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Born April 22, 1817 ; died March 18, 1892. Biographical sketch page 340. 



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idikan Pioneer and Historical 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1892, by the 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



In presenting this the eighteenth volume of Pioneer and Historical 
Collections, the committee of historians feels confident that it will be 
found equal to any which have preceded it, in the value and interest 
of the historical matter here gathered. 

This volume is not of itself a history, but a part of the " Collections " 
from which a history of Michigan may be written. These papers relate 
to its earlier and later settlements, to the character of the settlers 
from those of the earliest French to those of the latter days, to the 
hardships they endured, their character and the wonderful development of 
the resources of the State through their agency, including the establish- 
ment of its schools, educational and charitable institutions, which the 
pioneers founded and fostered. 

These " Collections " are of great value from the fact that the material 
has been obtained from the actual pioneers, the men who participated 
in the transactions and helped to make the history. 

The committee tenders the thanks of the society to all who have so 
generously assisted in preserving and presenting the valuable papers 
published in this volume. 



Preface iii 

Contents v 

List of officers elected, June 4, 1891 rii 

List of members, continued from page IX, vol. 17 ix 

Minutes of Annual Meeting, 1891 1 

Report of the Recording Secretary 30 

Report of the Corresponding Secretary 33 

Report of the Treasurer 84 

Report of the Committee of Historians 85 

Report of the Memorial Committee: 

Allegan county Don C. Henderson . 105 

Bay county W. R. McCormick . 108 

Branch county Harvey Haynes Ill 

Calhoun county John F. Hinman 116 

Eaton county David B. Hale 185 

Emmet county Isaac D. Toll 145 

Genesee county Josiah W. Begole - 146 

Ingham county C. B. Stebbins 168 

Ionia county Albert F. Morehouse . 180 

Jackson county Josiah B. Frost 184 

Kalamazoo county Henry Bishop 215 

Kent county Wm. N. Cook - 227 

Lenawee county Francis A. Dewey 251 

Monroe county 254 

Oakland county O. Poppleton -- 262 

Saginaw county Chas. W, Grant .- 285 

St. Clair county Mrs. B. C. Farrand - 297 

St. Joseph county Calvin H. Starr 298 

Tnscola county Wm. A. Heartt 299 

Washtenaw county 801 

Wayne county J. Wilkie Moore -. --- 804 

President's Address John Harris Forster -- -. 809 

Letter from Dr. O. C. Comslock 312 

Memoir of Lois B. Adams A. D. P. Van Buren.. . 312 

Memoir of Hon. Henry Fralick Rev. R. C. Crawford 318 

Memoir of Joseph Marvin Sterling Lieutenant Governor John Strong 321 

Memoir of Hovey K. Clarke Detroit Tribune r . 326 

Memoir of Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley 328 

Memoir of Judge Isaac Peckham Christiancy Detroit Tribune - - 338 

Biographical Sketch of Hon. O. Poppleton Bu himself 

Biographical Sketch of Hon. William F. Jenison ._ 344 

Sketch of Uzziel Putnam, Sr --- 347 

Sketch of William Baldwin Jenkins -- 848 

Sketch of Lewis Edwards - - 350 

Twice a Pioneer Henry N. Lawrence - 

Pioneer Recollections James If. Lawrence 360 

The Connection of the Pilgrims with Michigan Institutions Judge Albert Miller - 374 



War Times in the Copper Mines John Harris Forster 871 

The Presa of Michigan A Fifty Years View S. B. McCracken 382 

The old Academy and Seminary the Classic Schools of oar Pioneer days A. Z). P. Van Buren. 897 

History of Co-Edncation in the University of Michigan M^rs. L. H. Stone 415 

Pioneer Farming A. C. Glidden - 418 

Michigan then and Michigan now, 1825-1891 Rev. R. C. Crawford 422 

Early Recollections Mrs. Beisey Webber.... 428 

Residents of Bay County in 1847 Judge Albert Miller 48? 

The Old Court House in Saginaw Judge Albert Miller _ 445 

Settlement of Williamstown Pioneer Life Wm. M, Carr 448 

Address, to his Wife on the Fiftieth Anniversy of their Wedded Life Goodenough Townsend 453 

Early Recollections Elias S. Woodman.' 455 

Childhood's Recollections of Detroit Mrs. E. M. 8. Stewart 458 

Address at Annual Meeting of the Jackson County Pioneer Society, June 12, 1891-Hon. Eugene Pringle 465 
Address at the Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Organization of the Baptist Church at Portland 

Albert F. Morehouse --. - 471 

Poem read at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the Baptist Church at Portland Mrs. S. M. 

Williams 482 

Eearly History of Macomb County Hon. Warren Parker --. 485 

Short History of Benzie County Charles Burmeister -. . 502 

Some of the Early Settlers of Northfield, Washtenaw County George Button 507 

Battle of the Bee-Tree at Button's Corners, Northfield, Washtenaw County George Button 509 

An Old Time Murder in Northfield George Sutton '. 511 

Some of the Beginnings of St. Joseph County Calvin H. Starr... 513 

First Settlement of Stnrgis Prairie Kalamazoo Telegraph. 518 

Early Elections in Farmington, Oakland County P. D. Warner 521 

Landscape Paintings Mary Foreman. 525 

Pioneer Picnic at Long Lake, Kalamazoo County, August 15, 1889 584 

Pioneer Picnic at Long Lake, Kalamazoo County, August 14,1890 540 

Our Union Schools The People's College The Development of our Second Pioneer Decade A. D. 

P. Van Buren...'. ..- - 561 

Reminiscences of Kalamazoo Jesse Turner 570 

A Glimpse of Kalamazoo in 1846 George Torrey 589 

Early Days of the First Presbyterian and Congregational Churches of Kalamazoo 592 

History of the Congregational Church of Kalamazoo . 594 

Primitive Kalamazoo ..- - 595 

Reminiscences of Kalamazoo as a Colony Ira Smith 597 

Our Forerunners. Something about a vanished people 600 

Some Beginnings in Kalamazoo . 605 

Settlement of Branch County Branson Journal 608 

Fourth of July Celebrations at Jackson in 1829 and 1830 Jackson Citizen 612 

Old Homesteads and Old Residents of Jackson Jackson Courier 614 

Annual Meeting and Picnic of Jackson County Pioneers Jackson Patriot - 616 

Detroit in 1796 Detroit Free Press - 619 

Tales and Traditions of Northern Michigan. Mackinac Island, King Strang the Mormon, and 

O'Malley the Irish Dragon Detroit Free Press 623 

The Murder of King Straus Detroit Free Press 626 

A Michigan Monarchy Sketch of James J. Strang and the Mormon Kingdom on Beaver Island 

New York Times -... --- 628 

8t. Marys River and Sanlt Ste. Marie Detroit Free Press 638 

The Island of Mackinac Detroit Free Press ,- 641 

Beautiful Belle Isle Detroit Free Press - --- 646 

Some Lives worth living Detroit Tribune 649 

Ypsilanti Academy Melvin D. Osband -- 657 

Edward Tiffin's opinion of Michigan in 1815 Wm. R. Bates - - 660 

Why Birmingham was not located on the Jas. R. Cooper Farm 0. Poppleton - 662 

Fifty years continuously in Business in Birmingham O. Poppleton 663 

History of Fort Gratiot Detroit Free Frees -- 667 

Michigan's Greatest Thief Some romantic incidents in the life of Silas Doty 676 



ELECTED JUNE 4, 1891. 


John H. Forster Williamston. 


Henry N. Lawrence Lansing. 


George H. Greene Lansing. 


Merritt L. Coleman . Lansing. 


Allegan Don C. Henderson Allegan. 

Barry David G. Robinson Hastings. 

Bay , _.Wm. R. McCormick --Bay City. 

Berrien Thomas Mars Berrien Centre. 

Branch Harvey Haynes Coldwater. 

Calhoun John P. Hinman Battle Creek. 

Cass George T. Shaffer Redfield. 

Clare Henry Woodruff Parwell. 

Clinton Samuel S. Walker... St. Johns. 

Crawford Dr. Oscar Palmer Grayling. 

Eaton David B. Hale Baton Rapids. 

Emmet Isaac D. Toll Petoskey. 

Genesee Josiah W. Begole ._ Flint. 

Grand Traverse Reuben Goodrich Traverse City. 

Hillsdale F. M. Holloway Hillsdale. 

Houghton Thomas B. Dunstan Hancock. 

Ingham C. B. Stebbins Lansing. 

Ionia A. F. Morehouse .-Ionia. 

losco ...Otis E. M. Cutcheon Oscoda. 

Jackson Josiah B. Frost Jackson. 

Kalamazoo.. ..Henry Bishop Kalamazoo. 


Kent William N. Cook Grand Rapids. 

Lapeer Joshua Man waring Lapeer. 

Lenawee Francis A. Dewey Cambridge. 

Livingston Chas. M. Wood Anderson. 

Macomb ....Harvey Mellen Romeo. 

Manistee T. J. Ramsdell . Manistee. 

Marquette Peter White Marquette. 

Montcalm J. P. Shoemaker Amsden. 

Menominee James A. Crozier Menominee. 

Muskegon Henry H. Holt Muskegon. 

Oakland O. Poppleton Birmingham. 

Oceana Oliver .K White.: New Era. 

Ottawa A. S. Kedzier . Grand Haven. 

Saginaw Chas. W. Grant Saginaw, E. S. 

Shiawassee Alonzo H. Owens Venice. 

St. Clair Mrs. Helen W. Farrand Port Huron. 

St. Joseph Hiram Draper Colon. 

Tuscola William A. Heartt .Caro. 

Van Buren Theodatus T. Lyon South Haven. 

Wayne J. Wilkie Moore Detroit. 

Albert Miller Bay City. 

R. C. Crawford Grand Rapids. 

O. M. Barnes Lansing. 


Michael Shoemaker Jackson. 

Chauncey W. Wisner Saginaw, E. S. 

A. D. P. Van Buren Galesburg. 

Frederick Carlisle Detroit. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Tenney, Secretary . Lansing. 





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Lansing, Wednesday, June 3, 1891. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the Michigan Pioneer and His- 
torical Society convened in the Plymouth Congregational church, at 
2 o'clock P. M. 

The president, John H. Forster, called the society to order, and the 
session was opened with prayer by Rev. B. C. Crawford. 

Music a duet was rendered by Mrs. Genevieve Stealy and Miss 
Nora Towne. 

The following officers were present: 

Ex-Presidents Albert Miller, M. H. Goodrich, M. Shoemaker, O. 
Poppleton. President John H. Forster; Recording Secretary Mrs. 
Harriet A. Tenney; Corresponding Secretary Geo. H. Greene; Execu- 
tive Committee Albert Miller, R. C. Crawford, and S. D. Bingham. 
Committee of Historians M. Shoemaker, A. D. P. VanBuren, Harriet 
A. Tenney. Vice Presidents O. Poppleton, C. B. Stebbins, A. F. 
Morehouse, Josiah B. Frost. 

The president then read a short address. 

The annual reports of the recording and corresponding secretaries 
and the treasurer were read and on motion each report was adopted 
and ordered filed. 

Music solo, was sung by Miss Black. 

The report of the committee of historians was read by the chairman, 
M. Shoemaker, and on motion was adopted. 


Music violin solo was rendered by Mrs. Ella W. Shank with piano 
accompaniment by Mrs. Hyatt. 

The reports of the memorial committee by counties, Mr. Geo. H. 
Greene, chairman, were then presented as follows: from Allegan, Bay, 
Branch, Calhoun, Eaton, Emmet, Genesee, Ingham, Ionia, Jackson, 
Kalamazoo, .Kent, Lenawee, Monroe, Oakland, Saginaw, St. Clair, St. 
Joseph, Tuscola, Washtenaw and Wayne. 

The reports were on motion accepted and adopted. 

Rev. R. C. Crawford (Referring (to the decease of John H. Craw- 
ford.) May I say just a word right here. He was my uncle, and yet 
we were boys together. My father was the oldest of a large family 
and he was the youngest. In his boyhood he was a small fellow and 
as full of fun as a toad of warts. He could compose poetry and sing 
it right from the start when he was a boy, and as an illustration of 
his ability in that direction I want to give you an instance. The 
temperance society commenced its work in our township and a Baptist 
deacon by the name of Hall was raising a barn in the summer, an old- 
fashioned bent barn, and he had signed the pledge, and up to that 
date there never had been a building raised in the township of Troy, 
and I presume not in Oakland county, if there had in Michigan, where 
they hadn't whisky. We had put together the bents and Deacon Hall said 
he would raise his barn without whisky or he would not raise it at 
all. Some said he could not do it. He said he would. The afternoon 
came and we gathered, boys and men, and the barn went up, but it 
went up amidst a great deal of hilarity, and a great deal of sport and 
a great many witty sayings, and when they came to put on the rafters, 
the last rafter, they turned it bottom side up and pinned it fast, then 
they run the whole length of the village to try and name the barn. 
They hadn't any bottle of whisky to throw so they took a pail of 
cold water. 

Well, uncle John, boy as he was, was equal to the occasion, and 
previous to this there had been an old Christian preacher through our 
section who used to sing a great deal, and he had got up one of his 
rhymes and had the tune, and he composed a sort of parody on the 
old man's hymn; the old man's hymn was: "Unto you, oh men, I call, 
weeping, wailing, groaning." That is the way it commenced, so uncle 
John gets onto the building and commenced to sing, 

"Unto you, oh men, I call, weeping, wailing, groaning ; 
We have raised a cold water barn for Mr. Hall, 
Weeping, wailing, groaning." 

And so he went on through, went through the whole thing a perfect 


parody on the song. When he got through with his song then the 
question came, what shall we name the barn? Several boys called out 
"Michigan Drought," and they gave three cheers and threw the pail of 
water as far as they could throw it, and that ended the whole affair. 
That is one specimen of his poetic genius. 

" Early reminiscences" was read by Mrs. Betsey Webber, of Lansing. 

The president appointed a committee to nominate officers for the 
ensuing year as follows: M. Shoemaker, O. Poppleton and Albert Miller. 

Music solo, by Miss Florence Seage, with piano accompaniment by 
Prof. S. Ganung. 

On motion the society adjourned until 7 o'clock in the evening. 


The president called the society to order, and prayer was offered by 
Kev. C. H. Beale. 

Music organ voluntary by Prof. Stuart Ganung. 

"War Times in the Copper Mines of the Upper Peninsula" was read 
by John H. Forster. 

Music quartette, a song, was rendered by Mrs. Gene vie ve Stealy, 
Mrs. Emily M. Coleman, Messrs. L. M. Sherwood and John J. Stealy. 

A memoir of Joseph M. Sterling of Monroe, was read by Lieut. Gov. 
John Strong. 

A paper entitled "Settlement of Williamstown," was read by Wm. M. 
Carr of Williamston. 

The president called for five-minute speeches. 

Ex-Governor Alpheus Felch responded as follows: I am sure you 
cannot expect me to make much of a speech, I am too old for that; 
but there is another thing about it, we who have stood the brunt of 
the battle, so far as the progress of the State of Michigan is concerned 
from the early days down to the present time, are never wanting in 
something, at any rate, if we are we don't talk about it. The years 
which have passed since the organization of the State of Michigan, I 
might say, before the territorial organization, for I was here under the 
territorial organization, the years which have passed since that time 
are full of history. They are full of more than that to those who are 
the ancient regime, that is, who are of that date. They are full of 
interesting matters of a personal character. I come to these meetings 
of ours, of the pioneer society. I come because I love to meet those 
who were in the early days of Michigan, among its prominent and 
active men; I come because I know those men have performed that 


work that is worthy of the pen of the historian; I come because I 
know the work which they have done, the evidences of the work which 
they have done is all around us. 

I remember the State, I remember it very well, when it was almost 
all a wilderness. I have passed through this country on horse-back 
when there was no other means of getting through. I have seen it in its 
state of nature, and now I see it totally changed. Who has done this 
work? Who has built up the State? Who has cultivated the land? 
Who has put the ships on the waters? Who has opened the mines? 
Who but the pioneers of this country, and is it not due to them, is it not 
right to say and think that they have performed a most noble work? Not 
work merely for their own personal interest, not that they have made 
themselves millionaires or famous men and wearing titles such as British 
men are accustomed to wear; not that they have done that, but they have 
done more. They have built up the State from nothing, and they have 
built it up into greatness. That is what I think of the pioneers of this 

Mr. President what is history? What is it but that which tells of 
what pioneers have done? What is it but that which tells how nations 
have been built? What is it but that which tells us of those men who 
have not been merely warriors for that is an inferior matter in my 
opinion but of those men who have done better and nobler work by 
building up nations and advancing the cause of humanity, of the educa- 
tion of the public, of the enjoyment of the people of a country. If we 
were to lack historians, and I think the society which is now assembled 
I think we might call them the historians of the country where is the 
history written of these forty or fifty or sixty or seventy years of this 
country? It is written in the hearts, it is written in the memory of these 
men who are the pioneers of the country. They know the circumstances 
of it from beginning to end. They know the progress which has been 
made. They know more than that, the men who have done it. A nobler 
work was never done by any set of men in any country than that done by 
these men. We might find the history of the ancient nations, and read an 
interesting chapter of it (it is always interesting to us) but who knows 
the truth of it? Where is the pioneer who can tell us today of what 
occurred in the days of Greece? Where is the man who can remember 
and tell us anything about Carthage? Where is the man who can give 
us any knowledge of any of the history of the old nations of the world? 
All gone. That part of the history at least, remains unwritten. We have, 
it is true, most interesting history on all these subjects, but every man, I 
believe, who has investigated these matters, says that a very large proper- 


tion of it comes from the fancy and imagination of the writer, or, at least, 
gathered from mere narrations which are simply fanciful in regard to the 
subject, but whether it so or not, that is, perfectly true, we can never 
know when we read a chapter in Roman or Grecian, or of the history of 
Carthage, whether we read the truth or not. If we read of a man who 
was said to be a great man and said to have done this thing and that 
thing, and the world admires him for it, how can we know whether it is 
true or not? Not so with us. What there is of this history of ours in 
Michigan has its existence it is not fanciful, not merely made up for 
the purpose of making history, but it is written in the memory of those 
who saw it and knew it, and many of those who acted it. 

It is to my mind a consoling thought that so many ( although I know 
they are few) that so many still remain who know that the history itself 
is a fact, the early history of Michigan, who is able to put his finger on 
it and say, that I know is true, or, that I know is untrue. Mr. president, 
these meetings which we have here are, as I said before, very delightful 
occasions. Delightful I am sure they are also to others who are assem- 
bled. We know very well that we are soon to pass away. We may know it 
without regret. We know that we leave behind us something which we 
have endeavored to aid in promoting and creating; we know we leave 
behind us a country here, a State here which has scarcely its equal among 
the whole nations of the wqrld, speaking of our nationality. We know 
when we look at our State, we have a State which has scarcely its equal 
among the great number of states that now floats on our banner, and for 
my own part, Mr. President, I rejoice that we yet live to see so many of us 
alive, to see the present prosperity of the country. 

We have lived to see another thing which is gratifying to me; we gave 
the men who are now the leading men of this nation and of this State, our 
judges, our legislators, and men who now occupy our capitol places, gave 
the men who are now holding in their hands the destiny of this State. 
They have all grown up within our knowledge; they have grown up 
under our eye; they have all grown up under our influence, and I think 
we may say to ourselves that we are favored that we live to see a time 
when men of their capacity, men of their integrity, men of their honor, 
succeed to us who were here at the beginning; and it is gratifying to me 
to know that this great State is now committed to the hands of another 
generation to the hands of a generation who, I have no doubt, will do 
their duty in honor to the State, and do a successful work in its prosperity. 
[ Applause. ] 

A. D. P. Van Buren, spoke as follows: Mr. President, friends and 
pioneers Gov. Felch's talk has been very interesting to me in the line 


of argument, it is so true, the thought. I was thinking while he was 
speaking that we learn of each other. Way back fifty-five years ago when I 
came to Michigan we had but few books. I sometimes think it would be 
a good thing if the young men could be just introduced back to see where 
Gov. Felch was and Gov. Manning, and the elder of these men 
who came here early, when they began to make history of this State. It 
was at the beginning we had poor books; they learned to do things one 
from another, even teaching school; by practicing medicine we had to act 
as our own physician; I remember in the township of Battle Creek 
that my father and mother used to go out and dig roots and herbs to use 
as medicine, we had no physician, we had to doctor ourselves; if our shoes 
got out of repair some one had to mend them; we had no shoemakers. 
This was developing our resources, this was developing something that 
made strong men, and I think the men and women who came through 
pioneer days, who are still living, have got the best kind of an education. 

I do not believe anybody loves books more than I do. I have spent 
a large part of my life in the schools, and I learn so much more from men 
today than I learned from books, that they are my best instructors. The 
man is superior to books. I learned more from Gov. Felch and other men 
than to go home and read books. I get history, facts that are true, here 
from the historians. They have got them, and there is a great deal to do 
yet. What California was forty-two or forty-three years ago with the 
gold in the mountains, there it was stored away under large deposits, so 
it is with the material of the history of this State, a great deal of it is 
where California gold was forty years ago. 

Gov. Felch has within his recollection the whole history of this State 
and could write it today. I was talking with a man from Kalamazoo 
about the old chancery courts, a lawyer in full practice, but he didn't 
know much about it. The court, as now managed, the judge tries the case 
in common pleas, and then adjourn, dismiss the jury and it will be a court 
of chancery, and I told him I remembered the day Judges Felch and 
Manning came to Kalamazoo to hold a court of chancery by itself, which 
was the court. These things are all unwritten. Gov. Felch has promised 
me he would write that, and we may get it. It was an age developing 
resources, an age of instruction, when we learned to rely on ourselves like 
a Lincoln or Greeley. 

Abraham Lincoln had no books or schools; a man who lives in Illinois 
now learns his grammar. Lincoln told secretary Seward one day as he 
met the gentleman who taught him grammar in younger days, " Seward 
speak to him, that man taught me grammar." There was self-instruction, 
that he had got knowledge that he could use. The man who earns the 


most wealth is not the richest man, but he who saves it. The man who 
has the most wisdom is the man who makes the best use of it. 

As I said before, it is good for our young men and women to go back 
and see what the principles were that actuated the men and women of 
that day, and what makes them such good citizens today. [Applause.] 

Rev. W. H. Brockway said In the fall of 1835 I wended my way 
into the Saginaw valley and helped to pull myself over those cow 
brushes, and among the first I became acquainted with, if not the very 
first, was the man you now call Judge Miller. We became friends and 
have always remained friends, though we have not lived very near much 
of the time, but we had a mutual friend that drove a great drove of cat- 
tle into that country and there was no hay to winter them with, but 
there was plenty of rushes grew through the marshes and low lands. 
The old gentleman whose name I have not at my finger's end at this 
moment, but I remember the man well I would like to have Judge 
Miller tell us. I think it would be a splendid reminiscence to hear 
how he got that drove of cattle through that cold winter on the flats 
and low lands of the Saginaw river. 

Judge Albert Miller said: I am not very much accustomed to speak 
in meetings and some will wonder why in my crippled condition I 
leave my comfortable home and take my chances in a hotel, to come 
and attend these meetings. There are some good reasons why. I 
remember seeing so many gentlemen, so many faces around me that 
were associated with me in early days. My good friend Felch in 
1847 was governor of the State. I was a member of the legislature 
that year. Before the session was out I had an opportunity of casting 
my vote for Judge Felch for United States senator, and I have always 
been proud of that vote. 

The nagain, I meet my old friend Brockway; we were friends, but we 
were both young men and looking forward to see the development of 
this country, which was a wilderness; then we didn't know what it was 
coming to, but we anticipated great things and we have seen greater. 
About those cattle. That Thanksgiving day, 1835, there was a gentle- 
man came to my house who had just driven into the neighborhood a 
drove of one hundred and fifty head of cattle and fifty horses, and 
there was not one particle of feed provided for them. He had been in 
the summer before and left some money with some parties there to 
put up some prairie hay to winter the stock which he should drive in 
there, but they neglected to put up the hay and he was there with 
his stock. He was somewhat " down in the mouth" and he didn't know 
what to do. He was a broker at New York, Albert H. Dorr, of the 


wealthy firm of Tucker & Dorr. On Thanksgiving day he came to my 
house and insisted on my taking a lease of his farm, his prairie farm 
that he had purchased, and his stock, and I must write a lease that 
would suit myself. I sat down and wrote a lease for taking the stock 
for ten years, and I made this proviso, I would only take what would 
be alive on the next May, for I didn't know about the winter there 
and he didn't, and he assented to that. When he went away he left 
me three hundred dollars to do the best I could to winter the stock. 
I was only acting as his agent with reference to the stock until they 
should be wintered. 

With that three hundred dollars I bought every bushel of grain and 
every pound of hay that could be purchased in the Saginaw valley 
and didn't use up all the money either, and I fed the hay and grain 
to the stock until the ice was frozen on the bayous and rivers so it 
would bear the stock, and in the meantime while that was going on I 
hired some Indians to show me where there was rushes in the vicinity 
where the stock could be wintered during the winter, on the rushes. 

I went over the Cheboygan creek and looked over that country and 
there was nothing there, and finally I went east on the Quannicassee 
river about twenty-five miles from where I was residing, and there I 
found rushes in abundance. I was not afraid at all about the cattle if 
I could get them on the rushes. After the ice had started freezing I 
loaded our two loads of hay and had that driven on the ice to feed the 
cattle on the way, and we followed the river to the mouth and then fol- 
lowed the bay to the mouth of the Quannicassee, and the first night we 
fed out a load of hay. The first night I passed a haystack at Ports- 
mouth and I fed that to the stock, and the next night we fed the loads 
of hay and the third night we were on the rushes, and the cattle, how 
they did like them. They were growing high and green and thick as 
a mat. And during the winter there was a heavy snow fall, and these 
rushes were above the snow and the cattle were doing well all winter. 
I put up a shanty and left two men to take charge of the stock during 
the winter. I used to go once a week to carry supplies for the stock. 
I gave orders to the men to go among the stock every day and see 
that they were all right, and endeavored to keep them tame. When I 
went down with my bag of salt I would go into the woods where the 
stock was, get onto the high roots ckit of the way, spread my salt 
beforehand and then call to the stock. 

They had paths through these rushes where they went to feed, and 
as they came towards me to greet me and get the salt, it sounded like 
a railroad train of cars, almost, their tramping over the frozen ground; 


and they would come around and endeavor to get near to me so I 
could handle them and pet them, seemed delighted to see me. They 
wintered remarkably well, but toward spring the horses, some of them, 
died; they should have been taken off the rushes and put on dry feed 
earlier, but the cattle wintered well. 

When the ice began to break up there was no way of getting 
through, and I had to withdraw the camp and let the cattle take care 
of themselves. On a beautiful April morning about the middle of 
April, I got a young man to go with me named Benjamin Twamley, 
to cross over the prairie. We found a way during the winter where 
we could get across and go fourteen miles and get to the stock. Five 
miles of prairie and four miles of woods, and five miles of prairie 
before we came to the woods where the stock was scattered. We passed 
over and stayed at an Indian camp and the next day we spent 
amongst the cattle; it was raining all day and rained until Saturday 
night. We found the cattle doing well, but several dead horses, and 
we got on a knoll, intending to go home the next day, and we didn't 
want to go out of our way to go to the agent's camp to stay all night, 
so we camped on the dry snow, and we spread our blankets, lighted 
a fire, but the rain soon put the fire out, and about twelve o'clock at 
night the weather changed and the wind blew from the northeast, and 
we who have been in that region of the country know what a north- 
east storm is. But at any rate, in the morning when we awoke our 
blankets were frozen and we got up and had a scanty breakfast and 
nothing to do but go home. 

We started and got to the Quannicassee prairie, and the rains had 
raised the waters so before we got across the prairie we went waist 
deep in the water. Then we got into the woods where it was comfort- 
able, comparatively, and we had four miles in that travel. But when 
we came out on the Cheboygan prairie, next to the Saginaw river, the 
ice had frozen so it would bear, and the wind was blowing and snow 
flying, and we was pretty well used up then. We might have got in 
the woods and got comparatively comfortable, but we pushed for home 
and waited until about dusk and we came to Cheboygan creek. We crossed 
over it two days before on a tree that had fallen, and dry footed; but 
there was no sign of any tree or any thing else; it was open water 
running rapidly. I passed along and went a little above my knees 
into the water, and set up an Indian yell. I don't knew why I did 
it; I had no idea of any Indians, there had been none within miles' of 
there that I knew of, but I was immediately answered by an Indian in 
the same tone I made the yell, and in three minutes there was a canoe 


came alongside of me and took me into it and took me to an Indian 
camp where they came that day and made their tent to make sugar, 
and we went there and stayed over night. And by that means our lives 
were saved. There was no possibility of saving them without the 
assistance of that Indian. 

The next day we went home. When I got home my countenance 
appeared like a person recovering from a fit of illness; the sufferings 
of that day had changed my countenance as if I had been through a 
fit of sickness. That is one of the stages of pioneer life, and many 
such I have been through, and is it any wonder my limbs fail me now? 
After passing through that ice and water that day there was no more 
feeling in them than in sticks; they just passed along mechanically. 

So, Mr. President and pioneers, I delight in meeting with those old 
pioneers. Many of them I was acquainted with, some, of them in some 
way associated with them in early life, and, as Judge Felch said, a 
nobler set of men never existed than the early settlers of Michigan. 
They came here, not because they could not get a living in a settled 
country, but they wanted to better their condition, to build up some- 
thing, to make something for the future, and they have succeeded 
remarkably well. We could not have anticipated more than we see, 
and I rejoice to think I have lived to see the great improvements made 
in this country. 

In 1847, that was the legislature that located the capitol of the State 
in the wilderness, I believe, where there was one log house and a saw 
mill. I advocated the location of the capitol here with all the force I 
had, because I knew that if the capitol of the State was located here 
somebody would know something about the interior of our State. 
Nobody did but the few who were scattered around in the vicinity, 
know anything about the value of it. But if the capitol was located 
here to get people in, our State would get settled, and it resulted as I 
anticipated. And now we shall be here but a little while to see all 
this, but it is a great gratification to me that I have lived to see the 
improvements, the anticipations more than filled, of my early days, in 
these days. 

I recollect I used to say in an early day, that I did wish I might 
see Michigan as much improved as western New York was at that time. 
Well, it is far ahead of any part of the state of New York sixty years 
ago, and I have seen what I desired to see. Now I am ready to 
depart. It causes no sadness nor heartache. I know from this world 
I must soon pass, and I have hope that I will meet my Savior above, 
and there meet with friends who on earth I loved. [Applause.] 


Eev. W. H. Brockway At the time I first made my acquaintance 
with Judge Miller fifty-eight years ago, I was then not arrived at my 
majority in years, though I had been riding, as some people had said, 
"riding a circus," two years before I went to Saginaw, and I see men 
here whom I remember. It is a wonder so many are alive. One of 
the first men I formed an acquaintance with was the father of M. H. 
Goodrich, whom I see here today, out in Washtenaw county; then 
Judge Miller and then Stephen V. R>. Trowbridge, and so many more I 
should recognize if I could see them; but I have no time and you 
would have no patience to spend a minute to do it at this hour of the 
night. But I did want to hear, I have thought of it a thousand times, 
how Judge Miller (not judge then, but simply Albert Miller) how he 
got his cattle through on those rushes and those swamps; and I don't 
wonder that the horses died, and it is a wonder the horses and all the 
cattle and Judge Miller himself did not die in that swamp. 

Music solo by a young lady student from the State School for the 

On motion the society adjourned until Thursday morning, at 8 o'clock 
standard time. 


The society was called to order by the President. Prayer was offered 
by Rev. T. H. Jacokes. 

Music solo, was sung by Miss Florence Seage. 

"The old court house in Saginaw" by Judge Albert Miller was read 
by John H. Forster. 

Judge Miller said Before the article is read 1 will read a letter 
that is just handed to me from an old pioneer to whom I have been 
writing urging him to be present here, and he sends his regrets: 

Fostoria, June 5, 1891. 
Hon. Albert Miller: 

DEAR FRIEND I acknowledge the receipt of your most interesting 
letter, but cannot appropriately reply to it today. My health is very 
poor from the effects of a severe attack of chronic influenza or la grippe, 
in February last, from the effects of which I probably never shall 
recover. Feeling somewhat better after receiving the. letter, I resolved 
to try to go to Lansing and meet you and other pioneer friends, feel- 
ing that it would, in all probability, be our last meeting. With this 


idea in mind I addressed a postal to each of the survivors of the legis- 
lature of 1847, so far as I knew of them, and with the aid of information 
contained in your letter, expressing a hope that I might meet them 
there. This is now especially to request that should any of them be 
pesent you will inform them of my regrets in not being able to attend, 
and tell them that our anticipated union will probably have to be 
deferred until we have crossed the Great Divide. 

Yours as ever, 


Mr. Goodrich has always taken a deep interest in all pioneer matters 
although he has not been present at all the meetings, but would be 
very glad to be here, but it is not likely, from the tone of his letter, 
that he will ever be present with us. And so they are passing away. 

"Pioneer Farming," by A. G. Glidden, was read by Rev. R. C. 

Mr. 0. B. Stebbins The reading of the paper reminds me of an amus- 
ing circumstance that occurred in 1840, coming up the lake on a steamer. 
There was a man aboard who was a minister, I believe. He was one of 
that sort of men that Josh Billings described as knowing a great many 
things that ain't so, told a great many stories and knew everything that 
needed to be known in this world, at any rate. And he was very anxious 
to impress any information that he possessed more than other men, upon 
the passengers, and he was therefore very active and social and told a 
great many stories, so that the passengers came to look on him as rather 
an intellectual crank, and teased him and made fun of him. At length he 
hit on this theme, and wanted to inform the travelers how they broke up 
ground in Michigan, and went on to describe and told how many yoke of 
cattle (doubling the actual number), and told what immense roots they 
got over, and the plows went right through the roots, and he got wound up 
to an enthusiastic pitch and someone asked " How did they do when they 
came to a big log?" He says "They went right through it." 

Music solo, " Bonnie Dundee," was sung by Mrs. Genevieve Stealy. 

" Pioneer Recollections" by James H. Lawrence was read by Henry 
N. Lawrence. 

Memorial of the life and death of Henry Fralick, Presidsnt of the 
Society from June 1885 to June 1886, was read by Rev. R. C. 

Rev. R. C. Crawford said I also have a very brief letter sent me by 
the Hon. Harvey J. Hollister, cashier of the old national bank, giving 
an expression of his feelings, and I read it because it seconds or 
corroborates the statements I have made. 


"DEAR MB. CRAWFOED I find on reviewing a history of Mr. Fralick 
as given in the history of Grand Rapids, that the two principal points 
in his history that I had in mind, are quite freely covered, viz.: His 
great activity, always a busy man and his usefulness. I am confident 
that our city has never enjoyed the presence of a busier man, or one 
more useful in many ways. 

" He was always willing to help along a good cause either in church 
or State. He never failed to put his shoulder to the wheel in a crisis. 
He was the first at church, the first at school meetings, the first at the 
poles, and the first at the fire, and the last man to go home from either 
of those places so long as he could be of any service. He was an 
honest man through and through. He was a loyal man. He hated a 
traitor, and no more active man could be found in the dark days of the 
war to assist the government in sustaining the Union. Those of us who 
are left of those who lived in those days, will never cease to be grateful 
to Mr. Fralick for his strong words of encouragement and active co- 
operation in the times that tried men's souls. 


Judge Miller I wish to say one word in confirmation of what has 
been said of Mr. Fralick. I made my acquaintance with him in the 
legislature of 1847 in Detroit; he was chairman of the committee on 
schools and I was a member of that committee, and I was so struck 
with Mr. Fralick's integrity and strict justice between applicants for 
fees, etc., and the State, that I always admired him, and we have 
always had a friendly acquaintance, and there is no man I estimate 
more highly than Mr. Fralick, knowing him to be a man of perfect 

Mr. Shoemaker I was associated with Mr. Fralick a great many 
years on the executive committee of the State agricultural society. I 
was also associated with him for a number of years as a member of 
the committee of this society, and in either place there was no man 
who was more affected in the work or who rendered better service, or 
who was more highly thought of than was Henry Fralick. He was 
president of the State agricultural society at one time, and also 
president of this society, and was always active in the work of both. 

Mr. Elias Woodman I should do myself a great injustice to allow 
this occasion to pass and not pay my tribute of respect to a man 
whom I had been intimately acquainted with and connected with for 
over fifty years. I formed Mr. Fralick's acquaintance in the village of 
Plymouth over fifty years ago. I have done business with him as a 
merchant and I have done business with him politically. I knew him 


intimately. We have spent hours and hours canvassing and discussing 
this question in relation to our public men being swept off by myriads 
by the demon intemperance. Knowing his political life and the 
temptations that beset him, I have often asked him "How have you 
survived?" "Simply by saying an emphatic no." 

In 1850, as has been stated, I sat eighty days in the old capitol 
with him, as a member of the constitutional convention. There, as in 
the legislature, he was for the greatest good for the greatest number; 
strictly honest; under no circumstance would he sacrifice principle for 
policy. If it was right Henry Fralick's voice, his pen and his vote 
was always cast on the side of right. 

I cannot, in my business relations with people of the State of Michi- 
gan, which has been extensive for fifty years, call to mind a man whom 
I think filled all the requirements of what constitutes a noble man, a 
man of honor, the noblest work of God, who filled it more in every 
particular and circumstance, than did the lamented Henry Fralick. 

Early recollections by Elias S. Woodman, was read by Rev. B. C. 

The committee on nomination of officers for 1891-2 was read by the 
chairman, M. Shoemaker, and adopted. M. Shoemaker presented the 
following resolution which was adopted: 

Resolved, That the manuscript of all volumes of the Collections of this society shall, 
after being prepared, be submitted to and approved by the executive committee 
and committee of historians of this society before publication, and shall be printed 
as approved by them. 

Music solo, " Coming Thro' the Bye," Miss Nora Towne. 

Mr. Woodman As I shall not be present at the afternoon or evening 
session, and as there has been a change made in the officers of this society, 
our esteemed recording secretary has been changed after seventeen 
faithful reports, I move you a vote of thanks. It is poor pay, but it 
is better than nothing, to Mrs. Tenney for her faithful, impartial and 
noble discharge of her duty to this body of pioneers, during the time 
she has served it. 

Mr. Shoemaker In seconding that motion it may perhaps be proper 
to make an explanation to this society why this change was made. 
Mrs. Tenney while State Librarian and one of the officers of the society, 
as such could not draw pay, for the law expressly declares no officer 
of the society should draw pay. Mrs. Tenney desired to continue in 
the work she had done, but she felt she could not do so without pay, 
and it would have been wrong in the society to have asked her to do 
so, and, accordingly, with her consent and the approval of all the old 

* MINUTES. 15 

members of the committee, the change was made by which Mrs. Ten- 
ney will, under the rules adopted by the society, and under a resolution 
of the society, be appointed secretary of the committee of historians 
and, as such, paid hereafter for her work. The change has been made 
for the purpose of aiding Mrs. Tenney, and not for the purpose of 
removing her from office. 

Mr. Woodman I agree, and yet I am enlightened in a matter I was 
ignorant of. I supposed Mrs. Tenney did receive a small remuneration 
from this society. That being the fact, I agree with the committee 
that made the nomination, but at the same time, I consider the reso- 
lution as yet in order. 

Mr. Shoemaker I second it most heartily. The vote of thanks was 
carried unanimously. 

Mr. Goodnough Townsend read an original poem addressed to his wife 
on the fiftieth anniversary of their marriage. 

On motion the society adjourned until 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 


The president called the society to order and prayer was offered by 
Rev. L. Grosenbaugh. 

Muisc solo was rendered by Miss Black. 

" Twice a Pioneer," or sketch of the life of Joseph William Lawrence 
was read by Henry N. Lawrence. 

" The Old Academy and Seminary, the classic schools of our Pioneer 
Days " was read by A. D. P. Van Buren. 

Pioneer Historical Poem was read by Rev. R. C. Crawford. 

Music duet by Mrs. Genevieve Stealy and Mrs. Emily M. Coleman. 

Speech by Mr. Cornelius O'Flynn of Detroit. 

Music violin solo, Miss Mae Sipley. 

Five minute speeches by pioneers present. 

Mr. J. S. Cobb Mr. President and fellow pioneers, it would be 
hardly fair not to respond to a call of this kind under the circumstances. 
It seems on this occasion it is a usage, and perhaps a very proper and 
suitable one, to refer to one's personal history and those periods in 
regard to pioneer life. In doing so I may state that something more 
than sixty, years ago my father, a New England manufacturer, 
through the misfortune of losing his property, determined to go to the 
far west and seek a home. He was born and reared and did business, 


until this resolution was reached, in that New England state known as 
the nutmeg State. 

I remember that he departed some time in August, 1830, going by the 
way of the Connecticut river, the Hudson river and the Erie canal, 
over which we followed for more than a week, to Buffalo. As I remem- 
ber we were three days on Lake Erie. And on the morning of the 
fourth day we reached Detroit and hired a lumber wagon. My father's 
family, consisting of a wife and six children, and his earthly possessions 
were all taken as far west as Ypsilanti on that day. A house and room 
was hired there and a cow bought, and provisions supplied for the 
family until my father should go west and seek some place for his 
future home. 

I think, as I remember, he was gone about three or four weeks, and 
on his return he was driving two yoke of cattle behind which was 
drawn a wagon, the cattle and wagon which he had bought out at 
Prairie Ronde; and after disposing of little affairs there at Ypsilanti we 
started in that lumber wagon with the family, for Schoolcraft, two 
weeks on the road, and as I remember, there was no houses for sixty 
miles, no bridges and none of the evidences of civilization except a little 
road very little traveled. 

I was at that age when I held little responsibility in the matter of 
labor, my wants were supplied and I had little to care for except to 
help to drive that cow. I know we reached a place where Marshall is now 
situated, and there was one little circumstance that helps me remember 
getting there. We found two men cutting the first tree to build a log 
house; they had found a bee tree, dug out what we recognize as the 
sap and the- first taste of honey I had ever known was there, and I 
remember it as a boy then only eight years old. As I remember we 
traded a little bread. A third man had come there but had gone away 
to some place, where I cannot tell, to get provisions, and they had 
nothing to eat except this honey, for which our people exchanged some 
bread and divided. 

"We were two weeks getting through to Kalamazoo, and in crossing 
the Kalamazoo river just about sundown, the wagon struck the bank 
on the opposite side, and the cattle failed to pull us up the bank. I 
remember there was half a dozen Indians or more, the first I had seen, 
and they rowed out in the stream. Sitting on the banks was a friend 
of my father's and they drew the cattle out of the stream and the 
wagon remained there all night and was not disturbed. We found 
but two houses on that side, on that very beautiful place now known 
as Kalamazoo; they had been built about two weeks. We slept on the 


ground that night, and the next day about eleven o'clock the wagon 
was drawn from the stream by the assistance of another yoke of cattle 
that we found three or four miles away, and we started for Schoolcraft. 

The only event I remember on the road was stopping at a colored 
man's house; a gentleman with a little more color than the average white 
man. I objected to the kind of dinner that they offered me, which 
was no less than bread and milk, which should have satisfied any man 
or boy; the bread had been burned so thoroughly, and the crust was 
so hard, that in the language of the day, I kicked, but as I had had 
nothing to eat that day I was compelled to eat it or do worse. "We 
reached the north end of the prairie late in the evening, and the only 
circumstance I remember in connection with the place, was what my 
brother told me afterwards. He said the man there was very tall; that 
in the use of one of those common roller towels he always found the 
top cleaner than the rest, and he thought that was where he wiped 
his face on. 

Judge Harrison had been a resident of Schoolcraft then about a year 
and a half; he was the first settler of southern Michigan; he was form- 
erly from Ohio, a venerable man in years, and a very excellent man; 
and so far as I am from home it is safe to say his descendants have 
not maintained his character so fully as I could wish, as this gentle- 
man here, who has been a resident of our country for many years, 
could testify. He died a few years ago at the age of eighty-four, a 
worthy citizen and an honest man. 

We remained at the house, for three days, of Titus Bronson, after- 
wards the site of Kalamazoo was called Bronson; the place the site 
now occupies was known in those years as Bronson. The only circum- 
stance I remember in connection with stopping there that night, was 
this one fact, that the bread was baked in an old-fashioned three-leg- 
ged pot, was taken from that utensil that night, and my brother insisted 
upon it, and made me believe at that time, that he was the only man 
who could take the bread, out of that pot, for the simple reason that 
the loaf was bigger than the top of the pot. You all remember the 
old-fashioned three-legged boiling pot, was small at the top and I was 
made to believe he was the only man who could get it out. He got 
it out successfully and we had some of it to eat. We settled on that 
prairie upon land that my father bought during that three weeks' 
time he was absent from Ypsilanti. He bought that land in the city 
of Monroe, not much of a city at that time; it was the only land office 
in the State, and had not been open for the purchase of land but a 
few days when he reached there, driving his cattle all the way from 


White Pigeon. He drove them by the way of White Pigeon over 
the Chicago road to Monroe, and from thence across to Ypsilanti, 
and the land which he then bought has, up to this time, only been 
transferred through the probate court, and I am glad to be able to 
say that I own that property today. 

My experience as a boy was not of a character that involved the 
hardships that many have recited here, and that lays in the fact that 
my age prevented me from enduring much of the hardships that came 
to those who were older, and the older members of my family endured. 
My father died within three years and left a family to struggle as 
best they could. I remember very well when I was able to begin 
work on the farm as a plowman. It was a plow that has been referred 
to here several times, with a wooden mold-board. My first plow on 
the prairie with a wooden mold-board was fashioned, as anyone knows 
who has had experience on the prairie, to shovel off the mold with a 
shingle, as that very tenacious soil held on to the end, and not only 
the wooden mold-board but the metal mold that followed thereafter. 
And the prairie has not yielded to the plows that were made to 
work this way, except by the use of the paddles to shove off the 
tenacious soil. 

I don't know but what I have exhausted as much time as I can 
properly give to this subject, mainly a matter of personal reference to 
what is past. I can only say so far as Michigan is concered I am 
proud to believe it is one of the best, if not the very best State I have 
known in all my travels, and I have visited the coast, the Pacific coast, 
twice in my life, been east a number of times, and am acquainted 
more or less with the systems of other states. There is one more 
thing I would mention, it seems to me that those who have grown 
gray in Michigan, whatever work they have done, have reason to be 
thankful that we have lived in just this period of the world's history, 
for the simple reason that we started on the ground floor of that 
improvement which has characterized the age, and which has brought 
forth more advancement in civilization, and in arts and sciences probably, 
than any other period of the world's history; to have witnessed the 
advances which have been made, and appreciate them, and recognize 
them all along these years, has been a source of far more satisfaction, 
and is today in reviewing the past, than the young men who are here 
on the stage today and who live an equal period of life, will probably 

They look about them and see far more than they can appreciate in 
the way of improvement, in the line of scientific research in addition 


to the arts, they cannot appreciate that it has added very much or 
materially to the wealth of the world. It does not awaken their 
curiosity; it does not add to their real personal satisfaction and enjoyment, 
as the condition of things which we who have grown gray in Michigan 
have been able to enjoy by the constant addition which has been made 
from, as I said before, the point at which we started down on the 
ground floor, and the real advances which have been made in this, the 
most wonderful period of the world's history. 

Henry Osterhout Titus Bronson landed in Ann Arbor from Ohio, 
and brought one single wagon, three yoke of oxen and a wooden plow 
to break up. He was the first man who brought potatoes to Ann 
Arbor could not get them from Detroit or anywhere. He came there 
in 1825 and hunted around to find a place, and finally went out on 
the Lodi plains and broke up a quantity of land for potatoes, and 
although he had eighty bushels of potatoes you could not buy of him; 
he was going to plant them and make money out of them. He had 
made money in Ohio planting potatoes. 

While hunting up a place he stayed at our house and furnished 
potatoes for his keeping. My mother took the eyes out of the potatoes 
and we planted them the first of anybody in Ann Arbor. He sold all 
the potatoes he raised, in the fall, except what the Indians and folks 
took, for seventy-five cents. He went oif again with three yoke of oxen 
and made a claim at Kalamazoo. 

Rev. E. C. Crawford I wonder if any of these men know how a 
wooden mold-board is made. My father was a sort of natural mechanic 
and he used to do that kind of work. The plows were made by him. 
He would take his iron wedge and ax and go into the woods and find 
an oak tree with the grain twisted around, and when he found one 
that had the proper turn of the grain, he would go to work and cut 
away down below and then above, and then with the iron wedge slab 
off enough of the oak tree that was winding, to form the mold-board, 
and then with his tools at home he would form the mold-board in 
good shape into a plow. This is the way they were made. My father 
wooded the first cast iron that was brought to Michigan, which was 
called the old Wood patent. A man by the name of,,Ganung brought 
on a lot of shares from Lockport, New York, found out my father was 
in the habit of making old fashioned plows; so father went to work 
and made several of those but they wouldn't sell; everybody was afraid 
of those cast iron plows; they said they wouldn't stand anything. 

My father prepared one for himself and his brother, who owned the 
adjoining eighty acres to my father's, and he did the first plowing, 


his brother did, with the new plow, and when my father went for it to- 
do a little plowing for himself he had a very fiery yoke of cattle, and 
when he turned the corner to go in from the main road to the home 
where he lived, back they started on the run, and they just laid right 
down to run. He put that cast iron plow right into the road, which 
was new, the road hadn't got packed down at all, and right in the 
center of that road was a little maple stump, about six inches through, 
the tree had been cut off low down so the head team would run over 
it. The plow went into the roots with such force that a new yoke 
that had not been worn but a few days, made out of curly maple, was 
split into five pieces and one ox lamed, which didn't get over it for 
three months, and the share never budged. And when that was known 
those cast iron plows of Ganung's went like hot cakes. That is the 
beginning of the cast iron plow in its use in Michigan. 

To think of the changes that have taken place all along these lines r 
with my brother Cobb, I am glad to live in this age, glad that with 
these pioneers it was my privilege to start out in life at the period we 
did, as we were able to start from the lower floor and we have got 
pretty high, and if we keep going we will get a great deal higher yet 
before I die. 

Mr. A. D. P. Van Buren Being one of the committee of historians 
I am always inclined when I attend these meetings to get as much 
good out of them as I can. Pioneer history is the only history that 
don't repeat itself. It is said that human nature repeats itself, but in 
getting the history of the country, the pioneer history, you have to get 
it from pioneers; when they pass away the history goes with them. 
Gov. Felch referred to that last night. 

The history of the Greeks and Romans, of Carthage and Venice and 
Genoa, what do we know about their early history? What would Connec- 
ticut give today if she had her early history where we have ours? Don't 
you believe her historians who are eminent men, and writers would be very 
busy in collecting of all such men as Gov. Felch, whose memory retains, 
from the first gleanings, all the history of this State from the wigwam 
to this capitol? Supposing Massachusetts or Connecticut had one of its 
citizens who had the history of its state, would they not be very busy 
in collecting all the available material the future historian wants? 
They certainly would. 

California is doing us a splendid work in history. Just think of it r 
one man gives his whole time to it. California is getting her early 
history from 1849. What do we call 1849 here? That is not pioneer 


with us. We had a pretty good start at 1849; but I remember 
eighteen-forty-niners when they left for California. 

I say, fellow citizens and pioneers, we want the history of the organ- 
ization of every town in the State, in our country. 

A year ago I got the organization of Allegan county, the history of 
the organization of each township in Allegan county. The history of 
the bench and bar, and after that we got the history of the organiza- 
tion] of every town in Kalamazoo county, and yet we think the pioneer 
work is finished. Why, it is only just begun in some of the counties. 
Here is Mr. Shepard of Grand Kapids; there is gold in Grand Eapids 
to be made useful for material for history. I speak of this because it 
is true, and that is what this society is organized for; that is why the 
legislature gives us an appropriation, because it is a valuable work, 
and we cannot be too strenuous in enforcing this. 

New York has a splendid historical society, and their meetings are 
looked forward to with pleasure and gratification. Ours are good, but 
we ought to have better attendance each year; we ought to have our 
best men and women, they ought to be here; the occasion ought to 
call them forth. 

I wish to say one thing in regard to our work. The paper I read 
-today is the history of the old academy, and it is very complete. I 
can see I have just begun the work. I would like any one who has 
the history of Ann Arbor school, any other academy, the name of 
teachers, or anything about schools in Kalamozoo county to give it to 
me. I would receive it with gratitude and would be grateful to receive 
any information in regard to the old academies from 1830, down to 1840, 
or later. 

Ex-Gov. Felch Mr. President, the reference made by my friend Van 
T3uren to Miss Clark's school at Ann Arbor calls upon me to say one 
word. I knew Miss Clark perfectly well, or, I should say, the Misses 
Clark, but Miss Mary Clark was one of the most interesting women I 
^ver knew. She was one of the most learned women I ever knew. 
She was at home on almost every subject that can be found in the 
books, and not only that, she was perfectly familiar with everything 
there was in the common matters of life; and I never have enjoyed 
conversation with anybody more than with Miss Clark. I never knew 
her to be mistaken but once in my life, and I never knew anything 
but one she didn't know and that was in relation to a gentleman we 
had here in this State at one time, who was governor of the State, the 
territory, Gov. Horner, I suppose the gentlemen present remember 


I remember Miss Clark called to see me, as she very often did when 
she had a question to ask and she knew more about it than I did. She 
said " I want to know if there was ever such a man as Gov. Horner in 
the State of Michigan?" I said " Yes, in the territory just before there 
was a state." "Why, Gov Horner, I never heard of him." I says "I 
am sure you did." "If I did I have forgotten all about him." "What 
brought it to your mind?" "I have been out west in Wisconsin," and 
in coming down on the cars a gentleman got on board who sat in front 
of her, and in the course of the ride they had some conversation and he 
told her in the midst of the conversation that he was once governor of 
Michigan, and she thought he was a crazy man. She thought she knew 
every governor, but didn't know governor Horner. I told her certainly 
there was a governor Horner, he was a celebrated character for about 
three weeks, and you ought to know he was, for such a long time as that. 
But she didn't. 

Let me say a word about Gov. Horner. Gov. Mason, as you know, 
was captain-general in that hard war called the Toledo war. That was 
just before we became a state, and we all went to Toledo, and I believe 
that is all the military fame I can ever pretend to claim, was that I 
went to Toledo. I don't pretend to have done any fighting. I went 
to Toledo. Well, the Toledo war was rather a famous incident in the 
history of the country. Gov. Mason took a very prominent part and 
called out the militia and went with them to Toledo. When we came 
back we had a sort of review of the troops at Monroe and Gov. Mason 
made a speech, young man just of age, to the troops. That made him 
governor of Michigan as a State. He was acting governor of the terri- 
tory as a secretary. Another consequence that came of it was that he 
was removed from the secretaryship of Michigan and^his Gov. Horner 
was appointed in his place, by Gen. Jackson. 

He came on here and he was not very well received. He was in 
Detroit but they didn't treat him kindly; he complained the hotels 
didn't want him, and I believe that is so, and he complained the people 
didn't want him and that was evident. He spent three weeks here 
and then went across the other side of the lake. 

When we became the State of Michigan from the territory of Michi- 
gan, it did not put an end to the territory of Michigan; there was a terri- 
tory of Michigan while we were a state, but that territory was the 
remaining part of the old territory which laid on the other side of 
Lake Michigan; that took him over to Wisconsin and after held fast 
there as a receiver of the land office in Wisconsin. That is the history 


of Gov. Horner that Miss Mary Clark did not know about, and the 
only thing I ever knew she didn't know about. 

Rev R. C. Crawford I never knew why it was I loved Gov. Felch 
so well. Old soldiers have a great affection for each other. I was 
wondering whether you were in that crowd Sunday afternoon when 
some of the Washtenaw troops came over to our State and wanted to 
wrestle our men. There was a man came from the Washtenaw troops 
and wanted to wrestle with our Cal Green. He had heard we had a 
man who could take down any man alive. They went to wrestling 
and Cal laid him on his back once, and he said "I give it up." 

On motion the society adjourned until evening. 


The president called the society to order, and prayer was offered by 
Rev. R. C. Crawford. 

Music quartette, Mrs. Genevieve Stealy, Mrs. Emily M. Coleman, 
Messrs. John J. Stealy and L. M. Sherwood. 

"The Press of Michigan:" A fifty years' view was read by S. B. 
McCracken of Detroit. 

Music orchestra, students from the State Blind School. 

Five minute speeches called for. 

John Strong, Lieutenant Governor Mr. president and pioneers, I 
don't think I can say anything to make it interesting to you, although 
I suppose I am about as old in years in the State, but not in age, as 
most of you, having been here for sixty-one years in the State of 
Michigan. I was born in Wayne county within about four miles of 
the city hall. The city of Detroit at that time was a very small city; 
I suppose there was as many population as there is in Ypsilanti, but 
the buildings and improvements were nothing to compare. There were 
but two or three brick buildings in the city of Detroit when I first 
remember it. The government building and the barracks there, and 
the residence on the corner of Woodward avenue and Jefferson avenue 
where the Merrill block is now. Where the postoffice is was a farm 
and orchard. I remember going there one fourth of July and picking 
apples, they were very green but we boys did the best we could with 

I remember the State of Michigan way back before the time of any 
railroads, or any roads, except the bush roads leading into the city of 


Detroit. I have seen the State grow up and I have been with it. 
My interest is always with it, always with the residents of the State. 
I have met with pioneers here once or twice before, and it has been 
interesting to me to hear the old gentlemen relate back to periods, but 
never particularly interesting to me to try and relate my own. I 
would much rather hear the talk. I came to hear, this evening, and 
not to talk, so if you will excuse me I won't try to talk. 

E. T. Mugford Mr President, ladies and gentlemen, I don't know 
as I can talk as I have heard some of you here today. I am not a 
pioneer of the southern part of this State, but I do claim to be a 
pioneer in the northern part of this peninsula. 

I came into Oceana county in 1854 when there was hardly a tree cut 
north of Grand Rapids, and I followed the section lines through at 
that time to White Lake, now called, in Oceana county. I went to 
work there for a man named Ferry, Thomas W. Ferry's father, he was 
but a boy at that time, and I worked putting up a saw mill at that 
time and at that place, and at Muskegon I helped put up one of the 
first steam saw mills that was put up at that time. From that I went 
on to Pentwater and worked for Charles Mears putting up a saw mill 
for him at that time, and in the fall of 1858, the land in that part of 
the country came into the market. It was on the 16th day of August, 
I remember it well, that I had made up my mind with a few others 
who were then working with tools with myself, that we would take up 
portions of land. I remember well when we went up and took 
our little ax, so we could be there the 15th, as there was a great many 
had land warrants and were determined to put it on that land to try 
to drive away the preemptor. 

Quite a number of us went up and selected the land and came back 
and trotted away from here to Ionia, and there took up land and went 
to work again. I went over to Chicago and bought myself four barrels 
of goods. We had no teams to get in to oar place, only to lug it on 
our backs. I remember that fall I got up my little shanty on my land 
and got my wife and one child and got into my cabin, thinking whether 
we should stay there during the winter or not. I had to get my supplies 
in and, of course, I had to be away from home a good deal, and I 
remember one morning as I left home and went to Pentwater to bring 
up some goods, some business matter kept me late at night and I had 
to stay. It was Saturday and I had to stay over night, but just as 
soon as the day peeped I was up and started home with my load on 
Sunday morning, and when I got up within a mile and a half of my 
place there was no road. We had to follow the section line, a trail 


we had made by passing to and fro that fall from August, and probably 
this was about the first of October. 

When I got up to my house the door seemed to be open, the bed 
seemed to be disturbed, but no one there, and I began to look around 
for my folks, and finally two miles from there I found my wife and 
little child. The wolves had come around the shanty at night and she 
got up with her little child and walked through the woods and the 
wolves all around her. She was pretty scared. She got through the 
woods and got to our nearest neighbor's. I have lived on that place 
to this time. 

This winter my people have seen fit to have me represent them to 
this legislature, and today I am glad to be here with you. I have 
enjoyed myself largely and it has done me good to say the few words 
I have. I am in hopes I may meet you at some future time, and I 
may prepare a paper by the next meeting and give some facts about 
Oceana county. I am president of our society in Oceana county and 
have worked a good many years to get things started and organized, 
and we calculate to meet once a year in our county. 

Judge Albert Miller It has become a great State for lumber, and I 
was one of the pioneers in the lumber business. I, with a couple of 
partners, built the second saw mill that was ever built in the Saginaw 
valley, where since there has been milling constructed that has manu- 
factured one thousand million feet of lumber in a year, and I claim to 
be one of the pioneers of those lumbermen. 

In July, 1836 I laid out the town of Portsmouth, which was the 
first move ever made towards building a town at the lower end on the 
river where Bay City now stands. What is now Bay City was an 
Indian reservation. What is Bay City was included in the forty thou- 
sand acre Indian reservation. I knew there had got to be a town at 
that end of the river. After my project was made, to make it appear 
I was in earnest about it, I commenced making some improvements, 
and a saw mill was necessary before any buildings could be erected 
there; and a few days after I laid out the town of Portsmouth there 
came a man from Ehode Island, and I went from Saginaw with him 
and he looked at that place and was pleased and purchased some lots. 
I told him I was going to build a steam saw mill, and he said " I want 
to be interested in that mill and help put it up." Time passed along 
and I did not sell much property, but went to Detroit to make arrange- 
ments with reference to building a saw mill. On my way there was 
no way for traveling except on foot or on horseback near Pine Eun 
1 met this same Barney, this man from Ehode Island, who wished to 


be interested in the saw mill, with an apprentice or journeyman who 
came from Rhode Island with him, and he was a carpenter and joiner, 
and I said to him " here is a good plan," and made arrangements that 
he should go to Portsmouth and erect a frame to a saw mill and fit 
it to machinery, and I would go to Ohio and Detroit and procure 
machinery for that saw mill. 

I went to Detroit and found nothing there that suited me. There 
was a little engine but it had only power to carry one saw. From 
there I went to Cleveland to get the mill iron. There was none in 
Detroit, no foundry that would cast the iron I wanted. And 
while on the boat going to Cleveland I heard of an engine that could 
be purchased at the mouth of Huron river in Ohio that had been in 
a saw mill and grist mill and distillery there, and I stopped and bought 
the engine. The proprietor was going to send a vessel up to Port 
Huron for lumber, the man who sold me the engine, and he said if 
I would have it all taken down and put on his vessel in two days 
he would take it to Detroit for me. I paid two dollars a day, the 
highest price for labor, and some worked with one kind of tool and 
some with another, and some without any, and in that way we got 
the machinery, all that I intended to take, on board the vessel 
within two days, and it was started up and was landed on the dock 
at Detroit. I came up to Detroit and the trouble was to get a vessel 
to bring my machinery to Portsmouth. Well, I paced up and down 
through the mud; there were no pavements and no sidewalks; I just 
had to roll up my pantaloons and put them inside my boots and wade 
through the mud. 

I was two weeks trying to charter a vessel, none could be found, 
and at last a vessel came in and the captain refused to go out again, 
and the owner told me they would charter the vessel, a vessel of 
sixty tons, the " Elizabeth Ward," built by old Captain Sam Warner 
they would give me the charter for eight hundred dollars if I would 
find the men to man the vessel from Detroit to Portsmouth. I started 
out to get my machinery there. I knew that Barney would have the 
frame ready, and I must have the machinery there anyway, and finally 
I asked him what would be the price of the vessel. He said he would 
sell it in four installments at the rate of twenty-five hundred dollars 
for the vessel. I said I would not take a charter, I would purchase 
the vessel. 

I went up town and found some friends who would assist me in the 
purchase, and went back and told him I would purchase the vessel. 
He recommended a man for a master of the vessel. I was a stranger 


in Detroit then. In the meantime I had purchased about four thou- 
sand dollars worth of goods in Detroit to set up and sell in my new 
town of Portsmouth, and I hired millwrights and engineers and sailors 
at twenty shillings a day, and hired this captain that he recommended 
to take my vessel to Portsmouth. 

Well, on the 23d day of November, 1836, I saw the vessel loaded 
with the four thousand dollars worth of goods and other supplies for 
carrying on the work of my machinery and everything, and they 
started from Detroit with a fair wind, sailing up the river. I turned 
after seeing the boat off and went to the livery stable and got my 
pony and started on horseback to get to Portsmouth by the time the 
vessel arrived there. From that time it turned very cold. It had been 
very wet and the roads intolerably muddy, but when they froze up 
they were so rough it was almost impassable. 

I got along and arrived at last at Flint on my pony. My friend said 
"You may as well leave your pony here as leave it in the woods, for 
it is not possible for a horse to go through the woods from here to 
Saginaw." On consideration I concluded that it was .so; the whole 
country was covered with water, and the ice was not frozen hard 
enough to \>ear a horse, but hard enough for him to break through and 
cut his legs off. In all this trial and trouble I had in getting my 
things together I had worn myself out. I did not feel as though I 
could walk from Flint to Saginaw; but I was at home in a canoe as if 
in a rocking-chair, and I purchased a canoe to go to Saginaw by way 
of Flint river, and I got along about twenty-five or thirty miles down 
Flint river and found the ice had blocked up the river entirely. I 
hauled my canoe ashore and put my paddles under it and left it and 
started on foot following the river. I could see no trail and had to be 
guided by the river. I came to a bayou, and I could not see the end 
of it, and didn't want to undertake to go around it, so I waded in, and 
there was a skim of ice which I broke with my arms as I went along, 
and at last got across on the other side. I passed along and that night 
I got to a shanty where there was an old settler lived and I stayed 
with him over night and he partially dried my clothes, and the next 
day I went on to the Saginaw river the river is twenty miles long- 
and there was no road on either side of it, and there was neither 
boating nor traveling and I was pretty nearly frozen. I took a course 
I never had followed before; but I knew there was some way of getting 
around, and I got across some of the creeks the best way I could and 
finally arrived at Portsmouth. 

I was completely used up, and I thought if I could only get home 


where mother was and lie down I could be content. When I got there 
there was a little log house and the men were working on the mill, and 
there were sixteen boarders in that little log house and my brother's 
family and my mother, and it didn't seem like home to me at all. I 
was homesick, but I said nothing about it. And every day I would 
send someone down to the mouth of the river. The river was frozen 
then so they could walk on the ice. I told them to go as far as they 
-could on the ice and see if they could see anything of the vessel. No 
sign. There was mail then came from Detroit to Saginaw once a week 
and I would send parties up to Saginaw to see if there were any letters 
for me, and once I sent up some young men who got belated and lay 
on the prairie all night and nearly froze to death; but finally I got a 
letter stating that my unfaithful captain had sailed the vessel to Port 
Huron instead of pushing on to Portsmouth, and laid up the vessel 
.there, and sent to Detroit and got his family and brought them to Port 
Huron and was living in clover on board the vessel with his family. 
That thing would not do. There were all those men under wages and 
something must be done. The river had frozen so it would just bear 
for a man to walk on it from Portsmouth to Saginaw. I started 
on foot from Portsmouth to Detroit to see my parties there, 
and I got to my brother-in-law at Reed Point, two miles above 
Saginaw, and then tired nature would no longer obey the will; I was 
laid up and went to bed and lay there three weeks before I was able 
to be out. 

As soon as I was able to be out and on my feet, I went to Detroit, 
and arriving there I found a friend had been to Port Huron, dis- 
charged the captain and paid all the men and stopped some of the 
expenses, but there was the vessel with machinery and things on board 
at Port Huron. 

It happened that winter of 1836-7 there was a great deal of snow; 
excellent sleighing; there was a long period of winter. The idea was to 
build a saw mill to have ready for use in the spring, so when the 
sleighing became good I hired teams and took my iron work and 
machinery and everything I had on board the vessel, through St. Glair, 
Macomb, Oakland, Genesee and Saginaw counties 'down to Ports- 
mouth. I paid as high as fifty dollars for a load, and it was a pretty 
expensive job, and every pound of iron that was put in that mill was 
hauled by sleighs that way. Mr. Barney had built the frame and done 
his part nobly, and the mill was put in operation and commenced saw- 
ing on the first of April. 

I suppose some of you old gentlemen remember the financial crash 


of 1836. 1837, 1838 and along there? I was in that. When I got my 
affairs around there was not a market in the world that I could sell 
the best market lumber that ever went out of Saginaw river to pay 
the freight on it. I have lived through it all and I am here today, 
but I know something of pioneer life. 

The President, John H. Forster I think our venerable friend Judge 
Miller is composed of tough fibre, it was originally tough fibre and it 
has been hardened by these privations. I knew about Portsmouth a good 
many years ago. It was my lot to spend one summer there among the 
marshes and frogs, and I came away with the impression that it was 
the vilest country I was ever in. I was on the United States survey, 
and I surveyed -the head of that bay on both sides or helped to do it^ 
I surveyed the river, Saginaw river, up as far as Portsmouth and 
beyond, taking the topography and the soundings and everything of 
that kind. 

Our camp was established on the only hard ground that we could 
get this side at the mouth of the Kawkawlin river, on a sand hill there, 
and the water was so vile we suffered from thirst, and we put up a 
filter there. We got fever and ague, many of us; I got the billions 
fever terribly, and was so sick I was finally taken in a boat up to Bay 
City and Dr. Smith took me in hand, and by dosing me with blue pills 
pretty thoroughly, brought me out in the course of a week. 

There was an old gentleman by the name of Williams at the mouth 
of the Kawkawlin river and a little Scotchman of the name of Frazier, 
and he was very kind to us, and he thought we ought to come there- 
and settle. He offered us some things, bread and eggs. Those marsh 
lands were replete with frogs. We would not have taken the whole 
country. We measured the land near the mouth, and it was difficult 
to find land enough to measure a short piece. We were very glad men 
when we had completed the job and pulled up north and got in pure 

A few years ago I went to Bay City to attend a convention and when 
I got to those Saginaws and Bay City, I was astounded at the develop- 
ments which had been made there for thirty-three years. I had heard 
much about the Saginaws but I didn't know what the neighbors and 
those people had done in the swamps. But one thing remains to do, 
that is, I hear it here in Lansing, that the water is still bad; I hear 
some of the democrats complain that the water is still bad up there 
and they have not tasted water for years, and they bring that practice- 
down here and say that the water is bad down here. 

Remarks were also made by S. D. Bingham. 


Music trio, "Old Oaken Bucket." Messrs. L. M. Sherwood, M. H. 
McPherson and John J. Stealy. 

"Childhood's Eecollections of Detroit" by Mrs. E. M. Sheldon Stuart 
of Michigan Centre was read by B. F. Stamm. 

Music orchestra, by students from the School for the Blind. 
The President said, Pioneers, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

After the benediction will close our exercises for the 17th annual 
meeting of this society. However others may feel, allow me who fills the 
chair, to say that the last two days have been very happy and fruitful 
days to me. I shall carry away with me to my home most pleasant 
recollections, and I hope as we separate you may all find your respect- 
ive, and some distant homes, safely; that God will be with you and 
keep you until the next years' meeting and for all time. 

After the benediction the society adjourned. 


The following report is submitted for the year ending June 3, 1891: 


There are now seven hundred and fifty names enrolled upon the 
membership book of the society. Since the last report the following 
names have been added: Hiram Draper, Asher Bonham, Wm. L. 
Worthington, Jeremiah H. Gardner, Joseph Russell, Lewis H. Beesen, 
William A. Heartt, John A. Grossman, D. C. Walker, Wm. S. Turck, 
James H. White, Daniel Striker, Sarah E. Striker, Hiram C. Hodge, 
William N. Cook, John A. Fairfield, Joseph Estabrook, Jacob Den 
Herder, Jesse Eugene Tenney, D. B. Cook, Cornelius S. Barrett, Oliver 
P. Arnold, Johnston Bennett. 


The usual donations of books, phamplets, newspapers and manuscripts 
have been received and the list is herewith added. 



Annual report of the board of managers of the society, Jan. 14, 1890. 

Annual report of the board of managers of the society, Jan. 13, 1891. 
PRESENTED BY WM. N. COOK, Grand Rapids: 

An engraving of D. A. Blodgett. 



Ancient families of Bohemia manor; their homes and their graves, by Rev. Chas. Payaon Mallerr. 

Diary of Captain Thomas Rodney, 1776-1777, by Caesar A. Rodney his great grandson. 

Genealogical. Sarah Ann Budlong, wife of Abel Whitney, Adrian. 

The Goodwins of Hartford, Connecticut, descendants of William and Ozias Goodwin, 1891. 

Harper normal school and business college Journal, May, 1890. 

Transactions of the Kansas state historical society embracing the fifth and sixth biennial reports, 


Letter Book of the Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad Bank, 1830-1841. 

Portrait and biographical album of Lena wee county, Mich. 

History in the reading circle, by George E. Howard. 

Report of the secretary of the Nebraska state historical society for the bienninm ending January 

13, 1891. 

An eraser, the property of Rev. Father KOhler, 8. J., who was a passenger on the Coburn when she 
was lost, and is supposed to have perished. 

Box of matches taken from the wreck of the steamer Independence after lying on the bottom of 8t 

Mary's river 30 years. 

An address deliverd by Daniel E. Wager, before the society. "Col. Marinus Willett, The Hero of the 
Mohawk Valley.'' 

New York Home Journal, August 20, 1890. The Lost Ten Tribes, by Gen. C. W. Darling, correspond- 
ing secretary, Oneida historial society. 

Sketch of the Iron Port of the World. 

Muskegon News, Sept. 6, 1889, "The Anniversary of the organization of Mnskegon Co.'' 

Proceedings of the national conference of charities and corrections at the 14th annual session held 
in Omaha, Nebraska, August 25-81, 1887. 

Same for 16th annual session held in San Francisco, Sep. 11-18, 1889. 

Annual report of the board of regents of the Smithsonian institute for the year ending June 30, 1881 

Walter of Henley's Husbandry together with an anonymous husbandry, seneschancie and Robert 

Grosseteste's rules. 

An address delivered before the society by Prof. Thomas Santee. Notes on the tornado of August 19 
1890, in Luzerne and Columbia counties. 


MicMgan at Gettysburg, July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, June 12, 1889. Proceedings incident to the dedication 

of the Michigan monuments upon the battle field of Gettysburg. 
Proceedings of the Michigan press association at the 22d annual meeting held at Grand Rapids, July 

9, 10, 11, 1889. 
Michigan Manual, 1891. 

Michigan in the war, 1861-65. Compiled by John Robertson, Adjutant General. Revised edition, 
Record of baptisms, marriages and deaths and admissions to the church and dismissals therefrom 

transcribed from the church records of the town of Dedham, Mass., 1638-1845. Edited by Dow G. 

Third report of the custody and conditions of the public records of parishes, towns and counties 

by Robert T. Swan. 


Annual report of the Commssioner of Mineral Statistics of Michigan. 1881 and 1882. 

Fifteenth annual report of Maurice Thompson, state geologist of Indiana, 1886. 

Annual report of the operations of the United States life saving service for the fiscal year ending 

June 30, 1883. 

Seventh annual report of the Toronto public library, 1890. 
Reminiscences of pioneer life in Portland, Mich., by Mrs. Sarah Perrin. Written in 1874, printed in 


State Republican. Lansing, August 27, 1890: "Successful test of the electric street railway cars." 


The executive committee and committee of historians have held three 
meetings in joint session since the last annual meeting of the society 
as follows: 

They met on December, 18, 1890, to transact business connected with 
the publishing of volumes sixteen and seventeen of the Pioneer and 
Historical Collections. 

They met on January 20, 1891. After transacting some business of 
minor importance, the following motion and resolution was adopted: 

On motion of Albert Miller it was 

Resolved, That the secretary of the committee of historians take charge of ana 
retain in her possession or care all of the manuscripts intended for publication in 
the Pioneer Collections until the joint committee shall otherwise direct and another 
appropriation is secured for the publication of the same. 

Mr. E. C. Hinsdale offered the following: 

Resolved, That owing to the present lack of money in the treasury, and that 
while the committee duly appreciate the labors of their proof reader Emily P. Cook,, 
hitherto employed by them, they cease to employ her from and after the close of 
January, 1891; and 

Resolved, That the sum of $25.00 be paid her from the treasury of the Society 
for said month of January. 


The committees met on June 2, 1891, for the purpose of completing^ 
arrangements for the annual meeting of 1891. 

The bills paid by the committee will be found in the report of the 
treasurer, and the balance of the work accomplished during the year 
will be found in the minutes of the annual meeting and in the annual 
report of the other officers of the society sumitted at this date. 


Recording Secretary. 
LANSING, June 3, 1891. 




Lansing, June 3,1891. 
To the Officers and Members of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 


In accordance with the usual custom I herewith submit my report of 
so much of the society's doings as has been entrusted to me. 

There has been about the usual amount of correspondence during the 
past year but nothing of a very special nature. 

The file of letters and communications are herewith submitted, filed 
in the usual manner for easy reference; all requiring answers have been 
promptly attended to, and all donations entrusted to my address have 
been duly acknowledged. 

Notices of this meeting have been forwarded to each member of the 
society; the leading newspapers throughout the State, members of the 
Legislature and State officers, also a special notice to the vice presidents 
requesting them to furnish a memorial report to this meeting of the 
deaths of pioneers in their respective counties. 

A copy of the proceedings of the last meeting as published in the 
city papers was forwarded to the officers, committees and vice presidents 
soon after the close of the meeting. 

I have to report the deaths of members of the society for the past 
year as follows: 







Came to 


Isaac P. Christiancy 


March 12, 1812 

Sep. 8, 1890 




Henry A. Shaw 

Eaton Rapids. 

June 21, 1813 

Jan. 29, 1891. .. 




Moses Kingsley.. 


March 5, 1810 

Jan. 7, 1891 




John W. Breese 


April 27, 1819... 

Sep. 10, 1890 




Isaac T. Hollister 


Nov. 29, 1801 . 

Dec. 7, 1890 




Ephriam S. Williams- 

Flint . 

Feb. 7, 1802 

July 20, 1890. 




Francis B. Bangs 

Eaton Rapids. 

March 23, 1819.. 

May 20, 1891.... 




Mrs. Joanna R. Holden 

Grand Rapids 

March 10, 1800 

Jan. 2, 1891 




Peter Lowe. 

Mason . 

May 21, 1812 

April 7, 1891|_ ... 




Harvey Morehoase 


Aug. 23, 1807.... 

May 9. 1891 




Joseph M. Sterling 


Aug. 18, 1818.... 

May 18,1891.... 




Henry Fralick . 

Grand Rapids.. 

Feb. 9, 1812 

March 14, 1891.. 




George Thurston 

KalnTia^o". , , 

April 11, 1808... 

March 19,1891.. 




Aeher Bonham 

Nottawa .. .. 

Oct. 27, 1808 

March 9, 1891... 




Jesse E. Tenney 


July 23, 1816.... 

Nov. 1,1890 



All of which is respectfully submitted. 

GEO. H. GREENE, Corresponding Secretary. 




Lansing, Mich., June 3, 1891. 

To the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society: 

Your treasurer submits the following report, Merritt L. Coleman 
treasurer, in account with the society, from June 11, 1890, to June 3, 


To balance on hand Jnne 11, 1890 .. $1,72988 

Receipts for membership fees.. $3000 

" from sale of pioneer and historical collections, vols. 1 and 2 _. 225 

" general fund, appropriation for 1887... . 509 00 

" -1888 50000 

" " > " " 1889 50000 

" " 1890 50000 

" " publication fund " " 1890 20000 

Total receipts.;... 4,03225 

Total ......... .. ......... . ............. _________ ......... ______ .................... $5,762 18 


Paid from general fund: 

for expenses of executive committee .......... . ....... ________ ......... _________ $48 80 

committee of historians.. . .................. .. ........... . ....... 60 75 

" " annual meeting, 1890 ................... ... ........................ 9470 

" postage and rent of posofEce lock drawer T with two keys ....... . ...... ... 13 34 

" engraving ....... .. ..... . .............. ..... _______ ......... . ........ . ...... 16 00 

" filing and recording ________________________ ...... . ...... . ......... ... ..... .. 61 54 

" proofreading ...... _________ ....... . ..... . .......... ____ ......... ... ...... ... 2500* 

" collecting manuscript ___________________ ........ ______ ............ . ......... 191 42 

-- $786 58 
Paid from publication fond: 

for printing and binding ....... . ............................ _____________________ $8,906 01 

" manuscript.. ......... _______ ....... . ...... . ........ ___________________________ 141 67 

-- 4,047 68 

Total disbursements $4,784 23 

Balance on hand June 3,1891. $977 90 





Lansing, Michigan, June 3, 1891. 

To the Michigan Pioneer' and Historical Society: 

The committee of historians would respectfully report that volumes 
fifteen and sixteen of the " collections " of the society have been pub- 
lished since the annual meeting of 1890. 

Volume fifteen has 751 pages, and is composed entirely of copies 
irom papers on file in the archives of the Dominion of Canada, at 
Ottawa, relating to the war of 1812, and to the relations of the British 
government with the civil and military authorities of the United States 
previous to and during the years 1812-13-14. 

This correspondence commences as early as 1793, and occupies sixty- 
ihree pages, coming down to the declaration of war. 

The papers relating to the campaign of 1812, including reports of 
battles by the officers engaged, the correspondence of the war depart- 
ment, reports of officers in the Indian service, proclamation of Gen. 
William Hull, reports connected with the surrender of Detroit by Gen. 
William Hull to the British forces, occupy pages from 63 to 210. 

The papers of the same character for the year 1813 are contained in 
pages from 210 to 467, and those for 1814 from page 467 to the close 
of the volume. The volume being of great historical value. The com- 
mittee make reference to the following papers as being of particular 

"Extract of a statement of the Province of Upper Canada, sent with 
the approbation of Lieut. General Hunter to Field Marshal His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Kent, Commander in Chief of British North 
America, in the year 1800." (Pages 8 to 24.) 

"Relations with United States." (Pages 56 to 60.) From General 
Isaac Brock, York, Upper Canada, Dec. 2, 1811. 

" Memorandum to be submitted to His Excellency, the Governor in 
Chief, by desire of Major General Brock." (Pages 65 and 66.) 

"Colonel Elliott to Major General Brock." (Pages 66, 67,68.) 
Amherstburg, 12th January, 1812: Battle of Tippecanoe. 


"Sir George Prevost to the Earl of Liverpool." (Page 87.) Military 
Posts, Quebec, 18th May, 1812. 

" Indian Speeches." (Pages 88, 89, 90, 91.) June 8-16, 1812. 

Gen. William Hull to W. Eustis, War Department: " Camp Neces- 
sity. Near Blanchard Creek, June 24, 1812;" "Camp at Fort Findlay, 
on Blanchard's Fork 35 miles from the foot of the Rapids of the 
Miami, June 26, 1812." (Pages 92 to 94.) 

"A Proclamation by William Hull, Brigadier General and Com- 
mander of the North Western Army of the United States: "Head 
Quarters at Sandwich, July 13, 1812." (Pages 106-7.) 

Captain Charles Roberts to Colonel Baynes, Fort Michillimackinacr 
17th July, 1812: "Capture of the Fort by his forces." (Page 109.) 

" Capitulation agreed upon between Captain Charles Roberts Com- 
manding his Majesty's forces on the one part, and Lieut. Hanks Com- 
manding the forces of the United States of America, on the other." 
(Page 110.) 

" Major General Isaac Brock, to Sir George Prevost, Head Quartern 
Detroit, August 16, 1812: Capture of Detroit. (Page 132.) 

" Conditions proposed as the basis of a Convention between the citi- 
zens of Detroit and Colonel Proctor." (Page 133.) 

" Observations by Tanpoint Pothier at the request of His Excellency, 
Sir George Prevost, <fec. &c. &c., on the capture and state of Michilli- 
mackinac when he left it." Montreal, 8th September, 1812. (Pages 

"Colonel Henry Proctor to Major General Brock, Sept. 9-10, 1812: 
Capture of Chicago." (Pages 144-5-6.) 

Major A. C. Muir to Colonel Henry Proctor: "Old Delaware Town 
12 miles above Fort Defiance on the Miami river, 40 miles from Fort 
Wayne, 26th September, 1812." (Pages 148-9.) 

Major A. C. Muir to Colonel Henry Proctor: "Miami River 2 mile& 
above Fort Miami, Sept. 30, 1812." (Pages 151-2-3-4.) 

Chief Justice A. B. Woodward to Colonel Henry Proctor: territory of 
Michigan, October 8, 1812: "Massacre at Fort Dearborn." (Pages 

Major General Isaac Brock to Sir George Prevost, Fort George, Oct. 
11, 1812: "Capture of His Majesty's Brig Detroit and the private Brig 
Caladonia." (Pages 164-5.) 

N. Boileau to Mr. Joseph Roe Interpreter, La Prairie du Chien: 
"Indian Affairs." Portage Des Sioux, Dec. 12, 1812. N. Boileau, 
Agent, to the Great Chief of the Quinibagoes, Souix Portage, 10 Dec.,. 
1812. (Pages 186-7-8.) 


Major General Henry Dearborn to Sir George Prevost, Head Quarters 
Albany, Dec. 26, 1812: "Exchange of Prisoners." (Pages 205-6-7.) 

" Instructions for Robert Dickson, Esq., appointed Agent for the 
Indians of the nations to the westward of Lake Huron. Quebec, 14 
Jan'y 1813, George Prevost, Com: of Forces." (Pages 219-20-21.) 

Colonel Henry Proctor to Major Evans, &c, &c., Fort George, Sand- 
wich, January 24, 1813 : Battle of River Raisin. Colonel Henry Proc- 
tor to Major General Sheaffe, Fort George, Sandwich, January 25, 1813: 
Battle of River Raisin; Massacre at River Raisin; Defeat of General 
Winchester; " Return of Prisoners taken after the Action at Reviere 
au Raisin, on the 22d January, 1813;" "Return of Arms, Ammunition, 
Ac., taken ***** River au Raisin on the 22d January, 1813." 
(Pages 226-7-8-9-30, 235-6-7-8-9-40.) 

Chief Justice A. B. Woodard to Hon. James Monroe, Michigan, 
January 31, 1813: Four Military errors of the American General caused 
the defeat of the American Forces at the Battle of the River Raisin. 
(Page 234.) 

Brigadier General Henry Proctor to Major General Sir Roger H. 
Sheaffe, Sandwich, April 17, 1813. (Page 273.) Sandwich, April 3, 
1813. (Page 275.) 

" Return of killed, wounded and missing of the Army under the Com- 
mand of Brigadier General Proctor, at the Battle fought at the Miamis, 
5th May, 1813." (Page 237.) Amherstburg, 13th May, 1813. "A Concise 
account of * * operations at the Miamis." Noah Freer, Esq., Mili- 
tary Secretary, Peter D. Chambers, Major D A Q M. General. (Pages 

Brig Gen. Proctor to Sir George Prevost, Sandwich May 14, 1813: 
Report of operations and battle of May 5th, on the river Miami twelve 
miles from its mouth Fort Meigs. Extract: "Tho' our attack has 
not answered the purpose intended, I have the satisfaction to inform 
your excellency of the fortunate results of an attack of the enemy, aided 
by a sally of most of their garrison, made on the morning of the fifth 
inst by a reinforcement, which descended the river, a considerable dis- 
tance in a very short time, consisting of two corps of Kentucky militia 
Dudley's and Boswill's, amounting to 1,300 men, under Brig. Gen. 
Green Clay. * * * After a severe contest though not of long continu- 
ance, the enemy gave way and excepting the body of those who sallied 
from the fort must have been mostly killed or taken" ***** 
"J had not the option of retaining my situation on the Miamis, if it 
had appeared to me a judicious measure." This report is on pages 
293-4-5-6. Is very interesting and for the truth of history should 


be compared with the account of the same operations and battle in IL 
S. histories of the war of 1812. 

Mr. Askin to Mr. Cameron, Michigan, June 3, 1813. (Pages 310-11.) 

Battle Fort Meigs. Indians. List of indian warriors going to Detroit. 
(Page 322-3.) 

Brig. Gen. Henry Proctor to Sir Geo. Prevost, Sandwich August 9 r 
1813: Attack upon fort at Lower Sandusky and repulse by the 
Garrison. This report is an elaborate effort to mitigate the severity of 
the defeat and is an interesting historical document. (Pages 347-8-9- 

Major Gen. Henry Proctor to Major Gen. De Rottenburg: Battle of 
Lake Erie at Put-In-Bay. 

British Fleet " Detroit, Queen Charlotte, Lady Prevost, Hunter, Chip- 
pewa, Erie, six sail under Captain Barclay" defeated and captured by 
the American vessels under command of Commod6re O. H. Perry, Sept^ 
9, 1813. (Pages 377-8-402.) 

James Monroe to Maj. Gen. James Wilkinson: on Exchange of Pris- 
oners surrendered at Detroit by Maj. Gen. William Hull, Sept. 14, 
1813. (Pages 385-6-7-8-9-90.) 

Battle of the Thames or Moravian Town. Defeat and capture of the 
Army of Gen Proctor by Gen. Harrison. October 5, 1813. (Pages 399- 

Captain Alexander Mackintosh to Capt. Richard Bullock, on board 
the Nancy. Hired transport 16th, October 1813. Five miles from St, 
Joseph's. Expedition to Rapids of St. Clair River. (Pages 412-13.) 

Lieut. Gen. Gordon Drummond to Sir George Prevost, Kingston,. 
January 21, 1814: Report " The security of the Right Flank of the 
Army, and the preservation of intercourse with, and influence over, the 
western Indians, being objects of the very first importance, it is pro- 
posed to undertake an expedition against Detroit, and the Enemy's ves- 
sels in that Quarter, as the only means by which these ends can be- 
obtained." Report on the means and manner by which the attainment 
of these ends is to be accomplished. (Pages 473-4-5-6.) 

" Names of Indian Chiefs of the Western Tribes" to visit Quebec. 
(Page 491.) 

Battle near Delaware, near River Thames, Canada, 011 the 4th of 
March 1814. Repulse of the British. Captain Alexander Stewart to 
Major General Riall, Delaware, March 6, 1814. Colonel Jno. L. Bre- 
ton to Captain Foster, Delaware, March 8, 1814. (Pages 508-9-10-11- 

Indian Speeches. (Pages 558-9-60-61.) 


Speech at Michilimackinac, by Lieut. Col. McDonall. (Pages 581-2- 

Surrender o Fort Shelby, July 19, 1814, Prairie Du Chien, by Capt. 
Joseph Perkins, commanding United States troops to Lt. Col. W. McKay. 
(Pages 620-1-2.) 

Col. Wm. McKay to Col. McDonall, July 27-29, 1814. (Pages 623- 

Lieut. A. H._ Bulger to Lt. Colonel McDonall, Michilimackinac, 7 
Sept., 1814. (Pages 641-2-3-4.) 

" Capture of United States Schooners Scorpion and Tigress." 

Volume 16 has 746 pages. 

The historical importance of this volume is of the highest character 
in the light its contents throw upon the transactions connected with 
the transfer of the military posts and territory in Michigan and in the 
northwest, after the close of the war of 1812, and in accordance with the 
terms of the the treaty of Ghent, in showing the tenacity with which 
the officers and government of Great Britain retained possession and 
the reluctance with which each and all of the posts and territory 
belonging to the United States were finally surrendered; in many cases 
long after peace had been established. 

The correspondence of and with the British authorities relative to 
removal of troops and the delivery of Michilimackinac and other posts 
cover near 200 pages. 

Following this is the correspondence relating to the settlement of 
questions arising under the treaty of peace, extending from 1815 to 

That relating to the action of the governments with the numerous 
tribes of Indians in Michigan and the northwest territory will be found 
of great interest. 

The committee quote the following extracts from the correspondence 
published in volume 16 for the purpose of presenting in a more con- 
densed form the action of the British authorities and officers in con- 
nection with the transfer of the military posts and particularly the 
reluctance with which that of Michilimackinac was relinquished, 

The extracts from the letters and reports of Lieut. Col. R. McDonall 
will be found to be not only interesting by reason of the tenacity with 
which he held the post, but even more so from its unique character in 
the treatment of all subjects to which it alludes. It is well worthy of 
careful perusal. 



WHEREAS, an accusation has been exhibited by Robert Dickson Esq. 
Agent and Superintendent of the Western Nations, on the part of our 
Soverign Lord the King against Joseph Bolette, native of Quebec, in 
the words and manner following. 

"I charge Joseph Bolette native of Quebec, and now residing at the 
Prairie des Chiens, with seditious words and discourse tending to excite 
insurrection against His Majesty's Government, also illict, illegal and 
dangerous conduct towards the Indians, His Majesty's Allies, and I 
pledge myself to prove the same by evidence." 

AND WHEEEAS it is necessary, as well for the sake of the accused, as 
for the security of His Majesty's possessions in this part that the said 
accusation should be forthwith examined and enquired into, I have 
thought fit to direct prior to any other steps being taken, that the said 
charge be made the subject of investigation before a Military Court of 
Inquiry; to be assembled for that purpose on Thursday next the 5th 
Instant at 9 o'clock in the morning in Fort McKay. And for the more 
effectual ascertaining the truth of the said charges the court is hereby 
empowered to examine into the same upon oath. Of which all persons 
bound to give evidence thereon, or in any manner concerned are to 
take notice and govern themselves accordingly. 

Given under my hand in Fort MaKay Prairie des Chiens the 3d. 
January 1815 

signed A. BULGER 

Capt. Coming. Fort McKay 

& the British Possessions 
on the Mississippi. 


Proceedings of a Board of Inquiry held on the 5th January 1815 and 
continued by adjournment to the tenth of the same month, at the 
Garrison of Fort McKay Prairie des Chiens in the conquered Countries 
pursuant to an order from Captn A. Bulger Boyal New foundland 
Begt. Commanding on the Mississippi. (Vol. 16-Page 1 to 32.) 

MEMORANDA. (Pages 67, 68, 69.) 

" Memorie delivered to Sir George Prevost at Quebec March 28th, 1815, at his 

particular request on Mr. McGillivray's expressing strong apprehensions the 

Frontier would not be properly established on the troops being removed from 


The unfortunate cession of the Fort and Island of Michilimackinac to 


the United States by the late Treaty bids fair in its consequences to 
ut off our intercourse with all the southern and western Indians for the 
Americans aware (from the circumstances of the late war) of the influence 
established by means of the Trade carried on by Canadian Merchants 
and their Agents resident among the Indians, will naturally use every 
means to prevent a recurrence of this influence, by which alone in any 
future contest between the two countries, the friendship of the Indian 
nations must be determined, and experience has shown how much the 
safety of Upper Canada depends upon that friendship. With a view to 
those considerations the question now is, in what manner are we to 
avail ourselves of our remaining influence for although it will be 
extremely difficult, if at all practicable, to persuade the Indians that 
Government have not at the, Peace broken faith with, and left them, in 
the power of their implacable enemies still there must be a remaining 
attachment, which in good policy we ought to cultivate and improve to 
do this, it appears essential that some trade should be carried on with them 
from Canada, and that a respectable Military Post should be established 
on the Frontier at which Post the different nations should receive 
liberal presents of merchandise annually from the commanding officer 
on the station. On negociating a commercial treaty with the United 
States, as they have much to ask for, it is still in the power of Government 
to make some stipulation by which British subjects may be permitted 
to carry on trade from Canada to the Mississippi and Missourie, 
by way of Michilimackinac, and for relieving the said trade from at least 
a part of the present duties, which amount to about 30 per cent on all 
goods imported into the United States and Indian country, and which 
of itself if continued would operate as a prohibition. The protecting 
such a trade connected with a respectable Military Post on the Frontier 
would still prevent the Americans from ever alienating the minds of 
the Indians. 

To obtain this desirable object I am of opinion that the Fort should 
be built immediately on the Line of Boundary and as near to Michili- 
mackinac as may be found practicable." 

5th April, 1815. 


I have the honor to transmit herewith a warrant authorizing the 
restitution of all Territory Places and Possessions taken from the 
United States of America during the late war in uniformity with the 


Treaty of Peace signed at Ghent on the 24th Dec. last, a copy of 
which I also enclose. I am to signify to you the pleasure of his 
Eoyal Highness the Prince Eegent that you should adopt such meas- 
ures and give such directions as may be necessary for carrying into* 
effect the stipulations of the said Treaty. 

I am Sir 

Your most obedt. Servt. 
Lt General 

Sir Gordon Drummond, K. C. B. 



MONTREAL, 19th April, 1815. 

I have received the honor of your communication of the 15th 
Instant, with the inclosures, and my best acknowledgments are 1 due to 
His Excellency Sir Gordon Drummond, for his protecting care of the 
Interests of the Northwest Company, by giving to that concern in 
some measure, the means of influencing by their opinions the decision 
of the officers of Government appointed to fix the station most proper 
for the Troops to occupy as a Frontier Post, after the Island and Fort 
of Michilimackinac shall be evacuated, so as to afford the greatest 
degree of Protection to the Northwest & other Indian trade. 

From the moment the nature of the Treaty was known in this 
Province this important subject has much occupied my thoughts, and 
on my expressing to Sir George Prevost my apprehensions that in- 
consequence of the Cession of Michilimackinac all the Influence of 
Govts. for the future, would be lost with the Indian nations, he desired 
I would commit my Ideas to Paper And as the best answer I can 
give to the letter with which you have favored me, Conceiving also it 
will be acting up to the Intentions of Sir Gordon Drammond, I beg 
leave to enclose a correct copy of the paper I wrote, in compliance 
with the late Governor's request. 

In the opinions given it will be easily perceived that I had more in 
view the pernament security of the Upper Country, than any present 
advantage to the Northwest Company, for the trade of the Mississippi, 
or from Michilimackinac to the South or North, is not carried on 
by that concern, but I happen to think that the security of the 


Frontier of Upper Canada, & perhaps of the greater part of that 
Province depends on the Friendship of the Indian Nations, and if the 
British Government should unfortunately lose that Friendship, All 
the Tribes will be against us. Whenever it may please the Worthies 
at Washington to declare War, in which case no Englishman or 
Canadian can show his face, either in the Northwest or Southern 
Country Much good management will be required in the present year 
to reconcile the Indians to the great disappointment they will feel on 
being placed by the late Treaty on so very different a footing from 
what they were promised all along, and as they are not to be spoken 
to with effect empty-handed the supply of Indian Presents for the 
ensuing season should be very liberal & exceed those of any former 
year a very early supply is essential & will be anxiously expected by 
Col. McDonall, for they are bare of everything, both at Michl. and 
in the Interior particularly. I would therefore take the liberty of 
recommending that the quantity of Indian presents originally intended 
should be augmented, and above all that a supply should go forward 
by the very first trip of the Schooners from Natua-saskie. 

In the article of the Treaty relating to Indians they are supposed to 
be placed as they were in 1811, as to rights & privileges If the Post 
of Prarie des Chiens is to be occupied by American Troops, it never 
having been so occupied before, on our leaving it I am of opinion 
that the spirit of this article will not be complied with, for every Mili- 
tary Post established in their country certainly deprives the Indians of 
some of their Bights and Privileges if these words were intended to 
have a meaning in the Treaty another Post of the same kind, has 
been established on the Rio des Moine not very distant from the 
Prairie des Chiens, and also subsequent to 1811. * * * * 



MONTREAL, 20th April 1815. 

We therefore, being members of the N. W. Co. (although Mr. E. 
is not an agent thereof) and also deeply interested in the Indian 
Trade heretofore carried on from Michilinck., which we see is upon 
the point of annihilation by the late Treaty, if the preservation of 
Indian rights therein stipulated for, be not meant to exclude Military 
Posts and Custom Houses of either nation within the limits thereby 


secured to the Indians; do most earnestly entreat of His Excellency, 
Sir Gordon Drummond, that he will be pleased to re-consider the 
question of delivery of the Post at Michilimc. to the Americans, unless 
he has an instruction from His Majesty's Government, positively 
directing the speedy delivery of the Post of Michilimaoknac by name, 
and not by general words conveying an implication that the said Post 
is intended. 

In respect to avoiding the giving of offense to the Americans, we 
know them too well to believe, that it is possible to do so, if they 
shall feel it expedient to raise or effect to raise a pretext for seeing 
in any of our proceedings a wish to offend them. The surest way 
to avoid just ground of offense to them, is to do what is just & right 
to ourselves and Indian allies, under existing circumstances, for there 
is no instance of an unnecessary concession being made to the States 
that did not engender a demand for a greater sacrifice on our part 
therefore it is peculiarly necessary to be cautious in giving away to 
them upon any point, wherein a false step once made cannot be re-traced. 

From these considerations we hope that in giving our ideas with 
freedom upon the interpretation of the late Treaty respecting the Post 
of Michilimackinac, we shall not be thereby understood as wishing to 
interfere or suggest any difficulties, that may not be fairly made by our 
Government, and that would not most certainly be made by the 
Government of the United States, if the question was reversed. 

There are two articles in the Treaty which bear directly upon this 
point In the 1st thereof it is stipulated that " all territory, places and 
"possessions whatever taken from either party by the other during the 
"war, or which may be taken after the signing of the Treaty shall be 
" restored without delay &c such of the Islands in the Bay of Pass- 
" maquady as are claimed by both parties, shall remain in possession 
" of the party in whose occupation they may be at the time of the 
" ratification of the treaty until the decision respecting the title to the 
" said Islands shall have been made in conformity with the 4th article 
" of the Treaty and that no disposition made by this Treaty as to such 
" possessions of the Islands and territories claimed by both parties shall 
" in any manner whatever be construed to effect the right of either." 

And in the 6th Article is stipulated thus " and whereas doubts have 
" arisen what was the middle of said River Lake and water communi- 
" cations, and whether certain Islands lying in the same were within 
41 the dominions of his Britannic Majesty or of the United States; In 
'" order therefore finally to decide these doubts they shall be referred 
;" to two commissioners &c &c. The said commissioners shall by a 


" report or declaration under their hands and seals designate the bound- 
" ary through the said river Lakes and communications, and decide to 
" which of the two contracting Parties the several Islands lying within 
" the said river Lakes and water communications do respectively belong 
" in conformity with the true intent and meaning of the said treaty of 
" 1783, and both parties agree to consider such designation and decision 
" as final and conclusive. 

There then are two Articles in contradiction to each other, for by 
Article 1st Michilmc should be restored without delay, as it certainly 
was taken during the war, but by the 6th we ought to retain it 
(being an Island in Lake Huron) until the decision of the commis- 
sioners be given as to which of the Parties the several Islands in the 
said Lake do belong. 

Now it is an invariable principle in the constructions of Acts of 
Parliament Treaties or deeds of any kind, that where any articles 
therein formed are conflicting in their words, the meaning, shall be 
taken according to the fair interpretation of the Article inserted pos- 
terior to that raising the doubt, and consequently the 6th Article over- 
rules the 1st where apparently discordant. 

In support of this idea we beg to state that as the Islands in the 
Bay of Passamaquoddy were made a special exception as to the opera- 
tion of the general clause of restitution therein contained, so in the 6th 
article the Island of Michilimackinac would have been made a special 
exception as to the general provision contained in that article about the 
decision of the Commissioners respecting Islands in the River Lakes 
&c (Lake Huron of course inclusive) if it had been meant that Mich- 
ilimc. was not to be governed by such decision. 

This is further strengthened by the consideration, that although in 
the preamble of 6th article doubts about certain Islands only are 
spoken of, yet in the enacting part thereof, the decision of the Com'rs 
is to be as to the several Islands (meaning every Island) in the said 
River Lakes &c. For it hardly requires an argument to prove, that 
the enacting part is to prevail against the preamble on all occasions^ 
because the former merely gives a reason good or bad, for the propriety 
or necessity of a legal provision upon the matter in question, and when 
such provision is made, & it is to be construed by its own language 

But in order to remove all suspicion about the purity of the motives 
inducing the interpretation above said, as to the right of retaining the 
occupancy of Michilmc. as one of the Islands in Lake Huron until the 
decision of the commissioners be had as to the final right thereto 
provided such a retention be contrary to positive instructions. Then we 


would beg leave to suggest that it may be proposed to, and made a 
condition with the Gov't or officer of the United States, that the with- 
drawal of our garrison from Michilimc. after the erection of temporary 
cover for them elsewhere, shall be made dependant upon the further 
condition, that the said Island shall not be occupied by any American 
garrison and that no British or American Authority Military or Civil 
of any kind especially a Custom House officer shall exercise any juris- 
diction therein from the time of the evacuation by our troops until the 
decision of the commissioners In this view of the subject, Saint Mary, 
and not the Island on the North side of the Detour should be our 
temporary Post or station until such decision. We know not of any 
measure that could have so strong an influence in reconciling the 
Indians to the Treaty or preserving their attachment to us as this. 

Where doubts exist they should (with such a Govt & people as the 
Americans) be construed in such way as to err upon the safe side 
regarding ourselves and our Indian allies, as if this opportunity be lost 
we shall never have such another in our power. 

We hope that his Majesty's Government may have directed some 
steps to be taken to assure the fulfilment of the American part of the 
stipulation about the Indians, respecting the Lands whereof they have 
been unjustly deprived for if not there cannot be a doubt that the 
American Government will continue to evade their every part of it, 

whilst we are scrupulously fulfilling ours. 



P. S. We omitted to mention one thing highly important to the 
trade, which is. that if His Excellency cannot delay the delivery of 
Michilm'c beyond the time required to erect temporary cover for the 
Troops and Stores that at all events no American Custom house officer 
be allowed to act in any shape whilst our Garrison remains there, and 
we hope that His Excellency will instruct Lieut Colonel accordingly, 
as nothing would appear in the eyes of the Indians so derogatory to 
our consequence as a nation. 


QUEBEC 24th April 1815 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 
20th and Mr. McGillivray's of the 19th Inst:, both of which as well as 


the Memoir which accompanied McGillivray's letter have received 
the attentive consideration of His Excellency Sir Gordon Drummond, 
by whom I am directed to observe in reply that altho': your reasoning 
has failed in convincing Him that the Island of Michilmackinac has 
ever been considered as one of the Islands " in Dispute" or that either 
the Letter or the spirit of the article which you quote would in fair- 
ness of construction warrant His Excellency in so regarding it, and that 
therefore He is not called upon by a regard to National good Faith, to 
" restore it without delay " Yet His Excellency influenced by a consid- 
eration for your wishes and the obvious interests of the Northwest 
Company which he admits to be intimately connected with those of the 
Indian tribes friendly to Great Britain and consequently closely blended 
with the interests of these Provinces and of the Empire, has been 
induced from these considerations to cause an intimation to be made 
to the officer in command at Michilmackinac, which will have the effect 
of delaying the surrender of that Post for a period sufficient to afford 
His Excellency ample time to refer to His Majesty's Government, and 
to receive distinct and specific Instructions on a subject which he feels 
to be of such importance and which His Excellency will endeavor to 
bring under their consideration in as grave and comprehensive a manner 
as he can. * * * * 

Lieutenant Colonel McDonall will be instructed not to permit the 
Establishment of Custom Houses or any Custom House officer of the 
American Government to act in the Island of Michilimackinac so long 
as it shall remain in the occupation of a British garrison. 


Lt. Col: Dep: Adgt: Gen: 

John Richardson, and ) ^ 
William McGillivray f ^ squl 

North West Company 


Extract of a letter from Lt. Col. McDonall to Capt. Bulger Comg. 
Fort Me Kay dated Michilimackinac 1st May 1815. 

The official dispatch from Lt. Genl. Drummond to which I alluded 
in my last has not yet arrived, but this day an American vessel from 
Detroit, has brought me a duplicate of the same, confirming the pre- 
vious report of a Peace, and a mutual restoration of all Forts and Places 
taken on either side. You will therefore adopt instant and immediate 


steps for the evacuation of the Prairie des Chiens bringing with you the 
stores. The Guns Captured in the Fort must be sent down the Mis- 
sissippi to St. Louis if practicable, if otherwise to be brought to 

The whole of the western Ind. Department will accompany you to 
join me at this place. 

That rascal Cowen, whom you may recollect in charge of Provisions 
at Nottawaysaga has been five weeks on the road from York with the 
despatches and has not yet arrived. 

The utmost pains must be taken that this Peace should be generally 
promulgated, and every nation be cautioned how they infringe it, but 
above let them not imbibe the fatal error, that the supply which is. 
sent them is an inducement to further hostilities. 


(War-1812.) (Pages 89-90-1.) 


In my letter of the 2d Inst I communicated to you the orders of Lt 

Genl Sir Gor. Drummond as conveyed through Lt Col. Harvey Dy 
Adg Genl. for the giving up of Fort McKay to the Govt of the IL 
States with the guns which were in it at the time of its capture. 

Tho' I have not myself yet seen the Treaty of Ghent at full length a 
circumstance which I exceedingly regret yet from the heads of it as stated 
in several of the papers there can be no manner of doubt that the 
Indians are to be put upon the footing they were on, before the war 
There is therefore a strange inconsistency which I cannot yet account 
for in the order of Sir Gordon Drummond directing Fort McKay to 
be given up to the Americans. It may have been the result of inad- 
vertance & not recollecting that it is situated in the heart of that 
Country which belonged to the Indians in 1812 and is guaranteed to 
them by the recent treaty, should this appear to you to be clearly and 
unequivocally to be the case, from no demand being made for it or 
preparation to take possession or any correspondence upon the subject. 

There then can be no doubt that the literal meaning and spirit of 
the treaty as understood by both Governments is that the Indian 
Country alluded to shall be mutually evacuated by both partys. In 
that case you will take immediate steps for destroying the Fort and 


withdrawing the garrison, taking care that the guns, gun carriages, and 
ordnance stores . taken with the place be correctly restored to the 
American Govt. by the best and most convenient mode, either by send- 
ing them down the Mississippi or if that is not practicable by bringing 
them to be given up at this garrison, acquainting the officer command- 
ing at St. Louis of the arrangement made. 

Should the nature of the Treaty made (certainly not such as the 
Indians had a right to expect) excite in them such a degree of irrita- 
tion and ferment as evidently to endanger the safety of yourself and 
Garrison, should the Fort be given up to the Americans and such a 
disposition on the part of the Indians would undoubtedly manifest 
itself, also in acts of hostility to the Detachment of the U. States 
troops coming to take the possession & tend to impail and interrupt 
the good understanding subsisting between the two nations, you will in 
that case on yourself and Mr. Dickson being clearly convinced of the 
absolute necessity of the measure, take the necessary steps for with- 
drawing the Garrison destroying the Fort and disposing of the Guns 
as before directed, taking the earliest opportunity of informing the 
Govt. of the U. States of the delemma in which you are placed and of 
the measures, which you have been compelled to adopt in consequence. 

It is of great importance that you clearly comprehend these instruc- 
tions the substance of which I recapitulate. 

1st. The order of Lt. G. Sir Gordon Drummond must be carried 
into effect, if so understood and required by the Government of the 
United States provided that the thing is practicable without committing 
to eminent hazard the safety of the American Detacht or of your own 
Garrison thereby having a tendencey to interrupt the harmony so 
recently restored. 

2d. Should the order alluded to have originated in mistake, (which 
appears probable from the nature of the treaty) & the cession of Fort 
McKay not be required or demanded by the Govt of the U. States, 
you will then on that fact being clearly ascertained destroy and evacuate 
the fort as before directed. Should it appear to you and Mr. Dickson 
distinctly & unequivocally evident, that in attempting to put the Ameri- 
can troops in possession of Fort McKay, or retaining it for that pur- 
pose, that the safety of yourselves & Garrison is thereby hazarded & 
that no doubt remains on your minds that it would be resisted on the 
part of the Indians, & also highly endanger the safety of the said 
detachment of the U. State Troops & have a tendency to renew hostili- 
ties between them and the Indians, the unavoidable necessity of the 
case will compel you to destroy the Fort & withdraw the Garrison &c 


as before stated. The light three pounder, Coin McKay informs me, 
was solemnly presented by him to the Sioux Nation, and of course 
must be left with them; they should be cautioned against its falling 
into the hands of the Americans. 

On your march to Green Bay it will be perhaps advisable to observe 
the utmost caution & vigilence having your Lt three pounder mounted 
in one of the boats and always ready for service. 

Mr. Dickson will of course render you every assistance in carrying 
your arrangements into execution. I have the honor to be 

&. &. 

Captain Bulger Lt Col. 

Comd Fort McKay Commanding. 


(War-1812.) (Pages 92-3-4.) 



On the 1st Instant, I had the honor of receiving Your letter of the 
16th April, by the same conveyance, I received the first official com- 
munication from my Government, of the termination of hostilities, and 
of the restoration of the blessings of Peace, by the treaty concluded at 
Ghent. ***** 

I did flatter myself, that the immediate Cession of the important 
Fortress of Niagara, would have been sufficient to evinced the readiness 
of the British Government, promptly to carry the articles of the treaty 
into effect, as far as was practicable at the moment and that the 
example would have been followed by the restoration of Amherstburg 
I did hope, that in Candor some allowance would have been made for 
the remote situation of this Garrison, the delay of intelligence, and that 
the recollection of the entire destruction of the former post at St. 
Josephs, would have suggested the necessity of time being required 
for completing temporary Barracks, for to shelter the troops and 
magazines for the reception of the stores and provisions. An officer 
with a party of artificers, are now on the way for this purpose. I shall 
render every assistance possible to expedite the work, but I have every 
reason to believe, that with all our exertions, it will be near the 
middle of July before they are completed, and I enabled to remove the 


I subjoined the instructions of the Commander of the Forces on this 

"Temporary Barracks and store houses sufficient for the troops and 
Stores at Michilimackinac and forthwith to be constructed; a proportion 
of Artificers are to be sent for that purpose, and when completed, the 
whole of the garrison, the Guns (except such as were captured in the 
place and which are to be restored with it) and the public stores, are 
to be removed and the Fort and Island of Michilimackinac delivered 
over to any officer of the American Government appointed to receive 
charge thereof; you will at the same time explain the causes which 
make it impossible for you to evacuate Mackinac until cover has been 
prepared for the garrison and Stores." I have already commenced the 
building alluded to, and also the embarkation of the provisions & 
stores; no effort of mine shall be wanting to hasten their completion, 
which, should I be enabled to effect sooner than the period I have 
mentioned, I will not fail to give you due notice thereof, and to fix 
the precise day and hour when I am prepared to restore the Island to 
the Troops of the United States. * * * 

As it is customary for many Indians to resort to this place for 
their presents during the summer, I beg leave to recommend, that 
the departure of your garrison should if possible be so timed, 
as to enable them to land on the day fixed for the surrender of the 
Island * 

I beg to assure you that you will ever find me ready in the genuine 
spirit of candor and conciliation, to afford you every explanation you 
can require upon Public topics, and to strengthen as far as in me 
lies, the bands of friendship so happily re-established between the two 


I have the honor to be Sir 

Your most Obedt. most humble Servt. 
Colonel Butler ET. McDoNALL 

Going. U. States Troops Lt. Col. Comd. 


MR. MONROE TO MR. BAKER. (Pages 94-5.) 



May 61815 
it ; I have the honor to receive your letter of the 4th of this month 


by which you have been so good as to inform me that Sir Gordon 
Drummond the Commander in Chief of His Brittannic Majesty's 
Forces in Canada, had on the transfer of the command to him by Sir 
George Prevost given orders for the immediate restoration of the places 
taken during the late war, to any duly authorized agent of the United 
States, but that in consequence of the destruction of Fort St. Joseph, 
the only shelter in the neighborhood of Michillimackinac, it had nec- 
essary to delay the evacuation of that post till some buildings might 
be erected on the shores of Lake Huron for the reception of 
the Garrison & Stores, and for which orders have already been 

I cannot but regret however, that any delay should occur in the res- 
toration of Michillimackinac, as its detention by a British garrison may 
make impression on the Indian tribes in that quarters injurious to the 
United States which the explanation of the agents of both governments 
may not be able to prevent. It was among the first acts of this Gov- 
ernment, after the exchange of the Ratifications of the Treaty of Peace 
to invite the tribes with whom the United States were still at war, to 
St. Louis on the Mississippi for the purpose of concluding peace with 
them in conformity with a stipulation in the Treaty with Great Britain. 
Should such erroneous impressions be made by that cause, aided by 
the misrepresentations of those who trade with them it is probable that 
some of those Tribes may decline sending deputies to St. Louis and 
may likewise continue their savage war on our frontiers. To avoid a 
consequence so painful to both Governments, I flatter myself that the 
suggestion which I had the honor to make to you in a late interview, 
of removing the Troops from Michilimakinac to Maiden will be acceded 
to. The necessary transportation will be cheerfully afforded by this 
Government, and without the slightest inconvenience. The same vessels 
which take the Troops of the United States to Michilimakinac, may bring 
back those of Great Britain to Maiden. * * * , * 

I have the honor to be 

&c. &c. &c. 


Anthony St. John Baker Esq 

Charg6 d' affairs. 



(War-1812.) (Page 97.) 

WASHINGTON May 8th 1815. 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 6th Inst. acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of the communication which I made to you on the 4th 
respecting the prompt measures which had been adopted by His Majesty's 
Commanders for the restoration of places captured from the United States 
during the late war 

It has afforded great satisfaction to learn that steps have been taken 
by the American Government for the execution of the article in the 
late Treaty of Peace which relates to the passification of the Indian 
Nations & their restoration to all the possessions rights and privileges, 
which they enjoyed in 1811, but I cannot avoid regretting that the 
retention for so short a space of time of the post of Michilimaskinac 
for the purpose which has been stated, should appear to you calculated 
to produce impressions on the Indians in that neighborhood injurious 
to the United States, and confidently trust that the fears which are 
entertained on that account will be proved to be without foundation. 

I have the honor to be 

&c. &c. &c. 


Hon. James Monroe 
Secy, of State 


(War-1812.) (Page 98.) 

Extract of a letter from William 
Woodbridge Esqr. Acting 
Governor to the Secretary 
of War dated Detroit 10th 
May 1815. 

"The British still keep up an active intercourse with the Indians. 
Recently large belts of white & black wampum have been passing 
through our country, with great secrecy & secret conferences holden 


with those chiefs, most decidedly British. So late as in April, some- 
chiefs were told by the British agency at Michilimackinac, that the 
peace was but for a short time, that the Indians must still grasp firmly 
the tomahawk and be ready at the moment. Cadot (the same British 
agent who is known to have offered money for the scalps of Chadonai 
and Vrinice) is stated recently to have told the Indians that the forti- 
fications at Michilimackinac were all in a situation to be blown up, if 
at any time the Americans should go there, and that the peace wa& 
but an artifice. Much information of this tenor is passing among the 
Indians, and from time to time is reported to be, of little importance- 
in itself but taken in the aggregate of a tendency, at all events, to 
show the general temper of the savages, that general temper which I 
have most reluctantly been endeavoring to advise you of. 


(War-1812.) (Pages 103-4-5.) 


Your dispatch of the llth of March, containing, for us, the highly 
important intelligence of Peace being concluded between Great Britain 
& the United States of America, reached me at this place on the 
Eleventh of this month! ! 

By it, for the first time, I was enabled to peruse the treaty at full 
length, it is to me a matter of great regret that I did not receive it 
sooner, as I have, till now, been in doubt as to several matters of much 
delicacy & importance. I leave you to judge whether the Indian 
Department at York entrusted such a despatch to proper hands, when 
I inform you, that the persons who took down my Letters in March, 
left that place Thirty days after their departure, and arrived here ten 
days before them! In addition to other inconveniences, such a shame- 
ful & unprecedented delay, might have occasioned (& may have for what 
I yet know) the loss of many lives. 

My perplexity is as great as ever, as to the order sent me thro: Lt, 
Col. Harvey, to give up Fort McKay & the Prairie des Chiens, to the 
Americans, as the ninth article of the Treaty affords the most clear & 
circumstantial evidence, that the great extent of Country from the 
Mississippi, so shamefully seized upon, by the Americans in June last. & 
from which they were expelled in the ensuing month, reverts again to 


the Indians, as it is expressly stipulated that they are restored to all 
the possessions, rights, & privileges, which they enjoyed in 1811. My 
instructions and the treaty itself, being at such variance, together with 
the indispensible necessity of withdrawing the garrison at Fort McKay, 
so critically situated, I have after mature deliberation, directed Captain 
Bulger to act, agreeable to the instructions herewith enclosed. 

I also see with much pain (from this first sight of the Treaty) that 
it will be a very difficult, if not an impossible matter, to fix upon an 
Eligible situation for a new Post, until the Commissioners have decided 
whether certain Islands in the vicinity of the boundary line, are within 
the dominion of His Britannic Majesty or of the United States. I have 
not the smallest doubt, from the usual arrogance & unblushing impu- 
dence of the latter Govt. that every effort will be made by them to 
grasp what they can, that both St Joseph's, & the large Island close to 
the Detour (the most westerly of the Manitoulin Islands) which appeared 
to me very eligible for a New Post, & apparently possessing the rare 
recommendations of a good harbor (will be claimed by them, & that at 
least a Year will elapse before they come to a determination. 

I also cannot disguise my fears, judging from what has passed, that 
the places alluded to, will also be given up. If so, it will retire us 
out of the reach of the Indians altogether, & give the finishing blow to 
whatever influence we yet possess amongst them. I conceive it to be of 
the utmost consequence, that His Majesty's Government, should be early 
apprized of this important circumstance. The surrender of this most 
important Island, the Key to the whole western country, & which they 
fully expected would have been retained by us, if followed up by that 
of St. Josephs, and the adjoining Islands, will be to them such conclusive 
proofs of our disgrace, & absolute submission to the American Govern- 
ment, that it would be most grossly deceiving ours, to hold forth the 
expectation of being joined by a single Indian, in the event of another 
war. Their neutrality is then the utmost, perhaps that we can hope for, 
& that is more to be desired than expected. Of this be assured, that 
a more terrible Enemy exists not, than a numerous body cf Indians, 
properly managed & led on, in such a country as upper Canada; Instead 
of the flattering promises, which I was so lately instructed to make to 
them, being realized, the Whole Country is given up. A breach of 
faith, is with them an utter abomination, & never forgotten; Dubious 
of our intentions from past events, they have in Council, often alluded 
to the destruction of their fathers by Genl Wayne in 1795, under the 
very guns of our Fort on the Miami Eiver, & that so far from being 
assisted, even the fugitives were refused admittance, to save them from 


the indiscriminate slaughter. Such are their retentive memories as to 
real or supposed injuries. I leave you to judge what their reply will 
be, when solicited for their assistance hereafter. 

I have taken every precaution to make known the news of Peace, & 
to put a stop to that predatory mode of warfare, which they are con- 
tinually waging against the Americans. To effect this entirely among 
so many tribes, having such cause to hate that people, need not be 
expected. The Govt of the United States therefore, will soon have a 
fair pretext to glut their vengence against them & gradually to root 
them out. They will probably stop all Powder from going to the 
Mississippi (when they get this place) without which, these nations 
must perish in the winter; the slow but sure poison of their whisky 
stills, will effect the rest, and in fifty years time, there perhaps will not 
be an Indian left between this and the Eocky Mountains, to plague 
either party. ******* 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Lt. Col. Foster. Your most obedt Servant 

Lt. Col. Comd. 



I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 
28th ulto; which was delivered to me by Capt. Collier of the Royal 
Navy this evening. He was at the same time, the Bearer of a letter 
to me from Major Brock, who informs me, that, " from a conversation 
"I have had with Col Butler, Comd. at Detroit, it appears that the 
" Col. in the month of Feby., & again in March last, communicated to 
"his Govt. his intention of occupying Bois Blanc, at the time of his 
"delivering up Amherstburg, & proposing to fortify the same, from 
" the conviction that the Island belonged to the United States. Col. 
" Butler (he adds) has not yet received an answer from his Govt. but 
" in case none should arrive previous to his evacuating Amherstburg, 
" he informs me that it is his intention to occupy the island in ques- 
" tion with troops of the United States. 

Agreeable therefore to your instructions I shall suspend the evacua- 
tion of this garrison, until further orders. 

I have every reason to believe that similar pretensions will be set 


up by the American Government, not only to the Island of St. 
Joseph's, but to several others in its vicinity of great consequence to 
us, as probably affording the only eligible situation for the establish- 
ment of our new Post, in Fact, Colonel Butler hinted as much to 
Cap. Collier, & these pretended rights, have before been with them, the 
subject of frequent discussion. That they will claim them I have 
scarcely a doubt, and should the commissioners be obstinate, it will be 
no easy matter for the Sovereign umpire to come to a speedy decision 
upon the subject. This renders it so necessary that we should be well 
assured, not only of our right to the Islands in question, but that the 
commissioners will be so likewise before we finally determine upon the 
situation for the proposed Fort. Should they also be ceded, it will 
retire us altogether from the Indians, & give the finishing blow to 
whatever influence we still possess amongst them. 

From the spirit & obvious meaning of the treaty of 1783, they are 
unquestionably ours, & I trust that on this subject, the Government 
will be inflexible. 

The large Island close to the Detour (the passage of which it 
commands) appears to me from what I have yet seen, the most 
advantageous for a new Post, but I fear it is one of those that 
will be claimed. It is the most western of the Manitoualian Islands 
(and 27 miles in cir. Lt. Worsley (B. N) reports favorable of the 
harbour, which will be minutely examined in a few days, by Capt. 
Collier. That officer can give me no intelligence of Capt. Payne, 
whose arrival at this garrison I have for some time expected. * * * * 

BT. McDoNALL, Lt. Col. 

Lt. Gen. Sir George Murray, K. B. 




From my letter of yesterday's date, it will be evident how difficult a 

matter it at present is to comply with the orders of Lt. General Sir 

Gordon Drummond, in fixing upon an eligible situation for a new Post, 

in our own territory, at a period when such sweeping claims are likely 



to be made by the American Govt., & when some years may elapse 
before a decision is pronounced upon them. 

I have represented this to Lt. General Sir Gordon Drummond accord- 
ingly, & would be much gratified at receiving additional instructions for 
my guidance upon this subject. 

In the meantime, the repairs of the buildings at St. Josephs, are in 
such a state of forwardness, that they will be soon capable of giving 
shelter to the Troops & Stores, when necessary, part of the latter, and 
the most of the provisions, have been already sent there. 

The Indians whom I had directed to assemble here, for the defence 
of the Island, are flocking in from all parts. Bitterly disappointed as 
they are at the treaty of peace, it is more than ever requisite that they 
should (while here be well fed, well clothed & indulged with their 
Customary allowance of spirits. * * * * 

ET. McDoNALL Lt. Col. 

Lt. Genl. Sir George Murray K. B. 



I have the honor to acquaint you, for the information of Lt. G. Sir 
Gordon Drummond, that Captain Collier of the Royal Navy, arrived at 
this garrison last night being the bearer of a despatch from Lt. General 
Sir Geo: Murray, & also a letter from Major Brock at Sandwich. 

By the former despatch, I am directed by the Lt. General, that 
should certain rumors prove true, that the Americans, are evacuating 
Amherstburg, meant to occupy and retain possession of the adjoining 
Island of Bois Blanc (<fc of the truth or falsehood of which, I would 
be apprized by Major Brock), I am in that case, to suspend the 
evacuation of the Island of Michilimackinac until further orders, not- 
withstanding any instructions to the contrary, which I may have 
previously received. 

Major Brock having accordingly communicated to me, the avowed 
intention of Col. Butler to occupy the 'Island in question with the 
troops of the United States on the evacuation of Amherstburg I have 
therefore acquainted Lt. Genl. Sir Geo: Murray that I have suspended 
the evacuation of Michilimackinac agreeable to his orders. 


From some hints thrown out by Col: Butler in a conversation with 
Capt. Collier B. N. there cannot be a doubt, but that these very 
modest & unassuming gentlemen mean also to lay claim to St. Joseph's 
& perhaps the most westerly of the Manitoualian Islands. If granted 
(which cannot be possible) we lose the Indians, & the only eligible 
situation for the new post. ****** 

I have the honor to be 
Sir Your Most obdt. servt. 

RT. McDoNALL Lt. Col. 
Comg. Mich. & dependencies 
Lt. Col. Foster 




17th May 1815 

Colonel McDonall being about to send off an express for York, I 
avail myself of this opportunity of acquainting you of my arrival at 
this place yesterday, but find that Col. McDonall has not determined 
upon any post as yet to remove the Garrison to, Neither does he know 
how to act, until he may hear from Sir George Murray in answer to a 
dispatch he has previously sent off; as St. Joseph as well as the west- 
ern Manitoulin Islands he expects will be desputed by the American 
Government, some of the stores have been removed to St. Joseph's, 
bat the Colonel does not intend sending anything more there for the 
present, and has notified to Colonel Butler of the United States Service 
at Detroit, that it will be out of his power giving up this Garrison 
before the middle of July. 

As I find Lieutenant Wiiikfield with his schooner here, I shall leave 
this for St. Joseph's and thereabouts, in her, the day after tomorrow, 
but fear it will be long before anything will be finally settled for the 
Establishment of a new post, as the Islands of most importance to us 
are those that will be disputed by the United States. I shall remain 
here for the performance of the duty I have arrived for, as soon as it 
may be determined on * * 

(Signed) ED. COLLIER 
Sir E. W. C. K Owen K, C, B 
Commodore & Commander in Chief 


INDIAN SPEECH. (Pages 112-13.) 


Extract of a speech from Lafrombois to Judge B. Parke, dated May 
17th 1815. 

I am sorry to tell you that the chiefs who were sent with your 
Speech, to the Pattawattimies and Kickapoos have returned, for this 
reason, I heard that the British had invited them to their country, and 
that they were gone. 

I listen with pleasure to your speech. It would be unecessary for us 
to go to the Kickapoos & Pattawattimas, knowing they would tell us 
nothing but lies. 

You know that the Kickapoos & Pattawattimas told you at Vincennes, 
that they had sent an Express to their nations for you, and that they 
expected to meet the express at Fort Harrison. They told you a lie. 

I believe that the British have sent for the Indians to inform them 
that peace has been made between the United States & Great Britain. 

The British sent for us (the Weas) We are determined not to go. 


Extract of a speech from Labossier to Judge B. Parke dated May 
18th 1815. 

A party of twenty eight Ottawas and Pattawattimies passed my camp, 
I endeavored to turn them back, but they would not listen to me. 

You and the British have counselled together, and you are the proper 
person to settle the disputes. 

The Ottawas and the Pattawattimies who passed my camp told me that 
they were informed by the British that by the Treaty they had made 
with the United States, the Americans had given up all the country as 
far as the Ohio River, and they were angry to see the Americans plant- 


ing corn so far in their country and that the British were bringing to 
Mackinaw presents for the Indians; that the British wanted no help 
from them, but told them to do as they pleased. Those Indians said 
to me, "My Brother, what do you do here. Pecon your chief is on 
his way to the British at Mackinaw, and here is the wampum from 
your Father the British" I told them I could not accept the wampum 
from the British, that I wished to be at peace with all nations. ! gave 
them two strings of wampum telling them that if they saw any of my 
young men, to treat them kindly. These Indians also told me that the 
British were ashamed of the peace they had made with the Americans,, 
but that they would soon be strong enough as they had four vessels, 
laden with arms and ammunition coming to Mackinaw, that the Indians 
had the British, French, Dutch and Negroes at their backs to assist 
them. That there were several parties of hostile Indians out, and as 
soon as the country got dry, there would be many more, for the purpose 
of killing the white people. 



DETROIT 81st May 1815. 

I have the honor of informing you that a dispatch will be forwarded 
from hence addressed to the officer commanding the Post of Michilli- 
mackinac upon the subject of restoring that Post to the United 
States, pursuant to the stipulations in the first article of the Treaty of 

The delay which has taken place in relation to the execution of that 
important article which provides for the restoration of all posts and 
places taken from each other during the war has operated a great 
inconvenience to the United States; and with every disposition on the 
part of the American Government to accommodate, I am nevertheless 
instructed to say, " that the execution of this important article of the 
Treaty cannot be much longer postponed." 

It will be recollected that an exchange of the ratifications of the 
Treaty of Ghent was made more than three months since, and with a 
continued readiness n the part of the American Government to comply 
with the terms of the Treaty in respect to the restoration of posts and 
places, and with the desire to do so manifested by the proposition 
already submitted and urged upon the subject; this object which 
should be so desirable to both parties remains unaccomplished. 


Having been informed by Lt. Gen. Sir George Murray that Lt. 
Col. McDonall has been invested with full powers to act in this matter 
so far as related to Michilimackinac I have thought proper to address 
a communication to Lt. Col. McDonall direct. 

I beg leave to inform you that the vessel bearing my dispatch to 
Mackinac shall be detained for six hours, and that the Agent of the 
Government who is made the bearer shall take charge of and deliver 
any communication you wish to make to the officer commanding at 

I profit of this occasion to repeat to you the assurance of the high 

respect with which * * 

H. BUTLER, Col'n ' 

2nd Riflemen Commanding 

Lt. Col'n James. 



SANDWICH Hist May 1815 

I am this moment honored by Your Letter of this date and shall 
make its contents known to my Superior Authority with as little 
delay as possible, however from its nature I should be induced to 
Conclude that a direct Communication had been made from Washington 
to Quebec. 

I beg leave to offer my Thanks for the very obliging manner in which 
you give a safe conveyance to Lt Col. MacDonall of any Letters from 
me and which I now take the liberty to forward. * * * 

R. JAMES Lt Col. 

37th Regt. 
Colonel Butler 


SANDWICH 31st May 1815 

Herewith I do myself the honor to forward you a copy of Colonel 
Butlers' letter to me and which I loose 110 time to lay before you par- 
ticularly as its should in my opinion not remain unregarded. I 


shall forward the original without delay to Lieut. Genl Sir G. 

I arrived here with a detachment of the 37th Regiment on the 22d 
Inst. and have taken possession of this country with the exception of 
the opposite and works of Amherstburg which the Americans still 

retain possession of 

I have been through a private channel informed that the works of 
Niagara was restored to the American Government on the 22d Inst. 
however I mentioned it as Report having heard that it and Mackinac 
were to be restored at the same time, and that Amherstburg would be 
in like manner, and on the same day restored to the detachment under 
my command. I had also understood that the cause of delay on the 
part of our Government in not delivering up Niagara and Mackinac at 
a more early period was the intention manifested by the American 
Government to occupy the Island of Bois Blanc, which so completely 
commands Amherstburg, and which I am informed the Americans are 
now actually conveying Guns &c. to, for that purpose. 

It may be necessary for me to acquaint you that I have not received 
any instructions, in any official matters regarding this part of the 
country, consequently anything which is herein related is merely my 
own opinion & circumstances not of an official nature; however 
eventually necessary for your information. 

I have the honor to be &c 

R. JAMES, Lt Col. 

37 Regt 

Li Col. McDonall 


(War-1812.) (Pages 123-4.) 

DETROIT 1 June 1815. 

A communication from the Department of War of the United States 
addressed to me and received on yesterday, has made it my duty again 
to communicate with you and to request a definitive reply to the ques- 
tion. At what period and on what day will the Island of Michilimack- 
inac be restored to the United States? And to assure you Sir at the 
same moment, that with every disposition on the part of the American 
Government to accommodate, it is proper that the execution of that 


important article in the Treaty of Ghent relative to the restoration 
of posts and places captured by either party during the late war should 
not be much longer postponed. More than three months have elapsed 
since the ratifications of the Treaty of Ghent were exchanged, and 
although every disposition on the part of the United States has been 
manifested for executing that Treaty, still the accomplishment of an 
object that should be so desirable to both parties has been delayed and 
avoided on the part of the Government of Great Britain. 

As I have understood from Lieut. Genl. Sir George Murray Com- 
manding the British Forces in Upper Canada, that you have received 
full instructions and ample powers in relation to the restitution of the 
Island and Post of Michilimackinac, I have deemed it best to communi- 
cate with you directly upon the subject and not circuitously through another 
channel. The Squadron of the United Stated destined to transport the 
Troops and Stores intended for the Garrison of Mackinac in now in 
Detroit River and will remain for that purpose untill I shall have the 
pleasure of hearing from you on this subject. In your letter to me of 
the 5th Ultimo, you fell into an error when you supposed that the 
Fortress of Niagara had been restored to the United States; I shall add 
no other remark upon that part of your letter than merely to state, that 
Niagara was occupied by your Troops as late as the 20th ultimo. Con- 
fiding in the assurance which you have given me of your disposition to 
aid in strengthening those bonds of Amity so happily restored between 
the people of the United States and Great Britain and with an assur- 
ance on my part of acting under the influence of the same spirit. 

* # 

A. BUTLER Colonel 

2nd Riflemen 
Commanding Detroit 

& & & 

Lieut. Col. Me Donall 


(War-1812.) (Pages 126-7-8.) 


June 3 1815 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 24th of May stat- 
ing that the Commander in Chief of His Britannic Majesty's Forces in 
Canada had found some difficulty in obtaining the restitution of Fort 


Maiden from the officer commanding the forces of the U. S. at that 
Post, complaining of that delay in consideration of the prompt meas- 
ures adopted by the commanders of the British Forces for the restitu- 
tion of the several places captured from the United States, with the 
exception of Michilimackinac, the restitution of which had been delayed 
by a cause, the nature of which had been fully explained to this Gov- 
ernment, and you request that an order may be issued for the immedi- 
ate restitution of Fort Maiden to any person who may appear duly 
authorized to receive it. 

You state also that some hesitation having been showed as to the 
execution of the order for the restitution of fort Niagara, in conse- 
quence of the difficulty found in obtaining the restitution of Maiden, 
the British Commander in Chief in Canada had renewed his order for 
the immediate restitution of Niagara, and had likewise given an order 
to the Commanding officer at Michilimackinac to expedite the evacua- 
tion of that Post. 

The conduct of the United States since the peace has afforded suffi- 
cient proof of their sincere desire to execute with perfect good faith 
all the stipulations of the late Treaty, and to preserve and improve 
the pacific relations so happily restored between the two nations. As 
soon as the ratifications were exchanged, measures were taken for exe- 
cuting promptly every act the performance of which was enjoined on 
them, and other measures were likewise adopted founded on a state of 
peace which would not have been adopted had not full confidence been 
entertained that your Government would perform all its engagements 
with equal good faith, and was equally desirous of preserving and 
improving the existing relations between the parties. As these meas- 
ures are of public notoriety, and of a marked character, I need not 
enumerate them. 

It is true that in giving the order for the restitution of Maiden, the 
Commanding officer at Detroit was instructed to make that act simulta- 
neous with the restitution of Michilimackinac. As those posts are 
intimately connected by the relation which they bear respectively to 
the Indian Tribes, it was deemed important to the U. S. that the sur- 
render of each to the Government to which it belonged should be made 
at the same time. As peace was still to be concluded with Indian 
Tribes in that quarter the surrender of Maiden before that of Michili- 
mackinac, even for a short time, might it was apprehended, induce those 
tribes to form an improper opinion of the conditions of the Treaty 
which had been concluded between the U. S. and Great Britain, or of 
the intention of the parties as to its execution, from which serious 


injury in either case was anticipated. Against these consequences it 
was sought to guard. 

You will I am persuaded be sensible that this order for the restitu- 
tion of Maiden, was in strict conformity with the Treaty, and that if 
any delay has occurred in the restitution of that post, it has proceeded 
from that attending the restitution of Michilimackinac. 

As it appears however, by recent intelligence received here that 
Niagara has been restored, and as you state that new orders have been 
given to expedite the evacuation of Michilimackinac I am instructed 
by the President to assure you that an order shall be issued for the 
restitution of Maiden, without making that act dependent upon any act 
to be performed on your part. The delay attending the restitution of 
Michilimackinac was not anticipated or contemplated when the first order 
in relation to the restitution of Maiden was issued. After the explana- 
tion 1 which you have given, that delay cannot it is presumed be pro- 
tracted much longer, and will form no motive with this Government to 
postpone the execution of any stipulation which the U. S. are bound 
by the Treaty to perform. But if the immediate surrender of Maiden 
unaccompanied by the counter surrender of Michilimackinac, should be 
found likely to involve the American frontier in Indian hostilities, I 
persuade myself that you will perceive in the prospect of that occur- 
rence a sufficient reason for Mutual accomodation as to the periods of 
surrendering Maiden and Michilimackinac. The American Commander 
will therefore be directed to surrender Maiden immediately to the 
British officer, who shall be authorized to receive possession of that 
post, unless the menace of Indian hostilities should be such as renders 
it necessary for the safety of our frontier citizens to suspend the sur- 
render until the British troops shall be ready to evacuate Michili- 
mackinac. In that case he will be directed to confer or to correspond 
in a friendly and confidential manner with the British Commander 
upon the subject and to make every arrangement, consistent with the 
single object in view, for completing the surrender. 

With great respect and consideration 
I have the honor to be 

&. &. &. 



Ant St. John Baker Eqs. 



MICHILIMACKINAC, 14th June 1815 

As 1 am immediately setting out for St. Josephs I have only time 
to acknowledge, & to thank you for your letter of the 31 inst. 

Pressed as I am for time, so much yet to be done, & the means of 
effecting it so little, I have been not a little annoyed at the uncommon 
delay of Capt. Payne in reaching this Garrison. It has not been less- 
ened by his loosing a Sargt and nine of his Artificers out of fifteen by 
desertion. We are still worse off for materials than for workmen, and 
even some of the most necessary tools, we only received yesterday from 
Nattawasaga. Even the very boards & plank that we require, we 
have to saw, There being none to be purchased so situated with such 
difficulties to encounter, & the progress made with our Barracks and 
Stores even slower than I hoped for, how is it possible as yet to name 
a day for the surrender of the Post, especially as my instructions say, 
that it is to be given up when they were completed. * * * * 

I have the honor to be 
Sir Your very obdt servant 




I had yesterday the honor of receiving y'r letter of the 1st Inst. 
I regret much that it is not yet in my power to name the day when 
I shall be prepared to restore this Island to the Govt of the United 

I must candidly own, Sir, that I have found the task of preparing 
shelter and accommodation for this Garrison & Magazines & Stores for 
the ammunition & provisions, not a little arduous, & in consequence of 
our almost total want of means, slower progress has been made than I 
expected. Six weeks has scarcely elapsed since I first heard of the 
conclusion of peace, & when it is considered that we were without tools, 
plank or boards very few carpenters, & the officer & party of Arti- 


ficers who were purposely dispatched for the completion of the build- 
ings alluded to having only arrived yesterday, I trust that the diffi- 
cultys which I have to encounter will be duly appreciated, & the delay 
admitted to be unavoidable. 

With .regard to the powers with which I am invested, the extract 
which I communicated in my last, exhibits their full extent. I recapit- 
ulate the substance of them. 

" When the temporary Barracks, Storehouses are completed, then the 
whole of the Garrison Guns stores &c are to be removed, & the Island 
is to be given up. Lt. Genl. Sir Gordon Drummond has since instructed 
me to use encreased exertions in completing the arrangements (for its 
evacuation) & has also very recently instructed me, (thro' Sir George 
Murray) " to apprize the Comg officer of the 8th Military Division at 
Detroit, whenever I am prepared to deliver up the Post." 

From this Frank disclosure of my instructions/ you will easily per- 
cieve that the part which I have to act, is plain, simple, & not to be 
mistaken. It is of course unnecessary to remind a soldier, with what 
precise fidelity they must be obeyed. I have only to repeat that I 
shall most sedulously devote my attention toward accelerating what 
yet remains to be done. I proceed tomorrow for St. Josephs, with 
Captain Paine for that purpose it is my wish to be as correct as 
possible in naming the day for the surrender of the Garrison in order 
that the Indians (now waiting for their presents) may previously take 
their departure & shall immediately communicate to His Excellency 
the Cornr of the Forces your last dispatch. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 
&c &c 


MB. CALDWELL TO ME. CLAUS. (Pages 133-4.) 


SANDWICH 15th June 1815 
SIB: ******** 

From Delaware I informed you the proceedings of our Commanding 
Officer which was contrary to the usage of Indian affairs we were drawn 
down by Colonel James contrary to my wishes if I had been left alone 
to manage the Indians with the assistance of the Officers of the Depart- 
ment the Indians should still have remained at the River Thames and 


planted corn; which would have enabled them to provide for themselves 
in the way of provisions, in the course of three months from hence but 
here are the Shawnies Kickapoos & Socks who are brought down to the 
place and the Govt will have to provision them till next spring. In con- 
sequence of the Interference with our Dept. the Govt. is now at present 
feeding upwards of 1,900 persons at this Post and its vicinity, this would 
have been avoided had not the Commanding Officer interfered. 

The Indians who are now here are not permitted to go across the River 
to hunt as formerly, it is out of my power to mention the arrange- 
ments which may have been made between Colonel James & Colonel 
Butler respecting them, Colonel James having made no communication 
to me on that subject the Indians to know the cause of this impedi- 
ment I expect large parties of Indians daily from the Northwest to pay 
their respects to their Father. I now wish you will give me every 
advice on this subject to give me an opportunity in acting with those 
people, or whether I 1am to act at all, the reason I mention this is, 
Colonel James has been the Storekeeper and Supt. of Indian Affairs 
since on our way to this place I am now at a loss to proceed while 
we have so inimical a man as Col. James to command. 

Before the receipt of yours I had prevailed on the Muncies, Moravians 
-& 600 of the Chippewas with the Buffalo the former to plant corn at 
Moravian Town, the Latter at the Chenail Ecarte, these people are pro- 
visioned monthly at Dolsens, Newark is planting on Fighting Island 
with three hundred and eighty-seven Ottawas, the greater part of the 
Hurons remained at the Grand River. * * * * 


A. D. S. G. 

'The Hon. Wm. Claus ) 
York. \ 


(War-1812.) . (Page 136.) 


I have the honor to acquaint your Excellency that the New Post on 
Lake Huron has been at length fixed upon by Capt. Payne, R. 
Engineers (who arrived here the 13th) Capt Collier R. N. & myself. 
The situation combines several important advantages, viz : an admirable 
harbour proximity to the Indians, & will enable us to command the 


passage of the Detour, giving our vessels the double advantage of a 
good anchorage in that strait in addition to the fine harbour adjoining. 

The ground fixed upon for the -New Post, & which was best calcu- 
lated for the protection of the Harbour, is very rocky, and will be dfii- 
cult to work; To carry it out with the spirit and expedition which 
the times require, a very strong Garrison will be necessary, or great 
assistance in Masons, Miners, & Labourers from below. The work (to 
restore the drooping spirits of the Indians) should exceed this Island 
in strength, and I trust it will be Commenced with such ample means as 
will afford a fair prospect of its being successfully completed. * * * 

KT. Me DONALD, Lt. Col: 

Sir George Murray K. G. C. B. 


(War-1812.) (Pages 136-7-8-9.) 


I think it of great consequence, immediately to appraize you of 
intelligence, which was only made known to me yesterday, in case 
it should not previously have come to your Knowledge. 

Colonel Millar of the American Army had left Pittsburg, on the 
Ohio, with Four Hundred men of the 17th U. S. Et (to be reinforced 
at Newport) to 600, for the open and avowed purpose of descending 
that river, & proceeding up the Mississippi, to take possession of La 
Prairie des Chiens; their intention, it appears, was not confined to the 
seizing of that Post, bat also to establish another Fort in the heart of 
the Country of the Winnebago and Fallsouoine Indians, tribes most 
strongly attached to us, and who have proved it by repeatedly destin- 
guishing themselves in our cause in the late war; this proposed Fort 
(to be erected in the neighborhood of Green Bay) subdues them at 
once, and for ever cuts off all communication with us. 

It being also the intention of the Americans to re-occupy Chicago, 
there cannot be the smallest doubt that on their being put in pos- 
session of this Island, the whole of the Western Indians, are com- 
pletely hemm'd in, thoroughly in the power of the Americans, & their 
assistance in any future war, hopeless, & not to be expected. On the 
contrary, they will perhaps, only escape the vengeance of that nation, 
on condition of their acting against us. 

I now beg leave to refer Your Excellency to the 9th Article of the 


treaty of Ghent, & submit it to your better judgment, if this sudden 
invasion of the Indian Territory, is not a flagrant violation thereof. It 
states, that the Indians are to be restored to all their rights, possess- 
ions & immunities as before the war. The Americans for the first time 
seized upon the Prairie des Chiens in June last. Previous to the war, 
they had no Post on the Mississippi farther advanced than Fort Madi- 
son, about four hundred miles to the southward of the Prairie des 

Nothing can therefore be more evident, than the Americans have no 
manner of right to the Prairie des Chiens & the intervening Country; 
that their attempts to do so, is a manifest breach of the treaty ( if the 
report can be depended on, which I am much inclined to believe) & 
calculated to sever us from those Allies, who so faithfully adhered to 
us during the war, whom the enemy on many occasions found so form- 
idable, & who have implicitly relied on our repeated assurances of protec- 
tion & support, and who have particularly been lead to believe that their 
remaining lands, & possessions, are secured to them, by the King their 
Father, by the late Treaty. 

This situation of affairs places me in a most awkward predicament, 
Ignorant as I am of the views of Government, & how far it is intended 
to abide by our promises to the Indians, or totally abandon their 
cause, I of course, find it a matter of no small difficulty how to advise 
them on this occasion. The chiefs of the different nations, have also 
been invited to repair to the Portage de Sioux, near St. Louis, on the 
6 of July next, to ratify the Peace, but should the expedition, under 
Col. Miller (openly avowed at Pittsburgh, to be for the purpose of 
occupying the Prairie des Chiens) proved to be correct, little doubt 
remains on my mind, that the intention is, to seize upon the respective 
chiefs, as hostages, & then they would assuredly accomplish their object 
without opposition. 

It is not easy to foresee how the Indians will act on this occasion, & it 
is too delicate a case for me to advise them. They know that this Island 
(the Key to their Country) is to 'be given up, & that it leaves them but 
little hope of being supported by us This will paralise their exertions 
It is therefore probable that they will resist the attempt at their subjuga- 
tion, but at the same time, prove an easy conquest. 

I therefore submit it to Your Excellency & and also to His Excy. Sir 
Gordon Drummond (to whom I communicate these matters via the Grand 
River) how far this bold attempt of the American Government is conso- 
nant to the late Treaty -how far it can be tolerated without compromising 


our good faith with the Indians, or how far it indicates a spirit of aggres- 
sion & hostility, calling upon us to be on our guard. 

I have likewise the honor to acquaint Your Excellency, that in pursu- 
ance of my directions, Captain Bulger evacuated the Prarie de Chiens on 
the 23d of May, destroying Fort McKay, bringing in the Guns to this 
place ; finding it impossible to send them to St. Louis. He arrived here 
on the 19th inst. & reports to me that his little garrison would have been 
in eminent danger, & not permitted to return, had he delayed his depart- 
ure a few days longer, as the Indians were assembling, & decidedly 
opposed to his leaving the country. 

I have the honor to be 
Your Excellency's Obedient Servant 
ET McDoNALL Lt Col. 

P. S. Your Excellency is of course, apprized that I have been 
instructed by His Exy the Comr of the Forces, to retain possession of 
this Island, till the pleasure of His Majestys Ministers be known. Col. 
Butlers last communication on that subject, was in a very authoratative 
tone, accompanied with indirect threats & demanding, on what day the 
Island would be given up. The substance of my reply was, that I was 
only authorized to surrender the Island, when the temporary barracks 
& stores, for the reception of the troops & provisions, were finished, & 
that from unexpected obstacles, it was impossible for me then to name 
the day, but that I was making every possible exertion to get them 
completed. * * * * 

His Excellency Lt. Genl Sir Geo. Murray K. G. C. B. 


(War-1812.) (Page 139.) 


I have this moment had the honor of Your Excellency's Letter of the 
30th May, with it several enclosures upon the subject of the restoration 
of this Island. I shall take immediate steps for the speedy restitution 
thereof, in conformity to the instructions you have transmitted, and pur- 
pose despatching a canoe to-morrow for Detroit, acquainting the officer 
commanding at that place. That on the day of July it shall be given 
up to such officer of the United States Troops as may be appointed to 
receive the same. 


I must confess to Your Excellency that it has not been easy for me 
to reconcile the various orders I have received on this subject, as what 
I had the honor to state in the postscript of my letter of yesterday will 
show. The dispatch however of Yr Excellency received this day sanc- 
tioned also, by the Letter of Major Foster, leaves no doubt on my mind 
that every exertion is to be made by me to expedite the evacuation of this 

From the General tenor of the enclosures transmitted me by Your 
Excellency, I am more and more convinced in my own mind, that a 
comprehensive, deep laid, & well digested plan has been entered into 
by the Govt of the U. States, & in part acted upon, finally to separate 
us from the Indian Nations. Their Anxiety to gain possession of this 
Island; their wish to remove our garrison to Maiden, so conveniently 
out of the way; their invitation of the Indian Chiefs to St. Louis, in 
my opinion to faciliate, and^ render easy, Col. Miller's occupation of 
their country; their tempting offers to our discharged interpreters of 
the Indian, all, in my mind corroborate the opinion. Grieved am I to 
say, & trust in God I am no prophet, that, from all appearances, the 
complete success of their schemes appears to me inevitable. * * * * 

Lt. Gen. Sir Geo. Murray, G. C. B. 


(War-1812.) (Page 143.) 

SANDWICH 25th June 1815 

I do myself the honor to refer you to my letter of this day's date, a 
copy of which has been forwarded to His Excellency Lieut. General 
Sir George Murray, and another has been by me delivered to Colonel 
Butler, on which document only he has been induced to restore Amherst- 
burg and its dependencies on or before the 1st of July next. 

It has just been reported to me that two vessels have arrived at 
Amherstburg with stores and men of the 37th Regiment on board; I 
cannot better point out the necessity of my arrangements with Colonel 
Butler, than my informing you that until Amherstburg has been 
restored, the stores &c on board of those vessels, or any others that 
may arrive, must remain on board until the 1st of July, at a heavy 
expense, or else brought up here and landed, subjecting the same stores 
to a re-embarcation for Maiden, and further, that the means of water 
Transport on the Lakes, are very limited indeed. I am thus particular 


in explanation least you should for a moment consider that I interfere 
with any arrangement of yours. 

I am perfectly aware of Lieut Genrl Sir Gordon Drummond's senti- 
ments on this subject, and I rely the arrangement I have made will 
perfectly meet the wishes and approbation of Lieut. Genl Sir Gordon 

Drummond. * * 

(signed) R. JAMES 

Lt Col. 
Col. McDonall . 


(War-1812.) (Page 

SANDWICH 25th June 1815 

I have been honored by your letters of the 14th instant, and regret 
that it had not been in your power to comply with the orders of His 
Excellency Lieut General Sir Gordon Drummond, at a more early 
period, by delivering up the Post of Mackinac to the United States. 
This regret I feel the more, as the Post of Amherstburg has been 
retained, with a great inconvenience and a heavy loss to Government, 1 
until the post of Mackinac should be restored to the American Flag. 

On this subject I beg leave to inform you that I have entered into 
an agreement with Col. Butler of the United States, Commanding at 
Detroit, who has agreed to restore Amherstburg and its dependencies, 
on or before the 1st day of July, on the following terms, and to the 
full and entire completion of which I beg to call your compliance as 
most decidely necessary to the British Government 

" Proposed and acceded to." 

Colonel Butler, on his part will deliver up the Post of Amherstburg 
and its dependencies, on or before the 1st day of July next, to Lieut: 
Col: James." Lieut: Col: James engages that the civil supremacy of 
Mackinac shall be delivered over to Colonel Butler or such officer as 
he may name, within three days after the arrival of the United States 
vessels at anchor off Mackinac." 

The American troops that proceed in the above named vessels, are to 
be permitted to Encamp in the most convenient ground until the final 
restoration of the Post of Mackinac, which Lieut Col: James has 
assured Colonel Butler would be put in possession, and the Flag of 
the United States hoisted, on the 15th day of July next or as soon 


and before the within named day as is practicable and Lieut Col: 
James has every reliance in the full compliance of Lieut: Colonel 
McDonall to every part of this mutual arrangement. 

(Signed) R. JAMES 






In consequence of His Excellency's dispatch of the 30th of May 
accompanied by several enclosures from Major Foster pressing the 
restoration of this Island to the Americans, with the utmost expedition, 
I this day dispatched a Lieut, of the Indian Department to Detroit to 
announce to Col. Butler, that the restitution thereof, to the Govt. of 
the U. States would take place on the 15th of July. * * * 

Critically situated as I know we are with them, together with the 
deep plotting of the Americans to seduce them entirely from us, 
I have found it a duty incumbent upon me to purchase what I could 
from the Merchts to send to the Western Indians & prove to them 

they are not forgotten. 


I have the honor to be 

Tour Excellencys obedt Servant 

His Excellency Going 

Lt. Genl. Sir Gordon Drnmmond K. C. B. 



21st July 1815 

I have the honor to inform you that on the 18th Inst. I delivered 
over the Island and Fort of Michilimackinac to Colonel Butler of the 


United States Troops, having previously removed to this place and St. 
Joseph's, the whole of our Guns, Provisions, Ordnance Stores, & &. 

I enclose a return of American Ordnance originally captured in this 
place and at the Prairie des Chiens, and which were surrendered to 

that Government in conformity to the Treaty of Ghent. * * 

* * 

I have &c 
To (Signed.) EOBT. McDoNALL 

Major General Lt Col. Commanding. 

Sir Fredk Eobinson K. C. B. 



QUEBEC Augt. 1815 

Col. McDonall's Dispatch of the 25th April communicating the official 
Intelligence of peace reached Fort McKay on the morning of the 22nd 
May The same day I held a council with the Indians and announced 
it to them On the following morning I held another council with the 
Eenards, Winebagoes, Sioux & Folles-Avoines, and made them smoke 
the Pipe of Peace. On the 22nd May I sent a Captain of the Indian 
Department to, the Eock Eiver, with the Belt and a Pipe to communi- 
cate the Intelligence to the Sauks, loways, and Kickapoos. 

On the 3d July Capt. Anderson of the Indian Dept was sent by Lt. 
Col. McDonall with presents for the Indians of the Mississippi, and to 
explain to them the terms of the Peace 


Lt. E. N. Eegt. 


Lieut. Col. McDonalls speech to the different Indian Nations on 
sending Capt. Anderson of the Indian Department with presents 
to the Mississippi. 



Peace together as Brethren. 
My Children 

Listen to my words, those who do not wander into the wrong 


road, but attend strictly to my ' council, shall not want, I hold you 
all fast in my hands, and invite you once a year to the King your 
great Fathers new Fort at Pontaganipy (Drummond's Island) that 
you may there receive that bounty which he is ever ready to bestow 
upon his good and obedient children. 

Speech of the Black Hawk, Head War Chief of the Sauk Nation, 

in reply to that of Lieut. Col. McDonall, spoken before Capt. 

My Father. 

I thank you for your words to day, which instruct us how to 
live happy, I am also sincerely thankful for the trouble you have 
taken to save the lives of our women and children for the ensuing 
winter by the bounty you have bestowed upon us. 
My Father. 

You must before have heard that I am one of those very few 
Indians, who speak my sentiments openly and without reserve do 
not therefore be angry at what I am going to say. I shall repeat 
your own words. 
My Father. 

You know that at the commencement of the war we were loath 
to take up the Tomahawk and did not until you absolutely threat- 
ened us seriously with your displeasure recollect My Father your 
words were these. 

" My Children Those bad spirits the Americans wishing to rob you 
" of your Lands and having declared war against Your Great Father the 
" King, he has declared war against them. Your Ked Brethren have all 
" joined him, in defense of your Lands and your lives, and I have often 
" pressed you to follow their example, but you are dilatory. I tell you 
" now, for the last time that if you do not immediately strike upon the 
"Americans, I will turn all the other Indians against you and strike 
" you to the ground. 

These My Father you must recollect were your words conveyed to 
us by the Ked Head (Mr. Dickson). You at the same time told us 
that if we followed your advice we should want for nothing and 
that so soon as we should beat the the Americans and they would 
ask to smoke the Pipe of Peace with our Great Father the 
King then we should see some of your Chiefs settle in our Lands 
to make us happy. 

78 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

My Father. 

You also sent us word to take Courage and fear nothing, that when 
you would smoke the Pipe that all Your Red Children would be included 
in that Peace, but this was not to take place until those bad spirits the 
Americans were entirely driven off our lands and those of our ancestors; 
I believe my Father you gave us hopes that the Ohio would be the 
future boundary of the Americans. 
My Father. 

You have to day recalled to our minds those promises by sending us 
a supply of Goods, which will save our families from perishing in the 
winter. The Americans according to their stories are Masters of us and 
our Lands; but this is not your story, we shall therefore listen to your 
words, and remain quiet as My Great Chief told you just now, and next 
Canoeing season, I will go and see my Great Father at Michilimacknac 
and perhaps farther. ***** 


DRUMMOND'S ISLAND 3d August 1815. 


I have neither seen nor had in my possession any Records relative 
to Michilimackinac prior to its capture, or I should with much pleasure 
have restored what would have been of use to you and no possible service 
to us. 

The sentiments which you have expressed to the Indians, are manly 
and candid and pleased me the more as being in such strict conformity 
to the Language I have invariably held out to them since the Peace. 
I have taken every possible pains to impress upon their minds that 
peace being happily restored between the two Governments in which 
the whole^ of the Indians on either side were included, it was their 
interest and they could not give greater satisfaction to our Government 
than by their observance thereof, with the strictest good faith; that the 
most friendly intercourse would be resumed and that their young men 
must turn their attention to their Hunt and the Cultivation of their 
fields for the support of their families. * * * * 

To prove to you therefore his earnest desire that the Indians should be 
fully informed of his wishes on so important a point and of his abhorance 
of such atrocities he has directed me to send in his name, a mission to tha 


Mississippi to renew with more solemnity the Ceremonies of peace and 
express his earnest desire for its rigid obervance. * * * * 

I have &c 

Commanding Lieut: Col: 




21. August 1815. 

The Hired American schooner Mink arrived this day, with Indian 
Presents and some provisions from Amherstburg, from which place 
she sailed on the 5th inst. The accounts brought by her Confirm the 
statement of General Browns arrival at Detroit and moreover add 
that three thousand troops had accompanied him and were in that 
Biver That the squadron destined for this Lake, had been Aug- 
mented by the Lawrence of 20 guns which had been weighed and 
refitted and that it was given out at Detroit that this formidable 
Armament after reinforoeing some of the Frontier Posts were to 
proceed to Green Bay to Co-operate with their Troops at Prairie 
des Chiens in reducing all the Western Indians to subjection and 
ensuring their future obedience by establishing a chain of Forts 
throughout the whole of their Country. 

It is however necessary for me to state to Your Excellency that the 
remote situation of this Post renders it difficult for me to obtain intel- 
ligence on which I can entirely reply. I cannot however divest myself 
of the belief that the above is too true, tho: the force may be exager- 
ated. Even this my informant pertinatiously denies and states that 
it is composed of the 18th, and 14th Regts. and several other Corps. 
The master of the vessel which brings the news is himself employed 
to build a vessel at Green Bay in furtherance of the scheme (it is sup- 
posed) mentioned in my letter of yesterday, on excluding our Traders 
and of wholly cutting off our communication with the Indians and 
with the Mississippi. 

If these preparations be true and to the extent described, they Cannot 
have escaped the notice of Your Excellency and of Sir Gordon Drum- 
mond who of Course will have required the necessary explanation from 
the American Government. -to me they appear full of suspicion, for a 
century to come perhaps such an opportunity may not occur to effect 
their darling object, the subjugation of the Canadas, the Western Indians 


will now be crushed, and if their Cabinet at Washington is inclined to 
treachery their Erie Fleet is ready and unopposed, the hordes of Ohio 
and Kentucky eager for plunder and revenge could render Browns Army 
most formidable, and enable it to sweep the defenceless upper Province 
like a Pestilence. I think the present Crisis presents too strong a temp- 
tation for such a Government. 

I have &c 
(Signed) BOBT. McDoNALL 

Lt. Col: Commanding 
To His Excellency 

Major Genl. Sir F. Eobinson K C. B. 


Speech of Lieut: Col: McDonall addressed to the Ottawas of the 
Arbe Croche and of the Grand River (Lake Michigan) on deliv- 
ering their presents 17th September 1815. 

****** ******** 

My Children. 

I have heard of the ridiculous reports which the Big Knives among 
you thinking to frighten you with words where their Arms failed in 
having that effect, but as you know from experience this has been 
their constant practice, you ought also to know how little they are 
to be regarded, you should also recollect that the King Your Great 
Father has dominions in many parts of the world, some of them as 
large as all the Lands of the Big Knives, and that his soldiers are 
sometimes required to defend them and also defend the Enemies of 
his own neighbourhood, this was the case during the late war; but 
some of you have been eye witnesses how often and how disgrace- 
fully the Americans were defeated by greatly inferior Numbers, they 
often boasted they would drive us from the Canadas, but in every 
attempt to do so they failed with great loss, which of you then Can 
be so blind, or have so far lost his recollection as to Credit their 
story that your English Father has been thrown upon his back. 
They even have the imprudence to say that they drove us from 
Michilimackinac and Prairie des Chien when you all know that they 
were shamefully beaten at both places. 
My Children. 

The truth is that Big Knives last year sent chiefs last year across 
the Great Salt Lake to solicit peace and the King Your Great 
Father wanting his Young men to fight a powerful enemy near him 
granted him better terms than they deserved. * * * * 


My Children 

Listen to my words for it is of the last consequence that you 
should bear them in -your mind On returning to your villages you 
will make known what I have told you, to all Your Young Men 
Cautioning them to beware how they are deceived by the Artifices 
of the Americans, such of them as are wavering will do well to 
consider in time whether they will better themselves under another 
Father, that the King is now one of the most powerful Monarchs 
in the world; that his Fleets and Armies will soon be back for the 
protection of this Country, and that such as transfer their affection 
to the Big Knives can no longer be considered his Children or in 
future partake of his Bounty. * * * * 




22d September 1815 

I had the honor of informing Your Excellency of the arrival of 
Capt. Anderson of the Indian Department, from the important duty 
on which I had dispatched him from Michilimackinac in July, of 
impressing still more strongly on the minds of the Indian Nations on 
the Mississippi the conclusion of the Peace in which they were all 
included, strictly recommending them to observe the same, and to cul- 
tivate that unanimity and friendship amongst themselves, which would 
render them formidable, and cause other nations to be cautious how 
they infringed their rights or ventured to treat them with injustice. 

Captain Anderson executed his mission with much ability and 
address, I knew of the intention of the American Government to seize 
upon the Prairie des Chiens and all the intervening Indian Country, 
between it and St. Louis, notwithstanding the Treaty of Ghent, and it 
was my object before they could effect this, or regain Michilimackinac 
to bestow on these faithful allies, some of whom (the Sauks particu- 
larly) had been forced by us into the war, the last rewards in our 
power for their constancy, fidelity and Courage. 

Captain Anderson was received by them all with a degree of enthusi- 
asm which was augmented by the threatening language which the 
Americans had previously held out to them: viz: "That following the 
" Councils of their English Fathers had ruined them and rendered 
"them miserable. That he had been throivn on his Back (according 
"to their Indian mode of expression;) and driven from the Mississippi 


"and Michilimackinac and if he did not look well to himself, would 
'" soon be from all the Country, that they must never expect to see 
"their English Father, again, or a single Trader amongst them How 
" Could they Come? . 

Captain Anderson's appearance with the presents almost immediately 
after this Language, followed too by the traders who left Mackinac 
before its surrender only tended to confirm their previous opinions of 
American falsehoods: 

Aware of the wishes of the Commander of the forces and of the 
impolicy of giving umbrage to the American Government at such a 
Crisis I strictly enjoined Captain Anderson not to enter on the 
subject of Politics, but to confine himself to the delivery of the Pres- 
ents and strongly to recommend the strict observance of the Peace, 
the cultivation of their lands and attention to their Hunt, the bury- 
ing in oblivion of all jealousies and dissentions and that the Indian 
Nations should in future live as one Family, studying only the general 

These instructions have been implicitly attended to, and in a matter of 
such delicacy, and as affairs on the Mississippi are likely to turn out 
I am glad (unprovided as I was with instructions) to have steered 
clear of an Indian War with the United States which I fear is inevi- 
table, The Americans appear bent upon the total subjugation of the 
Western Indians and will attempt it with a force which will end in the 
extermination of those who resist, and on resistance they are resolved. 
The Sauk Chief told Capt Anderson that no American Forts should 
be established on their lands and they would defend their country like 

I entertain a faint hope that the late retention of Michilimackinac 
and other circumstances may render it necessary for the Americans to 
postpone the execution of this project, till next year. And that the 
glorious change of affairs in Europe may induce such representations 
on the part of Government as may yet save them from their impend- 
ing fate. The Merciless Jackson is hinted at in their papers as the 
Instrument of Vengeance, if so I shall to the latest period of my life, 
bewail the hapless Destiny of these devoted Nations who listened to 
our solicitations and confiding in our promises faithfully adhered to 
us during the war, but found the Peace which promised security to 
them and their Country only led to their utter ruin and annihilation. 

I have &c 

(sgd) EOBT. Me DON ALL 
Lt Colonel 


To His Excellency 

Maj. General Sir R Eobinson K. C. B. 

I enclose Your Excellency copies of replies of the Principle Sauk Chiefs 
to the speech I sent by Capt. Anderson as tending te elucidate the 
above subject as a fair specimen of the present sentiments of the 
Western Indians. That of the Sauk Chief's the Black Hawk (perhaps 
the ablest and bravest since the death of Tecumseh) is strictly true. 
Mr. Dickson in May 1814, previous to my arrival at Michilimackinac 
sent the threatening speech to which he alludes, and which the Sauks 
did not act on till the recapture of Prairie des Chiens by Lieut. Col. 
Me Kay in July, who sent them a supply of powder, and the very 
next day they attacked and completely defeated a strong detachment 
of the Americans destined to reinforce their garrison at La Prairie 
they were commanded by the Black Hawk who is famous for his 
exploits on the Mississippi. 


(Indians.) (Page 289.) 

DECMMONDS ISLAND 24 September 1815 


Since the departure of Major Morgan from Michilimackinac and the 

arrival of his successor Col. Chambers and also Major Puthoff as their 
Agent for Indian affairs, the most active exertions have been made and 
very artifice put in practice to extinguish our influence with the Indians 
of their neighbourhood and not only to cut off our communication with 
them but with all the other Indian Nations. 

To aid in accomplishing this purpose every inhabitant at Mackinac 
suspected of the least influence amongst them or attachment to us are 
treated with the utmost degree of rigor and insult. Dr. Mitchells 
Wife in particular has been used with peculiar rancour, she continued 
at that place to protect their sole remaining property. Farm Garden &c 
which have notwithstanding suffered greatly from depredations which 
appear to be encouraged rather than checked, she was likewise pub- 
licly and meanly accused of only remaining there as a spy of the Brit- 
ish Government and though related to the Chippewa Nation not allowed 
to see any of them, they have also taken from her a small Island 
adjoining never purchased by the Americans, but which was last year 
(with my concurrence) unanimously presented to her by her relations 
the Chippewas in return for her Kindness to them. 


The most threatening language is constantly made use of to such 
Indians as are attached to the British Government, whom they use 
every means to intimidate, they tell them their English Father has 
been beat, driven from Mackinac and the Mississippi and soon will be 
from the Canadas which are about to be again occupied by the French, 
this last Argument is used to weaken their attachment to us; as the 
Indians inherit from their Fathers the highest opinion of the French, 
and of their power and courage, and fond as they are of the British 
would like well to see their dominion restored. 

In this state of things I thought it my duty to make known my 
sentiments to the Indians previous to their setting out for their win- 
tering grounds, in a speech (copy of which I enclose); in it I alude 
to a scandalous Traffic Carried on by the Americans at Mackinac who lay 
wait for the Indians passing with their presents, cheating them of their 
guns and clothing for whisky, Even their Indian Agent is mentioned aa 
having been concerned in this most Lucrative but shameful Trade. 

I have &c 

(Signed) KT. McDoNALL 

To His Excellency Lt. Col. 

Sir F. P. Robinson K. C. B. 

COURT OF INQUIRY. (Page 290.) 

24th Sept 1815 

With regard to the charges transmitted to your Excellency through 
Mr. Baker, I have not the smallest doubt, but they are purposely exhib- 
ited in order to give some colour, and pretex for the tragedy about to 
be enacted on Mississippi, to shut our eyes to that transaction, and to 
divert the Government from the enquiry, of how it agrees with the 9th 
Article of the Treaty of Ghent. It appears to me that this outcry is 
precisely made upon the principle of some ingenious depredators, who 
when in danger of detection are among the first to bawl 'Stop Thief!' 

I repeat to your Excellency my firm conviction that the war of 
extermination with which the unfortunate Indians are threatened on the 
Mississippi, will be equally unjust, and unprovoked, unjust, inasmuch 
as the Americans have no right to seize upon their country and build 
Fort thereon, never having possessed it till after 1812 Unprovoked as 
I do not believe that a single act of hostility was committed by them,. 


since the Peace was announced by Captain Bulger on the 22nd of May 
at the Prairie des Chien. That officer made every exertion to recall the 
war party that attacked the Americans on the 24th of May, as mentioned 
in the letter of Colonel Russell, but it was too late. They could not 
be overtaken. This affair your Excellency will observe is the latest act 
of hostility which occurred, and I pledge my word to your Excellency, 
that the Indians engaged in it knew nothing of the Peace, except from 
American reports which they imagined were purposely circulated to 

deceive them 

I have the honor to be 

Your Excellency's most obdt. Servant 
Signed, ET. McDoNALL, 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
His Excellency 

Sir F. P. Robinson, K. C. B. 

Extract from 

Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry, held by order of his Excellency 
Major general Sir F. P. Robinson K. C. B. Commanding in Upper 
Canada, and administering the Government thereof. 

6th and 10th Oct. 1815 

Lieu tenant- Colonel McDonall Glengary Light Infantry 

Members. (Pages 291-2-3-4) 

Major Cochrane 37th Regiment 

Captain Stephens 37th Regiment 

Captain Payne Royal Engineers 

Captain Anderson Indian Department 

4< The Court then proceeded to investigate the charges preferred by 
the American Govt viz. *' That the Indians had been stimulated to a 
continuance of hostilities since the Peace, by the British agents 



2 Oct. 1815. 

I have just learned from Mr Gordon a settler at this Post that on 

his leaving Mackinac yesterday morning in his Canoe to return to 


Drummond Island he was grossly insulted by some soldiers of your 
garrison; not only assailing him with the most illiberal abuse but also 
with stones til the Canoe was out of their reach. 

I have also reason to believe, that unusual harshness has been 
shewn to every individual attached to or in any way connected with 
the British Government and their property in several instances, wan- 
tonly pillaged that the house of Mr. Franks and another of Dr. Mitch- 
ells have been broken open and sustained much damage; that the gar- 
den of the latter has been repeatedly robbed and that of Mr. Gruets 
entirely plundered of its contents a loss not to be replaced in this 
part of the country and of a very serious nature to a man having a 
large Family to support. Mrs. Mitchell has I understand been pre- 
vented from putting out nets to fish in other instances treated with 
marked indignity and even meanly accused of being a spy of the British 
Government As such a charge necessarily implicates myself I with 
that indignation which it deserves, pronounce it to be a most illiberal 
Calumny. The British Government are not accustomed to stoop to such 
practices since my first knowledge of the peace it has been my anxious 
and most particular desire that the dying embers of political animos- 
ity even incident to a recent state of warfare should be totally extin- 
guished and should be succeeded by that social intercourse between the 
two Posts which should ever subsist between nations in Amity with each 

These sentiments were not only avowed but acted upon by Major 
Morgan, I should be sorry to learn that a different system is to be 
adopted by his successor I shall delay the representation of matters 
aforestated to my Government, until I have the honor to hear from 

I have &c 
(Signed) RT MoDoNALL 

Lt Col: 

Lieut Col: Chambers 



(Relations with United States.) (Page 309.) 



I had yesterday the honor of Your Excellency's letter of the 12th 

Perfectly aware of your wishes and those of Sir Gordon Drummond 
as to the scrupulous observance of the late Treaty and also of the 
indispensable necessity which existed that the slightest cause of com- 
plaint should not be given to the American Government, it has accord- 
ingly been my study to conduct myself with that cautious circumspection 
which the situation of affairs so obviously required. 

I trust that I may safely assure Your Excellency of the perfect convic- 
tion which I feel that no act of mine since the Peace can be made appear 
in the smallest degree as infringing the Treaty of Ghent or in any way 
incompatible with the existing relations of Peace and unity between the 
two Countries. 

It would however be too much to expect that such accusations will 
not be made, those preferred through the British Minister are a 
precious specimen of American ingenuity in vamping up Charges to 
answer particular ends. I regret that the indisposition of Captn 
Anderson of the Indian Department a Member of the Court of 
Inquiry and also an Evidence has not yet enabled me to close the 

Anxious however as I have been to refrain from giving the least 
justifiable cause of ofence, in any one respect as far as I can charge 
my memory to the American Government yet I must candidly own to 
Your Excellency that such has been the system recently acted upon at 
Mackinac since the departure of Major Morgan such a series of insults 
offered to every person connected with the British Government and 
such repeated depredations committed upon their property that in 
justice to them I found myself imperiously called upon to remonstrate. 
I enclose a Copy of my letter to Lieut. Col. Chambers on that 

Should this matter be viewed by Your Excellency in a different light 
I trust for your indulgence. It is to me an Enigma that I cannot 
solve that our Country the first in Wealth, in power, in arms, the 
mistress of the World; swaying the destinies of Europe that she has 
delivered, admired, honored, revered, by her greatest Sovereigns, even, 

by those 

Whose boasted ancestry so high extends 
That in the Pagan Gods their lineage ends 


that a country exalted to the utmost pinocle of human greatness 
should make concession after concession and with a caution and 
measured policy truckle to a nation of yesterday, of no character, to 
such a people. * 

The late Treaty of Commerce it is also said gives up our right to 
trade with those Indians who reside within the limits of the United 
States This severs the last link which connects us with the "Westers 
Nations, after what I have told them what a superlative and unequalled 
they must think me The latter hints in Your Excellencys 
Letter is invariably adhered to, tho' we have a frequent intercourse 
with the Ottawas at present who bring their Corn to Trade at this 

I shall in all things do my best to obey your Excellcency and to act up 
to the spirit and Letter of your Instructions. 

I have &c 

(Signed) ET McDoNALL 

Lieut Col. 
To His Excy 

M. Genl. Sir F. P. Robinson K. C. B. 



4 October 1815 

The former settlement of St. Joseph's is now scarcely to be traced, 
while this is rapidly rising into notice; Fourteen Lots facing the 
Harbour have already been granted to as many very respectable 
individuals besides nearly as many in another street. His Excel- 
lency's injunctions shall be strictly complied with on that subject to 
which I have tacked a condition, that the Houses are to be built in 
the ensuing year, perfectly uniform (front Street only) not less 
than Forty foot front and Twelve high well finished and in a 
manner that will admit of their being whitewashed or painted; The 
Town will therefore have a fine effect from the Beautiful pictur- 
esque Harbour, between which and the proposed Fort there is 


already a notable parade on which a strong Brigade might man- 
oeuvre upon the smoothe solid Rock. 

Mackinac is already almost wholly deserted & scarcely a person 
to be seen except the Garrison. * * 

I have the honor to be 
Signed F. Chambers 

Lt. Col. Commanding 
To officer commanding 

MR. PUTOFF TO LIEUT. COL. MC DONALL. (Pages-316-17-18.) 


No. 2 5th Oct 1815 


In a letter addressed by you to the officer commanding Michili- 
mac, on the 2nd instant (shown me by Lieut. Col. Chambers com- 
manding) I find the following very extraordinary paragraph which, 
as having relation more immediately to the Department to which I 
belong the Colonel has requested me to answer. 

"Mrs. Mitchell has I understand been prevented from putting out 
nets to fish, in other instances treated with marked indignity and 
even meanly accused of being a spy, of the British Government. As 
such a charge necessarily implicates myself I with that indignation 
which it deserves pronounce it to be a most illiberal calumny The 
British Government are not accustomed to stoop to such practices." 

Of the first part of the charge relating to the " putting out nets 
to fish" I have to observe that it is a matter altogether of a civil 
character and for which any person so interfering is accountable to 
her before the civil Tribunal of a country as remarkable for the 
justice and equality of its laws as for the prompt and vigilant exer- 
tions of its officers in the enforcing of them. 

From Mrs. Mitchell I have just learnt, that no such attempt has 
been made to prevent her from fishing or " Marked Indignity," or 
insult offered her person, and that no one has of her knowledge 
charged her with being "a spy for the British Government" She 
declares her willingness and wish to confront your informant, and to 
use her phraseology "Give him the Lye."- 

It has been repeatedly observed to me by the Indians that you in 
council with them on Drummond Island in the name of your Govern- 


ment have forbidden them to Trade with the Americans have ordered 
them to bring their corn to their British Father, or, if prevented by 
stress of weathei to leave it with the British Traders only, on the 
Island of Michilimackinac, or bury it until the Spring That you 
have sent your order to an Indian Trading at La Arbre Croche 
for Mid Dousman, forbidding him to trade for or deliver his corn 
to an American That you have a few days since held a council 
at which barrels of Rum were opened to them, minute guns were 
fired, and when they were informed that the Tomahawk would again 
be raised early in the Spring that Red Wampum and Tobacco 
mixed with Vermillion was distributed that they were advised to be 
upon the alert as it was the intention of the Americans to invite 
them to this Island with a view to Massacre them. That you would 
again appear in the night with your Big Gun upon the Island of 
Michilimackinac and that the Americans would not dare oppose you. 
These and many other reports of like character have been repeatedly 
made to me which I hope may be discovered not to have originated 
in fact 

I have the honor to assure sir that its my most sincere and ardent 
wish, that " the dying Embers of Political Animosity " between the two 
Governments" " should be totally extinguished" and that a liberal sin- 
cere and social intercourse should be kept up between the two Posts, 
every exertion shall be used on my part to accomplish so desirable event. 

I have the honor to Subscribe 
myself Your most obedient 
and humble servant 

Agent Indn Affairs. 
To Mackina 

Lieut. Col. McDonall 
Comg Tort Drummond. 


(Indians.) (Page 325.) 


An opportunity just presenting itself I forward the Proceedings of a 
Court of inquiry held by order of Major General Sir F. Robinson, to 
investigate certain charges prefered by the American Government 


against Lieut. Cadotte of the Indian Department and also against the 
Govt Generally, that its agents had instigated the Indians to hostili- 
ties since the Peace. ***** 

Solemnly convinced in my own mind that the charges in themselves 
were a base calumny & utterly without foundation, I felt myself 
peculiarly interested in their refutation, conscious that their chief 
object was to shut our eyes to the manifest infringement of the 
Treaty of Ghent, & to the horrible tragedy which they meditate against 
the Indians of the Mississippi. Unfortunate men! forced by us into 
the War, assured by us again and again, of our faithful adherence to 
their cause, and if our constant protection, <fe now, ''abandoned at their 
utmost ueed," to the merciless vengeance of a relentless Enemy. * * * 

These too well ascertained facts, strips the American Government of 
every pretext for their meditated hostilities, and reduces them to the 
bold alternative of cutting of the Indians by a glaring violation of a 
recent treaty, and rendering themselves liable to the usual consequences. 

One observation I conceive it my duty to suggest, ard to recommend 
its being fully explained fco our Minister at Washington, that a series 
of vague surmises, undefined conjectures, reports of Indian Agents on 
the frontier, founded on no evidence, & perhaps purposely vamped up 
to answer some purpose of the Govt in General too, the absurd infor- 
mation of some ignorant Indian Chief; that charges of this nature, so 
flimsly, so totally unsupported, and involving such serious consequen- 
ces, should in future be wholly inadmissable, & instantly rejected. If 
it suited the purpose of the American Government not a week would 
elapse but they could with the utmost facility obtain from their Indian 
Agents, accusations much more voluminous, when their own assertion 
or opinion is only necessary proof of the fact alledged being altogether 

A decided protest should also be made against the principle assumed 
by them, that every petty reconoutre (very often provoked by them- 
selves) which takes place between them & the various Indian nations 
on their vast frontier, is to be ascribed to British influence & agency; 
I trust the proceedings of the Court will sufficiently evince the absurdity 
of such a supposition. If there appears that unusual pains have been 
taken, almost unprecedented exertions used, to restrain the Indian from 
hostilities, even when threats were made use of, and much provocation 
given by themselves, and also a disposition evinced by the American 
Government in no respect compatible with the Treaty of Ghent. When 
conduct like this, originating in the most anxious desire that the Indians 
should observe the Peace, has only tended to provoke the most odious 


calumneys, what chance is there, that they will desist from future 
accusations, or there ever being an end to the altercation. * * * 

I have the honor to be 

Sir, Your very obdt Servant 

RT McDoNALL, Lt Col. 


Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry held by order of His Excellency, 
Major General Sir F. P. Robinson K. C. B. Commanding in Upper 


Canada & administering the Government thereof. Fort Drummond 10 
Oct. 1815. 

Lieut. Col. McDonall Glengarry Lt. Infantry, President. 

Major Cochrane 57th Regt, 

Capt. Stephens 57th Regt, 

Capt. Payne Royal Engineers, 

Capt. Anderson Indian Department, 



The principal right and title to this Island is vested in a Chappawa 
Chief who usually resides at Sagana Bay, between this and Detroit, and 
some of his relations. He was here about six weeks ago and highly 
pleased to find us upon his territories. I told him that I had applied 
to his Great Father at Quebec, relative to the purchase of his Island, 
and appointed him and the others interested therein (not numerous) to 
meet me here in the spring, when His Excellency's pleasure thereon 
would be known and the matter finally adjusted to his satisfaction. He 
was perfectly satisfied with this arrangement. * * 

With the deepest regret, I see by it, our voluntary renunciation of all 
intercourse with those very Indians, who, so faithfully fought our battles, 
without the supplies with which our Traders used to furnish them, many 
thousands must perish in the winter. We hand them over to the Kindly 
Compassionate Americans, to fulfill the promises which we made them, 


and they, with that pity which they have always vouchsafed to that most 
unfortunate people, have consistently seLcted the Lamb-like Jackson, 
as the Almoner who is to dispense their bounty. 

I could prophesy upon this occasion if it were any use. * * * 
I fear I have harp'd upon this subject untill all are tired of it. I 
cannot help it. Through me, the western Indians were taught to cher- 
ish brighter hopes, to look forward to happier days, to repose with con- 
fidence, in the sacred pledge of British honor; to anticipate the time 
when they would be restored to the abode of their ancestors! How 
have such prospects been realized? they are " abandoned at their 
utmost need" & about to be immolated on the altar of American 
vengence can I be otherwise (as the Author of these gay delusive 
hopes) then the object of their bitterest reproaches, or can their 
hapless fate fail to touch me nearly, to awaken every sentiment of 
pity and compassion. 

Nevertheless, in this Emergency, I have, with the most cautious. 
Circumspection, abstained from any act which might give just cause 
of offense to the American Government. To hope that they will 
not prefer accusations (as groundles as those already preferred) 
need not be expected. The Command at Mackinac is in the hands 
of a most illiberal Democrat, who sanctions the persecution of every 
one connected with us. He is ably seconded by a fellow of the 
name of Puttoff their Agent for Indian affairs, who actually out 
Herods Herod, with his frantic violence, with an equal mixture of 
impudence and falsehood, assisted a little by the absurd stories of 
their own Indians, he mentions having been told by them, that I 
warned the Indions to grasp firm the Tomahawk, & be ready to go 
with me to attack Mackina in the night MM! Is there there- 
fore to be wondered at, that the American Government deceived (will- 
ingly perhaps) by the infamo*us lies of such a sett of miscreants, 
have resolved to fall upon the Indians and to exterminate those who- 
are obnoxious to them, root and branch. * 

Believe me to be 

Very sincerely yours 


Maj'r Foster 




5th Novr 1815 


I sometime ago had the honor to receive your letter of the 5th 
Ultimo the uncertainty of the communication and having missed the 
last opportunity occasions my being thus late in reply to it This 
circumstance is very immaterial, it is too evident from the Tone of 
asperity which breathes throughout your letter that little good can 
result from the continuance of our correspondence and that while 
under the influence of such a spirit an amicable intercourse between 
the two posts is more to be wished for than expected- 

You do me injustice Sir in imputing to me the assumption of 
any improper prerogative either as to you or your Laws my inten- 
tion was merely to state to you the respective cases, as stated to 
me, in order that an opportunity might be afforded you of redress- 
ing the wrong if it existed, and if such a disposition was not 
evinced on your part to lay the matter complained of before my 
Government, which has been done accordingly 

This with all due deference to your Legal Experience, appeared to 
me as a soldier as the proper mode of proceeding * * 

Your letter was also accompanied by one from a Mr. Putoff which I 
should pass utterly unnoticed but that it contained a paragraph more 
puerile and absurd than perhaps ever before entered into the Head of a 
man having pretension to Common Sence It would be well Sir, if 
you gave your orders to Mr. Putoff to assemble the Indians who fur- 
nished him with this precious tissue of abominable lies that they may 
be punished as they deserve 

I embraced the opportunity next day on delivering the usual presents 
to point out their falsity and to represent to them in the strongest 
terms that I could use the desire and command of the King their 
English Father that the peace which he had made with the American 
Government was to be most strictly observed The Indians Sir were 
not told on this occasion that they were not to trade with the Ameri- 
cans but such of them as were clothed and supported by the British 
Government were desired to bring some of their Corn to this Post, and 
no very unreasonable request either * * 

Finally Sir at this most important Council there were no Barrels 


of Bum opened nor so much as a Glass given so economically was 
it conducted 

There was no Wampum of any kind much less a Red Kind tinct- 
ured with Vermillion, in short not the most distant allusion which 
malice could torture into the indication of approaching war on the 
contrary the language of peace was impressively spoken and the occu- 
pation of peace as warmly recommended. 

The minute Guns which Mr. Putoff ingeniously calls in, in aid of 
his warlike preparations was neither more or less than a Royal Salute 
fired in honor of the Duke of Wellington's signal victory at Water- 
loo, which delivered Europe from the greatest Despot that ever waded 
thro' slaughter to a Throne. 

I can scarcely think that such a letter was written with your knowl- 
edge and concurrence. Is it to be supposed for a moment that an 
officer of my rank with such a trust committed to him. aware also 
that the Bonds of friendships were drawn still closer between the 
two countries and recently cemented by a Commercial Treaty, is it in 
candor to be supposed that I should madly endeavor to frustrate the 
pacific views of both Governments by holding forth Language so pre- 
posterously absurd * * * 

Still anxious as far as in me lies, to cultivate the most friendly inter- 
course between the two posts and not in mere words only, I can only 
add that should my success not be commensurate with my wishes, it 
will be my misfortune and not my fault. 

I have &c 
(Signed) Kt. McDoNALL 

Lt. Col. Comg. 
To Lieut, Col. Chambers. 


(Indians.) (Page 399.) 


2nd Dec 1815 

I have the honor to enclose Your Excellency two Letters from the 
officer Commanding at Michilimackinac and another of a very extraor- 
dinary tendency from a Mr. Puthoff the American Agent for Indian 
Affairs at that place. 

I thought it beneath me to notice this furious democrat or the tissue 
of impudent falsehoods with which his letter abounds and accordingly 


made my remarks thereon to Lieut. Colonel Chambers who has him- 
self given too much encouragement to his violence. 

As I doubt not that copies of these Letters have been transmit- 
ted to Washington and as their mischievious tendency must be 
obvious to your Excellency it becomes a matter of the utmost 
importance to counteract their effects by a strong remonstrance as 
to the iniquitous misrepresentations of their Indian Agents IN GEN- 
ERAL but as to those of Mr. Putoff IN PARTICULAR as calculated to 
erase doubts where none ought to exist, to enjender jealousies and 
suspicions of our Government when on the contrary the utmost pain& 
has been taken to avoid giving the least cause of complaint On 
sending to your Excellency the proceedings of the Court of Inquiry 
held at this Post to investigate similar matters, I stated my belief 
that these libels would be continued that of William Putoff tran- 
scends in Violence and Malice the whole of the ingenious fabrica- 
tions laid by Mr. Munroe before our Minister Mr. Baker 

I thought it necessary to reply to it at some length and a style- 
suited to his arrogance * * * * 

(Signed) RT Me DONALL 

Lieut Col. Com-g- 
To His Excellency 

Sir F. P. Robinson, K. C. B. 

MR. ASKIN TO MR. CLAUS. (Page 408.) 


26th Deer. 1815 

When I wrote you last I really thought I had been very ill treated 
as an old servant of Government, but had not any idea that any of the 
Situations His Excellency Governor Gore had been pleased to give me^ 
should have been so shamefully taken away from me after 8 
years zealous and arduous services without any reasons assigned for 
the same. 

My soul and only dependance is on his Excellency thro you, for that 
justace my services and merits entitle me to should you Judge it 
necessary for me to address a memorial to His Excellency the Governor 
on that head I humbly beg you will have the goodness to get one 
drawn up by some able Person stating the services rendered 1st In 
executing and fulfilling the combined duties of the situations I held 


from 1807 to 1812 and that of agent without any pay for the latter duty 
2d By getting back a number of Indians of the vicinity of this 
country who had followed the Shawanese Prophet & settled on the 

3d Keeping all the Indians (tho living within the boundaries of the 
United States) faithful to our cause, and when war was declared in 1812 
by the United States, got the whole of them) except Oneguigon & son 
to Join our standard, contrary to the general opinions of those who 
were concerned in the Trade of the Country. 

4 By having 25D Indian warriors under my command at the taking of 
McKiiiac (as will appear by a Copy of Capt. Chas. Roberts Certificate) 
which I collected in so short a notice as 5 day and after the Capitula- 
tion of that Fortress had about 500 more warriors in so great a subor- 
dination as to prevent their killing even a Fowl appertaining to the 
Inhabitants of that place. 

5th Sending upwards of 200 Indian warriors, shortly after the taking 
of McKinac to the aid of Amherstburg and keeping a large body of 
Chippawas and Ottawas for the defense of McKinac. 

6th In having collected upwards of 160 warriors completely armed & 
arrayed so early as the 10th of May 1814 at McKinac for the defence 
of that place before & at Lt. Col. McDonalls arrival wh the Reinforce- 
ment & a few days afterwards upwards of 300 more before the arrival 
of Mr. Dicksoiis Indians * 

Honble William Glaus 

MR. ASKIN TO ME. CLAUS. (Pages 417-18-19.) 


5th Jan 1816 

MY DEAR SIR, ******* 
Extract of Indian Department orders taken from Capt Andersons 
orderly Book no 2 will show you all Indian matters are kept entirely 
secret from me, even the Indian Provision returns are made out by 
one of the Interpreters Solomon, so that I may not be acquainted 
with what is given out, by whom or to whom, I am well aware of the 
cause, for on a former occasion I refused to sign a receipt to the 
Commissariat for provisions which had been given out on the Command- 


ants Order, on which he the Commandant signed it himself & said he was 
Commandant & would sign, give & order what he thought proper. My 
answer was that I knew he could do so & consequently could sign for 
what he ordered. I should be glad to know in what manner you are 
to be made acquainted with the Issues & Expenditures of Provisions 
& Rum as Dy. Inspector General of Indian Affairs, when such means 
are adopted to prevent your obtaining it. * * * * 

It would give me great pleasure were you to come & would tend to 
check the vanity of the Commandant who makes a parade of great 
Pomp before the Indians dressed in the Indian Dept. uniform & pair 
of gold Epauletts as Commandant & Superint of the Dept & in the 
next place would open the eyes of the Indians so fully as to know who 
has most power in Indian matters, for those of the westward have been 
led to believe that their sole dependance is on the commanding officer 
indeed the treatment Mr. Dickson met with was enough to make them 
think so * * * 

The Commandant has endeavoured to annoy me in several instances 
but fortunately could never find fault in my Duty or Conduct, as Stkr. 
or Interpreter He endeavored to prevent my sailing in & about the Har- 
bor with my Sailing Boat as you will see by his Letter no 4. wishing I 
suppose that his permission should be obtained before I could take the 
amusement of sailing. Bealy its shameful to see British Subjects pre- 
vented from going to and fro on their lawful business unless they get a 
permit from Major Cockran they could not leave the Post, notwithstand- 
ing they get clearances from me as Collector, & also enclose for your 
perusal a copy of Regulations which are given to the Traders who are 
licenced by him, to sell Spirituous Liquors for which they pay 20s Hx cy. 
to the person who writes the regulations, you will be highly delighted 
with the ridiculousness of it. He entirely forgets that Martial Law is not 
any longer in force & that there is a Governor to grant those Licences 
not him. As I was appointed Inspector of Licences for St Joseph 

to send me- a few Licences of the present Governor, which 
will put the gentlemen quite aback, when they are given to those poor 
Devils of Traders here who are obliged to be as submissive as Spaniels 
otherwise they are threatened to be sent off the Island. 

A circumstance took place in August last, which I forgot to mention 
to you at the time. On the 2d Augt. whilst in charge of Indian 
Presents at St. Josephs, I rec d a note from Lt. Col. McDonall to report 
myself to him at Drummonds Island, as soon as the Indians then at 
St. Josephs were clothed, which I did on the 4 th Augt. and on my 
entering his Tent or Marquee I found him alone and his first salutation 


was to tell me that he had learnt that I was fond of writing & that if 
I was not more circumspect than I had been I certainly would involve 
myself in some difficulty, that my Letters had been seen, for those who 
I had wrote to had shewn the Letters, & from what had dropt out, he 
had reason to believe I had wrote against him. My answer was that 
I did not then recollect whether or not I had written about him to any 
person, but if I had, I must have stated plain facts, having always 
made it a Kule never to deviate from truth, & was not any way con- 
cerned at any of my Letters being seen, on which his Cholere got so 
much the better of him, that he said, Sir, if Colonel Glaus thinks I 
would condescend to communicate with him on Indian matters, he is 
much mistaken & Commg. & Super the Indian Dept. in these parts, I 
never will correspond with any but the Commander of Forces. I told 
him it was not my business to know with whom he corresponded and 
whether he did or did not with Colonel Claus, it was none of my 
Business and as I had not in any way made use of Colonel Claus's 
name it appeared to me strange that he could do so, he walked up 
and down Twice or Thrice without saying a word, and then said, you 
may look to Colonel Claus for promotion, from, or thro' me, you need 
not expect t any. My little spirit in my brain got the better of me, & 
I said I never had expected any promotion, or even common justice to 
my merits from him, for when I had been promoted Capt. Resident it 
was evident he had withheld it, untill he had recommended some of 
his favorites and then I left him, from that day I have kept myself 
entirely aloof from him, he invited me thrice to dine which I refused. 

I assure you on my word of Honor that this is as near as I possibly 
can recollect of the conversation that passed, whether he wanted to 
quarrel with me in order to cover his duplicity for having been instru- 
mental in withholding my promotion or whether he wanted to break 
off with me (tho' never had been friends) in order to have an excuse for 
getting Anderson in as Captain I cannot say. 

In all other parts but this it is customary to deliver the Indian 
presents at certain periods of the year, at this place it is not so, for 
Presents are issued at all times; -Indeed some Indians have received 
presents three times in the season. The Squaws kept by the Interpre- 
ters & Lieutenants, as well as their children, used to draw rations 
monthly, untill the Flour & Beef as per order No 14 was distributed 
amongst them, a most shameful conduct in any officer to countenance 
libertism at the expense of Government. On the 3d Inst. the Com- 
mander sent for me & asked me the reason why I did not attend with 
the rest of the Indian department for the purpose of subscribing for 

100 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the relief of the Waluton Widows & Orphans, I told him I did not 
consider any person had a right, to call me to an account, in my 
mode of doing charitable acts. That some persons made it a rule to 
make outward show in such acts, whereas others did it as secretly as 
they could, fcrr my part I could not think that he had actually sent for 
me on purpose to interrogate me on that head, he said he had not a 
right to dictate to me, in what manner I was to Pay out my money, 
yet he believed it was in opposition to him that I had not signed the 
Subscription and to Beware of myself for if he found I disobeyed any 
of his orders or those of Capt. Anderson he would dismiss me from 
the Service, that he could not be trifled with as I had with some 
Comg officers. In reply to this I told him, I had always done my 
duty as Stkr &c and I was astonished he attempted to find fault in 
my conduct in matters I conceived he had not any right to. He then 
said that my answer to his note on the subject of going in & out of 
the ,Harbor was not satisfactory that it was great presumption in a 
Stkr to write such an answer to a Commanding Officer. I told him 
that my answer was from the Collector, for Strs did not require sailing 
boats for the execution of their duties. I plainly see he wants to 
intimidate me if he can & prevent my taking any notice of what he does, 
but he is much mistaken if he thinks that I care for his Threats and 
Frowns. You may my good Sir think that I am of a quarreling dis- 
position in having been so unfortunate as to be at variance with a 
Commanding Officer, but I assure you it is not the case, I am not the 
only one that the man has treated ill. He has used and is still using 
Captn. Payne, Lieuts Portlock and Shepherd very unhandsomely indeed, 
so much so that the former will write to Colonel Nichol of the Engin- 
eers for a Court of Enquiry. He harrassed poor Lt. Slade of the 
Artillery so much that he had to apply to be relieved When he Lt. 
Col. McDonall heard that His Excellency Lt. Govr. Gore was come out, 
he did not seem to relish it by any means, he said in the presence of 
Captn Payne that he did not like Gov. Gore since he had once dined 
in England in his company, that he would endeavor to have all hi& 
communication with Sir Gordon Drummond and not with the Civil 
Governor. Im persuaded that was he to hear that you and the Gov- 
ernor or either of you intended to visit this in the Spring he would be 
off, he does not like the idea of your or the Governor's presence, thats 
to say Im told so, by those he used to communicate his sentiments to. 
As another Courier is to leave this some days after Shawgayshe, I will 
write again. Inclose my letters under cover to Duncan Cameron Esq., 
for some Letters (last summer) that were addressed to me were opened 


at this place & afterward sent over to me at St. Josephs and as they 
jrere in the hands of the Indians, I could not take the proper notice 
I should have done, If I could have ascertained who the person was 
who took the Liberty. * * * * * 

My dear Sir 

Yours most faithfully 


Honbl. William Claus 


(Military Posts.) (Page 430.) 

DRUMMONDS ISD 25 Feby 1816 

Our magazine being still at St. Josephs, & least our apparent evac- 
uation of that Post might suggest a claim thereto, on the part of the 
Americans (which is possible tho' scaicely possible that it will be 
listened to, either as respects that Island or this,) I shall have it 
occupied by a subalterns Detacht. on the first opening of the naviga- 
tion, a sargt and 6 men are there at present. 

I have the honor to be 
Sir, Your most obedt 
The Military Secty Comg 


(Military Posts.) (Page 439.) 



I trust, from the nature of the enclosed Report, you will see that it 
is confidential, & that His Excellency will appreciate the difficulty of 
acting in such cases, & with such men, when the distance too, is such 
as to render any reference impossible. I have ever been desirous to 

102 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

take nothing upon myself, but what I was fully conscious the good of 
the service required. . 

In pursuance of Tour Circular of the 15th Novr. I yesterday in 
orders, gave up to Capt. Anderson every vestage of my authority over 
the Indian Department, nothing loth. It is certainly much better that 
it should at once be either Civil or Military, for a linsey-woolsey piece 
of patchwork consisting of both, will not answer. The commanding 
officer, for instance at St. Josephs used to be regarded at all Indian 
business or Council, into a mute or understrapper to the Clerk and 
storekeeper of the Indian Department, and this very Gent," a great 
stickler too for Civil Rights now thinks you have been too Civil in 
your order of the 25th Novm & still requires my authority for issues 
of presents my name to pay lists, & hesitates to believe whether 
Captain Anderson can take this upon him. I of course, in strict con- 
formity thereto, decline any longer interfering therewith, in any respect, 
it is with no small pleasure that I look to the speedy prospect of 
emancipation from a country with which I am so much disgusted. 


Believe me, My Dear Foster, 

Very truly Yours 



(Indians) (Page 446.) 

American! Goods, to the amount of at least ft)15.000, had been 
annually sent to the Tribes on the Mississippi, and the assurances of 
Government repeatedly given for a Similar Supply. They had bravely 
stood by us, and I was conscious, that the time I chose to despatch 
Captain Anderson with goods, to only the amount of Sb300, was the 
last and only opportunity which would present itself, to save them 
from famine and starvation at that period too, the political horizon 
looked black enough: Bonaparte had returned, and if successful, an 
early re-newal of the War with the United States, was at least prob- 
able the above presents, therefore, by Captain Andersons judicious 
distribution thereof, secured to us in that event, the zealous assistance^ 
and co-operation of all the Western Indians, and yet was so managed 
as rather to express any war-like ebullition than otherwise. 

These were the motives that influenced my conduct such a necessity 


for a similar purchase cannot again exist, especially as I have had the 
good fortune to get entirely rid of the Indian Department. 

I have considered the above explanation necessary, being ambitious 
of His Excellency's entire approbation of my conduct, and confident 
that he will make the due allowances for my being often compelled to 
decide for myself on many important points, where it was impossible 

to receive instructions 

Believe me to be 

Yours very truly 

True copy (Signed) KT. McDoNALL 

Military Secretary. 



24th March 1816 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Duplicate Dis- 
patch of the 5th Ulto and beg leave to re-state that the intended pur- 
chase of this Island shall be postponed accordingly 

By my last dispatch I had occasion to state that the Civilians in the 
employ of the Engineer departments having been engaged 'til the 2d 
May, will continue occupied 'til that period chiefly in constructing a 
wharf a work actually necessary at this Post, in order to prevent that 
damage to the Provisions and Stores which so frequently occurred last 
summer from the difficulty of their being landed. 

As the fulfilling the engagement of Govt. with these men, could not 
be dispensed with, they have accordingly been employed upon a work 
of much public utility all others have been discontinued from the 

receipt of your order to that effect. 

I have &c 

(Signed) E. McDoNALL 
To M. Genl de Watteville Lt Col. Comg. 


(Indians.) (Page 447.) 


24th March 1816 
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 

3rd Ultimo this day His Excellencys injunction therein contained, as 

104 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

respects the discontinuing all public works, suspending the intended 
purchase of the Island, & in future abstaining from all interference, on 
any account, or in any respect, with the Indian Department at this 
Post, shall be most strictly complied witiv & have already been acted 
upon, as more fully detailed thro' Major Genl. De Watteville 

I have the honor to be 
Sir, your most obedient Sevt. 
Major Foster Comg 

Lieut. Col. McDonall to the Military Secretary, Drummonds Island 
17 June 1816; Indians, Defences &c. (Pages 463-4-5-468-9.) 

Indian Council at Amherstberg, June 19, 1816; Of the Huron, Otto- 
wa, Chippawa, Pitewatemie, Shawnee's, Kickapoo, Munsie Nations. 
(Pages 471-2-3.) 

Lieut. Col. McDonall, 27 June 1816; Removed from Command. (Page 

Comments on movements of American Forces. (Pages 508-9-10-11- 
12.) The last of the communications of this most interesting officer, 
who has been continually looking for a renewal of the war giving in 
his letters and reports his reasons therefor. 

Indian Council at Drummond Island, 29th June, 1816; Of the Sioux 
Winebagoes, Minominies, Ottawas, and Chippewa Indians; 500 or 600 
men. (Pages 479-80-1-2-3-4-5-6-7.) 

Ratification of treaty between U. S. A. and the Wyandot, Seneca, 
Delaware, Shawanese, Potawatomy, Ottawa and Chippawa tribes of 
Indians, made by Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, Commissioners, 
January 4, 1819. (Pages 665 to 681 inclusive.) 

The committee have added during the past year to the valuable 
historical papers copied from the Canadian Archives by procuring 
3,446 folios of manuscript, of which 167 were translations from the 
French, this with other matter of the same kind received previously 
will be printed hereafter in the collections. 

The Legislature now in session, having appropriated the same 
amounts as has been heretofore granted the society by the State, there 
will be at least two volumes of the collections printed during the 
coming year. It is intended that these shall, if possible, bring up all 
proceedings of the society and local matter to the present time. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 









June 6 At Otsego, William Allen, aged 72 years. An old time 

June 24 Alexander Henderson, a native of Scotland, who settled in 
Detroit in 1835, and * removed to Allegan in 1838. He had been a 
supervisor for several terms, twice sheriff of Allegan county, U. S. 
deputy assessor of revenue during the war, deputy U. S. marshal and 
held several other important official positions. 


Hannah P. Emerson, one of the very first settlers of Allegan, died 
at her home in Kalamazoo, Friday, August 8, 1890, aged 86 years. 
Deceased was the widow of Allegan's first merchant, Daniel Emerson, 
who was a native of Hollis, N. H., and came here with his family in 
1836. He kept a store on Brady street until his death, in 1845, and 
was highly respected and esteemed as an upright, honorable business 
man, whose word was as good as his bond, and though in business 
during a time of great financial depression, managed to carry on his 
store successfully and weather the storm. Mrs. Emerson was a fitting 
helpmate for such a husband and did her part in those early days 
with true female heroism. After her husband's death the widow lived 
here for some years and then went to Kalamazoo, where she made her 
home with her daughter, Mrs A. C. Balch, and remained there until 
her death. Deceased had five children, four daughters and one son, 
the latter of whom died some thirty years ago. One of the daughters, 
Frances, was the first wife of J. B. Dumont, of Allegan. Two daugh- 
ters survive, Elizabeth, widow of A. C. Balch, and Miss Lucy, both of 
whom live at Kalamazoo and were present at her funeral. 

The funeral services were conducted at the Congregational church, 
Monday, August 11, attended by representatives of nearly every pioneer 

106 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

family in the village. Rev. E. Andrus, the old pastor of the church, 
paid a touchiug tribute to the memory of the worthy woman who had 
passed away, and her remains were borne to their last resting place by 
her old friends, D. J. Arnold, B. ~D. Pritchard, H. 8. Manson, M. C. 
Sherwood, H. C. Smith and J. B. Streeter. 

August 17 At Allegan, Mrs. Electa, wife of D. B. Allen, a native of 
Vermont, aged 66 years, who came to Allegan in 1860. 

August 30 At Hopkins, Jonathan O. Thorne, who settled in that 
town in 1838. He was 80 years old, and held the office of supervisor 
for several terms. 

September 10 At Wayland, Dr. John Graves. For 28 years in the 
practice of^his profession in that village and vicinity. 

October 5 In Trowbridge, John Williams, a native of England, 
aged 64 years. Settled in Allegan county when the county was quite 

October 10 George Sharbaguay, an Indian and nephew of the 
celebrated Ottawa Indian chief Macatawa, aged 66 years. Sharbaguay 
was a celebrated hunter and fisherman, Allegan. 

December 5 John W. Austin, aged 71 years, a native of Lewis 
county, N. T., and who settled here in 1865. 

December 6 At Allegan, Wells Field a son of the late Cephas 
Field a native of Ontario county, N. Y., 81 years old. Came to Allegan 
in 1836. 

December 20 In Allegan, Edmund Root, 65 years old. A Union 
veteran, came to Allegan in 1867, settling in Cheshire. 


January 5 In Fillmore, Mrs. K. Van Zanten, aged 59 years. One 
of the pioneer Hollanders. 

February 5 In|New York city, James Redpath, a native of Allegan 
county, the private secretary of John Brown (the hero of Ossawattamie 
and of Harpers Ferry) and subsequently celebrated in the literary 
world as the editor of the North American Review. He was 58 years 
old, a brilliant and powerful writer, an accomplished scholar and an 
original abolitionist. 

Febrvary 10 In Leighton township, John Fales, for 40 years a 
resident of Allegan county. 

February 13 Mrs. E. Perkins, aged 70 years, 48 years a resident 
of Allegan county, and who came here from Wayne county, N. Y. 

March 2 In Allegan, Mrs. Margaret Stiles, aged 73 years. A native 
of Berkshire county, Mass., came to Allegan in 1866. 


March 2 In Allegan, Mrs. Benjamin N. Colburn, aged 72 years. A 
native of New Hampshire. 

March (date not given) At Hot Springs, Ark., John Weare, Jr., 
the son of the late John Weare, one of the pioneers of Allegan county, 
but who has resided since 1847 at Cedar Rapids, a city in Iowa, of 
which he was one of the founders, a gentleman of wealth and fame. 

March 14 At Allegan, Dr. Frederick Milo Calkins, whose father, Dr. 
Abram R. Calkins, was one of the pioneer physicians of Allegan 
county, aged 45 years. 

March 15 In Allegan, Mrs. Sarah E. Bingham, acting register of 
deeds of Allegan county, aged 57 years, a natve of New Hampshire, a 
resident of Allegan county since 1865, a woman of culture and 

April 5 At Plainwell, Jacob V. Rogers, a lawyer by profession and at 
his death postmaster at Plainwell, aged 58 years. 

In Allegan, same day, Mrs. Moses Girard, aged 63 years. 

April 14 In Watson township, Mrs. William S. Miner, who came to 
Allegan in 1836, born in Rochester, N. Y. 

April 18 At Hopkins, Mrs. Anna, wife of Uri Baker, a native of 
Highgate, Vt., aged 84 years, came to Michigan in 1844. 

April 28 At Allegan, Charles Carter, a union veteran and member 
of Co. L. 4th Michigan, cavalry. A native of Oswego N. Y., born 
June 23, 1835, who came to Allegan county in 1844. The Memorial 
day exercises at Allegan, for 1891 were held at his tomb. He was a 
badly crippled soldier. 

April 29 At Plymouth, Indiana, John P. McCormick, a native of 
Winchester, Virginia, 74 years old, came to Allegan, May 1841, one of 
the pioneer merchants. He retired from business several years ago 
and went to Indiana to reside. 

May 8 At Cheshire, Mrs. George Wilson, aged 47 years. An old 

May 15 In Trowbridge, Tracy Turner, aged 75 years. One of the 

May 18 In Otsego, Hon. Daniel M. Hall, ex-presideat of the 
village, and a gentleman of high standing, aged 75 years, a resident of 
Ofsego 50 years. 

May 18 At Hartford, Van Buren county, Rev. Charles Johnson, 
formerly a supervisor from the town of Ceresco, Allegan county, where 
he has resided several years, and the former superintendent of the 
Reform School for Boys, at Lansing. He was pastor of the Baptist 
church at South Haven. 



May 81 Mrs. Sarah B. Vosburg, for 28 years in business as a 
milliner, in Allegan, a native of Pennsylvania, 70 years old. Came to 
Allegan in 1857. 




Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Allen Carter 

Nov. 6, 1890 

Bay City 


Ensebos King . . 

Dec. 31, 1890... 

West Bay City .. .. 


Curtis Manger 

Feb., 5, 1891 

Clio, Genesee Co. . 


Mrn, Allfln Carter 

Feb. 13, 1891 

Bay City 



Allen Carter died at his home on Saginaw street, Bay City, Novem- 
ber 6, 1890. Mr. Carter was born in England, October 12, 1811, and 
was married to Miss Elizabeth Ely, January 1, 1831. Emigrated to 
the Saginaw valley in 1850, and was for many years millwright in the 
various mills on the Saginaw river; a man of sterling integrity and 
much respected by the citizens with whom he so long lived. 


Eusebus King died in West Bay City, December 31, 1890. 

Mr. King was born in Detroit, in 1800. For many years his occupa- 
tion was carpenter and joiner; the date of his marriage is lost, at any 
rate he had been married over 70 years. He came to Bay City at an 
early date where he followed his occupation until too old to work when 
he was elected justice of the peace, which he held many years. His 
wife died many years ago, he left three boys and one girl; his oldest 
son, Capt. Geo. King, now over 60 years old, still lives in West Bay 
City; two sons in Bay City, and a daughter in Los Angeles, California. 

Mr. King was a just and upright man and his decisions while he'was 
justice was always just. He was a gentleman of the old school, and 
was much respected by all who knew him. 


Curtis Muuger died February 5, 1891, on his farm at Clio, Genesee 


county, Michigan, aged 71 years. No man in the Saginaw valley was 
more respected than Curtis Hunger. He was one of the men who built 
Bay City. He came to Michigan in 1840, and to Bay City in 1848. 
He was the leading merchant for many years; he first kept a small 
store on Water street in connection with Edwin Park, afterwards built 
a large brick store near the corner of Water and Center avenue; this 
becoming too small he with his brother Algeron S. Munger, built the 
large brick block corner Saginaw and Center avenue, where he kept a 
large double store for many years, "when his health failed and he moved 
onto his little farm near Clio, Genesee county, Michigan. No man in 
Bay City had more friends than Curtis Muuger; he was honest and 
straight in all his dealings with his fellow man. He was for many 
years county treasurer of Bay county and his accounts were always 
straight. Annexed you will find a description of how he came to Bay 
City, which I wrote in my note book some years ago. 

The following is an interesting description of a very disagreeable and 
dangerous trip made by the late Curtis Munger: 

In the fall, of 1846 he, with some others, went to 'Thunder Bay 
island, Lake Huron, where they started in the fish business, catching 
white fish for the eastern market. They remained there until the lat- 
ter part of November, 1848, when, with his party, he intended to take 
one of the down steamers for Detroit and return home. Several steam- 
ers passed the island, but so far off in the lake that they could not 
see their signals. It was getting very cold and the party had got out 
of provisions so they took turns sitting up nights to keep a signal fire 
and hail any passing vessel to take them off. To add to their suffer- 
ings their provisions were all gone so after waiting for some days they 
held a council. 

The party was composed of Curtis Munger, James Beebe, Edwin 
Park and Michael Daily, who yet reside in Bay City, and W. H. Hun- 
ter and Joseph Parkerson, who have left the country. To add to their 
discomforts a heavy snow storm set in and what to do they did not 
know; to remain would be folly, as the winter had commenced. They 
were also getting hungry. Joseph Parkerson proposed that they should 
start in their open fish boat for Lower Saginaw, as Bay City was then 
called, and if they could reach there they would be sure to find 

The party finally made up their minds to start for Lower Saginaw 
and loading their boat with six half barrels of fish they set sail. On 
their way from the island they saw Capt. Madden, the light-house 
keeper, but could get no provisions from him, as he was nearly out 

110 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

himself. None of the party had ever been over the route before except 
Michael Daily. Soon after they left, a heavy snow storm came up from 
the northwest and the party were compelled to keep bailing the boat 
to keep her afloat. After much suffering they reached Point Au Gres 
in the evening. In the morning the ice had frozen on the north side 
of the point, where their boat lay several rods from shore, and the 
wind was blowing a gale from the southwest so that it was impossible 
to leave. Towards night one of the party built a fire in the bailing tin 
and partially cooked some of the fish from one of the barrels. The 
fish was scarcely warmed through, but despite this fact they all ate 
some. Mr. Monger said however that his made him so sick that he 
vomited it all up. 

On the second day the wind changed to the northwest, blowing a 
gale all day. It continued to blow so hard that the men were compelled 
to stay in the boat all night. They laid down in the bottom of the 
boat with their wet clothes, but were nearly frozen by morning. On 
the morning of the third day they hoisted sail and started for the 
Saginaw river. 

After proceeding up the river about two miles they came to a little 
house. When they were passing it Mr. Munger asked Parkerson whose 
house it was. Parkerson replied, " Trombley's." They had not gone far 
when they came to another, Mr. Munger again asked Parkerson whose 
house it was. He was again informed, "Trombley's." They soon came 
to another, where the First ward of West Bay City now is, when Mr. 
Munger says to Parkerson " This is a comfortable looking house. I 
guess we can get something to eat here. Who lives here?" When 
Parkerson replied " Trombley." "My Lord" says Mr. Munger, "is 
there no one but Trombley s in this country?" 

The party then proceeded up the river soon arriving at the house 
of a friend of Mr Parkerson where they remained for some days to 
rest up after their perilous voyage from Thunder Bay island. They 
were terribly used up by the voyage. In regard to their arrival Mr. 
Munger said: "When we landed I was in my stocking feet, as my 
feet were so swollen by exposure that I could not get on my boots. 
80 I say that when I first came to Bay City I was in my stocking 
feet. That was December 1, 1848." After making a trip to Detroit to 
get the money for their fish, Mr. Munger went into partnership with 
Edwin Park manufacturing staves. This was Mr. Munger's first 
business enterprise in the Saginaw Valley. 




Mrs Elizabeth Ely, wife of Allen Carter, died February 13, 1891, in 
Bay City aged seventy, eight years, Mrs. Carter was a native of Eng- 
land and came with her husband to the Saginaw valley in 1850, and 
was a great helpmate to him in those pioneer times, a lady beloved by 
all who knew her a life long member of the Episcopal church. She 
left three sons and three daughters to mourn her loss, all of whom 
live in Bay City. She will long be remembered by the old settlers 
and the church to which she belonged. 



Date of death. 

Place of death. 


William S. Gilbert 

September 1, 1890 


Philo Porter... 

Dec. 20, 1890 . 



James Haggles .. 

March 16, 1891 



John T. Gilbert.... 

March 20, 1891 


Capt. Abraham V. Hum 

April 28, 1891 




William S. Gilbert died at his home on North Fremont street, Cold- 
water, Monday September 1, 1890, of rheumatism, from which he had 
been a great sufferer for about two years. He was born in Warren, 
Vermont, November 23, 1809. 

In his younger days he learned the carpenter and joiner trade, and 
most of his active life was spent in wood-working in some of its 
branches. He reached Coldwater, September 11, 1836, and soon in com- 
pany with the late Luke H. Whitcomb commenced the manufacture of 
sash door and furniture, erecting for the purpose the building used for 
many years as a tannery, near the old " Crippen Mill." For power to 
run their machinery they used the surplus water from the race. As 
the supply was often scant and the mill had the preference, the sturdy 
young mechanics would often run their factory all night, to use the 
water after the mill had shut down for the day. This was probably 

112 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the first factory of the kind in the county to use power of any kind 
to run its machinery. 

When the Michigan Southern and Central Railroads were pushing 
their lines across the State, Mr. Gilbert, in company with Asa Parrish, 
built several of the most important bridges, engaging in that work 
from 1850 to 1854, when he bought a farm three miles southeast of 
' Coldwater, where he resided for seven years. He then moved to Cold- 
water where he has since lived. 

January 1, 1839, Mr. Gilbert was married in Bronson to Miss Hannah 
Parrish, who died December 10, 1878, leaving one son Edward P., who 
now lives in Spokane Falls, Wash. About five year ago he was married 
to Miss Jennie Parrish who survives him. Mr. Gilbert has been an 
active member of the Methodist church for the past fifty years, was 
one of the first to organize that church in Coldwater, and was for a 
great portion of the time a class leader, always an influential and 
active member. 


Philo Porter, died December 20, 1890, at his residence on Hudson 
street, Coldwater, after an illnes of two weeks. 

The deceased was born in Attica, Genesee county, N. Y., April 26, 
1813. March 17, 1836, he was married to Miss Martha Hosmer, and in 
May the young couple started with an ox team for Batavia in this 
county where young Porter had previously purchased of the government 
120 acres of land. In June, 1837, his wife died, and in March, 1838, he 
married Marietta Miller who died January 6, 1839, less than ten months 
after their marriage. He afterwards married Mrs. Elizabeth Wheeler 
who survives him. Mr. Porter was the father of five children, four of 
whom are living Mrs. Willard Stearns of Adrian, Mrs. Sidney Leland 
of Iowa, Cass Porter of Kansas City and Charles Porter of Batavia 

Mr. Porter was a man of marked ability, decided character, and always 
took a prominent position in both town and county affairs. From 1838 
to 1847 he served as justice of the peace in Batavia, and was elected 
supervisor in the following spring. He was an Andrew Jackson demo- 
crat, was elected sheriff of Branch county in 1850, and was re-elected 
in 1852, being the last democratic sheriff elected in the county. The 
deceased, though a democrat, was an outspoken abolitionist, and when 
a U. S. marshal from Orland, Ind., attempted to capture a colored 
citizen of this place, gave him such a vigorous shaking as to convince 
the slave hunter that Coldwater was not a congenial place for him. 


During the war Mr. Porter was a war democrat and was active in his 
support of the Union. 

In 1863 he joined the M. E., church and has ever since been an 
active worker in both church and Sabbath school. 


On Monday afternoon, March 16, 1891, Mr. James Buggies of Bron- 
son passed away after an illness of ten days, at the age of 88 years. 
His disease was pneumonia. 

James Buggies was born in Toronto, Canada, April 22, 1803, and was 
the second son of James and Esther (Dunham) Ruggles. His ancestors 
came from England and located in Boxbury, Mass., in 1637. In 1814, 
James came with his mother to Stockbridge, Mass., and later to Pel- 
ham, Albany county, N. Y. In 1824 Mr. Buggies returned to Toronto 
and by a suit at law recovered considerable landed property adjacent to 
Toronto. In that city in 1830 he married Sophia Shaw. In 1832 she 
died there of cholera. With his mother he came to Branch, then the 
capital of this county, in 1835, where he purchased 200 acres of land 
south of the Black Hawk mills at about $2 per acre. He also bought 
considerable land near Orland, Ind., and some in^LaGrange county, Ind. 
He went to Bronson during the winter of 1837, first settling on 80 acres 
west of the town, which tract was gradually increased to 400 acres, 
about half of which was deeded to three of his sons. As a second 
wife he married Hannah Dunham wno died after two years. He built 
in 1837-8 the large house which afterwards became the American 
Exchange hotel, which continued as such until the advent of the rail- 
road about 1850. April 21, 1845, Mr. B. married for his third wife 
Miss Eliza Salona Pixley who lived but eighteen months. Of this mar- 
riage J. Francis Buggies was the fruit. In 1852 he married as a fourth 
wife at Mottville, Mich., Miss Aurelia Parrish who has borne him six 
children Charles, Edward W., Alonzo, N. Byron, Henry J. and Eugena. 
Mrs. Buggies survives, as also four of her children, and J. Francis, 
who is so widely known as a collector of rare books and curiosities. 

Mr. James Buggies was a man of very marked peculiarities and pos- 
itive views. During the war he was opposed to civil strife and ever 
ready " for equitable peace." He was an uncompromising democrat and 
one of the " old guard." He thought out his own religious forms of belief 
and was an avowed but reverent free thinker. He has been honored 
by his fellow citizens with several local offices and practiced law some- 
what, When his house was burned two or three years since he bought 


a house in the village of Bronson and there devoted the last years of 
his life to "pursuing the vocation of old age." 


John T. Gilbert died on Friday morning, March 20, 1891, at 10:10 
o'clock. He had been quite feeble for a number of months but the 
immediate cause of his death was a chill brought on by blood poison- 
ing. The funeral services were held at his late residence on the corner 
of Grand and Taylor streets, Coldwater, on Sunday afternoon at 2:30 
o'clock and was well attended, Rev. H. P. Collins officiating. He had 
expressed the desire that his six grandsons should bear his remains and 
deposit them in the grave. These were Morris G. Clarke, Ralph E. 
Clarke, Arthur G. Holbrook and John T. Holbrook, and by marriage 
Andrew J. McGowan and William Worcester. The recent death of 
Mr. McGowan made a break in this circle and for him Walter G. 
Daugherty, who has for many years been in E. R. Clarke & Go's 
store and related to the family, was substituted. 

John T. Gilbert was born in Mansfield, Connecticut, March 19, 1806. 
He was of New England ancestry and was closely related to the family 
of Gilberts from whicl^ sprang Josiah Gilbert Holland, who is known 
to so many people of this country as a writer of great merit. In early 
life Mr. Gilbert showed a consumptive tendency and moved from Con- 
necticut about 1825 or 1826 to Ne^ York state. On May 19, 1831, he 
was married to Elizabeth H. Morris at Seneca Falls, New York, who 
has shared with him all the experiences of almost sixty years. With 
a common purpose and a common faith they have worked together 
until now death has separated them but, as Mrs. Gilbert says not for 
many years at most. In 1834 Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert moved to Erie, 
Monroe county, Michigan, and settled upon a farm. Later he was 
elected register of deeds in Monroe county and moved to Monroe. 
Subsequently he engaged in banking and in the dry goods business in 
that place. Then he was elected treasurer of the county and held this 
office until December 31, 1860. In the fall of 1860 his family came to 
Coldwater and on the expiration of his term of office Mr. Gilbert 
followed and at once entered into partnership in the drug business 
with his son-in-law, Edwin R. Clarke, who had been here since 1850. 
From this partnership he retired March 1, 1878. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Gilbert were born three daughters Mrs. E. R Clarke, Mrs. G. L. 
Howe, and Mrs. E. G. Holbrook. Mrs. Howe resides in Tekonsha, the 
other two in Coldwater. He had six grandchildren and seven great 


Mr. Gilbert was the last be to taken away of a family of eight chil- 
dren, being the fourth in order of birth. He has two half-brothers liv- 
ing, Henry E. H. Gilbert of Coventry, Connecticut, and Nathan Strong- 
Gilbert of Englewood, Illinois. The last named was present at the 
funeral on Saturday. 

For sixty years Mr. John T. Gilbert has been a member of the 
Presbyterian church and for a number of years he has been an elder 
in jjhe church in Coldwater. When his health permitted he was always 
a regular attendant at all the services of the church and a participant 
in the exercises of the social prayer meetings. He was always 
very quiet and unobtrusive but earnest and devoted. His life in the 
community has been such as to reflect only credit upon the profession 
which he made and it will be a rich legacy not only to his children 
but to his children's children for many generations; and not only to 
them but to many of his brethren and fellow citizens who knew him 
and will live to honor and revere his memory. 


Capt. Abraham V. Hunt was found dead in his room Tuesday morn- 
ing, April 28, 1891, about eleven o'clock. 

Capt. Hunt was nearly a centenarian, being born in New York city, 
July 3, 1796. He was the youngest of two children born to Moses 
and Hannah (Morgan) Hunt. The other brother died about 1837, 
leaving a wife and one child, whose whereabouts Abraham has been 
unable to discover, although he has spent much time and money in 
the attempt. When Abraham was six years old his father, Moses, 
went to sea in the schooner Harvard, and he, with two companions, 
were left on a desolate island in the South Pacific ocean, where Moses 
-and one of the others died. 

The grandfather of Abraham, Colonel Benjamin Hunt, was born in 
England but came to this country previous to the Revolution as a 
colonel in the British army, taking quite a prominent part in the war 
against the colonies. His property was confiscated at the close of the 
war and he went to Novia Scotia, and shortly after was drowned. 
After the death of Moses Hunt the widow married a sea captain 
named Smith, Abraham being then thirteen years old. The following 
year they moved to Monmouth county, N. J., and were engaged in 
farming until the death of Mrs. Smith, which occurred in 1821. 

About a year after their removal to New Jersey, Abraham was appren- 
ticed to a gunsmith in New York city, but at the end of three years 
he returned to his home, his health being very poor. After regaining 



his health he bound himself to learn the tailor's trade until he should 
become of age, but at the end of six months the business was broken 
up and he returned to Howell in 1814. The war of 1812 having not 
yet ended, Abraham was drafted and mustered into the service, serving 
in an infantry regiment under Colonel John Frelinghuysen, afterwards 
United States Senator from New Jersey. After a short service he was 
sent to Sandy Hook, New York, where he was promoted to a lieuten- 
ancy and placed in charge of the troops stationed at Sandy Hook 
Block House, where he did efficient service with his artillery on the 
British navy. At the end of four months Lieut. Hunt was transferred 
to New Jersey, where he was taken sick and moved to New York City, 
and shortly afterwards was discharged from the service. 

Mr. Hunt was married to Margaret Neafie, January 23, 1818, after 
which they returned to Howell where he erected a hotel, which he 
relinquished after acting three years as "mine host." Mr H. was, 
then appointed by the Underwriters of New York to take charge of 
wrecked vessels insured by them, which position he held for four years. 

In 1833 he made up his mind to try his fortune in the west coming 
by the way of the Hudson river, Erie canal and the lake to Detroit, 
where he landed October 9, 1833, and three days later found him at 
Macon, Lenawee county, at which time there were only five families 
living there. Mr. Hunt continued to make Macon his home until 1864, 
with the exception of two years, 1837-38, which were spent in Toledo. 
In 1864 he came to Coldwater, which has been his abiding place since. 
During his married life seven children were born to him, only three of 
whom are living. 

Mr. Hunt was probably the oldest Mason in Michigan at the time 
of his death, he having been a member of that order for over seventy 



Date of death. 

Place of death. 


May 25 

Marengo . 


Mrs. Emeline Dickey 

June 8 



" 20 .. .. 



il 18 


Tolman W. Hall. 

July 2. 

Battle Creek 





Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Mrs. Lify J. Houghton 

July 9 

Battle Creek 


Z. T. Sawtelle 



Fred'k N. Church 

" 6 



Mrs. James Christie. 

" 25 


Henry C. Phippany 

" 25 



J. M. Leonard. 

August 1 



John Rhymes .. 

July 25 



Mrs. E. A. Frost 

" 22 


Harry Rose 

" 24 



Mrs. Neale 

" 28 



Carolus H. Burch.. 

August 5. 

Battle Creek 


George Lincoln.. . 

July 22 



John Armstrong . . 

" 80 



Abram Bowlsby 

" 23 


Mrs. Polly M. Snow 

August 3 

Battle Creek.. . 


W. J. Swart 

8.. . .. 



Mrs. Sarah M. Sage.. 

" 10. 

Battle Creek.. 


Mrs. Caroline S. Sherman- 

" 15 



Mrs. White. ... ... 

" 13 


Mrs. Thos. O. Dnnton. 


Eckford . 


A. M. Schultz 

" 16 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. Priscilla Scont 

" 19 



Mrs. Domitile Daignean 

" 19. 

Battle Creek 


Win. B. Katner., . ... 


TCmmet . 


Wilhelmns Lusk 

" 30 

Battle Creek. 


Mrs. Maria White . . 

" 13 

Athens.. . 


John W. Coon . . 

September 4 _. 

Battle Creek. 


Mrs. Rebecca Bush 

" 11. 


C arlton Cooley 

" 12. 



Loren Bugbee 


Homer . .. 


Cyenil Bennett 

" 16. 



James Pierce ... . 


Battle Creek 


Mrs. Wm. Wall.. 


Mrs. Eva Warner. 

" 29 



David Woodward . ... 




Mrs. Robt. Skerrett 

October 9. 


John Hertkorn 

" 17. 


Joel D. Sanders 

" 10. 


Frank H. Smith 




Susannah McHugh 

" 5. 






Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Bennett Tiffany 

October 7 



Eva Ives . . 

3. . 


Mrs. Harriet T. Warner. 

" 7. 



Mrs. James M. Parsons. 

" 15. 



Mrs. Lock wood- 


Mrs. James K.Taylor _. 



John Ryan 



Jennette A. McDoiiall. 

" 20. 

Battle Creek 


Rev. Samuel H. Hall 




Oliver P. Viets . 




Mrs. Mary Billings 

" 26. 



Mrs. Benjamin Morgan 

November 2 


Win. Young 




John Roof- 

" 12. . 



Mrs. John Olcott - 

" 8 


Randall Drake 




Mrs. M. E. Crouch 

" 14. 



Mrs. Sophrona Frink.. 

" 13. 



Mrs. Dudley K. Cotton 

" 15 

LeRoy .. 


Mrs. Esther Burnett 




Mrs. Jane Kidney 




Mrs. Sarah H. Schuyler 

" 17 


Mrs. Mary Brigham 

" 15 



Ira Gillispie. 




Austin C. Halladay. 

17 .. 

Battle Creek. 


Benjamin Rowley . 

December 2 

Fredonia ... 


Jeremiah Donovan . . 




David Hough. . 



" 3 


Mrs. Mariah Eckert 

November 20. 



Elijah P. Holmes 

" 28. 

Battle Creek 


Job Spencer. 

December 5. 



Wm. H. Sweet. 

" 5. 

Battle Creek 


Reuben 8. Haskell 

8. . 



Michael Simmons 

" 16. 


Philander Moore 

" 28. 

Battle Creek. 


Betsey Dixon 

" 28. 



Mrs. Sylvanns Dillingham 

" 25 



Timothy B. Powell . .. 




Mrs. Ruth M. Cole... 

25. . 

Albion. . 





Date of death. 

Place of death. 


C. C. Swift 

January 1 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. Elizabeth West 

" 14 


Mrs. Hannah ft. Easterly ._ . 

" 15. 



Mrs. Eunice Richardson 


Battle Creek 


Mrs. Kate N. Woolcott 

" 22. 



Arthur H. Dai lev 


Battle Creek 


Elisha Carpenter 

February 1. 


Daninl Roberts 



Mrs. Rebecca Bills 




Mrs. Patrick Conley 

" 16. 

Con vis 


Ahira Ethridge 

" 16 



Mrs. Laurany Barker.. . ... 

" 18. 



Hiram Wheat.. 




Mrs. Joseph Scott. - 

" 15. 



Mrs. C. P. Dibble 


Abwolom Cargill . . 


Battle Creek 


Mrs. Elizabeth Lester ^ ... . 

" 20. 



Mrs. August Bartels 

" 21 



Claudius B. Webster 




Michael Harrigan 

" 26 


Abraham (Cooper . .. .. 


Homer . 


Elihu Clark.. 




Jonathan B. Chapin 

April 13. 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. John P. Roller. . .. 

March 8 



Jonah R. Lewis . 

" 19. 

Battle Creek 


Silas W. Dodge. . 



Hiram J. Goodale. 

January 29 

Bedford . . 


Eben W. ftraves 

March 25. 



John E. Chaftin.. 

8('. . 

Battle Creek 


Jacob L. Nickerson 

April 24. 

Convis. . 


John Nichols 

" ' 15. 

Battle Creek 


Nathan Vestal (Col'd) 

" 25 



Mrs. Marie Hunt . 




Milo Soole * 

" 2. 

Marengo . 


Mrs. Frances Knight 

" 24. 



Mrs. Catherine Hall 

May 6 


E. N. South worth . . 


Battle Creek 


Mrs. Mary Hamilton 

" 8 



Mrs. Mahala Brown 

" 14 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. Mary T. Boone 

" 11... 




Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Ira Beckley 

May 16.. . 

Battle Creek 


James B. Delbridge. 

" 15. 



Mrs. Lucy Post. I 

" 16 

Battle Creek 


Bert Whitcher. 

" 16 


Caroline E. S. Walter . 

" 8 

Marshall . . . 


Joseph C. LaDow 

" 14 

Homer . 


Mrs. Mary Case. 

" 25 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. Flavins S. Hamilton 

" 27 



Frederick E. Bush. . 

" 27 

Battle Creek 


Mrs. J. T. Coulson . 


Albion .. 


Thomas Holmes. 

" 25 

B. K. Bass 

" 25 

Mrs, fl, W, Dulrymplft 

" 26 


Jared Knapp 

" 24 



Chester Phelps 

" 18 

Battle Creek. 


Mrs. Hnlda DeYarmond. 

Jnne 1 



Hon. Tolman W. Hall, who was one of Battle Creek's most highly 
respected citizens, was born at Sudbury, Vermont, September 1, 1805. 
His parents, Moses and Experience (Tolman) Hall, were of Puritan 
descent, and their early religious teachings have exercised a marked 
influence upon his life. His father served in the revolution. An 
academic education fitted Mr. Hall for a teacher, and he followed the 
profession for a number of years. At Sudbury, April 12, 1832, he 
married Lois Mary Hitchcock, formerly of Hebron, N. Y. Soon after, 
he came into the possession of real estate near Battle Creek, and in 
1834 came here and engaged in farming. In 1842 his wife died, and 
he gave up the farm and became a merchant. Before and after Mich- 
igan became a State, Mr. Hall held various legal offices. In 1836, when 
the State government was organized, he was elected Associate Judge of 
the circuit court of Calhoun county. He held the office until 1844; 
in 1844 he was admitted to the Calhoun county bar, but has never 
practiced to any great extent. 

In 1837 the bank of Battle Creek, known as the Wildcat bank, was 
organized with Sands McCamly as president and Mr. Hall, cashier. In 
1838 the bank dissolved and Cashier Hall was appointed receiver. Feb. 
15, 1844, he married Elizabeth Ann McCamly, who died Nov. 15, of 


the same year. He was joined in marriage December 21, 1846, to Flora 
Howe, with whom he lived in happiness, and who, until the hour of 
his death, shared equally the burdens of his life. In 1855-6 Mr. Hall 
was a member of the Legislature; during the administration of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, and during part of Andrew Johnson's he was postmaster; 
in 1863 he was alderman, and in 1865 was mayor. He was justice of the 
peace, at the time of his death in which capacity he has served faith- 
fully and honorably since- 1872. He served fourteen years as superin- 
tendent of the poor of Calhoun county. 

Judge Hall, as he was generally called, has been actively engaged in 
educational work, and was well known as an active, Christian worker. 
He aided greatly in organizing the Presbyterian and Congregational 
churces, in Battle Creek. It was partly through the personal efforts 
made by this honored man that the present public school system was 
organized, he afterwards serving two terms as director. He was a staunch 
supporter of the temperance cause, though not a prohibitionist. He 
was a Democrat until 1854, when he joined the republican forces, and 
was ever afterward a member of that party, though his political views 
were quite liberal. Extensive travel through the United States and 
Canada and the advantages of education and continued reading enabled 
this man through his life to do his work properly and successfully. 
Pis record as a public man was most wonderful, as in all of his dealings 
with men he had the reputation of being upright and honorable. He 
has never"' been defeated for any office whici^ he has held, and has 
accomplished his elections in an honorable manner. For years he has 
lived on the homestead where he passed his last years, and where his 
death occurred, July 2, 1890. Since his last marriage reared a daughter, 
who is now Mrs. Charles A. Luce, of Grand Rapids, and a son Henry 
H. Hall, who resides in Central City, Colorado, where he has extensive 
mining interests. 


After an occupied, sturdy and honorable life, Hon. Tolman W. Hall who has been a 
member of the bar of this county for the past 46 years has gone to his rest. In view of 
the respect we have had for him and now have for his memory, we in meeting assem- 
bled would, in the spirit of friendship, and as members of the profession to which he 
belonged, yield to him the tribute his long, honest and useful life demands. Therefore 
be it 

Resolved, That in his death this community has lost one of its most valued citizens. 
Living here for the past 56 years, he has been continually honored with the confidence 
of his fellow men, and for over 40 of those years has held public office without having 


122 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

charged against him any dishonorable conduct, and has passed out of this life without 

As a judicial officer his aim was to be impartial; he did not allow personal friendship 
to bend his judgment. He was cautious, careful, deliberate, and performed the duties 
of office without fear or favoritism, and thus commanded the good will and favorable 
opinion of those who managed cases before him. 

As a man he represented the American character; with an integrity that never fal 
tered, with an honesty that never weakened, with a desire to do the right and equaj 
justice between man and man he was the type of that noble manhood which leading 
the way, has carried and will carry the banner of civilization and respect for law and 
order into new lands. 

His life for over half a century has been closely identified with the growth and pros- 
perity of our city, county and State. 

His name will live in public records and people's hearts, and it will be said of him 
that another one of that sturdy, honest, fearless band of pioneers which swept away 
the wilderness and made a place for law and government to dwell, has gone from earth. 
May he, crowned with years and honor, rest in peace. 


Frederick Nelson Church died in the city of Marshall, at 1:06 a. m. 
Sunday, July 6, 1890. 

Mr. Church was born March 16, 1811, at Phelps, Ontario Co., N. Y., 
one of a family of eight children, and he was the last survivor of the 
family. His father was murdered in 1820, and his mother did the very 
best she could for her four surviving children. Nelson was* soon after 
apprenticed to a carpenter, and learned that trade. Nov. 17, 1833, he 
married Miss Amandj| Bundy; two sons, Henry K. and xNelson B., 
resulting, from the union. Nelson died July 1, 1843, aged three months, 
and Henry died in 1858. aged 23 years. In 1836 they started West, 
stopping in Cleveland, Ohio, about one year, where he made an invest- 
ment of $400 in Euclid Ave. real estate and sold it for $800 in less* 
than a year a "lucky hit" for those days. They then moved 'to 
Monroe, but it was so unhealthy there they got away as soon as possible, 
coming, accompanied by Ahira Ethridge, to Marshall, in 1839. Mr. 
Church established a shop over the store of Philo Dibble on the east 
side of Exchange Square and began the manufacture of window sash, 
doors, and blinds, by hand. He was an unusually industrious worker, 
always being in his shop from daylight to twilight, and of course saved 
something from his earnings. His first wife died in 1843, and on Sep. 
10, 1844, at Skaneateles, N. Y., he married Mrs. Lydia Peck Douglass, 
of Marshall. Two children were born to them Douglass who died in 
infancy, and Frederick Wm., who is the sole survivor of the family. 
Mrs. Church having died May 5, 1886. 

In 1848, Mr. Church purchased a half interest in a plaining mill 


business conducted by a Mr. McPherson at the corner of Jefferson and 
Hart Sts., and about a year after bought Mr. P's interest, that gentle- 
man having the California "gold fever" which troubled many Marshall 
people at that time. In 1852, Claudius B. Webster, who had but 
recently returned from California, joined Mr. Church in the business 
and they increased the facilities of the plant very largely. In Sep., 
1861, their mill was entirely destroyed by fire but the smoke 
had not entirely cleared away next day when Mr. Church was 
on his way to Chicago to purchase new machinery, and Mr. 
Webster was superintending the clearing up of the debris. A 
new mill was erected immediately. Mr. Webster retired from the busi- 
ness in 1864. Mr. Church continuing alone until 1872, when he sold 
to Franklin Edgerton. At that time Mr. Church had a handsome prop- 
erty, enough so that the income would have provided liberally for 
himself and family, but he could not be contented without something 
to occupy his mind, and he became interested in two or three enter- 
prises successively which proved failures, and he was reduced to the 
necessity of work in his old age. In the fall of 1888 he went to San 
Diego, Cal., and obtained work. His lodgings were not suitable for 
him, his landlord refusing him even an oil stove in his room, he took 
a severe cold and his old rheumatic trouble returned. Being unable 
to work he returned home in the spring of 1889. Last year he took 
the contract for the wood work on the new St. Mary's church, and 
completed it to the entire satisfaction of the church officers, but the 
very day of his final settlement with them he took to his bed and has 
been confined to the house most of the time since, a great sufferer 
but never conlplaiiiing. 


John Milton Leonard was born November 28, 1818, at Sandisfield, 
Berkshire county, Mass., the child of Lyman and Eunice Smith Leonard. 
His youth was spent in attending the district school, and labor upon his 
father's farm. After becoming a young man he visited several times 
with relatives in Barre, Orleans county, N. Y., and it was during one 
of those visits that he became acquainted with Miss Jane A. Wilcox, 
who, on February 22, 1842, became his wife. The young couple 
remained in Barre three or four years, when they went to Massachu- 
setts to reside at Mr. Leonard's native place; but in 1848, having 
determined to seek their fortune in the west, they came to Michigan, 
and were so well pleased with Marshall and vicinity that they bought 
eighty acres (known in late years as the J. D. Porter farm) on section 

124 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

four, in Fredonia township, and began pioneer life in earnest. They 
oon had a comfortable log house and stable, and the next year had 
some crops to harvest and market. Before the end of the second year 
A school-house had been erected on one corner of Mr. Leonard's farm, 
And he had been elected director of the district, a position which he 
filled, to the entire satisfaction of the residents, until 1853, when he 
sold and bought again on section thirty-five, Marshall, the eighty acres 
which he cleared, and made into an excellent farm and home for 
himself and family. This property he owned at the time of his death, 
-although he has lived in Marengo, just outide the city limits, during 
the past thirteen years, where his death occurred August 1, 1890. 


Wilhelmus Lusk was born in Wayne county, N. Y., May 27, 1855. 
His father, J. H. Lusk, owned a large farm at his birthplace, and on 
this the younger Lusk passed his early days, attending school during 
the winter months. When Wilhelmus reached the age of 17 his parents 
moved west and settled on a farm three miles east of Battle Creek 
where they now reside. Until he reached the age of twenty-one years 
he remained on his father's farm taking advantage of the country 
schools as much as possible, and when of age he began taking a course 
of studies in the Seventh Day Adventist college in Battle Creek. 
Here he remained two years, at that time entered the office of Dr. 
Johnson. With a determination to succeed he entered the Pulte Medi- 
cal college at Cincinnati, and took a two years' course, receiving a 
diploma and returning to Battle Creek. He at once opened an office 
in Edwardsburg, where he remained three years and established a good 
practice. While there he married Miss Lizzie Stewart, of Harmonia, 
and they began housekeeping at once. At the expiration of three 
years he was obliged by failing health to dispose of his practice and 
he was compelled to go south. Accompanied by his family he visited 
Orlando, Florida, where he regained his health; an& the climate and 
other circumstances being very favorable he established a practice 
there and remained three years, at which time he closed his business 
and returned to Battle Creek. 

Dr. Johnson and Dr. Lusk formed a partnership and for eighteen 
months they did business together, when Dr. Lusk withdrew and located 
an office where he remained until his sickness which caused death 
August 30, 1890. He was a generous hearted citizen, very popular 
with all who were fortunate enough to form his acquaintance, and 


has been very successful in the practice of medicine. Dr. Lusk was. 
a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias. 


Mrs. Eva Warner died at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. S. A, 
Brusie, Monday, September 29, 1890, aged 84 years. Mrs. Warner waa 
one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of Albion's many old settlers, hav- 
ing resided there fifty-four years. She came to Albion before Michi- 
gan was admitted to the "Union. During all this time she remained 
steadily a member of the M. E. church, and was held in the highest 


Benjamin Eowley was born August 9, 1808, in Stillwater township,. 
Saratoga county, N. Y., one of a family of three girls and six boys. 
In 1836 he came to Michigan and purchased a homestead in the then 
almost unbroken forests of Fredonia, in this county. The next year 
he returned to his native home, married Miss Maria Clute it being- 
a double wedding, his brother William and a sister of his bride 
being the other couple. The two happy young couples started 
next day and drove all the way to Michigan. They were typical 
pioneers, and continued to reside on and improve the land purchased, 
and lived to see that wilderness gradually disappear and become 
highly cultivated farms. Four children were born to Benjamin Rowley 
and his wife, of whom only one, Fred A., remains to care for his aged 
and now widowed mother. He died Dec. 2, 1890. 


Elisha Carpenter departed this life February 1, 1891, of paralysis, 
after an illness of two weeks, aged 71 years. Forty-five years ago he 
with his wife commenced on their farm in Bedford, then an unbroken 
forest, where with untiring efforts and cheerful toil, they made a 
beautiful home and brought up their five children, striving ever by 
example to teach them the lesson of right and justice. One year ago 
on account of failing health, he exchanged the old home farm for his 
late city residence, at 187 Upton avenue, Battle Creek. He lived and 
worked for the cause of the just, ever ready to aid the sick and afflicted 
He was zealous in the cause of temperance reform, and while he 
sought to elevate humanity pleasing to God, made no Christian profes- 
sion; yet his deeds were noble, his example commendable and his acts 
expressive of a noble, Christian character. His duty was his religion.. 

126 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

and ever mindful of the golden rule "As ye would that others should 
do to you do ye even so to them." May such a life make its impress 
and be a bright light to guide others to a higher and nobler sphere. 


Jonathan Bement Chapin, M. D., died at his hom,e in Battle Creek, 
Michigan, April 13 1891, in a good old age, " like a shock of corn 
fully ripe," aged 85 years, 9 months and 19 da<ys. 

He was born in Prattsburg, Steuben county, N. Y., June 25, 

He was married three times. First to Miss Mary A. Johnson, who 
lived but a few months, but was a choice Christian; second, to Miss 
Nancy Reed, March 12, 1833, who was the mother of his eight chil- 
dren, one of whom Corporal Scott H. had died before her in the ser- 
vice of the country and of the cross; another, Wm. S., has "passed on" 

His third wife, Mrs. Mary A. Baird, who was his co-worker for 
seventeen years in labors pertaining to the "Kingdom," still survives 

Dr. Chapin came to Michigan in 1842, and settled with his family in 
Ingham county, as one of the early pioneers. The energy, zeal, won- 
derful faith and will power of his Christian character, were soon felt 
for miles around. The well known bible agent and colporter (Rev. 
Calvin Clark), was wont to tell the doctor's oldest daughter, Mrs. S. B. 
Brighani of Plainwell, how his house became a welcome asylum for 
any servant of God or wayfarer who chanced to pass that way; and 
how the wife and mother's characteristic tact in the face of the many 
disadvantages incidental to the early settler's life, made the log cabin 
a " Harbor of Rest." 

He took an active part in the promotion of the various moral reform s 
of the day, such as temperance, anti-slavery, and social purity, he was 
the earnest advocate of education and religion, frequently conducted 
Sabbath services in destitute communities. His skill, in the healing art 
and surgery was experimentally known to many, and in the care of the 
poor, often bestowed "without money and without price." 

For the sake of his family he moved to Olivet, thus furnishing his 
children the educational, religious, literary and social advantages of that 
college and community, and all through the twelve years of their 
sojourn in that place, the Dr. felt and took the deepest interest in the 
good work there founded. His love for bible study was like a consum- 
ing fire, his interest in missions burned to a flame, his faith in God 


his love for a redeeming Savior, his active personal efforts to save 
souls, took on new fervor from year to year during his life in Quincy 
and later in Battle Creek, until as wrote a fair maiden who delighted 
to call him grandpa, " It seems as if the dear grandpa had only a step 
to take and he was all ready to take it," or as said a daughter, " Father 
does not seem to have died, but only to have been translated." And 
we forgot to weep while lingering over the dear form as it lay in the 
casket, seeing there as it were even the impress of the love, peace and 
joy into which he was entered. 


The Winside (Neb.) Watchman of March 20, 1891, gives the follow- 
ing obituary notice of Silas W. Dodge, a prominent resident of Battle 
Creek many years ago: " S. W. Dodge who died of cancer at Hoskins 
Friday morning, March 13, 1891, was buried at that place Sunday. Mr. 
Dodge was born in Westchester county, N. Y., in 1812. At the age of 
19 he went into Michigan, and located at Detroit, when that country 
was only a wildernesss. In the employ of the Michigan Central he ran 
the first locomotive ever sent over that road which at that time extended 
from Detroit to Ann Arbor. He was member of the first republi- 
can convention in the country, at Jackson, Michigan. He was a dele- 
gate to the convention at Chicago in 1860 that nominated Abraham 
Lincoln for the presidency. At Allegan, Michigan 52 years ago he 
married Miss Sally Upton, who survives him, after more than half a 
century his constant companion. During his frontier life in Michigan, 
he endured the hardships and thrilling experiences incident to pioneer 
life in those counties and those days, and bore to his grave evidences 
of narrow escapes with his life, sustained in defence of law and 
order. Some years ago the Battle Creek Journal of Battle Creek, 
Michigan, contained a history of slave running in that country during 
the days of " underground railway," in which S. W. Dodge was named 
as an active worker. In 1872 he moved to Vineland, N. J., where he 
lived till five years ago, when he moved to this country where he resided 
till his death. 


Hiram J. Goodale, an early pioneer of Calhoun county was born in 
Litchfield, Herkimer county, N. Y., April 6, 1804, and died at his home- 
stead in Bedford, January 29, 1891, at the advanced age of 87. He died 
of heart disease. Though a great sufferer for many months, he bore 
his illness with the greatest patience. 

In early life he educated himself for a surveyor and civil engineer, 

128 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

in which profession he became an expert. ' At the age of twenty he 
left home for Buffalo, N. Y., to start business for himself teaching school 
in the winter and following surveying in the summer up to 1830 when 
he got a situation on the M. 0. R. R. as surveyor and civil engineer 
from Detroit to Chicago, and held it up to 1856. In the meantime, in 
1846, he married Marriette Whitford of Charleston, Kalamazoo county r 
having purchased a farm containing 168 acres, half a mile north of 
the city of Battle Creek. He did not occupy the farm until 1854 when 
he commenced farming for himself, occasionally devoting his time to 
his business as surveyor. He surveyed and platted out the village of 
Galesburg in 1869; also the new addition of Oak Hill cemetery. 


Jacob L. Nickerson, was born in Oswego, county, N. Y., May 14 r 
1821. He was the fourth of ten children, only two of whom, a brother 
and sister, now remain. He came to Michigan with his father's family 
in his sixteenth year, and endured the hardships and privations of a 
pioneer life. He early learned the cooper's trade which he followed as 
his regular occupation until he bought the farm where he was living 
at the time of his death, which has been his home for forty-one years. 
He was the father of fourteen children, seven of whom survive him. 
All except one daughter, who was detained by sickness, stood by his 
death bed. He was in very poor health for the last twenty-five years; 
his disease baffled the skill of his physicians, and terminated fatally 
on April 24, 1891, at half past one in the morning. 


The death of Mr. John Nichols, president of the Nichols & Shepard 
Co., occurred at his residence, 258 Maple street, Battle Creek, a little 
after nine o'clock p. m., May 15, 1891. He passed away quietly after 
an illness of four days from pneumonia, the first attack of the disease 
being so severe as soon to create a serious apprehension that he would 
not recover. On Monday morning, his son, Hon. E. C. Nichols and 
family, who have been spending the past few weeks at their resort in 
Ponchoutoula, La., were telegraphed for and Mr. Nichols arrived on 
Tuesday evening, May 12, and his family on Saturday following. 

John Nichols, for more than half a century has been a prominent 
citizen of Calhoun county and for more than forty years actively iden- 
tified with the industrial interests of Battle Creek. He was a man of 
untiring industry, indomitable energy and perseverance, and possessed, 
to a remarkable degree, that strong determination and purpose which 


enabled him to surmount whatever obstacles lay in the pathway of suc- 
cess. His long and successful business career is closely intertwined with 
the industrial history of Battle Creek, and that history can never be 
properly written without awarding him a conspicuous place upon its 

He was a native of the Empire State, having been born in Liver- 
pool, Onondaga county, Jan. 1, 1814, of Eliakim and Sally Nichols. 
Like most of the youth of our country at that period, he had but limited 
means of education, but those he possessed he improved to the best 
account. When only 13 years of age, the limited means of the paren- 
tal household compelled him to seek his own fortune elsewhere and he 
went to Palmyra, N. Y., and there commenced learning the trade of a 
moulder and became complete master of it. 

In 1834, he was united in marriage to Miss Nancy C. Galloway, of 
Marion, Wayne Co., N. Y., which proved a most felicitous union, now 
interrupted by his death. In the following year he came to Michigan, at 
first locating on a farm in Lenawee county, and in 1839, he removed to 
Marshall in this county, and resumed his trade. In the presidential 
campaign of 1840, he was one of the most active and enthusiastic 
whigs in the county, and his personal reminiscences of that contest 
and of the period succeeding it, when occasionally related by him in 
the circle of his iniimate friends, were remarkably interesting and would 
make a valuable addition to the political annals of the county. Mr. 
Nichols was subsequently engaged in business in Detroit and in 1848, 
located in Battle Creek, opening an establishment for the manufacture 
of stoves, plows and other articles, to which he afterward added that 
of portable steam saw-mills. 

In 1850, he went to California, but after remaining there a short 
time, he concluded that Michigan offered to him a surer mine of 
wealth in her industrial resources than were afforded by the Golden 
State, and returned to find his conclusions amply justified by the result. 
Forming a partnership with David Shepard, he commenced with him 
the manufacture of threshers, laying the foundation for the business 
which has since developed to such large proportions and has long since 
made the firm name to be familiarly known throughout the entire 

Mr. Nichols, by his inventive genius and practical business talent 
contributed much to the success of the business on the start, and 
toward causing the new machines to command a wide market, so that 
the old shops on Canal street had many more orders than they could 
supply. Accordingly an increase of capital was readily obtained, a 

130 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

stock company was organized and in 1870 the extensive works were 
located on the present site, in the eastern portion of the city, where a 
railway station on both the Michigan Central and Grand Trunk, bears 
his name as that of the senior member of the firm, to which his son, 
Hon. E. C. Nichols had also been added as a member. 

In addition to the qualities which enabled Mr. Nichols to achieve 
such eminent success in his own affairs, he uniformly exhibited an 
active interest in the public welfare and was distinguished for his 
public spirit. He liberally gave encouragement and substantial aid 
to every effort for increasing the business facilities of the city and 
was a generous contributor to the various enterprises which have so 
signally promoted its growth and prosperity. Nor has his aid been con- 
fined to the mere material advantages of the town, but has been extended 
to philanthropic objects, the " Nichols Memorial Home " being a note- 
worthy monument of his substantial interest in the cause of humanity 
and charity. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Nichols was a whig, and when the 
republican party was formed, warmly espoused its principles and has 
ever since been one of its steady adherents. Though he has never 
sought office, he has always been recognized as a prominent political 
factor, and was a decided and plainly felt power in local and national 
politics, whenever he chose to exert it. Firm in his, own convictions, 
he was at the same time tolerent of those of others, and was a stal- 
wart republican without being a bigoted partisan. He possessed the 
quality of espousing a cause with earnestness and enthusiasm, but 
without rancor, a trait which added largely, both to his social and 
political influence. 

Mr. Nichols' robust and generous nature and his peculiarly frank 
and open-hearted manner made him a great favorite with the Nichols & 
Shepard employe's and they are among the most sincere mourners at 
his demise. In his intercourse with them, he not only commanded 
their respect and esteem, but also their warm affection. 


Mrs. Marie Hunt, died in Leroy, Wednesday, April 29, 1891, in her 
sixty-eight year, after two years of extreme suffering from a rheumatic 

Marie McNeal was born in Newstead, Erie county, N. Y., July 29, 
1823, where she remained until December, 1844, when she with her 
husband, Lorenzo Hunt, of that place, came with their infant daughter 
to Michigan; and in 1845 they began work on the farm in Leroy, 


which has ever since been their home, where twelve of their children 
were born. During forty-two years past some of these children's names 
have always been found enrolled on the register of the one school 
district. Mrs. Hunt was a member of the missionary society, and was 
ever found on the giving hand when the case of the destitute and 
hungry ones was presented. None were refused help because she was 
"too busy, or overburdened with care." She always .helped them, by 
a kind word, or a generous deed. 


Mrs. Mary Hamilton, aged 87 years, died May 8, 1891, at the resi- 
dence of her son, John Hamilton, in Bedford township, of a severe 
cold which resulted fatally on account of her advanced age. The 
deceased was one of the very earliest settlers in Bedford township, 
having moved to that township, together with her late husband from 
Cayuga county, N. Y., in 1836, and her eldest son, Abram Hamilton, 
was the first white child born in the township. 


Milo Soule was born July 8, 1804, in Madison county, N. Y., the first 
of the eleven children of Isaac and Cynthia Carter Soule. The next 
year his father removed to Freehold, Greene county, N. Y, where young 
Milo passed through the usual experience of the boys of that time by 
working upon a farm summers and attending school winters, until he 
was fifteen years old, when his place at school was changed from the 
pupil's seat to the teacher's desk. This continued until he was twenty- 
six years old, he proving his unusal filial devotion by giving the better 
part of his time to his parents for five years after attaining his majority. 

April 20, 1830, at the home of his bride's parents, Sardius and Sabra 
Blodgett, Milo Soule and Miss Irene Blodgett were united in marriage, 
and immediately began life on a farm in Murray, Orleans county, 
which Mr. Soule had just purchased. There they lived for five years, 
and there their eldest son and daughter were born to them. In 1835 
they removed to Michigan, located and settled upon a farm near Mar- 
engo village in this county, and lived there until 1869, when they sold 
the farm and removed to the village. Three children were born to 
them after coming to Michigan. The mother and their five children 
Harrison, treasurer of the Michigan University, Ann Arbor; Mrs. Sabra 
Richardson, of Indianapolis, Ind. ; Geo. H., of Marengo; Lester, of 
Joliet, 111.; and Mrs. Alice Emery, of Moline, 111., survive to mourn 

132 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the loss and revere the memory of a loving and considerate husband 
and father. Three brothers and three sisters also survive him. 

Milo Soule was an active, model citizen, looking after his own affairs 
with that scrupulous care which always brings success, and, as he was 
tenaciously honest in all his dealings, never wearying in assisting his 
neighbor (and every person was his neighbor, in a strict scriptural 
sense), it is not strange that he was repeatedly called upon to fill 
positions of honor and trust until he had occupied every office within 
the gift of his fellow townsmen, and in 1843 was chosen county treas- 
urer and re-elected in 1845 and 1847. In 1850 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the convention to revise the State constitution. He served 
thirty-six years as justice, and was never ashamed of the title " Squire" 
by which he was familiarly known. He was one of the organizers of 
the Calhoun county agricultural society, whose first exhibition was held in 
1849, and was ever afterward deeply interested in the welfare of the 
society, many years being one of its officials. He was also one of the 
originators of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Calhoun, 
was the first secretary, and for many years after its organization con- 
tinued in that position which, from its very nature, determines the 
success, if not the life, of such companies. He was afterward the treas- 
urer of the company, and one of the directors for several years. 

Politically Mr. Soule was always a democrat, never varying one iota 
from perfect fealty to his party, but, although intensely . partisan, there 
is more truth than is usual in such cases in the following by his old 
friend and neighbor, Mr. Peter Mulvaney: 

" Although a strong partisan the Squire never allowed political differ- 
ences to influence his actions in his conduct or social relations with 
those who differed with him. Indeed, many of his strongest personal 
friends and admirers were among his political opponents." 

Full of years and honor he was called to his final reward on the 
second day of April, 1891. 


Frederick Eli Bush, was of New England ancestry and belonged to 
a family of twelve children, eleven of whom lived to have families of 
their own. He, with a twin sister, was born July 28, 1812, in Lee, 
Oneida county, New York, where his parents Eli Bush and Esther C. 
(Campbell) Bush then resided. Six older sisters hailed his advent 
with pleasure, and four others increased the sisterhood to ten, and 
among these he was 'cherished as the only brother living. In his boy- 
hood the family removed to a farm near Castile, Wyoming county, 


New York, where lie grew up to manhood. During the winter of his 
nineteenth year he became a Christian and united with the Presbyterian 
church at Castile, and has ever retained his connection with some 
church. In his twenty-first year his father suddenly died of apoplexy, 
leaving him with his mother and four unmarried sisters to care for. 
On January 15, 1835, he married Miss Cynthia M. Willard of Portage 
Falls, near by his home, and they, with his mother and two sisters, 
removed to Michigan in September of the same year and soon settled 
on a farm in Sandstone, Jackson county, where five sons were born to 
them. The second of these died in infancy, and the others were 
brought to Leroy, Calhoun county, in the spring of 1853, where the 
home remained until they followed their youngest son to Battle Creek 
in December, 1888. 

In Leroy he was successful in farming, was a pillar in the Congre- 
gational church of the town, stood high in the respect of the entire 
community, was a staunch temperance man, and a man of high integ- 
rity and from early childhood has been with the liberty party in 
politics. Here his four sons grew up to manhood; here two of them 
lie buried. The first vacancy in the family was made by 
the death of the third son, Henry Eli second, December 15, 
1862, at the opening of his twenty-third year. The fourth son, Edwin 
A., enlisted in the Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, in August, 1862, 
and was killed by a stray shot near Petersburg, Va., June 28, 1864, 
falling in defense of his country in his twenty-second year. The two 
surviving sons, Rev. F. W. Bush of Leslie, and S. O. Bush of Battle 
Creek, and their families are united in~a common fellowship of sorrow, 
but their sorrow with that of their blind mother is greatly relieved 
by precious memories of the dead and the assured hope for him of a 
blessed life beyond this vale of tears. He had been an interested member 
of the Congregational church of Leroy for thirty-eight years; for 
twelve years past has been one of its deacons and since his removal 
from its parish has held onto it with affection. His death occurred 
May 27, 1891. 


Died May 18, 1891, at the residence of his sister, Mrs. Lora Hunger- 
ford, number 62 Jackson street, Battle Creek, of heart failure, Mr. 
Chester Phelps, recently from Dover, Olmstead county, Minnesota. 
Deceased was the oldest son of the late Rev. Asa Phelps, was born 
January 6, 1818, in the town of Russell, St. Lawrence county, New 
York, and came to Michigan with his parents in 1834 His early life 

134 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

was mostly spent in Battle Creek and vicinity, where he shared fully 
the trials and privations of early pioneer life. His advantages for 
education were very limited, but well improved. He attended such of 
the rude district schools as were then available, and after attaining his 
majority, he supplemented those advantages by several terms attend- 
ance at the Albion Seminary. He thus became for his time, a fair 
scholar, which enabled him in after life not only to conduct his busi- 
ness intelligently, but to instruct others as a teacher, and accurately to 
discharge, or meet public trusts that were committed to his care. 
Being of a mechanical turn of mind, Mr. Phelps in early manhood 
acquired a knowledge of the carpenter and joiner's trade; and in the 
employ of Dubois Hutchinson, one of the earliest builders in this 
vicinity, assisted in the erection of many of the earlier structures, 
buildings and bridges in Battle Creek and vicinity. 

In the employ of John Champion and Warren B. Shepard he aided 
in the manufacture of the first lot of brick made and laid in this part 
of the county. In 1854 he emigrated to the then new state of Minne- 
sota, where he secured from the government 120 acres of excellent 
land, and soon after married Emily Harding, formerly of Albion, this 
State. By their joint industry the bit of wilderness which they had 
chosen for a home was made to bud, blossom and bear ripened fruit. 
The result of their union was the gift of four children, two sons and 
two daughters. Days of darkness come into most lives, Mr. Phelps 
was no exception to the rule, sorrow came, disease laid a heavy hand 
upon him. Then a longing to see the friends of his youth and to look 
upon the scenes of his early life, induced him to come again to Mich- 
igan. He came intending to return home in a few months, but he 
continued to decline until his death. 

(Contributed by A. D. P. Van Bnren) 

Henry W. Taylor formerly a prominent member of the Calhoun county 
bar, who was in years, the oldest living graduate of Yale college, and 
the oldest representative of the New York state bar, died December 
17, 1888, at Canandaigua, Ontario county, N. Y., of pneumonia. Judge 
Taylor was born in Deerfield, Mass., in 1796, and was of Puritan 
ancestry. He was educated at Yale, graduating in 1816. He was 
admitted to the bar and began the practice of his profession in 
Canandaigua, in 1820, his contemporaries being among the most noted 
of the profession and including Postmaser General Granger, John C. 
Spencer, Alvah Worden and Mark H. Sibley. In 1832 he married 



Martha C. Masters, daughter of Thomas Masters, one of the old ship- 
ping merchants of New York, whom he survived nearly five years. 
He served in the New York legislatures of 1838, 1839 and 1840. In 
1840 he removed to Marshall, Mich., and served in the Legislature of 
this State in 1847. In 1836 he founded the village of Allegan and 
interested C. C. Trowbridge of Detroit, Judge Samuel Hubbard and a 
number of Boston capitalists in its organization. His brother-in-law 
of Detroit, Hovey K. Clarke, who, with A. L. Ely, deceased, disposed 
of the Boston company's property in Allegan, now resides at Detroit. 
Mr. Taylor returned to Canandaigua in 1848, and in 1850 was appointed 
justice of the supreme court and the court of appeals. He was one 
of the old whigs and always took an active and influential part in 
party councils. He was a member of the whig convention which 
nominated Harrison and Tyler in 1840, and his last vote was cast for 
Harrison and Morton. He- received his degree of A. M. from Yale in 
1829, and in 1869 he was honored with the degree of LL. D. by the 
same institution. He fully exemplified the Christian graces of his 
Puritan ancestry. In his religious life he was devout, consistent and 
active. He was for over sixty years deacon of the first Congregational 
church of Canandaigua, and in 1846, was made a corporate member of 
the American board of foreign missions. 





Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Tillison Wood. . . . 

June 25, 1890 



Alanson Harwood 

July 27 1890. 

Eaton Rapids 


Solomon Casler... 

February 2, 1891 

Eaton Rapids.. 


John Montgomery . 

May 13, 1891 . . 



Keziah Darling 

May 30. 1891 . 

Eaton Rapids 


Theodoras D. Green 

May 22, 1890 



Jonathan Wells 

July 14, 1890 . 

Brookfield . 


Mrs. Philinda Morey 

July 15, 1890 


Mrs. Phebe W. Beeman 

February 8, 1891 . 



Mrs. Elizahfit.h frrangAr 

November 16, 1890 . 






Date of death. 

Place of death. 


Mrs. Percis Johnson 

November 23, 1890 



Rev. Henry Robinson 

April 11,1891 

Charlotte . 


Mrs. Mf^ry Ann TTaslftft. 

April 11, 1891 



Frank W. Higby 

April 13, 1891. 



Stephen P. Crosier .... 

January 24, 1891 



M,r, A an SfiftpViorrl 

January 24, 1891 



Judge Henry A. Shaw 

January 29. 1891 

Eaton Rapids ... 


Rev. Francis B. Bangs ..... . .. 

May 20,1891 

Eaton Rapids 



Tillison Wood was born in Richmond, Ontario county, New York, 
February 28, 1817, and died June 25, 1890. 

He was married July 5, 1841, to Miss Sybil Hewett, and came to 
Michigan in September, 1843, and settled on a farm in Hamlin (then 
Tyler) Eaton county, where he died. 

Mrs. Wood is still living, also five of seven children. 


Alanson Harwood died in the city of Eaton Rapids, July 27, 1890, 
where he had lived more than fifty years. He was born in Sturbridge, 
Worcester county, Mass., May 26, 1806. 

He was married Nov. 15, 1830, to Miss Polly Bunker, who died April 
25, 1845. He was again married May 17, 1846, to Mrs. Lucinda Cornell, 
who died March 22, 1878. 

He moved to Michigan in 1837, and settled in Eaton Rapids. He 
was frequently honored by his fellow townsmen by electing him to 
various township offices which he filled with honor to himself and 


Solomon Casler died in the township of Eaton Rapids, February 2, 
1891. He was born at Little Falls, N. Y., May 13, 1807. He was 
married to Miss Hannah Boody, June 28, 1831. He moved to Michigan 
in 1833, and settled in Brookfield, Eaton county, where he lived about 
four years, when he moved to Eaton Rapids. His wife died October 
16, 1864, and he was married again May 14, 1865, to Mrs. Rogers, who 
died in November, 1875. 



John Montgomery died in the township of Hamlin, Eaton county, 
May 13, 1891. He was born in the county of Fermanagh, in the north 
of Ireland,. March 22, 1804. His father emigrated to the United States 
when John was a little over one year old. His father settled in 
Oneida county, N. Y., and in a few years moved to Genesee county 
He was married to Miss Amanda Rorabeck, February 17, 1828. He 
settled in Washtenaw county, Mich., in 1831, and in January, 1836, 
moved to Eaton Rapids, Eaton county, and settled on what is known 
as Montgomery plains on land purchased of the government and where 
he has spent the remainder of his days. 


Keziah Darling died in the city of Eaton Rapids, May 30, 1891. 

Keziah Allen was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, October 2, 1808. 
She was married to Simon Darling, April 3, 1833, and with her husband 
immediately moved to Michigan, settling in Dexter, Washtenaw county, 
and removed from there to Eaton Rapids, Eaton county, in November, 
1837, and settled on land purchased of the government, where she lived 
with her husband until his death in 1875. Eaton Rapids was almost 
an unsettled wilderness. She had lived in her new home six months 
before seeing a white woman. 


Died, at his residence in Charlotte, on Thursday, May 22, 1890, after 
an illess of nearly three years, Theodoras D. Green, aged 73 years and 
5 days. 

Mr. Green was born in Cobleskill, Schoharie county, New York, May 
15, 1817, and came to Michigan in September, 1843. An inventory of 
his assets made at the time by himself reads as follows: " Cash $1.50, 
one box and one chest of household furniture, myself, wife and two 
children." He settled in Eaton county, at Kalamo, in 1846 and 
fourteen years later was made clerk of the county. He held the office 
of supervisor a few terms, also other lesser positions and was for several 
years one o the county superintendents of the poor. Mr. Green 
was always charitable to the poor and it is said his kindness of heart 
always stood in the way of great accumulations for himself. He was 
an excellent business man, capable and honest, succeeding best when 
handling the funds of others and for many years he did an extensive 
business for the Marshall banks and was their trusted and energetic 
agent. For several years his health has been gradually failing. 

138 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 


Died, at Brookfield, Michigan, on Monday, July 14, 1890, of disease 
of the heart, Jonathan Wells, aged about 75 years. 

Mr. Wells has been a resident of the county for about forty years. 
He was a man whose word was as good as his note and his note was 
as good as the bank of England. No man in the county was more 
esteemed than " Uncle Jonathan." He leaves a wife and several grown 
up children. 


Died, at her home in Carmel, on Tuesday morning, July 15, 1890, 
Mrs. Philinda Morey, widow of Platt Morey, aged 60 years. 

Mrs. Morey had lived in Carmel since 1837. She and her husband 
were among the very earliest settlers of the county. 


Died, at her home in Chester township, Eaton county, February 8, 
1891, Phebe W., wife of Gilbert H. Beeman, aged 69 years. 

Mrs. Beeman was born near Albion, Orleans county, N. Y., in 1822. 
Her maiden name was Phebe Wright. She was married to Gilbert H. 
Beeman in 1843. They resided near Albion until 1856, when they 
removed to Michigan and made for themselves a home upon the farm 
where they have since resided. She was the mother of four daughters 
and one son, all of whom survive her. 


Died, at Vermontville, November 16, 1890, Mrs. Elizabeth Granger, 
aged 77 years and 6 months. 

The deceased was born in Kirby-Underdale, Yorkshire, England, May 
17, 1813, and was married to William Granger, March 22, 1832. Shortly 
after their marriage they removed to Canada where they lived for many 
years. In 1858 they came to Vermontville. Mr. Granger died in 1868. 
Mrs. Granger was the mother of nine children all of whom are now 
living. Her relatives also include thirty-three grandchildren and seven- 
teen great grandchildren. 


Died, at her home in Charlotte, on Sunday, November 23, 1890, Mrs. 
Percis Johnson, wife of Peter Johnson, aged 70 years and 21 days. 
Deceased has lived in Eaton county with her husband for over forty- 


five years and was a most estimable and intelligent lady and had a host 
of friends. 


Died of old age, at the residence of his son, Samuel Robinson, in 
Charlotte, on Saturday, April 11, 1891, Rev. Henry Robinson, aged 82 
years, 2 months and 6 days. The deceased was born in Bennington, 
Vt., February 5, 1809, and settled in Vermontville, this county, in 1844. 
He was ordained a minister in the M. E. church in 1835 but never 
supplied a regular pastorate's appointments unless for a year or two in 
Charlotte, and never accepted a salary. He was for many years in 
great demand for funeral and marriage occasions and few ministers have 
been oftener called to such work. In 1846 he was elected register of 
deeds for this county and served as such for four terms. He was the 
first president of the village of Charlotte, and served for many years as 
a justice of the peace. He mortgaged his house to get means to help 
build the M. E. church in Charlotte, burned all the brick used in its 
construction, and did a large part of the carpenter work thereon. 


Died, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. James Shepherd, in Charlotte, 
on Saturday, April 11, 1891, Mrs. Mary Ann Haslett, aged 88 years, 
3 months and 2 days. 

Mrs. Haslett was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, where she 
lived to the time of her marriage with James Haslett. They came to 
Charlotte about thirty-eight years ago, and here Mrs. Haslett has since 
lived. Her husband died twenty-two years ago. Of the nine children 
born to them, eight lived to maturity and seven are still living, all of 
whom were present at the funeral except Joseph Haslett, of Kansas 
City, Mo., and Mrs. H. Hatch, of Kansas. Mrs. Haslett's long life was 
full of usefulness and her memory will be sacred to the friends who 
remain. She leaves nineteen grandchildren and ten great grandchildren. 


Died in Charlotte, of tuberculous degeneration of the brain, on Mon- 
day, April 13, 1891, at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. George 
Spencer, Frank W. Higby, aged 58 years, 2 months and 9 days. 

Mr. Higby was born at West Turin, New York, February 4, 1833. 
While in his ninth year he came with his father to Eaton county, set- 
tling first in Benton. The town was then unorganized but was attached 
to Oneida. It had but seven voters. In 1854 Mr. Higby began 

140 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

clerking for David Stirling, of Eaton Rapids, and three years later 
began business for himself at that place. In 1858 he came to Char- 
lotte and began a partnership in general merchandise, afterward dry 
goods, with his brother, Pitt M. Higby, which lasted for many years. 
Exactly thirty-four years before his death, and on a Monday, he was 
married to Miss Ann Dickinson, of Wisconsin, who with two grown 
children, Mrs. George Spencer and Clement Higby, survive him. 
Mr. Higby was postmaster at Charlotte during a portion of the 
Buchanan administration and for several years was the able editor of 
the Eaton County Argus. For many years he was the efficient director 
of our city schools. Mr. Higby was universally held in high esteem 
for his excellent qualities of heart and mind and he will long be 
remembered as one of the time-tested, honorable dealers of Charlotte. 


Died in Charlotte, Saturday, January 24, 1891, Stephen P. Crosier, 
aged sixty-three years, three months and twenty days. 

The subject of this notice was born in Vermont, October 4, 1828, 
where he lived until six years old when, with his parents, he moved 
to Sullivan, Ohio, where he resided seventeen years. He then, young 
and full of hope, sought a favorable location where he might pursue 
his chosen vocation shoe-making. Directed, as he thought, by the 
hand of Providence, he came to Charlotte in the year 1850, where he 
has ever since been an honored citizen. At the age of eighteen years 
he experienced the Christian religion and gave his hand to the church. 
For forty-five years he has been a faithful servant of God and for 
twenty-two years an honored and much beloved member of the U. 
B. church of Charlotte. On July 4, 1854, he was married to Miss 
Sarah A. Carmoney, of Eaton township, Eaton county, Mich. To them 
were given four children, three sons and a daughter; three of whom 
still live, one son having preceded him to the better land. 
Deceased was the father of Wm. and Bert Crosier, of Jackson, and 
Mrs. J. Lennon, of Charlotte. He had three brothers, G. W. of 
Wellington, O., Charles, of Charlotte, and W. Crosier, of Pitsfield, O., 
all of whom were at the funeral. 


Died at her residence in Charlotte, Saturday morning, January 24, 
1891, Mrs. Arian Shepherd, aged 84 years. 

Mrs. Shepherd was born in Milford, Otsego county, N. Y., and at the 
age of eighteen was married to Mr. Shepherd, who resided at Oneonta, 


N. Y. In the fall of 1840 they removed to Michigan, settling in Eaton 
township. At that time Ann Arbor was the terminus of the Michigan 
Central railroad and the family was compelled to make the rest of the 
journey with wagons. The hardships of the trip were severe upon Mrs. 
Shepherd and for several months she suffered from the effects of it so 
that for a time her life was thought to be in danger, and she never 
entirely recovered from it. Here she endured the usual trials incident 
to pioneer life, assisting her husband in his labors and raising a family 
of seven children. About thirty years ago her eyes became affected 
and one of them gradually failed until blindness ensued. The other 
one suffered from sympathy and about eight years ago she became 
totally blind despite the best medical skill. Mrs. S. was a kind and 
patient sufferer through her afflictions, a loving mother and friend and 
a wise counselor. 


On Thursday, January 29, 1891, these solemn words, " Judge Shaw is 
dead" fell from the lips of many citizens of Eaton Rapids, in accents 
which told of deep emotion and sincere regard for him whose familiar 
form and face had been seen so many times upon the streets for long 
years, in the past. No one who had seen him for the past few months 
expected he would tarry long, but the grim messenger came ' sooner 
than was anticipated. 

The writer visited the deceased on the Sabbath day preceding his 
death, when he conversed freely of the doings of Congress and other 
kindred subjects, and when inquired of in regard to his physical con- 
dition he replied that he was feeling much better, and expressed a 
strong hope of ultimate recovery from the illness which kept him at his 
home. The immediate cause of his death was internal hemorrhage, which 
lasted but a moment or two, when death closed the scene. 

His funeral services were held at the M. E. church of Eaton Rapids 
on Sunday the first day of February, Elder Martin of the Congrega- 
tional church delivered the sermon, the subject of which was " Christ 
as the foundation of all human happiness, here and hereafter." 

The bar of Eaton county attended in a body to pay their last 
respects to the memory of the deceased. 

At the close of the services, resolutions adopted by the bar of Eaton, 
county were read by H. F. Pennington chairman of the committee on 

The funeral was conducted by the G. A. R. of Eaton Rapids, and 

142 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

the large audience present, fully attested the high esteem in which 
our brother was held by the people of Eaton Rapids. 

Henry A. Shaw, was born in Benson, Rutland county, Vermont on 
the 21st day of June 1818. In 1832 he moved with his parents to 
Portage county, Ohio, where he received his education, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar as an attorney at law in 1840. Soon after 
his admission, and during the same year he came to Eaton Rapids, 
with the wife of his youth, nee Eliza A. Hitchcock, who died January 
25, 1879. 

Mr. Shaw was married to Sarah Merylees, December 25, 1881, who 
now mourns his loss; he leaves her and two sons, Birney and Ellis Shaw 
the only surviving members of his immediate family. 

For half a century Mr. Shaw's home has been in Eaton Rapids, and 
during nearly all that time he has been engaged in the practice of his 
chosen profession, during which time he has held several places of 
public trust. 

He W&B a member of the State legislature for two terms, during 
his first term he was chairman of the judiciary committee, and during 
his second term, in 1859, he was speaker of the house. He was a man 
of great decision of character and will power, as all who knew him in 
those days will attest. He held the office of judge of probate for eight 
years, in the county of Eaton, and several other offices of minor 

On the breaking out of the Rebellion, Mr. Shaw entered the army 
as a volunteer, held the position of major in the 2d Michigan Cavalry 
until failure of health compelled him to resign his commission and 
retire from the service. 

As a lawyer, no one was ever more devoted to the interest of a 
client's cause, than was Judge Shaw, whether that client was rich or 
poor, and the writer of this article has often been led to believe that 
Brother Shaw worked with full as much zeal for a poor unfortunate 
client without compensation, as when receiving large fees from a wealthy 
client. He was emphatically of the people and for the people. 


With the death of Rev. Francis B. Bangs which occurred at 
Eaton Rapids, Mich., May 20, 1891, that name goes out of the Meth- 
odist ministerial rolls. There is no other Brother Bangs in any of our 
annual conferences. But the name is historic and will never perish. 
It is one of the synonyms of American Methodist pioneer history. 

Who has not read of Dr. Nathan Bangs? As a pioneer itinerant 


his name is emblazoned high on the roll of Methodist heroes. In 
1802 he became a member of the New York conference, and the first 
six years of his laborious ministry were spent as a missionary among 
the pathless forests of the neighboring provinces. Then he was trans- 
ferred to New York city, which remained the headquarters of his labors 
as pastor, book agent, editor of the Methodist Magazine, of the Christian 
Advocate and the Quarterly Review, author of Methodist history, 
missionary secretary and president of Wesleyan University, and pastor 
again until his death in 1862, at the age of eighty-four. Who has not 
read of Heman Bangs? He was the brother of Nathan Bangs, chief 
founder of the Middletown Wesleyan University, and one of the most 
powerful preachers which American Methodism has produced. He died 
in 1869, aged 79. 

Who has not learned something of Wm. M'Kendree Bangs? He was 
the son of Nathan, an honored graduate of the university of Ohio, a 
prominent member of the New York conference, and able contributor 
to the Methodist Quarterly Review, and distinguished throughout his 
brilliant career as endowed with intellectual powers of the highest 
order. He died in 1852, aged 42. 

And who has not learned of Wm. H. Bangs, nephew of Nathan and 
Heman, born in 1806, converted at the age of fifteen, made class-leader 
at seventeen, licensed to preach in early life, and for thirty-nine years 
a prominent pastor in New York, preaching more than 11,000 sermons 
and receiving 3,000 converts into the church. 

Nathan and Heman Bangs had a brother Joseph, who married Hul- 
dah Tillaman, both born in Connecticut and both locally distinguished 
for piety and usefulness. Joseph was led to Christ by his brother 
Nathan, and though his father was an Episcopalian, Joseph also 
became a Methodist, was for twenty-five years a local preacher, and for 
many years a deacon and elder in the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Joseph and Huldah Bangs were the parents of Francis Barrett Bangs, 
whose death we now mourn. Francis B. was born at Stanford, Dela- 
ware county, New. York, March 23, 1819; came to Michigan with his 
parents in the fall of 1828, settling at Tecumseh. A quarterly meeting 
was held in his father's house soon afterwards, when all the Methodists in 
Lenawee county were present, seven in number, viz. : Joseph and Huldah 
Bangs, their son Isaac and wife, their son Alanson's wife, and a brother 
Wheeler and wife. Francis B. was not yet converted, but his father's 
house was the home of the itinerant. 

Until fifteen years of age Francis attended the district school, then 
one term in a select school, and then two terms in a branch of the 

144 ANNUAL. MEETING, 1891. 

State University. At sixteen he experienced religion at a quarterly 
meeting held in a school-house at Sharon, Washtenaw county. "I 
went," he once said, "a wild youth, thoughtless as I ever had been on 
the subject of religion, but Saturday night found me a penitent at the 
altar, and Sunday night happy in the consciousness of a Savior's 

Of his earlier religious impressions and his call to preach, he testi- 
fies as follows: " My earliest remembrances are of faith in the efficacy 
of prayer and of the truth of the Bible, and a felt necessity of salva- 
tion through Christ. In my childhood I felt that I should have to 
preach the gospel. This troubled me when I thought of becoming a 
Christian. Conviction of sin and of the need of pardon were clear, 
and at times very pungent. The testimonies of Christians and of the 
early ministers had a wonderful influence for good upon my mind. 
After my conversion, the impression that I must preach became irre- 
sistible. Yet I said nothing about it to anybody. The brethren in the 
ministry and laity, however, told me I must preach. So I improved 
every opportunity to prepare for what I felt must be my life work. 
I fully determined to take a college course, but yielded to what I have 
ever since considered unwise counsel, and entered the ministry before 
completing a collegiate course. I have felt the want of it more and 
more every year. I entered the ministry and have continued in it under 
the sense of ' Woe is me if I preach not the gospel.' " 

The beauty of Brother Bangs' lifework is that he preached the gos- 
pel. All his life long he clung steadfastly to the regular ministry, 
presenting from the pulpit practical truth with becoming earnestness, 
his sermons being characterized by originality, fervor, brevity, force and 
effectiveness. He was a man of one work. 

His ministerial record stands as follows: 1840, joined the Michigan 
conference and appointed as junior preacher to Pontiac circuit, with 
Rev. James Shaw as superintendent. The circuit then included Pontiac, 
Rochester, Troy, Royal Oak, Birmingham, Southfield, Bloomfield, Clarks- 
ton and other points, requiring from one brother twenty-three sermons 
every four weeks. Gracious revivals attended his work, one at Birming- 
ham in August resulting in sixty conversions. In 1841-2 his appoint- 
ment was Flint; in 1843, Utica; 1844, Mi Clemens; 1845-6, Tecumseh; 
1847, Kalamazoo; 1848, Niles; 1849-52, Kalamazoo district; 1853-4, 
Coldwater; 1855, Battle Creek; 1856-7, Albion; 1858-9, Jackson; 1860- 
63, Kalamazoo district; 1864, Homer; 1865-8, Ionia district; 1869-70, 
Ionia; 1871-2, Lansing, first church; 1873-4, Mason; 1875-8, Lansing 
district; 1879-80, Three Rivers; 1881, Homer; 1882, Nashville; 1883, 


superannuated. He was three times elected a delegate to the general 
conference, first in 1852, when only thirty- three years of age. 

Brother Bangs was twice married, first to Miss Catherine Hall Webb, 
Jan. 6, 1842. She was a birth-right member of the Friends, or 
Quaker church, converted at the age of sixteen, the first of her family 
to break away from the Friends. Soon after her father, two sisters 
and a brother with herself became Methodists. She was an affection- 
ate wife and a loving mother, and a trusting, cheerful Christian. She 
died July 5, 1875. Brother Bangs was again married to Mrs. Helen 
Latson, Feb. 19, 1876, and she survives to mourn. Of the five children 
four sons are living: Albert Vale, Frank Lorenzo, C. B. Fisk and 
Fred Herbert. The daughter, Fanny Ealoner, who became Mrs. 
Sessions, preceded her father to the heavenly rest. 




Elhanan C. Phetteplace was born in 1822, in Chenango county, New 
York, and moved to Branch county, Michigan in 1835. He served 
during the war with Mexico in the Sixth United States Infantry. In 
the war of the rebellion he served in the Seventh Michigan Infantry. 
He was commissioned second lieutenant June- 28, 1861, and promoted 
to captain of Company I, September 2, 1862. He was severely wounded 
in action at the battle of Antietam, Md., September 17, 1862, and 
resigned his commission May 11, 1863, and was honorably discharged. 
He settled in Bear Lake township, Charlevoix county, on section twenty- 
three in 1878, His business interests and traffic was at Petoskey, Emmet 
county. He had a farm of 160 acres and had been supervisor of his 
township. He married, May 10, 1850, Adaline Covey, who with eight 
children survive him. His widow resides on the homestead and was a 
loyal, true, and devoted helpmeet. He was a member of Col. Lumbard 
Post 170, G. A. B., and was a most gallant soldier and devoted Chris- 
tian gentleman. His memory is fragrant of a noble life. He died 
October 20, 1889, beloved and regretted by all who knew him. 


Ex-commander Col. Lumbard Post, G. A. B., Petoskey, Michigan, 



died November 29, 1890, universally regretted. He served as sergeant 
Company D., B C., cavalry. Was one of the city council and noted for 
his sound judgment and public spirit. He is mourned by his highly 
esteemed widow and two sons. He settled in Petoskey in 1885 and did 
a successful grocery business. He was a most generous and kindly 
disposed neighbor and citizen. 



Date of death. 


Samuel W. Gibson . .... .. .. 

September 10, 1890... 


Ephriam S. Williams . . 

July 20, 1890 .. 


Hon. Grant Decker 

July 30, 1890 


Mrs. Louise Brigham Witherbee .. . . .. 

August 7, 1890 


Judge Sumner Howard 

September 6, 1890 


Eben Storer 

September 13, 1890 


Samuel B. Wicks 

September 28,1890... 


Col. Thomas B. W. Stockton 

December 9, 1890 


CyrnH JTewitt, 

December 12, 1890 


Dr. Cornelius E. Rnlison 

December 20, 1890 


Calvin Cartwright 

January 15, 1891 


Mary Britten Grow .. 

January 30, 1891 


John Woolfitt.. 

January 31, 1891 


Thomas O. Townsend . _. ... 

February 16, 1891.. . 


Oliver Stanley 

February 10, 1891 


Dr. Thomas Kobson Buckham. . ._ 

February 15,1891 


George W. Goodnough . . . 

February 23, 1891 


Peter Van Tiffin 

February 27, 1891 


Mrs. Lucy Brownson 

March 30, 1891 


Mrs. Goodenough Townsend 

April 15,1891 


Mrs. Artemisia Gibson . _ ...... 

May 6,1891 


HenryJudd. ..... . . 

May 19, 1891 



Samuel W. Gibson, aged eighty-one years, died at his home on North 
Saginaw street, Flint, on Wednesday, September 10, 1890, after an illness 
of several weeks. The deceased was born in New York state, and 


removed to Michigan in 1855, stopping for a few months at Grand 
Blanc, after which he came to Flint and engaged in the hotel business, 
and for a number of years was the genial landlord of the then best hotel 
in Flint, the old " Genesee House," that stood upon a portion of the 
ground that is now the Park at the junction of Saginaw and Detroit 
streets. He sold out there to W. B. Southard, and went into the 
livery business in the barn formerly owned by Mr. E. N. Pettee where 
the Bryant now stands, and which was burned up in 1871. He was 
afterwards interested in the paper mills, both on the Flushing road and 
near the Flint woolen mills in Flint. Of late years he has been out 
of business entirely. 

He leaves a widow and five grown up children, viz.: James of Flint, 
and William L., of Jacksonville, Florida; Mrs. E. E. Farnam, Mrs. Jared 
Van Vleet of Flint, and Mrs. J. S. Davidson, of Detroit. 


The venerable Ephriam S. Williams died at his residence on Kears- 
ley street, Flint, at 8:30 p. m., Sunday July 20, 1890, in the eighty- 
ninth year of his age. He had been in bad health for several months 
and has been liable to drop away at any time the last two weeks. He 
had been a man of robust constitution, and was wonderfully well pre- 
served in mind and body till within the last year. 

Mr. Williams was born February 7, 1802, in Concord, Mass., and 
came to Detroit with his parents, who had a large family, when he was 
thirteen years old and before Michigan was admitted to the Union as 
a State. The family remained in Detroit a few years, and then removed 
to Pontiac, and engaged in lumbering and farming there and at Auburn 
in Oakland county. At the latter point he married his wife, a Miss 
Gotee, sister of Mrs. Royal W. Jenney. She died some years ago. 
About 1827 Mr. Williams and two of his brothers removed to Saginaw, 
then a wilderness filled with Indians, and engaged in trade with the 
natives and in lumbering. In 1829 he was one of the commissioners 
who consummated the treaty with the Chippewas, by which that tribe 
of Indians made over the reservations of which Flint is a part, to 
the late Jacob Smith and his heirs, for important services rendered the 
tribe. His name appears as one of the signers of the documents in the 
transaction. Mr. Williams acquired such a knowledge of the Chippewa 
language that he spoke it with ready fluency, and had much influence 
with the Indians. 

Early in the forties he removed to Flint, and engaged in the gro- 
cery business, buying out Mr. Baker, first husband of Mrs. Amzi 

148 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Beardslee. The store stood where that part of the Fenton block occu- 
pied by G. H. Bradt, is located. Later he removed to the store now 
occupied by C. D. Ulmer. He was appointed postmaster by President 
Pierce in 1853, and held the office through his and Buchanan's admin- 
istrations. He kept the office in the rear end of the store. He dis- 
posed of the store, but held the ground now occupied by the Eddy 
block till about twelve years ago. 

Mr. Williams has been a member of the Michigan Pioneer Society 
a number of years, and has contributed some of the most valuable 
historical papers to the archives. He and his brothers, all of whom 
but one, James, are now dead, occupied conspicuous places in the busi- 
ness, political and social history of the Saginaw valley for many years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Williams had three sons and three daughters grow up. 
The sons were Elias G., Ephriam, Jr., and Oliver. The former died 
in Detroit three years ago. Ephriam resides in Greenville and is now 
in the city; his two daughters have been here some time with their 
grandfather. Oliver lives somewhere on the Pacific coast. The daughters 
were Mrs. Hiram Walker of Detroit, who died some years ago, Mrs. 
Charles Hascall of Denver, Colorado, whose daughter, Mrs. Waters, is 
here, and Miss Jennie Williams, who has kept the home for her father 
since her mother's death. 

Mr. Williams was a prominent Knight Templar. He was a man of 
commanding presence, splendid physical proportions, tall, and erect to 
the day of his death. Socially he was peculiarly affable, with fine con- 
versational powers and a mind well stored with the results of his 
observations and experiences in life. His knowledge of Michigan affairs 
was encyclopediac in volume and accuracy. 


Hon. Grant Decker passed away at 9:30 o'clock, July 30, 1890, at his 
late residence on Clifford street, Second ward, Flint, after an illness of 
several weeks' duration. The cause of death was heart diease. The end 
was peaceful and was accompanied with but little pain. 

Mr. Decker was an old pioneer of this city, having lived here since 
1839. He was born at Deckertown, N. J., Feb. 4, 1814. His ancestors 
had resided at that place for a long term of years and were there before 
the breaking out of the Revolution. In 1824 Mr. Decker's father removed 
to Western New York, where the subject of this sketch was married in 
1838 to Miss Elizabeth Stevens. The following year he moved to Flint 
and became engaged in the mercantile and lumbering business with 
his two brothers-in-law A. C. and Sherman Stevens. The firm contin- 


Tied for a few years but was dissolved, Mr. Decker continuing the 
business. In company with Artemas Thayer he built a large flouring 
mill, which was subsequently destroyed by fire. He later became 
identified with the lumbering business again and was many times 
the victim of the element of fire, suffering from it eight times. 
Although the aggregate of these losses reached many thousands of 
dollars it can be said of him that he was always able to pay all losses 
and start in business anew. During his later years he, in company 
with his son-in-law, H. C. Hascall, had been engaged in the stave mill 
business. The mill and machinery were sold to outside parties a few 
years ago, since which time Mr. Decker had led a retired life. 

The deceased's first wife died in 1844 and he was later married to 
Mrs. Julia I. Clark, formerly Miss Julia I. Fenton. He survived his 
wife but a few months, she having died in February last. At that 
time Mr. Decker was quite ill and his recovery from his illness and 
the shock occasioned by .his wife's death was considered a matter of 
much doubt. However, he rallied and for some weeks was well enough 
to venture out, but during the summer months he had been confined 
to the house and for the past four weeks to his bed. 

A family of five children survive their father, a sixth child, a son, 
being taken prisoner at Gettysburg and dying in Andersonville prison, 
as a result of the harshness of treatment which the Union soldiers met 
with. The son was a member of the 5th Michigan Cavalry and was 
remembered as an exceptionally bright and gifted young man. The 
members of the family surviving Mr. Decker are Mrs. H. C. Hascall, 
Mrs. Wm. B. MeCreery, and Misses Kate and Julia Decker. Mrs. 
Albert Eddy, of the second ward, is also a daughter of the deceased, 
being a daughter of Mr. Decker's first wife. 

He was known among men as an upright and honest citizen. In his 
varied business career, beginning as it did with the commencement of the 
history of the city of Flint, he had shown himself a man of nobleness, 
meeting squarely every obligation that came up, although many times 
he met with ill fortune and his cup of worldly cares seemed almost filled 
to the brim. Few men could have arisen, Phoenix like, from the many 
business reverses, especially in the way of fire, that he did. Men with 
less pluck, business ability and sound judgment could not have with- 
stood the many buffets financially which this good citizen was called upon 
to meet. Even after so many losses Mr. Decker left a valuable property 
which he had acquired in the later years of his life. 

Mr. Decker was Flint's first mayor, being elected to that position in the 
spring of 1855 at the time Flint became incorporated as a city. In 

150 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the church he was one of the charter members of St. Paul's Episcopal 
church and prided himself upon knowing all the essential points of its 
history. At the time of the semi-centennial celebration of the church 
held last winter in the G. A. R. hall, Mr. Decker prepared a history 
of St. Paul's church which was concise and full of interesting historical 
data to the members of the parish. Always a member of the Episco- 
pal church, he was recognized as one of its foremost supporters and 
was for a large number of years a member of its vestry. For his 
church he did good and efficient work, and his name will always be 
kept among those most honored and venerated in its history. 

Mr. Decker was a man of the old school, " one of the last leaves on 
the tree in the spring." His ways and manners were those of the days 
of a past decade, perhaps of a past half century. He had until the 
last the peculiar cheerfulness and friendliness marked in those who are 
fast leaving this world and whose places will be hard to fill by the coming 
generation. Remembered by the older generation as one of the fore- 
most citizens in the city's early history and by the younger generation 
as a kindhearted and benevolent old gentleman, Mr. Decker's loss will 
be sincerely mourned. 


Readers of the Globe know that Mrs. Witherbee was stricken with 
apoplexy which resulted in paralysis of the extremities, on Thursday, 
August 7, 1890, and that her death was only a question of time from 
that moment. The end came at a few minutes past seven o'clock, 
August 11, 1890. 

Mrs. Witherbee was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, March 31, 
1805, her maiden name being Brigham. She was one of seven children, 
five sons and two daughters, all of whom are now dead except the 
sister who survives, and resides near the old family home, at the age of 
ninety. On the 12th of May, 1829, she married Dr. Elijah Brigham 
Witherbee, a resident of Marlborough. In 1832 was born to them a son, 
their only child, the late Hon. Austin B. Witherbee of this city. In 
1836 Dr. Witherbee came to Michigan, then just admitted to the Union, 
and located at Flint. Five years later Mrs. Witherbee and their son 
came on, and this has been the family home since. 

Dr. Witherbee opened a drug store, which he conducted, practicing 
his profession somewhat, and it is related of him that he was noted 
for his kindness to the poor in illness, freely rendering his professional 
services and medicines from his store. 

In 1846 he was elected State senator from this district, which at 


that time embraced much of the Saginaw valley. The legislature held 
its session in Detroit, that city being then the capital. During the 
session Senator Witherbee was attacked with an illness that proved 
fatal before he could be removed to his home, and his remains were 
escorted here by a committee with becoming honors, and received by 
a committee of citizens with every demonstration of popular sorrow, 
and conveyed to his stricken family. The remains lie in Glenwood 
cemetery side by side with his son, where also the body of his long 
widowed wife will be laid on Thursday. 

After the death of her husband; Mrs. Witherbee had the sole care 
of their only son, to whose bringing up and education she devoted 
herself with the industry and wise prudence which have been part of 
her character through life. He chose at first the business of his father 
and learned the art of pharmacy of the late Hon. Leonard Wesson, 
and while yet in his minority was conducting a drug business success- 
fully himself. From this he went into the business of banking, and 
his private bank was the nucleus of the former First, now Flint, 
national bank, of which he was cashier, at the time of his death in 
February, 1871. It is not necessary to detail his career here further 
than to say that in due time he married, and built for his mother the 
fine house which has been her home, at the corner of Kearsley and 
Stevens streets, for more than a quarter of a century. He also made 
other pecuniary provisions for her, and in the years since his death 
the amount has been considerably increased by her judicious invest- 
ments. She has always since her son's marriage, lived entirely alone, 
not from any desire to isolate herself from society, but from her nat- 
ural independence of character. Her door was always hospitably open 
to her friends, who were treated with courteous kindness. 

Mrs. Witherbee has had no blood relations residing here since the 
removal of Mrs. Austin Witherbee and her children from the city in 
1872, but Mrs. E. L. Knickerbocker is a niece of her husband, 
and has always been very kind and attentive to her aunt. Other 
neighbors were also devoted to her, and it was a rare thing that a 
day passed without some friend calling upon her. She was a woman 
of thoughtful mind, and extensive reading and a lively interest in all 
passing events, and conversation with her was a sort of intellectual tonic. 
While living in Massachusetts she attended the Unitarian church, but 
her church affiliations here have been principally with the Episcopal 
church, and it was her request that the funeral rites of that church 
be performed at her burial. For some years, however, she attended 
the Presbyterian church, her son being a member of that organization. 

152 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


The death of Judge Howard which occurred Sept. 6, 1890, has caused 
universal regret among the people of Flint where he grew to manhood, 
and where his career was watched with interest and pride. Hon. Sum- 
ner Howard was born May 7, 1835, at Brockport, N. T., and was a 
son of Waldo and Lucy Howard. When one year old he was brought 
by his parents to Flint. On reaching the age of 15 or 16 he entered 
the Genesee Democrat office then conducted by Royal W. Jenney, and 
later was an employ^ at the office of the Wolverine Citizen. At the 
age of about 19 entered the law office of Fenton & Newton. He later 
attended the law school of Hon. John W. Fowler at Poughkeepsie, N. 
Y., and in 1855 or '56 graduated therefrom with the highest distinction 
returning to Flint to practice his profession. His career as a great 
criminal lawyer began with the defense of Joshua Solomon Johnson, 
who was charged with the killing of George Caldwell and his own two 
children in Fenton township on October 13, 1857, and whose acquittal 
he secured on the grounds of insanity. In 1858 he was elected prose- 
cuting attorney of Genesee county on the democratic ticket, defeating 
Chauncey W. Wisner, who was a student with him in the law office of 
Fenton & Newton. He served the people with ability, and at once 
took a leading place as a criminal lawyer. Judge Newton is of the 
opinion that no man has ever surpassed Judge Howard in this State as 
a criminal lawyer. Judge Howard was subsequently elected prosecuting 
attorney on the republican ticket in 1864, serving three consecutive 
terms with no less distinction than before. On the breaking out of the 
rebellion Judge Howard enlisted in Co. F, Second Michigan Infantry 
under Capt. Morse. Col. Wm. B. McCreery was a soldier in the same 
company. Judge Howard was shortly after made a lieutenant in the 
Seventeenth U. S. Infantry and was engaged in the recruiting service 
until near the close of the rebellion, when he resigned from the army. 
He raised a company of 100 men, of which he was to have had the 
captaincy, but was taken sick at New York while the company was en 
route to the front and was unable to take command. The company 
was in the battle of Gettysburg and suffered severely, but five of the 
100 escaping wounds or death. 

From 1866 to 1870 Judge Howard represented the third ward of the 
city of Flint in the common council, and the flag on City Hall was at 
half mast in respect to his memory. In 1867 he was a member of the 
constitutional convention from Genesee county, with Judge Lovell and 
the late Thaddeus G. Smith. He took a firm stand for prohibition in 
the new constitution, which was defeated by the people, Hon G. V. N. 


Lothrop and the brightest men in the State were delegates to the 

In 1876 President Grant appointed him district attorney of Utah. 
He set the machinery of the law in motion against John D. Lee, one 
of the pillars of the Mormon church, for his part in the Mountain 
Meadow massacre twenty years before. Lee was tried, convicted and 
shot on March 24, 1877. Further proceedings against the heads of the 
Mormon church were cut short by the death of Brigham Young, whom 
Judge Howard intended to prosecute next. That this was Judge 
Howard's intention is shown by a letter received by his brother, Whea- 
ton W. after Young's death, in which Judge Howard spoke of his mis- 
sion to Utah as being ended. Judge Howard resigned the district 
attorneyship during president Hayes' administration and returning to 
Flint entered into partnership with Judge Newton. In 1882 he was 
elected to the legislature and was chosen speaker of the house. He 
took a prominent part in the Ferry-Palmer fight at the session of 1883, 
and to him in a great measure was due the election of Palmer to the 
U. S. Senate. At the close of the session president Arthur appointed 
Judge Howard chief justice of Arizona, a position which he resigned 
in 1886. Two years later he returned to Flint and entered into part- 
nership with Judge Gold in the practice of the law. During his career 
as a lawyer he was also associated with Hon. Levi Walker and Hon. 
Charles D. Long. 

Judge Howard represented Arizona in the republican national conven- 
tion in 1888, and was a delegate from Michigan to the convention of 
his party in 1880. He was chosen to second, on behalf of Michigan, 
the presentation of James G. Elaine's name to the convention of the 
party in 1884, but for some reason was unable to attend the gathering. 
Since his return to Flint Judge Howard had been engaged not only in 
the practice of law, but had given much attention to the raising of 
blooded cattle at his farm in Burton, one of the finest in this section. 

Besides his wife the dead lawyer, jurist and politican is survived by 
a brother, Wheaton W. Howard, of this city; and J. Earle and Miss 
Hattie Howard, half-brother and half-sister respectively, both of Detroit. 
Judge Howard's wife is a daughter of the late Jared Mason, and they 
were married in 1857. The union [was blessed with one child, May 
Howard Foote, wife of Albert Foote, who died January 27, 1890. 
There is also an adopted son, Frank. 

Those at Judge Howard's bedside when dissolution occurred were 
his beloved wife, Lucy; his adopted son Frank, and son-in-law Albert 
Foote, and Mrs. Howard's aunt, Mrs. Carrie Mason; Charles B. Mason 

154 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. , 

and wife, the former a brother of Mrs. Howard; Mrs. John Donlan, a 
sister of Mrs. Howard, and her two daughters; Rev. and Mrs. John 
McEldowney, the former a missionary in Utah during Judge Howard's 
district attorneyship and who was an inmate of his household during 
that time; and Miss Hattie Howard of Detroit. 

Blessed with a strong and elastic constitution, Judge Howard was 
enabled to do a vast amount of mental work, to endure physical toil. 
He was possessed of great mental power, the faculty of seeing and 
grasping ev.ery important fact in a case, and with clearness of state- 
ment making his position equally clear to the court and jury. His 
selection and use of expressive words were wonderful, and he clothed 
his thoughts in the imagery of sweetest words that men and women 
were ready to bow down and do homage to the genius of the man and 
the boy who had scarcely no other education than that he acquired in 
the printing office of Mr. Jenny and the association and friendships he 
made with the men of the highest distinction and culture in all the 
walks of life. He was a mighty power in a political contest, and his 
friends admired his genius, his political enemies admired and dreaded 
his lance. He was a successful man in all the departments of life. 
His beautiful home attests his own taste in art. To the influence of 
Lucy, his wife, and May, his daughter whose death preceded his only a 
few months most of this success may be attributed. They were the 
objects of his devoted love. To them he looked for guidance and 
strength in every storm. And the strong man, the powerful orator, 
and the loving husband and father found his rest in the home they 
had helped him make and beautified with their love of art. 

He had no malice in his heart toward any one. He loved his friends 
and forgave his enemies. The death of his lovely and beloved daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Mary Howard Foote, deeply affected him, and the world was 
changed to him. Thenceforth it had grown old and the light had. gone 
out in his heart. He walked no longer in the sunlight; his heart was 
broken, his body and soul were troubled, and his troubles only ended 
when the finger of God touched the strong, ambitious man in his prime 
of usefulness and said BEST. He will be long remembered by all who 
knew him, and his memory will ever live in the hearts of the friends 
who dearly loved him. He was a member of the M. E. church. 


Eben Storer, an old pioneer residing in Flint township about three 
miles southeast of the city, died at 7 :10 o'clock this morning, September 
13, 1890, as a direct result of a paralytic stroke received Sunday. How- 


ever, Mr. Storer had been ill for a term of nearly a year, being first 
taken with a shock at that time, from the effects of which he was never 
able to recover. The deceased was one of the old pioneers of this 
section of the country and had lived on his farm in Flint township for 
a half century. He was born at Hartland, Conn., August 10, 1817. 
While young his parents removed to Genesee county, N. Y., and from 
that place he removed with his brother Albert to the township of 
Flint, where he settled upon the farm on which he died. In his long 
life spent upon his farm he had gained the respect of the community. 
He leaves a widow and five children to mourn his loss, Mrs. Cordelia 
Hite, Mrs. Amelia Cudney and George Storer, of Flint township, Mrs, 
Mary Ouster, of Mundy, and Mrs. Eunice Bloss, of Gaines. 


Samuel B. Wicks was born at Charlton, Saratoga county, in the state 
of New York, on June 14, 1814. He died at his homestead in the 
second ward of Flint, on September 28, 1890, aged a little over seventy- 
six years and three months. 

He came to Flint in 1836 the year that Genesee county was first 
organized and through the remainder of a busy life was closely iden- 
tified with local politics, much of the time holding office of more or 
less importance. He was a blacksmith by trade, and worked at that 
occupation until about 1860. Among the offices he held at various 
times were township treasurer, city marshal, street commissioner of 
his ward, judge of probate, assistant sergeant-at-arms of the State 
senate, janitor of the senate, and at the time of his death was second 
assistant janitor of the present house of representatives. 

Genesee county was very sparsely populated at the time Mr. Wicks 
settled here, and through his trade and his individual friendliness, he 
soon became personally acquainted with and liked by nearly every voter 
in the county. This gave him an influence which he was not slow to use 
with certain classes of electors. There are not a few men still surviv- 
ing, who before he had the misfortune to be elected judge of probate 
can recall the days when " Sam" Wicks was a power in local cau- 
cuses and conventions. As a blacksmith he was known to be a first- 
class workman; as a man, he was believed and trusted as thoroughly 
honest; as a companion, he was free of manner, conversational, unos- 
tentatious, and full of entertaining anecdotes of the ups and downs of 
his pioneer experience; to the friends he esteemed he was most friendly 
on all occasions. His influence was gained by this combination of 
qualities, he knew how to make it efficient, and it was an influence the 

156 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

use of which was eagerly sought by ambitious politicians of his party, 
about the time of elections. 

In 1839, Mr. "Wicks was united in marriage with Miss Emily Harri- 
son, who survives him. They had issue, a son and a daughter. She is 
now Mrs. Wm. Greenly, of Mt. Morris. Edward, the son, died a num- 
ber of years ago. The funeral services, conducted by Rev. H. H. 
Northrop, and Rev. H. M. Curtis, were held at the homestead, Mr. 
Northrop delivering the obituary discourse. Mr. Wicks had long been 
a strong supporter of the Presbyterian church. A large number of the 
pioneer settlers who had known the deceased in the early days, assem- 
bled from far and near, to do honor to his memory, and at the 
conclusion of the services formed an avenue through which the remains 
were carried by old personal friends, and deposited for final rest in a 
grave upon the south side of the homestead residence. 


Colonel Thomas B. W. Stockton, one of Flint's most respected citi- 
zens died at his home on Tuesday morning Dec. 9, 1890, after a long 
illness. The deceased was born at Walton, Delaware county, New York, 
June 18, 1805. He graduated from West Point in 1827, and was 
engaged in the United States service in various capacities for several 
years following. He served as colonel of the first Michigan Volun- 
teers in the Mexican war, and served his country again in the late 
war, as colonel of a regiment raised by himself. He was the first 
captain, of the old "Flint Union Grays." His career was a busy and 
useful one, and he passes from this life to his long rest, leaving none 
but kind remembrances behind. 

Colonel Stockton was a man of great energy of character, and may 
be said to have been a born soldier. Although engaged in various civil 
employments from time to time, it seemed always as if he were dis- 
contented and restless until he could get back to military service. 
This quality and love for organization and command may have been 
hereditary, for the colonel descended from illustrious ancestors on both 
paternal and maternal sides. A striking instance of his characteristic 
energy was displayed when during the war of the rebellion on Gov- 
ernor Austin Blair's declining to commission him as colonel of a State 
regiment he sought and obtained permission from the government at 
Washington to raise an independent regiment of volunteers for the 
service of the United States in the war. Many readers will remember 
the vigor and celerity with which " Stockton's Independent Regiment" 
was organized and equipped; how it was accepted by the secretary of 


war, and taken to the front soon to become famous as the " Sixteenth 
Michigan Hegiment." 

From his West Point days until in advanced age his health and 
strength prevented, Col. Stockton loved the soldier's active life; and 
when his biography comes to be written it will be essentially a 
military history. 


Cyrus Hewitt of Mundy, died Dec. 12, 1890, of old age. Mr. Hewitt 
was one of the olde-st settlers in his part of the county, settling in 
Mundy about half a century ago. He brought up and reared to manhood 
and womanhood a family of four children, who survive him, Mrs. Frank 
Judson, of Mundy; Melvin D. Hewitt, of Gaines; Albert B., of Fenton 
and one son at Chesauing. 

The deceased became blind about four years ago, since which time he 
has been more or less confined to his home. He was eighty years of 
age and during his long continued residence in Mundy he was highly 
respected for the qualities of a conscientious and good man. He was 
honest to a penny, but always demanded in return for his own treat- 
ment of all persons with fairness a similar relation towards himself. 
He amassed a considerable fortune as a farmer, and was probably the 
wealthiest man in the township of Mundy. 


On Monday afternoon, December 20, 1890, the people of the village 
of Flushing were shocked and profoundly grieved by the unlocked for 
and almost instantaneous death of Cornelius E. Rulison, caused by heart 

The doctor was born at Theresa in the state of New York, on May 
20, 1835, and was therefore in his fifty-sixth year. At the age of four- 
teen he came with his parents to Michigan, and they settled in Flint, 
where his father died soon after. Here he obtained his education, 
grew up to manhood, and for some years taught school in different 
districts of this county with marked success. He was engaged in this 
occupation, as principal of the Goodrich district school, when the pres- 
ident issued his first call for volunteers in 1861. C. E. Rulison was 
one of the earliest to respond, and enlisted in Company F, of the Sec- 
ond Michigan Infantry, in Flint, under Captain W. B. Morse. He 
was in the first Bull Run battle, and served as a brave and fearless 
soldier until the close of the war, being severely wounded at the battle 
of Knoxville, by a minie-ball "'which shattered his left arm between 

158 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the wrist and elbow, passing on in its course through his throat, nearly 
severing the larynx, from the injury of which his voice never recovered 
its tone. 

At the close of the rebellion he entered the Cincinnati Medical Col- 
lege where he pursued the study of medicine for two years. Returning 
then to this county, he looked around for a place in which to locate 
for the practice of his profession, and decided upon Flushing, where 
he opened an office in 1866, and remained until the time of his death. 
In the same year he married Miss Nellie Greenfield of Goodrich, by 
whom he had three children who survive him. 

In social life, Dr. Rulison was one of the most genial kind-hearted, 
companionable men the writer ever knew. Every man who associated 
with him became his warm friend, and he was no man's enemy. His 
generous qualities of mind made him popular in all circles, and he was 
a prominent actor in the various organized societies to which he 
belonged. He was a Past Master of Flushing lodge F. &. A. M.; a 
member of Flint Rapids Chapter R. A. M.; a Past Grand of Rankin 
Lodge, I. O. O. F.; a Past Chief Patriarch of Flushing Encampment 
of Patriarchs, I. O. O. F.; Commandant of Canton C. E. Rulison, 
Patriarchs Militant; Past Commander of Ransom Post G. A. R. in 
short, his companionship was sought by all who prize a sterling man 
and value a trusty friend. 


The venerable Calvin Cartwright of Davison, who has been ill for many 
months, died Thursday morning, Jan. 15, 1891, at his home, surrounded 
by the members of his family. He would have been 75 years old if he 
had lived till next month. He was a native of New York but most of 
his life had been spent in Michigan. He first stopped in Mundy and 
afterwards went to Grand Blanc, where he married Miss Catherine 
Fritz, more than fifty years ago. About forty-eight years ago he removed 
to Davison township and began life in earnest on eighty acres of woods, 
with his wife and year old baby, who has since grown to be the well- 
known and well-to-do citizen, Mr. Braton Cartwright. There they 
wrought amid the hardships incident to pioneer life, and there their 
other children, John F., George and Susan M., were born, all of whom, 
with their mother, live and were present at his death. Mr. Cartwright 
was a man of good brain, energy, integrity and endurance and in time 
not only cleared up his original eighty, but bought more land and was 
for many years one of the large landed proprietors of the township. 
About seventeen years ago he sold some of his land and built an elevator 


at Davison station and operated it himself for a time. Fifteen years ago 
he removed his family to the village, which has since been their home. 
Failing health compelled him to give up business and his son, John F., 
took the elevator off his hands, later adding it to the banking business. 
The surviving members of the family are his wife and the children, all 
of whom reside in Davison village or township, except George, whose 
home is in Idaho. 

Mr. Cartwright was a member of the Baptist church, a strong tem- 
perance man, and zealous in good works. He is the last of a large 
family. His death removes another one of strong, good men, whose 
industry had added so much to the material wealth, and whose moral 
worth has done so much towards maintaining the purity of the 


Mary Britten Grow was born in Clarence, Erie Co., N. Y., April 5, 
1818, and removed with her parents to the town of Atlas, Genesee Co., 
Mich., in 1839. Married to Eev. Stillman T. Grow, Feb. 8, 1842. Soon 
after their marriage she professed Christ and was baptized by her hus- 
band, uniting with the Baptist church of Atlas. She was a humble 
and devout follower of her Savior an earnest and faithful minister's 

Was the mother of one son, Wm. B. Grow, and two daughters, M. 
Miranda and Ann|i E. Grow, all living at home. She also filled the 
place of mother to her husband's four motherless children, two of 
whom, M. D. Grow of Owosso, and Mrs. S. J. Torrence of Ortonville, 
came to the old home to pay their last tribute of filial affection. 

She leaves one brother and three sisters, of whom two were present 
at the burial services, Mrs. E. Kipp of St. Johns, and Mrs. John 
Skinner of Flint. 

Mrs. Grow survived her husband nearly three years. After three 
days of severe suffering she passed peacefully away Friday evening, 
Jan. 30, 1891, to join the loved one gone before. 


Mr. John Woolfitt, one of the earliest pioneers of the county, and 
widely known, died at his residence, six miles north of Flint, in Genesee, 
at 8:30 p. m., last Friday, January 31, 1891, aged 87 years. He was 
one of ten children. His father's name was John and he was a mem- 
ber of the church of England, and died at the age of 96 years. In 
1834 the suject of this sketch left his home, sailing from Hull, Eng- 

160 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

land, in company with Richard Johnson and Wm. Sissins. They took 
passage in a sailing vessel and were seven weeks on the voyage, arriving 
in Quebec and coming thence to Detroit by water. They obtained 
work on the Saginaw turnpike, and on their way to the scene of their 
labors, stopped one night in what is now Flint in a hotel kept by the 
late Lewis Buckingham. He and Mr. Sissins located each a farm in 
Genesee on the line of the turnpike, Mr. Woolfitt's being that on which 
he died. He had cleared it up and made it a splendid piece of prop- 
erty. He and Mr. Sissins built a small house which they occupied 
jointly, keeping bachelors' hall. One day it burned up while they 
were at work consuming all their provisions and clothing, bedding, etc., 
including about $120 in money belonging to Mr. Woolfitt. It was a 
sad blow to them, but they recovered from it through many privations, 
and much hard work. 

Mr. Woolfitt and Mr. Sissins raised on their farms what is supposed 
to have been the firsi wheat ever grown north of the Flint river. 

In July, 1839, Mr. Woolfitt married Miss Jane M. Allen, of Pontiac, 
at Flint. That estimable lady still survives him. Nine children have 
been born to them namely, Mra. M. J. Cornwell, residing north of 
Flint, in Genesee, Mrs. E. Y. Barkley of Otisville, Mr. E. A. Woolfitt, 
supervisor of Thetford, Mrs. Charles Johnson, now deceased, Mrs. J- 
O. Kingman, of Charlotte, Mrs. J. R. Kingman, of Mt. Morris, Mr. A. 
J. Woolfitt, of Bay City, Mr. W. E. Woolfitt, resident at the old home- 
stead, and Mrs. W. F. Curtis, of Clio. There are twenty-five grand- 

Mr. Woolfitt was a man of deep religious sentiment and at an early 
day, connected himself with the M. E. church, and during all his active 
life, was a zealous worker in the church, a free supporter of its finan- 
ces and a consistent advocate of its principles. He was at one time 
proprietor of the Pollywog hotel, and kept it on strictly temperance 
principles. His influence and his voice were always on the side of 
temperance and morality, and so well did he exemplify these in his 
consistent life, that his children, following not his precepts only, but 
his example, have all been living illustrations of these excellent traits 
themselves. The good he did lives after him in them. 


Thomas Orange Townsend, was born in Wheelock, Caledonia county, 
"Vt. Dec. 19, 1819, and died at his home in the township of Davison in 
Genesee county, Michigan, on Monday, February 16, 1891. He was the 
fourth child of a family of eight, of Isaiah and Polly Townsend. When 


he was quite young his parents moved to Middlebury, Vt., where they 
resided until the subject of this notice was about twelve years of age, 
when they emigrated to Monroe county in western New York. Here 
Mr. Townsend resided until he was twenty-one, and in the fall of 1841 
followed his eldest brother Goodenough, to Michigan. 

Arriving here he purchased eighty acres of land on section twenty three 
in Davison joining his brother's farm. To this tract he made subse- 
quent additions so that at one time he had a farm of several hundred 
acres. He taught school a few terms after coming to Michigan, but 
devoted most of his time and attention to clearing up and improving his 
farm. A residence of nearly fifty years in the same township, well 
entitles him to be ranked among the pioneers of Michigan. 

Mr. Townsend was twice married. His first wife was Miss Emeline 
Walker, daughter of the late Walter Walker of Grand Blanc. She 
died in January, 1853, leaving two children, W. H. Townsend who 
resides at Herman, Minnesota and Miss Alice E. Townsend of Flint, 
Michigan. His second wife was Miss Sarah E. Newman, of Oakland 
county, Michigan who now survives him. Besides those spoken of he 
leaves as near relatives one grandchild, Emilie Townsend; three sisters 
Mrs. Able Seelyeof Davison; Mrs. A. Barker and Miss Rebecca Townsend 
of Flint; and two brothers, Hiram Townsend of Waldo, Wisconsin and 
his oldest brother Goodenough of Davison. Two brothers, James and 
Andrew, preceded him to the silent land. 

In politics Mr. Townsend was a lifelong democrat, though he had strong 
prohibition proclivities, and was always a zealous advocate of constitu- 
tional prohibition. However he was not a politician and had but little 
to do with public affairs giving his entire attention to his business, in 
which he was very successful. And yet at different times he held 
various township offices and was for several years coroner of Genesee, 

The funeral services which were conducted by Rev. A. A. Wall 
pastor of the M. E. church of Davison, were held at his home on the 
18th of- February 1891, after which his remains, followed by a large 
concourse of relatives and friends, were taken to the Pine Grove ceme- 
tery, there to be laid in his family burial lot by the side of the wife of 
his youth. 


Oliver Stanley, one of the early pioneers of this county, and well 
known throughout the same, died at his residence in the township of 
Vienna, of sciatic rheumatism, on Tuesday afternoon, February 10, 1891, 

162 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

at the age of sixty-six years. Deceased was born in Livingston county, N. 
Y., came to this State with his father and has resided in this county 
fifty-five years. He leaves a devoted wife and ten children to mourn his 
loss; seven daughters, Emily, Alice, Minnie, Clara, Irene, Jessie and Millie; 
and three sons, Hamilton, Eugene and Fred; also one brother and 
sister, Mr. Hamilton Stanley, of Flint, and Mrs. M. A. Youngs, of 


The death of Dr. Thomas R. Buckham, which occurred at Denver, 
Col., on Saturday, February 15, 1891, removes a figure for years quite 
prominent in professional, social and religious circles in Flint. For 
more than two decades he had made his residence in Flint, coming here 
from Brampton, Ont., in 1868, and during that time he established 
himself in the esteem of the people of Flint to such an extent that the 
close of his useful life will be generally viewed by his fellow citizens 
in the light of a public bereavement and will cause sincere and univer- 
sal regret among the host of friends whom he gathered about him 
during his residence in Flint. 

Dr. Buckham was a man of parts. There was about him an indi- 
viduality or personality that impressed itself upon those with whom he 
came in contact in his daily walks, and which will remain a perpetual 
memorial of the man. Firm in his convictions and unflinching in his 
devotion to principle, he was withal a man of genial nature and kindly 
disposition. He was true to his friends, and as for his enemies they 
were as few as were his faults. He was a ripe scholar, a clear and 
profound thinker, and a physician who had during the later years of 
his life achieved marked distinction and fame in his profession at home 
and abroad. The elements of true manhood were combined in his char- 
acter in such nearly perfect proportions that as a man, neighbor, 
friend and Christian gentleman, he won the entire confidence of his 
fellow citizens and the respect of his co-workers in the profession 
which he adorned. His sterling worth had deserved recognition while 
he lived, and now that he has passed away there are none who knew 
him as a man and as a physician who will not hasten to pay to his 
memory the respect that is due an upright, honorable and useful life. 

It is said that he who causes two blades of grass to grow where only 
one grew before is a benefactor to his race. Judged by this standard 
Dr. Buckham's life was a marked and brilliant success. He gave to the 
world a work of inestimable value which has attracted widespread 
attention and which brought the author fame in the later years of his 


life. By way of showing the estimation in which his work is held by 
competent authority, we take the liberty of quoting from the Cyclope- 
dia of Michigan, as follows: 

But it is more perhaps to his recent work, "Insanity Considered in 
its Medico-Legal Relations," published by J. B. Lippincott & Co., of 
Philadelphia, 1883, that he owes his national, we might even say 
cosmopolitan, reputation. To this work he devoted about ten years of 
his life, first in making the deepest possible study of the subject from 
almost every standpoint; then, having formed his conclusions, arrived 
at by the most careful consideration (and therefore in almost every 
instance correct), he gave to the world the result of his labors. * 

It is perhaps only necessary to add that the work has 
received extended notice and high commendation of both legal and 
medical reviews and journals, as well as of the general press, and of 
the most eminent legal authority. It has already by its weight of sound 
reasoning, forced itself upon the notice of the courts in the trials of 
various insanity cases, in a number of instances having been quoted 
from largely in the circuit courts; and in the celebrated case of John 
Baird (1886), an appeal, the supreme court of the state of New York 
reversed the decision of the commission on lunacy on the authority of 
Dr. Buckham's book. Besides, three courts of last resort have adopted 
the new theory, to wit: the supreme court for Alabama, in the Parsons 
and Gunther cases (81. 577, and 83. 96 Ala.); the supreme court of 
the District of Columbia, Washington, in the Daley case, and the 
supreme court of Michigan, in Blackstone vs. the Standard Accident 
Insurance Company, in which decision Dr. Buckham's book is quoted 
freely, among other things the author's definition of insanity: 

" A diseased or disordered condition or malformation of the physical organs through 
which the mind receives impressions or manifests its operations, by which the will and 
judgment are impaired, and the conduct rendered irrational." 

And also his corollary: 

" Insanity being the result of physical disease, it is a matter of fact to be determined 
by medical experts, not a question of law to be decided by legal tests and maxims."- 
<N. W. Reporter, Vol. XJLII, pp. 156-165.) 

In 1884 Dr. Buckham was elected a corresponding member of the 
Medico-Legal society of New York, and subsequently he was chosen a 
Fellow of the Society of Science, Letters, and Art, of London, Eng- 
land. Both of these distinguished honors were bestowed upon him as 
a recognition of his valuable contributions to the medico-legal litera- 
ture of the period. 

164 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

For nearly two years before his death Dr. Buckham had been in 
feeble health. 

Dr. Thomas Robson Buckham was born January '24, 1832. About 
that time his parents, Andrew and Margaret Buckham, who were 
natives of Scotland, where the former was a magistrate and a man of 
considerable influence, left their native land and settled near Toronto, 
Ontario. After graduating from Victoria College the subject of this 
sketch became interested in the field of politics and successively held 
the important offices of magistrate, commissioner of the court of 
Queen's bench, and Master extraordinary of the court of chancery. He 
commenced the practice of medicine at Brampton, Ontario, and in 
1865, moved to Petrolia, Ontario, whence in 1868 he came to Flint. 
He was married in Edmondton, Ontario, August 21, 1855, to Miss 
Kezia Snell, who proved a loving helpmeet to him during the remain- 
ing years of his life, and who survives to mourn the loss of a kind 
and affectionate husband. Besides his widow, deceased leave three sons, 
Dr. James N., Andrew J. and Thomas R. 

Dr. Buckham was for many years prominently indentified with the 
Presbyterian church of this city, and at the time of his death was 
chairman of the board of trustees of that church. He was also quite 
prominent in local Masonic circles, being a member in good standing 
of Genesee lodge number 174, F. & A. M. 


One of the old pioneers of this county passed away February 23, 
1891, in the person of George W. Goodenough, of Davison township. 
The cause of death was ulceration of the lungs. He had been in poor 
health for the past six months and had been confined to his room for 
a month past. The deceased was eighty years of age, and came with 
his wife from Niagara, county, New York and settled upon his farm of 
190 acres, two miles west of Davison, upon his arrival in this locality. 
He cleared away the forest and in his old age reaped the benefits of 
the hard knocks of his early life in the then wilderness of Michigan. 
The deceased leaves a widow, who at her advanced age, is still in good 

There is but one child left, James W. Goodenough, who resides with 
his family on the farm. Lucien G. Goodenough, of Flint, is a nephew 

of the deceased. 



Died at his home in Grand Blanc, Peter Van Tiffin, February 27 r 


1891, aged 94 years, 9 months and 25 days. Deceased was born in 
Middlebourg, the Netherlands, May 2, 1796. When about eight years 
of age, with his parents, he came to America, and settled in New York 
state, in the township of Rush, Monroe county. 

When about twenty-two years of age he married Miss Hannah Allen, 
daughter of Mr. E. Allen. In 1834 he with his wife and children 
came to Michigan and settled in Grand Blanc, where until his decease 
made his home. He survived his wife nearly twenty years. When 
about thirty years of age he experienced religion and joined the Baptist 
church in the township of Rush, New York. On coming to Michigan 
he united with the Baptist church at Grand Blanc and was a member of 
that church when he died. For more than fifty-seven years he has known 
its history, and shared its joys and sorrows with others who have, by 
their fidelity to Christ, kept the light shining. Like the warrior after 
the long, hard fought battle he has laid aside his armor to repose in 
that rest that remains for every child of God. 

Of his decendants that survive him there are seven of his ten chil- 
dren, twenty of his twenty-six grandchildren, and thirty-six great grand- 
children, making a total of sixty-three. 


Mrs. Lucy Brownson died at the home of her daughter, Mrs G. H. 
Holman, of Flint, at four o'clock p. m., March 30, 1891; in the 91st 
year of her age. She was born in west Haven, Vermont, February 5, 
1801. Her maiden name was Barbour. At twenty-four years of age 
she was married to Luman Brownson, also of Vermont. Soon after, 
they made their home in western New York. In the fall of 1831 they 
removed to Pontiac, Oakland county, Michigan, where they lived till 
the death of her husband, July, 1866. Mr. Brownsou was deacon in 
the Pontiac Congregational church for thirty-three years, where they 
were united in action and efficient service during his life. She was the 
seventh of fifteen children, nine sons and six daughters, three only of 
whom survive her. Her father died at nearly ninety-six, one sister at 
at ninety-two and one brother at eighty-eight, nearly all living to old 
age. She was the mother of five children, four of whom are living, 
O. M. Brownson, of Evart, Michigan; S. N. Brownson, of Kansas; 
Mrs. C. C. Farrar and Mrs. G. H. Holman, of Flint. Twenty grand- 
children and eleven great grand, children have come " to call her 

Since the death of her husband (nearly twenty-five years) she has 
lived with her children most of the time in Flint. Her mental facul- 

166 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

ties were retained in full vigor to the last week of her life. She read 
by the hour and conversed with interest upon all matters relating to 
the highest good of the world with remarkable clearness and enjoyment. 
She was so genial, kind and sympathetic, so loving and lovely in her 
old age, as always to be welcome to the homes of her children and 
friends. Her stay was never too long, and she was known as " Grand- 
ma Brownson" wherever she went, especially among the young people. 


Mary Ann Fish was born in Kortwright, Delaware county, N. Y., on 
the 23d day of February, 1819. She received a good common school 
educaton, and in the spring of 1837, she came with her father's family 
to Michigan, and settled in the township of Genesee. She then ' com- 
menced teaching and taught in the Stewart district in Genesee, in the 
Butler district in South Grand Blanc, at Pine Run in the Cole district 
at Flint now Burton, and the Hart district, Mount Morris. 

On the 18th of November, 1840, she was married to Goodenough 
Townsend, who still survives her. In March following, they moved 
into the town of Davison, then an almost unbroken wilderness, the 
nearest neighbor being more than two miles away. Here she endured 
the privations and hardships of a new country, which none but those 
that have experience know. 

She was trained up by her parents, Reuben and Fanny Fish, in 
strict principles of religion. She joined the M. E. church at Flint, 
in 1838, and was one of the seven first members of the M. E. church 
at Davison. She always took a deep interest in the welfare and build- 
ing up of the church. She was a member of the Woman's Foreign 
Mission Society, and was for some time president and was made a life 
member. She was also a member of the W. C. T. Union, and favored 
the principles of prohibition. 

She died on Wednesday, April 15, 1891, at 10:50 a. m., aged seventy- 
two years one month and twenty-two days. She was a good and accom- 
modating neighbor and had no enemies; a kind and affectionate wife; 
a tender and loving mother. Her last and youngest brother, Dr. M. 
W. Fish, of Oakland, California, died three weeks and two days before 
her, leaving only one sister, Mrs. J. F. Johnson, of Lake Arthur, La. 
She was the mother of nine children. Two, Hattie M., and William 
F., died young. Mary, Mrs. E. Ransom, of Flint, Melancthon, W. S., 
Fannie E., George W., and Reuben F., were present to minister to her 
wants and receive her parting blessing. Mr. S. W. Pratt, of Kingfisher, 
Oklahoma Territory, was not present, but words of love and tender 


regard, and well wishes were sent. The funeral services were conducted 
on Friday at the house, Rev. J. W. Kennedy and Eev. A. A. Wall 
officiating. The services were solemn and impressive. By her request 
the pall bearers were her three sons, her son-in-law, E. Ransom, and 
two grandsons, Reuben aud Arthur Ransom, who conveyed her remains 
to Pine Grove cemetery, there to rest until the resurrection of the 


Mrs. Artemisia Gibson, relict of the late Charles DeWitt Gibson, who 
died in 1876 at the age of seventy-seven years passed away yesterday morn- 
ing May 6, 1891, at her home in Whigville, at an advanced age. The 
deceased was a woman of many admirable qualities of heart and mind 
and was held in high esteem by a host of friends and acquaintances 
all over the county. She was born in western New York, in the latter 
part of the first decade of the present century and was united in mar- 
riage to Mr. Gibson, at Avon, Livingston county, N. Y., in 1831. Two 
years later she came west with her husband and settled in Grand 
Blanc township, where Mr. Gibson opened a store and for several years 
sold goods to the few early settlers and traded with the Indians, who 
at that time were very numerous in this part of the State. Mrs. Gib- 
son was a remarkably fine looking and intelligent lady, and nobly 
performed her share of life's duties to her husband and children. The 
closing years of her well-spent life were passed on the old homestead 
in the midst of kind friends and pleasant surroundings. Mrs. Gibson 
and her deceased husband were the parents of eleven children, viz.: 
Thornton W., Jane W., Charles F., Chauncey W., Caroline A., Coro- 
don DeWitt, John E., Mary A., Sarah J., Francis A., and Stamford S. 
The surviving members of the family are Thornton, Stamford and 
Mary, who live at home; John, of Lapeer; Chauncey, of San Francisco, 
Cal.; Francis, of Bay City; Sarah, who is married and lives at Bay 
City, and Mrs. Dr. Case, of Grand Blanc. 


Henry Judd died suddenly, about 11 o'clock p. m., May 19, 1891, at 
his residence in Burton, about three miles from Flint, aged seventy-three 
years Mr. Judd was born in New York and came to Michigan about fifty 
years ago. He had lived in Burton for forty years and leaves a second 
wife and two sons William, of Nebraska, and Miles, of Detroit. 

168 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


The number of deaths in Ingham county of which I have been able 
to learn of persons entitled to be classed as pioneers under the rules 
of the society is thirty-six. Of these fifteen were from the first of 
June, 1890, to January 1891, and twenty-two during the present year to 
June 1. The number aged over eighty years was seven, namely: one 
of eighty, one of eighty-two, one of eighty-three, two of eighty-four,, 
one of eighty-six, and one of eighty-seven. 

There were under 30 years 2 

30 to 40 " . 2 

40 to 50 " .2 

50 to 60 " 5 

60 to 70 " ._.. .8 

70 to 80 " __10 

80 to 87 " . 7 

The average age was a fraction over sixty-four years, omitting four 
whose age was under forty. The average of the other thirty-two was 

Nativity Michigan, 7; New York, 5; Vermont, 4; New Jersey, 3; 
Pennsylvania, 2; Kentucky, Maryland, Germany and Ireland, 1 each; 
unknown, 10. 



June 2. Mrs. Minerva Scammon, aged seventy-two years. Mrs. 
Scammon was born in Alleghany county, Pa., and came to Lansing 
with her husband (who survived her), in 1856. She was an exemplary 
and active Christian. 

July 10. -Mrs. Liza Zeigler, aged forty-one years. Mrs. Zeigler was 
born in Jonesville, Mich., and had been a resident of Lansing about 
twenty years. She was an honored member of St. Paul's German 
Evangelical church. 

July 14. Lloyd Nelson Turner, familiarly known as Lord Turner, 
aged seventy-seven years. He was born a slave in Kentucky. He 
was set free in 1834 and came to Lansing in 1855. The following 
truthful description of his quaint characteristics from the State 

Everyone will remember the aged patriarch with feelings of kind- 
ness. Endowed, with a peculiar sense of what was just, and with a 
quaint, unique way of expressing it, his sayings acquired quite a noto- 


riety about the city in the earlier days, and his advice was often sought 
by his brethren, among whom he was a kind of an oracle. He had a 
quick appreciation of humor, and was not at all slow at repartee; and 
though all uncultivated, some of his forcible expressions carried a cer- 
tain weight with them not to be ignored. What he lacked in education 
was partially supplied by his experience and keen observation of life 
in general. 

Of about medium height; of shambling gait, his thinned-out, half- 
gray locks covered always with a big broad brimmed hat or an ancient 
drab tile, under which twinkled a pair of eyes sharp as a ferret's; 
and with his miscellaneous lot of ill-fitting clothing and ill-sorted foot 
wear, the old colored gentleman presented a decidedly curious and some- 
what comical appearance on the street. Whenever passing a citizen he 
would make a backward shamble, bow his aged head and take off his hat 
with a certain dignity and grace that impressed itself on the passer-by; 
yet there was not the slightest hint of the servile in his bow simply 
a courtesy which he believed was due, and one he never failed to make. 
His quaint figure will be sadly missed on the street by our citizens, 
who have been accustomed to it for nearly half a century. 

July 16. Mrs. Angeline M. Drury, aged seventy years. Mrs. Ange- 
line M. Drury died at the home of her sister, Mrs. J. B. Porter, 215 
Capitol Ave., of consumption, after an illness of seven years. Mrs. 
Drury was born in Vermont, January 31, 1820. When a child, she 
moved with her parents westward, residing in Glens Falls and Clyde, 
N. Y., where she received her education in the public school and 
the academy. When fourteen years of age she united with the Pres- 
byterian church of Clyde, and at the age of fifteen became a teacher 
in the district school near this village which vocation she followed two 
years, when she came with her father's family to Michigan, where they 
located on a new farm near Otsego, Allegan county. In 1838 she 
taught the public school in Kalamazoo, and the next year a select 
school in the village of Otsego. She was married, in December, 1839, 
to Samuel T. Drury of Otsego. 

Becoming interested in the institute at Olivet, they removed to that 
place in 1848 and became active workers in its behalf giving time 
and money in large measure, and this college today owes a large share 
of its popularity and good work to Mr. and Mrs. Drury. Feeling that 
Olivet college was on a sure foundation for good and grand wrk, she 
was ready and glad to second her husband's desire to turn thought and 
and intent toward a new field in the southwest. They visited Spring- 
field, Missouri, where was an institute that gave promise of great good, 

170 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

and with their never failing determination gave this school their hearty 
support, both in labor and money, and to such an extent and so suc- 
cessfully that the board of trustees named -the school "Drury college," 
as a token of respect and honor for the good work done for them. 

Besides the great interest Mrs. Drury has always taken in education 
work, she has been an ardent worker in the church and Sunday school and 
W. C. T. IL, and her cheerful voice and guiding hand will be greatly 
missed in the many societies with which she was connected. Since the 
death of her husband at Olivet in 1883, Mrs. Drury has been an 
invalid, making her home in Lansing with her sister, Mrs. J. B. Porter, 
where every kindness has been shown her that her declining years 
might know no sorrow beyond that of the dread disease that eventually 
caused her death. Mrs. Porter and Mr. Geo. H. House of Saginaw, are 
the sole survivors of the family. 

July 16. James Champion Huffman, aged sixty-two years. Mr. 
Huffman was born in Pittsburg, Pa. When eight years old he came 
to Tiffin, Ohio, with his parents, and in 1868 settled in Lansing, fol- 
lowing the bakery and confectionery business till his death, which was 
the result of the grippe. 

August 3. --John C. Cannon, at Cannon Creek, Col., aged fifty-five 
years. Mr. Cannon was one of the most prominent citizens of Mason, 
and was well known throughout Ingham county. He had been in 
declining health for more than a year. Two months ago he resigned 
his position as secretary and manager of the Rogers Manufacturing Co. 
and left for Colorado, hoping that the climatic change would act as a 
restorative. His wife and daughter accompanied him and were at his 
bedside when the end came. 

Mr. Cannon was fifty-five years of age. He served his comntry three 
years as corporal, Co. B, twenty-sixth Michigan infantry. In 1876 he 
was elected register of deeds for Ingham county and was re-elected in 
1878. He has since been mayor of the city of Mason for two years. 
He was very popular and highly respected. 

September 22. Thomas Wm. Hebbard, aged fifty-three years. Mr. 
Hebbard was born in Woodsboro, Maryland. In 1845 he came to Mil- 
ford, Michigan, and in 1863 settled in Lansing, and entered the livery bus- 
iness, starting the firm of Giles and Hebbard. Subsequently he engaged 
with John A. Kerr in the Republican newspaper office, then a weekly. He 
spent five years in the Saginaw valley, buying staves for a New York 
lumber firm, was appointed to the city treasurer's office in 1874 or 
1875 to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Treasurer Loomis, after 
which he entered the grocery business with N. J. Roe. In 1877 he 


built the Hebbard block, now occupied by Page & Turney's grocery 
store, where he conducted a grocery business in partnership with Aid. 
Henry Klocksiem, retiring in 1879. He was justice of the pejace from 
1883 to 1887. 

September 24. Jacob Baumgrass, aged seventy-five years. He was a 
German by birth, but for many years a resident of Lansing, or on a 
farm just out of the city. He was a skillful painter and a passionate 
lover of flowers. He was a member of the German Methodist church. 

October 16. Mrs. Polly Greene, aged 83 years. She was born in 
Royalton, Vermont, came to Lenawee county in 1833, and in 1836 was 
married to Deacon S. R. Greene who was from Berlin, Vermont. 
They settled in Lansing in 1848, when it was simply a city of mammoth 
stumps. She left to mourn her loss, her aged husband and two daugh- 
ters. Her only son died on the battle field in the service of his 

October 31. Mrs. Lucy Lounsberry, aged sixty-seven years. She 
had lived in William ston since 1842. 

November 1, Jesse E. Tenney, aged seventy-four years. Mr. Tenney 
was born in Orwell, Vermont. He graduated from Middlebury college 
and studied law with Judge Phelps, father of Edward Phelps, minister to 
England. He was admitted to the supreme court bar of Alabama in 1839. 
He traveled extensively in Europe and acted as commercial agent at 
Padua, Venice, Marseilles and Lyons, returning in 1845, and engaging 
in the practice of law at Franklin, Vermont. In 1854 he married 
Harriet A. Edgerton and came to Michigan and became principal of 
the Homer academy, and was for four years superintendent of the 
Marshall schools. He acted as State librarian from 1859 to 1869, by 
appointment of Governor Wisner, and subsequently practiced law in 
Lansing. He was acting mayor of Lansing for nine months, in place 
of George W. Peck, who removed to Saginaw; was judge of the record- 
er's court of Lansing for three years and member of the board of 
education six years. He was an active republican ever since 
the organization of the party, prior to which he was a whig. He 
was a man of literary taste, fine cultivation and extensive reading. He 
made a great many addresses, orations and political speeches. He was 
an active friend of the soldiers, and did all he could during the war to 
aid them by shipping supplies to the hospitals and battlefields. 

Judge Tenney held the office of United States circuit court commis- 
sioner of the eastern district of Michigan for more than twenty years, 
and was engaged in the real estate and insurance business for several 
years. He also, obtained considerable local notority as the author of a 

172 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

series published in The Statesman over the nondeplumes of " Peleg Ole- 
pod " and " Sile Spike." The letters by Sile were of a political nature, 
one of which, giving a supposed conference with Stephen A. Duglas. while 
en route over the Michigan Southern railway to Cleveland, during the 
campaign of 1858, was copied by the New York Tribune and several 
other leading newspapers of the day, and from which the late D. B. 
Lock, of the Toledo Blade, acknowledged he obtained his style for the 
noted Nasby letters. 

December 4. Mrs. Mary E. Pugh, aged fifty-three years. Mrs. Pugh 
was born in Portland, Michigan and came to Lansing with her parents 
while a child. Subsequently the family removed to Detroit. In 1854 
she was married at Portland, moving to Toledo, Ohio, and locating at 
Lansing in 1865, where she has since resided. She leaves nine chil- 
dren. She was an active and honored member of the Congregational 
church in Lansing. 

December 19. Mrs. P. Anna Van Auken, aged sixty-eight years. She 
was born in Deckertown, N. J., where she lived up to the time of 
coming to Lansing in 1856, where she resided until her death. Dur- 
ing the last ten years, she was a great sufferer from a disease which 
rendered her unable to take a step, but always comforted by her trust 
in God. 

December 27. Mrs. Marintha A. Judson, aged sixty-two years. Mrs. 
Judson was born in Murray, N. Y. In 1875 she married Elnathan 
Judson, of Bichland, Michigan, and came at once to Lansing to reside. 
Her husband died in 1881. She was a member of the Presbyterian 
church of Richland, and a woman of great force of character, com- 
bined with a kind and sympathetic nature that won her many friends. 


January 1. Mrs. Caroline A. Shaw, aged eighty-seven years. Mrs. 
Shaw was born in Hanover, N. J., in 1803, and married Robert B. 
Moores in 1831. In 1835 they moved to Licking county, Ohio. Mr. 
Moore died in 1848. She came to Lansing in 1873, after the death 
of her second husband, Jacob Shaw, where she resided with her 
daughter Mrs. J. E. Weed. She was a member of Plymouth church, 

January 24. Mrs. Caroline Linderman, aged eighty-six years. Mrs- 
Linderman was one of the oldest residents of Ingham county; having 
settled in Mason with her husband in 1836. 

February 8. Warren Hinchey, aged seventy-four years. Mr. Hin- 
chey was born in Rochester, N. Y., and came to. Michigan at an 


early date. For thirty years he was one of the prominent engineers 
of the Saginaw valley. About ten years ago he took charge of one 
of his brother's farms near Meridian, where he remained until last 
fall. A stroke of palsy three years ago rendered him utterly helpless 
and he never recovered, having to be lifted in and out of bed. 

February 15. Matthew P. Marvin, aged sixty-eight years. Mr. Marvin 
was born in Stafford, N. Y., July 23, 1823. He came to Monroe, 
Michigan, with his father's family at the age of ten years, living 
there until 1848, when he removed to Jackson. In 1849 he was mar- 
ried at Columbus, Ohio, to Miss. Mary E. Gregory. Jackson was their 
home until 1856, when he entered the hardware business in Lansing 
with E. W. Dart, becoming subsequently a traveling agent for several 
large Detroit firms. In his later years he was a dealer in flour and 
feed, and during his entire life bore an unblemished record as a fair 
and honest business man, ready to assist any and all when compatible 
with a just consideration of his own interests. He was one of the 
early citizens, and his death is deeply deplored by scores of warm 
friends who sincerely sympathize with the family in their sad affliction. 

February 22. Mrs. Sarah I. (Parker) Donovan, aged forty-four years. 
Mrs. Donovan was born in Bedford, Michigan. In 1872 she was mar- 
ried to Hon. Wm. Donovan. Their residence has been in Lansing 
thirteen years. Mrs. Donovan's social qualities and kindness of heart 
made her very dear to a large circle of friends. 

February 26. Lucius Daniel Johnson, aged thirty-five years. Mr. 
Johnson was born in Clinton county, Michigan. In- 1861 the family 
came to Lansing, he began the study of law at the age of sixteen, and 
graduated from the Ann Arbor Law School at the age of twenty years, 
he gave promise of obtaining a prominent position at the bar. But 
consumption claimed him as one of its legion of victims. He went to 
New York for treatment under the Koch system; but the doctors told 
him frankly, that his situation was beyond hope. He returned home, 
and in a short time passed away, lamented by many friends. 

February 27. Isaac Douglass North, aged thirty-six years. Mr. North 
was born in Delhi, Ingham county, and came to Lansing while young. 
His death was the result of the grippe, which terminated in pneumonia. 

March 4. A. Arnold Clark, aged twenty-nine years. Mr. Clark, was 
born in Calhoun county, Michigan, and graduated from Albion college, 
taking the degree of bachelor of arts in 1881, and later received the 
degree of master of arts. In June last he had an attack of typhoid 
fever the sequel of which was lung fever. In January he went south,, 
and for a time was better, but brain disease supervened, causing his 

174 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

death. He died at Aiken, S. C., and his remains were brought to 
Lansing for burial. Prof. Clark was correspondence clerk in the office 
of the State Board of Health. Although but twenty-nine years of age 
he was the author of various papers on scientific subjects which attracted 
the attention of sanitarians of other states. He had an extended 
acquaintanceship throughout the State, and was a very scholarly and 
cultivated young man, and a fluent speaker. 

Some eighteen months ago he declined the tender of the chair of 
English literature at the Agricultural College that he might have time 
to complete a novel dealing with economic questions upon which he 
was engaged. 

March 9.- Mrs. Bernard C. Kelley, aged fifty-two years. She resided 
in Lansing nearly thirty years. She died from an attack of apoplexy, 
and left a host of friends to mourn her loss. She was the mother of 
ten children, seven of whom survive her. 

March 22. James Northrop, aged eighty-two years. Mr. Northrop 
was born in Cayuga county, N. T., and moved to Ohio when in infancy. 
He there married Miss Emily Ann Wheeler, December 2, 1832, subse- 
quently moving to Michigan, locating in Meridian township, Ingham 
county, in about 1854. A stove erected under a maple tree comprised 
his first Michigan home and it was some months before he secured a 
better. He farmed it in Meridian township until about eighteen years 
ago when he moved to Lansing, entering the lumber business in 
which he engaged for only a few years. He married his second wife, 
Miss Dora Elliott, November 25, 1873. In business Mr. Northrop was 
upright and conscientious. As a friend he could not be overvalued and 
as a husband and father he was all that could be desired. In Merid- 
ian township he held several public positions, that of supervisor, school 
director, etc. Mr. Northrop leaves a wife and four children. 

April 1. Mrs. Olive P. Ward, aged eighty-four years. Mrs. Ward 
was born in Kutland, Vermont, April 23, 1807, and was married to 
Alanson Ward at Middleburg, N. T., wheu sixteen years of age, subse- 
quently moving to Michigan and Lansing, in the year following the 
location of the State capitol site. The city was then but a forest, and 
none but the very earliest settlers had arrived. They remained and 
grew up with the city. In Middleburg Mrs. Ward was a member of 
the M. E. church. She was throughout her entire life devoted to others 
and to those little works of charity for which there are so many oppor- 
tunities and which are so gratefully remembered by the recipients. 
Wherever she went she carried a certain undefinable comfort with her, 
and herself was always her last thought and care. Few have done 


more for the welfare of their friends and few have been as universally 
loved. Even in her later days Mrs Ward retained her faculties in their 
full power, remaining wonderfully bright and intelligent for her advanced 
age, and always keeping up her interest in the current events and 
everything to the veiy last. 

April 1. John Kouse, Sr., aged sixty-eight years. Mr. Rouse was 
one of the oldest residents of the city, a man of much natural talent 
and intelligence, and one whose genial, open and honest nature won for 
him a host of warm and long-time friends who will deeply regret his 
demise. Mr. Rouse leaves a wife, five sons and three daughters, 
two of whom A. F. and John Rouse, Jr., have for many years been 
prominent in Lansing social, professional and political circles, and are 
highly esteemed. 

April 7 Peter Lowe of Mason, aged seventy-nine years. But very 
few of the earliest pioneers of Ingham county remain. One of the 
best known and most distinguished as a business man, Peter Lowe, 
departed this life at Rogers Park, Chicago, on Tuesday evening, April 
7, 1891. He was born in the township of Neversink, Sullivan 
county, N. Y., May 24, 1812. In 1834 he came with his father's family 
to the township of Stockbridge, this county, where they settled upon 
what is known as Lowe's Plains. In about the year 1837 he was mar- 
ried to Emeline E. Wheaton, a resident of that township, and in 1842 
he was elected the first clerk of Ingham county. After entering upon 
the duties of this office he came to Mason on foot two days of each 
week for some time, to transact the business of the county, not minding 
the walk of twenty miles through the forest. In the winter of 1843 
he removed to Mason and became one of the first settlers. At different 
times during the early history of the county he was clerk, treasurer 
and register of deeds, and no man was more closely identified with 
the interests of the county. He began his business career in Mason 
first as a member of the general mercantile firm of McRoberts & Lowe 
and later was identified with the business firms of Coatsworth & Lowe, 
hardware and drugs, succeeded by Phelps & Lowe and in about the 
year '56-7 becoming the hardware firm of Lowe, Sayers & Phelps. In 
1869 he was one of the partners to organize the bank of Lowe, Near 
& Co., in which John Rayner was the company. In 1870 this was 
succeeded by Lowe, Smead & Co., which existed until 1881. In all 
these organizations readers will recognize names of our pioneers most 
prominent in our early business affairs. 

In November, 1886, the wife with whom he had lived about fifty 
years died in Mason and since that time he has been cared for by his 

176 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

children, in the home of his son Charles, going to Ionia in July, 1887, 
and then to Chicago in May, 1890, where he lived till his death. 

No name among our pioneers was more familiar. No man among them 
was more highly respected. His long association with all that conduced 
to our interests endeared all to him and all will remember Peter Lowe 
in reverence. He was a devoted member of the M. E. church here 
from its earliest days and a charter member of Mason lodge, No. 70, 
F. & A. M., which he served as master in the years 1857-8, 1861 
and 1863. 

Three sons survive him, Eugene, of Detroit, Charles, of Chicago, and 
Edward, of Aberdeen, Dakota, all prominent business men. Of his 
brothers and sisters there are still living Mrs. Chappel, of Dansville, 
aged seventy-seven; Mrs. Martha Presley, of Muskegon, aged eighty- 
four; Richard R. Lowe, of Webberville, aged about eighty-one; a sister 
Rachael, and Mrs. Sally Putnam, of Gratiot county, the youngest, but 
who is over seventy years of age. Thus do they pass away. 

April 10 Noah Phelps, aged sixty-seven years. Mr. Phelps was 
one of the pioneers of Ingham county, a resident of Okemos. In 
accord with his request his remains were taken to Detroit for 

April 11 Mrs. Celia Cantrell, aged eighty years. Mrs Cantrell 
has been a resident of Lansing twenty-three years. 

April 16 Mrs. Mary J. Smith, aged sixty-two years. She was the 
widow of William H. Smith of Delhi. Mrs. Smith was born in New 
York state and came west with her parents when quite young, settling 
in southern Michigan. At twenty-three she married and settled in 
Delhi, and has resided there for forty-seven years. Her husband had 
been a prominent farmer of that township and died of the same com- 
plaint one year ago. She leaves no children. 

April 24 Charles E. Nash, aged seventy-two years. Mr. Nash was' 
born in Smithfield, New York. He came to Michigan at an early day, 
settling at Monroe, when it was the only place of any size in southern 
Michigan, and a competitor with Toledo as a commercial city. In 1856 he 
came to Lansing, and was clerk in the State Land Office several years. 

April 24 Mrs. Nancy S. Thayer, aged seventy-two years. Mrs. Thayer 
was born in Madison county, New York and came to Lansing in 1854 
with her husband who died in 1865. 

May # J -Harvey Morehouse, aged eighty-four years. Mr. Morehouse 
was born at Newark, New Jersey, August 23, 1807, where he resided 
until 1831, learning the shoemaker's trade and marrying his present wife. 
From Newark he moved to central Ohio, and October 14, 1848, came 


to Lansing, which was then but a wilderness, the trees having just been 
felled through the forest for what is now Michigan avenue, ^nd the 
stumps not yet having been removed from Washington avenue. He was 
engaged in the shoe trade from 1852 to 1855, conducting business on 
Washington avenue, where the Lederer store now stands and on the site 
of the present Hudson house. He bought and cleared the lot now 
known as the Edgerly property on Allegan street. He was known as a 
generous, whole-souled citizen, whose life work and good deeds will 
remain as an everlasting monument to his memory. 

Mr. Morehouse gave three sons and a son-in-law to the Union army 
in the war of rebellion. One son was captured at the battle of Spot- 
sylvania, and died in hospital in Washington from disease contracted 
by five months in a rebel prison, soon after his release. His remains 
were brought home to Lansing for interment. Another of the sons 
received a wound in battle, from which he never fully recovered; but 
he remained in the army till the close of the war. The third son was 
once slightly wounded, but he too was mustered out at the same time 
with his brother. The son-in-law also served the contest through, but 
died only a few days after reaching home. Few families in the land 
can make such a record as the above. 

May 19 Robert Foster, aged seventy-four years. The following is 
a synopsis of his history, as given at his numerously attended funeral: 

Robert Foster was born July 10, 1817, in Garrison, Fermanagh 
county, Ireland. He was one of a family of thirteen children. One 
of these, a sister, died in childhood, and the subject of this sketch, 
after a lapse of sixty years, is the first to follow her. Few are the 
family circles, equally large, whose ranks remain so long a time 
unbroken by death. Of the Foster family Robert was the first to emi- 
grate to America, sailing from Ireland May 4, 1840. On June 6, he 
landed in New York and subseqently located in Huron, Erie county, 
Ohio, remaining there about thirteen years, employed as a farmer and 
carpenter. At this place November 21, 1844, he was married to Jane 
Osborn. In 1853 he came to Lansing, and at the end of two years 
settled on a farm a few miles west. In 1873 Mr. Foster came into the 
city for the second time, and remained one of its residents to the time 
of his death. May 6, 1873, he began work as a janitor in the old cap- 
itol building, continuing in that work until the present administration 
took possession of the State executive offices. 

Robert Foster was honest, industrious, frugal and diligent. He was 
in all respects a manly man; one whom everybody loved and 
respected. In all his social relations he was thoughtful, liberal and 

178 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

cheerful. On Christinas morning, in the year 1862, while Kev. J. 
Boynton was pastor of the Central M. E. church, Mr. Foster was con- 
verted. His change of heart was marked and clear, and he at once 
joined the church, remaining to the day of his death one of its most 
consistent, loyal, earnest and loving members. It is doubtful if the 
society ever had a constituent who loved it more than did he. 

Robert Foster was a fond, kind and true husband and father. His 
last illness began on Thursday evening, May 7, being taken with 
a chill on his way home from prayer meeting. It developed into 
double pneumonia, and for twelve days he was a great sufferer. A few 
hours before his death he recalled a pledge he had given his pastor 
for the missions, and calling for his purse he paid the same with his 
own trembling hand. He leaves a wife and four children, and of .him 
it may be truly said, " Well done, good and faithful servant." 

May 20 Mrs. Sarah L. Papineau, aged seventy-nine years. Mrs. 
Papineau, whose maiden name was Green, was born at Sennitt, Cayuga 
county, New York, March 20, 1812. Her father was a prominent busi- 
ness man, having large interests at Auburn, where his daughter's girl- 
hood was mostly spent, and where she received the benefits of the best 
educational advantages available in those days. 

At about twenty years of age Miss Green married Daniel Papineau, 
a merchant of Wayne county, N. T., and removed to that county, 
residing there until 1854, when she removed with her family, consisting 
of two daughters, Jeannette and Henrietta (Mrs. W. S. George) to 
Detroit, where she resided until January, 1859, forming an extensive 
acquaintance through her active cooperation in numerous benevolent 
and religious works in that city. In the latter year Mrs. Papineau 
removed to Lansing, where she has since resided, honored and beloved 
by a large circle of friends and dependents, who will mourn, in her 
death, the loss of a stanch friend, a safe and sympathetic counselor, 
and an aggressive foe to every form of tyranny over the weak and 
defenseless ones of earth. 

Born of revolutionary ancestors, Mrs. Papineau early imbibed those 
principles of freedom and equality which led her to an ardent hatred 
of the institution of American slavery, and her labors in the interests 
of the black race soon made for her a prominent place in the ranks of 
the old abolitionists, and gave to her the companionship and confidence 
of such leaders as William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Mrs. 
Foster, and a host of devoted men and women who suffered outrage 
and martyrdom for conscience sake. While residing in Detroit her 
home was the refuge of many a black man or woman, fleeing through 


darkness, and surrounded by deadly dangers, toward the light of the 
north star; and at the time of the negro massacre in that city her 
home sheltered numbers of trembling unfortunates who had fled from 
the murderous wrath of a maniac mob. Mrs. Papinoau was naturally an 
ardent supporter of the Union during the civil war, lending every 
assistance in her power, and saw in its results the blessed fiuition of 
her dearest hopes, the abolition of American slavery. 

Though possessed of a strikingly powerful individuality, and as stern 
as a rock in the advocacy or defense of a principle or a cause espoused, 
there was a certain softness of manner an indefinable charm in Mrs. 
Papineau's presence which betokened a sympathetic helpfulness grace- 
fully intertwined with the sterner qualities of her nature, and which 
inspired all who knew her with a feeling of confidence, hope and 
strength in any undertaking which met her approval. Some of the 
fruits of her labors are yet seen in the Thompson home for old ladies, 
and the home for the friendless in Detroit, both of which were the 
recipients of her services and aid at their founding, and were marked 
objects of her sympathy and care through life, both as an officer and 
director. Mrs. Papineau was also a member of the ladies' monument 
association of Lansing. 

As might be surmised, there was a deep religious current in Mrs. 
Papineau's nature, which lent strength and vitality to her conscientious 
convictions. From early womanhood she was an earnest Unitarian, and 
an active member of that society while residing in Detroit; but her 
liberal sentiments easily led her to act with the Universalists upon her 
arrival here, where there was no society of her faith, and she has been 
identified with that church since, though freely extending aid and sym- 
pathy to charitable and religious works without regard to denomination 
or creed. 

May 24 Andrew J. Shiveley, aged twenty-nine years. Mr. Shiveley 
was born in Okemos, April 18, 1862, and came to Lansing when a lao 
He was a miller by profession and was taken sick at Grand Ledge, 
where he had just been engaged in a profitable position. Mrs. Shiveley 
was just preparing to move there Mhen her husband was taken with 
typhoid fever which subsequently developed into brain trouble. 

May 25 Mrs. Sophie Howard Knight, aged fifty-two years. Mrs. 
Knight died at the Battle Crak sanitarium, where she had been for 
some time for treatment. Her burial was at Lansing, which had been 
her residence since 1863. 

Mrs. Knight was born at Zanesville, Ohio, April 17, 1839, and from 
youth upward has been a teacher of music. She came to Lansing in 



1863 from Louisville, Ky., where she was employed as teacher in the 
Grant and Butler schools, leaving on account of the war. In Lansing 
she was first engaged in the Olds academy, afterwards in the Misses 
Rogers' female college. At the close of the war she returned to 
Louisville for a time. 

From early youth Mrs. Knight had the best musical training availa- 
ble in this country, studying in Boston, and in New York under Madame 
Anna Bishop. Her voice was remarkably sweet and flexible, of good 
power, and always under control. She taught music in Lansing, Detroit 
and Chicago, singing in the churches of all three cities. Her Lansing 
musicals were a treat eagerly sought for by lovers of music, and for 
the promotion of her art in all directions Mrs. Knight did much. She 
was very proficient in French and studied German and Italian for 
their bearing upon music. In disposition Mrs. Knight was as sweet 
and tuneful as her voice, an exterior that covered much kindness of 
heart, determination of character and numbers of excellent traits. She 
was a musical enthusiast and her musical art entered into her soul. 



Place of death. 

Date of death. 


Sylvanns Wilhnr 

Easton . 

Jane 28, 1890 


Wellington C. Page 

Ionia City 

Jaly25, 1890 


Nelson Tattle 


Aagast 18, 1890 


TCllint. M. Martin 

Danby . . .. 

December 17, 1890 


Rev. John M. Coe .. . . .. . . 

Ionia . . 

Aprils, 1891 



Mr. Sylvanus Wilber was born August 12, 1806, in Vermont, where 
he lived until 1826. He married Miss Sabra Blodgett of Vermont and 
from that state moved to St. Lawrence county, New York, where he 
lived as a farmer until 1854, when he moved to Easton, where he lived 
a model farmer until June 28, 1890. God then saw fit to move his 
resting place and give him one not prepared with hands, but eternal 
and in the heavens. Mr. Wilber has raised nine children, eight of 
whom survive to mourn the loss of their father, but mourn not as those 
that have no hope. 



Wellington C. Page, one of the most highly esteemed of the old 
residents of Ionia died at his home on East Main street July 25, 1890. 

Mr. Page was born in Whitestown, New York, November 12, 1820, 
his father being a native of Vermont and his mother of New Hamp- 
shire. In 1839 he came with his family to this county, a farm being 
purchased in Ronald. Later a large tract of land was purchased and 
he worked at clearing this for fourteen years. Afterward he engaged 
in mercantile business in Ronald, subsequently removing to Ionia, 
where he has successively associated in partnership in mercantile bus- 
iness and banking with H. J. Wilson, W. P. Burhans, and Burton 
Babcock. He was the contractor and builder of the railroads from 
Portland to Greenville and from Ionia to Stanton. 

Mr. Page has for many years been one of the most active members 
of the M. E. church and one of the most faithful members of the 
official board. He contributed largely to the building of the present 
Ionia church, as well as towards those of other denominations. 

In April, 1841, Mr. Page married Miss Maria Cronk, who died early 
in 1860. Of the children of this marriage, one son, George survives. 
On November 9, 1860, Mr. Page married Miss Amerilla O. Heath, 
of Palo, who, with a son, R. Lee Page, and a daughter, Mary A. Page, 
survive him. 

Mr. Page continued his active life to the last, his more recent bus- 
iness association, as a senior partner in the firm of Page, Bates & Co., 
being among the most important of his business enterprises. In politics 
Mr. Page has been actively identified with the republican party ever since 
its organization, though he has declined to accept the political prefer- 
ment that was often tendered him. 


Nelson Tuttle was born in Deerfield, Sunderland county, Mass., Dec. 
24, 1800. His parents moved to Ohio and settled in Palmyra, Portage 
county, in 1805, where he grew to manhood. He was soundly con- 
verted and joined the M. E. church in 1818. In 1829 he was made class 
leader and steward and has been kept in those offices continuously to 
the end of his life. He was united in marriage with Sophia Pangborn, 
May 23, 1824, and lived in happy fellowship with her until 1865, when 
she was called to her brighter mansion just across the river. She was 
the happy mother of eleven children, five sons and six daughters, of 

182 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

whom six are still living, five daughters and one son, the others having 
preceded her to the blissful shore. 

He came with his family to Michigan and settled in Ionia township. 
Ionia county, in 1846, and here has been his home since that day 
until called to his brighter home over on the other shore, August 18, 
1890. In February, 1866, he was married to Eunice K. Talcott, with 
whom he has lived in blessed fellowship for almost twenty-five years, 
and now he rests from all his toils and his works do follow him, and 
will to the end of time. At an early day he built what was for many 
years known as the Tuttle church, which he kept in good condition 
for public worship until the more commodious brick church was erected, 
largely through his instrumentality, and where, with his family, he was 
always in his place at the hour for worship until declining health 
rendered it next to impossible for him to be present. Many things 
might be said of his fidelity to the church of his early choice and of 
his constant attendance upon the means of grace, of his fidelity as 
leader and steward, of his great liberality in furnishing money to meet 
the expenses of the church and to supply the means of grace to carry 
forward the benevolent enterprises of the church, a duty from which 
he never shrank, and the burden of which he was never wont to com- 
plain. Noble Christian man ! A member of the church militant seventy- 
two years and officer in the army for sixty-one years. True to every 
trust committed to his hands, he leaves with the church on earth an 
untarnished legacy of more value than a fortune of silver and gold. 


Elliot M. Martin was born March 15, 1806 in Otsego, Otsego Co. 
New York, was married to Mrs. Catherine Quackenboss, October 12, 
1831. In 1846, he with his family removed from New York to Michi- 
gan and settled in the township of Orange. In September of 1852 he 
was bereaved of his wife. In 1863 he removed to Danby which con- 
tinued to be his home until his death. In January 1871 he was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Alzina Bennet, with whom he enjoyed life until her death 
May 14, 1885. Mr. Martin was born and always lived in a new 
country. Inured to work in his boyhood, his life was one of unceasing 
labor incident to pioneer experience. The support of a large family 
of eleven children allowed no time for recreation, and his mind -was too 
practical to indulge in day dreams. He was respected by his neighbors 
for his sound sense and practical judgment, and when the pilgrimage 
of his life was ended he was borne to his silent resting place by sor- 
rowing friends who realized that they had lost an old friend. His 
death occurred December 17, 1890. 



Rev. John M. Coe died at his home in Ionia, April 8, 1891, aged 
seventy-nine years, six months and fourteen days. 

Deceased was born in Johnstown, Montgomery county, N. Y., August 
24, 1811. When about six years of age his parents moved to western 
New York and lived in Livingston and Genesee counties. 

In the spring of 1830, in his nineteenth year, by consent of his 
parents, he came to the territory of Michigan, and stopped at Farming- 
ton. The following is from the deceased's own pen while yet with us: 
" Being there quite out of means, and a stranger, I went to work at 
whatever came to hand, principally chopping and clearing land for the 
first two years. I then learned the carpenter trade, at which I have 
done considerable work in my day. In the spring of 1832, while 
chopping in the woods for a Mr. Sessions, near Walled lake, in Oakland 
county, the Lord Jesus Christ found me, a poor sinner, and saved me 
by grace, I trust, and caused me to love him. Up to this time I had 
been a very wild and thoughtless young man. My educational oppor- 
tunities had been very limited, and my religious training not very care- 
ful. On the llth of November, 1832, I was baptized into the fellow- 
ship of the First Baptist church of Farmington, by Elder C. A. Lamb, 
pastor. At that time there were only six or seven Baptist churches 
in all Michigan. Among the early ministers whose names I recall 
were Elkanah Comstock of Pontiac, John Booth, Stephen Woodman, 
R. H. Benedict, J. 8. Twiss, Elijah Weaver and C. A. Lamb, all gone 
home. Soon after I united with the church, my thoughts were turned 
to the subject of preaching the gospal to the perishing. I think it was 
the love I had for Jesus, and the wide-spreading destitution that 
pressed this subject, upon my mind. Under the sense of my lack of 
piety, education, and, in fact all other necessary qualifications, I shrank 
back for a time. 1 was encouraged by brethren, and after spending 
some time in school at Townsend, Vermont, and Hamilton, New York, 
I went into the ministry, and on the 19th day of June, 1839, I was 
ordained to the work of the ministry in Mr. Bennett's barn in the town 
of Nortfield, Washtenaw county, Michigan. Rev. Wm. Barrett, Samuel 

Jones and Guernsey were among the ministers who took part in 

the exercises. I have had the pastorate of several churches, 
among which are Ingham (now Dansville), from 18 iO to 1844; Una- 
dilla, Litchfield, Somerset, Wheatland, Second Rome, Oakfield and other 
places, in all of which I baptized a goodly number. During my labor 
with nearly all the churches, I was doing pioneer work in new settle- 



ments and poor churches with a salary that would average about $150 
per year. " 

Deceased was three times married; to him were born three daughters 
and one son; his widow and two daughters survive him. To a 
friend a few years since he wrote as follows: "About the year 
1849, a disease of the throat and lungs laid me aside, from which time 
my ministry has been very much interrupted, and for several years 
have preached but little, and now I am dowi. on the border land, 
seventy-three years old, I look over the past and see much for which I 
ought to be humble and much for which I am thankful. The Lord is 
my rock and refuge." 

Rev. A. Cornell of Ionia, for many years intimately acquainted with 
Brother Coe, adds the following tribute to his memory: "Brother Coe 
had been quite feeble for some years. He failed very gradually, was 
fully conscious of his near approach to death, and would have gladly 
welcomed death but for his wife and children. He was highly respected 
as a man, a citizen and a Christian. He had the entire confidence and 
esteem of his fellow citizens. As a minister he was sound in doctrine, 
clear and logical in his preaching, never turning aside to embrace new 
theories or discarding the 'old paths.' True to his Master and 
of unwavering faith, his end was such as might have been expected 
peaceful and happy." 





Place of death. 



Nehemiah Wheeler 

July 30, 1890 


New York 


John Wood 

Dec. 20, 1890 

Blackmail .. 

New Hampshire.. 


Mary A. Tucker 

Oct. 28, 1890 




Almira Strand 

Nov. 14,1890 


New York 


Samuel Todd 

Dec. 28, 1890 




Francis Salliger 

Dec. 14, 1890 

Jackson _. . 

New York 


Margaret Clark 

Sept. 16, 1890 

Grass Lake 



Norman Collins 

Nov. 17, 1890 

Grass Lake 

New York 


Mary Irwin _ ... 

Sept. 16, 1890 

Grass Lake 


Franklin Fisk 

Aug. 17, 1890 

Grass Lake. 

New York 


George Hawkins . 

Aug. 19, 1890 




Sylvester Heinous 

July 18, 1890 




Anson Updjke 

Aug. 29, 1890 


New York 






Place of death. 



Daniel .T. T.,arkins 

July 14, 1890 

Hanover . 

New York 


George W. Mooney 

Dec. 1, 1890 . 

Jackson . 

New Hampshire 


Polona Hall 

Oct. 30, 1890... 




Lizzie Dubois ... 

Aug. 1, 1890. 


New York 


Chester R. Harrington 

July 29, 1890 


New York 


Edward Aldrich .... 

Dec. 10, 1890 




E. W. Mooney. 

Dec. 1, 1890 

Jackson . 


Bridget Kelley . .... 

Dec. 17, 1890 . 

Jackson . 

Ireland . 


Maria Eckert 

Oct. 80, 1890 


New York 


George Parker 

June 3, 1890... . 


New York 


Charles R- C^nant. 

Nov. 26, 1890 

Sandstone . 



Elijah Farnum.. . 

Aug. 4, 1890 

Sandstone . 


Asa Wyman 

July 30, 1890 

Sandstone . 

New York . 


Reconcile Perkins 

July 14, 1890. 


New York.. 


Patrick O'Neal 

July 11, 1890 




Maria Norton. 

Dec. 1, 1890 


New York . . 


Susannah Tabor 

Aug. 30, 1890. 


New York 


James Graham, .. 

Aug. 8, 1890 


New York 


William S. Crittenden _. 

Nov. 7,*1890 

Norvell . 

New York 


Sophronia Toker . 

Oct. 26, 1890 


New York 


Chauncey C. Smith. 

Aug. 18, 1890 


New York 


Gny Hendy 

Dec. 6, 1890 


New York 


Carlton Cooley. 

Sept. 10, 1890 


New York 


Martin Daily. 

Aug. 3, 1890 




William Perry 

Sept. 25, 1890 

Jackson . 


Holden Bryant 

Oct. 23, 1890. 



Mary Welsh 

Nov. 27, 1890 

Jackson* . 


Almira Woodruff 

Nov. 18, 1890 

Jackson .. ... 

New York.. ... 


Ezra M. Aldrich 

Oct. 27, 1890 

Jackson . 

New York 


Elizabeth Baker 

Sept. 4, 1890 




Elizahnt.h Chapman 

Sept. 9, 1890 

Jackson . 


Sarah Cutler 

Sept. 13, 1890 

Jackson . 

New York.. 


Ann A. Markham 

Nov. 12, 1890 


New York 


AlmanonHolt .. 

Dec. 26, 1890 


New York 


Mary B. Sloat. .. 

Oct. 1, 1890 




Charlet' Buck. 

June 22, 1890 


New York 


Septimus Cobb.. 

July 29, 1890 


New York 


Thomas Coulson.. .. . .. 

Jane 12, 1890 




Philinda Watkins 

Aug. 26, 1890 


New York 


Mary M. Diver. .. 

Sept. 5, 1890... 


New Jersey... 







Place of death. 



P. J. Tascol 

Dec. 19. 1890 

Jackson . 



Elizabeth M. Todd.... 

Oct. 18, 1890 

Jackson ... 

New York 


James H. Smith 

June 20, 1890 

Jackson . ... 



Cyras D. Hanks. 

Jane 9, 1890 

Jackson . 



Wi'lii"! Rorripn 

Oct. 5, 1890 . 

Jackson . 

New Jersey 


William L. Clark 

Nov. 4. 1890. 


New York 


naninl B. Hihhard 

Sept. 24,1890 

Jackson .... 

New York 


George Allen.. .. 

Dec. 29. 1890 

Jackson .. 



Ebenezer Fisk 

Oot. 5, 1890 


Tsaae V T Vfakamnn 

June 24, 1890 

Jackson . 

New York 


Samuel Hopewell 

June 7, 1890 




Ira Eaton. . . 

Oct. 17, 1890 

Jackson . . 

New York 


Olive L. Ferris 

Nov. 10, 1890 . . 

Springport . 

New York 


Will'*"" Champlin 

Dec. 13, 1890 




Elizabeth Pope 

Sept. 16, 1890 




Mary E. Bostwick 

Jane 30, 1890 



Mrs. Abigail Botsford ... 

Jan. 31, 1891. 



Mrs. Catalina Billings 

Jan. 22, 1891 


George Beiswenger 

April 20, 1891 




Mrs. Ann Binnings... - . 

May 10, 1891.. .. 



Mark T. Bassey. 

May 11, 1891 

Jackson . 

John Brooks 

Jane 20, 1891 

John Chapman 

Oct. 26, 1890 

Napoleon . 

Mrs. M^ry f.nnningf. 

Jan. 15, 1891 



Merrick Chamberlin. 

March 30, 1891 


Mrs. James Carver 

April 18, 1891 



Mrs. Eliza Church 

April 26, 1891 

Blackman . 

Jackson Crouch . _ _ 

May 13, 1891 



Mi s. Eliza Cockburn 

May 12, 1891 . 

Jackson . . . 


Mrs. .Jnlin A, Chapman, 

May 14, 1891 

Grand Haven. 


Mrs. TCH^aheth T)nnglnn 

March 22, 1890 



Mrs. Betsey Lusk Decker. . 

Dec. 16, 1890 



William "Dnnham, 

Feb. 13, 1891 ... 

Jackson .. .. .. 


Mrs. John N. Dwight. 

March 30, 1891 . . 

Evanston, 111. 

Mrs. Lncy A. Gordon 

Feb. 2, 1891 

Jackson . 

.Tolin F. TTirsnhman 

Feb. 2, 1891 

Jackson . 


Mrs, f!at.harin TTayfw* 

May 30, 1891 

Jackson . 

Mrs. Elizabeth Kimbnll 

April 7, 1891 



May 14, 1891 

Jackson _ 


Mrs. Sooha O'Riley 

May 1. 1891... 

Jackbon ... 






Place of death. 



William Parrott 

Jan. 22, 1891 



Mrs. Charlotte P. Price 

April 16, 1891 ... 




April 80, 1891. 

Jackson . 


John G. Swick 

March 2, 1891. 

Michigan Center- 


Mrs Jacob Sagendorph 

Sept. 6, 1890 



Samuel Todd 

Dec. 31,1890 

Jackson , 


Simeon Thayer 

April 27, 1891 



Oct. 15, 1890 

Jackson . . 


Mr<?- Mnrgarnt. Wright 

Jan. 10, 1891 . 



April 18, 1891 

Jackson . . 


William H. Welch 

April 20, 1891. . 

Michigan Center. 


Mm, Ann Wright, 

April 28, 1891 

Jackson .. . . 


Mrs. Eliza P. Weatherwax 

May 17, 1891 

Jackson . 



Hiram Anson died at his residence, corner of Greenwood avenue and 
Morell street, Jackson, January 20, 1891. It will be remembered that 
early in December he fell and broke his hip and it was feared at the 
time he would be unable to survive his injuries on account of his 
advanced age and infirmities; he has been nearly blind for several 

Hiram Anson was born in Meaney, Duchess county, N. Y., June 2, 
1802. His grandfather, Cyrus Anson, was a captain in the revolutionary 
war. At the age of nineteen he began to learn the trade of cooper, 
following that vocation until 1836, when he removed to Jackson county, 
locating in Spring Arbor, buying eighty asres of wild land for $150. 
He immediately began the work of improvement. With a log house on 
the farm he moved his family into it and remained until in a few 
years a larger structure was erected. He continued to reside there 
until 1864, when he moved into Jackson. In 1826 he married Minerva 
Stiles, in Canandaigua, who died in I860, leaving no children, one child 
having died in infancy. September 17, 1860, he married Mrs. Jane 
Frances Neden, who survives him. While living in Spring Arbor he 
filled the office of deputy sheriff for two years. He was also engaged 
quite extensively in buying and shipping horses, cattle and hogs to 
eastern markets. 

188 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Edward Aldrich, of Henrietta, died December 10, 1890, in the eighty- 
fourth year of his age. He was born in Vermont, resided several years 
in New York state, came to Michigan in 1844 and settled in Henrietta. 
The first five years he worked the John D. Barard-Batteese farm, the 
balance forty-one years, he passed upon the farm where he died. Wil- 
lard Reed and Mr. Daggett of the early pioneers, alone survive him. 
Mr. Aldrich made no open profession of religion, but his moral char- 
acter was above reproach. Politically he was a republican, voted for 
both Harrisons, read the Citizen for sixteen years, until his eyesight 
failed, and never asked for or held an office, was quiet and unas- 
suming, an industrious and thrifty farmer, raised a family of four sons 
and as many daughters,, six of whom were with him in his last sick- 
ness and burial, and died respected by all. His wife with whom he 
lived nearly sixty years survives him. He was confined to his room 
thirteen weeks, from diseases incident to old age, and with the excep- 
tion of quite long periods of sleep, his mind was unimpaired to the 

His funeral was from the U. B. church the resident pastor officiating. 
The bearers, among whom were Moses and Wm. McGee, were all old and 
well known residents. He sleeps in the Fitchburg cemetery among 
scores of his old compeers. 


Ezra M. Aldrich died very suddenly at his residence in Jackson, 
Monday evening, October 27, 1890. The summons came unexpectedly, 
but did not find him unprepared for the last great change. The cause 
of death was neuralgia of the heart. 

Ezra M. Aldrich was born in Batavia, N. Y., January 15, 1832. His 
father died when he was a mere lad, leaving his widow with five chil- 
dren of which Ezra was the fourth. He remained at the place of his 
birth until he was nearly seventeen years old, going to school in the 
country and in Batavia. In 1848 he came to Michigan, and settled 
near Parma, where he began his western life by clerking in a store. 
In 1852 he went to California and for four years mined for gold, but 
with indifferent success, and in 1857 he returned to Jackson. He 
entered the employ of Hayden & Co., and he remained with that firm 
nearly ten years, having general charge of the business of its two mills 
most of the time. He spent two years in the oil regions of Pennsyl- 
vania, and then returned to Jackson and purchased an interest in the 
hardware business of Kice, Pratt & Gibson, where he remained four 


years. He then went to Mississippi and lived there nine years, farm- 
ing near Michigan City. In December, 1878, he returned to Jackson 
and took a position with the Withington & Cooley manufacturing 
company and retained it until the organization of the Union bank in 
1884. He was appointed cashier and held the position at the time of 
his death. A few years ago, in company with S. W. Phillips and his 
own son, he took the contract for making brooms at the prison, but 
sold out a short time ego. In 1861 he married the daughter of the late 
Judge J. E. Beebe, who with a son and two daughters survives him. 
He was a brother-in-law of Gen. W. H. Withington. 

Mr. Aldrich was active in church work and for a number of years 
has been a vestryman in St. Paul's church. He was also a highly 
esteemed member of Jackson lodge, No. 17, F. & A. M., and of Jack- 
son commandary, K. T. In his lodge he had held most of the offices 
and at the time of his death was treasurer. It is doubtful if any man 
in Jackson had as many friends as Ezra Aldrich and certainly no one 
had more. Enemies he had none, for to know him was to be his friend. 
He made friends by his sterling integrity, his high sense of honor and 
his uniform kindness and courtesy to all with whom he came in con- 
tact. His was a practical Christianity; he lived and exemplified his 
religion more than he talked it, and this gave him a powerful influence 
over young men. He was deeply interested in youth, entering into their 
hopes and aspirations, and always quietly but earnestly endeavored to 
lead their minds in the direction of right thoughts and upright lives 
His was the charity that vaunted not itself; it ended not alone with, 
deeds of kindness, but drew the mantle over the shortcomings of others, 
always ready to whisper good counsel in the ear of the erring and to 
aid in his reformation. Politically Mr. Aldrich was a staunch democrat 
but had never held office. This, however, was because he had per- 
sistently refused to accept the nominations that were often urged upon 

Death for him had no terrors and it may be that he felt its impend- 
ing coming. Only a day or two before while in conversation with a young 
friend he said that everything was ready if death should come to him 

(Jackson Citizen, Nov. 18, 1890.) 

The residents of Jackson were greatly surprised and pained last eve- 
ning, to learn of the sudden death, at Battle Creek, of Rev. Dr. C. S. 
Armstrong pastor of the Presbyterian church of this city. The first 

190 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

tidings of the sad affair came about 7:30 in a telegram to E. A. Hough. 
A few moments later D. S. Fleming was called up by telephone and 
informed of the death. The news was conveyed to his stricken wife 
in the easiest possible manner by Mrs. A. W. Stitt, with whom the 
Dr. and wife were boarding, at 222 West Wesley street. Other mem- 
bers of the church were notified and W. N. Eaton and Wm. Miller 
departed for Battle Creek to bring home the remains, which reached this 
city this morning. They were also accompanied by Rev. H. S. Jordan 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Lansing. From the latter 
gentleman the Citizen learned the particulars of Mr. Armstrong's sud- 
den demise. Mr. Jordan said in brief: " Dr. Armstrong and myself 
were holding special missionary service at Battle Creek. The doctor 
spoke well and powerfully at the afternoon meeting. While we were 
on our way to the church for the evening service, Mr. Armstrong com- 
plained of being unable to breathe. After a moment his difficulty was 
apparently overcome, and we walked arm in arm to the church. As we 
entered the vestibule he again complained of the same trouble and I 
assisted him to a seat and leaving him in charge of some ladies who 
were just entering I went for a physician. Returning I found Dr. 
Roaraback at his side and administering a remedy. The Rev. Dr. 
revived somewhat and urged me to open the meeting. A third attack 
came on shortly afterwards and the physician ordered him taken to his 
boarding place. A carriage was procured and we placed him in it, Dr. 
Roaraback and myself accompanying him. While on the way Mr. 
Armstrong revived and evidently realizing his condition fervently com- 
mended his wife and family to God. He then sank down and was to 
all intents dead before we reached the house, although he gasped 
once or twice after being taken in. Not knowing any of the mem- 
bers of his church here I telegraphed the news to E. A. Hough and 
afterwards learning of Mr. Fleming called him up by telephone." 

Dr. Armstrong was born at Parish ville, New York, sixty-four years 
ago, and came to Jackson county at an early age, residing in Spring- 
port. Obtaining a common school education, he spent one year as 
teacher in the Jackson high school, and then went to the university at 
Ann Arbor where he graduated in 1852. Returning to Jackson he 
secured the position of superintendent of the high school, which he 
held one year. Among his pupils at that time were Dr. C. H. Lewis, 
Mrs. Lucy Lewis, Mrs. Benj. Newkirk, and others residing in the city. 

From 1854, to 1857 he attended the Union Theological Seminary in 
New York. In the later year he removed to Lansing where he was 
ordained to the ministry and became pastor of the First Presbyterian 


church, where he remained eight years. In 1864-5 he served as chaplain 
of the fourth Michigan cavalry. Returning to Lansing at the close of 
the war, he served five years as the pastor of the Franklin Street Pres- 
byterian church. He then went to Alton, 111., where he preached eleven 
years, and then became synodical missionary for the state of Illinois, a 
position he held eight years. He came to -Jackson three years ago as 
pastor of the church here, since which time he has done a wonderful 
work in the Lord's vineyard. 

The doctor has never fully recovered from an attack of the la grippe 
last spring and has at various times complained of difficulty in breath- 
ing. When he left the city he appeared to be in usual good health. 
His death is believed to have resulted from heart disease. 

He leaves a widow and six children. Mrs. Nichols and Emily 
Armstrong, of Trinidad, Colorado; Mrs. Dr. Kennedy of Clifton Heights 
Pennsylvania; Harriett and Mary Armstrong, of Philadelphia; and 
James Armstrong, Rochester, N. Y. 


George Allen died very suddenly about ten o'clock, p. m., December 
29, 1890, at his residence corner First and Mason streets, Jackson, aged 
sixty-two years. Mr. Allen was about as usual the day before attending 
to his business affairs. During the evening he was attacked with hem- 
orrhage of the lungs and expired before anything could be done for 
his relief. 

Mr. Allen came to Jackson from Pontiac in 1871 and has since that 
time been engaged in the ice business. While serving in the Mexican 
war he contracted a disease which has in a great measure unfitted 
him for active duties and from which he never recovered. He was a 
member of Pontiac Commandery K. T., and of the Knights of Honor 
of Jackson. He leaves a wife and one daughter. 


On Monday, April 20, 1891, Mary A., wife of C. T. Beebe, died at 
her home, East Biddle street, Jackson, at the age of seventy-six. 

Mrs. Beebe was born in Pembroke, N. Y., January 23, 1815, and 
her girlhood was spent in that village. She married Mr. Beebe in 1835, 
and for fifty-seven years had been a wife. She was the mother of 
eight children, two of whom, Burton M. Beebe, of Jackson, and Mrs. W. 
S. Kessler, of Albion, are living. Mrs. Beebe came to Jackson with her 
husband in 1848, and has lived here for forty-three years. At the 
age of sixteen Mrs. Beebe united with the Baptist church and for 

192 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

sixty years had been a member of that church. She was a close 
student of the bible and was very familiar with the sacred volume, 
her delight being to read its pages time and again. Mrs. Beebe was 
an affectionate wife, a loving and tender mother, and a true friend 
and kind neighbor. These qualities made het many friends. The 
stricken husband has the sympathy f all in his great bereavement in 
the loss of his life's companion. For fifty-seven years they had happily 
walked the journey of life together. 


William Berrien died, October 5, 1890, at his residence, 518 West 
Main street, Jackson, aged seventy-seven years. Born in New Jersey 
in 1813, he early, with his parents, moved to the State of New York. 
In 1836, with the tide of immigration he came to Michigan and began 
his struggle with the wilds. He settled on the land in Sandstone, 
where he lived so many years and to secure the purchase of which he 
walked* to Jones ville one night against another man on horseback. 
With wonderful strength and energy, combined with exceeding good 
judgment and tact he rose rapidly to be the foremost financier of the 
locality where he lived. He had the rare faculty of making the people 
with whom he dealt his friends. He moved to Jackson in October, 
1873. His only living descendants are two grandchildren, Mrs. Marion 
L. Campbell and Mrs. Win. B. Waldron, and one great grandchild. 
And so another of those sturdy pioneers has gone down before the 
sickle of years. These pensioners on time are fast passing away and 
soon none will be left to tell the tale of the early days. 


Month by month the few remaining representatives of the sturdy 
generation of pioneers who came to Jackson county in the territorial 
days, are ceasing to relate the stories of their struggles and adventures, 
and are joining the great unseen majority of their associates. At about 
ten o'clock on Saturday morning, March 28, 1891, at the homestead in 
the northern part of the township of Concord, two and one-half miles 
southwest from the village of Parma, died Richmond Briggs, a highly 
respected citizen of this county, aged seventy-eight years, ten months 
nineteen days, and was interred in Sandstone township, in the cemetery 
a short distance east of Parma, the funeral occurring from the late 
residence on Tuesday, March 31. 

Richmond Briggs was the fourth of seven sons in a family of eleven 
children of Pardon and Betsey (Cook) Briggs; the former a native of 


Connecticut, son of John and Zilpha (Madison) Briggs, and the latter 
a native of Rhode Island, both of English ancestry. He was born in 
the town of Sheldon, Genesee (now Wyoming) Co., N. Y., May 9, 1812. 
He removed with his parents in 1830, to Livonia, Wayne Co., Mich. r 
and during the excitement over the Black Hawk war in 1832, he served 
for a short time in the militia under Col. Holbrook. 

In 1836, he came to the western part of Jackson Co., Mich., settling 
in Spring Arbor (now Concord), purchasing of the government the 
farm of 160 acres in section two of this township, whereon he has 
resided during the remaining fifty-five years of his quiet, useful life. 
Enjoying the entire confidence and respect of his neighbors and acquaint- 
ances, he was in 1872 elected a justice of the peace, and was regularly 
re-elected until 1881, when, upon declining a renomination at the hands 
of his republican fellow townsmen, his son, William C. Briggs, was 
chosen in his stead. For some time past, the deceased has been in 
very feeble health, but retained the full exercise of his faculties to the 

He married first in Concord, April 10, 1839, Caroline M. Chapman, 
daughter of Jesse and Belinda (Comstock) Chapman, who died April 
13, 1843, aged twenty-four years and three days, by whom he had two 
sons, the late William C. Briggs, who died at North Concord, Nov. 
6, 1889, aged forty-eight years, ten months and seventeen days, leaving 
a widow, three daughters and several grandchildren, and George W. 
Briggs, now of North Concord. He married secondly, June 4, 1843, 
Mary Swift, who was born February 9, 1810, daughter of Theodosius 
and Polly (Winchester) Swift, who survives him, and by whom he had 
one daughter, Delia Louisa, wife of Andrew LaFleur of North Concord. 
The deceased also leaves a brother, Dexter, and two younger brothers 
living at or near Plymouth, Mich. 

About 1847, his former wife's orphan niece, Martha M. Fuller, then 
but five weeks old, was taken into his family and given a home until 
her marriage in 1866, to Charles T. Ford, of Albion. A home was 
similarly given to John Kelly, from the age of nine years, until after 
attaining his majority. 

The deceased was uniformly honest and honorable in all his dealing, 
kind and considerate to all about him, and faithful in the various 
relations of life. His memory will long be cherished by his surviving 
relatives and friends. 


Frederick Cherier died at the residence of his son-in-law, Carl Eberle, 

194 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

in Jackson, Wednesday, December 17, 1890, at 3:30 o'clock p. m., aged 
sixty-six years, five months, and thirteen days. He was born in 
Nordhoffen, in Gotha, his father having been one of Napoleon's sol- 
diers who was left in Nordhoffen during the famous retreat from Mos- 
cow. Mr. Cherier came to this country in 1854 He was one of the 
charter members of the German Workingmen's Relief society, No. 1, 
and was connected with nearly all the German societies of the city. 
Mr. Cherier leaves a wife and one daughter in comfortable circum- 
stances. The daughter is the wife of Carl Eberle, of Jackson. Mr. 
Cherier reached his sixty-sixth year and has lived in Jackson thirty-six 
years. He has been a faithful husband, a kind father and has helped 
hundreds of people in need and withal was a true and firm friend. 
He was a member of the Harmonle society, where he held the office 
of treasurer during this term. * 


William Champlin died in Springport, December 10, 1890, aged eighty- 
three years. He was born in Saybrook, Connecticut, October 4, 1807. 
His parents moved to New York state, where he lived until 1851, when 
he came to Michigan. He stopped for three or four years in Michigan 
Center and then removed to Springport. In 1856 he married Lucinda 
Nelson by whom he had six children. She died in 1870, and 1878 he 
married Mrs. Louisa VanOrder. When a young man he worked at the 
trades of tailor, and carpenter and joiner, but after settling in Michigan 
devoted his time to farming, with good success. 


Wiliam N. Choate died at his home, 314 First street, Jackson, April 
16, 1891, after several years' illness. Mr. Choate had resided in Jackson 
for nearly forty-nine years, and during a long period was one of its 
most active and enterprising business men aiding in the development 
and growth of the city. He was among the pioneers of Jackson, and 
while in health did much to promote its progress. At one time he 
held large property interests, and erected several buildings, the resi- 
dence now owned by C. R. Kinckerbocker, Esq., and the Hamilton tea 
store being among the number. Some years, since Mr. Choate's health 
failed, and for a long period he has been a great sufferer from the 
malady that resulted in death. His age was seventy-six. 

Mr. Choate was born in Lansingburg, New York, in 1815. When 
two years of a^e his family removed to Auburn, where he received his 
education and also learned the trade of a tinner. He embarked in 


business in the same city, and after two years purchased an establish- 
ment in Rochester, which he conducted until 1842, when he came west 
and settled in Jackson, carrying on a hardware store here. He subse- 
quently became a partner in a foundry and machine making business, 
but finding it unprofitable retired from it at the end of three years. 
He was also prominently identified with coal mining in this county for 
several years, and did much to develop that interest. Mr. Choate was 
in the tin and hardware trade in Jackson for more than a quarter of a 
century. For the past twenty-two years he has retired from business, 
and when in health devoted his time largely to working for measures 
for the growth and improvement of the city, being especially interested 
in schools and the cause of education. He was united in marriage 
with Marilla Sackett, of Moravia, New York, in 1837, and was the 
father of eight children, six of whom, with the widow, survive him. 


Mrs. Eliza (Park) Church died at her home in Blackman, April 26, 
1891, of heart disease. She was one of the oldest settlers in the county, 
having located in Sandstone with her father, Rev. Jason Park, in 
1833. She was a member of the Congregational church, of this city, 
and respected by all who knew her. 


Martha S., wife of Jonathan Cady, died at her home three miles 
south of the village of Grass Lake, on Friday, April 8, 1891. Her age 
was sixty-three years. The deceased, who was a daughter of John V. 
Price, oame to Grass Lake township when she was but eight years old, 
and ever since has been one of its most respected residents. She was a 
native of New York, but her ancestors were Pennsylvanians. She was 
united with Jonathan Cady in marriage forty or forty-one years ago 
and was the mother of four children, all of whom survive her, to wit: 
Mrs. Mary L. Calley, of Vassar; A. O. Cady, of Jackson; Mrs. E. Jennie 
Cowden and H. D. Cady, of Grass Lake township. Mrs. Cady was an 
exemplary wife, a tender mother and a kind and generous neighbor. 
Her death is deeply regretted by a wide circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances, who will long miss the genial spirit that has taken its flight to 
the other world. 


Charles A. Crary died Monday morning, May 12, 1891, at his res- 
idence near Jefferson at the age of eighty-two years. He was born in 

196 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

New York and came to this county in 1835, settling on the farm where 
he died. Politically he was a republican and was one of those who 
assembled " under the oaks " at the " borning " of the party. He 
had held a number of township offices. He was a member of the 
Baptist church and a man who lived his religion. He helped to lay 
out the village of Jefferson and built the first woolen mill in this sec- 
tion. His wife died several years ago and since that time he has lived 
with his only son, Byron Crary. 


James Doremus died at his home in Parma, Saturday, April 4, 1891, 
aged eighty-one years. Mr. Doremus was born in Seneca county, New 
York, November 4, 1809, and removed with his parents to Delhi, Mich., 
in 1831. Ten years later he purchased a farm in Parma, where he 
has since resided. In 1833 he was united in marriage with Rebecca 
Barber, with whom he lived until her death, which occurred May 8, 
1880. He leaves five children, one being Thomas O. Doremus of 


Owen Ellison, one of Jackson's most substantial and prominent 
pioneers, died at the home of his son F. M. Ellison, in Summit, Friday, 
April 17, 1891, of disease incident to old age. 

Mr. Ellison was born at Newbery, New York, February 17, 1809, 
and was consequently eighty-two years of age. He removed to Freedom, 
Washtenaw county, Michigan, in 1835, and a year later to Summit, 
Jackson county, where he has since resided, and where he cleared and 
for many years worked a large farm, by which he secured a compe- 
tence. Mr. Ellison was one of nature's noblemen. He was never 
prominent in political circles, but gave his attention to his own private 
affairs, and gained the reputation of being an upright citizen and good 
man. He was a member of the Jackson county pioneer society and 
took a good deal of interest in its meetings. 


The Eev. Ebenezer Fisk died Sunday morning, Oct. 5, 1890, at the 
home of his son Eev. D. M. Fisk, pastor of the Congregational church 
Jackson, at the advanced age of eigthy-eight years. The last ten years 
of his venerable life were spent in the family of his son, four in 
Hillsdale and six in Jackson. His closing days were made peaceful 
and happy through reflections of a well spent life in the service of his 


Master. His son, Rev. Daniel M. Fisk and his family, by their filial 
care and solicitude, have been a source of continual sunshine which has 
brightened his fading years. 

Mr. Fisk was born in Boscawen, N. H., Oct. 1, 1802. He studied 
at the " old " New Hampton Institution, and when twenty years of age 
consecrated his life to God. He received license to preach in 1828 and, 
Nov. 4. 1830, was ordained by the Sandwich Q. M., becoming with his 
father, associate pastor of the Second New Hampton church. The 
father soon passed to his rest, and the son continued with the church 
twenty-five years. He also preached in Laconia, Hill, Alexandria, 
Bridgewater, Andover, Plymouth and Center Harbor. Almost single 
handed he lifted the Bristol church into life. He engaged in many 
revivals and baptized hundreds. By natural ties closely connected with 
the early "fathers," he was a typical Freewill Baptist, a pastor, an 
evangelist, a farmer, a valued and trusted citizen. 

He served in town offices and was five years representative in the 
state legislature. He was trustee and president of the corporation of 
New Hampton Institution for many years, as well as also a member of 
the board of corporators of the printing establishment. He was a man 
of consistent life, of generous deed, powerful in prayer, an able preacher 
especially valuable as a revivalist, though his long pastorates show that 
he was also a shepherd. He was married June 12, 1828, to Miriam A. 
Gordon. Their only surviving child, is Rev. Daniel M. Fisk, A. M. 


Col. Albert S. Follansbee died suddenly in Chicago on Tuesday, March 
31, 1891. Col. Follansbee commanded the portion of the forces of the 
6th Massachusetts infantry in its march through Baltimore on the 19th 
of April, 1861, when the soldiers were fired upon and massacred by the 
Baltimore rebels. He handled the troops admirably and conducted his 
forces .through the howling murderous mob, fighting his way at the 
head of command through the streets of death. His gallant conduct 
in repelling the assault, won him the title of " Hero of Baltimore." He 
served all through the war with distinction, and when the contest was 
over he located in Jackson, being the foreman of the Webster |and 
Courter tannery while that concern was running. When the institution 
was closed Col. F. removed to Chicago. He is well and pleasantly 
remembered by many citizens of those days. 

198 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


John Farrell, of Parma, died very suddenly April 7, 1891, at the 
advanced age of eighty-four years. 

Mr. Farrell was born in Ireland in July, 1807, and came to this 
country in 1850, settling in New York, where he remained six years. 
In 1856 he removed to Eaton Rapids, and two years later to Parma, 
where he has since resided. 

He was married January 11, 1829, to Miss Margaret Duffy, his wife 
surviving him. Eleven children were born to them, seven of whom are 
now living. These are Mrs. Mary Harrison, Mrs. Bridget Wall, Mrs. 
Maggie Ferguson, Mrs. S. W. Miller, Laurence Farrell of Jackson, 
Michael Farrell of Parma, and John Farrell of Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. Farrell has always enjoyed exceptionally good health. The 
morning of his death he arose as usual and went out to do his usual 
chores. Returning to the house shortly afterwards he sat down in a chair 
and almost instantly expired. 


The announcement of the death of Mrs. Caroline W. Gridley was 
received with sorrow by her large circle of friends. Mrs. Gridley was 
the daughter of John R. Todd and was born at Verona, N. Y., April 
1, 1816. On May 4, 1837 she was married to the late Judge G. Thomp- 
son Gridley, and came west, settling at Ypsilanti, where they resided 
seven years, coming to Jackson in 1844. Mrs. Gridley was a woman of 
rare executive ability and a strong mind. She at once became a mem- 
ber of the Congregational church. She was a devout Christian and an 
earnest worker for nearly half a century, but her declining years pre- 
vented her from taking an active part during the past two years. She 
was a faithful wife and fond mother, and only those who knew her 
intimately could properly appreciate her loving nature. Some two 
years ago she became ill with diabetes and never fully recovered. About 
two weeks ago she began to fail rapidly and was again confined to her 
bed. She passed away in a peaceful sleep at 3:30 p. m., Thursday, Jan. 
8, 1891. She leaves two daughters, Mrs. Norah Gridley, of Chicago, 
and Mrs. Florence Knight of Jackson. 


Oscar Harlow for fifty-two years a resident of the township of Grass 
Lake died at one o'clock, Sunday afternoon, Aug. 31, 1890, at his home 
three and one-half miles east of the village. 


"Oscar Harlow was born in Lodi, Washtenaw county, Nov. 28, 1836. 
He came with his parents to Grass Lake in the spring of 1838, and 
was brought up on a farm receiving a liberal education in the common 
schools. He attended the Grass Lake academy five or six terms, also 
the Detroit commercial college one term. He lived with his parents 
until his marriage with Miss Hortensia Francisco, which took place 
Oct. 31, 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Harlow have had three children, two of 
whom are living. After his marriage Mr. Harlow built on the site of 
his present home. He is a worthy member of the Grass Lake Con- 
gregational church." 


Chester E. Harrington departed this life on the morning of July 29, 
1890, at the advanced age of seventy-eight years. A little over four 
month ago he had an attack of la grippe, which his advanced age and 
enfeebled condition rendered incurable (other complications having set 
in) and finally resulted in death. 

Mr. Harrington was born in the town of Hartford, Otsego county, N. 
Y., on the 25th day of June, 1812. In 1817 his family removed to 
Genesee county, N. T., where he received his education and assisted 
his father on the farm. In 1830, whan he was eighteen years old, he 
resolved to cast his lot in the then far west Michigan. Accordingly 
he came on and entered from the government the farm near Jackson, 
where he lived for sixty years and where he died. 

After securing his land he returned to Genesee and made prepara- 
tions to move out and occupy it. Accordingly he placed his effects in 
a wagon and with an ox team started for his home in the wilderness. 
Driving through Canada he crossed the river at Detroit in a leaky flat- 
boat, which all hands were obliged to bale to keep afloat, and took his 
way to his territorial home through the unbroken forests, fording 
streams and dragging his load through mud and quagmire at times 
almost impassable. He finally, after eight days of constant struggle, 
arrived at his farm and laid down under his wagon box the first night 
for much needed rest and repose. The next day he built a shanty to 
protect himself from the animals and elements, and thereafter laid his 
plans for a Michigan farmer, in which he was eminently successful. 

In 1824, in the little village of Jacksonburgh, he married Miss Julia 
Ann Godfrey, who also came to Michigan in 1831, from Genesee, and who 
now survives him. To them eight children were born, four of which 
are still living, to wit: Jerome Harrington, of Jackson, Mrs. Byron 
Foote, Flavel, and Chester E. Harrington, of Summit. Mr. Harrington 

200 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

lived a quiet, unostentatious life, rigidly adhering to the honorable and 
the right, and leaving an unsullied name to his family, and friends 
who survive him. 


Wednesday afternoon, December 3, 1890, about three o'clock, Mrs. 
Henry A. Hay den died at the residence on Blackstone street, Jackson, 
after an illness of but little more than a week. She was attacked with 
pneumonia and seemed to be doing so well that her recovery was 
looked for up to Sunday, when the disease took an alarming tarn and 
she sank rapidly. 

Mrs. Hayden was sixty-three years of age and had been a resident of 
this county for many years. Her maiden name was Mary P. Stevens. 
She was married to Hon. H. A. Hayden, December 22, 1862. She was 
one whose death will be widely mourned, for hers were qualities of 
the head and heart that inspire and retain feelings of affection. An 
earnest Christian, her charity was widespread but unobtrusive. She 
leaves one daughter, Miss Annie, who is at present in the south, a 
brother in Missouri and a sister in Concord. 


On the morning of December 23, 1890, Almerin Hatt, of the town- 
ship of Liberty, left the house with the supposed intention to do some 
work on his farm. Not returning in a reasonable time, search was 
made for him and his lifeless body was found in a spring near the 
house. Mr. Hatt had not been in perfect health for a long time, being 
subject to fits, which at times appeared to mentally incapacitate him 
and the probability is that in passing the spring he was suddenly 
seized with sickness, and falling into the water, head foremost, was 

Mr. Hatt was born in Tompkins county, N. Y., in 1830, and was 
consequently about sixty years of age. He came to Washtenaw county, 
Michigan, in 1835, where the family remained a year, afterwards 
removing to Jackson county and settling on a farm in what is now the 
township of Napoleon, half a mile south of Eldred station. He mar- 
ried Mary Crouch thirty years ago and moved to Liberty, where he 
has since resided. A wife and three children survive him, also two 
sisters, Mrs." E. P. Davis and Mrs. Mary Carpenter, both of whom 
reside in Jackson, and three brothers, Nathan, James and Isaac, two of 
whom live on the old homestead and the other in the immediate vicinity. 



Harry Hague died Friday morning, May 15, 1891, at the residence, 
215, South Blackstone street, Jackson, where he had lived thirty-six 
years. He was attacked with grip over a year ago and never recovered 
his strength, his death resulting, however, from Bright's disease. 

He was born in Derbyshire, England, August 31, 1824, and at the 
age of fourteen was apprenticed to learn the trade of frescoing, grain- 
ing and painting. He came to this country in 1851. He remained in 
New York until 1852, when he removed to Jackson and has resided here 
ever since. His first work was the frescoing of St. Paul's church, and 
it was so satisfactory that he soon received orders from all over the 
State. He carried on an extensive business, employing as high as 
twenty men, and retired from active business a few years ago, having 
accumulated considerable property. He was married in England to Miss 
Mary Ann Morley who, with two sons, Edmund H., and Ed rick H., 
and a daughter, Mrs. E. M. Evans, survives him. He was a good citi- 
zen and leaves behind a large circle of warm friends. 


William D. Hitchcock died May 23, 1891, at Tougaloo, Miss., after 
an illness of one week. Mr. Hitchcock was attacked with typhoid 
fever, which terminated in congestion of the brain, and the end soon 
came. Mr. Hitchcock was a native of this county and resident here 
for many years. Eight years since he was elected secretary of the 
Tougaloo university and educational institute where the colored people 
are taught, and he filled the place worthily and well. Mr. Hitchcock 
was a good citizen, a Christian man whose interest in promoting good 
works was always manifested. The body arrived May 26, and the 
funeral was held at the Freewill Baptist church that afternoon. Mr. 
Hitchcock was a prominent and active member of this church when 
he lived in Jackson, and sorrowing friends today paid the tribute 
of respect to his memory. He leaves a wife and daughter to mourn 
his loss. 


Hon. D. B. Hibbard died at 1:30 o'clock, Wednesday afternoon, Sept. 
24, 1890. He had been far from strong all summer but went east two 
weeks before to attend the races in Boston, and while there took cold. 
He came home Monday Sept. 15, and the next day Dr. J. T. Main 
was called to see him and found him suffering from collapse, such as 

202 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

usually accompanies some grades of typhoid fever. At no time did the 
physician entertain more than a grain of hope of his recovery. 

Mr. Hibbard was born in Phelps, N. Y., Aug. 13, 1818 and had just 
passed his seventy-second birthday. His father died when he was but 
four years old arid after reaching the age of twelve he left school and 
for the next six years earned his living by various occupations. He 
came to Jackson, June 1, 183b', with three dollars as his total cash 
assets for starting life in a new country. But he was accustomed to 
hard work and was not at all discouraged, and soon secured a job of 
driving stage at fourteen dollars a month. Later he entered the employ 
of Paul B. Ring and drove stage to Adrian. His fortunes mended and 
in time he became owner of several lines. In company with the late 
Morris Knapp he started a line of daily stages to Lansing and drove 
the first stage and carried the first mail to that point after it was 
selected as the state capital. He was interested in lines running to 
Grand Rapids, Detroit, Adrian, Hillsdale, Chicago and other places. 
These were continued until the railroads supplanted them. He brought 
the first steel spring iron axle buggy to Jackson, established the first 
livery stable and by his means and under his supervision the Hibbard 
house was built. He was also largely interested in erecting the first 
electric light plant in the city, and built the opera house that bears his 
name. He also organized the Hibbard Rheumatic Syrup company, 
recently removed to Detroit. He early took an active interest ' in the 
breeding of fine horses, and to him is due much of the credit which 
this county and section have gained in this direction. He was also an 
extensive owner of real estate, both in the city and throughout the 
State. He was also a stockholder in the People's National bank. 
Politically he was a staunch democrat and took an active part in the 
battles of his party. He was not an office seeker, but in 1865 was 
elected mayor of Jackson and served one year. Personally he was a 
man of plain unassuming manners, warmly attached to his friends, never 
uncertain in his convictions of right and wrong and never lacking the 
courage to stand by them. Though somewhat irascible at times, his 
impulses were entirely kindly and his warm heart led him to perform 
many acts of charity in a way that the world did not know of. By 
most of his acquaintances he was known as "Uncle Dan." 

In 1840 he was married to Esther Darrah, who survives him, as do 
four children, viz.: William, of Little Rock, Ark., Daniel B., Mrs. E. R. 
Smith and Mrs. Elizabeth Burrell. 



Frederick W. Kirtland, Esq., died at his home, 127 West Wilkins 
street, Jackson, April 7, 1891, after several week's illness, in the eighty- 
fifth year of his age. 

Mr. Kirtland was born in Durham, Greene county, New York, July 
16, 1806, where his youth was passed. He first engaged in business at 
New London, Connecticut, and for six years carried on a dry goods 
store. In 1843 Mr. Kirtland came to Jackson, where he opened a 
dry goods store and continued in that line for a lengthy period. For 
many years he was an active, pushing business man, but of late he 
has not given attention to trade. 

On coming to Jackson forty-seven years ago, Mr. Kirtland took an 
active part in the work of the First Congregational church, aiding in 
promoting the building up of that society, which had been organized 
two years prior to the arrival of Mr. Kirtland. He was clerk of the 
church for several years, and was one of its deacons for nearly a third 
of a century. He helped organize its Sabbath school in 1843, was 
its first superintendent, and continued an active worker in the school 
for over twenty-five years. 

Mr. Kirtland was married to Eliza Crump Cleveland, daughter of 
Judge Cleveland, in New London, Connecticut, who died in 1839. In 
1843 he married Betsey S. Cross, daughter of Thomas Cross, of 
Portland, Maine, who survives him. He was the father of eight chil- 
dren, seven of whom are now living. There were four brothers and 
three sisters in Mr. Kirtland's father's family,, all but one of whom 
have preceded him to the other land. One sister, Mrs. Cooper Say- 
ers, of Phillips, New York, survives him. 

Mr. Kirtland resided in Jackson for over forty-seven years. He was 
one of the pioneers of that city, for a long time was one of its active 
merchants and business men, and aided in building up the town and 
advancing its prosperity. He was the warm friend of the church and 
delighted in promoting the cause of religion. In the long time he was 
among us he met all the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, and 
was among the best of citizens, friends and neighbors. Of a kindly, 
generous nature, remarkable in its quiet strength and equitable distri- 
bution, he was the friend of all good causes and his life has made the 
world better for the living. By his sterling qualities of head and heart 
he won the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. A deep regret 
is felt by all his friends over the end of this long and useful life. 

There was a large number in attendance upon the funeral services 

204 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

which were held at his late residence Sunday afternoon. Eev. D. M. 
Fisk officiated and the music was furnished by Mrs. E. Averill, Miss 
Gregg, Messrs. F. E. Haynes and Lewis. The pall bearers were "W. 
W. Bennett, W. C. Lewis, N. C. Lowe and Edward Dack, all deacons 
of the Congregational church. 


Mrs. Ann E. Kennedy, wife of George W. Kennedy, died at Orion, 
Friday morning, April 17, 1891, aged sixty-four years. 

Mrs. Kennedy was born in Arcadia, N. Y., April 24, 1827, removing 
to Summerfield Monroe county, Michigan, 1831. She was married to 
Mr. Kennedy, April 4, 1849, and lived in Hanover from that time until 
November 15. 1864, when they came to Jackson. Mrs. Kennedy had 
been a sufferer from cancer for years and went to Orion a few weeks 
before for treatment, but the disease had obtained too strong a hold to be 
overcome. She was a woman of estimable and lovable character, of 
high intellectual attainments, of noble sympathies, one who was ever 
ready to hearken to the cry for aid from those in distress. She bore 
with patient resignation her protracted and unceasing affliction. While 
at Orion she was supported and comforted by the presence of her 
daughter, Mrs. W. M. Dodge, who has been untiring in her efforts to 
relieve her mother's last suffering. 


Miss Lois A. Longyear died at her home in the village of Grass 
Lake, at one p. m., Sunday, June 8, 1890, aged seventy-five years. The 
deceased had a premonition of her approaching dissolution, and wrote 
down with her own hand the arrangements for her funeral and burial. 
She said she desired no sermon preached over her remains, only a 
couple of familiar hymns sung and a few remarks by her pastor. She 
then wished her body placed in the vault to remain as long as might 
seem advisable before interment. Her wishes in these particulars were 
duly carried out. On Friday, 6th, during the day she lay down and 
sank into a slumber from which she never wakened. Miss Longyear 
was born in 1815, in Schandakin, Ulster county, N. Y. She came to 
Michigan and settled in Grass Lake in 1837, and here she had ever 
since resided. Experiencing religion early in life, the deceased became 
a charter member, so to speak, of an M. E. class at Leoni, there 
being but one member now left, Mrs. Torrey of Grass Lake. Subse- 
quently when the Grass Lake M. E. church was organized she joined 
its membership and to the last faithfully persevered in that faith. For 


many years she and a bachelor brother resided together, and possessing 
a comfortable property, lived in independence and ease. The funeral 
occurred at the family residence on Tuesday, and was conducted by Rev. 
O. F. Winton. 


Mary, wife of John Malnight, died at her home at 2 o'clock 
Thursday afternoon, July 10, 1890, aged fifty-two years. Besides 
her husband she leaves six living children (five having died) all of 
whom were about her bedside when she breathed her last. She suc- 
cumbed to inflammation of the bowels, caused by an attack of dysentery, 
and was sick only about nine days. The deceased enjoyed the respect 
and esteem of her friends and acquaintances, and her kindliness of 
heart and domestic tastes endeared her especially to the members of 
her household. She will be sadly missed from her home circle. She 
was a member of the Baptist church. 


Patrick O'Neill died at his late home in Eives, July 11, 1890, of 
kidney disease, after an illness of three weeks of terrible suffering 
borne patiently to the end. Although a man of four score years and 
ten, his constitution and strength were remarkable to the last. His 
mind was as clear as it was fifty years ago. He never had a headache, 
toothache, earache, neuralgia or rheumatism. 

In his habits. he was thoroughly temperate and he never used tobacco 
in any form and used liquor as a medicine when recommended by his 
physician as necessary. The deceased was born in the parish of 
Groom, county of Limerick, Ireland, March 14, 1800. He remained at 
home until after the death of his parents, and landed in America in 
1848, and settled at Geneva, Seneca county, N. Y. In 1854, he came 
to Washtenaw county, Michigan, where he remained seventeen years. 
In 1871 he purchased his farm in Rives where he resided until he died. 
He leaves a widow and seven children, four sons and three daughters, 
in comfortable circumstances. He was a good husband, a kind and 
loving father, and an honest, upright, truthful citizen. In politics he 
was a democrat. 


William W. Perry died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. T. CX 
Faulkner, 1216 East Main street, Jackson, at midnight, September 25, 
1891, from dropsy of the heart, resulting from la grippe. 

206 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Mr. Perry was born at Slaterville, Rhode Island, in 1815. In 1856, 

he came to Michigan, settling in Jackson, where he has since resided 
He was a carpenter by trade and followed this branch of business 
until a short time ago, when his health failed. He has been twice 
married, and leaves a widow and three daughters, Mrs. E. L. Cooper 
by a former marriage, Mrs. T. C. Faulkner and Mrs. M. S. Larrabee. Mr. 
Perry was a quiet, unassuming gentleman, and was highly esteemed by 
all with whom he came in contact. 


On Wednesday, April 9, 1890, Benjamin Patch died at his home in 
Liberty, after an illness of several months from consumption. Mr. 
Patch was one of Jackson county's pioneers, and during all the years 
in which he has resided in this county he has ranked high as a citizen, 
and goes to his grave mourned by a large circle of friends. Deceased 
was born in Bennington county, Vermont, in 1824. His parents 
removed to Oswego county, New York, when he was but two years old, 
and when he was nine years old they removed to Niagara county, and 
in that year his father died, leaving a widow and ten children. At the 
age of thirteen years he came to Liberty, with his uncle Joseph Patch, 
and here he resided till the day of his death, and here he married in 
1849 Miss Louisa Sutfin, who survives him with one daughter, Mrs. Polly 
Palmer of Liberty, and four sons. Of these Anthony and Stephen, the 
two eldest, are respected residents of Jackson, while George resides in 
Somerset, and Gifford, the youngest, lives on the old homestead. In all 
the walks of life Mr. Patch was an honored citizen, and during the 
fifty-three years he has been a resident of this county, he has won a 
large concourse of friends who speak of him only in terms of praise. 
He realized that his end was approaching, and with calm fortitude 
accepted the situation. 

" Like one who lays down to pleasant dreams 
He drew the drapery of his couch about him " 

and welcomed death. A good, true man has gone out from among us 
forever; but ah! he is the gainer. 


On Friday evening, September 5, 1890, Henry C. Palmer entered the 
office of Dr. H. J. Hale to obtain medicine for his personal relief when 
he suddenly sank down and died. His malady was heart disease, from 
which he had been a sufferer for a number of years. Help was sum- 


moned and the remains were conveyed to the residence of the distressed 
family, who were overwhelmed with grief at their sudden affliction. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1844. In the fall 
of 1861 he enlisted in the 16th Michigan Infantry, and did brave and 
honorable service at the front. He fought on the bloody field of Gettys- 
burg, and during the second day's engagement was severely wounded 
by a shot through the body. After recovering he again took his place 
in the ranks and in a fight received a ball in the left arm which was 
amputated, when, in 1865, he was discharged from the service. Return- 
ing to Michigan he learned telegraphy at Chelsea and entered the ser- 
vice of the Michigan Central railroad. He was stationed first at Three 
Oaks and afterwards at Battle Creek and Lake Station, coming to 
Grass Lake in 1871, where he resided up to the time of his death. 
He was one of the oldest operators on the Central and one of the 
most faithful and accurate. Although his bodily afflictions must have 
been at times almost unbearable, still he could ever be found at his 
post ready to perform its duties. 


Catharine H. Pierce, wife of Charles L., died Sunday, May 10, 1891, 
at 2 p. m., aged fifty-six years, four months and ten days. Deceased was 
born at Alexander Bay, Jefferson county, N. Y., December 31, 1834. 
She was married March 4, 1854, and at once settled in Jackson, where 
she has resided ever since. Her husband and nine children are left to 
mourn her loss. The children are: Inez L., wife of Byron C. Rowley; 
Frank C. of Jackson; Charles D. of Chicago; Lotta S. wife of Wesley 
G. Becker of New York city; George E., Eliza M., of Jackson; John M., 
of New York city; Harry C. and Don W., of Jackson, all of whom 
are at present at home. Mrs. Pierce had been sick for nearly a year 
and was a great sufferer. The death of this estimable lady will be 
mourned by all who knew her. 

A large number of friends gathered at the residence of C. L. Pierce 
Wednesday, for the la^t sad rites over the remains of Mrs. Pierce. The 
services were simple but impressive. Rev. R. B. Balcom read the 
burial service, and Mrs. Z. W. Waldron and Miss Lizzie Gregg rend- 
ered the music. The six sons of the deceased acted as pall bearers, 
and the remains were interred at Mt. Evergreen. 


Mrs. Jeannette S. Rice, wife of Ethan H. Rice, died at her home 
Tuesday morning, November 25, 1890, after a long illness. That this 

208 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

estimable lady has passed away will be learned with deep sorrow by 
all who knew her. Mrs. Rice had reside^ in Jackson for many years 
and was beloved by all her acquaintances. As a friend and neighbor 
her kindly nature and Christian heart won her devoted friends. To 
those in distress she was a true helper, and the suffering never appealed 
to her in vain. Early residents will remember the noble work of this 
Christian lady during the dreadful scourge of cholera in the village of 
Jackson; she administered to the sick, comforted the suffering and 
assisted in the lait sad offices when others held back. A life of devo- 
tion to her family and friends is ended, but a precious memory of 
good deeds remains. 


Benjamin W. Rockwell died at the residence of his son in Leoni r 
Saturday, March 28, 1891, aged seventy-nine years and two months. 

Benjamin W. Rockwell was born in New York city January 31, 1812. 
His parents, Thomas and Sarah (Tylee) Rockwell, emigrated to Onon- 
daga county, N. Y., when he was six years old, and purchased a farm, 
where Benjamin remained until 1837; he then went to Cleveland, Ohio, 
for five years, then came to Jackson, where his father and mother died, 
after being together over fifty years. His father was a deacon in the 
Congregational church at the time of his death. Mr. Rockwell visited 
Michigan in 1836, and being well pleased with the country, returned to 
Ohio, and the following year brought a stock of goods and opened a 
general store in Jackson, opposite where the Commercial hotel now 
stands. He remained in business two years, and sold to David Ford. 
He then engaged in the crockery business, it being the first crockery 
store in Jackson. He followed this business two years, when he pur- 
chased what is known as Rockwell's addition, and pursued the life of a 
farmer for a good many years. About four years ago he went to live 
with his son, Thomas, in Leoni, where he died. Three children survive 
him, Edward, Thomas and Mrs. F. A. Palmer. 


David H. Ranney died suddenly in Rives township, on Monday, 
March 30, 1891, of heart disease, aged sixty-nine years. He was born in 
Middlesex county, Connecticut, on July 18, 1820, and came to Jackson 
at an early date. He was a resident of California for a number of 
years, during which time he was elected postmaster, and in 1860, he 
moved back to this State, and bought the farm which he has lived 
upon until his death. He has many friends who will mourn his loss. 
He leaves a wife and seven children. 



Calvin Silsbee died at his home in Henrietta, Sunday morning, 
December 14, 1890, of cancer of the stomach. He had been sick for some 
time with Bright's disease, but had recovered from that when the 
affection that took his life made its appearance. He was seventy-four 
years of age and had lived in this county over forty years. Some 
fifteen years ago he was charged with the murder of his brother-in-law, 
who was killed while falling a bee tree, but his innocence was clearly 
proven, He was a man held in high esteem by his neighbors. 


Peter Smith died at his home on West Washington street, near 
First, Jackson, at 2 o'clock Tuesday morning, February 24, 1891, after 
an illness of nearly six months. 

The immediate cause of his death was a stroke of paralysis, he hav- 
ing suffered a stroke two weeks before, since which time the vocal 
chords were paralyzed and he could not speak, neither could he 
partake of food. 

The remarkable part of Peter Smith's life was that he had driven 
the team to the wagon which drew out agricultural tools for thirty 
years. He began when Lathrop & McNaughton were the prison con- 
tractors, and when they gave place to Withington, Cooley & Co., he 
still held the reins and continued there until ill health forced him to 
take to his bed. 

He was a kindly man, a good father, and true to all that goes to 
make up the sum of daily life an honest man. He leaves a wife and 
grown up daughters. 


David W. Snow died in Parma, May 22, 1891, aged sixty-nine years 
and seven days. Mr. Snow was born in Rutland, Vermont, May 15, 
1825, and came to Michigan in 1848. He had lived most of the time 
in Sandstone since he came to Michigan, and for twenty-eight years 
had been an invalid. His loyal wife had cared for him kindly and 
tenderly all these years, with the help of her children. The funeral 
was largely attended Sunday, May 24, 1891. 


After an illness of several weeks Joseph F. Samroons died at his 
residence, 506 South Jackson street, at two o'clock Saturday afternoon, 


210 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

April 18, 1891. His sickness began with la grippe and developed into 
catarrhal pneumonia, with a complication of brain fever. Mr. Sammons 
was a patient sufferer through his lingering illness, and his features in 
death bear an expression of peaceful resignation. His illness was 
closely watched by a large number of people, who recognized the fact 
that in his death Jackson looses one of its noblest and most useful 

Mr. Sammon's mother, Mary L. Sammons, aged eighty-eight years, 
and four sisters, besides his wife and son, Arthur N., are left to mourn 
.his loss. The sisters are Mrs. John Mafoin, Owosso; Mrs. Amasa 
Quivey, Parma, and Mrs. George Wilcox and Mrs. George Hadden, of 

Joseph F. Sammons was born March 9, 1830, in Orwell, Rutland 
county, Vermont, and is of Holland ancestry. His father, Cornelius 
Sammons, removed to Michigan when Joseph was less than three years 
old, settling in Webster, Washtenaw county, but he remained there 
only a year and a half, moving next to Blackman township, Jackson 
county, where he purchased a farm. The failing health of his father 
left Mr. J. F. Sammons in charge of the farm when only eighteen 
years old, the only schooling he received being before that time in the 
country schools, bat he was of a studious disposition and learned much 
by the perusal of instructive books. He remained on the farm until 
1868 and in the meantime as the country became settled up, in 
addition to his farming operations, he engaged in the sale of agricult- 
ural implements. After leaving the farm Mr. Sammons removed to 
Jackson and conducted the implement business here until 1870, when 
he was elected justice of the peace for a four year's term. Since that 
time he has refused all nominations for office, but has been an ardent 
and earnest democrat, and was a member of the board of police com- 
missioners at the time of his death, having been appointed a year ago 
by Mayor Knight. In 1874 he commenced the erection of the Sam- 
mons block and in 1876 engaged with Mr. Quivey in the business of 
funeral director and embalmer, Mr Quivey retiring in 1880. While a 
resident of Blackman he served that township seven years as supervisor, 
from 1862 to 1868 inclusive, being chairman of the board the latter 

Mr. Sammons has done much to bring into closer relations the funeral 
directors of the State. To the original call for the State covention in 
Jackson in 1880 his name was attached and on the organization of 
the association he was chosen vice president, besides taking a leading 
part in the deliberations of the convention and doing efficient work in 


committee. The following year at Grand Rapids he was re-elected vice 
president. He has also held the office of treasurer and delegate to 
international conventions of the association. Speaking of his usefulness 
to the association the Casket of May, 1881, published at 'Rochester, 
New York, said: " 'Tis better that a man's own works than that 
another man's words should praise him." 

While a resident of Blackman, Mr. Sammons was united in marriage at 
Kalamazoo, in 1855 to Miss Isabella A. Smith, a native of Wyoming 
county, New York, to wjiom were born two children Cora E., born 
in 1860 and died in 186*2, and Arthur N., born February 20, 1863, 
who was engaged in business with his father at the time of the latter' s 

Mr. Sammons was a member of Jackson lodge No. 17, F. & A. M., 
having joined that organization in 1864, and for some years was its 
treasurer. He was fond of travel and has visited most places of inter- 
est from Dakota to Florida, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and being 
a keen observer and possessing marked literary talent, has corresponded 
with different papers, his contributions to the Patriot at different times 
during his travels having been read with great interest. 

The death of Mr. Sammons was learned by his many friends with 
sincere regret, his kindly nature having won for him the highest 
esteem of all with whom he came in contact, either socially or in a 
business way. He did much to aid in the progress and development 
of Jackson and will be long remembered for his noble spirit and 
kindly deeds. 


Sarah Wisner was born in Pen Yan, Yates county, New York, on the 
31st day of March, 1829, and was the daughter of Henry A Wisner. 

The maiden name of her mother was Susan Hathaway. Henry A. Wis- 
ner, the father of Mrs. Shoemaker, died at the early age of forty -one years, 
but not before he had attained a high rank in the legal profession of 
which he was a member. He graduated at Union college in 1820; was 
admitted to the bar of the supreme court in 1823; and commenced the 
practice of the Jaw in Pen Yan, Yates county, where he continued to 
reside until his death, on the 22d of December, 1840. 

The following extract is from an obituary notice: 

" Amongst Mr. Wisner's college mates were some of the most distin- 
guished men of the day, as William H. Seward, Elias K. Kane, U. S. 
senator from Illinois, Judge William Kent, Bishop Doan of New Jer- 
.sey and others. Among these distinguished men he stood preeminent, 

212 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

and bore off the highest honors of his class. At an early day he took 
a high rank amongst his associates as a sound and able lawyer and 
counselor; distinguished for his clearness of perception, and the ready 
adaptation of the principles of law to the particular case in hand, and 
the skill and facility with which he selected and presented its strong 
points from a mass of testimony." 

Polydore B. Wisner, of Geneva, New York, the grandfather of Mrs. 
Shoemaker was a pioneer in western New York, and was a lawyer of 
distinction. He was district attorney for the western district of New 
York when it was composed of all the counties west of Madison. 

Henry Wisner, of Orange county, New York, the great grandfather of 
Mrs. Shoemaker, was " one of the members of the Continental Congress 
of 1776 who voted for the declaration of independence, and was subse- 
quently a member of the state committee of safety for New York; 
and of the convention which formed the constitution of the state of 
New York in 1777." 

Mr. Hathaway the maternal grandfather of Mrs. Shoemaker was one of 
the pioneers of Yates county, New York, and a member of the 
well-known Hathaway family of New Bedford, Mass., from which place 
he emigrated. 

Mrs. Shoemaker was well worthy of this ancestry, and by her natural 
gifts, and by her acquirements, did credit to it. In quickness of per- 
ception she was excelled by few. Fond of books, a large part of her 
leisure was given to reading, and from this source she derived more 
pleasure than from any other outside of her domestic circle. Her 
reading covered the entire range of literature, and she was as much, 
if not more, interested in what is called solid, than in light literature. 

Of a happy, cheerful disposition, she was as a conversationalist 
unsurpassed; her varied knowledge, ready wit, and pleasant manners giv- 
ing her intercourse with others a charm which made her the center 
of attraction with her large circle of friends, and especially endeared 
her to all within her home circle. 

Mrs. Shoemaker was of a singularly hospitable disposition, and noth- 
ing gave her greater gratification than opening her house to, and 
entertaining her friends. It was, however, in her laome life, in and 
with her family where the charm of her kindly disposition, her agree- 
able manners and her affectionate feelings were mostly apparent. It 
was here that she was most lovely and most beloved; it was here where 
she was best known, and most appreciated, and where her death has 
caused the greatest void. 

It is in her home that her loss is most keenly felt, it is there that 


ihe loving, kindly, bright and agreeable wife and mother has left hearts 
that will, while life lasts, mourn over their separation, in this life, 
from the crowning glory of their home. 

Mrs. Shoemaker had a slight stroke of -paralysis on the 15th of 
December, 1890, and for two or three months there was strong hope of 
her recovery, but the disease gradually, from that time, acquired 
greater force, and terminated fatally on the 30th day of April, 1891, 
when she calmly and peacefully passed away. 

Mrs. Shoemaker bore her long sickness with Christian fortitude and 
resignation, having been for some time before her death aware that her 
disease must have a fatal termination. 

Her funeral was conducted by the Rev. B. B. Balcom, of the Episcopal 
church, and the affectionate regard of her friends was manifested by 
the profusion of flowers at her funeral, and the many letters of condo- 
lance received by her sorrowing and berieved family. 

Mrs. Shoemaker was twice married. Her first husband was the Bev, 
James Bichards, Presbyterian minister of Pen Yan, New York. 

She was married to Hon. Michael Shoemaker in 1857, since which 
time she has been a resident of the city of Jackson. 

Mrs. Shoemaker was the mother of ten children, four of whom sur- 
vive her; Mrs. Lizzie Marean, the daughter of her first marriage, and 
wife of Josiah Marean, a prominent lawyer of Brooklyn, New York. 

Her children by her second marriage are Mrs. Susan Gertrude Win- 
penny, wife of J. Bolton Winpenny, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 
Bowen Wisner Shoemaker, a practicing lawyer of Chicago, Illinois; and 
Margaret Winifred Shoemaker, now living with their father at their 
home in Jackson. 

The son-in-law and daughter of Mrs. Shoemaker, Mr. and Mrs. Win- 
penny have caused a beautiful memorial window to be placed in St. 
Paul's Episcopal church, at Jackson, as a token of love, from their 
children, for the grandmother they loved so well. 


William H. Spratt, one of the circuit jurors was taken ill Thursday, 
May 21, and was excused. He immediately went to his home in Con- 
cord but pneumonia developed and he rapidly grew worse until Friday 
night, May 22, 1891, when he died. 

Mr. Spratt was born in Washington county, New York, and was one 
of the earliest settlers of Michigan, having come here in 1835 with his 
father who settled on a farm in Concord township. He leaves a host 
of friends who mourn his loss. He was an excellent citizen and his 

214 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

funeral on Sunday was attended by 1,500 people. Among the number 
were seventeen jurors, besides sheriff Boyle, stenographer Daniels and 
county clerk Tefft. 

Mr. Spratt was a delegate to the republican senatorial convention 
which was held at Hillsdale in 1890, which nominated Gen. W. H. 


Mrs. Maria Warner died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. C. 
Calkins, 405 Francis street, Jackson, at two o'clock Monday morning, 
May 18, 1891, of paralysis, aged eighty-one years. 

Deceased was a pioneer of Jackson, coming here fifty-two years ago. 
She was born in Trumansburg, New Jersey, February 13, 1810. When 
a young woman she came west with her parents and settled at Ypsi- 
lanti, moving thence to Brooklyn and thence to Jackson in 1839, resid- 
ing there ever since. Her husband, Gustavus Warner, died eighteen 
years ago. She was for many years a member of the Baptist church. 
Of her children, Mrs. Calkins alone survives. Two sisters, Mrs. J. P. 
Kay wood, of Leoni, and Mrs. Emily Updyke, of Dansville, N. Y., 

survive her. 


Jonathan Wood one of the pioneers of Jackson county, died at his 
home in Blackman, Saturday, December 20, 1890, of pneumonia. 

Mr. Wood was born in Keene, New Hampshire, September 20, 1815, 
and came to Michigan with his parents in 1830, settling in Blackman, 
where his father, Jothan Wood, erected the first frame house in the 

In 1849, in company with his father and another brother, Mr. Wood 
went to California. After a few month's stay he returned, and until 
1862 he resided on his farm in Ingham county. After the death of 
his father the homestead came into his possession and he has resided 
there since. February 16, 1875, he was united in marriage with Olive 
J. Haight, who, with one son, Jay J. Wood, survives him. He also 
leaves three brothers, Lincoln Wood, of Jackson; Chas. Wood of Black- 
man and George Wood of Sandstone. 




Pioneers who died since June 1, 1890. 




Elizabeth Stuart 

June 24 


Elizabeth N. Cope. ... 

" 29 


Mrs. T. K. Russell. 

JulyS. . . . 


Cornelia Hill. 

" 28 


Lint her Torrey. . * 

August 1. . . . 


Samuel B. Balch 



Dr. G. R. Weightman 



Hanna E. Emerson _ . .... 



Emeline Sherman.. 

" 9 


Augusta W. H. Barrett 

" 15 


Harriet Van Vlick 

" 19 . . 


James W. Rosebrook. 

" 22 


Elizabeth Balch. 

" 25 


John W. Breese (State Pioneer).. . 

8ept*wnhfvr 10 


Cornelius Abraham. ... .... 

October 10.. 


Mrs. Edwin Mason 

" 15 


John Stimson.. 

" 22 


Randall Drake 



John Snmner 

" 9 


Col. Orlando H. Moore 

" 13. 


John Drnmmond... '._ 

np,fnhr 2 


Phoebe Smith . 

" 4 


D. D. McMartin... 

" 5 


Sarah McMaster. 


Lidia P. Kinney 

" 10 


George W. Earl 

" 12 


John Dudgeon 



Moses Kingsley (State Pioneer) 


David Tornboll.. 

" 17 


Mrs. Robert Pnrsel 

" 19 


James Cave 


Mrs. Luther H. Trask.. 

" 7 


William J. Humphrey 

" 17 


Mrs. Thomas Durkie.. 

" 20 


William Carder 

March 3 







Mrs. Prudence Wattles 

March 7 


George Thnrston (State Pioneer) 

" 19 


Mrs. I. H. Moss.. 

" 20 


Hon. Thomas S. Cobb 

" 21 


Cyrus P. Demming.. ., 

" 31 


James M. Fellows. 

" 31 


Albert Langley . . 

April .. 


V. R. Hicks 

" 11. 


Alpheus Snow.. . 

" 16. 


Thomas Goodrich 

" 22. 


Mrs. Thos. G. Carpenter .. . . 

" 24. 



Elizabeth Haig was born near Edinburg, Scotland, August 24, 1809. 
As her death occurred on the 24th day of June, 1890, she lacked just 
two months of four score years and one. She was married to George 
Stuart, March 26, 1827. The married pair sailed immediately for the 
city of New York, where they resided till the fall of 1837, when they 
removed to Gourdneck Prairie and purchased a farm, where they resided 
till the death of Mr. Stuart, in 1851, and where the widow has since 
had her home. At her husband's death she had seven children, four 
eons and three daughters, the youngest an infant of two months, David 
E., who became so well known and respected throughout the community 
and whose death not many years since in Schoolcraft, while holding 
the office of postmaster, was so generally lamented. Of the remaining 
children, Gilbert, the eldest son, died at his farm home, near School- 
craft, in April, 1887. The others are all living, the sons wealthy and 
prosperous farmers. The daughters, all married, are living, one at 
Momence, 111., one at Pavilion, this county, and one, Mrs. Mary Bidle- 
man, on a farm near Schoolcraft, where the deceased spent the last few 
weeks of her life and where her death occurred on Tuesday, June 24, 
1890. Several years since, Mrs. Stuart met with an accident that 
rendered her lame and almost helpless, since which time, although 
retaining her home and controlling the affairs of her farm, she has been 
carefully and tenderly cared for at the homes of her children living in 
the vicinity, passing from one to the other as suited her convenience 
and inclination. Of the virtues and characteristics of one so well known 
little need be said. There is nothing but virtues to be recorded, yet 


she was a woman of pronounced and strongly marked character. Of 
Scotch birth, she was possessed in the fullest degree with the Scotch 
virtues of thrift, industry and prudence. She looked well to the ways 
of her household, and the fatherless children whom she brought to 
maturity, and who have gone out into the world from under her care, 
illustrate the qualities that reigned in their half-orphan home. In 
religion Mrs. Stuart was a Presbyterian, of true Scotch type. Devoted- 
ness to the interests of her church was a leading and prominent 
trait in her character. She gave willingly, liberally and lovingly to its 
support and she held its interests scarcely second to those of her home 
and family. And yet her social and friendly nature was not limited to 
<jreed or church. Her friends were of all creeds and of none, and her 
charities were gauged rather by the wants than by the religion of the 
needy. One of the well known and wealthy citizens of Kalamazoo, 
sometimes tells with grateful heart and moistening eye, how, a lone 
emigrant from the German fatherland, he came footsore, weary and 
penniless, to the door of the good widow Stuart of Gourdneck, and 
partook of the bounties of her hospitable board. Truly it is a mother 
in Israel that has fallen, but she has fallen in the fullness of her years, 
and none can mourn her departure, but rejoice rather that her infirm- 
ities are put off, and a new glory put on. 


The older residents of Kalamazoo learn with deep regret of the death 
of that heroic man and former citizen at St. Joseph's retreat at Dear- 
born, near Detroit, Friday, November 13, 1890, of cerebral degen- 
eration. Brief funeral services were held Sunday afternoon, which were 
conducted by the Rev. Win. Dawe, pastor of the Tabernacle M. E. 
church, Detroit, and attended by the officers of the 19th U. S. infantry 
stationed at Detroit, a part of whom acted as pall bearers, after which 
the body was placed aboard the cars and sent to Tulare, Gal., to be 
interred beside the remains of his wife, who died about twelve years 
ago. Col. Orlando H. Moore was born July 13, 1827, at Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., and moved to Schoolcraft when a boy and afterward to Kalamazoo. 
When a young man he developed considerable talent for drawing and 
studied art with the intention of making that his life business. Later 
he opened a studio 'in New York city, afterward going to Coldwater 
with the same object in view. In 1856 he entered the regular army of 
the United States, being made a second lieutenant in the 6th infan- 
try. He was made first lieutenant in March, 1861, and two months 
afterward a captain. At the breaking out of the rebellion Lieut. Moore 

218 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

was stationed in California, which department was then commanded by 
Gen. Albert Sydney Johnson, who matured a plot to carry the Pacific 
states out of the Union and to establish a Pacific republic under the 
auspices of the commanding general. The United States arsenal at 
Benicia contained some 60,000 stands of arms at the time, and were 
practically in the hands of the plotters when Lieut. Moore organized 
some of the privates and non-commissioned officers in a counter plot 
to defend Benicia and protect the federal property, being secretly 
assisted by private citizens, which was successful, thus saving to the 
government a vast amount of valuable property. At his own request 
Lieut. Moore was relieved from duty in the department of California 
and assigned to active duty at the seat of war. December 28 he wa& 
made lieutenant-colonel of the 13th Michigan infantry, and August 18 
1862, colonel of the 25th Michigan infantry. It was -on July 4, 1863 
that he received the sobriquet of " Fourth of July Moore," which ever 
afterward clung to him. On that day he was holding a stockade at 
Tebb's Bend, Ky., with a force of two hundred men, when he was 
attacked by the greatest raider of the war, Gen. John Morgan, who 
had a force of five thousand men under his command. Morgan sent to 
Col. Moore an order for a peremptory surrender of his force and the 
stockade. Col. Moore returned word that he " couldn't entertain such 
a proposition on the Fourth of July." At this refusal the confederates 
opened fire upon the little command, and for three hours the battle 
raged, much of it being hand-to-hand fighting. The enemy were finally 
repulsed, with a loss of sixty killed and two hundred wounded. This 
fight saved the city of Louisville from pillage, and Col. Moore was 
presented the freedom of the city when he visited it shortly after the 
war. Previous to this battle Col. Moore was provost marshal of Louis- 
ville and during- that time he had gained the ill-will of a number of 
rebel sympathizers, among them being the editor of the Louisville 
Journal, and partly through their influence he was relieved and sent 
with this small detachment to the front. When this battle took place 
the editor of the journal had the following to say of Col. Moore after 
the fight: " We do not think that Col. Moore made a very good 
provost marshal when he was here, but he fights like the devil. We 
rashly invited him to make a charge with his fraction of a regiment 
upon the Journal office, but we hope he won't do it. We apologize. 
We retract. We back out. We knock under." 

He took part in saveral other engagements and at the end of the 
war he went back to his old regiment, the 6th U. S. infantry, of which 


he was made major in 1874, and in April, 1882, lieutenant-colonel of 
the 17th infantry. 

In the summer of 1880 Col. Moore sustained a severe sunstroke in 
the Eocky Mountains while hunting Indians, and in 1884 he was retired 
from the army on account of the effects of the same, since which time 
his mind had gradually failed, and he finally yielded to the inevitable 
and was quietly laid to rest. 

In 1856 Col. Moore was married to Miss Sarah Haynes of Coldwater,. 
who died at Tulare, Cal., some twelve years ago. The result of this 
union was two children, Allen Y. Moore, microscopist of the Cleveland 
medical college, who died about three yeers ago, and Mrs. H. C. Lov- 
eridge, of Coldwater, who has the sympathy of all in her bereavement. 


Moses Kingsley, one of Kalamazoo's oldest and most respected citi- 
zens and one of the pioneers of Michigan passed quietly away at 4:30 
a. m., January 7, 1891, at the family residence, 316 north West street, 
after a lingering illness, the result of paralysis. 

Moses Kingsley, son of Moses and Mary Kingsley, was born March 
5, 1810, at Brighton, Mass., a suburb of Boston. After twenty years 
of an uneventful life, the young man started out to earn his own live- 
lihood and make his mark in the world. He came west, stopping one 
year at Rochester, N. Y., and in 1830 started for the new, and at that 
time sparsely settled territory of Michigan, traveling nearly all the way 
on foot, there being no railroads at that time coming west. At times 
he carried his shoes in his hands to save them from wearing out. 
After a tedious journey he found himself in Washtenaw county, with 
just ninety cents in old English coppers for a capital upon which to 
commence life. Taking up the trade of cabinet maker he soon pros- 
pered, and, December 18, 1831, he was joined in marriage to Hannah 

In 1833 he assisted in organizing the township of Webster, and at 
the first township election was unanimously chosen clerk and a school 

In 1834 he was appointed postmaster and mail carrier between Dex- 
ter and Ann Arbor, a distance of fourteen miles. About this time Mr. 
Kingsley was sent east to solicit funds for erecting a church and 
among others, called on Daniel Webster and received a liberal sub- 
scription toward the fund. January 3, 1837, Mr. and Mrs. Kingsley 
removed to Kalamazoo in wagons, and brought with them one child, 
Daniel Webster Kingsley, who now resides in Independence, Kansas^ 

'220 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

The elder Kingsley purchased a farm on the town line between Osh- 
temo and Kalamazoo. A child was born to them soon after, and died 
in April, this being the first death of a white person in that part of 
the country. 

In 1840, he assisted in building a private school-house on the site 
where now stands the Grand Prairie school. This building was used 
twenty-five years and was replaced by the present modern building. 
Besiding on the farm until 1874, he tired of country life, and moved 
his family into the city, residing on Vine street. In 1863 he assisted 
in organizing the Farmers' Mutual Insurance company, and was elected 
secretary and treasurer. He continued in this capacity for twenty-one 
years, being succeeded by Richard Sykes, the present secretary. In 
1874 he organized the Citizen's Mutual Fire Insurance company, and 
until 1888 was secretary and treasurer of the company, resigning on 
account of ill-health. During his business career he became personally 
Acquainted with nearly every resident of the county and city and was 
considered good authority on subjects of history in Michigan. Sep- 
tember 4, 1889, he was the victim of a stroke of paralysis, from which 
he never fully recovered. Sunday, December 28, 1890, he was again 
stricken down and did not rally after that day. In 1844 his first wife 
died and later he married Clarissa Beckley, living happily until 1879, 
when she died. March 5, 1880, he was joined in marriage to Amanda 
M. Gardner, who is left to mourn his loss. During his married life 
his home was blessed with thirteen children, nine of whom are now 
living. They are Mrs. Edward McElroy, residing near the city, Mrs. 
J. L. Root and Mrs. George Buckham, of Ostemo; F. W. Kingsley, of 
Bloomingdale; Henry M., Moses, Jr., and Chester M. Kingsley, of 
Kendall; Homer H. Kingsley, of Evanston, 111.; and Daniel W. Kings- 
ley, of Independence, Kansas. 


The demise of Hon. John Dudgeon occurred at ten minutes before 
four o'clock p. m., January 7, 1891, and terminating a long and 
distressing illness. 

John Dudgeon was born in Ireland, near Belfast, seventy years ago, 
January 10, 1821. His parents were protestants of Scotch-Irish descent 
and were well-to-do people. His father was a magistrate for many 
years. When quite a young man, Mr. Dudgeon came to this country, 
and settled in Detroit. His purpose was to follow the medical pro- 
fession, and with that end in view he studied for two years, acting at 
the same time as a druggist's clerk. But the horrors of the dissecting 


room quite overcame his predilection for that profession. After a time 
he returned to Ireland. 

In 1847 he returned to Detroit, and with his brother Anthony became 
interested in the produce and commission business. In 1848 he came to 
Kalamazoo and started in the same business here, becoming connected 
with the firm of Munger & Kellogg. Soon after he became sole proprietor 
of the business, which he carried on extensively and with success for 
many years. Subsequently Mr. Charles L. Cobb became a partner, and 
no firm in western Michigan was more widely or more favorably known. 
They also became, by the purchase of a large tract of land north of 
the Central railroad, proprietors of the Dudgeon & Cobb addition, 
which they opened to the public, much to the benefit of Kalamazoo. 

In 1850 Mr. Dudgeon married Miss Caroline Clark, daughter of the 
late Hon. Samuel Clark, and sister of Mrs. Frances Van Wyck and 
Mrs. M. H. De Yoe of Kalamazoo. Mrs. Dudgeon and two children, 
Frank C. Dudgeon and Miss Bessie Dudgeon, are left widowed and 

Mr. Dudgeon has for the past forty years been among our very fore- 
most citizens in everything which tended to the progress or enhance- 
ment of the interests of Kalamazoo. Taking from the first a leading 
business position here he became immediately known throughout the 
State and especially in southwest Michigan and everywhere won the 
confidence, esteem and favor of the people. His business operations have 
been very extensive and in the eastern markets his name was a synonym 
of enterprise, reliability, fair dealing and thorough knowledge of the 
business he was engaged in. As a citizen, he was liberal, active, fear- 
less, progressive and intelligent to a remarkable degree, and was regarded 
as a shrewd adviser, a wise counselor, an efficient and broad-minded 
business man, always on the right side of moral questions, devoted to 
the welfare of this village and city. In social circles he was a favor- 
ite, generous, high-souled, abundantly endowed with wit and humor, 
he always took a leading part in making others happy, contributing 
his full share to the pleasure and profit of all gatherings in which he 
was an attendant. His share in the municipal work of our town has 
been continuous and important. He has been supervisor, trustee and 
president of the village, member of various commissions, all of which 
he served with great acceptance. He has been prominent as a member 
of the Episcopal church and in benevolent work. He has been a trusted 
leader of the democratic party all the years he has been with us and 
had the entire confidence of his party. As a husband and father, as a 
neighbor and friend John Dudgeon had no superior nor had Kalamazoo> 

"222 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

any one more loved and respected by the community. His death leaves 
, void that will long be a source of grief to many and to his family 
-and immediate friends wholly irreparable. His name will ever be 
closely identified with the progress and prosperity of Kalamazoo and 
to hosts of friends his life and acts will be a cherished memory. 


George Thurston, an honored and venerable citizen of southern 
Michigan, died about one o'clock a. m., March 19, 1891, at the home 
of his daughter, Mrs. L. W. Borden, 126 south Edwards street, after 
-a lingering illness of several weeks' duration. 

To Mr. Thurston belongs the distinction of being one of the earliest 
settlers of St. Joseph county, and no one living in this portion of 
Michigan knew more of the perils and hardships of pioneer life than 
he. Mr. Thurston was a son of Samuel B. Thurston, who at the time 
of his birth, April 11, 1808, resided in the town of Lisle, Broome 
Bounty, N. Y., and who with his family moved to Brownstown, at the 
head of Lake Erie, Wayne county, in the territory of Michigan, in 
February, 1817. At that time, Michigan was supposed to be one vast 
swamp, and but few had penetrated into the depths of the primeval 

In 1827 the younger Thurston left his home accompanied by a young 
man named John Sturgis, who in after years became well known as 
Judge Sturgis, and with two yokes of oxen, drawing heavy wagons 
loaded with seeds and farming implements, they wended their way 
through miles of forest and swamp lands, following Indian trails 
much of the way until they reached the eastern portion of what is now 
called Sturgis prairie. This location appearing favorable they pitched 
tents and began farming in real earnest, Mr. Thurston turning the first 
furrow that was ever made in the soil in that portion of the State. 
In the fall of the year the young men returned to their homes where 
they remained during the winter. Mr. Thurston and a younger brother 
returned to the wilds of Michigan the following year. Soon after this 
the entire family moved west and located in St. Joseph county. 

September 9, 1832, George Thurston and Miss Sarah Jones, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., were married and they were blessed with ten children. 
Mrs. Thurston died Sept. 10, 1883, after fifty-one years of married life. 

Those of the old settlers of fifty years ago who now live will remem- 
ber Mr. Thurston as having taken up his residence in this, then the 
village of Bronson, and who assisted in erecting the residence of Judge 
IBronson, this being the first dwelling erected in the village. 


He was one of the early promoters with Judge Cross of the St. 
Joseph county pioneer society and after its organization was made its 
honorable president. He has been for several years the oldest of the 
living pioneers of his county. His wonderful memory of events and 
dates, which has been remarkably preserved to him in his last days, 
has aided the society and individuals to glean from its rich stores 
much of the early history of pioneer life of the inhabitants of southern 

His conversion occurred in February, 1861, during revival services at 
the Baptist church in Kalamazoo. Uniting with the church of the 
same faith, he and his wife together have remained faithful and con- 
sistent members of the church until called from labor to the reward of 
rest prepared for the redeemed. 

Since the marriage of his daughter Matilda J. Thurston, to Mr. L. 
"W. Borden, of Kalamazoo, he has had and enjoyed a pleasant home 
with them. During the period of nearly two years he has formed the 
acquaintance of a large circle of friends among the citizens here which 
has ripened into personal friendship akin to brotherly love. He has 
often spoken in the warmest terms of so many of his friends whom he 
held in highest esteem; whose expressions in words and deeds of kind- 
ness shown him when in feeble health, and which was reciprocated, 
that the writer takes great pleasure in referring to them in this brief 
article with sincerest gratitude. 

Henry Bishop writes the following: 

George Thurston was born in the town of Lisle, Brown county, New 
York, April 11, 1808, and immigrated to the territory of Michigan, 
February. 1817, and resided a while in Wayne county, on a farm owned 
by Gen. Lewis Cass, and at different places until the spring of 1827, 
when he made Sturgis Prairie his permanent home. He there located 
a tract of land and made himself a farm which he has owned and 
occupied since (except residing in Kalamazoo part of the time for the 
past few years). His farm made him a desirable home, and to that 
mode of life he was much attached, flis boyhood days were spent 
beyond the reach of the school-house. He was one of the pioneers 
that opened the way that enabled those who came after him to enjoy 
benefits of which he was deprived. No markets then, his rifle and fish- 
ing tackle supplied the family with game and fish. 

His early neighbors werf Indians, among whom he had many warm 
friends. He once told me the story of a young companion, the son of 
a distinguished chief, who in following a deer attempted to cross a 
stream on a fallen log and fell into the stream, when over heated, in 

294 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

running after the deer, this accident produced a disease from which he 
never recovered, although the old chief summoned Indian doctors from 
far and near. He died much lamented by his own people and by 
Mr. Thurston his friend and companion. It was the earnest desire 
of the chief that his son should be buried like the white man. No 
coffin could be procured, but Mr. Thurston cut down a basswood tree 
and made one from that, in which his young Indian friend was laid, 
decorated with all the Indian ornaments denoting an Indian chief. 
His valuable rifle and all his hunting and fishing appendages were 
buried with him, and lastly and much to Mr. Thurston's regret, 
his fine pony had to be killed and burried with his young master. 

It is very evident that if no worse white men had settled among the 
Indians than George Thurston, all strife and bloodshed would have been 
avoided. I hav^ had but a few year's acquaintance with Mr. Thurston, 
but from what I have learned of his character I looked upon him as 
being as near perfect in all that goes to constitute true nobleness of 
character as is often found in this world. But few if any white men 
west of Detroit have lived in this beautiful State as many years as has 
George Thurston, and while he has cheerfully contributed his share of 
the taxes for State, county and town purposes he did so wholly for 
others' benefit. He never violated a law knowingly, he lived in har- 
mony and dealt honestly with his neighbors. His family relations were 
harmonious, each one striving to add to the others' happiness. 

He leaves five daughters and one son to mourn the loss of a beloved 


The community was shocked yesterday afternoon, March 21, 1891, 
by the news that Hon. Thomas S. Cobb had died suddenly in Florida, 
while en route home from his sojourn of two months at Palm Beach 
Grove, and anxious friends were inquiring tra all sides for news of the 
sad occurrence. 

Thomas S. Cobb was a son of Dr. Moses Cobb, and was born in 
Springfield, Vt., Oct. 4, 1819. His education was obtained in the 
schools of the town of his birth and at Kimball Union academy at 
Meridan, N. H. In 1836 and 1837 he was in the employ of Leach & 
McLellan, dry goods dealers in Boston, and upon the failure of that 
firm he entered the employ of Fisher & Cook, manufacturers at Wrent- 
ham, Mass., with whom he remained until 1842. A year previous to 
this, he had formed a partnership with his brother, M. R. Cobb, who 
opened a store at Schoolcraft, Mich., and sent his brother a stock of 


goods from Boston, it requiring two months for the goods to reach 
their destination by the most expeditious method then known. In 1842 
he returned to Boston as book-keeper for Shaw & Chandler, a dry goods 
jobbing firm, remaining there until 1848, when he returned to Wrent- 
ham and became a partner with Mr. Gook, his former employer. Here 
he remained five years, all the time retaining his interest in the busi- 
ness at Schoolcraft, and moving to Kalamazoo in 1855, he entered into 
the crockery business with David Fisher. In 1863 the First National 
bank was organized and Mr. Cobb was elected cashier, retaining the 
position nearly two years, when he retired but remained a member of 
the board of directors until 1885, when he severed his connection with 
the bank. He was one of the active promoters of the scheme to con- 
nect Kalamazoo and South Haven by a railroad and in 1869 was 
appointed superintendent of the line, remaining in charge until the 
Michigan Central company took the road. He served on the board of 
education six years and in 1861-62 was a member of the board of 
trustees of the village. He was elected to the State legislature in 1873 
and served two years, in 1875 was elected to the State senate, where he 
served one term. When the Kalamazoo, Hastings & Lowell railroad 
company was organized in 1873 Mr. Cobb was an active member and 
did all in his power to have the road completed, and he was an active 
spirit in the reorganization into the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw 
railroad company in 1883. He was elected president of the road and 
retained the position up to the time of his death. He was also a 
member of the Kalamazoo & Hastings construction company. 

In 1885 Mr. Cobb was elected cashier of the Kalamazoo National 
bank, to succeed Mr. George T. Bruen, and December 19, 1887, was 
elected a director to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Jacob 
Mitchell. Mr. Cobb's health began to fail several years ago, and Jan- 
uary 13, 1891, he resigned as cashier of the bank but retained his 
position on the board of directors until his death. Soon after resign- 
ing his position in the bank he left for the south, where he died. 

Deceased has been prominent in business and social affairs for many 
years and his death is felt by scores of intimate friends. 

July 2, 1845, deceased married Susan M. Fisher. They have had six 
children, five of whom are still living. 

Thomas S. Cobb was a rare man. He was the soul of honor, and 
his whole bearing was indicative of strict integrity. His social quali- 
ties made him a genial companion among a large circle of people, who 
mourn his death in more than an ordinary degree. A devoted husband, 

226 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

kind arid indulgent father, he was also an upright and public spirited 

(Contributed by A. D. P. Van Buren.) 

This old respected pioneer died Sunday morning, July 19, 1885, at 
the residence of his son Frank, on the corner of Park and Water 
streets, Kalamazoo, aged eighty-one years. 

Deceased was born in Goshen, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, 
July 22, 1804. Moved to New Yrk state in 1824 and lived there until 
1834, when he moved to Kalamazoo county and settled on a piece of 
land on the south side of the river near the present village of Gales- 
burg. He was a millwright by trade and together with his brother 
Jesse, who had preceded him to Michigan by a year and a half, built 
several mills in this section of the State. He soon moved to Kal- 
amazoo and established a foundry between the old Whitcomb mill and 
the second bridge, on east Main street. Afterward he formed a 
copartnership with Mr. Wm. E. White and Elias Cooley, operating a 
furnace and machine shop, "in a building adjoining Mr. Eames' chair 
factory on the Arcadia, in the upper part of the village," says the 
advertisement, January, 1846. Subsequently Messrs. Turner, White <fe 
Company, established a foundry on a large scale on the corner of Water 
and Rose streets, a portion of the ground now occupied by Messrs. 
Lawrence & Chapin's large establishment. The firm did a large busi- 
ness till on the night of May 5, 1851, fire destroyed the foundry and 
machine shop, entailing a loss of $8,000. The place was, however, built- 
up and the business continued for a time afterwards. 

He did a great amount of work as a building contractor, and there 
is many a building standing in Kalamazoo today that he constructed. 
He was a very active, pushing business man all his life, and had the 
respect and confidence of the entire community. 

November 27, 1831, he married Clarissa Witcomb, at Cambria, N. Y., 
and they lived together until January 16, 1882, when Mrs. Turner died. 
Their golden wedding was celebrated in 1881, of which a full account 
was given at the time. 

Four children were born to them, Joel W., Frank, Christina (Mrs. 
George Prindle) and Kate (Mrs. Will Russell.) The last three survive. 
Joel was killed by the explosion of a boiler in the Eames' foundry, at 
the head of Lovell street, in 1856. At that time he was a resident of 
Michigan City and came here on a visit and was on his way to the 
asylum, and fifteen rods from the building when the explosion took 



place, passing along the street and was struck by a piece of scantling 
on the side of the head and instantly killed. 

There is one feature in connection with the late illness of Mr. Turner 
that should not pass without being noticed. In 1856 Mr. Turner took 
a little boy aged six years that was brought here by a Mr. Tracy from 
New York city, and raised him, the boy taking the name of Wm. J. 
Turner. After arriving at his majority the young man went to Wis- 
consin and became a miller. On learning of the sickness of his adopted 
father, he came here and during a long and tedious illness nursed and 
cared for his benefactor as kindly and attentively as it was possible 
for man to do. Gratitude is certainly not one of the lacking char- 
acteristics in this man and the incident goes to show of what kind of 
material Mr. Turner was made. He had so treated his adopted son that 
he had his respect and love. 

The funeral was held from the residence of his son Frank, corner of 
Water and Park streets and was largely attended by relatives and 
friends, and especially the old pioneers. The floral offerings were numer- 
ous and appropriate. 

The pall bearers were: Geo. Burrell, H. W. Coddington, M. Everett, 
U. D. Wheaton, E. P. Totus and Thos. Clarage. Kev. C. O. Brown 


Deceased from June 1, 1890, to May 31, 1891. 

Date of death. 


Place of death . 

July 30 

Thomas B. Church 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

August 8 

Zenas G. Winsor 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 

September 17 

Rev. Chas. B. Smith 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

October 16 

Mrs. Mattie M. Tinkham ... 

November 2.. .. 

Mrs. John T. Holmes 

>i .1 


Ebenezer W. Barnes ... 

11 X 

December 3.. 

Joseph Stone 

.1 11 

January 2 

Mrs. Joanna R. Holden. 

Manistee, Mich. 

February 6.. 

Mrs. Sally Hard Roberts 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 


Hon. Julius Houseman.. 


G. Chase Godwin 

,, 4l 



Date of death. 


Place of death. 

February 22 

Chas. Conant Rood 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 


Chas. W. Hathaway 

Detroit, Mich. 

March 4__ . . 

Alexander Blake 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

" 14. 

Hon. Henry Fralick 

May 15 

Orson Cook 

Tp. of Gaines, Kent Co., Mich. 

" 21 

Jas. M. Pelton 

Jane 16 

Mrs. Eunice Turner 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

October 23. 

Mrs. D. A. Blodgett. 

April 17.. 

Mrs. Henry Spring.. 

December 6 

Mrs. M. L. Sweet 

May 10 

Mrs. Henry Barnes Stone. . . 


Orlando K. Fearsall 


" 13. 

John Calkins 

,, lt 


The life and character of the deceased are admirably portrayed and 
sympathetically treated by George H. White, Esq., who enjoyed a close 
acquaintance with him, and whose purpose in inquiring as to certain 
facts was fully understood by Mr. Church and his family: 

" Thomas Brownell Church was, from a very early day in the history 
of this vicinity, a well known and highly esteemed citizen. He was 
one of the oldest and best known of the Puritan families of the Plym- 
outh colony; a lineal descendant of Richard Church through his son, 
Captain Benjamin Church, who was the commander of the colony's 
forces during the seven year's Indian war known as ' King Philips war,' 
in which he conquered that noble Indian Sachem. 

Thomas B. Church was the youngest son of Thomas Church and 
Mary (Almy) Church, and was the great great grandson of Captain 
Benjamin Church, mentioned above. Every one of his immediate 
ancestors were named Thomas, and he was the third of his father's 
sons so named. An aunt of his was the mother of the distinguished 
bishop, Thomas Church Brownell of Connecticut. 

Mr. Church was born at the family seat at Dighton, Bristol county, 
Massachusetts, September 13, 1813, as appears of record in his -native 
place. The youngest of a large and at the time of his decease, the 
last descendant who bore his family name except his son, Frederick 
Stewart Church, the eminent artist. Until past ten years of age hi& 


body was weak and his health precarious, so that it seemed that he, 
the Benjamin of the family, would not long survive his two brothers 
of the like name who had each died before his birth. His father was, 
at times a ship-builder, ship-chandler, warehouseman and a fisherman 
at Taunton, Massachusetts, and at Providence, Rhode Island. He was 
left motherless at an early age and lived much of the time with a 
widowed aunt who was herself an educated woman and gave him his 
early education. His feeble health prevented his attendance at and 
enduring the discipline of the schools as then conducted. Under advice 
he was placed aboard of coasting vessels engaged in the West India trade, 
at the age of twelve years, hoping that he would thereby gain good 
health. After some time that result was measurably attained, and he 
abandoned sea life. He was then placed in a preparatory school, where 
he made rapid progress. At the age of about fifteen, he matriculated 
at Trinity College at Hartford, Connecticut, an Episcopal institution. 
After a time failing health caused him to quit Trinity and go to Vir- 
ginia, and there engaged for a year in teaching. Then he joined his 
uncle, the late Judge John Almy of Grand Rapids in surveying and 
civil engineering in western Michigan in 1838. At Grandville he 
became very sick with fever and was brought by his uncle into his 
own family, then residing in Grand Rapids. As his recovery was very 
slow it was evident that he could not very soon resume surveying. 
Learning that an old acquaintance, James Wright Gordon, afterwards 
lieutenant governor and acting governor of Michigan, and a friend of 
. his father's and of him, was practicing law with marked success at 
Marshall, Michigan, he went there and entered himself as a student in 
his office. He then pursued the study of law with great enthusiasm 
and energy, and made surprising progress, and was, in 1841, admitted 
to practice law. In the meantime he was a student in the law school 
of Harvard college, under the distinguished Judge Story, of the 
supreme court of the United States, who was an old acquaintance of 
the family. Mr. Church practiced law nearly a year after his admis- 
sion, and acted as agent for the non-resident owners of the plat of 
Marshall, and occupied an office with Gov. Gordon. In 1842 he mar- 
ried Miss Mary Stewart, of Marshall, and in December of that year 
came to Grand Rapids to reside. At Marshall he was noted for close 
attention to his studies, a great fondness for reading, an acute and 
comprehensive intellect, a remarkable memory, his classical attainments, 
his choice command of words, the ability he displayed in public speak- 
ing, and the varied and great amount of legal knowledge he had 

230 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

"The Marshall bar at that time was as able as any, if not the ablest 
in the "State, and in numbers was beyond the requirements of that 
locality. Grand Rapids was regarded as a promising point, so he came 
here to seek his fortune. Immediately his ability was acknowledged 
and he took a high position in competition with such lawyers as 
Osgood, Rathborie, Martin, ( Sargeant, Patterson, Ball and Johnson. 
Soon after his arrival the prosecuting attorney (an appointive officer) 
resigned and without solicitation Governor Barry at once conferred 
the office upon Mr. Church, who entered upon the duties of it and 
performed them very acceptably during one term. While holding the 
office he tried a number of celebrated cases, one of which (notably 
misstated in the history of Kent county) was that of the people vs. 
Miller, who was convicted on trial before Judge Ransom in Grand 
Rapids of murdering Nega, a squaw of the Ottawa tribe, within 
Ottawa county. Afterward he was pardoned, because he was in the 
last stages of consumption. Mr. Church, Judge Ransom and the sher- 
iff signed a recommendation of pardon, stating their full belief in his 
guilt, but basing their action solely on the ground of his health. He 
died at his father's home a few weeks after liberation. 

"February 28, 1845, Mr. Church became editor of the Grand Rapids 
Inquirer, which he edited with marked ability and learning for four 
years. He held several local offices preceding 1850. In that year he 
was elected a member of the constitutional convention and sat in 
that body and participated in its deliberations with much credit to him- 
self. In 1853 he was elected mayor of the city of Grand Rapids. In 
1854 he was elected State representative and sat in the legislature with 
great advantage to his constituents. In 1858, 1860 and 1862 he was 
nominated for representative in congress; and because the party who 
nominated him was in the minority, he failed, though receiving more 
than his party's strength of votes. During the war he uttered on the 
platform and stump many patriotic sentiments and warmly espoused 
the Union cause and urged with all his powers of eloquence, enlist- 
ments in the Union army. In his long career as a lawyer he was 
engaged in nearly all causes of much importance tried in this vicinity. 
Among the many were the Warren Mills perjury case, the George Mills 
arson case, the Vanderpool case and the Phillips murder case. 

" In politics Mr. Church was a lifelong democrat, in religion an 
Episcopalian. For the last few years his health was poor, occasioned 
by over-exertion and an accident at the fire which destroyed the county 
records, June 23, 1960. His health caused his withdrawal from active 
law practice. During a career at the bar extending over more than 


forty years, on many occasions he made powerful, eloquent and brilliant 

arguments that thrilled his audiences and gave him a State reputation. 
It required, however, great occasions to warm him up to his subject, 
but when they came, his words were animated by intense thought and 
feelings, and came with an increasing power until they became irresist- 
ible, and before which every barrier was carried away; his action then 
became impressive. It was especially so in his patriotic speeches, his 
fourth of July orations, and on some occasions in his political speeches. 
Unfortunately his lymphatic temperament caused him to be very 
unequal in his forensic displays. If his abilities had been incited into 
action in the national councils, he would have been more nearly equal 
in the use and display of them, and would have attracted as marked 
national attention as any one who has sat therein since the days of 
Clay, Webster, Calhoun and Douglas. In social life Mr. Church was 
a rare ornairent with his ever instructive, interesting and entertaining 
conversation. He died at Grand Rapids, July 30, 1890. A widow, an 
only son and an adopted daughter, with a very large circle of relatives 
and acquaintances mourn his departure for the other shore. " Requies- 
cat in pace." 


Zenas G. Winser, of Grand Rapids, died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
August 3, 1890. 

Mr. Winsor and his wife were in Chattanooga for a long visit with 
his daughter, Mrs. George W. Wheeland and her family. He has not 
been in firm health for some months past. He was at home in the 
spring to attend to some business affairs, but was not at all well, 
and returned as soon as possible to the care of his wife and 
daughters. The immediate cause of his death was typhoid fever, of 
which he had not long been ill. The burial was at Chattanooga. 

Zenas G. Winsor was born in Spafford, N. Y., December 28, 1814, 
hence was nearly seventy-six years of age. In March, 1833, when but 
little more than eighteen years old, he came with his father's family 
from Syracuse to the wilderness which has since been replaced by the 
city of Grand Rapids, and it may fairly be said that this city has since 
been his home. True, for a year thereafter, as a youth, he was at 
Grand Haven, under the Hon. Rix Robinson, as an employe of the 
Great American Fur Company, that is to say, of John Jacob Astor. 
In those days peltry and fur were plentiful in this region. Then for 
two or three years Mr. Winsor spent a good deal of time previous to 
1840, at " the mouth of the Thornapple," where is now Ada, continuing 

232 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

in the employ of the Hon. Rix Robinson. Then his business brought 
him back here, and ever since, until the infirmities of increasing age 
compelled him to rest from active labor having earned that rest he 
has been connected with the mercantile and the shipping interests of 
Grand Rapids and Grand Haven, the shipping interests including both 
the Grand river line of boats and the Chicago and Milwaukee lines. 
He was also quite largely identified with the realty interests, and his 
family had an important influence in the early efforts to make salt here, 
and in other directions for the growth and improvement of Grand 
Rapids. Mr. Winsor was a quiet, modest, plain, honorable citizen, a 
good neighbor, a true friend the stuff pioneers in thrifty, prosperous 
cities are made of. All who knew him will mourn his death, and will 
feel their hearts grow warmer as they recall his life and worth. He 
leaves a widow his third wife three married daughters, Mrs. Whee- 
land, of Chattanooga; Mrs. S. B. Humphrey, of Lincoln, Neb.; and 
Mrs. Benton Harris, of Gibbon, Neb.; and a son, Henry, of his imme- 
date family. He also leaves a younger brother, Mr. E. E. Winsor, and 
a sister, Mrs. Adelaide M., widow of Dr. Chas. L. Henderson, of Grand 


Dr. C. B. Smith died at his home in Grand Rapids, Sept. 17, 1890. 
Charles Billings Smith was born in Paris, N. Y., on Oct. 29, 1814, and 
entered college from his native town. He left college in the third term 
of. his junior year, but pursued the class studies regularly, and in 1846 
was restored to the class list. 

He was a member of the most famous class that ever graduated from 
Yale, and had such men as Wm. M. Evarts, Morrison R. Waite, Sam- 
uel J. Tilden, Andrew D. White, ex-president of Cornell, Judge Pierre- 
pont and Judge Sillimon for classmates. He studied theology under 
the instruction of Dr. N. W. Taylor, in New Haven, Conn., and in 
1840 began work as an evangelist in western New York. After contin- 
uing this work for about two years he went to Chicago, where he 
organized the Tabernacle Baptist church and became its pastor. A one 
story frame structure was built on the corner of LaSalle and Washing- 
ton streets, where the old Board of Trade building formerly stood, and 
this primitive church edifice was dedicated in August, 1843. It 1846 
he took charge of a church in New Haven, Conn. In June, 1851, he 
became pastor of the Sixth street church in New York City, and held 
this position for three years. In 1856 he again came west and became 


pastor of a church in Iowa City, where he continued until 1860, remov- 
ing thence to Dubuque, Iowa, where he preached for three years, 

Dr. Smith first came to Grand Eapids in 1863, and for six years was 
pastor of the Baptist church. In 1869 he became political editor of 
the Daily Democrat, which position he held for seven years. 

Dr. Smith leaves no family excepting his widow, formerly Mrs. L. 
M. Ellicott, whom he married Sept. 30, 1866. 

He was one of the most entertaining writers who ever lived in Grand 
Rapids, and his facile pen has made the very stones weep when writ- 
ing of the virtues of his dead acquaintances. You could not mention 
a subject on which he could not talk or write understandingly and 
entertainingly, and he was a very encyclopaedia of knowledge, with a 
large fund of anecdote on which he could draw at will. 

Dr. Smith received the honorary degrees of B. A. and M. A. from 
Yale in 1847 and the degree of D. D. from Wabash college in 1859. 
Besides minor works, he published in 1846 " The Philosophy of 
Reform," of which a second edition has been published, "A Life in 
Earnest," in 1849, of which there have been three editions, and 
" Scenes in the Life of Luther," 1848, of which eight editions have 
been issued. 

Dr. Smith was a man of strong character of Marked individuality. 
His nature was generous and kindly, and tender, but the intensity of 
Ms feelings and the earnestness of his convictions sometimes led him 
into vehemences of expression which a stranger would mistake for 
harshness. His opinions, right or wrong, were at least sincere and 
honest, and he was always ready to assert and defend them. He had 
been a great student and a wide reader. Until failing health forbade it, 
his voice was often heard in public assemblages, and he was a frequent 
contributor to the columns of the local press. 


Mrs. Mattie M. Tinkham, well known to every old settler in the city, 
and county, peacefully passed away at her home at 85 Paris avenue, 
Grand Rapids, October 16, 1890, after an illness lasting over a year. 

She was born in Ohio, in 1838, and was the daughter of S. O. Kings- 
bury, also well known to the older residents. She moved to the city 
with her parents in 1844 and married John F. Tinkham in 1858. They 
had two children, Frederick, so long with Nelson, Matter & Co., and 
Mrs. Harry Ellis, living with her husband at Ford River, near Esca- 
naba. Hers was a noble Christian life. She was a member of St. 
Mark's Episcopal church and had been since she was sixteen years old. 

284 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

She has a brother, Peas Kingsbury of Muskegon, ex-county treasurer 
of Muskegon county. She was a sister-in-law to Gen. Wm. P. Innes, 
Mrs. Innes and Mr. Tinkham being brother and sister. 


About five o'clock p. m., November 2, 1890, the serious illness 
of Mrs. John T. Holmes terminated in death as had been expected for 
several days, and another of the best known, most respected and thor- 
oughly loved of the "Mothers in Israel" in Grand Rapids, was at rest 
from her labors. Mrs. Holmes was born May 18, 1815, and in 1836 
became the wife of the man whose life she has blessed for more than 
half a century since, in Niagara county. N. Y. In 1837 they came to 
Michigan, and to Grand Rapids in 1838. Here they have lived ever 
since, and here she has ever proved a most faithful, loving wife, a wise 
yet tender mother, and generous friend. She leaves of her own family, 
her honored husband and three children, Mrs. L. C. Remington, Miss 
Lizzie, and John T. Holmes, Jr. These have the sympathy of all who 
knew her; they also have the assurance that none has left a more 
fragrant memory, a more goodly life record than she. 


Mr. Barns was born in Pomfret, Vt.. in 1819, and came to Grand 
Rapids in 1838 with his father's family. He was the first clerk Kent 
county ever had, and was afterward county treasurer. In 1850 he 
removed to Grand Haven, and there, in 1853, married Mrs. Slayton, 
sister of Mrs. D wight Cutler. Mr. Barns remained in Grand Haven 
fifteen years, eight of which he was postmaster. He returned to Grand 
Rapids in 1865, and was engaged in the forwarding business, on Grand 
river chiefly, until he retired from active business in 1885. He left a 
widow and two married daughters, Mrs. I. E. Lambert and Mrs. David 
Potter, in Emporia, Kan., to remember his virtues and counsels, and a 
host of friends all who were acquaintances to honor his memory. 
His death occurred November 20, 1890. 


Joseph Stone, one of the oldest citizens and an old resident, died at 
the residence of his brother, Mr. Charles Stone, 222 East Fulton street, 
Grand Rapids, Dec. 3, 1890, aged eighty-six years. 

Mr. Stone, who was born in Rhode Island in 1804, came to Grand 
Rapids when forty years of age, and has made his home here with the 
exception of about six years which he spent with two of his sons, 


Charles and Calvin, on the Pacific coast, ever since. He has ever had 
the esteem and respect of all who knew him, and is gathered to his 
fathers in the fullness of years, and of the honors accorded to a well 
spent, useful life. Sis wife preceded him in death some twelve years. 
He leaves four children, the two sons above mentioned, Normandus A. 
of West Fulton Street, and Mrs. Mary Burchard. Mr. Charles Stone 
is the only one of his generation, of his family yet living. 


Mrs. Joanna R. Holden, mother of E. G. D. Holden of Grand 
Rapids, died at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Fanny H. Fowler, 
on Jan. 2, 1891. Mrs. Holden was born in Londonderry, N. H., March 
10, 1800, and was married to Josiah R. Holden, at Graf ton, N. H., 
January 24, 1825. Mr. and Mrs. Holden resided in New England until 
1832, when they emigrated to Ohio and endured the hardships incident 
to pioneer life until 1834. Then they went to the state of Illinois, 
where they remained until 1843. Subsequently they removed to Michi- 
gan, and located in the vicinity of Grand Rapids. Six children were 
born to t^iem four of whom lived to adult age. Three of the children, 
Charles H. Holden of Chicago, Mrs. Fannie H. Fowler, wife of Hon. 
S. W. Fowler of Manistee, and Hon. E. G. D. Holden of Grand Rapids, 
survive her. Mrs. Holden had remarkably good health until a few 
days before her death, and lived to the ripe old age of ninety years, 
nine months and fifteen days. 


Mrs. Sally Hurd Roberts or ''Grandma Roberts" as she was more 
familiarly known died at Grand Rapids, Feb. 6, 1891. 

Nothing better in the way of review can be presented now than the 
following sketch of her published in the Daily Eagle, July 3, 1890, in 
honor of her rounding the full hundred years of her life that day. 
Since then her life has been calm, quiet, the patient waiting for the 
happiness of the end which has come: 

An honored member of our community has reached today a point 
that few in this generation ever attain. Far beyond the psalmist's 
" three score year.s and ten," she has completed a rounded century of 
human life. This is Grandma Roberts' birthday. 

One hundred years ago in the outskirts of the village of Middle 
Haddam, Connecticut, there lived Jacob Hurd, the third to bear a 
name already made honorable by true and upright men, with his good 
wife Abigail Carey, and their rapidly growing family. Jacob Hurd 

236 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

was a sea captain from Cape Cod, and quite unused to farming. His 
immediate ancestors came from the land of blue bells and heather 
bequeathing to him their strong Scotsh nature and reverence for truth 
and righteousness. His wife Abigail Carey, was of French and English 
descent. On the the third of July 1790, there came into this New 
England home, Sally, their fourth child and third little daughter. 
Three lands Scotland, France and England brought their gifts of 
brain and heart to this little girl, who had started on a long journey; 
how long no one dreamed. The old brown farmhouse, on the road to> 
Middle Haddam, near the rushing waters of the beautiful Connecticut 
river, was the well remembered home of Sally Kurd's childhood. Here 
the household grew to number ten children. The family bible bears 
this record of the family of Jacob Hurd, third. 


Jacob Hurd was born March 28, 1762. His wife, Abigail Carey, was 
fcorn May 24, 1762. The following are their children: 

Fanny, April 6, 1784. 

William, July 21, 1786. 

Amanda, June 14, 1788. 

Sally, July 3, 1790. 

Clarissa, April 24, 1792. 

James C., March 27, 1795. 

Newell, December 27, 1796. 

Eandall, November 11, 1800. 

Caroline M., February 11, 1803. 

William A., March 14, 1806. 

Mrs. Roberts can tell today of the quiet old farmhouse, crowded with 
boys and girls, and the busy home life within its walls. She remem- 
bers the peach orchard and the delicious fruit, mellowed and painted 
by the golden sunshine that a lavish summer brought with each return- 
ing season, and the apple trees heavily laden with autumn and winter 

This wholesome country life, with its household activities, laid the 
foundations and developed the graces of her character. She trudged 
along, a healthy little country girl, in blue homespun and a cape sun- 
bonnet, with the other children, over the hills and through sweet 
country roads, lined with mountain laurel or fragrant with new-mown 
hay, to the school at Middle Haddam, where she learned her " a-b abs" 
in the old fashioned New England primer, the multiplication table, 
and the rule of three, and had lively times " spelling down." 


At home she learned system and industry. It was the household 
custom for a woman to come once a year to do the weaving for the 
family, while Sally and her sisters would spin. The children were 
taken regularly to the village church, whose high-backed pews and 
sounding-board that swung like a canopy above the parson's head are to 
us only a tradition, to her a most picturesque recollection. We think 
of New England life one hundred years ago as pitifully quiet and bare 
compared with our crowded, hurrying existence of the present; and yet 
to Grandma Eoberts, those are still "the good old times." What we 
may gain in variety and novelty and material progress, they fully bal- 
ance in quality and real thoroughness. The old world had poured its 
bluest blood into the veins of the new nation. There were courtly 
manners and fine phrases then, as now. Mrs. Roberts remembers her 
father in powdered hair and a queue, knee breeches, silken hose, and 
silver buckles on his shoes. * There was much hospitality, mutual help- 
fulness and interchange of social pleasures. There were singing schools r 
apple parings, and quilting bees, in all of which the family had their 
share. It was at a quilting party of the olden time that Sally Hurd r 
a fair young girl 

" Standing with reluctant feet 
Where the brook and river meet, 
Womanhood and childhood fleet," 

first saw Amos Roberts, her future husband. She can tell you now 
the gown she wore, and how her hair was curled and powdered, and 
how she danced with him some stately minuet, or was it " money musk " 
or "Virginia reel?" at their first meeting. They were married on the, 
23d of December, 1809, when the young bride was nineteen years old 
just in time for a merry Christmas, ^as the records of the church of 
Middle Haddam testify, to wit: 

" This certifies that Amos Roberts and Sally Hurd were married, by 
Rev. David Selden, December 23, 1809, as appears from the records of 
the Congregational church of' Middle Haddam, Connecticut. Attested 
by Henry M. Selden clerk of the church." 

Mrs. Roberts' youngest sister, Mrs. Caroline M. Strong, the only 
surviving member of her family is now living at Haddam Neck, Connecti- 
cut, and is a woman of great intelligence and marked literary ability. 
She was present at this wedding, so long ago, and writes: " I remember 
the marriage well, though I was but six years old, and I have yet to 
see a better looking pair. The whole community pronounced them the 
handsomest on record." It is further stated, and is worthy of mention 
as a bit of local history, that this was the two hundred and seventh 

238 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

marriage performed by Rev. David Selden during a pastorate of forty 
years. There were three hundred and nineteen in all. 

The young married couple made their home in Bridgewater, N. Y., 
and then moved to Mohawk, Herkimer county, N. Y., where they lived 
for some years, coming far west to Grand Rapids, in 1838, for their 
permanent home. 

For thirty years they lived in a large, old-fashioned, well-remembered 
house, upon the corner of Ottawa and Fountain streets, the present site 
of the Peninsular club house. Michigan had entered the Union as a state 
in 1836 the twenty-sixth star upon our national banner. There fol- 
lowed a rush of settlers in the Grand River valley. Col. and Mrs. 
Roberts came to meet the sober realities of backwoods life, to grow 
and build up their fortunes, with this wonderful world around them. 
The journey from New York that we can make, by the aid of steam 
almost while the mushroom grows, in a single night, certainly from 
their starting point in less than twenty-four hours -was then a tedious 
experience. From Detroit, on horseback or by steam, it took five days 
to reach Grand Rapids. Travelers came by the " Thornapple road," 
to Ada, and sometimes by boats and scows over the river. There were 
no bridges, only rough roads and Indian trails, and here in a new 
world the pioneers made their new home. 

Mrs. Roberts has borne six children four sons and two daughters 
of whom Mrs. John W. Pierce is the only one living, and in her 
home she spends these last honored years of her life. It has been her 
rare privilege to look in the faces of seven generations. She distinctly 
remembers her grandparents, and can tell you today that her grandfather, 
Jacob Hurd, was born " in the region of Cape Cod, very shortly after 
the arrival there of his parents from the Highlands of Scotland. 
Afterward the family moved to Chatham, Conn., where Jacob Hurd, 
the second, married Thankful Hurlbut of the same town, and where 
both lived and died. 

The Highland Pilgrim great grandparents made their home and died 
in Westchester, Conn. Mrs. Roberts' maternal grandfather, Carey, was 
a Frenchman, while her mother was a Bigelow of English descent. 
She has rocked the cradles of four generations. There have been 
twelve grandchildren, twenty-two great grandchildren, and one great 
great grandchild. There are today in Grand Rapids representatives of 
five generations. 

In her long and fruitful life she has borne the honors and the cares 
of the highest and dearest relation into which a woman can enter. She 
has been a loving daughter, a good sister, a true wife, a faithful mother, 


an ideal grandmother, always a wise and helpful friend. Wisdom, who 
holds length of days in her right hand, in her left hand riches and 
honor, has poured all her gifts at Grandma Roberts' feet. She pos- 
sesses an ancestral right and tenure to "length of days." Her great 
grandmother was one hundred and three when she died, while her great 
grandfather died more than ninety year old, from the effect of a fall 
from a horse. Jacob Hurd, the second, died in the ninety-first year of 
his age, her father, Jacob Hurd, the third, lived to be ninety-nine 
years and nearly nine months old, and died during the rebellion, a 
true patriot to the last, saying with his dying breath, "Slavery must 
and shall be abolished." An aunt of Mrs. Roberts Mrs. Rebecca 
Bowers, of Middle Haddam lived to be one hundred years old, and 
died in 1855, greatly honored and respected. The sermon delivered at 
her funeral is entitled, " A Memorial of a Christian Centenarian. 

Grandma Roberts was a mother by instinct and choice as well as by 
nature. Besides her own children she adopted and educated two nieces 
of her husband's and two grandchildren and opened her hospitable 
home to other relatives and friends. Her sister recalling the memories 
of her long life, says: " I have formerly heard numberless little anec- 
dotes of Sally's amiability and good will during her girlhood, and I 
am sure she has been held in never-failing remembrance for these 
noble qualities ever since. I have always loved her as a motherly 

It is a family tradition that Grandma Roberts' coffee pot was always 
on the kitchen stove, and that no worn or weary traveler could pass 
her door without being warmed and fed. The "tramp" had not grown 
to be a professional in those days, and hers were worthy and deserving 
guests. The children used to say that they could never go into grand- 
ma's kitchen without finding some poor woman or hungry child having 
a good meal. This unfailing hospitality was a relic of her New England 
training. Her early life in Grand Rapids furnished ample opportunity 
for its exercise, and many of our older residents cherish a grateful 
memory of Mrs. Roberts' kindly deeds. 

Her life has exemplified, most fully, the love that " thinketh no evil." 
It has been said over and over again, that no harsh, uncharitable crit- 
icism ever escaped her lips. She always framed a ready excuse for the 
wrongdoer or unfortunate person. Her regard and love for the church 
and its services was transplanted from New England to her western 
home, and St. Mark's church will always hold her in grateful memory 
for her substantial service and warm interest in its organization and 
subsequent growth. 

240 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

There have come, in her long and varied experience of life, many 
cares and griefs. Her tears have fallen upon scores of open graves. 
One by one the friends she tenderly loved have gone from her into 
the life beyond, while she remains, with all her faculties of mind and 
heart unimpaired, though sight and hearing have failed. She has tasted 
joys flecked by trouble, and sorrows soothed and tempered by joy the 
common lot of human life. The world is full of spasmodic virtues. 
Far better is the long and honored life that is an accumulation of 
daily goodness. 

There is a divine meaning, an infinite pathos, a sublime hope, in a 
life like hers. We tread softly, with reverent hearts, in such a presence. 

Consider all the wonderful things she has seen the growth of the 
world, in thought and experience and material prosperity. It is the 
province of one generation to mature the germ that shall bear fruit 
and yield its harvest in the next. Surely, the present time is a feast 
of ingathering. In Mrs. Roberts' girlhood the nation was a child, just 
taking its first steps. She has lived during the administration of every 
president of these United States. She has seen the young nation grow 
strong and ready to lead the world. In her day fables have become 
facts; wild dreams and fancies sober common sense realities. Steam 
and electricity have wrought their miracles. Wars have practically 
ceased, and an age of peaceful arbitration has dawned upon the world. 

To grow gracefully, like the ripening grain or the shock of corn, fully 
ripe, in its season, is a rare attainment. Too often old age is pitifully 
weak and helpless a second childhood, without the charm and beauty 
of the dawning life. Sometimes a bright halo crowns the closing years 
of a well spent life, making it radiant with a glory from the future. 
Grandma Roberts has given to her children and her children's children, 
more than a memory of good and upright ancestry. She has given 
them a gracious presence, and today they arise and call her blessed. 

How good the simple tale appears 

This record of one hundred years! 
With reverent hand we backward roll 

The finished century's folded scroll. 
Down the long vista we behold 

Quaint pictures of old times unfold 
New England elm trees bent their shade 

Above our little country maid. 
New England sunshine necked the way 

Her footsteps traveled day by day. 
Old puritanic lines of thought 

In her life's fabric were inwrought 


The still strong spirit, that we learn, 
Bears hidden blossoms, like the fern. 

She grew a maiden sweet and fair, 

Skilled every household task to share 
To wind the flax upon the reel, 

Or deftly turn the spinning wheel. 

A winsome bride of long ago, 

She heard the summons, " Westward, ho!" 
With dauntless hope and faith she went 

Midway across our continent, 
To build her snug, secure home-nest 

In our broad empire of the West. 
No queen, upon her royal throne, 

More loyal homage e'er has known; 
No titled dame has ever borne, 

A sweeter name than she has worn. 

She treads in life's declining hours, 

A sunlit pathway strewn with flowers, 
Whose seeds she planted long ago, 

Before her brow was wreathed with snow; 
For generous thoughts and kindly deeds 

Are evermore life's rarest seeds. 

We bring to crown her closing days, 

No idle words of fulsome praise, 
But tender words and memories sweet 

We lay at Grandma Roberts' feet. 


Julius Houseman was born at Zeokendorf, in the kingdom of Bavaria, 
Germany, Dec. 8, 1832, of Hebrew parentage; his father, Solomon 
Hausmann, was a native of Bavaria, a merchant and manufacturer of 
silk and cotton goods at that place, where he died in 1873, at the age 
or seventy-one years. His mother was Henrietta, daughter of Julius 
Strauss of Heiligenstadt, Bavaria; she died in 1835, at the age of 
thirty-five years. Mr. Houseman was the older of two children born 
to them, his sister, Mary, being now the wife of Albert Alsberg, a 
prominent merchant of New York city. 

Mr. Houseman's education, up to the time he was thirteen years of 
age, was obtained in the national schools of Zeckendorf and Bamberg, 
and was completed with a two years' commercial course, after which he 
engaged as a dry goods clerk in a store in Bavaria, where he remained three 
years. Very early in life he had a strong wish to come to this country, 
and so in 1851, when nineteen years of age, he started out to cross the 

242 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

ocean and seek usefulness and business success in America. His first home 
was in Cincinnati, where he was clerk in a clothing house for a few 
months. Then he went to New Vienna, O., where he remained as clerk in 
a general store until March, 1852, when he came to Michigan, to Battle 
Creek. In Battle Creek he engaged in the merchant tailoring and clothing 
business with Mr. I. Amberg, the firm name being Amberg & House- 
man. He soon heard of Grand Eapids and its prospects, and in 
August of that year, 1852, before he was yet twenty years old, came to 
this city for a home, establishing a branch of the Battle Creek house 
here. The business under his able management prospered, and in 1854, 
he became sole proprietor, which he continued for nine years, growing 
steadily in the confidence and esteem of the community, and in wealth 
and influence. In 1864 the firm of Houseman, Alsberg & Co. was 
organized, with branch houses in New York, Baltimore and Savannah, 
which continued until 1870, when the firm was dissolved, Mr. House- 
man retaining possession of the Grand Rapids establishment. In 1876 
he disposed of his business to his cousin, Joseph Houseman, Esq., who 
had been a partner for several years, and the late Moses May, who 
continued it for a number of years under the firm name of Houseman 
& May, which was later succeeded by Houseman, Donally & Jones. 

Mr. Houseman had meanwhile taken an active interest in other lines 
of business and investments, notably in timber lands and the manufact- 
ure of pine lumber in this State, and after 1876 devoted himself largely 
to those interests. He is one of the largest holders of real estate in 
this portion of Michigan, and also has large tracts in the Upper 
Peninsula and in other states. He has many investments in lumber 
companies in this and other states. He also bought quite largely of 
real estate years ago, and has long been one of the most sagacious 
and progressive promoters of the growth of the city. The Houseman 
building which occupies the entire half block bounded by Lyon, 
Ottawa, Pearl and Ionia streets, is one of the largest and finest business 
blocks in the State, and a fitting monument to his good taste and good 

He has also been largely identified with other business interests here, 
and in all of them has proved a tower of strength, both with his cash 
and his counsel. In 1870 he became a stockholder in the City National 
bank, the predecessor of the National City bank. In August, 1874, he 
was chosen a director to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
the late Ransom E. Wood, who was going to Europe with his family. 
That office he has since held. 

In 1882, at the annual meeting in January he was chosen vice pres- 


ident of the bank when the late William B. Ledyard declined a 
re-election because of infirm health, and that office he has since held. 
Mr. Houseman was one of the organizers of the Grand Rapids chair 
company, has ever since been a director, and was vice president. He 
was a director, too, of the Grand Rapids Brush company and a leading 
stockholder, director and president of the Grand Rapids Fire Insurance 
company, which in large measure owes its proud position as one of the 
best companies of its class in the west to his business energy and sagac- 
ity. He was one of the founders and directors of the Michigan Trust 
company. He was identified with many other enterprises, and left a 
large property, estimated to be worth nearly or quite a million dollars. 

In political affiliations Mr. Houseman was a democrat, yet his partisan- 
ship was never narrow, and in his official life he ever strove for the 
public weal, with all his great energy and sagacity. He served the city 
as alderman for eight years, from 1863 to 1870, was mayor in 1872, and 
in 1874, and represented Grand Rapids in the State legislature in 1871-2. 
In 1883 he was elected to represent this district in congress, and was 
the first democrat who had been able to achieve that honor in this 
district in many long years. In all his official relations he enlarged 
the esteem in which he was held, won added confidence and respect. 

He became a member of the Masonic fraternity in 1854. He was 
also a member of the Odd Fellows and of the B'nai B'rith. He was a 
lea ng member of both the Peninsular and the Owashtanong clubs, 
and had served the latter as a director and officer. 

He was of the Hebrew faith, and has been one of the most generous 
promoters of Congregation Emanuel in Grand Rapids since its organi- 
zation. Though a faithful son of the Covenant he had a broad charit- 
able spirit in matters of faith, and was as tolerant of others' belief as 
he desired them to be of his. 

He was ever one of the most generous of men. Hundreds of people 
throughout this city and section of the State have been the recipients 
of his quiet, unostentatious, but wise helpfulness, both in counsel and 
in liberal assistance with funds, or in other tangible ways. Many a 
tear will be dropped in his memory by persons to whom he, unknown 
to the world, has proved a friend indeed. He was a good man in all 
his relations in life and few if any will be more missed than will he. 

The immediate relatives left by Mr. Houseman are his daughter, an 
only child, Mrs. David M. Amberg and family of Grand Rapids, his 
sister, Mrs. M. Alsberg of New York city. William Houseman, a half 
brother; Mrs. Simon Mainzer, a half-sister, and his cousin, Mr. Joseph 

244 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Houseman and family. He leaves, also, several half-brothers and half- 
sisters in Germany. 
He died at Grand Eapids Feb. 9, 1891. 


The day of Hon. Julius Houseman's funeral Mr. G. Chase Godwin , 
after attending it, complained of not feeling well, and the next day, 
after being at the office but about an hour went home. His illnes, the 
grip, and a complication of other ills, terminated fatally Feb. 16, 1891, 
at his home, 125 Livingston street, Grand Rapids. 

G. Chase Godwin was born April 18, 1840, in Wyoming township, 
this county, being a son of a pioneer of that township, Wm. R. Godwin 
who settled therein in 1836. Mr. Godwin's education was received in 
the common schools of Wyoming and the public schools of Grand 
Rapids. In 1862 he entered the law office of Holmes and Champlin 
(Hons. John T. Holmes and J. W. Champlin) to study law, and in 
1865 was admitted to the bar. For six years he was a partner of Judge 
Holmes, then was a partner of Mr. J. Edward Earle, and later of Judge 
Adsit and Prosecuting Attorney McKnight. He has held the offices of 
city attorney, of recorder of the city, and of U. S. district attorney 
during President Cleveland's administration, and was assistant prosecut- 
ing attorney at the time of his death. He has long been a prominent 
member and counselor of the democratic party, and has been fre- 
quently named by his friends of that organization for other high and 
responsible positions. He was one of the leaders of the local bar, and 
has been identified with some of the most important criminal and civil 
litigation of Kent county and western Michigan, during the past quarter 
of a century. 

In 1868 Mr. Godwin married Miss Cornelia Chambers, daughter of 
Nelson Chambers, Esq., of Wayland. She survives him; also four 
children, one son and three daughters. 


Charles Conant Rood, one of Grand Rapids' oldest citizens died at 
his residence No 210, East Fulton street, Feb. 22, 1891. He was only 
confined to his residence since Wednesday noon last, but has been in 
failing health for some time. With indomitable courage, although 
aware of his serious condition, he attended to business as usual up to 
Wednesday noon. Then he went home " his house was in order "- 
and calmly and quietly awaited the end which he, better than others, 


knew was so very near. Mr. Rood was one of the older residents of 
Grand Rapids. He was born in Vermont, Aug. 24, 1815, and was one 
of a large family of brothers and sisters. His father came to Michigan, 
to Oakland county, about 1821 or 1822, and his home has been in this 
State ever since. So early a resident in the then territory of Michigan 
he well knew the struggles and privations of pioneer life the toilsome- 
ness of securing an education, of fitting himself for the profession 
which he early selected, the law. - He studied his profession for a time 
in Detroit, later in Marshall, and in 1846 came to Grand Rapids to 
make it his permanent home, and here his life work has been done. 
On Feb. 28, 1850, he married Cornelia Foster, daughter of the late F. 
D. A. Foster. She survives him. He leaves besides, of his immediate 
family, three children, Mrs. E. B. Fisher, Chas. F, Rood and Mrs. 
Chas. F. Renwick, all of Grand Rapids. Mr. Rood was a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, was a democrat of the Jeffersonian school in 
his political affiliations, was eminently a man who minded his own 
affairs, was a kind and true husband, a loving father, a good citizen. 


Chas. W. Hathaway was born in Ashfield, Mass., April 15, 1825. 
When ten years old his parents, Col. Nehemiah and Lucretia Hathaway 
moved to Grand Haven, being among the first white settlers there. In 
1836 the family moved to Grandville, and in 1840 to Grand Rapids. Col. 
Hathaway set up and operated the first trip hammer at McCray's 
machine shops, where the Butterworth & Lowe works now are. After 
his death in 1844, Chas. W. continued the business, being already an 
expert blacksmith and an ingenious and experienced mechanic. As a 
maker of edge tools and a temperer of axes, drawing knives and 
chisels there was not a more expert mechanic in the State. His tools 
were known throughout the State. For about four years he was a 
resident of Spring Lake, and employed in the mills of Hopkins Bros, 
where his ingenuity as a blacksmith and engineer won for him an 
enviable reputation among the mill men of Grand river. In 1852 he 
worked as an ax and tool maker for the firm of Cook, Blain & Gunn. 

About 1856, with Daniel Alcumbrack, he entered edge tool making, 
succeeding by purchase to the business which had been started five 
years previously by Cook & Blain. The shop was near where now is 
the north end of the Valley City mills. While in this business he 
invented and for some time manufactured steel fingers for grain cradles, 
which, until the old hand cradle was supplanted by harvesting machines, 
were considered very fine for their use. Later, about the close of the 

246 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

war, James D. Lyon, his brother-in-law, was associated with Mr. Hath- 
away, and the factory in 1870 was turning out some twenty dozen axes 
per day. Not long after he removed to Detroit, where he resided until 
his death and held for several terms the office of building inspector. 

In November, 1846, Mr. Hathaway married Mary T., daughter of 
Deacon Addison Tracy, a well remembered early settler here, who with 
his two sons, H. A.. Hathaway, of Buffalo, and C. S. Hathaway, the 
well-known Detroit News journalist and art critic survive to mourn the 
loss of a much beloved husband and father. He died at Detroit, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1891. 


Still another of the pioneers of Michigan and old residents of Grand 
Rapids has joined the majority. A little before four o'clock p. m., 
March 4, 1891, Mr. Alexander Blake of Cherry street entered into rest. 

Alexander Blake was born in East Greenwich, Washington county, 
N. Y., May 21, 1812, and so was nearly seventy-nine years of age. He 
came to southern Michigan a little more than fifty years ago, and was 
for a time largely engaged in mercantile operations, in conducting a 
foundry, and in buying and selling cattle in Lenawee county and that 
section of the State. About 1853 or 1854 he engaged in lumbering in 
Newaygo and vicinity, and his family shortly after made Grand Rapids 
their home, and for a good many years he was one of the most prom- 
inent and successful operators on the Muskegon river and its tributa- 
ries. Later he met with business reverses which impaired his fortune 
greatly, and about 1876 went west, whence he returned some four 
years ago to take the rest his labors and years so richly earned. He 
has lived since his return at 311 Cherry street. 

Some forty-five years ago Mr. Blake married Miss Susan Crosby in 
Lenawee county. She survives him, also their four daughters, Mrs. 
Geo. R. Perry, and Mrs. Otis H. Babcock, Miss Ophelia Blake, one of 
the teachers of the Division street school, and Miss Mary Blake, teacher 
of drawing in the city schools. Mr. Blake was one of the most saga- 
cious, energetic and honorable of business men, was a kindly neighbor 
and friend, a good citizen and a model husband and father. Though 
he had not been so actively identified with affairs of late years in Grand 
Rapids, a large circle of older residents will sympathize with his family. 




(See Memoir by R. C. Crawford, elsewhere.) 



Orson Cook, one of the oldest residents of Gaines township, died 
Wednesday night, May 15, 1891, at the old homestead, aged seventy-seven 
years. He leaves three children, Martin V., of Oregon; Ira E., now in 
California, and a daughter, Mrs. John Ross of Gaines. He also leaves 
two brothers, Ariston J. Cook of Ross and Cleveland C. Cook of Grand 

Orson Cook was born in Seneca county, New York, July 6, 1814. In 
1829 his parents moved to Wayne county and in 1838 moved to Grand 
Rapids, which at that time contained but a few log houses. Mr. Cook 
built the old Bronson house on Canal Street. He also built the first 
school house in Gaines and was the first and warmest supporter of the 
first newspaper, the Grand Rapids Enquirer. He was a staunch demo- 
crat and held the offices of justice of the peace and town treasurer for 
many years. 


Jas. M. Pelton, an old resident of Gaines township, and one of the 
oldest pioneers of the Grand River valley died at his home Tuesday 
night May 21, 1891. Mr. Pelton was well known throughout the county 
having been a supervisor of Gaines for eight years and of Byron for 
six years. He also held the office of justice of the peace for twenty- 
five consecutive years. Mr Pelton was born in New York seventy-seven 
years ago but his boyhood days were passed in Canada, where his 
parents moved. At the age of twenty-two he came to Kent county and 
has made it his home since. He purchased his farm in Gaines in 1865 
and has since lived there. 


Another of the pioneers of 1836, Mrs. Eunice Turner, widow of the 
late Isaac Turner, passed away peacefully, at her home, corner of Tur- 
ner and Third streets, Grand Rapids, of old age, June 16, 1890, about 
4 o'clock. She has been in failing health and quite helpless therefrom 
for some time, yet had not until but a few hours before her decease, 
manifested any marked change, and so her death, which was not unex- 
pected, was yet a surprise to her family, and but two of her children 
Mrs. Madison and Mrs. Rosenberg were with her at the time of her 
death. So great was her age, and so feeble had she become the force 
of the expression, " second childhood," was fully exemplified in her 
case, but as she had given the most loving of care to others, she was 
not without it during her need for it. 

248 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Mrs. Turner, whose maiden name was Bullis, was born Sept. 11, 1801, 
at Peru, a small hamlet near Plattsburg, N. Y. In 1819 when she was 
eighteen years old, she became the wife of Isaac Turner, in Plattsburg. 
In 1836 they came from that city to Michigan, and settled in what is 
now Grand Bapids. They lived for a short time on the east side of 
the river, but a little later Mr. Turner becoming largely interested in 
real estate on the west side, they went across to that side for a home, 
and there she lived almost without interruption since. She was living 
at a home her children had provided for her, corner of Turner and 
Third streets, and where she was cared for by a competent nurse, when 
she died. 

Mr. Isaac Turner, her husband, was one of the most competent 
mechanics a millwright in the State. He was of the material requi- 
site for successful pioneers, and during his long and busy and most 
useful life, which closed by his death March 6, 1879, he was one of the 
foremost citizens, a leader in improvements, in the efforts which con- 
duced to the growth of Grand Rapids, and especially of that portion 
with which he was so long most intimately identified. Mrs. Turner 
was indeed a helpmeet for such a man a good wife, a devoted and 
loving mother, a kind and helpful neighbor and true friend. She was 
of a cheerful and hopeful disposition, and though ever quiet and retiring 
devoted to her household ''and the duties it devolved upon her. She 
had in the highest degree the esteem and regard of all who knew 

Mrs. Turner had had ten children. Four of them preceded her in 
death. The six yet living are: Aaron B. Turner of the Eagle; Chester B. 
Turner of Detroit; Willard S. Turner of Grand Rapids; Mrs. Alzina 
Madison, Mrs. John Rosenberg and Mrs. E. F. Harrington, all of 
Grand Rapids; of those dead was Mrs. Boardman Noble, of Grand 
Rapids. She left twenty-six grandchildren and twenty-seven great 
grandchildren, among her direct descendants. 


Mrs. Jennie S., wife of Mr. D. A Blodgett, who died Oct. 23, 1890, 
in Grand Rapids was born in Lycoming county, Penn., Aug. 26, 1841, 
and was the only daughter of John and Clara L. Wood. On the 9th 
of September, 1859, sue was married to Mr. Blodgett at Woodstock, 
111., where her parents were then residing. She came at once with her 
husband to her new home at Hersey, in this State, where she continued 
to live until the family moved to Grand Rapids in the fall of 
1881, and since then Grand Rapids has been her home. 


She leaves, beside her husband, 'two children, John W., and Susan 
Bichmond, wife of Mr. Edward Lowe. Her mother still survives her, 
and she has had a most happy home with her the greater portion of 
the time since she was married. 

Mrs. Blodgett was a woman of great breadth of view, of 
remarkable grasp of business and the larger affairs of life and the 
world. Her husband valued and sought her counsel in all the cares of 
business, and in her found not only an unfailing friend but a helpmeet 
in the truest sense of that homely but admirable word. She was so 
fully conversant with his interests and plans that she could and did 
act for him in many important matters of practical detail on many 
occasions. While attending to all her other duties of wife and mother 
she always found time to cheerfully share in his plans, labors and 

She had an abiding and hearty interest in the progress of the world, 
in the development and betterment of mankind. She read and thought 
on topics of this nature to a degree and with a pleasure not often 
seen in one of her sex. 

Yet while she was of a particularly strong, broad cast of mind, she 
was one of the most simple and unaffected of women. She had a pas- 
sionate love of the good, the true and the beautiful in nature and in 
art. She had read much, of the best books, and often counseled her 
children and friends in literature, always with wisdom and tact. She 
had rare good taste, and innate judgment in art her friends came to 
rely implicitly on it. The beauties of the flowers, of the birds, of the 
fields and the forests appealed to her most strongly. The robins ever 
found a dish of water, fresh for them, daily, on the lawn at her home, 
and knew perfectly well how welcome they were. She petted animals; 
and above all she loved children. Not a few of the little folks in onr 
city had learned that fact and watched lovingly for her coming and 
going before her long illness prevented her showing them how truly 
she enjoyed their smiles and affection. 

She was thoughtful of others, always to the utter exclusion of her- 
self. During all her long illness, and intense suffering, not a com- 
plaint, not a murmur escaped from her; she thought only of making 
those about her happy. That the world was shut out from her eyes 
did not prevent her thought of striving, for the pleasures of seeing 
beautiful things, for others, nor cause her ever to advert to her own 
blindness. But a few days ago, hearing of illness in the family of a 
friend she had not been told of the death she desired a delicacy 
sent to them, and told what dish it should be carried upon " because 

250 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

food is so much more appetizing from pretty dishes, you know." This 
little incident is the key note of her character and nature tells as 
well as volumes could, of the one whose loss is irreparable to her 
family, but whose memory is indeed fragrant, and will grow more 
and more precious as time recalls to them the value of the lessons of 
her loving and her life. 

She had their most ardent devotion in life. Every other interest 
was subordinated or sacrificed by husband and children, to add to her 
comfort, to afford her relief. Now that rest has come to her, they can- 
not regret it they loved her too well but no words can express their 
sense of loneliness and loss, and their friends can only point to the spirit 
she manifested as the true example for them, to make life the better 
for others because she had lived. 


Mrs. Henry Spring died at her home in Grand Rapids, April 17, 

Mrs. Spring was born in Orleans county, New York, December 5, 
1830, and became the wife of Henry Spring, March 26, 1854. She leaves 
her husband, a daughter, Mrs. Geo. E. Raymond, and one son, Willard 
S. Spring, now attending college at Ann Arbor. Her other son, Fred, 
died suddenly seven years ago last January. While not being fond of 
society in its ordinary sense, she took a lively interest in all the move- 
ments in the community that had in view its moral and social elevation. 
She was quite prominent in the union benevolent association, which 
was for some time under her management, as well as the humane 
society, and it was in the interest of the latter work that she caused 
to be built a drinking place at the corner of State and Cherry streets. 
Always a member of the Universalist church, she took an active part 
in its affairs, and was at one time assistant superintendent of the Sun- 
day school. One characteristic that she possessed was that she did her 
own working and her judgment never was at fault. 


Mrs. Martha L., wife of Martin L. Sweet, died December 6, 1890, of 
pneumonia, aged seventy.four years. Mrs. Sweet was born at Fabius, 
Cayuga county, N. Y., married M. L. Sweet and came to Grand Rapids 
forty-six years ago. She leaves three children, one daughter and two 
sons. She was well and favorably known for her kindly acts by the 
old residents of Grand Rapids. 


Mrs. Henry G. Stone, daughter of Jacob Barnes, Sr., came to Grand 



Bapids with her father's family in 1836. Was born May 4, 1828 in 
Vermont. Died at her home in Grand Eapids, May 10, 1891; was the 
mother of nine children, four of whom survive her, two sons and two 
daughters. Mrs. Stone was a consistent Christian mother, and a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. 


was born at Troy, Michigan, came to Grand Rapids about 1845. 
A carpenter, but of late for several years engaged in real estate and 
insurance. Died at Grand Eapids, May 9, 1891. 


John Calkins was born in Sherburn, Chenango county, N. Y., June 
23, 1806. Came to Michigan in 1849 or 1850. Settled at Grass Lake. 
Died at Grand Eapids. May 13, 1891. 


List of Pioneers who have died between June 1, 1890, and June 1, 1891. 


Date of death. 



Henry Reed. 




James A. Jackson 



Mrs. Nixon . 


Rome . . 


Annrm Roff 



Martin Hoag 




Elisha Lake 



Joseph Exelby . ._ 




Thomas Earl 



Jane Hearneye 




Charles Mickly . _. 



Hon. A. W. Childs. 


Hudson. .. 


Robert Biddleman. 



Edwin Goff... 



Lydia Hanse .. . 


Ridge way. 


Sarah Rudolph ^ 

Ogden . 


Alanson Pool 




James M.Weils f .. .. 



Caroline Rounds 




Rafns Estes 



Roswell Lamb. 







Date of death. 



Wm. Pitchim.. 

August ... 



Sarah Stout 



Ar-fll San ford 




John Philips 




Rabeed Aylsworth 



Mary E. Spafford .... 




Benjamin Converse. 




Hiram Bailey 



MrH, C^lh Mapfis 



G.W.Huntoon - 



Peter Derby. . 


Israel Goodale. 



Mrs. Childs 



Jonathan Har 




Shm-man Fitnh 



John Mitnhftl 




Andrew Stepson 



Mrs. Frost . 



Hannah Posyt.h- 




Hudiah HiU. 



Richard Green. 



Philip Wareham .. . 

November . 



Jacob Armer 


Mary McKinney 




Sarah Caswell _ 




W.M.Taylor... ... ... 



Mrs. Hodman Taylor 


Fran VI in 


Catherine Bandger 




Harriet Sheldon. 



Caroline Osborn ... 




James Farcer 


Fleming McMath 




John Richards 




Mrs. J. S. Talmadge 




Charles Culberston.. 



Charles Cole. 



Lydia Harmon 



James Wilson 




Lewis Goodwin.. 

January, 1891 



William Cadmus 


Parmelia Rector .. . ^ 





Date of death. 



Henry Smith 




Caroline Maynard 



Hiram Bronst 




Walter S. Mead. 




Mrs. C. Watson. . . _ . . 




TTnn. .Ton] Carpfint^r 


David Brooks -. . - 




William Oovil 



70 (Vilijis 




Abbie H. McBride 




Daniel Pelton 




John MnColman, 


Tecnmseh . . 


Robert Farnham 



Alice Pierce. .. . .. 



Dorcas Dean. 




Joseph Quick. 




Eeed Payne . 




Nelson H. Kimball. 



Benwell Fulson. . 




William Coyill 




Mary Bennett 


Tecnmseh . 

70 Hall 



Real Payn. 




William Young, ... .. 




James Shierson. 




Jesse Strectch 


Raisin . ... 


Richard Waldron.. 




Nicholas Lewis. 



Polly Odell 


Fairfield . 


Zebine White . .. 


Nathan Brown 




William Micheals .... 


Adrian . . 


I. A. Slayton 



Samuel Satherwait. 



Estien Onsted 


Macon . 


Micheal Hendershot. . ... 


Salmon Brown 




Alva Raymond 


Raisin . 


John Lefler _.. 




Artemns Adams 




Louise Onsted... 

Cambridge . . . 


254 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Alfred Isaac Sawyer, M. D., was born in Lyme township, Huron 
county, Ohio, October 31, 1828. His parents, Stephen and Dorothy 
Sawyer, came to this country from England in 1819, settling first in 
New Haven, Connecticut, then at North Bend, on the Ohio river. 

There Stephen Sawyer took charge of a farm for Gen. "William H. 
Harrison, afterwards president of the United States, between whom and 
himself a strong friendship ever afterwards existed. 

The country was then new, and being illy prepared by habits and 
education for pioneer life, he became wearied with its hardships and 
set out to return to the mother country. 

When he reached New York city, he met friends from England who 
persuaded him to go back to Connecticut. Among the party was Capt. 
Henry Griswold, a son of the governor of the state, with his bride, 
formerly Miss Betsey Lansdale, a sister of Mrs. Stephen Sawyer. 

In 1827 the family again turned their faces westward, and with many 
other Connecticut people settled on what was then called the " Connec- 
ticut fire land," more familiarly known since as the western reserve. 
In the autumn of 1828 the subject of this sketch was born, as already 
stated. About this time Mr. Sawyer purchased a large tract of wild 
land, put up a log house and moved into it, his son Alfred being just 
one month old. Although a more modern and commodious dwelling 
was subsequently erected, the old log house is still standing. Here the 
parents lived, prospered and died. Of their children, nine sons and 
four daughters, six were born in England, one at North Bend, Ohio, 
three in Connecticut, and three at Lyme, Ohio. Alfred Isaac Sawyer 
is the eleventh child and eighth son. With the exception of Alfred 
the children followed the example of their parents, and led a prosper- 
ous agricultural life. 

At the age of seventeen Alfred Sawyer dreamed of other enterprises 
and sought to prepare himself for other fields of labor. This was 
strenuously opposed by his father, who argued that his education was 
"good enough for a farmer, which was what he desired him to be, 
and what he should be." Up to this time the boy had enjoyed no 
opportunity for schooling but such as was afforded by the country 
schools of that day, which continued but three months out of twelve, 
and were very inefficient at that. Although the father was one of the 
strictest of old English disciplinarians, the ambitious boy would not be 
restrained or deterred from his purpose. 


During the next three years Alfred Sawyer improved every opportu- 
nity to acquire an education that would fit him for some other calling 
than that to which he had thus far been reared. Every obstacle was 
thrown in his way, still by hard work, teaching school in winter, 
and attending the Norwalk academy in the spring and fall, and by 
studying while others slept, he succeeded in acquiring an average 
academical education and had made arrangements with one of his 
brothers to take a classical course. 

During the cholera epidemic of 1849, however, his brother fell a vic- 
tim to the fearful scourge. For four years he worked his brother's 
farm and thereby accumulated sufficient means to enable him to pursue 
his studies for a time. But instead of completing his classical course 
he entered the office of Drs. John Tift and Beckwith, Norwalk, Ohio. 
This was in the autumn of 1852. 

When the lectures commenced in the western college of homeopathy 
at Cleveland, Ohio, in November of that year he matriculated and after 
the close of the course followed Dr. D, H. Beckwith to Marietta, Ohio. 
In August, 1853, he was attacked by that frightful disease, bloody flux, 
which was at that time prevailing to an alarming extent in that region, 
and was confined to his bed several weeks, with life trembling in the 
balance. However when lectures began again in Cleveland in Novem- 
ber he attended them, and in the spring of 1854 received the degree 
of doctor of medicine. 

In May of that year he again returnad to Marietta and entered into 
co-partnership with his former preceptor, Dr. D. H. Beckwith, who 
shortly gave place to his brother, Dr. E. C. Beckwith, and settled at 
Zanesville, Ohio. 

In 1855, Dr. Swyer left Marietta and again formed a partnership 
with D. H. Beckwith at Zanesville, where he remained until the fall of 
1856. He then went to New York city and attended the medical 
department of New York university, remaining until the first of March, 

Having become somewhat disgusted with general practice he proposed 
to pursue some specialty. Accordingly he engaged rooms in Bleeker 
street, New York, where he intended to follow ophthalmic surgery. To 
this end he earnestly, persistently and successfully pursued a special 
course of study under Drs. Valentine, Mott, Mark, Stephenson, Eogers 
and Gerish, and from them received a diploma declaring his fitness to 
enter upon that special field of the profession. But his sources of 
revenue again unexpectedly failed him, obliging him to leave New 
York and seek an opening that promised more ready and certain 

256 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

After visiting various places between New York city and Monroe, 
Michigan, he finally settled, May 12, 1857, in the latter place where he 
resided until his death. 

He was made a Mason in February, 1858, a royal arch Mason in 
1859, a royal and select Mason, in 1863 at Monroe, and a Knight 
Templar at Adrian in 1868. He was elected senior warden of Monroe 
lodge, No. 27 in 1863, and worshipful master in 1864-65-66-67-68-69 
and 1870-79-80-81 and '87. 

During this time he was presented by the lodge with a beautiful 
past master's jewel. He was high priest of River Raisin chapter, 
royal arch Masons, from 1867 to 1871, inclusive. 

Was elected grand principal sojourner of the grand chapter of 
royal arch Masons of the State of Michigan in 1869. 

Grand captain of the host in 1870. Grand scribe in 1871, grand 
king in 1872, deputy grand high priest in 1873, and grand high 
priest in 1874. 

Was made chairman of a committee te revise the grand constitution 
of the grand chapter of royal arch Masons of Michigan in 1875, 
which required four years for completion, and is today the fundamental 
law of the order in Michigan. 

Represented the grand chapter of royal arch Masons of Michigan 
in the general grand chapter of the United States at Denver, Colorado, 
in 1883. 

Was elected grand president of the grand council of high priest- 
hood in 1872, immediately after submitting a masterly report of the 
history and chronology of the order. This office he held for several 

Was elected grand principal conductor of the work in the grand 
council of royal and select Masons of Michigan in 1873. 

Was first eminent commander of River Raisin coinmandery No. 19, 
K. T., in 1868 and again in 1886. 

Was elected mayor of the city of Monroe in 1869-70 and '78 and 
was a member of its school board for nine years. 

But as his untiring zeal and faithful devotion has made him a leader 
in political, educational, Masonic and social circles, even so he has 
shone if anything with far more brilliancy in his chosen profession, 
and among his learned colleagues. There is no man in this country 
who has done more for the advancement of medical science than has 
Dr. A. I. Sawyer of Monroe. 

The homeopathic department of the University of Michigan owes 
its life and sustenance to him. In 1847 a bill making it a State Prison 
offense to practice medicine according to the homeopathic law was 


introduced in the legislature of Michigan. It passed one of the houses 
before it was discovered by the friends of homeopathy. It was 
defeated in the other house by the judicious efforts of the friends of 
that system of medicine. The first efforts to secure recognition of 
homeopathy in the University were begun in 1853, but without success. 
In 1855 there was enacted a law requiring the board of regents " to 
always maintain at least one chair of homeopathy in the medical 
department of the University of Michigan." The regents failed to com- 
ply with the requirements of this law. The question was then taken 
by " mandamus" to the supreme court of the State, requiring the board 
of regents to show cause why they did not comply with the law. Here 
the friends of homeopathy were defeated by simply nonaction on the 
part of the supreme court. 

This farce cost Sawyer $155 for attorney fees alone, not to mention 
what he paid for a person to remain in Lansing and lobby for the 
passage of a bill during nearly the entire session, or his own personal 
expenses there and elsewhere in the interest of the cause. 

After this defeat the friends of homeopathy again went before the 
legislature in 1867, and attacked the very fountain head of the Univer- 
sity by amending the law which gives to it one-twentieth of a mill on 
the dollar of all taxable property of the State, so that it read: "Pro- 
vided the board of regents would comply with the law of 1855 and 
appoint at least one professor in the medical department of the Uni- 
versity," thus locking up a goodly portion of the income of the 
University. In 1869 the regents agreed to comply with the law of 
1855, providing the friends of homeopathy would secure a repeal of 
the obnoxious law of 1867. Although this was done, the regents acted 
in bad faith, and undertook to both comply with and evade the law by 
appointing Dr. Chas. Hempel, professor of theory and practice of medi- 
cine, and proposed to locate him in Detroit instead of Ann Arbor. 
The duplicity of the board was rewarded by the Auditor General of 
the State refusing to honor the warrants of the University, because the 
law of 1855 had not been complied with, the supreme court declining 
to take action in the matter. The University was therefore deprived of 
this source of revenue. 

The regents finally offered to compromise on the basis of creating a 
branch school outside of Ann Arbor, and through certain homeopathic 
physicians "who had become discouraged through the unsuccessful 
attempts to establish a homeopathic school on the campus of the 
University of Michigan," conveyed to the homeopathic society their 
proposition of reconciliation. This question was finally referred to a 

268 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

committee of the State medical society early in the seventies. Dr. 
Sawyer was chairman and submitted the following report, viz.: 

Resolved, That when the same rights, benefits and privileges that are now enjoyed 
by the old school doctors shall have been accorded to homeopaths on the University 
campus, we will be satisfied, and not before. 

Immediately following this report the doctor introduced another bill to 
the legislature, with a long and forcible remonstrance against further 
delay in granting them their rights signed by himself and two others 
(Dr. I. N. Eldridge, of Flint, and Robert King, of Kalamazoo), had it 
introduced and forced to a successful issue, in spite of the enemies 
within and foes without. Investigation showed the legislature's failure 
to make provision for supporting this new department, and the bill was 
a dead letter. In 1875, a bill was introduced, by parties working in 
the confidence, if not in the interest of the old school professors and 
physicians, and asking for a homeopathic college to be located at such 
place as would furnish the greatest inducements by way of funds, 
grounds, buildings, and the like, to be under the supervision of the 
board of regents. 

After the bill had very quietly passed the senate with only four dis- 
senting votes, Dr. Sawyer discovered the real purpose of the bill, and 
when it came up for action in the house had an amendment intro- 
duced virtually cutting off all after the enacting clause, and substitut- 
ing the bill which passed the legislature the session previous, simply 
adding $6,000 for expenses. 

The house failing to pass the amendment, the whole matter was laid 
upon the table until five o'clock the next day. The authors of the 
bill then fell in with the doctor for the proposed substitute, and it 
passed the house. 

At the next meeting of the regents (June, 1875), they complied with 
the law and organized a homeopathic department in the University 
A hospital, too, has been added to the original plant. 

Doctor Sawyer ( has been in attendance more or less during every 
session of the legislature since 1867, and for ten years nearly every 
session of the board of regents, in the interest of homeopathy. He has 
refused at various times to consider proposed appointments to profess- 
orships, that nothing might embarrass his efforts to secure an accept- 
able school in the University of Michigan. 

At the commencement exercises of the University in June, 1877, he 
had the proud satisfaction of occupying the same platform with the 
old school faculty, with the president of the University of Michigan, and 
witnessing the graduation of the first class from the homeopathic depart- 


merit. The nucleus of the college which he was so instrumental in 
founding has already secured an everlasting foothold, and will ever live 
as a monument to him and to those who so gallantly stood by 
his side. The alumni of the college thus brought forth under so many 
dimculties are known far and wide, and wherever known respected, an 
honor to their Alma mater, an honor to the State of Michigan, an 
honor to the promoters of the college, and a blessing to mankind. 

In the early history of this college, before professors were appointed 
to the chairs of obstetrics and surgery, Dr. A. I. Sawyer was appointed 
as examiner or censor for that department. He was a delegate to rep- 
resent the American institute of homeopathy, also homeopathic 
State medical society of Michigan, at the international homeopathic 
congress, which met in London, England, in July, 1881, and while in 
Europe at that time visited Ireland, Wales, Scotland, England, Holland, 
Prussia, Switzerland and France. In 1885 he was elected vice presi- 
dent of the American institute of homeopathy, at St. Louis, Mo., 
and at the same session was made chairman of the committee on med- 
dical legislation of that body, which position he held till 1889. 

In 1889, at Minne tonka Beach, Minnesota, the members of the 
national institute of homeopathy recognized the faithful labors of this 
untiring physician, and unanimously elected him to the presidency of 
the oldest medical institution in America. 

In presenting his name for the honored position it was declared that 
to him were they indebted for- the State recognition of homeopathy, 
that he had fought and he had conquered, that the outcome of that 
war was the establishing by him of an institution that would forever 

A great and influential school of medicine had placed him j(at their 
head. He was justly proud of the homage of the act, and his towns- 
men were pleased at the laurels won by one of their number. Little 
did any one dream that in less than two years he would be taken 
from life's activities to the mysteries of eternity. 

Dr. Sawyer retired from all medical practice over a year ago, and 
since then had spent his time in enjoying the comforts and beauty of 
his spacious home and its elegant grounds. In his retirement the 
fondest care and most devoted attention have been given him by his 
idolizing family. About seven months ago he experienced a slight 
apoplectic shock at about midnight while in bed. On Thursday even- 
ing as he was eating supper he sneezed several times. He then raised 
his hand to his head and complained of severe pain. It was seen that 
his condition was alarming, and he was laid gently on the floor with 

260 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

his head on a pillow. His old partner, Dr. Dawe, who resides on the 
next corner was summoned, and almost instantly was at the side of his 
friend and mentor. No help, however, could be given him, and twenty 
minutes later in Dr. Dawe's arms he breathed his last. Death had 
resulted from apoplexy caused by the bursting of a blood vessel in the 

He disliked ostentation, and although his position as a Mason enti- 
tled him to the sacred rites of the craft and the brothers were ready 
to pay their last offering of esteem and respect, at an oft expressed 
desire only the beautiful and impressive burial service of the Episcopal 
church (the church of his birth and adoption, of which he was for 
many years a vestryman and at the time of his illness junior warden) 
was read, Rev. R. D. Brook officiating. He had for many years been 
appointed to the church convention, and was one of the electors of the 
late Bishop Harris. 

His burial took place from his late residence Sunday afternoon at 
4:30 o'clock, a very large number of his mourning fellow citizens 
attending his obsequies. The following gentlemen acted as bearers: 

Active C. W. Scott, Robt. Waters, Benj. Dansard, J. B. Dewey, P. 
B. Loranger, A. E. Dunbar, Julius Weiss, T. A. Strong. 

Honorary N. N. Kendal, H. S. Noble, J. C. Clark, Dr. Wood, 
Judge Morris, M. Paulding, F. Walldorf, Rev. Northrup. 

Dr. Sawyers' townsmen will remember him as an affable, genial 
gentleman, generous and obliging. No charity appealed to him in vain, 
and the humblest patient commanded his utmost skill. 

Among the number who testified their tribute of respect to the mem- 
ory of the honored dead, were Dr. Wood of Ann Arbor, Dr. Baldwin 
of Coldwater, Dr. Walter Sawyer and wife of Hillsdale, Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Sawyer of Lyme, Ohio, James Sawyer of Bellevue, Ohio> J. C. 
Clark of Ann Arbor, Charles P. Toll of Detroit. 

Conspicuous for its rare beauty among the many floral offerings was 
cross, four feet in height, the testimonial of loving remembrance of four 
brother physicians of Ann Arbor Drs. Gatchell, McLauchlm, Mack 
and Wood. It was composed of calla and ascension lilies, crowned 
with " Virgin May " roses, resting on a background of softest green, a 
mass of solidity and beauty. 

The gates ajar, the work and offering of one of the doctor's 
admiring and faithful patients, was beautiful in every detail. 

The casket was covered with rare flowers in exquisite designs, each 
speaking of love, gratitude and a sweet appreciation for some favor, 
some kindness shown in the everyday life of this physician and friend. 


The tulips and fragrant narcissus from his own garden were showered in 
abundance in every nook and niche of the room, the buds of which 
had been watched by him with interest and delight during the past 

This life's probation task ended, 

"The soul of man creates its own destiny of power ; 
And as the trial is intenser here, 
His being hath a nobler strength in heaven." 


At a meeting of the physicians of Monroe held at Dr. Masecar's 
office Friday afternoon, with Dr. Masecar chairman and Dr. Southworth 
secretary, the following resolutions were drawn by the committee 

WHEREAS, It has pleased God in the inscrutable ways of his Providence, to call from 
our midst one of our number Dr. Alfred Isaac Sawyer; and 

WHEREAS, In his death the community has lost a man who for more than thirty years 
has been known as a zealous, devoted and patriotic citizen; one whom his fellow men 
have been delighted upon more than one occasion to honor with positions of adminis- 
tration and trust; and his family have in his death lost a prudent and beloved husband 
and father; 

Resolved, That in this hour of sorrow and affliction we tender to the bereaved family 
the assurance of our earnest and heartfelt sympathy; and further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the family of the 
deceased, and also furnished to the city papers. 



G. B. McCoLLUM, 


Dr. Sawyer was one of the most eminent physicians and surgeons in 
southern Michigan, and had an extensive and lucrative practice. He 
married the daughter of Phillip B. and Nancy D. Toll, of Monroe, 
Michigan, and resided with his family, consisting of one son and one 
daughter, in his beautiful residence on Front street, the site of the 
headquarters of General Winchester, during the war of 1812-1813, until 
his death which occurred May 7, 1891. 

Strong, tender, faithful, true. " Beholding as in a glass, the glory of 
the Lord, is changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as 
by the spirit of the Lord." 

262 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Mr. President; Ladies and Gentlemen of the State Pioneer and His- 
torical Society of Michigan: 

It becomes my duty as your vice president for Oakland county to 
prepare and present to this annual meeting a memorial report of the 
deaths occurring during the year closing June 1, 1891. The task has 
riot been a pleasant one. Many of the venerable ( people I have known 
from their first coming and settlement in this, then sparsely peopled 
territory nearly sixty-six years ago. Many were compeers of my father 
and mother in the settlement of Oakland county, coming there to pur- 
chase cheap homes from the government, not having sufficient money 
to obtain them in the place of their birth or former homes. They 
have left a rich inheritance to posterity and " builded better than they 

In the township of Troy where my parents first settled, there are 
but two persons living who came before 1830. 

In Bloomfield, where I now reside, there are none, and in all the town- 
ships of the county they are fast passing away. ; ,The mortality in the 
county has been large during the past year owing to the prevailing 
epidemic, la grippe. I regret that full data on many names I could not 
get; that while the report may not be absolutely correct in all particu- 
lars it is the nearest so, probably, that it is possible for any one to 
give you. 

For the year closing June 1, 1891, there has been one hundred and 
seventy-four deaths whom I have alphabetically listed. There are 
nearly thirty more that I could procure no data upon and am forced 
to leave those names off the list. 

There has been one death each at the following ages; ninety-three 
years eleven months seventeen days ninety-three years eleven months 
nine days ninety-three, sixty-four, sixty-three, fifty-nine, fifty-three. 

Two each at 69, 65 

Three " " 90, 89, 73 

Four " " 82, 77, 67 

Five " 84, 72, 68 

Six " " 91, 75 

Seven " " 88,87,86,85,70 

Eight " " 80,78,76 

Nine " " 81,71 

Eleven " 79 

Thirteen " 83 


The greatest mortality lias been at the age of eighty-three. 

The average age of mortality has been at about seventy-nine and 
five-sevenths years, or about 13,694 years in all. 

The nationality of all these people is as follows: Michigan, Canada, 
Scotland, one each. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, two 
each. Wales, three. Connecticut and Vermont, four each. Ireland, 
seven New Jersey, nine. England, thirteen. New York, fifty-six. 
Unknown, sixty-nine. 


Died at his late residence in South Avon, Friday, February 22, 1891, 
of general debility, superinduced by old age, Koger Sprague, Jr., aged 
eighty-seven years. 

Mr. Sprague was born in Bloomfield, Ontario county, N. Y., Sept. 
4, 1804. With his father, Judge Eoger Sprague, he came to Michi- 
gan in 1821. It is said that the judge was the first man to drive a 
team into this section of country. 

At that time Oakland township comprised a large area of territory, out 
of which several townships have since been formed. Among these was 
the present township of Avon, of which Judge Roger Sprague was the 
first supervisor. He also took part, at Detroit, in the enactment of 
territorial laws for the now State of Michigan. 

During the year 1827 Roger, Jr., then twenty- three years of age 
voted at the first township meeting held in Avon. This was also the 
first time he had ever voted at any election. 

He was married December 27, 1836. to Miss Liddie Potter, who bore 
him foui children one son and three daughters, the son and two 
daughters still living, who with the widow mourn the loss of an affec- 
tionate father, and a true-hearted husband. 

The death of Mr. Sprague closes the list of the early pioneers who 
first voted in this township. 

Mr. Sprague was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, strong 
in his convictions of what constituted right and wrong, and a man 
whose word was as good as his bond. Upright in his dealings with his 
fellowman, he was a typical citizen and a man whose loss may be con- 
sidered irreparable to the community in which he lived so many long 

It is not often the lot of a wedded couple to live together uninter- 
ruptedly and happily for fifty-five years, yet this privilege was accorded 
Mr. and Mrs. Sprague. Together they walked hand-in-hand all these 

264 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

years, and together shared the toils and hardships of pioneer life, and 
while he, like ripened corn, was gathered to his fathers, she is 

" Only waiting till the shadows 
Are a little longer grown" 

to join him on the other side. 


Sabrina Bagg Decker, widow of the late Truman Decker, died at her 
home, Ball Mountain, April 30, 1891, at two o'clock p. m., aged seventy- 
four years. 

The deceased was a sister of Dr. M. L. Bagg, who died recently at 
Owosso, and an aunt to Mrs. C. A. Howard, of Pontiac Mrs. Decker 
had been an invalid for twenty-six years. Previous to this time 
she was a woman of great force and energy of character. 

She came 'to this county with her father, David Bagg, in 1824. For 
many years her father was a prominent resident of Pontiac. At the 
time of the death of her husband, September 10, 1889, they had been 
married fifty-three years. She leaves two daughters and one son Mrs. 
Noah Tyler, of Pontiac, Mrs. Willard Fisher of Avon, and Truman 
Decker, who lives on the homestead. 


Caroline Caskey, the widow of the late Isaac Caskey, died at the 
home of her children in Cleveland, Ohio, April 25, 1891, aged eighty- 
three years, her husband, Isaac Caskey, dying in April, 1880. 

They came to Pontiac in 1837 where for many years Mr. Caskey worked 
at the trade of a carpenter. They were among the very earliest members 
of the Pontiac M. E. church, taking an active part in the spiritual and 
material interests of the society. In their church relations they were very 
devout and earnest workers in building up their Savior's kingdom on what 
was then the western frontier. During their long residence here they were 
greatly prized for their Christian and moral worth. 

Of their own family, the following children survive them: Samuel G. 
Caskey, of Detroit; Alexander C. Caskey, of Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. 
Mary Jane Canfield, of Cleveland; Mrs. Elmira J! Bigelow, Augusta, 
Georgia, and Mrs. Maria L. Seymour, Humbolt, Kansas. Mrs. Caskey, 
was a sister of Judge C. L, and E. C. Walker, of Detroit. She was 
buried in Oak Hill cemetery, in Pontiac, by the side of her husband. 



This old and well known citizen of Pontiac, died at the home 
of his son-in-law, Hon. C. Stewart Draper, Saginaw, Saturday, January 
24, 1891. He had been in feeble health for over a year, but was only 
confined to his room one week. 

Mr. Thurber was born at Canandaigua, N. Y., in 1813; removing to 
Michigan he engaged in business at Pontiac in 1835. For many years 
he was the leading hardware man of the county, and in matters of 
businegs no man living in Oakland county enjoyed a greater confidence 
with the people than Horace C. Thurber, whose safe was the reposi- 
tory for money and valuables. In the early history of the old Detroit 
and Pontiac railroad, he was the principal owner, reported at the time 
as selling his interests for $40,000. Confidence in his integrity drew public 
and private money to his safe, and he was the treasurer of many of the 
local societies. The Masonic bodies of Pontiac can thank Horace C. Thur- 
ber for their real estate holdings. Under his close, careful management, 
the nucleus was secured for the land purchase that will uMmately make 
for them a fraternal home. 

He leaves three daughters, Mrs. C. Stewart Draper, of Saginaw; 
Mrs. Harry A. Con ant, of Monroe, and Miss Lizzie Thurber, of Sag- 
inaw. One son survives him, Daniel D. Thurber, of Chicago. His 
remains were brought to Pontiac for interment. 

He came to Michigan about 1832, was employed by B. B. & Wm. 
Morris as clerk in a general store at their mills, one and a half miles 
south of Bloomfield Centre. 

(Birmingham Eccentric.) 

Dr. Henry S. Buel died on Saturday, the 10th of January, 1891. 

Henry S. Buel was born in Castleton, Vermont, March 10, 1820, and 
was educated at the seminary of that place. In 'the spring of 1836 he 
came with his elder brother, A. W. Buel, to Detroit. After a residence 
of some years there he returned to his native place and entered Castle- 
ton Medical College, took his degree as M. D., and came again to 
Michigan in 1841. He has since resided in the village of Franklin 
with his family. His wife, Electa, daughter of Josiah Frost, late of 
Marcellus, Onondaga county, New York, son, Dr. J. A. Buel, and 
daughter are left to mourn his loss. He left a large circle of friends 
who will miss his kindly ministrations. 

The life long friends of the late Dr. Henry S. Buel, desire to make 

266 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

public, through the medium of The Birmingham Eccentric, their loving 
regard for the deceased, and to testify to his many virtues through 
many long years of acquaintance; and who better able to judge, than 
those who have been recipients of the outpourings of that great heart 
he always carried within his breast? And whose hand and purse was 
always open for every call of charity and suffering known to him. 

As a physician he was skilled through a long practice and observa- 
tion at the bedside of the sick and distressed; and hundreds within the 
radius of his ride, can truthfully testify, that his first grand object was 
to relieve suffering humanity, making remuneration for his services a 
secondary object. And although not blessed with great wealth, in a 
financial outlook, he bequethed to his immediate kindred, a far richer 
legacy than money can purchase, and that is a loving regard by all 
who knew him, for his unremitting efforts through his whole life to 
relieve suffering wherever found, and for such a life work's siege, a 
grateful public desire to express their lasting remembrance of one, 
who never wounded the feelings of others without pain to himself. 

As a man he was honored and esteemed; as a neighbor he was loved 
and respected, and as a friend, his hand was always open to relieve 
"Requiescat in pace" 

(Pontiac Gazette.) 

Samuel Andrews, one of the earliest settlers in West Blooinfield, died 
at his home, Monday morning, June 16, 1890, at the advanced age of 
ninety years, four months and fourteen days. 

The death of Mr. Andrews was not unexpected at his great age. 
His weakening step and wasting vitality indicated an early dissolution. 
This no one realized more than himself. He would talk of the transi- 
tion as a matter of business, with the unconcern of one who was pre- 
pared for the change. 

His life had been 'spent in preparation for the summons, and when 
it came he was ready, yes, anxious to go. He was a good citizen, con- 
scientious and true to life's duties. From early manhood he had been 
a professor of religion, and his life was a human approximation to the 
beatitudes and we believe he has reaped the reward of a heavenly 

Mr. Andrews was born at Berlin, Connecticut, January 21, 1800. 
When a young boy he moved with his parents to Whitestown, New 
York, where he lived until he came to Michigan in 1832. He settled 


in West Bloomfield on the farm upon which, he died, where he lived a 
period of fifty-eight years. 

His first marriage was with Annie Marskley, who died in 1833, leav- 
ing four children. His second marriage was with Susan P. Cullen, 
in 1834, by whom he had six children, four of whom survive him, 
Samuel H., of Grand Rapids, Theo. H., of Mankota, Minn., Charles, on 
the homestead, and Mrs. Heman Horton, of Troy. He was a brother- 
in-law to the celebrated revival preacher, Charles Pinney, of New York, 
under whose preaching he was converted. From early life he had been 
a member of the Congregational society, his first affiliation in Michigan 
being with the Wing Lake society which some years ago disbanded, when 
he united with the Pontiac Congregational society, holding his mem- 
bership until his death. 

His life as a Christian, citizen, neighbor and parent, was the embodi- 
ment of the noblest traits of human character. 

(Oakland county Post, July 18, 1890.) 

Mrs. Charity Axford, grandmother of C. V. Taylor, Esq., of Pontiac, 
died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Wm. G. Taylor in Orion Fri- 
day, July 11, 1890, at the advanced age of ninety-one years. The deceased 
was born in New Jersey in 1800 and came to Michigan, and settled in 
Oakland township, this county, sixty years ago, when the country was 
a wilderness and the trees had to be marked in order to trace the way 
out. The companion of her pioneer days was taken from her side a 
quarter of a century ago, and she removed from the old farm to Roches- 
ter some twenty years ago, where she resided until about a year since. 
She always led a very active life. 


Mrs. Lodeina Washburne, the half century widow of William Wash- 
burne, one of the earliest pioneers of West Bloomfield, died at the 
home of her daughter, Mrs. W. J. Harris, on Judson street, Thursday, 
December 18, 1890, aged ninety-three years and eleven months. 

The deceased was born at Rutland, Vermont, January 1, 1797; was 
married to William Washburne in 1819, and came to Michigan and 
West Bloomfield in 1831. Her husband died October 8, 1839, making 
her widowed life fifty-one years. In 1837 she united with an infant 
pioneer M. E. society at Pine Lake. In that early organization and 
the Pontiac M. E. church she had held a continuous membership 
of fifty-three years; a Christian fellowship full of good works; an 

268 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

exemplary and true follower of Him who was her guide in life, and 
stay in the hour of death. In old age, before decrepitude confined her 
to her home, she was prompt in attendance upon the spiritual interests 
of her chosen Zion, by example and precept strengthening and encour- 
aging others struggling in the narrow way. In all things she was 
ready for the reaper, and has entered the home prepared by her 
Divine Master. 

She was the mother of six children, three sons and three daughters, 
the following surviving her Albert H. Washburne, of Pontiac, George D., 
of Washington and Mrs. W. J. Harris, of Pontiac, the latter taking care 
of her during her invalid years with a child's most tender consideration. 


George Davis, one of the pioneers of Milford, and a man who was 
identified with its earlier growth and interests, died December 1, 1890, 
at the residence of his daughter, 52 Abbott street, Detroit, at the age 
of eighty-six years, five months and five days. Mr. Davis was born in 
Baltimore, Vermont, July 1, 1804. In 1847 he came to Milford, and in 
1850 entered a partnership with W. B. Hibbard. In the same year 
Messrs Hibbard and Davis built the factory for the manufacture of 
woolen goods, which was for twenty-five years or more a leading indus- 
try of this village. In 1863, Mr. Davis became sole proprietor and 
conducted the business until its abandonment. For four years after he 
had passed his eightieth birthday Mr. Davis held the offices of village 
assessor and township clerk. Last April Mr. Davis and his daughter, 
Miss Nellie, went to Detroit to reside. He leaves four children, 
Henry K. and Will A. Davis, Mrs. J. E. Maxfield of New York city 
and Miss Nellie Davia of Detroit. 

(Pontiac Post, July 4, 1890.) 

A. Bernard Cudworth, for over half a century a resident of Oakland 
county, died at his home on Auburn avenue, Pontiac, Thursday even- 
ing, June 26, 1890. For some two weeks Mr. Cudworth had suffered 
from the effects of periodical change what he called the fever and 
ague. The chills became more frequent with the final development of a 
stomach complication, the cause of death. 

Mr. Cudworth was born at Schenectady, N. Y., November 19, 1818. 
He came to Michigan, and the township of Avon, in 1838 or 1839. 
Before he came to this State he taught school in New York a pro- 
fession he followed for a short time in this State. He studied law with 


Edward P. Harris. He was admmitted to the bar as near as we have 
been able to ascertain in 1842, and for some years had quite an exten- 
sive circuit court practice. 

He liked politics, and for some years was an active worker in the 
local democratic ranks, wielding quite an influence in the party in 
county politics. In the spring of 1865 he was elected mayor of 
Pontiac, a position for which he was peculiarly fitted from his famil- 
iarity with parliamentary law. As a presiding officer he had few equals 
in the county; and in public affairs, this gave him recognition and 
prominence. During his term of office as mayor, the nation's greatest 
calamity occurred in the assassination of President Lincoln, when he 
issued an official proclamation and presided at a public meeting in 
recognition of the event. This was the pride of his life. Prompted by 
patriotic impulse, often in conversation he would speak of those sad 
days, and the conspicuous part he officially played in the local observ- 
ance of this, the saddest event in the history of the country. 

In the fall of 1882 he was elected circuit court commissioner, holding 
the office for one term. 

When a young man he became a Mason, and an earnest student 
of the ritual of the order, becoming a fluent and active worker from 
the tessellated pavement to the temple. As the representative to the 
grand bodies; as master and high priest of the local orders, he soon 
got to the front, and in 1865 was elected deputy grand high priest , 
under the venerable- Ebenezer Sprague, who was grand high priest. 
In 1866 he was exalted to the position of high priest, of the grand 
chapter of this State, at a convocation held at Adrian. As the writer 
of this- was present at the session of 1867, we feel like saying to his 
praise, that the grand chapter never had a more efficient presiding 
officer. Masonically, this ended his official relations to the order. Dur- 
ing the late years of his life he was scarcely ever absent from meetings 
of the local bodies, and was at all times a present aid and support in 
filling the position of absent officers. 

Nature had been liberal in her gifts to him. He was a student of 
literature, and as a result was a fluent, entertaining conversationalist 
and a ready debater, and an eloquent advocate. Socially he possessed 
fine qualities, was genial, witty, and sarcastic. His weapons of defense 
were words, and he was always armed. Possessed of these qualities 
and gifts, he might have been in the front ranks of his profession in 
this State. 

Now, that he is gone, the exclamation of those who knew him best 

270 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

is, that he was possessed of traits and qualities of character to be 

The deceased leaves two daughters, Mrs. H. A. Scott, of Ludington, 
and Miss Aggie Cudworth, of Pontiac. 



(Pontiac Gazette.) 

John Thomas, the founder of the village of Thomas, died May 6, 1891, 
after a month of terrible suffering. Jno. Thomas was born at Pompey 
Hill, state of New York, February 12, 1810. At the age of twenty-three 
he had become a carpenter, and started for Chicago to work at his trade. 
He had to wait in Detroit two days for a boat and passed the hours in 
wandering about the then primitive town. A broad turnpike road had 
been laid out from Detroit to Saginaw and he walked on it for two or 
three miles from Woodward avenue. Lured by its beauty he set out 
on foot to explore the country and one incident after another brought 
him to Bloomfield Center, where a contract for the building of a hotel had 
just fallen through, and he was induced to take the job. A little later 
he built a church at Troy. At the age of twenty-eight he married 
Mary E. Wetmore, the daughter of a sea captain who had from time 
to time invested largely in Michigan lands. They settled on a fine 
farm a portion of which is now occupied by the village, which bears 
his name. In 1865 he purchased an interest in Paddack's mills, moved 
to Pontiac and built the house on Mt. Clemens street now owned by 
John Taylor. Nine years later when the building of the D. & B. C. 
E. R. changed the condition of the country, he returned to this place. 
He was fond of travel; while yet a boy he made his way to New 
Orleans and there received impressions which made him a strong abo- 
litionist. In 1849 he went to California via the Isthmus, and in later 
years spent several winters there. If the man who " makes two blades 
of grass grow where only one grew before," is a benefactor, certainly 
much credit is due John Thomas. For, wherever he dwelt, trees, shrubs 
and flowers rose from the earth, to pay tribute to his taste and toil. 
The roadside became an avenue, the desert bloomed. If in his later 
years " the strange story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" has been in a 
measure repeated, there comes to all who knew him the memory of 
much good. He was always ready to help the poor, and glad to care 
for the sick. And although eccentric and deprived of the advantages 
of education in his youth, he was in many respects a great man. 


(Pontiac Gazette, May 18, 1891.) 

The Oakland county twins, Mrs. Wixom, of Commerce, and Mrs. 
Betsey Wood, of Grand Ledge, have both passed over the river at the 
ripe age of ninety-one years. We publish from the Milford Times the 
following history of the aged pair of sisters, whose vision took in all 
of the present century: 

They were born in Plainfield, New Hampshire, in 1799. Their father 
was a Valley Forge veteran, and they well remembered his stories of 
the distresses of those days. Among other incidents of their early youth 
they retained a vivid recollection of the terrors at that time of the 
total eclipse of the sun on the memorable dark day in June, 1806. 

They married brothers by the names of Constantine and Jacob Wood, 
in 1818, removing to Perrintori, N. Y., from their early home, with 
only a few months' time intervening. 

In 1826 they moved to Michigan, and settled in Farmington, Oak- 
land county. Mrs. Constantine Wood was left a widow with three 
children a year later and her children and old time friends relate with 
loving admiration the story of her brave struggle with the adverse circum- 
stances of life in a new country with her little ones to support and care 
for. All her energies and practical wisdom were put to a severe test, 
for in addition to her misfortunes at this time her home and most of 
her furniture was destroyed by fire, but her undaunted courage and 
cheerful philosophy made her equal to all the demands made upon her. 

Nine years from the time she was thus bereft she married Abijah 
Wixom and came to Commerce township, where she has since lived. 
In later years she has lived in the town bearing her husband's name, 
and built upon the land formerly belonging to the old homestead. 

For more than fifty years Mrs. Wixom has been closely related to 
the life of the town in which she died. Quiet and unassuming, but 
until extreme age debarred her from active work, ever foremost in good 
works, and interested in all the social life of her friends and neighbors. 
Their loving appreciation of her life among them was testified to by 
the large gathering of friends to pay the last sad rites, and the eloquent 
and heartfelt address o^ her pastor, and also the brief touching remarks 
given by her eldest grandson, C. A. Crawford, whose full heart could 
not let go unrecorded in words that were impressive from the deep 
feeling that prompted speech the loving veneration of her children 
and grandchildren, and something of the influence she had had over 
their lives. It was a spontaneous tribute that could not be withheld. 

272 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Of Mrs. Wixom's children 'three survive her of a family of six: Mrs. 
8. W. Crawford of Lansing, formerly for many years a resident of 
Milford; Reuben Wood, of Grand Ledge, and Willard Wixom, of Wixom, 
in whose home she has lived all the last years of her life, honored and 
well beloved. Ten grandchildren and six great-grandchildren hold in 
loving remembrance the thoughts of the full life just rounded so well 
to its close. 

Mrs. Wixom died January 27, 1891. 

Mrs. Wood died January 29, 1891. 


(Pontiac Gazette.) 

Mrs. Polly Pixley, whose maiden name was Granger, was born in the 
town and county of Tioga, N. ., January 10, 1803. She removed 
with her family to Monroe county* N. Y., in 1823. Resided there about 
eight years, when they came to Oakland county, Michigan, in 1831, set- 
tling on the farm where she has since lived and] died. She was the 
mother of thirteen children, nine of whom are living, seven daughters 
and two sons. 

She, with her husband, Jonathan Pixley, united with the Congrega- 
tional church of Rochester, nearly fifty-two years ago, and has lived a 
consistent, Christian life, loved by all who knew her intimately. 

Liong years she toiled about her home, 

Her loved ones in comfort to keep; 
Knowing well that the time would come 

When her hands would be folded in sleep. 

She is now in the land of the " blest," 

Where clouds are rolled back as a scroll; 
The long promised joys, now possessed, 

It is well ; yes, well with her soul. 

What Comfort to those she has left 

Provisions for " life" were ample, 
Bespeaking to all now bereft, 

The blessings of such an example. 

Silently we'll bear her away, 

And sadly we will lay her down 
Tho' history but little may say, 

In Heaven, she'll wear a bright crown. 

(Pontiac Gazette, February 6, 1891.) 

It becomes our duty to note the death of one of our oldest and 
most esteemed citizens, Horatio Wright, who died at his home in 


Groveland, January 27, 1891. Mr. Wright was in his seventy-fourth 
year. He had lived on the farm where he died for forty-three years. 
By industry and the strictest economy, he had wrought out a splendid 
home which he enjoyed for several years. Mr. Wright had been in 
poor health for some time, suffering from paralysis and rheumatism. 
He leaves three sons, three daughters and a wife to mourn his loss. The 
entire community will feel his loss, especially the Masonic order of which 
he was a true member. Mr. Wright was a life long democrat, well 
posted and very much intrusted in governmental offices. He had served 
Groveland as supervisor for seventeen years, had filled the office of 
justice of the peace for nearly forty years, and one term in State legis- 
lature, all of which he filled with honor to himself and justice to his 

(Pontiac Gazette.) 

Charles Torrey, one of Oakland county's old pioneers, died at the 
residence of his son-in-law, Alderman P. J. Walton, 34 Huron street, 
west, Pontiac, Sunday morning, February 13, 1891, after a short illness, 
aged eighty-seven years. 

Mr. Torrey was born near Utica, Madison county, N. Y., February 
28, 1804. He came to Michigan and to Pontiac town near Auburn in 
1833, four years before Michigan was admitted into the Union. He pur- 
chased one hundred acres of land of Wm. Mann, on section one, on 
north line of Bloomfield, and sixty acres adjoining from other parties. 

From 1846 to 1883 he lived continuously on this farm. His wife 
died twelve years ago, and during these years he was a lonely old man, 
missing the companionship of her who was his solace and comfort for 
so many years. Since 1883 he had lived with his daughter, Mrs. P. J. 
Walton, of Pontiac. 

He had been a member of the M. E. church for over sixty years, his 
first affiliation in Michigan being with the early church at Auburn. 
Later he united with the Pontiac M. E. church, of which he was a 
member at his death. He was a quiet, devoted Christian man, a cheer- 
ful giver, and a faithful worker in his Master's vineyard. He had 
walked loyally the paths of Zion, and has entered into rest. 

For many years he had been a subscriber to the denominational 
papers, the New York and Michigan Advocates, from whose columns he 
had gleaned Christian consolation and intelligence for so many years. 

He leaves three daughters, Mrs. P. J. Walton, of Pontiac; Mrs. Mil- 
liard, of Duluth, Minn., and Mrs. W. J. Scott, of Detroit. 


(Pontiac Gazette, June 20, 1890.) 

Mrs. Reuben Castle Beach, one of the oldest residents of Troy, died 
at her home June 17, 1890, aged eighty-five years. 

She was born in Richmond, New York, and came to Michigan in 
1820. She left Sackett's Harbor, October 1, 1820, embarked in " Walk- 
in-the- Water," the first steamer that plied lake Erie, and landed in 
Detroit the tenth, being ten days on the journey. 

Mr. Davis, her father, took up the land from the general government, 
in Troy, which is the same farm on which she died. Living on the 
old place the entire time except eight years, when they moved on to 
another farm, known as the Geo. Gray farm, but subsequently returning 
to the old homestead. She was the daughter of Joshua and Rebecca 
Davis, natives of Connecticut, her father being an ocean sailor. In her 
death the Davis family has become extinct. 

She had ten children, six girls and four boys, two sons and four girls 
living, viz.: D. Porter and Danford Beach, and Mrs. Henry Going, of 
Pontiac; Mrs. H. H. Wilson, of Waterford; Mrs. Hiram Chatfield, of 
Troy, and Miss Celia, a maiden lady, living at home. 

She espoused religion in 1824, when she united with the Presbyterian 
church by letter, at Birmingham, holding to her faith in a risen Savior 
to the last. 


John Henderson Crawford, died at Wasioja, Dodge county, Wisconsin 
February 6, 1884, aged seventy years, seven months and twenty-one 
days. He was born in Richmond, Ontario county, N. Y., June 16, 1813; 
came to Michigan in 1825, with his parents and settled in Troy 
Oakland county. 

He was one of the founders of the Crawford and Chamberlin line of 
propellers between Chicago and Ogdensburg, established in 1851, and 
afterwards known as the Northern Transportation company, of which he 
was secretary and treasurer for many years. He was well known among 
shipping men on the lakes, having been actively engaged in the pro- 
peller and canal business for over twenty years, and during that time 
was a resident at Cleveland, Ogdensburg, Oswego, Buffalo, Milwaukee 
and Chicago. He was well known in Detroit where he had many 
friends. Detroit Post and Tribune February 12. 

Mr. Crawford lived in Oswego from 1860 to 1866, having charge of 
affairs of the Northern Transportation company at this point, and run- 
ning in connection with the same, the new Oswego line of canal boats 


between this city and New York. He will be remembered by his many 
friends as a man possessed of sterling, energetic business qualifications 
which were used to the best advantage in promoting the interests of 
the company during its most prosperous career. 

After retiring from the propeller business he engaged more exten- 
sively in transportation on the Oswego and Erie canals, being principal 
owner of a line of forty-three boats and over two hundred horses. 
From here he removed to Buffalo where he disposed of his canal stock 
and thence to Chicago where he was employed in pier building and 
dredging for a number of years. From 1871 to 1875 he was engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber and shingles in Michigan, and in the 
latter year went to Minnesota where he was employed in the milling 
business up to a short time previous to his death, which was caused by 
nervous prostration and general debility. He leaves a widow, three 
daughters and a son. 

Mr. D. H. Judson of Pontiac has for many years maintained occa- 
sional correspondence with Mr. Crawford. Among his papers Mr. Jud- 
son finds the following verses written by Mr. Crawford ten years since > 
which show that that gentleman had a truly poetical nature: 

Three score and one? 

Sixty and one my life bells chime, 
And as I list, the car of time 

Goes thundering on. 

Our pulses beat 

And mark the time, like dancers feet, 
With steady march and stately tread, 

On toward the chambers of the dead, 
Our last retreat. 

* * * * 
I caught a gleam < 

Of light from out hope's youthful beam, 
But soon it hid away from me, 

Like golden sunset in the sea; 

'Twas but a dream. 

I launched my bark 

On proud ambition's boisterous sea, 
Whose foaming waves dashed angrily 

Then all was dark. 

The cold world's frown, 

Bereft of riches, fame, renown, 
Fell on me with its withering blast; 

Its stony fingers clutched me fast, 
And held me down. 

* * * * 

276 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Three score and ten, 

'Tis said, are given unto men, 
Of years of sorrow, joy or pain, 
Ere dust returns to dust again 
What then? 

* * * * 

We travel fast 

On downward grades, nor little heed 
The flitting mile-stones as we speed 

The stations past. 

We feel the jars 

More keenly than in days gone by, 
And wait to hear the brakeman's cry, 

" Life's junction." " Here change cars." 

* * * * 

And will no ray 

Of light or hope beyond the tomb 
Come to dispel it's damp and gloom? 

No brighter day 

Dispel the night? 

Comes there no answer to my prayer, 
That I may meet my loved ones there, 

In realms of light? 

O, love divine! 

Let the sweet trust that thou art mine 
Sustain and comfort till the last 

Of fear and disappointment's past 
Beyond the line. 



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Date of death. 

Place of death. 


r!c1^ant-in Ttoiorlo . . 

June 29, 1890 

Saginaw .. 


William Smith 

August 18, 1890 

Saginaw . 


David E. Benjamin. 

August 25, 1890.. 

Saginaw .. 


Mrs. Rath Ripley 

September 6, 1890. 



James Murphy ..... _ . 

October 15, 1890 



Joseph Beach 

October 18, 1890 


Mrs. D. L. Reading 

November 23, 1890 



Leonard Blakely 

November 23, 1890 



Ignatz Betzner .... 

November 28, 1890 



Renben Humphrey 

November 24, 1890 



Ferdinand Haben 

November 23, 1890 



David Geddes. 

December 1, 1890 

Thomastown. .. _. 


P. P. Woodruff 

December 26, 1890 



George Moiles. 

February 5, 1891.. 

Saginaw .. 


Edwin Eddy. 

February 6, 1891 



Beth Willey 

February 7, 1891 



SethG. Hnckins 

March 1, 1891. 



Mrs. Christiana Green 

March 4, 1891 . 

Kochville. .. 


Mrs. Charles H. Richman. .. 

March 7, 1891 



Mrs. John Liebold. 

March 7, 1891 .. .. 

Saginaw .. 


James Nan-qua-chic-a-ming 

March 21, 1891 


William H. Clark 

March 21, 1891 



Camille Marcotte 

April 19, 1891 



Prof. Constantine Watz. .. 

April 20, 1891 



Prof. A. A. DeLude 

April 20, 1891 



Mrs. Julia Smith- 

April 20, 1891 


George Willson.. 

April 19, 1891 

Saginaw . 


Adam Martins. 

April 30, 1891 

Carrollton. . - 


Jacob Fust... 

May 2, 1891. _. 




Death has again entered the ranks of the newspaper workers of Sag- 
inaw and removed therefrom another of the veterans of the profession, 
a man whose pen has ever been employed in the upbuilding of the 
city, whose aim has been the welfare and interests not alone of his 
people but the whole community. Constantine Beierle is dead. 

The announcement that the pulsations of his heart had ceased was 

286 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

not received with great surprise, because of the known fact that for a 
long time he had been suffering from disease which was constantly 
sapping his life and strength. Nevertheless there was a general expres- 
sion of sorrow and citizens united in a tribute to his worth and work. 
For a long time Mr. Beierle had been unable to walk, and except to 
ride in his carriage did not leave his home. Therein, however, he was 
actively engaged in writing until almost the last moment. Sunday after- 
noon, June 29, 1890, he enjoyed a drive about the city, and returning 
in the early evening complained of fatigue, but nothing serious. After 
tea he laid down to rest and did not rise again, passing away quietly 
about ten o'clock. 

Mr. Beierle was born in Eottweil, Wurtemburg, in 1832, and in that 
country acquired a good education. He came to the United States in 
1850, at the age of eighteen, and learned the trade of tombstone manu- 
facturer, thinking he was especially fitted for this by his training in 
drawing. He soon found out, however, that west of New York, skill in 
drawing was not a requisite factor in the cutting of tombstones and 
monuments. He continued in this occupation, however, much of the 
time traveling, until 1857, when he discovered the business was impair- 
ing his health. The year following he became business manager of the 
Michigan Staats Zeitung, a newly established daily and weekly paper 
published at Detroit. In 1859 he became a partner in the business, 
and the paper was published by the firm of DeHass & Beierle until 
1864, when they sold their interests to the Michigan Volksblatt, another 
German daily publication at Detroit. The next year Mr. Beierle 
became connected with the then prosperous daily and weekly Michigan 
Journal, the oldest German daily in Michigan, as general agent, which 
position he filled until February, 1870, when he was called to this city 
by the Germania society to take charge of the Saginawer Zeitung, estab- 
lished in 1868. In 1872 he organized a joint stock company, the Sag- 
inawer Zeitung company, and the paper is still published under the 
firm name, although it is generally understood Mr. Beierle in later 
years owned and controlled the entire stock of the paper. 

Surviving him are a widow and five children, Albert who will con- 
tinue the publication of the Zeitung, Hugo, Constantine, Martha and 


William Smith, aged fifty years, died August 18, 1890, after a long 
illness caused by a complication of diseases. The deceased has resided 
here since 1852 and was a veteran of the war. He leaves a widow, one 
son and a daughter. 


Mr. Smith's uniform good character during his many years' residence 
in the Saginaw valley won for him a host of friends. 

He was a member of Post Morgan L. Gage, G. A. R. William 
Smith was an honest man " the noblest work of God." 


David E. Benjamin died at the Saginaw hospital August 25, 1890. 
He was born at De Ruyter, Courtland county, New York, May 1, 1822, 
and was united in marriage to Margaret Sundy of that place in 1843, 
and came to Michigan where he settled at Brandon in Oakland county. 
Two children, Elizabeth and Ellen blessed this union, and the wife 
and mother died in 1863. Mr. Benjamin married Addine Coney, of Mt. 
Morris, New York, November 30, 1865, and they had one child, Lilian. 
He first became a resident of Saginaw in 1848, and was actively engaged 
in the lumber business here for twenty years. 

In 1868 he moved out to the farm, which has been the family home 
from that time until the present. He was of the Methodist faith and 
a good man. Mrs. Benjamin and three children, Elizabeth, Lilian and 
Ellen, survive him, all of whom are in Saginaw except Ellen, who is 
married to William Lilly and lives in Texas. 


Mrs. Ruth Ripley, beloved wife of Hon. T. C. Ripley, breathed her 
last September 6, 1890, at the advanced age of eighty years. Thirty-four 
years ago Mr. and Mrs. Ripley came to Saginaw county and settled on 
a farm on the banks of Tittabawassee river, six miles from the city, 
where they continued to reside, honored, respected, loved by their 
neighbors and hundreds of friends, until within the past two months. 
Since that time they have resided with their daughter, Mrs. S. B. 

Coming here with the pioneers of the county and helping her hus- 
band to carve out a home in the then wilds of this county, she 
endeared herself to hundreds, and all through the long years of hard- 
ships and privations incident to pioneer life she never forgot allegiance 
to her husband, her children or her Maker, and she died as she had 
lived, a noble woman, one of God's greatest blessings. Her husband 
and one daughter, Mrs. S. B. Williams, are the only surviving mem- 
bers of the family, and to these the whole icity extend sympathy. 


James Murphy the well known brickmaker, of Jamestown, died of 

288 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

dropsy of the heart, Oct. 15, 1890. . He was fifty-two years of age and 
leaves a widow, eleven children, three brothers and three sisters to 
mourn his loss. The deceased was born in County Mayo, Ireland, and 
moved to America in early manhood, settling at Ann Arbor, from 
which place he came here twenty-seven years ago. He was the most 
genial of companions, a true friend to all, and his death is a sad loss 
to the community in which he resided. 


Joseph Beach who died Oct. 18, 1890, was born in Penfield, N. Y., 
and moved to Saginaw when but nine years of age, and here he ha& 
resided the greater part of his time since, with the exception of a few 
years spent in Chicago, where he was engaged in the clothing business* 
At one time he was in partnership with A. A. Tripp, of the Excelsior 
Clothing House, in a large clothing store in the Andre block, which 
property Mr. Beach formerly owned. 

Mr. Beach was a prominent Mason and had attained the thirty-second 
degree. He leaves a widow and two children, a son and daughter to- 
mourn the loss of a loving husband, a kind and generous father. He 
numbered his friends by the hundreds, and all feel deeply the loss of 
one so highly respected, as friend, companion and business man. 


Mrs. D. L. Eeading died Nov. 23, 1890, at the residence of Mrs. D. 
D. Keeler, 808 North Washington avenue, after a short illness, of old 
age. She was a highly respected, God fearing lady having been connected 
with the Methodist church for sixty years. 

Deceased was born Nov. 20, 1804, at Candor, Tioga county, N. Y., 
and moved to Michigan in 1838, settling in Shiawassee county. She 
came to Saginaw in 1850 and has resided here ever since. She leaves 
a daughter Mrs. D. D. Keeler, of Saginaw. Her husband, D. L. Bead- 
ing died in February, 1872. 


Leonard Blakely, one of the oldest- and most esteemed citizens of 
Bridgeport, died Nov. 23, 1890. His wife left him at home when she 
went to church, and on her return found him lying on the bed dead. 
Mr. Blakely was sixty-seven years old, and had held the office of jus- 
tice of the peace in Bridgeport for many years. He leaves a widow 
and one son, Kirby Blakely. The deceased had lived in Bridgeport for 
nearly thirty years. 



Ignatz Betzner, aged 67 years, died Nov. 23, 1890, at his residence, 
917 Cherry street, after a short illness. He had lived in Saginaw 
thirty-four years and owned the property once where the Bearinger 
block now is. 


Reuben Humphrey died Nov. 24, 1890 at his late residence, 633 Buiidy 
street, south end, of paralysis, aged sixty-five years. On the seventh 
day of March, 1886, Mr. Humphrey had a stroke of paralysis, from 
which he never fully recovered. At times he seemed much better, but 
his family and friends were well aware that the end must come soon. 

The deceased was born in Canada and came to Saginaw thirty years 
ago. He was a man of sterling character, respected and beloved by all. 
A bereaved wife, one son and one daughter are left to mourn his 


Ferdinand Haben, a well known resident of Saginaw died at the 
insane asylum at Pontiac, Sunday afternoon, Nov. 23, 1890. 

Deceased was born at Syracuse, N. Y., forty-two years ago and came 
to Saginaw when sixteen years of age and has resided here since, 
engaging in various occupations. For several years he conducted a salt 
block in the southern part of the city for Swift and Lock wood. Mr. 
Haben was physically one of the finest specimens of manhood who ever 
resided in Saginaw, and considerable of an athlete. He was a member 
of the fire department several years, when there was a fierce though 
friendly rivalry between hose companies, being foreman of the then 
famous "Hill Boys." He was also a member of the famous Wah-Wah- 
Sum boat club, an organization which had a world wide reputation. 
He held the office of constable of the old sixth, now the fifteenth ward 
and- from 1880 to 1884 was marshal of the city of Saginaw. He was 
a good ofjicial and made many friends by the fidelity with which he 
discharged the duties of his office. Since retiring from that office he 
has conducted the palace steam laundry on Hamilton street, until fail- 
ing health necessitated his retirement from business, and since that 
time his wife has conducted the business. 


David Geddeg, so well and favorably known to the people of Saginaw 

290 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

and the surrounding country, met a sad and terrible death at his resi- 
dence in Thomastown, December 1, 1890. 

The deceased was born in Ontario and came to Thomastown in 1860 
and was fifty-nine years of age. He was a man greatly esteemed by all 
and whom nearly everybody knew. He was a member of the Saginaw 
farmers' club and at one time superintendent and one of the directors 
of the northeastern Michigan fair association. A bereaved wife and 
four children are thus left to mourn his sad death. The community 
will also miss him as a true and honorable citizen and business man. 


F. P. Woodruff, a pioneer resident of Saginaw county, who had been 
suffering some time from consumption, died at his residence, 1102 
Mackinaw street, Dec. 26, 1890. Deceased was born at Detroit, Septem- 
ber 26, 1820, and was therefore seventy years of age. He came to Sag- 
inaw when thirty years of age, and during the past forty years has 
been a resident of Saginaw. Very few men were more widely known 
than "Pony" Woodruff, as he was familiarly called, and his genial 
disposition made him many warm friends. He was twice married and 
leaves a widow and daughter to mourn his loss. He was engaged in 
the business of manufacturing tombstones. 


February 5, 1891, at the home of his son-in-law, Hugh Jenkins, 
George Moiles completed the journey of life and was gathered to his 
fathers. He was eighty-two years of age. Deceased had been in feeble 
health for some time, but the immediate cause of his death was heart 
failure. He was one of Saginaw's oldest settlers, coming here with his 
wife in 1850, and residing here continuously since. His wife Catherine 
B. Moiles, died in May, 1883. He leaves five sons, James, John, Bart, 
George and Charles Moiles, and one daughter, Mrs. Hugh Jenkins. 


A good man, an honorable and widely respected gentleman; promi- 
nent in business affairs in Saginaw and the Saginaw valley for twenty- 
seven years; an American who knew the duties of good citizenship and 
practiced the virtues of doing well all he undertook; such was Edwin 
Eddy who laid down the burdens of a long and useful life at his resi- 
dence, 426 North Jefferson avenue, Feb. 6, 1891. 

Edwin Eddy was born in Eddington, Maine, January 18, 1817, and 
was a son of Eleazer and Sylvia Eddy. His father was born in the 


same town in 1790, and died March 13, 1826, when the subject of this 
sketch was but nine years of age, leaving a large family. Edwin Eddy 
then resided with his uncle and other relatives until he was seventeen 
years old, when he commenced the life of a lumberman, which he fol- 
lowed to the end of his long life and achieved success. He was for 
some years a member of the lumber firm of Eddy, Murphy & Co., at 
Bangor, Me. On January 2, 1864, Mr. Eddy arrived in Saginaw in 
which he has since resided, engaging actively in lumbering, the firm 
being Eddy, Avery & Murphy. It was subsequently changed to Eddy, 
Avery & Co., and still later to Eddy, Avery & Eddy. The firm oper- 
ated an extensive saw mill and salt works at Bay City, and was largely 
interested in pine lands. Mr. Eddy was most modest and unobtrusive 
among men. In his native state he served as member of the state leg- 
islature and filled other local offices of trust. He was administrator of 
the estate of Jonathan Eddy, of Maine, and of the late Newell Avery, 
of Detroit, and performed the duties with the same fidelity and excel- 
lent judgment that were distinguishing characteristics of his life. He 
was at his death president of the East Saginaw National bank; vice- 
president of and a member of the board of directors of- the Savings 
bank of East Saginaw, and was an honored member of the Saginaw 
board of trade. Mr Eddy was a republican in politics, although nof 
an active political worker. He was liberal in his religious convictions 
and an earnest adherent of the Universalist faith. In 1840 he was 
united in marriage to his own cousin, Miss Celia A. Eddy, a most 
estimable lady. The fruits of this union were seven children, of whom 
four are now living, Mrs. T. E. Dorr and Mrs. Ellen A. Eddy of Saginaw; 
Charles A. and Selwyn Eddy of Bay City. Mrs. Eddy's death preceded 
that of her husband seven years. Mr. Eddy was also an uncle of J. 
Frank Eddy of Bay City, of the firm of Eddy, Avery & Eddy, and 
also an uncle of Charles F. Eddy of Eddy Bros. & Co., of Bay City. 
Mr. Ezra Bichardson and Lloyd Q. Eichardson, of Saginaw, are half 
brothers of deceased. 


The venerable Seth Willey has been gathered to his fathers, and the 
places which so many years have known him will now know him no 
more forever. He had been steadily declining in health for a long 
time, and more than a year had been confined to his room. Sunday 
evening, February 7, 1891, the lamp of life which was burning very 
low nickered and then went out, and with the exclamation: " O grave, 
where is thy victory? O death, where is thy sting?" Mr. Willey ceased 
to breathe. 

292 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Deceased was born at Plattsburg, N. Y., in 1812, and removed to 
Saginaw in 1839. He was united in marriage in 1846 to Miss Clar- 
issa Chamberlain, who survives him. They had one son, James, who 
resides with his mother. Mr Willey was well known to the older 
residents of the city and was universally respected because of his 
excellent qualities of head and heart. He served the city as super- 
visor and justice of the peace many years and in every office and 
calling was faithful to the trust reposed in him. 


Seth G. Huckins died at the dawn of Sunday, March 1, 1891, at the 
Eastern Michigan Asylum at Pontiac. 

Mr. Huckins was born in Maine forty-six years ago and came to 
Saginaw in 1866, first entering the law office of Hon. H. H. Hoyt. 
Afterwards he became connected in business with William Sutherland 
and later with Judge W. S. Tennant. He had a high rating in legal 
circles, and he was looked up to as one of the leading members of the 
bar. About ten years ago he was stricken with paralysis and soon 
after that, reason was dethroned and he became, physically and mentally, 
as an infant. He was at one time a justice of the peace and was also 
& charter member of the local lodge of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, being at one time chief officer of the lodge in Saginaw. 
His life was insured for $4,000, of which amount $2,000 are in the 
fraternal organization referred to. Mr. Huckins leaves a widow and 
one son. 


Mrs. Christiana Green, who died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
J. W. Allison, in Kochville, Wednesday, March 4, 1891, and who was 
buried from St. John's Episcopal church Friday, was one of the pio- 
neers of Saginaw, having lived here more than half a century. She 
was born at St. Mary's, Islington, Midland county, England, in 1807. 
She was married at the age of twenty to the late Charles Wickham. 
They lived for six years in London and then Mr. Wickham came to 
America to seek a more healthful climate. Finding that his health 
improved here he wrote to his wife that he would return to England 
for her and the children and close up their business there. She thought 
it unnecessary for him to come, however, and after writing him to that 
effect arranged to leave her English home with her three small chil- 
dren. It was before the days of palatial steamships, and the sailing 
vessel on which they took passage met with a mishap, so that their 


voyage consumed six months. When they arrived in New York Mr. 
Wickham, who had never received his wife's letter, had gone to Massa- 
chusetts. The family were soon reunited, however, and lived in the 
east several years. In 1840 they came to Saginaw. The journey from 
Flint here was made in an ox cart. Mr. Wickham lived only a month 
.after reaching here. In 1843 Mrs. Wickham was married to Edward 
Green. He died in 1871 and for the past fourteen years Mrs. Green 
has lived with her oldest daughter, Mrs. Allison. She was an active, 
earnest woman, though enfeebled by age of late. Her death was the 
peaceful falling asleep of one who had the consciousness of a life work 
finished. For four score years and four she had done what she could 
io make those around her happier. She was the mother of eleven 
children, seven of whom survive her: John and Reuben Wickham, of 
Tittabawassee, Mrs. J. Allison, of Kochville, Mrs. George Culver, 
of Chesaning, Mrs. A. C. Abel, of Chicago, Mrs. John Clayton, of Mil- 
waukee, and Miss Katherine Green, of Ionia. 


Mrs. Charles H. Richman quietly fell asleep March 7, 1891. 

Deceased was born in Oswego county, N. Y., January 28, 1838, and 
-came to Michigan with her parents when quite young. They first set- 
tled in Northville, but in 1847 removed to Saginaw, and here she has 
since remained. She was married in 1855 to the late Capt. Charles 
H. Richman. An excellent woman, prominent in charitable works, 
whose home was her world, has departed to repose. The American 
mother is the highest type of womanhood, and Mrs. Richman was a 
shining gem of the class. The memory of her affectionate and motherly 
qualities, the purity of her every thought and act will be remembered 
by all who knew her. Mrs. Richman is survived by two daughters, 
Mrs. James H. Norris, of Denver, and Miss Kate Richman. 


Barbara, wife of John Liebold, died at her residence, 323 Hamilton 
street south, March 7, 1891, of heart disease. Deceased was born at 
Steinnach, Germany, August 8, 1819, and was, therefore, over seventy- 
one years of age. She was married at her birthplace, April 2, 1841, 
and came with h^r husband to Saginaw in 1852. She was the mother 
of ten children, six of whom, two sons and four daughters are living: 
Michael and John Liebold, Mrs. McGowan, Mrs. John Francer, and 
Mrs. G. Lyons, of Chicago, and Mrs. C. Wartenberg, of Saginaw. She 
had been a member of the Holy Cross church during her entire resi- 

294 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

dence in Saginaw, and was an earnest Christian woman, highly respected 
by all who knew her. 


James Nau-qua-chic-a-ming (often spelled Nockchickgime), chief of 
the chippewa Indian tribe, passed to the happy hunting grounds on 
Sunday evening, March 21, 1891. Death resulted from consumption. 

He was born near Sebewaing, and his exact age is not known. In 
fact, he did not know himself. About a year ago he stated to the 
writer, with whom he had been intimately acquainted eighteen years 
past, that he was, as near as he could ascertain, about forty-eight years 
old, which was doubtless approximately correct. In appearence he 
did not look to be over forty-five. He has lived all his life in the 
Saginaw valley with the exception of about a year on the Sable river, 
near Frederick. He was the son of Nau-qua-chick-a-ming, head chief 
of the Chippewa tribe, whose death took place October 26, 1874, aged 
nearly ninety years. ' The old chief was favorably known to all the 
early settlers in this region, his honesty and friendship to the white 
race having been proven in numberless instances. These traits of char- 
acter descended to his son, the subject of this sketch, who was widely 
known as an Indian possessing many exemplary traits. He died at his 
home on Cheboyganing creek, in Beuna Vista township, seven miles 
northeast of Saginaw. He leaves a wife, a daughter, O-ge-ma-bo-no-qua 
(signifying coming of the dawn), aged about ten years, and another 
daughter still younger. An infant son was buried about a year ago. 
He also leaves a brother, George Nau-qua-chic-a-ming, who lives near 
Frederick, on Au Sable river, and a half-brother, the well known 
Indian, John Squanda, who resides in Buena Vista township. At one 
time Chief Nau-qua-chic-a-ming was possessed of some property, but 
like his race he was naturally improvident, and it all dwindled away 
and passed into the hands of others. He had many warm friends who 
will sincerely regret his death. 


William H. Clark is no more. His lamp of life, after burning 
brightly for half a century, grew dim about a year ago and the flame 
has grown dimmer with the passing hours, until at the close of the 
Sabbath day, March 21, 1891, it was extinguished and the eyelids, 
wearied with pain and watching for strength not to return, closed in 
slumber which shall not be broken. 

Mr. Clark was born at Buffalo, New York, November 18, 1839, and 


was therefore fifty-one years of age. He came to Michigan when quite 
young, and evincing a fondness for and an interest in mercantile pur- 
suits engaged in business in 1862 with a Mr. Greenaway at Howell, 
Livingston county, the firm being Greenaway & Clark. He was mar- 
ried there to Miss Adella C. Bush in 1865, and of the union there are 
two surviving children, Miss Lillian E. and William H. Clark. Mr. 
Clark came to Saginaw in 1867 and engaged in the dry goods business 
with D. F. Starker, under the firm name of Clark & Starker. This 
was .afterwards changed to Fish & Clark and subsequently to Clark & 
Ellis. Since the death of Mr. Ellis, Mr. Clark has conducted a vast 
business alone. Capt. A. L. Button and J. W. Button, half brothers, 
have been closely allied with him for a score of years. 

Deceased was a member of Ancient Landmarks lodge No. 303, 
F. & A. M., Saginaw valley chapter No. 31, E. A. M., St. Bernards 
commandery No. 16, K. T., and the Michigan sovereign consistory, 
Scottish rite 32. He left a life insurance aggregating $84,000. 


Camille Marcotte, a resident of Saginaw for thirty years, died Sun- 
day morning, April 19, 1891, at his home 35 Genesee avenue west, 

Deceased was a native of Quebec, and was born in 1841. He came 
to the Saginaw valley when quite young and worked in the mills. 
Being industrious and enterprising, he soon succeeded in laying the 
foundation of a successful career and engaged in business, which he has 
followed with profitable results. He leaves a widow, but no children. 


Professor Constantine Watz died April 20, 1891, at his residence 
on Webster street, Saginaw, after a long and painful illness. Although 
his life had been despaired of several days, yet when the lamp of life 
went out it was a severe blow to family and friends. 

Mr Watz was born at Horchst, Prussia, April 22, 1831, and had he 
lived two days longer would have completed his three score years of 
life. He was a graduate of the Normal seminary at Wurzburg, Bavaria. 
He came to America in 1858 and was engaged as teacher in the Ger- 
man American seminary in Detroit. In 1863 he accepted a call from 
the Germania society of East Saginaw to fill the position as superintend- 
ent of its school, since merged into the general citizen. In 1871 he 
moved to the west side and since September of that year, until his 

296 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

late sickness, held the position of principal of the German depart- 
ment of the public schools. 

During his twenty years' residence on the west side Mr. Watz has 
made many friends, and he was one of those who made friends 
to keep them. An efficient, painstaking instructor, he endeared himself 
to his pupils, a genial, courteous gentleman he was respected by all, 
an upright candid citizen his memory will live in the hearts of all who 
knew him. He was an eloquent speaker, and he was often called upon 
to pronounce words of eulogy for the dead and comfort the living. A 
bereaved wife, two sons and four daughters survive him to mourn the 
loss of a kind husband and affectionate father, and his death will be 
sincerely mourned by many outside the family circle. 


Prof. Alfred A. De Lude, principal of the International Business 
College No. 1, died April 20, 1891, at the residence of his brother John 
B. De Lude, 530 Lincoln avenue, aged forty-two years. 

Mr. De Lude was born at Grosse Pointe, near Detroit, and the first 
fourteen years of his life were spent with his parents in Port Huron 
and Detroit. In 1862 the family removed to Saginaw and since that 
time deceased had been a resident of Saginaw. He was a cooper by 
trade and in his earlier residence in Saginaw worked at that business in 
Carrollton and Saginaw. He had an ambition above that calling, how- 
ever, and by study and hard work fitted himself for the position he 
occupied at the time of his death. His father, Moses De Lude, died 
about two years ago, but his mother, three sisters and two brothers 
survive him, as well as a large circle of friends. 


Mrs. Julia Smith, widow of the late Dr. I. N. Smith, died at the 
Bliss Hospital April 20, 1891. She was well known in Saginaw, hav- 
ing resided there twenty years, her husband, Dr. I. N. Smith, dying 

there several years ago. He was a prominent physician. 



George Willson died at the residence of his son, Charles, 760 Russell 
street Sunday night, April 19, 1891, of cancer, aged sixty-two years. He 
had been a resident of Saginaw twenty-seven years. 




Adam Martins one of the old settlers and aged residents of Car- 
rollton, died April 30, 1891, at his residence on the Shattuck road, of 
old age, after an eventful life. He was eighty-six years of age, and 
was one of the old settlers of Saginaw county. He leaves a widow and 
seven children, all of whom are grown to man's and woman's estate. 
They are Mrs. William Maas, Mrs. August Stocklander, Mrs. Martin 
Baumgarteii and Henry and Charles Martins, all residents of the Sagi- 
naw valley, John Martins of Chicago, and a daughter residing in Ber- 
lin, Germany. 


May 2, 1891, Jacob Fust, residing at 1227 Johnson street, passed 
away from heart failure, after a short illness. He was a pioneer of 
Saginaw county having lived here thirty years. Deceased was a mem- 
ber of the Arbeiter society, having been one of its prominent members 
from early in its history. He enjoyed the esteem and respect of a 
large circle of friends, who will sincerely mourn his loss. He was 
sixty-three years of age and leaves a widow and five children, Mrs. 
Henry Anders, Mary Fust, Mrs. Theodore Schwartz and Wilhelm Fust, 
of Saginaw, and Henry Fust of Grand Rapids. 

In the death of Mr. Fust, a wife loses a loving and thoughtful hus- 
band, his children a kind and true father and Saginaw a good citizen. 



Death list of persons over fifty years of age in Port Huron, St. Glair county, in 



Date of death. 



Caroline Herring 

Jan. 25, 1890 

Germany . .. 


Georgiana Corrigan _ 

" 29,1890 .. .. 



Elizabeth Beal . 

Feb. 22, 1890 

U.S. A 


Eliza McGark . 

March 1, 1890 

Canada. .. .. 


Patrick McLaughlin 

" 4, 1890 



David Bowers 

Apr. 18,1890 

U.S. A 


James Kirwan. 

" 23, 1890 

Ireland ... 


Capt. George W. Smith.. 

" 28, 1890 

U.S. A 






Date of death. 



Ernestine Baer 




Matilda Campbell. 

June 4, 1890 



Elizabeth Tremaine. 

" 25, 1890 

U. 8. A. 


Henry H. Brown 

Louisa Comstock 

Aug. 18, 1890 
" 81, 1890 

U.S. A 

U. S. A.. 


Jacob Kapunkay 

Sept. 8, 1890 

Germany . 


Martha Dowley 

" 28, 1890 

U.S. A 


May Cowan. . . . 

" 28, 1890 

U. S. A.. 


John W. Canfield. 

Eliza Bunco 

Oct. 27,1890 
" 28, 1890 

U.S. A 
U. S. A. 


William A. Mallory .. 

Nov. 12, 1890 

U.S. A 


f-lnsanna Ross 

" 22, 1890 



Dan Follansbee -. 
Jared Kibbee. . 

Dec. 8,1890 
" 8,1890 

U.S. A 
U.S. A 


Anna TiipKie 

" 80,1890 

Germany .. 


Karl Leutz ... ... 

" 28,1890. . 



Honore Gilmartin 

Nov. 17, 1890 . 


Antoine Marontate... 

Sept. 22.1890... 



Twenty-six in number, oldest eighty-eight, youngest fifty years. Aver- 
age, seventy and six-tenths years. 

Port Huron, June 1. 


Asher Bonham, died in N Ottawa, March 9, 1891, aged eighty-three 
years. Mr. Bonham was a member of the bar of St. Joseph county, 
but never practiced law; was county clerk four years, and has held 
various county and township offices; was representative in the State 
legislature in 1850. He came to St Joseph county when Michigan 
Was yet a territory, and has been a representative man in the county 
for over fifty years; in politics a democrat; liberal in religion; a man 
of sterling integrity; a good citizen. 



Of the large number of long time residents of Tuscola county, who for 
twenty and more years have been with us and of us, but who within the 
past year have terminated their pilgrimage here, and become enrolled with 
that silent majority on the other side, I am enabled to name but a por- 
tion, owing to failure of our supervisors to fully report their departure 
to proper officials as the statutes contemplate. 

Of those herein named several were pioneers, in the true sense of 
what the term implies, and were called to encounter hardships and pri- 
vations they would gladly have shunned. 

Died, in town of Aimer, June 2, 1890, Emily, wife of Otis W. 
Leonard., born at Middlesex, Yates Co., N. Y., Oct. 23, 1823, aged 
sixty-six years; resident here thirty -four years. 

Died, at Caro, June 7, 1890, Mrs. P. H. Higgie, formerly from 
Bridge water, Washtenaw Co., Michigan, where she resided fifty-one 
years; aged nearly eighty-seven years. 

Died, at Vassar, June 9, 1890, Moses H. Phillips, for twenty years 
resident of Denmark this county; aged ninety years. 

Died, at Vassar, July 19, 1890, Mrs. Ann W. Sanders, native of 
Springfield, Vt., resident of Tuscola Co., since 1850; aged sixty years. 

Died, at Cass City, Aug., 30, 1890, Robert S. Toland, since 1865 
engaged in editorial work at Bay City, East Saginaw, Caro, Vassar, 
Unionville and Cass City; county register at time of his death; resident 
at Caro; aged forty-two years. 

Died, at Vassar, September 27, 1890, Sanford Hines, resident of 
Juniata for many years; aged seventy-six years. 

Died, at Caro, October 6, 1890, Jacob Eisenstein an old resident and 
war veteran; aged sixty-seven years. 

Died, at Tuscola, October 13, 1890, Samuel Hewes, a native of Mass., 
resident here thirty years; aged ninety-four years. 

Died, at Tuscola, October 19, 1890, Gilbert Baldwin, an early settler of 
the county. 

Died, at Tuscola, October 31, 1890, James A. Frazier, born at Platts- 
burg, N. Y., and came to > this county in an early day. 

Died, at Caro, November 6, 1890, Maria W. Morton, relict of the late 
Eurotus Morton of Ypsilanti; resident of Michigan since 1838, born at 
Whateley, Mass., October 30, 1802; aged eighty-eight years. 

Died, in Aimer, Nov. 16, 1890, Asa B. Humes resident of the county 
twenty-five or more years; aged fifty-three years. 

300 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

Died, in Aimer, Nov. 24, 1890, Otis W. Leonard resident of the 
county for thirty-four years; aged sixty-seven years. 

Died, at Reese, December 25, 1890, Isaiah H. Moshier a native of 
New York, twenty-two years at Reese; aged seventy-six years. 

Died, at Vassar, Dec. 21, 1890, Will S. McHose, resident there 
twenty-two years; aged thirty-nine years. 

Died, at same place, January 14, 1891, Mrs. Julia McHose mother 
of W. S. McHose, native of Pa., resident here twenty-two years; 
aged seventy-four years. 

Died, at Fair Grove, January 27, 1891, John M. Petershans a native of 
Germany, resident since 1859; aged seventy-five years. 

Died, in Gilford, January 15, 1891, Immanuel Spencer, a resident of 
the township thirty-five years; aged sixty-two years. 

Died, at Tuscola, February 2, 1891, Philo B. Richardson, a native 
of Springfield, Massachusetts, came here in 1854; aged seventy-six years. 

Died, in Arbela, February 6, 1891, Arthur Hill, born in Onondaga 
county, N. Y., resident of this county forty years; aged seventy-four 

Died, at Vassar, February 22, 1891, Mrs. Oliver Davis, resident there 
since 1852; aged fifty-five years. 

Died, in Juniata, February 23, 1891, David Widden, resident of 
county twenty-three years; aged sixty-four years. 

Died, at Vassar, March 1, 1891, Leman G. Woodcock, native of Scho- 
harie county, N. Y., resident in Michigan forty-six years, and of Tus- 
cola county for thirty-nine years; aged fifty -six years. 

Died, at Caro, March 8, 1891, Azariah Townsend, native of Dutchess 
county, N. Y., father of sixteen children, fourteen of whom survive 
him, resident here twenty-one years; aged eighty-nine years. 

Died, in Juniata, March 7, 1891, Mary M. Culver, native of New 
Hampshire, maiden name Patterson, resident here since 1869; aged 
eighty-eight years. 

Died, at Vassar, March 12, 1891, Mrs. David Perry, native of Eng- 
land, resident here twenty-five years; aged seventy- two years. 

Died, at Caro, April 5, 1891, Stephen R. Cross, came to this county 
from St. Clair in 1864; aged sixty-eight years. 

Died, at Vassar, April 16, 1891, Edward C. Caine, native of Warren- 
ville, Ohio, born November 4, 1840, came to Vassar in 1867, and for 
twelve years its postmaster; aged fifty years. 

Died, at Caro, May 8, 1891, Melvin Gibbs, native of Vermont, resi- 
dent at Caro since 1855; aged seventy -eight years. 

Died, at Caro, May 11,] 1891, Mrs. Wm. McKay, born at Pontiac, 


Michigan, in 1843, resident of this county since 1876, in town of Day- 
ton; aged forty- eight years. 

Died, at Caro, May 18, 1891, Ebeuezer W. Gerrish, native of Dur- 
ham, Maine, resident here since 1869; aged seventy-six years. 

Died, in Aimer, May 28, 1891, Myron David Orr, native of Leroy, 
N. Y., resident of Michigan since 1854, for most of the time in this 
county; aged sixty years. 

Julia Maria, wife of Spencer F. Low, died at her home in Fostoria, 
Tuscola county, Michigan, on the 10th day of April, 1890. 

Her maiden name was Seaman, and she was born in the city of New 
York on the 26th day of October, 1805, thus making her eighty-four 
years five months and nine days old at the time of her death. She 
was married on the third day of June, 1833, and continued to reside 
in New York city until July, 1836, when, with her husband, she 
removed to the site of the present city of Flint. After remaining at 
Flint fifty years, and seeing an opulent city grow up from the wilder- 
ness around them, the venerable couple removed to Fostoria, taking up 
their abode with their daughter and her husband, Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward Hauer. Deceased was buried in the Watertown cemetery; and 
her bereaved husband is at the comfortable home of his daughter, 
serenely awaiting the final summons to join her in 

" That undiscovered country, from whose bourne no traveler returns." 


Mary Elizabeth Cooley, wife of Judge Thomas M. Cooley, died at her 
home in Ann Arbor at 2 o'clock on Sunday morning, August 31, 1890. Mrs. 
Cooley was born at Alexander, New York, June 18, 1830. Her father, 
David Horton, removed with his family to Michigan in 1837, settling 
at Adrian. She was the oldest child and was given such an academic 
education as was then obtainable in Michigan. On December 30, 1846, 
she was married to Thomas M. Cooley, then just about to begin the 
practice of law at Tecumseh. She was, as will be seen, very young at 
the time, but all young people /matured earlier in the pioneer state, 
and she especially did so, that there was no seeming impropriety in so 
early a marriage. Mr. Cooley did not remain long in Tecumseh but 
returned to Adrian, where he became the partner of Mr. Beaman, who 
for ten years was a member of congress from that district. Mrs. Cooley 
became a leader in society there, but neither then, nor at any time did 

302 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

she have taste for merely fashionable society or empty display. She 
attached people to her rather by her solid qualities than by any 
attempt to be a leader, or make exhibition of showy accomplishments. 
In 1859 her husband was appointed to a professorship of law in the 
University and they removed to Ann Arbor at the opening of the col- 
lege year, from which time until her death she has continued to reside 
in this city. Here again her social and intellectual qualities were rec- 
ognized, so that she was always a notable figure in society, though 
never at any time making the slightest effort to give herself personal 
prominence. She connected herself with the Congregational church and 
was always prominent in its work, being president of the ladies' 
benevolent society as long as she would consent to hold the position. 
She was very active in the building of the new stone church edifice 
and a very liberal contributor to it. She was also active in other 
enterprises especially those of a literary nature. She was one of the 
founders of the ladies' library association and an adviser of the 
erection of their building. In the work of this association she 
took great interest to the very last, and was always ready to 
assume her full share of all its necessary expenditure. She was 
a great reader of books, especially those of a solid nature, and also 
a good writer, though she was never disposed to write for the 
press. Only a single article by her for publication is now recalled. 
On the opening of the campaign of 1888, the proprietors of the new 
Home Magazine, which was meant to be especially for ladies and youth, 
were desirous of giving a biographical sketch of the wives of the 
several candidates, and Mrs. Cooley was requested to furnish one of 
Mrs. Thurman, whom she had known very well, having been with her 
considerably when her husband was on the advisory commission with 
Judge Thurman and Minister Washburn to settle the matter of differ- 
ential railway rates as between the several Atlantic cities and the west. 
She therefore prepared a notice, it being really a work of love, for she 
had become greatly attached to Mrs. Thurman. Mrs. Cooley 's official 
life began early in 1881, when Gov. Jerome addressed a letter to her 
saying that the State greatly needed the services of a lady possessing 
her qualities of head and heart, on the board of control of the Indus- 
trial School for Girls at Adrian, and requesting her acceptance of a 
position on the board. This she did, though with reluctance, for she 
feared that it would break in too much upon her home life. The 
board consisted of two gentlemen and three ladies, the former being 
at that time, Theodore Hinchman, of Detroit, and Charles R. Miller, 
of Adrian, men whose ability is recognized throughout the State. Mrs. 


Fuller of Grand Rapids, and Mrs. Stebbins of Lansing, were the other 
lady members. Mrs. Cooley's usefulness on the board was recognized from 
the first by her associates and she was after a time made president of the 
board, a position which she had held for several years at the time of 
her death, having been re-elected by her associates during her last ill- 
ness. The position was a very difficult one, involving large expendi- 
ture of money and the care of a great number of disorderly characters, 
but she proved herself fully equal to it. When her first term expired, 
she was re-appointed by Gov. Begole and afterwards by Gov. Luce, 
the existing term not expiring until 1893. It is believed that not a 
single member of the board, or a prominent subordinate connected 
with the institution, failed to become strongly attached to her as a 
result of their official association. 

Of her father's family, three are now living. One brother entered 
the army at the age of eighteen and remained in the service till the 
loss of the steamer Sultana, which will be remembered as one of the 
greatest calamities of the war. He was on that boat at the time of its 
destruction and was lost with many hundred others. Her father and 
mother have of late been living with her. Her father, however, died 
within the year, upwards of ninety years of age, but her mother still 
survives. Mrs. Cooley had six children, all of whom are living, Eugene 
F., a prominent business man at Lansing; Edgar A., a lawyer at Bay 
City; Fannie C., wife of Alexis C. Angell, a lawyer of Detroit; Charles 
H., now at Washington in charge of the street railway statistics in the 
census bureau; Thomas B., and Mary B., who are still at home, not 
having completed their education. She also leaves thirteen grandchil- 
dren. Mrs. Cooley's most important work, after all, was that of home 
maker. Nothing could exceed the constant care and attention she gave 
to everything which pertained to her children and her home. Her 
children were all present during her last illness, as were also her 
mother and sister. Among the numerous messages of condolence 
received by the family which, since her death, have come from all parts 
of the country, the mention of her qualities as head of the household 
and mother of a large family has been most conspicuous, and evidently 
most in the minds of her friends. 

"I have," says a gentlemen well known throught the State, "met 
with very few persons for whom I have entertained so profoud a respect 
alike for good sense, rare capacity and noble character, as Mrs Cooley. 
She had a rare power of making a happy home," One of the ex-govern- 
ors of the State who with his wife had been sometimes her guest, 

304 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

expresses himself in equally strong terms and speaks of her death as a 
personal loss to him and to his family. 

The funeral services were held at ten o'clock Tuesday morning at the 
house and were conducted by Prof. Ryder, of Andover, who was form- 
erly pastor of the Congregational church Ann Arbor, and who came 
immediately to see Mrs. Cooley, when he heard of the dangerous nature 
.of her disease. The house was filled with floral gifts from her lady 
friends and the cemetery lot was adorned in the most tasteful manner 
by those who desired in this way to testify to their affectionate regard 
for the associate whom they had lost. 

The board of control in its sixth biennial report pays the following 
tribute to the subject of this notice: 

. " Mrs. Mary E. Cooley, president of the board of control, died 
August 31, 1890. She was appointed in 1881, soon after the Industrial 
Home was organized by the legislature, and has been a member from 
the above date until her death. She was a noble woman, with true 
greatness of character, sweet and mild in disposition, gentle and unas- 
suming in manner, coupled with a clear head and a warm heart. Her 
labor and interest in the institution never flagged, and the growth and 
prosperity of the Home is due in a large degree to her quiet influence." 


To the President and members of the State Pioneer and Historical 

Society : 

It is not a pleasant task to review and enumerate in detail, the 
departure of those whom we in this life, can never meet again. It is 
sad because of the sundering of many associations respectively dear to 
all. Yet it is well that their names and memory should be preserved, 
that future generations may know that they once lived and, therefore, 
in accordance with the duty assigned me, I submit my obituary of 
Wayne county pioneers for the year ending May 31, 1891. 




Date of death. 


Mrs. Priscilla Fillion ... . . . .. . . 

June 16, 1890. 


James Armitage 

" 17, 1890. 


Wm. B. Wesson 

" 19, 1890 


Jeremiah Killicher... 

" 1890 


George Howarth.. 

" 24, 1890 


James Giddey _ .. . 

" 24, 1890 


William H. Langley 



John De Mass . ... 

" 30, 1890 


Enos Heath 

July 2, 1890 


Roger McGraw .'.. ... .. 

" 8, 1890 


John E. Calnon 

" 9, 1890 


Mrs. Jane Ramsay. Mrs. Ramsay was a neice of the famous inventor and 
engineer, Stephenson 

" 10, 1890 


Frederick Harris 

" 12, 1890 


A. H. Kohler, at Northville 

" 12,1890 


Mrs. Bridget Gaplis 

" 13, 1890 


Dr. Edward Licht .. 

" 14,1890 . 


Dennis Collins. . . 

" 17, 1890 


Dr. Henry Fallen 

" 15,1890 


Mrs. Mary Sullivan 

" 17, 1890 . 


Thomas Cullen .... . . 

" 1890 


John W. Sorles 

" 18, 1890 ... . 


Francois Laperriere_ . 

" 22. 1890 


Mrs. Mary Bourne Joy, wife of James F. Joy 

" 26, 1890 

Frederick Jnlf .... 

" 27, 1890 


Mrs. Helen E. Parker, wife of D. W. Parker 

" 1890 . . . 


Mary D. Walker 

" 28, 1890 


Owen Gibney .. 

" 30, 1890 


Dr. Wm. Brodie- 

" 80, 1890 


Mrs. Elizabeth Ladd. 

August 2, 1890 


Geo. Kirby . 

" 3, 1890 


Richard Birhoff. 

" 1, 1890 


Mrs. Morris Jacobs... . ... 

" 11, 1890 


Wm. Lomasney .1 

" 13,1890 


Edward Campbell 

" 13, 1890 . 


John J. Rennie ... 

" 14, 1890 


Mrs. Wm. Berger 

" 22,1890 


John Y. Schmidt 

" 22, 1890 


George Stewart ... 

" 24, 1890 


Mrs. George Glitz, widow of the late John Glitz, U. 8. A. 

" 24, 1890 


Mrs. Anna R. Brown 

" 28, 1890 






Date of death. 


Sarah Ward, relict of the late Charles Ward 

August, 1890 





Owen McCormick 

September 14, 1890.... 
14. 1890.... 

" 18, 1890.... 
" 21, 1890.... 
21, 1890.... 
August 22, 1890 

Maria Louisa Marantette, wife of Frank D. Marantx 
John Brennan.. _. ._ _. . 

stte .. 

Mrs. Emeline Morton, widow of the late Julius D. 
J. Sterling Morton of Nebraska, and W. D. Morto 

Mrs. Almira Johns 

Morton, and mother of 
i of Detroit. 

Mrs. Anna Bncheringer, widow of the late John Bn< 
John Deering, at SanFranciso 

jheringer ._ 

Amanda Gibbs, widow of Wm. N. Carpenter 

" 26, 1890 

Michael Murphy . 

" 26, 1890. 

Mary Miller (colored) , old age. 


Phyllon Knaggs. 





Jos. Hock, late alderman 

October 10, 1890 

Benj. Lees.. 

" 10, 1890 

Geo. A. Brown . 

" 11,1890 

Mrs. Robt. A. Forsythe 

4, 1890 

Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, wife of Mr. Stephen Moore 

" 5,1890 
25, 1890 

Mrs. Jeanette Pierce 

Daniel T. Barnum, father of Mrs. Philo Parsons 

" 12, 1890 

John W. Delling 

" 29, 1890 

Mrs. RfthnecA Duncan 

29, 1890 
" 22, 1890 


23, 1890 


" 27,1890 


Hugh McFarland . 

November. 1, 1890.... 
1, 1890.... 
15, 1890.... 
17, 1890.... 
" 13, 1890.... 
12, 1890.... 
17, 1890.... 
24, 1890.... 
24, 1890.... 
29, 1890.... 
30, 1890.... 

John Keal, an old pioneer 

Mrs. Sophronia Frink 

Jacob Stork . 

Geo S. Frost 

December 1, 1890 




Date of death. 

Leon Bouther December 9, 1890... 

Geo. A. Fnnston, ex-member of the legislature.. .. 6, 1890... 

Mrs. Margaret Campbell Wilkie, a most estimable lady. 6, 1890... 

C. M.Tet.Sr " 12,1890... 

Edward A. Wetmore, father of Mrs. A. C. McGraw " 15, 1890... 

Mrs. Helen Livingstone, mother of Wm. Livingstone, Sr " 15, 1390. _. 

Mrs. Catherine Price - " 19, 1890... 

Helaman Delahue.. " 29, 1890... 

Francis Beily. He was an old respected citizen. His children, E. F., Thos. 
J., Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Thomas Bark, and Mrs. Robinson clerk of the board 

of education .. . 21, 1890... 

Mrs. Patrick White " 28,1890... 

Michael Fernane, father of prosecuting attorney " 28, 1890... 

Eustabus King, born in Detroit in 1800 " 31, 1890... 

George Green Magee . " 25,1890... 

Joseph N. Brown, at Dearborn. He was a contractor on the M. C. B. R. " 23, 1890... 

His son is chief train despatcher of the M. C. R. B 

John Baumeister January 4, 1891 

Mrs Elvira Higham " 4, 1891 

John Collar " 8, 1891 

Geo. Bartholick " 10, 1891 

Mary, wife of the late Wm. Whitehill.... il 10, 1891... 

Mrs. Sarah Jones " 15,1891... 

Archange Cadieux " 17, 1891... 

Wm. W. Bruce, a good man " 24,1891... 

Mrs. Mary Welmerd... " 19,1891... 

Eben N. Wilcox. A scholar and historian, genial and respected by all who 
knew him. He was a native of Detroit, brother of Gen. O. B. Wilcox 

Mrs. Sisarie Malo, widow of Valentine Malo 

Norton B. Rowley, a mexican veteran, an honest man and an earnest Ameri- 
can patriot; he died at Indianapolis 

Wm. Bntson 

Michael Coppersmith 

Henry Clay, of Dearborn 

Hon. Henry W. Lord, in Montana; was a member of congress, consul at 
Manchester, England; an enterprising, intelligent and patriotic repre- 
sentative of american character 

Capt. J. W. Hall, Marine reporter 

Jos. Daily ^. 

Edwin Bennett... 

Mrs. Charlotte W. Roe 

Mrs. Sarah Emmons, relict of Judge H. H. Emmons 

Bhoda Cowles, at the residence of her neice, the wife of ex-Gov. Lucius 
Fairchild of Wisconsin. Her father was a judge and one time a member 
of the Michigan Senate 

Mrs. Lucy Raymond, sister of the wife of Hon. J. Wilkie Moore. 

" 19,1891.... 

" 29, 1891.... 

" 10,1891.... 


" 25,1891.... 

25, 1891.... 
" 81, 1891.... 
" 28, 1891.... 
" 28, 1891.... 
February 3, 1891. ... 
" 13,1891.... 


" 25,1891... 




Date of death. 


Daniel D. Green... ... 

February 25, 1891 


Geo. Cunningham 

" 16, 1891 


John Winchell. He was a veteran of the war of 1812; was also the first pub- 
lic school teacher in Detroit 

" 10, 1891 


Wm. P. Wells 

March 4, 1891 


Curtis A. Cole .. . ... 

" 4, 1891 


Horace Miller 

" 16, 1891 


Mrs. Lucretia Cicotte, wife of Edward V. Cicotte. . _ 

" 3, 1891 



" 3, 1891 


Francis Lambie .. 

" 3, 1891 


Eliza Lewis, wife of Benj. J. 

" 14, 1891 


Alfred Denison Golly ._ 

" 15. 1891 


D. Bethone Dnffield. distinguished for his learning, and loved for his parity 
of life and conduct while among us 

" 12, 1891 


Henry Fralick... ... ... 

" 14, 1891 


Mrs. Rose Lacroix. 

" 25, 1891 


Benj. Lewis 

" 27, 1891 


Mrs. Esther Cook. She was the mother of Mrs. Albert Ives 

" 26, 1891 


George Winters. One of the first hatters in Detroit 

" 27, 1891 


Mrs. John A. Murray.. 

" 29, 1891 


Mrs. Mary Hill, relict of the late Wm. H. Hill 

" 29, 1891 


Leonard Delpice. . ... 

April 2, 1891 


Hon. Jacob S. Farrand, one of Detroit'^ belovd citizens. 

" 3, 1891 

Mrs. Lucinda Smith Newland, mother of Henry A. and George P. Newland 

" 5,1891 


Mrs. Mary E. Flint 

" 10,1891 ... 


Thomas W. Cooper 

" 12, 1891 . 


Thomas Fletcher 

" 29,1891 


William Ginick 

" 29, 1891 


Sarah Pearson 

" 10,1891 ... . 


Wm. A. Butler, one of the oldest bankers 

May 6, 1891.. 


Mrs. Caroline Wetmore Robinson, at the advanced age of 83. 

" 20, 1891.. 


Rev. C. C. Foote.. 

" 8, 1891 . 


Mrs. Elmira Fleming 

" 11, 1891 . 


John A. Dunneback. . .. .... . . 

" 11,1891.. 


Mrs. Caroline W. Caskey, mother of S. G. Caskey, and sister of C. I. and E. 
C. Walker 

April, 1891 

John GrindmnnTi 

" 24,1891 


Mrs. Susan Boston. 

" 24,1891 


Chas. W. Noble 

" 18, 1891. . 


Henry Lacroiz 

" 19, 1891 


Mrs. Hannah Morgan 

" 19, 1891..... 3 


Mrs. Amy Green.. . ..... 

" 14,1891 


Mrs. Rachel Monroe- 

" 14,1891 




Pioneers, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It has been customary at our regular annual meetings for the pres- 
ident to present some formal remarks. And it might seem that this 
custom, from its universality, has almost the binding force of law, and 
that it would be improper for me to evade, or nullify it. But it 
appears to me that there is really no necessity for any extended remarks 
and that the time which I might consume in making them would be 
much better employed in discussing the interesting program provided 
by your committees; in short, that the time-honored custom alluded to, 
would, in my case, at least, be more honored in the breach than in the 

Recalling to mind the names and characters of my predecessors in 
this office, who have so acceptably rilled the chair, since the organiza- 
tion of this society, on April 22, 1874, I find a roll of able men, highly 
esteemed and honored in their several walks in life; men who have 
done their full share in the upbuilding of our great State. Pioneers 
in the true sense of the word. They have realized that they, as well 
as others, in their day and generation have been making history. And 
they have recognized the supreme importance of collecting the facts 
and traditions of our history, and recording them, ere it become too 

In their several inaugural, adresses that have said so much, and that 
so well, that there seems to be little left for me to say. 

But I cannot forgo the pleasure, friends and pioneers, of welcoming 
you heartily and sincerely today. 

We have come up to our annual council from different parts of our 
broad State, undertaking long journeys, some of us with tottering steps, 
to exchange friendly greetings and to discharge our self imposed and 
voluntary duties to the commonwealth which we love so well. 

310 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

The pleasure which we have experienced from these annual gather- 
ings has, of late years, been tinged with sadness as we view the rav- 
ages time has made in our ranks. The number of venerable men, 
and graceful women, whose dignified forms and silver crowned heads 
at one time so conspicuous in our assemblies, has diminished greatly. 
They answer not to any roll call of earth! Their chairs are vacant, 
and we who are left look about us pathetically, and see them not! 
But our late beloved friends and pioneers, tired and wayworn " life's 
fitful fever ended," have gone to their eternal rest and we who lin- 
ger on the stage, burdened with fears, with desires and earthly ambi- 
tions nearly extinguished, would not call them back. They sleep well. 
Their works do follow them; for without their courage, industry, 
enterprise, trust and devotion to the best interests of mankind, Michigan 
would not be the admirable State it is. 

To the younger members of this society, to those who must fill the 
places vacated by the old pioneers, I would say a word. In all that 
concerns the best interests of this society you owe a duty to be not 
lightly entertained or evaded. And in discharging those important 
duties and trusts, the Chair does not say too much, when it enjoims 
upon you to follow the example of your predecessors in all diligence,, 
intelligence and devotion. The old pioneers are your Fathers in the 
State. The loyalty of sons is expected of you. 

You may say that at this late day there seemeth little for us to do. 
The old pioneers have skimmed all of the cream of incident and 
adventure, so rich in the early settlement of the wilderness. If you 
think so, you are surely mistaken. There is still much unwritten his- 
tory of our State floating about and, if you are not diligent in rescuing 
it from the flood of oblivion, it will be utterly lost. It will require 
some care, zeal and labor on your part to secure for, and transmit to 
our archives, these fugitive, but precious historical facts. 

Moreover you will owe a duty to your own times. The people of this 
generation are also making history. The people who may live in the 
year 1991 will perhaps regard you, of this day, with as much interest 
as you now bestow upon our picturesque pioneers who founded a great 
state in a wilderness. It is to be hoped that the virtues which dis- 
tinguished those pioneers may descend to their latest posterity. 

We sincerely hope and confidently trust that this organization the 
State Pioneer and Historical Society may continue its useful career 
for many years to come. 

The work which the Historical Society of Michigan has already per- 
formed is of the very highest importance. It is justly appreciated far 


and wide, by those competent to judge of its value. The historical 
facts, incidents and pleasing reminiscences embalmed in our printed 
transactions will form the basis of the real history of Michigan, when 
it comes to be elaborated by some future Bancroft. He will find in 
those voluminous and varied records an ample store of rich material, 
out of which, by judicious selection, he will be able to weave an inter- 
esting and instructive story, relating to the founding of a great state 
by a great people. -He will draw inspiration from the simple and 
homely, as well as polished, narratives of our pioneer men and women ; 
while his fancy will be enkindled by the pictures presented of the 
heroic bravery, toils, sufferings, achievments and patriotism of the 
founders of the State. 

When we consider what the Historical Society of Michigan has 
already accomplished, the great value of its work, and when we compare 
that work, and its comparatively trifling cost, with the work of other 
kindred State societies, we have every reason to congratulate ourselves 
upon our modest achievments. And we have reason to expect, as in 
the past, so in the future, that all good citizens will continue to cherish 
this historical society and delight in promoting its success and welfare. 
A just pride in our peninsular State is a commendable virtue. And 
patriotism will ever seek to perpetuate our history in the most enduring 
form by the aid of that art, which is the preservative of all arts print- 
ing. Monuments in brass and marble may be and are erected, but 
the number of such memorials must of necessity be limited and local in 
character, but books may be multiplied indefinitely, so that, not only 
every library and household in the State may possess a volume of our 
history, but distant nations or peoples may, if they please, become 
acquainted with us, through our history, and thus learn how a people, 
enjoying the blessing of civil and religious liberty, with free schools 
have been able to reach a proud honorable place in the sisterhood of 
enlightened states. 

Nor yet alone in civic honors distinguished, but when peril and 
adversity came, and the nation's life was threatened, the men of Michi- 
gan, not counting the cost, rushed to the defense and could always be 
relied upon to follow the starry banners of the republic, through the 
thickest of the fight. 

Pioneers of Michigan! ere I close, permit me once more to say that 
I am very glad to see you here today. May this annual convention of 
the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society prove pleasant and profit- 
able. It marks another mile-stone in our lives. The older pioneers 
may be said to stand upon the narrow isthmus of time: looking back- 

312 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

ward they can trace the long, devious, often dusky road, with more or 
less clearness of perception; but the record is almost closed: Looking 
forward they see dimly an unknown shore, lined with waiting friends, 
anxious to welcome them to manifold joys and high emprises, not 
restricted by time or clogged by obstacles, inevitable in an earthly 


President, years 1890-91. 


Brookline, Mass., May 30, 1891. 
George H. Greene, Esq.: 

DEAR SIR I am honored and highly pleased to receive notice of the 
seventeenth annual meeting of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 
Society at Lansing on the 3d and 4th of June. I took an humble part 
in the organization of the society, was the second president of the 
same, and was a member of committee of historians for twelve con- 
secutive years. I have a deep interest in the continued usefulness and 
increasing popularity of the society, and trust that its ultimatum will 
be reached, only when the last line of the pioneer life of Michigan 
shall have been recorded in its "collections." 

Please give my kindest fraternal regards to the few surviving officers 
who will assemble at Lansing with whom I was associated, in the time 
indicated above. Alas! how large the number is of the death of our 
early officers! I need not say that my meeting with the society is 

With love etc. 




There is much valuable history yet unwritten, in the lives of many of 
our early pioneers. This is notably the case, as regards the life of that 


sturdy old pioneer John Bryan, who, with his wife and young family of 
five children, left the old home in New York, and starting west- 
ward reached Detroit in the summer of 1823. From Detroit, with his 
family, effects and fortune, he struck out into the solitary Michigan 
wilderness and after a wearing journey "stuck his stakes" at Wood- 
ruff's Grove near where Ypsilanti now stands. Had some faithful nar- 
rator written the full history of John Bryan's early life in Michigan it 
would be valuable material for the historian of today. But this was not 
done. And there are a good many John Bryans, with unwritten histories, 
whose lives were worth portraying, and who being in the fore front of 
so remarkable an epoch, stand out clear and strong against a back- 
ground of notable deeds. It is a great pity that a period so abounding 
in acts worthy of the chronicler, should in so many instances, have 
been "passed over with a dry pen." 

From Mrs. Sarah Francisco, of Constantine, daughter of John Bryan. 
I received (1877) the main facts that are comprised in the following 
biographical sketch of the life of her sister, Mrs Lois B. Adams. Of 
their parents she writes: John Bryan was born in West Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts, February 1, 1794. Sarah Babcock, his wife, was born 
in Whitestown, Oneida county, New York, June 22, 1794. They were 
married May 7, 1815, in the town of Leicester, New York. Came to 
Michigan in 1823, as we have stated above. "Their journey," Mrs. 
Francisco continues, "through the wilderness from Detroit, their hard- 
ships and privations, during the first years of pioneer life, if written by 
a good historian would fill a volume. They had five children, Lois 
being the second, and myself the youngest. The next February (1824), 
a son was born to them, being the first white child born in Washtenaw 
Bounty, he was named Alpha Washtenaw Bryan. Our father was an 
excellent carpenter, and the job of building the court house at Ann 
Arbor having been let to him, he moved his family to that place where 
they lived during the summer and fall of 1834. On the first day of 
1835 we arrived at Constantine, having been five days on the road, 
with household goods and ten children, all on one wagon with a long 
reach. Would it not look ridiculous now? But we were as respectable 
as any body there; that being the way every body moved. Those chil- 
dren are now (1877) all living, with the exception of Lois. The eld- 
est brother is in California, the second in Tennessee, the third in 
Minnesota, the fourth in Ogdensburg, N. Y. The oldest sister lives in 
Aurora, Illinois, the second and third in Constantine, Michigan, fourth 
in Minnesota, and the fifth in Nebraska. The father died in Constan- 

314 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

tine, November 2, 1864; the mother at the home of her son-in-law, 
George Francisco, in Constantine, July 3, 1876." 

Lois Bryan Adams, the subject of this sketch, was born October 14, 
1817, in Moscow, Livingston county, N. Y. She had in early life, at 
Woodruff's Grove, the advantage of a school kept in her father's house 
by her aunt, Eliza Bryan. She afterwards attended the common school 
in Ypsilanti, and also a select school taught by Mrs. Mark Norris, a lady 
of great literary attainments. Here Lois undoubtedly got that love of 
literature, for which she was noted in her after life. Or, at least, it 
was stimulated and made stronger by association with a teacher of such 
fine literary culture as was possessed by Mrs. Norris, and, no doubt 
she established a taste in Lois for the higher and nobler things of the 
mind, as well as literature, that proved to be a safe guide to her in 
after life. While living in Ann Arbor, in 1834, Lois also had the 
advantage of a good select school. And at her home in Constantine 
she attended the district school, which, in those days was a larger and 
better attended school than the district school of today. She was also 
instructed by her elder sister who taught a school in her father's house. 
In the winter of 1839 Lois was a student in the branch university 
located at White Pigeon, and received here the first prize for compo- 
sition, and here she made a creditable advance in the higher studies. 

Her literary taste at this time can be readily inferred when we say 
that she loved to read Shakespeare, Scott, and the English classic 
writers. The limited range of her father's library confined her to 
fewer books than she would have desired. Yet in this she may have 
found an advantage; for one is apt to get more benefit from a few, than 
from many books. Hence the adage " never fear a man with a large 
library." Her sister continues: " Her habits were very retiring. She 
was something of a recluse, and sought little society aside from that of 
her home, her books, her pen and the muses. She used to sit day after 
day on the banks of the St. Joseph river, writing in her blank books, 
which we now have, filled with her earliest and sweetest poems. I have 
also a book of her poems written from 1841 to 1846. She was like 
sunlight in our home, and we always looked to her for sympathy and 
advice." She was ever in touch with the beauties of nature, and loved 
and felt the romance of real life. Lois was married at the old farm- 
home, Constantine, to James R. Adams, April 16, 1841. Mr. Adams 
was the aditor of the White Pigeon Republican, published at that place. 
From White Pigeon Mr. and Mrs. Adams went to Centreville, and here 
for two or three years he published the Centreville Democrat. In 1845 
they removed to Kalamazoo, where he for a year or more edited the 


Kalamazoo Gazette. Leaving Kalamazoo he became proprietor of a 
saw mill a few miles north of that village, where he died in 1848. 

In early life Mrs. Adams was a zealous Methodist. Later she left 
the M. E. church, and while living in Washington became interested in 
Swedenborg. Whatever her faith may have been she ever had bright 
anticipations of happiness in the future world. She had no children 
the productions of her pen were her chileren. She was of medium 
size, full round features, had brown hair of a yellowish tinge, and light 
blue eyes. 

Left alone, on the death of her husband, with no other means of 
support she went south and engaged in teaching. Taught three years 
in Kentucky; and here she got a knowledge of slave life on which she 
was writing a story at the time of her death. At the close of her 
teaching in Kentucky she returned to he father's home in Constantine; 
and about this time she became a contributor to the Michigan Farmer. 
In 1856 she became editor of the household department of the Farmer, 
and removed to Detroit. In 1858 she bought an interest in the Farmer, 
and in connection with R. F. Johnstone, the editor in chief, she devoted 
her time and talent to the literary and business affairs of the paper. 

The war for the Union having forced, for a time, the suspension of 
the Michigan Farmer, Mrs. Adams went to Washington and was made 
clerk in the department of agriculture, and was finally promoted to the 
office of copyist in that department. She was also one of the com- 
missioners appointed to take charge of the sick and wounded soldiers 
in the Washington hospital during the war. In May, 1870, she visited 
her old home in Michigan, and in June she returned to Washington. 
Wearied with work, she took a severe cold, and before her friends 
knew of her sickness, this gentle, loving spirit passed away. The 
remains were brought to her Michigan home and laid by the side of 
her beloved father in the cemetery at Constantine. 

Mrs. Adams, though a prolific writer, had never published but one 
book; this is entitled " Sybelle and Other Poems." While living in 
Washington her letters on life in that city were published in the 
Detroit Tribune and Advertiser. And while visiting her oldest sister 
in Illinois, in 1853, her interesting letters from the " Prairie State " 
were published in the New York Tribune. A sketch of her life and 
some of her poems are published in a volume entitled " The Poets and 
Poetry of the West," by William T. Cogeshall. During the latter part 
of her life, when the business exactions of her position absorbed so 
much of her time, she did not write much poetry. Previous to this 
her poems were published in the leading journals of this State. I 

316 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

remember them as they appeared fresh from her pen in the columns 
of the papers at that time, and read them with pleasure. And now, 
after so many years have intervened, a delightful memory of those 
poems still lingers in my mind. 

" You may break, you may ruin the vase if will, 
The scent of the rose will cling to it still." 

There is something genuine in her poetry that has defied the lapse 
of time, and I remember her as a lovely and beautiful woman. We 
give here recollections of Mrs. Adams by George Torrey of Kalamazoo: 

I remember with real pleasure Mrs. Lois B. Adams. When a mere 
boy I was much in her company and became greatly attached to her. 
She dearly loved the woods and flowers and the works of nature. Often 
on a leisure afternoon, with herself and husband I would go down to the 
river along the old Indian trail that led along the stream to the " old ford," 
where the Indians and early settlers found a crossing place, through the 
shallows from the east to the west bank. This was a very picturesque 
and lovely spot, and midway of the shaded and darkly wooded region the 
prattling, winding Arcadia was crossed by a little bridge of a very 
rustic fashion, and a stretch of corduroy led across the swale to the 
liigher grounds on either side. There on this bridge, and upon the 
banks of the river we would enjoy the scenery and p'ick the lovely 
flowers that matted the mossy floor of the forest, .Mrs. Adams at 
other times busying herself with fishing in the river. She knew the 
name of every wild flower: The Repaticas, wild flox, trilliums, "dutch- 
man's britches," wild poppies, mandrakes, lady slippers, yellow and pur- 
ple, the flowering princes feather, the blue lobelia, the tiger lily, 
-wild violets and many others. And all the flowering trees and shrubs, 
the peach blossom like Judas tree, to the white thorn, and wild plum, 
the dogwood blossom, all seemed to have a story for her which she 
told with such delightful simplicity that I could not but regard 
her as the queen of them all. Every hour that I passed with her was 
a cherished memory with me. She too, would aid me in my effort to 
start my tiny water wheel in the Arcadia. With her small, pretty, 
white hands she helped me to dam the brook so as to obtain sufficient 
fall to send the shingle paddles whirling. She seemed to share with 
me my boyish delight in all things in those visits to the woods. On 
the banks opposite, where is now our loved Riverside cemetery, stood 
the Indian trading post, established by the American Fur Company, 
and near which was a crib wherein an Indian chief had long before been 
buried in a sitting posture, with his personal property beside him. Of 
this mode of burial and of this grinning skeleton which remained 


for years in situ, she told me many stories, as well as of the brown 
men she had known. Withal she was thoroughly domestic, an excel- 
lent housekeeper, deft with her needle, and very fond of home and the 
friends she cared to make. She was one of the sweetest, dearest of 
women, with no love of display, or ambition to shine in social circles. 
And nothing pleased her more than to contribute both in poetry and 
prose, to aid her husband in his paper, as well as to write for other 
publications. Her articles were favorites with the publishers of Gra- 
ham's Magazine and the Ladies' Book. 

After Mr. Adams retired from the Gazette, he secured an interest in 
a saw-mill on Spring brook, near Gov. Throop's farm, north of Kala- 
mazoo. That fine old gentleman, who had been governor of New York, 
and minister to foreign lands, a noted politician, and one of the old 
regime in the Empire state, became a very warm admirer of Mrs. 
Adams, and greatly enjoyed her society and literary abilities. She 
made for hiin out of wild turkey feathers an exquisite mantle with 
which he was very much pleased, and which he cherished as the most 
valuable among his large and varied collections of the works of art. 
With her writings I was familiar and held them in high esteem, as did 
ail who knew of them. Mr. Van Buren has but done them simple 
justice in what he has said of them. They were the simple effusions 
of a heart full of love for humanity, nature and art. Pure sentiments 
exhaling from her soul as dew from the unconscious flowers. There 
was nothing crude or labored about them; they were marked by purity 
of diction, nobility of expression, beauty and originality of thought, a 
freshness like that of a streamlet that flows through a delightful forest, 
decked with lovely flowers and tuneful with the songs of birds. Indeed 
she was a lovely character in every walk of life. 

At the time Mrs. Adams lived in our village, it was a small place, 
very much in the state of nature. A few steps led to unfrequented 
places; in fact, the woods hemmed in the little town, so that it was 
but a short walk to the loveliest nooks and coverts. These were far 
more attractive to her than to mingle in society which, either from 
her modest and shrinking nature, or from her dislike of the artificiali- 
ties of the social circle. She was but little known to the people gener- 
ally. I have thought, too, that want of appreciation or rather encour- 
agement in her social literary development and her retired way of liv- 
ing, had much to do with the humble position she occupied here. She 
was so constituted that she would never push herself, never step in 
and take the place she was so admirably fitted to fill. Had she been 
" taken up " and given opportunity to display the rare abilities she 

318 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

possessed, there is no doubt but what she would have had hundreds of 
admirers where she had but few. And she would have rapidly devel- 
oped into a beloved companion, a favorite of society, and a most 
accomplished woman. But her humble position and circumstances, her 
environments, and a retiring nature, were against such a means of 
growth as she needed, and proved a loss to her, and to society. 



The subject of this sketch, Hon. Henry Fralick, was born in Minden, 
Montgomery county, State of New York, February 9, 1812. His father, 
Abraham Fralick, was a captain in the army, in the war of 1812. His 
grandfather, was one of a family of fifteen boys; eleven of whom, 
served in the war of the revolution; four of whom were killed, and 
the other seven were all wounded. He was brought up on a farm, 
and with his father came to Michigan and settled in Plymouth, Wayne 
county, in October, 1827. In 1829, he commenced life for himself, and 
found employment on a passenger boat on the Erie canal for two 
years, becoming captain of the boat the second year. 

In 1832, he shipped on board of a whaling vessel for the Atlantic 
and Indian oceans, the voyage lasting two years, and for his services 
he received a one hundred and fiftieth part of the cargo, which was 
eighteen barrels of oil, worth twenty-five dollars per barrel, and an 
amount of whalebone, which brought him one hundred and fifty dollars. 
And there is no account of his showing signs of dissatisfaction, or getting 
up a strike. Possibly if he had been born in these later days, he 
would have struck for less hours and more pay, and if the captain had 
refused his demand, he would have gone in for boycotting. I say per- 
haps, but don't know. In 1834, he shipped as third mate, on a vessel 
bound for Rio Janeiro, and other South American ports, this trip 
lasting seven months. After this he was engaged for one year on 
coasting vessels and then he returned to Michigan. In 1836, he 
engaged as clerk in the Michigan exchange hotel in Detroit, where he 
spent nine months, and then returned to Plymouth where he entered 
the store of Henry B. Holbrook, as clerk, and in 1838 he purchased 


the stock and commenced trade for himself, having a partner in the 

Three years later, he sold his interest in the business, bought a 
lumber mill, and built a flouring mill; and after two years he sold his 
mills, and engage^ again in merchandising. In 1860, he sold his store 
and goods, and in 1861, he moved to Grand Rapids, Mich., and in 
partnership with Win. B. Ledyard, Esq., he engaged in banking, doing a 
successful business until 1865, when the firm dissolved, and the city 
national bank was organized, in which he has been a prominent stock- 
holder, and a member of the board of directors up to the time of his 
. death. 

When the rebellion broke forth he, with Mr. Penniman, raised and 
equipped the first company of three years' men, and all through the 
war, he gave liberally of his energy and money to support the union 
cause. In 1867, he tried merchandising again, and continued in the 
business for two years, and abandoned it and went into real estate 
business, and the loaning of money, in which business he continued 
until his death. In 1872, he with others organized the Grand Rapids 
cha'ir factory company, in which he was a director for three years, 
and its president two years. He was also a principal partner in the 
"Worden furniture company," which gives employment to one hundred 
and sixty hands. In public and official life, he has rendered much 
faithful and efficient service. He has been supervisor, justice of the 
peace, county auditor, and a school officer for thirty years, and four of 
these years president of the board of education; a trustee and treasurer 
of Olivet college for twelve years, holding these responsible offices at 
the time of his death. He served three terms in the State legislature, 
and in the Senate of 1853, he had the honor of presenting a petition 
with over four hundred thousand names, in favor of the passage of the 
prohibitory measure, known as the "Maine Law." In 1850, he was a 
member of the convention which framed our present State constitution. 
In 1871, he was appointed by the governor one of the committee, for 
the distribution of relief funds, to the sufferers from the great fires of 
that year, and he devoted seven months gratuitously to this charitable 
work, and his labors in their behalf will ever be gratefully remembered. 
In 1875, he was appointed one of the board of managers to repre- 
sent our State at the national centennial exposition, held in 1876. 
To that service he gave about seven months, and to his efforts is 
largely due, the prominence Michigan there attained. For eighteen 
years, he was a member of the executive board of our State agri- 
cultural society, and its honored president for two years. He has 

320 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

been a member of our State pioneer society for years, and its 
honored president one year, from June, 1885, to June, 1886; also a 
member of its executive committee for four years. He has also held 
the office and satisfactorily performed the duties of United States jury 
commissioner, for the western district of Michigan, for eight years, 
and has held the office of notary public for forty-two years. Besides 
all these responsible and arduous duties, to the civil government, faith- 
fully performed for many years, he has been a trustee in the first 
Congregational church in Grand Rapids for nine years, and president 
of the society for five years. 

From all this it can be seen, that the life of this busy man, has. 
been a life of labor, a life of fearful responsibility, commencing in his 
boyhood, and continuing during the years loaned him, after passing 
his threescore and ten, ,for he was as active, until within a few weeks of 
his death, as he was when he was but forty years of age. 

But few men, comparatively, have lived, whose lives have been 
as active, and but few have had the constitution, that could have 
endured the strain of his intellectual and physical parts, without going 
down to the grave in much less time than did our honored and respected 
and I may add highly esteemed friend, Henry Fralick. 

But he seemed to know no such thing as weariness, where duties 
demanded this thought and labor, and what his hands found to do, he 
did it with his might, and I think it may truthfully be said of him, 
as Christ said of a faithful woman in his day, "he hath done what 
he could." 

Although when apprized of his approaching end, he said to his 
daughter, who was tenderly caring for him, I would like to live to do 
a little more work I had hoped to do before leaving, but perhaps 
some one else can do it better than I can, and it's all right. 

He was twice married. His first wife, to whom he was married May 
23, 1837, was the daughter of Henry Lyon, of Plymouth, Michigan. 
She died October 16, 1840. His second marriage was to Jeannette 
Woodruff, of the same town, and occurred April 22, 1842. She became 
the happy mother of five children, four of whom, one son and three 
daughters, are still living. She died in Grand Rapids, March 27, 1884. 

Mr. Fralick was a man of conscientious integrity, great energy, and 
liberal generosity; an influential and highly respected citizen, not only 
in Grand Rapids, but throughout our State, and wherever he was known. 
His death occurred on the fourteenth of March, 1891, after an illness^ 
in the form of pneumonia, which commenced on the seventh of the 
preceding month, and continued with but trifling abatement, until the 


wheels of life, which had been rolling for seventy-nine years, stood still, 
and the news was heralded through the streets of our city, " Henry 
Fralick is dead." 

We miss his sprightly form as he moved with elastic step, through 
the streets of Grand Rapids. We miss him at this our annual gather- 
ing; and the thought came to me while writing this memoir that he 
will never again greet us at our annual reunions, as pioneers, but he 
will greet us when we join the majority on the other side, in that city, 
more beautiful than Lansing, and that country more lovely than Michi- 
gan; and having made their facquaintance, he will introduce us to the 
pioneers of that country, whose inhabitants never die, and never become 
infirm with the number of their years. " Farewell, till we meet him 
in the bright beyond." 



"A monotone of sadness prevails the literature of every race and 
comes wailing down to us in the song and story of all the tribes of 
men." The paths of glory leads but to the grave. To be born is but 
the beginning of death. All the forces and potencies of nature seem 
at once to combine against the structure which she herself has reared. 
Man fills a larger place in the moral than in the material universe,' and 
stands upon a plain so far exalted above all other creatures that life 
cannot be measured by his length of days in the land. It is estimated, 
not by years so much as by deeds, not by cycles of time so much as 
by events. 

The reaper's hand is unstaid, and all over our broad State the pio- 
neers are going down before his blighting gaze, too rapidly for the 
good of the present generation, or the generation that is to follow 
after us. Especially is this so in my own county; here, indeed, has 
death cut a wide swath. 

Among those I call to mind are the Rev. Dr. Mattoon, Judge Tal- 
cott E. Wing, Hon. James Armitage, Samuel Bartlett, Dr. A. I. Saw- 
yer, and the subject of this sketch, Joseph Marvin Sterling; and as 
one by one they pass in memory's review I cannot but think, " how 

322 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

little after all, we know of what is ill or well." How little of this 
wondrous stream of cataracts and pools that rises from a source 
we know not of, and flows to that mysterious sea whose shore the 
foot of one who comes hath never passed. But this we do know; their 
busy brains have ceased to think, and from their toiling hands has 
dropped the torch that blazed the way of untiring activity and this 

is all. 

But let us hope, though gone before us, 

The vanished friends of days no more, 
They watch with fond affection o'er us, 

And bless us from their heavenly shore. 

At the early dawn of Monday morning, the 18th of May, 1891, of 
catarrhal bronchitis, Joseph Marvin Sterling, at his residence in Mon- 
roe City, passed to the silent majority. He was not ill long, but death 
kissed his cheek as softly and swiftly as the shadow from a passing 


Mr. Sterling was a native of New York state. Born in Adams, Jef- 
ferson county, August 16, 1818. At the early age of seventeen, he set 
his face toward the purpling west and became a pioneer of southern 
Michigan, with Monroe as his home. Upon the waters of the bay, 
upon the commerce of the lakes, upon the docks, upon the streets, the 
homes, the schools, and the churces of his city, as well as upon many 
of the public institutions of the State is written the history of 
his life. His enthusiasm ov*er the development, strength, resources, cul- 
tivation and honor of the State whose infancy he had shared and to 
whose greatness he had contributed, knew no bounds. He saw her 
meagre population swell to millions; her almost impassible highways 
give place to thousands of miles of railroads; her farms teeming with 
agricultural products of every class and kind; her schools, colleges and 
churches leading nearly every other in the grand galaxy of states. 

He has lived to see the steamboat, the railway, the telegraph and 
telephone annihilate distance, and make once far-off cities, towns and vil- 
lages our nearest neighbors. 

He was specific in his purposes, and in his life and fortune are 
splendidly illustrated the honorable successes that crown definite and 
substantial effort. There was nothing episodical in his career; nothing 
spasmodic in his efforts; nothing fragmentary in his life. He was a 
typical American, representing fully the capabilities of American 

In early life he united with the Methodist church; afterwards with 
the Episcopal church, and has ever since been an active member of 
that organization. During his membership he has held many of the 


minor offices connected with it, and for many years was its junior 
warden. His religion was that of free thought and good deeds, of 
character, of sincerity. There were no neutral tints in the colors of his 
make up. He was always kind and sought to win the confidence of 
his fellow men by reason and by argument. In him there was no 
touch or trace of malice. He gave a truthful transcript of his mind 
and sought to make his meaning clear as light. He had a high respect 
for truth and justice, and his private charities were as wide as want, and 
his hospitality as unbounded as his charity. His duties to his church 
were no more neglected or evaded than were those of business or 

Although Mr. Sterling's life has been one of untiring activity, and 
as full of incidents as it could well be crowded, the real data I have 
been able to gather has been anything but satisfactory. He once said, 
" My school education was limited, but my contact education has been 
both liberal and pleasant." In this latter respect he was the valedicto- 
rian of his class. 

He began life for himself, in 1832 as a clerk, improving such oppor- 
tunities for attending school as were presented. In 1833 he was sent 
by Fuller & Sons, of Watertown, N. Y., to Clayton, on the St. Law- 
rence, where he opened a branch store. In 1834 he entered the store 
of Bancroft & Davis and remained with this firm until fall, when with- 
out company or pecuniary assistance, except five dollars given him by 
his father, he started for the west, taking the steamer " United States" 
to Rochester. The line boats on the canal charged one and one-half 
cents per mile, meals included. After remaining one week in Buffalo 
he took the steamer Madison to Cleveland and tallied cargo in and out 
for his passage. From Cleveland he went to Huron, Ohio, and from 
there took the steamer " United States" for Detroit, and from there, 
the steamer Bradley for Monroe, landing at La Plaisance bay, October 
16, 1835. The day following his arrival he began clerking in the gro- 
cery and provision store of J. C. Cole, which was changed into a gen- 
eral store one year later. In 1837 he went to Petersburgh to manage 
a branch supply store, and in 1838 bought the stock on time, paying 
twelve dollars, cash down, to bind the bargain, this sum he had saved 
from his salary of fifteen dollars per month. The same year he built 
the first store in that village, which has since been converted into a 
dwelling house. In 1839 he sold out his interest in the "burg" and 
returned to Monroe, and in company with his brother, William C. Ster- 
ling and H. Lambert, formulated and carried out the idea of renting 
both the La Plaisance bay warehouse and horse railroad, at the same 

324 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

time buying the stock of cars and horses. The railroad depot was on 
Scott street just east of Gen. Spalding's residence and the eastern 
terminus at the warehouse on the bay. The road was about four miles 
in length. Sidney D. Miller of Detroit, and Winfield L. Smith of 
Milwaukee, were at various times, conductors of the passenger coaches, 
and their trains ran rapidly over the wooden rails of the road. In 
1843 the canal was opened and Mr. Sterling left La Plaisance bay and 
came over to the docks as clerk for Cole & Disbrow. The day of 
entering the service of this firm, the schooner United States was 
sighted at the lighthouse, and he piloted her in, and loaded her with 
flour. She was the first vessel to make the trip through the canal. 
The same year witnessed the establishment of the several business 
interests including the firms of Morton, Burch Co., D. Noble & Co., 
Bronson & Colton, Morton & Wing, Albert Lee, Morton & Walbridge, 
Drisbrow & Grinnell, James Darrah, Harlston, Haff & Co. The docks, 
at this time was a busy place, it boasted a hotel, five saloons and a 
bowling alley. There was a daily line of steamers to Buffalo, Detroit 
and Toledo. In 1843 he formed a partnership with W. A. Noble, and 
added to other interests a storage and commission business. In 1844 
this firm built the famous " black warehouse" known by sailor men 
from one end of the lake to the other. He, with several other citizens, 
was interested in an extensive shipyard at the docks. In the same 
year Noble & Sterling purchased the schooner Cambridge and opened 
trade between Monroe and Oswego. He afterwards was interested in a 
number of other steam and sail vessels, and notwithstanding the loss 
of the propeller Sampson and schooners Dawn and Noble, his boat prop- 
erty was profitable. Besides all these Mr. Sterling was much interested 
in contract work for city and government, and rail and plank roads. 
He has built many private residences and several public buildings r 
including the city hall and passenger house at the lake. He planted 
the first field vineyard at Pointe Aux Peaux, in Monroe county, and 
in 1868 made the first wine for market. In 1870 he erected a substan- 
tial wine cellar of limestone brought by vessel from Sandusky, Ohio. 
The Pointe Aux Peaux wines became justly celebrated for their purity 
and were extensively used for medical purposes, and for the sacrament. 
In 1847 he began bringing coal on steamers in boxes and barrels for 
blacksmiths and for many years supplied most of the coal trade as far 
west as Goshen, Ind. In the fall of 1848 he built his first coal shed 
and stocked it with four hundred tons of coal, and thought at that 
time he had enough for years, but the trade gradually increased until 
in 1888 nearly ten thousand tons were consumed in Monroe alone. 


Since 1861 he has been president of the Monroe gas light company, 
and for the past four years president of the Monroe democrat printing 
and publishing company and also at the head of the Sterling manu- 
facturing company. In 1884 he stocked his farm with a fine herd of 
imported Holstein-Fresian cattle and has done much to improve the 
grade of cattle in this county. For many years he was connected with 
the Michigan State agricultural society, twelve years of which he was 
chairman of the business committee. His influence and business stand- 
ing with the railroads of the State did much to make the society what 
it was in its palmiest days. He was also a member of this society, and 
the author of several interesting papers read before this organization. 
In politics he was a staunch and uncompromising democrat. He was 
elected mayor of Monroe in 1862 and 1863, and upon several occasions 
was offered the nomination for governor, which he declined. In 1874, 
he was, without his consent, put upon the ticket for State treasurer 
and made such a phenomenal run that had the democratic State central 
committee supplied the upper peninsula with tickets, would have been 
elected; he led his State ticket in this county 348. In 1847 he was 
active in the organization of Monroe lodge No. 1^, I. O. O. F., and is 
the last but two of its charter members, one being Wm. H. Wells, of 
Erie, this county, and the other Henry Grinnell of Grand Rapids. 

I should hesitate to enter upon the domestic circle on an occasion 
like this, but it is due to those who constitute his family circle to say 
that the symmetry of our friend's rounded career did not want the 
harmonious complement of happy wedlock. 

Mr. Sterling was twice married, his first wife was Miss Abby Clark, 
daughter of Walter P. Clark, to whom he was married January 27, 
1843. The fruits of this marriage were six children, Wm. C., Joe C., 
Frank S., Walter P., Mrs. L. O. Goddard, of Chicago, and Mrs. A. E. 
Wing, of Detroit. His first wife died in 1872 and in 1874 he married 
Mrs. C. W. Eice of Buffalo, daughter of Hon. Elias Weed, of that city, 
who survives him. His family " who rise up and call him blessed" are 
all well settled in life, and represent the best type of citizenship. His 
death aroused the sensibilities of the entire community, and called forth 
universal regret and sorrow. 

In his career the city has been enriched; and by his example men 
have been taught to help themselves. The measures of his years are 
full. The day is done. The work of a life is finished. The gold of 
morning meets the dusk of night and beneath the silent stars, in the 
fullness of his years and the maturity of his character, he has been 
gathered to his fathers. 

326 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 



[Detroit Tribune, July 23, 1889.] 

The death of Hon. Hovey K. Clarke removes' from Detroit one of 
its old residents and one among its most loyal and useful citizens. He 
expired in Grace hospital, Detroit, on Sunday, July 21, 1889, at the age 
of seventy-seven years. He had been slowly losing his strength for 
several years, owing to the infirmities of increasing age, and was taken 
to the hospital three weeks before his death in a helpless condition. 
He had boarded with Mrs. Goodwin and Mrs. Van Wirt at No. 33 
Warren avenue for several years past, and there had his " den," as he 
called a large room crammed full of his books, where he spent the 
greater part of his time in reading and writing, in which occupations 
he remained interested to the last. Mr. Clarke left no family. He was 
twice married, but both wives and a daughter preceded him to the 
land of reunions and rewards. 

Mr. Clarke was born in New England, July 12, 1812, but removed 
to Canandaigua, New York, when a boy. His education was secured in 
the latter place, and there he also studied law, having the advantage of 
the instruction and example of some of the most prominent lawyers of 
New York of that early day, whose homes were in that place. His 
active life was begun at Marshall in this State, where he entered upon 
the active practice of his profession. Somewhere about the year 1850 
he removed to Detroit, forming a law partnership with the late Thomas 
W. Lock wood, and here he has ever since resided. 

He was always actively interested in public affairs, national, State and 
local, not from a spirit of self-seeking, but from an earnest desire to 
promote the general welfare the ideal aim of a good citizen. As soon 
as the anti-slavery agitation began to take definite form, he enrolled 
himself among the free democrats, or freesoilers, and became a zeal- 
ous member of that party, at first maligned and sneered at, but at last 
triumphant and honored. In the formation of the republican party 
which had its birth, never let it be forgotten, in Michigan Mr. Clarke 
took a most useful and honorable part. In 1854 the free democrats 
met in mass convention at Jackson on Washington's birthday. Mr. 
Clarke was the chairman of the committee on resolutions and presented 


a platform admirable in its clearness, its courage and its recommenda- 
tions. Condemning the encroachments of slavery, demanding that these 
should cease, admitting that it existed by right of law where it was 
but insisting that it had no right to go an inch further and ought 
never be allowed to do so, the platform then proceeded to speak of other 
demands that sound policy dictated should be provided for. The enlarge- 
ment of the appointing power consequent upon the growth of the 
country, and its concentration in the hands of one man, were declared 
to be a menace to the best interests of the people, as it renloved the 
executive from all proper accountability to them, and the transfer of 
this power from the hands of the president to that of the people was 
called for. Cheap postage, river and harbor improvements, free home- 
steads for actual settlers and government aid for a Pacific railroad- 
then only dreamed of were among the things this platform indorsed, 
all of which have since become a part of our national policy. In State 
matters, a prohibitory liquor law and free schools with no rate bills 
were also advocated. 

All this shows Mr. Clarke's clearness of perception and good judgment. 
Upon this platform, a full State ticket was nominated with Kinsley S. 
Bingham for governor and Mr. Clarke for attorney general. 

This convention was followed by another, broadened in its call so as 
to include all opponents of the pro-slavery policy which the democrats 
were pushing with a high hand, and which met at Kalamazoo, June 21. 
Here again, Mr. Clarke was chairman of the committee on resolutions 
and reported another series, possessing all his characteristics of clear 
and forcible statement and uncompromising hostility to the farther 
extension of slavery. This convention appointed a large conference 
committee from both the whig and freesoil parties to endeavor to 
effect a union between them. This was brought about at Jackson, July 
6, when and where the republiacn party was born and named and the 
first republican State ticket was nominated. This requiring a combina- 
tion of names from both parties, Mr. Clarke, among others, cheerfully 
stepped aside, and the late Hon. Jacob M. Howard was nominated for 
attorney general, the whole ticket being elected in November following. 

Mr. Clarke was never an office seeker, while he was always interested 
and active in political affairs. He remained a member of the republican 
party throughout life. During the entire existence of the national 
bankruptcy law he served as register in bankruptcy, being appointed 
thereto by President Grant. He was also reporter of the Supreme 
Court for several years. After his appointment as bankruptcy register, 
he withdrew largely from the active practice of the law, his official 

328 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

duties absorbing all his time and attention. He made an intelligent, 
careful and painstaking official, and discharged his important duties to 
the satisfaction of all. His knowledge on all questions was precise 
and accurate, the result of careful study and close attention. He had 
a forcible and incisive way of presenting his side of any case, whether 
in speech or writing, and was a doughty antagonist to encounter at 
any time. 

Mr. Clarke early became a member of the Presbyterian church and 
held the position of a ruling elder in it the larger part of his life. He 
was interested in all that concerned the welfare of that great denomi- 
nation and faithful to all its interests. He was repeatedly chosen a 
member of the general assembly, where his wide familiarity with all 
the leading movements and judicial proceedings of the church gave 
great weight to his counsels and made his advice much sought after. 
The friend of his pastor, a constant attendant upon all the stated 
meetings of the sanctuary, and alive to tlite great missionary enterprises 
with which he thus became connected, he naturally became a leader 
among his brethern, in whose singleness of purpose and sincerity of 
desire they had implicit confidence. 

Mr. Clarke was somewhat curt and brusque in ordinary manner, but 
this was more the result of his quick decision than the display of any 
real acerbity of temper. His actions were at all times governed by right 
principle, as he understood and fully believed it His disposition was 
one of benevolence intelligently directed, and he lived as one who fully 
expected hereafter to render account in the presence of the Judge of 
all the earth. He loved his God, his country and his kind. There 
are not so many such men among us that Detroit is not the poorer 
today that Hovey H. Clarke has passed forever from our midst. , 



The death of Henry Hastings Sibley, which occurred at St. Paul, 
Minn., on "Wednesday, Feb. 18, 1891, has broken one of the .few and 
feeble links that bind Detroit to the past. Indeed, so feeble have these 
links become in the memory of the many that the great body of the 


population are unaware of their existence until they break, so rapid 
has been the course of new events that have thrust their new men 
upon the attention. Although the country is far from old in point 
of years, events have crowded so closely upon each other's heels that 
the wars of the revolution and of 1812 read like a page out of 
antiquity. Even the war of the rebellion fades like the jacket of the 
veteran. It is events, therefore, and not time that give a country true 
age. It was but thirty-five years before the birth of Sibley that the 
liberty bell in Boston was sounding in the ears of the signers of the 
declaration of independence, and the rejoicing over the successful con- 
clusion of the war of 1812 saluted his own baby sense of hearing. 

Henry Hastings Sibley was born at Detroit, Feb. 20, 1811, and his 
life reads more like romance than dry history. He was the fourth child 
and second son of Chief Justice Solomon Sibley, of Detroit, whose 
wife, Sarah Whipple Sproat, was the only daughter of Col. Ebenezer 
Sproat, an officer in the -continental army and the granddaughter of 
Commodore Abraham "Whipple, of the continental navy. The Sibleys 
came over about nine years after the landing of the Mayflower at 
Plymouth Rock, and settled in Salem. From there they branched out 
into the west, and, in point of fact, the entire United States. Pedi- 
gree tracers have run the family name back to an era of great 
antiquity, and paused this side of . Adam only through sheer fatigue. 
In New England annals the Sibleys appear to have been selectmen 
of the rigid sort, who kept a God-fearing eye on the tendency to lux- 
ury in the town of Sutton, which appears from a certain report of a 
committee to which their name is appended, and which reads in part 
as follows: "The tradesman's wife sips tea, for an hour at a time, out 
of chinaware morning and afternoon, and there is a silver spoon, sil- 
ver trays, besides other trinkets; the chief blame falling on Madame 
Hall, who had the first tea-kettle ever brought V> Sutton, and Deacon 
Pierce' s wife the second, holding a pint each; and there has been no 
birth in our town for some time." Population appears to have been the 
desideratum, and Castle Garden was unknown. 

In his eighteenth year young Sibley told his father that the study 
of law to which he had been set, was very irksome to him and that he 
longed for an outdoor life, and his parents, upon consultation, allowed 
him to pursue tle bent of his own inclination. Cutting loose, the boy 
made his way northward and westward, never to return save as a 
casual visitor. His first venture was as a store clerk for John Hul- 
bert, of Sault Ste. Marie, who acted as sutler for four companies of 
United States troops posted there. His second was in the service of 

330 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

an Indian trader named Johnson, and his third, in 1829, that of clerk 
in the great American fur company, of which John Jacob Astor, of 
New York, was the head, and whose great entrepot for the furs at 
the west was at Mackinac. He made a trip to Chicago in 1829, when 
the world's fair city was an Indian stockade, with half a dozen houses 
occupied by the Beaubien and other families. The shore was a waste 
of sand, and even an opium eater would never have dreamed of a city 
in such a place. In 1832 Sibley was dispatched from Mackinac, on busi- 
ness, to Detroit, with a splendid birch bark canoe and eight voyageurs. 
Early on the last morning of the voyage the men prepared for the great 
entry into Detroit by arraying themselves in their best apparel. They 
donned high-crowned hats, with abundance of tinsel cord and black 
plumes, calico shirts of bright tints, exactly alike, and broad worsted 
belts around their waists. Being all fine, athletic fellows, they made 
a fine appearance. The canoe had been gayly painted, and on this 
occasion two large black plumes, and two of 'bright red, of like dimen- 
sions, adorned the bow and stern of the craft respectively. All things 
in readiness, they took their several stations and in a few momemts, 
under the impetus of nine paddles, wielded by muscular arms, and the 
inspiration of a Canadian boat song, in the chorus of which all joined, 
they shot down the current of the straits at about half railroad speed. 
The appearance of a bark canoe of the largest size, with its parapher- 
nalia, manned by a strong crew of hardy voyageurs, keeping time with 
their paddles to the not unmelodious notes of a French boat song, 
was so unusual and attractive that the wharves were crowded with 
people to witness their progress past the city. 

During five years Sibley remained in the employ of the fur com- 
pany as its clerk, and in 1834 became a partner in the company. 
During that year John Jacob Astor sold out his interest in the north- 
west to a new compa^ in New York city, without change of name, of 
which Ramsey Crooks, father of Col. William Crooks, of St. Paul, was 
chosen president. Sibley was to take charge of the company's interests 
west of the lakes. Accordingly the junction of the Mississippi and the 
Minnesota rivers, now Mendota, was chosen as Sibley's headquarters, 
and thither he repaired in October, 1834. The only habitation of a 
white man in those days between Prairie du Chien and Mendota, three 
hundred miles apart, was that of an Indian trader named Rocque, near 
the present town of Wabasha. Sibley's new post became one of great 
importance and flourished as the entrepot of the fur trade for an 
immense region of country. The only relief from the solitude was 
Fort Snelling, located but a mile distant. It was in the land of the 


Dakotas and seventeen years before any of the great treaties extin- 
guished the Indian title to the immense area now known as Min- 
nesota and part of Dakota besides. Sibley reveled in the hunting and 
fishing which the country afforded and was one of the best of shots. 

The romantic incidents that illustrated and enlivened the career of 
Sibley, in the roll of Indian hunter as well as in that of the fur 
company's general inspector, are full of interest and amusement. The 
year 1840 was signalized in this respect by a hunting expedition to the 
neutral ground, sixty miles wide and one hundred miles long, inter- 
posed by the national government as a barrier to prevent the collision 
of the Sacs and Foxes and the Dakotas, a theater of sport two hundred 
miles away from Mendota. No less than seventy days were required for 
this adventure. The Dakota warriors being ready, Sibley with his 
friends, Lieut. John C. Fremont, Alexander Faribault, W. H. Forbes, 
"Jack Frazer," a renowned half-breed, and two Canadian voyageurs, 
accompanied him. A camp of seventy lodges with over one hundred 
men and their families constituted the expedition. Long poles trailing 
on the ground and attached to the sides of the ponies with an extem- 
porized basket of leather thongs woven between them, baggage in the 
basket and children surmounting the whole, all wending their way 
Indian file through the snow, presented a unique and primative appear- 
ance. The older men marched in the van, the horses and ponies 
were led by the women, the line extending to great length, the women 
acting as porters, according to the Indian rule of honor, which forbade 
such service for the warriors, and when crossing streams, through ice 
water waist deep, they bore the whole burden of the camp in their 
arms and on their heads. When halting for the night the lodges were 
erected by the women and the ponies turned out to graze, the men 
calmly smoking their pipes. 

Arrived at the hunting grounds, a regularly constituted tribunal 
defined the boundaries of the chase and forbade the transgression of 
the limits, a precaution needed to restrain the ardor of the young men, 
who otherwise would have overrun the country and frightened away 
the game. The penalty was severe, an unmerciful thrashing being 
visited upon the offender, or his tent would be ripped to pieces, his 
kettles broken and his wooden bowls split. 

When the Dakatos hunted deer an extended line, with eighty or one 
hundred yards between the hunters was formed which advanced quickly 
completely scouring the whole country. The slain deer remained 
where he fell until the return of the hunt, which swept over many 
miles of territory. The skin and the hind quarters became the property 

332 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

of the hunter, the rest of the carcass being, according to tribal custom, 
divided among the less successful, the widows and the orphans. Owing 
to the abundance of game during the period of the expedition referred 
to, no less than from twenty to thirty deer were the result of the 
average day's hunt, besides elk, bear and other animals, while beaver 
and otter were taken in traps by men who were past the age when 
they could endure the exhaustion of hunting. The total spoils of the 
hunt were two thousand deer, sixty elk, six panthers, a number of 
bears and several buffaloes. 

From .these peaceful hunting scenes Sibley turned away in 1848, 
when he was elected a delegate to congress for the territory of Wis- 
consin. In congress Sibley was noted for his defense of the Indian on 
every proper occasion, many of which offered, as also his defense of 

On his retirement from congress. Sibley was elected governor of 
Minnesota, a post which he filled from March 4, 1853, to January 1, 
1860, a period of seven years. 

On the morning of Monday, August 18, 1862, the Minnesota Sioux 
suddenly took the war-path. From Otter Tail lake and Fort Abercrombie, 
on the Bed river, southwardly to the Iowa border, a distance of two 
hundred miles, and eastward from Big Stone lake, on the western 
shore, to Forest City, in Meeker county, an area of twenty thousand 
square miles, embracing no less than eighteen counties, with a popula- 
tion of forty thousand souls, was the scene of Indian massacre and 
horrors too hideous for detail. Old men staggering to the ground 
beneath the dull thud of the war club, and infants nailed to the doors 
or tossed to alight on the limbs of thorn trees. Fire and the scalping 
knife did their horrible work. In a week one thousand persons 
perished, two thousand were maimed and eight thousand thrown upon 
the world as paupers. A stream of thirty thousand fugitives rushed 
down the Minnesota valley fleeing to neighboring states, and even to 
New England friends for protection. Not less than two million dollars 
worth of property was destroyed in a belt of two hundred and fifty 
miles and in ten counties nothing was left. 

In brief, the reason for the rising of the Sioux, was the faithless- 
ness of the government in keeping its agreements with them. They 
chose a not unmilitary time for the rising, as the date will disclose to 
all familiar with the history of the United States. 

On August 19, Sibley was commissioned as colonel by Governor 
Hamsey, and given the general command. Early the next day, Wed- 
nesday, with four companies of the sixth regiment from Fort Snelling, 


he hastened to St. Peter, now Mendota. From here, with one thousand 
four hundred men. he made a forward movement against Little Crow r 
who had a force of one thousand five hundred picked warriors, and 
arriving at Fort Bidgely made it the base of operations. On September 
2 and 3, 1862, the battle of Birch Coolie was fought, at which the 
Indians met with signal defeat. At Yellow Medicine another battle 
was fought, for which Sibley was made brigadier general by the presi- 
dent. After a somewhat prolonged campaign, due to inadequacy of 
forces, General Sibley overcame the Sioux. Under the administration 
of Andrew Johnson he was made major general by brevet. On the 
close of the war of the rebellion, and for many years thereafter, civic 
honors fell thick upon Sibley, and he bore them with becoming modesty. 
But he was never so happy as when with his friend and his dog and 
his gun he sought the familiar hunting spot. Age crept on apace and 
his head grew v white under the passage of many peaceful years until, 
in the ample fullness of time, he lay down and a , rare soul took its 
departure to the bosom of its maker. 



(From Detroit Tribune, Sept. 9, 1890.) 

LANSING, Sept. 8. Judge Christiancy passed away very quietly and 
peacefully at 6:30 p. m. 

The difficulty was a cancerous tumor on the lower jaw. 

Isaac Peckham Christiancy was born in Johnstown (now Bleeker), 
N. Y., March 12, 1812. What education his parents were able to fur- 
nish him was secured at the academies in Kingsborough and Ovid, 
and at the age of thirteen he was compelled to assume the chief sup- 
port of his father's family. He taught school at intervals for several 
years, and then studied law with John Maynard. 

In 1836 he came to Michigan and settled at Monroe, which was then 
the most important point outside of Detroit, and was noted for the 
number of strong men who were connected with all its interests, busi- 
ness and professional. Its baV was especially brilliant and noted. Soon 

334 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

after settling there, Judge Christiancy's law studies were completed 
and he was admitted to practice, and at once entered upon the active 
work of his profession. He was not long in winning for himself a 
foremost position among the able lawyers of the town, who quickly 
discovered the promise there was in the untiring industry, close appli- 
cation and thorough mastery of facts and principles which character- 
ized the work of the young attorney. He speedily secured a fair share 
of the legal business of the period and the town, and served as prose- 
cuting attorney of the county for three terms, 1841-6. 

Judge Christiancy early evinced a decided taste for political life. He 
was a member of the democratic party until the anti-slavery agitation 
had reached the decisive point where the democratic party decided to 
cast in its lot with the pro-slavery side of the great controversy. As 
soon as it became evident that the trend of his party was irresistibly 
in that direction, Judge Christiancy's position was promptly taken. 
His strong instincts in favor of liberty and justice revolted against 
oppression in every form, and when it became evident that the demo- 
cratic party was willing to ally itself with the institution of human 
slavery, he at once left its ranks and joined the small but Spartan band 
of f reesoilers, whose motto was " free soil, free speech and free men." 
With these he actively enlisted, and at once became an able and 
trusted leader among them. In 1848 he was a delegate to the Buffalo 
freesoil convention, was a member of the State senate from his dis- 
trict, then comprising a large portion of southern Michigan, in 1850-2, 
and was the freesoil candidate for governor in the latter year. Of 
course, he was an earnest and influential advocate of the organization 
of the republican party in 1854, by a consolidation of the freesoil and 
whig parties, and aided powerfully in bringing his own side of that 
compact into hearty and cordial support of the new organization, with 
which he ever afterward remained identified. He was a delegate from 
Michigan to the first national convention in Philadelphia in 1856, 
which nominated General Fremont, and the following year purchased 
the Monroe Commercial, became its editor and vigorously advocated 
the republican cause, to whose principles he was sincerly and strongly 

When the independent Supreme Court of this State was called into 
existence under a law passed by the legislature of 1857, Judge Christiancy 
was one of the four justices comprising that court who were chosen in 
the election of that year, and entered upon the duties of his office 
January 1, 1858, and in that position he remained by continuous elec- 
tions until 1875, when he resigned upon his being chosen United States 


senator. At two of these elections, in 1865 and 1873, he had no 
opposition, a deserved tribute to his great ability as a jurist. While 
he never lost his interest in politics, his judicial office and duties 
necessarily removed him from any active participation in party move- 
ments. He did not, however, deem it at all improper to espouse 
openly and earnestly the cause of his country during the great civil 
war, and his influence and active efforts were put forth in support of 
the union army. For a short time he even served as a member of 
the staff of General Ouster and of General A. A. Humphreys. 

The most enduring record that Judge Christiancy will leave behind 
him is found in the Michigan 'reports of Supreme Court decisions, 
volumes five to thirty-one inclusive. These will bear ample witness to 
his invaluable labors as a jurist. To great intellectual abilities he 
united a strong and instinctive love of justice, an aversion to petty 
technicalities that serve only to turn aside equity and a thorough 
acquaintance with the fundamental principles of law that lie at the basis 
of the jurisprudence of the civilized world. To decide justly and 
intelligently in the controversies that came before him, was his delight. 
And no case was too intricate or involved, was burdened with too 
many details ox covered too great a period of time, to deter him from 
mastering its facts, setting them in their proper order, and applying 
to them those principles that should establish essential justice between 
man and man. There was no drudgery in all this. He grappled with 
the most elaborate and difficult cases and questions with the delight of 
an athlete. The Supreme Court of Michigan never had a stronger 
and abler Judge upon its bench, and it may well be doubted if it ever 
will have- 
In 1875, having been elected by the legislature then in session to 
the United States senate for the full term of six years, to succeed 
Senator Chandler, he closed his long and useful career as judge, 
covering a period of eighteen years. His selection as senator was due 
to disaffection in the republican party, which led a small minority of 
republicans in a close legislature to join with the united democrats of 
the same body in his choice. It is due to Judge Christiancy to say 
that this was brought about by no suggestion or scheming on his 
part. The republican minority, while firmly opposed to Senator 
Chandler, refused absolutely to support any democrat for the high 
office of senator. The democrats, anxious to compass the defeat of 
Senator Chandler, whom they intensely hated, were willing to accept 
the conditions imposed by their allies, but naturally sought to secure a 
man who had not been an active participant in previous political con- 

336 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

tests. Judge Christiancy's position was alogether favorable for such a 
purpose, and while they would have preferred one or two other mem- 
bers of the bench, they had confidence in his sterling integrity and 
growing conservatism, while the positive choice of the republican 
minority largely settled the question. He went to the senate perfectly 
untrammeled by bargain, condition or understanding of any sort. 

Judge Christiancy's career as a senator might and doubtless 
would, have been as successful as that which he left, had it not been 
clouded soon after he entered upon it By domestic troubles. His repu- 
tation was well known in Washington. As the successor of so prom- 
inent and noted a man as Mr. Chandler, he would naturally attract 
unusual attention. The position upon which he entered was a most 
trying one, but he was entirely equal to it. Without ostentation .of 
any sort he quietly entered upon his new duties, and at once stepped 
into the foremost rank of the ablest men in the country. The difficult 
questions attendant upon the great problem of reconstruction were 
still waiting for final determination, and the very first speech he made, 
within a few weeks after entering the senate a speech carefully written 
out and read upon what was then known as the Louisiana question, 
dispelled any doubts that might have existed as to the intellectual 
vigor and grasp, and the broad comprehensive judgment of the new 
senator from Michigan. He never lost the .position which then and 
there was accorded him. He speedily secured the cordial respect and 
esteem of the foremost men of both parties in the senate. His ability, 
his sturdy honesty, and his judicial fairness in dealing with every 
question won to him the strong regard of men of like quality of mind 
and character in both houses of congress, but especially in the senate. 

Judge Christiancy had been a widower for some time when he went 
to Washington. At the same boarding house where he lived was a 
young woman who was employed as clerk in one of the departments, 
and with parents partially or wholly dependent upon her. For some 
reason it was generally supposed that the new senator from Michigan 
was wealthy, which was very far from being the fact. He was really 
in moderate circumstances. But supposing him to be such, this young 
woman and her friends set deliberately about the work of " capturing" 
him, if possible. Engrossed with his new duties, he did not suspect 
their designs, until finally confronted with a careless remark which he 
had casually dropped, and which was adroitly tortured into a meaning 
which he had not dreamed of giving to it when it was made. He was 
then informed that this was taken by a susceptible and confiding 
young woman to mean a proposal of marriage, that her affections had 


become enlisted and that the offer was accepted. To his protests that 
he meant nothing of the sort, the reply was that the remark had not 
been so understood at all, and that the matter had gone too far and 
become too serious on the young woman's part to warrant any retrac- 
tionat least, if any was indulged in, a suit for breach of promise 
would have to secure some balm for the anguish of a wounded heart. 

The cunning plot succeeded. A suit under such circumstances meant 
insufferable scandal, over which his political enemies would gloat while 
his friends could only be silent, confounded and defenseless. It was a 
cruel position, and he knew and always maintained in private that there 
was no substantial and honest ground for the assertions of these plot- 
ters. Nevertheless it seemed much the most comfortable alternative to 
surrender at discretion, and let the world simply laugh at an old man's 
folly. He did so and was married. Within twenty-four hours after 
that event his newly made wife informed him that she did not love 
him. For two or three years he led a sorry life, the turmoil of his 
domestic affairs becoming public property and harassing him ceaselessly. 
At last he could endure it no longer, and in 1879 he resigned and was 
appointed by President Hayes United States minister to Peru, whither 
he hastened, hoping to hide behind the Cordilleras the shame and 
mortification that had overwhelmed him. 

In 1881 he returned to this country and finally succeeded in shaking 
off his tormentors through the agency of a suit for divorce. But the 
painful history of these few years had practically wrought his ruin. 
He came home a dejected and broken man. He has lived since in com- 
parative retirement, occasionally serving as referee ' in some important 
case but spending most of his time with his books and mingling little 
with his fellow men . But his old friends those who knew him best 
never lost their confidence in him, nor doubted that he was made the 
victim of a despicable conspiracy from which he felt himself powerless 
to extricate himself. 

Judge Christiancy leaves four sons and one daughter, the latter a 
widow, Mrs. Thomas E. O'Brien, who has kept his home for several 
years and faithfully ministered to her father's wants. Two other sons 
died within the past four years and two others still died in infancy. 

The death of Hon. Isaac P. Christiancy, while not unexpected, is still 
an event that will awaken not a little sincere regret and sorrow. He 
has been so long, so usefully and honorably connected with the history 
of this State, that his final passing away leaves the sharp sense of a 
great public loss arid such it is. 

His eminent services as a judge of the supreme court cannot well be 

338 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

forgotten, for they are not only graven into the history of the State for 
the lifetime of an entire generation, but form a part of the law which, 
solidly established, shall guide and protect every citizen for generations 
yet to come. His large ability, his strong love of justice, his sturdy 
honesty and his ample learning, all combined to give his decisions 
great weight and to inspire the most implicit confidence in the sound- 
ness of his judgment and the correctness of his opinions. Michigan 
never had an abler or purer judge in her court of last resort. His 
career as a United States senator was cut short by his domestic troubles, 
but while it lasted was alike honorable to him and the State which he 
represented. He took a foremost rank in that high position as long as 
he remained in it. 

His clouded later years were a source of sincere but, of course, 
unvailing regret to his friends, but this fact only served to test yet 
more strongly the sincerity of the respect and affection that were felt 
for him. His memory will long be cherished as that of a man who 
served his generation with conspicuous ability and far-reaching 



The adjourned meeting of the bar to take action on the death of 
Justice Christiancy was held in the Wayne circuit court room No. 1, 
September 17, 1890. Hon. G. V. N. Lothrop, president of the bar 
association, called the meeting to order and said he thought it proper 
for the bar to take some action on the death of one who was so eminent 
in public life and so worthy as a citizen. On motion of Hon. Alfred 
Russell the following committee was appointed to draft a memorial; 
Alfred Russell, C. I. Walker, J. Logan Chipman, D. Bethune Duffield, 
Sylvester Larned, William P. Wells and Levi L. Barbour. The memorial 
had been prepared by Mr. Russell from facts furnished by Mr. Lothrop, 
who was attorney general when Justice Christiancy was elected state 
senator in 1850, and from his own recollections. It was as follows: 

The death of Hon. Isaac P. Christiancy following so soon that of his 
distinguished colleague on the bench, Judge Campbell, is an event 
which cannot fail to make a profound impression on the bar and 
people of Michigan. Judge Christiancy was the last survivor of the 
orginal members of the distinguished supreme court of Michigan, 1858. 
Though his services in other spheres of his public life were marked 
and valuable yet it was in his judicial career that his great qualities 


of mind and character shone forth most conspicuously. It was here 
that he found his proper field of labor. 

He came to the bench at the age of forty-five in the full maturity 
of his powers. He had diligently prepared himself for his work. He 
had not only mastered his profession, but he had given the most 
thoughtful study to the grave political questions which then agitated 
the whole country. He was an inflexible lover of justice and of human 
freedom and in the light of these principles he felt that the great 
trust that had fallen to his hands was to be administered. For seven- 
teen years his judicial service was continuous and may be truly said to 
have been steadily rising in power and efficiency. His judgments in 
important causes were always distinguished for thorough research, for 
comprehensive survey and for logical strength of expression. It was 
during his incumbency that our supreme court rose to its well-won 
and proud distinction among the courts of the Union. 

His services as a senator and as a foreign minister, though brief, 
were honorable to himself and useful to his country. 

His private life was lived with purity and dignity and though near 
its close clouded with some trials and adversity, was never stained 
with meanness or dishonor. 

The influence of such a life, happily, does not end with death. It 
serves to make a man's profession more elevated and useful and sur- 
vives as a monitor and guide to all who would rightly serve their 
country and their fellow men. 

The bar of Detroit thus venerating the memory of Judge Ohristiancy, 
speaking for themselves and as they believe for their brethren in the 
state at large, have thought it fit by this brief minute to give formal 
xpression to their respect and affection and to direct that it be laid 
before the supreme court and the courts of Wayne county for such 
action as may be thought appropriate. 

Mr. Russell, on motion, will place the memorial in the hands o 
Prosecuting Attorney Willcox to be presented to the Wayne circuit and 
State supreme courts. Mr. Russell said the deceased was one of the 
noted trio of the supreme bench Christiancy, Campbell, Cooley. He 
also gained fame i. the senate and was loved by all who practiced 
before him. D. Bethune Duffield paid a high tribute to the late 
jurist's memory, speaking of his work on the bench and in other 

"Let us, then, who remember him so well," said Mr. Duffield in 
closing, "do our part, humble though it be, in placing on the imperisha- 
ble records of that court in which he labored so long, our tribute to 

310 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

his ability as a judge, his worth as a public servant, his virtue as a 
citizen and his rare merit as a friend. May we not all say here today, 
'Farewell, thou just and honorable judge, may the peace of the better 
world be forever thine.'" 

Congressman Chipman spoke of his acquintance with and respect for 
Justice Christiancy, whom he had always found a man of kindly dis- 
position, interesting and charitable in private life. Hon. William Jen- 
nison thought the State had suffered greatly from his death. 

The proceedings of the supreme court held at Lansing, October 14, 
1890, are published in volume 87, Michigan reports. See page xli. 

The funeral services were held Thursday, September 11, 1890, at 2 
p. m., in the rotunda of the State capitol. President Clute of the 
Agricultural College officiating, assisted by Rev. C. H. Beale of the 
Congregational church of Lansing, the remains laying in state from 10 
o'clock a. m. 

His remains were taken to Monroe, Mich., for burial. 

1889, TO JUNE 12, 1890. 

Hon. Orrin Poppleton, the subject of this sketch, is a pioneer resident 
and merchant of Birmingham, Oakland county, having been engaged 
there continuously in business since August, 1840, occupying his present 
store forty-nine consecutive years. Few dealers anywhere can take 
such a retrospect of a continuous mercantile life as this, and none can 
show a cleaner record as to straightforward dealing and wise business 
methods. That Mr. Poppleton for many years has occupied, and still 
continues to do so, a leading position in the county and State is 
unquestioned by those who know him, and his standing does not depend 
upon the ample fortune he has accumulated by his energy and appli- 
cation to business but in a great degree upon his personal qualities. 

He is one of a family whose parents located lands on section twenty, 
Troy township, in 1823. In December, 1825, after a toilsome journey 
of thirty-two days by wagon overland through Canada from Ontario 
county, N. Y., the parents with two children the subject of this 
sketch and a sister arrived safely at the then future homestead in the 


With ax in hand his father, Wm. Poppleton, began an unflinching 
attack upon the giant unbroken forest which surrounded him, and with 
an intensity of purpose which never for a moment wavered, he com- 
menced his life struggle to carve out a home, a name and fortune for 
himself and family. William Poppleton, the father, was born in 
Poultney, Vif., in 1795. The mother, Zada Crooks, was born in Bland- 
ford, Mass., in 1796. The ancestry of William Poppleton has been 
traced to the fifteenth century, and were then people of note. During 
queen Mary's time a Gen. Poppleton appears in English history from 
whom the family are descended. He was killed in battle during the 
reign of Mary I., of England. Later a William Poppleton was with 
Cromwell in his campaigns and at the battle of Marston Moor. A 
great grandson of the general from whom the family are descended, 
came to America before the revolution. He had four sons, William, 
Samuel, Benjamin and Ebenezer, all of whom enlisted in the continental 
army, serving under Washington, Greene, Stark, Ethan Allen, Arnold, 
and others. One of these four sons, Samuel, father of William, was a 
pensioner of the revolution, and died in Richland county, Ohio, in 
1832. aged eighty-four. The mother's ancestry dates back to Uchtred 
Knox and Adam Knox, son of Uchtred, Earl of Renferlie, Scotland, 
peer of Ireland and the United Kingdom, dating tes early as 1192. 
The descendants had the charter of the lands in Renferlie confirmed 
to them by king James III in 1474. John Knox, the reformer, was also 
of the same family. 

Descendants of this branch came to America in about 1722, landed 
in Boston and subsequently settled in Hampden county, Mass., in 
1735. General Henry Knox, , of revolutionary fame, Washington's 
artillery general, was a descendant of the same ancestry. 

Orrin Poppleton was born in Richmond, Ontario county, New York., 
April 22, 1817, and was in his ninth year when his parents came to 
this State, then territory. His early life was passed on the farm in 
Troy, assisting his father in clearing the heavily timbered lands and 
cultivating the same, until he attained the age of twenty-one. His 
educational advantages were of the usual sort of those days. He 
attended the district school at the log school house four months each 
year during the winter. After leaving the parental roof he spent a 
school year at the Granville, Ohio, seminary. Having decided to 
engage in mercantile pursuits he commenced as clerk with Schuyler 
Hodges in Pontiac, where he remained nearly two years. In the 
winter of 1834-5, and again in 1839-40, he taught a district school in 
Troy. In August, 1840, he began his mercantile business in Birming- 

3*2 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

ham, being the third person to engage in that pursuit there. He now 
has been in continuous business many years longer than any other 
dealer in the village, and probably longer than any in the county, 
occupying one store forty-nine years, and is one of a very few men 
in Michigan who has carried on such an enterprise fifty-three years. 
Diligence, strict integrity and a judicious catering to the desires and 
tastes of his trade have placed him in the front rank as a business 
man and given him a reputation as a merchant, attained by but few. 

Mr. Poppleton has always been an active conservative democrat of 
the Jeffersonian school, true to his party when he deemed them in the 
right, and true to the government and its institutions. Being a descend- 
ant of revolutionary sires who battled for freedom and principles of 
justice, he always placed a true estimate upon liberty, and it was 
but natural that he should guage every political measure with those 
immortal principles which, since the formation of the government, 
have brought such unparalleled prosperity to his country. For many 
years he took an active part in politics until failing health compelled 
him to retire. He still keeps well informed upon the different topics 
of the day, and takes a deep interest in the affairs of the State and 
nation and in the principles on which good government is based, and 
can at all times give a clear and concise reason for his political faith. 
In 1852 he was elected to the Michigan house of representatives from 
his district and served during the session of 1853, serving as a mem- 
ber of the committee on "internal improvements," of which Judge 
Win. Burt was chairman, and took an active part in preparing and 
reporting the bill for the construction of the "Soo" canal, in which 
the original specifications of Capt. Canfield were enlarged, making the 
size of the locks three hundred and fifty feet, with a breadth of thirty- 
six feet. There was strong opposition on the part of some members of 
the committee to the large size of the canal, especially the locks, 
asserting that they would be impracticable. But a majority being in 
favor of the bill as prepared, it was reported to the house and passed. 
He was also a member of the committee on " education " before whom 
a number of Catholic priests praying for some concession in favor of 
that sect, of the common school fund. The committee reported 
adversely to their views. He was also chairman of the special com- 
mittee on the "Maine Liquor Law;" presented the mammoth petition 
in favor of the passage of that measure, which was the first enacted 
in the State upon the liquor question. 

During his active political career he was solicited to allow his name 
to be presented to the convention as a candidate for congress, and 


later to stand as a candidate for governor, declining both for two 
reasons, his distaste for public life, and his private business requiring 
his constant attention. 

In 1853 he was appointed postmaster at Birmingham, holding the 
office eight years, during Pierce and Buchanan's administrations. For 
sixteen years he was a member of the congressional committee for his 
district and during twelve of them was its chairman. 

He was president of the Oakland county pioneer and historical 
society eleven years, vice president of the State society seven years, 
and its president one year, closing June, 1890. And is also a mem- 
ber of the American historical association. He belongs to no social 
order, but quietly and unostentatiously dispenses the charity which 
they inculcate, and enga^e cordially with all his friends and associates 
in the gratification of good fellowship. 

The marriage of Mr. Poppleton and Sarah Abbey was solemnized at 
the bride's home in Bichmond, Ontario county, New York, November 
2, 1841. Mrs. Poppleton was born there May 2, 1815, and there her 
parents John and Elizabeth (Baker) Abbey died, both being natives 
of the "Old Bay State." 

Mr. and Mrs. Poppleton have had five children born to them. Their 
first and second sons died in infancy. 

Edgar C. and Herbert A. are engaged with their father in conduct- 
ing the mercantile, farm and other business. The only daughter, Mrs. 
Ella P. Hatch, the youngest, is a resident of Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

The example of the business, social and private life of Mr. Popple- 
ton is well worthy of consideration. Having been trained by parents 
who would tolerate no departure from the strictest integrity and pro- 
priety, those principles have ever been vividly and vitally before 
him through life. Born about the time the tide of western emigration 
began from the eastern and middle states, he has witnessed the settle- 
ment, development and population of the great central and northwest. 
When he came to Michigan that entire territory and country beyond 
probably had less than ten thousand people within its boundaries. 
Now its population can be counted by the millions. Then there were 
no railroads, telegraph or telephone lines, few water craft, and little 
commerce on the great inland seas and rivers of the north and west. 

344 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 


Hon. William F. Jenison, whose home is three-fourths of a mile east of 
the village of Eagle, in Eagle township, Clinton county, was born Decem- 
ber 19, 1812, in Byron township, Genesee county, New York. He 
attended the district school, and later entered college at Brockport, in 
Monroe county, N. Y., where he completed the classical course. Thor- 
oughly fitted by natural ability and energy for teaching, young Jenison 
decided to use his education in the instruction of others. At college 
he had boarded himself, doing his own cooking; the will power by 
which he thus surmounted the obstacle of financial limitation was a 
dominant trait of his character. As an educator, he similarly overcame 
difficulties. His pupils were instilled by his example with industry, 
determination and self confidence. He introduced new methods and 
created new life. He taught, altogether, in his native state, seven 

An episode of Mr. Jenison's early life was his enlistment as a soldier 
in the patriot war. His regiment had proceeded but a part of the way 
toward Canada when the measures of the United States' government 
put an end to the trouble. On the return march, Col. Pettibone 
sought out Jenison. "William," said the Colonel, "what shall we do 
when we get back? Of course the people will laugh at us, and we'll 
never hear the end of this." Our hero was fertile in expedients. He 
made up his mind to have "the folks at home" laugh with the "soldier 
boys" instead of at them. A mock parade was proposed to the officer 
in command and the idea was accepted. When the volunteers reached 
their own neighborhood, they announced a public drill. All the wind- 
broken, spavined horses that could be found for miles were taken into 
service, and on the appointed day the pageant was witnessed by thou- 
sands. The costumes were as various, fantastic and unique as ingenuity 
could make them. Patriot Jenison rode a huge bull that he broke and 
trained especially for the occasion. The carrying out of the plans was 
a perfect success; eveybody laughed and no one ever thought of such a 
thing as guying "soldiers" for their heroic exploit of marching toward 
Canada and then marching back again. 

In the fall of 1837, Mr. Jenison, still a single man, came to Michigan, 
having bought two hundred and forty acres of his present six hundred 


and forty acre farm, before starting to this State. He cut the first 
bush on his farm. At that time Eagle and Watertown were one town- 
ship, and neighbors were, indeed, "few and far between." Of the six 
hundred and forty acres, his son Henry H., ex-county surveyor, and a 
prince of good fellows, now owns and superintends two hundred and 
seventy-five acres. 

William had not been long in the wild west when he met his "fate" 
in the person of Miss Jeanette Berry, of Portland. He had to go 
through the woods nine miles on a trail to see his "girl." In Decem- 
ber, of 1841, they were married. 

After reaching Michigan, Mr. Jenison taught school three winters, 
having in the last term one hundred pupils. Many ex-register of deeds 
of Clinton county, of those who were under his instruction, came sev- 
eral miles, some among them boarding themselves. Hon. David Clark, 
of Eagle; George W. Thomas, Esq., of Grand Ledge; Miss M. Monroe, 
now Mrs. James Turner, and mother of Hon. J. M. Turner, of Lan- 
sing; Mrs. Webber, Mrs. C. C. Hildreth, Eze,kiel Niles, F. M. Grager, 
L. S. Niles and Gen. Lafayette Baker, were* among those whom Mr. 
Jenison instructed. 

Mr. Jenison succeeded in securing from an early legislature an appro- 
priation of 10,000 acres of swamp land, the avails of whi3h was used 
in cutting out the Grand river road west of Lansing. Hon. A. F. Bell, 
of Ionia, being chosen commissioner. This proved a lasting benefit to 
the citizens of the Grand river valley. 

In the grange movement in Eagle, Mr. Jenison was chosen master 
and occupied the chair four years; was a delegate to the State grange 
at Grand Rapids; was delegate three years at Lansing; was chosen to 
act as installing officer of the order, and performed said duties at 
DeWitt, Riley, Danby and Eagle. He was called upon to perform the 
duties of master at the burial of a brother in the order, in Oneida, 
Eaton county, and the ceremonies were strictly in keeping with the 
manual of the order. 

He was made a master Mason, at Lansing; was made a chapter 
Mason, at Portland, Ionia county; was a charter member of the blue 
lodge, as well as charter member of the chapter, in Grand Ledge. 

Mr. Jenison enjoys the proud distinction of being one of the insti- 
gators and founders of a farmers' organization, which was, not long 
since, perfected at Grand Ledge. He also, through a resolution, gave 
it the name of " The Farmers' Union Picnic Association," including 
Ingham, Eaton, Clinton and Ionia counties. Robert Nixon, of Oneida, 
was chosen president; R. W. Choate, of Delta, secretary. Mr. Jenison, 

346 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

who was afterwards chosen president of the association in place of 
Mr. Nixon, was called upon to deliver the address of welcome, which 
he did in a masterly manner, and welcomed all to our shores, except 
the Chinese and anarchists. 

Mr. Jenison has been heard to declare that the hardest two years 
work he ever did was when he aided in putting through the Ionia 
and Lansing railroad, now a part of the D., L. & N. From individuals, 
townships and villages, as a member of the board of directors of the 
company, he secured an aggregate bonus of $100,000, and right of 
way for several miles. On one of his trips he was ducked in Grand 
river by the tipping of the log canoe in which he wag rowing; it was 
a cold day in winter, and he had to go to his home, two miles distant, 
and ran the whole way to keep from freezing. His own donation to 
the company was $1,000 in money, eight acres of land being the right 
of way through his farm, and the two years' labor before mentioned. 

Mr. Jenison, in politics, has always been a consistent democrat. He 
served on the board of supervisors about fifteen years. In the 40' s he 
was twice elected by his party and friends as sheriff of Clinton county; 
he was an efficient officer. He was in the Michigan house of repre- 
sentatives in '63 and '64. The first bill, passed at the regular session, 
was one introduced by Mr. Jenison to legalize $50,000 in illegal bonds 
that had been issued to aid in the prosecution of the war. Otherwise, 
also, he wisely and patriotically served his constituents and the state. 

In answer to the oft repeated question why he took such a deep 
interest in certain orders of society, he says " I believe that society, 
friendship and love were divinely bestowed." 

Twenty-seven years Mr. Jenison was postmaster at Eagle. After the 
location of Eagle station, the consequent moving of the office, and Mr. 
Jenison's resignation and his settlement with the government, fourteen 
dollars was returned to him from Washington, indicated to be due to 
him by the vouchers on file in the department. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jenison reared a family of two sons and four daughters. 
Henry H. Jenison, the eldest, runs the old place. The farm is well 
stocked and in a state of high cultivation. There is an excellent and 
profitable private creamery, the products of which are marketed in Detroit. 
N. F. Jenison, the youngest of the children, is a well-known, reliable, 
'spot cash" dry goods merchant at Lansing. The eldest daughter is 
the wife of B. F. Simons, the Lansing dry goods merchant; the second 
daughter, deceased, was the wife of O. A. Bement, of the Bement stove 
and agricultural works of Lansing; the third daughter is Mrs. J. W. 
Bailey, real estate dealer and insurance agent at Lansing; the youngest 


daughter, Mrs. Helen Niles, lives at home. Henry H. is a graduate 
of the Michigan Agricultural College and Helen took the course at 
Ypsilanti. The other daughters graduated, two in the old Female Col- 
lege at Lansing and Mrs. Bailey at the Portland high school. 

The subject of this sketch, now seventy-eight years old, retired from 
the active pursuits of life, is in good bodily health for one of his years, 
and has full possession of his mental faculties. Mrs. Jenison, seventy- 
one years old, enjoys like blessings in her old age and has the love of 
her neighbors for miles around. 

Through all the years of William F. Jenison's activity as a man of 
business and public affairs he has been accorded the virtue of unimpeach- 
able integrity; he has been the friend of the worthy and the encourager of 
the youthful and inexperienced. It is thus that in his declining years, 
he is crowned with the esteem and good wishes of all who know him, 
or have learned the story of his honored career. 


From History of Cas8 county. 

The pioneer of Cass county, the late Uzziel Putnam, Sr., of Pokagon 
township was born in Wardsboro, Vt., March 17, 1793. 

When three years of age he went with his parents, Uzziel and Polly 
(Trask) Putnam to Oneida county, N. Y., and in 1801, to New Salem, 
Massachusetts, where he lived with an uncle, Joseph Putnam, until the 
fall of 1807. 

He then returned to his parents who had, in the meantime, located in 
Adams, Jefferson county, New York, and was apprenticed to Simon 
Whitcomb, a clothier, with whom he remained for five seasons, the 
business being carried on chiefly in the winter months. His father 
with others went to Sackett's Harbor, and built a boat with which they 
conveyed their families to Detroit, where they spent the winter of 
1811-12. Uzziel Putnam's brother with Samuel and Horace Markham 
having emigrated to Ohio, his parents decided to make their future 
home in that state. The young man, Uzziel, having served the full 
period of his apprenticeship resolved to be in the neighbourhood of 
his father's family, and started on foot for Colt Creek in the township 
of Margaretta, Huron (now Erie) county, Ohio, about seven miles from 

348 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

the site of the city of Sandusky. This journey of five hundred miles 
he made on foot in fifteen days, excepting a ride of 140 miles east of 

In Ohio the neighbors of the Putnams, within a radius of several 
miles, consisted of three families. 

The young man, Uzziel, began life in the woods under as great dis- 
advantages as any of the pioneers of the west. He was poor, but 
worked hard to better his condition. Prior to and during the war of 
1812, the Indians committed many murders in northwestern Ohio, and 
bands of hostile savages were constantly prowling through the woods 
in search of lonely victims. 

He had considerable experience of an unpleasant kind with them, 
and probably only escaped being murdered by extreme caution and 

He remained in the vicinity of his parents' home and performed such 
work as he could find to do until October 19, 1812, when he met with 
Elias Murray, wagon-master of the United States army, and enlisted 
as a teamster for three months. After the time of his enlistment had 
expired he went into the army as a substitute for a drafted man, and 
served until after Gen. Winchester's defeat. For his service, which he 
said was the hardest he ever endured, he received a government war- 
rant for 160 acres of land. 

In 1813 Uzziel Putnam was in the vicinity of Colt Creek when the 
Indian massacre occurred. Afterward he went to Waterford, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he worked for his uncle, Rufus Trask, hauling powder, 
salt and flour between Waterford and Erie. 

After the burning of Buffalo the man by whom he was employed 
was drafted and Uzziel went into the army as his substitute, being 
stationed at Erie. 

Shortly after the close of the war he returned to Ohio and there was 
married September 12, 1822, to Ann Chapman, who was born in Con- 
necticut, January 19, 1792. 

In 1825 the settlers in the Putnam neighborhood having heard much 
of the St. Joseph country in Michigan from Andrew Parker, an Indian 
trader who had traveled through it, several of them resolved to journey 
to it. In company with Abram Townsend and Israel Markham, Uzziel 
Putnam left Ohio for a Michigan home, on May 7, 1825. Upon the twenty- 
second of November Putnam became the first settler in Cass county, 
locating upon Pokagon prairie, in this township, and there he lived to 
see Cass county and all of southwestern Michigan filled with happy 


homes and made one vast fruitful field by his brother pioneers and 
their descendants. 

He died July 15, 1881, in the eighty-ninth year of his age. His 
aged wife passed away only nine months previous, October 15, 1880. 
The faculties of both were preserved almost unimpaired to the last, and 
they were rewarded in .their old age with peace, plenty and happiness 
for the struggles and privations of their early days. 


From History of Cass county. 

William Baldwin Jenkins, son of Aaron and Rebecca (Baldwin) Jen- 
kins was born October 4, 1783, at Fort Jenkins, Greene county, Penn- 
sylvania. In 1799, his father emigrated to middle Tennessee, his 
mother dying while en route. Here he lived in the wilderness the 
following winter, with three brothers, and a sister twelve years of age 
to do the housework, their father having returned to Pennsylvania. 
They cleared twelve acres of heavy timber during the winter. As they 
killed fifty-two black bears during the winter, some idea regarding the 
newness can be obtained from this fact alone. To avoid the institution 
of slavery, he in 1804, removed to Greene county, Ohio, where he died 
four years thereafter, leaving nine hundred acres of land to his chil- 
dren, and on the portion given Baldwin was a saw and grist-mill which 
he conducted in connection with his farm. He made frequent journeys 
down the Mississippi to Natchez and New Orleans to dispose of his products, 
making the return journey home on foot or horseback, as circumstances 
favored, and while so doing encountered many dangers and hardships. 
In 1824 he came west on an exploring expedition, visiting Indiana and 
Michigan, and then for the first time visited Cass county. 

The following year he came here in company with several others, and 
selected a site one-half mile north of the present village of Summer- 
ville, where an Indian wigwam was prepared for a winter's residence to 
which place he, in November, brought his family from Ohio, consisting 
of his wife and seven children, and a bound boy, Nathaniel Young. 
He purchased some two thousand acres of land which was ultimately 
divided among his children. His home was near the bridge that 
crossed the Dowagiac creek, which was on the direct line of emigra- 
tion and his house became a noted stopping place for travelers and 

350 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

emigrants frpm whom he would receive no compensation. He carried 
this hospitality to such an extent that the products of his farm and 
labor were largely consumed by the public. He placed great confidence 
in his pioneer compeers, loaning them money, selling them stock and 
farm products on time, without requiring written obligations and charg- 
ing no interest. In 1809, he was united in marriage to Mary, daughter 
of Aaron and Hannah Hackney, in Pennsylvania. She died in 1840. His 
death occurred June 16, 1845, at the residence of his daughter Eliza 
Murphy, at Berrien Center and was interred in the cemetery in that 
place. He was a devout member of the Baptist church. He was pos- 
sessed of a remarkable retentive memory, a great reader, and could 
remember every event of any importance for forty years. His mind 
was an encyclopedia of local knowledge, for he could not only tell the 
names but also the ages of nearly all his neighbors. He was one 
of the first justices of the peace in western Michigan, having been 
appointed by Governor Cass, for the township of St. Joseph, which 
comprised all the territory west of Lenawee county. 

He was also the first road commissioner in the county and one of 
the first associate judges appointed under the territorial government, 
and one of the delegates to the first constitutional convention of the 
State (Mich). His name will be transmitted to posterity in connec- 
tion with the noble band of pioneers who performed the initial labors, 
necessary to the development of this county. His wife, one son and a 
daughter lie buried with him in the cemetery, one son interred in Cali- 
fornia. Three children, Eliza (Murphy), Rebecca (Lybrook) and Silas 
Jenkins reside at Berrien Center, Nimrod in Berrien county and John 
resides at Lake village, Indiana. 


From History of Cass County. 

Lewis Edwards, son of Joseph and Clarisa Edwards, was born at 
Lumberton, Burlington county, N. J., May 29, 1799. He was of Welch 
descent. Joseph Edwards, the father of Lewis, the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Maryland, May 10, 1754, and died July 22, 1838. 
The first twenty-one years of his life, Lewis passed with his father at 
Lumberton assisting in the store, and working on the farm. He very 
early in life evinced an adventurous tendency and repeatedly expressed 


to his parents his discontent of home, and his eagerness to go west, 
and as soon as he attained his majority he at once made preparations 
to journey westward. In October, 1820, Lewis, accompanied by a friend, 
Thomas Brown, started on foot for Pittsburgh, Pa., by the way of 
Philadelphia and Harrisburg, carrying his little bundle with a stick 
upon his shoulder. From Pittsburgh they went to Cincinnati. Mr. 
Edwards fell in with a wood speculator who was in search of choppers; 
to him he hired to chop wood. While en route to the chopping camp 
on board of a steamboat, he voluntarily assisted the hands in running 
the vessel, and the captain observing his aptitude and skill in that 
kind of labor, and becoming prepossessed with his appearance, per- 
suaded him to remain aboard, and Mr. Edwards abandoned his chopping 
enterprise and hired out to the captain and made one trip to New 
Orleans and back. This kind of business not being congenial to his 
tastes, he went to Warren county, Ohio, and went to work at the car- 
penters trade for John Garwood, with whom he remained about three 
years, making his home with William Garwood. While here he formed 
the acquaintance of Patience, daughter of William and Elizabeth Gar- 
wood, whom he married in the latter part of the summer of 1825. She 
was born January 18, 1807, near Lebanon, Warren county, Ohio. She 
shared with her husband in all his early pioneer struggles, and for the 
long period of fifty -three years was his faithful companion and coun- 
selor. Truly and justly can it be said of her, she fulfilled her duty to 
her family and to her God. This venerable and Christian lady is now 
living (1882) with her son, Lewis, Jr., at Pokagon village in the enjoy- 
ment of excellent health, the " patient angel of her nature quietly 
waiting to take its departure." 

After Mr. Edwards' marriage he remained with his father-in-law one 
year, and early in the spring of 1825, having been deeply impressed 
by the favorable reports of the St. Joseph valley, he determined on 
another western adventure, and leaving his young wife with her parents 
in Ohio, started for the St. Joseph el dorado. He remained in Michi- 
gan until late in the fall, making his home the greater portion of the 
time with a Mr. Kirk at Niles. Being favorably impressed with the 
country he determined to make it his future home, and the whole 
season was diligently and intelligently spent preparatory thereto. Hap- 
pening to form the acquaintance of a young man near Niles who had 
planted a piece of corn and had subsequently become discouraged and 
homesick, Mr. Edwards bought him out and completed the raising and 
harvesting of the crop. During harvest he assisted the " Carey Mission'' 
in gathering their crops and took his pay in wheat, furnishing this 

352 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

same to Uzziel Putnam on Pokagon prairie in the fall for seed. He 
also cut and stacked a sufficient quantity of marsh hay on Uzziel Put- 
nam's meadow along the Pokagon creek. After viewing the country 
over carefully, he located *his land on Pokagon prairie, which now forms 
a part of sections thirty-one and thirty-two, wisely selecting it so as to 
have an abundance of good timber, especially an excellent maple sugar 

"After selecting his land, he employed Gamaliel Townsend to cut logs 
and erect a log house, paying him therefor twenty-five dollars. After 
all this provident care and foresight, securing hay, corn and locating 
his land and constructing his log house, and obtaining a full and accu- 
rate knowledge of the country, route, streams and fords, he prepared 
to return to Ohio tor his family. Alone he walked the whole distance 
and carried a package weighing thirty pounds. The country between 
Elkhart and Fort Wayne was a wilderness, and good water scarce. Mr. 
Edwards often spoke in his lifetime of his extreme suffering for the 
want of good water, being often compelled to blow the scum away and 
drink from stagnant pools. He was immediately taken sick after 
arriving home with fever and ague, the result of drinking impure water, 
and was sick for about two months, greatly delaying his return to 
Michigan with his family. After having fully recovered from his ill- 
ness and his preparations being completed, he started on the 18th day 
of January, 1827, with his family consisting of his wife and one young 
child, (now Mrs. Jane Heath of Santa Cruz, Cal.) for his new home. 
His outfit consisted of one covered wagon, yoke of cattle at the tongue 
and span of horses on the lead. They came by way of Centreville and 
Dayton to Fort Wayne, Indiana. At this place they were joined by 
William and Jesse Garwooc^ cousins of Mr Edwards, and they were 
similarly equipped, with wagon, yoke of cattle and span of horses. They 
also brought with them a few hogs and cattle. The journey from Fort- 
Wayne to Elkhart was through an unbroken forest in the midst of a 
cold, snowy winter, a crust on the snow and the road unbroken and 
their route only traced by the blazed forest trees. 

Arriving at Elkhart the St. Joseph river had to be forded. Mr. 
Edwards had during his former trip carefully examined the river bed, 
and noted the proper fording place. Jesse Garwood expressed his 
fears for the safety of Mrs. Edwards and child, in case the wagon 
should upset in crossing, but Mr. Edwards promptly replied in his 
determined and confident way "that there was no danger, to follow 
him and he would soon have them safe on the other side," and suiting 


the action to the word mounted one of the lead horses and conducted 
both teams across in safety. 

Finding the snow so deep and the crust on the same frozen so hard, 
and the road unbroken, the Garwoods left their wagon at this place 
and put both yoke of cattle and both span of horses to Mr. Edwards' 
wagon and started for Edwardsburg, making only eight miles the first 
day, it taking all the next day to reach Edwardsburg, the balance of 
the distance being two miles. It was with great difiiculty this ten 
miles of their journey was made. The lead horses had to break the 
crust, and the route could be traced by the blood from their bleeding 
legs. Mr. Ezra Beardsley had settled at Edwardsburg the previous 
year (1826) on the banks of Pleasant lake. His team had been sent 
to Ohio after the balance of his goods, and was delayed on account of 
the severity of the winter, and he had not seen a white person other 
than his family for several months, and was afflicted with the addi- 
tional hardship of having no woodpile, being compelled to carry all his 
fuel from the woods. The "newcomers" received that warm and 
cordial reception and generous hospitality as only our worthy pioneers 
were capable of extending, and remained with Mr. Beardsley about 
three weeks, not daring to venture out to Pokagon prairie. Mr. Beards- 
ley had the previous season raised plenty of vegetables, such as cab- 
bage, potatoes and turnips; they had sufficient pork and beef, milk and 
butter, and the " newcomers" had brought tea and coffee, dried fruit, 
etc., and in the language of Mrs. Edwards "they fared sumptuously 
every day." Before leaving, Mr. Beardsley was provided with an ample 

Sometime in March Mr. Edwards proceeded to Uzziel Putnams on 
Pokagon prairie, and remained at his home three or four weeks, while 
he prepared his log house on Pokagon prairie for occupation. 

He brought with him a set of carpenter's tools, and being skillful 
with them, he soon had the windows and doors, etc., in the house, and 
bedsteads and furniture improvised and his little family domiciled in 
his rude but comfortable home. He brought in the bottom of his 
wagon four iron kettles; sap troughs and spiles were readily prepared, 
and a sugar camp started, and soon had plenty of maple syrup and 
sugar made for family use. He also brought out a peck of apple 
seed, and planted a nursery. He made several trips back to Ohio, and 
brought out fruit trees, stock, farming utensils, dried fruit, etc., for 
himself and neighbors. He always took a deep interest in fruit culture, 
and at an early day obtained grafts of his father in New Jersey, of 
some of the finest fruit in that state. He undoubtedly had for many 

354 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

years the finest and greatest variety of apples of any man in the county. 
In pears he was equally as successful. The raising of stock, especially 
of horses and cattle received a due share of his attention, and he 
expended considerable time and money in securing good breeds, and 
was successful in raising some fine specimens. He remained on his 
farm, extending his improvements, raising his family, witnessing the 
constantly increasing settlements around him, the building of railroads, 
the growth and development of the country, until 1852, when he deter- 
mined on another western adventure. His daughter, Mrs. Lucien Heath, 
of Niles, being in ill health, Mr. Heath had determined to make the 
overland trip to Oregon with his family. Mr. Edwards fearing they 
would not be able to make the long and perilous journey alone, and 
being greatly attached to his noble daughter, his "eldest born," con- 
cluded to accompany them. The outfit consisted of one four horse 
team, one two horse spring wagon, three extra horses, two cows, and 
young cattle, thirteen head in all, with an ample supply of provisions, 
etc., etc. They started on their journey on the 23d day of March, 
1852. After encountering the usual difficulties, hardships and priva- 
tions, incident to the overland trip, and a long, wearisome journey of 
six months, they arrived in King's Valley, Polk county, Oregon Terri- 
tory, on the 25th of October, 1852. Here Mr. Edwards met his son 
Joseph, who had preceded him. Mr. Heath and family settled in 
Oregon, Mr. Edwards remained until June, 1854, when he started for 
his home in Michigan, in company with Joseph Harper, arriving June 
29, 1854. 

Mr. Edwards remained on his farm the balance of his life, and lived 
to see his family of nine children all married and settled. He died 
June 24, 1878, of hemorrhage of the bowels and typhoid fever, in the 
eightieth year of his age, leaving eight children, four sons, Joseph, 
Lewis, Jr., William and Henry, and four daughters, Jane, Clarisa, 
Patience and Martha. He served several terms as justice of the peace, 
and in that capacity displayed his usual good common sense and prob- 
ity that characterized him in all his other duties of life, always exercis- 
ing a just regard to the right or claim of each party, advising an equita- 
ble settlement rather than encouraging litigation between his neighbors. 
He received the soubriquet of "Squire Edwards," and was generally 
known by that name. Mrs. Edwards relates two amusing anecdotes, of 
his judicial life, one of which is given in the history of Pokagon. 

On his return home from a journey his wife informed him that a 
young couple desired him to tie for them the "nuptial knot." He was 
very much indisposed and Mrs. Edwards entered an emphatic protest 


against his going, but knowing that it would be a serious disappoint- 
ment to the young people, he concluded to go. On arriving at the 
home of the bride, he found that no license had been procured, and 
informed them of the fact that the marriage under such circumstances 
would be illegal. They proposed to make it a subsequent matter, but 
as he was inexorable the wedding feast was partaken of, and the parties 
went to Cassopolis where the license was procured and they were 
married. On his return Mrs. Edwards asked if he had performed the 
ceremony. He replied that he had not, but had partaken of the supper 
and had given the entire company the mumps. 

Mr. Edwards was an honest, industrious, energetic and conscientious 
man, always temperate in his habits, totally abstaining during his long 
life from the use of tobacco and spirituous liquors. 

He was endowed with a remarkable memory, was an agreeable con- 
versationalist, a generous and hospitable neighbor, a kind and faithful 
husband, and a provident and indulgent parent. 

His memory will always be revered as a peer of any among that 
great host of pioneers that have already gone. 



Looking backward through the vista of fifty intervening years, in my 
mind's eye I still see a form, and listen with the ear of memory to 
the voice of him who was then my daily friend and counselor. I first 
beheld him in the fall of 1826, and he was then a hale and hearty 
man of fifty-five years and some months. 

Joseph William Lawrence was born November 20, 1770, on Long 
Island, the son of Amos Lawrence arid Sarah Webster, of Winterbury, 
Conn. He learned the blacksmith trade at Hartford, Connecticut; was 
married January 26, 1794, and soon after came with his bride to the 
Oenesee country, to the township of Big Tree, now Geneseo, N. Y., 
and located near the Wads worth brothers, who preceded him but a 
few years. 

From Utica, to Rochester, New York, he made his way by marked 
trees and was not at all pleased with the land where the city of Rochester 

356 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

now numbers her thousands. He built a log house a little east of the- 
Wadsworth mansion, on South street. This house was burned, and he 
afterward built another, and also one for his widowed sister. His 
blacksmith shop was also on the same street, in which my father 
learned his trade, and in which he worked until he moved to Michigan 
in the summer of 1837. 

The settlement was of slow growth, partly owing to the attitude of 
the aborigines, who still disputed the settlers' claims, and partly owing 
to the difficulty of getting to it from the east. As late as the spring 
of 1803 the township contained only thirty families, and to get their 
produce to market at Albany and return, required from two to three 
weeks for the round trip. The historian of that period says: 

" Among the annoyances to which the pioneer farmer was subjected,, 
not the least was the depredations of the Indians." u It was not an 
uncommon thing for a farmer to find an Indian astride a horse for 
which he had spent days in search, and the coolness with which the 
native would listen to the reprimand was often as provoking as the los* 
of time occasioned by the search." " Saddles, hogs, meat and wearing 
apparel were not infrequently taken." 

Mr. Lawrence was several times honored by his fellow citizens with 
official cares and responsibilities, and in May, 1811, he was commis- 
sioned by Daniel D. Tompkins, then governor of New York, a lieutenant 
colonel commandant of the militia of Ontario. 

He led his command in the war of 1812, and some of them took 
part in the battle of Lundy's Lane. One of his sons-in-law was wounded 
by a musket ball striking the metal button of his coat, which was but- 
toned up; the button was broken, but the soldier's life was saved by its 

Mrs. Lawrence was a woman of remarkable courage and nerve, well 
fitted to endure the dangers and privations of pioneer life. As an 
army officer in those days was expected to keep, and did keep, intoxicat- 
ing liquors in his house, the Indians knew it, and one day when Mr. 
Lawrence was absent at the council house, a short distance away, three 
stalwart braves came into the house, and demanded of Mrs. Lawrence 
some for their immediate use. She refused to let them have a drop, 
and they declared they would help themselves, but Mrs. Lawrence with 
her back to the cupboard, and the cradle, in which my father was then 
lying, in front of her, seized with both hands a heavy chair and knocked 
the foremost Indian to the floor, while she sent one of the older chil- 
dren to the council house for the colonel. The other Indians now tried 
flattery, and praised the "white squaw," whose profusion of hair, black 



-as a raven's wing, falling over her shoulders, was a prize which they 
coveted, but dared not then attempt to remove. She was one of the 
first or charter members of the Presbyterian church of which Rev. 
Abraham Foreman was the pastor for several years. One of her sons 
graduated at a New England college, and gave his life to foreign mis- 
sions, and closed his career at Dindigul, in India, December 20, 1846. 
Another graduated at Yale, and studied theology at the Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary of New York, preached many years in the eastern states, 
and now resides in Massachusetts. In the year 1815 Colonel Lawrence 
was one of the six incorporators of the Geneseo Gospel Society, and in 
1817, October 21, publicly professed his faith in Christ, by uniting with 
the church of which his wife was a charter member about seven years 
before. Among the pleasantest memories of my boyhood, are the recol- 
lections of Saturday excursions to Conesus lake, with my grandfather, 
or to mill with him in his one-horse wagon, to Mount Morris, passing 
Fall brook on the way, and listening to the stories and traditions of 
that wild ravine. I remember once riding with him to Bosley's mill 
on the outlet of Conesus lake, and there saw some Indian skulls and 
relics that had been taken from a hill, a short distance from the mill. 
Forty years of toil well directed had materially improved the condi- 
tion of society, and had transformed the wilderness into fruitful fields. 
Surrounded by the comforts possessed by the farmers of western New 
York, and enjoying the social, religious and educational advantages of 
the principal village of Livingston county, one would think he would 
not again become a pioneer, but in March, 1836, Col. Lawrence, in 
company with Mr. Samuel Begole, left his pleasant home, and passing 
through Canada to Detroit, and thence to Saline, in Washtenaw 
county, thence along the Chicago turnpike to Allen's prairie, he came 
at length to the township in Branch county, where in December, 1835, 
his youngest son, James, cut the first tree, and rolled up the logs for 
the first shelter of settlers therein. May 16, 1836, he entered for him- 
self at the United States Land Office, the east one-half of the southeast 
quarter of section five, in town eight south, range five west, now the town 
of California. He also entered the west one-half of the southeast quarter 
of section thirty-four, town seven south, range five west, and the east 
one-half of southeast quarter of said section thirty-four, for his son 
Joseph William, Jr. In the month of July of the same year, my 
father also came with Mr. Israel R. Hall to Michigan, bringing with 
him some blacksmith tools, and put up a log shop on the northeast 
corner of section nine, in town eight south, range five west, burnt some 
coal, and in October returned to the village of Geneseo, New York. The 

358 ANNUAL. MEETING, 1891. 

next season, May or June, 1837, Col. Lawrence bade farewell to the 
friends and associates of more than forty years, and at the age of 
sixty-six he sets out to contend with the privations of pioneer life in 
Michigan, and to settle on lands entered by himself the year previous. 
Father had a new two-horse wagon, which he had ironed off himself 
and fitted with a high box and canvas cover, in which, with mother 
and six children snugly stowed away, with provision chest well stocked 
for our meals by day, and bedding and blankets for our comfort by 
night, we were to cross the lake from Buffalo to Toledo, which we did, 
though our wagon was high on the deck of a steamboat, and the horsea 
were in the bow of- the boat below. Grandfather Lawrence had his 
light one-horse wagon, covered above and carpeted within, in which he 
and my grandmother rode from Geneseo to Buffalo, and crossed th& 
lake with us on the same boat. The journey to Buffalo may have 
been sad to them, but to us children it was as good as a picnic. The 
noon lunch at the side of the road, from the provision chest, which 
formed the driver's seat, and many of the incidents of the long ride 
are not forgotten, and when the wagons were drawn upon the deck of 
the steamer, and supper in the wagon was ended, the stars came out in 
the clear summer sky, and we were covered up in our blankets, weary 
with the varied incidents of the day, we were lulled to sleep by the 
steady, monotonous pulsations of the engine that was paddling us to 
the west; we slept as tired children often do, knowing little of the 
anxious parental care of those who watched over us till morning dawned. 
Landed at Toledo, we journeyed with our teams to Saline, where we 
stopped for a few days with friends, and then with another team driven 
by Mr. Samuel Beach, to pilot us to our destination, we continued on 
over the route of oui grandsire the summer before. Arriving at 
Allen's prairie, we left one wagon loaded with household goods, and 
Mr. Beach putting the four horses before the wagon which contained 
the family, we made four miles further on our way, and put up for 
the night at the house of widow Carpenter on the bank of Long Lake. 
At sunrise next morning we were again under way, but how can I tell 
the difficulties to overcome in that day's ride of only ten miles. The 
evening before, in fording Hog creek, we nearly lost sight of our near 
wheel horse, and the water came into our wagon box much to our dis- 
may and discomfort, but now we had an unbroken forest to grope our 
way through, guided only by blazed trees, and often had to cut our 
way around some huge tree that had fallen across the trail that led to 
our destination. There were creeks to ford and marshes to cross, and 
it seemed to us that in some places our horses could not reach bottom 


with their feet. The sun was just sinking in the west when we 
crossed the last marsh in our route, and climbed the hill on the north 
line of section ten, and reached the "four corners" where stood the 
log shanty shop that father put up the summer before. 

The next morning, a lovely June morning, I went with my cousin, 
Lucien B. Hall, one-half mile west to the house of Mr. Samuel Beach, 
to see the family of cousins that gathered around his wide, open 
fire-place, and for the first time watched the smoke curling upward 
through the chimney of sticks and mud. How changed now were the 
surroundings of the worthy pair who commenced their married life in 
western New York more than forty years before. Then, with the excep- 
tion of one brother, their relatives were nearly all east of the Hudson 
river, and there were no stages on the route, and no mails except by 
private conveyance. 

Now the nearest postotfice was sixteen miles away, and postage on a 
single "ounce letter, only twenty-five cents. Now there was in the settle- 
ment, one unmarried son, strong and courageous, and one married son 
with a family of six children. Two married daughters were also there, 
with their husbands, and in one house there were four children, and in 
the Beach family there were then nine children. The four families thus 
numbered twenty-eight persons, so that there were two sons and two 
daughters with nearly a score of grandchildren to welcome them with 
loving hearts and willing hands. 

I remember the first Sabbath after our arrival, the four families were 
assembled at father's house at the usual hour for morning services, and 
grandfather, as the patriarch of the group, led the devotions of those 
gathered about him. The scripture lesson was read by him, prayer 
was offered by the sons or sons-in-law, as called upon; hymns were 
sung, a sermon was read from the National Preacher, and again with 
prayer and singing of the doxology, the service of the morning was 
closed in due form. And it was not all form, the numerous family 
continued thus to worship from week to week until a schoolhouse was 
built, and then the Sabbath services drew together others outside the 
family group. The Sabbath was a day of rest to us, and a due regard 
for the fourth commandment of the decalogue was taught to us children 
by precept and example. 

There were settlers near us who had no sympathy with this Sab- 
bath observance, and who sneeringly styled "Hall's Corners" the Holy 
Land. Time passed on, and now and then we listened to a living 
preacher, and on one occasion Rev. Charles Hall, secretary of the home 
missionary board, visiting his father-in-law (our "twice a pioneer"), 

360 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

preached to us, and learned by personal observation the needs of the 
frontier. In April, 1840, a Presbyterian church was organized with 
eleven charter members, and Colonel Lawrence and his wife, Sybil, 
were the senior members by many years. In September, 1840, five were 
added to the church, four of whom were descendants of the now aged 
soldier of the cross, and one year from the date of organization, at the 
regular quarterly communion, five more names were added on pro- 
fession to the church roll, and of these, four were descendants of the 
man who led the Sabbath service at our fireside homes, and who now 
in his mature years, trusted in the God of Abraham, as a covenant keep- 
ing God. No greater joy had he than to see his children walking in the 
truth, and in the services of the sanctuary was his supreme delight. 

Here in the southeast corner township of Branch county, surrounded 
by his children and grandchildren, he walked in the commandments of 
the Lord blameless, until he calmly passed from earth to the Father's 
home above, May 20, 1847, aged seventy-six years and six months. His 
remains rest in the little graveyard there, the first grave in which was 
opened to receive his first born, the eldest daughter of our twice told 

Lansing, January 15, 1891. 



"Brawny chiels and burly hozzies 
Are bred in such a way as this is." 

It was my fortune to be one of the pioneers of Branch county, com- 
ing here among the latter days of 1835, in company with two others, 
Mr. Samuel Beach, and his son James William, a lad of fourteen 

Mr. Beach and Mr., Israel B. Hall had previously been out and 
viewed the land, November, 1835, and made their purchase. Our desti- 
nation was a tract of country ten miles south of Quincy, and at that 
time included in the bounds of that township, but to reach it we had 


to go beyond to Coldwater, and by way of Kinderhook, ten miles south 
of Coldwater, and six miles west of our destination. As we passed 
through Allen and Quincy, they were holding shooting matches prepara- 
tory to the coming Christmas festivities; we passed on to Coldwater, 
reaching there the day after Christmas, but no signs of festivities were 
there; the place consisted of twelve or fifteen dwellings, a couple of 
hotels, a dry goods store, kept, I think, by Silas A. Holbrook. Only 
this and but little more. 

There was an Indian trading post on the border of the prairie, kept by 
a white man by the name of Marsh, whose Indian name was "Wabscokie," 
At this post the Indians could exchange their furs and peltries for 
"fire-water" amj trinkets; venison being hardly considered a marketa- 
ble commodity. There was also a saw-mill on the river at the western 
part of the town. Coldwater prairie was a cheerless, desolate and for- 
bidding waste to one who had just left a bright and cheerful home in 
western New York; it was swept by the fierce wintry winds, and cov- 
ered by the drifting snows, bolted by the northern blasts twice over. 
We stayed there over night, but were up betimes, and lost no time 
in putting it all behind us, having no desire to make a home there. 
We forded the river at the western end of the town, and putting on 
about four hundred feet of lumber started out on our day's work, on 
an unknown road; our outfit consisted of the aforesaid lumber, a 
half barrel of side pork, one-half barrel of salt, a bag of flour, one of 
potatoes, one-half bag of buckwheat flour, a chest three feet long, 
containing our blankets, household stuff, cooking utensils, a cauldron 
kettle for making sugar in the spring, two axes, two rifles. We were 
not cumbered with useless furniture or medicines; there was too much 
iron in our frames; too much blood coursing in our veins of the hardy 
old stock, that landed on Plymouth Rock, to fear anything in the shape 
of hardship, privation or sickness. Our leader, Mr. Samuel -Beach, 
was a typical Yankee, and just the man to lead a forlorn hope to sub- 
due a new country. Hard and wiry of frame, tireless and energetic, 
fruitful in expedients, and with a determination to go ahead, he 
was well calculated to instill courage into his boys, if any had been 
lacking. We got stuck in the mud several times, and had to unload 
and re-load repeatedly - on that first day's work, and after carrying a 
part of our load to hard land we would pry out our wagon and go on; 
thus toiling all day long we reached the settlement of Kinderhook 
after dark, tired and hungry. We passed several deer hung up by the 
roadside by hunters. Our host and hostess gave- us a kindly welcome, 
and after partaking of a good meal of cranberry sauce and venison 

362 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

ham, to which we did ample justice, for we had had 110 time to eat since 
we started in the morning; we chatted awhile and then lay down and 
slept as only tired pioneers can sleep after a day's faithful duties, but 
were roused by our tireless leader before daylight for another day's 
work. We were to launch out today, on the "no more beyond;" we 
had slept on the outpost of civilization, and were to strike out into an 
untraveled country, our destination being six miles due east, but on 
account of swamps and marshes we had to make a wide detour to the 
south to avoid them. 

Mr. Beach took the lead, his son drove the team, and I took the ax 
to remove obstacles should we find any we couldn't climb. We started 
several deer from their hiding places of fancied security, who would 
gaze awhile at the unusual apparition of a team in their midst, and 
then bounding away unharmed would be lost in the distance. We 
were too busy to harm them had we been disposed, and as our route 
lay through a white oak and burr oak opening country, there was little 
to hinder our making good progress, and our destination was reached 
about two o'clock, p. m. Just before reaching our journey's end, the 
team ran violently down a steep place and stuck in the marsh; our bag 
of buckwheat flour tumbled off, and striking on the ground burst open r 
and a peck or more ran out on the ground; we caught up the bag and 
threw it on the load never stopping to gather up what ran out. When 
we reached our destination, Mr. Beach struck a fire and cooked dinner, 
his son took off the team and fed it, and I took the ax, and as this, 
December 28, 1835, was my 21st birthday, and I was ambitious to 
"make my mark" in the world, I cut the first tree for the first house, 
in that fractional township, (town eight south, range five west., section 
four, southwest quarter,) cut by a white man. Dinner was soon 
ready and was dispatched in quick order, for we had to make in that 
short wintry afternoon, a shelter for our luckless heads from the wild 
winter storm that threatened to burst upon us before night. We had 
decided to build twelve feet square, over all, and when night closed 
upon us with its sable mantle we had our house three logs high all 
around; we rolled up another on one side to make our roof the proper 
pitch, and throwing down some of our boards to keep us from the 
ground, and the balance over head to shelter us from the storm, we 
took possession and soon had a good fire in one corner of our house, 
the two sides of our house making the two jambs of our fire-place. 
Our fire soon gave a cheerful light, lighting up the surrounding dark- 
ness, and we were busy cooking our rations of salt pork on the coals 
and on forked sticks, when we were startled by a voice that seemed to 


come from the ground. "Hallo, there!" After recovering from our 
surprise, we said "Hallo,"' and inquired who's there? The voice said 
"friends." We bade them "come in" which they did, by stepping up 
to our house, removing a board, and stepping over, and into our house. 
They were two men, "land lookers," who had heard of us, and taking 
our tracks had followed us in. Their names were Asahel Brown and 
Nathan Austin. Mr. Brown said he had killed a noble buck back a 
short distance, but not knowing how far it was to our camp, had cut a 
slice from one of his hams, and left him lying on the ground. Of 
course we were glad to see them, and after taking supper with us, and 
talking a while on game, and range, and quarter sections, and each 
one's connections, we lay down on the bare boards and slept, with cracks 
wide enough between the logs, through which we might have thrown 
good sized dogs. 

The next morning we were up before daylight and started for the 
deer that Mr. Brown had shot the night before, but not a vestige of it 
could we find, only the well-trodden and blood-stained snow, for the 
lank and hungry wolf had come down "like a wolf on the fold," and 
so well 

"Had they broken a lingering fast, 
By the dead that had fallen for that night's repast" 

that not a vestige was left for us. 

Our guests soon left us to select for themselves a home, which was 
soon found, for there were a million broad acres of choice land lying 
all around us all unclaimed, eighty acres of which might have been 
had by any of Uncle Sam's needy children, if he had been fortunate 
enough to have a hundred dollars to pay for the same. 

We soon went to work, "to put our house in order." We removed 
the roof, and before night had it high enough to stand up in, then 
putting back the roof and cutting out a door, we were pretty well fixed 
for company. We had no need of a chimney, and going down to the 
marsh we cut with our jack-knives a good armful of dried grass, and 
piling it up in one corner of our house we had a good bed. 

" Lightly and brightly broke away the morning from her mantle 
gray," on the third day, and the son William went back with the team, 
" for home and native land," and Mr. Beach and 1 proceeded to put the 
finishing touches on our house, making a door, chinking and mudding 
the cracks, and I have no idea that on that eventful day we used the 
dust of 

" Imperial Caesar, dead and turned to clay, 
To stop the cracks to keep the winds away" 

364 ANNUAL MEETING,' 1891. 

for I suppose we used dust which had not been disturbed since the 
morning stars sang together at the first dawn of creation. After our 
house was complete, we had time to look about us and arrange our 
winter's work. We selected a site for a house for the coming family; 
I went to cutting logs for the same, and Mr. Beach went to hunting a 
" shingle tree" In a week's time we had our logs all cut for the 
family house, the shingle tree cut, and bolted up and then the team 
came back; the team was drawing flour to Jonesville, and drew up our 
shingle timber, and we were fairly started on our winter's work, mak- 
ing shingles. Our timber was frozen like a rock, but we would build 
a large fire in one corner of our room, and standing the bolts around 
it, would take out the frost, then we would rive and shave. Our daily 
fare was bread, meat and potatoes, with salt. Our potatoes were frozen 
hard as flints the first night we came, and to keep them carefully, 
we threw them down outside the house on the ground. We knew that 
heaping coals of fire on the heads of our enemies was the best way to 
subdue them, and we thought we'd try it on our potatoes, and we 
would pick up half a hatful, and raking open the fire, plump them in, 
and heap on the coals; it never failed to soften their frozen nature, and 
they'd come out all right, and thereafter one passage of scripture had 
additional interest to us. Our bread was strictly and literally home 
made, of salt and flour, wet up with cold water, and baked in our fry- 
ing-pan before the fire, and when done it was solid and substantial, 
and about as tough as one of our oak shingles. 

An old Indian came along one morning when I was alone, coming 
in as I was getting breakfast, and as an Indian was always hungry, 
I asked him to stay to breakfast. I gave him one of our " excelsior 
flop-jacks," that could not be beaten (hardly with a hammer), and after 
he had tussled with it for a long time, he paid me the well earned 
compliment of " no good bret," but he made as good a meal as I did, 
and picking up his rifle, left. I soon heard the report of his rifle, and 
in a couple of hours he came back dragging the carcasses of two deer; 
he had them nicely sewed up in the skin of one, which had been 
ripped along the belly, and then sewed iip with a thong of leather. 
Another thong of leather attached to the nose of the skin, and passed 
over the head and shoulders of the Indian, made his load turn up like 
a sled runner, and enabled him to draw the two carcasses over the 
snow as nicely as if their encasing had been oiled. He unsewed his 
load, gave me a nice ham of venison, and then went on his way. 
I noticed the next morning the gaunt and hungry Wolves had followed 
his trail up to my shanty door. 


After we had our house ready for raising, I had to go six miles for 
help. The neighbors turned out to a man on the day chosen; it was 
nearly noon when they arrived, but they took hold and worked with a 
will till dark, and then, like model husbands and fathers, as they were r 
started for their homes, though we tried to dissuade them from their 
purpose. They had not been gone long when a blinding snow storm 
met them full in their faces; they lost their course and were obliged 
to stay all night in the woods. They struck a tire, and quickly had a 
good one burning, and round about it they were obliged to tramp all 
night. All night the storm raged, and in the morning they felt as if 
they had been poorly stayed with. They did not come out of their 
ordeal half as well as the Hebrew children did from theirs, for the 
smell of tire had gone all through their garments and left many an ugly 
hole where it went through. Our helpful neighbors soon found their 
course by morning light and reached home without further trouble. 
We finished rolling up the logs for the body of our house and then 
commenced to put on the rafters and roof, and by the time we were 
ready for shingling it was about as cold as we ever find it in our lati- 
tude. The nails would stick to our fingers, and break and fly like glass, 
and our fingers were pounded black and blue before we were half 
through, but we shingled it all the same. Before we were ready to go 
home our bread gave out, and we were reduced to the necessity of borrow- 
ing. Our nearest neighbor was six miles away in a direct line, and there 
were swamps and marshes next to impassable at that time of the year, 
but it fell to my lot to go. I could follow the line through the swamp, 
though I sometimes went over my boot tops in water, but when I came 
to a wide marsh I'd have to range across to see where the line would 
strike on the opposite side, and then " git thar " as I could. 

The marshes, some of them, were filled with bogs and water up to my 
knees, and if any one could travel the route I did on that day, for the 
same amount of pay, and keep his temper without sometimes thinking 
of cuss words, he could do better than I did, and I think that such an 
one, would be a fit candidate for membership in an orthodox church. 
When I got back home at night I could have eaten half my day's 
work, and my partner the other half, but we made it last us two or 
three days, and then we were not ready to go home, and what were we 
to do? I thought that little short of starvation would start me on 
another borrowing expedition. In this emergency I thought of the 
buckwheat flour that had burst from our bag and run out on the 
ground, that had never been gathered up (Mr. Beach knew nothing of 
it). I spoke of that and said "may be some of that is good." Our 

366 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

spirits were ardent, at the thought elated and buoyant, and I took a 
bag and started for the spot, where six weeks before we had made the 
deposit. We found it just as we had left it, only coated over with a 
thin covering of ice. We pealed this off and found the balance in as 
nice condition as if it had been kept by the most careful house-wife. 
We gathered it up as carefully as we would so much gold dust; 'twas 
manna to us, a real godsend, and we found enough to last us a week, 
and were thus enabled to put our house in order and finish up our work 
preparatory to leaving, but when the time approached for going home 
we began to ask ourselves what we should do with our stuff. We 
couldn't hand it over to our neighbors, and we didn't want to trust it to the 
Indians, so we finally concluded to make a cache of it under our fire 
or hearth. So we built no fire there for two days, and when the fire 
was all out we threw the ashes all up onto the floor, dug a hole in the 
fire-place, and put all our treasures in our chest, and that in the hole, 
covered all up, put the ashes back, built a good fire thereon, and had 
the whole thing pretty effectually hid, and then the night before we 
were to start for home, we lay down to sleep buoyed up and soothed 
to sleep by the thought, that we were going home in the morning. 

We know not how long we slept, our blankets were in the chest, we 
had no time-piece, no clock on the mantle, "grandfather's clock" had 
stopped long before, we had no chanticleer with clarion horn, from his 
lofty perch in neighboring barn, to usher in approaching morn, for his 
accustomed feed of golden corn; but we thought we slept till morning, 
and taking each a rifle we started for the east, and for our nearest 
neighbors in that direction, a house on the banks of Long 
lake ten miles away, owned by the Carpenter boys, four of whom lived 
there with their mother. This was a route we had never traveled, we 
had a devious Indian trail to follow, which we knew would lead us to 
their house, we could see to follow the trail, and didn't stop to take break- 
fast before starting, for the best of reasons we had none to eat. We 
thought to breakfast with our neighbors, ten miles away, but after 
traveling a couple of hours or more we came to their house and found 
it in darkness, and no more signs of morning than when we started 
We thought we wouldn't disturb them, but pushed on for the next 
house at Allen, five miles further on. When we reached there all was 
dark, no one was stirring; we wondered if the world was asleep, but we 
pushed on for Jonesville, the next point five miles further on, and came 
to the top of the hill overlooking Jonesville from the west just as the 
sun was rising, and we were ready for breakfast after our morning's 
walk of twenty miles. We went into the hotel and called for " break- 


fast for two." The landlord set forth what he thought an ample sup- 
ply, but it was hardly a circumstance, and we called for more, and the 
landlord stood by and looked on aghast to see us put away his victuals 
"in blocks of five." But at last we were satisfied and left the table, 
the only one we had sat down to for more than two months. We got 
the worth of our money, and the landlord didn't ask us to call again. 
We left our rifles there, for we had yet a day's work of fifty miles 
before us, and as cold a day as I ever traveled, but the wind was in 
our favor. Mr. Beach as usual took the lead, and bade me follow; he 
struck out at a two-forty gait, and all day he kept me on the trot to 
keep up with him. All day long he kept up this gait, over hills and 
through valleys, never stopping for anything, and at night we 
brought up at home in the township of Saline, seventy miles from 
where we started. We found the family .well, and well pleased to see 
us, and we as pleased to see, them. 

After resting a week we began preparations for our return, and 
loaded up a lot of goods the family could best do without. We started 
with an ox team and sled for our prospective home, and in due time 
reached Allen, and struck off for Carpenter's on the banks of Long 
lake, and came to Hog creek; the water was high, and we were obliged 
to ford the creek. It took a good deal of urging to make our cattle go 
down into the water (they didn't like immersion); they were pretty 
well under water before they were over. 

Our load floated, but still the water nearly covered the box and the 
goods we had, but as they were such articles as would take no damage 
we heeded it not, when safely over, and reached Carpenter's at about 
three o'clock in the afternoon. Here we put up until the next day. 
Our party was the same as before, Mr. Beach and son William, and 
myself. Our load consisted of plows and barrels, chairs and tables. 

The next morning we started early, having ten miles to go over a 
country that had never been traveled by team. We had an ox team 
and our road to cut, Mr. Beach piloting the way, while the boys drove 
the team and cut the road, when we had time, but we cut no log that 
we could go around or by any possibility get over, and we had a sorry 
looking load of furniture when we got through. We had chairs with 
broken legs and backs; tables minus leaves and legs, and the whole 
load badly demoralized. Our motto was. "Git thar," and we did it, 
though it did take several legs and arms. 

We found everything at the shanty as we had left it, nothing had 
been disturbed; we unearthed our treasures and found everything "all 

368 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

Our first work the next morning was to hunt some hay for our team. 
Our neighbors west of us had cut some marsh hay, some time in the 
season before, but had never drawn it. It was still on the marsh as 
they had left it when they cut it; we could have it for five dollars a 
ton and draw it ourselves. This was the only chance to get anything 
for our team. We could go to the marsh, get what we wanted, and 
call it what we chose. We found it covered with about six inches of 
snow, the bunches flattened down so that we could hardly tell where 
they were, but we managed to get enough to keep our oxen until 
spring; this done our next work was to finish our house, and set it in 
order for the coming family which were soon expected. A goodly fam- 
ily of eight to half a score of vigorous (Beech ?) sprouts that had 
sprung up around the parent stem. 

They soon came, the first family in town, and the settlement was 
called by the family name, "the Beach settlement." 

This family was soon followed by another (i. e., ere the opening of 
spring), a Mr. Ira Purdy of Sand Creek, Hillsdale county, and he in 
a few weeks was followed by his brothers, Horace and Azem Purdy, 
from Ohio, Horace bringing a large family, among whom were thre 
or four stalwart daughters, and of course they were soon followed bjr 
the young men, and now the "land lookers" literally flocked in here. 
They came by twos and threes, and in squads and battalions, until 
there was hardly room to receive them, and we had to keep from six 
to a dozen of a night, in addition to our own family. 

We could give no better bed than the floor, every foot of which was 
occupied by their prostrate forms at night, and as " it takes all sorts of 
folks to make a world," we had a fair representation of all here; mostly 
farmers who came with honest intentions of looking out and making 
themselves homes, and of course the choice lands were soon selected, 
and speculators took the balance. They (the speculators) saw that this 
tract was being rapidly appropriated and they went to the land office 
and took what was left, paying pretty well for it in some instances. 
Of course the spring and summer of 1836 was a busy one for us, and a 
large influx of inhabitants settled all around us, many coming with 
barely enough to get there, and necessarily they saw pretty hard times 
to get through the season till they could raise something to live on. 

Flour, "the staff of life," was very scarce and difficult to be got. 
Mr. Purdy, having a good team, started west for the prairies in search 
of flour, and after a long search of nearly two weeks succeeded in 
getting a load, which could be had only by persuading the miller to 
grind on Sunday, and that in violation of the strict orders of the owner 


of the mill. Mr. Purdy begged with and of the owner of the mill, 
and told him his neighbors were starving; he could not be induced to 
violate the Sabbath, but the miller told him privately, "leave your 
bags with me, and come round as early as you've a mind to Monday 
morning and you shall have your flour; I'll set it out of the door and 
you can get it as early as you want to." He did so, paid him for a 
ton of flour, went in the night and got it, and this saved the 
settlement. When the load arrived, men came four and five miles for 
it; one man said, "my family have had nothing but greens for three 
weeks." One man dug up the potatoes he had planted. 

There was one man by the name of Cass, from Ohio. He claimed 
to be a connection of Gov. Lewis Cass. He had a numerous family 
and was pretty hard pushed to feed them all. He dug a hole in the 
ground in which he lived until he could build a shelter. ^Jle brought a 
few carpenter's tools, and was fruitful in expedients to turn an honest 
penny; he made chairs, spinning wheels, half bushel measures, etc., 
etc., and when he had a load, would start for the prairies and trade 
his stock for the necessaries of life. He told me once that he "hadn't 
eaten grease enough for three months to grease a jack-knife." The 
old man was an inveterate tobacco chewer, a three-penny paper of 
"fine cut" barely sufficing for him a couple of chews, and it seemed 
to be about the only comfort he had while trying to keep the wolf 
from the door, and feeding his many-mouthed and hungry family. He 
would cram his mouth (and he had a most capacious one) full of the 
stuff, and after rolling it therein for an hour, as a delicious morsel, 
would lay it up on the fence, a stump or log, wherever he chanced to 
be at work, and if his supply gave out he would give his quids a second 
grinding; and said that his brother-in-law, who was hunting and espied 
as he thought a turkey sitting on a log, crept up carefully within 
firing range and shot, and saw the turkey fall from the log, but when 
he came to pick it up, found it was only one of "Jm's reserve quids 
of tobacco" 

Several laughable anecdotes might be told of the old man. In early 
life he was a flatboatman on the Mississippi; towards the close of his 
life he was converted and made class leader in the United Brethren 
church. One evening at a meeting, when he was leading the class and 
urging all to give in their testimony, it became necessary to feed his 
mouth, and after stuffing in a good-sized handful and stowing it away 
on one side, and taking breath after the effort, he broke out with the 
expression, "and yet there's room" The ludicrousness of the whole 

370 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. . 

thing brought down the house and effectually banished all serious 
thoughts from the minds of his youthful auditors for that evening. 

The old gentleman had two stalwart daughters who were a great help 
to him in clearing up his farm, a ad he used to baast that they could 
back over a grub, and take it up as quick as " any other man, ary one 
of em" 

Mr. Cass had a brother-in-law who came with him, by the name of 
Monlux, who deserves mention. Monlux boasted that he was born in 
Virginia, that " home of the Presidents," and of so many great men. 
He could not have belonged to the R F. V.'s, for he had not wealth 
enough to entitle him to that, or even to admit him to their charmed 
circle, but whatever he lacked in "glittering dust," was amply made up 
in wealth of family (if numbers were the criterion), for he had more 
than John Quincy Adams ever asked for in his memorable "Wants of 
Man," though they would hardly have satisfied him as to their literary 

This man Monlux brought in money enough to buy him eighty acres 
of land, on which he built a small log house twelve by eighteen feet 
over all and cobbed off in the approve I backwoods style, with only one 
floor of split and hewn basswood logs, into which he moved with his 
family (and there was barely room for the children). They needed but 
little room for furniture; a bedstead of home construction, took nearly 
all the room in one end of the house, and the children had to shift 
for themselves; a large fire-place took the other end of the house. At 
our first township meeting this man was elected constable and treas- 
urer; this unlocked for elevation fairly dazed him, he could hardly 
contain himself, and did not know how to behave with so much great- 
ness thrust upon him, and his pranks made a vast amount of fun for 
all he came in contact with. He acted as though the nation rested on 
his shoulders, and he must deport himself accordingly, but unfort- 
unately for him he lacked the ability, and seemed to look down on less 
favored individuals with supreme contempt. His wife also seemed 
equally elated with their sudden elevation, and they were sadly troubled 
to find language suitable to express what they felt. I went to their 
house to pay my taxes one Saturday night; Monlux was not at home, but 
Mrs. M. said he went to Goldwater a-Monday morning and hadn't got 
home yet; she didn't know what in the world kept him; she didn't 
know but they'd got him in the "plenipotentiary" Monlux went one 
day, clad in the full panoply of his official dignity as constable, to 
arrest a man, and marching up to his man, he was told that if he came 
another step he would have his brains blown out, the man thrusting 


his hands into his breast pocket snapping and cracking a goose quill 
he had there. The report was plainly heard and the arrest was not 
made at that time, the officer thinking perhaps, that "discretion was 
the better part of valor," and that "he who fights and runs away may 
live to fight some other day." One of their children was taken sick 
one day, and as we had no M. D.'s, and as my wife was known far 
and near as the best nurse in all the country round, they sent for her 
to come and see the child. It occupied the only bed in the house; 
the girls were busy getting supper, and the boys and smaller children 
stowed themselves where they could. They had one boy who bore the 
honored name of George Washington, but for short he was called 
"Wash." (I always thought if they had christened him unwashed it 
would have been a much more appropriate name, for though he was 
often saluted with "George Wash," he was never known to comply.) 
Well, "Wash" got tired out the evening my wife was there, and 
seated himself to rest on the most convenient thing that offered, and 
that proved to be on the board that covered the trough in which 
their buckwheat was rising; the board slipped off and "Wash" slipped 
in, and the girls sang out, "Ma, Wash has sot down in the batter." 
This brought the mother to the scene, who seized the unfortunate 
youngster by the nape of the neck, and leading him to the door and 
giving him a vigorous kick right where the batter clung to his person, 
she said; "Stay there till you can larn better'n to set your - - down 
in the cakes." The girls didn't let this little incident derange their 
plans for supper, and soon the smoking cakes were on the table and 
my wife was asked to "set by and take some supper." She told them 
she had no occasion; she took tea before leaving home. 

We had one man elected justice of the peace, the only office he ever 
held, and he used to afford us a good deal of amusement; 'twas laugha- 
ble to see him conduct a suit. He would use the literal words of the 
statute in administering an oath "You do solemnly swear, or affirm, 
as the case may be." We used to tell him he had no need to use the 
words, "or affirm." He would reply, "I'm going to use the words of 
the statute." We had a man and his wife by the name of Bacon; the 
wife was subject to fits of hypo, and whenever such a fit would take 
her, the husband would have to leave his work and go four or five 
miles for a doctor, no matter how hurried his work, or what the weather 
might be. He would generally find her all right when he got back, and 
after he had tried that thing three or four times, he began to object 
and remonstrate, and tried to reason with her and told her plainly he 
didn't believe there was any need of it, that she might prevent them; 

372 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

she listened to such talk for a while and then broke out with, "Elmer 
Bacon, 'taint no use talkin, I can have fits and I will have 'em." 

In the course of the summer of 1837, there were three families of our 
own came on. Mr. Israel R. Hall and family, brother Joseph .William 
Lawrence with a large family, and my father and mother. We had a 
house ready for each family, Mr. Beach being the chief builder. Our 
houses were built a little different from the houses of other settlers: 
generally about twenty by twenty-four feet in size with two good floors,, 
a chamber, the gable ends finished up with whitewood siding, a win- 
dow in one end and the invariable stick chimney in the other, a good 
shingle roof we used the long oak shingles, nailed upon ribs of oak, 
fastened to rafters of hewed tamarack poles. The beams on which the 
chamber floor was laid, were extended in front about eight feet to- 
form a front stoop, , a luxury that but few others enjoyed. Most of the 
log houses at this time were built much cheaper, "cobbed off" with a 
shake roof, held down with weight poles, and in this way no nails 
were needed except in the door, quite a saving when nails cost us fif- 
teen cents per, pound. When we had the Indians with us in the winter 
of 1836-7, I could get a venison ham or saddle weighing fifteen or 
twenty pounds for a lump of salt the size of my fist, and they were 
glad to make the exchange, for salt was worth ten dollars a barrel. But 
before the summer of 1837 was over pork was worth twenty-five cents 
per pound and potatoes were one dollar per bushel. Hotel keepers on 
the Chicago turnpike charged one dollar per bushel for corn and two 
dollars and twenty-five cents to two dollars and fifty cents for oats fed 
to teams putting up with them. My father brought a barrel of flour 
and two small porkers from Rochester, New York, and managed not 
only to eat potatoes but plant them as well. He made a small gouge, 
with which he scooped out the "eye" from the potatoe for planting and 
saved the balance for food. When we went to plant our potatoes, father 
carried all the seed on one arm needed to plant half an acre. He 
dropped and I covered them, putting a couple of eyes in a hill, and we 
had as fine a crop as we ever raised. Our nearest postoffice was fifteen 
miles away, and when we found a letter there we had to pay twenty- 
five cents for it, and when we had a grist-mill within twelve miles we 
thought ourselves well off, for we could go to mill and back the same 
day. When we were through with the fall work the first season, we 
went to work and built a good school-house of hewed whitewood logs, 
and a shingled roof. The first school taught in the township was by 
Miss Sarah' L. Beach. In the spring of 1836 Mr. Beach and I went 
ten miles to Quincy, following a section line due north that led us 


through a black ash and tamarack swamp a mile in length the entire 
distance was through an unbroken forest to cast our votes for town- 
ship officers, and as we were the only men in that part of the township, 
now known as California, we each received an office. Mr. Beach was 
chosen justice of the peace, and I was madf* highway commissioner, 
giving us jurisdiction over ninety square miles of territory, as the three 
townships, Quincy, Algansee and California were then under one organ- 
ization. When we came to this section of country we found it in pos- 
session of a remnant of the once powerful tribe of the Pottawattomie 
Indians under the leadership of a chief by the name of Bawbeese. This 
Indian chieftain had a daughter on whom he doted much and lavished 
many gifts. Among his gifts was a milk white pony, with which she 
used to take a great deal of comfort, skimming over the plains as free 
as a bird. Of course she was the observed of all observers, and had 
among her dusky subjects many suitors for her hand, all of whom she 
spurned with contempt, but after a long time, wearied perhaps with 
their persistent assaults, she yielded her hand to one more fortunate 
than the rest, and they were wed; but he soon proved himself totally 
unworthy of his bride, drinking to excess, and repeatedly reeling home 
drunk and pawning everything in payment of his whisky bills, and at 
last he pawned the much loved pony, the gift to her alone of a fond 
father. This so maddened her that she told him, if he didn't quit his 
drinking, she'd kill Mm; he said, "kinne poo," that is, kill away. She 
snatched his hunting knife from his belt and plunged it to his heart, 
and the warm blood of her murdered husband spouted full in her face, 
and he fell dead at her feet. She well knew the consequences of her 
rash act, and that she had forfeited her own life, but never tried to 
conceal what she had done, or sought safety in flight, and calmly 
awaited her fate. Her father was then on his way to attend a council 
of Indians in the western part of the state of New York. A fleet-footed 
Indian was selected to carry the sad news to the father, and when the 
messenger overtook him, he turned backward in his course, to preside 
over the council to hear the matter and pass sentence upon his child. 
The old chief and his party came where we were rolling up a log 
house, and stopped for a few minutes to see us work. -A more sad 
looking countenance I never saw. He reached his home the next day, 
and the execution of the loved daughter soon followed. 

374 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 




Those who are now living in Michigan State, 
Who crossed over Lake Erie at an early date, 
To look out for a home in this Peninsula 
Should greatly rejoice that they are living today. 

I refer to all those who a settlement made, 
In the nineteenth century in its fourth decade, 
Of which a large portion of the members so great 
Hailed from New England and from New York state. 

They were largely descendants from that noble stock, 
Who on that December day landed at old Plymouth Rock; 
That was the occasion that begat a great nation 
But few more important since this world's creation. 

They were from their homes by intolerance driven, 
To cross the broad ocean and seek a new haven; 
Where no tyrant ruled and no white man trod, 
That they might peacefully worship Jehovah their God. 

While on that bleak and inhospitable shore, 
The loss of home comforts they did not deplore; 
But resolved that the liberty at such a cost gained, 
Should by them forever be fully maintained. 

To maintain the full freedom that they then enjoyed, 
And pass it to posterity all unalloyed; 
Industry and frugality with them did abound, 
And vigilance and intelligence was always then found. 

They placed their dependence on God's gracious hand, 
To protect and to guide them in that wilderness land; 
They solicited Him daily to aid their good cause, 
And strictly endeavored to obey all His laws. 

The virtues they practiced to their children they taught, 
For not only the present but for the future they sought; 
To have freedom and religious liberty spread, 
All over this land where white men should tread. 

And then when their children took up their march west, 
They took with them the virtues their fathers had possessed; 
And practiced those virtues for the good of the land, 
That to them had been taught by that pilgrim band. 


That virtue and intelligence in the ascendency should be, 
They founded their churches and the schools they made free; 
It may plainly be seen who those duties discharged, 
For a Michigan man is a yankee enlarged. 



Thirty years have elapsed since the first gun was fired upon Fort 
Sumpter. To a whole generation the war on the Union is only a mat- 
ter of history. To those who participated in it on the battle field, in 
the hospitals, or in homes of sorrow and desolation, time is kindly 
casting a mist over the deep tragedy, softening its outlines and making 
more prominent the great fact that while God punishes nations for 
their sins, He is not slow to forgive them when they turn to righteousness. 

Since the accursed blot of slavery has been washed out of our 
national escutcheon by the precious tears and blood of patriotic men 
and women, our beloved and united country has prospered beyond 

When doubt became a certainty and a war upon the Union was deter- 
mined, the people of those days were terribly shaken; horror and dis- 
may filled all hearts. The union loving north was stirred to its very 
depths; the north frontier settlements, as well as the older settled por- 
tions of the land, were alike deeply affected. 

In extreme northern Michigan, far from the "sunny south," in the 
copper and iron mines of Lake Superior, there was found, at the 
beginning of the war, a few feeble and struggling colonies composed 
of merchants, miners, artisans and laborers. Braving the isolation of 
a savage wilderness and the extremes of cold common to those high 
latitudes, these people had engaged hopefully and bravely in the 
development of mining industries. But slow progress had been made 
and most of the enterprises in hand were in the experimental stages 
of adventure. The copper mines of Portage lake, in Hough ton 
county, especially, were just struggling into existence, had no certain 
footing. Great fears were entertained that a prolonged war, begun 
with financial troubles and a general upheaval of society, would utterly 
distroy mine industries. The trials and tribulations which those indus- 

376 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

tries subsequently endured almost justified the prophecies of evil. But 
a kind providence, in the end, dissipated all the dark clouds and granted 
a degree of prosperity wholly unexpected. 

As the war progressed the demand for the product of our mines, 
copper, became so great that mining was stimulated beyond all prec- 
edent. The other mines increased their forces to the utmost capacity, 
while explorations for the discovery of new deposits of mineral, the 
opening of new mines, became the engrossing business of the time. 
Population rapidly increased -and the work of building towns, making 
roads and clearing the forests, planting machinery, erecting stamp mills 
and extending commercial intercourse with the outside world engaged 
our attention. 

In the earlier days the price of copper rated low, twelve to thirteen 
cents per pound, hardly a remunerative return for investments made 
in that remote wilderness region, when supplies and provisions were 
necessarily dear. 

Before the close of the war copper ingots ran up to fifty cents per 
pound. That extraordinary price caused great prosperity. 

With these preliminary remarks the writer now begs to give a 
description of the social and moral condition of the mining people of 
Portage lake (of Portage, as it was called) during the great rebellion. 

Two hundred and eighty miles beyond the Sault, or six hundred and 
fifty miles northwest of Detroit, following the lir^e of lakes and rivers 
was situated Portage lake, which lake afforded access to the heart of 
the mining region. This lake resembles an estuary from the ocean, 
and is like a wide river, nineteen miles long, filling a remarkable 
geological trough traversing the trap range at right angles to the 
formation. It forms a spacious and safe harbor. On its shores, at the 
time of which I write, two hamlets, since grown into the cities of 
Houghton and Hancock, were struggling into life, while back from the 
lake, on the elevated plateaus, were to be seen the rude mining camps, 
half hidden in the primeval woods. 

The only way in which Portage could be reached was by water, and 
for nearly six months each year that way was closed by ice. There were 
no wagon or other roads leading out of the country. Three hundred 
miles of unbroken wilderness intervened between these isolated settle- 
ments and the more settled portions of the states, where wagon and 
railroads were common. The only paths through the forests were 
obscure Indian trails. These wei'e followed by dog trains, carrying fort- 
nightly mails and by exigent travelers on snow-shoes. Practically, the 
mining people were shut up in their snowbound homes, left to their 


own resources. Mining supplies, provisions and merchandise sufficient 
for six month's consumption were brought in necessarily before the 
close of navigation. There was no remedy for any shortage in these 
supplies. Sometimes, by accidents in navigation, some necessary supplies 
failed to be delivered and there was consequently much privation, if 
not actual suffering. 

Thus situated our mining people had to rely upon themselves for 
social pleasures and entertainment. The leading people, mine managers, 
merchants, surgeons and artisans, were mostly Americans, a mere hand- 
ful in the mass. They had migrated from the eastern cities, and 
brought with them the culture and refinement acquired there. Their 
families seemed much out of place in those rude settlements. But 
those families of women and children, exerted a wholesome influence, 
enlivening society and improving the moral atmosphere. These people 
accommodated themselves to the trying situation admirably. The axact- 
ing formalities and etiquette, deemed so necessary elsewhere found no 
advocaters on this remote frontier. These few families met in society 
like brothers and sisters. Their dwelling places were small and rudely 
built and furnished, but they furnished ample room for generous con- 
viviality and hospitality. The ladies laying aside their silks and laces, 
appeared at evening parties in neat muslin gowns, while the gentlemen, 
with still greater freedom, joined in the country dances, arrayed in all 
the glory of moccasins, red sashes and flowing shirtsleeves of blue or 
red flannel. Doctor F. the Hon. 8. L. S. and the writer, once had the 
honor of dancing the horn-pipe, for the belt, before an appreciative 
bevy of fair lady judges. During the long, dark, dreary winter even- 
ings of that north land, dancing and card playing were the only recrea- 
tions. People came miles through the snow drifts and the intense cold 
for the sake of society; and they all enjoyed themselves right heartily. 
Their resources being so limited they made the most of them. 

The great bulk of the population was made up of miners and labor- 
ers, of many nationalities some newly imported having no special 
regard for AmQrica or Americans. As a class they were rude and turb- 
ulent, much addicted to beer and whisky. These people were constantly 
at war among themselves. A Cornishman could not abide an Irish- 
man and vice versa. So long as these rival factions contended with 
each other the rest of the community were not seriously disturbed, but 
rather enjoyed the scrimmage, but as the war on the Union progressed, 
insubordination against legitimate authority became the rule. The laws 
had but little restraining effect. The handful of Americans in author- 
ity were often placed in a critical and dangerous position, and it was 

378 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

impossible to call upon outside aid in case of need. The winter of 
1861-2 was a most trying one. As was the case elsewhere," the dread 
certainty of a long and bloody war, unsettled business and left good 
men in doubt and fear. Bad men were encouraged to lawlessness and 
placed tl^emselves in threatening attitudes. As the close of navigation 
in the fall of 1861 drew near great difficulty was experienced in pro- 
viding adequate supplies for the mines. Indeed there was a shortage 
in many things, except whisky, which, under the circumstances should 
not have been imported at all. That fiery liquid was the cause of 
untold troubles fightings, maiming and manslaughter. It was said, 
indeed, that the number of barrels of whisky brought in exceeded that 
of flour. 

Credit was greatly shaken in eastern markets and the old banking 
system was destroyed. Greenbacks had not yet appeared; gold and 
silver were not available. The mining supplies and, indeed, all mer- 
chandise, had been obtained on long credits. The copper shipments in 
the spring were relied upon to meet all obligations. A credit of several 
hundred thousand dollars was necessary to carry the community through 
the winter. It had also been the custom to ship currency by the last 
boats of the season into the country for monthly payments to miners 
and contractors. This currency, permeating the whole district, kept 
business going. But, there being no currency or coin available, we 
entered into winter without a dollar in the safe. The people at the 
mines were fed and clothed from the mine stores but there was no 
money. Ere long there was a clamor for money. Credits for beer and 
whisky had to be met and outside of the mines, in the towns, the 
merchants and other business men were pinched because there was no 
pay day at the mines, which, in those days, were the sole fountains of 
wealth or income. Strikes soon followed and the state of affairs was 
critical in the extreme. The looting of store houses, the burning of 
stamp mills and engine houses was threatened, while work in the mines 
dragged slowly along, or was suspended. 

Finally a remedy on the currency question was suggested and adopted. 
The mines went to making paper money on their own account. The 
necessity seemed to justify a measure not strictly lawful. Promises to 
pay in the shape of neatly engraved bills, of the demominations of five 
and ten dollars were sent out from Boston. These bills were signed 
by the clerk and agent of the mines and paid out to the men. They 
became good currency throughout the mining region. The writer has 
not forgotten what an onerous task it was every pay day to sign his 
name to four or five thousand shin-plasters. Long after the emergency 


had passed and greenbacks had become common, the mines continued 
to issue their own currency, and the practice had become common all 
through the mining region of copper and iron. Nor was the practice 
discontinued until the law officers intervened. This mine currency was 
finally redeemed at the chief offices in the east. It helped to tide over 
a great difficulty. During the war the general government under the 
plea of self defense and self preservation may have done some ques- 
tionable acts as did our more humble mining corporations. 

The demoralizing effect of the war during the earlier periods was 
observable even in the remote mining districts. There was the impres- 
sion that the country was ruined; that a broken and dissevered Union 
would ultimately become a fact. The foreign portion of our mining 
populace were seriously affected; their conduct became restless, insolent 
and aggressive. They refused to work steadily; they drank deeper than 
ever and their fighting propensities became ferocious. They seemed to 
delight in all kinds of lawlessness. Perhaps they entertained the idea 
that they were soon to become masters of the country through the 
weakness of the American government. Be that as it may, brutal out- 
rages for a time prevailed. The most peaceable and unoffending were 
waylaid, assaulted and so cruelly treated that many died. Law abiding 
men armed themselves with revolvers and constantly stood at guard. It 
was dangerous to go out at night. There was nearly a reign of terror. 
At the mines, the officers organized a secret military society, and in some 
closed upper room, they were frequently drilled in the manual of arms. 
Before the close of navigation, as a precautionary measure, we had had 
fifty muskets sent to us, which were secretly stored. 

At the mine, under the management of the writer, a portion of the 
men, finally became utterly lawless and regardless of their own interests, 
they for some reason only known to themselves, threatened to burn the 
stamp mill and destroy the inmates. They actually made a demonstra- 
tion one Sunday evening, but the superintendent of the mill was pre- 
pared for them. He barricaded the doors and windows; he provided 
his force of twenty men and boys with missiles in the shape of selected 
copper rock; he got up steam and attached the hose to the boilers, 
proposing to treat his assailants with copious discharges of hot water 
and steam. The rioters warned by the writer, of the ample preparations 
made for their reception, failed to attack the mill. This recreant con- 
duct deprived the superintendent of the pleasure of testing the merits 
of his hot water defensive appliances. 

But time fails me to give other examples of the riotous conduct of 
those besotted men. But the uncomfortable winter of 1861-2 in the 

"380 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

mines, will never be forgotten by those peaceable citizens who were 
cooped up there and had to face the music nolens volens. 

In the third year of the war labor became very scarce. Business 
was very active, and mining was greatly 'stimulated by the demand for 
copper at the ordnance department, and men drifted away into the 
army. Every call for soldiers was speedily responded to. The older 
mines were running full force while many new mining enterprises had 
been undertaken. High wages failed to intice men to the mines. In 
desperation mine managers sent to Europe for miners. Their agents 
found them in Sweden. Ninety thousand dollars were subscribed by 
the several mining companies, to cover the cost of the importation. 
These foreigners came under contract; they were guaranteed liberal 
wages, and after they had paid back, in labor, in monthly installments, 
the cost of their transportation to this country, they would be free to 
do as they pleased. Arrived at the mines unexpectedly most of these 
miners refused to go to work for the companies which had been to the 
great expense of bringing them to this country. They could not. be 
made '-to work. They boldly and defiantly resisted all efforts to make 
them fulfil their written contracts. They were now in America, where 
they had desired to be, and that was enough for them. Of course the 
mining companies lost most of the money invested in this disastrous 
immigration venture. A few Swedes went to work and became good 
citizens. They were the van-guard of the Scandanavian immigration, 
which has in later years, added many thousand to the population of 
Michigan. Good, industrious, intelligent people most of them are. It 
was evident that a majority of the miners imported at the time referred 
to, were of the baser sort the scum of cities and discharged soldiers. 
But, after all, they were made available by the mining community. At 
that time there was a call for two companies of men for the army. 
Tempted by a bounty of three hundred dollars each our obdurate 
Swedes were induced to enlist. They were marched to the front, but 
whether they ever' became food for "villainous gunpowder" the writer 
never had the pleasure of knowing. 

During the season of navigation the fast passenger steamers brought 
the mails and newspapers regularly. Each steamer day was anxiously 
looked for; news from the seat of war was in demand. All good citizens 
were elated or depressed as the news was good of bad. 

On one occasion, about mid-summer there was a terrible commotion. 
The good steamer Northern Light came steaming up the lake with flags 
flying and whistle blowing continuously. As she passed the stamp 
mills they too began to blow their whistles furiously; the tug boats and 


steamers in port joined in the hubbub. The towns people on the 
shores of the lake, the miners back on the hills, alarmed by the unusual 
noise all rushed for the docks. The shores were black with hurrying 
people. As the Northern Light neared the dock captain paulding, 
waving his hat, shouted out A great union victory Vicksburg has 
fallen. The answering shout that went up from that excited crowd made 
the very hills tremble. Captain Spaulding was the hero of the hour. 
General Grant could hardly have received a greater ovation. 

Snow-bound and ice-bound was this isolated community when the news 
reached them that the beloved Lincoln had been basely assassinated. 
Horror and grief took possession of every heart. There were cries of 
vengeance mingled with their sorrow. A public meeting was called. 
In response a vast crowd assembled in the snow in front of the Doug- 
lass house, and public speakers gave expression to the universal feeling 
of sorrow and dismay, that the occasion called forth. 
During the progress of the war the necessity for a better mode of 
inter-communication with our fellow citizens in the states south of us 
became very pressing. Dog trains must give way to wagons and coaches. 
It was determined to build a wagon road from Keweenaw Point, to the 
settlements on the south, in Wisconsin. This road was to be used 
especially in the winter time. Should there be a pressing demand for 
copper during the ice embargo, the government could supply its needs 
by this important road. Congress took a favorable view of the measure 
and made a valuable grant of land to be used in the construction of the 
road. The road was laid out and placed under contract for constuction. 
It was used one or two winters by stage lines and some freight was 
hauled over it into the mines. But no copper was ever hauled out. 
The road was long, circuitous and poor. In fact it was a failure for 
the purposes intended. The individuals who obtained the land grant 
were about the only ones benefited. More direct communication by 
railroads soon caused the great military road to be forgotten by those 
who had expended so much eloquence upon its initiation. 

At the close of the war of the Union, the mines were in a nourishing 
condition. Great progress had been made. The forests were cleared, 
new mines opened, new discoveries made, while the old mines had 
attained to a sure footing and prosperous condition. Villages sprang 
up and grew amazingly, in population, wealth and refinement. High 
schools and churches occupied prominent positions on the upland terraces 
overlooking Portage lake. Far out in the country, splendid wagon roads 
were made to reach thriving inland settlements and the hitherto silent 
primeval forests gave way to the advance of civilization. 

382 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

The output of copper had exceeded the most sanguine expectations, 
and the entire community was growing rich out of the product of the 
proved valuable mines. 

Thus it is seen that the war instead of bringing ruin and disaster, as 
was at first anticipated, to those new, struggling, mining communities 
of the Lake Superior region was the cause of rapid development and 
great prosperity. 



[Bead at the annual meeting, Jane 3, 1891. j 

We have proposed a fifty years' view of the press of Michigan. If 
we extend the period by a decade no question of propriety will be 
interposed. Sixty years ago I think there was but one newspaper pub- 
lished in Michigan outside of Detroit; namely, the Oakland Chronicle, 
at Pontiac, published by Thomas Simpson. Simpson was a character 
in his way, and besides his proper name he was known far and near 
as "Lixabogee." The name smacks somewhat of Indian origin, 
although whence derived is uncertain. As a boy living with my 
father's family in the woods near Pontiac at the time, I remember his 
paper very well. It was the first newspaper that I ever saw. It was 
discontinued in the early thirties, I think by reason of financial embar- 
rassment, and Simpson removed to Saginaw where he died some years 

My own immediate connection with printing dates from the year 
1837, as an apprentice in Pontiac at the age of thirteen. There were 
then two papers published there, Democratic and Whig. In the sum- 
mer of 1838 a third paper was established the Jacksonian by 
Charles M. Eldredge and Solomon W. Denton. They had been 
employes on the " Oakland Herald," where my first work was done, but 
changes in that office had left them and me out, and J engaged with 
them. They had little or no money. Eldredge came to Detroit and 
gathered up some old type and a Ramage press. Upon getting their 
plant ready for work they required a strap for the press, and in the 
absence of money or credit with which to buy one they utilized a 
piece of bed cord. 


It will not be expected that I will trace the history of particular 
persons or journals, bat in passing let me place a brief epitaph upon 
the tomb of Charley Eldredge. He was a man of liberal education, and 
had acquired a fair knowledge of the practical work of printing. He 
was a man of fine mind and womanly kindness of heart. These quali- 
ties made him generally beloved, while a naturally frail frame and a 
physical infirmity in one of his limbs commanded a deserved sympathy. 
He was one whose kindness I have always remembered with gratitude, 
and whose goodly counsel and instruction, imparted at an impressible 
period of my life, have not, I hope, been wholly profitless. His name 
is connected with the proceedings of the Masonic grand lodge of 
Michigan, early in the decade of 1840. He has rested in peace these 
many years. 

It gives me pleasure also, in passing, to refer to Farmer's History of 
Detroit, as presenting a most valuable resume of the press history of 
that city from the earliest times. Some of the county histories also 
furnish full details of press history for their respective counties. A 
compilation of the history of the press of the State was proposed 
several years since under the auspices of the State press association, 
and some preliminary action was had, but I am not aware that any 
progress has been made in the matter. 

The mention of the Ramage press gives occasion to describe briefly 
that primitive printing machine, of which, at the time I write, there 
were a number in the State. The frame and platen were of wood. 
The bed piece was a marble slab fitted into a wooden frame or car- 
riage. The pressure was applied by a lever and screw. The platen 
was but half the size of the bed, so that two pulls were required to 
print one side of a four or five column paper. These were the distin- 
guishing features of the Ramage press as differing from the more 
modern hand lever press. The description is necessarily addressed to 
printers, who will understand the technical terms used. 

While on the subject of presses, I think I am correct in saying that 
the first power press brought to the State was a Hoe drum cylinder, 
bought by Bagg & Harmon, of Detroit, and first used by them in 
printing the revised statutes of 1846. It was subsequently taken to 
Lansing and used there for the State printing, and in course of time 
was purchased by the Lansing Journal, and so far as I know is still 
used in that establishment. The first rotary press introduced into the 
interior of the State, other than at Lansing, was a small jobber taken 
to Saginaw by Perry Joslin about the middle of the 1850 decade. 
Prior to the introduction of the rotary presses, the country printer 

384 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

printed everything, from his newspaper to a visiting card, on his single 
hand press. 

The editor of the olden time differed from him of the modern school. 
The future editor was supposed to be born when the boy took his first 
lessons in the art of printing. The printing office was the editor's 
Alma Mater. To graduate as an editor was the destiny of the " devil," 
to use a term that is bandied in derision, but which has a legitimate 
place in the craft, for when the earlier printers were supposed to be in 
league with the fabled prince of the lower regions, their apprentices, 
grimed as may be supposed by contact with the accessories of their 
trade, were regarded as veritable imps or representatives of the evil 
one himself. The editor was therefore, the embodiment of every require- 
ment from the editor down and from the devil up. He was type set- 
ter, job printer, foreman, business manager and pressman, as well as 
editor, and did not shrink from the duties of roller boy upon occasion. 
In some parts of the country, although I believe the system was never 
introduced in Michigan, when the weekly issue was out, the editor 
mounted a horse and distributed the papers to his subscribers through 
the country. 

The printer's apprentice usually boarded with his master and slept 
in a bunk in the office. He was required to do the office chores, to cut 
and carry up the wood for the use of the office, and to carry the papers 
in town, and in many cases he was required to cut the wood and do 
other chores at the house also. If in addition to this he did what was 
expected of him in the way of legitimate office work, he underwent a 
discipline not without its results in the formation of character. The 
mental discipline necessarily connected with his calling, and the oppor- 
tunities for reading, if improved, were supposed to fit him for the 
editor's chair. 

The representative newspaper of fifty years ago was a folio sheet, say 
twenty by twenty-eight inches, five columns to the page. Few families 
at that time took more than one paper, and this was supposed to con- 
tain the news of the world at large foreign, domestic, congressional, 
legislative and local. Besides which it was expected to have in each 
issue editorials on leading topics, especially in behalf of the party in 
whose interest the paper was published. This of course pre-supposes 
a knowledge of political history on the part of the editor. And then 
the readers usually looked for a story each week, a poem, and a column 
on agriculture. The collating of news and general matter, and the 
writing of editorials, was generally done by the editor at his house in 
the evening, as during the day he was expected to do his share of the 


mechanical work. Sometimes the oldest apprentice helped him out in 
his multifarious duties, and proved himself a better editor than the 
editor himself. A space in the paper was usually held open for the 
latest mails, and those who will examine files of old papers will find 
them adorned in many cases with the picture of a pen in a scroll 
bearing the word " postscript," or a horseman at full speed winding a 
post-horn. The latest news was looked for under these vignettes. 

I suppose we are never exactly satisfied with the things that we see 
around us. The young look forward to the good time coming, while 
those advanced in life are apt to look back and think that things were 
done better when they were young. The press of fifty years ago could 
not supply the demand of the present time, and anything in the nature 
of a comparison implying similarity, and having reference to the 
periods divided by the half century, would be absurd. But yet there 
are some characteristics of the press of the past that command our 
reverence and admiration. The editors were men of convictions. They 
were decidedly partisan. In their discussion of political questions and 
in their treatment of political opponents, they dealt hard blows. In the 
advocacy of their own party and its candidates they seemed rather 
inspired by a sentiment of chivalry than by a hope of pecuniary 
reward. They seemed to regard themselves as the responsible guard- 
ians of the public weal. To have accepted a retainer or a benefice 
that would have implied any deviation from the path of duty as thus 
understood, would have been regarded as rank corruption. 

" Here shall the press the peoples' rights maintain, 
Unawed by influence and unbribed by gain," 

was a favorite motto of the time, and not without its meaning. While 
public measures and public men were spoken of in terms of vigorous 
criticism, the foibles and misfortunes of persons were passed over, 
and even scandals, except when connected with grave crimes or with 
tragic consequences, were regarded, if not beneath the dignity of journ- 
alism, at least not within its legitimate scope. Sensational journalism, 
would have been held disreputable and degrading. 

While business men patronized the papers of both parties more or 
less in the way of advertising, every person was expected to prefer his 
own party paper in all cases where the patronage to be dispensed was 
to go to but one paper. Democratic stockholders in whig papers, or 
vice versa, was a thing unknown, and a proprietary representing in its 
personnel one political creed, with the editors representing another, 
would have been looked upon as a monstrosity. In short, the leading 

386 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

thought with the newspaper was, that it was the vehicle of opinions 
rather than an article of commerce, and that to maintain its character 
and consistency, it should avoid even the appearance of evil. This 
sentiment arose as a necessary counterpart of the inflexible character 
of the political creeds of the day. Those who know anything of the 
bitter partisanship of the anti-masonic period can well understand how 
its spirit should be perpetuated when parties came to divide on other 

I believe it to be true that where men pass that period of their 
lives in which impressions are the most strongly made, in devotion to 
some handicraft or to some favorite pursuit, they acquire for it a respect 
that colors their whole life and character. As they respect their calling, 
so will they respect themselves, their fellows, and their environment. 
In times past, as before stated, the editor was supposed to be of neces- 
sity a development from the rudimentary stages of the typographic art. 
The instances in which men not thus trained became editors were com- 
paratively rare. While, therefore, the editor may not have been a 
classical scholar, yet the school in which he was trained gave him a 
fund of general information and a technical knowledge that fitted him 
for the work that he was to do, and equally important, a sense of the 
responsibility and dignity of his office. That his good intentions some- 
times sadly depressed the scale when weighed against his financial 
returns, may be accepted as evidence that with so much else to learn, 
he failed in one essential element of all trades. 

The ethics of the trade demanded an adherence to given lines in the 
artistic makeup of the paper. Displayed advertisements and grotesque 
cuts were not allowed. Nor were advertisements in the form of ordinary 
reading matter permitted in connection with reading matter. The first 
departures from this rule were in the form of what was called " special 
notices" immediately preceding the advertisements. The editor some- 
times volunteered a " puff," but it must be of his own coinage, and not 
furnished to hand. 

I trust that I have not become over-warmed with enthusiasm in 
speaking of the early press. I am possibly writing more of the 
ideal than of the actual in all cases. The press of the past was not 
perfect by any means. Its faults should not be overlooked. In one 
respect, at least, it bore a taint that was not to its credit. A custom 
of speaking bitterly, malignantly and abusively of opponents and of 
competitors in the same field, was not inaptly characterized as "the 
leprosy of the press." But a ready explanation of this trait is to be 
found in the environment of the time. Party spirit was at its height. 



The editors of the day were the molders of public opinion. Their 
weapons were thoughts, clothed in terms vigorous if not always the 
most elegant. An intense individualism breathed through their columns. 
That they sometimes aimed their batteries recklessly and ruthlessly, 
was in the order of sequence in which they moved. The press of 
today shows a marked reformation in this respect. But with the per- 
sonalities that formerly marked as well as marred the press, has 
departed much of that individualism that gave to it its flavor and 

About the year 1835 and immediately following, a larger class of 
papers came into existence. The smaller in size were, say twenty-two 
by thirty-two inches, and the larger about twenty-four [by thirty-six. 
The introduction of iron hand lever presses made this practicable, and 
the organization of political parties, and the building of new towns, 
created a demand for them. Men who were interested in the growth 
of the towns, and those who were aspirants for political advancement, 
would combine in buying an outfit, and would make an offer to some 
printer to come and publish a paper for them. This was a good 
arrangement for the capitalist and the politician, but not usually a 
good thing for the printer. The supposition was that with the start 
thus given the paper, it could be published until the development of 
the country created a field for it that would make its business profita- 
ble. But the depression that followed disappointed these expectations. 
The business of the localities was not sufficient to sustain papers of 
the size that had been undertaken. In some cases, the papers were 
discontinued, the plant remaining idle. In others the publishers strug- 
gled on. The advertising patronage was meagre, and the printer could 
not afford to put in type each week matter enough to fill the paper. 
Hence he would allow advertisementts to run long after their time. 
This of course demoralized the market. In making a contract the 
advertiser would say, as a reason why he should be given nominal 
rates, "why, you want something to fill your paper." Contracts were 
freely made at thirty dollars per year for a column, and in many cases 
at twenty dollars. Compounders of patent medicines at the east took 
advantage of the situation and made contracts at much lower rates. 
These contracts were settled through the local druggists, by which 
means the terms became known, and still further demoralized the home 

During the early part of the decade of 1840, eastern periodicals 
began to come in competition with the local press, and the press itself 
gave them their chief advantage. Tempted by the offer of an exchange 

388 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

in consideration of publishing a long prospectus (which he could run 
through the year to help fill his paper) the local publisher became the 
agent for telling his readers that they could get a paper vastly cheaper 
and better away from home than he could make for them at home. 
The local press therefore suffered by comparison in the estimation of those 
who should have been its supporters. Few publishers but would have 
sold their entire circulation for so much ready money as would have 
paid for a year's supply of white paper. But for the small amount of 
job printing that came to hand, for which the printer was enabled to 
command fair prices, many a local paper would have gone by the 
board. A standing advertisement at the head of many papers read like 
this : " Wood, and all kinds of country produce wanted on subscrip- 
tion at this office." Notwithstanding which the printer was usually 
short, both of wood and produce. It was a rare thing to see a man 
come into the office and pay his subscription in cash. So that the 
country printer's path was not a flowery one, and was made none the 
more so by being told, on presenting his bill to the man who was 
three or four years in arrears, and who insisted on a deduction, that 
he "only subscribed for the paper in the first place to help it along." 

With the improvement of the country and the gradual recovery from 
the former period of depression, the latter portion of the 1840 decade 
was more favorable to the press, yielding fairly living, though not, as 
a rule, remunerative returns. There may be said to have been a con- 
tinuing prosperity from this time to the war period, which we shall 
make the starting point for some subsequent comments. 

There is one element that vitally affected the financial interests of 
the local press that should be mentioned in this connection. The spec- 
ulative movement that marked the 1830 decade brought eastern capital- 
ists to the State in large numbers as purchasers of government lands. 
The reaction and the period of depression that followed, left these 
lands practically valueless for the time being, their owners in many 
cases preferring to abandon them rather than be to the trouble and 
cost of keeping track of them and paying taxes. These lands were 
returned as delinquent for taxes each year, and were advertised and 
sold. The publication of the delinquent tax lists in the several counties 
was a bonanza to the papers selected for the purpose. The job was 
worth scarcely less than three hundred dollars in any county, and in 
some counties it was worth five times that sum. It was cash in a lump, 
and formed the basis of a small fortune for a number of publishers. 

Up to 1842 the treasurers of the several counties were the dispensers 
of this patronage, but in that year the law was so changed as to place 


it in the hands of the auditor general. The State administration was 
then democratic, and as the treasurers in a number of the counties were 
of opposite politics, 'the democrats were charged with having made the 
change for political reasons, so as to give the entire patronage to the 
democratic press. I cannot speak with absolute certainty, but I am 
strongly inclined to the opinion that this change was from the county 
to the State system of dealing with delinquent taxes, that has since at 
various times been a subject of controversy. The effect of the change 
was to strengthen the democratic press, which was thus enabled to 
sustain iteelf in most of the counties, while the whig papers that had 
enjoyed the patronage were in many cases compelled to suspend, although 
in some cases their publishers experienced a change of heart concur- 
rently with the change in the law. In many counties there were no 
papers puplished, the resident population not being sufficient to main- 
tain a paper regularly. The non-resident lists in these counties were 
correspondingly large, and their publication the more profitable, and in 
these cases it was quite common for some neighboring printer to 
establish a paper temporarily. This practice led to the enactment of a 
law providing that a paper must have been regularly published for at 
least six months before it could be designated to publish the tax lists. 
The democratic papers enjoyed the perquisite until the political change 
in 1854, since which time it has fallen to the republicans. The last 
change in the State administration, however, again turns the scale. 

Taking the war period as a starting point, although the process was 
observable before that time, there has been a change in the character 
of the personnel of the press. With the development of the advanced 
or high school feature of our educational system, the printing office 
as an educational agency came to be less regarded. The ambition that 
had formerly looked to the printer's art, sought expression through the 
schools. The development of the country gave a comparative plenty of 
financial means that men were willing to invest in enterprises that 
promised positions of influence to themselves or to they* sons. The 
requirements of the trade also demanded larger resources for mechan- 
ical outfit. Expensive machinery had become an indispensable factor in 
this as in other lines of industry. Young men with only a practical 
knowledge of the trade for a capital were unable to command the nec- 
essary mechanical outfit to enable them to become publishers. The 
so-called distinction between capital and labor was observable in this as 
in other industries. Men in many cases became publishers and editors 
without the previous mechanical training that had formerly been 
regarded as essential. In some cases, too, the press received the over- 

890 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

flow from other professions. The functions of the editor, that formerly 
implied all that we have enumerated, have hence to a great extent 
become divided, the editorial and business departments having been 
divorced from the mechanical, while in the larger establishments the 
three departments form a clearly defined trinity. Journalism has 
become essentially a commercial pursuit. I am far from intimating that 
the press of today fails in a proper estimate of its relation to society, 
or of its responsibility as a guardian of the public weal. But its tone 
is made necessarily responsive to the counting room, which in many 
cases governs it entirely, while the editor is a mere hireling. * While it 
cannot be said that the press of today fails in the mechanical make up 
of its reading columns, the modern style of advertising testifies more 
clearly than anything else could do that its presiding divinity is labeled 
"commerce." Many of the Sunday papers of the day aim to cover the 
whole field of literature. But however ^excellent their literary character 
may be, it loses its relish when placed beside the hand-bill of some 
enterprising dealer in ready made clothing. And one could feel little 
inspiration to sip the nectar of the gods and distil it in the form of 
a poem that is to be sandwiched between the portrait of an oyster and 
a monkey, with a cigar in his mouth. 

But the newspaper press is not alone in the custom of giving prominence 
to extraneous matter in the form of advertisements designed primarily 
for commercial gain. Our eastern magazines of the highest pretensions 
carry on their exterior the trade mark of the cormorant commerce, and 
we are compelled to remove a world of rubbish before we can reach 
their marrow. 

The use of "ready print" matter, so-called, is a growth of the past 
thirty years. This plan would scarcely need to be enlarged upon with 
a view to a present understanding of it, but we are writing for the 
future as well as for the present, and with the improvements and 
changes of method that the future may bring, the commentator at the 
end of the next half century who shall write a fifty years' view, may 
be at a loss to know what " ready print" means. There are in Detroit, 
Chicago, and other large cities, establishments whose exclusive business 
it is to furnish to local papers, sheets ready printed on one side, contain- 
ing a digest of the general news of the day, and such miscellaneous 
matter as will fill one side of the paper. The sheets are forwarded in 
this form to the offices of publication, where, the other side is printed, 
containing local and other matter, local advertisements, etc. These 
printed sheets are furnished at a very small advance over the actual 
cost of paper, so that papers are published much more cheaply than 


where the entire matter is put in type at the office of publication. 
This system has been of great advantage to local publishers. It is not 
only a direct saving in the matter of expenses, but it cuts away an 
amount of dead space that they would otherwise have to fill with 
advertising at ruinous rates, thus enabling them to put better prices on 
the space at their disposal. The plan has also led to a very great 
increase in the number of papers published, as local papers are now 
found in every town of a few hundred inhabitants places that could 
not support a paper but for the economy of manufacture that the ready 
print method affords. 

Another method that is already supplanting the ready print to some 
extent is the use of plate matter. The facility with which stereotyping 
is now done, makes it possible to reproduce, in the form of plates, mat- 
ter that is once put in type, very quickly and very cheaply. These 
plates are sent by express to local publishers, and are made up with 
other matter, and printed on their own presses. Plates that will make 
a page of an ordinary newspaper are furnished for about a dollar and 
fifty cents. The same matter, if put in type at the office of publication, 
would cost from six to eight dollars. 

But both the ready print and the plate method are destructive of a 
certain individuality that formerly characterized the newspaper. Under 
the old system, when the editor took up an exchange, he was at once 
brought face to face with the brother editor through whose manipula- 
tion it was brought to light. Editors became acquainted with each 
other without ever having met. Even the selections reflected the per- 
sonal tastes, tendencies and peculiarities of the editor by whom they 
were made. But under modern methods the newspaper has lost much 
of its distinctive flavor, and (to use a vulgar comparison) has become 
much like "restaurant hash" it all tastes alike when it has any taste 
at all. The press of the large cities is not exempt from this feature 
in the use of what is called " syndicate matter," or matter furnished 
from a common source concurrently to papers in different cities. 

The distinctively local press has undergone an almost total transfor- 
mation. Fifty years ago, as the vehicle of news, it held a corresponding 
relation to the stage coach as a vehicle of transit. The stage coach 
was the best medium known for the purpose of travel, as the weekly 
or local newspaper was the best known medium for disseminating intel- 
ligence. But the railway has taken the place of the stage coach, and 
has evolved the omnibus as an adjunct. The metropolitan press as a 
disseminator of general news, has kept even pace with the railway, 
and holds a corresponding relation to it, while the local press is rele- 

392 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

gated to a mere omnibus service. But it is doing its best to fill the 
bill on this line. Local happenings are given much more fully than 
under the old regime. And this seems the field which the local press 
is destined to occupy, and to which it must of necessity be mainly 
confined. And yet there is one direction in which the voice of the 
local paper may and should be heard. The local editor is not debarred 
his right to think, and he may do his readers and the public at large 
a service by well-considered editorials on popular topics, and the col- 
umns of the metropolitan press may be enriched by their reproduction. 

The use of display headlines for news matter dates back less 
than thirty-five years. They were somewhat in use in the Detroit 
dailies prior to 1860, and as to their use by eastern dailies before that 
time my knowledge is deficient. The division in the democratic 
national convention in 1860 gave a marked stimulus to the practice, 
which received its full development during the war. While it is a 
typographical blemish, it is a feature of journalism that newspaper 
readers would now be unwilling to dispense with. The economy of 
time to the reader is beyond computation. A person familiar with the 
general drift of affairs will absorb the marrow of an entire newspaper 
page in a few moments by a glance at the headlines. They are an 
index to those things in which the reader may feel an interest, while 
as to other things they admonish him to pass them by. 

Cuts, including portraits and cartoons, as illustrations of reading 
matter in the daily press, are wholly modern. They are a feature also 
in plate matter now so largely used by the weekly and local press. 
Considered in connection with the display headlines, they suggest how 
much more readily impressions are conveyed by the newspaper column 
than in times past. It is an expression frequently and flippantly used, 
that we are living in a fast age, but it is none the less a vital fact 
that should have dignified recognition as among the potencies of the 
closing decade of the century. Our mission is that of the chronicler 
rather than the prophet, but who shall place a limit to the capabilities 
of the human mind in its concurrent development with those physical 
agencies and devices upon which and through which it acts? The cent- 
uries comprised by our calendar seem to have reserved their grandest 
fruition to be precipitated within the half century of which we write, 
and who shall say that the next century may not dwarf this most 
marvelous of epochs? Let us, in fancy, contemplate the time when 
intelligence shall be transmitted electrically, and thrown upon the con- 
sciousness as a panorama. Language is but a clumsy contrivance for 
conveying thought. The mind can comprehend thoughts and facts 


much more rapidly than they can be conveyed by this method. When 
the device shall be evolved that shall convey thought as a flash of 
light, it will find the human mind prepared for its advent. 

We could not dismiss our theme without some reference to the tele- 
graph in its relation to the press. The local press cannot be said to 
have been affected in any way appreciably by the telegraph. The rail- 
road has had more to do in this particular. It lays down the daily 
papers so quickly at the door of the hamlet that the occupation of the 
local weekly print as the purveyor of general news is gone. The telegraph 
may be said however to be in a great measure the life of the western 
daily. Without the telegraph, and with the railroad as a distribut- 
ing agent, the dailies in the cities removed from the eastern centers 
would be, with reference to eastern journals, very much in the same 
position that the local press is with reference to the western daily. But 
the telegraph gets ahead of the railroad, and transmits intelligence to 
all points where a daily can be maintained, and the dailies thus become 
the distributing agents within the range of their circulation. 

The railway and the telegraph together have been the principal agents 
in bringing about the transformation in journalism that is traceable dur- 
ing the half century. There must be added to these agencies however the 
facility of manufacture by means of improved appliances, to which we 
shall briefly advert further on. A single thought however upon those twin 
agents of modern civilization, the railway and the telegraph. Those 
persons who are at and below the age of twenty-five years have observed 
both in their present stage of development. How few are there how- 
ever who realize that they are both a development of the past fifty 
years. There were some short lines of railway in operation more than 
fifty years ago, but the development of the system, as such, has been 
substantially within that time. We cannot dwell upon its vastness, and 
can only invite the thoughtful to its contemplation. 

The telegraph is even more recent. It is not necessary in this con- 
nection to be exact as to the time when the first successful line was 
constructed, but as late as 1846 a miniature telegraphic apparatus was 
traversing Michigan and presented as an evening show to the curious. 
Ten years later than this the system was so imperfect that the 
reports to the Detroit papers frequently failed. The dispatches 
were meagre at best, and were carried under a special head which was 
frequently followed by the announcement: "No report line down." 
The man of fifty may reflect that at the time of his nativity the rail- 
way was but in its swaddling clothes, and the telegraph, which now 
encircles the world, was not born. 

394 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

A single word of comparison as to printing machinery. Less than 
fifty years ago the hand lever press was the most approved printing 
apparatus in use in Michigan. Two hundred impressions per hour was a 
fair average of its capacity. The modern newspaper press turns out papers 
printed on both sides and ready folded, as fast as a person can count, 
and the forms may be duplicated by stereotyping to any number and 
placed on additional presses, the work of stereotyping occupying but a 
few minutes. 

The typograph is a wholly modern device for doing the work of the 
compositor, but just now being introduced into some of the larger 
offices. It is claimed for it that with one operator it will do the work 
of three ordinary compositors. Its entire adaptability to the work is 
yet to be proven. Admitting that it will accomplish all that is claimed 
for it, we may be permitted a word of speculative inquiry as to its 
effect upon the local press and the smaller establishments generally. 
The tendency of all modern industrial economies is to concentration 
to a massing of forces. There need be no question as to the value of 
the typograph to large establishments, where continuous use will keep 
them in the best working order, and where regular practice will make 
the operator expert in their handling, presuming that its work can be 
made practical. But to the smaller offices, where one would scarcely 
be used more than two or three days in a week, and with probably no 
more than one person who would know how to operate it, with this 
one person liable to be absent or disabled at any time, it seems the 
reasonable presumption that the typograph would prove a detriment 
rather than a help. On the other hand, the advantage that they will 
give to the larger establishments will enable them to compete still more 
disastrously with the local press. It will still further show the process 
of the industrial revolution of the past fifty years, by which local 
mechanics in nearly every branch of industry have been driven out by 
factory and machine made commodities, of which the railways are the 
convenient distributing agents. 

My recollection of efforts to form a State association of editors and 
publishers goes back to about the year 1845. In the years immediately 
following there were similar efforts. There are records of these meet- 
ings extant in newspaper files of the time, but it would require a good 
deal of labor to look them up. A publishers' convention was held at 
Jackson, October 8, 1857, at which a publishers' association was formed. 
An adjourned meeting for the purpose of a more complete organization 
was appointed to be held in Detroit on the first Thursday of December 
following. A very successful meeting of the association thus formed 


was held at Ann Arbor. March 23 and 24, 1858, which was quite fully 
reported for the Detroit Advertiser, by Henry S. Clubb. One feature 
of the gathering was an interesting address by J. O. Balch, a printer 
and editor of the old school; and an evening banquet, participated in 
by the members of the association and citizens, is among the pleasant 
recollections of the event. The present State association is of more 
recent date, and its records will be a guide to the future chronicler. 

In the year 1840, according to the Sixth United States census, there 
were in Michigan but thirty-three periodical publications of all kinds. 
In 1850, there were fifty-eight publications, with an aggregate output, 
each issue, of 52,690 copies, and an annual output of 3,247,736 copies. 
The corresponding figures for 1860 were 118, 128,848, and 11,696,596, 
respectively. In 1870, 211, 253,744 and 19,686,978. In 1880, 464, 620,947 
and 46,659,470. The census figures for 1890 are not yet published, but 
there are now over six hundred periodical publications of all kinds in the 
State. In 1840, there were in the whole United States, but 1,631 pub- 
lications, so that Michigan, with her population in round numbers of 
two millions, has at this time nearly, if not quite, two-fifths as many 
publications as there were in the United States in 1840, with a popula- 
tion of seventeen millions. And considering the larger size of the 
publications of the present time and the number of outside publications 
that come into the State, it is safe to say that the people of Michigan 
absorb as large a quantity of reading matter as the people of the whole 
country did fifty years ago. 

In closing, let me pay a brief tribute to some of the men whose 
life work was begun as apprentices, and who, as editors, have done 
honor to the profession that should rank with the most honorable. 

Going outside of Michigan, it would be a sacrilege to pass over 
without mention the patron saint of the typographic art in the 
United States, Dr. Benjamin Franklin. Coming down to a later date, 
Horace Greeley is perhaps the best representative of the conscientious, 
fearless and vigorous printer-editor. Next to him may be mentioned. 
Thurlow Weed, editor, politican and diplomat. Very many men who 
have filled the highest positions of honor and trust in the country 
have been advanced to them through and from the printer's art and 
the editor's chair, including Schuyler Colfax, elected vice president of 
the United States in 1868. But we may not extend the list. 

The editor oldest in continuous service in Michigan is Aaron B. 
Turner, of the Grand Rapids Eagle, who did the entire typographical 
work on the first issue of that paper, and on Christmas day, 1844, 

396 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

worked off the first Dumber on a hand press.* Of others who have seen a 
continuous service of more than forty years may be mentioned Don C. 
Henderson of the Allegan Journal, Harvey B. Rowlson of the Hills- 
dale Standard, Francis H. Bankin of the Flint Citizen, L. W. Cole of 
the Albion Mirror, and Levi T. Hull of the Constantino Mercury, while 
competing with them on the same line are E. R. Powell of Stanton, 
"W. W. Woolnough of Battle Creek, and others that might be named. 

Of the retired editors, probably the oldest in years and in commence- 
ment of service, is Henry Gilbert, of Kalamazoo, who established the 
Kalamazoo Gazette about the middle of the 1830 decade. Next to him 
is George W. Pattison, now of Detroit, who established the first paper 
in Grand Rapids, " The Grand River Times," in 1837. The memories 
of both Mr. Pattison and myself are taxed to recall the following: 
Albert Chandler, of Coldwater; E. B. Pond, of Ann Arbor; 0. V. De 
Land, of Jackson; Merrills H. Clark, formerly of Grand Rapids, and 
later of Washington, D. C. ; Jabez Fox, now a clergyman in Washing- 
ton; Henry S. Clubb, formerly of Grand Haven, and later ministering 
to a congregation in Philadelphia; E. W. Barber, of Jackson; Milo D. 
Hamilton, now of Washington, D. C., and A. W. Hovey, of Pontiac. 

We reserve for the close the longer list those who have gone 
over to the majority. Among them we find names well known in the 
early history of the State. Col. Daniel Munger, a Chesterfield in man- 
ners and an enclyclopedia in politics, author of "Political Landmarks;" 
John H. Harmon, the influential politician, whose last days were not 
his brighest, and who was wont to say somewhat bitterly, in his epi- 
grammatic way, " the best use you can put an old man to is to take 
him out and shoot him;" Sheldon McKnight, who pioneered the route 
to the upper peninsula; Morgan Bates, twice elected lieutenant governor 
of the State; E. G. Morton, of Monroe, a State senator; John N. Inger- 
soll, of Owosso and Corunna, also a State senator. Others of the old 
regime, well known in the ranks of the profession, were John P. Shel- 
don, George L. Whitney, Henry Barnes, E. J. Roberts, Wm. Harsha, 
Ray Haddock, George Dawson, Henry Starkey, and Cornelius Wendell, 
of Detroit; W. F. Storey, of Detroit, later of Chicago; Volney Hascall, 
of Kalamazoo; Henry C. Bunce, Seth Lewis, and J. O. Balch, of Marshall; 
George W. Ranney and R. S. Cheney, of Jackson; Thomas M. Ladd 
and E. P. Gardiner, of Ann Arbor; Moses Hawks and C. B. Bassett, 
of Allegan; R. W. Jenney, of Flint, and Jacob Barnes, of Detroit 
and Grand Rapids. 

* Some recent newspaper mention (March 1892), gives to D. Cook, of the Niles Mirror, the credit of 
fifty years continuous editorial service. 


There are others, both living and dead, equally worthy of mention 
with those I have named, but whom memory does not now suggest. 
For any failures or omissions I hope the living will not blame me the 
dead I know will not. Let those of us who, in the journey of time, 
have neared the broad river whose farther shore is invisible, await 
the approach of the phantom ferryman serenely and with patience. 
Whether, at the journey's end, we shall be greeted by those who have 
gone before and who await our coming, or memory be forever drowned 
in the waters of Lethe, we cannot certainly know. Standing here today 
on this historic ground, we may at least plant a spray of laurel to the 
memory of a class of men who in their day contributed in no small 
degree to the growth, the development, the culture and thft grandeur 
of the State. 



I have told the story, in former volumes of these collections, of the 
log school-house era, of the branches of the University, of our union or 
graded school, which took the place of the branch schools; and I have 
written of the rise and development of the University the crowning 
structure in the educational system of our State. This done, thinking 
that the early history of our schools had been given, I had laid down 
my pen to be resumed at leisure on some other theme connected with 
the labor of the historian. But, on second thought, I found that 
although the history of our public schools had been outlined, yet the 
history of an important class of our schools had not even been glanced 
at. Although not a part of our public school system as founded and 
developed by the State, yet the old academy and seminary had been 
very important factors of higher education in Michigan. What public 
zeal sometimes fails to do, is often espoused and pushed forward to 
success, by individual enterprise and wealth. The private school, or 
those not sustained by public authority, not only supplied the early 
educational wants in our State, but they were the harbinger of better 
things for advanced education among our people. 


In the early period of our history, when we had no universities, and 
but few colleges, the academy and seminary were most valuable and 
useful institutions of learning to the American people. In some states 
where there were no colleges, they answered for the college, or for all 
the higher schooling a state or community might desire, or be able to 
obtain. Yale college was merely an academy for the first fifty years 
of its existence. Thus these old classic seats of learning, may be said 
to have started the American youth in their higher education, answer- 
ing the purposes of a college at first, and eventually becoming the pre- 
paratory school that led to the college. They came into existence when 
learning was considered indispensable to the advancement of American 
civilization,,, when there was an enthusiasm on the part of the people 
for good schools, and on the part of parents for a fuller education of 
their children. Consequently the environments of these old classic 
schools were such as to awaken and inspire the teacher in his calling, 
and the pupil in his studies. The very atmosphere about them was 
stimulating to intellectual and literary culture. To "have been a pupil 
of Plato made one desirous of Plato's learning. To have been a pupil 
in the old academy made one desirous for the higher and ampler 
attainments of learning. Much has been written lately by eminent 
men of the day about what had been " the formative influence" in their 
lives. Some giving the influence of a person or books, or certain cir- 
cumstances, and so on. Few agree, or seem to have been helped by 
similar influence, or aid from others. This probably is natural, we 
1 are so differently constituted. Philip of Macedon thanked the gods that 
his son Alexander was born when there was an Aristotle to teach him, 
Fox said that Burke was better than the whole Bodleian library to him. 
All that I am as a reformer, says William Lloyd Garrison, I owe to 
Benjamin Lundy. Garfield gave Mark Hopkins credit for all the good 
he had achieved as a scholar and as a man. De Quincey says that the 
"Lyrical ballads" and the study of the "Ancient Mariner" was the 
means of developing his mind. We might multiply instances to illus- 
trate what men have found to be the formative influence in their lives. 
Let the above suffice. But who will ever compute how much the youth 
of our State are indebted to the formative influence of the instruction 
they received from the old academy and seminary, during the period of 
their existence in Michigan. How many can say, " I owe all the high 
and noble attainments of my life to those old seats of learning." 

A list of the names of those old schools will recall many a pleasing rec- 
ollection among the surviving students who attended them forty or fifty 
years ago. The list is taken from those schools that were established 


under the general law in relation to incorporating academies in 1839. 
They are as follows, with the date of their incorporation: Spring Arbor 
seminary, incorporated March 23, 1835. Michigan and Huron institute 
at Kalamazoo, March 21, 1837. Kalamazoo literary institute, January 
29, 1838. Tecumseh academy, April 2, 1838. St. Philips college, 
Detroit, April 16, 1839. Grass Lake academy and teachers' seminary, 
April 4, 1839. Marshall female seminary, April 11, 1839. Marshall 
college, April 16, 1839. Allegan academy, February 2, 1843. Gull 
Prairie seminary, April 4, 1844. Grand Bapids academy, March 11, 
1844. Utica female seminary, March 11, 1844. Ann Arbor female 
seminary, March 25, 1845. Ypsilanti seminary, March 24, 1845. Adrian 
seminary, January 30, 1846. Clinton institute, February 12, 1846. Ver- 
montville academical association, April 28, 1846. White Pigeon academy, 
March 12, 1847. Raisin institute, March 27, 1847. Howell institute, 
March 17, 1848. Leoni seminary, March 29, 1848. Olivet institute, 
February 22, 1848. Woodstock manual labor institute, February 19, 
1848. Oakland female seminary, March 30, 1849. Tecumseh literary 
institute, February 23, 1849. Clarkson academical institute, March 25, 
1850. St. Mary's academy, Bertrand, Berrien county, April 2, 1850. 
Young ladies seminary, Monroe, February 18, 1850. Lawrence literary 
institute association, Van Buren county, April 2, 1850. Niles union 
Hull association, April 2, 1850. The eight branches of the University, 
whose history we have given in volume five of these collections, 
may also be considered a part of the old academy system, although 
under State authority. Their curriculum was about the same as that 
of the academy, and most of them had been academies before they 
became branches of the University, and they became academies again 
when they ceased to be branches. 

To call the roll of these old academies and seminaries would be to 
tell where a great many of Michigan's best men and women were 
trained for their parts in life. Emerson says, one of the grandest 
things in this world is to build a man. Those old schools then were 
engaged in a grand work, for they builded well in scholarship and 
character, as many of the noblest men and women in this State, who 
received their education in them, can attest. 

The academy and seminary have been the conservators of classic 
learning in an age smitten with the craze for wealth, an age that would 
narrow, or reduce the curriculum of the public school down to its mere 
practical, materialistic ideas of education. And, as it is the practical 
business man in every community who would do this, we naturally 
inquire, " who is this business man, this ' Philistine' who would strike 

400 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1891. 

out the classic learning and culture from the curriculum of our public 
high school?" As I say, we would like to know who he is, I give 
the following graphic sketch of him: 

There is probably no good American citizen of regular occupation 
(and good citizens, almost to a man are regularly occupied) who has 
not observed and deplored the fact, without strenuous effort to the con- 
trary, that his life is but a mere passing and repassing over the same 
familiar ground. The busy man whether lawyer or merchant, clerk or 
cashier, soon learns the shortest way from his door to his business, 
and the chances are many to one that he will always go and' come by 
it. Day by day his feet are slowly wearing away the pavement in ruts 
scarcely wider than those of the long silent chariot wheels of Pompeii; 
were he stricken with sudden blindness he could follow that hurried 
course in the dark, and as the landmarks along it are so hackneyed 
that he has ceased to regard them, he might as well be blind to every 
non-obstructive thing. Study his face and you will find that he is 
absorbed in his task, whatever it may be. Question him about any 
matter that does not immediately concern that private interest, and he' 
will plead in excuse for his ignorance, often with a sigh of regret, that 
he has no time for side issues. Now in nine cases out of ten this is 
not strictly true, though he has made the statement so often that he 
really believes it, and under oath in the witness-box would solemnly 
state it again. He does not know what is the matter with him, but 
you can take your oath, if need be, that the patient old scape-goat of 
the scythe and hour-glass is less to blame for it than himself. He has 
simply fallen a victim to the money getting habit, a vice like opium 
eating or any other. Its early symptoms, a passion for overwork a 
total indifference to social and other diversions, the delights of literature- 
and learning. Such men are not qualified to say what the curriculum 
of a school should be, or to be trustees of a school, or to be 
trusted with the cause of education in any part of the country. Yet 
we find them among our school officers, from those of a township up 
to regents of the University. 

But again, in observing the tendency of the age, its practical char- 
acter is one of its most marked features. Our advance is all practical, 
and at the expense of imagination, fancy, poetry and genuine love of 
literature. " Natural philosophy, or science, has fixed everything. The 
stars have no astrology, the trees no dryades, the streams no naiades, 
the moonlight no fairies. The old elements are destroyed; air consists of 
oxygen, nitrogen. We have analyzed everything. Even in agriculture, 
the grass is a compound, the flowers owe their fragrance or their 


beauty to a litte more alkali or a little less carbon. All the sciences 
have but taken us behind the scenes, made us acquainted with nature's 
laboratory, and given us a full command of all her powers. We can do 
everything but create. The tendency of all this is utilitarian, selfish, 
money making. The effect of all this is utilitarianism, a complete knowl- 
edge of human nature, and a control of its powers. The consequences 
of a great amount of physical enjoyment, but a gradual deterioration 
of the fine arts, especially of poetry, from the destruction of its sources. 
The graces alone remain of ancient mythology.*" Conversation has 
been eliminated from social life. People do not converse now-a-days, 
they merely talk of the business matters of the day. All this comes 
from the extinction of leisure from the homes and haunts of man. 
For the same reason letter writing has been relegated to the region of 
the lost arts. For when you suppressed the time once given to the 
enjoyment of epistolary correspondence, the pen of the letter writer 
was handed over to the accountant who handles the day-book and 
ledger. Life has thus been narrowed down to a mere business routine 
and man in fitting and adapting himself to it, has been mentally so 
overhauled and reconstructed, by the training process of the schools, 
that he is not his former self. His imagination is suppressed, genius 
has been denied him. Howells says that genius is the rankest mis- 
nomer, that man has no intellectual endowment higher than talent. 
And as for romance, and the emotions, with feelings poetic and 
fancy's glow, they have all been relegated, by the late school of real- 
ists, to an outgrown, and effete past. And poor human nature thus 
disinherited of the regal qualities she once possessed, finds herself in 
the condition of a trained athlete, reduced to the roll of " winning 
stakes " in a practical moneyed race of life. Yes, " the Philistines are 
upon us." Listen to one of them, Chauncey Depew, that popular post- 
prandial speaker, who lately said in the federal club in New York city : 
" The time has passed when the songs of the people any longer stir its 
enthusiasm or direct its policy. We have passed the singing period. 
The newspaper, in the universal discussion twice a day of the princi- 
ples and the measures of the hour, has relegated melody to the bard 
of the past. And the people who have no time to read editorials and 
are no longer moved by song, are taught by phrase, epithet and 
epigram," infer entially, I suppose, as struck off in the sparkling heat 
of a speech " across the walnuts and the wine." If this be so, if we 
are so hurried, the libraries must be closed, and all text-books, save 

*S. S. Prentiss. 


402 ANNUAL MEETING, 1891. 

those of maxims and proverbs, may as well be striken from the Uni- 
versity registers. But Mr. Depew, as E. C. Steadman (from whom we 
get this reference to him) says " is like a man who stands in the 
undertow of a rising tide, crying out 'the waters are falling?" It is 
these practical men the " Philistines " of our educational system, who 
would reduce the public high school down to the grade of the common 
school, thus depriving the people of all the advantages of higher 
culture from their home schools. 

Thus the spirit of unrest, to push on, to stow away wealth in coffers, 
or hard, dry, business facts in the mind, governs almost all the 
affairs in this life. The man who does not have the " get there stroke" 
in his business, the teacher who does not have it in his profession, 
the student in his studies, the minister in his pulpit, is considered too 
slow for this fast age. Is it not time we called a halt here, that we 
reconsidered this matter of hurry and routine, especially in regard to 
school room work, and study? And that we called leisure back into 
the school room c