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Class 



THE METHODS 

OF 

TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

BEING THE SYLLABUS OF A LECTURE 

COURSE ADAPTED FOR USE IN 

TEXTILE LABORATORIES 



BY 
FREDERIC DANNERTH, Ph.D. 

Consulting Industrial Chemist 

(formerly of the Department of Chemistry and Dyeing 

Philadelphia Textile School) 



FIRST EDITION 

FIRST THOUSAND 




NEW YORK 

JOHN WILEY & SONS 

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited 

1908 






GENERAL 



Copyright, 1908, 

BY 

FREDERIC DANNERTH 



Stanbope ipress 

H. GILSON COMPANY 
BOSTON. U.S.A. 



y 




PREFACE 



The few books on textile chemistry which have thus 
far made their appearance, with one or two exceptions are 
available only in foreign languages. This is to many a 
source of deep regret, because while attention is given to 
the study of modern languages in this country, yet tech- 
nical writing is better understood when the reader has it 
presented in his native tongue. In the following pages 
an attempt has been made to systematize approved 
methods of textile-chemical analysis which are at present 
only to be found in widely distributed and expensive 
special works and journals. These methods have for 
some time formed the syllabus of the author's lecture 
courses in textile chemistry. They therefore make no 
claim to completeness, although care has been taken to 
emphasize the essential points in each case. The student 
will do well to use some standard manual of chemical 
analysis such as "Newth" in conjunction with the present 
volume. 

The author hopes that our now prosperous textile 
manufacturers and merchants may soon realize that 
accurate methods are not only interesting but necessary 
in these days of keen competition. At the same time this 
little volume is intended to be a source of information and 
ready reference for the textile chemist. To add to the 
readier understanding of calculations, practical examples 
have been inserted in many instances. The aim has been 

iii 

174753 



iv PREFACE 

to cover the field of chemical and physical analysis of the 
textile fibers, yarns and fabrics. Dyestuffs, mordants, 
and finishing materials are treated of not as raw materials 
but as substances encountered on the finished goods. 

FREDERIC DANNERTH. 

204 Walnut Place, Philadelphia, 
Autumn, 1908. 



REFERENCES 



In the preparation of this book the following publi- 
cations were consulted: 

P. Bean: The Chemistry and Practise of Sizing and Finishing. 
London. 1005, 1906. 

Bowman: The Wool Fibre. Manchester. 1885. 

Cross and Bevan: Cellulose. London. 1 895-1905. 

P. Heermann: Textil-chemische Untersuchungsmethoden. Berlin. 1907. 

J. Herzfeld: Die Technische Pruefung der Game und Gewebe. 
Vienna. 1896. 

C. Loebner: Studien ueber die Wolle. Gruenberg. 1891. 

J. M. Matthews: The Textile Fibres. New York. 1907. 

W. Massot: Kurze Anleitung zur Appretur Analyse. Berlin. 1900. 

H. Silbermann: Die Seide. Dresden. 1898. 

Textil u. Faerberei Zeitung. Berlin. 

G. Lunge: Chemisch-technische Untersuchungsmetoden. Berlin. IV 
Edition. 

v. Hoehnel: Microscopie der technisch verwendeten Faserstoffe. Berlin. 
1905. 

Allen: Commercial Organic Analysis., Philadelphia. 1900. 

G. Georgievics: Chemische Technologie der Gespinnstfasern. Vienna. 
1898. 

The Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. London. 

The Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colorists. 

The "Tables for the Identification of Dyestuffs on the Fiber," by Arthur 
Green and others, which appeared in the Journal of the Society of Dyers 
and Colorists, may be consulted in the Yearbook for Colorists and 
Dyers edited by H. A. Metz. Dyestuffs on animal fibers, 1905, 
page 47. Dyestuffs on vegetable fibers, 1907, page 49. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 
Qualitative Analysis. 
Reactions of — 

PAGE 

Wool and hair fibers 8 

Natural silk fibers 15 

Jute and hemp fibers 19 

Cotton, flax, and ramie fibers 21 

Imitation silk fibers 27 

Detection of — 

Rosin, mineral, and vegetable oil, in textiles 29 

Mordants on wool 30 

Weighting on silk 32 

Sizings on cotton 34 

Finishing materials in textiles 36 

PART II 

Quantitative Analysis. 

Analysis of a — 

Wool-cotton fabric 45 

Wool-silk fabric 47 

Cotton-silk fabric 48 

Cotton-silk-wool fabric 48 

Silk-imitation silk fabric 50 

Waterproof fabric 50 

Analysis of — 

Textile fibers 56 

Raw vegetable fibers 57 

Raw wool fibers 59 

Raw silk fibers 61 

vii 



Vlll CONTENTS 

Determination of — 

PAGE 

The «* boiling-off " loss of raw silk 63 

The " washing-out" loss of raw silk 64 

The " shrinkage " of raw wools 64 

Moisture in textiles 66 

Mineral matter in textiles : 69 

Oil and grease in textiles 71 

Arsenic in textiles 72 

Weighting in silk fabrics 72 

Finishing in cotton fabrics 81 

Determination of — 

Tensile strength 82 

Humidity 86 

Specific gravity 87 

The fastness of dyes on the fiber 89 



PART III 
Materials, Processes, and Products. 

Cotton bleaching 97 

Turkey-red dyeing 106 

Anilin-black dyeing 114 

Mercerization 117 

Carbonization 119 

Appendices. 

Areometry 123 

Steiger and Gruenberg's Table 125 

Yarn counts 126 



PART IV 

Glossary 131 

Wool terms 131 

Cotton tertns 136 

Silk terms 141 

Flax terms 143 



PART I 




METHODS OF TEXTILE 
CHEMISTRY 



INTRODUCTION 

The word "analysis" as used at the present day includes 
all the processes and operations made use of by chemists 
in order to determine the constituent parts of any com- 
pound, or to enable them to identify the substance. The 
process may involve the breaking up of the body into its 
component parts, or may consist in the simple separation 
of a mixture. A reaction is a chemical change: if the 
change was effected only by heating the substance, it is 
termed a dry reaction; and if any of the substances used 
to bring about the change were in solution, we speak 
of a wet reaction. In the following is given a list of the 
reagents which will be required for the wet reactions; 
they should be made up as indicated in order to obtain 
the best results. 

10% Caustic potash . . . .Dissolve 10 grams of potassium hydroxide in 

50 c.c. of water, cool and make up to a total 

volume of 100 c.c. 
1% Caustic potash Dilute the above solution 1:10, i.e. to 10 cubic 

centimeters of the 10% solution add 90 c.c. 

of water. 
40% Hydrochloric acid .The concentrated chemically pure acid. Specific 

gravity 1.20 (24°Be). [100 c.c. of this acid 

weighs 120 grams.] 
3 



4 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

10% Hydrochloric acid .Mix 25 c.c. of the above concentrated acid with 
75 c.c. of water. 
1% Hydrochloric acid .Dilute the 10% acid 1 to 10. 
98% Sulphuric acid . . . .The concentrated chemically pure acid. Specific 

gravity 1.84 (66° Be). 
10% Sulphuric acid.. . .Dilute the above solution 1 to 10. 

100% Nitric acid The concentrated chemically pure acid. Specific 

gravity 1.559 (5 1. 5 Be). 

10% Nitric acid Dilute the above solution 1 to 10. 

Calcium hypochlorite . . .A clear solution having a specific gravity of 
1. 01 (2 Tw) is prepared by rubbing down 
chloride of lime with water in a mortar. 
Add more water, allow to settle, and finally 
decant. 
Schweitzer's reagent.. . .An ammoniacal solution of cupric oxide. 

Cross and Bevan prepare this reagent as follows: 2 grams of copper 
sulphate are dissolved in 100 c.c. of water. Hydrated copper 
oxide is precipitated from this solution by adding a slight excess 
oi a 10% solution of sodium hydroxide. Wash the precipitate 
entirely free from alkali, drain, and mix with a 10% solution of 
glycerol. Preserve in stoppered bottles, and when desired for use wash 
free from glycerol and dissolve in ammonia water of 20% strength. 
Bronnert, Fremery & Urban prepare a Schweitzer's solution con- 
taining about 5% of copper and a relatively small amount of ammonia 
as follows: A cold solution of ammonia is poured over copper 
turnings in tall cylindrical vessels, and the whole is cooled down to 
o to 5 C. by placing in a freezing mixture. Cold air is now blown 
through this mixture of copper and ammonia for about 10 hours. 
The solutions so obtained are only stable at low temperatures, so that 
suitable precautions must be observed when using the same. 

MillorCs reagent An aqueous solution of mercurous nitrate. 

Ten grams of mercury are treated with as much nitric acid as is 
necessary to dissolve it. An additional 10 grams of mercury is 
now added and the whole diluted with nine times its volume of 
water. As copious fumes of the red oxide of nitrogen are evolved, 
the solution of the mercury should take place under a hood. 

Molisch's reagent A 20% solution of ce-naphthol in alcohol. 

Lassaigne's reagent 5 grams of litharge and 5 grams of sodium 

hydroxide are dissolved in 100 c.c. of boiling 
water. PbO + 2NaOH - Na^bO., + E^O. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

Liebertnann's reagent. ..One gram of Magenta (Fuchsin or Rosanilin) 
crystals is dissolved in ioo c.c. of water. To 
this is added ammonium hydroxide until the 
solution is just decolorized. 

Loewe's reagent An alkaline copper-glycerol solution. 

10 grams of copper sulphate crystals are dissolved in ioo c.c. of water. 
To this are added 5 c.c. of glycerol and a solution of sodium 
hydroxide until the precipitate at first formed is just redissolved. 

Richardson's reagent An ammoniacal solution of nickel oxide. 

25 grams of nickel sulphate crystals are dissolved in 300 c.c. of boiling 
water and precipitated with a slight excess of a 10% solution of 
sodium hydroxide. The precipitate is carefully filtered and washed, 
then rinsed into a 250 c.c. flask containing 125 c.c. of ammonia 
(sp. gr. = 0.88). The whole is now made up to 250 c.c. with water. 

Eisner's reagent A solution of basic zinc chloride. 

100 grams of dry zinc chloride and 4 grams of zinc oxide are mixed with 
85 c.c. of water. 

HoehneVs reagent Solution I) One gram of potassium iodide 

dissolved in 100 c.c. of water, and iodine 
added in excess. 
Solution II) Twenty cubic centimeters of glycerol 
are mixed with 10 c.c. of water. To this cold 
solution are added 30 c.c. of concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 
The fiber is first treated with solution I, the excess 
of reagent is removed with filter paper, and 
after one or two minutes solution II is applied. 

Nickel* s reagent A solution of hydrazin sulphate in water. 

Zinc-chloride-iodine solution. One gram of iodine crystals, 5 grams of 
potassium iodide, and 30 grams of zinc 
chloride are dissolved in 15 grams of water. 
NUroprusside solution. A 2 % solution of sodium nitroprusside in water 
The salt may be prepared as follows: A small quantity of potassium 
ferrocyanide crystals is boiled with strong nitric acid; finally dilute 
with water and neutralize the free acid with sodium carbonate. 
The salt is obtained in the form of deep-red crystals. 
Test Solutions for Lignin. 1) Phloroglucol in 10% alcoholic solution. 
Dilute with an equal volume of 10% hydro- 
chloric acid before using. 2) Anilin sulphate 
or hydrochloride in saturated solution. 3) 
Indol in 5% solution. 



6 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Adamkiewictfs reagent. A solution of glyoxalic acid in concentrated, 
sulphuric acid. Adamkiewicz's test may also 
be carried out as given under the reactions 
for wool (page n). 

Fuchsin-bisulphite solution. One gram of Fuchsin is dissolved in iooo c.c. 
of distilled water. Sulphurous acid is now led 
into this solution (or a few drops of liquid 
sodium bisulphite is added) until the solution 
is just decolorized. 



Analytical Classification of the Fibers. 

The following arrangement of the fibers is based upon 
their chemical composition. Although this classification 
is one which has seldom if ever been adopted, it is not 
materially different from the usual arrangement. Such 
a classification reminds us that the fibers are chemical 
compounds, even though they may in some cases be 
extremely complicated. 



I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Wool. 
Mohair. 


Mulberry silk. 
Tussah silk. 


Jute. 
Hemp. 


Cotton. 

Flax. 

Ramie. 


Lustre- 
celluloses: 


Fibers 


Eria. 


Bromelia. 




Chardonnet. 
du Vivier. 


from the 
Cashmere. 


Fagara. 
False Tussah. 


Coir. 
Esparto. 




Lehner. 
Pauly. 


Thibet. 
Alpaca. 
Vicuna. 


Muga. 
Yamamai. 


Gambo. 
Manila. 
New Zealand. 




Stearns. 


Llama. 
Camel. 




Raphia. 
Sisal. 






Cow. 




Sunn. 






Horse. 




Vegetab. silk. 







INTRODUCTION 7 

Group i. Animal fibers containing sulphur (keratinic 
fibers). 

Group 2. Animal fibers containing no sulphur (silks). 

Group 3. Vegetable fibers which respond to the lignin 
reaction (lignocelluloses). 

Group 4. Vegetable fibers which do not respond to 
the lignin reaction (true celluloses). 

Group 5. Artificial fibers or pseudo-silks (lustre- 
celluloses). 




Group I. 

WOOL AND HAIR FIBERS. 

The chief analytical differences between these fibers 
lie in their physical properties. These will therefore be 
discussed separately, while the chemical reactions will 
hold good for the whole group. 

Dry reactions. When heated in a dry combustion tube 
the fiber seems to melt and then slowly decomposes with 
evolution of gases. These have a characteristic "empy- 
reumatic" odor, resembling that of burning horn, due to 
the presence of sulphur and nitrogen. In fact, wool, hair, 
horn and feathers have one common constituent which 
has been given the name "keratin." A piece of red 
litmus paper held at the mouth of the combustion tube 
will turn blue owing to the ammonia vapors, while a 
paper moistened with lead acetate solution will be turned 
black owing to the vapors of hydrogen sulphide which 
are given off. Finally, a black residue insoluble in all 
media is observed in the tube; it is carbon. If wool 
which has been thoroughly washed with carbon tetrachlo- 
ride be subjected to dry distillation in a vacuum at a tem- 
perature of 300 C, a bad-smelling liquid, consisting of 
ammonia water and various sulphur compounds, distills 
over. The gases given off include hydrogen sulphiHe 
and ammonia. 

The "keratinic" fibers all contain carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. 



WOOL AND HAIR FIBERS 9 

Sulphur may be detected: First, by heating the fiber 
with sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate in a combus- 
tion tube. The product of the reaction is dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid and the clear solution tested with 
barium chloride. A white precipitate of barium sulphate 
is obtained. Second, by boiling the wool with a mixture 
of caustic soda and lead acetate a black precipitate of lead 
sulphide is produced. Third, by heating the fiber with 
metallic sodium in a combustion tube, sodium sulphide is 
formed. Extract the product of the reaction with water 
and add sodium nitroprusside, when a violet coloration is 
obtained. 

Nitrogen may be detected by heating in a strong tube 
with metallic sodium whereby sodium cyanide is formed. 
Boil with a small quantity of ferrous sulphate and ferric 
chloride solutions. On acidifying with hydrochloric acid 
a precipitate of Prussian blue is obtained. 

Carbon may be observed as before mentioned, if the 
fiber be strongly heated in a combustion tube. 

Hydrogen and Oxygen. The water vapor given off 
when perfectly dry wool is heated in a combustion tube is 
formed by the union of these two constituent elements of 
the fiber. 

Wet reactions. Wool and other fibers obtained from 
the mammalia are insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, petro- 
leum benzin, coal-tar benzene, carbon tetrachloride, etc. 
This fact is of value in removing the impurities from 
the fiber as the mineral matter is soluble in water and 
the fatty matters can be readily removed by these organic 
solvents. 

Potassium hydroxide (also sodium hydroxide) in 5% solu- 
tion dissolves the fibers on boiling. If cold dilute sulphuric 



IO METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

acid be added to this solution a precipitate, containing more 
or less free sulphur, is obtained and hydrogen sulphide is 
evolved. If a 40% solution of caustic alkali be applied 
to the fibre at a temperature not above 20 degrees C. for 
5 minutes, the fiber increases in tensile strength, becomes 
white and lustrous, and acquires a "silk scroop." 

Ammonium hydroxide (also ammonium bicarbonate) in 
cold 10% solution does not affect the fiber to any marked 
extent. 

Calcium hydroxide in saturated solution removes most 
of the loosely combined sulphur from the wool. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid, if allowed to dry on the 
fiber, will rot the same. A warm 10% solution hardly 
affects the fiber in strength. By this treatment, however, 
the latter acquires an increased affinity for the acid dyes. 

10% Hydrochloric acid. If wool be spotted with this 
solution and dried at ioo° the fiber is hardly affected, 
owing to the volatility of the acid. 

Picric acid in saturated aqueous solution dyes wool, 
etc., a greenish yellow. 

Nitrous acid apparently diazotizes the amino groups of 
, the wool molecule. The product of the reaction assumes 
different colors when developed with various phenols. 

Chlorine, if allowed to act in the gaseous form, decom- 
poses the fiber. Weak solutions of the gas are, however, 
used to impart a silk "scroop" to the fiber and to render 
it il non-shrinkable." 

Proteid reactions. (1) Wool moistened with Millon's 
reagent and gently heated in a test tube assumes a brick- 
red coloration. (2) If wool be boiled with a 10% solu- 
tion of copper sulphate, and after cooling, dilute sodium 
hydroxide solution be added, a violet coloration will be 



WOOL AND HAIR FIBERS II 

observed (Piotrowski's biuret reaction). (3) Wool 
moistened with a 50 % solution of nitric acid will at once be 
colored a canary yellow. If the sample be then dipped in a 
solution of an alkali the color will change to a deep orange 
(Xanthoprotein reaction). (4) On boiling wool with 
glacial acetic acid, cooling, and then adding concentrated 
sulphuric acid, a violet coloration is produced, and the 
solution fluoresces (Adamkiewicz's reaction). The use of 
a mixture of glyoxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, 
in which the proteid is then boiled has been suggested for 
this reaction. 

Liebermanrts reaction. The fiber is boiled with the 
decolorized solution of magenta and afterward well 
washed. Animal fibers assume a pink color (distinction 
from all other fibers). 

Lassaigne's reaction. When boiled with a solution of 
sodium plumbite, wool is colored a dark brown owing 
to the presence of sulphur. 

MoliscWs reaction. The fiber is treated in a test tube 
with 1 c.c. of water, a few drops of Molisch's reagent, and 
1 c.c. of concentrated sulphuric acid. Solution takes place 
slowly, and a brown coloration is observed. Vegetable 
fibers dissolve immediately with a violet coloration. 

Fur fur ol reaction. If wool be heated with a dilute solu- 
tion of sugar acidified with sulphuric acid, a red coloration 
is obtained. 

Coloring matters. All the fibers of this group have a de- 
cided affinity for substantive, acid, and basic dyes. Alizarin 
and a few other coloring matters will only adhere after a 
metallic oxide (like Cr 2 3 ) has been fixed upon the fiber. 

The physical properties upon which depends the valua- 
tion of wool and hair fibers are: 



12 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 



" I. 


Elasticity. 


6. 


Uniformity in diameter. 


2. 


Color. 


% 7- 


Crimpiness. 


"3- 


Lustre. 


- 8. 


Fineness (diameter). 


' 4- 


Length. 


% 9- 


Tensile strength. 


5- 


Softness. 


"io. 


Serrations per inch. 



The microscopic examination of a fiber is generally 
sufficient for its identification, and should therefore form 
a part of every complete investigation. 

Group 1(a). Wools. 1 
Wool (fine). 

This class includes the wool of the Merino 2 sheep of 
Spain, Silesia, and Australia as well as the Rambouillet 
sheep of France. It is the finest grade of wool, very 
elastic, white to gray in color, non-lustrous, short, very 
soft, crimpy, and fine. 

Diameter: 0.013 mm. (0.0005 i n ch). 

Length: 5 to 12 cm. (2 to 5 inches). 

Serrations: 1100 per cm. (2800 per inch). 

Microscope: The characteristic difference between 
wool and hair lies in the manner in which the scales form- 
ing the outer covering of the fiber are attached. The 
external walls of the wool fiber appear as thin horny plates 
or scales of irregular shape, the appearance of which 
has been compared to that of a shingle roof. The funnel- 
ghaped scales seem to overlap one another, each one 

1 It should be remembered that the data given concerning diameter, 
length, and serrations is approximate and is therefore not absolute and 
invariable. 

2 The terms, Merino, Lincoln, and Southdown are used in the United 
States to indicate certain grades of wool rather than the breed. 



GROUP I 13 

entirely surrounding the fiber. The edges resemble the 
edge of a saw with teeth set at a small angle. The central 
cylinder or medullary portion, sometimes called the pith 
of the fiber, is absent or invisible. The epidermal scales 
are attached to the cortical substance through only a 
small part of their length. 

Wool {coarse) . 

This class includes Lincoln, Leicester, and Cotswold 
wool and represents the diametrical opposite of the fore- 
going in almost every particular. The fiber is elastic, 
light in color, lustrous, long, straight, hairy, and coarse. 

Diameter: 0.025 mm. (0.0010 inch). 

Length: 12 to 20 cm. (5 to 8 inches). 

Serrations: 230 to 550 per cm. (600 to 1400 per inch). 

Microscope: Epidermal scales horny and attached 
firmly to the cortical structure. 

Wool (medium). 

This class of wool is produced by the sheep of South- 
down, the Cheviot Hills, Shropshire, Hampshire, Oxford- 
shire, and Dorsetshire. It stands midway between the 
two previous types. 

Diameter: 0.020 mm. (0.0008 inch). 

Length : 7 to 20 cm. (3 to 8 inches) . 

Serrations: 800 per cm. (2000 per inch). 

Group 1(b). Hairs. 

Hairs of Goats. 

Mohair is obtained in Turkey from the Angora goat. 
It is very stiff, long, silky, lustrous, and almost pure white 
in color. 



14 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Diameter: 0.025 mm. (0.0010 inch) . 

Length: 10 to 25 cm. (5 to 10 inches). 

Microscope: The scales can be observed only with high 
magnifying powers if at all. They are regular and encircle 
the whole hair. In most cases the pith is absent, although 
it is sometimes seen in the form of a canal occupying more 
than half of the diameter. 

Less important goat hairs are obtained from the alpaca, 
vicuna and llama of South America, and from the Cash- 
mere and the Thibet goats of China and India. 

The term " alpaca " is frequently applied in a general 
sense to all South American goat hairs. The common 
varieties are brown and black. Cashmere is used in the 
manufacture of the famous " Cashmere shawls." The 
commercial varieties are gray and white. 

Hairs of Other Mammals. 

Camel hair is obtained from Russia, Syria, and China. 
It is fine, crimpy, and soft (wool hair); or coarse, 
straight, and stiff (beard hair). It is used, among other 
things, in the manufacture of the " Jaeger normal fabrics." 

Diameter: 0.015 to 0.075 mm * 

Length: 5 to 10 cm. 

Cow hair is obtained from Siberia, America, etc. It 
is short and irregular in diameter; black, white, or red in 
color. Under the microscope the hair-root can frequently 
be observed, as the fiber is obtained from the tanneries as 
" pulled hair." Coarse beard hairs, fine beard hairs, and 
wool hairs may be distinguished. This fiber is used to a 
large extent in the carpet industry. 

Diameter: 0.080 to 0.180 mm. 

Length: 1.5 to 5 cm. 



GROUP I 15 

Horse hair is used in the manufacture of "haircloth" 
linings, and upholstery fabrics. That obtained from the 
tail is about 65 cm. and that from the mane about 45 cm. 
in length. " Pulled " horse hair is approximately 3 cm. 
in length. 

Diameter: 0.090 to 0.250 mm. 

The hairs from the dog, cat, rabbit, and squirrel are 
also used to a limited extent in the textile and related 
industries (in the manufacture of hats, etc.) . 

In true hair the scales are firmly attached to the cortical 
fibrous substance throughout the greater part of their 
length, and only reveal themselves under the microscope 
as fine irregular transverse lines on the surface, and by 
notches at the edge of the hair. The internal arrangement 
of the cells of the fibrous substance shows a fairly dis- 
tinct medullary axis. The shaft, or medulla, is usually 
firm and straight, and the scales are horny and dense. 
In wool fiber the scales are attached much less firmly, and 
their free margin is more prominent, being frequently 
notched in a more or less irregular manner. The serra- 
tions are distinct and the scales translucent. 

Note. — Some misleading terms used in trade are: 
Cheviot shirting: a fabric made totally of cotton. 
Mohair cloth: a lining fabric containing cotton and mohair. 
Cashmere: a fabric made of merino wool. 
Alpaca cloth: a worsted fabric. 
Vicuna: a worsted fabric. 
Thibet: a worsted fabric. 
Merino underwear: an article containing cotton and wool. 

Group II. 

This group comprises two classes of silks; the one 
known as genuine cultivated or mulberry silk is the prod- 
uct of the insect Bombyx mori, while the most important 



1 6 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

representative of the wild variety is tussah silk, the product 
of Antherea mylitta. The color of the raw silk assists in 
some cases in its recognition, but the chemical reactions 
are almost identical for all the members of this group. 

Dry reactions. The tests for carbon and nitrogen will 
be found under the tests for the wool fiber. The absence 
of sulphur in silk is a characteristic difference from wool. 
On heating silk in a dry tube an empyreumatic odor is 
noticed. 

Wet reactions. All varieties of silk have the same phy- 
siological origin, so that it will not seem strange that 
they should all give the reactions of the proteids (see 
wool, page 10). 

The pure silk fiber is not affected by any of the ordinary 
organic solvents. 

Sodium chloride in aqueous solution if allowed to dry 
on the fiber has a decidedly tendering action. A com- 
mon form of this chemical action is the effect of perspir- 
ation on silks prepared with the tin-phosphate-silicate 
weighting. 

Sodium hydroxide (and potassium hydroxide) in hot 
concentrated solution dissolves the fiber in a short time. 
On acidifying this solution a precipitate is obtained. 

Sulphuric acid, if concentrated, dissolves silk almost 
completely in 2 minutes. If immersed for only a few 
seconds, then washed and neutralized, the fiber shrinks 
considerably and loses most of its lustre. 

Hydrochloric acid, cold — 

in 25% solution contracts the fiber considerably, 
in 30% solution dissolves the fiber in 10 minutes, 
in 40% solution dissolves the fiber in 2 minutes. 



GROUP II 17 

Furfurol reaction. Allen gives the following particu- 
lars of this test: " If some cane sugar be dissolved in the 
not too dilute solution of a proteid and the liquid be then 
cautiously poured upon some strong sulphuric acid so as 
to avoid admixture of the two liquids, a fine violet colora- 
tion will be observed at the junction of the two strata." 

Chromic acid. A saturated aqueous solution of chromic 
acid is diluted with an equal volume of water for use. 
Cultivated silk dipped in this solution and boiled for one 
minute dissolves completely, while the wild silk does not 
dissolve in three minutes (Hoehnel). 

Nitrous acid. The fiber absorbs this acid from cold 
solutions and shows various colors on developing with 
different phenols (" diazo " reaction). 

Soap. A boiling 10% solution of neutral olive oil soap 
removes the silk gum from raw silk completely. After 
being thus " boiled off " the fiber presents its characteris- 
tic lustrous appearance and loses about 25% of its weight 
by this "boiling-off" operation. 

Loewe's reagent readily dissolves cultivated silks to a 
thick solution. (Distinction from wool, cotton, and lustre- 
cellulose.) 

Richardson's reagent dissolves silk, while wool and cotton 
are unaffected. 

Eisner's reagent dissolves silk in one minute. 

Cultivated Silk {from Bombyx mori). 

Raw silk is rather dull in appearance, due to the cover- 
ing of sericin 1 which is always to be found surrounding 
the fiber. It might be added that this encrusting matter in- 
creases the strength of the fiber considerably. Most of the 

1 Sericin, silk glue and silk gum are synonymous terms. 



1 8 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

silk obtained from Japan, China, Italy, and France is of a 
silvery white appearance, but there is also a large amount 
of the " yellow " silk produced in Italy and China. The 
golden yellow coloring matter is contained in the gum and 
may be removed by "boiling off." Under the microscope 
the silk fiber appears white, or yellowish white and lus- 
trous. The thread is seen to consist of two distinct fibrils, 
between which is the sericin. The average diameter is 
0.018 mm. 

Wild Silk. 

The raw silk varies in color from light buff to dark 
brown. This coloring matter is distributed through 
the fiber, while in the case of cultivated silk the color 
is contained in the gum and may therefore be removed 
by boiling off. In the case of tussah silk the fiber 
must be thoroughly boiled off and then bleached with 
sodium peroxide. Owing to its large diameter(o.o5o mm.) 
wild silk is much stronger than the cultivated variety. 
Under the microscope the fiber is seen to be very broad, 
while the cross-section appears wedge shaped. (Distinc- 
tion from cultivated silk.) Longitudinal striations running 
obliquely across the fiber are plainly visible. Irregularly 
occurring coarser striations due to bundles of circular 
threads may also be noticed. The sericin cannot readily 
be distinguished from the fibroin. 1 The narrow side of 
the fiber appears dark gray with pink or light green spots, 
while the broad side is irregular in thickness, the thinner 
parts appearing bluish white or light brown. 

The most important varieties of wild silk are: 

1 The actual fiber-substance. 



GROUP III 



19 



Tussah: — Obtained in India from Antherea mylitta 
(light brown in color) . 

Eria: — Obtained in India from Attacus ricini (white). 

Yamamai: — Obtained in Japan from Antherea yamamai 
(pale green). 

Fagara: — Obtained in China from Attacus Atlas. 

Muga: — Obtained in Japan from Antherea assama. 

False tussah: — Obtained in northern China from An- 
therea pernyi (dark brown). 

Group III. 
Of the fibers which respond to the "lignin test" (i.e., 
contain ligno-cellulose) jute and hemp are the most im- 
portant representatives. They are both bast fibers, but 
jute gives much more intense color reactions than does 
hemp. The following reactions are used to identify the 
fibers of this group: 



Reagent. 


Jute. 


Hemp. 


Anilin sulphate. 
Iodine-sulphuric acid (Hoeh- 

nel). 
Zinc-chloride-iodide sol. 
Phloroglucol + HCl. 
Hydrochloric acid. 
Basic dyestuffs. 


Golden yellow. 

Dark yellow. 
Yellow. 

Intense crimson. 
Yellow. 
Strong affinity. 


Pale yellow. 

Yellow to green. 
Yellow. 
Pale brown. 
Yellow. 
Little affinity. 



Jute (Corchorus capsularis). 

Chromic acid followed by sulphuric acid : blue colora- 
tion. 

Hydrazin sulphate: pale yellow. Concentrated hy- 
drochloric acid changes this color to orange. 

Phenylhydrazin hydrochloride: pale yellow coloration 
which changes to green after about one hour. 



20 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Microscope : The cells possess a peculiar appearance 
due to irregular thickening of the cell walls. The interior 
(lumen) appears at some places quite large and at others 
not wider than a single line. Not all commercial samples 
show this variation, however. The cell wall appears 
sharply defined by the lumen, the latter at times exceeding 
the cell wall in width. The varying thickness of the walls 
is probably the main reason for the small tensile strength 
of the fiber. 

Length: maximum = 3.5 meters. 

Diameter: 0.010 to 0.030 mm. 

Color: pale yellow to brown. 

Lustre: silky. 

Hemp {Cannabis saliva). 

Schweitzer 's reagent swells the fiber irregularly and 
finally dissolves it, leaving only the parenchymous 
tissue. 

Microscope: The forked ends of this fiber serve to dis- 
tinguish it from flax. The cells are irregular in shape, at 
times flat, and then again cylindrical. The inner canal 
is generally broad, diminishing in width toward the 
end of the fiber. The cell walls are much less regular 
than in the case of flax. The forked ends of the fiber ter- 
minate abruptly {dist. from flax) , the walls are thick and 
no nodes are visible. The cross-sections have round 
edges which are colored yellow by iodine and sulphuric 
acid; they are devoid of contents. 

Length: 15 to 25 mm. 

Diameter: 0.016 to 0.025 mm. 

Color: light buff. 

Lustre: not pronounced. 



GROUP IV 

The less important fibers of group III are: 



21 



Common Name. 


Source. 


Botanical Name. 


Bromelia. 


South America. 


Bromelia karatas. 


Bowstring. 


Africa. 


Sanseviera guineensis. 
Cocus nuciiera. 


Coir. 


Tropics. 
Spain. 


Esparto. 


Stipa — 


Gambo. 


East Indies. 


Hibiscus cannabinus. 


Kapok. 


East Indies. 


Bombax pentandrum. 


Manila. 


Philippines. 


Musa textilis. 


Mauritius 


Tropics. 


Mauritia flexuosa. 


New Zealand. 


California and New 
Zealand. 


Phormium tenax. 


Pita. 


United States. 


Agave americana. 


Pineapple. 


Philippines. 


Ananas sativa. 


Raphia. 


Africa. 


Raphia taetigera. 


Sisal. 


Mexico and Central 
America. 


Agave rigida. 


Sunn. 


British India. 


Crotolaria juncea. 


Vegetable silk. 


United States. 


Asclepias cornutii. 


Vegetable down. 


Tropics. 


Bombax ceiba. 



Note. — The terms New Zealand flax, New Zealand hemp, Sunn 
hemp, Manila hemp, etc., often lead to confusion. These materials are 
therefore preferably designated as : New Zealand fiber, Sunn fiber, 
Manila fiber, etc., reserving the term hemp for the fiber obtained from 
cannabis sativa. 

Group IV. 

The chief members of this group are cotton, flax, and 
ramie. The best method for distinguishing between 
these fibers is by the use of the microscope. They are 
composed of nearly pure cellulose and therefore do not 
respond to the "lignin" reaction; on the other hand they 
give a pure blue color when subjected to HoehnePs 
" iodine-sulphuric acid" test. Other reactions character- 
istic of cellulose are given below: 

i. Sodium hydroxide in concentrated aqueous solution 
causes hydrolysis and consequent weakening of the fiber 



22 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

if applied in the presence of air (see mercerized cotton). 
A boiling solution of \% concentration suffices for the 
removal of the waxy matter which encrusts the cotton fiber. 
In concentrations of 12% under 10 atmospheres pressure 
caustic soda dissolves about 50% of cotton. 

2. Sulphuric acid. Cellulose (e.g. filter paper) dipped 
in concentrated sulphuric acid for a moment, then thor- 
oughly washed and dried, is converted into amyloid. This 
product is waterproof and much stronger than the original 
paper. Amyloid gives a blue color when moistened with 
iodine solution. Dilute sulphuric acid, if allowed to dry 
on the fiber, causes disintegration and the formation of 
hydrated cellulose. (Application in carbonization.) 

3. Hydrochloric acid. Dilute solutions if allowed to 
dry on the fiber will weaken it considerably, while con- 
centrated solutions effect immediate decomposition. 

4. Nitric acid (sp. gr. = 1.4). Bleached cotton steeped 
for 15 minutes in this reagent, then washed and dried, 
shows a contraction of 24% and an increase in tensile 
strength of 78% (Knecht). Acid of sp. gr. = 1.5 oxi- 
dizes cellulose to oxalic acid, while the less concentrated 
acid converts it into oxy-cellulose. This latter substance 
may be recognized by its great affinity for the basic dye- 
stuffs (e.g. methylene blue). 

5. Nitric acid and sulphuric acid. On treating cellu- 
lose with a mixture of these acids various nitrated com- 
pounds are obtained (collodion, pyroxylin). The nature 
of the product depends on the proportion of the two acids 
used, the temperature and the duration of the reaction. 

6. Hydrofluoric acid. This reagent converts cotton 
and flax as well as ramie into a transparent, tough, flexible, 
and waterproof substance. 



GROUP IV 23 

7. Non-volatile organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, citric). 
If the fiber be dipped into the molten acid and then 
removed, the crystallization of the acid causes rupture 
of the cell walls, which manifests itself by the brittleness 
of the fiber. 

8. Zinc chloride. In concentrated solutions this reagent 
readily dissolves cellulose. Cotton must be previously 
"boiled off " with caustic soda. 

9. Thymol reaction. Cellulose treated with sulphuric 
acid to which a small crystal of thymol has been added, 
assumes a violet coloration. 

10. Furfurol reaction. This is a general reaction for 
the pentoses and is therefore obtained with all fibers con- 
taining cellulose. The fiber is boiled with dilute sulphuric 
acid in a distilling flask and the whole is finally distilled 
over. On adding aniline and hydrochloric acid to the 
distillate an intense red coloration due to the presence 
of furfurol is observed. 

11. Calcium hypochlorite, or "bleaching powder" in 
aqueous solution. If cellulose be immersed in a solution 
of this compound (of about 2 to 3 Tw.) and be then 
hung in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the liberated 
hypochlorous acid will convert the cellulose into oxy- 
cellulose (see No. 4). 

12. Schweitzer* s solution. This reagent if properly 
prepared will dissolve cellulose readily. Raw cotton 
must be previously "boiled off" with caustic soda in order 
to remove the waxy and pectic matters which surround 
the fibers. 

13. Coloring matters. None of the fibers of this group 
possess great affinity for aqueous solutions of dyestuffs, 
the only exception to this being the substantive colors 



24 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

(benzidines and diamines). These "salt colors," or " direct 
colors " as they are sometimes called, produce moderately 
fast shades on the vegetable fibers. 

14. Dry reactions. If the fibers be heated to 150 C. 
decomposition takes place. When burnt in the Bun- 
sen flame a sweet odor is given off and a very small 
amount of ash remains. Cellulose is a carbohydrate 
consisting of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 

Cotton (Gossypiurn) . 

The physical properties upon which depend the valua-. 
tion of cotton are: 

Length of staple; uniformity in length of staple; ten- 
sile strength; color; diameter of the fiber. 

The characteristic varieties of cotton are: 

1. G. barbadense. Including American Sea Islands 
cotton, which is strong, lustrous, fine, of uniform diameter 
and white in color; Egyptian (white in color); Peruvian 
(white in color). 

2. G. herbaceum. Including India cotton (surat), which 
is white, and of uneven diameter; Egyptian (makko), 
strong, long, and buff colored. 

3. G. hirsutum. Including American Uplands cotton 
(peeler) which is classed into short staple and long staple. 

4. G. arboreum or religiosum. Including Chinese (nan- 
kin) which is short, harsh, and buff colored. 

5. G. peruvianum. Including Peruvian (red), and 
Brazilian (white). These cottons are strong, wiry, and 
harsh. 

The tables on the following page show the relative 
values for diameter, length, etc., of the several varieties. 



GROUP IV 



25 



Egyptian • 
Peruvian . 
Indian 
Sea Island 
Chinese . . 
Brazilian , 
Upland 



Diameter in 
mm. 



0.017 
0.021 
0.025 
0.009 
0.025 
0.018 
0.019 



Relative 
Breaking 
Strength. 



7-5 
5 
10 
8 



Length in 
cm. 



4 

2.8 

4 
2 

3-5 

2-5 



Color. 



White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Light brown. 

White. 

White. 



Microscope: Under the microscope, cotton as a seed 
hair appears as a single long cell, covered with a thin 
membrane — the cuticle, which is not altered by concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. The lumen or inner canal contains 
air, or as is sometimes the case the fiber appears as a band 
pressed firmly together, so that the lumen disappears 
from view. The fiber in all cases appears as a broad band 
which has been twisted around its axis many times. 

Flax (Linum usitaiissimum)} 

Of the numerous tests which have been repeatedly 
recommended for distinguishing between flax and cotton 
only a few are worthy of mention. 

Frankenheim > s test (applicable only to bleached fibers 
containing no sizing). If the dry fibers be immersed in 
olive oil and then pressed between blotting paper, cotton 
remains opaque while linen becomes transparent. 

Kindt's test. First remove the size from the sample 
by boiling and rubbing in distilled waten Then dry and 
place for about one-half minute in concentrated sulphuric 
acid. 

1 The term linen should be limited to the yarns and fabrics made 
totally of the flax fiber. 



26 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Wash well, place in dilute ammonia water and then dry. 
By this treatment the cotton is turned into a gelatinous 
mass and may be removed by washing and rubbing. The 
success of this test is dependent on the complete removal 
of the size and upon the time of immersion in the acid. 

Schweitzer } s solution causes flax to swell up strongly; 
the fiber does not, however, dissolve completely. 

Microscope: Under the microscope the fiber appears 
regular with a lumen which is in some cases not wider 
than a •line. The end is pointed. The characteristics 
of the fiber are the dislocations or nodes which occur at 
rather regular intervals. These sometimes take the form 
of pronounced lines extending across the fiber at an angle 
of from 60 to 90 degrees. There is no cuticle. 

Diameter: 0.05 mm. to 0.20. mm. 

Length: 20 to 100 cm. This of itself often serves to 
distinguish the fiber from cotton, the maximum length of 
which is s cm. 

Color: yellowish white to gray, but it may be bleached 
a pure white with potassium permanganate, chloride of 
lime, or by the "grass bleach." The bleached fiber is 
lustrous and can often be mistaken for silk at a rough 
glance. 

Ramie (boehtneria tenacissima). 

Microscope: The interior canal occupies about two- 
thirds of the whole diameter. Very often lines may be 
noticed extending through the individual cells and a gran- 
ular protoplasm is seen. The cell walls are regularly 
thickened so that the lumen is usually uniform. The 
extremes have thick-walled, round ends and striated lumen. 
Length: 5 to 100 cm. Diameter: 0.25 to 0.110 mm. 
(characteristic) . The purified fiber is quite white, lustrous, 



GROUP V 



27 



generally tubular in form, with bast cells about 8 centi- 
meters in length. The fiber is less elastic than wool, less 
flexible than cotton, and more lustrous than flax. 

The chemical reactions are those of pure cellulose, Lig- 
nin seems to be entirely absent in the ramie fiber. 



Group V. 

At this time there are as many as five varieties of imita- 
tion or " pseudo-silks" manufactured on a commercial 
scale. Those of Chardonnet, Lehner and du Vivier are 
made from nitrates of cellulose; Pauly silk is made from 
Schweitzer's solution of cellulose, and Stearns silk (Vis- 
cose) is made from cellulose thiocarbonate. All these 
products possess a distinctly metallic lustre and the prop- 
erty of being affected by water. On moistening these 
fibers a gain in elasticity and a loss in tensile strength is 
noticeable. 

The diameter varies according to Massot from 0.028 
mm. to 0.035 mm., the coarser numbers being sold as 
"artificial horsehair." 

The specific gravity varies from 1.50 to 1.53, but in no 
case falls as low as that of natural silk (1.30 to 1.40). 

The relative tensile strength of several varieties is given 
below: 



Name. 


Tensile Strength. 


Relative strength 
(Silbermann). 




Wet. 


Dry. 


Chardonnet 

Lehner , 

du Vivier 


2.2 

1-5 
2.0 

3- 2 

3-5 


12 

17 
IS 
19 

21 


50 
68 
24 


Pauly (Glanzstoff) 




Stearns (Viscose) 

Mulberry silk 

Tussah silk 


100 
126 



28 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

In the valuation of lustre-cellulose the following points 
should be considered: Tensile strength of the dry yarn; 
tensile strength of the moist yarn; diameter; uniformity in 
diameter; brilliancy; softness; elasticity. 

Diphenylamin reaction: a few crystals of diphenylamin 
are dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid. If pyroxy- 
lin silks are immersed in this reagent, they assume an 
intense blue color due to the presence of nitro groups. 
Stearns silk and Pauly silk are not made from nitrated 
cellulose and therefore do not give this reaction. 

Potassium hydroxide imparts a yellow color to lustre- 
cellulose but does not dissolve it even on boiling. (Dis- 
tinction from natural silk.) 

Loewe's reagent does not dissolve lustre-cellulose even 
on heating. (Distinction from natural silk, quantitative 
separation.) 

Iodine-sulphuric acid colors lustre-cellulose a blue. 
(Natural silk is colored yellow.) 

Coloring matters, even the basic dyestuffs, are readily 
removed from their aqueous solutions by means of 
lustre-cellulose, particularly Chardonnet silk. This great 
affinity of lustre-cellulose for the dyestuff makes it neces- 
sary to observe great care when dyeing this material. 

Dry test. Lustre-celluloses when held in the Bunsen 
flame ignite with a flash like that observed in the case of 
gun-cotton. No empyreumatic odor is noticeable. 

Microscope. When examined under the microscope 
these fibers appear with deep longitudinal striations and 
distinct air bubbles. Examined in a ray of polarized 
light, they show double refraction. 

Schwalbefs test. If Chardonnet, Pauly, and Viscose 
silk be treated in separate beakers with Fehling's solu- 



DETECTION OF OILS IN TEXTILES 29 

tion, Chaxdonnet silk, owing to its reducing action, will 
impart a green color to the liquid. In the case of 
Pauly and Viscose silk the liquid will remain blue. Now 
prepare a reagent consisting of 20 g. zinc chloride, 2 g. 
potassium iodide, 0.1 g. iodine and 15 c.c. water. If Pauly 
and Viscose silk be then treated with this reagent, and 
well washed, it will be observed that Viscose silk retains 
its blue-green color while the Pauly silk quickly loses its 
color on washing. 

Substances Found in Textile Yarns and Fabrics. 
Detection of Oils in Textiles. 

1. Rosin oil. This oil obtained by the distillation of 
colophony is sometimes found on waterproof fabrics or as 
a stiffening in lining fabrics. For these purposes the oil is 
diluted with some easily volatile solvent so that it may be 
applied to the fabric in a thin layer. 

For its detection and estimation, a 5 gram sample of 
the fabric is extracted with petroleum benzin or coal- 
tar benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus for about 30 minutes. 
The extraction flask is finally disconnected and placed 
on a water-bath to drive off the solvent. The residue is 
placed in a test-tube with 1 c.c. of acetic anhydride and 
0.5 c.c. of concentrated sulphuric acid., when a violet 
coloration will be observed if rosin is present (Storch- 
Morowski test). 

2. Mineral oils. These oils are at times found on 
woolen yarns and fabrics, having been used as a lubricant 
for the yarns in the spinning process. They will seldom 
be encountered alone, some vegetable oil being generally 
admixed. In all cases their presence should be the cause 



30 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

for complaint, for it is extremely difficult to remove them 
from the goods by the ordinary scouring methods. For 
their detection the sample is extracted with low-boiling 
ligroin (previously redistilled to remove tarry matter). 
The residue left in the flask after evaporating the solvent 
is boiled with a solution of alcoholic caustic potash. It is 
necessary to use alcoholic potash solution, as an aqueous 
solution readily emulsifies mineral oil. If mineral oils are 
present in the fabric they will be seen as small globules 
on the surface of the potash solution, for, being hydro- 
carbons, they are "unsaponifiable." 

3. Vegetable oils. " Non-drying oils" or fats are found 
in all woolen fabrics to a greater or less extent, having 
been used for spinning the yarns. 1 To prove that the oil 
contained in a particular sample of goods is purely of 
vegetable origin it should be extracted and saponified 
with alcoholic potash solution. The result of this treat- 
ment should be a soap completely soluble in distilled 
water. 

Detection of Mordants on the Fiber. 

Every finished article may contain dyes, mordants, 
sizes, and finishing materials in addition to the fiber of 
which it is constructed. The assistants used in the 
dyebath, such as tartar or glauber salt, do not come into 
consideration at all; " turkey reds," however, will be found 
to contain both the oil and the mordant (alumina). Fin- 
ishing materials may as a rule be removed from the fiber 
by simple boiling with water; while the mordants, being 
more firmly fixed, are obtained after ignition of the fiber 
or on extraction of the fiber with various solvents. 

1 In the spinning of worsted yarns on the " French System," no wool 
oil is used. 



DETECTION OF MORDANTS ON THE FIBER 3 1 

The ignition method is often found to be preferable 
as the dyestuffs are thereby destroyed. All the non- 
volatile inorganic constituents are found in the ash, and 
may be quantitatively determined by weighing the cruci- 
ble before and after ignition. 

The ash may contain aluminium, chromium, iron, 
manganese, lead, copper, antimony, tin, silicates, and 
phosphates. The color of the ash as well as its solubility 
in concentrated acids should be noted. Silica and stannic 
oxide are insoluble, and if present the ash must be fused 
in a silver crucible with potassium hydroxide. This is 
then added to the acid solution of the ash, and hydrogen 
sulphide passed through the mixture. Pb,Cu,Sb,Sn are 
precipitated and are separated in the usual manner. 

Phosphates are detected by means of the ammonium 
molybdate reaction. Tannic acid and oleic acid will not 
be detected by the ignition method and must therefore 
be tested for separately. 

Tannic acid (generally combined with antimony, tin, 
or iron) is removed from the fabric by (i) boiling with 
water; (2) treating with 2% sodium carbonate solution; 
(3) treating with 5% acetic acid solution. The three 
extracts are united, acidified and tested with ferric chloride, 
which gives the black " ink " reaction. 

Oleic acid compounds (of alumina or some similar 
metal) are decomposed with boiling dilute hydrochloric 
acid, after which the separated fatty acid is filtered off 
and examined. A detailed examination is only of im- 
portance in the case of turkey reds in determining 
whether olive oil or turkey red oil has been used. 

Iron compounds will be found in fabrics dyed black 
with logwood. In this case the dyestuff interferes with 



32 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

any color reactions so that the iron must be removed by 
treatment with 5% hydrochloric acid, after which the test 
with potassium ferricyanide may be applied. 

Tin compounds are looked for in the ash as given 
above. 

Another method for examining dark colored fabrics con- 
sists in immersing the sample in a solution of bleaching 
powder of i° Be, whereby the dyestuffs are destroyed. If 
necessary the solution may be made of 2 Be, or it may be 
heated slightly, or it may be acidified with acetic acid. 
The appearance of the bleached fiber thus obtained will 
art times suggest the presence of chromium and iron. If 
it be white, aluminium or tin may be present. Confirm 
aluminium by dyeing in an alizarin bath. 

Detection of Weighting on Silks. 

The weighting materials used for silk are either volatile 
(that is, organic) or non-volatile (inorganic), so that the 
determinations must be made accordingly. The volatile 
matter is removed from the fiber by means of various 
solvents, while the mineral matter is looked for in the 
ash. 

Colored silks may contain antimony, zinc, aluminium, 
tin, phosphoric, silicic, or tannic acid; glue, oil, glucose, 
cane sugar, starch, dextrin, glycerol, or gum arabic. 

Black silks may contain chromium, zinc, aluminium, 
tin, iron, lead, phosphoric or silicic acids, prussian blue, 
and organic matters. 

1. Glue and tannic acids (if not combined with iron 
or tin) are soluble in water at 6o° C. Both may be present. 
Tannin in aqueous solution gives a dark coloration or 



DETECTION OF WEIGHTING ON SILKS 33 

precipitate with ferric chloride. Glue, if in solution alone, 
is precipitated by dilute solutions of tannic acid. If basic 
dyestuffs are present they must be removed before testing 
for glue. Tannin and glue are completely removed with 
2% soda solution at 40 C. 

2. Oils and fatty acids are extracted from the fabric 
with sulphuric ether or petroleum ether. By weighing 
the residue after evaporation of the solvent the quantity 
extracted may be determined. Fatty acids are due to 
decomposed soap and oils used in the brightening operation. 

3. Sugar, dextrin, glycerol, and gum are removed by 
cold water. 

Cane sugar is recognized (after inversion with dilute 
hydrochloric acid) by the reduction of Fehling's solution. 

Starch is confirmed with iodine solution. 

Glycerol is confirmed with the acrolein test (cone, 
sulphuric acid and heat). 

4. Prussian blue is decomposed with 2% soda solution. 
Acidify with hydrochloric acid and add ferric-chloride. 
Prussian blue will be re-precipitated. 

5. Tin, aluminium, iron (not present as prussian blue) 
tannic acid, and phosphoric acid are partly soluble in 
warm 5% hydrochloric acid. 

6. The ash may contain silica, tin, aluminium, and 
phosphoric acid. 

Mix the powdered ash with fluorspar and cone, sul- 
phuric acid. Warm gently and detect the escaping silicon 
fluoride by means of a drop of water held in platinum 
loop. Now treat the ash several times with hot cone, 
hydrochloric acid and dilute the whole with water 
and pass hydrogen sulphide through a portion of it. 
Tin is thrown down as yellow stannic sulphide. 



34 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Add ammonium molybdate to a portion. A yellow 
precipitate indicates phosphoric acid. 1 

Add ammonium hydrate to a portion. A white gelat- 
inous precipitate indicates aluminium. 

Detection of Sizing on a Fabric. 

The sample is boiled with water for about two hours 
in order to remove stiffening materials, soluble salts, and 
earthy matter. Filter the extract. 

I. The filtrate should be evaporated on the water 
bath in order to obtain a fairly concentrated solution for 
the following tests: 

Chlorides. A small portion of the solution is acidi- 
fied with nitric acid. If silver nitrate be added to this a 
white precipitate of silver chloride will be obtained. The 
chlorides usually present are those of zinc and magnesium. 

Sulphates. To a small portion of the solution add 
hydrochloric acid and barium chloride. A white precipi- 
tate indicates a sulphate. The sulphates usually present 
are those of magnesium (Epsom salt) and sodium 
(Glauber salt). 

Metals which may be present are magnesium, calcium, 
and zinc. 

Glue, gelatin, dextrin, and gum are precipitated from 
the concentrated filtrate on the addition of alcohol. 
Glue if present will give a precipitate with tannic acid. 
Dextrine is detected when the filtrate is examined in 
the polariscope; it is dextro-rotary. Gums are precipi- 
tated by lead acetate in the cold. 

1 The " molybdate " reaction is more delicate if ammonium nitrate is 
added to the almost neutral solution. A small quantity of hydrochloric 
acid is then added before testing with ammonium molybdate. 



DETECTION OF SIZING ON A FABRIC 35 

Irish moss gives no precipitate with the usual reagents. 

Cane sugar is detected by heating the concentrated 
filtrate with hydrochloric acid, and after this inversion, 
testing with Fehling's solution. 

Glycerol. — If the concentrated filtrate be heated with 
potassium bisulphate, irritating vapors of acrolein will be 
noticed. 

II. The residue may contain starch, mineral matter 
or fats, etc. 

Starch may be readily detected by the blue color which 
it gives with dilute solutions of iodine. 

Mineral matter. Gypsum (calcium sulphate), Blanc 
fixe (barium sulphate) and China clay (aluminium sili- 
cate) are tested for by the usual methods of inorganic 
analysis. 

Fats and Colophony. — An original sample of the fabric 
is boiled with a 10% solution of soda for 15 to 30 minutes. 
Filter the liquid and acidify the filtrate with hydrochloric 
acid. By this treatment the fatty acids will rise to the top 
while the sylvic acid (colophony) will appear as a pre- 
cipitate. 

The starchy matter in a fabric may be removed by the 
malting operation. For this purpose an infusion of malt 
is prepared by steeping 10 grams of ground malt in 1000 
c.c. of water at 60 to 65° C. The fabric is immersed in 
this infusion for two or three hours, after which it is 
thoroughly washed in order to free it from the dissolved 
starch. Within the last two years a special preparation 
of malt has appeared in commerce under the name of 
"diastafor." This can be used in a concentration of one 
gram per hundred cubic centimeters of water. 



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40 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Survey of Finishing Materials used for Textiles. 

i. For Stiffening. — The starch of wheat, potato, 
rice, corn, and sago; flour, dextrin, glue, gelatin, glucose, 
gum arabic, gum tragacanth, gum tragasol, Iceland moss, 
Irish moss. 

2. For Softening. — Turkey red oil, soaps, tallow, 
stearin, paraffin, olive oil, Japan wax, spermaceti. 

3. Hygroscopic Agents. — Ammonium chloride, mag- 
nesium chloride, zinc chloride, calcium chloride, glycerol, 
glucose, cane sugar. 

4. For Filling. — Kaolin (or China clay, an hydrated 
silicate of alumina), gypsum (calcium sulphate), talc 
(magnesium silicate), whiting (calcium carbonate), blanc 
fixe (barium sulphate). 

5. Colored Weighting Agents. — Ultramarine (a 
mixture of sodium-aluminium silicate with polysulphides 
of soda), prussian blue Fe 4 (FeC^N^, smalt (finely 
powdered cobalt silicate), ochre (a mixture of silica, clay, 
and hydrated oxide of iron), indigo carmin (soluble sul- 
phate of indigo). 

6. Illuminating Agents. — Copper, brass, silver and 
aluminium in a finely powdered condition; powdered 
metallic sulphides. 

7. For Waterproofing. — Aluminium, magnesium and 
lead soaps, gelatin, tannin, paraffin, caoutchouc, ceresin 
(purified ozokerite), waxes and oils, beeswax. 

8. For Fireproofing. — Sodium tungstate, sodium 
biborate, sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate. 

9. Antiseptic Agents. — Salicylic acid, carbolic acid, 
formic acid, boric acid, borax, camphor. 



■■■' ,;; v~\ 

O- THE 

A'EP.IITY 

/.i.t;>:». r y 



PART II 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 



PART II . 

Mixed Fabrics in General. 

Fabrics are made in a variety of grades or qualities in 
order to meet the varying demands of the consumer. It 
is a very common thing in textile manufacturing to vary 
the grade of a fabric for this reason only. This is par- 
ticularly true in America, where the fabrics must at the 
same time be cheap and pretty. As a result the manu- 
facturer is compelled to bend the quality to the price 
instead of being able to command a fair price for a higher 
grade article. The price is met by making the goods 
lighter in weight, using poorer yarns, making the cloth 
narrower, or finally by supplying a deficiency in weight 
by chemicals called filling materials. A person who 
thinks he is buying the same fabric for 12^ cents as for 
1 5 cents is as a rule badly mistaken. ' 'All wool " fabrics, in 
which the warp lies on the face, are frequently found to con- 
tain a fine worsted fiber in the warp and a much cheaper 
wool or shoddy yarn for filling.* " India linon" contains 
no flax at all; it is made of combed cotton yarns. "Linen 
mesh" underwear has been produced solely from cotton 
yarns, and " cotton-worsteds' ' contain no trace of wool. 
Goods made of linen and cotton can be finished with a 
beetle and so made to look like "all linen." Then again 
two mohair fabrics which at a rough glance appeared 

* See Note, page 15. 
43 



44 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

to be identical were offered at 50 cents and $1.25 per 
yard. The analysis showed that the first contained 50% 
cotton, while the second contained 25% of the vegetable 
fiber. These are but a few of the many examples of 
falsification, or rather substitution, which serve as illus- 
trations at this point. One flagrant abuse of a term has 
been observed in recent years in the case of "merino." 
This name was originally applied only to the wool obtained 
from sheep bearing the same name. It is one of the finest 
wools at the disposal of the textile industry. After a while 
the term merino was applied to mixtures of wool and 
cotton containing from 5 to 50% cotton, and now to avoid 
the disputes which arose from this second usage we may 
buy in our drygoods stores "pure merino underwear" 
which contains cotton only. The "wooly" effect is ob- 
tained by napping or "raising" the fabric. There are 
three different ways in which fibers may be mixed in a 
fabric so that by the use of one or more of these, various 
effects may be obtained. 

1. The raw fibers are mixed before spinning. Under- 
wear fabrics made of "merino yarns," and certain 
umbrella cloths containing silk and cotton, will serve to 
illustrate this method. 

2. Two " single " yarns are twisted together. This may 
often be noticed in cheap suitings, where a black shoddy 
yarn is twisted with a fine white cotton yarn, producing 
what is known as a "pepper and salt" effect. In better- 
class goods this same effect is obtained with silk and 
worsted yarns. 

3. Two different fibers are used in warp and filling. 
Cotton or linen being stronger is generally chosen for the 
warp, while wool, worsted, or silk is used for the filling. 



ANALYSIS OF A WOOL-COTTON FABRIC 45 

As examples of this manner of mixing we have umbrella 
cloths, farmers' satin, and lansdowne. 

In the analysis of weighted fabrics the sizing and fin- 
ishing materials should in all cases be previously removed 
by boiling with hydrochloric acid (2 or 3%) for 10 minutes. 
The iron weighting on silks can thus be totally removed 
provided it does not form more than 25% of the sample. 

Analysis of a Wool-cotton Fabric. 

The analysis of this class of fabrics may be made 
according to a variety of methods depending on, — (1) the 
solubility of wool in caustic alkalis; (2) the destruction 
of the cotton by mineral acids; (3) the solubility of 
cotton in Schweitzer's solution; (4) the mechanical sep- 
aration of the warp and filling threads. 

Method I. The fabric is boiled for about 15 minutes 
in a 5% solution of caustic potash. The residue, which 
is cotton, is washed well to remove the alkali, then dried 
and weighed. In ordinary analysis the results obtained 
with air-dry material will be close enough. If, however, 
the moisture in the sample is determined, it must be 
remembered that the average amount for cotton is 8%, 
and for wool 15%. 

Example: 

Weight of the sample (air-dry) 5.32 grams 

Weight of the sample (after treating) 2 .27 

Loss (-wool) 3 . 05 

Percentage of wool 57 .3 

Percentage of cotton 42 . 7 

Note, — Owing to the fact that cotton is slightly attacked by this 
treatment, an amount equal to 5% of the weight of the cotton found 
is added and a corresponding amount subtracted from the wool figure; 
for example: 

5% of 42.7 = 2.13 and 42.7 + 2.13 = 44-83% cotton 

and 55.17% wool 



46 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Method II. Finishing materials are first removed from 
the sample by boiling in i% solution of hydrochloric 
acid followed by rinsing in a solution of sodium carbonate 
(0.5 g. per liter). The sample is now immersed in 80% 
sulphuric acid for 12 hours. It is finally washed well 
m 50% alcohol and filtered off, using alcohol for wash- 
ing the residue. The weight after drying in the air 
represents wool. 

Method III. This method finds very limited applica- 
tion because of the difficulty with which ordinary cotton 
dissolves in the ammoniacal solution of cupric oxide. 
The insoluble residue left after treatment represents wool. 

Method IV. The mechanical analysis of fabrics is 
in many cases quite as satisfactory as the separation of 
the fibers by chemical means. For this method it is 
however essential that the yarns be made wholly of one 
fiber: the warp may for instance be of cotton and the filling 
totally of wool. The sample is cut exactly parallel to 
the warp and filling, weighed, picked apart, and the warp 
and the filling threads weighed separately. 

Method V. Pinagel has devised the following modi- 
fication of the caustic soda method. The analysis 
requires about 5 hours: (1) remove all grease by ex- 
traction with a volatile solvent; (2) remove finishing 
materials by treatment with hot 2% hydrochloric acid for 
15 minutes. Wash thoroughly with distilled water, dry 
in a weighing bottle at no°C. and weigh; (3) remove 
the wool by boiling in a 2% caustic soda solution for 15 
minutes, occasionally adding water to replace the loss by 
evaporation. Rinse the remaining cotton in water, hydro- 
chloric acid and distilled water. Dry and weigh. The 
following constants are used for the calculations. 



ANALYSIS OF A SILK-WOOL FABRIC 47 

Per cent 
Cotton loses on boiling with caustic soda ... 3.5 
Scoured wool loses on boiling with water. . . 1.0 

Average moisture in wool 17.0 

Average moisture in cotton 8.5 

Example: 

Weight of dry sample after degreasing 9. 5590 g- 

Weight of sample after NaOH boil 5-2437 g- 

Add 3.5% 0.1835 

Dry cotton 5.4272 5.4272 

Add 8.5% 0.4613 

Normal cotton 5.8885 

Wool removed by NaOH 4. 1318 4. 1318 

Add 1% 0.0413 

Dry wool 4-1731 

Add 17% 0-7094 

Normal wool 4.8825 

The weight of the fabric with the normal amount of 
moisture is then equal to 4.8825 + 5.8885, or 10.7710 
grams, and from this we calculate. • 

Per cent 

Cotton 54. 7 

Wool 45.3 

100.0 

Note. — In the United States the amount of moisture in " normal " 
wool is usually taken as 15% instead of 17%. (Compare page 68.) 

Analysis of a Silk-wool Fabric. 

Method I. Treat the sample with dilute hydrochloric 
acid and then with sodium carbonate, in order to remove 
finishing materials, etc. Dry and weigh. A concen- 
trated solution of hydrochloric acid (40%) is now heated 
to 5o°C. and into this the sample is dipped for 2 or 3 
minutes. By this treatment the wool is hardly affected, 
while the silk is dissolved. Dilute with water, and filter. 
The weight of the dried residue represents the amount 
of wool present. 



48 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Method II. The silk is dissolved by immersion in an 
ammoniacal nickel hydroxide solution for 5 minutes at 
20°C. (Richardson). It will usually be found that the 
nickel hydroxide cannot be completely dissolved by the 
proportion of ammonia stated in the list of reagents. If 
this is the case the mixture of hydroxide and ammonia 
should be thoroughly shaken before using. After boiling 
the sample in this turbid liquid for 5 minutes it is re- 
moved, rinsed and then thoroughly washed with 1% 
hydrochloric acid in order to remove the adhering 
hydroxide. The residue of wool is then rinsed again, 
dried, and weighed. 

Method III. The silk is dissolved in a boiling solu- 
tion of basic zinc chloride. If dipped in this solution for 
not longer than one minute, the wool will remain unaf- 
fected. The residue (wool) is finally well washed with 
1% hydrochloric acid, washed with water, dried and 
weighed. 

Analysis of a Silk-cotton Fabric. 

Method I. The previously weighed sample is immersed 
in Loewe's alkaline-copper-glycerol solution at a tem- 
perature of 50 C. for 15 minutes. The residue of cotton 
is then rinsed, dried and weighed. 

Methods II and III. — See analysis of silk-wool fabric. 

Analysis of a Wool-silk-cotton Fabric. 

Method I. a. Remove moisture by heating in the oven 
to 105 C. to constant weight. 

b. Remove finishing materials and dyestuffs by boiling 
in 3% hydrochloric acid for ten minutes. 



ANALYSIS OF A WOOL-SILK-COTTON FABRIC 49 

c. Remove the silk with ammoniacal nickel hydroxide 
solution, or remove the silk by dipping in a boiling solution 
of basic zinc chloride for one minute. Wash well with 
acidulated water. 

d. Remove the wool by boiling in 5% caustic soda. 

If the sample be weighed before and after each operation 
the amount of each constituent may be determined. The 
final residue of cotton will in both cases be found to be 
somewhat below the actual percentage present, so that 4% 
should be added to the weight of the residue and sub- 
tracted from the weight of the wool. 

Method II {von Remont). a. Weigh out 4 samples of 
the air-dry fabric of 2 grams each (weight a). 

b. Boil 3 of the samples in a 3% solution of hydrochloric 
acid, decant and repeat with a fresh solution of hydro- 
chloric acid. Size and coloring matter are hereby 
removed. 

c. Rinse well in order to remove all the acid (residue b). 

d. Two of the samples obtained by the above opera- 
tion are placed for two minutes in a boiling solution of 
basic zinc chloride in order to dissolve silk. 

e. Wash well with 1% hydrochloric acid and distilled 
water (residue d). 

/. One of the two samples left after the above opera- 
tion is boiled for 15 minutes with 5% caustic soda in order 
to remove any wool. Wash well with water, (residue/). 

We will now have one residue from b, one from d and 
one from /. These are dried in the air for 10 hours and 
then weighed. 

The first loss represents finishing material; the second 
loss, silk; the third, wool, and the residue is the 
cotton. 



50 methods of textile chemistry 

Analysis of a Silk Imitation-silk Fabric. 

Fabrics containing both genuine silk and lustre -cellu- 
lose (imitation-silk) may be analyzed by treatment with 
Loewe's reagent. Genuine or mulberry silk dissolves in this 
solution at room temperature in 30 minutes, while lustre- 
cellulose is not affected. The residue left after treating a 
weighed sample will therefore represent lustre-cellulose. 

Examination of Waterproof Cloths. 

The increasing number of so-called "raincloths," for 
which the claim is made that they resist the penetration 
of water, brings with it the necessity for accurate methods 
for comparing the value of such fabrics. The two chief 
articles for which waterproof fabrics are demanded are 
raincoats and umbrella covers. Three other articles 
which may be considered here are sailcloths, bookbinder 
cloth, and rubber-coated cloths. The methods of pre- 
paring fabrics in order to make them water-resistant, are: 

1. Impregnation with metallic salts. 

2. Coating with oils, fats, and waxes. 

3. Coating with solutions of rubber. 

4. Superficial solution by means of Schweitzer's 
reagent. 

The first method finds application in the dressing of sail- 
cloth. The material is impregnated with alum and ace- 
tate of lime and is then entered in a " fixing-bath " con- 
taining waterglass. For some classes of goods this latter 
bath consists of a soap solution, in which case an insoluble 
aluminium or lime soap is formed in the fabric. 



EXAMINATION OF WATERPROOF CLOTHS 5 I 

The second method is used for raincloths, signcloths, 
imitation leather, etc. The fabric is passed between 
hot rollers and then over the block of wax. By another 
method the wax is dissolved in benzin and the fabric 
padded with this solution. As the latter method is much 
more expensive it is generally limited to high-class ladies' 
dress goods. 

In the third method the rubber is dissolved in carbon 
disulphide, chloroform and the like. The goods may be 
either coated or padded with the solution. As examples 
of this class of fabrics we have gossamer cloth, mackin- 
tosh cloth, bathing caps, etc. 

The fourth method has found application in the manu- 
facture of bookbinders' cloth and "Willesden canvas." 
It consists in passing the fabric through an ammoniacal 
solution of cupric oxide, which dissolves the cotton on 
the surface to a slight extent. A passage between hot 
rollers completes the operation. 1 

The determinations to be made in the examination of 
waterproof fabrics include, — 

i. The amount of wool, cotton, and silk present. 

2. The weight of the fabric per square yard. 

3. The amount of matter soluble in 3% hydrochloric 
acid. 

4. Thte amount of matter soluble in ether. 

5. The amount of ash. 

6. The waterproof value. 

1. Wool is separated from cotton by the usual method 
of boiling in a 5% solution of caustic potash for 15 

1 If a solution of cellulose in Schweitzer's reagent is used in place of 
the ordinary ammoniacal solution of cupric oxide, a still better finish 
is obtained. 



52 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

minutes. Four per cent is added to the weight of the 
cotton residue. The difference between this and 100% 
then represents the amount of wool present. Wool is 
separated from silk by immersing the sample in concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid for 3 minutes at 50 C, whereby 
the silk is dissolved. Linen is separated from silk by 
treating with an alkaline glycerol-copper solution, whereby 
the silk is dissolved. 

Fine quality "cravenettes" are made of pure wool 
whilst the lower grade cloths consist of wool and cotton 
or all cotton. The " pepper and salt " effects often ob- 
served in raincoats are produced by twisting a black 
worsted yarn with a white thread of cotton, worsted, or 
silk. The term " gloria" is generally limited to fabrics 
made of wool and silk, or linen and silk. The impervi- 
ous quality of these umbrella cloths is due more to the 
weave than to any finishing materials. However, in 
the case of heavily weighted silk covers, the loading 
materials assist materially in rendering the fabric water- 
proof. 

2. The weight of the fabric may be determined by 
weighing a sample containing 10 square cm. (2 X 5). 
For example, 10 sq. cm. of one fabric which was examined 
weighed 0.4 gram; one square meter would then weigh 
1000 X 0.4 = 400 g. This may readily be changed to 
ounces per square yard by multiplying by the constant 
0.02949, thus: 

400 X 0.02949 = 1 1.8 ounces per square yard. 

The factor 0.0295 is sufficiently accurate for technical 
work. It is derived as follows: 



EXAMINATION OF WATERPROOF CLOTHS 53 

i gram = 0.03527 ounce av. 

1 sq. meter = 1550 square inches. 

1 sq. yard = 1296 square inches. 

1206 
0.03527 X -^ = 0.02949. 

Rule: If the weight in grams of one square meter of a 
fabric be multiplied by 0.0295 the result will be the weight 
in ounces of one square yard of the same fabric. 

3. By treatment with a 3% solution of hydrochloric 
acid for 15 minutes any soaps which may be present will 
be decomposed and the inorganic matter will to a large 
extent be dissolved. Weigh the sample before and after 
treating. 

4. The fats which remain in the fabric after washing 
and drying the residue of the previous determination 
are soluble in ether and can therefore be estimated by 
extracting the sample in a Soxhlet apparatus. 

5. The ash is determined by igniting a weighed sam- 
ple in a porcelain crucible until all the organic matter 
has been oxidized or burnt off. The weight of the resi- 
due represents non-volatile mineral matter. 

6. The waterproof value of the fabric may be deter- 
mined by the following method, which has given good 
results: 

A sample about two and one-half inches square is 
stretched across the mouth of an ordinary thistle tube, 1 
taking care that the sample contains no selvage, as this 
is generally more pervious than the fabric proper. Fasten 
the sample securely by means of a string around the neck 
of the tube so that the face of the goods will be toward 

1 If the diameter of the mouth of the thistle tube is 3 cm., the area of 
cloth exposed to the water will be: 3 X 3 X 0.7854 = 7.06 sq. cm. 



54 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

the inside, i.e., toward the water. The thistle tube filled 
with distilled water at 2o°C. is supported by a clamp 
above a graduated cylinder, and the amount of water pass- 
ing through in 5 hours and in 10 hours is measured in 
cubic centimeters. A fabric which allows no water to 
pass through in 10 hours is considered first class. An- 
other point which may be observed is the time which 
elapses before the appearance of the first drop on the 
outer surface. 

The examination of rubbercoated cloths includes several 
special tests which are given below. 

7. The percentage of "rubber and coating materials' y 
is determined by immersing the goods in solvent naphtha 
or carbon disulphide for several hours in order to soften 
the coating; this is then removed by scraping with a 
blunt knife edge and the last particles removed by treat- 
ment with boiling carbon disulphide for 30 minutes. By 
weighing the sample before and after treatment, the loss, 
i.e., the percentage of coating material, may be deter- 
mined. A sample five inches square should be used 
for the test. 

8. The tensile strength of the fabric is determined 
before and after the coating has been removed, as 
the coating of rubber is very often depended upon 
to cover up a poor piece of cloth. For this test the 
ordinary cloth testing machines of Schopper or Kohl may 
be used. 

9. The drying test should give some idea of how r a 
rubber cloth will wear when subjected to high tempera- 
tures. For this purpose the sample is placed in a dry- 
ing oven heated to 50 C. for 5 hours and then 
allowed to lie in the air again for one hour. The "feel" 



EXAMINATION OF WATERPROOF CLOTHS 55 

of the cloth at the end of this test will show whether it has 
become brittle and lost its elasticity. 

10. A qualitative test for the mineral matter is some- 
times desired and may then be carried out according to 
the usual methods of inorganic analysis. The substances 
which may be encountered are: sulphur; sulphides of 
sodium, lead, and antimony; oxides of magnesium and 
zinc; chalk, gypsum, and vermilion. Most of these sub- 
stances may be detected by careful incineration in a 
porcelain crucible. Sulphur is determined quantitatively 
by burning the sample in a current of oxygen and leading 
the sulphur dioxide so formed into water acidulated with 
nitric acid. The sulphuric acid so obtained is determined 
by means of barium chloride and calculated to sulphur. 
If metallic sulphides are present the sample should be 
heated in a crucible with sodium carbonate and potas- 
sium nitrate in order to form potassium sulphate. The 
sulphuric acid is then precipitated in the form of barium 
sulphate as before. 

Example. — Analysis of a high grade " cravenette." 

Warp and filling: worsted yarn, 92.4% 

Weight per square yard: 10.4 ounces. 

Breaking strain: 30.2 pounds (sample 5 in. long 

and 2 in. wide). 
Matter soluble in 3% HC1: 2.7% 

Matter soluble in ether: i-9% 

Ash (mineral matter) : 3-o% 

Waterproof value: After five hours the water had 

completely passed through the fabric. Drops of 

water were visible on the outside of the fabric 15 

minutes after starting the test. 



56 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Analysis of Textile Fibers. 
The ultimate analysis of fibers is as yet of no practical 
value. Cross and Bevan have spent much time * in exam- 
ining into the chemical constitution of cellulose but have 
come to no final conclusions. Cellulose forms the essen- 
tial constituent of all vegetable fibers and belongs to the 
group of organic compounds known as carbohydrates. 
The empirical formula C a H 10 O 5 has been calculated from 
the analysis: 

Per cent 

Carbon 44.4 

Hydrogen „ 6.2 

Oxygen 49.4 

Bowman, Schuetzenberger, and Williams have inde- 
pendently examined into the chemical nature of wool. 
It is termed a "keratinic" fiber and seems to be a 
proteid containing one or more amino groups. The 
average composition is: 

Per cent 

Carbon 51.0 

Hydrogen 7.0 

Oxygen 21 .0 

Nitrogen 18.0 

Sulphur 3.0 

Mulder, Silbermann, Vignon, and Richardson have at 
different times observed interesting reactions of the silk 
fiber and seem to agree that it is a proteid possessing the 
nature of an amino-acid. The average composition of 
fibroin is: 

Per cent 

Carbon 48-5 

Hydrogen ; 6.5 

Nitrogen 19.0 

Oxygen 26.0 

1 Vignon has proposed a formula for cellulose (see Matthews, 216). 
See also: Green and Perkin (J. Chem. Soc, 1906, page 811). 



ANALYSIS OF TEXTILE FIBERS 57 

All of the investigators have proposed formulae for the 
silk-fibroin, but the approximate empirical formula seems 
to be C 48 H 78 O 20 N ia . 

Analysis of Raw Vegetable Fibers. 

For the proximate analysis of these fibers Cross and 
others have proposed the following determinations: 

1. Moisture. 

2. Mineral matter. 

3. "Boiling-off" loss. 

4. " Hydrolysis' 9 loss. 

5. "Mercerization" loss. 

6. "Nitration" gain. 

7. "Purification" loss. 

8. Percentage of cellulose. 

9. Percentage of carbon. 

1. A 5-gram sample of the fiber is dried in an oven 
at no° C. until its weight is constant. The loss in weight 
is calculated as per cent of the original sample. 

2. The mineral matter or ash is determined by igniting 
a weighed sample in a porcelain crucible. Care should 
be taken that the organic matter is completely oxidized. 
It will be found to be low in true celluloses (cotton) and 
high in the pectocelluloses (raw flax), while the ligno- 
celluloses (jute) occupy an intermediate position. 

3. By this is meant the loss in weight incurred on boil- 
ing the fiber for 5 minutes with a 1% solution of sodium 
hydroxide. The result will show the alkali-soluble por- 
tion of the fiber. 

4. This is carried out in order to estimate the effect 



58 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

of bleaching, scouring, and frequent washing of the fiber. 
It is determined by boiling the sample in i% sodium 
hydroxide for one hour, whereby the fiber is hydrolyzed. 

5. The fiber is placed in a 30% solution of potassium 
hydroxide for one hour at a temperature not exceeding 
20°C. The change in tensile strength and microscopic 
appearance should be noted. 

6. The fiber is treated for one hour with a cold mixture 
of 50 c.c. nitric acid and 50 ex. sulphuric acid. 

7. The fiber is boiled with 20% solution of acetic acid 
for 30 minutes, washed with alcohol, then with water, 
and finally dried. By this treatment the acid-soluble 
impurities are removed without affecting the fiber ma- 
terially. 

8. This is of course the most important determination, 
for, after all, the cellulose is the most valued constituent 
of the fiber. Boil for 5 minutes in a 1% solution of 
sodium hydroxide; wash well with water and then expose 
for one hour to the action of chlorine gas at ordinary tem- 
peratures, remove, wash and treat with a boiling alkaline 
solution of sodium sulphate for 5 minutes. Now wash 
successively with water, dilute acetic acid and water. 
The residue, which represents cellulose, is dried and 
weighed. 

9. The fiber obtained by purification with acid (7) is 
analyzed in the ordinary combustion oven or in the wet 
way by means of chromium trioxide (CrOg) and sul- 
phuric acid. In the latter case the mixture of carbon 
monoxide and dioxide is obtained and measured in the 
gaseous form. The percentage of carbon found may 
vary from 40 to 43% for pectocelluloses to 44.4% for 
cotton cellulose, and 45 to 50% for ligno-celluloses. 



ANALYSIS OF RAW WOOL 59 

The analysis of raw cotton shows approximately: 

Per cent 

Cellulose 87.0 to 91.0 

Water 7.0 to 8.0 

Fat and wax 0.5 to 0.4 

Intercellular matter 0.05 to o. 7 

Ash 0.12 to 1.7 

The analysis of raw flax shows approximately: 

Per cent 

Cellulose 71.0 to 83.0 

Water 8.0 to 11. o 

Fat and wax o .5 to 2.4 

Intercellular matter 2 . 5 to 9.5 

Ash 0.5 to 5.0 



Analysis of Raw Wool. 

The examination of raw wool includes the determina- 
tion of — 

1. Moisture. 

2. Grease. 

3. Matter soluble in water. 

4. Matter insoluble in water (sand and earth). 

5. Wool fiber. *> 

1. The water is determined by the usual method of 
drying at 105 ° C. in a stream of dry hydrogen. 

2. The grease is preferably determined before steep- 
ing the sample in water, as otherwise some of the fatty 
matter is removed. The weighed sample is extracted 
with ethyl-ether or with benzene and the residue of wool- 
fat weighed after evaporation of the solvent in the flask. 

Note. — If it is desired to estimate the amount of alkaline oleates 
present, this may be done by shaking up the ethereal extract with water 
in a separatory funnel. 



6o 



METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 



3. After the removal of the grease the wool is agitated 
in distilled water at a temperature of about 30 C. This 
removes the dried perspiration (suint, schweiss or yolk) 
and at the same time the mechanically adhering sand 
and earth. 

4. The insoluble mineral matter removed in the pre- 
vious operation is filtered off on a weighed filter, dried 
and weighed. 

5. The wool finally obtained is dried and weighed. 
The following figures will give some idea of the per- 
centage composition of raw wools. 



Low Grade. 



High Grade. 



Moisture 

Grease 

Matter soluble in water . . 
Matter insoluble in water. 
Wool fiber 



Per cent 

23 

7 

21 

6 

43 

100 



Per cent 
12 

15 
22 

. 30 
21 



Method of Maercker and Schulz. 1. Determine moist- 
ure by drying in a stream of hydrogen gas at 105 C. 

2. Determine wool-fat by extraction with ether and 
afterward shaking extract with water in order to remove 
oleates. Separate the two solutions, evaporate the ether 
to dryness and weigh the fatty residue. Evaporate the 
wash water to dryness, weigh this residue and add to the 
"matter soluble in water." 

3. Wash the ether-extracted wool with cold distilled 
water several times. Evaporate the solution to dryness 
and add this weight to the " matter soluble in water " 



ANALYSIS OF RAW SILK 6 1 

found in the previous determination. The combined 
weight represents the alkaline oleates. Finally wash 
with alcohol in order to remove the last traces of alka- 
line oleates. 

4. The earthy oleates are decomposed by washing the 
wool with 5% hydrochloric acid. Wash with water to 
remove the acid, dry and finally extract with ether and 
alcohol. The solvents are evaporated and the residue 
weighed. 

5. The wool which remains after these operations is 
dried, well shaken and then teased out by hand over a 
large sheet of paper in order to remove dirt, sand, etc. 
It is then again dried and subsequently weighed. 

6. Sand and dirt are determined by difference. 

Analysis of Raw Silk. 

Owing to the great value of silk ($4 to $7 per pound) 
and the fact that shipments from China and Japan are 
at times found to be adulterated with large quantities of 
fat, the examination of this material is very desirable. 

The commercial value of such an examination will be 
easily realized when it is stated that one lot which was 
examined contained 9% of fat in place of the 1% usually 
found in natural silk. 

Although Mulder was the first chemist to investigate 
the nature of raw silk his methods and results have been 
given a rather low rating by Silbermann. The latter 
investigator has spent much time in the chemical study 
of the silk fiber, a subject in which he is unquestionably 
the leading authority. A typical analysis of a white mul- 
berry silk by this author is given on the following 
page: — 



62 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Per Cent 
Water .11.00 

Salts 0.30 

Wax and Fat 1.36 

Sericin 22.01 

Fibroin 76. 20 

Ash of Fibroin 0.09 



Analysis. 

1. Moisture can be determined in the r^w silk accord- 
ing to the usual method of drying a weighed sample at 
105 C. to constant weight. 

2. The salts soluble in water may be determined by 
steeping a weighed portion of the dried sample in 
water at a temperature of 50 C. for 30 minutes. It 
is then rinsed in warm water, dried at 105 C. and 
reweighed. The loss in weight gives the amount of salts 
present. 

3. The sample left from the previous estimation is dried 
and extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with ethyl-ether 
or with C. P. benzene for about 5 hours. The solvent in 
the flask is evaporated by means of a current of warm 
air on a steam bath and the residue weighed in the flask. 
The difference between this weight and the original 
weight of the flask will represent the amount of wax and 
fat in the sample. 

4. The silk residue from (2) is now "boiled off" in a 
bath containing 10 grams of perfectly neutral olive oil 
soap per liter of distilled water. After boiling for one 
hour it is washed in distilled water and dried at 105 C. 
The amount which the silk loses in weight represents 
silk gum (sericin). 



ANALYSIS OF WOOL SILK 



63 



5. The residue obtained after all the previous opera- 
tions have been performed is almost pure fibroin. The 
percentage obtained varies from 70 in Canton and 76 
in Italian silk to 84 in Japan silk. 

Determination of the "Boiling-off" Loss of Raw 

Silk. 
Crefeld Method. A bath is prepared with 5 to 7 
grams of perfectly neutral olive oil soap per liter of dis- 
tilled water. In this solution the silk is boiled for about 
one hour. It is finally washed well in distilled water 
and dried at 105 to i2o°C. The difference between 
this weight and that of the original dry silk shows the 
"boiling-off" loss. For example: 

Raw silk dried at 115 C 48. 7 grams 

Boiled-off silk dried at 115 38.9 grams 

Loss = gum 9.8 grams 

9.8 X 100 ~ 

_£_ = 2 o.i% gum. 



table of actual results obtained prom various silks. 

(Crefeld Conditioning House, Average Values for 1906.) 



Lombardy organzine yellow. 

Japan organzine 

French organzine 

Bengal (through France) . . . 

Grege 

Chappe 

China 

Canton 



Boiling-off 



23.6 

18.86 

25.29 

25-52 

21.93 

4.65 

20.43 
25.28 



Standard. 



24.0 
20.0 
25-5 



22.5 

4.0 

24.0 

24.0 



Washing- 
out Loss. 



1.08 
1.27 
1.64 
5-94 
o.43 



2.25 
2.78 



Standard. 1 



1.20 
1.30 
1.65 



0.50 



4.80 
2.50 



1 These figures are those usually used in calculations and represent 
the average values of a very large number of determinations. 



64 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

The highest boiling-off loss was observed in the case of 
a Canton silk (30.69%). The lowest (excluding Chappe) 
was observed in the case of a Japan silk (15.62%). 

Determination of the "Washing-out" Loss of 
Raw Silk. 
Crefeld Method. A weighed sample of raw silk is 
boiled for about one hour in a bath of distilled water at 
about 50 C. Rinse, dry, and re-weigh. Example: 

Raw silk dried at 115 C 45 . 2 grams 

Washed silk dried at 115 C 44.1 grams 

Loss 1.1 grams 

1.1 X 100 ~ 

-45^ 2 ' 4 3%' 

Determination of the " Shrinkage' ' of Raw Wool. 

By the "shrinkage" of raw wool is meant its loss in 
weight after passing through the usual processes of scour- 
ing. An experienced wool sorter acquires a rather ac- 
curate idea of this loss by examination of the fleeces. 
The approximation should come within one or two per 
cent in order to be of any value. Other things being 
equal, the money value of two wools offered at the same 
price will be inversely proportional to the shrinkage 
which they suffer on scouring. Thus if a wool which 
shrinks 50% costs 45 cents the value of a similar wool 
which shrinks 40% would be 56! cents. 

«2<io = 

40 ° 

To find the percentage of shrinkage of a wool: 
Rule: Subtract the weight of the scoured wool from the 
weight of the raw wool. Divide the remainder by the 
weight of the raw wool and multiply by 100. 



SHRINKAGE OF RAW WOOL 



65 



Example: If 128 pounds of raw stock yield 60 pounds 

of wool on scouring, what is the percentage of shrinkage? 

(128-60) 

— ^g — X 100 = 53.1% (or a yield of 46.9%). 

To find the cost of wool at a given shrinkage: 

Rule : Divide the cost per pound of the "wool in 

grease" by the yield stated in per cent. 
Example: If a wool in grease costs 24 cents per pound 

and shrinks 40%, what is the cost of the scoured wool? 

24 
100 — 40 = 60% yield. ^- = 0.40. 

The scoured wool costs 40 cents per pound. 
In the table below are given a few "shrinkage" values 
of " domestic " wools. 



WASHED WOOLS. 



Grade. 



XXX 

XX 

X 

Half-blood 

Three-eighths-blood 

Quarter-blood 

Common 



Cost. 



Cents. 
34 
36 
34 
34 
33 
34 
3i 



Yield. 



Per cent. 
64 

45 
46 

5o 
60 
72 
82 



Price 
"Clean." 



Cents. 



73 
68 

56 
47 
73 



UNWASHED WOOLS. 






Grade. 


Cost. 


Yield. 


Price 
" Clean." 


XXX 


Cents. 
27 
27 
27 
28 
27 
27 
24 


Per cent. 

30 
34 
36 
43 
54 
62 

65 


Cents. 


XX 


90 
80 
75 
65 
50 
43 


X 


Half-blood 


Three-eighths-blood 


Quarter-blood 


Common 




37 



66 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

"Washed wools" axe those which have had part of 
their yolk removed by washing while still on the back 
of the sheep. 

The shrinkage of a raw wool may be determined ex- 
perimentally as follows: — Several samples are drawn 
from various parts of the bulk, and portions of this are 
carefully selected so as to obtain a fair average sample. 
A quantity equal to iooo grams is accurately weighed 
and thoroughly scoured. For this purpose it is first agi- 
tated in soft water of 50 C. for 15 minutes, then squeezed 
and well washed in two successive baths containing 5 
grams of Solvay soda and 2 grams of soap per liter of 
water. The complete removal of the grease may take 
from 30 to 60 minutes. Care should be taken that the 
temperature does not rise much above 50 C. 

The wool is finally dried at 105 C. and the standard 
regain added to the dry weight in order to obtain the 
"yield." 

Pulled wools, i. e., those obtained from tanneries by 
the brushing or liming process, shrink anywhere from 
15 to 55%. 

Determination of Moisture in Textiles. 

The determination of moisture in textile fibers is 
technically called "conditioning." This estimation is 
of especial importance in the case of the more valuable 
fibers such as wool and silk. The apparatus required 
consists of — 

1. An oven of cylindrical shape constructed with an 
inner and outer case, about 40 inches high and 30 inches 
in diameter (outside measurement). A space of i£ inches 



DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE IN TEXTILES 67 

is allowed between the two cases to permit the heated air 
to circulate freely. 

2. A pair of scales sensitive to 0.1 gram firmly fixed 
to the oven in such a position that one extreme end of 
the beam is exactly over the centre of the oven and from 
which is suspended a reel or cage containing the sample. 
The reel and cage are of equal weight and when in position 
exactly balance the pan and chains at the other end of 
the beam. 

3. One reel and one cage mentioned above, the former 
for tops and yarns and the latter for wool, noils, and 
loose material. 

4. A thermometer with a scale ranging from ioo° to 

250°F. (40 tO I20°C). 

5. A Bunsen gas-burner. 

The following data are taken from the pamphlet of 
the Bradford Conditioning House and may therefore 
with propriety be quoted as the 

Bradford Method. To insure the complete removal of 
the moisture in the oven the temperature must not be 
raised above 23o°F. Cotton cannot be heated higher 
than 22o°F. as it is easily scorched. 

The samples are drawn, in the case of tops, from the 
centre, middle, and outside of the ball and are weighed 
immediately. The sample should weigh about 500 grams 
but its exact weight is determined to T V gram. The 
sample of top is placed on the reel or in the cage and the 
whole suspended from the balance. The time required 
to expel all the moisture will vary with the quality, age, 
and condition of the tops. The heating in the oven 
is continued until the sample ceases to lose weight and 
the needle of the balance remains stationary for about 



68 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

5 minutes. The drying operation may take from 3 to 
5 hours. The wool is now "bone dry," and the weight 
is recorded as follows: 

Weight of wool "air-dry " 512 grams 

Weight of wool " bone-dry " .' 420 grams 

Loss (— moisture) 92 grams 

02 
Percentage of moisture -2— X 100 =» 17.9% 

After years of observation it has been found that the 
various fibers contain an amount of moisture which is 
fairly constant for each fiber, and as the results of many 
tests the following percentages have been fixed as repre- 
sentative of the amount of moisture which a perfectly 
dry sample will take up: (Bradford constants). 

Wools 16 % 

Tops (in oil) 19 % 

Tops (without oil) i8J% 

Cotton yarns 8J% 

Silk yarns 11 % 

Linen yarns 12 % 

These percentages represent "regain." For example 
let us say that a regain of 16% is allowed on the sample 
tested above. 16% of 420 grams =67.2 grams. 420 + 
67.2=487.2 grams of "normal wool." If the dealer 
had in this case charged for 512 grams of "normal wool" 
he would be selling 24.8 grams of water at the price of 
wool. The essential part of the conditioning is the de- 
termination of the amount of "absolutely dry wool" 
in the sample. From this the amount of dry wool in 
the whole lot can then be readily calculated. 

Example: How much "bone-dry" wool in a 1000- 
pound lot which gave the above test? 

512 : 420 : : 1000 : x 

x = 820.3 pounds dry wool. 



DETERMINATION OF MINERAL MATTER '6g 

How much "normal wool" in a iooo-pound lot which 
gave the above test ? 
512 : 487.2 : 1000 : x 

x =951.5 pounds "normal wool." 

Below are recorded the results of tests made on various 
lots of worsted tops in the Philadelphia district. The 
average for this territory appears to be about 13%, but 
whether 13 or 15 or the European standard of 18 \% 
be chosen as the American standard is quite immaterial 
as the price of worsted tops or of any other textile ma- 
terial is regulated in all cases by the amount of "bone 
dry" material which the seller knows or estimates the 
lot to contain. 

Results of the Tests. 

Per cent. 

Low grade top 15.8 

High grade top combed in oil 13.8 

Medium grade top combed dry 13.5 

Top combed in oil 12.8 

Top combed in oil 12.0 

Top combed in oil 11 .3 

Tops direct from comber 9.2 

Determination of Mineral Matter in Textiles 

The term mineral matter as thus used means the ash 
which remains on igniting a weighed sample of the fabric 
until all the organic matter is completely volatilized. It will 
be readily seen that the volatile inorganic salts such as 
ammonium chloride will not be found in the crucible. For 
the determination a 5 gram sample should be cut up in 
small pieces and placed in a weighed porcelain crucible. 
Heat with a good Bunsen flame until all the black, car- 
bonaceous matter disappears. After allowing to cool in a 



yo METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

desiccator the crucible is reweighed. The matter remaining 
in the crucible is the ash and is calculated to percentage. 

Example: 

Crucible (after drying and cooling) 5-5643 grams 

Crucible (with sample of fabric) 10.4653 " 

Fabric (air dry) 4.9010 " 

Crucible (with ash) 5.9644 " 

Ash (after deducting weight of cruc.) 0.4001 " 

_ . 0.400I X IOO Q 'Of 

Percentage of ash — = 8.16% 

^ 4.9010 

In certain cases it is interesting to know the moisture 
content of the sample, and so the following preliminary 
weighings are made: 

Weight of sample air-dry 4.9010 grams 

Weight of sample after drying in an oven at 105 C. for 

one hour 4.4000 

Loss (= moisture) o. 5010 

Percentage of moisture 10. 2% 

The complete report of this analysis would then read: 

Name of fabric: fireproof cloth. 

Moisture 10. 2% 

Non-volatile matter (ash) 8. 16% 

Volatile matter (fibers, etc.) 81.64% 

100.00% 

The estimation of the mineral matter is of especial 
importance in the examination of such fabrics as: 

Waterproof raincloths (aluminium, magnesium, and 

metallic oxides). 
Window shade cloths (Hollands) (prussian blue, ultra- 
marine, ochre and other pigments). 
Bookbinders' cloths (gypsum and dye-lakes). 
Fireproof cloths (sodium-biborate, -silicate, -tungs- 

state; phosphates). 
Heavily weighted silks (tin, iron, etc). 



DETERMINATION OF OIL AND GREASE IN TEXTILES 7 1 

Sign cloths (calcium acetate, alum, water glass, lead, 

etc.) 

Fabrics used for flour and salt bags (kaob'n, talc, 

gypsum, etc.) 

A qualitative analysis of the ash may be made according 

to the usual methods of inorganic analysis. (See also 

page 40, where a survey of the finishing materials is given.) 

Determination of Oil and Grease in Textiles. 

This determination is made in the case of tops and 
" yarns spun in oil " and in the examination of finishes on 
fabrics. A weighed sample of the fabric or "top " is placed 
in a Soxhlet extractor which is connected with a weighed 
flask. For the extraction, sulphuric ether or petroleum 
ether may be used. After about one hour the extraction 
should be complete. The flask is put in a warm place 
in order to drive off the solvent, after which the weight 
of the oil is determined. From this the percentage of 
oil in the air-dry fabric may be readily calculated. In 
the case of tops it is convenient to weigh out a sample of 
about 10 grams just before conditioning. After the per- 
centage of moisture has been determined it will be easy 
to calculate exactly how much absolutely dry top the 
weighed sample represents. 

Example: 

A sample of tops was found to contain moisture 13. 2% 

Hence, fiber + grease = 86. 8 

100.0% 

A small sample taken just before conditioning weighed 8.4607 grams 

Hence, fiber + grease 7-3438 " 

After extraction the flask -f grease weighed 28.3490 grams 

The flask weighed 27.9610 " 

Therefore grease weighed o. 3880 " 

0.3880 ~ 

3 X 100 - 5.2% grease. 



72 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Determination of Arsenic in Textiles. 1 

At the present day there will seldom be any necessity 
for making this determination as the causes have been 
removed. Thus the use of arsenic in the preparation of 
artificial dyestuffs is now obsolete. The commercial 
sulphuric acid used in the dyehouse usually contains traces 
of arsenic but as this is either washed off or deposited on 
the fiber as an insoluble compound this source of arsenic 
is of little importance. The third and most common source 
of the arsenic found on woolen goods are the " sheep dips " 
applied to sheep for the cure of the scab disease. Thus 
1000 grams of a wool flannel were found to contain 
5 milligrams of arsenious oxide. 

Examination of Weighted Silks. 

The weighting on a black silk may vary from zero to 
250%. The values of 300 and 400% sometimes mentioned 
in text books are now seldom if ever encountered. The 
Weighting number, for example, 80%, is given with 
reference to the weight of the raw silk (this latter weight is 
known in Europe as the " par " weight). Thus if 100 
pounds of " raw " silk yield 75 pounds of " boiled-oflf " 
silk the dyer must add 25 pounds of " weighting " in order 
that he may return 100 pounds to the mill. If now the 
mill requests that the silk be weighted 80% the dyer applies 
an additional 80 pounds of weighting making a total of 180 
pounds. From this we see that a " weighting of 80% " 
may actually represent a silk containing 105 pounds of 

1 For further information on this subject see: Arsenic in papers 
and fabrics, by J. K. Haywood, Bulletin 86, Bureau of Chemistry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Also: Textil chemische Unter- 
suchungen, Paul Heermann, Berlin, 1903. 



EXAMINATION OF WEIGHTED SILKS 73 

foreign matter in each 180 pounds of the finished product. 
The data given below will serve to illustrate the point: 

Example: If the weight of the raw silk = 60 pounds 
and the boiling-oflf loss of the silk = 25% and the weight- 
ing = 80%, 

To find the weight of the finished goods, 

60 + (60 X 0.80) = 108 (pounds). 

To find the weight of the fibroin in the raw silk, 
60 — (60 X 0.25) = 45 (pounds). 

To find the percentage of fibroin in the finished goods, 

w 60 — (60 X 0.25) , M 

60 + (60 X 0.80) ' /v 

To find the percentage of weighting in the finished goods, 

100 -41.67% = 58-3%- 

The proximate analysis of weighted silks includes a 
determination of Prussian blue, silica, tin and phosphoric 
acid. See: Luehrig, Chemiker Ztg., 1902, 87, page 1039; 
also Gnehm & Baenziger, Faerber Ztg., 1897, page 1. 

In the United States the weighting on silk is indicated 
by stating the " ounces of weighting " which have been 
added to each pound of raw silk. As the " charge," or 
quantity of weighting material which the silk has taken up, 
varies slightly the dyer states it within certain limits. Thus 
it has become a trade custom to allow a variation of two 
ounces. For example, if we speak of a 30/32 weighting, 
it is understood that 16 ounces of raw silk have been loaded 
until the weight has reached approximately 32 ounces. 



74 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Such a weighting is known as " 100% above par." To 
recapitulate: 

Original weight of the raw silk 16 ounces. 

Weight of the boiled-oflf silk 12 ounces. 

Weight of the loaded silk 32 ounces. 

32 ounces therefore represents an increase of 100% above 
16 ounces. 

The results of the chemical analysis will show the 
amount of actual silk fiber present. From this the 
amount of weighting is calculated by difference and 
reported in "ounces per pound." This can be done 
with the aid of the table prepared by Matthews: 



Per cent Weighting. 


Ounces. 1 


Per cent Weighting. 


Ounces. 1 


O-13 


12/14 


142-158 


3o/3 2 


13-29 


14/16 


158-174 


32/34 


29-45 


16/18 


174-190 


34/36 


45-6i 


18/20 


190-206 


36/3* 


61-77 


20/22 


206-222 


3V40 


77-93 


22/24 


222-238 


40/42 


93-109 


24/26 


238-254 


42/44 


109-125 


26/28 


254-270 


44/46 


125-142 


28/30 


270-286 


46/48 



To illustrate the use of the table: 

A commercial sample of silk was dried at 105° C. and 
then weighed 0.45 grams. The weighting was removed, 
the remaining fibroin was dried at 105 C. and found to 
weigh 0.31 grams. 

Weighted silk = 0.45 grams 

Fibroin = 0.31 grams 

Weighting = o. 14 grams 

0.14 X 100 



0.31 



= 45% weighting. 



See page 73. 



WEIGHTING ON SILK 75 

From the table we see that this corresponds to 18/20 
ounces (or an average of 19 ounces). These 19 ounces 
of weighted silk represent 16 ounces of "raw" (un- 
weighted) silk, or 12 ounces of "pure " silk, and by sub- 
traction we find that 19 ounces of the commercial silk 
contain 7 ounces of foreign matter. (19 — 12=7.) 

Determination of the Weighting in Silk. 

Gnehm's Method. (Not applicable to silks containing 
tannin and iron.) 

1. Determine the water in a two gram sample of the 
silk. 

2. Treat in a platinum dish with 100 c.c. of a 5% 
solution of hydrofluosilicic acid and agitate frequently 
during one hour at ordinary temperatures. 

3. Decant the solution and treat the sample with 
another 100 c.c. of the acid as before. 

4. Decant, and wash the silk several times with large 
quantities of distilled water for about 15 minutes. 

5. Place the sample in a tared weighing bottle and 
dry at 95 to 105° C. to constant weight. The weighing 
bottle must have a ground glass stopper as the silk is 
extremely hygroscopic. The difference between the last 
weight of the silk and the weight of the original dry 
sample represents the weighting. The action of the 
fluorine acids on silk is inconsiderable and may there- 
fore be neglected. 

Examples: 

Air-dry silk = 2. 1264 g- 

Anhydrous silk = 1.9384 g. = 8.85% moisture 

After extracting and drying = 0.9176 g. = 43.15% fibroin 

Difference = 1.0208 g.= 48.00% weighting. 



j6 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

If the "boiling-off" loss be taken at 20% we have the 
proportion: 43 . IS - 4 g : : 80 : x 

x = 88.9. 
Therefore the sample examined contains: 

80.0 parts fibroin (equal to ioo parts of raw silk) 
88.9 parts weighting 
168.9 

which means that the silk has been weighted 68.9% 
above par. 

Moyrefs Method. 1. Water. Dry a ten gram sample 
at 1 2 5 C. to constant weight. Moisture in excess of 
15% indicates the presence of hygroscopic substances. 

2. Substances soluble in water. Boil with distilled 
water. Glycerol, sugar and epsom salt will be dissolved. 
Dry and weigh. 

3. Substances soluble in petroleum ether. Treat a 
dried sample with the solvent and examine the residue 
after evaporation. (Fats and oils will be dissolved.) 

4. Substances soluble in hydrochloric acid. Treat for 
15 minutes in a bath of 5% hydrochloric acid at 40 C. 
Aluminium, chromium and iron mordants will be dissolved. 

5. Substances soluble in 5% solution of sodium car- 
bonate. Tannins, etc. 

6. Ash. Ignite a sample of the silk in a porcelain 
crucible. Silica, etc. 

7. Determination of the nature of the dyestuffs. 
Koenig's Method. 1. Water. Dry at i25°C. to con- 
stant weight. 

2. Fats and oils are extracted with petroleum ether. 

3. Silk glue. Boil with a solution of 5 grams soap in 
100 grams of water. 

4. Prussian blue. Treat the residue from (3) with 
sodium hydroxide. The sodium ferrocyanide obtained 



. WEIGHTING ON SILK 77 

is reprecipitated with ferric chloride. Ignite the precipi- 
tate and oxidize with a drop or two of nitric acid, 
i gram of Fej0 8 = 1.5 grams of prussian blue. 

5. Stannic oxide is determined in the ash of the silk. 
Calculate as catechu-tannate of tin. 

1 gram of Sn0 2 = 3.33 grams of catechu-tannate. 

6. Ferric oxide. The total iron is estimated as ferric 
oxide. Now subtract from this the iron present as prus- 
sian blue and 0.5 g. iron naturally present in silk. 

The remaining iron is calculated to tannate. 
1 gram FejjOj = 7.2 grams of ferric tannate. 

Mueller and ZelVs Method. 1 This method is based on 
the solvent action of hydrofluoric acid on silicic acid and 
is therefore suitable only for the tin-phosphate-silicate 
weighting. 

1. Place about 2 grams of the silk sample in distilled 
water for 5 minutes at ioo° C. 

2. Place the sample in a i£% solution of hydrofluoric 
acid for 15 minutes at 6o° C. 

3. Without washing place the silk in a 5% solution 
of hydrochloric acid at 50 to 6o° C. for 10 minutes. 

4. Rinse well in hot water. 

5. Treat with a boiling 3% solution of Marseilles soap 
for one hour in order to remove any sericin which may be 
present in case the original silk was ecru or souple. 

6. Wash in a 1% solution of sodium carbonate for 
15 minutes to remove the soap. 

7. Rinse well in hot distilled water. 

8. Dry and weigh. 

1 For Steiger and Gruenberg's table for the calculation of the 
weighting see Appendix I. 



78 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

The substance obtained at the end of this procedure 
is practically pure fibroin. 

Nitrogen Method (Steiger and Gruenberg). This 
method is based upon KjehldahPs observation that nitro- 
genous matter gives off ammonia quantitatively if it be first 
decomposed with concentrated sulphuric acid and after- 
ward treated with caustic soda. This is applied in tex- 
tile analysis to the determination of nitrogen in silk after 
all other nitrogenous bodies have been removed. These 
substances include glue, ammonium salts, amino dye- 
stuffs, and silk gum. It should be remarked that the suc- 
cess of the determination depends upon extremely careful 
manipulation. The nitrogen found is calculated to fibroin 
and then to raw silk. 

i. An air-dry sample of the silk (about 2 grams) is 
accurately weighed out. 

2. Boil for one or two hours with a 3% solution of 
Marseilles soap. This removes dyestuffs and any sericin 
which may be in the silk. 

3. Treat with a 1% solution of sodium carbonate for 
10 minutes at 6o° C. to remove soluble salts. 

4. Boil with a 1% solution of alcoholic-hydrochloric 
acid to remove all foreign matter. 

5. Wash with a weak alcohol-ammonia solution. 

6. Rinse thoroughly and dry. 

7. Determination: The silk obtained at the end of 
the above treatment is treated with 30 to 50 c.c. of sulpho- 
phosphoric acid 1 in a round-bottomed flask; 0.5 g. of 
metallic mercury is added and the whole is heated cau- 
tiously until the black color entirely disappears, only a 

1 Pure sulphuric acid containing 10 to 20% phosphorus pentoxide. 
Specially prepared by Kahlbaum. 



WEIGHTING ON SILK 79 

pale yellow remaining. Heat for one-half hour longer to 
insure the completion of the reaction. 

8. After allowing to cool the contents of the flask are 
transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask with about 400 c.c. of 
water. Add sodium sulphide to precipitate the mercury, 
and pumice stone to prevent bumping in the subsequent 
distillation. Now add caustic soda solution very care- 
fully (to avoid any loss of ammonia). Connect the flask 
with a condenser and conduct the distillate into a receiver 
containing 25 c.c. of normal sulphuric acid. To prevent 
any caustic soda from going over, a bulb tube is used to 
connect the distilling flask with the condenser. The 
mixture in the flask is boiled for about one hour, after 
which time the residue in the flask is tested for ammonia 
by means of litmus paper. 

9. The contents of the receiver are titrated with nor- 
mal caustic soda and from this the amount of sulphuric 
acid used (the amount of ammonia obtained) is calculated 
and figured to nitrogen. 

1 c.c. of normal sulphuric acid used = 0.017 g. NH, 
(ammonia) =0.014 g. N (nitrogen) =0.07638 pure fibroin. 

Calculation: — 

If the hygroscopic moisture in silk = 11. 00% 

the boiling-off loss (silk gum) = 24 . 00% 

fibroin = 76. 00% 

the nitrogen content of pure fibroin = I 8-33% 

then one gram of nitrogen is equal to 5-455 grams fibroin 

and 0.014 gram of nitrogen is equal to 0.07638 " " 

For example: 

weight of the original sample 1.0000 gram 

weight of the nitrogen found 0.0672 " 

which is equivalent to fibroin o. 366576 " 

equivalent to silk gum = 0.366576 X ^J. 0.11576 " 

therefore weight of raw silk = 0.366576 + o. n 576 = 0.48233 " 
add 11% for moisture o. 5354 " 

hence weighting above par = -5354 X 100- 86.77% 



3 



80 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Nitrogen Method 1 (alternative estimation). The pure 
fibroin is placed in a 200 c.c. round-bottom flask, and 
treated with 30 c.c. concentrated sulphuric acid. A small 
amount of anhydrous copper sulphate is then added and 
the whole heated for about 5 hours. The end of the 
reaction is shown by the solution turning green. Remove 
the heat and add potassium permanganate until a 
deep green color is obtained. After allowing to cool 
add water carefully. Allow to cool again and pour 
the whole into a copper distilling flask, using plenty of 
water in transferring it. Add excess of caustic soda, 
distill off the ammonia and absorb in U tubes with 
standard acid. 

The percentage of " charge" is usually stated with refer- 
ence to raw silk containing 11% of moisture. For exam- 
ple a charge of 40% above par means that 100 grams 
of raw silk yielded 140 grams of weighted silk. The 
amount of bast or gum in raw silk varies within several 
per cent, so that it is advantageous to know which variety 
has been used in the sample. In the table below are 
given the average values which are usually accepted: 

Italian (yellow) 24% 

Japan 20 

China (white) 24 

Canton 24 

Chappe 4 

If Japan silk had been used in the example given above, 

the fibroin figure would then be multiplied by M instead 

of?*. 

1 For other methods of determining nitrogen see U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 107. For Steiger and Omen- 
berg's table for the calculation of the weighting see Appendix I. 



FINISHING MATERIALS IN A COTTON FABRIC 8 1 

Determination of the Finishing Materials in a 
Cotton Fabric. 

The analysis of a finished cotton fabric containing no 
mineral matter includes the determination of, 

i. The percentage of filling materials. A weighed 
sample of the fabric is boiled consecutively in distilled 
water, i% caustic soda solution and i% hydrochloric 
acid; each operation should be continued for about one 
hour. If the sample be finally washed and dried to con- 
stant weight at 105 C. the result will give the amount 
of absolutely dry fiber present. Add 8% to obtain the 
"normal" air-dry weight. 

2. The percentage of moisture in the air-dry fabric 
is determined by drying to constant weight at 105 C. 

3. The percentage of fats and waxes is determined 
by extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. 

4. The percentage of starch, etc., is determined by 
difference as shown below: 

Total filling materials 22% 

Moisture 12% 



Fats, etc 5% 



'0- 



}i7% 



Starch, etc 5% 

TJie qualitative test for mineral matter in the fabric 
is the ash which remains after ignition of the fabric in 
a crucible. The filling material may be soluble in water, 
e. g., the chlorides of zinc, calcium, magnesium, and so- 
dium. The insoluble portion may consist of China clay, 
barytes, gypsum, chalk, talc, lime or aluminium soaps. 
These latter compounds will of course be decomposed 
on heating. 



82 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Determination of Tensile Strength. 

The determination of the tensile strength of yarns 
and fabrics affords an excellent method for the control of 
those textile processes which tender the fiber to greater 
or less extent. Among these processes may be men- 
tioned, 

i. The dyeing of aniline black. In the drying and 
ageing operations high temperatures and a dry atmos- 
phere should be avoided in order to prevent the hydro- 
chloric acid from attacking the fiber. For this purpose 
the development of the green should also be carefully 
observed. 

2. The dyeing of " mixed goods" with sulphur colors. 
Sodium sulphide has an injurious action on animal fibers; 
an excess should therefore be avoided. The dyeing 
should also be done at the lowest possible temperature. 

3. The dyeing of turkey-red by the old "method." 
After the yarn has been impregnated with oil and dried 
the hanks should not be piled up too tightly, as in this 
case they might be "burnt" by a rise in temperature 
with a consequent weakening of the fiber. 

4. The production of mercerized cotton. If properly 
carried out this process increases the tensile strength of 
the material, but care must be taken that the tempera- 
ture of the liquor does not rise above 65 or 70 F. 

5. The production of non-shrinkable wool. It has 
been observed that caustic soda of 42 B6 produces a 
yarn of decidedly increased tensile strength, while less 
concentrated liquors have a decidedly weakening effect 
on the wool. Here again the temperature must be kept 
low and the immersion extended over not more than 5 



DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH 83 

minutes. If a solution of bleaching powder be used to 
render the wool non-shrinkable, concentrated liquors 
must also be avoided. 

6. Artificial silk. As this product loses greatly in 
tensile strength on coming in contact with water, tensile 
strength determinations of the dry and moist material 
should be made on all lots. 

7. Waterproof cloths. The waterproof effect is often 
obtained by impregnating with solutions of metallic salts 
which sometimes corrode the fiber; raincloths, umbrella- 
cloths and rubber-coated cloths should therefore be 
examined in this particular. 

8. Sized yarns. The object of sizing is to strengthen 
the yarn so that it may be used for weaving without dan- 
ger of breaking. The elasticity of the yarn depends on 
the staple, the evenness of the thread, the twist per 
inch, the percentage of size on the yarn, and the per- 
centage of moisture contained in the yarn at the time 
it is being tested. 

9. Shoddy yarns. The carbonization of the vegetable 
fiber invariably affects the tensile strength of the wool 
fiber, even though the acid and soda have been thoroughly 
removed. 

10. Bleached cotton yarn and fabrics. The action 
of chloride of lime is in no case without its injurious 
effects on the fiber. In order to ascertain the relative 
loss in tensile strength and so observe the "tendering" 
action the raw and the bleached cotton should be tested. 

The determinations are made with specially designed 
apparatus made for testing fibers, yarns, and fabrics. It 
is encouraging to note that governmental contracts for the 
delivery of yarns and fabrics are now in almost all cases 



84 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

based on a definite strength of materials, so that in this 
case also we will soon observe the "survival of the fittest." 

Tensile strength is defined as the resistance which 
a solid body offers to being pulled apart. It is propor- 
tional to the area of the cross-section and independent of 
the length of the body, and is measured by the number 
of kilograms required to tear apart a body having a 
cross-section area of one square millimeter. In the case 
of cloths and yarns it is practically impossible to obtain 
a definite cross-section, so that in this case the term 
"breaking strain" is preferred. 

Elasticity is defined as a property possessed by solids to 
return to their former shape after deformation. The 
elongation which a thread suffers is — 

Proportional to the pulling force exerted; 

Proportional to the length of the thread; and 

Inversely proportional to the cross-section area of the 

thread. 

The coefficient of elasticity is a fraction which expresses 
the increase in length suffered by a piece of the material 
having a length of one meter and a cross-section of one 
square millimeter, when a weight of one kilogram is at- 
tached to the end. Under these conditions a silver wire 
stretches 1/7400 or 0.014% of its length. That is to say, 
a weight of 7400 kilograms is necessary to stretch the wire 
to twice its original length. 

The tensile strength of fibers is determined by means of 
very delicate apparatus as the values are much smaller 
than for yarns. In the following table are given extreme 

Note. — Tensile strength testing apparatus is manufactured by Louis 
Schopper (Leipzig), Max Kohl (Chemnitz), Henry Baer (Zuerich), 
Tarnogrocki (Essen). For the testing of fibers the machine built by 
A. S. Mackenzie (Philadelphia) yields excellent results. It is the only 
one which has come into extended use. 



DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH 85 

values which have been observed, the numbers indicating 
kilograms per square millimeter. 

Cotton from 30 (Upland) to 40 (Egyptian) 
Wool from 20 (Lincoln) to 40 (merino) 
Silk from 35 (boiled-off) to 45 (raw) 
Jute from 30 (bleached) to 50 (raw) 
Flax from 30 to 36 (Courtrai) 

Hemp from 40 to 45 (Italian) 

In recording tensile strength determinations it is well 
to make a complete analysis of the fabric in order 
that the results obtained may be more intelligently inter- 
preted, e. g. : 

Name of fabric. 

Wfeight per square yard in ounces. 

Picks per inch (filling). 

Ends per inch (warp). 

Breaking strain in pounds. 

Note. — The length of the sample between the jaws of the two vises 
should be 5 inches and the width 1 inch. Knitted fabrics may be cut in 
widths corresponding to ten wales. 

Yarns and fibers are reported as follows: 
Name of the fiber. 
Diameter of the fiber. 
Tensile strength of the fiber. 
Elasticity of the yarn or fiber. 
Size (or count) of the yarn. 
Breaking strain of the yarn. 

The tensile strength of yarns of the same material will 
vary with the " count " of the yarn, the length of the 



86 



METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 



" staple " of the constituent fibers, and the " twist per 
inch " applied in spinning. The following table showing 
the results of tests with carded cotton yarn is of interest 
at this point: 



I! 



8* 



■8 C 
§1 



8' 



u 



8 1 



1 •§ 

* e $ 



3 



!J w 



Average number of fibers 

in cross-section of yarn. . 
Strength of each fiber in 

grains 

Calculated strength of yarn 

in pounds 

Actual strength of yarn in 

pounds 



120 

140 

200 

5° 



100 

140 

160 

36 



no 
146 

184 

46 



100 

146 

167 

34 



74 

150 
127 

28 



60 
150 
103 

24 



Determination of Humidity. 

This determination is of especial importance in the spin- 
ning, winding, carding, and weaving of cotton and in the 
oxidation or " ageing " of anilin black. The amount of 
moisture contained in the air can be ascertained by means 
of an instrument known as a hygrometer, the form com- 
monly used being known as a wet and dry bulb hygrometer. 
The wet bulb consists of a thermometer, around the bulb 
of which is wrapped one end of a wick. The other end 
of the wick dips into a small bottle of distilled water. 
If the air is very warm and dry the water on this bulb 
will evaporate quickly with the result that a lower tem- 
perature is indicated. The dry bulb is an ordinary 
thermometer suspended within a few inches of the wet 
bulb. The temperature on the dry bulb is read and then 
from a table is ascertained the amount of moisture which 



DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY 87 

the air is capable of holding at this temperature. By 
means of the same table we can ascertain how much 
moisture the air is capable of holding at the temperature 
indicated by the wet thermometer. 

The figure corresponding to the wet thermometer is 
known as the absolute humidity (A). 

The figure corresponding to the dry thermometer is 
known as the maximum humidity (M). 

The fraction — represents the relative humidity and is 

expressed in percentage. For example: 

The dry thermometer indicates 77°F. and the wet 
thermometer 68° F. From the table we see that 

At 77 F. the air is capable of holding 10 grains of water 
per cubic foot. 

At 68° F. the air is capable of holding 5.9 grains of water 
per cubic foot, and 

^ X 100 = 59%. 

Determination of Specific Gravity. 

A. In the dyehouse it is often necessary to determine 
the strength of a bath of a tannin extract or of some acid by 
a quick and fairly accurate method. In this case a densi- 
meter is used. As its name indicates, this instrument is 
used to ascertain the density and therefore the concentra- 
tion of the liquid. The common forms of densimeter are 
the specific gravity spindle, TwaddelFs hydrometer and 
Baum^s hydrometer. In the reference table 1 it will be 
noticed that TwaddelPs scale bears a direct relation to the 
specific gravity scale and is therefore preferable to the 
1 See Appendix. 



88 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

scale of Baum£. Twaddell divided the space between 
the specific gravity i and 2 into 200 parts or degrees. 

(168 Tw X 5) + 1000 

Conversion: = 1.84 sp. gr. 

1000 ** r & 

B. Some years ago Vignon suggested that the weighting 
of silk could be calculated from the specific gravity of the 
sample. Although this application is of no value, the 
specific gravity of fibers may in some cases form a basis 
for judging the quality of a fiber. A good example of this 
is furnished by imitation silk or lustre-cellulose, which 
should possess a density very near to that of cotton. 

For obtaining the following data an ordinary balance is 
required: 

Specific gravity of a sample of pure coal-tar ben- 
zene (Db). 
Weight of the fiber in air (use from 0.5 to 1 gram) (Wa). 
Weight of the fiber in the benzene (Wb). 

Then Wa — Wb = loss of weight in the benzene, and 

Wa 

-— — -- X Db = the specific gravity of the sample. 

Wa — Wb 

The average values obtained by Vignon and others are 

given below: 

Per cent. 

Raw silk 1.30 to 1.37 

Boiled-off silk i . 25 

Wool 1.30 

Cotton 1.52 

Lustre-cellulose 1.52 

Linen , 1.52 

Hemp 1 . 48 

Jute L48 

Ramie 1.52 



DETERMINATION OF FASTNESS 



8 9 



Determination of the Fastness of Dyed Fabrics. 

The tests which will receive consideration at this point 
include fastness to 



alkalis 


finishing 


rain 


air 


fulling 


sponging 


acids 


greening 


stoving 


boiling-off 


hot-pressing 


soda 


chlorine 


light 


street-dust 


carbonization 


perspiration 


weather 


crocking 


peroxides 


washing. 



Alkalis. Cotton. Immerse the sample for 2 minutes 
in 10% ammonia solution. Dry without rinsing. In 
place of ammonia a 10% soda solution may be used. 

Wool. — Immerse the sample in a 20% solution of 
soda crystals. Squeeze and dry without rinsing. 

Air, light , and weather. The samples are affixed to a 
board of convenient size. They are then covered with 
a strip of cardboard so that only one-half of the sample 
is exposed to the influence of the air, light, and weather. 
If a standard sample be exposed at the same time under 
the same conditions the relative fastness of the two colors 
can readily be observed. If only the fastness to light 
is to be tested the experiment must be carried out under 
a glass cover. By removing the glass and exposing the 
sample to the air protected from the action of dust and 
rain the fastness to air may be observed. The fast- 
ness to all three influences can be determined by sub- 
jecting the sample to the action of light, and exposing it 
to the action of the air, dust, and rain at the same time. 

Acid. Cotton. 1. Spot the sample with dilute hy- 



90 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

drochloric acid containing ioo c.c. of the (sp. gr. = 1.18) 
acid per liter. Allow the acid to act for 10 minutes. 

2. Spot the sample with a 50% solution of acetic acid. 
Allow the acid to act for 10 minutes. 

Wool. Spot the sample with dilute hydrochloric acid 
containing 300 c.c. of the (sp. gr. = 1.18) acid per liter. 
Allow the acid to act for 2 hours. 

Boiling-off or degumming. Silk is sometimes dyed 
in the raw state, woven up with cotton and afterward 
boiled off. In this operation the goods are treated in a 
boiling soap solution containing 15 grams of soap per 
liter, for two hours. 

Chlorine. Cotton. Immerse the sample for one 
hour in a solution of chloride of lime. Two experiments 
should be carried out, one with a i° B6 and another with 
a o.i°B£ solution. Printed colors are frequently sub- 
jected to an after-chloring, so that the test is of especial 
importance in this case. 

Carbonizing. Wool. Treat the sample with sul- 
phuric acid (3.5% strength). Squeeze and dry in the 
oven for 2 hours at 8o°C. Neutralize with dilute soda 
solution. Rinse, dry, and examine. In order to observe 
the degree of carbonization to which the sample has been 
subjected it is advisable to sew the sample with a few 
threads of cotton. 

Crocking. Wool. This test may be carried out by 
rubbing the sample on a white linen cuff or other suitable 
white surface. 

Finishing. The varied nature of the finishing processes 
makes it necessary to alter the test to suit the particular 
case. As one example we might take the following: 
Prepare a paste containing 20 grams of potato starch per 



DETERMINATION OF FASTNESS 9 1 

liter and acidify this with acetic acid. The sample is 
rubbed in this at a temperature of about 50 C. The 
excess of paste is scraped off and the sample dried on a 
hot drum or with a hot iron. 

Fulling or milling. Wool. The sample of yarn is 
plaited with white wool and white cotton, then thor- 
oughly rubbed in a strong solution of soap at 30 C. (25 
g. neutral soap + 2 5 g. soda ash per liter). A second 
experiment is carried out with a solution containing 50 g. 
neutral soap per liter. 

For Hats. In the manufacture of felt hats the acid 
milling is used, so that in this case the test should be 
modified, using a solution of 5 c.c. sulphuric acid in 1000 c.c. 
of water. 

Cotton. In this case the test is carried out by rub- 
bing in a solution of soft soap or by immersing in a 1% 
soap solution for 12 hours or by immersing in a soda so- 
lution (15 g. soda ash per liter). In all cases the yarn 
should be plaited with white wool and white cotton. 

Greening. This test is applied to dyeings of anilin 
black on cotton. The natural test is to subject the sample 
to the action of air, light, and weather and observe the 
changes taking place in 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The labora- 
tory test may be carried out according to Noelting and 
Lehne: 20 grams of sodium bisulphite solution (^8°B6) 
are mixed with 20 grams of hydrochloric acid (2i°B£) 
and 500 grams of water. The sample is immersed in 
this for 10 minutes, rinsed thoroughly with distilled water, 
dried, and examined. 

Hot-pressing. Cotton. The sample is ironed with 
an iron which has been well heated and the change of 
color is noted. 



92 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Light. (See under Air.) When stating the fastness 
to light it is of importance to note whether sunlight or 
diffused daylight has acted on the sample. Further- 
more the time of exposure should be noted. 

Perspiration. The sample of cloth should be sus- 
pended about the neck of a white person for 10 days. 
The sample may be examined each day in order to note 
any change which has taken place. The laboratory test 
is carried out with a solution containing 50 grams of 50% 
acetic acid and 100 grams of sodium chloride per liter. 
Another perspiration substitute which has been suggested 
consists of 50 c.c. of 50% acetic acid H- 25 c.c. butyric acid 
per liter of distilled water. Whatever solution is used 
the sample is dried after each immersion. The fabric 
is examined each day in order to note any change which 
has taken place. 

Peroxides. Cotton and silk. Fabrics made of these 
two fibers (satins and other mixed fabrics) sometimes 
contain threads of mercerized cotton in the weave. This 
dyed yarn must be able to withstand the subsequent 
operations of degumming and bleaching to which the 
silk is subjected. As the bleaching operation is now 
generally carried out with peroxides it is important to 
know what action these chemicals have on the coloring 
matters. 

The test is made to suit the particular case in hand. 

Rain. — Fabrics intended for flags, umbrella covers 
and raincoats should be colored with dyestuffs capable 
of resisting the action of this agency. The sample is 
sewed to a piece of white wool, another sample is sewed 
to white cotton, and a third to white silk. 

The samples so prepared are subjected to the action 



DETERMINATION OF FASTNESS 93 

of rain and then dried. After- repeating this 5 times the 
samples are compared with the standard. 

Steaming. This test is best carried out by placing 
the sample between two layers of a cloth which is about 
to pass through the actual steaming operation in the 
works. A small piece of undyed fabric should be simul- 
taneously steamed in the case of wool, as this fiber is 
sometimes yellowed during the steaming process. 

Staving. Wool. — The sample is washed in soap 
water, wrung out, and then placed in a sulphur box for 
12 hours. The sample should be previously plaited with 
white wool yarn and white cotton yarn. These should 
finally be examined to see if the color has bled. The 
fumes of sulphur dioxide may be generated by burning 
sulphur or by decomposing sodium bisulphite with sul- 
phuric acid. 

Soda. Cotton. — The sample is plaited with white 
cotton yarn and boiled for one-half hour in a solution of 
2 grams soda ash per liter. Notice whether the color 
has bled or become paler. 

Wool. — The sample is plaited with white wool and 
white cotton and immersed for 6 hours in a solution of 
soda ash (20 g. per liter). 

Street dust. Wool and silk. — A milk of lime is pre- 
pared by rubbing down 200 grams of lime with 1500 c.c. 
of water. The sample is spotted with this mixture, then 
allowed to dry, and finally brushed. 

Weather. This has already been discussed under 
Air. 

Washing. Cotton. — The sample is treated with a 
solution containing 2 grams neutral soap per liter for 
one-half hour. Two experiments are carried out, one at 



94 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

6o° C. and the other at roo° C. The change in shade 
of the sample is noticed. 

Wool. — The sample is treated with a solution con- 
taining 2 grams soap and 0.5 g. soda ash per liter for 15 
minutes. The change in shade is noted. 

In carrying out the tests above outlined it must be re- 
membered that the term "fastness" is in every case 
meant to be "relative fastness." There are up to the 
present time no instruments which enable us to draw 
absolute comparisons between two dyestuflfs on the fiber. 
Of all properties, the fastness to light is probably the most 
important, so that this should be determined in every 
case, while the other tests may be applied as the necessity 
for the same may arise. 



PART III. 



PART III. 

Materials, Processes, and Products. 

The matter presented in this section is but an outline 
of the chemical technology of a few important textile 
processes. The complete analysis of "materials" has 
been omitted as being a subject not peculiar to the 
textile industry. * The enumeration of the various 
operations performed in the individual processes it was 
thought would be of value for obtaining a survey of the 
subject and so make possible a more logical chemical 
control. The three main points of each operation which 
have been specified as far as possible are the concen- 
tration of the bath, the temperature of the bath, and the 
duration of the treatment. 

Cotton Bleaching. 

Materials. 

Bleaching powder. (Chloride of lime, Chemic.) De- 
termine calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium car- 
bonate, and available chlorine. The latter may be 
determined by titration with arsenious acid. The 
main constituent of bleaching powder is calcium hypo- 
chlorite (CaCl 2 2 ). The best commercial article contains 
about 40% available chlorine. 

1 Those desiring more complete data concerning the analysis of 
dyers* materials will find the volume " Faerberei-chemische Unter- 
suchungen " by Paul Heermann, Julius Springer, Berlin, 1907 (second 
edition), a valuable help. 

97 



98 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Water. — The most desirable water for bleaching pur- 
poses is what is technically known as an upland surface 
water. Such mountain water is preferred because it has 
not yet drained through any limestone and therefore 
contains a negligible amount of impurities. Hard water 
(i. e., water which contains lime and magnesium salts 
in solution) will form insoluble compounds when used 
in conjunction with soap. These insoluble compounds 
then remain in the fabric only to spoil the appearance of 
the bleach and render the goods harsh. The presence of 
iron in the water makes it totally unfit for use in bleach- 
ing, owing to the red-brown color of iron compounds. 

Lime. — The removal of the wax from the fiber in 
the boiling-oflf operation is sometimes effected with lime. 
A good quality of lime (" fat lime ") should contain only 
small amounts of magnesia and alumina and be free from 
iron.' 

Caustic potash and caustic soda. — Determine chlo- 
rides, sulphates, carbonated alkali, caustic alkali, and 
water. The caustic alkalis are used for removing the 
cotton wax in the boiling off of raw cotton. 

Rosin (colophony). — This is the solid residue left after 
the crude turpentine has been distilled. It should be 
brittle, tasteless, and have a smooth shiny fracture. Fifty 
grams of rosin and 5 grams of caustic soda boiled in 
30 c.c. water for 15 minutes should yield a clear solution. 
Rosin is sometimes used in the boiling-off operation 
because of its supposed cleansing action. 

Muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid). — This acid is used 
in preference to "oil of vitriol" for the souring of the 
goods after the chemic bath, as calcium chloride is sol- 
uble in water, whereas calcium sulphate is only slightly 



COTTON BLEACHING. PROCESSES 99 

soluble. The acid used in the bleach process should 
contain not more than 0.03% iron. 

Antichlor. — Substances bearing this name are at 
times used in place of the acid bath for souring the goods 
and at the same time removing the excess of chlorine. 
Sodium bisulphite and sodium thiosulphate are most 
suitable for this purpose. The commercial products may 
be valuated by titration with iodine. 

Sulphonated oils. — Turkey-red oil and other oils " sol- 
uble in water" are used in the wetting out of cotton in 
conjunction with caustic soda. The best turkey-red 
oil is made from castor oil (acetyl number above 140). 
Determine total fat, neutral fat, fatty acids, solubility in 
distilled water, solubility in hard water containing 400 
parts CaCOg per million. The effect of the oil is to pro- 
duce a better white and give the goods a soft feel. 

Soap. — After the goods have been bleached they are 
soaped in order to remove any harmful substances and 
give the goods a soft feel. The soap used for this pur- 
pose should be neutral and free from filling materials. 
If free .(imcombined) fat is present decomposition will 
soon take place and the fiber will be tendered or at least 
be turned yellow. 

Processes. 

1. Boiling off. The goods are boiled in a kier for 6 
or 7 hours with a solution of caustic soda or caustic potash 
having a concentration of 0.5% (1 pound soda to 200 
pounds, or 24 gallons, water). 

2. Rinsing. The greater part of the caustic liquor 
is removed by washing with cold water. 

3. Bleaching. The bleach or chemic bath consists of 



IOO METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

a clear chloride of lime solution having a concentration 
of 0.7 to 2 B6. The goods may be left in this bath for 
i hour to 2 hours, depending on the concentration of the 
liquor. The bleaching takes place in the cold, and care 
must be taken that no solid particles of lime get into the 
bath, as these may cause spots. 

4. Rinsing. The greater part of the chemic solution 
is removed by rinsing in cold water. 

5. Souring. In order to complete the bleach the 
goods are often passed direct into a weak bath of hydro- 
chloric acid without previous washing. Three pounds of 
acid of 22 B6. may be used for every 12 gallons of water 
and the goods left in this cold solution for about 2 hours. 
The bath should have a specific gravity of about 1.005. 

5a. Antichlor. In some cases a bath of bisulphite of 
soda is used instead of the acid. The commercial "bi- 
sulphite" of 38 B6. is used in the proportion of 2 pounds 
for every 100 pounds of goods. The goods are entered 
in this bath after the fourth operation and worked in the 
cold until all the free chlorine has been removed from 
the goods. 

6. Rinsing. After the antichlor or the acid bath the 
goods must be thoroughly washed in cold water. 

7. Soaping. In order to give the goods a soft feel 
they are now passed through a weak soap solution. For 
this purpose a good neutral soap is desirable and the tem- 
perature of the water should be about ioo° F. (use 3 
pounds soap per 100 pounds goods). 

8. Rinsing. This final operation is frequently re- 
sorted to in order to avoid any discoloration of the goods 
after storing. Soft water at a temperature of ioo°F. 
must be used. 



COTTON BLEACHING. PRODUCTS IOI 

Products. 

The analytical tests applied to bleached goods include 
the determination of, 

i. The tensile strength of the fabric before bleaching. 

2. The tensile strength of the fabric after bleaching. 

3. The fatty matter. 

4. The lime-soaps. 

5. The ash. 

6. The detection of oxycellulose. 

7. The detection of free chlorine in the goods after 
the acid or antichlor bath. 

8. The detection of free acid in the goods after rinsing 
(before drying). 

9. The detection of lime, resin, and bleach spots. 

10. Comparison of the color of the bleached goods 
with accepted standards. 

As tests 1 and 2 have been fully discussed in the 
chapter on tensile strength the reader is referred to that 
article. 

3. The estimation of the fats, resins, and waxes which 
have been left in the fabric is carried out with a sample 
weighing about 10 grams. This is extracted in a Soxhlet 
apparatus with petroleum ether which has been recently 
distilled to remove any tarry matter. The amount of 
solvent necessary is found by filling the Soxhlet extractor 
until the contents siphon off freely. Some excess should 
be allowed for loss by evaporation. The dry extraction 
flask should be accurately weighed before use. If the 
extractor has siphoned off regularly the operation will be 
finished in about 90 minutes. The extraction flask is now 



102 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

placed on a water-bath, whereby the solvent distills off 
and the fats remain. The increase in weight of the 
flask will show the amount of fats and the like present 
in the weighed sample. The amount of fatty matter 
permissible in well-bleached goods is usually taken as .05 
per cent, but it is quite possible to produce cloth with as 
little as .025 per cent. The amount of fatty matter present 
may also be calculated from the loss in weight of the 
fabric. In this case the sample must be dried at no° C. 
and accurately weighed both before and after extraction. 

4. The ideal bleached fabric contains no appreciable 
amount of lime soaps. As, however, nearly all natural 
water contains some lime salts in solution the formation 
of a small quantity of this insoluble soap can hardly be 
avoided; another cause of their presence is the boiling 
off of the cloth in the kiers. If lime is used, the waxy 
matters which are softened by the process are very prone 
to combine with it to form a soap. A third source of the 
trouble is the imperfect washing of the goods before 
bleaching. The estimation of the amount of calcium 
soap present is carried out as follows: 

A sample which has been thoroughly degreased in a 
Soxhlet extractor is immersed for thirty minutes in a 
mixture of 5 grams of concentrated hydrochloric acid 
and 95 c.c. of distilled water and then well washed and 
dried. By this operation the lime is converted into 
soluble calcium chloride, while the free fatty acid remains 
on the fabric. The sample is dried and extracted with 
petroleum ether as before. The fatty acids may be 
weighed and reported as such. They may in addition 
to this be dissolved in alcohol and titrated with ^ normal 
caustic potash solution, using phenolphtalein as an indi- 



COTTON BLEACHING. PRODUCTS I03 

cator. The maximum amount of fatty acid in the form 
of lime soap permissible in properly bleached goods is .05 
per cent. If this amount is exceeded the souring and 
rinsing operations require investigation. 

5. Although the raw cotton lint contains as much as 
1.65 per cent of ash, pure cellulose leaves on ignition no 
ash at all. This gives another method by which to de- 
termine the perfection of the bleach, for the object in 
bleaching is to remove all extraneous matter and obtain 
the cellulose in as pure a form as possible. Whether or 
not the operation has been successful may be judged by 
the amount of mineral matter which a sample of the fabric 
leaves on ignition. Take about a 5-gram sample, deter- 
mine its weight accurately, cut into small pieces and place 
in a porcelain crucible. Now burn off the organic matter 
until the remaining ash is white or light gray. The in- 
crease in weight of the crucible will show the amount of 
mineral matter present in the sample taken; it should not 
exceed 0.1 per cent. This ash consists essentially of 
calcium oxide and a small amount of silicates. The 
former is due to the lime soaps in the fabric, while the 
latter is attributed by some to mechanically adhering 
matter with which the raw cotton is sometimes willfully 
adulterated. 

6. The detection of oxycellulose is of extreme impor- 
tance, as careful tests have shown that its presence not 
only interferes with the dyeing of level shades but also 
considerably affects the tensile strength of the fabric. 
This weakening of the fiber becomes especially evident 
in the subsequent treatment of the fabric with alkalies 
or soap, so that it may escape notice until the goods are 
finally sold at retail. The housewife then discovers to 




104 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

her dismay that the goods appear rotten after the first 
washing. 

The formation of the oxycellulose is generally caused 
by undue exposure of the goods to light and air after re- 
moval from the bleach bath; then again it may result 
from the use of very strong bleach baths, but the chemical 
change which takes place is in both cases an oxidation. 
The test usually recommended to determine the presence 
of this oxidation product depends upon its affinity for the 
basic coloring matters. Five grams of methylene blue are 
dissolved in iooo grams of boiling water. The previously 
moistened fabric is now immersed in this for about ten 
minutes and then washed. The presence of oxycellulose 
in the fabric is indicated by spots or stripes which have 
been dyed a bright blue, while the rest is only slightly 
tinged. This test, though apparently simple, requires 
some experience if the results obtained are to be properly 
interpreted. 

Another excellent test is carried out as follows: Boil 
the fabric thoroughly in water in order to remove any fin- 
ishing material. Then squeeze and boil for five minutes 
in a mixture of 30 c.c. of Fehling's solution and 20 c.c. of 
water. A red color on the fabric due to the deposited 
cuprous oxide (Cu 2 0) indicates the presence of oxidized 
cellulose. This latter oxidation product may be prepared 
artificially by saturating a fabric with bleach solution 
and then exposing in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. 

7. In order to obtain a purer white and to remove 
the excess of chlorine from the fiber the goods are passed 
through the acid bath. As this treatment with muriatic 
acid often leaves the goods harsh many bleachers prefer 
to use sodium hyposulphite (Na2S 2 Og) or sodium bisul- 



COTTON BLEACHING. PRODUCTS I OS 

phite (NaHSOg) to insure a "soft feel." If used in 
sufficient quantity these substances effectually remove the 
chlorine which remains in the goods after the bleach bath, 
according to the following reactions: 

2 Na^O, + 2 CI = 2 NaCl + Na^O,. 
NaHS0 3 + 2 CI + H 2 = 2 HC1 + NaHS0 4 . 

To determine whether all the chlorine has been re- 
moved the washed fabric is immersed in a io per cent 
solution of potassium iodide to which a few drops of 
boiled starch solution have been added. The appear- 
ance of a blue color indicates the presence of free chlo- 
rine. This in turn shows that an insufficient quantity 
of " antichlor " has been used. 

8. The presence of free mineral acid in cotton goods 
which are to be exposed to high temperatures is extremely 
detrimental to the strength of the fabric. The goods 
may be tested by moistening with a few drops of a yellow 
solution of methyl orange. Free acid will turn the color 
to red. 

9. The detection of the presence of lime and of resin 
spots in a lot of goods is especially important in case they 
are to be afterward dyed with alizarine colors. The 
best test is to dye a 10-gram sample of the bleached 
goods with alizarine red according to the usual method, 
whereby the spots will show up distinctly. 

Finally reference should be made to a test which is ser- 
viceable in the examination of bleached linen cloth. Well- 
bleached linen should not be discolored when steeped 
in a 10 per cent solution of ammonia. If the linen is 
colored at all yellow by this treatment it is an indication 



106 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

that the pectin and waxy matters have not been properly 
removed. 

10. When observing the color of bleached cloth, i. e., 
the purity of the white attained, the cloth should always 
be laid double and examined in a good north light, other- 
wise a dark background may detract from the appearance of 
the goods. Two lots of the same goods bleached consecu- 
tively may yet appear 6f different tints, even though the 
bluing was the same in both cases. This is often due to 
a difference in the yarn used. The cream white, which is 
usually undesirable, is corrected by tinting with ultra- 
marine or methyl-violet. The fact that various coloring 
matters are at present used for this purpose makes it 
difficult at times to compare bleached garments purchased 
at different establishments. Before concluding that one 
fabric is more valuable than another because of the purity 
of the white it would be well in some cases to make a com- 
parative test of the tensile strength of the two samples. 

Note. Cotton which has become discolored by undue exposure to 
rain and frost can not be bleached a perfect white ("Blue benders 
cotton"). 

Turkey-red. 
Materials. 

The chemical control of the materials used in the 
turkey-red dyehouse includes the examination of 

i. The water used for dyeing. This should be free 
from iron, otherwise a black ink will be produced in the 
fiber when the goods are worked in the tannin or sumac 
bath. Moreover the iron-alizarine lakes are much darker 
than the aluminium lakes, so that shades would be 
obtained varying in dullness according to the amount 



TURKEY-RED I07 

of iron present. For the same reason the other chem- 
icals used must be practically free from this impurity. 
On the other hand the water used for dyeing should con- 
tain a certain amount of lime salts in order that the for- 
mation of the aluminium-lime-alizarine lake may take 
place. In the case of soft water* whiting or in some cases 
acetate of lime {free from iron) is added. Excellent 
results are obtained with water of the hardness of 9 
(French). 1 If the water is too hard it must be pre- 
viously softened with acetic acid. The alkalinity, of 
the water is determined by titrating 1000 c.c. with 
decinormal hydrochloric acid. The amount of acetic 
acid necessary to soften the water is then ascertained 
from a table. The water used in the final operations of 
clearing or brightening shoyld be soft, otherwise the soap 
used will be precipitated as insoluble lime soap. A pale 
gray bloom is thereby imparted to the fabric and the 
brilliancy of the color is in most cases ruined. 

2. Turkey-red oil. This is used as a fixing agent for 
the aluminium salts as it makes the colors fast to soaping. 
It is preferably made of good quality castor oil, but it 
should in every case be made from a non-drying oil. It 
must show no turbidity when added to hard water of 
20 (French) after adding ammonium hydroxide to alka- 
line reaction. A turbidity or precipitate indicates that 
impure castor oil, rape, cotton or olive oil has been used. 
The oil should be slightly alkaline or neutral and should 
contain at least 50% fatty acids. 

3. Olive oil (called tournant oil or Gallipoli oil when 
fermented), used in the emulsion process for turkey-red. 

1 One degree hardness (French scale) indicates one part calcium 
carbonate in 100,000 parts of water (10 parts per million). 



108 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

4. Castor oil, used for making sulphated oils. For 
this purpose only the pure oil should be used; castor 
oil foots are unsuitable. The red oil prepared from 
the latter material causes turbidity when used with 
hard water. 

5. Marseilles soap, used for the final brightening bath, 
should be perfectly neutral and free from filling ma- 
terials. 

6. Sumac assists in fixing the alumina and causes the 
alizarin to be taken up evenly. 

7. Tannic acid, used as a substitute for sumac in pale 
shades. The presence of tannic acid in some form or 
other is essential for the production of reds fast to 
chlorine. 

8. Glue is added to the dyebath in case the fabric 
contains a white reserve in order to prevent any bleed- 
ing of the color. 

9. Starch paste, used in the dyebath because of the 
cleansing action which it exerts on the color lakes. 

10. Aluminium sulphate, used for mordanting. This 
material should not contain more than 0.001% of iron. 

11. Aluminium acetate (red liquor), used as a mor- 
dant in steam alizarin red on calico. The commer- 
cial " liquor' ' of 6° B6. must not contain more than 
0.005% iron. 

12. Calcium acetate, used for hardening the water 
of the dyebath in order to make possible the formation 
of the lake. 

13. Soda ash (sodium carbonate), used for neutralizing 
part of the acid in the alum mordant bath. 

14. Sodium stannate, used for brightening and as an 
adjunct in the oiling operation. 



TURKEY-RED. IO9 

15. Whiting (calcium carbonate), used for hardening 
the water in the dyeing operation. 

16. Tin crystals (stannous chloride), used in some cases 
in place of sodium stannate for brightening. 

Processes. 1 
1. Old Style or Emulsion Method. 
In this process the yarn is treated as follows: 

1. Boil off with soda ash to remove impurities. 

2. Impregnate with a cold emulsion of tournant oil 
and 'soda whereby the alkali salts of the fatty acids are 
deposited on the fiber. 

3. Wring oat. 

4. Dry at about so°F. for 12 hours. Hereby the 
deposited alkali salts are probably oxidized into salts of 
the oxy-fatty acids. 

5. Rinse thoroughly with water of 50 F. in which 
a small amount of soda ash is dissolved, in order to 
remove any unchanged fat. 

6. Place the yarn in an infusion of sumac leaves at 
5o°F. for 5 hours. For this purpose a 15% infusion 
having a sp. gr. of 1.0075 is prepared. 

7. Mordant in a 12% solution of aluminium sulphate 
for 24 hours at 50 F. The alum, which should be pre- 

1 Among the numerous processes for dyeing turkey-red may be 
mentioned the following: 

1) Old style, emulsion process with olive oil emulsion. 

2) Old style, Steiner process with clear hot olive oil. 

3) New style, sulphated oil process with dry mordant. 

4) New style, sulphated oil process with wet mordant (Wesserling). 

5) Sulphite-alizarine red (Hoechst) dyed with sodium pyrosulphite. 

6) The aluminate processes (Schlieper and Baum). 



IIO METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

viously neutralized with soda, should be free from iron. 
The concentration of the bath should correspond to a sp. gr. 
of 1.04. 

8. Rinse in hard water in order to neutralize any 
acid remaining in the yarn from the mordant bath. 

9. Dye in a bath containing alizarin, sumac and bul- 
locks' blood. Work at 212 F. for one and one half 
hours. The water used in this operation should not con- 
tain any iron but should possess a hardness of about 9 
to 10 degrees (French). 

10. The clearing operation consists in boiling the yarn 
under } atmosphere pressure with 3% soda ash (to* re- 
move impurities). 

11. The yarn is brightened by boiling under a pres- 
sure of £ atmosphere with 3% palm soap and 0.1% tin 
crystals, or by 

1 1 a. Passing the yarn through a cold solution of tin 
crystals and then soaping. 

12. The yarn is finally subjected to a thorough wash- 
ing in cold water. 

New Style or Sulplutied Oil Method {dry). 

1. Boil off the yarn with 3% soda ash. 

2. Rinse and wring. 

3. Impregnate with a mixture of turkey-red oil and 
sodium stannate and wring. 

4. Steam under 5 pounds pressure for one hour. 

5. Mordant with aluminium sulphate (free from iron) 
previously neutralized with sodium carbonate. Sp. gr. 
of the bath 1.0500; wring. 

6. Dry at 120 F. and then hang in the air. 



TURKEY-RED III 

The operations 2 to 6 are now repeated if it is desired 
to produce a more fiery red which is also much faster to 
soaping. 

7. Chalk in a bath containing 4 pounds of whiting 
per 100 gallons of water. Temperature of the bath 
H5°F. 

81 Rinse and wring. 

9. Dye for 2\ hours at 140 F. in a bath containing 
15 pounds alizarin, 2 pounds calcium acetate, per 100 
pounds of yarn. 

10. Wring and dry. 

n. Steam under one atmosphere pressure for two 
hours (the shade is hereby brightened). 

12. The brightening proper is done in a bath contain- 
ing 1000 pounds of water (120 gals.), 2 pounds Marseilles 
soap, 0.3 pound soda ash and 0.1 pound sodium stannate. 
Boil under two atmospheres pressure for two hours. 

13. Rinse thoroughly and dry in the open air. 

Note. The steam pressures given indicate pressure in excess of 
normal atmospheric pressure. One " Atmosphere " is equivalent to 
a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch. 

Products. 

1. Examination of the bleached goods before dyeing. 
If the goods have been improperly bleached so that lime 
remains in them, these portions will attract the coloring 
matter more readily than the rest of the yarn or fabric 
so that unevenness will result. Calico intended for 
turkey-red is not given the full madder bleach, as no 
white ground is necessary and the bleaching powder might 
cause the formation of oxycellulose and uneven shades. 



112 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

2. Detection and determination of aluminium, cal- 
cium, and tin in the finished fabric. A normal red, ac- 
cording to Liechti and Suida, has the composition ex- 
pressed by the formula ALjOg • CaO • (C, 4 H e O s )3, and 
one square meter of the goods should contain 0.198 
gram A^Oj and 0.099 gram of calcium oxide. The 
commercial turkey-reds, however, contain much more 
alumina without any additional fastness or beauty. In 
fact the harshness of fabrics dyed with turkey-red oil 
seems to be due to the formation of aluminium soaps with 
the fatty acids. Tin will be found as oleate of tin in old- 
style turkey-reds, as in this process the final brightening 
is done with palm soap and tin crystals. 

3. Examination of the red for purity of shade. Aliz- 
arin reds dyed by the sulphated oil process will have 
either a yellow or a blue cast, depending upon the par- 
ticular method pursued. Thus if the goods are oiled 
slightly after the dyeing operation a blue red will result; 
if, however, the goods are well oiled before mordanting 
and again after dyeing, or if tin crystals be used for 
brightening, a yellowish red will be obtained. Bluish 
reds are also obtained by the use of Para soap. 1 

4. Fastness of the red to various agencies. A good 
turkey-red should be fast to chlorine; this is of especial 
importance in the case of towels which are afterwards 
to be bleached. The red should also be fast to light 
soap, acids, and to crocking. 

5. Tests to distinguish turkey-red from other cotton 
reds. 



1 Para soap is an ammonium compound of sulphated castor oil, 
manufactured by the Hoechst Color Works. 



TURKEY-RED 113 

Turkey-red. 
Baryta water: changes it to violet on boiling. 
Nitric acid: produces a yellow spot. 
Chromic acid : bleaches it. 
Concentrated hydrochloric acid : changes the color to 

orange or pale yellow. 
10% caustic soda: produces a violet spot. 
Stannous chloride: in cold, acid solution, does not 

affect the color. 

ParanUr aniline red. 

The color penetrates the whole fabric, whereas in 

the case of alizarin red the dye is superficially 

deposited. Para-red is not so fast to light and 

weather as is turkey-red. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid: deep red which changes 

to brown on dilution. 
Concentrated hydrochloric acid : almost no change. 
Concentrated nitric acid : color changes to carmin. 
Ammonia: almost no change. 
10% caustic soda: dark brick red. 
Stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid: decolorized. 

Direct red (benzo, diamine, congo, etc.). 
Boiling water : color partly removed. 
Acetic acid: color turns black; returns on applying 

ammonia. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid : deep blue. 
Concentrated hydrochloric acid: bright blue. 
Concentrated nitric acid: yellow to light brown. 
Ammonia: no change. 



114 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Anilin Black. 
Materials. 

Anilin oil. The analysis of this substance should 
include a quantitative determination of anilin, toluidin, 
nitrobenzol, and water. The specific gravity and boiling 
point should also be determined. 

Anilin salt. This should be neutral and free from 
toluidin. 

Hydrochloric acid is used in the dyebath as a solvent for 
f he anilin oil. 

Potassium chlorate ) are used in the dyebath as oxidiz- 

Copper sulphate ) ing agents. 

Ammonium vanadate ) are used in the dyebath as car- 

Copper sulphide ) riers of oxygen. 

Ferrous sulphate is added to the dye liquor to prevent 
" after-greening " of the black. In the liquor it is quickly 
changed to ferric sulphate, which then acts as the oxidiz- 
ing agent. 

Ammonium chloride is added to the impregnating 
liquor to provide moisture for the oxidizing chamber. 

Potassium ferrocyanide is used in Prudhomme's black 
to render the hydrochloric acid harmless. 

Potassium bichromate is used for finally developing 
the emeraldin to anilin black. 

Soaps, oils, and softeners are used for the final washing 
in order to give the goods a soft feel, as they would* other- 
wise be very harsh to the touch. 

Processes. 

i. Dyeing. The goods are impregnated with the ani- 
lin liquor in the tom-tom at a temperature of about 



ANILIN BLACK IIS 

6o° F. Below is given an example of a padding 
liquor: 

60 lbs. of anilin salt dissolved in 32 gals, of water. 

2.75 lbs. copper sulphate dissolved in 6 gals, of water. 

19 lbs. sodium chlorate dissolved in 4 gals, of water. 

2 lbs. sal ammoniac dissolved in 1 gal. of water. 

25. lbs. aluminium acetate liquor (16 Tw.). 

Add water to bring the bath to 12 Tw. = sp. gr. 1.06. 

2. Extracting. The goods are placed in the whizzer 
in order to remove the excess of liquor. 

3. Drying, and 

4. Ageing. These two operations take place in the 
so-called "oxidizing cage," and require from 3 to 8 hours, 
depending on the temperature of the chamber. The 
thermometer should not rise above i2o°F. and the devel- 
opment and intensity of the green should be observed 
from time to time. 

In order that the process in the oxidizing chamber 
may take place rapidly and properly a moist atmosphere 
is necessary. This may be attained by passing steam 
into the compartment directly or by means of a steam 
pipe leading into a box of water. For the determination 
of the amount of moisture in the room an instrument 
known as the hygrometer l or psychrometer is used. This 
consists essentially of two thermometers (a dry and a 
wet bulb). The dry bulb indicates as usual the tem- 
perature of the room and the wet bulb indicates indirectly 
the amount of moisture in the room. On a foggy day 
the two thermometers, if placed outside, will show the 
same temperatures, as no evaporation can take place. 

1 See page 86. 



Il6 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY ' 

A suitable condition in the ageing room is: wet bulb 
90 F., dry bulb 95 F. equal to a relative humidity of 86%. 

Some dyers, using a larger proportion of anilin oil than 
others, allow: wet bulb ii5°F., dry bulb i20°F. equal 
to a relative humidity of 86%. 

5. Tumbling. This operation has for its purpose 
the removal of the protruding fibers, and is performed 
after the goods have dried in the cage. 

5a. Singeing (takes the place of tumbling for fine 
work). The "lisle finish" is given to stockings by passing 
them very rapidly over gas flames in the singeing machine, 
in order to remove the protruding fibers. 

6. Chroming. At this stage of the process the emeral- 
din is converted into the black nigranilin by working 
the goods in a bath containing 3 lbs. of potassium 
bichromate for each 100 lbs. of goods. Work for 15 
to 30 minutes at 120 F. 

7. Rinsing. The goods are well washed with water 
in order to remove the excess of chrome. 

8. Softening. The goods are entered in a bath con- 
taining olive-oil, olive-oil soap, and sodium carbonate. 
Agitate in this bath at 190 F. for 15 minutes. 

9. 10, 11. Rinse, whizz, and dry. 

Note. Since the formation of anilin black is due to an oxidation 
process which is energetic and proceeds with considerable rapidity, there 
is great danger of the formation of oxycellulose and a tendering of the 
fiber. Attention should therefore be paid to the temperature of the 
dyebath and the ageing chamber, the degree of moisture in the ageing 
chamber and the duration of the oxidizing operation. 

Products. 

1. Determine the tensile strength of the fabric before 
and after dyeing. 



MERCERIZATION 1 1 7 

2. Determine the amount of mineral matter in the 
finished fabric. 

In goods which have been imperfectly washed chro- 
mium will be found. Logwood blacks leave an ash con- 
taining iron, and can therefore be readily distinguished. 

3. Determine the fastness of the finished black to soap, 
soda, light, " greening," acids, perspiration, and crocking. 

4. Examine the black for its quality. The various 
blacks found on cotton goods dyed by different methods 
have blue, red, or green casts. The intensity of the black 
depends among other things on the amount of anilin 
oil used. 

5. Tests for blacks encountered on cotton goods, as 
compared with anilin black: 

Bleaching powder: A \° Tw. solution intensifies ani- 
lin black. A 4 Tw. solution turns anilin black a red 
brown. Characteristic reactions. 

Stannous chloride (with hydrochloric acid) — color not 
affected. Distinction from sulphur black. 

Sodium hydrosulphite — color removed but returns on 
washing. Distinction from diazo-blacks. 

Boiling water — color unaffected and water remains 
clear. Distinction from direct blacks. 

Boiling dilute sulphuric acid — color does not turn 
red. Distinction from logwood black. 

Mercerization. 
Materials. 
Turkey-red oil, sodium silicate, soap, used for boiling 
off .the yarn previous to mercerizing. 

Caustic soda, used in a concentration of 55 to 6o° Tw. 
(1.3 sp. gr.) at 65 F. for mercerizing. 



Il8 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Alcohol and glycerol, added to the mercerizing liquor to 
facilitate the uniform impregnation of the yarn. Use 
about 5% on weight of goods. 

Glucose and ether, added to the mercerizing liquor to 
avoid the necessity of exerting tension (obsolete). 

Zinc oxide, an adjunct to the mercerizing liquor. 

Ammonia, added to the rinsing water to neutralize any 
free acid. 

Acetic acid and tartaric acid, used for giving the yarn 
the effect of the "silk scroop." 

Sulphuric acid, used for neutralizing the excess of 
caustic soda liquor which remains in the goods after 
washing. 

Process. 

i. The yarn is boiled off with soap, soda or sulphated 
oil, not with caustic alkalis. 

2. Rinse and whizz. 

3. Mercerize under tension (temperature never above 
65° F.). 

4. Rinse in fresh water. 

5. Rinse in water acidified with acetic acid or sul- 
phuric acid (cold). 

6. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water. 

7. If mineral acids have been used the goods are 
now soaped. 

8. Dry. 

It is preferable to singe the yarn before mercerizing 
and bleach the yarn after it has been mercerized. 

Products. 
1. Examination of the cotton fiber before merceriza- 
tion; long stapled Egyptian or Sea Island cotton is best 
adapted for purposes of mercerization. 



CARBONIZATION 119 

2. Determination of the tensile strength of the raw 
yarn before mercerizing. 

3. Determination of the tensile strength of the yarn 
after mercerizing. 

4. Examination of the product for the quality of the 
lustre. 

5. Examination of the product for the silk-scroop. 

6. Examination of the product for the affinity for dyes. 



Carbonization. 

Materials. 

Carbonizing agents: Sulphuric acid of sp. gr. — 1.025. 
Hydrochloric acid in the gaseous form. 
Aluminium chloride of sp. gr. 1.050. 
Magnesium chloride of sp. gr. 1.075. 
Sodium silicate. 

Sodium bisulphate of sp. gr. 1.050. 
Sodium carbonate, used for neutralizing the acid left in 
the goods after carbonization. 

Process. 

1. Impregnate with sulphuric acid of 5 Tw. (1.025 
sp. gr.) at ordinary temperatures for about two hours. 

2. Extract in the whizzer. 

3. Dry at 100 F. and finally at 150 F. for 5 hours. 

4. Rinse in fresh water. 

5. Neutralize any free acid which may have remained 
in the goods by working in a bath of sodium carbonate 
of 3 Tw. 

6. Rinse thoroughly. 



120 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

Products. 

i. Detection of acid spots. These are due to im- 
perfect neutralization of the sulphuric acid by the soda 
bath and give rise to uneven dyeing. 

2. Detection of soda spots. These are due to imper- 
fect washing of the goods after the soda bath. 

3. The analysis of regenerated wool (shoddy). De- 
termine 

Water, by drying at 105 C. to constant weight. 

Grease, by extracting with ether. 

Ash, by igniting in a porcelain crucible. 

Cotton, by dissolving the wool with caustic soda. 

Length of fiber by measurement. 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 



Areometry or Hydrometry. 

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY, BAUME DEGREES AND 
TWADDLE DEGREES. 



Tw. 


B£ 


Sp. Gr. 


Tw. 


B6. 


Sp. Gr. 


Tw. 


B6. 


Sp. Gr. 


o 





1. 000 


32 


19.8 


1. 160 


64 


35-o 


1.320 


i 


0.7 


1.005 


33 


20.3 


1. 165 


65 


35-4 


I-325 


2 


1.4 


1. 010 


34 


20.9 


1. 170 


66 


35-8 


1-330 


3 


2.1 


1. 015 


35 


21.4 


i-i75 


67 


36.2 


1-335 


4 


2.7 


1.020 


36 


22.0 


1. 180 


68 


36.6 


1.340 


5 


3-4 


1.025 


37 


22.5 


1. 185 


69 


37-o 


1-345 


6 


4.1 


1.030 


38 


23.0 


1. 190 


7o 


37-4 


i.35o 


7 


4.7 


1 -03S 


39 


23-5 


1 -195 


7i 


37.8 


1-355 


8 


5-4 


1.040 


40 


24.0 


1.200 


72 


38.2 


1.360 


9 


6.0 


1.045 


4i 


24-5 


1.205 


73 


38.6 


1.365 


IO 


6.7 


1.050 


42 


25.0 


1. 2 10 


74 


39-o 


i.37o 


ii 


7-4 


i-°55 


43 


25.5 


1. 215 


75 


39-4 


1-375 


12 


8.0 


1.060 


44 


26.0 


1.220 


76 


39-8 


1.380 


13 


8.7 


1.065 


45 


26.4 


1.225 


77 


40.1 


1.385 


14 


9.4 


1.070 


46 


26.9 


1.230 


78 


40.5 


1.390 


15 


10. 


I-Q75 


47 


27.4 


1-235 


79 


40.8 


i-395 


16 


10.6 


1.080 


48 


27.9 


1.240 


80 


41.2 


1.400 


17 


11. 2 


1.085 


49 


28.4 


1.245 


81 


41.6 


1.405 


18 


11. 9 


1.090 


5o 


28.8 


1.250 


82 


42.0 


1. 410 


19 


12.4 


1.095 


5i 


29.3 


1.255 


? 3 


42.3 


1. 415 


20 


13.0 


1. 100 


52 


29.7 


1.260 


84 


42.7 


1.420 


21 


13.6 


1. 105 


53 


30.2 


1.265 


85 


43-i 


1.425 


22 


14.2 


1. no 


54 


30.6 


1.270 


86 


43-4 


1.430 


23 


14.9 


1. 115 


55 


3i. 1 


1.275 


87 


43-8 


1-435 


24 


15.4 


1. 120 


56 


3i.5 


1.280 


88 


44.1 


1.440 


25 


16.0 


1. 125 


57 


32.0 


1.285 


89 


44-4 


1-445 


26 


16. s 


1. 130 


58 


32.4 


1.290 


90 


44-8 


1.450 


27 


17. 1 


1. 135 


59 


32.8 


i-295 


9i 


45-i 


1-455 


*8 


17.7 


1. 140 


60 


33-3 


1.300 


92 


45-4 


1.460 


29 


18.3 


1. 145 


61 


33-7 


1.305 


93 


45-8 


1.465 


30 


18.8 


1. 150 


62 


34.2 


1. 310 


94 


46.1 


1.470 


3i 


19-3 


1. 155 


63 


34-6 


1. 3i5 


95 


46.4 


1-475 



123 



124 



METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY, BAUME DEGREES AND 

twaddle degrees. — Continued. 



Tw. 


B6. Sp 


.Gr. 


Tw. 


B6. 


Sp. Gr. 


Tw. 


B6. 


Sp. Gr. 


96 


46.7 1 


480 


122 


54.7 


1. 610 


148 


61.4 


1.740 


97 


47-i 1 


485 


123 


55-0 


1.615 


149 


61.6 


1-745 


98 


47.4 1 


490 


124 


55-2 


1.620 


150 


61.8 


I.750 


99 


47.8 1 


495 


125 


55-5 


I.625 


151 


62.1 


i-755 


100 


48.1 1 


500 


126 


55-8 


1.630 


152 


62.3 


1.760 


IOI 


48.4 1 


5o5 


127 


56.0 


1.635 


153 


62.5 


1.765 


102 


48.7 1 


5io 


128 


56.3 


I.640 


154 


62.8 


1.770 


103 


49.0 1 


515 


129 


56.6 


1.645 


155 


63.0 


1-775 


104 


49-4 1 


520 


130 


56.9 


1.650 


156 


63.2 


1.780 


i°5 


49-7 1 


525 


131 


57-i 


1.655 


157 


63-5 


1.785 


106 


So-o 1 


53o 


132 


57-4 


1.660 


158 


63-7 


1.790 


107 


So. 3 1 


535 


133 


57-7 


1.665 


159 


64.0 


1.795 


108 


50.6 1 


54o 


134 


57.9 


I.670 


160 


64.2 


1.800 


109 


50.9 1 


545 


135 


58.2 


1-675 


161 


64.4 


1.805 


no 


51.2 1 


55o 


136 


58.4 


1.680 


162 


64.6 


1. 810 


in 


5i-5 1 


555 


137 


58.7 


1.685 


163 


64.8 


1.815 


112 


51.8 1 


560 


138 


58.9 


1.690 


164 


65.0 


1.820 


"3 


52. 1 1 


565 


139 


59-2 


1.695 


165 


65.2 


1.825 


114 


52.4 1 


57o 


140. 


59-5 


I.700 


166 


65.5 


1.830 


"5 


S2.7 1 


575 


141 


59-7 


I-705 


167 


65.7 


1.835 


116 


53.o 1 


580 


142 


60.0 


1. 710 


568 


65.9 


1.840 


117 


53-3 1 


585 


143 


60.2 


I- 715 


169 


66.1 


1.845 


118 


53-6 1 


59o 


144 


60.4 


1.720 


170 


66.3 


1.850 


119 


53-9 1 


595 


145 


60.6 


I-725 


171 


66.5 


1.855 


120 


54. 1 1 


600 


146 


60.9 


I-730 


172 


66.7 


1.860 


121 


54.4 1 


605 


147 


61. 1 


1-735 


173 


67.0 


1.865 



The determination of the strength of acids and alkalis 
by means of the hydrometer or spindle is as a rule open 
to objection as the solution may contain salts in addition 
to the particular acid or alkali which is being tested for. 
The safe method is to make a titration with a standard 
or deci-normal solution of hydrochloric acid or sodium 
hydroxide, as the case may be. 



APPENDIX II 

Steiger and Gruenberg's Table. 

For the calculation of the weighting when the per- 
centage of nitrogen in the silk is known. The figures 
for Japan silk are based on a content of 20% of gum 
while the figures for yellow Italian silk correspond to 
24% of gum. 





Equivalent to a 




Equivalent to a 


Nitrogen 


Weighting. 


Nitrogen 
Found, 


Weighting. 


Pound, 










per cent. 


Japan Silk, 


Yellow 
Italian, 


per cent. 


Japan Silk, 


Yellow 
Italian, 




per cent. 


per cent. 




per cent. 


per cent. 




Under par 


Under par 




Above par 


Above par 


i»-33 


27.9 


31-5 


7.00 


88.5 


79.8 


17.0 


22.3 


26.1 


6.75 


95- 8 


86.0 


16.0 


17-4 


21.S 


6.50 


103.2 


93-i 


iS-o 


11. 9 


16.3 


6.25 


III. 4 


100.9 


14.0 


5-7 


10.3 


6.00 


120.3 


109.2 


i3-o 


1.6 
Above par 


3-4 
Above par 


5-75 


130. 1 


118. 4 


12.0 


10. 1 


4.6 


S.50 


140.2 


128.3 


11. 


20.1 


14. 1 


5-25 


151.6 


139.2 


10. 


32.1 


25.6 


5.00 


164.3 


151-1 


95 


39-1 


32.2 


4.75 


178.2 


164.2 


9.0 


46.9 


39- S 


4-5° 


193.8 


179.2 


& o' 5 


55-4 


47-7 


4.25 


210.8 


195-4 


8.0 


65.1 


S6.9 


4.00 


230-3 


213-9 


7.75 


7o-S 


62.0 


3-5° 


277.1 


258.6 


7-50 


76.2 


67.4 


3.00 


340.6 


3i8-S 


7-25 


82.1 


73-2 


2.50 


428.6 


402.2 



Note. By " par weight " of the silk is meant the weight of the raw 
silk. 



125 



APPENDIX III 
Yarn Counts (Number or Titre). 

By the "count" of a yarn is meant the number of 
hanks of a given length which weigh one pound. 

Cotton yarn single i's contains 840 yards per hank 
and this hank weighs one pound. Single eighties (i/80's) 
cotton yarn is so fine that one pound contains 80 hanks 
or 80 X 840 = 67,200 yards. Two eighties or eighties 
two-ply (2/8o , s) is a yarn composed of two threads of 1/80 
twisted together. One yard of this yarn will therefore 
weigh twice as much as 1/80, and is equal in weight to 
one yard of 1/40. Single forties cotton yarn contains 
40 X 840 = 33,600 yards per pound. As an example of 
the use to which the various sizes are put we have 2/150, 
which is used for sheer organdies, and 2/5 which is used 
for upholstery goods. 

Worsted yarn single i's (i/i's) contains 560 yards 
per pound; therefore 2/6o's. (== 1/30) will contain 
30 X 560 = 16,800 yards per pound. 

Woolen yarn — "cut system," single i's (called one 
cut) contains 300 yards per pound; therefore 30*3 cut 
is a yarn of which 30 X 300, or 9000 yards, weigh one 
pound. These yarns are as a rule " single." 

Woolen yarn — "run system," single i's (called one 
run) contains 1600 yards per pound; therefore 2/6o , s 
run (= 1/30 run) indicates a yarn of which 30 X 1600, 
or 48,000, yards weigh one pound. 

126 



APPENDIX 



127 



Silk yarn — thrown. The size of these yarns is always 
given for their weight "in gum"; that is, their condition 
before boiling-off and dyeing. 

"One dram" silk is that of which 1000 yards weigh 
one dram avoirdupois; hence one pound contains 256,000 
yards. 



Weight in drams of 
1000 yards 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Yards per pound 
avoirdupois 


256,000 


128,000 


8 5>333 


64,000 


51,200 


42,667 


Weight in drams of 
1000 yards 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Yards per pound 
avoirdupois 


36,57i 


32,000 


28,444 


25,600 


23»273 


2i,333 



The unit of the "international" silk skein (legal In 
France) is 500 meters in length and weighs 0.05 gram. 
This is known as one "denier." A silk skein marked 
20 deniers would then contain 500 meters and would 
weigh 20 X 0.05 or 1.0 grams. 

Silk yarn — spun. The count indicates the number 
of hanks in a pound, and one hank is equal to 840 
yards. 2/3o's spun silk is made by twisting together two 
threads of i/6o's. 

Flax yarns — machine spun. In the English sys- 
tem the count of the yarn indicates the number of leas 
in a pound and one lea is equal to 300 yards. Thus 
number 20 linen yarn is that size of which 20 X 300 
or 6000 yards weigh one pound. 



GLOSSARY 



GLOSSARY 

Wool Terms. 

Australian wools. — Those obtained from the various districts 
of the Australian continent. Arranged in the order of their quality 
they are Geelong, Port Philip, Sidney, Adelaide, Tasmania, New 
Zealand. Other types of Australian wool are Brisbane, Melbourne, 
Botany, Victoria, Queensland, South Australian, New South Wales. 

Blood. — "Full blood," " half blood," " three-eighths blood," 
" quarter blood," are terms used to denote the proportion of 
merino blood in a sheep. They are at present used arbitrarily 
to designate particular grades of wool. 

Braid wool. — The lowest grade of wool. It is more lustrous 
and crimpy than " common wool." 

Britch wool. — One of the lower grades of wool. 

Burry wool. — Applied to certain South American wools be- 
cause of a spiral burr which is entangled in the wool. It can be 
removed only by carbonization. Some wools from the western 
United States <x>ntain large burrs, but these are removed in the comb- 
ing process. The burrs are then found in the noils, from which 
they are removed by carbonizing. 

Carpet wool (foreign wools). — Coarse wools from southern 
Europe, China, Persia, Russia, Scotland, Turkey, etc. 

Carbonized wodl. — See Regenerated wool. 

Carding wool. — Short-fiber wool, suitable for spinning yarn 
on the woolen system. It is possible to spin these wools to 6o's cut, 
but in practice they are seldom spun finer than 3o's. 

Clothing wool. — See Carding wool. 

Combing wool. — Long as well as medium length wool which 
is suitable for the manufacture of worsted yarn. Formerly only 
the very long fibers could be used and they were called " combing 
wools" to distinguish them from the short or "clothing wools." 
In the modern combing processes all fibers less than ij inches in 
length are rejected as " noils." 

131 



132 GLOSSARY 

Colonial wool. — That produced in Australia, New Zealand, 
and Cape of Good Hope. 

Common wool. — One of the lower grades of wool. 

Cotted fleece (cots). — One in which the fibers have become 
much entangled. Such fleeces are not in demand, as the wool is 
very difficult to card and spin. 

Dead wool. — Wool which has been removed from the skin of 
the dead animal (obsolete). See Pulled wool. 

Defective fleece. — A fleece obtained from old, sick, neglected, 
improperly fed sheep or such as have been exposed to sudden changes 
of temperature. The wool lacks strength and elasticity. 

Delaine. — i. See Combing wool. 

2. " Muslin delaine " is a fabric made of cotton warp and 
wool filling. 

3. " Moussline de laine " is a light worsted fabric made from 
fine, strong, and long-stapled wool. 

Discolored wool. — See Stained wool. 

Domestic wool. — That produced in the United States. The 
two main classes are : 

Territory wools (including those from Wyoming, Montana, Utah, 
the Dakotas, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, 
Oregon) and fleece wools (including those from Ohio, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Virginia, Illinois, 
Kentucky, Missouri, Texas, California). 

Extract. — See Regenerated wool. 

Fleece-washed wool. — That which has been washed while on 
the back of the sheep. 

Fleece wool. — That shorn from the living animal. (See Pulled 
wool.) Also applied to wools not classed as territory wools. 

Flocks. — The "Short material obtained in the operation of shear- 
ing worsteds. They are used for adding weight to fabrics. For 
this purpose they are added to the liquor in the fulling of woolens, 
being inclosed and felted by the protruding fibers. 

Foreign wool. — As types of these may be mentioned Awassi, 
Aleppo, Bokhara, China, Cordova, Donskoi, Joria, Kandahar, 



GLOSSARY 133 

Karadi, Khorassan, Mossul, Pyrenean, Vickanier. The majority 
of these are used in the manufacture of carpets. 

Garnetted stock. — Yarn waste and the like which has been 
put through a garnetting machine in order to open the stock so that 
it may be respun. 

Grades of wool. — The method of grading wool varies some- 
what with the particular district in which it is done. Some domes- 
tic grades are xxx, xx, x, i blood, i blood, \ blood, and common. 

Hair. — The term used in general to designate the epidermal 
covering of various mammals. It may be divided into three dis- 
tinct classes: 

1. Wool which is obtained from the several varieties of sheep. 

2. Fur obtained from the rabbit and the cat. It is too smooth 
to be spun by the usual methods. 

3. True hair obtained from goats, etc., may be classified as 
Soft wool hair, from the alpaca, llama, vicufia, camel, cow 
Stiff beard hair and soft beard hair, from Russian cows. 
Short body hair, long mane and tail hair, from the horse. 

Hog wool (teg wool). — The first fleece from a sheep which has 
not been shorn as a lamb. 

Kemps. — Short fibers of uneven diameter, deficient in crimp, 
strength, felting power, and lustre. They are obtained from dis- 
eased sheep, from low-bred sheep, as well as from the " leg and 
neck " wool of good merino sheep. The microscopic examination 
shows the medulla and the scales of the fibers to be imperfectly 
developed. It is for this reason that dyes and mordants are not 
attracted by the fiber. 

Lamb's wool. — That taken from animals before they are six 
months old. 

Lustre wools. — A synonym for the Lincoln and Leicester types 
of wool. They are, as the name indicates, unusually lustrous. Some 
wools possess so smooth a surface that they are very difficult to 
dye. Lustre wools are straight, smooth, and stiff. 

Merino. — 1. The name of a breed of sheep. The wool pro- 
duced by these sheep has always served as a standard for compari- 
son, — thus the proportion of merino blood in a sheep is indicated 



134 GLOSSARY 

by the terms J blood, f blood, i blood, etc. As prominent types 
we have Spanish, Silesian, Saxon, and Australian merinos. The 
wool is strong, elastic, and wavy. 

2. The term applied to yarn made of a mixture of wool and cot- 
ton. It was originally understood to be a 50/50 mix, that is, half 
wool and half cotton, but the term is at present applied to under- 
garments containing no wool at all. The " wool " effect is obtained 
by " raising the nap." 

3. The name of a fabric made of a very soft wool such as is ob- 
tained from merino sheep. 

Mohair. — The fiber obtained from the Angora goat. The 
best grades are obtained from Turkey, while good grades are 
obtained from Cape Colony (Africa). The mohair produced in 
the United States is much coarser than the oriental product, due 
to the fact that the breeding is carried on rather indiscriminately. 

Mungo. — See Regenerated wool. 

Non-lustre wools. — Applied to the merino wools because of 
their deficiency in this respect. These wools possess much more 
curl than the lustre wools. 

Non-shrinkable wool. — Wool which has been treated with 
a solution of bleaching powder. When examined under the micro- 
scope the scales appear fused to the main cylinder. The wool has 
lost to a great extent its felting property — in other words, it can- 
not shrink. The fiber obtained by this treatment has an increased 
affinity for dyestuffs, is more lustrous, stronger, and in some cases 
acquires a " silk scroop." 

Noils. — See Tops. 

Nubs. — A term used in the spinning of novelty yarns. 

Overgrown wool. — Individual dead fibers occurring in fleece 
wool having been forced out by the roots previous to the time of 
shearing. They are harsh, weak, and difficult to dye. 

Pitchy wool. — See Unwashed wools. 

Pulled wools. — Those obtained from tanneries. They may be 
" brush pulled " or " lime pulled." The former are obtained by 
allowing lukewarm water to run over the hide and the wool whereby 
the fibers are loosened. The wool is then cleaned by a revolving 



GLOSSARY 135 

brush and removed by hand. In the lime method the skins are 
put through a sweating process, after which they are immersed in 
a bath of lime water. The pores of the skin are thus opened, and 
the wool may be readily removed by pulling. Owing to the fact 
that the lime removes part of the sulphur, the " lime-pulled " wools 
are always more or less brittle. When examined under the micro- 
scope the medulla, the endpoints of the cortical layer, and the space 
between the scales are seen to be stopped up with solid particles of 
lime. All pulled wools may be recognized under the microscope 
by the presence of the ovoid hair root. 

Raw wool. — See Unwashed wools. 

Regenerated wool. — The products found in trade under the 
names of Shoddy, Mungo, and Extract. The fibers vary in length 
from 0.5 to 2.5 centimeters. They are obtained from knitting-mill 
waste, from tailor clippings, and from old clothes, — Shoddy from 
fabrics which have not been felted, Extract from half -wool fabrics, 
and Mungo from goods which have been fulled. Examined under 
the microscope a variety of colors can frequently be observed, the 
ends are in most cases frayed, and the scales are either missing or 
corroded. These products are sometimes termed carbonized wool, 
as the cotton is removed from the rags by treatment with sulphuric 
acid. The vegetable fibers are thereby destroyed and carbonized, 
and may be dusted from the dry residue of wool. 

Rambouillet. — The name of a breed of French sheep. They 
have been crossed with merino sheep, so that those found at the 
present day in the United States are not full-blooded. The wool 
is fine, but short and weak. 

Seedy wool. — That obtained from sheep which have been fed 
on timothy and the like. The result is that the seed has become 
. embedded in the fleece. 

Shearlings. — A term used in grading pulled wools. Wools which 
have been pulled a month or two after the animal has been sheared. 

Southern wools. — Those produced in New Mexico, Arizona, 
and Colorado. 

South American wools. — These are mostly crossbreed wools 
found in trade as: Buenos Ayres, Rio Platte, Punta Arena, 
Montevideo. 



136 GLOSSARY 

Shoddy. — See Regenerated wool. 

Stained wool. — Wool which has been discolored by urine or 
other excrements. 

Tanner's wool. — See Pulled wool. 

Territory wool. — That produced in the Dakotas, Arizona, 
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming. 

Teg wool. — See Hog wool. 

Tops and Noils. Terms used to designate the product and 
by-product obtained in the manufacture of worsted yarns. The 
source of the raw material may be sheep, goats, or camels. Tops 
is the name applied to the slubbing which comes off the combs; 
the staple varies in length from ij to 7 inches. Noils represent 
the short, burred, and nopped fibers which are eliminated during 
this process. 

Unwashed wools. — Those from which the major portion of 
the dried sweat and grease has not been removed while the wool 
was on the sheep's back. They are also known as "raw wools" 
or " wool in grease" or " pitchy wools." 

Vigogne. — A term applied to yarn made of a mixture of wool 
and cotton. The name is now applied to yarn containing nothing 
but cotton. The wooly appearance may be obtained by dyeing 
the cotton with substantive colors in the loose state, i.e., before it 
is spun. 

Washed wools. — Those which have been washed while the 
fleece was still on the back of the sheep. 

Wether wool. — That which is cut from sheep after the first or 
" hog " fleece has been removed. 

Wool. — The soft, hairy covering of the skin of the sheep. 

Cotton Terms. 

Absorbent cotton. — Natural cotton from which the waxy and 
pectic matter has been removed by saponification and emulsion 
with boiling caustic soda. After the removal of this encrusting 
matter the fibers absorb water very readily, so that this product finds 
extensive use in surgery. 



GLOSSARY 137 

Animalized cotton. — That which is prepared by coating cot- 
ton yarn with a solution of albumin, and then steaming in order to 
coagulate the coating. Other substances which have been recom- 
mended for this purpose are tannic acid, gelatin, casein, and wool 
dissolved in caustic soda. The object in all cases rs to produce a 
yarn which may be dyed fast shades with the substantive as well 
as with the basic dyes, in a single bath. 

Bearded motes. — The dark fragments of immature or im- 
perfect seeds observed in cotton yarns. 

Bender's cotton. — Any cotton grown in the bends of the Mis- 
sissippi river. It is of good quality and good length of staple. 
Much of it is doubtless " Peeler." The variety known as " blue 
bender's" is the result of exposure to storm and weather. 

Bleached cotton. — That which has been treated with chloride 
of lime in order to destroy those coloring matters which cannot be 
removed by " boiling off." 

Boiled-off cotton. — That from which the waxy and pectic 
matter has been removed, e.g., by boiling in a }% solution of 
caustic soda. 

Carded cotton. — Cotton as delivered by the carding engine in 
the form of a sliver. 

Colored cotton. — This term is sometimes applied to the buff 
colored Egyptian fiber, the brown nankin cotton of China, and 
the terra-cotta colored cotton obtained in Peru. 

Combed cotton. — That which has been prepared in a combing 
machine in order to bring all the fibers parallel to each other. The 
yarns made by this method are much more even and may be spun 
into much finer numbers than those spun from " carded cotton." 

Cotton. — The white, downy seed-hairs which envelop the seeds 
of the cotton plant. 

Cotton-worsted. — A term applied to fabrics made totally of 
cotton, but which are finished so that the fabric closely resembles 
the cloth made of worsted yarn. 

Dead Cotton. — The term applied to fibers which have not 
ripened and in which therefore the cells have not yet separated. 
They are straight without any twist, and the lumen has entirely dis- 



138 GLOSSARY 

appeared. The cross-section shows the inner canal to be stopped 
up or at times collapsed. As these fibers are weak and have no 
affinity for dyestuffs they are almost worthless, and should therefore 
be detected if present. 

Defective cotton. — Cotton which is unripe, imperfectly de- 
veloped, dead, tinted, or stained. 

Egyptian cotton. — That produced in Egypt (especially Gos~ 
sypium barbadense). It is characterized by a long staple, silky 
fiber, and great strength. Ashmouni, Mitafifi, Bamia, Abbasi, 
Gallini, are names given to the several varieties. Egyptian cotton 
is either white or light buff in color. 

Gassed. — A term applied to cotton yarns which have been passed 
by a gas flame in order to remove the protruding fibers. The most 
modern method is to pass them rapidly over a piece of platinum 
foil which is heated to a white heat by electricity. 

Gun cotton. — That which has been nitrated with a mixture 
of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. It is the most highly 
nitrated compound of cellulose, very explosive, and insoluble in 
alcohol and ether. 

Immature cotton. — See Unripe cotton. 

Indian cotton. — That produced in India by Gossypium her- 
baceum. It occurs in trade as Bengal, Comptah, Dharwar, Dhol- 
lerah, Broach, Oomrawuttee, Hingunghat and Surat. 

Kekchi cotton. — That cultivated in Guatemala by the Kekchi 
Indians. 

Kidney cotton. — A synonym for Gossypium peruvianum, cul- 
tivated in Brazil and Peru. Cotton in which the seeds of each cell 
are closely adherent in an oval mass, hence the name. 

Lint. — The cotton fiber with the seed, in the condition as it 
is removed from the boll. 

Linters. — The short fibers left on the seed after the first ginning. 
They are used for the manufacture of gun-cotton, lustre-cellulose, 
and cotton batting. 

Lisled cotton. — See Gassed. The "lisle finish" on cotton 
hosiery is produced in a similar manner. 



GLOSSARY 139 

Makko cotton. — The first variety of cotton which was culti- 
vated in Egypt (from Maco-Bey, a cotton planter). The term is 
also applied to underwear made of buff-colored Egyptian cotton. 

Maranham cotton. — A variety of cotton produced in South 
America by Gossyfrium peruvianum. 

Mature cotton. — When viewed under the microscope mature 
cotton is seen to resemble an irregularly twisted ribbon with thick 
rounded edges. The thickest part of the fiber is at the root end. 

Mercerized cotton. — Cotton in the form of yarn or fabric 
which has been subjected to hydrolysis by the action of caustic soda 
of about 6o° Tw. (30% NaOH). If this be done while the yarn 
or fabric is under tension, a fiber much more lustrous and stronger 
than natural cotton will result. The so treated fiber also possesses 
an increased affinity for the basic dyes. When examined under the 
microscope it appears as a cylinder without any twist. It is this 
cylindrical form, very probably, to which its great lustre is due. 
Mercerized cotton gives the following reaction, which is character- 
istic of hydrated cellulose. Prepare two solutions: 

1. Five grams of potassium iodide and 0.5 gram of iodine crystals 
are dissolved in 16 grams of water. 

2. Twenty-five grams of zinc chloride are dissolved in 12 grams 
of water. Mix the two solutions, allow to settle, and decant. 

If mercerized cotton and natural cotton be immersed in this solu- 
tion for about 3 minutes, both samples will be colored brown. 
Place in a dish filled with distilled water (previously boiled and 
cooled) and wash until the brown iodine solution has been 
removed, leaving a dark, blue-black color. Place in fresh water, 
— natural cotton will lose its color in about 5 minutes, while 
mercerized cotton retains its color for about one hour. The sam- 
ples must be kept under water during the test, as they otherwise 
discolor, owing to oxidation of the iodine. 

Mock Egyptian cotton. — Ordinary white cotton which has 
been tinted a light buff in imitation of the genuine Egyptian 
cotton. 

Nankeen cotton. — A cotton fabric woven on handlooms in 
Shanghai (China). 



140 GLOSSARY 

Nankin cotton. — A yellowish-brown cotton produced in China 
by G. religiosum. 

Neps. — Small white specks in the baled cotton, very difficult 
to remove in spinning and often appearing in the completed fabric 
as white dots. They are tangled, weak, and undeveloped fibers, due 
in part to picking the cotton before maturity. They are also ob- 
tained from bolls which have been forced open to extract the lint, 
and which have therefore not had the necessary exposure to the sun. 
Neps are further obtained from diseased bolls. 

Nun's cotton. — A variety of cotton produced in India by 
G. religiosum. This cotton was formerly picked by nuns and has for 
ages been used in the manufacture of clothing for the Brahmins, — 
the religious caste of Hindoo society. The seed is small and closely 
surrounded by the fiber, so that the cotton cannot be cleaned by 
the ginning process. (Synonyms, " Nurma " and " Deo.") 

Peeler cotton and Allen cotton are varieties of long staple 
upland cotton of ij inches staple, cultivated in Mississippi. 

Pernam cotton. — That obtained from Gossypium peruvianum 
in the mountain districts of the Andes (Peru). 

Raw cotton. — The cotton fiber as it appears in trade, the 
seeds having been removed by ginning. The raw cotton fiber is 
surrounded by waxy and pectic matter which must be removed 
by " boiling off " before dyeing. 

Santos cotton. — The Orleans variety of cotton grown in 
Brazil. 

Schreinerized cotton — A cotton fabric to which a lustre 
has been imparted by passing the goods between heavy, engraved 
calenders under pressure. 

Sea Island cotton. — That produced in the Barbadoes Islands, 
near the coast of Georgia and the Carolinas, by G. barbadense. 
It is strong, long, and lustrous. 

Seed cotton. — i. The fiber as taken from the plant before 
the seeds have been removed. 

2. Cotton which has been grown in order to obtain good seeds 
for replanting. 



GLOSSARY 141 

Short staple cotton. — Cotton fiber i to 1 J inches in length. 

Singed cotton. — See Gassed yarns. 

South American cotton. — As types of this group may be men- 
tioned Pernam, Santos, and Ceara. 

Stained cotton. — That which has been exposed to frost with 
the result that the fiber is colored a pale buff, resembling Egyptian. 
It is not so valuable as carefully cultivated white cotton. 

Staple cotton. — A synonym for long staple upland cotton. 

Surat cotton. — Collective name for the cottons of India. 

Tinged cotton. — That which has been exposed to rain and 
storm and so discolored. 

Unripe cotton. — That obtained from immature bolls after 
the plant has been killed by frost. The fiber possesses little twist 
and the' ribbon is very flat. It is brittle, weak, and incapable of 
taking up dyestuffs. 

Upland cotton. — That grown in the interior upon the higher 
lands of the states. This grade is divided into short staple uplands 
and long staple uplands (Allen, Peeler). 

Silk Terms. 

Bourette silk. — Silk yarn spun from the shorter waste fibers. 
(Bourne = the external floss of the cocoons). 

Boiled-off silk. — That which is obtained by complete removal 
of the gum from raw silk. The average yield is 12 ounces boiled 
off silk from 16 oz. raw silk. 

Carded silk. — Waste silk which has been boiled off and passed 
through the carding machine. It is used for the manufacture of 
spun silk. 

Chappe silk. — Yarn spun from waste silk which has not been 
boiled off. 

Cuit silk. — Prepared from raw silk by thoroughly " boiling 
off " in a bath containing 10 to 15 grams of soap per liter. When 
examined under the microscope it is seen to be devoid of the gran- 
ular layer of gum and composed of but one fiber. It is much more 
lustrous than raw silk. 



142 GLOSSARY 

Ecru silk. — Silk from which only 3 to 4% of the gum has been 
removed by washing in a very weak soap bath. Compare Cuit. 

Florette silk. — A silk yarn spun from the longer waste fibers. 

Floss silk. — See Waste silk. 

Grege. — See Raw silk. 

Noil. — The product obtained in the carding of waste silk. 

Organzine. — Raw silk prepared from the choicest cocoons. 
It consists of two or more threads separately twisted in the same 
direction, then doubled and retwisted in the opposite direction. 
It is used for warps. 

Raw silk (grege or reeled silk). — The product of the reeling 
machine. It is used in the manufacture of tram and organzine. 

Recotti. — The final waste in the manufacture of yarn from 
silk waste. 

Reeled silk. — See Raw silk. 

Silk Shoddy. — The fiber regenerated from fabrics containing silk 
and cotton. (See Regenerated wool.) 

Spun silk. — Yarn made from waste silk by carding and spin- 
ning it like cotton. It may often be recognized by the irregular 
structure of the filaments and by patches of sericin or silk glue 
surrounding the fiber. 

Souple silk. — Raw silk from which 8-10% of the gum has 
been removed by partial boiling off. Compare Cuit. 

Strussa. — Waste obtained from double cocoons. 

Tram. — Raw silk usually prepared from inferior cocoons. It 
consists of two or more single untwisted threads, which are then 
doubled and slightly twisted. It is used for weft (filling). 

Thrown silk. — That produced by " throwing together " and 
slightly twisting two or more threads of raw silk. The product 
may be either tram or organzine. 

Waste silk. — That obtained from the reeling rooms, from 
cocoons spoiled in steaming, from perforated or otherwise imper- 
fect cocoons, from the extreme interior and exterior parts of the 
cocoon. 

Weighted silk. — Silk yarns or fabrics which have been treated 
with solutions of metallic salts or tannin which are readily absorbed 



GLOSSARY 143 

by the fiber. The original intention was to restore the weight 
which was lost in the boiling-off operation. Thus 100 ounces of 
raw silk yielded about 75 ounces of boiled-off silk; in order to 
return 100 ounces to the customer it was necessary to treat the silk 
in order to make up the 25 ounces. At the present day 100 ounces 
of raw silk in many cases come out of the dyehouse weighing 200 or 
300 ounces. 

" In gum." — A term applied to raw silk, that is, such as has 
not been boiled off. 

Frissonnets. — Waste obtained in reeling the cocoons. 

Flax Terms. 

Bleached flax. — That from which the natural coloring matter 
and the incrusting pectic matter have been removed by boiling off 
and subsequent bleaching on the grass or by means of chloride of 
lime. Linen yarns found in trade are classed as " full white," 
"three-quarters white," and " half white." 

Broken flax. — That which has been subjected to the second 
operation in the manufacture of linen yarn. The brittle woody 
center of the stalk is broken up into small pieces by being passed 
through a series of fluted rollers. (Operation 2). 

Combed flax. — See Hackled flax. 

Codilla. — The waste fibers obtained in scutching. 

Dressed flax. — See Hackled flax. 

Gray flax. — Yarn which has been boiled off but not bleached. 

Hackled flax. — That which has been well cleaned by being 
" combed." The fibers are hereby brought to lie almost parallel. 
The product obtained by the hackling operation is dressed flax 
(line) and hackling tow, which is short and more or less tangled. 
(Operation 4.) 

Line. — See Hackled flax. 

Retted flax. — That from which the central woody portion 
of the stem (shive, shore, boon) as well as the gummy matter has 
been removed by fermentation. Flax may be thus treated by 
dew retting, tank retting, or river retting. (Operation 1.) 



144 GLOSSARY 

Scutched flax. — That which has been beaten with a strong 
wooden scutching blade in order to remove the particles of woody 
matter adhering to the fiber. The products obtained by this scutch 
ing operation are scutched flax and scutching tow or codilla. (Oper- 
ation 3.) 

Tow. — The short fibers which are eliminated in the operation 
of combing or hackling flax. It should not be confounded with 
scutching tow, which is properly known as codilla. 

Waterslain flax. — That which has been wholly deprived of its 
gum. It may result toward the end of the retting, when that portion 
of the gummy matter which should remain in the fibers is reduced to 
a mucilaginous state and therefore readily removed by too strong 
a flow of water. 



CURRENT LITERATURE ON TEXTILE 
ANALYSIS. 



The references given below are to be found in the 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry (of the 
years 1901 to 1907 inclusive) on the pages indicated. 



1901. 

358. Detection of Oxycellulose in Cotton Goods. Philip. 
509. Detection and Determination of Artificial Silk. Duyk. 
1 1 47. Detection of Weighting on Silk. Romann. 



1902. 

105. Analysis of Shoddy. Meggitt. 
113. Examination of Artificial Silk. Strehlenert. 
1024. Examination of Black Dyed Cotton Goods. Whittaker. 



1903. 

415. Adulteration of Raw Silk with Fats. Gnehm. 
622. Removal of Weighting from Silk. Mueller. 
730. Determination of Shrinkage of Raw Wool. Tingle & Morrison. 
825. Determination of Weighting on Silk. Zell. 
968. Determination of Weighting on Silk. Gnehm. 
968. Action of Hydrofluo-silicic Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid on Silk. 
Gnehm and Weber. 



1904. 

563. Determination of Crude Fiber in Ligneous Fibers. Duschetschkin. 
783. Examination of Natural and Artificial Silks. Herzog. 
783. Action of Hydrofluo-silicic Acid on Silk. Gnehm. 

H5 



I46 METHODS OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY 

1906. 

610. Detection of Tin in Woolen Goods'. Paterson. 
687. Chemical Characteristics of "Ecru" Silk. Gianoli. 
1 121. Determination of the Weighting on Silk. Persoz. 



1007. 

195. Detection of Tin in Mordanted Fabrics. Scheurer. 
252. Determination of the Weighting on Silk. Gianoli. 
605. Determination of the -Weighting on Silk. Sisley. 
1 195. Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide on Bleached Cotton Goods. 
Scheurer. 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Absorbent cotton 136 

Acid, detection of, in bleached cotton 105 

Acid, glyoxalic 6 

Acid, hydrochloric, as reagent 3, 4 

Acid, nitric, as reagent 4 

Acid spots in shoddy 120 

Acid, sulpho-phosphoric 78 

sulphuric, as reagent 4 

sylvic 35 

tannic, for turkey-red 108 

tannic, "ink" reaction for 38 

Agents, antiseptic 40 

filling 40 

fireproofing 40 

hygroscopic '. 40 

illuminating 40 

softening 40 

stiffening 40 

waterproofing 40 

weighting 40 

Alkaline oleates, estimation of 59 

Alpaca 14 

Amyloid, formation of 22 

Analysis, definition of 3 

Anilin black, 82 

Anilin black, materials for 114 

process for 114 

products of 116 

Animalized cotton 137 

Antherea assama 19 

Antherea mylitta 16, 19 

Antherea peryni 19 

Areometry, table for 123 

Arsenic in textiles 72 

147 



I48 INDEX 

PAGE 

Arsenic in textiles, literature on 72 

Ash, determination of, in bleached cotton 103 

Attacus atlas 19 

Attacus ricini 19 

Australian wool 12, 131 

o-naphthol, as a reagent 4 

Baume* degrees, table of 123 

Bearded motes 137 

Beard hair 133 

Benders cotton 137 

Biuret reaction 11 

Black, Prudhomme's 114 

Blacks, tests for cotton 117 

Bleached cotton, color of 106 

Bleached cotton \ 137 

Bleached flax 143 

Blood 131 

Blue bender's cotton 106 

Body hair 133 

Boehmeria tenacissima 26 

Boiled-off cotton 137 

Boiled-off silk 141 

Bombyx mori 15 

Bombyx mori, silk produced by 17 

Bone-dry wool 1 . . .68 

Bookbinder's cloths 50 

Bourette silk •■* 141 

Bowstring fiber 21 

Braid wool 131 

Breaking strain, meaning of 84 

Britch wool 131 

Broken flax 143 

Bromelia fiber 21 

Brush pulled wool 134 

Burry wool 131 

Calcium hypochlorite, as a reagent 4 

Calculation of weighting 73, 75, 79 

Cannabis sativa 20 

Carbon, detection of in wool 9 



INDEX 149 

PAGE 

Carbonization, chemistry of 2 

materials for 119 

products of 120 

process of 119 

Carbonized wool 131 

Carbonizing agents 119 

Carded cotton 137 

Carded silk 141 

Carding wool 131 

Carpet wool 131 

Cashmere, a fabric 15 

Cashmere, a goat 14 

Cashmere shawls 14 

Cats, hairs from the 15 

Caustic potash, as a reagent 3 

Cellulose, affinity of, for coloring matters 23 

Cellulose, dry reactions of 24 

Cellulose, empirical formula of 24 

Cellulose fibers, action of calcium hypochlorite on 23 

hydrochloric acid on 22 

hydrofluoric acid on 22 

nitric acid on 22 

organic acids on 23 

Schweitzer's solution on 23 

sodium hydroxide on 21 

sulphuric acid on 22 

zinc chloride on 23 

Chappe silk 141 

"Charge" on silks 80 

Cheviot shirting 15 

Cheviot wool 13 

China, camel hair from 14 

China, goats of 14 

China, silk from 18 

Chlorine, detection of, in bleached cotton 104 

Clothing wool 131 

Cloths, bookbinders 50 

rubbercoated 50 

sail 50 

Codilla 143 

Coefficient of elasticity 84 



150 INDEX 

VAGE 

Coir fiber 21 

Collodion, formation of 22 

Colonial wool 132 

Colophony in textiles 35 

Colored cotton 137 

Combed cotton 137 

Combed flax 143 

Combing wool 131 

Common wool 131, 132 

Compounds, iron, as mordants 31 

oleic acid, as mordants 31 

tannic acid, as mordants 31 

Conditioning of wool 66 

Corchorus capsularis 19 

Cots 132 

Cotswold wool 13 

Cotted fleece 132 

Cotton, analysis of raw 59 

definition of 137 

diameter of 25 

microscopy of 25 

physical properties of 24 

strength of 25 

Cotton bleaching, antichlor for 99 

bleaching powder for 97 

caustic potash for 98 

lime for 98 

materials for 97 

muriatic acid for 98 

processes of 99 

products for 98 

products of 101 

soap for 99 

water for 98 

Cotton terms J36 

Cotton worsteds 43, 137 

Count of cotton yams 126 

flax yarns 127 

silk yarns 127 

woolen yarns 126 

worsted yarns 126 



INDEX 151 

PACE 

Cravenette, analysis of 55 

Cravenettes 52 

Cuit silk 141 

Cut system 126 

Dead cotton 137 

Dead wool 132 

Defective cotton 138 

Defective fleece 132 

Defective wool 132 

Delaine 132 

Denier, definition of 127 

Densimeter 87 

Diastafor 35 

Diazo reaction 17 

Direct reds, tests for 113 

Discolored wool 132 

Dog, hairs from the 15 

Domestic wool 132 

Dorsetshire sheep 13 

Dressed flax 143 

Dry reactions, meaning of 3 

Dry reactions of cellulose 24 

lustre-cellulose 28 

silk 16 

wool 8 

Earthy oleates, estimation of 61 

Ecru silk 141 

Egyptian cotton 138 

Elasticity, definition of 84 

Empyreumatic odor 8 

Epidermal scales of wool 13 

Eria silk 19 

Esparto fiber 21 

European standard for tops 69 

Extract 132, 135 

Fabric, analysis of a finished 81 

silk-cotton 48 

silk-imitation silk 50 



152 INDEX 

PADS 

Fabric, analysis of a silk-wool 47 

wool cotton 45 

Fabrics, analysis of turkey-red 111 

fastness of dyed 89 

in general 43 

mechanical analysis of 46 

Fagara silk 19 

False tussah silk 19 

Fastness, a relative term 94 

Fastness of dyed fabrics 89 

Fastness of dyes, to acid 89 

to air 89 

to alkalis 89 

to boiling 90 

to carbonizing 90 

to chlorine 90 

to crocking 90 

to finishing 90 

to fulling 91 

to greening 90 

to hot-pressing 91 

to light 89, 92 

to peroxides 92 

to perspiration 92 

to rain 92 

to soda 93 

to steaming 93 

to stoving 93 

to street-dust 93 

to washing 93 

to weather 89, 93 

Fibers, analysis of raw vegetable 57 

analytical classification of 6 

cellulose 6 

keratinic 7 

lustre-cellulose 6 

silk 6 

specific gravity of 88 

tensile strength of 85 

Fibroin of wild silk 18 

Finishing materials, determination of 81 



INDEX 153 

PAGE 

Finishing materials, organic reactions of 36 

survey of 40 

Flax, analysis of raw 59 

characteristics of 26 

microscopy of 26 

reactions of 25 

Flax yarns, machine spun 127 

Fleece-washed wool 132 

Fleece wool 132 

Flocks 132 

Florette silk 142 

Floss silk 142 

Foreign wools 131, 132 

France, sheep of 12 

France, silk from 18 

French scale, meaning of 137 

French system of spinning 30 

Frissonets 143 

Full blood 131 

Furfurol reaction, particulars of 17 

for celluloses 23 

for silk 17 

for wool 11 

Gambo fiber 21 

Garnetted stock 133 

Gassed cotton 138 

Glanzstoff 27 

Gloria 52 

Goat hairs 13, 14 

Gossamer cloth 51 

Gossypium, varieties of 24 

Grades of wool 133 

Grass bleach for flax 26 

Gray flax 143 

Grege 142 

Group L 6, 7, 8 

Group I (a) 12 

Group II 15 

Group III 19 

Group III, minor fibers. , . 21 



154 INDEX 

PAOI 

Group IV 21 

Group V 27 

Gun cotton 138 

Hackled flax 143 

Hair 133 

Hair, beard 14 

pulled 14 

wool 14 

Haircloth 15 

Half blood 131 

Hampshire sheep 13 

Hank, meaning of 127 

Hemp, distinction of, from flax 20 

physical properties of 20 

reactions of 19 

Hog wool 133 

Hollands 70 

Horse hair 15 

Humidity, absolute, meaning of 87 

calculation of 87 

determination of 86 

maximum, meaning of 87 

relative, meaning of 87 

Hydrated cellulose 22 

Hydrometer, Baum6's 87 

Hydrometer, Twaddle's 87 

Hydrometry, table for 123 

Hygrometer, description of 86 

Imitation silk, specific gravity of 88 

Immature cotton 138 

India linon 43 

Indian cotton 138 

"In grease," wool 136 

"In gum," silk 143 

International silk skein 127 

Italy, silk obtained from 18 

Japan, silk obtained from 18 

Jute, microscopy of 20 



INBEX 155 

PAGE 

Jute, physical properties of 20 

Jute, reactions of 19 

Kapok fiber 21 

Kekchi cotton 138 

Kemps 133 

Keratin 8 

Keratinic fibers 7 

Kidney cotton 138 

Kjeldahl determination 78 

Lamb's wool 133 

Lea, meaning of 127 

Leicester wool 13 

Lignin test 19 

Lignocelluloses 7, 57, 58 

Lime pulled 134 

Lime soaps, determination of, in bleached cotton. 102 

Lincoln sheep 12 

Line, a flax term 143 

Linen cloth, examination of 105 

Linen mesh underwear 43 

Linen, proper use of the term 25 

Lint 138 

Linters 138 

Linum usitatissimum 25 

Lisled cotton 138 

Lisle finish 116 

Llama 14 

Lustre-cellulose, affinity of, for dyes 28 

chemical reactions of 28 

microscopy of 28 

physical properties of 27 

Lustre wools 133 

Mammalia 9 

Mammals, hairs of 14 

Manila fiber 21 

Manila hemp, proper designation of 31 

Makko cotton 138 

Maranham cotton 139 



1 56 INDEX 

PAGE 

Marseilles soap 108, 111 

Mature cotton 139 

Medulla 15 

Medullary axis 15 

Mercerization 117, 118 

Mercerized cotton, test for 139 

Merino 12, 133 

Merino, abuse of the term 43 

Merino underwear 15 

Method, alternative nitrogen 80 

Bradford 67 

Crefeld 63, 64 

Gnehm's 75 

ignition, for mordants 31 

Koenig's 76 

Moyret's 76 

Mueller and ZelPs 77 

nitrogen, for silk analysis 78 

Millon's reagent, action of, on wool to _ 

Mineral matter, determination of, in textiles 69 

Mineral matter, fabrics containing '. . . 70, 71 

Misleading terms 15 

Mock Egyptian cotton 139 

Mohair cloth 15 

Mohair, definition of 13, 133 

Moisture, determination of, in textiles 66 

Mordants, detection of 30 

Mousseline de laine 132 

Muga silk 19 

Mulberry silk 15 

Mungo 134, 135 

Muslin delaine 132 

Nankeen cotton 139 

Nankin cotton 140 

Neps 140 

New Zealand flax, proper designation of 21 

Nitrogen, detection of in wool 9 

Nitrogen, determination of, in silk 78, 80 

Noils 134, 136, 142 

Non-lustre wools 134 



INDEX 157 

PAGE 

Non-shrinkable wools 134 

"Normal wool" 68, 69 

Nubs 134 

Nuns' cotton 140 

Oil, castor, for making sulphated oils 108 

Gallipoli, for turkey-red dyeing 107 

mineral, in fabrics 29 

non-drying 30 

rosin, in fabrics 29 

tournant, for turkey-red „ 107 

turkey-red, for dyeing 107 

turkey-red, for softening 99 

vegetable, in fabrics 29 

One atmosphere, meaning of 11 1 

One dram silk, meaning of 127 

Organic solvents, action of, on silk 16 

Organic solvents, solubility of wool in 9 

Organzine 142 

Overgrown wool 134 

Oxalic acid, obtained from cotton 22 

Oxfordshire sheep 13 

Oxidizing cage for anilin black 115 

Oxidizing chamber for anilin black 115 

Oxycellulose, detection of in cotton 103 

Oxycellulose, formation of 22 

Padding liquor for anilin black 115 

Paranitranilin red, tests for 113 

Para soap, composition of 112 

Par weight, meaning of 72 

Pectocelluloses 57, 58 

Peeler cotton 140 

Pepper and salt effect 44, 52 

Pernam cotton 140 

Phenylhydrazin, action of, on jute 19 

Pineapple fiber 21 

PiotrowskPs reaction 11 

Pita fiber 21 

Pitchy wool 134, 136 

Potassium hydroxide, action of, on wool 9 



158 INDEX 

PAGE 

Proteid reactions 10 

Proteids 16 

Proximate analysis of weighted silks 73 

Prussian blue 9 

Pseudo-silks, meaning of 27 

Psychrometer 115 

Pulled hair 15 

Pulled wools 134 

Pulled wools, shrinkage of 66 

Pyroxylin, formation of 22 

Rabbit, hairs from the 15 

Raincloths 50 

Raincoats 50 

Rambouillet 12, 135 

Ramie, microscopy of 26 

Raphia fiber 21 

Raw cotton 140 

Raw silk 142 

Raw wool •.... 135, 136 

Raw wool, determination of the shrinkage of 64 

Reaction, Adamkiewicz's n 

biuret 11 

diphenylamin 28 

furfurol 11, 17, 23 

ink 31 

Lassaigne's .11 

Liebermann's 11 

Molisch's 11 

molybdate 34 

xanthoprotein 11 

Reactions, dry, of wool fibers 8 

proteid 10 

wet, of wool fibers 9 

cellulose fibers 21 

ligneous fibers 19 

lustre-celluloses 28 

silk 16 

Reagent, Adamkiewicz's 6, 39 

Eisner's 5 

Hoebnel's, 5 



INDEX 159 

PAGE 

Reagent, Lassaigne's 4 

Liebermann's 5 

Loewe's 5 

Millon's 4, 39 

Molisch's 4 

NickePs 5 

Richardson's 5 

Schweitzer's 4 

Recotti 142 

Red liquor 108 

Red, Wesserling 109 

Reeled silk 142 

Regain 168 

Regenerated wool 135 

Retted flax 143 

Rubber-coated cloths 50, 54 

Run system 126 

Russia, camel hair of 14 

Sailcloths 50 

Santos cotton 140 

Schreinerized cotton 140 

Schweiss 60 

Scutched flax 144 

Sea Island cotton 140 

Seed cotton 140 

Seedy wool 135 

Sericin . . 17, 62 

Shearlings 135 

Sheep dips 172 

Shoddy 120, 135 

Short staple cotton 141 

Shrinkage of wool, calculation of 64, 65 

Shropshire sheep 13 

Silesian sheep 12 

Silk, action of chromic acid on 17 

of hydrochloric acid on 16 

of Loewe's reagent on 17 

of nitrous acid on 17 

of soap on 17 

of sodium hydroxide on 16 



l6o INDEX 

PAGE 

Silk, action of sulphuric acid on 16 

boiling-off of 17 

cultivated, appearance of 17 

determination of boiling-off loss of 63 

determination of washing-out loss of 64 

distinction of, from lustre-cellulose 17 

Eisner's reagent for 17 

HoehnePs test for 17 

Richardson's reagent for 17 

yellow, from Italy and China 18 

Silk scroop 10, 118 

Silk shoddy 142 

Silk yarns, sizing of 127 

Singed cotton 141 

Sisal fiber 21 

Sizing, detection of, on a fabric 34 

Soap, Marseilles 108 

Soda spots in shoddy 120 

Solution, anilin hydrochloride 5 

sulphate 5 

fuchsin-bisulphite 6 

indol. 5 

nitroprusside 5 

phloroglucol 5 

zinc chloride-iodine 5 

South America, goats of 14 

South American wools 135 

cotton ' 141 

Souple silk 142 

Southdown sheep 12, 13 

Southern wools 135 

Spain, merino sheep of 12 

Specific gravity compared with degrees Baume* 123 

compared with degrees Twaddle 123 

determination of 87 

Spots, detection of in bleached cotton 105 

Spun silk 127, 142 

Squirrel, hairs from the 15 

Stained cotton 141 

wool 136 

Staple cotton 141 



INDEX l6l 

PAGE 

Steam pressure, meaning of no 

Steiger and Gruenberg's table 123 

Strussa 142 

Suint 60 

Sulphur, detection of, in wool 9 

Sunn fiber 21 

Surat cotton 141 

Surgery, cotton used in 136 

Syria, camel hair of 14 

System, cut, for woolen yarn 126 

System, French, for worsted yarn 30 

System, run, for woolen yarn 126 

Table for the calculation of weighting 123 

Tanner's wool 136 

Teg wool 133 

Tensile strength, affected by dyeing with anilin black 82 

dyeing with turkey-red 82 

mercerizing 82 

definition of 84 

determination of 82 

method of reporting 85 

of artificial silk 83 

of bleached yarns 83 

of non-shrinkable wool 82 

of shoddy yarns 83 

of sized yarns 83 

of waterproof cloths 83 

Territory wools 132, 136 

Test, acrolein, for glycerol 33 

Adamkiewicz's, for proteids 6 

Frankenheim's, for flax 25 

Kindt's, for flax 25 

Schwalbe's, for lustre-cellulose 28 

Storch-Morowski's, for rosin 29 

Test solutions for lignin 5 

Textile fibers, analysis of 56 

Thibet, a worsted fabric 15 

Thibet, goats from the plains of 14 

Three-eighths blood 131 

Thrown silk 127, 14a 



162 INDEX 

PAGE 

Tin crystals 109 

Tinged cotton 141 

Titre of yarns 126 

Tom-tom for anilin black 114 

Tops 136 

Tow 144 

Trade custom for silks 73 

Tram 142 

Tumbling 116 

Turkey, Angora goats of 13 

Turkey-red, aluminate process for 109 

emulsion process for 109 

materials for 106 

new style no 

Steiner's process for 109 

sulphated oil process for 109 

tests for 113 

water for 106 

Turkey-red fabrics, examination of 30, 31 

Tussah silk 16 

Twaddle degrees compared with specific gravity 123 

Umbrella cloths 50 

Underwear, linen-mesh 43 

merino 15 

non-shrinkable (see non-shrinkable wools). 

Unripe cotton 141 

Unwashed wools 136 

Upholstery fabrics •. 15 

Upland cotton 141 

Vicuna 14 

Vigogne 136 

Viscose .27 

Vegetable down 21 

Vegetable silk 21 

Washed wools 136 

Washed wools, price of 65 

Waste silk 142 



INDEX 163 

PAGE 

Waterproof cloths, examination of 55 

mineral matter in 55 

value, determination of the , 53 

Waterslain flax 144 

Wax, determination of in bleached cotton 101 

Weight per yard, calculation of • 53 

Weighted silk 142 

Weighted silks, examination of 7 2 

Weighting, calculation of 72, 125 

detection of, on silks 32 

Weighting materials, inorganic 36 

organic 33 

on silk, meaning of 73 

Wether wool 132 

Wild silk, characteristics of 18 

color of . 19 

large diameter of 18 

varieties of 19 

Wild silk from China, India and Japan. 19 

Wool, action of ammonium hydroxide on 10 

of calcium hydroxide on 10 

of chlorine on 10 

of hydrochloric acid on 10 

of nitrous acid on 10 

of picric acid on 10 

affinity of for dyes 11 

analysis of raw 59 

chemical reactions of 9 

coarse grade 13 

diameter of 12, 13 

distinction of, from hair 12 

dry distillation of 8 

fine grade 12 

length of 12, 13 

medium grade 13 

microscopy of 12, 13 

non-shrinkable 82 

physical properties of 11 

serrations of 12, 13 

Wool hair . v 133 

Worsted tops, moisture in 69 



164 INDEX 

PAGE 

Xanthoprotein reaction n 

• i 

Yamamai silk 19 ' 

Yarn counts, meaning of 126 , 

Yarns and fabrics, substances found in 29 » 

spua in oil 71 ! 

Yolk 60 1 



V 






r Al -Z< 



FIBRE TESTING MACHINE 

FOR TESTING THE STRENGTH AND ELASTICITY 

OF SINGLE FIBRES, AS COTTON, 

WOOL, SILK, ETC. 



In use by the U. S. Government at Washington, the 
English Government at London and Bombay, and many 
technical schools and agricultural colleges throughout 
the United States. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



A. S. MACKENZIE 

Philadelphia, U.S.A. 



PUBLICATIONS OF JOHN WILEY & SONS 

THE TEXTILE FIBRES. 

Their Physical, Microscopical, and Chemical Properties. 
By J. Merritt Matthews, Ph.D., formerly Head of Chemical 
and Dyeing Department, Philadelphia Textile School. 
Second Edition, Rewritten. 8vo, viii 4- 480 pages, 127 
figures. Cloth, $4.00. 

AIR-CONDITIONING. 

Being a Short Treatise on the Humidification, Ventilation, 
Cooling, and the Hygiene of Textile Factories, especially 
with Relation to those in the U. S. A. By Q. B. Wilson. 
i2mo, 143 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.50. 

THE DYEING AND CLEANING OF TEXTILE 

FABRICS. 

A Handbook for the Amateur and the Professional. By 
F. A. Owen, B. S. Based partly on notes of H. C. 
Standage. (In Press, ready Dec. 1st.) 



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