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Pdrfirid Diaz, President of Mexied. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 





MEXICO. 






\ i J 



BULLETIN NO. 9. JULY, 1891. 

(Prepared by Arthur W. Fergusson.) 



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BINDING 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE, WASHINGTON, D. C, U. 8. A. 



Director, — WiLLlAM E. Curtis. 

Secretary, — Henry L. Bryan. 

Statistician. — Carlos Federico Adams-Michelena. 

Portuguese Translator. — John C. Redman. 

Spanish Translators. — RiCARDO Villafranca. 

Mary F. Foster. 
Clerks. — John T. Suter, Jr. 
Leonard G. Myers. 
Stenographer. — Imogen A. Hanna. 



LIST OF PREVIOUS BULLETINS. 

1. Hand Book of the Ameilcan Republics, No. i. 

2. Hand Book of the American Republics, No. 2. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America. 

4. Money, Weights, and Measures of the American Republics. 

5. Import Duties of Mexico. 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics. 

7. Hand Book of Brazil. 

8. Import Duties of Brazil. 



While the greatest possible care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications of the Bureau of the 
American Republics, it will assume no pecuniary responsibility on account of inaccuracies that may 
J occur therein. 

^ II 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Chapter I. Historical sketch • 3 

II. Area, wealth, and population 15 

III. Government and constitution 22 

IV. Agricultural resources 29 

V. Industries and manufactures 44 

VI. Mines and mining 61 

VII. Coal, asphaltum, and petroleum deposits 78 

VIII. The public land system and laws 84 

IX. Laws relating to immigration and colonization 9i^ 

X. Cost of living, wages and labor, building, etc 103 

XI. Religion and Protestant missions i IC9 

XII. Internal taxation — Economic Congress — Fiscal unification 118 

III. Reciprocity treaties with the United States 126 

XIV. Peculiarities of Mexican trade ! 134 

XV. Custom-house regulations — Information for shippers 142 

XVI. Coinage, weights, and measures 153 

XVII. Patent and trade-mark laws • 159 

Appendix A. Constitution of Mexico 168 

B. Official directory 202 

C. Newspaper directory 213 

D. Mercantile directory 222 

E. Travelers* guide — Railway and steamship lines 324 

III 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

President Diaz Frontispiece. 

Maximilian' lo 

Benito Juarez n 

Popocatepetl ; i8 

Tree of the Sorrowful Night • ig 

Federal Palace from the north 22 

Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl from cathedral towers 28 

Pulque gatherer 37 

Plaza of the Inquisition .' 43 

Convent at Quer6taro where Maximilian was confined 60 

Chapel of the Little Hill, Guadeloupe 76 

Chapultepec Castle from the east qo 

Tunnel on Mexican Railroad 102 

Sacro Monte Church, Amecameca 115 

Statue of Cuauhtemoc 125 

Mexican custom-house warehouse 142 

Mexican building at Paris Exposition 153 



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Chapter L 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

An impenetrable mist of fable envelops the early history of 
Mexico. Scientific investigation and archeological researches have 
not yet lifted the veil to disclose the original inhabitants of that 
country. Ruins and hieroglyphics in different portions of the Re- 
public reveal the story of a series of immigrations from the north 
towards the south, but the point from which the peregrinations be- 
gan has not been and may never be made known. 

Mexican historians generally agree, founding their theories on the 
interpretations of hieroglyphics and upon the ancient ruins, that the 
country was invaded by seven families successively immigrating 
from the north, all speaking the same language, the Nahuatl or 
Mexican ; but history does not reveal the starting point of these 
races nor disclose the mystery of the multiplicity of languages of 
so diverse a character spoken by the many tribes that followed 
them, nor the causes that impelled them to abandon their former 
homes. According to the Mexican scholar, Pimentel, not one of 
the one hundred and eight indigenous tongues bears any analogy 
to Asiatic tongues, but certain resemblances to the language of the 
Esquimaux would indicate direct communication between Asia 
and America. 

The annals of the Toltecs have furnished a starting point for 
the history of Mexico. These composed a semicivilized nation 
who inhabited a country called Kuehuetlafpallan^ towards the 



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MEXICO. 



north of the continent, where they built cities and temples, and 
were versed in agriculture, the arts, and the computation of time. 
Owing to civil disturbances, the Toltecs, with a number of their 
partisans and neighbors, in the year 544 A. D., were expelled from 
their country and began their wanderings southwar.d, founding 
cities on their way. 

One hundred and seventeien years after leaving their country 
they reached the present site of Tula (50 miles north of the City 
of Mexico, on the line of the Mexican Central Railroad), where 
they laid the foundation of their powerful kingdom. This tribe 
remained here until overthrown by the "lords of Jalisco," in 1 1 16, 
eleven "monarchs" having reigned. 

There is a notable event in the history of the Toltecs which 
deserves mention, as it is well authenticated. It is the origin of the 
universal and famous Mexican beverage pulque in the reign of the 
eighth Toltec chief, Tepaucaltzin, in the latter half of the eleventh 
century. It is narrated that a noble named Papantzin discovered 
the method of extracting the juice of the maguey plant, of which 
it is made, and sent some of the fermented liquid to his chief by 
the hand of his daughter, the beautiful Xochitl, called the Flower 
of Toilan (Tula). The chief, enamored both of the drink and 
the maiden, retained the latter a willing prisoner, and she became 
the mother of his illegitimate son, who afterwards wielded the 
scepter. This incident inaugurated the troubles of the Toltecs. 

After the dispersion of the Toltecs, a roving tribe, the Chichi- 
mecas, hearing of the former's overthrow, occupied the abandoned 
country, starting for it from the north in 1 1 17. 

Other tribes of the original seven successively descended from 
the north and spread themselves over the valley of Mexico, found- 
ing cities and erecting temples and palaces. 

The last tribe to reach the valley was the Aztec, or Mexican^ 
whose annals claim the greatest interest in the history of Mexico. 
This tribe is supposed to have originally come from the north of 



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MEXICO. 5 

California, according to t;he historian Clavijero, their country 
being called Jztlan, They reached Tula in 1196, remaining 
there nine years, and spending eleven in other parts of the valley. 
At the expiration of this time they arrived in Zumpango, 30 
miles north of their future capital. Here they were well received 
and the chiefs son married a daughter of one of the Mexican 
families. From this marriage sprang the military chiefs of the 
Mexicans. 

After many wanderings they settled on the marshy islands near 
the western borders of Lake Texcoco, and there, in the year 1325, 
was established the nucleus of the city first called Tenochtitlan, 
derived, according to some authorities, from T'enoch^ one of their 
priests and leaders. Other authorities claim that the name comes 
from '^enuch (prickly pear cactus), as there is an old legend that 
the leaders of the tribes of Mexicans wandering in search of a 
place of rest, saw an eagle standing upon a cactus strangling a 
serpent, on the site of the City of Mexico. This legend has been 
generally accepted and gave Mexico the design for its escutcheon. 
The present name of the city finds its source in the name of the 
Aztec's god of war, Mexitli, also known as Huitzilofochtli, The 
name of the country demonstrates the hold the maguey plant had 
upon the ancient tribes. Mexican traditions, as preserved in the 
niost ancient writings, relate that this god Huitzilopochtli was born 
of a virgin belonging to the noble family of CitU (free and ances- 
tral) ; that his cradle was the heart of a maguey plant {mett)^ and 
hence the name of Mecitli^ afi:erwards changed into Mexitli and 
finally into Mexico. 

Here the Aztecs constituted their first government, which was 
theocratic and military under T'enoch^ who died in the year 1343. 
Three years subsequent to his death the form of government 
changed, and in 1376 the first king was elected. Ten kings fol- 
lowed, during the reign of which the Aztecs devoted themselves 
to the arts of peace and built a fine city, connecting it with the 



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MEXICO. 



mainland by four causeways. The last of the Aztec n)onarchs 
was Cuauhtemoc, whose conquest by Hernando Cortez brought 
an end to the Mexican dynasty. 

Cortez landed on the island of San Juan de Ulua, in Vera Cruz 
harbor, on the 21st day of April, 1519, and in two years, August 
13, 1521, had captured the City of Mexico and unfurled the flag 
of Spain over the palace of Moctezuma. 

Under the name of New Spain, Mexico was ruled from 1521 
to 1821 successively by five governors, two royal commissioners 
(audiencias), and sixty-two viceroys, the last* of whom, Juan 
O'Donojii, did not assume control. 

During the administration of the first viceroy Don Antonio de 
Mendoza, who ruled from 1535 to 1550, discoveries were actively 
prosecuted in the north, the first money was coined in Mexico, 
the University of Mexico and several colleges were founded, and 
the first printing press in the New World was introduced. The 
School of Mines, which is still standing and yearly graduating 
talented men, was founded by the viceroy the Marquis of Branci- 
forte. The construction was begun in 1 797 and the building was 
completed in 1813. Its total cost was over $1,600,000. 

The modern history of Mexico and the commencement of 4:he 
almost continuous internecine wars may be said to date from the 
grito de Dolores on the night of the 16th of September, 1810, by 
the parish priest of Dolores, Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, who 
gathered about him many trusty followers under his banner to the 
cry of: "Long live religion! Long live our Most Holy Mother 
of Guadalupe ! Long live America, and death to bad govern- 
ment ! " This cry is what is known as " el grito de Dolores T 

Several efforts to cause a rebellion against the Spanish authori- 
ties had been made previous to this date, in fact ever since 1798, 
during the incumbency of the forty-fifth viceroy, Miguel Jose de 
Azanza, but they were all suppressed. 

Hidalgo marshaled a considerable force and was victorious in 



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MEXICO. 7 

several engagements, but he and his lieutenants, Allende, Aldama, 
and Jimenez, were captured and put to death in 181 1, the first on 
the 31st of July and the three last named on June 26. The 
bullets that crashed through these patriotic breasts terminated the 
first stage of the war for independence. 

One of the greatest figures in Mexican history then came to 
the front, Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon, the parish priest of Cara- 
cuaro, who by his audacity, valor, and military sagacity was ac- 
corded a position at the head of the leaders of the cause of inde- 
pendence. Afi:er many notable engagements, in which he was 
almost always victorious, he captured Acapulco on April 12, 1813, 
thus ending his second campaign. On the 14th of September, 
1813, in the town of Chilpancingo, the first Mexican Congress 
was installed, which two months later (November 6) issued the 
declaration of independence and decreed the emancipation of the 
slaves. The first provisional constitution was adopted October 
22, 1814. 

Morelos was eventually overcome by being betrayed by a de- 
serter from his ranks named Carranco, was taken to Mexico, tried, 
and sentenced to be shot. The sentence was carried out at San 
Cristobal Ecatepec on the 22d of December, 1815. 

But the cause of independence was still sustained by many 
leaders in different parts of the Republic, among them being Fran- 
cisco Javier Mina, a Spanish officer, who resolved to do battle for 
the independence of Mexico. He disembarked at the port of 
Soto la Marina on April 15, 1817, with 500 men recruited in the 
United States, and marched rapidly into the interior, gaining many 
victories. He was apprehended at the ranch called Fenadito^ and 
was shot on the nth of November, 1817. Many other patriot 
chiefs arose to lead the independent movement, but most of them 
met the fate of their predecessors. Among these was Guerrero, 
who, after many hazardous exploits and brilliant achievements, 
finally, on the 10th of January, 182 1, held a conference with Agustin 



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8 MEXICO. 

Yturbide, brigadier-general in command of the royalist forces, at 
Yturbide's request, and the two leaders agreed to proclaim inde- 
pendence. The latter proclaimed what is known as " The Plan of 
Iguala'' on February 24, 1821. 

Yturbide, then assuming command of the forces, marched on 
Mexico, making Valladolid (now Morelia), Queretaro, and Pu- 
ebla, capitulate on the way. On reaching Mexico the Viceroy 
Apodaca was deposed July 5, 1821. 

The sixty-second and last viceroy, Juan O'Donojii, arrived at 
Vera Cruz on the 30th of July, and, upon hearing of the condition 
of affairs, issued a proclamation and entered into communication 
with the independents. Yturbide went to Cordoba, where a con- 
ference was held,. resulting in the treaty of Cordoba, which, with 
slight modifications, confirmed the plan of Iguala, and Spanish 
domination in Mexico, which had lasted 300 years, closed for- 
ever when, on the 27th of September, 1821, Yturbide made his 
triumphal entry into the capital. 

The second Mexican Congress, the first after securing inde- 
pendence, met on February 24, 1822, and elected Yturbide em- 
peror on the* 19th of May of the same year. He was crowned and 
annointed with great pomp and ceremony in the great cathedral 
of the capital on the 21st of June following as Augustine I, Em- 
peror of Mexico. His reign was short. The people who had 
been warring so long could not settle down to peaceful pursuits. 
Ambitious leaders thirsted for high places, and the smoke of the 
battles for independence had scarce lifted before Gen. Santa-Anna 
headed a revolutionary movement in Vera Cruz, proclaimed a re- 
publican form of government, and compelled Yturbide to abdicate 
and leave the country. He became desirous to revisit it, and re- 
turning to Mexico, was arrested immediately upon disembarking, 
taken to Padilla, brought before the legislature of Tamaulipas in 
session there, and by that body condemned to death. He was 
shot July 19, 1824, just five days after landing. 



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MEXICO. 



The Federal Republic was established on the ruins of the Em- 
pire. The third Mexican Congress assembled November 7, 1823, 
and proclaimed on October 4, 1824, a republican constitution 
which was patterned closely upon that of the United States. The 
first President of Mexico, the patriot General Guadalupe Victoria, 
took the oath of ofBce on October 10. Congress was dissolved 
December 24, 1824, and the first constitutional Congress con- 
vened January 1, 1825. During this year England and the United 
States formally recognized Mexico. 

Independence being secured, two parties came into existence : 
The Spanish, which became the Centralists, and the Republicans, 
who became Federalists. To this division is due the constant 
internal disturbances and agitations in Mexico from 1828 to 1846. 
During this period five radical organic changes swayed the people 
between centralism and federation. 

The two parties succeeded each other in power, mostly through 
revolutions, until 1847, when the war with the United States, which 
had commenced the year previous, ended and the latter nation 
acquired more than two-fifi:hs of the Mexican territory. Afi:er the 
declaration of peace between the two countries the Mexican Lib- 
eral party remained in power (except from 1853 ^^ ^^55^ when 
General Santa- Anna governed as Dictator), carrying out its theo- 
ries of government. In the year 1857 the constitution now in 
force in Mexico was framed by a constitutional assembly. 

In 1861 England, Spain, and France formed an alliance to de- 
clare war against Mexico, but the alliance had been scarcely per- 
fected when the two first-named powers withdrew and France was 
lefi: alone in the enterprise. War between the two nations lasted 
from 1862 until 1867 without the French gaining any decided 
foothold. 

Possessing themselves finally of the capital, they established an 
empire, aided by a number of disaffected Mexicans, and placed 
the crown upon Maximilian, of Hapsburg, Archduke of Austria. 



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lO 



MEXICO. 



The Archduke arrived in the City of Mexico on June 12, 1864, 
accompanied by his wife, Cariotta, daughter of Leopold I, King 
of the Belgians. These two unfortunate beings were crowned 
Emperor and Empress of Mexico with great solemnity in the 



# 




MAXIMILIAN. 



cathedral and ruled a portion of the country until 1867, when the 
perfidy of Bazaine and the cowardice of Napoleon III destroyed 
the life of Maximilian and the reason of Cariotta. 



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MEXICO. 



11 



Maximilian, bereft of the aid and protection of the French, 
intrenched himself in Queretaro, where he was made prisoner by 
the Republicans and shot, together with the Imperialist Generals 
Miramon and Mexia, on the Cerro de las Campanas^ on the 19th 
of June, 1867. 




BENITO JUAREZ. 



Benito Juarez, of Indian birth, and possessed of great .ability^ 
patriotism, and energy, was the President of the Republic during 
the turbulent times of the Reformation and the war with France. 
He entered the capital victorious on the 15th of July, 1867, and 
retained the Presidency until his death, in 1872, being the only 
Mexican who has died during an occupancy of that office. His 
immediate successor was Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, who retained 
the office until 1876, when he was unseated by the revolution of 
Palo Blanco,. Gen. Porfirio Diaz succeeded Lerdo de Tejada 
in May, 1877, and was followed by Gen. Manuel Gonzalez in 
1880. In 1884 General Diaz was elected to a second term, and 



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1 2 MEXICO. 

has since continued at the head of the government. ^ His admin- 
istration has been attended with great progress and prosperity. 

The governments of Mexico since the securing of independence 
have been as follows : 

Regena'es, — (i) Composed of Generalissimo Don Agustin de 
Yturbide, Don Juan O'Donoju, Don Manuel de la Barcena, Don 
Isidro Yanez, and Don Manuel Valasquez de Leon, 1821 to 1822. 
{2) Don Agustin de Yturbide, Don Isidro Yanez, Don Miguel 
Valentin, Count de Casa de Heras, and Brig. Gen. Don Nicolas 
Bravo, 1822. 

Empire, — Yturbide, with the title of Agustin I, 1822-1823. 

Provisional Governments. — The council charged with the supreme 
executive power, composed of Don Nicolas Bravo, Don Guada- 
lupe Victoria, and Don Pedro Negrete, with Don Jose Maria 
Michelena and Don Miguel Dominguez as substitutes, 1823- 
1824. 

PRESIDENTS. 

Federal Republic. — Gen. Guadalupe Victoria, 1823 to 1829; 
Gen. Vicente Guerrero, 1829 ; Don Jose Maria Bocanegra, 1829 ; 
Don tPedro Velez, President of the supreme court of justice. 
Gen. Luis Quintanar and Don Lucas Alaman, 1829; Gen. Anas- 
tacio Bustamante, 1830 to 1832; Gen. Melchor Musquiz, 1832; 
Gen. Manuel Gomez Pedraza, 1832 to 1833; Don Valentin 
Gomez Farias, 1833; Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa-Anna, 1833; 
Don Valentin Gomez Farias, 1833 ^^ ^^34' Gen. Antonio Lopez 
de Santa- Anna, 1834 to 1835; Gen. Miguel Barragan, 183510 
1836; Don Jose Justo Corro, 1836 to 1837. 

Central Republic. — Gen. Anastacio Bustamante, 1837 to 1839; 
Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa- Anna (substitute), 1839; Gen. 
Nicolas Bravo (substitute), 1839; Gen. Anastacio Bustamante, 
1839 to 1841 ; Don Javier Echeverria, 1841. 

Dictatorships. — Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa- Anna, 1841 to 



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MEXICO. 13 

1842; Gen. Nicolas Bravo, 1842 to 1843; ^^^- Antonio Lopez 
de Santa- Anna, 1843; ^^^- Valentin Canalizo, 1843 ^^ 1844. 

Central Republic . — Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa- Anna, 1844; 
Gen. Valentin Canalizo, 1844; Gen. Jose Ignacio Herrera, 1844 
to 1845; ^^^- Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, 1846; Gen. Nicolas 
Bravo, 1846. 

Federal Republic. — Gen. Mariano Salas, 1846; Don Valentin 
Gomez Farias, 1846 to 1847; ^^^- Antonio Lopez de Santa- 
Anna, 1847; ^^^- Pedro Maria Anaya, 1847; ^e^- Antonio 
Lopez de Santa-Anna, 1847; ^^^ Manuel de la Pena y Pena, 
president of the supreme court of justice, 1847; Gen. Pedro Maria 
Anaya, 1847 ^^ 1848; Don Manuel de la Pena y Pena, 1848; 
Gen. Jose Joaquin de Herrera, 1848 to 1851 ; Gen. Mariano Arista, 
1851 to 1853; ^^^ J^^'^ ^- Ceballos, president supreme court of 
justice, 1853. 

Dictatorships. — Gen. Manuel Maria Lombardini, 1853; G^^- 
Antonio Lopez de Santa- Anna, 1853 ^^ ^^SS > ^^^' Rorn^lo Diaz 
de la Vega, 1855; Gen. Martin Carrera, 1855; Gen. Juan Alvarez, 
1855; Gen. Ignacio Comonfort, 1855 to 1857. 

Constitutional Presidents. — Gen. Ignacio Comonfort, 1857 to 1858; 
Don Benito Juarez, president of the supreme court of jAstice, 
1858 to 1861. Don Benito Juarez (elected), 1861 to 1872 ; Don 
Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, president of the supreme court of justice, 
1872; Don Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada (elected), 1872 to 1876; 
Gen. Porfirio Diaz (provisional), 1876; Gen. Juan N. Mendez 
(substitute), 1876; Gen. Porfirio Diaz (elected), 1877 to 1880; 
Gen. Manuel Gonzalez, 1880 to 1884; Gen. Porfirio Diaz, 1884. to 
1888; Gen. Porfirio Diaz, 1888 (still in office). 

During the years from 1857 to i860 in the capital of the Re- 
public, which at the time was in the power of the Conservative 
party, there governed in the capacity of Presidents the following 
persons : 

Gen. Felix Zuloaga, 1857 » ^^^- Manuel Robles Pezuela, 1858; 



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14 MEXICO. 

Don Jose Ignacio Pavon, 1858; Gen. Miguel Miranion, 1858; 
Gen. Felix Zuloaga, 1859; ^^^- Miguel Miramon, 1859 to 1861. 

As a result of the French intervention the Imperial Government 
was established from 1864 to 1867. 

While awaiting the arrival of the Archduke Maximilian of Aus- 
tria, Bishop Juan B. Ormachea and Generals Juan N. Almonte 
and Mariano Salas governed as regents. 



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Chapter IL 



AREA, WEALTH, AND POPULATION. 

What was originally called Mexico, or New Spain, by the his- 
torians of the last century was situated between 9° and 40° north 
latitude, and 80° and 50° west longitude. Its length was 2,100 
miles, and its breadth 1,600. 

The United Mexican States of to-day, according to the latest 
oflBcial data, lie between 14° 30' and 32° 42' latitude north, and 
86° 46' 8'' and 1 17° 7' 8'' longitude west from Greenwich, having 
a superficial area of about 751,700 square miles. These last fig- 
ures are only approximate, as the whole of the country never has 
been surveyed. The northern and northeastern boundary of the 
Republic is the United States of America, its eastern, British Hon- 
duras, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico ; its southern, 
the Pacific Ocean, Guatemala, and British Honduras; and its west- 
ern, the Pacific Ocean. Its greatest length is about 1,900 miles 
and its greatest width 750 miles. 

The Republic at the outset was divided into nineteen States, 
but at present there are twenty-seven States, two Territories and a 
Federal District. 



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i6 



MEXICO. 



The following table shows the names of the States and Terri- 
tories, their area in square miles, the assessed value of the property 
in each (1889), and their estimated population (1889) : 



Name of State, etc. 



Aguascalientes 

Campeche 

Coahuila 

Colima 

Chiapas 

Chihuahua 

Durango 

Guanajuato 

Guerrero 

Hidalgo 

Jalisco 

Michoacan . . .' 

Mexico 

Morelos 

Nuevo Leon 

Oaxaca 

Puebla 

Quer6taro 

San Luis Potosi 

Sinaloa 

Sonora 

Tabasco 

Tamaulipas 

Tlaxcala 

Veracruz 

Yucatan 

Zacatecas 

Territory of Lower California 

Territory of Tepic 

Federal District 

Total 



Area. 



2,897 

25. 834 
50,904 

3,746 
16, 048 
83. 715 
42.511 
11,413 
24, 552 

8, 161 

39, 174 

23. 714 

7,840 

1,776 

23, 637 

33, 582 

12,019 

3,205 

27, 503 
36, 200 
79, 020 
11,849 
27, 916 
1,622 

26, 232 

29. 569 
22, 999 
61, 563 
12,000 
463 



751.664 



Assessed value. 



Estimated pop- 
ulation. 



$5,119,693 

I. 243, 795 
9, 719, 796 
3. 335. 466 

3, 430, 212 
5. 353, 730 
7, 057, 879 

30,071,636 
13.497,112 
14, 384, 737 
54, 456, 871 
24, 115, 195 
23, 391, 096 

5, 257. 374 
9, 584. 790 

11,741,300 
30,021,544 
11,446,547 
13.553,656 
6, 008, 882 
7, 223, 500 

4, 591, 275 

6, 214, 935 
7,045.716 

47, 838, 578 

5, 374, 508 
15,615,651 

4, 355. 526 

5, 172, 380 

109, 848, 978 



496, 072, 358 



121,926 
91, 180 

183. 327 

69, 547 
266, 496 
298, 073 
265,931 

1,007, 116 
332, 887 
494, 212 

I, 161, 709 
8 jo, 923 
778, 969 
151, 540 
270, 852 
. 806, 845 
839, 468 
213. 525 
546, 447 
223, 684 
150, 391 
114,028 
189, 139 
155,151 
644. 157 
282, 502 
526, 966 
34, 668 
130,019 
451,246 



11,632. 924 



The assessed values are from Mexican statistics for 1889, but 
they do not include public or Federal buildings, nor property ex- 
empted by law from the payment of taxes. Of the total amount 
$258,403,185 is the value of city and $237,669,173 of rural 
property. 

The principal cities of Mexico are : Mexico, with a population 
(1889) of 329,535; Guadalajara, 95,000; Puebla, 78,530; San 
Luis Potosi, 62,573; Guanajuato, 52,112; Leon, 47,739; Mon- 



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MEXICO. 17 

terey, 41,700; Aguascalientes, 32,355 ; Merida, 32,000; Oaxaca, 
28,827; Colima, 25,124; Pachuca, 25,000; Durango, 24,800; 
Celaya, 24,670; Morelia, 23,835; Queretaro, 23,520; Ciudad 
Guzman, 23,205. 

The country possesses a curious physical formation. Rising 
rapidly by a succession of terraces from the low, sandy coasts on 
the east and west, it culminates in a central plateau running in a 
northwesterly and southeasterly direction, and having an elevation 
varying from 4,000 to 8,000 feet above the sea. High above this 
plateau tower the snow-capped crests of several volcanoes, most of 
which are extinct. Ten of them are over 1 2,000 feet in height, 
and three look down upon the fertile valleys from altitudes of 
17,782, 17,356, and 16,060. These are Popocatapetl, Orizaba, 
and Ixtaccihuatl. 

There are no good harbors on the eastern coast of Mexico, most 
of them being in exposed situations and liable to the ravages of 
the "northers," which have their origin in the Gulf of Mexico. 
Most of the harbors on this coast do not afford anchorage for ocean- 
going vessels except at a great distance from shore and are ob- 
structed with bars and shoals. The western coast, however, fur- 
nishes some excellent harbors, such as those of San Bias, Acapulco, 
Guaymas, Mazatlan, and Manzanillo. There are also several 
smaller ports affording good anchorage. 

Mexico has many rivers and, although some are of considerable 
length, they are not navigable, except in a few cases, and then only 
to craft of small draught. Among the most important streams are 
the Rio Grande, 1 ,500 miles in length ; the Lerma, 540 miles ; the 
Mescala, 426 miles ; the Yaqui, 390 miles ; the Grijalva, 350 miles ; 
the Fuerte, 340 miles; and the Uzumancita, 330 miles in length. 

Near the Pacific Slope, in the States of Michoacan and Jalisco, 

lies a beautiful lake region. Here, its clear waters reflecting the 

warm summer sun. Lake Chapala extends itself over an area 80 

miles long by 30 miles wide. Lake Cuitzeo covers an area of 40 

57A 2 



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i8 



MEXICO. 



miles in length by lo in breadth, and Lake Patzcuaro overflows a 
surface of 25 miles in length by 10 in width. 

The beautiful valley of Mexico also has its lakes to add diver- 
sity to the landscape. These lakes are five in number : Chalco, 
Xochimilco, and Texcoco, which are large, and Zumpango and 
San Cristobal, both small. History recounts that in 1541, during 




POPOCATEPETL FROM SAN PEDRO. 



the administration of the first viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza, 
who founded the mint for the production of silver and copper 
coins, the natives looked with disfavor on the latter and con- 
signed them to Lake Texcoco, where they are still supposed to lie 
buried. 

J-'LORA AND FAUNA. 

The flora of Mexico is unrivaled. It has been remarked that 
the most striking characteristic of the Mexican flowers, to which 
branch of the flora this sketch is limited, is their deep, rich color. 



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MEXICO. 19 

The prevailing color of the flowers is always glowing and intense. 
There can be no more pleasing or extensive field for the botanist 
than the tropical forests of Mexico, in whose deep shades bloom 
the most exquisitely tinted flowers and orchids. In the vicinity 
of Orizaba, a locality almost incomparable as regards the great 
variety of flowers, orchid collectors may find a paradise. 




-j'^^. ^^ 



TREE OF THE SORROWFUL NIGHT. 



In the valley of Mexico there is no day in the year that finds 
the markets wanting in a superabundance of beautiful roses and 
flowers to delight the eye and regale the senses, and the marvelous 
size the calla lilies, heliotropes, camelias, and poppies attain, arrests 
wondering attention. There are about fifty varieties of lilies 
blooming in varied garb in this valley. Each belt, the hot, the 
temperate, and the cold, displays its own peculiar varieties of flowers, 
and in each has Nature spread her most gorgeous colors, her fairest 
tints, and her sweetest perfumes. 



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20 MEXICO. 

The animal kingdom is almost as extensively represented in the 
territory of Mexico as the botanical. On the plains of the north, 
over the frontier States, roam bands of bisons and antelope, and 
chamois, beaver, tiger-cat, tapir, and black, brown, and cinnamon 
bear abound. Venomous serpents and insects lurk in the forests of 
the hot lands. The mountains and foothills present a veritable 
paradise to the sportsman — deer, hare, rabbits, quail, wild pigeons, 
partridges, and an infinite variety of birds and ground game 
abounding. Horses, cattle, sheep, and goats are found almost 
everywhere, and, being the source of much wealth and industry, 
will be treated more at length in another place. 

The birds of Mexico are far-famed for their brilliant plumage 
and singing qualities. In the hot lands the birds are more dis- 
tinguished for beauty of plumage than melody of voice, their 
coloring being as varied as that of the flowers; but in the colder 
belts splendid songsters fill the air with thrilling notes. 

Sperm and gray-back whales, seals, and sea lions abound in the 
western waters of Lower California and in the gulf of that name. 
The waters of both coasts as well as the rivers and mountain 
streams teem with a great variety of fish. Alligators infest the 
river mouths of both coasts. Turtles of all kinds are also found 
in abundance on the coasts. Tortoises exist in the waters of 
Yucatan and Lower California as well as on the coasts of Sinaloa. 
The shell is an important article of export. 

Seiior Don Antonio Garcia Cubas mentions fifty-two varieties 
of mammal quadrupeds as existing in the Republic, and two 
hundred and three varieties of fowls, including domestic fowls; 
as well as over fifty kinds of humming birds, differing in color and 
form, and forming a chromatic scale of brilliant tints running from 
sea green through bluish green to emerald green, and from the 
lightest straw color to the deepest scarlet and fiery red. Of reptiles 
the authority cited enumerates forty-three classes, and of batrachians 
thirteen species. 



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MEXICO. 21 

Among insects, those claiming attention are the cochineal (Coc- 
cus cacti) and the honey bee, because of the excellent materials 
they produce beneficial to industry and to commerce. The former 
insect is cultivated in Oaxaca, living on the prickly-pear cactus, 
and producing a red liquid dye. Winterbotham, one of the last 
century's historians, in his "History of America," relates that the 
trade in cochineal by the city of Oaxaca alone in the year 1796 
amounted to 200,000 crowns in value. 

The bee is to be found all over Mexico, busily producing pro- 
digious quantities of honey and wax. During the fiscal year 1 887- 
1888 Mexico exported to the United States honey to the amount 

of $50,33542. 

The country offers a vast and rich field to the naturalist and 
entomologist for the study of the innumerable species of coleop- 
terous insects. 



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Chapter III. 



GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION.^ 

The government of the Republic is representative, democratic, 
and federal. The seat of the supreme power of the federation is 
the capital of the Republic, which is also the capital of the Federal 
District. The supreme federal power is divided into three branches, 
legislative, executive, and judicial. 

The legislative power is lodged in the general Congress, which 
is divided into two bodies, the Senate and the Chamber of Depu- 
ties. The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by- 
popular vote of the Mexican citizens every two years, one deputy 
for each 40,000 inhabitants, or for each fraction of more than 
20,000 inhabitants. The Senate is composed of two Senators from 
each State and two from the Federal District. Senators are elected 
indirectly, half of the body being renewed every two years. The 
salary of Deputies and Senators is $3,000 a year. Congress has 
two regular sessions every year, the first commencing on the 16th 
of September (the national holiday) and ending on the 15th of 
December. It may be prorogued thirty days longer. The busi- 
ness of this session is the general regulation and conduct of the Fed- 
eral Government. The second session begins April 1 and ends 
May 3 1 , but may be prolonged fifteen days. Its business, primarily, 

*See Appendix for Constitution in full. 
22 



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o 
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JO 

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MEXICO. 23 

is auditing the accounts of the previous fiscal year and making ap- 
propriations for the fiscal year to come. 

The executive power is vested in the "President of the United 
Mexican States." He is elected by electors chosen by popular 
vote every four years. He is inaugurated and enters upon his 
administration on the 1st of December. In the discharge of his 
high duties the President is assisted by seven Secretaries or Min- 
isters, whom he may appoint and remove at will. The Secretaries 
are: Of Foreign Affairs, of Home Affairs, of Justice and Public 
Instruction, of Colonization, Industry and Commerce, of the 
Treasury and Public Credit, of War and the Navy, and of Com- 
munication and Public Works. All of these Secretaries authenti- 
cate with their signatures the regulations, proclamations, and decrees 
of the President, and have charge of the several Departments of the 
Government designated by their respective titles. The salary of 
the President is $30,000 a year, and of the Secretaries $8,000. 

The judicial power is lodged in the Supreme Court of Justice, 
and in the district and circuit courts. The Supreme Court con- 
sists of one Chief Justice, eleven associate justices, four alternate 
justices, an Attorney-General, and a public prosecutor. These 
several officers are chosen by indirect popular vote and their term 
of office is six years. Formerly in the event of a vacancy occur- 
ring in the Presidency by reason of death or cause other than limi- 
tation, the duties of the President devolved upon the Chief Justice. 
By amendment to the Constitution, Congress, on October 3, 1882, 
vested the Presidential succession in the President and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Senate and the Chairman of the Standing Committee 
of Congress, successively. The same amendment prescribes that 
these functionaries must be native-born citizens of Mexico. 

The jurisdiction of the Federal courts extends to all cases 
arising (1) fi-om laws or acts of any authority infringing on indi- 
vidual rights ; (2) from laws or acts of the Federal authority 
violating or limiting the sovereignty of the States, and (3) from 



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24 MEXICO. 

kws or acts of the latter encroaching on the Federal authority. 
Appeals may be made from the district courts to the Supreme 
Court of Justice. 

The political organization of the States is similar to that of the 
General Government. 

REVENUES. 

The Federal Government is sustained by import duties, the 
stamp tax, internal-revenue taxes, and by the " Federal contribu- 
tion," which is an additional duty levied on all taxes collected by 
the States. There are other sources of revenue, such as export 
duties, mint duties, and the taxes on nationalized property. 

The governments of the States are sustained by excise duties 
levied on all foreign and domestic merchandise, and by certain 
direct taxes, but the system of State taxation is now (1891) being 
reorganized, so as to abolish the taxation of imported merchandise. 

The city governments are sustained by direct taxes, and in 
some cases they receive besides a percentage of the duties collected 
by the State. 

THE ARMY. 

The army of Mexico is divided into three sections, the active 
army, the reserve, the general reserve. The active army at present 
(1891) consists of infantry, 17,307; engineers, 655; artillery, 
1,604; cavalry, 5,484; rural guards, 1,950; gendarmerie, 244. 
Total, 27,244. There are over 3,000 officers. 

A military school is maintained by the Federal Government at 
Chapultepec, on the outskirts of the City of Mexico. The num- 
ber attending the school is about three hundred. According to 
Gen. Sostenes Rocha, general of division of the Mexican army, 
the total fighting strength thereof, including the standing or active 
army and both reserves, was: Infantry, 131,523; dragoons, 25,790; 
artillery, 3,650. The infantry use the Remington rifle, caliber. 43, 
and bayonet; the cavalry use a musket of the same make and 



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MEXICO. 25 

caliber, and the artillery carry Remington carbines, calibre. 50, 
which are manufactured in the country. Rifled steel breech-load- 
ing guns are used by the artillery as well as other new and improved 
guns. In the organization of the army the French system, with 
slight modifications, is followed. 

The Republic can hardly be said to have a navy. Its interests 
on the water are protected by a fleet of two unarmored vessels, of 
450 tons and 600 horse-power, armed with two 20-pounders, and 
three small gunboats.'^ 

THE CONSTITUTION. 

The present Constitution of Mexico was adopted February 5, 
1857. ^y virtue of this instrument the Republic is formed of 
States, free and sovereign, so far as regards their internal affairs, 
united under a Federal Government. The population necessary 
to entitle a Territory to statehood is 1 20,000 inhabitants at least. 
The national power resides primarily and exclusively in the people, 
from whom all public authority emanates and by whom it is ex- 
ercised through the channels of the State and National Govern- 
ments, with the reservation, so far as State authority is concerned, 
that State laws shall not conflict with those of the nation. 

All persons born on the soil are free, and slaves become free by 
entering the Republic. Freedom of education, freedom to exer- 
cise the liberal professions, freedom of thought and the inviolable 
freedom of the press are guarantied — this last with the restriction 
that private rights and the public peace shall not be violated. 

No person can be obliged to work against his will or without 
proper compensation. 

The rights of petition and lawful association are recognized. 

The right to carry arms for lawful self-protection and defense, 

*There are two naval arsenals, one each at Camp6che and Acapulco. At the former 
place and at Mazatlan there are naval schools. The Government also maintains a large 
floating dock. 



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26 MEXICO. 

and to freely enter, leave, and travel over the Republic without 
passport is guarantied. 

Titles of nobility, hereditary honors, and prerogatives are not 
recognized, neither are the judgments of privileged tribunals. 

Ex post facto laws and the concluding of treaties for the extra- 
dition of political offenders and the search without warrant of com- 
petent authority are all prohibited. 

Imprisonment for debt of a purely civil nature is abolished. 
Arrest is prohibited except for offenses meriting corporal punish- 
ment, as is also detention without trial for a longer period than three 
days. The rights of accused persons are guarantied. The appli- 
cation of penalties, other than those purely correctional, is limited 
exclusively to judicial authority. Whipping, branding, mutilation, 
torture, or other infamous punishment is prohibited. The death 
penalty is limited to high treason, highway robbery, arson, parricide, 
and willful murder. 

In criminal actions three appeals only are permitted. A second 
trial after acquittal on the same charge is prohibited. 

The inviolability of private correspondence as well as the right 
of private property is recognized. In case of condemnation of 
private property for public uses previous indemnity under pre- 
scribed forms is guarantied. 

The quartering of soldiers in time of peace upon the property 
of individuals is forbidden, as it is in time of war, save under the 
regulations established by law. 

Civil and ecclesiastical corporations are not permitted to acquire 
landed estates. 

Monopolies are prohibited, save the Government monopolies of 
coinage and the postal service, and the limited monopoly enjoyed 
by patentees of useful inventions. 

The President, with the concurrence of his Cabinet and the 
approval of Congress, or, during its recess, the Congressional 
Standing Committee, may suspend all constitutional guaranties 



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MEXICO. 27 

in case of invasion, grave internal disorder, or serious disturbance 
endangering the State. 

All children born in the country or abroad of Mexican parents, 
foreigners naturalized under the laws of the federation, and for- 
eigners acquiring real estate in the Republic, or begetting children 
by Mexican mothers, are regarded as Mexican citizens unless a 
distinct claim of citizenship elsewhere is avowed in due legal 
form. As such they are liable to military service and taxation 
and are guarantied all the rights and privileges enjoyed by Mexi- 
can citizens. All persons within the Republic, citizens or foreign- 
ers, are guarantied the protection afforded by the Constitution and 
the laws. 

Article 33 of the Constitution treats of foreigners, and contains 
among its provisions one empowering the President to expel any 
" pernicious foreigner." 

The Congressional Standing Committee referred to in the Con- 
stitution is composed of twenty-nine members, fifteen Deputies 
and fourteen Senators, appointed by their respective chambers on 
the eve of closing their sessions. 

The amendments to the Constitution, adopted September 25, 
1873, establish the independence of church and state; deprive 
Congress of the power to make laws which establish or suppress 
any religion whatever ; institute marriage as a civil contract ; sub- 
stitute affirmation for religious oath; prohibit the existence of 
monastic orders, without regard to denomination or object ; pro- 
hibit the clergy wearing their clerical garb except when perform- 
ing religious offices, and expressly exclude ecclesiastics fi-om 
eligibility to the Presidency. 

By amendment adopted December 12, 1884, the seventh canton 
of the State of Jalisco was separated from that State and was made 
a part of the Republic with the name of the Territory of Tepic. 



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28 



MEXICO. 




POPOCATEPETL AND IXTACCIHCATL FROM CATHEDRAL TOWERS. 



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Chapter IV. 



AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES. 

Mexico has been estimated to contain 479 square leagues of 
forests, 18,134 square leagues of mountain land, and 4,822 square 
leagues of uncultivated land. 

Mr. Frederick A. Ober, who has written several books on the 
country, draws attention to the fact that its shape on the map is 
that of a cornucopia, and calls the Aztec land a " horn of plenty;" 
a most appropriate simile. Nature has certainly showered her 
gifts upon the Republic with lavish hand. Her mines are practi- 
cally inexhaustible, her forests rich in every variety of precious 
woods. It is stated that the proceeds of the sale of the wood from 
a single tree were $10,000. 

Extending through seventeen degrees of latitude, eight and 
a half of which are in the torrid zone and an equal number 
in the north temperate zone, and owing to its physical formation, 
Mexico has three well-defined climates; — hot on the coasts, tem- 
perate in the regions lying at an elevation of between 3,000 and 
6,000 feet above the sea, and cold in those regions lying at a 
higher elevation. The most populous cities are situated in the 
colder zone, Mexico being 7,349.80 feet above sea level; Puebla, 
7,053; Queretaro, 6,363; Guanajuato, 6,789; Leon, 5,863.50; 
San Luis Potosi, 5,905 ; Zacatecas, 8,044.50 ; Durango, 6,893 ; 

and Aguascalientes, 6,179.50 feet. 

29 



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30 MEXICO. 

The mean temperature on the coast is about 85° Farenheit, in 
the temperate lands 70°, and in the cold regions 60°. The ex- 
tremes are about 100° in the hot localities and about 20° in the 
higher altitudes. There are but two seasons in the year — the dry, 
lasting generally from November to May, and the rainy season, 
lasting from June to October. As a rule the climate is pleasant 
and healthful except on the coasts, which harbor fevers of various 
kinds. 

The vegetable products of the country are varied in the extreme, 
owing to the diversified climate. Its productiveness is perhaps 
unsurpassed by any other country on the globe. The soil pro- 
duces all the cereals and all of the fruits of the United States and 
Europe. Among the cereals the most abundant is Indian corn, 
which grows almost everywhere in the country, in some places 
two crops a year being raised. This is eminently a Mexican 
staple, serving as nutriment for man and beast, and forming the 
''staff of life" for the majority of the inhabitants in the form of 
cakes, c^[\tA tortillas. 

What are known as the hot lands (tierra caliente), which lie be- 
tween the coast and the foothills of the Cordilleras, produce the 
most exuberant vegetation. Excellent grazing land abounds, 
studded with groups of trees, among which the trumpet-flower 
tree and the turpentine or mastich tree (Pistacta terehinthinus) pre- 
dominate. Here also are found great quantities of gigantic bam- 
boos known by the name of tarros. Nearer the foothills lie im- 
mense forests of valuable hard woods such as mahogany, ebony, 
rosewood, ironwood, etc. These forests also furnish Campeche 
and Brazil wood, the rubber tree, and many trees of medicinal 
value. Hundreds of varieties of plants, herbs, roots, etc., useful 
in medicine and in the industries, grow in great profusion. There 
are also, in many parts of the Republic, a great many kinds of 
mosses and lichens fumishing excellent dyes, among which the 
principal is the orchil, which grows ill Lower California, and has 



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MEXICO. 31 

for many years been an article of large exportation, the Mexican 
Oovemment deriving large profits therefi*om, as there is an export 
duty of $ 10 a ton. The exports of orchil for the year ending June 
30, 1888, although during the past three years they have fallen off 
considerably, amounted to $106,290.52, of which $25,890.52 
went to the United States. 

The vanilla plant grows wild in these lands, and sugar cane is 
cultivated extensively, especially in the States of Morelos, Vera- 
cruz, Mexico, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Campeche, Guerrero, 
and Chiapas. The annual crop averages $8,735,000. 

COFFEE. 

Coffee is raised principally in the States of Chiapas, Vera- 
cruz, Morelos, Oaxaca, Michoacan, and Colima, and can be grown 
in several others. The coffee of Uruapam (Michoacan) is cel- 
ebrated. The annual crop is valued at about $4,200,000. The 
exports to the United States of this bean during the fiscal year 
1887-88 amounted to $2,1 17,299.08. The total exports for the 
year 1888-^89 were valued at $3,886,034, and for the first six 
months of i890-'9i, $1,019,066.09, according to official data. 

Concerning coffee culture in Mexico, the following data is taken 
from a book entitled " Coffee Culture in the Southern Coast of the 
State of Chiapas," published by Senor Don Matias Romero in 
the City of Mexico, August, 1875: Cost of each coffee tree four 
years after planting, including value of public land and wages at 
the rate paid then in Soconuscp, about 1 1 cents per tree ; yield 
of each tree in its fourth year, 2 pounds of coffee, which, at the 
minimum price of 10 cents per pound, is 20 cents; expenses of 
gathering the coffee beans and other expenses until the coffee is 
delivered to the market, 5 cents per tree. Net profit, 15 cents 
per tree. 

Tobacco is a great product of the States of Veracruz, Tobasco, 
Campeche, Yucatan, Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Jalisco. The annual 



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32 MEXICO. 

tobacco crop averages a value of $2,500,000, Veracruz alone 
yearly raising about 5,000 tons. The United States imported 
during the fiscal year 1889-90, leaf tobacco to the value of 
$15,807.20, and manufactured tobacco to the value of $16,851.67. 
The exportation for the first six months of 1890-91 reached 
$446,655.59. 

COTTON. 

The great cotton-producing region of Mexico is the district of 
Laguna, in the State of Coahuila, which furnishes over 40,000 
bales per annum. Besides this State and those before mentioned, 
cotton grows in the States of Sonora, Chihuahua, Guerrero, and 
Chiapas, and in several others. The annual crop is valued at about 
$10,857,000. 

The discrimination in charges for transportation has had a 
discouraging effect on Mexican cotton. Foreign cotton is trans- 
ported from the frontier to the City of Mexico cheaper than 
Mexican cotton from one city to another. Mexican cotton, which 
brought from 13 to 15 cents a pound before the international rail- 
way lines were constructed, has fallen to $ 1 1 and $ 1 2 per hundred- 
weight, which produces a profit so insignificant that the cultivation 
is discouraged. The fiber of the Mexican cotton is larger than that 
of the United States, but is not so soft and lustrous. But there are 
great advantages in the cultivation of Mexican cotton, as the plants 
continue to bear profitable crops without the use of fertilizers on 
the soil or the renewal of seed, which is necessary each year in the 
United States. 

The cocoa bean is mostly cultivated in Tabasco and Chiapas. 
The best is grown at Soconiisco ; its flavor and natural richness 
commends it as the finest imported into the United States. Choco- 
late sells at Soconusco for 20 cents a pound, and an excellent open- 
ing is offered for the cultivation of the cocoa tree on a large and 
systematic scale. There is regular steamer communication between 
this district and San Francisco and New York. 



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MEXICO. 33 

RUBBER. 

Soconusco is also the natural home of the rubber tree, but the 
natives very foolishly chopped down and destroyed great num- 
bers of these trees, and thereby retarded what undoubtedly would 
have become a great industry. A rubber tree once fairly started 
requires little or no care, and will produce the milk abundantly 
six to eight years from planting. The milk, being either sun or 
smoke dried, hardens and is ready to be worked. 

From an article published in the City of Mexico in December, 
1871, by Senor Don Matias Romero, on India-rubber culture in 
Mexico, the following information is taken: The cost of each 
India-rubber tree in Soconusco, Chiapas, at the prices at that time 
of public land and labor, the trees being planted at intervals of 5 
yards, without taking into account the interest on the money 
invested, would be about 10 cents per tree. Six years after plant- 
ing the milk yield of each tree is estimated at 6 pounds, which, 
reduced to rubber, loses about ^^ per cent., leaving it at 2.7 pounds, 
which, at 45 cents per pound, was $1.21. Even should this yield 
be reduced one-half or one-third, the yield would be about 60 or 
40 cents per tree, while the expense would be only 10 cents. The 
cost of extracting the juice is estimated at about 5 cents per tree. 

Senor Romero calculated that a plantation of 100,000 rubber 
trees would produce a net profit at the end of the sixth year, at the 
prices then prevailing (1871), of $110,880. 

On the 28th of October, 1889, the Department of Public 
Works entered into a contract with three Mexican gentlemen to 
plant 1 5,000,000 rubber trees in the State of Oaxaca, near the shores 
of the Pacific. The planting was to begin within eight months 
from the date of the contract, and be finished within fifteen years, 
300,000 trees to be planted the first year and 1 ,000,000 each sub- 
sequent year of the term mentioned. A subsidy of 3 cents per 
tree was guarantied by the Government, and exemption from 
57A 3 



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34 



MEXICO. 



duties on all necessary materials, tools, implements, wagons, etc. 
The exportation of rubber for the first six months of 1 890-^9 1 
amounted to $28,142.65. 



FRUITS. 



The hot lands also yield sarsaparilla, the exports of which to 
the United States in 1887-88 were valued at $91,090.20, and 
for the first six months of 1890-91, $1 1,604.75 * J^^^P' ^^^^' arrow- 
root, beans, indigo, and many other products. This region is 
especially rich in fruit-bearing trees, principal among which may 
be enumerated orange, lemon, citron, tamarind, guava, plum, 
plantain, nut, and banana trees, and date palms. Pine-apples and 
melons and many other tropical fi-uits grow wild. Most of these 
truits offer a very profitable field for cultivation, owing to the ex- 
ceptional conditions under which they are produced and the high 
prices they bring in the United States, where their consump- 
tion is enormous. These fruits bring higher prices in the United 
States than domestic fruits of the same kind. For instance, in 
1888 California sweet lemons sold for $1.50 per box, while Mexi- 
can lemons brought from $5 to $6 per box. California oranges 
sold at from $rto $2 a box, and the Mexican fruit sold readily at 
$3.25 a box. The State of Sonora exported, in 1888, 3,000,000 
oranges, costing $10 a thousand at the place of production. 

The banana and the orange grow spontaneously in great abun- 
dance near the Mexican coasts. On lands near the sea, at an 
elevation of from 1,900 to 2,400 feet above it, great plantations 
of banana trees can be laid out at a cost of 5 cents per plant, 
which includes every expense up to the time of bearing fruit. At 
the end of the first year the plant produces one bunch, which can 
be sold in the United States for from $2.50 to $3. A thousand 
banana trees, costing $50, will bring $1,000 at least in one year. 
The following year the product of each plant will be about 
double that of the first, and this almost without expense. The 



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MEXICO. 35 

exportation of this fruit from the West Indies and Central 
America reaches into the millions every year. 

ORANGES. 

The cultivation of the orange is also very profitable. One man 
can cultivate with his own hands from 7 to 9 acres of orange trees. 
One tree in the tropic belt of Mexico will yield as many as 5,000 
oranges. Taking half of this figure as the yearly yield, that is, 
2,500, each tree will bring $25, and each acre (about seventy trees) 
$1,750, making an income from 7 acres of $12,250. These 
figures are lower than those given by several recognized authori- 
ties. 

Sonora is a great orange-raising district, fruit coming from the 
vicinity of Hermosillo in that State being among the best flavored 
known. 

According to a report to the Department of State by Consul 
Smith, of Nogales, Sonora, during the year 1889, there were 
shipped through that place to various points in the United States 
1 3, 1 90 boxes of oranges. Of these 2,0 1 2 boxes were sold at $ 1 .50 
per box and 11,178 at $2 per box, Mexican silver. The ship- 
ments were made between January 2 and April 6, and between 
November 4 and December 31, all within five months of the 
year. 

The report further says that 300 boxes of oranges at $2 per box 
in Mexican silver would cost laid down at Chicago about as fol- 
lows: Cost in Sonora, $600 Mexican silver ($454.80 in United 
States currency); freight from Guaymas, Sonora, to Chicago, 111., 
$262.50, United States currency, and duties and consular fees at 
Nogales, $77.50, or a total of $794.80 at destination, making the 
cost of an orange at Chicago about 1.83 cents. This estimate will 
also apply to St. Paul, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, to which 
point freight rates from Guaymas are the same. 

Oranges shipped from Guaymas to Kansas City, Omaha, 



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36 MEXICO. 

Albuquerque, St. Joseph, Denver, and Topeka will cost about 1.77 
cents each at destination, freight rates being cheaper. 

The weight of a box of oranges is 70 pounds gross; measure- 
ment 2j^ cubic feet. The number of oranges in a box is about one 
hundred and forty-five. A carload is 20,000 pounds. At the 
rates given above oranges sold at about $ 14 a thousand at the place 
of production. 

During the year 1889 there were shipped from the State of 
Sonora, as shown by the records of the United States consulate at 
Nogales, 21 barrels and 13,190 boxes of oranges at a first cost of 
$19,980.20 in American currency. The export duty per box is 25 
cents. 

Surface irrigation is considered the best for orange culture. 

It has been estimated that 2j^ acres planted in pineapples will 
easily produce 10,000 plants. The crop of com which is sown 
among the pineapples will fully meet the expense of the culti- 
vation of the fruit. The 10,000 pineapples will cost absolutely 
nothing. On the ground the fruit sells at 38 cents per dozen, but 
exported to the United States they bring $6 per dozen, netting 
about $2,000 per acre under cultivation, and one man can easily 
cultivate 6 acres. The facilities for the transportation of these fruits 
are good. Besides the railroads, the lines of steamers touching 
twice a month at the principal ports of the Pacific side and more 
frequently at those on the Gulf of Mexico, carry these products to 
the United States under very advantageous freight conditions; in 
fact, in order to secure return cargoes the steamers often make con- 
siderable reductions in their freight rates. 

In the temperate lands the oak, pine, cedar, larch, and other forest 
growths of that zone are to be found, as well as fruits in the greatest 
abundance and variety. 

THE MAGUEY. 

The colder regions produce corn, wheat, barley, and other cereals 
and the maguey or agave from which the national drink pulque is 



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MEXICO. 



37 



extracted. This plant is a native of Mexico, but it is found grow- 
ing in the United States, although not in any great abundance. 
The maguey grows on the great plains, the plateaus, at an elevation 
of more than 7,000 feet above the sea. On the vast plains of Apam, 
about 100 miles from the capital, the plants are to be seen as far 
as the eye can reach, laid out in straight rows having an interval of 
3 yards between them. It is said that there are thirty-three species 




PULQUE GATHERER 



of the plant on the plateaus. As far back as 1519 the native 
Mexicans cultivated the maguey, of which an observant writer has 
remarked : " They made almost as many uses as the South Sea 
Islander does of the cocoa palm, namely, a hundred." A great 



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38 MEXICO. 

variety of products are obtained from the roots, leaves, and juice. 
Paper is made from the pulp of the leaves, twine and thread from 
their fibers, and needles from the sharp tips of their leaves. These 
leaves also serve as thatching for the houses of the poor. The 
rare and valuable Mexican manuscripts in ancient times were made 
of pulp fi'om the maguey, which resembled the papyrus. 

Some of the maguey plantations produce a revenue of $10,000 
to $12,000 per annum. Pulque is the fermented juice of the 
maguey. It has been stated that in the City of Mexico over 
250,000 pints of pulque are daily consumed," and in 1888 there 
were 822 shops in that city devoted exclusively to its sale. A train 
on the Mexican Railway leaves the plains of Apam every day 
laden with nothing but pulque in barrels and skins, deriving a 
revenue of over $1,000 a day from the shipments. In January, 
1890, the department of public works issued a patent to two Mexi- 
cans for a process discovered by them to make vinegar out of pulque. 
The maguey haciendas (plantations) in the State of Hidalgo are 
valued at $8,000,000; in Tlaxcala, $4,000,000, and in Puebla, 
$2,000,000. The amount of pulque transported on Mexican rail- 
roads during 1887 was 81,673 tons. 

WHEAT AND CORN. 

Mexico is becoming a wheat-growing country, and since the 
transportation facilities offered by the great American railroad sys- 
tems great impetus has been given to the raising of this grain. 
Wheat grows on the plateau of Mexico from 6,000 to 9,000 feet 
above sea level and between the eighteenth and twenty-fourth paral- 
lels of latitude. The area best adapted for its cultivation com- 
prises some 52,000 square miles, over one-third of which could be 
planted in wheat without serious detriment to the other agricultural 
interests of the country. This land is situated in the States of 
Michoacan, Jalisco, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi, 
and Queretaro. 



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MEXICO. 



39 



The Mexican plan of cultivation makes it possible to take off 
the land three crops every two years — one crop of wheat and two 
crops of corn. The average yield of wheat per acre is about 20 
bushels, and of corn about 50 bushels on irrigated soils and about 30 
on dry lands. These are considered conservative figures. Were 
this wheat area cultivated to its fullest capacity, the wheat and 
corn yield of one-third of the 52,000 square miles of suitable lands 
would be: Wheat, 110,000,000 bushels, and corn, 440,000,000 
bushels per year, according to a conservative estimate made in 
1883. This immense yield would all be available for foreign 
markets, as the home consumption could be always provided for 
by the outlying lands. Since the date of this estimate improved 
machinery and more systematic treatment of the soil have consid- 
erably increased the yield of the lands devoted to the cultivation 
of the cereals mentioned, which are by no means all that could be 
utilized in this way. The following table, taken from a statistical 
work published by the Mexican Government, gives the yield in 
bushels of four of the agricultural products in all the States during 
the year 1888, and will serve to show that the estimates above 
given are not too large since much of the specified available area 
is not sown with wheat or corn : 



States and Tenitories. 



Aguascalientes . . 
Lower California 

Campeche 

Coahuila 

Colima 

Chiapas 

Chihuahua 

Federal District . 

D.urango 

Guanajuato , 

Guerrero 

Hidalgo 

Jalisco , 

Michoacan 

Mexico 

Morelos 



Barley. 



137. 170 
15, 848 



594, 300 



121, 690 
42, 450 
12,253 

962, 200 



210, 835 
149, 990 
213, 948 
849,000 
16, 980 



Wheat. 



116,313 

28, 158 



566,000 



812, 210 

73, 580 

310, 422 

1, 103, 700 



169, 800 

2, 749, 882 

426, 863 

650,900 

3,509 



Com. 



I, 108, 143 
19, 045 

155,367 
1,615,901 

792, 400 
I, 733. 423 

1, 354, 438 
442, 329 

2, 696, 990 
13, 729, 745 

2, 787, 550 

6, 737, 494 

18, 010, 204 

10, 932, 290 

10, 619, 518 

511,409 



Beans. 



73, 863 
5,405 

35,092 
137,255 

33,111 
103, 210 
155,650 

4,245 
160, 461 
668, 163 
253, 568 
368, 154 
876, 168 

558,925 
582, 980 

12, 754 



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40 



MEXICO. 



States and Territories. 


Barley. 


Wheat. 


Corn. 


Beans. 


N uevo Leon 


22, 074 
28, 300 

948, 050 
51,506 

149, 990 


47,119 
226, 400 
735, 800 
268, 850 
353. 750 

77, 825 
115, 181 


2, 440, 705 
10, 040, 840 
10, 459, 680 

2, 547, 000 

7, 449, 607 

I. 334. 384 

897. 817 

1. 554. 519 

2, 264, 000 

2, 575. 300 

6, 142, 200 

776. 835 

9. 749. 293 


127. 350 
554. 680 
567. 981 
159. 329 
367. 900 
138,670 
100, 748 
96, 814 
133, 321 
125,086 
442, 895 
185,987 
737.215 


Oaxaca 


Puebla 


Quer6taro 


San Luis Potosf 


Sinaloa 


Sonora 




Tabasco 




Tamaulipas 


17. 149 
792. 400 
253. 568 


42. 450 

169, 800 

27. 083 


Tiaxcala 


Veracruz 


Yucatdn 


Zacat6cas 


341,015 


2, 320, 600 




Total 


5. 930, 716 


11,396,195 


131,478,425 


7, 766, 980 





The method of collecting statistics in Mexico, although some- 
what improved of late years, is still quite crude. Were more 
correct statistics obtainable it would, without doubt, be found that 
the above figures fall below the actual production. Mexican 
wheat is small and hard, and, when properly milled, makes good 
flour. Specimens of this wheat exhibited at the Centennial Ex- 
position at Philadelphia in 1876 took the first prize. 

FIBER PLANTS. 

Fiber plants grow in great profusion over nearly every portion 
of the territory of the Republic. Principal among them are the 
agave, already spoken of, the banana tree, ramie, henequen^ several 
kinds of cacti, among which figures the organ cactus and a species 
of cactus growing abundantly in the Territory of Lower California 
between the twenty-seventh and thirty-first degrees of latitude 
north, which is called cirio^ and from which a good quality of paper 
is manufactured. The great fibrous plant of Mexico is the henequen^ 
which grows in the peninsula of Yucatan. An immense business 
is done in the exporting of this fiber. In the year 1884 there were 
exported from Progreso, Yucatan's port of entry, 233,311 bales 
of henequen, averaging 400 pounds per bale, the total valued at 



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MEXICO. 41 

$3,045,304 in American coin. Of this amount exported, six-sev- 
enths went to the United States, New York leading with 187,978 
bales. In 1887 ^^^ exports to New York amounted to 201,969 
bales. The total value of the exports of this fiber from Progreso to 
the United States in 1888 was $5,789,856.14, Mexican silver. 
The total exports to all parts during the first six months of 1889- 
'90 were valued at $4,084,480.30, and for the corresponding period 
of i890-'9i, $3,314,514.88. 

The mulberry tree is found in many localities, and experiments 
lately made in the States of Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, and 
Michoacan in the way of cultivating the silkworm have produced 
good results. 

The percentage of arable land in Mexico is, perhaps, as large 
as it is in the United States. The lowlands along the Pacific 
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico are generally well supplied with 
moisture by rainfalls and heavy dews, but artificial irrigation must 
be resorted to upon the plateaus to produce good results. 

The modes of cultivation in Mexico still differ but little from 
those employed by the ancient Egyptians. Wooden beam plows 
with a small iron shoe are used. These make a furrow 5 inches 
broad by 5 deep. A hoe is also used, which often weighs from 
3 to 5 pounds. A saw-toothed sickle completes the outfit with 
which the ordinary Mexican crops are raised and gathered. The 
plow is nothing more than a forked stick, the shorter fork being 
iron-shod and sharpened. The longer is lashed with rawhide thongs 
to the yoke of the oxen that draw this prehistoric implement. It 
takes about four men and four yoke of oxen to do the work of 
one man and one horse in the fields of the United States. With 
the exception of a few districts, all thrashing of grain in the 
Republic is done by driving horses or mules around in a ring 
upon the straw which is on the ground. The winnowing is done 
by men tossing the grain and chaff into the air with scoop shovels. 
Mexicans, as a rule, object to threshing machines, because they 



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42 



MEXICO. 



leave the straw whole, while by employing their method the con- 
stant trampling cuts it up as fine as though run through a feed 
cutter, and, as straw is universally used as feed, any further prepa- 
ration is unnecessary. 

The grain is transported from the field to the farmhouse or 
station on ponderous two-wheeled carts, there being 3 pounds of 
cart to one of load for the oxen to pull. Better facilities for com- 
munication between the United States and the neighboring 
Republic have changed some of these methods, as before stated, 
and on many of the large haciendas may be found improved 
American agricultural machinery, which is admitted free of duty. 
There is still one drawback to its general use in the country. The 
machinery is costly and unfamiliar, and should any part of it 
break no Mexican blacksmith can repair it, as usually the broken 
part is of cast iron ; and the distance from the manufactory would 
cause long delay and heavy expense. 

It is unfortunate that no law exists on the statute books of the 
United States for the collection of statistics of exports to adjacent 
foreign countries over railroads, thereby causing the value and 
amount of exports from the United States to Mexico since 1883, 
when the first railroad connecting the two Republics was com- 
pleted, to be considerably understated. According to the report 
of the Bureau of Statistics the value of exports of agricultural 
implements to Mexico from the United States during the year 
ending June 30, 1888, was $25,365, while the official Mexican 
figures show for the same year imports from the United States of 
agricultural implements valued at $171,560, of which $56,106 
represented plows and shares. According to Mexican statistics 
there were imported fi-om the United States in cars and other 
land vehicles through the single custom-house at Paso del Norte 
during the year ending June 30, 1889, articles to the value of 
$5,115,051, while the United States figures, representing the 
total exports to Mexico during the same period, are $9,897,772. 

A law for the collection of these statistics is greatly needed. 



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MEXICO. 



43 




PLAZA OF THE IN(2UISinON. 



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Chapter V. 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES. 

Mexico is not a manufacturing country. Such articles as the 
mass of the people require are, however, generally produced in suffi- 
cient quantities to meet the demand. Mexico will never become 
to any appreciable extent a manufacturer of articles beyond those 
ot which she produces the raw materials, yet this field is by no 
manner of means restricted. 

The Indian, who forms the greater part of the laboring popu- 
lation, is not progressive. He is loth to lay aside the rude im- 
plements of his forefathers and take up methods of modern inven- 
tion and progress. His needs are few and he is not inspired with 
a desire to improve his condition. Having inherited nothing but 
traditions and the meager physical means to provide for his suste- 
nance, he zealously guards the one and utilizes the other to the 
same extent as his progenitors, leaving his children only what he 
himself received. Everything he docs is executed in a perfunc- 
tory manner. He goes to his daily toil early and returns to his 
fi-ugal meal and rest late. He is satisfied with his lot and cares 
little what the morrow may bring forth. But the Indian is losing 
ground. The whiter races are surpassing him, and with increas- 
ing transportation facilities, a progressive government fostering 
industrial interests, and the disappearance of internal strife, his 
successors will in the not very distant future either join the ranks 
of the progressive people, as in the thickly populated portions of 

44 

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MEXICO. 45' 

the Republic they have aheady begun to do, or will die off to be 
replaced by a more energetic and ambitious class. 

Manufactures will spring up with the increased production of 
raw materials, but the country's agricultural resources are so great 
it is destined to become, still more than at present, a great exporter 
of raw material. The natural products of the soil are so varied, 
so certain, and so sure of good markets that capital is diverted to 
agricultural and mineral development rather than into manufactur- 
ing enterprises on a large scale. 

What was said fifty years ago by Brantz Mayer about Califor- 
nia is applicable at this time to Mexico. The whole world rushed 
to the Golden Gate when the news spread that fortunes lay spark- 
ling in the yellow sands and auriferous rocks of that State, and 
every one shouldered a pick and a pan to seek the alluring nug- 
get and aureate dust, noting not the fertile lands yearning, like all 
of nature, to produce and reproduce. When the feverish excite- 
ment engendered by the pursuit of sudden wealth abated, then, 
and then only, did the wealth-seeker lay aside his pick and pan 
and take up the implements of agriculture and of other industries 
and make of that fair land what it is to-day. Mexico has been 
regarded by natives and foreigners as a land of mineral wealth only, 
and her many other resources are as yet but little noticed or 
developed. 

Brantz Mayer's words alluded to above were these : 

California has, at least, illustrated one great moral truth which the avari- 
cious world required to be taught. When men were starving though weighed 
down with gold — when all the necessaries of life rose to twice, thrice, tenfold, 
and even fifty or a hundred times their value in the Atlantic States — that dis- 
tant province demonstrated the intrinsic worthlessness of the coveted ore and 
the permanent value of everything produced by genuine industry and labor. 

It was this truth, perhaps, that urged the commission appointed 
by the Mexican Government to study the question of the threat- 
ened crisis of 1886 (referred to under the head of mining) to come 
to its wise conclusions, and suggest the aiding and fostering of 
other industries than mining. 

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46 MEXICO. 

If the country were populated, even in proportion to Guanajuato 
and its outlaying districts, the census of Mexico would show 
58,000,000 of inhabitants, according to a recent estimate, and 
under such conditions the agricultural interests would become and 
constitute an element of enormous wealth. 

THE CATTLE INDUSTRY. 

One of the most important of Mexico's industries is cattle rais- 
ing. The States of the northern frontier are so well adapted to 
such purposes that they may be said to be immense cattle ranges. 
The excellent situation of the lands as well as their generally well- 
watered condition will, as has been said by persons who have given 
study to the matter, make Mexico a formidable rival of the Argen- 
tine Republic. Lately Texan and English capitalists have made 
extensive purchases of lands and live stock in the Northern States 
and are devoting themselves to the lucrative business of raising 
cattle for the market. But it is not only in the temperate and 
cold lands of the Northern States that this industry may be car- 
ried on. In the warmer latitudes, where the herbaceous vegetation 
is exuberant and water courses abundant, it offers equal opportu- 
nity for success. 

The fattening of beeves on ranges well-conditioned for grazing, 
or which lend themselves to grass growing and are well watered, 
give excellent results. The estimate following is from official 
sources and figures : 

Establishment of a cattle ran:h 0/617.7^ acres, situated 24Q miles from a large city and ^o 
miles from a railroad station. 

Purchase price of 617. 75 acres at $4. 86 per acre $3, 002. 26 

Expense of sowing, fencing, house and general expenditures 9, 020. 00 

12, 022. 26 
Interest on $12,022.26 at 12 per cent, per annum i, 442. 67 

Total for first year 13, 464. 93 

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MEXICO. 47 

Second year : Purchase of 1,000 beeves at $16 per head $16, 000. 00 

General expenses, interest, etc 7, 798. 00 

Total $23, 798. 00 

Shipping beeves to the city, railroad charges, tax, etc 10, 670. 00 

Total expenses up to time of sale 47. 932. 93 



SALE. 

970 beeves (allowing a loss of 3 per cent, during fattening season) will give 
at the rate of 600 pounds per head, 582,000 pounds of meat, which at 7 

cents per pound will give 40, 740. 00 

100 pounds of tallow per head, at 12 cents 11, 640. 00 

970 hides, at $3 2, 910. 00 

$1 a head for slaughtering 970. 00 

56, 260. 00 

Profit, $8,327.07, realized at the end of two years, after having paid for the 

property. 
In the third year the expense of fattening 1,000 beeves is reduced to that of 

purchasing the cattle and general expenses, which will amount to 31, 009. 00 

The sale will bring 56, 260. 00 

Net profit 25, 251. 00 

Which net profit is more than 70 per cent, on the capital invested. 

The States of Durango, Sonora, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Coha- 
huila, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, and Michoacan present admirable 
fields for the carrying on of this great industry. The rich pasture 
lands of the latter State feed the thousands of cattle slaughtered for 
the sustenance of the residents of the capital of the Mexican Re- 
public, which is by no means an inconsiderable number, for during 
the year 1888 there were 83,228 beeves and 130,263 sheep slaugh- 
tered in the abattoirs of the City of Mexico. Some of the States 
above named are not well provided with water, but it has been 
demonstrated that with small expense all the necessary water can be 
provided by the boring of wells. In the State of Guanajuato a 
company, under the patronage of the State government, has bored 



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48 MEXICO. 

wells and begun the breeding and fattening of cattle on a large scale. 
This company has imported into the country a considerable num- 
ber of specimens of the best breeds of homed cattle from the United 
States and elsewhere, and, judging from appearances, its efforts are 
meeting with gratifying success. 

Mexico raises great numbers of cattle for the United States and 
does so under better conditions of climate than the latter country, 
for the stock-raisers of this country lose thousands every year owing 
to the rigorous winters and severe summers, while in Mexico per- 
ennial spring smiles on man and beast. 

Statistics show that in 1883, in the northern States of Mexico 
alone, over an area of 300,000 square miles there roamed 1,500,000 
horned cattle, 2,500,000 goats, 1,000,000 sheep, 1,000,000 horses, 
and 500,000 mules. During the same year there were 20,574 cattle 
ranches in the country, valued at $515,000,000, which number and 
value have increased considerably in the last seven years. 

Other live stock, such as horses, sheep, goats, swine, etc., are also 
raised on these ranges for export. 

According to Mexican official statistics during the fiscal year 
1887-88 the neighboring Republic exported to the United 
States live stock as follows : 

Horses, 22,825 head, valued at $239, 342. 50 

Cattle, 10,093 head, valued at 115, 279. 80 

Sheep, 71,232 head, valued at 119, 631. 75 

Mules, and jacks, 2,068 head, valued at 32, 631. 50 

Other animals valued at 491. 50 

Making a total of 106,218 head, valued at $507,377.05, Mexican 
silver. 

HIDES AND SKINS. 

Another considerable industry is the collecting and exporting 
of hides and skins. Mexico occupies the fourth rank among the 
nations of the earth in this particular branch. 



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MEXICO. . 49 

In the year 1887-88 that country exported to the United States 
hides, skins, and leather to the value of $1,718,544.65, Mexican 
silver, as follows : 

Hides, value $639, 880. 02 

Tanned leather, value 3, 084. 68 

Sheep skins, value 6, 333. 00 

Goat skins, value 943, 061. 03 

Deer skins, value 99, 613. 28 

Other animals' skins, value 26, 572. 64 

During the year i888-'89, Mexico exported to all countries 
hides and skins to the value of $2,01 1,129, Mexican silver. 

The kid exported through the Matamoros custom-house is 
much esteemed for the manufacture of strong shoes, its dimensions 
and weight ranking high. This kid brings from 45 to 50 cents 
per pound. The Veracruz goat skins are more sought after and 
bring 2 cents more* a pound, while those from Oaxaca are lighter 
and bring about 39 cents per pound. These kids are considered 
among the best in the world for women's and children's shoes. 

Another industry, although not a prominent one, is the killing 
of seals and sea lions on the coast of Lower California, the skins 
being converted into leather. 

The exports of furs and skins from Mexico for the years below 
mentioned were valued as follows : 

1887-88 $3, 156, 422 

1888-89 3. 376, 176 

1889-90 3. Q73. 4Q5 

Tanneries are to be found at many places and a very fair leather is 
turned out. There are thirty-three tanneries at the capital. Mexicans 
are artists in leather work, and in the making of saddles they excel. 
Saddles manufactured in the country have sold for more than 
$800, being profusely ornamented with silver and finely stamped 
leather. The center of the leather-working industry is the city of 
Leon. There are no large shoe manufactories, most of the 
57A 4 



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50 MEXICO. 

disciples of St. Crispin carrying on their trade in small huts or 
houses and on the sidewalks. The Mexicans are wonderful 
repairers of old and dilapidated foot wear. 

Among other industries may be mentioned the gathering of 
sponges, mother-of-pearl, abalone, and other shells, pearl diving 
and tortoise fishing. These industries are at present but little 
developed, but, with the exception of pearls, which at one time 
were quite abundant in the Gulf of California, that gulf and the 
coast of both oceans abound in the articles enumerated, all of 
which are of the choicest kinds. The carey^ or tortoise shell, of 
Yucatan and Guerrero has been for a long time an article of 
trade which in 1883 amounted to $20,000 yearly, and which has 
considerably increased of late years. This article is also shipped 
to some extent from Magdalena Bay, in the Territory of Lower 
California. The Government is very desirous of developing these 
marine branches of industry and production and has made very 
liberal concessions to companies desirous to engage in them. In 
comparison to the returns the capital necessary Xo exploit these 
industries is small. 

HAMMOCK MAKING. 

Another quite prominent industry of the Republic is hammock- 
making. This is principally carried on in the State of Yucatan, 
where hammocks have been articles of use and barter from time 
immemorial. This fact is demonstrated beyond peradventure by 
the discovery in buried cities of hammock beams and hooks. 
Yucatan exports more hammocks than any other province in the 
world. These articles are made from the fiber called heneguen^ 
which grows so abundantly in the State named, and are woven 
entirely by hand, with the aid of a few very primitive implements, 
in this as in most other cases the Indian proving his disapproval 
of innovations. All that is necessary to make a hammock is a 
couple of straight poles, a shuttle, a thin slat of zapoli wood, and 



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MEXICO. 51 

a pile of henequen leaves. With these articles at hand a Yucatan 
native is prepared to accept contracts for hammocks by the piece, 
dozen, or hundred. Some of these hammocks are brilliantly 
colored. The great hammock-making district, whence come the 
best made and which produces more than all the other districts 
combined, is Tixcoco. Almost the entire exportation of these 
articles is consumed by New York. ♦ In the year 1885 over 
24,000 hammocks were exported from Yucatan into the United 
States. In 6 months of 1886 over 35,000 went to the latter 
country. During the fiscal year 1887-88, as shown by official 
Mexican statistics, 7 1 ,097 kilogrammes of hammocks were exported 
to foreign countries, valued at $23,796.26, Mexican silver, of 
which 70,439 kilogrammes, valued at $23,476 went to the United 
States and only $320 to England. Nearly all these hammocks 
were manufactured by the nimble fingers of the Indian women of 
Yucatan. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

« 

The principal manufacturing industry of the Republic is the 
making of cotton cloth, mostly manta^ a coarse, unbleached cotton 
cloth. It has been estimated that the mills of the country con- 
sume annually 26,000,000 pounds of cotton, most of which is 
grown there, but quite a considerable quantity is imported. The 
industry gives work and support in the field and mill to more 
than 50,000 families. The mills are usually provided with Eng- 
lish and American machinery of modern type, and a few oper- 
ators carry on business on an extensive scale. The ordinary cotton 
cloth (mantd)^ which is about the only material for clothing used 
by two-thirds of the inhabitants of the country, is usually made 
up in pieces of 30 yards 4 inches in length by 34.12 inches in 
width. The price of the piece varies from $2.88 to $4. 



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52 MEXICO. 

The cotton mills of the country, their location, number, annual 
output, and its value, are set forth in the table following : 



Location. 



Federal District 
Aguascalientes. 

Coahuila 

Colima 

Chihuahua- 

Durango 

Guanajuato . . . . 

Guerrero 

Hidalgo 

Jalisco 

Mexico 

Michoacan 

Nuevo Leon. . . 

Oaxaca 

Puebla 

Quer6taro 

San Luis Potosi 

Sinaloa 

Sonora 

Tlaxcala 

Veracruz 

Yucatay 

Zacatecas. . 

Total 



No. of 
mills. 



6 

3 

8 

2 

3 
7 
4 

I 
I 
9 
3 
3 
3 

2 
22 

3 

I 

3 
I 

2 

8 

I 
I 



Yearly 
production 
in pieces. 



97 



452, 400 

36,000 

302,000 

48,000 

90,000 

150,000 

272, 400 

24,000 

16, 800 

282,000 

186, 800 

114,000 

54.000 

72,000 

995. 200 

150,000 

33. 408 

141, 600 

12,000 

26, 400 

287, 700 

15, 600 

6,000 



3, 768, 308 



Value of product. 



$1, 583, 400 

126,000 

1,057,000 

168,000 

31^,000 

525,000 

953. 400 

84,000 

58,800 

987,000 

653, 800 

399,000 

189,000 

252,000 

3, 483, 200 

525,000 

116,928 

495,600 

42,000 

92,400 

I, 006, 950 

54.600 

21,000 



13,189,078 



Besides the product above given nearly 3,000 tons of cotton yam 
used in the manufacture of rebozos (an article serving as a shawl 
and scarf for women), blankets, and napkins are spun. The best 
rebozos are made in the town of Tenancingo. These articles are 
also manufactured of silk and linen. Cotton prints are also made 
which sell at about $3.73 per piece. Cotton and woolen blankets 
are also quite extensively manufactured and bring from $18 to 
$30 per dozen. There are in the City of Mexico seventy factories 
devoted to the manufacture, by hand, of zarapes, rebozos^ manta^ 
and other cotton stuffs. 

The manufacture of knit goods, such as hosiery, underwear, etc., 
has increased considerably of late years, and has resulted in making 
a noticeable reduction in the amount of imported goods of this 



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MEXICO. 53 

character. The cloth made is of a fair quality, and sells at from 
$1.63 to $2.62 per vara, carpets bringing from $1 to $1.13 per 
vara. A vara is 34.12 inches. 

WOOLEN FABRICS. 

The weaving of zarapes constitutes a profitable industry, there 
being an extensive and increasing demand for them. These multi- 
colored woolen cloaks or blankets are well made, those of Satillo 
and San Miguel being celebrated for their fine texture, brilliant 
colors, good finish, and excellent wearing qualities. 

There are in the Republic quite a number of woolen mills, four 
of which, situated in the Federal District, have a yearly production 
of 162,000 pieces of cloth. Mexico supports three establishments, 
producing 1 50,000 pieces of cloth and carpet per annum ; Pue- 
bla has five mills, turning out yearly 550,000 pounds of yam; 
Hidalgo has three factories whose approximate yearly production 
is 125,000 pieces of cloth. Guanajuato has several mills, the two 
principal ones being located at Zempoala and Celaya, which, com- 
bined, produce yearly 85,000 pieces of cloth and 50,000 varas of 
carpets. 

It is not generally known that wool-spinning has been carried 
on in Mexico for more than three centuries, yet such is the well- 
authenticated fact. In the year 1541 the first Viceroy introduced 
merino sheep into the country and established manufactories of 
cloth. 

THE SILK INDUSTRY. 

Silk-weaving can hardly be said to be a great industry as yet, 
but it is increasing rapidly. Silk was cultivated and sold in the 
markets of Mexico as far back as the time of Charles V, Cortez 
speaking of the fact in his letters to that monarch, and there 
are still preserved pictures done by the ancient Mexicans upon a 
paper made of silk. For some political reason, known only to 
the Spaniards of the day, the culture of the silkworm and the 



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54 MEXICO. 

weaving of its product was prohibited by the Spanish crown in its 
American possessions during the vice-regal administrations. The 
industry gradually died out, and it is only of late years that it has 
been revived. 

The climate of Mexico is considered unexcelled by any in the 
world for the raising and development of cocoons. Silkworms 
are at the present time mostly raised in Oaxaca, in the State of 
the same name, Tetela, in the State of Puebla; Ixmiquilpam, in 
Hidalgo, and in the States of Jalisco, Oaxaca, Tlaxcala, Michoacan, 
Queretaro, Veracruz, Chihuahua, and Zacatecas. In all of these 
States, as well as in the Federal District, the white and black mul- 
berry leaves grow. In 1886 there were four silk factories which 
could be considered to be well equipped. These had plants of 
machinery imported from France, and, although small, were in the 
hands of enterprising men, and it was estimated at that time that 
these factories and others which would be established in the future 
would manufacture more silk than could be consumed by the peo- 
ple of Mexico. This estimate has been proven to be exaggerated, 
for the factories existing in the country at this time do not pro- 
duce, by any means, a sufficient quantity of the material to supply 
the domestic demand. In the factories women are generally em- 
ployed because of the delicacy required in the work, most of the 
female operatives receiving only 37^^ cents per day. 

The Federal and some of the State governments have taken 
a great interest in this industry, and the desire to foster it was il- 
lustrated by the action of the executive of the State of Puebla, 
who, under authority of the legislature of that commonwealth, on 
the 30th of March, 1886, offered to all those persons devoting 
themselves to silk culture within the State, a subvention of $ 1 for 
each kilogramme of silk produced in the first year and 50 cents per 
kilogramme during each succeeding year. Tracts of land devoted 
exclusively to the planting and growing of mulberry trees were 
made exempt from State taxes for a period of five years, in case the 



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MEXICO. 55 

plantations were preserved for that length of time. The first fac- 
tory of spun and woven silk goods established in the State and 
deemed by the governor to offer fair prospects of stability was given 
a subvention of $5,000. 

PAPER. 

Considering the great quantity and variety of fibrous plants and 
other material for paper-making with which Mexico is endowed, it 
seems strange that throughout the entire territory there are only 
seven paper mills, two in the State of Jalisco, one in Veracruz, 
and four in the Federal District, which manufacture compara- 
tively little writing paper, but a considerable quantity of wrapping 
and printing paper. How much these mills manufacture can not 
be stated. 

SUGAR. 

Save in the States of Morelos and some districts in the States of 
Puebla, Veracruz, Michoacan, and Jalisco, and the Territory of 
Lower California, the sugar industry is very backward. In most 
of the sugar mills the juice of the cane is pressed out by wooden 
cylinders, boiled to the necessary consistency to form small tablets 
or cakes (called panelas or piloncillos) of a dark brown saccharine 
substance called panocha. Except in rare cases the use of steam 
and modern machinery is unknown. However, within the past 
six or seven years the United States has sent to the neighboring 
Republic considerable machinery of the best and most improved 
pattern, thereby to some degree advancing this industry. 

DISTILLERIES. 

Distilleries are to be found all over the country, yet very few of 
them have modern plants. These distilleries are chiefly engaged 
in distilling the liquor called mescal^ a strong alcoholic beverage, 
which is colorless or of a very light amber tint. This liquor is 
distilled from the root of the American agave, and has an odor and 



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56 MEXICO. 

a taste not unlike Scotch whisky. Mexicans claim that it has good 
stomachic qualities, but it is a great intoxicant. Another liquor 
made in Mexico is distilled from the sugar cane, and is called 
aguardiente (burning water). It is one of the strongest liquors 
known. 

Grapes flourish in the States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo 
Leon, Aguascalientes, and Sinaloa, as well as in some otTier parts 
of the country, and a very fair native wine and brandy are made of 
them, as well as raisins and sugar, but the industry is not a prom- 
inent one and the production does not supply the home demand. 

Beer and pale ale of excellent quality are brewed, there being 
five breweries in the capital doing an extensive business, only one 
of which, however, is well equipped, and all of them do not sup- 
ply the demand. There is annually consumed in the Republic 
$ 1,500,000 of beer imported from the United States and Germany. 
The cost of this beer at the breweries is about $500,000. Duties, 
freights, and middlemen's profits treble the cost. 

TOBACCO. 

The tobacco industry is extensive, nearly every town and hamlet 
having its cigarette factories, which may be counted by the hun- 
dreds in the Republic. In 1889, ^^ ^^^ ^^ty ^f Mexico, there 
were 15 cigar and cigarette factories and 1,201 shops exclusively 
devoted to the sale of cigars and cigarettes. The tobacco of Vera- 
cruz is considered to rival that of Cuba, and the factories of that 
city manufacture an excellent quality of cigars, much sought after 
by foreigners. Cigarettes are very cheap, seven to eight hundred 
selling for a dollar. Good brands of cigars may be purchased at 
from $35 to $80 per thousand, Mexican coin. 

There are many flour mills in the country, and nearly all the 
millstones were imported from France. No very fine grades of 
flour are manufactured, nor do the mills supply the domestic de- 
mand. 



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MEXICO. J7 

IRON FOUNDRIES. 

Iron foundries are numerous, the excellent quality of the Mex- 
ican minerals and their abundance making it possible for these 
foundries to turn out good work. Some large pieces have been 
cast, but the production is mostly limited to the smaller agricul- 
tural implements and ordinary marketable iron. There are some 
foundries where sugar-making machinery has been constructed and 
heavier work turned out, but foreign articles compete against them 
profitably. The Government arsenal and gun foundry in the City 
of Mexico has done some excellent work. Arms and munitions 
of war have been produced at this establishment which speak highly 
for the skill and dexterity of the operatives in the establishment. 
Good work is also done in the two type foundries located in the 
City of Mexico. 

POTTERY AND CROCKERY. 

Pottery is classed as the third great manufacture of the country. 
It is carried on everywhere. The cities of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, 
Guanajuato, and Puebla may be said to be the centers of this 
industry, although there is scarcely a village where it is not carried 
on. The pottery and crockery of the various localities or districts 
where it is manufactured has its peculiar distinctive features of qual- 
ity, design, and color. 

The Guadalajara ware is gray, as a rule soft-baked, polished, and 
often very elaborately decorated in colors, gold, and silver. The 
Zacatecas ware is red, hard-baked, glazed, and decorated rudely 
with splashes of underglaze color. The ware of Guanajuato is in 
dark brown or dark green with ornamentation of figures in low 
relief, and with a soft, rich glaze. In Puebla a coarse porcelain 
with a thick tin glaze is manufactured. Very fine glazed titles, 
multiformed and varicolored are made in this State, specimens 
of these ornamenting the exterior and interior of the churches 
which abound in the city of Puebla and other cities and towns of 



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58 ' MEXICO. 

the historic State. In some parts of the Republic a curious 
iridescent ware is manufactured which has a copper glaze. 

The crockery for table use is usually heavy and in white and 
blue. There are in the Federal District two quite extensive fac- 
tories where finer grades of porcelain are made. In many places 
the Indians are adepts in the manufacture of earthenware, and the 
Mexicans generally are skillful in the fabrication of wax, clay, 
and rag figures, which is one of their profitable industries. In 
Guadalajara, the capital of Jalisco, and Tepic, in the Territory of 
that name, vast numbers of clay images, well molded and painted, 
are made. Foreigners are amazed at the perfect accuracy dis- 
played by the humble artists in reproducing costumes, and por- 
traits from life or photographic pictures. The rapidity with which 
the modelers perform their tasks is also wonderful. Some of 
the clay and wax work manufactured by the deft fingers of the 
natives has been deemed worthy to rank with works of sculpture. 
The specimens of Mexican handiwork in wax which adorn the 
innumerable churches do the artists great honor. No city in the 
Republic of any pretensions whatever is without the itinerant 
vendor of rag, baked clay, and wax images, crying his wares. 

Despite the fact that Mexico is a large producer of cabinet 
woods, the manufacture of furniture is but little developed. The 
rich and well-to-do classes import nearly if not all of their furni- 
ture, upon which heavy duties are levied, and the poorer classes 
need but little, and that of the most humble description. 

VARIOUS OTHER MANUFACTURES. 

Glassware is manufactured to some extent, but not to that war- 
ranted by the abundance of the raw materials suitable to glass- 
making. The industry is almost limited to the making of win- 
dow-panes and ordinary bottles and goblets, at prices so high that 
the poor are almost denied their use. An ordinary pane of glass 
of a small size costs 75 cents. In the City of Mexico there is 
invested about $95,000,000 in house fumishings and 62,000 



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MEXICO. % 59 

residences are furnished with more or less elegance. The residents 
import annually about $4,000,000 in furniture, carpets, curtains, 
plate glass, marble slabs, and other household accessories. These 
materials at the factory are estimated to cost about $1,000,000. 
Duties, freights, and intermediary profits eat up the rest. 

There is but one manufactory of jewelry and trinkets in the 
country, notwithstanding the Mexican love of display in this line. 
There are any number of itinerant jewelers without capital who 
hawk their wares about and obtain good prices. The importations 
of jewelry and trinkets from France and England amount yearly 
to millions of francs. The silver and goldsmiths of the country 
excel in the execution of filigree work, it being sought after in all 
parts of the civilized world. 

The manufacture of acids and chemical compounds, which 
would undoubtedly be a profitable industry, has but seven 
establishments devoted to it, and of these two only manufacture 
acids, so necessary to the mining industry. Sulphuric, hydrochloric, 
and nitric acids are manufactured at great profits. The seven 
factories are located at the City of Mexico. 

Another quite prominent industry is the manufacture of choco- 
late, several large factories being devoted to the converting of the 
cocoa bean into this article. The Mexican chocolate when ground 
with cinnamon is much esteemed. 

Hardware is also manufactured, principally in the City of 
Mexico. 

Felt hats are made in all the large cities, and straw hats every- 
where. 

The manufacture of wooden and wax matches is extensively 
carried on in the country, there being eighteen match factories in 
the City of Mexico and a large number in Puebla. 

A large business is done, although nowhere upon an extensive 
scale, in the manufacture of dukes (sweetmeats) and confections. 

Gunpowder is also manufactured to quite an extent. 

Among the distinctively Mexican industries are the beautiful 



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6o 



MEXICO. 



drawn work and feather work, in the making of which, as well as in 
the spinning of horsehair riatas^ or lasso, which every Mexican 
carries on the pommel of his saddle, the natives of the country are 
unexcelled. Mexican lace is also far famed. 

What Mexico needs and what would prove profitable invest- 
ments are paper mills, salt refineries, the salt fields being inex- 
haustible, while a 5-cent bag of American salt costs 37^^ cents ; 
and pork packing and meat-canning establishments. The climate 
and soil being favorable to the growing of broom-corn and the 
brooms manufactured in the country being very poor, factories for 
broom-making would yield good returns. 




CONVENT AT QUKK£TARO, WUKKE MAXIMILIAN WAS CONFINED. 



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Chapter VI. 



MINES AND MINING. 

Nature has richly endowed Mexico with resources well nigh 
countless, but in the bestowal of mineral resources she has been 
most lavish. Beneath the surface of that volcanic ridge raised 
between two great bodies of water lie buried treasures incompar- 
able, and although mining enterprises innumerable have for 
nearly 400 years exploited the metal-bearing regions and have 
extracted fabulous quantities of precious metals, by far the greater 
part is yet to be laid bare. 

At the beginning of this century Humboldt estimated the 
mines in Mexico to number 3,000. Seven years ago there were 
hardly that many being worked, but since the railroads have been 
extended and remote sections of the country brought into closer 
communication, they have greatly increased in number and in 
value. This increase is also due to another cause. 

During the economic crisis of 1886, due to the depreciation of 
silver, the Mexican Congress appointed a commission composed 
of distinguished men to study the question. The commission 
suggested as a remedy the absolute necessity of the production of 
something else than silver. It called attention to the undoubted 
fact that the Republic, possessed as it is of the most varied 
cKmates, was favorable to all kinds of cultivation, and in conse- 
quence it proposed a series of measures tending to the protection 
of agricultural and mechanical interests. The result of the studies 

61 



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62 MEXICO. 

and report of this commission has been the reformation of the 
mining legislation, encouragement to large companies, the work- 
ing of coal, mercury, and iron mines, the revision of the customs 
tariff in a way favorable to agriculture and industries, and the con- 
ferring upon the executive of the power to accord advantages to 
the development of the cultivation of certain agricultural products. 
Another result of the work of this commission was the placing 
upon the free list not long -ago by the. Mexican Congress of some 
eighty-six articles used in connection with the mining and agricul- 
tural interests. 

The law of June 7, 1887, still in force, exempted for 50 years 
from all Federal, State, or municipal taxes (excepting the stamp 
tax) coal, iron, and quicksilver mines. Iron of Mexican origin in 
bars, ingots, rails, etc., enjoys the same privilege. All mines other 
than those mentioned are subject to but one tax, which can not 
exceed 2 per cent, of the value of the annual product. The free 
circulation of gold and silver in bars or coined, and in general 
of all the products of mines, can not be impeded by any tax 
whatever. Mercury is exempted from all tax. The tax on reduc- 
tion works levied by the States or the Federation can not exceed 
one-fifth of 1 per cent, of the value of the works. The law also 
prohibits the States from imposing any other tax whatever upon 
mines, their machinery, products, the capital invested in them, the 
declarations or denouncements, or any other acts necessary to the 
acquiring of a mine. Pursuant to this law of June 7, 1887, the 
President has entered into 167 contracts with companies for the 
exploration and development of the mineral wealth of many of 
the States. It has been estimated that over $30,000,000 of capi- 
tal has been invested recently in mining properties. In the 17 
months from April, 1887, ^^ September, 1888, 2,077 ^^^^^ ^^'^ 
33 reduction works were recorded. 

From the State of Sonora to that of Oaxaca, an extent of about 
1,242 miles, running northwest and southeast, lies what is known 



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MEXICO. 63 

as the metalliferous belt, because it is of extraordinary richness and 
it comprises the greater aumber of mining districts in the Repub- 
lic, the most active centers being those of Zacatecas, Guanajuato, 
and Pachuca. 

This belt includes one hundred and forty-three important min- 
eral districts, situated in the States of Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, 
Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, 
Guanajuato, Queretaro, Hidalgo, Mexico, Michoacan, Guerrero, 
Morelos, Puebla, Veracruz, and Oaxaca. Mineral deposits also 
exist in the States of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas, 
but they do not lie in the belt above mentioned and are mostly 
abandoned. 

Of the two great ranges into which the Sierra Madre Cordillera 
is divided, the westernmost greatly eiiceeds the eastern in metal- 
bearing lodes. 

In Chihuahua there are over one hundred rich mineral districts, 
with more than five hundred and seventy-five mines producing 
gold, copper, lead, mercury, salt, coal, and silver, generally accom- 
panied by other metals from which may be obtained iron, zinc, 
antimony, arsenic, and other substances. 

In the district and near the city of Chihuahua is situated the 
celebrated Santa Eulalia mine, one of the oldest in the country^ 
the products of which have left a monument in the very handsome 
parish church of San Francisco, erected in the city between the 
years 1717 and 1789 with the proceeds of a tax of one real {^1% 
cents) on each half pound of silver got from the mine. The total 
sum thus secured is stated to be $ 800,000. 

Sonora is one of the richest as well as most important mining 
centers. It is noted for its high-class metals, among which are 
gold, silver, mercury, and iron. Here abounvl the soft or lead 
ores, which are so easily worked and aid so materially in smelting. 
There are also other minerals, such as asbestos, copperas, magnetic 
iron ore, muriate and carbonate of soda, and saltpeter. The native 



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64 MEXICO. 

silver is found in these districts in considerable quantities, and 
native iron has also been discovered in the Sierra Madre, Papa- 
gueria, and the vicinity of the Colorado River- 

Sinaloa has also more than one hundred mining districts, the 
mineral deposits being classified into six formations. Calciferous 
and quartz ore prevails with silver in a native state or combined 
with sulphur, antimony, and arsenic, with more or less traces of 
gold. Veins of gold-bearing quartz exist in some localities, and 
deposits of iron ore, sulphite of lead, zinc, copper, and silica are 
to be found. 

The districts of Durango run mostly to silver, yet many other 
metals exist, such as tin and iron, in inexhaustible quantities in the 
Cerro del Mercado^ which is an enormous mass of magnetic iron. 
This cerro^ or hill, has been calculated to contain 60,000,000 
cubic yards of iron ore, having a specific weight of 5,000,000,000 
quintals (100 pounds). An analysis of this ore has given 66 per 
cent, of pure metal. 

Jalisco is another silver-producing region, and furnishes also 
copper and lead ores and coal. 

Of the many districts in Michoacan two only are being worked 
at the present time, those of Tlalpujahua and Angangueo. This 
is due to the very limited population of the State and lack of the 
necessary capital. The principal deposits are of copper. 

The districts of Guerrero furnish many specimens of silver-bear- 
ing ores; also some gold, copper, lead, cinnabar, and coal. 

Zacatecas is the great silver-producing State. It is estimated 
that in the last three centuries its many mines, which were first 
worked by the Spaniards in 1540, but which had previously been 
worked in a rude way by the Indians, have yielded over a thou- 
sand million of dollars. In 1886 there were over fifteen thousand 
miners employed in the mines clustered around the city of Zacate- 
cas. 

Guanajuato is another far-famed silver-producing State, and has 



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MEXICO. 65 

been and still is the center of great exploitation. The district 
bearing the name of the State was discovered in 1 548, and has been 
worked almost continuously ever since that date, the output of its 
mines reaching fabulous figures. Native gold has been discovered 
in this district and the late denouncing and registering of mines 
has disclosed the presence of other minerals, such as tin and bis- 
muth. 

In the mineral district of Queretaro are to be found lead metals, 
cinnabar, and the ever-present silver. The mines are numerous and 
important. There were, in 1888, 216 that had been surveyed, 193 
being silver mines, 5 gold, 7 copper, 6 quicksilver, 2 antimony, 1 
lead, and 1 tin. The celebrated San Juan Nepomuceno, or El 
Doctor, mine is situated here, in the Cadereyta district. It is one 
of the oldest and richest of Mexico, its production being so great 
two hundred years ago that it paid the Spanish Government 
$18,000,000 in taxes. During 1888 a syndicate with a capital of 
;^ 100,000 sterling was formed in London to work mines in this 
State. It is in this State that the fine opals, which reflect every 
prismatic color and are much sought after, are found. Great beds 
of these stones exist on the celebrated hacienda of La Esperanza. 
The opals fi-om this place are sold in the City of Mexico by itiner- 
ant venders at remarkably low prices. The most important deposit 
of these stones produces from $80,000 to $100,000 a year. 

The State of Morelos has but one mineral district worthy the 
name, that of Huatla, which, like most of those in the country, 
is silver-producing. 

Puebla's districts yield native gold, silver, oxide of manganese, 
and pyrites, as well as coal and iron ore. Here also exist quar- 
ries of beautiful onyx and what is known as Puebla marble. A syn- 
dicate was lately formed in New York with a capital of $ 1,500,000 
to control the output and prices of this onyx, which now consti- 
tutes the almost sole source of the world's supply. This onyx is 
much used in the United States for decorating houses and in the 
57A S 



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66 MEXICO. 

jeweler's trade. Its price is now about $ 14 per cubic foot. Lately 
in the mountains bordering on the States of Zacatecas, San Luis 
Potosi, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon extensive quarries of onyx and 
marble of most beautiful colors and varieties, equal in every way 
to the Puebla product, are being worked. 

Among the mineral regions in the eastern cordillera, that of 
Zomelahuacan, in the State of Veracruz, deserves mention, three 
classes of nietals being found there, lead, argentiferous copper, 
and iron. Gold nuggets have been secured there also, as well as 
very rich malachite in scattered veins, the mother vein not having 
been discovered up to date. 

The State of Mexico is rich in mines of native gold and silver, 
as well as those of copper, iron, oxide of iron, and manganese. 

The Territory of Lower California is rich in minerals. The pen- 
insula is barren and without water. The mountain ridge forming 
the backbone of the peninsula is a continuation of the coast range of 
Upper California, and is interwoven almost over its entire extent 
with metallic veins of all descriptions. Near San Jose and Cape 
St. Lucas there are argentiferous and auriferous outcroppings, and 
in the municipalities of La Paz, El Triunfo, and San Antonio 
veins of gold, silver, iron, and other substances are exhibited on 
the surface of the mountains. 

In the districts of Comundu, Loreto, San Luis, and Muleje, in 
in the northern part of the peninsula, rich copper mines abound. 
Also other metals, such as mica, iron, tin, and oxides of iron, be- 
sides gypsum, enormous piles or hills of which are to be found, 
marble, alabaster, and sandstone. Gold was discovered near Santa 
Gertrudis, north of Muleje, about 1884, and it is said that the 
mountains and gulches in that vicinity have rich veins of this 
metal. 

In this district there are also solid mountains of iron. The 
frontier district of Lower California is noted for its gold diggings 
and ledges, mica, and other mineral substances, such as sulphur. 



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MEXICO. 67 

soda, and salt. American capitalists are largely interested in this 
region. 

Besides the minerals named there are in the peninsula plum- 
bago, sulphuret of lead, porphyry, prismatic pyrites, sulphur, oxide 
of antimony and lead, carbonate and phosphate of lead, hydroxide 
of iron, and hydrosilicate of copper. Near Todos Santos exist 
some lime quarries. 

The largest mining enterprise in Lower Califomik is the Pro- 
greso Silver Mining Company, having mills and works, with 
improved American and English machinery, at El Triunfo. In 
1886 two of this company's mines, the Hormiguera and Mor- 
ronena, were yielding ore averaging $55 per ton of silver. The 
other substances, such as antimony, lead, iron, sulphur, arsenic, etc., 
are not extracted, but are left to run with the tailings. The ores 
are here milled under the lixiviation process, the absence of lead 
in the ores and the presence of other substances preventing smelt- 
ing. It was stated in 1884 that the annual copper production of 
the mines in the district of Muleje was about 6,000 tons. 

The State of Hidalgo deserves more extended mention here, as 
it was in one of its districts that a Mexican miner discovered the 
patio process for reducing ores — a process which to this day is 
most in use in Mexico, and one which no miner or mining engineer 
has been able to supersede by a more economical one for reducing 
the peculiar ores in which that country abounds. The great min- 
eral district of this State is situated in the vicinity of Pachuca, the 
principal mines being the Real del Monte, Atontolico el Chico» 
and Zimapan. 

Pachuca, with its rich cluster of mines, lies on a plain about 60 
miles from the City of Mexico, and is one of the oldest mining 
centers in the country, having been worked for more than three 
and a half centuries. It now has a population of about 30,000 
souls, mostly Indian miners. It was here that the process of amal- 
gamation, called the patio process, was discovered by the celebrated 



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68 



MEXICO. 



Mexican miner Bartolome de Medina in 1 557. The very hacienda, 
or reduction works, where this discovery was made are still to be 
seen in the town. 

There are in Pachuca and the mining regions adjacent to it 267 
mines, as follows: In Pachuca, 154; Real del Monte, 76; El 
Chico, 24, and Santa Rosa, 13. Sulphate of silver is the pre- 
vailing metal, although native silver mixed with ore is found in 
some of the mines. Most of these mines, as well as those in other 
States, are still operated in the primitive Mexican fashion. The 
metal is brought up in rawhide sacks, by means of ropes made of 
the fiber of the maguey wound about a large malacate, or horse 
or mule whims, and the peons or laborers carry pieces of ore weigh- 
ing sometimes between 100 and 200 pounds on their backs fi-om 
"headings" of the levels to the main shaft. Some foreigners are 
employed in the mines of Pachuca and elsewhere at good wages, 
but they generally are superintendents, engineers, bosses, etc. 

The Santa Gertrudis mine, situated less than 2 miles from 
Pachuca, which was successfully worked and then abandoned for 
many years, began paying, after much money had been sunk in it, 
about 1877. From June of that year until March, 1881, it pro- 
duced $2,300,000 and declared thirty-two dividends, amounting to 
$640,000. This mine is provided with powerful pumping and 
hoisting machinery, large buildings, and many modern appliances. 
The ores of this district run from $20 to $300 to the ton, and 
there are some deposits running up to $500 to the ton. 

There are in the Republic abundant sulphur deposits, particu- 
larly those of Popocatapetl, Pico de Orizaba, and Tajimaroa; sev- 
eral deposits of salt, rock crystal, marble, jasper, fine building 
stone, and the beautiful onyx of Tecali. 

The most celebrated salt deposits of Mexico are those of Penon 
Blanco, in San Luis Potosi, their product containing from 70 to 
80 per cent, of chloride of sodium. On the coasts of both oceans 
there are also a great number of salt mines, the most useful being 



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MEXICO. 69 

those of Yucatan, whence comes the salt used for reducing the 
product of the mines of Hidalgo. 

Mexico also has deposits of precious stones, such as the opal, 
topaz, emerald, agate, amethyst, and garnet. It is related that one 
of the heroes of Mexican independence. General Guerrero, pos- 
sessed some diamonds which had been given him by one of his 
soldiers, who had found them during an expedition in that part of 
the Sierra Madre running through the State of Guerrero. The 
field or locality whence came these precious stones, of which the 
general gave but vague information, have been vainly sought by 
various prospectors. 

THE MEXICAN PRODUCT OF PRECIOUS METALS. 

It has been estimated that the annual output of silver from 
Mexican mines is now over $30,000,000 ; and the yield of other 
minerals amounts to fully $5,000,000 more. There are about 
200,000 men employed in the more than a thousand mines now 
being worked in the Republic. 

The total gold and silver product of Mexican mines from 1521 
to 1 884 was: Gold, $276,970,173; silver, $3,570,370,247, mak- 
ing a total of $3,847,340,429. 

The yield for the fiscal year 1886-87 was: Silver, $25,897,- 
981.75; gold, $548,414.71 ; total, $26,446,396.46. The total ex- 
port of silver fi-om Mexico for the year ending June 30, 1889, was, 
in round numbers, $38,000,000. Since the discovery of America 
the mines of Mexico have yielded nearly two-thirds of the silver 
product of the globe. The amount of capital invested in Mexican 
mines was estimated on August 15, 1890, to be $500,000,000, 
Mexican money. 

The coinage of the mints since their establishment (1537) up to 
December 31, 1888, was as follows: 

Gold '. $122, 751, 291. 29 

Silver 3, 203, 119, 941. 63 

Copper 6, 400, 214. 58 

Total 3, 332, 271, 447. 50 

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70 MEXICO. 

There should be added to this amount the copper coined by the 
Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza, $200,000, and that coined by 
Sr. Ayllon, $31,667.67, which will increase the total to $3,332,- 
503,115.17. This amount augmented by $4,000,000 worth of 
nickel coined during the Presidency of Gen. Manuel Gonzalez, 
but which is now out of circulation, brings the grand total up to 
$3'336,503, 115.17. 

There have been fifteen mints established at one time and another 
in Mexico, only eleven of which now exist, located as follows : 
Alamos (Sonora), Culiacan (Sinaloa), Chihuahua (Chihuahua), 
Durango (Durango), Guanajuato (Guanajuato), Guadalajara 
(Jalisco), Hermosillo (Sonora), Mexico (Federal District), Oax- 
aca (Oaxaca), San Luis Potosi (San Luis Potosi), and Zacatecas 
(Zacatecas). 

Every silver and gold producer is free to have his bullion con- 
verted into coin in unlimited quantities, the mints* receiving for 
such coining 4.618 per cent, for gold and 4.41 per cent, for silver. 

The total metal product of Mexico in coined gold and silver, 
in gold and silver bullion, in minerals not treated, and in other 
metals, as well as the balance exported or utilized in home con- 
sumption may be put down at about $70,000,000 per annum. 

There are five processes for the reduction of ore at present in 
use in Mexico — the patio, tonel, lixiviation, fuego, and pan. 

THE PATIO PROCESS OF REDUCTION. 

The patio process, invented, as before stated, by Bartolome de 
Medina, consists of amalgamation with quicksilver. A descrip- 
tion of this system of treating ore has been given by the United 
States vice-consul at Guerrero in 1886, as follows: 

The ore as it is brought from the mine is in large pieces ; this is piled up in 
the court-yard in a huge pile, and does not look as if it contained any mineral, 
but like so much red stone. It is in the first place put into an inclosed box, 
and pounded to pieces by immense wooden pounders, armed on the end by iron 
pestles, which are lifted up by arms connected with an axle, which is turned by 



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MEXICO. 71 

mules. The ends of these arms fit into a notch in the pestles and lift them up 
to a certain distance, and then the end of the arm slips out of the notch, and 
the iron pestle falls down with an immense force upon the mineral, and commi- 
nutes it into small pieces. These fall down upon a sieve made of hide, and the 
smaller pieces fall down through the holes in the sieve, and the larger pieces are 
thrown back under the pestles to be again crushed. There are several of these 
pestles in a straight line, connected with the same axle, and they are lifted up 
alternately. 

After the ore is pounded in pieces in the mortars (morteras) it passes to the 
tahones, or mills, which consist of a round vat, placed on a level with the floor, 
where the ore is ground up into a fine mud (water being added), by means of 
three heavy and hard granite stones of an oblong shape, which are tied to the 
arms, connected with a revolving axle turned by a mule, which walks around in 
a circle, blindfolded. Into holes made in the stones sticks are introduced, 
and these are connected by means of ropes or chains to the revolving arms. 
There are several of these circular vats, all situated in a line in a long room, 
each worked by a mule blindfolded. These are called tahones, and the crest- 
pole in the middle, peon, with its two brazos (arms) of wood, from which are 
suspended the heavy stones called metapiles, or crushers. 

From here the ore, looking like so much mud, is thrown out into the patio or 
yard, which has a floor well made of some hard cement or stone, and here are 
added quicksilver and salt in a liquid state, or caldo (soup) as it is called. It is 
thus left in the open air, exposed to the heat of the sun, some twenty or thirty 
days, and is stirred up every day or two by the feet of men and horses, who 
walk around in a circle until the quicksilver and salt are well incorporated with 
the ore. When this process is completed the mud thus mixed is called torta de 
lama (cake of mud). After the ore is thus worked or brought to a proper state 
it goes to the lavadero (washing place), called tina (vat), which is round and 
made of wood and stone, where the silver is separated from the earth, and here 
is where the tortas de lama are taken from the yard, and here remains, after 
the mud is washed out, what is called the plata pifia (amalgamated silver), con- 
taining quicksilver ; this amalgam is then put into stout canvass bags and sub- 
mitted to a heavy pressure to get rid of the mercury, and afterwards it goes to 
the fiirnace, where the silver is purified of all foreign substances. 

The same consul gives an additional process connected with 
this system in the reduction of certain kinds of ores in the follow- 
ing words : 

After the mineral has been exposed to the sun in the patio, or yard, it is 
transferred to the planillo, which is an inclined plane in the open air, having a 



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72 HEXICO. 

solid stone? floor some 60 feet long and 20 feet wide. At the foot of this sit a 
number of nearly naked men, who occupy themselves by throwing water grad- 
ually on the mass of mud by means of pieces of ox horn, so that the mud flows 
off, and runs outside of the yard in a ditch, and the silver with some mud is left 
at the foot of the inclined plane. This requires a great deal of skill, as the water 
must be thrown on gradually. After this process, the greater part of the mud 
has flowed off and only a small portion remains, which contains the silver. 
This mud is then removed to a room in the second story, where it is placed in 
the criso, a large round iron boiler, with fire underneath ; water is added, and 
it is stirred up by means of revolving arms worked by a mule, and the remain- 
ing mud flows off, only a small portion remaining. The rest of the process con- 
sists in removing the remaining substance to the amalgamating room, where 
quicksilver is added, which unites with the silver in the mud, and then this is 
further washed, and only the quicksilver is left united with the silver. This is 
further purified in a furnace and the silver runs off into molds. 

THE LIXIVIATION PROCESS. 

Another method in vogue is smelting, and lately American 
machinery and systems have been introduced in many of the 
mining districts. Lixiviation is the system adopted in several of 
the States. Leaching tubes have taken the place of barrels and 
pans in a number of the mills. A writer on Mexico has thus de- 
scribed the lixiviation process : 

The rock is crushed dry and passed through screens of twenty to thirty 
meshes to the inch. It is then roasted in reverberatory furnaces with salt. 
The roasted ore is then subjected to the water process, being kept in large tanks 
or tubs, constantly covered and run over by clear water during a number of 
hours, after which the water is drawn off, and a cold solution of hypo-sulphate 
of soda is made to pass through the ore until it is ascertained that the solution 
carries no more silver. The silver carried by the hypo-sulphate solution is 
precipitated by the addition to that solution of another solution of quicklime 
and sulphur, known as calcium sulphide, which is made by boiling lime and 
sulphur. After the precipitation, and the running off of the precipitating liquid, 
the silver appears as a sulphide, is put into canvass filters, dried, roasted in 
reverberatory furnaces to carry off the sulphur, and then melted into bars. If 
the operation is carefully performed the bullion resulting will be from 900 to 
1,000 fine. The solution is pumped back into the tanks to be used again. 



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MEXICO. 73 

SMELTING ESTABLISHMENTS. 

There are several kinds of silver ore taken from the mines ; some 
of the principal varieties are plata blanca (white silver), which is 
the rarest and best ; plata verde (green silver), united with copper ; 
bronces (bronzes) united with iron; plomosos (lead) united with 
lead, a very soft ore ; caliches (chalk) united with a chalky sub- 
stance very greatly resembling the common white limestone, but 
which is rich in silver and easily worked. Previous to the passage 
of the new United States tariff bill, silver-bearing lead ore was 
brought from Mexico to the United States for reduction. This 
bill puts a heavy duty on such ores, and has caused companies to 
form in the latter country to establrsh smelting works in different 
parts of Mexico. One company was lately organized under the 
laws of New Jersey to establish such works at San Luis Potosi. 
The capital to be invested is $4,000,000, mostly fiimished by a 
New York syndicate. 

In April, 1890, a corporation called "The Nuevo Leon Smelt- 
ing, Refining and Manufacturing Company, Limited," was organ- 
ized in Monterey, with a capital of $500,000. 

This company got all its machinery from Chicago, and put up 
six furnaces with all the modem appliances, electric lights, etc. 
Its object is to treat silver, lead, and copper ores. Out of the lead 
they propose to manufacture pipe, sheet lead, and other articles. 
Heretofore all the manufactured lead has been imported, and this 
company is the only one now engaged in this line in the Republic. 
The locality chosen by the corporation for its plant is excellent, 
transportation facilities being furnished by two lines of railroad, the 
Mexican National and the Monterey and Gulf 

Wages for miners range all the way from 37 j^ cents to $ i per 
day, the workmen being mostly peons. The men are paid off 
weekly. 



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74 MEXICO. 

THE MEXICAN MINING CODE. 

Under the Mexican mining code, which has been in force since 
January i, 1885, all mines and mineral beds are immovable prop- 
erty distinct from the soil in which or under the surface of which 
they may lie, even though both shall belong to the same owner. 
The title to mines is granted private persons for an unlimited time 
provided they operate the mines in conformity with the provisions 
of the mining code and the regulations framed in accordance there- 
with intended for the preservation of the mines and the security of 
the workmen. 

Foreigners may acquire mining property, but being considered 
as Mexican citizens, they must submit, as such, to the require- 
ments of the law and to all other laws that may hereafter be 
enacted touching the mining interests. Legally acquired mining 
property may be alienated or transferred freely, the same as other 
real property. It may be forfeited for the reasons following: 
When from want of supports, strengthening, or general bad con- 
dition the lives of the miners are imperiled; when necessary 
works for the survey and exploitation of the deposit, such as 
shafts, pits, adits, general passages, etc., are allowed to go to 
decay; when the works are not properly ventilated; when the 
water impeding the working of the mine has not been pumped 
out for twenty-six consecutive or interrupted weeks in one year 
preceding the day of the denouncement or within a shorter period. 

The law also declares the following to be the exclusive prop- 
erty of the owner of the soil, and gives him the right to work or 
avail himself thereof without denouncement or adjudication : Beds 
of coal of every kind ; rocks of the earth and materials of the soil, 
such as calcareous rock, slate, porphyry, basalt, building stone, 
earths, clays, sands, and other like substances; substances found 
in beds, such as iron, tin, and other minerals; salt found on the 
surface; pure and salt waters, superficial or subterraneous, petro- 
leum and gaseous springs, thermal and medicinal waters. 



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MEXICO. 75 

The law declares to be of public utility all matters forming the 
objects of the mining code, such as the working of placers and 
mines, the establishment and operation of reduction works, and 
the enjoyment of water privileges. 

The possessor of a mine is entitled to the necessary space for 
opening shafts, for offices, habitations, stores, washing places, dams, 
aqueducts, and roads, by previous indemnification for the surface 
occupied, etc. The right of way is guarantied over the ground 
adjacent to the mine holdings for all workmen, wagons, animals, 
etc., necessary to the operation of the mines. The law also gives 
the right to the use of water, etc. 

The method of "denouncing" or obtaining a mine is, briefly, as 
follows : The discoverer in person files a written statement before 
the Diputacion de Mineria (mining board) or the Jefe Politico 
(prefect) in whose jurisdiction the mine is located, setting forth 
his name, place of birth, residence, profession, or trade, and describ- 
ing the kind of metal discovered, the distinguishing marks or limits 
of the claim, direction and dip of the vein, etc. The declaration 
or statement is entered upon a register kept for the purpose, the 
hour of filing noted, and an official certificate is delivered to the 
discoverer. A notice is next posted on the site of the claim, and in 
some public place, such as a church door, office of a justice of the 
peace, post-office, etc., and within ninety days thereafter a shaft ij^ 
varas* in diameter at the mouth and lo varas in depth must be 
sunk. The claim is then inspected by the expert appointed by 
the mining board, a notary, or some other person, who takes the 
bearing or direction of the vein, its width, inclination, hardness or 
softness, the solidity of its walls, and the nature and indications of 
the mineral or minerals. This done, the expert, being at the site 
of the claim, proceeds to cry out three times, calling upon those who 
may have a prior claim to the mine to appear and prove the same 
then and there. Should no claim be advanced or proven the 



^ A vara is equal to 34.12 inches, English measure. 



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76 



MEXICO. 



discoverer is put in possession by the expert clasping his right hand 
and declaring him the owner. The proceedings are brought to a 
close by a handful of stones or grass being thrown into the open 
shaft. A record of these proceedings is entered on the original 
document, which, together with the certificate of possession, con- 
stitutes the title to the mine. 

A "denuncio" may be made for the reasons following: (i) Dis- 
covery, (2) abandonment, (3) forfeiture or extinction of the right 
of a prior owner. A discovery may be : (1) Of a new mine, (2) 
of a new deposit in a known mining district, (3) of a new mine in 
a known deposit and district. Restorers of ancient mining dis- 
tricts are also considered as discoverers. 



ki'i^li^V'^^^'^^S^^J'^'^ 





CHAPEL OF THE LITTLE HILL, GUADELOUPE. 



A recent law abolished all fees for denouncements and possession 
necessary for the acquisition of mines, mining properties, and reduc- 
tion works, and for the organization of mining companies, titles, or 
shares issued by them. The Presideht of the Republic is authorized 



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MEXICO. 77 

for a period of ten years, to enter into contracts (not to the injury 
of third parties) granting especial privileges and concessions for 
mines and mining lands to companies who shall guaranty the 
investipent of capital corresponding to the extent of the lands or 
zone granted for such work. The minimum capital of such com- 
panies shall be $200,000. 

Before bringing this section to a close it may be well to state 
that it has been recently estimated that Americans are interested 
in Mexican silver mines to the amount of about $100,000,000. 



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Chapter VII. 



COAL, ASPHALTUM, AND PETROLEUM DEPOSITS. 

Mexican geologists affirmed for many years that no mineral 
coal existed in that country. About the year 1881, however, 
reports from several parts of the country claimed that anthracite 
coal had been discovered, and many specimens of what was sup- 
posed to be this mineral were sent to the National College of 
Engineers to be assayed. Much enthusiasm was aroused by these 
reports, and the Department of Public Works appointed scientific 
commissions to visit the alleged coal localities and report thereon. 
The labors of these commissions proved that coal did exist assay- 
ing from 41 to 92 per cent., the latter in the State of Sonora. It 
was to this coal that General Rosecrans gave the name of black 
gold. The commissions discovered and reported on anthracite 
deposits in Sonora, Michoacan, Veracruz, Guerrero, Oaxaca, 
Puebla, and other States. 

The excitement and enthusiasm thus created led to the forma- 
tion of many coal companies, and many persons looked forward 
to the amassing of fortunes out of collieries, but the results were 
not great. This enthusiasm was succeeded by a state of depres- 
sion and inactivity by the discovery that the seams of coal brought 
to light were poor, and that the reports and rurnors were exagger- 
ated. Want of means of communication between the deposits 
78 



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MEXICO. 



79 



and the markets also had much to do with the quiescent state. 
The depression continued until profitable coal deposits were un- 
earthed in Coahuila, and were purchased by Mr. C. P. Hunting- 
ton, the American railroad magnate. 

An analysis of this coal as compared to other coals gives the 
following results : 



Water 

Volatile and combustible mat- 
ter 

Fixed carbon 

Ashes 



United 
States coal 

used on 
steamships. 



1.35 



37.45 

57.40 

3.80 




The heating power of the San Felipe coal is 82.4 per cent., and 
El Alamo coal is 69.1 per cent. 

Mr. Huntington's mines produced in the first year they were 
worked 150,000 tons, and are now yielding 250,000 tons, which 
are shipped to the United States. 

In 1890 a deposit of coal having continuous, powerful, and 
compact seams was discovered within a short distance from Piedras 
Negras, Coahuila. Twelve trial shafts were sunk into this vein, 
and, according to an examination made by a French engineer, 
the amount of coal in sight is 9,000,000 tons, of a superior 
quality. This deposit is not being worked, because, as stated by 
a Mexican journal, the rates on the railroad are raised to prevent 
competition with Mr. Huntington's mines. The Sabinas mines, in 
Coahuila, have been purchased by the last-named gentleman and 
are being actively worked by him. To afford transportation facili- 
ties for these mines the International Railway was built, but both 
of these enterprises are said to be losing ventures. 

In 1890 an English company, called "The Mexican Explora- 



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8o MEXICO. 

tions, Limited," secured from the Government a concession of coal 
lands in Sonora, and it is proposed to build a railway to connect 
the collieries with the port of Guaymas. One of the most impor- 
tant mineral deposits of Sonora is anthracite, it having been recently 
discovered at Barranca, on the Yaqui River, loo miles from its 
mouth. The coal is said to contain 90 per cent, of carbon and is 
found in sandstone and conglomerate. 

It is stated on good authority that plentiful coal deposits have 
been discovered in the district of Justlahuaea, Oaxaca. 

In June, 1890, there were fifty-nine coal mines in the State of 
Puebla, few of them being worked. In the district of Acatlan, 
where twenty of these mines exist, a Mexican coal company, called 
" La Compaiiia Carbonifera Mexicana," are now exploiting eight- 
een of them. 

In the district of Chiautla the "Compania de fierro y carbon 
de piedra en el Estado de Puebla" (The Puebla Iron and Coal 
Company) owns one mine. 

In the district of Izucar de Matamoros, Puebla, a Mexican cort;- 
pany owns eight collieries. 

The government of the State of Puebla is very anxious to 
stimulate the development of coal deposits, and to this end it has 
decreed all such properties exempt from taxes for twenty-five years. 
It moreover offers a bounty of $1,000 per year for ten years to the 
first company to supply Puebla with a quantity of coal at a price 
not higher than that of other fuel. Further inducements are offered 
to railroads which shall traverse coal regions. All industrial enter- 
prises have heretofore had to rely on wood and charcoal for neces- 
sary fuel. Green wood costs from $7 to $8 a ton and charcoal 
between $25 and $30. To import coal from England now 
entails an expense of $40 per ton of 2,208 pounds, and coke from 
the Veracruz gas works costs $30 per ton. 

Up to the present no foreign company or outside capital has 
stepped in to purchase coal or other mines in the State. 



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MEXICO. 81 

In the same year, 1890, coal was discovered in Jalisco, on the 
borders of Lake Chapala, in the Rancho del Veralito, Chiquilista, 
and in the Ameca and San Gabriel Valleys. 

Deposits have also been discovered in the States of Tlaxcala, 
Veracruz, Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo Leon. Some of the 
coal found in the latter States is now being bumed in the locomo- 
tives of the Mexican National Railway. Brown, or lignite, coal 
is found in many localities, although it is but little used. The 
scarcity of fuel near the lines of the great railroads is the cause of 
great quantities of coal being imported. The Mexican Railway, 
connecting Veracruz and the capital o{ the nation, uses cakes of 
compressed coal imported from Great Britain, and the Mexican 
Central Railway, which formerly used wood, now brings its coal 
from the United States. In November, 1890, a Mexican engi- 
neer, while examining the coal fields of San Marcial, in Sonora, 
found a layer 6 feet in thickness at a depth of 17 feet. The exist- 
ence of coal, great in quantity and excellent in quality, for a dis- 
tance of 10 miles in a northeast and northwest direction was 
proved. Operations at the coal fields are now being carried on 
about 40 miles from Ortiz, a town on the Sonora Railway between 
Hermosillo and Guaymas. The concession is owned by a Mexi- 
can company and covers 4,000,000 acres. Coal has been found in 
borings 50 miles apart. The diamond drill has gone through three 
veins —one of 2 feet, another of 4 feet, and a third of j^ feet, and 
in a fourth it has already penetrated 22 feet, and is still working in 
coal. The coal, which by test is said to equal the finest Lehigh 
Valley product, can be traced for miles on the surface, the four veins 
showing the same thickness throughout the whole extent. A rail- 
way 60 or 65 miles in length will carry the coal to the harbor at 
Guaymas, whence it can be laid down in San Diego, Cal, for $5 
a ton. 

It has been said that an extensive coal mine in Mexico would 
prove a greater bonanza than a gold mine. 
57A 6 



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82 MEXICO. 

PETROLEUM DEPOSITS. 

The territory of Mexico also abounds in deposits of asphaltum, 
liquid petroleum, and bituminous coal. These deposits have not 
been worked to any great extent, however, many causes having ex- 
isted for the nonactivity in this and other industrial pursuits, among 
which may be mentioned the relatively small number of inhabitants 
in comparison to the extent and richness of the soil (there are 
about 5 inhabitants to the square mile), the absence, to within a few 
years, of public security and protection to property, and the lack of 
means of communication, which have been only lately partially 
supplied. 

The turning of the minds of the people of the country to peace- 
ful business occupations and the ever-increasing influx of foreign- 
ers have created a largely augmented demand for illuminating and 
heating substances. The consumption of petroleum in Mexico, 
it has been stated on good authority, amounts to 5,000,000 gallons 
per annum. Foreign crude petroleum pays an import duty of 1 
cent per kilogramme, which is about 10 per cent, ad valorem on 
the average market value of the refined article. 

The entire Atlantic coast of Mexico shows traces of oil and 
asphaltum, which there goes by the name of chapopote. In the 
northern part of the Republic between the foothills and the coast 
there exist springs and deposits of the substances named. 

The deposits of asphaltum in the vicinity of Tuxpan and Tam- 
pico are excellent in quality, and fi-om them the merchants of the 
coast have shipped at various times small quantities to the United 
States and Europe, but its commercial value has not yet been 
ascertained. This asphalt may be easily broken into blocks and 
floated down the river to the seacoast where it may be collected 
and laden on ships. 

Crude petroleum springs running freely are to be found on the 
banks of several rivers, the oil flowing into these and covering 
their surface for some distance. Samples of this oil have been 



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MEXICO. 83 

assayed in Pennsylvania, and are reported to be of a quality equal 
to the crude product of that State. Some of these springs have 
a natural flow of 3 inches in diameter. 

Deposits of bituminous coal of the class known as " Graham- 
ite " have also been discovered in the regions named. This is an 
important discovery, since the value of this article is much greater 
than that of anthracite coal, owing to the superior qualities it pos- 
sesses for the manufacture of gas. One deposit, which has been 
but little examined, is situated a few miles up the river from Tam- 
pico, and the amount of the coal in sight proves it to be an 
important discovery. 

Almost all of the oil springs and asphalt and coal deposits are 
situated in localities favorable to their being worked profitably and 
their products being easily transported. 

Under a recent law, coal, iron, and quicksilver mines and their 
products are made free from all taxes and duties for 50 years. 



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Chapter VIII. 



THE PUBLIC-LAND SYSTEM AND LAWS. 

Land in Mexico may be divided into three regions, which 
the Mexican Financial Review calls, respectively, the hacienda 
country, the pueblo country, and the free country. 

The first-named comprises the greater part of the central pla- 
teau, many of the temperate valleys situated on the slopes or ter- 
races of this plateau, nearly all of the Gulf coast, and many points 
on the Pacific. 

The pueblo or community holdings lie toward the southern 
part of the country. 

The free country or public lands, so called because of the fact 
that few if any haciendas or pueblos exist there, is situated in the 
north of the Republic. 

As regards the central plateau, it is really marvelous that its 
lands retain their fertility, considering their great, productiveness, 
for hundreds of years. The only way this can be accounted for is 
that the system of irrigation there in vogue yearly resupplies the 
soil with natural fertilizing matter. 

Previous to the Conquest this very land had to provide food for 
at least twice the existing population of the country and was pro- 
ducing for more than six centuries unceasingly and without fer- 
tilizers. Strange, indeed, then, that it has not become sterile. 
But it is said that the day is fast approaching when the fecundity 
84 



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MEXICO. 85 

of this soil will vanish. Dryness and barrenness are already 
becoming evident in certain portions of the table-lands. 

The almost virgin land and that which invites the energetic arm 
of the careful husbandman lies on the east and on the west, towards 
the coasts, and when the railroads now being constructed shall have 
united one and the other points, many fertile valleys will be in a 
position to bring forth two and three crops a year to gladden the eye 
and fill the purse of the tiller of the soil. 

The free or public lands are situated mostly in parts of the 
States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora. 
Immense tracts are here almost uninhabited, and in the western 
Sierra Madre the plains reach down to the tropics. These lands 
were formerly settled upon by religious orders, or were held by 
officers of the Spanish crown. After the war of independence 
and the escheating to the State of ecclesiastical holdings they be- 
came public lands, and are what are now called terrenos baldios. 
The nation, under a law to that effect enacted, is having these 
lands surveyed and measured, giving to the companies doing the 
surveying one-third of the land surveyed, and disposing of the rest 
to private parties and companies. About 100,000,000 acres have 
thus been disposed of, and the Government still retains in the 
neighborhood of 25,000,000 acres. 

The land in the north is generally laid out in squares contain- 
ing from 4,000 to 6,000 acres. 

The climate of this section greatly resembles that of the south 
of Europe, and is well adapted to colonization. 

As has been said, the pueblo system prevails nearly everywhere 
in the south of the country, and the Government will require some 
three or four years more to complete the reclamation of public 
lands in that quarter. The southern railroad system will not be 
completed before that time, and the country must wait some time 
before the fertile valleys of the States of Chiapas, Guerrero, and 
Oaxaca can be opened up to immigration and settlement. Land 



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86 MEXICO. 

may, however, be bought there at very low prices, but organized 
immigration, compelled to produce and sell quickly, should look 
elsewhere for a few years. 

The great question in Mexico is water. The country, except- 
ing the lowlands of the Gulf, is dry, and has been likened to 
Algeria and Egypt. 

The law concerning the occupation of public lands (terrenes 
baldios) was promulgated on July 22, 1863, and, with amendments 
afterwards enacted, is in substance as follows : 

All lands in the Republic are considered as public {haldios) 
which have not been utilized for public purposes nor ceded to 
individuals or corporations authorized to receive them. 

Every inhabitant of the Republic has the right to denounce or 
enter upon public land to the extent of 2,500 hectares (about 
6,177 acres), and no more, excepting natives or naturalized citi- 
zens of bordering nations, who can not, except by express authority 
of the President of the Republic, acquire land in any State or 
territory bordering on their country situated within 20 leagues of 
the boundary line or within 5 leagues of the coast.* 

The Government publishes every two years the prices of public 
lands in every State, district, and territory. 

The denouncing of public lands must be made before the judge 
of the federal court in the judicial district wherein the land is 
situated. 

This step taken, the survey and plat of the land denounced will 
be made by the Government surveyor, or, in default thereof, by a 
surveyor appointed by the court. 

After the survey and platting, inquiry will be made at the land 
office if the land is in the possession of the Government. Should 
this be the case the patent is issued to the denouncer without 

* Aliens desiring to acquire property within the proscribed limits must apply to the 
department of public works {Fomento), accompanying the application with a report of 
the government of the State, district, or territory wherein the land sought to be acquired 
is situated. 



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MEXICO. 87 

further proceedings; but in the event of an adverse claim the case 
between the claimant and denouncer is tried in the courts, the 
Govemment also being a party thereto. 

In case the Government is not in possession o{ the land the 
denouncement shall be published three times, at intervals of ten 
days, in the newspapers, and by notices displayed in public places. 
If no claimant presents himself, no patent shall issue, but a pos- 
sessory title shall be decreed to vest in the denouncer ; but should 
a claimant intervene, the case shall be tried, with the Government 
as a party. 

A judicial decree granting a patent or possessory title shall not 
have effect without the approval of the Department of Public 
Works, to which end the record and copy of the map shall be for- 
warded to said department by the governor of the State wherein 
the land in question is situated, accompanied by the report he 
may deem it advisable to make. 

The approval alluded to having been obtained, and the party 
in interest having filed the certificate and having deposited in the 
proper office the value of the land, in accordance with the biennial 
price list, or the requisite installment when time payments are 
allowed, the judge will deliver to him the patent, or possessory 
title. 

The expenses incident to measurement, survey, or procuring 
of title and all .other necessary expenses shall be borne by the 
denouncer, but he is indemnified in case an adverse claimant is 
successful against whom costs shall be decreed. 

By act of June 7, 1886, the Government, evidently intending 
to favor the introduction of foreign capital into Mexico, decreed, 
among other provisions, that foreigners shall not be required to 
reside in the Republic for the acquisition of waste or public lands, 
real estate, and ships, but that they shall be subject to the restric- 
tions imposed by the laws at present in force. The act further 
provided that all leases of real estate made to foreigners shall be 
considered as sales if for a longer period than ten years. 



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88 MEXICO. 

The obligations contracted by an alien acquiring real estate in 
Mexico are : 

To subject himself to the laws of the country in force at the 
time of acquisition or which may thereafter be enacted respecting 
the ownership, transfer, use, and improvement of land, and to sub- 
mit to the judgment and decrees of Mexican courts in everything 
affecting the said land. 

2. To pay all lawful taxes levied on the property. 

3. To aid with his services and means in the preservation of 
order and security in his place of residence, except in cases of dis- 
turbance due to political revolutions, or civil war. 

4. To perform the duties of a Mexican citizen, which a foreigner 
becomes on acquiring real estate, provided he does not beforehand 
declare his intention to retain his nationality.* 

An alien holding real estate in the Republic loses all right, title, 
and interest therein in the following cases : 

1. By absenting himself with his family from the country for 
more than two years without previous permission of the Govern- 
ment. This does not apply to mining property. 

2. By residing permanently abroad, although the om ner may 
leave a representative or attorney to look after the property and 
represent him. Mines are also excluded from this provision. 

3. By transferring the title to the real estate to any non-resident 
of the Republic, either by deed, will, or other conveyance. An 
alien thus situated must sell the property within two years from 
the date of absenting himself, under penalty of having it sold on 

*Up to the year 1886 the Mexican law recognized as a citizen every foreigner who had 
acquired real estate, or had a child born in the Republic, unless he explicitly made known 
his intention to preserve his nationality by being "matriculated," i. e., having his name 
and nationality inscribed in a book kept for the purpose in the Department of Foreign 
Affairs, and outside of the capital in the State governor's office, etc., but by the law of 
July 7, 1886, the acts requiring the registration of foreigners were repealed. A foreigner, 
however, desiring to be recognized as such, may solicit and receive of the said depart- 
ment a certificate of nationality, which will constitute a legal presumption of foreign 
citizenship, but will not bar proofs to the contrary being adduced in courts of competent 
jurisdiction in the manner established by the laws or treaties. 



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MEXICO. 89 

his account by the local authorities. In the event of there being 
an informer to bring the matter to the notice of the proper 
authorities, one-tenth of the proceeds of the sale may be retained 
by him. Mines are not included. 

Under the law, as given in substance above, the siecretary of 
public works publishes every two years the prices at which 
Govemment lands may be purchased. In pursuance thereof, the 
prices for such lands for the years 1891-92 have been published. 
The following table gives the price per hectare (247 1 acres) for 
land of each class : 



states and Tenitories. 



Aguascalientes 

Campeche 

Coahuila 

Colima 

Chiapas 

Chihuahua 

Durango 

Guanajuato 

Guerrero 

Hidalgo 

Jalisco 

Mexico 

Michoacan 

Morelos 

Nuevo Leon 

Oaxaca 

Puebla 

Quer^taro 

San Luis Potosi 

Sinaloa 

Sonora 

Tabasco 

Tamaulipas 

Tlaxcala 

Veracruz 

Yucatan 

Zacatecas 

Federal District 

Territory of Tepic 

Territory of Lower California 



First 
class. 



$2.25 
1.65 

.75 
2.25 

1.55 
.75 
.65 

3.35 

1. 10 
2.25 

2. 25 

3.35 
2.25 
4.50 

.75 
I. 10 

3.35 
3.35 
2.25 
I. 10 
I. 10 
2.00 

.75 
2.25 

2.75 
1.65 
2.25 
5.60 
1.65 
.65 



Second 
class. 



$1.50 

I. 10 

.50 

1.50 

1. 10 
.50 
.50 

2.25 

.75 

1.50 

1.50 

2. 25 
1.50 
3.00 

.50 

•75 
2.25 
2.25 
1.50 

.75 

.75 
1.50 

.50 
1.50 
1-85 
I. 10 
1.50 

3.75 

I. 10 

.40 



Third 
class. 



$1.00 

.75 

*30 

1. 00 

.75 

■ 30 

.30 

1.50 

.50 

1. 00 

1. 00 

1.50 

1. 00 

2.00 

.30 

.50 

1.50 

1.50 

I. 00 

.50 

.50 

1. 00 

.30 

1. 00 

1.25 

.75 

1. 00 

2. 50 
.75 
.25 



The first-class lands comprise all such as are situated near a rail- 
road line, a populous city, such as can be irrigated, and all offering 



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90 



MEXICO. 



advantages to agriculture and other interests. Lands covered with 
fine woods, orchil and other dye-producing plants, and those bear- 
ing minerals and salts mentioned in the Mining Code are also 
included in lands of the first class. 

Second-class lands are those distant from means of communi- 
cation, those where but one crop a year, sown before the rainy season, 
can be raised, and all those appropriate for cattle raising. 

Lands of the third class are those which are not included in the 
foregoing classes. 




CASTLE OF CHAPULTEPEC FROM THE EAST. 



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Chapter IX. 



LAWS RELATING TO IMMIGRATION AND COLONIZATION. 

Mexico has made sacrifices to induce people to its shores, but its 
efforts in this behalf have not caused any considerable influx of 
foreigners to the country. Mexicans attribute this state of things 
to two causes, viz, the fact that free land is situated at a consider- 
able distance from means of communication, and that the country 
is not so devoid of native population as is generally supposed. 
The Indian lives on very little and can therefore afford to work 
for such paltry wages that foreign immigrants can not compete 
with him. When the general state of the country shall be such 
as to create a voluntary current of immigration it is confidently 
believed that the Republic will reap the reward of its sacrifices, for 
it is a country where the immigrant, under the colonization laws, 
has the smallest amount of taxes to pay. 

The first steps taken in the direction of inducing aliens to seek 
Mexico's fertile fields date back to 1827. In the year 182 1 a law 
was enacted entitled " Prosperidad General " (general prosperity), in 
which special reference is made to the rapid growth of the foreign 
colony in the State of Texas, In the year 1846 the then Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, Jose M. Lafragua, presented a plan for legisla- 
tion to Congress in which, inter alia^ he spoke of " the neglect of 
colonization as a crime of high treason," and held out the flattering 
but delusive hope of establishing innumerable colonies to contain 
at least 50,000 persons. During the imperial period Senor Robles 

91 

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92 MEXICO. 

submitted to Congress plans of the same sort, as did also Senor 
Balcarcel in 1868, and Seiior Riva Palacio in 1877; but up to 
1 882 no really serious practical efforts were made to attract immi- 
gration, and the results obtained up to the present are comparativly 
insignificant. 

The colonization law now in force was enacted and promulgated 
on the 15th day of December, 1885 ^^ comprises four chapters 
and thirty-one articles, the former being entitled, respectively, "Of 
the survey, of lands; " " Of colonists ; " " Of companies; " " General 
provisions." 

The provisions of this law are, in substance, as follows : 

For the purpose of securing lands suitable to the establishment 
of colonies the Executive will cause the waste or Government lands 
in the Republic to be surveyed, measured, subdivided, and ap- 
praised, appointing to this end the corps of engineers he may deem 
necessary, and determining the methods to be followed. 

No subdivision shall in any case exceed 2,500 hectares (about 
6,177 acres) in extent, this being the greatest amount of land which 
shall be conveyed to any one individual of lawful age and legal 
capacity. 

The lands surveyed, measured, subdivided, and appraised may 
be conveyed to foreign immigrants and inhabitants of the Republic 
who may desire to establish themselves thereon as colonists, under 
the following conditions : 

(1) By purchase, at the price set by the engineers and approved 
by the Department of Public Works, payable in ten years in equal 
installments, the first becoming due two years afi:er the establish- 
ment of the colony. 

(2) By purchase, the price being paid on entry, or in install- 
ments on shorter time than that provided in the preceding section. 

(3) ^y gratuitous concession, when requested by the colonist ; but 
in this case no cession shall exceed 100 hectares (about 247 acres), 
and the colonist shall receive no title to the same until he shall 



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MEXICO. 93 

have shown that he has retained the land in his possession, and has 
wholly cultivated it, or to an extent not less than one-tenth of the 
whole for five consecutive years. 

So soon as there shall be lands suitable for colonization under 
the conditions herein provided, the Executive shall determine which 
should be settled at once, publishing the plats thereof and the 
prices at which they shall be sold, endeavoring in every case that 
the sale or gratuitous conveyance shall be of alternate sections. 
The remaining sections shall be reserved to be sold under the con-« 
ditions prescribed by this law when they shall be sought, or when 
the Executive shall so determine, the Executive being empowered 
to mortgage them for the purpose of raising funds, which, added 
to the proceeds of the sale of sections of land, shall be exclusively 
destined to the carrying out of colonization. 

To be considered as a colonist and to be entitled to the priv- 
ileges conferred by this law it is necessary that the colonist, in case 
he is a foreigner, shall come to the Republic provided with the 
certificate of the consular or immigration agent, issued at the request 
of the said immigrant, or of the company or corporation author- 
ized by the Executive to bring colonists to the Republic. 

Should the petitioner reside in the Republic, he must apply to 
the Department of Public Works, or to the agents authorized by 
the said Department to admit colonists to the colonies which shall 
be established in the Republic. 

In every case petitioners must present certificates of the proper 
authorities setting forth their good character and their occupation 
previous to petitioning for admission as colonists. 

Colonists settling in the Republic shall enjoy for the period of 
ten years, counted from the date of their establishment, the follow- 
ing privileges : 

(i) Exemption from military service. 

(2) Exemption fi-om all taxes except municipal. 

(3) Exemption fi-om all import or domestic duties on articles 



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94 MEXICO. 

of consumption not produced in the country, agricultural imple- 
ments, tools, machines, outfits, building materials, household fur- 
niture, and animals for breeding purposes, and thoroughbreds for 
the use of the colonies. 

(4) Exemption, personal and nontransferable, from export duties 
on the products of cultivation. 

(5) Premiums on praiseworthy productions, and prizes and 
special protection for the introduction of new agricultural interests 
or mdustries. 

(6) Exemption from fees for the certification of signatures and 
issuing of passports delivered by consular agents to parties coming 
to the Republic as colonists by virtue of contracts entered into 
between the Government and any company or companies. 

The Department of Public Works shall determine the number 
and kind of articles which, in each case, shall be admitted free of 
duties, and the Treasury Department shall regulate the manner 
of admission to prevent fraud and smuggling, but without retard- 
ing the prompt dispatch of the said articles. 

Colonists settling on lands barren of trees, and who shall prove, 
two years previous to the lapse of the period of exemption, that 
on a portion of their section, which shall not be less than one- 
tenth thereof, they have laid out trees to a number proportionate 
to the land planted on, shall be exempt from taxes on the whole 
land for one year longer, and, in general, shall have exemption 
for one year further for each tenth part of their land so laid out 

The colonies shall be established under the municipal jurisdic- 
tion, subject, as regards the election of their authorities and the 
levying of taxes, to the general laws of the Republic and the laws 
of the State wherein they are established. The Department of 
Public Works may, however, appoint agents in said colonies for 
the purpose of better directing their labors and exacting the pay- 
ment of the amounts which may be due to the Federation for any 
titles conveyed. 



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MEXICO. 95 

Colonists are required to carry out their contracts with the 
Federal Government, or with the individuals or companies trans- 
porting or establishing them in the Republic. 

Every alien immigrant settling in a colony shall, at the time of 
such settlement, declare before the Federal colonization agent, 
notary, or proper judicial officer, whether he proposes to retain his 
nationality, or desires to embrace Mexican citizenship, conceded 
him by the third section of Article 30 of the Constitution of the 
Republic. 

Colonists shall be vested with all the rights and obligations 
Avhich to Mexicans and foreigners, under like circumstances, are 
conceded and imposed by the Federal Constitution, besides the 
temporary exemptions conceded by this law ; but all questions 
arising, of whatever character, shall be subject to the decisions of 
the courts of the Republic, to the absolute exclusion of all foreign 
intervention. 

Colonists abandoning, without due cause, for more than a year, 
the lands which shall have been sold them shall forfeit the right 
to said lands and the amounts they may have paid therefor. 

The right to a gratuitous title shall be forfeited by abandonment 
of the land or failure to cultivate it for more than six months with- 
out good cause. 

One section shall be ceded without cost, in localities designed by 
the Federal Government for new settlements, to Mexican or foreign 
colonists desiring to found the same ; but they shall not acquire 
the title to said section until they shall show that within two years 
from the foundation of the settlement they have erected thereon a 
house, forfeiting the right to said title in case of failure to so build. 
It is the purpose to cede such sections alternately. 

The Executive is empowered to aid colonists or immigrants, 
within the appropriations to that effect made, whenever he shall 
deem it advisable, by furnishing them expenses of transportation 
for themselves and their baggage by sea and in the interior to the 



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96 MEXICO. 

terminus of the railroad lines ; he may further furnish them with 
free subsistence for fifteen days, and no more, in the localities he 
may approve, and also with tools, seeds, building materials, and 
animals for work and breeding ; these latter advances, however, 
shall be repaid in the same manner as* the price of the lands. 

The Executive may authorize companies to open up (habilitar) 
waste lands by measuring, surveying, subdividing into sections, 
appraising, and describing the same, and to transport colonists and 
establish them on said lands. 

For the purpose of obtaining the necessary authorization com- 
panies shall designate the waste lands they propose to occupy, 
their approximate extent, and the number of colonists to be settled 
upon them within a given time. 

The proceedings incident to the demarkation or survey shall be 
authorized by the district judge within whose jurisdiction the 
waste land to be surveyed is situated, which done, and there being 
no adverse claimant, the record will be delivered, to the company 
to be presented to the Department of Public Works, where the 
other formalities demanded by this law must be complied with. 
Should an adverse claimant present himself the case will be tried 
as hereinafter provided, the representative of the Federal Treasury- 
being a party thereto. 

In return for the expenses incurred by the companies in opening 
up waste lands, the Executive may cede them not more than 
one-third of the land thus opened up, or its value in money, but 
under the express conditions that they are not to convey such 
lands so conceded to foreigners not authorized to acquire them, 
nor in greater quantities than 2,500 hectares, under pain of losing, 
in each case, the portions of land so conveyed, in violation of said 
conditions, which portions shall at once become the property ot 
the nation. 

Lands surveyed by the companies, excepting such as may be 
ceded to the same in return for expenses incurred in opening them 



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MEXICO. 97 

up, shall be conveyed to colonists, or be reserved under the con- 
ditions before mentioned. 

Any authority conferred by the Executive for opening up waste 
lands shall be void and nonextendable, whenever work thereon 
shall not have been commenced within the term of three months. 

The Executive may contract with companies or corporations 
for the introduction into the Republic and the establishment therein 
of foreign colonists or immigrants under the following conditions : 

(i) The companies shall fix the exact time within which they 
will introduce a determined number of colonists. 

(2) The colonists or immigrants shall fulfill the conditions here- 
inbefore prescribed. 

(3) The bases of the contracts the companies may make with 
the colonists shall conform to the provisions of this law, and shall 
be submitted for approval to the Department of Public Works. 

(4) The companies must guarantee to the satisfaction of the 
Executive the carrying out of the obligations assumed in their 
contracts, which contracts must name the causes in which forfeiture 
and fines shall be imposed. 

Companies contracting with the Executive for the transportation 
to the Republic and settling therein of foreign colonists shall enjoy 
for a term not to exceed twenty-years the privileges and exemptions 
following: 

(1) The sale on long time and at low price of waste or Govern- 
ment lands for the exclusive purpose of colonizing the same. 

(2) Exemption from taxation, except the stamp tax on capital 
invested in the enterprise. 

(3) Exemption fi-om port dues, except those set aside for im- 
provements in ports, to all vessels that on th^ companies' account 
shall carry ten families, at least, of colonists to the Republic. 

(4) Exemption fi*om import duties on tools, machines, building 
materials, and animals for work and breeding, which shall be ex- 
clusively destined for an agricultural, mining, or industrial colony^ 

57A 7 



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98 MEXICO. 

whose establishment shall have been authorized by the Executive. 

(5) Premiums for each family established and a second pre- 
mium for each family disembarked; premiums for each Mexican 
family established in a foreign colony. 

(6) Transportation of colonists at the expense of the Govern- 
ment on subsidized steamship and railroad lines. 

Foreign colonization companies shall be considered as Mexican, 
being required to have a legal domicile in one of the cities of the 
Republic, without prejudice to their having one or more abroad, and 
they are bound to have at all times a local board of directors and 
one or more attorneys de facto^ fully empowered to treat with the 
Executive. 

All questions arising between the Government and the compa- 
nies shall be decided by the courts of the Republic and according 
to its laws, without any intervention whatever on the part of foreign 
diplomatic agents. 

Private parties setting aside any portion of their lands for the 
purpose of colonizing them, with not less than ten families of for- 
eign immigrants, are entitled to have the same enjoy equal privi- 
leges and exemptions with the colonies established by the Federal 
Government, whenever they shall conform to the conditions im- 
posed by the Executive to assure the success of the colony, and 
whenever among said conditions shall be one requiring said colo- 
nists to acquire, by purchase or cession, one section of land for 
cultivation. 

The Executive may provide private parties with foreign colonists, 
by stipulating with theni the conditions under which they are to be 
established, and he may aid them by furnishing the expenses of 
transportation of said colonists. 

The colonizing of the islands in both oceans shall be done by 
the Executive, subject to the provisions of this law, the Govern- 
ment reserving on each island 50 hectares of land for public use. 
In case the island should not have the superficial area necessary 



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MEXICO. 99 

for the reservation herein specified, no sale of land shall be made 
thereon, and said land may only be rented on short terms. 

Colonies established on islands shall always include Mexican 
families to a number not less than one-half of the total colonist 
families. 

The Executive is authorized to acquire, by purchase or cession, 
private lands, whenever he shall deem it expedient to establish 
colonies thereon, subject, however, to the appropriations to be 
made for this purpose. 

The question of inducing aliens to settle in Mexico has 
awakened not only the interest of the General Government, but 
some of the State governments have given it much time and 
thought. Foremost among these is the government of the State 
of Veracruz. On the 25th of December, 1885, the legislature 
of this State passed a law founded upon that quoted on the pre- 
ceding pages. This law authorized the governor to enter into 
contracts with owners of suburban landed property for the purpose 
of colonizing them under the law. All such owners entering into 
a contract are entitled to a rebate on their taxes at the rate of $5 
for every family settling on their lands who shall engage in agri- 
culture and kindred pursuits. Owners of suburban lands receive 
a premium of $5 for every fifteen foreign families established on 
their lands as colonists for an uninterrupted period of three years. 
Premiums are likewise offered for every new industry established 
in such colonies, and to the colonist showing the largest area of 
land under cultivation. Many exemptions fi'om taxes and con- 
tributions are granted. Every colony of fifteen or more families, 
definitively established in any locality in the State, is entitled to 
organize its own local police in accordance with law, and to solicit 
of the Government a subvention to carry out such public works 
as may be deemed necessary in the interest of the colony. 

Notwithstanding the inducements offered by this law the total 
foreign population of the State of Veracruz at the beginning of 



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MEXICO. 



the year 1888 was only 4,549, distributed over eighteen cantons, 
of which 274 were Americans and 14 Africans. 

Under the first-quoted law of the General Government some 
eighteen colonies have been founded, and fi-om the years 1881 to 
1888 public lands were surveyed by different companies to the 
extent of 36,578,780 hectares (about 90,386,165 acres). Of this 
area 11,958,348 hectares (about 28,549,078 acres) were conveyed 
to the companies for expenses incurred in the survey, 13,160,9^8 
hectares (about 32,520,628 acres) were sold, and there remained 
to be disposed of 11,459,514 hectares (about 28,528,849 acres). 

As before stated, there are eighteen colonies in the Republic. 
The latest obtainable statistics (1890) gives them as follows. 



Colonies. 



Porfirio Diaz 

Manuel Gonzalez 

Carlos Pacheco 

Fernandez Leal 

Diez Gutierrez 

Sericicultora 

La Ascenci6n .' 

Aldana 

San Pablo Hidalgo 

San Vicente de Juarez . 
San Rafael Zaragoza . . . 

Juarez 

Tapachula 

Ciel de Leon 

Guanajuato 

Lerdo 

Topolobampo 

International Company. 



States. 



Morelos 

Veracruz 

Puebla 

...do 

San Luis Potosi 

Mexico 

Chihuahua 

Federal District 

Morelos 

...do 

...do 

Chihuahua 

Chiapas 

Oaxaca 

Guanajuato 

Sonora 

Sinaloa 

Territory of Lower California. 



Total. 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



"5 
402 
310 
390 
134 
152 
2.294 
III 
196 

83 
124 
65a 

93 
10 

37 
190 
300 
933 



6.524 



Among the foreign colonists Americans rank second in point 
of numbers, the Italians being first. The colonists devote them- 
selves to the raising of cereals, tropical fi'uits, sugar cane, vanilla, 
tobacco, ramie, and the cultivation of the silkworm, according to 
the nature of the soil upon which they are established. The 
colony of 152 Mexicans in the State of Mexico is devoted 



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MEXICO. lOl 

exclusively to the cultivation of silkworms, and the success attained 
is gratifying. 

The last-named colony, the International Company, owns an 
immense tract of land, estimated to contain 17,000,000 acres, 
situated in and around Ensenada de Todos Santos (All Saints 
Bay), in Lower California. This tract lies between the south- 
western boundary of the United States and parallel 28° north, 
near the port of Santa Rosalia. The colony is being rapidly 
settled with foreign immigrants, mostly Americans. The soil is 
most fertile and adapted to the raising of fruits, cereals, and vege- 
tables. Water is scarce, but artesian wells are being bored. En- 
senada is 100 miles from San Diego, with which city it maintains 
telegraphic and telephonic communication. A railroad between 
the two localities is now nearly completed. 



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102 



MEXICO. 




TUNNEL ON BfEXICAN RAILROAD. 



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Chapter X. 



COST OF LIVING— WAGES TO LABOR— BUILDING, ETC. 

It may be said in a general way that the cost of living in 
Mexico is not great, although, of course, it varies in different 
localities. In the interior towns and villages the common neces- 
saries of life, such as beef, vegetables, etc., are cheap. Coffee and 
tea, the latter being very seldom used or seen in the interior, are 
dear. Luxuries are not to be thought of, as they are only pro- 
curable from distant points and ^t great expense. Imported 
German beer and English ale in some cities of the interior costs 
75 cents a pint. Butter, when it is procurable, and it is some- 
times made without salt, is very expensive. If one can accustom 
himself to the rich, highly-seasoned food, and does not object to 
a considerable sameness in and a limited bill of fare, meals may 
be had at the hotels in the interior for about 50 cents each. Board 
and lodging at these hotels range from $2 to $2.50 per day. 

In the City of Mexico livmg is more expensive. Hotels charge 
from $2.50 to $5 and more per day. Good meals may be pro- 
cured at any first-class restaurant for $ 1 . 

Ready-made clothing, except of an inferior quality, is not to be 
had; but imported English and French cloth is made up into 
suits at about the same cost as in the United States. The large 
dry-goods establishments, millinery stores, etc., are as well stocked 
as those of the larger cities of the United States, and for imported 

103 



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104 MEXICO. 

goods the prices vary very little from those prevailing in the latter 
country. 

Rents in the City of Mexico, however, are very high. This is 
due not so much to the rapacity of the landlords as to the cost of 
house-building and other reasons. Landlords, when renting their 
houses, have to pay into the municipal coffers a tax of 12 per 
cent, on the annual rental, besides pavement, drainage, water, and 
stamp taxes. The expense in taxes on a house costing $10,000 
to build and renting for $75 per month is $13.08 per month, or 
about ij% per cent, of the receipts. 

Following are the wholesale prices quoted for a few articles of 
food in the City of Mexico for the week ending February 28, 1891: 



Flour, Mexican per pound . 

Sugar, refined do. . . 

Coffee do. . . 

Chocolate do. . . 

Beans , per peck . 

Tea, black per pound . 

Pepper, black ! # do. . . 

Rice do. . . 

Lard, unrefined do. . . 

.Beef do. . . 

Pork • do. . . 

Salt do. . . 

Ham, Mexican do. . . 

Cheese, Mexican do. . . 



$o.o5K 
.19 
.24 
.62 
.50 
$1 to $2. 00 

.45 

.08^ 

.18 

•97 
.30 
.25 



There is not much inoney to be saved by hiring private lodgings 
unless it is proposed to take them for a protracted period. Furnished 
rooms in desirable localities cost nearly as much as hotel apartments. 
Although unfurnished rooms may be secured, the cost for furnishing 
them is very considerable, ; still they rent for about one-half the 
amount charged for furnished rooms. Casas de huespedes^ corre- 
sponding to the American boarding house, abound, but as a rule 
the meals served are not of the best. Their charges are relatively 
moderate. The hotels generally are not provided with baths, but 
in Mexico City, as well as in every interior city and town, there 



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MEXICO. 1 05 

are excellent public baths. The prices at these establishments 
are usually, for cold baths, 1 real (12^ cents); for warm baths, 2 
reales (25 cents). Street tramways in the City of Mexico, and 
there are many, running to nearly every quarter of the city, generally 
charge 6^ cents. Hackney coaches are divided into four classes, 
distinguished by tin flags painted in different colors, indicating the 
charge per hour for each, as follows : White flag, 50 cents per 
hour; red flag, 75 cents per hour; green flag, $1.50 per hour. On 
feast days and Sundays the prices are, respectively, 75 cents, $1, 
$1.50, and $2. Good livery stables abound and saddle horses 
may be secured at the rate of $3 for a morning's ride, or $4 for an 
entire afternoon. The "tipping" of servants prevails everywhere. 
A tourist intending to take a short trip to Mexico would do well 
to calculate his expenses at $10 per day, including traveling 
expenses. 

Labor is abundant in Mexico; in some places the supply is 
greater than the demand, and as the laboring classes can live on 
such frugal diet and need so little clothing, wages, except for im- 
ported skilled labor, are small. 

Speaking of these classes a Mexican newspaper says : 

One of their greatest evils at the present time is the existence of a scale or 
wages which defies all power of reduction ; which robs the laborers of all sense 
of dignity, or of feeling of association with the rest of their fellow citizens, and 
having reduced them to a condition of abject debasement, deteriorates to a 
like extent their productive po>yer and the measure of their utility. Instead of 
claiming and occupying the position of an important and essential element in the 
process of the development of the country's resources, they, the laboring classes, 
are content to regard themselves as a plant, or machinery which moves by extra- 
neous aids only, and has no power of volition,^ and no desire to exercise it if it 
had. 

Mr. John Bigelow, late minister to France, once said that the 
laborers of Mexico lived at a less expense than a farm horse in a 
New England State. 

The hacendados, as the large landowners are called, own 



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106 MEXICO. 

immense tracts of land, and the hacienda, or manor, is a congrega- 
tion of buildings forming, at times, quite a settlement, and is gen- 
erally fortified. The hacendado usually works his possessions in 
accordance with the traditions handed down fi-om the time of the 
Spanish conquest — a veritable, feudal system. He is not only a 
landowner, but he is a dealer in provisions, clothing, etc. His 
peons, as, the laborers and the tillers of his soil are called, are 
descended from those his father had before him, and they are 
paid, live, and work as their progenitors were and did. The peon 
is born under the shadow of his master's house, grows up and 
remains under him, following his father's steps in everything, using 
his same implements, and receiving the same pay, generally fi'om 
27 to 37^ cents a day. On many of these haciendas the Indian 
may be seen clad as were his prototypes on the banks of the Nile, 
and handling tools and working in the same manner as those that 
toiled when the Pharaohs reigned. The best wages are paid in 
Yucatan, where there has lately been a large influx of Cubans- 
Skilled labor is there in demand and good artisans can secure em- 
ployment easily and at good rates. Following is a table of wages 
taken from a report of the late Consul-General Strother, and ap- 
plies to the larger centers of population and trade : 

Blacksmiths per day. . $1. 00 to $2. 50 

Bookbinders do 75 to i. 00 

Carpenters do i. 00 to i. 50 

Cigar-makers (chiefly women) do 50 to i. 50 

Coach-makers do. ... i. 50 to 2. 00 

Cotton spinners and weavers, woolen spinners and weavers (paid 

by the piece, equivalent to per diem) i. 00 

Engine drivers per day. . i. 00 to i. 50 

Factory hands do 50 to .75 

Farriers, locksmiths, silversmiths (generally included in black- 
smithing) per day. . .75 to i.oo 

Harness-makers and saddlers .do 75 to i. 00 

Hatters do 87^ to i. 00 

House painters do 75 to i. 25 

Machinists do.... i.oo to 1.75 

Pattern-makers, molders (in foundries are paid by the piece), 

gilders per day. . .75 to 1.25 



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MEXICO. 107 

Plasterers, plain and ornamental per day. . $1. 25 to $1. 50 

Plumbers and gasfitters , do 75 to i. 00 

Porters, or cargadores, a course do 12^ to . 50 

Printers (equivalent to per diem) i. 00 to 2. 00 

Quarry men (paid by the piece), common laborers {peons). ^g^x day. . . 37^^ to . 50 

Railway conductors , do i. 00 

Seamstresses do 37^ to . 50 

Shoemakers do 75 to 1.50 

Stone masons, stonecutters, bricklayers (all under saihe head- 
ing) per day.. .75 to 1.25 

Stokers do 87>^ to i. 50 

Tailors (equivalent to per diem) i. 00 to i. 50 

Tinners per day.. .75 to .87^ 

Turners do 75 to i.oo 

Upholsterers do 75 to 1.25 

In the trades and occupations not given in the above list the 
current wages of journeymen will not vary much from the average 
stated. Skilled workmen from abroad generally are paid conven- 
tional wages much higher than the foregoing. 

The prevailing style of architecture throughout Mexico, so far as 
regards what may be termed modern buildings as contradistin- 
guished from the ruined temples and palaces of the Republic, is 
the Spanish renaissance. The cathedrals and churches are all built 
in this style. Arabesque work and stone carvings ornament the 
fa9ades of nearly all religious edifices. Governmental buildings 
and those devoted to public uses are generally imposing and com- 
modious. The national palace in Mexico has a frontage of 675 
feet and is two stories high. 

Private houses are always substantially built, generally in a 
rectangular form around a courtyard. It is rare, except at the 
capital, to see a private residence over two stories high. The 
roofs are flat, with a wall running entirely round them. The roof is 
called the azotea, and in the warmer region is often utilized by the 
residents for sleeping purposes during the dry season. Growing 
plants and shrubs are often to be seen on the azotea and in the 
courtyard. The windows of the houses are generally barred with 
railings of iron. The larger residences are constucted of igneous 



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108 MEXICO. 

rock, such as porous amygdaloid, porphyry, or trachyte. Dwellings 
are made usually of brick and tepetate (a kind of clay thickly 
sprinkled with sand and pebbles, which is soft: when taken out of 
the deposit, but on exposure becomes exceedingly hard) and are 
stuccoed. 

On the table-lands houses in the smaller towns and villages are 
constructed of adobe, a sun-dried brick made of dark clay mixed 
with straw. 

The peons in the warm, well-wooded regions build of wood, 
palm leaves, and stalks ; in the table-lands, of adobe, the houses 
having flat roofs of stamped clay supported by beams. 

In the Indian villages the rudest possible habitations are to 
be seen, often being mere frameworks of limbs of trees with the 
bark on and thatched in on all sides with grass, palm leaves, or 
stalks. 



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^ 



Chapter XL 



RELIGION AND PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 

The prevailing religion in Mexico is the Roman Catholic, the 
church being governed by a number of archbishops and bishops. 
The foundation of the church in the country may be said to date 
back to 1517, in which year Yucatan was discovered by Don 
Francisco Hernandez de Cordova, a rich Cuban merchant. Cor- 
dova, with one hundred and ten Spaniards, reached Cape Catoche 
during April of 1517, and soon gave battle to the inhabitants^ 
killing fifteen and capturing two. The invaders were accom- 
panied by a priest named Alonzo Gonzales, a native of Santo 
Domingo, who, during the engagement, carried from a heathen 
temple the idols therein preserved, and, the fight ended, made the 
temple a Christian church, dedicating it under the invocation of 
Nuestra Senora de los Remedias (Our Lady of Succor), the patron 
saint of the Spaniards. The two captives, named Melchor and 
Julian, were purged of their sins, baptized, and made Christians^ 
becoming the first converts of the New World. 

Leo X, by bull of January 27, 1518, created the Bishopric of 
Yucatan, appointing to the see the Dominican Fray Julian Garces, 
at the time Bishop of Cuba, but he never entered his diocese, 
owing to the Spanish conquest extending at the time into Mex- 
ico and operations in Yucatan being abandoned. On October 
13, 1525, Pope Clement VII appointed Garces to the newly 
created see of Puebla, under the official title of Bishop of Puebla^ 
Yucatan, Chiapas, and Oaxaca. The first Bishop of Mexico, with 

109 

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110 MEXICO. 



the title of Bishop-elect and Protector of the Indians, was Fray 
Juan de Zumarraga. This functionary destroyed many of the 
ancient picture writings of the Aztecs. He arrived in Vera Cruz 
in December, 1528, and was made Bishop of Mexico, suffragan 
to the Archbishop of Seville, by bull of September 2, 1530. In 
1545 the Mexican Bishopric was made independent, and by bull 
of January 31, 1545, it was erected into an Archbishopric, with 
Bishop Zumarraga as Archbishop. In the year 1571 the Arch- 
bishop of Mexico was made Primate of New Spain, and on 
March 16, 1863, Pius IX divided the Mexican church into three 
Archdioceses. These were the eastern, or that of Mexico ; the 
central, or that of Michoacan ; and the western, or that of Gua- 
dalajara. The various Bishoprics of Mexico are suffragan to these 
Archbishoprics. 

The Holy Office of the Inquisition founded its first tribunal in 
the City of Mexico in the year 1571, with Don Pedro Moya de 
Contreras as Inquisitor-General of New Spain, Guatemala, and the 
Philippine Islands. The first burning place in the City of Mexico 
was situated near the Church of San Diego, upon land now included 
in the Alameda. The first auto de fe was celebrated in 1574, when, 
as stated by a chronicler of the day, "twenty-one pestilent Luth- 
erans " were incinerated for the cause of religion. 

On May 31, 1820, the Inquisition was suppressed forever in 
Mexico. The last auto de fe was celebrated on November 26, 
1815, the accused being the patriot Morelos, who, having been 
turned over to the secular authorities, was shot on December 22 
1815. 

The finest edifices in the Republic were erected by the Roman 
Catholics, and it is estimated that up to 1859 one-third of the real 
and personal property was owned by the church. The cathedrals 
and churches, convents and monasteries were solidly, massively 
built, and the interiors of the cathedrals and churches were mag- 
nificently decorated, gold and silver being lavishly employed in 
embellishing them. 



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MEXICO. 



Ill 



The three orders of the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits 
were the most prominent in firmly fixing the power of Spain in 
Mexico and fostering learning in the land ; but the absorption of 
so considerable a portion of the wealth of the colony by the church 
and the blocking of the channels of trade consequent on the lock- 
ing up of capital brought about the suppression of religious orders 
in the Republic. The Jesuits were finally expelled fi-om the coun- 
try in 1856, and all the remaining orders had been abolished on 
Mexican territory by December 27, i860, through the efforts of 
the Liberal forces, headed by Juarez. The Laws of Reform, incor- 
porated into the Federal Constitution December 14, 1874, sup- 
pressed the last remaining female religious establishments, the 
Sisters of Charity. 

The number of vicarages and parishes, Roman Catholic 
churches and chapels in Mexico in 1889 is given in the following 
table: 



Dioceses. 


Seat. 


Vicarages 
and par- 
ishes. 


Churches 

and 
chapels. 


Total. 


Archbishopric of Mexico 


Mexico 


203 
187 
134 
40 
84 
12 
70 
64 
75 
39 
58 
53 
29 
23 
36 
106 
45 
36 
55 
20 


Ii 654 


T 8C7 


Bishopric of Puebla 


Puebla 


2, 513 I 2, 700 

1 , 000 T TlA 


BishoDric of Oaxaca. . . . . 


Oaxaca 


Bishopric of Chiapas 


San Cristibal 

M6rida 


500 
234 
100 


540 
318 
1T2 


Bishopric of Yucatan 


Bishopric of Tabasco 


San Juan Bautista. . 

Tulancingo 

Talaoa 


Bishopric of Tulancingo 


400 ' 470 
100 164 

379 1 454 
41 80 
300 1 358 
171 1 204 
107 1 136 


BishoDric of Veracruz 


Bishopric of Chilapa 

Bishopric of Tamaulipas 


Chilapa 


Ciudad Victoria 

Morelia 


Archbishopric of Michoacan 


BishoDric of San Luis Potosi 


San Luis 


Bishopric of Quer6taro 


Quer6taro 


BishoDric of Leop 


Le6n 


100 I2'l 


Bishopric of Zamora 


Zamora 


100 
376 
250 

135 
200 
100 

3 


136 


Archbishopric of Guadalajara 

Bishopric of Durango 


Guadalajara 

Durango 


482 

295 
171 


Bishopric of Linares 


Monterey 


Bishooric of Sonora 


Culiacan 

Zacatecas 


2^^ 


Bishopric of Zacatecas 


120 


Vicarage Apostolic of Lower Calif ornia 




q 








Total 


1.349 


8,763 


10, 112 









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112 MEXICO. 

Independence of thought and religion may be said to have 
had its beginning in Mexico as far back as the year 1770, when 
Bishop Fabian, of Puebla, under the auspices of Archbishop (after- 
wards Cardinal) Lorenzana, published his "Missa Gothica seu 
Mozarabica," which was a liturgy used in Spain by the Gothic 
Christians prior to the adoption of the Roman liturgy. Liberal 
ideas grew very slowly, but received considerable impulse when, 
in 1824, Mexico gained her independence from the mother coun- 
try. Juarez and the " Laws of Reform " further invigorated these 
ideas, which grew more and more until about i860 when the first 
Protestant missionary. Miss Matilde Rankin, commenced her labors 
in the Mexican field, which resulted in a short time in the forma- 
tion of fourteen Protestant congregations. 

The first movement towards the formation of a Christian church> 
distinct from the Roman Catholic, which came to a successful issue, 
was begun in the country in 1868, when aid was asked of Protest- 
ants in the United States. The aid being afforded, there was 
organized in 1869 in the city of Mexico what was called "The 
Church of Jesus in Mexico," which, however, was not the result 
of missionary work so much as " a spontaneous movement orig- 
inating among members of the Roman Catholic Church" in the 
country, who desired " a greater liberty of conscience, a purer wor- 
ship, and a better church organization." 

The Rev. Henry C. Riley, a clergyman of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, went to Mexico, in 1869, and 
entered heartily into the work of " The Church of Jesus." In the 
same year the great church of San Francisco, as well as the chapel 
of Balvanera, was purchased by the Protestants, and services were 
conducted therein in Spanish and English. 

The existing main church of San Francisco was dedicated De- 
cember 8, 1716, but the original monastery and church, whose site 
this edifice occupies, was built about 1607 on lands which had 
formerly been the garden and wild-beast house of the kings of 



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MEXICO. 113 

Tenochtitlan. Cortez provided funds for the building of the first 
church, and material was secured in the hewn stone from the steps 
of the great '^eocalli (the Aztec temple). In this church Cortez 
heard masses, and for a time his bones found a resting place. Here 
the Spanish Viceroys, through the centuries, took part in the great 
festivals of the church. The '^e Deum in celebration of Mexican 
independence was first echoed by its walls. Here the Liberator, 
Agustin Yturbide, worshipped, and here his funeral services were 
held when he died ; and here, to-day, Protestant services are held. ' 

Three churches now stand on portions of the land covered by 
what were known formerly as the seven churches of San Francisco. 
They are the Church of Jesus; Christ Church, where the services 
of the Church of England are held; and the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of the Trinity. 

A short resume of the work of the American Church Mission- 
ary Society is given in the following lines, penned by its general 
secretary, under date of February 12, 1891 : 

In 1873 our society entered upon work in Mexico. We found there an 
organization entitled "The Church of Jesus.'* The Rev. Dr. Riley, a presby- 
ter of the Protestant Episcopal Church, acted as our missionary there. Two 
very large buildings, formerly Roman Catholic Churches, were purchased at an 
expense of $50,000, and, in addition to this, during the ?ivt years that we con- 
tinued in charge of the work, over $83,000 were expended in the support of 
missionaries. More than 3,000 persons connected themselves with this Protes- 
tant movement, and in 1873 °^^ society deemed it expedient to transfer this 
work to the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church. After that 
date, the Rev. Dr. Riley was consecrated Bishop of the Valley of Mexico, but 
subsequently retired, and the board withdrew its support. At present the work 
is in the care of the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church, and is conducted 
by the Rev. William B. Gordon, resident presbyter. 

An orphanage for girls has long been sustained by Mrs. Hooker, formerly of 
Philadelphia, and an effort is now being made to erect a building for this or- 
phanage at a cost of $20,000. 

The Protestant Episcopal missions and churches are many, and 
the congregations, especially in the City of Mexico, generally large 
57A 8 



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114 MEXICO. 

and flourishing. This church maintains, besides the edifices men- 
tioned, a chapel at Second Independencia street. No. 3, Mexico 
City, and many congregations and schools in other parts of the 
Republic, six congregations and two schools being in Hidalgo, 
and four congregations and two schools in Morelos. 

The Presbyterian Mission was begun in 1872, and central sta- 
tions are maintained in the City of Mexico, Zacatecas, San Luis 
Potosi, Jerez, Saltillo, and Lerdo, attached to which are numerous 
out-stations. All of these congregations and schools are in a 
flourishing condition. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church began work in Mexico in 
1873, ^^^ ^^^ made most rapid strides. The parts of the Re- 
public where the work is carried on is divided into four districts, 
the Central, Coast, Northern, and Puebla, and into twelve circuits 
and twenty-eight stations. According to the statistics published 
in the seventy-second annual report of the Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, for the year 1890, the strength 
of the mission was: Number of appointments, 101 ; foreign mis- 
sionaries, 9; assistant missionaries, 8; foreign missionaries of 
Women's Foreign Missionary Society, 7 ; native workers of the 
same, 35; native ordained preachers, 10; native unordained 
preachers, 30; native teachers, 25; foreign teachers, 3; other 
helpers, 38 ; adherents, 6,106 ; churches and chapels, 15, estimated 
to be worth $91,600; halls and other places of worship, 26; par- 
sonages or " homes," 15 ; estimated value of these, $ 100,900 ; high 
schools, 3; number of scholars attending, 115; number of teach- 
ers, 9 ; number of other day schools, 42 ; number of other day 
scholars, 2,725; number of Sabbath schools, 47; number of 
Sabbath scholars, 8,641 ; value of orphanages, schools, hospitals, 
book rooms, etc., $111,340; volumes printed during the year, 
170,330 ; pages printed during the year, 2,637,600. The average 
attendance on Sunday worship was 2,305. There was a gain 
during the year of 28 congregrations, and a net increase of 394 



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MEXICO. 



115 




SACRO MONTE CHURCH. AMECAMECA. 



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MEXICO. 



members and probationers ; 349 conversions are reported, against 
120 the year before ; 6 day schools were 'added to the list, gaining 
an increase of 526 scholars ; 3 more Sabbath schools and 274 more 
Sabbath-school scholars appear among the figures for the year. 
Three new churches were built and the church properties were 
increased $7,600 in value over the preceding year, most of which 
amount was raised in the country. There were collected for self- 
support $9,146, against $6,708 the year before. 

The Baptist churches organized in Mexico are as follows; 
Under the Home Mission Society of New York, a church each at 
Monterey, Salinas, Garcia, Santa Rosa, Montemorelos, Ebanos, 
Cadereyta, Apodaca, in the State of Nuevo Leon, and one in the 
City of Mexico. Under the Southern Baptist Convention there are 
churches at the following places : Saltillo, Patos, Progreso, Muzquiz, 
and Juarez, in the State of Coahuila. In 1886 there were 13 or- 
dained Baptist ministers and 5 schools, which have considerably 
increased in number since that date. 

The American Friends Society has established missions at 
Matamoros, City of Mexico, and other places. 

According to Mexican official statistics there were in 1889 in 
the Republic 88 Protestant churches and chapels, in the follow- 
ing States and Territories : 



Federal District 21 

Mexico 5 

Michoacan 13 

Puebla 13 

Guanajuato 4 

Guerrero i 

Quer6taro 2 

Jalisco 2 

Tlaxcala i 

Morelos 10 



Tabasco 2 

Hidalgo 3 

Veracruz 3 

Aguascalientes i 

Tamaulipas 3 

Nuevo Le6n i 

Zacatecas 2 

Territory of Tepic. i 

Total 88 



There, were in 1890, published in Mexico seven Protestant 
papers, as follows; In the City of Mexico, El Abogado Cristiano 
I Uustrado, weekly; El Faro, fortnightly; La Luz, monthly; and 



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MEXICO. 117 

El Evangelista Mexicano, monthly; in Guadalajara, Jalisco, El 
Expositor Biblico, monthly; in Toluca, Mexico, La Antigua 
Fe, monthly; and in Matamoros, Tamaulioas, El Ramo de 
Olivo, monthly. 

When the Protestant missionaries first began their labors in the 
Mexican field they suffered trials and tribulations innumerable, 
and some suffered death for their faith, but of late years the Fed- 
eral Government, as well as the State authorities, see to it that the 
constitutional right of free conscience is enjoyed by all alike, and, 
in consequence Protestantism is spreading and gaining proselytes. 



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Chapter XII. 



INTERNAL TAXATION— THE ECONOMIC CONGRESS AND FISCAL 

UNIFICATION. 

Realizing that the imposition of taxes on imported merchandise 
by the State and municipal govemments throughout the Repub- 
lic impeded commerce, the Mexican Government called to the 
capital an economic conference, with delegates from each State, 
to confer as to the best method of removing this obstacle without 
an embarrassing loss of revenues. The conference, which was in 
session from December, 1890, to April, 1891, reached certain 
conclusions, which, although not yet finally acted upon, will in 
all probability be adopted, and are of the greatest importance to 
all persons engaged in commerce with the Republic. It is pro- 
posed : 

First. That all interior custom-houses be abolished, and that 
all imported merchandise, having complied with the customs laws 
at the port of entry, shall thereafter pass unimpeded to its desti- 
nation. 

Second. In place of the existing alcahala (internal duties) an 
indirect tax is to be substituted, to be collected from the consumer, 
which shall be uniform throughout the Republic, at a rate not to 
exceed 8 per cent, ad valorem on all articles except tobacco and 
spirits, and shall be paid in the form of stamps, which the General 
Government shall issue to the several States as they shall make 
118 



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MEXICO. 1 19 

requisitions for the same. This tax shall be imposed for twenty 
years from and after the 5th day of February, 1892. 

Third. The tax upon tobacco and spirits shall be determined 
from time to time by special regulations. 

Fourth. The law authorizing the States to impose a tax of 5 
per cent, on the import duties levied upon imported merchandise 
is to be repealed, and there is to be no taxation whatever upon 
imported merchandise except the regular Federal customs dues 
and the 8 per cent, stamp tax herein mentioned. 

Fifth. The revenues from the new 8 per cent, tax shall belong 
to the States that collect them, and those collected in the Federal 
District and the Territories shall be paid into the Federal Treasury. 

Before this plan goes into effect it must be approved by the 
Federal Congress and ratified by the several States. 

The alcabala system in Mexico is so little understood abroad 
that it will not be out of place to give a short resume of it here. 
In his Diccionario de Legislacion y Jurisprudencia (Law Dic- 
tionary) Escriche defines the word " alcabala " as follows : " The 
tribute tax charged upon the proceeds of all sales or barters, which 
is paid into the public treasury." 

The etymology of the word is doubtful. It is not known 
whether it is of Moorish, Hebrew, or Latin origin, or is a corrup- 
tion of the Spanish phrase algo que valga {al que vala)^ which means 
" something of value." 

The alcabala was first established in Mexico at the beginning 
of the year 1 575, and the tax could be farmed out to corporations, 
civil or municipal, or individuals, being purchasable at public auc- 
tion. The term "alcabala " was generic and included import duties 
as well as the tax on sales. Under this system the exportation of 
articles, especially of precious metals, which were greatly handi- 
capped by excessive duties, was restricted. 

The first alcabala laws promulgated in Mexico, or New Spain, in 
the course of time were gradually modified, and assuming different 



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120 MEXICO. 

forms and expanding, constituted eventually a complete branch 
of jurisprudence. 

The commercial movement of the Spanish colonies was much 
impeded by the Spanish laws, and, as was lately stated by a writer 
in a Mexican publication, " was subject to regulations which, by 
an inexplicable contradiction, were called free trade regulations.'* 
These regulations prohibited the interning of foreign goods and 
manufactures into the colonies. 

After Mexico secured her independence and established her 
autonomy, the first governments were obliged to continue under 
the fiscal system which previously obtained for fear of reducing the 
revenues and also because of the transitory character of the govern- 
ments. 

' Thus, in 1821, and for years afterwards, the alcabala system was 
organized and worked as it was under the vice-regal regime, with 
the exception of some modifications in the matter of the number 
and salaries of employes and the amount of tax on certain articles. 
These changes did not reduce the tax, however, as it continued to 
be more burdensome, articles having to pay 16 per cent, ad valorem. 

About the year 1830 certain radical reforms were introduced, 
establishing the regulations to be observed in the collection of the 
alcabala, which, however, only served to restrict trade and hamper 
the fi-eedom of the transit of goods. Under these regulations 
through goods subject to duty carried to a destination known under 
the system as distinto suelo (literally, different soil) had to pay 
another tax, which was not imposed in case the goods were destined 
to another point of the same soil. To explain: Cordova was the 
center for the collection of the tax, and had four other soils depend- 
ent on it, viz, Coscomatepec, Huatusco, Tomatlan, and Zongo- 
lica, to which places goods having paid the alcabala at Cordova 
could be transported and disposed of without incurring further 
duties. Should goods, however, be introduced into a soil not 
within the jurisdiction of the collection center, they would be 
liable to new duties. 



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MEXICO. 121 

This obstacle to the free transit of goods was all the more in- 
jurious and far-reaching as the number of soils into which the 
country was divided was increased, and there were at one time 276 
different soils in the Republic. 

The alcabala legislation of this period declared a 5 per cent, 
extra tax on consumption, over and above duties, on foreign prod- 
ucts and manufactures. Foreign liquors were taxed 10 percent, 
extra. Four-fifths of the 5 per cent, tax and nine-tenths of the 10 
per cent, went to the Federal treasury, the residue being turned 
into the treasury of the State collecting the same. 

The coastwise trade was less hampered, a system of permits 
prevailing under which a trader going from port to port paid the 
duties on the goods as they were sold, the permits covering the 
articles disposed of becoming void. Warehouses were established 
for the coasting trade where merchandise might be deposited for a 
period of forty days, at the expiration of which time the owner was 
required to remove the goods, failing to do which he was charged 
a half real (6% cents) per day for each package, piece, bale, barrel, 
or case. Should the withdrawal of the goods be delayed for forty 
days longer the customs officer, after summoning the owner, pro- 
ceeded to the inspection, appraisement, and assessment of the goods 
and sold the same, or such portion as might be necessary, to liqui- 
date the duties. ♦ 

In 1839 the administration declared the official meaning of the 
word alcabala to* be : 

The tax on the price of property, sold or bartered, which the seller or bar- 
terer pays to the public treasury. 

This tax was 1 2 per cent, on the majority of taxable articles 
and was divided into a fixed and contingent tax, the former being 
the 6 per cent, levied from the year 1639 on all sales, barters, or 
transfers of taxable things, and the latter being 6 per cent, added 
to the alcabala in 1817 in place of certain war ta;xes levied to carry 
on the struggle for independence. 



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122 MEXICO. 

Some articles, such as Chile peppers and beans, were only' sub- 
ject to the fixed tax, as were also sales of magueys, transfers of 
title to real estate, sales of tithes, and of ice ; other articles paid 
higher duties ; imported rum was burdened with a 20 per cent, duty, 
liquors distilled from pulque, 16 per cent., and the products of any 
other indigenous plant. Leaf tobacco paid a tax of 50 cents on 
each 25 pounds, and the manufactured article 75 cents per 25 
pounds. 

On the 10th of October, 1846, General Salas, then head of the 
Government, abolished the alcabala tax throughout the Republic 
in so far as it affected sales of land, domestic products, and effects. 
One of the first acts of Gen. Santa-Anna, in 1853, ^^^ ^^ reestab- 
lish the tax. 

During the period of the dictatorship offices for the collection 
of the alcabala were opened in the States and Territories, and all 
collections were turned into the general treasury. 

As regards collection, the tax on consumption on foreign goods 
and the alcabala on domestic articles were payable at the port of 
introduction, the place of sale, or of final destination, according to 
the regulations for the coastwise trade and other regulations in 
force previous to the establishment of the Federal system. 

The government springing from the revolution of Ayutla levied 
an extra tax of I2j^ cents upon each package introduced into the 
City of Mexico. 

President Benito Juarez, on January 30, 1861, abolished the 
alcabala tax on all domestic articles. 

On the 14th April, 1862, the Executive reestablished the tax 
to sustain the war of the intervention. 

In 1867, afi:er the republican restoration, a tax of 2 per cent, 
ad valorem was levied on all foreign and domestic articles intro- 
duced into the capital, excepting machinery, and such articles as 
were not subject to the alcabala tax. 

In 1857 ^^^ Federal Congress amended the Constitution by 
adding article 1 24 thereto, which article abolished the alcabala tax 



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MEXICO. ' 123 

and interior custom-houses throughout the Republic on and after 
June 1, 1858. This amendment had little effect, however, and 
might be classed as a dead letter. 

In the law making appropriations for the fiscal year i868-'69, 
the Mexican Congress created the portazgo (octroi) tax in place 
of the alcabala. For ten years this tax was exacted without creat- 
ing any serious resistance on the part of taxpayers, those objecting 
to it either soliciting reductions in the rate of taxation, or smuggling. 

On January 29, 1878, however, some traders in pulque appeared 
before the first district court in the City of Mexico and applied for 
a writ of amparo* to issue against the tax-collector of the district 
who had collected the portazgo tax from them. The complain- 
ants averred that article 1 24 ,(above cited) of the Constitution 
provided that all alcabalas and internal custom-houses be abol- 
ished on and after June 1, 1858; that, in consequence, such tax 
was illegally collected. They further cited articles 4 and 27 of the 
Constitution relating to the freedom to earn an honest living and 
the inviolability of property. 

The court having issued the necessary order, the collector filed 
his answer in which he affirmed that the portazgo tax had legally 
replaced the alcabala ; that one tax would not be confounded with 
the other, for alcabala is the tax levied by the authorities on the 
sellmg price of everything which is the object of a sale, while 
portazgo is the toll paid for the transportation of merchandise to a 
certain place. He further insisted that the provision of law doing 

*This word means literally ** protection," and recourse may be had to the writ when- 
ever any constitutional guaranty or natural right is violated by established authority. 
Should any citizen consider himself restrained of his liberty or deprived of his property, 
or denied any other right recognized under the Constitution, without due process of law, 
he may go into the Federal courts for amparo, setting forth his specific grievance, and 
asking amparo from the authority to whose action the restraint, deprivation, or denial 
is due. 

This writ is the magna charta of the Mexicans, and is pointed to by them as their 
most precious constitutional right. The legal proceedings in cases of this character 
partake largely of what are known under United States laws as quo warranto^ habeas 
corpus, mandamus, and prohibition proceedings. The effect of the granting of the writ 
is to nullify the act complained of. 



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124 ' MEXICO. 

away with the alcabala did not constitute a natural right ; and con- 
sequently, in case such a tax or toll were exacted, no guaranty- 
would be violated, for it would be idle to hold exemption from the 
payment of alcahalas to be a natural right, even if the collection 
thereof should incur responsibility for a violation of the letter of 
the Constitution. 

The court held the portazgo to be an alcabala and granted the 
prayer of the petitioners. 

On appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice the decision below 
was affirmed, and the writ of Amparo continued to be the recourse 
for redress taken by taxpayers who objected to the tax until an 
Executive decree closed the door to these actions. 

Since that decree the alcabala has continued to be the most gen- 
eral tax in the country. 

On the 2 2d day of November, 1886, article 124 of the Consti- 
tution was again amended, providing that no State should declare 
any tax upon merchandise in transitu for the interior. The Fed- 
eral Government reserved the right to tax foreign goods crossing 
the national domain for transshipment abroad. 

No State can impede or restrict, directly or indirectly, save for 
police measures, the entry or departure of merchandise into or from 
its territory, nor can it tax any domestic articles shipped abroad 
or to another State. 

There can be no discrimination in taxation. The same rate 
shall apply to each class of articles, whatever the place of production. 
No tax upon any article can exceed that levied upon similar 
products of the State or Territory where the same is imposed. 

The free transit of domestic goods can not be hampered, nor 
will such goods be subject to search or examination while in 
transit, nor do they require any custom-house document for their 
circulation in the interior. 

Nor shall any State impose a higher tax upon foreign goods 
than that fixed by Federal law. 



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MEXICO. 



125 



Later, on the 26th of November, 1886, the following law was 
promulgated : 

The tax on consumption which the States, the Federal District, and the Ter- 
ritories shall levy on articles shall not exceed 5 per cent, of the import duties 
thereon. 

But little can be said of the tax laws in the several States of 
Mexico, for they are in a very unsettled condition. The abolish- 
ing of the internal custom-houses has cut off much of their revenue, 
and a substitute therefor is now being sought. 




STATUE OF CUAUHTEHOO. 



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Chapter XIII. 



RECIPROCITY TREATIES WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The subject of promoting and increasing the trade between the 
nations on either bank of the Rio Grande has for many years 
claimed the attention of statesmen in each nation. 

Treaties looking toward commercial reciprocity have been 
negotiated, but have failed of ratification or have been otherwise 
defeated, and to-day the sister Republics have no commercial tie 
between them founded on treaty stipulations. 

In 1857, during the administration of President Comonfort, 
Mr. Forsyth, United States minister at Mexico, negotiated a 
treaty with that Government which gave the United States greater 
rights in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and provided for other 
reciprocal commercial privileges between the two nations. This 
treaty was never ratified. 

Two years later a second treaty, known as the McLane-Ocampo 
treaty, was concluded at Veracruz, granting commercial advan- 
tages to the United States. This treaty also failed of ratification 
by the Senate. 

When railway communication between the two Republics began 
to appear as an established fact it was evident that it would bring 
about a great increase of trade between them, and a bill was intro- 
duced in the Congress of the United States appropriating a sum 
of money for the payment of the salaries and expenses of a 
126 



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MEXICO 127 

commission to negotiate a commercial treaty with Mexico. The 
bill passed August 7, 1882, and the President appointed Gen. U. S. 
Grant and William H. Trescot, esq., commissioners with full 
powers to negotiate such a treaty. 

On the 20th of January, 1883, a commercial reciprocity con- 
vention was concluded in the city of Washington between the two 
countries, the above-named gentlemen acting for the United States, 
and the Hon. Matias Romero, Mexican minister, and the Hon. 
Estanislao Canedo, on the part of Mexico. 

Following is the full text of the convention : 

The United States of America and the United States of Mexico, equally animated by 
the desire to strengthen and perpetuate the friendly relations, happily existing between 
them, and to establish such commercial intercourse between them as shall encourage 
and develop trade and good will between their respective citizens, have resolved to 
enter into a commercial convention. For this purpose the President of the United 
States of America has conferred full powers on Ulysses S. Grant and William H. Tres- 
cot, citizens of the United States of America, and the President of the United States of 
Mexico has conferred like powers on Matias Romero, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary of Mexico at Washington, and on Estanislao Cafiedo, citizens of 
the United States of Mexico ; 

And said Plenipotentiaries, after having exchanged their respective full powers, 
which were found to be in due form, have agreed to the following articles : 

Article I. 

For and in consideration of the rights granted by the United States of Mexico to the 
United States of America in article second of this convention, and as an equivalent 
therefor, the United States of America hereby agree to admit, free of import duties 
whether Federal or local, all the articles named in the following schedule, into all the 
ports of the United States of America, and into such places on their frontier with 
Mexico, as may be established now or hereafter as ports of entry by the United States 
of America, provided that the same be the growth and manufacture or produce of the 
United States of Mexico. 

Schedule of Mexican articles to be admitted free of duty into the United States of America, 

I. Animals, alive, specially imported for breeding purposes. 

■ 2. Barley, not pearl. 

3. Beef. 

4. Coffee. 
5- Eggs. 

6. Esparto and other grasses, and pulp of, for the manufacture of paper. 

7. Flowers, natural of all kinds. 



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128 MEXICO. 

8. Fruits. All kinds of fresh fruits, such as oranges, lemons, pine-apples, limes, 

bananas, plantains, mangoes, etc. 

9. Goat skins, raw. 

10. Henequen, sisal hemp, and other like substitutes for hemp. 

11. Hide-ropes. 

12. Hides, raw or uncured, whether dry, salted, or pickled, and skins, except sheep 

skins with the wool on. Angora goat skins, raw, without the wool, and asses' 
skins. 

13. India-rubber, crude and milk of. 

14. Indigo. 

15. Ixtle or Tampico fibre. 

16. Jalap. . 

17. Leather, old scrap. 

18. Logwood, berries, nuts, archil, and vegetables for dyeing or used for composing 

dyes. 

19. Molasses. 

20. Palm or cocoanut oil. 

21. Quicksilver. 

22. Sarsaparilla, crude. 

23. Shrimps and all other shell fish. 

24. Straw, unmanufactured. 

25. Sugar, not above number 16, Dutch standard in color. 

26. Tobacco in leaf, unmanufactured. 

27. Vegetables, fresh of all kinds. 

28. Wood and timber of all kinds, unmanufactured, including ship timber. 

Article II. 

For and in consideration of the rights granted by the United States of America in the 
preceding article of this convention, and as an equivalent therefor, the United States of 
Mexico hereby agree to admit free of duties whether Federal ox, local, all the articles 
named in the following schedule, the same being the growth, manufacture, or produce 
of the United States of America, into all the ports of the United States of Mexico and 
into such places on their frontier with the United States of America as may be estab- 
lished now or hereafter as ports of entry by the United States of Mexico. 

Schedule of United States articles to be admitted free of duty into Mexico. 

1. Accordeons and harmonicas. 

2. Anvils. 

3. Asbestos for roofs. 

4. Bars of steel for mines, round or octagonal. 

5. Barrows and hand trucks with one or two wheels. 

6. Bricks, refractory and all kinds of bricks. 

7. Books, printed, unbound or bound in whole or in the greater part with paper or 

cloth. 

8. Beams, small, and rafters of iron for roofs, provided that they can not be made use 

of for other objects in which iron is employed. 



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MEXICO. 129 

9. Coal of all kinds. 

10. Cars and carts with springs. 

11. Coaches and cars for railways. 

12. Crucibles and melting pots of all materials and sizes. 

13. Cane-knives. 

14. Clocks, mantle or wall. 

15. Diligences and road carriages of all kinds and dimensions. 

16. Dynamite. 

17. Fire pumps, engines, and ordinary pumps for irrigation and other purposes. 

18. Faucets. 

19. Fuse and wick for mines. 

20. Feed, dry, and straw. 

21. Fruits, fresh. 

22. Fire- wood. 

23. Fish, fresh. 

24. Guano. 

25. Hoes, mattocks, and their handles. 

26. Houses of wood or iron, complete. 

27. Hoes, common agricultural knives without their sheaths, scythes, sickles, harrows, 

rakes, shovels, pick-axes, spades and mattocks for agriculture. 

28. Henequen bags, on condition that they be used for subsequent exportation with 

Mexican products. 

29. Ice. 

30. Iron and steel made into rails for railways. 

31. Instruments, scientific. 

32. Ink, printing. 

33. Iron beams. 

34. Lime, hydraulic. 

35. Locomotives. 

36. Lithographic stones. 

37. Masts and anchors, for vessels large or small. 

38. Marble in blocks. 

.39. Marble in flags for pavements not exceeding forty centimeters in square and pol- 
ished on one side. 

40. Machines and apparatus of all kinds for industrial, agricultural and mining pur- 

poses, sciences and arts, and any separate extra parts and pieces pertaining 
thereto. 
The extra or separate parts of machinery and the apparatus that may come united 
or separately with the machinery are included in this provision, comprehending 
in this the bands of leather or rubber that serve to communicate movement, but 
only when imported at the same time with the machinery to which they are 
adapted. 

41. Metals, precious, in bullion or in powder. 

42. Money, legal of silver or gold, of the United States. 

43. Moulds and patterns for the arts. 

44. Naptha. 

57A 9 



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130 MEXICO. 

45. Qats in grain or straw. 

46. Oars for small vessels. 

47. Plows and plowshares. 

48. Paper, tarred for roofs. 

49. Plants and seeds of any kind, not growing in the country, for cultivation. 

50. Pens of any metal not silver or gold. 

51. Petroleum, crude. 

52. Petroleum or coal oil and its products for illuminating purposes. 

53. Powder, common, for mines. 

54. Quicksilver. 

55. Rags or cloth for the manufacture of paper. 

56. Roof tiles of clay or other material. 

57. Sulphur. 

58. Stoves of iron for cooking and other purposes. 

59. Staves and headings for barrels. 

60. Soda, hyposulphite of. 

61. Steam engines. 

62. Sewing machines. 

63. Slates for roofs and pavements. 

64. Sausages, large or small. 

65. Teasels of wire, mounted on bands for machinery, or vegetable teasels. 

66. Tools and instruments of steel, iron, brass, or wood, or composed of these materials, 

for artisans. 

67. Types, coats of arms, spaces, rules, vignettes, and accessories for printing of all 

kinds. 

68. Vegetables, fresh. 

69. Wire, telegraph, the destination of which will be proven at the respective custom 

houses by the parties interested. 

70. Wire of iron or steel for carding, from No. 26 and upwards. 

71. Wire, barbed, for fences and the hooks and nails to fasten the same. 

72. Water pipes of all classes, materials and dimensions, not considering as compre- 

hended among them tubes of copper or other metal that do not come closed or 
soldered with seam or with riveting in all their length. 

73. Window blinds, painted or not painted. 

Article III. 

The Government of the United States of Mexico, shall have the power to issue such 
laws, rules, regulations, instructions and orders, as it may deem proper to protect its 
revenues and prevent fraud in order to prove that the merchandise included in the above 
schedule annexed to article second of this convention, are produced or manufactured 
in the United States of America, and therefore are entitled to importation free of dut)^, 
into the Mexican ports or such places on the frontier between Mexico and the United 
States of America, as are previously established as ports of entry by the Government 
of Mexico. 

The Government of the United States of Mexico shall have moreover the power to 



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MEXICO. 131 

amend, modify, or amplify the laws and regulations issued in exercising the power con- 
ferred by this article, whenever it deems proper to do so in order to protect its revenues 
and prevent fraud. * 

Article IV. 

The Government of the United States of America shall have the power to issue such 
laws, rules, regulations, instructions and orders as it may deem proper to protect its 
revenues and prevent fraud, in order to prove that the merchandise included in the above 
schedule attached to the first article of this convention are produced or manufactured 
in the United States of Mexico, and therefore are entitled to importation, free of duty, 
into the ports of the United States of America or such places on the frontier between 
the United States of America and the United States of Mexico as are previously estab- 
lished as ports of entry by the Government of the United States of America. 

The Government of the United States of America shall have moreover the power to 
amend, modify or amplify the laws and regulations issued in exercising the power con- 
• ferred by this article, whenever it may deem proper to do so in order to protect its rev- 
enues and prevent fraud. 

Article V. 

The stipulations contained in the first and second articles of this convention will not 
prevent either of the contracting parties from making such changes in their import duties 
as their respective interests may require, granting to other nations the same liberty of 
, rights in regard to one or more of the articles of merchandise named in the schedule 
annexed to the first and second articles, either by legislation or by means of treaties with 
other Governments. But in case such changes are made, the party affected by the same 
may denounce this convention even before the term specified in Article IX., and the 
present convention will be terminated at the end of six months, from the day on which 
such notification may be made by the respective country. 

Article VI. 

It is further agreed by the contracting parties that neither of them shall charge any duty 
for the transit of the above said articles of merchandise through its own territory, pro- 
vided that they are intended to be consumed in the same territory. 

Article VII. 

Notwithstanding, either of the contracting parties may impose duties of transit upon 
any kind of merchandise, passing through its territory and destined to be consumed in 
the territory of another country. 

Article VIII. 

The present convention shall take effect as soon as it has been approved and ratified 
by both contracting parties, according to their respective constitutions; but not until laws 
necessar)'^ to carry it into operation, shall have been passed both by the Congress of the 
United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States, and regu- 
lations provided accordingly, which shall take place within twelve months from the date 
of the exchange of ratifications to which Article X. refers. 



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132 MEXICO. 

Article IX. 

Upon the present convention taking effect, it shall remain in force for six years from 
the date in which it may come into operation, according to the foregoing article, and shall 
remain in force until either of the contracting parties shall give notice to th^ other of its 
wish to terminate the same, and until the expiration of twelve months from the date of 
said notification. Each of the contracting parties is at liberty to give such notice to the 
other at the end of said term of six years, or any time thereafter, on before as provided 
in Article V. of this convention. 

Article X. 

The ratifications of the present convention shall be duly exchanged at the city of 
Washington within sixteen months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible. 

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries of the high contracting parties have 
signed the present convention and have affixed thereto their respective seals. 

Done in duplicate at the city of Washington this twentieth day of January A. D. one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-three. 

U. S. Grant. [seal.] 

Wm. Henry Trescot. [seal.] 
M. Romero. [seal.] 

E. Ca55edo. [seal.] 

The foregoing treaty was ratified, with amendments, advised by 
the United States Senate, March 11, 1884; was signed by the 
President of the United States May 20, 1884, and by the President 
of Mexico May 14, 1884, the ratifications being exchanged at 
Washington May 20, 1884. The convention was proclaimed at 
Washington June 2, 1884. 

The eighth article of the treaty, as amended, provided that it should 
not take .effect until the laws and regulations that each party should 
deem necessary to carry it into operation should have been passed 
by both countries, and twelve months fi-om May 20, 1884, was 
allowed for that purpose. There being a failure on the part of 
both Governments to pass the necessary legislation, an additional 
article to the convention was concluded February 25, 1885, which 
extended the time to May 20, 1886. By the supplementary 
article of May 14, 1886, the time was again extended to May 
20, 1887. 

Several bills to provide the legislation necessary to the carrying 
into effect of the treaty were introduced in the House of 



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MEXICO. 133 

Representatives but failed to secure final action, this being sus- 
pended at various stages of their passage through the House. The 
last bill introduced was referred to the Committee on Ways and 
Means, but twelve members of the thirteen composing the commit- 
tee voted in favor of an adverse report and the bill failed to pass. 
The treaty can now only be revived by the negotiation of 
another instrument, since the time provided for action upon it 
expired on May 20, 1887. 



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Chapter XIV. 



PECULIARITIES OF MEXICAN TRADE. 

By Henry C. Payne, City of Mexico. 

The condition of Mexico at the present time from a financial 
and government standpoint is such as to give confidence and hope 
to foreign settlers. The Government favors the investment of 
foreign capital, and by reason of the strong and wise administra- 
tion of affairs throughout the country under the able and enter- 
prising leadership of General Diaz, aided materially by good and 
intelligent local rulers in the several States of the Republic, 
ample security and encouragement are afforded. Peace reigns 
throughout ; the administration of justice is in conscientious hands, 
and those who for any reason appeal to the laws for protection are 
dealt with without reference to nationality or social position. 

Every inducement and facility are offered to foreigners who 
come with proper credentials proposing to establish industries tend- 
ing to develop and enlarge the marvelous resources of the coun- 
try, especially in agricultural, mining, and banking enterprises. 

With particular reference to the financial condition of the Re- 
public, I think it may be said with truth that no country in all 
Latin America presents so sound a position, one so worthy the 
confidence and consideration of the stronger nations of the world as 
Mexico. For the first time in its history it will present in the com- 
ing budget for the fiscal year 1891 and 1892 a balance in natural 
134 



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MEXICO. 135 

income over expenses something like $1,000,000, which fact con- 
sidered in connection with the total debt, foreign and domestic, of 
only $78,000,000, is interesting. To form any sort of proper ap- 
preciation of present conditions, it is but necessary that we take a 
retrospective view of the last 14 years. When General Diaz was 
chosen President in 1877 the country was in a state of turmoil 
and revolution The primitive roads leading to and from all the 
smaller interior towns, and indeed many of the towns themselves, 
were at the mercy of revolutionists and robbers. The only rail- 
way then operated in the country was the Mexican, or popularly 
known, the Vera Cruz road, whose line extended from Vera Cruz 
to Mexico, a distance of some 283 miles. 

The income then derived from all sources showed a yearly de- 
ficit, as against expenses of maintaining the Government, of from 
eight to ten millions, and the total debt of the country, though in 
very unsettled form as to its nature and amount, was estimated at 
$150,000,000. During this period of 14 years the debt has been 
reduced, as will be seen, nearly half Railways have been built 
in different parts of the country. Two lines, the Mexican Cen- 
tral and Mexican National, now connect the city of Mexico with 
the great trunk lines of the United States, leading north, east, 
and west from the Rio Grande, and the means of communication 
and transportion are, considering all things, excellent, with the 
Government lending great inducements for the further develop- 
ment and encouragement of these great revolutionizers of the 
world. New lines are being proposed and built from the trade 
centers to interior points for the development of different resources 
here and there, in all of which, as I have said before, the Mexican 
Government is doing everything possible in its power to foster. 

Of course in the direction of civilizing the country and acquaint- 
ing its people with modern ideas of life, it would seem that this 
is the best course Mexico can possibly pursue. Her leaders realize 
it and are not found lacking in disposition to take hold of any 



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136 MEXICO. 

legitimate enterprise of this sort and lend to it all the assistance 
good government and prudence will permit. 

This condition of affairs is certainly favorable to Americans who 
wish to do business in the country by the sale of their wares, or who 
wish to come here and settle and invest their means. The country- 
is slowly but steadily developing its vast resources and is naturally 
becoming a larger consumer every year of all the necessities of im- 
proved life, of the implements for development of agricultural inter- 
ests and of different materials which we have to sell for beneficiating 
mines, of machinery for the establishment of manufactories, and of 
certain classes of raw material which are too numerous to itemize. 

The merchants in the large cities, as well as in the smaller inte- 
rior places, are as a rule conservative to a rare degree, and hence 
failure among them is seldom. The credit system is in vogue to 
an extent which the American people can scarcely comprehend, 
and although the time given for anything sold seems to them ex- 
traordinarily long, unnecessary, and pronounced by many of them 
ridiculous, they pay! Many of them are slow, but in the end they 
cover their accounts. Failure by any of them, as we understand 
the term " failure," is a most expensive procedure, as under the laws 
to liquidate an estate judicial proceedings are somewhat complicated 
and long drawn out, and naturally cost a great deal of money. I n fact, 
I have many times heard it said by intelligent trades-people in this 
city that no man could afford to fail for the reasons stated above. 

Both merchants and consumers are, as far as we can naturally 
expect them, disposed to buy American products, at least such of 
them as they find adapted to their wants, and with the increasing 
facilities for doing business with the United States, considered to- 
gether with the proximity of the two' countries and the short time 
necessary to transport the goods to and fro, there is no intelligent 
reason to be found, so far as I can see, why the commercial inter- 
course between Mexico and the United States should not strengthen 
by each year until this intercourse will assume such conditions as 
no power on earth can destroy. 



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MEXICO. 137 

Merchants here are beginning to appreciate, as they never have 
before, the advantage to be gained by reason of the improved trans- 
portation facilities, the time gained now as against the past in im- 
porting the goods, by which they are relieved of the burden ol 
carrying such immense stocks as was necessary in former times. 
Before the railways were established by which the two countries 
were commercially joined together, merchants in this city were 
obliged to invest very large sums of money in order to have oh 
hand the supply of goods necessary for the proper conduct of their 
business, to pay for which they necessarily had to demand a higher 
price. This condition of trade has gradually been changing in 
form, until now the average merchant will order from month to 
month stocks of the ditFerent lines he may deal in with perfect 
security that his supplies will not be exhausted and that he will not 
lose trade thereby. When no railroads connected Mexico and the 
United States, and when steamers seldom plied between ports of 
both countries, Europeans were the only foreign merchants estab- 
lished in the country. In point of fact, it may be said that only 
Europeans, practically speaking, are established here to-day; but 
they are forced by the changed conditions to look to the United 
States as their base of supplies, and hence in one sense they may 
be considered United States merchants, or at least to the extent 
that they are distributors of products of that country, whereas before 
all of their orders went to Europe. 

It is but natural that Europeans established in the country and 
doing business with her people should prefer to deal with their 
home countries as against the United States, for the good reason 
that their capital is provided by their countrymen at home and in 
many cases their parent houses were located there. Again, Euro- 
peans have educated as far as possible the Mexican buying public 
to fancy European articles. In accomplishing this of course they 
have been obliged, first, to study the Mexican wants, and second 
to manufacture, pack, and invoice goods accordingly. They studied 



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138 MEXICO. 

with characteristic patience and persistency the domestic life of the 
people, their habits, their disposition, their tastes, and in offering 
goods to them have catered to these several conditions. When 
new concerns have come to Mexico with capital to establish, these 
same European merchants already doing business in the country 
would get hold of them in the endeavor to have them stand by 
this policy, so that for generations past, the average Mexican buyer 
has known but little of any other market than that which Europe 
provided. 

Americans have failed in their endeavors to establish trade re- 
lations with this country for the most part because they have been 
too insistent upon discussing the possibility of changing the Mexi- 
can market to suit the ideas and customs of life in vogue in the 
north, instead of doing as I hav6 shown above as the Europeans 
did, adapt themselves, their wares, and their systems of doing busi- 
ness to suit the people whose orders they were seeking. Instead 
of exercising some care to conform to instructions given by the 
Mexican merchant for goods to be shipped from the States, they 
have been too ready to inquire why this, that, or the other was 
necessary, and in very many cases they have disregarded these in- 
structions and have very naturally suffered delays and what to them 
seemed unnecessary and ridiculous costs in getting their goods 
through the custom house. I have Itnown instances where these 
errors were committed resulting in fines and complications at the 
border, which so disgusted the shipper that he declared he would 
never attempt it again. He cursed the Mexican Government first 
of all for having laws which would complicate him in the introduc- 
tion of his goods, and would argue to himself and to his friends 
that such laws were useless, were barricades to trade, and were ri- 
diculous, instead of accepting the situation at once as Europeans 
have been forced to do by the necessity of a foreign trade and 
meeting at once and carefully, existing conditions. 

The lesson to be learned bv the American manufacturer or 



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MEXICO. 139 

merchant who finds it necessary to cultivate trade with Mexico, is, 
that Mexico is not the United States, that she has laws and regu- 
lations of her own, that her country is populated by people with 
ideas, tastes, and preferences of their own, all of which they have 
a perfect right to, and in all of which they are entitled to considera- 
tion. By their failure to comply with these various conditions 
they have not been able so far to participate to any large extent in 
the benefits of foreign trade in Mexico. In trading with this and 
other countries of the continent, they have adhered too closely to 
systems prevalent in their own country. 

In the matter of credit they have been, and are to-day, too ex- 
acting to secure any large amount of trade, because, as I have en- 
deavored to show, the credit system exists here, and to demand 
cash upon shipment of goods or offering at best a small term of 
credit, will not answer the demands of this market. All of us who 
know anything of the conditions of commerce in the United States 
know that this will answer there, but such a policy can not succeed 
in this country where the general rule (when credit is given at all) 
is to sell on terms never less than four months, and often extending 
six, twelve, and eighteen. 

It must not be forgotten m considering this important feature 
of the Mexican market that with European merchants favorii;ig their 
trade by giving ample facilities to buyers in this country, it is a 
most natural thing that they should get the larger and more profit- 
able portion of it. Not only have the European merchants studied 
carefully the general requirements of the Mexican consumer, but 
they have in the minutest detail studied trifles of attractiveness and 
convenience which the United States merchant has been loath to 
consider worthy of any of his thought. This they have done by 
various means, either by sending sagacious representatives who 
could speak the language of the country with equal readiness to 
that of their own and therefore suitable and prepared to treat with 
the people of the country, or by coming themselves and inspect- 



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140 MEXICO. 

ing the principal centers of trade and remaining here long enough 
to acquire that knowledge which would enable them to accom- 
modate themselves to the instructions they expect tb receive from 
their customers throughout the country. 

The railway system to which is due more than to any other 
factor the rapid development of the country, is, in a large meas- 
ure in American hands, and may be considered thoroughly effi- 
cient. The Government has displayed almost a prodigality in 
favoring the construction of these lines by heavy subsidies. There 
can be no possible doubt as to the favorable disposition on the 
part of the Federal and local governments toward all enterprises 
offering evidence of good faith and responsibility whether fathered 
by Europeans or Americans. This is amply shown by the rail- 
way subventions, exemptions from taxation, and by every form of 
assistance now being rendered to the large smelting plants in pro- 
cess of construction in Monterey and San Louis Potosi, and other 
industrial undertakings in different parts of the country. The 
smelters referred to are American enterprises, backed by Ameri- 
can capital, and will be when finished, operated to a great extent 
by American labor. The establishment of these plants was made 
necessary and deemed advisable by ore men by the late ruling of the 
United States Treasury Department shutting out silver-lead ores, 
and the result, while for a time iniposing hardships upon some, 
has been a benefit to Mexico in a larger sense, which benefit is 
now being understood and appreciated. 

With a little forbearance on both sides, the people of the United 
States and Mexico will soon enjoy intimate acquaintance. Na- 
ture has done the most important part by placing these two coun- 
tries side by side, and by the wonderful genius and enterprise of 
the American people, the long distances are covered quickly and 
comfortably. 

It is pleasant to note that among the higher classes of Mexicans 
as well as Americans there is a constantly increasing desire to 



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MEXICO. 141 

know each other better and greater appreciation of the good qual- 
ities of each. This satisfactory result has been attained cRiefly 
by the continuous arrival of American tourists who see the coun- 
try and form acquaintances among the people. This will natur- 
ally improve as intercourse becomes more intimate, until the two 
peoples will correspond with each other, visit each other, form 
attachments for each other, and do business with each other upon 
a most friendly and satisfactory footing. The better classes are 
inclined to improve their opportunity, and the coming World's 
Columbian Exposition will serve admirably to bring them to^ 
gether, have them mingle together, and by object lessons from 
both countries to learn something more of the boundless resources, 
of the characteristics, of the habits, and customs of both. This 
opportunity will be a grand one and in appreciation of its impor- 
tance the Mexican people will not be found lacking. Mexico 
will make a fine exhibit; one creditable to the country and most 
interesting to all who may see it. 



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Chapter XV. 



CUSTOM-HOUSE REGULATIONS— INFORMATION FOR SHIPPERS. 

I. Shippers of goods to Mexican ports must supply the invoices 
of the objects they are sending, even when such objects are destined 
for the public service of the nation or are free from import duty. 
Shippers must make out these invoices separately for each of their 
consignees. Further, they must make four exact copies of each 
invoice, according to the form annexed ;* they must also take care 
that the total number of packages be stated in figures and letters. 

II. In the consular invoices several cases, bags, barrels, or 
packages of any description must not be inscribed as "one" 
package, if packed up under one cover, else double duty will be 
collected. 

From this rule are excepted : 

First. Heavy goods of common classes which are generally only 
tied up together, such as, for instance, iron bars, metal sheets, boards 
for packing purposes, and other similar articles. 

Second. Petroleum and oil cans and other liquid merchandise 
generally put up in large tin cases ; but in these cases shippers 
must state accurately in their invoices the number of cans contained 
in each case. 

Third. Piece goods in packages or cases, bottles or flasks con- 
taining alimentary substances, drugs, perfumery, etc., and generally 
small parcels, sacks, or other objects put up in the same package. 

* Page 146. 
142 



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MEXICO. 143 

III. In the consular invoices the gross weights (or net weights 
if there is no tare) must be given separately of the various mer- 
chandise of a different class or packing whenever their respective 
weight differs by more than 10 kilogrammes (22 pounds English). 
It is also prohibited to give average widths for goods that pay duty 
by the square metre if they differ by five millimetres (one-fifth 
inch). The only exceptions from these rules are packages contain- 
ing goods free of duty and those that pay only one-half cent per 
kilogramme, in which case their weights can be thrown together. 

IV. It is prohibited to write between the lines, to make 
scratches, blots, or rectifications in the consular invoices, under a 
fine of one hundred Mexican dollars for each fault of this character 
discovered in these documents. Such faults are only tolerated in 
the following cases : 

First. When the rectifications have been made with written 
explanations at the foot of the documents and before taking out 
the consular certificate. 

Second. When, notwithstanding the corrections, the several 
copies of the same document agree. 

Third. When the interlineations, scratches, etc., relate to points 
that have no influence on the question of duties. 

V. When shippers send in the same package goods paying dif- 
ferent duties they must declare in the consular invoice, besides the 
gross weight of the package, the net weight or legaP weight of 
each article contained in the same, in order to be able to calculate 
the duties relating to each class of goods contained in the package. 
Should this rule not be complied with, duties will be collected on 
the scale of the highest duty-paying class of articles for the whole 
of the package. 

VI. The shippers of goods must present for certification, before 
the sailing of the boat, four copies of each invoice to the Mexican 

* Legal weight is the net weight including the inner inseparable packings or wrap- 
pers. 



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144 ' MEXICO. 

consul or consular agent residing in the place of shipment or iri 
the port where the boat is being loaded. They will leave three 
copies of the invoice in the consulate and retain the copy which 
the Mexican official will hand them with the certificate and receipt 
attached. The shippers have to send this copy of the consular 
invoice, with the corresponding receipt attached, and with such pre- 
cautions as they may deem fit, to the consignees of the goods, in 
order that the consignees shall be able to comply with the formal- 
ities prescribed by law. 

VII. The absence of the consular invoice, with the receipt 
attached to it by the stamps of the consulate (these being the two 
documents which the consignee must present), will entail the pay- 
ment of double duty. 

VIII. The invoices should be written in Spanish, but they will 
also be admitted if written in any other well-known language. 

IX. The shippers of samples require no consular certificate to 
their invoice ; it is sufficient to state in this latter whether the sam- 
ples have any value or not, the kind or kinds of the articles, the 
gross weights of the packages, their marks and numbers, and the 
name of the consignee, as can be seen from the form. 

X. The consignees of goods in Mexican ports are responsible 
by law for the faults committed by the shippers. 

XI. As regards the payment of consular fees, the shippers of 
goods must submit to the following tariff: 

For certifying ship's manifest $io 

For certifying manifest if ship is in ballast 4 

For certifying set of four copies of each invoice 4 

For certificates to captains or shippers 2 

When the certificates named in the foregoing paragraph are requested to be made 
out in duplicate, triplicate, etc., there has to be paid extra for each copy 1 

The office hours of the Mexican Consulate being from 9 a. m. 
to 3 p. m., parties requiring them to do work up to 8 o'clock in 
the evening and on feast days have to pay double charges, and 
afiier 8 o'clock in the evening treble charges. 



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MEXICO. 145 

XII. Passengers landing in Mexican ports must present their 
luggage at the custom-house, and if they happen to bring with 
them dutiable objects, they must declare them at once in writing, 
with all the necessary details for taxation. 

XIII. Each passenger can import with him, free of duty: 
First. His own articles of clothing, which, according to the 

judgment of the custom-house, must not be excessive, having 
regard, however, to the conditions of the passenger. 

Second. The articles on his person, or for his use, such as watch, 
chain, buttons, cane, etc., and one or two fire-arms with their 
accessories, and up to one hundred cartridges. 

Third. If the passengers have a profession or a trade they can 
introduce, free of duty, the instruments or tools indispensable to 
the exercise of their profession or trade. 

Fourth. Adult passengers can introduce, free of duty, ninety- 
nine cigars, forty packages of cigarettes, and half a kilogramme 
(one pound) of snufF or chewing tobacco. 

Fifth. Artists who are members of an opera, theater, circus, or 
other company, besides the foregoing, can also introduce, free of 
duty, their costumes and scenery; provided, however, that such arti- 
cles form part of their luggage, and are really intended for the 
uses declared. 

XIV. Any objects which, in the opinion of the customs officials, 
have not been worn will have to pay duty, if dutiable, even when 
the passengers bring them in their luggage. 

XV. When passengers bring furniture or other household goods 
with them, they will be allowed a rebate of duty corresponding to 
the depreciation of value in consequence of their use. 

XVI. Passengers having nothing to pay for the examination of 
their luggage, the employes of the customs must fulfill their duty 
with the greatest regard for the travelers and with the utmost 
politeness. 

57A 10 



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MEXICO. 147 

Besides the foregoing instructions to shippers, and information 
for merchants and travelers, some further advice in the same line 
will be found worthy of attentive perusal : 

In shipping groceries, if any doubt exists as to whether the duty 
is on the gross, net, or legal weight, it is better to give full particu- 
lars, gross weight, net, and legal weight. Groceries, such as flour, 
canned goods, cheese, tea, spices, etc., generally pay on the net 
or legal weight. 

The classification of dry goods and drugs varies so that no 
general instructions could be of any practical value. Such as 
require information in this line should address customs brokers at 
the port of destination. 

Shippers of drugs will do well to state plainly and correctly the 
gross, net, and legal weights, in case they are not posted as to the 
duties. With this data the customs broker will take the needed 
weight. 

Shippers to Mexico should bear in mind that package shipments 
pay duty on the gross weight, and should, therefore, be packed in 
light packages, as durable as possible. Mexican merchants, espe- 
cially in the interior, where the means of transportation are not of 
the best, prefer goods shipped them to be baled instead of packed 
in cases. 

In machinery shipments shippers should bear in mind that only 
machinery which can not be moved by hand or foot, whether agri- 
cultural, mining, or other industrial machinery, is imported free. 
All machinery which can be moved by hand or foot pays duty, even 
if it can also be adapted to horse, water, or steam power, or if it be 
mtended by the importer to be moved by any of these higher 
powers. It is of very great importance, therefore, in making ship- 
ments to state clearly if or not adaptable to hand or foot power. 
Those parts of machinery which can be used independently of the 
machine pay duty, even when accompanying the machine, such 
as blocks and tackles, tin cans used in weaving machinery, molds, 



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148 MEXICO. 

plain iron bars, etc. The Customs Department having ruled 
that all tanks shall pay duty, whether made of wood or iron, there- 
fore describe all such articles, giving them separate weights when 
shipped with machinery. 

Machinery should always be light for transportation, which is 
often done on mules; no piece should weigh over 150 or 200 
pounds. It should also be of a good and durable character, as 
Mexico is not a country for such repairs as imperfect or broken 
American machinery would require. 

Manufactures of iron, not otherwise specified, pay 10 cents per 
kilogramme if over 20 kilogrammes, and 20 cents per kilogramme 
if less than 20 kilogrammes.* 

Those of copper or brass $o .30 

White metal 40 

Nickel-plated articles 70 

Gold and silver plated articles i .30 

Articles manufactured of different metals pay duty on the entire 
weight assessed at the rate applicable to the metal paying the high- 
est duty. State, therefore, in such cases the metal of which such 
articles are made, and whether they contain wood, cloth, or leather. 

Crockery pays 15 cents, glassware 20, when plain; crockery or 
glassware with mountings, if brass, pays 30 cents, if nickel plated 
70 cents, if silver plated $1.30 per kilogramme; therefore it is 
necessary to state if they have mountings and of what kind. 

Wines pay mostly by weight; also beer. State precisely the net 
weights of the liquor in addition to the gross weights. A small 
difference in the net weight of each pint of beer, for instance, will 
make a difference in a carload, if shipped in that way. Beer gen- 
erally weighs 360 grammes 0/ liquid per pint bottle, and a carload 
has 100 barrels of 10 dozen pints each; now, if it be declared 350 
grammes per bottle, and should turn out to weigh 360 grammes, the 
difference would be 10 grammes by 1 2,000 bottles, equal to 1 20 kilo- 
grammes, which, at 20 cents per kilogramme, makes $24. This 
amount would be collected by the custom-house, in addition to 

*See import duties, p. 202. 



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MEXICO. 149 

declared weight, and an equal amount, or $24, as fine or penalty for 
underweight. On the other hand, if the weight is overestimated 
the custom-house will not refund any duties paid. So it is neces- 
sary to give the precise net weight on all goods paying by weight. 

Tobacco pays on the net weight, whether leaf, chewing, or smok- 
ing tobacco. 

As a matter cognate to the subject in hand it would be well to 
say that American manufacturers desirous of introducing their goods 
in Mexico should not only send earnest, intelligent men to show 
the goods, but should also have men accustomed to their use and 
able to impart the knowledge to others who may be not only un- 
acquainted with the goods, but oblivious of their utility. Before 
a demand can be created it is necessary that the benefits to be 
derived from the use of the articles be clearly shown. Mexicans 
are intelligent and quick to grasp a situation, but their methods ot 
doing business differ from those of the United States, and the men 
who are sent to Mexico must not only speak the language but fully 
understand the business and social customs of the country. 

Maritime and Frontier Custom-Houses of Mexico. 

ports of entry. 

Gulf of Mexico. — Matamoros, Tampico, Tuxpan, Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos, 

Frontera, Isla de Carmen, Campeche, and Progreso. 
Pacific Ocean. — Soconusco, Tonald, Salina Cruz, Puerto Angel,' Acapulco, 

Manzanillo, San Bids, Mazatldn, Altata, Guaymas, La Paz, Cape St. Lucas, 

Magdalena Bay, and Todos Santos. 
Northern frontier. — Tijuana, Quitovaquita, Nogales, Sdsabe, Palominas, Ascen- 

si6n, Paso del Norte, Presidio del Norte, Piedras Negras, Laredo de Tamau- 

lipas, Guerrero, Mier, and Camargo. 
Southern frontier. — Zapaluta. 

PORTS FOR THE COASTING TRADE. 

Gulf of Mexico. — Soto la Marina (Tampico), Tecoluta, Nautla, Alvarado, 
Tlacotdlpam, Santecomapan (Veracruz), Tonald (Coatzacoalcos), Teno- 
cique (Frontera), La Aguada, Villa de Palizada (Isla de Carmen), Cham- 
poton (Campeche), Celestum, Isla de Mujeres, Isla de Cozumel (Progreso). 



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150 MEXICO. 

Pacific Ocean. — Tecoanopa, Zihuatanejo (Acapulco), Chamela (Manzanillo), 
Maria Madre (San Bids), Topolobampo, Perihuete, Teacapam (Mazatlin), 
Agiabampo (Guaymas), Muleg6, San ]os6 del Cabo (La Paz), Isla de Guad- 
alupe (Todos Santos). 
Note. — The names in parentheses are those of maritime or frontier custom- 
houses of which the name or names preceding them are dependencies. 

HARBOR REGULATIONS AND DUES. 

Under the provisions of the treaty of 1848 between the United 
States and Mexico, vessels of the former country are on the same 
footing in Mexican ports as Mexican vessels as regards tonnage, 
harbor, and light dues, pilotage,* salvage, and all focal charges. 
The coasting trade is, however, reserved by either nation for its own 
vessels. United States vessels may import into Mexican ports 
merchandise the growth or manufacture of the United States on 
the same terms as if the same were imported in Mexican bottoms. 
The duties of import are to be no higher or other than levied on 
similar merchandise the growth or manufacture of the most favored 
nation. In United States ports Mexican vessels and merchandise 
are accorded the same privileges enjoyed by American vessels and 
merchandise in Mexican ports. 

Following are some of the more important harbor regulations 
of Mexico : 

When there are no Mexican vessels to carry on the coast trade, 
foreign sailing and steam vessels are permitted to engage in such 
trade. When the quantity of merchandise prepared for shipment 
from one port to another of the Republic is so small that it would 
not be enough to fill a Mexican vessel, its shipment upon a foreign 
steamer is allowed. 

The fact of a foreign vessel arriving at a port of the Republic 
with Mexican effects shipped at any other Mexican port shall not 
subject her nor the merchandise to any penalty, for, should there 

* Pilotage is not obligatory under the Mexican law. 



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MEXICO. 151 

be any irregularity in the clearance, the collector of the custom- 
house at the port of clearance will be answerable therefor. 

Every shipmaster arriving with a cargo at a Mexican port is 
bound to produce his manifest. Vessels from the United States 
must produce the visa of the Mexican consul at the port of depart- 
ure. This is also required from vessels direct from Europe. The 
manifest and bill of lading will be accepted by the customs au- 
thorities as a basis for entering the merchandise ; but they must 
agree with the cargo as it is discharged. The vessel is held respon- 
sible for errors or misdeeds of owners of goods. The absence of 
such documents or any omission in them is liable to be punished 
by a fine. 

The copies of manifests or bills of lading, where there is no 
Mexican consul or commercial agent, must be forwarded by post, 
under cover, one each to the Treasury Department of Mexico and 
to the custom-house to which the goods are consigned. 

Manifests must be legibly written and clearly compiled. 

All regulations must be strictly carried out by ship owners and 
masters. Any violation of them is rarely overlooked by the cus- 
toms officials, and heavy pecuniary penalties are inflicted for very 
slight defects. 

It may be added that provisions at Mexican ports are as a rule 
scarce and dear, and that water, which is also scarce, often costs 
between 1^ and 2 cents per gallon. 



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152 



MEXICO. 



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Chapter XV I. 



COINAGE, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 

The principal coinage in Mexico is of silver, the monetary unit 
being the peso (dollar). 

The Mexican Government has at present under consideration a 
plan for the revision of the monetary laws and coinage. This 
plan was recently submitted to the Congress, and it calls for a 
system of gold, silver, copper, and brass coins of new designs, and 
differing somewhat in value from that now in use. 

The following table shows the coins now issued by the Mexican 
mints : 



Denomination. 



Gold coins:* 
Double hidalgo 

Hidalgo 

Medio hidalgo . 
Cuarto hidalgo. 
Decimo hidalgo 

Silver coins : * 

Peso 

50 centavos 

25 centavos . . . . 
10 centavos 



Fine- 


Value in 


ness. 


pesos. 


875 


20.00 


875 


10.00 


875 


5.00 


875 


2. 50 


875 


I. 00 


901 


1.00 


901 


.50 


901 


.25 


901 


. 10 



Weight in— 



Grammes. Troy ounces. 



33. 841 

16. 920 

8.460 

4.230 

I. 692 

27. 073 

13. 536 

6.768 

2.707 



1.0860 
.5430 
.2715 
.13575 
. 05430 

.866 

.433 
. 2165 
.0866 



Diameter in— 



Milli- 
metres. 



Inches. 



34 
27 
22 
18 
15 

37 
30 

25 
17 



1.33858 

1.06299 

. 86614 

. 70866 

. 59055 

I. 45669 

I. 18110 

. 98425 

. 66929 



* There were formerly coined in gold theonza, =$16 in silver; the media onza, 
=:$8; the pistola,=$4; the escudo de oro,=$2 ; and the escudito de oro,=$i. In 
silver, the real,=.i2>^ ; medio real,= .o6X. 

153 



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1 54 MEXICO, 

Some years ago a metric system of coinage was adopted, and 
5 and lo cent silver pieces were coined, some of which are still 
in circulation. There were formerly coined also in copper the 
cuartilla, equal to about .3^ cents; the tlaco, .1^ cents, and the 
centavo, .1 cent. 

In the year 1883, during the administration of President Man- 
uel Gonzalez, nickel coins of 1, 2, 3, and 5 centavos were issued, 
but the lower classes looked • with extreme disfavor upon them, 
the small dealers refusing to accept them when tlacos and cop- 
per centavos were procurable. The newspaper press of the cap- 
ital was filled during the whole time these coins were in circu- 
lation with articles condemnatory of their existence. Stories were 
printed of persons having been poisoned by carrying nickel coins 
in their mouths, and eventually so great was the dislike engen- 
dered in the people by these coins that in the latter part of the 
year of their issue what was known as the "nickel riots" took 
place. On one occasion, as the President was driving through one 
of the streets in the vicinity of the market place, near the National 
Palace, the populace attacked the carriage in which he was being 
conveyed with handfuls of nickel coins, and shortly thereafter they 
were withdrawn from circulation. 

The gold circulation of Mexico is comparatively small. In all 
shops and among the larger part of the population in naming prices 
the old system is still in vogue, the real being used as the unit. 
Pieces of 50 and 25 cents are not known as cincuenta and viente- 
cinco centavos, but as cuatro (4) reales and dos (2) reales. These 
pieces are also called toston and peseta, respectively. A dollar and 
a quarter is spoken of in Mexico as diez (10) reales; $2.50 as 
viente (20) reales. The silver peso still continues to be struck 
with the legend " 8 R.," meaning 8 reales. 

The metric system is now in official use in the Republic of 
Mexico, having been adopted by the Government in the year 
1862. It is used to compute all customs and other duties to be 



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MEXICO. 1 55 

paid to the General Government, in the measurement of public 
lands, and by the railroads in airfreight and other transactions, and 
is exclusively taught in the public schools. 

The old-time weights and measures were founded on Spanish 
models, but, owing to the inexactness of the first standards and to 
subsequent changes, differ at present very widely from their orig- 
inals. 

The value in the metric system 'here assigned to each denomi- 
nation of the old weights and measures is that fixed by the 
Mexican Govemment at the time of the adoption of the metric 
system. The equivalents in American weights and measures were 
calculated from data found in Trautwine's Pocket Book as to the 
comparison between French and American weights and measures 
and are believed to be correct. 

LINEAR MEASURES. 

Kilometres. Miles. 

I legua (league) = 5, 000 varas = 4. 19 =2. 604375 

Metres. Feet. 

I vara (yard) = 3 pies =0. 83800 = 2. 749578 

I pie (foot) = 12 pulgadas . = o. 27933 = o. 916526 

Inches. 

" I pulgada (inch) = 12 lineas =0. 02328 = o. 916526 

I linea (line) =0. 00194 = o. 076377 

The vara is also divided (for dry-goods selling) into palmos or cuartas (palms or 
quarters). 

Metres. Feet. Inches. 

I palmo or cuarta =0. 209500 = o. 687394 = 8. 248728 

SUPERFICIAL OR SQUARE MEASURE. 

Hectares. Acres. 

I square legua = 1,755.61 = 4.339-4 

Square metres. Square feet. 

I square vara =0. 702244 = 7. 559000 

I square pie =0. 078027 = o. 839888 

Square inches. 

I square palmo =0. 043890 = 68. 03094 

I square pulgado =0. 000542 = o. 84012 



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156 



' MEXICO. 

Land or agrarian measures. 



Spanish names. 



Nearest English j Length 
equivalent. (varas). 



Hacienda 

Sitio de ganado mayor 

Sitio de ganado menor 

Fundo legal para pu- 
eblo. 

Labor 

Cabal leria de tierra . 

Fanega sembradura 
de mais. 

Solar para casa, mo- 
lino, 6 venta. 



Plantation 

Cow-ranch 

Sheep-ranch 

Legal town site. . . 

Field 

Knighthold of land 
Sowing- ground* 

for I fanega of 

corn. 
Site for a house, 

mill, or inn. 



25,000 
5.000 

3. 333K 
I, 200 



1,000 

I, 104 

276 



50 



Breadth 
(varas). 



5,000 
5,000 

3, 333K 
I, 200 

1,000 
552 
184 



50 



Hectares. 



8, 778. 0500000 

I, 755.6106000 

780. 271 nil 

loi. 1231360 

70. 2244000 

42.7953111 
3. 5662759 



o. 1755610 



Acres. 



21,697.000 

4, 339. 400 

I, 928. 133 

244. 140 

175.532 

105.751 

8.813 



o. 434 



HYDROMETRIC MEASURE. 

This is used for measuring and distributing water for irrigation 
and domestic uses: 

I buey (ox) =48 surcos. 

I surco (furrow) = 3 naranjas. 

I naranja (orange) = 8 reales or limones. 

I real (bit) or limon (lemon) = 2 dedos. 

I dedo (finger) = 9 pajas (straws). 

According to the old ordinances of lands and waters, established 
in Spanish times, the buey of water was as much as would flow 
through an aperture i vara (0.838 metre) square, no head or pressure 
being mentioned. By a law of the Mexican Republic, of August 
2, 1863, 1 surco is made equal to fS% litres per second for rural 
measures, and the paja is made equal to 045 litres per minute for 
town measurements. This distinction is intended to make the 
surco a unit for irrigation, while the paja is made the unit for dis- 
tributing water to houses, etc., in towns. 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

Cubic metre. Cubic yard. 

I cubic vara = o. 588480 = o. 7^9734 

I cubic pie = o. 021795 = o. 769484 

I cubic palmo = o. 009195 = o. 324634 



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MEXICO. 157 

DRY MEASURES. 

Litres. Bushels. 

I carga = 2 fanegas = 181. 629775 --^ 5. 154357 

I fanega = 12 almudes = 90. 814888 =^ 2. 577178 

Pecks. 

I almud = 4 cuartillos = 7. 567907 = o. 859109 

Dry quarts. 
I cuartillo (quart) = i. 891977 = i. 718122 

OIL MEASURE. 

Litre. U. S. liquid quart. 

I cuartillo = o. 506162 = o. 534870 

WINE MEASURE. 

Litre. U. S. liquid quart. 

I cuartillo = o. 456264 = o. 482140 

COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS. 

Kilogrammes. U. S. pounds avoirdupois. 

I quintal = 4 arrobas = 46. 024634 = loi. 444 

I arroba = 25 libras = 11. 506159 = 25. 361 

I libra (pound) = 16 onzas = o. 460246 = i. 01444 

Ounces avoirdupois. 
I onza (ounce) = 16 adarmes. . = 0.028765 = 1.0148 

I adarme (dram) =: 36 granos. . = o. 001798 = o. 06343 

Grains. 
I grano (grain) = o. 0000499 = O- 77160 

In commerce there is used the following relation between the 
kilogramme and the pound (libra) different from the ratio as fixed 
by Government, viz: 

I kilogramme =2. 1733 pounds (libras). 

There is also a weight called carga, used in commerce, in freight- 
ing, and in mining : 

I carga= 12 arrobas =300 pounds =138.073902 kilogrammes = 304.332 

United States pounds avoirdupois. 

PRECIOUS METAL WEIGHTS. 

Kilogramme. Ounces avoirdupois. 

I marco=8 onzas =0. 230123 =8. 1184 

I onza= 8 ochavas =0. 028765 =1. 0148 

I ochava (eighth) =6 tomines =0. 003596 =0. 12685 

Grains. 

I tomin=i2 granos =.0. 000599 =9- 25920 

I grano :=o. 0000499 =o« 77i6o 



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158 



MEXICO. 

Weis^ht of coins. 



Fineness. 



875 gold, 125 copper to the i, 000 . 



9,027 to the 10,000. 



Value. 



Weight. 



$20.00 

10.00 

5.00 

2. 50 

I. 00 




Grammes. 

33. 841 

16. 920 

8.460 

4.230 

1.692 

27. 073 

13. 536 

6.768 

2.707 



Weight. 



Grains. 
522. 234 
261. 117 
130. 558 
65. 279 
26. 112 

417. 7903 

208. 8951 

104. 4475 

41. 7790 



The tolerance of gold coin is two-thousandths more or less than 
the exact fineness and 75 milligrammes in weight on the $20 piece, 
with a proportionate allowance for the lesser coins. 

For silver the tolerance is three-thousandths more or less than the 
exact fineness, and 1 gramme in weight on the dollar piece, with 
proportionate allowance for the lesser coins. 



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Chapter XVII. 



PATENT AND TRADE-MARK LAWS. 

Following is a translation of the patent laws of Mexico : 

Article i. Any Mexican or foreigner, who is the inventor or improver of any 
industry or art or of objects destined therefor, has the right, by virtue of article 
28 of the constitution, to the exclusive use thereof, during a certain number of 
years, under the rules and regulations prescribed in this law 

In order to acquire this right, one must obtain a patent of invention or im- 
provement. 

Art. 2. Every discovery, invention, or improvement that may have for its 
object a new industrial product, a new manner of production, or the new appli- 
cation of means, already known, for the obtainment of a result or of an industrial 
product, is susceptible of being patented. Chemical or pharmaceutical products 
are likewise susceptible of being patented. 

Art. 3. An invention or improvement shall not be considered new when in 
this country or abroad, and prior to the petition for the patent, it may have 
received a sufficient publicity to be put into practice. Excepting, however, the 
case when the publicity may have been made by a foreign authority empowered 
to issue patents, and whe^i the invention or improvement may have been pre- 
sented in expositions held within the territory of the Republic or abroad.- 

Art. 4. The following can not be patented : 

I. The inventions or improvements whose working shall be contrary to the 
laws forbidding them or regarding public security. 

II. Scientific principles or discoveries while they are merely speculative or be 
not put into practice by means of a machine, apparatus, instruments, mechanical 
or chemical proceedings of a practical industrial character. 

Art. 5. The concession of a patent does not guaranty the novelty nor the 
usefulness of the object to which it relates, nor does it solve questions that may 
arise therefrom. Consequently, it must be granted without previous examina- 

159 



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l6o MEXICO. 

tion as to the novelty or utility of the invention or improvement, or of the 
sufficiency or insufficiency of the descriptions that may accompany the petition. 

Art. 6. The concession of a patent can only be made with reference to one 
object or industrial process. When two or more can be combined among 
themselves to produce the same industrial result, there must be asked the number 
of patents that may be necessary therefor. 

Art. 7. The rights granted by virtue of the patents issued in the Republic 
for objects or processes, that may have been or may hereafter be protected by 
foreign patents, are independent of the rights that the same may grant, and of 
the effects or results that they may produce. 

Art. 8. The effects of a patent are : 

I. To deprive every person, without permission from the owner of the patent, 
of the right to produce, through industrial means, the object of the invention, 
or to place it in the market and from selling it. 

II. With reference to a process, machine, or any other manner of working an 
instrument or other means of operation, the effect of the patent is to deprive 
others of the right to apply the process or to use the object of the invention 
without the permission of the owner of the patent. 

Art. 9. The patent does not produce any effect whatever, as regards a third 
party that was already secretly working or had made the preparations necessary 
for working within the Republic the invention or process before the presentation 
of the patent. 

Art. 10. The effects of the patent do not comprise the objects or products 
that may cross in transit the territory of the Republic or may remain within its 
territorial waters. 

Art. 11. The right of petitioning for a patent for objects or processes that 
may be protected by foreign patents can only be granted to inventors or im- 
provers or to their legitimate representatives. 

Art. 1 2. Inventors shall have the period of one year from the date of the 
patent within which they shall have exclusive right to petition for patents for 
improvements. 

Art. 13. Patents may be granted for 20 years from the date when the same 
shall have been issued ; nevertheless, when the patents shall be asked for objects 
or processes already protected by foreign patents, the terms of duration can not 
exceed what may be wanting for the expiration of the first patent issued in favor 
of the petitioner. 

Art. 14. The term of a patent may be extended for 5 years at the discretion 
of the Executive. The extension of the term of a patent of invention involves 
the extension of the term of the supplementary patents of improvement rela- 
tive thereto. 



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MEXICO. 161 

Art. 15. On payment of a fair indemnification the Executive may appro- 
priate a patent on the ground of public policy or on account of the patented 
article being of such a nature that its free use is capable of proving an important 
source of public wealth. However, this can only be done under one of the 
following circumstances : 

I. When the patentee refuses to allow his patent to be worked. 

II. When the machine, apparatus, instrument, or process is capable of being 
produced or used in the country. 

The regulations will determine the formalities and procedure to be observed 
in the appropriation of patents for the public good. 

Art. 16. In order to obtain the protection of this law, application must be 
made in due form to the department of public works, to which the power to 
grant patents belongs. 

Art. I7. The first applicant for a patent shall have in his favor the pre- 
sumption of being the first inventor, and moreover enjoys the right of posses- 
sion. 

Art. 18. Inventors, whether citizens or foreigners, who are unable to apply 
personally to the department of public works, may appoint attorneys in fact to 
act for them, both in obtaining the patent and in lawsuits and other matters 
relative thereto. 

Citizens may appoint an attorney in fact by a common letter of authorization, 
but foreigners must grant a regular power of attorney duly registered. 

The effects of the power of attorneys cease with the issue of the patent, unless 
it be otherwise stated in the power. 

Art. 19. Petitions for the granting of letters patent shall be published in the 
official journal of the Federal Government during a period of 2 months, at 
intervals of 10 days. 

Art. 20. During the period of time mentioned in the foregoing article, inter- 
ference proceedings may be instituted by any one with a view to prevent the 
granting of the patent solicited. 

After the said period of time has elapsed no proceedings of interference will 
be allowed. 

Art. 21. Interference proceedings can only be instituted on the following 
grounds : 

I. That the alleged invention or improvement is not properly patentable 
under the provisions of this law. 

II. That such alleged invention or improvement has been taken from descrip- 
tions, drawings, models, devices, apparatuses, or methods invented by another, 
or from processes already reduced to practice by another, or, in general, on 

57A 11 



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l62 MEXICO. 

the ground that the applicant is not the original inventor or his legitimate 
assignee. 

Art. 22. If two or more persons claim the same invention, the first inventor 
shall be entitled to the patent, but if priority of invention can not be deter- 
mined, the patent shall be granted to the first petitioner. 

Art. 23. If interference proceedings be instituted, as determined by articles 
20 and 21, the department of public works shall summon the parties and en- 
deavor to reconcile their conflicting claims. But if this is not obtained, the 
department shall suspend all further executive proceedings and shall transmit 
all the evidence in the case to the proper judicial authority. The party insti- 
tuting interference proceedings shall be allowed two months to make good his 
action in court, but if he fail to do so within this time, his claim shall be disal- 
lowed. 

Art. 24. All sentences given by the judicial authority shall be transmitted to 
the department of public works that they may be duly enforced. 

Art. 25. The decrees of the department of public works granting a patent 
can only be canceled by a judicial sentence, and only owing to the nullity of 
the patent. 

Art. 26. At the expiration of the 2 months referred to in article 19, and 
after the Government tax has been paid into the treasury of the nation, the 
letters patent shall be issued with reference to the invention or improvement 
sought, provided always that letters patent covering the same invention have 
not previously been granted by the department of public works. 

Art. 27. Letters patent issued in the name of the nation shall have sub- 
scribed thereto the signature of the President of the Republic, be countersigned 
by the secretary of public works, and bear, besides, the great seal; furthermore, 
they must contain in clear language a description of the discovery or improve- 
ment patented. 

The letters patent, with one of the copies of the drawings, samples, models, 
and other matters under seal, together with the documents presented with the 
petition duly certified by the subsecretary, shall constitute the title of property 
of the person who may obtain the patent. 

Art. 28. Letters patent shall be recorded in a special record wherein the 
appropriate entries relative thereto shall be made. 

Art. 29. All letters patent that may be issued shall be published in the offi- 
cial journal ; and, furthermore, every year, a special book shall be published 
which must contain a clear and exact description of the inventions or improve- 
ments, as also copies of the drawings. 

Art. 30. All inventions protected by letters patent shall bear a mark stating 
that fact and the number and date of the letters patent* 



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MEXICO. 163 

Art. 31. Letters patent shall require the payment of a fee amounting to from 
$50 to $150, payable in Mexican dollars or in bonds of the national consoli- 
dated debt. 

Art. 32. In case of the extension referred to in article 14, a new fee shall be 
paid in conformity with the foregoing article. 

Art. 33. The owner of letters patent for an invention or improvement must 
prove before the department of public works, within the period of 5 years after 
the date of the patent, that the objects or processes protected thereby are man- 
ufactured or employed in the Republic or that everything necessary has been 
done for the purpose of having them so employed or manufactured. 

The term within which these facts must be proved can not be extended. 

Art. 34. The department of public works shall make an entry in the registry 
of letters patent of the fact that the requirement referred to in the foregoing 
articles has been complied with. 

Art. 35. Letters patent are null and void — 

I. Whenever they may have been issued in contravention of what is pre- 
scribed in articles 2, 3, and 4. Nevertheless, when letters patent shall have 
been obtained, in conformity with a petition wherein the petitioner has pre- 
sented and obtained more than what he is entitled to as the first discoverer or 
inventor, his letters patent shall be valid in so far as it relates to whatever he 
may be entitled to, provided it does not infringe the provisions of the following 
subdivision and that no fraud shall have been committed upon making the peti- 
tion. In this case the letters patent shall be limited to what it should only 
comprise, the proceedings relating thereto to be in conformity with what is pre- 
scribed in article 39. 

IL Whenever the object for which the patent has been asked is different from 
that which is obtained by virtue of the letters patent. 

in. Whenever it is proved that the main object sought in the petition for 
the letters patent is comprised within one of the cases referred to in subdivision 
II of article 21. 

The proceedings to invalidate letters patent have to be commenced within 
the term of 1 year after the date when the patent shall be put in operation in 
the Republic. 

Art. 36. An action for the purpose of declaring invalid letters patent before 
the courts may be instituted in the name or on behalf of the district attorney. 

Whoever may work or have in operation the same industry shall have the 
right to interpose an exception and take part in the proceedings of interference. 

Art. 37. Letters patent shall lapse — 

I. Whenever the term for which they were granted shall have terminated 
and they may not have been extended. 



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164 MEXICO. 

II. When they shall be given up in part or in their entirety. 

III. Whenever compliance shall not have been made with the prescriptions 
of article 33. 

Art. 38. The department of public works shall declare the invalidity of the 
patent in the two first cases referred to in the foregoing article ; in the third 
case that can only be done by the court at the instance and request of the dis- 
trict attorney or of the par\y in interest by instituting an action of interference 
proceedings therefor. 

Art. 39. The determinations of nullity and lapse of letters patent shall be 
published in the official journal of the Federal Government and entered in the 
record of inscriptions of the department of public works. 

Art. 40. The determinations of nullity and lapse of letters patent produce 
the effect of subjecting the inventions or improvements to the use thereof by the 
public in general. 

In case of giving up any letters patent, if only a portion of the same is given 
up, then the public has merely the right to use the portion thus abandoned, the 
letters patent remaining valid as to the rest thereof. The abandonment shall 
be made by writing and be entered in the record. 

Art. 41. The ownership in letters patent may be assigned by any of the 
means established by law with regard to private property, but no act of assign- 
ment or any other that implies the modification of the right of property shall 
be prejudicial to the rights of third parties, if the same shall not be recorded in 
the office of the department of public works. 

Art. 42. Everything relating to the fraudulent infringement of letters patent 
shall be subject to the prescriptions of the penal code of the federal district and 
to those established by the codes of procedure. 

Art. 43. The proceedings relating to letters patent at present pending shall 
be continued and decided in conformity, in all particulars as to the part not 
terminated, with the prescriptions of this law. 

Art. 44. All those at present enjoying privileges by virtue of letters patent 
now in full force, may avail themselves of the provisions of this law upon paying 
beforehand the fees herein set forth. 

Art. 45. The executive of the union may issue rules of practice appropriate 
to this law, and may establish, if he deems it proper, a patent office in connec- 
tion with the department of public works. 

Art. 46. The law of May 7, 1832, and every part thereof, and all other 
provisions of law adopted relative to this subject, are hereby repealed. 



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MEXICO. 165 

TRADE-MARK LAW. 

The Mexican law relating to trade-marks was promulgated by 
the President on the 28th of November, 1889, and went into 
effect on the 1st of January, 1890. 

Following is a translation thereof: 

Article 1. A mark specially distinguishing in trade any product of industry 
shall be considered a trade-mark. 

Article 2. The protection conceded by this law to trade-marks does not 
cover any article not manufactured or sold in the country. 

Article 3. No form, color, motto, or title which does not in itself constitute 
a specially distinguishing mark in trade of a product is registrable as a trade- 
mark. In no case shall such mark be contra bonos mores. 

Article 4. Any proprietor of a trade-mark, whether a citizen or a foreigner 
residing in the country, may acquire the exclusive right to the use of the same 
in the Republic, subject to the provisions of this law. 

Citizens and foreigners residing abroad having an industrial or mercantile 
establishment for the sale of their products in this country may register owner- 
ship of trade-marks, subject, however, in the case of foreigners, to treaty pro- 
visions. 

Article 5. In order to acquire exclusive ownership of a trade-mark the party 
in interest must make application in person or by a representative, to the De- 
partment of Public Works, declaring that he reserves his rights, accompanied by 
the following documents : 

I. A power of attorney in case the party in interest does not appear in per- 
son. 

II. Two copies of the trade-mark, or an engraved or photographic reproduc- 
tion thereof. 

III. In case the trade-mark on an article is in intaglio or in relief, or has 
some other peculiarity, two separate sheets will also be forwarded on which 
these particulars will appear, either by means of one or more detail drawings 
or a written description. 

IV. The written contract pursuant to which the agency shall have been 
established, duly legalized, in cases arising under the second part of the preced- 
ing article. 

Article 6. The application should set forth the name of the manufactory, 
its location, the residence of the proprietor, and the kind of trade or industry 
in which the applicant desires to use the trade-mark. 



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l66 MEXICO. 

Article 7. A trade-mark owned by a foreigner not residing in the Republic, 
can not be registered therein unless previously and regularly registered in the 
country where originated. 

Article 8. Only such persons as shall have made legal use of a trade-mark 
may acquire ownership thereof. In case of a contest between two owners of 
the same mark, the ownership will vest in the original possessor, or, in case 
possession cannot be proven, in the first applicant. 

Article 9. The exclusive ownership of a trade-mark cannot be exercised 
except by virtue of a certificate of the Department of Public Works to the effect 
that the party in interest has reserved his rights after having complied with all 
legal requisites. 

Article 10. The certificate referred to in the preceding article will be issued 
without previous examination, on the exclusive responsibility of the applicants, 
and without prejudice to the rights of third parties. 

The Department of Public Works will cause the application to be published, 
and in case of contest, filed within ninety days succeeding date of publication, 
the mark will not be registered until the courts shall decide which party is enti- 
tled to registration. 

Article 1 1. Trade-marks can only be transferred with the business for whose 
manufactures or trade they serve as a distinctive device ; the transfer, however, 
is not subject to any special formality and will be carried into effect according 
to the provisions of law. 

Article 1 2. The duration of the ownership of trade-marks is indefinite, but 
the right will be considered as abandoned by the closing or failure to produce 
for more than a year of the establishment, manufactory or business employing 
the same. 

Article 13. Trade-marks deposited shall be preserved in the Department of 
Public Works where the registration may be examined, during the hours set 
apart for the purpose by the said Department, by any person so desiring, and 
who, at his own expense, may procure a certified copy of the registration. 

Article 14. The property in a trade-mark obtained in violation of the 
foregoing provisions shall be judicially declared void on application of interested 
parties. 

Article 15. The judge hearing the case in which the property in a trade- 
mark shall be declared void shall give notice of the final judgment therein to 
the Department of Public Works. 

Article 16. Trade-marks are counterfeited : 

I. When trade-marks are used which are fac-similes of a registered trade-mark. 

II. When the»imitation is so exact a reproduction of a registered trade-mark, 
although it may differ in certain details, that it may be taken for the same. 



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MEXICO. 167 

Article 17, All such as shall have counterfeited, or made use of a counter- 
feit trade-mark, provided it be in connection with articles of the same industrial 
or commercial character, shall be guilty of the crime of counterfeiting, wherever 
the same may have been committed. 

Article 18, Crimes of counterfeiting trade-marks shall be subject to the 
penalties prescribed by the code applicable to the case, and shall be liable further 
to an action for damages. 

Article 19. The provisions of this law shall also cover industrial drawings 
and models. 



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Appendix A. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF MEXICO. 

[From the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. July, 
1891. By Bernard Moses, of the University of California.] 

ANTECEDENTS. 

In seeking independence the Spanish colonies in America were moved by the 
democratic doctrines of France and by the example of the United States. Their 
long submission to Spanish rule had, however, given rise to traditions which 
tended to keep them loyal to monarchy. But when Ferdinand VII fell into 
the hands of Napoleon the bond of attachment to Spain was weakened and 
signs of revolt appeared. The open struggle for independence, which began in 
1810 and lasted with occasional interruptions till 1824, stands in marked con- 
trast with the efforts of the English colonies. It had many of the character- 
istics of a civil war, on account of the large number of those who advocated 
continued dependence on Spain, while the more complete unity of purpose in 
the English colonies gave their war for independence the character of a struggle 
against a foreign enemy. 

An early suggestion of a national representative government for Mexico ap- 
peared in the proposition made by the ayuntamiento of the City of Mexico to 
the Viceroy that he should call a national assembly composed of representatives 
of the provinces. This proposition was favored by the Viceroy, but was op- 
posed by the Audiencia, who represented the spirit of Spanish possession and 
dominion. The higher clergy, moreover, as holders of great power, opposed all 
attempts at independence, while the lower clergy, to which Miguel Hidalgo i 
Costilla belonged, became the earliest champions of the movement. 

After the overthrow of Hidalgo's forces and the capture of the leader it be- 
came evident to the patriots that they ought to be represented by some formally 
constituted government. An assembly composed principally of officers of the 
army was, therefore, convened. In accordance with its decree a governmental 
168 



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MEXICO. ' 169 

council was established, consisting at first of three members and later of five, 
whose collective title was the "Supreme Governmental Council of America." 
In the exercise of their new authority they cited the military officers, the gov- 
ernors, and alcaldes of the Indian pueblos of the vicinity to take the oath of obe- 
dience and fidelity to the council, which governed in the name of King Ferdi- 
nand VII. The use of the king's name was clearly an act of policy, through 
which the council hoped to gain forces at the expense of the enemy, and to turn 
to the cause of freedom those who desired independence, but who halted at the 
idea of fighting against the king. The attempt on the part of the council to 
make an agreement with the Viceroy only led him to reject with indignation the 
project of an independent power in Mexico. Strictly speaking, the council was 
an illegal body, deriving authority neither from a popular election nor from any 
existing legitimate source. It was feared, however, by the Spanish party that 
it might gain recognition and exercise the functions of a legitimate government. 
A price was, therefore, set on the head of each member, but its subsequent dis- 
solution was due rather to internal dissension than to external attack. 

On the 1st of September, 1813, a Congress constituted by popular election 
was assembled in Chilpancingo. This body proclaimed anew the independence 
of Mexico, and agreed upon a republican constitution, which was published in 
Apanzingan in October, 1814. This constitution was also short-lived, being 
set aside by the adoption of the Spanish constitution of 1812 in so far as it was 
applicable to Mexico. 

Between 1815 and 1S20 Mexico was little disturbed by military operations, 
but finally the cause of independence was revived, and on the 24th of February, 
1820, was published the plan of Iguala. By this instrument an independent 
limited monarchy was erected in Mexico, and the throne was to be offered to Fer- 
dinand VII, and in case of his refusal to other princes designated. The Roman 
Catholic faith was declared to be the sole religion of the State, and the equality 
of all social classes was proclamed. The plan of Iguala, a compromise between 
political independence and religious intolerance, found very general favor; even 
the new Vi<feroy, O'Donojd, accepted it with only slight modification's, and 
recognized the new Imperio Mejicano, A provisional governmental council was 
then formed, which was charged with the legislative authority until the Cortes 
should be installed. The executive power was temporarily intrusted to a re- 
gency of three persons, who should exercise it till the accession of the Prince. 
In carrying out the provisions of the plan of Iguala, as modified by the agree- 
ment at Cordova between O'Donoju and Iturbide, it was discovered that the 
scheme was not approved by either the King or the Cortes of Spain, and that in 
Mexico itself there were many republicans dissatisfied with it. In this condi- 
tion of affairs Iturbide, supported by a portion of the army, was proclaimed 



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lyO MEXICO. 

Emperor. But his conduct in his temporary use of power only increased the 
opposition which he had encountered in the beginning, and, finding it impossi- 
ble to maintain an independent imperial government in Mexico, he abdicated 
and went into exile. The Congress, taking advantage of the departure of Itur- 
bide, declared that his administration had been a rule of force and not of right, 
and that all of his acts were illegal and subject to revision. It then placed the 
executive power in the hands of a triumvirate composed of Negrete, Bravo, and 
Victoria, representing the Spanish, the monarchical, and the republican parties. 

A new Congress was installed on the 7th of November, 1823, and on the 3d 
of December it began the discussion of a project for a fundamental law, which 
was approved January 31, 1824, and "in thirty-six articles contained the basis 
of the future political constitution." Through the adoption of this Constitution 
the nation acquired a popular representative, federal, republican government. 
But this was only a provisional government, and was set aside on the adoption 
of the definitive Constitution of 1824, which in many particulars was a copy of 
the Constitution of the United States. 

The Constitution of 1824 remained in force eleven years, but during these 
years Mexico was not without its internal disturbances, and in 1833, by a revo- 
lution. General Antonio Lopez de Santana was made President. After a tem- 
porary retirement a reactionary movement restored him to power in 1834. 
Having allied himself vv^ith the Clericals and Centralists, he dissolved the Congress 
on the 31st of May, set aside the liberal decrees which that body had passed, 
made the Vice-President, Gomez Farias, resign, and broke openly with the Fed- 
eralists. The new Congress, which was installed in January, 1835, undertook to 
reform the Constitution of 1824, and in 1836 a new fundamental law was issued, 
which rejected the federal principle and established a centralized government, 
the whole territory of the Republic being divided into departments instead of the 
preexisting States, the departments into districts, and these again into partidos. 
By thus enlarging the functions of the central government the grounds of party 
separation were made more conspicious. Everj' adherent of federalism became 
an opponent of the new order of things, and in the next decade Mexico was 
without an effective constitution. Power rested with the most successful mili- 
tary leader. In 1847, however, the Congress passed an act which brought into 
force again the Constitution of 1824 with certain amendments. 

Without attempting to note the numerous " pronunciamentos '* made and the 
"bases" promulgated, attention may be called to the "Plan" promulgated by 
the garrison of Ayutla. According to this plan Santana was to be deprived of 
the power which he exercised arbitarily, an ad interim President was to be 
appointed, and a Constitutional Convention convened. The garrison of Acapulco 
seconded this plan with slight modifications, and Ignacio Comonfort became the 



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MEXICO. 171 

leader of the new revolution. On the 8th of August, 1855, Santana left the 
Presidency, and a few days later went into exile. On the 13th of the same 
month the garrison of the capital also adopted the Plan of Ayutla. The 4th of 
October General Alvarez was elected ad interim President, and in February, 
1856, the Constituent Congress, or Constitutional Convention, was assembled. 
Comonfort, who had become President on the resignation of Alvarez, now issued, 
in accordance with authority conferred upon him by the Plan of Ayutla and Ac- 
apulco, an '* Estatuto orgunico provisional de la Republica Mejicana,** The 
^j/a^w/^ was a quasi-constitution, in 125 articles, which organized completely 
the executive and judicial powers in accordance with the principles of central- 
ism, and which detailed with much method and in a liberal sense the civil and 
political rights of the Mexicans; but which obliterated all this, as with one 
dash of the pen, by Article 82, conceived as follows: "The President of the 
Republic shall be able to act discretionally, when, in the judgment of the council 
of ministers, this shall be necessary in order to defend the independence or the 
integrity of the territory, or to maintain the established order, or to preserve 
the public tranquility; but in no case shall he be able to impose the penalty of 
death, nor those penalties prohibited by Article 55." 

The new Constitution, which was formulated in the mean time by the Consti- 
tuent Congress, was finally adopted on the 5th of February, 1857. But this 
Constitution, by abolishing the ecclesiastical and military privileges, excited vig- 
orous opposition. As a result of this opposition, the nation found itself, in 1858, 
in civil war, with Benito Juarez as leader of the Constitutional party, while 
General Zuloaga, and later General Miramon, led the Revolutionary party. 
Having, in 1861, overcome the Revolutionjiry forces and taken possession of the 
capital, Juarez, in accordance with Article 29 of the Constitution, received ex- 
traordinary powers to suspend the individual guarantees recognized by this law. 
During the same year, 1861, the Revolutionary party entered into certain foreign 
alliances against the Constitutional party, led by Juarez, and from these alliances 
proceeded the series of events which constitute the imperial episode of Maxi- 
milian's reign. While Maximilian, backed by the power of France, was attempt- 
ing to establish an imperial government in Mexico, the forces of the Constitu- 
tionalists were scattered on the frontiers. Three months after the withdrawal 
of the French troops, in obedience to the demands of the United States, the 
imperialists were undone, Maximilian, Miramon, and Mejia had been shot, and 
the way was once more open to the Constitutionalists. The Constitution of 
1857 became again the effective fundamental law of the land, and, with a num- 
ber of subsequent amendments, has continued in force to the present time. 

Bernard Moses. 
University of California. 



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1 72 MEXICO. 



OUTLINE OF CONTENTS.* 

PREAMBLE. 

TITLE I. — Of the Rights of Individuals. 

SECTION I. — OF MAN. 

Article 

1. Recognition of the rights of man. 

2. Slavery prohibited. 

3. Free instruction. 

4. Freedom in exercise of profession or occuption. 

5. Personal liberty. Prohibition of monastic orders. 

6. Freedom of speech. 

7. Freedom of the press. 

8. Right of petition. 

9. Right of assembly. 

10. Right of bearing arms. 

11. Right of travel and of changing residence. 

12. Titles of nobility. 

13. Special laws and tribunals. Martial law. 

14. Retroactive laws. 

15. Extradition of political offenders. 

16. Freedom from search. 

17. Arrest for debt. Prompt and gratuitous administration of justice 

18. Imprisonment. 

19. Temporary detention. 

20. I-V. Guarantees to accused in criminal trials. 

21. Judicial penalties. Powers of political authorities. 

22. Unusual punishments. 

23. Death penalty. Penitentiaries. 

24. Criminal proceedings. 

25. Freedom of the mails. 

26. Quartering of soldiers. 

27. Private property protected. 

28. Monopolies prohibited. Specified exceptions. 

29. Suspension of guarantees in case of invasion pr public danger. 

SECTION II. — OF MEXICANS. 

30. I-III.^ Who are Mexicans? 

31. I-II. Obligations of Mexicans. 

32. General provisions favoring Mexicans. 

SECTION III. — OF FOREIGNERS. 

33. Rights and obligations of foreigners. 

*The Outline of Contents has been prepared by the Editors of the Annals. 



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MEXICO. 173 

SECTION IV.^<>F MEXICAN CITIZENS. 

Article 

34. I-II. Qualifications of citizenship. 

35. I-V. Prerogatives of the citizen. 

36. I-IV. Obligations of the citizen. 

37. I-II. Loss of citizenship. 

38. Forms in which rights of citizenship may be lost, suspended, and regained. 

TITLE II.— Of the Nation and Its Integral Parts. 

SECTION I.^OF THE NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY AND OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

39. Origin of national sovereignty. 

40. Character of the Federal and of the State governments. 

41. Sovereignty exercised through Federal and State officers. 

SECTION II.^OF THE INTEGRAL PARTS OF THE FEDERATION AND OF THE NATIONAL 

TERRITORY. 

42. National territor}\ 

43. Enumeration of integral parts. 
44-49. Boundaries. 

TITLE III.— Of the Division of Powers. 

50. General vesting of powers. 

section i. — OF the legislative power. 

51. General Congress. Two Houses. 

Paragraph I. — Of the Election and Installation of Congress. 

52. Constitution of House of Deputies. 

53. Apportionment of Deputies. 

54. Alternate to Deputy. 

55. Election by indirect and secret ballot. • 

56. Qualifications of Deputy. 

57. Federal officers inelligible for positions of Deputy and of Senator. 

58. Deputies and Senators ineligible to Federal appointment. 

A-C. Constitution of the Senate. 

59. Privilege from arrest. 

60. Each House judge of the election of its" own members. 

61. Quorum. 

62. Sessions of Congress. 

63. Annual address of President. 

64. Form of law or decree. 

Paragraph II. — Of the Initiative and Formation of the Laws. 

65. I-III. Right to initiate laws. 

66. Bills presented by President or State legislatures. 

67. Rejected bills. 



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174 MEXICO. 

Article 

68. Preference given to examination of estimates and accounts in second period of 

sessions. 

69. Duty of Executive to present bill of appropriations. 

70. Origin of laws and decrees in Congress. 

71. A-E. Process of formation of laws or decrees. F. Interpretation, amendment, 

or repeal of laws. G. Seat of legislative bodies. H. Extra sessions. 

Paragraph III. — Of the Powers of the General Congress. 

' 72. I-III. Enumeration of powers. A-C. Exclusive powers of each House. 

Paragraph IV. — Of the Permanent Deputation. 

73. Constitution of Permanent Deputation. 
74 I-V. Powers of Permanent Deputation. 

SECTION II. — OF THE EXECUTIVE POWERS. 

75. Vesting of Executive power. 

76. Election of President. 

77. Qualifications of President. 

78. Term of office. Ineligibility to immediate reflection. 

79. Temporary default in Presidency. A-I. Provisions in regard to Presidency and 

Vice-Presidency of Senate and of Permanent Deputation. J. Newly-elected 
President. 

80. Commencement of term for newly-elected President. 

81. Resignation of Presidency. 

82. Failure to elect President before expiration of term. 
• 83. Oath of office.. 

84. Residence of President. 

85. I-XVI. Powers and obligations of President. 

86. Cabinet. 

87. Qualifications of Cabinet Secretary. 

88. Regulations, decrees, and orders to be signed by a Cabinet Secretary. 

89. Annual report of Secretaries. 

SECTION III. — OF THE JUDICIAL POWER. 

90. Vesting of judicial power. 

91. Constitution of Supreme Court. 

92. Election and term of office of members of Supreme Court. 

93. Qualifications of members of Supreme Court. 

94. Oath of office. 

95. Resignation. 

96. Circuit and district courts. 

97. I-VII. Jurisdiction of Federal tribunals. 

98. Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court. 

99. Duty of Supreme Court to determine questions of jurisdiction. 
100. Supreme Court as a court of last resort. 

loi. Special jurisdiction of Federal tribunals. 
102. Form of judicial procedure and sentence. 



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MEXICO. 175 

TITLE IV. — Of the Responsibility of Public Functionaries. 
Article 

103. Public functionaries responsible for crimes, misdemeanors, and negligence. 

General provisions. 

104. Common crimes. 

105. Official crimes. 

106. Pardons for official crimes forbidden. 

107. Duration of responsibility. 

108. No immunity from demands of civil order. 

TITLE V. — Of the States of the Federation. 

109. Republican form of government, 
no. Fixing of State boundary lines. 

111. I-III. Prohibitions on the States. 

112. I-II. Powers which are conditioned on consent of Congress. 

113. Extradition of criminals. 

114. Obligation of State governors to enforce Federal laws. 

115. Faith and credit to public acts, records, etc., of other States. 

116. Protection against invasion and violence. 

TITLE VI.— General Provisions. 

117. Powers reserved to the States. 

118. No person allowed to hold two Federal elective offices. 

119. Federal payments, not authorized by law, forbidden. 

120. Compensation of Federal officers. 

121. Oath of office. 

122. Military authority in time of peace. 

123. Intervention in religious worship and external discipline. 

124. Duties on articles of internal commerce. State restrictions on foreign and 

domestic commerce. 

125. Federal forts, magazines, etc. 

126. Supreme law of the Union. 

TITLE VII. — Of the Reform of the Constitution. 

127. Process of amendment. 

TITLE VIII. — Of the Inviolability of the Constitution. 

128. Interruption of its observance by rebellion. 

ADDITIONS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

1. Independence of state and church. 

2. Marriage and other civil contracts. 

3. Limitation on the power of religious institutions to acquire real estate, 

4. Affirmation substituted for religious oath.] 



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176 MEXICO. 



PREAMBLE; 

In the name of God and with the authority of the Mexican people. 

The representatives of the different States, of the District and Territories 
which compose the Republic of Mexico, called by the Plan proclaimed in Ayutla 
the 1st of March, 1854, amended in Acapulco the nth day of the same month 
and year, and by the summons issued the 17th of October, 1855, ^^ constitute 
the nation under the form of a popular, representative, democratic republic, 
exercising the powers with which they are invested, comply with the require- 
ments of their high office, decreeing the following polkical Constitution of the 
Mexican Republic, on the indestructible basis of its legitimate independence, 
proclaimed the 16th of September, 1810, and completed the 27th of September, 
1821.^ 

Title I. 

SECTION I. OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN. 

Article 1. The Mexican people recognize that the rights of man are the basis 
and the object of social institutions. Consequently they declare that all the 
laws and all the authorities of the country must respect and maintain the guar- 
antees which the present Constitution establishes. 

. Art. 2. In the Republic all are born free. Slaves who set foot upon the 
national territory recover, by that act alone, their liberty, and have a right to 
the protection of the laws. 

Art. 3. Instruction is free. The law shall determine what professions re- 
quire a diploma for their exercise, and with what requisites they must be issued. 

Art. 4. Every man is free to adopt the profession, industrial pursuit, or 
occupation which suits him, the same being useful and honorable, and to avail 
himself of its products. Nor shall any one be hindered in the exercise of such 
profession, industrial pursuit, or occupation, unless by judicial sentence when 
such exercise attacks the rights of a third party, or by governmental resolution, 
dictated in terms which the law marks out, when it offends the rights of society. 

Art. 5. No one shall be obliged to give personal services without just com- 
pensation, and without his full consent. The state shall not permit any con- 
tract, pact, or agreement to be carried into effect which has for its object the 
diminution, loss, or irrevocable sacrifice of the liberty of man, whether it be for 
the sake of labor, education, or a religious vow. The law, consequently, may 
not recognize monastic orders, nor may it permit their establishment, whatever 



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MEXICO. 177 

may be the denomination or object with which they claim to be formed.* 
Neither may an agreement be permitted in which anyone stipulates for his pro- 
scription or banishment. 

Art. 6. The expression of ideas shall not be the object of any judicial or ad- 
ministrative inquisition, except in case it attacks morality, the rights of a third 
party, provokes some crime or misdemeanor, or disturbs public order. 

Art. 7. The liberty to write and to publish writings on any subject whatso- 
ever is inviolable. No law or authority shall establish previous censure, nor 
require security from authors or printers, nor restrict the liberty of the press, 
which has no other limits than respect of private life, morality, and the public 
peace. The crimes which are committed by means of the press shall be judged 
by the competent tribunals of the Federation, or by those of the States, those of 
the Federal District and the Territory of Lower California, in accordance with 
their penal laws.f 

Art. 8. The right of petition, exercised in writing in a peaceful and respectful 
manner, is inviolable; but in political matters only citizens of the Republic may 
exercise it. To every petition must be returned a written opinion by the 
authority to whom it may have been addressed, and the latter is obliged to make 
the result known to the petitioner. 

Art. 9. No one may be deprived of the right peacefully to assemble or unite 
with others for any lawful object whatsoever, but only citizens of the Republic 
may do this in order to take part in the political affairs of the country. No 
armed assembly has a right to deliberate. 

Art. 10. Every man has a right to possess and carry arms for his security 
and legitimate defence. The law shall designate what arms are prohibited and 
the punishment which those shall incur who carry them. 

Art. 1 1. Every man has a right to enter and to go out of the Republic, to 
travel through its territory and change his residence, without the necessity of a 
letter of security, passport, safe-conduct, or other similar requisite. The exer- 
cise of this right shall not prejudice the legitimate faculties of the judicial or 
administrative authority in cases of criminal or civil responsibility. 

Art. 1 2. There are not, nor shall there be recognized in the Republic, titles 
of nobility, or prerogatives, or hereditary honors. Only the people, legiti- 
mately represented, may decree recompenses in honor of those who may have 
rendered or may render eminent services to the country or to humanity. 

*This sentence was introduced into the original article September 25, 1873, with other 
less important amendments. 

f This article was amended May 15, 1883, by introducing the last sentence as a sub- 
stitute for the following : "The crimes of the press shall be judged by one jury which 
attests the fact and by another which applies the law and designates the punishment." 
57a 12 



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lyS MEXICO. 

Art. 13. In the Mexican Republic no one may be judged by special law nor 
by special tribunals. No person or corporation may have privileges, or enjoy 
emoluments, which are not compensation for a public service and are established 
by law. Martial law may exist only for crimes and offences which have a defi- 
nite connection with military discipline. The law shall determine with all clear- 
ness the cases included in this exception. 

Art. 14. No retroactive law shall be enacted. No one may be judged or 
sentenced except by laws made prior to the act, and exactly applicable to it, 
and by a tribunal which shall have been previously established by law. 

Art. 15. Treaties shall never be made for the extradition of political offenders, 
nor for the extradition of those violators of the public order who may have 
held in the country where they committed the offence the position of slaves; 
nor agreements or treaties in virtue of which may be altered the guarantees and 
rights which this Constitution grants to the man and to the citizen. 

Art. 16. No one may be molested in his person, family, domicile, papers 
and possessions, except in virtue of an order written by the competent authority 
which shall establish and assign the legal cause for the proceedings. In the case « 
oiinjlagrante delicto any person may apprehend the offender and his accom- 
plices, placing them without delay at the disposal of the nearest authorities. 

Art. 1 7. No one may be arrested for debts of a purely civil character. No 
one may exercise violence in order to reclaim his rights. The tribunals shall 
always be prompt to administer justice. This shall be gratuitous, judicial costs 
being consequently abolished. 

Art. 18. Imprisonment shall take place only for crimes which deserve cor- 
poral punishment. In any state of the process in which it shall appear that 
such a punishment might not be imposed upon the accused, he shall be set at 
liberty under bail. In no case shall the imprisonment or detention be prolonged 
for default of payment of fees, or of any furnishing of money whatever. 

Art. 19. No detention shall exceed the term of three days, unless justified by 
a writ showing cause of imprisonment and other requisites which the law estab- 
lishes. The mere lapse of this term shall render responsible the authority that 
orders or consents to it, and the agents, ministers, wardens, or jailers who exe- 
cute it. Any maltreatment in the apprehension or in the confinement of the 
prisoners, any injury which may be inflicted without 'legal ground, any tax or 
contribution in the prisons, is an abuse which the laws must correct and the 
authorities severally punish. 

Art. 20. In every criminal trial the accused shall have the following guaran- 
tees: 

I. That the grounds of the proceedings and the name of the accuser, if there 
shall be one, shall be made known to him. 



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MEXICO. 179 

II. That his preparatory declaration shall be taken within forty-eight hours, 
counting from the time he may be placed at the disp6sal of the judge. 

III. That he shall be confronted with the witnesses who testify against him. 

IV. That he shall be furnished with the data which he requires and which 
appear in the process, in order to prepare for his defence. 

V. That he shall be heard in defence by himself or by counsel, or by both, as 
he may desire. In case he should have no one to defend him, a list of official 
defenders shall be presented to him, in order that he may choose one or more 
who may suit him. 

Art. 21. The application of penalties properly so called belongs exclusively 
to the judicial authority. The political or administrative authorities may only 
impose fines, as correction, to the extent of five hundred dollars, or imprison- 
ment to the extent of one month, in the cases and manner which the law shall 
expressly determine. 

Art. 22. Punishments by mutilation and infamy, by branding, flogging, the 
bastinado, torture of whatever kind, excessive fines, confiscation of property, or 
any other unusual or extraordinary penalties, shall be forever prohibited. 

Art. 23. In order to abolish the penalty of death, the administrative power 
is charged to establish, as soon as possible, a penitentiary system. In the mean- 
time the penalty of death shall be abolished for political offences, and shall not 
be extended to other cases than treason during foreign war, highway robbery, 
arson, parricide, homicide with treachery, premeditation or advantage, to grave 
oiFences of the military order, and piracy, which the law shall define. 

Art. 24. No criminal proceeding may have more than three instances. No 
one shall be tried twice for the same offence, whether by the judgment he be 
absolved or condemned. The practice of absolving from the instance is abol- 
ished. 

Art. 25. Sealed correspondence which circulates by the mails is free from all 
registry. The violation of this guarantee is an offence which the law shall 
punish severely. 

Art. 26. In time of peace no soldier may demand quarters, supplies, or other 
real or personal service without the consent of the proprietor. In time of war 
he shall do this only in the manner prescribed by the law. . 

Art. 27. Private property shall not be appropriated without the consent of 
the owner, except for the sake of public use, and with previous indemnification. 
The law shall determine the authority which may make the appropriation and 
the conditions under which it may be carried out. 

No corporation, civil or ecclesiastical, whatever may be its character, denomi- 
nation, or object, shall have legal capacity to acquire in proprietorship or admin- 



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l8o MEXICO. 

ister for itself real estate, with the single exception of edifices destined immedi- 
ately and directly to the service and object of the institution.* 

Art. 28. There shall be no monopolies, nor places of any kind for the sale 
of privileged goods, nor prohibitions under titles of protection to industry. 
There shall be excepted only those relative to the coining of money, to the 
mails, and to the privileges which, for a limited time, the law may concede to 
inventors or perfectors of some improvement. ^ 

Art. 29. In cases of invasion, grave disturbance of the public peace, or any 
other cases whatsoever which may place society in great danger or conflict, only 
the President of the Republic in concurrence with the Council of Ministers and 
with the approbation of the Congress of the Union, and, in the recess thereof, of 
the permanent deputation, may suspend the guarantees established by this Con- 
stitution, with the exception of those which assure the life of man; but such 
suspension shall be made only for a limited time, by means of general provisions, 
and without being limited to a determined person. If the suspension should 
take place during the session of Congress, this body shall concede the authoriza- 
tions which it may esteem necessary in order that the Executive may meet prop- 
erly the situation. If the suspension should take place during the recess, the 
permanent deputation shall convoke the Congress without delay in order that it 
may make the authorizations. 

SECTION II. OF MEXICANS. 

Art. 30. Mexicans are — 

I. All those born, within or without the Republic, of Mexican parents. 

II. Foreigners who are naturalized in conformity with the laws of the Fed- 
eration. 

III. Foreigners who acquire real estate in the Republic or have Mexican 
children ; provided they do not manifest their resolution to preserve their 
nationality. 

Art. 31. It is an obligation of every Mexican — 

I. To defend the independence, the territory, the honor, the rights and 
interests of his country. 

II. To contribute for the public expenses, as well of the Federation as of the 
State and municipality in which he resides, in the proportional and equitable 
manner which the laws may provide. 

Art. 32. Mexicans shall be preferred to foreigners in equal circumstances, 
for all employments, charges, or commissions of appointment by the authorities, 
in which the condition of citizenship may not be indispensable. Laws shall be 

* See Article 3 of Additions to the Constitution. 



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MEXICO. 



181 



issued to improve the condition of Mexican laborers, rewarding those who dis- 
tinguish themselves in any science or art, stimulating labor, and founding prac- 
tical colleges and schools of arts and trades. 

SECTION III. OF FOREIGNERS. 

Art. 33. Foreigners are those who do not possess the qualifications deter- 
mined in Article 30. They have a right to the guarantees established by Section 
I., Title I., of the present Constitution, except that in all cases the Govern- 
ment has the right to expel pernicious foreigners. They are under obligation 
to contribute to the public expenses in the manner which the laws may provide, 
and to obey and respect the institutions, laws, and authorities of the country, 
subjecting themselves to the judgments and sentences of the tribunals, without 
power to seek other protection than that which the laws concede to Mexican 
citizens. 

SECTION IV. OF MEXICAN CITIZENS. 

Art. 34. Citizens of the Republic are all those who, having the quality of 
Mexicans, have also the following qualifications : 

I. Eighteen years of age if married, or twenty-one if not married. 

II. An honest means of livelihood. 

Art. 35. The prerogatives of the citizen are — 

I. To vote at popular elections. 

II. The privilege of being voted foryi?r any office subject to popular election, 
and of being selected for any other employment or commission, having the qual- 
ifications established by law. 

III. To associate to discuss the political affairs of the country. 

IV. To take up arms in the army or in the national guard for the defence of 
the Republic and its institutions. 

V. To exercise in all cases the right of petition. 

Art. 36. Every citizen of the Republic is under the following obligations : 

I. To be inscribed on the municipal roll, stating the property which he has, 
or the industry, profession, or labor by which he subsists. 

II. To enlist in the national guard. 

III. To vote at popular elections in the district to which he belongs. 

IV. To discharge the duties of the offices of popular election of the Federa- 
tion, which in no case shall be gratuitous. 

Art. 37. The character of citizen is lost — 

I. By natuarlization in a foreign country. 

II. By serving officially the government of another country or accepting its 



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l82 MEXICO. 

decorations, titles, or employments without previous permission from the Fed- 
eral Congress ; excepting literary, scientific, and humanitarian titles, which may 
be accepted freely. 

Art. 38. The law shall prescribe the cases and the form in which may be lost 
or suspended the rights of citizenship and the manner in which they may be 

regained. 

Title II. 

SECTION I. OF THE NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY AND OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

Art. 39. The national sovereignty resides essentially and originally in the 
people. All public power emanates from the people, and is instituted for their 
benefit. The people have at all times the inalienable right to alter or modify 
the form of their government. 

Art. 40. T^e Mexican people voluntarily constitute themselves a democratic, 
federal, representative republic, composed of States free and sovereign in all that 
concerns their internal government, but united in a federation established accord- 
ing to the principles of this fundamental law. 

Art. 41. The people exercise their sovereignty by means of Federal officers 
in cases belonging to the Federation, and through those of the States in all that 
relates to the internal affairs of the States within the limits respectively estab- 
lished by this Federal Constitution, and by the special Constitutions of the 
States, which latter shall in no case contravene the stipulations of the Federal 
Compact. 

SECTION II. OF THE INTEGRAL PARTS OF THE FEDERATION AND OF THE NATIONAL 

TERRITORY. 

Art. 42. The National Territory comprises that of the integral parts of the 
Federation and that of the adjacent islands in both oceans. 

Art. 43. The integral parts of the Federation are: the States of Aguascali- 
entes, Colima, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, 
Mexico, Michoacan, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, Oajaca, Puebla, Queretaro, 
San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlascala, Valle de 
Mexico, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas, and the Territory of Lower California. 

Art. 44. The Stktes of Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guer- 
rero, Mexico, Puebla, Quer6taro, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, and the Terri- 
tory of Lower California shall preserve the limits which they now have. 

Art. 45. The States of Colima and Tlascala shall preserve in their new 
character of States the limits which they have had as Territories of the Federa- 
tion. 

Art. 46. The State of the Valley of Mexico shall be formed of the territory 



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MEXICO. 183 

actually composing the Federal District, but the erection into a State shall only 
have effect when the supreme Federal authorities are removed to another place. 

Art. 47. The State of Neuvo Leon and Coahuila shall comprise the territory 
which has belonged to the two distinct States of which it is now formed, except 
the part of the hacienda of Bonanza, which shall be reincorporated in Zacate- 
cas, on the same terms in which it was before its incorporation in Coahuila. 

Art. 48. The States of Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Oajaca, San Luis 
Potosi, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Zacatecas shall recover the exten- 
sion and limits which they had on the 31st of December, 1852, with the altera- 
tions the following Article establishes. 

Art. 49. The town of Contepec, which has belonged to Guanajuato, shall be 
incoporated in Michoacan. The municipality of Ahualulco, which has belonged 
to Zacatecas, shall be incorporated in San Luis Potosi. The municipalities 01 
Ojo-Caliente and San Francisco de los Adames, which have belonged to San Luis, 
as well as the towns of Nueva Tlascala and San Andres del Teul, which have 
belonged to Jalisco, shall be incorporated in Zacatecas. The department of 
Tuxpan shall continue to form a part of Veracruz. The canton of Huiman- 
guillo, which has belonged to Veracruz, shall be incorporated in Tabasco.* 

Title IIL 

of the division of powers. 

Art. 50. The supreme power of the Federation is divided for its exercise into 
legislative, executive, and judicial. Two or more of these powers shall never be 
united in one person or corporation, nor the legislative power be deposited in 
one individual. 

SECTION I. OF THE LEGISLATIVE POWER. 

Art. 51. The legislative power of the nation is deposited in a general Con- 
gress, which shall be divided into two houses, one of Deputies and the other of 
Senators.f 

* Besides the twenty-four States which are mentioned in this section there have been 
created subsequently, according to executive decrees issued in accordance with the Con- 
stitution, the four following : 

XXV. That of Campeche, separated from Yucatan. 

XXVI. That of Coahuila, separated from Nuevo Leon. 

XXVII. That of Hidalgo, in territory of the ancient State of Mexico, which formed 
the second military district. 

XXVIII. That of Morelos, in territory also of the ancient State of Mexico, which 
formed the third military district. 

fThe original form of this article was as follows: "The exercise of the supreme 
legislative powetis vested in one assembly, which shall be denominated Congress of 
the Union." 



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184 MEXICO. 

Paragraph L — Of the Election and Installation of Congress, 

Art. 52. The House of Deputies shall be composed of representatives of the 
nation, elected in their entire number every two years by Mexican citizens. 

Art. 53. One deputy shall be elected for each forty thousand inhabitants, or 
for a fraction which exceeds twenty thousand. The territory in which the pop- 
ulation is less than that determined in this article shall, nevertheless, elect one 
deputy. 

Art. 54. For each deputy there shall be elected one alternate. 

Art. 55. The election for deputies shall be indirect in the first degree, and by 
secret ballot, in the manner which the law shall prescribe. 

Art. 56. In order to be eligible to the position of a deputy it is required that 
the candidate be a Mexican citizen in the enjoyment of his rights; that he be 
fully twenty-five years of age on the day of the opening of the session; that he 
be a resident of the State or Territory which makes the election, and that he be 
not an ecclesiastic. Residence is not lost by absence in the discharge of any pub- 
lic trust bestowed by popular election. 

Art. 57. The positions of Deputy and of Senator are incompatible with any 
Federal commission or office whatsoever for which a salary is received. 

Art. 58. The Deputies and the Senators, from the day of their election to 
the day on which their trust is concluded, may not accept any commission or 
office offered by the Federal Executive, for which a salary is received, except 
with the previous license of the .respective house. The same requisites are nec- 
essary for the alternates of Deputies and Senators when in the exercise of their 
functions. 

A. The Senate is composed of two Senators for each State and two for the 
Federal District. The election of Senators shall be indirect in the first degree. 
The Legislature of each State shall declare elected the person who shall have 
obtained the absolute majority of the votes cast, or shall elect from among those 
who shall have obtained the relative majority in the manner which the electoral 
law shall prescribe. For each Senator there shall be elected an alternate. 

B. The Senate shall be renewed one-half every two years. The Senators 
named in the second place shall go out at the end of the first two years, and 
thereafter the half who have held longer. 

C. The same qualifications are required for a Senator as for a Deputy, except 
that of age, which must be at least thirty years on the day of the opening of the 
session. 

Art. 59. The Deputies and Senators are privileged from arrest for their 
opinions manifested in the performance of their duties, and shall never be liable 
to be called to account for them. 



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MEXICO. 185 

Art. 60. Each house shall judge of the election of its members, and shall 
solve the doubts which may arise regarding them. 

Art. 61. The houses may not open their sessions nor perform their functions 
without the presence in the Senate of at least two-thirds, and in the House of 
Deputies of more than one-half of the whole number of their members, but those 
present of one or the other body must meet on the day indicated by the law and 
compel the attendance of absent members under penalties which the law shall 
designate. 

Art. 62. The Congress shall have each year two periods of ordinary ses- 
sions : the first, which may be prorogued for thirty days, shall begin on the 16th 
of September and end on the 15 th of December, and the second, which may be 
prorogued for fifteen days, shall begin the 1st of April and end the last day of 
May. 

Art. 63. At the opening of the sessions of the Congress the President of the 
Union shall be present and shall pronounce a discourse in which he shall set 
forth the state of the country. The President of the Congress shall reply in 
general terms. 

Art. 64. Every resolution of the Congress shall have the character of a law 
or decree. The laws and decrees shall be communicated to the Executive, 
signed by the Presidents of both houses and by a Secretary of each of them, and 
shall be promulgated in this form : " The Congress of the United Snates of 
Mexico decrees:" {Text of the law or decree.^ 

Paragraph IL — Of the Initiative and Formation of the Laws, 

Art. 65. The right to initiate laws or decrees belongs : 

I. To the President of the Union. 

II. To the Deputies and Senators of the general Congress. 

III. To the Legislatures of the States. 

Art. 66. Bills presented by the President of the Republic, by the Legislatures 
of the States, or by deputations from the same, shall pass immediately to a com- 
mittee. Those which the Deputies or the Senators may present shall be sub- 
jected to the procedure which the rules of debate may prescribe. 

Art. 67. Every bill which shall be rejected in the house where it originated, 
before passing to the other house, shall not again be presented during the ses- 
sions of that year. 

Art. 68. The second period of sessions shall be destined, in all preference, to 
the examination of and action upon the estimates of the following fiscal year, to 
passing the necessary appropriations to cover the same, and to the examination 
of the accounts of the past year, which the Executive shall present. 



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l86 MEXICO. 

Art. 69. The last day but one of the first period of sessions the Executive 
shall present to the House of Deputies the bill of appropriations for the next 
year following and the accounts of the preceding year. Both shall pass to a 
committee of five Representatives appointed on the same day, whieh shall be 
under obligation to examine said documents, and present a report on them at 
the second session of the second period. 

Art. 70. The formation of the laws and of the decrees may begin indisci im- 
inately in either of the two houses, with the exception of bills which treat of 
loans, taxes, or imposts, or of the recruiting of troops, all of which must be 
discussed first in the House of Deputies. 

Art. 71. Every bill, the consideration of which does not belong exclusively to 
one of the houses, shall be discussed successively in both, the rules of debate being 
observed with reference to the form, the intervals, and manner of proceeding in 
discussions and voting. 

A. A bill having been approved in the house where it originated, shall pass 
for its discussion to the other house. If the latter body should approve it, it 
will be remitted to the Executive, who, if he shall have no observations to make, 
shall publish it immediately. 

B. Every bill shall be considered as approved by the Executive if not returned 
with observations to the house where it originated within ten working days, 
unless during this term Congress shall have closed or suspended its sessions, in 
which case the return must be made the first working day on which it shall meet. 

C. A bill rejected wholly or in part by the Executive must be returned with 
his observations to the house where it originated. It shall be discussed again 
by this body, and if it should be confirmed by an absolute majority of votes, it 
shall pass again to the other house. If by this house it should be sanctioned 
with the same majority, the bill shall be a law or decree, and shall be returned 
to the Executive for promulgation. The voting on the law or decree shall be 
by name. 

D. If any bill should be rejected wholly in the house in which it did not 
originate, it shall be returned to that in which it originated with the observa- 
tions which the former shall have made upon it. If having been examined anew 
it should be approved by the absolute majority of the members present, it shall 
be returned to the house which rejected it, which shall again take it into consid- 
eration, and if it should approve it by the same majority it shall pass to the 
Executive, to be treated in accordance with division A ; but, if it should reject 
it, it shall not be presented again until the following sessions. 

E. If a bill should be rejected only in part, or modified, or receive additions 
by the house of revision, the new discussion in the house where it originated 
shall treat onlv of the rejected part, or of the amendments or additions, without 



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MEXICO. 187 

being able to alter in any manner the articles approved. If the additions or 
amendments made by the house of revision should be approved by the absolute 
majority of the votes present in the house where it originated, the whole bill 
shall be passed to the Executive, to be treated in accordance with division A. 
But if the additions or amendments made by the house of revision should be 
rejected by the majority of the votes in the house where it originated, they shall 
be returned to the former, in order that the reasons of the latter may be taken 
into consideration; and if by the absolute majority of the votes present said 
additions or amendments shall be rejected in this second revision, the bill, in so 
far as it has been approved by both houses, shall be passed to the Executive, to 
be treated in accordance with division A ; but if the house of revision should 
insist, by the absolute majority of the votes present, on said additions or amend- 
ments, the whole bill shall not be again presented until the following sessions, 
unless both houses agree by the absolute majority of their members present that * 
the law or decree shall be issued solely with the articles approved,* and that the 
parts added or amended shall be reserved to be examined and voted in the fol- 
lowing sessions. 

F. In the interpretation, amendment, or repeal of the laws or decrees, the 
rules established for their formation shall be observed. 

G. Both houses shall reside in the same place, and they shall not remove to 
another without first agreeing to the removal and on the time and manner of 
making it, designating the same point for the meeting of both. But if both 
houses, agreeing to the removal, should differ as to time, manner, or place, the 
Executive shall terminate the difference by choosing one of the places in ques- 
tion. Neither house shall suspend its sessions for more than three days without 
the consent of the other. 

H. When the general Congress meets in extra sessions, it shall occupy itself 
exclusively with the object or objects designated in the summons ; and if the 
special business shall not have been completed on the day on which the regular 
session should open, the extra sessions shall be closed nevertheless, leaving the 
points pending to be treated of in the regular sessions. 

The Executive of the Union shall not make observations on the resolutions 
of the Congress when this body prorogues its. sessions or exercises functions of 
an electoral body or a jury. 

Paragraph III, — Of the Powers of the General Congress, 

Art. yz. The Congress has power — 

I. To admit new States or Territories into the Federal Union, incorporating 
them in the nation. 



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l88 MEXICO. 

II. To erect Territories into States when they shall have a population of 
eighty thousand inhabitants and the necessary elements to provide for their 
political existence. 

III. To form new States within the limits of those existing, it being necessary 
to this end — 

1. That the fraction or fractions which ask to be erected into a State shall 
number a population of at least one hundred and twenty thousand inhabitants. 

2. That it shall be proved before Congress that they have elements sufficient 
to provide for their political existence. 

3. That the Legislatures of the States, the territories of which are in ques- 
tion, shall have been heard on the expediency or inexpediency of the establish- 
ment of the new State, and they shall be obliged to make their report within 
six months, counted from the day on which the communication relating to it 
shall have been remitted to them. 

4. That the Executive of the Federation shall likewise be heard, who shall 
send his report within seven days, counted from the date on which he shall 
have been asked for it. 

5. That the establishment of the new State shall have been voted for by two- 
thirds of the Deputies and Senators present in their respective houses. 

6. That the resolution of Congress shall have been ratified by the majority of 
the Legislatures of the States, after examining a copy of the proceedings ; pro- 
vided that the Legislatures of the States whose territory is in question shall 
have given their consent. 

7. If the Legislatures of the States whose territory is in question shall not have 
given their consent, the ratification mentioned in the preceding clause must be 
made by two-thirds of the Legislatures of the other States. 

A. The exclusive powers of the House of Deputies are — 

I. To constitute itself an Electoral College in order to exercise the powers 
which the law may assign to it, in respect to the election of the Constitutional 
President of the Republic, Magistrates of the Supreme Court, and Senators for the 
Federal District. 

II. To judge and decide upon the resignations which the President of the 
Republic or the Magistrates of the Supreme Court of Justice may make. The 
same power belongs to it in treating of licenses solicited by the first. 

III. To watch over, by means of an inspecting committee from its own body, 
the exact performance of the business of the chief auditorship. 

IV. To appoint the principal officers and other employes of the same. 

V. To constitute itself a jury of accusation, for the high functionaries of whom 
Article 103 of this Constitution treats. 



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MEXICO. 189 

VI. To examine the accounts which the Executive must present annually, to 
approve the annual estimate of expenses, and to initiate the taxes which in its 
judgment ought to be decreed to cover these expenses. 

B. The exclusive powers of the Senate are — 

I. To approve the treaties and diplomatic cohventions which the Executive 
may make with foreign powers. 

II. To ratify the appointments which the President of the Republic may make 
of ministers, diplomatic agents, consuls-general, superior employes of the Treas- 
ury, colonels and other superior officers of the national army and navy, on the 
terms which the law shall provide. • 

III. To authorize the Executive to permit the departure of national troops 
beyond the limits of the Republic, the passage of foreign troops through the 
national territory, the station of squadrons of other powers for more than a 
month in the waters of the Republic. 

IV. To give its consent in order that the Executive may dispose of the national 
guard outside of their respective States or Territories, determining the necessary 
force. 

v. To declare, when the Constitutional legislative and executive powers of a 
State shall have disappeared, that the case has arrived for appointing to it a pro- 
visional Governor, who shall call elections in conformity with the Constitutional 
laws of the said State. The appointment of Governor shall be made by the Fed- 
eral Executive with the approval of the Senate, and in its recesses with the ap- 
proval of the Permanent Commission. Said functionary shall not be elected Con- 
stitutional Governor at the elections which are had in virtue of the summons 
which he shall issue. 

VI. To decide political questions which may arise between the powers of a 
State, when any of them may appear with, this purpose in the Senate, or when 
on account of said questions Constitutional order shall have been interrupted 
during a conflict of arms. In this case the Senate shall dictate its resolution, 
being subject to the general Constitution of the Republic and to that of the 
State. 

The law shall regulate the exercise of this power and that of the preceding. 

VII. To constitute itself a jury of judgment in accordance with Article 105 
of this Constitution. 

C. Eacli of the houses may, without the intervention of the other — 

I. Dictate economic resolutions relative to its internal regimen. 

II. Communicate within itself, and with the Executive of the Union, by 
means of committees from its own body. 

III. Appoint the employes of its secretaryship, and make the internal regula- 
tions for the same. 



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190 MEXICO. 

IV. Issue summons for extraordinary elections, with the object of filling the 
vacancies of their respective members. 

IV. To regulate definitely the limits of the States, terminating the differences 
which may arise between them relative to the demarcation of their respective 
territories, except when these difficulties have a contentious character. 

V. To change the residence of the supreme powers of the Federation. 

VI. To establish the internal order of the Federal District and Territories, 
taking as a basis that the citizens shall choose by popular election the political, 
municipal, and judicial authorities, and designating the taxes necessary to cover 
their local expenditure! 

VII. To approve the estimates of the Federal expenditure, which the Exec- 
utive must an^iually present to it, and to impose the necessary taxes to cover 
them. 

VIII. To give rules under which the Executive may make loans on the credit 
of the nation; to approve said loans, and to recognize and order the payment 
of the national debt. 

IX. To establish tariffs on foreign commerce, and to prevent, by means of 
general laws, onerous restrictions from being established with reference to the 
commerce between the States. 

X. To issue codes, obligatory throughout the Republic, of mines and com- 
merce, comprehending in this last banking institutions. 

XI. To create and suppress public Federal employments and to establish, aug- 
ment, or diminish their salaries. 

XII. To ratify the appointments which the Executive may make of ministers, 
diplomatic agents, and consuls, of the higher employes of the Treasury, of the 
colonels and other superior officers of the national army and navy. 

XIII. To approve the treaties, contracts, or diplomatic conventions which 
the Executive may make. 

XIV. To declare war in view of the data which the Executive may present 
to it. 

XV. To regulate the manner in which letters of marque may be issued; 
to dictate laws according to which must be declared good or bad the prizes on 
sea and land, and to issue laws relating to maritime rights in peace and war. 

XVI. To permit or deny the entrance of foreign troops into the territory of 
the Republic, and to consent to the station of squadrons of other powers for 
more than a month in the waters of the Republic. 

XVII. To permit the departure of national troops beyond the limits of the 
Republic* 

* Amended by Section B, Clause III., Article 72, of the law of the 13th of Novem- 
ber, 1874. See p. 189. 



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MEXICO. 191 

XVIII. To raise and maintain the army and navy of the Union, and to reg- 
ulate their organization and service. 

XIX. To establish regulations with the purpose of organizing, arming, and 
disciplining the national guard, reserving respectively to the citizens who com- 
pose it the appointment of the commanders and officers, and to the States the 
power of instructing it in conformity with the discipline prescribed by said reg- 
ulations. 

XX. To give its consent in order that the Executive may control the national 
guard outside of its respective States and Territories, determining the necessary 
force. 

XXI. To dictate laws on naturalization, colonization, and citizenship. 

XXII. To dictate laws on the general means of communication and on the 
post-office and mails. 

XXIII. To establish mints, fixing the conditions of their operation, to deter- 
mine the value of foreign money, and adopt a general system of weights and 
measures. 

XXIV. To fix rules to which must be subject the occupation and sale of pub- 
lic lands and the price of these lands. 

XXV. To grant pardons for crimes cognizable by the tribunals of the Federa- 
tion. 

XXVI. To grant rewards or recompense for eminent services rendered to the 
country or humanity. 

XXVII. To prorogue for thirty working days the first period of its ordinary 
sessions. 

XXVIII. To form rules for its internal regulation, to take the necessary 
measures to compel the attendance of absent members, and- to correct the faults 
or omissions of those present. 

XXIX. To appoint and remove freely the employes of its secretaryship and 
those of the chief auditorship, which shall be organized in accordance with the 
provisions of the law. 

XXX. To make all laws which may be necessary and proper to render effect- 
ive the foregoing powers and all others granted by this. Constitution and the 
authorities of the Union.* 

Paragraph IF, — Of the Permanent Deputation, 

Art. 73. During the recess of Congress there shall be a Permanent Deputa- 
tion composed of twenty-nine members, of whom fifteen shall be Deputies and 



*See respecting this Article the additions A, B, and C to Article 72 of the law of the 
13th of November, already cited. 



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iq2 MEXICO. 

fourteen Senators, appointed by their respective houses the evening before the 
close of the sessions. 

Art. 74. The attributes of the Permanent Deputation are — 

I. To give its consent to the use of the national guard in the cases mentioned 
in Article 72, Clause XX. 

II. To determine by itself, or on the proposal of the Executive, after hearing 
him in the first place, the summons of Congress, or of one house alone, for extra 
sessions, the vote of two-thirds of the members present being necessary in both 
cases. The summons shall designate the object or objects of the extra sessions. 

III. To approve the appointments which are referred to in Article 85, Clause 
III. 

IV. To administer the oath of office to the President of the Republic, and to 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, in the cases provided by this Constitution.* 

V. To report upon all the business not disposed of, in order that .the Legisla- 
ture which follows may immediately take up such unfinished business. 

SECTION II. OF THE EXECUTIVE POWER. 

Art. 75. The exercise of the supreme executive power of the Union is vested 
in a single individual, who shall be called " President of the United States of 
Mexico." 

Art. 76. The election of President shall be indirect in the first degree, and by 
secret ballot, in such manner as may be prescribed by the electoral law. 

Art. •]•], To be eligible to the position of President, the candidate must be a 
Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of his rights, be fully thirty-five years 
old at the time of the election, not belong to the ecclesiastical order, and reside 
in the country at the time the election is held. 

Art. 78. The President shall enter upon the performance of the duties of his 
office on the first of December, and shall continue in office four years, being eligi- 
ble for the Constitutional period immediately following; but he shall remain in- 
capable thereafter to occupy the presidency by a new election until four years 
shall have passed, counting from the day on which he ceased to perform his func- 
tions. 

Art. 79. In the temporary default of the President of the Republic, and in the 
vacancy before the installation of the newly-elected President, the citizen who 
may have performed the duties of President or Vice-President of the Senate, or 
of the Permanent Commission in the periods of recess, during the month prior to 
that in which said default may have occurred, shall enter upon the exercise of the 
executive power of the Union. 

*See the Amendment of September 25, 1873, Arj. 4. 



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MEXICO. 193 

A. The President and Vice-President of the Senate and of the Permanent Com- 
mission shall not be reelected to those offices until a year after having held them. 

B. If the period of sessions of the Senate or of the Permanent Commission 
shall begin in the second half of a month, the default of the President of the 
Republic shall be covered by the President or Vice-President who may have 
acted in the Senate or in the Permanent Commission during the first half of the 
said month. 

C. The Senate and the Permanent Commission shall renew, the last day of 
each month, their Presidents and Vice-Presidents. For these offices the Per- 
manent Commission shall elect, alternatively, in one month two Deputies and in 
the following month two Senators. , 

D. When the office of President of the Republic is vacant, the functionary who 
shall take it constitutionally as his substitute must issue, within the definite term 
of fifteen days, the summons to proceed to a new election, which shall be held 
within the term of three months, and in accordance with the provisions of Article 
jS of this Constitution. The provisional President shall not be eligible to the 
presidency at the elections which are held to put an end to his provisional term. 

E. If, on account of death or any other reason, the functionaries who, ac- 
cording to this law, should take the place of the President of the Republic might 
not be able in any absolute manner to do so, it shall be taken, under predeter- 
mined conditions, by the citizen who may have been President or Vice-President 
of the Senate or the Permanent Commission in the month prior to that in which 
they discharged those offices. 

F. When the office of President of the Republic shall become vacant within 
the last six months of the constitutional period, the functionary who shall take 
the place of the President shall terminate this period. 

G. To be eligible to the position of President or Vice-President of the Senate 
or of the Permanent Commission, one must be a Mexican citizen by birth. 

H. If the vacancy in the office of President of the Republic should occur when 
the Senate and Permanent Commission are performing their functions in extra 
sessions, the President of the Commission shall fill the vacancy, under conditions 
indicated in this article. 

I. The Vice-President of the Senate or of the Permanent Commission shall 
enter upon the performance of the functions which this Article confers upon them, 
in the vacancies of the office of President of the Senate or of the Permanent Com- 
mission, and in the periods only while the impediment lasts. 

J. The newly-elected President shall enter upon the discharge of his duties, at 
the latest, sixty days after that of the election. In case the House of Deputies 
shall not be in session, it shall be convened in extra session, in order to make the 
computation of votes within the term mentioned. 
57A 13 



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194 MEXICO. 

Art. 8o. In the vacancy of the office of President, the period of the newly- 
elected President shall be computed from the first of December of the year prior 
to that of his election, provided he may not have taken possession of his office on 
the date which Article 78 determines. 

Art. 81. The office of President of the Union may not be resigned, except 
for grave cause, approved by Congress, before whom the resignation shall be 
presented. 

Art. 82. If for any reason the election of President shall not have been made 
and published by the first of December, on which the transfer of the office should 
be made, or the President-elect shall not have been ready to enter upon the dis- 
charge of his duties, the term of the former President shall end nevertheless, and 
the supreme executive power shall be deposited provisionally in the functionary 
to whom it belongs according to the provisions of the reformed Article 79 of this 
Constitution. 

Art. 83. The President, on taking possession of his office, shall take an oath 
before Congress, and in its recess before the Permanent Commission, under the 
following formula : "I swear to perform loyally and patriotically the duties of 
President of the United States of Mexico, according to the Constitution, and 
seek in everything for the welfare and prosperity of the Union."* 

Art. 84. The President may not remove from the place of the residence of 
the Federal powers, nor lay aside the exercise of his functions, without grave 
cause, approved by the Congress, and in its recesses by the Permanent Commis- 
sion. 

Art. 85. The powers and obligations of the President are the following: 

I. To promulgate and execute the laws passed by the Congress of the Union, 
providing, in the administrative sphere, for their exact observance. 

II. To appoint and remove freely the Secretaries of the Cabinet, to remove 
the diplomatic agents and superior employes of the Treasury, and to appoint 
and remove freely the other employes of the Union whose appointment and 
removal are not otherwise provided for in the Constitution or in the laws. 

III. To appoint ministers, diplomatic agents, consuls-general, with the ap- 
proval of Congress, and, in its recess, of the Permanent Commission. 

IV. To appoint, with the approval of Congress, the colonels and other supe- 
rior officers of the national army and navy, and the superior employes of the 
treasury. 

V. To appoint the other officers of the national army and navy, according to 
the laws. 

VI. To control the permanent armed force by sea and land for the internal 
security and external defence of the Federation. 

* See the Amendments and Additions of September 25, 1873. 

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MEXICO. 195 

VII. To control the national guard for the same objects within the limits 
established by Article 72, Clause XX. 

VIII. To declare war in the name of the United States of Mexico, after the 
passage of the necessary law by the Congress of the Union. 

IX. To grant letters of marque, subject to bases fixed by the Congress. 

X. To direct diplomatic negotiations and make treaties with foreign powers, 
submitting them for the ratification of the Federal Congress. 

XI. To receive ministers and other envoys from foreign powers. 

XII. To convoke Congress in extra sessions when the Permanent Commission 
shall consent to it. 

XIII. To furnish the judicial power with that assistance which may be nec- 
essary for the prompt exercise of its functions. 

XIV. To open all classes of ports, to establish maritime and frontier custom- 
houses and designate their situation. 

XV. To grant, in accordance with the laws, pardons to criminals sentenced 
for crimes within the jurisdiction of the Federal tribunals. 

XVI. To grant exclusive privileges, for a limited time and according to the 
proper law, to discoverers, inventors, or perfecters of any branch of industry. 

Art. 86. For the dispatch of the business of the administrative department 
of the Federation there shall be the number of Secretaries which the Congress 
may establish by a law, which shall provide for the distribution of business and 
prescribe what shall be in charge of each Secretary. 

Art. Sj. To be a Secretary of the Cabinet it is required that one shall be a 
Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of his rights, and fully twenty-five 
years old. 

Art. 88. All the regulations, decrees, and orders of the President must be 
signed by the Secretary of the Cabinet who is in charge of the department to 
which the subject belongs. Without this requisite they shall not be obeyed. 

Art. 89. The Secretaries of the Cabinet, as soon as the sessions of the first 
period shall be opened, shall render an account to the Congress of the state of 
their respective departments. 

SECTION H. OF THE JUDICIAL POWER. 

Art. 90. The exercise of the judicial power of the Federation is vested in a 
Supreme Court of Justice, and in the district and circuit courts. 

Art. 91. The Supreme Court of Justice shall be composed of eleven judges, 
four supernumeraries, one fiscal, and one attorney-general. 

Art. 92. Each of the members of the Supreme Court of Justice shall remain 
in office six years, and his election shall be indirect in the first degree, under 
conditions established by the electoral law. 



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196 MEXICO. 

Art. 93. In order to be elected a member of the Supreme Court of Justice it 
is necessary that one be learned in the science of the law in the judgment of the 
electors, more than thirty-five years old, and a Mexican citizen by birth, in the 
exercise of his rights. 

Art. 94. The members of the Supreme Court of Justice, on entering upon 
the exercise of their charge, shall take an oath before Congress, and, in its recesses, 
before the Permanent Commission, in the following form: **Do you swear to 
perform loyally and patriotically the charge of Magistrate of the Supreme Court 
of Justice, which the people have conferred upon you in conformity with the 
Constitution, seeking in everything the welfare and prosperity of the Union ? "* 

Art. 95. A member of the Supreme Court of Justice may resign his office 
only for grave cause, approved by the Congress, to whom the resignation shall 
be presented. In the recesses of the Congress the judgment shall be rendered 
by the Permanent Commission. 

Art. 96. The law shall establish and organize the circuit and district courts. 

Art. 97. It belongs to the Federal tribunals to take cognizance of — 

I. All controversies which may arise in regard to the fulfilment and applica- 
tion of the Federal laws, except in the case in which the application affects only 
private interests; such a case falls within the competence of the local judges 
and tribunals of the common order of the States, of the Federal District, and 
of the Territory of Lower California. 

II. All cases pertaining to maritime law. 

III. Those in which the Federation may be a party. 

IV. Those that may arise between two or more States. 

V. Those that may arise between a State and one or more citizens of an- 
other State. 

VI. Civil or criminal cases that may arise under treaties with foreign powers. 

VII. Cases concerning diplomatic agents and consuls. 

Art. 98. It belongs to the Supreme of Court of Justice, in the first instance,. 
to take cognizance of controversies which may arise between one State and 
another, and of those in which the Union may be a party. 

Art. 99. It belongs also to the Supreme Court of Justice to determine the 
questions of jurisdiction which may arise between the Federal tribunals, between 
these and those of the States, or between the courts of one State and those of 
another. 

Art. 100. In the other cases comprehended in Article 97, the Supreme 
Court of Justice shall be a court of appeal or, rather, of last resort, according 
to the graduation which the law may make in the jurisdiction of the circuit and 
district courts. 

*See Additions to the Constitution, September 25, 1873. 

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MEXICO. 197 

Art. 101. The tribunals of the Federation shall decide all questions which 
arise — 

I. Under laws or acts of whatever authority which violate individual guar- 
antees. 

II. Under laws or acts of the State authority which violatfe or restrain the 
sovereignty of the States. 

III! Under laws or acts of the State authority which invade the sphere of 
the Federal authority. 

Art. 102. All the judgments which the preceding article mentions shall be 
had on petition of the aggrieved party, by means of judicial proceedings and 
forms which shall be prescribed by law. The sentence shall be always such 
as to affect private individuals only, limiting itself to defend and protect them 
in the special case to which the process refers, without making any general 
declaration respecting the law or act which gave rise to it. 

Title IV. 

OF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PUBLIC FUNCTIONARIES. 

Art. 103. The Senators, the Deputies, the members of the Supreme Court 
of Justice, and the Secretaries of the Cabinet are responsible for the common 
crimes which they may commit during their terms of office, and for the crimes, 
misdemeanors, and negligence into which they may fall in the performance of 
the duties of said office. The Governors of the States are likewise responsible 
for the infraction of the Constitution and Federal laws. The President of the 
Republic is also responsible ; but during the term of his office he may be accused 
only for the crimes of treason against the country, express violation of the Con- 
stitution, attack on the freedom of election, and grave crimes of the common 
order. The high functionaries of the Federation shall not enjoy any Constitu- 
tional privilege for the official crimes, misdemeanors, or negligence into which 
they may fall in the performance of any employment, office, or public commis- 
sion which they may have accepted during the period for which, in conformity 
with the law, they shall have been elected. The same shall happen with respect 
to those common crimes which they may commit during the performance of 
said employment, office, or commission. In order that the cause may be ini- 
tiated when the high functionary shall have returned to the exercise of his proper 
functions, proceeding should be undertaken in accordance with the provision 
of Article 104 of this Constitution. 

Art. 104. If the crime should be a common one, the House of Representatives, 
formed into a grand jury, shall declare, by an absolute majority of votes, whether 
there is or is not ground to proceed against the accused. In the negative case. 



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198 MEXICO. 

there shall be no ground for further proceedings; in the affirmative, the accused 
shall be, by the said act, deprived of his office, and subjected to the action of 
the ordinary tribunals. 

Art. 105. The houses shall take cognizance of official crimes, the House of 
Deputies as a jury of accusation, the Senators as a jury of judgment. 

The jury of accusation shall have for its object to declare, by an absolute 
majority of votes, whether the accused is or is not culpable. If the declaration 
should be absolutory, the functionary shall continue in the exercise of his office ; 
if it should be condemnatory, he shall be immediately deprived of his office, and 
shall be placed at the disposal of the Senate. The latter, formed into a jury or 
judgment, and, with the presence of the criminal and of the accuser, if there 
should be one, shall proceed to apply, by an absolute majority of votes, the 
punishment which the law designates. 

Art. 106. A judgment of responsibility for official crimes having been pro- 
nounced, no favor of pardon may be extended to the offender. 

Art. 107. The responsibility for official crimes and misdemeanors may be 
required only during the period in which the functionary remains in office, and 
one year thereafter. 

Art. 108. With respect to demands of the civil order, there shall be no 
privilege or immunity for any public functionary. 

Title V. 

OF THE STATES OF THE FEDERATION. 

Art. 109. The States shall adopt for their internal regimen the popular, rep- 
resentative, republican form of government, and may provide in their respective 
Constitutions for the reelection of the Governors in accordance with what 
Article 78 provides for the President of the Republic. 

Art. 1 10. The States may regulate among themselves, by friendly agreements, 
their respective boundaries ; but those regulations shall not be carried into effect 
without the approval of the Congress of the Union. 

Art. 111. The States may not in any case — 

I. Form alliances, treaties, or coalitions with another State, or with foreign 
powers, excepting the coalition which the frontier States may make for offensive 
or defensive war against the Indians. 

II. Grant letters of marque or reprisal. 

III. Coin money, or emit paper money or stamped paper. 

Art. 112. Neither may any State, without the consent of the Congress of 
the Union : 

I. Establish tonnage duties, or any port duty, or impose taxes or duties upon 
importations or exportations. 



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MEXICO. 199 

II. Have at any time permanent troops or vessels of war. 

III. Make war by itself on any foreign power except in cases of invasion or 
of such imminent peril as to admit of no delay. In these cases the State shall 
give notice immediately to the President of the Republic. 

Art. 113. Each State is under obligation to deliver without delay the crimi- 
nals of other States to the authority that claims them. 

Art. 114. The Governors of the States are obliged to publish and cause to 
be obeyed the Federal laws. 

Art. 115. In each State of the Federation entire faith and credit shall be 
given to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all the other States. 
The Congress may, by means of general laws, prescribe the manner of proving 
said acts, records, and proceedings, and the effect thereof. 

Art. 116. The powers of the Union are bound to protect the States against 
all invasion or external violence. In case of insurrection or internal disturbance 
they shall give them like protection, provided the Legislature of the State, or 
the Executive, if the Legislature is not in session, shall request it. 

Title VI, 

GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

Art. 1 1 7. The powers which are not expressly granted by this Constitution 
to the Federal authorities are understood to be reserved to the States. 

Art. 1 1 8. No person may at the same time hold two Federal elective offices ; 
but if elected to two, he may choose which of them he will fill. 

Art. 119. No payment shall be made which is not comprehended in the 
budget or determined by a subsequent law. 

Art. 120. The President of the Republic, the members of the Supreme Court 
of Justice, the Deputies, and other public officers of the Federation, who are 
chosen by popular election, shall receive a compensation for their services, which 
shall be determined by law and paid by the Federal Treasury. This compen- 
sation may not be renounced, and any law which augments or diminishes it shall 
not have effect during the period for which a functionary holds the office. 

Art. 121. Every public officer, without any exception, before taking posses- 
sion of his office, shall take an oath to maintain this Constitution and the laws 
which emanate from it.* 

Art. 122. In time of peace no military authority may exercise more functions 
than those which have close connection with military discipline. There shall 
be fixed and permanent military commands only in the castles, fortresses, and 
magazines which are immediately under the government of the Union ; or in 

* See the Additions of September 25, 1873. 

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200 MEXICO. 

encampments, barracks, or depots which may be established outside of towns for 
stationing troops. i 

Art. 123. It belongs exclusively to the Federal authorities to exercise, in 
matters of" religious worship and external discipline, the intervention which the 
laws may designate. 

Art. 124. The States shall not impose any duty for the simple passage of 
goods in the internal commerce. The Government of the Union alone may 
decree transit duties, but only with respect to foreign goods which cross the 
country by international or interoceanic lines, without being on the national 
territory more time than is necessary to traverse it and depart to the foreign 
country. 

They shall not prohibit, either directly or indirectly, the entrance to their 
territory, or the departure from it, of any merchandise, except on police 
grounds ; nor burden the articles of national production on their departure for 
a foreign country or for another State. 

The exemptions from duties which they concede shall be general ; they may 
not be decreed in favor of the products of specified origin. 

The quota of the import for a given amount of merchandise shall be the 
same, whatever may have been its origin, and no heavier burden may be assigned 
to it than that which the similar products of the political entity in which the 
import is decreed bear. 

The national merchandise shall not be submitted to definite route nor to 
Inspection or registry on the ways, nor any fiscal document be demanded for its 
internal circulation. 

Nor shall they burden foreign merchandise with a greater quota than that 
which may have been permitted them by the Federal law to receive. 

Art. 125. The forts, military quarters, magazines, and other edifices neces- 
sary to the government of the Union shall be under the immediate inspection 
of the Federal authorities. 

Art. 126. This Constitution, the laws of the Congress of the Union which 
emanate from it, and all the treaties made or which shall be made by the Presi- 
dent of the Republic, with the approval of Congress, shall be the supreme law 
of the whole Union. The judges of each State shall be guided by said Consti- 
tution, law, and treaties in spite of provisions to the contrary which may appear 
in the Constitutions or laws of the States. 

Title VII. 

OF THE REFORM OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

Art. 1 27. The present Constitution may be added to or reformed. In order 
that additions or alterations may become part of the Constitution, it is required 



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MEXICO. 201 

that the Congress of the Union, by a vote of two-thirds of the members pres- 
ent, shall agree to the alterations or additions, and that these shall be approved 
by the majority of the Legislatures of the States. The Congress of the Union 
shall count the votes of the Legislatures and make the declaration that the 
reforms or additions have been approved. 

Title VIIL 

of the inviolability of the constitution. 

• 

Art. 128. This Constitution shall not lose its force and vigor even if its 
observance be interrupted by a rebellion. In case that, by any public disturb- 
ance a government contrary to the principles which it sanctions shall be estab- 
lished, as soon as the people recover their liberty its observance shall be 
reestablished, and in accordance with it and the laws which shall have been 
issued in virtue of it, shall be judged not only those who shall have figured in 
the government emanating from the rebellion, but also those who shall have 
cooperated with it. 

ADDITIONS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

Art. 1. The State and the Church are independent of one another. The 
Congress may not pass laws establishing or prohibiting any religion. 

Art. 2. Marriage is a civil contract. This and the other acts relating to 
the civil state of persons belong to the exclusive jurisdiction of the functionaries 
and authorities of the civil order, within limits provided by the laws, and they 
shall have the force and validity which the same attribute to them. 

Art. 3. No religious institution may acquire real estate or capital fixed upon 
it, with the single exception established in Article 27 of this Constitution. 

Art. 4. The simple promise to speak the truth and to comply with the obli- 
gations which have been incurred, shall be substituted for the religious oath, 
with its effects and penalties. 



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Appendix B. 



OFFICIAL DIRECTORY. 

THE EXECUTIVE. 

President of the Republic. — Gen. Porfirio Diaz, National Palace. Private residence, 

Calle Cadena, No. 8. 



DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN RELATIONS. 
Secretary. — Sr. Lie. Ignacio M. Mariscal, Cerrada de la Moneda, 8. 



Chief of the Bureau of Archives and tke 
Library. — Francisco Garcia Conde, Ri- 
bera Santa Maria, 8. 

Chief of the Bureau of Accounts. — Francisco 
Elorriaga, Espalda San Andres, lo. 



Chief C/erk.—Jos6 T. Cuellan, Buena- 

vista, 3}4' 
Chief of the American Bureau^ — Mauricio 

Wollheim, Hotel del Bazar. 
Chief of the Consular Bureau. — Manuel 

Zapata Vera, Jesus, lo. 
Chief of the European Bureau. — Felix Ga- 

lindo, Esclavo, 9. 

MEXICAN LEGATIONS IN AMERICA. 
UNITED STATES. UNITED STATES — Continued. 



Sefior Don Matias Romero, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 
1413 I street, Washington. 

Seflor Don Cayetano Romero, First Sec- 
retary of Legation, 12 East Townsend 
street, Baltimore, Md. 

Seflor Don Vicente Morales, Second Sec- 
retary of Legation, 11 26 Connecticut 
avenue, Washington. 

Seflor Don Enrique Santibaflez, Second 
Secretary of Legation, The Hamilton, 
Washington. 
202 



Seflor Don Edmundo J. Plaza, Third Sec- 
retary of Legation, 1336 I street, Wash- 
ington. 

Seflor Don Ramon G. Pacheco, Third 
Secretary of Legation, Willard's Hotel, 
Washington. 

Seflor Don Antonio Leon Grajeda, Third 
Secretary of Legation, 1336 I street, 
Washington. 

Seflor Don Jos6 Romero, Attach^, 1413 
I street, Washington. 



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MEXICO. 
MEXICAN LEGATIONS IN AMERICA— Continued. 



203 



CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES. 

Sefior Don Juan Bautista Sanchez Azcona, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plen- 
ipotentiary. 

Sefior Don Plat6n Roa, First Secretary of 
Legation. 



CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES — continued. 

Sefior Don Federico Gamboa, Second Sec- 
retary of Legation. 
Sefior Don J. Qarcia Granados, Attach^. 



Consuls-General, Consuls, etc 



Argentine Republic. 

Buetws Aires. — Consul, Juan Francisco de 
la Barra. 

Bolivia. 

La Paz. — Consul, Apolinar Aramayo. 

Chile. 

Valparaiso. — Consul, David Williamson. 

Dominican Republic. 

Santo Domingo. — Consul-General, Julian 
de la Rocha. 

Cuba. 

Habana. — Consul-General, Andres Cle- 
mente Vasquez; Chancellor, Manuel 
Saurez 6 Isla, Calle de Jesus Maria, 17. 

Santiago de Cuba. — Vice-Consul, Pablo 
Bory de la Cruz. 

Guatemala. 

Guatemala. — Consul, Francisco Diez de 
Bonilla, sr. ; Chancellor, Miguel Diez 
de Bonilla. 

Quetzaltenango. — Consul, Jos6 Parra y Al- 
varez. 

Retalhulea.-Y \CQ-Coiisu\, Teofilo Palacios. 

Haiti. 

Port au Prince. — Consul, Rodolfo Mahn ; 
in charge of consulate, Cheri Coen. 

Hawaii. 

Honolulu. — Consul, R. W. Laine. 



Puerto Pico. 

Puerto Pico. — Vice-Consul, Jos6 T. Silva, 
Calle de Tetuan, No. 35. 

United States of America. 

Boston, Massachusetts. — Consul, Arturo P. 

Cushing ; Vice-Consul, Edward A. 

Adams. 
Brownsville, Texas. — Consul Manuel Tre- 

viflo; Chancellor, Luis Nifio, Elizabeth 

street. 
Chicago. — Consul, Felipe Berriozabal, jj. 
Eagle Pass, Texas. — Consul, Felipe P. 

Cazeneuve, Commercial street. 
El Paso, Texas. — Consul, Jesus Escobar y 

Armendari; Chancellor, Miguel Barrera. 
Galveston, Texas. — Consul, Francisco Gon- 
zalez. 
Kansas City. — Vice-Consul, Mauricio Rah- 

den. 
Laredo, Texas. — Consul, Rafael Varrios; 

Chancellor, Rafael Barrios y Baguerre. 
Los Angeles, California. — Consul, Joaquin 

Diaz Prieto. 
Nogales, Arizona. — Consul, Felipe A. La- 

badie ; Chancellor ad interim, Alberto 

Altamirano. 
New Orleans, Louisiana. — Consul, Manuel 

Gutierrez Zamora; Chancellor, Francisco 

de P. Villasana, Commercial Place, 3. 
New York, New York. — Consul-General, 

Juan N. Navarro; Chancellor, Ramon 

V. Williams, 35 Broadway. 
Pensacola, Florida. — In charge of Vice- 
Consulate, Jaime N. Moreno. 



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204 



MEXICO. 



MEXICAN LEGATIONS IN AMERICA— Continued. 
Consuls-General, Consuls, etc. — Continued. 



United States of America — Continued. 

Rio Grande City^ Texas. — Consul, Jos6 

Francisco Gonzalez. 
Ronuiy Texas, — Consul, Jos6 M. Quiflones. 
San Antonio^ Texas. — Consul, Plutarco 

Ornelas, Calle de la Acequia, between 

Salinas and Obraje. 
San FranciscOy California. — Consul-Gen- 

eral, Alejandro K. Coney ; Chancellor, 

Alfonso Trillanes. 
San Diego y California. — C6nsul, Tomis 

Valdespino Figueroa, First National 

Bank Building, Fifth street. 
St. Louis y Missouri. — Consul, Juan F. 

Cahill, 216 North Eighth street. 
Tucson^ Arizona. — Vice-Consul, in charge 

of consulate, Rufino V61ez. 



United States of Colombia. 

Bogotd. — Consul-General, Ricardo Ndflez; 

in charge, I. M. Vargas ; Vice-Consul, 

Roberto M'Douall. 
CbA/w.— Vice-Consul, A. D. Reed. 
Panama. — Vice-Consul, Tomis Arias. 

United States of Venezuela. 

Cardcas. — Vice-Consul, in charge of con- 
sulate, Jos6 Antonio Sanchez. 

Cariipano. — Vice-Consul, Ger6nimo Ceri- 
sola. 

La Guayra. — Vice-Consul, Evaristo Diaz 
Rojas, Calle del Comercio, No. 44. 

Maracaibo. — Consul, Alejandro Liidert. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
Secretary. — Sr. Lie. Manuel Romero Rubio, San Andres, 5 and 6. 



Chief Clerk. — Lie. Manuel A. M6rcado, 

San Ildefonso, 4. 
First Division. — Chief, Lie. Ramon Man- 

terola, Cartagena 45, Tacubaya. 
Second Diznsion.— .Chief, Jos6 Sotuyo, 4** 

Santa Maria de la Rivera, 3. 
Third Division. — Chief, Gen. Francisco M. 

Ramirez, Escalerillas, 17. 
Fourth Division. — Chief, Juan de Dios 

Peza, 2* Calle Ancha, 9. 
Fifth Division. — Chief, Jos6 Jacinto Ji- 
menez, Hospital Real, 4. 
Division of Archives. — Chief, Joaquin B. 

Romero, Calle de las Moras, 15. 
Private Secretary. — Lie. Rosendo Pineda, 

Patoni (Casa Lombardo). 

government of the national palace. 

Governor. — Agustin Pradillo, National 
Palace. 

First Assistant. — Maj. Manuel Castaflares, 
Puente de San Francisco, 6. 

Janitor. — Lieut. Col. Adolfo Izaza, Na- 
tional Palace. 



DISTRICT GOVERNMENT. 

Governor of theDistrict. — Gen. Jos6 Ceba. 

llos, Calzada de Cuauhtemoc, 4. 
Secretary. — Lie. Nicolas Islas, 7 Busta- 

mante, Tacubaya. 
Chief Clerk. — Ignacio Bejarano, Monte- 

alegro, 4. 
Inspector-General of Police. — Gen. Luis 

Carballeda, 4** de la Magnolia, 36. 
■Secretary. — Col. Antonio Z. Rojas, 3* 

Humboldt, 6. 

BOARD OF ALDERMEN OF THE CITY OF 
MEXICO. 

Aldermen. 

Sebastian Camacho, San Fernando, 38. 
Jos6 Maria Carballeda, Arcos Belem, 12. 
Leandro Fernandez, i» Avenida Oriente, 

91. 
Ignacio de la Torre y Mier, Zuleta, 14. 
Luis Lavie, 2^ Reloj, 2. 
Juan B. Auza, i» del Pino, 2. 
Jos6 Izita, Santa Teresa, 10. 



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MEXICO. 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.— Continued. 



205 



BOARD OF ALDERMEN OF THE CITY OF 

MEXICO — continued. 

Aldermen — Continued. 

Francisco Gutierrez Cortina, Ex-Semina- 

rio, I. 
Jos6 Delgado, 1^ San Ramon, 3. 
Guillermo Valleto, i** San Francisco, 14. 
Pedro Ocdofiez, San Andres, 17. 
Jos6 A. Gamboa, i Humboldt, 7. 
Alberto Arellano, s** Vanegas. 
Nicolds Ramirez Arellano, Puente Alva- 

rado, zyi. 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

Secretary. — Sr. Lic. Joaquin 
Chief Clerk. — Lic. Juan W. Garcia. 
First Division, — Chief, Lic. Antonio M. y 

Ormachea. 
Second Division. — Chief, Lic. Jesus Ace- 

vedo, Puente Monzon, 8. 
Division of Archives. — Chief, Rafael J. de 

la Pena, 
Director School of Jurisprudence. — Lic. Jus- 

tino Fernandez, Tiburcio, 4. 
Director Preparatory School. — Lic. V. Cas- 

taileda y Ndjera, Cordobanes, 6. 
Director National School of Medicine.— 1^3.- 

nuel Carmona, Encarnacion, 8. 
Director Commercial School. — Lic. Alfredo 

Chavero, Pte. San Francisco, 38. 



board OF ALDERMEN OF THE CITY OF 

MEXICO — continued. 
Aldermen — Continued. 
Francisco L. de la Barra, San Diego, 6. 
Gabriel Durin, Buena Vista, 14. 
Agustin Lazo, Santa Clara, 18. 
Francisco Zepeda, 3** San Francisco, 7. 
Manuel Barreiro, Refugio, 15. 

Attorneys to Board. 

Joaquin Salazar y Murphy,Empedrasillo,9. 
Fernando Vega, 3** Vanegas, i^. 

AND PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 
Baranda, Hotel San Carlos. 

Director Polytechnic School. — Antonio del 
Castillo, Coliseo Viejo, 21. 

Director National School of Fine Arts. — 
Roman S. de Lascurain, Santa Teresa, 3. 

Director National Conservatory of Music. — 
Alfredo Bablot, Tacubaya. 

Director Normal School. — Lic. Miguel Se- 
rrano, Portilla San Diego, 2. 

Director National School of Trades. — Ma- 
nuel T. Alvarez, Chavarria, 8. 

Director AgricuW I and Veterinary School. — 
Rafael Diaz Barriga, San Jacinto. 

Director School for Deaf Mutes. — Trinidad 
Garcia, Corpus Cristi. 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS, COLONIZATION, AND INDUSTRY. 

Secretary. — Manuel Fernandez Leal, Cordobanes, 3. 

Sixth Division. — Chief, Carlos R. Ruiz, 
Patoni, 6. 

Seventh Division. — Director, Ignacio Mo- 
lina, Industria, i^. 

Division of Archives. — Keeper, Francisco 
Sosa, Jesus, 5. 

Subdirector of the Meteorological Observa- 
tory. — Miguel Perez, Merced, 27. 



Chief Clerk. . 

First Division. — Chief, Eugenio Chavero, 

Humboldt. 
Second Division. — Chief, Miguel Iglesias, 

San Ildefonso 6. 
Third Division. — Chief. Estanislao Ve- 

lasco, San Hipolito, 9. 
Fourth Division. — Chief, Luis Salazar, 

Avenida Juarez, I. 
Fifth Division. — Chief, Gilberto Crespo, 

2* Humboldt, 6. 



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2o6 



MEXICO. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AND PUBLIC CREDIT. 
Secretary, — Sr. Lie. Benito G. Farias. 



Chief Clerk. — Jose A. Gamboa, I'^de Hum- 
boldt, 7. 

Assistant Chief Clerk. — Emiliano Busto, 
I** de Rosales, 8. 

First Division. — Chief, Jos6 Francisco 
Alvarez, 2^ de Mesones, 25. 

Second Division. — Chief, Marcos Ross, 3* 
Cipr6s, 2. 

Third Division. — Chief, Manuel Necoe- 
chea, Calle Real, Mixcoac. 

Fourth Division. — Chief, Julio Jim6nez, 
Mariscala, 8. 

Fifth Division. — Chief, Miguel Jos6 Enri- 
que, Calle Real Santiago, i. 

Sixth Division. — Chief, Jos6 Teofilo Fon- 
seca, Pte. Correo Mayor, 6. 

Seventh Division. — Chief, Javier Stivoli, 
OP' Pila Seca, 3. 



Eighth Division. — Keeper of Archives, 
Eduardo Guerrero, 3** de San Juan, 14. 

Chief of Division Compilation of Laivs and 
Library. — Felipe Buenrostto, Aguila, 17. 

Solicitor of the Treasury. — Enrique Vallejo, 
San Jos6 el Real, 2. 

Director of the Public Debt Dizision. — 
Cayetano Gomez Perez, 3** Santisima, 5. 

Collector of Taxes for the Federal Dstrict. — 
Cistulo Centeno, %^ Calle Norte, 309. 

Collector of Internal Revenue. — Mariano 
Ortiz de Montellano, Coyoacdn. 

Collector of Internal Revenue for the Federal 
District.— Wi%\i€i Tello, !«» Santo Do- 
mingo, 4. 

Treasurer of the Republic, — Francisco 
Espinosa, Tiburcio, 17. 



DEPARTMENT OF WAR AND THE NAVY. 

Secretary. — Maj. Gen. Pedro Hinojosa, 2* de la Mosqueta, 3. 



Chief Clerk, — Brig. Gen. Ignacio M. Escu- 

dero, I* del Naranjo. 
First Division. — Chief, Col. Rafael Eche- 

nique, Cartagena 44, Tacubaya. 
Second Division, — Chief, Col. Francisco A. 

Rojo, Donceles, 13. 



Third Division. — Chief, J. Ramon Villa- 

vicencio, Calle del Sur, 8. 
Library Division. — Chief, Col. Miguel Ba- 

dillo, 3* Santa Maria R*. 
Archives Division. — Chief, Bvt. Gen. Ro- 

salio Flores, 5* Moctezuma, 52. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS AND COMMERCE.* 
Secretary. — Sr. Gen. Manuel G. Cosfo, Jesus Nazareno, i. 



Chief Clerk. . 

Postmaster-General. — Francisco de P. Go- 
chicoa, Aduana Vieja, 3. 



Director-General of Government Telegraph 
Lines, — S. Islas, 2* Avenida Oriente, 
156. 



THE JUDICIARY. 



supreme court of justice. 

President, — Lie. Miguel AuzA.i* Mesones, 

26. 
Vice-President. — Lie. F61ix Romero, San 

Juan de Letran, 2j^. 



supreme court of justice — continued. 

Associate Justice, — Lie. Antonio Falc6n, 

Chiconautla, 25. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Federico Sandoval. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Aurelio Melgarejo. 



♦The law creating this department went into eflfect on July i, 1891, and a full list of the officials con- 
nected with it has not been received. 



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MEXICO. 



207 



THE JUDICIARY— continued. 



SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE — Continued. 

Associate Jtistice.—Wc. Manuel M. Leoane, 

Pte. Balvanera, 6. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Manuel Castilla 

Portugal, i» Santa Maria, 10. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Francisco Vaca, 

Estampa de Jesus Maria, 6. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Manuel Saavedra, 

Avenida Juarez, 4. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Jos6 M. Lozano, 

Montealegre, 16. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Eustaquio Buelna, 

5 de Mayo, 14. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Jos6 M. Aguirre de 

la Barrera, Alvarado, 7. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Francisco Martinez 

de Arredondo, Callej6n Santa Clara, 9. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Miguel Sagaseta, 

2* Montevilla, 8. 
Associate Justice. — Lie. Prudenciano Do- 

rantes, i* Reloj, 2. 
Attorney-General. — Lie. Miguel Villalobos, 

Pte. Leguisamo, 5. 
Solicitor-General. — Lie. Eduardo Ruiz, 2* 

Zareo, 6. 
Clerk of Supreme Court. — Enrique Landa, 

Avenida Juarez, 2. 
Defender of Paupers before Federal Tribu- 
nals. — Lie. Manuel Prieto, Doneeles, 23. 



COURT OF APPEALS. 

Justices. 

Lie. Jos6 Zubieta, i*SanCosme, 17. 
Lie. Ignaeio Cejudo, i* de la Paz, i. 
Lie. Manuel Osio, Plaz* San Fernando, 

No. 3. 
Lie. Jos6M* Vega Lim6n, 2*Mesones, 11. 
Lie. Eduardo Pankurst, Doneeles, 30. 
Lie. Cdrlos Flores, 3* Zareo, 8. 
Lie. Valentin Canalizo, Arcos Belen, ii>^. 
Lie. Pablo G. Monies, Ortega, No. 21. 
Lie. Vicente Dardon, Hotel Iturbide. 
Lie. Julio Chdvez, Ortega, 3. 
Lie. Manuel Contreras, Por^ Mereaderes, 4. 
Lie. Emilio Zubiaga, Empedradillo, 3. 
Lie. Diego Baz, Tacubaya. 
Lie. Manuel Nicolin Echanove,Vergara,i2. 
Lie. Eduardo Trejo, Mixeoae. 
Lie. Jos6 P. Mateos, 2* Factor 7. 
Lie. Mariano Botello, Estp* S"* Lorenzo, i. 
Lie. Emilio Rabaza, San Hip61ito, 4. 
Clerk, Court of Appeals. — Lie. Eduardo Es- 

cudero, 3* Zsltco, 20. 
Public Prosecutor. — Lie. Vidal de Casta- 

fleda y Nijera, Cordobanes, 6. 
Assistant Prosecutor. — Lie. Ram6n Espi- 

nosa, 2* Rastro, 3. 
Assistant Prosecutor. — Lie. Emilio Islas, 2* 

de Vanegas, 9. 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS. 



MEMBERS OF THE SENATE. 



Alcintara, T. Melesio, 12 Avenida Oriente, 

367- 
Arellano, Felipe, 3* Avenida Oriente, 525. 
Arguinz6niz, Antonio, 3* Calle Sur, 422. 
Arriaga, Benigno, 4* Avenida Oriente, 73. 
Aspe, Francisco de R., 6* Avenida Oriente, 

154. 
Baz, Enrique, Tacubaya. 
Calderon, Est6ban, 13 Calle Norte, 125. 
Cafledo, Anastasio T., Avenida Oriente, 

333- 



Cafledo, Francisco, 3* Calle Sur, 422. 
Carrillo, Hermenegildo, 2* Mosqueta, 10. 
Castafleda. Jesds, 3* Calle Sur, 1007. 
Castellanos, Sdnchez M., 5* Avenida 

Oriente, 534. 
Castillo, Apolinar, 2* Avenida Poniente, 

647. 
Couttolenc, Jos6 M*, 3* Avenida Oriente, 

908. 
Cuellar, R6mulo, 2» Avenida Poniente, A, 

804. 



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2o8 



MEXICO. 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS— Continued. 
MEMBERS OF THE SENATE — Continued. 



Canseco, Agustin, 3» Avenida Oriente, 

570. 
Chdvez, Ignacio T., 33 Avenida Oriente, 

1504. 
Ddvila, Narciso, Avenida Oriente, 176. 
Diez Gutierrez, Pedro, 6* Avenida Oriente, 

121. 
Enriquez, Gumesindo, 3* Calle Sur, A, 2. 
Ferrer, Jos6 Triniddd, 6» Avenida Poni- 

ente, 202. 
Garcia, Jesds Alberto, 4* Avenida Oriente, 

73. 
Gonzalez, Agustin R., 4* Avenida Poni- 

ente, 404. 
tterrera, Julidn, 3* Calle Sur, A, 20. 
Hornedo, Francisco G., 3* Calle Sur, 422. 
Ibarra Ramos, Francisco, 4* Avenida Po- 

niente, 1034. 
Islas, Gabriel M., Zuleta, 8» Avenida 

Oriente, 78. 
Lancaster Jones, Alfonso, i* Avenida 

Oriente, 509. 
Landa y Escand6n, G. de, 3* Calle Sur, 

517. 
Le)rva, Francisco, Tacubaya. 
Loera, Jesds, 3* Avenida de la Paz, 2 b. 
L6pez Portillo, Ignacio, 8* Avenida 

Oriente. 
Maceyra, F61ix Francisco, 3* Calle Sur, 

206. 



Martinez de Castro, Ricardo, 3* Calle Sur, 

206. 
Meijueiro, Francisco, $• Avenida Oriente, 

504. 
Mendizdbal, Fernando G., Calle Sur, 402. 
Montalvo, Judn, i'* Calle Sur, 421. 
Montesinos, Jos6, Colonia de Arquitectos. 
Mora, Antonio, 2* Calle Sur, A, 28. 
Ortega Reyes, Manuel. r 

Pe6n y Contreras, Jos6, 3* Avenida 

Oriente, 112. 
Quaglia, Carlos, 4* Calle Sur, 411. 
Raigosa, Genaro, i* Avenida Oriente, 319. 
Ramirez, Jos6 M*, 6* Avenida Poniente, 

53. 
Rio, Agustin del, 8* Avenida Poniente, 

1079. 
Rivas, Carlos, i* Avenida Oriente, 325. 
Rojas, J. Luis, 3* Avenida Oriente, 900. 
Rubio, Enrique M., 8* Avenida Oriente. 
Sdnchez Castro, Pedro, 2* Avenida Oriente, 

1162. 
Tellez, Jos6 C, 2» Avenida Oriente, A, 

576. 
Teresa Miranda, Jos6 de, 8» Avenida 

Oriente, 120. 
Urueta, Eduardo, Avenida Oriente, 1177. 
Utrilla, Miguel, 4* Avenida Oriente, 19. 
Velasco, Emilio, 5* Calle Sur, 1026. 
Viesca, Andr6s S., 4* Calle Sur. 



MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES. 



Acufla, Pedro. Hotel Central. 
Alvarez, Jos6 Ignacio, Col6n. 
Andrade, Manuel, Callej6n de Santa Clara, 

No. 10. 
Arancivia, Julio, 4'* de Santa Maria, No. 4. 
Argaiz, Carlos, Hotel de San Cdrlos. 
Arriaga, Camilo, Antigua Penitenciaria, 

No. 431. 
Arroyo de Anda, Agustin, Puente de San 

Francisco, No. 13. 
Ayala, Carlos F. 



Ayala, Jesds, Migueles, No. 7. 

Azcu6, Pedro, Academia de San Carlos, 

No. 7. 
Alatriste, Uriel, Vergara, No. 11. 
Acevedo, Jesds, Comonfort, No. 4. 
Arce, Jos6 M., Hotel Cantab ro. 
Balandrano, Dario, i* de Guerrero, No. 18. 
Barreda, Joaquin de la, Calle de Balva- 

nera, No. 9. 
Barreiro, Eugenio (padre), Calle de Colon, 

No. 9. 



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MEXICO. 



209 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS— Continued. 

MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES — Continued. 



Barroso, Francisco D., Bajos San Agus- 

tin, No. 5. 
Barroso, Tel6sforo D., Estampa San An- 
dres, No. 2. 
Baz, Emilio, Empedradillo (Colegio), No. 

10. 
Bejarano, Ignacio, Montealegre, No. 4. 
Berea, Diego de A., 4'* de la Providencia, 

No. 6. 
Bolaffos, Benjamin, 2** Rivera San Cosme, 

No. 33. 
Bribiesca, Juan, Jesus Maria, No. 4. 
Bueno, Manuel, Villa de Guadalupe. 
Bulnes, Francisco, Glorieta de Col6n. 
Barra, Francisco de la, San Diego, No. 6. 
Cant6n, Waldemaro G., Viscainas, No. 6. 
Carpio, Angel, Merced (en la Cuna de 

Niftos). 
Casarln, Jos6, Portal Santo Domingo, 

No. 2. 
Casasds, Joaquin D., 3* de Humboldt, 

No. 712. 
Casco, Rafael, Calle de Tacdba, No. 25. 
Castellanos, Jos6 Maria, Ortega, No. 6. 
Castellanos, Juan N., San Diego, No. i. 
Castell6, Juan B., Ex-Seminario, No. 11. 
Ceballos, Lorenzo, San Fernando, No. 41. 
Cerda, Jesds M., 2«» Pila Seca (f rente i. la 

Cervezeria), No. 4. 
Cerddn, Agustin, Tiburcio, No. i. 
Cervantes, Eutimio, Calle de Yturbide, 

No. 4. 
Cisneros Cdmara, Antonio, 2» del Salto 
' del Agua, No. Sj4. 
Corona, Ram6n, Rosales, No. 7>i. 
Coronado, Mariano, Hotel Yturbide. 
Cosmes, Francisco G., Donceles, No. 20. 
Cravioto, Sim6n, Calle deQuesadas, No. 2. 
Crespo, Gilberto, Calle de Gante, No. 10. 
Cuesta y Lagos, Jos6 Maria, Hotel Nacio- 

nal. 
Curiel, Luis C, Calle de las Escalerillas 

No. 15. 



Carci, Manuel, Calle Cercada Misericor- 

dia, No. 23. 
Chavero, Alfredo, 2** de las Artes, No. 

2018. 
Chdzari, Est6ban, Arco San Agustin, No. 

II. 
Chdzaro Soler, Manuel, Hotel Yturbide. 
Chousal, Luis, Callej6n de la Polilla, No. 

i'A- 

Chousal, Rafael, En Palacio. 

Darqui, Manuel, Calle de Juan Manuel, 

No. 20. 
Dominguez, Angel M., I'^deColdn, No. 7. 
Dond6, Salvador, Calle de San Agustin, 

No. 9. 
Doria, Manuel Z., Hotel del Bazar. 
Dublin, Eduardo, Refugio, No. 15. 
Dubldn, Juan, Santa Teresa, No. 7. 
Dubldn, Manuel (hijo), 2* del Indio Triste, 

No. 5. 
Egea y Galindo, Ricardo, 2* de la Monte- 

rilla. No. 5. 
Elgu6zabal, Alejandro, Hotel Guillow. 
Escamilla, Vital, Lecuona, No. 5. 
Escoto, Joaquin M., Espalda de San 

Andres, No. 9^. ' 

Espafla, Nicolas. 

Esper6n, Antonino G., Cdrmen, No. 2. 
Esteva, Adalberto A., Hotel Humboldt. 
Esteva, Gonzalo A., Buena Vista, No. 18. 
Escontria, Bias, Calle del Esplritu Santo, 

No. 9. 
Fenochio, Pascual A., Calle de la Palma, 

No. 4. 
Fernandez, Justino, Tiburcio, No. 4. 
Fernandez, Serapi6n, Estampa de Bal- 

vanera. No. 5. 
Flores, Florencio, Portal Santo Domingo, 

No. 3. 
Flores, Luis, San Angel. 
Flores, Manuel, Bucareli, No. 6. 
Fortufto, Leonardo F., Ex-Seminario, 

No. 9. 



57A- 



-14 



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210 



MEXICO. 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS— Continued. 

MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES — Continued. 



Fuentesy Mufliz, Jesds, Monte de Piedad. 

Gamboa, Jos6 Antonio (hijo), Ortega, 
No. i8. 

Gamboa, Jos6 Maria, Donceles, No. 4. 

Garcia, Arnulfo, Santa Clara, No. i. 

Garcia, Daniel, Callej6n de Corpus-Cristi 
(Sordo-mudos). 

Garcia, Emilio E., Monte Alegre, No. 9^. 

Garcia, Jestis. 

Garcia, Trinidad, Callej6n de Corpus- 
Cristi, No. I. 

Garcia Heras, Ignacio, Hotel Bazar. 

Garcia Lopez, Francisco, i* de San Juan, 
No. 7. 

Garcia Luna, Luis, Calle Nueva, No. 12. 

Garcia Ramirez, Manuel, Tacubaya. 

Garfias, Luis G., Tacuba, No. 10, 

Gochicoa, Francisco de P., Aduana Vieja, 
No. 3. 

G6mez, Antonio, Hospicio de San Nicolas, 
No. 17. 

G6mez, Jos6 F. 

G6mez, Macedonio, San Felipe de Jesus, 
No. 10. 

G6mez Parada, Manuel, Avenida Juarez, 
No. 6. 

G6mez y Villavicencio, Ram6n, 2** dela R. 
Santa Maria, No. 11. 

Gonzdlez, Martin, Cadena, No. Sf 

Gonzdlez Porras, Jos6, Tacubaya, Car- 
tagena, No. 40. 

Goytia, Manuel E., Donceles, No. 5 y 6. 

Guill6n, Manuel, Joya, No. 9. 

Giiinchard, Miguel. 

Gutierrez, Cirilo J., Pafieras, No. 2. 

Gutierrez, Juan, Humboldt, No. 8. 

Gutierrez Ndjera, M., Pte. de Balvanera, 
No. 4. 

Herrera, Mauro S., San Ildefonso, No. 8^. 

Herrera, Rafael, !• San Juan, No. 9. 

Hornedo, Ricardo, Encarnaci6n, No. 4.. 

Ita, Carmen de, Callej6n de Santa Clara, 
No. 10. 

Izabal, Rafael. 



Jduregui, Jos6 Manuel. 

Jimenez, Rafael. 

Judrez, Benito, Arco de San Agustin, No. 7. 

La Barra, Francisco L. de, San Diego, 

No. 6. 
Labastida, Luis G., Cordobanes, No. 4. 
Laclau, Pedro, Xicotencatl, No. 2. 
Landa, Enrique, Corpus-Cristi, No. 2. 
Landazdri, Pedro. 
Lara, Donaciano, Hotel Oriente. 
Lascurain, Roman S. de, 3" Orden de 

San Agustin. 
Lebrija, Miguel, Donceles, No. 12. 
Limantour, Jos6 I., Corpus Cristi. 
Le6n, Manuel de, Ex-Seminario, No. 10. 
Le6n, Marcelo. 

Levi, Manuel, Hotel Yturbide. 
Lombardo, Alberto, 2*de Mesones, No. 2. 
Lopez de Lara, Domingo, Gallos, No. 5. 
Lozano, Agustin, Casino Nacional. 
Llaven, Magin. 
Llorente y Rocha, Enrique, San Ildefonso, 

No. 8. 
Mackintosh, Enrique G., Buena Vista, 

No. 4H' 
Malo, Alberto, Santa Ana, No. 6. 
Mancera, Gabriel, Cordobanes, No. 5. 
Mariscal, Alonso, Estampa de Jesus 

Maria, No. 7. 
Mdrquez Galindo, Manuel, Tacuba, N0.25. 
Martel, Jesds, Hotel Nacional. 
Martinez, Rosalino. 
Mateos, Juan Antonio, San Felipe Neri, 

No. 3. 
Medina, Manuel, Coliseo Viejo, No. 15. 
Mejia, Francisco, 2* Degollado, No. 30. 
M6ndez, Victor, Tacuba, No. 25. 
M6ndez Rivas, Federico, Popotla. 
Menocdl, Francisco de S. 
Mercado, Aristeo, Hotel Humboldt. 
Mexia, Enrique A. 
Michel, Faustino, Pte. de Alvarado, No. 

29. 
Mirus, Manuel. 



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MEXICO. 



211 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS— Continued. 

MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES — Continued. 



Mont, Enrique. 
Montiel, Julian. 
Moreno, Vicente, Pte. de la Aduana 

Vieja, No. lo. 
Muro, Manuel. 
Nicoli, Jos6 P., Hotel de la Gran Socie- 

dad. 
Ndflez, Eulalio, Hotel Europa. 
Ndiiez, Roberto, Bajos de San Agustin, 

No. 5. 
Olivo, Luis. 

Omafia, Enrique, Santo Domingo, No. 7. 
Ortiz Monasterio, Angel, Canoa, No. 7. 
Ortiz de Montellano, Mariano, Admon. 

General del Timbre (Palacio). 
Padilla, Angel. 

Palacios, Alberto L., Moneda, No. 2. 
Palencia, Francisco C, Venero, No. 2. 
Pardo, Emilio (jr.), Donceles, No. 23. 
Parra, Sim6n. 

Paz, Ireneo, Callej6n Santa Clara. 
Peniche, Manuel, Calle del Angel. 
Pefla, Diego de la. 
P6rez Ortigosa, Diego. 
P6rez Gallardp, Rafael, Cordobanes (No- 

taria). 
P6rez Verdia, Luis. 

Peza, Juan de Dios, Guardiola, No. 12. 
Piment61, Emilio, 5 de Mayo, No. 14. 
Pineda, Rosendo, Patoni. 
Pino, Roman. 

Pliego y P6rez, Antonio, Esclavo, No. 8. 
Poceros, Francisco, 4* de Zaragoza, No. 

39- 
Pombo, Luis, San Felipe Neri, No. 7. 
Pradillo, Agustin, Palacio Nacional. 
Preciado, Manuel V., Gante. 
Prieto, Guillermo, Tacubaya. 
Prieto y Garza, Jos6 Maria. 
RAbago, Jesds M., Pte. de Alvarado, No. 

30. 
Ramirez, Varela Manuel, Escalerillas, No. 

18. 
Ramos, Onofre, Hotel Humboldt. 



Reyes Retana, Tomas, 2» del Relox, No. 3. 

Reyes, Spindola Rafael. 

Riba y Echeverria, Antonio, Joya, No. 7. 

Rinc6n, Francisco. 

Rinc6n, Leopoldo, Montepio Viejo, No. 3. 

Rinc6n, Manuel E. 

Rinc6n Gallardo, Francisco. 

Rinc6n Gallardo, Pedro. 

Ritter, Ernesto, 4* del Pino, No. i. 

Rivas G6mez, Francisco. 

Rivas Mercado, Antonio, 3* de Humboldt, 

No. 2. 
Rivera, Teodoro. 
Riveroll, Ram6n Maria. 
Rodriguez, Ismael, Hotel del Bazar. 
Rodriguez, Pedro L., Calle de Dolores, 

No. 2. 
Rodriguez Talavera, Rafael, Hotel Ytur^ 

bide. 
Rojas, Augusto, Pte. de Villamil, No. 7. 
Rojas, Mois6s. 
Romero, Francisco, R. de San Ger6nimo,. 

No. 8. 
Romero, Jos6 Maria, 2» de Santa Maria, 

No. 12. 
Rubio, Fernando M., Cordobanes, No. 10. 
Rubio, Wenceslao, 2»de Humboldt, No. 2. 
Ruiz, Emilio, Hotel del Refugio. 
Riverol y Sinta, Ramon, 2» Vanegas, No. 8. 
Saenz Merds, Francisco. 
Sagaceta, Miguel. 
Salas, Ismael. 

Salazar, Demetrio, San Juan de Dios, No. i. 
Salcido, Rafael. 
Sdnchez, Vicente. 

Santa F6, Alberto, Hotel Guardiolo. 
Santibdfiez, Manuel, San Ger6nimo, No. 6. 
Seoane, Manuel M., Pte. de Balvanera, 

No. 6. 
Sepdlveda, Francisco. 
Serrano, Manuel, Santa Clara, No. i. 
Serrano, Miguel, Portillo de San Diego, 

No. 2. 
Sierra, Justo, San Juan de Dios, No. 4. 



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212 



MEXICO. 



THE XV CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS— Continued. 

MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES — Continued. 



Silva, Agapito. 

Sort, Enrique, Mixcoac. 

Terreros, Alberto. 

Thomas Terdn, Manuel, Ex-Aduana (Santo 

Domingo). 
Tic6, Manuel, 3» de Soto, No. lo. 
Torre, Juan de la. 

Torire y Mier, Ignacio de la Zuleta, No. 14. 
Tovar, Antonio, Tacubaya. 
Uriarte, Jesds F., Alcaiseria, No. 9. 
Utrilla, Miguel, Hotel Guardiola. 
Valenzuela, Jesds E.,Calle de las ArtCg 

(por la Colonia 1626). 



Vdzquez, Francisco, San Jos6 el Real (Re- 

lojeria). 
Vdzquez, Ignacio, Pte. Quebrado, No. 4. 
Veldzquez, Eduardo, Monte Alegre, No. 

19^. 
V61ez, Francisco (hijo), 2* de Mesones, 

No. 3. 
Vila, Manuel S., Hotel Yturbide. 
Vizcarra, Luis. 
Zdrate, Julio, 3* deSoto. 
Zetina, Fernando, Humboldt, No. 5 (Casa 

del Sr. Pacheco). 



Digitized by 



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Appendix C. 



NEWSPAPER DIRECTORY OF MEXICO. 

DAILIES. 



Location. 


Name. 


Character. 


Chihuahua, Chihuahua 


El Chihuahuense 

SigloXIX 

El Monitor Republicano 


Political. 


Mexico , Federal District 


Do. 
Do. 




Trait d'Union (French) 


Organ of the French colony. 
Organ of the Federal Govern- 
ment. 
Organ of the American colony. 
Political and Catholic. 
Political. 




Diario Oficial 




The Two Republics (English) 

La Voz de M6xico 

La Patria 




El Diario del Hogar 


Do. 




El Tiempo 


Political and Catholic 




La Politica 


Political 




El Mundo 


Miscellaneous. 




El Nacional ... 


Political 




El Partido Liberal 


Do. 




El Liberal Espafiol 

La Voz de Espafia 


Organ of the Spanish colony. 
Do. 




La Caridad 


Catholic. 




El Universal 


Political. 




El Anunciador Mexicano 

El Municipio Libre 


Commercial. 
Municipal organ. 
Commercial. 




La Bolsa Mercantil 


Guadalajara, Jalisco . . . 


Diario de Jalisco 


Political. 


Monterey, Nuevo Ledn 


La befensa del Pueblo 


Catholic. 


San Luis Potosf, San Luis Potosf . 
Mazatlan, Sinaloa 


El Estandarte 

El Correo de la Tarde 


Political. 
Commercia 


Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz 


El Diario Comercial 

El Ferro-Carril 


Do. 
Political. 


Merida, Yucatan 


El Telegrama 


Do. 




El Alva 


Do. 









213 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 



MEXICO. 

WEEKLIES. 



Location . 



Aguascalientes, Ag^ascalientes . 

Campeche, Campeche 

Isla del Cdrmen, Campeche 

Chihuahua, Chihuahua 

Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua. . 
Paso del Norte, Chihuahua 

Saltillo, Coahuila 

Colima, Colima 

Durango, Durango 

Villa Lerdo, Durango 

Mexico, Federal District 



Name. 



Character. 



El Republicano 

Soldado de la F6 

Reproductor Campechino 

Periddico Oficial 

El Estado dfi Chihuahua 

Revista de Chihuahua 

Libertad Cat61ica 

La Avispa 

El Parral 

La Revista Intemacional 

ElEco 

El Libre Exdmen 

La Instrucci6n 

El Estado de Colima 

La Revista Judicial 

Boletfn Municipal 

El Domingo 

El Espectador 

El Eco de Durango 

La Luci6rnaga 

El Abogado Cristiano Ilustrado. . . 

LaFamilia 

El Arte de la Lidia 

El Hijo del Ahuizote 

Convencidn Radical Obrera 

El Progreso 

El Escolar Mexicano 

Courrier du Mexique (Fr n h) 

La Voz de Hipocrates 

El Anglo-Americano (English) 

Revista Minera 6 Industrial 

El Porve ir de Mexico 

El Avisador Comercial 

El Correo de las Se£koras 

ElCombate 

El Economista Mexicano 

La Federaci6n 

La Semana Mercantfl 

La Escuela de Jurisprudencia 

La Voz de la Naci6n 

El Album de la Patria 

Boletfn Taurino 

Boletfn Eclesidstico 

La Germania (German) 

El Grito d Roma 

L s Estados 

ElFinanciero Mexicano (Engl sh). 



Organ of the State government. 
Miscellaneous. 

Do. 
Official organ. 

Organ of the State governmeiit. 
Political. 
Catholic. 
Political. 

Do. ' 
Commercial. 
Miscellaneous. 
Scientific. 
Catholic. 

Organ of the State government. 
Legal. 

Municipal organ. 
Catholic. 
Political. 
Miscellaneous. 
Political. 
Protestant. 
Literary. 

Tauromachy and public sports. 
Political. 
Industrial. 
Political. 
Educational. 

Organ of the French Colony. 
Pharmaceutical. 
Miscellaneous. 
Mining. 
Calisthenics. 
Advertising. 
Literary. 
Military. 
Financial. 
Political. 
Commercial. 
Legal. 
Political. 

Tauromachy. 

Catholic. 

Organ of the German colony. 

Catholic. 

Political. 

Commercial. 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 

WEEKLIES— Continued. 



2XS 



Location. 



Mexico, Federal District. 



Dolores Hidalgo. Guanajuato 
Guanajuato, Guanajuato 

Irapuato, Guanajuato 

Le6n, Guanajuato 

Chilpancingo, Guerrero 

Iguala, Guerrero 

Cocula, Guerreio 

-A pan, Hidalgo 

Pachuca, Hidalgo 



Tulancingo, Hidalgo 

Atoyac, Hidalgo 

Encarnaci6n de Diaz, Jalisco 
Guadalajara, Jalisco 



Lagos, Jalisco 

La Uni6n, Jalisco 
Toluca, Mexico.. 



Morelia, Michoacan. 



Name. 



ElTel6n 

El fistudio 

La Revista Financiera Mexicana . 

El Resumen 

El Correo Espaliol 

El Agente Minero Mexicano 

Guia PrA tica de Derecho 

Revista de M6xico 

El Anunciador Comercial 

Don Gregorito 

La Voz de Guanajuato 

El Avisador 

El Pueblo Cat61ico 

La Voz del Sur 

La Alianza de Acatempan 

El Buscapi^s 

El Gallito 

Peri6dico Oficia '. 

La Tribuna 

El Obrero 

El Explorador 

El Hidalguense 

El Instituto 

El Ideal 

El Regenerador 

El Pigmeo 

El Litigante 

El Mercuric O cidental 

La Gaceta Mercantil 

La Justicia Tapatfa 

ElTapatfo 

La Sombra de Cuauhtemoc 

Jalisco Ilustrado 

El Defensor del Pueblo 

El Aguijon 

La Verdad 

El Campesino , 

El Regenerador 

Boletin de la Lonja Agricola Mer- 
cantil. 

El Pueblo 

La Juveniud Liberal 

Luz de Verdades Cat61icas , 

La Familia Catdlica 

La Revista Cat61ica 

Pierrot 



Character. 



Commercial. 

Organ of the Spanish colony. 

Mining. 

Legal. 

Scientific. 

Commercial. 

Political. 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Catholic. 
Political. 
Literary. 
Miscellaneous. 

Do. 
Organ of the State government. 
Political. 

Do. 
Mining and Industry. 
Political. 
Educationa'. 
Literary. 
Scientific. 
Catholic. 
Legal. 
Political. 
Commercial. 
Political. 

Do. 
Literary. 
Political. 
Political. 

Do. 

Do. 
Catholic. 

Do. 
Commercial and agricultural. 

Political. 

Miscellaneous. 

Catholic. 

Do. 

Do. 
Literary. 



Digitized by 



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2l6 



MEXICO. 

WEEKLIES— Continued. 



Location. 



I 



Name. 



Character. 



Zamora, Michoacan 

Cuemavaca, Morelos 

Monterey, Nuevo Le6n 

Oaxaca, Oaxaca 

Puebla, Puebla 

San Martin Texmelucan, Puebla. 

Tehuacdn, Puebla 

Quer^taro, Quer^taro 

San Luis Potosl, San Luis Potosf . 
Culiacdn, Sinaloa 

Mazatldn, Sinaloa 

Rosario, Sinaloa 

Guaymas, Sonora 

Hermosillo, Sonora 

Magdalena, Sonora 

San Juan Bautista, Tabasco 

Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. . . 
Ciudad Guerrero, Tamaulipas. . . 

Ciudad Mier, Tamaulipas 

Matamoros, Tamaulipas . . 

Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas 

Tampico, Tamaulipas 

Tula, Tamaulipas 

La Paz, Territory of Lower Cali- 
fornia. 
Teplc, Territory of Tepfc 

Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala 

Alvarado, Vera Cruz 

Coatepec, Vera Cruz 

C6rdoba, Vera Cruz 



Don Barbarito. 

Don Carlitos. 

El Orden . 

La Voz de Nuevo Le6n. 

El Estudio. 

El Amigo de la Verdad . 

Boletfn Municipal. 

El Monitor de Puebla. 

La Justicia. 

El Periquito . 

El Dfa. 

La Sombra de Arteaga 

El Correo de San Luis 

El Estado de Sinaloa 

El Occidental... 

La Raz6n 

ElPacffico 

El Colegio Independencia . 

El Laico 

La Pildora 

El Sur de Sinaloa 

ElTrdfico 

La Libertad 

L^i Constituci6n 

ElSabado 

La Voz del Estado 

El Independiente 

La Opini6n Piiblica 

El Eco del Centro 

El Correo del Bravo 

La Uni6n Fronteriza 

El Obrero 

La Uni6n Obrera 

El Domingo 

ElOrden 

ElDuendc 

El Porvenir 

El Tulteco 

Boletin Oficial 



Peri6dico Oficial 

Lucifer 

Revista Comercial de Tepfc . 

El Estado de Tlaxcala 

El Defensor del Pueblo 

El Faro 

Boletin Cantonal 



Political. 

Do. 
Official organ. 
Political. 

Do. 

Do. 
Municipal organ. 
Political. 
Industrial. 
Political. 
Miscellaneous. 
Political. 

Do. 
Organ of the State government. 
Political. 
Catholic. 
Political. 
Educational. 
Spiritualistic. 
Political. 

Do. 
Miscellaneous. 

Do. 
Organ of the State government. 

Political. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Industrial. 
Political. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Literary. 

Organ of the Territorial govern- 
meJht. 

Do. 
Political. 
Commercial. 

Organ of the State government 
Political. 
Educational. 
Political. 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 

WEEKLIES— Continued. 



21' 



Location. 



Huatusco, Vera Cruz 

Jalapa, Vera Cruz 

Orizaba, Vera Cruz 

Pueblo Viejo, Vera Cruz 
Tlacotalpam, Vera Cruz . 
Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz . . 

Izamdl, Yucatan 

M6rida, Yucatan 

Chilchihuites, Zacatecas . 
Zacatecas, Zacatecas 



Name. 



La Voz de Huatusco 

ElEstudio 

El Siglo que Acaba 

La Primavera. . , 

Defensor del Pueblo 

El Correo de Sotavento 

El Mosquito 

El Moscard6n 

ElCentro 

La Sombra de Zepeda 

La Raz6n Social 

El Municipio . ; 

El Mosquito 

La Rosa del Tepeyac 

El Imparcial 

El Meteoro 

SEMI-MONTHLIES. 



Character. 



Literary. 

Do. 
Catholic. 
Miscellaneous. 
Political. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Municipal organ. 
Literary. 
Catholic. 
PoliUcal. 
Miscellaneous. 



Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. . 

Campeche, Campeche 

Chihuahua, Chihuahua 


La Gaceta Pdblica 


Miscellaneous. 


Diario Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 
Municipal organ. 


El Boletin Municipal 


Santa Rosalia, Chihuahua 


La Gaceta Municipal 


Do. 


Saltillo, Coahuila 


El Coahuilense 


Political. 


Colima, Colima 


El Renacimiento 


Do. 




La Voz del Progreso 


Literary. 
Scientific. 




La Lira de Occidente 


Duranero. Duranero 


Periddico Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 
Catholic. 




HojasSueltas 


Mexico, Federal District 


Gaceta M6dica de Mexico 

ElFaro 


Medical. 




Protestant. 




El Dfa 


Political. 




Revista de Legislaci6n y Juris- 


Legal. 




prudencia. 






Revista Militar Mexicana 


Military. 




Revista Telegrdfica Mexicana .... 


Telegraphic. 


* 


El Bien Social. 






Revista Juddica del Estado de 


Legal. 




M6xico. 




Tacubaya, Federal District 


Boletin Bibliogrdfico y Escolar. . . . 


Educational. 


Guanajuato, Guanajuato 


Peri6dico Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 




El Foro Guanajuatense 


Legal. 
Commercial. 




El Comercio del Bajfo 


P6njamo, Guanajuato 


La Patria de Hidalgo 


Political. 


Chilpancingo, Guerrero 


Peri6dico Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 


Guadalajara, Jalisco 


Juan Panadero 


Political. 



Digitized by 



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2l8 



MEXICO. 

SEMI-MONTHLIES— ConUnued. 



Location. 



Guadalajara, Jalisco . 



Tequila, Jalisco 

Tenancingo, Mexico 

Tenango del Valle, Mexico . 

Toluca, Mexico 

Morelia, Michoacan 



Pdtzcuaro, Michoacan 

Purudndiro Michoacan 

Cerralvo, Nucvo Le6n , 

Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo 
Le6n. 

Monterey, Neuvo Le6n 

Montemorelos, Nuevo Le6n 

Oaxaca, Oaxaca 



Pochutla, Oaxica. 
Aljojuca, Puebla . 
Puebla, Pue la . . . 



San Luis Potosf , San Luis Potosf . 



Mazatldn, Sinaloa 

Alamos, Sonora 

Guaymas, Sonora 

Magdalena, Sonora 

Ures, Sonora 

San Juan Bautista, Tabasco . 



Cunduacdn, Tabasco 

Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. . 
Matamoros, Tamaulipas , 



Tepic, Territory of Tepic. 



Name. 



Character. 



Colecci6n de Documentos Ecle- 
siasticos. 

La Repiiblica Literaria 

La Religion y la Sociedad 

El Testigo 

La Lintema de Di6genes 

La Palmera del Valle 

Investigador M6dico 

El Cantonal 

Provincia de Jalisco 

El Imparcial 

La Ensefianza Catdlica 

La Liga Escolar 

Gaceta Oficial 

do 
Desiderio y Electo 
La Municipalidad 
Angel delHogar 
La Voz de Oriente 
ElDfa 



Peri6dico Oficial 

La Vanguardia Fronteriza 

Peri6dico Oficial 

Boletfn Mercantn 

El Avisador de Puerto A* gel . 

El Ensayo 

El Cruzado 

El Comercio de Puebla 

La Esperanza 

El Anunciador Comercial 

El Bisemanal 

El Artesano 

Colegio, El Progreso 

El Chicote 

El Eco del Valle 

Peri6dico Oficial 

El Comercio 

La Central 

La Siesta del Obrero 

La Escuela Cat61ica 

El Mensajero 

El Eco del Pueblo 

Peri6dico Oficial 

El Cronista 

El A migo del Pueblo 

La Juventud 



Catholic. 

Literary. 
Catholic. 

Do. 
Literary. 

Do. 
Medical. 
Political. 
Literary. 

Do. 
Educational. 

Do. 
Organ of the State government. 

Do. 
Catholic. 
Political. 
Literary. 
Political. 

Do. 

Organ of the State government. 

Political. 

Organ of the State government. 

Commerci&l. 

Do. 
Political. 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Literary. 
Commercial. 
Political. 
Industrial. 
Educational. 
Political. 
Educational. 

Organ of the State government. 
Commercial. 

Do. 
Industrial 
Political. 
Miscellaneous. 
Political. 

Organ of the State government. 
Commercial. 
Political. 
Miscellaneous. 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 

SEMI-MONTHLIES-Continued. 



219 



Location. 


Name. 


Character. 


Huatusco, Vera Cruz 


El Progresista 


Political. 


Jalapa, Vera Cruz 


Bandera Veracruzano 


Do. 


M6xico Intelectual 


Educational. 


Orizaba, Vera Cruz 


Colecci6n de Lecciones Clfnicas . . 
Boletfn Municipal 


Medical. 

Municipal organ. 
Political. 




El Reproductor 




El Eco de la Juventud 


Literary. 


Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz 


El Centinela del Golfo 


Political. 


Zongolica, Vera Cruz 


El Zenzontle de Zempoala 

El Eco de la Montafia 


Do. 
Do. 


Izamdl, Yucatan 


La Voluntad Popular 


Do. 


M6rida, Yucatan 


El Eco del Comercio. . 

La Escuela Primaria 


Commercial. 




Educational. 




J. Jacinto Cuevas 


Musical. 




Defensor de la Constitucidn 

Cr6nica Municipal 


Organ of the State government. 
Municipal organ. 







EVERY THREE WEEKS. 

;o Oficial 

sta del Norte .... 

e Mayo 

;o Oficial 

m del Pueblo .... 
sta de M6 ida. . . 

MONTHLIES. 



Puebla, Puebla 


Peri6dico Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 
Political. 


Matamoros, Tamaulipas 


La Revista del Norte 


El Sol de Mayo 


Miscellaneous. 


Jalapa, Vera Cruz 


Peri6dico Oficial 


Organ of the State government. 
Do. 


M6rida, Yucatan 


La Raz6n del Pueblo 




La Revista de M6 ida 


Commercial. 



Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes.. 
Saltilln, Coahuila 


El Instructor 


Scientific. 


El Alivio de Mundo 


Commercial. 


Mexico, Federal District 


El Evangelista Mexicano 


Protestant. 




El Boletfn Mas6nico 


Masonic. 




Revista Latino-Americano 

Boletfn de la Santa Familia 

La Luz 


Miscellaneous. 

Catholic. 

Protestant. 




El Micr6fono 


Literary. 


Cela3ra, Guanajuato 


LaUni6n 


Society organ. 


Guadalajara, Jalisco 


El Mentor de los Nifios 


Educational. 




La Nifiez 


Do. 




La Revista Mercantil 


Commercial. 




La Espada de Damocles 


Political. 




El Expositor Biblico 


Protestant. 


Toluca, Jalisco 


La Antigua F6 


Do. 


La Piddad, Michoacan . 


El Destello 


Political. 


Monterey, Nuevo Le6n 


ElObrero 


Industrial. 



Digitized by Google 



220 



MEXICO. 

MONTHLIES— Continued. 



Location. 


Name. 


Character. 


Puebla, Pucbla 


Observaciones Meteordlogicas... 
Observaciones Meteor61ogicas — 
El Precursor 


Scientific. 


MazatUn, Sinaloa 


Do. 
Spiritualistic. 


Guavmas. Sonora . 


Boletfn Municipal 


Municipal organ. 
Educational. 




La Instrucci6n Piiblica 




El Obrero 


Industrial. 




El Regenerador 


Do. 


San Juan Bautista, Tabasco 

Matamoros, Tamaulipas 


La Bandera Roja 


Commercial. 


El Ramo de Olivo 


Protestant. 


Huamautla, Tlaxcala 


LaFilfpica 

La Biblioteca Escolar 


Legal. 


Coatepec, Vera Cruz. .. . 


Educational. 


C<5rdoba, Vera Cruz 


Revista de la Sociedad Jos^ M. 

Mena. 
El Sol 


Scientific. 




Masonic. 




Revista de Ciencias M^dicas 

Boletfn de la Sociedad Sdnchez y 

Oropeza. 
Boletfn del Clrculo EspiritisU Paz 

y Progreso. 
LaLuz 


Medical. 
Literary. 


Tlacotalpdm, Vera Cruz 


Spiritualistic. 
Masonic. 


Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz 


LaVerdad 


Catholic. 







TIME OF ISSUE NOT STATED. 



San Cristdbal LasCasas, Chiapas. 
Mexico, Federal District 


Periddico Oficial del Estado 

Chiapas. 
La Paz Piiblica 


de 


Organ of the State government. 
Political. 




ElForo 


Legal. 




La Revista Agricola 


Agriculture. 
Spiritualistic. 




La Ilustracidn Espirita 




La Evolucidn 




La Opinidn Nacional 






La Vanguardia 


Political. 









NoTB.— From the foregoing directory it will be seen that in the States, Territories, and Federal Dis- 
trict there are 318 publications issued, as follows : 

In Aguascalientes, 4 ; Campeche, 3 ; Chiapas, i ; Chihuahua, 10 ; Coahuila, 4 ; Colima, 5 ; Durango, 
7 ; Federal District, 77 ; Guanajuato, 10 ; Guerrero, 4 ; Hidalgo, 9 ; Jalisco, 29 ; Mexico, 8 ; Michoacan, 
II ; Morelas, i ; Nuevo Le6n, 7 ; Oaxaca, 4 ; Puebla, 12 ; Quer6taro, i ; San Luis Potosf, 4 ; Sinaloa, 
II ; Sonora, 13 ; Tabasco, 10 ; Tamaulipas, 16 ; Territory of Lower California, i ; Territory of Tepfc, 
4 ; Tlaxcala, 2 ; Vera Cruz, 32 ; Yucatdn, 12 ; Zacatecas, 6. 

The character of these publications is as follows : 

Political, 103 ; literary, 21 ; official, 36 ; commercial, 27 ; Catholic, 24 ; miscellaneous, 19 ; educational, 
15 ; scientific, 8 ; industrial, 8 ; organs foreign colonies, 7 ; Protestant, 7 ; legal, 9 ; spiritualistic, 4 ; agri- 
cultural, I ; Masonic, 3 ; mining, 3 ; tauromachy and public sports, 2 ; military, 2 ; society organ, i ; 
pharmaceutical, i ; telegraphic, i ; musical, i ; calisthenics, i ; medical, 4 ; advertising, i ; financial, i ; 
not stated, 8. Of these 313 are published in Spanish, 3 in English, 2 in French, and i in German. 



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MEXICO. 221 

There are 39 dailies, 154 weeklies, 86 semimonthlies, 6 published every three weeks, 35 monthlies, and 
8 the time of issue of which is not stated. 

The Federal District leads with 77 publications, Guadalajara, Jalisco following with 33, these being the 
most populated localities in the Bepublic. 

The oldest newspaper is the " Peri6dico Oficial de Jalapa," founded in 1834. The next in point of age 
is " ElSiglo XIX," first published on October 8, 1841, at the capital. The greatest movement in the 
newspaper field was noted during the year, 1890, 106 publications devoted to va];ious interests having 
been started in that year. From the beginning of 1890 to March i , 1891 , no less than 74 periodicals ceased 
publication, the oldest being ** £1 Eco del Distrito," founded in 1869 and formerly published in Tenan- 
cingo, State of Mexico. 

According to the Mexican system publishers of periodicals, to collect the amounts due by subscribers, 
draw drafts on them payable to the postmasters at their several localities, which drafts the postmasters 
collect, retaining a commission. During the fiscal year ending the 30th of June, 1890, there were depos- 
ited for collection in 14 post-offices in the Republic 60,000 drafts drawn by newspaper publishers of 
the face value of $301,882.26, which, added to the amount of the unpaid drafts of the previous year 
($87,963.01), makes $389,844.27. Of this amount there were collected and paid to publishers $236,33x.os, 
netting to the post-offices in the way of commissions $15,196.16, thus leaving $60,341.62 to be collected 
during the present fiscal year. The uncollectible drafts returned to publishers amounted to $88,055.64. 

The foregoing directory comprises publications issued in the Federal District and 454 ot the principal 
cities and towns in the Republic, and is corrected down to March i, xSgz. 



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Appendix D. 



MERCANTILE DIRECTORY OF MEXICO. 



ACAFULCO, 6UEBBER0. 

Arms and ammunition merchants. 
Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 
Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Banks and bankers. 

London Bank of Mexico and South America. 
Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 
Fernandez y Ca., B. 
Urunuelay Ca.,P. 

Books and stationery. 
Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 
Fernandez y*Ca., B. 
Pintos, Antonio. ^ 

Rodriguez, Ignacio. 
Urufiuelay Ca.,P. # 

Commission merchants. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 

Bello Hermanos. 

CaamaHo, Eduardo lij. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Kastan, Pedro. 

Lobato, Aristeo. 

Mendiola,Jos6. 

Stoll, Qerman. 

UruHuela y Ca., P. 
Drugs. 

Butron, Antonio. 

Link, Sucr. 

Posada, Roberto S. 

Dry goods. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 
Fernandez y Ca., B. 
Bello Hermanos. 
Caamafio, Eduardo M 
Cordova, Ramon C. 
Mendiola,Jos6. 
Rodriguez, Ignacio. 
UrufiuelayCa.,P. 

222 



ACAFULCO, OTJEBBEBO— Continued. 

Fancy goods. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Rodriguez, Ignacio. 

Urufiuelay Ca., P. 
Glassware. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Urufiuela y Ca., P. 
Groceries. 

Bello Hnos. 

Bustos, Antonio. 

Caamafio, Eduardo M. 

C61is, Ernesto G. 

C6rdova, Ramon C. 

Cuevas, Joaquin. 

Liquidano, Faustino. 

Liquidano, Herlindo O. 

Maresco,Jos6. 

01vera,Luis. 

Payno, Isabel G. de. 

Pintos, Antonio. 

Rodriguez, Ignacio. 

Rivera, Marcial. 

Villamar, Francisco. 

Valeriano, Juan. 

Vizcaino, Aureliano. 
Hardware. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Urufiuelay Ca., P. 

Importers of groceries. 

Alzuyeta y Ca. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Mendiola, Jos6. 

Urufiuelay Ca., P. 
Importers and exporters, 

Alzuyeta y Ca. 



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ACAFULCO, 6UEBBEB0 — Continaed. 

Importers and earporter«— Continued. 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

Urufiuelay Ca.,P. 
Ir<mwar.\ dealers and manufacturers. 

Fernandez y Ca.,B. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 
Jewelers. 

Bermudez, Pablo C. 

Martinez, P&nfllo. 

Ramirez, Gumesindo. 

Tellechea, Ignacio. 
Manufacturers and dealers in hoots and shoes. 

Ar6valo, Enrique. 

Cardona, J. £ncamaci6n. 
Manufacturers^ brick. 

Canale^, Francisco. 

Martinez, Francisco. 

Villamar, Francisco. 
Manufa^iturers^ cotton goods. 

Fernandez y Ca. , B. 
Manufacturers, cotton, linen, and woolen goods. 

Bello Hnos. 

Fernandez y Ca.,B. 

Manufacturers, soap. 
Pintos, Antonio. 

Sewing machines. 

Mazzini, Angel. 
Tailors. 

Elias y Tavares. 

Piza, Victor. 
Tobacco dealers. 

Alzuyeta Hnos. y Ca 

Fernandez y Ca., B. 

UruHuela y Ca., P. 

Villamar, F. 
Unclassijied merchants. 

Loughery,W. Robert 

Oetling, Gericke y Ca. 
Wati^mcbkers and silversmiths. 

Bermudez, Eraclio. 

Bermudez, Pablo C. 

Garcia, G. P. 

Luz, Daniel H. 

Martinez, P&nfllo. 

Mazzini, Angel. 

Ramirez, Gumesindo. 

AOTTASCAIIENTES, AOTTASCALIENTES. 

Agricultural implements. 
Aguilar Hermanos. 
Barkly, A. 
Berber, Vicente. 
PQon, Martin I. 



AOTTASCALIENTES, AOTTASCALIENTES— 

Continued. 

Banks and bankers. 

Banco Nacional. 

Guinchard, J. Rufujio. 
Books and stationery. 

Aguilar Hermanos. , 

Camino, M. 

D4villa, Cleto. 
Boots and shoes. 

Alvarez, Cruz. 

Comou, Pedra 

Duson, Reyes. 

Jiminez, Simon. 

Masson, Francisco. 

Nufiez, Marciano. 

Parga, Monico. 

Trejo, ManueL 
Carriage manufacturers and dealers, 

Chevas, Gil. 

Navarro, Antonio. 

Santiago, Pedro. 

Santoyo, Pedro. 
China, glassware, etc. 

Bemal, Andres. 

Castafieda, Margarita. 

Elizondo y Ca., Valera. 

Espino, Francisco. 

Iturbide, Bonifacio. 

Palacio, Emetrio. 

Sagredo, C4rlos. 

Vald6s, Pedro. 
Commission merchants. 

Aguilar Hermanos. 

Berber, Vicente. 

Chevez y Hijos, Viuda de. 

Gomez, JuanaD. 

Graumont, Eugenio. 

Guinchard, Refugio. 

Palacio, Emetrio. 
Drugs. 

Davila, Cleto M. 

Elizondo y Ca., Valera. 

Gonzalez, Alubiade. 

Marin, Francisco. 

Marin, Juan. 

Rosa, Luis de la. 

Sagredo, Cfirlos. 

Sandoval, Miguel. 
Dry goods. 

Aguilar Hermanos. 

Cazon, Agustln. 

Corpu, Pedro (wholesale). 

Davila, Cleto Maria. 

Diaz, Leon. 

Duron, Reyes (wholesale). 



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MEXICO. 



AOTTA8CALIE17TES, AGTTASCALIENTES— 

Continued. 
Dry flroods— Continued. 
Elizondo y Ca.,Valera. 
Gilly, Gonzalez. 
Gtonzalez, J. 
Gonzalez, Marin. 
Leautaud y Barbaroux. 
Leautaud Hermanos. 
Martinez, Manuel. 
Martinez, Severino. 
Pilon, Martin. 
Puga, Antonio. 
Pugo, Guilhermo. 
Romero, Manuel. 
Vazquez, Ignacio. 
Zuluaga, Manuel. 

Fancy goods. 

Aguilar, Edmundo. 

Chavez, Rafael. 

Chavez, Trifonio. 

Leal, Alberto. 

Sagredo, C&rlos. 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Aguilar Hermanos (importers). 

Berber, Vicente. 

Castafieda, Margarito. 

Cruz, Fernando. 

D4valos, Sue. 

Enriquez, Ciprian. 

Enriquez, Santiago. 

Espino, Francisco. 

Gonzalez, Espiridiou. 

Gramont, Eugenio. 

Guinchard, Refugio J. (importer). 

Leal, Alberto. 

Morfln Vargas Hermanos. 

Ocampo, Epifanio. 

Ortiz y Vallejo. 

Pedroza, Francisco. 

Roman, Antonio. 

Torres, Florentino. 

Torres, Leonardo. 

Valdez, Pedro. 

Hardware. 

Berber, Vicente. 
Bemal,Andr6s. 
Castafieda, Margarita. 
Espino, Francisco. 
Gk>nzalez, Esperidion. 
Guinchard, Refugio. 
Herrera, Florentino. 
Palacio, Emetrio. 
Perez, Esteban. 
Sagredo, C&rlos. 



AGTTASCALIENTES, AOTTASCAUENTES— 

Continued, 
flarduwre— Continued. 

Vald6s, Pedro. 

Ventura, Nicanor. 
Hat manufacturers and dealers. 

Alem&n, Santos G. 

Parra, Felipe. 

Parra,Juan. 

Ironware merchants and manufacturers. 

Berber, Vicente. 

Guinchard, Refugio. 
Jewelry^ watches^ and silver. 

Iturbide. 

Robles, Victor, 

Romo, Ricardo. 

Sagredo, C4rlos. 

Sancedo, Juan 

Von Faber, Ricarda 
Lithographers. 

Davalos, Nestor. 

Pedrosa, Trinidad. 

Manufacturers of brass and iron bedsteacU. 
Arteaga, Juan. 
Hernandez, Valentin. 

Paints, colors, and varnishes. 

Carrasco,J. 

Irigoyen, Adalberto. 

Vargas, Anastasio. 

Vargas, Jos6. 
Pianos and organs. 

Inostrosa, Gregorio. 

Perchez,Jos6. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Diaz, Juan. 

Sandoval, Miguel. 

Sandoval, Pascual. 

Sewing machines. 
Adler,M. 

Ketelsen y Dejetao. 
Normann, Alberto. 
Norwald, Enrique. 

UndoMified merchants. 
Aguilar, Edmundo. 
Aguilar, Luis. 
Bemal, Francisco M. 
Chavtez, F.Ruiz. 
Davalos, Enrique. 
Gk>nzalez, Marin. 
Leal,Arturo N. 
Lopez, Fernando. 
Morfln, Antonio, y Ca. 
Ocampo, Tomas. 



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MEXICO. 



22 5" 



AOTTA8CALIERTE8, AOTTASCALIENTES— 
Continued. 

Unclassified merchants— Continned. 
Quinchard y Vallego. 
Romero, Miguel. 
Vargas Hermanos. 
Zuloaga, Jos6 Maria. 

ALAMOS, SONOSA 

Commission merchants. 

Bours y Hi jo, T. Robinson. 
OcharanyCa., Oscar. 
Robinson, Tomas. 
Salazar, Pedro L. 

ALLENBE, CHiHTJAHUA 

Commission merchant. 

Benitez, Cayetano. 
Boots and shoes. 

Chavez, Jos^ Q. 
Dry goods, groceries, and provisions. 

Benitez, Cayetano. 

Chabre, Martin. 

Majmez, Miguel H. 

Ochoa, Jos6 D. 

RussekyHno., Marcos. 

AMECA, JALISCO. 

l^rugs. 

del Rio, Antonio S. 

Fernandez, Aurelio M. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Martinez, Adolfo de J. 

Uribe, Salvador. 

ATLIXCO. PUEBLO. 

Arm^ and ammunitUyn. 
Leichtlein, Felipe. 

Carriage manufacturer and dealer. 

Salazar, Jos6 Maria. 
China and glassware. 

Leichtlein, Felipe. 
Dry goods. 

Avalos, Ignacio. 

Cabrera, Antonio. 

Morales, Tom&s. 

Ramirez, Lorenzo. 
Fancy goods. 

Leichtlein, Felipe. 
Groceries and provisions, 

Carbajal, Antonio. 

Carbajal, Manuel. 

Cardoso, Febronio. 
57A 15 



ATLIXCO, FUEBIX)— Continued. 

Groceries and provt«ton»— Continued. 

Hernandez, Luis. 

Mendieta, Agustin. 

Otero, Pedro. 

Rivera, Ignacio. 

Rocha, Bernardo. 

Rosales, Pedro. 

Ruiz, Manuel. 

Soto, Angel. 
Hardujare. 

Leichtlein, Felipe. 
Paints and oils. 

Barcenas, Gabriel. 

Leichtlein, Felipe. 

AUTLAN, JAUSCO. 

Merchants. 

Araiza, Francisco. 
Barragan, Ireneo R. 
Corona, Juan. 
Espinosa, Oregorio. 
Oomez, Wulfrano. 
Michel, Gregorio. 
Santana, Agapito. 

GAMABOO, TAMAULIPAS. 

Exporters of hides and skins. 

Garcia, Donaciano G. 

Pefia, Juan Garcia. 
Importers. 

Garcia, Donaciano G. (general merchandise). 

Gutierrez y Hno., Jos6 Angel. 

Madrigal, Santos Valle. 

Pefia, Juan Garcia. 

Tames y Hno., Donaciano. 

CAMFECHE, CAMPECHE. 

AgrigulturaX implements. 
Berron, Fernando. 
Castellot, Hermanos. 

Bankers. 

Cano Diego, Fernando J. 

Castellot, Hermanos. 
Boots and shoes. 

Leon, Gualter. 

Medina, Jos6 J. 

Ortiz, Antonio. 

Ortiz, Carlos. 

Quijano, Felipe. 
Carriage Manufacturers and dealers. 

Mendoza, Pilar. 

Perez, Lorenzo. 

Rodriguez, Ignacio. 



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MEXICO. 



CAMFECHE, CAMPECHE— Ontinued. 

China and glasstoare. 
Estrada, A. Mendez. 

Commission merchants. 

Garcia, Juan Garcia. 

Oliver yCa., A. 
Drugs. 

Del Rio, Joaquin. 

Espinola, Manuel. 

Gala, Joaquin R. 

Lauz, Manuel A. 

Lavalle, Eduardo. 

Leon, Agustin. 

Oliver, Manuel Lopez. 
Dry goods. 

Castellot, Hermanos. 

Castillo, J066 M. 

Lopez, Jos6 T^ 

MacGregor, Jos6 F. Estra 

Oliver y Ca., A. 

Fancy Goods. 

Araoz, Pablo J. 

Baeza, Julio. 

Estrada, A. Mendez. 
Pumiture dealers. 

Campos, Juan de la Cabada 
Groceries and provisions. 

Berron. Fernando. 

Boldo, Narciso (importers). 

Cano y Cano, Francisco. 

Cano y Diego, Fernando J. 

Castellot Hermanos. 

Diego, Ignacio Cano. 

Llovera, Antonio. 

Mena, Ricardo. 

Oliver yCa., A. 

Hardtoare. 

Berron, Fernando. 
Berron Hermanos. 
Zuloaga, Jos6. 

Hats. 

Rodriguez, Jos6. 
Paper. 

Araos, Pablo J. 

Sevnng machines. 
Oliver yCa., A. 
Ramirez, Antonio I. 

CABMEN, CAMFECHE. 

Dry goods. 

Qoyta^ Garcia y Ca. 
Pallas, Francisco. 



CABMEN, CAMFECHE— Continued. 

Drugs. 

Arcu6, Venancio S. 
Ibarra, A. 
Lagunera, Manuel. 

General merch^ints. 
Aniza, Benito. 
Burgos, Hermanos. 
Colareloy Ca.,B. F. 
Domingo, Perez y Field. 
Escribano, Jo84 Poveda. 
Ferrer, Felipe. 
Ferrer, Jos6 Otero. 
Guliani, Numa (books). 
Hernandez, Quirino. 
Martinez, Antonio. 
Manjarrez Hermanos. 
Nieves y Ca. 

Pallas, Francisco (dry goods). 
Paullaada, Esteban. 

Quintana, Joaquin (commission merchant). 
Ropeto, Juan Luis (groceries and provisions). 
Saeno, Pc^carpo. 
Slovero, Juan. 
Willms y Ca. (importers). 
Zaldivar, Antonio. 

CHALCHICOMULA, FUEBLA. 

Drugs. 

Altamirano,J.M. 

Amador, M. * 

Castillo, Francisco. 

Morales, S. L. 
Dry goods merchants. 

Reynaud, Camilo. 

Rivera, G. 

Urichi y Sobs, Otaolo. 
Fancy goods. 

Bocanegra, J.Maria. 

Maldonado y Rousset. 
General merchandise. 

Campos, M. 

Cordero, Viuda de R. 

Delgado, F. 

Gomez, Juan N. 

Martinez, E. L. 

Rodriguez, A. J. M. 

Rodriguez, Jos6 de J. 
Hats. 

Martinez, Guadalupe. 
Hardware. 

Meza,Alejo. 
Stationery. 

Mellado, Jos6 M. 



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227 



CHIAPAS, CdlAFAS. 

Cfeneral merchants. 
Farrera, Vicente. 
Flores, Romualdo. 
Guirao, Narciso. 
Lazos, Aiigusto. 
Farria^ua, Wenceslao. 
Bamos, Benedicto. 
Solorzano, Refugio. 

CHIHUAHUA, CHIHUAHUA. 

Agricultural implements and hardware. 

Amendari. Ramon. 

Balderran, Narciso. 

Brittinghaus, J. M. 

Fandoe Succ., Luis. 

Fraser & Chalmers. 

Ketelsen & pegetau. 

Lerma, J086. 

Lynch y Ca. 

Nordwald, H. 

Reinhardt, H. O. 

Rembez & Bezaury. 

Serraga, Juan. 

Taseira, Felix F. 
Baviks and hankers. 

Sucursal del " Banco Nacional. " 

'*■ Banco Minero Chihuahuense.'' 

Banco de Santa Eulalia. 

Banco Mexicano. 

Banco de Chihuahua. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

Maceyra, Felix F. 

Macmanus 6 hijos, F. 

Solas, Miguel. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Maceyra, F61ix. 

Miramontes, Donato. 

Villar, Antonio. 
Boots and shoes. 

Coriche, Dario. 

Larrang, J. A. 

Martinez, Jos6. 

Molina, J. J. 

Ortegon, Policarpo. 

Perchoz, J086. 

Yidal, Matias. 

Williams, J. 

Zeldivar, Mariano. 
Carriages. 

Carroceria de Lanmi. 

Carroceria de Lerma. 

Lerma, Juan. 

lomch y Ca. 



CHIHUAHUA, CHIHUAHUA.— Continued. 

China and glassware. 

Armendariz, R. 

Creel, Enrique. 

Rutiaga, Eduardo. 

Vidal, Mathias. 
Commission merchants. 

Arguelles, Ganuto. 

Armendariz, R. 

Castro, Trinidad. 

Cuevas, Santiago. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

Madrid, J. 

Navarro, E. 

Reinhardt, H. O. 

Ruiz, Francisco. 

Sanchez. 

Terrazas, Juan. 

Vega, Anastasio. 

Villa, Antonio. 
Drugs. 

Botica del Aguila. \ 

Botica de Carlos Cueley. 

Botica de Eva^to Ordaz. 

Botica Mexicana. 

Botica Universal. 

D&vila. Cleto M. 

Elizondo, Val6ra. 

Gonzalez, Alcibiades. 

Lafon, Emilio. 

Marin, Juan. 

Rosa, Luis de la. 

Sagredo, C&rlos. 

Sandoval, MigueL 
Dry goods. 

Corpu, Pedro. 

Duron, Reyes. 

Ketelsen & Degetau. 

La F4brica de Francia. 

La Francia Maritima. 

LaSorpresa. 

Maceyra, J. F. 

Macmanus 6 hijos, F. 

Nordwald, H. 

Rubin y Ca., J. 

Sanchez, Jos6 Maria. 
Fancy goods. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

Nordwald, H. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 
Furniture dealers. 

Anthony, George H. 

Armendariz, Ramon. 

Ketelsen y Dejetau. 

Lamm, C. C. 



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MEXICO. 



CHIHTJAHUA, CHIHUAHnA— Continued. 

Furniture dealers— Continued. 

Lynch y Ca. 

Nordwald, Enrique. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 

West, Ch. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Aldana y Hnos. 

Armendariz, Ramon. 

Dale Bros. 

Ketelsen & Degetau. 

Maoeyra, F61ix F. 

Molinar y S&nchez. 

Nordwald, H. 

Padilla y Ca., Albino. 
Hat stores. 

El Sombrero Rojo. 

Sombrererfa Mexicana. 
Ironware dealers and manufacturers. 

Ketelsen & Degetau. 

Nordwald, H. 

Reinhardt,H.O. 
Jewelers and vjatchmakers. 

Alguin, Antonio. 

Arellano y Ca., Serrlano. 

Chacon Hermanos. 

Holland, Enrique. 

Gautier,N. 

Zavalza y Pina. 

Zavalza, C. 

Zavalza, Felipe. 
Musical instruments. 

Inostrosa, Qregorio. 

Miramontes, D. 

Perchez.Jo86. 
Merchants^ general. 

Aldana, R.S. 

Altamirano, Manuel M. 

Armendario, Ramon. 

Azrinzulo, Antonio. 

Azumolo, Juan M. 

Bessauri, Felix. 

Chaves, Genaro J. 

Creel, Enrique C. 

Fandoa, Luis. 

Hooper y Ca. 

Ketelsen y Dejetau. 

Kuiz, Francisco. 

Lequin&zaval, Domingo. 

Lorenzo, M. 

Loya, Carlos. 

Maceyra, Felix F. 

Macmanus y Hijos, F. 

Maye, Gustavo. 

Mifiagoren, Pedro. 



CHIHUAHUA, CHIHUAHUA— Continued. 

Merchants^ grenerc^— Continued. 

Munoz, Silvino. 

Navarro, Benigno. 

Navarro, Hermanos. 

Norwald y Ca. 

Partida Hermanos. 

Puig y Domingo. 

Salas,MigueL 

Sanhez, Jos6 Maria. 

Schusster, B. 

Stalfordt,J. 

Tejeda, Refugio. 

Terraza,Juan. 

Trevino Hermanos, Gonzales 

Venmehren, Guillermo. 
Paints^ oils^ and varnishes. 

Carra8co,J. 

Irigoyen, Adalberto. 

Newton & Andrew. 

Vargas Anastasio. 

Vargas, Jos6. 
Sewing machines. 

Adler.M. 

Ketelsen y Dejetau. 

Macmanus, Franc^. 

Norwald, Enrique. 

Reinhardt, H. O. 

CHILPANCIirOO, OUEBSEBO. 

Bankers. 

Fuente, Egidio de la (Banquero de '' La Mfi- 
tua"). 

de Cells, Gabriel F. (Agente del *' Banco Na- 
cional "). 
Drugs. 

Manjarrez, Juan Cruz. 

Parra, Miguel. 

Rodriguez, Alberto. 
Principal merchants. 

Cabafias, Jos6 M. 

Calvo,Ignacio (general merchandise). 

Campos, Rafael A. 

de Cells, Gabriel F. 

Enriques, Lucas (general merchandise). 

Ferreyro, Francisco L (books and stationery). 

Gavito, Juan (general merchandise). 

Godinez, Sab&s y Vicente. 

Guevara, Donaciano (general merchandise). 

Morlet, A. 

Patino, Manuel. 

Reyes y Hermano, A. 

Rodriguez, Agustin (general merchandise). 

Rodriguez, Alberto. 

Rodriguez, Tomas. 



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CIUDAB OUEBBEBO, TAMAITLIPA8. 

Soots and shoes. 

Mejid, Tomas. 

Siller, Manuel. 

Vergard, Agustin. 
Commission merchants. 

Ramirez, Manuel. 

Soltero, Crescencio. 

Yaflez, Lorenzo. 
Vrugs. 

Fernandez, Antonio M. 

Gonzalez, Martin. 

Winslow, Carlos. 
Dry goods. 

Ruiloba,Jos6. 

Ruiz, Vicente. 

Sanchez, Francisco. 

Volpe, Hermanos. 

General stores. 

Canales, Q. 

Flores, Juan Manuel. 

Flores, Joaquin. 

Garza, E. Gutierrez. 

Garza, Guillermo. 

Garza, Porflrio C. 

Gonzalez, Emetrio. 

Gutierrez, Anastacio. 

Gutierrez, Cadena. 

Gutierrez, Encamacion. 

Gutierrez, Juan de Dios. 

Sada, Justino. 

Salazar, Victor. 

Baldafia, I. 

Vela, Manuel Ramirez. 

Villa, Erasmo. 
Hardtoare and house furnishing goods. 

Chavez, Marcelo. 

Gutierrez, Juan de D. 

Hughes, D. M. 

Saldafia, I. 

Jewelers. 

Gonzalez, Agustin. 
Garza, Gillermo. 

CIUDAB JEBEZ, ZACATECA8. 

Banker. 

Castellanos y Ca., Antonio R. 

Carriage dealers. 

Castellanos y Ca., Antonio R. 
Drugs. 

Sscobedo, J. VillaJobos. 

Ortiz y Ca., Jos6 Maria. 

Roman y Ca., Tomasa C. de. 



CIUDAB JEBEZ, ZACATECAS—Continued. 

Dry goods. 

Berumen, J. Antonio. 

Brilanti, Rafael. 

Escobedo, Higinio. 

Escobedo, Juan P. 

Hoyo, Eugenio del. 

Sanchez, Francisco de B. 

SUva, Francisco Escobedo. 
Fancy goods. 

Arellano, Luis. 
Furniture. 

Castellanos y Ca., Antonio R. 
General goods. 

Carrillo, Castellanos y Damas. 
Hardware. 

Arellano y Ca., Luis. 

Cabrera, Jos6 Felix. 

Escobedo, Juan de D. 
Setoing machines. 

Gutierrez, Manuel Macia. 

CIUDAD JUABEZ, CHIHUAHUA. 

Arms and ammunition. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 
Banks and hankers. 

Banco Chiahuahuense. 

Banco Minero. 

Sucursal del Banco Nacional del Paso, Texas. 

Bronson, E. B. 

Ochoa, Inocente. 

Boots and shoes. 

La Constancia. 

Zapaterfa Mexicana. 
Carriage dealers. 

Riebeling, Maximiliano. 
China and glassware. 

Loeb Hermanos. 
Commission merchants. 

Alvarez, Joaquim A. 

Arguelles, Canute. 

Barroso, Cliserio. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

Drugs. 

Hernandez, H. 
Lewis y Ortega. 

Dry goods. 

Flores, Jos6 Maria. 

Flores, Nicolas. 

Ochoa, Inocente. 
Ch'oceries and provisions. 

Dieter y Sauer. 



Digitized by 



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230 



MEXICO. 



CIUDAB JTTABEZ, CHIHUAHUA— Cont'd. 

Groceries and provisions— ContiDued. 

Garcia, Andres. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

S&nchez, Hermanos. 

Schuster y (X, B. 

Treuba Hermanos. 
Hardware. 

Krakauer, Zork y Moye. 

Jewelers. 

Kahn Hermanos. 
Music store. 

WaJz,W.G. 
Sewing machines. 

Ketelsen y Degetau. 

CIUDAB PABSA8, COAHUILA. 

AgriculturaX implements. 

KOnig, Guillermo (viuda de). 
Siebery Ca.,C. 

Bankers. 

Behr, Juan. 

Madero y Ca., Manuel. 

Misa, Gonzi^ez. 

Yarto, Jos6. 
Boots and shoes. 

Charles y Hermano, M. 

Garcia, Anastacio. 

Talavera,Juan. 
Carriage dealers. 

Olvera y Herman©. 
Commission merchant. 

Behr, Juan. 
Drugs. 

A^uirre, Pedro. 

Martinez, Alfonso. 

Maynes, Eduardo. 

KOnig, GuOlermo (viuda de). 
Dry goods. 

Adame, Porflrio. 

Chapman, Fernando. 

Martinez, Martin. 

Misa, Jos6 Gonzalez. 

Fancy goods. 

Behr, Juan. 

K3nig, Guillermo (viuda de). 

Maynezy Ca. 

Siebery Ca.,C. 
Furniture. 

Siebery Ca.,C. 
Groceries and provisions, 

Behr, Juan. 



CIUDAB PABBAS, COAHUILA— (Cont'd. 

Groceries and provmon«— Ck>ntinued. 
Chapman, Fernando. 
Martinez, Martin. 
Misa, Jos6 Gonzalez. 
Rojo, Bemigio. 
Ruiz, Ernesto. 

Joint stock company. 

de Velasco y Ca., Ruiz. 
Hatters, 

Behr, Juan. 

Misa, Jos6 Gonzalez. 

Martinez, Martin. 
Hardware. 

Behr, Juan. 

KOnig, Guillermo (viuda de). 

Siebery Ca.,C. 
Music stores. 

Behr, Juan. 

Prince de Maynez, Margarita. 

Sewing machines. 
Behr, Juan. 
K5nig, Guillermo (viuda de). 

CIUBAB SAYULA, JAUSCO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Preciado, Paulino. 

Vizcajmo y Larios. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Vazquez, Pablo. 
Boots and shoes. 

(>)rtez,Silvestre. 

Ramos, Policarpo. 
Carriage dealers. 

Larios, Benigno. 
Drugs. 

Cisneros, Jos6. 

Duran, Alberto. 

Mourett, Juan O. 
Furniture dealers and manufcuiturers, 

Alcarez, Epitacio. 

Figueroa, Pascual. 
Groceries and provisions. 

AguOar, Clemente. 

Aguilar, Graciano. 

Aguilar,Jos6L. 

Cisneros y Hermano. 

Cisneros, Jos6 Antonio. 

Fuente, Francisce de la. 

Fuente, Miguel W. de la. 

Fuentes, Pablo. 

Gil, Manuel Robles. 

Juan y Torre, A. 

Preciado, Paulino. 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 231 

CITJDAB SAYTJLA, JALISCO— Continued. COUMA, COUMA— Ck>ntinued. 



Groceries and provi8ton«— Continued. 
Torres y Ca. , Rafael. 
Vazquez, Vicente N. 
Vizcayno y Larios. 

Ironware dealers and manufacturers. 
Preciado, Paulino. 
Vizcayno y Larios. 

COIUIA, COUMA. 

Agricultural implements^ arms^ and ammuni- 
tion. 

Oldenbourg, Jorge. 
Bankers. 

Alcarez, Jos6 M. 

Barreto, Qregorio. 

Flor, Christian. 

Flor y Kofani. 

Guizary Ca. 

Medina, Agustin. 

Oetling y Ca., Alejandro, Sue. 

Vargas, Agustin. 

Banks. 

Banco de Londres, M6jico y Sud America 
Ltd. (Agency). 

Banco Nacional (agents, Amoldo Vogel y Ca.). 
Books and stationery. 

Campero, Severo. 

Schmidt, J. F. A. 

Urzua, Juana. 

Urzua,Silvestre D. 
Boots and sJioes. 

Chanona, Antera. 

Ruiz,Jos6. 
Cardboard manufacturer. 

Guerrero, Luis. 
Carriage dealers. 

Cosio, Tiburcio. 

Dorantes, Eduatdo. 
Commission merchants. 

Flor, Christian. 

Oetling y Ca, Alejandro, Sue. 

Ruiz, Porciano. 

Vega, Ramon J. de la. 

Drugs. 

CJuera, Francisco C. 

Fuentes, Ignacio. 

Mendoza, Jos6 L. 

Moni, Agustin. 

Morril hijo,Augusto. 

Orozco, Oescencio. 

Suarez, Cosmo. 
Dry goods. 

Bazan, Ramon. 



Dry gK)od«— Continued. 
Diaz, Epif anio. 

Oetling y Ca., Alejandro, Sue. 
Rodriguez y Ca., Guzman. 
Rosas, Luisa Garcia. 
Silva, Roberto. 
Silva,Porflrio. 
Urzua, Juana (silks). 

Fancy goods. 

Oldenbourg, Jorge M. 
Rendon, Jos6 Maria. 

Furniture dealers and manufacturers. 

Benitez, Justo. 

Bustos, Othon. 

Quifiones, MarceUno. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Alvarez, Gregorio. 

Barreto, Isidoro. 

Bazan, Ramon. 

Calleja, Antonio de la. 

Diaz, Epif anio. 

Flor, Christian. 

Flor y Kofani. 

Garcia, Esteban. 

Qomez, S. 

Guizar y Ca., Dolores. 

Gutierrez, Ignacio D. 

Oetling y Ca., Alejandro, Sue. 

Oetling Hermanos y Ca. 

Oldenbourg, Jorge. 

Plaza, Alberta de la. 

Plaza, Francisco de la. 

Rodriguez y Ca., Guzman. 

Rodriguez, Manuel. 

Rosas, Luis Garcia. 

Vargas, Francisco. 

Vega, Ramon J. de la. 

Vogel y Ca., Amoldo. 
Hardware. 

Ceja,Jos6 Maria. 

Eschacht, Agustin. 

Oldenbourg, Jorge. 

Rendon, Jos6 Maria. 

Rodriguez, Manuel. 

Smith y Madrid. 
Hat stores and manufacturen 

Gudifio, Roque. 

Parra, Aurelio. 

Perez, Jos6 Maria. 
Importers and exporters. 

Flor, Christian. 

Guisar, Dolores. 

Madrid, Zenobio. 

Oetling y Ca., Alejandro, Sue. 



Digitized by 



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232 



MEXICO. 



COUMA, OOUKA— Continued. 

Importers and exporters— Continued. 

Oldenboorg, Jorge. 

Plaza, Enrique de la. 

Rodriguez, ManueL 

Ruiz, PoDciano. 

Vanderlindeii, Vogel y Ca. 
Ironware dealers and manufacturers. 

BaiTeto,l8idoro. 

Barreto, Miguel. 

Flor, Christian. 
Jewelers. 

Oldenbourg, Jorge. 

Rodriguez y Ca., Guzman. 
Lithographers. 

Rivera, Rosendo R. 
Sewing machines. 

Gutierrez, Ignacio D. 

Ibarra, EliezerM. 

Morril 6 hi jo, Augusto. 

Oldenbom^g, Jorge. 

COLOTLAK, JALISCO. 

Bankers. 

Muro, Ramon del. 

Real, Miguel 8. del 
Drvjgs. 

Castillo, Ramon Mora. 

Trujillo, Celedonio. 
Dry goods. 

Lopez y Ca., Cipriano. 

Moreno, Adolf o. 

Rodriguez, Sdstenes. 

Saldafia, Miguel. 

Zulueta,Juan. 
General merchandise. 

Barragan, Rosendo. 

Cardenas, ManueL 

Escobedo,J. 

Casas, Jos6 Maria Rodriguez. 

Castafleda 6 hijos (viuda de). 

Lopez y Ca., Cipriano. 

Mayorga, Jos6 Maria. 

Moreno, Adolf o. 

Real, Damien del. 

Saldafia, Miguel 

Sandoval, J. 

Zulueta,Juan. 

CdBDOBA, VERACBTTZ. 

Bankers. 

Diaz, Jos6 Fernandez. 

Valdez, Mariano R. (agent Banco de Londres y 
M6xico). 



I 



OdBDOBA, VERACEUZ— Continued. 



Booksellers. 

Baturoni, Ana Ant> Roy de. 

Leal, Al vino A. 

Ortega, Antonio. 
Commission merchants. 

Carbajal, Luis M>. 

Diaz, Jo66 Fernandez. 

Gomez, Jo66 Diaz. 

Gonzalez, Luis F. 

Hernandez y Hernandez. 

Izquierdo, Victor. 

Leal, Al vino A. 

Lopez, Luis. 

Martinez, Antonio Loredo. 

Mateos, Manuel. 

Mingo, Cirilo. 
Drugs. 

Arenas, Frandsco de P. 

Limon, Daniel. ' 

Roiz, Carlos. 

Vazquez y Ca., Severo. 

Villegas, Mariano. 

Dry goods. 

Aragon, Rafael Benito. 

Bonilla,Lauro. 

Carretero, Raymundo. 

Izaola, Basilio. 

Izaola y Hno, Silvestre. 

Jimenez, Francisco. 

Lopez, Camilo. 

Leal, Antonio. 

Marquez y Ca., Torcuato. 

Victorero, Francisco Sanchez. 

General stores. 
Aspray, Noriega. 
Bauper y Ca. 
Calima, Tranquilino. 
Cordova, Lucas. 
Costafreda, Pedro. 
Diaz, Pedro. 

Fernandez, Jos6 Camacho. 
Fernandez, Jos4 Diaz. 
Galan, Enrique. 
Garay, Ramon. 
Hernandez, Rafael. 
Herrero y Ca. 
Jimenez, Francisco. 
Junque y Isidorio. 
Lopez, Anselmo. 
Lopez, Gregorio. 
Louistalot, Victor. 
Moral y PortiUa. 
Natali, Francisco. 
Quevedo, Francisco Cordova. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MEXICO. 



^33 



CdBDOBA, VEBACRTTZ— Continued. 

GenercU «^ore«— Continued. 

Rodriguez, Antonio. 

Rodriguez, Ramon. 

TapiA, Moises. 

Tavares, Ramon. 

Valdez, Mariano R. 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Andrade, Santiago. 

Camacho, J. Fernandez. 

Candaudop, Pedro. 

Diaz, Pedro. - 

Espinosa,J.de J. 

Galan, Enrique. 

Garcia, Ramon. 

Hernandez, Rieardo. 

Huerta, Rieardo. 

Izquierdo, Victor. 

Lanza, Enrique de la. 

Leal, Albino A. 

Martinez, Antonio Loredo. 

Natoli, Francisco. 

Posada Hermanos. 

Quevedo, Francisco. 

Roman, Eulalio. 

Sains, Juan. 

Torre, Ruflno de la. 

Valdez, Mariano R. 

Vique, Angel Hernandez. 
Hardware and house furnishing. 

Abascal, Manuel. 

Calleja y Ca. 

Ck)rtes Hermanos. 

Hernandez, Guadaloupe. 

Salamanca, Jos6 Maria. 

Tresgallo, Jos6. 

Vargas, Rafael. 
Hats. 

Lopez y Ca., Camilo. 

Mufioz, Alberto. 

Rui"., Francisco. 

COSALA, SINALOA. 

MercJuints. 

Aragon, Manuel. 
Basoco, Antonio. 
Beltran,Jos6 M. 
Cota, Francisco. 
Padilla, Cesareo. 
Rodriguez, Facundo. 
Ruiz, Leoncio. 

CUEBNAYACA, MOBELOS. 

Agricultural implements, hardware, and iron- 
ware. 
Diez, Miguel M. 



dTEBHAVACA, MOKELOS— Continued. 

Agricultural implements, hardioare and iron- 
ware— Continued. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Pino, Luis. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Rios, Francisco. 
Bankers. 

Portillo y Gomez, Ramon (agente Banco Na- 
cional). 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Elias, 6emab4 L. de. 

Flores, Rosendo. 

Jimenez, Hesiquio. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Reyes, Francisco de P. 
Boots and shoes. 

Diaz, Manuel. 

Diaz, Santiago. 

Rodriguez, Jos6 M. 

Sanchez, Lorenzo. 
China and glassware. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Rios, Francisco. 
Commission merchants. 

Elias, Francisco de. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Ruiz, Rafael A. 
Drugs. 

Argandar, Rieardo. 

Escalante, Jos6 M. 

Florez, Felipe Garcia. 

Gutierrez, Miguel. 
Dry goods and clothing. 

Fiz, Manuel. 

Gonzalez, Tom&s (hats). 

Hernandez, Ramon. 

Martinez, Alejo. 

Marsan Hermanos (sUks). 

Naudin, SeHorita (silks). 

Rico, Leandro (dry and fancy goods). 

Tallabas, Francisco (silks and dry goods). 
Fancy goods. 

Mejla, Romualdo. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Sanchez, Romualdo. 

Tinoco, Camilo. 

Furniture. 

Manjarrez, Ignacio. 

Pino, Luis. 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Azcarate, Francisco. 



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234 



MEXICO. 



GUEBNAYACA, MOBELOS— Continued. 

Oroceries and provm'on* -Continued. 

Azcarate, Viuda de. 

Elguera,Jo86. 

Flores, Rosendo. 

Orihuela, A^ustin. 

Pagaza,Juaii. 

Rios, Lino. 

Rios, Francisco. 

Robles,Ignacio. 

Rodriguez, Jos6 M. 
Jetoelers. 

Ramirez, Delflno. 

Rosales, Manuel. 
Lithographer. 

Gobiemo, La del. 
Merchants, general merchandisey 

Azcarte, Viuda de F. 

Barquin, Jos6. 

Bustamente, Luis Rios. 

Francisco Sobrinho. 

Herjaande, Aramburo. 

Munoz, Agustin. 
Merchants, general merchandise. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Sol, Felipe del 
Sewing machines. 

CastaQeda, Dionisio. 

Diaz, Miguel M. 

Ruiz, Rafael A. 
Sugar planters. 

Amor, Escandon Ignacio. 

Araoz, Joaquin. 

Arena, Alejandro. 

Barron, Guillerrao. 

Bautista, Alaman Juan. 

Carmona, Jorge. 

de C61is, Viuda e hijos. 

de la Torre, Isidor. 

Escandon Hermanos. 

Flores, Jos6. 

Garcia, Icazbalrela Joaquin. 

Goribar, Faustino. 

Guerra, Jos6 T. 

Monterde & Adalia, Augustin. 

Reina, Crescendo. 

Romero & Vargas, Ignacio. 

Rovalo, Agustin. 

Villegas de Pefia Guadalupe. 

CUUACAN, SINALOA 

Agricultural implements, hardware and iron- 
ware. 
Salmon y Hermano, L. 
Tamayo, Severiano. 



CUUACAN, SINALOA— CJontinued. 

Bankers. 

Cif ra, Enrique. 

de Castro Hermanos, Martinez. 

de Castro, Pomposo Martinez. 

Haas, Agustin. 

Izabel, Ignacio. 

Izaguirre, Baltazar. 

Salmon y Hermano, L. 

Uriarte, Domingo. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Diaz y Ca. , Ramirez. 

Paredes, Miguel R. 

Ramirez y Moreno. 

Tamayo, Severiano. 
Boots and shoes. 

Beltran, Marcelino. 

Gonzalez, J. 

Gutierrez, Gil. 

Juarez, Antonio. 

Vidoles, Rafael. 
Carriage dealers. 

Cuadros, Aniceto. 

Robles, Antonio. 
Commission merchants. 

Cif ra, Enrique. 

Haas, Agustin. 

K5rdeU,Eduardo. 

Paredes, Miguel R. 

Ramirez y Moreno. 

Salmon Hno.,L. 

Velasco, Ildef onso. 
Drugs. 

Batiz, Conrado. 

K6rdeU,Eduardo. 

Villareal, Ignacio. 
Dry goods. 

Almada, J. Marcelino. 

Almada y Ca., Ponciano. 

Astorga Hermanos. 

Clouthier, Manuel. 

dela Vega,Jos6. 

de la Vega, Luciano. 

Escudero y Ca., Manuel. 

Ituarte, Luis de. 

Izurieta, Manuel. 

Martinez, Juan. 

Murillo,Jos6 Maria. 

Salmon, Jos6 Maria. 

Salmon y Hermano, Luz. 

Urrea, Angel. 
Fancy goods. 

Tamayo, Severiano. 
Furniture. 

Granados, Carlos M. 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 



235 



CUUACAN, SIHALOA-— Continued. 

Qroceries dnd provisions. 

Almada 7 Ca., Ponciano. 

Amador, Trinidad. 

Amezcua, Luis. 

Escuderoy Ca.,M. 

delayega,Jos6. 

de la Vega, Lucano. 

Martinez, Juan. 

Salmon y Hermano, Luz. 
Jeweler. 

Garcia, Santos. 
Hat stores. 

Espinosa, Cenovio. 

Noriz,J. 
Seunng machiTtes, 

Escudero, Manuel. 

Salmon, Jos6 Marfa. 

Salmon y Hermano, L. 

Urrea. Angel. 



DTTBANOO, BTTRANOO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Alvarez, Francisco. 

Bokery Ca., R. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

Stahlknecht y Ca. 
Banks and bankers. 

Banco Nacional de M6xico (agentes: Hilde- 
brand, Sue. Julio. 

Danun, Maximiliano. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

JuanbelzHnos. 

Stahlknecht y Ca. 
Boosellers and stationers. 

Barrera, Rafael. 

Ourza, Luis. 

de la Torre, Ignacio. 
Boots and shoes. 

Candia. Tom&s Hernandez. 

Gomez, Arturo. 

Hernandez, Natividad. 

Hody, Juan. 

Olagaray, Juan B. 

Perez, Tom&s. 

Roja, La Bota. 

Romo, Manuel. 
Carriage dealers. 

Ball, Juan W. 

Castro, Jacinto. 

Flores, Epifanio. 

Flores, J. 

Flores, Luciano. 



BTTBAirOO, DTTBAITGO— Continued. 

China and glassware. \ 

B6se, Luis. 

Wilmanns. Francisco. 
Commission merchants. 

Alvarez y Ca., Francisco. 

Alvarez, Ramon. 

Avalos,J. de D. 

Damm, Maximiliano. 

de Grenaldo, Viuda y Hijos. 

Doorman y Ca., Julio. 

Giu'za Hermanos y Ca. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

Juambelz Hermanos. 

Loweree Hnos., Succ. 

Moller, Guillermo. 

Rio y Ca., Pedro del. 

Prendis, Santiago. 

Rodriguez, Cristobal. 

Salcido Hermanos. 

Ugarte, Simon. 
Dru^s. 

Botica Central. 

Botica del Hospital. . 

Botica del Carmen. 

Cobos, F. 

de Avila, Manuel. 

de Ostoloza, Eusebio. 

de la Pefia, C4rlos Leon. 

Herrera, Justine. 

Tavizon, Arcadio. 

Torres, Viuda de. 
Dry goods. 

Borelly y Crez. 

Castafieda, Juan N. 

Damm, Maximiliano. 

Gurza Hnos. y Ca. 

Herrera y Ca. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

Jaquez, J. 

Juambelz Hnos. 

Tessier y Bourillon. 

Uranga, Antonio. 
Dry goods and groceries. 

Alvarez, Juan. 

Bastera, Andres. 

Bose y Schmidt. 

Brancho, Toribio. 

Castillo, J. 

Clarke, C. 

Damin, M. 

Doorman y Ca. 

Hengeler y Deras. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

Juambelz Hnos. 

Loweree Hermano. 



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236 



MEXICO. 



DUBANOO, DUEANOO— Continued. 

Ory goods and groceries— Continued. 

Olagaray, Juan B. 

Rodriguez, C. 

Stahlknecht y Ca. 
Fancy goods. 

Ciudad de Roma. 

La Bonanza. 

LaPalma. 

La Suiza. 

Mercerfa Aleraana. 

Merceria Mexicana. 
Furniture. 

Rios, Fernando. 

Valdez, Luis. 

Vazquez, Jos6 M. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Castillo Hermanos. 
Damm, Maximiliano. 
Duran, Manuel. 
Duran y Ca. 
Falfan, Alejandro. 
Herrera, Antonio. 
Herrera, Epifanio. 
Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 
Loweree Hnos., Sue. 
Medina, Julian. 
Parra, Carlos. 
Pdura, Juan F. 
Portillo y Ca., Rosario. 
Ramirez, Leandro. 
Rio, Pedro del. 
Salcido Hnos. y Ca. 
Tubet, Joaquin. 
Ugarte, Simon. 
Vazquez, Agustin. 
Hardware. 

Barrera, Rafael. 
Bose, Luis. 
Ciudad de Roma. 
La Palma. 
La Suiza. 
Marini, Migue^. 
Schwartz, Carlos E. 
Stierlin y Ca. 
Wilmanns, Francisco. 

Hatters. 

Cervantes, Donaeiano. 
Simbeck, Ramon. 

Ironware, dealers and manufacturers. 
Azules, Piedras. 
Is6n, Mdrcos. 

Mercado, Fundicion del Cerro 
Rodriguez, Cristobal. 
Stahlknecht y Ca. 



DUBANOO, DUEANGO— Continued. 
Jewelers. 

Ibargtien, Desiderio. 

Ibargtten, Luciano. 

Rodriguez, Martin. 
Joint stock companies. 

Compafila limitadade Tranvias de Durango. 

Compaaia manuf acturera del Tunal. 

Compafifa manufacturera de la montafla de 
fierro. 

Lithographers. 

Flores, Francisco. 

G6mez, Miguel. 
Sevnng machines. 

Hildebrand, Julio, Sue. 

Swain, Carlos. 

ENSENABA DE TODOS SANTOS, LOWER 
CALIFOENIA. 

Bankers. 

GkKibee, Antonio. 

Imison y Ca. 
Carriage dealers. 

Beamer, P. W. 

Lidy, S. B. 
Furniture. 

Clark, J. 

Groceries and provisions. 

Andonaegui y Ormart. 

Cabezuz y Ca. 

Carrillo yHnos., M. 

Ibsy Ca., Jorge. 

Merkens y Compafila, James. 

Rivera, G., Sue. 
Sewing mxichines. 

Bello, Jos6 Lugo. 

FEESNILLO, ZACATECA8. 

Merchants. 

Aguilar, Alejandro (drugs). 

Berrouet, Juan B. (dry goods). 

Campuzano, Antonio (dry goods, groceries, 

and provisions). 
" Compafila Restauradora de Proafio" (joint 

stock), 
del Real, Ignacio (dry goods). 
" El Portal " (drugs). 
" El Ferrocarril '' (drugs). 
"ElFenix'"" (drugs). 

Esnaurrizar, Rieardo (general merchandise). 
Flores y Ca., Pedro (conunission merchants). 
Laredo, Teodoro (fancy goods). 
Ortega 6 hijo, M. (dry goods). 



Digitized by 



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MEXICO. 



237 



FBESKILLO, ZACATECA8— Continued. 

Merchants— Continued. 

Ortega, Esteban (groceries and provisions). 
Ramii'ez, Florencio (dry goods). 
Ramos, Jos^ (sewing machines). 
Vargas y Ca., Sue, J. (coomiission mer- 
chants). 
Zamora, Refugio (carriage). 

GUADALAJARA, JALISCO. 

Arms and ammunition. 
Arrington, W. B. 
Lacroix Hermanos. 
Rui9, Donaciano. 

Banks. 

"Banco Nacional de M6xico'\ Sucursal, Direc- 
tor: JuanCamba. 

"Banco de Londres y M6xico'\ Sucursal, Di- 
rector: Luis-Rosas. 
Bankers. 

Collignon y Ca, Ed. 

Corcwera e Hijos, Viuda. 

Fernandez del Valle Hermanos. 

Fernandez Somellera Hermanos. 

Kunhardt, Teodoro. 

Martinez Negrete, Francisco. 

Rumus, Hijas de. 

Somellera Hermanos. 
Booksellers. 

Ancira y Hermano. 

Agencia Librera del Arzobispado. 

Moya, C&rlos. 

Pais, Pedro. 

Romero, 04rlos Z. 

Sanchez y Ca, Eusebio. 

Vila y Escobedo. 
Boots and shoes, wholesale. 

Arias, Jos6 Marfa. 

Arrieta, Espiridion. 

CJastro, Silvestre. 

Castellanos, Silvestre. 

C6rdova e Hi jo, Ramon. 

D&valos, Benigno. 

Garcia, Roman. 

Oomez,J. 

Quardado, Modesto. 

Gutierrez, (Ilemente C. 

Gutierrez, y Ca, Mateos B. 

Hernandez, F61iz. 

Hermosillo, Amulf o. 

Martinez, Fermin. 

Mercado, Eliodoro Z. 

Murillo, Jos6 Marfa. 

Murillo, Julian. 

Nava, Alberto. 



GUADALAJARA, JALISCO— Continued. 

Boots and shoes, retoti— Continued. 
Nuflez, Sabas. 
Orozco, Luis. 
Ortega, Pablo. 
Otero, Ricardo. 
Pedroza, Evaristo. 
Ramos, J. 

Rodriguez Sucesores. 
Saldafia, Estaban. 
VjUavicencio, Pedro. 
Zepeda, Antonio. 

Boots and shoes, retail. 

AJvarado, F61ix. 

Asencio, Marfa. 

Barrajas, Felipa. 

Barrajas,J. 

Bermudez, Ramon. 

Bemal, Francisca. 

Berrueco, Dolores. 

Chaires, Francisca. 

Chavez, Josef a. 

Comejo, Viviano. 

Curiel, Guadalupe. 

Garcia, Antonia. 

Garcia, Mazimiana. 

Garibay, Leonilde. 

Gonzalez, Dolores. 

Hernandez, Juana. 

Hernandez, Bernardo. 

Hernandez, Margarita. 

Mercado, Calixta. 

Miramontes, Teresa. 

Padilla, Luciana. 

Pedroza, Evaristo. 

Prieto, Guadalupe. 

Rodriguez, Maura. 

Rodrigo, Catalina. 

Sondoval, Magdalena. 

Silva, Eugenia. 

Silva,Eduarda. 

Vargas, Alberto. 
Carriage dealers. 

Alvarez, Leonardo. 

Cano, Jos6 Marfa. 

Chavez, Victor. 

Lauro de Anda. 

Garcia, G^enaro A. 

Gk>mez, Arcadio. 

Haro, Sebastian. 

Perez, Gabriel. 

Suarez, Lino. 

Chemicals and a,cids. 
Agraz, F61ix. 
EscamiUa, Librado. 



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GUADALAJARA, JALISCO— Continued. 

China and glassware. 

Amberg y Velad. 

BarthoUy, Agustin, Sucr. (Ouillermo Brandt). 

Behn, CSarlos. 

CastiUo y Ztifiiga. 

Garibay, Ramon. 

Gk>nzalez, Palomary y Ca. 

Romero, Antonio. 

Vallarta, Francisco. 

Zavala y Ca, Juan. 
Commission merchants. 

Aguilti y Ortiz. 

Agraz, Salvador J. 

Agraz, Bazan y Ca. 

Arce y Arias. 

Ascher, Emi\i<f. 

Barroso, Renito. 

Basave, Carlos. 

Benares, C. 

Blume y Ca. 

Camarena, Julian. 

Castafieda Palomar, Ramon. 

Castillo, J. Alvarez. 

Campo, Loreto Martinez del. 

Cl^avez y Guido. 

Cluana & Co. 

C6rdova 6 Hijo, Ramon. 

Cortina, Jo86. 

Fernandez Somellera Hnos. 

Flores, Pascual L. 

Galindez, Daniel. 

Galvan, Juaib. 

Garcia Sancho, Carlos. 

Garcia, Paulino. • 

Gonzalez, Ollvares y Hermano. 

Gravenhorts, Gustavo. 

Guerrero, Placido. 

Hesrmann Succ., Alfonso. 

Infante, Francisco. 

Infante, Jos6 M. 

Infante, Luis. 

Iniquez, Evaristo. 

Iturbide, Eduardo. 

Lopez, Rafael. 

Maconzet, Salvadore. 

Martinez, Pablo. 

Mead, Dionisio. 

Mier, Atansio. 

Montano, Manuel. 

Mora 6 Hijos, Ramon de la. 

Moreno y Palomar. 

Navarro y Ca, T. I. 

Navarrete, Pablo. 

Negrete, Francisco. 

Omelas, Manuel S. 

Oseguera, Epifanlo. 



GUADALAJARA, JAIISCO—Continued. 

Commission merchants — Continued. 

Oseguera, Gabino. 

Otero y Aguiar. 

Pefia, Enrique de la. 

Pefla y Hermano, Fernando de la. 

Quevedo, Luis de Garcia. 

Ramirez, Ramon. 

Retana, Jos^ J. 

Romero de Parra y Ca., E. 

Romero, C&rlosZ. 

Salcedo, Joaquim. 

Sancho, O&rlos. 

Silva y Michel, Francisco. 

Solorzan, Ignacio. 

Stampa, Manuel. 

Torres, Pablo. 

Ugarte, Francisco. 

Vallejo Hermanos. 

Vallejo, Juan. 

Vazquez, Francisco. 

Villalobos, Emilio. 

Villareal, Ramon. 

Vudrifted Hermanos. 
Cordage. 

Alvino, Martin del C. 

Camachq, Juan. 

Cremieur, Merced. 

Fuentes.J. 

Garcia, Tomasa. 

Monico,Atilano. 

Padilla, Luciano. 

Padilla,Soledad. 

Rubio,J. 

Rublo, Alejandro. 

Verber,Rosario. 
Druggists. 

"San Vicente de Paul,'* Acosta, Pedro. 

*' Sagrado Corazon/* Ayala, Ramon. 

Asencio, J. 

" La Purisima,'' Bemal, Francisco. 

" La Independencia,** Garcia, Conte Alejo. 

"Del Auidlio,** Gonzalez Tomas. 

Gutierrez Estevez, Antonio. 

"BoticaAlemana,'* Jaacks, Juan. 

"DeMedrano.'Vaacks, Juan. 

" La Soledad,'' Mancilla, Manuel, 
^ "Las Mercedes,** Montafio, Jacinto. 

" San Jos6,** Montafio, J. 

" Santisima Trinidad,** Ocampo, Cortes. 

" San Agustin,** Omelas, Antonio. 

"Del Refugio,** Omelas, Lorenzo. 

" Santa Teresa,** Padilla, Valazquez Mariana 

Perez, L&zaro. 

Perez, C&rlos. 

Puga, Nicolas. 

" La Cruz Verde,** Romo, Jos6 Maria. 



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GXTADALAJAKA, JAUSOO— Continued. 

I>rugr^to— Continued. 

** Nuestra Sefiora de Lourdes," Servin, Ca- 

niilo. 
" De la Compa&fa,'' Torres, Vidal. 
*' De Santo Domingo," Ulloa, Aurelio. 
** Nuestra Sefiora del Rosario,'" Villa Gordoa 

y Guzman. 
*' JesusMarfa," Zuloaga, C&rlps. 

DrygoodSt imported and domestic. 

Alvarez Tostado, Eusebio. 

Arias Trinidad, Merced. 

Audiffret y Oarcin. 

Brihuegay Ca., Manuel. 

Cairey Tir&n. 

Fortouly Chapuy. 

Fortoul, Bellon y Agorreca, T. 

Franco, Celso. 

Gasy Cogordan. 

Q6mez, Prisciliano. 

G^mez y Hno.,Matfa8. 

Garibi, Jos6. 

Gonzalez, Andres. 

Gonzalez, Amado. 

Gonzalez, Romero Vicente. 

Kunhardt y Rose. 

Lebre, Barrfiire y Ca. • 

Navarro, Nestor. 

Romero, Eduardo. 

Tangassi, Guillermo. 

Toro, Angel. 

Zuloaga, J. 
Dry goods J silks, laces, and millinery {imported). 

Audiffred y Gacin. 

CaireyTiran. 

Fortoul, Chapuy. 

Fortoul, Bellon y Agorreca, T. 

Franck y Ca., M., Sucursal de M6xico. 

Gas y Gogordan. 

Kunhardt y Rose. 

Lebre, BarriereyCa. 

Electric light companies. 

Public Electrical Light Co., Hutchinson, E. A., 
director. 

Incandescent Light Co., Sanchez, Rafael, di- 
rector. 

Public Incandescent Light Co.,Schiaffino,M. 
L., director. 
Flour dealers. 

Basave y Ca., C&rlos. 

Canedo y Valdivieso. 

Cortina, Jos6. 

Galindez, Daniel. 

Chirda, Apolonio. 

Garcia, Paulino. 



GUADALAJARA, JALISCO— Continued. 

Flour deaZer«— Continued. 

Garcia Sancho, C&rlos. 

Gomez, Matias. 

Gonzalez, Jos6. 

Llano, F. Simon del. 

Martinez, Pablo. 

Mora 6 Hijos, Ramon de la. 

Navarro y Compa,T. I. 

PeBa y Hno, Fernando de la. 

Torres Morfln, Jos6 Maria. 

Valdovinos, Maximiano. 

Vazquez, Francisco. 
Furniture, imported and domestic. 

Amberg y Velad. 

Arrington, W. B. 

Behn, Carlos. 

Gonzalez y Echeverria, Bazar de Mueblerf a. 

Hernandez, Arcadio. 

Jiminez, Trinidad. 

Navarro yCa., T.I. 

Orozco Gonzalez, Antonio . 

Ruiz, Donaciano. 

Vallarta, Francisco. 

General merchandise. 

" Bazar Universal ", Gonzalez y Gutierrez. 
Glass and glassware. 

Alvarez y Gutierrez. 

Bartholly, Sucesor, Agustin. 

Behn, C&rlos. 

CastiUo y Zaoiga. 

EscamiUa Librado. 

Romero, Antonio. 

Romero, Felipe. ^ 

Groceries and provisions {imported). 

Alvarez y Gutierrez. 

Alvarez, Santiago. / 

Badial, Florentino. 

Badial,Juan. 

Barron, Lucas. 

Bosque, Manuel. 

Cardenas 6 hijo, Jos6. 

Castillo y Ztiliiga. 

Cedefio, Apolonio. 

Corona, Jos6 Maria, y Hermano. 

Cortes, Avelino. 

Covarrubias, Antonio. 

Chavez, J. T. 

Davila y Matute. 

De Anda, Anastasio. 

Dfaz,Ambrosio. 

Dominguez, Ignacio. 

Fernandez, Jos6 G. 

Flores, Esquez y Compafila. 

Garcia, Margarito. 



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GUADALAJARA, JALISCO-^ontinued. 

Oroceries and prot?mon«— Continued. 

Qaribay, Ramon. 

Garibay, Francisco. 

Gomez, Jos6 Marfa. 

Gonzalez Arias, Miguel. 

Haro, B&rbaro. 

Hernandez, H. 

Hernandez, Prisciliano. 

Izquierdo, Albino. 

Martinez, Pedro. 

Martinez Cubeiro, Salvador. 

Mora, Hilario de la. 

Mufioz,I.nacio. 

Navarro, Ignacio. 

Navarro, Eulogio. 

Navarro, Rafael T. 

Nufiez, Valeriano. 

Nufiez, Ignacio. 

Nufio, Manuel. 

Ooeguera, Abraham. 

Oceguera, Rosendo y Hno. 

Oraelas, Mariano. 

Pais, Pedro. 

P^rez, Dominga G. de. 

Rico, Adolf o. 

Rios, Rafael. 

Rodriguez, Encamacion. 

Rodriguez, Mauro. 

Rodriguez, Baltazar. 

Romero, Antonio. 

Romero, Felipe. 

Romero, Francisco. 

Romero, Jos6 Maria E. 

Ruiz,Ponciano. 

Ruiz,RosalioD. 

Ruiz, Natalio. 

Saucedo, Abundio. 

Servin,Camilo. 

Silva y Ca., Hilario. 

Vel«isco, Luis G. 

Zalazar, Manuel. 

Zavala y Ca., Juan. 
Groceries and provisions^ imported and domestic. 

Alvarez y Gutierrez. 

Castillo y Zufiiga. 

Garibay, Ramon. 

Gomez, Joa6 Marfa. 

Romero, Antonio. 

Zavala y Compafif a, Juan. 
Hardtoare and nuichinery. 

Amberg y Velad. 

Bartholly, Agustin, Sue. 

Behn, C&rlos. 
Hardware^ general. 

Amberg y Velad. 

Arce, J. 



GUADALAJARA, JALI800— Continued. 

Hardware^ flrcneral— Continued. 

Bartholly, Sucesor, Agustin. 

Behn, C&rlos. 

Gonzalez, Palomar y Compafif a, Benito. 

Vallarta, Francisco. 

Zuloaga,Juan M. 
Hardtoare {iron and copper). 

Alvarez del Castillo, Sucesores. 

Behn, C&rlos. 

Camerena, Julian. 

Corcuera, Viuda 6 Hijos. 

Gonzalez, Olivarez y Hno. 

Martinez, Pablo. 
Hatters. 

Alvarez, Maximino. 

Anaya, Francisco J. v 

Chavez, Florencio. 

Gutierrez, Celerino. 

Hernandez, Praxedis.' 

Ibarra, Vicente. 

Navarro, Francisco. 

Norwald, Luis. 

Perez, Petra. 

Placencia, Lino. 

Placencia, Anastasio. 

Quirartf , Leonides. 

Ramirez, Pedro. 

Reyes, Herlindo. 

Ruflno, Juan. 

Ruiz, Andres. 

Torres, Longinos. 

Z511y Hermanos. 
Importers (direct). 

CoUignon y Ca., Ed. 

Navarro y Compafif a, T; J. 

Somellera Hermanos Fernandez. 
Jewelers. 

Aguilar,Sabino. 

Diaz, C&rlos. 

Salmeron, Daniel. 

Torres, Heliodoro. 

Ulloa,£ustacio. 
Jewelers and watchmakers. 

Arrington.W.B. 

Castafieda, Jos6 A. 

Castro, Antonio. 

Martinez, Ramon. 

Ruiz,Donaciano. 

Torres, Juan B. 

Torres, Jacinto. 

Vallarta, Francisco. 

Winterhalder, Antonio. 

Lime, and brick. 
Avilia, Trinidad. 
Camarena, Fermin. 



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OUADALAJABA, JAUSCO^-Continued. 

Lime and ftricfc— Continued. 
Casillas, Albino. 
Hernandez, Trinidad. 
Luna de San Sebastian. 
Piedra, Trinidad. 
Placencia. Ireneo. 

Idthographers. 

Ancira y Hermano. 
Dieguez, Trinidad. 
Iguinez, Jos6 Maria. 
Isaguirre, Jos6 A. 
Rodriguez, Alberto. 

Lumber dealers. 

Camarena, Femin. 

Casilla, Jos6. 

Cortes, Ramon. 

Gonzales, Ambrosia. 

Iguinez, Evaristo. 

Orozco, Gonzalez Antonio. 

Ramirez, Jos6. 

Romero, Bonifacio. 

Solis, Viuda de. 

Vargas, Francisco. 

ViUegas, Nicolds. 

Villasefior, Enrique. 
Machinery and agricultural implements. 

Behn, C&rlos. 

Castafieda, Palomar. 

Collignon y Comp». 

Kipp, Juan H. 

Stettner, Mauricio. 
Mineral waters. 

Asencio, J. 

Branca, Albino. 

Ocampo, Manuel y Hermano. 

Omelas, Antonio J. 

Perez, L&zaro. 

Perez, C&rlos. 

Musical instruments. 
Arce, J. 

Castro, Silvestre. 
Collignon y Compa., Eduardo. 
Corvera, Miguel 
Dur&n, Jos6 Maria. 
Gomez, Luis. 

Gonzalez, Palomar y Compafifa, Benito. 
Heymann, Sucesor, Alfonso. 
Navarro y Comp»., T,I. 
Navarrete, Pablo. 
RojasVertiz, J086 Maria. 
Ruiz, Donaciano. 
Sanchez y Compafila, Eusebio. 
Sausa, Martin. 



GUADALAJARA, JALISCO— Continued. 

Musical instrumsnts— Continued. 
Torres, JuanB. 
Valenzuela, Alejandro. 
Vila y Escobedo. 

Notions. 

Aguilar, Zenona. 

Andrade, Margarita. 

Carrillo, Ignacia. 

Corona de Ar6valo, Feliciana. 

Estrada, Petra. 

Estrada, Marfa. 

Flores, J. 

Flores, Felipa. 

Jimenez, Refugio. 

Landa, Francisco. 

Larios, Crescencia. 

Maclas, Ricarda. 

Parra, Eusebia. 

Parra, Juana. 

Ramirez, Refugio. 

Valle, Antonio. 

Villalobos Ruiz, Amado. 
Faints and oils. 

Agraz, F61iz. 

Betancourt, Roque. 

Elizalde, Familiade. 

Escamilla, Librado. 

Hidalgo, Rafael. 

Lupercio, Jos6 Maria. 

Navarro, Ignacio. 
Paper— Blank books. 

Ancira, Hermanos. 

Cabrera, Jos6. 

Guevara, Ricardo. 

Iguinez, Jos6 Maria. 

Ma' tinez Suarez, Margarito. 

Perez Lete, Sucesores. 

Robles, Jos6 Maria. 

Sanchez, Eusebio. 
Cardboard. 

Vazquez, Pedro. 

Villavicencio, Santos. 
Printing paper. 

Ancira y Hno., Modesto. 

Castillo yZfifliga. 

Collignon y Compa, Eduardo. 

Corcuera 6 Hijos, Viuda. 

Castafieda, Palomar. 

Zavala y Compa, Juan. 
WaU paper. 

Gonzalez, Palomar y Ca., Benito. 

Sanchez y Compa., Eusebio. 
Perfumery. 

Asencio, J. 



S7A- 



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GUADALAJABA, JALISCO— Continued. 

Per/umery— Continued. 

Corona de Ar^valo, Feliciana. 

Fortoul, Bellon y Agorreca, T. 

Gk>nzalez, Palomar y Ca., Benito. 

Jaacks, Juan. 

La Croix Hermanos. 

P6rez, L&zaro 6 Hijo. 
Petroleum depots. 

Alvarez y Gutierrez. 

Castillo y Ztifiiga. 

Guerrero, Cirilo. 

Oltzen, J. 

Sanchez, Rafael. 

Valencio, Francisco. 
Fharmacista. 
' Acosta, Pedro. 

Adame, Francisco. 

Ayala, Ramon. 

Alvarado, Ignacio. 

Arce, Julio G. 

Arreola, Manuel. 

Asencio,J. 

Bemal, Francisco. 

Gonz&lez, Tom&s. 

Gonzalez, E. 

Gutierrez, Estevez. 

Guzman, Manuel. 

Jaacks,Juan. 

Mancilla, ManueL 

Montafio, Jacinto. 

Murillo, Eutiquio. 

Navarro, Luis. 

Ocampo, Cortes. 

Oliva, Adolf o. 

Oliva, Juan. 

Omelas, Antonio J. 

Omelas, Lorenzo. 

Orozco, Agustin. 

Pacheco,LeaL 

Perez, Arce. 

Perez, C&rlos. 

Perez, L&zaro. 

Perez, ManueL 

Puga, Adrian. 

Puga, Nicolas. 

Romo, Jos6 Marfa. 

Rubalcava, Martin. 

Suarez, Cenobio. 

Tortolero, Nicolas. 

Ulloa,Auielio. 

Uribe.Abel. 

Vargas, Francisco. 

Villa Gordoa. 
Porcelain. 

Saavedra, Gregorio (general). 

Gonzalez, Francisco. 



GUADALAJABA, JALISCO— Continued. 
Pottery. 

Cobiaii,Juana. 
Corona, Marfa. 
Lopez, J. 
Lopez, Petra. 
Lozano, Refugio. 
Lowerre, Manuel. 
Navarro de Rasura, Anatasia. 
Quirarde, Merced. 
Quirarde, Trinidad. 
Rodriguez. Esteban. 
RuizVelasco, Salvador. 
Ruiz, Dolores. 
Sanchez, Inocencio. 
Verrea, Luisa. 

Printers' supplies. 

Guevara, L. Ciro. 

Kipp, Juan H. 

Ocampo y Cort6s y Hnos., ManueL 

Puga, Nicola. 
Salt pork importers. 

Diaz, Guadalupe. 

Espinosa, Perf ecto. 

Nufiez, Valeriano. 

Oceguera, Abraham. 

Perez, J. Merced. 

Reynoso, Martin. 

Reynoso, Pablo. 

Sanchez, Ignacia. 

Silva, German. 

Valadez, Ignacio. 
Sewing machines. 

Amberg y Velad, ("White"). 

Arrigton, W. B., ("Naumann"). 

Behn, Carlos, ("New Home"). 

Espinosa, Jos6 Marfa, ("Wheeler y Wflson**). 

Hermosillo, Amuifo, ("Singer"). 
Silk goods. 

Corona, Antonio. 

Corona de Arrevalo, Feliciana. 

Fortoul, Bellon y Agorreca, T. 

Gaudinot y Banoni. 

Muro, Rafaela del. 

Paez, Luz M. de. 

Rendon, Guadalupe. 

Sportiny goods. 
Agraz, F61ix. 
Castillo y ZtiBiga. 
CJhavez, Plutarco. 
Escamilla, Librado. 
Lacroix Hno*. 
Luna, Secundino. 
Navarro, Ignacio. 
Rodriguez, Feliciano B. 
Ruiz, Donaciano. 



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OTTADALAJABA, JAUSCO—Continued. 

Stationery. 

Ancira y Hermano. 

Gonzalez, Palomar y Comiw&f a, Benito. 

Iguinez, Jos6 Marfa. 

Moya, C&rlos. 

Paez, Pedro. 

Romero, C&rlos Z. 

Sanchez y Ca, Eusebio. 

Vila y Escobedo. 
Sugar merchants. 

Blume y Compafifa. 

Castafieda, Palomar. 

Carcuera, Viuda 6 Hi jos. 

Qonzalez, Olivarez y Hno. 

Mora e Hijos, Ramon de la. 

Pefiay Hno. , Fernando de la. 

Remus, Hljas de. 

Ugarte, Francisco. 
Tinware and brasaware. 

Alatorre (viuda de). 

Alvarado, Encamacion. 

Arzate, Francisco. 

B&rcena, J. 

Camacho 6 Hijo, Celso. 

Oamacho, Canuto. 

Camacho, Florencio. 

Oallegos, Lucio. 

QaUegos, Severiano. 

Gonzalez, Modesto. 

Gutierrez Hermanos. 

Mendoza, M&ximo. 

Olea, Lauro. 

Pelez, Anacleto. 

Perez, Quirino. 

Suarez, Pl&cido. 
Toys. 

Arce, J. 

Armeria, Refugio. 

Aumada, Petra. 

BarthoUy, Sucr, Agustin. 

Bautista, Agapita. 

Behn, C&rlos. 

Carranda, Pomposa. 

Corona de Arrevalo, Feliciano. 

Enciso, Soledad. 

Espinosa, Dolores. 

Fortoul, Bellon y Agoreca, T. 

Franck y Ca., M. 

Gonzalez, Palomar y Compafiia, Benito 

Liina, Secundino. 

Manriquez, Marfa L. 

Mondragon, Longinos. 

Paez, Luz. 

Ramirez, J. R. 

Ramirez, Francisco. 

Reveles, Josefa. 



GUADALAJARA, JALISCO— Continued. 

Toy*— Continued. 

Salazar, Cleof as. 

Valdivia, Lucas. 
vVallarta, Francisco. 

Villasefior, Espiridiona. 

Zuloaga, Juan. 
Undertakers. 

Alatorre, Salvador. 

Cana, Jos6 Marfa. 

Hernandez, Arcadio. 

Jimenez, Trinidad. 

Orozco, Gonzalez. 
^ Varnish and axle grease. 

Agrez, F61ix. 

Escamilla, Librado. 
Wines^ imported. 

Castillo y Z(ifiiga. 

CoUignon y Compafifa, Eduardo. 

Fortoul, Belon y Agorreca. 

Garibay, Ramon. 

Galindez, Daniel. 

Huber, Victor. 

Lions, Remigio. 

Martinez, Negrete, Fi^cisco. 

Pais, Pedro. 

Quevedo, Luis G. 

Rolleri y Compafifa, Jos6. 

Romero, Antonio. 

Romero, Carlos Z. 

Sanchez y Compafifa, Eusebio. 

Tiran, Julio. 

Vila y Escobedo. 

Zavala y Compafifa, Juan. 
Wood and coal. 

Casilla, Albino. 

Garcia, Isabel. 

G6mez, S6stenes. 

Hernandez Cortfis, Teresa. 

Huerta, Zenon. 

Lara, Francisco. 

Luevalo, Magdalena. 

Lares, Trinidad. 

PadiUa, J. 

P6rez, F(61iz. 

Prieto, Ger6nimo. 

Pulido, Gregorio. 

Reynoso, Juan. 

Rios, Juan. . 

Reyes Calixto, D. 

Travares, Jos6 Marfa. 
Wool merchants 

Agraz, F61jx. 

Escamilla, Librado. 

(Gonzalez, Olivarez y Hno. • 

Morfln, Marcelino. 



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GUANAJXIATO, OTJANAJXIATO 

AgriculturaZ implements. 

Castafieda, Francisco de P 

Ederra. Francisco X. 

Palassou, Enrique. 

Stallf orth, Alcazar y Ca. 
A'nns and ammunition. 

Manriquez, Francisco. 

Moya, Mauro. 

Nunes, Narciso. 

Palassou, Enrique. 

Villegas, Castulo. 
Bankers. 

Alcazar, Ramon. 

Arce,Genaro. 

Castafieda, Francisco de P. 

Ederra, Francisco. 

Jimenez, Qregorio. 

Markassousa, C&rlos. 

Stallf orth. Alcazar y Ca. 

Banks. 

Sucursal del " Banco Agrlcola." 

Sucursal del " Banco de Ldndres y Mexico.' 

Sucursal del Banco Nacional Mexicano. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Alvarez, Alejandro. . 

Bouret, C&rlo*. 

Castan y Camps, Celestino. 

Fuente, Pedro de la. 

Oallardo, Abraham. 

Obregon, Claudio. 

Pallassou, Enrique. 

Vaol, Emilio Lopez. 

Verdayesy Ca.,F. 
Boots and shoes. 

Alvarado,J. 

Arias, Margarito. 

Bernard, Enrique. 

Duarte,Emetrio. 

Heredia, Francisco. 

Machuca, J. M. 

Madrid, Felipe. 

Pedroza, Cef erino. 

Rodriguez, Francisco. 

Rodriguez, Caterino. 

Soria, Concepci6n. 

Soria,Jos6E. 

Soria, N. 

Vilanueva, Francisco. 

Carriages. 

Valtierra, Nabor. 

CJUna and glassuoare, 
Abascal, Diego. 
Acostas, Santos. 
Caloca y Ca. 



GUANAJXIATO, GTTANAJXIATO— Continued. 

China and glassware — Continued. 
Caudra, Luis. 
Fuentes, J. 
Gomez, Felipe. 
Obregon Hermanos. 
Obregon, Claudio. 
Ortego, Monico. 
Palassou, Enrique. 
Pedrosa, Fiancisco de P. 

Commission merchants, 
BacaHno., J.B. 
Castorena, Gaudel. 
Dominguez, Magdaleno. 
Fuentes y Romero. 
Gutierrez, Antonio. 
Guzman, Feliciano. 
Hernandez H""". 
Langenscheidt, Enrique. 
Manrique, Florentine. 
Martinez, Antonio. 
Meyerberg, Enrique. 
Nufiez, Narciso. 
Osante Hnos. 
Reinoso, Manuel. 
Rodriguez yCa.,C. 
Stallf orth, Alcazar y Ca. 

Copper goods. 

Alvarez, Ramon. 
Bonifacio, Antonio. 

Drugs. 

Aragon, Felipe. 

Arreguin,B. 

Casillas, Tom&s. 

Fonseca,Tom&s. 

Gazca,J. 

Gasca y Ca. 

Leal y Ca. 

Lopez, Francisco. 

Maicote, Sirio. 

Marquez y Ca. 

Obregon y Marquez. 

Ruoda,Jos6. 

Salcedo, Vincente. 

Soto, Emilio. 

Sotura, C&rlos. 

Vazquez Succ. 

Vazquez, Ignacio. 

Villaf uerte, Elias. 

Villanueva y Ca. 
Dry goods. 

Baca Hno, J. B. 

Barquin y Espinosa. 

Beraud Hnos. 

Bolivar y Puebla. 

Brun y Jame. 



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GTTANAJXTATO, GUANAJUATO— Ck)nt'd. 

Dry firoo(i«— Cantinued. 
Caguen, Maximo. 
Caire y Audriffed. 
Erquicia, Sue, P. 
Garcia y Hno, Enrique. 
Goeme,Luis. 
Gonzalez y Villasefior. 
Haran, Cayetano^ Sue. 
Hernandez Hnos. 
Langenscheidt, Enrique. 
Lozano y Espinosa. 
Osacar Hnos. 
Osante Hermanos. 
Romafia, Mariano. 
Rongecillo, Antonio. 

Fancy goods. 

Alferez, Florencio. 
David, Emilio. 
Esperon y Ca, Victor. 
^ Fuentes y Pifia, Wencelao. 
Gallardo, Abraham. 
Obregon, Claudio. 
Ortega, Monica. 
Palassou, Enrique. 

Furniture. 
Aguirre,J. 
Bonifacio, Antonio. 
Jouannaud, Leonardo. 
Obregon, Claudio. 
Porras, Anastasio. 
Segura, Adrian. 
Segura, Alejandro. 

Oroceries and provisions. 
Abascal, Diego. 
Acosta, Santos. 
Arteaga, Florencio. 
Bolafios, Mateo. 
Caloca,Tom&s. 
Castro, Margarito. 
Cervantes y Ca. 
Cueller, Antonio. 
Erquicia, Sue, P. 
Estrayer y Ca, A. 
Garcia, Felix. 
Goeme Hnos, GuiUermo. 
Mafion,Ruperto. 
Obregon. Claudio. 
Kobles, Roman. 
Sabino, Iza. 
Rojas y Hno.,Eusebio. 
Torres, Pedro. 
Trueba, Mateo. 
Valadez, Manuel. 
Zarrate, Francisco. 



OUANAJXIATO, 6TrAKAJXrAT0->Ck)nt'd. 

Hardware. 

Abascal, Diego. 

Alcazar y Ca. 

Bonifacio, Antonio. 

Denn6, Alfonso. 

Gallardo, Abran. 

Goeme. Luis. 

Langenscheidt, Enrique. 

Osante Hermanos. 

Palassou, Enrique. 

Rodriguez y Ca. 
Hatters. 

Barriga y Ca., Francisco. 

Bordier, Isidoro. 

Solorzano y Ca., Antonio. 
House furnishing goods and tinware. 

Alvarez, Bruno. 

Damen, Alfonso. 

Delgado, Tiburcio. 

Duran, Pablo. 

Flores, Hilario. 

Flores, Narciso. 

Frias, Modesto. 

Moron, Antonio. 

Reina, Ricardo. 

Vazquez, Ignacio. 
Importers and exporters. 

Abascal, Diego. 

Acevedo, Alejo. 

Ajuria, M. 

Alcazar y Ca. 

Alferez, Florencio. 

Bemiga, F. 

Brune & James. 

Buand Hermanos & Ca., Enrique. 

Caire, Andriffed & Co. 

Caloca&Co. 

Castro, Margarito. 

Cuellar, Antonio. 

Delgado, Amado. 

Errecalde, GuiUerme. 

Fernandez, Ignacio. 

Flebe Joaquin. 

Gallardo, Abraham. 

(Garcia de Leon, Domingo. 

Gerilant, Federico. 

Goeme, Luis. 

Gonzalez & Villasefior. 

Gutierrez, Uno. 

Hernandez y Hijo. 

Hernandez, Alejandro. 

Herrera,J. 

Infante, Anastasio. 

Issa, Sabino. 

Lara, Gregorio. 



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GUANAJUATO, GUANAJUATO— Cont'd. 

Importers and exporters— Continued. 
M&nuol, Pascual. 

Obregon, Claudio. 

Ossante Hermanos. 

Palassou Hermanos. 

Perez, Antonio. 

Reynoso, Luis. 

Robles, Roman. 

Rojas, Eusebio. 

Solorzano, Antonio. 

Trueba, Mateo. 

Velazquez, Jos6. 
Ironware dealers. 

Denn6, Alfonso. 

Gallardo, Abraham. 

Palassou, Enrique. 

Stallf orth. Alcazar y Ca. 
Jewelers. 

Galacion, GabeUon. 

Gerilant, Federico. 

Hernandez, Alejandro. 

Hernandez y Hijo. 

Laux, Luis. 

Perez, Antonio. 

Villalpando, Antonio. 

Wieland, Federico. 
Lithographers. 

Garcia, Emilio. 

Loreto, Faustino. 
Lumber merchants. 

Anda, J. M. 

Alvarado, Rafael. 

Herrera, Sue, Benito. 

Lopez, Trinidad. 
MiLsic store. 

Fuente, Pedro de la. 
Paints and varnishes. 

Artea^a, Florencio. 

David, Emilio. 

Hijar, Geronimo. 

Palassou, Fernando. 

Santoyo, Antonio. 

Valdez, Manuel. 

Zorate, Francisco. 
Perfumery. 

Hermano y Obregon. 
Photographers. 

Contreras, Vicente. 
Ifiigo y Ramirez. 
Pianos and organs. 

Langenscheidt, Enrique. 
Meyerberg, Enrique. 
Villapando, Antonio. 



GUANAJUATO, GUANAJUATO— Cont'd. 
Setoing machines. 
Castro, Margarito. 
Herrera, J. 
Palassou, Enrique. 
PortiUo, aeofas. 
Williams, Eduardo. 
Wineburgh, David. 

Ship-chandler'' s goods. « 
Castro, Manuel. 
Cepeda, Santos. 
Morales, Refugio. 
Rodriguez, Lorenzo. 

GUATMA8, SONORA. 

AgriculturaZ implements. 

Aguilaro, F. A., Sue. 

Baston, Donaciano. 

Cosca y Garcia. 

liUnd y Ca., William. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Almada, Ernesto. 
Bankers. 

Aguayo Hnos. 

Angulo. 

Encinas, Felipe. 

Dueflas, Ramon. 

Willard,A. 
Banks. 

Banco Nacional. 

London Bank of Mexico and South America. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Baston, D. 

Markert, F. A. 

Tauzi y Ca. 

Boots and shoes. 

Ramirez, J. 

Zacarfas, Melendez. 

Zenizo y Hno., Cristobal. 
Carriage dealers. 

Campillo, Eligio. 

Hase, C&rlos. 

Palma, J. P. 

Palma, Manuel. 

Preciado, Francisco. 
China and glassware. 

Baston, D. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Commission merchants. 

Gray, V. M. 

Iberry, W. 

Kiesselbach, C. 



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247 



OUTAMAS, SONOBA—Continued. 

Commission msrchants—Coniiimed. 

Laborin, Ricardo. 

Sandoval y Hijos. 

Tamayo, Matias. 

WiUiard, A. 
Drugs. 

Aviles, Loreto E. 

D&vila, Luis G. 

Wallace, Alejandro. 
Dry goods. 

Basazabal, Juan. 

Cosca, y Garcia. 

M6Uer y Ca., G. 

M611er, J. R. 

Seldner y von BorsteL 

Wolf, H. 

Zenizo, Juan. 
Fhimiture. 

Lund y Ca., William. 

Madero, Manuel. 

Moran, Antonio. 

Sucesores de Hupper. 
Gfroceries and provisions. 

Aguilar, Succ., F. A. 

Baston, Donaciano. 

Camou, Juan. 

Ck)sca y Garcia. 

Escobosa y Ca„ Rafael. 

Iberry, Wenceslao. 

Iberry y Huerta. 

J&uregui, Luis. 

Knappe, Federico. 

Lubert, Alejandro. 

Lund y Ca., William. 

MCller y Ca., G. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 

Zenizo yHno., Juan. 

Zuniga, Ramon. 
Hardware. 

Baston, D. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Iron and ironware. 

Aguilar, F. A., Sue. 

Baston, D. 

Cosca y Garcia. 

M511eryCa.,G. 

Seldner y von BorsteL 

Jewelers. 

Brttckelmeyer, C. 

Duefias, Ramon V . 

Misa, FeUde. 

Seiner, J. 
lAthographers. 

Avil6s, L. 

Gaxiola y Ca., Eduardo. 



GUTAMAS, SOKOBA— Continued. 



Sewing machines. 
Canale, Aurelio. 
Cohn, Max W. 
Cosca y Garcia. 
Lund y Ca., William. 
Seldner y von Borstel. 

HEBMOSULO, SOKOBA. 

Agricultural implements. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Castro, Juan D. 
Bankers. 

Calderon, A. 

Ruiz, Rafael. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Castro, Manuel F. 

Possehl y Ca., Luis. 
Boots and shoes. 

Assun y Ca., Wong. 

Chanjon, Santiago. 

Lara, Donaciano. 

Long y Ca, Cong. 

Sainz, Silviano. 

Yepiz, J086 1. 
Carriage dealers. 

Grijalva, Manuel 

Moreno, Juan. 

Ruiz, Librado. 
China and glassware. 

HorviUeur, Leon. 

Ruiz, R. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Commission merchants. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Dauelsberg, German. 

Rodriguez, A. A. 

Serrano, Cristobal. 
Drugs. 

Avila, J. M. 

Botica Nueva. 

Davila y Ca., L. G. * 

Dry goods. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Camon y Hermanos, L. 

Echevarrfa, Camelo. 

Escalante, Vicente V. 

Horvilleur, Leon. 

Loaiza, Filomeno. 

Rodriguez, Francisco E. 

Rodriguez, Rodolfo. 

Ruiz, R. 

Possehl y Ca., Luis. 



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248 



MEXICO. 



HEBMOSnxO, SONORA— Continued. 

Fancy goods. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

HorviUeur y Ca., T^eon. 

Possehl y Ca., Luis. 

Ruiz, R. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Furniture. 

Teran, Arturo. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Cfenercd agents. 

Castafieda, Eduardo. 

Encisas, Jos6 M. 

Enciso, Leonardo. 

Escalante, Manuel. 

Rodriguez, Luis. 

Serrano, Cristobal. 

Velasco, Florencio. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Arvizu y Ca., J. J. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Camou y Hermanos, L. 

Castro, J. D. 

Echevarria, Camelo. 

Fereira y Ca., Manuel. 

Ck>nzalez, Diomsio. 

HorviUeur, Leon. 

Loaiza, Filomeno. 

Ruiz, Rafael. 

Seldner y von Borstel. 
Hardioare. 

Ruiz, Rafael. 

Seldner y von BorsteL 
Hatters. 

Felix, Alberto. 

HorviUeur y Ca., Leon. 

Irontoare dealers and manufacturers. 

Calderon, Antonio. 

Castro, J. D. 

Ruiz, R. 

Seldner y von BorsteL 
Jeweler. 

Kroft, Samuel H. 
Joint stock companies. 

"El Progreso." 

"La Sonorense.^' 
LithograpJier. 

Ramirez, Aniceto. 
Music store. 

Possehl y Ca., Luis. 
Sewing maxihines. 

Maddonado, J. M. 

Singer Manufacturing Company . 



HIBALGO DEL PABBAL, CHXHUAHIT A. 

Bankers. 

Erquicia, Pedro, Sue. (agente "El NacionaP'). 
Gk>mez, Francisco (agente " £1 Banco Mexi- 

cano ";. 
Hinojar, Juan. 

Moya, Mauro (agente "Banco Nacional '*^). 
Palacios, A. (agente " El Minero "). 
Roncon, Antonio. 
Stallforth Hnos. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Norberto, Aizpuru. 

Pablo, Ortiz. 
Boots and shoes. 

Ramirez, Tel6sforo. 

Rivas, Tomfis. 

Saenz. Laureano. 

Torres, Felipe. 

Torres, Felix. 
Carriage dealer. 

Perez, Luis. 

Commission merchants. 

Behr, Juan. 

Hernandez Hnos. 

Nufiez, Gabriel. 

Stallforth Hnos. 
Drugs. 

Arellano, Alejandro del. 

MenaSucc, A. 

Rivera, Vicente. 

Soto, EmUio. 
Dry goods. 

Bolivar, Canute. 

Corral y Gonzalez. 

Erquicia, Pedro, Sue. 

Esperon y Ca., Pedro. 

Flores 6 hijo, Victor. 

Hagen y Ca., Maxo. 

Hernandez Hnos. 

Mula, Maximo. 

Ronquillo, Antonio. 

Vaca y Hno., Juan B. 
Fancy goods. 

Esperon y Ca., Victor. 

Fuentes y Pifia. 

Hagen y Ca., Maxo. 
Furniture. 

Fuentes y Pifia. 

Knigge, C&rlos. 

Murillo, Bernardino. 

Stallforth Hnos. ' 
Groceries and provisions. 

Erquicia, Sue, Pedro. 

Esperon, Victor. 



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HIDALOO DEL PABEAL, CUIHUAHUA— 

Continued. 

Chroceriea and provis^iorw— Continued. 

Fuentes y Peiia. 

Hernandez y Hnos. 

Knigge, C&rlos. 

Roncon, Antonio. 

Ronquillo, Antonio. 

Stallforth Hnos. 

Torres Hnos., Pedro. 
Hardwarb. 

Esperon, Victor. 

Fuentes y Pifia. 
Lithographer. 

Ortiz, Pablo. 
I^aints, oils^ and varnishes. 

Renteria, Jos6 M. 
Seiving machines. 

Gushing y Walpuk. 

Moreau, Arnaldo. 
Snks. 

Guerrero, Ramon. 

HITAMANTLA, TLAXCALA. 

AgricvlturaX implements^ ironware and hard- 
ware. 

Hernandez, Miguel. 

Ortega, Miguel. 

Ruiz, Enrique. 
Sanker. 

Ruiz, Enrique. 
Commission merchants. 

Mellado, Nicolas. 

Ortega, Miguel. 

Ruiz, Enrique. 
Drugs. 

Covarrubias, Gregorio. 

Covarrubias, Mariano. 

Crespo, J086 M. 

Ramires, Agustin. 
Dry goods. 

Cairo, Desiderio. 

Crespo, Luis G. 

Cairo, Jos6. 

Corona, Juan. 

Fabre, Amador. 

Paredes, Julian. 

Robert y Ca., S. 

Ruiz, Manu 1. 
Fancy goods. 

Hernandez, Miguel. 

Ortega, Miguel. 

Torreblanca, Miguel. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Barrera, Fermin. 

Corona, Filomeno. 



HITAHANTLA, TLAXCALA— Continued. 

Groceries and provmona— Continued. 
Corona, Manuel. 
Cortes, J086 M. 
Cortes, Miguel, 
de Machuca, Sacramento F. 
Carbajal, Viuda de. 
Estrella, Gabino. 
Garcia, Manuel. 
Heredia, Miguel. 
Hernandez, Antonio. 
Lozano, Filomeno. 
Machuca, Angel. 
Machuca, Angel Vargas. 
Mantilla, Carlos. 
Maraver, Demetrio. 
Maraver, Sabino. 
Marquez, J. de J. 
Moreda, Francisco. 
Ortega, Adelaide. 
Oretga, Jos6 M 
Romero, Miguel. 
Ruiz y Hermano, Bernardo. 

Fancy goods. 

Hernandez, Miguel. 

Ortega, Miguel. 

Torreblanca, Miguel. 
Lithographer. 

Jordan, Manuel. 
PaintSy oils, and varnishes. 

Covarrubias, Gregorio. 

Ortega, MigueL 

niAFTJATO, OTJNAJUATO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Aguilera, Jos6 Refugio. 

La Nacional Irapuatense. 

Vargas y Hermanos. Juan. 
Booksellers. 

Aguirre, Franco. 

Hernandez, Nicolas. 

".La Soledad.'' 
Boots and shoes. 

Barbosa, Genaro. 

Cervantes, Pablo. 

Juarez, Agustin. 
Carriages. 

Aguilera, Jos6 Refugio. 
China and glassware. 

Flores y Ca., Antonio. 
Commission merchants. 

Aguilera, Vicente. 

Bocanegra, Manuel. 

Lopez, Librado. 

Peredo,J. M. 



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MEXICO. 



ntAFUATO, GTJNAJXTATO— Continued. 

Drugs. 

Aguirre, Francisco. 

Canal, Ignacio. 

Cruz, Luis. 

Oalvan, S. 

Oondalez, Aguirre. 

Moral, Manuel M. del. 

Orozco, 3IigueI. 

Bejnoso, Enrique. 

Rico, Ampelio F. 

Rivera, Apolinar. 
Dry goods. 

Armand, Napoleon. 

Diaz, Vincente. t 

Flores, Antonio. 

Hernandez, Nicolas. 

Vargas, Nicolas. 

Vallas, Angel. 

Vega,Qabriel. 

Velasco y Ca., Jos6. 
Fancy goods. 

Martinez, Susano. 

Vega, Gabriel. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Vargas, Nicolas. 

Velasco y Ca., J086. 
Hardware. 

Aco6ta,Qenaro. 

Cerda yCa., Roman. 

Hardvxire and house furnishings. 

Acosta, Qenaro. 

Alvarado, Guadalupe. 

Rangel, Antonio. 

Vega, Gabriel. 
Hats. 

Zepeda, J. 
Iron and ironware, 

Acosta, Genaro. 

Vargas, Nicolas. 

Villasefior, Trinidad. 
MvMc. 

Conejo,J. 

Gonzalez, Simon. 

Marmolejo, Jacobo. 
Paints and varnishes. 

Acosta, Genaro. 

Aguilera y Ca., Guadalupe. 

Cerda y Ca., Roman. 
Pianos and mvMcal instruments. 

Cosio,A. 

Gonzalez, Simon. 



IXTLAN DEL BIO, TEBBIIOBIO DE TEPIC. 

Agricultural implements and ironware. 

Cosio,Emilio. 

Ortiz, Miguel C. 
Commission merchants, 

Co8io,£milio. 

Lounegon, Alfredo. 

Menchaca, Enrique. 

Ortiz, Pablo. 
Drugs. 

Arriola, Agustin V. 

Ortiz, Miguel C. 

Parra, Jos6 Marf a. 
Fancy goods. 

Ortiz, Miguel C. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Cosio, Emilio. 

Menchaca, Enrique. 

Ortiz, Miguel C. 
General merchandise. 

Aguirre, Jos6D. 

Cosio, Emilio. 

Espinosa, GuiUermo. 

Figueroa y Ca., Jos6 Maria. 

Menchaca, Enrique. 

Monroy y Hermano. Francisco. 

Ortiz, Miguel C. 

Ortiz, Pablo. 

Ortiz, Prisciliano. 

Partida y Ca., Flavio. 

Pimienta, Manuel. 

Hats. 

Ortiz, Marcelina Ocegueda de. 
Sewing mxichines. 

Ortiz, Prisciliano. 

JALAFA, VEBACBTJZ. 

Bankers. 

Cerd&n, Agustin. 

Pasquel,F.deP. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Escribano, Manuel. 

Luelmo, Pedro M. 

Rocha, Manuel M. 
China and glassware, 

Escribano, Manuel. 
Commission merchants, 

Oasas, Vicente R. 

Hoyos Hermanos. 

Pastrana, Guillermo. 
Drugs. 

Cambas, J086 Rivera. 

Casas, Rodolf o. 



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251 



JALAFA, VEBACBUZ— Continued. 

I>n«flr«— Continued. 

Crespo, Antonio. 

Gutierrez, Manuel Lozada 

Martinez, Sefioritas. 

Pastrana, Virginia. 

Pozo, Juan. 

Quiroz, ManueL 

Redondo, Juan Perez. 

Trigo8,Ddefon8o. 
Dry goods. 

Bouchez, C&rlos. 

Cordera, Angel. 

Cordero, Luis. 

Garcia, Antonio. 

Juano y Nieto. 

Manuel, Emilio (viuda de). 

Oncins y Ca. 

Rivera, Antonio Perez. 

Rodriguez, J. A. 

S4yago, Mariana. 

Teruel, C&rlos Garcia. 
Fancy goods. 

Bouchez, C4rlos. 

Cordero, Luis. 

Escribano, Manuel. 

Loaiza, Tomas. 

Luelmo, Pedro M. 

Rodriguez, Jos6 A. 
Furniture^ 

Luelmo, Pedro M. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Acosta, C&rlos. 

Aparicio 6 Hijos, Luis. 

Barrientos, Emilio. 

Dominguez, Basilio. 

Escribano, Manuel. 

Guevara, Francisco Javier. 

Hernandez, Manuel. 

Herrera, Joaquin Gomez. 

Jimenez, Vicente. 

Ramirez, Juan. 

Rodriguez, Faustino. 

Romero, Mariano. 

Sanchez, Manuel Leon. 

Ter&n, Roman. 

Valle,Micaeladel 

Vela, Jos6 M. 

Z4rate, Francisco. 

Z&rate, Tomas. 
General stores. 

Aragon y Martinez. 

Cordera, Angel. 

Escribano y Ca. 

Escobar Hermanos. 

Franchechi, Viuda de J. 



JALAPA, VERACRUZ— Continued. 

General «torc8— Continued. 

• Guevara, Francisco. 

Juarez y Nieto. 

Pastorisa. 

Romero, Mariano. 

Sulueta, Ramon. 

Teran, Jos6 Maria. 

Zubieta, Ramon. 
Hardware. 

Bouchez, C&rlos. 

Cordero, Luis. 

Luelmo, Pedro. 

Loaiza, Tomas. 
Hatter. 

Malpica,Luis. 
Jeweler. 

S&nger, Emilio. 
Setoing machines. . 

Bouchez, Cdrlos. 

Garcia, Antonio. 

Martines, Antonio. 

Oncins y Ca. 

Romero, Albino. 

LA BABCA, JALISCO. 

Bankers. 

Acufia, Inocencio. 
Boots and shoes. 

AcuHa, Inocencio. 

Mora, Miguel. 

Nufiez, Pomposo. 
Carriages. 

Santiago, Gregorio. 
Commission merchants. 

Aceves, Pedro. 

Villaseflor, J. 
Drugs. 

Mendoza, Luis G. 

Rio, Maria Refugio del. 
Dry goods. 

Acufia, Inocencio. 

Castellanos, Fructuoso. 

Hernandez, Francisco. 

Jimenez, Mariano. 

Laraj Ruperto. 

Mora, Miguel. 

Otero, Alberto Gil. 

Tamayo, Marino. 
Sewing machines. 

Mora, Miguel. 

LAGOS, JALISCO. 

Booksellers. 

Gonzalez, Refugio. 



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MEXICO. 



LAGOS, JALISCO— Continued. 

Booksellers— Continued. 

Larios, Ger6nimo. 

Larios, Margarito. 
Boots and shoes. 

Qalvan, F. 

Gonzalez, J. B. 

Jordan, I. 
China and glassware. 

Cabrera y Ca., R. 

Rodriguez, D. 
Commission merchants. 

Bocanegra Succ, A. 

Kegel, Augusto. 

Rodriguez, F61ix. 

Drugs. 

Aguirre, David Gonzalez. 

Bocanegra, J. 

Lanuza, F. 

Leon, F. G. 
Dry goods. 

Lozano, A. 

Valle y Ca., F. del. 

Vega, Pedro. 
Fancy goods. 

Larios, G. 

Larios, M. 

Lopez, Pedro, Sue. 

Rodriguez, D. 
Groceries and provisions, 

Cabrera yCa., R. 

Hernandez Hnos. 

Larios y Ca., H. 

Manriquez, F. 

Zufiiga 6 Hijo, J. M. 
Hardware^ iron, and ironware. 

Cabrera yCa., R. 

Gonzalez, Refugio. 

Rodriguez, D. 
Hatter. 

Gonzalez, R. 
Lithographer. 

Reyna, B. 
Paints, oils, and varnishes. 

Rodriguez, D. 

LA PAZ, LOWER CALIFORNIA. 

Boots and shoes. 

A8cencio,Cruz. 

Chac6n, Carmen. 

Quinteros, Francisco. 
Commission merchants. 

Silver, William. 

Viesca, James. 



LA PAZ, LOWER CALIFORNLi—Continued. 

Drugs. 

Hidalgo, M.M. 
Santana,Jos6. 

Importers. 

Arriola, Agustin. 

Cabezud y Ca. 

Cota y Pelaez. 

Gonzalez y Rufflo. 

Hidalgo y Ca. 

Rivera, G.,Suc. 
Sewing machines. 

Canalizo,A. G. 

Romero, Ignacio M. 

LEON, GTJAKAJTIATO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Alvarado,Luz. 

D&valos y Ca. 

Fisch y Ca. 

Gonzalez, M. 

Heyser, Jorge. 

Nufiez, Nestor. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Beruman, Euf emio. 

Olmo, R. del, Sue. 

Rembez,B. 
Bankers. 

Morales, Benigno. 

P6hls y Guedea, Sue. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 

Servin, Ramon. 
Banks. 

Sucursal del Banco de Londres y Mexico. 

Sucursal del Banco Nacional. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Campos, Juan N. 

Izquierdo, J. 

Olmo, R. del, Sue. 

Portillo y Guemes. 

Villalobos, Rafael. 
Boots and shoes. 

Barbara, Valente. 

Jaqueres, Agustin. 

Maldonado, Juan. 

Ruiz,Teodoro. 

Segura, Lauro. 
China and glassware. 

BittroUf y Niemeyer. 

Campos, Juan M. 

Munguia, Serapio. 

Martinez y Hermano, Fernando. 

Olmo, Ramon del, Sue. 

Perez, Jos6. 



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LEON, GUANAJTTATO— Continued. 

China and grto««tyare— Continued. 
Perez, J. A. 
Rico, Juan P. 
Salas, Fernando Puento. 

Clothing. 

Barbier, Santiago. 

Bessonart y Apesteguy. 

Bustaniante, Angel. 

Echeagaray yCa. 

Garcia, A. de Leon. 

GK>nzalez y Can 

Mena, Sabino. 

Mufiatones, J086. 

Obregon, Carlos. 

Tliomm6, Lorenzo. 
Clothing, hats, etc. 

Aldana, Pablo. 

Avila, Sebastian. 

Carpio, C&rlos. 

Chavez, Jos6. 

Delgado, Amado. 

Flebe, Joaquin. 

Gonzalez, Baltasar. 

Hagelstein, Luis. 

Hernandez, C. 

Lopez y Hermano. 

Lopez, ndef onso. 

Malacara, Manuel. 

Manguia, Serapio. 

Mannque, Santiago. 

Mui5oz, E. 

Ramirez, Victoriano. 

Salas, Fernando Puente. 

Salgago, Pascual. 

Segura, J. 

Trueba, Norberto. 
Commission merchants. 

Alatorre y Araujo. 

Alf aro, J. de la Luz. 

Alvarado, Luz. 

Fisch y Bischoff. 

Fuentes y Pifia. 

Garza, Francisco C. 

Gk>nzalez, Juan M. 

Hernandez y Alvarez. 

Lopez, Juan S. 

Luna, Miguel Luna. 

Martinez y Hermano, F. 

Mena, Cleto. 

Munguia, S. 

P6hls y Guedea, Sue. 

Segura, Miguel F. 

Torres, Wenceslao. 

Zimenez, Salvador. 



LEON, GUANAJTTATO— Continued. 

Dealers in native produce. 

Echeagaray y Ca.,Suc. 

Fuentes y Pifla. 

Madrazo, Manuel. 

Manrique, Santiago. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 

Valazquez, J. 
Drugs. 

Acosta, Pedro. 

Castro, Juan N. 

Espafia, Antonio. 

Espaiia, Miguel. 

Gonzalez, Francisco Aguerro. 

Gk)nzalez, Luis. 

Lealy Ca. 

Ortiz, Jos§. 

Ruiz, Petronilo. 
Dry goods. 

Barbier, Santiago. 

Bessonart. 

Brune y James. 

de Nava y Ca., Lopez. 

Etchegaray y Ca., Sue. 

Fisch y Bischoflf . 

Garcia, Aparicio. 

Jam6, Mariano. 

Martinez y Hermano, Femando. 

Munatoes, Jos6 Maria. 

Obregon, C&rlos. 

POhls y Guedea. 

Portilla y Guemes. 

Rico, Juan P. 

Salas, Fernando Puente. 

Thom6, Lorenzo. 

Villalobos, Rafael. 
Fancy goods, laces, etc. 

BittroUT y Niemeyer. 

Campos, Juan N. 

De Nava y Ca., Lopez. 

Echeagaray y Ca, 

Fuentes y Piiia. 

Hermosillo, Amada. 

Izquierdo, Zenon. 

Oiler, Antonio. 

Olmo, Ramon del, Sue. 

Perez, Jos6 A. 

P6hls y Guedea, Sue. 

Portnio y Hayser. 

Robles, Felipe. 
Flour merchants. 

Gonzales, J. M. 

Manrique, Santiago. 

Raynaud, Julio. 

Sierra, Manuel. 

Torres, Eulalio. 



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254 



MEXICO. 



LEON, GUANAJUATO— Continued. 

Furniture dealers. 

Bittrolff y Niemeyer. 

Fuentes y Pifia. 

Olmo, Ramon del. Sue. 

P6hls y Guedea Sue. 
, Rembez y Bezaury. 
Groceries and profusions. 

Fernandez, Manuel. 

Fisch y Ca. 

Gaona, Luis. 

Hernandez, Librado. 

Manrique, Santiago. 

Torres, Weneeslao. 
Hardware. 

Bittrolff y Niemeyer. 

Campos, Juan N. 

Martinez y Ca., Fernando. 

Olmo, Ramon del. Sue. 

Perez, Jos§ A. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 

Robles, Felipe. 

Hatters. 

Aldama, Pablo. 
Vldana, Manuel. 
Flebbe, Joaquin. 

Iron and ironware. 
Gaona, Luis. 
Manrique, Santiago. 
Rembez y Bezaury. 

Lithographers. 

Gomez, Hermanos. 
Pianos and mtisical instruments. 

Bittrolff y Niemeyer. 

Cortez, Estanislao. 

Olmo, Ramon del, Sue. 

P6hls y Guedea. 

Rico, Juan P. 

Sevjing machines. 

Garcia, Agustin. 

Nuflez, Nestor. 
Watches and jewelry. 

Arnold, Carlos. 

Barroso, Pascual. 

Gray, Francisco. 

Long, Luis. 

Rembez y Bezaury. 

Wool exporters. 

Garza, Francisco Cortina. 
Manrique, Diego. 
Muiioz, E. 
Mufioz, Ramon. 
Oiler, Antonio. 



UNASES, NUXVO LEON. 



Booksellers. 

Infante, Modesto. 

Perez, Ramon Garcia. 
Commission merchants. 

Tamez y Tomaseo. 

Drugs. 

"Aguila.*' 

"Leon." 

"Sema." 

"Wells." 
Dry goods. , 

Adame, Mariano. 

Barrera, Presiliano. 

Fuente, Francisco de la. 

Garza, J. Garcia. 

Garcia, Mariano. 

Lozano, Donaciano. 

Pequefio, Pantaleon. 

Septilveda, Isaac Garza. 

Sepfilveda, Genaro. 

Tamez y Tomaseo. 

Vivanco, Manuel. 
Fancy goods. 

Melendez, Jos6 Maria. 

Perez, Ramon Garcia. 

Eodriguez, Ramon. 

Viuda de Vidales. 

Groceries and provisions. 
G^arcIa, Mariano. 
Pequefio, Pantaleon. 
SeptUveda, Genaro. 
SeptUveda, Isaac Garza. 
Vivanco, Manuel. 

Hardivare. 

Fouga, Bernardo. 
Tamez y Tomaseo. 

Hatters. 

Arreaga, Joaquin. 
Garza, J. Garcia. 
Quijano, Apolinar. 
Sepfilveda, Genaro. 

Sewing nmchines. 
Larrumbe, Ismael. 



MATAMOBOS, TAMAULIPAS. 



Arms and ammunition 
Bielenberg, Jorge. 

Bankers. 

Iturria y Ca., N. 
Nielfien, Enrique. 



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MEXICO. 



255 



MATAMOBOS, TAMAUIIPAS— Continued. 

Banks. 

Agenda del " Banco Nacional.''^ 

Bank of London, Mexico, and South America, 

Umited. 
Mexican Railway Bank. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Bennevendo, Emilio. 

Boesche, J. P. 

Cardenas, J. A. 

Martinez, Miguel Garcia. 

Purdi6, Samuel. 
Carriage dealers. 

Chassignet, E. 

Garcia, Andr6s. 

Miranda, Agustin. 

Schultz, Federico. 
China and glassware. 

Mufioz, L. 

Commission merchants. 

Cavazos, Antonio. 
Cross, Meliton. 
Gazano, G. 
Iturria, Francisco. 
Muguerza, Francisco G. 
Passement, Alfredo. 

Drugs. 

Barragan, Miguel. 

Brayda, C. 

Brayda, Victor. 

Bremer, Eduardo. 

Calderon, Jos6. 
Dry goods. 

Arredondo, ManueL 
Bemheim, J. 
Boesch, J. P. 
Burchard y Hermano. 
Cardenas, J. A. 
Cross, Meliton H. 
Fernandez, Francisco. 
Garibay, Lorenzo. 
Guinea yCa., B. 
Laviolette, Viuda de. 
Longoria, Policarpo. 
Miller, Rafael M. 
Petitpain, Luis M. 
Urtusastegui, B. 
Exporters of hides, skins, and domestic produce 
Armendaiz, F. 
Cross, J. S., & M. H. 
Follain, G. 
Neilsen, H. 



MATAMOBOS, TAMAULIPAS— Continued. 

Exporters of hides, skins, and domestic pro- 
duce— Continned. 

Yturria, Bernardo. 

Yturria y Ca., F. 
Fancy goods. 

Bennevendo, Emilio. 

Boesch, J. P. 

Jacques, Levy. 
Puimiture. 

Cross, M. H. 

Muiioz, L. 

Scherck, Francisco. 

Sorbet, Enrique H. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Arredondo, Manuel. 

Cross, M. H. 

D&vila, Francisco. 

Gonzalez, Jos6 R. • 

Iturria, Francisco. 

Iturria y Ca., F. 

Levy, J. 

Muguerza, Francisco Garcia. 

Muiioz, L. 

PortUlo, Inocencio. 

Raphael & Bloomberg. 

Rougier y Ca., Marcelino. 
Hardvmre. 

Boesche, J. P. 

Doulet, A. 

Madrazo, Miguel. 

M&rquez, Felipe. 

Rougier y Ca., Marcelino. 

Sansat,Juan. 
Importers. 

Barragan, M. (drugs). 

Bennevendo, E. (cutlery, hardware, and no- 
tions). 

Bielenberg, G. (arms, ammunition, jewelry, 
and sewing machines). 

Brayda, V. (drugs). 

Brown, W. (undertakers' supplies). 

Cross, J. S. & M. H (general merchandise). 

Darrouzel,J. (liquors). 

Guinea & Co., B. (dry goods). 

Laviolette, Viuda (dry goods). 

Levy, J. (groceries and notions). 

Madrazo, M. (hardware). 

McMillan, John (tinware). 

Miller, R. M. (dry goods). 

Mufioz, L., Sue. (general merchandise). 

Muguerza, F. Garcia (general merchandise). 

Petitpain, L. N. (dry goods). 

Rougier y C&.,y[. (general merchandise). 

Raphael & Bloomberg (general merchandise). 

Urtuzastegui, B. (dry goods). 



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256 



MEXICO. 



HATAMOBOS, TAMAULIPAS— Ck)ntinued. 

Jeicelers. 

Bielenber^, Jorge. 

Belemberg y Qaast. 

Hmojosa,Jos6A. 
Sewing machines. 

Bielenberg, Jorge. 

Cardenas, Manuel. 

HAZATLAN, SUTALOA. 

Agricultural implements. 

Charpentier, Reynaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

Hecht, G. Henrique. 

Heymann, Sue. 

Loubet y C*. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Alexandre y Gaskin, J. J. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 
Bankers. 

Bartning, Sue. 

Echeguren Hnos. y Sobrinhos. 

Escobar, J. 

Melchers, Sue. 

Mendia y Ca., Hernandez. 

Smollera Hnos. 
Banks. 

Bank of London, Mexico, and South America, 
Ltd. 

National Bank of Mexico. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Charpentier, Reynaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

Heymann, Sue. 

Paez,Donaciano. 
Boots and shoes. 

Coppel Hnos. 

Pantoja, Hijo y Ca., Jo86 C. 
Carriage dealers. 

Moneda, Jos6. 

Montiel, J. 
China and glassware. 

Charpentier, Reynaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

Heymann, Sue. 
Commission merchants. 

Acosta, Bemabe. 

Cruz, Joaquin Santa. 

Echeguren, Francisco. 

Farber, Juan C. 

Garcia, Genaro. 

Gonzalez, Guillermo. 

Guzman y Varela. 



HAZATLAK, SmALOA— Continued. 

Commission merc/ian^«— Continued. 

Haas, Guillermo. 

Hecht, Enrique. 

Kelton,E. G. 

Pantoja, Rijo y Ca., Jos6 C. 

Retes y Ca., Peiro. 

Reynaud, Sue. 

Romero, Desiderio. 

Schmidt, Enrique. 

Schober, Leopoldo. 

Zeiss, Rodolfo. 
Drugs. 

Canobio Hnos. 

Espinosa, Luis C. 

KiJrdell, Federico. 

Nuflo, Angel. 

yaladez,J.J. 

ZfinigayCa.,M. 
Dry goods. 

Bartning, Sue. 

Beltran, Lucas. ' • 

Escobar, Jos4. 

Haas y Almada. 

Herrerfas, Marcelino, 

Izaguirre y Esquerra. 

Maldonado, JuanaR.de. 

Melchers, Sue. 

Mendia y Ca., Hernandez. 

Paez, Donaciano. 

Rios, Juana. 

Somellera Hnos. 

Tapia, Librado A. 

Vega Hnos. 

Vega, Manuel de la. 
Fancy goods. 

Charpentier, Rejrmand y Ca. 

D&valos, Abraham. 

De Leon Hnos. Diaz. 

Escobar, J. 

Escobar, Jos6. 

Heymann, Sue. 

Maldonado, Juana R. de. 

Maxemin y Saratia. 

Melchers, Sue. 

Mendez y Ca., Hernandez. 

Nufiez, Francisco. 

Tapia, Librado Andres. 

Furniture. 

Leon, Santiago. 
Loubet y Ca. 
Rea, Luis. 

Oroceries and provisions. 
Bartning, Sue. 
Beltran, Sue, M. 



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MEXICO. 



257 



MAZATLAN, 8IHAL0A— Continued. 

Groceries and provisioTM-— Continued. 

Campos, Santiago. 

Canobio Hnos. 

Cardinault, Edmundo. 

Charpentier, Reynaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

EHorza y Ca. , Tam6s. 

Qoldschmldt y Ca. 

Gutierrez, Antonio. 

Hecht, G.Enrique. 

Heymann, Sue. 

Hidalgo, Careaga y Ca. 

Leon Hnos. 

Longavay, Gregorio. 

Loubet y Ca. 

Magafia, Mat6o. 

Magayanes, Gumesindo. 

Maxemin y Sarabia. 

Melchers, Sue. 

Mendia y Ca. 

Pefia, Antonio de la. 

Rey,Viudade. 

Sotomayor y Andrew. 

Vargas, Rafael. 
Hardware^ iron, and irontoare. 

Ayala, Catarino. 

Charpentier, Rejmaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

Hesrmann, Sue. 

Hidalgo, Careaga y Ca. 

Loubert y Ca. 
Hatters. 

Carrion, Francisdo. 

Flores,Juan. 

Hernandez, Trinidad. 

Imafia, Francisco G. 

Muro Hnos. 
Importers. 

Bartring, Sue. 

Charpentier, Reynaud y Ca. 

De Leon Hnos., Diaz. 

Galick Hermanos. 

Garamendi y Ca. 

Goldschmidt y Ca. 

Haas y Almada. 

Mendia y Ca., Hemandes. 

Heymann, Sue. 

Pefia, Antonio de la. 

• Tapia, Andres L. 
Jetuelero. 

Escudero, Ignado. 
Marshall, Juan L. 
Lithographer. 
Ret48, Miguel. 
57A 17 



MAZATLAN, SINALOA— Continued. 

Manufacturer, cardboard. 

Ret^s, Miguel. 
Paints, oils, etc. 

Rea,L. 
Sewing machines. 

Haas y Almada. 

Melchers, Sue. 

Mendia y Ca. , Hernandez. 
Silk goods. 

Mendez y Ca., Hernandez. 

Yuen y Ca., Kwong Yue. 

MEBIDA, YUCATAN. 

Agricultural implements, arms, etc. 
Albertos, Leopoldo. 
Alvarez y Ca. 
.Ayroa, Gregorio Di6go. 
Crasemann, Sue. 
Dond6y Ca., M. 
Escalante, E. 
Esenat, Antonio. 
Gutierrez y Ca. 
Gutierrez, L. 
Gutierrez, Ricardo. 
Haro y Ca, B. 
Juanes, Ramon P. 
Molina y Ca., O. 
Nicolin Hermanos. 
Ponce y Ca., Jos6 M. 
Ravonburg, German. 

Bankers. 

Crasemann Succ. 

Dond6yCa., M. 

Escalante, E. 

Haro y Ca. 

Molina y Ca. 

Perez y Ca. B. Azner. 
Banks. 

Banco Mercantil de Yucatan. 

Banco Yucateco. 

Bank of London, Mexico and South America, 
Ltd. 

National Bank of Mexico. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Baqueiro Hnos., Gomez. 

Canto, Gil. 

Canton, Eraclio G. 

Diaz, Gustavo. 

Luis Bros. 

Martin y Espinosa, J086. 

SoUsyCa., Aznar. 
Boots and shoes. 

Arestequi, E. 

C&mara, Pedro. 



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258 



MEXICO. 



MERIBA, TtrCATAN— Continued. 

Boots and sAocs— Continued. 
Darrillo y Ca., Basilio. 
Carvajal, Juan Gonzalez. 
Carrillo, Benito. 
Ciriaco, Espejo. 
Cayoe, Eulalio. 
Hernandez, Juan de D. 
Hernandez, Mat6o. 
Hernandez, Molina J. 
Mendoza, Guadalupe. 
Mendoza, Jos6 G. 
Pren, J. G. 
Rubio, Lucas. 
Ruiz, Castillo. 
Ruiz, Domingo. 
Ruiz, Viuda de. 
Salazar, Martin. 
ViUarail, P. 

China and glassware. 

Carranca, Camilo. 

Cervera, V. 

Sosa, F. 
Commission merchants. 

Cervera y Ca., Venancio. 

Cicero Hermanos y Ca. 

Conton, Rodolfo G. 

Contreras y Ca., P. Peon. 

Di4go y Ca., A. Cano, 

Dond6y Ca., M. 

Escalante, E. 
. Elscuder^, Di4go Hernandez. 

Elscudero, Rafael Hernandez. 

Gonzalez y Ca., LuisG. 

Haro y Ca. 

Laviada, Miguel. 

Lisarraga y Ca, J. 

Luis Bros. 

Molina, Felipe. 

Molina, O. 

Perez, B. Aznar. 

Regil y Vales. 

Torre 6 Hijos, Q. 
Druggists. 

Aguilar, Santiago. 

Andrade, Rafael. 

Avila, Cruz. 

Casares, Eduardo. 

Castillo, Gerado. 

Font, Jos6. 

Garcia, Francisco L6pez. 

Negron, Francisco. 

Pacheco, Lorenzo. 

Perez, Pinto. 

Pinto, Pablo. 

Ponce, Abelardo. 



MEBIDA, TUCATAN— Continued. 

Druggists-^Contiaued. 

Ponce, W. 

Reguera, Pedro. 

Rivera y Ca. 

Rubis, Francisco, 

Trancoso, Pedro. 

Villamil, Miguel. 
Dry goods. 

Alpuche y Ca., Tomas. 

Alvarez y Ca. 

Canoy Ca., B. 

Canton Frexas. 

Cap«»tillo y Arce. 

C&seres L., Isaac. 

Castillo, RivasyCa. 

Dond6y Ca., M. 

Garcia Fajardo A. 

Gonzalez, Pablo. 

Herrera, Nemesio. 

Htibbe, E. 

Padron, Sergio. 

Patron, Loza y Ca. 

Pinel, Manuel. 

Ponce y Ca., M. y A. 

Toledo yCa., Viuda de. 

Vales y Ca. 

Fancy goods. 

Crasemann, Sue. 

Laviada yCa. 

Ravensburg y Ca., German. 

Tenorio y Ca. 

Vales yCa.,C. 
Furniture. 

Castillo yCa.,G. A. 

Crasemann, Sue. 

Leopoldo, Alberto. 

Perez yCa.,Delfln. 

Ponce yCa.,R. 

Tenorio y Ca., C. 

Zavala, Lorenzo. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Almeyda, Manuel. 

Alonso y Ca., E. 

Aragon, Juan. 

Aragona, Daniel. 

Atochay Ca.,R. 

Avila, Faustino. 

Bolio, Adolfo. 

Bolio Hermanos. 

Calp, Jaime. 

C&mara§ Hijos, C. 

Campo, Joaquin. 

Cano y Ca., A. Di6go. 

CanoyCa.,B. 

Canto, G. 



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259 



MERIDA, TUCATAN— Continued. 

Groceries and jtwovtstorw— Continued. 

Canton, R. Gregorio. 

Canton, Rogerio G. 

CarriUo,Jo86 C. 

Carillo, Magdaleno. 

Castillo, Juan B. 

Castillo, Pedro. 

Cervera y Ca. 

Cevera, Venancio. 

Cicero Hermanos y Ca. 

Concha, Miguel. 

Contreras y Ca., Peon. 

Espinosa y Ca. 

Ferraes y Ca., N. 

Fuentes, Bartolom6. 

Fuentes y Ca. 

Fuentes, Francisco. 

Gallareta, Manuel J. 

Gonzalez y Ca. 

Gonzalez, Francisco. 

Haro y Ca. 

Hidalgo, Jos6 de. 

Habbe, Jos6 Millet. 

Lopez, E. Franco. 

Lujon, Gabriel. 

Mena. MelqUiades. 

Mendicuto, Isidro. 

Milan y Ca., Ramon E. 

Milon, Gregorio. 

Molina y Ca., O. 

Mota,Tiburcio. 

Ortiz y Ca. 

Ortiz, Viuda de. 

Palma Hermanos, Sue. 

Ramos, Domingo P. 

Rojas, Felipe R. 

Vales yCa. 

Villamil y Ca. 

Zapata y Ca., J. 
Mardtvare, toola^ etc. 

Alvarez y Ca. 

Ajnroa, Gregorio Diego. 

Crasemann, Sue. 

Dond6, Manuel. 

Esenat, A. 

Gutierrez yCa.,R. 

Gutierrez, Suc.,L. 

Juanes, Ramon P. 

Laviala y Ca. 

Leopoldo, Alberto. 

Ravensberg y Ca., Q. 

Nicolin Hermanos. 

Villamil Hnos. y Ca. 
Hatters. 

£2ncalacla, C. -^ 

Medina, Pedro. 



MEBIDA, TtrCATAN— Ck>ntinued. 

jffaWera— Continued. 
San8ores,E. 
Serrano, L. 
House furnishing goods. 
Burgos, Jo86 D. 
Rivas, Bos6nito. 
Sanchez, Jos6 Ruz. 
Valencia, Domingo. 
Importers, exporters, and commission merchants^ 
Alcina,Agustin. 

Alvarez y Ca. (importers dry goods). 
Ancona, Nicanor (exporters hemp). 
Aznar, Benito. 
Aznar. Perez y Ca. 
Bolio, Eduardo. 

C&mara, Camilo (exporters' hemp). 
C&maray Ca..P. 
C&mara, Manuel Dond6. 
Cano y Ca., B. (importers groceries and pro- 
visions). 
(Canton, Amado. 
Cicero Hernandez y Ca. (importers groceries 

and provisions). 
Cicero, Pedro. 
Contreras y Ca.,P.Peon (importers groceries 

and provisions). 
Crasemann y Ca., S. (importers fancy goods 

and notions). 
Diego y Ca., A. Cano (importers groceries and 

provisions). 
Dond6 y Ca.,M. (exporters hemp). 
Escalante y Bates, E. (exporters hemp). 
Frexas y Ca. , J. Canton (importers dry goods). 
Galera, Dario. 
Gardarillas, Marcelino. 
Gonzalez, Pablo (exporters hemp). 
Gonzalez, Pedro. 
Gutierrez y Ca., L. (importers fancy goods and 

notions). 
Gutierrez y Ca., R. (importers fancy goods and 

notions). 
Gutierrez, Eduardo (3k>nzalez (exporter hemp). 
Haro y Ca. 
Haro y Concha. 
Haro y Pena. 

Hernandez, Rafael (exporter hemp). 
Hoffman y Dominguez. 
Hoyo, Celestino Ruis del. 
Hoyo, Francisco Ruis del. 
Ibarra y Ca. 
Laviada, Miguel. 
Laviado y Ca. (importers fancy goods and 

notions). 
Lizarraga y C^., F. 

Loza y Ca., Patron (importers diy goods). 
Luis Bros. 



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26o 



MEXICO. 



MEBIDA, TUOATAN— Continued. 

Importers, exporters, and commiaHon mer- 
chants—Continued. 

Milan, Qregorio. 

Molina y Ca., O. (exporters hemp). 

Milina, Felipe. 

Oniz y Ca.,Viuda (importers groceries and 
provisions). 

?adron, Sergio (importer dry goods). 

Palma Hnos.,Suc. (importers groceries and 
provisions). 

Peon, Augusto (exporters hemp). 

Perez y C&. 

Pinelo, Manuel (importer dry goods). 

Ponce y CJa., J. M. (exporters hemp). 

Ravensburg y C&., G. (exporters hemp and 
importers fancy goods). 

Fega,Viuda6Hijode. 

Rivas y Ca., Castillo (importers dry goods). 

Rotger y Ca., Pedro. 

Rucio, ManueL 

Seal, Pedro. 

Toledo y CJa., Viuda de. 

Vales y Csl. (importers dry goods). 

Zapata y Ca. , J. (importers groceries and pro- 
visions). 
Jewelers. 

Aragon, Paulino. 

Barcelo y Mat^o. 

Basulto, Joaquin. 

Basulto,JuanE. 

Cabrera, Eulalio. 

Carranca, Camilo. 

Carrillo, Loreto. 

Claudon,Luis. 

Dellenberg, Enrique. 

Dominguez, Cdrlos. 

Flores, Tiburcio. 

Monforte, Juan C. 

Quen, Elgio. 

Ramirez, Jos6 D. 

Rodriguez, Francisco. 

Rodriguez, Satumlo. 

Rosel.Policarpo. 

Sanchez, Mat6o. 
Lithographers. 

Caballero, Ricardo B. 

Cuevas, J. D. 

Gamboa, Jos6. 

Quijano, Santiago Bolio. 
Music stores. 

Cuevas, Juan de. 

Gasque, Ramon. 

Luis Bros. 

Ortiz y Ca., Viuda de. 
Sewing machines. 

Gutierrez, Suc.,L. 



MERIDA, TUCATAN—Continued. 

Sewing macAirte»— Continued. 
Caballero yCa., A. 
Crasemaun, Sue. 

MEXICO CITY, MEXICO. 

Acids and chemicals. 
Delgado, Rafael. 
Drogueria Universal. 
Egula Lis, Jos6 Marfa. 
F61ixyCa., C&rlos. 
Gardufio, Gabriel. 
Laigle, Ernesto. 
Marin, Crescencio. 

Agencies for foreign goods {saie by sample). 
Alc&ntara, F. de P. 
de AlCaro, Ignacio F. 
Argaelles, Ed. 
Astorquiza y Vivanco. 
Bannister, Juan. 
Benitez, Landa y Ca. 
Biquard y Ca. 
Borel, Luis. 

Bossier y Ca., Germ&n. 
Cavaroc, L. 

CJarrillo, Ruiz y Rivera. 
Ca8tell6, Gutierrez y Ca. 
Commager§ y Peon. 
**Compa!iia Commercial Austriaca Transat- 

l&ntica." 
Dahlhaus, Edmundo. 
Daus, Federico O. 
Dunbar, Di6go S. 
Dttring y Ca, M. 
Echeverrla, Pedro. 
Franco y Santaella. 
Gast6n y Ca. , Jos6 M. 
Garcia, Cuervo y Menendez. 
(Jendroy, M. 
Goetschel y Ca. 
Gk>nzalez Hnos. 
Gutierrez, Miguel N. 
Ibarra Vicente. 
Irigoyen, Martin de. 
Jacques P. y J. 
Jacques y Eyssantier. 
Morlet, Te6filo. 
Merino Hnos y Ca. 
Navarro y Ca., F. 
Nieto, Juan N. 
Pf eiffer, Federico (represents American wines 

and liquors). 
Perez y Ca., P. 
Reboulet, Louis. 
Reppeto,Juan. 
Rico, Gil. 



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MEXICO. 



261 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Oontinued. 

Agencies for foreign goods {sale by sampleY-Con- 
tinued. 

Ritter y Ca., Federico. 

Ruiz, Ballesteros y Ca. 

RuthyCa. 

Salcido, Rafael. 

Scheibe, G. 

Samuel, Lionel. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Stankiewicz, G. M. 

Torre, Rodolf o de la. 

Viadero, J. 

ViUarroel, Jesfis M. 

Woodrow, Guillermo B. 

2^accarini y Ca., A. 
Agencies for American manufacturers only {sale 
by sample). 

Meyer, J. H. 

Sriber, Cfirlos. 
Agricultural implements. 

Adams, F., Sue. 

Arce, J. 

Badoin y Ca., E. 

Becerer, C&rlos. 

Boker y Ca. , Roberto. 

Bowes, Scott, Read, Campbell & Co. 

Charreton Hnos. 

Dom y Ca., Guillermo. 

Garth, German. 

Guthiel, A. 

Hoffmann Hermanos. * 

Hulvershom y Ca. 

Jacot, Alejandro. 

Leffmann 6 Hijos. 

Lhose y Ca., Guillermo. 

Lhose,S. 

N.Y.PlowCo. 

Malo y Ca., Alberto. 

Rio, Jos6 Marfa del. 

Sommer y Ca., Rapp. 

Ulrick y Ca., D. 

Wexel y Degress. 

White, Juan. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Aizpuru. Patricio. 

Alva, Ramon. 

Alvarado, Joaquin. 

Alvarez, Modesto. 

Andrade, Antonio. 

Anzoutegai, Jos6. 

Aranzubia, Manuel. 

Arena, Joaquin. 

Argandar, Alejandro, 

Boche, Atfredo. 

Carrion, C. 

Combaluzier, A. 



MEXICO crrr, Mexico— continued. 

Arms and ammunition — Continued. 

Mendiolay Ca.,M. 

Morel, C. 

Pagliri, Fernando. 

Quintana Hnos. 

Sanchez, D. 

Urbarrena y Quintana. 

Wexel y De Gress. 
Army contractors, for amw, ammunition, cloth 
ing, shoes, etc., 

Garcia, T. L. 

Llamedo. Juan. 

Pombo, Ignacio. 
Artificial flowers. 

Albert y Ca., J., Sue. 

Deuchlery Kern. 

Hulvershom y Ca. , G. 

Priani, Antonio M. 
Banks and* tankers. 

"Banco Nacional de M6xico." 

"Banco de Ldndres y M6xico." 

"Banco Intemacional 6 Hipotecario de 
M6xico." 

Barron, Forbes y Ca. 

Benecke, Est., Sue. 

Bermejillo Hnos. 

Cardefia y Ca., Sue. 

Garcia Teruel, Luis. 

Gargollo, Jos6. 

Ibafiez, Manuel. 

Jacobowicz, Fabian de. 

Lavie y Ca. 

Llamedo, Juan. 

Martin yCa., P. 

Martinez y Ca. 

Mijaresy Ca.,A. 

Ortiz de la Huerta, R. 

Pelaez Pedro. 

Rio, F. de P. del 

Sanchez, Delf In. 

Scherer y Ca., H. 

Sonmier, Herrmann y Ca. 

Struck y Ca., Gustavo. 

Teresa, Nicolfis de. 

Watson, Phillips y Ca. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Abadiano, Viuda § hijos dc 

Aguilar 6 hijos. 

Aguilar y Ortiz. 

Andrade y Morales, Sue. 

Andrade y Soriano. 

Amaldo, Luis G. 

Ballesc&yCa., J. 

Bernard, A. 

Bouret, Cdrlos. 



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MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— C^ontinued. 

Booksellers and stationers— Continued. 
Budin, N-.Suc. 
Biix6yCa.,J. 
Cambeses, M. 
Canols, Juan. 
Cueva, Ramon. 
Chavez, N. 

Diaz de Leon, Francisco. 
Dom, Guillermo. 
Dublau y Ca. 
Fernandez y Ca, M. 
Fuente P&rres. J. de la. 
Gallegos Hermanos. 
Garay, Adrian de. 
Griflftn y Campbell. 
HamQton, H. P. 
Herrera y Benavides. 
Herrara, J. 
Hoeck.F.P. 
Jens, J. F. 
Kausery Martin. 
Lions yCa.,H.yV. 
Liidert, Federico A. 
Martin, Luis. 
Martinez, Vicente. 
Mazay Ca. 
Montauriol, CArlo*'. 
Murgufa, Eduardo. 
Nichols, Benito, Sue. 
Nicolau, Joaquin 
Ortega, J. 
Ortega y Vazquez. 
Pan-es y Ca., F., Sue. 
Portu,E. 
Remirezy Ca.,J. 
Rivera y Rio, Jos6. 
Rivera y Rico, Edmundo. 
Sainz, Ricardo. 
Sanchez, C. 
Spaulding,D S. 
Tamborrel, C4rlos. 
Treuber, Hermanos. 
Urlas, J. 
Urrea, Antonio R. 
Valdes y Cueva. 
Vaugier, Federico. 
Vincourt, Cdrlos. 

Boots and shoes. 
Abarca, Ausencio. 
Aceves, Juan A. 
Alegre, Julian. 
Alfaro,Juan. 
Almonte, Francisco. 
Araujo, Jorge. 
A rellano, Arcadio. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Boots and sAo6«— Continued. 
Ar6valo,Juan. 
Arpidey Ca.,U. 
Ascoitia, Catalina. 
Ataide, Prisciliano. 
Barranco, Vicente. 
Becherel, Josefa. 
Benitez, B. G. 
Bermeo, Antonio. 
Bemal, Marcelino. 
Bemal, Ramos, Angel. 
Brisefio, Juan. 
Brisefio, Manuel 
Bucardo, Trinidad. 
Buenrostro, Jos§. 
Camacho, Jacinto. 
Carmona, C&rlos. 
Carmona, Esther. 
Carillo, Pablo. 
Camillas, Rafael. 
Castillo, Fermin del. 
Cazadero, Angela. 
Celada,Te6filo. 
Cervantes, Enrique. 
Chacon y Ca., Gabriel. 
D&valos, Faustino. 
D&valosy Hno..F. 
Dav6, Francisco. 
Daza, Jacinto. 
Delgado, Agustin. 
Blaz, J. 
Diosdado, F. C. 
Dominguez Hnos. 
Espinoza, Eulogio. 
Espinoza, Ildef onso. 
Esteva, Sabino. 
Fernandez y Ca. , B. 
Flores,J. 
Foumier, Joseph. 
Garcia, Loreto. 
Garcia, Luis G. 
Garcia, Paulino. 
Gomez, Antonio. 
Gomez, L. G. 
Gonzalez, Catalina. 
Gonzalez, Juan. 
Gonzalez, J. 
Gonzalez, German. 
Gonzalez, M. 
Gonzalez, Mufioz, M. 
Gorostiaga, J. M. 
Guadarrama, Salvador. 
Gutierrez y Hnos., Jos6 D. 
Guzman, Marcos. 
Halsey, Cristina. 
Hormigo, Manuel. 



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MEXICO CITT. MEXICO— Continued. 

Boots and s/ioea— Continued. 
Hurtado, Atanasio. 
Islas, Guadalupe. 
Ituniaga, E. 
Izimza, Ignacio. 
Jaramillo, Braulio. 
Juarez, Hilario. 
Lara, Daniel. 
Leite,J. 
Leon, Di6go. 
Lopez, Jos6 Maria. 
L6pez, Juan. 
Lopez, Juan C. 
Lopez, Geogorio. 
Martinez, Adolfo. 
Martinez, Concepci6n. 
Martinez, Evaristo. 
Martinez, Jacinto. 
Mayorga,Justo. 
Mejia, Luis. 
Mena, Rosa. 
Mendez, Antonio. 
Mendoza,J.M. 
Migoni, Luis. 
Molina, Hilario. 
Monroy, Q. 
Monroy, Guadalupe. 
Montafio, AngeL 
Montes de Oca, Antonio. 
Montes de Oca, L&zaro. 
Morales, Angel. 
Morales, Lucas. 
Moreno, Ana Marfa. 
Mulioz, Abraham. 
Mufioz,Juan. 
Mufioz, Mariano. 
Muriel, Pedro. 
Nava, Juana. 
Nava, Agustina. 
Nogueron, Apolonio. 
Nfifiez,S. 
Ntifiez, Sabino. 
Ocampo,Jacobo. 
Ordoflez, Pedro. 
Ortiz, J. 
Ortiz, Ramon. 
Ortiz, Teodoro. 
Pascal, M. 
Pefiaflor, Marcos. 
Perea, Petrea A. de. 
Perez, Juan. 
Perez, Petra. 
PichardoyCa.,R.A. 
PietraSanta,A. 
Pietra Santa, Edo. 
Portacarrero, Agustin. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Boots and 9Aoe«— Continued. 

Portron, Luis. 

Pozo, Badillo Juan. 

Ramirez, Eusebio. 

Ramirez Santillana,A. 

Reyes, Apolonio. 

Rivero, Paz. 

Robles, Porflrio. 

Rodriguez, E. 

Rodriguez, Pedro. 

Rojas, Casimiro. 

Romano, Conpn. 

Rosas, Jos4. 

Rojas, Soledad. 

Ruiz, Manl. 

Saldafia,Migl. 

Saldafiahijo,T. 

Salgado, Pedro Ma. 

Santa, Maria Feliciana. 

Santa Maria y Ca., L. 

Sarmiento, Marco. 

Segura, G. 

Segura, M. 

Sevilla y Villagrto. 

Sigales, Canute. 

Sobrino, Ram6n. 

Solachi, Romualda. 

Somera, Albino. 

Soto, Jos6 Ma. 

Soto. Maria. 

Suarez, Maria Refugio. 

Tapia, Luis G. 

Tapia, Francisco. 

Telles, Gumesindo. 

Tesorero, Atanasio. 

Tinoco, Luciano. 

Torres, Antonio. 

Torres, Ma. de J. 

Trejo, Francisco. 

Troncoso, Anselmo. 

Trueba, Enrique. 

Urosa, Angel. 

Valencia, Miguel. 

Valle,J. A.del. 

Vara, Mauro. 

Varas de Valdez, J. 

Vargas, Pedro. 

Vega, Atanasio. 

Victorio, Jos6. 

Zarifiana y Ca., J. L. 

Zetina, J. 

Zetina y Ca., C. B. 
Bricky limey and cement 

Aduna, Sabina. 

Alva, Manuel. 

Alvarez, Cipriano. 



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MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Brick, lime, and cement— Continued. 
Alvarez, J. 
Alvarez, M&rcos. 
Alvarez, Teodoro. 
Arizeorreta y Ca., Lauro. 
Cabrera, Guadalupe. 
C&rdenas, A. 
Cardona, Juan. 
C6rdova, Luis F. 
Castillo, Antonio. 

Compafifa manufacturera de cal hidr&ulica. 
Fernandez, Simona. 
Flores, Manuel M. 
Forey, Juan. 
Qalicia, Cayetano. 
Garcia, Leon. 
Gamica. Jo84. 
Hfthener, Pablo. 
Idrac, C&rlos. 
Lama, Angel de la. 
L6pez, Simon. 
Lozano, Soledad. 
Luengas, Luis A. 
Mljares, R. 
Montes de Oca. 
Negrete, Benito. 
Ntiiiez Juana. 
Olguin Silvo. 
Olvera, Dolores. 
Omaiia, Fernando. 
Omafia, Gregorio. 
Omaiia, Maria de J. 
Pacheo, C. 
Perez, Cecilio. 
Priani, A. 
Rangel, Francisco. 
Rangel y Uribe. 
Rey, J6s6. 
Reyes, Teodol-o. 
Rio, M. del. 
Rodriguez, E. 
Romo, Salvador. 
Rosa y Rangel Ma. 
Rosas, Manuel. 
Rosellon, Domingo. . 
Rubaira, Francisco. 
Sanchez, Isaac. 
Sanchez, Joaquin. 
Sil, Jacinto. 
Silva, Jesus. 
Talonio, Lorenzo 
Tapia, Juan. 
Unda Gabriel. 
Vargas, Benigna. 
Vargas, Ladislao. 
Vargas, Luisa. 



MEXICO CUT, MEXICO—Continued. 

Brick, lime, and cemcn*— Continued. 

Vasquez, Albino de. 

Vazquez, Ambrosio. 

Velasquez, Antonio O. 

Velazquez, Manuel. 

Vera, Cirilo. 

Vifias, Edo. 

Violante, Juan. 

Zamora, Miguel. 

Z(iiliga, Francisco. 
Carriages. 

Balderes, Avineda. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Ceaser, Joaquin. 

Ducastaing y Ca., E. 

Elcoro y Ca., Valentin. 

Maza, Jos6. 

Moricard, J. 

Nava, Felipe. 

Olaez, Agustin. 

Orozco, Victor E. 

Pascal, M. 

Ramirez, Juan. 

Risser, Adolfo. 

Sanchez, F. G. 

Seres yCa., Bias. 

Suarez, Gabriel Martinez. 

Vent, Andr4s. 

Wexel y DeGress. 

Wilson y Ca., T. H., Sue. 

Wilson Hijos y Ca., Hugo. 
Carriageware. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Combaluzier, A. 

Rio, Jos6 Maria del. 
China and glassware. 

Aguirre y Hnos, I. 

Albear, Miguel. 

Aranjo, Mariano. 

Avalos, Camilo. 

Becerril de Comeja, A. 

Bravo y Blumenkron. 

Caisseller, Alberto. 

Calvet, Victor. 

Comejo Hno, Aurelio. 

Domy Ca., Guillermo. 

Derflinger, Antonio. 

Dupont, Juan M. 

Dumity, D. 

Espejel, M. 

Guerrero y Tangassi. 

Gutierrez, Nestor. 

Hildebrandy Ca., E. 

Lohse y Ca., G., Sue. 

Mendez, Francisco. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO—Continued. 

China and glassware— Continued 
Ocampo, A^niJStin. 
Olea, Mariano. 
Pino. Tomas deL 
Priani, Antonio M. 
Rigal, Lubet y Ca. 
Rio, J. M. deL 
Ruf o y Ca. 
Sarraille, J. 
Septien y Serrano. 
Sommer, Hermann y Ca. 
Troncoso y Cilveti. 
Uriarte, M. del Rio. 
Wilson, Tomas H., Sue. 

Commission merchants. 
Astorquiza y Vivanco. 
Benitez, Landa y Ca. 
Biquardy Ca.,Av. 
Bischoff, Emilio. 
Borel, Luis. 
Borrell, Justiniano. 
Bossier y Ca., German. 
Campos, Manuel S. 
Castell6 Gutierrez y Ca. 
Cosio, Victorio. 
Coussirat y Cost^s. 
Diaz Barreiro, Ramon. 
DosalyHno. , Jos4. 
Duran, Gabriel. 
Escurdfa Hermanos. 
Esteinon y Rouma^dre. 
Eyssautier, Melchor. 
Figueroa, Isauro. 
Franco, Santaella y Ca. 
Garcia, Hnos. y Ca. 
GastottyCa., J M. 
Gonzalez Guerra, A. 
Graef , Federico. 
Gutierrez, Miguel N. 
Haro, Agustin. 
Heredia, Guillermo. 
Jacques, P. y J. 
Knight, Bruce. 
Lohse, Santiago C. 
L6pez y Teresa. 
Malgor, Martin. 
Manuel, Clemente. 
MijaresyCa., A. 
Monroy y Morales. 
Mora y Ca., Casto de la. 
Moyano y Bermudez. 
Mufliz, F61ix. 
Payr6, Leandro. 
Ortega, Paulino 
Puga, Max. 



MEXICa CITT, HEXICO—Continued. 

Commission merchants— Continued. 

Reboulet, Louis. 

ReYuelta, Valentin. 

Ritter y Ca., Fedo. 

Rojas, Luis. 

Rovalo, Agustin. 

Ruiz, Ballesteros y Ca. 

Rul, Manuel P. 

Sainz, Justiniano. 

Salcido, Rafael. 

Samuel, Lionel. 

Santiago, Agde. 

Sta. Marina 6 Hijos. 

Scheibe, Gust. 

Schultze y Ca., Sue. 

Suarez, Mac. 

Sobrino y Barreneche. 

Uhinky Ca. 

Watson, Phillips y Ca. 

Walker y Borda. 
Contractors (mines and railways). 

Adam, F., Sue. 

Arcey Co., J. 

Arozarena, Rafael M. de. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Brinckman y Turnbull. 

Read y Campbell, Sn. J. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 
Cordage. 

Albiso, Sabino. 

Basurto, Manuel. 

Baez, Felipa. 

Buenrestro, F. 

Campos, J. 

Chavez, Albino. 

Enciso, M. 

Galv&n, Ignacio. 

Gonzalez, B. 

Hernandez, J. S. 

Hernandez, J. M. 

Lozado, Santos. 

Lozano, Jos6 Ma. 

Lozano, J. G. 

Oviedo, M. Dolores. 

Pimentel, Rafael. 

Pinto y Leon Miguel. 

Prado, Andr6sdel. 

Soto, Jos6 M. 

Sotres y Carbajal M. ' 

Vazquez, Mariano. 
Coopers. 

Buzon, Francisco. 

Camiragua, Jos§. 

Campos, Eduardo. 

Enriquez, Ciriaco. • 



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MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Ck>ntinued. 

Coppers— Continued. 
Flores, J. 
Medina, Francisco. 
Osorio de Vazquez, G. 
Soriano, Paulino. , 

Villegas, Guadalupe. 
Villareal, Juan B. 

Drugs {homeopathic). 
Gonzalez 6 Hijo, J. 

Drugs, retail. 

Aguilera y Ca., E. 
Artigas y Ortega. 
Almar&z, Andres. 
Alonso, Ed. M. 
Altamirano, Fern. 
Amelio, Bias. 
Arellano, Manuel. 
Arteaga, Ramon. 
Arrillaga y Patifio. 
Aveleyra Hnos. 
ATila, Miguel. 
Barradas, Francisco. 
Bautista, Rafael. 
Becerril, Manuel. 
Beguerisse, A. 
Beguerisse y Ca. 
Bermejo, Rafael B. 
Bermudez, Antonio. 
Bemal, Francisco. 
Bustillos, J. E. 
Cafias de Iturralde, Juan. 
Carmona y Valle J. M. 
Cervantes. SilvaA. 
Chabolla, Francisco. 
Chavez, J. 

Cienfuegos, Francisco. 
Coronado, Agustin. 
Dominguez, E. 
Dominguez, Enr. 
Flores, Francisco A. 
Franco, BolafiosA. 
Gaona, Juan B. 
Garay, Adrian de. 
Garcia, Colin N. 
Gonzalez, Luis. 
Gonzalez, Ignacio. 
Gonzalez, J. D. 
Gomez Tagle, Isidore. 
Gordillo, Francisco B. 
Grisi, Vda. de. 
Guerrero, Agustin. 
Guerrero, Florentine. 
Hernandez, Agustin. 
Iriarte, Manuel. 
Jduregui, M. J. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Ck)ntiimed. 

Drugs, retoii— Continued. 
Kaska, Dr. Francisco. 
Kentzler, F. Emil. 
Larrea, F. L. de. 
Larrea, Lelode. 
Lazo de la Vega, J. M. 
Licea, Vicente. 
liz, Benjamin. 
Lucio, Victor. 
Luna y Drusina. 
Lozano y Hno. Mar. 
Llamas, Francisco. 
Marin, C. 
Marin, Hidalgo N. 
Manny Ca.,N. 
M&rquez, Miguel M. 
Martinez, Agustin. 
Mena, A. 
Moncayo, J. A. 
Montaiio, Ramon. 
Montes de Oca, Fr. 
Morales, Ekurique. 
Morales, Jo84 D. 
Navarrete, R. M. 
Ofiate, J. 
Orihuela de G. 
Oropeza, Felipe S. 
Oropeza, Marcial. 
Ortega, Lorenzo A. 
Patifio, CdrlosM. 
Patifio, Francisco. 
Patifio, Guadalupe. 
Pajrrd, A. 
Pefia, Manuel. 
Perez, Severiano. 
PortiUa, Guillermo. 
Prado, R. N. ^ 

Ramirez, Juan. 
Reyes, Julio. 
Riode la Loza, Francisco. 
Rio de la Loza, Max. 
Rio de la Loza, Rafael. 
Salazar, Manuel A. 
Sanchez, M. 
Sanchez, Manuel. 
Schmitz, A. 
Schmitz y Ca, A. 
Senisson, Gmo. 
Tajona, J. 
Torres, Manuel. 
Tricio, Salvador. 
Urbina, Manuel 
Uribe, Alejandro. 
Urueta, Bernardo. 
Vargas, J. H. 
Vazquez, Miguel. 



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MEXICO CITT, HEXICO^Continued. 

Drugs, retail— Ckmtimied. 
Vera, Julio D. 
Verdugo, P. 
Villagran, S. 
Yillasefia, LuisR. 
Vidales, Nestor. 
Z(i£Uf!^, Miguel. 

Drugs, wholesale. 
Andrea y Soriano. 
Bachiller. 
Bennet y Ca., Sue. 
Blester, Enrique. 
Brito, Alfonso. 
Bustillos, Jos6 E. 
Carman, Henry B. 
Carmooa y Aparicio. 
Chome, Agustin. 
Daumy, Serafina C. 
Drogueria, Universal. 
Falero, J. 
Farine y Sanders. 
Felix y Ca., Carlos, 
Gallardo, Ignacio. 
Gudifio, Justo Z. 
Hinojosa, Pedro. 
Labadie y Ca., Sue, J. 
Leiter, Miguel E. 
Perez, Z. M. 
Spyer, Joseph. 
Tejera, Luis. 
Uihlein Sue, J086. 
Vargas yCa. 

Dry goods: 
Clothing, wholesale (imported goods}— 
Bellony Ca.,M. 
Brehm y Ca. Sue. 
Chauvet y Ca., Max. 
Donnadieu y Ca., F. 
Ebrard y Ca. 
Lambert. Reynaud y Ca. 
Levy y Martin, A. 
Meyran Hermanos. 
Olliviery Ca.,J. 
Reynaud yCa., A. 
Riehaud, Aubert y Ca. 
Robert yCa.,S. 
Rov6sy Ca. Suc.,B. 
Schmidt y Bourjau. 
Schultze y Ca., Sue. 
Signoret Honnorat y Ca. 
Struck y Ca., Qustavo. 
Trony Ca.,J. 
Weil yCa., Simon. 
Clothing, retail (imported goods) — 
Alvarez, Tostado M. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Dry grooda— Continued. 
Clothing, retail (imported poocto)— Continued. 

Barquin y Ca. , Felipe. 

Gomez y Ca., M. 

Haure, Miraq^e Juan. 

Macfas, Gaspar. 

Mirande, Eduardo. 

Migoya, Manuel. 

Rivera Hermanos. 

Santaolalla y Ca., D. 

Valdes, Antonio. 
Clothing, retail (domestic and imported 
goods)— 

Alvarez yCa.,V. 

Allemand. Victoriano. 

Andrade, Luis G. 

Arr6yave, Francisco V. 

Blancas, Juana. 

Castillo Ruperto, A. del. 

Castro, Luz. 

Cervantes, Sixto. 

Chavez i Hijos, Viuda de. 

CuellaryCa.,C. 

Gk>mez, Jacinto. 

Hurtado, Espinosa y Ca., L. 

Mirande, Ed. 

Monroy, Rafael. 

Mufioz, Trinidad. 

Mondragon, Benita A. de. 

Moll, Juan. 

Olvera, Anastasio. 

Piedras, Antonio. 

P§rez, Petronila. 

P6rez,Rosa. 

P6rez, Sixto. 

Preaut, Pablo. 

Rangel, Margarita. 

Rocha, Pl&cido. 

Rocha, Tranquilino. 

Rubio, Jos6 Marfa. 

Sanchez, Felipe. 

Vazquez, Antonio. 

Zaldivar, FeUpe. 
Clothing for men and boys— 

Adalid, Ceron 6 hijo, J. 

Carmona, Ildef onso. 

Carmona y Velazquez, J. M. 

Carmona y Vilchis, V. 

Francky Ca.,M. 

Garcia, Benitez y Ca. 

Montes de Oca, A. 

Quiroga y Ca., Jos6. 

Tovar, Jos6 Maria. 
Clothing for women and children — 

Bayonne, E. 

Chauvet y Ca., Max. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Dry gfood«— Continued. 
Clothing for toomenand c/iiWren— Continued. 

Coblentz, Benito. 

Deuchler y Kern. 

Fourcade y Ca. , A. 

Laborde, Wartenweiler y Ca. 
Cloths^ imported— 

Brehm y Ca., Sue. 

Gendrop, Th. 

Levy y Martin, A. 

Struck y Ca.,QustaTO. 

Weil yCa., Simon. 
Millinery— 

Burgaud, F. 

Carballeda y Fougerat. 

Carrillesy Ca.,M. 

Coblentz, Benito. 

Coblentz, Silvano. 

Flores, Gonzalez y Ca. , J. 

Gu6rin y Ca. 

Hoppenstedt y Ca.,T. 

Lagrave, Pablo. 

Larrea y Cordero, J. 

Levy y Ca.,A.. 

Levy y Martin, A. 

Maurel.F. 

Morales yCa.,Edo. 

Polack, Hipo. 

Prado, Godoy y Ca. 

PradoyCa.,M.del. 

Rodrigo, L. 

Rodriguez yCa.,S. 

Schweitzer, Vda. 6 hijos de. 

Vegay Ca.,Enr.S. 
Passementerie and lace goods — 

Biquard y Ca. 

Deuchler y Kern. 

L6pez, Demetrio. 

L6pez de B&rcena, Magdna. 

Martinez, Lucas. 

Pujol, Antonio. 

Valdez, Estanislao. 

Velasco, Melchora. 
Silk goods, wholesale. 

Albert y Ca., Sue, Julio. 

Brehm y Ca., Sue. 

Horn y Ca., A. 
Silk goods, wholesale, and retail. 

Albert y Ca.,Suc., Julio. 

Deuchler y Kern. 

Hulvershom y Ca., G. 

Laborde, Wartenweiler y Ca. 
Silk goods, retail 

Aguirre, Soledad. 

Albert y Ca. Sue, Julio. 

Alvarez, Severa. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Dry firood«— Continued. 
Silk goods, retail— Continued. 
Andrade, Maria de J. 
Angon, Dolores. 
Anguiano, Simona. 
Azc&rate, Abraham. 
Baez, Isabel. 
Ballestreros, Ser&pia. 
Barrera, Benita. 
Barros, Ignacia. 
Basurto, Cayettino. 
Berthier, Carmen. 
Besserer, Sofia. 
Blanc y Hnos, J. 
Blanco, Ana. 
Blanco y (Ja., Luis G. 
Bonilla, Juliana. 
Calderon, Adelaida. 
Camacho, Dolores. . 
Caflizo, Loreto. 
C&sares, Refugio, 
Cohen F. 

Contrerasy Ca., Franco. 
Corisola, Adela. 
Comej6, Maria. 
Crespo, Concn. 
Cruz, Efr6n. 
Cuervo, Juan. 
Cueva, Ramon. 
Diaz, Felicitas. 
Echeverria, Teresa L. de. 
Elizaga de Huici. 
Escobar, Refugio. 
Escudero, Luz. 
Espafia, Rosa. 
Espejel, Clementina. 
Espinosa, Romana. 
Estrada, Refugio. 
Fernandez, Merced. 
Garcia, Dolores. 
Godoi, Concepci6n. 
G6ngora, Angel. 
Gonzales, Agn. 
Gk)nzales, Juana. 
Gonzales, Justa. 
Guadalajar& y Ca., R. 
Guerrero, Teresa. 
Gutierrez, Cecilia. 
Hermann, Matilde. 
Izaquirre de Merino. 
Jayme, Maria de J. 
Larrea, M. L. de. 
Lascano, Loreto Ch. de. 
Lavillette, A. 
Lefebvre, A. 
Legorreta, Joseflna. 



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MEXICO. 



269 



MEXICO CTTT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Dry grood*— CJontinued. 
Silk goods^ retail— Conthiued. 
Lujo, Francisco. 
Martel y Sauche. 
Mendoza, Concepcion B. de. 
Merino, Soledad. 
Miironi, Carmen. 
Momo y Miguel. 
Morquecho, Petra R. 
Mufioz, Kosario. 
Olmos, Soledad. 
Omafia, C&rlos. 
Omelas, Elena. 
O'Farriel, R6mulo. 
Pacheco, Romero M. 
Pampillon, Piedad. 
Pimentel, Guadalupe. 
Pineda, J. 
Poza, Dionisia. 
Pruneda, Matilde. 
Ramirez, Angela V. de. 
Reyes, Luz. 
Bicard, A. de. 
Romero, Antonio. 
Romero, Cenobio 
RomerOj Marfa. 
Rosales, Marfa A. 
Rosello de Beltran, I. 
Salazar de Muicelo, D. 
Salazar, Francisco. 
Sandoval, Miguel. 
Santiesteban, Marfa. 
Sencie de Morales. 
Sequeyro, F. 
Serano, Dolores. 
Signoret, Honorat y. 
Solis, Loreto. 
Sotomayor, L. 
Terroba, Manuel M. 
Torres, Guadalupe. 
Trejo de Vega. 
Valle, Rafael G. del. 
Vargas, Guadalupe. 
Varela, Luis. 
Varela, Refugio A. de. 
Vilchis, Frandsca. 
Vidaurr&zuga, Mariana. 
Zuvizar, Marfa Refugio. 
Silk, linen, and hosery importers. 
Albet & Co., Sue. 
Bellon & Co. 
Brehm & Co. 
Burgaud, F. 
Chauvet & Co., Max. 
Deuchler & Eem. 
Donnadieu ^ Co., F. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO—Continued. 

Dry grooda— Continued. 
Silk, linen, and hosiery importers — Continued. 

Ebrard & Co. 

Frank, M. 

Fourcade & Qd., A. 

Garcin, Faudon & Co. 

Gu6rin & Co. 

Horn & Co., A. 

Laborde, Wartenweiler & Co. 

Levy & Martin. 

Meyran Hermanos. 

011ivier«&Co.,J. 

Reynaud& Co., A. 

Richaud, Aubert & Co. 

Robert & Co., S. 

Rov6s & Co., B. Succ. 

Schultz & Co. Succ. 

Schmidt & Bourjeau. 

Signoret, Honorat & Co. 

Struck, Gustavo. 

Tron & Co. 

Weil, Simon & Co. 
Tapestries, draperies, and carpetings— 

Albert y Ca., Julio, Sue. 

Boysen y Wintermantel. 

Compafif a Comercial Austriaca-Trasatl&ntica. 

Fontaine, Pedro. 

Hoffmann y Urqufa, A. 

Kuhn,Edo. M. 

Nieto, Vicente. 

Urrutia, L&zaro. 

Velasco,Cfirlos L. 
JElectrotypers. 

Bustamante, Mugula. 

Cordoba. Pedro. 

Llagostera, Pedro. 

Mata,Filomeno. 
Engravers. 

Bouligny y Ca., (Limitada). 

Dalmau,F.deP. 

Diener y Rothacker. 

Galaviz, Anto. H. 

Gutierrez, Lucio. 

Mosser, Luis. 

Pagaza,V. 

Pastrana, G. R. 

Pefia, Tom6s de la. 
Fancy goods (wholesale and retail). 

Billonneau, Cassou y Ca. 

Bravo y Blumenkron. 

Delarue, Eugenio. 

Diehl y Ca., M. 

Dtiring y Ca. 

Elcoro, L6pez y Ca. 

Gahrtz, German. 

Gutierrez, Miguel. 



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270 



MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO—Continued. 

Fancy goods {wholesale mid retail)— Continued. 

Hulvershorn y Ca. 

Lef Sbvre, Alfredo. 

Lohse y Ca., Succ.,G. 

Pezafta,Marcial. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

Rf o, Jos6 Maria del. 

Sommer, Herrmaon y Ca. 

Uriart» y del Rio, M. 

ZivyyCa.,D. 
Fancy goods (retail). 

Albert y Ca., J., Sue. 

Argudln,JuanS. 

Amaldo, Luis G. 

BaiTera,Josefa. 

Bayonne, E. 

Billonneau, Cassou y Ca. 

Bi3rklund y Joransson C. A. 

Bonnerue y Ca. 

Calvet, Victor. 

Candil, Gonzalo. 

Coblentz, Benito. 

Deuchler y Kern. 

Deverdun, C. 

Escalante, Zef erino. 

Garcia, Cuervo y Menendez. 

Garibay, Agustin. 

Gonzalez, Bonifacio. 

Granados, Julio. 

Guerrero y Tangassi. 

Gutierrez, Miguel. 

Hillebrand y Ca., E. 

Iglesias, Miguel. 

Laborde, Wartenweiler y Ca. 

Lefebvre A., Refugio. 

Lohse y Ca., Succ.,G. 

Morel, Camilo. 

Pastor, Santo. 

Pivardi^re, Adolfo. 

Quintana Hnos. 

Raynaud. Eugenio 

Rigal, Lubet y Ca. 

Sommer Herrmann y Ca. 

Spaulding, D. S. 

T8llezyCa.,T. 

Troncoso y Silveti. 
Fireworks, dealers, 

Guardiola, Valentin. 

Mata.E. 

Pereira,M&ximo. 

Pereyda, M&ximo. 

Torres, Dario. 
Flour and feed. 

Alvarez, M. 

Barron, Jos6 J. 



MEXICO CTTT, MEXICO—Continued. 

Flour and /eed— Continued. 

Bracho, Alberto A. 

Casso, Manuel. 

Castro, Vicente de P. 

Ceballos, J. 

Cejudo, Abel. 

Charreton Hermanos. 

Diflfonty, Enrique. 

Galnares, G. 

Llamedo,Juan. 

Monasterio, Bernardo. 

Pacheco, Miguel. 

PiHa, Pedro. 
Foundries. 

Bandoin y Ca. 

Brandi,J 

Bustamante, J086 E. 

Charreton Hnos. 

Dantan, Luis. 

Duchateau, C. 

Finanmore y Ca. 

Fusco, Antonio. 

Iglesias y Valezzi. 

Malo y Ca., Alberto. 

Marshall y Ca. 

Mungufa 6 Hijos,P. 

Neveu Hermanos. 

Pascuali, J. M. 
Furniture^ imported. 

Benac, B. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Boysen y Wintermantel. 

Bravo y Blumenkron. 

Combaluzier, A. 

Oompaflfa Comercial Austriaca-Trasatl&n- 
tica. 

Fortufio, Manuel. 

Hillebrand yCa.,E. 

Hoffman y Urquia, A. 

Kuhn,E.M. 

Laborde, Wartenweiler y Ca. 

Lohse y Ca. , Sues. , G. 

Rio, Jos6 Maria del. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Urrutia, L&zaro. 

Velasco, C&rlos L. 
Furniture, imported and domestic 

Aldana, Victor. 

Arteaga, Francisco. 

Ayll6n, Fernando. 

Barrera y Comp. , Jos6. 

Barezynski Hnos. 

Benag,B.,Pte. 

Boysen y Wintermantel. 

Calderon, Manuel. 



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MEXICO Cmr, JEEXICO— Continued. 

Furniture^ imported and dome^fic— Continued. 

Carrillo, Ctomelio. 

Ch&varri, Juan J. de. 

Cliavarrf a, Juan B. 

Delgado, Eusebio. 

Fontaine, Pedro. 

Gamica, Maria L. de. 

Oamica,Jos6 M. 

Oarrido, J. M. 

Gutierrez, Manuela. 

Herrera, Gabriel. 

Herrera, Juan. 

Hoffmann y Urquia A. 

Kuhn, E. M. 

Lara, Adrian. 

Martinez, Gtonzalo. 

Martinez, Miguel. 

Mondrag6n, Porflria. 

Olvera, Antonio. 

Padilla,Epifanio. 

Palacio, Mariano. 

Quintana Hnos. 

Rico, Lorenzo. 

Rodriguez, Bias C. 

Ruiz de Garrido. 

Sanchez, Enrique. 

Urrutia, L&zaro. 

Velasco, C&rlos L. 

Villaverde,In68. 

Zendejas, Pl&cido. 
Gets fixtures^ lamps, etc. 

Aguirre y Hnos., I. 

Bennet, Juan A . , Sue. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Cejudo, Felipe. 

Ck>mpa!ifa Comercial Austriaca-Trasatl&n- 
tica. 

Dom, Guillermo. 

FinlayyCa.,J.J. 

Fortufio, Manuel. 

Gahrtz, German. 

Hillebrandy Ca.,E. 

Izquierdo y Garibay. 

Leffman 4 Hijos, Martin. 

Lohse y Ca. , Sue. , G. 

Lopez y Ca. , Elcoso. 

Max, A. Philip. 

Rio, J. M. del. 

Roa, Eduardo. 

Sommer, Hermann y Ca. 

Valdea y Ruf o. 
General merchandise. 

Aburto, Isidoro. 

Aldama, Victor. 

Alfaro y Piiia, Manuel. 



MEXICO CIT7, MEXICO— Continued. 

General mercJiandise— Continued. 
Altuna Hnos. 
Alonso, Ram6n. 
Alvarez y Garcia. 
Alvarez, Salvador. 
Arenal, Luis. 
Ballesteros, Antonia. 
B&rcena, Manuel. 
Becerril, Angela. 
Becerril, Est^ban A. 
Berruecos, Jos6 Ma. 
Bustillos, Santos. 
Butr6n,R. 

Calder6n, M. Manuel 
Calder6n, M. Francisco. 
Campillo Rafael. 
Contreras, Angela S. de. 
Cortez, Fidencio. 
Diaz de Thompson G. 
Dozal,S. 

Elzaurdia, Domingo V. 
Espinosa, Vicente. 
Espinosa, Francisco. 
Fem&ndez, Gregorio. 
Franco, Ricardo. 
Garcia, Di6go. 
Garcia, Jos6. 
Garrido, Dionisio. 
Gronzalez y Ca., A. 
Goiii, Vicente. 
Gutierrez, Juan. 
Gutierrez, Julian. 
Guzm&n,Jos6. 
Hermosa Hnos. 
Irastorza Hnos. 
Junco, Angel. 
Lopez y Ca., A. 
Llamas, Porflria. 
Llop. Franco. 
Manilla, Vicente. 
Mejfa, Mat^a. 
Milla,G. 
MiUa, Mariano. 
MoUeda y Ca., Manl. 
Ochar&n, F61ix. 
Orea, Constanzo. 
Ortiz, Juan R. 
Pedregal, Manuel. 
Perez, Gomez Manuel. 
Perez, Jos6. 
Pur6n, Francisco. 
Ramirez, Gumesindo. 
Rivera, Antonio. 
Rivera, Marf a. 
Rodrigo, N. 



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272 



MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

General merchandise — Continned. 

Rodriguez y Ca. 

Saenz, Rafael. 

Sanchez, Angel. 

Sastrias, Juan. 

Sordo, Vicente. 

Soto, Juan Pablo. 

Torno,Jos6del. 

Uribe, Jos6. 

Umitia. Juan. 

Varela, Amado. 

Via y Sobrado Pedro. 

Villar Alejo. 

Zapata, Jo66 B. 

Zaldivar, Sostenes. 

Zav&lburo,Jo86. 
Glass plate and mirror. 

Aguirre, Ignado. 

Araujo, Mariano. 
. Arnaldo, Luis G. 

Azcona, Jos6. 

Castro, Bern. 

DerfUngher y Ca. , A. 

Dora y Ca., G. 

Jiminez, Miguel. 

Hildebrand y Ca. 

Martinez, Agustin. 

Martinez y Ca. 

Maya, Flor M. 

Sarraill6 Juan. 

Septien y Serrano. 

Wissel, N. 
Groceries and provisions: 
Groceries and provisions (imported), 

Abascal y Perez. 

Alonso, Vicente. 

Baranda Hnos. 

Barreneche y Ca., 8. 

Basagoiti y Posada. 

Gutierrez y Ca., Quintin. 

Lavie y Ca. 

Martinez del Cerro y Ca. 

Noriega, Ignacio de. 

Noriega, A., Sue. 

Ortiz Hnos., Antonio. 

Ponton Hnos. 

Ponton, Ram6n. 

Rico, GU. 

Rolla y Ca., A. 

Rovalo, Agustin. 

Sanchez, Ambrosio. 

Solano, Claudio. 

Sauto, Mufitizuri y Ca. 

Toriello, Guerra Jos6. 

Torre Hnos. 



MEXICO CTTSf MEXICO— Continued. 

Groceries and prormona— Continued. 
Groceries andprovisions{imported)—Contin'd. 
Trueba Hnos. 
Uhink Hnos. y Zahn. 
Uhinky Ca. 
Zepeda, Francisco. 

Preserved food (imported). 

Bazax, Justino. 

Coqui y Ca., F. 

Genin, Viudade A. 

Gutierrez y Ca., Quintin. 

Mason y Fernandez. 

Sanchez, Ambrosio. 

Silvani y Ca., Enriqne. 

Uhink Hnos. y Zahn. 

Zepeda, Francisco. 
Groceries and provisions, stores. 

Aceves, Jo66 Maria. 

Aceves, Guadalupe. 

Acha, Saturnino de. 

Aguirre, Antonio. 

Aja,Rosendo. 

Alanis, Manuel. 

Alexandre y Cisneros. 

Alf aro, Rafael. 

Alonso, Romano. 

Alonso, Jos6 Simon. 

Alonso y Salvadores. 

Albarado, Santiago. 

Alvarez, Antonio. 

Alvarez y Gk>nzalez: 

Alvarez, Santiago. 

Amaro, Santos C. 

Amaya,Lul8G. 

Amezcua, Pedro. 

Aparicio, Enrique. 

Aparicio y Hermano. 

Arce y Ca., M. 

Aroe, Maximino. 

AreHo Hermanos, F. 

Arena, Venancio Z. 

Arroyo, Manuel. 

Badillo,EulaUa. 

Bahena, Irenea. 

B&rcena, Manuel. 

B&rcena, Victor. 

Barragan, Gregorio. 

Barreda, Manuel. 

Barro,Juan. 

Benet.Jos^. 

Benet y Ca. 

Bobadilla, Arcadio. 

Borel, UrbanoG.de. 

Bravo, Jos6 Maria. 

Bustamante, Robustiano. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO—- Continued. 

Groceries and provisions — Continued. 
Groceries and provisions, »tore«— Continued. 
Cabrera, Maximino. 
Camacho, Ricardo. 
Campo, Jos6. 
Campos, Francisco. 
Camus, Ramon. 
C&rdenas, Antonio. 
Carrandi, Pedro. 
Carrera, Ldzardo. 
Caso, Juan. 
Castellanos, Cristina. 
Castillo y Acevedo Hno 
Castro, Jos6 Maria. 
Castro, Juan M. 
Cafias, Cayetano. 
Cafias,Juan. 
Celada, Hermano. 
Celorio, Benito. 
Celorio, Rufino 
Celorio y Diaz. 
Cobian, Jos6. 
Coflfio, LCicas. 
Crespo, Francisco. 
Crespo, Manuel. 
Crespo, Nicanor. 
Cu6, Fernando. 
Cu6 y Ca., Tom6s. 
Diaz, Catarina. 
Diaz,Epifanio. 
Diaz, Manuel S. 
Di6go y Suarez. 
Donesteve, Jacinto. 
Espinosay Ca., F. 
Fernandez D. 
Fernandez, Campillo. 
Fernandez, Santiago. 
Fernandez, Serafin. 
Flores, Leopoldo. 
Flores,Tele8fora. 
Ferrer y Ca., AngeL 
Fuente y Gutierrez. 
Gainza, Romualdo. 
Galarza, Maximo. 
Gktlvan,Ignacio L. 
Gallegos, Antonia. 
Gamedo, Francisco. 
Gamez, Hesiquio. 
Garces y Hno. 
Gkiray Hermano. 
Garcia, Alejandro. 
Garcia, Alonso Jos6. 
Garcia, AngeL 
Garcia, Antonio. 
Garcia y Hno., Francisco. 
Garcia, Leopoldo. 

57A 18 



MEXICO CTTT, MEXICO—Continued. 

Chroceries and prorwton*— Continued. 
Groceries and provisions, afores— Continued. 
Garcia, Manuel. 
Garcia y Cu6. 
Garcia, H. 
Garcia, Sordo, M. 
GJarrido, Dionisio. 
Gavito y Ca., Victor. 
Giles, Francisco. 
Gtomez, Alfredo. 
Gomez, Hermano. 
Gk>mez,Tom&s. 
Gonzalez y Ca., M. 
Gk>nzalez, Atilano. 
Gonzalez, Costales y Solares. 
Gonzalez, Felix. 
Gonzalez, Fernando. 
Gk>nzalez,Jos4. 
Gk>nzalez, Lope. 
Gonzales, Mariano. 
Gk>nzalez, M&ximo. 
Gonzalez, Sanchez B. 
GK)nzalez, Timot4o. 
Gtonzalez, Portillo Jos6. 
Gorostiago Hnos. 
Granada, Manuel. 
Granada, Pedro de. 
Gutierrez, Antonio. 
Gutierrez, Diego. 
Gutierrez. Jacinto. 
Gutierrez Pelaez, Juan. 
Gutierrez, Severiaao. 
Gutierrez y Sierra. 
Gutierrez, Severino. 
Helguera, Jos6 Ma. 
Hermosilla, Eduardo. 
Hernandez, Antonio. 
Hernandez, Juana. 
Hernandez y Rodriguez. 
Herrera, Cristobal. 
Herrera, Juan. 
Herrera, Rogelio. 
Herrero, Manuel. 
He via, Juan. 
Huerta, Emilio. 
Huerta, Rafael. 
Huerta y Prieto. 
Ibarra, Juan. 
Iturriaga, Enrique. 
Jimenez, Miguel. 
Junco y Sobrino. 
Lamadrid, Gabriel. 
Lechuga, Miguel. 
Llano, Pedro del. 
Loidi,Gabino. 
L6pez, Arturo. 



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274 



MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO—Continued. 

Groceries and provistorw— Continued. 
Groceries and provisions^ «for6«— Continued. 
L6pez, Froilan. 
L6pez, Satumino. 
L6pez, Tel6sf oro. 
L6pez y Sanchez. 
Lozano, Donato M. 
Machin, Santiago. 
Madariaga y Peralez. 
M&rquez, Francisco. 
M&rquez, Juan. 
Martinez, Enrique. 
Martinez, Felipe. 
Martinez, Francisco de P. 
Martinez, Isidra. 
Martinez, Manuel. 
Martinez, Ponciano. 
Martinez y Ca. 
Mazon y Fernandez. 
Melgosa, Angel. 
Mendoza, Francisco H. 
Mendoza, Sobrino, Jos6. 
Mijares, Juan. 
Mijares, Vicente. 
Mondragon, Jacinto Jos6. 
Montiel, Antonio. 
Morales, Ignacio. 
Motales, Lorenzo. 
Nareda, Antonio. 
Navarro, T. 
Noceda y Hermano. 
Noriega, Joaquin. 
Noriega, Pablo. 
Noriega y Alonso. 
Noriega y Barrial. 
Novoa, Domingo. 
Novoa Hermanos. 
01mos,Tiburcio. 
Oropeza, Demetrio. 
Oropeza y Garcia. 
Orraca Jos6. 
Ortiz, Alberto. 
Ortiz, Faustino. 
Oru6 y Hermano, Angel. 
Pagaza, Angel. 
Palau, Ramon. 
Pacheco, TomAs. 
Pedregal, Gumesd. N. 
Pedregal, Noriega M. 
Pedregal, Sanchez Pedro. 
Perales, Juan. 
Perez y Hermano, Ed. 
Perez, Fernandez A. 
Perez, Facundo. 
Perez, Fernandez. 
Perez, Jos4. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Ck)ntinued. 

Groceries and provwiona— Continued. 
Groceries and provisions^ afore«— Continued. 
Perez y Echenique. 
Perez y Martinez. 
Pesquera, Ramon. 
Portilla, Ramon. 
Posada Hnos. y Ca. 
Posada, Juan. 
Posada y Osorio. 
Posada y Pardo. 
Posada yCa,Jo86. 
Frado, Isaac. 
Prieto, Juan. 
Prieto, Ramon. 
Puertas, Joaquin. 
Puertas, Pedro. 
Puertas y Hermano, Pedro. 
Quintana, Benigno. 
Ramirez, Aristec 
Ramirez, Maximiano. 
Rendon, EHgio. 
Reyes, Anselmo. 
Reyes, Perez F. 
Reyes, Simon. 
Riancho, Francisco. 
Riego y Espafla. 
Riego y Sainz. 
Rio, del. Ramon y Man. 
Rivera, Gaspar. 
Rivero, Jos6 Maria. 
Rivero y Perez. 
RobinayCa.,J. 
Rodriguez, Dionisio. 
Rodriguez, Francisco. 
Rodriguez, Rafael. 
Rojo, Andr6s. 
Romano yCa.,M. 
Rosado, M. 
Rosado, Pedro. 
Rosales, Javier. 
Rosales, Ausencio. 
Rosales y Ramos, A. 
Rozado Pedro. 
Robina y Arenas. 
Ruenes, Basilio. 
Ruiz, Hernandez. 
Ruiz, Ignacio. 
Ruiz, Luis G. 
Ruiz, Romana R. , de. 
Ruiz, Rafael. 
Ruiz y Ca. 
Sainz, Julian. 
Sainz, M. 
Sainz y Hnos. 
Sanchez, J. 
Sanchez y Ca. 



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MEXICO. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Groceries and iwovmons— -Continued. 
Groceries and provisions^ scores— Continued. 
Sanchez, Julian. 
Sanchez y Fernandez. 
Sanchez Hnos. y Ca. 
Sanchez y del Villar. 
Sanchez y Ortega. 
Sanchez, Leopold©. 
Sanchez, Valentin. 
Serrano, Antonio. 
Sicilia,J. 
Silva, Gerardo. 
Sava,J.Maria. 
Sisniega, Fernando. 
Sobrino, S. 
Sordo, Isidro. 
Sordo,Jos6. 
Sordo, Juan. 
Sordo, Juan S. 
Sordo, Noriega Isidro. 
Sordo, Hnos. 
Sordo y Ca., H. 
Sordo, Ram6n H. 
Sordo, Tom6s. 
Sosa, Leonardo. 
Sosa, Santiago. 
Sotomayor, Jos6 G. 
Soto, Vicente G. 
Sotres y Hnos. Cosme. 
Sotres,Jos6. 
San Cristobal, Lt^cas. 
San Martin, Francisco. 
Tam6s, Miguel. 
Tapia, Mariano. 
Tapia, Vicente G. 
Torno, Francisco del, 
Torno, Guillermo deL 
Tores, J. 
Trueba, Andres. 
Trueba y Calleja, 
Ugalde y Ca., F. R. 
Urquijo y Ruiz. 
Urriza y Berraonda Sres. 
Vald6z, Trid. 
Valle y Ca^ F. 
Valle y Velar. 
Vazquez yCa., M. M. 
Vazquez, Urbana. 
Vega y Gutierrez. 
Vega y Fuentes. 
Vega, Balvino de la. 
Vegas, Juan Gutierrez. 
Vela y Ruisanchez. 
Verdeja Hnos. 
Vergara, Galdo M. 
Vidal y Ca., M. 



MEXICO CUT, MEXICO— Continued. 

(Groceries and provi«on«— Continued. 
GroceHes and provisions, a/ores— Continued. 
Villar, Ignacio. 
Villeda, A. 
Villar, Emilio. 
Yarto, Isidro. 
Zayas de Velasco M. 
Zepeda, Franco. 
Zorrilla, J. Fausto. 
8v>gar, tcholesale. 
Compaaia en participaci6n de frutos nacio- 

nales. 
Isidoro de la Torre Hnos. 
Sugar and liquors. 
Rovalo A. 
Gunpowder. 

Boche, Alfredo. 
Boker y Ca., Roberto. 
Dfiringy Ca., M. 
PhiUpyCa., MaxA. 
Hardivare: 
Brass bedsteads. 
Bemal, Angel. 
Boker y Ca., Roberto. 
Filardi, Nicolfis. 
Fonufio, Manuel. 
Inastrillas, F. 
Linet, Luis. 
Lopez Mata, Antonio. 
Mestas y Garro. 
Rio, Jos6 Ma. del. 
Salazar, Bernardino. 
Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 
Brassioare. 
Boker y Ca., Roberto. 
Fortufio, Manuel. 
Lohse y Ca., Sue. G. 
Philipp y Ca., Max A. 
Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 
Hardware, wholesale and retail. 
Aguirre Hnos., Ignacio. 
Boker y Ca., Roberto. 
Castaiieda, Tel6sforo. 
Combaluzier, A. 
Delarue, Eugenio. 
Ddring y Ca., M. 
Elcoro, L6pez y Ca. 
Gahrtz, German. 
Lohse y Ca., Sue, G. 
Rio, Jos6 M. del. 
Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Hardware, retail. 
Agis, Alfredo. 
Alvarez, Jos4. 



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MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Hardtware— Continued. 
Hardware^ retoti— Continued. 
Amador, C. J. 
Angulo, Luis. 
Aranda; Trinidad. 
BemaJ, Antonio. 
Coria de Cerezo, R. 
Diaz, Gonzalez. 
Fem&ndez, Bartola. 
Gamper, Guillermo. 
Garza, Manuel. 
Garcia, Pedro. 
Garcia, R. 
Gonzalez, Eduardo. 
Gonzalez, Paulina. 
Gonzalez, Rosa L. 
Granados, Rodrigo. 
Herrera, Catalina. 
Hijar, Francisco. 
Jimenez, Felipe. 
Jimenez, Seb&stian. 
Leite, J., Guadalupe. 
Lopez, Manuel. 
Marmolejo, Ruperto. 
Navarro, Agustin. 
Olivera, J. 
Ortinez, F. 
Paredes, J. 
Patilio, Cecilio. 
Pezafia, MarciaL 
Posadas, Luis. 
Ramos, Luisa. 
Rangel, Lucio. 
Reyes, Nicolasa. 

Rodriguez, J. M. > 

Rojas, Lauro. 
Rosales, Pedro. 
Sandoval Guillermo. 
Soriano, J.R. 
Vazquez, C&rmen. 
Yergara, Anastacio. 
Zamora, Enriqueta. 
Iron and ironware. 
Elcoro y Ca. , Valentin. 
Charreton, Hermanos. 
. Honey, Ricardo. 
Rio, Jos6 Maria del. 
Hata^ wholesale. 

Albert y Ca., Julio, Sue. 
Borel, Luis. 

Compaflla Comercial Austriaca-Trasatl&ntica. 
Homy Ca.,A. 
ZOlly Hermanos. 
Hats, wholesale and retail. 
Dallet y Ca. 
Landwher y Medina Sue. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 
Hats, wholesale and retail — Continued. 

Marquez, Modesto. 
. Pellotier y Ca., Tho. 

Wamholtz y Ca. Sue. 

Z611y Hermanos. 
Hats for ladies. 

Anciauz, Teresa. 

Bayonne, E. 

Chesneau, Anna. 

Delafontaine, Paulina. 

Deuchler y Kern. 

Fourcade yCa.,A . 

Laborde, Wartenweiler y Ca. 

Landwehr y Medina Sue. 

Martel y Sanche. 

Wamholtz y Ca. Sue. 

Zeily Hermanos. 
Hats, retail. 

Alanfs Franco. 

Alfaro, Ausencio. 

Alfaro, Pantaleon. 

Aparicio, Franco. S. 

Beltran, Josefa. 

Bermt^dez, J. C. 

Blanco y Ca., Manl. B. 

Buendia, Trinidad. 

Cacho, Camilo. 

Calo, Donaciano. 

Castillo, Joaquin. 

Castillo, Luis F. 

D&valos, J. L. 

D&valos, Agustin. 

GarduHo, Felipe. 

G6mez y Ca., Anto. 

G6mez, Gabriel. 

Gonzalez, Agapito. 

Gonzalez, Victor. 

Hernandez, Zeferino. 

Herrera y Ca., A. 

Idrac y Ca., T. F. 

Jollinez, Henrique. 

Lobato, Enrique. 

L6pez, Amado. 

Mateos. Ignacio. 

Molino, Pablo. 

Perez, Francisco. 

Perez, Trinidad. 

Portocarrero, Agustin. 

Rangel, Abraham. 

Rangel, Jos6 Asuncion. 

Rodriguez, Isaac. 

Romero, J086. 

Sanchez 7 Ca., V. 

Serrano, Crispin. 

Talavera, Tom&s. 



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MEXICO. 



277 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Hats, retoiZ— Continued. 

Talavera, Francisco. 

Torres, Anastasio. 

Torres, Valeriano. 

Trejo y Nava. 

Trujillo, Francisco. 
"Urbina, M&nuel. 

Yur^n, Luis. 

Zaldivar, Francisco. 

Z(ifiiga. Severo. 
House furnishing goods and tinware. 

Aburto, H. 

Aschart, N. 

Ballesteros, J. 

Bonilla, GU. 

Escanden, Antonio. 

Forre, M. de la. 

Garcia, J. 

Martinez, Juan. 

Pinto, Manuel. 

Sanchez, V. 

Vazquez, Victoriano. 
Iron merchants. 

Bizet Hermanos. 

Bourlou, Alfredo. 

Charreton Hermanos. 

Gutheil, A. 

Leflfman 6 Hijos, M. 

Lhose, S. 

IJiose y Ca., G. 

Lopez y Ca., Elcoro. 

Petherie. Juan. 

Rio, J. M. del. 

SpauldinjiTt Cadenas. 

Togno y Ca. 
Jewelry^ watches, and silverware: 
I>€alers in jewelry. 

Arana, Manuel. 

Bittrolff, Hugo. 

Dienery Rothacker. 

Jacot, Alejandro. 

Klein, Ricardo. 

Lagarrigue, Luis, Sue. 

Lagarrigue, Luis. 

Laue, German. 

Landa, Miguel R. 

Llop, J. 

Muiron y Ca. 

Perret, Enrique. 

Rodriguez, E. 

ScMfer, Martin. 

Schreiber y Ca. 

Sommer, E. 

Van Rooten y Debro6, Sue. 

White, A. 

Zivy y Hauser, Sue. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Dealers in watches and clocks. 

Duhart, Vicente H. 

Hernandez Aguirre, Tomas. 

Prolongo, Federico. 

Vazquez, Francisco. 

VilUureal, Bernardo. 
Dealers in watches, clocks, and jewelry. 

Arana, Manuel. 

Bittrolff, Hugo, 

Diener y Rothacker. 

Jacot, Alejandro. 

Klein, Ricardo. 

Lagarrigue, Luis. 

Lagarrigue, Sue. 

Landa, Miguel R. 

Laue, German. 

Llop, J. 

Muiron y Ca. 

Perret, Enrique. 

Schftfer, Martin. 

Schreiber y Ca. 

Sommer, E. 

Valverde, J. 

Zivy y Hauser, Sue. 
Manufacturing jewelers. 

Diener y Rothacker. 

Klein, Ricardo. 

Montiel, Luis. 

Muiron y Ca. 

Schftfer, Martin. 

Sommer. E. 

Van Rooten y Debro6, Sue. 
Silversmiths. 

Diener y Rothacker. 

Muiron y Ca. 

Sommer, E. 

Zivyy Hauser, Sue. 

Silverware. 
Acosta, F61ix. 
Alvarez, Andr6s. 
Arteaga, Cirilo, 
Arteaga, Juan. 
Avila, Silviano. 
Cacho, Benigno. 
Camacho, Albino. 
Carrillo, Antonio. 
CarriUo, J. 
Carrillo, Guadalupe. 
CoUado, Enr. 
Coslo, Alejandro. 
Cosio, Anselmo. 
Diener y Rothacker. 
Esparza, J. 
Gaitan, Juan. 
Gonzalez, Paulino. 



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278 



MEXICO. 



MEXICO CIT7, MEXICO— Continued. 

Silverware— Ck>ntinued. 
Guevara, RafaeL 
Hernandez, Felipa. 
nizaliturri, Josefa. 
L6i)ez, J086. 
Llop, Francisco. 
Marchena, Jos6 F. 
Martinez, Francisco, 
Martinez, Vicente. 
MonteU, Luis. 
Morales, J.Jos6. 
Neyra, Victor. 
Ordufia, Baltazar. 
Ponton, Antonio. 
Rocha, Luis. 
Romano, Estanislao. 
Rodriguez, J. 
Rodriguez, Estanislao. 
Rodriguez, Mat6o. 
Rosellon, Nicolas. 
Sanchez, Juan. 
Soto, J. F. 
Tagliabure, Pedro. 
Torre, Amado D. de la. 
Tovar, Nicanor. 
Vega, Severo. 
Velasco, J086. 
Villavicencio, Joaquin. 
Zambrano, Rosalfo. 
Watch and clock makers. 
Arredondo, Florencio. 
Camargo, Alberto. 
C&rdenas, J. 
Cells, Mauricio R. de. 
Corchado, Luis. 
D&valos, Juan M. 
Delgado, Evaristo. 
%)iaz, Agustin C. 
Diener y Rothacker. 
Duhart, Vicente H. 
Esquivel, C&rlos. 
Farell, Enrique. 
Gk>nzalez, Patricio. 
Klein, Ricardo. 
Laue, German. 
L6pez, Daniel. 
Marin, Vicente. 
Martin, Juan. 
Martinez, Francisco. 
Medina, Manuel. 
Montafia, Angel. 
Moreno, Juan. 
Muiron y Ca. 
Pagaza, Vicente. 
Pefia y Ca., F, de la. 



MEXICO Cmr, MEXICO— Continued. 

Watch and clock mafcera— Continued. 
Plata, Pedro G. 
Ramirez 4 Hijos Joa6. 
Rios, Manuel. 
Rodriguez, Estanislao. 
Romero, Florencio. 
Romero, Francisco de P. 
Sandoval, Francisco. 
Sandoval, Jo84. 
Schftfer, Martin. 
Silva, Marcial. 
Sommer,E. 
Soto, Rafael. 
Valverde, J. 

Van Rooten y De Bro6, Sue. 
Vecino, Manuel. 
Villanueva, Juan B. 
Walker, Jos6. 

Ldthographers. 

Fernandez, C&rlos. 

Fiores, Juan. 

G6mez, Merino y Ca. 

Guerra y Valle, J. 

Iriarte, Hesiquio. 

Montauriol, C&rlos. 

Moreau y Hno., Emilio. 

Murguia, Eduardo. 

Revuelta, Jos6 L. 

Sainz, Ricardo. 

Salazar, Hip61ito. 
Lumber dealers. 

Baez, Anastasio. 

Cantero, M. 

Cobo, Manuel. 

Cobo y Ca., C. 

Espinosa y Ca., L. 

Fabre, Maurilio. 

Franco, J086. 

Galindez, D. 

Gonzalez, Manuel. 

Guerrero, Ger6nimo. 

Hidalgo, Trinidad. 

Huerta del Valle, Antonio 

Jimenez, Adolfo J. 

Meca, Nicol&s de. 

Monterde, Luis. 

Ondarza y de la Torre. 

Orozco, Toribio. 

Palacios y Ca., Ignacio. 

Pinal, Julio. 

Ponce de Leon, Gil. 

Romero, Francisco. 

Sancha, Juan de la. 

Sanchez, Barquera E. 

Trejo, Martiniana. 



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MEXICO CUT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Lumber deader*— Continued. 

Velazquez, Gayol y Ca. 

Villar, Mariano. 

Zetina y Ca., R. 
Machinery: 
Machinery importers. 

Adam Sue, F. 

Arce y Ca., J. 

Arosarena, Rafael M. de. 

Besserer, Carlos. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Charreton Hnos. 

Combaluzier, A. 

Lohse, Santiaf^o C. 

Lohse y Ca. G., Sue. 

Malo y Ca., Alberto. 

Marshall y Ca. 

Philipp y Ca., Max. A. ^ 

Read y Campbell. 

Rio, Jos6 Maria del. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Stankiewicz, G. M. 

White, Juan. 
Sewing muchinea. 

Alarcon, Francisco. 

Bacmeister, Julio. 

Boker y Ca., Roberto. 

Bush y Ca., C. M. 

Compaiifa Manufacturera de " Singer." 

Hulvershom y Ca., G. 

Jacot, A. 

Jos6 Marfa del Rio. 

Lohse y Ca., G., Sue. 

Patton, C. F. 

Sommer, Hermann y Ca. 

Uhink y Ca. 

Sugar machinery. 
Arce y Ca. 
Gahrtz, German 

Meats, salted and smoked. 
Aceves, J. A. ^ 
Aguilar, T. 
Acal&,G. 
Aldrete, Angel. 
Ai-ceo, P. 
Arcinas, J. 
Arco, R. 
Becerril, G. . 
Bobadilla, A. 
Botilla, P. 
Carmona, T. 
Castelan, Enr. 
Castelan, Ignacio. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Meats, salted and amofced— Continued. 
Casteilanos, A. 
Castellanos, D. 
Castillo, C. 
Castillo, J. 
CastiUo, N. 
Cerrano y Castillo. 
Coronado, R. 
Escamilla, J. 
Exiga, Luis. 

Galvan y C&rdenas, Ignacio. . 
G6mez, R. 
Gonzalez, F. 
Gtomar, F. 

Granados, D. de Herrera. 
Haro, C. 

Hernandez, Dolores G. 
Hernandez, F. 
Hernandez, J. 
Hernandez y Zepeda. 
Higareda, A. 
Jaime, Josefa. 
L6pez, M. 
Marmolejo, T. 
Martinez, A. 
Mejla, A. 
Mejfa, Luis. 
Mejla, V. 
Merino, R. 
Moncayo, M. 
Montes de Oca J. 
Navarro, M. 
Ocampo, J. 
Omaya, C. 
Perez, J. 
Perez, P. 
Pineda. J. 
Pineda, R. 
Quintanilla, G. 
Quiroz, F. 
Ramirez, Procopio. 
Ramirez, P. . 
Reyes, J. 
Rivero, V. 
Rodriguez, A. 
Robin, M. 
Rojas, S. 
Sanchez, S. 
Serrano, Pedro. 
Torres, Enrique. 
Urbina, J. 
Valadez, S. 
Vald6z, S. 
Velis,J. 
Victor, R. 
Villavicencio, N. 



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28o 



- MEXICO. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO—Continued. 

Meats, salted and «mofced— Continued. 
Zepeda, B. 
25epeda, J. 

MercJmnt tailors. 

Adalid, Ceron 6 hijos. ' 
Argumosa Hermanos. 
Bertezenne y Ca. , E. 
Best y Hernandez. 
Carmona, Ildefonso. 
Carmona y Velazquez, J. M. 
Carmona y Vilchis, V. 
Cerezo y Ca. 
Chauveau, Juan. 
Cuellar, Lamberto. 
D&valos, Ramon. 
Delbouis, J. P. 
Dreinhofer, J. F. 
Dubemard, Eugenio. 
Dufour y CassasAs. 
Echeverria, F. 
Franck, Amando. 
Franck y Ca., M. 
Garcia Benitez, F61ix. 
Garcia Benitez, B. 
Garcia Benitez, Tiburcio. 
Garibay y Ca., Ignacio. 
Gasca, Maximiliano. 
Gonzalez, Enrique. 
Hernandez, F^emando. 
Hernandez, Norberto J. 
Jamin, Alberto. 
Jimenez, Pablo. 
Kips, Alexix F. 
Lafage, Fernando. 
Macin, J. R. 
Maire, E. 
Mariaea, Santos. 
Maurel, F. 
Merino y Ca. 
Mivielle, E. 
Montes de Oca, A. 
Morales. Higinio. 
Navarro, Juan de M. 
Peralta, Antonio. 
Polack, Hipolito. 
Ramirez, C. 
Salin, Rafael. 
Sarre, Luis. 
Sevilla, Ignacio. 
Tovar, Jos6 Maria. 
Urreiztieta, Arturo. 
xican curiosities. 
Spaulding, D.S. 
St. Hill, CM. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Mills: 
Com miUs. 

Aguilar, Fortino. 

Aguilar, Miguel. 

Arroyo, Sixto. 

Astiz, Antonio. 

Bracho, Alberto A. 

Caballero, J. M. 

Clotas, Gervasio. 

Dettmer, C&rlos. 

Garibay, Jo84 Maria. 

Martinez, Serafln. 

Villa de Moros y Ca. 
Oil mills. 

Brun, Desiderio. 

Cortes 6 Herigaray. 

Frank, Guillermo. 

Garibay y Gay^ 

G6mez, Agustin. 

Gk>nzales y Ca. , AngeL 

Vazquez, Braulio. 

ZiehlyTeUitti. 
W?ieat mills. 

Albaitero y Arrache. 
, Castro, Franci8t?o de P. 

Cbarreton Hnos. 

Echenlque, Jos6 Ma. 
Mineral waters. 

Bazax, Justino. 

Bourl6n, Alfredo. 

Lastindre, B. 

Gk)urgues, D6sormes y Ca. 
Mining articles. 

Gahrtz, German. 

Lohse y Ca. , G., Sue. 

Philipp y Ca., Max. A. 
Musical instruments. 

Bush y Ca., C. M. 

Espinosa, Jos6 In^s. 

Fernandez, Mariano. 

Hidalgo, Manuel. 

Hernandez, Tom&s. 

Nagel, H.. Sue. 

Sanchez, Barquera 6 Hijo, J. 

OAate, Jes6s. 

Solano, R6mulo. 

Wagner y Levien, A. 
Objects of art. 

Hillebrand y Ca., E. 

Lohse y Ca., G. Sue. 

Pellandini, Claudio. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

Zivy y Hauser, Sue. 



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MEXICO. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

Opticians. 

Oalpini Sue. 

White, A. 
Paints, oils f etc. 

Anaya, F61ix. 

Ar6valo, Francisco. 

Barrera, Arcadio, 

Barroso, Francisco, 

Barroso, Ismael. 

Bouf et, Javier. 

Oandil, Gonzalo. 

Canseco, Hilario. 

Cruz, Jos^. 

Doizelet, Leopoldo. 

Espfnola, Antonio. 

Estarrona, Juana. 

Garcia, Gonzalo. 

Gomez, La Madrid. 

Guzman, Angel. 

Hernandez, Est^ban M. 

Martorano y Ca., Antonio, 

Morales, Ismael. 

Montes de Oca, D. 

Navarro, J. 

Past6n, Ignacio, 

Pezafia, Marcial. 

Piedra y Hnos., Marcos E. 

Rangel, Maximino. 

Rio de la Loza y Miranda. ' 

Rivas, Jacinto. 

Rojas, R. 

Rosa, Manuela de la. 

Rosell, Antonio. 

Rosell, Joaquin, 

Ruiz, Francisco E. 

Ruiz, Agustin. 

Sema, Juana. 

Urrutia y Leon. 

Urrutia, Miguel. 

Vallejo, P. 

Velez, Bibiano. 

Vigueras, Agustin. 

Vilchez, Francisco. 

Yafiez, Ref . 

Zetina, Rafael R. 
Paper: 
Blank books. 

Arquero, Ricardo. 

Fuente, Parres, Sue. 

Lions y Ca., H. y V. 

Lfldert, Federico. 

Martin, Luis. 

Maza y Ca. 

Quintero y Ca., A 

Saniz, Ricardo. 



MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Paper— Continued. 
Cardboard. 

Alvarez, Rul y Ca. 

Yald^s y Cueva J. 

Villa 6 hijos, G. 

Yilla y Yillanueva. 
Importers of paper. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Trueba, Fernando de. 

Trueba, Hermanos. 
Paper boxes. 

Barroso, Amado, 

Orellana y Esteva. 

Baez, Rafael 
Paper manufacturers. 

Benfield,JuanM. 

Orozco, Marcelino. 

R6mirezy Ca.,I. 

Sanchez Navarro, Carlos. 
WdU paper. 

Amaldo, Luis G. 

Brillanti y Ca. 

Delarue, E. 

Drogueria Universal. 

Huguenin, C. 

Rio,Jo86 Maria del 

Trueba Hermtoos. 
Perfumery and toilet articles. 

Beltran y Hermano. 

Claverie, P. 

Farine y Sanders. 

Labadie,J. Suc.yCa. 

Malavear, Inocencio. 

Saint Marc, P. 

Tellezy Ca.,F. 

Petroleum. 

Aguirre Hermanos, Ignacio. 
Anziurez, Est. R. 
Avila, Maria. 
Brun, Desiderio. 
Cand&s, Manuel. 
Cejudo, Felipe 
Cervantes, Ponciano. 
Diaz, Guadalupe. 
Diaz de Parra, Guadalupe. 
Dur&n. Angela J. V. de la. 
Frank, Guillermo. 
Gomez, Agustin. 
Gonzalez, C. 

La Compafila de Petr61eo. 
Lopez, Manuela. 
Martinez, Gdadalupe. 
Perez, Cecilio M. 
Ramirez, Ricardo. 



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MEXICO. 



MEXICO Cmr, HEXICO—Continued. 

l^troleum Continued. 

Eiva, Rafael. 

Rovelo, Maria. 

Rubaira, Pedro. 

Sanchez de Suarez, In4s. 

Soli s, Loreto. 

Urquieta, Josefina. 

Waters Pierce OH Co. 
Photographers. 

Alvarez, J. 

Calderon y Ca., Antonio. 

Carriedo.J. 

Cruces, Antonio. 

Figuerea, Agustin Campa. 

Gomez y Flores, J. 

Gonz&lez, Macario. 

Gove y North. 

Guerra y Ca. 

Guzm&n, J. 

Iglesias, Francisco. 

Manero, Luis. 

Martinez, Andres. 

Maya,Jos6 M. 

Nieto y Ca. 

North Sue. (Emilio Osbahr). 

Sanchez, Concepci6n. 

Suarez, Guadalupe. 

Valleto y Ca. 

Veraza, Luis. 

Wolfenstein Sue. (N. Winther). 
Playing cards. 

Munguia 6 Hijos, P. 
Printing offices and printing materials: 
Printing offices. 

Abadiano, Viuda 6 hijos de. 

Aguilar 6 hijos 

Agueros, Victoriano. 

Barbedillo,Jos6 J. 

Bouligny y Ca. (Limitada). 

Butler, Juan W. 

Cabrera, Daniel. 

Casas y Ca. 

Castillo, J. V. 

Corona, M. 

Correa, Jos4. 

Cortina, Vald.M. 

CumpUdo,I.,Suc. 

Diaz de Leon, Francisco. 

Dublany Ca.,E. 

Dufez, E. 

Escalante, Ignacio. 

Esteva, Gonzalo A. 

Fusco, Federico M. 

Garcia, Torres V. 

Gonzalez Murtia,P. 



MEXICO Cmr, MEXICO—Continued. 

Printing offices and printing matericUs — Cont'd. 
Printing oJ??ce«— Continued. 

Guerra y Valle Joaquin. 

Gutierrez y Ca.,S. 

Haegeli, Emilio. 

Hargrove, R. K. 

Imprenta del Gobiemo Federal. 

Imprenta de " El Combate."" 

Imprenta del " Clrculo Cat61ico." 

Imprenta de "La Escuela Correccional de 
Artes y Oflcios." 

Imprenta del Diario " Trait d'Union." 

Imprenta de " El Partido Liberal.'' 

Jens, J. F. 

Lagarza, Juan. 

Lara, Mariano. 

L6pezy Ca.,A. 

L6pez y Ca., Alfonso E. 

L6pez, Jos4. 

Lugo, Francisco. 

Mata, Filomeno. 

Murguia, Ed. 

Murgula, L. 

Nava, L. 

Nichols Sue. 

Oficina tipogr&fica de la Secretaria de 
Fomento. 

Orozco, Epifanio D. 

Ortiz, Monasterio Angel 

P&rres y Ca., F. Sue. 

Paz, C4rlo8. 

Paz, Ireneo. 

Salazar, Daniel R. 

Sanchez, Santos T. 

Smith, David C. 

Son6, F. A. 

Soto, Gabriel. 

Steelman, A. J. 

Terrazas, Jos6 J. 

Trigueros, C. 

Vanegas y Ar^^yo, Antonio. 

Veraza, Guillermo. 

Villagran, Francisco. 

Villanueva, Atanasio. 

Velasco, J. Reyes 

Ztifiiga, Petra. 
Printing and lithographic inks- 
Diaz de Leon, Francisco. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Trueba Hermanos. 

Zaccarini y Ca., A 
Type, presses, etc.— 

Bustamente, Jos6 E. 

Lohse y Ca., G., Sue. 

Mungula 6 Hijos, P. 



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MEXICO. 



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MEXICO CITT, MEXICO— Continued. 

PHnting offices and printing materials— ConVd. 
Type^ presses, etc. — Continued. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca, 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 
Rubber stamps. 

Dael, Federico. 

Fouard, Juan. 

Galaviz, Antonio H. 

Mosser, Luis. 

Pastrana, Guillermo R. 

Robertson, F. E. 
Saddlers. ' 

Aguilar, Mariano. 

Alvarado, Santiago. 

Alveraz, Mariano. 

Avila, Jos6. 

BaUesteros, Juan. 

Castro, Antonio. 

Dominguez, Marciano. 

Garay, Vicente. 

Gonzalez, J. T. 

Gros, EmOe. 

Guerrero, Ramon. 

Jimenez, Est6ban. 

Lessance, A. 

Lozano, David. 

Ortiz. Clemente. 

Ortiz, Juan R, 

Perez, Casimiro. 

Reyes, Pedro. 

Ruiz, Manuel. 

Vazquez, Luis. 
Scientific and surgical instruments. 

Andrade y Soriano. 

BiSrklund y Joransson, A. 

Bustillos, Evaristo. 

Calpini Sue. 

Felix, C&rlos. 

Henning, Jorge. 

Joransson, C&rlos. 

Leiter, C, Sue. 

Lohse y Ca.,G., Sue. 

Philips, Max. 

Taussaint y Ca. 
Ship chandlery. 

Enriquez, J. 

Lozano, Vicente. 

Villagra, Theodosio. 
Shoemakers" supplies. 

Brehmy Ca.,Suc. 

"CompaHia Comercial Austriaca-Trasatl&n- 
tica.^' 

Horn y Ca., A. 

Schmidt y Bourjau. 

Schultze y Ca., Sue. 



MEXICO Cmr, Mexico— Continued. 

Tinicare. 

Aburto, F61ix. 
Alvarez, J. 
Anaya, Trmidad. 
Ayala, Juan. 
Badillo, Domo. 
Barros, Lauro. 
Belmont, Ignacio. 
Bemal, Angel. 
Blancas, Manuel. 
Caballero, Manuel. 
Castillo, Jos6. 
Chavez, Antonio. 
Chavez, Antonio. 
Cherlin, Luis. 
Clavel, Leandro. 
C6rdoba, Margarito. 
Diaz, Mariano. 
Dominguez, Nic. 
Espinosa, Est. 
Espinosa, Ponciano. 
Flores, Agustfn. 
Flores, Pedro. 
Fuentes, Pedro. 
Garcia, Abraham. 
Garcia, Macario. 
Gardufio,J.M. 
Gardufio, Manuel. 
Gk>mez, Pablo. 
Gk>mez, Tom&s. 
Hidalgo, Faustino. 
Iglesias, Manuel. 
Iglesias, Miguel. 
Jimenez, L6cas. 
Jimenez, Felipe. 
IjCgorreta, Bias. 
Lozano, Andres. 
Magarifio, Manuel, 
M&rquez, Mariano. 
Morales, Sixto. 
Miu*o, Domingo. 
Novoa, Micaela. 
Nufiez, Vicente. 
Olarte, Pedro. 
Ortiz, Francisco. 
Parra, Eduardo. 
Quesadas, Antonio. 
Quesadas,Juan. 
Revilla, Arcadio. 
Ruiz, Bartolo. 
Rujano, J. A. 
Salgado, Silverio. 
Sanchez, Vidal. 
Santa Maria, Mtouel. 
Silva,Juli&n. 
Sotelo, Trinidad. 



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284 



MEXICO. 



MEXICO CTTY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Tt«M?ore— Continued. ' 

Torre, Rom&n de la. 

Torre, Jo66 R. de la. 

Torres, Juan, 

Vald6z, Franciso. 

Vazquez, Adalberto. 

Velasco, Florencio. 
Tombstones. 

Backus, Brisbin y Ca. 

Cherubini, Angel. 

Marcili, C. S. 

MasseUn, A. 

Tangassi, Francisco. 

Umitia, L. 
Toys. 

Calvet, Victor. 

C6rdova, Agustln. 

Coslo, Juan. 

Cotera, Merced. 

Cuellar, Antonia. 

Deverdun, C. 

Enriquez, Guadalupe. 

G6niez, Isabel. 

Jurado de Acal&, Elena. 

Larr6, Pedro. 

Pivadidre Adolfo. 

Raynaud, E. 

Rivero, Luis. 

Sandoval, Miguel. 

Velazquez de Leon, Margarita. 

Vidrierla Nacional de Apizaco. 
Travellers' outfits. 

Boker y Ca.. Roberto. 

Combaluzier, A. 

Franck y Ca., M. 

Lohse y Ca., G., Sue. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 
Umbrellas. 

Bouras, Pablo. 

Gambfi, Adolfo. 

Guerin y Oa. 

Hoppenstedt y Ca., T. 

Lagrave, P. 

Lef^bvre, A. 

Logero, G. 
Undertakers. 

Ascorbe y Ca. 

Carmona y Ca., J. 

Gayosso y Ca. 

Moctezuma, G. 

Trevino, M. 
Wine merchants, importers. 

CasteI16, Gutierrez y Ca. 

Consonno, Julio. 



MEXICO CITT, MEXICO — Continued. 

Wine merchants^ iwiporfers— Continued. 

Genin, Viuda de A. 

Gutierrez y Ca., Quintfn. 

Mancina Hnos. 

Morales Manso, Alberto. 

Repetto, Juan. 

Rigal, Lubet y Ca. 

RoUa y Ca., A. 

Sanchez, Ambrosio. 

Sauto, Mufitizuri y Ca. 

Uhink y Ca. 

Uhink Hnos y Zahn. 

Zepeda, Francisco. 
Wine and liquor distillers. 

Alegre, Juli&n. 

Boeuf , Francisco. 

Durant, Joaquin. 

Fonts, Martin. 

Garcia, Alejo. 

Gardufio, Miguel. 

Gavifio, Salvador. 

Gutierrez y Ca., Prudencio. 

Laville, J.P. 

Leriche, C&rlos. 

Rafols, Fernando. 

Tardos y Ca.. Julio. 

Vidal y Ca., Pablo. 

Xiclima, Jorge. 
Wood and coal. 

Ayala, Perez, Viuda 6 Hijos de. 

Campollo, M&rcos. 

Espinosa, Eust. 

Guerra, Antonio. 

Guerrero y Arechayala. 

Lomas, Domingo. 

Mora de Arroyo, Ignacia. 

Noriega, R. 

Ortiz, Di6go. 

Rodriguez, Jos6. 

Roldan, A. Jos6. 

Silvay Ca., Jos6. 
Woods, hardwoods and mahogany. 

Baez, Anastasio. 

Cantero, M. 

Cobo, Ces&reo y Ca. 

Cobos, Manuel. 

Fabre, Mauril6o. 

Franco, Jos6. 

Galindez, Di6go. 

Gonz&lez, Manuel. 

Guerrero, Gerdnimo. 

Hidalgo, Trinidad. 

Huerta, Antonio. 

Jimenez, Adolfo J. 

Meca, Nicol&s. 



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MEXICO. 



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MEXICO CITY, MEXICO— Continued. 

Woods, hardimoda and rmiAoflfany—Coiitinued. 

Monterde, Luis. 

Ondarza y de la Torre. 

Orozco, Toribio. 

Palacios y Ca., Ignacio. 

Pinal, Julio. 

Ponce de Le6n, Gil. 

Romero, Francisco. 

Sancha, Juan de la. 

Sanchez, Barquera E. 

Trejo, Martiniana. 

Villar, Mariano. 

Zetina, R. 
Wool dealers. 

Dehesa, Est4ban. 

Fuentes, Guillermo. 

L6pez, IsidDO. 

Picazo, Petronilo. 

MOKTEBET, KTTEVO I£ON. 

Agents for imported goods (sale by sample). 
Garcia, Ignacio. 
Guerra, David. 
Palacio, Federico. 
Piazzini, C&rlos. 

Agricultural implements. 

Dressel. Rodolfo. 

Langstroh, Sue. 

Piazzini, C&rlos. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Dressel, Rodolfo. 

Freese, LuisK. 

Langstroh, Sue. 

Bankers. 

Armendais, Francisco. 

Hoick yCa, C. 

Maiz, Pedro. 

Martinez, Francisco. 

Mihno, Patricio. • 

Rivero, Valentin. 

Wells, Fargo & Co. 

Banks. 

London Bank of Mexico and South America. 

Ltd. 
Sucursal del Banco Nacional. 

Booksellers and stationers. 
Elizondo, Manuel Lozano. 
Garcia, Leopoldo. 
Grim, Francisco. 
Langrange y Ca, Desiderio. 
Langstroh, Sue. 
Martinez, Francisco A. 



MOHTEEEY, JTOBVO LEON— Continued. 

Boots and shoes. 
Allegro y Ca. 
Franco, Jos6 Maria 
Gk»nzalez, Juan B. 
Leon, Vicente de. 
Menchuca, Tom&s. 
Nufiez, Estanislao. 
Ortiz, Tomfis. 
Ramos, Merced. 
Rosas, Fidel. 
Tre^fiflo, Francisco Z. 

China and glassware. 

Ancira, Hermanos. 

Dressel y Ca. 

Langstroh, Sue. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Rios, Francisco. 
Commission merchants. 

Elias, Francisco de. 

Oliver, Francisco. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Ruiz, Rafael A. 

Clothing, hats, etc. 

Armendais, Francisco. 
Arvele y Olivier. 
Barrios, Roque. 
Calderon, Joa6. 
Cardenas, Martinez. 
Digatan y Garcia. 
Doud y Ca.. Patricio. 
. ElizondayCa. 
Fiz, Manuel. 
Galindo, Jacinto. 
Garcia, Bernardino. 
Garcia, Mariano. 
Garcia, Praxedes. 
Garza, Fernando. 
Gonzalez. Juan B. 

Gonzalez, Lorenzo. 

Gutierrez, Jos6. 

Hernandez y Hermanos. 

Holke, Cdrlos. 

Jamie, S. 

Jimenez, Desiderio. 

Lozano y Ca. 

Maiz, Pedro. \ 

Martinez, Alejo. 

Martinez y Hermanos, Cardenas. 

Martinez y Hermanos, Fernando. 

Milmo, Patricio. 

Oliver, Francisco. 

Palacios, Federico. 

Pautrier, Emilio. 

Rivero, Valentin. 



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MEXICO. 



MONTESET, NUEVO LEON— Continued. 

Clothing, hats, c^c— Continued. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Rodriguez, Hilario. 

Roel, Esteban. 

TrevelSo y Ca, Silvestre. 

Tallabas, Francisco. 

Trevifio, Francisco. 

Varrios, Roque. 
Druggists. 

Argandar, Ricardo. 

Bello, Francisco. 

BreineryCa., Eduardo. 

Bremer y Ca. 

Cantt^, Agustin. 

Cortazar, Joaquin. 

Escalante, Jo86 M. 

Flores, Felipe Garcia. 

Garcia, Antonio. 

Gonzalez, Felipe G. 

Gutierrez, Miguel. 

Hinojoso. Tom&s. 

Lafon, Antonio. 

Lafont, Emilio. 

Lazcano y Ca. 

Margain, Jos6 O. 

Martinez y Echartea. 

Mean y Hermanos. 

Mears, Juan H. 

Mearts, Jos6. 

Perez, Ramon G. 

Rodriguez, Eusebio 

Saldafia, Ignacio. 

Sanchez, J. 

Sepulveda, Vicente. 
I>ry goods and notions. 

Ayala y Ca., Cfirlos. 

Brainerd y Ca. 

Drenel, Rudolfo. 

Lozano, Inocencio. 

Pautrier, E. 

Reyes, Juan. 

Rios, David. 
Fancy goods. 

Mejla, Romualdo. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Sanchez, Romualdo. 

Tinoco,Camilo. 
Furniture. 

Pino, Luis. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Azc&rate, Francisco. 

Azcdrate, Viuda de. 

Elguera, Jos6. 

Flores, Rosendo. 

Orihuela, Agustfn. 



MONTEEEY, NUEVO LEON— Continued. 

Groceries and provi«io?u— Continued. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Rios, Francisco. 

Rios, Lino. 

Robles, Ignacio. 

Rodriguez, Jos6 M. 
Hardtvare. 

Ancira Hermanos. 

Dressel y Ca. 

Pagaza, Juan. 

Pino, Luis. 

Rico, Leandro. 

Rios, Francisco. 
House furnishing goods. 

Ancira y Ca. 

Trujillo, Prudencio. 
Jewelers. 

Ayala, Carlos M. 

Martinez y Hermanos. 

Ramirez, Delfino. 

Rivero, Valentin. 

Rosales, Manuel. 

Varrios, Bogue. 
Lithographer. 

La del Gobiemo. 
Lumber. 

Martinez y Hermano, Fernandez. 

Portillo y Gomez, R. 

Merchants, general wholesale. 
Boot y Royt. 
Brash, Sconfleld y Ca. 
Calderon, Jos6. 
Castro, Victoriano. 
Clausen y Ca. 
Coindran, L. G. 
Degetau y Dose. 
Famava y Ca., Viuda de. 
Garcia, Bernardino. 
Guera, David. 
Guilbeau, Hermann y Ca. 
Hoick y Ca. 
Jar'e, Salvador. 
Lafon, Ramon. 
Madera y Ca. 
Malzy Ca., P. 
Milmo, Patricio. 
Morrell, Jos6. 
O'Farrell, Tomas. 
Oliver, Francisco. 
Oliver y Hermanos. 
Palacio Arguelles. 
Rivero y Ca. 
Rivera, Valentin. 
Schonian y Dressel. 



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287 



MOKTEBEY, NTTEVO LEON— Continued. 

Merchants^ general, wjAoZesaie— Continued. 

Weber y Ulrick. 

Zambriano y Hijo. 
Merchants, wholesale commission, general. 

Artichi, Francisco. 

Ayala, Bruno. 

Bernard!, Reynoldo. 

Cantu, Adolfo. 

Elizondo y Ca. 

Maiz, Pedro. 

Martinez y Hermanos. 
Photographers. 

Lagrange Hermanos. 

Rendon, Nicolds. 

YafifS, Rafael. 
Pianos, organs, etc. 

Zambrana Hermanos y Ca. 
Sevring machines. 

Daudet y Ca., Patricio O. 

Fox, Joaquin. 

Galindo, Elias. 

MOBELIA, MICHOACAN: 

Agricultural implements. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Wolburg, G^rardo S. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Aguirre y Achdtegui. 
Bankers. 

Basagoitiy Ca.,J. 

Gravenhorst, Gustavo, J. 

Solorzano, M. M. 
Bayiks. 

Bank of London and Mexico (agency). 

National Bank (agency). 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Aguirre y Ach6tegui. 

Guerrero, Placido. 

Velazquez, J. 

Boots and shoes. 

Comejo, Miguel. 

Huarte, Joaquin. 

Oseguera, Francisco. 
China, crockery, and glassware. 

Morera, Victor J. 

Oseguera, Epif anio. 
Commission merchants. 

Carbonel, Antonio. 

Elizarrar&s, R fael. 

Guerrero, L. Campuzano. 

Lozano, Manuel. 

Ruiz, Nemesio. 

S&mano, Luis G. 



MOBELIA, MICHOACAN—Continued. 

Commission merc/ianfs— Continued. 

Seeger, Guernsey y Ca. 

Vega, Ramon. 

Velasquez, J. 

Velez,'Jos6. 
Drugs. 

Arrega, Teodora. 

Angondar, Ricardo. 

Burgos, Merando. 

Cervantes, Andres. 

Elizarraras, Rafael. 

Franco, Ignacio. 

Gonzalez, Antonio. 

Gk>nzalez, Ciraco. 

Gutierrez, Miguel. 

Huacuja, Lamberto. 

Lopez, Ezequiel. 

Martinez, Silviano. 

Mier, Atanasio. 

Montailo, Manuel. 

Mufioz, Hermanos. 

Montenegro, Manuel Oviedo- 

Ortiz, Nicanor. 

Otiz y Cano, Miguel. 

Padilla, Genaro. 

Parra, Enrique. 

Vallejo, Juan. 
Dry goods, notions, etc. 

Alba, F. G. 

Audiffred Hnos. 

Bose, Garcin y Hermanos. 

Carbonel, Antonio. 

Castaneda y Ca. 

Cortes yCa.,T. 

Infante, Jos6 M. 

Infante, Pelot y Ca. 

Quiros, Pedro. 

Ramirez, Ramon. 

Ruiz, Nemesio. 

Sauve Hnos., Francart. 

Villagomez, M. 
Fancy goods. 

Burgos, Antonio. 

Calderon, Sacramento S. 

Guerrero, P. 

Vega, Nicolfis. 

Wolburg, Gterardo S. 
Furniture. 

Gutierrez, Evaristo. 

Velez, Juan. 
OroceiHes and provisions. 

Basagoite y Ca., J. 

Flores, Juan. 

Gonzalez, Manuel. 

Izquierdo. 



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MOBELIA, MICHOACAN— Continued. 

Groceries and prormorw— Continued. 

Martinez, Ij^iacio. 

Oseguera, Epifanio. 

Ramirez, Ramon. 

Torres y Gil. 
Hardware, cutlery y and tools. 

Aguirre y Ach6tegui. 

Burgo y Ca. 

Guerrero, Pl&cido. 

Martinez, Loreto. 

Oseguera, Epifanio. 

Ponce de Leon, J. 

Raugel, Juan. 

Wolburg, Gerardo S. 
Hatters. 

Diaz, Francisco. 

3Ionge y Rodriguez. 

Pellotier y Ca., T. 
Hides and leathers. 

Brefia, Ausencio. 

Garcia, Antonio. 

Ibarrola, Jos6 M. - 

Ortiz, Nicolas. 

Sachez, Agustin. 

Topio, Ignacio. 
Jewelry, loatches, and silvericare. 

Goyzueta. 

Goyzueta, Felix. 

Humbert, Onesimo. 

Marquez, Antonio. 

Ramirez, Mariano. 

Trautz, Federico. 
Lithographers. 

Imprenta de la Escuela de Artes. 
Paints, oils, etc. 

Mier, A. 
Photographers. 

Bocanegra, Rodolfo. 

Gutierrez y Ca. 

Manriquez, R. 

Torres Hnos. 
Pianos and organs. 

Alba, Felix. 

Cardenas, Manuel. 

Espinosa, Mucio. 

Estrado, Joaquin. 

Gomez, Alberto. 

Lozano, Manuel. 

Novoa, Jos^Marfa. 

Ramirez, Ramon. 

Reynoso, Ignacio. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Navarete, Francisco. 

Rivera, Apolpnio. 



MQREIIA, MICHOACAN— Ck)ntifiued. 

Sewing machines. 

Alzua, Manuel Oviedo. 
Undertaker. 

Velez, Juan. 

NUEYO LABEDO, TAMAT7IIPA8. 

Banks and bankers. 

Belden Hnos. 

Hoick yCa.,C. 

O'Coner, Tom&s. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

C&rdenas, Santiago. 

Cueva y Hermano, A. 
Commission merchants. 

Belden Hermanos. 

Erhard, Antonio M. 

Garcia, Agapito A. 

Hernandez, Juan. 

Hoick yCa.,C. 

Mendirlchaga, Tom&s. 

O'Conor, Tom4s. 

Rodriguez, Manuel. 

Sema, Rafael. 

Drugs. 

Dupoyet, Teodoro. 

Theriot, A. F. 

Trevifio, Sebastian. 
Dry goods. 

Bruni y Hermano, A. M. 

Daimend, Miguel. 

Hirsch. Mauricio. 

Joseph. Alberto. 

Larralde Hermanos y Ca. 

Mendirf chaga, Tom&s. 

Morris y Ca., E. 

O'Conor.Tom&s. 

Groceries and provisions. 

Ancira, Jacobo. 

Ancira, Julio. 

Baez, J. E. 

Bruni y Hermano, A. M. 

Flores, Marcos Garza. 

Garcia, Agapito A. 

Lozano, Eduardo. 

Montegui,W. 

O'Conor.Tom&s. 

Rigal, Pedro. 

Rosenthal y Hermano. 
Hardware, etc. 

Montegui, W. 

0'Conor,Tom6s. 
Hats. 

Ancira, Jacobo. 



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MEXICO. 



•289 



NUEVO LABEDO, TAMATTUPAS— Cont'd. 

I*rinter8. 

Cueva y Hermano, A. 

Vara, Indalesio. 
Sewing machines. 

C&rdenas, Santiago. 

Cueva y Hermano, A. 

Joseph, Julio. 

O'Conor Tomfis. 

Theriot, A. F. 

OAXACA, OAXACA. 

Agricultural implements. 
Philipp y Ca., Max. A. 
Stein y Ca., Gustavo. 

Banks and bankers. 
Barrenquy, P. L. 
Richards, Constantino. ' 
Sucursal del Banco Nacional. 
Stein y Ca., Gustavo. 
ZorriUa y Ca., J086. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Campo, L. F. del. 

Peralta, M. 

San German, Lorenzo. 
Boots and shoes. 

Cuervo y Ca. 

NuHez, Manuel. 

Ruiz Hermanos. 

Carriages. 

Almovejo. A. 
Rivera, M. 

Commission merchants. 

Barrenquy, L. 

Barriga, Francisco. 

Bravo, JuanT. 

Castro, Jos6 M. 

Cruz, Santiago. 

Falcon, Antonio. 

Guerrero, Jos6, 

Mateos, M. 

JMtUler, Eduardo. 

Prado, Antonio. 

Stein y Ca., Gustavo. 

Zorrilla y Ca., Jos6. 
China and glassware. 

Frieben Hermanos, Sue. 

Heinrichs y Ca., Enrique. 

PhilippyCa., Max A. 
Drags. 

Alvarez, J. A. 

Bolafios, Ramon. 

Bustamante, Pedro. 

Carbo, Antigua de. 

57A 19 



OXACA, OXACA— Continued. 

.>n«flr«— Continued . 

Eresarte, M. 

PeBa, G. 

Ruiz, Pomposo. 

Santaella, Amado. 

Tolls y Renero. 
Dry goods. 

Contreras, M. T. 

Gay, G. 

Heinrichs y Ca., Enrique. 

Larraiiaga, Jos6. 

laugier, L. 

Peralta, Manuel. 

Quijano y Ca., F. 

Reguera, L. P. 
Fancy goods. 

Heinrichs y Ca., Ennque. 

Frieben Hermanos, Sue. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

San German, Lorenzo. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Allende y Sobrino, Manuel. 

Quijano, Francisco G. 

Stein y Ca., Gustavo. 
Hardware. 

Esperon, M. 

Frieben Hermanos, Sue. 

Heinrichs y Ca., Enrique. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

San German, Lorenzo. 
Importers and exporters. 

Allende y Sobrino. 

Barriga 6 Hijo. 

Esperon, Gabriel. 

Figueroa, Ignacio. 

Moya, Luis. 

Quijano y Ca. 

Pefia, Juan Cobo de la. 

Richards, C. 

Stein y Ca., Gustavo. 

Trapaga, Juan. 

Uriarte, Francisco. 

Wiecher y Ca. 

ZoriUa y Ca., Jos6. 
Iron and ironware. 

Barriga, Francisco. 

Quijano y Ca. 
Jewelry. 

Serivante, Luis. 

Lithographer. 

Santa Ana, J. 
Manufacturer brass and iron bedsteads. 

Mellado, Cueto J. 



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OXACA, OXACA— Continued. 



Music store. 

Heinrichs y Ca., Enrique. 
Paints and oils. 

San German, Lorenzo. 

Zolis, Cam}lo. 
Sewing machines. 

Trieben Hermanos, Sue. 
Silk goods. 

Gallardo, V. 

Ibanez y Ca., R. 

ORIZABA, VERAGBTTZ. 

Agricultural implements. 

Carrillo, Borrego y Ca. 

Vivanco, Angel. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Espinosa, Jos6. 

Limos, Primitivo. 

Lopez, Justo. 

Rufier, Juan B. 
Banks and hankers. 

Mazon Hnos. (agents "Banco Nacional'). 

Torre y Ca., Sue. (agents, " Banco de Londres 
y Mexico"). 

Booksellers. 

Agui'lar, Mendoza y Ca. 
Boots and shoes. 

Camiro, Anastasio 

Cruz, Francisco. 

Gaetan, Cipriano. 

Gaston, Francisco. 

Jimenez, Crescencio. 

Mufioz, Francisco. 

Ramirez, Vicente. 

Ramos, Guadalupe. 

SaldaHo, Jos6 de J. 
Chemicals and acids. 

Trujillo, Samuel. 

China and glassware. 

CJarrillo, Borregos y Ca. 

Lignon y Ca. 
Commission merchants {sale by sample). 

Bermudez, Conrado. ^ 

Cuadra, J. Guadalupe. 

Lopez, Sebastien. 

Marquez, Bias. 

Torres, Jos6 M. 

Soto, Facundo. 
Commission merchants. 

Berea Hermanos. 
spinosa, Diego. 



ORIZABA, VERAGRTTZ— Continued. 

Commissi(m merchants — Continued. 

Eulogio,V. 

Gomez, Tiburico. 

Laredo, J066 M. 

Lastre, J086 Mena. 

Llera,Justino. 

Minvielle, Juan. 

Peralta y Guevara. 

Regoyos. Julian. 

Roman, Vicente. 

Segura, Ricardo. 

Sota, Facunda. 

Verea, Adolf o. 
Dealers in hides. 

Brando, Juan. 

Cerilla, E. 

Mercadanti, Juan. 

Teilhe, Francisco. 
Drugs. 

Anaud, Viuda de. 

Bustamante, A. 

Bustamante, Jos6 M. 

Bustillos,J.E. 

Carrillo, Cartabuena Joaquin. 

Diaz, Juan. 

Eizaguirre, J. Manuel. 

Espinosa y Ca., Jos6. 

Mendizabal y Cabresto, Miguel. 

Portas, Rafael. 

Rincon,Jos6. 

Sanchez, Lorenzo. 

Talavera, Ismael. 

VaJverde, J. Manuel. 

Dry goods and notions. 
Alonso, Felii)e. 
Amada, Pedro. 
Bustillo, S. 
Cuesta, Fernandez. 
Cuesta, J086 Fernandez. 
Escudero, Enrique. 
Fondevila y Ca., Jos6. 
Garragori, P. 
Gomez, Luz. 
Gross, Teofilo. 
Islas, Rafael. 
Mazon Hnos. 
Rogna, Ricardo. 
Sigori y Ca. 
Sota, Gomez. 
Ureta, Marcos. 
Ureta, Rufino. 
Villa y Aresti, Sotero. 
Vivance, Estevas. 
Vivanco, Dionisio. 



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ORTZABA, YEBAGBTTZ — Continued. 

Engravers. 

Morgado, Vicente. 
Zenon, J. 

JFlancy goods. 

Alonso, Felipe. 

Bello y Ca., F. J. 

Carrillo Hnos. 

Fernandez. Casto. 

Guerrero, Joeefa Acosta de. 

Lif^uori y Ca., Francisco. 

Rojina y Ca. 
IHour miUs. , 

Flores, Francisco. 

Quevera, Luis. 

Guevera, N. 

Mesa, Luis. 

Sanz, Jos6. 

Sota, Francisco. 

Sota, Dolores S. de. 

Sota, Isidoro. 

Sota, Severino de la. 

Torre y Ca., Sue. 

Fhimiture. 

Grosse, Teofllo, 

Lienert, Eduardo. 
GenercU merchandise. 

Argumedo, C&rlos. 

Baturoni, Ramon. 

Bravo, J086. 

Cross y Ca., Castillo. 

Espinosa, Diego. 

Mendizabal, N. 

Morillo, Agustin. 

Naredo, Jos6 M. 

Pimentel, Ramon. 

Penasco, J. M. 

Rodriguez, Manuel. 

Sota, Facundo. 

Tejada, Ambrosio. 

Valverde, Ramon. 

Victorino, Eulogio. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Aguerrela, Jos6. 

Aguilar, Pascual. 

Alvarado, Tomas. 

Abrarez, Agustin. 

Andrade, Jos^. 

Arreguin, Primitivo. 

Baldivia, Ignacio. 

Campos, Francisco. 

Castillo, Timotea. 

Dominguez, Jos6. 

Espinola, M&ximo. 

Garces, Jos6 M. 



ORTZABA, YEBAGBTTZ — Continued. 

Groceries and provmon*— Continued. 

Garcia, Ramon. 

Giminez, Antonio. 

Gomez, Cortes Ismael. 

Hernandez, Lucio. 

Hernandez, Prudencio. . 

Hernandez, Tiburcio. 

Ibarra, Joaquin. 

Lopez, Pedro. 

Merodio, Pedro Diaz. 

Peralta, A. 

Porras, Julian. 

Riquelme, Pedro. 

Rivera, Basilic. 

Rivera, Sabino. 

Rojino y Ca., Arcadio. 

Rojino y Ca., Ricardo. 

Rodriguez, Plutarco. 

Romero, Joaquin. 

Saldafia, Joaquin. 

Tejeda, Manuel. 

Tentones y Ca. 

Toledano, Angel. 

Valdivia, Ignacio. 

Vivanco, Antonio. 

Zello, Francisco T. 
Hardioare. 

Avila, Jos6 M. 

Bello yCa., Fr.J. 

Blanco, Bonifacio. . 

Brando, Juan. 

Carmona, Patricio. 

Carrillo, Hnos. 

Islas, Rafael. 

Liguori y Ca., Francisco. 

Lopez, Epitacio. 

Mercadanti, Juan. 

Merino, Rafael. 

Minchaque, Juan. 

Ojeda, Encamacion. 

Perez, Felipe. 

Teilhe, Francisco. 

Vega, Jos6 Sanchez. 
Hatters. 

Beltran, J066. 

Camarillo, Francisco. 
Housefumishing goods. 

Buendia, Luis. 

Maflon, Abraham. 

Rosette, Amado. 
Iron and ironware. 

Cravillo, Borrego y Ca. 

Liguori y Ca., Francisco. 
Lithographer. 

Gk>nzalez, Juan O. 



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ORIZABA, VERAGBTTZ—Continued. 

Lumber dealers. 
Castillo, Antonio. 
Cortez, Maria Guadalupe. 
M&rmol, Fabian del. 

Machinery. 

Fougeras, Pedro. 
Grosse, Te6fllo. 
Hernandez, MigueL 
Liguoriy Ca.,F. 
Pimentel, L. 
Vivanco y Estevez. 

Merchants, wholesale (general merchandise). 
Aguilar, Juan. 
B&rranco, Gabriel. 
Camarillo y Teller. 
Fernandez, Castro. 
Jaramillo, Ismael. 
Mazon Hermanos. 
Sota, Isidoro. 
Vitorero, E. 

Music store. 

Oropeza, Alfredo. 

Paper. 

Escandon 6 hijos, Guadalupe A. de. 
Photographers. 

Castillo, Manuel. 

Diaz, Lucio. 
JPrinting offices. 

Aguilar, Juan C. 

Franck, Pablo. 

Gonzalez, Juan. 

Hosete, Margarita. 
Saddlery and harness. 

CerriUo, Miguel. 

Cueto, Ignacio. 

Martinez, Antonio. 

Perez, Manuel. 

Solis, Anastasio. 
Seiving machines. 

Islas, Ruperto. 
Sugar merchants. 

Bringas, Jos6 Maria. 

Gargollo y Parra. 

Guevara, M. 
Undertaker. 

Grosse, Te6ftlo. 
Watches and jewelry. 

Arenjo, Andrfis A. 

Mayor, Jos6 Maria. 

Palacios, Felix. 



PACHUCA, HIDALGO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Alvarez, Jos6 Reyes. 

"El Bazar.*" 

Guridi y Giese. 

"La Ciudad de Mexico." 

Maquivar y Ca. 
Bankers. 

Aguirre, Trinidad. 

Duarte y Ca., Julian P6rez. 

Gomez, Adelberto. 

Jari, Jaime. 

Lan4ero y Ca., J. de. 

Wells, Fargo «fe Co. * 
Booksellers. 

Pastrana, Evaristo. 

El Instituto Literario. 

Zuverano, Jos6. 
Boots and shoes. 

Badillo Carmona de. * 

Castelazo, Conrado. 

Corchado, Gumesindo. 

Garcia, Lorenzo. 

Garcia, Vicente. 

Guzman, Gertrudis. 

Hermosillo,Crisanta de. 

Hidalgo, Soteral. 

Maldonado, Antonio. 

Maldonado, Pablo. 

Mug4s, Trinidad. 

Ponce, Vicente. 

Rodrigues, Antonio. 

Soto, Librado. 

Zendejas, Pedro. 

Zepeda, Sostenes. 
China and glassware. 

Kahn y Hermanos, Felix. 
Commission merchants. 

Duarte y Ca., J. Perez. 

Hernandez. Alejandre (sale by sample). 
Drug stores. 

"Botica Martinez Elizondo." 

"Botica Mexicana.**' 

Conteras, Angel. 

Corral y Navarro. 

"De Dolores," Felipe Guerrero, 

"De la Providencia." 

"El Refugio," Felipe Guerrero. 

"Farmacia Modema.*" 

Lescalle, Fernando. 

Moreno, Norberto. 

Montenegro, Jos6. 
Dry goods and notions. 

Alf aro, Ramon. 

Bloch, Maurice. 



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FACHTJCA, HIDALGO— Continued. 

Dry goods and tio^/ona— Continued. 
Bonavit Hermanos. 
"Cajon Mexicano." 
*'E1 Puerto de Liverpool.'' 
"EI Importador." 
Escudero, Fernando. 
Escudero hi jo y Ca., Fernando. 
Garcia, Alejandro. 
Gutierrez, Francisco. 
Julien Hermanos. 
"La Reforma del Comercio." 
"La Francia Marltima." 
Lambert y Gamier. 
Mercheyer Hermanos. 
Sangier y Ca. 

Dry goods (cloths and tailoring). 
Aguilar, Mariano. 
Castro, J086 Martinez. 
Chavarria, Valentin. 
Escudero, Fernando. 
Gk>nzalez, Antonio. 
Imbert y Mauriso. 
Langier, Juan. 
Mecheyer Hermanos. 

Fancy goods. 

Bo'^avit Hermanos. 

Cacho y Ca. 

"El Bazar." 

Guridi y Giese. 

"La Ciudad de M6xico." 

Marquivar y Ca. 
Flour merchants 

Gareia, Albino. 

Hernandez, Albino. 

Leon, Rufugio. 
Furniture. 

Guerrero, J. 

Hernandez, Felix L. 

Herrera, Felix. 

Rivera, Gregorio 
Groceries and provisions. 

Alvarez, Reyes. 

Boule, Viuda de Antonio. 

Cacho y Ca., Francisco. 

Cravioto, Manuel. 

"El Navlo Mercante." 

Estrada, Felipe. 

Gonzalez, Angel. 

Gonzalez y Ca., J., Sue. 

"La Antigua Sevillana.'^ 

Maquivar y Ca. 

TafoUa, Antonio. 

Urquijo, Gabriel. 
57A 22 



PACHUCA, HIDALGO— Continued. 

Hardware. 

" El Bazar." 

Guridi y Giese. 

Islas, Vicente Ignacio. 

"La Abeja." 

" La Ciudad de M6xico," 

Maquivar y Ca. 
Hatters. 

Lira, Miguel. 

Vargas, Juan. 
Jewelers and watchmakers, 

Andrade, Arelia. 

Bonavit Hermanos. 

Cervantes, Luis. 

Gonzalez, Fernandez. 

Kahn Hermanos, Felix. 

" La audad de Paris." 

Pefia, Francisco. 

Reina, Vidal. 

Soria, Julian. 
Lithographer. 

Camacho, Refugio. 
Lumber merchants. 

Diaz, Rodriguez, 

Hidalgo, Mat6o. 

Rozales, Francisco. 
Paints and oils. 

"El Bazar." 

Gamica, C&rlos P. 

Islas, Ignacio. 

Nava, Justo Pastor, 

Robles, Antonio. 

Seguri, Luis. 
Pianos, organs, etc. 

Aguilar, I. 

Montenegro, I. 

Rodriguez, M. 
Pr inting offices. 

Camacho, Refugio. 

" El Explorador." 

"DelProgreso." 

Imprenta del Gobiemo. 

" Imprenta Econ6mica." 

Pasco, Guillermo. 
Saddlery and Harness. 

Carpintero, Roman. 

Espinola, Refugio. 

Lopez, Luis. 
Sewing machines. 

Kahn Hermanos, Felix. 

PENJAMO, GTTANAJT7AT0. 

Banks and bankers. 

Agenda del " Banco Nacional." 

Agenda del " Banco de L6ndres y Mexico. ■• 

ViUasefior Hermanos. 



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MEXICO. 



PENJAMO, 6TTANAJT7AT0— Continued. 

Commission merchants. 

Magafia, Julio. 
Drugs. 

Covamibias, Gregorio N. 

Qarciduefias, Gregorio N. 
Dry goods. 

Alvarez, Raraon. 

Echeveria y Cestan, 8inf oriano. 

Ocejo y Ca., Adolf o. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Alvarez, Ramon. 

Arredondo, Federico. 

Bardomiano, Navarro y Ca. 

Herrera, Juan. 

Orijel, Tiburcio. 

Prado, Buenaventura. 

Rios, Mariano. 
Printing office. 

Magafia, Julio. 
Sewing machines. 

Maga&a, Julio. 

FINOS, ZACATECA8. 

Carria>ges. 

Garza, G^naro. 
Zapata, Alejandro. 

Drug stores. 

" Botica del Comercio." 

" Botica de San Luis." 
Groceries and provisions and general merchan- 
dise. 

Arellano, Isabel. 

Arellano. Pioquinta. 

Delgado, Antonio. 

Garza, Genaro. 

Martinez y Hermano, Camilo. 

Navarro, Jos6 E. 

Santillanes, Florencio. 

Villasefior, Narciso. 

Villasefiory Hno., Antonio. 

Villasefior, Francisco de P. 
Printing office. 

Villasefior, Francisco de P. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Ruiz, Clemente. 
Setoing machines. 

Rojas, Simon G. 
Silk goods. 

Sema, Angel. 

FB0OBE80, YUCATAK. 

Banker. 

Haro y Ca. 



PEOGEESO, YUCATAH— Continued. 

Boots and shoes. 

Aguilar, Donato. 
Commission merchants. 

Acevedo, J. 

.Ancona, N. 

Barrera y Sandoval. 

Canton, Francisco. 

Di^go y Ca., A. Cano. 

Luis, F. 

Marin, NicoU y Ca. 

liiena, Daniel P. 

Novelo y Ca. 

Regil y Vales. 

Drugs. 

Capetillo, Pedro. 

Marin, Rafael Perez. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Acevedo, Justo. 

Barrera, Alejandro. 

Barrera y Sandoval. 

Marin, Nicoli y Ca. 

Molina y Ca., O. 

Novelo y Ca., Luis F. 

Ramos, Leon. 

Rivas Hnos. 

Sabido, Ignacio. 

Sierra, Clemente. 
Importer of fancy goods, furniture, etc. 

Crasemann, Succ., J. 
Printing office. 

Moreno, Domingo Canton. 

FUEBLA, FUEBLA. 

Acids and chemicals. 

Ibafiez y Lamarque. 

Manuel, Mena. 
Agricultural implements. 

Acedo 6 Hijos. 

Sommer, Herrmann yCa. 

Siuuner y Compa. John M. 

Valdez, Dario. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Centurion, Manuel 

Donaciano, Leon. 

Donaciano, Ruiz. 

Dorenberg y Ca., J. 

Glockner y Ca. 

Morroquin, Manuel. 

Sommer, Herrmann yCa. 

Banks and bankers. 

Sucursal del Banco Nacional. 

Sucursal del Banco de L6ndre8 y Mexico. 

Bauer y Ca. 



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FXJEBLA, PUSBIA— Continued. 

Banks and ftanfccra— Continued. 

Berkembuch Hnos. 

Conde, Manuel. 

ContoUen y Ca. 

Femachon, B. 

Galindo y Galindo. 

Gavito 6 Hijo, F. 

Gutierrez Palacios, Vicente. 

Hernandez, A. 

Hidalga, Vicente. 

Pacheco, Joaquin. 

Perez, Felix. 

Saldivar, J086 Maria. 

Teruel, Manuel. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Anj3^o, Alberto. 

Aspuru, Bernardino de. 

Barros, Manuel Espino. 

Baslois, Nacriso. 

B&ur, C&rlos. 

Be/?uerisse, Enrique. 

Eizaguirre, Lorenzo. 

Galindo y Bezarez, Manuel. 

Gallegos, Antonio. 

Lain^, Ramon. 

Lara, Pantaleon. 

PazyPuente, Francisco. 

Senties, Francisco. 

Tagle, Carlos. 

Tagle, Mat6o. 

Villegas, Jos6 Maria. 
Boots and shoes. 

Arce, Dorot6o. 

Amaud y Sailer. 

Bello, Manuel. 

Baes, Guadalupe. 

Bueno, AngelR. 

Corro, Isidro. 

Diaz, Jos6 de J. 

Domerq, Pedro. 

Franco, Alejandro. 

Gomez, Alberto. 

Gomez, Nicol&s. 

Gonzaga, Luis Ramirez. 

Lozano, Lficio. 

Manzano, Hilario. 

Mateos, LuisC. 

Ochoa. Rafael. 

Perez y Ca. 

Perez, Jos6 Maria. 

Vieja, Aduana. 
Carriages. 

Angulo, Jos6 de J. 

Brito, J. M. 

Camacho, Cecelio. 



PTJEBLA, FTJEBLA— Continued. 

Carriage*— Continued. 

Delgado, Mariano. 

Golzarri, Elenterio. 

Gutierrez, J086 M. 

Pastor, Manuel. 

Rodriguez, Antonio. 

Valenzuela, Reyes. 
China and glassware. 

Banuelos, Miguel. 

Colombres, Eduardo. 

Dorenberg y Ca., J. 

Fernandez, Mariano. 

Fernandez y Ca., Cenobria. 

Lopez, Francisco. 

Oropeza, Jos6 Maria. 

Palacios, Antonio. 

Peredo, Suarez. 

Rojos, Manuel. 

Romero, Hilario. 

Toguera, Miguel. 
Church furnishings. 

Cardoso, Vicente de P. 

Haller y Glawatz. 
Commission agents {sale by sample). 

Peemans y Marron. 

Salles, Amaud. 

Sumner y Ca., John M. 

Vazquez. Dorot6o. 
Commission merchants. 

Arrioja, Adolfo. 

Arrioja, Gustavo. 

Baur, C&rlos. 

Blanco, Jos6. 

Calderon, Adolfo. 

Calderon, M. M. 

Daza, Manuel G. 

Fernandez y Ca., Mariano. 

Franco, Zeperino. 

Garcia, Luis Tesnel. 

Gollado, Jos6 Maria. 

Garrido, Miguel. 

Gomez, J. Marfa. 

Larrasilla, Rafael. 

Machorro, J086 de J. 

Maldonado, Manuel. 

Manzano, Eduardo. 

Meza, Luis Bemado. 

Mier, Antonio S. 

Montiel, Miguel. 

Morales, Bemab6. 

Molina, Te6filo. 

Olavarietta, J. M. 

Ortiz, Barbollu. 

Perez, Salazar. 

Pineda, Andres. 



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MEXICO. 



PUEBLA, PUEBLA— Continued. 

Commission merchants— Continued. 
Quintana, Carlos. 
Ramirez, Enrique. 
Range!, Pablo. 
Rojano, Rafael. 
Rosales, Jos6 Librador. 
Sanchez, Jos6 Marfa. 
San Martin, Marcelo. 
Serrano, Francisco. 
Thomas, Manuel. 
Thomas 7 Teran, M. 
TumbuU, Guillermo. 
Vasquez, Dorot6o. 
Von der Beck y Ca. 
Zambrano, Jos6 Maria. 
Zamora, Miguel. 
Zufliga, C&rlos. 

Druggists. 

Andif red, Matia de J. 

Arrioja, Delflno. 

Arrioja, Joaquin. 

Barrios, Jos6 M. 

Barros, C&rlos E. 

Bautista y Ca., Paulino. 

Bequerisse, Pedro. 

Bequerisse, Santiago. 

Botello y Ca. 

Botica de San Francisco. 

Botica de Santa Maria. 

Cal, Marcus. 

Campus, Luis. 

Carrasco, Vibriano. 

Castillo, R6mulo. 

Coriche, Guadalupe. 

Crespo, Luis. 

Diaz, Pl&cido B. 

" Drogueria Universal." 

Encinas, Gregrorio. 

Fernandez, Antonio. 

Gil, Antonio. 

Gomez, R, 

Gonzalez, Pascual. 

Hanez, J. 

Ibanez y Lamarque, Joaquin. 

Inchaguaregui, Luis. 

Inchaurregui, V. 

Lamarque, G. 

Maldona, Manael M. 

Mariscal y Ca. 

Moreno, M. 

Rangel, Angel. 

Reinal Jos6. 

Rodriguez, Rafael. 

Rojano, Aguiles. 

Rojano, Nicolas. 



PUEBLA, PUEBIA— Continued. 

Dne^/flrwte— Continued. 
San Martin, M. 
Suarez, Deodora. 
Torquero, J. 

Dry goods. 

AvendaHo, P. A. 

Ballo y Cabrero. 

Benitez y Hermanos. 

Benito yCa.,C. 

Chaix, Pedro. 

Charles, C&rlos. 

Conde, Manuel. 

Dichel y Ca. 

"El Puerto de Liverpool." 

Garcia, P. 

Gavito e Hijo. 

Guthiel, y Ca. 

Gutierrez y Palacios. 

Haller y Glawatz. 

"La Independencia." 

"Las F&bricas Universales." 

Lions Hnos. 

Lopez, A. 

Lopez, Santos L. 

Matienzo, Juan. 

Mora, Rafael. 

Ortiz y Hnos., Borpillo. 

Peon, Manuel. 

Perenz y Ca., Hernando. 

Perez, Felix. 

Quijano, Alberto. 

Rivero, Ignacio. 

Rosales, Antonio. 

Serrano, Francisco L. 

Sevilla 6 Hijos, J. N. 

Teruel, Manuel. 

Velasco Hnos. 

ViUaret y J)uttner. 

Watermeyer, German. 
Engravers. 

Herrera, Manuel. 

Nev6, Tomas. 

Fancy goods and notions. 
Arce, M. 
Arrioja, J. de. 
Arrioja y Valverde, E. 
Azla, B. 

Benitez, Ricardo. 
Cardoso Hnos. 
Chaiz Hnos. 
Diehl y Ca. 
Dorenbergy Ca., J. 
Lyons y Ca. 
Moreno y Ca. 



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MEXICO. 



297 



FUEBLA, FTJEBLA— Continued. 

Flour and Com milla. 

.Amaniscar, Francisco. 

Avalos. Aurelio. 

Baez y Ca., C&rlos. 

Benitez, Miguel. 

Benitez, Emilio. 

Conde, Francisco. 

Diaz, Francisco. 

Furlong, Tomas. 

Gavito 6 Hijo, Florencio. 

Gil, Hernandez. 

Gonzalez, P. M. 

Haqu6t, Juan. 

Islas, Lauveano. 

Larre, Tomas. 

Latorre, Tomas. 

Leblanc. A. 

Lopez. Clemente. 

Mauret Hnos. 

Miez, Sebastian. 

Montlel,A. 

Pardo, S. 

Perez, Juan. 

Rofray, J086. 

Rosa, Francisco de la. 

Teruel, M. Garcia. 

Tuta,Jos6de J. 

Vellegas, P. 

Villegas. Eduardo. 

Zfifiiga, Berges de. 
Flour merchants. 

Beyes, Trinidad. 

Calderon, Becerra Manuel. 

Calderon, Manuel Macias. 

Charles, Mariano. 

Diaz, Francisco. 

Lara, PascuaL 

Toquero, Miguel. 

Torija, Luis. 
Foundries. - 

Acedo, Fauesto. 

Esparragoza, Miguel. 

Lopez, Francisco. 

Marshall, Tomas. 

Rivera, Jos6 Diaz. 

Toquero, J. 
Furniture. 

Aguilar Hnos., J. 

Aguilar, Jos6 M. 

Alvarado, Gabriel. 

Arana, M. de la Luz. 

Arraiga, Joaquin. 

Baces, J. de L. 

Baez, Jos6. 

Bueno, J086. 



FTJEBLA, PUEBLA— Continued. 

If^mi^Mrc— Continued. 

Cano, Vicente. 

Castillo, Juan. 

Costo, Jos6. 

Denetro, Francisco. 

Domingo, Anastasio. 

Dorenberg y Ca., J. 

Fajardo, Mignel. 

Fernandez, Francisco. 

Gomez, Andr6s. 

Gk>nzalez, Andr6s. 

Guevara, Francisco. 

Guevara, J. 

Guevara, J. de J. 

Gutierrez, Santiago. 

Huesca, J. 

Lara, F|bncisco. 

Leroux, Juan. 

Lopez, Albino. 

Manzano, Jos6 Maria. 

Martinez, A. 

Medina, Guadalupe. 

Mendez, Jos6 M* 

Pacheco, Claro. 

Pavon, Miguel. 

Ramos, Juan. 

Reyes, Francisco. 

Rio, Juan Pablo del 

Rosano, Jorge. 

Rosano, Luis. 

Rosario, Jorge. 

Sanchez, Francisco. 

Sanchez. Ignacio. 

Sanchez, Rafael. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Valdes, Claudio. 
Qas fixtures, lamps, etc. 

Bueno, Jos6. 

Castillo, Juan. 

Fajardo, Miguel. 

Fernandez, Francisco. 

Lopez, Albino. 
. Martinez, A. 

Medina, Guadalupe. 
* Mendez, Jos6 M. 

Ramos, Juan. 

Reyes, Francisco. 
OUiss and crockery. 

Banuelos, Miguel. 

Fernandez, Cenobio. 

Fuentes, G. de M. 

Oropeza, Mariano. 

Palacios, Miguel. 

Paluisee, Javier. 

Rojas, Manuel. 



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MEXICO. 



FUEBLA, PUEBLA — Continued. 

Glas8 and crockery— Cktntinued. 

Santillana, J066 de J. 

Toquero. Miguel. 

Vanden Bussche y Ca. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Acevedo, Bernardo. 

Conde y Coslo. 

Diaz, Manuel P6rez. 

Garcia Hnos. 

Hernandez, Viuda de. 

Linage, Pedro. 

Mendoza, Guillermo. 

Moreno y Hno., Rafael. 

Paz y Puente, Joaquin. 

Pereda, Casto. 

Ponce, J086 de J. 

Quevedo Hnos. 

Quintana, E. 

Rubin, Eugenio Mier. 

Rubin, Jos6 Diaz. 

Rugerio, Rafael. 

Sanchez y Hno., F. 

Valdez, Tom&s. 

Valverde, Eduardo. 
Hardware^ cutlery, and tools. 

Blumenkron y Bravo. 

Charles, CArlos. 

Qarcla, Paz. 

Gloclcaer y Ca. 

Guthiel y Ca. 

Lopez, Antonio. 

Lopez, Francisco. 

Martinez, Manuel. 

Paz y Puente, Francisco. 

Rosales, Antonio. 

Ruiz, Miguel. 

Sommer Herrmann y Ca. 

Traslosheros, Francisco. 
Hatters. 

Carcaflo, Margarito. 

Esmenjaud y Couttolenc. 

Gonzalez, Jos6 Pellon. 

Gonzalez, Jos6 Ma. C. 
Hides, wholesale, 

Acho, R. 

Arrioja, Francisco. 

Barriga, Leonardo. 

Beiran, Garcia. 

Domerge, Teresa. 

Gomez y Ca., Nicolas. 

Martinez, Bemabe. 

Montiel, Jos4 Maria. 

TumbuU, Strybos y Mora. 
House furnishing goods. 

Careaga, Jos6 Maria. 

Cisneros, Agustin. 



FUEBLA, PUEBLA — Continued. 

House furnishing 90oc(«— Continued. 
Cisneros, Rafael. 
Cueto, Manuel. 
Medina, J. 
Reyes, Francisco. 

Importers. 

Baur, Carlos (books, statiouery, scientific ap- 
paratus). 

Beguerisse, Enrique (books and stationery). 

Benito y Ca., C. (clothing, especially knitted 
goods and cassimeres). 

Dorenberg y Ca., J. (fancy goods, furniture, 
chinaware, musical instruments). 

Drogueria UniFersal (drugs). 

Faure y Ca., Augustin (conserves and comes- 
tibles). 

Haller y Glawatz (dry goods, articles of lux- 
ury, church furnishings). 

Ibaflez y Lamarque (drugs). 

Ifiigo Hermanos (groceries and liquors). 

Sommer, Herrmann y C^. (machinery, hard- 
ware, fancy goods, paints and oils, pianos). 

Sumner & Co., John M. (agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery). 

Iron and ironware. 

Lopez, Francisco. 

Rivera, Jos6 D. 
Jewelers and uxitchmctkers. 

Anzures, Rafael. 

Berestain. 

Blumenkron, Bravo. 

C^arretero, Francisco. 

Espinosa, Manuel. 

Gauthier, Julio. 

Glackner y Ca. 

Guerrero 6 Hijo, Felix. 

Guerrero, J. 

Herchman, C&rlos. 

Jacobi, Rodolf o. 

'* La Ciudad de Paris." 

Liar, Jos6 M. 

Marroquin, Manuel. 

Mendivil y CJa. 

Mora, Jos6. 

Ochoa,Jos6. 

Ochoa, Juan. 

Otafies, Rafael. 

Palacios, Miguel, 

Patifio, Eduardo. 

Pedraza y Hno. 

Perret, Federico. 

Ramirez, C&rlos. 

Rangel, Nestor, 

Ruiz, Feliciano. , 

Ruiz, J. 



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MEXICO. 



299 



FUEBLA, FUEBIA— Continued. 

Jietcelers and watchmakers— Coatmued. 
Shiverer, Andr6s. 
Soriano, Ignacio. 

Joint stock company. 

Compaflfa de Alumbrado el6ctrico. 

LitJiographera. 

Campomanes y Ca. 
Gtonzalez, Juan. 
Osorio, JO86 M. 

irtAwfter merchants. 

Berkemburchs, Jorge. 
Fernandez, Francisco. 
Ferrer, Oabriel. 
Freyria, Enrique. 
Friera,Eduardo. 
Garcia, Eduardo. 
Ibarra, Fernandez. 
Leon, Justo. 
Falafoz, Teod6ro. 
Pastor, Manuel. 
Traslosheros, Francisco. 

Mcbchinery. 

Alatorre, C&rlos B. 
Gutheil y Ca. 
Resales y Doremberk. 
Valdes, Domingo. 

Mtisic stores. 

Bueno, Benjamin R. 
Dorenberg y Ca., J. 
" EI Camino de Hierro." 
Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

I^aints, oilSj etc. 

Bueno, Benjamin R. 
" El Vesubio." 
Garcia, Paz. 

Hernandez, Francisco J. 
Huerta, Jos6 M. 
" La Esperanza." 
*'La Industria." 
Lopez, J086 Andres. 
Lozado, Luis del Carmen. 
Mayorga, Mariano. 
Morales, Francisco. 
Olivares, C&rlos M. 
Padilla, Castulo. 
Padilla, Cayetano. 
Pavon 6 Hijoe, A. 
Paz y Puente, Francisco. 
Peralta, Ignacio. 
Sommer, Hemnium y Ca. 

Paper. 

Lara, MimueL 



FUEBLA, PUEHIA— Continued. 

Photographers. 
Barreal, Jos^. 
Becerril, Lorenzo. 
Cabrera, Abraham. 
Del Monte Hnos. 
Gerciu, Benito. 
Lobato, Emilio Q. 
Martinez, Joaquin. 
Pacheco, J. 

Pianos and organs. 
Cuevas, Jos6. 
Espinosa, D. 
Gracidas, Felipe. 
Olmedo, Felix. 
Polo, Agustin. 
Romero, Jos6 M. 
Velazquez, Francisco 

Printing offices. 
Alarcon, Pedro. 
Angulo, Alberto. 
Bochler, Isidore. 
Boctar, M. 
Campomanes y Ca. 
Corona, Miguel. 
Franco, J086 de J. 
Gonzalez, J. 
Imprenta del Colegio. 
Imprenta del Gobierno. 
Irapr nta del Hospiclo. 
Imprenta y Litograf la. 
Lara, Benjamin. 
Macias, Ismael. 
Martinez, Joaquin. 
Moneda, Ignacio. 
Neve, TomAs. 
Ortiz, Dario. 
Osorio, J086 M. 
Pastor, Miguel. 
Pita, Joaquin. 
Romero, Isidro. 
Ruiz, Francisco. 

Saddlery and Jiamets. 

Coeto, Manuel. 

Dovantes, Antonio. 

Franco, Herhndo. 

Juarez, Juan Joh^. 

Lopez, Est^ban. 

Medina, Jo«^ M. 

Sanchez, Ignacio. 

Tellez y Hno.. Efir. 

TumbuU, ARierto M. 
Sewing machiwJt. 

Anzure«(, Hafa<;l. 

CU>kner y OiOturUm. 



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MEXICO. 



PUEBLA, PTJEBLA—Continued. 



Seicing machines— Continued. 
Corn y Ca., Guillemio. 
GutheilyCa., Agustin. 
Lopez, Antonio. 
Marroquin, Manuel. 
Rosales, Antonio. 
Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 
Voier8yCa.,S. H. 

SUk goods. 

" El Hilo de Oro." 

"LaParisiense." 

"LaVioleta." 

Luna, J. M. Ramos. 

" Paragueria Francesca." 

Bfeyes, Eugenio. 

Silversmiths. 

Antigua Platerf a Alvarez. 
Guerrero, Felix. 
Guerrero, J. 
PatiHo, A. 
Patiflo, Eduardo. 
Ruiz, Agustin. 

Tailoring eitablishm,ent8. 
" Bella Jardinera.'' 
Cortez, Vicente. 
"ElSurtidor." 
Lara, Jos6. 
Marquez y Hno., P. 
Pinero, Manuel. 

Sugar merchants, 

Colosia, M. 

niescas, Rafael. 

Marron y Ca. 

Ramora, R. 
Undertaker. 

Rio, Juan Pablo del. 
Upholstery^ carpets^ etc. 

Guevara, Jos6 de J. 

Pacheco, Claro. 

PUEBTO DE MANZANULO, COUMA. 

Agricultural implements. 

Ruiz, Ponciano. 
Boots and shoes. 

Ruelas, Serapio. 
Commission merchants. 

Ruiz, Ponciano. 

Seuthe, Othon. 
-Drugrs. 

Ochoa, A, 

Ruiz, P. 



PUinO DE BCAHZAHILLO, COUMA— Ck)nt'd. 

Dry goods. 

Padilla, Teoddro. 

Ruiz, Ponciano. 

Solorzano, Fernando. 
Furniture. 

Cardenas, O. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Padilla, Teod6rb. 

Ruiz, Ponciano. 

Seuthe, Othon. 
Merchants. 

Corona, Agustin (paper). 

Gregor, Vicente (watchmaker). 

Ochoa, Adalberto (acids and chemicals). 

Ochoa, Luis (cloths). 

Ruiz, Ponciano (stationery, general mer- 
chandise.) 

Solorzano, Juan (saddlery and harness). 

PUERTO MULEG^ IX)WEB CALIFOSNIA. 

Banker. 

Navarro, Francisco. 
Boots and shoes. 

Alvarez, Miguel. 

Gonzalez, Gabriel. 

Rojas, Margarito. 
Carriages. 

Gonzalez. Antonio. 

Drugs. 

Rodriguez, Vidal. 

NuHo, J. E. 
Dry goods. 

Benson, Oton. 

Fierro, Cruz. 

Fierro, Mauricio. 

Gamez, Genova. 

Gorosave, Vicente. 

Irigoyen, Ramon. 

Nuflo, J. E. 

Ozuna, Est^ban. 
Fancy goods. 

Fierro, Mauricio. 

Gamez, Genovevo. 

Gorosave, Vincente. 

Nufio, C4rl08 J. 
Furniture. 

F61ix,Hijinio. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Benson, Oton. 

Gamez, G. 

Fierro, Mauricio, 

Gorasave, Vicinte. 

Irigoyen, Ramon. 



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MEXICO. 



301 



PUEBTO MULEO^ LOWER CALXFOBITIA- 

Ck)ntinued. 

Hatte^. 

Villavicencio, Quadalupe. 

Jewelry. 

Gamez, Genovevo. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Jordan, Fernando. 

Rosas, Francisco. 
Seuoing machines. 

Gamez, G. 

aUEBETABO, aUEB^TABO. 

Agricultural implements. 
Gonzalez y Ca. 
Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Arms and ammunition. 
Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Viuda 6 hijos de Solorio. 
Banks and hankers. 

Agencia del "Banco Nadonal." 
Arias, Andrfis G. 
MacGregor,L.R. 
Monf ort, Sinecio. 

Sucursal del "Banco de L6ndre8 y M6xico.' 
Ugalde, Baltasar R 
Booksellers and stationers. 
Chavez Sue. 
Gonzalez y Ca. 
Gonzalez, Jos6. 
Ibarra, Guadalupe. 
Parres, Jos6. 
Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Boots and shoes. 
Balandra, Ignacio. 

Diaz, Hllarion. 

Dominguez, Alberto. 

Galan, Cenobio. 

Gomez, Eulalio. 

Moreno, Casimiro. 

Mufioz, Manuel. 

SaldaQa, Antonio. 
Carriages. 

Leon, Benito. 

Leon, Eulalio D. 

Ramos, Benigno. 

Trejo, Alejandro. 
China and glassware. 

Alday, Manuel. 

Arias, Andr6s G. 

Gonzalo, Antonio. 

Desidero y Ca. , Rosendis. 

Loyola, Antonio. 



QTJES^TABO, QTJEIt£TASO.— Continued. 

China and glassware— Continaed. 
Loyola, Ramon. 
Mendez, Jos6 M. 
Rivera, Jos6M. 

Clothing. 

Arnaud y Martel. 
Irdrac,Te6filo. 
Marcel, Dionisio. 
Mayrant y Richaud. 
Mendez 6 Hijos. 

Commission merchants. 
Arias, Andr6s G. 
Arnaud, Agustin. 
Contreras, hws G. 
Rivera, Jos6 M. 
Trejo, Pablo. 
Ugalde, Baltasar R 

Drugs. 

Aguirre, Jos6. 
Amulf o, Miguel. 
Carmona, Juan. 
Carrillo, Gabriel. 
Cobo, Manuel. 
Diaz.Aurelio. 
Gonzalez y Ca. 
Guerrero y Hno., Alberto. 
JaureguI.F.de. 
"La Ver6nica." 
Makomilk, Pedro. 
Marroquin, F. 
Rodriguez, Francisco. 
Rodriguez, Ramon. 
Ruiz, Aurelio. 
Septien y Montafio. 
Velasco, Jos6. 
Vera.Esteban. 
Dry goods. 

Arnaud, Agustin. 
Balbos, Francisco. 
C6rdo va y Hno. , J. 
Maciel, Dionisio. 
Martin y Ca., Arturo V. 
Ruiz y Campos. 

Ehigravers. 

Balvanera, Teodoro. 
Espinosa,Jos6M. 
LAmbarriy Ca.,M. 
Lira, Silvestre. 

Fancy goods. 

Aguilar, Demetrio. • 
Olvera, Fernando. 
Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Rivera, Jos6M. 
Rosas, Antonio. 



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302 



MEXICO. 



QUERETAEO, aUEBETAEO— Ck)ntmued. 

Fancy flfoods— Continued. 
Vargas, Gregorio. 
Viuda 6 hijos de Solorio. 
Viuda de Rea. 

Flour mills. 

Molino Colorado. 
Molino de Guadalupe. 

Ihirniture. 

Arias, Andres G. 

Carmona, Santiago. 

Gonzalez, Jos6. 

Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Arias, Andr6s G. 

Camacho, Benito. 

Galeana, Ignacio. 

Gorraes, Ventura. 

Loyola, Antonio. 

Resendez y Ca., Dasiderio. 
Hardware. 

Aguilar, Demetrio. 

Gonzalez y Ca., Jos6. 

Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Hatters. 

Corona, Francisco. 

Corona, Pedro. 

Franco, Juan. 

Vazquez, Feliciano. 
Iron and irontoare. 

Arias, Andres G. 

Plagemann, Ricardo J. 

Ugalde, Baltasar R. 
Jewelers. 

Borja, Adolfo. 

Monf ort, Sinecio. 

Sinrob, Emiliano. 
Jewelers and watchmakers. 

Altamirano. 

Esparza, C&rlos. 

Manilla, Nemesio. 

Monfort, Sinecio. 

Pereira, Pedro. 

Richarte, Julian. 

Sinrob, Emiliano. 

Vasquez, Rafael. 
Joint stock company. 

Ferrocarril Urbano de Quer6taro. 
Lithographers. 

Lambarri y Ca. , Miguel M. 
MvMc stores. 
Gonzales y Ca. 
Rivera, Jos6 M. 



QUEB£tABO, aXTABETABO--Contmued. 

Paints^ oils^ etc. 

Aguilar, Demetrio. 
Gonzalez y Ca. 
Plagemann, Ricardo J. 
Reyes, Sevilla. 
Paper. 

Bremer, C&rlos. 
Perfumery. 

Alday, ManueL 

Amaud y Eartel. 

Bastida, Vicente. 

Mendez, Jos6 M. 

Olivera, Melchor. 

Rivera, Jos6 M. 

Torres, Nicolas. 
Photographers. 

Balvanero, Teodoro. 

Flores, Ignacio Mufioz. 

Gomez, Beniguo. 

Ruiz, Antonio. 
Printing offices. 

Frias y Soto, Luciano. 

Gonzalez y Ca. 

Lambarri y Ca. , Miguel M. 
Pianos and organs. 

Arcos,M. 

Mendoza, Trinidad. 

Mosquera, Manuel. 

Romillo, Miguel. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Garcia, Felipe. 

Hernandez, S. 

Molino, Manuel del. 

Perez, Antonio D. 
Silk goods. 

Monfort, Dolores F. de. 

Rea, Porflria. 
Silversmiths. 

Alf aro, J. 

Barbosa y Hno., Agustin. 

Barrera, Evaristo. 

Gonzalez, J. 

Mufioz, Hermenegildo. 

Ojeda,Juan. 

Serrano, J. 

Vega,Jos6. 
Upholstery^ carpets, etc. 

Gonzalez, J. 

Sartiuido, Manuel. 

BOSABIO, snrALOA. 

Merchants. 

Arellano, Lorenzo (carriages). 
Campa, Francisco B. (carriages). 
Chaides, Fortino (hardware). 



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MEXICO. 



303 



BOSABIO, SINAI.OA— Continued. 

Mercfuints— Continued. 

Espinosa, Antonio (drugs). 

Gomez, Catalina M. de (fancy goods). 

Gdemez, Pomposo (dry goods). 

Ibarra, C&rlos (drugs). 

Imana, Federico (hats and notions). 

Navarrette, Angel (groceries). 

Nufiez, Pedro P. (groceries). 

Kegenstein, Juan (.dry goods). 

Ribers, CJarlos S. (drugs). 

Rodriguez, Francisco de A. (furniture, dry 

goods, groceries). 
Tellerfa, Francisco (dry goods). 
Valadez, Vicente (photographer, bookseller 

and commission merchant). 
Valadez y Ca. (printing office). 
Valdez, J. O. (groceries). 
Zasusta, Angel P. (dry goods). 

SALAMAKCA, GXTANAJTIATO. 

Bankers. 

Calzada, Altagracia. 

Martinez, Asuncion. 
Boots and shoes. 

Hernandez, German. 

Mares, Juan. 

Nufies, Serapio. 

Ramirez, Serapio. 

Rivera, Atanasio. 
Clothing and tailoring. 

Garcia, Marcos. 

Rangel, Anecedo. 

Santana y Medina. 
Commission merchants. 

Domezain, Ismael. 

Flores, E. 

Garcia, J. 

Ochoa, 8. 

Portusae, Manuel. 
Drugs. 

** Botica de Guadalupe.'* 

** Botica de la Salud.'' 

*' Botica de la Union.'* 

" Botica de San J086 . " 

Lopez, Florentino. 
Dry goods, 

Casillas, Valentin. 

Flores, Eduardo. 
Flour mills. 

Alvarez, J. 

Garciduefias, Apolonio. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Domenzain y C!a., Ismael. 

Zarandona, Domingo. 



SALAXAKAC, GXTANAJTTATO-'Continued. 

Hatter. 

Oviedo, Valentin. 
Kid glove factories. 

Abo3i»s, Manuel. 

Andaluz, Jos6 M. 

Gampos, Miguel. 

Freyre, Luis. 

(jk>mez, Modesto. 

Vidal, Antonio. 
Manufacturers brass bedsteads. 

Penitenciaria. 

Vargas, Mauro. , 
Photographers. 

Roa, Luciano. 

Villanueva, Refugio. 
Printing offices. 

Aboites, Manuel. 

Domenzain y Ca., Ismael. 

Penitenciaria. 
Seimng machines. 

Romano, J. Alva. 

Stecately, Francisco. 
Silversmiths. 

Blanco, J. 

Garcia, Julio. 

Olivarez, Cirilo. 

SALTILLO, COAHUILA. 

Agricultural implements. 

Hayes, Juan. 

SieberyCa., Clemente. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Sieber y Ca., Clemente. 
Banks and bankers. 

Banco Omercial. 

Piu-cell, Guillermo. 

SoCa, Bernardo. 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Bouret, C. 

Farga, Antonio. 

Fuei^te, Antonio de la. 

Sieber y Ca., Clemente. 
Boots and shoes. 

Agutrre, Antonio. 

Garcia, Juan. 

Martinez y Ca., Ramon. 

Molina, Ascencio. 

Regalado, Toribio. 

Salinas, Felix. 

Sanchez, Juan. 

Valdes, Florencio. 

Valdez, Porflrio. 

Valle, Antonio del. 



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304 



MEXICO. 



SALULLO, COAHUILA— Ck>ntiDued. 

Commission merchants. 

Lopez Hnos. 

Martinez and Woessner. 
(SieberyCa.,C. 
Di-ugs. 

Barreda, Mauricio Q. 

Carothers, J. D. 

Figueroa, Jos6 I. 

Fuente, Sostenes de la. 

Hernandez, Hilario. 

Pena, F. de. 

Rodriguez, J. 

Warremosch, M. 
P}*y goods. 

Mazo Hnos. 

Negrete,Jos6. 

Signoret y Groups. 

Soto, Bernardo. 

Volpe,Donato. 
Fancy goods. 

Hayes, Juan. 

Sieber y Ca., C. 

Flour merchants. 

Arispe y Ramos, Francisco. 

Flores, Gabriel. 

Paurcell, Guillermo. 

Valdes, Juan. 
Flour 'inills. 

Arispe y Ramos, Francisco. 

Barousse, Lezin. 

Flores, Gabriel. 

Leon y Aragon, Ramon de. 
Furniture. 

Blimienthal y Cordt. 

Sieber yCa.,C. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Aguirre, C&rlos. 

Calzada, Eusebio. 

Desommes y Ca., H. V. 

Garza, Marcelino. 

Martinez, Anastasio. 

Negrete, Jos4. 

Purcell, Guillormo. 

Ramos, Ma. 

Rodriguez, D&maso. 

Sota, Bernardo. 
Hardivare and tools. 

Bertanga, A 

Cardenas, Jos6. 

Hayes, Juan. 

Hernandez, Timotheo. 

Moya, Eusebio. 

Muarras, Francisco. 

Myjica, Manuel. 



SALTILLO, CdAHUILA— Continued. 

Hardware and foo?«--Continued. 

Ortiz, Tranquilino. 

Sieber yCa.,C. 

Valverde, Antonio. 
Hatters. 

Hesselbart, C&rlos. 

Palafoz, Angel. 

Signoret y Grou6s. 
House furnishing goods. 

Aguirre, J. 

Alvarado, Juan. 

Cenicero, Gter6nimo. 

Charles, Simon. 

Ortiz, Felipe. 

Rodriguez, Damosa. 

Salinas, Felix Maria. 
Iron and ironware. 

Hayes, J. 

Sieber yCa.,C. 
Jewelers and toatchmakers. 

Camacho, C&rlos. 

Castillo, Juan. 

Flores, C&rlos. 

Pena, Rosa. 

Sieber yCa.,C. 

Urbina, Venturo. 
Lithographer. 

La del Gobierno. 
Lumber dealers. 

Ancira, J. M. Martinez. 

Garcia, Marcellino. 

Lopez, Pablo A. 
Paints^ oils, etc. 

Martinez 6 Hijos, Anjel. 

Sieber yCa.,C. 
Paper. 

Compafila Manufacturera de Papel del Sal- 
tillo. 
Photograpfiers. 

Vazquez Hnos. 

Zertuche, Rub^n. 
Pianos and organs. 

Medrano, Casimiro. 

Villanueva y Fraucesconl. 
Printing offices. 

Cardenas, Mariano. 

Fernandez, Severe. 

Fuentes, Francisco G. 

PeBa, Simon de la. 
Sewing marines. 

BLumenthal, E. 

Hayes, Juan. 

Mazo Hnos. 



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MEXICO. 



305 



BALTJLLOf COAHUILA — Continued. 

Tailoring establishments. 

D&vila, Juan. 

Lopez, Antonio. 

Martinez, Luciano. 
Woods. 

Martinez y Woessner. 

SALVATIEBRA, OXTANAJTIATO. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Fuente, Juan de la. 

Rivera, Francisco L. t 

Martinez, Zacarfas. 
Boots and shoes. 

Barajas, J. 

Gtonzalez, Francisco. 

Hernandez, Ignacio. 
Carriages. 

Coria, J. 
Clothing, hats, etc. 

Bolafios, J. 

Carrera, Hilario H. 

Escobedo, Leandro. 

Fabre, Adolfo. 

Lira, Lucas. 

Miranda, M&ximo. 

Nieto, Rafa61. 
Commission merchants. 

Arias, J. 

Capetillo, Casildo. 

Estrada, Primitive. 

Mendez, Luis G. 

Bamirez, Encamacion. 

Saldaflay Ca., J. 
Drugs. 

Anaya, Luis. 

Ceballos, Antonio. 

Espinosa, Manuel. 

Qomez, Alberto. 

Martinez, Ismael. 

Moreno y Ca., Jos6 LeaL 

Ruiz, Ramon. 

Sanchez, Trinidad. 

Teliberto, Benito S. 
Dry goods. 

Carrera y Hnos., Hilario. 

Fabre, Adolfo. 

Mt^gica, German. 
Flour merchants. 

Argomedo, Juan D. 

Scanlan, Santiago. 
Flour mills. 

Argomedo, Juan D. 

Llamaso, fVancisco* 



SALVAHEBBA, OXTANAJTIATO— continued. 

Oroceries and provisions. 

GK>mez, Alberto. 

Guzman, Francisco. 

Martinez, Zacarias. 

Nieto, Rafa61. 

P6ramo, Francisco. 

Rodriguez, Francisco. 

Sancen, Remigio. 

Soto, J. 
Hardware and house furnishing goods. 

Avil6s, Jos4. 

Balandra, Eugenie. 

Biskamp, Ernesto. 

Guisa, Jos6 M. 

Vargas, Bemabe« 
Hatter. 

Reyes, Pedro. 
Jewelry. 

Coria, Penasal. 

Guisa, Pasenal. 

Reyes, Antonio. 
Lumber dealers. 

Aragon, Vicente. 

Espanza, Juliano. 

Miranda, M&ximo. 
Manufacturer brass bedsteads. 

Figueroa, J. 
Mills. 

Argumede, Juan D. 

Ayala, Luis. 

Campos, Francisco. 

Maldonado, Manuel. 

Scanlan, Santiago. 

Soriano, Aniceto. 

Soto, J. 
Printing offices. 

Balandra, Francisco. 

Ruiz, Temoteo. 
Sewing majchines. 

Morens y Ca., J. Leal. 

Rivera, G. M. 

Romano, Alva. 

SAN'BLAS, TEBBITOBIO DE TEPIG. 

Bankers. 

Barron, Forbes & Co. 

Delius y Ca. 

Lanzagorta Hnos. 
Boots and shoes. 

Casillas, Modesto. 

Hernandez, Jos6 Garcia. 
Commission merchants. 

Delius y Ca. 

Garrido, Liberie. 



57A- 



-20 



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3o6 



MEXICO. 



SAN BIAS, TEBSrrOBIO DE TEFIC— Cont'd. 

Commission merchants— Continued 

Horsten, Otto von. 

Lanzagorta Hnos. 
Drugs. 

Flores, B. H. 

Martinez, B. L. 

Bomo, Jos6 M. 
Dry goods. 

Horsten, Otto von. 

Lanzagorta Hnos. 
Fancy goods. 

Horsten, Otto von. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Aguirre, Manuel. 

Bejarano, Juan. 

Delius y Ca. 

Fierros, B. 

Lanzagorta Hnos. 

Lorenzano, E. 

Najar, A. 

Ortiz, P. 

Uribe, F. 

Velazquez, B. 
Importers and exporters. 

Barron, Forbes & Co. 

De'-ius y Ca. 

Menchaca Bros. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Rios, Felix J. 
Sevnng machines. 

Delius y Ca. 

Horsten, Otto von. 

Lanzagorta Hnos. 
Tailor {merchant). 

Garcia, Zacarias. 

SAN CBISTOBAL LAS CASAS, CHIAPAS. 

Bank. 

Banco Nacional (agente: W. Paniagua). 
Boots and shoes. 

Kramsky, Vicente. 

Mendez, Tr4nsito. 

Tobilla, Secundiuo. 
Commission merchants (sale by sample). 

Dorantes, Jimenez y Ca. 

L<^pez, Emerenciano. 
Drugs. 

Paniagua, Wenceslao. 

Pineda y Rodriguez. 

Ramos, Te6filo. 
Dry goods. 

Balboa, Angel. 

Bouifaz, Fernanda. 



SAN CBISTOBAL LAS CASAS, CHIAFA&— 
Ck)ntinued. 

Dry groocf«— Continued. 

Farrera, Vicente. 

Lazos, Agusto. 

Molinari, Angel. 

Paniagua, Wenceslao. 

Ruiz,Jos6 M. 

Ruiz.Tirso. 

Zapata, Francisco. 

Zavaleta, Ezequiel. 
Engraver. 

Ruiz, Mariano N. 
Fancy goods. 

Trujillo, Celso. 
Flour mills. 

" Albarrada." 

"Chamula." 

"Lalsla." 

" Los Arcos." 

" Santo Domingo." 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Bolafios, Francisco Ortiz. 

Dominguez, Adolfo. 

Farrera, Vicente. 

Paniagua, Wenceslao. 
Photographer. 

Zepeda, Buenaventura. 
Printing offices. 

Flores, Novato. 

Imprenta del Gobiemo. 

Pineda, Vicente. 

Salazar, C4rlos. 

Sociedad Cat61ica. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Roman, J. 

Ruiz, Fernando. 
Silversmiths. 

Molina, Celso. 

Ruiz, Abraham. 

Ruiz, Nicasio. 
Tailors {merchants). 

Aguilar, Manuel. 

Ramos, Hermelindo. 

Ramos, Primitivo. 
Watchmaker. 

Ruiz, Mariano. 

SAN JUAN BAUnSTA, TABASCO. 

Arms and ammunition. 

Cahero, Manuel. 
Bankers. 

Berreteaga y Ca., M. 

Bulnes Hnos. 



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MEXICO. 



307 



SAN JUAN BATJTISTA, TABASCO— Cont'd. 

^anfccrs— Continued. 
Jaraet y Sastre. 
Lamadrid, Tomas G. 
Serralta, Salvador. 

Books and stationery. 
Graham, J086 M. 

Commission merchants. 
Bulnes Hnos. 
Merino, Jos6 M. 
Rosas, Justo. 
Suarez Hnos. 

Drugs. 

Ponz, Manuel. 
Serralta, Salvador. 

I>ry goods. 

Arteach y Peral. 

Azuela, Manuel. 

Benito yCa.,G. 

Berreteaga y Ca., M. 

Bueno, Victor. 

Heeres, J086 Fernandez. 

Herm6genes, Cu6. 

Forteza y Ca. 

Lamadrid, Tom&s G. 

Lopez, Becerra y Ca. 

Madrazo, Felipe. 

Pastor y Rodriguez. 

Ripoll y Ca., M. 

Romano y Ca., Sue. 

Trueba, Jos6 G. 

Villaveitia, Ramon. 
Engraver. 

Diaz, Jos6 Sanchez. 
Fancy goods. 

Diaz, Isidoro M. 
Furniture. 

Merino, FroilAn. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Benito y Ca., G. 

Berreteaga y Ca., M. 

Knapp y Ca., E. 

Lopez, Becerra y Ca. 

Pastor y Rodriguez. 

Repoll y Ca., M. 

Roman y Ca., Sue. 
Hardware. • 

Diez, Isidoro M. 
Hatters. 

Galindo, Antonio. 

Nieto, Francisco Morgado 
Music store. 

Kildsen, GuiUo. 



SAN JUAN BAUnSTA, TABASCO— Cont'd. 

Photographs. 

Flor, Manuel de la. 
Printing offices. 

Avalos, Jos6 M. 

Castillo, Amado Hernandez. 

"Imprenta del Gtobiemo." 

Trujillo, Juan S. 
Watchmakers. 

Hunter, David. 

Sanchez, Eulogio. 

Serrano, A. 

SAN JUAN DE OUABALUPE, DUBANOO. 

Agricultural implements. 

Rodriguez, Felipe. 

Saldafia, Bernardo. 
Boots and shoes. 

Aguayo, Atilano. 

Martinez, Florentino. 
Commission merchant. 

Puga, Francisco E. 
Dmgs. 

Aspilcueta, Guillermo. 

Goitia, Jos4 B. 
Dry goods. 

Aguayo, Atilano. 

Botello, Buenaventura. 

Delgadillo Hermanos. 

Garcia, Nicanor. 

Mireles, Eduardo. 

Ortiz, Agustin. 

Puga, Francisco E. 

Ramirez, Ger6nimo. 

Rodarte, Cdstulo. 

Rodriguez, Felipe. 

Saldaiia, Bernardo. 
Fancy goods. 

Rodarte, C&stulo. 
Flour mills. 

Rodriguez, Felipe. 

Saldaiia, Bernardo. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Puga, Francisco E. 

Rodriguez, Felipe. 

Saldafia, Bernardo. 
Merchant tailors. 

AgUero, Bonifacio. 

Esquivel, Deciderio. 

Gonzalez, Apolonio. 

Martinez, Florentino. 
Music store. 

"El Municipal." 



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3o8 



MEXICO. 



SAN JUAN DE GAUDALUPE, DXTBAK 

Continued. 

Serving machines. 

Puga, Francisco E. 
Silveramith. 

Velazquez, Severiano. 

SAN JUAN DE LOS LAGOS, JALISCO. 

Agricultural implements. 
Perez, Francisco Jim6nez. 

Books and stationery. 

Gonzalez, Francisco de P. 

Romo, Rosa. 
Boots and shoes 

Alba, J. de. 

Perez, Pablo. 

Ruiz, Ascencio. 

Torre, C. de la. 
Carriage dealers. 

Jimenez, Modesto. 

Martin, Fidel. 
Commission merchants. 

Galindo, Espiridion. 

Gonzalez, Tirso. 

Martin, Jos6 (sale by sample). 

Torre, Cecilio de la (sale by sample). 
J>rugs, 

Gallardo, Eligio. 

Montero, Cosm6. 
JEhigravers. 

Segoviano, IsabeL 
^ancy goods. 

Martin, Juan N. 
Jhirniture. 

Torre, Felix de la. 

Torre, Ramon de la. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Omelas, Domingo. 
Hatters. 

Sanchez, Arcadio. 

Segoviano, Martin. 
Lithographer. 

Martin, Jos6. 
Manufa4:turers brass bedsteads. 

Anda,Ignaciode. 

Rodriguez, Antonio. 

Rodriguez, Juan. 
Merchant tailors. 

Alba,Rutilode. 

Flores, Miguel. 

Gtonzalez, Manuel. 

Martin, Melqufades. 



SAN JTTAN DE LOS LAGOS, JALISCO- 

Continued. 

Merchant ^attors— Continued. 

Ramos, Pragedio. 

Reynoso, £lis6o G. 
Music stores. 

Leon, Manuel de. 

Rodriguez, Isidoro. 
Photographers. 

Gonzalez, Francisco de P. 

Hermosillo, Francisco. 
Printing ojfflces. 

Martin, Jos6. 

Tortolero, Jos6. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Diaz,Eutimio. 

Perez, Pastor. 
Serving machines. 

Martin, Jos6. 
Silversmiths. 

Alba, Eduardo de. 

Avila, Reyes. 

Flores, Severe. 

Gonzalez, Cruz. 

Leon, Benjamin de. 

Sanchez, Eduardo. 

SAN JTTAN DEL BIO, QUEBtTABO. 

China and glassivare. 

Baaurto, Pascual. 
Commission merchants. 

Fernandez y Gutierrez (sale by sample). 

Sanchez, Felipe (sale by sample). 

Ugalde, A. 

Ugalde, Ignacio V. 
Drugs. 

Covarrubias, L^on. 

Macias, Juan. 

Olloqui, Agustin R. 

Ugadde, Amador E. 
Dry goods. 

Escobar, J. Hurtado. 

Hurtado, Juan. 

Ugalde, Alberto. 

Ugalde, Ignacio V. 
Fancy goods. 

Hernandez, Pablo. 

Hurtado, Juan. 
BT.our mills. 

Cafiizo, Manuel. 

Dorantes, Te6fllo. 

Torre, Manuel de la. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Guadarrama, Guadalupe. 

Ruiz, Joaquin. 

Ugalde, Bernab^. 



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MEXICO. 



309 



SAK JITAN DEL BIO, QUES^ASO^Con- 

tinued. 

Hatter. 

Contreras, Manuel. 
Iron and ironware. 

Uj^alde, Bernab6. 
Merchant tailor. 

Gairido, Ignacio. 
Paints and oils. 

Ugalde, BernaW. 
Printing office. 

Ugalde, Bemab4. 
Sewing machines. 

Garrido, Ignacio. 

SAN LinS DE LA PAZ, OXTANAJTIATO. 

Merchants. 

Arellano, Reyes (merchant tailor). 

" Beneflciadora de Metales '' (joint stock 

company). 
Bustamante, J. (merchant tailor) 
Garbari, Fabian (dry goods). 
Huerta, Antonio (flour mill). 
L6pez, Roberto (sewing machines). 
Martinez, Eleno (drugs). 
Martinez, Juan (merchant tailor). 
Olivares, Francisco (fancy goods). 
Paulin, Juan Flores (drugs). 
Ponce, Santos (silversmith). 
Rangel, Miguel (merchant tailor) 
Salazar, Pedro (merchant tailor) 

SAN LXnS POTOSt SAN LXnS POTOSl 

AgrictUturaJ, implements^ arms and ammunition. 

Clemente, Hermosillo. 

PhilippyCa., Max A. 

Saenger, Fernando. 

Silya, Nemesio. 

Storck y Gnmibrecht. 

Torres, Juan. 
Banks. 

Sucursal del ** Banco de L6ndres y M6zico.'' 

Sucursal del *' Banco Nacional " 
Bankers. 

Bahnsen y Ca., J. H. 

Larrache y Ca., Sue. 

Meadi y Hnos., Federico J. 

Soberon, Matlas Hernandez 
Booksellers. 

Cabrera, Antonio. 

Esquivel y Ca., M. 

Kaiser, Juan. 

Parres, Ramon F. 

Vazquez, Frandsco. 



SAN LUIS FOTOSt SAN LUIS POTOSf- 
Continued. 

Boots and shoes. 
Arochi, Eduardo. 
Borrego, Viuda de. 
Coca, Luis. 
C6rdova, Juan. 
Bsparza, Francisco. 
Izquierdo, Felipe. 
Lopez, Jos6 G. 
Reyes, Manuel. 
Romero, Pomposo. 
SantiUana, A. 

Carriage dealers. 

Rios, C:!asimiro de los. 

Tena, Hilario. 
China and glassware. 

Aguirre y Ca., Luis. ^ 

Deliz, Santiago. 

Gedovius, German. 

Gonzalez, Felipe. 

Gutheil y Ca., Agustin. 

Manrique, H. de Lara. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

Reyes, Antonion. 

Storck y Grumbrecht. 
Commission merchants. 

Camacho, Francisco. 

Cerda, Margarito Lopez de la. 

G6mez, Macedonio. 

Lasker, Julio. 

Meade y Hnos., Federico J. 

Pitman y Ca. 

Rodriguez y Rodriguez. 

Copper goods. 

Bueno, Domingo. 
Mejfa, Juan. 
Vazquez, Ramon. 

Drugs. 

Alcocer, Anastasio. 
Baquero y Ca. 
Crespo, Luis G. 
" Droguerfa Universal.*' 
Goribar, Juan I. Garcia. 
Hermosillo, Mariano. 
Limon, Francisco. 
Lopez, Antonio. 
Mufioz y Fonegra. 
Olmedo, £st6ban. 
Outanon, N. 
Paez, Rafa61. 
Rodriguez y Ca. 
Valdez, Jos4. 
Villasefior, J. M. 



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MEXICO. 



SAN LUIS POTOSt SAN LUIS POTOSi- 

Continued. 
Dry goods. 

Abascal y Ca., Pedro. 

Anda y Villalobos. 

Caire, Michel y Ca. 

Casanueva y Ca. 

Dias de Leon, Jo86. 

Franck y Ca., M. 

Qregorio, Brieva. 

Lozano, Antonio. 

Milriedas y Ca. 

Rivero y Liafio. 

Signoret y Ca. 

VaUe, Qarcf a y Ca. 
Engravers. 

Cenachillo, Pedro. 

Hidalgo, Juan. 

Mufioz, Ramon. 

Fancy goods. 

Aguinre y Ca., Luis. 

Amado, Molino. 

GedoviuB y Unna. 

Gonzalez, Felipe N. 

Gonzalez. Nestor. 

Pedroza, Francisr;o. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

Puente, Homobono. 

Saenger, Fernando. 

Salinas, Andres. 

Storck y Grumbrecht. 
Flour merchants. 

Alcocer, Anastacio. 

Bustamante, Domingo. 

Da Vila, Julio. 

Goribar, Francisco. 

Meade y Hermano, G. 

Otabegui, Jos6 M. 

Othon, Manuel. 

Parra, Cayetano. 
Flour mills. 

Farias, Agustine. 

Goribar, Juan. 

Muriedas y Ca. 

Villalba y Narezo. 
Furniture. 

Aguirre y Ca., Luis. 

Gedovius y Unna. 

Heredia, Manuel. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 
, Schrader 6 hijo, J. H. ' 

Storck y Grumbrecht. 

Weber, Pedro. 
Foundries. 

Schrader 6 hijo, J. M. 

Villalba y Narezo. 



SAN LUIS POTOSt SAN LUIS POTOSf— 
Continued. 

Groceries and provisions. 

Alba, Celedonio. 

Arrieta, Tranquilino. 

CantoUa y Ca. 

Cerda, Margarito Lopez de la 

Chavez, Juan. 

Delgado, FeUciano. 

Diliz Sue, Santiago. 

Felipe, Vicente. 

Galindo, Jos6. 

Galvan, Onofre. 

Hermosillo, Jos6. 

Herrera y Ca. 

Higinio, Alonso. 

Lara Sue, H. Manrique de. 

Lazcoz y Ca., Francisco. 

Uaca y Ca., Enrique. 

M6rquez y Ca. 

Mora, Juan. 

Nieto,Hilario. 

Olavarrfa T. Ca. 

Pedroza, Valentin. 

Rangel, Apolonio. 

Reyes, Antonio J. 

Reyes, L. 

Salas, Joaquin B. 

Socesay Ca. 
Hardware. 

Aguirre y Ca., Luis. 

Elcoro y Ca., Valentin. 

Gedovius y Unna. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 

Sanger, Fernando. 

Storck y Grumbrecht. 
Hatters. 

Campos, J. Lorenzo. 

Gomez, Manuel. 

Lozano, Antonio. v 

Marquez, Guadalupe 

Noriega y Tejo. 

Quintas, Benito. 

Sanchez y Ca. 

Importers. 

Aguirre y Ca.,Lui8 (fancy goods, hardware, 
furniture, musical instruments, wines, li- 
quors, and toys). 

Bahnsen y Ca., J. H. (dry goods) (importers 
and exporters). 

Caire, Michel y Ca. (dry goods). 

Droguerfa Universal (drugs, surgical instru- 
ments, etc.). 

Facon, Constant, Sue. (cloths). . 

Franck y Ca., M. (dry goods). 

Muriedas y Ca. (dry goods, hats). 



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8AK LITIS POTOSt SAK LUIS FOTOSl— 
Continued. 

Importers— Conthmed . 

Norwood, Jo86. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. (fancy goods, hard- 
ware, chinaware, perfumery, paper, fumi- 
ture, pianos, lamps, arms, and ammimition)- 

Rodriguez y Ca., Rafael (drugs). 

Sanchez yCa. (hats). 

Signoret y Ca. (dry goods). 

Storck y Qrumbrecht (machinery, hardware, 
chinaware, fancy goods, mirrors, etc.). 

Valle, Qarcfa y Ca. (dry goods). 
Iron and ironvmre. 

Aguirre y Ca., Luis. 

Drogueria Universal. 

Mcoto y Ca., Valentin. 

Meade y Hnos., Federico J. 

Saenger, Fernando. 

Storck y Qrumbrecht. 

Valladolid, Francisco. 
Jewelers and watchmakers. 

Guerrero, Demetrio. 

Herfter, Ernesto. 

Landereche, Juan. 

Martinez, Ramon. 

Philipp yCa., Max A. 

Storck y Qrumbrecht. 

Tosgobbi, Francisco. 

Vild6sola, Francisco. 
Lithographers. 

Cabrera, Antonio. 

Esquivel y Ca. 

Kaiser, Juan. 

Parres, Ramon F. 

Vazquez, Francisco. 
Merchandise^ imported and domestic. 

Alcocer, Anastasio. 

Aresti y Ca. 

Bahnsen y Ca., J. H. 

Barrenechea Hnos. 

Cabrera, Emigidio. 

Caire, Michel y Ca. 

Campos, Agapito. 

Cerda, Margarito Lopez de la. 

Cervantes, Antonio E. 

Dosal, Ramon. 

Qarcfa, J. 

C^nzalez, Dario. 

Qoribar, Juan I. Qarcfa. 

Hermosillo, Clemente. 

Ipifia, Encamacion. 

Lavin, Emetrio. 

Meade y Hnos., Federico J. 

Othon, Ramon. 

Pitman y Ca. 



MEXICO. 311 

SAN LITIS POTDSI, SAN LUIS POIOSf— 
Continued. 

Merchandise^ imported and domestic— Contined. 

Soberon, Matfas H. 

Varona y Ca. 
Merchant tailors. 

D&vila, M. 

Facon, Constant, Sue. 

Franck y Ca., M. 

Qarcfa, Pascual. 

Guerrero, Francisco. 

Perez, Julian. 
Mtisic stores. 

Aguirre y Ca., Luis. 

Kaiser, Juan. 

Philipp y Ca., Max A. 
Opticians. 

Gnmstein, F. 
Paints and oils. 

Montante, Arilleta. 

Montante y Nieto. 
Petroleum. 

Meade y Hnos., Federico J. 

" Waters Pierce Oil Co." 
Photographers. 

Barraza, A. 

Clausnitzer, C&rlos. 

Pedroza, Eugenio. 

Serratos y (Da., A. 

Printing offices. 

Barbosa, Ricardo. 

D&valos, C&rlos. 

Esquivel y Ca. 

Faustino, Leija. 

" Imprenta de la Escuela Industrial Militar.^* 

" Imprenta de El Estandarte." 
Sewing machines. 

Bu8hyCa.,C. M. 

Sanger, Fernando. 

Weinburg, D. 
Tinware. 

Alanis, Silvestre. 

Arzueta, Angel. 

CastaHeda, Dumas. 
Upholstery and caipets. 

Qedovius y Unna. 

TAMFICO, TAMAULIPA8. 

Banker. 

Schutz, Federico F. 
Carriage dealers. 

Aretia, Atftonio 

Morales, Manuel. 



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312 



MEXICO. 



TAMPICO, TAMAULIPAS--Ck)ntinued. 

Commission merchants. 

Basadre, Gregorio Cortina. 

Cruz y Amorevieta. 

Dominguez y Ca. 

Jolly y Ca., Eduardo L. 

Lastra y Ca., Di6go de la. 

Madraza, Juan. 

Prom, Juan. 

Schutz, Federico F. 

Stussy, F. 

Tr6paza Hnos. 

Ugarte Hnos. 
Drugs. 

Gonzalez, Felipe. 

Omar, Herederos de P. Q. 

Sol6rzano, Juan B. 
Dry goods. 

CalocayCa.,S. 

Cruz y Amorevieta. 

Lastra y Ca. , D. de la. 

Lopez y Rodriguez. 

Reynaud Hermanos. 

Ugarte Hermanos. 
Fancy goods. 

Horde Hermanos. 

Horde, J. F. 

Dauban, Eugenio. 

Peredo, Francisco. 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Harrios, Pantaleon. 

Castillo, Macario. 

Dominguez y Ca., A. 

Grillo, Simon Torres. 

Madrazo, Juan. 

Rodriguez y Ca., Hartolo. 

Saunders, Santiago. 

Stussy, Federico. 

Tessada, Enrique. 

Trueba, Domingo. 

Velez, Miguel. 
Hardware. 

Horde Hermanos. 

Horde, J. F. 

Dauban, Eugenio. 

Peredo, Francisco. 
Hatters. 

Cruzado, Eduardo. 
Najera, Luis G. 
Printing offices. 

Garcia, Francisco G. 
Garza, J. de la. 
Segura, C&rlos H, 
Silversmiths. 

Gauban, C&rlos. 
Gauban, N. H. 



TAMPICO, TAMAULIPA8— Ck)ntinued. 

Silversmiths— Contumed. 

Rojas, Cliserio. 

Vargas, Miguel. 
Watchmakers. 

Cabieres, Ismael 

Rojas, Cliserio. 
Woods. 

Campo, Nicolas del. 

Saunders, Santiago. 

TEHUACAN, PUEBLA. 

Boots and shoes. 

Gtonzalez, Perf ecto. 

Navarro, Jos6 de la Luz. 
Carriage dealers. 

Castaiion, Juventino. 

Rosete, Joaquin. 
China and glassware. 

Cacho, Samuel. 

Maill6, Emilio. 
Commission merchants. 

Aldama, Leandro. 

Gamez, Severiano. 

Loyo, Ger6nimo Arandia. 

Puente, Ignacio de la. 
Drugs. 

Amezcua y Ordufia. 

Ariza, Vicente. 

Lince, Antonio E. 

Montaiio,JuanH. 
Dry goods. 

Garcia, Vicente P. 

Gaymard y Spitatur. 

Martinez, J. de J. 

Pastor, Jos6. 

Puente, Ramon de la. 
Engraver. 

Gonzalez, Miguel. 
Fancy goods. 

Cacho, Samuel. 

Heres, C&rlos G. 

Maill^yCa., Emilio. 
Flour mills. 

Cacho, Agustin. 

Ceballos, Juan Diaz. 

Gonzalez, Daniel. 

Rocamoro, Viuda de. 
Oroceries and provisions. 

Espinosa Hnos., L. M. 

Martinez y Ca., R. 

Mazay Hnos.,R. 

Puente, Fernando de la. 

Rocamoro, Viuda de. 



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MEXICO. 



3»3 



TEHUACAH, PTJEBLA— Continued. 

Hardware. 

Bermudez 6 Hijo, Jo86. 

Heras,C&rlo8 0. 
Hatter. 

Martinez, Jo86 de J. 
Joint stock company. 

Compaftfa de transportes y comisiones. 
Fliotographer. 

Vidal, Manuel. 
Flrinting office. 

Nolasco, Agustin. 
Setoing machines. 

Gutierrez, MigueL 
Silversmiths. 

Olivier, Prdspero. 

Soli8,Jo86de J. 

TEHUANTEFEC, OAXACA. 

Banker. 

Larrafiaga, M. 
Boots and shoes. 

Cruz, Bruno. 

Ouzman,Emilio. 

Jacinto, Mariano. 

Jimenez, Pedro. 

Mendez. Francisco. 

Orozco,Isidro. 

Sanchez, Francisco. 

Trinidad, Mariano. 

Valdivieso, Mat4o. 

Yillalobos, Francisco. 
Commission merchant. 

Koch,C.R. 
I>rugs. 

Qonzalez, Amador. 

Huacuya,Jo86 M. 

Solana Hnos. 
Dry goods. 

Echazarreta, F. 

Langner y Arrillaga. 

Larrafiaga, M. 

Romero, Juan C. 

Santibafiez, Antonio. 

Solana Hnos. 

Toledo, Amulf o. 

Toledo, Juan. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Bustillo, Santiago. 

Echazarreta, F. 

Guzman, Francisco. 

Langner y Arrillaga. 

Larrafiaga, M. 



TEHUAKTEPEC, OAXACA— Continued. 

Groceries and prormons— Continued. 

Santibafiez, Antonio. 

Solana Hnos. 
Hatter. 

Pacheco,Jos6. 
Merchant tailors. 

Espinosa, Mariano. 

Marquez, Enrique. 

Sibaja, Feliciano. 

Sibaja, Zenon. 
Photographer. 

Palacios, Conrado. 
Printing offices. 

"Imprenta del Istmo.** 

Medardo y Zabulon Hnos. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Chinar, Juan M. 

Jacinto, Justo. 

Jacinto, Luciano. 

Reyna, Laureano. 

Sierra, Homobono. 

Valdiviejo, Damien. 
Sewing machines. 

Langner y Arrillaga. 

TENANGINGO, M^OO. 

Adds and chemicals. 

Valero, Marcos. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Hernandez, Donaciano. 
Bankers. 

Pacheco, R6mulo. 

Zepeda, C&rlos. 
China and glassware. 

Hernandez, Donaciano. 
Commission merchants. 

Garcia, Aten6genes. 
Drugs. 

Guzman, Ignacio. 

Jonguitud, Leonides. 

Valero, Marcos. 
Dry goods. 

Izquierdo, Miguel. 

Pando, Bem&rdo de. 
Engraver. 

Nufiez, Everado. 
Fancy goods. 

Hernandez, Donaciano. 

Jimenez, Rafael. 
Flour mills. 

" Chalchihuapa." 

♦• El Salto.'' 

" Santa Ana." 



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3H 



MEXICO. 



TEKANCINGO, MEXICO— Continued. 

Furniture. 

Garibay, Crescendo. 

Rivera, C6stulo. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Pacheco, Cruz. 

Pachecd, Rdmulo. 

Pacheco, Severo. 
Hardware. 

Alvarez, Francisco. 

Hernandez, Donaciano. 
Hatter. 

Valero, Francisco. 
Lithograpfiers. 

Rodriguez, Galacion. 

R6jas, Efren. 
Merchant tailors. 

Garibay, Antonio. 

GordiUo, Vicente. 
Paints and colors. 

Alvarez, Francisco. 

Hernandez, Donaciano. 
Pfiotographer. 

Villegas, Pl&cido. 
Printing offices. 

Estrada, Francisco. 

Herrera, Juan. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Rivera, Isidore. 
Sevdng machines. 

Villegas, Jacinto. 
Silk goods. 

Pando, Bernardo de. 
Silversmiths. 

Nufiez, Everardo. 

Penaloza, Manuel. 

Reynoso, Jos6. 
Watchmakers. 

Nufiez, Everardo. 

Reynoso, Jos6. 

TEKAN60 DEL VALLE, IClXICO. 

Boots and shoes. 

Rodriguez, Calixto. 

Santana, Benigno. 

Talavera, Luis. 

Tejedo, Satumino. 

Valez, Severo. 
Cai-riages. 

Pichardo, Celedonio. 
Drugs. * 

Azofios, Crisefon Gardufio. 

Duran, Agustin. 



TENAHOO DEL VALLE, MEXICO— (:k>nt'd. 

DrMf/s— Continued. 

Moral, Julio P. del. 

Sanchez, Margarito. 
Fancy goods. 

Azofios, Francisco Duran. 
Flour mills. 

" Molino de Santa Rosa.'' 

Sanchez, Cosme. 
Furniture. 

Arellano, Juan. 

Arellano, Pedro. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Algani, Alvaro G. 

Bustamante, Francisco D. 

Cervantes, J. 

Lopez, Preciliano. 
Hardware, iron, and ii»onware. 

Azofios, Francisco Duran. 
Joint stock company. 

Compafifa Union MercantiL 
Merchant tailors. 

Diaz, Luz. 

Gutierrez, Fernando. 

Juarez, Eulogio. 

Morales, Dionisio. 

Velazquez, Adrian. 
Mv^ic store. 

Azofios, Francisco Duran. 
Paints and oils. 

Azofios, Francisco Duran. 
Photographers. 

Arellano, Gumesindo. 

Moral, Julio P. del. 
Printing office. 

Diaz, Maiiuel Estrada. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Gonzalez, Gabino. 

Martinez, Merced. 
Sewing machines. 

Arellano, Gumesindo. 

Silk goods. 

Ochoa, Margarita. 

Ortiz, Merced Maya de. 
Silversmiths. 

Abrego, Sotero. 

Rosales, M&ximo. 

Vencis, Jos6 Maria. 

TEPIC, TEBBHOBIO DE TEFIC. 

Bankers. 

Aguirre y Ca., Juan A. de. 
Barron, Forbes y Ca. 
Delius y Meyer. 
Menchaca Hnos. 



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MEXICO. 



315 



TEPIC, TEBRITOBIO D£ TEFIC— Cont'd. 

Booksellers and stationers. 

Bouret, Sue. 

Ocegueda, J. Emilio. 

Retes.J.M. 
Commission merchants. 

Andrade, J. 

Delias y Meyer, 

Heirera, J086 Luis (sale by sample). 

MeDchaca Hnos. 

Sierra, Manuel. 
Driigs. 

Fenelon y Ca. , C&rlos. • 

Gonzalez, Ger6nimo, Sue. 

Guzman, Francisco. 

Retes, Benjamin D. 

Virgen, Fernando Gk>mez. 
Dry goods. 

Anaya, Francisco. 

Andrade, J. 

Anguiano, Daniel M. 

Beyer Hnos. 

Chaurand y Ca. , Jacques. 

MarduefLo, Juan. 

Menehaca Hnos. 

Retes, Jos6M. 

Retes, N.yV. 

Sierra, Manuel. 
Fancy goods. 

Gebers, Viuda de. 

Maldon)skdo, Manuel. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Altimirano, Miguel. 

Borboa, J. 

Brambila, Manuel Perez. 

Castillo, Vicente. 

Corona, J. Cruz. 

Deiius y Meyer. 

Flores, M&ximo G. 

Hernandez, Trinidad. 

Leal, Viuda de. 

Ocegueda, Ireneo. 

Perez, Nieol&s. 

Rodriguez, Nieol&s. 

Somellera, Rivas y Ca. 
Hardivare. 

Qebero, Viuda de. 

Maldonado, Manuel. 
Hatter. 

Landwehr, GuiUermo. 
Iron and ironware. 

Aguirre y Ca., Juan A. de. 

Retes, Jos6 M. 

Zuazo, J. Antonio de. 
Jeweler. 

Castafieda, Jos6 E. 



TEPIC, TERRITOKIO DE TEPIC— Cont'd. 

Oa mills. 

Corona, Jos6 C. 

Hernandez, Trinidad. 
Photographers. 

Guerra, Jos6 M. 

Rivero, Mariano. 

Trejo, Cruz. 

Mufioz, Jos6 M. 
Printing offices. 

Herrera, Hermanos. 

Imprenta de la Escuela de Artes. 

Imprenta del Gobiemo. 

Legaspi, Viuda de. 

Ocegueda y Ca., J. Ireneo. 

Ocegueda, J. Emilio. 

Retes, Jos6M. 
Saddlery and liamess. 

Gongora, Cri86<'oro F. 
Sewing machines. 

Beyer Hnos. 

Leal. Viuda de. 
Silversmiths. 

Gonzalez, Marcial. 

Lopez, Pedro. 

Quintero, Roberto. 

Soto, Filomeno. 
Watchmakers. 

Castafieda, Jos6. 1 

Gonzalez. Pedro. 

TEZIUTLAN, FUEBLA. 

Agricultural implements. 

Zorrilla, Manuel. 
Arms and ammunition. 

Alvarez, Antonio. 

Garcia, Gumesindo. 
Commission merchants. 

Lapuente Hermanos y Ca. 

Molino, Luis Cabada. 
Drugs. 

Azcue, Juan Garees. 

Casas,Federico M. 

Mayaudon, Amado. 
Dry goods. 

Diaz Hermanos. 

Ramos, Isidro. 

Rodriguez y Ca., Garcia. 

Solano, Eulogio. 

Viflalez 6 Hijo, Pedro. 

Zorrilla, Manuel. 
Fancy goods. 

Klinof , Trinidad M. de. 

Ramos, Isidro. 



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3i6 



MEXICO. 



TEZmTLAN, FUEBLA — Continued. 

Groceries and provisions. 

Ramos, Isidro. 

Rodriguez y Ca. , Garcia. 

Viflalez 6 Hijo, Pedro. 

Zorrilla, ManueL 
Hardware. 

Klinof,TrmidadM. de. 

Ramos, Isidro. 

Hatter. 

Sanchez, Ramon. 

Iron and ironware. 

Zorrilla, Manuel. 
Merchant tailors. 

Eizaguirre, Vicente. 

Murrieta, Ignacio. 
Paints and oils. 

Calderon, Benigno. 
Photographers. 

Hernandez, Francisco. 

Saavedra, Enrique. 

Vargas, Alfredo. 
Printing offices. 

Amable, Agustin. 

Cuesta, Jacinto. 
Saddlery. 

Moctezuma. Desiderio. 

Villegas, Joaquin. 

Silversmith. 

Jimenez, Mauricio. 
Upholstery and carpets. 

Rosano, Luis. 
Watchmaker. 

Ortega, Gilberto. 

TIXTLA GUEBBERO, OUEBBEBO. 

Banker. 

Bello, Vicente. 
Boots and shoes. 

Aburto, Paulino. 

Damien, Jos6. 

Encamacion, Ramon. • 

Mufiiz, Rafael. 

Rodriguez, D6mitilo. 

Rodriguez, Raf a6I. 
Drugs. 

Mufi6z, Pascuela. 
Dry goods. 

Godines, Sebto. 
Mercfiant tailors. 

Gonzalez, J. 

Navarrete, Nazario. 

Vargas, Julio. 



TDLTLA OUEBBEBO, OUEBBEBO— Cont'd. 

Printing office. 

Mufiiz, Margarito. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Osorio, Jos6. 

Valadez, Juan. 

Vargas, Mariano. 
Silversmiths. 

Cervantes, Luis. 

Navarreta, Manuel J. 

TLACOTALPAM, VEBACBUZ. 

Agi^t^tural implements. 

Ch&zaro 6 Hijos, Francisco. 
I Ch&zaro Sue, J. A. 
I Perez, Jos6 L. 
I Schleske,Mauricio. 
Bankers. 

Ch&zaro 6 Hijos, Francisco. 

Ch&zaro Sue, J. A. 
Books and stationery. 

Hernandez, Jos4 J. 
Commission merchants 

Ch&zaro 6 Hijo, Francisco. 

Chdzaro Sue, J. A. 

Perez, Jos6 L. 

Schleske, Mauricio. 
Drugs. 

Murillo,M. 

Reyes, Miguel Marquez. 

*'San Jos6.'' 

"TlacotalpeHa." 
Dry goods. 

Crespo, Ignacio. 

Garcia y Ca. , Benito. 

Martinez, Jos6 Albino. 

Pons, Francisco. 
Furniture. 

Fontan, Manuel. 

Lipp, Jacob. 

Reyes, Luis Felipe. 
Fancy goods. 

Morteo, Encamacion. 

Perez, Cesareo. 

Villar Hermanos. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Carlin Hnos. 

Oh&zaro 6 Hijos, Francisco. 

Chdzaro, J. A., Sue. 

Fernandez, Francisco. 

Lopez, Ramon A. 

Perez, Jos6 L. 

Roca, Ramon. 

Schleske, Mauricio. 

Villar Hnos. 



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MEXICO. 



3»7 



TLACOTALPAM, VERACBUZ— Continued. 

Hardware. 

Morteo, Encarnacion. 
Schleske, Mauricio. 

Hatter8. 

Beirana, Juan. 

Claudio, Angel. 

Herrera, Antonio 

Ortiz, Antonio. 
Printing office. 

"LaReforma." 

Silversmiths. 
Beirana, Luis. 
Peralta, Juan. 



TLAXCALA, TLAXCALA. 

Banker. 

Viilas, J. de J. 

Carriage dealer. 

Santillana, Cayetauo. 

Dinigs. 

Amad, Jos6. 

Atamoros, Francisco. 

Escudero, J. 
Engravers. 

Chumacero, Manuel. 

Raso, Tiburclo del. 
Fancy goods. 

Barrera, Ignacio. 
Flour mills. 

Aquiles de Pain. 

Gavito, Francisco G. 

Hernandez, C4rlos L. 

Rivera Hnos., Feliciano. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Gavito, Francisco Gonzalez. 

Manriquez, Donaciano. 

Mendoza, Manuel. 

Ramos, J. 

Yazquez, Juan. 
Iron and ironware. 

Picazo Hnos. 
Oil mill. 

Rivera, Rafael. 
PTiotographer. 

Heredia, Miguel. 
Printing office. 

Calderon, Joaquin Diaz. 
Saddlery and Jiamess. 

Carrasco, Jos6 M. 

Carvajal, Pedro. 

Prieto, Cecilio. 



TLAXCALA, TLAXCALA— Continued. 

Sewing machines. 

Corona, Agustin G. 

Rio, Joaquin del. 
Silversmiths. 

Alvarez, Nicol&s. 

Garibay, Manuel. 

Olivares, Bartolo. 

Robles, Jos6 M. 

Trujillo, Filomeno. 

TOLUCA, MEXICO. 

Banker. 

Cortina, Tom&s. 
Booksellers. 

Gordillo, Pascual Gonzalez. 

" Libreria de la Juventud." 

Velazquez, Jos6. 
Boots and shoes. 

Barbabosa y Gomez, J. 

Hernandez, Ausencio. 

Legorreta, Vicente. 

Quiroz, Te6fllo. 
Carriage dealer. 

Betancourt, Abundio. 
Commission merchants. 

Gonzalez y Benavides. 

Medina Gardufio, Manuel. 
Commission merchants (sale by sample). 

Barenque, Demetrio. 

Gtomez, Antonio Vilches. 

Medina y Cruz, Manuel. 
Drugs. 

Araujo, Rafael. 

Fernandez, Fernando. 

Gutifirrez, Felix. 

Hernandez, Mariano. 

Rodriguez, Juan. 
Dry goods. 

Ballina, Ramon. 

Prichardo, Francisco. 

Rojas, Juan Gk>nz&lez. 

Valdez, Angel. 
Engraver. 

Sanchez, Jos6 M. 
Flour mills. 

Henkel 6 hijos, Viuda de. 

Hinajosa, Carlota. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Barrera, J. 

Cortina y Hnos., Joaquin. 

Lopez, Jos6. 

Valdez, Darfo. 



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3i8 



MEXICO. 



TOLUCA MfiXICO— Continued. 

Hardware. 

Gallegos, Jos6. 

Gonzalez y Benavides. 

Lopez, Jos6. 

Vazquez, Lorenzo J. 
Hatters. 

Alcocer, Manuel. 

Lopez, J. 

Torres, Luz. 

Z611y Hermanos. 
Lithographers. 

Martinez, Pedro. 

Renteria, Felipe. 
Merchant tailors. 

Flores, Ism^iel. 

Quintana, ndef onso. 

Vaez, J. 
Notions. 

Gallegos, Jos6. 

Gonzalez y Benavides. 

Lopez, Jos6. 

Vazquez, Lorenzo J. 
Paints and oils. 

Solalindo, J. 
Photographers. 

Alba, Daniel. 

Torres Hermanos. 
Printing offices. 

Imprenta de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios. 

Manon Hermanos. 

Quijano, Atanasio. 
Sewing machines. 

Lopez, Jo86. 
Silk goods. 

Alconeda, Josefa Valdez de. 

Santillan, Nicolas. 
Silversmiths. 

Almazan, J. 

Quir6z, Mariano. 
Upholstery and carpets. 

Arellano, J. 
Watchmakers. 

Avila, Enrique. 

Olmedo, Juan. 

TOBB£ON, COAuullA. 

Merchants. 

CleflPord y Arellano (groceries and provisions). 

De Coster, E. (commission merchant). 

Diaz, M. (merchant tailor). 

Moore, L. A. (notions, provisions, dry goods). 

Sanchez, Luis (mills). 

Treviflo, J. M. G. (commission merchants). 



TUXTLA OUTlKKKTiZ, CHIAPAS. 

Boots and shoes. 

Chanona, Antero. 

Ruiz, Jos6. 
Commission merchant. 

Thomas. Augusto. 
Drugs, 

Chanona, Domingo 
Engraver. 

Yafies, Nabor. 
Groceries and provisions 

Cano Hnos. 

Cueto y Ca. 

Farrera, Vicente. 

GoutyC^.,L. 

Zornlla y Ca. 
Hatter. 

Bustamante, Est^ban. 
MercTiant tailors. 

Cruz, Rafael. 

Culebro, J. 

Culebro, Vidal. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Cleus, Pedro. 

Di&Zs Santos. 
Silversmiths. 

Marcelin, Mariano 

Mu&iz, Vicenti. 

Yafies, Nabor. 

VEBACBTJZ, TERAGBTTZ. 

Agricultural implements. 

BeUo y Ca., F. J. 

Dliring y Ca., M. 

Prado, Pepin y Ca. , A. S. del. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Varelay Ca.,R. 
Bankers. 

Galainena y Ca., J.,Suc. 

Martinez Hnos. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Struck y Ca., Gustavo. 

Villa Hnos., Sue. 

Zaldo Hnos. y (3a. 
Banks. 

Sucursal del Banco de L6ndres y Mexico (ge- 
rente, Federico Howes). 

Sucursal del Banco Nacional de Mexico (ge- 
rente, Teodora Chobat). 
Booksellers and stationers. 

Cabrera, Manuel. 

Carredano, Viuda de. 

Jimenez, R. Rodriguez. 

Paso y Troncosa, J. del. 
I 



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MEXICO. 



3»9 



TEBACBUZ, VEBACBUZ— Ck)ntinued. 

Boots and shoes. 
Aguero. Serapio. 
Carbonell, Paulino. 
Cuneo, Juan. 
Diaz, Julian. 
Font, Francisco. 
Gonzalez, Jos6 D. 
Horro, Bernardo. 
Lopez, Juan. 
Mantecon, Pedro D. 
Moll, J. M. 
Ramos, Bias. 
Roque, Basilio. 
Sanchez, Alejandro. 
Valdes, Guadalupe. 

China, glassware, lamps, etc. 
Izazola, Jose I. 
Palomo, J. 
Ribera, Francisco. 
Ritrery Ca., R.C. 
Segundo, Alonso. 

Commission merchants. 
Aladro y Ca. 
Ascorve y Ca., P. J. 
Benito yCa.,C. 
Busing y Ca., Guillermo., Sue. 
D'Oleirey Ca., Sue. 
Galainena y Ca., J., Sue. 
Garcia, Rafael. 
Hoyos, Braulio. 
IbargUen, Bemab6. 
Ituarte, Parres y Ca. 
Lama y Ca., Garcia de la. 
Loustan y Ca., D. 
Markoe y Ca., M. C. de. 
Mendezy Ca., P.G. 
MuilosyCa., F. J. 
016zaga Sue, Jos6 de. 
Pag6s, Jos6 Gonzalez. 
Pardo, Juan M. 
Tejeda y Ca., S. 
Temprana, C, Sue. 
Torres, Vicente Reyes. 
Torre, Antonio H. de la. 
Valdez, Manuel Pastor. 
Varela, R. 
Villa Hnos. Sue. 
Zaldo Hnos. y Ca. 

Drugs. 

Barrillo,A. 
Carrillo y Ca. 
Lomonaco, A. 
Luis, H. y Hoyos. 
Mariscal, C4rIos. 
MttUer, G.,Suc. 



VERACBUZ, VEBACBUZ~Ck)ntinued. 

Druflra— Continued. 

Rio, Arturo del. 

Rodriguez, Antonio S. 

Serralta y Ca., S. 
Dry goods. 

Aparicio y Ca. 

Aragon y Hno., Julian. 

Benito yCa.,C. 

Bilsing y Ca., Guillermo. 

Juano, Francisco de. 

OUivieryCa., J. 

Ramos yCa., ^, 

Sanchez y Fernandez. 

Struck y Ca., Gustavo. 

Sttircke, Garcia., Sue. 

Ulibarri, S. 

Zaldo Hnos. y Ca. 
Exporters. 

Aragon y Hno., Julian. 

Btising y Ca., Guillermo., Sue. 

D(iringyCa.,M. 

Franchi, Ochoa y Ca. 

Galainena y Ca., J. 

Ituarte y Ca.* F. J. 

Markoe y Ca., M. C. de. 

Martinez, Hnos. 

Rivas y Meyenn. 

Struck y Ca., Gustavo. 

Vald6z, Mariano R. 

Vald6z, Manuel Castro. 

Zaldo Hnos. y Ca. 
Furniture. 
. Arrieta,Te6filo. 

Izazola, Jos6 I. 

Z4rate, J. de J. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Calleja Hnos. y Ca. 

Franchi, Ochoa y Ca. 

Galainena y Ca., J., Sue. 

Gomez y Ca. 

Guillaron y Ca. 

Ituarte yCa., F. J. 

Landero, Pasquel y Ca. 

Leycequi y Ca., L. C. 

Mark6eyCa.,M.C.de. 

Martin, Garcia y Ca. 

Martinez Hnos. 

Martinez, Rivera y Ca. 

Oliver, Manuel. 

Rasines, Perez y Ca. 

Rivas y Meyenn. 

Rolla, Gentini y Ca. 

Sierra y Hno., R. 

Tejeda y Ca., S. 

Villa Hnos., Sue. 

Wittenez, Vila y Ca. 



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320 



MEXICO. 



VEBACSUZ, 7ERACBUZ— Considued. 

Hardvjare. 

BelloyCa., F. J. 

Diiring y Ca., M. 

Escandon, Alberto. 

Gonzalez, Cipriano. 

Nicolas, Eulogio de. 

Prado, Pepin y Ca., A.S.deL 

Sommer, Hermann y Ca. 

Varelay Ca., R. 
Hatters. 

Avila, Jo86 de J. 

Barros y Murillo. 

Vald^s y Ca., M. 
Importers. 

Aragon y Hno., Julian. 

BelloyCa., F.J. 

Benito yCa.,C. 

Busing y Ca., Quillermo.,Suc. 

Cuesta, Cornejo y Ca. 

During y Ca., M. 

Franchi, Ochoa y Ca. 

Galainena y Ca., J., Sue. 

Izazola, Jos6 I. 

MiUler, G.,Suc. 

OliTieryCa., J. 

Prado, A. S. del. 

Ramo y Ca., R. 

Rivas y Meyenn. 

Sierra y Hno., R. 

Sommer, Hermann y Ca. 

Struck y Ca., Gustavo. 

Stiircke, Garcia., Sue. 

Ulibarri, S. 

Varelay Ca., R. 

Wittenez,Vilay Ca. 

Zaldo Hnos., y Ca. 
Iron and ironware, 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Varela, R. 
Jewelers. » 

Luengo, L. 

Melendez, Luis. 
MvMC stores. 

Belloy Ca., F. J. 

Carredano, Viuda de. 
Notions. 

Bello y Ca., F. J. 

Dttring y Ca., M. 

Escandon, Alberto. 

Gonzalez, Cipriaiio. 

Nicolas, Eulogio de. 

Prado, Pepin y Ca., A. F. del 

Rivera, Francisco. 

Sommer, Herrmann y Ca. 

Varela y Ca., R. 



VERACBTJZ, 7ERACBUZ— Continued. 

Paints and oils. 

Torres, Vicente Reyes. 
Photographers. 

Hijos de Ritcher. 

Ibaflez 6 Hijo. 
Printing offices. 

Ledesma, J. 

Menvielle, Miguel. 

Rossel 6 Hijo, J. 

Zayas, Enrique R. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Avila, Jos6 de J. 
Sewing machines. 

Cuesta, Comejo y Ca. 

Mantecon y Ca., G. 

Sommer. Herrmann y Ca. 
Silk goods. 

Aragon y Hno., Julian. 

Benito y Ca., C. 

Stiircke, Garcia., Sue. 

Zaldo JInos. y Ca. 
Watchmakers. 

Huguenin, C. 

Naspleda, Jos6. 
Woods 

Tejeda y Ca., S. 

ZAHORA, MICHOACAH. 

Bankers. 

Agencia del Banco de L6ndres y M6xico. 
Epifanio. Jimenez. 

Booksellers and stationers. 
Calderon, J. 
Hernandez, Luis G. 
Mora, Nicolas T. 

Boots and shoes. 

Cavadas, Estanislao. 
Leon, J. 
Mora, Felipe 
Morales, Mariano. 
Morales, Ruperto. 
Pimentel, Prisciliano. 
Valadez, Federico. 

China and glasswai'e. 
Cano, Francisco. 
"LaLuz." 

Commission mercJiants. 

Calderon, J. sale by sample). 

Pefia, Fernando. 
Drugs. 

"LaProvidencia." 

Maldonado, Jos6 M. Torres. 



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MEXICO. 



321 



ZAMOBA, MICHOACAH— Continued. 

Dry goods. 

"Arco-Iris." 

Bustamante, J. M. 

"Ciudad de Mfixico." 

"Ciudadde Paris." 

"ElCambio." 

*' El Mundo de Colon." 

Garcia, Francisco C. 

'* La Ref orma del Comercio." 

Meillan, Francisco. 

Monterde y Ca., Tom&s. 

Ramirez, Prisciliano. 
Flour mills. 
. De Chaparaco. 

De la Guardla. . 

De la Estanzuela. 

De Yartfia. 

En Jacona. 

La Concepcion. 

La Purf sima. 

San Pedro. 
Groceries and provisions. 

Alcar4z, Mariano. 

Benitez, Francisco. 

Cabrera, Estanislao. 

Calderon, J. 

Costellanos, Aniceto. 

Fernandez, Rafael Marquez. 

Garcia, Epifanio. 

Garcia, Francisco C. 

Garibay, J. 

Hurtado, Luis. 

Isarrar&s, J. 

Isarrar&s, J. Natividad. 

Madrigal, Frabcisco A. 

Madrigal. J. Refugio. 

Meillan y Fabier. 

Mendoza, Manuel Garcia. 

Mendoza, Ma. Garcia. 

Mora, Rafael Marquez de la. 

Orozco, Arcadio H. 

Padilla, Ramon. 

Pefia, Fernando. 

Rio, Di6go V. del. 

Verduzco. Di6go. 
Hardware. 

Ortiz, J. M. del Rio. 
Hatters. 

Hurtado, J. Nabor. 

Lopez, Antonio. 

Perez y Ca., Francisco. 
Iron and ironware. 

Pefia. Fernando. 
Manufacturers brass and iron bedsteads. 

Mendoza, Genaro. 

Saavedra, J. 



ZAMOBA, MICHOACAH— Continued. 

Merchant tailors. 

Amezcua, Jos6 M. 

Leon, Francisco. 

Mendez, Narciso. 

Ochoa, Francisco. 

Oslo, Arcadio. 

Ramos, Trinidad. 
Notions. 

Orozco, ManueL 

Rio, J. M. del. 
Photographers. 

Gutierrez, Celerino. 

Mares, Santiago. 

Verduzco, J. M. Torres. 
Printing offices. 

Madrigal, J. M. 

Maldonado, J. M. Torres. 

Viuda 6 Hijos de Silva Romero. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Rio, Rodriguez del. 

Sanchez, Ruperto. 

Victorio, Fernando. 
Sewing machines. 

Orozco, Arcadio H. 
Silversmiths. 

Manriquez, Vicente. 

PadiUa, J066 M. 
Watchmakers. 

Mendez, Manuel. 

Orozco, Miguel. 

Verduzco, Jos6 M. Torres. 

ZACATECAS, ZACATECAS. 

Agricultural implements. 

Camarcho, Francisco. 

Ibargtiengoytia, J. & M. 

Karbe, Fernando. 

Ortiz, Ramon. 

Petit, Juan A. 
Bankers. 

Ibargtiengoytia, J. & M. • 

Ortiz, Ramon C. 

Portilla, ndefonso. 

Samper, Jos6. 
Booksellers and stationers, 

Bouret, C&rlor 

Medina, A. 
Boots and shoes. 

Acevedo, Andres. 

Carbajal Hnos. 

Dominguez, Jos6 M. 

Luna, Guadalupe R. 

Oyhargabal, O. 



57A- 



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322 



MEXICO. 



ZACATECAS, ZACATECAS— Continued. 

Carriage dealers. 

Escuela de Artes y Oficlos 

Hospicio de niiios, en la villa de Guadalupe. 

Serapio Qalvan, en la villa de Guadalupe. 

Commission merchants. 
Arbaiza, Jos6. 
Camacho, Francisco. 
Dorigo, Arturo L. 

Gallardo, Manuel Ortiz'(sale by sample). 
Gonzalez y Hno., F*. Gomez. 
Gordoa, Benjamin G. 
Ibargttengoytia, J. & M. 
Leon y Ca., Cruz Diaz de. 
Ortiz, Ramon C. 
Pacheco, Manuel. 
Palmer Hnos. 
Petit, Juan A. 
Solorzano, Jos6 E. 
Velasco, Juan. 
Yermo Hnos. 

Drugs. 

Alvarez, Agustin. 
Calderon, Antonio. 
Delgado, J. Correa. 
Duran,R. 
Gonzalez, Luis G. 
Hubert y Ca.,C. 
Moreno, Basilio. 
Ponce, Juan P. 
Rodriguez, Margarito. 
' Torres, Jo86. 

Valadez, Gumesindo. 
Valle, Ger6nimo del. 

Dry goods. 

Aubert, Enrique. 
BellonyCa.,M. 
Caire y Gamier. 
Cazon y Ca., Antonio 
Dokhelar,Juan. 
Francky Ca.,M. 
Haramboure y Ca., J. 
Olavarria, Luis. 
Pellat y Jean. 
Perez, Francisco. 
Roug6n Hnos. 
Teillery y Ca. , Sue. 
Viadero y Ca. 

Engraver. 

Villegas, Vicente F. 

Flour mills. 

Escobedo, Anacleto. 
Tumoine, Victor. 



ZACATECAS, ZACATECAS— Continued. 

Groceries and provisions. 

Corvera, Pascual. 

Etchart y Segura. 

Gonzalez y Hno., F. Gomez. 

Hatchandy y Ferran. 

Ledesma, Atanasio. 

Mac! as, Luis. 

Martinez, M6nica. 
Hardware. 

BittrolflP y Niemeyer. 

Karbe, Fernando, Sue. 

Neubert, Gustavo. 

Rodriguez Hnos. 

Schroeder, Gustavo. 

Schwartz, C&rlos. 
Hatters. 

Doering, Federico. 

Flebbe, Joaquin. 

Langmack,Suc., Guillermo. 

Z611y, Hnos. 
Iron and ironware. 

Camacho, Francisco. 

Gordoa, Benjamin Gomez 

Ibargtiengoytia, J.yM. 

Petit, Juan A. 
Jewelers and watchmakers. 

Briichner, Guillermo. 

Dorian, C&rlos. 

Gonzalez, Tom&s M. 
Lithographer. 

Espinoza, Nazario. 
Merchant tailors. 

Francky Ca.,M. 

Lopez, Simon. 

Rios,J.F. 

Rios, Leonardo. 

Ruiz, Alberto. 

Trujillo, Tranquilino. 

Valdez, Marcos. 
Notions. 

Baurraud, Guillermo. 

Bittrolf y Niemeyer. 

Heheren, Edmundo. 

Ferran, Roman. 

Ferran, Tom&s. . 

Karbe, Fernando. , Sue. 

Neubert, Gustavo. 

Rodriguez Hnos. 

Senisson, Amado. 

Schroeder, Gustavo. 

Schwartz, C&rlos. 
Photographers. 

Barraza, Agustin. 

Hierro y Bonilla. 

Orozco, Manuel. 



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MEXICO. 



323 



ZACATECAS, ZACATECA8— Continued. 

Printing offices. 

Alvarez, Manuel Rodriguez. 

Cenioeros y Villarreal, Manuel. 

Esparza, Mariano R. • 

Espinoza, Nazario. 

Hospicio de niflos, Guadalupe. 

Imprenta de la Escuela de Ari»8 y Oflcios. 

Lorck, Tom&s. 
Saddlery and harness. 

Martinez, Juan Pablo. 

Rodriguez, Pablo. 
Setoing machines. 

Swain, C&rlosW. 

Velazquez, S.J. 



ZACATECASy ZACATECA8— Ck)ntinued. 

Silk goods. 

Caraza, Viuda de. 

Silversmiths. 

Arteaga,Tirso. 
Ortega, Lino. 
Salazar, Elxiquio. 

WatchmaJcers. 

Briichner, Ouillermo. 
Dorian, C. 
Lebre, D. 
Romo, Pedro. 



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APPENDIX E. 



TRAVELERS' GUIDE. 

CONDENSED RAILWAY TIME-TABLES. 

Mexican Railway — (263 miles): 

Trains leave Mexico City daily ^t 7 a. in., for Apizaco, Esperanza, Orizaba, ar- 
riving at Veracruz at 6:30 p. m. 
From Veracruz at 6 a. m. for Mexico City, arriving at 6:40 p. m. 
Puebla branch (29 miles): 

From Apizaco for PuebIa, 10:15 a. m. and 3:35 p. m.; Puebla for Apizaco, 7:50 
a. m. and 3:15 p. m. 
Mexican International — (409 miles) : . 

Trains leave Porfirio Diaz City, opposite Eagle Pass, Tex., at 11:30 a. m., for 
Sabinas, Venadito Jaral, Paila, Hornos and Torreon, connecting with Monterey 
and Gulf Railroad, and Mexico Central. Through train to Mexico City. 
From Torreon (connecting with train from Mexico City) at 7:45 a. m. 
Branches from Sabinas to Hondo and from Hornos to San Pedro, with daily trains. 
Michoacan and Pacific Railway — (52 miles); 

Daily trains each way from Maravallo to Ocampo and Las Trojes. 
Mexican Northern Railroad — (75 miles): 

From Escalon for Rincon and Sierra Mojada, 4 p. m., daily. 
Froift Sierra Mojada to Escalon, 9:15 a. m., daily. 
Monterey and Mexican Gulf Railway — (387 miles): 

From Monterey to Victoria, Tampico and intermediate stations, daily 6:15 a. m_ 

arrivirfg at Tampico 9:15 p. m. 
From Tampico daily at 6 a. m., arriving at Monterey 9 p. m. 
From Monterey for General Trevino, daily, at 7 a. m. 
From Trevino to Monterey daily at 1:45 P- n^- 
Mexican Central — (Total mileage i, 832) : 

Through train from Mexico City for Juarez (opposite Eagle Pass, Tex.) at 8:15 

p. m., arriving third day at 7:55 a. m. 
From Ciudad Juarez 6:35 p. m., arriving at Mexico City 7:isthird day. 
324 



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MEXICO. 325 

Afexico Division (457 miles) : 

Mexico to Calera, 8:15 p. m. ; to Leon, 7:30 a. m. 

Calera to Mexico, 8:00 a. m.; Leon to Mexico, 6:30 a. m. 
San Luis and Tampico Division (415 miles): 

Aguascalientes to San Luis Potosi and Tampico, 1:45 'p. m. 

Tampico to Aguascalientes, 6 a. m. 
Chihuahua Division (767 miles): 

Calera to Juarez, 7:15 p. m. 

Juarez to Calera, 6:30 p. m. 
Guadalajara Division (161 miles): 

Irapuato'to Guadalajara, 8:45 P- n^* 

Guadalajara to Irapuato, 9:15 a. m. 
Guanajuato Branch — (15 miles): 

Silas to Guanajuato, 8:05 a. m., 7 p. m. 

Guanajuato to Silas, 6:25 a. m., 5:30 p. m. i 

Connections: 

El Paso, with Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6, Southern Pacific, and Texas Pacific; 
Torreon, with Mexican International Railroad; Celaya and San Luis Potosi, 
with Mexican National Railway; Escalon, with Mexican Northern Railway. 
Mexican National Railway — (Total mileage 1,059): 

Through trains from Nuevo Laredo (opposite Laredo, Tex.), daily at 8:10 p. m., 
arriving at Mexico City 1:15 p. m., third day. 

Leave Mexico 2:30 p. m., arriving at Nuevo Laredo 6:50 a. m., third day. 
Northern Division (235 miles): 

Nuevo Laredo to Monterey and Saltillo, 7:00 a. m., 8:10 p. m. 

Saltillo to Monterey and Nuevo Laredo, 8:30 a. m., 8:25 p. m. 
San Luis Division (351 miles): 

Saltillo to San Luis Potosi and San Miguel, 7:30 a. m. 

San Miguel to San Luis Potosi and Saltillo, 5:50 a. m. 
Southern Division (264 miles): 

San Miguel to Mexico, 5:45 a. m., 10:05 p. m. 

Mexico to San Miguel, 6:15 a. m., 2:30 p. m. 

Mexico to Toluca, 6:15 a. m., 2:30 and 4:15 p. m. 

Tolucato Mexico, 6:50, 9:55 a. m., 4:55 p. m. 
Patzcuaro Branch — (95 miles): 

Acambaro to Patzcuaro, 7:45 a. m. 

Acambaro to Morelia, 7:45 a. m., 4,125 p. m. 

Patzcuaro to Acambaro, 6:30 a. m. 

Morelia to Acambaro, 6:15 and 10:20 a. m. 
El Salto Branch — (39 miles): 

Mexico to El Salto, 5 p. m. 

Mexico to Tealyucan, 11 a. m., 5 p. m. 

El Salto to Mexico, 7 a. m. 

Tealyucan to Mexico, 8:05 a. m., 2 p. m. 
Matamoros Branch — (75 miles): 

Matamoros to San Miguel, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 9 a. m. 

San Miguel to Matamoros, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 11 a. m. 



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SoNORA Railway Company — (265 miles): 
Nogales to Guaymas, 4 p. m. 

Guaymas to Nogales, 1:40 p. m. — (operated by Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 
Railway.) 



STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION. 

TO GULF PORTS. 

Campeche: 2,350 miles from New York; 8 days; fare $69. 

From New York, Spanish Transatlantic Company, loth of each month; New York 
and Cuba Mail Steamship Company (via Progreso), every Saturday. 
Frontera: 2,490 miles from New York; 7 days; fare $80. (See Campeche.) 
Mexico City : From New York (via Veracruz), 9 diays; fare $80. (See Veracruz.) 
Progreso : 1,688 miles from New York; 6}4 days; fare $60. 

From New York, New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, every Saturday; 
Spanish Transatlantic Company, loth and 20th of each month. 
Tampico : 2,270 miles from New York; 9 days; fare $80. (See Progreso.) 
Veracruz : 2,500 miles from New York; 8>^ days; fare $75. 

From New York^ New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, everj'^ Satur- 
day; Spanish Transatlantic Company, loth and 20th of each month. 
From New Orleans^ Morgan Line of steamers, twice a month; fare $40. 

TO PACIFIC PORTS. 
Pacific Ports of Mexico : 

From New York, Pacific Mail Steamship Company, via Panama, ist, loth, and 

20th of each month; fare $160. 
From San Francisco, Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 3d, 13th, and 23d of each 
month. 
Guaymas and intermediate ports : 

From San Francisco, Pacific Coast Steamship Company, once a month. 



RAILWAY LINES. 

MEXICAN CENTRAL RAILWAY COMPANY (LIMITED). 

Miles. 

Main line of road, Mexico City, Mexico, to El Paso, Texas i, 224. 16 

Guanajuato Branch : Siloa to Guanajuato, Mexico u. 34 

Branch to Stone Quarry ^ 6. 50 

San Luis division : Chicalote to San Luis Potosi 130. 70 

Tampico division : San Luis Potosi to Tampico 275. 82 

Bar Extension : Tampico to La Barra 5. 90 

San Bias division 16. 60 

Guadalajara division : Irapuato to Guadalajara 160. 99 

Total length of lines owned December 31, 18901 832. 01 

Average number of miles operated during the year i, 527. 20 

Gauge, 4 feet 8^ inches. Rail (steel), 56 pounds. 



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History . — Incorporated in Massachusetts February 25, 1890, and in the same year 
purchased of the Guanajuato Railway Company 60 kilometres of narrow-gauge railway, 
which was widened and incorporated into the main line. The entire main line was 
completed March 8, 1884, and opened April 10, 1884. The Guadalajara division was 
opened, as above. May 21, 1888. 

During the year ending May i, 1890, about 200 miles of new road w'ere built, includ- 
ing the completion of the Tampico division, which was finished March 30, 1890, and 
which now brings the line to the Gulf at Tampico. The Tampico Harbor Company 
(practically owned by this company) has been organized for the purpose of canalizing, 
by jetties, the harbor of Tampico, for the aid of which purpose a concession has been 
granted by the Mexican Government. Work was commenced March 13, 1890, and it 
is expected to have the entire undertaking completed by March, 1892. 

The San Luis divioion. — From Chicalote to San Luis Potosi, 130.70 miles, was com- 
pleted and opened for traffic July i, 1889, and the Bar extension, from Tampico to 
La Barra, 5.90 miles, was completed and opened June 24, 1890. 

Subsidies, — The company acquired a subsidy of about $15,200 per mile ($9,500 per 
kilometre) covering the main line, the Tampico and the Guadalajara divisions, the 
subsidy being payable from custom-house receipts, and the company having the right 
to import free of duty all material required for construction, maintenance, and opera- 
tion of its lines for 15 years, and being exempted from taxes till the expiration of 45 
years after completion of all the lines ; alSo the right to construct and operate its railway 
and telegraph lines for 99 years. It also has small additional subsidies from the State 
governments of San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato. The Government of Mexico, on 
June I, 1885, suspended the payment of its subsidy. 

On June 30, 1886, an amendment was made to the company's concession by agree- 
ment with the Executive, under the authority of the act of the Mexican Congress of 
December 12, 1885. By the terms of this amendment the subsidy certificates are to be 
amortized with the following percentages of the revenue receipts at the several custom- 
houses, namely: July i, 1886, to January i, 1887, 0.75 per cent.; January i, 1887, to 
July I, 1887, I per cent.; July i, 1887, to January i, 1888, 2 per cent.; January i, 1888, 
to July I, 1888, 3 per cent.; July i, 1888, to January i, 1889, 4 per cent.; January i, 
1889, to July I, 1889, 5 percent.; July i, 1889, to January i, 1890, 6 per cent.; January 
I, 1890, to July I, 1890, 7 per cent.; from July i, 1890, onward, 8 per cent. 

Rolling stock, December 31, 1890. — Locomotive engines, 137. Cars — passenger, 73; 
combination passenger and baggage, 11; pay, 2; baggage, mail, and express, 27; special 
and officers', 9; freight (box 1,487; flat, 692; stock, 223; coal, 149; wood, 30; caboose, 
69), 2,650 ;totai, 2,772. Also 6i water, 3 water and coal, 3 boarding, and 7 wrecking 
cars, and 6 pil,e-drivers. 

Operations for year ending December "^1, 1890. (Train mileage, passenger and freight 
statistics not reported). — Total earnings ($4,207.50 per mile), $6,425,694.08; total ex- 
penses ($2,619.94 per mile), $4,001,170.47. Net earnings (37.73 per cent.), $2,424,523.61. 

This is Mexican currency, and is equivalent in United States money to $1,978,156.69. 

Government subsidy account. — In the early part of the year 1890 negotiations were 
opened with the Mexican Government for the settlement of all the subsidy due the 
company on all lines that had been constructed, and an agreement was made on June 
30 whereby the company was credited on that date with a net balance on all the sub- 
sidy which has been earned of $19,820,793.01 Mexican currency. 



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The company agreed to allow the Government a discount of 25 per cent., which, de- 
ducted from the $19,820,793.01 previously specified as due the company, left the net 
amount due under the agreement as of June 30, 1890, $14,865,594.76 Mexican cur- 
rency. 

The Government paid this ampunt to the company in four equal installments ; the 
first on December 20, 1890, the second January 20, 1891, the third February 20, 1891, 
and the fourth March 20, 1891. 

It was agreed by the Government that the company should continue the sale of sub- 
sidy certificates until October 31, 1890, at which time all sales should cease, and that 
the amount which the company has sold from July i to October 31, 1890, inclusive, 
should be deducted from the amount due which the Government had agreed to pay 
on March 20, 1891. 

With the proceeds of the final payment the trustees bought, from time to time under 
the terms of the consolidated mortgage, as an investment, $5,597,000 of the priority 
bonds of the company. The balance of the issue of $7,000,000 of said bonds then out- 
standing, $1,403,000, were called for payment and cancellation on April 10, 1891. *' 

The funded debt consists of — 

(i) Prior consolidated mortgage 5 per cent. 50-year dollar and pound gold bonds, 
dated July i, 1889, due 1939, interest payable January and July, in Boston and London. 

(2) Consolidated mortgage 4 per cent. 30-year $1,000 gold bonds, due July i, 1911, 
interest payable January and July, in Boston, Mass. 

(3) First consolidated income 3 per cent. 50-year $1,000 coupon gold bonds, due 
January 10, 1939, interest (noncumulative) payable annually, July 10, if earned. 

(4) Second consolidated income 3 per cent. 50-year $1,000 coupon bonds, due July 
10, 1939, interest payable annually, July 10, if earned. 

The coupon notes were called for payment April 16, 1889. 

Annual meeting, first Wednesday in May. Stock and bonds listed on the Boston, 
New York, London, and Chicago stock exchanges. 

Directors {elected May by 1891). — Oliver Ames, Boston, Massachusetts; Miguel Auza, 
Mexico, Mexico; Isaac T. Burr, Boston, Massachusetts; Felipe B. Berriozabel, Se- 
bastian, Camacho, Mexico, Mexico; Jacob Edwards, Boston, Massachusetts; Edward 
W. Jackson, Mexico, Mexico; Levi Z. Leiter, Chicago, Illinois; E. Rollins Morse, 
Edmund W. Converse, William Rotch, Boston, Massachusetts; Joseph Richardson, 
New York, New York; Warren Sawyer, Alden Speare, Boston, Massachusetts; Robert 
Symon, London, England; George B. Wilbur, Joseph H. White, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts; E. H. Whorf, Mexico, Mexico; S. W. Reynolds, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Finance committee. — Warren Sawyer (chairman), Jacob Edwards, Isaac T. Burr, E. 
Rollins Morse, S. W. Reynolds. 

S. W. Reynolds, president, Boston, Massachusetts; R. R. Symon, vice president, 
London, England; E. W. Jackson, second vice president and general manager, Mexico, 
Mexico; J. T. Harmer, clerk and treasurer, Boston, Massachusetts; W. A. Frost, audi- 
tor, Mexico, Mexico; J. T. Harmer, general auditor, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Principal office and address in the United States, 70 Kilby street, Boston. 

Transfer agents. — S. W. Reynolds, Boston, Massachusetts; Hanover National Bank, 
New York, New York. 



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MEXICO, 329 

MEXICAN NATIONAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Miles. 

Main line of road: City of Mexico to New Laredo, Mexico 838. 63 

El Salto Line: City of Mexico to EI Salto, Mexico 42. 41 

Patzcuarc Branch: Acambaro to Patzcuaro, Mexico . 95. 85 

Cintura (Belt Line) Railroad: Santiago to La Garita de San Lazaro 3« 17 

Matamoros Division: Matamoros to San Miguel, Mexico 75-50 

Texas Mexican Railway: Corpus Christi, Texas, to Laredo and branch 162. 03 

Brownsville and Gulf: Rio Grande River through Brownsville, Texas i. 00 

Total length of above lines i, 218. 59 

Add lines named in paragraph following 13-65 

Total length of lines operated December 31, 1890 i, 232. 24 

Gauge, 3 feet. Rail (steel and iron), 40 and 45 pounds. 

Included in the above mileage are the following lines, which are unused or used 
only as sidetracks, special-service tracks, and tramway: El Salto, toward Tepeji, 2.48 
miles; Quarry Branch, from Naucalpan Junction to Qusivry, 2.76 miles; branch to repair 
shops in New Laredo, 0.95 mile; Fort Mackintosh Branch of Texas Mexican Railway, 
0.59 mile; street railroad in City of Mexico, 2.20 miles; Texas Mexican Northern Rail- 
way, from Laredo, Texas, to end of track, 1.34 miles ; and grading beyond end of track, 
3.33 miles; a total of 13.65 miles. 

History. — This company is a reorganization of the Mea^ican National Railway Com- 
pany, whose property was sold under foreclosure May 23, 1887. The through line was 
completed September 28, 1888, and opened for traffic November i, 1888. 

Rolling stock, December 31, 1890. — Locomotive engines, 114. Cars: Passenger, 107; 
baggage, mail, and express, 24; freight (box, 1,030; stock, 281; platform, 629; coal 
and ore, 141; rack, 76; caboose, 47), 2,204; water, 27; pile-driver, 3; derrick, i; total, 
2,366. Also 38 other cars. 

Operations for year ending December 31, 1890. — Train mileage: Passenger, 854,105.37; 
freight, 1,173,479.60; mixed, 364,865.35; other, 47,796.40; total, 2,440,246.72 miles. 
Total earnings ($3,003.57 per mile), $3,754,966.36; less Federal Government earn- 
ings^ uncollected ($45,542.56), $3,709,423.80. Total expenses ($2,456.47 per mile), 
$2,927,961.89. Net earnings, $781,461.91. Reduced to United States currency this 
equals $625,169.53. 

Funded debt consisted, December 31, 1890, of — 
(i) First mortgage 6 per cent., 40-year, $1,000 coupon gold bonds, due 

June I, 1927, interest June and December $12, 500, 000 

(2) Second mortgage, series "A," 6 per cent., 30-year, $500 and $1,000 

coupon gold bonds, due 1917, interest March and September .... 12, 265, 000 

(3) Second mortgage, series " B," 6 per cent., 30-year, $500 and $1,000 

registered gold bonds, due 1917, interest payable in April (if earned). 12, 265,000 

(4) Third mortgage income 6 per cent., 50-year, $1,000 registered gold 

bonds, dated August i, 1887, due 1937, interest payable in May 

(if earned) , 7, 040, 000 

The above mortgages cover all existing lines and all lines under construction in the 
Republic of Mexico. Voting power attaches to first and second mortgage bonds. 



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MEXICO. 



Annual meeting, first Monday in April, at Colorado Springs, Colo.« Books close 
twenty days previously. Interest on bonds payable at National City Bank, New York, 
N. Y. 

Trustees of bonds. — First mortgage, Hugh M. Matheson and Charles Magniac; second 
mortgage, Josiah A. Horsey; third mortgage, Charles J. Canda and Hanson A. Risley. 
Registrar of certificates for stock, Gabriel Morton, treasurer. The stock of this com- 
pany is held by Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, voting trustee. 

Texas Mexican Railway. 

Corpus Christi to Laredo, Tex., and branch, 162.03 miles. Sidings, 10.78 miles. 
Gauge, 3 feet; rail (steel, 12.3 miles), 30 pounds. Chartered as Corpus Christi, San 
Diego and Rio Grande Railroad Company, March 13, 1875. Charter amended June 
30, 1 88 1, and present name adopted. The company has a land grant from the State of 
Texas, i6 sections to the mile. It has been decided to change the gauge of this road 
to standard width, and to make an issue of the first mortgage bonds at the rate of 
$15,000 per mile, aggregating $2,430,000. Of this amount, $1,000,000 is to be used to 
take up the bonds of this company not already owned by the Mexican National R. R. Co. ; 
$1,000,000 to be used for renewal of rails, widening the gauge, and equipping the road, 
and the balance, $430,000, is to be retained in the treasury for future requirements. 
Capital stock, $2,500,000; funded debt, S. D. and R. G. N. G. R. R. 7 per cent, bonds, 
due July i, 1910, interest January and July, $960,000; Texas Mexican Ry. 6 per cent, 
bonds, due July i, 1921, interest January and July (authorized, $2,500,000), $1,380,000. 
W. G. Raoul, president. New York; Thomas W. Dodd, vice-president, W. M. Stur- 
geon, secretary and treasurer, Laredo, Tex.; Andrew Anderson, jr.,'' assistant secre- 
tary. New York; J. N. Galbraith, superintendent and general freight and passenger 
agent, Laredo, Tex. General offices, Laredo, Tex. 

The Texas Mexican Division shows a net profit for 1890 of $9,950.74, against a loss 
for 1889 of $18,821.14. 

Board of Directors, Mexican National Railroad Company {elected March 23, 1891). — W. 
G. Raoul, New York, N. Y.; J. A. Horsey, New York, N. Y.; Eckstein Norton, New- 
York, N. Y.; William Mertens, New York; C. C. Beaman, New York; Emilio Velasco, 
Mexico City; William Landa, Mexico City; Gus. J. Wetzlar, Mexico City. 

W. G. Raoul, president, New York, N. Y.; J. A. Horsey, vice-president, New York, 
N. Y.; treasurer, Gabriel Morton, New York, N. Y.; secretary. And. Anderson, jr.. 
New York; general manager, Theo. D. Kline, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

Principal office and address, 6 Wall street. New York, N. Y. ; City of Mexico address, 
28 Calle de Ortega. 

MEXICAN RAILWAY COMPANY. 

Miles. 

Main line of road: City of Mexico, Mexico, to Vera Cruz, Mexico 264 

Pachuca Branch: Ometusco to Pachuca 28 

Puebla Branch: Apizaco to Puebla 29 • 

Total 321 

Sidings, 18 miles; rail (steel), 300 miles; 50 and 82 lbs. 



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MEXICO. 331 

History, — The company also operates the Jalapa line, from Jalapa to Vera Cruz, 70.75 
miles, of which 9.5 miles are operated as part of this company's main line and included 
in its length (264 miles) as given above. 

The extension from Ometusco to Pachuca was completed and opened December 3, 
1890. The concession (dated May 27, 1889) for this extension carries no subvention, 
and runs for 99 years, at the end of which the company is entitled to purchase the line 
at a price to be fixed by experts. 

Rolling stocky December 31, 1890. — Locomotive engines, 56; cars — passenger (first 
class, 12; second class, 9; third class, 16; escort, 8; branch and luggage vans, 15; 
other, 12), 72; freight (goods, 259; pulque, 24; cattle, 5; firewood, 27; platform, 179; 
ballast, 75; way, i), 570; total, 642. Also 2 screw tug-steamers and 20 lighters. 

Operations for year ending December 31, 1890. — Train mileage — passenger, 228,172; 
freight, 382,784; other, 43,912; total, 654,868 miles. Passengers carried, 482,878; car- 
ried I mile, 21,996,305. Tons freight moved, 388,368; moved i mile, 39,720,415. 
Total earnings, $4,019,625.53; total expenses, $1,578,441.60; net earnings, $2,441,183.93. 

First preference stock, created November 11, 1874, and issued to creditors of the com- 
pany (as fully paid up shares) in satisfaction of equal amounts of overdue and unpaid 
8 per cent, bonds. Entitled to a preferential dividend of 8 per cent, per annum in per- 
petuity, out of the available net profits of each separate half year. 

Second preference stock, created November 11, 1874, and issued to creditors in satis- 
faction of equal amounts of overdue and unpaid interest up to the end of 1873. Enti- 
tled to 6 per cent, per annum in perpetuity, out of the available net profits of each sep- 
arate half year, and ranks after the first preferred stock. 

Perpetual 5. per cent, debenture stock, issued in 1880 to the amount of ;^2, 000,000, 
bearing 6 per cent, interest, and constituting a first charge on the undertaking, the pro- 
ceeds to be applied to the redemption of the then existing bonds, by exchange or repay- 
ment, and for the improvement and development of the railway. Interest payable 
January and July at the office of the conipany's bankers, Glyn, Mills, Currie & Co., 
London, England. 

Second mortgage debenture stock, offered in March, 1884, for the purpose of provid- 
ing ;£'240,ooo to replace money taken from current receipts to pay for additional rolling 
stock and stores. The Mexican Government subvention, amounting to about ;£'4,ooo 
per annum, and which runs till November 10, 1893, will be primarily employed toward 
the service of the loan. Interest payable April and October. Stock ranks immediately 
after the perpetual 5 per cent, debentures. 

A contract exists between the company and the Government whereby the company is 
relieved from its obligation of making the second section of the Jalapa line, and is ex- 
empted from the payment of taxes and import duties for fifteen years from April, 1882. 
On the other hand, the company agrees to carry the materials of other companies at a 
lower rate than that permitted by the concession ; to haul for twenty years a quantity of 
coal, not exceeding 50,000 tons per annum, at a rate of $12 per ton for carriage from 
Vera Cruz to Mexico ; and to transfer to the Government a considerable quantity of 
telegraph material. 

Jalapa Branch Railway. 

Jalapa to Vera Cruz, 70.75 miles. Operated by Mexican Railway. Operations, etc., 
for the year ending December 31, 1891 : Total earnings, $166,372.52; total expenses, 
$110,363.84 ; net earnings, $56,008.68. 



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Directors Mexican Railway Company. — T. C. Sandars, W. Barron. T. Braniff, G. W. 
Campbell, Senor Don Felix Cuevas, H. H. Gibbs, H. Goschen, W. Newbold, M. R. 
Pryor. Appointed by Mexican Government : Senor Don Luis C. Curiel, Senor Don 
Casimiro Pacheco, Senor Don P. Martinez Del Campo, Senor Juan Gonzalez Asunsolo. 

Thomas C. Sandars, president, London, England. Secretary, John T. Dennison, 
London, England. General offices : 45 New Broad street, London, E. C. ; Buena Vista 
Station, Mexico, Mexic^. 

MEXICAN NORTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY. 

MUes. 

Line of road projected, Escalon, Mexico, to Sierra Mojada, Mexico 81.25 

Completed, Escalon, Mexico, to El Puerto, Mexico 78.00 

Sidings, about 4 miles. Gauge, 4 feet 8>i inches. Rail (steel), 50 pounds per yard. 

History. — This company was chartered June 26, 1890, and was granted a special con- 
cession from the Mexican Government, including exemption from taxes and import 
duties on material used in the construction of the road. The business of the road con- 
sists largely in carrying mining products. Connection is made with the Mexican Cen- 
tral Railway at Escalon, Mexico. Road opened to Rincon, Mexico, in February, 1891, 
and it is expected to have the entire line in operation by the fall of 1891. 

Finatuial statement. — Capital stock authorized, $3,000,000; par value, $100 per share. 
Funded debt authorized, $1,660,000 first mortgage 6 per cent. 20-year $1,000 gold cur- 
rency bonds, due 1910, interest payable June and December, in New York City. Trus- 
tee, State Trust Company. New York, N. Y. 

Annual meeting, first Tuesday in June. 

Directors. — Robert S. Towne, City of Mexico, Mexico; A. R. Meyer, Kansas City, 
Missouri; N. Witherell, E. M. Shepard, A. Foster Higgins, C. J. Nourse, jr., New- 
York, N. Y.; W. F. Dummer, Chicago, Illinois. 

Robert. S. Towne, president. City of Mexico, Mexico; August R. Meyer, first vice 
president, Kansas City, Missouri; Nathaniel Witherell, second vice president, 20 Nas- 
sau street, New York; C. J. Nourse, jr., secretary, New York; W. F. Dummer, treas- 
urer, Chicago, Illinois; Vinton P. Safford, superintendent and chief engineer, Escalon, 
Mexico. 

Principal offices and addresses, 20 Nassau street. New York, N. Y. Calle de Ca- 
dena, 10, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

MEXICAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY. 

Projected line of road: Pueblo to Oaxaca, Mexico, 228 miles. Completed: Pueblo 
to Tehuacan, Mexico, 79 miles. 

History. — Chartered May 9, 1889, to build a narrow-gauge road from Pueblo to Oax- 
aca, under a concession granted by the Mexican Government. The line will be divided 
into three sections: (i) Pueblo to Tehuacan (completed as above); (2) Tehuacan to Tec- 
omavaca, 61 miles; and (3) Tecomavaca to Oaxaca. Road completed as above, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1891. Tracklaying in progress for a distance of 30 miles from Tehuacan to- 
ward Tecomavaca. On the completion of each section of 40 kilometers, the company is 
entitled to an annual subvention from the Government for a period of 15 years of about 



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MEXICO. 333 

$2,400 per kilometer, the subvention amounting for the first two sections to $537,600 
per annum; the subvention in the third section will amount to an additional sum of 
;£"64,440 per annum. 

Financial statement. — Capital authorized, ;£'2, 000,000 in shares of ;^io (half being ordi- 
nary and half 7 per cent, cumulative preference shares) and ;^i, 200,000 6 per cent, mort- 
gage debenture stock. 

The preference shares were issued at par in May, 1889, by Linton, Clarke & Co.,. 
London; interest payable April and October. The mortgage debenture stock was is- 
sued at par in May, 1889, by the same firm, and secured by first mortgage on the line 
from Pueblo to Oaxaca. It also receives a special hypothecation for the service of the 
loan of the subvention received from the Mexican Government, interest payable April 
and October, and guaranteed by the contractors, ^ock repayable at 105 on April i, 
1905, by the operation of a sinking fund, subject to the company's right, on 6 months 
notice, to pay off the whole at no per cent. 

The ordinary shares have all been taken by the contractors, being issued against cer- 
tificates for work done. 

Directors.— -A. J. Mundella, M. P. (chairman); H. W. Campbell, L. L. Dillwyn, G. 
E. Paget, G. Russell, London, England. (The Mexican Government also appoints two 
directors to act in Mexico.) A. C. Chamier, secretary. Office, Broad street avenue, 
London, E. C. 

MONTEREY AND MEXICAN GULF RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Line of road (completed): Geronimo Trevino to Tampico, 390 miles; sidings, 40 
miles; gauge, 4 feet 8^ inches; rail (steel), 56 pounds. 

History. — Chartered September 5, 1888. This road was built under a concession 
made by the Mexican Government. The first portion of the roadt was opened on May 5, 
1889, to MontemoreloSi 68 miles, June 30, 1889; from Venadito to Villigran, 188 miles, 
on April i, 1890; to La Cruz, 216 miles, August, 1890; to Victoria 242 miles, October, 
1890; to Panocha, 296 miles, January, 1891; to Guadalupe, 327 miles, May i, 1891, and 
to Tampico, July 20, 1891. The line e^ttends from General Trevino (formerly Vena- 
dito) on the International Railway, southeast through Monterey, Linares, and Victoria 
to Tampico, on the Gulf, 390 miles, where connections are made with the various trans- 
atlantic and coast steamers. 

Rolling stock. — Locomotive engines, 20. Cars: passenger, 15; baggage, mail and ex- 
press, 2; freight (box, 150; stock, 25; platform, 130; coal, 50; caboose, i; other, 6), 
362; total cars, 379. 

Operations for year ending December 31, 1889 (average, 164 miles). — Train mileage: 
passenger, 71,604; freight, 120,482; mixed, 83,110; other, 30,142; total, 305,338 miles. 
Passengers carried, 51,905; tons of freight moved, 85,315. Total earnings, $420,867.62; 
total expenses, $136,849.64. Net earnings, $284,817.98. Paid interest on bonds, 
$266,781.88. Balance, surplus for year, $17,236.10. 

Financial statement. — Capital stock, $100,000; funded debt, first mortgage 5 per 
cent. 50-year bonds, due November i, 1938, interest payable May and November 
(authorized $25,000 per mile), $9,750,000; total stock and bonds. $9,850,000. The bonds 
are $1,000 each coupon, with privilege of registration, and are secured by first mort- 
gage on all of the property of the company. 



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MEXICO. 



Annual meeting, first Tuesday in September, at 40 and 42 Wall street. New York, 
N. Y. Interest on bonds is payable at the office of the trustee of bonds and registrar 
of stock. Central Trust Co., New Yark, N. Y. 

Directors. — Geronimo Trevifto, Monterey, Mexico; T. S. Bullock, V. A. Wilder, 
John Branch, Frank Rudd, Nfew York, N. Y.; J. J. Fisher, St. Louis, Missouri; 
Emeterio de la Garza, City of Mexico, Mexico. Government directors: Francisco 
Olivares, Nicholas Regules, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

Geronimo Trevaflo, president, Monterey, Mexico; T. S. Bullock, first vice-presi- 
dent, New York, N. Y.; J. J. Fisher, second vice-president, St. Louis, Missouri; 
Emeterio de la Garza, third vice-president and general attorney. City of Mexico, 
Mexico; V. A. Wilder, secretary and treasurer. New York, N. Y.; J. A. Robertson, 
general manager, Monterey, Mexico; William H. Wentworth, chief engineer, Mon- 
terey, Mexico; Samuel Bingaman, comptroller. New York, N. Y.; W. H. Lingard, 
auditor, Monterey, Mexico. 

Principal office and address, 40 and 42 Wall street, New York, N. Y. Executive 
office, Monterey, Mexico. 

SINALOA AND DURANGO RAILROAD COMPANY (LIMITED). 

Line of road: Altata. Mexico, to Culiacan, Mexico, 38.5 miles. Sidings, 3 miles; 
guage, 4 feet, %% inches; rail (steel, 38.5 miles), 40 pounds. 

History. — The Sinaloa and Durango Railroad Company, Limited, was chartered 
under the laws of the State of Massachusetts in i38i; road opened February 12, 1883. 
The company's charter was amended in 1888, authorizing the construction of a road 
from Mazatlan to Guaymas, and promising a subsidy of $8,000 per kilometre, payable 
in 6 per cent, bonds. 

Rolling stock. — Locomotive engines, 2. Cars: passenger, 4; freight (box, 10; platform, 
20), 30; total cars, 34; also 6 service cars. 

Operations for year ending December 2,^, 1890. — Earnings, $84,617.87; expenses, $84,- 
048.09; deficit from operations, $1,969.78. 

Financial statement, December 31, 1890. — Subscriptions, $518,130; subsidy account, 
$557»343; bills and accounts payable, $45,512.01; profit and loss, $94,914.24; total, 
$1,215,899.25. Contra: Cost of road, etc., $1,102,269.05; equipment, $54,577.71; 
marine property, $39,475.60; current accounts, $19,576.89; total, $1,215,899.25. On 
April 30, 1884, the capital stock was reduced from the nominal sum of $800,000 to 
$20,000 by decree of the Massachusetts Supreme Court. None of it has yet been 
issued. 

Annual meeting, Tuesday following first Monday in April. 

Directors, elected April '], 1891. — S. W. Richardson, J. G. Stetson, F. B. Beaumont, 
Boston, Massachusetts; J. H. Brooks, Milton, Massachusetts; William H. Hill, 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 

R. R. Symon, vice-president and general manager, London, England, and New 
York, N. Y.; S. W. Richardson, treasurer, Boston, Massachusetts; George R» Doug- 
lass, general superintendent, Culiacan, Mexico; F. E. James, clerk, Boston, Massa> 
chusetts. 

Principal office and address, 40 Water street, Boston, Massachusetts. 



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MEXICO. 335 

SONORA RAILWAY COMPANY. LIMITED. 

Line of road, Guaymas, Mexico, northward to Nogales, Mexico, 262.41 miles. 

History. — ^The Sonora Railway Company, Limited, opened its road to Hermosillo, 
90 miles, November, 1881, and to Nogales on October 25, 1882. This line is owned 
by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 Railroad Company, and with the New Mexico 
and Arizona Railroad forms the Sonora Division of the Atchison Company's system of 
roads. 

Operations are included in those of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 Railroad 
Company and separate statistics are not obtainable. 

Financial statement, December 31, 1888 (latest furnished). — Capital stock $5,248,000; 
funded debt first mortgage 7 per cent. Thirty-year gold bonds, due January i, 1910, 
interest payable January and July at the National Revere Bank, Boston, interest 
guarantied by the Atchison Company, $5,248,000; deferred liabilities, $1,406,206.72; 
coupons due and accrued, $508,095; sundry accounts, $67,173,77; subsidy account with 
Mexican Government, $1,092,775.44 — total, $13,570,250.93. Contra: Cost of property, 
$10,972,796.98; Monte de Piedad, $100,000; deposited in Boston, account of coupons, 
$143,115; sundry accounts and cash items, $238,551.44; profit and loss, $2,115,787.51 — 
total, $13,570,250.93. The Atchison owns all of the stock of this company. The total 
amount of cash subsidy in American currency earned from the Mexican Government 
on account of the construction of the road is $2,570,530. Of this amount there has' 
been paid, to December 31, 1883, $1,092,775.44, leaving still due $1,477,754.56. No 
subsidy was collected in 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, or 1888. 

Under the reorganization of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 Railroad Company, 
the first-mortgage bonds were exchanged for new securities as. follows : Each $1,000 in 
old bonds received, $300 in new 4's, and $960 in new income 5's. 

Annual meeting, first Wednesday in April. Bonds listed on the Boston Stock 
Exchange. 

Directors {elected April 20, 1891). — Allen Manvel, Chicago, III.; B. P. Cheney, G. L. 
Goodwin, Warren Sawyer, John P. Whitehead, Alden Speare, O. W. Peabody, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; R. R. Symon, London, England; Geo. C. Magoun, J. J. McCook, Wm. 
Libbey, New York, N. Y.; David Fergusson, Sebastian Camacho, Mexico, Mexico. 
Government Directors : F. H. Garcia, Jos6 Julian Gutierrez. 

Allen Manvel, president, Chicago, III.; J. W. Reinhart, vice president and auditor, 
Boston, Mass.; Robert R. Symon, second vice president, London, England; secretary, 
L. C. Deming, Boston, Mass.; treasurer, Geo. L. Goodwin, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Principal office and address in United States: 95 Milk Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

THE MEXICAN INTERNATIONAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Miles. 
Main line of road : Ciudad Porfirio Diaz (formerly Piedras Negras), Mexico, 

to Torreon, Mexico 383. 1 1 

Lampazos Branch : Completed from near Sabinas Station on main line to 

Hondo 12.31 

San Pedro Branch : Homos to San Pedro 14-35 

Total length of road constructed and in operation, December 31, 1890. . . . 409.77 
Gauge, 4 feet 8^ inches. Rail (steel) 54 pounds. 



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33^ 



MEXICO. 



History, — This company was organized December 9, 1882, under special charter from 
the State of Connecticut. In 1883 it acquired certain concessions granted by the Gov- 
ernment of Mexico under date of June 7, 1881, November 4, 1881, and April 21, 1882, 
which authorized the construction and operation of a line of railroad and telegraph be- 
tween the City of Mexico and the Rio Grande, terminating at or near Ciudad Porfirio 
Diaz (formerly Piedras Negras) with the right to construct another line from a con- 
venient point on the main line to some point on the Gulf of Mexico between Matamo- 
ros and Vera Cruz; also another line to the Pacific Ocean at some point between 
Mazatlan and Zihuatanejo, and also such branches as the company may deem desirable 
subject to the approval of the Department of Public Works, and not to exceed 100 
miles each in length. 

The road and its appurtenances are to be exempt from taxation for 50 years, and 
materials required for the construction, operation, and repair of the road are free from 
import or other duties. No subvention is granted, but the Government has obligated 
itself not to give a subvention to any other line of railroad within 50 miles on each side 
of the line so authorized. 

About 70 miles, extending from Ciudad Porfirio Diaz (formerly Piedras Negras) to 
Sabinas and including the part within Mexican territory of the International Bridge 
over the Rio Grande, were completed in 1883. In 1884, 89.37 miles of the main line 
were completed, and also 10.84 miles of the Lampazos branch, the latter thus reaching 
the coal fields of San Felipe. The track of the main line was completed January 12, 
i888, to Torreon, whei'e connection is made with the Mexican Central Railroad. The 
operation of the road to Torreon was commenced March i, 1888. The San Pedro 
branch was built in 1890. 

Rolling stock. — Locomotive engines, 33. Cars — passenger, 14; baggage, mail, and 
express, 6; freight (box, 429; flat, 157; stock, loi; coal, 503; caboose, 15), 1,205; total, 
1,225. Also 17 water, 6 boarding, 2 officers', i pile-driver, i wrecking, cars. 

Financial statement y March i, 1888. — Capital stock, $11,835,500. Funded debt, first 
mortgage 6 per cent. Fifty-year gold bonds, interest March and September. Series 
"A" $5,000,000, due March i, 1934; series "B", $4,742,000 due September i, 1937. 

Directors {elected April 12, 1890). — C. P. Huntington, George Howes, James Steuart 
Mackie, Charles Babbidge, Edward St. John, Charles Crocker, Lynde Harrison. 

C. P. Huntington, president, New York, N. Y.; E. St. John, vice president. New 
York, N. Y.; treasurer, F. H. Davis, New York; secretary, Jas. Steuart Mackie, New 
York; general manager, L. M. Johnson, Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, Mexico. 

General offices: 23 Broad Street, New York, N. Y.; Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, Mexico. 



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MEXICO. 337 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 

NEW YORK AND CUBA MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY (WARD LINE). 

James E. Ward & Co., general agents; office 113 Wall street, New York City. 

Steamers leave from Piers 16 and 17, East River, New York. Weekly service between 
New York, Progreso, Campeche, Laguna, Frontera, Veracruz, Tuxpam, and Tampico. 
Passage rate from New York, first class, to Progreso, $65; Campeche, $75; Laguna, 
$75; Frontera, $80; Tampico, $80; Tuxpam, $85; Veracruz, $75; Mexico City, $80. 
Second class, to Progreso, $40; Laguna, $45 ; Frontera, Tampico, Tuxpam, Veracruz, 
and Mexico City, $50. 

Vessels, 
Yutnuri, 3,500 tons, Capt. Thomas S. Curtis. 
Orizaba, 3,500 tons, Capt. J. Mcintosh. 
Yucatan, 3,500 tons, Capt. J. W. Reynolds. 
City of Washington, 2,700 tons, Capt. J. B. Allen. 
M. Moran, transfer steamer at Progreso. 
Manteo, 580 tons, transfer steamer for Campeche, Laguna, and Frontero. 

PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY. 

H. J. Bullay, general superintendent ; office, pier, foot of Canal street, 

New York City. 

Steamers sail from pier, foot of Canal street. North River, New York, the ist, loth, 

and 20th of each month (Sundays excepted), for Colon, thence by Panama Railroad 

to Panama, from which port steamers of Pacific Steam Navigation Company and South 

American Steamship Company leave for ports on west coast of South America. 

Passage Rates, 



New York to — 

Acapulco $160 

Manzanillo 160 

San Bias 160 

Mazatlan 160 



New York to — 

San Benito $160 

Tonala 160 

Salina Cruz 160 

Port Angel 160 

Vessels. 
From New York to Colon : 

City of Para, 3,532 tons, Capt. J. L. Lockwood. 

Newport, 2,735 tons, Capt. C. C. Lima. 

Colon, 2,686 tons, Capt. F. Henderson. 
From San Francisco to Panama : 

Acapulco, 2,572 tons, Capt. W. G. Pitts. 

City of New York, 3,019 tons, Capt. F. H. Johnston 

City of Sydney, 3,017 tons, Capt. D. E. Friel. 

Colima, 2,906 tons, Capt. D. S. Austin. 

San Bias, 2,075 tons, Capt. J. M. Cavarly. 

San Juan, 2,076 tons, Capt. James McCrae. 
From Panama to Acapulco, Mexico : 
. Clyde, 2,017 tons, Capt. J. M. Doyle. 

Starbuck, 2,157 tons, Capt. W. H. McLean. 
57a 22 



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338 MEXICO. 

COMPANIA TRANSATLANTIC A ESPASfOLA. 

Messrs. J. M. Ceballos & Co., agents; office, Np. 80 Wall street, New York City. 

Steamers sail from Pier 41, North River (foot of Hoboken street), New York, the 
loth, 13th, 20th, and 30th of each month. 

Passage Rates, United States Currency. 

NeWYork to — j New York to — 

Progreso $65 Vera Cruz $75 

Campeche 69 ' Tampico 80 

Frontera 73 I Tuxpam 85 

Vessels. 

Baldomero Yglesias^ 1,507 tons, Capt. Pedro Bayona. 
Ciudad Condal, 2,576 tons, Capt. Miguel Carmona. 
San Augustin, 2,359 tons, Capt. Sebastian Carmona. 
Habana, 2,597 tons, Capt. Manuel Deschamps. 
Vessels of this line sail from Vera Cruz on the 8th, i8th, and 28th of each month for 
■ Havana, New York, and Europe. 

COMPAGNIE G^NERALE TRANSATLANTIQUE (FRENCH LINE). 

Monthly sailings from Havre to Vera Cruz; also once a month from St. Nazaire. 
Fare: Havre, etc., to Veracruz, first class, $200; second class, $180; steerage, $60 
and $55. 

HAMBURG-AMERICAN PACKET COMPANY. 

Steamers of this line touch once or twice a month at Veracruz for European* ports. 
ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY. 

Steamers of this line sail from Southampton, England, stopping at Veracruz twice 
a month. 

HARRISON LINE. 

Steamers of this line sail from Liverpool once or twice a month for Vera Cruz, touch- 
ing also at Progreso and Tampico. 

WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC STEAMSHIP COMPANY. 

Steamers sail from Veracruz 20th and 25th of each month for London and Liver- 
pool, via New Orleans. On the trips from Europe stoppages are usually made at 
Progreso and Tampico. 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC COMPANY (MORGAN LINE). 

Steamers leave Morgan City, Louisiana, for Veracruz, stopping at Galveston, Texas, 
twice a month. Time about 60 hours from Galveston, 80 hours from New Orleans (via 
Morgan City). 

Fare: New Orleans to Veracruz, $40; deck, $20. New Orleans to Mexico City, 
$51.70; deck, $29. Galveston to Veracruz, $40; deck, $20. 



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MEXICO. 339 

COASTWISE STEAMERS. 

GULF COAST. 

Steamers Campechano and Jbero sail between Veracruz and Progreso, stopping at 
Celestum, Campeche, Champoton, Laguna, and Frontera. 

Steamer Tabasqueho sails from Progreso for Campeche, Laguna, Frontera, Veracruz, 
and Coatzacoalcos. 

Steamer Fenix sails from Progreso for Campeche, Laguna, and Frontera. 

Steamer /. W. Wilson runs between Veracruz and Tuxpam, and between Tuxpam 
and Tecolutla and Cazones. 

Steamer Tlacotdlpam runs between Veracruz, TlacotAlpam, and Alvaredo. 

PACIFIC COAST. 

There are two lines of steamers in trade between the Pacific ports, viz: Steamers of 
the Sonora Railroad and the Alexander, making the ports of Guaymas, La Paz, Santa 
Rosalia, Aguiabampo, Topolobampo, Mazatlan, Perihuete, San Bias, and Manzanillo. 



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INDEX 



A. 

Page. 

Acapulco, list of merchants in 222 

Additions to the constitution 201 

Agricultural products, yield of 39 

resources 29 

Agriculture, methods of cultivation . 41 

Aguascalientes, list of merchants in . 223 

Alamos, list of merchants in 225 

Alcabala, origin and history of 119 

Aliens, obligation incurred by, in 

acquiring lands 88 

Allende, list of merchants in 225 

Ameca, list of merchants in 225 

Amecameca, church of Sacro Monte 

(illustration) 115 

American capital, amount of, in- 
vested in silver mines 77 

Amparo, writ of, description of. . . . 122 

Animal industries, statistics of ... . 48 

Appeals* court of, official directory. 207 

Architecture, styles of 107 

Area, wealth, and population 15 

Armies, strength of 24 

Asphaltum deposits 82 

Atlixco, list of merchants in. 225 

Augustin I, crowning of Yturbide 

as emperor 8 

Autlan, list of merchants in 225 

Aztecs, government of 5 

migration of 4 

overthrow of government by 

Cortez 6 

settlements by 5 



Page. 

Baptism of the first natives 109 

Baptist missions 116 

Breweries, production of 56 

Buildings, construction of 107 

C. 

Camargo, list of merchants in 225 

Campeche, list of merchants in. . . . 225 

Carmen, list of merchants in 226 

Cattle industries, description of . . . 46 

range, estimate for establish- 
ing a 46 

Chalchicomula, list of merchants in 226 
Chapel of the Little Hill, Guade- 
loupe 76 

Chapultepec (illustration) 90 

Chiapas, list of merchants in 227 

Chihuahua, list of merchants in 227 

Chilpancingo, list of merchants in. . 228 

Churches, number of in 

Cities, population of principal 16 

Citizenship, definition of 180 

rights and obligations, of 181 

Ciudad Guerrero, list of merchants 

in 229 

Ciudad Jerez, list of merchants in. . 229 

Ciudad Juarez, list of merchants in. 229 

Ciudad Parras, list of merchants in . 230 

Ciudad Sayula, list of merchants in . 230 

Coal, discoveries of 78 

deposits 78 

production of 79 

341 



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342 



INDEX. 



Coa?ting-trade ports 149 

Coastwise steamers 338 

Cocoa, production of 32 

Coffee, production of 31 

Coinage, table of coins 154 

weight and fineness of 158 

Colima, list of merchants in 231 

Colonies, statistics of 100 

Colonists, contracts for introduction 

of foreign 97 

exemptions of 93 

government aid to 95 

Colonization laws 91 

survey of lands for 92 

and Industry, Department of 
Public Works, official direc- 
tory 205 

Colotlan, list of merchants in 232 

Commerce, Department of Commu- 
nications and, official direc- 
tory 206 

Communications and Commerce, 
Department of, official direc- 
tory 206 

Compagnie G6n6rale Transatl an- 
tique, sailing dates 338 

Compafiia Traiisatlantica Espafiola, 

description of 337 

Congress, assembling of first 7 

assembling of second 8 

assembling of third 9 

assembling of first constitutional 9 

composition of 183 

general powers 187 

permanent deputation of 191 

sessions of 22 

. Constitution of the Government. . . 22 

additions to the 201 

adopted February 5, 1857 25 

outline of 172 

summary of 25 

translation of, in full 168 

Consular fees 144 

invoices, forms 146 

Consulates in America, list of offi- 
cials 203 



Pa^e. 
Convent where Maximilian was con- 
fined (illustration) 60 

Cordova, list of merchants in 232 

Corn, cultivation of 39 

production of 38 

Cortez, Hernando, landing of 6 

overthrow of Aztec monarchy 

by 6 

Cosala, list of merchants in 233 

Cost of living 103 

Cotton fabrics, manufactures of . . . 51" 

production of 32 

Courts, composition and authority 

of 195 

official directory 206 

Credits, system of 136 

Crockery, manufacture of 57 

Cuauhtemoc, last Aztec monarch. . 6 

statue of (illustration) 125 

Cuemavaca, list of merchants in. . . 233 

Culiacan, list of merchants in 234 

Cultivation, method of agricultural . 41 

Custom house regulations # 142 

houses, list of 149 

house warehouse (illustration). 142 

D. 

Daily papers, list of 213 

Deputies, Chamber of, election and 

constitution of 22 

list of members 208 

Directory of merchants 222 

Distilleries, production of 55 

Dues for shipping 150 

Durango, list of merchants 235 

E. 

Early history 3 

Economic Congress, recommenda- 
tions of. . . 118 

Empire, overthrow of 8 

Ensefiada de Todos Santos, list of 

merchants in 236 

Entry, ports of 149 

Episcopal missions 113 



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INDEX. 



343 



Page. 
Europeans, credits given to Mexi- 
can merchants by 139 

trade relations with 137 

Executive of the Government 202 

power, constitutional provis- 
ions 23,192 



Fauna, description of 20 

Federal Palace from the north (il- 
lustration) 21 

Fees payable to consuls, 142 

Fiber plants, growth of 40 

Fishing industries 50 

Fl'ora, description of 18 

Foreign relations, official directory. 202 

Foreigners, definition of 181 

expulsion of 27 

Form for manifest 152 

• for consular invoices 146 

France, war with 9 

Fresnillo, list of merchants in 236 

Fruits, production of 34 

G. 

Geographical situation 15 

Gold coins, issue of 154 

Government of the Republic 22 

under Spanish rule 6 

Governments, list of 12 

Grito de Dolores. 6 

Guadalajara, list of merchants in. . 237 
Guadeloupe, chapel of the Little 

Hill (illustration) 76 

Guanajuato, list of merchants in. . . 244 

Guaymas, list of merchants in 246 

Guerrero, Vicente, agreement with 
Yturbide to proclaim inde- 
pendence 8 

Gulf coast, steamers engaged in 

trade on ' 338 



M. 



Hamburg-American Packet Line, 
sailing dates 



33 



Page. 

Hammock-making industry 50 

Harbor regulations 150 

Harbors, list of principal 17 

Harrison Steamship Line, sailing 

dates 338 

Hermosillo, list of merchants in. . . 247 
Hidalgo del Parral, list of mer- 
chants in 248 

Hidalgo y Castilla, Don Miguel, 

leader of revolution 6 

death of 7 

Hides and skins, trade in 48 

Historical sketch 3 

Huamantla, list of merchants in. . . 249 



Illustrations : 

Benito Juarez 11 

Chapel of the Little Hill, Gua- 
deloupe 76 

Chapultepec Castle from the 

east 90 

Convent at Queretaro where 

Maximilian was confined. . . 60 

Federal Palace from the north . 22 

Maximilian 10 

Mexican building at Paris Ex- 
position 158 

custom-house warehouse. . 142 

Plaza of the Inquisition 43 

Popocatepetl 18 

Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl 

from cathedral towers 28 

President Diaz . . . .' Frontispiece 

Pulque gatherer 37 

Sacro Monte Church, Ameca- 

meca 115 

Statue of Cuauhtemoc. . ; 125 

Tree of the Sorrowful Night. . 19 

Tunnel on Mexican Railroad . . 102 

Immigration, early attempts at 91 

laws 91 

Independence, wars for 6 

India rubber, production of 33 

Indians, characteristics of ! . 44 

Industries and manufactures 44 



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344 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Industry, Department of Public 
Works, Colonization and, 

official directory 205 

Inquisition, tribunal of, established no 
Interior, Department ot, official di- 
rectory .• 204 

Inventions, laws for obtaining pat- 
ents 159 

Invoices for shipments to Mexico. . 142 

Irapuato, list of merchants in 249 

Iron, production and manufacture of 57 

Islands, colonization of 98 

inducements for settlement of . . 99 

Ixtlan del Rio, list of merchants in . . 250 



Jalapa, list of merchants in 250 

Jalisco, Lords of, overthrow of Tol- 

tecs by 4 

Jesuits, expulsion of in 

Juarez, Benito, President, portrait of 11 
Judicial power, constitutional pro- 
visions 195 

Judiciary, official directory 206 

Justice and Public Instruction, De- 
partment of, official directory . 205 



La Barca, list of merchants in 251 

Labor, wages to 103 

Lagos, list of merchants in 251 

Lakes, principal 17 

Lands. (See public lands.) 

La Paz, list of merchants in 252 

Laws, enactment of 185 

Legation in America, list of officials . 202 
Legislative power, constitutional 

provisions 22, 182 

Leon, list of merchants in 252 

Linares, list of merchants in 254 

Living, cost of 103 

Lixiviation process of mining 72 

M. 



Maguey, production and cultivation 
of 



36 



Page. 

Manifest, form of 152 

Manufactures, miscellaneous 58 

Matamoros, list of merchants in 254 

Maximilian, attempted establish- 
ment of empire under 10 

crowned emperor 10 

death of.; 11 

portrait of 10 

Mazatlan, list of merchants in . 256 

Measures, metric system in use 155 

old system i55 

Mercantile directory 222 

Merida, list of merchants in 257 

Methodist Episcopal missions 114 

Mexican Central Railway, descrip- 
tion of 326 

Mexican International Railroad 

Company, description of 335 

Mexican National Railroad, descrip- 
tion of 329 

Mexican Northern Railway Com- 
pany, description of 332 

Mexican Railway Company, descrip- 
tion of 330 

Mexican Southern Railway Com- 
pany, description of '. 332 

Mexico, origin of name 5 

City, list of merchants in 260 

municipal government 204 

Mina, Francis Javier, revolution 

under 7 

capture and death of 7 

Mineral resources 61 

Mines and mining 61 

exemption of, from taxation ... 83 

Mining code 74 

districts 63 

encouragenjent of 62 

patio process 70 

lixiviation process 72 

smelting establishments ... 73 

Mints, coinage in 69 

Morelia, list of merchants in 287 

Morelos, capture and death of 7 

Morelos y Pavon, Jos6 Maria, cap- 
ture of Acapulco by ^ 7 



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INDEX. 



345 



Page. 
Monterey and Mexican Gulf Rail- 
way Company,description of. 333 

Monterey, list of merchants in 285 

Monthly periodicals, list of 219 

Morgan Steamship Line, sailing 

dates 338 

N. 

Navy, Department of War and, of- 
ficial directory 206 

New Spain, name given by Cortez. . 6 

Newspapers, list of 213 

New York and Cuba Mail Steam- 
ship Company, description 

of 336 

Nuevo Laredo, list of merchants in. 288 

O. 

Oaxaca, list of merchants in 289 

Official directory 202 

Oranges, production of 35 

Orizaba, list of merchants in 290 

Pachuca, list of merchants in 292 

Pacific coast, steamers engaged in 

trade 339 

Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 

description of 337 

Packages, manner of preparing for 

shipment (illustration) 142 

Paper, manufactures of 55 

Paris Exposition, Mexican build- 
ing at (illustration) 153 

Parishes, number of iii 

Patent laws 159 

Patio process of mining 70 

Payne, Henry C, chapter on Mexi- 
can trade by 134 

Peculiarities of the Mexican trade. 134 

Penjamo, list of merchants in 293 

Periodicals, list of 213 

Permanent deputation of Congress . 191 

Petroleum deposits 82 

Physical peculiarities 17 

Pineapples, production of 36 



Page. 

Pinos, list of merchants in 294 

Plaza of the Inquisition (illustra- 
tion) 43 

Popocatapetl and Ixaccihuatl, from 

Cathedral towers 28 

view of, from San Pedro 18 

Population of Mexico 15 

of principal cities 16 

of States 16 

Portazgo tax 122 

Ports of entry, list of 149 

Pottery, manufacture of 57 

Precious metals, coinage of 69 

production of 69 

stones, deposits of 69 

Presbyterian missions 114 

President, duties of 192 

election of 192 

Presidents, list of 12 

Printing press, establishment of the 

first, in the New World 6 

Progreso, list of merchants in 294 

Protestant churches, table of 116 

missions, establishment of . . . . 112 
Provisional governments, list of . . 12 
Public credit. Department of Treas- 
ury and, official directory. . . 206 
functionaries, constitutional re- 
sponsibilities of 197 

Instruction, Department of Jus- 
tice and, official directory. . . 205 

land system and laws 84 

Public lands. (See also Colonists.) 

Public classification of 89 

Government prices for 89 

obligations incurred by aliens 

acquiring 88 

provisions for settlement 86 

survey of 85 

Public works, Colonization and In-: 
dustry, Department of, official 

directory 205 

Puebla, list of merchants in 294 

Puerto de Manzanillo, list of mer- 
chants in 300 

Puerto Mulege, list of merchants in 300 



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346 



INDEX. 



Pulque gatherer (illustration) 
origin of 



Page. 

27 
4 



Quer6taro, convent in which Maxi- 
milian was confined (illustra- 
tion) 60 

list of merchants in 301 

R. 

Railway communication with the 

United States 134 

lines, description of 326 

time tables 324 

Railways, American interests in . . . 140 
Reciprocity treaty with the United 

States, details of 126 

lapse of 132 

Regents, list of 12 

Religion, expulsion of Jesuits in 

foundingof the Roman Catholic 109 

Protestant missions 112 

Republic established 9 

Responsibility of public function- 
aries 197 

Revenues 24 

Revolt against Spanish rule 6 

Revolutions 6 

Rights, declaration of 176 

Rivers, principal 17 

Rosario, list of merchants in 302 

Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, 

sailing dates 338 

Rubber, production of 33 

s. 

Sacro Monte Chuifch (illustration). . 115 

Salamanca, list of merchants in 303 

Salt, deposits of 68 

Saltillo, list of merchants in 303 

Salvatierra, list of merchants in 305 

San Bias, list of merchants in 305 

San Cristobal las Casas, list of mer- 
chants in 306 

San Juan Bautista, list of merchants 

in 306 



Page. 

San Juan de Guadalupe, list of mer- 
chants in 307 

San Juan del Rio, list of merchants 

in 30S 

San Juan de Los Largos, list of mer- 
chants in 308 

San Luis de la Paz, list of merchants 

in 309 

San Luis Potosi, list of merchants in 309 

Semimonthly papers, list of 217 

Senate, election and constitution of. 22 

list of members of 207 

School of Mines established 6 

Shell industries 50 

Shippers, instruction to 142 

Shipping dues 150 

form for manifest 152 

requirements of customs laws . . 142 

Silk fabrics, manufactures of 53 

Silver, coinage of 153 

Sinaloa and Durango Railroad Com- 
pany, description of 334 

Smelting establishments * 73 

various processes of 70 

Sonora Railway Company, descrip- 
tion of 335 

Sorrowful night, tree of (illustration) 19 
Southern Pacific Company Steam- 
ship Line, sailing dates 338 

States, area, assessed value, and 

population of 16 

division of the Republic into ... 15 

political organization of ^24 

powers of the 198 

Statue of Cuauhtemoc (illustration). 125 

Steamship communication 326 

lines, description of 336 

Sugar, production of 55 

Supreme court, official directory. . . 206 



Tampico, list of merchants in 311 

Taxation, general provisions 124 

history of the alcabala 119 

history of the portazgo 122 

systems of : 24, 118 



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INDEX. 



347 



Page. 

Tehuacan, list of merchants in 312 

Tehuantepec, list of merchants 

in 313 

Temperature 29 

Tenancingo, list of merchants in. . . 313 
Tenango del Valle, list of mer- 
chants in 314 

Tepic, list of merchants in 314 

Texcoco Lake, first settlement of 

Aztecs on 5 

Teziutlan, list of merchants in 315 

Time tables of railways 324 

Tiztla Guerrero, list of merchants 

in 316 

Tlacotalpan, list of merchants ih. . . 316 

Tlaxcala, list of merchants in 317 

Tobacco, cultivation and manufac- 
ture of. 56 

production of 31 

Toltecs, kingdom of 4 

overthrown by the Lords of 

Jalisco 4 

settlements by 3 

Toluca, list of merchants in 317 

Torreon, list of merchants in 318 

Trade peculiarities 134 

mark laws 165 

Travelers' guide 324 

Treasury and Public Credit, De- 
partment of, official direc- 
tory - 206 

Tree of the Sorrowful Night (illus- 
tration). 19 

Tunnel on Mexican Railroad (illus- 
tration) 102 

Tuxtla, list of merchants 318 



u. 

Page. 

United States, reciprocity treaty with 1 26 

trade relations with 138 

V. 

Vegetable products 30 

Vera Cruz, list of merchants in 318 

Volcanoes 17 

Wages to labor 103 

table of 106 

War and Navy, Department of, offi- 
cial directory. ..." 206 

Ward line of steamships, descrip- 
tion of 336 

Wars with France 9 

with the United States 9 

Wealth of Mexico 15 

Weekly papers, list of 214 

Weights, metric system in use 157 

old system 157 

West India and Pacific Steamship 

Company, sailing dates 338 

Wheat, cultivation of 39 

production of 38 

Woolen fabrics, manufactures of. . . 53 

Y. 

Yturbide, Agustin, proclamation of 

independence by 8 

banishment and death of 8 

crowned first emperor 8 

Yucatan, see of, created 109 

Z. 

Zacatecas, list of merchants in 321 

Zamora, list of merchants in 320 



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