
P^ [5 63 4^ <H i-f O OS 03 



rH <D (13 6 



6r> >D 4^ 

^ ^ 43 4-' <D C! <D 

t:i (u c? 



H P-02 rH'Wfirc)C(Df-.^434-'<D>-<r X:4JCQ^-l 

<D p..r-i 5-, 4J <D cC ^1 p. d P- CO o CQ t:i (u c? '- ^ CO i-i !z: c3 
cDOiHda5&,C(Da3i-i'Hx:«i503O(HJ-.oocbood 
<ntQC0oEraoE>-.P-^oPoo^t>cbD>E-'-JCQO^ 



<H 4^ O 03 a P4 4^ "C i'' B C) 

(DlH^43(13!-i6CG60GCc3bOftEC!^C3,*^^ tO 

■OCSC-H ^O^^C^}•Hgf^Q3Cg<I3C;03,C!OO'D>aP$ 

c3r^c3^cJP,cS^(u 

t;rOrQ4J'0 CQ PCO'H 



_ fH _ 

5HOfH-Ha©43^iOO©'HrH.., 
4^ «H 43 fO fO ro 03 O C3 iH fO ^ Ph 60 









60 


o 




Q) 


u 


(H 


c 


4J 




^H 


03 


05 


•H 


•H 


P- 


CS 


0) 


<r 


f-i 


O 


03 


P, 


^ 


p. 




1 


^ 


1 


1 




bO 


-P 


u 


Q) 


iH 


c. 


x: 


1 




>-t 


CU 


•I-I 


tc 


P 


* 


06 


5 


f-, 


•H 


03 



157 



C © 



r»-.-i-n v^ t; >_> ^rH 
Ci O be O 'H -H ^1 O ,0 



<U 



iH <D -P B © ^ 

C! Ci O bC O 'H -H ^1 

^©X! ©d ©-H— ' 

CO "O CO .c: P< Jh «!-( 



4^ ^ © 
•H o pi d 



Bo3«Ho^P!ro dW©J::^^,<D^^ 

— '©M'P©©M^4CQ60hO©G© 

?^ rrJ-H-pGcj+icJ'Hao'Dn'o 

■= =^ "' 'j i-H +3 H rH CQ S 

.:i ^ © C O CQ -H 

P! O ^ CJ Ca rC 



rHP^ri-Hji©ooG©rt'', ©OUCCrQ 
c3!:JCQiao.'-.©a5©f-i©©pHOJ-i-Hp!o 



fH © c 

o f- 'fH 

C © -H 

ri 03 p 



03 o 
© Xi 
bzx: 
c -P 

O -H 

o ^ 



© 
> © 

Ih c5 

-P -p -p -o -P 



O C P.iH -H E -l^ 
T3 O O O 
-O ^ X 



O d ?- K C3 
I -P d © 



m © K 
c: F» cc 

C © -H 0) 



o ei 



J^4J P'H«H'HX W fn 



(£ P tr fn C3 m «H 



O PC © 'H 



©73 oj X "o -p CQ P-tp "o eS o M © "a 'h 



fH O P 



CO iH 
1-1 -C 

C o 

© e 



© 

o cfl 

w e 

•H E 

c ci 
P, ^ 



© 6C E 

> h: Jh 



© m © © © 

>•< © "^ !h rH -p j:: 

loc^p^c^inJHts© 

CSP, p, E-HO^-P^ 

©EP-of-iJHcS+^ofH 
E -H 0? © «M P o 



W CO q; C 

i 4^ X «H ^ P, ^ 



r-lP-feoP!H>-,U'Ha33!-i5H 



C E n3 -P 

>-, T-i c; C X ^ P^ 

cC(s;>-PaJoc;©E 

©rH-H©EOjCi-P© 
rH O > Cij E +^ Pi W 4^ 
C ni C5 p. o © "-I 3 -P 

3 -D >H E 05 



©rH C3 ©4'0 © «1)<D 4^ 

oOc:'a4J©4JO«i-iCt*f-HcQms:!43 ©f-i 
>ia3jHO"Hoj+^a5::'cQ©iHrH^d?Hf^ hoc 

OfH4JC0X©Sn'OC4JOOO'Hr!©©P. 

oxc:a5^fHr-!©s:;a3«H>v.rcc;4^c. r-<P 
©Bo©occe^of-. oCCs:;oP©iH3 
'o©ooi'H'naioo4^CQ*Ha)'Hcr!'ca5w 









c'j a 




>s 4' 




CJ c 


© 


CC Qj 




^ 03 4--' (F e: 


tv 


© ^ fcC © 


f- 


iH C2 13 © 


c; 


S4^ C P. 


c 


fn C a- "^ 4J 


> 


br ^ C OJ 


> 


f-i 4-^ f-. > "H 




V. ce d 


fc 


9 ^-c-^-S 



f-iraPE''^'HXo4^'c 



03 05 -H 

o o E 

n o3 •'-' 

© > iH 



(D©.CrHV< E|©030 ---l 4JcSi-HX 

/<'0^r-^©iH©d>HrH4J©© E©Cl4J|-lEXCQ©+> 

03-H<r)a;«H-HCQOC3CacSf-,r-l MrHC'Hd^Xl-HrHfl 

m«H CQ4^<H4J d P, P. C P. d tlf'>aC^^-H CO O-H C^ © 

oa)Oo©o3o3'aC4Ja3ocjrHCa5^^^E 

©C-'-l''-" Jh'H©P OrHO (.r-HOJ'H O Q) 

no © "-^ P,+> 43^s©X2Cv>s::;rH'axif-( 



^ C 5-1 _ -_ _ 
tH C X -H Pi-r^ (D p. P-4^ 



-O 4^ 4^ 

5h 4^ O 

03 O © 

© O pH 



4^0 E'U 03 CD 5-ifH4J 6C4J © © Js © © 

0> -H ^HC0'Hr:{>4J ©oo+^'oraC'D'o-P >>'a fi! © d cj f» 

©•H^hCJ C3rH"'HfHO©Xd©Od©OrH'H?HC304J©^i4JOO 

P^© dr-l+^^'a Cro3 © ©'04-2 0"+= © •>-; M'D 0>0f-if-i'HpL,00P-f-l 

raooO'HCraS^+^racQdoCo4^ra6ojHXoP-4J!^fH©sr:<3EP^ 

C©C©'00-Hci©©-HrHEO^©-Hpic!PjHiJ©0©©liDJHOE 
•HfH-Hro(i,^^^>rorc)X©03O P,t3 fi " Pi ^ P -H X O E "^ "H «H O -H 






©pi04^c3a)drH(DOflCQiH'Hc5rHcs3>sCarH 



U r-'- B ^ a CO a u 



x: 
o 

^^ p ca 

O 05 o 

^ d Jh 

O ID p 



n >H o 'c d 



5 -H -p >s S f< C 
' C 03 O ^H 



6f^O-PCQ'O(U00 Ol 

rr- - <•-. m r^ p C Jh Cfl •. 



+= +o «H Ph O 
03 CQ O C C _ _ . . 

^a5^(DOoc:=!JHCu-. w^^ 



<D 03 Q; >s (D iH P 
E iH 'C iH -O P, £ 



«HP<OC(l)C03OP+^K)CQElHfCrH'Op,£ 
OCCCOPOjChCmwmE'HSIliHPcQCQ 

P(DOoc::=!PCQ)^-Hoocoa}:i-Hs:; 

C rr j»\ *-^ I ei_i ** #w ^ .^ #-^ -* _ . *^ r «—.-•_. 



HrHX 
P <D +^ 02 

c p ^ & 

03 P ^ H 



(DK -Pi-H (U(D (dCOO © C E P4JrH 

r-HO+JCDCcr rHrH bCO«HC:(tl'DOf1PP<r •HC?-. <DC CS3 

«H rH Oi O -H a 4J hf -p C -H ro CS -»J ce CO 'H 05 c rH 5- Oj fcT' O 0) -P -H >> P 

chP, a)a3oCPCa>ja3PCPdQ)a5^4::+->fcco,Hc:«H3-PPC4:: 

Sf-,>«,HPda)-H^(D^C:.H-P+iXo-l---Pi-'CC:CQ3PmTHP,a-P 

^cjs::'HP:0^<;jc^xi«Da)MCoa)ds::o'Ha3oo>(DWP(ridc: 
raP--H(i)C3c<DCQg:o'oe^<DP^-Ha)^«H+3^n3a5 p,«h ^h p «h q) 



-p ro 

o C 

Oi <D ■•-' <B O 

t>5 P -H m no w 

P -p p EJ -H -H 
Js ^ CH N-v o > 



_ O ^ t 

_^ QJfOOjaJfUpQJr 

x:o3jDa5raP'a^ 



^ P OJ 03 C 

^ c3 fo > =s 

o rC c; Qj o 11, w 

ro «H P iH - - 

C *H :=: o 

ro ^ n-l ff) W 'H 



O CD 0) ^ -P -P 
p ro -P P C O 



C C-3 <D +" O) (1) ,C 

P( C ^^l br^r-l C W > CO t=.,+^ 

O ---I P 03 C C3 p. O CQ <D p 

-H C P .H J^ O > Cfl 

Kqo><;P-Pt^(1)oXoPS 



(D^OdjPtS'OrQo 



q; c d 





QJ 


J3 






03 






































<D 


o +^ 


<D 




CO 




© 




-P 




© fO 






C iH 


t! 






© 




CO 




o 


r-< -P 




CO iH 43 gj 


<D 


03 


® ^ 




03 4' 


iH 


n j=> 


C 


© p. >b p 






,H 


+3 


CO 


© 


f5 


0) C3 -P 


a» 


•H a t-i 


^ 


0) 


> 


1-t 




© 


o 


^ 


<A 


p 


© ^ D^ 


o o 


>5 


© 


P 


P 


© 


hC P 


ar* 


l-H 


d 


CS rH 'O 


d 


fn 


•H 


iH 


■p 


p 


© 


3 


p 


o 


U 


t)C p 


> iH rH 


,-v 


p. >i © 


p 


d 


03 


C ^H 


d 


Cr'-P i-H C 


O 


o 


P 


01 


•H 


4^ 




O 


tH 


m 


m 


::! 03 


P P, 


p 


o 




P > 


P iH 


P 


ca d 


o 


(D 


<^ St! 


P 


s 


© 


•r-f 


£ 


C 


p 


P 


© 


^ 


o 


O P 


o e 


p. 


> 


P 


m -H 


K 


(D 




O-H 


P,^ 


03 P.h4 a 




t3 


-o 


© 


© 




4^ ro 


03 lH4^43 


O -H 


c3 


© 


o t; t:; 


© rz> 


«H 



03 © 
+5 4J 



© 



4J P©©©03^ „_ _ „^ 

PO©©On'(HpbOPcO©CO bOiH n«HrQa3-Q©'Oo;P © d 

StIT^"^ rf^^+3 p ©d4^© ppuOrHpp-HrH ©iH ;:< >jpiH i>s© >i 

^^6D^'oGPC0©ri4pd'HCuSOriOdP;y©Pt*'--o©'OpOrH 
OOptoo^^-H::<PO4^<Hpp3rH6DMraooOC0P-'-i60PPPfH 
droc3-HpPMP+-;:lp®04Jppp^pCQ3t<i'HCDppOC53o;:i 
©4^ro^^P,0OH^C;3P^oP0CQ0f:S©05•r^a8,O©'oPi©a3«H^0CQ 



159 



g +=0+3 

CJ-HW >j?H+=W+=0+3iH-H0Sp,s::|c3c-l W^oE^+^O^CQ^rHeJ 

jH+J^C30'HpiC2+3J^OPi+^C3<D(UCU'OCC5P<c:0'H^4o.HoO<i: 
».+=^(«HC0OrHC:!OfHC'-r.CQO>rH'OG)fHna'C>rojHrHCcCOP< 

fH o -H o o e > S <D C -H o (D o pi p, c3 -H -H c! ::i O c3 C3 iH ^ o 






o -H o o e p- c 

fH f> «H J3 ^^ Cfl PJ 



+^ <rai iHo 4^+^ racohO o i^ 

Oa- •P5M'Cl>H{DC:<I3+3+'0-<-lrH0+=C.!m p!>C<C 0<r fC 

0(D4JX.H|-i<C+3^&2^-i(I5.HO•^^^CCCQa'+30•HO>^^a5+3^C;^ 
f-^?-^P-b^SO'C!<B>•r^Oc;>^^C0'a CJIE ?~,C30iHr-HrHQ;^+30<DC(i 
br O O -H O^X G ^ C > P,f> ) C P,-P ro iH K P > K +0 O O +3 += (B i-H p. 0} 

os>'ci^o<Daioo'o<ucioXCOocQEo"-<r<^>C(DtHoPE 
C'oo3s-ici3rQ+=<Hoce^<oo(Da:oec3'HO'oo&.ci(D^<Hoa3a5 



^ 




(P 


+> 




x: CO 

•H 0} M 


C'-' 




^ © 


pq 




wx:'*^ 


w 




;G '♦H 


^ 




Js 05 


f^ 


+3 





rn 


CJ 




<5 


iH 




Ji 


0) 




^ 




OJ CO 



Q) 



CQ 






(D 



„ v„ „ ^ — rH iH (U C <D 

C^>-i^K!>H>(Df_ J-COCCrH'C-H CDfcCc;_ 

OOOOOP-Hf-H© t>,T^ (E hC,C tH j: O !^ += rH rH GO 
>+-^0>P-'Dp»6r:P-f-,o3'o(Dfc:i«HPJ ■-" — '. - 

CQCCO^OJhJh , _... _. ^^. - ,. 

Oa:rf^idor*c3-HcSEoeoc3::ic::fo<D'HCO(Dc3pST-'s:3'H 



o X3 ca +5 p,^: 



- E ofi o c3 ::i 
60ro P..H £: ti-i tJ 'H 



^1 a; C 43 

_ r-t (D Jh K 

. . , <S *H 3 «■ • Ci P,^ 4J 03 .H 

rs ^ x: o > 'h «f-< p G 03 



p. O « rH C +^ E; 

•hCcd (D+^*Ha)a)^<D 

X 3 >-i S: += 06 M iH <D 4^ 
CO O P tJ o rH ri P, ? 0; 
fn C p. «H ?-, p. c; C W CS 



+^'H (r>GC+^c:c+= <rs::+=:ria)f-,>0(D 
s w ^ o r:^ a- o ti~ -H rH t^-iX^ 3«HOi-iaijH!H^ 

P, CC'HCQ'CCJ'HCidf-J.HOtlS'O^ffiP, ~ 
m OJ rH 4^ n 'O ^ •"■■'"'" -^ ■"" ' — ■- - 



w . . -.- *. w ^ w ,t w P-X! +^ X2 Jh fO 4^ W Q 



4Jc3i::::oo. cjtjJH 



;_) _j -^ 03 J2 -n dj 
03 U e 4= O fO Jh 



)^ 4^ 



60 o 

C bo 0) cj (u Q) i: 

CS P.rH iH C e i-H+i d 



© a> C <r 4^ r>s d 

i-i>+JK c^i'c©4^,K;©'o'<Ha) cb^o 

, 4-'(D03©''H 0:r!r!G©OiHfHt:if— IrHpHciPi 

I O E •■-' 'H [/> 4^ E O (U Cj 03 > w K! Jh ^ CO P, G ^ 

© E rH «H P^ -H £• -r^ C3 *H t,H O N bo O ^1 P 03 ^ +3 

^ ^ IT-, r;j m Q-i t-i cri n^ fn Q^ Q- t^ --< m 



KDC:3fr3©c<-Hof-.rHo©3a3Cr''ooj<D«nVio3 
© Q3'H<n o3 M-HC ^H a3©PiMxiooo2 03 cJ'ooft'o 



„ © OJ Pi . ,- w 

»H ^H ^ 05 -c t: 



4= © 

4=0 03&3o©4^fc0 CtI'D 

flOC4J © (D03(I)>'C!0^4J4^0'DO©©0 

CJrt'HrafHrH XI3rHOOOOC;c303C3^'60©rH .... _-- 

rHa5cJC5©^Os3o'H^irHr-lrH<u©Ot>fiDCJO'O'OO4JX:03OPi. 
P-iH +3+3+304J OCQ«HP^PirH 03 CO PiPhJh '^ fcnoS'0'04^C3 JhW P^P 
Sc5^O+3-H©?-i>tH0oMO*.-O©OG)O533KjCij ' ^ ' 

•HX!o'r;tfPi>Xl'Op^(DO'OfH^nc!P. J^OCQ,CP^ 



55 05 fl O © O 5 
. 3 +^ O '^H fH fn ^ 



160 



O C fH 

Coo 



hpS©jH-H© 0-P©>s oOr-MMpif-t^ra 

flOrHpBjflOoCS3Kl-PCe<:: P^^ C'H^V<:^.H_. , ^ 

5s+300e0ilHCap,MO©60tC!.HjH!4W'"'OC:S4Jo>>-( 
^ ^ CQ g O -H C g O W fH O O ^ ft O -H r: in O CS ;C ro 03 

o3«Dt-o'ooo3^c8-HC^ p,+3 CO o G 3 P, c: P' 02 c3 ^ 



o o +^ CQ o "o a 

Jh O 'tH m E -JJ P^^O 
P, O (S O 03 m CQ CI 

P-, o o H -H c ::i o 

Cj'D'd PiTD f-1 K O 



K 



X o; +■> ro o) Jh c 

•HrJOo'n+^'HCO 
OOO+'+^-HCOf-tO^H 



t>»a>C!?HOSr-)iHCj 



._.__ :=!oo^Eo+^m3^ 

C C :i P, 'O 03 CO O rj hf p. 4^ O O +-■• 5h C O S -H +-■' o fcC' m 

ca K U3 n C 03 T: w oj w P,-p G > 0- bp S? oi x: x: & p. C3 cj 

C2roo30'OCQO-H::i<l)(li(D.rH(uJ:S(pf«;(^Q£].HC;3 
©i-iCO.Or-lfoaS.Q'OCQCQ^'C'Of-iCS'OOCfia!-^. Eo3 



•«^ ^ CQ +^ op 

ooo -PC-Ht: OdO 



C r- ^ 



o d +^ o 

iH -4^ flO P +^ 
(U Oj -H C 03 

x: p 03 4^ 

tdook<rHo<c(33©o5c)a?^eH^onJrH^c;p;ai<H(DPoQ;X!orcPo^ .^ 

rHXIJ^ro^P'O^PP,03t3P. a5o3iHCQP'X!XCt5PO'OftPx:(I}p.cSPcC-ptH 



C3COO<l',-''^Op03O<t-/CrHO'HJ_ (uO 
r-IX>C4Jp,HPaj«Ha!>«H::!rH>OE't-fC: 



<C O X) -P 

O -P > 03 tH O 

-Pp'oCofn'O •H03P+3« 

rH <■■ O O O -H 03 

'o cs 0^ o P C3 :i s:: 
CPSpfotBcr'oJ 



03 -P -P^J-CO Co 

S-P 03 O +^0 03 O CT3P-PJ3ci(ri'D > X: 

•Hflp OQ500C3 doC+'cC xrCcS r:ia5fiOTHoP'o4^Pc!oPo'3 

4-- «O©PrH-Pr-(pppoO.HPo-POOPftO<l303 O+^CiCJ^TaJP-Hm -H 

q-P E<H GJ+o a-f- P,4J 0,t^r-<X50© O-H P.-*--'P PrHfltH d-P P 6CX1 O P 4^ d 

tf03PG'p03rH-PCC:eO<HEP4p©PEW=ipD3C0PrHP 60-H oj > +> +:> p 

c;=!ooPooaJoodo©o©©-'-sCa3-i-:03ci-HPc-H<p(Dp.HO<ua) ce 

O 03^ O 0*^p P O ox: pfO O'O'H C) fUTDro ri 03 E-Ptf-IT3 P-.'oX'O 6r'P«n -p 



o-Poox: P -cC©© 

rHOrHPbC OgfOBjCibOP-Pp 
d-HP+^-pPrSOPtrtp^! 



P C 

,!s! © © © © 

cs c: cu -H tH 

-P C! > «H T-l 
CSiH-HfO 03>O.Q P.WlHm-P'H^ P 0,-0 O'O-H.S p CQPiM 



t>5-H, ... 

(s3::i'Hc!+3tdoc3OO03^&5f-oo©. . 

iHbDP-Hop+^!:3tHOP GrHO03>P^a5i 
©0©g©+^drHC©©P<S^OCl©<E 



•P P o += CO ns 


P ^ 


Kb 


C o P -H ^ p 


o E 


ta 


O fO D S O © 


03 OS 


•H 


C P O E P 4^ 


X> P 


P 


O O © O O X 


^ o 


X! 


CS P, 03 O «H W 


o: 03 


05 



161 



6bc3rHO'H<D(UOPi'OfH(UC3 



■P^WCD'HCIiOCa^i'HcOPrfrH 
aJa)«s3^'H-HrHK!(DrHOOO^ 
tH G ^ += fl Ci P S:! <H 43 r-H K p X> 

•Hc;<DC6o<Dns5<E3C-'-i}«jo 

'D^>Hf-iOf-i<EfHn3P,d'C 03 be 



■H <D (1) •4-' +3 0) 

■PiHC-HoOCGJh^ -HCJ^tH 

Ot6(DffJ(DO<U'^0 >jrH > O iH 
rH ^ > -P «H C P.«H W > tf-: fn o O 

iHXz:<DV(oPA-i(D<Dr::=:^ia3 
a3(E-Hf-ia3caJc53jHiH'Hwo'a 



CQ 



G J2 



C Q) <D 

(D :i r-i u y^ c u 

a}-Q«HO«H^HBp. P 



<D C C 

^ e O (C -rH 

(D -H +0 f^ J^ r-l f-, 

- — nn -~ 



r::irHj:!riaEP'Ea-<DCcSx: 



^& 



^. > 



O <D rH (D 0) W Q: +3 

rao'H'o-PrH2ora-Hra+^ 
rS;ii-PMf-i+^c!d'Ha5--t.Hooo 



■P o 

K C3 Co -P 

COO OrHO "H '0<D- 

" - 60 



^H f-l © 

^m-P«HOf-,«HPiOCDCfi 



+3G£QO«H^Hs::ESMeGofl'tH 
a)o:ifHs:^r!oo(i)Ci3a>'H(upSj:I 
r-IOjHp-a)OOO^t:^EmrQ-H 



162 



O O O -P -H (u 

j:!0'orHa3-Po<i3a3(uOCa3c3+3(D:irio^(D<i;iH.PSrHg b""*?^ 
p&jcemccQ-P'oCwP.^aef^cofH'oErH^o coo© *^*H t: 

K'HOCS'HO'HOQrtO'H^P.OOO-HOj'oOCdoh o?^ ©-H^roo 
© TD ro fcT'O 0'0©©0'0©CSoOO'oGe30r»Pi© 0-P^'OWa30 



r-4 -O -P 

t0^HCO©©©J-i-P^>»C+^©>5OO. _ 
1-1 Ci © P JsJ rH -P © P- ^H © P "^ Cfi -H O bSt} 
O'^P. H0'O©-PC30-PEi^rH'C>-iCQ-P 

" — ©•H'cf-t©'o©CVtti©cIc3-Hci 



© 03 fn fO P 



P.fO OC 13 T 



+3 +> X -P © 

dmcacQ © ?3S_'a 

Or!©OrH-^'0-P-P CSeJO pj 

■P:itirC©a3o!>»f-,CQQ © 

COC^-^ r('HrH-P©C3 ,Q 

oo©cSa3Ec'>iH©V(a5 H 



e 'o o aJ o w E be © 



02 ^, pLipH cs 



c 



•p 

© c: 



4^ © (H © 

C^'O^ +> 'OrH'DrH -P 

c30©0XK) ©--o ©iH-isirHPH 



■ w X , 

i-<cQ!SjE;4J+3 ^t:i ©>>© __._- 

©35-<-Hoo©rio >s-P ^©o©iHc3o©oX-- ^.w .^..^.... 

f-tH-*-"-© 3 ^ f^•r-^£a3•H•H > Wr^ -^ U U OrH© ©13 CD bCO C-HE 

S-i 'fH C(J •'-v'O 4J ::i C 01 r-t D -P ^ © rH CO J-, Jh © 1-1 &J > O fn -D 

riM©C-HjH-p:=! 

^p.^S-c ©ra o 



..^^vu.C©CO'HrHO+^dO© 

© Pi-o ?-. ^I'Hja-H o rtz, oj > cd P, ox: 



p, 
© o 

13 U 



•4J U -P P, © 



—1 1. _J rn »^ _L!. >-( _l «, r-/ t_, ,_, .^ ^^ ,_, ,^ y^ 

--_. „__. _. .r-i.M'H^©EiCa30 

C ij X -P © > "O > U 03 P- Jh CO X 6."^ ri P- p. P, © -r-i >-, M O' o -rt ^ - _ . 

oooa3^ia3rOT-t^>oo©o©jH-Hc p.^::i©•'^ o© b k^ooo) o 

^ " ~ ■ P.'O C3'OO'DOXlfe0?-,>HO©J-.'D«H'r-j!_ p ©-POJ-P 



a)©xiio©Sox-HrHi-i'H^©EiCa3ooC--'Ot3 boo Cuco© 

> -O > U 03 P- Jh CO X 6.-^ ri P- p. P^ -" —' ' ^ Kr ,^ ^ r-( j:, ^^ C 

^ ^y jj j^^ ^^ «■* r-> 1 1 »^ «•*-./»> ^^ -^ f 1 ^ O 



•H p, X 



^ ts o u u 

JOCUCO© F« 
' O -H Ci X! O P- G 



>©iH03!i:poac: 

•Hi— I C6*^ O a r-K i-\ 
fH 'H Pi E 13 -P P 'H 
P,-H Pi © C C CQ C 
©MOPiOCS'HO 

13 4' O PiOrOu O 



x: © X -p 

©©O C ©-P CQ-HC 

>m+'C:©rHP©©-PCrtf-|4J©tO f-i'H-P Oj 
PtPP-©rHO©rHO©M»-Hi:;^© ©CCl C PiM 

©©©PXp>oc3caP4"o3a3dP-PC ©•P'© 
<-" r; ^> j: n rrt m ^^l.— I i"> rn <M CI •-( fo ffi e6 W ca +3 



c; E o -»•- E 

C3 E N 05 3 p. -H 
-H 03 P 4^ 4^ 13 



.. . ^ -J <H o iH "b cc a3 - -. 
of^a;©©r-ii:!OPXiX! 
cQ©ox>i3Cfl::!'H+^ 03 co 



CQ 0©©©t>s©©©©© bC4^ ©CO© 

to E;s:!w>E 03H'aP> >p, p© ©CProo^XJ+^-P-PMyn 

©©©OOOJOr-ICQXJd'HOrHrHOOtU 00©4^ '^^^'dSS'H ^ 

pc.■3/::oP^©05:l>:Ix^^rfo©Of^4^c3>»si,yEoPc3•HeE3X:-P 

'^^ja3o&iPHprHS::-H.HOCr'^>0irH-PPP'COX!C4^CQ> P£l3-P P^ 

©X!uGqi©©E:;a;p!r:coc3Xia5©oojs:!©::S©©mcs3oO©-Hr( 

p(l3©©mxS2aj tlDl3 •H-H^P05^X'H>'H/3&Q1313 0:'. u P,013> p 



163 



'^ 








M 




-O fH 




^ 










4^ 


E <i' 


K 


W 


O 


S U 


c 


i_q 


© 







PQ 






E 


^ 


CD 







^ 








^H 








W 








o 








^ 




43 




Eh 




rH 

S5 





<D 0} 

rH U 

o ft 

03 0) 



T^ 



i -P -P d 

; 03 cd rt 

l-P Jh O 

» pi CO ^ 

' p. p. p^ 

I E- o ^ 

1 e3 w ^ 



O© <D O U (0 d) ^ 

Q) -p+^a5a;Q30+3oHfsS50 
+JlHa5cj-P-P-P'Hc34J-Pd^ifM 
c3(Dti:.'^HC3o3c3«HOflP!6nrS.c; 

fcC>'HoOrHh-H.HpJc3 '?^+j +3 

•HO-*^(DOr:i<DjH'OOe'H>HfH 

_ fs O '-J to > ,a C O tl O CQ a CJ o 

p! a TS Oi d -P 'H JM -H fO c3 -P > 



O 4:! © 0) tQ 

f^ 4= >s ra © ro -p -H 

© c3*H'HrH"-l C3 srlrC 
> fn -H <::! p, > o -H w 
o o -P © ::i 'i-i -H 4^ Ti 

O 'n I^ rH O f-O iH pi fH 
M M ri P. O ^ P, f ' 
•H CJ o c 
-O P.^ 'l- 



> © "o "o 00 



U O 

O 'H 
4J <0 



•0 






© 

t<l p © 


© 


© c 


0) 4^ © J- 


-H a- 


•P ^ -H © © P 


0^ © 


■p © 


•»-" P, C © Jh 


© iH P 


CP-miH-H +.-+^05^, 


C © +3 


05 ^ t>s?M 


pi S 4^ ^ © P- +•> 


N iH t>; ce 


OCi-H^fCt^ceoSJ^© 


PhH (0 


© *H © 


UOf^•Hr^N•r^0iJ:: 


•H CSi «H M 


&2©rHr:;cC«HfHEP>^ 


p. t: -P 


^ f^'H > 


(DrajH^fH-HtMrHO 


E +^ -H ci 


© ?^ r-t c* f-, •'-' p; -H oj E 


:^ N Oi 


t^ p. n -r^ 


ccJ-.©a5rjP>oo£ 


•H Ci C P, 


^.©©C4^^4ErHC?© 


CO © f-, 


^ E ti^M 


>s ©4^^P-H Cx: CO 


C >. K^ 


p-P^KC^-HOrHE 


© ^ © 


ct cC © 


(C > C C C f-> © P •'-' 


•H >-< ""-I 4^ 


©r:ef^oop>orH© 


fs E > 


«H G -D 


C. O-H-r-ttH 0^ pirc 


E OQ OJ 


^H-^©P'o;CCQa3-HfH 


p. © 



c ^ 



, 




© tc 03 





© .H 


f^ 




N ^H ro E 


0} 


4^ X 


+3 




^j-H rH © ^3 >M 


»H 


>s tt> 






«H ^1 CS P> "H © 


© 


<H © iU 






•H cC -o ei tr4^ 4^ 


-H -H C5 


CO 




P» E C p. C 


c 


P P P 


pq 




C3 E 03 © r-f pi 




P" ^H 


« 




fi p< fH ::^ 


c 


© cfl 5:3 


W 




K CQ U © © 





P. E © 


5> 


•D 








u 


4^ 








fp 











»5; 


© 








i-q 


iH 


p 






►-q 


© 


© © 




© 


>^ 


c: 


4^ © >» © p 

03 P- «H t>s C ^ 


© 


4^ © 


C/J 




E 


P CO 4-^ 






4^ c; -H «H d 





q; rf as 


1^ 




Oi J2 +s .H «H 





t- 4J 0) 


w 




ce Pi Pi C 


P 


G 


g 




> C Cr Oi 


© 


c p 




© r. CS -H .H © 


> 


c p< © 


EM 




ra -H Cjj rH -O Pi 





PS P, P, 



•D .- b-" © P 

co'^p'©^:©© 



; 43 -H p 

> p p; © 4^ t>j 

< © - 

* ^ -H -H -H p> c3 o c o p •>-• o "H c: P _ 

> ra iH ^ tH o te © P <:: P"" > P rH P © C 

• .fH © E o © P © P ,k; 4=> ^ cj ^ pi > c: 
>'©P©caPopa;oc3oc3ooo© 



►- T-l >H W i~i W ••-•*- W ,i~, W V tU )~i 

P pi ©P'^-jN ©-HQJpiN 03 4=^^0) © © 

Ct cyp> ^«H.H EP'rHA^vH^ ce E*iH4^ N >s 

© r, 4^ o •'-' ^ E >- fs T^ rH C b:- d 45 ^ m 'H <H 

C-H-H-HP) a O C OP-H ©"Hj:: Po-HrH-H 



6f 

© 43 cc 

P P! P 



© Qj © CO © O 4J 

P" p p> 43 N 4-^ © a; 

cC pi cC c. "H ci 45 p 

PObCPPP-H^ 
©•h.H(i;0©e:© 

rOC^'oG'OPirH 

•H cS cS ■ 



/:: © P 

o © © p t>» p: 

C3 03 w © C 'h •.-( t^ifC 

PCoCP >>•«—: P©o 
fn b:: p :^ >-, 'f-' p © P p 

©03©C©'HE''3P!^ 

> -H ^; C > t: ^ C P- E 



© >s^ 



p. p- 
p p 

© CC 



iHEp!PiEE^©0'o©©o©£cpiCii© 



•O CC © 


N 


© 


P bO E > © 


p" © © 




c © P c: ;-< 


•H 


p) 


© ^ fH P © © P 


© 03 P CiJ 




^044^^4304^© 


© rH 


03 


OI>j©0jrH©©P'-H03© 


> >i C c! "-• >i 


© 


•^Ea3©P!J= •--</:: 


N (8 


^'^r^ 


C ©p> P ©rC-O ojrH CrH 


(D SH -H »C) > 'i-' 


sn 


P --« P > © P « P 


•H ^ 


P -H 


O^03P>&-^O©T-'. 4^ 


•H -H r ' -ri CiJ 


•l-l 


©PO-rHCCJO-H 


iH P 


Pi 4^ 


OO4^C3ccpC0--'^O-H 


P P P- pi P -H 
6r! C3 t D-^ P^ P 


be 


P^POiHCi-lPO 


05 p: 


c 


oi CO -H CO P a- C -o CQ 43 


CC 


E©©PO(i!©© 


© © 


CD 


•H H-t E -H c! > c 'H 03 c 


6i r^ pi -M E 03 


E 


•H ^-i^O © OP'CJro 


p 


i> 


'O'D-H'CPiOO'H'Ot*© 


CS CQ r-^ tH W 


•H 



© 4J (D ^^ 


4^ © © © P 


© © © C Cj 


4^ © K C 


<D <D xi ^© p-p: p',m©o 


OP P P> -H rH 


© K3 P 4= © -H 


a zi u} r-i ©-H^jcfiroNo 


pi p! c3 c3 P'. © 


© P- CS 4' >i4^ (H 


Pi r -H !>srH p; ,!>s E 'n P 4^ -H i: 


ro P- rH hCP E rH 


CQ .H p i-l CS 'H P 


.Q -r- C «H «H P fH P P -H 43 P H P 


oo*Hopp©,a 


PPWPifH'HpIo 


c34^0'Hppi-iooP ©©03© 


P ci3 pi © P cd 


o^P>'o o-t^ be 4^ 


03!::3BP©©PP'-P'PC'a t'O'o 


p, 'rH 03 Pi c t: W 


>rip:ocooa5c 


•H fa pi > [:» © i' © © © C3 C 
'OO05P<OO>'H'DOP^Pi|HP5 


© P f-J vH 1^ M -H 


iH -H E .H i^ B -H 


PP(D'o©a3 0'o 



165 



> ■ 

•H U 

P^ 03 
C3 'H 



•H to 4^ 



„ . . _ _ O U O ^ 

C3 t, © -t^ 03 +> t3 "O P 

o(DCjo+^c5'Hc3o 






t; -P CD C3 p C 
C Cj t> rQ o o 
a> CQ o c3 c o 



03 CO ::i bO Hi bo 

OiH-HC^CfHOfnO) 
•Ho<I'©M*HOO> 



43 dJ 

O <H 



+3 4~ o c; N <r 0! 

<D (D f^^ <r O C +' +" -H K G 

36«H^ P-C!f-'03 fcl'C C5> C'C 
+-'-HnT^c:M^dOrH^-HO 

•rH ^ <E -p th o c t-5«:h tr (i) G f-, 

^H O OJrH E 0+^X3^ ^ P<dP 

fHeH03::<OQ3C:3Sri::t--;fl 

•HbOCCC'O^'HCOm^OQC-r-' 



fc0 4' 

J- p 

C8-P 

X "-^ 

C 4^ 

Jh 03 

c; C 
> o 

O O 



^ © 



© 



•H c3 (3 C ^ <H 6.? 

^H 6l' Vl -H -H -H © 
>•; -H ai o 4--' 4^ ^ 
P E .o 03 03 o; bn 

o :i e 05 rJ >j © 
o <H © «H •^. n o; 



C 03 t=^K 


© 4^ © -H © 


O -H M © 


© rH C 5- tf 4^ 


02 ^ © > 


4^ o o ^ bi; CO 


•^ O ^ © 


Oj >H O 03 C fO 


Jh © p. 03 


fn •--• H 0.' -H o 


P 4-^ O 03 


© C 03 (S 4J 4^ 


£: e3 Jh -H 


O C -H © P^, C 


•H C P-C 


O © -C ?H g^ 05 



© +5 4^ 

© 4J f-i w u +^ :t 

iH CO C P4'0 4-^iHt>s03ot>s'H4^©t>. 

4Jc:&a5©o3©«n© bO«H ^ -H +i «H 

4^ bf C6 iH ^ (H "O -H x: >-i -H -H 4-'' CC -H 
©•HfnfHO ^ 0(H>H ©0^i^4J4-" 
03 03©©0203Ci-iC'C©O,a«Hf- 

!::©>> -HCcSP-CPVic; bo o 



bO-H 
© 4J 

iH 03 



P,4^ 



© © -o br' 

© 4- 43 c c x; f- 

x: -^ ei vi x: V d >i a u u} ©4^ 

03 C3 J-i ^ 03 4--' += 'M ^ c -r^ t>s^ 03 
•H > O •<-• "H CO OQ -H C 4J rH «H e © 

rH«H©jH CO>sJ-*03ViC:'Q*^©<H 

04^034^ -H-HtH*!) 03 C-HdrH p-H 

E iH c C e 'o ^ 'D M 4^ 03 p. P o:: C 

© C O O -r-l ^ © C r^ C -H ci EH •'-' (» 
'OOOO'OCfi'DlSO-HrcPiaS'C G 



© x: bo 

©+=© 03 ©-H ©©© 

+>4^©a3N©'H-(^03©© fc0 034-'O©O 

C CO 4J f-i •■-• rH i-H C3 Jh 4J 4^ P( Oj O Oj 4^ 4^ rH 
©>c5 4^034J p^!:1©a3c3cafHp<citt) c3rQ 
03CePi©a3+>e-H4-5COrH:ifHTH!-,n£j 
•H Jh ::< P,^ -H O C fl O 'H Pi O © f-, © -H © 
t> b04^ PtPirHOprS-Hra ©04^4JH4^C3 
•Hb0Cd©e©OOOHO>CCiSO03O 

>o3cQPUo,Qc(34^oa3'oo©TH©4J©>H 



166 



■p 


03 


X 


-P 


bO 


§ 


fH -P 


c 


O 


<D 


ce 



-i= C O (U © J;D-P 

&5 <D -P N N (U -H efl 
O rC Cd 'H -H 4J b^tH r-l 

<D Ph 02 O O G C3 f-f O 

^acsJoP^HCDf-i+^O 



<r> 








^ 








•rH 






* 


Jh o <r C3 








C -P P O ^- ^. 


f-l 




© 


OJ aj it O rH ^ --< C 


o (r 


© 


P-fa 


E P- a- M bC o rH -P 

:^ ?-. f-, t>. C > -H K 






o © 


r. K 


•H 


r-l O 


O-HOrHOj iC-P-H 


<D "-I 


— 


© © 


fn -P o cS +» t: Jh C 


6; > 


o 


> p 


•^ (K fn fl C -H a -H 
O 0) P C5 © tJ 'H E 


c^ 


fc: 


c p: 


03 O 


Q^ 


© 03 



©© -t^+J-PO^PN 



4= +5 



cc o -H «t-i r-l o 6'^ o:: i-H f-i fo m a5 -h 



r-' P, rO 'H :? iH 

S q; © C -P r! 
p. c P, hr oj o 
o cd K -H o c 

P rH © -O P -H 



oj ^ r-l p T-' p e ^ 

P 'a CD o c; a •H th 

fir: © CQ 13 ^ p. C J^ 

bo P -H s:! r! :i © C 

cC P. "a ri tj K 'O -H 





p 


T-l 


©©-PC 


© 


© E 


P 03 


© © © +j m (B -H 


p> 


P,o 


O 'C © 


P -P c<: (S P bO-P 


cd 


OJ +^ 


© p +■ 


CJ C3 -H P S © CO 


> 


P n 


rt O k3 


U) btrH >inH ,CI P © 


p 


© D 


■H c; 'H 


C -H 05 «H 02 E feO'O 


© 


+■" o 


E P P' 


O-Ppi-HCQ-HC© 


c 


c c 


O O -H 


r-! 'H O^ C --1 © O P 


© 


-H 03 


-D Vt > 


©Ewri-cPOP- 



© © © p © 

fc;, © © © K -p CC P N © 

C3 ^; 4^ P "-I c6 '^ K © 'H t>i >s4-> 

bD-H OJCSP © O'HP'O 0«H«HC!3 

Cp)P'ocSc-l'r-'-H©PcS«rH©rJ 
©a©s::E^i-ioPOPrHP'c 

c.jEo:ic3cCP-'-^Ecopa3P'Cj 
•Hricec;PCEPo*Hc. rifiP 
>o^E-'-i'u©-rHoo'oocrP<ho 



© 


© 


4-' © 


© © © © CC 


© © CO 4^ 


^ © 4= CO tr>H 


H r: p: cs 


•H >s^j t J o © 05 o 


bC -H >.^ >J to G 


H Vh C3 b.0 P.4-' P E 


•H E 'O ^H © -H 


P -H 4^ o to CO c5 S 


© ri O 'H p r-4 


© r-l O P, -H -H Ph p 

fC i-l C O no ca OJ H 


> H^ P^P^rO 


PrH E >^e rt 


C O P ?-• C © -H -H 


t-\ T^ © 4^ 'rt t: 


ri E rf S2< -H a 'o o 



167 



bOrH 



E O 



(D 



•'-IO'H^.Hn3f-iC3o3*'-'C3t;L;WrHO*Hf^O<D^i05;C-HOCCjO!5 
fn Jh ^ O ti © ri O ^^ 03 C) pS 0} O -H rH G P t' 'H -|J !h O O O O 43 
O Ph fc3 ra W >s P,«i-I ^ ^ iH ,a OH t: p^ CO r I -O r-l Oi P. CO C 



43 iH (Tj 



Q;^«HOf:0 4-?s^CSf^(D0 4>x:^4:>jH<i;Cs:br-HrHa3«r^!j;^ft: 

p.rH -H ^, o3 o ra -rH -H ri ce ^1 o rH w J-( CO o p. t; fJ ^ o <r> Pi c: o o P- 

O(S^4^iHe(DG-Co-';c3&03ri34::CO'Hop. a^C-PCiCiHO 

/:: 4-~ fC t.J 60 Ca C M 4--' CO C-i O H ?; fcOiH O W E «H O t/J ,W W Cj iH &: tOrC 



r-( 

- n rH 
<D O 



C +3 C 4:' - 
• +> d 45 -H ,C -D 



bf- fn CO 4J C 03 0; ca r J K ^ ;is! t: ,1=.' <D O 03 «J Pi P H +> ^ 4' -H ,C «D Cfl 

r:fc3r;d^otjocadorH'Hoso:io(DiJo-HcS(B>.,r:ri m-h ::* 

aSCfHOCOP'HPc;a5Pa3E5n!-HC-rHCr-'H^r-IP4iC3C-arHO 
rH CO X;- P, t>s C ^, hn^'H P K^ Oi Cr'tJ CJ ja A' hC'H 4= tH ^H CQ P. W O hf) CQ 



Js 'C 45 rH -«-> p. ^M A^ 0) 4^ +; CC 

© oG<DPo;o-Pcci-'>c:^c,^i-p;<ax:GJXa)iH4jp ^ 

<li^Q3:=;f:-HCDO^'H:irH'^OC3(H^04JOf='"6r^*Ha5 



C^p.a;-HE:oti 

p. CQ ^2 C2 



. _ . „ . ,. ,-. ^ . . ^ 4^ O 4^ 0: 
fC 't' 'H £3 ti E O "O ._..._ 



rO -O P ,C t^' P P ^ U «H 



03 a; © 

tC '•O (DC) 4- t^ p. > 

n: M ^ o 43 4^ C3 !-. <D P (U p P. ^ . . 

NW(Doopccisjrc;cQa;(DraoDr 

O 03 ^ P tH .H ^ 03 - C CiJ 

ro ,C g ^ > ^ Ci O 



p- 



4^ iH 4' ^V ^ 

P EJ P^rH S O C tlC> 

~ - w - t ^ T-l Co W >j 60 CO rH O CJ tH ro CS 

v^vu r. (5 C3 OOOOrH P l.\3 P. CCOCCiHrHr-inip 

&i p O CQ 60 w P P m «H O iH CO OJ i-H ^H 60 Q CO ^ ,0 



© rH 

(DO O 60 ^y ,t£! P< ^ ^'■4 ^ 

aCrHO&PnP r-1«a OOOPCdOjPs 

::! -H > c: e d £: f5 r! o 



0) o 

4^ t> CD © t3 

::: © 6D P -H © 



0©>^ tJCr-icjs-Ht-iiM I— i»o ot>u?^wiUf-^CMrii-j©ui.;MT-iQ; 

oocjp-Hd.H>c:Ec5t;priooa3ocOp©e3«H©f:i«HPc3P(i; 

4^ CS p P ,C O O -H +J -H H O O p 60rH ^i Xi P-P.P4->X:© p P r!H4^iH 
W P P< © O P,4J rH Q iH 60 G >»4^ tj «h-J O^ ^ CQ U O CQ t? P 60 60 Ci ^H U ^tH 



03 ^ 
CO © O ■ 



P..Q Q) 

o fc E o o fco 

N C O) C Ci >H 

CS K CJ J-, C O 

fcC^ 4' -P > > 



168 



>s 












+" 












c 
























^ 


• 




© 




© 


ca 




o 


w 




^ © 


FQ 




> 


f-, 


E 


•p +J 


« 


"D 


03 


^ 


>s © 


© 03 


r3 


© 


4^ 


^ 


03 © 


© Jm 


+^ 


a 


f^ 


X3 CU 


K O. 




O 










w 


© 










t^ 


••-5 










irj 


© 










« 










^ 












fH 












to 












g 




-p 


n 


© 


(H 


o 




OS 


i_' 


tr^r-: 


© tH 






Ei 


Or^^^ 


f] ri 






&t^ 


eJ cC 


o x: 






tij fO ,0 p. c w 



c 


M 




, 


•r-4 


■P 




^ 


© 




. — . 


■p 


U 




• 


^_ 




-(-> 


u 




c 


^ 


+:> 


§ 




tf 




a; 






cr 


>H 


© 


© 




I 


^ 


!>,P^ 


U 


I 


-c 


1 


b: 


+-> 


I 


J^ 




tH 


© 


03 


© 


cS 


T-l 


© 


f-i 


tJ 


'O 


ft 



^ © >:: c^ o 

© © CB i-H C -H 
P^^ P.,tH ^. t^ 



60 P, P +5 © -P -P 

•H O C3 -H > ra K) 

<D o P( c3 o c3 03 

fO Pi CO r3 J-i iH ^H 



169 



WOrO O far^a3^^ ID <DfHf-<o O UOOOiH 

•HfoShOpH ■*^>> H 60rH O' © >3rH C)6D(D©S:!-P+^0JrHa5rH-P,y-H 

pi-HpfairHCiS^jfHO) NflJtOO+JHpJbOCfHP^ ftvH f-i ^i d QJ ft^M C3 c8 c3 

C rH O -H S-: rH iH -4^ h rH -H ^ ^ C pj ri .r-f :j p^ > -H O O CQ P^ > ^H o Si iH fH O 



O d O Oj 
O 



o f-1 M -P o c3 oJ ,';: 
P^ ^1 ru 03 w c CQ f-. •:; 



P^ -H 5h "O ,Q ili -P O 



to OJ ^^ 

Jh CQ c; ^i 

QJ P-t; (E 

> CC d p. 

O © ^ -H 
O !-. -P CO 



:irH P.U ^HiHrH-^ 

C ^ p. O Cj Vh +' I- 

r E to 03 rO S 4- t 

o ri ^ iH £3 o :;; 



--I fo c o tu 1-1 c ;:: CO bOJS cjcfsrHrHa; ©^m 
03 C 4^ +3 i-j Oj f-, a: -H b:i o > V. f-.' o) «c; CQ t: O e 

■Pa4-^+3-P-PfH;^'33:i-HCC«H4J>snO ©H> 
fHOe!a4^c:a^^fH!::xJ p. 4^ -r^ -H P, C r4 -H 
©iHj::4^c5,oPaj::i-iKi©ojce::;i© e 



bO O © O .C? M P.'P O CQ 4^ cb o-.c 



^^CjPUCC-cfn 5m 



O ^. C © (-1 6D © 

O 'a.C!4Jrj© 0't)43 ©P-c 

•H t>j C O G 4J iH ^ 4^ ::(:,> ^ ^ o vH 
oP(-C©cj'oc!m»H'HQjEoai 

■■"* fn O -^ a r: 'O C "^ 4-= 6.' g: o3 c © 

© Ci ,0 O CJ r-l O © i-H rt - O (H — Jh 

P, 4^ C5 ^ c3 o 4^ t: 6r'-H -r-; o C -^ P 



•Hrc>sC.rH+»©I^©^,fflrH© ©^^© © 

PCrHE O Q3»c arH::i4^ »r4fH+^--iH rH 
to ©P, Cd>tr'C4J,.V04J n;b034->CJhDj2 

fHP-eoo'ori4--o --J :::pHf^c:ic:6on 

©©0©^i«H^.HC30rHP-rl0 P-OOj d 

P -c: O "a '^'H Q 4^ O O'j *H a3 h;^ o C O ^ M 



^^ C 4^ © © © 

(T) f- Pi vH bO w "O iH rH f-, 

•a P © aj cc -H •'-' P 43 60 Q- 

C © Tj ti K c; ii <D c/i 604 

S^nCPbOf-, ,043(D-H 

rH O O SJ ■ - - • - - 



© 



© O © J-. P © 



S, P ^ P _ . 

© © '-jrQ © rH rW O 43 "O 

P-,JC rHa5*H4^0P-P'<H 

3 «H CJ "H O £ K 



4n G P 60 f-, ,0 43 (D -H c: t: 43 P, 3 «H cj "H O 
oosJ"^3''-a5J-iPi©o3-H'i'0'33PG 
o |5 ,£3 N ft oi o t- p «.-' 4-; J3 '-. CO ta ^ 43 o 



C- p 0:! 



4^ 13 © 

© rH O -H P C P G © © 4' 

P^r« -H 03 c © 1; ^ f"* ll 03 

C O rH rH 'xT p ^J 0*0 ^ P 

cS 03 o o i: -P H-^ a -D n ^ 

O P P X -H © O 13 3 -H vH 

CiOfHfflrHP4JpX4^ > 



P ro © P 

© P C rH © 43 

60 © ri rW ri=^ C rH 
tC >54J O p O 

u3 " 



© © © fO "O p ,c P © 

rH ,'h © rH © rH i^ .C © rW © 4^ © C rj p O, fcO © rH C !^ 

© ^ a iH ^ K ,0 © OJ p P c; X: rH O 43 © G t^:, -: 4= 60-H p 
Pi B ^' rQ E P ,Q fc T-1 c3 a3 o f!" N P4> f> 3 rH o w P 03 P 

,H.Hr-lrHria3Cr:< 



fl^ajfHP->oScC^©© 

(Cp.r-l©©rH4-3:irfPSU3 6tC _ 
P 03 ';-l p p O C/j C^,0 4J © O" P.<t : ,Q 



© © 



P rH -H O rH ^ 
P, aj trH P bC CO 



rH P 



•D 


P 


P 


© 


P 


d 


© 




P 


t^o 


© C 


l-i 


P.© 


Ci3 


d B 





CO > 


a 


CO -H 


11 





© 'H 


pi ^ 





•o ^■: 


ra ro 


© 02 


p 



^3 +5 p H 43 P, E 
P o © © >-• G o a; © 

© © P<'0 O O rH CO rH 
t> •■•-» e P O rH rH 03 rQ 
(S.aoc3P©w«HC 
EJ O O -i trH P fcOro 03 



-5 p p p e +^ 

P>■^^ (u ©©©p©©Pi04^!:5 

Ci © © 43 60 ?-i 4^ rH rH O "O S -r-i 03 CO © 

© «H -P H 60 3 J-" bOTJ 03 © G 03 03 -H OQ 

fli'H P ri C3 O Cj 60^0 Cd O 05 '-J O 0-3 p 

Pi'H oW43©rH^.rH©©43 OrH©0 

03 >■-" O O 03 p O bO'H p 03 03 ^0^ TS O 



170 



U i-i U U (D 
O (D O 'H -p 

4' ^ ^ +3 a 

pJ O Cj OJ -H 
O ^1 rH jHrH 



c ^^ C t^i ^, 

rH 05 <!' -C O 

hO O P. C6 G 

C O C O S 

03 C3 •" +3 Jh 



a> ::* ^ (1) iH E 
'n Oj p. k cd -h 



© 4' © C ^H Jh 

+^ S: rH d (D O 

iH ::! fo o "o P 

© o ^ o C ^ 

^ G 03 c c6 ::i 

W 03 fo 03 P, C 



S 4^ CQ 

p >j ^ <r 4J <D 

^W rH O O; ra f-, 

c! 1—1 > E> "H fcr; 

o k3 o T-t {x( .h 



c 


© 


03 Jh 




o 


o 


=! 


Jh qj 


a 


^ 


o 


U 


2.^ 


o 


fco 


w 


O 


■^ o 


Jh 


o 


^ 


o -a -H 


bDU 


05 


c3 


tans 


Cj 


P. 



171 



pH O N <U 
O O O -H Jh 

•H tH iH Q) +3 Ch 

O O > O PJ C 
O +^ O 03 W -H 



•^ (6 u w 4^ v: 

Cj <i; O +3 G (D >j 

iH Pi t> ca -P r-t «H 

•r-l 03 O l)C > > +3 

hc CQ fD -r-i ce G W 

1' -H C! E fn o r! 






.13 









^ +^ 




03 .« (D c8 




Ti B h 4^ e 5^ 




«» f-. 03 oj 4^ -p -p 




^ rH CO «; 0^ 




Jh +' s ::> ^ +3 - 


'O 


O) C X -H 


(D 


•P 3 CQ <E W C 


4J 


C iH p. <1? C) 





•H c Tj c; ^ ^ 


S 




<D 




« 



0; 



fcO (L> -H 



4J 4^ 

03 03 N G 4^ ro C 

nJ 4--> .r4 03 ce ^ U 

4^ -H f^ ^ 4^ C3 bC 

o P- o ?H -H 1:3 03 

rf (H dJ C 'O >-, CO 

H 03 ^ > O O -H 

«H P,4J O G hC-O 



<D 



4^ O CD 4^ CD 0) -P 

05 Jh > c3 4- c 03 

Jh p. ;-, iH Cj OJ C 

60 p< OJ O fH C) -H 

•H kJ CO c S fc E 

e CO J-, ^ 'o c fH 

e "-< o C5 c! o 3 

•H "O P, Pi p! 00 



4^ 




G 


ftc5 


,'•. 


0) N 


CO rH 




-P > -H 


OJ r-i 


'c; 


0} fHiH 


U -H 


t: 


d 03 


f.< 


«j 


03 +J ^1 


a 


CJ 


G G 





£3 


o-H a 



+5 03 

•H 60 
W p 

03 4= 

P4h 



172 



60 CD 
iHOrH CrbiJ'O-P'TD U-H-POOrH OrCCH^H 



O U CO 03 O 

o .H e s t^s o ^ 



•f-^O'O•HUaiC■>Cj^Db0aO'a^^J^-P?^-P■P^Je3+^!=!O'O>>OO 
r-O rf <vi S 'H C} ::i 4J Ph .H H (D -H C3 O « pi -H (S -H p! Ei Si C3 -H CJ O J-t ,c: 
O CO Pi O^^H Ph f-l Ci CQ O «H a iT: i2 W (D M iH ^ "O D^ O -P fp n M iH o +^ 



(B'r:;C >50 o-p o 

A>i -H fe rH «H ^ C: ^ 

•HJ^hca^^tt^C3•H^0Jr^C,M•<^•P 

rH-POa5r('a.H+JCCQc:^^^'HO 

CriCQJO-HrHcI^cca-HoaSiH^i.c 
r< P, CQ E «H ,C P, © P- G CO :::; e <r M+^ 



(E M d r^ ce ci o ' 



0) (D CO <D 

o r: fs -p iH 

(U C: e -P O -H C3 'O 
P- CC O OJ C6 +=> K ^ 

c2>cj^-PO(ro 

-P O iH 






rH Cfi tr^ CQ ^ 

H 4^ ^ •'-I oj 03 -p c: >»-P aJ (D c; +i 

^ rH "H 43 hO^ OP>O00 GrHoOJ 
0(D^O'HCarHS:lOC(}OCS34::iH 
C+=t>CrCCO<D-'-'^030*H+3t.J 



c-j 



o fa 



6L43 O m -H CD 02 

C 05 "H iH fn O +3 rH 05 >.' C C3 iH -H o: 

•H^rHOSCe 05 B o ^ s::-P0 4^^+3 G 

c: o iH e 4:= "-• m -H ^ "o «n -H w k ; . o 

•H 0*HOO>H OjiOrtiHOCS a3t>sO 

;2'oE«5-P'cO*H^^«Ha!^c3e'o 



0; 

W C 

O'' CO no 

iH -H t>s E5 >^rH 

r bri^ o ^ 03 



o 05 ci t>o o3 •■-I 



CIJ .C C! 

CS M 0; 

>jrH 4^ 05 T-t (15 4' 

6C C8 C ^ P.4J o >i 

C bO 05 45 P- >-l 05 4^ 

CO 'H c6 'h tin (t o 



C ^ CO -P c 

05 05 o 45 c: a: 

J-.0)05*<-' CC HrH05 05 -r^- 

43r;4^C03 ^^C6 e3®&3t>>05C2 

P< O ,C -H 05 >j O E ^ 0- O 4J 4^ CO 

05 W &1 p. > O ^ ^ >» 5-1 -H ^ O VH tf 
— -^ ■'OCaC05COOOO'HJ-i 

, -5 -V. M ►v ^ p c; tH F^ 



c3 rH ^ 9 e a5 > 



P^ .C -0 03 "O J 05 «H Arf 

Cl34-»a),t<JoC0505^'-' Jh«H ^,Wcoo4Jn 

^C!a50cOa5c:>^H^43o3riP<CQiHci3tS'^a54^ 

OOjH-HfHj., .H-HoOOr!rHO03r!^r-l?H<^O 
OJ E O (H b043 S'H P, O ^hCQ<H^ ErC p,OiE;^ p 



o 0; Ph 

^ 43 n5 E 

O 4J H 05 tS 

P, :i o >^ ^H 

03>H>rQ42C,VCiO 



c: &.I 



05 ^05 

43 02C5Q5'O ,C'OC543 rC 4^ 

05CQQ5 4^4^ ^ U -^ ^f) ii ^ U X: 4^-)JCc5^05'O4JC5^^iC0 ^ 

^^n3OXC04^oKc3K!^-Hfl.HO05ns:^!:ib'^S^^^^-'^"^^<^ 

a)•Hp!P0)C5Q5C3•>-^P^O5f^C^3XP<rteD•HOr^•H.H•H05•^03^OC3 
e «H fl 4^ j4 ^ •'-a^ M CQ SgpH^i42 BO<DS3K4J 05G4:343'OrD O'H 05 



oi a 



•+^ M © m M ^ f-! 

O O Jh CQ CJ 4J O 

60 H +^ CD f^ O iH 

^0 iH CO ^H O C iH 

Cj -h -h 60+3 P- -H 

n 'H G <D CQ ra ,y 



t3 









sagKi<^^4^r:fH 

5HOr3ro>sOfHC0-He, 

C3 4^ 4^ fl C\3 O <r> -H bOi-i ^ 

(U4JOQ)'oC>!H^r-. Cj43'H4J-H^C3<H Cr'WcQOJCr 

PsO'HEOO'O^-HcS P.iH O pi M rS rH '-H c: 'H p, O O) 

w ,0 fo c5 +3 o ci o > o c: ct ~ o3 t-i p.tn ri -h ro ^ J-i w 



P^ Cj <D <D Cd O 0? 

c3 pi cj H Pi M pi CQ 4^ ft ;:; 



s 


© cr 


c 


4^ > 4= 


c 


x: -H c 




b5'4^ eg 


. 


-^ P-M 


iH 


W E iH 


rH 


+3 P! (D 


>j 


^ CQ 6: 


CQ 


O 0! OS 




/:: fn rH 


to 


CO P.«H 



4^ 

Cfl 4^ 

(u "c CO >> C 

H "H O O <D 
^ P P ^ Jh 

p" *^ o G 0) 

r-! C/J J-i 03 ^ 
O C P-rH C 



•H <r> 

4^ -r-l 

C 4J 



03 tZ 

^>»45 O J2 (D -H 4J 

43 o -H cS C: H C 

C •H 4= 4= O .^ C 

C +•> O O i^ K (-H 

> tH CD iz -H t. ( ::^ 

0) -H rH p fO C C 

CO *H o +3 o; Pi O 



© Pi 

> o en +3 60 

43 -H >, C O -P Pi C f-i C 

C +' iH O -H P! O <D -H O -H 

(ri p.^ P«hcSg60o3'H43 
b:p)c3J=-HQ)-HPc;+3o 
P^h^OihJ-. 'o'^ 0'>-ia) 

CJ CO O C O C C " 'Q r-i ^H 
G 'H P ^-j P Ql Q) C; (1) O «iH 

tC "D P- C: p. p 4^ -H -a p. ca 



CO <15 

43 o) +^ CO bn ^ Q) fcr p. > 

p. 0J>G43airH43CUPC ^ r^ O ^ G GrH^ 

P«HP!-H.HC(0>sC:03iH*H-HE:S>3Cfl^CPiPS-'-'JSO03-P-Hro<-> 

j::30€,VaJcJP(DP<uP0-HC)0£-cg-H43ajr-i-HtiPa5P^ 

43^C!^C0G^+3^bCo bC'H p. 0) >^ CO 43 P 



crj r-t 

C) cs f-- p 43 
O P tH p! 
P JC 



43ajr-l-HlipCDP:s:0 

C.J 'c CO w -P "a o o 43 c 



•H a f^ CO x: p CO p 

CO(DP! CO fo^jc; (rt>5<uf-. 

>sa3 PX O >j-HiH-H43434:: 0343^ r^; 

43 ©434^ o'O'a cd p. Q) <D co43;c 0:43 

+3:io;j-,coopioGP'H'<-'XtiO>co 



o- pi cS -H o P o 



t «;-< f-i .H ^ O cS 



(D f • © O rP P •»-( ,C 03 

>Sa;©rHCO O 4JC0©©t^, 

CSC0^S43«I^^ •H4^CQ-hX!iH43 
O vH 43 X; ^ iH tCiH P -H fO 43 -H p 
p P CO bO 6r ho O i-l © P © P +^ -H 
o CO c .H -H c h: -H f> x; ^ o Pi x: 



rH«H>EP'HiHC©t-HCO©rH©CP©©X;WKCOoCOP«H43 



^ E; fo x: „ p © 

^ P © 43 C P, O ro <= i p. pi - 

P oOf-i43 Ki pH-H43©pa3 GbOP 

Pi£oe3rHP!r-IC3©COpH 
E-< CO CO ? bo CO 'H ^ CO ^ CO 



© 43 

© ."^ 'O P 



CO p. O 03 4J P, fiD,« 



CO CO © r-^ 'O ^-i UJ >^ © w-' ■*-' ^^ tJlj»-»- 

PpP©O©'Hp-HGpPC0tHPC8© 
C;43cepc;t543©^^. riOp!>s©PO 
SCG43c5^C'2 CrJ43c2r-l'Ot:^r-J CO ^no CS 



a 

CQ 
Oi O 

H -O © P ^^ ■"• 

3 >- !. J pJ nh -o 43 CO "^ O CJ 
O 'H C3 © i>i'H r! -H © © CI' C3 CO +3 ro 

p43p.H43'Dpp©6pOOP+3pCQW''^ 
■H p tsD ^ CO P ro P P P > rH -H 0; 43 'H >a43 



!>J>s © 
+3 rH-P 

•; ci x: 03 



I 43 CO 

i ^ 11 



ix: o o 6 pi - 

Wj >CQ43no+»rHP, 



lLl'niAi©PiXJPMP'-ivL> 

G'aiHns'OoPiCOO'H 



COrO P 


M © 


(D "H © 


>J H |:^ 43 


43 G rP 


43 cS ©Vh :i 


c3 ^a +3 


+3 P M © Oi 


p C 05 -H 


g 43 p. > p 


P -H rH © 


G CO pi "-1 .H 


•H XJfH P 


CO cs5 -O tHXJ 





c 


> 




CO 




o 
















•H 




-p 










•HrH 


•P 




pi r^ 




CD -H 






::! 


© 


•H 


© 


+> 










H 


© 




pi 


O 




»© 




+^ E! 


fj 




Op 


o 


> rH 


■p 


t^"i 


o 


t^ 


•p 


t> 


ti 


CO 




W 




03 ^H 




o 


•H 




© 


© 


O^H 


O-P 


*S 


•H 


•HiH 


P.rHiH 




OJ -H 


© 


ri 


W 


to 




s 


u 




^ 


M rH -P H 


fS 4:: 


-p 


g 


-p +^ cd 




C 


C3-P 


oa-p ,Q 


o 


d 


r^ © 




CO 


© H 


© 


a 


q 


03 


c^ 


f^ -P 


LJ 


•? -F 


03 


P.-P 


Jh 


© fO 


OH 


c3 


E 




O 


fH r-l rH 


•H 


-p cd 


(H fO 




B 


© 


03 4^ •<-i 


•H 


C 


to to 


o 


© W 


O 


> 


j: 


rri 


o 


5-1 


;=! 


•H 


S 


O-H 


rt -p 


C ©^ 


c 


5 




-i-' 


-P 


03 Ci 


Q 


•r-" 


•H -H 


e 


o >» 


K 


ci 


S 


fO 


^ 


O 


o 


G 




>-P 




Ph 


:i C 


c3 


:i 


o 


s 


U 


C «H 


C 


£3 


U r-i 


o 


© Jh 


m 


o 


o 


OJ 


O 


ri 


© 


ji 


'p! 


C5-H 


CQ 


« 


O -H 


w 


o 


c: 


© 


o 


o 


C 








C © 


•o 


>H O ^O 


^ 


m 


fO 


m rH 




rH 


^ 


CJ P- 


S 




O iH 




^. 


•H 


"O 


c 


P 


C ^ 


"-c 


p! "a 



© C Jh ® +> ^H 




■p 






00 ©CJh Cfn© © 




c 




© 


f^ .H +-- >. 6r,c q:3 cmoK-os:: ojrH 


c 


•H 


^ f- .'- 


g 


H©©-P'Ht>iO^G+^r-!cQ£:OrHE'CrHC©hrP 





e: 


>> © C -H 


©VirH-Hf-i co/::©'^ij©oP'->-irH©p:c-p©cb p. 4^ 
t3©©cooc/j>s.EK)t,Hr:rH-rH+i(Cbrcix:©j::^ia3c: 

C^tH«H C Cji-H Op-H ©^ O'C fn P> C!i4''Ci-l'H O) © © 


•H 


Jh 


Pi TJ -rt r-i 


?^ 


m 


© 


© CrH^ 


P 


•rH 


p. 


W © ::! 


^ 


p. © -P 03 P,^ rH©}-, 5HG3mo3©©C©G©-P>C'H 


c 


p. 


P > ^' P 


to 


P- J-^ p! ^ >4 n CD J-1 C- rJ .H 4-^ t^, > CC Pi o3 ^ a © -H Jh 


c: 


© 


pj C3 © 


n 


CiP.C4:'j3©4^0p!<t-iE'OC.©OnPrHW£^PO 


•H 


p 


C iH X3 P 


•H 



fc $>j >5 03 pJ -Ho 

t>» p !>» © to PilS "H C *tH 4^ 'H l>s 

»D ©^ bC'jl ©^4-- c3>r; >*4J 4^ ^ 
T3 P, p 6r th © > p. e © t«; 'H 4J o r-, 

PJP, p!KiHrHTHK)pi©0,-VOP:oO 
E pi e P «H O'J > P-JC x: tH 03 r5 " *■' 



© Pi S S 

C P r^^ O © >. ^ «M P +3 >5 

>v © C, -H rH © N 'O O >i (D O U. bO 
>. 6D'0 P! H 03 bO 03 © a .W O -H pi tC >5 
p WrH ,0 P > p rH © pV 03 K5 P •>-- C?' is: 

oaJ-HOrapc^PwCxroS 

" " ' ■ 6.1 « pi CQ ^ 



bC 03 tr p ^ P 60 CD hO Pi 





03 


»H 


C 




ri 


>H 


£ 


■^ 


r: 











« 


i-i 




rH 


g 




e> 




KI 


CJ 


K 





4^ 

P © 4^ 

PP©© V4.i^X©^ 

p©©E03rH ©03a3rHO 

0'CrH©P©PP-Kl&©0..__ 

P. a300<ErH4^- 

03 03 > 6r P rH P 



X C ns C P 



E 03 
r:? o 



X C 'H 4^ © br O . 

c -H ^ a;, o "o faD-n juw^^,- —r. ..r^^- 
i::Pp!4^Cpi•H,M©©^^©©pJocc;©c: 

03bOeD3-HoP03^^^p. PX3>OT-<CiP, 









■^ C 








© top P 


r: 


© 


P 


Ci -rH 


p ^H 


P 


P 


P 03 4J 


03 


•H 


© .H 


pJ Cj P 03 


c I-; •H 


PJ 


P,4J 


o.'^4^ E: 


P rH 


0- 


M 


03 rH 03 


© 


03 


05 tH 


© © P 


P,«*H 03 


© 


■^-'O 


P tp P 03 



CD f© 4^' © +3 Qj P © «. O C +" 4^ 

©©©bJP©CQC03C3©'CrH'a'HC© P^«H'04^4-'x:'0'^0 

4J4JrH0fcD'Op«<-'©O-npP>PO3Pip-H4^&©br'-Ha!«HPOPirH 

O©rHpPSP!c5©&rH03©4J-H'H+5^4J^P<a34J-'HPrHOP!-nO-H 

^^•H4->x:PrH^a3O'H'O03rH^C0C03 4-GJ-iW4JC'jbn03OprHEJ 



^ 4^ -P © 

^©P,OX;brf^ 03 P* rD 

E©P'-Hp03a3bOP-.©03 60P©'3P ^rHbO 

4^ C3 © Cj PS pi 'H © "H C3 P! rH C.3 -H ^ (X3 :i >5ro 03 P P P 
C3»-Hc;^PL,PE;prH©rHP-©C3«HrHO©C3-HCO'Hc3 
^003 02 OC3«H,QrHO03H tC"0 03 E ,i*J H P © 



C 

c3 P-. 

(D Ph/3 Ph o 

P G o o ^ 
O pj p! ,<: 



176 



o © 











S-p 






© 


C i-l C 


CQ 


>>'T3 


o 


tc© 


<D 


§ 


c3 




top 


M 


O -P 


c m 


m 


(D 


•H 


P. 


•H CO 


cS 


fO 


^ 


© 


,-'4 © 


iH 


j:J 


^ 


o 


o w 


O 


o 


ci 


© 


o o 


G 


■!-■> 


^ 




r-i Qi 



r^ © O 

d -P Q >S S 

OOCifHOjrH© Oh-PH 



>5 © 



OIJifHC0i-H©Oh-PiH ^+^-rt 

C3 (H CQ ft ;: O 'H ^ © O O f-, bOH 9 

i-H J -i —I «i rt-( «-\ S- n ..J Kr^ ri rrt #1^ n% /*■» 



c3s:;4^«H©o3o>p.rH6::rta3©© 
Of1-PbDO^iHyHa«H^OC:rH.QU 
O -H Cj c3 O c3 C d c3 -P - ■-' 
{>oSHGc3oocafH 



. „ fco o © c S 
w ^ Cj G "a Js U 



P..H 

?-< ^ 

O CO 



I +3 

+' +^ © C C ID 

TD s:; d > > © <D 

©© i-i r-i tCC'H-H'OO 

•^ pj K 03 O CC © C K -P +-^ fl d 
tn o' ::! C -H +' H -r-! d o o © cS 

•H © O -H -JJ f-i ^ G •'-' I* Qi rH fH 

c; a © fu K o a; o -P p. 60 p. Co 

Mcr!jHa3C>odabrK^ 
•HOo'a3iHGoc:o©s©d 

•C;OC(5O©'HrH'HC>H0J?-iC; 



-P t:: 


r^ 




•r-t 




© © © -P 


d t:: 


b © 




+^ o 




> -p +3 d 


© © -H 


ra -H +j 


© 


d -H 


^H 


•H 03 d © o 


1-1 iH iH 


ci o s; 


t>5 4-' 


(C P 


c< 


u fcc+-> ^ -H 


rH rO (H 


O CS iH 


^H H-l 


+5 o; 


rH 


:j d -■ G iH 


© --1 ^ 




Cfl fO 


W ;C 


ri 


© T^ +3 13 © 


o ^r' J; 


> o-S 


•; 2 


rO 4 3 


^ 


ti d o; o bC 


f-; « a 


CO© 


d f-. 


:3 CQ 


3 


o o © d d 


© r-t tf 


© r-- -c 


s © 


CO © 


+^ 


t- © tD -H 05 



?H -P ^ rH+JH©MjH ^^^k*!©!::© 

d^c3© dbOoiH>, ci d©oo3©,c:^id di. cao-abDaJd 

+3©NXCC3d-Ha)4:>d =;^d^rH02OOO--''H©OJ-.C5^CC 

CC+J doO^'H^^t! c! M >iO © © P'0«rHiHO-<-) M^ OJ rH ce J-. X3 C2 © 
©C0CC-PlHP-'O+3©OdiHOdC3O'Ci-ti-lfc0rHP-af-,»uE5-PC-'-lVH 
?-,0-PK©fHdC;^iHOiHOrH43;^(Jj©C6RiOCCdO©©d©da3 

© p. c: ^ E o © o CQ fi.-^^ cS cS ^ c3 o Pi M P iH oGf^xr^KoGd o 



o G d -p o 

'a©>i, fa-H-J'© 0-'HrHt>i d >s©rH4^©!>> W rH -H© 

OJrHCQ •H+Jr4p>jC0rHCjrd-P©c3O.Cl+'a3©drCl>sdrH0C ^-P 

©'C!CQ>s>dcuc8,M©'o©o:OrH'a*H^-HG>*'-'rOCoo3-P>-. tec 

!^. 'OOdfiBSorHCOfHdJHSH-Hft;^, bCrtrHJ-irHfHddfH-PCdOid 
d-HrH03©jH ©«HrH-HaJdaJdC3Q) (rfiHOO©C3-P-HOesJ©d^< J-i 

dCMG*t-i*t-i!-'0D'H+3GdGc^G>G'nP'n>Gw'H p,«H G 'P- f^" o 



^ © © -p © ^ +> 

d tnx: m !> o o 



© © 

-r- © tr ri 

© d -p a rs ro r-^ bC' >> 



© 



© 



CO d tnx: m > o o c © d -p co fo fo h bC' >> c d w 
R5a5fooc3J-i©rH bO-H ^V d -H o Jh d (S 03 ^^ 0} fo -h i-i (u 
'rtP. a3'r-'os©PooJdc3of-id5-(©©o^dJso-H 

om^!:.,QOr-iC0i-iP,-HoP--Pd'OrCi'aG"A-<Hoc3 



© 

bO _ „ _ 

c d bP c6 f-< ^ ^, 

f-\ ^ © © •!-! d 

O O +^ M ^ O 

O 03 E O CJ O +^ Ci 




0+3 










o 


C 


+> 


CQ 


fn 




u 


(D 


c c 


CQ 


(D 




B 


O O <D 


© 


4= 




U 


<B 


•H SH 


C 


•H 




a 


O -P 0) -H 


fn 


t 





(D 


C 


CQ-M O 





^ rH 




ce 


O -H-H 


-P 


03 





Ti 


f> 


fcoo E-P 


P, 


•H 


O -O 


•H ^, O 


•H 


>j 


fM 


ch 


e3 


re O -O ,0 +3 






QJ E -P >J -P 

oooroo "oof: 

CD C fiD C C! C O C3 

f-.O M ^^ o +^ +^ fo c3 fco 

'H C CS /3 ti -H -H -H .H 

ro4^fHCc:E>iHE 
o.p.P::ioC-HrHE3 

p., d CQ O O O 'C Cd 'H 





1 






S 









C 






« 


© 


60 




P. 








Q) 












5h 


C 


C 


a 


t>» 


u +^ 


J 


iH 


© 


•H 


rt 


fO 




•H 





u 


u 





c3 




■P 





i^ 


Jh ^ 




<D 


c3P 





c 


fn 


c 


C 


c 


:S 


(D 


•H 





P 


C! « -P 


eg 




tH 


© 






tH 


fl 


•H 





U (P 





rQ 


C-P -P 


'u 


0«H 


c3 


JC 


^ 


5-. ,C 


fn 


e 


■D 


© 


-r^ 


(D 








E 


-Q 


ce-p 


P. 


Q) 


CJ 


^ 


C3 



O CC 
CJ P 



+3 -C 4^ +3 -TJ 

• C© C+3j-.{rjQ^ 

I ©+3© CSCW-P-H© 

I (-; ^ .H +3 >54J (D X! m +> 4^ 
l'Ho©C)SrHoJ-if-«©gO 

; 43 »-( Q Qj S r-j a; o b'' 6 © 

: O ^H C CJ !h rH X: Oi G 05 «H 

!^-tnOom©c:raof~*i-' 
!©©0^::iM-'-'c3c'oai 



© •--< © 03 > -P 


03 


4> 


CO >• © 4^ > :i 60"-* C 


03 


-c C 


:S'H> ©■»-<r-IOC:4-^ Oj 


©4' 


© «} 


CQ v4 c: 4^ 05 rH •r-' C 4' 


r-H C 


CC! "O 


•HrHC(}ria5c^:iE©r-l 

>-, r^ -H -.-^^ -H E d =* 


•H cd 


fH G 


C 'H 


p! E! 


:i(.. o^'~''^vo^(a 


C 'n 


c -o 


PCC:ia5>-,f-<©o© 


© © 


© 


03 -r-i -r- CO 4^ 4^ X2 Ih 


P,'C 


ce ^ 



^ © O ?H C Vi f- 

>-. ts^i-l 00"^ O -H 43 >H fn O I-' -H 
r>5^C6iSiS4J04^iH-'-'©t:<i-l 

4J !h ^ "r; c3 o •r^ 
f- © c C 

Cj ^ CS ID ^ 

E 03 •'"•'rC M 



P- C! © 

o o 



iS4J04JiH-'-'©^rH-H;C'H©KjGOO©M«H©H 
C3 O •r^ 03 P.«H p^O05oP•lPJ-^EDO0Sr^OViC:'O 

es::,-;'Hr!4'4^43rJr: P, ©Jh^. thojC^nccCs:: 
oa5©iHo:3iC©o'©a3>sci(DjH-H©n;c3fHoa3 

Jm03 ^i^oO ai 'C a P. 03 ©03 E-P'O E«HfH43C0rH 



•H 4^ O 4^ -H c -H 

43 ce •>-. c 
;a ^ Ts © 

O P. OC P, 



g 



>s !>5 03 iH a- 4= 

C03 4'© jHV^t:: 4J CCpH:^© >s 3dc:>i>s>s 

© C >j03rD'O © © U <-* rxj X: r-f >^ ^ ©4^0 bO-C b:©'HO^©rM43P'J^ >j 

H ©,^ CS j:;'H4^'0 O Oj'iH br©P ©tJ CQ-h SJ-H CrHrH-n.,-, O 03 C ©no 

rH 4^ rH ^ © P-4J "^ 'h 6r^ ::S>o3'D(i;a5K>P"~'P"-'-PCSiia;5::o! 
::! c: r! bCrH ©s-i3c©ct a5oa3o©jrs::o!a;4^E.*^c:©rHf-,cC© 

to tH C'3 03 03 H- J2 03 3 rH f-. C rH C E iH br^ Cj 03 >-, 03 CS o: ce rH P. P CQ "H K 



4J ^ © © 

60 «H© «H©4^4^Q© ^^ brP 

p. Cj a rH -H rH 03 +» tJ O O 60 a G S c/; E P(43 © CS © E "O C 03 

E 03 f^ P.rH ^^rHf^^if-^COP'dS(Dria3C•H!^•H«H©CiH05f-^OO 

r<rHrfa5-H^ni©OfH.H5-,o3)Mj-.^v^f-ic6o-H^::J4::cr:iooPfH 

^ O P E P-P" rO > 60,0 T3 P, 03 4^ re ^ 6PP > P«H C3 43O03 E't-HO>'H 



60 
4^©'H© A!l ;y 'H© ©?H >o X:,M 4JPh-P 

HP<03C3C3©s:::JEf^©4i©CO6O!sO3 P<4J C!,i!j C3 0'orD4^,CCJn3C 
iHOOM'-tEri'H.H©C3'HCCc3U<DtJ3O©^©'HfsrH'H60oc3>H 
Cd4^OPa303fHrHC!jrHCjr-©OpHrH©a3rH©©^^a3O©'H^©pJ 
4^03HC'3«H4^'D 03<H03>'rC<+>rH 03 O'a'H.Q E C«H43^0HHO'a^ 



03 



n o iH c5 ^ 
ri 'H 03 c o 
o -P ^H •,- M iH r:i -p c3 « fH 

>H CQ O C. O rCl -P C5 ^1 rH 03 
O ::« P, C. bCi O 'H ^c © s ^ 
rHoeciflflOCrDf M 

OOOrHCdtUCGGOQJCS 

•a c3-P otJ'H-p otH >-, ^ 



O O > O 



w o cJ p> ^ /^ .H c3 >. d 

C 03 C vH tt) 60+^ O iH O 

o P. d [5 CQ E fco E ^ .G 



> CO o 

^ ri .H 
o S G 



•H q t:: 

03 ^ C 
CQ ^ -H 



C3 

O C 
•H o •'^ 

4^ -H r- 
03 S:l42 

C d f^ 

60 6DO 

(^ ^s: 
E o CO 



>5 
CO 

tr. 



0) ^ f-, c c c c 

O: J5 c; >j P- 03 rH C -O c: C •>-' 03 CS >s 

J-iOOVid4JC3-H.HC<}00'ca''Pb'rH 
OCiHdPC!>4-^CQr-l-H-H03>i^03n 
n d 03 'C! 6: 03 d -H c! S P 4' 03 o E +^ P 
a;rH^C:C3P,C3't:3')HE"^OOrHa3C;Q; 

d3a3a3P. p^oEiHPE 



CO 'H D" +-- C d 



Vh o5 



P, 03 ^, o; E 



03 C 


C 03 c d 




p- ^ 


4-^ O 


o o c « 


© 


:; c 


4J ^ 


E -H ^ O e 4J 


c: 03 


o o 


03 4-' 


:=! ^-, -o c C cd 


© C' 


r-l ^ 


S d 


■r-> o: S -H K -c 


n c 


© (Q >. 


c^ m 


C r-f •'--4^ o; O 


o ^ 


4' -H iH 


•H C 


CO «H © 0. t> P 


^' t: 


C CO I-' 


P 03 


P C P ^ O U 


© o 


cc CO o 


03 CO 


o -iH p. c3 ti-^ ce 


.v.c: 


c o ^ 



3 6^ 

4' b 
SH 3 © CO d P 

•H tO P. E w CO 



o c p c •■-• 

mo >s03br4^ g 'O'c'c 

^ . « -I r-< >S.-I iH ^ C OJ fH O >s >i ^j-H C E © 

©'C4^©P ©rH+30 a~rH(23e04^-H(uC3,— iC'a Ef'C©©bC 
p^^H-rHf^P-E^^i^P^''^*^""'^ l.»9— <r! ' /-^ r^ . i i i 



>i+5 4' o iH ^ M r: G 'H 

rHCmm^P ^«H©CQ 



- ^ _ , , P "c S <-: o o „ -.. 

o•r^.H d4^ o;Ho+j o cO P P.-H CO 



P © CO © 03 




•H 


ri C >i 02 4--' G S 


4-^ P 


> 


o :i © d CQ P cO 


O © 


rH © 


4^ ^ ^ > © d iH 


© T! 


O 'O 


P -H O © E 4^ P- 


CO r--. 


C rf 


O P O P o © P< 


C o 


CO CO 


O 4J ^ O ^ P CO 


•H CO 


o > 



C03OP3c;•f-<O•r^.H2 4-"O;^^c3+JOC0p P.-H 

-o o'i X o -tJ p r-' P iH 4^ «n c: E ^^ £1 ^ 15 -i^ tH CO H 



g -c fo P c 

4= © c: P tn p vi eO g; bo © © 

4-'^'oo;Pc6Pr:©P c oP-PCfl bOiH 
pbod©cOP©-H4J^'Doc:p©cP. ci,bi! 

C0-Hr4p4JcCCCC&CT--rH 
d CQ © P "H 



^ „ r. 4-3 O 

CS ceC4J*^iHi-lcG4J^3 
O P •<-! ^ CO CO -H P ^ O p 



PcOSiHSCOpT-t-HCOcO-- . f 

p.x: fcOoPEc'op-p-ojPEcQo P.r' 



,i«J Ph P- >-' 

o c e 03 p c © 

•HOSJ!>»>H'o|5>5C0ro©EP'D 
iH PiHP P'D O OrHrH ©-H-H CO 
CQ P- bOfO O O t-H O 



rH bD.H^«i-. 



I — I ViJ -r-l -r-i wj ;.- ^H ^H VU 1—1 ^-» (^ 



© p ^ 

Pit34J©,y0J ©E©© 

■^ rH -H C p -H «IH .H C 4^ 
C0P4^CCPceP0CCj 
.£: 4^ o: ID ^ Oi C 03 rH 



4J4Jp^P.OO 4JOrQ4J'H,CC-3 
O Pi ri P^ r3 C3 P >5rH p pi rH © o CO 
COro^COrHrH " -" -^ 



rH .»4 X: 

c^ rH O 03 

pHpfa-H cO ©4^ P< 



u-i r-1 u ■'.J 

CO -H > rt += P 



Pi 3 f-H ^3 OP \>it-{ pPSrH©oa5PHp'a'HcO©4JP<COC3'H>cO+=P 
©^COrHrH-H^^CjrHcO©PrHOCOcOP^rHO*HOrH4JcO^'<HcO 
fO O 60,Q 00 N 03 4: p O CJ rC! cO 03 rP O ^H fO 03 «H rH 03 rH O Ci3 O 03 ,Q r5 



180 



•H 






o 


^ 


W 


>s 


o 


§ 


u 


W 


u 


-o 


!h 


cd 


03 




fD 


a 


p.^ 


o 


C'H 


C 


o 




P! 


r^. 


o 


o 


:i 


^ 


& 


o 


S 


w 


c3 


f^ 



i r: O u -H f^ d t>s.s:: += Jh -H ^ ^ > Q fn c3 ri 

•H > tl) -H ^ P, O Cj 43 OQ -H bo CC H ra ^ O (D 
d^'H^i^lZiOKSCO'HOf-.OO'Hri- 



J 



^1 p,fo tH fc ra o Ph-h o o-o-PrO P,,C 03 £3 4= o o 



•H > 
03 -H ( 

•:^ += 

O C 

t- q; ■ 
n > 



c c 

Jh 03 
C 03 • 



0) C 4^ 

K iH fH 4= t> t: tQ 

cs c3 ci c -H 03 ;i 

O C r-i C3 CO bo o 

•r-i o o J-n e; "H ^ 

fO -H p 4--' M rH 0) 

S +^ Jh C O f E 

-p c; o o c (E s 

o; C c o -H c c 



CQ 


c; "H :z! tz 




to 


+> I-; -c c 03 


^ +^ O bO 03 




C > 


cH C Ce -H O 4J 


o o -H n 43 


Ci 


•H -H 


CO Ce .H P -H :i 


fH r! +^ -H ^ 


r* 


'-' 1^ 


i-i -^ O O O r- 


^ >. tf 





03 C 


O -tH -H J^ 'H O 


■e 4-^ C rH 


f-i 


c; o; 


C 03 -O P rH O; 


d n tH 4:> re 


a< 


«H 4--^ 


03 C Ci C 03 <D 


rH 03 C r! c: 


C 


C C- 


box: '^-H -c >^ 


-O -H ::! 





rs i~ 



^ ^ p. o 



03 4J }h J-4 03 (T 4^ O 03 C a; O) CfJ -H C *"' S ^^ '"' ^ ""^ 

C3 0) ^ Cd >s4^ br;rH 03 tH e 4^ 'H 03 4^ 43 Ci iH 03 CD CO SH P M 03 

C:Cy:SNErHCO'C,ti!>-H03&3rHf-Coa)?^'CrH.HgQ3^ 

Q3Er:c!KE-4^'^Oo;brc.3:r!'H(6'HMf-.4JC>3r-:Da,o 
> Ks o 03 -H !2 o o cS 3 f-- a^ p. o t-, rC c3 -H 05 c 03 g p. CC >H -H 



4^ ^H 

bo O cC 



e :; p t; o o; ^ w ^ -. . w 

C O O Cfi 3 I^ 03 p. O {•; rC W •!-' «0 V-. »J w <-i w n 



f^ KJ %V 'r-i \^ \j \j \jj -^ <^ 
bO^ 4^ be C P-'C t X O 



CJ 



4^ ^ 



CJ 



^ ^ p. O C3>. C C^i rH'H^OiHa3Q'C:;Q;rHJ-+jCE;2 

iHO efH>s rHrCt^jCS QJ'H t>j4J Q3OfHa3f-f-<*H'H«5OO0) Od 

4-''0 a3r-Jbn>»5-im P,^ t>j4J G34J0J4JrH'OC-'-^0:'03 W:4J -"^ ^C '^ C CT 

03 C >VrW 03G;Ct£C6Cfl«H^H4^r*«;'HC3-HrHC;cSO>4JCC3O'CO-HQ3 
•HeSoC^CuWClrHO^(CSOC0O0)POO^'03OCj'HO'H(iiO03fH 
rH fn -H :i m E OC C/J «H 03 O r- f-^ ^ i-H ^ 03 >-., fi O; «H 03 «H 03 P P Jh ^ X «H 



r^ hT +3s::HO3O3riii03 

O 03 -H^Vh ^H «cQ3r-'P. C/3-H-Hro(DtjEQ3C4JPr-'C3 P,rH 

ri,C)4->4^S::J-i^*HHO& :irHiHG(DrHjH nJr^^CCfli-'sOraCD.CHr-^ 

ooa:c:3P.o:::it^ooo:-r-i^ni?-iP,x:?-,a3orH-H^'- -■■ --- 

O 03 P- !^ b.': 03 CO E rO ?~i 03 Vj 4^ ^ iH O 03 4= P M C' .P P4 



03 ^ t> iH !>j^ 



^ ro ^. ^ tjH f^ Ph , 

4^ tHQ3C3-Ha3f-tt)^ 

•H P ^H P, (h CO 03 O -H •'■ . 

H P4rf'H ri-p H O S4J CCrH^'H-rijrl 

^ C3 rO !m P^ 03 C? P^ Cr 03 CO P- 03 ^rH E 'H 



» . . _ fj ^1 fs "O E -'-' 4^ tOA 

03O-H"'-''DriC3(13rHfHOrifi 



C3 C3 E P 03 03 S 

CMfH'QCfl^iHCO 
j:^'HCjOO-(^C3C3 4JO>HfH 
PlCQpHfHCQHW^f4 03+3 ^^H 































4-5 


ra 


(D 


O 






4^ 




4^ 










a) 


Q) 


>i f! 


fH 


> 




w 


+3 


C 


P 


H 


<D 






> 


> 


M a 


a 


•H 


+3 




f^ 


c;; 


4J 


a> 


03 w 


+3 









CO -H 


^ CQ 


N 


W 


5:^ 





Q) -P 


d V^ 


CH 


03 


> 


2 


4 3 


pi 4^ 


ca 


a 


pi 





pj 


U 


C iH 


Jh 


^1 -^ 


U 


•H 




F 


c3 43 CD 




H 




-p 


<D 








<u 


cS 


C.Q 







•H 43 


Tm rH 


p. 


O 


4^ 


!^H 


,C 


P^ 


CO 


P-|4^ ^H 





;:! 


•H 





^^ d 


CJ P, 


a 


i< 


p 


•H 





(D^ 


n 


X'^i 





rH "O 


a 


ij (1) 


&s 


^ 


<D 


S3 


> 





^ 


c3 




© ., 


a 


© 







> 4-^ 



l-i in (^ > Oi ^ r^ ^>OrH 

cj fi •-< 'H ri <D cj ra o -H iH d 
•HoowoiHCpJfHa^jH 

4^5^CC"^!-ifHOO!3T4t)0 

c3 "H c3 0) > p a; © -H o ?-H a 

.rH n f: «H O !-0-i 43 tD 43 Jh 4J 

o3 o -rH «.H ^1 o r; -H 3 t<l o -; 

P^rci ^H O p4 O -H p, rH O X "H 



CO 



C3 V 



o U ai c '^- ©o^, © © 

1 -H C d t>> O (S O d iH c >s >,4J o S o 

) ^ C3^ ©^•H4'4^ ci4^ ©> dJ^H-H-C! O^ 
'Cj4^G4^©+'CQ4-W-H2-HO©f-'©'H0. 
)^ai©d>Ci'rt3jNE:r-!©Oj::oP-4J!-) 
»OC>r!03oCJrHa3©'HOr-'o>jHO(D 
1 GJ O O O rH O r- =; -H •>jt-l © C3 f-, C6 O E > 

»f4«fe5O0'jiHcd£:Pi©a;}s^a3tH4-^©o 



o> f-. h:; 


© 


•H c c; 


c^ 


4' ;C 43 


.3 


C3 >j C 


f-H 


e^ c3 


© 


c: ^ > 


Oi 


Vi -D 


(fl 


-o ^ cd 


> 



d fH 
o p 



^ Ci3 

J-i O © 

© H ^^ 

•H oj O 

ri C4^ 

o tf ri 

o r:2 03 





ra 


l> 


CJ 


>-< 




<< 




R 


c. 














•^ 


b 


?^ 


d 


C5 


. 


K! 


rH 


« 


M 



Oi 

© rV 4= 

rH >j4^ >>• 



4-- >> 

r-- -t- >j 03 >3 >s4^ 

. •> . . ^j • >>'H d f' 'O d 604^ f-i ^iiH 4^ -d © >j 

© t>s'C ^j'D 43 0; 03 H O Jh -H p d d 4^ fn © JC 60 K to 

bO 60 Jh 4» d 05 © ^ © h 0; ^ (S C © t-J b.O 43 60 d -H 00 

b0 6odur^©4Joer-,>ofHi-H6codcedR5&o^v^ 

KO4^dOrH0e>HO©CrHOrQJ-,f-.d4-'a5jHdrHCi3V.a3dCd 
f-, «!-> CJ ^c ^ CO rH 'a ^ ^t-t 0. tH c; o d P X CO ^ t3 d ttH o c ^ © > ^ 



'O 'C &; 4^ © 
© © Ci d rH ID 
d .'^ 4^ © Cfl -H .H >j 
^w ©OdrH ?-i4''043 

oA^Jod'DbrJH^cQ 
■ ^ ■ ^ -' - ' o cfl 

CO ^ 



© <H ^; 4^ 

fn CO ;h ^ ^^n-t O CQ 

i43©fs© d a;©©oJHCv3jH0JG>s<E©© 

f;'HrH©'O0S>. O ©d'arH©t:rc34^©J-,ddrH 

© E'H'O dNrCICQ4'^(4JC3rHE^^'C; c:4^4^C-»3 

>a^fH'H'CdaSH^-HOO^OCeHOOf-.-'"dJ-id?s 

>05©c3oXrHoo-H©cj©^of-idc^:a;-Hod 

•.-I ^ P- ^H *H 4J P,,C p. ^ rO P -O CO -C 33 03 ^ © P. > O 4^ 



CO fn d 

J O -H 

Jh rH <H 

rH »H «tH 

c3 cS o 
^ P- o 



© 60 © 
M O i-H 

d 4:: c 

45 © X 

C 6')43 

d -.3 f-i 

•H c O 
4' Xi P. 



r-i O © 03 ■»£ 

d ned©C!rHCO>» 

s^ rHfD>sCO c oo>a3 doj;C 

© 4^ 03 "H x: d >5 W >i CO "H -H CO 60<H to +5 
4JO'Hd+>OrH©^H^Q4Jce-"- ' ' 
COCSOCr'^epHdlBCjWCO© _,. . 

f-i(«)0«Hoai-Hoo©P, ©iH>so3&^©.c 

rHti'H^rH^eH03^H P.'O SZ :i ^ 



03 ^ >j © © >j !-, Cii O "-I 

to *^ 4JrHrH>:,t>sf-(>s©>i©«H03 

rHrH © !-rQ ErH-CH^^ P.-aH^ CQ4^ 
©aSrHddjHfn'OiHOOdOCed 

t,. *.* ^. *., *-^ M rV i-y /^ >^ t, rrt ? , «^ tj 



60 © 



O 

: "D X 



~ o 

P,fH 



§ 


© 








d 


60 © 




CO © 604^ d 'H 


H 


CO © d 63 d Ji -H 4^ P 


rH 


CO rH Co d -H © 43 ^ 


>j 


© CO t^ ^H CO -H j.^ > d © 43 


CO 


C0'O4= UpQ ;-Hr-l*H«H d 




OCJOCSCuOUdCj'HO 


CO 


caBrOB&'^^oP.©q 



H 15 

rH ^k4^ 

vH © g5 d © 

i-i U a 43 P >»'H 4^ ?H P © 

© © 4^ CO © C5^;d f^ 03 © 4^ Cj >i © 

43 Ph'H d ns G "H O P^ O '^ -H d t^ © rH 

; ra o d o d d c: Jh 4^ p. cfl © ^ o Q ,^'-i t? 

I ce o cj rH cj rH ; -^ d o -i^ © o o tr' a d d 

I O fM fn © H = O .d Jd O d p. © '.H 03 P -H 03 
1, ^< 43 60«H C0>P,O'HOC0'odC3'OP<O 



18S 



§ 


fM 


o 


,,U ^g 


a 




O O iH -P O 


H 


+3 +0 vH o p. 




W C3 CQ :i O 


^-, 


05 f^ c 'o c:! 


Oi 


CQ ^ 03 C f-t 




•H c: 4^ o o 


to 


r= s s o x: 



fl 



C3 +3 > to <l' - 

00-HH4J OCJooS+^'aiHfcO^iO 

flOJ-H-HcScSd-PM-P-HrooSnioriCOO- 

•Hf-iS^ocSGCO-HjHO p^^ fri c > fl o 



ri ra -P Q.1 t--s ^^ C 
!m ^ O ^ 05 Cj o 
O CD "a Jh n O 4^ . 



•HOOOQ3C;OP(C3c3' 
^c60'OPh£jOC30T3 



d Ph 
o o 

bO 5-1 



43 

o o G 

hH ah 

+J (I) Ph 

a w Pi 

Co 1^ 3 

o ci cS 



cS 


rH C 


> 


O 4^ 




d © 


•H 


^ C 


H 


o C 


w 


O 0} 


H 


•H -rH 


o 


• H 4^ 


>> 


+5 4^ 


!-i 


G CO 


CQ 


u u 


J- 


^ -H 




(U <» 


c 


© K 


CO 


> P 


o 


P, 03 



(E 4= > CC 

o; >j CC > c: -H H 
H iH ^ -H (U W P 



C (DO 

t>5 O 
4^ rH Q; t-f >». 

i:1'CiH4JrHH..-.._- 

cj i^ ,c ra cc ^ o o o: > c: C c 

•r-l4JKC6-H&3.HC<DOjHE'^ 

c: ra o; ,c h.0 C 4J C +5 :: P- C -o 
(DOJot^KjOCoWdCoai 
P'oPcec;:3c30-H-Ho^ 



4^ CO OJ 


^•^ 


0) 4J O := 


rH C ;=! CD 


>;:::; rH -H o 


03 0) O C 


© «H 


•H 03 03 -P © 


>j C -H rH 


jH .r-i 


rH 4> •H O C br 


O -H bC ?H 


03 42 


C6 CJ rH -H © CO 


rH E -H p 


E C 


•H n P ra 4^ Jh 


CO O iH f ' 


^ =! 


> jh e >5 © =i 


•H fn CJ O 


o; o 


o o o x: f-, o 


'O P f^ P 


P rQ 


•r-. «tH O P. P. C 



© c: © C © © -P 

c 6f o r-H 03 >i c ?-. 5-1 o c: 

o 03 -H Qj t>, r po©ri c© 

•H t>:iH4J CjC >j5h >s!Z:4^.H ^4^ >>© E 
4^ Jh JO CO C3 P--P © 03 -H CC 4^ O O ^ Vi -^^ 
05© G©-P CQK,'4t-4-5-H ClrH©<l-'©5-t 

> ^ © bo-H •hc3cx:oC©'h •^.-iH tfj o 
rH ^ c: d fH E C o br o r-. r> C d '-; 'If to 
cjocoor'©t>j!H-H.Hc3s:::ioa3fHCO „ 
a U 53 o Ph -^C -o u 4:: C P ft &J o bP-o 03 -H 





© 


rO d 


f-, 


f-i t; p. 


© rH G 


© 


© C &•} P © 


> Pi -H TO 


p. 


t^ © © 42 


•H CO •'-< 


© 


>j V, 4^ .H c x: CC. 


© 42 ^ CO 


© 


p. C Oi -h ct. 


r-; P -H 'H 


M 


4-^ d "H P CO 


^ © © E CO 


C 


C li iH t 03 > 


•H -r-^rXZ X> >. 


c 


o3 -H © 03 f-i fa 


rco C ri ^ 


•H 


cj X > ro X fcr «C 


© 03 a CQ P- 



:S rH 


-H C 


o3 © 


•H CQ © 


>H drH 


0: rH 


03 5m -a 


03 © rH 


,Q C C3 


P P © 


J^ 45 > 


bO be P 


c3 03 


C b." © 


Xi t E 


d 03 P 



© CO +> 

> a ^ © 


CO 


42 4^ © H--' 
CO C C r-i C © 


© 


•H f^ © 03 CQ >s > 


© 


roo3cQ©^©H>42 


CC rH 

E 05 
C G 
ri 


CO 03 rH 4J ::! rH -H P 


© eH 


ffifod-Hjcrrfej-HdrH 
H J-' © cr CO 42 © .3 

•H C 4:' "H bO C 00 G P *tH 


t>srH iH 'H C. ©-*-"' CJ 


hOd rH 


'T3:i::i4^^. uMor-< 


•H C K 


•H > Pl-HOO-H©r' 


rH d -H 


G © 'tH G -H © CC: -H 


c: CO 


4JHCC'^OOrH'^CQ 


hC P rH 


jHW>''Ha3rHrH42C.P 


G P 


GoPP-!::©^'^^ 


© -r: 


©^oSx:©o4^P.3 


© 

C P 


ri b:: 0. -H t; !S -H 


C t.jVH 


E'aoCQO'oO03a3'a 



Q © 

•rt rH P,G +3 

ni x:t>,j-i a '^ E<~^cJo3co_"H® 

4^ hm©© CO J.PP©P ot^^^r^BgS^ 

S 03 © 43 C P.4J CQ rH © P © © O a^ CO © 4= rp > © C/J ^tH ,H » H '^^ ""^ 

+iE43P^,©O4=ri0!G©H>E-^ri'GObpO'uP'O©P-rH-P'OO 

03&rHai:i©>©4^^rH^^05©EO4--rHGrHObr:G2P-PPPP 

j3o.HooE:'HooPrHc3a3x:P©o-H-H-Hoo«o5Hr:i»oc3ra 

Q .§ «^ S -^ W P P..H -P ^ S -P W -P E «i t^ e-'^ t. f^C G rH ^ W O p. W P 



© 





>^ >5-»^ 




>s 




H 


>=4^ 


G 


•H 


H^ 


rH 


rn 


p. 


t:i 


CJ^H 


'M 


03 





^4^ 


:r'. 


CO 


G 




G 


© 





E 


03 


H 








03 


rH 


c3 


G 


G 


jj 


p 


•H -H 








13 





U 








Xi 


bOCQ tH 


H 


CO 


Ci 


43 rH ^ 



£H?HpfH-PCi'a .H-H42rHE03'H>s >5 /ri 

g;^o5;5ov'^3>.ppacDSjH-p>f^^ 

GP4J0 1oOOCONdP^*OrHOC0 03P-P 
.HOS©©PPGC3430:HpOrH-H©OP 
CO P4 O CO ^ 'H P.-H rHCQ+3^!>COpH&^C(JC3 





« 0) iH <D +^ 


O -P 


+> <D 


rf^>-H> -P^^Q) 


W f-J rH O C! 


•H C 


oo3-H+3.Hos:;a5> 


JS b cS+^rH CJ 


O 'H 


•H H CQ S -P -H O O -H 


04J C C3 03 O 


•H C 


U oj Jh G d Th 


(H -H 


ObOOOE!C3'He,HCIj 


?H a o -H c- o 


P. n 


C E: P< Jh -O fn +' iH C 


O i-H -P -P O Ci 


c c- 


J^i-HHuCJ-iycdf-, 


<:: (H k5 M C -H 


•H trH 


o oj o u •'^ o f-i x; o 


o -H E CS S E 



-P 03 'O 

(UrHflMcD OiHo) 

C s::^ 'H o rO cJ fs o > c3 r-< 

0'HOfH030(fi'C!C3fHCo 

P, E -H o HD .H G r! fs ::! ri 



u M u 



fo o -o -p ^ -p" t-. 



. J-i x: G 



d o 





C 




o 


H 


o 


Cj 


^^ 


o 


bO 


•H 


U 


•^O 


(D 


cC 


> 


^ 


0) 





C 


(U 


•H +' 


c r: 


U C/J 


n 


^ ~ 


o C o 


r* o 


o 


^ cc P 


O -H 03 -H 


O -H 


o 


O E Cj 


m C2 bf+a 


•r-< -P 


C 


O C O 


•H :i 6r> e 


O QJ 


c; 


P,^ -H 


> rH O O 


Oi M 


E 


P a; -o 


O O ^ O 


c x: 


E 


•H +■> c 


Js S^ O tt, 


O+J 


o 


-£ -^^ ce 


P- QJ -P 13 


O Oj 


o 


^ 03 x: 



(D o 05 CO a^ o la c 

c "-' 'o o C t; P d! a- oi o C 

C^Jd-PiHOJ-POCrHmO-HCC 

q; o -P C c3 -H (u p. s P T-i ^ n E 
-p ai -H -H E "t: C -r-i ;-, -H t> ^-> o w 

Up-l-P,b£;.H f-4 OP-P C CO CjiH-H 
k'OOOJodCOC'Heur-lHCJ 

(D o J-- 6 -c hl-'va o -H ^o P 03 c; -P 



■p ^ +^ 

^ 4^ -H 
M }. ^ 

o c ^, 

P O -H 



a; E -P 
P E-H 



PC ta 

o 03 a> w ^^ o 

O m Q) !>s hCrpH E O (H 
rofllH-PCcuE-'-'i^ 

•POccQa'HoJ-PE 

S -H C ri i^ -ri (-1 P. -H 

oPSeoiHoo 



Cj W >s n CO 

rH^M>. iH>iO>j Wi-HCJXOSPO t>i,-P t=-j 

t-^,^ CrOt: Ojr-'>rH>^r!rWts:-P4^<riH>>EP'^ 

PE^icjC wroPiHP. +--'CH-ioPt:c3c.p<ii^ 
•r-iT-i:ix:(Dci®c;(DO'H,ert^j-- — --'- ■ — 

K ^ JC O «:H t3 Jh E C •^- Oil O iH -D V 



o CJ ::; o rH b 

O iH -r-. ^ j- Cj 'O 



&; (D o to 

C -P -P c: ro ,c c <u 

05HCO(Ba3rHJ=!.H+-' 

E:?riobf^a5b;-PS 
<u CJ br o -H ro -- ■ ^ 



6 <» ri P f-< ai o) P -H 3 
P- C ^ E -P 



«H in < p ^ 



W rj U 


<D P f 


c 


C X 4-- 


<p 


POP® 


U IS! bO J-, P -P 


hr 


C P fj -H 


E 


O O S -P 


ri<D(rioC<»a)P 


c 


CS 03 -H s P 


o 


E P -P -i^ 


O P -O >,v-( CO r-H c. 


I-- 


03 -P 4^ S a; o 


o 


E O (-t 03 
3 P r; H 


S CO -H c3 rQ u ja ^ 


1— : 


'C P rH br ^ c 


■p 


CdPPrHCO^OE 


o 


O -H i:^ P K O 


:r: 


5i ^ O p. 


C+=^ PC'O bCQ) 


c 


CO P Ci 03 iH 'O 


o 



CO 



tH >s P 

a> -p -H 

P 03 > 



m 0) 

QjbP rH -OHiH (13-P 

P >siH rHP^'O 0)03:^ iHP 

3 m 0) <D -H -p <r >j E -H «H >s-H cJ 
oEW4JtHcCo:!>o3o-P'o bo-P 
(i)PPX:Sf-(pc3oj 

■ CP Oa P 3 -r-. P -H 

p 03 c x: ^ P< "o 



>-, O bl-H > 3 Jh 
OOCj,C<DrHOa3c3P 



> 

•l-l 


bT 
P 






c 

p 


<D 




iH 




+2 


O 


a> 


© 


<D 


> 


<D 


«H 




p M 


> P 


^•H 


rH 4::: 


CO 




o 




•H 


■P 


CQ 


4^ 


-P 


3 


'a3 


> +' 


P 




CQ 


4^ 


3 


p 


fH 




CS 


•H 


O 


<£> 


•H 







C 


l-l 


C 


tlH 


b} 


E 


1-1 


>. E 



H 












P, 


43 

P^ 










Q? 

































E 


•H 










p 










rH 




H 


bC 










CO 


P 


p 




P 4^ 








r-i 


r! 







c; 


4J QJ 


H 




H 


.r' 




-P 




4^ 


m 


U 


05 


P4O 4^ 




P P 


>^04J 







P 


P :^ 


CD 


;-t 


CS 


-H 


<u 


P 


© 4^ 


•H 


<D 


:i ^ 





QJ C 


P 








-H 


p. 


>. a 


>j bO 


^ 





H-Q 


!>rQ 


bO 


03 


H 


X> ,P -P 





4^ 


C 


bO P r-H 43 


•H 


03 p 


c3 





3 03 


d) 


bn 





•H E 


53 


P T3 H 


^ 





8 


CQ 


P 


03 >j 


•o 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P^^ H 


(H 


o-«qr4 


U 


fO 


,Q CQ43 :^ 


P 


P 


P4^ 


03 


3 










TJ 





c3 


cd c3 





•H E 


Q 





-H -ZJ 


C53 





•H Cu 


r-i 


•H 





•H 3 


P 'O 


p 


E'H 


P.,^ 


03^ 


bO P.fH 


W 


bO© 


?H 





P^H-H 


Xi 


•TD 


iH ^ 


C P 


E 


p. bO 

















o 










0) 












a 


•H 


© 




+> 




o 






o 


rt 




03 -P 


o 


fn 


o 




c 


02 




o 


o 


>! 


P, 


ft C 


CD 


o 




V 


o 






O -H 


to 


•H 


(U-P 


ft !>s 




u 


ro 'H 




o 


•H W 


u 


>H 


fs iH 


C 


CQ +^ 


>> 


fn 


O +^ 


CJ 


O 4^ -H 


C3+- 


O 


<H 


•H 


O W 


c 


Ei 


•H -H 


s:; 


.H 


'-■ iH 


^ 


fl 


« 


4^ 


^ 


^ 0) 


o 


O 


^ iH 


<D 4-> 


P! H -P 


:i 


^ 


03 ro+J c: 


iH 


o 


O O 


>J 


9 


^ O 


o 


o 


d 


<D 


•H 


<D O 


<D 


o 


ftp, 


.c 




iH O iH 


o 


ra 


p. 


n M x^ 



C no ft 

O o -P c3 

C5 -P ^ M <I3 -P O 

• rH E M C3 C O-O 







a 






o 




O 


fj 




u 






o 


© 


S d 


0+3 


o 


•i-H 


« 


3-P H •r4 


a +^ 


•H 


-H CJ 


OX5 


© 


Ci -P 


n s 


•H -H 


f-. 


G 


OJ 


o tr 


^^ 


P 


S 


rH 


U -H 


o 1-; 


C 


o 


O 


ft a 


t> (D 




tn 


60 



ra 






CO 


■tj 


-p d 


K 


C O 




C3-H 


iH 


CrH 


rH 


bOrH 


>. 


•H 03 


« 


C ^ 



iH K 

iH CJ O 

O G o 

•H ^ 

ri ::j 5-, 

E ce o 



© © 
^ o 



•H -P 
tf-^ C 

•^^^ 

© 0. 

p. © 



© ><; 



© © n © 

> > C O O £Q -1^ © 

•.-' xi -H •■-' CQ © -P r? CS > 1— ! © 

a EKca+^raoEcooC'^ce© >s4- 

cH r>j:2-H d o rrH'HJ-i4' 4' C t>rH-H 
SrHejH00-H04J©S::"-^0-H<HJ-(C 
ft'H t-l <D 'H fn y, x: ^ p. © 
C'0^;>P5^4:=&?hCE 

ooo:©ooKr!(S©o - 

o x; S '*H o o © cJ T: 4' E P' c +^ 



© E K © •" 
V: !h d -c «H 

CC O vM 



s; o 

C rH 

© © 

43 > 

CS U 

^i ai 

^ E 



60 C 

:; «5 

o E 

Cx: P 

Cd 4^ -H 

© © w 

+5 43 fC 

p» cs n 



© 

o © 

C ©43Qj>j (U 43 © 

© 6.'' ra >5 O >H !h rH C: iH ^, ra © 

a43c;-HcJs::©©^»Hj::c.©-rH6r' 

•^03 43^^ ©^•HEOf-i^-H43ai 

E'H-Hoa;-Ho>-it5343©c5^s::-^ 
oo!HEs:;'a-HjHa)ai4-'c:5H(DiH 
Pi6r©dS:^^CCfH!-,rH::i©>0 
P ©^,CKC3434=P. OCSV)43a3«H 



§ © -:: 




43 C 03 




p: 


S O O 


rH 


4^^ O 


o 


©•H C 


ce 


C. O -H 




43 E m 03 >i 


(1. 


o E * +^ 


a 


(E © ::! 43 w 


q; CO 


C 3 f^ C 




C ?M iH m Co 


43 'H 


•Hoc© 


> 


•H T-> "H 43 


E 


E v. 43 43 


o 


^ 4^ t: w c 


>i CJ 


o -H r! a 




Oj © TO C5 


-H 


'o o C ?-. 


p 


J^ CS 'H 


TS 



d 43 <p 60 




00 iHc: c>oe:cq 


>s 


>3 ©•HH:ia3!Ma3-H^.H:z! 


iH 


43 >5 bCtH c:«.H-Ha3riM'c430 


p; > 


©Jh a3.H^^<DrH6C!::c343d 


■rH .H 


.^©5-l^d05^^i•H(D^^•H4J 


c3 ra 


04343^43rH(!)OrH4-^OtJ^ 


6?ct; 


•HcicS(i)a3CrH©cd!::p. Co 


c > 


fHej043Gj:iPcoE-HCQS43 


d © 



:i © ::3 > o 

© 'H>0©©THro«'-' dlf-i 

rH >s © -H -H 4^ rH 43 C 4^ rH E P © 

,C! H 43 03 hO-H ^oa5C(jCerHP-H4^ 

C3^£eEc:,rH-H=!rHCi6-C3043C,. 

CQ © V< © 43 O hCfO f-1 4'' Qj C3 «H a -H 

ov oj bL)'H EP^!:::o©c:rH43-HrHc: 

CC'Hfj(DOECjP>'^i-HdC©*H 

p. E::i'ciO'H+3f: ©^■-•HE-f-'O:! 



CO 




C 




ri 


-O 





x: c 


C! 


=s -p 




4J +3 P, 


M 


C-H^ E 


rH 


<r) 43 ro © 


>: 


OQ 43 


W 


CO E C 




© © iH 


CM 


ns Xi ^ 



c CJ © © © 43 43 E a; © 6:1 Pi 

^•HViorH'DPifHClClC-H O fC ^i-oC© -H 

C o © fn © -H o -H -H o c r:i tn c.) C fn 3 c6 -h -h t^^ p. 

©4^'DO&3,C^C<a3jMraCQt,jC©aJ043PirHrHEC 
q; Pi r: > CO ^ 43 P. O «H Cd Jh t^o 1^ •'-''■''•'-'><; °5 P. rH S f-< 

;HOC(3.Hs3(C::<©o'HQ;r;rQrHrH-«H ft-rH x; o; O CD o 

6D43 rH'043PcePOC!3!HP.a343C6^©EU&.!OE^ 



•H o; 03 

CO Mx: 



rH CO 

60 ::i - rC 43 rH ::! !>j w 

G«HX43 MC:;43 rDni43 o Pi ©rH 02 

(T).rH43©>5ap: -HoS^© ©V^c>a•H^a Ei3©>s © 

^E^H'O©OE'oftb0P>iPiao43O^t0>s rHOPrHfH©rHW 
EJPi6DPOH3£3or-Hft-Hri'aOCQ6CrHCjitOS^'a!>5©CO© PffO rH H P 



C ,0 C3 60 
a5OrHria3OOO©-HfHMPfH0O©O 

60 o rO Pf«H o ,0 ;-, s 43 o -H Vh 43 CO rl 'H ^ 



c3 -H E o n E M •'-I •'-' !h P- ^ rH -H s:^ d c; CO ^ © rt ^ -*^ 

O O 3 -^ rH ft E 





u © 






o3 +3 


fn 


Q) 


O c3 


O 


4J 


&'-^ 


> 


a 


f^H 


Sj 


•H 


C3-H 


© 


i> 


Kl O 


fo 


(D 


•H CO 


C 



rt Ph-P ^ O 4^ © >jro >j > +3 +3 C3 

;C©+3CjO-pec"-'o''^ofHHfH 

d) fn t3 p S M Q C: -H C2 ^( 'H fO +^ 



O O n K O ^ fO 



^ a V C ^ ^ 

O -P P< © p! -H 



© 


+= 


^: 


« 


•H 


c 


H 


•H 


g 


E 




rH 


O 


ri 


e 


o 



K -o o o: m a- 

S © > f.v :: ^ 

O t>j CQ +5 -H © o 



-a p! -p w 

© fH rH r; a- ri +•" r- 
-p +^ o cc © 4^ o $:::->- .-, .. T^ . 

i::,i:'H+'rH Cd P ©Vl-H e. Sv-'+5 

© fcr,4^ ^(rHiH ©rH+^ C PO © CS-H Ci 

■»'-H02o©O'cos::a:a3>Ho,^s::C 
f::t-;ceEocjC'a©C^> Ci-ffl© 

0©rHE:;-;©oC>©CC:oa3©f-< 
O 'O © -H (D ns P,-H © 4^ :: © O 4^ P-4-' 



o o d -c 

^ T^ O © 

© 43 ^ 4^ 

fc: -H o o, 

c^ c > 

C3 E 2 © 



w 


^ 


^ 




?-. 


J^ 


© 


4^ 


> 


in 


• 


•H 


iH 


— 



fO © © ,^3 © © © 

Co 'CiE5-rH-P©4--'rH 

0-H>-.-H3©,i^CCJ©^i-' 
00>HrH04J>-.©Pp. E<E 

ra-<-. JhiHo-h c p, tSEp!^ 

rQ©C;op<OP. OrH043© 

c;?-,450WHmjH©co;fH 



f^ rH 

4^ J-, © K ^ © 

© C © -P ': 05 Pi ^ 

O © -C 4^ tH © O Pi 

H rH 4-- c3 '--' P ,£: c; 

p c -H JG s p. cS Ei 

CO P ^ O Cii C3 rH O- 



O 3 g C 'C 

■o >5^ «H©i::c: o&©noJ>i©>> 

© E! >v'C 43 4^©4Jp©>iHOrHSUP,-^rHt^> 
tr a t^ ©C (pc-H©i-<'C!iHrH6roaJ flTO'C > 

WEQa-cC-HcifH'oHojaJf-'CSwclocCci 

CSp!:-PP?POOS©,C©-H(lJrHriP©® 

P ^ K! tio«H cr h:" P, B CO f-i ra >^ Wm p^^ c -o rC 



r^ •»- A- © 

d © bCA-) 02 C 43 © 
•H t; :J iH ry ^ JtJ j,r. 



> CC -H G -H 



43,COX:oojC3iH(3,M-.— r^u>w-->~-^-..-r- 
l rH 4-- ^ >j W K rH O !•- O'H a 61J CO «(- 



O +3 43 ro 



& P C P 



C 43 I 43 ra bO '^ 

4^©o©ov:©^©^'o c~©'oc3r^A4 

•H tiO O © G -H 43 -H jj o p! ^s 3 P< O O O p ^, 

.c:p!-HE;»^a3&H*Hoc3ooPOiHpic5P 

t3^CWrH43rHW,0PrH MP t>s'H fcO O fl 'O tJ 



VITA 

Mildred '^est Lorlng was born l!ay 4, 1891, in Tacoma, 
Washington. She received her elementary education in the 
public schools of Tacona and Seattle, '//ashington, and of 
Vancouver, British Colaribia, and her secondary education in 
the Seattle High School, She received the degrees of A.B. 
in 1912 and M.A. in 1913 at the University of Washington, 
and held the Sarah Loretta Denny Pello^vship during the year 
1912-13. The year 1913-14 v;as sioent in furth'^^r graduate study 
in psychology at Bryn I!awr Colle.5;G. She has pursued grad- 
uate study at the Johns Honkins University in Psychology 
during the years 1914-lG, The dissertntion research has been 
carried out under the direction of Dr. Knight Dunlap, and 
courses have been nursued in Psychology under Dr. Knight 
Dunlap and Professor John 13. Watson, in Physiology under 
professor V/. H. Howell, and in Psychiatry under Professor 
Adolf Meyer. She has held the University ?ellor/shir> in Psy- 
chology during the current year, and has been av/arded a Sarah 
Berliner Research fellowship for the year 1915-17.