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KIT* BID, Moordlnf to Act of Congrw*. in the year 1SC1, l y 


In DM Clerk's Offlc of the DUtrlct Court of tho fi ,:tr,l Ftatoi for the 
Bouthero DUtrlct of New York. 



A MILITARY dictionary which, with technical definitions, com- 
prises information on actual service ; on law, government, regu- 
lation, and administration ; on raising and keeping troops, and^ 
on makeshifts and improved materiel^ is much needed ; and the 
design of the present work is in some measure to occupy that 
gap in military literature. 

In legal articles, plain decisions from constitutional ex- 
ponents of law have been accepted as conclusive ; but w r hen 
without such a guide, an endeavor has been made to set forth 
the true intent and meaning of laws in dispute, by simple, clear, 
and logical annotations. Much interesting law matter has been 
abridged from Prendergast's Law relating to officers of the 
army ; and in respect to courts-martial, actual service, improved 
materiel, &c., &c., the author is indebted to many standard 
authorities, sometimes only designated by name in different ar- 
ticles ; but, in such cases, referred to fully by the titles of their 
works in the list of abbreviations which follows this preface. 

It is only deemed necessary to add, that the work was not 
prepared in view of existing disturbances, but was begun some 
years ago, and that the few additions made since it was put in 
the hands of the publisher in January last, refer only to im- 
provements in materiel. 



Act. Act of Congress of the United States. Reference embraces date of act. 
Aide Memoire to the military sciences framed from contributions of officers of 

different services, and edited by a Committee of the Corps of Royal Engineers 

in Dublin. 

Aide Memoire d'Artillerie a 1'usage des Officiers d'Artillerie. Paris, 1855. 
Art. (Articles of War,) included in an act of Congress for establishing rules and 

articles for the government of the armies of the United States, approved April 

10, 1806. Reference embraces the number of the article. 
BARDIN. Dictionnaire de l'Arme"e de Terre, ou Recherches Historiques sur 1'Art et les 

Usages Militaires des Anciens et des Modernes. Par le General Bardin, &c. 

Ouvrage termine" sous la direction du General Oudinot de Reggio. 6,337 pp. 

Paris, 1851. 

BAUCHER. Method of Horsemanship. Philadelphia, 1851. 
BENTON. Ordnance and Gunnery. By Capt. J. G. Benton, U. S. Ordnance. 
BLACKSTONE. Commentaries, with Notes. 4 vols. London, 1844. 
BOTTVIER. Law Dictionary adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United 

States. By John Bouvier. Philadelphia, 1839. 
BRANDS; Encyclopedia of Science, Literature, and Art. 
BUGEAUD. Apergus sur quelques Details de la Guerre. Par le Marshal Bugeaud. 

Ibid. Instructions Pratiques. Bugeaud. 
BURNS. Naval and Military English-and-French Technical Dictionary. By Lieut.- 

Colonel Burns, Royal Artillery. London, 1852. 
CAVALLI. Memoire sur divers Perfectionnements Militaires. Par J. Cavalli, Colonel 

d'Artillerie, &c., &c. Traduit de I'ltalien. Paris, 1856. 
COUTURIER. Dictionnaire Portatif et Raisonne. Par le General Le Couturier. Paris, 

DE HART. Courts-martial. By Captain W. C. De Hart, 2d U. S. Artillery. 


D* U IWUqw des Troto Amw : Infcnterie, Caralerie, Artillcric. Par C. 
T, UML-GolOMl, *e., Ac. 
DrU* N'aral Gonoery. By Om. Sir Howard Douglas. 

deTartiqae. Par le General Dufour. 
r.-Dige* of Laws of the United Slate*. 

Jr. By oOeen of the Ordnance in Small-Arms. 1 or,, (official.) 
FAT* Hbloirv eft Tactiqoe dM TroU Arrows et phi* Partk-i/.i; ivm.-i.t <! rArtilloric 

d CbnpafM. Par lid. Fare, Capiuinc d'Artillerie. 

FoMLAXit . The Administration and Organization of the British Army, with es- 
pecial inference to Supply and Finance. By Edward Harrington de Fonblanquc, 
Art. ComlMaryGenermL London, 1858. 

CAITWI. The Art of TrareL By Francia Galton. London, 1860. 
OlMOP. The ArUUcrUf. Manual. By Copt. John Gibbon, 4th U. S. Artil! 
0<iO> TTItMl of Law of the United States. 

OVUIOT. UfUaUoo et Administration Militairo, ou Programme Detailli des 
IUtttis Eoseignees a 1'Ecolc Impcriale de 1'Eiat Major. Par M. Uon GuU- 


HAltlOT. Btatfatiqoe llilitaire, ct Rrcherches sur 1'Orpranization dcs Armces tran- 
gerM. Par C. T. Hatllot, Chcf-d'Escadron d'Artilleric. 

Dmst. Ororf and Hctzel'a Military Laws of the Uuited States. 

BOOOIL Military Law Authorities. By Lieut-Colonel Hough, Deputy Judge-advo- 
cate General, ic. 

H TDK. Elementary Principles of Fortification. By John Hyde, Professor Military 

Jm. Practical Treatise on Attack and Defence. By Colonel Jcbb, Royal 


Jom jii. Tableau Analitique. 

Kt*ot RT Artillrrr and Infantry. By Captain Kinpsbury, Ordnance Department. 
U OtAiw. DictkNinaire Miliuire Portatif. Par Lc Gmn-l. 
MicoMa, CoorUHnartial By Major-General Ma comb. New York, 1 
McCtm AV Military Commisrion in Europe. Report by Cajxain McClrllan, 

V. a Army. 

-Field Fortification*. By Professor Mahan, U. 8. Military Academy. 
M*TO and Morttoji. Army and Nary Pension Laws. Washington, 1852. 
J/.^riW dea (Meiers d'Infanterie et de Caralrrir. Paris, 1846. 
MtMSjciL Digs* of Military Laws. By Major Mordecai, U. S. Army. 
K*rotaov MaxioM of War. 

of Federal Courts. 
r The Law relating to Officers in the Armv. Hv H.-m is Prendcrgmst 

of Uocol.'. Ion, Esq., Ihrrirtrr-at -U w. 

de TOfflcicr d'Etat Major rn rampapno. Pnr M. Do 
<TEut Major, Aidc^e^amp dc son Ex. le Marechal 


RUFFIN. Manuel d'Administration et de Comptabilit6 a 1'usage des Ofliciers des 
Compagnies ou Escadron dea Corps dlnfanterie et de Cavalerie. Par M. 

SCOTT. Orders and Correspondence of Gen. "Winfield Scott, Congressional Docu- 
ments, &c. 

SKINNER. Youatt on the Horse. By Skinner. 

VATTEL. Law of Nations. Philadelphia, 1817. 

WHEATON. Elements of International Law. Philadelphia, 1846. 

YOUATT. Youatt on the Horse. By Skinner. 


ishable with death, or otherwise, as a court-martial shall direct ; (Art. 52.) 

ABATIS (French) are rows of felled trees deprived of their 
smaller branches, the remainder sharpened to a point, and employed 
for defence. Abatis should be placed so as not to be exposed to the 
fire of artillery. In redoubts or intrenchments, they are usually fixed 

FIG. 1. 

in an upright position against the counterscarp, or at the foot of the 
glacis, the plane of which is broken so as to conceal the abatis from 
the view of the enemy, and to guard against obstructing the musketry 
fire from the parapet in their rear. 

FIG. 2. 

Abatis are also an excellent means of blocking up a road, when 



treeagrow on cither side. If branches arc pn.ju.rly placed, and inter- 
twined one within another, their diM-s:-::. MI. lv di:' 
An abali* will ttUu.- auxiliary 
to thedefeifv I" houses or Isolated posts, if jndieiously placed within 
range of mu*kt; . When close in front of tin- \\ind..\vs on tho 
ground Boor, or used as a cover to the entnmee doo r. it \\ill bo ex- 
ttwnely difficult fur the en ; int.. t!..- buil 

ABSENCE, WITH LEAVE. -lonel ' "tlu-r o!nV,-r C..TH- 

UHTC^ting a regiment, troop, or company, and actually iju::!-:. :..! \\ith 

>ughs to iimi-comm 
numU*r,an(l for so long a time, as ho shall ju.lj. tobemosl 

e pood of the service; and a captain or oth.-r inf-r'..-r ..ilurr, 
commanding a troop or company, or in : 

of the United States, (his li r lu-inn ul.s.-nt.) may pvr furlouirlis 

to non-commissioned officers or soldiers for a tinu- ; 
days in six in->nth. but not inure than two prrs. , . t<. I.,- ab i;i at tlu- 
Mine Ume, excepting some extraordinary occasion should require it ; 

Hie law docs not specify by whom leaves < t may bo gi 

to oommiio?iotl officers, and tho omission has bcrn supprud 1>\ orders 
of the Prc*id. 


Punished, by sentence of a court-martial, according to tho nat 
the V 41, 42, 43, and 4 1.) 

ABUSES AND DISORDERS. Every commnndir h dl 

ksrpgofMl unli-r, and, to the utmost of his po\\ m all abn^. 

disorders v l>e committed by any oflicor or soldier 't'his r..m- 

msnd. If, ii] MID r.. m plaint made to him of officers or soldiers b, atinr l 
or otherwise ill-treating, any person, of distnrbinjr fairs <T m.n-kots, or 
ofeommittinjz any kinds of riots, t.. the dis.jui. th,- of il,. . f the 

i .. i . ommmdi i- shall refoa or on i t.. M 

Jttstlos done to the offend- r -r offcn.lrrs and reparation ma V t<> tho 
party or parties injn- i' th<- off nd. i '* pay -hall (liable 

him or them, he shall, upon proof th r. of. be ra-hi. r>-<\. or -t! 
punijihrd. :rt-martial shall dis- 

AC HM Military Aoadomy of th 

located at West Point, N. ubjeet 

to the rule* and art 1 !, , , n- 

fWariotlsl ation of the i ..f the 

^atri row. E.I- Mtativn 

at the Military Am -it besides the number HO appointed, the 


President of the United States annually appoints ten cadets from at 
large. The Academy furnishes about forty graduates a year, who 
receive commissions of the lowest grade in some one of the different 
corps of the army, provided vacancies exist. If there be no vacancies, 
the graduates are attached to different corps as supernumerary officers 
of the lowest grade, not exceeding one to each company. The Military 
Academy was founded by act of Congress in 1802. Its present high 
reputation is mainly due to Colonel Sylvanus Thayer, who did not be- 
come Superintendent until 1817. 

At the breaking out of the war of 1812, there were about seventy 
graduates of the Academy holding commissions, and but little knowledge 
of the military art and of the science of war prevailed. At the breaking 
out of the Mexican war, the officers of our army were mostly graduates 
of the Academy. Every branch of the service was filled with men of 
talent and military information ; volunteer corps raised during the 
war sought and obtained as their commanders graduates of the Mili- 
tary Academy. General officers from political life appointed staff* offi- 
cers from the same class. In all positions which the graduates held 
during that brilliant war, the honor and glory of the United States were 
sustained, and the great usefulness of an institution, which annually costs 
little, if any more than the maintenance of one frigate afloat, was satis- 
factorily demonstrated to the people of the United States. (See SUPER- 
INTENDENT.) Military Academies, modelled upon that at West Point, 
have also been established within their respective limits by the States 
of Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama, 
and perhaps others. 

ACCOUNTS. Officers accountable for public money or property 
render quarterly accounts to the Treasury Department, if resident in 
the United States ; and every six months, if resident in a foreign coun- 
try. Additional returns may be required by the Secretary of War, 
if the public interest requires it; (Act Jan. 31, 1823.) Every officer 
or agent offending against the foregoing provisions may be dismissed 
by the President of the United States; (Act Jan. 31, 1823.) The 
method of rendering accounts by Administrative Agents of the appli- 
cation of all public money and material passing through their hands, 
has been prescribed by regulations made pursuant to law. The object 
of a system of accountability should be, in respect to the army, to 
obtain plain statements of the operations and results of Military Ad- 
ministration. The system should be neither complex nor cumbrous, 
but should be adapted to a state of war ; and while carefully guarding 
against losses to the Government, should, at the same time, by prompt 


through government agents, present with armies in the 
with accumulations of papers, which manifestly subject 
Ire officers to great losses, evm if they were not frequently 
yean before obtaining a settK nu-nt of their accounts. 

By the present system of accountability it is prescril i : 1. That 
all accounts whatever in which the United States arc shall 

be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department ; (.! 

It is made the duty of the second and third auditors of the 
Tliiasiiij. to receive and examine all military accounts ; to receive from 
the second comptroller the aoo nuts \\hieh shall lu\e l-.-.-n finally ad- 
justed; to preserve such accounts; to record all warrants drawn by 
the SrcrcUry of War ; and moke siu-h rep< .rts on Hie business o> 
to them as the Secretary of War may deem necessary. and remf. 
the service of his Department ; ( Jr/Maivh 3, 1817.) 3. It is tho duty 
of the second comptroller to examine all accounts settled by tin- - 
and third auditors, and certify the balances ariMiiu' theivon to tho Seo- 
reUry of War; to countersign all I-M! warrants drawn by th- 
of War ; to report to & Secretary of War the official forms to be issued 
w the different offices for disbursing the public money, and (lie it 
and form of k I staling the accounts of the persons employed 

therein ; and it shall also bo tho Comptroller's duty to superintend 
the preservation of tho public accounts subject to his n \ 
March 3,1 

The great obv 'he simplification and prompt set t lenient of 

army accounts interposed by law consist : 1. In tin- requirement that 
military accounts shall be adjusted and settled at the Treasury I ). -part- 
ment, instead of being settled by the \\ ar D.-partm.-nt. and n ; 
to the Treasury ; 2. In making the second and third auditors and - 
comptroller officers of the Treasury instead of officers of the War De- 
partment ; 3. In authorizing the second lish forms 

for keeping and stating military account juiiin^ him iu 

those matters to conform to th.- directions of tho Secretary of War ; and, 
4. In withholding from the War Department the ; appointing 

gents to accompany armies in the field for the prompt settlem 
account*. With the changes of law here suggested, it would i 
the^ar Department, thr iri<>ns rjrad. s i" the leyera] admiiiis- 

trative staff departments, to establish a simple syst- -untability 

with requisite means of control and supervision, whieh would o] 

to the povernment, ami to individual ajrenK. I'nder 

sent systeifk there in. and must b, . d.le similarity in tho 

4uU0a of all grades of the staff ad 1 1 irtmeota (CJonsult 




Cours d' Administration, par VAUCHELLE, Tntendant Militaire ; Cours 
d* Etudes sur /' Administration Militaire, par ODIER : Memorial des 
Officiers d'lnfanterie et de Cavalerie, 1846.) 

ACCOUTREMENTS. Black leather belts, &c., furnished by the 
ordnance department. 







1 10 










Waist belt private's 



Waist belt plate . . . 








Sabre belt 

1 03 

1 35 



Sword belt 

1 00 

Sword belt plate 


Sword belt, non-commissioned officer's and musician's. . . 
Sword belt plate do do. 
Waist belt do. do. 
Waist belt plate do. do. 
Carbine cartridge box 






Pistol do. 


Holsters, with soft leather caps .*. * 

2 63 

Carbine sling 


Carbine swivels 



Bullet pouch. 


Flask and pouch belt 


Powder flask 

1 20 

Waist belt, sapper's, with frog for sword bayonet, $1. 

Infantry accoutrements for 100 men, including non-commissioned 
officers' shoulder-belts and plates, weigh 330 Ibs. ; rifle accoutrements 
for 100 men, including non-commissioned officers' shoulder-belts and 
plates, weigh 329 Ibs. ; 100 carbine slings and swivels, 110 Ibs. (See ARMS.) 

Mr. Dingee's directions for reblacking Belts. Brush them with a 
hard brush, to clean the surface ; if they are very greasy, use a wire 
scratch-brush. Then, with a soft brush or sponge, apply the following 
mixture, viz. : one gallon soft water, two pounds extract of logwood, 
half a pound of broken nutgalls, boiled until the logwood is dissolved. 
When cold, add half a pint of the pyrolignite of iron made by dis- 
solving iron filings in pyroligneous acid, as much as the acid will take 
up. The dye thus made should be well stirred, and then left to settle. 
When clear, bottle it free fnom sediment, and keep it well corked for 
use. Dye the belts in the shade ; then apply a little sperm or olive oil, 
and rub well with a hard brush. Should any bad spots appear, scratch 


op the surface with the wire brush, and wet two or three times with a 
simple decoction of gmllnuts or sumach, and again apply the dye. Log- 
wood is not essential, and a solution of copperas may be used instead 
of the acetate of iron. 

ADDRESS. An address to a court>marti:d, by cither party, must 
be i: nsult J/ouph't Law Aut/torilitt.) 

A KM 'T ANT, (Latin adjutor, aid.) An officer selected by the 
colonel of the regiment from the subalterns. II.- communicates the 
order* of the colonel, and has duties in respect to his regiment 
Uated to those of an adjutant-general with an army. 

A1UI I M.KAL. The principal organ of tin*, coin- 

miffff* of an army in publishing orders. The same organ of the 
commander of a division, brigade, geographical division, or department, 
Is styled Assistant Adjutant-general. The la\\s ,.f the lUit. .1 B 
however, provide for but one Adjutant-general with the rank of col- 
onel, (made by regulations chief of a bureau of the War D* -par 
and charged with the recruiting service. turns, &c.,) one As- 

btaot Adjutant-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and twelve 
other assistants \u?h the rank of major ami captain. (Sec ARMY 


The bureau duties of Adjutants-goneml and assistants are : puMi-hing 
orders in writing; making up written instructions, ainl transmitting 
them; reception of reports and returns; disposing of them ; forming 
tables, showing the state and position of corps ; regulating details of 
serrice; corresponding with the administrative departments relative 
to the wants of troops; corresponding with the corps, detachments, or 
individual officers serving under the orders of the same commander ; 
. methodical arr.iie.'emcnt and < are of the ivcupls and papers of 
htsoffice. Theacti\*e duti. s of Adjutants-Lreneral consist in .^taMisli- 
i&g ramps; visiting guards and outposts; mustrrin^ and in-peeting 
troops; inspecting guards and d ' i!, i ; forming j i lines 

of battle; the conduct and control , ri and j.rl 

nr^iiii/iMfrtnrrji ; and in general discharging such other active duties as 


AKH-'I lAL.DEPUTY.A.. An ad makm- further 

proirWon for the army, nnd for other purp proved -Inly t, 

ides: Soc. 2, That to any army of the Vnit.-d States. ,,thor 
than that in whi<-h tho ndj'/ inspect. .r-irenoral, fjnarter- 

fnsster -general, and paymaster of the army, shall serve, it shall be 
lawful for the President to appoint one deputy adjutant-gen, ral, 


one deputy inspector-general, one deputy quartermaster-general, and 
one deputy paymaster-general, who shall be taken from the line of 
the army, and who shall, each, in addition to his pay and other emol- 
uments, be entitled to fifty dollars per month, which shall be in full 
compensation for his extra services. And that there shall be, to 
each of the foregoing deputies, such number of assistant deputies (not 
exceeding three to each department) as the public service may require, 
who shall in like manner be taken from the line, and who shall each be 
entitled to thirty dollars per month, in addition to his pay and other 
emoluments, which shall be in full compensation for his extra ser- 
vices, &c. 

from ministrare, administrare, to serve. Administration is a branch of 
political economy j it is the action of administrative agents in executing 
laws or regulations conformable to law. The aim of a system of ad- 
ministration is to secure the performance of public duties, either di- 
rectly, ministerially, or through the intervention of sub-agents. It is 
exercised over individuals or things, in civil , matters, in courts of law, 
in political bodies, in the army and in the navy, and in general in all 
financial matters of government. Administration consists in estab- 
lishing the ways and means of public receipts and expenditures ; in 
watching over such employments ; in the collection, care, and distribu- 
tion of material and money ; and in rendering arid auditing accounts 
of such employments. Army Administration also embraces in war the 
means by which an army is supported in foreign countries by a general 
in campaign, when without regular supplies, without resorting to pillage. 
The wars of the French revolution brought into use REQUISITIONS, a 
moderate kind of marauding, weighing more heavily upon countries 
than upon individuals. Requisitions are, however, an uncertain and 
unequal means of supply, and only enable an army to live from hand 
to mouth, and although practicable in offensive wars, are only justifiable 
in rapid movements, where time does not admit the employment of 
more certain means of supply. The system is less odious than pillage. 

Bonaparte skilfully adopted another method, in harmony with the 
spirit of wars of invasion, and also more reliable as a means of sup- 
port. He substituted himself in place of the supreme authorities of 
the invaded country, and exacted pecuniary contributions, paying, or 
promising to pay, for all provisions and other supplies needed for his 
army. Some writers think that even this modified system can only 
succeed in gigantic operations, where an army upon a new soil succes- 
sively gives repose to that previously occupied. Such a system was, 


ww^-r, -. , ~J by Marshal Suchet in Spain, and a similar sys- 
tem was also matured and published In orders by General Scott while 
'hi MT** A treaty of peace, however, soon afUr was made, whieh 
put so end to military operations, and the sy nly 

partially executed. But with a sufficient army in a fertile country, the 
^gMifanOft pf tto world has shown that if the inhabitants are protected 
from injuries they will very generally sell to tho best paymastrrs. It 
Is therefore the Intenwt of an invading army not to in h the 

ordinary avocations of citizens, and such is th.- modern usage. 

Bonaparte (according to Las Casas) thought that an entire revolu- 
tion in the habits and education of the soldier, and perhaps aU<> in 
of the officers, waa essential to the formation of a veritable self-subsist- 
ing army. Such an army (he said) cannot exist with pn 
nagazinea, administration, wagons, dec., ecc. Such an army will 
v bcn. . Romans, the soldier shall n eorn, 

shall personally carry his mill and cooking utensils, cook his own 
bread, &<x, &c n and when the present frightful paper administration has 
with. He addrd that lie had meditated upon all those 
a period of profound peace was necessary to put them in 
If he had been constrained to keep a large army in pea 
would have employed it upon the public works, and given it an ..r-ani- 
zation, a dress, and a mode of subsistence altogether special. It* MU h a 
scheme be practicable, no approach to it yet exists. 

Hie French have made some progress in developing a systei 
administration suited to a large army, but hardly a step in the dir 
pointed out by Napoleon. The l-'m:ch administrative service is a. 
powerful means of moving armies in unforeseen emeriM-neies. Its f,,re- 
aight provides resources, and tho adversary soonest ready has the 
greatest chance of success. Not a century sine.', the Fro* 
ment required six months* preparation before an army cnld D 
DOW, in tho language of Gen. Lamar.jue, "The cannon is l-aded. and 
the blow may be given at tho same moment as the manif. st<>. and. if 
Dsosssary, the blow may precede it." Ordinary army administration 
eonsVrts in the organization and other means by which various adminis- 
trative duties are performed, necessary to provide for the wants of 
troops, and for all the foreseen demands of a state of war, including 
labor ami the supplier for garrisons, sieges, dec. Sueh dutie^ . -mln-ace. 
subsistence magazines, daily rations, forage, dress, encampi 
racks, hospitals, transportation, A 'lie administrative duties 

of engineers, and of the ordnance d .untability, 

payments, recruiting, and in general the receipt and proper application 


of money. The Secretary of War, under the orders of the President, 
is the head of military administration in the United States. The object 
of such administration is to provide, through the resources placed by law 
at his disposition, for the constant wants, regular or accidental, of all 
who compose the army. Good administration embraces a foreknowledge 
of wants, as well as the creation, operation, and watchfulness of the ways 
and means necessary to satisfy them ; the payment of expenses, and 
the settlement of accounts. 

Army administration is divided into several branches determined 
by law. These different branches constitute the administrative service 
of an army, the operations of which should be so regulated that the 
Secretary of War will be always informed of the condition of each, and 
be able to exercise, subordinate to law, a complete financial control over 
each. These different branches of administration are : 1. The recruiting 
service, and the custody of records and returns of personnel ; 2. The ad- 
ministrative service of engineers and topographical engineers ; 3. The 
ordnance department ; 4. The quartermaster's department ; 5. The sub- 
sistence department ; 6. The pay ^department ; 7. The administrative sei- 
vice of the medical department ; and, 8. The settlement of army accounts. 
Bureaux of the War Department charged with these different matters 
have been organized by the President and Secretary of War, under the 
joint authority given these functionaries by the act of Congress of 1813 
(See REGULATION) to make regulations better defining the powers and 
duties of certain staff officers. The adjutant-general of the army and the 
heads of administrative corps have each been assigned a bureau in the 
War Department, under the direction of the Secretary of War, for the 
management of the administrative duties with which they have been 
respectively charged. Administration and Command are distinct. Ad- 
ministration is controlled by the head of an executive department of 
the government, under the orders of the President, by means of legally 
appointed administrative agents, with or without rank, while Com- 
mand, or the discipline, military control, and direction of military ser- 
vice of officers and soldiers, can be legally exercised only by the mili- 
tary hierarchy, at the head of which is the constitutional commander-in- 
chief of the army, navy, and militia, followed by the commander of the 
army, and other military grades created by Congress. (See ACCOUNTS ; 








nt. (Consult BARDIN, Dictionnaire de FArmee de Terre ; L< 
lion ft Administration Militairt, par M. LEON GUILLOT ; Afilit'iry 
L*wt of tht United StaUt ; Gen. SCOTT'S orders mM 

ADMISSIONS. The judge advocate is author!/. .]. wlu-n ho sees 
proper, to Rdmit what a prisoner expects to prove by absent witnesses. 

ADOBES are unlmrnt brick made from earth of a loamy char 
omuining about two-thirds fine sand mixed intimatdy with om'-thir.I 
or UM of cUyey dust or sand. StifT day will not unswor, as tin- rays 
of the son would crack it in pieces. The adobe, un.lrr the action of the 
eon, becomes a compact HUMS. Upon our Indian frontiers in New M. \ 
too, in Mexico, and in Central America, adobe houses and adobe dcfc!..-es 
tho Indians are common siruetun-s. Four men usually work 
making adobe brick. One mixes the mass in a h..le, an.l 
the barrow, two carry it on a common han.l-barrow. an.l tJie 
moulds the brick. Tho moulder has a double moul.l, or one 
which forms two adobe*, each eighteen l,,,,-, nine inohee wicte, 
and four inchce thick. The partition between the two eomj.:.rtments 
I he of one and a half inch stuff, th- .,tl,rr parts of im-h boanl ; 
a dat oo either outer aide, extending the length of the mould, permits 
the mould to be easily bandied. It must be well morticed together 


so as not to wabble. The moulder has no bottom, the adobe being depos- 
ited on the surface of the ground, made tolerably level, and without 
reversing, as in brick making. The mould is raised gradually and 
slowly away from the moulded masses. Before placing it on the ground 
to mould another couple, the inner sides of the mould are washed with 
water, kept at hand ; this is all that is required to preserve the mud 
from sticking and thus breaking the adobe. The mould is emptied a 
second time on the ground at about three inches from the first couple, 
and in refilling, the balance of the mud left over from the first moulding 
is cast in the compartments, and the two men with the barrow of mud 
throw their load directly upon the mould, and all that is over and above 
what is necessary to fill it is scraped off by the moulder's hands toward 
where his next couple is to be. The dumping of the mud from the 
barrow is facilitated by casting into the barrow a little finely powdered 
dry manure or dust. 

An adobe eighteen inches long, nine inches wide, and four inches 
thick, is the best average size for moulding and for building. They 
are sometimes made sixteen inches long and twelve inches wide ; in 
such cases they are all laid as headers ; but with the eighteen inch 
adobe they afford the means of binding the wall strongly by alternating 
headers and stretchers, as in brick-laying. In the hot spring and sum- 
mer suns two or three days uninterrupted drying is sufficient at the 
first ; the adobes are then carefully turned up on edge, so as to expose 
the under or still wet face to the southern and western sunshine. They 
should be left in this position from a week to fifteen days to dry thor- 
oughly, when, if not wanted for immediate use, they may be stacked 
on edge and covered from the weather. Houses in New Mexico are 
seldom built over one story high. This enables the builder to place on 
the roof-covering at once, if necessary. But in all cases, intervals in the 
work must be allowed, or the house will not only be unsafe, but, if 
immediately occupied, damp and disagreeable. The inside plastering 
with mud is most frequently done before the roof is covered in, so as to 
dry with the wall. If the wall must be left unfinished through the fall 
rains or the winter, the top of it is covered with a bushy weed called 
cachanilla, and this is covered with earth, to exclude water and protect 
it till the ensuing year. If door and window frames are at hand, the 
Mexicans prefer to put them in as they build ; but oftener they leave 
gaps for doors and windows, unfilled with the frames, till the whole is 
finished. The adobes are laid with mud mortar made from the earth 
at the base of the wall ; the holes thus formed are readily filled again 
with the rubbish from the house when completed. When the wall is 


ready to receive the roof-covering, heavy joists arc laid, about two feet 
apart, on the top of the walla, strong enough to bear near a foot of 
earth all over the roof; the joists, as they rest upon the wall, are sup- 
upon boards, or plates, as they are called, to distribute the 

of the roof, and prevent the joists from crushing into tin- walls. 
Across the joists, and over the whole roof, averaging about t\\o inches 
In diameter, poles are now placed, the largest on the highest side of the 
roof to begin the slope, and on this is placed a close covering of the 
codk4//a, which is aromatic and keeps out bugs ; it is evergreen, and 
a plant of the most suitable length to fill the interstices in the poles. 
Small willow brush Is often used in the absence of cachanilla. The 
earth-covering of the roof is now put on, extending all round the roof to 
the parapet above the joists, which is only one-half the width of tho 
wall below ; this brings the dirt roof to cover over one-half the width 
or thickness of the wall, by which leaks in the room below are pre- 
vented. An adobe house, if well secured, is warmer in winter, and 
cooler in summer, than one of wood or brick. The brick is cold and 
damp, the adobe is dry and a much worse conductor of heat no fur- 
rowing nor lathing is necessary and tho rough inside can be white- 
waahed or slapped with plaster. The durability of adobe walls is ex- 
traordinary. The Pecos Church, not far from Santa Fe, is doubtless 
one hundred years old ; its mud walls (adobe) are as firm to this day 
as a rock, and they cannot be less than fifty f.-ct hi-jh. 

ADVANCED. Any portion of an army which is in front of the 
li.-d to tho promotion of officers and soldiers. 

ADVANCED COVERED WAY is a terra plein, on the ex- 
f the advanced ditch, similar to the first cover.-.] way. 

ADVANCED DITCH is ttton beyond tho glacis of tho 

win/?, having its surface on the j-n-loii-jation of that slope, that an 
enemy may find no shelter when in the ditch. 

ADVANCED GUARD. A detachment of troops which precedes 
the march of the main body. 

ADVANCED LfM. ITKS are works resembling bastions of 
ravelin*, having (aces and flanks. They are formed upon or 1 
U glad* 

ADVANCED WORKS are such as are constructed bc } ,,,,,] the 
wsy and glacis, but within the range of the musketry of the 

v \ NCES of public money may be authorized by the President 
f the United States to persons in the military or naval service employed 

1 otherwise; (Act Jan. 31, Is-. 


ADVISING TO DESERT. Punishable with death or otherwise, 
as a court-martial may direct ; (Art. 23, Articles of War.) 

AFFAIR. Any slight action or engagement. Affair of outpost ; 
affair of rear-guard, &c. 

AFFIDAVITS, being admissions upon oath, are evidence as such 
against the parties who made them, (Rough.) In the trial of cases not 
capital, the deposition of witnesses not of the staff or line of the army, 
taken before a Justice of the Peace in presence of the prosecutor and 
person accused, may be read in evidence ; (Art 10.) 

AIDES-DE-CAMP are ex-offido assistants adjutant-general ; (Act 
March 2, 1821.) They are confidential officers selected by gen- 
eral officers to assist them in their military duties. A lieutenant- 
general appoints not exceeding four in time of war, and two in peace, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel ; a major-general two, and a briga- 
dier-general one. Attached to the person of the general, they receive 
orders only from him. Their functions are difficult and delicate. Often 
enjoying the full confidence of the general, they are employed in repre- 
senting him, in writing orders, in carrying them in person if necessary, 
in communicating them verbally upon battle-fields and other fields of 
manoeuvre. It is important that Aides-de-Camp should know well the 
positions of troops, routes, posts, quarters of generals, composition of 
columns, and orders of corps : facility in the use of the pen should be 
joined with exactness of expression ; upon fields of battle they watch 
the movements of the enemy ; not only grand manoeuvres but special 
tactics should be familiar to them. It is necessary that their knowl- 
edge should be sufficiently comprehensive to understand the object and 
purpose of all orders, and also to judge in the varying circumstances 
of a battle-field, whether it is not necessary to modify an order when 
carried in person, or if there be time to return for new instructions. 


ALARM-POST is the place appointed for every regiment or 
detachment to assemble, in case of a sudden alarm. 

ALARMS, FALSE. Any officer who shall occasion false alarms 
in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death or other punishment 
as a court-martial may direct ; (Art. 49.) 

ALIBI. Elsewhere. An Alibi is the best of all defence if a man 
is innocent ; but if it turns out to be untrue, it is conclusive against 
those who resort to it; (Hough.} 

ALLOWANCES. The receipts of an officer consist of pay and 
allowances, sometimes called pay and emoluments. Allowances are 
vegular and occasional ; they consist of money for servants, forage, 



travelling expense* ; and of fuel and quarters, stationery, 
straw for frfm**g, transportation of baggage, and forage in kind under 
certain circumstance*. An allowance for servants and forage is only 
given where the servants and horses allowed are actually kept in ser- 
vice by the officer. Doable rations arc given to the comma:. d.-r < I the 
, the commander of an army in the field, a geographical dh 

military post and arsenal; and ten dollars per month 
is allowed to the actual commander of a company. Armies have ah\ a \ s 
been paid by moans of pay and allowances. It is the least e.\j> 
mode of supporting an army, and it is at the same time the most just 
method of graduating the pay according to circumstances. In the 
United States army, however, the allowances made are not sunVi- nt, 
nd not properly graduated. Several of the allowances given in Ku- 
artnies, are withheld from our own ; and of those withheld, some 
which press v . tlicers in campaign, when 

all their energies are need. d for thu service of the country. Of the 
allowances given in European armi.-s. but withheld from the United 
arn.; lowing arc the most important : Allowance, as 

money at the beginning of a campaign, marching all..-.. 
f.. r I..SM-S in tin- fn-ld, prize money, and barrack furniture 
allowance, (Sr* INDEMNIFICATION.) 

AMBU.AXCKS (Jri<rA) are Hying hospitals so orgui. 
that they can follow an army in all its movements, and arc intended 
to succor the wounded as soon as possible. Other sick an aU > 
in Ambulance, but the Ambulances are emptied as soon as li\. d 

V. ft. EBTICB. 

pitals are at hand. In the Frmrh army, an Ambulance of infantry is 
n.pneed of fire wagons containing case* of instruments for amput 


and trepanning, bandages for divers fractures, utensils of all kinds, 
medicines, and 8,900 dressings. The Ambulance of cavalry is com- 
posed of three wagons, containing the articles above enumerated, with 
4,900 dressings. The Ambulances are distributed as follows : Each 
division of infantry has one Ambulance of infantry, and each division 
of cavalry an Ambulance of cavalry. The headquarters of an army 
corps is allowed two Ambulances ; the grand park of artillery one Am- 
bulance of cavalry ; the reserve of the arrny at general headquarters 

FIG. 4. 


six Ambulances; four of infantry, and two of cavalry. The number of 
Ambulance carts and wagons recently ordered for the United States ser- 
vice, in case of war, greatly exceeds the foregoing allowance, and would 
be doubtless required in operations of small detachments, or wherever, 
from any cause, it is impracticable to establish fixed hospitals, or leave 
wounded to the care of inhabitants. (See SURGERY ; WAGON.) 

AMBUSCADE. A body of men lying in wait to surprise an 

AMICUS CURIJE. Counsel, or^at least Amici Curise, (friends 
of the court,) are allowed to prisoners in all cases, but no person is per- 
mitted to address the court, or interfere in any manner with its pro- 
ceedings, except the parties themselves. (HougHs Law Authorities.} 

AMMUNITION is a term which comprehends gunpowder, and 
all the various projectiles and pyrotechnical compositions and stores 
used in the service. 

Any commissioned officer convicted at a general court-martial 
of having sold without a proper order, embezzled, misapplied 
or, through neglect, suffered provisions, forage, army clothing, am- 



military stores belonging to the United States to be 
spoiled or damaged, shall at his own expense make good the loss or 
damage, and shall forfeit his pay and be dismissed from the service ; 
(Art, 36.) Any non-commissioned officer or soldier \s ho shall be con- 
victed at a regimental court-iuwtial of having sold, or designedly, or 
through neglect, wasted ammunition delivered to him, shall be pui 
at the discretion of such court; (.! 

The quantity of ammunition with troops is usually fixed at two 
hundred rounds for eaeh piece of ordnance. These supplies are trans- 
ported in caissons, and an army should be followed, in all cases, by a 
second supply at least equal to the first. The ammunition which can- 
not be carried in the caissons attached to pieces will he kept in boxes 
In reserve. 

Additional supplies of ordnance stores are placed in convenient 
depots, according to circumstances. 

Ammunition for Small Arm*. This supply consists of one hundred 
rounds to each man: forty rounds in cartridge box, and sixty in re- 
serve. Percussion caps should exceed by one-half tho number of ear- 
tridges. Cuts 5 and G represent the bullets of new arms. 

Fio. 5. 


W%bt of Ull, 7BO grain. ; weight of powder, 70 grain*. 

To use tho new cartridge carrying the powder and elongated ball 
to each other, tear th- fold and pour out tho powder; then 

seise the ball md firmly l*'twmi th- thumb and forrfm^ r of tin- ri^'ht 
hand, and strike the % : i lt Mow- across tho 

muzzle of the piece ; this breaks the cartridge and exposes the 1 
of the ball ; a slight pressure of the thumb and f .n i i the 

ball into the bore clear of all cartridge paper. In striking th, cartridge, 
the cylinder should be held square across, or at right anpl.-s to the 
muzzle; otherwise, a blow given in an oblique dinc-i-.n would only 
bend the cartridge without rupturing it. 


FIG. 6. 


Weight of No. 1, 500 grains. Weight of No. 2, 450 grains. 

Weight of powder, 60 grains. Weight of powder, 40 grains. 

No. 1, section of musket bullet. No. 2, section of pistol-carbine ballet. 

Both bullets have the same exterior. 

Ammunition for a siege train of one hundred pieces, consisting of 
the following : 

C 24-pounder about one-third the whole number 32 

Guns < 18-pounder, one-tenth the whole number. 

( 12-pounder, " " " 

Howitzers. 8-inch siege, one-eighth u " 

10-inch siege, one-seventh " " 

8-inch siege, one-fourteenth " " 

Stone Mortars, one-seventh " " 


Coehorn Mortars (in addition to the 100 pieces) 6 

Wall Pieces, Jor the attack of one front 40 

The 18 and 24-pounders should be furnished with one thousand rounds 
each, the 12-pounders with twelve hundred rounds, the 8-inch howitzers 
and mortars with six hundred rounds. In addition to .the above, fifty 
rounds of spherical-case shot should be furnished to each gun. Powder 
magazines, containing from fifty to one hundred thousand pounds of 
powder, must be accessible. 

Cartridges for siege and garrison service are usually one-fourth the 
weight of the shot ; but the charge varies according to circumstances 
from one-third the weight of the shot (for a breaching battery) to one- 
sixthiof that weight for firing double shot, or hot shot, and still less 
for ricochet firing. The charges for mortars and howitzers vary ac- 
cording to the required range. For columbiads and sea-coast howitzers, 
the cartridge should always occupy the whole length of the chamber ; 
for this purpose, in firing with reduced charges a cartridge block is placed 
in the bag over the powder. For mortars, cartridge bags may be made 
in the same manner as for guns, but the charge is usually poured loose 
into the chamber. Charges vary for mortar shells from 11 Ibs. to 4 


ox. according to the iie of the mortar, and whether the intention be to 
fill the shell, to burst it, or simply to blow out the fuse. For Lot 
Ao/, cartridge bags are made double by putting one bag five fn >m holes 
within another, (for full detail* concerning ammunition, including its 
preparation, <te., consult ORDHAMCE MANUAL, 1850; consult also Ex- 
periments with small amis by Ordnance Officers, 1856. See ARMS ; 

AMNESTY. An act of oblivion, or forgiveness of past offences. 

ANGLE OF DEFENCE is that formed by the meeting of the 
flank and lino of defence, or the face of the bastion produced. 

ANGLE OF THE POLYGON is that formed by the meeting 
of two of the sides of the polygon; it is likewise called the polygon 


APOLOGY when made and accepted, debars the officer who 
accepts from bringing forward the matter as a substantive, accusation, 

APPEAL. Any officer or soldier who may think himself wronged 
by his colonel or the commanding officer of his regiment, and after 
duo application to him, is refused redress, may appeal to the next higher 
commander, who is to examine into said complaint, and take proper 
measures for redressing the wrong complained f, an<l transmit, as soon 
as possible, to the Department of War, a true statement of such com- 
plaint, with the proceedings had thereon; (Art 34.) If any inferior 
officer or soldier shall think himself wronged 1>\ his captain, or othrr 
officer, he is to complain thereof t<> the commanding oflirrr of the regi- 
ment, who is Inquired to summon a n^imental court-mart ial for doing 
justice to the complainant; from which regimental court-martial, eilher 
party may. if he thinks hims. If still n^u'ricved, appeal to a pem-ral 
martini. Hut if, upon a second hearing, the appeal shall appear 
us and groundless, th,- person so appealing shall !><> punished 
At the discretion of tho said court-martial ; ( I/ /. :;:>.) (See REMKDY.) 

The wrongs here alluded to, have reiVnn., chiefly to matters of 
accounts betweeO the captain, or commander of the company, and the 
Oldier, Hating to clothing and other supplies, as well us to p:n 
the regimental court, in examining into such transactions, may 1 
fdereA more as a court of inquiry than a court-martial; or, it may 
be r.ewed as an arbitration board, called on to adjust and settle 
diff/rencc* arising in tho settlements of accounts bet \\een the captain 
af4 his men. One reason why a power of appeal is declared to be a 


matter of absolute right to inferior officers, or soldiers, complaining of 
being wronged by their officers, doubtless is, that a regimental or gar- 
rison court-martial has not the power of inflicting any punishment on 
commissioned officers. It can do no more than express its opinion 
that the complaint is just, or the contrary, and where it is practicable and 
proper, relieve the sufferer as to any existing grievance ; but, the injury 
complained of, however flagrant, must still have remained unredressed, 
as far as punishment is concerned, if an appeal to a general court-mar- 
tial had not been declared to be a matter of right to the party aggrieved. 

APPOINTING- POWER, &c. It has been contended by advo- 
cates of executive discretion, that army appointments are embraced in 
the power granted to the President in the 2d section* of the Constitu- 
tion, to nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, appoint " all other officers of the United States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which may be estab- 
lished by law. But the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments." If due regard, how- 
ever, be paid to the words, " whose appointments are not herein other- 
wise provided for" the pretension set up in favor of Executive power, 
will receive no support from the terms of the Constitution. The powers 
granted to Congress to raise and support armies, and to make all rules 
for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, are 
necessarily so comprehensive in character, as to embrace all means 
which Congress, according to circumstances, may deem proper and 
necessary in order to raise armies, or to govern them when raised. 
Rules of appointment to office, rules of promotion another form of 
appointment and all rules whatever in relation to the land and naval 
forces, save the appointment of the commander-in-chief of those united 
forces, who is designated by the Constitution, are hence within the com- 
petency of Congress. 

It is true that this great power vested in Congress has been exer- 
cised by them, in most cases, by giving to the President a large dis- 
cretion in appointments and other matters connected with the army. 
But the principle itself that supreme command is vested in Congress 
has been often asserted in our military legislation. Contemporaneously 
with the foundation of the government laws have been passed, giving to 
general and other officers the right of appointment to certain offices ; in 
other cases, the President has been confined in his selection to classes 
designated by law ; again, rules have been made by Congress for the 
promotion of officers, and in 1846 an army of volunteers was raised 


by Congress, the officers of which Congress directed should be ap- 
pointed, according to the laws of the States in \vhu -h the 
raised, eioepting the general officers, who were to be appointed by the 
President ind flrnsUi a clear recognition that the troops thus n'.-ed 
were United States troops, and not militia. (See CONGRESS; PRO- 


A1T<>1.\T M 1 : \ T is Office, Rank, Employment, Equipment. 
APPRO AGUES are the first, second, and third parallels, 
trenches, saps, mines, ccc., by which the besiegers approach a fortified 

APPROPRIATIONS for the support o/ armies, are limited by 
the Constitution to a term not to exceed two years. The President is 
authorized to transfer appropriations for subsistence, forage, the in 
and quartermaster's department, from one 'branch of military oxpend- 
iture to any other of the above-mentioned branches; (Act May 1, 
1820.) (Sw TRANSFERS.) 

APRON. A piece of sheet lead used to cover tin- \vnt 

APPUI, POINT D'. A term applied to any pven point upon 
which a line of troops is formed. 

ARDENT SPIRITS. The introduction of ardent spirits into 
Indian Territory, under any pretem-e, prohil.ited ; (Act July 9, 1832.) 
The President of the United States may take such measures as he may 
deem expedient to prevent or restrain tin- vending or distributing of 
spirituous liquors among Indians. Goods of traders introducing it 
forfeited ; (Act* March 30, 1802, and May 6, 1832.) 

ARM. Infantry, artillery, ami cavalry, arc arms of the ser\ let, 

ARMISTICE, Armistifiittn, i. e. sistcre ab armis. A temporary 
or suspension of hostili: 

ARMORER. The person who makes, cleans, or repairs arm,. 

ARMORY. A manufactory or place of dcp irma, (See 


ARMS, SMALL. Casting awny arms and ammunition punishal.lo 
with death or otherwise according to the sentence of a general n.urt- 
martial ; (Art. 62.) Officers, ; Missioned oiVir.-rs. and soldiers 

should be instructed and practised in the nomenelature of the arms, ih,. 
manner of dismounting and mounting the,,,, and the precautions and 
care required for their prmorvation. Each soldier should have a screw- 
driver and a wiper, and each squad of ten a wire and a pun. h, 
and a spring vice. No other implements should be used in taking 
arms apart or in setting them up. In the inspect 



should attend to the qualities essential to service, rather than a bright 
polish on the exterior of the arms. The arms should be inspected in 
the quarters at least once a month, with the barrel and lock separated 
from the stock. 



Rifle muskets. 









f Diameter of bore 










Variation allowed, more 

Diam'r at breech between flats. 
[ Length without breech screw. 


Arm } -yyj t b a y 0n et fixed. . . 

complete. ^ With but V p i ece 


















3 05 




Twist . 



Barrel without breech screw 

Lock with side screws 

( Without bayonet 








Arm Kyith bayonet ... 

complete. ] With bu } t . piece , 




Table of approximate heights for rear sights of new arms, measured from the line of 
metal of the barrel. Pieces fired from the shoulder and rest. 

New Rifle musket. 

Rifle musket (altered). 


Weight of ball, 500 grains. 
Weight of powder, 60 grains. 

"Weight of ball, 730 grains. 
Weight of powder, 70 grains. 







The top of the front 





1 08 

sight is seen "fine" 
through the notch 




of the rear sight. 
















* Mayuard primer. 




TUfc of sia*'S*Mi w toff* M^ ^ *anud vliU 

**fUe*<m* oMdakatf i*A* apart. 





P.--, -,>:> ,. 

literal rifle... 


\\, .-. ,r 








Diameter Planks 
of bullet, penetrated. 

Inch. Number. 






.6776 " 












At 1,000 yards, a bullet from the new ri do- musket passed completely 
through the frame of the target, which was made of solid white pine, 
three inches thick. 

The elongated musket bullets do not cease to ricochet on level gn >nnd, 
at the distance of 1,000 yards. A strong wind M.\\ inn perpendicularly 
to the direction of the rifle-musket bullet, will deflect it from its course 
12 feet in 1,000 yards, about 3 feet in 500 yards, and about foot in 
800 yards. The effect of wind on the pistol-carbine bullets is somewhat 
greater, for the same distance. \V hen t wo oblong bullets are fired from 
the new rifle-musket, or altered rifle, with the ordinary service charge 
of CO grains, they separate from eaeh other and from the plane of fire 
bout 4 f.-ot in a distance of 200 yards. If the piece be held firmly 
against the shoulder, no serious ineonvnii.-n.-e will l.e frit in firing this 
increased charge ; the only precaution necessary to be observed in Aim- 
ing, Is to give the barrel greater rl,-vati.. n than for the sin pi. bullet, in 
the pr f feet f,, r 200 yards. In cases of emergency, firing 

with two bullets might be effectively empl-.y. d against masses of in- 
frntry and cavalry, if the distance does not exceed Koo \ ar Is. Mu//U- 
loadiog small arms can be discharged two or three times in a minute, 
and breech.lom/ling arms about ten times. Rapidity of Kidm- and 
discharging firtsarms is however of doubtful advantage in actual 
as soldiers are apt to discharge their pieces without proper aim, and 




of % 

MODEL OF 1855. 

Fig. 7. Barrel, one-seventh size, a, breech ; b, cone-seat ; 
c, rear-sight ; d, front-sight and bayonet stud ; e, 

Fio. 8. 

Fig. 8. Breech-screw, full size, a, plug with threads ; 
tenon ; c, tang ; d, tang-screw hole ; e, face. 

FIG. 9. 

FIG. 9'. 

Fig. 9. Cone, full size, a, nipple ; 5, square ; c, shoulder ; 

d, screw-thread ; e, vent. 
Fig. 9'. Cone-seat screw, full size, a, stem ; 6, head ; c, slit ; 

d, thread. 

FIG. 10. 



Fig. 10. Tang-screw, full size, 
fy. 11. Ramrod, one-seventh size, a, stem; 6, swell; c, head; c?, cup; , screw. 





JV !* totr+yK Ml . ide 
Tiev, complete. 1, 2, 3, 4, grad- 
ual ion-mark* on the bae, a. 

. 18. Section through 
a, 0^ full size. 

FIO. 14. 

. Section through 
6, 6, full size. 







15. J>a/, full siae. a, frame ; 6, slot ; d, tongue ; e, joint-pin hole ; /, Fight- 
notch ; 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, graduation-marks. 

FIO. 11 


FIO. 17. 


/If ! X/priV, full nitc. a, blade ; A, screw-hole ; , thickness. 

full nize. a, bead ; 6, stem ; c, c, holes for screw-,], iv, r. 


FIO. 10. 



/^. It. 

M . a, Uek^Uot ; 6, 6, grooTes; e, e, riret-holcs ; rf, d, han- 
dle*; , aifhUxHch; /./, riTcta. 
/If. It. flNAyrfcy. foil rite. , rigbt-ootch ; 6, 6, riret-holes; c, thicknen. 



Fio. 21. 


Fig. 21. Front-sight and bayonet-stud, full size, a, sight ; 6, stud. 
Figs. 22, 23. Bayonet-clasp, full size, a, body ; b, b, stud ; c, bridge; 

d, groove ; e, e, stops ; /, scre^v. 
Fig. 24. Bayonet, quarter size, a, blade ; 6, neck ; c, socket ; c?, 

bridge ; e, stud mortise ; /, clasp. 

FIG. 25. 

Fig. 25. Zoefc, outside view, half size, a, hammer; 6, lock-plate;" 
c, magazine-cover ; d, tumbler-screw ; e, joint-pin ; /, side- 

screw hole. 

FIG. 26. 


Fig. 26. Zocfc, inside 
view, half size, show- 
ing the parts with the 
hammer at half cock. 
a, hammer; b, tum- 
bler; c, bridle ; d, bri- 
dle-screw; e, sear, ;/, 
sear-screw ; g, sear- 
spring ; h, sear-spring 
screw ; i, mainspring; 
j, swivel; Tc, cover- 



* Lf*'p***'* fc*tf *iw. showing the position of the holes, &c. o, cone-seat 
notch; A, bolster; <, mainspring notch; <f, hole for mainspring pivot; e, hole 
for arbor of tumbler ; /, hole for cover-catch ; g, hole for cover hinge stud ; 
A, A, idecrtw bo1e; i, hole for bridle-*crew ; j t hole for sear-screw; A, 
bole for t*arprfag ; /, hole for catch-spring screw ; n>, sear-spring stud-mortise ; 
, fct44bger *Iot ; o, bridle pivot hole ; />, feed-finger-spring-scrcw hole. 

r,,,. so. 

/Tp. 18. IRyaMfM-eowr, full size, a, body; 6, 6, jaws; r, <r, holes for joint-pin. 
/V- * CVt*r-Ain^ fW, full size, two views, a, head; 6, joint-pin hole; < 
/V> ^ &wr-feA and ervw, full size, two views, a, head ; 6, notch ; r, r, foot ; 
4 screw-bole ; , catch-screw. 

. SI. Zodt-wmw, full die, and ide-rrt*>, half site, a, &, sidc-crewi ; c, sear- 
crew ; J, brid!c-*crcw f ear-tpring screw ; /, tumbler-screw. 

In all th< *<**, the part* are the stem, the head, the slit, the thread. 


Fig. 32. Mainspring-swivel, full size, a, a, body ; 6, axis ; c, tumbler-pin hole ; d, 

finger-pivot hole. 
Fig, 33. Feed-finger, full size, two views, a, a, eye-pivot ; b, crook ; c, c, finger. 

FIG. 34. 


*f^rt < ' -ii 

Fig. 34. Feed-finger spring, full size, a, eye ; 6, long branch ; c, short branch ; 

d, screw. 

FIG. 85. 

FIG. 86. 


Fig. 35. Hammer, half size, a, body ; 6, head ; c, comb ; d, countersink, slit, and 

knife-edge ; e, tumbler-hole. 
Fig. 36. Tumbler, half size, two views, a, body ; b, arbor ; c, squares ; <?, pivot ; e, 

swivel-arm and pin-hole ; f, tumbler-screw hole. 


FIG. 88. 

Fig. 37. Bridle, half size, two views, a, body ; b, eye for tumbler-pivot ; c, pivot ; 

d, hole for bridle-screw ; e, hole for sear-screw. 

Fig. 38. $ear, half size, two views, a, body ; b, nose ; c, arm ; d, screw-hole ; 

e, screw. 

FIG. 89. 

Fig. 39. Sear-spring, half size, two views, a, blade ; b, upper branch : c, lower 
branch; d, stud; e, screw-hole. 




Pfy. 40. J/ai*tpri*g t half sUe, two views, a, upper branch ; 6, 
lower branch ; c, hook ; d, pivot; *, Ung. 

Rg. 41. Stock, one-ninth size, a, butt ; 6, handle ; c, head ; d, 
bod for lock ; , shoulder for lower band ; /, bed for band- 
pring 5 y, shoulder for middle band ; A, bed for band-spring ; 
t, shoulder for upper band ; ;, bed for band-spring ; *, shoul- 
der and tenon for tip. 

Fio. 42. 

f\g. 42. Butt-plat* and creiM, quarter size, three views, a, body; 
6, toe ; c, heel ; d, d, screw-holes ; , , screws. 

Kir.. 4.".. 

fig. 48. 71/>, full ni/.o, two views, a, recess for stock ; 6, groove 
for ramrod ; r, rivet-hole ; d, rh 

quarter size, a, body ; 6, 6, bolsters ; c,' c, trigger-stud and 
; rf, < holes for guard-bow ; , , for wood screws ; /, for trigger-screw ; 


FIG. 46. 


Fio. 48. 

FIG. 48. Fig. 45. Guard-bow, quarter size, two views, a, body ; b t b, 
> ^^ stems ; c, c, nuts ; d, d, swivel ; e, rivet. 

Vj Fig. 46. Trigger, half size, a, blade ; b, finger-piece ; c, hole 

H for screw ; d, screw, full size. 

3 Fig. 48. Guard-screws, half size. 

FIG. 49. 

FIG. 50. 

FIG. 51. 

Fig. 49. Upper band, half size. 
Fig. 60. Middle band, half size. 

Fig. 61. Lower band, half size, a, body; 6, b, creases; U denotes the upper edge 
c, swivel-stud (on middle band only) ; d, swivel. 

Fm. 52. 

FIG. 53. 

FIG. 54. 


Figs. 52, 63, 54. Upper, middle, and lower band-springs, half size, a, stem ; b, wire ; 
c, shoulder ; e, tang. 




Fio. 67. 

r, full size, a, countersink ; 6, hole for screw. 

IFi/wr, roll dz. a, body; 6, o, prongs ; c, screw-hole for rod. 
/*a//-rr*, full sue. a, body ; 6, Ung ; c, screw-hole for rod ; d, screw to 
draw the ball 


l^. 58. /8crtMWwr, half 
size, two views, a, cone- 
wrench ; 6, 6, 6, blades ; 
r, rivet ; d, d, collets for* 

ta M 

Fio. 60. 

. 59. Spring-vice, half size, two vio*. 

o, bolster ; 6, slide ; c, .-lido-mortise ; <^ 

slide screw ; , thumb-screw. 
Fig. 60. Upper side of hlii<>. 

61. Tampion, half size, a, head; 6, 

body ; c, rivet ; d, leather washer ; e t 

slot. ' 
F\g. 62. COM, (spare,) we fig. 9. 

Fio. 62. 


Fio. 63. 



Wiper. Ball-screw. Screw-driver. Spring-vice. 


Spare cone. 

Tumbler and "Wire Punch. 



Tumbler; Lock-swivel, Feed-finger; Finger- 
spring ; Cover-catch ; Sear ; Sear-spring ; Main-* 
spring ; Band-springs ; Ramrod ; Rear-sight 
(except the screw) ; Screw-driver ; Wiper ; 
Ball-screw ; Cone ; Tumbler, and Wire Punch. 

Tip for Stock ; head of Tompion. 

Stock ; Tompion. 


Socket of the Bayonet, and all other parts 
not enumerated. 


RCLM ro DttMOCimxo TH Rirn MUSKIT, MODEL OF 1855. 1st. 
Unfit the bayonet (34). 2d. Put the tompion (60) into the muzzle of 
the barrel 8<L Draw the ramrod (11). 4th. Turn out the tang. 
craw (10). 5th. Take off the lock ('Jo) : to do this, first put tho 
hammer at half-cock, then unscrew partially the side-screws (31, a, b), 
and, with a alight Up on the head of each screw with a wooden instru- 
ment, loosen the lock from ita bed in the stock ; then turn out the side- 
screws, and remove the lock with the left hand. 6th. Remove the side- 
tcrews (31, a, 6), taking care uoC to disturb the washers (55). 7th. 
Take off the upper band (40). 6th. Take off the middle band (50). 
9th. Take off the lower band (51). (Note. The letter U, on bands, 
idicate the upper side in assembling.) 10th. Take out the barrel 
(?) : in doing this, turn the musket horizontally, with tho barrel d< >\vn- 
ward, holding the barrel loosely with the left hand below the rear sight 
he right hand grasping the stock by the handle ; and if it docs 
not leave the stock, tap the tompion in the muzzle gently against the. 
ground or Boor, which will loosen the breech end from tho stock. This 
U preferable to lifting the barrel out by tho muzzle, because if the tang 
of. the breech-screw (8) should bind in the wood, tho head of the stock 
(41 f) would be liable to be split by raising the muzzle first. 

The foregoing parts of the rifle musket are all that should usually 
be taken off or dismounted. The soldier should never dismount the 
band-tprinyt, guard, tide-screw washers, butt-plate, rear-sight, cone, and 
cofM*M/ screv, except when on officer considers it necessary. The 
breech screw should be taken out only by an armorer, and never in 
ordinary cleaning. The lock should not be taken apart, nor the bay- 
onsfrdasp taken off, except \vli.-n absolutely necessary in tho opinion 
of an officer. If proper and regular care be taken of the arm, this will 
U wry ttldom **Mary. Tho musket being thus taken to pieces. the. 
soldier, under ordinary circumstances, will 

To clean the barrel 1st. Stop tho hole in tho cone (9, c) with a 
peg of soft wood ; pour a gill of water (warm, if it can be had) into 
the muixlo ; let it stand a short time, to soften the deposit of tho pow- 
der ; put a plug of soft wood into tho muzzle, and shake tho wat< -r up 
and down the barrel I ir thi* out and repeat the washing until 

the wat*r runs dear; take out tho peg from tho e,.ne, an.l stand 
the barrel, nnuxlo downwards, to drain, for a few moments. 2d. 
Screw the wiper (56, c) on to the end of tho ramrod (11, e) an.l put a 
piece of dry elotk, or to, round it, sufficient to prevent it from chafing 
the grooves of the barrel ; wipe the barrel quite dry, changing '" 'Irv- 
ing the doth two or three times, 3d. Put no oil into the vent (0, c\ 


as it will clog the passage, and cause the first primer to miss fire ; but, 
with a slightly oiled rag on the wiper, rub the bore of the barrel, and 
the face of the breech-screw (8, e), and immediately insert the tompion 
(61) into the muzzle. 4th. To clean the exterior of the barrel, lay it 
flat on a bench, or board, to avoid bending it. The practice of sup- 
porting the barrel at each end and rubbing it with a strap or buff-stick, 
or with the ramrod, or any other instrument, to burnish it, is perni- 
cious, and should be strictly forbidden. 5th. After firing, the barrel 
should always be washed as soon as practicable; when the water comes 
off clear, wipe the barrel dry, and pass into it a rag moistened with oil. 
Fine flour of emery-cloth is the best article to clean the exterior of the 
barrel . 

To clean the lock. Wjpe every part with a moist rag, and then a 
dry one ; if any part of the interior shows rust, put a drop of oil on 
the point or end of a piece of soft wood dipped into flour of emery ; 
rub out the rust clean and wipe the surface dry ; then rub every part 
with a slightly oiled rag. 

To $lean the mountings. For the mountings, and all iron and 
steel parts, use fine flour of emery moistened with oil, or flour of 
emery-cloth. For brass, use rotten-stone moistened with vinegar, or 
water, and avoid oil or grease. Use a hard brush, or a piece of soft 
pine, cedar, or crocus-cloth. Remove dirt from the screw-holes by 
screwing a piece of soft wood into them. Wipe clean with a linen 
rag, and leave the parts slightly oiled. In cleaning the arms, the 
aim should be to preserve the qualities essential to service, rather than 
to obtain a bright polish. Burnishing the barrel (or other parts) 
should bo strictly avoided, as it tends to crook the barrel, and also to 
destroy the uniformity of the exterior finish of the arm. 

It is not essential for the musket to be dismounted every time that 
it is cleaned ; for, after firing in fine weather, or when dampness could 
not get between the barrel and the stock, it can be perfectly cleaned 
as follows: Put a piece of rag or soft leather on the top of the cone, 
and let the hammer down upon it ; pour a gill of water into the muzzle 
carefully, so that it cannot run down the outside ; put a plug of wood 
into the muzzle, and shake the gun up and down, changing the water 
repeatedly until it runs clear. Then withdraw the leather, and 
stand the musket on the muzzle a few moments ; then wipe out the 
barrel (as told in the second rule for cleaning), and also wipe the ex- 
terior of the lock and the outside of the barrel around the cone and 
cone-seat, first with a damp rag, and then with a dry one, and lastly 
with a rag that has been slightly oiled. In this way, all dirt from 


firing may be removed without taking out a screw. If, ho 

the hammer works stiffly, or grates upon the tumbler, the lock must 

immediately be taken off, and the parts cleaned and touched \\ ith oil. 

To r+4uembU At muticet. The parts of the musket are put to- 
gether in the inverse order of taking them apart, viz. : 1st. The barrel. 
Drop the barrel into its place in the stock, and squeeze it d..\\n with 
the hand ; give the butt of the stock a gentle tap against tin- floor to 
settle the breech end of the barrel against the head of the st... .. , 1 1 . , ). 
2d. Put on the lower band with the letter U upward, being careful not 
to mar the stock, or barrel, in sliding it into its place ; apply the thumb 
to the band-spring to see that it plays freely. 3d. Put on tin- midd : 
4th. The upper band, in the same manner. 5th. The lock. Half-cock 
the hammer ; take the lock in the right hand, with the main spring and 
sear toward you, holding the stock with the left hand l.v the swell, 
with the butt between the knees. Enter the lock fairly into the lock- 
bed, taking care to keep the arm of the sear clear of th press 
the plate well down into the wood, and then turn the musk. 
holding the lock and stock together \\ith tin- let! hand. (ith. With the 
right hand, turn in the side-screws, after having touched their screw- 
threads with oil. Observe that the point of the rear-screw is ft. and 
should not project beyond the plate, to interfere with the hammer. 
Th. fp.nt sen w has a round point. 7th. Turn in the tang-- 
having oiled the screw-thread. Bo careful to sec that each of th.-so 
screws are turned firmly home, but not forced. Observe that the lock 
plays f iiout friction, ami that no limb is bound by the wood. 
Mh. Keturn the ramrod. 9th. Helix the bayonet, after having oiltM 
the clasp and socket to prevent chafing. 10th. Replace the tompion. 
Oil the flock well with sj.erm or linseed oil; let it stand a lew hours, 
and thm rub it with a woollen rag until the wood is perfect I \ flrj . LY- 
peat this fr . time, and it will produce a polish which moisture 
will not affect Linseed oil is the best for this purpose, and it should 
be used while the arm is dUmmm 1 

Jin If $ for the mare complete dismount hi ^ nf tic r(t1c-nmskrt. 
cbantd by an armorer. 1st. The parts \\hi.-h should l>e dismounted 
by an --d ftrinomr will bo given in their regular Order 1-1- 

lowin- 1 Th. Unscrew the cone, keeping the wreneh well 

down on the square of the cone, to prevent the corners from being 
injured. I out the cone-neat screw (<>'). l.'lih. Take out 

the upper, middle, and lower bandnprings (52, 53, 54), using a wiro 
punch rife 11 | (48). 2$ole. 

The guard, butt-plate, and side-screw heads have concave slits, for 


which the screw-driver is adapted : this lessens the danger of the 
stock being marred by accident or carelessness in letting the screw- 
driver slip out, while in the act of turning the screw : great care 
should be used U> prevent such injuries. 15th. Take out the guard, 
and be careful not to injure the wood at each end of the guard- 
plate (44). 16th. Take out the side-screw washers (55) with a drift- 
punch. 17th. Take out the butt-plate screws (42) with the largest 
blade of the screw-driver, and remove the butt-plate (42). 18th. Re- 
move the rear sight (12), by turning out the leaf-spring screw (17), 
which will release the sight from the barrel. 19th. Turn out the 
breech-screw (7), by means of a " breech-screw wrench " suited to the 
tenon (b) of the breech- screw (8). No other wrench should ever be 
used for this purpose, and the barrel should be held in clamps fitting 
neatly the breech (7, a). 

In re-assembling the parts, the armorer is to observe the inverse 
order of taking them apart, viz. : 1st. Breech-screw to be screwed into 
the barrel after being oiled ; 2d. Rear-sight to be affixed ; 3d. Butt- 
platfe and screws ; 4th. Side-screw washers ; 5th. Guard ; 6th. Guard- 
screws ; 7th. Lower, middle, and upper-band springs ; 8th. Cone-seat 
screw ; 9th. Cone. The remaining parts follow as given for the sol- 
dier, commencing with the barrel (see page 42). 

Order in which the Lock is taken apart. 1st. Cock the piece, and 
put the spring-vice (59) on the mainspring ; give the thumb-screw a 
turn sufficient to liberate the spring from the swivel (32) and main- 
spring notch (27, c). Remove the spring ; 2d. The sear-spring screw : 
Before turning this screw entirely out, strike the elbow of the spring 
with the screw-driver, so as to disengage the pivot from its mortise : 
then remove the screw and spring ; 3d. The sear-screw and sear ; 4th. 
The bridle-screw and bridle ; 5th. The tumbler-screw ; 6th. The tum- 
bler. This is driven out with a punch inserted in the screw-hole, which 
at the same time liberates the hammer. 7th. Detach the mainspring 
swivel from the tumbler with a drift punch. 8th. Take out the feed- 
finger and spring. The magazine-cover should never be taken off except 
when absolutely necessary ; 9th. The catch-spring and screw. The lock 
is re-assembled in the inverse order of taking apart, viz. : 1st. The 
catch-spring ; 2d. The feed-finger and spring ; 3d. Mainspring swivel ; 
4th. Tumbler and hammer ; 5th. Tumbler-screw ; 6th. Bridle and screw ; 
7th. Sear and screw ; 8th. Sear-spring and screw ; 9th. Mainspring. 

Before replacing the screws, oil them slightly with good sperm-oil, 
putting a drop on the point of the screw ; also on the arbor and pivot 
of the tumbler ; between the movable branches of the springs, and the 


lock-piste ; on the hook and notches of the tumbler. After the lock 
i- put together, avoid turning the screws in so hard as to make the 
limbs bind: to insure this, try tin* motion of i-aoh limb In-fore and 
after its spring is mounted, and see that it moves without friction. 
When a lock has, from any cause, become gummed with oil and dirt, 
it may be cleaned by being boiled in soapsuds, or in pearl ash or soda 
water, to loosen the thick oil ; but heat should never be applied t< any 
part of it in any other way. As rust and dirt are produced by explod- 
ing caps or primers, although no charge bo fired, the parts of the bar- 
rel and cone exposed should be carefully wiped and oiled after sucji exer- 
cise. Besides the precautions in dismounting, remounting, and clean- 
ing, which have been pointed out in the foregoing pages, habitual care 
in handling arms is necessary to keep them in good and srrv' 
condition. In ordering arms on parade, let the butt bo brought gently 
to the ground, especially on pavements or hard roads. This will save 
the mechanism of the lock from shocks, highly injurious to it, from 
the loosening of screws and splitting the wood-work. 

Rifled arms should not have the ramrod sprung in the bore "with 
unnecessary force. It batters the head of the rod and wears injuriously 
the grooves. The soldier should let the rod slide down gently, sup- 
ported by the thumb and finger ; and the inspecting officer can satisfy 
himself of the condition of the bottom of the bore by gently tapping 
with the rod. The face of the breech can be polished, aft r wash! 
means of a cork fixed on the wiper or ball-screw ; the polished surface 
can be seen if the muzzle is turned to the light. 

In slacking arm*, care should be taken not to injure the bayonets 

. straining the edges against each other. The stack can le 

as well secured without such force being used. No cutting, marking, 

or scraping, in any way, the wood or iron should be allowed ; ami no 

part of the gun should be touched with a file. Take every pnssill. 

care to prevent water from getting in bot\\r, n tho lock, or barrel, ami 

stock. If any should get there, dismount the gun as soon as jn.^il.l,-, 

.m.l nil tho parts as directed, and see that they are perfectly dry 

before re-assembling them. 

To plan ad ><-rt in th magazine. Lot down the ham- 

mer; Open the map.i Bulling back tin; head of tin- rovr-catch 

with the thumb-nail of tho left hand, while the thumb-nail of tho right 
hand is pushed under the cover at the bottom. Remove th. oorermg 
paper from th- rimers; separate any parts that may haj-jM-M 

:.-th.r; nnwii bj th- coil in the ma-a- 

xine, and the free end of it in tin- groove, fiat-side to wan Is the cone, 


and one primer beyond the end of the feed-finger ; close the magazine. 
Should an exploded primer fail to ignite the charge, there must be 
moisture, or some obstruction, in the vent ; or the gun may be im- 
properly loaded. After a night in a damp place, a drop of moisture 
sometimes collects in the vent, and, unless removed, prevents the first 
primer, or cap, from igniting the charge. If, by accident, a coil of 
primers becomes softened by dampness, it can be made good again by 
a short exposure to a dry warm atmosphere. Should the cocking of 
the hammer fail to feed out properly the primer, open the magazine 
and notice, while working the hammer, the cause of the difficulty. It 
can generally be readily corrected. 

RIFLE-MUSKET (1842). This arm differs from the original model 
in the following particulars : 1st. The bore is grooved. 2d. It has a 
rear sight similar to that for the new musket, and a front sight of iron 
attached to the upper strap of the upper band. To prevent the band 
from moving sideways, a short stud is attached to the under side of the 
strap, which fits into a groove in the barrel. 3d. The head of the ram- 
rod is reamed out to fit the pointed end of the ball. 4th. The lock is 
altered to the Maynard principle, differing from the one described for 
the new rifle-musket of 1855, by its size, the absence of the swivel, and 
the facts, that the mainspring is fastened by a screw, and the finger 
spring by a pin. 5th. To adapt the cone seat to this modified lock, a 
portion of the breech of the barrel is cut off, and a new breech piece 
with cone seat attached, is screwed on in its place. Breech piece : body, 
shoulder, screw thread, chamber (conical), tang, tenon, tang screw hole, 
chamfer, notch for side screw, cone seat, vent, vent screw, vent screw 
thread, cone thread. 

RIFLE-MUSKET (1822). The bayonet of this arm has no clasp, or 
ramrod spring ; in all other respects the nomenclature is the same as 
that of the rifle-musket (1842). 

PERCUSSION-RIFLE (1841). The bore of this arm is reamed up and 
re-rifled ; it also has a rear sight similar to the rifle-musket of 1855, 
and a stud and guide attached for a sword bayonet. 

RIFLE (1855). The exterior size of the barrel is nearly the same 
as that of the model of 1841. The barrel has a stud and guide for at- 
taching a sword bayonet. The breech and cone seat are finished like 
the same parts of the new rifle-musket. Lock : Identical with that of 
the new rifle-musket. Hear sight : Similar to that of the new rifle- 
musket. Mountings : Similar to those of the new rifle-musket, ,with 
the addition of a catch box, smaller than the one on the rifle of 1841. 
Ramrod: Similar to the new rifle-musket. Sword bayonet: Blade 


r, back, edge, bcrel, point, curvature, groove, tang rh 
rivet hole, rivet, llilt : Gripe ridges, back, beak, slot for stiul. sU 
for guide, hole for 6nger pie* -r spring screw, hole for riv, t 

(tang), mortice for tang : Finger piece head, notch. Finger piece 
spring blade, screw hole, boss: (fuanl long and short branch, 
knobs, muzzle socket Scabbard: Black leather, with brass band 
and tip. 

Material*. Steel. Tumbler, lock swivel, feeding finger, cover a 
sear, all the springs, ramrod, blade of sword bayou, t. : v, rear 

tight, except screw, cone, screw driver, bull screw an.l wiper. Brags. 
--Sword bayonet handle, front sight, and all the mountings. Wood. 
Stock (black walnut), /row. All tin- remaining parts. 

PISTOL-CARBINE (1855). Barrel: Muzzle, front sight, breech, breech 
pin threads, flats, bevels and oval, cone seat, vent, vent screw, bore, 
grooves, lands. This barn 1 tapers with a straight line from breeeh to 
muzzle. The portion of the flat in rear of the cone seat is parallel to 
the axis of the bore. Breech screw: Plug, with threads (16 to the 
inch), tenon, shoulders, tang, tang screw hole, bevel sight mortice. 
Cone: Same as for musket. Rear sight: Base, ears, joint 
screw hole, 1st, 2d, and 3d leaves, 4 sL'ht notches, eye joint, s<-rew 
boles. Tang screw : Shoulder. Lock: Same as for rifle-mi; 
except in size,which is reduced to conform to a magazine capable of hold- 
ing one-half a strip of primers. Mountings : Band, swivel, and .v, 
correspond to the middle band, swivel, and spring of the new musket. 
Guard plate : Butt nip screw hole, tang. Butt sf rap holes for catch 
spring and hook, tang, strap, and guard plate screws, shoulders for 
breech screw tang, and butt cup tang, r. inton-es for hook, and catch 
spring. Cup screw head, eye. Swivel ring. The remaining mount- 
ings are similar to the corresponding parts of the new nlle-nmsk.-t. 
Ramrod: Head (riveted on), cup, foot with a female screw, Kamrod 
t*irr/; Two side bars, screw, cross bar, riveted into the side bars. 
Sloe*: Butt, handle, curve, fecin-s r. inf., re... chase; thoiil.l.r* f,, r Land 

p, grooves for barrel and ramrod ; beds for tnng and tenon. ]>. k, 
washer*, guard plate, nuts for guard bow and trigger stud, butt plat.-. 
band spring, Up. butt nip an.l strap, butt piece cap, and catch spring, 
hook nut; mortices for trigger, hook, and catch sprinir; hole* for PM], 
tip rivet, band spring, side screws, tang screw, cup screw, strap screw, 

late screws, and cap screws. Buttpirrr : pintr two wood K< 
!!... upper and lower tang, screw holes, two woo 

Hoi handle, hook, stem, nut; spr screw, head, blade; 

finger piece, loop for spring, screw thread, rivet and nut. 


Materials. Steel. Cone, tumbler, lock swivel, finger, sear, lock 
springs, band springs, ramrod, except the head, rear sight except screw, 
spring catch, screw driver, wiper and ball screw. Brass. Butt plate, 
butt cup, cup, guard plate and bow, band, and tip. Wood. Stock 
and butt piece. Iron. Head of ramrod, and remaining parts (Con- 
&c. ; SMALL ARMS, 1856.) 

ARMY. In its widest signification, Army is the military force of 
the state. It is the active and paid portion of the militia. It is an 
assemblage of agents and instruments proper and necessary to carry 
on war abroad, or suppress insurrection and repel - invasion at home. 
The MILITARY ART organizes and combines its elements, and gives 
force and activity to armies. 

In the United States, Congress raises, supports, governs, and regu- 
lates armies. RAISING is the prescribed means of organizing and collect- 
ing ; SUPPORTING is the system of administration ; GOVERNMENT consists 
in the creation of a hierarchy, with rules for rewarding and punishing ; 
and REGULATION embraces the precise determination of methodical rights 
and duties, including the systems of tactics to be practised. Different 
armies are designated as follows : Standing or Regular Army ; Army 
in the field ; Army of Observation ; Army of Invasion ; Army of Oc- 
cupation ; Besieging Army ; Covering Army ; Offensive Army ; De- 
fensive Army ; Army of the East ; Army of Mexico ; Army of Re- 
serve, &c. The military art divides Armies into different ARMS ; upon 
the theatre of war, it assembles an army in one or in many camps or 
cantonments ; it links the army to a BASE by means of a LINE OF 
OPERATIONS ; during the course of its movements, the army rests upon 
fortresses or entrenched camps ; marches in combined columns, or 
columns in mass ; for battle, it is distributed into Army Corps, Divi- 
sions, Brigades, and Battalions, and upon the day of action it is assem- 
bled between an advanced and rearguard, and flanking parties. The 
advance guard clears away the front, and secures all defiles ; the rear- 
guard watches over the safety of communications, and the flanking par- 
ties secure the flanks. The military art ranges an army according 
to circumstances ; it determines the calibre of the ordnance, and the 
manner of using it. Laws and lawful orders are the basis of the daily 
duties of troops. Orders of the day direct movements ; breaking up 
camps ; maintain discipline ; and provide for, and watch over, the 
distribution of supplies. 




Y or U. 




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5 3 


| luepaoior pfimiral 
Aariat. Qpartermnatan fenr ral 

| Quartvrmactcra, 
Auistant yuartcnnaatcra. 


ill}! Illj 







1 1 88 

1 885 . 

l! T* '-' 


Ordnance Department. 

' r - - . 

Two Regttnenta of Cavalry 


fegtattt of Mooted Riflemen 

F oar tUftmenU of Artillery , 

Ten RflnnU of Infantry 


.. ,...11 ... JU. .-,- 




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First Lieutenants. 

Second Lieutenants. 







Sergeant Majors. 

Quartermaster Sergeants. 

Principal or Chief Musicians. 




Ordnance Sergeants. 

Hospital Stewards. 










Enlisted men of Ordnance. 

Total commissioned. 

Total enlisted. 

Aggregate. t 
















" '&' 

4 13 
4 17 

4 17 

















4 20 



















4 20 



















2 10 


















8 48 




















































802 802 










(&) By the act of March 3, 1853, section 9, a Lieutenant of Engineers, Topographical Engineers, 
and Ordnance, ha'ving served "fourteen years' continuous service as Lieutenant," is entitled to pro- 
motion to the rank of Captain ; but such promotion is not to increase the whole number of Officers, 
iu either of said corps, beyond the number previously fixed by law. 

(c) The Jire Aids-dc-camp, being taken from regiments, in the strength of which they are in- 
cluded, are, to avoid counting them twice, excluded, as Staff officers, from the columns, "total com- 
missioned,'' and " aggregate " 

(d) The Adjutants of Artillery and Infantry (14), and all the Regimental Quartermasters (19), 



[AJUIT or U. & 

Ommtrny of Artillery 


tderstood to consist of OM Light and / Heavy companies. 

. f..r In their reclment.* n< belonging t 
8Ui/ officers, from the columns M total commissioned," and "ag- 

>r the 4th section of the act of April , 1818, "making further provision f..r th, < 
r**aOM Brvvet Beooad Lieutenant Is allowed to every ":.m|,:uiy." Tho number authorize,! is, con- 
teaUy. ww kmmdrtd and *>n,i v . n inf. The number, now attach, .1 t.. th- A: : 
\f) Bytaeact of April MM*, section 3d, M i>t fixation of 

py tf MMber ^.P*****"*? 8nr* nu cannot cxcved "on* for each military ]>oat" The number, 

(f ) By Ike MI of Anrt 1C, 1864. section 2-!. {.rovMing for a nrcrwary Increase and better organization 
f UM Mi J oal ad Hp4Ul Departmeat of tin- \rn.v." th,- numlH-r of ll,spltal Stewards cannot exceed "<m 
uf eMfc Military poet * Tb nanber. actually In service. In *ixty-tight. 

.' eowpiMle* la UM let and Sd. and ats of artUlery, being 

Majafii Ltekt Artlll*ry. are allowed. In con 
per em*ay. *ee act -to lacreaee the rai k and ilio of the Am 

(O By UM art of Jane 17. 10, " to IncreMP the rank and fllo . f tl- Army." AT., section 2,1. tl 
deal M aathortftxl. waeejever UM cxIflaadM of the service require it, to increase to ttrtnty-four, t;..- 

r of Mlvale* la aay oooipaair, -M-rvInc at the 
MrtdtotaAtalaUoM." fiitae table. 1 1, n.inin 

f l>rag Jk eto^Amr to a company . . 

If all tae cwmrank^i belon^lnc to "refflmi-ntV (I&M were serving at distant sta- 
-w*Wbel7AH,adtae-a f rrr. 

mbof of oOorn In the army, l.ut not their rank: tl I 

> brevet 

Deportment, and 

rrv Four Burgeon* and f t.i have been n< 

oM8lMaO(DoercMUd, with the rank of M;jor, since .the preparation of 


The most glaring deficiency in the military legislation of the United 
States, is the want of a GENERAL LAW, regulating the organization of 
all troops that Congress may see fit to raise, so that, upon adding to, 
or diminishing, the public force in any emergency, it will be only 
necessary to prescribe what number of men are to be added or taken 
away. This general law should embrace general officers, staff corps, 
and departments, engineers, and regiments of cavalry, artillery, and 
infantry ; it should establish rules of promotion and appointment ; it 
should regulate the recruiting service ; it should provide for the re- 
pression of military crimes and disorders ; it should not fail to stimu- 
late the appetite for rewards ; it should make just rules concerning 
captures, which would recognize the rights of captors ; it should regu- 
late the indemnification for losses; and it should provide for the 
organization of a suitable board, which would take advantage of all 
improvements in the military art and suggest, from time to time, such 
modifications of the general law as might appear just and proper. In 
respect to Army Organization, there are two acts of Congress of the 
general character here suggested. One, an act to regulate the medical 
establishment, approved March 2, 1799 ; and the second, an act for the 
better organizing of the troops of the United States, and for other pur- 
poses, approved March 3, 1799. Both of these acts were drawn by 
Alexander Hamilton, as he explained in a letter to the Secretary of 
War, " as permanent rules to attach to all provisions of law for the 
increase or diminution of the public force." Subsequent legislation 
has, however, without providing any other permanent rule regulating 
the organization in respect to general officers, staff corps, and depart- 
ments, &c., according to the increase or diminution of force, almost 
entirely superseded the provisions of the remarkable acts here referred 

ARMY REGULATIONS a book so called, published in the 
name of the President of the United States " for the government of all 
concerned." The Constitution provides that " Congress shall have 
power to make rules for the government and regulation of the Land and 
Naval forces." The only acts of Congress in force, authorizing the 
President to make regulations, better defining the powers and duties of 
officers, are contained in the 5th section of the act of March 3, 1813, 
and the 9th section of the act approved April 26, 1816. The first of 
these acts is an act for the better organization of the general staff of 
the army, and the second relates (with the exception of the last section, 
concerning forage and private servants) to the same subject. By the 
5th section of the act of 1813, it is provided, " That it shall be tho 


duty of the Secretary of the War Department, and ho is hereby au- 
thorised, to prepare general regulations, better defining and prescribing 
the respective duties and powers of the several officers in the adjutant- 
general, inspector-general, quartermaster-general, and commissa 
ordnance departments, of the topographical engineers, of the aides of 
generals, and generally of the general and regimental staff; which regu- 
lations, when approved by the President of the United States, shall be 
respected and obeyed, until altered or revoked by the same authority. 

he said general regulations, thus prepared and approved, shall be 
laid before Congress at their next session/' 

Remarking here, that the regulations to be prepared and approved 
refer only to the powers and duties of the officers of the several staff 
departments, enumerated in the act, it follows that no other n nulations 
made by the President can derive any force whatever from this act. 
The 9th section of the act of 1816 therefore only continued this then 
existing power of the President in providing " That the. several oflicers 
of the staff shall r.-pectively nveive the pay and emoluments, and re- 
tain all the privileges, secured to the staff of the Army, by the act of 
March 3, 1813, and not incompatible with the provisions of this act: 
and that the regulations in force before the reduction of the Army be 
recognized, as far as the same shall be found applicable to the service ; 
subject, however, to such alterations as the Secretary of War may 
adopt, with the approbation of the President." It would se. in, thcre- 

!iat whatever may be contained in th- President's Army regula- 
tions of a legislative, character concerning officers of the Army, not 
belonging to staff departments, must, if valid, be a legitimate deduc- 
tion from some positive law, or depend for its legality upon the 

i'rity delegated to the constitutional commander-in-chirf or otli.-r 
military commander, in the rules made by < 

ment of the Army. Congress has delegated to the President, authority 
to prescribe the uniform < f the Army ; authority to establish the ra- 
tion; and besides the authority given by law to other military com- 
mander*, he also has been author ieve, in ses,n 
inefficient military commander from duty with any command ; 1> 
assign sny senior to duty with mixed corps, so that the command may 
fill by law on such senior in rank ; to limit the discretion of command- 
ing officers in special canes, in regard to what is needful for 
and hence also he has been given authority to carve out sj 
tnands from general commands, in particular cases ; (r,2d 

These are all-important functions, but they do not authori/e 
ea$9 to be made general rules, and it is much to be regretted 


that the lines of separation between regulations and the orders of the 
commander-in-chief have not been kept distinct. (See COMMAND; CON- 
GRESS; OBEDIENCE; ORDERS. Consult opinions of Attorneys-general, 
particularly the opinion of Mr. Berrien, July 18, 1839.) 

ARREARS OF PAY. The troops shall be paid in such manner 
that the arrears shall, at no time, exceed two months, unless the cir- 
cumstances of the case shall render it unavoidable ; (Act March 16, 
1802 ; Act March 3, 1813.) This provision of law has been strangely 
executed by never paying troops oftener than once in two months, and 
not unfrequently neglecting to pay them for a much longer time. 

ARREST IN ORDER TO TRIAL. Before an officer or sol- 
dier, or other person subject to military law, can be brought to trial, 
he must be charged with some crime or offence against the rules and 
articles of war, and placed in arrest. The articles of war direct that 
whenever any officer shall be charged with a crime, he shall be arrested 
and confined in his barracks, quarters, or tent, and deprived of his 
sword by the commanding officer. And that " non-commissioned offi- 
cers and soldiers, charged with crimes, shall be confined until tried 
by a court-martial, or released by proper authority ; " (ARTS. 77, 78.) 
The arrest of an officer is generally executed through a staff-officer ; by 
an adjutant, if ordered by the commanding officer of a regiment ; or 
by an officer of the general staff, if ordered by a superior officer ; and 
sometimes by the officer with whom the arrest originates. On being 
placed in arrest, an officer resigns his sword. If this form be some- 
times omitted, the custom is invariably observed, of an officer in arrest 
not wearing a sword. By the custom of the army, it is usual, except in 
capital cases, to allow an officer in arrest the limits of thft garrison or even 
greater limits, at the discretion of the commanding officer, who regu- 
lates his conduct by the dictates of propriety and humanity. A non- 
commissioned officer or soldier is confined in charge of a guard ; butj 
by the custom of the service, the non-commissioned staff and sergeants 
may be simply arrested. The articles of war declare, " that no officer 
or soldier, who shall be put in arrest or imprisonment, shall continue 
in his confinement more than eight days, or until such time as a court- 
martial can be conveniently-assembled ; (ART. 79.) The latter part of 
this clause evidently allows a latitude, which is capable of being abused ; 
but, as in a free country there is no wrong without a remedy, an action 
might be brought against the offender in a civil court, (See INJURIES,) 
if the mode of redress for all officers and soldiers, who conceive them- 
selves injured by their commanding officer, be not sufficient. (ARTS. 
34, 35.) 



It is declared by the articles of war, that " no officer commanding 
a guard, or provost-marshal, shall refuse to receive or keep any prisoner 
committed to his charge, by any officer belonging to the forces of the 

1 States ; provided, the officer committing shall, at the same time, 
deliver an account in writing, signed by himself, of the crime with which 
the said prisoner is charged ; " and it is also declared, that "no oilicer 
commanding a guard, or provosUmarshal, shall presume to releas 
prisoner committed to his charge, without proper authority i 
doing, nor shall ho suffer any person to escape, on the penalty of bring 
MX! for it by the sentence of a court-martial. Every officer or 
provost-marshal, to whose charge prisoners shall be committed, shall, 
within twenty-four hours after such commitment, or as soon as he shall 
be relieved from his guard, make report in writing, to the commanding 
officer, of their names, their crimes, and the names of the officers who 
committed them, on the penalty of being punished f>r disobedi. 
neglect, at the discretion of a court-martial ; (ARTS. 80, 81, 82.) 
Thus the liberty of the citizen, under military law, so far as is con- 
with the ends of justice, seems to be guarded with precautions little 

which secure personal liberty under the civil l.i 
tile state. The penalty of an officer's breaking his arrest, or leaving his 
confinement before he is set at liberty by his commanding officer. <>r by 
a superior officer, is declared to be cashiering by s 
court-martial; (ART. 77.) A court-martial has no control over the 
nature of the arrest of a prisoner, except as to his personal freed 
court; the court cannot, even to facilitate hi* defence, inter' 
cause a close arrest to be enlarged. The officer in command is alone 
responsible for tin- prisoners under his charge. Individuals pla- 
arrest, may be released, without being brought before a court-martial ; 
by the authority ordering the arrest, or by superior authority. It is 
M the commander to place an officer in arrest, on ap- 
plication to thnt effect from an officer under his command. He will 
ttM*dse a sound discretion on the subject. But in all applications for 
redress of supposed grievances inflicted by a superior, it will be his 

in case he shall not deem it proper to order an investigation, to 
give his reasons in writing, for declining to a< t ; thetC if not 

Mtis&ctory, the complain may, should he think fit so to do, 

forward to the next common superior, together with a copy of 1 
plies' dress. An officer has no right to demand a court- 

martial, either on hims-lf f or on others; the. gcneral-in-chi, f or ollieer 
competent to order a court, being the judge of its necessity or pro- 

. Nor has any officer, who may have been placed in arrest, any 


right to demand a trial, or to persist in considering himself under ar- 
rest, after he shall have been released by proper authority. An officer 
under arrest will not make a visit of etiquette to the commanding 
officer, or other superior officer, or call on him, unless sent for ; and in 
case of business, he will make known his object in writing. It is con- 
sidered indecorous in an officer in arrest to appear at public places. 

ARREST BY CIVIL AUTHORITY. By section 21, Act January 11, 
1812, no non-commissioned officer, musician, or private, can be arrested 
on mesne process, or taken or charged in execution for any debt con- 
tracted before enlistment under twenty dollars, nor for any debt what- 
ever, contracted after enlistment. (See MESNE PROCESS.) 

ARSENAL. A place of deposit for ordnance and ordnance stores. 
There are also arsenals of construction and repairs. (See ORDNANCE.) 

ARTICLES OF WAR. There can be no doubt that the prerog- 
ative to command and regulate the whole military force of the king- 
dom, whether consisting of the feudal tenants, or of the militia, or of 
paid troops, resided in the Crown of England. Nevertheless the power 
of the sovereign was restricted by a provision, that he should exercise 
his military jurisdiction only " according to the laws and usages of 
the realm." In the reign of Edward VI., however, parliament as- 
serted authority over military matters by passing an act for the 
government of the army ; various offences, as losing, selling, or fraudu- 
lently exchanging horses or armor ; desertion ; detaining the pay of 
soldiers ; and taking rewards for granting them discharges, were put 
under the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate. It was also provided 
that the act should be read once a month by every field officer to the 
soldiers under his command, and once a quarter by the governor or 
captain of every garrison or fortress. At this period, however, there 
was no standing army, the feudal system was still in force, every man 
in the realm was more or less a soldier ; military law was accord- 
ingly restricted to such persons as were actually serving in the field, 
the process of civil judicature being obviously inapplicable to their 
case but directly the soldier ceased to belong to the force in actual 
campaign, the civil power stepped in and claimed cognizance of his 

Until the Civil War in the reign of Charles I., it is probable that no 
regular permanent code of rules or articles for enforcing military disci- 
pline was in existence ; the ruling authority had promulgated its orders 
for the government and regulation of the army as occasion required. 
Each war, each expedition, had its own edict, which fell into disuse again 
upon the disbanding of the army, which inevitably followed the cessa- 


tion of hostilities. Several instances, indeed, of rules and ordinances 
for military government l>y the ancient kings are still >ne of 

Richard I., for the government of those going by sea to tin Ib.!\ Land. 
is to be found in Kym. r's Fosdcra. An elaborate code of "statutes, 
ordonnances, and cuM>ms to be observed in the army," made in tin- I'th 
year of Kiehard II., is to be found among tlic Cottonian MS. in tin- Brit- 
ish Museum and those of Henry V., Henry VII., am! 1 1. my VIII., 
have not been lost. 

The experience of ages and the precedents of former wars, there- 

nahlcd the authorities to frame a sufliei. ntly compn hensive code 
Incase of nrrd ; accordingly, soon after the outbreak of the civil \\ar.the 
necessities of the case compelled the parliament to enact ordinances 
or articles of war. The first complete " Lawes and Ordinances of 
Warrt" (as he called them) were i*sn. d by Essex, the commander-in- 
chicf of the parliamentary army in h'-IJ. The-.- articles are remark- 
able an<l int. -n stint:, as undoubtedly forming the groundwork of 
now in use. T\\ \ the publication of Essex's ord'n . 

on the marching of the Scott i-h army into England, soon ; : fi,. r the 
ratification of the solemn league and covenant, ' Articles ,,f War" 

issued for its government. These articles, although very dis- 
similar to those of I -.. 001 dderl L: that both were in fV.ivc in 
the same kingdom at the same time, and were applicable to armies 
fighting on the same side, nevertheless treat mainly of the same 
offences. The C>rm of judicature established, consisted of two courts 
died "<'., uneils of War," the one superior, and the other 
inferior. The superior court, also called the " Court of War," took 
Cognizance of the more serious ofT-nees, and likewise heard appeals from 
tbo decision of the lower court, called the " Marshal Court." N. 
of the constitution of th, so courts is now to be found except that 
judges were sworn to do justice.'' Within a f.-w months of the pro- 

"n of tl, I . 1644,) tho same parliame! 

the author f if the pe< ,| a ii ordinance, establishing a 

system of martial law. applicable only to soldiers, but to all per- 
sons alike. By this ordinanee, t|,,. ]: ;ir j () f ]%., N , .-aptain-ijciieral of the 
parliamentary forces, together with fifty-six ..tli.-rs nam.d therein, 
were peers, meml>ors : II..nse of ( 'ominous, gentry, 
of tho army.) \\.-re nmstitutp.l ^commissioners," and any 

I of th.-iii auth'.ri/ d to hear nnd determine, all sneh causes as 
M belong to military cognizanc*'," acconlini to the artiel.-s m.-iitione.-l 
in tho ord d to proceed to the trial, condemnation, 

. "f all offenders against tho said articles, and to inflict upon 



them such punishment, either by death or otherwise, corporally, as 
the said commissioners, or the major part of them then present, 
should judge to appertain to justice, according to the measure of the 
offence. Under cover of this ordinance, which, after one refusal by the 
peers, was subsequently renewed, parliament proceeded to issue a vari- 
ety of orders for the conduct of the war, and the regulation of the army ; 
and many persons were tried by court-martial and executed. After the 
expiration of this last ordinance, the absolute executive power, in all mat- 
ters of military law, fell into the hands of Cromwell, who claimed it as 
his right, in virtue of his office of general-in-chief. " The general," says 
Whitlocke, " sent his order to several garrisons, to hold courts-martial, 
for the punishment of soldiers offending against the articles of war ; pro- 
vided that if any be sentenced to lose life or limb, that then they transmit 
to the judge-advocate the/examinations and proceedings of the court- 
martial, that the General's pleasure may be known thereon."' On one 
occasion, deeming it necessary for the sake of discipline, to make an 
immediate example, Cromwell seized several officers with his own 
hand, called a court-martial on the field, condemned them to death, 
and shot one forthwith at the head of his regiment. It will thus 
be seen, that the administration of martial law was almost inva- 
riably in the hands of the most considerable power in the state it 
alternated between king and parliament, and -between parliament and 
dictator, as each became uppermost in the realm. On the restoration 
of Charles II., the army, with the exception of about five thousand men, 
consisting of General Monk's regiment called " the Coldstream," the 
first regiment of foot, the royal regiment of Horse Guards, called " the 
Oxford Blues," and a few other regiments, was disbanded. The force 
kept on foot was die first permanent military force, or " standing army," 
known in England ; and from it the present army dates its origin. 

A statute passed in the reign of Charles II., intituled, " An act 
for ordering the forces in' the several counties of this kingdom," 
recites that, " within all his majesty's realms and dominions, the sole 
and supreme power, government, command, and disposition of the 
militia, and of all forces by sea and land, and of all forts and places of 
strength is, and by the laws of England ever was, the undoubted right 
of hie majesty, and his royal predecessors, kings and queens of Eng- 
land." With the exception of some slight encroachment on the part 
of the Crown, and protests on the part of the parliament, matters re- 
mained in very much the same state till the revolution, at which period 
military law assumed a permanent and definite form, as it now exists. 
The only allusions to the military power of the Crown, in the Bill of 



Rights, are, " that the raising and keeping of a standing army in time 
of peace, without constnt of parliament, is contrary to 1 ! that 

** subjects, if Protestants, may have arms for their defence, suitable to 
their condition, an 1 as allowed by law." In the first year, however, 
of the reign of NVilliam ui ; i regiments, jealous of tfce sup- 

posed preference shown by William for his Dutch troops, ninth.: 
Ipswich. The king suppressed tho mutiny with :i strong hand, at the 
same time communicating the event to parliament. Parliament, anxious 
to devise means for the convenient application of a code of laws t',.r tho 
regulation and management of the army, and at the same time 

i to place a check upon tin- exercise of the military power of the 
king, passed, on tho 3d April, 1689, for a period of six months only, 
the first mutiny act, the preamble, of which is as follows: 

Whereas, the raising or keeping a standing army within this 
kingdom'-, in time of peace, unlesse it be with tho consent of Parlya- 
ment, is against law; ami whereas it is ju \. by tlirir 

majestyes an 1 this present parlyarncnt that, during this time of warr, 
severall of the forces which are now on foote should bo continued ami 
others raised, for the safety of tho kingdomo, for the common <! 
of the. Protestant religion, and for the reducing of Ireland. And 
whereas no man can be prejudged of life or limb, or subjected to any 
kinde of punishment by inartiall law, or in any other manner than by 
the judgment of his pe.-i-.-. an 1 according to the knowne and established 
lawes of this real me ; yet, nevertheless, it beini: requisite for retaining 
such forces as are or shall bo raised during this exigence of afia 
their duty, that an exact discipline be observed ; and that soldiers \\h<> 
shall mutiny or stirr up sedition, or who shall desert their ma; 
service, be brought to more exemplary and speedy punishment than 
the usual formes of law will all 

The act provides for the assembling and constitution of court s mar- 
tial, for the oath of m-mb.-rs f> the punishment of desertion, mutiny, 
sedition, false musters, Are.; f,, r the regulation of billets; ami is or- 
dered to be read at the head of every regiment, troop, or company, at 
every miuter. " that noe soldier may pretend ignorance." No power 
is, however, reserved to the sovereign to make articles of w:>.r. This 
ct was renewed soon after its expiration; and with the exception of 
bout throe years only. viz.. from 10th April. 1W8. to 20th February. 
has bwi annually ro-onac'ed (with many alterations and amend- 
ments) ever since. Tbe firat statutory recognition of articles of war, 
occurs in the 1st Anne, statute ., a clause, which saves to hit 

majesty the right of making articles of war, for tho regulation of her 


forces " beyond the seas in time of war." It is not until the 3d Geo. 
1, c. 2, that we find the sovereign distinctly empowered by the mutiny 
act to make articles of war for the government of the troops at home. 
A clause in that act, after reciting that no effectual provision has been 
made for the government of his majesty's land forces, empowers the 
king to make and constitute, under his sign manual, articles for the 
better government of his majesty's forces, " as well within the king- 
doms of Great Britain and Ireland as beyond the seas." This privilege 
has been annually re-enacted, and annually exercised by the Crown to 
the present day. 

Under the Constitution of the United States, Congress only can 
make rules of government and regulation for the land forces, and those 
rules, commonly called Articles of War, were originally borrowed 
jointly from the English mutiny act annually passed by parliament, 
and their articles of war established by the king. The existing 
articles for the government of the army of the United States, en- 
acted April 10, 1806, are substantially the same as those originally 
borrowed July 30, 1775, and enlarged by the old Congress from the 
same sources, Sept. 20, 1776. The act consists of but three sections. 
The first declares : The following shall be the rules and articles by 
which the armies of the United States shall be governed ; " and gives 
one hundred and one articles, all noticed in these pages. Each article 
is confined, in express terms, to the persons composing the army. The 
second SECTION contains the only exception in the cases as follows : " In 
time of war, all persons, not citizens of, or owing allegiance to, the 
United States of America, who shall be found lurking, as spies, in or 
about the fortifications or encampments of the armies of the United 
States, or any of them, shall suffer death, according to the law and 
usage of nations, by sentence of a general court-martial." The third 
section merely repeals the previous act for governing the army. 

The Articles of War, therefore, are, and under th< Constitution of 
the United States can be, nothing more than a code for the government 
and regulation of* the army. On, in other words, within the United 
States, these articles are " a system of rule superadded to the common 
law, for regulating the citizen in his character of a soldier," and appli- 
cable to no other citizens. Beyond the United States another code is 
essential ; for, although armies take with them the Rules and Articles of 
War, and the custom of war in like cases in a foreign country, the 
soldier must be tried by some tribunal for offences which at home 
would be punishable by the ordinary courts of law. It is impossible 
to subject him to any foreign dominion, and hence, in the absence of 


rules made by Congress for the government of the army under such 
circuiiisuuoes, the wUl of the commander of the troops, ex necessitate 
rei, takes the place of law, and the declaration of his will is called 

The most casual reader of our Articles of War will be struck by 
the fact, thi* whereas the mutiny act of Great Britain is annually sub- 
jected to the supervision of parliament, and altered or modified accord- 
ing to circumstances, yet the Rules ami Articles of War, passed in 1806, 
have remained upon our statute b<><>k from that day to the present 
ut any general revision. Another fact equally important is, that 
while the king of Great Britain not only commands, but gover 
British army, and then-tore mo.lifiea the government of the army at 
his pleasure, the President of the United States is simply the 
mander of our army, under such rules for raising, supporting, gov- 
erning, and regulating it, as Congress may appoint. Tho necessity of 
attention to the military establishment on the part of Congr 

lanifrst, and it is most earnestly to bo hope.l that, in their 
wisdom they will, at some early day, fulfil their constitutional obliga- 
tions of raising, governing, and regulating armies : 1. By establishing 
system of recruiting which will bring into the ranks, soldiers who 
will make good officers; 2. By providing that all commissioned offi- 
cers shall be appointed from enlisted soldiers, or from military acad- 
emies, and making rules precisely regulating the manner in win. h 
mich appointments shall bo made ; 3. In making rules for a system of 
promotion partly by seniority, and partly by merit; 4. In passing 
other remunerative laws, such as prize money, field allowances, indem- 
nification for losses, ozc. ; 5. In accurately defining the powers, rights 
and soldiers; 6. In providing remedies for 

wrongs, including appeals to federal civil courts, to determine the true 
exposition ,,f military laws in dispute; and 7. In revfabg th 
code, and better adapting it to a system of government whieh will pro- 
wards for good conduct, and not simply punishments for bod. 





WRONGS ; and references under the heading of Law, all military laws 
being rules for the government and regulation of the army, although 
they may also include other matters. (Consult PIPON'S MANUAL OF 

ARTIFICER. Military workman ; two allowed to each com- 
pany of artillery. 

ARTILLERY. The word is more ancient than the use of powder, 
and was applied to machines of war, and all projectiles that the masters 
of artillery had under their direction. In foreign armies the word Ar- 
tillery is still indifferently applied to an arm of the service, the ma- 
terial used, and branch of science. By Artillery in the U. S. army is 
usually, but not always, meant an arm of the service, designed to use 
mountain, field, and heavy ordnance, and the knowledge requisite for such 
use. There are four regiments of Artillery in our army, in each of which 
the law authorizes two companies to be equipped as harnessed batteries ; 
(See ARMY, for their organization.) The remaining companies are, from 
supposed necessities of service, usually employed as infantry, but- their 
name, and liability at any time to become artillerists, must cause officers 
not to neglect such knowledge of their arm as may be derived from 
books, and the establishment of the school of practice at Fort Monroe 
cannot fail to have the happiest effects in making skilful artillerists. 
The instructions for field artillery, and heavy and mountain artillery, 
are contained in books published by the War Department, one called 


a Instruction for Field Artillery, I loree and Foot," aiidai Heavy 

Artillery** being " -a complete system of instruction for Si 
sou, Sea coast and Mountain Artillery," and a third "Evolutions of 
Field Artillery," by Major Kobi-rt AndKMtt. 

Competition of a fold battery on the war establishment. Four 12- 
pounders or four six-pounder guns, and two 24-pounders or 12-poumler 
howitzers. Six pieces mounted to eaeh battery. Carriages including 
caissons, spare gun-carriages, forges, and battery wagons, accompany 
each battery, together with implements and equipments specified in 
the ordnance manual. Draught horses, six to each battery wagon, 
and 12-pounder gun-carriage, four to other carriages, and one twelfth 
spare. Harness corresponding to the number of horses to the 

Tactics. A battery going into lino with other troops, is usually 
formed in column of sections, and deployed into line as the enemy is 
approached. Under ordinary circumstances the best formation is the 
column doubled on the centre section, as the deploy is then toward both 
wings at the same time, and more promptly performed. Unl 
extreme cases, the cannoneers should never be mounted on the boxes 
when the battery is within range of the enemy, as the explosion of a 
caisson might destroy nearly every cannoneer belonging to a piece. 
When several batteries are united, they are formed by sections in one 
or several parallel columns, or in double columns on the centre, or still 
. in two columns joined, and presenlinj: a front, of four pieces 
with the same intervals as in line. Sometimes they are formed in close 
column with a front of four or six pieces, and the batteries bcinir spaced 
a distance apart equal to the interval between two pieees. When de- 
ployed, the d'lHt.r en the batteries is double this. "When hrse- 
artill.-ry ami mounted batteries are placed together, the former are 
placed on the Nungs, and the distances and intervals of the \\holo con- 
M of hor>e-artillery ; as in manoeuvring no regard is paid 
to inversion*, it frequently happens that the batteries chain:'' their 
>o positions, and it is then necessary that eaeh span- should be 
largo enough to contain a horse-artillery battery. A el..-.- eoluimi of 
several batteries is deployed in the same manner as a column of eav- 
the leading battery moving oil* at an increased put, a'nd the 
Others, obliquing to the ri^ht or left, jnin their inlet-sals and f.i m in 
line or battery to the front as usual. The changes of front to fire to 
the right and left oro, mn<le on the \\in^s in the same manner as with a 
single battery ; but it i-< better to make these changes on the <-. ntns 
y. But four of these changes are pra< ti< able, viz., two to fire to 


the right by throwing the left wing to the front or rear, and two to fire 
to the left by throwing the right wing to the front or rear. In the 
other four changes of front, the pivot pieces would be masked by the 
rest of the carriages, and could not commence their fire soon enough. 
On this account the pivot carriages, in these changes, should be on the 
side towards which the fire is to be delivered. In defensive battles, 
the contour of the ground is of the first importance, and if properly 
taken advantage of, may be made to double the force and importance 
of artillery. 

Artillery, held in reserve, arriving in mass or deployed upon the 
field of battle, occupies positions determined by circumstances and 
localities. Heights and commanding positions should be secured, and 
those positions, also, from which an oblique fire may be obtained upon the 
enemy. In a defensive position, those points are sought from whence the 
enemy may be discovered at the greatest distance. Advantage should be 
taken of all local circumstances to render the artillery fire most effective, 
and at the same time shelter it from the fire of the enemy. The guns 
should be placed, if possible, under cover. This is easily effected upon 
heights, by keeping them so far back that the muzzles only are to be seen 
over them. Ravines, banks, ditches, &c., also offer facilities for the pur- 
pose. The perfection to which the materiel of field artillery has been, 
brought, gives it comparatively great mobility of action ; but large quan- 
tities of ammunition must be consumed to attain any positive result from 
its employment in battle. The transportation of this ammunition with 
an army involves serious economical considerations, constituting no small 
impediment to armies, from the number of horses, wagons, caissons, 
&c., required for each battery. The improvements made in the mate- 
riel of artillery will not, therefore, in all probability, cause a more fre- 
quent employment of light batteries; but on the contrary, the long 
range which has been given to the rifle and musket, and the facility 
with which the horses and gunners of field batteries may be picked off 
at 1,000 yards, will probably cause even the rifled field gun to become 
an arm of RESERVE, which brought up at a decisive moment may influence 
the result of a battle, defend entrenchments against attack, and be use- 
fully employed against isolated field works. 

Smooth-bore field pieces, fired at a distance of five or six hundred 
yards, will penetrate from one yard and a half to two yards in para- 
pets recently constructed, and will traverse walls of ordinary construc- 
tion ; but a 12-pounder is necessary to make a breach in walls of good 
masonry four feet in thickness, and in this case the position of the bat- 
tery must be favorable, and the operation is even then a slow one. 



Moderate charges are employed in firing upon gates, block-houses, pal- 
isades, and in general upon all wooden structures. The heaviest siege 
pieces, by their great force of penetration, are best adapted for funning 
a breach in the walls of permanent fortifications. Their superior accu- 
racy, and the mass of their projectiles, render them also very effective 

firing. Balls of smaller calibre have not sufficient moss to 
destroy carriages offering such resistance as those employed in the de- 
fence of places. The force of pm.-tration of balls in different substances 
increases with their calibre ami \vhnity : at one hundred yards, a 24- 
pound ball fired with a cartridge of 12 pounds will be one yard in briek 
masonry, nearly tw<> f t in rubble work, one yard and a half in oak 
wood, two yards in pine, two yards and a half in well rammed earth, 
and nearly live yards in a recent embankment. The ball of an 18- 
pounder, fired with a charge of nine pounds under the same circum- 
stances, will give penetrations nearly six-sevenths of those indicated 

Field guns, in general, may be employed to cannonade with force 
and perseverance ; to reinforce the weakest points of positions, whether 
\e. or defensive; to secure a retreat by the occupation of points 
established as the base of defence of particular ground, or of any im- 
portant object, as the defence of a village or defile, or the passage of a 
river, and to overthrow such obstacles as palisades, rampart walls, 
doors, Ace., interposed by art; to prepare the way for an assault, 
and aid, at a decisive moment, to secure the victory by a united 
fire. A field cannon ball has suilieieiit force to disable seven or eight 
men at a distance of 000 yards. It is stated that a single cannon ball, 
at the battle of Zorndor^ disabled 42 men. Rifle projeeliles, having 
more momentum, are elli r-tive at <jreatrr distances. 

The following tables of Charges and Ranges for United States Field 

:t/ers,and Heavy Ordnance, are taken from Robert >' Hand- 
book of Artillery. 

CHET FOB SiEoE-omrs. 









AIM yard*. 
650 " 

** 46' 

Vn wt. of ball. 

tj .1 ii 

050 yards. 

1 45' 

:< li,-. 


8' 15' 



2 16' 

l Hi. 


8* 8ft' 

',. " 

220 " 

2 46' 

1 U. 







550 yards. 
330 " 
220 " 

7 30' 


1 lb. 4 oz. 
1 lb. 1 oz. 
14 oz. 
10 oz. 

The height of the object above 
the level of the battery being 
supposed to be 20 feet. 

The charges vary with the elevation ; or, if the elevation be fixed at 
any particular angle, they must be determined by the range. 






















For spherical case or canister 

( small charge ... 

For shells, j ^.| ?""".:.....". 
















Siege 8-in. 













2. . 









4'~ l 
























RAMOKS or FIKLD Guns AD Howrrzns. 

KUD or riaoB. 

r -w i 


K . Vfr 



6-Pounder Field Gun. 











P. B. Range. 

Time of flijrlu ii' 
do. ' 8' 
do. 4* 


Sph. cue. 


2 30 


la-Pounder Field Gun. 




1 30 





'.Ii in 


P. B. Range. 

Time 2 seconds. 
,i 8 

.. 4 


Sph. cose, 


1 45 
2 80 


12-Pounder Field 








Time 2 seconds. 

II It 

u 4 i. 


Sph. case. 



2 15 
3 15 
8 45 


24-1'ouiider i-icJu 







Time 2 seconds. 
, s 

.. 4 

" 8 " 


Sph. case. 




6 30 
3 80 


M-Pounder Field 







Tin 10 JJ sivoniK 

Sph. cam,. 


Mounuia Uowiuer. 





2 80 



Timo 2 seconds. 
Tinio ?, 6,-.,-,.- 









Mountain Howitzer 


Sph. case. 




2 30 


Time 2 seconds. 







Time 2| seconds. 

4 30 


Time 3 seconds. 



4 to 6 









18-Pdr. Siege and Gar- 





rison Gun on Barbette 


1 30 


Point Blank. 















24-Pdr. Siege and Gar- 




rison Gun on Siege 






1 30 


Point Blank. 




























32-Pdr. Sea-Coast Gun 



1 45 


on Barbette Carriage. 






1 30 



1 85 























42-Pdr. Sea-Coast Gun 





on Barbette Carriage. 


1 30 
































. ;. i 


hi, A a 





t'.-lli Shell 


Tim d 


jo-iu. r^utMi. 

U A 


u ]^ 



i o " 


u g u 



H ., 


u u ii 


1 80 


24-Pdr. Iron Howitzer 


17-lb. Shell 



on a Flank Catenate 





Sph. cases. 


Time 2 seconds. 




u 4 





It II 

8-inch Sea-Coast How. 


45-lb. Shell. 


itxer on a Barbette 































10-inch Sea-Coast How- 


o-lb. ShelL 



itzer on Barbette Car- 



Time 3 seconds. 




u 4 ii 


8 80 





" .4 " 




44 6 " 

8-in. Columbiad on Bar- 


65-lb. Shot. 



Axis of guu 16 iect 

bette Carriage. 




almvi- the wain. 















asod lo ri- 



t on the 















27 80 



60-lb. Shell. 





























8-in. Columbiad on Bar- 


50-lb. Shell. 



bette Carriage Con- 











27 30 


10-inch Columbiad on 


128-lb. Shot. 


Axis of gun 16 feet 

Barbette Carriage. 




above the water. 

















Shot ceased to rico- 



chet on the water. 




















39 15 



100-lb Shell. 






































. 8 





















Time 35 seconds. 

13-in. Sea-Coast Mortar. 


200-lb. Shell. 



Time 40 seconds. 

10-in. Sea-Coast Mortar. 


98-lb. Shell. 



Time 3fi seconds. 

10-inch Siege Mortar. 


90-lb. Shell. 



Time 6.5 seconds. 




' 12. " 





' 14. 





< 16. 





' 18. " 




' 19. 





4 21. " 

Ibs. oz. 


8-inch Siege Mortar. 


45-lb. Shell. 



Time 6.75 sec'da. 









< 11.5 

1 4 




" 14. 

1 8 




1 12 



" 18.5 " 





20.5 " 




i .. 


i.i . 

24-Pounder Cochorn 


, 1.75 

17-lb. Shell 





Stone Mortar. 



120 Ibs. 

i 15 6-pdr. 
| shells. 


to 150 

Fuze 15 seconds. 

Nor*. Flre-balK according t> their sire, are fired from mortars of corresponding calibre* 
With a charge of OWE TWKMTY-rurru iu weight, the ball is thrown 600 to 700 yards. 

Howitzers are used to drive the enemy from positions when he 
can only be reached by shells ; against covered ground, and particularly 
forests and defiles; against strong cavalry attacks ; to prepare the way 
for an attack of fortifications and posts, and to burn combustible ob- 
jects of great extent. (Consult Aide Afemoire, par GASSENDI ; GIBBON; 
ROBERTS ; BBNTON ; KINOSBURY ; ffittoire et Tactique des Trois Armcs, 

ASSAULT. In any -assault, it is necessary that the officer, com- 
manding and responsible for the whole operation, should be in immediate 
communication with the troops during the assault, and be present with 
the reserve or supporting party ; 2. The troops destined for this duty 
should be divided into two portions, each equal in strength to tlmr- 
foiirths of the garrison attacked : one portion being the attacking party, 
and the other half, the reserve or supporting party ; 3. Each column 
attacking party will also be subdivided into advance, main body, 
and support, whatever may be the number of these columns ; 4. The 
disposition of tho attacking party, as it reaches the point of attack, will 
be regulated by the engineer officer, under the orders of the officer 
commanding th-y having made tho necessary reconnoissances ; the 
party must be furnished with tools, ladders, and proper implements, 
adapted to the circumstances of the moment, and accompanied by a 
detachment of sappers; 5. The disposition of the reserve, .-.jiial, as 
before observed, to the whole attacking force, should be regulated by 
the officer intrusted with tho execution of the assault; and this re- 
serve should be accompanied or not, according to circumstances, by 
cavalry and field artillery. When these descriptions of force are 


present, the former should be placed under cover or out of gun shot 
about 1,500 yards distant ; the artillery should be kept in hand until 
the attacking party is engaged, when the guns should be spread out on 
the flanks, and open a vigorous fire upon the works ; the infantry, 
brought immediately in rear of the leading attack, should be placed 
under cover, if possible, from fire of grape and musketry, and halted 
until the issue of the first assault is seen ; 6. It is impossible to regu- 
late an assault by any minute suggestions for the advance, except to 
observe that it is usual for each column to attack the salient points of 
the works, and least defended portions ; to throw out skirmishers and 
firing parties under any cover available, and keep up a rapid and com- 
pact fire upon the defenders ; to follow with the sappers and grenadiers 
to force alb obstructions ; and then to advance the main body, the sup- 
ports of each column being judiciously planted in the rear. Eventually, 
as success occurs and the whole move on, points of security should be 
taken up, such as the reverse, or the exterior slope of the works ; build- 
ings, walls, as well as gorges and flanks, which frequently give cover. 
Men should be planted under an officer, with instructions to take no 
notice of the pell-mell, but to keep up a heavy firing in front ; employ- 
ing the sappers in entrenching the position taken up by the supporting 
party, or in collecting wagons, carts, carriages, &c., capable of being 
made into a barricade ; 7. Either on the supposition that the success 
of the assault is doubtful, or that there is a check, or repulse, the re- 
serve, in case of doubtful success, to render the attack doubly sure, 
should move forward under the officer commanding the whole assault- 
ingforce, and relieve the assailants, who take their places as the reserve 
as soon as order can be restored ; the artillery brought into position in 
the openings, between the advancing columns, would be directed upon 
the retreating or resisting forces ; and if success is finally complete, the 
cavalry, in the event cf their being employed, will move forward, either 
through the openings cleared, or by a detour, if a fortified town, in 

In the second case that of a check the reserve, on the reconnois- 
sance of the officer commanding, will either march forward in support 
of the attack, or to cover the retreat, if further perseverance in the 
assault is deemed impracticable the artillery and cavalry being 
warned as to the intention. In the event of the assault being repulsed, 
the reserve,, which should be in echelon, having advanced guards in 
front, will allow the retreating party to move through the intervals, 
and the advanced guard will endeavor to check the pursuit ; if over- 
powered, they will fall back on the reserve, and the whole may in that 


manner retreat until beyond gun shot, endeavoring to make a stand, 
repulse the garrison, and if possible convi-rt failure into success, if tho 
lit has been badly and without due caution. As an 

important rule in all assaults, except in partial attacks, as an outwork, 
or any particular work in which a lodgement is to be made, the com- 
position of the forces should be by regiments and corps, and not by de- 
tachments ; and each non-commissioned officer should be provided with 
the means of spiking a gun, for which purpose even an old nail is suf- 
ficient Assaults, if feasible, would seldom fail with th itions, 
and there are few posts not open to assault, by taking the proper op- 
portunity, an officer intrusted with tin- defence of a place should there- 
fore exercise the most unremitting vigilance. (Consult DUFOUR, Toe- 
tique dts Trots Armes ; Aide Afemoire by British Officers.) e 

ASSEMBLY. Drum beat to order troops to assemble ; assembly 
for skirmish. !*, a bugle sound. 

ASSIGNMENT. If, upon marches, guards, or in quarters, differ- 
ent corps of the army shall happen to join, or do duty together, the 
i rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or militia, 
by commission, there on duty or in quarters, shall command the whole, 
and give orders for what is needful to the service, unless otherwise spe- 
cially directed by the President of the United States, according to the 
nature of the case ; (ART. 62, Rules and Articles of War.) 

It has been contended that the last clause of this article enables tho 

President to make rank in the army vary at his pleasure, by an order of 

assignment. But the authority given to tho President l.y 

the last clause of Article 02 is equally applicable to all commissions in 

.f the army, marine corps, or militia, it would follow, under 

e.. nst ruet ion, that the laws creating rank did not fix a range of 

' ; or. in other words, that Congress, after creating rank, 

or a range of subordination, and establishing rules of appointment and 

tuiro seniority or gallant and meritorious ser 

and the sail -ho Senate for the attainment of si i.h promotion, 

hare updone their whole work by giving to the, President the power to 
o rank of tho only quality which gives it consideration. Tho 
bare statement of this proposition is sufficient to show that su.h could 
never have been the me.-min^ ,,f the last clause of Article <> of the 
Rules I ' W:ir. and an attentive and candid examination of 

the article will, it" is 1 M that its purpose was to de- 

clare that the of ,ank should command whenever dii; 

corps came M unless otherwise tpcrialfy directed f>>/ the President 

of the United States, according to the nature of the case." That 


say, unless the President, in any special case, should deem the highest" 
officer inefficient or incompetent ; then he might supersede him, by 
withdrawing him from the command. Or, in other cases, the Presi- 
dent might desire to carve out of the general command particular 
trusts, or limit the discretion of the commanding officer in regard to 
what is needful for the service. This plain interpretation of the dis- 
puted passage in no case permits the violation of the rights of any 
officer, by placing a junior over a senior ; but the Authority which it 
gives the President is indispensable to a proper administration of his 
great office of commander-in-chief. And it may be here stated that, 
during the Mexican war, Mr. Folk's administration after much deliber- 
ation emphatically disavowed the possession of any legal authority to 
assign a junior major-general to command a senior. (See article RANK, 
for a statement of the case of Major-general Benton. See also BREVET ; 

ASSIGNMENT OF PAY. No assignment of pay made by a 
non-commissioned officer or soldier, is valid ; (Act of May 8, 1792.) 

ASTRAGAL Small convex moulding used in the ornamental 
work of ordnance, and usually connected with a fillet or flat moulding. 

ASYLUM, (MILITARY.) The persons entitled to the benefits of the 
Asylum, or Soldier's Home, as it is now called, located in the District of 
Columbia, are : 1. All soldiers, and discharged soldiers of the army of 
the United States, who may have served honestly and faithfully for 
twenty years. 2. All soldiers, and discharged soldiers of the regular 
army, and of the volunteers, who served in the war with Mexico, and 
were disabled by disease or wounds contracted in that service and in 
the line of their duty, and who are, by their disability, incapable -of 
further military service. This class includes the portion of the marine 
corps that served with the army in Mexico. 3. Every soldier, and dis- 
charged soldier, who may have contributed to the funds of the Soldier's 
Home since the passage of the act to found the same, March 3, 1851, 
according to the restrictions and provisions thereof, and who may have 
been disabled by disease or wounds incurred in the service and in the 
line of his duty, rendering him incapable of military service. 4. Every 
pensioner on account of wounds or disability incurred in the military 
service though not a contributor to the funds of the Institution who 
shajl transfer his pension to the Soldier's Home during the period he 
voluntarily continues to receive its benefits. No provision is made for 
the wives and children of those admitted. 

No mutineer, deserter, or habitual drunkard, or person convicted 
of felony or other disgraceful crime of a civil nature, while in the army 

: I MILITARY \KY. [Art. 

or after his ffignhap, is admitted into the asylum without satisfactory 
evidence being shown to the Commissioners of the Soldier's Home of 
subsequent service, good conduct, an. I reformation of character. Tho 
Commissioners are : the adjutant-general, the commissary -general of sub- 
sistence, and the surgeon-general. The Soldier's Home has its governor, 
secretary, and treasurer, appointed from the army ; (Act March 3, 1851.) 
ATTACK AND DEFENCE. (See REDOUBT.) A redoubt may be 
armed with cannon, or only defended by infantry. In the former 
case, it may be necessary to silence cannon by cannon; in the latt. -r, 
we may march at once to the attack. Light infantry, principally rifle- 
men, envelop the work, and even, at a distance of 1.000 yards. 
their fire tipon the interior of the work and crest of the parapet, so as 
to prevent the defenders from showing themselves, or at least to cause 
th<*n to fire hurriedly. Gradually approaching and converging their 
fire, the riflemen groove the parapet, and assert the superiority of their 
arm. Arrived at a short distance from the ditch, they run and leap 
into it, unless prevented by obstacles such as pali-ad.-s abatis, and 
trous-de-loup. In that event, they IM riil <-f the ol.sta* 1, s l>y means of 
their axes, or fill the trous-de-loup with fascines, with which they have 
previously provided themselves. Tho whole number, however, do not 
throw themselves into the ditch, a portion remain upon the counter- 
scarp, to fire upon any one daring to show himtMif behind the parapet. 
When the troops have taken breath at tho bottom of the ditch, they 
owau//, and to do this the soldiers aW each other in uimmtin^ upon 
the bfrme. From thenco they mount together upon tho parapet. Lap 
into the redoubt, and force-the defenders to ground their arms. If the 
redoubt is armed \\ith cannon, and is of greater strength than has been 
supposed, it might be necessary at first to cannonade in such a manner 
at to break ades, dismount the pieces, and plough up tho par- 

apet Favorable positions for the cannon used in the attack \\ill I.e. 
sought: these positions shot dd command the work, or be on the pro* 
longntion of its faces, so as to give an enfilading fin-. If t he redoubt is 
pierced with embrasures, it is necessary to direct one or two pieces 
... h < mliravuretoas to dismount the pieces, and to penetrate into 
the interior of the work, in order t.. demoralize tho defenders. Somo 
good riflemen will also approach towards the embrasures, shunninu' their 
range, and fire upon the artillerymen, who may attempt to re- 
load their piece*. 

^ only after the attacking artillery has produced its desired 
that the light infantry envelop the \\ ->rk, and do what has been already 
indicated. When infantry of the line take part in tho attack, it is 


formed in as many columns as there are salients of attack. Each of 
these columns is preceded by men armed with axes and carrying lad- 
ders. It is a wise precaution to give to front rank men, fascines, which 
not only serve as bucklers, but are also useful in filling up part of the 
ditch. The light infantry open to allow the passage of the columns, 
but redouble their fire to sustain the attack at the moment that the 
assailants begin to climb the parapet. The essential thing in this de- 
cisive moment for the assailants is unity of effort, and to leap into the work 
from all sides at once. It is necessary, then, that the troops stop a 
moment upon the berme, and await the concerted signal to clamber up 
the exterior slope, in order to mount upon the parapet. If the redoubt 
be not aided by other troops, or strengthened by works upon its flanks, 
it will be difficult to resist an attack thus directed when valiantly ex- 
ecuted. Whatever may be the result, it is the first duty of the com- 
mandant of a post to sustain and invigorate the morale of his soldiers, 
by his own confident air, his valiant resolutions, and his activity in 
putting every thing in the best order. If the attack is not immediate, 
the commandant will surround the redoubt with abatis ; he will pro- 
vide heWy stones for the defence of the ditches ; he will endeavor to 
procure bags of earth, to make embrasures upon the parapet. Want- 
ing these he will supply himself with sods, making loopholes, through 
which the best marksmen will fire upon the enemy. A beam placed 
across these sods may, at the same time, serve as a protection to the 
marksmen, and a means of rolling down the assailants. Cannon be- 
gins the defence. As soon as the batteries of the enemy are discovered, 
the fire is opened. But when once the batteries have taken their po- 
sitions, when their pieces are partly covered by the ground, and their 
fire begins to produce an effect, the struggle is no longer equal. It is 
then necessary to withdraw the cannon of the work into its interior, or 
to leave those pieces only which are covered by good traverses, throw- 
ing, however, from time to time, some canister among the light in- 
fantry, who may press too nearly. The artillery is at first only 
aided by a few good marksmen placed in the angles, behind trav- 
erses, or wherever the fire of the enemy is least felt. But when the 
work is so closely pressed that the artillery of the assailants cannot 
continue its fire without danger to their own men, the defenders mount 
upon the banquettes, the guns are brought back, and the warmest fire 
is directed upon the columns of attack, and upon the squads of light 
infantry, who seek to make a passage through the abatis to the coun- 
terscarp. This is the moment to explode such small mines as have been 
previously prepared under the glacis, or in the interior of the work. 


If, notwithstanding such efforts, the enemy reaches the ditch, and 
collect* his force for the assault, all is not yet lost. The defenders roll 
upon him shells, trunks of trees, and heavy stones, and then mounting 
upon the parapet, stand ready to receive him at the point of tho bay- 
onet, or to use the butt .f tho mu>k ry records the fail 
more than one attack from such conduct on the part of the defenders ; 
and if we reflect upon the disorder of tho assailants, and the physical 
advantage which those standing upon the parapet must possess, it is 
necessary, for the success of the attacking force, that they should have 
a great moral superiority. This does often exist, but the commander 
of A work may infuse his own indomitable spirit into his men. 

iporary works may be attacked by SURPRISE or by OPEN FORCE. 
In all cases, the first thing to be done is for the commander of tho at- 
tack to obtain the fullest possible information that circumstances u ill 
admit, of the character of the work, garrison, ground aroun.l it. d. ; 
robable aid at hand, dec. If on intrenched village is to be att;. 
it should be ascertained by what means tho streets and roads leading 
into it have been closed, whether by stockades or breastworks; how 
these obstacles are flanked ; what obstructions are placed in froht of 
them, csc., &c. If the post is an isolated building, such as a country 
house or church, attention should be directed to tho mode in which the 
doors have been barricaded, or the windows blocked tip ; how the loop- 
holes are arranged ; what sort of flank defence has been provided ; in >w 
it can best be approached ; what internal preparations have been made 
for prolonging tho defence, &c. Part of this knowledge may be ob- 
tained from s^ies, and reconnoissance must do the rest. In tho attack 
of military posts, infantry are frequently thrown upon thoir own re- 
sources. They have no guns or howitzers for tearing up and d 
ing stockades, abatis, palisading, chevaux-de-frizo, &c. Their r-lianee 
must therefore 1..- ti, tivity and fertility of invention. Al.atis 

may sometimes be fired by lighted fagots, or else passed by cutting 
away a few of the smaller branches. Small ditches may l.e filled up 
'undies of hay ; chevaux-de-frizo may be displaced by 
main force with a rope, and a good pull together, or they may 1-e ,-ut 
Mown to pieces by a box of powder. Stockade work or palisad- 
y be escaladed with ladders brought up in a lino under the j, ro- 
tation of a firing party, and carried by two or four men accord ing to 
their length ; or a stockade, barricaded doors, gates, and window 
be breached by a bag of powder, <fcc. By such measures, d, -isiv.-ly 
and boldly used, troops would be a match for nny of the ordinary ob- 
struction* which might oppose their advance, whether the attack were 


made by night or day, by surprise or by open force. (Consult Du- 
FOUR; Aide Memoire, <kc.) 


ATTENTION Cautionary command addressed to troops, pre- 
paratory to a particular exercise or manoeuvre. 

ATTESTATION. A certificate, signed by the magistrate before 
whom a recruit is sworn in as a soldier. 

AUDITORS. (See ACCOUNTABILITY for their duties.) They may 
administer oaths ; (Act March 3, 1817.) 

AUTHORITY, (CiviL.) Any commissioned officer or soldier ac- 
cused of a capital crime, or of having used violence, or committed any 
offence, against the person or property of any citizen of any of the 
United States, such as is punishable by the known laws of the land, 
must be delivered over upon application of the civil authority ; and all 
officers and soldiers are required to use their utmost endeavors to de- 
liver over such accused persons, and likewise to be aiding and assisting 
the officers of justice in apprehending and securing the persons so ac- 
cused in order to bring them to trial. Any commanding officer or 
officers, wilfully neglecting or refusing upon application to deliver over 
such accused persons, or to be aiding and assisting the officers of justice 
in apprehending such persons, shall be cashiered ; ART. 33. (See COM* 

AUXILIARY. Forces to aid. - 

AWARD. The decision or sentence of a court-martial. 


BAGGAGE OF AN ARMY Called by the Romans impedimenta, 
and by Bonaparte emlarras. No question is more* important in giving 
efficiency to an army, than the regulation of its baggage. Nothing so 
seriously impairs the mobility of an army in the field as its baggage- 
train, but this baggage is necessary to its existence ; and the important 
question therefore arises, How shall the army be sustained with least 
baggage 1 Sufficient attention is not paid by Government to this sub- 
ject in time of peace, and in war the commander of the troops finds 
himself therefore obliged to use the unstudied means which his Govern- 
ment hastily furnishes. In respect to artillery and artillery equip- 
ments, the minutest details are regulated. It should be the same with 
other supplies. In the United States Army, the quartermaster's de- 
partment has charge of transports, and some steps have been taken to 


regulate the subject ; but legislation is required for tho necessary mil- 
Itary organiiation of conductors and drivers of wagons, and perhaps, 
also, unless our arsenals may be so used, for the establishment of de- 
pota, where a studied examination of field transportation may bo made, 
which will recommend rules, regulating the kinds of wagons or carts to 
be used in different circumstances ; prescribing tho construction of the 
wagon and its various parts in a uniform manner, so that tho correspond- 
ing part of one wagon will answer for another, giving the greatest pos- 
sible mobility to these wagons consistent \\ ith strength ; prescril>in<: the 
harness, equipment, valises of officers, blacksmith forges, tool chests, 
ohesU for uniforms, bales of clothing, packing of provisions, and, gen- 
erally, the proportion, form, substance, and dimensions of articles of 
supply ; what should be tho maximum weight of packages ; the 
means to be taken for preventing damage to tho articles ; the grade, 
duties and pay of the quartermasters, wagon masters, and drivers 
should be properly regulated ; rules for loading should be given ; ami. 
finally, a complete system of marks, or modes of recognition should bo 

'.././ i. W.'h Mi'-li mitt, :ti:d tin- adoption of a kitclun c<irf. 
(5W WAOON,) together with small cooking utensils for field servi. 
which may be carried by the men, an army would no longer always bo 
tied to a baggage train, and great results might bo accomplished by 
the disconnection. (Set CONVOY ; WAGON.) 

BAKING. Troops bake their own bread, and the saving of 
per cent, thus made in flour is carried to the credit of tho Post Fund. 
(& OVENS.) 

BALKS are joist-shaped spars, which rest between the cleats upon 
the saddles of two pontoons, to support the chess or flooring. 


BALLISTICS is that branch of gunm ry which treats of tho Mo- 
tion of Projectiles. The instruments used to determine the initial 
Telocity of projectiles are the gun-pendulum, tho ballistic pen.lulutn, 
and the llistio machine. By the latter machine, the velocity 

hi projectile ftt nny point of its trajectory is also determined. The 

mined by tho pun pendulum, by suspending the 

'piece itself at a pendulum, and measuring the recoil impressed on it l.y 

the discharge; the expression for tho velocity is deduced from the fact, 

that the quantity ated to tho pendulum N e,,nal to 

that given to the projectile, charge of powder, and the air. The second 

apparatus is a pendulum, the bob of whieh is made strong and heavy 

to receive the Impact of the projectile; and the expression for the 

velocity of the projectile is deduced from the fact, that the quantity of 


motion <tf the projectile before impact, is equal to that of the pendulum 
and projectile after impact. These machines have been brought to 
great perfection in France and in the United States. By the electro- 
ballistic machines wires are supported on target frames, placed in the 
path of the trajectory, which communicate with a delicate time-keeper. 
The successive ruptures of the wires mark on the time-keeper the in- 
stant that the projectile passes each wire, and knowing the distances of 
the wires apart, the mean velocities, or velocities of the middle points 

can be obtained by the relation velocity = s ~*^ 

The electro-ballistic machine of Capt. Navaez of the Belgian service, 
has been found too delicate and complicated for general service ; that 
devised by Capt. J. G. Benton, Ordnance Department, is used at the 
United States Military Academy. (For description, &c., consult BEN- 
TON'S Ordnance and Gunnery.} 

BAND. Musicians, as Regimental Band, Post Band, &c. They 
are enlisted soldiers, and form a band of musicians under the direction 
of the adjutant, but are not permanently detached from their com- 
panies, and are instructed in all the duties of a soldier. 

BANQUETTE is the step of earth within the parapet, sufficiently 
high to enable the defenders, when standing upon it, to fire over the 
crest of the parapet with ease. 

BARBETTE. Guns are said to be in barbette when they are 
elevated, by raising the earth behind the parapet, or by placing them 
on a high carriage, so that, instead of firing through embrasures, they 
can be fired over the crest of the parapet. In this position, the guns 
have a wide range, instead of being limited, as in firing through em- 

BARRACKS from the Spanish barraca, are buildings erected 
by Government for lodging troops. Where the ground is suffi- 
ciently spacious, they are made to enclose a large area, for the pur- 
pose of exercising and drilling. Barracks should be very commo- 
dious, comprising mess-rooms, cooking-houses, guard-houses, magazines, 
&c. United States troops are generally badly quartered, sometimes 
in casemates of fortifications, and often in cantonments constructed by 
themselves. Officers and soldiers' quarters should be properly fur- 
nished by the Government ; but in the United States, officers' quarters 
are bare of all conveniences when assigned to them for occupancy. 
The quarters of soldiers are provided with bunks, tables, &c. (Con- 
sult, for detailed information upon the proper construction of Barracks, 



and their necessary furniture, &c,, BARDIX'S Dictlonnaire de TArmte de 

r J/iVi'MiV*-, ilr. ; Britith Regulation*.) 

BARRICADES. Th.- following series of Barricades afford moans 
of closing openings in various ways, most of them practicable under all 

1. Palisading; movable or fixed. } Lcopholed; the bottom of tin- 

Stockade of trees. ( loophole not less than S 

8. Stockade of squared baulk. ) above ground outside. 
4. Abatis; with or without parapet of earth and ditch In-hind. 

Fio. 64. 

Fig. 64 represents a barricade in a street, with its means of com. 

Fio. 65. 

/. 65. Barricade made in haste with tier. , .. l...\.-s. wagon 1>< 
Ace., and filled with earth or dung, avoiding j... tones. 

'. 00. Barricades made with bales of merchandise, barrels of 




sugar, with the approaches also obstructed. Sand-bag parapets may 
also be used as barricades. (See REVETMENT.) 

BARRIER. Carpentry obstructions in fortifications. The pur- 
pose regulates the construction. If the barrier is to be permanently 
defensible, it should be musket-proof, and then becomes a Stockade. 
If occasionally defensible, palisading will suffice, with a sand-bag or 
other temporary parapet when required, behind and near enough to 
fire between the palisades. The gates in both the above should, if pos- 
sible, be of palisading, as the heavy stockade gate is unwieldy. Barrier 
gates should never be left unprotected. 

BASE OF OPERATIONS. That secure line of frontier or for 
tresses occupied by troops, from which forward movements are made, 
supplies furnished, and upon which troops may retreat, if necessary. 

BASTION. A work consisting of two faces and two flanks, all the 
angles being salient. Two bastions are connected by means of a CUR- 
TAIN, which is screened by the angle made by the prolongation of the 
corresponding faces of two bastions, and flanked by the line of defence. 
Bastions contain, sheltered by their parapets, marksmen, artillery, 
platforms, guards. They are protected by galleries of mines, and by 
demi-lunes and lunettes outside the ditch, and by palisades, if the ditch 
is inundated. Bastions should be large, and contain five or six hundred 
infantry, with the necessary artillery. The boyaux of the besiegers are 
directed towards the CAPITAL of the Bastion. The FACES of the BAS- 
TION are the parts exposed to being enfiladed by ricochet batteries, and 
also to being battered in breech. (See FORTIFICATION ; SIEGES.) 

Bastion (Demi) is that which has only one face and one flank, cut 
off by the capital like the extremities of horn and crown works. 

Bastion (Empty). When the mass of rampart and parapet follows 


the windings of the faces and flanks, leaving an interior space in tho 

of the bastion, on the level of tho ground, it is called a hollow 

or empty bastion. In standing in a bastion, and looking towards the 

y, the face and flank on tho right hand are called tho right face 

n the It-ll hand, the left face and Hank. 

Bastion (Flat). When the demi-gorges and gorge arc in tho same 
line, and the f .rmcr is half of the latter, the work is called a flat 

Haitian (Farts) are the most perfect of closed field works, with 
reference to flanking defences, as each side or front consists of two 
faces, two flanks, and a curtain. 

Bastion (/-W). "When the. interior space is filled up to tho level 
of th- tcrrc plcin of the rampart, tho construction is called a full 

who take chart:*' -f tho baggage of officers and companies. Allowance 
.it tin- beginning of a campaign in tho English army is called I'../ 
and Forage allowance. 

BATARDEAU is a strong wall of masonry built across a ditch. 
to sustain the pressure of tho water, when one part is dry and tin-, 
other wet. To prevent this wall being used as a passage across th- 
ditch, it is built up to an angle at top, and armed with iron spikes; 
and to render tho attempt to cross still more difficult, a to\\ 
masonry is built on it. In the batardeau is the sluicegate, by tho 
opening or cl'^in^ .f which the manoeuvres of the water can be 

BATTALION. An aggregation of from two t, t.-n compan'; 
the United States Service. Their instruction is regulated by Infantry 
and I.i.'ht Infantry ta 

BATTERY. A battery consists of two or more pieces of artillery 
in the field. Tho term Battery also implies the emplacement of Old- 
Hint destined to act offensively or defensively. It also refers to the 
company charged with a certain number of pieces of ordnance. Ti 
nance const it < it* s the iJatt. r\ . Men terre the Batter II- 
and epaulments may fell \ battery may bo with or without 

embrasures. In the latter case it is en barbell, , and the h- i-lit of the 
genoutllfre varies according to the description of the gun cat 
The ordnance constituting the battery p-quires substantial bearings 

1 for field-piece*, ,, r of timber, plank, or ma 

platforms, for h- aw artillery. I'a'teries are sometimes designated as 
follows: Barbette battery, one without embrasures, in which tho guns 


are raised to fire over the parapet; Ambulant battery, heavy guns 
mounted on travelling carriages, and moved as occasion may require, 
either to positions on a coast, or in besi eged* places ; Covered battery, 
intended for a vertical fire, and concealed from the enemy ; Breaching 
battery; Joint batteries, uniting their fire against any object ; Counter 
battery, one battery opposed against another ; Coast battery Direct 
battery Cross batteries, forming a cross fire on an object ; Oblique bat- 
tery forms an angle of 20 or more, with the object against which it is 
directed, contradistinguished from direct battery ; Raised battery, one 
whose terre plein is elevated considerably above the ground ; Sunken 
battery, where the sole of the embrasures is on a level with the ground, 
and the platforms are consequently sunk below it ; Enfilading battery, 
when the shot or shell sweeps the whole length of a line of troops or 
part of a work ; Horizontal battery, when the terre plein is that of the 
natural level of the ground, consequently the parapet alone is raised 
and the ditch sunk ; Open battery, without epaulment, or other covering 
wholly exposed ; Indented battery, or battery a cremaillere, battery con- 
structed with salient and re-entering angles for obtaining an oblique, as 
well as a direct fire, and to afford shelter from the enfilade fire of the 
enemy ; Reverse battery, that which fires upon the rear of a work or 
line of troops ; Ricochet battery, whose projectiles, being fired at low 
angles, graze and bound without being buried ; Masked battery, arti- 
ficially concealed until required to open upon the enemy. 

Field Batteries, in sieges, are usually of two kinds, viz., Elevated 
Batteries and Sunken Batteries, and they are placed either in front of the 
parallel, in the parallel itself, or in rear of it. In an elevated battery, 
the platforms for the guns or mortars to stand upon, are laid on the 
natural level of the ground, and the whole of the covering mass, or 
parapet, is raised above that level, the earth for forming it being ob- 

FTG. 67. 

tained from a ditch in front ; (Fra. 67.) In a sunken battery, the whole 
interior of the battery is excavated about three feet deep, and the platforms 
laid on the bottom, the earth is thrown to the front, and the parapet is 


formed out of it ; (Fio. 68.) An inspection of these figures will show 
the difference ; and it will be obvious that the whole of the parapet 
in the elevated battery has to be raised, and that in a sunken battery 
part of the cover is obtained by taking advantages of the excavation 

Fio. 6& 

made f>r forming the mass. This construction is frequently used in 
turning the portion of a parallel into a battery, by increasing the width 
of the interior excavation of the trench so as to make room for the 
platforms of the guns. Great care must bo taken that no rise in the 
ground before the battery obscures the view from the soles of the em- 
brasures ; for this purpose, the officer laying out the battery should lie 
down and look along the ground, in order to be sure that his guns can 
range freely from their embrasures, before he fixes his details for con- 
struction. When guns are fired with an elevation when the soil is 
sandy or gravelly when the weather is dry or the ground elevated, 
this construction is approved. The depth of the* excavation for the in- 
terior must depend on the height of the carriages upon whirh the 
guns are mounted : it should be deeper in rear than in front, that it 
may be drained. The interior slopes of these batteries, and the di< . ks 
of the embrasures, must be supported by field revetments of gabions, 
fascines, sand-bags, casks, or sods. In batteries exposed to a heavy die, 
especially of shells, it is necessary to provide as much cover as possible 
for the men serving in them; for this purpose, traverses are usually 
placed between every two guns ; and as these masses servo to j>n t e< -t t he 
men from the splinters of the bursting shells, they are generally ealle.l 
plinUr-proof traverse. There is nearly twice as nindi work in the elevated 
as in the sunk*-?. ( JEHU'S Attack and Defence; see EMDRA 

ISATTKUY WAUON. A battery wagon accompanies each fn-M- 
batt. FOROK.) 

BATTU:. Battles are either v ,,rnUd or oblique, and thox 
ttrateyir when, in consequence of a plan of campaign, they are fought 
upon a given and ol.j M, Ml r or Austerlitz. 

The foil f.,r battle are usually made by great 

melon* : All disposable troops are held in hand ; the readiness of 

(he troops is ascertained by inspection of arms ; proper nourishment is 

given to them before going into battle ; the projects of the day are 


communicated from grade to grade; the points for the ambulances 
and caissons are indicated ; the rendezvous for rallying or retreating are 
made known ; measures are taken to secure the rear and communica- 
tions, in order to retain the mastery of the base of operations ; the 
army is ranged ordinarily in two lines, and the position of reserves 
given in the order of battle ; the three arms are disposed according to 
the nature of the ground ; decisive points are occupied ; open or flank- 
ing batteries are established on proper elevations ; the front and flanks 
of the army are furnished with artillery, in number, kind, and calibre 
according to circumstances. These are preparations for battle; the 
action commences ordinarily as follows : Marksmen are thrown for- 
ward, sometimes acting in conjunction with artillery. Either the 
enemy shows an equal disposition to attack, or else one party insults 
the other to bring on a combat. When the advanced guards have felt 
each other, the army disposed to make battle begins or increases its 
cannonade, to constrain the adversary to deploy his MASSES, show his 
different arms, and thus make known the composition, number, im- 
portance, and the direction to be given to the adverse forces. The re- 
serves remain stationary, while the cavalry, properly sheltered from 
fire, watch their opponents, and throw themselves upon weakened or 
staggered lines of infantry. When the affair has begun, and the po- 
sition and dispositions of the enemy are known, and the proper effect 
has been produced by firing, the infantry may march to the charge, 
with the arms at a carry or on the right shoulder, leaving to the in- 
stinct of the soldier the determination of the proper moment of bring- 
ing the musket to the position of charge bayonet. 

These details, however, constitute the mechanical parts of a battle. 
The art and science of battles consist, according to Professors of 
STRATEGY, in the subordination of tactical movements to the rule of 
attacking only with such FORCES, as can overthrow those of the enemy, 
either by numbers, position, or vigor ; in creating alarm upon many 
points to induce your adversary to take false steps ; in surprising him 
in the midst of his bold movements, and punishing him in his irresolute 
ones ; in penetrating his designs to neutralize their effects, or taking 
advantage of his faults ; in occupying commanding positions ; in avoid- 
ing masks or curtains, and in acting always, if possible, on the OFFEN- 
SIVE. When the action has seriously begun, the important business 
of the general is to follow it up to advantage. If he is skilful and 
valiant, he will preserve the ALLIGNMENT and intervals of his battalions, 
by standing firm, or by marching ; he will strengthen his flanks by en- 
terprises against those of the enemy ; by employing his fire so as not 


to stop the fire, at the same time, of all arms ; by filling up, at the 
expense of the cavalry or second line, the holes made in the first line ; 

M forcing or reanimating all corps which give way or falter; by 

: none in unfavorable positions ; by sheltering the reserves from 
cannon shot ; by bringing up, at opportune moments, fresh troops ; by 
preserving the rear lines from being broken, while opening a free pas- 
age to repulsed troops ; by exposing, when needed, his own person, 
securing united efforts in attacks, vigor in charges, and promptitude in 
rallying. Such is the theory of battles ; but GENIUS and experience are 
necessary to apply the theory, an^ victory will be in vain sought from 
the mechanical application of any dogma whatever. Battles upon the 
same ground rarely occur, and never with soldiers of the same morale, 
the same arms, the same numbers, and the same relative proportions. 
It is by study of the campaigns of great commanders, by his own 
experience, and his own genius, that battles are properly initiated 
and won by a skilful general. (See MANOEUVRES IN COMBAT.) 

BAYONET. At the battle of Spires, in 1703, charges of infantry 
were first made with fixed bayonet. From that time, however, until the 
wars of the French Revolution, the bayonet was more threatening than 
murderous. Since then it has changed, throughout, the whole system 
of the military art; cavalry has ceased to be the terror of foot ; and 
the fir- f battle, even with new arms cnVetive in range at 1,000 

yards, does not impair the usefulness of the bayonet; and although Su- 

"> maxim that " La balle est folio'' c:mnnt le admitted, vet it is 
true that " la bayonnette est sage." (Consult Manual of bayonet Exer- 


1IKD. Straw and bedsacks are allowed to soldiers for bedding. 
The introduction of single iron bedsteads will make it necessary t.. in 
crease the allowance of bed furniture. In Prussia and other eoiintries, 
hammocks are used in place of bedsteads. Bed has also other appliwi- 

us mortar bed; camped; bed of * gtm lock ; bedofftnd 
of a rivrr ; to separate the beds of stone in a quarry, &o. 


m.KMK. Narr-.w path round fortificat'.. . n the parapet 

and t! urti) fn m falling in. 


BILLET. No soldier shall, in time beqVtttmd in any 

house without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, l.ut in (lie 

\te prescribed 1 ',//,///* to tic Consti- 

) The manner "f, jnart. -riii- time i,f war i* nsu.-dly }.y 

Billets, but no manner has been jtretcribed by law in the Untied States. 


The constables and other persons duly authorized in England are re- 
quired to billet the officers and soldiers of the army, arid also the horses 
belonging to the cavalry, staff, and field-officers, in victualling and 
other houses specified in the mutiny act ; and they must be received 
by the. occupiers of these houses, and provided with proper accom- 
modations. They are to be supplied with diet and small beer, and 
with stables, hay, and straw, for the horses ; paying for the same 
the several rates prescribed by law. Troops, whether cavalry or in- 
fantry, are in no case to be billeted above one mile from the place 
mentioned in the route. Where cavalry are billeted, the men and 
their horses must be billeted in the same house, except in case of 
necessity. One man must always be billeted where there are one 
or two horses; and less than twcx men cannot be billeted where 
there are four horses ; and so in proportion for a greater num. 
ber. No more billets are at any time to be ordered than there are 
effective soldiers and horses present ; and all billets are to be delivered 
into the hands of the commanding officer. Commanding officers may, 
for the benefit of the service, exchange any men or horses billeted in 
the same town, provided the number of men and horses so exchanged 
does not exceed the number at the time billeted on each house ; and 
the constables are obliged to billet those men and horses accordingly. 
Any justice may, at the request of the officer or non-commissioned 
officer commanding any soldiers requiring billets, extend the routes or 
enlarge the district within which billets shall be required, in such man- 
ner as may be most convenient to the troops. In Scotland, officers and 
soldiers are billeted according to the provisions of the laws in force in 
that country at the time of its union with England ; and no officer is 
obliged to pay for his lodging, where he shall be regularly billeted, 
except in the suburbs of Edinburgh. 

BILL HOOK. An instrument for cutting twigs. 


BLACKING. (For SHOES.) Take three ounces of molasses, three 
ounces of ivory black, one ounce muriatic acid, one ounce sulphuric 
acid, and a spoonful of olive oil. Mix the ivory black and molasses, 
then add the muriatic acid, and subsequently the oil ; when the paste 
is well formed, incorporate with it the sulphuric acid. 

BLACKING-, LIQUID. (For SHOES, &c.) Three parts of white wax, 
seven and a half parts essence of turpentine ; one and a half parts of 
ivory black. The wax is cut into small pieces and put into a glazed ves- 
sel. Spread the turpentine over it, and leave it for 24 hours. Then 
mix it by degrees with ivory, black. To use it, spread it with a Tag in 
a thin layer on the leather, and afterwards rub with a soft brush. 


I>LA< KI\; ( ! I|VK\KS>.) Yellow wax, four parts in weight, 
six parts essence of turpentine, one part of mutton suet, and one part 
' ut the wax into small pieces, and leave it to soak tw ntv- 
fur h>nrs in the QMonoe of turpentine ; grind in separately the ivory 
black and MI. t until there is a perfect mixture of the whole mass. 
When * lost its color, it may be restored by the mud of 

ink, or :i;ite of iron in a thick solution, spread upon the edges. 

BLACKSMITH AND FARRIER Allowed to cavalry regiments. 

BLINDAGE. A siege work contrived, when defilement is im- 
possible, as a shelter against a cross or ricochet fire of artillery. It is 
also used to guard against tin- ellects of shells. The powder maga/ines, 
the hospitals, the cisterns, certain doors ami windows arc thus blinded 
by means of earpentry work, or she-It. -rs l..;nleil with earth. dm 
Ulin.lap- of tin- tivmln-s is also necessary, particularly when the be- 
siegers begin the crowning of the OOTered \\.-iy l-y m.-aiis of the sap. 
Blindages are thus used to guard against stones or hand grenades 
n by the besieged. This blindage is entirely exposed to sorties, 
and also to the danger of being burned by the besieged. 

BLOCK AND TACKLE. The power is equal to the weight di- 
\id.-d l.y the number of ropes attached to the lowor block, or by twi.-e 
the number of raising pulleys. 

BLOCK-HOUSE (Redoubt of wood.) A common defetK* a-ainst 

at two diagonal angles of a picket work. ! ,:id 70, 

Fio. 69. Fio. 70. 





with dimensions in metres, show the construction used by the French 
in Algiers ; or it may be built of logs 18 inches square on the ground 
floor, and 12 inches square in the upper story. Height of each story 
ten feet ; loopholed ; the upper story projecting all round, beyond the 
ground story, as machicoulis. Hatches should be made in the roof for 
the escape of smoke, and be grated. 

BOARDS. A board composed of ordnance officers, designated by 
the Secretary of War, as the Ordnance Board, decides, with the ap- 
proval of the secretary, on the models and patterns of all ordnance and 
ordnance stores for the land service of the United States. 

Boards of Examination are instituted to determine upon appoint- 
ments in regiments, composed of army officers, and for appointments 
and promotion in the medical staff. 

Boards of Survey are to examine injured stores, &c., and to take 
an inventory of the public property in charge of a deceased officer. 

Boards of Inspectors determine upon the fitness of recruits for service. 

BOAT. A boat has been invented by Colonel R. C. Buchanan, of 
the army, which has been used in several expeditions in Oregon and in 
Washington Territory, and has been highly commended by several ex- 
perienced officers, who have had the opportunity of giving its merits a 
practical service test. It consists of an exceedingly light framework of 
thin and narrow boards, in lengths suitable for packing, connected by 
hinges, the different sections folding into so small a compass as to be 
conveniently carried upon mules. The frame is covered with a sheet 
of stout cotton canvas, or duck, secured to the gunwales with a cord 
running diagonally back and forth through eyelet-holes in the upper 
edge. When first placed in the water the boat leaks a little, but the 
canvas soon swells so as to make it sufficiently tight for all practical 
purposes. The great advantage to be derived from the use of this 
boat is, that it is so compact and portable as to be admirably adapted 
to the requirements of campaigning in a country where the streams are 
liable to rise above a fording stage, and where the allowance of trans- 
portation is small. It may be put together or taken apart and packed 
in a very few minutes, and one mule suffices to transport a boat with 
all its appurtenances, capable of sustaining ten men. Should the can- 
vas become torn, it is easily repaired by putting on a patch, and it 
does not rot or crack like india-rubber or gutta-percha ; moreover, it 
is not affected by changes of climate or temperature. MARCY'S Prairie 
Traveller. (See BRIDGE ; PONTON.) 

BOMB. The shell thrown by a mortar is called a bomb-shell ; and 
the shelters made for magazines, &c., should be bomb-/>roo/. 


BOMBARDMENT. A shower of shells and other incendiary 
projectiles. y employed against fortifications, but not against 

open commercial cities. 

HOOKS. Regimental books to be kept, are: 1. General order 
book ; 2. Regimental order book ; 3. Letter book ; 4. ImK-\ f Letters ; 
5. Siie or descriptive book ; 0. Monthly returns. Company books re- 
quired are : 1. Descriptive book ; 2. Clothing book ; and 3. Order book. 

The following rules for keeping books at the head-quarters of the 
army and in the adjutant-general's office may, with modifications that 
will readily occur, be used with armies in the field, at the head-quar- 
ters of divisions, departments, regiments, &c. : 

1. LETTERS RECEIVED. (7 quires, demy-Russia, with spring back.) 
1. All official communications received will be entered in this ! k, 
excepting only such letters of mere trunsmittal of orders, returns, cer- 
tificates of disability, requisitions, &c., as need not be preserved. The 
orders, returns, certificates, requisitions, &c., themselves, will be appro- 
priately entered in other books specially provided for the purpose. 

2. Preliminary to being enter. -d every letter will bo folded ami en- 
dorsed. Letter paper will be folded in three equal folds Cap pa 
four. The endorsement will give the place and date of letter, name, 
and rank of writer, and a summary of its contents, and if other i 
accompany the letter, the number transmits -d will also bo noted <>n the. 

.:i ml ink. Each enclosure will be numbered and bear the same 
office marks as the letter transmitting it. Figures A, b, c, exemplify 
the manner of endorsing. 

3. Every letter required to bo preserved will bo entered ntphnli-ti- 
cally and numbered the series of numbers beginning and terminating 
with the year, and including all Inters dated (whether received <>r ii"t) 
within the year. Only one number will be given to each letter re- 
ceived with its enclosures, so that the sum of the numbers under each 
alphabetical entry in the book of" Letters Ree. i\,-d,'' during an\ 

will *h\v the number f 1 -tiers received in that v 

4. An a general ru letter will be entered in the name of its 
; but there are cases \\here it is p referable, for coin -eni. M< < of i -f- 

erenoe, to enter it in the name of the person wh> forms the sub] 

that of the writer. Applications from eiti/.ns f,, r 
the discharge of soldiers, <Scc.. |f - f this nature. Usually, a single 

losurcs will suffice, but it may som< 

be necessary, in addition, to make entries in the names of one or tUOft 

If to wh.. m it relates. Such entries, however, will not 

be numbered, bu ..main the date of receipt, name of individual, 




Fig. A. Ji'j- b. fig. c . 

G. 1 


May 8, 1849. j 

Col. , 

3d Artillery, Com'd'g. 

Relative to unhealthi- 

ness of quarters at the 

Post, and enclosing Sur- 

^cou *3 rcDort 

on the subject, dated 


Apr. 30, 1849 ; forwards 


also a copy of a report, 

dated Aug. 16, 1840, of 



a Board of Officers as- 
sembled to examine into 
the condition of the 

G. 1. (Hd. Qrs.) 
May 11, 1849. 

G. 1. (Hd. Qrs.) 
May 11, 1849. 


[Two enclosures.] 

Rec'd (Hd. Qrs.) 

May 11, 1849. 

place and date of the letter concerning him, with a reference, in red ink, 
to the number of that letter. Fig. E is an illustration of an entry of 
this kind. 

5. The book of " Letters Received " will contain a side index ex- 
tending throughout, and will be divided among the several letters of 
the alphabet according to the probable space required for entries under 
each letter. The book will be paged, and each page divided into three 
columns, headed " When received," " Name," " Date and purport of 
letter," respectively, as shown by figure J), which also exhibits the 
entry in the book of the letter represented by figure A. 





When reeled, 


Date and purport of letter. 

May llih. 

[Surgeon .] 

Fort Adams, R. I., May 8, 1840. 

See No. 1, Letter O. 

Fig. D. 


When rewired. 


Date and purport of letter. 

May llth. 

Col. , 



3d Artillery, command 1 g. 

May 8, 1849. 
Relative to unhealthiness of quar- 

ters at the Post, and enclosing 

Surgeon 's report on the 

subject, dated April 80, 1849 ; for- 

wards also copy of a report, dated 

Aug. 10, 1840, of a Board of 

Officers assembled to examine into 

the condition of the quarters. 


6. Each entry will be separated from the one preceding it by a red 
ink line ; and where two or more letters relate to the same subject they 
will be either filed together, or made to refer to each other by their 
numbers, and the filing or reference be noted in the book as well as on 
the letters themselves. 

7. Letters from the Executive and Staff Departments and other 
public offices in Washington, will be entered alphabetically in the 
names of the departments or offices themselves, but the entry will al- 
ways exhibit the writers' names likewise ; thus, communications from 
the War Department would be entered in the letter W, as follows : 
" War, Secretary of, (Hon. ,) &c." 

8. Communications from the President will be entered in the letter 
P from State Department, in S Treasury, T War, W Navy, and 
its bureaux, N Post Office and its bureaux, P Interior, / Attorney- 
general, A Adjutant-general's office, A Quartermaster-general, Q 
Subsistence, S Surgeon-general, S Paymaster-general, P En- 
gineer Department, E Topographical Engineers, E Ordnance, 
Recruiting service, Superintendent of, R Pension Office, P Comp- 
trollers, (1st and 2d,) C The several Auditors, A Treasurer U. S., T 
Commissioner Indian Affairs, / General Land Office, L Solicitor's 
Office, S and Patent Office, P. 

9. Communications from Governors of States will be entered in the 
names of the States, the entry showing likewise the Governors' names ; 
thus a letter from the Governor of New York would be entered in 
the letter N, as follows : "New York, Governor of, (His Excellency 


10. Letters from Staff Officers, written by direction of their gen- 
erals, will be entered in the names of the Generals themselves ; thus a 

communication from General K 's Staff" Officer would be entered in 

the letter K, as follows : 

Bvt. Major Gen'l , comd'g West'n Div'n," 

(by Assist. Adjt. Gen'l .)" 

11. Communications addressed to the War Department or Adju- 
tant-general's office, and thence referred, without an accompanying letter, 
to head-quarters for report, or to be disposed of, will be entered, in 
the ordinary way, in the names of their writers, a note (in red ink) 
being simply made in the second column of the book, to show the fact 
of reference, thus" (from A. G. O.)" 

12. Where letters are referred from the office for report, &c., a note 
of the fact must be made (in red ink) in this book with a citation of the 
page, (or number of the letter,) in the " Endorsement " or " Letter 


Book" where the reference is recorded, thus Ref'd for report to 
Comd'g Offi'r Fort T., May 11 we Book of " Endorsements," p. 3, 
(or, a see Letter No. 7, vol. 1st.") \Vhcn the communication is 
returned, a memorandum to this effect will bo made in the book " Re- 
turned with report, May 2. r >th. ' 

13. Should the portion of this book appropriated to any particular 
letter of the alphabet prove insuflifirnt for entries under that letter, they 
will be transferred to a few of the last leaves allotted to some other 
letter of the alphabet, where there is more space than will probably be 
required. The fact of transfer will be noted in large characters, (in 
red ink,) at the bottom of the page from which transferred, and at the 
top of the page to which carried, as follows : 

II. LETTER BOOK. (7 quires, demy-Russia, with spring back.} 1. 
letter recorded in this book is numbered, (in red ink.) the 
numbers commencing and terminating with the year, and each letter is 
separated from the one which follows it by a red line. 

2. The address of all letters should be at the top, the surname being 
written conspicuously in the margin, followed by the official title (if 
any) and Christian name, thus : 

Bvt. Maj. Gcn'l . 

Comd'cr, &c., &c., dec., or 
Esq. Samuel II. 

3. Each letter should bo signed in the record book by its writer. 

4. Wh, -never copies of letters are furnished, the names of the per- 
sons to whom they are sent should be noted in red ink in the margin 

he dute, when the last differs from the date of the letter itself. In 
like manner, when a letter is addressed to one officer, under cover to his 
commander, Ace.. hould also be noted in red ink in the mar-in. 

6. The name of every person to whom a letter is addressed is in- 
dexed alphabetically, in black ink, ami the names of tin- individuals 
whom it principally concerns are indexed in red ink. A red ink line 
is drawn in the body of the letter under the names so indexed, to facil- 
itate a reference to thorn. In the margin, immediately under the name 
of the person to whom a letter is addressed, there are two references, 
above and below a short red line, the one above (in red) indicates the 
last preceding letter to the same individual, nnd the one below (in 
black) the next following. A detached in 1. \ is us, d until the ree.,nl 
book is full, uhon the names are arranged under each letter as in City 
Directories, and thus classified they are transferred to the permanent 
index attached to the record book. 


III. GENERAL ORDERS. (7 quires, demy-Russia, with spring back.) 
1. Every order recorded in this book should be signed by the staff 
officer whose signature was attached to the originals sent from the 
office, and each order should be separated from the one following by a 
red line. 

2. The mode of numbering, distribution, and general form of orders 
are prescribed by the Regulations (see paragraphs 904, 905, and 908, 
edition of 1847 ;) but the distribution in each particular case should be 
noted in red ink in the margin to show that the Regulations have been 

complied with ; and where orders are sent to one officer, under cover 
to his commander, (which course ought always to be pursued,) or fur- 
nished at a date subsequent to that of their issue these facts should 
likewise be added : where the order has been printed, it will be suffi- 
cient to write the word "printed" in red ink in the margin, to indicate 
that the widest circulation has been given to it. 

3. There are two indexes attached to the book one of names, the 
other of subjects every order will be indexed in the latter immediately 
after being copied. 

For najpes, a detached index will first be used until the record book 
is full, when they will be arranged under each letter as in City Directo- 
ries, and thus classified, transferred to the permanent alphabetical index 
attached to the record book. Every proper name will be indexed and 
a red line drawn in the body of the order under it, to facilitate a refer- 
ence to it. 

IV. SPECIAL ORDERS. (7 quires, demy-Russia, with spring back.) 
1. Every order recorded in this book should be signed by the staff 
officer whose signature was attached to the originals sent from the 
office, and each order should be separated from the one following by a 
red line. 

2. The mode of numbering, distribution, and general form of orders 
are prescribed by the Regulations (see paragraphs 904, 905, and 908, 
edition of 1847 ;) but the distribution in each particular case should be* 
noted in red ink in the margin, to show that the Regulations have been 
complied with ; and where orders are sent to one officer, under cover 
to his commander, (which course ought always to be pursued,) or fur- 
nished at a date subsequent to that of their issue these facts should 
likewise be added. 

3. There are two indexes attached to the book one of names, the 
other of subjects every order will be indexed in the latter immediately 
after being copied. 

For names, a detached index will first be used until the record book 


is full, when they will be arranged under each letter as in City 1 > 
ries, and thus classified, transferred to the permanent alphabetical index 
attached to the record book. Every proper name will be indexed and 
a red line drawn in the body of the order under it, to facilitate a 
ence to it. 

V. ENDORSEMENTS AND MEMORANDA. (5 quires, Cap Russia, with 
spring bark.) 1. Kvory endorsement made on letters or other communi- 
cations sent fr>m the office will be copied in this book, and be signedby 
the staff officer whose signature was attached to the endorsement itself. A 
brief description of the communication sent out (the name of its writer, 
date, subject, and office marks) should precede the record of the en- 
dorsement, to render the latter intelligible ; and where such communica- 
tion has been entered in tho book of " letters received," the disposition 
made of it should also be noted in that book, \\ith a citation .f tho page 
where tho endorsement is recorded. Should the communication l>c 
returned to head-quarters, a memorandum will bo made* to that 

with the date when received back, in all the books where the fact of the 
reference from the office may have been not. .1. 

2. In the case of such papers as proceedings of general courts-mar- 
tisl, certificates of disability for tho discharge of sol.licrs, requisitions 
for ordna-uv, &c., which are not filed at head-quarters, but f -rwarded 
thence for deposit in other offices, it will gem-rally suffice to make 

f memorandum of tho gcncral-in-chief's action upon tlu-m, in- 
stead of copying the endorsements. \V! 

H any rule or principle, it oii-ht, of courso, to bo copied in full. 

3. The name and address of every oflieer to whom a communication 
rred will be written in the margin, and all proper names, no 

r in what connection employed, must be. index, ,|. 

4. Tb MUM of the person t> whom a communication is sent will 

ho names mentioned in the description 
d to the endorsement on tho communication, as wvll as in th< 

t itself, will be indcxrd in red ink. To facilitate a 
cnce to these last names, n red line will bo drawn under tin -m. In 
the margin, immediately under the name of tho person t.. \\hom a 
communication is addressed, then- an- t\\o r - fen-invs. above and below 
a short red line; the one above (in red) indicates the la*t preceding 
reference to the sain* individual, and tho one below (in black) the 


VI. P. .o K or RKTURNS. 

Besides tho foregoing blank books of appropriate size neeordn- t > 
circumstances, the following books of arc necessary : Hi 


Military Laws ; Army Regulations ; Ordnance Manual ; Artillery 
Manual ; Prescribed Tactics for Infantry, Artillery, and Cavalry ; Me- 
CLELLAND'S Bayonet Exercise ; Aide Memoire du Genie ; Aide Memoire 
d'Etat Major ; WIIEATON'S International Law ; KENT'S or STORY'S Com- 
mentaries ; MAHAN'S Field Fortifications ; Military Dictionary. 

BOOM is a chain of masts, or a large cable, or other obstacles 
stretched over a river for the protection of a military bridge which has 
been thrown across, or under the fire of fortifications to bar access 
within a harbor. 

BOOTY. (SAXON, bot, bote, lawful profit, gain, advantage, distin- 
guished from plunder or pillage.) Despoiling a people or city is barbar- 
ous and not tolerated in civilized warfare, but legitimate subjects of booty 
are well described in an act of the British Parliament (2 William IV., 
c. 53) : as arms, ammunition, stores of war, goods, merchandise, and 
treasure belonging to the state or any public trading company of the 
enemy, and found in any of the fortresses or possessions, and all ships 
and vessels in any road, river, haven, or creek belonging to any such for- 
tress or possession. It should be the duty of commanding generals to 
cause an exact account of such captures to be kept, in order that the 
captors may be remunerated by the government for such stores as are 
reserved for the public service, and in order that all such prizes of war 
may be legally and equitably divided amongst the captors. Such is the 
practice in England. There land prizes are divided according to an 
established rule of division. In the Piedmontese army the administra- 
tion of booty is intrusted to a special staff corps ; the French laws (says 
Bardin, Dictionnaire de 1'Armee do Terre) are silent on this subject, or 
else those which are in force announce nothing positive ; and in their 
silence, there is inhumanity, hypocrisy, and mental reserve. In a 
memorial presented by the Duke of Wellington he claimed of his 
government for the English army, more than a million sterling which 
had been used in the king's service from captures made by the British 
army in Spain and France, and the English budget of 1823 shows that 
the amount so claimed was given to the army. The 58th article for 
the government of the armies of the United States provides, that " All 
public stores taken in the enemy's camp, towns, forts, or magazines, 
whether of artillery, ammunition, clothing, forage, or provisions, shall 
be secured for the service of the United States ; for the neglect of which 
the commanding officer is to be answerable." This article of war is 
borrowed from a corresponding British article, which directs that the 
same stores shall be secured for the king's service. But by proclamation 
in Great Britain the money value of all captures is invariably divided 


amongst the captors. No practice can be more wise ami just, tor al- 
though it is necvasary to proscribe marauding or pillage, it is impos- 
sible to extirpate the desire of gain tn>m the human heart, and it is 
therefore necessary that the law should frankly provide for an equit- 
able distribution of captures amongst the army. The absence of a law 
n tends to introduce into an army the greatest evils: sol- 
diers disband thi-m-, Ives in search of pillag.-. ,-md their cupidity leads 
to the greatest horrors. These great evils are avoided by a legal divi- 
sion of booty, when all soldiers, animated by the hope of sharing the 
fruits of victory, are careful not to abandon to the greedy, the cowardly, 
and the wicked amongst themselves advantages properly belonging 
he gallant victors. In the hope that ( ' ingress may y< i do justice to 
our army in respect to captures made in the war with Mexico, the rules 
established in Great Britain arc annexed in a series of prize procla- 
mations taken from Prcndergast's Law Relating to Officers of the 

I. Prize Warrants. 



Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the .Faith, To all to whom tin - pres- 
ents shall come, Greeting: "Whereas the Commissioners of our Treas- 
ury have represented unto us, that certain hostilities \\viv carried on in 
the year 1848 against tho Ameers of Scinde by our land 1 the 

land forces raised and paid by the India Company, in which a por- 
tion of the Indus Flotilla eo-opcratcd : and that during the said hostili- 
ties certain b at t lea wt -re fought, and a quantity of booty and plunder 
captured or taken possession of. consisting of L r "ld and silver 1-ars and 

m, of Ornaments, jewels, and ornamented arms, and of guns, cattle, 
and other property, of which the following schedule or account has li.-.-n 
rendered to our said commissioners, (that is to say,) 

i in to the Public Treasury in , ()g g 
on account of the articles sold, about ) 

Realized nt Kurrachie . . . . . . 17,743 

Value of Si!, g64 

Isold . 1 

Gold remaining in natedat. . . 1 '.' ''> 

Lead, valued at 15,000 

to which are to be added the ium due from the Government for articles 


transferred to public departments, the sum due from individuals for 
articles sold in Scinde, and the sum which may be produced by the sale 
of the jewels, &c., which are at present in deposit at Bombay, but have 
been ordered to be sold ; 

And whereas it has been further represented unto us that the said 
booty and plunder do of right belong to us in virtue of our Royal pre- 
rogative, and that the said booty and plunder should be given and 
granted in such manner as to us may seem meet and just ; 

And whereas our said commissioners, under all the circumstances 
of this case, have recommended unto us to give and grant the said cap- 
tured booty and plunder, or the produce or value thereof, as before 
stated, according to the following scheme, (that is to say :) 

Such articles of personal use and ornament to be reserved for the 
Ameers as may be selected for that purpose by the Governor-general 
of India in council, with the approbation of the Commissioners of our 
Treasury ; 

The remaining property to be divided into sixths : 

One-sixth to be given to all such of the troops stationed at, or be- 
tween Shikarpoor, Seikkur, and Kurrachie, and all such of the Indus 
Flotilla stationed between Seikkur and Kurrachie on any day between 
the 17th of February and 24th of March, 1843, both included, as shall 
not be otherwise entitled to share in the booty ; 

The Major-general commanding in Scinde, and the officers of the 
general staff of the forces serving under his orders in the above-men- 
tioned operations, to share in this portion as well as in the other por- 
tions hereinafter specified. 

The remaining five-sixths (subject to the deductions hereinafter speci- 
fied) to be divided in two equal parts, one moiety to be given to the 
troops who fought at Meanee, and the other to those who fought at 
Hyderabad ; the troops who were in both battles receiving a share of 
each moiety ; and from the share or shares accruing to each individual 
under the distribution to be made of this portion of the booty there 
should be deducted and repaid into the Company's Treasury the amount 
of the Donation of Batta, which the individual entitled to the said share 
or shares has received under the general order of the Government of In- 
dia, dated 28th of February, 1844, as having been present at the battles 
of Meanee or Hyderabad; 

And our said Commissioners likewise recommend that the troops 
under Lieutenant-colonel Outram, who were detached previously to the 
battle of Meanee, and directed to fire the Shikargah on upon the right 
flank of the army, as well as the detachment which so gallantly defend- 


ed the British Residency on the l. r >th of February, and also such portion 
of the Indus Flotilla as was engaged in that .1- . o-operated with 

the detachment under Colonel Outram, or was in any other way in im- 
mediate connection with the army that achieved the victory of Mcanee* 
should share as if they had all been actually present at the battle of 
Meanee; and in like manner the garrison of Ihdi -rabad should be 
entitled to share in the sum alloted to those engaged in the second* 

Now know ye that Wo, taking tho premises into our Royal consider- 
ation, are graciously pleased to approve the said scheme, and do, with 
the advice and recommendation of our said Commissioners, by this our 
Royal Warrant, under our Royal sign-manual, give and grant the said 
captured booty and plunder, or the produce or value thereof as before 
stated, unto the Directors of the East India Company, or to such person 
or persons as they shall appoint to receive the same, upon tho trust 
following, (that is to say,) upon trust, after making the reservations and 
deductions above stated, to distribute tho remainder amonu our land 
forces, and tho land forces of tho snid Company, and the. office v 
crews of the Indus Flotilla, engaged in the aforesaid hostilities in ac- 
cordance with the scheme hereinbefore mentioned and set forth, and 
with the usage of the army of India ; 

And we are graciously pleased to order and direct that, in case 
doubt shall arise respecting tho claims to share in the distribution afore- 
said, or respecting any demand upon tho said captured booty or plunder, 
the same shall bo determined by tho Directors of the East India Com- 
pany, or by such person or persons to whom they shall refer the same, 
which determination thereupon made shall, with all eonv. nient speed, 
ifii-d in writing to the Commissioners of our T: ind tho 

same shall be final and conclusive to all intents and purjM^es. unless, 
within three months after tho receipt thereof at the othYe ..f the Com- 
missioners of our Treasury, We shall bo graciously pleased oth 
to order, hereby reserving to ourselves to make such < -rd. r th.-rein as 
to us shall seem meet. 

-n at our Court at Win. is r ('a^tl.-. this llth da\ 
in the Oth year of our reign, ami in the year of our Lord 
iler Majesty's Command, 

(Signed) 1 II.M.Y 




(Conjunct Expedition of British Land and Sea forces.) 

Whereas ordnance arms, stores, magazines, and other booty have been 
captured from the enemy during the year 1813, at Tarragona, by that 
part of the British army under Field-marshal the Duke of Welling- 
ton, in Spain, which was under the immediate orders of Lieutenant- 
general Lord William Bentinck, and by H.M.S. Malta, Fame, Invin- 
cible, Merope, Buzzard and Volcano, forming part of the fleet under Ad- 
miral Lord Exmouth, then under the immediate orders of Admiral Sir 
Benjamin Hallowell, and appropriated to the public service ; And 
whereas an Act passed in the 54th year of the reign of our late Royal 
Father, entitled an Act for regulating the payment of Army prize- 
money, and to provide for the payment of unclaimed and forfeited 
shares to Chelsea Hospital ; And whereas application hath been made 
to us by the said F.M. the Duke of Wellington and Admiral Lord Ex- 
mouth to grant the sum of 31,531 185. (being the estimated value of 
such ordnance and stores) in trust, ty be distributed as booty to the of- 
ficers, non-commissioned officers, and privates serving in that part of the 
British army under his command in Spain, which was under the immediate 
orders of Lieutenant-general Lord William Bentinck, and to the officers, 
non-commissioned officers, seamen, and marines, on board H.M.S. Malta, 
Fame, Invincible, Merope, Buzzard and Volcano, placed by Admiral 
Lord Exmouth under the immediate orders of Admiral Sir Benjamin 
Hallowell, at Tarragona ; And whereas the said Field-marshal the Duke 
of Wellington, having expressed his wish not to participate in the dis- 
tribution of the booty as Commander-in-chief of the British army serv- 
ing in Spain ; We, taking the same into our Royal consideration, arc 
graciously pleased to give and grant, and do hereby give and grant, to 
the said Lieutenant-general Lord William Bentinck and Admiral Lord 
Viscount Exmouth the said sum of 31,531 18s. ; and that the said sum 
be issued and paid without any fee or other deduction whatsoever, in 
trust, for the benefit of the said Lord William Bentinck and the officers, 
non-commissioned officers, and privates serving under him, and of Ad- 
miral Lord Viscount Exmouth, and the officers, non-commissioned 
officers, seamen, and marines actually on board of our before-mentioned 
ships employed in that service, as booty and prize, or bounty money 
in the nature of prize-money, under the provisions of the said Act 
passed in the 54th year of the reign of our late Royal Father, to be 
distributed under the provisions of the said Act of Parliament, and 

lirj MlUTAK'i VRY. [Boo. 

agreeably to our Proclamation for tho distribution of prize, in force at 
10 of the said expedition, and this our Royal grant, in manner and 
several proportions following, (that is to say,) such sums being 
. eight equal parts : 

.t.-general Lord Wm. U. -ntinek, Admiral, Lord Viscount 
uouth, and such General Officers and Admirals under their >m- 
mand, who were actually present at the capture of tho said booty, so 
that the said Lieut.-gcn. Lord Win. 1 lent i nek and Admiral Lord YU- 
count Exmouth shall take one moiety, and the other General Officers 
and Admirals who wero actually present at the capture of the said 
booty, the othor moiety in equal proportions One-eighth. 

Colonels, Lieut-colonels, and Majors in the army, and Captains 
and Commanders in tho navy, who were actually present at the 
capture of tho said booty, to be equally distributed among them, 
and tho persons entitled by tho usage of our army to share with 
t hern Ttro-ei<jh ths. 

To tho Captains in tho army and Lieutenants in tho navy, and other 
description of persons entitled by tho usage of our army and navy 
respectively to share with them One-eighth. 

To the Lieutenants, Cornets, Ensigns, and Quartermasters in tho army, 
and Warrant and other Officers in the navy, and otln-r description 
of persons entitled by the usage of our army and navy to share with 
them One^ighth. 

in tho army and Petty Officers in tin- navy, and other 
description of persons entitled by the usage of our army and 
respectively to share with them Onc-ciijhth. 

'[' tli.- Trumpeters and Soldiers Seamen, and Marines, and other descrip- 
tion of persons entitled by the usage of our army ami navy respect- 
to share with them. 7Vo-,/y/,///.v 

And we are further pleased to direct that all such r< sums 

of money shall be distributed as pri/e or bounty money. Of money in 

the nature of prize-money, according to tho provisions of the .said Act 

-f tho 54th year of tho r Iff Il'-yal Father, and 

tho several ftlqg to the distribution of prtefrmQMy in our nary, 

i r said 1' r <_r:int, and the rul-s ;md ens- 

tOOkl heretofore used and observed iii our army and navy resj.ectively 

in that behalf, and tho agents intrusted with the distribution ther 
Hhe said Lieutei d Lord William U.-jitim-k and Admiral I.ord 

Viseoi. Mth shall give all such iioiie,-s. and make sueh ii'.tiliea- 

;tion. as are required by tho said Act of Par!; 
I'arliamrnt in foree nlatini; to the d'r-ii. 


of prize-money in our army, and our said Proclamation, and pay over 
all unclaimed shares to Chelsea and Greenwich Hospitals respectively, 
to be hereafter paid to the persons entitled thereto, or remain for the 
benefit of the said respective Hospitals according to the provisions and 
regulations of the said Act of Parliament and the several Bills in force 
relating to the distribution of prize-money in our navy ; And We are 
further graciously pleased to order and direct that in case any doubt 
shall arise respecting the said distribution, or with respect to any other 
matter or thing relating thereto, the same shall be determined by the 
said commanders of the said land and sea forces, Lieutenant-general 
Lord William Bentinck and Admiral Lord Viscount Exmouth, or by 
such person or persons to whom the said commanders of the said land 
and sea forces shall refer the same ; and such* determination shall be 
final and conclusive upon all persons concerned, and as to all matters 
and things relating to the said distribution. 

Given at our Court, at Carlton House, this 7th day of June, 1820, 
in the first year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 

(Signed) BATHURST. 


(Conjunct Expedition of British and Allied Forces.) 

In the name and on behalf of His Majesty, 

Whereas it has been represented to us that, at the capture of the Terri- 
tory and City of Genoa and its dependencies, on the 18th of April, 1814, 
a quantity of ordnance, military and naval stores, ships and vessels, and 
other booty, being public property belonging to the enemies of the 
Crown of Great Britain, was seized and taken possession of by our sea 
and land forces, under the command of Vice-admiral Sir Edward Pel- 
lew, Bart, (now Lord Exmouth,) and Lieutenant-general Lord William 
Cavendish Bentinck, Knight of the Bath, commanding our naval and 
military forces in and upon the coasts of the Mediterranean, assisted by 
certain Sicilian and Italian troops, and troops in British pay, and has 
been condemned to us as good and lawful prize taken in the said conjunct 
expedition ; And whereas no instructions were given by us for the divi- 
sion or distribution of the booty to be captured on the said conjunct 
expedition ; And whereas application hath been made to us that we 
would be graciously pleased to order and direct that the same ordnance, 
military and naval stores, ships, vessels and other booty may be dis- 
tributed between the officers and crews of our ships, and those of our 


Ally the King of tho Two Sicilies, ami the officers and men of our land 
forces, and those of our Ally the Kin-; of the T\\o Sicilies, according to 
any plan of dUtributi.n \\ e shall bo graciously pleased to apj 

premises into .-ur K..\;tl consideration, are graciously 
pleased to give and, and do li -reby give and grant, to tl. 
Vice-admiral Sir Edwfcrd Follow (now Lord Exmouth), Commandcr- 
: our fleet and vessels employed on the said expedition, and 
:i;int-gcncral Ix>rd William Cavendish Hentim-k. Knight ol" the 
Hath. Commander-in-chief of our land forces employed on the said ex- 
n. the said ordnance, military and naval stores, ships, vessels, and 
other booty, so as aforesaid taken and condemned to us, in trust, to 
:te the samo amongst tho commanders-in-ehicf, general and flag 
officers, and all other officers serving on the said expedition in the fol- 
: manner, (that is to say), that the divisi-.n of the booty l> 
ny ami na\ya-id the said Sicilian and Italian ships and troops 
.1. 1 expedition, shall be i --ling to the follwing 

scheme or schemes: the whole being first divide. 1 into equal parts: 

1 To the Commanders-in-chief and to tho Flag and (Jeiieral ( Mh'eers 

serving in tho said expedition, one-eighth, to be distributed amongst 
them, so that each Commander-in-chief shall take double that share 
which eaeh (Iciieral and Flag Officer (not being Commander-in- 
chief) shall take; but if the number -f Flag and CJeneral < >!: 

of the two Commanders-in-chief, shall ur, in that 

case a moiety of the said one-eighth shall he divided between the 
two Commanders-in-chief, and the other moiety amongst the other 
Flag and General Officers Om'-n't/Jtf/i. 

2 To the Colonels, LSeuteaantrolonels, and Majors in the army, and 

Post Captains and Masters and Commanders in the navy, and /<> 
the pertont of like rank belonging to the mi!>/ Firi/;<w tn,>l Jttilinn 
h ipi and troops, to be equally distributed amongst th-m (>m--i /;//////. 
'' T >; ( -lins of Marines ami land forces, and tho eca Lieutenants, 
and other deor5pt ion of persons entitled by our Proclamation for the 
distribution of pri/.e of the llth November, 1S07, pf 1-y the usage 

ir army, t share with them, and tn tic persons in ///' 
Ion ,-/ I in linn ah i jts and troops One-eiyh tli . 

he Lieutenants and Quartermasters . ,f marines, and Lieutenants, 
Ensigns, and Quartermasters of land :id the HoaNwains, 

GUI sern in the navy, and other description of ] 

titled by our said Proclamation or by tho usage of our army, to 
share with them, and to tit persons in Ukr r<mk firlonyiny to the said 
Sicilian and Italian ships and troops Ont-ciy/it/i. 


5 To the Midshipmen, Captains' Clerks, Sergeants of marines and land 

forces, and the other description of persons entitled by our said 
Proclamation or by the usage of our army, to share with them, and 
to the persons in like rank belonging to the said Sicilian and Italian 
ships and troops One-eighth. 

6 To the Trumpeters, Quarter-gunners, Seamen, Marines, and Soldiers, 

and the other description of persons entitled by our said Proclama- 
tion, or by the usage of our army, to share with them, and to the 
perso?is in like rank belonging to the said Sicilian and Italian ships 
and troops One-eighth. 

And that the portion of the said booty, so belonging to our said land 
forces employed on the said expedition, and the persons belonging to the 
said Sicilian and Italian troops, shall be distributed between the Com- 
manders-in-chief, officers, and privates composing the same, according to 
the rule heretofore used and observed by the army, under the above 
scheme or schedule ; 

And that the portion of the said booty so as aforesaid belonging 
to our naval forces employed in the said expedition, and the persons 
belonging to the said Sicilian and Italian ships, be distributed amongst 
the Commander-in-chief, flag and other officers, and men belonging to 
our navy employed on the said expedition, and the persons belonging to 
the said Sicilian and Italian ships, agreeably to our Proclamation for 
the distribution of prize in force at the time of the said expedition. 

And we are graciously pleased to order and direct that, in case any 
doubt shall arise respecting the said distribution, or respecting any 
charge or demand upon the said captured property,. the same shall be 
determined by the Commanders- in-chief, and flag and general officers, or 
such of them as can conveniently be assembled, or by such person or 
persons to whom they, or a majority of them, shall agree to refer the 
same ; which determination so thereupon made, shall, with all convenient 
speed, be notified in writing to the Clerks of our Council, and the same 
shall be final and conclusive to all intents and purposes, unless within 
three months after the receipt thereof at our Council Office, we shall be 
pleased otherwise to order ; hereby reserving to ourself to make such 
orders therein as to us shall seem fit. Given at our Court at Carlton 
House, this second day of August, 1815, in the 55th year of our reign. 
By command of II.R.H. the Prince Regent, in the name, and on the 
behalf of, His Majesty. (Signed) BATHURST. 

II. India Prize-Money. 
The following is the present standing scale of distribution of prize- 


money in India, to European commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers, private^ 


Commander-in-chief of the whole. 

.ral Officers 1,500 

Colonels 600 

Lieut.-colonels, Adjutant-gen, and Quartermaster- 
general of Her Majesty's and the Hon. Company's 
troops, Commissary -general, Members of the 
Medical Board, Inspector of Hospitals of lit r 
Majesty's Troops 360 

Majors, Deputy Adjutant-general, and Deputy Quar- 
t. r master-general of Her Majesty's and the Hon. 
Company's Troops, Deputy Commissary-general, 
and Superintending Surgeons .... 240 

Captains, Surgeons, Assistant Adjt.-general, and As- 
sistant Quartermaster-general of HIT Majesty's 
and the Hon. Company's Troops, Assistant Com- 
-sary -general, Deputy Assistant Adjutant-gen- 
eral, Quartermaster-general and Commissary-gen., 
Paymaster, Surgeon to 1 1 is Excellency the Com- 
mander-in-chief, Brigade-majors, Aides-de-camp to 
His Kxeelleney the Commander-in-chief and Gen- 
eral Officers, and Commissaries of Ordnance. . 120 

iiants, Assistant-surgeons, Cornets, Ensigns, 
Adjutants and Quartermasters of Her Majesty's 
Dragoons and Infantry, Veterinary Surgeons, Dep- 
uty Commissaries, and Deputy Assistant Commis- 
saries of Ordnance 60 

Conductors, Hiding Masters, Apoth. <.: 

Sub-assistant and Veterinary Surgeons and Provost 
Martial 15 

Sub-conductors, Ajafetant-Ajxtthecaries, Assistant- 
stewards, Regimental Sergeant-majors, Staff-brigade 
and Farrier-sergeants of Horse Art ill. rv, Park s 

'. Armorer, ami Sergeants of Artillery . 8 

Tru: . 'Saddler 

geants, Schoolmaster-sergeants, Hospital-*. 

r^eants, Color-sergeants, Armorer-ser- 
geants, Drum-majors, Brigade and Staff-sergeants 
of Foot A rt i ! .izmc-sergemits, Laboratory- 
sergearit-s, and Serg.-ants 2 


Fife-majors, Corporals, Bombardiers, Trumpeters, 

Farriers, Rough Eiders, Gunners, Drummers, and 

Privates 1 

Volunteers 1 

The following scale of distribution of prize-money, for the several 
classes and ranks of native troops, has been adopted at all the Presi- 
dencies of India. 


Subedar, Syrarig I 6 

Woordee, Major, Russaldar^ j 

Jemedar, Tindal I 2 

Naib Russaldar j 

Havildar, Native Doctor ...... 1 

Naik, Drummer ....... 

Trumpeter, Gun Lascar . . . . 

Private, Puckallie . . . . . 

Native Farrier, Duffadar ...... 

Nishan Burder, Nuggurchee ..... 

Vakell and Hirkarrah 

Gun-driver, Bheestie 


For the Royal Army there is no standing scale of distribution, 
though, by the foregoing Prize Warrants, it will be seen that a uniform 
practice is generally observed. 

III. Prize Proclamation for the Russian War 0/1854. 

"Whereas by our Royal Proclamation, bearing date the Twenty-ninth 
day of March, One thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, We have 
ordered and directed that the net proceeds of all prizes taken during the 
present War with Russia, by any of our ships or vessels of war, after 
the same shall have been to us finally adjudged lawful prize, shall be 
for the entire benelit of the officers and crews of such ships and vessels 
of war (save as therein excepted), in which 'Proclamation We have 
directed in what proportion the land forces, doing duty as Marines, 
shall be entitled to share : And whereas in the said Proclamation We 
have reserved to ourselves the division and distribution of all prize and 
booty taken on any conjunct expedition of our ships and vessels of war 
with our army ; and it is desirable that We should provide for the 
division and distribution of all prize and booty taken on such conjunct 



expedition, M also by our army alone : We therefore hereby order and 
that in such cases the net proceeds of the share which shall ho 

assigned by us to our army, under our 1 loyal Sign Manual, shall be 
1 and distribute 1 in the following manner and proportions, viz. : 

{One-fourth of One- 
t.nth part of the 
net proceeds. 

General Officers : 

1st Class. General Officers command- 
ing Divisions, and other Officers, dec., 
holding equivalent Staff Appoiii 

2d Class. pther General Officers, and 
all other Officers, &c., holding equiva- 
lent Staff Appointments . 

Field Officers : 

1st Class. Colonels, Lieutenant-colonels, 
and Brevet -Lieutenant-colonels, and other Of- 
ficers holding Staff Appointments equivalent 

2d Class. Brevet Lieutenant-colonels 

not holding an Appointment qualifying th m to 

share in the preceding Class of Field Officers, 

and all Majors, Regimental or Brevet, and all 

Ming Appointments equivalent 


Ther> Three 

fourths of One- 
tenth part of the 
net proceeds; the 
same to be so (lidd- 
ed that a G< ' 
Officer, Ac., of the 
1st Class shall re- 
( One-half more 
in amount f/ 
Genera I Officer, &c., 
of tfie 2d Class. 

One-ciahth of the re- 
mainder of the 
net proceeds; tic 
same to be so divi<l- 
ed that a Field Of- 

'-., of the 

1st Class shall rc- 

> Oiic-lmlf more 

in amount than a 

)ktr <r-r. 

of the 2d Class. 

The remainder <>f the net proceeds shall be distributed in the f. 1 hav- 
ing Claaoes, so that < .M-CMiiimissionrd Officer. A:c., sh.ill 
norive shares or a share according to his Class, as set forth in tl. 
lowing w\ii 

1st Class. Captains, and all other O(V 

led according to the usage of our 
army to share in that rank 
3d da*. Subalterns, and all other Of- 
ficers entitled according to the usage of 
oar army to share in that rank 

Thirty-tire Shares 

Twenty Shares 


3d Class. Sergeant majors, Quartermas- 
ter Sergeants, and ail other Staff Ser- 
geants, and others holding equivalent j Ten Shares each ' 
rank . . . . 

4th Class. Sergeants, and others holding j 

equivalent rank ' [ ^9^ Shares each. 

5th Class. Corporals .... Four Shares each. 

6th Class. Private Soldiers, Trumpeters, \ 

Drummers, &c } Three Shares each. 

And in the event of any difficulty arising with respect to the Class 
in which any Officer, &c., shall be entitled to share, our will arid pleasure 
is, that the same shall be determined and adjusted by the Commander- 
in-chief of our land forces for the time being. . 

Given at our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Eleventh day of 
August, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
four, and in the eighteenth year of our reign. 


BOUNTY. " Every able-bodied musician or soldier, re-enlisting in 
his company or regiment within two months before, or one month after 
the expiration of his term of service, shall receive two months' extra 
pay, besides the pay and allowances due him on account of the uncx- 
pired period of his enlistment ; " (Act March 2, 1833.) Bounty lands 
have also been given by Congress for military service. The principal 
characteristic of those acts has been to reward alike all grades, and to 
make no distinction of service, except by granting forty acres for the 
minimum degree of service, and one hundred and sixty acres for the 
maximum of service. A very marked and utterly indefensible departure 
from the principle upon which such rewards of merit and services were 
made by the several States immediately after the Revolutionary War. 

BOYAU is a small trench, or a branch of a trench, leading to a 
magazine, or to any particular point. They are generally called boyaus 
of communication. 

BREACH. Rupture made in a fortification to facilitate the as- 
sault. The best mode of doing this is by dividing the wall up into 
detached parts by making one horizontal and several vertical cuts, and 
battering each part down. The easiest way to make the cut is to direct 
the shots upon the same line, and form a series of holes a little greater 
than a diameter apart, and then fire at the intervals until the desired 
cut is made. The horizontal cut is finished first. The vertical 
cuts are then commenced at the horizontal cut, and raised until the 


wall sinks, overturns, and breaks into pieces. The effective !: 
ing power of rifle cannon has been shown l.y recent successful , 
nicnts in England, against a martello tower 30 feet high and 48 feet 
r. the walls being of good solid brick masonry, from 7 to 10 
feet thick. Armstrong guns with 40 and solid sliot, and 
100-pounder percussion shells were used at a distance <>t 1 < 
more thnn twenty times the usual breaching distance. The 80-pounder 
issed completely through the masonry, (7 feet 3 inches,) and the 
40-pounder shot and 100-pounder percussion sliells lodged in the brick- 
work, at a depth of fi\e t. . t. Alter firing 170 projectiles, a small por- 
tion of which were loaded shells, the entire land side of tin t<>\\ 
thrown down, and the interior space was filled with the debris of the 
vaulted roof, forming a pile which alone saved the opposite side from 

. The superior breaching power of rifle projectiles d- 
not only on penetration, but on accuracy of flight and consequent con 
cent rat ion 'on any desired point; (BENTON.) 

BREACH OF ARREST. Any arrested officer who shall leave 
his confinement, before he shall be set at liberty by his commanding 
. or by a superior officer, shall be cashiered ; (ART. 77. 7W*\ and 
Articles of War.) 

BREAK GROUND is to commence the siege of a place by open- 
ing trenches, &c. 

BREASTWORK is a hastily constructed parapet, not high 
enough to require a banquette, or at least generally without one ; (See 

BREECH. The mass of solid metal behind ihe bottom of the. bore 
fa _'' extending to the rear of the base ring. The base of the breech 
is a frustum of a cone or spherical segment in rear of tin ! 

Breech of a musket ; Breech screw ; Br<-lt j>in. (For l>ne. -h -load- 
inu f nnns. See GARDINER ; PISTOL.) 

r.KLYLT. i />.,..-/,.) I: is derived from Latin. '.hieh 

a brief; a pan hrnent containing an annotation or not if, 

ninire tic CAnncedc Tcrrc.) So also, according to Ains- 

/ trriV, Mandatum, n / PHIKVK emittere. This Latin 

word breve, brevia, is also still ! in Kurdish law. as signifying 

a writ, or mandatory issued by the authority, and in the name 

of the sovcreir '<% a writ, Ilrcvc dt . I rit of 

right, Brevia Formula, the register of Miits; (BOUVIER'S / 

So also in Scots Law, Breve Testatum (Lat.) an aeknowledgment in writ- 

1 practice, was made out ..n the land at the time 

i ng possession to the vassal, and signed by the superior ; (OOILVIE.) 


The word brevet in French signifies, when applied to officers in the 
army or navy, commission ; (SPIERS and SURENNE.) Brevet was taken by 
the English from the French with this meaning. As used in the United 
States army, brevet was borrowed with our Articles of War from 
England, and in the British service it means a commission in the army 
at large, distinctive of a commission in a particular regiment or corps. 
But, as both in the British service and our own, payments are made for 
the authorized number of officers of the various grades in the several 
corps composing an army, ordinary English lexicographers have set down 
the meaning of brevet as a commission which gives an officer title and 
rank in the army above his pay ; (WEBSTER, WORCESTER, and OGILVIE.) 
This would be the true meaning of brevet, if there was no legislation 
on the subject of rank by brevet other than that authorizing such rank 
to be conferred. But as rank by brevet is given in the army of the 
United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for 
" gallant actions or meritorious services," the laws have justly provided 
that, whenever an officer is on duty, and exercises a command' according 
to his brevet, he shall be entitled to the pay of such grade ; (Acts of 
1812 and 1818.) Brevets, however, being commissions in the army at 
large, it would also follow, if there was no further legislation, that such 
commissions would be exercised in the particular regiment in which an 
officer was mustered. To avoid this, and also to give efficacy to com- 
missions in particular corps where different corps come together, the 
61st and 62d Articles of War have regulajted the whole subject. The 
61st Article provides that within a regiment or corps officers shall take 
rank and do duty according to the commissions by which they are 
mustered in their regiments or corps, but brevets or former commis- 
sions may take effect in detachments and courts-martial composed of 
different regiments or corps. As rank, however, means a range of sub- 
ordination in the body in which it is held, it is manifest that rank in any 
particular body, as a regiment, corps, or the army at large, would not 
of itself give the right to command out of that particular body, without 
being enabled by further legislation. Hence the necessity of the 62d 
Article of War, \s hich provides that, when different corps come together, 
the officer highest in rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or mili- 
tia, by commission there on duty or in quarters shall command the 
whole, and give orders for what is needful for the service, unless other- 
wise specially directed by the President of the United States, according 
to the nature of the case; (See COMMAND ; DETACHMENT; LINE; 

BRIBE AT MUSTER. Art. 16 of the Rules and Articles of 


\Yar provides that any officer convicted of taking any bribe on mus- 

IN, shall be displaced from his ollice,and 

rly disabled from . holding any ollice or employment 

in the service of the 1'nited States. 

BUICULE. Men's hamcss for dragging guns, length 18 fi- -t us, ,1 
for hariu*!iing men to guns \\hen horses cannot be used. 

lilllDGE. If you arc at the side of a narrow but deep and rapid 

MI the banks of which trees grow long enough to r, -a. h I 
one or more should In? felled, confining the trunk to its own bank, and 
letting the current force the head round to the opposite side ; but if 
" the river be too wide to be spanned by one tivi and if two or three 
men can in any manner be got across let a largo tree be felled into the 

"n each side, and placed close to the banks opposite t<. <M< h other, 
with their heads lying up-streamwards. Fasten a rope to the 1 
each tr the trunks, shove the heads off to r. oefane the force of 

the current, and ease off the ropes, so that the branches m:iy n 

i Idle of the river, at an angle pointing upwards. The branches 
of the trees will be jammed together by the force of the current, and 
so be sufficiently united as to form a tolerable communication, 
cially when a few of the upper branches have been cleared away. If in- 
sunVi, nt. towards the middle of the river, to bear the weight -f men cross- 
ing, a : I, with forks left near their heads, may be thrust down 
through the branches of the trees to support them ; " (Siu II. I > > 

\Vhi-n a river, which cannot bo forded, must be crossed by animals 
and carriages, a bridge becomes necessary ; and in all cases it is b 
if possible, to cross by a bridge than by a ford, unless the 1 

u'ly shallow. Military bridges may be of t hive kinds : 1st 

ires of timber. . 'n^-brid-jes. .'id. Flying-bridges. Timber 

bridges may be either supported on piles or on trestles. Pile-bridges are 
the most secure, and when- bridges are required to remain in use fora 
considerabl >e which may be constructed on the li 

f an army, with its base of operations, this form of 
bridge will generally be ado] ',d. T t a .! --br 

kilYd labor is neeessary, and an ample supply 

of materials essential. When the bottom of the channel is linn, and 
them* to (1, ,o,ls, a pile-bridje may be construct. -d with- 

out dfliculty, and will be very durable. Th- piles mu-t be driven by 
H engine, \\ hieh mny be constnict<-d of an 8-inch or 10-inch shell run 
full of 1 by ft rope over a pulley. This may be v 

by hand, and wiil drive piles to ft depth sumYient to allow of the 
passage of st artillery over the bridge. The pulley of the 


pile engine should be supported on a framework, some 16 feet high, 
which may be made to act as a guide to the shell during its fall, and 
also for the pile while it is being driven. This -framework should be 
erected upon a large flat-bottomed boat. If such a boat is not to be 
procured, a raft must be made to answer the purpose. When timber 
of a considerable length can be procured for the joists of the bridge, it 
will be advisable to make the intervals between the piers or rows of 
piles, as great as the length of the joists will allow, so that the current 
of the river may be impeded as little as possible, and its action on the 
bridge be reduced to a minimum. By this arrangement, too, as much 
space as possible is given for the passage of floating bodies, and the 
danger of their damaging the bridge is proportionately diminished. 
When all the piles have been driven as far as the power of the engine 
can accomplish, they must be sawn off to the same level, and the super- 
structure of timber be strongly and carefully fitted. With bays of 20 
feet, and a roadway 14 feet wide, there must be at least five or six 
beams not less than 7 inches by 8. With wider bays, timbers of 
larger dimensions will be necessary. The planking should not be less 
than 2 inches thick laid transversely. Bridges on piles, for the passage 
of infantry over shallow rivers only, may be expeditiously constructed, 
as the piles may be slight, 6 inches in difameter would suffice, and they 
can be driven by hand by heavy mauls, or by two men using a beetle. 
See diagram, Fig. 71. 

FIG. 71. 

Here the pile is set and kept in its place by means of two spars of 
planks resting their extremities upon a stool placed on the bank. A 
plank is then laid across, on which one or two men may stand to drive 
the pile. The weight of the men may be increased, if necessary, 




by stones placed on the platform assisting to force the piles into the 
ground. When one row of piles is placed, and the floor laid to a cross 
beam fixed UIH.II them, another row may be set and driven in the same 
manner, fixm- the stool on that part <-f th.- tloor which will thus have 
been compl- i Pttti driven in this way may be safely de| 
upon to bear infantry with a front of two or three files in open ranks, 
not keeping st 

Bridget on Trestles. When rivers arc shallow, and not liable to 
sudden floods, and when their channels are firm and even, very us, -nil 
bridges may be constructed on trestles. Trestles for this purpose 
should each consist of a stout transom or ridge piece some 8 inehes 
square and 10 feet long; to this should be fitted four legs adapted 
to the depth of the river slanting outwards from the vertical, and 
strengthened by diagonal bracing, (Fig. 72.) For large bridges it N\ ill 

be found advantageous to add 
an additional pair of legs to 
each trestle. These, from the 
difficulty of fitting six legs to 
the uneven surface of the bot- 
t"'n of the river, should not 
le attached until the trestle is 
placed in position; they should 
then le. driven into the bed 
of the river. and their upper 
extremities should be firmly 
nailed to the ridge piece. When 

the different parts of the trestles are all prepared 1>< forehand, they 
can be speedily put together and the bridge completed with irn-at 
expedition. Fascines may bo used for flooring, win-re plank cannot 
be obtained. When the intervals or Lays are t- n f Bt, the dimensions 
of the trestle and beams may be as follows : 




SI Head 1 




4 Len. 



1 Bn 





Flanks for flo< 



If there b as . a cable should be stn i--h. <1 BOTOM the 

river on each side of th.- bridge, and th- be firmly lashed to 

It may, moreover, sometimes be necessary to load the trestles 


with shot or stones, to keep them in their position until the flooring is 
laid upon them. 

Floating-Bridges are those generally adopted for the passage of troops 
over rivers. They may be very expeditiously constructed, and can be 
made strong enough to carry the heaviest artillery. During the last 
century boats were generally used for this purpose ; and, although on 
navigable rivers, boats are readily found, it was frequently a work of 
time and difficulty to collect a sufficient number, particularly if the 
enemy had had the opportunity of removing or destroying them pre- 
viously. The inconveniences and delays resulting from this cause, al- 
ways hazardous and often fatal to the success of an expedition, led to 
the introduction of regular bridge equipages or pontoon trains, duly 
organized to accompany the march of armies. An efficient pontoon 
train renders an army independent of the rivers which may intersect 
its route. By its aid rivers of very considerable magnitude may be 
bridged in a few hours, and a march of a given distance may thus be 
with certainty completed in a given time a matter often of momentous 
importance to the success of military operations. 

Bridges of Boats. Boats of almost any kind will make a serviceable 
bridge. For wide rivers the boats should be large. The boats of which 
a bridge is constructed should, if possible, be nearly of the same size, 
unless they are all very large, and then variations in dimensions will 
be of little consequence. Should some be large and some small, the 
passage of large bodies of troops, of heavy guns and ammunition 
wagons will depress them unequally, causing the flooring of the bridge 
to assume an irregular line, straining and injuring, and in some cases 
fracturing, the timber and destroying the bridge. When boats, all of 
the same size, cannot be obtained, the larger boats should be placed at 
wider intervals, so that they may sustain a heavier weight, proportioned 
to their greater capacity, during the passage of troops, and be depressed 
to an equal distance with the smaller. The superstructure will consist 
of balks of timber laid across the gunwales of the boats, and securely 
fastened, and the flooring of planks laid transversely over. A certain 
rigidity results from this arrangement, by which, if the boats were 
subject to much motion, the bridge would be speedily destroyed. In 
tidal rivers, where a considerable swell must generally be encountered, 
this manner of securing the timbers will not answer. In this case, it 
will be found advantageous to erect a trestle or support in the centre 
of each boat, over which the timbers may be bolted to each other : thus 
each boat will be allowed independent motion, and this will not en- 
danger the fracture of the bridge. 




The boats should be moored head and stern, and should be kept at 
their relative distances by timbers fixed at the head and at the stem, 

i . 

stretching across the bays, so as to remove unnecessary strain from 
the timbers of the bridge. The timbers should be as nearly as possible 
square, and of dimensions proportioned to the space of the intervals. 
With good timbers, 8 inches by 6, twenty feet may bo allowed from 
trestle to trestle. The width of the bridge should also be proportional 
to the dimensions of the timbers. With five balks of 7 inches by 8, 
the bridge should not exceed 14 fret in width. If too wide there will 
be danger of the beams being broken by the overcrowding of troops on 
the bridge. 

When there is no regular pontoon train, and boats cannot be pro- 
cured, rafts may be used in place of boats. These rafts may bo 
of casks, which, if properly arranged and securely lash, ,1, will 
all the purposes of pontoons. Eight or ten casks, all of the 
same size, should be placed side by side on a lev* 1 piece <>f ^r-un.l, 
rig each other, bung-holes uppermost. Two stout balks, 4^ inches 
square, and about 2 feet longer than the sum of the diam.-t.T* .f the 
casks which are to form the pier, must then be prepared ami laid along 
the upper surface of the casks, parallel to each other, a::.! a. h about 
distant from the line of the bung-holes. A piece of .'J-in.-h 
should then be attached to one end of each of these l.alks, passed under 
all the casks, and secured to the other end of the same balk. 

These ropes aro then drawn up towards the balks and ti-htly lashed 
by small ropes between every pair of casks, and the smaller r 
the one side are agaii across to those of the other side 

74.) The whole pier thus becomes so compact that it may be rolled 




and launched and rowed with as little danger of breaking up as though 
it were a single pontoon. Piers of casks constructed in this way may 
be used exactly like pontoons, and will form a most efficient bridge. 

FIG. 74. 

Pontoons are vessels of various forms and dimensions, and are made 
of various materials. They are generally boat-shaped, of wood, of 
copper, or of tin, sometimes with decks, and sometimes without. Each 
boat, or pontoon, is carried on a suitable wagon, which also conveys 
the portion of superstructure necessary for one "bay or interval. 

Flying-Bridges. A flying-bridge is an arrangement by which a 
stream with a good current may be crossed, when, from a want of time 
or a deficiency of materials, it may not be possible to form a bridge. 
It consists of a large boat or raft firmly attached by a long cable to a 
mooring in the centre of the stream, if the channel be straight, or on 
the bank if the channel be curved. By hauling the boat or raft into 
proper positions, it will be driven across the stream in either direction 
as may be desired. 

The bridge is made usually of two, 
(Fig. 75,) three, and sometimes six boats, 
connected together, and very solidly 
floored over, the beams being fastened 
to the gunwales of the boats with iron 
bolts or bands, and the flooring planks 
nailed down upon them. The floor is 
sometimes surrounded with a guard-rail. The most suitable boats are 
long, narrow, and deep, with their sides nearly vertical, in order to offer 
greater resistance to the action of the current. At the end of the rope 
is fixed an anchor X, which is moored in the channel, if this is in the 
middle of the stream. If the channel is not in the middle, the anchor 
is placed a little on one side of it toward the most distant shore. By 
means of the rudder, the bridge is turned in such a direction that it is 
struck obliquely by the current, and the force resulting from the de- 
composition of the action of the current makes it describe an arc of a 


circle around the anchor as a centre, and this force acquires its 
imum effect sides of the boats make an angle of aboi; 

with the direction of the current. 

Suppose M N (Fig. 76) to represent the side of the boat, and A B 
the resultant of the forces of the current against it. The force A 1 
be decomposed int.. two forces; the one, A C, will act in tin- dir 
M N as friction, and may be neglected, and the other, A I >, u ill : 

pendicularly to the side of 

Fw> -5. boat. "Were th.> boat free to 

move, and headed in the same 
direction, it would descend the 
river, at the same time crossing 
it. A D is then decomposed 
into two other forces, the one 
A E, in the direction of the cur- 
rent, causing the boat to drift, the 

other A F, perpendicular to this, which pushes the boat across. If tho 
boat is now attached to a fixed point by the rope A X, tho force A E 
will be neutralized, and all the effort of the current will be reduced to 
the force A F, which makes the boat revolve around tin-, point X. Tho 
length of rope used should be once and a half or twice the -width of tho 
river. With a shorter rope the arc described by tho bridge is too 
great, and it performs the ascending brunch with difficulty ; with a 
longer one, the rope becomes too heavy, sinks in tho \\ 
the movement. Generally, the arc described by the bridge should not 
be more than 90. To prevent the rope from dragging over tho deck, 
which would interfere with tho load, it is held up by an arrant' 
such as is indicated in Fig. 76, and buoyed out of the water nearly to 
the anchor by skiffs, empty casks, or other floating bodies. AY hen the 
stream to be crossed is not very wide, a flying-bridge may be made 
with two ropes, one fastened on each sh<>n -. the r>|,,-s being used al- 
ternately. If the stream, on tho contrary, is very wide, several boats 
are fastened together, floored over, and anchored in the. niid.i 
communication k-pt nj> with each shore by a flying-bridge, like the one 
already described. In about o M <- hour 'M men ran n.nstruet allying 
bridge composed of 6 bridge-boats, and capable of carrying 'J50 in- 
fantry, or 2 piece* of artillery and 12 horses. At least one spare 
r should always be carried on the bridge, to anrhr it in case the 
rope should break or become detached ; and oars, a small boat, and a 
long rope, should also be pnv'nlnl. A flying-bridge may, in case of 
emergency, be made of any kind of boats with the means of fixing rud- 




FIG. 77. 

ders to them. For want of an anchor, a large stone, mill-stone, or a 
bag or box of sand may be made use of. A flying-bridge may be made 
of a raft, the best form being lozenge-shaped, with the front angle about 
55. It is attached to a rope stretched across the stream by three 
others with pulleys, which slide along the first rope, this being tightly 
stretched across and not allowed to hang in the water. Buttresses con- 
structed on boats or trestles, according to the means at hand, are 
formed on both sides of the river, at the points where the flying-bridge 
lands. Wagons impermeable to water may, by means of a rope at- 
tached to the wagon body, be used to pass a company with its baggage. 

Where large bodies are to be crossed, a common contrivance is the 
RAFT of logs, but it is the last expedient to be adopted from its want 
of buoyancy and general manage- 
ability, and is inapplicable when the 
passage of a river is likely to be con- 
tested with animation. Its merits 
are that, at the expense of time, 
it can be constructed with less ex- 
perienced workmen ; it saves car- 
riage, as it can only be made of ma- 
terials near the spot. It is, however, 
an indifferent substitute for boats, 
pontoons, or casks. An independent 
raft will require two rows of trees, 
at least, to float as many men as can 
stand upon it, and the logs are best 
bound together by withes, or ropes, 
and stiffened with cross and diagonal 

Timber Bridges. The rudest form [_ 
of arch is very strong, easy of con- 
struction, and of frequent occurrence; the timbers being roughly 
notched into each other as in log-houses, and gradually jutting over 

FIG. 78. 




the pier or abutment near each other. A few of tho upper courses 
may be trenailed down. Figure 79 shows the manner of const*, u. >n 
with hewn or rough timber. 

Fio. 7*. 

The wagon bodies now made for the United States army are gal- 
vanized or zincked iron ; the lower and upper rails are of oak wood, cov- 
ered with sheet iron ; wooden supporters are framed into the lower 
rails like the usual wagon body, the tail piece is hung upon hinges. An 
important application of those iron wagon bodies, (suggested by Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Grossman, United States army,) would be their employment 
as boats in bridging rivers. If they are so perfected as to rend. -r them 
water-tight, they might be readily converted into a system of pontoons, 
each one carrying a portion of the string pieces and planks necessary 
to construct a bridge, without materially interferini: with tin- usual 
load. Arranged and lashed together in double n>\\s they w.-uld a<l>nl 
a sufficient breadth of roadway for the passage of both cavalry and 
artillery with facility. 

Large treet may be felled to enable infantry to cross narrow str< 
placing them so that their butts may rest upon the K-mks \\iih tho, 
top directed obliquely up the stream ; if one is not lonp rnmiirh, others 
may be floated down so at to extend across, being guided nn<l secured 

a way may be formed by laying plm 

hurdles over them, and their branches should be chopped oil" nearly to 
the level of the water and intertwined below ; poles also *nay be 
driven into the I river, t. aid in supporting the trees by at- 

taching the boughs to them. Wheel ^carriages used to form I 


bridge may be connected by beams ; or a single pair of wheels with 
an axle-tree to admit two strong posts may be attached and placed in 
the centre of the stream if it is not too wide. Poles reaching from each 
bank may be secured to the posts, and the wheels would act as a 
trestle. With a flooring over the poles, a slight bridge could be 

FIG. 80. 

rapidly constructed for an advanced guard. Hide boats are made of 
four buffalo hides strongly sewed together with buffalo sinew, and 
stretched over a basket work of willow 8 feet long and 5 feet broad, 
with a rounded bow, the seams then being covered with ashes and tallow. 
Exposed to the sun for some hours, the skins contract and tighten the 
whole work. Such a boat with four men in it draws only four inches 
of water. Inflated skins have been used since the earliest times for 
crossing, and if four or more are secured together by a frame, they 
form a very buoyant raft. Canvas (rendered water-proof by a com- 
position of pitch 8 Ibs., beeswax 1 lb., and tallow 1 lb., boiled together 
and laid on quite hot) will serve as a raft or pontoon, if placed over 
framework or wicker work ; (Consult Memorial des Officiers d'Infanterie 
et Cavalerie ; Aide Memoire of the Military Sciences ; DOUGLAS'S Prin- 
ciples and Construction of Military Bridges ; HYDE'S Fortifications ; 
GIBBON'S Manual; HAILLOT, Instruction sur le Passage des Rivieres et 
la Construction des Fonts Militaires.) 

BRIDGE-HEAD (la tete du pont) is a work consisting of one 
or more redans or bastions, constructed on the bank of a river, to 
cover a bridge, to protect a retiring army in crossing the river, and to 
check an enemy when pressing upon it. (See REDAN.) 

BRIDOON. The snaffle and rein of a military bridle, which acts 
independently of the bit, at the pleasure of the rider. 

BRIGADE. .Two regiments of infantry or cavalry constitute a 
brigade. (Act March 3, 1799.) 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL. Rank next below major-general. The 
commander of a brigade. Entitled to one aide-de-camp. 



IWICAH. ^A.IOB. An officer appointed to assist the general 
commanding a brigade in all his duties. (See MILITIA.) 

I : I 1 U - 1 N * , (See BKIDOBS ; CARPKNTUY.) 

BUILDINGS, DEFBXCI OF. The objects now under consideration 
are churches, country-houses, factories, prisons, or other substantial 
1'uil. lings ; and as there is but little difference in the mode to be pur- 
sued for placing any of them in a state of defence, an explanation of the 
details applied to a single house will perhaps be sufficient to convey an 
idea on the subject. A building proper for defensive purposes, should 
possess some or all of the following requisites : 1. It should COMMAND 
all that surrounds it 2. Should be SUBSTANTIAL, and of a nature to 
funiiv ill useful for placing it in a state of defence. 3. Should 

require the TIME AND MEANS which can be devoted to completing it. 4. 
Should have walls and projectings that mutually FLANK each other. 5. 
Should be DIFFICULT OF ACCESS on the side exposed to attack, and yet 
have a SAFE RETREAT for the defenders. 6. And bo in a situation proper 
for fulfilling the object for which the detachment is to be posted. A 
church will be found usually to unite all these good properties more 
than any other building. It may be remarked that though good strong 
walls arc an advantage, yet their thickness should be limited to 2 or 3 
feet, from the difficulty there would be in piercing loopholes; unless 
when they are likely to be battered by artillery, in which case the mus- 
rnust be confined to the windows, and the inure solid the, walls 
"er. It should also be remembered that brick houses and 
walls are preferable, on several accounts, to those built of stone ; for 
when exposed to artillery, a round shot merely makes a small hole in 
the former, but stone is broken up in large masses, and dangerous 
splinters fly from it in all direct ions. It is much easier also to make 
loopholes through brickwork than through m;i><>i,ry. \Yoodcn houses, 
or those made of plaster, arc to be avoided, from the facility with which 
n enemy can set fire to them, and they arc tYe<|ti.-ntly n..t even musket - 
proof. Thatched houses are equally object ionaMc, on account of fire, 
unless there is time to unroof them ; and after all it must not be for- 
gotten, that earthen works, wlien exposed to artillery, are to be 
ferred to houses, as far as affording s-curity to the <1. tenders i 

!. In seeking this ft4M>urit\, bowerer, U should lie home in mind 

that they are not so defensible for troops cannot be run into .1 house ; 

but they are not exempt from such an intrusion in an earthen work of 

^ ure under discussion. Tho two t ,n 1> made to form 

a more respectable post than either can be made into singly, for the 


merits of both will be enhanced, and the defects be modified, by the 
union. A building is therefore at all times a capital base to go to 
work upon. The walls may be partially protected from cannon shot 
by throwing up earthen parapets round it, and the house may " recip- 
rocate " by acting the part of a keep, and afford the garrison a placo 
of refuge, in which they may either defend themselves with advantage, 
or if it " suits their book," resume the offensive and drive the assailants 
out again. 

An officer will be able to make his selection at first sight, with ref- 
erence to most of these points, but it requires a little more considera- 
tion to determine whether a building and its appliances are convertible 
into a post, of a size proportioned to the force under his command. 
The average number of men, however, proper for the defence of a 
house, may be roughly estimated on some such data as the following : 
That in a lower story it might generally be proper to tell off one 
man for every 4 feet that the walls measured round the interior. In 
the second story one man for every 6 feet, and in an attic or roof one 
man for every 8 feet. For example, if a house of three stories high 
were found, on pacing it, to measure 140 feet round the interior walls, 
the number of men for its defence on the above data would be deter- 
mined thus : 

140 Would give 35 ; which would be the number of men for the lower 
4 story. 

_ Would be about 23 men for the second floor. 

J-^ Would be 18 men for the attic. 

making a total of 76 men for the three stories ; to which about one- 
sixth of the whole, say 14 men, should be added as a reserve, making 
altogether a garrison of 90 men. If there were out-buildings or walls 
in addition, the number of men required for their defence, would be 
determined in a similar manner, by assuming certain data adapted to 
the circumstances as a guide in the calculation. These numbers are not 
to be considered definitive, but merely to convey an idea on the subject ; 
for if a detachment were much weaker in proportion to the extent, a 
vigorous defence might still be made. The force might be concentrated 
where most required, as it is not a matter of course that a place will 
be attacked on all sides at once ; or if a building were found so large 
that the disposable force would be too much disseminated, or if there 
were a want of materials and time for putting the whole of it in a stato 


of defence, a part of it only might be occupied. Should there exist any 
doubt about having sufficient time to complete all that might be wished, 
it would become matter for consideration what were the points which 
it would be of the greatest importance to secure first, so as to be in a 
condition to repel an immediate attack, because such points would nat- 
urally claim attention to the exclusion of all others. In such a cafe, it 
might be well to employ as many men as could work without hindering 
each other by being too crowded. 1. To collect materials and barri- 
cade the doors and windows on the ground floor, to make loopholes in 
them, and level any obstruction outside that would give cover to the 
enemy, or materially facilitate the attack. 2. To sink ditches oppo- 
site the doors on the outside, and arrange loopholes in the windows of 
the upper story. 3. To make loopholes through the walls generally, 
attending first to the most exposed parts, and to break communications 
through all the party-walls and partitions. 4. To place abatis or 
any feasible obstructions on the outside, and to improve the defence of 
the post by the construction of tambours, &c. 5. To place out-build- 
ings and garden walls in a state of defence, and establish communica- 
tions between them. To make arrangements in the lower story espe- 
cially, for defending one room or portion after another, so that partial 
possession only could bo obtained on a sudden rush being made. These 
different works to bo undertaken in the order of their relative impor- 
tance, according to circumstances; and after securing the immediate ob- 
ject for which they were designed, they might remain to be improved 
up"ii if opportunity offered. An endeavor will now be mode to explain 
the mode of executing these works in the order in which they are men- 

Collecting Materials. The materials that will be found most useful 
in barricading the passages, doors, and windows, are 1> s, cart 

bodies, bricks, stones, cinders, dung, dec., and timber of any sort that. 
comet to hand; if they cannot be found elsewhere on tin- premises, 
the roof and floors must be stripped to furnish what is required. 

Barricading Doors. In the application of these materials, tho boxes 
and casks filled with cinders or dung, and plan d against the doors to a 
height of feet, will prevent their being forced open, and loopholes 
may be made through the upper portions, whi< h <-an l>c rendered mus- 
'>of to protect the men's heads ; short lengths t.f timber piled one 
upon another to the same height, leaving a space bet we, n any two of 
them in a convenient situation for firing through, and their ends 1,,-ing 
secured in the side walls of a passage, or propped with up: 
on the inside, will effect the same object; or a door may be loosely 


bricked up, leaving loopholes, &c. If it is probable that artillery will 
be brought up for knocking away these barricades, and so forcing an 
entrance, a passage may be partially filled with dung or rubbish to the 
thickness of 8 or 10 feet, or thick beams of timber may be reared up 
on the outside of a door, and the interval filled with the same, or with 
earth if more convenient. A hole, about 3 feet square, may be left 
through an ordinary barricade for keeping up a communication with 
the exterior ; but for effecting a retreat, or making sorties, it will be 
necessary to make a door musket-proof, by nailing on several additional 
thicknesses of plank, and arrange it so as to open as usual, or contrive 
something on the spot which shall equally protect the men when firing 
through the loopholes, and yet be removable at pleasure. 

Barricading- Windows. Windows do not require to be barricaded 
so strongly as doors, unless from their situation an entrance may. easily 
be effected, or an escalade be attempted. The principal object is to 
screen and protect the defenders whilst giving their fire ; any thing, 
therefore, that will fill up the window to a height of 6 feet from the 
floor, and that is musket-proof, will answer the purpose. Thus two or 
three rows of filled sand-bags, laid in the sill of a window, Fig. 81, or 

FIG. 81. 

short lengths of timber would do ; or a carpet, a mattrass, or blankets 
rolled up, would be ready expedients. Loopholes would, in all cases, 
be arranged whatever materials were used. If time presses, and win- 
dows could not be blocked up, one means of obtaining concealment, 
which is the next best thing to security, would be to hang a great coat 
or blanket across the lower part of them as a screen, and make the 
men fire beneath it, kneeling on the floor. The glass should be removed 
from windows before an attack commences, as it is liable to injure the 
defenders, when broken by musketry. 

Levelling Obstructions outside. Any shrubberies, fences, or out- 
buildings, within musket-shot, which would favor an attack by affording 




cover to an enemy, and allowing him to approach unperceived, should 
be got rid of as soon as possible. The trees should be felled, 1< 
the stumps of different heights, so as to encumber the ground, and the 
materials of walls, dec,, should be spread about with tin s.nm \i.-\\ ; 
but whatever is convertible for barricades should be cini.d to t In- 
house. The thatch from roofs, and any combustibles, should also bo 
removed or destroyed. 

Ditches in Front of the Doors, <Cc. As a means of preventing a door 
being forced, a ditch may be dug in front of it, about 7 t t wide and 5 
feet deep ; such a ditch is also necessary in front of the lower windows, 
if tin- loopholes cannot be conveniently made high enough from the out- 
side to prevent an enemy reaching them. These partial ditches may 
n ft rr wards be converted into a continued ditch all round a house if 
opportunity offers, as it would contribute to the defence of the post. 
TTie floors may also be taken up on the inside, opposite the doors or 
windows open to attack. 

Loopholes. If the walls are not too thick, they may be pierced for 
loopholes, at every 3 feet, in the spaces between the windows, dec. 
(Fig. 88.) 

Fio. 83. 

Two tiers of these loopholes may be made if opportunity offers, and 
a temporary scaffolding of furniture, benches, casks, or ladders, dec., 
erected for firing from the upper ones : on the lower story a r 
loopholes may be made close to the ground. The floor must, in this 
case, be partly removed, and a small excavation made brtwrm th 
beams for the OO&Ttttaoi of making use of th-m. Just nn.Yr tin- 
eaves of a roof there is generally a place where loopholes can be mado 




with great facility, and a tile or slate knocked out hero and there with 
a musket, will give other openings, from which an assailant may be 
well plied as he comes up. 

Communications. A clear communication must be made round the 
whole interior of the building, by breaking through all partitions that 
interfere with it : and for the same purpose, if houses stand in a row 
or street, the party walls must be opened, so as to have free access 
from one end to the other. Means should likewise be at hand for 
closing these openings against an enemy, who may have obtained any 
partial possession. Holes may also be made in the upper floors to fire 
on the assailants, if they force the lower ones, and arrangements made 
for blocking up the staircases, with some such expedient as a tree, pre- 
pared in the same manner as for an abatis, or by having a rough pali- 
sade gate placed across. Balconies may be covered or filled up in front 
with timber or sand-bags and made use of to fire from downwards. 
(Fig. 83.) 

FIG. 83. 

Abatis. The partial levelling of any object on the outside, that 
would give concealment to an enemy, and favor an attack, is supposed 
to have been already attended to : but if time admits, after loopholes, 
&c. are completed, this system must be extended and perfected, and 
the formation of a more regular abatis should be commenced, and any 
other obstruction added that opportunity permits. The best distance for 
such obstructions, if they are continuous and cannot be turned, is within 
20 or 30 yards of a work, or even less, so that every shot may tell 




whilst the assailants are detained in forcing a passage through them ; 
within such a distance also of defenders securely posted, it would not 
be pleasant for a hostile force in confusion, to " Fall in," or " Re-form 
Column. 11 If hand-grenades are to play their part in the defence of a 
post, the obstruction, \\hute\vr it may be, should be placed within their 
influence. A man will easily throw them 20 yards, but a trial on the spot 
will hest d.-t.Tinine the distance at which they can be used with . 

Tambours. If the building that has been selected has no porches, 
wings, or projecting portions from which flank defence can be obtained, 
it will be Advisable to construct something of a temporary nature to 
afford it. Stockade work offers a ready means of effecting this object ; 
it may be disposed in the form of a triangle, projecting 8 or 10 f t in 
front of a door or window, planted as described in Article STOCKADE, 
and with the precautions of having the loopholes high enough. A 
small hole should be left in the barricade of the door or window to 
communicate with the interior. Three or four loopholes on each fac< 
of the projection cut 1> tween the timbers will be found very useful ii t 
the defence. These contrivances are usually termed tarrbours, and i! 
constructed at the angle of a building, will flank two sides of it. (Fig. 84.) 

Fio. 84. 

Out-building t and TTa/to. When the defences of the main building 
are in a state of forwardness, any out-buildings or walls \vhich have 
been found too solid to be levelled at the moment, or which \\\\\ 
preserved for the chance of having time to fortify them, and thus to 
increase the strength of the post, must be looked to. They may be 
placed in a state of defence by the m. uns already described, and sep- 
arate communications should be established between them and the 


principal building by a trench, or a lino of stockade work, and by 
breaking through the walls when necessary. In this way a post may 
be enlarged in any required proportion, by turning all objects that 
present themselves, such as out-buildings, sheds, walls, hedges, ponds, 
&c., to the best account ; first taking the precaution to secure what is 
absolutely necessary for immediate protection, and for placing it ill a 
state to be defended on the 
shortest notice. An exterior 
wall or fence, tolerably close 
to a house and parallel to 
it, may be retained for the 
purposes of defence, with- 
out the danger of afford- 
ing cover, and thus facili- 
tating an attack, by throwing up a slope of earth on the outside of 
it, or planting an abatis in the same situation ; (Fig. 85.) An enemy 
would thus remain completely exposed, and it would be worse than 
useless to him. If a post of the description under consideration were 
composed of two or more buildings, and it were to be left to itself, and 
were open to attack on all sides, the stockades or trenches, forming the 
communications between them, would obviously require to be so ar- 
ranged as to afford cover, and the means of resistance on both sides. 
This would be effected by merely making them double, as shown in 
Fig. 82 ; but for greater security, the exterior of such communications 
should be laid under fire from the buildings at their extremities. If 
cover cannot from circumstances be obtained, screens should be con- 
trived that will conceal the movements that may be necessary. In 
arranging the defences of such posts, it is an essential point to make 
each portion of them so far independent of the others, that if any one 
part, such as a building for instance, be taken, it shall not compromise 
the safety of the remainder, nor materially impair the defence they will 
make by themselves ; so that whilst free communications are essential 
in most cases to a vigorous defence, the means must be at hand for in- 
stantly cutting them off by some such expedients as would be afforded 
by a loopholed, musket-proof door, or rough gates, or by letting fall a 
tree, prepared as for an abatis, and which till wanted might be reared 
on its end in the situation required, the means of bringing a close firo 
upon it having been previously secured ; (JEBB'S Attack and Defence.) 


BUNK. A word used in the army, a place for bedding. 


BUKKAU of the War Department. During the absence of the 
quartermaster-general, or the chief of any military bureau of the \Viir 
Department, his duties in the bureau, prescribed by law or regulations, 
devolve on the officer of his department empowered by the President to 
perform thmi in his absence; (Act July 4, 1836.) 

BURIAL. The funeral honors paid to deceased officers and sol- 
diers are prescribed by orders from the President contained in the 
Army Regulations. The coffin is furnished by the quartermaster's 
depart iiu'iit. 

BUSHING A GUN is drilling a hole into the piece where the 
vent is usually placed, about one inch in diameter, nnd screwing therein 
a piece of metal which had previously a vent; the metal used in bushing 
is pure copper for brass pieces. 

CADET. A warrant officer ; students at the West Point Military 
Academy are cadets of the Engineer Corps. The number of cadets by 
appointments hereafter to be made shall be limited to the number of 
representatives and delegates in Congress and one for the District of 
Columbia ; and each Congressional District, Territory, and District of 
Columbia shall be entitled to have one cadet at said Academy ; nothing 
in this section shall prevent the appointment of an additional number 
of cadets, not exceeding ten, to be appointed at large, without bring 
confined to a selection by Congressional Districts; (Act March 1, 
1843, Sec. 2). Pay $30 per month. (See ACADEMY.) 

CAISSON. The number of rounds of ammunition carried by each 
caisson and its limber are for G-pounder guns 150 rounds ; 1'J p-mmler 
guns, 96 rounds; 12-pounder howitzers, 117 rounds; 2-l-piunl-r 
howitzer 69 rounds, nnd 32-pounder howitzers 45 rounds. The num- 
ber of caissons with firM-batteries are: with a battery of 12-p-unlrrs. 
8 caissons for guns, and 4 for howitzers ; and with a battery of 6- 
pounders, 4 for guns, and 2 for howitzers. 

CALIBRE. The calibre of bullets is determm* <! by the number 

_'h a pound. The calibre of guns is dcsign:it<-.l by the 

hot; siege and sea-coast howitzers, eolumhiads, mortars 

by the number of inches of tlnir r- .liametrrs. ^ << '..n^ult, 


provide for calling forth th militia to execute tho laws of th. 1'ni.m, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; ((' lt ,,stit,itinn. Art. I 
8, Clowe 15.) By Act of Congress, Feb. 28, 1795, the Pn-sid.-nt is 


authorized to call f rth the militia whenever : 1. " the United States 
shall be invaded or be in his judgment in imminent danger of invasion* 
(from any foreign nation or Indian tribe ;) and to issue his orders for that 
purpose to such officer or officers of militia as he may think proper. 
2. In case of an insurrection in any State against the government 
thereof, on application of the Legislature of such State, or of the Execu- 
tive, (when the Legislature cannot be convened.) 3. Whenever the 
laws of the United States shall be opposed, or the execution thereof 
obstructed in any State, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed 
by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested 
in the marshals ; but whenever it may be necessary, in the judgment 
of the President, to use the military force hereby directed to be called 
forth in case of insurrection or obstruction to the laws, the President 
shall forthwith, by proclamation, command such insurgents to disperse, 
and retire peaceably to their respective abodes within a limited time ;" 
(Act Feb. 28, 1795.) In cases where it is lawful for the President to 
call forth the militia, it shall be lawful for him to employ for the same 
purposes, such part of the land or naval forces of the United States as 
shall be judged necessary, having first observed all the pre-requisites of 
the law in that respect ; (Act March 3, 1807.) (See INVASION ; MARSHAL ; 

CAMEL. The camel is used in the East as a beast of burthen 
from 3 to about 16 years of age, and in hot sandy plains, where water 
and food are scarce, is invaluable. With an army, however, generally 
speaking, it is not so valuable as the mule or horse. The camel under 
a burthen is very slow-going, about half the pace of a mule, or from 
1^ to 2 miles per hour ; he can, however, travel 22 out of the 24 hours, 
and only requires food once a day. His load varies exceedingly in dif- 
ferent countries. In Egypt it is as high as 10 cwt. ; and for the short 
distance from Cairo to Boulac, even 15 cwt. is, it is said, sometimes 
carried. But in Syria it rarely exceeds 500 Ibs., and the heaviest load 
in the engineer equipment for the British army of the Indus is stated to 
be 4 cwt. 48 Ibs., independent of the pack-saddle. About 400 Ibs. is a 
sufficient load on the march. The pack-saddle or pad is secured in its 
place by the hump on the back, a hole being made in the pad to let it 
come through, also by a breast-plate and breeching ; no dependence is 
placed on the girth, which is not kept tight. From the great size of 
the camel, averaging about 7 feet to the top of the hump, and 8 feet 
from his nose to his tail, when standing in a natural position, he is capable 
of carrying light field artillery, and the 12-pounder mountain howitzer, 
which, with its side arms, weighs from 330 to 350 Ibs. The bed or car- 


riage is carried by a second, and the ammunition by a third camel. In 
rocky or slippery ground the camel is apt to slip, and his fore feet then 
|iu-ntly spread out right and left : when this is the case, he split* 
up inside the arms, and dies, or becomes useless. Though patient and 
obedient to his keeper, at whose command he lies down to be loaded, he is 
ir. .juontly very savage with strangers, and his bite is very severe. Tho 
camels introduced into the service of the United States on our Western 
rs, carry from 300 to 600 Ibs. on continuous journeys, depending 
on the kind of camel employed. These weights they will carry from 
18 to 30 miles a day, according to the character of the country. With 
lighter loads they travel a little faster. The saddle dromedary will 
travel 50 miles in 8 or 10 hours ; and on an emergency they make 70 
or 90 miles a day, but only for a day or two, on a level road. Their use 
in the United States is still an experiment. 

CAMOUFLET is a small mine, of about 10 Ibs. of powder, suf- 
ficit-nt to compress the earth all around it, without disturbing the sur- 
face of the ground. It is sometimes formed in the wall or side of an 
enemy's gallery, in order to blow in the earth, and to cut off the retreat 
of the miner. 

CAMP is the temporary place of repose for troops, whether for 
one night or a longer time, and whether in tents, in bivouac, or with 
any such shelter as they may hastily construct, as sheds, bowers, &c. 
Troops are cantoned when distributed at any time among villages, or 
when placed in huts at the end of campaign. Barracks are permanent 
military quarters. Tents (says Napoleon) are not wholesome. It is 
better for the soldier to bivouac, because he can sleep with his feet 
towards the fire, and he may shelter himself from the wind by means 
of sheds, bowers, &c. In woods there is great facility in making warm 
eneaippments, even in the most bitter weather. A young tree, wln-n 
foiled, yields poles to support branches as shields against weather, and 
flooring above the snow or damp. A common arrangement is as fol- 
lows : A cross-bar is support- 
ed by two uprights ; airaiii*t 
this cross bar a number of 
poles are made to lea:. 
the back of the poles abun- 
dance of fir branches are laid 
horizontally; and, lastly, "ii 
the back of the fir brain !. 
another set of lean'mi: ]>'>]PS, in order to make all secure by their weight. 
A cloth of any kind is made to give shelter by an arrangement of this 


kind. The corners of the cloth should be secured by a simple hitch in 
the rope and not by a knot. The former is sufficient for all purposes 
of security, but the latter will jam, and you may have to injure both 
cloth and string to get it 
loose again. It is convenient 
to pin a skewer in the mid- 
dle of the sides of the cloth, 
round the ropes. 

Good water within a con- 
venient distance is essential 
in the selection of a camp, 
as is also the proximity 
of woods for firewood, ma- 
terial for shelter, &c. Good roads, canals, or navigable streams are 
important to furnish the troops with the necessaries of life if troops are 
encamped for long periods. The ground should not be near swamps 
or stagnant water. This requirement is essential to health. The 
ground, to be suitable for defence, must admit the manoeuvres of 
troops. The front of the camp of each battalion of infantry or squadron 
of cavalry must, therefore, be equal to the front of the battalion or 
squadron. And as far as possible camps for cavalry and infantry 
should be established on a single line the cavalry upon the wings, the 
infantry in the centre. The shelters or huts are alligned, a* well 
as the nature of the ground admits, from one extremity of the camp 
to the other, and arranged by companies in streets, perpendicular to the 
front. The general thus has the whole extent of his camp in view, and 
order can be better preserved. When the army is formed upon two 
lines, there are two camps one in front of the other. The reserve 
has also its particular camp. Artillery usually encamps behind the in- 
fantry, and thus forms a little separate camp or camps of its own. 
In establishing a camp, however, no universal rule can be laid down ; 
but it is necessary (says Napoleon) that the genius of the commander 
should, according to circumstances, decide whether an army ought 
to be confined to one single encampment or to form as many as 
it has corps or divisions ; where the vanguard and flanks should be 
posted ; where the cavalry, artillery, and wagons should be placed, and 
whether the army should occupy one or more lines ; what should be 
the distance between the lines ; and whether the cavalry should be in 
reserve behind the infantry, or should be placed on the wings. 

Baron Larrey suggests the following sanitary considerations in relation 
to camps : A camp, especially if permanent, should be selected so as to be 


accessible to the troops by easy marches ; it should occupy a spacious 
plain, in a province exempt from both epidemical and endemical diseases; 
the soil should be dry, but not too hard, so that it may quickly imbibe 
the rain ; because it then becomes fit for military operations a few hours 
after the most violent shower. This prompt absorption, moreover, pre- 
serves the troops from the baneful influence of dampness without ex- 
posing them to the iiu -nvi -uiences of want of water, since in such a soil 
wells may be easily dug and water found at an ineonsi.K Table depth, 
as is the case at Chalons. A good camp should not bo intersected by 
streams or ditches, nor enclosed by large forests. The tents should not 
be too closely packed, in order to insure good ventilation throughout, 
and diminish the probability of epidemics. When a river is too near 
a camp, and its banks are somewhat marshy, the breaking out of inter- 
. er should bo prevented by deepening the bed of the river, 
cleansing it as much as possible of all putrefying vegetable and animal 
substances, raising tho banks and giving them at the same time a greater 
imTmutioM, making channels for carrying off tho water, and establishing 
tents and barracks at a sufficient distance, and as much as possible on 
rising ground. When the supply of water to a camp is derived from 
a river, tho latter ought to bo divided into threo sections: the first and 
upper one to bo exclusively used for drink by the men, the second to 
bo reserved f>r tho horses, and the third and lowermost for washing 
tho linen of the troops. These demarcations should be strictly guarded 
by sentinels stationed at tho proper places. To drive off dampness, 
bivouac-fires ought to be lighted in the evening; each tent, iu r 
should be surrounded with a gutter communicating with a main ditch to 
carry off rain-water; the space occupied by certain corps should also bo 
sanded over, to facilitate tho absorption of humidity by tho soil. In 
I it, hing tents care should be taken to maintain between them a distant . 
of at least two metres ; those of the general officers should bo situated 
in the healthiest quarter. Tents made of white stuff are prejudicial to 
the eyesight in summer, and should be therefore discarded. A tent 
being liable to infection like a room, it ought not to !>< hermetically 
doted, as is the custom with s.,,-i-s, but, on the contrary, w, 11 aired ; 
and the ground ought not only to be scraped and swept, but should also 
be well rammed. Th-- m.n on^ht not .to sleep in the tents with their 

heads near th ntn- and their r-.-f towards tho. cirmmfercner, l.ut in 

theCWrtrary position, elae they breath" a vitiated instead of a |>nn- air. A 
tent, generally calculated for 10 men, ought never fountain in. ire than 
12 or 13 it - 10 cavalry. Of the different kinds of tent> 

the conical Turkish tent is the best; for ambulances the man. 


erable. The tente-cTabri, which is made by joining two camp-sacks to- 
gether by means of a wooden pole, and keeping them stretched by 
small stakes stuck into the ground, is a most precious invention. Four 
men can find shelter under it, and the weight it adds to their kit is 
trifling, but it can only be used in provisional encampments. The 
tents of the cavalry ought to be freed from the encumbrance of saddles 
and accoutrements, which vitiate the air, and should be placed under small 
sheds in front of the tents, or, better still, in the stable-barracks. The 
men should be encouraged to cultivate little patches of ground around 
their tents as gardens ; it is both an amusement and a means of purifying 
the air, only they must not be allowed to manure the soil. As regards 
sleeping, each soldier should fill a camp-sack with straw and lie down 
on it as on a mattress, with his blanket to cover him ; or, better still, he 
should get into the sack filled with straw a much better plan than al- 
lowing the men to sleep together in couples on two sacks spread out o& 
the straw, and with the same blanket to cover them. The ground on 
which the men sleep ought to be swept daily and sanded over, for it 
easily gets infected ; in which case it becomes necessary to shift the tents 
a measure which is often sufficient to stop an epidemic at its outbreak. 
A reserve of planks and trestles ought to be kept in store for extem- 
pore bedsteads when the ground has become too damp ; or water-proof 
canvas may be spread over to protect the straw from humidity. In 
autumn a single blanket is not sufficient, each man should be provided 
with two. 

The guards of camps are : 1. The Camp-guard, which serves to 
keep good order and discipline, prevent desertions and give the alarm ; 
2. Detachments of infantry and cavalry, denominated pickets, in front 
and on the flanks, which intercept reconnoitring parties of the enemy, 
and give timely notice of the approach of an enemy ; and 3. Grand- 
guards, or out-posts, which are large detachments posted in surrounding 
villages, farm-houses or small field-works, from which they can. watch 
the movements of the enemy. They should not be so far from the camp 
as to be beyond succor in case of attack, and not so near as to prevent 
timely notice being given to the main body of the army on the approach 
of an enemy. If the 'camp is to present the same front as the troops in 
order of battle, 400 military paces will be necessary per regiment of 500 
files front. Immediately after arriving on the ground, the number of 
men to be furnished for guards and pickets are detailed ; the posts to 
be occupied by them are designated ; the places of distribution of pro- 
visions are mentioned, and, in general, all arrangements made con- 
cerning the interior and exterior police and service of the camp. 



The tente-cTabri has been introduced in the French service since 
1887, when first used at the camp of Coinpiegne. These tents con- 
sist of a tissue of cotton cloth impregnated with caoutchouc, and 
thus made water-proof. Kvrry man carries a square of this doth, 
\\ith buttons ami button-holes around it, by which it is attached to the 
squares carried by his comrades, and an excellent shelter for six 
rs is made as follows: Three tent-sticks are fixed into the 
ground, whose tope are notched; a light con! is then passed round 
their tops, and fastened into the ground with a peg at each end ; 
(Fig. 88.) Two sheets, A and B, are buttoned together and thrown 
over the cord, ami then two other sheets, C and D ; and C is buttoned 
to A, and D to B. Lastly, another sheet is thrown over each of the, 
slanting cords the one buttoned to A and B, and the other to Cund I ) ; 
(Fig. 89.) of the tent are of course pegged to the ground. 


There are many modifications in the way of pitehing tl. . For 

want luskets can be used. 

!>aralion8 for a Slonn. Before a storm, dig a ditch as deep as 
YOU can. round the outside of the tent, to turn aside the rain-\\at-r. and 
to drain the ground on which tin- tent is standing even a furrow 
scratched with a than nothing at all. Fasten guy- 

ropes to the spike of the t<-nt-po], ; and be. ear. fid that the tent is not 

ich on tho strain, else the further shrinking of the materials, under 

tin 1 inllueiH f the rain, will certainly tear up the j 'h, banked 

up round the bottom of the tent, will prexent gusts of wind from find- 
ing their way beneath. The accompanying sketch shows a tent pitched 




FIG. 90. 

for a lengthened habitation. It has a deep drain, a seat and table dug 
out, and a fireplace. (Fig. 90.) 

Tent Furniture. A 
portable bedstead, with 
musquito-curtains, is a 
very great luxury, raising 
the sleeper above the damp 
soil, and the attacks of 
most creatures that creep 
on it ; where a few lux- 
uries can be carried, it is 
a very proper article of 
baggage. It is essential 
where white ants are nu- 
merous. Hammocks and 
cots have but few advo- 
cates, as it is rare to find 

places adapted for swinging them ; they are quite out of place in a 
small tent. 

Chairs and Tables. It is advisable to take very low strong and 
roomy camp-stools, with tables to correspond in height, as a chamber is 
much less choked up when the seats are low, or when people sit, as in 
the East, on the ground. The seats should not be more than 1 foot 
high, though as wide and deep as an ordinary footstool ; but without a 
seat, a man can never write, draw, nor calculate as well as if he has 
one. The stool represented in Fig. 91 is a good one ; it has a full- 
sized seat made of leather or canvas, or else of strips of dressed hide. 
For want of a chair, it is convenient to dig a hole or a trench in the 
ground, and to sit on one side of it, with the feet resting on its bottom ; 
the opposite side of the trench serves as a table, for putting things on, 
within easy reach. 

FIG. 91. FIG. 92. 

&o tie clothes, or any thing, up to a smooth tent-pole, a strap with 
hooks in it, to buckle round the pole, is very convenient. The method 
shown in Fig. 92 suffices, if the pole is notched, or jointed, or in any 


way slightly uneven. Bags, <Scc.,' are hung upon the bit of wood that 
is secured to the loose end. The luxuries and elegancies practicable in 
tent life are only limited by the means : ' The articles that 

make the most show are handsome rugs, and skins, and pillows ; can- 
teens of dinner and coffee services, &c. ; and candles, with screens of 
glass, or other arrangements to prevent them from flickering. The art 
of luxurious tenting is bettor understood in JVrski than in any other 
country, even than in India. 

Losing things. Small things are constantly mislaid and trampled 
in the sand : to search for them, the ground should be disturbed as 
little as possible it is a usual plan to score its surface in parallel lines 
with a thin wand. It would be well worth while to make and use a 
small light rake for this purpose. 

Jfats. In making a depot, it is usual to build a house ; often th<> 
men have to pass weeks in inactivity, and they may as well spend them 
in making their quarters comfortable, as in idleness. Whatever huts 
the natives live in are sure, if made with extra care, to bo sullicient l<>r 

Walls. The materials whence the walls of huts may be constructed, 
are very numerous, and there is hardly any place which does not fur- 
nish one or other of them. Those principally in use are as follows : 
Skins, canvas, felt, tarpaulinp, bark, reed mats, reed walls, straw walls, 
wattle-and-dab, log-huts, fascines or fagots, boards, &c., fastened by 
Malay-hitch, brick, sunburnt or baked, turf, stones, gabions, bags or 
mats filled with sand or shingle, snow huts, underground huts, tents 
over holes in earth. 

Roofs. Many of the above list would be perfectly suitable f.-r 
roofs: in addition may be mentioned slating with flat stones, thatch, 
sea-weed, and wood shingles. 

Floors. Cowdung and ashes make a hard, dry, and clean floor, such 
a* is used for a threshing-floor. Ox-blood and line Hay, kneaded to- 
. are excellent ; both these compositions are used in all hot, dry 

Tarpaultnya, made in the sailors' way, are much superior to others 
in softness and durability. As soon as the canvas is sown together, it 
is thoroughly wetted with sea-water; and, while still wet. is dOB 
on one side with tar and grease boiled together about two pan 

-reasc. Boinjr hnnij up till dry. it is turned ; and the. other 
side, being a second time w, 11 wett<xl, is at oUte painted over with the. 
tar and grease just as the first side had be, done, before. The sailors 
say that " the tar dries in as the water dries out." 


Bark. It is an art to strip it quickly the Australians understand 
it well. Two rings are cut round the tree ; the one as high as can be 
reached, the other low down. A vertical slit is then made, and the 
whole piece forced off with axes, &c. In spring the bark comes off 
readiest from the sunny side of the tree. A large sheet of bark is ex- 
ceedingly heavy. It is flattened, as it lies on the ground, by weighting 
it with large stones, and allowing it to dry, partially at least, in that 

Straw Walls of the following kind are very effective, and they have 
the advantage of requiring a minimum of string (or substitute for 
string) in their manufacture. The straw, or herbage of almost any 
description, is simply nipped between two pair of long sticks, which are 
respectively tied together at the two ends, and at a sufficient number 
of intermediate places. The whole is neatly squared and trimmed ; 
(Fig. 93.) A few of these would help in finishing the roof or walls of a 
house. They can be made movable, so as to suit the wind, shade, and 
aspect. Even the hut door can be made on this principle. 

Log-huts. In building log-huts, four poles are planted in the ground 
to correspond to the four corners : against these, logs are piled one 
above another, as in Fig. 94 ; they are so deeply notched where they 

FIG. 94. 

cross one another, that the adjacent sides are firmly dovetailed together. 
When the walls are entirely completed, the doors and windows are 
chopped out, and the spaces between the logs must be well caulked 
with moss, &c., or the log-cabin will be little better than a log-cage. 
It of course requires a great many trees to make a log-hut; for, sup- 
posing the walls to be 8 feet high, and the trees to average 8 inches in 
diameter, it would require 12 trees to build up one side, or 48 to make 
all four walls. 

Malay hitch. I know no better name for the following wonderfully 
simple way of attaching together wisps of straw, rods, laths, reeds, 
planks, poles, or any thing of the kind, into a secure and flexible mat ; 




l .... :,. 

the sails used in the far East are made in this \v:iy. and the movable decks 
are made of bamboos joined together \\ith a similar but rather more 
complicated stitch ; ( 1 i-. 95.) Soldiers might bo trained to a great deal 

of hutting practice in a \vry iuexpen- 
Auy if they were drilled at put- 
ting together huts whose roofs and 
walls were made of planks lashed 
together by this simple hitch, and 
\\ hose supports were short scafl'old- 
ini:- poles planted in deep holes dug 
without spades or any thing but 
tin- hand and a small stick. The 
poles, planks, and cords might be 
used over and over again for an in- 
definite time. Further, bedsteads could bo made in a similar way by 
<ross planks lashed toother, and resting on a framework of 
horizontal poles lashed to uprights planted in the ground. The sol- 
!>odding would not be injured by being used on these bedsteads, 
in the way it would be if laid on the bare gound. Many kinds of 

19 and experiments in hutting could be practised without i-\ 
in this simple way. 

Snow-houses. Few travellers have habitually made snow-houses, 
except Sir J. Franklin's party, and that of Dr. Rae. Great praises are 
bestowed on the comfort of them by all travellers, but skill and prac- 
tice are required in building them. The mode of erection of these. 
dome-shaped buildings is as follows : It is to be understood that the 
hard, compact, underlying snow is necessary for the bottom of the hut ; 
and that the looser textured, upper layer of snow is used to build the 
house. Firat, select and mark out the circular plot on which the hut 
is to be raised. Then, cut out with knives deep slices of siiow. .six 
Inches wide, three feet long, and of a depth equal to that of the la\cr 

:'. ...-:;...-..:!.) \ . i. These elleei mre curved, so as to 

'ilar ring when placed on their edges, and of a si/e to make 
the first row of snow-bricks fr the house. Other slices are cut for the 
Succeeding rOW8 ; and, \\hen the i-,,,.f Ins to 1-.- made, the siio\v-l>ricks 
are Ollt \\ifh the necessary double curvature. A conical ping (ills up 

the centre. Loose snow is then h.-aped over the house, to (ill up 

crevices. Lastly, a doorway is cut out with knives: also a window, 

i is glased with a sheet of the ] .it hand. For the inside 

accominod.itin. there is a pillar or two. to support lamps. 

Underground Hutt are used in all quarters of the globe. The ex- 




FIG. 96. 

perience of the British troops encamped before Sebastopol tells strongly 
in their favor, as habitations during an inclement season. The timely 
adoption of them was the salvation of the British army. They are, 
essentially, nothing else than holes in the ground, roofed over. The 
shape and size of the hole correspond to that of the roof it may be 
possible to procure for it ; its depth is no greater than requisite. If 
the roof have a pitch of 2 feet in the middle, the depth of the hole need 
not exceed 4 feet. In the Crimea, 
the holes were rectangular, and 
roofed like huts ; (Fig. 96.) 
Where there is a steep hill side, 
o, a, an underground hut, b, is 
easily contrived ; because branch- 
es laid over its top have sufficient 
pitch to throw off the rain, with- 
out having recourse to any uprights, &c. Of course the earth is re- 
moved from d, at the doorway. 

Tents pitched over excavations. A hole may be dug deeply beneath 
the tent floor, partly as a store-room, and partly as a living-room when 
the weather is very inclement. This, also, was done before Sebastopol 
in the manner shown in the engraving. 

Thatching. After the framework of the roof has been made, the 
thatcher begins at the bottom, and ties a row of bundles of straw, side 
by side, on to the framework. Then he begins a second row, allowing 
the ends of the bundles composing it to overlap the heads of those in 
the first row. 

Wood Shingles are tile-shaped slices of wood, easily cut from fir- 
trees, and used for roofing on the same principle as tiles or slates. 

Fix hooked sticks, and cow or goat horns, round the walls, as pegs 
to hang things on ; and if you went a luxurious bed, make a framework 
of wood, with strips of raw hide lashed across it from end to end, and 
from side to side ; (Fig. 97.) If you collect bed feathers, recollect that if 

FIG. 97. 

cleanly plucked they require no dressing of any kind, save drying and 
beating. Concrete for floors is made of 80 parts large pebbles, 40 
river sand, 10 lime ; lime is made by burning limestone, chalk, shells, 


or coral, in a simple furnace, and whitewash is lime and water. Hark 
makes a good roof. The substitutes for glass arc waxed or oiled 
paper or cloth, bladder, fish-membranes, talo, and horn. Glass cannot 
be cut with any certainty without a diamond ; but it may be shaped 
and reduced to any siie by gradually chipping, or rather biting. 
at its edges with a key, if the slit between its wards be just 
enough to admit the pane of glass easily. A window, or rather a h..lo 
wall, may be rudely shuttered by a stick run through loops 
made out of wisps of grass. In hot weather tin- windows of the hut 
may be loosely filled with grass, which, when well-watered, makes the 
hut much cooler. A mosquito curtain may bo taken and suspended 
10 bed, or place where you sit. It is very pleasant, in hot, mos- 
quito-plagued countries, to take the glass sash entirely out of the win-, 
dow frame, and replace it with one of gauze. Broad network, if of 
fluffy thread, keeps wasps out. The darker a house is kept, tli 
willing are flies, <fcc., to flock in. If sheep and other cattle be near the 
house, the nuisance of flies, &c., becomes almost intolerable ; (GALTON'S 
Art of Travel.) 

Major II. II. Sibley, 2d Dragoons, has invented a tent in which 
a firo can be made in its centre, and all soldiers sleep with their feet 
to the fire. Major Siblcy's tent is conical, light, easily pitch* 

F|0> ^ on a tripod holding a 

single polo, and will < 'in- 
fo rtably accommodate 
twclvesoldierswith their 
accoutrements. "Where 

means of transportation 

admit of tents being us- d. 
Major Sibley *s will prob- 
ably supersede all others. 
(Fig. 98.) 

A commander offr 
usually sends in adv.. 
to prepare the camp. The 
camping party 
meiit may be the regi- 
mental quartermaster, 
and quartermaster 
gennt,and a corporal and 
two : The camp of a larger detachment is prepared by 

the chief quartermaster or some officer of the general's staff, designated 




by the commander of the troops assisted by the company camping par- 
ties of regiments. W ith camp colors the direction of the front line of the 
camp is marked, and the extent of the front of each corps, the intervals 
between corps, and the beginning, breadth, and direction of streets desig- 
nated. When the encampment is on two lines, let there be 450 paces 
between their respective fronts. Behind intrenchments there ought to 
be about 300 paces between the entrenchments and the front of the 
camp. The posts of the police guard will be designated, and the neces- 
sary works to secure communication between the parts of the camp 
will also be determined. Fig. 99 gives details for the camp of a regi- 
ment of infantry. 

FIG. 99. 

mm mm mm mm 
mm am u -i a ;j 

a e B mo am 


a a a mm 

sTSImV **" QVM* JJ 




Camp of Cavalry. In the cavalry, each company has one file of tents 
the tents opening on the street facing the left of the camp. The horses 
of each company are placed in a single file, facing the opening of the tents, 
and are fastened to pickets planted firmly in the ground, from 3 to 6 
paces from the tents of the troops. The interval between the file of 
tents should be such that, the regiment being broken into columns of 
companies, each company should be on the extension of the line on 


whieh the horses arc to be picketed. The streets separating the 
squadrons are wiK r titan those between the companies by the int. rval 
separating squadrons in lino ; these intervals are kept free from any 
obstruction throughout the camp. The horses of tin- rear rank are 
placed on those of their file-loaders. The horses of the lieu- 

tenants are placed on the right of tlu-ir platoons ; those of the captains 
on th Each horse occupies a space of about 

paces. The number of horses in the company fixes the depth of the 
camp, and th distance between the files of tents ; the forage is placed 
between the tents. The kitchens are 20 poees in front of each file of 
tents. The non-commissioned officers arc in tho tents of the front rank. 
Camp-followers. *, &c., are in tho rear rank. Tho police guard 

in the rear rank, near the centre of tho regiment. The tents of the 
mints are 30 paces in rear of the file of their company ; the tents 
of tho captains 30 paces in rear of the lieutenants. The colonel's tent 
30 paces in rear of tho captains', near tho centre of the regiment ; the 
lieutenant-colonel on his right ; tho adjutant on his left ; tho majors on 
the same line, opposite tho 2d company on the right and left ; the sur- 
geon on the left of the adjutant. Tho field and staff have their horses 
on tho left of their tents, on tho same lino with the company horses ; 
sick horses are placed in ono line on the right or left of tho camp. The 
men who attend them have a separate file of tents ; the forg 
wagons in rear of this file. Tho horses of the train anl of ramp-follow- 
ers are in ono or more files extending to tho rear, behind the rhjit or 
left squadron. Tho advanced post of tho police guard is 200 pa- 
front, opposite tho centre of tho regiment ; the horses in one or two lih-s. 
The sinks for tho men aro 150 paces in front those for officers 100 
in rear of tho camp. 

Camp o/Jr/i/Ary. Tho artillery is encamped near the troops to 
it is attached, so as to bo protected from attack, and to contribute. 
to the defence of the camp. Sentinels for the park are furnished by 
the artillery, and when necessary, by tho other troops. For a battery 
of six pieces the tents are in three files one for each section ; distance 
between tho ranks of tents 15 paces ; tents opening to the front. The 
hones of each section are picketed in one file, 10 paces to the left of 
the file of tents. In the horse artillery, or if the number of hors-s make 
it necessary, tho horses or ;,. s ,,n the H L r| lt and left of the file. 

itchens are 26 paces in front of the front rank of 
The tents of th- oOctfl ar- in the outside files of company tei 
paces in rear of the rear rank the captain on the right, the lieutenants 
on the left. The park is opposite the centre of the camp, 40 paces in 


rear of the officers' tents. The carriages in files 4 paces apart ; dis- 
tance between ranks of carnages sufficient for the horses when 
harnessed to them ; the park guard is 25 paces in rear of the park. 
The sinks for the men 150 paces in front ; for the officers 100 paces in 
rear. The harness is in the tents of the men. (Consult BARDIN; Me- 
morial des Officiers d'Infanterie et de Cavalerie GALTON'S Art of Travel.} 


CAMPAIGN. The period of a year that an army keeps the field 
from the opening of a campaign until the return to quarters or canton- 
ments at the end of the campaign. A series of continuous field opera- 
tions. An ordinary campaign, in respect to recompense for length of 
service, is counted as two years of effective service in the French army. 
In all services excepting our own, additional allowances in campaign are 
made to troops beyond those given at other periods. (See ALLOWANCES.) 

CANISTER for field service, consists of a tin cylinder attached 
to a sabot, and filled with cast-iron shot. For siege and garrison guns 
the bottom is of cast iron, and the cover of sheet iron with a handle 
made of iron wire. (See SABOT.) 


CANTEEN. A small tin caoutchouc or circular wooden vessel, 
used by soldiers on active service to carry liquor, &c. A small trunk or 
chest, containing culinary and other utensils for the use of officers. A kind 
of suttling house, kept in garrisons, &c., for the convenience of the troops. 

CANTONMENTS. Troops are said to be in cantonments when 
detached and quartered in the different towns and villages, lying as near 
as possible to each other. (See CAMP.) 

CAPITAL. The line drawn bisecting the salient angle of a work. 

CAPITULATION. Articles of agreement, by which besieged 
troops surrender at discretion, or with the honors of war. The 
terms granted depend upon circumstances of time, place, &c. Any 
surrender in the open field without fighting was stigmatized fey Napoleon 
as dishonorable, as was also the surrender of a besieged place without 
the advice of a majority of a council of defence, before the enemy had 
been forced to resort to successive siege-works, and had been once re- 
pulsed from an assault through a practicable breach in the body of the 
place, and the besieged were without means to sustain a second assault ; 
or else the besieged were without provisions or munitions of war. 

CAPONNIERE. Passage from the place to an outwork; it is 
either single or double, sometimes bomb-proof and loopholed. (See 


CAPS. Percussion caps fur small arms are formed by a machine 
which cuts a star or blank from the sheet of copper, and transfers it 
to a die iii which the cap is shaped by means of a punch. The powder 
with which eajw are charged consists of fulminate of mercury, n 
with half its weight of salt pi tre. 

CAPTAIN. Rank in the army between major and 1st lieutenant, 
charged with the arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, or other 
warlike stores belonging to the troops or company under his command ; 
(AM, 40.) 


CARBINE. A cavalry weapon intermediate in weight and length 
between rifle and ji*t-l. and usually breech-loading. ( For PISTOL-CAR- 
BIW, tee ARMS.) Carbines for the United States' service have been 
obtained from the following manufactories : Samuel Colt's, Hartford, 
Conn. Colt's Revolving Pistols, Hide-;, and Carbines ; Sharpe's Anns- 
Manufacturing Company, Hartford, Conn., for Sharpe's Carbines and 
lea; Charles Jackson, Providence, R. I., for Burnside's Carbines ; 
and Maynard's Arms Company, Washington, D. C., for Maynard's 
Kifles and Carbines. The breech-loading arms of the foregoing manu- 
factories have lecn tried more or less in service, and favorably 
upon by boards of officers. They are considered good cavalry 
but neither have yet been pronounced tl:e, best by the ordnance depart. 

The distinguishing feature of a breech-loading arm is the method of 
-ing the breech. One of the most serious defects ..f these arm- 
the escape of pis through the joint. This defect has been removed by 
-ing the joint at the moment of discharge by tho action of the gas 
itself. This operation, called packing the joint, is accomplished : 1st. 
By the use of cartridge cases of sheet bra-s, India rubber, or other 
terial ; or, 2d. By the use of a th'n., elastic ring of steel, which ov. 
the joint. By the first method tho case is permanently distended, (but 
may be safely Used for several fire-.) and arrangement is required 
to remove it from tho chamber. In the second method, the ring or gas 
check is a part of the arm ; and its elasticity causes it to return to its 
original form after tho disch.r 

Burntide'i Carbine is an example of the first method ; it has a mov- 
able chamber which opens by turning on a hinge. A brass cart 
case is used which packs the joint and cuts off the escape of the gas. 
The advantages of this arm are: its str.-nth. ater-pro,,f cartri 

lit. and working machi; disadvantages are 

the cost, and difficulty of getting the cartridges. 


Sharpens Carbine has a fixed chamber, and the breech is closed by 
a slide which moves nearly at right angles to the axis of the barrel. 
By boring a recess into the face of the slide, opposite to the chamber, 
and inserting a tightly-fitting ring into it, so that the inner rim is 
pressed against the end of the barrel at the instant of discharge, the 
escape of gas is prevented. 

Maynartfs Carbine has a fixed chambered piece, with the joint 
closed by a metallic cartridge case. ( Consult BENTON.) 

CARCASS. Combustible composition enclosed in globes, formed 
with iron hoops, canvas, and cord, generally of an oblong shape, and 
thrown from mortars or stone mortars ; it is used in bombardments, 
firing shipping, &c. 

CARPENTRY. An assemblage of pieces of timber connected by 
framing or letting them into each other, as are the pieces of a roof, floor, 
centre of a bridge, &c. It is distinguished from joiners' work, by be- 
ing put together without using other tools than the axe, adze, saw, 
and chisel. Troops frequently are obliged to hut themselves, make 
bridges, &c., and some knowledge of rough carpentry is essential in 
roofing and centring. The obvious mode of covering a building is to 
place two sloping rafters upon two walls, meeting in the apex, where we 
will suppose them connected. (Fig. 100.) It is plain that the weight 
of this rafter will tend to thrust the walls from its vertical line. This is 
prevented by tying together the feet of the rafters, by means of another 
beam called a tie beam. Beyond certain lengths or spans, however, it 
is apparent that the tie beam will itself have a tendency to bend or sag 
in the middle, and accordingly it becomes necessary to resort to another 
contrivance called a king post, but more properly a king piece, as it 
performs the office of tying up the tie beam to prevent it from bending. 
If the rafters be so long as to be liable to bend, two pieces called struts 
are introduced, which have their footing against the sides of the king 
post, and act as posts 
to strut up the rafters 
at their weakest point. 
This piece of framing 
thus contrived is called 
a truss. It is obvious 
that, by means of the 
upper joints of the 
struts, we can obtain 
more points of sup- 
port or rather suspension. It is not, however, necessary to truss 


all, but only tin- principal rafters of a building. These principal 
rafters must never be more than MI feet apart, and by the inter 
vention of a purline they are made to bear the smullor rat ins. the 
down on the purlino. These common rafters are 
received by or pitch upon a plate called a pole plate, and the pri 
rafters which pit.-h up<>n the tic beam, are ultimately borne l.y a wall 
\ .-anis in cither roofs or floors are so loni: that they can- 

not be procured in one piece, two pieces to form the required len-jth 
are tcarftd together, l>y indenting them at tlu-ir joints, and bolting them 
together t .g. 101.) 

Fio. 10L 

The following simple manner of putting up balloon frames, that is, 
frames without tenons or mortises, is given in tin; language of a build- 
er in our western country : The best size for a small house is 1C by 32 
feet, divided into three rooms and only one story high, unless roofing is 
very expensive. For such a building six pieces of scantling are n -ijuin <!, 

v 8, or 2i by 10 inches, 1C feet long for sills, and seventeen pieces 
for sleepers, with seventeen pieces of same size, 18 feet long, f..r upper 
floor joists. The studs must be 2 by 4, or 2$ by 5 inches, and 8, 9 or 10 
feet long, as you wish the height of your ceiling. The end studs may 
be longer, so as to run up to tho rafters ; but this is not important, since 
studs maybe spliced anywhere by simply butting the ends to : 
and nailing strips of boards upon each side, or the timbers may lap by- 
each other and bo held in place by a few nails till the siding is nailed 
on. But to begin at the foundation : Lay down two of th 
timbers flatwise upon blocks or stones, if you can get them, and make 

level all around. Nuil on strips where the ends of the sills butt 
together, and hal\.- ..n the end sills and nail them together at the c< 

rs, with a stout nail tord-in upm each side to hold 
all your .side studs of an exact length ami square at 

each end, and net up one- at each corner exactly plumb and fasten them 
with stay-laths on the insid-. Now measure off for your doors and 
windows -n th- sid. s, f the house, and set up studs for them. You are 
now ready to p' plates, which are nothing but strips of inch 

the width of your studs, spliced in length just as dim-ted f-r 
splicing studs. Tho next step is to put up the rest of tho studs, nailing 


through the plate into their tops, and toeing nails through the bot- 
toms into the sills. Hands may now commence at once to nail the 
sheathing-boards upon the sides, while others are putting up the 
joists, which should be 18 feet long and either 2 by 8 or 2 by 10 
inches, according to the strength of the timber. Pine and poplar 
should always be of the larger dimensions. Cut notches one inch 
deep in the lower edge of the joists, so that they will lock on to 
the plate, and project over the sides one foot at each end. Nail up 
through the plate into the joists with stout nails, having just as many 
joists as pairs of rafters, the feet of which are to stand on and be nailed 
to the joists, which project the eaves a foot beyond the sides. This, 
however, may be dispensed with, if short eaves are preferred, or if tim- 
ber cannot be got long enough. The end studs will be nailed both to 
the sill and end sleeper and to the end joists, and to the rafter if long 
enough to reach up, and if not splice them as before directed. Finish 
sheathing the sides and ends before you put on the roof. The siding 
may bo afterward put on at your leisure. Boards three-fourths of an 
inch thick make good sheathing ; and the best plan is to put them on 
without any regard to fitting the edges, and batten all the cracks on 
the inside with waste pieces of boards or shingles. When shingles are 
inexpensive they make a better siding and cheaper than sawed clap- 
boards. You will find it a great saving of labor to lay the upper floor 
before you put on the roof. If you wish to make your house one and 
a half or two stories high, the following is the way the chamber floor 
joists are supported : Take a strip of board one inch thick and five 
inches wide, and let it into the face of the studs on the inside and nail 
it fast and set your joists on this and nail them to the studs, and also 
notch your floor boards in between all the studs and nail fast ; and you 
will find, when done, that no old-fashioned frame with its heavy oak 
timbers and months of mortising, with all its braces, was ever stifle r 
than your " balloon," which two men can frame and raise, and cover and 
lay the floors, and get ready to move into in one week's time. There is 
no difficulty in making a balloon frame-house of any other size desired, 
by putting in the partitions before you put on the upper joists, so as to 
rest them upon the caps in the same way as upon the sides. For a house, 
say thirty-two feet wide, the upper joists would be the same length as 
for a house sixteeen feet, the inner ends resting upon the cap of a centre 
partition, where they would be strongly spliced, as we have directed, by 
nailing strips upon each side. The rafters of such a wide roof should 
be stayed in the middle by strips nailed upon the sides of rafters and 
joists, to prevent sagging ; as it is always to be borne in mind that all 


the timbers of such a building are to be as light as possible ; the strength 
being obtained by nailing all fast together. 

CARRIAGES. A gun carriage is designed to support it- 
when fired, and also to transport cannon from one point t<> a 
Field, mountain, and siege artillery have also limbers, which form \\lu n 
united with the carriage a four-wheeled vehicle. Sea-coast carriages 
are divided into barbette, catemate, and Hank defence carriages, depot id in- 
upon the part of the work in which they are mounted. They ai 
made of wrought iron and found to possess lightness, great strength, ami 
stillness. The sea-coast carriages are made in a similar manner, and one 
carriage can be altered to fit another piece by changing the trunnion- 
plates and transom straps. The carriage consists of two cheeks of thick 
beet-iron, each one of which is strengthened by three flanged iron-plates 
bolted to the cheeks. Along tho bottom of each cheek, an iron shoe is 
fixed with tho end bent upwards. In IV. -nt, this bent end is bolted to the 
flange of the front strengthening plate. In rear tho bent portion is 1 

at top by another bend, which I a point of appli- 

cation fora lever on a wheel, when running to and iVoiu battery. The 
trunnion-plates fit over the top ends of tho strengthening plates, which 
around the bed, and are fastened to the flanges of the latter by 
movable bolts and nuts. Tho cheeks are joined together by transoms 
made of bar-iron. The front of the carriage is mounted on an axle-tree, 
with truck wheels similar to the wooden casemate carriages. Tho ele- 
vating screws are of two kinds: one for low angles of elevation, and the 
second for coluinbiads where great angles of elevation are required. 
The elevating arc is made of brass and attached to the upper edge of 
the right cheek, and may be folded down. It is employed to measure 
the elevation of the piece. ROBERTS & BENTON. (See CHASSIS ; Co- 


CARTE BLANCHE. A blank paper sent to a person, to fill 
up with such condition** as he may think proper to insert. In the 
general acceptation of tho term, it implies an authority to act at dis- 

CAKTKL. \i. igreemenf between t\\o h.-stib- p. a mu- 

tual exchan- sVe WAR.) 

CARTRIDGE. Bullets for small arms are made by 
To prepare the had for the pn-^. i; is cast into cylinders or drawn 
out into wires somewhat leas in diameter than the bull. ;. ( n. 
ran make 3,000 bullets in nn hour. ay aKo be east in mould* 

and afterwards waged in a die to proper siz, and sh 




Table of dimensions for formers for making cartridges with elongated expanding butteU. 
(The dimensions are referred to the plate by means of the letters placed opposite to them.) 

Altered musket. 

New rifle musket 

Pistol carbine. 








> Outer wrapper. 






t Cylinder case. 



3.75 , 



> Cylinder wrapper. 

The diameters of the round sticks on which the powder cases are 
formed should be .69 inch for the old, and .58 inch for the new calibre. 
This will make the exterior diameter of the case somewhat larger than 
the bullet, and will prevent the outer wrapping from binding around its 
base when the cartridge is broken. The outer wrapper should not be 
made of too strong paper : that prescribed in the Ordnance Manual for 
blank cartridges, and designated as No. 3, will answer a better pur- 
pose for these cartridges than that designated as No. 1. The cylinder 
case should be made of stiff rocket paper, No. 4 ; and its wrapper may 
be made of paper No. 1, 2, or 3. Before enveloping the bullets in the 
cartridges, their cylindrical parts should be covered with a melted com- 
position of one part beeswax and three parts tallow. It should be ap- 
plied hot, in which case the superfluous part would run off; care should 
be taken to remove all of the grease from the bottom of the bullet, lest 
by coming in contact with the bottom of the case it penetrate the paper 
and injure the powder. The bullets being thus prepared, and the grease 
allowed to cool, the cartridges are made up as follows, viz. : place the 
rectangular piece of rocket paper, called the cylinder case, on the trape- 
zoidal piece, called the cylinder wrapper, as shown by the broken lines 
of Fig. 102, and roll them tightly round the former stick, allowing a 
portion of the wrapper to project beyond both case and stick. Close 
the end of the case by folding in this projecting part of the wrapper. 
To prevent the powder from sifting through the bottom, paste the folds, 
and press them on to the end of the stick, which is made slightly con- 
cave to give the bottom a form of greater strength and stiffness. After 
the paste is allowed to dry, the former stick is inserted in the case, and 
laid upon the outer wrapper, (the oblique edge from the operative, 
the longer vertical edge t % o wards his left hand,) and snugly rolled up. 


I-;.. HA 

The bullet is then inserted in the open end of the cartridge, the base 
resting on the cylinder case, the paper neatly choked around the point 

of the- bullet, and 
fastened by two 
half hitches of car- 
tridge thread. The 
former stick is thru 
withdrawn, the 
powder is poured 
into the case, and 
i!i- mouth of 
the cartridge is 
"pinched "or fold- 
ed jn the usual 
way. To use this 
cartridge, tear the 
fold and pour out 
the powder ; thru 
seize the bullet end 
firmly between the 
thumb and fore fin- 
ger of the right 
hand and strike the cylinder a smart blow across tin- mu/./le of the 
piece ; this breaks the cartridge and exposes the bottom of tin- bullet ; a 
pressure of the thumb and forefingers forces tin- bullet into the 
bore clear of all cartridge paper. In striking the cartridge the cylinder 
should be held square across, or at right angles to 
the muzzle; otherwise, a blow given in an oblique 
direction would only bend the cartridge without rup- 
turing it. Cartridges constructed on these jrin-i- 
ples pre SOl a neat and convenient form for earning 
the powder and bullet attached to cadi other, and 
they obviate, two important defects of the elongated 
bullet cartridges in common use, \i/. : the n 
position of the bullet in the cartridge, and the use 
of tho paper wrapper as a patch. (Fig. 103.) 

Cartridge-bags for field-pi' ^-ex should be made of 

wild-bore, merino or bofobawtte, composed entirely 

of wool, free from any mixture of thread or 
which would be apt to retain fire in thn piece. The 
texture and sewing should be close enough t> prc- 

n* MA 


vent the powder sifting through. Untwilled stuff is to be preferred. 
Flannel may be used when other materials cannot be obtained. The 
bag is of two rectangular pieces, which forms the cylinder, and a circular 
piece for the bottom. As the stuff does not stretch in the direction of 
its length, the long side of the rectangle should be taken in that direc- 
tion, otherwise the cartridge might become too large for convenient use. 

^Blank-cartridge Bags, or those intended for immediate use, may be 
made of two rectangular pieces with semicircular ends sewed together. 
The pieces are marked out with stamps made of one-inch board with a 
handle in the middle of one side, and on the other two projecting rims 
of copper or tin, parallel to each other and half an inch apart. 

Siege and Garrison Cartridges consist of the charge of powder in a 
bag, and the projectile always separate from the cartridge. 

The Cartridge-bags are usually made of woollen stuff. They are 
made of two pieces, in the form of a rectangle with semicircular end, 
which are marked out with stamps and sewed together as described for 
making blank-cartridge bags for the field service, and are filled, pre- 
served, and packed in the same way. 

Paper Bags. Bags for heavy ordnance may be made entirely of 
paper. The bottom is circular, and one end of the cylindrical part is 
cut into slips about one inch long, which are pasted over the paper bot- 
tom on a cylindrical former. When a paper bag is filled, the open end 
is folded down about three-fourths of an inch wide, and this fold is rolled 
on itself down to the powder, and the part which projects beyond the 
cylinder is turned in on the top of it. The bags are apt to leave 
paper burning in the gun, for which reason those made of woollen stuff 
are preferable. Bags are sometimes made of both paper and woollen 
stuff, by forming the cylindrical part of paper, and sewing to it a bot- 
tom of woollen stuff made of two semicircular pieces. 

CARTS AND KITCHEN CART. A system of army transporta- 
tion proposed by Colonel Cavalli. (See AMBULANCE ; WAGON.) 

CASCABLE is the part of the gun in rear of the base ring ; it is 
composed generally of the following parts : the knob, the neck, thej&feit, 
and the base of the breech. 

CASEMATE. Vaulted chamber with embrasures for guns. It is 
necessary that they should be bomb-proof and distributed along the faces 
and flanks of the bastion, to serve as quarters and hospital to the gar- 
rison in war ; but such subterranean barracks are always unwholesome. 

CASE SHOT are small balls enclosed in a case or envelope, 
which, when broken by the shock of the discharge in the piece, or by a 
charge of powder within the case, exploding during the flight of the case, 


acatten the balls. The kinds of case shot in use are GRAPE, CANISTER, 

CASHIERED. When an officer is sentenced by a court-martial, 
to be dismissed the service, he is said to be cashiered. 

CASTING AWAY Arms and Ammunition. Punishable with 
death or other punishment, according to the nature of the offence, by 
the sentence of a general court-martial ; (ART. &J.) 

CASTRAMETATION. The art of em -ampment. (See CAMP.) 

CA^l' A LTIKS. A word comprehending all mm who die, 1 
or are discharged. 

CAVALIER is a term applied to a work of more than ordinary 
height. It is sometimes constructed upon the tcrre-plein of the bastion, 
with faces and flanks parallel to those of the bust ion which it commands. 
Cavaliers are not confined to bastions, but arc placed whercv. .- a 
command of fire is required, and are sometimes traced straight, on other 
occasions curved. 

CAVALRY. There arc two regiments of dragoons, one of mount- 
ed riflemen, and two styled cavalry in our army. It has been recom- 
mended that these regiments should all bo called regiments of cavalry. 
(Ste ARMY for their organization.) Cavalry is usually divided into 
heavy and light cavalry. Heavy cavalry acts in heavy masses. Its 
essential condition is united ranks. It finds its true type in the mailed 
chivalry of the middle ages, but it is believed that the general introduc- 
tion into service of rifled muskets \\ill render heavy cavalry ent in ly 
useless in war. Formerly cavalry could move against infantry in 
columns of squadrons first at a trot, then at a gallop, and finally at full 
peed from a position taken up within 400 yards of infantry. Hut now 
that the cavalry comes within range of the rifle at 1,000 yards, the in- 
fantry must be greatly demorali/e-l before cavalry ran have the least 
chance of success in a charge. Accordingly at the camp of Chalons, 
where all arms of the service were supposed to bo repr. scute. 1, heavy 
cavalry were not seen. Light cavalry on the e':t!.n\ is intended 
rather to envelop an enemy. Quickness and agility arc its primary 
conditions. Indefatigable and can less of repose it ought to occupy an 
enemy during entire hours, harass an-1 fatigue him. If h lays himself 
open pierce him with the quickness of lightning, and rut him t- 
with th.- sal.r. . Tim cavalry soldier must consider his horse as pan of 

If. and the porti-ct management of the horso cannot ! I 
eith.-r in seh.M-U. or in a few weeks of practice. If daily exercises are 
dispensed \\ horse and man return to their natural state, and 

sueh m. -untod men cease to be efficient. The main body in all campaigns 


against Indians should be infantry. But a small mounted force, kept in 
high condition, would add much to the efficiency of such a main body. 
The horses should be well fed ; and upon long marches in uninhabited 
districts this is impossible. The idea of employing such a force as a 
main body, in order to make rapid marches, is also untenable ; for upon 
long marches -of many days, infantry* will improve every day, accom- 
plish a greater distance in many successive days, and have at the oppor- 
tune moment greater vigor than a large cavalry force, necessarily with 
broken-down horses from want of food ; whereas a small cavalry force 
might be held in hand and maintained in the highest state of efficiency. 
Cavalry is indispensable in time of war. It will always take a leading 
part in pursuing a retreating enemy ; it is the proper arm in ordinary 
reconnoissances ; it will always serve as eclaireurs, and as escorts, and 
should, in the present state of the art of war, carry carbines and be pre- 
pared for service on foot. It is weakened and destroyed when in a 
country without forage. " Its first cost, its constant maintenance, the 
defects of its employment, and the system of providing horses make it 
expensive ; but it ought nevertheless to be maintained in a complete 
state, for its art can only be exercised by rnen and horses that are 
properly instructed. 

Cavalry Tactics. The individual instruction of men and horses 
should be regarded as the most important point of the whole system, 
and should be as simple as possible ; the man should be taught to man- 
age his horse with ease and address over all kinds of ground and at all 
gaits, to swim rivers, to go through certain gymnastic exercises such 
as vaulting, cutting heads, to fence, to fire very frequently at a mark, and 
to handle his weapon with accuracy and effect at all gaits, and in all situ- 
ations. Individual instruction has been recently made a supplementary 
instruction in France. Every thing in reference to heavy cavalry, lan- 
cers, hussars, &c., should be omitted. Insist upon the sabre being kept 
sharp in the field, provide the men with means of doing so, and lay it down 
as a rule that the strength of cavalry is in the " spurs and sabre." The in- 
struction on foot should be carried no further than its true object requires 
that is, to bring the men under discipline, improve their carriage, and 
enable them to comprehend the movements they are to execute mounted. 
The formation for review, parade, inspection, &c., to bo : the companies 
deployed in one line, with intervals of 12 paces, or else in a line of col- 
umns of companies by platoons, according to the ground. It should be 
laid down as a fixed rule that no cavalry force should ever charge with- 
out leaving a reserve behind it, and that against civilized antagonists the 
compact charge in line should be used in preference to that as foragers. 


Columns to be formed with wheeling distance, and closed in mass; 
wh.-n closed in ma>s the file-closers close up to 1 pace from the rank, and 
th<- distance between the subdivisions to be just enough to permit each 
company to wheel by fours. Marching columns to be by file. t\\s, 
fours, or platoons; by fours and platoons in preference when tin- ground 
permits. Columns of man<eu\rc to ! \>\ f. -u is, platoons, companies, 
or in double column ; the latter always a regimental column, and to be 
formed on the two central companies, or platoons, without closing the 
interval between them. Deployments to be made habitually at a gal- 
lop, and the individual oblique to be used as much as possible. The 
Instruction in two lines to be provided for. The Russian tactics give a 
good basis for the system of skirmishers, and charging as foragers. 
For the use of the mounted rifles, and cavalry acting as such, a thoruu r h 
ystcm for dismounting rapidly, and fighting on foot, has alreail , 
submitted by Captain Maury, and adopted. (Consult McCtELLAx.) 

CENTRE OF THE BASTION is the intersection made by the 
two dcmi-gorges. 


CHAIN-BALL. It has been proposed to attach a light body by 
means of a chain to the rear of an oblong projectile, when tin-own under 
high angles with a moderate velocity, so as to cause it to move with its 
point foremost. 

CHAIN-SHOT consist of two hemispheres, or two spheres con- 
nected together by a chain. The motion <>f rotation of these proje. -tiles 
in flight would render them useful in cutting the masts and riggings of 
vessels, if their flight was not so inaccurate. When the mode of connec- 
tion is a bar of iron instead of a chain, they .iro called P>ar-shot. 

CHALLENGE. No officer or soldier shdl send a challenge to 
another officer or soldier to fight a duel, or uceejt a challenge if sent, 
upon pain if a commissioned officer of bein-j cashiered ; if a non-eom- 
>ned officer or soldier, of suffering corporeal punishment at the 
of a court-martial; (Aux. 25.) If any oommiafiofl d OT 
non-com missioned officer commanding a iruard shall knowingly or wil- 
lingly suffer any penoo frhataoerer to rr,, j;, rt h to fi^ht a dn.-l. he shall 
l.c punished as a challenger; and all seconds, promoters. and carriers 
<rder to duels, shall l.c demx-d principals, and le pun- 
'v. And it shall be the duty . officer conmiand- 

ing an army, regiment, company, post or detachment, who is knowing to 
T accepted, by any officer, Mn4ommittione4 
..r soldi. T nji.ler his command, or has reason to believe th. sani.- 
to be the case, immediately to arrest and bring to trial such offenders ; 


(ART. 26.) Any officer or soldier who shall upbraid another for refus- 
ing a challenge shall himself be punished as a challenger ; and all officers 
and soldiers are hereby discharged from any disgrace, or opinion of dis- 
advantage, which might arise from their having refused to accept chal- 
lenges, as they will only have acted in obedience to the laws, and done 
their duty as good soldiers, who subject themselves to discipline ; 
(ART. 28.) 

shall be challenged by a prisoner, he must state his cause of challenge, 
of which the court shall, after due deliberation, determine the relevancy 
or validity, and decide accordingly ; and no challenge to more than one 
member at a time shall be received by the court; (ART. 71.) Chal- 
lenges of members are made in writing. The member withdraws and 
the court is cleared for deliberation. If the challenge is disallowed the 
member resumes his seat. Blackstone says : A principal challenge is 
where the cause assigned carries prima facie evidence of malice or 
favor ; as that a juror is of kin to either party within the 9th degree ; 
that he has been arbitrator on either side ; that he has formerly been a 
juror in the same cause ; that he is the party's muster, servant, &c.. 
These grounds of challenge, if true, cannot be overruled. Challenges to 
the favor are, where the party hath no principal challenge, but objects 
only on probable circumstances of suspicion, as acquaintance and the 
like ; the validity of which is left to the triers ; (Houon.) 

CHALLENGE OF A SENTINEL. Who goes there 1 

CHAMADE is a signal made for parley bj; beat of drum. 

CHAMBER OF A MINE is a cell of a cubical form, made to re- 
ceive the powder. 

CHAMBER of howitzers, columbiads, and rnortars, is the smallest 
part of the bore, and contains the charge of powder. In the howitzers 
and columbiads the chamber is cylindrical, and is united with a large 
cylinder of the bore by a conical surface ; the angles of intersection of 
this conical surface with the cylinders of the bore and chamber, are 
rounded (in profile) by arcs of circles. In the 8-inch siege howitzer, 
the chamber is united with the cylinder of the bore by a spherical surface, 
in order that the shell may, when necessary, be inserted without a sabot. 

CHAPLAIN. Punished by a court-martial for undue absence ; 
(ART. 4.) One allowed to Military Academy who shall be professor of 
geography, history, and ethics with pay of professor of mathematics. 
Chaplains allowed to military posts, not exceeding twenty, are selected 
by the council of administration of the post, and are also to be school- 
masters, with $70 per month, 4 rations per day, and quarters and fuel ; 
(Acts July 5, 1838 ; and Feb. 21, 1857.) 


CHARACTKH. Whore a witness is introduced by a prison 
prove character, the court may ask how long he has known the prisoner, 
and whether he has known him from that time to the present without 
interruption, and whether he speaks from his own knowledge or from 
general report. Croft-examination by the prosecutor, of \\iti-esses in- 
troduced by the prisoner to prove character, is not allowed. (Consult 
PHILLIPS' Law of Evidence.) 

CHARGE. Cavalry charges hnvo been sometimes made silently. 
Those of Frederick the Great always began the HURRAH at fifty paces 
from the enemy. If at the moment of the shock tin- infantry is nut 
disturbed, but their bayonets and fire have on the contrary saved them 
from the impulsive force of the charge, the fall of the front ranks of the 
cavalry will have interposed a rampart behind which infantry < 
fail t> bo victorious. But if the cavalry has practised the stratagem 
of beginning operations by drawing the fire of infantry upon skirmislu T-, 
and the commander of the cavalry ready for the charge has pushed for- 
ward curtains of light cavalry in a single rank, who succeed, by means 
of clouds of dust, in making an unskilful infantry believe that to be an 
. \vlm-h in reality is only a feint, the infantry may fire its balls at 
random the thinness of the curtain of light cavalry will render the in- 
fantry's fire of little effect the infantry will be eager to reload, and this 
may be done in agitation and disorder. The proper moment is then at 
hand, and the heavy cavalry in mass, concealed by the dust of their 
skirmishers, may charge, break, and sabre the infantry. The light 
ry finish the. fugitives. The pas-a_ r - "f <1 fil.-s in retreat ought to )> se- 
cured by a charge of cavalry. Coolne-s, silence, immobility . c.,ntem j>t of 
hurrahs, and a reserved fire until within suitable range, arc the principal 
means of resisting a charge of cavalry. The file-closers mnM pren nt 
n..t ordered ; watch the execution of the fire by ranks; see that 
it docs not commence at too great a distance, then enjoin ujvm the 
soldiers to aim at the breast; to act only upon signals of the drum, or 
at the command of officers on horseback, who occupy the rent re of ihe 
square, and who from that height alone ran jn-l.L'e whether the charge 
of cavalry is a mere feint or a real attack. This necessary impassi- 
bility of infantry in obtained by discipline an 1 experience. and is only 
perfected upon battli-fn-hK. Without sang froid, and also promptness 
in manoeuvring upon any ground, infantry will not be able to 
thb whole strength of ite arm against the best cavalry. Charges by in- 
fantry are made in order of battle, in column of attack, and in close 
columns in mass. Ch.irir. H in order of battle are executed as follows : If 
the combat is between infantry and infantry, the troops receiving the 


charge, fire at the moment at which it is almost joined with the enemy. 
The troops making the charge, fire at one hundred or one hundred and 
twenty paces from the enemy ; without waiting to reload, they march 
forward at the quick step ; at two-thirds the distance take charging step, 
and if the ground permits they subsequently take a running step, keep- 
ing up the touch of the elbow, and throw themselves upon the enemy 
with HURRAHS. Frederick the Great says that it is " better for a line 
to falter in a charge than to lose the touch of the elbow," so necessary 
is it that the charge should be en muraille. 

In modern wars the charge in column has been used but not exclu- 
sively, and sometimes with fatal results. But whatever may be the 
form of the charge, success must not make the victor at once pursue 
his enemy. He must, on the contrary, halt, rally his men, form line 
if the charge was made in column, reload, fire upon the fugitives, and 
continue thus to gain ground, by a regulated fire, until at last the cav- 
alry which seconds him comes to his aid. It must be considered that 
there may be a second line of the enemy, fresh troops, masked bat- 
teries, flank fires, or squadrons of cavalry ready to oppose an unfore- 
seen resistance. It may be, that the attacking party has experienced 
some disadvantage, not far from the point where the infantry has just 
triumphed in the charge. Such circumstances may cause the infantry 
to pay dearly for its temporary success, a temporary success sometimes 
owing to stratagem on the part of the enemy. These precepts are 
given by the best writers on charges of infantry. ( Consult DECKER ; 
BARDIN, &c., &c.) * 

CHARGER. The horse rode by an officer in the field or in 

ments tried by courts-martial. (See COURT-MARTIAL ; EVIDENCE.) As 
to the perspicuity and precision of charges : If the description of the 
offence is sufficiently clear to inform the accused of the military offence 
for which he is to be tried, and to enable him to prepare his defence, it 
is sufficient; (Opinions of Attorney-general, p. 189.) 

A copy of charges, as well as a list of witnesses for the prosecution, 
should be given to the prisoner in all cases as soon as possible. Ante- 
cedent to arraignment, charges may be framed and altered by the party 
who brings forward the prosecution, or by the officer ordering the court, 
both in regard to substance and in other respects ; but the court, where 
the deviation was material, would probably deehi it sufficient cause for 
delaying proceedings upon application of the prisoner. As the wit- 


of an officer may be at a distance, the sooner a copy is given the 
! I "i oil's Law Authorities.) 

CHASE. The conical part of a piece of ordnance in front of the 

CHASSIS. A traversing carriage. The barbette and cas. 
carriages consist of gun carriages and chassis. The \v rough t-iron chassis 
now made consists of \\\ rals of wrought iron, the cross-section of 
each being in form of a T, the flat surface on t..p being for the 
tion of the shoe-rail of the gun carriage. The rails are parallel to each 
other, and connected by iron transoms and braces. The chassis is sup- 
ported on traverse wheels. A prop is placed under the middle transom 
of the chassis to provide against sagging. The pintle is the lixed centre 
around which the chassis traverses. In the ordinary barbette, the pintle 
is placed under the centre of the front transom ; but in the columbiad car- 
riage, it is placed under the centre of the middle transom. (See COLUMBIAD.) 

CHEMIN DBS RONDES is a bcrme from four to t \\vl\- 
broad, at the foot of the exterior slope of the parapet. It is .sometimes 
protected by a quickset hedge, but in more modern works by a low 
wall, built on the top of the revetment, over which the defenders can 
lire, and throw hand grenades into the diteh. 

CHESSES arc the platforms which form the flooring of military 
bridges. They consist of two or more planks, ledged together at the. 
edges, by dowels or pegs. 

CHEVAUX-DE-FIUSE. The principal uses of chevaux-d, 
are to obstruct a passage, stop a breach, or form an impediment to 
cavalry. Those of the modern pattern are made of iron, whose barn 1 
is six feet, in length, and four inches in diameter, ca-h carrying twelve 
spears, five feet nine inches long, the whole weighing sixty -live pounds. 

CIRCUMVALLATION. Works made by besiegers IT* 
besieged place facing outwards, to protect their camp from enterprises 

CITADEL. A ei'adel is a small strong fort, constructed cither 

Within the jdaee. or on the HIM -.t inaeeevsilile part of its jj'-neral outline, 

if ; it N intended as a r.-lVje for the garrison, in which 

'lie place has fallen. 


CLERKS. ^- r suitable non-commissioned ofliecrs or pri- 

vates cannot be procured from the line of the army, pa\ n 


the approbation of the Secretary of War, may employ citizens to per- 
form the duties of clerks at $700 per year ; (Acts July 5, 1838 ; 
and Aug. 12, 1848.) One ration per day allowed when on duty at 
their station; (Act Aug. 31, 1852.) 

CLOTHING. The President of the United States is authorized to 
prescribe the kind and quality of clothing to be issued annually to the 
troops of the United States. The manner of issuing and accounting for 
clothing shall be established by general regulations of the War De- 
partment. But whenever more than the authorized quantity is re- 
quired, the value of the extra articles shall be deducted from the sol- 
diers' pay ; and, in like manner, the soldiers shall receive pay according 
to the annual estimated value for such authorized articles of uniform as 
shall not have been issued to them in each year. And when a soldier 
is discharged, it is the duty of the paymaster-general to pay him for 
clothing not drawn; (Act April 24, 1816.) The quartermaster's 
department distributes to the army the clothing, camp and garrison 
equipage required for the use of the troops. Every commander of a 
company, detachment, or recruiting station, or other officer receiving 
clothing, &c., renders quarterly returns of clothing, according to pre- 
scribed forms to the quartermaster-general. All officers charged with 
the issue of clothing to majce good any loss or damage, unless they can 
show to the satisfaction of the Secretary of War, by one or more depo- 
sitions, that the deficiency was occasioned by unavoidable accident, or 
was lost in actual service, without any fault on their part ; or, in case of 
damage, that it did not result from neglect; (Act May 18, 1826.) 
Purchasing clothing from a soldier prohibited under penalty of three 
hundred dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding one year ; (Act 
March 16, 1802, and Jan. 11, 1812.) 

The French system of making up clothing is as follows : Officers com- 
manding regiments make their requisitions for the regulated quantities 
of cloth and other materials necessary for the clothing of the number 
of men under their command. The intendant having checked this de- 
mand gives an order for the issue, and the materials are made up by 
soldiers in the regimental workshops under the direction of the clothing 
captain, an officer holding an appointment in some respects analogous 
to that of our quartermasters; a fixed rate being paid for each article. 
Organized as the European armies are, those troops have always a large 
proportion of skilled workmen undergoing their term of military ser- 
vice ; but it is not so with us. Still there are many points in the 
European system of clothing the troops which might, with advantage to 
the soldier and with economy to the public, be adapted to the wants of 

our service. 




STATEMENT of tkt fott of dotting, Camp and Oarruon Equtpaa* for 0* Army of 
tkt Unit**. State*, funUktd by tkt Quartirmaittr't Department, during <A year 
mtneing July 1, 1869, wUk tk* aUowanc* of clotking to tack oldi*r during kit tnlut- 
IIMM/, and AM proportion for tack ytar rttpectiixly. 

may. at thrir option, reccireoiM pair of 

af/tw win ..r i. H 

NOTE. Metallic Kaglea, Castles, Shell and flame. Crossed Babres, Trumpets, Crossed Cannon. 
Numbers, Tulip*, Plate*. Shoulder Scales, Kings, the Cap cord and tassels, an.l th< 
l Artillery, the Beshes, Knapsacks and mrapa/Havreaacks, Canteens, Strap* of nil kin-K an l tho 
will not be issued to the soldiers, but will be borne on the Return as company prp< rty while fit 
will be charged on the Muster Bolls against the person In whose nso they wore when 





Bedsack, single $1 02 

double 1 18 

Mosquito bars 1 13 

Axe 65 

" helve 10 

" sling 70 

Hatchet 29 

" helve 03 

sling 40 

Spade 63 

Pickaxe >6 

" helve. 10 

Camp kettle 50 

Mess pan 18 

Iron pot 1 23 

Garrison flag SO 66 

"halliard 800 

Storm flag 12 85 

Recruiting flag 8 77 

" halliard 20 

Guidon 5 28 

Caim> color 1 2 

National color, Artillery 35 48 

" " Infantry 85 48 

Regimental color, Artillery 42 60 

" Infantry 4T 60 

Standard for Mounted Regiments 20 87 

Trumpet 3 88 

Bugle, with extra mouth-piece 3 12 

Cord and tassels for Trumpets and Bugles 75 

Fife, B 47 

" C 41 

Dnim, complete. Artillery or Infantry. 6 90 

Drum head batter CO 

" snare 19 

sling. 45 

sticks, pairs 23 

" carriage , . . . . 64 

cord 20 

snares, sets 17 

Drum case 

AVall u-iit ^ .'$17' 86 

* " ty 604 

" poles, Mils l ig 

" pins, seU 73 

Sibley tent $32 80 

" poles and tripod 472 

" " sets 48 

" " stove 

Hospital tent $64 13 

" fly 28 50 

" poles, sets 5 60 

" pins, sets 1 


24 v t , 

87 50 
4 OU 

Servant's tent 

" poles, sets.. 
" " pins, sets. . . 

$G 62 
1 10 

94 51 

Tent pin, large size, hospital 

" wall , 

" small size, common 

Regimental book, order 

" general .order. 


" index , 

" descriptive. . . 

Post book, morning report 


" " order 

" " letter... 

$2 25 

2 25 

3 50 

1 75 

2 25 

2 00 
1 15 
1 15 

Company book, clothing $2 50 

descriptive 1 80 

" order 1 70 

" morning report. . 2 0<) 

Record book, for target practi 

8 00 

12 00 

6 30 

8 00 

The tunic of the French infantry soldier lasts three years and a 
half, the shell jacket two years, the great coat three years, and the 
trowsers one year. In the Sardinian and Belgian armies the great coat 
is intended to last eight years. Those governments credit every man 
on his enlistment with about eight dollars as outfit money, which is 
about the annual cost of the clothing of each soldier, and a daily allow- 
ance of 10 centimes is given for repairs. Regimental master-tailors 
are required to make all repairs at a fixed annual contribution from the 
soldiers' pay. This does not often exceed 80 centimes ; and the surplus, 
after the soldier has paid the cost of his clothing, is handed to him at 
the end of the year. By this means the soldier is taught economy, 
but if at any time an article of dress is found to be unfit for use, cap- 
tains of companies may order it to be renewed at the cost of the sol- 
dier. The great durability of the clothing of European armies is 
attributable to the precautions taken to insure good materials from the 
manufacturers by whom the cloth is supplied. Not only is every yard 
of cloth, when delivered into store, subjected to several distinct and 
minute examinations by boards of officers assisted by experts, who weigh 
it, shrink it, and view it inch by inch against a strong light, so that the 


slightest flaw may bo detected ; but they likewise apply chemical tests 
to detect the quality of the dye, and the manufactories are at all times 
open to inspectors, who watch the fabrication at every stage. When 
('..tiling has once been manufactured, it is hardly possible with any 
degree of accuracy to ascertain the quality of the material. 

COEHORN MORTAR. Brass 24-pdr. mortar, weighing 164 Ibs. 

COLONEL. Rank in the army between brigadier-general and 

liellt :.!. 

COLORS. Each regiment of artillery and infantry has two silken 
colors, hut only one is borne or displayed at the same time, and on 
actual sen-ice that is usually the regimental one. 

COLUMBIAD. An American cannon invented by Colonel Bom- 
ford, of very large calibre, used for throwing solid shot or shells, which, 
when mounted in barbette, has a vertical field of fire from 5 d 
sion to 39 elevation, and a horizontal field .f fire of 360. Those of 
the old pattern were chambered, but they are now cn-t without, and 
otherwise greatly improved. The 10-inch weighs 15,400 Ibs., and is 

.ehes long. The 8-inch columbiad is 124 inches long and v. 
9,240 Ibs. Rodman's 15-inch columbiad, represented in Fig. 104, \sas 
cast at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by Knapp, Rudd & Co., under the 
directions of Captain T. J. Rodman, of the Ordnance Corps, who con- 
ceived the design, which ho has Jiappily executed, of casting guns of 
large size hollow, and by means of a current of water introduced into 
the core, which forms the mould of the bore, cooling it from the in- 
terior, and thus making the metal about the bore the hardest and 
densest, and giving the whole thickness of metal subjected to internal 
strain its maximum strength. The gun has the following dimensions : 

Total length 100 inches. 

Length of calibre of bore, .... ].<> " 

Mgth of ellipsoidal chamber, 9 " 

Total length of b .... 1' '.."> " 

\imiim exterior diameter, . . . 48 " 

1 >i stance between rimbases, ... 48 " 

Diameter at muzzle, 2." ' 

Thickness of metal behind the chamber, . 2." 

kness at junction of bore with chamber, . 10J " 
Thickness at muzzle, .... u 

Diameter of shell, 14.0 " 

.jjhtofgmi 40,100 Ibs. 

Weight of shell, 320 " 

Bursting charge, 17 " 




The gun is mounted upon the new iron centre pintle carriage, (Fig 
104,) which with requisite lightness has great strength and stiffness ; and 
to facilitate the pointing from 
5 depression to 39 elevation, 
a slot is cut in the knob of 
the cascable, and a ratchet 
is formed on the base of the 
breech to receive a " pawl " at- 
tached to the elevating screw. 
If the distance be greater than 
the length of a single notch of 
the ratchet, the piece is rap- 
idly moved by a lever which 
passes through an opening in 
the pawl. If the distance is 
less, then the elevating screw 
is used. The piece was fired 
and manoeuvred during the 
trials at Fort Monroe, with 
great facility, being manned 
by 1 sergeant and 6 negroes ; 
the times of loading were 
1' 15" and 1' 3". Time in 
traversing 90 2' 20", and in 
turning back 45 1'. Time 
of loading, including depres- 
sion and elevation, 4' and 
3' 18". 

The mean ranges at 6 ele- 
vation, of ten shots, was 1,936 
yards, and the mean lateral 
deviation 2.2 yards ; 35 Ibs. of .6-inch grain powder being the charge 
and 7" the time of flight. At 10 elevation and 40 Ibs. of powder, 
large grain, the range was 2,700 yards, and time of flight H^.48. 
At 28 35' elevation the range was 5,730 yards ; time of flight 27", 
and the lateral deviation, as observed with a telescope attached to one 
of the trunnions, very slight. (See ARTILLERY ; GUNPOWDER ; ORD- 

COLUMN of attack; in route; close column; column of divi- 
sions ; column at half distance ; open column. (See MANOEUVRES IN 


COMMAND. An officer nmy bo said to command at a separate 
post, when ho is out of tho reach of the orders of the commander-in- 
chief, or of a superior officer, in command in the neighborhood. Ho 
must then issue the necessary orders to the troops under his command, 
!_,' impossible to receive them from a superior officer; (PETER'S 
Digest of Decision* of Federal Courts, vol. 1. p. 17 ( .>.) 

Officers having brevets or commissions of a prior date to those of 
the regiment in which they serve, may take place in courts-martial and 
on detachments, when composed of different corps, according t tin- 
ranks given them in their brevets, or dates of their former commis- 
sions ; but in the regiment, troop, or company, to which such officers 
:, they shall do duty and take rank, both in courts-martial and 
on detachments, which shall be composed only of their own corps, ac- 
cording to the commissions by which they are mustered in said corps ; 
<il.) If, upon marches, guards, or in quarters, different corps 
of the army shall happen to join and do duty together, the officer high- 
est in rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or militia, by com- 
mission there, on duty or in quarters, shall command tho whole, and 
s for what is needful to tho service, unless otherwise specially 
d by the President of tho United States, according to the nature 
of the case ; (AnT. 62.) The great principle that rank, when a^i officer 
is on duty, and military command, are ideas only to be separated by 
positive law, has always been recogni/. <1 in legislation. The 61st 
Article of War, for instance, forbids the exercise of brevet rank with- 
in tho regiment, troop, or company, to which such officers belong. 
The 63d forbids engineers to assume, and declares they are not sub- 
ject to be ordered on any duty beyond tho lino of their immediate pro- 
fession, except by the special order of the President of the United 
States. The acts of Congress giving rank to officers of tho medical 
and pay departments of the army, provide that they shall not, in virtue 
of such rank, le eivjitled to command in the line or other staff" depart- 
ments of the army ; and so, if any other legal restrictions on rank 
they must be found in some positive statute. This necessity is ma.le 
plain by the consideration that military rank means a range of military 
subordination. Higher rank therefore, created by law, cannot be made 
subordinate to lower rank, except by positive law ; or, in other words, 
a junior cannot command a senior, unless tho law shall otherwise de- 
cree. The 61st Article of War declares that officers holding commis- 
sions of a prior date to the regiment in which they serve, shall never- 
theless take rank "both in courts martial and on detachments composed 
only of their own corps, according to the commissions by which they 


are mustered in said corps." The 98th Article declares that militia 
officers, when serving in conjunction with the regular forces, shall take 
rank next after all officers of the like grade in said regular forces, rfot- 
withstanding the commissions of such militia officers may be older than 
the commissions of the officers of the regular forces of the United States.. 
The 27th Article declares that all officers have power to part and quell 
all quarrels, &c., and to order officers into arrest, and whosoever shall 
refuse to obey such officer (though of inferior rank) shall be punished, 
&c. Here are cases in which Congress has decreed that seniors in com- 
mission may be commanded by juniors ; and if any other cases exist, 
they likewise must be found in some positive statute. The 62d Article 
of War is ambiguous, from the use of the words " line of the army ; " 
our legislation having applied those words to contradistinguish regular 
troops from militia, and also, in many cases, the same words are cor- 
relative and contradistinctive of staff of the army. " But," says Presi- 
dent Fillmore, after a careful examination on his part, to determine 
'this question, " I find but one act of Congress in which the words 'line 
of the army ' have been employed to designate the regular army in con- 
tradistinction to the militia, and none in which they have manifestly 
been used as contradistinctive of brevet." Whatever ambiguity, there- 
fore, may exist under the 62d Article, in respect to the right of com- 
mand on the part of officers of staff corps and departments, the article 
does not decree any restriction on brevet rank ; and hence ^he great 
principle that rank on duty confers military command has its full force 
in respect to commissions by brevet, and all other commissions not 
restricted by law. T|ie President, as commander-in-chief under the 
62d Article of War, may relieve any officer from duty with a particular 
command, or he may assign some officer of superior rank to duty with 
a command ; but the laws have not authorized him to place a junior in 
command of a senior, and that power which creates rank, viz., Congress, 
is alone authorized to place restrictions on its meaning. (See ASSIGN- 

The word command, when applied to ground, is synonymous with 
overlook ; and any place thus commanded by heights within range of 
cannon is difficult to defend, if the enemy have been able to seize the 
heights. (See BREVET ; OATH ; OBEDIENCE ; RANK.) 

COMMAND OF FIRE. When a work has a sufficient elevation 
over the work before it, to enable the defensive weapons to act in both 
works at the same time upon an advancing enemy, even to the* foot of 
the glacis, then the inner work is said to have a command of fire over 
the other. 


COMMAND OF OBSERVATION. When the interior w..rk 
has only sufficient elevation to look into or even over tin- work before 
it, but not sufli. re clear of it, then it is said to have only a 

command of observation. 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. The President shall be command r- 

f of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia 

of the several States, when called into the actual service of th.- I 'niu-.l 



COMMANDER OF THE ARMY. That whenever t , 1 
dent shall deem it expedient, he is hereby empowered to appoint, by 
an. I u ith the advice and consent of the Senate, a commander of the 
army which may be raised by virtue of this act, and who, being com- 
missioned as lieutenant-general, may be authorized to command the 
armies of the United States ; (Sec. 5, Act May 28, 1798.) 

COMMISSARY OF SUBSISTENCE. An officer of the sub- 
sistence department. (See SUBSISTENCE.) 

COMMISSION. The President shall commission all officers of 
the United States ; (Sec. 3 Constitution.) Officers of the United States 
army may hold their commissions through rules of appointment pro- 
scribed by Congress under its authority to raise armies anl make, rules 
for their government and regulation, but their eommissions must be 
signed by the President. The words introduced into every officer's 
parchment : " this commission to continue in force during the pleasure 
.lent of the United States for the time being" have been 
inserted without authority of law. There has been no legislation on 
the subject of the form of an officer's commission. The form adopted 
was borrowed originally from British commissions, and was " probably 
the pen work of some clerk, or at the most, the hasty dim-lion of the 
Secretary of War, without reflecting that the chief magistrate in a 
republic is n-.t the fountain of all honor and power," and that Congress 
alone has the power to raise armies, and to make nil. s for their gov- 
ernment and regulation. 

COMPANY. Companies are commanded by captains having 
tinder their orders lieutenants, sergeants, corporals, musicians, and pri- 



with dismission ..,. ra i ,.,,,,rt -martial. What 

tutes the offence is not defined, but it is ]. -ft to the. moral sense of 

CONFINEMENT. Non-commissioned officers and soldiers charged 


with crimes shall be confined until tried by a court-martial, or released 
by proper authority ; (ART. 78.) No officer, or soldier who shall be 
put in arrest, shall continue in confinement more than eight days, or 
uatil such time as a court-martial can be assembled ; (ART. 79.) (See 


CONNIVING AT HIRING OF DUTY. If a non-commissioned 
officer, shall be reduced. If a commissioned officer, punishecT by the 
judgment of a general court-martial ; (ART. 48.) 

CONSCRIPTION. The only means of raising a NATIONAL Army. 
The system of voluntary enlistments will always divide an army into 
two castes officers and soldiers, and the latter will hardly ever be 
found qualified for promotion. The system of conscription is, too, the 
only means of raising large armies. This was made plain during the 
last war with England. Even with the largest bounties in land and 
money, soldiers could not be procured, and the President and Secretary 
of War (Messrs. Madison and Monroe) recommended in strong terms 
a system of conscription. The legislature of New York passed an act 
at the same time, for raising 12,000 troops by conscription. (See 

CONSTITUTION. The following provisions of the constitution 

relate to the land and naval forces : Preamble We, the people of the 

United States, in order to * * provide for the common defence 

* * do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States 

of America. 

ART. I. SEC. 1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vest- 
ed in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

ART. I. SEC. 8. The Congress shall have power : 

Clause 1. * * To pay the debts and provide for the common 
defence and general welfare of the United States ; * * 

Clause 9. * * To define and punish offences against the law of 
nations ; * * 

Clause 10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, 
and make rules concerning captures on land and water ; 

Clause 11. To raise and support armies ; but no appropriation of 
money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

Clause 12. To provide and maintain a navy ; 

Clause 13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the 
land and naval forces ; 

Clause 14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the 
laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 


Clause 15. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the 
militia, and fur governing such part of them as may be employed in tin 
service of the United States, reserving to the States, respo ti\. 1\, the ap- 
pointment of tin- officers, and the authority of training the militia ac- 
cording to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

Clause 10. To exercise exclusive legislation * * over nil 
placet purchased, by consent of the legislature of the Slat- in which tin- 
same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, 
and other needful buildings and 

Clause 17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper 
for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers 
vetted by this constitution in the Government of the United States, or 
in any department or officer thereof. 

SEC. 9. Clause 2. * * The privilege of the writ of habeas 
shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, 
the public safety may require it. * * 

SEC. 10. Clause 2. * * No State shall, without the consent of 
Congress * * keep troops or ships of war in time of peace * * 
or engage in wnr, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger 
aa will not admit of delay. 

ART. II. SEC. 1. Clause 1. The executive power shall l>e vestal in 
a President of the United States of America. * * 

SEC. 2. Clause 1. The President shall be commander-in-ehicf of 
the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of tho s 
States, when called into the actual service of the United States. * * 

SEC. 3. Clause 1. * * He shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed ; and shall commission all officers of tho United 


ART. III. SEC. 3. Clause 1. Treason against the Dnlted States 

shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to th. ir 

enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convict. .1 

is.n, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 

act, or on confession i?i p n court. 

Clause 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment 
of treason ; btit no attainder of treason shall work corruption of Mood, 
OT for \--rjit during the life of the person attaint, -d. 

ART. IV. SEC. 4. Clause 1. The United States shall guarantee to 

Stat.- in this I'nion a republican form of government; and shall 

protect each of th.rn against invasion, and on tho application of the, 

legisla f tho executive, (when the legislature cannot bo con- 

domestic violence. 


Amendments to the Constitution : 1. Congress shall make no law 
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercis* 
thereof; abridging the freedom of speech, of the press ; or the right of 
the people peaceably to assembly, and to petition the Government for 
redress of grievances. 

ART. II. A well-regulated militia being accessary to the security of 
a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be 

ART. III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house, without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, but in a 
manner to be prescribed by law. 

ART. V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment by a grand jury, 
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when 
in actual service, in time of war, or public danger ; nor shall any per- 
son be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life 
or limb ; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness 
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use 
without just compensation. 

The power of making rules for the government and regulation of 
armies, as well as the power of raising armies, having in express 
terms been conferred on Congress, it is manifest that the President as 
commander-in-chief is limited by the constitution to the simple com- 
mand of such armies as Congress may raise, under such rules for their 
government and regulation as Congress may appoint : " The authorities, 
(says Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, No. 23,) essential to the care of 
the common defence are these : To raise armies ; to build and equip 
fleets ; to prescribe rules for the government of both ; to direct their 
operations ; to provide for their support. These powers ought to exist 
without limitation ; because it is impossible to foresee or to define the 
extent and variety of national exigencies, and the correspondent extent 
and variety of the means which may be necessary to satisfy them." 
. . ? Defective as the present (old) Confederation has been proved 
to be, this principle appears to have been fully recognized by the 
framers of it ; although they have not made proper or adequate pro- 
vision for its exercise. Congress have an unlimited discretion to make 
requisitions of men and money ; to govern the army and navy ; to di- 
rect their operations." " The government of the military is that branch 


of the code, (says BARDIN, Dictionnaire de T Armie de Terre,) wh. 
braces the military Hierarchy, or the gradual distribution of i: 
authority." From this principle proceeds the localization of t: 
their disoipliuo, n-inuiMTati.ii lor important services, the repression of 
nil infractions of Uic laws, and every thing in line \\hich the legislature 
m av judge necessary cither by rules of appointment or promotion, 
penalties or rewards, to maintain an enVient and well-disciplined army. 
But, as if to avoid all miseonstnu-ti'-n on this point, the constitution not 
onlv declares that Congress ahull make rules for the government, but 
also for the reyulation ot the army ; and regulation signifies precise 
determination of functions; method, forms and restrictions, not to bo 
departed from. It is evident, tin retore, that the design of the iVamers 
of the constitution, was not to invest the President with powers over 
the army in any degree parallel with powers possessed by the king ot 
Great Britain over the British army, whose prerogative embraces the 
command and government ot all forces raised and maintained by him 
with the consent of parliament, (BLACKSTONE;) but their purpose, on th. 
contrary, was to guard in all possible ways against exeeutive usurpation 
by leaving with Congress the control ot the Federal forces which it 
possessed under the articles of the Confederation, and at the same time 
to strengthen the powers of Congress by giving that body an unre- 
stricted right to raise armies, provided appropriations for their support 
should not extend beyond two years. The command ot the army and 
navy and militia called into service, subject to such rules for their gov- 
ernment and regulation as Congress may m ike, was given by t! 
Btitution to the President; but the power of making rules of goVern- 
uid regulation is in reality that of SUPREME COMMAND, and heii'-e. 
the President, to use the language of the Federalist, in his relation to 
the army and navy, is nothing more than the "\first General tu 
miral of the Confederacy ;" or the first oflicer of the military hierarchy 
with functions assigned by Congress. A curious example of th 
teroporaneous const ru.-t ion of the constitution is found in a letter iV.-m 
Sedgwiek to Hamilton (vol. 0, Hamilton's Works, p. :j<4.) Congr 
raising a j d army in 1798, created the office of command, r 

of the army with the title of Lieutenant-general. A year subse- 
sion was made by law for changing this title to that of 
General. This last provision gave great offence to Mr. Adams, then 
President, who considered it as an evidence of the desire of Conpr 
make " a general over the President" So strangely wa 
with this id. a that h rnmissioned Washington as General, but 

the latter died in his office of Zievlenan^cneral ; the President e\i 


dently thinking that the title of General conveyed a significancy which 
belonged to the President alone, although the commander of the 
army might in his opinion very properly take the title of Lieutenant- 
general, and thus have his subordination to the commander-in-chief of 
the army and navy and militia clearly indicated. It is plain therefore 
no less from the appointment by the constitution of the President as 
commander-in-chief, than from all contemporaneous construction, that 
his functions in respect to the army are those of First General of the 
U. S., and in no degree derived from his powers as first civil magis- 
trate of the Union. The advocates of executive discretion over the 
army must therefore seek for the President's authority in his military 
capacity, restrained as that is by the powers granted to Congress, which 
embrace the raising, support, government, and regulation of armies ; or, 
to use the language of the federalist, No. 23, " there can be no limita- 
tion of that authority, which is to provide for the defence and protection 
of the community, in any matter essential to its efficacy ; that is, in any 
matter essential to the formation, direction, or support of the NATIONAL 
FORCES." After the foregoing investigation of the unrestricted power 
of Congress in respect to the army, save only in the appointment of the 
head of all the national forces, naval and military, it will be plain that 
the 2d Section of the constitution, in giving to the President the nomi- 
nation and appointment, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, of all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are 
not herein otherwise provided for, excludes officers of the army and navy. 
The power of raising armies and making rules for their government and 
regulation, necessarily involves the power of making rules of appoint, 
ment, promotion, reward, and punishment, and is therefore a provision in 
the constitution otherwise providing for the appointment of officers of 
the land and naval forces. So true is this that the principle has been 
acted on from the foundation of the Government. Laws have been 
passed giving to general and other officers the appointment of certain 
inferior officers. In other cases the President has been confined by 
Congress, in his selection for certain offices in the army, to particular 
classes. Again, rules have been made by Congress for the promotion 
of officers, another form of appointment ; and in 1846, an army of volun- 
teers was raised by Congress, the officers of which the acts of Congress 
directed should be appointed according to the laws of the States in 
which the troops were raised, excepting the general officers for those 
troops, who were to be appointed by the President and Senate (Act 
June 26, 1846) a clear recognition that the troops thus raised by 
Congress were United States troops, and not militia. It is certainly 



true that the military legislation of the country has for long years 
yetted a large discretion iir the President in respect to appointments 
and other matters concerning the army; but it may well !>. 
whether fixed rules of appointments and promotion which would pre- 
vent the exercise of favoritism by the executive might not, with the 
greatest advantage to the army and the country, be adopted by Con- 
gress t "Military prejudices (says Gen. Hamilton) are not only in- 
separable from, but they are essential to the military profession. The 
government which desires to have a satisfied and useful army mu>i 
consult them. They cannot be moulded at its pleasure ; it is vain to 
aim at it." These are maxims which should lead Congress to the adop- 
tion of rules of appointment and promotion in the army which would 
prevent all outrages to the just pride of officers of the army. Tho 
organization of every new regiment, where the appointment of tho officers 
has been left to executive discretion, shows that, if the desire has been 
felt in that quarter to cherish or cultivate pride of profession among the 
officers of the army, the feeling has been repressed by other consi. I ra- 
tions. All pride of rank has been so far crushed by this system of 
executive discretion that it is apparent, if Congress cannot provide a 
rule for the government and regulation of tho army, a generous 
rivalry in distinguished services must be superseded by political 
activity. Rules of appointment and promotion limiting the discre- 
tion of the President, and at the same time giving effect to opinions in 
the army, might easily bo devised ; or borrowed from existing rules in 
the French army, which, without ignoring the important principle of 
ify, would at tho same time afford scope anl verm- for rewards 
f >r distinguished services. (See PROMOTION.) No army can l>c 1 
war in the highest vigor and efficiency without rewards for distinguished 
activity, and tho appointment of Totlebcn at tho siege of Sevastopol 
hows how far almost superhuman efforts may be prompted by in\< st- 
ing a commander in the field with the power ..f selecting his immediate 
assistants. Colonels of regiments with us now exercise this authority 
in selecting regimental adjutants and ijnartrrniastrrs. \Yhy should not 
the same trust be reposed in commanding generals of departments, 
brigades, divisions, and armies? And why should not all necessary 
restrictions (such as those in operation in the l-'rmi -h armic ) I" put 
upon the President in making promotions for distinguished MTV'H 
also in ori^- intmonts, in order to secure justice to the am 

l >y promote tho best interests of the country? (Consult / 
Ml; HAMILTON'S Work*; MADISON'S \\'<>rl-x ; Acts of Congress; 
Report of Committee of the Senate; April 2.~>, 1822. See i 


CONTEMPT. Any officer or soldier who shall use contemptuous 
or disrespectful words against the President of the United States, the 
Vice-President, against the Congress of the United States, or against 
the chief magistrate or legislature of any of the United States ia. which 
he may be quartered, shall be punished as a court-martial shall direct. 
Any officer or soldier who shall behave himself with contempt or dis- 
respect towards his commanding officer, shall be punished by the judg- 
ment of a court-martial; (ARTS. 5 and 6.) 

No person whatsoever shall use any menacing words, signs, or ges- 
tures, in presence of a court-martial, or shall cause any riot or disorder, 
or disturb their proceedings, on the penalty of being punished at the 
discretion of the said court-martial ; (ART. 76.) Contempts thus ren- 
dered summarily punishable by courts-martial are of public and self- 
evident kind, not depending on any interpretation of law admitting 
explanation, or requiring further investigation. Courts-martial some- 
times act on this power. At other times individuals so offending are 
placed in arrest, and charges are preferred for trial. A regimental 
court-martial may punish summarily, but are not competent to award 
punishment to commissioned officers. A regimental court-martial in 
such cases would impose arrest. Citizens, not soldiers, would be re- 
moved from court ; ( HOUGH'S Military Law Authorities.) 

CONTRACTS. Supplies for the army, unless in particular' and 
urgent cases the Secretary of War should otherwise direct, shall be 
purchased by contract, to be made by the commissary-general on pub- 
lic notice, to be delivered on inspection in bulk, and at such places as 
shall be stipulated ; which contract shall be made under such regula- 
tions as the Secretary of War may direct ; (Act April 14, 1818, Sec. 
7.) No contract shall hereafter be made by the Secretary of State, or 
of the Treasury, or of the Department of War, or of the Navy, except 
under a law authorizing the same, or under an appropriation adequate 
to its fulfilment; and excepting also contracts for the subsistence and 
clothing of the army and navy, and contracts by the quartermaster's 
department which may be made by the secretaries of those depart- 
ments ; (Act May 1, 1820.) Members of Congress cannot be interest- 
ed in any contract, and a special provision must be inserted in every 
contract that no member of Congress is interested in it. Penalty 
forfeiture of three thousand dollars for making contracts with members 
of Congress ; (Act April 21, 1808.) 

Liability of Contracts. By analogy to the rule which protects an 
officer from the treatment of a trespasser or malefactor, in regard to 
acts done by him in the execution of the orders of his own government, 


a similar immunity is extended to him in respect to contracts which 

ore into for public purposes within the sphere of his authority. 

No private means or resources would otherwise be adequate to the 

responsibilities which, under any other rule, would effectually deter the 
best citizens of a state from rendering their services to the government. 
On high grounds, then-fore, of public policy, it has long been established, 
that no action will lie against any government officer upon contracts 
made by him in his official character for public purposes, and within 
the legitimate scope of his duties. 

"Great inconveniences (says Mr. Justice Ashurst) would result 
from considering a governor or commander as personally responsible 
i:; (tab Oases. !': no man \\-uM accept of any dliec of trust under 
government upon such conditions. And indeed it has been frequently 
determined that no individual is answerable for any engagements which 
he enters into on their behalf." "In any case (says Mr. Jus- 
tice Buller) where a man acts as agent for the public, and treats in 
that capacity, there is no pretence to say that he is personally liable." 
This doctrine applies in full force to military officers in the exercise of 
their professional duties. One of the earliest cases of this nature was 
Macheath v. Hal dim and, in which it appeared that General Ilaldimand, 
being commander-in-ehicf and governor of Quebec, had, in those capaci- 
ties, appointed Captain Sinclair to the command of a fort upon Lake 
Huron, with instructions to employ one Maelienth in furnishing sup- 
plies for the service of the Crown. In pursuance of these orders, Mac- 
li.ul furnished various articles for the use of the fort ; and Captain 
Sinclair, according to his instructions from General Ilaldimand, drew 
bills upon him f<r the amount. Macheath also remitted his accounts 
to General Ilaldimand at Quebec, with the following words prefixed: 
rnment debtor to George- Macheath for sundries paid by order 
i or Sinclair." General Ilaldimand objected to 
several of the charges, and refused payment of the amount; but ulti- 
mately made a partial payment on account, without prejudice to Mac- 
hcath's right to th- remainder. t<> recover \\hidi lie brought the present 
At the trial it appeared so clearly that Macheath had dealt 
with General Ilaldimand solely in the character of commander-in-chief, 
and as an agent -f L"-vernment, that Mr. Justice Buller told the jury 
they were bound to find for the defendant in point, of law. The jury 
pave ii t accordingly ; and upon the express ground of General 

Ilaldiman i's fr l-.m f r- -m p* r-onal liability in such a case, the Court 

of King's Bench Were unanimous in refu-in,r a new trial. 

In a case which was tried before Lord ,V . < .no Savage brought 


an action against Lord North, as First Lord of the Treasury, for the 
expenses which he (Savage) had incurred in raising a regiment for the 
service of government ; and Lord Mansfield held that the action did not 
lie. So in another case of Lutterlop v. Halsey, an action was brought 
against a commissary for the price of forage, supplied to the army by 
the plaintiff, at the request of the defendant, in his official character ; 
and the commissary was held not to be liable. On another occasion, 
a suit was instituted in chancery against General Burgoyne, for a spe- 
cific performance of a contract for the supply of artillery carriages in 
America. But Lord Chancellor Thurlow said there was no color for 
the demand as against General Burgoyne, who acted only as an agent 
for government; and his lordship dismissed the suit with costs. In 
1818 an action was brought against Hall, the late purser of H. M. S. 
La Belle Poule, by the purser's steward of the same ship, to recover 
the amount of pay due to the latter for his services on board. It ap- 
peared that the purser's steward could not be appointed without the 
consent of the commander, and that he was entitled to the pay of an 
able seaman, but usually received pay under a private contract with 
the purser. The chief justice, Lord Ellenborough, at first felt some 
difficulty in the case ; but considering how very extensive the operation 
of the principle might be, if such an action could be supported, and if 
a person, receiving a specific salary from the Crown in respect of his 
situation, could recover remuneration for his services from the officer 
under whose immediate authority he acted, and that the purser had no 
fund allowed him out of which such services were to be paid, his lord- 
ship was of opinion that the plaintiff had no right of action against the 

It is quite immaterial also, whether the officer gives the orders in 
person, or through a subordinate agent appointed by himself. The 
creditor cannot, in the latter case, charge the officer with a personal 
liability. In Myrtle v. Beaver, the plaintiff, a butcher at Brighton, 
brought an action against Major Beaver, the captain of a troop in the 
Hampshire Fencible Cavalry, for the price of meat supplied to the 
troop when quartered at Brighton, in January and February, 1800. 
One Bedford, a sergeant in the troop, had been employed by Major 
Beaver, according to his duty as captain, to provide for the subsistence 
of the men ; and so long as Major Beaver remained with the troop, he 
regularly settled the butcher's bill monthly, up to the 24th January, 
1800. At that datg Major Beaver was detached with a small party to 
command at Arundel, the greater part of the regiment remaining at 
Brighton under the command of the colonel ; and the command of 


Major Beaver's troop, with the duties of providing lor its subsistence, 
ut -naiit Hunt, who continued to employ Sergeant Bed- 
ford in providing supplies for the men, and gave him money for that 
purpose. The plaintiff* furnished meat as before, under Sergeant Bed- 
ford's orders, but it did not appear that he had been apprised of the 
change of the authority, under \\hieh the sergeant gave those orders. 
On the 20th February, and before the usual monthly period of settling 
the butcher's bill, Lieutenant Hunt, who was also paymaster of the 
regiment, absconded with the regimental moneys, and left the plaintiff's 
demand and the regimental accounts unsettled. As Sergeant T>< 
had, in the first in-'ane. -, been accredited by Major Beaver, as his 
for ordering the supplies, the plaintiff Myrtle contended that until ho 
had been informed of the discontinuance of that authority, he had a 
right to presume Its continuance, and to look to Major Beaver for pay- 
ment as before. But the Court of King's Bench held, that although the 
sergeant acted by Major Beaver's orders, he was not to be cons 
as the agent of a private individual, as it was plain that he acted as 
agent for whatever oflieer happened to have the command of the troop. 
There wji, then-f -re. n<> ground for fixing Major Braver with any per- 
sonal liability in the mat 

An agent of government may, however, render himself personally 
liable upon contracts made by himself in the execution <>f liK 
On this principle an action was brought against General Burgoyn. . to 
recover a sum of money duo to the plaintiff as provost-marshal of the 
British army in America; the general having promised that the plain- 
tiff should be paid at the same rate as the provost-marshal und< : 
eral Howe had been. At tho trial, an objection was taken to tho 

y i.f the action ; but Lord Mansfield refused to stop tho ca- 
the plaintiff thereupon went into his evidenee. It appeared, however^ 
in the course of the inquiry, that the plaintiff's demand had been satis- 
and, therefore, tin- verdict was in favor of General Burijoyne. 
But it is < viilent from Lord Mansfield's suffering tho trial to go on, that 
his lordship thought a commanding oflleer mi^ht so act as to make him- 
self personally liable in such a case ; and the question, \vh.-ther he had 
so acted or not, was for tho determination of a jury. In the next case 
it was accordingly sought to fix a naval officer with a personal liability 
for supplies furnished to his crew, on tho ground of the laniruaiio used 
by him n tho oeeaM<n of ordering the supplies. Lieutenant T< tuple 
was first lieutenant of II. M. S. Boync, and on her arrival at, Ports- 
mouth from the West Indies, he inquired for a slop-* !! T t. supply tin- 
crow with new clothes, saying, " lie will run no risk ; I will sco him 


paid." One Keate being accordingly recommended for this purpose, 
Lieutenant Temple called upon him and used these words, " I will see 
you paid at the pay -table ; are you satisfied ? " Keate answered, " Per- 
fectly so." The clothes were delivered on the quarter-deck of the Boyne, 
though the case states that slops are usually sold on the main-deck. 
Lieutenant Temple produced samples to ascertain whether his direc- 
tions were followed. Some of the men said that they were not in want 
of any clothes, but were told by the lieutenant that if they did not take 
them he would punish them ; and others, who stated that they were 
only in want of part of a suit, were obliged to take a whole one, with 
anchor buttons to the jacket, suchtas were then worn by petty officers 
only. The former clothing of the crew was very light, and adapted tc 
the climate of the West Indies, where the Boyne had been last stationed. 
Soon after the delivery of the slops, the Boyne was destroyed by fire, 
and the crew dispersed into different ships. On that occasion Keate, 
the slop-seller, expressed some apprehension for himself, but was thus 
answered by Lieutenant Temple : " Captain Grey (Obtain of the 
Boyne) and I will see you paid ; you need not make yourself uneasy." 
After this the commissioner came on board the Commerce de Marseilles 
to pay the crew of the Boyne, at which time Lieutenant Temple stood 
at the pay-table, and took some money out of the hat of the first man 
who was paid, and gave it to the slop-seller. The next man, however, 
refused to part with his pay, and was immediately put in irons. Lieu- 
tenant Temple then asked the commissioner to stop the pay of the crew, 
but he answered that it could not be done. It was in evidence that 
though the crew were pretty well clothed, yet from the lightness of 
their clothing they were not properly equipped for the service in which 
they were engaged ; and the compulsory purchases were not improperly 
ordered by the officer. Under these circumstances, Keate, the slop- 
seller, being unable to obtain the payment to which he was entitled, 
brought his action against Lieutenant Temple for the price of the cloth- 
ing ; and Mr. Justice Lawrence told the jury that if they were satisfied 
that the goods were advanced on the credit of the lieutenant as imme- 
diately responsible, Keate was entitled to recover the amount ; but if 
they believed that Keate, on supplying the goods, relied merely on the 
lieutenant's assistance to get the money from the crew, the verdict 
ought to be in favor of the lieutenant. The jury found a verdict against 
Lieutenant Temple, but- the Court of Common Pleas set it aside. Eyre, 
C. J. : " The sum recovered is 5761. 7s. 8c?., and this against a lieuten- 
ant in the navy, a sum so large that it goes a great way towards satis- 
fying my mind that it never could have been in contemplation of the 


defendant to make himself liable, or of the slop-teller to furnish the 
good* on kit credit. I can hardly think that had the Boync not been 
burnt, and the plaintiff been asked whether ho would have tin lieutenant 
or the crew for his paymaster, but that ho would have given preference 
to the latter. . . . 1 r<>iu the nature of the case it is apparent, tint tin- 
men were to pay in the first instance; the defendant's words \\ 
will see you paid at the pay -table ; are you sati-!i. .1 > ' and the answer 
was, ' Perfectly so ; ' the meaning of \vhirh was, that however unwilling 
the men might be to pay of themselves, the officer would take care that 
they should pay. ... I think this a proper case to be sent to a new 
trial." The verdict found against lieutenant Temple was accordingly 
set aside. But when- ;m olliet-r, acting in his private capacity an<f for 
his own private purposes, enters into any contract with another oilieer 
or a private individual, the ordinary rules and principles of law apply 
to such cases in the same manner as between civilians. (Consult 


CONVOYS have for their object the transportation of munitions 
of war, money, subsistence, clothing, arms, sick, &c. If convoys to an 
army do not come from the rear, through a country which has been 
mastered, and consequently far from the principal forces of the enemy, 
they will be undoubtedly attacked and broken up, if not earn 
There is no more difficult operation than to defend a largo e 
against a serious attack. Ordinarily, convoys are only exposed to the 
attacks of partisan corps or light troops which, in eonse<pienre of 

licant size, have thrown themselves in rear of the armv. It is to 
guard against such attacks, that escorts are usually given to eoi. 
These escorts are principally infantry, because infantry fights in all 
varieties of ground, and in case of need may be placed in the intervals be- 
tween the wagons, or even inside the wagons, when too warmly pressed. 
Cavalry is, however, also necessary to spy out an enemy at invat ills- 
traces, and give prompt information of his- m-. \.-m--nts. as well as to 
participate in the defence of the convoy against cavalry. An enemy's 
cavalry being able rapidly to pass from the front to the n-ar .f the, 
train. \v,.iil.l easily find some part of it without oVf, -n, -, if the escort 
were composed only of infantry. To give an idea of the ta< ility of > n .-h 
attacks, it may be stated that a wagon drawn by four horses occupies 
ten yards. Two humlrrd wagons marehini; in single, file and closed as 
much as possible form a train more than 2,000 yards in extent. In a 
long lino of wagons, th.-r- f,, r o. it would be impossible for infantry to 
the tiints of cavalry and rrpulse real attacks. 

The escort should then be composed of an advance guanl entirely 


of cavalry preceding the train, some two or three miles, searching the 
route on the right and on the left ; but as it may happen that the enemy, 
eluding the vigilance of the advance guard, have made ambuscades be- 
tween the advance and the head of the column, it is necessary to place 
another body immediately in front of the train, with a small party in 
advance and flankers on the right and left. The longer the train the 
greater the danger of surprise, and consequently the greater the pre- 
cautions to be used. A convoy is almost as much exposed to attack in 
rear as in front ; it is therefore necessary to have, with a rear guard, some 
horsemen, who may be despatched to give information of what passes 
in rear. When the troops constituting the body of the escort are prin- 
cipally composed of infantry, they are divided into three bodies. Work- 
men will march with the advanced party, and the wagons loaded with 
tools of all kinds, rope, small beams, thick plank and every thing neces- 
sary for the repair of bridges and roads, will lead the convoy. The second 
detachment will be placed in the middle of the column of wagons, and 
the third in rear. Care is taken not to disseminate the troops along 
the whole extent of the train. A few men only are detached from the 
three bodies mentioned, to march abreast of the wagons, and to force 
the drivers to keep in their prescribed order, without opening the dis- 
tance between the wagons. If a wagon breaks down on the route its 
load is promptly distributed among other wagons. A signal is made 
if it is necessary for the column to halt, but for slight repairs the train 
is not halted. The wagon leaves the column, is repaired on one side 
of the road, and afterwards takes its place in rear. Soldiers should 
never be permitted to place their knapsacks in the wagons, for a sol- 
dier should never be separated from knapsack or haversack, and the 
wagons would also become too much loaded. Whenever the breadth of 
the road permits, the wagons should be doubled and march in two files. 
The column is thus shortened one half, and if circumstances require it, 
the defensive park is more promptly formed. This is done by wheeling 
the wagons round to the right and left so as to bring the opposite horses' 
heads together and facing each other turning towards the exterior the 
hind wagon wheels. This movement requires ground and time. It 
ought not to be ordered then except when absolutely necessary. It is 
much better to hold the enemy in check, by manoeuvres of the escort 
when that can be done, and let the convoy move on. When the park 
has been formed, however, it constitutes an excellent means of defence, 
under shelter of which infantry can fight with advantage even when 
they have been compelled to take such refuge. A convoy usually halts 
for the night near a village, but it should always pass beyond it, because 


on commencing its march in the morning it is better to have the defile 
I >< hind than before it, in order to avoid ambuscades of the 
Places for parking the wagons are sought where there are hedges or 
walls, as those obstructions offer greater security than an y < >th. is. The 
troops, with the excvption of the park guard, bivouac at a short distance 

the park, in some position which oilers the bost military advan- 
tages. An advance guard and a sufficient number of sentinels for tiie 
and police of the park and bivouac* are then posted. The park is 
ordinarily a hollow square, but locality will dictate its form. It should 
furnish an enclosed space for the horses and drivers, and at the same time 
be an intrrnchmunt in case of attack. The wagons are ranged either 
lengthwise or side by side the rule being that the poles are turned in 
the same direction and towards the place of destination. The wagons 
laid lengthwise may be doubled, so that the intervals of ranks may be 
closed by pushing forward the wagon of another rank. When the space 
for the park is small and the number of wagons great, the wagons arc 
placed upon many lines, and streets sufficiently broad to mi\c the 
horses, &c., are mode parallel to each other. , The important principle 
in defending convoys on the march is, that the escort should not con- 
sider itself tied to wagons, but should repulse the enemy by marching 
to meet him. It is only after the escort has been repulsed, that it 
should fall back on the wagons and use them as an intrcnchment. 
K\ en then a very long resistance may be ill judged if the enemy be 
greatly superior. It is better to abandon a part of the convoy to save 
the rest, or else try to destroy it, by cutting the traces, breaking the 
wheels, overthrowing the wagons, and even setting fire to the most in- 
flammable parts. An attack upon a flank is most dangerous because 
the convoy-then presents a larger mark. The three detachments in this 
case should be united on the side attacked and pushed f< >r\vard sufficiently 

:ipel the enemy to describe a great circle, in order to put himself 
out of reach when he wishes to attack the front or rear of the convoy. 
The best position to take is that of three echelons, the centre in advance. 
The convoy, which has doubled its wagons, continues to move forward, 
regulating its march by the position of the troops which OOVOT it. If the 
at t. 'irk l>e iu front, as soon as the enemy has been announced ly tin- lir*t 
advance guard, which falls back at a gallop for the purpose, the wagons 
are closed or formed in two IHe-i if the road permits ; the centre dctach- 

join.s the first, either in echelon or according to locality, to pre- 
vent a movement upon the flank of the convoy. The third detachment 
should be held i: immediately at the li.-ad of the wagons. If 

however this position bo too near that taken 1-y the first and sccoiid de- 


tachments united, the reserve must then take some position on the flank 
of the convoy. The defence against an attack upon the rear will be 
conducted on the same principles. It may be concluded that, the attack 
of a convoy is an operation in which little is to be lost and much gained ; 
for if the enemy be deficient in numbers or skill, a part of his convoy 
is easily destroyed or brought off. If the attack fail, nothing is to be 
feared upon retiring. The corps which attacks should be half cavalry 
and half infantry. It is clear, that if the attacking party has been con- 
cealed behind a wood, a height, a corn field, &c., and has been able to sur 
prise the front or rear of the convoy, and enveloped it before aid arrives, 
full success will be obtained. But this negligence will not often occur 
on the part of the commander of the escort. If his troops then be in 
good order and united at the moment of the attack, it is necessary to 
divide his attention by directing against him many little columns and 
skirmishers, who seek to open a way to the wagons by killing the horses. 
and thus encumbering the road. The cavalry making a circuit throw 
themselves rapidly upon parts badly protected. If they reach some of 
the wagons they content themselves with driving off the conductors and 
cutting the traces of the wagons because all the wagons in rear are 
thus stopped. If wo are at liberty to choose the time and place of 
attack, it is clear that the best time is when the convoy is passing a 
defile and we can envelop the front or the rear. Success is then cer- 
tain ; the inevitable encumbrance of the defile preventing one part 
of the troops from coming to the aid of another part. When the 
whole or part of a convoy has been seized, the prize must be brought 
to a safe place, before the enemy is in sufficient force to make us 
abandon it.. But sooner than do this, the most precious articles should 
be placed on horses, the wagons should be destroyed, and the horses 
put to their speed. The attacking force should avoid further combat, 
for its object has been accomplished. ( Consult DUFOUR ; BARDIN ; 
Ordonnance sur le Service des Armees en Campagne). 

COOKING. Bread and soup are the great items of a soldier's 
diet : to make them well is, therefore, an essential part of his instruc- 
tion. Scurvy and diarrhoea more frequently result from bad cooking 
than any other cause whatever. Camp ovens may be made in twenty- 
fbur hours. One hundred and ninety-six pounds when in dough hold 
about 1 1 gallons or 90 pounds of water, 2 gallons yeast, and 3 pounds 
salt, making a mass of 305 pounds, which evaporates in kneading, bak- 
ing, and cooling about 40 pounds, leaving in bread weighed when stale 
about 265 pounds. Bread ought not to be burnt, but baked to an equal 
brown color. Tho troops ought not to be allowed to eat soft bread 


fresh from the oven without first toasting it. Fresh meat .ui^ht n.-t to 
be cooked before it lias luul time t bleed und to cool ; ami meats will 
generally be boiled, with soup; and sometimes 

baked. Meat may be kept in h t weather by half boiling it 
posing it for a few minutes to a thick smoke. To make soup, put into 
the vessel at the rato of five pints of water to a pound of tV-li meat; 
apply aqui - make it boil promptly; skim oil* tin- loam, und 

then moderate tho fire ; put in salt according to palate. A. Id the, vege- 
tables of tho season one or two hours, and sliced bread s-.m,- minutes 
before the simmering is i n !.. 1. When tho broth is sensibly reduced in 
quantity, tliat is, after five or six hours' cooking, tho process will 1 > 
pleto. If a part of the meat In- withdrawn before the soup is fully 
made, the. quantity !* water must bo proportionally less. Hard or dry 
vegetables, as tho bean ration, will be put in the camp kettle much ear- 
. >les. The following receipts for army cooking are 
taken from Soycr's Culinary Campaign : 





Put in a convenient-sized caldron 130 pints of cold water, 70 Ibs. of 

r ahut that quantity, lv> Ibs. of plain mixed vegetables, (tho 

best that can be obtained,) 9 Ibs. C <>z. of barley, 1 Ib. 7 oz. of salt, 1 

(lour, 1 Ib. 4 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of peppor. Put all the in- 

i:ts into the pan at once, oxn-pt tho flour; set it <>n the fire, and 

when begimdng tO bofl, diminish the h- 'at, and simmer p-nlly fur t\\. 

.half; take the joints of meat out, ami keep them warm in 

'* pun ; add to the, soup ym- Hour, which y<m ha\e mixed 

witli ciioii^'li \v -in a light batter; stir well to-jrl her with a 

large sj n ; b.-.l another half-hour, skim ofHh,- I . tlie soup 

and meat scpur.i: . Th.- meat, may 1..- put back into the soup f<-i 

tes to warm again prior to s.r\'mi:. Tho sonp should be stirre.l 

now and then \\ ^. t.. pr.-v-nt burning or sticking to tho bot- 

'al.iron. The joints an whole, and aft. r\\ar.U -i:t. 

i leases ; being cooked this way, in a rather thick stock, 

the meat becotn 

JVbfc. 'I a>K)Ut" i to the half and full diet, which 

varies >eat ; but $ Ib. of mutton will always make 


a pint of good soup : 3 Ibs. of mixed preserved vegetables must be 
used when fresh are not to be obtained, and put in one hour and a half 
prior to serving, instead of at first ; they will then show better in the 
soup, and still be well done. All the following receipts may be in- 
creased to large quantities, but by all means closely follow the weight 
and measure. 

No. 2. -BEEF SOUP. Proceed the same as for mutton, only leave 
the meat in till serving, as it will take longer than mutton. The pieces 
are not to be above 4 or 5 Ibs. weight ; and for a change, half rice may 
be introduced ; the addition of 2 Ibs more will make it thicker and 
more nutritive ; ^ Ib. of curry powder will make an excellent change 
also. To vary the same, half a pint of burnt sugar water may be added 
it will give the soup a very rich brown color. 

No. 3 BEEF TEA. RECEIPT FOB six PINTS. Cut 3 Ibs. of beef 
into pieces the size of walnuts, and chop up the bones, if any ; put it 
into a convenient-sized kettle, with Ib. of mixed vegetables, such as 
onions, leeks, celery, turnips, carrots, (or one or two of these, if all are 
not to be obtained,) 1 oz. of salt, a little pepper, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, 
2 oz. of butter, half a pint of water. Set it on a sharp fire for ten 
minutes or a quarter of an hour, stirring now and then with a spoon, 
till it forms a rather thick gravy at bottom, but not brown : then add 
7 pints of hot or cold water, but hot is preferable ; when boiling, let it 
simmer gently for an hour ; skim off all the fat, strain it through a 
sieve, and serve. 

No. 3A. ESSENCE OF BEEF TEA. For camp hospitals." Quarter 
pound tin case of essence." If in winter set it near the fire to melt; 
pour the contents in a stewpan and twelve times the case full of water 
over it, hot or cold ; add to it two or three slices of onion, a sprig or 
two of parsley, a leaf or two of celery, if handy, two teaspoonfuls of 
salt, one of sugar ; pass through a colander and serve. If required 
stronger, eight cases of water will suffice, decreasing the seasoning in 
proportion. In case you have no vegetables, sugar, or pepper, salt 
alone will do, but the broth will not be so succulent. 

No. 4. THICK BEEF TEA. Dissolve a good teaspoonful of arrow- 
root in a gill of water, and pour it into the beef tea twenty minutes 
before passing through the sieve it is then ready. 

ISINGLASS. Add | oz. calves-foot gelatine to the above quantity of beef 
tea previous to serving, when cooking. 

No. 6. MUTTON AND VEAL TEA. Mutton and veal will make good 
tea by proceeding precisely the same as above. The addition of a little 


aromatic herbs is always desirable. If no fresh vegetables are at hand, 
use 2 oz. of mixed preserved vegetables to any of the above receipts. 

No. 7. CHICKEN BROTH. Put in a stewpan a fowl, 3 pints of 
water, 2 teaspoonfuls of rice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, a middle-sized onion, 
or 2 oz. of mixed vegetables ; boil the whole gently for three-qi 
of an hour: if an old fowl, simmer from one hour and a half t> two 
hours, adding 1 pint more water ; skim off the fat and serve. A small 
fowl will do. 

Note. A light mutton broth may be made precisely the satu 
using a pound and a half of scrag of mutton instead of fowl. For thick 
mutton broth proceed as for thick beef tea, omitting the rice ; a table- 
spoonful of burnt sugar water will give a rich color to the broth. 

No. 8. PLAIN BOILED RICE. Put two quarts of water in a stew- 
pan, with a teaspoonful of salt ; when boiling, add to it Ib. of rice, 
well washed ; boil for ten minutes, or till each grain becomes rather 
soft ; drain it into a colander, slightly grease the pot with butter, and 
put the rice back into it ; let it swell slowly for about twenty minutes 
near the fire, or in a slow oven ; each grain will then swell up, and be 
well separated ; it is then ready for use. 

No. 9. SWEET RICE. Add to the plain boiled rice 1 oz. of butter, 
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little cinnamon, a quarter of ;i .f milk ; 
stir it with a fork, and serve ; a little currant jelly or jam may be added 
t" tin- rii-r. 

No. 10. RICE WITH GRAVY. Add to the rice 4 tablespoonfuls of 
the essence of beef, a little butter, if fresh, half a teaspoonful of salt ; 
stir together with a fork, and serve. A teaspoonful of Soyer's Sultana 
Sauce, or relish, will make it very wholesome and palatable, as well as 
Invigorating to a fatigued stomach. 

No. 11. PLAIN OATMEAL. Putin a pan \ Ib. of oatmeal, 1 oz. 
of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, and 3 pints of water; boil slowly 
for twenty minutes, "stirring continually," and serve. A quarter of a 
pint of Ix.ilcd milk, an ounce of butter, and a little pounds! cinnamon 
or spice added pn-\ to serving is a good variation. This ivc.-ij.t 
has been found most useful at the commencement of dysentery l>y the 
medical authorities. 

No. I-' M.VES-FOOT JELLY. Putin a ] .M 2$ 

oz. of itine, 4 oz. of white sugar, 4 whites of eggs and 

the pool of a lemon, the juice of three middle-sized lemons, half 
a pint of Marsal "-at all well together with the. -^.|n-a:. 

.1 f.-w minutes, then add 4$ pint* of cold water; set it on a slow fire, 
and keep whipping it till boiling. Set it on the corner of the stove, 


partly covered with the lid, upon which you place a few pieces of burn- 
ing charcoal ; let it simmer gently for ten minutes, and strain it through 
a- jelly-bag. It is then ready to put in the ice or some cool place. 
Sherry will do if Marsala is not at hand. For orange jelly use only 

1 lemon and 2 oranges. Any delicate flavor may be introduced. 

JELLY STOCK, made from calves' feet, requires to be made the. day 
previous to being used, requiring to be very hard to extract the fat. 
Take two calf's feet, cut them up, and boil in three quarts of water ; as 
soon as it boils remove it to the corner of the fire, and simmer for five 
hours, keeping it skimmed, pass through a hair sieve into a basin, and 
let it remain until quite hard, then remove the oil and fat, and wipe the 
top dry. Place in a stewpan half a pint of water, one of sherry, half 
a pound of lump sugar, the juice of four lemons, the rinds of two, and 
the whites and shells of five eggs ; whisk until the sugar is melted, then 
add the jelly, place it on the fire, and whisk until boiling, pass it through 
a jelly-bag, pouring that back again which comes through first until 
quite clear ; it is then ready for use, by putting it in moulds or glasses. 
Vary the flavor according to fancy. 

No. 13. SAGO JELLY. Put into a pan 3 oz. of sago, 1 oz. of 
sugar, half a lemon-peel cut very thin, 1 teaspoonful of ground cinna- 
mon, or a small stick of the same ; put to it 3 pints of water and a 
little salt ; boil ten minutes, or rather longer, stirring continually, until 
rather thick, then add a little port, sherry, or Marsala wine ; mix well, 
and serve hot or cold. 

No. 14. ARROWROOT MILK. Put into a pan 4 oz. of arrowroot, 
3 oz. of sugar, the peel of half a lemon, teaspoonful of salt, 2% pints 
of milk ; set it on the fire, stir round gently, boil for ten minutes, and 
serve. If no lemons at hand, a little essence of any kind will do. 
When short of milk, use half water ; half an ounce of fresh butter is 
an improvement before serving. If required thicker, put a little milk. 

No. 15. THICK ARROWROOT PANADA. Put in a pan 5 oz. of arrow- 
root, 2^ oz. of white sugar, the peel of half a lemon, a quarter of a tea- 
spoonful of salt, 4 pints of water ; mix all well, set on the fire, boil for 
ten minutes ; it is then ready. The juice of a lemon is an improve- 
ment ; a gill of wine may also be introduced, and oz. of calves-foot 
gelatine previously dissolved in water will be strengthening. Milk, 
however, is preferable, if at hand. 

No. 16. ARROWROOT WATER. Put into a pan 3 oz. of arrowroot, 

2 oz. of white sugar, the peel of a lemon, teaspoonful of salt, 4 pints 
of water ; mix well, set on the fire, boil for ten minutes. It is then 
ready to serve either hot or cold. 


No. 17. RICE WATER. Put 7 pints of water to boil, add t 
ounces of rice washed, 2 ox. of sugar, the peel of two-third! of a lemon; 
boil gently lor three-quarters of an hour; it will reduce to 5 pints; 
strain through a colander ; it is then ready. The rice maybe left in 
the beverage or made into a pudding, or by the addition of a little 

r jam, will be found very good for either children or invalids. 
No. 18. BARLEY \ Put in a saucepan 7 pints of water, 2 

or. of barl- v, \\hich stir now and then while boiling ; add 2 oz. of white 
sugar, the rind of half a lemon, thinly peeled; let it boil gently for 
about two hours, without covering it ; pass it through a sieve or col- 
ander; it is then ready. The barley and lemon may be left, in it. 

19. SOTER'S PLAIN LEMONADE. Thinly peel the third part of a 

. which juit into a basin with 2 tnblespoonfuls of sugar ; roll the 

with your hand upon the table to soften it; out it into two. 

lengthwise, squeeze the juice over the peel, <fec., stir round for a minute 

with u spoon to. form a sort of syrup ; pour over a pint of water, mix 

.id remove the pips; it is then ready for use. If a very luri_ r e 

lemon, and full of juice, and very fresh, you may make a pint and a 

half to a quart, adding sugar and peel in proportion to the increase of 

water. The juice only of the lemon and sugar will make lemonade, 

but will then be deprived of the, aroma which the rind contains, the said 

rind being generally thrown away. 


oz. of citric acid to dissolve in a pint of water, perl -JO lemons thinly, 

and put the perl in a large v. -si. with .'J Ibs. 2 ox. of whit.- 

broken ; nll each lemon on the table to soften it, which will facilitate 

n of the juice; cut them into two, and press out the juice 

into a colander or sicv. -, <>v. r the pe> 1 and sugar, then pour half a pint 

of water through the colander, so as to leave no jui. nmaining; 

:te th sugar, juice, and peel together for a minuf. with a 

spoon, so as to form a sort of syrup, and extract the aroma from the 

peel tnd the dissolved citric neid; mix all well together. on . r >0 

ir \\ell together; it is then ready. A little ice in 

rammer is a* great addition. 

No. 21. SOTER'S CHEAP CRIMEAN LEMONADE. Put into a basin 2 
tablespoonfuN of white or brown sugar, % a tablespoonful of lime juice, 
minute, add 1 pint of water, and the bever- 
age is ready. A drop of rum will make a good variation, as lime jui, < 
and n; soldiers. 

No. 22. TARTARIC LEMONADE. Dissolve 1 oz. li/ed tar- 

taric acid in a pint of cold water, which put in a Ian : when 


dissolved, add 1 Ib. 9 oz. of white or brown sugar the former is pref- 
erable ; mix well to form a thick syrup ; add to it 24 pints of cold 
water, slowly mixing well ; it is then ready. It may be strained 
through either a colander or a jelly-bag; if required very light, add 5 
pints more water, and sugar in proportion ; if citric acid be used, put 
only 20 pints of water to each ounce. 

no eggs or milk are required : important in the field. Put on the 
fire, in a moderate-sized saucepan, 12 pints of water ; when boiling, 
add to it 1 Ib. of rice or 16 tablespoonfuls, 4 oz. of brown sugar 
or 4 tablespoonfuls, 1 large teaspoonful of salt, and the rind of a lemon 
thinly peeled ; boil gently for half an hour, then strain all the water 
from the rice, keeping it as dry as possible. The rice water is then 
ready for drinking, either warm or cold. The juice of a lemon may be 
introduced, which will make it more palatable and refreshing. 

THE PUDDING. Add to the rice 3 oz. of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of 
flour, half a teaspoonful of pounded cinnamon ; stir it on the fire care- 
fully for five or ten minutes ; put it in a tin or pie-dish, and bake. 
By boiling the rice a quarter of an hour longer, it will be very good to 
eat without baking. Cinnamon may be omitted. 

No. 23 A. BATTER PUDDING. Break two fresh eggs in a^ basin, beat 
them well, add one tablespoonful and a half of flour, which beat up with 
your eggs with a fork until no lumps remain ; add a gill of milk, a 
teaspoonful of salt, butter a teacup or a basin, pour in your mixture, 
put some water in a stewpan, enough to immerge half way up the cup 
or basin in water ; when boiling, put in your cup or basin and boil 
twenty minutes, or till your pudding is well set ; pass a knife to loosen 
it, turn out on a plate, pour pounded sugar and a pat of fresh butter 
over, and serve. A little lemon, cinnamon, or a drop of any essence 
may be introduced. A little light melted butter, sherry, and sugar 
may bo poured over. If required more delicate, add a little less flour. 
It may be served plain 

No. 24. BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING. Butter a tart-dish well, 
and sprinkle some currants all round it, then lay in a few slices of bread 
and butter ; boil one pint of milk, pour it on two eggs well whipped, 
and then on the bread and butter ; bake it in a hot oven for half an hour. 
Currants may be omitted. 

No. 25. BREAD PUDDING. Boil one pint of milk, with a piece of 
cinnamon and lemon-peel ; pour it on two ounces of bread crumbs 
then add two eggs, half an ounce of currants, and a little sugar : steam 
it in a buttered mould for one hour. 


No. 26. CUSTARD PUDDING. Boil one pint of milk, with a small 
piece of lemon-peel and half u bay-leaf, for three minutes; then pour 
these on to three eggs, mix it with one ounce of sugar well to- 
and pour it int.. a buttered mould : steam it twenty-live minutes in a 
stowpan with some water, turn out on a plate and serve. 

No. 27. RICH Ric PUDDING. Put in Ib. of rice in a stewpan, 

washed, 3 pints of milk, 1 pint of water, 3 oz. of sugar, 1 lemon peel, 

1 o*. of fresh butter; boil gently half an hour, or until the rice is ten- 

add 4 eggs, well beaten, mix well, and bake quickly for half an 

hour, and serve : it may be steamed if preferred. 

No. 28. STEWED MACARONI. Put in a stewpan 2 quarts of water, 
half a tablespoonful of salt, 2 oz. of butter ; set on the fir*' ; when boil- 
ing, add 1 Ib. of macaroni, broken up rather small ; when boiled very 
sod, throw off the water; mix well into the macaroni a taMesjiiumful 
of fl'ur, add enough milk to make it of the consistency of thin melted 
butter; boil gently twenty minutes; add in a tablespoonful of either 
brown or white sugar, or honey, and serve. A little cinnamon, nut- 
meg, lemon-peel, or orange-flower water may be introduced to impart 
a flavor; stir quick. A gill ot milk or cream may now be thrown in 
minutes before serving. Nothing can be more light and nutri- 
tious than macaroni done this way. If no milk, use water. 

No. 29. MACARONI PUDDING. Put 2 pints of water to boil, add 
to it 2 oz. of macaroni, broken in small pieces ; boil till tender, chain 
off the water and add half a tablespoonful of flour, 2 oz. of white 
a quarter of a pint of milk, and boil together for ten minutes ; beat an 
egg up, pour it to the other ingredients, a nut of butter ; mix well and 
oake, or steam. It can bo served plain, and may bo flavored with either 
cinnamon, lemon, or other essences, as orange-flower water, vanilla, dec. 

No. 30. SAGO PUDDING. Put in a pan 4 oz. of sajjo, 2 oz. of 
ugar, half a lemon-peel or a little cinnamon, a small pat of fresh but- 
ter, if handy, half a pint of milk; boil for a few minutes or until rath, r 
thiek, stirring all the while ; 1 -rs and mix qniekly with the 

same ; i* is then ready for cither baking or steaming, or may be served 

No. 31. TAPIOCA PUDDING. Put in a pan 2 ot, ..f tapioca, 1$ pint 
of milk, 1 oz. of white or brown sugar, a little salt, set on the (,, 
gently for fifteen minutes, or until the tapioca is tender, stirring now 
and then t it* Hticking to the bottom, or burning; the,, add 

two eggs well beaten ; steam or bake, and serve. It will tako about 
twenty minutes team in::, -T a quarter of an hour baking slightly. 
Flavor wit '.--mon, cinnamon, or any other essence. 


TOMS OF DIARRHOEA. Put 1 quart of water in a pot or saucepan ; when 
boiling, wash ^ a Ib. of rice and throw it into the water ; boil fast for 
ten minutes ; drain your rice in a colander, put it back in the saucepan, 
which you have slightly greased with butter ; let it swell slowly near 
the fire, or in a slow oven till tender ; each grain will then be light and 
well separated. Add to the above a small tablespoonful of aromatic 
sauce, called " Soyer's Relish or Sultana Sauce," with a quarter of a 
teaspoonful of curry powder ; mix together with a fork lightly, and 
serve. This quantity will be sufficient for two or three people, accord- 
ing to the prescriptions of the attending physician. 

No. 33. FIGS AND APPLE BEVERAGE. Plave 2 quarts of water 
boiling, into which throw 6 dry figs previously opened, and 2 apples, 
cut into six or eight slices each ; let the whole boil together twenty 
minutes; then pour them into a basin- to cool; pass through a sieve; 
drain the figs, which will be good to eat with a little sugar or jam. 

No. 34. STEWED FRENCH PLUMS. Put 12 large or 18 small-size 
French plums, soak them for half an hour, put in a stewpan with a 
spoonful of brown sugar, a gill of water, a little cinnamon, and some 
thin rind of lemon ; let them stew gently twenty minutes, then put 
them in a basin till cold with a little of the juice. A small glass of 
either port, sherry, or claret is a very good addition. The syrup is 

No. 35. FRENCH HERB BROTH. This is a very favorite beverage 
in France, as well with people in health as with invalids, especially in 
spring, when the herbs are young and green. Put a quart of water to 
boil, having previously prepared about 40 leaves of sorrel, a cabbage 
lettuce, and 10 sprigs of chervil, the whole well washed ; when the 
water is boiling, throw in the herbs, with the addition of a teaspoonful 
of salt, and oz. of fresh butter ; cover the saucepan close,- and let 
simmer a few minutes, then strain it through a sieve or colander. This 
is to be drunk cold, especially in the spring of the year, after the change 
from winter. I generally drink about a quart per day for a week at 
that time ; but if for sick people, it must be made less strong of herbs, 
and taken a little warm. To prove that it is wholesome, we have only 
to refer to the instinct which teaches dogs to eat grass at that season 
of the year. I do not pretend to say that it would suit persons in every 
malady, because the doctors are to decide upon the food and beverage 
of their patients, and study its changes as well as change their medi- 
cines ; but I repeat that this is most useful and refreshing for the blood. 

No. 36. BROWNING FOR SOUPS, &c. Put Ib. of moist sugar 


into an iron pan and m. It it over a moderate fire till quite black, stir- 
ring it continually, whieh will take about twenty-live minutes : it nn;-i 
color by degrees, aa too sudden ;i h< -at will make it bitt.-r ; then add 2 
quart^ .and in ton minutes the sugar will be dissolved. Y..II 

may thm b.ttl- it t'r use. It will keep good for a month, ami will 
always be found very useful. 

No. 37. TOAST-AND-WATER. Cut a piece of crusty bread, about 
a | Ih. in weight, place it upon a toasting-fork, and hold it about six 
Inches from th.- tin- ; turn it often, and keep moving it gently until of 
a light-yellow color f then place it nearer tho fire, and when of a good 
brown chocolate color, put it in a jug and pour over 3 pints of boiling 
water ; cover tho jug until cold, then strain it into a clean jug, and it 
is ready for use. Never leave the toast in it, for in summer it would 
cause fermentation in a short time. 

Baked Apple Toast-and- Water. A piece of apple, slowly toasted 
till it gets quite lla-k ami added to the above, makes a very nice ami 
refreshing drink for invalids. 

Apple Rice Water. Haifa pound of rice, boiled in the above until 
in pulp, passed through a colander, and drunk when cold. All kinds of 
fruit may be done the same way. Figs and French plums are 
lent; also raisins. A little ginger, if approved of, may bo used. 

Apple Barley Water. A quarter of a pound of pearl barley instead 

of toast added to the above, and boil for one hour, is also a very nice drink. 

Citronade. Put a gallon of water on to boil, cut up one pound of 

I, each one into quarters, two lemons in thin slices, put them in the 

. and boil them until they can be pulped, pass the liquor through 

a colander, boil it up again with half a pound of brown sugar, skim. 

and bottle for use, taking care not to cork tho bottle, and keep it in a 

cool place, 

/or Sjtriny Drink. Rhubarb, in the same quantities, and done in 
the same way as appk-s, adding more sugar, is very cooling. Also 
green gooseberries. 

For Summer Jtrink. One pound of red currants, bruised with 
some raspberry, half a pound of sugar added to a gallon .f <M 
well stirred, and allowed to settle. Tho juice of a lemon. 

Mulberry. The same, adding a little l.-mon-peel. A little cream 
of tartar or id added to these renders them more cooling in 

summer and spring. 

/Y/i/H I,nnnnn,lr. Put in very thin slices three lemons, put them 
in a baain, add half a p. -mid of sugar, either white or brown ; bruiso 
all together, add a gallon of water, and stir well. It is then ready. 




FIG. 105. 

French Plum Water. Boil 3 pints of water ; add in 6 or 8 dried 
plums previously split, 2 or 3 slices of lempn, a spoonful of honey 01 
sugar ; boil half an hour, and serve. 

For Fig, Date, and JRaisin Water, proceed as above, adding the 
juice of half a lemon to any of the above. Jf for fig water, use 6 figs. 
Any quantity of the above fruits may be used with advantage in rice, 
barley, or arrowroot water. 

EFFERVESCENT BEVERAGES. Raspberry Water. Put 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of vinegar into a large glass, pour in half a pint of water ; mix 

Pine-Apple Syrup. Three tablespoonfuls to a pint. 

Currant Syrup. Proceed the same. 

Syrup of Orgeat. The same. 

stove will consume not more than from 12 to 15 Ibs. of fuel, and allow- 
ing 20 stoves to a regiment, the 
consumption would be 300 Ibs. per 
thousand men. Coal will burn with 
the same advantage. Salt beef, pork, 
Irish stew, stewed beef, tea, coffee, 
cocoa, &c., can be prepared in these 
stoves, and with the same economy. 
They can also be fitted with an ap- 
paratus for baking, roasting, and 

Ibs. of meat in the boiler. 2. 
Fill with water, and let soak all 
night. 3. Next morning wash the 
meat well 4. Fill with fresh wa- 
ter, and boil gently three hours, 
and serve. Skim off the fat, which, 
when cold, is an excellent substi- 
tute for butter. For salt pork pro- 
ceed as above or boil half beef 
and half pork the pieces of beef 
may be smaller than the pork, re- 
quiring a little longer time doing. 

Dumplings, No. 21, may be added to either pork, or beef in propor- 


tlon ; and when pork is properly soaked, the liquor will make n very 

good soup. The large yellow peas, as usol by the- navy, may bo intro- 

; it is important to have them, as they arc a great improvement. 

When proper!^ SO*ked, Fn-n.-h haricot Leans and lentils may also be 

used to advantage. By the addition of 5 pounds of split peas, half a 

pound of brown sugar, 2 tablespoon fu Is i >i pepper, 10 onions; simmer 

till in pulp, remove the fat and serve; broken biscuit may be 

introdiK vd. This will make an exeellent mess. 


AJTD PORK, ON LAND OR AT SKA. To each pound of meat allow about 
a pint of water. Do not have the pieces above 3 or 4 11 is. in weight. 
Let it soak for 7 or 8 hours, or all night if possible. Wash each piece 
well with your hand in order to extract as much salt as possible. It 
b then ready for cooking. If less time be allowed, cut the pieces 
smaller and proceed the same, or parboil the meat for 20 mini 
the above quantity of water, which throw off and add fresh. M> ' 
maybe soaked in sea water, but by all means boiled in fre>h ulu-n 
possible. I should advise, at sea, to have a perforated iron 1><>\ made, 
large enough to contain half a ton or more of meat, which box \\i\\ 
ascend and descend by pulleys ; have also a frame made on whirh the 
box might rest when lowered overboard, the meat being placed outside 
the ship on a level with the water, the night before using ; the water 
beating against the meat through the perforations will extract all the 
salt. Meat may be soaked in sea water, but by all means wa>hed. 

No 2. SOYER'S ARMY SOUP FOR FIFTY MKN. 1. Put in the boiler 
60 pints, 7 gallons, or 5^ camp kettles of water. 2. Add to it 50 Ibs. 
of mca* >cef or mutton. 3. The rations of preserved or 

vegetables. 4. T.-n small tablespoonfuls of salt. f>. Simmer three 
hours and serve. When rice is issued, put it in when boiling. Three. 
pounds will bo sufficient. About eight pounds of fre^h v-g tables. Or 
four squares from a cake of preserved vegetables. A tablespoi.nful of 
pepper, if handy. Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an excellent 
substitute for butter. 


Put in two stove* . r >0 Ibs. of pork each, divide 24 Ibs. in four pudding- 
>.1\ ti.-.l; putting to boil at the same time as your 
pork, let all boil gently till done, sny about two hours ; take out the pud- 
ding and peas, put all the meat, in out < -.iMpm, remove ihc liipior from 
'iming back the peas in it, add two teaspoonfuls of pep- 
per, a i 'I with the wooden spatula smash the 
and serve both. The addition of about half a pound of flour, and two 


quarts of liquor, boiled ten minutes, makes a great improvement. Six 
sliced onions, fried and added to it, make it very delicate. 

No. 3. STEWED SALT BEEF AND PORK. For a company of one 
hundred men, or a regiment of one thousand men. Put in a boiler, of 
well soaked-beef 30 Ibs., cut in pieces of a quarter of a pound each, 20 
Ibs. of pork, 1 Ib. of sugar, 8 Ibs. of onions, sliced, 25 quarts of water, 
4 Ibs. of rice. Simmer gently for three hours, skim the fat off the top, 
and serve. 

Note. How to soak the meat for the above mess : Put 50 Ibs. of 
meat in each boiler, having filled them with water, and let soak all 
night ; and prior to using it, wash it and squeeze with your hands, to 
extract the salt. In case the meat is still too salt, boil it for twenty 
minutes, throw away the water, and put fresh to your stew. By 
closely following the above receipt you will have an excellent dish. 

Cut or chop 50 Ibs. of fresh beef in pieces of about a \ Ib. each ; put in 
the boiler, with 10 tablespoonfuls of salt, two tablespoonfuls of pepper, 
four tablespoonfuls of sugar, onions 7 Ibs. cut in slices : light the fire 
now, and then stir the meat with a spatula, let it stew from 20 to 30 
minutes, or till it forms a thick gravy, then add a pound and a half of 
flour ; mix well together, put in the boiler 18 quarts of water, stir well 
for a minute or two, regulate the stove to a moderate heat, and let 
simmer for about two hours. Mutton, pork, or veal can be stewed in 
a similar manner, but will take half an hour less cooking. 

Note. A pound of rice may be added with great advantage, ditto 
plain dumplings, ditto potatoes, as well as mixed vegetables. For a 
regiment of 1,000 men use 20 stoves. 

No. 5. PLAIN IRISH STEW FOR FIFTY MEN. Cut 50 Ibs. of mutton 
into pieces of a quarter of a pound each, put them in the pan, add 8 
Ibs. of large onions, 12 Ibs. of whole potatoes, 8 tablespoonfuls of salt, 
3 tablespoonfuls of pepper ; cover all with water, giving about half a 
pint to each pound ; then light the fire ; one hour and a half of gentle 
ebullition will make a most excellent stew ; mash some of the potatoes 
to thicken the gravy, and serve. Fresh beef, veal, or pork \vill also 
make a good stew. Beef takes two hours doing. Dumplings may be 
added half an hour before done. 

twenty stoves in a row, in the open air or under cover. Put 30 quarts 
of water in each boiler, 50 Ibs. of ration meat, 4 squares' from a cake 
of dried vegetables or, if fresh mixed vegetables are issued, 12 Ibs. 
weight 10 small tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 ditto of pepper ; light the fire, 


simmer gently from two hours to two hours and a half, skim tin- fat 
fr.-Ni the top, and serve. It will require only four cooks per regiment, 
the provisions and water l. -'111-4 carried to the kitchen by fatigue parties ; 
the kitchen being central, instead of the kitchen going to each company. 
eaeh company sends t \\.-men to tin- kitchen with a pole to carry th. 

TOES, Put 25 Ibs. of salt pork in each boiler, with 50 Ibs. from 
. you have extracted the largo bones, cut in dice, and made into 
puddings ; when on the boil, put five puddings in each, l>>il rath 

o hours. You have peel e.l 1'2 ll.s. of potatoes and put in a net 
in each caldron ; put also 2 winter cabbages in nets three-quart 
an hour before your pudding is done; divide the pork, pudding, and 
cabbage, in proportion, or let fifty of the men have pudding that day 
and meat tin- other; remove the fut, and serve. The liquor will make 
very good soup by adding peas or rice, as No. 1. For tho pudding. 
paste put one-quarter of a pound of dripping, or beef or mutton suet, 
to every pound of flour you uso; roll your pnMe ir each half an inch 
thiek, put a pudding-cloth in a basin, flour round, lay in your past 
your meat in proportion; season with pepper and a minced onion; 
close your pudding in a cloth, and boil. This receipt is more applicable 
to Imrrack and public institutions than a camp. Fresh UK at of any 
kind may be done tho same, and boiled with either salt pork or beef. 

dron 2 Ibs. of tat, which you have saved from salt pork, add to it 4 Ibs. 
of peeled and sliced onions; let them fry in the fat for about ten min- 
utes; add in then 12 Ibs. of rice, cover the rice over with water, the 
rice being submerged two inches, add to it 7 tablespoonfuls of salt, and 

1 of pepper; let simmer gently for about an hour, stirring it with a 
spatula occasionally to prevent it burning, but when eoinmmeing to 
boil, a very little fire ougnt to be kept under. Each grain ought to le 
swollen t the full size of rice, and separate. In the other stove put fat 
and onin tin- same quantity with the same seasoning; cut the flesh 
of the mutton, veal, pork, or beef from tho bone, eut in dice of about 

2 02. each, put in the pan with the fat and onions, set it going with a 
very slurp lire, having put in 2 quarts of water ; steam p-nth , stirring 
Occasionally for about half an hour, till forming rather a rich thiek 
gravy. When Loth the rice and moat are done, take half the ri 

at, and then the remainder of the meat and ri< 
serve. Save the bones for soup for the following day. Salt pork or 

A-oll soaked, may be used omitting tho salt. Any kind ot 
tables may be frizzled with the onions. 


moval of the caldron, and the application of a false bottom put over the 
fire, bread bakes extremely well in the oven, as well as meat, potatoes, 
puddings, &c. Bread might be baked in oven at every available op- 
portunity at a trifling cost of fuel. The last experiment I made with 
one was a piece of beef weighing about 25 Ibs., a large Yorkshire pud- 
ding, and about 10 Ibs. of potatoes, the whole doing at considerably 
under one pennyworth of fuel, being a mixture of coal and coke ; the 
whole was done to perfection, and of a nice brown color. Any kind of 
meat would, of course, roast the same. 

Baking infixed Oven. In barracks, or large institutions, where an 
oven is handy, I would recommend that a long iron trough be made, 
four feet in length, with a two-story movable grating in it, the meat on 
the top of the upper one giving a nice elevation to get the heat from 
the roof, and the potatoes on the grating under, and a Yorkshire pud- 
ding at the bottom. Four or five pieces of meat may be done on one 
trough. If no pudding is made, add a quart more water. 

THE ORDINARY CANTEEN-PAN. Put in the canteen saucepan 6 Ibs. of 
beef, cut in two or three pieces, bones included, |- Ib. of plain mixed 
vegetables, as onions, carrots, turnips, celery, leeks, or such of these as 
can be obtained, or 3 oz. of preserved in cakes, as now given to the 
troops ; 3 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful 
of sugar, if handy ; 8 pints of water, let it boil gently three hours, re- 
move some of the fat, and serve. The addition of 1 Ib. of bread cut 
into slices, or 1 Ib. of broken biscuit, well soaked in the broth, will 
make a very nutritious soup ; skimming is not required. 

KINDS OF MEAT. If it is difficult to broil to perfection, it is consider- 
ably more so to cook meat of any kind in a frying-pan. Place your 
pan on the fire for a minute or so, wipe it very clean ; when the pan 
is very hot, add in it either fat or butter, but the fat from salt and 
ration meat is preferable ; the fat will immediately get very hot ; then 
add the meat you are going to cook, turn it several times to have it 
equally done ; season to each pound a small teaspoonful of salt, quarter 
that of pepper, and serve. Any sauce or maitre-d'hotel butter may be 
added. A few fried onions in the remaining fat, with the addition of 
a little flour to the onion, a quarter of a pint of water, two tabjespoon- 
fuls of vinegar, a few chopped pickles or picalilly, will be very rel- 

No. HA. TEA FOR EIGHTY MEN, which often constitutes a whole 


company. One boiler will, with ease, make tea for eighty mm, allow- 
ing a pint each man. Put forty quarts of water to boil, place the ra- 
tions of tea in a fine net, very loose, or in a large perforated ball ; pve 
one minute to boil, take out the fuv, if too much, shut down the , 
in tm minutes it is ready to si 

in the camp, with the canteen saucepan holding 10 pints. Put 9 pints of 
into a canteen saucepan on the fire ; when boiling add 7^ 

h forms the ration, mix them well together with a spoon or 
a piece of wood, leave on the fire for a few minutes longer, or until 
ginning to boil. Take it off and pour in 1 pint of cold \\ater, 
let the whole remain for ten minutes or a little longer. The dregs of 
the coffee will fall to the bottom, and your coffee will be clear. Pour 
it from one vessel to the other, leaving the dregs at the bottom, add 
your ration sugar or, 2 teaspoonfuls to the pint ; if any milk is to bo 
had, make 2 pints of coffee less ; add that quantity of milk to your 
. the former may be boiled previously, and serve. This is a 
very good way for making coffee, even in any family, especially a nu- 
merous one, using 1 oz. to the quart if required stronger. For a 
company of eighty men use the field-stove and four times the quantity 
of ingredients. 

13. COFFEE, TURKISH FASHION. "When the water is about 

to boil add the coffee and sunar, mix well as above, let it boil, and 

. The grounds of coffee will in a f-w stands f-dl t the liittni 

of the cups. The Turks wis. ly leave it there, I would advise every qne 

in (amp to do the same. 

No 14. COCOA FOR EICHTV MK\. Break eighty portions of ration 
OOCoa in rather small pieces, put them in the boiler, with live or six 
pints of water, light the fire, stir the cocoa round till melted, and form- 
ing a pulp not too thick, preventing any lumps fnrminji, add to it the 
remaining water, hot or cold ; add the ration sugar, and when just boil- 
ing, it is ready for serving. If short iu campaigning, put about 
1 wh.-n in pulp, add half a pound of (lour or arrowroot. 
EAST AND EX- AY OF CooMxr, IN K.\uTiiK\ P\N>. Avcry 
favorite ami plain dish amongst the conval.-sivnt and orderlies at 
lowing: Cut any part of either beef (die, k of 
tail), veal, mutton, or pork, in fart any hard part of the animal, in 
4-oz. slices; have ready for each \ < r :> <.t;i..ns and 4 or ~> pounds 
of potatoes cut ; put a layer of potatoes at the bottom of 
the pan, then a l.iy.-r of meat, season to each pound 1 teaspoonful of 

d some onion you have already minced; 


then lay in layers of meat and potatoes alternately till full ; put in 2 
pints of water, lay on the lid, close the bar, lock the pot, bake two 
hours, and serve. Remove some of the fat from the top, if too much ; 
a few dumplings, as No. 21, in it will also be found excellent. By 
adding over each layer a little flour it makes a rich thick sauce. Half 
fresh meat and salt ditto will also be found excellent. 

MEN, which may be increased in proportion of companies. No. 15. 
Camp Soup. Put half a pound of salt pork in a saucepan, two ounces 
of rice, two pints and a half of cold water, and, when boiling, let simmer 
another hour, stirring once or twice ; break in six ounces of biscuit, let 
soak ten minutes ; it is then ready, adding one teaspoonful of sugar, 
and a quarter one of pepper, if handy. 

No. 16. Beef Soup. Proceed as above, boil an hour longer, adding 
a pint more water. 

Note. Those who can obtain any of the following vegetables will 
find them a great improvement to the above soups : Add four ounces 
of either onions, carrots, celery, turnips, leeks, greens, cabbage, or po- 
tatoes, previously well washed or peeled, or any of these mixed to make 
up four ounces, putting them in the pot with the meat. I have used 
the green tops of leeks and the leaf of celery as well as the stem, and 
found that for stewing they are preferable to the white part for flavor. 
The meat being generally salted with rock salt, it ought to be well 
scraped and washed, or even soaked in water a few hours if convenient ; 
but if the last cannot be done, and the meat is therefore too salt, which 
would spoil the broth, parboil it for twenty minutes in water, before 
using for soup, taking care to throw this water away. 

No. 17. For fresh beef proceed, as far as the cooking goes, as for 
salt beef, adding a teaspoonful of salt to the water. 

No. 18. Pea Soup. Put in your pot half a pound of salt pork, half 
a pint of peas, three pints of water, one teaspoonful of sugar, half one 
of pepper, four ounces of vegetables, cut in slices, if to be had ; boil 
gently two hours, or until the peas are tender, as some require boiling 
longer than others and serve. 

No 19. Stewed Fresh Beef and Rice. Put an ounce of fat in a pot, 
cut half a pound of meat in large dice, add a teaspoonful of salt, half 
one of sugar, an onion sliced ; put on the fire to stew for fifteen min- 
utes, stirring occasionally, then'add two ounces of rice, a pint of water ; 
stew gently till done, and serve. Any savory herb will improve the 
flavor. Fresh pork, veal, or mutton may be done the same way, and 
half a pound of potatoes used instead of the rice, and as rations are 


served out fur three days, the whole of the provisions may be cooked 
at once. 

No. 20. RECEIPTS FOR THE FRYING-PAN. Those who arc fortunate 
i to possess a frying-pan will find the following receipts very 
useful: Cut in small dice half a pound of solid meat, keeping the 
bones for soup; put your pan, which should be quite clean, on the 
fire; \\lu-n hot through, add nn ounce of fat, melt it and put in the 
meat, season witli half a teaspoouful of salt ; fry fr ten minutes, stir- 
\v and then ; add a tcaspoonful of flour, mix all well, put in half 
a pint of water, let simmer for fifteen minutes, pour over a biscuit 
nsly soaked, and serve. The addition ol a little pepper and 
sugar, it* handy, is an improvement, as is also a pinch of cayenne, curry- 
powder or spice; sauces and pickles used in small quantities would be 
relishing; these are articles which will keep for any length of 
time. As fresh meat is not easily obtained, any of the cold salt meat 
may be dressed as above, omitting the salt, and only requires warming ; 
or, for ft change, boil the meat plainly, or with greens, or cabbage, or 
dumplings, as for beef; then the next day cut what is left in small dice 
say four ounces put in a pan an ounce of fat ; when very hot pour 
i;i the following : Mix in a basin a tablespoonful of flour, moisten with 
to form the consistency of thick melted butt. r. tli. n p.uir it in 
the pan, letting it remain for one or two minutes, or until set ; put in 
the meat, shake the pan to loosen it, turn it over, let it remain 
minutes longer, and serve. To cook bacon, chops, steaks, slices of any 
kind of meat, salt or fresh sausages, blaek puddings, &c. : Make the 
pan very hot, having wiped it clean, add in fat, drippinir, butt-r. r oil, 
about an ounoeof either ; put in the meat, turn three or four tim< 
season with salt and p.-j>p.-r. A few minutes will do it. If the m. at. 
is salt, it must bo well staked previously. 

No. 21. SUET DUMPLINGS. Take half a pound of flour, half a i a- 

. .1 quarter teaspoouful of pepper, a quarter of a pound 

(/chopped fat pork or beef suet, eight tablesjmonfuls !' water, mixed 

It will form, a thick paste, and when formed, di\ 
into six or right piece*, which roll in flour, and boil with the m< 

. minut.-H to h:.lf an hour. Little chopped onion or aromatic 
herbs will give it a flavor. 

A ; 'it is not to be obtained. Put the same quan- 

| in a little more water, and make it 

vide it in- ; b,,il about ten minuf. round 

the m- plain pud-lini; may be made, of the nbov. 

rice pudding thus: One pound of peas well tied in a cloth, or rice 


ditto with the beef. It will form a good pudding. The following in- 
gredients may be added : a little salt, sugar, pepper, chopped onions, 
aromatic herbs, and two ounces of chopped fat will make these pud- 
dings palatable and delicate. 

CORDON is the coping of the escarp or inner wall of the ditch, 
sometimes called the magistral line ; as from it the works in perma- 
nent fortification are traced. It is usually rounded in front, and pro- 
jects about one foot over the masonry : while it protects the top of the 
revetment from being saturated with water, it also offers, from projec- 
tion, an* obstacle to an enemy in escalading the wall. 

CORPORAL. Grade between private and sergeant. 

hibited excepting for the crime of desertion ; (Act May 1C, 1812 and 
Act March 2, 1833.) 

CORPS. The Articles of War use the word corps in the sense of 
a portion of the army organized by law with a head and members ; 
or any other military body having such organization, as the marine 
corps. A regiment is a corps ; an independent company is a corps a 
body of officers with one head is a corps, as the Topographical Engi- 
neers. Detachments of parts of regiments, or of whote regiments, 
united for a particular object, whether for a campaign or a part of a cam- 
paign, are not corps in the sense of the Rules and Articles of War, for such 
bodies have neither head nor members commissioned in the particular 
body temporarily so united ; but the officers with such detachment hold 
commissions either in the corps composing the detachment, in the army 
at large, in the marina corps, or militia. 


be convicted of holding correspondence with or giving intelligence to 
the enemy, directly or indirectly, shall suffer death or such other punish- 
ment as shall be ordered by sentence of a court-martial ; (ART. 57.) 

COSINE. The complement of the sine. 

COUNCIL OF ADMINISTRATION. Under the act of Congress 
of July 5, 1838, the council of administration may, from time to time, 
employ such person as they think proper to officiate as chaplain ; who 
shall also perform the duties of schoolmaster at such post. The chaplain 
is paid on the certificate of the commanding officer, not exceeding forty 
dollars per month, as may be determined by the said council of admin- 
istration with the approval of the Secretary of War. Councils of ad- 
ministration fix a tariff to the prices of sutler's goods regulate the 
sutler in other matters, and make appropriations for specific objects de- 


termined by regulations from the post and regimental fund*. Tho>r 
funds are collected in great part by savings of flour, in making bread 
by troops. 

COUNCIL OF WAR. An assemblage of the chief officers in the. 
army, summoned by the general to concert measures of importance. 

COUNSEL. All writers admit it to be the custom to allow a 
prisoner t. h.ivo conns 1. 

COUNTER-BATTERY. When a number of guns are placed be- 
:i parapet, for the purpose of dismounting or silencing by direct 
fire the guns in an enemy's work, it is called a counter-battery. 

COUNTERFORTS are the buttresses by which the revetment 
walls are backed and .strengthened interiorly. 

COUNTERGUARD is a work composed of two faces, forming a 
salient angle, sometimes placed before a bastion, sometimes before 
a ravelin, and sometimes before both, to protect them from being 

COUNTERMINES are galleries excavated by the defenders of a 
fortress, to intercept the mines, and to dcMroy the works of the bo- 

COUNTERSCARP. The outer boundary of the ditch revetted 
with masonry in permanent fortification to make the ditch as steep as 


COUNTERSIGN. A particular word given out by the highest in 
command, intrusted to those employed on duty in camp and garrison, 
and exchanged between guards and sentinels. 

COUNTERSLOPE. In the case of a revetment, the slope is 
within instead of on the outside; and is usually formed in steps. In 
the case of a parapet, the slope is upwards instead of downwards. 

COUP D'CEIL. The art of distinguishing by a rapid glance the 
weak points . if an enemy's position, and of discerning the advantages and 
disadvantages offered by any given space of country, 01 s. 1 .ling with 
judgment the most advantageous position for a ramp or battle-field. 
Experience is a great aid in the acquisition of this necessary military 
faculty, but experience and science alone will not give it. 

CGI* I 1 hi! MAIN'. A sudden and vigorous attack. 

COUPURES arc short retrenchments made across thofaceofany 
work, having a terre-plein. Tho ditch of the coupure is carried quite 
across the tcrre-plein, and thnmiih the parapet of the work in which it 
'. but not through the revetment. 

COURT-MARTIAL, Any ^i-m-ral onVer commanding .111 army, or 
colonel commanding a separate department, may appoint : - n< ml court- 


martials whenever necessary ; (ART. 65.) General courts-martial may 
consist of any number of commissioned officers, from five to thirteen, but 
they shall not consist of less than thirteen, where that number can be 
convened without manifest injury to the service ; (ART. 64.) But no 
sentence of a court-martial shall be carried into execution until after the 
whole proceedings shall have been laid before the officer ordering the 
same, or the officer commanding the troops for the time being ; neither 
shall any sentence of a general court-martial, in time of peace, extending 
to the loss of life, or the dismission of a commissioned officer, or which 
shall, either in time of peace or war, respect a general officer, be carried 
into execution, until after the whole proceedings shall liave been trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of War, to be laid before the President of the 
United States for his confirmation or disapproval, and orders in the 
case. All other sentences may be confirmed and executed by the 
officer ordering the court to assemble, or the commanding officer for 
the time being, as the case may be ; (ART. 65.) Whenever a general 
officer commanding an army, or a colonel commanding a separate de- 
partment, shall be the accuser or prosecutor of any officer of the army 
under his command, the general court-martial for the trial of such officer 
shall be appointed by the President of the United States, and the pro- 
ceedings and sentence of the said court shall be sent directly to the 
Secretary of War to be laid by him before the President for his con- 
firmation or approval or orders in the case ; (Act May 29, 1880.) 
Every officer commanding a regiment or corps may appoint, for his 
own regiment or corps, courts-martial to consist of three commissioned 
officers, for the trial and punishment of offences not capital, and decide 
upon their sentences. For the same purpose, all officers commanding 
any of the garrisons, forts, barracks, or other places where troops consist 
of different corps, may assemble courts-martial, to consist of three com- 
missioned officers, and decide upon their sentences ; (ART. 66.) No 
garrison or regimental court-martial shall have the power to try capital 
cases, or commissioned officers ; neither shall they inflict a fine exceed- 
ing one month's pay, nor imprison, nor put to hard labor, any non- 
commissioned officer or soldier, for a longer time than one month ; 
(ART. 67.) The judge-advocate, or some person deputed by him, or 
by the general, or officer commanding the army, detachment, or garrison, 
shall prosecute in the name of the United States, but shall so far con- 
sider himself as counsel for the prisoner, after the said prisoner shall 
have made his plea, as to object to any leading question to any witness, 
or any question to the prisoner, the answer to which might tend to 
criminate himself; and administer to each member of the court, before 


they proceed upon any trial, the oath prescribed in the Articles of \\ i 
for General, Regimental and Garrison Court* mart iul. The pi. 
of the court then administers an oath to the judge-ad vocat. ; (A 1:1. 
09.) If a prisoner when arraigned stands mute, the trial goes on as 
if he pleaded not guilty ; (ART. 70.) If a member be cliall. -ng. -.1 l.y a 
prisoner the court judges of the n l.-vancy of the challenge. Only one 
member can be challenged at a time ; (ART. 71.) All members are to 
behave with decency and calmness, and in giving their votes to begin 
with the youngest; (ART. 72.) All persons who give nco are 
examined on oath or affirmation ; (ART. 73.) On trials of cases not 
capital before courts-martial, the deposition of witnesses, not in the lino 
or staff of the army, may be taken before some justice of the peace and 
read in evidence; provided the prosecutor and person accused are j.n-s- 
ent at the taking of the same, or are duly notified thereof; (ART. 74.) 
No officer shalr be tried but by a general court-martial, nor by officers 
of inferior rank, if it can be avoided. Nor shall trials be earned on ex- 
cept between 8 in the morning and 3 in the aftcrn ing in cases 
requiring immediate example in the opinion of the officer ordering the. 
court ; ( ART. 75.) No person to use menacing words, signs, or gest u res 
before a court-martial, or cause any disorder or riot, or disturb tin ir 
proceeding, on the penalty of being punished at the discretion of the 
said court-martial; (AiiT. 76.) (Consult DE HART, KENNEDY, and 
References under the heading ARTICLES OF WAR.) 

FORM No. 1. 

Foi: -ral < >r.l<-r appointini: a General ("curt-martial. 

ral Orders, 1 Ilea.l-|inrt-rs of the Army, 

No. J March , 18. 

A General Court-martial, to consist of thirt. . n n . ml., rs will >n- 
vene at Fort Monn-e. in the State of Virginia, on Monday the \.| ,,f 
April, 18 , at 1 1 oYl--.-k, A. M., or as M...H then-after as j.raetieal.le, 
for the trial of Captain A. R., of the 1st Regiment of Artillery, and such 
other prisoners as may be brought before it. 


The following Officers are detailed as members of the Court : 

1. Colonel A. B. 1st Regiment of 

2. Colonel C. D. 3d Regiment of - 

3. Lieut.-col. E. F. 1st Regiment of 

4. Lieut.-col. F. G. 2d Regiment of 

5. Major W. T. 3d Regiment of 

6. Major N. M. 1st Regiment of 

7. Captain A. N. 3d Regiment of 

8. Captain B. N. 1st Regiment of 

9. Captain C. N. 2d Regiment of 

10. Captain D. M. 3d Regiment of 

11. Captain E. L. 1st Regiment of 

12. Captain F. H. 1st Regiment of 

13. Captain G. W. 1st Regiment of 

And the following Officers are detailed as supernumeraries : 
Captain N. P. 2d Regiment of Infantry. 

Captain D. B. 1st Regiment of Infantry. 

Captain N. O. 1st Regiment of Artillery. 

Captain S. R., of the 4th Regiment of , is hereby appointed 


By command of 

Lieut.-general . 

Adj utant-general. 

FORM No. 2. 

General Orders, | Head-quarters. 

No. j 

A General Court-martial is hereby appointed to meet at , on 

the day of , or as soon thereafter as practicable, for the 

trial of , and such other prisoners as may be brought before it. 

Detail for the Court. 

1. 5. 9. 13. 

2. __ 6. 10. 

3. - 7. 11. 

4. __ 8. 12. 

, Judge-advocate. 

No other officers than those named can be assembled without mani- 
fest injury to the service. 

By order of , 

, Asst. Adjt.-gen. 


FORM No. 3. 
General Orders, I Head-quarters of the Army, 

No. f April , 18. 

A General Court-martial, to consist of as many members [within 
the prescribed limits] as can be assembled without manifest injury to 

the service, will convene at , in the State of , on Tuesday 

the 23d of April, 18-, at 10 o'clock, A. M., or as soon thereafter as 
practicable, for the trial of Lieutenant C. D., of the 1st Regiment, and 
such other prisoners as may bo brought before it. 

The Commanding Officer, at , will cause the members of the 

Court to be detailed from the officers of his command. First Lieut. -n- 
ant B. M., 2d Regiment of Artillery, is hereby appointed the Judge- 
advocate of the Court. 

By order of , 

Major-general Commanding in Chief, 


The above form delegating authority for the detail of members of a 
Court-mariial to a distant commander, although not latterly used, is of 
the greatest practical importance. It conforms to the custom of war 
in other services, was long used in our own without question of its 
legality, and might with great benefit to the service be revived. 

FORM No. 4. 

Mode of recording the proceedings of a General [or other] Court- 

Proceedings of a General Court-martial, held at Fort Monroe, in 
the State of Virginia, by virtue of the following Orders, viz. : 

[More insert a copy of the Order convening the Court.] 
Fort Monroe, Virginia, 

Monday, April , 18 . 
The Court met pursuant to the above Orders. 


1. Colonel A.B. 1st Rcgt. of , Presii 

< olonel C. D. :;. Lieut-col. E. F. 

J. Lieut-col. F. G. w 5. Maj.. r W. T. 

M J 7. Copt A. N. 

8. Capt B. N. 9. Capt. C. N. 

Capt. D. M. 11. Capt. E. L. 

12. Capt. R H. l.T Capt. W. G. 

Captain S. R., Judge-advocate, 


The Court then proceeded to the trial of Captain A. B., of the 

Regiment of , who, being called into Court, and having 

heard the General Order read, was asked if he had any objection to any 
of the members named in the General Order, to which he replied in the 

The Court was then duly sworn, in his presence, and Captain A. B. 
was arraigned on the following charge and specifications, viz. : 

[Here insert the charge and specifications.] 

To which the prisoner pleaded as follows : 

Not Guilty, to the 1st specification, 
Not Guilty, to the 2d specification, 
Not Guilty, to the charge. 

All persons required to give evidence were directed to withdraw, 
and remain in waiting until called for. 

Lieut. A. B. of the 2d Regiment'of Infantry, a witness for the prose- 
cution, being duly sworn, says : that on the day of ,'&c. 

&c. . 

Question by the Judge-advocate. ? 

Answer. . 

Question by the prisoner. ? 

Answer. . 

Question by the Court. 1 

Answer. . 

The prosecution was here closed, and the prisoner produced the fol- 
lowing evidence : 

Capt. C. D. of the Corps of , a witness for the defence, being 

duly sworn, says : that on the day of , &c. &c. 

Question by the prisoner. 1 

Answer. . 

Question by the Judge-advocate. ? 

Answer. . 

Question by the Court. 1 

Answer. . 

The prisoner, having no further testimony to offer, requested to be 

indulged with days to prepare for his final defence. The Court 

granted his request, and adjourned at o'clock, P. M., to meet 

again at o'clock, A. M., on Wednesday, the day of . 



Wednesday, - , 18. 

The Court nut j.ursuant to adjournment : present all the members. 
The proceedings having been read over to the Court l>y the Judge- 
advocate, the prisoner, Captain A. B., made the following address in 
his defence : 

[ I h-re insert the defence, or if it be too long, it may bo marked, and 

The Court then closed, and proceeded to deliberate on the testimony 
adduced, and pronounced the following 


The Court, having maturely weighed and considered the evi.: 
adduced in support of it, is of opinion that &c. - &c. - , and 
does therefore - &c. - dec. 

A. B. Col. 1st Regt. of -- , 

S. R. Capt. - Kegt. of - , President. 


FORM No. 5. 

Form of an Order appointing a Garrison or Regimental Court- 

Orders, lleail-ijunrt-r<. 

No. j Fort Columbus, N. ^ . 

April , 18. 

A Garrison, [or Regimental Court-martial,] to consist of Captain C. 
D. - , 1st Lieutenant D. F. - , and 2d Lieutenant G. II. 
- , will convene at the PiWiilrnt's cjuartcrs to-morrow morning, 
at 1 1 o'clock, for the trial of Sergeant D. E. of - Company, - 
Regiment of Artillery, anl such other prisoners as may be brought lu- 

By order of Colonel A. B., 



Form of charges and specifications against a prisoner. 

Charges and specifications preferred against Capt. C. D., of tl 
Regiment of Infantry. 



Specification 1st. ... In this, that he, the said Captain C. D., of 
the 1st Regiment of Infantry, being ordered, on the 30th day of Septem- 
ber, 18 , at the Recruiting Depot, in the town of Newport, Kentucky, 
by Colonel A. B., of the 1st Regiment of Infantry, the commanding 
officer of said Depot, to take command of and march with a detachment 
of recruits, to Jefferson Barracks, in the State of Missouri, did at said 
town of Newport, at the time aforesaid, refuse to take command of and 
march with said detachment of recruits, thereby disobeying the lawful 
commands and orders of his superior and commanding officer, the said 
Colonel A. B. 

Specification 2d. . . . In this, that he the said Captain C. D., &c. &c. 

E. F. 
Major 1st Regiment of Infantry. 

FORM No. 7. 

Form of a General Order approving or disapproving the proceedings 
of a General Court-martial. 

General Order, | . Head-quarters of the Army, 

No. f January , 18 . 

I. . . At a General Court-martial, which convened at on the 

of , 18 , pursuant to General Orders, No. of Jan- 
uary 18 , and of which Brevet Brigadier-general is President, 

was tried Captain , of the Regiment of Artillery, on the 

following chargers and specifications preferred by Major , of the 

Artillery, to wit : 


[Here insert charge. See Form No. 5.] 
To which charge and specification the prisoner pleaded as follows : 

To the 1st specification [plea.] 

To the 2d specification [plea.] 

And guilty [or not guilty] to the charge. 


The Court, after mature deliberation on the testimony adduced, find 
the prisoner, Capt. , of Regiment of Artillery, as fol- 
lows : 



Of the 1st specification [tnuling.] 
Of tho2d specification -[finding.] 
And guilty [or not guilty] of the charge. 

Ami the Court do therefore sentence him, Captain , of 

Regiment of Artillery, to [hero insert sentence.] 

II. .. The proceedings, findings, and sentence are approved, [or 
disapproved,] &c., &c., &c. 

1 1 1 TO tho authority which constituted the Court will add such 
remarks as he may think proper.) 

III. . . Tho General Court-martial, of which Brevet Brigadier- 
general is President, is hereby dissolved. 

By Command of 

Major-general , 

, Adjutant-general. 

COURT OF INQUIRY. In cases where the general or com- 
manding officer may order a court of inquiry to examine into the natuiv i.f 
any transaction, accusation, or imputation, against any officer or soldier, 
the said court shall consist of one or more officers, n<>t exceeding three, 
and a judge-advocate, or other suitable person as a recorder, to reduce 
the proceedings and evidence to writiiiL', all of whom shall be sworn to 
tho faithful performance of duty. This court shall have the same power 
to summon witnesses as a court-martial, and to examine them on oath. 
But they shall not give their opinion on the merits of the case, < 
ing they shall be thereto specially required. Tho parties accused shall 
also be permitted to cross-examine and interrogate the \\itm^s-s so 
as toil fully the circumstances in the question; (Am. 1M.) 

The p; '* of a court of inquiry must be authenticated by the 

signature of the recorder and the president, and delivered to th 
manding officer, and tho said proceedings may be admitted as evidence 
by a court-mart ial, in cases not capital, or extending to tho disin 
of an officer, provided that tho circumstances are such that oral 

cannot be obtained. But courts of inqnirv are prohibited, nidess 
ed by tho President of the United States, or demanded b\ the a c- 
cuscd ; (ART. 02.) 

Tho court may bo ordered to report the facts of tho case, with or 
without an opinion th.-re,,n. Such an order will not bo complied with, 
by m< i :-tinu f tho. evidence or testimony; facts being tho result, 

-liiM-'M e fal.Iishcd by weighing all tho testimony, oral/ind docu- 
mentary, before the court. 


When a court of inquiry is directed to be assembled, the order 
should state whether the court is to report the facts or not, and also 
whether or not it is to give an opinion on the merits. The court should 
also be instructed, whether its attention is to be extended to a general 
investigation, or to be confined to the examination of particular points 
only, as the case may seem to require, in the judgment of the officer 
under whose authority it is assembled. Where the subject is multi- 
farious, the court should be instructed to state its opinion on each point 
separately, that the proper authority may be able to form his judgment. 

The court may sit with open or closed doors, according to the nature 
of the transaction to be investigated. The coupt generally sits with open 
doors ; but there may be delicate matters to be examined into, that 
might render it proper to sit with doors closed. 

The form of proceeding, in courts of inquiry, is nearly the same as 
that in courts-martial : the members being assembled, and the parties 
interested called into court, the judge-advocate, or recorder, by direction 
of the president, reads the order by which the court is constituted, and 
then administers to the members the following oath : " You shall well 
and truly examine and inquire, according to your evidence, into the 
matter now before you, without partiality, favor, affection, prejudice, or 
hope of reward : so help you God ; " (ART. 93.) 

The accusation is then read, and the witnesses are examined by the 
court ; and the parties accused are also permitted to cross-examine and 
interrogate the witnesses, so as to investigate fully the circumstances in 
question; (ART. 91.) 

The examination of witnesses being finished, the parties before the 
court may address the court, should they see fit to do so ; after which 
the president orders the court to be cleared. The recorder then reads 
over the whole of the proceedings, as well for the purpose of correcting 
the record, as for aiding the memory of the members of the court. 
After mature deliberation on the evidence adduced, they proceed to find 
a state of facts, if so directed by the order constituting the court, and to 
declare whether or not the grounds of accusation are sufficient to bring 
the matter before a general court-martial ; and also to give their opin- 
ion of the merits of the case, if so required. 

The court should be careful to examine the order by which it is 
constituted, and be particular in conforming to the directions contained 
therein, either by giving a general opinion on the whole matter, a state- 
ment of facts only, or an opinion on such facts. The proceedings of 
courts of inquiry have been returned to be reconsidered, when the court 
has been unmindful of these points. 


It has been settled that a member of a court of inquiry may be ob- 
jected to, for cause. 

The proceedings must be authenticated by the signatures of the pres- 
ident and recorder, and delivered to the commanding officer or author- 
it} which ordered the court; and the said proceedings may be admitted 
in evidence by a court-martial, in cases not capital, nor extending to the 
dismission of an officer, provided oral testimony cannot be obtained; 

Transactions may become the subject of investigation by courts of 
inquiry after the lapse of any number of years, on the application of 
the party accused, or by order of the President of the United States; 
the limitation mentioned in the 88th Article of War, being applicable 
only to general courts-martial. 

It is not necessary to publish the proceedings or opinion of the court, 
although it is usually done in general orders. 

The court is dissolved by the authority that ordered it to convene. 

COVERED WAY. A space between the counterscarp and the 
crest of the glacis in permanent works, and within the palisades, over 
which the garrison can run without being seen or subjected to the fire 
of the enemy. The crowning of the covered way by the besiegers is a. 
difficult operation, and often costs them dearly. 

COWARDICE. In all coses where a commissioned i.ffioT is ca- 

'1 for cowardice or fraud, it shall be added in the sentence, that 

the crime, name, and place of abode and punishment of the delinquent be, 

published in the newspapers, after which it shall be deemed scandal- -us 

for an officer to associate with him ; (ART. 85.) 

CRATER OF A MINE is the excavation or cavity formed in 
the ground, by the explosion of the powder. 

CREMAILLERE is an indented or zigzag outline. 

CRENELLATED loop-holed. 

CRIMES, DISORDERS, AND NBGLECTS. All crimes not capital, and 
all disorders and neglects which officers and soldiers may be guilty of, 
to the prejudice of good order and military discipline, though n>t m n- 
tioned in the Articles of War, are to be taken cognizance of by a general 
or regimental court-martial, according to the nature and degree of the 
offence, and be punished at their discretion ; (ART. 99.) (See An H. >K- 


CROTCHETS are openings cut into the glacis at the heads of 
: HCS, to enable the defenders to circulate round them. These pas- 
sages are dosed by a gate when necessary. 


CROWNING. A lodgment prepared by besiegers upon the crest 
of the glacis to make themselves masters of the covered way. It is 
effected usually by means of the SAP a method apparently slow, but 
which, advancing night and day without intermission, accomplishes great 
objects. The work is done by sappers rolling before them a very large 
gabion stuffed with wool or cotton, or fascines, to shelter themselves 
from musketry. They fill thus one gabion after another, and do not 
push forward until the portion of the trench already made has been 
well consolidated. 

CROWN-WORK is a similar worlf to horn-work, but consisting 
of two fronts instead of one. It is connected to the main works in a 
similar way, and is used for the same purposes as the horn-work. 

CROWS' FEET are iron-pointed stars, or stout nails, so fixed 
as to radiate, that in any position they may have a point uppermost. 
They are strewed on the ground over which cavalry may be expected to 
pass. (See OBSTACLES.) 

CUNETTE is a narrow ditch in the middle of a dry ditch, to keep 
it drained, as well as to form, especially when filled with water, an ob- 
stacle to an enemy. 

CURTAIN. The curtain is that part of the rampart of the body 
of the place, which lies between two bastions, and which joins their 
two flanks together. ^ 

CURTAIN ANGLE is that formed by the meeting of the flank 
and the curtain. 

CUSTOM OF WAR. The custom of war in like cases is the 
common law of the army recognized by Congress in the 69th Article 
of War, as a rule for the government of the army whenever any doubt 
shall arise not explained by the rules and articles established by Con- 
gress for the government and regulation of the army. To render a cus- 
tom valid the following qualities are requisite : 1. Antiquity ; 2. 
Continuance without interruption ; 3. Have been acquiesced in without 
dispute ; 4. It must be reasonable ; 5. Certain ; 6. Compulsory, that 
is, not left to the option of every man whether he will use it or not ; 
7. Customs must be consistent with each other. 


DAM. An impediment formed of stones, gravel, and earth, 'by which 
a stream of water is made to overflow and inundate the adjacent ground. 

DAMAGE. The costs of repairs of damage done to arms, equip- 
ments, or implements, in the use of the armies of the United States, 


shall be deducted from the pay of any officer or soldier in whose core 
or use the said arms, equipments or implements were when the said 
damages occurred : Provided, the damage was occasioned by the abuso 
or negligence of said officer or soldier. Every officer commanding a 
regiment, corps, garrison, or detachment, to make once ivory two 
months, or oftener if required, a written report to the colonel of ordnance 
stating all damages to arms so belonging to his command, and naming 
the officers and soldiers by whose negligence or abuse the damage 
occasioned ; (Aft Feb. 8, 1815.) 

DEAD ANGLE OB (DEAD GROUND) is any angle or piece 
of ground which cannot be seen, and which therefore cannot be de- 
fended from behind the parapet of the fortification. 

DEATH. Sentence of death may bo rendered by a general court- 
martial f r the following crimes only : 1. Beginning, exciting, ( . 
or joining in, any mutiny or sedition in any troop or company in the 
service of the United States, or in any party, post, detachment, or guard ; 
(ART. 7.) 2. Being present at any mutiny or sedition and not using the 
utmost endeavors to suppress the same, or coming to tho knowledge of 
any intended mutiny and not giving without delay information to the 
commanding officer ; (ART. 8.) 3. Striking his superior officer, or draw- 
ing or lifting up any weapon, or offering any violence against him, he 
being in the execution of his office, on any pretence whatsoever ; or dis- 
obeying any lawful command of his superior officer ; (ART. 9.) 4. De- 
sertion in time of war ; (ART. 20 modified by Act May 28, 1830.) 
5. Advising or persuading an officer or soldier to desert tho servi.v , 
(ART. 23.) 6. Any sentinel found sleeping on his post, or leaving it 
1). ing regularly relieved; (ART. 4C.) 7. Any officer occasioning 
false alarms in camp, garrison, or <juarters, liy discharging fire-arms, 
drawing of swords, beating of drums, or by any other means whatso- 
ever ; (.\RT.49.) 8. Doing violence to any person who brings provi- 
sions or other necessaries to tho camp, garrison, or quarters of the forces 
of the United States employed in any parts out of the said Stat es , 
51.) 9. Misbehavior before the enemy, running away or .shameful 
abandonment of any fort, post, or guard, which he may be commanded 
to defend, or speaking words inducing others to do tho like ; or . 
away arms and ammunition, or quitting his post or colors to plunder 
and pillage ; (ART. 62.) 10. Making known tho watch-word t<. any per- 
son not entitled to receive it, or giving a parole or watch-word different 
from that received; (ART. 53.) 11. Forcing a safe-guard in ! 
parts; ">.) 12. Relieving tho enemy with money, victn 

ammunition ; or knowingly harboring or protecting an enemy ; 


56.) 13. Holding correspondence with, or giving intelligence to the 
enemy, either directly or indirectly ; (ART. 57.) 14. Compelling their 
commanding officer to give up to the enemy or abandon any garrison, 
fortress, or post ; (ART. 59.) Every sentence of death in time of 
peace (in time of war it may be carried into execution by the officer or- 
dering the court, or by the commanding officer) must, before being car- 
ried into execution, be laid before the President of the United States 
for his confirmation or disapproval and orders in the case ; and no one 
can be sentenced to suffer death, except by the concurrence of two- 
thirds of the members of the court-martial, nor except in cases ex- 
pressly mentioned ; (ARTS. 65 and 87.) 

DEBLAI is the quantity of earth excavated from the ditch to form 
the remblai. Under ordinary circumstances the one is equal to the 
other, but not always ; as, from the nature of the soil, earth may have 
to be brought to supply the remblai. 

DEBT. All non-commissioned officers, artificers, privates, and 
musicians enlisted in the actual service of the United States are ex- 
empted, during their term of service, from all personal arrests for any 
debt or contract ; (Act March 3, 1799.) No non-commissioned officer, 
musician, or private shall be arrested or subject to arrest, or be taken 
in execution for any debt under the sum of twenty dollars, contracted 
before enlistment, nor for any debt contracted after enlistment ; (Act 
March 16, 1802.) 

the regiment or, in his absence, the second in command, secures the effects 
of an officer, and transmits an inventory to the department of war, that 
his executor or administrators may receive the same ; (ART. 94.) In 
the case of a soldier, the commanding officer of the troop or company, 
in presence of two other officers, takes an account of the effects he died 
possessed of, and transmits the same to the department of war, which 
said effects are to be accounted for and paid to the representatives of 
ich deceased non-commissioned officer or soldier ; (ART. 95.) 

DECISIONS. On courts-martial the majority of votes decides all 
questions as to the admission or rejection of evidence, and on other points 
involving law or custom. If equally divided, the doubt is in favor of 
the prisoner ; (HOUGH'S Military Law Authorities.) 

DEFAULTERS. If any officer employed or who has heretofore 
been employed in the civil, military, or naval departments of the Govern- 
ment, to disburse the public money appropriated for the service of those 
departments respectively, shall fail to render his account or pay over, 
in the manner and in the times required by law, or the regulations of 


the department to which he is accountable, any sum of m.-.u-y remain- 
ing in the hands of such officer, the 1st or 2d comptroller of the treasury, 
as the case may be, shall cause to be stated and entity the account 
such delinquent officer to the solicitor of the treasury, who shall im- 
mediately proceed to issue a warrant of distress against such delinquent 
officer an 1 lea, directed to the marshal or marshals of the dist rut 

or districts where they reside; and tho marshal shall proceed to 1* \ y 
and collect tho sum remaining due by distress and sale of goods ai^ chat- 
tels of suchtldinqiient officer; and, if the goods are not sufficient, tho 
same may be levied upon the person of such officer, who may be com- 
mitted to prison, there to remain until discharged by due course of law. 
But the solicitor of tho treasury, with the approbation of the secretary 
of th ' . may postpone for a reasonable time such proceedings 

where, in his opinion, the public interest will sustain no injury by such 
postponement. If any person shall consider himself aggrieved by any 
warrant issued as above, he may prefer a bill of complaint to any 
district judge of the United States, and thereupon tho judge may, if in 
his opinion the case requires it, grant an injunction to stay proceed- 
ings. If any person shall consider himself aggrieved by the decision of 
such judge either in refusing to issue the injunction, or, if granted, on its 
dissolution, such person may lay a copy of the proceedings had before 
the district judge, before a judge of the supremo court, who may either 
grant the injunction, or permit an ;, as the case may !-, it', in his 
opinion, the equity of tho case requires it; (Act May 15, 1820.) Tho 
judgment on a warrant of distress under this act, and the proceedings 
under tho judgment, are a bar to any subsequent action for the same 
erase. U. S. v. Nourso, 9 Peters 8. (See DELIMIT KM.) No men 
hereafter appropriated shall be paid to any person for his compensation, 
who is in arrears to the U. S., until such person shall have accounted 
for and paid into tho treasury, all sums f >r which ho may bo liaM. ; 
provided, nothing h.-n in contained shall be construed to extend to 
balances arising solely from d. ;.? -<-iat ion of treasury notes received If 
such person, to be expended m tho public service ; but in all cases 
where tho pay or salary of any person is withheld, in pursuance of this 
act, it shall b the duty of tho accounting oll'icers if demanded by tho 
party, his agent or attorney, to report, forthwith, to tho agent of the 
treasury department the balance due; and it shall ! th. duty of tho 
aid agent, within sixty days thereafter, to order suit to I,.- commenced 
against such delinquent and his sureties ; (Act January 25, 1828.) (See 

DEFENCE (CoArr). Possible causes and objects of attack may be 


conquest or the destruction of commercial ports of more or less value ; 
the possession of depots ; the destruction of naval docks ; or taking 
advantage of the weakness or absence of troops, to levy contributions. 
The parapets of all coast and harbor defences should be constructed of 
earth, where favorable sites can be found ; but for low sites that can 
be approached within grape-shot range, such batteries must give place 
to masonry defences, and where masonry-casemated castles with three 
tiers of guns in casemates, and with guns and mortars on the roofs are 
resorted to, embrasures of wrought iron, like the model embrasures of 
Fort Richmond, New York harbor, will be found applicable. With 
such batteries well constructed, the direct fire of ships has little effect. 
Movable columns of troops in numbers, depending on the probable 
object of the enemy, must be held in some central position. If rail- 
roads are to convey the troops, a central point within a radius of sixty 
miles will be within good supporting distance. If railroads are not 
relied on, the distance should not be greater than fifteen miles.' The 
columns should be at least seven-tenths infantry, one-tenth cavalry, and 
two-tenths field artillery. The latter being useful to oppose the de- 
barcation of troops. The French charge both the fleet and the army 
with the movable defence of coasts. Steamers and flotillas, armed 
with howitzers, are particularly suited to that object. Corps of troops 
assembled at some central position are held ready to be thrown upon a 
threatened point. Batteries of howitzers give their aid to these corps. 
Concerted signals are arranged. 

The ordinance of Jan. 3, 1843, directs that in military ports the 
naval forces shall be specially charged, under the orders of the com- 
manding officer of the land forces, with the armament, service, and 
guard of the batteries looking directly upon the harbors, and upon in- 
terior roadsteads adjacent to these harbors, as well as upon the passes 
conducting to these interior roadsteads. Whenever the works to which 
those batteries belong do not form a principal part of the system of 
defence on the land side of the place and its dependencies, the per- 
sonnel of the permanent batteries intrusted to the land forces is fur- 
nished from the artillery, by other troops, by the national guard, by 
revenue service men, .or by ancient cannoneers taken from the coast 
population, at the rate of five men to a gun, one of whom must be an 
experienced gunner. The permanent works for defence are divided 
into three classes, according to their importance : 1st Class. Works 
for the defence of military harbors, large commercial harbors, and the 
principal points of islands. These fortifications are composed of exte- 
rior forts, capable, of resisting regular attacks, obstructing bombard- 


ments, &c. 2d Class. Works which protect anchorages and channels 
suited to ships of war. They consist of a system of forts or batteries 

the place. 3d Class. Works defending small commer- 
cial ports, anchorages suited to merchantmen, places of refuge for coast- 
ing vessels. These consist of batteries with redoubts. 

This classification regulates the supply of the batteries, but does not 
determine absolutely their armament. This must be n -^ulatcd by 
various circumstances, as must also the relative strength of t 
doubts. The armament of batteries is regulated by the strength of the 
ships they may have to repel, and the latter depend upon the nature 
of the coast, and principally upon the depth of water. 32-pound* -r uuns 
and 8-inch howitzers are employed against ships at a distance of 2,600 
yards. Guns begin the fire with round shot ; the fire is continued u ith 
hollow sh"t. 13-inch mortars, whose range extends to 4,300 yards, 
are reserved for the ships at anchor. Experience has proved that a 
battery of four pieces of heavy calibre has the advantage of a ship of 
120 guns. Projectiles ricochet better uj>n the \vatrr than upon the 
land, and lose less of their force; they can, after having r inched at 
1,300 yards, pass through the sides of a thn e-d. < -kel ship. Hollow 
projectiles penetrate the sWes underneath the water line, and open 
large water holes by their explosion. 

The number of 24 and 32-pound shot that timber ships have re- 
i in their sides without being disabled, ought perhaps to have 
caused their relincjuishment in the armament of coast batteries in Ku- 
rope. With James* projectile (See RIFLED ORDNANCE) such pm^. 
whrn rifled, will again play an important part in dH< n . In the 
United States, such guns have been replaced by ; 
the 42-p"imd r, retained of late ye-irs only as a hot-shot gun, may soon 
give way to 8 and 10-inch e"liiml>iads capable of being used as shell or 
hot guns; adding also, when necessary, Rodman's 15-inch >hn 
which, with shells of from 305 to 410 Ibs., mi^ht with a single missile 
disable, if not entirely destroy the vessel at which it was diivrted with 
6 elevation, when 2,000 yards distant. In many trials at that distance 

it ions were only from 1 t.. ."> \anU.and the time of 
J to 7 seconds. With 28 35' elevation, and a <!. 
lb., the range of the shell is from 5,435 to .">. is, and tii, 

27 seconds. 

ht to be given the battery above the level of the 
> 16 yards. To fire at point blank: if the aim is a little 
lower the ricochet brings it upon the ship. Red-lut shot may l>e 
fired from columbiods. If engaged with many ships, direct all the 


pieces of the battery upon that one most in range. Learn exactly the 
distances of all the most remarkable points, and post the information 
in the store-room and guard-room, in order that the distance of 
vessels may be easily determined. Observe the ricochets upon the 
water. Fire round shot upon disembarkations. Guard carefully 
against surprises. Observe every thing going on at sea and on land. 
Be attentive to all signals. Watch over the preservation of material 
with care ; air the magazine in dry weather ; move the gun carriages 
every day. It is important that a battery should have the elevation 
above given. With that elevation it will not be exposed to ricochet 
shot from ships, but the ricochets from the battery, losing but little 
of their force upon the water, will enable even 24-pounder shots, fired 
under four degrees, to pierce the side of a vessel, however strong it may 
be, at a distance of 640 yards and more. It is important to direct a 
heavy fire on ships before anchoring, especially upon the rigging, as 
the loss of a spar and a few ropes may oblige them to anchor where it 
is not intended, and thus derange the other ships. In the formation of 
batteries, regard should be had to the probable number of men that 
may be obtained to serve them. In the defence of coasts, booms are 
essential either to bar access to a harbor or river, or to cut off the re- 
treat of the enemy if an entrance has been effected by surprise. Booms 
should be immediately under the fire of a battery, and are usually made 
of heavy chains floated by logs. It is unsafe to trust to a single line 
of booms in the main channel. Booms need not extend entirely across 
an entrance. Shallow or otherwise inaccessible parts may be omitted, 
and in order not to impede navigation unnecessarily, 100 yards of 
boom may be withdrawn from the channel, but always kept ready for 
replacing ; [Aide Memoire a V Usage d* Artillerie, cc.) 

DEFENCE, BEFORE A COURT-MARTIAL. In point both of law and 
reason, a court-martial has as much power over the evidence introduced 
by the prisoner as over that of the prosecutor, and can reject the wit- 
nesses of the one as well as the other, or any part of such witnesses' 
testimony. Courts-martial are particularly guarded in adhering to the 
custom which obtains, of resisting every attempt on the part of counsel 
to address them ; but cases have occurred, in which professional gentle- 
men in attendance have been permitted to read the defence prepared 
for the prisoner. A court will prevent a prisoner from adverting to 
parties not before the court, or only alluded to in evidence, further than 
may be actually necessary. All coarse and insulting language should 
be avoided, in any part of the defence ; (HOUGH'S Law Authorities.) 

DEFENCE, (NATIONAL.) This subject is much associated, in 


the popular mind, with ships, forts, and the preparation and proper 
distribution of all munitions of war; but important as they ar. 
not here proposed to discuss those^questions. It is not necess 
combat an idea which all history controverts, that a largo naval f.-nv 

e able, by cruising in front of our extended coast, to j> 
a hostile expedition from landing on our shores.* The reluctant ad- 
mission of the historian Alison may be accepted, that in the f 
greatly superior maritime forces, Ireland was, for sixteen davs. in 1 " .' . 
at the mercy of Iloche's expedition of 25,000 men, and neither the 
skill of English sailors, nor the valor of English armies, but the fury 
of the elements, saved them from the danger. " While these consider- 

.'' continues Alieon, " arc fitted to abate confidence in invasion, 
they are, at the same time, calculated to weaken an overweening con- 
fidence in naval superiority, and to demonstrate that the only base on 
which certain reliance can bo placed, even by an insular power, is a well- 
disciplined army and the patriotism of its own subject.*. 

Nor is it necessary to waste argument on the exploded idea tlu.t 
ships can contend witli f.rts.f The results of such contests in cur 
country, at Fort Moultrie, Mobile Point, Stonington, and l-'.-rt 
M- Henry, abundantly show that our sea-board defences, if empl<-t,'d 

the supervision of our able engineers, and properly garrisoned, 
will resist, successfully, any merely naval aggressions, and it has been 
well said that in the British and French naval attack en Sebastopol, 

17, 1854,) the final experiment of wooden ships against granite 
and earthen walls was made, never we believe again to be repeated, un- 
til iron clad-ships range up in line of battle; (Sec IRON PLATES.) But 
the Crimean war did show with what facility large armies are transported 
by water, and it conclusively proves that the great maritime ].. >\v 
look to their armies to accomplish in future wars what it would be idle 
to expect from a navy alone, and that by the organization of forces 

! to bring into action the physical strength of the country with a 

e;it knowledge of their duty and just ideas of discipline and sub- 

"l Mi-'h armies must be met. The means here proposed to 

accomplish this great unchanged the militia- 

laws of the Union, but an 'effort will bo made to show in what manner 

For ft sketch of UM principal maritime expedition* *e Jominl's Art of War, translated by- 
Major Winahip and Lieut He-Lain. Bee ako the report of a board of officer, submitted at the 
first seeaioD of UM Mtb ConfTMa (Hoe. 46). containing numerous Illustration* from history, show- 
ing the Impracticability of eoTcrtnf even a nmall extent of coast by crnNnj: In fn-nt of It. 

t The mbject Is ably diaeiuaed la "Halleck'a Military Art and Science," tinder tho head of 

Report of Oca. CM* while 8*creUry of War, on National Defence, 


existing institutions may be applied to the great purpose in view, by 
a simple enactment granting to the States, in the words of the Consti- 
tution, the consent of Congress " to keep troops" 

Francis Lord Bacon has wisely said that " the principal point of 
greatness in any state is to have a race of military men ; " and else- 
where, in his enumeration of the elements of true greatness in a state, 
he writes : " that it consisteth also in the value and military disposition 
of the people it breedeth, and in this that they make profession of arms. 
And it consisteth also in the commandment of the sea." But he 
writes : " In the measuring or balancing of greatness, there is commonly 
too much ascribed to largeness of territory, to treasure or riches, to 
the fruitfulness of the soil or affluence of commodities, and to the 
strength and fortification of towns and holds." What was made evi- 
dent to Bacon by the lore of ages is equally true now. If we, as a 
people, neglect our military resources, do not foster the military spirit 
of the people, but on the contrary disregard military merit, and even 
neglect to honor and reward great military services rendered to the 
state, we cannot breed a race of military men, and are. in danger of 
verifying the assertion of de Tocqueville, in his Observations upon De- 
mocracy in America, that " the military career "was little honored and 
badly followed in time of peace." * * * That " this public disfavor 
is a very heavy burden, which bows down all military spirit," and that 
if such a people should undertake " a war after a long peace, they would 
run a much greater risk than any other people of being beaten." 

The existing institutions which may be used as aids in organizing a 
system of National Defence are the Military Academy, the army of the 
United States, and the militia of the States. The Military Academy is 
already in successful operation. The first step, then, towards proper 
State organizations should be to give attention to the regular army to 
make it, in fact, an aid or staff for the perfect development of the physi- 
cal strength of the country. To do this, a system of recruiting is 
needed in harmony with our institutions and the manner in which all 
militia force must be collected. It is the several States which furnish 
the militia force ; let the regular army, therefore, be recruited by States. 
Let every regiment have its depot in a particular district of country, 
and, with the present rate of pay given to the non-commissioned officers 
and privates, with the reward of promotion from the ranks bestowed 
whenever merited, we should soon have an army, in the different 
parts of which the various sections of the country would take a lively 
interest. In an army thus collected, which offered a career worthy of 
being sought, an esprit- de-corps would soon be developed which we may 


in vain sevk in our present establishment, and such an army, instead 

H regarded by their countrymen as strangers in sympathy and 

pursuit, might be made the nucleus of science and strength, around 

which tho mental and physical force of the country could be con- 

-d in war. To accomplish this great object, other changes are 

also necessary, but much lies within tho discretion of the President, an. I 

upon his recommendation it is not doubted that Congress will legislate 

legislation is required. 

If the idea be just that tho skeleton regular establishment is main- 
tained in peace, as a nucleus to be expanded in war, to meet the wants 
of the country, the President should be careful not so to distribute that 
force as to make this great purpose unattainable or difficult when war 
may impend. If it be possible so to locate tho troops as Jo give them 
all possible instruction, and, at the same time, not neglect our Indian 
frontiers, the latter object should not bo suffered to override thalf other 
most paramount consideration. 

Look at any map of the United States, and attempt for a moment 
to realize the .vast extent of our possessions. Bring your mind back 
to the period when railroads did not afford those facilities which wo 
now have, in a portion of our country, for quickly passing over hun- 
dreds of miles, and you may no longer consider that military posts in 
Texas, New Mexico, California, Oregon, Ace., and on the routes to those 
distant States and Territories, have such means of communication as 
would enable us to bring together any respectable force in a short 
period. Bear in mind that tho whole army of tho United States con- 
sists of but one hundred and ninety-eight companies, and that these 
companies are scattered in posts which dot our immense territory. 
Realize this, and then answer, is it possible for the small mimic T of 
troops thus stationed to prevent marauding parties of Indians from 
passing between these posts and committing depredations either in 
Mexico or upon our own people ? No candid inquirer will assert the 
possibility! What, then, is remedy ? Settlers upon oir Indian fron- 
tiers must be provided with arms ; and tho United States Government, 
besides encouraging Indians to err: 1 < tin r arts f 

peace, must hold tribes responsible W the acts of individuals. Whero 
predatory bands of Indians have been known to proceed against M< \ 
ico or our own people, the tribe must be ma<l<> answerable, and no vain 
pursuit be made after the marauding party. We must severely 

o them understand that the United States r.-ijuire 
head men to govern and control th.-ir young men. That, for tho acts 
of any individuals of tho tribe, we will not fail, in any instance, to pun- 


ish the tribe for such predatory acts. An occasional campaign mado 
against Indians to punish them for misdeeds, produces lasting effects, 
and will always prove far more efficacious in guarding the lives and 
property of our citizens, than the present system of small posts, which, 
by the impunity they afford, only encourages a spirit of adventure in 
Indian tribes. Another advantage in breaking up the present vicious 
system of small posts, would be the establishment of schools of instruc- 
tion for cavalry, artillery, engineers, and infantry. We now have a 
preparatory school for the cultivation of military science, at West 
Point ; but, if officers of the army, after graduating there, are left 
without means or motives for improvement, and on remote stations 
suffer their minds to degenerate from want of exercise and competition, 
the Military Academy will have accomplished but very partially the 
great object of its institution. If the army is to be made the rallying 
point and instructor of our countrymen in war, it should keep pace with 
the improvements made in Europe, and this can only be done by as- 
sembling the engineers, and the three arms of the service, together, in 
schools of practice. Let those schools of practice be properly located : 
and, besides, the great results thus to be obtained by embodying the 
troops, detachments could at any time be sent to strike and punish 
tribes of Indians that failed to keep the peace. With one large detach- 
ment on the Atlantic coast ; another at ^Jefferson barracks; a third in 
New Mexico, and a fourth on the Pacific, the army might be kept in a 
high state of discipline and efficiency, and soon made, by legislation, all 
that it should be. With an army so established, it would be apparent 
that all officers should be active, intelligent, and progressive. A retired 
list should provide for veterans, and proper legislation would enable 
commanding officer^ to appoint their own staff officers, in recognition 
of the established principle that such officers are the assistants of com- 
manders of troops. Such a change would be necessary to insure the 
just responsibility of commanding officers, as well as proper instruc- 
tion by alternation of duty in the line and staff; and by instituting a 
rigid system of inspection, which would inform the general-in-chief and 
Secretary of War of the legitimacy of the acts of all commanders, de- 
fects of organization, errors of administration, and pernicious customs 
of service would be made known and corrected by the Executive and 

General Orders, No. 17, of 1854, contain very well-considered reg- 
ulations for carrying into effect the 5th section of the Act of Congress 
of August 4, 1854, relative to the promotion of non-commissioned 
officers. Let us now abandon a system of recruiting, which burdens 


the army with the scum of cities, and promotion from tho ranks would 
follow aa. regularly as from a lower to a higher grade of commissions. 
In a republican army caste should not exist, and it will help to break 
down that distinction now dividing officers and solders, leaving only 
the necessary dUK-rvm v in grades from private to general, if the army 
should be r.oruitcd by means of regimental recruiting depots so located, 
that different States shall consider different raiments as raised within 
their respective limits. 

Our army organized and collected, as herein recommended, could 
easily, on tho approach of war, by tho addition to each regiment <.f two 
battalions, and by increasing the number of privates in a company, be 
mndo fifty thousand strong, and this federal f : as it would 

In-, in harmony with State troops, would constantly have k. pt pace 
with the advance of professional knowledge in Europe, and bo capable 
of diffusing that knowledge throughout the country by means < f the 
respective State organizations to be now considered. 

If the first French revolution did not inaugurate tho ideas of liberty 
and equality, it at least first inculcated by practice tho correlative duty 
of every citizen to defend his country. Accustomed as Americans 
are to borrow ideas from the English press, it is not remarkable that 
the outcry made by that aristocratic community against I-Yeneh (in- 
scription should have been echoed in our own country. But in tin- 
language of General Knox, " It is the wisdom of political establishments 
to make the wealth of individuals subservient to tho general good, and 
not to suffer it to corrupt or attain undue indulgence. Every State 
possesses not only tho right of personal service from its members, l.ut 
the right to regulate the service on principles of equality f..r the gen- 
eral defence. If people, solicitous to bo exoncrat id from tin 'ir propor- 
tion of public duty, exclaim against tho only reliable means of defence, 
as an intolerable hardship, it cannot be too strongly impressed nj.nn 

hat while society has its charms, it also has its indispc 
obligations. That to attempt such a degree of refinement as t< 
erate the members of the community from all j , is to 

render them incapable of the exercise and unworthy .f the characters 
of freemen. 11 

Let us, then, no longer permit the marv.-U of industry in which our 
countrymen have been eminently successful, so far to dazzlo us as to 
make us forget the lessons of past history. The Italian rej.uM 
the Middle Ages had made groat strides in industry and tin arts. The 
republic of the United Netherlands was enriched by commerce in the 
time of DC \Vitf. But it has been well said, that in bcndin- 


whole energies to the attainment of riches, and neglecting their military 
resources, Italy became the prey of foreigners, and Holland only se- 
cured national independence by the sacrifice of political liberty. 

The history of modern tactics proves " that preparation in peace 
gives victory upon fields of battle." The mobility of troops, as now- 
organized, armed, and instructed ; the quantity, and still more the kind 
of artillery used, render a passive resistance, such as that formerly 
made, impossible. The impossibility of resisting attacks by such means 
causes the defence to seize the moment in which the attacking party 
uncovers himself to resort to the offensive, and hence the issue is now 
mo^e quickly decided, and conquest more rapid than it was a hundred 
years ago. The ease with which large bodies of men are now trans- 
ported, the rapidity of all preparatory manoeuvres, as well as the 
greatly increased mobility in action of instructed troops, admits of the 
ready concentration of great numbers of such men, without the machine 
becoming too heavy or unmanageable, or its component parts losing 
the sentiment of order. It therefore follows that the loss of a battle, 
in consequence of the numbers engaged, is now much more important 
than it formerly was, and that such loss resulting from incapacity to 
manoeuvre, or want of discipline, may involve the most disastrous con- 
sequences. If the people of the United States suppose that the facilities 
which our railroads offer enable us to concentrate larger masses of men 
in a short period, the answer must be made that DISCIPLINE is the soul 
of an army, and that without the habit of obedience, an assemblage of 
men in battle can never be more than a panic-stricken mob. Instances 
in our own history are not rare to verify this truth. The fields of 
Princeton, Savannah River, Camden, Guilford Court-House, &c., dur- 
ing our Revolutionary War, not to speak' of later disasters, amply 
sustain the declaration of Washington, that such undisciplined forces 
are nothing more than a " destructive, expensive, and disorderly mob." 
" When danger is a little removed from them, they will not turn out 
at all. When it comes home to them, the well-affected, instead of fly- 
ing to arms to defend themselves, are busily employed in removing 
their families and effects ; while the disaffected are concerting measures 
to make their submission, and spread terror and dismay all around, to 
induce others to follow their example. Daily experience and abundant 
proofs warrant this information. Short enlistments and a mistaken 
dependence upon our militia, have been the origin of all our misfor- 
tunes, and the great accumulation of our debt. The militia come in, 
you cannot tell how ; go, you cannot tell when ; and act, you cannot 
tell where ; consume your provisions, exhaust your stores, and leave 


you at last at a critical moment." Such facts, bringing tan-fully h un- 
to us the contrast between indiscipline and discipline, it is hoped, 
may yet cause our countrymen to heed the admonition of tin Father 
of his country, that " lu peace we must prepare for war." Lot us not 
*B ourselves by supposing that, when danger becomes imminent, 
Congress will take the necessary measures to meet it. The steps which 
are necessary call for sacrifices from tho people, and unless public 
opinion sanctions tho means, Congress, in tho day of trial, will always 
be found to represent misdirected popular opinions. 

Tho veteran, Mr. Hales, in the National Intelligencer on tho occa- 
sion of tho death of Mrs. Madison, gave a picture of the inertness of the 
last session of the War Congress of 1814-1"). His recollections <>f tho 
past furnish instructive lessons of what we may expect in the future, 
if the attention of the people of the Unite* 1 States l>e not fixed on the 
necessary sacrifices which love of country demands. So believi: 
tracts from his historical sketch arc here quoted in the firm persuasion 
that the measures, then recommended, are essential to tho safety of our 
cities and towns, if some organization by States, at least, as eflleient as 

;ie recommended by General Knox, with the sanction 
of General Washington, be not adopted in time of peace when 
tured scheme may be well digested. Mr. Gales writes: "Congress 
had assembled on tho 19th of September preceding not, as might be 
supposed from the date, in consequence of tho then recent capture of 
y [of Washington] by the enemy, but in pursuance of a requisi- 
tion by the President anterior to that event, calling Congress together 
(as tho President informed the two Houses, in his message at the 
opening of that session) for the purpose of supplying tho inadeqnat y 
of the finances to the existing wants of the Treasury, and of making 
further and more effectual provisions for prosecuting the war. During 
tho recess of Congress, the honor of the arms of tho United States had 
been gallantly sustained in every conflict by land and sea; politically 
. the capture of Washingon itself, and the destruction of the 

"thcr public buildings, so fir frmi bein-j a misfortune, 
was for the administration a fortunate event, by its effect in exciting 
indignant feelings throughout the country, uniting the people in support 
common cause, and preparing their minds for the additional bur- 
den of ti\ati>n which it had bee. .me ..b\ious that they must be called 

All that was wanting to tho vigorous prosecution of tho 
war, was tho prm Moo f men and money for tho purpose. Tho pro- 
gress of recruiting for filling the ranks of tho regular army had nl 
proved entirely too slow, if not total failure, as had tho resource of 


loans for the support of the Government, as well as for carrying on the 
war. The army, whose organization was, on paper, more than 62,000 
men, comprised an actual force of only 32,000, exclusive of officers, of 
which force probably not more than one half could be relied on for 
effective service ; and the credit of the Government had sunk so low 
that plummet could hardly sound the depth of its degradation. 

" At the opening of the session, the President, in his communication 
to the two Houses of Congress, with eloquent persuasion, endeavored 
to impress upon them the necessity of making immediate provision for 
filling the ranks of the army, and replenishing the treasury. In this 
purpose he was earnestly seconded by Secretary Monroe, of the War 
Department, and the new Secretary (Mr. Dallas) of the Treasury De- 

" Towards the first of these objects, a bill was soon matured, and 
afterwards received the assent of Congress, extending the age at which 
recruits might be enlisted to fifty years, doubling the bounty in land 
to each, and removing the interdiction upon recruiting minors and ap- 
prentices. This measure was a mere experiment, of no practical value, 
as the event showed. The plan for filling the ranks of the army upon 
which the Executive relied, and which was placed before the Senate in 
a bold and energetic report from the War Secretary, was to form into 
classes of 100 each, all the population of the United States fit for militia 
duty, out of every class of which four men for the war were to be 
furnished within thirty days after the classification, by choice or by 
draught, and delivered over to the recruiting officer of each district, to 
be marched to such places of general rendezvous as might be directed 
by the Secretary of War. This plan, which, as the reader will perceive, 
comprised all the essential features of the French conscription, though, 
perhaps, the only one which at the time promised effective results, 
found from the first no favor, especially in the House of Representa- 
tives ; and became more and more obnoxious, the more the adminis- 
tration seemed to have it at heart. Hardly any one in Congress had 
the courage to allude to it. Mr. Troup did indeed prevail upon the 
Military Committee, of which he was chairman, to allow him to report 
a bill, conformable to the Executive recommendation, by the pregnant 
title of ' An Act making provision for filling the ranks of the regular 
army, by classing the free male population of the United States ; ' and 
the bill was referred to a Committee of the whole House, and never after 
heard of. In the course of the session some acts had passed, looking 
to the employment of volunteers and detachments of militia, under the 
old plan, for short terms ; and one of more importance, ' to authorize 


the President of the United States to accept the service of State troops 
and volunteers.' This last was not only the most effective measure 
which had passed towards the supply of men for carrying on the \\ 
but it was the most so that was likely to pass. 

" The truth to say, indeed, notwithstanding tho nature of the emer- 
gency, a dogged inertness seemed to paralyze the action of Congress 
during the latter part of that session. The recommendation to recruit 
the army by drafts from the militia was not only unwelcome, as we 
have said, but revolting to the inclination of the popular branch of 
Congress ; so much so, that a great proportion of the members of that 
body (and among them some of the leading and most conspicuous 
members of the republican party) shrunk from it as from the plague ; 
and, as though the leprous influence of that proposition contaminated 
every other part of the plans of the administration, it was with almost 
equal reluctance that the House approached the consideration of ad- 
equate measures (such as Mr. Secretary Dallas frankly and fearlessly 
recommended) for the support of the public credit, and f >r strength 
ing tho sinews of war." * 

From the foregoing sketch of the past, it is evident that, unless tho 
opinions and prejudices of the people of the United States bo greatly 
any attempt to raise large armies in the most critical emer- 
gencies, without the agency of States, must prove a failure. In order, 
fore, to provide for the "common defence," the aid of State or- 
ganizations will be necessary, and several plans, more or less efficient, 
have consequently been proposed to better the organization of the 
militia. All such attempts have, however, met with no favor from 
t!..- people ; and, indeed, it is much to bo doubted whether tho consti- 
tutional reservation to tho States "of training the militia according to 
the discipline prescribed by Congress," and governing th. rn, except 
when called forth "to execute the laws of the Union, sin ur- 

"iis and repel invasions," will admit of any "good, ci n- 

nniform, and national system of organization." The division of 
auth- > by the constitution between tho United States and the 

several States, in regard to the, militia, until called forth by tin- Federal 
Government, has left with Congress only the right to provide for "or- 
ganizing, arming, and disciplining tho militia;" but discipline, in that 
restricted sense, without power to regulate the appointment of officers 

la rtriklnf contra* with this Inertness of Congress, the Legislature of New Tork MMmbled 
on the Nth of September. 1814, passed by the Mth of October a bill glrlng additional pay to the 
militia from the Bute trwwary, an act to encourage prlrateerfng and an act to rniso twelve t 
and State troops by conscription or classification. See Hammond's Political History of New 
York, roLL pp. S80-L 


or otherwise to govern, means little more than prescribing a system 
of tactics, and such discipline can never make soldiers. 

There is, however, another suggestion in the Constitution of the 
United States, for providing for the common defence, which is obnox- 
ious to none of the objections made against large standing armies, and 
which commends itself to favorable consideration, as being in harmony 
with the Federal Government, and capable of furnishing any number of 
disciplined soldiers which the exigency of our foreign relations may 
require, without outrage to the instincts of the people of the States. 
The tendency of the multiplication of States in our confederacy is to 
restrict the authority of the general Government over the internal 
affairs of the people of the States. This has been shown by breaking 
down the Bank of the United States, establishing the independent 
treasury, refusing appropriations for internal improvements, and, lastly, 
leaving to the people of Territories the regulation of their own institu- 
tions. The maxim " that the world is governed too much," has been 
sturdily preached, and it may become necessary not to shrink from 
maintaining our doctrine in the face of foreign powers. To do this we 
must arm for defence, and the consistent mode of doing so, is for 
Congress to give its consent for the several States to " keep troops;" 
more particularly as the history of our country has shown that public 
opinion will not admit any other efficient military organization. States 
now have authority to keep troops in time of war, but for such troops 
to be useful in war, they must be prepared in peace ; but as the Consti- 
tution of the United States forbids States " to keep troops in time of 
peace without the consent of Congress," that consent could be given with 
conditions attached, and those conditions, besides providing for the 
common defence in war, should require the organization and instruction 
of State troops to conform with that of the army of the United States, 
or rather wfth the cavalry, harnessed batteries of artillery, and infantry 
of the army. 

To encourage States in such organizations, let Congress provide for 

the annual distribution of dollars among the several States 

and Territories in proportion to their enrolled militia force, upon satis- 
factory evidence being furnished to the Secretary of War, that such 
States have organized camps of instruction during two months in the 
year, containing a number of troops not less than one-twentieth of the 
enrolled militia force of the State. Direct the President to furnish to 
the several State governors, upon their requisition, such army officers 
as they may desire to aid the commanders of the camps of instruction, 
and the information collected and kept up in the army will thus be dif- 


fused throughout the country. The different States will take pride in 
their respective organizations, and would recruit their respective armies 
according to the genius of their people. Their military codes would 
react upon each other, and upon that of the United States. An : 
in military affairs would take the place of present derision, and more 
thffl all, the United States might laugh to scorn the efforts of any invader. 
The Prussian Landwehr of the first ban, to which the proposed or- 
ganization is assimilated, is considered a reserved army, n maining by 
ii resides in times of peace, except during their annual seasons of 
manoeuvring, but ready to appear in case of war upon the fust call, 
organized, equipped, and armed to serve like the line of the am y, 
either at home or abroad. The Prussian territory is divided into as 
many districts as there are battalions of the Landwehr of the first ban. 
Each district furnishes a battalion of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, 
a company of artillery, and some other detachments. The battalions 
and squadrons are named from the principal town of their distri 

-; of arms, clothing, camp and garrison equipage, and cavalry and 
artillery equipments, are there locate. 1. The districts of the Landwehr 
are also the recruiting districts of the lino of the army ; and, as troops 
the same district serve t.^,tii.r, there naturally exist Let \se.n 
those corps ties of consanguinity, which dispel all feelings of superior- 
id cause them mutually to sustain each other in time of da: 
In each district of the Landwehr, the following small list of ofiieers 
are permanently paid. For the infantry : one major commanding, one 
adjutant, who is also accountant, four first servants, and four second 
sergea: per company,) ei_ht eorpm-als, (two per coin pan \ 

one armorer. For the cavalry : one captain, or first licutcna 

rmastcr-scrgcant, and three corporals. The paid commanders 
of battalions are charged with the assistance of their stall* with the 
pcrionncl and materiel of the Landwehr, and are accountable f.r the 
ordnance and military stores in depot in their districts. Tin- fir 
gcants keep the list of names In lin-iM- to their companies, and no man 
can absent himself without notifying them. 

If all the States of the Union did not deem it Letter under this sys- 
keep up a small permanent force, it is supposed that they would 
all find it necessary to maintain a small skeleton or^anixation of officers 
and non-commissioned officers, similar to that of the Prussian Land\v-hr 
first ban. And if such officers and n<>n-< ommissioned officers were 
appointed by the States fr | and non-commissioned ofliecrswho 

have honorably retin-d from the army, a new link would be established be- 
tween the army and State troops which would prove mutually beneficial. 


To resume, then : the system of national defence or military organi- 
zation herein suggested, as suitable for the United States is : 1. The 
promotion of the most thorough organization and instruction of the 
United States army, by concentrating troops at strategic points ; chang- 
ing the system of recruiting ; creating a retired list for officers of the 
army, and providing for alternation of duty in the line and the staff, so 
that the whole army may be made really an aid or staff for the per- 
fect development of the physical strength of the whole country. 2. 
An act of Congress authorizing the several States to keep troops in 
time of peace, provided their respective regimental organizations of cav- 
alry and infantry shall conform to the regimental organization of those 
arms instituted by Congress. 3. An annual appropriation by Congress 
to be distributed among the several States in proportion to the enrolled 
militia force of the State, provided satisfactory evidence is brought 
before the Secretary of War that such State has had within its limits, 
during two months of the year, organized camps of instruction in which 
were assembled a number of troops not less than one-twentieth of the 
enrolled militia force of the State. 4. Requiring the President to 
furnish to State governors, upon their requisitions, such army officers 
as may be desired to aid commanders of State camps of instruction, so 
that the information collected in the federal army may be extended to all 
State organizations. 5. Giving authority to the President to muster 
into the service of the United States, State troops, in all cases in which 
he is now authorized by law to call forth the militia. (See CALLING 

DEFILADING- consists in raising the parapets of a fortress or 
field-work, or in depressing the terre-pleins so much as to conceal the 
interior of the work from the view of an enemy on an elevated position. 
It also consists in directing the magistral lines of its parapets toward 
points, where local impediments, as rivers, marshes, lakes, &c., would 
prevent a besieger from constructing batteries. The former is defilad- 
ing by relief, the latter is termed defilading by the trace or plan. 
When a field-work has been necessarily constructed in such a situation 
that it may be commanded by some height within range of artillery, 
the defilading is made by raising the parapet, or constructing traverses 
in the interior of the work. The necessary trace for a field-work to 
accomplish these objects is more expeditiously effected by the eye and 
a few poles and profiles, than by resorting to theoretical and scientific 
proceedings, which constitute a part of the art of the engineer, and 
which are indispensable considerations in permanent fortification. 

DEFILE. Any narrow passage as a ford, a bridge, a road 


through a village, mountain passes, dec., aro defiles. To pass a 

. it is necessary first to drive away, as far as possible, the enemy. 
Under cover of this engagement, other troops pass the defile as soon as 
they reach it. The aim should be to pass the defile as quickly as pos- 
sible ; whether advancing or retreating. The passage in double columns 
wi^l facilitate the formation in order of battle on the right and on the 
left after liaving passed the defile, and this order has the advantage of 
occupying both sides of the road. But it cannot be too strongly urged 
that quickness in the passage is the great consideration, and tin -n tic -al 
.-way to this primary object If the defile is a 
ford or bridge, and the passage in retreat, formations on the bank of the 
after the passage, ought not to take place. Combats separated 
by a river end in nothing, and the worst possible way of defending a 
bridge or ford is taking positions too near it. The enemy Mould cer- 
tainly unite his artillery upon the opposite bank, and not attempt the 
passage until he had greatly worsted the defenders of the ford or bridge 
by his projectiles. The defenders would lose many men, ami would 
probably have been demoralized before coming to close quarters. It is 
necessary then to wait until a portion of the enemy passes the 1. ridge or 
f -rd. If the enemy be then vigorously attacked the defenders \\ill, by 
a hand-to-hand conflict, render nugatory his artillery on the oppo- 
site bank, as well as all of his troops that have not yet crossed. To 
accomplish this intended purpose, it will only be necessary to place 
troops at some point, at full cannon range from the bridge, or if the. 
uts of ground admit of cover, nearer still to the bridge. If a 
bridge is passed in advancim:, the troops which pass first are pushed 
forward to gain as much ground as possible, and thus favor the passage 
of other troops, by relieving them of the dangers of the eomliat. In 
this ease the simplest and most rapid method of crossing is the 1-M. 
(Consult Aperyu tur yttelques Details de la Guerre, par MAI 

I H-UNMIKNT,' (DISBURSING OFFICERS.) Such officers n... ; 
dismissed by the President of the United States on failure to n nder 
f disbursements quarterly in the United States, and 
six months if resident in a foreign country; (Act January 31, 
1828.) y:u.) 

DBMILUNE is a work constructed to cover the curtain and 
shoulders of the bastion. I? is composed of two faees f..nnini: a salient 
angle townr -miry, has two demi-jrnrires formed by the eoiinter- 

scarp,and is surrounded by a ditch. The demilune issorm times termed 
a ravelin. 


DEPARTMENT. Any general officer commanding an army, or 
colonel commanding a separate department, may appoint general court- 
martial, whenever necessary ; (ART. 65.) 

Besides the territorial divisions, called Departments, in the Rules 
and Articles of War, the term is also applied to the following branches 
of the service : Adjutant-general's, Inspector-general's, Medical, Pay, 
Ordnance, Quartermaster's, and Subsistence Departments. 

DEPARTMENT OF WAR. There shall be an Executive Depart- 
ment, to be denominated the Department of War ; and there shall be a 
principal officer therein, to be called the Secretary for the Department of 
War; (Act Aug. 7, 1789.) " He is to perform and execute such duties 
as shall, from time to time, be enjoined on, or intrusted to him, by the 
President of the United States, agreeably to the constitution, relative to 
military commissions, or to the land forces or warlike stores of the United 
States, or such other matters respecting military affairs, as the President 
of the United States shall assign to said department. And furthermore, 
that the said principal officer shall conduct the business of the said de- 
partment in such manner as the President of the United States shall, 
from time to time, order or instruct. That there shall be in said de- 
partment an inferior officer, to be appointed by the said principal offi- 
cer, to be employed therein as he shall deem proper, and to be called 
the chief clerk in the Department of War, and who, whenever the said 
principal officer shall be removed from office by the President of the 
United States, or in any other ' case of vacancy, shall, during such va- 
cancy, have the charge and custody of all records, books, and papers, 
appertaining to said Department. The said principal officer, and every 
other person to be appointed or employed in said Department, shall, 
before he enters on the execution of his office or employment, take an 
oath or affirmation, well and faithfully to execute the trust committed 
to him ; " (Act Aug. 7, 1789.) It seems impossible to read this act of 
Congress, and contend that officers of the army are a portion of the War 
Department. And the statute book will be searched in vain to find 
authority given to the Secretary over any officers other than officers of 
Staff Departments, or over subjects disconnected with the custody of 
public records, the support and supply of troops, the manufacture and 
care of warlike stores, the keeping of exact and regular returns of all 
the forces of the United States, or other kindred administrative matters ; 
such as receiving the proceedings of courts-martial, and laying them 
before the President of the United States for his approval or disap- 
proval, and orders in the case. There is no act of Congress which 
authorizes the Secretary of War to command the troops, and he being 


no part of the army, the President, of course, cannot authorize him to 
do so. But " the Secretary of War is (Peters' Digest of Decisions of 
Federal Courts, vol. 1, p. 170) the regular constitutional organ of the 
President for the administration of the military establishment of t lu- 
nation ; and rules and orders publicly promulgated through him, mu-t 
be received as the acts of the Executive, ami us such are liimling upon 
all within the sphere of his legal anl constitutional authority." 

By an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1813, it is provided: 
" That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of War, ami he is hereby 
authorized, to prepare general regulations, better defining and prescrib- 
ing the respective duties and powers of the several officers in the adju- 
tant-general, inspector-general, quartermaster-general, ami commissary 
of ordnance departments, of the topographical engineers, of the aids of 
generals, and generally of the general and regimental staff; which reg- 
ulation, when approved by the President of the Init. .1 States, shall 
be respected and obeyed, until altered or revoked by the same author- 
ity." Here was a partial delegation of legislative power; ami umlcr 
this power of legislation so confined to the several stall" department*, 
the Secretary of War, with the approval of the President, established 
bureaus of the War Department, making the head of caeli staff depart- 
ment chief of a bureau, in all fiscal and administrative matters con- 
nected with his particular department under the general direction of 
the Secretary of War. The War Department thus cent rali/ed all army 
administration, and efforts have since "been made to eentrali/e in tin- 
same way the command and government and regulation of the army. 
But as the 62d article of war declares that when different corpy 
come together, the officer highest in rank shall command the whole, 
and give orders for what is needful to the service, unless otherwise spe- 
cially directed by the President of the United States, according to tho 
nature of the case," while the 61st article gives tho command to the 
senior regimental officer within his regiment, when other troops are not 
present, such centralization, if not a violation of law, would be a \ ida- 
f all military principles, destructive alike to discipline ami mili- 
tary spirit. For (says Odier) : "Commands niv.n immediately by 
_'hest authority cause agitation rather than action. The sujH-ri-r 
ty becomes weakened in proportion as the \- ! ,-,,m,-s accus- 
tomed to it. Fear of it ceases, and wh.-n the highest authority habitu- 
ates itself to doing every thing, as soon as it ceases to be sulhY 
do all, there is mithinp done. All degrees of rank and command have 
degree of importance. Authority must regularly ascend and de- 
scend. Every inferior grade is the lieutenant of its superior g 


to the oldest soldier, who replaces the corporal. Obedience is recipro- 
cal to authority." Rules established by Congress, denning the rights, 
powers, and duties of all officers and soldiers, are much needed. (See 

DEPLOYMENT. All tactical manoeuvres intended to pass from 
close column to the order of battle are deployments. Deployments, 
however convenient or brilliant, which cause the soldier to turn his back 
to the enemy, are not suited to war. (Consult Infantry and Light In- 
fantry and Rifle tactics for the prescribed deployments.) 

DEPOSITION OF WITNESSES when not of the line or staff 
of the army, may be taken in cases not capital, provided the prosecutor 
and accused are present at the taking of the same, or duly notified ; 
(ART. 74. See WITNESS.) 

DEPOT. The colonel of ordnance, under the direction of the Sec- 
retary of War, is authorized to establish depots of arms, ammunition, 
and ordnance stores, in such parts of the United States, and in such 
numbers, as may be deemed necessary ; (Act Feb. 8, 1815.) 

Three recruiting depots have also been established under the direc- 
tion of .the Secretary of War, but a system of regimental depots is 
much needed. In England and in France, regimental depots have been 
found indispensable. In France, upon taking the field, a regiment 
leaves in depot the quartermaster and the accounting officer of the 
corps, the clothing officer, workmen, and stores ; infirm men, those too 
old for war, and uninstructed recruits ; these make the depot ; the 
wounded and sick are sent there to be re-established ; new levies are 
received there, and detachments of able-bodied and instructed men are 
successfully directed from the depot towards the army. The depot, like 
the stomach, receives, elaborates, and gives life to its members. It is 4 
at the depot that the clothing, and shoes, and all the wants of the regi- 
ment are provided ; it is there that the accountability is centralized, 
that the papers are kept ; it is at the depot that all regimental adminis- 
tration goes on ; and for that purpose the major of the regiment re- 
mains there, and likewise commands. In England, the depot company 
is one left at home by regiments embarking for India, for the purpose 
of recruiting. There are four reserve companies for all foreign stations 
except India, which remain at home under the command of the senior 
major. A roster is regularly kept of the officers at the depot ; and to 
insure that each individual embarks in his proper turn to join the ser- 
vice companies, a figure marking his place on the roster, is annexed to 
every officer's name in the monthly returns transmitted to the adjutant- 
general. Regimental records, with the attestations and service records 



of the men doing duty with the regiment abroad, are left at the depot, 
and filled up at stated per 

DERRICK consists of a spar which is always kept in an oblique 
position ; one end of it on the deck of a ship, the other supported by 
guys, and generally used to hoi>t h. M\ y weights. (See Gix.) 

l>i:SKi;Ti:i;. Punishable by stripes, by sentence of general 
court-martial. Not punishable by death in time of peace. May be 

and punished, although the term of enlistment may |.a\v < 
previous to apprehension. (ART. 20, and Acts March 16, 1802, May 
29, 1880, May 10, 1812, and March 2, 1833.) 

Of a deserter from the enemy, we demand his name, his country ; 
the motive of his desertion ; the number of his regiment ; the name of 
his colonel ; his immediate general; that of the cominaiul r-in hit f ; 
the strength of his particular corps ; that of the whole army ; whether 
utiuiis are regular; how many cartridges each man has; how 
many guns there are ; whether there arc many sick or wounded in the 
camp of the enemy; whether the soldiers have confidciuv in their chief, 
and whether he is well treated by them. 

DETACHED BASTION is one which is separated from the en- 
ceinte by a ditch. 

DETACHED WORKS are those which are e<nstni.t,,l beyond 
the range of the musketry of the main works; and as a Qonttai 
steady communication with them cannot be kept up during a sieu 
are frequently left to their own resources; nev.-rth. 1 -s. th.-y ou u ht to 
exercise a general influence on the defence of tin- pla-e. 

DETACHMENT. (French Origin.} BARDIN, J> 're de 

fArmee de Terre thus defines it: A word whii-h has the same origin as 
attach. It implies any fraction of a body, or an entire corps < h 
particularly with functions which are dependent for their duration upon 
circu instances in war or actual service. The Romans ex pr< >. 1 by tho 
word Globut* nearly the meaning of detachment. Tho movable col- 
umns of the French army were detachments formed sonn tiim -s of whole 
corps, sometimes of fractions of corps. We rail also detachments, tin- 
escorts of convoys of prisoners, those for evacuations, en-tain extra du- 
tiet, some maritime expeditions. a patrol, &c, to the .Mini- 
11 the instruetions of the year six, the many 

men from a single or from different corps, and the subsequent n union 
M men umler a military chief, constitutes a detachment. and it is 
so considered, whether upon a voya<r<'. or stationed in a d. -pot of a corps 

A troop; s q.wdmn, or p*rtj of oUlien; knot of men who JolnUy carry on any design. 
AurawosTB's Latin Dictionary. 


or in garrison ; whether in cantonment, or whether in reference to the 
means of transportation that may be necessary for it. In some cases, 
picket and small detachments have the same signification. The follow- 
ing illustrations of the meaning of detachment are drawn from various 
sources : 

Rules and Articles of War passed Sept. 20, 1776. 

ART. XII. Every officer commanding in any of the forts, barracks, 
or elsewhere, where the corps under his command consists of detachments 
from different regiments, or of independent companies, may assemble 
courts-martial, &c. ; [such courts were called detachment courts-martial.] 
ART. II. SEC. 17. For the future, all general officers and colonels, 
serving by commission from the authority of any particular State, shall, 
on all detachments, courts-martial, or other duty, wherein they may be 
employed in conjunction with the regular forces of the United States, 
take rank, &c. When regiments or detachments are united, either in 
camp, garrison, or quarters, the eldest officer, whether by brevet or 
otherwise, is to command the whole ; (Regulations British Army.) The 
detachments which are, from time to time, sent from the depots at home 
to regiments abroad, &c. The periods of the year at which detach- 
ments are required to embark for foreign stations, &c. ; (Regulations 
British Army.) Whenever recruits are to be sent from a depot or 
rendezvous to a regiment or post, a separate muster and description 
roll, and a separate account of clothing of each detachment, will be placed 
in the hands of the officer assigned to the command of such detachment; 
( U. S. Army Regulations.) Any detachment so far separated from the 
main body to which it belongs as to render it impracticable for the com- 
mander of the latter to make muster and inspection enjoined by the 
general regulations, is considered as a separate command within the 
meaning and for the purpose of this regulation. Where a field-officer 
is serving with detached companies of his regiment, the captains thereof 
will make their company monthly returns through him, which returns 
he will transmit with his own personal report to regimental head-quar- 
ters ; (Regulations of the War Department, dated Feb. 10, 1855.) 

SEC. * * And the said corps may be formed into as many com- 
panies or detachments as the President of the United States may 
direct. (Act of Congress.) 

" Corps, formed by detachments, are the usual method in which 
brevet officers are employed, as they cannot be introduced into regi- 
ments without displacing other officers, or violating the right of succes- 
sion, both of which are justly deemed injurious in every service. But 
the reasoning is new by which the employing such officers in detached 


corps is made an infringement of tho rights of regimental officers; 
(Letter of General Washing ton, dated August 11, 1780.) 

DETAIL FOR DUTY is a roster, or table, for the regular per. 
formanco of duty cither in camp or garrison. The general detail is 
regulated by tho adjt.-general, according to the strength of the s. 
corps. Tho adjutant of each regiment superintends tho detail of the 
officers and non-commissioned officers for duty, and orderly sergeants 
detail the privates. 


DIMINISHED ANGLE is that formed by the exterior side and 
the lino of defence in fortification. 

DISBURSING OFFICERS. Exclusively of the paymasters of 
the army, and other officers already authorized by law, no other p THIJI- 
ncnt agents shall be appointed, either for the purpose of making con- 
tracts, or for tho purchase of supplies, or for the disbursement in any 
other manner of moneys for tho use of tho military establishment, but 
such as shall bo appointed by the 1 >f tho United States, with 

the advice and consent of the Senate. But tho President may appoint 
such necessary agents in the recess of tho Senate to be submitted for 
their advice and consent at their next session, provided that the com- 
pensation allowed to either shall not exceed one per centum per annum, 
nor be more than $2,000 per annum; (Act March 3, 1809.) All 
purchases and contracts arc made under the direction of the S.-erctnry 
of War; (Act March 3, 1809.) Shall givo bonds to bo regulated by 
tho President, and may be dismissed by the President on failure t<> un- 
der their account. (See DEFAULTER; DELINQUENT.) 

DISCHARGE. After a non-commissioned officer or soldier shall 
have been duly enlisted and sworn, he shall not be dismissed tho ser- 
vice without a discharge in writing ; and no discharge grant id to him 
shall bo suffirient, which is not signed by a field-officer of the regiment 
to which he belongs, or commanding officer, \\ IK iv no field-officer of the 
regiment is present ; and no discharge shall be jrivm to a non-commis- 
sioned officer or soldier, before his term of service has expired, but by 
of the President, the Secretary of War, the commanding officer 
of a department, or the sentence of a general court-martial ; nor shall a 
comm fficcr be discharged tho service but by order of the IV. s 

i ! nt <.f the United States, or by sentence of a courtrmartial ; (ART. 
11.) I'ndcr this article it has been contended that the Pn-si.l.-nt may 
arbitrarily Mtrlnryf any commissioned officer from the service; but as 
the Rules and Articles of War provide for the punishment of all military 
rimes, disorders, or neglects, by courts-martial, all arbitrary and ca- 


pricious action over such matters is thereby necessarily excluded. Be- 
sides, dismission and discharge are essentially different. The latter, in 
its primitive sense, means relieved of a burden or obligation. Thus, as 
every individual who enters the army by enlistment or commission 
must remain in it until regularly discharged, under penalty of being 
considered a deserter, the article declares that no discharge of a com- 
missioned officer is regular but by the order of the President of the 
United States, or the sentence of a court-martial. Voluntary separations 
from the service, therefore, or resignations, are only legal when accepted 
by the President of the United States. No other military authority is 
competent to release an officer from the obligations he assumes on enter- 
ing the army, even on his own application. Hence the use of the word 
discharge in the article, so as to embrace voluntary separations authorized 
by the President, and involuntary separations by sentence of court-mar- 
tial. But the article gives no power to the President to dismiss sum- 
marily. Had such been the intention, the authority would have been 
clearly given, as it has been by the act of Jan. 31, 1823, in the case of delin- 
quent disbursing officers a power not needed, if it before existed under 
Article 11. This rule of making the acceptance of an officer's resigna- 
tion dependent upon the President or highest military authority, is 
necessary ; because an officer who was amenable to punishment for in- 
fractions of military law, might otherwise, by the resignation of his 
commission, escape punishment. The Court of King's Bench in Eng- 
land have decided, therefore, that an officer of the East India Company's 
service has not the right to resign his commission under any circum- 
stances, and whenever he pleased ; (case of Capt. Parker ; Prendergast, 
p. 248.) In the case of Capt. Vertue, however, (Prendergast, p. 250,) 
while the court held that Capt. Vertue's resignation was invalid, as 
having been made in pursuance of an improper combination of a large 
number of officers, yet Mr. Justice Yates intimated that there may be 
a state of circumstances, under which an officer may have a legal right 
to resign, and so to obtain a release of exemption from military law. 

Such would undoubtedly be the decision of a civil court in the 
United States. The power given to the President of accepting or with- 
holding his acceptance of a resignation was intended for the maintenance 
of justice, and not the oppression of individuals ; and if that power 
should be perverted, a court of justice might, and no doubt would, in- 
terpose its writ of habeas corpus. 

DISCIPLINE. It ought to result from a perfect uniformity of 
rules ; for stability, method, exactness, and even routine, are necessary 
to insure its maintenance ; under a perfect discipline, troops in peace 


and in war, in garrison or in campaign, would be litt.-d for all the du- 
ties of war. To attain this perfection, it is necessary that discipline 
should rest entirely upon law ; it ought to have its roots in patriotism ; 
to be adapted to tin- character of the people ; to the spirit of the age, 
and the nature of the government. It is essential to make rights and 
duties inseparable. This absolute necessity, and the importance of 
regularity of pay, are truths dwelt upon by French writers. Discipline 
may be distinguished as active and passive. The first derives its j. .\\vr 
from a military hierarchy or range of subordination, skilfully estab- 
lished and regulated; it is secured by calmness, impartiality, prompt- 
ness, firmness, and the prestige of character in olliccrs. These qualities 
are manifested by preventing wrongs rather than by punishing faults, 
and by abstaining from arbitrary corrections when obliged to chastise. 
Discipline, intrusted to such authorities enlightened by military cxpe- 

. will partake of the character of paternal government, ami will 
not be enforced with an unsparing harshness suited only to govern- 
ments essentially despotic. 

The dogma, that military discipline can only bo sustained by the 
aid of severe and unpitying punishment, is far removed from the. 
idea here suggested. That unpitying military discipline seems to 
have prompted IVter the Great, when -he sacrificed a young. 
who triumphantly fought the Swedes without orders. Tims also 
thought Frederic the Great, when he executed the unfortunate / 
who violated an order by keeping a light a little too long in his 
tent. But such harsh principles are no longer inculcated in the best 

.-d armies of Europe. Passive discipline is the fusion of indi- 
vidual interest in national interest. The first military virtue is r rit 
de corps, with fidelity to the oath taken upon assuming the military 
character. These duties exact obedience to the laws, and to the lawful 

< of the President of the United States, and officers set over us 
according to law. These laws should command obedience from all 

rs, and distinctly define the extent of all authority. They ou-ht 

d the President or eommander-in-ehief as well as the simple sol- 
us and DI-TIKS must be reciprocal, and be alike , 

by law, \\hi. h should, to maintain discipline, " precisely determine the 
luti-, ai ..f all military men soldiers ollieers, 

chiefs of corps, generals." Discipline that hlM attained tin* 
supplies the deficiency of niimb.Ts. and gives new solidity to valor; 
unded by dangers, the brave man f.-.-N that his 
leaders and comrades are not less devoted, less vigorous, or less expe- 
rienced than himself. 


Discipline is sometimes used as meaning " system of instruction," 
but its signification is much broader. Its technical military sense in- 
cludes not only the means provided for exercise and instruction, but 
subjection to all laws framed for the government and regulation of tho 
army. The good or bad discipline of an army depends primarily upon the 
laws established for its creation, as well as its government and regulation. 


DISEMBARKATION. In disembarkations, the first essential 
matter is to determine by reconnaissance the proper point for landing 
how near the landing can be approached with vessels of light draught, 
to scour the beach and thus cover the operation ; and secondly, the man- 
ner in which the men, horses, and some field-artillery are to be disem- 
barked. The landing of heavy ordnance and all supplies is a subsequent 
matter. Having chosen the point of debarkation, the troops are put 
into flat-bottomed boats, previously provided, as expeditiously as pos- 
sible, but without hurry or disorder they are to sit down in the boats, 
and positively ordered not to load until formed on the beach. Each man 
should carry three days' provisions cooked in his haversack, at least 
forty rounds of ammunition, and his canteen filled with water. The 
men should also carry their intrenching tools. The covering vessels 
must be liberal with round shot, grape, and canister ; and under cover 
of their fire, the^rs^ line of boats should pull boldly in, recollecting that 
the men are to be landed, and that the sooner it is done the better. 
When a boat grounds, the officer jumps out over the bow, and the men 
follow also over the bow. If the boat is large, or there are rocks, so as 
to render it unsafe for an accoutred man to jump, the gang-boards must 
be used. The men follow the officer to the sheltered spot selected by 
him for their formation. Without waiting for other boats, the officer 
will consider his men part of a line of skirmishers, the supports of 
which are behind. As soon as each boat is clear, she must shove off*, 
and pull to the shipping for a fresh load. 

The second division of boats will land as the first, but these will not 
commence firing until the whole of each company has joined, when they 
will act as supports, under the command of their proper officers. As 
soon as a sufficient number of well-united companies are on shore, the 
irregularly formed skirmishers first landed will be relieved, formed by 
companies, and sent to their respective battalions. Boats employed 
landing troops should have neither guns, masts, nor sails ; their equip- 
ments should be gang-boards, oars, grapnels and painters, boat hooks, 
bailers, hammers and nails, sheet lead, grease, and canvas ; the latter 
articles to enable them to stop a small shot hole, in case of accident. 


Tho launches of men-of-war are used for disembarking field-artillery. 
when opposed by tho enemy. Two planks are laid from the bow to 
the item of tho launch, parallel to each other, at the distance of the space 
of the wheels ; a bead in nailed to the inside edge, to prevent tho wheels 
from slipping off. Two gang-boards, which can be laid out or taken on 
board, are fitted to the bow ends of the planks, so as to reach from 
t<> tho shore, as a ramp. These launches arc towed by smaller 
boats. It is very desirable that this portion of artillery, with their offi- 
cers and men, should bo on board men-of-war. Each two-deck 
take a couple ; the guns are stowed away on tho upper deck, tho car- 
riages and wheels in the chains, so that tho guns can be mounted and 
ready to bo lowered into the boats in a very few minutes. The muzzle 
of tho gun must point forward in tho launch, and as soon as the boat 
touches ground, the gang-boards are put out and tho\ guns run ashore. 
The artillery should endeavor to gain tho shore and land with the 
troops. It is dragged by tho sailors or troops. A sufficient supply of 
ammunition must bo at hand in a boat or two, close to the shore. In 
an cmer L T '-ncy the harness may be at once sent ashore, and if tin- \ 
arc near, horses may be made to leap out and swim ashore. I 
other circumstances, boats of proper capacity must be provided for the 
disembarkation of horses, heavy ordnance, &c.; or it may be necessary 
to establish temporary wharves on trestles, or by means of boats, and 
to erect shears, cranes, or derricks. 

On a smooth, sandy beach, heavy pieces may bo landed by rolling 
them overboard as soon as the boats ground, and hauling them up with 
sling carts. (See EMBARKATION. Consult Aide Memoire of the Mili- 
tary Sciences; SCOTT'S Orders and Correspondences during the Cam- 
paign in Mexico.) 


DISMISSION. No sentence of a court-martial in time of peace 

Mimissioned ofl'nvr, or which, in war or peace, af 
general officer, shall be carried into execution without the approval <>f 
the President of tho Tinted States; (ART. 05.) Disbursing onV.-rs 
may be dismissed by the President alone, without the intervention of a 
court-martial, on failure to account properly for moneys placed in their 
hands; (An. .Ian.. !*:.",.) A general court-mart i:d in time of 
may dismiss, with the approval of tho President, in all cases in which 
Mtenoo to "death or such oilier punishment 

as may be inflicted by a general court martial." (See DEATH.) Such 
court may also - .missioned officer to be cashiered or dis- 

missed tho service in the following cases : 1. Drunkenness on duty ; 


(ART. 45.) 2. Breach of arrest ; (X\RT. 77.) 3. Conduct unbecoming 
an officer and a gentleman ; (ART. 83.) 4. Using contemptuous or 
disrespectful words against the President of the United States, against 
the Vice-president- thereof, against the Congress of the United States, 
or against the chief magistrate or legislature of any of the United States 
in which he may be quartered ; (ART. 5.) 5. Signing a false certificate 
relating to the absence of either officer or soldier, or relative to his or 
their pay ; (ART. 14.) 6. Making a false muster of man or horse ; 
(ART. 15.) 7. Taking money or other thing by way of gratification, 
on mustering any regiment, troop, or company, or on signing muster 
rolls. 8. Making a false return to the Department of War, or to any 
of his superior officers authorized to call for such returns of the state 
of the regiment, troop, or company, or garrison under his command ; 
or of the army ammunition, clothing, or other stores thereunto belong- 
ing ; (ART. 18.) 8. Sending and accepting a challenge to another 
officer or soldier to fight a duel ; (ART. 25.) 9. An officer who com- 
mands a guard, knowingly and wilfully suffering any person to go forth 
to fight a duel, and all seconds, promoters, and carriers of challenges 
shall be punished as challengers ; (ART. 26.) 10. Selling, embezzling, 
misapplying, or wilfully, or through neglect, suffering provisions, arms, 
&c., to be spoiled or damaged; (ART. 36.) .11. Any commanding 
officer who exacts exorbitant prices for houses let out to sut- 
lers, or connives at like exactions fr<5m others, or who by his own 
authority and for his private advantage lays any duty or imposition 
upon, or is interested in, the sale of any victuals, liquors, or other 
necessaries of life brought for the use of the soldiers, may be discharged 
the service; (ART. 31.) 12. Failure, by a commanding officer, to see 
justice done to offenders, and reparation made to the party injured, by 
officers or soldiers ill-treating any person, or disturbing fairs or markets, 
or committing any kinds of riots to the disquieting of citizens of the 
United States ; (ART. 32.) 

DISMOUNT. To dismount the cavalry, is to use them as infantry. 
Guards, when relieved, are said to dismount. They are to be marched 
with the utmost regularity to the parade-ground where they were 
formed, and from thence to their regimental parades, previously to 
being dismissed to their quarters. To dismount a piece of ordnance, 
is to take it from the carriage. 

DISOBEDIENCE OF ORDERS punishable by a court-martial 
with death or otherwise, according to the nature of the offence ; (ART. 9.) 


DISPART is the difference of the semi-diameter of the base-ring 


and the swell of the muzzle, or the muzzle-band of a piece of ordnance. 

by court-martial. 

DISRESPECTFUL WORDS used by any officer or soldier 
gainst the President, Vice-president, the Congress or the governor of 
any State where he may be quartered, punishable with cashiering or 
rwise, as a court-martial may direct ; ( AKT. 5.) 

DISTANCES. Pacing Distances. " If you count tho strokes of 
either of your horse's fore-feet, either walking or trotting, you will find 
them to be upon an average about 050 to a mile. In a field-book, as you 
note each change of bearing, you have only to note down al>o the num- 
ber of paces (which scon becomes a habit) ; and to keep count of these, 
it is only necessary to carry about thirty-five or forty small pieces of 
wood, like dice (beans or peas will do), in one waistcoat-pocket, and at 
the end of every 100 paces remove one to the empty pocket on the op- 
posite side. At each change of bearing you count these, adding the odd 
numbers to the number of hundreds, ascertained by the dice, to be 
counted and returned at each change of bearing to the other p 
You should have a higher pocket for your watch, and keep the two 
lower waistcoat-pockets for this purpose. Now, to plot such a survey, 
you have only to take the half-inch scale of equal parts, (on the six-inc-h 
scale, in every case of instruments,) and allowing ten for a hun<livl. tin-. 
half-inch will represent a thousand paces. You may thus lay down any 
broken number of paces to a true scale, and so obtain a tolerably accu- 
rate map of each day's journey. The latitude will, after all, determine 
finally the scale of paces ; and you can at leisure adjust each day's 
journey by its general bearing between different latitudes, and subse- 
quently introduce tho details." (Sir THOMAS MITCHELL.) 

A traveller, when the last of his watches breaks down, has no need 
to be disheartened from going on with his longitude observations, espe- 
cially if he observes occultations and eclipses. The object of a watch 
is to tell the number of seconds that elapse between the instant of oo- 
cultatinn, eclipse, &c., and that, a minute or two later, when the sextant 
observation for time is made ; and all that it actually doet, is to beat 
seconds, and to record the number of beats. Now, a string ami st<>nc 
swung as a pendulum will beat time ; and a native who is taught 
to throw a pebble into a bag at each beat will record it ; and, fr oper- 
ations that are not tedious, ho will be as good as a watch. The rate 
of the pendulum is, of course, determined by taking two sets of 
rations, with three or four minutes' interval between them ; and, if tho 


distance from the point of suspension to the centre of the stone be 
thirty-nine inches, and if the string be thin, and the stone very heavy, 
it will beat seconds very nearly indeed. The observations upon which 
the longitude of the East African lakes now depends (1859) are lunars 
timed with a etring and a stone, in default of a watch. 

Units of length. A man should ascertain his height ; height of his 
eye above ground; ditto, when kneeling; his fathom; his cubit; the 
span, from ball of thumb to tip of one of his fingers ; the length of the 
foot, and the width of two, three, or four fingers. In all probability, 
some one of these is an even and a useful number of feet or inches, 
which he will always be able to recollect, and refer to as a unit of 
measurement. A stone's throw is a good standard of reference for 
greater distances. Cricketers estimate by the length between wickets. 
Pacing should be practised. It is well to dot a scale of inches on a 

Angles to measure. A capital substitute for a very rude sextant 
is afforded by the outstretched hand and arm. The span between 
the middle finger and the thumb subtends an angle of 15, and that 
between the forefinger and the thumb an angle of ll^- , or one point 
of the compass. Just as a person may learn to walk yards accurately, 
so may he learn to span out these angular distances accurately ; 
and the horizon, however broken it may be, is always before his eyes 
to check him. Thus, if he begins from a tree, or even from a book on 
his shelves, and spans all round until he comes to the tree or book 
again, he should make twenty-four of the larger spans and thirty -two 
of the lesser ones. These two angles of 15 and lli are particularly 
important. The sun travels through 15 in each hour ; and therefore, 
by " spanning " along its course, as imagined, from the place where it 
would stand at noon, (aided in this by the compass,) the hour before 
or after noon, and, similarly, after sunrise, or before sunset, can be 
instantly reckoned. Again, the angles 30, 45, 60, and 90, all of 
them simple multiples of 15, are by far the most useful ones in taking 
rough measurements of heights and distances, because of the simple 
relations between the sides of right-angled triangles, whose other 
angles are 30, 45, &c. As regards ll, or one point of the com- 
pass, it is perfectly out of the question to trust to bearings taken by the 
unaided eye, or to steer a steady course by simply watching a star or 
landmark, when this happens to be much to the right or the left of it. 
Now, nothing is easier than to span out the bearing from time to time. 

Squaring. As a triangle whose sides are as 3, 4, and 5, must be a 
right-angled one (since 5 2 =3 3 +4 2 ), we can always find a right angle 



very simply by means of a measuring tape. We take a length of 
twelve feet, yards, fathoms, or whatever it may be, and peg tlu- t\\. 
ends of it, close together, to the ground. Next a peg is driven in at 
the third division, and then the third peg is held at the seventh division 
of the cord, which is stretched out till it becomes taut, and the peg is 
driven in. These three pegs will form the corners of a right-angled 

Measurements, <tc. The breadth of a river may bo measured with. 
out instruments and without crossing it, by means of tho following 
useful problem from the French " Manuel du Genie," which requires 
pacing only : 

To measure A B (Fig. 106), produce it any distance to D ; from D, 
in any direction, take any equal distances, D C, C d, and produce B C 
to b, making C b = C B ; join d b and produce it to a, where A C pro- 
duced intersects it ; then a b is equal to A B. In practice, tho points 
D C, <kc., are marked by bushes planted in tho ground, or by men 

Colonel Everest, the late surveyor-general of India, has pointed out 
the following simple way of measuring an angle, and therefore a triangle : 
A B is the base, R R the river, C an object on the 
. other side ; (Fig. 107.) Ho paces any length A 
a 1 ; and an equal length A a"; also a' a", which 
is tho chord of a' A a". In other words 

Pio. 1M. 

in the same way B is found. A B being known, 

Fio. 107. 

the triangle A B C is known, an.] tli.- l.roadth of the riv, no !> 
fonn.I. Tho problem can 1..- workr.l out, ritl.rr by calculation or l.y 
. (GALTON'S Art of Travel. See STADIA ; SURVEYS ; TAR- 


DISTRIBUTION means, generally, any division or allotment 
made for the purposes of war, and minor arrangements made for the 
supply of corps. 

DISTRICT. One of those portions into which a country is di- 
vided, for the convenience of command, and to insure a co-operation 
beween distant bodies of troops. 

DITCH sometimes" called the Fosse is the excavation made 
round the works, from which the earth required for the construction of 
the rampart, parapet, and banquette is obtained. In besieging a forti- 
fication, when the ditch is dry, and a descending gallery has been con- 
structed, the passage of the ditch consists of an ordinary sap pushed 
from the opening in the counterscarp wall to the slope of the breach, 
and, when necessary, it is carried on to crown the summit of the breach. 
If the ditch be full of water, and the locality favors its being drained, 
every means must be used to break the batardeaux, to cause the water 
to flow away entirely or in part. If none of the batteries can see the 
batardeaux, the sluices must be sought and destroyed by shells, or 
by mining. Should the assailants be unable to breach the batardeaux 
or to destroy the sluices, a bridge or causeway must be thrown across. 
This is one of the most difficult operations in a siege. The bridge or 
causeway, with its epaulement, is constructed with pontoons or casks, 
or, if without them, with fascines, hurdles, gabions, and sand-bags, 
openings being left in the causeway to allow the free flowing of the 
water, if it be a running stream, or can be made so by the defend- 
ers. A wet ditch may sometimes be crossed by a raft of sufficient 
length, which should be constructed along the counterscarp, and at- 
tached by one end to the bottom of the descent. The raft is then al- 
lowed to swing round with the current, if there be one, or is rowed or 
pulled round, if there is not one, so as to form a connection across the 
ditch with the breach. 

The following experiment for crossing a wet ditch was successfully 
tried at Chatham by Sir Charles Pasley : Two hundred large casks 
were prepared, with their heads taken out ; they were lashed by fours, 
end to end, so as to form hollow piers, about 18 feet in length, of un- 
equal diameters, in consequence of the unequal size of the casks. 
Each pier was launched in succession from a great gallery, represent- 
ing that of the counterscarp in a regular siege. These piers had guys 
at each end, by which they were hauled round into their intended 
position, and there sunk by means of sand-bags. After this, the in- 
tervals between the upper tiers of casks were filled in with long fas- 
cines, and others were laid over these at right angles, till a general 

348 MILITARY PI. TiuNAUY. [Dir. 

level was obtained, when strong skids were laid over all, and 
pounder, on a travelling carriage, was dragged through the gallery, 
and passed along these skids to the other side. In this ma 
piece of water, representing a wet ditch, was bridged over with < -a->c 
and comparative expedition. This experiment was afterwards 
with full success in the Mast Pond of Chatham Dockyard, wl. 
ver^ strong current was produced, much stronger than could occur in 
the ditches of an I place. It is stated. ih::t there was no per- 

ceptible depression in the bridge as the 24-pounder passed over. The 
same experiment was tried with common gabions, lashed together, end 
to end, in like manner, forming hollow piers or cylinders, which were 
similarly sunk 0110 over another until the upper' layer rose above the 
water, and wore covered with fascines and ski- Is. These. aU<>, bore a 
24-pounder, which caused a depression of more than 6 indies in the part 
over which it was passing. The gabions were very weak and old. The 
piers of casks were fastened as follows : on being placed end to end, 
staples were driven into each cask, about 10 inches from their ends, in 
three equi-distant parts of their circumference-; strong spun-yarn, 
ting the staples, lashed the four casks together. Six or eight 
bushel sand-bags were necessary to sink cadi pier with ease, yet with- 
out making it sink too rapidly. To get thcrn into the water, they 
w.-iv launched on ways made of planks. In making the gabion bridge, 
eaeh pier consisted of four gabions lashed end to end like the casks, by 
spun-yarn, at time e[ui-distant points of the circumference. These 
were not loaded to make them sink. It was found, from the Irregu- 
larity of their surface, that the second pier merely f..iv.-d the first out 
from the bank to make room for itself; the third the second, and so on, 
until the tier of gabions connected the two scarps. On rolling other 
piers on the top of them, the lower ones sunk to the bottom, and brush- 
wood and fascines were laid in the intervals of the gabions to form a 
>K'S Fortifications.) 

DIVISION. In the ordinary arrangement of the army, two regi- 
meats of infantry or cavalry shall constitute a In 1 shall bo 

commanded by a brigadier-general ; two brigades, a di\isi<.n. and shall 
be commanded by a major-general. Provided always th..t it si 
in the discretion of the commanding general t<> vary this ditp 
be shall judge proper ; (Act March :'.. 1796 .8.) 

DOMIl'IIj;. ry man's domicile, is in the country 

where ho has his permanent residence. ..r to which he ordinarily returns 

f T the purposo of rcsi-1, nee .-!! -i .;] ibtHMe-j ;::,| ill < a - of his 

death, the right of succession to his goods and chattels and personal 


property of all sorts is regulated by the law of the country of his dom- 
icile, although he may happen to die beyond its limits. As regards 
military men, their employment on duty involving only temporary 
absence in intention would not, on common principles, cause a change 
of domicile; and as the laws of different States of the Union vary on 
the subject of the right of succession to property, the subject is of great 
interest to military men. Recently, an officer who was a native of 
South Carolina died intestate in the city of New York, and no heirs 
being forthcoming, his estate was taken possession of by the public ad- 
ministrator, although the Rules and Articles of War enacted by Con- 
gress provide that, in such cases, an officer of the army at the station 
shall take possession of the effects for purposes of administration. 

" Personal property, in point of law, has no locality, and in case 
of the decease of the owner, must go wherever in point of fact situate, 
according to the law of the country where he had his domicile." (ROB- 
ERTSON'S Law of Personal Succession.) 

The 14th Lord Somerville entered the army in 1745, and continued 
in the service till the peace of 1763, during which period ho accompa- 
nied his regiment to England, Scotland, and Germany, both in quarters 
and on active duty. At his death in 1796, a question arose, whether, 
under the circumstances, his domicile was English or Scotch ; and the 
Master of the Rolls, (Sir R. P. Arden,) in giving judgment, said : " I am 
clearly of opinion Lord Somerville was a Scotchman upon his birth, 
and continued so to the end of his days. He never ceased to be so, 
never having abandoned his Scotch domicile, or established another. 
The decree, therefore, must be, that the succession to his personal 
estate ought to be regulated according to the law of Scotland." His 
honor must consequently have been of opinion, that a Scotchman en- 
tering the British army does not thereby lose his original Scotch dom- 
icile ; and since the union of England and Scotland, the army is cer- 
tainly as much that of Scotland as of England. 

Sir Charles Douglas, a Scotchman by birth and original domicile, 
loft his native country at the age of twelve, to enter the navy. From time to his death, he was in Scotland only four times : 1st, as 
captain of a frigate ; 2dly, to introduce his wife to his friends, on 
which occasion he staid about a year ; 3dly, upon a visit ; and 4thly, 
when, upon his appointment to a command upon the Halifax station, he 
went in the mail coach to Scotland, and died there in 1789. He was 
not for a day residen^there in any house of his own ; nor was he ever 
there except for temporary occasions. He also commanded the Rus- 
sian navy for about a year, and was afterwards in the Dutch service. 


lie had no fixed residence in England till 177(>, in which year he took a 
house at G?osport, where he lived as his home when on shore. This 
was his only residence in the British dominions ; and when la- \ 
service he Kit his \\ife and family at (losport. At his death it became 
necessary to decide whether his domicile was Scotch or English, be- 
came ho hud made a will, bequeathing a legacy to his daughter, with 
certain conditions, which were void by the law of Scotland, hut vali-1 
by the law of Kit-land. The House of Lords decided that his original 
domicile was Scotch, and that though he did not lose it in this first in- 
stance, by becoming an ofiieer in the British navy, he abandoned it by 
entering a foreign service, ami acquired a Russian domicile; that <>:i 
returning to England, and resuming his position as a British ofli 
acquired an English domicile, but did not recover his Scotch dom'u il , 
that his subsequent visits to Scotland, not being made aninio tnanendi, 
did not revive his Scotch domicile, and that the succession to his prop- 
erty, as that of an Englishman, was therefore to be governed by tho 
1 1\\ of England, in which country he last acquired a domicile. 

In connection with this subject, it may bo proper to notice an opin- 
ion expressed by the Master of the Holls, during tho argument >!' I.or.l 
Somerville's case that an officer entering the. military or naval - 
of a foreign power, with consent of the British government, ami taking 
a qualified oath of allegiance to tho foreign state, does not thereby 
abandon or lose his native domicile. 

In Forrest v. Funston, tho defendant was a lieutenant in tho king's 
army, and held a situation of master gunner at Blackness Castle in 
Scotland, where ho had the charge of considerable military stores, with 
an apartment for his residence, lie was a native of Strabane in Ire- 
land ; and it was held by the Court of Session, that though it was his 
duty to reside at Blackness, he did not by the possession of his ofhVe 
acquire a Scotch d'.mi< -Mr. With respect to the East India < 
Service, the question of domicile does not turn upon the simple f.ict ,f 
the party 1,,-ing under an obligation, by his commission, to serve in 
India; but when an officer accepts a commission or cmphiyment, the 
duties of which necessarily require residence in India, an. 1 then is no 
stipulated period of service, and ho proceeds to India ae.-ordingly, 
the law from such circumstances presumes an intention consistent with 
his duty, and holds his residence to be animo et facto in India. 

In tli.- recent case of CJeneral Forbes, in the Court of Chancery, the 
subje ( ( \Q in its relation to military mA was extensively dis- 

cussed before the Vioe-ohttHSelloT Wood. Nathaniel Forbes, afterwards 
General Forbes, was bom in Scotland of Scotch parents; his father 


being possessed of an ancestral estate called Auchernach, on which 
there was then no house. In 1786, Nathaniel Forbes, being then a 
minor, and a lieutenant on half-pay in the 102d foot, a disbanded regi- 
ment, contracted a marriage with a Scotch lady. He shortly after- 
wards obtained an appointment in the service of the East India Com- 
pany ; and in December, 1787, he sailed for India, where he continued 
until 1808. He then obtained a furlough, and returned with his wife 
to Scotland. On the death of his father in 1794 he had succeeded to 
the family estate in Scotland ; and during 'his furlough he built a house 
there, and furnished it, and made some improvements in the grounds. 
In 1812 he returned with his wife to India, and remained there for several 
years. The wife left India in 1818 : and in 1822 her husband, who had 
then attained the rank of a general officer, and was colonel of a regi- 
ment, also quitted India, according to the rules of the service, with the 
intention of never returning to that country; and he never did return 
thither. During the whole of his service under the East India Com- 
pany General Forbes retained his commission and rank of a lieutenant 
in the king's army. His domicile was without doubt originally Scot- 
tish. After his final return from India he had an establishment at a 
hired house in Sloane-street, London. He also kept his house at 
Auchernach furnished : and had some servants there also. He likewise 
became a justice of the peace and a commissioner of taxes in Scotland : 
and kept his pedigree and papers (including his will) at Auchernach, 
where he was in the habit of residing half the year, and where he had 
constructed a mausoleum in which he wished to be buried. But his 
health did not permit him to reside constantly at Auchernach, where 
his establishment was also not suitable for his wife ; and his house in 
Sloane-street was manifestly his chief establishment, and his wife re- 
sided there. He died in 1851. His wife thereupon laid claim to a 
share of his property according to the Scotch law of succession, and 
contended that, in the events which had happened, he must be consid- 
ered to have died possessed of his original Scottish domicile. The sub- 
stantial question in the case was, whether his domicile was in England 
or in Scotland. If he had been a single man his final domicile would 
probably have been considered Scottish. But the court held that Sloane- 
street, having been his chief establishment, and the abode of his wife, 
must be taken to have been the seat of his domicile. In pronouncing 
judgment upon the case, the learned Vice-chancellor ruled the following 
points : 1. That the Scottish domicile of General Forbes, notwithstand- 
ing his having gone to India during his minority, in the service of the 
East India Company, continued until he attained the age of twenty-one : 


on the principle that a minor cannot change his domicile by his owu 
:. Tli:it. on attaining twenty-one, he acquired an An^lo-Indian 
domicile ; and thereupon his Scottish domicile ceased : on the principle 
that a service in India, under a commission in the Indian arm;. 
person having no other residence, creates an Indian domicile. 3. That 
the circumstance of his being a lieutenant on half-pay in a disbanded 
king's regiment, did not affect the question. 4. That the Anglo-Indian 
ile of General Forbes continued unchanged until his departure 
from India in 1822: the furlough, or limited leave of absence, implying 
by its nature that it was his duty to return to India on its expiration. 
5. That in 18*22 the Anglo-Indian domicile of General Forbes was 
abandoned and lost : the possibility of his being called upon, as colonel 
of a regiment, to return at some indefinite time to active- service in 
India, being too remote to have any material bearing upon the qn< 
0. That he had acquired by choice a new domicile in England on his 
return from India. 

DRAGOONS. There are two regiments of dragoons in our army. 

DRAG-ROPE. This is a 4" hemp rope, with a thimble worked 
into each end, one of the thimbles carrying a hook. Six handles, made 
folk or ash, are put in between the strands of the rope, and lashed 
with marline. It is used to assist in extricating carriages lr MM <litKr- 
ent positions ; by the men, for dragging pieces, &c. Length 28 i 


DRILL. Thn mano?uvrcs and tactical exercises of troops. 

DRUNKENNESS ON DUTY. Any commissioned officer who 
shall be found drunk on his guard, post, or other duty, shall bo ca- 
1. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier so offending, shall 
suffer such corporal punishment as shall be inflicted by a court-mar- 
tial ; (ART. 45.) 

DUEL. Sending and accepting a challenge, or, if a commanding 
officer, permit tint: knowingly a duel, or socmulinir, promoting, " r (i; ""'-\- 
ing challenges in order in duels, punishable, with cashiering if eommis- 
sioned officer*, and with corporal punishment in the case of non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers ; (A K\.) (See ( 11 OJ i NCKS.) 

DUTY. In all military duties, the tour of duty is invariably fr.mi 
the eldest downward*. P.ripade duties are those perlnniud by one 
regiment in common with another. Lv^'mienta! duties are those per- 
formed by the officers and companies of a regiment among thems. l\< -s. 
:tial, th- i "('which have been assemble. 1 and sworn, 

i- reckoned a duty, although they may have been dismissed without 


trying any person. If an officer's turn for picket, general court-martial, 
or fatigue, happens when he is upon any other duty, he is not obliged 
to make good that picket, &c., when he comes off, but his tour passes 
him ; however, if an officer is on the inlying picket, he is liable to bo 
relieved, and placed on other duties. Officers cannot exchange their 
duties without permission of the commanding officer. A guard, de- 
tachment, or picket, having once marched off the place of parade, is 
reckoned to have performed a duty, though it may have been dismissed 
immediately afterwards. Officers, on all duties under arms, are to 
have their swords drawn, without waiting for any word of command 
for that purpose. 



ECHELON. An arrangement of battalions, so that each has a 
line of battle in advance or in rear of its neighboring battalion. (Con- 
sult Infantry Tactics, vol. 3. See also MANOEUVRES IN COMBAT.) 

ELEVATION. The elevation of a work is the projection of its 
face on a vertical plane by horizontal rays. It shows the height or 
depth of a work, and also its length, when the plane of projection is 
parallel to the face. Applied to a piece of ordnance, the elevation is 
the inclination of the axis of the j)iece above the plane on which the car- 
riage stands. 

EMBARKATION. Field-batteries should always be embarked 
by the officers and men belonging to them, who will then know where 
each article is stowed. Articles required to be disembarked first, 
should be put in last. When there are several vessels laden with ord- 
nance and ordnance stores for an expedition, each vessel should have on 
each quarter, and on a signal at mast head, a number that can be easily 
distinguished at a distance. The same numbers should be entered on 
the list of supplies shipped in each vessel. The commander will then 
know exactly what resources he has with him. Articles shipped must 
be divided among vessels according to circumstances ; but, as a general 
rule, place in each vessel every thing required for the service at the 
moment of disembarkation, so that there will be no inconvenience, 
should other vessels be delayed. 

If boats are to be employed in the embarkation, and the boats are 
much lower than the top of the wharf, the guns and ammunition boxes 
will be lowered into the boat by means of cranes ; but when the gun- 
wales are nearly level with the wharf, the ammunition boxes may be 
more expeditiously put on board by hand, and if there are no cranes, 


the guns may bo parbuckled into tho boats. Men told off to the car- 
riages, will prepare them for embarkation. Each carriage, when called 
for, is to be run forward to the boat or crane ; the gun nnlimhered and 
dismounted; the ammunition boxes, shafts, wheels, &c., &c., to be 
taken off; the washers and linen-pins carefully put away. If tin \ iro 
left in tho nxlc-tree they are liable to be lost When a battery is mi- 
barked in different vessels, every part should be complete, and a pro- 
portion of general stores on each. Should two batteries be on the same 
Teasel, they should be stowed on different sides of the vessel. 

The embarkation of horses is more difficult than that of guns, par- 
ticularly if it bo necessary first to take them alongside the vessel in 
boats. In bad weather the guns and can 5.; isily hoisted, but 

not tho horses. If the embarkation of both cannot go on, therefore, at 
the same time, tho horses should bo embarked first. Horse ships are 
always provided with slings for hoisting in the horses ; they are mado 
of stout canvas, and are about 6^ or 7 feet long, and from 2J to 2^ 
feet wide. It may bo necessary to embark horses : 1st, when the 
transports can come alongside the wharf, and tho horses are taken on 
board at one operation ; or, 2d, when the transports cannot come along- 
side the wharf, and tho horses. arc embarked first in boats ; or, 3d. when 
the horses arc embarked in boats, from an open beaeh. 

The first case is the best, easiest, and most expeditious resembling 
in all respects the hoisting a cask in and out of the hold of a vessel. 
Horses should generally bo blindfolded for this purpose, as this pre- 
heir being frightened or troublesome. In tho second case there 
are two operations : first, lowering the hnrso into the boat, and, after the 
passage of the boat to the vessel, hoisting the horse into the transport. 
Sheers or derricks are absolutely necessary for this purpose. l>e< -ause 
the tackle must bo of such ;i description as to raise tho horse oil' the 
ground instantaneously, which a crane cannot d>. The head of tin d< r- 
riek must incline inwards while the horso is rising; but \vhen he is high 
enough, the head of tho derrick or sheers must be forced out, to bring 
the horse directly over tho boat. Horses may, in this \\.ty, be 
embarked in boats from a beach. Sand or straw must bo put into tho 
boats to preserve their bottoms, and to prevent tho horses from slip- 
ping, s should stand athwart, tho head of one horse being on 
the starboard side, and tho head of the next to him on the larboard side. 
The conductors must sit on tho gunwale or stand between the horses. 
Decked gun-boats or coasting vessel* arc very convenient for this pur- 
pose when there arc time and materials for the necessary preparation, as 
they not only hold a greater number of horses, but can come alongside 


of a wharf, and the horses, by means of a ramp, may be walked aboard. 
The disembarkation of horses is carried on by the same means as their 
embarkation. (See DISEMBARKATION. Consult Army Regulations for the 
rules governing troops embarked on transports.) 

EMBEZZLEMENT either of public property or money, punish- 
able in the case of an officer with cashiering, and making good the loss ; 
if a non-commissioned officer, by reduction to the ranks, corporal punish- 
ment, and making good the loss ; (ART. 36 and ART. 39.) 

By SEC. 16 of Act approved Aug. 6, 1846, using in any manner for 
private purposes, loaning or depositing in bank any public money, and 
any failure to pay over or to produce public money intrusted to per- 
sons charged with its safe keeping, transfer, and disbursement, is made 
prima facie evidence of embezzlement, and declared to be felony. The 
taking of receipts and vouchers without paying the amount which they 
call for, and all persons advising or participating in said act, are also 
declared guilty of embezzlement by the same section. 

EMBRASURE. An embrasure is an opening cut through the 
parapet to enable the artillery to command a certain extent of the sur- 
rounding country. The space between every two of these openings, 
called the merlon, is from 15 to 18 feet in length. The opening of the 
embrasure at the interior is two feet, while that towards the country is 
usually made equal to half the thickness of the parapet. The interior 
elevation of the parapet, which remains after cutting the embrasure, is 
called the genouillere, and covers the lower part of the gun carriage. 
The plongee, or slope given to the sole, is generally less than the incli- 
nation given to the superior slope of the parapet, in order that the fire 
from the embrasure may meet that of the musketry from the parapet 
at a point within a few feet from the top of the counterscarp. 

Fig. 108 represents the rear elevation of a two-gun portion of an ele- 
vated battery revetted with gabions. In this figure the two gabions at the 
necks of the embrasures are 

made to assume a small de- FlG - loa 

gree of slope which may 
usually be done, because the 
gabions, one with another, oc- 
cupy rather less than the 
regular average space of 2 

feet each, when placed very close together, so that those of the upper tier 
will generally admit of being closed at top, and eased at bottom, to favor 
this arrangement. If not, the neck of the embrasure may be made of 
equal, width throughout, without attempting the kind of slope alluded 


to; but the gabions which form the cheeks of the embrasures should 
have a slope gradually increasing from tin- neck t.. \\anls the front, until 
the fifth gabion (more than five will seldom be used) has u 
least one-third of its height. 

. 109 is the plan of a portion of parapet and embrasure, showing 
the arrangement of gabions above adverted to. 

Fig. 110 shows in elevation the arrangement of the gabions and of 
the sand-bags above them, as well as the geiiouillere or solid purl of the 

Fio. 109. Fio. 110. 

-*--T- ... 

embrasure, below the sole of it, in a construction that frequently arises 
in sieges, especially in the offensive crowning batteries on the crest of 
the glacis, where the depression of the sole of the embrasure is consid- 
erable, to allow of the guns being pointed to spots of the wall some 
distance below them. 



ENCEINTE is the body of the place, or the first belt of ran 
ami parapets that inclose tin- place. 

I N FILADE. To sweep the whole length of the face of any w >r!v 
or line of troops, l.y a Lattery on the prolongation of tl. line. 

ENGINEER CORPS. (See ARMY for its organization.) The func- 
tions of the engineers being generally confined to the most elevated 
branch of military Mtace, they are not to assume, nor are they siil.jeet 
to be :.y duty beyond the line of their immc-. 

sion, except by the special order of the President of tin- I'nited States ; 
but tli .-ry mark - to which their rank in the 

army may entitle them respectively, and are liable to bo transferred, at 
the discretion of the President, from one corps to anoth> being 

paid to rank; (ART. 03.) 

The engineers are charged with planning, construct ins, :md repair- 
ing all fortifications and other defensive works ; with disbursement of 
money connected with these operations. In time of war, they present 


plans for the attack and defence of military works ; lay out and con- 
struct field defences, redoubts, intrenchments, roads, &c. ; form a part 
of the vanguard to remove obstructions ; and in retreat, form a part 
of the rear guard, to erect obstacles, destroy roads, bridges, &c., so as 
to retard an enemy's pursuit. (See SAPPERS AND MINERS.) (Consult 
LAISNE, Aide Memoir e d F Usage des Officiers du Genie.) 

ENGINEERS, TOPOGRAPHICAL. (See ARMY for their organiza- 
tion.) The duties of the corps consist in surveys for the defence of the 
frontiers, and of positions for fortifications, in reconnoissances of the 
country through which an army has to pass, or in which it has to ope- 
rate ; in the examination of all routes of communication by land or by 
water, both for supplies and military movements ; in the construction 
of military roads and permanent bridges connected with them ; and the 
charge of the construction of all civil works, authorized by acts of Con- 
gress, not specially assigned by law to some other branch of the ser- 
vice. (Consult SALNEUVE, Cours de Topographic a F Usage des Eleves 
de VEcole d'Etat Major. R. S. SMITH'S Topographical -Drawing .) 

ENLISTMENTS are voluntary, and made for five years ; (Act 
June 17, 1850.) Any non-commissioned officer or soldier who shall 
enlist himself in any other regiment, troop, or company, without a reg- 
ular discharge from the regiment, troop, or company in which he 
last served, to be considered a deserter; (ART. 22.) Whenever enlist- 
ments are made at or in the vicinity of military posts on the western 
frontier, and at remote and distant stations, a bounty equal in amount 
to the cost of transporting and subsisting a soldier from the principal 
recruiting depot in the harbor of New York, to the place of such enlist- 
ment be, and the same s is hereby allowed to each recruit so enlisted, to 
be paid in unequal instalments at the end of each year's service, so that 
the several amounts shall annually increase, and the largest be paid at 
the expiration of each enlistment ; (Act June 17, 1850.) The amounts 
and instalments have been fixed in the regulations for the Pay Depart- 
ment. (See RE-ENLISTMENT.) 

ENSIGN. Lowest grade of commisssioned officers of infantry. 

ENTANGLEMENT. Abattis, so called, when made by cutting 
only partly through the trunks, and pulling the upper parts to the 
ground, where they are picketed. 

ENTICING. Any person whatever who shall procure or entice a 
soldier to desert the service of the United States, may be fined not ex- 
ceeding $300, or imprisoned any term not exceeding one year, at the 
discretion of any court having cognizance of the same; (Act March 16, 



EPAULKMKNT. An elevation thrown up to cover troops from 
tho firo of an enemy. It is usually composed of gabions filled with 
earth, or made of sand-bags, &c. 

EPAULETTE. Badge of rank, of bullion, worn by officers on the 
shoulders. The Army Regulations prescribe these badges under author- 
ity given by law to the President to establish the uniform of the army. 

EPROUVETTE, (I'KMU-LUM.) The best method of testing the 
projectile force of gunpowder, is to ascertain by experiment it* 
when used in the same quantities in which it is to be employed in 
service. This method has been adopted by establishing, at the Wash- 
ington Arsenal, a cannon pendulum and a musket pendulum, whirh 
are used fur proving samples of powder sent from the manufactories. 
The apparatus shows the initial velocity of a ball fired from a cannon 
or musket. 

In the ordinary cpronvette, gunpowder of small grain and low - 
fie gravity gives the highest range, whilst tho ballistic pendulum shows 
that the greatest initial velocity in a shot from a heavy cannon i 
duced by powder of great specific gravity and coarse grain. (Ordnance 

EQUIPAGE, CAMP AND GARRISON are tents, kitchen ut. 
axes, spades, &e. (See CLOTHING.) 

EQUIPMENT. Tho complete dress of a soldier, including 
accoutrements, dec. 

by iurprixc. win-never a sufficient number of men are secretly intro- 
duced into it to cause the defenders to abandon or surrender it. It is 
taken by escalade, when ladders are used to cross the walls. ( 111.) 

Tho surest way of succeeding in a surprise, is to have a ]> 
knowledge of the interior of the place, or to be accompanied by reliable. 

who know those parts of the place which may l.e p-n. 
with least diflimlty. Such parts are ordinarily dilapidated port! 
the body of the place; houses contiguous to the walls, the windows of 
whieh i r red, dec., dec. Aqueducts and sewers have aKo soine- 

beon used for the introduction of armed men, unknown to tho 
garrison. I>nt when a place, is ladlv guarded, all parts are accessible 
with ladders, and it is sometimes best to choose the highest walls for 
the escalade, as tho enemy will probably, from a feeling of security. In- 
lets vigilant at such parts of tho body of the place. Tins, at tho siege 
of Bn) .daded the highest, walls in tho city, 

and penetrated into the interior, while the. attack directed upon breaches 
in the lower walls, although vigorously made, was repulsed. \Vh.-n 

FIG. 111. 



it is considered hpw slow a process it is to bring up ladders to the 
counterscarp, in order to descend by them into the ditch, then t- 
the ditch, and to rear the ladders against the escarp, and to mount 
it is evident that success will, in a great measure, depend upon the 
number of men that can mount at the same moment ; in other words, 
upon the number of ladders. A ladder beyond a certain length be- 
comes, and the rearing of it difficult. The distance from the 
foot of the ladders to the wall should be at least equal to mu --fourth <>f 
their height. If the distance be greater, the ladder will be easily I 
under the weight of the men mounting them; if mueh less, they \\l\\ 
be so erect that the soldiers, as they ascend, must be continually in 
danger of falling headlong down. The scaling ladders introduce! by 
Sir Charles Pasley, are in pieces of 12' 8'' and 7' 6" in length, fitting 
into each other with strong double iron sockets, and tied by stout 
These can be arranged for any length, and quickly adjusted. Ladders 
.made of long spars are awkward to carry ; especially if there 1 
row sharp turnings in approaching the point of escalade : nor can long 
sound spars be always procured. It is desirable that ladd.-rs should be 
made of light, tough wood : teak wood is too heavy. If a guy-rope be 
attached to each side of the ladder, they greatly assist in adjusting and 
fixing it against the wall : the men told off for the guy-ropes should 
stand close to the wall, within the slope of the ladder ; these guy-n>prs 
should be fixed at 5 or 6 feet below the top of the ladder, to prevent 
their being cut by the enemy on the wall. The total lengths of the 

n should exceed the height to be escaladed 1 t. in order 

that the men may step easily offlh<- ladders on to the parapet or wall. 
Many failures have occurred from ladders being too short. It is desirable 
to h ivea pair of stout lifting bars, 3 or 4 feet Ion::, with boo!, 

TOMB u .-s-ealade is to take place, be sure to practise the men 
intended f..r the service thoroughly in carrying, in fixing, in ascendinir, 
and descending the ladders ; descendinu r , for going down a counter- 
scarp; ascending, for getting up an escarp. Always use as many lad- 
ders as possible. If there bo a counterscarp to d. ^, , nd. leave half the 
ladders there, whilo the other half are used against the osca 

: nay be lost Ascend the ladders together, on as large a front as 
possible. When an escalade is opposed by an enemy, t that a 

good firing party covers the escalade, with especial directions to fire. 
upon any work that may flank the ladders. Avoid nijrht attad. 

peculiar circumstances : the example of gallant men is lo*t 
it, whilst timidity i Make all arrangements 

cover of darkness, but assault at day.break. 


At the moment of the escalade, the ladders should be filled with sol- 
diers, and it is necessary, therefore, that they should be underpropped 
about the middle. Soldiers exercised in gymnastics are capable of 
mounting high walls with arms and accoutrements, by means of a hook, 
helved to a pole sufficiently long to reach the top of the wall. This 
exercise is practised by some French troops, and the walls of the cita- 
del of Montpellier are thus escaladed with the greatest facility. 

Precipitous rocks may be escaladed by grasping bushes and roots, 
or by planting the bayonet in the crevices of the rocks, in order to 
reach the top. Such escalades are very dangerous when an enemy de- 
fends the height, as heavy stones may be rolled down upon the assailants ; 
but activity and ingenuity accomplish much, as was shown by the 
French in the attack upon Fort Scharnitz near Innspruck. They tied 
their haversacks round their heads, and, protected by this buckler, they 
scrambled up the rocks, despite the stones precipitated upon them. 
And still later the difficult ascent at Alma was scaled by French troops, 
in the face of Russian artillery and infantry. 

The most favorable time for a surprise is that of a winter night, 
when there is no moon. A long march may then be made without dis- 
covery, and the troops may arrive an hour before day. This is the 
propitious moment for the execution of the design. It is then that 
men sleep most profoundly ; and it is at that hour the attacking force 
may begin in the dark, and end the work by daylight ; such favorable 
circumstances are much increased by heavy wind and rain during the 
night, as the clanking of arms and other inevitable noises made by the 
troops cannot be heard by the garrison, and the latter, besides, are 
more disposed to negligence. It is extremely important for the men 
to be able to recognize each other in the darkness, and the simplest 
means of doing so is to put the shirt outside the dress, or to tie a white 
band around the arm. 

The party must be furnished with petards, axes, and levers, to force 
open doors ; with beams and ladders, to overthrow and scale walls. 
Hurdles and fascines are necessary to cross muddy ditches, or broad 
planks may be used as a substitute for hurdles. With fascines small 
ditches and pools are filled up. All these articles should be carried by 
the men from the^ast halting-place. Wagons and animals would lead 
to discovery, and are therefore left at a safe distance, while every pre- 
caution is taken to maintain silence in the assailing party. The soldiers 
should also not light their pipes, as the fire can be seen from a long 
distance in the dark. Barking dogs must be quieted without the use 
of fire-arms, and every one must be on the alert. 


The dispositions made for the attack will vary with circumstances, 
hut in general it is well to divide the force into three parts: tin- first to 
penetrate into the city ; the second to remain without and protect, if 
necessary, the retreat of the first ; and the third to take such position an 
is most likely to prevent aid from reaching the enemy. 

When tlu first division has penetrated the city by escalade or other- 
wise, it surrounds at once some of the adjacent quarters, and holds tin- 
outlets of the principal streets, whilst detachments quickly opt n tin- 
gates to the troops outside, after having taken or killed the guards. As 
soon as tho gates are opened, and sufficient numbers are at hand, the 
troops spread themselves in the city, at't.T leaving good reserves, upon 
which to retreat in case of check. The house of the commandant, bar- 
racks, arsenal, and the guards of the interior are at once sought, to pre- 
vent, if possible, any re-union of the defenders, and to paralyze all their 
efforts by tho seizure of the commanding officer. If time and means of 
recovering from his stupor and concentrating his force in the interior 
of the city be left to the enemy, great risk will bo run of being driven 
out, as the attacking force is necessarily everywhere weak, from thu 
great number of points occupied. 

Tho famous example of Cremona, where Prince Eugene, after hav- 
ing made himself master of a great part of the city, and after having 
seized Marshal Villeroi, who commanded there, was nevertheless then 
driven out by tho defenders, shows that all is not lost to tho defenders 
when the enemy has seized tho exterior posts. Another example may 
be cited in the surprise of Bergen-op-Zoom in 1814, by Gen. Graham. 
where, although tho surprise was successful, yet tho assailants, in the 
end, were obliged by tho garrison to surrender after consideiable loss. 

Much may then bo done by defenders even under such cireu in- 
stances, but much more may be accomplished by the most urn. 
vigilance, and this quality, instead of bring relaxed in stnnuy nights, 
should bo then redoubled. (Consult Corns de Taclique, par le 6 


ESCARP, (or SCARP) is the side of tho ditch next to tho place, 
which, in j>- rmanent fortifications, is usually faced with masonry. 

ESCORT. (See CONVOY.) There arc also funeral escorts ; escorts' 
of h.nor ; color escorts ; &c., dec. 

ESPLANADE. Empty space for exercising troops in fortified 


ESPRIT DE CORPS. Tho brotherhood of a corps; military 
and IT-.- . Nothing is so prejudicial to it, as tho failure ! 

unite the companies of a regiment. It might also be promoted 


cording the distinguished services of a regiment on its colors. (See 

EVACUATE. To withdraw from a town or fortress, in conse- 
quence either of a treaty or a capitulation, or of superior orders. 

EVIDENCE is that which makes clear, demonstrates, or ascertains 
the truth of the very fact or point in issue ; (3. Bl. Comm., 367.) Evi- 
dence may be considered with reference to, 1, the nature of the evidence; 
2T, the object of the evidence ; 3, the instruments of evidence ; and, 4, the 
effect of evidence. 

As to its nature, evidence may be considered with reference to 
its being, 1, the primary evidence ; 2, secondary evidence ; 3, positive ; 
4, presumptive ; 5, hearsay ; and, 6, admissions. 

1. Primary evidence. The law generally requires that the best 
evidence the case admits of shall be given ; (1 Stark. Ev., 102, 390.) 

2. Secondary evidence is that species of proof which is admissible on 
the loss of primary evidence. Before it is admitted, proof must be made 
of the loss or impossibijity of obtaining the primary evidence. 

3. Positive evidence is that which, if believed, establishes the truth 
of a fact in issue, and does not arise from any presumption. Evidence 
is positive when the very facts in dispute are communicated by those 
who have actual knowledge of them by means of their senses ; (1 Stark. 

4. Presumptive evidence is that which is not direct, but where, on 
the contrary, a fact which is not positively known, is presumed from 
one or more other facts or circumstances which are known ; (1 Stark. 

5. Hearsay is the evidence of those who relate not what they know 
themselves, but what they have heard from others. As a general rule, 
hearsay evidence of a fact is not admissible. But evidence given on a 
former trial by a person since dead is admissible, as is also the dying 
declarations of a person who has received a mortal injury. A few 
more exceptions may be found in Phillips' Ev., chap. 7 ; 1 Stark. Ev., 40. 

6. Admissions, which are the declarations made by a party for him- 
self or those acting under his authority. These admissions are gener- 
ally evidence of facts declared, but the admissions themselves must be 

The object of evidence is to ascertain the truth between the parties. 
Experience shows that this is best done by the following rules, which 
are now binding in law : 1. The evidence must be confined to the point 
in issue ; 2. The substance of the issue must be proved, but only the 
substance is required to be proved ; 3. The affirmative of the issue 


must be proved. A witness, on being admitted in court, is first sub- 
jected to the examination of the party in whoso behalf he is called. 
This is termed the examination in chief. The principal* rule to bo 
observed by the party examining is, that leading questions are not to be 
sked. The witness is then cross-examined by the other party. The 
object of cross-examination is twofold: to weaken the evidence given 
by the witness as to the fact in question, either by eliciting contrad'u -timis 
or new explanatory facts; or, secondly, to invalidate the general credit of 
the witness. In the latter case it is a general rule, that a witness may 
refuse to answer any question, if his answer will expose him to criminal 
liability. The general practice of English courts also seems to auth< >rize 

: usal to answer any question which will disgrace him. The 
of a witness may likewise bo impeached by the general evidence of others 
as to his character ; but in this case no evidence can be given of par- 
ticular facts which militate against his jreneral credit. "Witnesses are 
excluded from giving evidence by: 1. Want of reason or understand- 
ing; 2. Want of belief in God and a future state ; 3. Infancy ; and, -1. 
Interest Besides witnesses, records and private writings arc also i- 
struments of evidence. 

1. Records, in all cases where the issue is mil ticl reord, are to be, 
proved by an exemplification duly authenticated ; that is, an attestation 
made by a proper officer, by which he certifies that a record is in due 
form of law, and that the person who certifies it is the oflieer appointed 
by law to do so. In other cases an examined copy, duly proved, will 
in general be evidence. 

2. Private writings are proved by 1 producing the attesting witness, 
or, in case of his absence, death, or other legal inability to testify, as if, 
after attesting the paper, he becomes int'mmu-.. his handwriting may bo 
proved. When there is no witness to the instrument, it, may l.e j 

lence of the handwriting of the j tarty, by a person who ha- 
him writ.-, or in a course of >! -n -spundeni v has become acquainted with 
his hand. Parol evidence is admissible to di-t'.-at a written instrument 
on the ground of fraud, mistake, dec. ; or to apply it to its proper subject, 
matter, or, in some instances, as ancillary to sn< h application, to explain 
the meaning of doubtful terms, or rebut presumptions .M-isini: extrinsic- 
ally. But in all cases the parol evidence does not usurp the. place or 
Arrogate the authority of the writtm instrument. (Consult .jrrnerally 
Trralitci on Evidence by PHILLIPS and STARKIK ; BOUVIXR'S Law Die* 
tionary ; BRANDED Encyclopaedia.) 
EVOLUTION- , x , M, ...,,, 

EXECUTION OF LAWS. On all occasions when the troops are 


employed in restoring or maintaining public order among their fellow- 
citizens, the use of arms, and particularly fire-arms, is obviously attend- 
ed with loss of life or limb to private individuals ; and for these con- 
sequences, a military man may be called to stand at the bar of a criminal 
court.' A private soldier also may occasionally be detached on special 
duty, with the necessity of exercising discretion as to the use of his 
arms ; and in such cases he is responsible, like an officer, for the 
right use or exercise of such discretion. One of the earliest reported 
cases on this subject occurred in 1735, when Thomas Macadam, a pri- 
vate sentinel, and James Long, a corporal, were tried before the Admi- 
ralty Court of Scotland, upon a charge of murder under the following 
circumstances : They were ordered to attend some custom-house officers, 
for their protection in making a legal seizure ; and being in a boat with 
the officers in quest of the contraband goods, one Frazer and his com- 
panions came up with them, leaped into the boat, and endeavored to 
disarm the soldiers. In the scuffle, the prisoners stabbed Frazer with 
their bayonets, and threw him into the sea. For this homicide the 
prisoners were tried and convicted of murder by a jury ; and the Judge- 
admiral sentenced them to death. But the High Court of Justiciary re- 
versed this judgment, on the ground that the homicide in question was 
necessary for securing the execution of the trust committed to the 
prisoners. The report of this case contains the following remarks upon 
it by Mr. Forbes, afterwards Lord President of the Court of Session of 
Scotland ; and they appear to be of great importance to military men : 
" Where a man has by law weapons put into his hands, to be employed 
not only in defence of his life when attacked, but in support of the exe- 
cution of the laws, and in defence of the property of the Crown, and the 
liberty of any subject, he doubtless may use those weapons, not only 
when his own life is put so far in danger that he cannot probably es- 
cape without making use of them, but also when there is imminent 
danger that he may by violence be disabled to execute his trust, with- 
out resorting to the use of those weapons ; but when tljp life of the 
officer is exposed to no danger, when his duty does not necessarily call 
upon him for the execution of his trust, or for the preservation of the 
property of the Crown, or the preservation of the property or liberty 
of the subject, to make use of mortal weapons, which may destroy His 
Majesty's subjects, especially numbers of them who may be innocent, it 
it is impossible from the resolution of the Court of Justiciary .to expect 
any countenance to, or shelter for, the inhuman act." This quotation, 
in the latter part of it, has a direct bearing on the case of the unfortu- 
nate Captain Porteus, whose trial took place in the following year, and 


whose melanclu tho groundwork of Sir Walter 

of Mid Lothian." In tin- '. tin- collector of customs on tho 

coast of Fife mode a seizure of contraband goods of considerable value, 
which were condemned and sold. Two of tho proprietors of these goods 
took an opportunity of robbing the collector of just so nnu-h money as 
these goods had sold for. They regarded this as merely a fair ivprisal, 
and no robbery ; but they were nevertheless taken up, tried, and con- 
demned to death for tho fact. With the exception of some smuggling 
transactions, in which they had boon concerned, the prisoners were men 
of fair character ; and tho mob expressed much dissatisfaction with their 
v, and the prospect of their execution. On the Sunday preced- 
ing the day appointed for the execution, the prisoners wen- taken to a 
church near the gaol, attended by only three or four of tho city guards, 
to hear divine service. None of tho congregation had assembled, and 
the guards being feeble old men, one of tho prisoners made a spring 
over tho pew where they sat, while the other, whose name \vas Wilson, 
in order to facilitate his companion's escape, caught hold of two of the. 
guards with his hands, and seized another with his teeth, and thus en- 
abled his companion to join the mob outside, who bore him off to a 
place of safety. Wilson then composedly resumed his own seat, with- 
out making any attempt to recover his own liberty. This generous 
conduct of Wilson created a strong public feeling in his favor ; and the 
magistrates of Edinburghfcoon learned that an attempt would be. made 
by the mob to rescue him at the place of execution. They therefore 
procured some of the regular forces on duty in tho suburbs to be posted 
at a convenient distance from the spot, so as to support tho city guard, 
in case they should be vigorously attacked. The officer, whose turn it 
was to do duty as captain of the city guard, being deemed unfit for tho 
critical duties of the day, Captain Porteus, unfortunately for himself, 
wat appointed to the command on the occasion. His men wen - 
with Lull -cartridge ; and, by order of the magistrates, they loaded their 
pieces when* hey went upon duty. The execution took'-- without 
any disturbance until the time arrived for cutting down the body, when 
the mob severely pelted the, executioner with stones, which hit tho 
guards as they surrounded the scaffold, and provoked them to fire upon 
the crowd. Some persons at a distance from the place of 
were thus killed. As soon as the body was removed, Captain Porteus 
withdrew his men, and marched up tho West Bow, which is a narrow 
winding passage. The mob. having recovered from the fri^h: 
by tho previous firing, followed tho guard up this passage, and pelted 
the rear with stones, which tho guards returned with some 


shot, whereby some where killed, and others wounded. On reaching 
the guard-house they deposited their arms in the usual form, and Cap- 
tain Porteus went with his piece in his hand to the Spread Eagle Tav- 
ern, where the magistrates were assembled. On his arrival there, he 
was charged with the murder of the persons who had been slain by the 
city guards, on the allegation that he had commanded the guards to fire. 
The mob was very riotous, and called for justice upon him; and the 
magistrates, after adjourning to the council chamber, committed him 
to the Tolbooth for trial. The strongest feeling existed against him 
on the part of the mob, until the hour of his trial before the High 
Court of Justiciary arrived, when, to their great satisfaction, he was 
found guilty, and condemned to be hanged. The higher classes of so- 
ciety, however, unaffected by the popular prejudice against the unfor- 
tunate prisoner, exerted themselves strenuously in his behalf, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a reprieve. This created the greatest discontent 
among the lower orders, who, on the night before the day originally ap- 
pointed for the execution, broke open the gaol, dragged the unhappy 
Captain Porteus down stairs by the heels, carried him to the common 
place of execution, and there, throwing a rope over a dyer's pole, hanged 
him with many marks of barbarity. The perpetrators of this outrage 
were never discovered, and the subject gave rise to very warm debates 
in Parliament, particularly in the House of Lords, with respect to the 
conduct of the city magistrates and officers. 

It was quite clear, however, with reference to the criminality of 
Captain Porteus, that he had ordered his men to fire without sufficient 
cause or justification ; and, under such circumstances, he was in point 
of law justly found guilty of murder. 

Ensign Hugh Maxwell, of the Lanarkshire Militia, was tried in 
1807, before the High Court of Justiciary of Scotland, for the murder 
of Charles Cottier, a French prisoner of war at Greenlaw, by improperly 
ordering John Gow, a private sentinel, to fire into the room where Cot- 
tier and other prisoners were confined, and so causing him to be mor- 
tally wounded. It appeared that Ensign Maxwell had been appointed 
to the military guard over 300 prisoners of war, chiefly taken from 
French privateers. The building in which they were confined was of 
no great strength, and afforded some possibilities of escape. The pris- 
oners were of a very turbulent character, and to prevent their escape 
during the long winter nights, an order was given that all lights in the 
prison should be put out by nine o'clock, and that if this was not done 
at the second call, the guard were to fire upon the prisoners, who were 
often warned that this would be the consequence of disobedience with 


regard to the lights. On the night in question, there was a tumult in 
the prison, but of no great importance ; ami Ensign Maxwell's attention 
having been on that account drawn to tin- prisoners, ho observed a light 
burning beyond the appointed hour, ami twice ordered it to be put out. 
This order not being obeyed he ordered the sentry to fire, but tho mus- 
ket merely snapped. Ho repeated the order; the sentinel fired again, 
and Cottier received his mortal wound. At this time there was no 
symptom of disorder in tho prison, and tho prisoners were all in bed. 
The general instructions issued from the adjutant-general's office in 
Edinburgh, for the conduct of tho troops guarding tho prison, contained 
no such order as that which Ensign Maxwell -had acted upon; and it 
appeared that tho order in question was a mere verbal one, which had 
from time to time, in tho hearing of the officers, been repeated by tho 
corporal to the sentries, on mounting guard, and had never been coun- 
tenn.imle.l by those officers, who were also senior to Ensign Maxwell. 
The Lord Justice Clerk described tho case to the jury as altogether the 
most distressing that any court had ever been called upon to con- 

and laid it down most distinctly, that Ensign Maxwell could only 
def.-n.l himself by proving specific orders, which ho was bound to obey 
without discretion; or by showing that in the general discharge of his 
duty he was placed in circumstances, which gave him discretion, and 
called upon him to do what ho* did. His lordship was of opinion that 
bqth these grounds of defence failed in tho present case; and tho jury 
having found Ensign Maxwell guilty of the minor offence of culjmMe 

?e, with a recommendation to mercy, tho court sentenced him to 
nine months' imprisonment. Ensign Maxwell's conduct certainly ex- 
hibit, d none of those gross features which characterize murder; but at 
the same time he was guilty of a rash and inconsiderate act, which, if 
he had not been engaged at the time in military duty, though ho was 
mistaken in tho exercise of it, would probably have been held to amount 
to murder. In Maxwell's case, tho soldier who fired the shot was not 
prosecuted for tho act, nor was ho liable to such prosecution. 

It is laid down in a book of authority, that if a ship's sentinel shoot 

, because he persists in approaching the ship when he has been 
Ordered not to do SO, it will bo munln-, nnl.-ss such an net was 
sary for the ship's safety. And it will be murder, though the sentinel 
had orders to prevent the approach of any boats, had ammunition given 
to him when he was put on guard, and acted on tho mistaken impres- 
sion that it was - . Thomas, the prisoner was sentinel 
on board II. M.S. AcJiillr, when sho was paying off. The orders to him 
from the preceding sentinel were to keep off all boats, unless they had 


officers in uniform in them, or unless the officer on deck allowed them 
to approach : and he received a musket, three blank-cartridges, and 
three balls. The boats pressed, upon which he repeatedly called to. 
them to keep off; but one of them persisted, and came close under the 
ship, and he then fired at a man in the boat and killed him. It was put 
to the jury to find whether the sentinel did not fire under the mistaken 
impression that it was his duty ; and they found that he did. But the 
case being reserved for the opinion of the judges, their lordships were 
unanimous that it was murder. They thought it, however, a proper 
case for a pardon : and further, they were of opinion that if the act had 
been necessary for the preservation of the ship, as if the deceased had 
been stirring up a mutiny, the sentinel would have been justified. 

The cases already cited turned upon the improper exercise of dis- 
cretion by the officers concerned. But in the following case, though 
not attended with actual consequences involving a criminal charge, the 
discretion in the use of arms was wisely exercised, and indicated great 
presence of mind, and correctness of judgment. 

Some years ago, the public journals of London recorded the meri- 
torious behavior of a private sentry, upon the occasion of a riotous 
mob assembled at ths entrance of Downing-street, with the intention 
of attacking the government offices in that quarter of the town. This 
man standing alone presented his musket, and threatened to fire upon 
the crowd, if the slightest attempt were made to approach the particular 
office for the defence of which he was placed on duty, and succeeded by 
the terror thus created, though at a great risk of consequences to him- 
self, in keeping the rioters at bay until a larger force arrived to assist 
him.* The soldier's conduct was publicly much approved. It was also 
clearly legal according to Macadam's case ; and if after the announce- 
ment of his intentions the mob had pressed forward to execute their 
purpose, he would have been held justified at law in firing at the rioters 
upon his own responsibility. The Duke of Wellington, as Constable 
of the Tower, testified his marked approbation of this man's conduct, by 
promoting him at once to a Wardership at that fortress. 

During the Irish insurrection of 1848, Smith O'Brien was arrested 
at the railway station of Thurles, on a charge of high treason. A pub- 
lic passenger train was on the point of starting for Dublin, and the 
engineeer was mounted on the engine, with the steam up, and every 
thing in readiness for the immediate prosecution of the journey. The 
scene of the arrest lay in the disturbed distrct, which was in the occu- 
pation of the troops employed to suppress the insurrection and prevent 
its extension. General Macdonald's aide-de-camp, having been apprised 


of the arrest, proceeded instantly to the station, and there cr.mi 

-nut from the engine, and to stop the train ; it lie- 
ing of the utmost importance to the public safety and service that the 
news of the arrest should not be carried along tlio line of railway, as 
th6 country people might assemble in great numbers and destroy the 
rails, and rescue the prisoner, or otherwise impede the conveyance of 
the prisoner to Dublin. Sueh interference would obviously have occa- 
sioned great l<-s of life, besides the danger to the public service at such 
a season. The engineer at first refused to obey tho aide-de-camp's or- 
hereupon the officer presented his pistol at the engineer, and 
threatened him with instant death if he persisted in his refusal. The 
man then dismounted ; but it is conceived that tho officer pursued a 
correct line of conduct, and exercised upon the occasion a sound dis- 
. which would have been a good legal defence to him, if ho had 
ultimately proceeded to execute his threat upon the engineer. " Power 
iu law (says Sir Edward Coke) means power with force." 

The right of officers or soldiers to interfere in quelling a felonious 
i.-ther with or without superior military orders, or the direction 
of a civil magistrate, is quite clear, and beyond tho possibility of mis- 
take. This subject, however, was formerly little understood; and 
military men failed in their public duty through . nfion. 

George III. and hit Attorney-general (\\Vddcrburn) both deservedly 

acquired high credit for their energy in the crisis of the riots of 1780. 

\Yhen the king heard that tho troops which had been marched i 

all quarters were of no avail in restoring order, on account of a scruple 

.oy could not be ordered to fire till an hour after the Riot Act 

had been read, he called a cabinet council, at which ho himself presided, 

and propounded for their consideration the legality of this opinion. 

There was much hesitation among the councillors. a> iln-y r. nx mlieivd 

:tcry that h i i !. m made by reason of some dca;hsfr..m the in- 

nco of the military in Wilkes's riots, and the cairn-ness with 

which grand juries had found indictments tor murder against those \\ho 

had acted under the command of their superiors. At last the question 

was put to the Attorney-general, who attended as assessor, and h 

tr, Unhesitating, and unqualified answer to the Hll-et. that if the 
mob v. .nitting .1 felony, ashy burning do\\n dwelling-houses, 

MI dojnir so lv other nn ans, the military, 

according to the l.iw of Kngland, might and ought to be ordered to fire, 
upon them: tho reading of th- Ki-.t Act being wholly unnecessary 
and nugatory under sii'-h circum ' words used by 

him on this occasion arc not known ; but they must have 1>, \\ nearly 


the same which he employed when he shortly afterwards expounded 
from the judgment seat the true doctrine upon the subject. The re- 
quisite orders were issued to the troops, the conflagrations were 
stopped, and tranquillity was speedily restored. 

This eminent lawyer having become Chief Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, with the title of Lord Loughborough, delivered a 
charge to the grand jury on the special commission for the trial of the 
rioters of 1780, in the following terms : " I take this public opportunity 
of mentioning a fatal mistake into which many persons have fallen. It 
has been imagined, because the law allows an hour for the disp^r- 
sion of a mob to whom the Riot Act has been read by the magistrate, 
the better to support the civil authority, that during that time the civil 
power and the magistracy are disarmed, and the king's subjects, whose 
duty it is at alt times to suppress riots, are to remain quiet and pas- 
sive. No such meaning was within view of the legislature, nor doe j 
the operation of the act warrant such effect. The civil magistrates are 
left in possession of all those powers which the law had given them 
before. If the mob collectively, or a part of it, or any individual within 
or before the expiration of that hour, attempts, or begins to perpetrate 
an outrage amounting to felony, to pull down a house, or by any other 
act to violate the law, it is the duty of all present, of whatever descrip- 
tion they may be, to endeavor to stop the mischief, and to apprehend 
the offender." 

" A riot (says Mr. Justice Gaselee) is not the less a riot, nor an 
illegal meeting, because the proclamation of the Riot Act has not been 
read ; the effect of that proclamation being to make the parties guilty 
of a capital offence if they do not disperse within an hour ; but if that 
proclamation be not read, the common law offence remains, and it is a 
misdemeanor ; and all magistrates, constables, and even private indi- 
viduals are justified in dispersing the offenders ; and if they cannot 
otherwise succeed in doing so, they may use %rce." 

After the suppression of the great riots of London in 1780, by the 
aid of the troops, as already mentioned, the government was acrimo- 
niously attacked both in and out of parliament, on the ground that the 
employment of a military force, to quell riots by firing on the people, 
could only be justified, if at all, by martial law proclaimed under a 
special exercise of the royal prerogative ; and it was thence argued that 
the nation was living under martial law. But Lord Mansfield, the 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench, addressed the House of Lords on this 
subject, and placed it in its true light. " I hold (said his lordship) that 
His Majesty, in the orders he issued by the advice of his ministers, acted 


perfectly and strictly according to the common law of the land, anl tlie 

principles of the Constitution Every individual in his private 

capacity may lawfully int. rf< -ro to suppress a riot, much more to pre- 
vent acts of felony, treason, and rebellion. Not only is ho authorized 
to interfere for such a purpose, but it is his duty to do so : and if called 
upon by a magistrate, he is punishable in case of refusal. AN' hat any 
single individual may lawfully do for the prevention of < -rime and pres- 

n of the public peace, may be done by any number assembled 
to perform their duty as p us. It is the peculiar business of 

alfoonstahles to apprehend rioters, t" endeavor to disperse, all unlawful 
assemblies, and in case of resistance, to attack, wound, nay kill those 
"who continue to resist; taking care not to commit unnecessary vio- 

or to abuse the power legally vested in them. Every one is 
justified in doing what is necessary for the faithful diseharLre of the 

annexed to his office, although ho is doubly culpable if ho wan- 
tonly commits an illegal act under the color or pretext of law. The 
persons who assisted in the suppression of those tumults are to be 
considered mere private individuals acting as duty required. My 
lords, we have not been living under martial law, but under that law 
which it has long been my sacred function to administer. For any 
violation of that law the offenders are amenable to our ordinary courts 
of justice, and may be tried before a jury of their countrymen. Sup- 
posing a soldier or any other military person who acted in the course 
of the late riots, had exceeded the power with vh' ( 'h he was in\ 
I have not a single doubt that ho may be punished, not. bv a court-mar- 
tial, but upon an indictment to be found by the Grand Inquest of the. 
City of London or the County of Middlesex, and disposed of before the 
crmined judges sitting in Justice Hall at the Old Bailey. Conse- 
quently the idea is false, that we are living under a military p..vern- 
r that, since the commencement of the riots, any part of the 
laws or of the Constitution has been suspended or dispensed with. I 
believe that much mischief has arisen from a misconeeption of t! 
Act, which .' after proclamation made persons pn 

riotous assembly shall depart to their homes ; those \\h . remain there 
above on hour afterwards shall be guilty of fel-.-iy and liable to sutler 
'his it has been imagined that, the military cannot act, 
M maybe committed in their sight, till an hour 

it beon made, or, as it is termed, ' the Iliot. Act is 
read.' But the Riot Act only introduces a new offence reman 
hour after the proclamation without qualifying any pro-exist';!:;: law, 


or abridging the means which before existed for preventing or punish- 
ing crimes." 

In the case of Plandcock v. Baker, which was an action brought against 
the defendants, who were not constables, for forcibly detaining and con- 
fining the plaintiff, in order to prevent him from murdering his wife, 
Mr. Justice Heath made the following observations : " It is a matter 
of the last consequence that it should be known upon what occasions 
bystanders may interfere so as to prevent felony. In the riots which 
took place in 1780, this matter was much misunderstood, and a gen- 
eral persuasion prevailed that no indifferent person could interpose 
without the authority of a magistrate ; in consequence of which much 
mischief was done which might otherwise have been prevented." And 
in the same case Mr. Justice Chambre said : " There is a great differ- 
ence between the right of a private person in cases of intended felony 
and breach of the peace. It is lawful for a private person to do any 
thing for the prevention of a felony." And in so doing it becomes 
quite immaterial whether the persons wounded or slain are taking any 
active part in the riot. In the caseT>f Clifford v. Brandon, which was 
an action by a barrister of great eminence against the box-keeper of 
Covent Garden Theatre, who had arrested him in the theatre for wear- 
ing in his hat a ticket with O.P. on it this being a badge of the party 
by whom the celebrated O.P. riots relative to the prices of admission 
were carried on and nothing else having been proved against him 
the Lord Chief Justice, Sir James Mansfield, said : " If any person en- 
courages, or promotes, or takes part in riots, whether by words, signs, 
or gestures, or by wearing the badge or ensign of the rioters, he is him- 
self to be considered a rioter, he is liable to be arrested for a breach of 
the peace. In this case all are principals." 

But notwithstanding the existence of a clear right and duty on the 
part of military men voluntarily to aid in the suppression of a riot, it 
would be the height of imprudence to intrude with military force, ex- 
cept upon the requisition of a magistrate, unless in those cases where 
the civil power is obviously overcome, or on the point of being over- 
come, by the rioters. 

With regard to the requisition of military aid by the civil magis- 
trate, the rule seems to be, that when once the magistrate has charged 
the military officer with the duty of suppressing a riot, th.e execution 
of that duty is wholly confided to the judgment and skill of the military 
officer, who thenceforward acts independently of the magistrate until 
the service required is fully performed. The magistrate cannot dictate 
to the officer the mode of executing the duty ; and an officer would 


his duty if he submitted to receive any such orders from th,; 

rate. Neither is it necessary for the magistrate to accompany 
the officer in the execution of his duty. 

The learning on these points may be gathered from the charge of 
Mr. Justice Littledale to the jury, in the trial of the mayor of 1 
for broach of duty in not suppressing the riots at that city in iNiJl. 
"Another charge (said His Lordship) against the defendant is, that 
upon bein^ required to ride with Major Beckwith, he did not do so. 
In my opinion IK- was not bound to do so in point of law. I do not 
apprehend it to be the duty of a justice of the peace to ride along and 
charge with the military. A military officer may act without the au- 
thority of the magistrate, if he chooses to take the responsibility ; but 
although that is the strict law, there are few military men who will tako 
upon themselves so to do, except on the most pressing occasions. 
Where it is likely to be attended with a great destruction of life, a, 
man, generally speaking, is unwilling to act without a magistrates 
authority ; but that authority need not be given by his presence. In 
this case the mayor did give his authority to act ; the order has been 
read in evidence ; and he was not bound in law to ride with the sol- 
diers, more particularly on such an occasion as this, when his presence 
elsewhere might be required to give ireneral directions. If he Mas 
bound to make one charge, ho was bound to have made as many other 
charges as the soldiers made. It is not in evidence that the mayor was 
able to ride, or at least in the habit of doing so; and to charge with 
soldiers it is not only necessary to ride, but to ride in the same manner 
as they do ; otherwise it is probable the person would soon be un- 
horsed, and would do more harm than good : besides that, if the mob 
were disposed to resist, a man who appeared in plain dotlies leading 
the military would bo soon selected and destroyed. I do not appre- 
hend that it is any part of the duty of a person who has to give gen- 
eral directions, to expose himself to all kinds of personal danger. The, 
general commanding an army does not ordinarily do so, and I can set- 
no reason why a magistrate should. A case may bo eon< i\< -<1 where. 
it might be prudent, but here no necessity for it has been shown/' 

This rabjed \\as aU> luminously expounded l.y the late L,,rd Chief 
Justice Tindal, in his charge to the grand jury on the special commis- 
sion hell at r.rist.,1, on the 2d of January, 1832, for the trial of the par- 
ties implicated in the formidable riots and devastations committed in 

y during the autumn of the previous year: "It has been well 
said that the uso of the law consists, first, in preserving men's persons 
from death and violence ; next, in securing to them the free enjoyment 


of their property ; and although every single act of violence, and each 
individual breach of the law, tends to counteract and destroy this its 
primary use and object, yet do general risings and tumultuous meet- 
ings of the people in a more especial and particular manner produce 
this effect, not only removing all security, both from the persons and 
property of men, but for the time putting down the law itself, and 

daring to usurp its place In the first place, by the common 

law, every private person may lawfully endeavor, of his own authority, 
and without any warrant or sanction of the magistrate, to suppress a 
riot by every means in his power. He may disperse, or assist in dis- 
persing, those who are assembled ; he may stay those who are engaged 
in it from executing their purpose ; he may stop and prevent others 
whom he shall see coming up, from joining the rest ; and not only has 
he the authority, but it is his bounden duty, as a good subject of the 
king, to perform this to the utmost of his ability. If the riot be gen- 
eral and dangerous, he may arm himself against the evil-doers to keep 
the peace. Such was the opinion of all the judges of England in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, in a case called ' The Case of Arms,' (Pop- 
ham's Reports, p. 121,) although the judges add, that ' it would be more 
discreet for every one in such a case to attend and be assistant to the 
justices, sheriffs, or other ministers of the king in doing this.' It would, 
undoubtedly, be more advisable so to do ; for the presence and author- 
ity of the magistrate would restrain the proceeding to such extremities, 
until the danger was sufficiently immediate, or until some felony was 
either committed or could not be prevented without recourse to arms ; 
and at all events the assistance given by men who act in subordination 
to, and in concert with, the civil magistrate, will be more effectual to 
attain the object proposed, than any efforts, however well intended, of 
separate and disunited individuals. But if the occasion demands im- 
mediate action, and no opportunity is given for procuring the advice or 
sanction of the magistrate, it is the duty of every subject to act for him- 
self, and upon his own responsibility in suppressing a riotous and tu- 
multuous assembly ; and he may be assured that whatever is honestly 
done by him in the execution of that object, will be supported and 
justified by the common law. And whilst I am stating the obligation 
imposed by the law on every subject of the realm, I wish to observe 
that the law acknowledges no distinction in this respect between the 
soldier and the private individual. The soldier is still a citizen, lying 
under the same obligation, and invested with the same authority to 
preserve the peace of the king as any other subject. If the one is bound 
to attend the call of the civil magistrate, so also is the other ; if the one 


may interfere for that purpose when the occasion demands it, without 
the requisition of tin* magistrate, so may the other too; if the one 
may employ arms for that purpose, when arms are necessary, the sol- 
dier may do the same. Undoubtedly the same exercise of discretion 
which requires the private subject to act in subordination to, and in aid 
of, the magistrate, rather than upon his own authority, In fore recourse 
is had to arms, ought to operate in a still stronger degree with a mili- 
tary force. But where the danger is pressing and immediate, where 
a felony has actually been committed, or cannot otherwise be prevented, 
and from the circumstances of the case no opportunity is offered of ob- 
taining a requisition from the proper authorities, the military subjects 
of the kin::, like his civil subjects,' not only may, but are bound to do 
utmost, of their own authority, to prevent the perpetration of out- 
rage, to put down riot and tumult, and to preserve the lives and prop- 
erty of the people." 

It is one result of tho law, as laid down by the foregoing authorities, 
that a military officer refusing or failing, on a proper occasion, to bring 
into action against a riotous or an insurrectionary mob, the force under 
his command, would be guilty of an indictable offence at common law, 
and might be prosecuted accordingly for breach of duty, independently 
of his liability to military censure. 

The most recent case on this subject arose out of the conduct of the 
military at Six-mile Bridge, in the. County of Clare, during tho parlia- 
mentary election for that county in the year 1852. At tin ensuing 
Spring Assizes hold at Ennis in February, 1853, nn indictment for 
murder was preferred against the magistrate and the officers and mm 
whose conduct was impeached ; but the grand jury throw out tho bill : 
and the case is hero noticed only for the sake of the charge deliver.'. 1 
to them by Mr. Justice Pcrrin, who thus commented upon the law in 
its application to the offence of which the military Wtff a-vused : 

" It appears that there was an escort of soldiers, consist in 
men, with two sergeants, as a safe-guard for some persons going to the 
hustings at Six-mile Bridge, under the command of a captain and a lieu- 
tenant, and the conduct of a magistrate a very difficult and a very 
nice sen \\ith respect to the requisition, its terms, grounds, 

or sufficiency, the soldiers could have no knowledge. Tin orders of the 
general, whi. h they are bound to obey, and not permitted to canvass, 
were obligatory on them ; and for its sufficiency they arc not respon- 
sible, and you are happily relieved from any inquiry into that matter. 
Under that order, and the command of Captain Eager, and the. con- 
duct of Mr. Delmege, they assembled. They proceeded to Six-mile 


Bridge, and were there, with their arms in their hands, in obedience to 
orders. Those orders will not justify any unlawful conduct or violence 
in them, but it accounts for their presence there in arms : for ordinary 
persons going on such an occasion as that to the hustings would act 
very indiscreetly and very dangerously, if, perhaps, not very illegally, 
to arm themselves with deadly weapons, in order to meet obstruction 
or opposition, if it were expected. But the soldiers were bound, and 
were there under orders ; and that which in other persons might denote 
a previous evil or deadly intention, you will see, plainly suggests none 
in them, for they must obey their orders as soldiers. There was noth- 
ing illegal in their proceeding through the crowd with the freeholders, 
possibly like any other body of freeholders and their companions, but 
doing or offering no unnecessary violence, nor were they to be subject to 
any violence beyond others. They had no right to force ft way through 
the crowd by violence, nor to remove any obstruction by arms, still less by 
discharging deadly fire-arms. They had no right to repel a trespass on 
themselves, or on the escort, by firing or inflicting mortal wounds. You 
will observe the distinction I take between removing an obstruction 
and repelling a trespass in another part of the case. They had a right 
to lay hold of, as every subject of Her Majesty has, and to arrest persons 
guilty of any assault or trespass, or other act tending to a riot, either to 
restrain or make them amenable. There is no distinction between sol- 
diers and others in that respect, Lord Mansfield says, and his attention 
was very much called to this subject, touching the military engaged, 
not as soldiers, but, he says, as citizens, and I say, as subjects of Her 
Majesty. No matter whether their coats be red or brown, they are 
employed not to subvert, but to preserve the laws which they ought to 
prize so highly, taking care not to commit any unnecessary violence, or 
to abuse the power vested in them. Every one is justified in doing 
what is necessary for the faithful discharge of his duty, although he is 
deeply culpable if he wantonly commits any illegal act under the color 
or pretext of law. Those persons who assist in the suppression of tu- 
mults are to be considered as mere private individuals, acting as duty 
requires. It is a mistake to suppose that having resort to soldiers, is 
introducing martial law or military government, Suppose a soldier, 
or any other military person, who acted in the course of the late occur- 
rence, had exceeded the powers with which he was invested, there is no 
doubt that he may be punished, not by a court-martial, but by an in- 
dictment, to be found by the Grand Inquest of the County of Clare, and 
to be disposed of before the criminal judge, acting with the assistance 
of the jury, in the court of the county. If assaulted, or struck with 


stones, they had a right to r. p. 1 force by force, but not with deadly or 
mortal weapons ; though if provoked by blows, so as to lose the com- 
mand of their tempera though toon f-.rlicarance. perhaps, would l>e 
expected from soldiers than from others if they did, when so provoked, 
use the mortal weapons in their hamU, not with any previous premedi- 
tation on theii parts so to use them and I ha\v marked tin- distinction 
between soldiers and others under sucli circumstances in 
sion or affray, the law, in consideration of the provocation and the 
frailty of human nature, reduces the crime, which would otherwise !>> 
murder, to manslaughter. And if it should still further appear that, 
_: been so assailed and attacked, they had been guilty of no aggres- 
sion, and repelling force by force, the \iol.-neo proceeded so far that, 
without any misconduct on their part, their lives were threatened, and 
in actual danger; and if it appears that, in order to save themselves 
and their lives, they were obliged to fire, and did fire, in the del. 
their lives, and slay, the homicide is excusable and justifiable. /;/// in 
order to warrant that finding by the jury , or that proceeding by the sol- 
diers, you must be convinced by actual proof that their conduct h 
all through correct, and by actual proof not the sat/ in;/ nr (he opinions 
of any individual that their lives were in <?<iit;/rr, <///</ were saved by the 
firing, and only by the firing. In order to warrant sueh a finding as 
that, you must entertain that conviction founded upon the evidence 
given before you. The facts evincing danger imminent to their lives 
and which could be prevented only by the firing, must bo established 
by clear evidence, demonstrating that such danger existed, and eould be. 
only by resorting to that deplorah!- Bering 

that mclffcr, you will recollect that there were of the parti/ /'"//// soldiers 
fully armed, with fixed bayonets, under the command of two officers and 
(wo sergeants ; and further, that it is at 1 aM <loul>tful whether there 
was any legal command upon them to fire. NoeOBUnanc! 
by their officers I think that is admitted on all hands. And furthrr, 
you must recollect that the firing cannot l,c justified ?//>"/< the <jr<>un<l >nrn /// 
that otherwise the freeholders m it/hi cither have escaped or bcrn with- 
drawn. ~*That would afford no justifimtinn fr sliyinn the (muni hints. 
I .'.ill also OOOtktar \\here the matter x-eurred in 
vorable to the accused a narrow lano. In another point of view, (but 
r for inquiry.) it is said to i near the eourt- 

house, and near an opm n-.-id. where th.Te was a large body f police, 
-: detachment of soldiers stationed, and where several magis- 
. You will also consider the matter I have 
taken into consideration, whether the soldiers fired without or- 


ders, and whether they showed the steadiness and forbearance that 
they ought. I need not again repeat to gentlemen of your intelligence, 
that when I state any thing, I merely state what I have been informed ; 
and I will not state a word as to that, but you will look to the evidence 
before you. If it shall appear to you that shots were fired, and some 
persons were killed, at a considerable distance from the lane, and out 
of that lane, and by some of the soldiers who had occupied and imme- 
diately come from it, and gained the open ground without any continued 
resistance where there was no pretence of danger to their lives, and 
the persons were, some at a great distance, and some of them with their 
backs turned if that state of facts appeared, without previous ex- 
citement and previous provocation, it would amount to a case of mur- 
der ; but it will be for you to say whether such a state of facts as to 
some individual soldiers should appear whether there was any previ- 
ous excitement and provocation (which, as I before told you, would re- 
duce the killing, though it would not justify it, to manslaughter) con- 
tinuing for a sufficient time, and preventing the blood from cooling. 
You will consider how far that consideration in your mind operates, 
and leads you to the conclusion that they acted, not from a deliberate 
intention to take away life, but from the excitement and warmth pro- 
duced by previous provocation. That would reduce the crime to man- 
slaughter. Therefore, gentlemen, as to those persons who were slain 
on what is called the Lodge Road, or near Miss Wilson's, your inquiry 
will be : first, as to whether any persons were slain ; next, by whom they 
were slain : because, unless it appears that the whole body of soldiers 
were forward, and if it should appear there were only a few there, it 
will be your duty to inquire with respect to them if it make any distinc- 
tion in the finding to identify and particularize those individuals. If 
you should find that the homicide was of the worst description, and that 
they had unnecessarily, and without provocation and excitement to ex- 
cuse, and also a warmth of blood, for which there is allowance made, 
you could not visit their act upon the whole body ; and, therefore, it 
will be material for you to ascertain who those individual persons were. 
That is as much and as important a part of the bill as any other. 
Then, gentlemen, if they be distinguishable, it is your duty to do so. 
If you find them guilty of a higher degree of offence than any of the 
others, you must be able to distinguish them : for you cannot find a 
general verdict against all upon that. With respect to those slain in 
the lane, if you are convinced that the soldiers were not the aggressors, 
but that when they fired they were unlawfully assailed, so as to be in 
real danger of their own lives, and could not otherwise save them as 


I befu; it would amount to justifiable homicide, and ought 

to be so found. But if you think that, though they were not the aggress- 
ors, and that they were assailed and struck, and, being thereby pro- 
voked, repelled force by force, with the affray thickening, and they re- 
ceiving blows, either from weapons in the hands, or from stones cast 
upon them that they were provoked so, and repelled force by force, 
so us to get their blood so heated that they fired and slew them I 
think then you ought to find a bill of manslaughter against all, that is, 
against every man who is proved to you to have discha msk* t 

on that occasion ; but you must have such proof, < . And 

whatever you find in respect to those slain in the lane manslaughter ur 
ide in self-defence you ought to find a bill of manslaughter, at 
the very least, against every soldier who is proved to have fired in the 
broad street, or what is called the Lodge Road. These are the obser- 
vations that I think it right to suggest for your assistance. I cannot, 
of course, in my imperfect view of the facts, give you such advice and 
.;--:- ..:.' a- 1 would p? a jury upon a case whieh I had heard ; but I 
will be ready and happy, if you find any difficulty in applying any thing 
said upon the evidence, to give you such further assistance as I 
can, and answer any questions which you shall put to mo on the 

It may, perhaps, be useful to subjoin a general order issued to the 
commander-in-chicf at Madras, in April, 1825, during the government 
of Sir Thomas Munro, shortly after a melancholy affair at Kitt>or. in 
whieh one or two civil servants of the East India Company lost their 
lives under circumstances whieh, in the opinion of the public authorities, 
indicated, both in the civil and military functionaries, a want of general 
knowledge respecting the subject of the order. 

"The Honorable, the Governor in Council, deems it necessary to 
lay down the following rules relative to the exercise of the authority 
with whieh civil magistrates, and other < .(lien's acting in a simi 
pacity, arc vested, for calling out military force to pr> peace 

of the country : 

1 . i first and most important rule is, that no civil oflieer shall 
call out troops until he is convinced, by mature consideration of all the 
iistances, that such a measure is necessary. 

Whm tli-- -i\ il officer is satisfied of the necessity of the measure. 
he should, before carrying it into execution, receive the sanction of 
'.unless the delay requisite for that is lik 

d to the public interests. In that case, also, ho should 
fully report the circumstances to government. 


" 3. When the civil officer may not deem it safe to wait for the orders 
of government, he should address his requisition for troops, not to any 
subordinate military officer, but to the officer commanding the division, 
to whom he should communicate his object in making it, and all the 
information he may possess regarding the stength and designs of those 
by whom the public peace is menaced or disturbed. His duty is confined 
to these points. He has no authority in directing military operations. 

" 4. The officer commanding the troops has alone authority to de- 
termine the number and nature of those to be employed ; the time and 
manner of making the attack, and every other operation for the reduc- 
tion of the enemy. 

" 5. Whenever the officer commanding the division may think the 
troops at his disposal inadequate to the enterprise, he should call upon 
the officer commanding the neighboring division for aid, and report to 
government and to the commander-in-chief. 

" 6. No assistant or subordinate magistrate is authorized to call out 
troops. When any such officer thinks military aid necessary, he must 
refer to his superior, the principal magistrate of the district. 

" The foregoing rules are to be observed, when it can be done with- 
out danger to the public safety. Should any extraordinary case occur, 
which admits of no delay, civil and military officers must then act ac- 
cording to the emergency and the best of their judgment. Such cases, 
however, can rarely occur, unless when an enemy becomes the as- 
sailant ; and therefore occasion can hardly ever arise for departing 
from the regular course of calling out troops, only by the requisition 
of the principal civil magistrates of the province, to the officer com- 
manding the division. 

" Ordered, that the foregoing resolutions be published in general or- 
ders to the army, and be communicated for the information and guid- 
ance of such civil officers as they concern." (Consult PRENDERGAST. 

EXEMPTS FROM MILITIA DUTY. The Vice-president of the 
United States ; the officers, judicial and executive, of the government 
of the United States ; the members of both houses of Congress, and 
their respective officers ; all custom-house officers, with their clerks ; 
all post-officers and stage-drivers, who are employed in the care and 
conveyance of the mail of the post-office of the United States ; all ferry- 
men employed at any ferry on the post road ; all inspectors of ex- 
ports ; all pilots and mariners actually employed in the service of any 
citizen or merchant within the United States ; and all persons who 


are or may be exempted by the laws of the different States ; (Ac: 
8, 1792.) 

EXPEDITION is an enterprise undertaken either by sea or 1>\ 
land against an enemy, the fortunate termination of which principally 
depends on the rapidity and unexpected nature of its movements. To 
be successful, the design and preparations for an expedition should, as 
far as may be practicable, be carefully concealed ; the means employed be 
proportioned to the object in view ; the plan carefully arranged, and its 
execution intrusted to a general whose talents are known t<> fit him fr 
such * command, and who possesses a perfect knowledge of the scene 
of action. 

EXPENSE MAGAZINES are small powder magazines contain- 
ing ammunition, &c., made up for present use. There is usually one 
in each bastion. 

EXTERIOR SIDE is the side of the polygon, upon which a front 
of fortification is formed. 

i:\TERIOR SLOPE is a slope given to the outside of the para- 
It is found by experience that earth of common quality will 
naturally acquire a slope of 45, even when battered by cannon. This 
inclination is therefore given to the slope. 

EXTRA ALLOWANCES. Officers shall not receive any 
tional pay, extra allowance, or compensation in any form whatev 
disbursements of public money, or any other service or duty whatso- 
ever, unless the same shall be authorized by law, and the appropriation 
'r explicitly set forth ; that is, for such additional pay, extra al- 
lowance, or compensation ; (Act Aug. 23, 1842.) 

KXTRA EXPENSES. Where any commissioned officer shall bo 
obliged to incur any extra expense in travelling, and sitting on general 
courts-martial, he shall be allowed one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
day, if not entitled to forage, and one dollar if so entitled ; (Act Jan. 

FACE OF A GUN. The superficies of the metal at the extremity 
of the mu//lo. 

1 ACES OF A BASTION are the two sides extending fn,m th- 
salient to the angle of tin- shoulder. 

FACES OF A SQUAKK. Th- si.les of a battalion when form. ,1 

V AGINGS, 'it of soldiers to the right, left, right 

about, left aboii i. 


FALSE ALARMS. Punishable. (See ALARM.) 
FALSE CERTIFICATES. Punishable with cashiering; (ART. 
14.) (See CERTIFICATE.) 

FALSEHOOD. The onus probandi in all accusations lies with 
the accuser. If A accuses B of having told a falsehood, A must prove 
it by legal evidence. 

FARRIER AND BLACKSMITH. Allowed to cavalry regi- 
ments. (See ARMY ; VETERINARY.) 

FASCINES are long cylindrical fagots of brushwood, and when 
designed for supporting the earth of extensive epaulements, are called 
saucissons, and are about 18 feet long, and ten inches thick ; those for 
the revetment of the parapets of batteries are eight or ten feet long ; 
those for covering wet or marshy ground from 6 to 9 feet long. (See 
REVETMENT for construction of fascines.) 

FATIGUE DUTY. Soldiers on fatigue duty allowed an extra gill 
of whiskey ; (Act March 2, 1829.) 

That the allowance of soldiers employed at work on fortifications, 
in surveys, in cutting roads, and other constant labor, of not less than 
ten days, authorized by an act approved March second, eighteen hun- 
dred and nineteen, entitled " An act to regulate the pay of the army 
when employed on fatigue duty," be increased to twenty-five cents per 
day for men employed as laborers and teamsters, and forty cents per 
day when employed as mechanics, at all stations east of the Rocky 
Mountains, and to thirty-five cents and fifty cents per day, respectively, 
when the men are employed at the stations west of those mountains. 
Approved August 4, 1854. 

FAUSSE BRAIE is a second enceinte, exterior to, and parallel 
to the main rampart, and considerably below its level. 


FIELD. In a military sense, the scene of a campaign or battle. 

FIELD DAY. A term used when a regiment is taken out to the field, 
for the purpose of being instructed in the field exercise and evolutions. 

FIELD MARSHAL. The highest military rank excepting that 
of captain-general. 

FIELD OFFICERS. Colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors, 
are called field officers. They should always be mounted, in order to 
give ground for movements, circulate orders, and correct pivots. 

FIELD WORKS. Their object is to provide a body of troops, or 
a town, with a secure protection against a sudden assault of superior 
numbers by the interposition of a parapet of some material capable of 
resisting the effects of projectiles. This parapet may be made of very 


miscellaneous materials, but is usually of earth, excavated from a ditch. 
will itself be an obstacle to attack. The usual figure of a parapet 
with its ditch is shown in Fig. 11.' 

The exterior slope t /, which is always exposed to the action of the 

Fio. 112. 


weather, and during an engagement to enemy's shot, must have that in- 
clination or slope which the materials composing it would assume when 
poured loosely from a height, and at which they would therefore stand 
without any additional support. This inclination for earth of ordinary 
tenacity, is about 45 ; t. c., the base on which the slope stands is equal 
to its height, or it has a depression of 1 in 1. The parapet would aflord 
the best cover if its superior slope, d e, were horizontal, or rather 
parallel to the plane of site ; but in this case a musket-shot, fired along 
its surface, could not reach the ground within a very considerable dis- 
tance in front of it; a gentle inclination is therefore given to it, and ex- 
perience has fixed this slope at a depression of 1 in 6. The interior 

'/ r, of this parapet must be nearly vertical, that soldiers^ may 
lean against it and fire easily over it. It must, therefore, be supported 
by a wall of some material, called a revetment. The base of this 
slope is usually one-fourth the height. It has a depression, tin-ret- 
4 in 1. A step, b c, called the banquette, is added, of a height sull'n lent 
to enable a man of ordinary stature to fire conveniently <\cr the 
and sloping away gently towards the rear to facilitate the alternate ad- 
vance and retirement of each soldier to discharge and load his firelock. 
The base of this slope is usually H to 2 times the height The dej.rcs- 
1 in H or 2. The thickness of a parapet, that is, of 
its superior slope, must be sufficient to withstand the Hl'eets of the pro- 

s likely to be discharged against it. To afford security against 
Musketry . . .its thickness must be 5 t 

0-poundcrs . 

18-pounders . 

j ; 


18 " 

1 1 feet. 




In field-works, which are seldom made to resist heavy artillery, a 
thickness of parapet of 11 feet will generally be sufficient. 

The height of a parapet will greatly depend upon its position. It 
will readily be seen from Fig. 112, that a bullet striking the parapet 
near the upper part will have to traverse a small portion only of the 
thickness of the parapet in order to pass through. 

It becomes necessary, therefore, to give to a parapet a height rather 
greater than that to which cover is required. Hence on a plain where 
the attacking and defending parties are on the same level, the height 
of a parapet, to furnish cover to men 6 feet high, is usually 7 feet. 
Should the parapet be situated upon the brow of a hill, the defenders 
could obtain cover to any desired extent by merely retiring from it. In 
this case a height sufficient to protect the soldiers while firing is all that 
will be necessary ; this will usually be from 4 to 6 feet. (Fig. 113.) 

Should these conditions be reversed, that is, should the attacking 
party be in possession of the higher ground, a height of parapet up to 
10 or 12 feet may be indispensable, and when the slope of the ground is 
considerable, even this will afford cover to a small distance only behind 
it ; (Fig. 114.) It may be said generally then that the height of para- 
pets varies from 4 to 12 feet, and the thickness from 4 to 25 feet. 

FIOB. 113, 114. 

In the defence of field positions the following considerations require 
special notice : 

1st. The period likely to elapse before the position is attacked. 

2d. The number of troops by whom the position is to be held. 

3d. The number of men available for the construction of the work, 
and the nature of the materials at hand. 


On the first of these considerations will depend the height and thick- 
ness of the parapet, depth and width of the ditch, and the nature of the 
obstacles \\ hi. h may be added, as only a certain amount of work cm 
be executed in a given time, and a work of even f< < -hie profile th<> 
ly complete will be capable of a better defence than a stronger 
only partially executed. The extent which it may be desirable to give 
to the work will be limited by the number of men available for its !,- 
fence. There must, at least, be suHk-it-nt to man the whole of the 
parapet, and a reserve, in addition, is almost essential. The length of 
crest line measured in yards, must not exceed half the number of n:- :i 
allotted for its defence. When either labor or materials arc sc.. 
may be necessary to reduce the profile, and to contract the extent of the 
work below that which would bo desirable under other circumst 
but in this case the details should be so arranged as to admit of subse- 
quent additions, should circumstances allow it, so as to bring the whole 
work to that condition which might have been desirable, though unat- 
tainable in the first instance. When time, labor, and materials are 
abundant, a good parapet and ditch should always be made to 
the defenders. The dimensions and construction of such a parapet have 
already been given. But cover can be obtained f>r a limited number 
of men in a more expeditious way. Thus a man will be equally pro- 
tected from an enemy's fire, by standing behind a parapet feet hurl), 
or in a trench 3 feet deep, with a bank of earth 3 feet high in front of 
him. Now to dig a trench 3 feet deep, and throw the earth to the front 
so as to form a bank 3 feet high, may be performed by the same num- 
ber of men in at most ^ of the time required for the construction of a 
complete parapet 6 feet high. A trench and breastwork then will be, 
generally used when the time is limited, and when cover and not the 
creation of an obstacle is the principal object of the work. Tig. 115 

FIG. 11 

represent* a Section of the sli^htiM work of this nature which can be of 
any service. Here a trench 2$ feet deep is duir, and the earth thrown 
to the front forms a rough parapet 2 feet high. The trench can contain 
one rank only, and the total cover being 4$ feet high, the men will not 




be safe except when sitting or stooping. A trench and breastwork of 
these dimensions can be completed in about 1} hours. The next sec- 
tion (Fig. 11G) is more serviceable; the total height of cover in this 

FIG. 116. 

case is 6 feet. The men will be safe therefore so long as they remain 
in the trench, which provides room for one rank only at a time. The 
completion of this work would require about 3 hours. 

Fig. 117 is a section of a breastwork and trench of a capacity suffi- 

cient for most of the purposes for which works of this nature are usually 
required. The trench is wide enough to contain two ranks of men at 
the same time, and affords cover 6 feet in height. Such a work can be 
executed in about 5 hours. 

Fro. 118. 

Tig. 118 is a profile adapted to marshy or rocky situations where 
shallow trenches only are practicable. 


This work can bo constructed very rapidly when labor is abun 
as two working parties, one in front and the other in rear, can 1 
ployed at the same time. The work to be performed then will gener- 
ally be the excavation of a trench or ditch, and the formation of a para- 
pet or breastwork, with the earth thrown out of it. It will in most 
cases bo executed by the troops themselves, though sometimes laborers 
may bo obtained. In constructing a simple trench and breastwork one 
row of workmen only can bo advantageously employed at tho same 
time, and it will be found desirable to place them 6 feet apart ; as at 
this distance each man can use his arms freely, without interfering with 
or injuring his neighlwr. "When the saving of time is of more conse- 
quence than economy of labor, the diggers may be placed 4 feet apart, 
and the completion of the work will be accelerated, though not in pro- 
portion to tho increase in the number of workmen. An ordinary labor- 
er or common soldier can excavate one cubic yard,t. e. 27 cubic feet, in 
any but the hardest soils per hour ; and can continue working nt this 
rate for 8 hours. Should the soil bo loose or sandy, so that the piekaxo 
is seldom required, this estimate may bo nearly doubled. The 
or breastwork will be completed in the time in which each man will 
finish his portion, that is, a portion equal in length t<> the intn\al IK - 
tween any two adjacent diggers : therefore the number of hours will l>e 
equal to the number of cubic yards in such portion. "Whence the follow- 
ing rule is at once obtained : 

To find the time required for the construction of a trench or pnrnpet. 
in ordinary soil 

Multiply tho area of the section of the trench in square fret l>y tho 
interval between the diggers (not less than feet), and divide this prod- 
uct by 27, the quotient is- tho number of hours required for the con- 
>n of tho work. Conversely, to find the area of tho section >f the 
trench or breastwork which can be executed in a given time 

Multiply the number of hours by 27, and divide the product l.y the 
1 (in feet) between the diggers, the result will be tho area, in 
square feet, of tho section of tho trench or breastwork. 

It \vill frequently happen th.r n lie speedily obtained, and p<- 

! defensible in a verv short time, l.y taking advantage of 

the hedges, ditches, or walls, which mny be met with, or of the obstacles 

which may be presented by the natural features of the Around, (leu- 

eral rules for proceeding under all the various circumstances which may 

occur cannot bo pivcn. but the following examples will show what may 

eases, and indicate the character of the operations 

usually required. Fig. 119 represents a common hedge and ditch 




FIG. 119. 

FIG. 120. 

turned into a breastwork to be defended from the hedge side. If the 
hedge be thick and planted on a bank, as is generally the case, and es- 
pecially if the ditch be 
tolerably deep and con- 
tain water, the breast- 
work will be rendered 
strong at the expense of 
little labor. A shallow 
trench should be exca- 
vated behind the hedge, 
and the earth thrown up 
to raise the bank suffi- 
ciently to form a rough 
breastwork some 18 
inches thick at the top. 
Should the hedge be 
more than 6 feet high, 
it should be cut to that 
height, and the branches 
interwoven with the low- 
er part to strengthen it. 
A hedge to be defended 
from the ditch side (Fig. 
120) is a ready-made trench and breastwork, and will become a conve- 
nient work by a little scarping of the sides and widening and levelling of 
the bottom of the ditch, and by the addition, if necessary, of a banquette. 
A good nine-inch brick 
wall is musket -shot 
proof. Such a wall 4 
feet high will require 
no alteration, but may 
be used as a parapet 
by forming loopholes 
with sand-bags laid on 
the top, Fig.121. Should 
there be time, a ditch 
should be dug in front, 
and the earth thrown up 
against the front of the wall to prevent the enemy from using the loop- 
holes against the defenders. A wall 15 feet high can be pierced with two 
tiers of loopholes, one at 8 feet above the ground, the other at the top of 

FIG. 121. 



in Fig. 123. 
must be dug 


the wall. In rear a scaffolding must be erected of two stages to servo 
as banquettes. Such an arrangement is shown in the diagram, (Fig. 122.) 

A wall 8 feet high 
may also be pierced with 
two tiers of loopholes as 

this case, to enable the de% 
fenders to make use of 
the lower tier of loop- 
holes, and a scufloMinn 
erected to serve as a ban- 
quette for the upper. On 
an emergency, mate rials 
of almost any conceivable description, as sacks or casks of earth, 
of sand, of coal, or even of com % or flour, boles of cotton, of cloth, 
packs of wool, mattresses, trusses of hay, fagots, carts or wagons 
of stable litter, brick rubbish or paving stones, may be formed into 
parapets of defence, while the approach of an enemy may be rendered 
exceedingly difficult, by a judicious combination of obstacles \\hidi, un- 
der urgent circumstances, may be extemporized of trees, bushes, posts, 
wagons, wheels, strong palings, chairs, tables, and miscellaneous articles 
of furniture, with iron rails, pitchforks, and agricultural implements, 
carefully arranged in the front, and secured by chains or ropes strongly 
picketed to the ground. Every soldier should be able to form for him- 
self a rifle pit. This can be accomplished by digging a hole in the 
ground about 3 feet deep and 3 feet square at the top, with a little step 
to enable him to get in or out with ease. The excavated earth should 
be thrown up to the front to form a protection. A loophole should bo 
made by three sand-bogs ; two placed longitudinally, and one across. 

Fio. 124 

A rill'- j'it nf this Co 
-. 1'Jl. 

truction is shown in plan, sort ion. ami el- 

to fieM-works should bo rendered difficult 


by the formation of obstacles of various kinds, so that troops when 
coming to the assault may be detained under heavy fire as long as 
possible while they are endeavoring to force or surmount the obstacle. 
Contrivances of this nature are very numerous. (See ABATIS, TROUS- 
warfare it is frequently necessary to intrench towns and villages, to se- 
cure them from the incursions of small parties, or to serve as points of 
support for the movements of troops. If a town or village be com- 
manded on all sides, or even by great elevations on one side, if the 
houses be of wood and the roofs thatched, so as to be easily set on fire, 
such a position should be avoided. Neither should a detachment of 
troops occupy a town or village too extensive for their number, unless 
a part of the village can be easily and effectually separated from the 
rest. The number of the detachment should at least equal the number 
of yards in the exterior line of Avorks by which the village is surround- 
ed. To place a village in a state of defence, the first object will be to 
complete a continuous line of defensive works, by which it may be en- 
tirely surrounded. To this end advantage is taken of all buildings, 
fences and walls, near the exterior edge. The buildings, when substan- 
tial, may serve as bastions to flank the connecting lines of works, and 
when due preparations have been made will become strong positions. 
The walls and hedges must be strengthened by banks of earth, and will 
form curtains connecting the stronger portions. All openings remain- 
ing must be closed by parapets, strengthened by ditches, abatis, pali- 
sading, and such obstacles as the locality may present, and the streets 
must be barricaded at intervals. Barricades may be constructed of 
materials of almost any kind of earth, of timber, of paving stones, of 
wagons of stable litter ; (the wheels should be taken off.) In buildings 
occupied for defence the doors and windows should be blocked up with 
sand-bags, supported by frames of wood, and the glass 
must be removed from the windows. Should there be 
no projecting wings or porches, it will be necessary to 
obtain a flanking fire by the construction of balconies 
projecting from the windows, and furnished with loop- 
holes in the sides and bottom, so that a flanking fire 
can be brought to bear on the ground at the foot of 
the wall. This arrangement is shown in the -diagram, 
(Fig. 125.) The beams supporting the gallery or 
balcony are bolted to the flooring within ; the balcony 
is surrounded with good oak boarding of 4" or 5" 
thick. That the communications of the defenders may be free, 


all interior hedges and walls which can in any way impede their 
movements must be levelled, so that they may be able to bring 
support rapidly to any point pressed by an enemy. Those hedges 
which it may be desirable to retain must be strengthened in the man- 
ner already pointed out. The strength of the position may (when eir- 
cdmstances admit) be greatly increased by the formation of an interior 
keep, whither the defenders may retire and obtain favorable terms of 
capitulation should they be unable to withstand the assaults of tl, 
sailants. A substantial building within the town, as a gaol, may be con- 
verted into a keep by blocking up unnecessary openings ; by covering 
entrances or any unflanked portions of the walls with tambours ; by 
loopholing the walls and surrounding them if possible with a ditch, 
palisade, and abatis. In the absence of a building of this nature, it \\ ill 
be desirable to construct a redoubt, of as strong a character as time 
will allow. If the village be of considerable extent, and a position can 
be found which cannot be commanded from the neighboring buildings, 
the redoubt may be of earth, as in an ordinary field-work. While the 
actual defences of the village are thus being prepared, parties will be 
occupied on the ground without, in creating obstacles ami entanglements 
in the immediate vicinity of the place, and in removing and levelling all 
obstructions between such obstacles and the limits of rifle range. The 
greatest obstacle which can be presented to an attacking force, will, in 
future, be a long level tract, fully commanded by a sweeping fir 
is, in fact, difficult to see how an assaulting body could pass over such a 
tract of 1,000 or 800 yards in extent, to attack a work in daylight with- 
out being annihilated. To remove every object, whether trco or bush, 
rising ground, dry ditch, or hedge, which could afford cover or conceal- 
ment to a rifleman, will be an object of primary importance in execut- 
ing the arrangements for defence. Ditches full of water, or \\hidi .-an 
be filled, may generally be left, as they impede, and cannot assist the 
assaulting party. Fig. 120 gives an illustration of the Dtet&a, already 
described, usually applicable for placing a village in a state of defence. 

A very little time devoted to the study of the subject, won 1.1 enable. 
an ofli'-rr in command of a picket or charged with the defence of an 
outpost to determine the construction of all the. works that are re.jui- 
He for protection and defence. TUB SKLKCTIOW or THE POST is what 
will first engage attention, and the following considerations must have 
their weight in determining the point : 

TV inequalities of the ground, and the objects upon it, such as 
buildings or f.-noes, Ace,, should be of sueh a nature, and in that relative 
situation to each other, as to be convertible into a fortified post with 



Fid. 126. 




' in/ nn'a^f L u'n : =^^^. 


w, loopholed walls; P, parapets and ditches; c, ditto of casks; cr, abatis; r, stockades; &, 
barriers ; 1 1, free communication, road or passage ; H, fortified house ; K, keep. 


D D, flying sap-parallel or trench of cover ; B, open field battery, first opened at about 350 
yards' distance ; E, ditto, advanced to breach ; F, one 9-pounder and one 24-pounder howitzer, to 
enfilade flanking defences e e' e", breaches ; A, storming party; Z, supporting ditto ; P, firing 
party and skirmishers ; 8 a, false attacks, to divert the attention of the garrison at the moment of 
the real assault. 



should not be commanded, especially on the flanks or in the rear, 
within the ordinary range of a field-piece. There should be plenty of 

.ils on the spot fur the construction of temporary works, ami for 
forming obstructions in front of thorn. The soil should be of a nature 
that is easily worked, if it is foreseen that any trenches or ditches \\ill 

be executed. It should generally be DIFFICULT OF ACCESS, and 
yet offer the MEANS OF RETREATING in security. And should be in a 

ii for fulfilling the object for which the detachment is to be 

In arranging the general plan of defensive works, the following 

will require more particular attention : It must be ascertained 
from a minute examination of the posit ion, what figure will give the great- 
est quantity of fire over the most accessible points of attack, and the 
general contour of the intrenchmcnt .should make available buildings or 
fences on the ground. THE OBJECT THE WORK is EXPECTED TO FULFIL 

rence to the supporting force ; the distance from that force; or 
whetln-r it is to bo left to itself to hold an enemy in check as long as 
possible; or whether it is to be defended to the last extremity. ITS 


is likely to be attacked by overwhelming forces, or only subject to the 
brusque attack of cavalry or infantry in smaller bodies; u hither ar- 
tillery is likely to bo brought up against it, lor in that ease earthen 
works, v. hen merely for the purposes of cover, are in some r 

than buildings or stockades ; the parapets, too, must In- thicker ; 
\\hether it can be surrounded, for in such a case it must be inclosed 
taking it as an established rule, that it is Letter to have a force << 

i too much distributed, and then fore injudicious to make 
Works o fa- rnater : xtmt than can l>e well manned and vigorously de- 

!. For instance, in small works there might bo a file of i. 
every pace or yard in the length of their breastwork, and in larger 
ones the same, with a reserve of from one-fourth to one-sixth of the 
whole in addition. On some such general basis, a calculation -1 the 
proportionate extent of a work mi-ht be made. All this of course de- 
pends very much upon circumstances. THE NUMBER OF MEN, whether 
rs or inhabitants, that can be collected together for \\>rking, and 
r there are tools enough for them, so as not to und. rtake more 
than can be well done. And, which is a very important 
THE TIME THERE is TO DO IT is. Whether nn immediate attack is to be 
nded, or otherwise, for this will decide not only the nature of 



the works, but the parts of them that require the first attention; as 
will be more apparent when the details of execution are brought under 
consideration. THE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS that can be had on the 
spot, or procured in the neighborhood. This will have a great influence 
on the details of the plan to be pursued, and will afford opportunity for 
the display of considerable tact and intelligence, in appropriating and 
adapting the means at hand for carrying the general plan into effect, 
and securing its objects with the LEAST POSSIBLE LABOR. No one who 
is not conversant with work of this description, can have any idea of 
the great saving of time and labor that may be effected, by taking ad- 
vantage of what might appear at a casual glance to be very unimpor- 
tant and local features ; such, for instance, as gentle undulations in the 

Details of Execution. The following description of tools and stores 
would be found more or less necessary, where temporary works were 
to be thrown up. They are classed in three divisions, that their sep- 
arate uses may be apparent. 

Class 1. Field Exercise Tools. 

For sinking trenches, forming breastworks, 

' \ felling timber, making abatis and obstructions, 

Felling-axes, f 


Class 2. For Houses, Walls, &c. 

Hand-borers, . . 

~ , For forming loopholes, breaking through 

Crowbars, I . -, c , 

~ > walls; preparing timber for barricades, stock- 

kade work, &c. 

Class 3. General service and purposes of defence. 

Sand-bags, The sand-bags for blocking up windows, 

Rockets, I forming loopholes, &c. ; the rockets and 

Small shells, [ shells for defence of houses and intrench- 
Hand-grenades, I ments. 

The proportions of these necessary to be demanded would of course 
vary with the description of work which might be anticipated. For 
example, in throwing up earthen works in an open country, a pickaxe 
and shovel for every man that could be employed on the breastworks 
would be wanted. If an abatis could be formed, and there were fences 


to be cut up and levelled, one-third of the men would be advantageously 
employed with felling-axes and bill-hooks. In a case where houses \\ 
to be placed in a state of defence, walls would have to be bn km tin 
for making loopholes, and windows, doors, and passages to be barri- 
caded; here crowbars, hand-borers, sledge-hummers, spike-nails, and 
saws would be required in greater proportion than spades ami pick- 
axes. Sand-bags are included as being very useful for many purposes, 
such as protect i 1:1; "uu \\hen firing ovor a parapet or breastwork, 
quickly blocking up the lower parts of windows, &c. 

A man will carry one hundred empty sand-bags, weighing about 
60 Ibs., each of which will contain a bushel of earth, and whvn/u# they 
are musket-proof. Rockets, small shells, and grenades, are mentioned 
as being very powerful and attainable auxiliaries in the defence of posts 
and houses ; and one great advantage of them is, that any body who 
baa common sense may use them, or at least bo instructed in the requi- 
site precautions in a few minutes. A CERTAIN DIVISION OF LABOR must 
also be attended to, and a man should always have a tool put into his 
hand that he has been accustomed to use ; carpenters should therefore 
be employed where saws and axes are wanted ; miners and blacksmiths 
where walls are to be broken through ; laborers -where the spade 
pickaxe come into play. Those who never handled tools of these 
scriptions, would be most usefully employed in collecting materials. 
It would be well also to select such men for the first tour of duty, as 
patrols, and sentries, and to employ the best workmen in overcoming 
the greatest difficulties, which arc usually found in the commencement. 
A little foresight will not bo misapplied in considering these points. 
It is essential to obtain the assistance of the inhabitants in executing 
works of this description, and an officer should always have authority 
to enforce their attendance, and to pay them in proportion t. thru 
ertions. They should also bo required to bring with them wha'< 
tools they can best use, or that are most wanted. 

A stick may be cut to measure lines, and stakes will be driven t<> 
show the slope and general form of the profile necessary in each par- 

dar case. Whatever form is to be given to a work, it is traced 
upon the ground by laying off its angles according to the number of 
their degrees, and its sides are designated by little furrows dug with 
the mattock or spade along cords stretched in the pr..p.r direction. 
To profile a work is to figure upon tho ground its elevation by means 
nailed together ; (V\. 107.) The officer who directs 
the work ou < with him f.ur or five soldiers who carry mat- 

tocks, 100 pickets, twenty poles ten or l\\ ;;i\ laths, 


some camp colors, and a cord 65 feet in length. There ought also to 
be a carpenter, who carries hammer, nails, and a saw. 

FIG. 127. 

Field-works necessary or desirable in the operations of an army 
in the field to strengthen lines of battle, keep open lines of com- 
munication, protect bridges from destruction, &c., will generally be 
constructed under the supervision of engineers. They may have any 
extent, from a simple redan, or a battery, to a line or several lines of 
works, some of considerable magnitude, extending over a position of 
ten or twenty miles. It will only be possible here to give a brief de- 
scription of the works usually adopted for these purposes. 
Field-works, then, are usually arranged in three classes : 

First-Class, consisting of works open at the gorge 
Redan Double Redan 

Redan with flanks Tenaille Head 

Lunette Bastion Head 

Second Class, consisting of works inclosed all round 
Bastion Fort 

Third Class, consisting of lines both continuous or at intervals 
Lines of Redans Lines of Bastions 

Lines of Tenailles Lines at intervals 

Indented Lines a la Cremaillere 

A redan is a work of the simplest kind. It consists of two faces of 
parapet and ditch, forming a salient angle. Redans serve to cover 
bridges, causeways, avenues, &c., and being quite open at the gorge, 
are only suited for positions in which their extremities rest on rivers 
or other obstacles, so that they cannot be turned, or else when protected 
by the full sweeping fire of works in their rear. Redans in front of 
other works are generally mere covers for an advanced post ; for ex- 
ample, if a strong redoubt occupies the commanding summit of a hill, 


its elevation and position usually prevent the deep hollows and ap- 
proaches by the valleys being fully seen from its faces. Redans may 
then be advantageously constructed on the lower knolls, or under fea- 
tures of the hill, to command all the hollows, which cannot always be 
reached by the fire of the main redoubt. 

Lines. Continuous lines of rampart, parapet, and ditch, are some- 
times used to connect important redoubts, or to cover tho front of a 
position, and they may have, according to circumstances, a variety of 
tracings. To cover any considerable extent of country with continuous 
lines is generally considered injudicious, but must not be altogether 
condemned ; as in particular cases, especially on ground unfavorable for 
manoeuvring, it may be an advantageous constructor Continuous lines 
require a great expenditure of labor in their construction, and a largo 
force is necessary for their defence ; if forced at one point, tho whole is 
lost, and they interfere greatly with the offensive movements of the 
troops they cover. When circumstances oblige any considerable ex- 
tent of country to be defended, lines at intervals are more generally 
adopted. Lines at intervals aro a series of detached works arranged in 
two or more rows, mutually supporting each other, and each capable 
of enduring an independent attack. In lines at intervals tho most ad- 
vanced positions are usually occupied by simple works open at tho 
gorge as Redans and Lunettes, within range of each other, that i 
more than 600 or 700 yards apart. These works, being open at the 
gorge, can be fully commanded by the works in rear, which can bring 
a fire upon every point within them ; if taken by an enemy, they can- 
not, therefore, be held by him until tho latter works are also subdued. 
Tho second line of works are generally a series of redoubts, adapted 
in shape to the features of tho ground, 400 or 500 yards behind the 
salient works, covering their intervals, and protecting their faces and 
ditches by a powerful flanking fire. If necessary, a third line of works 
on similar principles may be added. Tho works in tho second line, 
i. . the redoubts, must be made us strong in roar as in front, or an 
enemy would not fail to attempt to carry them by an attack on the 
rear, and tho faces of all tho works should, as far as possible, be di- 
rected on ground which the enemy cannot occupy, so as to bo pr 
from his enfilade fire. Tho annexed diagram (Fig. 128) exhibits a 
tract of ground defended by lines at intervals, and will convey an idea 
of the general arrangement of works of this nature. 

In the construct i'.n ,,f these and all other field-works, the following 
maxims must l>e strictly observed : 1st. That tho works to bo fl. 
are never to be beyond tho range of tho weapons of the works flanking 




them, that is, never out of the effective range of musketry. 2d. That 
the angles of defence should be about right angles. 3d. That the salient 

FIG. 128. 

angles of works should be as obtu A as circumstances will permit 4th. 
That, although ditches cannot always be as fully flanked, as in perma- 
nent fortification, yet that partial flanking must be carried as far as 
possible. 5th. That in the construction of field-works, reference should 
not only be had to the direct and immediate obstacles that the work 
itself presents to the enemy, and the positive effects of fire on the ap- 
proaches to it ; but likewise the relative value of the work must be 
considered, as to the support it can give to, or receive from, other 
works. 6th. That the outline of a field-work should be proportioned 
to the number of men intended to defend it. 7th. The ground over 
which an enemy must pass to the attack should, if possible, be seen 
both in front and flank. (Consult HYDE'S Fortifications ; JEBB'S Attack 
and Defence ; Traite Theorique et Pratique de Fortification Passagere, 
<&c., par M. ERNEST DE NEUCHEZE, Capitaine, &c. ; MAHAN'S Field For- 
tifications ; Aid Memoir to the Military Sciences, Edited by a Committee 
of the Corps of Royal Engineers.) 

FILE generally means two soldiers, a front and rear rank man. 
Each man occupies in line about 21 inches ; 10 files require a space of 
7 paces ; 100 files, 70 paces. The French designate men ranged in four 
ranks, as follows : the front rank men as chefs de file ; the second rank, 
serres demi files ; the third chefs demi file ; and the rear rank serres 




FINDING. Before a court-martial deliberates upon the judgnn-nt, 
the judge-advocate reads over the whole proceedings of the court ; he 
then collects the votes of each member, beginning with the youngest. 
The best mode of doing so is by slips of paper. The Articles of War 
require a majority in all cases, and in case of sentence of death, two- 
. It is not necessary to find a general verdict of guilt or acquittal 
upon the whole of every charge. The court may find a prisoner guilty 
of part of a charge, and acquit him of the remainder, and render sen- 
tence according to their finding. This is a special verdict ; (Hooou's 
Military Law Authorities.) 

FIRE, (VARIETIES OF.) Direct fire is when the battery of guns is 
ranged parallel to the face of the work, or the line of troops to be fired 
at, so that the shot strike it perpendicularly. 

Fio. 129. 

A B rpprwvnU a lino of parapet, or of troops. 

C U UM position of a battery, or line of infantry for direct fire on A a 

D "f..r enfilade. 

f..r NfWMh 

ENFILADE. Enfilade fire is when the battery is ranged pcrpendicu- 
th.> prolongation of the crest of a parapet, or to a line of troops, 
so that the shot flies in the same direction, or parallel to the line or 
parapet, sweeping along from one end to the otli 

OBLIQUE. Oblique fire is when the battery of guns is ranged so as 
to form an angle with tho front of the object to be struck. 

PLUHOIKO. Plunuinu' fir.- is wh-n the shot is fired from a position 
considerably higher than the object fired at. 




RICOCHET. Ricochet fire is firing with a slight elevation, and with 
small charges, in a direction enfilading the face of the work, so that the 
shot are pitched over the parapet, and bound along the rampart from 
end to end, with destructive effect on the guns and gunners. 

REVERSE. Reverse fire is when the shot strikes the interior slope 
of the parapet at an angle greater than 30. 

SLANT. Slant fire is when the shot strikes the interior slope of the 
parapet, forming with it a horizontal angle, not greater than 30. 

VERTICAL. Vertical fire is that in which the shot or shell describes a 
lofty curve through the air before it falls ; such is the fire from mortars. 

FIRE BALL. Made like a light-ball, except that, being intended 
to light the works of an enemy, it is also loaded with a shell. 

FIRING-. In the discharge of fire-arms, it is necessary to know 
the position and relations existing between the three following lines 
(Fig. 130) : 1st, the line of sight, which is the prolongation of the visual 

FIG. 130. 

ray passing through the highest points of the breech and the muzzle ; 
2d, the line of fire, which is the prolonged axis of the piece ; and 3d, 
the trajectory described by the projectile. 

The point-blank range ,is the second intersection of the trajectory 
with the line of sight. 

The causes of deviation in firing are : 

"Wrong position of the sight. 
Calibre not exact. 
Barrel imperfect. 
Too hard on the trigger. 
f The recoil. 

j Vibrations of the barrel, 
[ (spring of barrel.) 
Not exact measure. 

Form of grain and variable quality of powder. 
Its deterioration from dampness in transportation, 


More or less ramming. 
Sticking along the bore, from becoming foul and 

. Getting foul or dirty. 

(1.) From the construc- 
tion of the arm. 

(2.) From the 


Causes which can 
be corrected. 

"Which cannot be 


(3.) From the ball 

(4.) From the atmos- 

Not being of the exact weight and calibre. 

More or less deformed in loading, or on leaving the 

Not having the centre of gravity in the centre of 

the figure, (spherical ball) 

The effect of wind. 

The temperature ; moisture in, and density of the 


The position of the sun. 
I HiiVrence of level between the target and gun. 

For the same kind of arm, the dimensions, charges, weights, projectile, 
eing constant, the point-blank may bo considered as constant, and 
serves as a point of reference in firing at different distunn s. 

With a piece having a point-blank, that is, any piece having an nn^lo 
in front, made by the line of sight and the line of fire, it is necrssury, 
in firing at a point-blank object, to aim directly at the object. If the 
be situated within the point-blank range, it will be necessary to 
aim below. If the object be situated beyond the point-blank, wo must 
aim above the object. 

As the end of the gun obstructs the view of the object, in aiming above 
the point to be reached, and, moreover, as it is difficult to dcterm: 
certain distance the elevation that ought to bo given to tin- line of sight, 
a haugse or tangent scale is placed upon the breech of the cannon, which, 
by enlarging its diameter, increases the angle of sight and consequent ly 
the point-blank range. The tangent scale is now generally used with 
guns and howitzers, and the hausse, or rear sight, has also been attached 
to small arms of 1855. In addition to the tangent or hausse some sim- 
ple instrument may be used for determining distances. (See STADIA.) 

Fir. d im-l.T angles of 4 15', 4 30', and 4 50', the new rifle mus- 
ket, altered rifle, and altered musket have, respectively, a range of 1,000 
yards. (See HAUSSE.) The elongated musket balls do not ceaso to 
ricochet <>n l.-v. 1 ground at a distance of 1,000 yards. A strong wind, 
blowing prrpendirularly to the direction of the rifle-musk. l ball, will 
deflect it from its course 12 feet in 1,000 yards; about :\ i^t in 500 
yards, and 1$ feot in 200 yards. The HlV.-t of wind n the pistol-car- 
l.alls is somewhat greater for the same distai 

When two oblong balls are fired from tho new rifle musket or nl- 

ifle, with the ordinary service charge of 60 grains, they separate 

.u-h other and in -m th- j.lane of fire about 4 feet in a disfa; 

200 yards. If the piece be hold firmly against the shoulder, no serious 

ice will be felt ; but for the two balls it is necessary, in aim- 


ing, to give the barrel greater elevation in the proportion of 6 feet for 
200 yards. In cases of emergency, two balls might be employed 
against masses of infantry or cavalry, at distances not exceeding 300 
yards. The angle of maximum range for the mortar is nearly 42. 
The angle of fall is the angle made by the last element of the trajectory 
with the ground, and when this angle is small, the projectile rebounds 
upon the earth and performs a series of ricochets, increasing in number 
as the angle of incidence diminishes, or as the ground is firm and elastic. 

The point-blank ranges of siege and garrison guns, with ordinary 
charges, are respectively eight hundred yards for the 24-pounder, seven 
hundred and seventy-five yards for the 18-pounder, and seven hundred 
yards for the 12-pounder. For field-artillery, the point-blank ranges 
are seven hundred and fifty yards for the 12-pounder, and six hundred 
and seventy -five yards for the 6-pounder. 

The point-blank is increased or diminished by the hausse or tangent 
scale, and is then called the artificial point-blank. The practical rule 
in aiming field-guns by means of the tangent is : give one-twelfth of an 
inch on the instrument for each twenty-five yards beyond point-blank. 

The direct fire is employed in breaching parapets or walls, against 
troops in column, and in most cases where the object of attack is pos- 
sessed of considerable depth or thickness. 

The enfilade fire, with heavy ordnance, full charges and solid shot, is 
especially effective in those circumstances which admit of its adoption ; 
a single shot having been known to disable several guns, or to strike 
down a whole rank of men. 

Enfilade fire a ricochet is generally employed to dismount guns on 
parapets, protected by traverses, at ranges varying from 400 to 600 

The ricochet and vertical fires, being intended to act upon a surface, 
and not an isolated point, may be executed during the night, as well 
as by daylight. (See TARGET. Consult THIROUX ; KINGSBURY'S Ar- 
tillery and Infantry ; Reports of Experiments by Ordnance Depart- 
ment, U. S. A., 1856 ; HYDE'S Fortification.') 

FLAG-. The flag of the United States shall be thirteen horizontal 
stripes, alternate red and white. The Union shall be a number of white 
stars in a blue field, corresponding with the number of States in the 
Union. Upon the admission of a State to the Union, another star is 
added to the flag on the 4th of July next succeeding her admission ; 
(Act April 4, 1818.) 

All flags captured from an enemy to be displayed in such public 
place as the President may deem proper ; (Act April 8, 1814.) 


FLAGS OP TRUCE ore frequently sent by an enemy with tho 
design of gaining information. To prevent this, it is usual for outposts 
to halt the flag of truce, and if he is merely tho bearer of a letter, re- 
oeipt for it, and order the party to depart, preventing all conversation 
with sentries. It may sometimes, however, be necessary to send the 
bearer of the flag to head-quarters, in this case, his eyes are bandaged, 
and he is forwarded with an escort. 

Flags of truce are used when an enemy is in position, on a march 
or in action. The flag ought always to be preceded by a trumpeter 25 
paces in advance, and when within range of the guns of the sentinels or 
videttes, he halts, returns his sword to its scabbard, and at the same 
moment raises and flourishes a white flag or handkerchief. If he is not 
signalled to retire, he continues to advance step by step until ordered 
to halt. If he remarks that it is sought to draw him into a snare, he 
- at a gallop with his trumpet as soon as he is certain of tho bad 
intention. When consent is given to receive him, he submits to all 
measures that may be exacted of him for the fulfilment of his mission. 

If it is during an action that a flag proceeds from the ranks of the 
enemy, tho ranks that he leaves halt and cease their fire. He proceeds 
towards tho chief of the adverse force, and at a suitable distance returns 
his sabre to its scabbard, and raises his flag. If he is not signalled to 
retire, and if the fire ceases in his front, he continues to advance and 
executes his orders. Some serious motive is indispensable for sending 
a flag during an action, for tho enemy is apt to believe that it is a strat- 
agem, and therefore fires upon the flag, and follows up his aim more 
vigorously, while the opposite party have lost time. 

FLANK. The right or loft side of a body of men, or place. Flank 
presupposes a formation more or less deep. A flank march is upon 
the prolongation of the line to which a body faces. Thus, when wo say 
the enemy, by a flank march, outflanked our right wing, it is understood 
that the enemy, by marching parallel to our line of battle, put himself 
in position upon our extreme right. 

To disturb the flanks of a column or army is to throw an opposing 
force upon either side of the route that it follows. By this manoeuvre 
the march of the column is retarded, or it is forced to halt ; its baggage 
is sometimes seized, ami terror and disorder fall upon tho masses. 

Flank (To) is to cover and defend tho flanks. W.> flunk a camp 
by posts placed on the right and left; a corps d'armeo is flanknl by de- 
tachments which take roads parallel to the routes followed by tho larger 
body ; smaller columns are flanked by flankers on tho right and left, 
who keep in view the columns, warn them of the approach of an enemy, 


discover ambuscades, skirmish with them, and fall back when needed 
upon the mass of the troops. 

FLANK OF A BASTION is that si'de which connects the face, 
and curtain. It is one of the principal defences of the place, as it pro- 
tects the curtain, the face, and flank of the opposite bastion, and the pas- 
sage of the ditch. 

FLBCHE is a simple species of field-work. It consists of two 
faces forming a salient angle. One simple rule for their construction is 
to select a spot for the salient and throw up a breastwork on either 
side, forming an angle of not less than 60, and allowing one yard for 
each file. 

FOOT in a military sense, implies infantry soldiers. 

FORAGE. The hay, corn, fodder, and oats required for the sub- 
sistence of the horses of an army. Generals, field-officers, cavalry- 
officers, and staff-officers receive a commutation in lieu of forage for 
each horse allowed by law, owned, and kept in service. (See PAY.) The 
maximum ration of forage is fourteen pounds of hay or fodder and 
twelve pounds of oats, corn, or barley. The established forage ration 
is furnished by the quartermaster's department. The food of horses 
however, like that of men, must be modified according to circum- 
stances, by changing established proportions or by substituting one 
article of food for another. A knowledge of the different descriptions of 
food capable of maintaining a horse in working condition is essential. 
Forage in garrison or established quarters is ordinarily obtained under 
contract ; but in the field the resources of the country occupied must be 
made immediately available. War deranges the proportions commonly 
maintained between demand and supply, and cripples agricultural indus- 
try. It is for the military administrator to counteract as far as possible 
this tendency, and not alone to seize upon all the resources of supply, 
but to render them continuously productive. Under the very best 
arrangements, however, few countries when they become the theatre of 
contending armies can long support the drain upon them, and afford 
sufficient sustenance for the immense number of animals which accom- 
pany an army, and a partial supply must under the most favorable 
circumstances be drawn from without. While the army is acting in 
the immediate vicinity of the sea-board there is little difficulty in main- 
taining this supply, but when it advances inland, and the means of water 
transport fail, it becomes a matter of extreme difficulty to provide the 
requisite transport for so bulky an article as forage. The artillery can 
render some assistance in this respect, and should be required to carry- 
in their wagons at least three days' supply, but the cavalry soldier 


cannot always encumber himself with his forage ration, and at best can 
only be expected to carry throe days' allowance of oats or barley, 
fg ujMtn the supply department for his hay. Althodgb hay has 
been packed by hydraulic pressure, tin- necessity of a further reduction 
of bulk, both as a question of economy and of convenience, has always 
been apparent. This consideration, und representations of the \\a-te in- 
curred at the seat of war in the unloading of grain, and its transport to 
the front, led Mr. Julynn, asst.-com.-gcn., B.A., to apply his iimntive 
mind to the manufacture of what is now known as the Amalgamated 
Field-forage." This consisted of a preparation of chopped hay, bruised 
oats, bran, Arc., in the proportions usually issued to cavalry horses, 
thoroughly mixed together, subjected to a chemical process for the < \- 
pulsion of fixed air, and compressed by hydraulic power into thick <nk s 
of great solidity. It was cut up into rations of 22 Ibs. each, and four 
of such pieces were packed in one canvas cover, which was convertible 
into a nose-bag. From these bags the horses were to have been fed, the 
forage being restored to its original bulk and condition by moderate 
friction and a few minutes' exposure to the air. This preparation thus 
combined the advantages of extreme portability, full nutritious proper- 
ty, cheapness, and (from its being almost impervious to air and fire, as 
well as from its peculiar form) exemption from the accidents, deteri- 
oration, and losses to which forage in its ordinary state is subject. 


FORAGING is properly the collection of forage or other sup- 
plies systematically in towns or villages, or going with an escort to cut 
nourishment for horses in the fields. Such operations l're.|Uently lead 
to engagements with the enemy. Foraging parties arc furnished with 
reaping hooks and cords. The men promptly dismount, make bundles 
with which they load their horses, and are prepared for any thin^ that 
may follow. The word foraging is sometimes inaccurately used i i 
marauding. When foraging is effected in villages, it is best not to toko 
the party into the village, but to send for the chief persons and stipu- 
late with them that the inhabitants shall brinu r the required forage tad 
other stores out to the troops. If the inhabitants do not promptly com- 
ply with this moderate command, it is necessary to take the tn...j.s 
into the village. In this event, all possible means must bo taken to 
prevent disorder, as for instni: 

1. A certain numWr of houses are assigned to each company, BO 
that the commander of the detachment may hold each company respon- 
sible for the disorders committed within its limits. 


2. Guards are posted and patrols sent out, who arrest any foragers 
guilty of disorder. 

3. If the form of the village permits, a part of the detachment re- 
mains at the centre to pack the horses and load the wagons as fast as 
the other men bring the forage from the houses. 

In places where an attack may be expected, the foraging is conduct- 
ed as follows : Either fatigue parties are sent with wagons, or parties 
of cavalry with their own horses ; in both cases a special escort is added 
for the protection of the foragers. In all cases, the strength of the 
escort depends upon the degree of danger, the space over which the 
foraging is to extend, and the distance from the enemy. During the 
march of foragers to and from the foraging ground, if they consist of a 
fatigue party with wagons, an escort is added, which acts in conformity 
with the rules for escorting convoys. If the foragers consist only of 
cavalry with their own horses, then on the outward march they move 
in one body, observing the precautions prescribed for movements near 
the enemy ; on the return march, if the horses of the foragers are 
packed and led, the detachment acting as escort should not pack more 
than 40 pounds on their horses, so that the load may not prevent them 
from acting against the enemy. One hundred, and twelve pounds may 
be packed on a horse, and the horse must be led ; 56 pounds are packed 
in two trusses. Sometimes the escort, or a part of it, may be sent out 
early to the foraging ground, to take measures for the security of the 
foragers before they arrive. For the safety of the foragers when at 
their work, the escort is divided into two or three parts, according to 
circumstances; one part places a chain of outposts and sends out 
patrols, to guard the whole ground ; another furnishes the supports of 
the outposts, and if there are infantry or mounted rifles with it they 
occupy the points which cover the approaches ; the third part is placed 
in reserve near the centre of the ground, that it may easily reach any 
point attacked. If the enemy attacks while the foraging is going on, 
the escort should go to meet him or defend itself in position, endeavor- 
ing to stop him until the foragers have finished their work, and are 
drawn out on the road for their return march ; then the escort com- 
mences its retreat, acting as a rear guard, and endeavoring to keep the 
enemy as far from the foragers as possible. If it is impossible to hold 
the enemy in check long enough to finish the work, they should at least 
send forward and protect all the foragers who have packed their horses 
or loaded their wagons ; the rest join the escort. If there is a prob- 
ability of driving off the enemy by uniting all the foragers to the escort, 
it is best to abandon the forage already packed, and^o begin foraging 


after i 1 the enemy. It is permitted to abandon the 

forage entirely only in extreme urgency, when there is absolui 
other \\ay of *a\ ing the foragers. If tho enemy is repulsed, we must 
not be induced to pursue him except far enough to prevent a re- 
newal of the attack, but must endeavor to complete the foraging. 
The foraging must not be extended over any ground not guarded by the 
escort. If the escort is too weak to cover the whole space designated 
for foraging, the ground is divided into parts, and the forag 
in the different portions successively. If the foraging ground is at a 

icrable distance from the camp, it will be a proper precaution 
to post a special detachment in support half way. Foraging in 
places occupied by the enemy is undertaken only upon tho entire 
exhaustion of the ground occupied by our own troops. Such for- 
aging is covered by offensive operations, so that, having driven in 
the enemy's advanced troops or other parties, we may rapidly seize 
all the supplies to be found in the vicinity. This is called forced 
foraying. The strength and composition of a detachment for forced 
foraging must be such that it can overwhelm the enemy's troops, and 
remain long enough in position to enable the accompanying detach- 
ment of foragers to complete their work and retreat out of d 
The main conditions of success in such an enterprise are suddenness, 
rapidity, and determination in the attack, promptness in the work of 
the foragers, and tenacity in holding the position taken from the enemy as 
long as necessary. Success will be greatly facilitated by partial attacks 
made upon different points of the enemy's position while the foraging 
is going on. Attacks upon foragers should be sudden and rapid, in 

. by not giving the escort time to defend tho points attacked, to 
produce confusion among the foragers and thus prevent them from 
working. The approach of the attacking party should be concealed. 
rapid, and compact ; that is, it should not send out parties to an \ 
distance in front or on tho flanks, and, as a general rule, should not 
divide its force prematurely, but only the moment before the attack. 
ree of a detachment sent to attack foragers depends chiefly upon 
the object of the attack that is, whether it is designed to capture tho 
foragers, or only to prevent them from foraging by alarming th 
to prevent them from carrying off forage air. 1 It U in all 

oases advantageous to begin with several simultaneous false attacks by 
small parties, to perplex the enemy and oblige him to divide the escort; 
then to direct tho main party of tho detachment upon the point 
of the enemy's arrangements, overthrow his weakened escort, an i 
trate to the road of retreat, so as either to cut off and destroy a part of 


the escort and foragers, or to force them to abandon their work and fly, 
by threatening to cut them off. If from the disproportion of force it is 
impossible to prevent the foraging entirely, the attacking party confines 
itself to delaying the work ; its operations, therefore, should consist in 
partial attacks upon several points, in order to alarm and disperse the 
foragers by breaking through the outposts at several points. Upon 
meeting a considerable force of the enemy these attacking parties should 
at once retreat, and renew the attack in a different place. In such 
operations a portion of the attacking detachment should be kept together 
and held in reserve, as a support and rallying point for the small par- 
ties. If they do not succeed in preventing the foraging, they may try 
to attack the foragers on the return march ; observing in this case the 
rules laid down for attacks upon convoys ; (McCLELLAN's Military Com- 
mission to Europe.} 

FORCE. Any body of troops. 

FORDS. In examining and reporting upon a ford, the main points 
to be considered are : the firmness and regularity of the bottom, its 
length, width, and direction ; the depth, (and its increase by tides or 
floods,) the rapidity of the current, the facilities of access, security from 
attack, and the means of rendering it impassable : a ford should always 
be tried personally before making a report on its capabilities. The 
depth of fords for cavalry should not be more than 4 feet 4 inches, and 
for infantry 3 feet 3 inches ; but if the stream is not very rapid, and the 
direction of the crossing is down-stream, the latter may pass by holding 
on to the horses, even if the depth is four feet. Should the stream be 
very rapid, however, depths much less than these could not be con- 
sidered fordable, particularly if the bottom is uneven. Carriages with 
wheels 5 feet in diameter may cross a ford 4 feet deep ; but if it is 
necessary to keep their contents dry, the depth should not be more 
than 2, or at most 2 feet. Fords are generally to be found above or 
below a bend, and often lie in lines diagonally across the river ; small 
gravel forms the best bottom ; and rock, on the contrary, the most 
dangerous, unless perfectly regular and not slippery. They may be 
sounded by means of a boat having a pole attached. But cavalry or 
good swimmers may effect it with lances or poles, carefully feeling their 
way before advancing. Parts which may be too deep, or even the 
whole width, if the river is narrow, may be rendered fordable by 
throwing in fascines parallel to the direction of the current, and loading 
them with stones, which must afterwards be covered with smaller material 
to render the surface level. The approaches should also be levelled,nd 
where the soil is soft, rendered firm by covering them with fascines, &c v 


so that the troops may advance with a brood front, and rapidly mount 
the further bank. The extent and direction of the ford should be clearly 
marked out by means of poles firmly fixed, and these may bo notched, 
so that a dangerous rise in the river may bo observed. If the current 
is rapid, a number of these placed along the upper edge of the ford, and 
connected by ropes, will also be useful to prevent men on foot being 
swept away ; and boats and horsemen should also be in readiness to 
rescue them. The force of the current may be broken by the < 
Crossing a little above them ; but if the bottom is sandy, tho cavalry 
should cross after the infantry and artillery, as the passage of tho former 
deepens a ford sometimes very materially. The opening and shutting 
of the mill-sluices will sometimes alter the depth of fords, and floods 
may even entirely destroy them ; they can be rendered impracticable 
by means of large stones, harrows, planks with spikes, sharp stakes 
driven in so as to be concealed by the water, abatis, &c., or by cutting 
trenches across ; (Aide Memoir e.) 

FORGE. One travelling forge and one battery wagon accompany 
each field-battery. They are furnished with the tools and materials re- 
quired for shoeing horses and for the ordinary repair and preservation 
of carriages and harness. The total weight of tho forgo when loaded is 
3,383 Ibs., that of the battery wagon loaded is 3,574 Ibs. 

FORLORN HOPE. Officers and soldiers who generally volun- 
teer for enterprises of great danger, such as leading tho attack whon 
storming a fortress. 

FORT is an inclosed work of the higher class of field-works. Tho 
word, however, is loosely applied to other military works. 

FORTIFICATION. A fortification in its most simple form con- 
sists of a mound of earth, termed the rampart, which encloses tho space 
fortified; a parapet, surmounting tho rampart and covering the UK n 
and guns from tho enemy's projectiles ; a scarp wall, which sustains the. 
pressure of the earth of tho rampart and parapet, and presents an ob- 
stacle to an assault by storm ; a wide and deep <////, wh'n-h pr 
the enemy from approaching near tho body of tho place; a coiintrrsmrp 
wall, which sustains tho earth on the exterior of the ditch ; a covered way, 
which occupies the space between the counterscarp and a mound of 
earth, called a glacis, thrown up a few yards in iV"iit of tin- ditch for 
irpose of covering the scarp of the main work. The work by 
which the space fortified is immediately rnvdop.-.l is called l)\Qenccintr, 
or body of the place. Other works are usually added to the cnceint* 
toVrengthcn the weak points of tho fortification, or to lengthen the. 
siege by forcing the cncrny to gain possession of them before he con 


breach the body of the place. These are termed outworks, when en- 
veloped by the covered way, and advanced works, when placed exterior 
to the covered way, but in some manner connected with the main work ; 
but if entirely beyond the glacis and not within supporting distance of 
the fortress, they are called detached works. In a basticned front the 
principal outwork is the demi-lune, which is placed in front of the cur- 
tain ; it serves to cover the main entrance to the work, and to place the 
adjacent bastions in strong re-enterings. The tenaille is a small low 
work placed in the ditch, to cover the scarp wall of the curtain and 
flanks from the fire of the besiegers' batteries erected along the crest of 
the glacis. 

The places of arms are points where troops are assembled in order 
to act on the exterior of the work. The re-entering places of arms, are 
small redans arranged at the points of juncture of the covered ways of 
the bastion and demi-lune. The salient places of arms, are the parts of 
the covered way in front of the salients of the bastion and demi-lune. 
Small permanent works, termed redoubts, are placed within the demi- 
lune and re-entering places of arms for strengthening those works. 
Works of this character constructed within the bastion, are termed in- 
terior retrenchments ; when sufficiently elevated to command the ex- 
terior ground, they are called cavaliers. 

Caponnieres are works constructed to cover the passage of the ditch 
from the tenaille to the gorge of the demi-lune, and also from the demi- 
lune to the covered way, by which communication may be maintained 
between the enceinte and outworks. Posterns are underground com- 
munications made through the body of the place or some of the out- 
works. Sortie passages are narrow openings made through the crest 
of the glacis, which usually rise in the form of a ramp from the covered 
way, by means of which communication may be kept up with the ex- 
terior. These passages are so arranged that they cannot be swept by 
the fire of the enemy. The other communications above ground are 
called ramps, stairs, &c. Traverses are small works erected on the 
covered way to intercept the fire of the besiegers' batteries. Scarp and 
counterscarp galleries are sometimes constructed for the defence of the 
ditch. They are arranged with loopholes, through which the troops of 
the garrison fire on the besiegers when they have entered the ditch, 
without being themselves exposed to the batteries of the enemy. 

In seacoast defences, and sometimes in a land front for the defence 
of the ditch, embrasures are made in the scarp wall for the fire of ar- 
tillery ; the whole being protected from shells by a bomb-proof cov- 
ering overhead ; this arrangement is termed a casemate. Sometimes 


double ramparts and parapets are formed, so that the interior one shall 
fire over the more advanced : tin- latter in t: fuusse 

braie. If the inner work be separated from the other, it is calle.l a 
retrenchment; and if it has a commanding fire, a caval< 
of u bastion is a line bisecting its salient angle. All works compre- 
hended between the capitals of two adjacent bastions, are called a 

In the Prussian system of fortification, the defence of the ditch i 

r by casernated caponnieres, the necessity for breaking up 
the outline of the enceinte into a succession of salient and r. - -ntering 
angles, as in the bastion tracings, is altogether removed. The enceinte 
may, therefore, lave that outline which in the particular ease is most 
advantageous for defence, and best adapted to the natural features of the 
position. This will generally bo a polygon, more or less regular, ac- 
cording to the regularity or irregularity of the site. The caponnieres 
for the defence of the main ditch may either be on the centre of the front, 
or at the alternate salient angles ; the latter, as being more si cure from 
an enemy's distant fire, appears the better. position. The length of the 
exterior side may bo of almost any magnitude, though <0o 
perhaps, as great as under any ordinary cireumstaiu s would be re- 
quisite. The enceinte is a massive rampart and para pi t. IV< <nud by a 
revetment, from 24 to 30 feet in height, which is sometimes wholly or 
partially loopholed for musketry. The centre of the ditch is occupied 
by the casemated caponnicrc, a massive work of masonry, capable of 
containing two stages of five guns each, one on either face; so that the 
ditch on either side of the capnnicro. is swept by the fire often guns. 

The advocates for the Prussian system claim for it the following ad- 
1 '. When the range of musketry is given up as the standard 
.length of a line of defence, and that of artillery substituted for it, the 
exterior sides of the polygons of fortification may evidently be much 
extend. 1. v.M. The Prussian engineers prefer the cons: f case- 

mated flanks for the defence of ditches, as 1 icing more M-I urc than the 
ordinary flanks of the bastion system ; that. K tl, 
from enfilade and vertical fire from a distance, and cannot be counter- 
battered by direct fin-, until the assailant crowns the gkcit, 'I 

rc for the defence of the main ditch, and fr the dith<s of the 
ravelin. 8d. The ravelins can be made as salient as the d< t ;J . -h, .1 ravelins 
of Chasseloup and Bousmard ; while the caponnicrcs- "r casemated pro- 
jectionsby which their ditches an- defended, protect the body of the place. 
fa'm<_r batteries of the enemy on the counterscarp, at the s .i- 
lient angles of the ravelins. These ravelins are more under the, fire of the 


enceinte, than detached ravelins ; they contain a greater interior space ; 
there is a saving of masonry at the gorge : and fewer troops secure 
the work from assault. 4th. In the attack of these fronts, the ap- 
proaches are opposed on the capital of the ravelin, by three mortars in 
casemates under the parapet, cutting off the* salient of the ravelin, and 
by guns on the terre-plein above. The glacis is protected on each side, 
by the fire of 90 yards of the enceinte, and from 80 yards of the faces 
of the ravelin, which (being covered by the advanced portions of greater 
elevation) is very difficult to enfilade. 5th. The establishment of .bat- 
teries on the counterscarp of the salient angle of the ravelin, is rendered 
very difficult by countermines, and by a double tier of fire along the 
whole width of the ditch, viz., from the caponniere and from the en- 
ceinte behind it ; even supposing this caponniere to be silenced, its 
massive ruins would prevent a serious breach being made in the en- 
ceinte. 6th. The attempts of an enemy to lodge himself on the ad- 
vanced part of the ravelin are opposed by countermines, prepared 
in the work during its construction, and by the retrenchment behind : 
moreover, any endeavor to establish a battery in the narrow part of the 
angle, would be opposed by the fire of the whole enceinte behind the 
ravelin ; by that of the casemated keep ; and by sorties having their 
flanks fully protected. 7th. The permanent possession of the ravelin 
can only be obtained after the destruction of the keep, (which com- 
mands every part of the interior, and is not seen from the exterior ;) 
and until this is accomplished the enemy cannot make his approaches 
on the glacis, for the purpose of constructing his breaching batteries 
against the enceinte ; or he would be taken both in flank and in reverse. 
8th. The great caponniere flanking the ditch of the enceinte is indepen- 
dent of the keep of the ravelin, (which, after being taken, would be open 
to the fire of the enceinte and its detached escarp ;) while its double 
tier of guns, sweeping the whole width of the ditch, can only be opposed 
by batteries directly in front. The establishment of these batteries, and 
of others for breaching the escarp at the salient, would, of course, require 
the capture of two ravelins, between which the approaches would be 
sheltered from the collateral works ; but the ground would be dimin- 
ished in extent on advancing near the place, and consequently expose 
the troops (concentrated in larger numbers) to a more destructive fire. 
9th. From the great projection of the ravelin, and the obtuseness of the 
angles of the polygon, the effects of ricochet on the enceinte are pre- 
vented in an octagon, as the prolongations of the sides of the polygon, 
or the enceinte, are intercepted by the ravelins ; which ravelins might 
(in cases where the ground is favorable) be made to project still further, 


to as to cover the ditch from enfilade by distant butteries, and thus 
secure the great caponnieres from annoyance. 10th. Tin- salient angles 
of the enceinte may also be retrenched by a detached loophole 
which would bring a great extent of fire on the breach, llth. The. 
Prussians consider that, by these arrangements, they obtain much su- 
pcri-.rity 0m the ordinary bastion systems, including those of 
mard aiul Chasseloup do Laubat. That greater means of resistance are 
obtained at a comparatively small expense, which means might bo in- 
creased when required, by cavaliers, by interior retrenchments, and by 
A Covered way, with redoubts. 12th. Tho armament required would 
be comparatively small, as in the flanks or caponniercs, which com- 
pletely enfilade the main ditches at a short range, a few pieces only 
would be necessary to prevent a coup-de-main, while a full supply to 
resist a serious attack might be brought by easy and secure communi- 

*. A few guns placed on the salients of tho ravelins would bo 
sufficient to keep oft* an enemy until ho had broken ground ; while the 
whole disposable guns of tho place might easily be brought upon tho 
enceinte on that side, and tho second part of tho collateral ravelins. 
13th. The fatigue attending the usual arrangements w<>nl<l also be 
greatly diminished by tho easiness and security of tho communications. 
The garrison need-not be numerous, as they are not required to expose 
themselves in outworks beyond the main ditch ; they arc protected by 

;itcs in the flank defences, which arc sufficiently strong to allow 
of their concentrating nearly the whole force on the points of impor- 
tance, and which, being concealed from the enemy, do not give known 
points to his vertical fire. 

Fort Alexander, which crowns a height commanding the, to\\ 

131,) is a beautiful specimen of the (Jerman system. 
The position around Coblentz occupies tin- j'.ur opposite angles, mado 
by tho Moselle and the Lahn, which rivers empty themselves into tho 

. nearly opposite to each other; for the Lahn runs into the Uliino 
bout above Coblentz. The ir-ner:il form of tin- ground i 

favorable for the offensive or defensive operations of an army in pos- 
session f it. mid its fortresses; and many of the hiizh roads from the. 
most important towns in Germany pass in this direction ; whilst the 
^o difficult of access, that it is n. -\t to impossible t,, 

Cobh-nt/, is situated in tin- | . d by the. junc- 

tion of the MosHlo with the Lhi- lends about three-firths 

of a mile in raeh d'.n-etion. The m.-einte of tho town ft secure against 
a coup-de-main. Its rampart forms a succession of salient and r 
ing angles, which being obtuse are little liable to enfilade. ; while tho 




ditches are flanked by good casemated batteries, having three guns in 
each flank. The gateways are strong casemated barracks, containing 

FIG. 181. 

batteries to flank the ditches and approaches. These casemates are 
separated from the ramparts on each side, and form a kind of citadel : 
the profile of the rampart is nearly similar to Carnot's : the wall is 
well covered. Should the neighboring works on the heights be reduced, 
the town would be commanded and exposed to an enemy's fire. It is, 
however, no easy matter for an enemy to get possession of these 
commanding sites. The two most important of these are, Ehren- 
breitstein on the right bank, and Fort Alexander on the left bank, of 
the Rhine. 

Ehrenbreitstein occupies a commanding rocky site, 400 feet above 
the river, inaccessible on three sides, and on the approachable side from 
the north, it i-? defended by strong double works ; having abundant 
casemates for its garrison, stores, and artillery. It is the key of the 
whole position, commanding all the surrounding works within its range, 
and having smaller works detached from it, for looking into hollows, 
that cannot be seen from the main works. It has a fine well, 300 feet 
deep. The faces of the works defending the only approachable side, can 
mount forty-three pieces of ordnance in casemates ; the ditches are well 
defended by casemated batteries ; and the escarps are about 35 feet in 
height. It is altogether a most formidable work. The piers that sep- 


arate the casemates and support the arches are made to project ri-jht, 
through to the front of the revetment, which is 10 feet thick : and tlu 
courses, instead of being horizontal, are laid in successive arches the 
joints forming rays from a centre. Tho whole is built of rough stone, 
and grouted in, so as to settle in time into a solid mass. 

Fort Alexander with its dependencies, commands all the approaches 
to Coblentz between the rivers. The principal front of this work has 
its exterior side about 650 yards, and its interior side about 500 
yards in length. The ravelins and the counterguanls have their faces 
directed so, that their prolongations do not fall upon the plateau in 
front, but upon the hollows and ravines, &c., from which they cannot 
be enfiladed. The flanking caponniere is very strong, l>e:ni: a case- 
mated work for two tiers of guns ; each flank has five guns in the lower 
tier fr flanking the ditch, and five in the upper tier for flank in:: the 
terre-pleins of the countcrguards. The casemates in the faces or angu- 
lar parts are loopholed for musketry. Each caponniere serves as a 
good barrack for 1GO men, besides stores. This work is completely 
covered in front by the counterguard or ravelin, which is only two feet 
lower than the body of the place. Each flank of the enceinte contains 
six casemates for guns to flank the ditches before them. The faces and 
ditches of the ravelins are flanked by solid casemated caponnieres, which 
cover the body of the place from any batteries that might be established 
at the rounding of the counterscarp of the ravelin. The ditches of the 
countcrguards are flanked by casemated batteries, placed in the faces 
of the ravelins. The body of the work is an oblique parallelogram, 
about 5 from a right angle : the side fronts are about 420 yards, and 
the rear front 500 yards in length, in order to suit the ground. There 
is a strong casemated tower at the gorge connected with a communica- 
tion from l-'ort Constantino. There is no covered way ; the romiti-r- 
guard.s answer the purpose. Good ramps and other arrangements are 
made in tho countersloping glacis and its salients, favorable for s 
It is calculated that 5,000 men would be sufficient to man all these 
works on both sides of the river ; while it is evident that a vast army 
might be securely canMi.-d within the circuit of the works A graft* 
number of trees have been planted all around Fort Alexander; tho 
roots of which, left in tho ground, would defy the ordinary work of 
sappers and miners; and would therefore prove formidal.! 
in the process of a regular attack, while the timber would be invaluable 
in a siege; (HTDB'H I m.) 

FORTIFICATION (FRONT OF) consists of all tho works OOH- 
structed upon any one side of a regular polygon, whether placed within 




or without the exterior side ; or, according to St. Paul, all the works 
contained between any two of the oblique radii. Some authors give 
a more limited sense to the term " front of fortification," by confining 
it to two half bastions joined by a curtain. If the polygon be regular, 
that is, if all the sides be of equal length, and the fronts of the same 
description, it is called a regular work ; but if they differ, it is called an 
irregular work. 

FORTIFICATION (IRREGULAR) is that, in which, from the 
nature of the ground or other causes, the several works have not their 
due proportion according to rule ; irregularity, however, does not neces- 
sarily imply weakness. 

FORTIFICATION (NATURAL) consists of such objects formed 
by nature, as are capable of impeding the advance of an enemy ; and 
a station is said to be naturally fortified, when it is situated on the top 
of a steep hill, or surrounded by impassable rivers, marshes, &c. 

FORTIFICATION (REGULAR) is that in which the works are 
constructed on a regular polygon, and which has its corresponding parts 
equal to each other. 

FORTRESS. A fortress is a fortified city or town, or any piece 
of ground so strongly fortified as to be capable of resisting an attack 
carried on against it, according to rule. 

FOUGASS. Charges of gunpowder are frequently placed at the 
bottom of a pit or shaft dug in the ground over which an enemy must 
pass to the attack. In these cases they take the name of fougasses. 
The chief difficulty attending the use of fougasses is to explode them at 
the instant when the enemy is passing over, as any variation in the time 
of explosion from this instant renders them altogether useless. It is, 
therefore, recommended to place 
an obstacle over them, as an 
abatis or chevaux-de-frize, so 
that the fougasses may be ex- 
ploded while the enemy is occu- 
pied in forcing his way over. 
Sometimes a fougass is made 
of several loaded shells placed 
in a box, with a charge of pow- 
der under. The box should be 
pitched, to keep the charge dry. 
(Fig. 132.) 

A stone fougass (Fig. 133) 
is made by excavating a shaft 6 feet deep, inclined to the horizon at 

FIG. 132. 



Fio. 184. 

an angle of about 45. At the bottom place a charge of 55 Ibs. (a 
cubic foot) of powder, then a strong shield of wood at least 6 inches 
thick, in front of the charge, and over the shield throw in three or 
four cubic yards of pebbles, of not less tlia:i half a pound % 
each. A sufficient body of earth must be plae.-d vertically, al. ve 
the charge, and retained over the upper part of the shaft, near the 
edge, by a revetment of sods, to insure the effect taking place in (he 
right direction. Fougasses arc usually fired by means of an 
or casing tube, containing a hose or saucisson, &c., led up the side 
of the pit or shaft, and then parallel to the surface of the ground, 
at a depth of two or three t',-et ; or they may be fired, at the proper 
Mt, by means of a loaded musket with its muzzle in the powder, 
and a wire or string fastened to the trigger. 

Analogous to fotigasses were the Kussian powder-boxes used at 

>topol, Fig. 134. 
Each consisted of A 
double deal box, of a 
ty sufficient to 
e 'iitain '.\~i H)s. of pow- 
f. dually secured from 
the penetration of 
damp ; into the top 
of each box was in- 
; a vertical tin 
tube, connected with 
a hori/ontal tin tube 
at the surface of the 

ground. Within the latter was a gla^s tube, filled with sulphuric acid, 
and coated with a composition of chl- r.ii.- of j-'-ta^a, sugar, sulphur, and 
gum water, which inunediat. ly takes fire on coming in contact with the 
acid. The space between the interior of the tin tube and the cv 
of the glass tube, as well ns the vertical tin tube, is filled with gun- 
powder. A little earth spread lightly over the \\ho!e completes the 
arrangement. A person walking over the ground, and treading on the 
tin tube, crushes it, and the glass tube contained in it, .-ausinu' the. escape 
of the su'phuric acid, nnd the explosion of the gunpo\vdT. 

\ISKS are palisades placed horizontally or obliquely, at the 
edge of a ditch on either sid, or projecting from the exterior slope of 
a pnrnp. t. If the slope be very long, there are sometimes two rows 
of fraises used. 



FRAUD. Association of any officer with another officer convicted 
by a court-martial of fraud or cowardice shall be deemed scandalous ; 
(ART. 85.) (See COWARDICE.) 

Fraud consists in unlawfully, designedly, and knowingly appro- 
priating the property of another with a criminal intent. It is any trick 
or artifice employed by one person to induce another to fall into an 
error or detain him in it, so that he make an agreement in contracts 
contrary to his interest. The fraud may consist in the misrepresen- 
tation or in the concealment of a material fact ; (BOUVIER'S Law Dic- 


FRICTION PRIMER FOR CANNON consists of a tube charged 
with gunpowder, to the top of which is fastened a cup containing fric- 
tion powder, composed of two parts of chlorate of potassa, and one of 
sul. of antimony, which is exploded by means of a slider pulled out 
with a lanyard. The tube, cup, and slider are made of sheet brass. The 
lanyard, for pulling off the primer, is a piece of strong cod line (about 
.2 in. thick) 12 feet long ; to one end is attached a small iron hook, with 
an eye for the line, and to the other end a wooden toggel, .75 in. diam- 
eter, and 4 in. long. If injured by moisture, the primers become ser- 
viceable again when dried, and they have the great advantage of 
portability and certainty of fire. 


FUMIGATION. To correct and purify an infectious or confined 
atmosphere, such as is often found in transports, fumigations are neces- 
sary. The materials recommended for the purpose are brimstone with 
sawdust ; or nitre with vitriolic acid ; or common salt with the same 
acid. One fluid ounce of sulphuric acid mixed with two fluid ounces 
of water, and then poured over four ounces of common salt, and one 
ounce of oxide of manganese in powder, these latter ingredients being 
previously placed in hot sand, are also recommended. Burning char- 
coal is also a good disinfectant. (See SANITARY PRECAUTIONS.) 
. FUNERALS. Army Regulations prescribe the honors to be paid 
at funerals. 

FURLOUGHS. The term is usually applied to the absence with 
leave of non-commissioned officers and soldiers. (See ABSENCE WITH 

FUZE is the means used to ignite the bursting charge of shells. 
They are classified as Time, Concussion, and Percussion Fuzes. The 
time fuze is composed of a case of paper, wood, or metal, inclosing a 
burning composition. It is cut or bored to a length proportioned to 


the intended range of the shell, so that it shall burn down and explode 
the bursting charge, just us tin- slu -II strikes the ground, or earl in- if 
desirable. Instead of driving the fuze composition into a wooden tube 
as formerly, and requiring a saw to give the fuze its proper length ac- 
cording to range, the shell is imw supplied with a plug of hard \\....d 
or metal, having a hole reaped out exactly the size of a paper case con- 
taining the composition. By 'varying this composition, the same length 
suffices for all the ranges or times of burning required. And tin so 
having the different compositions in paper cases of as many different 
colors, the cannoneer at a field-piece may, in an instant, insert into the 
plug the colored fuze required for the desired range. Similar fuzes 
have been adopted for the columhiads, the plugs being of bronze instead 
of wood. Three kinds of time fuzes are employed in the United States 
Service, viz., the Mortar Fuze,, the Borman Fuze, and the sea-coast 
fuze. The best and simplest form of the percussion fuze is the ordinary 
percussion cap placed on a cone affixed to the point of the projectile. 
The arrangement should be protected by a safety cap to prevent the 
percussion cap taking fire by the discharge of the j 

" Bick ford's fuze" is a small tube of gunpowder, sewed round with 
tarred twine, and then pitched over. It is not injured by dan:; 
when well made, will burn under water, and is used for firing the 
charges of mines, &c. The Gomez Patent Electric Safety train or fuze 
is made in the form of a tape, inclosing a chemical compound that, burns 
at the rate of one mile in four seconds ; it may be used like the Bick- 
ford fuze. (See RIFLED ORDNANCE.) 


GABIONNADE. A work constructed with gabions. 

GABIONS arc cylindrical baskets of various dimensions, open at 
both ends, used to revet the interior slopes of batteries, the checks of 
embrasures, and to form the parapet of trenches. (See REVETMK 
the construction of gabions.) 

GALLERY. In permanent fortification, a passage or rommuni- 
to that part of a mine where the powder is lodged. Tin- princi- 
pal gallery, from which other* on/mate, is constructed under th- 
quette of the covered way, and follows that portion of the works 
throughout its extent. Another gallery is formed in a dir 
parallel to the first at 50 or 60 yards' distance, and communicates with 

perpendicular to it. (Jailer. 

lined with masonry. When finished they aro about six feet high and 
four and a half : 


GARRISON designates the troops employed in a strong place 
for its security, and it is also applied to the place itself when occupied 
by troops. The President may employ such troops of the United 
States as he may judge necessary as garrisons of fortifications ; (Act 
March 20, 1794.) 

GENERAL. Rank above lieutenant-general. There is no such 
grade in the United States army. 

GENERAL OFFICERS. All officers above the rank of colonel. 
Any sentence of a court-martial affecting a general officer must be ap- 
proved by the President. (See COURT-MARTIAL.) 

GENOUILLfiRE. From the French genou, knee. It is that part 
of the parapet of a battery which remains above the platform and under 
the gun, after the opening of the embrasure. 

GEOMETRY. The science which teaches the dimensions of lines, 
surfaces, and solids. It is a necessary introduction to" fortification and 
mechanics. It enables us to ascertain the distances of inaccessible 
objects, the dimensions of a given surface, the contents of a given solid ; 
to compute the distances and motions of the planets ; to predict celes- 
tial phenomena ; and to navigate a ship from any given point to another 
on the surface of the globe. 

Geometry, besides other divisions, is divided into ancient and mod- 
ern : ancient geometry being that form of demonstration and investi- 
gation which was employed by the Greeks, and of which Euclid's 
Elements form a well-known example ; modern geometry is that in 
which algebra, or the differential and integral calculus, is employed. 
We also speak of pure geometry, practical geometry, and applied ge- 
ometry. Descriptive geometry was first employed by Monge, and sub- 
sequently by other French geometers, to express that part of science 
which consists in the application of geometrical rules to the representa- 
tion of the figures, and the various relations of the forms of bodies, ac- 
cording to certain conventional methods. It differs from ordinary per- 
spective, inasmuch as the design or representation is made in such a 
mariner that the exact distance between the different points of the body 
represented can always be found, and consequently all the mathematical 
relations resulting from the form and position of the body may be 
deduced from the representation. 

In descriptive geometry, the situation of points in space is rep- 
resented by their projections on two planes, at right angles to each 
other, called the planes of projection. It is usual to suppose one of 
the planes of projection to be horizontal, in which case the other is ver- 
tical ; and the projections are called horizontal or vertical, according as 


they are on the one or the other of these planes. According to this 
system, any point whatever in space is represented by drawing a per- 
pendicular from it to each of tin- planes of projection : the point on 
which the perpendicular falls is the projection of the proposed point. 
As contiguous points in space form a line, so the projections of those 
points, which are also contiguous, form a line in the same manner, 
which is the projection of the given line. Hence as two projections 
only are required f.r the determination of a point in space, they are 
also sufficient for the determination of any curve whatever, whether of 
single or double curvature. 

The same mode of representation cannot bo employed with regard 
to surfaces ; for, as the projections of the contiguous points of a surface 
cover a continuous area on both planes of projection, tin-re is nothing 
to indicate that any particular point on one of the planes of projection 
corresponds to one point more than another on the second plane, and 
consequently that it belongs to one point more than another in space. 
But if we conceive the surface which is to be represented to be covered 
with a system of lines succeeding one another according to a determin- 
ate law, then, by projecting these lines on each of the two planes, and 
marking the correspondence of the one projection with the other, the 
projections of all the different points of the surface, will have an evident 
dependence on each other, and the surface will be rigorously and com- 
pletely determined. 

Some elementary surfaces may, however, be represented in a much 
more simple way. The plane, for example, is completely defined by 
the straight lines in which it intersects the two planes of projection. 
These lines are denominated the traces of the plane. A sphere is also 
completely defined by the two projections of its centre, and th 
circle which limits the projections of its points. A cylinder is defined 
by its inter^K tion (or trace) with one of the planes of projection, and 
by the two s .f one of its ends. A cone is rep:- 

its intersection with one, of the planes of projection and the two pro- 
jections of its summit, 

The rmwt immediate, application of descriptive poom. try is the 
representation of bodies, of which the forms are siiMvptiUc of rigorous 
geometrical definition. Sculpture, architecture, paint ini:, and all the 
mechanical arts, tho object of which is to pive to matter certain deter- 
minate forms, borrow from d-w.-riptivo. peometry tin ir graphical pro- 
cedures, by the aid of which all the parts of an object are faithfully rep- 
reaente f l-f..n- the ol.jeet it^-lf is executed. Hut it was chiefly 

in consequence of its application to civil and military engineering, and 


to fortification, that this branch of geometry received a distinctive ap- 
pellation, and is considered of much importance in the Polytechnic 
school of France, and our own Military Academy. (Consult DA VIES' 
Descriptive Geometry.) 

GIN. The derrick, sheers, and gin have one common object, viz. : 
to find a fulcrum in space, to which the pulley, in the shape of block 
and tackle, is to be applied. In the derrick and sheers this is effected 
on one and- two legs, and stability is given by guys. The gin usually 
consists of three long legs, two of which are joined together by 
cross bars, and the third, called the pry pole, elevates the gin. A 
pulley is supported at the top, round which a rope is passed for 
elevating the weight. Fig. 135 shows the manner of working 
the gin. There are three kinds of gins used in service : the field and 
siege, the garrison, and the casemate. The last 
two differ from each other only in height ; the 
first differs from the others in construction and 
size. Either of them may be used as derrick or 
sheers. The garrison and casemate gins differ 
from the siege gin in having two braces of iron 
instead of three wooden cross-bars or braces, 
and in having the pry pole inserted between 
the legs, which are kept together by the clevis 
bolt. The upper pulley (generally treble) is 
hooked to the clevis. (For description, setting up, and mechanical 
manceuvres with gins, consult Instruction in Heavy Artillery.) 

GIRDER. In building, the principal beam of a floor for support- 
ing the binding or other joists, to lessen their bearing or length. 

GLACIS. The superior slope of the parapet of the covered way, 
extended in a gentle declivity to the surrounding country. It is seldom 
used in field-works. (See FORTIFICATION.) 

GLANDERS. A virulent and dangerous disease among horses, 
principally shown in a mucous discharge from the nostrils. To prevent 
this infectious disorder from spreading, it is necessary at once to re- 
move the horse from his stall, and thoroughly wash with soap and 
water the rack, manger, and every part of the stall from which the 
horse has been removed. When the parts are thus made clean, they 
must also be covered with a quick-lime wash immediately after it is 
mixed, and afterwards three coats of oil colors given to it. The same 
precautions are taken in FARCY. (See VETERINARY.) 

GORGE. The gorge of a fortification or gorge of a work is the 
opening on that side of the work corresponding to the body of the place, 


or the side whence comes tho defence. In isolated works, the gorge 
is sometimes intrenched. The gorges of works not attached to a for- 
tress, but which are its dependencies, are in general open, or without 
r that the runny may not cover himself from the fire 
of the j'l.uv if he should seize such detached works. If tin- works are 
liable to surprise, and their gorges cannot be shut, a row of palisades 
are planted there, and mines are prepared so as to overthrow the 
if he should seize the work, and attempt to construct a lodge- 
ment there. The gorge of a bastion is usually an open space b 

.treniities of tho flanks of the bastion. The larger this gorge is, 
the better is the defence ; for when the ruined bastion is about to fall by 
siege. into the hands of the enemy, the defenders can construct del. 
works or dig small ditches in the gorge of the abandoned bastion. Such 
resistance sometimes drives the besiegers to the necessity of battering 
in breach the curtain. 

GORGE OF MOUNTAINS is the passage, more or less compressed, 
u two mountains which are used as a passage-way into valleys. 
Gorges are important military points. If they lead to an intrenched 
camp, it is necessary to fortify them, and post there ^rand guards; 
these positions are the principal theatres for affairs of posts. A gorge 
should never be entered without previous examination. 

GOVERNMENT. The Constitution of the United States provides 
that Congress shall make rules for the government and rojinl.v 
armies. By government is understood not only the body of fundamen- 
tal laws of a State, but also the body of persons charged with tho man- 
agement of the executive power of a country, direction, power or author- 
hieh rules a community, administration, rule, management ; 
(WORCESTER'S Dictionary.) 

ornment of the military (says BARDIN, Dictionnaire de VArmee 
dt Terre) is that branch of the code which embraces the creation and 
regulation of tho military hierarchy, or the gradual distribution of infe- 
rior authority. The power of m.'iking rules of government is of 
SUPREME COMMAND, and from this living principle jroeerds the loealiza- 

"f troops, their organization and distribution; rides for r 
and punishments; and generally all rules of government and rniu'.itnm 
whatsoever, which the legislature may judge necessary, to maintain an 
efficient and well-disciplined army. 

All authority over the land force* of the United States must th. r. - 
fore be derived from Congress. For, although the President is the. 
commander in < hi. f, yet his functions, as such, must he regulated by 
Congress, under the 17th clause of Sec. 8 of the Constitution, as well 


as under the general authority of Congress to make rules for the gov- 
ernment and regulation of the land forces. The President cannot bo 
divested of power which Congress may assign to any inferior military 
commander, because the authority of the greater includes that of the 
less. But all authority over the land and naval forces save the appoint- 
ment of the commander-in-chief rests with Congress, and no authority 
can be exercised not delegated by Congress, except such as may be 
fairly deduced from powers given for the effective discharge of the 
duties annexed to his office. (See ADMINISTRATION, and references 
TICLES OF WAR, and references under that head ; ARTILLERY ; ASSIGN- 
CORPS ; COURT-MARTIAL and references under that head ; COURT OF IN- 
erences under that head ; LAW, (Martial ;) LIEUTENANT ; LIEUTENANT- 
RANK ; REGIMENT ; REGULATION, and its references ; REMEDY ; RE- 
NIOR ; SERGEANT ; SERVICE, and its references ; SOLDIER ; STAFF ; STATE 

GRAND DIVISION. A division composed of two companies 
in battalion manoeuvres. 

GRAPE-SHOT. A certain number of cast-iron balls put together 


by moans of two cast-iron plates, two rings, and one pin and nut. Canis- 
ter lias superseded the use of grape in field-guns. Grape-shot are used 
with the B-in. howitzers and the columbiad of that 
calibre, by adopting the sabot of the sea-coast 
howitzer, which serves for both pieces. The grape 
for these 8-in. pieces is made of 6-pd. shot. 

GRAPPLING-IRONS- consist of from four 
to six branches bent and pointed, with a ring at 
the root. A rope being fastened through this rin^, 
any object at which the grappling-irons aro thrown, 
may be dragged nearer. 

GRATUITY. In the French service whenever 
a non-commissioned officer is promoted, ho is 
given a gratuity ^ called Gratification de Premiere 
Mise cTOfficier, in order to provide his 

as officer. In the same manner, at the beginning of a campaign, a sum 
of money is given to all officers of the French army, according to grade, 
as an equipment fund ; it is called Gratification <T entree en Camjuiynf, 
ou Indemnite d 'entree en Campagne. 

GRAVITY, GRAVITATION. These terms are used to express 
the mutual tendency which all bodies have to approach each oth.-r if 
not opposed by other resistance. 

Force of Gravity Motion of falling bodies : Let t bo the time of 
descent in seconds, of a body falling freely, in vacuo ; A, the space de- 
scribed in the time t ; v, the velocity acquired at the end of that time, 
and y the velocity acquired at the end of one second of time ; then : 
h = gf', v = g t = -y/2 9 A 

The velocity g, which is the measure of the force of gravity, varies 
with the latitude of the place, and with its altitude above the 1 v. 1 <.f 
the tea. The force of gravity at the latitude of 45 = 32.1808 f.-,-t ; 
at any other latitude L ; g = 32.1803 feet 0.0821 cos. 2 L. If y* 
represent tin- force of gravity at the height h above the sea, and r the 
radius of the earth, the force of gravity at the level of the sea will !> 

In thr latitude of London, at the level of the sea, g ::-J.l'.'l | 

do. Washington, . do. do. g = 32.155 feet. 
GRENADE. A shell thrown by hand or in K-iskets from stone 
mortars. A hand-grenade is a small sh< 11 about 2$ inches in diameter, 
Dg set on fire by means of a short fuze and cast among the 


enemy's troops, causes great damage by its explosion. They may bo 
thrown 26 yards. Rampart-grenades are larger, and are used to roll 
down ramparts, &c. 

GRENADIERS. The right flank company of a regiment. 


GROOVES. Spiral grooves or "rifles" cut into the surface of 
the bore of fire-arms, have the effect of communicating a rotary motion 
to a projectile around an axis coincident with its flight. This motion 
increases the range of the projectile, and also corrects one of the causes 
of deviation by distributing it uniformly around the line of flight. 
For expanding projectiles, experiment shows that broad and shallow 
grooves with a moderate twist give range, endurance, accuracy of fire, 
and facility in loading and cleaning the bores. The United States have 
therefore adopted for arms three grooves, each in width equal to the 
lands, or of the circumference of the bore ; and uniformly decreasing 
in depth from the breech where it is .015 in., to the muzzle, where it 
is .005 inch ; with a uniform twist, one turn in six feet for long barrels 
or the musket, and one turn in four feet for short barrels or the car- 
bine. The proper twist to be given to the grooves, depends on the 
length, diameter and initial velocity of the projectile used ; but the most 
suitable twist can only be determined by experiment. 

GUARDS are used for security and police by troops in the field, 
in camps, garrisons, and quarters. Guards are designated as advance 
or van, and rear guards ; outposts and picket guards ; quarter, camp, 
and garrison guards ; and general officers' guards. The tour of service 
of guards is usually twenty-four hours. Sometimes a guard is detached 
from a single corps, and sometimes from several corps. In either case 
during the tour of service, the guard receives orders from the command- 
ing officer and officers of the guard. It is for the time detached from 
its corps. (The description and duties of guards are given in Army 


GUIDES. Men employed to give intelligence respecting a country 
and the various roads intersecting it. All armies employed in an 
enemy's country find it to their advantage to use guides. 

GUIDES, (TACTICAL.) The duties of guides are given in the 

GUIDONS. Each company of cavalry has a silken guidon pre- 
scribed in Army Regulations. 

GUN-COTTON is common cotton, steeped in a mixture of sul- 
phuric acid and nitric acid, and when properly soaked, is well washed 


ir running water, and then dried. The explosive force of three parts 
of gun-cotton equals that of eight parts of gunpowder. Major Mor- 
decai's experiments at Washington in the years 1845, 1847, and 1848, to 
determine the fitness of gun-eotton as a substitute for gunpowder in the 
military service, show : 1. Explosive cotton burns at 380 Fahr., therc- 
: o to gunpowder when burnt in u loose state over 
it. 2. The pn>jectilo force of explosive cotton, with moderate charges, 
in a musket or cannon, is equal to that of about twice its v. -eight of tho 
best gunpowder. 3. When compressed by hard ramming, as in filling 
a fuze, it burns slowly. 4. By the absorption of moisture its force is 
rapidly diminished, but the force is restored by drying. 5. Its burst- 
- much greater than that of gunpowder, on whirh account it 
is \\vll adapted for mining operations. 6. The principal residua of its 
combustion are water and nitrous acid ; therefore the barrel of a gun 
would be soon corroded if not cleaned after firing. 7. In consequence 
of tho quickness and intensity of its action when ignited, it cannot be 
used with safety in the present fire-arms. 8. An accident 
such as the insertion of two charges before firing, would cause the 
bursting of the barrel; and it is probable that the like etK t would 
take place with the regular service-char- : ;d times repeated. 

GUNNERS. For the service of field and heavy ordnanec. tln-ro 
is wi'li i-aeh piece one man called a gunner, who gives all the. executive, 
commands in action. lie is answerable that the men at the piece per- 
form thi-ir duties correctly. (Consult Instruction for Field and Heavy 

GUNNER'S CALIPERS. Made of sheet brass, with ste, 1 i 
The graduations show diamet.-rs of guns, shot, &c. 

GUNNER'S PERPENDICULAR. This is made of sh-rt 1 
the lower part is cut in the form of a cresemt. the points of which arc 
made I small spirit lev 1 is listened to one side of the plate, 

parallel to the lino joining tho points of the crescent, and a slide is 
fastened to the same side of the plat--, perpendicular to tli- axis of the 
level. The instrument is useful in marking tho points of sight on siege 
guns and r h.-n the platform is not 1- 

GUNNKi: S I'l NCERS. Iron with steel jaws, which have on the 
end of v for drawing nails, &c. 

GUNNER'S QUADRANT, (wood.) A graduate! .piadrant of 
li.-s radius, attnehed to a rule 23.5 inch.-s Ion/, (\'\ : j. i:{7.) It 
has a plumb-line and bob, which arc carried, when nt in OM, in a hole 
in the end of the nil-- r.,v. l.ra^s plate. The quadrant, is ap- 

plied cither by its longer branch to the face of tin- pi , or this branch 


is run into the bore parallel with the axis, and the elevating screv; 
turned or the quoin adjusted until the required degree FIQ 
is indicated. 

GUNNERY. Laws regulating the resistance of 
the air are complicated and undetermined. The at- 
tempts also made to determine the volume and tension 
of the gases produced by the combustion of powder 
have given variable and unsatisfactory results. It ac- 
cordingly follows, and it is now admitted, that it is impossible to solve 
the problem of the trajectory described by projectiles by purely theo- 
retical means. Multiplied experiments are therefore resorted to, in 
order to form tables of fire, and such tables are the true guides in prac- 
tical gunnery. 

The maximum range of the largest cannon fired under an angle of 
45 does not exceed 8,000 yards : siege guns fired under smaller an- 
gles give ranges varying from 3,000 to 4,500 yards. The range of field- 
pieces in their ordinary fire is from 1,790 to 2,200 yards. Tables of 
ranges are given in Ordnance and Artillery Manuals, for the moun- 
tain howitzers, field-guns and howitzers, heavy ordnance, and Bale's 
war rockets. These tables give ranges at different elevations, the 
charges of powder, the weight of the shot, spherical case shot or shell 
in each case. They show the time of flight of the shell, and consequently 
the length of fuze required ; and also at what angles of elevation, in the 
8 or 10-in. columbiads, shot cease to ricochet upon the water. (See, 
for such tables, articles : ARTILLERY ; BALLISTICS ; FIRING ; INITIAL VE- 

GUNPOWDER. In the United States, the proportion of ingre- 
dients for the military service are : 76 or 75 of saltpetre, 14 or 15 
charcoal, and 10 of sulphur ; for sporting, 78 or 77 saltpetre, 12 or 
13 charcoal, and 10 sulphur. The powder is coarse or fine grained. 
In the United States, to every 10 grains troy weight of powder, there 
are 150 grains of cannon powder, 1,100 musket powder, 6,000 rifle, 
and 73,000 sporting. The size of the grain is tested by sieves. Mus- 
ket power is now recommended for all small arms. 

A new powder, invented by Capt. Rodman, Ordnance Dept., 
shows great ingenuity, and has given most important results. An 
ordinary grain of powder burns from the surface to the centre, and the 
largest portion of the gas is evolved in the T f part of a second. 
The force of the charge is therefore expended upon the projectile before 
it is sensibly moved, and there is a corresponding strain upon the gun. 
Capt. Rodman thought, if powder could be made to burn on an increas- 


1/1^7 instead of a decreasing surface, so that the gas should be evolved 
completely but not so rapidly before the projectile left the piece, the 
same velocity would be communicated, and the strain would be dis- 
tributed uniformly over the whole piece. To accomplish this, ho 
formed the " dust " into a coke, and inserted into it numerous small 
wires, which, being pulled out, left corresponding avenues for the pas- 
sage of flame and ignition of the mass ; thus making tin- interior sur- 
face of combustion increasing instead of decreasing. The enormous 
pressures from large charges of powder have thus been entirely obvi- 
ated by the introduction into service of Rodman's hollow caked powder, 
or its substitute, the large-grained powder, each grain being six-tenths 
of an inch. This discovery, with the idea of Capt. Rodman of cooling 
cast-iron cannon from the interior by means of a current of cold water 
flowing through a hollow core, has enabled him to cast a 15-in. colum- 
biad which, after three hundred rounds, with a charge of 40 Ibs. of pow- 
der, showed no appreciable enlargement of either bore or vent, and 
causes Capt. Rodman to believe that the piece will bear 1,000 rounds 
without material injury; (BENTON; Experiments on Gunpowder by 
MAJ. MORDECAI, Ordnance Dept.) 

GUNS are long cannon without chambers, having their calibres 
determined by tho woijjht of their balls. (See CALIBRE; ORDNANCE.) 

GUNTER'S CHAIN is the chain commonly used for measuring 
land. It is 66 feet or 4 poles in length, and is divided into 100 links, 
each of which is joined to tho adjacent one by three rings; and tin- 
length of each link, including the connecting rings, is 7.92 inches. The 
advantage of this measure consists in the facility which it affords for 
numerical calculations. The English acre contains 4,840 square yards ; 
and Gunter's chain being 22 yards in length, tho square of whi h is 
484, it follows that a square chain is exactly the tenth part of an acre. 
A square chain, again, contains 10,000 square links, so that 100,000 
square links are equal to nn acre; consequently, the contents <! u fit Id 
being cast p in square links, it is only necessary to divide l>y 100,000, 
or to cut off tho last five figures, to obtain the contents expr. ^,-d, in 
ere* ; (BRAXDE'S Encyclopedia.) 

GUY. A rope used to swing any weight, or to keep steady any 
heavy body, and prevent it from swinging while being hoisted or 


HAIL. A sentinel hails any one approaching his post, with " Who 
there ? n 


HALT. A rest during a march, and a word of command in tac- 
tical manoeuvres. 

HAND. A measure four inches in length. The height of a horse 
is computed by so many hands and inches. 

HANDSPIKES. The trail handspike for fiefc carriages is 53 
inches in length ; the manoeuvring handspike for garrison and sea-coast 
carriages and for gins is 66 inches ; for siege and other heavy work it 
is made 84 inches long and 12 Ibs. weight ; the shod handspike is par- 
ticularly useful in the service of mortars and of casemate and barbette 
carriages ; the truck handspike for casemate carriages, (wrought iron ;) 
the roller handspike, for casemate carriages. It is made of iron, 1 inch 
round, the point conical, whole length 34 inches. 

HARBORING AN ENEMY. Punishable with death or other- 
wise, according to sentence of a court-martial ; (ART. 56.) 

HAUSSE OR BREECH SIGHT is a graduated piece attached to 
the barrel near the breech, which has a sliding piece retained in its place 
by a thumb screw, or by the spring of the slider itself. This slider 
should have an opening through which the gun can be conveniently 
aimed ; and is raised to such a height as we think will give the neces- 
sary elevation for the distance. The term coarse sight means a large 
portion of the front sight, as seen above the bottom of the rear-sight 
notch ; and a fine sight is when but a small portion is seen. The effect 
of a coarse sight is to increase the range of the projectile. 

Graduation of rear-sights. If the form of the trajectory be known, 
the rear-sight of a fire-arm can be graduated by calculation ; the more 
accurate and reliable method, however, is by trial. Suppose it be re- 
quired to mark the graduation for 100 yards : the slider is placed as 
near the position of the required mark as the judgment of the experi- 
menter may indicate ; and, with this elevation, the piece is carefully 
aimed, and fired, say ten times, at a target placed on level ground at a 
distance of 100 yards. If the assumed position of the slider be correct, 
the centre of impact of the ten shot-holes will coincide with Jie point 
aimed at ; if it be incorrect, or the centre of impact be found below the 

FIG. 133. 

point aimed at, then the position of the slider is too low on the scale. 
Let P be the point aimed at, and P' the centre of impact of the cluster 


Fir, l:\9. 

of shot-holes, we have, from close similarity of the triangles, A'F: FP :: 
A' A" : PP ; from which we can determine A' A' the quantity that imi>i 
be added to A A', to give the correct position of the graduation mark 
for 100 yards. If the centre of impact had been above P, the trial 
mark would have%een too high. Lay off the distance A A" above A", 
on the scale, and we obtain an approximate graduation for 200 yards, 
\\ liirh should be corrected in the same way as the pi and so 

on. The distance P P 1 is found by taking the algebraic sum of the 
distances of all the shots from the point P, and dividing it by the num- 
ber of shots. It will be readily seen that an approximate form of the 
trajectory may be obtained by drawing a series of lines through the 
ditr.-rvnt graduation marks of the rear-sight, and the top of the front- 
sight, and laying off from the front-sight, on each. line, the correspond- 
ing range ; (BENTON.) 

HAVERSACK. Bag issued to soldiers for carrying rations. 
HAY. The forage ration is fourteen pounds of hay, and twelve 
pounds of oats, corn, or barley. Cattle will eat many sorts of herbage 
when cut small, but refuse it if uncut. They will eat reeds, sea\v .1. 
leaves, Ace. 

To cut Chaff, (Fig. i8fc) 
Tie a sickle against a tree, 
with its blade projecting ; 
then, standing in front of 
the blade, hold a handful of 
reeds across it with both 
hands, one hand on either 
side of the blade; pull it 
towards you, and the reeds 
will l)o cut through; drop 
the cut end, seize the bundle 
-h, nml n-|.c:it the pro- 
cess. In this way, after a 
little 1'iMrtio-. dial!' is cut 
\\ith great rase and quick- 
ness. A broken sickle does 
as well as a whole one, and 
a knife may 1... ned, but the 
curve of its edge, is ill adapt. <1 
for the work. (See FORAGE.) 
HKIGHT. KIrvation, 
as to occupy or to crown a height; the height of a soldier, dec. (See 


HELMET. Defensive armor or covering for the head used by 
heavy cavalry. 

HIERARCHY, (MILITARY.) The essential element for the gov- 
ernment and service of an army is a military hierarchy, or the creation 
of different grades of rank, to which different functions and powers are 
assigned, the lower in regular subordination to the next higher in the 
ascending scale. It should be founded on the principle that every one 
acts in an army under the orders of a superior, who exercises his au- 
thority only within limits established by law. This authority of the 
superior should be greater or less according to rank and position, and 
be proportioned to his responsibilities. Orders should be executed with- 
out hesitation ; but responsibilities should be confined to him who gives 
orders in virtue of the superior authority with which he is invested ; 
to him who takes the initiative in an order ; to him who does not exe- 
cute an order that he has received ; and to him who usurps a command 
or continues illegally to exercise its functions. 

The grades of the military hierarchy are : 1. The President of the 
United States ; 2. The Lieut.-general ; 3. Major-generals ; 4. Brig- 
adier-generals ; 5. Colonels ; 6. Lieutenant-colonels ; 7. Majors ; 8 
Captains; 9. Lieutenants; 10. Cadets; 11. Sergeants; 12. Corpo- 
rals; 13. Privates. 'Hie military hierarchy is determined and con- 
secrated within its sphere of action by : 1. Grades of rank created 
by military laws ; 2. By other laws regulating the exercise of rank ; 
3. By military insignia; 4. By military honors; and 5. By the mil- 

HIRING OF DUTY. Punishable at the discretion of a regi- 
mental court-martial ; (ART. 47.) 

HOLSTERS. Cases attached to the pommel of the saddle, to hold 
a horseman's pistols. 

HONORS, (MILITARY) have been prescribed by the orders of 
the President, and are paid by troops to the President and other public 
functionaries, to military officers according to grade, to the colors of a 
regiment and when two regiments meet. (Consult Army Regulations.) 

HONORS OF WAR. This expression is used in capitulations ; 
and the chief of a post, .when compelled to surrender, always demands 
the honors of war in testimony of the vigor of his defence. As these 
terms depend on the disposition of the victorious general, their limits 
vary ; but in some instances garrisons have been allowed to march out, 
with colors flying, drums beating, some field-pieces, caissons loaded, 


and baggage. In other cases the garrison marches out to a certain dis. 
tance, and piles its arms, anil is cither released as prisoners upon pa- 
role, or then becomes prisoners in : 


HORN WORK is a work composed of two half bastions and a 
curtain or a front of fortification, with two long sides called bran, -lies or 
wings, directed upon tho faces of the bastions or ravelins, so as to be 
defended by them. This work is placed before a bastion or ra \vlln, 
and serves to inclose any space of ground or building, which could not 
be brought within the enceinte, 

HORSE. In selecting a horse choose one from 5 to 7 years old, 
(the latter age preferable,) and from 15 to 10 hands high. 

The saddle horse should bo free in his movements; have good 
sight ; a full, firm chest ; be surefooted ; have a good disposition, with 
boldness and courage ; more bottom than spirit, and not be too showy. 

Tho draft horse should stand erect on his legs, be strongly built, but 
free in his movements ; his shoulders should be large enough to give 
support to the collar, but not too heavy ; his body full, but not too 
long ; the sides well rounded ; tho limbs solid, with rather strong 
shanks, and feet in good condition. 

To these qualities he should unite, as much as possible, the qualities 
of the saddle horse ; should trot and gallop easily ; have even gaits, 
and not be skittish. The most suitable horse for tho pack-saddle is the 
one most nearly approaching the mule in his formation. lie should bo 
very strong-backed, and from 14 to 15 hands high. 

Horses with very long legs, or long pasterns, should bo rejected, as 
well as those which arc poor, lank, stubborn, or vicious. 

The mule is preferable to tho horse in a very rough country, where 
its suref-.ot. 'In.-ss is an important quality. There are two kinJs : the 
mule proper, or product of the jarka^ and mare, which is preferable to 
the product of the horse and ass. Tho former brays, the latter neighs. 

The mule may be usefully employed from its fourth year to beyond 
its twenty-fifth. It is usually from Lit to 15 hands high; is hardy, 
'Mo,i. >h.,it 1 ,ut little; is easy to keep; is very surefooted, 

pccially adapted for draught or packing. 

!.orsos, their attitudes and lial.ils should ].. 
al'l-. I, <nvirig the stable, they should be stopped at 
the door ! ,m,. their eyes, tho pupils of which should 

eontrart u|,.-n s'rurk by the light. Out of tho stable, they should 
noith.-r bo allowed to remain quirt, nor to be worried. Care should bo 
taken against being deceived by the effects of the whip, cries, &c. Tho 


positions of a horse, his limbs, age, and height, should be examined at 
different times. He should be walked about with a long rein, observ- 
ing the action of his rear extremities when he moves off, of his fore 
ones when approaching, and of both when moving with his flank towards 
you. The examination should be repeated at a trot, observing in what 
manner the horse gathers himself; whether he interferes, rocks in his 
motions, or traverses his shoulders or haunches. Rein him backwards, 
make one of the men get on him, and see if he is difficult to mount, and 
whether or not he bears too hard on the bit. Make him gallop -a little, 
to judge of his wind, and see whether his flanks heave. Have his feet 
washed and examined carefully. Strike upon the shoe to determine 
whether he is easily shod or not. 

AGE. The age of a horse is determined by the appearance of his 
teeth. When he is 5 years old, his mouth is nearly perfect with a full 
set (40) of teeth, 20 in each jaw ; six of these are in front, and called 
nippers, or cutting teeth ; a tush on each side of these, and on each side 
of the back part of the jaws six molars, or grinding teeth. 

At the birth of the colt, the 1st and 2d grinders have appeared, and 
in the course of seven or eight days after, the two central nippers force 
their way through the gums. In the course of the first month, the 3d 
grinder appears above and below, and shortly after another of the inci- 
sors on each side of the first two. 

At the end of two months, the central nippers reach their full 
height, and before another month the second pair will overtake them. 
They then begin to wear away a little, and the outer edge ?> which was 
at first somewhat raised and sharp, is brought to a level with the inner 
one. So the mouth continues until some time between the 6th and 9th 
month, when two other nippers begin to appear, making 12 in all, and 
completing the colt's mouth. After this, the only observable difference, 
until between the 2d and 3d year, is the wear of these teeth. 

These teeth are covered with a polished and very hard enamel, which 
spreads over that portion above the gum. From the constant habit of 
nipping grass, and gathering up the animal's food, a portion of the 
enamel is worn away, while in the centre of the upper surface of the 
teeth, it sinks into the body of the tooth, forming a little pit. The in- 
side and bottom of this pit, being blackened by the food, constitute the 
mark of the teeth, by the gradual disappearance of which, from the 
wearing down of the edge, we are enabled, for several years, to judge 
of the age of the animal. 

The teeth, at first presenting a cutting surface, with the outer edge 
rising in a slanting direction above the inner, soon begin to wear down, 


until both surfaces are level; and the war*, originally Ion? and narrow, 

becomes shorter, wider, an.l faint. -r. Fig. 140 represents the appearance 

of the animal's mouth at 1:2 months. The four middle teeth an- almost 

nd the e..rner ones becoming so. The mark in tin- t\\<> middle 

l and t-iint ; in the two next, dark , and nan 

and in the extreme ones it is darkest, longest, and narrowest. '\ ' 
pearancc of the nippers, tg'thor with tho coming of four new grinders, 
enables the ago of tho colt to be pretty nearly calculated. 

months after, the mark in tho central nippers will l>o much 
shorter and fainter; that in the two other pairs will have undergone an 
evident change, and all tho nippers will be flat. 

At two years old, this change will be still more manifest, and the 
lower jaw of the colt will present the appearance represented in Fig. 
111. About this period, too, a new grinder appears, making 20 in all, 

Fio. 140. Fio. 141. 

and a still more important change takes place. This consists in the 
formation of tho permanent teeth which gradually come up from bc- 
<//Mor/>, and take the place of the temporary, or milk teeth, as 
they are called, and finally push the top parts of th out of 

thoir places. These permanent teeth are much larger and stronger than 
the first ones. 

The teeth are replaced in the same order that they originally ap- 
peared, and consequently, at the end of the second year, the first grind- 
en are replaced by permanent and larger ones; then the central nip- 
pen, and so on. At the end of tho third year, tin- colt's mouth \\ill 
present the appearance shown in Fig. 142. The central teeth are larger 
than the others, with two grooves in the on* nd the 

mark is long, narrow, deep, and black. Not having yet attained their 
full L'rowth, they are ratlu-r lower than the others. The mark in tho 

rs is nearly worn out, and it is wearing away in t 
trcme onea. 




A horse at three years old ought to have the central permanent nip- 
pers growing ; the other two pairs wasting ; six grinders in each jaw, 
above and below the first and fifth level with the other, and the sixth 
protruding. The sharp edge of the new incisors will be very evident 
when compared with the neighboring teeth. 

As the permanent nippers wear, and continue to grow, a narrower 
portion of the cone-shaped tooth is exposed to attrition, and they look 
as if they had been compressed. The mark, of course, gradually disap- 
pears as the pit is worn away. 

At three years and a half, or between that and four, the next pair 
of nippers will be changed. The central nippers will have attained 
nearly their full growth. A vacuity will be left where the second 
stood, or they will begin to peep above the gum, and the corner ones 
will be diminished in breadth, worn down, and the mark becoming 
small and faint. At this period, too, the second pair of grinders will 
be shed. 

At four years, the central nippers will be fully developed ; the 

FIG. 142. 

FIG. 143 

sharp edge somewhat worn off, and the mark shorter, wider, and fainter. 
The next pair will be up, but they will be small, with the mark deep, 
and extending quite across them. The corner nippers will be larger 
than the inside ones, yet smaller than they were, flat, and the mark 
nearly effaced. The sixth grinder will have risen to % a level with the 
others, and the tushes will begin to appear. See Fig. 143. The small 
size of the corner nippers, the want of wear in the others, the little 
growth of the tush, the smallness of the second grinder, the low fore- 
hand, the legginess of the colt, and the thickness and little depth of the 
mouth, will prevent the horse from being passed off as over four years old. 
The tushes are much nearer the nippers than the grinders, but this 
distance increases witlT the age of the animal. The time of their ap- 



pearance is uncertain, and it may vary from the fourth year to foul 
years and six months. 

At four years and a half the last important change takes place in 
the mouth. The corner nippers are shed, and the permanent ones be- 
gin to appear. The central nippers are considerably worn, and the 
next pair are commencing to show signs of usage. The tush has now 
protruded, and is generally a full half-inch in height. After the rising 
of the corner nippers the animal changes its name the colt becomes a 
horse, and the filly a mare. 

At five years the corner nippers are quite up, with the long deep 
mark irregular on the inside, and the other nippers bearing evidence of 
increased wear. The tush is much grown, the grooves have nearly dis- 
appeared, arid the outer surface is regularly convex, though the inner is 
still concave, with the ecTge nearly as sharp as it was six months before. 
The sixth molar is quite up, and the third wanting, which last cireuin- 
stancc will be of great assistance in preventing deception. The three 
last grinders and the tushes are never shed. Fig. 144 represents the 
mouth of a 5-year old horse. 

At six years the mark on the central nippers is worn out, though a 
difference of color still remains in the centre of the tooth, and although 
a slight depression may exist, the deep hole with the blackened surface 
and elevated edge of enamel will have disappeared. In tin- next incisors 
the mark is shorter, broader, and fainter; and in the corner teeth the 
edges of the enamel are more regular, and the surface is evidently 
worn. The tush has attained its full growth of nearly an inch in length ; 
convex outwards, concave within, tending to a point, and the extremity 
somewhat curved. The third grinder is fairly up, and all the grinders 
are level. 

At seven years, the mark is worn out in the four central nippers, 

Fio. 144. Fio. 145. 


and fast wearing away in the corner ones. The tush is becoming 
rounded at the point and edges ; still round outside, and beginning to get 
so inside. (Fig. 145.) 

At eight years old, the tush is rounded in every way ; the mark is 
gone from all the bottom nippers, and nothing remains in them that 
can afterwards clearly show the age of the horse. 

An operation is sometimes performed on the teeth of horses, to de- 
ceive purchasers in regard to age. This, called bishoping, after the in- 
ventor, consists in throwing a horse, 8 or 9 years old, and with an en- 
graver's tool digging a hole in the almost plane surface of the corner 
teeth, of the same shape and depth of those seen in a 7-year old horse. 
The holes {ire then burned with a heated iron, leaving a permanent 
black stain. The next pair of nippers are also sometimes lightly 
touched. An inexperienced person might be deceived by the process ; 
but a careful examination will disclose the irregular appearance of the 
cavity the diffusion of the black stain around the tushes, the sharpened 
edges and concave inner surface of which can never be given again and 
the marks on the upper nippers. After the horse is 8 years old, horse- 
men are accustomed to judge of his age from the nippers in the upper 
jaw, where the mark remains longer than in the lower jaw teeth ; so 
that at 9 years of age it disappears from the central nippers; at 10 
from the next pair, and from all the upper nippers at 11. During 
this time, too, the tushes are changing, becoming blunter, shorter, and 
rounder ; but the means for determining accurately the age of a horse, 
after he has passed 8 years, are very uncertain. 

The general indications of old age, independent of the teeth, are 
deepening of the hollows over the eyes, and about the muzzle ; thinness 
and hanging down of the lips ; sharpness of the withers ; sinking of the 
back ; lengthening of the quarters ; and the disappearance of windgalls, 
spavins, and tumors of every kind. 

The perpendicularity with which a horse habitually stands, deter- 
mines his good qualities and endurance. Viewed in profile, his front 
legs should be comprised between two verticals : the one, A, (Fig. 146,) 
let fall from the point of his shoulder, and terminating at his toe ; 
the other, B, from the top of the withers, and passing through the el- 
bow. A line, C, passing through the fetlock-joint, should divide the 
limb into two equal parts. The hind legs should be comprised between 
two verticals, A' falling from the hip, and B' falling from the point of 
the buttock ; the foot at very nearly equal distances from these two 
lines. A line, C', let fall from the hip-joint, should be equally distant 
from these two lines A', B'. 




wed in front, a vertical let fall from the point of the shoulder, 
should divide the leg along its contra! line. In rear, a vertical tV< >m 
the point of the buttock, should divide the leg equally throughout its 
entire length. 

FIG. 140. 

A B 

The height of the horse, measured from the top of the withers to the 
ground, should be equal to his length from the point of the shoulder to 
the point of the buttock. His chest, looking at him from the front, 
should be broad ; and viewed from the rear, he should be broad, with 
good muscle, and strongly built. 

" The thoroughbred horse enters into every other breed, and adds 
or often gives to it its only value. For a superior charger, hunter, or 
addle horse, three parts or one-half should be of pure blood ; but for 
the horse of all work, less will answer. The road horse, according to 
the work required of him should, like the hunter, possess different de- 
grees of blood. The best kind of coach horse is foaled by mares of 
some blood, if the sire is a three-fourth or thoroughbred stallion of 
sufficient size and substance. Even the dray horse, and every other 
class of horse, is improved by a partial mixture of tho thoroughbred. 

" The first point of a good hunter is that he should be light in hand. 
For this purpose, his head must be small; his neck thin, especially 
beneath ; his crest firm and arched, and his jaws wide. Tho head will 
then be well set on. It will form a pleasant angle with the neck, which 
gives a light and pleasant mouth." 


" The road horse or hackney should be a hunter in miniature, with 
these exceptions : his height should rarely exceed fifteen hands and an 
inch. He will be sufficiently strong arid more pleasant for general 
work below that standard. He should be of more compact form than 
the hunter, of more bulk according to his height. It is of essential con- 
sequence that the bones beneath the knee should be deep and flat, and 
the tendon not tied in. The pastern should be short, and less oblique 
or slanting than that of the hunter or race-horse. The foot should be 
of a size corresponding with the bulk of the animal, neither too hollow 
nor too flat, and open at the heels. The forelegs should be perfectly 
straight ; for a horse with his knees bent will, from a slight cause and 
especially if overweighted, come down. The back should be straight 
and short, yet sufficiently long to leave comfortable room for the saddle 
between the shoulders and the huck, without pressing on either. Some 
persons prefer a hollow-backed horse. It is generally an easy one to 
go. It will canter well with a lady ; but it will not carry a heavy 
weight, or stand much hard work. The road horse should be high in 
the forehead, round in the barrel, and deep in the chest." 

A horse travels the distance of 400 yards at a walk, in 4^ minutes ; 
at a trot, in 2 minutes ; at a gallop, in 1 minute. He occupies in the 
ranks a front of 40 inches, a depth of 10 feet ; in a stall from 3^ to 4 
feet front ; at a picket, 3 feet by 9. Average weight of horses 1,000 
Ibs. each. A horse carrying a soldier and his equipments, (say 225 
Ibs.,) travels 25 miles in a day, (8 hours.) Kpack horse can carry 250 
to 300 Ibs. 20 miles a day. A draught horse can draw 1,600 Ibs. 23 
miles a day, weight of carriage included. Artillery horses should not 
]jje made to draw more than 700 Ibs. each, the weight of the carriage 
included. The ordinary work of a horse for 8 hours a day may be 
stated at 22,500 Ibs. raised one foot in a minute. In a horse mill, the 
horse moves at the rate of 31 feet in a second. The diameter of the 
path should not be less than 25 or 30 feet. Daily allowance of water 
for a horse is four gallons. A horse-power in steam engines is esti- 
mated at 33,000 Ibs. raised 1 foot in a minute ; but as a horse can exert 
that power but 6 hours a day, one steam horse-power is equivalent to 
that of four horses. 

The actual mode of taking wild horses is by throwing the lasso, 
whilst pursuing them at full speed, and dropping a noose over their 
necks ; by which their speed is soon checked, and they are choked 
down. Mr. Rarey's sixpenny book tells all that can be told on the 
subject of horse-breaking ; but far more lies in the skill and horse- 
knowledge of the operator, than in the mere theory. His way of mas- 


toning a vicious horse, is by taking up one fore-foot, and bending his 
knee, and slipping a loop <>\ T tin- km -o until it comes to the postern* 
joint, and then fixing it light. Hie loop must be caused to embrace 
the part between the hoof and the pastern-joint firmly, by the help of 
a strap of some kind, lest it should slip. The horse is now on three 
legs, and he feels conquered. If he gets very mad, wait leisurely till 
be becomes quiet ; thru caress him, and let the lru r down, and allow him 
to rest Then repeat the process. If the horse kicks in harness, drive 
him *lwly on three legs. In breaking-in a stubborn beast, it is con- 
t to physic him until he is sick and out of spirits, or to starve 
him into submission. Salt keeps horses from straying, if they are ac- 
customed to come up to the camp and get it. But it is a bad plan, 
as they are apt to hang about, instead of going off to feed. They are 
so fond of it, that they have been known to stray back to a place where 
they had been licking it, in front of the doors. (Consult GIBBON; 
SKIN x ER'S Youatt ; BR ANDE'S Encyclopedia ; Memorial des Officiers (Tin- 
fanterie et de Cavalerie. See PAY ; VETERINARY.) 

HORSEMANSHIP consists in perfect mastery of the horse. 
The principles laid down by Boucher in his method of horsemanship, 
published in Philadelphia in 1851, profess to give any horse in less 
than three months : 

1. General suppling; 2. Perfect lightness; 3. Graceful position; 
4. A steady walk ; 5. Trot, steady, measured, extended ; 6. Backing 
as easily and as freely as going forward; 7. Gallop easy with either 
foot, and change of foot by the touch ; 8. Easy and regular movement 
of the haunches, comprising ordinary and reversed pirouettes ; 0. 
ing the ditch and the bar ; 10. Making the horse raise his legs diago- 
nally as in a trot, but without advancing or reeedini: ; 1 1. Halt from the 
gallop by the aid of, first, tho pressure of the legs, and Oien a li-jht sup- 
f the hand. " The education of tho men's horses, being less com- 
1 than that of those intended for the officers, would be m.. re rapid. 
The principal things will be tho supplinirs and the backing followed by 
the Walk, the trot, and t ho frallop. while keeping the horse perfectly in hand." 
nship in war consists in address in the exercise of arms 
while skilfully using tho proper paces of the horse in dill', n nt ac id. nt.s 
of ground, with ability in the rider to obtain immediate obedience in all 

lo rationally demanded, '!' .. c..mplish this, con- 
stant exercise is required of b,,th horse and cavalier, and the individual 
iMstru- ' prescribed in ti , army gives this skil fulness, and 

habituates hones to s :.i c;ich other, and to instant yielding 

to the will of the rider. (Consult CAUCIIER ; Cavalry Tactics ; Travail 







The regulations require that requisitions for Horse Equipments shall follow the form pre- 
scribed for ordnance requisitions. Stirrups, saddle-bags, girths, and surcingles, to be entered sep- 
arately instead of under the head SADDLK in the following list. CUES BBIDLES to embrace the 
various kinds of curb bits, scutcheons, curb chains, and leather fittings complete. WATEEINCJ 
BEIDLES to include every thing else instead of using separate heads for halters, blankets, &c., &c. 

per piece. 

per set 



Saddle tree covered with raw hide with metal mountings attached. 
Saddle flaps with brass screws, each 

$ cts. 
4 13 
1 10 
8 75 
1 75 
1 17 

$ cts. 
4 13 
2 20 
1 16 
1 50 
1 40 
1 40 
1 20 
8 75 
1 75 
1 17 

4 20 


$21 98 

6 33 
2 50 

1 70 
1 10 

2 49 

Girth strap, lon< 

u " short /. . . . 

Cloak straps, each 

Stirrups with hoods, each 

Carbine socket and strap. . . 




Total cost 


*Bit, No 1 $5 ) avera<Te per 100 sets 

4 20 



" Nos. 2, 3, and 4, $4 f 



Curb chain with hooks 

Curb chain safe 

Total cost 


Headstall, complete 

2 00 


2 00 


Hitching strap 

Total cost 


Snaffle bit, chains, and toggles 




Watering rein 

Total cost 






Spur straps. ... 

Total cost 

Curry comb 

1 15 

1 15 

Horse brush, wooden back 

Picket pin 

Lariat rope 

Total cost 

Total cost of equipment 

36 10 

Blanket for cavalry service, dark, with orange border, 3 Ibs., at 70 
cents per Ib. . 

2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

Blanket for artillery, scarlet, with dark blue border, 8 ib's., 70 cents 
per Ib 


Hitching strap 

* No. 1 is Spanish ; Nos. 2, 3, and 4, are American. 


HOSPITALS are under the immediate direction of their respec- 
tive surgeons. The general regulations of the army prescribe the 
allowance of attendants ; the issues to hospitals, &c., &e. (Sec AM- 

HOT SHOT. The charges for hot shot are from $ to $ the weight 
of the shot. With small velocities, the shot splits and splinters the 
wood, so as to render it favorable for burning. With great \vl.rity. 
the ball sinks deep into the wood, is deprived of air by the closing of 
the hole, and chars instead of burning the surrounding wood. It should 
not penetrate deeper than 10 or 12 inches. Red-hot balls do not set 
fire to the wood until some time after their penetration. They retain 
suftieient heat to ignite wood after having made several ricochets upon 
water. The wads are made of clay or hay. Clay wads should consist 
of pure clay, or fuller's earth free from sand or gravel well kneaded 
with just enough moisture to work well. They are cylindrical and one 
calibre in length. I lay wads should remain in the tub to soak, at least 
ten or fifteen minutes. Before being used, the water is pressed out of 
them. When hay wads are used, vapor may be seen escaping from 
the vent on the insertion of the ball ; but as this is only the effect of 
the heat of the ball on the water contained in the wad, no danger 
be apprehended from it. With proper precautions in loading, the ball 
may be permitted to cool in the gun without igniting the charge. The 
piece, however, should be fired with as little delay as possible, as the 
vapor would diminish the strength of the powder. FURNACES FOR 
HEATING SHOT are erected at the forts on the. sea-coast. These furna* s 
hold sixty or more shot. The shot being placed, and the furnn. r-.l.l, 
it n-ijuin-s one hour and fifteen minutes to heat them to a red heat ; 
but after the furnace is once heated, a 24-pdr. shot is brought to a red 
h -at in twenty-five minutes; the 32-pdr. and 42-pdr. shut require a few 
minutes longer. Three men are required to attend the furnace : one 
takes out the hot shot, and places them on the stand to be ser. 
another scrapes them and puts them in the ladle ; and the third sup- 
plies cold shot an.l fuel ; (GIBBON.) 


HOUSINGS. The cloth covering for saddles prescribed as part 
of the uniform of the army in regulations. 

HO W I I 7. 1 . II. A chambered cannon. (See CALIBRE.) 

HURDLES. Pickets three feet high united by pliable twigs, so 
as to make a breadth of two feet. They are used to rm.ler l.att. -ri -s 
firm : t. pail "\ , l>oggy ground or muddy ditches. (See REVETMENT.) 

1 1 T'RTER. The hurtcr is a piece of timber, from six to ten inches 


square, placed along the head of a gun platform, at the foot of the in- 
terior slope of the parapet, to prevent the latter from being injured by 
the wheels of the gun-carriage. 

HUSSARS. Light cavalry. 

HUTS are frequently constructed by troops on retiring to winter- 
quarters. The quarters occupied by United States troops on our fron- 
tiers are generally huts made by the troops. There have recently been 
built portable houses, the parts of which correspond, and which are 
readily put up. The experiment is not yet a success. (See ADOBE ; 

ICE. Ice two inches thick will bear infantry ; four inches thick, 
cavalry or light guns ; six inches heavy field-guns ; 8 inches 24-pdr. 
guns on sledges ; weight not more than 1,000 Ibs. to a square foot. 
Water that is slightly frozen is made to bear a heavy wagon by cutting 
reeds, strewing them thickly on the ice, and pouring water upon them. 
When the whole is frozen into a firm mass, the process must be re- 

IMPRISONMENT. Officers may be sentenced to imprisonment 
by a general court-martial in any case where the court may have discre- 
tionary authority. General, garrison, and regimental courts-martial 
may sentence soldiers to imprisonment, solitary or otherwise, with or 
without hard labor for various offences enumerated in the Articles of 
War. A garrison or regimental court-martial, in awarding imprison- 
ment, is limited to a period not exceeding thirty days. When a 
court awards solitary imprisonment as a punishment, it is necessary 
that the words "Solitary Confinement" should be expressed in the 

INDEMNIFICATION. In the French and English armies, there 
is an indemnification established for losses in the military service, and 
other allowances are also made in the nature of indemnifications ; as for 
furniture ; fuel and light ; forage ; expenses of divine worship ; com- 
mand money to general and field officers ; quarters ; expenses upon 
routes ; provisions ; gratuity at the beginning of a campaign ; field al- 
lowances ; mess ; carriage of baggage ; blood money ; permanent pen- 
sions ; temporary pensions, or gratuities in lieu thereof; rewards for 
meritorious conduct ; and pensions to widows and children of officers. 

In the United States service, the law provides that if a horse be lost 
in battle, an officer may receive not exceeding two hundred dollars for 


his horse, and allowances are made for quarters, fuel, f 

and trans p f baggage, and command money in certain cases. 

INDIANS. The red man of America is so called, and as the troops 
of the United States have always been the pioneers of civilization, their 
contact with the Indians is always more or less immediate. The prob- 
lem of the disappearance of the race is fast being solved ; and every 
humane mind must contemplate with sorrow the destitution to which 
the Indians have been driven. Something, it is believed, may be done 
for them by the system of policy proposed in the article on national de- 
fence, and that policy would be greatly promoted if the United States 
maintained on our frontier a few Indian regiments, officered by details 
from the army. The successful adoption of this policy in India by the 
English, and in Algiers by the French, proves its praetiealulity, and no 
men would make better light cavalry and light infantry than the Indians 
on our western frontier. 

The President is authorized to cause army rations to bo issued to 
Indians ; (Act June 30, 1834.) 

All purchases on account of Indians, and all payments to them of 
money or goods, shall be made by such person as the President shall 
iate for that purpose. And the superintendent, agent, or snl>- 
agent, together with such military officer Iw the President may direet, 
shall be present, and certify to the delivery of all goods and mom y r - 
quired to be paid or delivered to said Indians. And the duties required 
by any section of this act of military officers, shall lie performed without 
any other compensation than their actual travelling expenses; (.!</ 
Juno 30, 1834.) 

Army surgeons may be employed by the Secretary of War to vac- 
cinate Indians; (Art May 5, 1832.) 

A foreigner going into Indian territory without ;v passport from the 
War Department, superintendent, agent, sub-agent, or from the othYer 
commanding the nearest military post, or lemainin ;ally there- 

in after the expiration of his passport, is subject to forfeit and pay the 
urn of one thousand dollars; (Act Juno 30, 1834.) 

It shall be lawful for the military force of tho United States to be 
employed, in such manner and under such regulations a- the I'r.-sident 
may direct, in the appreh. n>i->n of every person f.minl in the Indian 
ry in violation of any of the provisions r.ftl. OMtt him 

to be < -ial to the nearest civil author;- '^military 

force may also bo employed in tho examination and sei/nro of stores, 
packages, and boats, with spirituous liquor or Mine, and in prevent i?ig 
tho introduction of persons and property into th- uniry con- 


trary to law. Provided that no person apprehended by the military 
force as aforesaid shall be detained longer than five days after arrest, 
and before removal for surrender to the civil authority ; (Act June 30, 

When goods or other property are seized under this act, the process 
of prosecutions shall be the same as in the case of goods, &c., brought 
into the United States in violation of the revenue laws ; (Act June 30, 

Persons attempting to settle in Indian territory may be removed 
by military force ; (Act 1832. See TREATY.) 

INFANTRY. Its depth of formation has progressively diminished 
since the centre and wings have been armed alike, and the use of pikes 
discontinued. The formation in lines has fitted infantry for action on 
all kinds of ground, and the invention of massing, the condensation of 
ranks, and formations by size, have given it a perfect ensemble. Its 
march has gained in rapidity by the simplification of evolutions, Jhe re- 
sort $o guides, and turning upon PIVOTS ; it acts more skilfully in 
affairs of plains and outposts, by the rapidity of its changes of direction, 
formations in order of battle, and alternate ployments and deployments. 
The general adoption of tactical inversions, it is thought, would add still 
more to this skilfulness. 

The improved rifle-musket, with thorough target practice, gives to 
infantry immense advantages over cavalry and artillery. The effective 
range of the new musket permitting skirmishers to open fire at 1,000 
yards, fields of battle will cover more ground than formerly, and the 
use of smaller columns than battalions of eight and ten companies will 
probably be resorted to. An organization of battalions of six com- 
panies of 100 men each, in two ranks, in lieu of the former, would be 
an improvement ; and in the United States service this might be accom- 
plished by adding two companies with two battalion-adjutants and ser- 
geant-majors to each regiment. The front of each battalion would not 
be too great. Columns would be formed by division in mass. There 
would be three such divisions, and the square formed would have 
its rifles in the first and fourth fronts, and each in the other two fronts. 
Such well-instructed men, in firing, would be perhaps able to show, as 
in the experiment at Hythe, that a piece of artillery with its men and 
horses might, at 810 yards, be completely disabled by 30 riflemen in 
three minutes, and also be an overmatch for cavalry. 

Infantry has always guarded the frontier in war ; it supports cavalry 
in great reconnoissances ; furnishes swimmers when the cork jacket is 
resorted to j is employed both in the attack and defence of fortresses ; 


slings the musket and throws grenades ; mounts heights by escalade ; 
escorts and attacks convoys ; supports foraging parties ; defends aba- 
is at home in all accidents of ground ; finishes operations begun 
by artillery ; crowns heights which horses and pieces of artillery can- 
not reach ; decides the fate of battles, sometimes with the aid of caval- 
ry, and sometimes alone. Costing little, active, occupying relatively 
little ground ; readily lodged, maintained, and renewed, it is easily sub- 
sisted, and often finds in its knapsacks, haversacks, and utensils can 
by the men, all its wants supplied, when separated from baggage trains. 
It has been made a question whether excellent cavalry may not 
beat mediocre infantry, and whether excellent infantry would not be 
overthrown by mediocre cavalry ? 

Tin-re is this great difference between infantry and cavalry : infantry 
has always changed its tactics at the same time with its arms, whereas 
cavalry cannot change its manner of fighting, although it has more than 
once attempted the forms of infantry tactics. 

Cavalry cannot operate as a whole, except upon unbroken ground ; 
it is unsuited to firing ; the order of battle is its great means of action ; 
the sabre or lance is its only reliance ; the invention of powder has not 
improved the art it exercises. Squares of cavalry are useless ; the cir- 
cular formation which has been conceived is a chimera ; defence is not 
its strength; movement is its life, an unbroken field its element, and 
the charge its principal means of offence. But within range, of the rifle, 
at 1,000 yards, it must bo destroyed before reaching its object. 

The elementary tactics of infantry consists in securing its rear and 

its flanUs ; in never being entirely disfurnished of its fire ; in attacking 

with the bayonet; in defending itself by firing within pro] . and 

^restively, rather than simultaneously ; using the aid of the grenade 

and rocket, and in resorting to the bayonet, as prescribed in the 1 

exercise. In the offensive movements of a fiel.l of battle, infantry 
ought never to be disfurnished of its fire, except when the enemy falls 
back, and it is known that his retreat is n<>t a stratagem to draw tli. 
of the assailants, in order to push down upon them masked cavalry. 

Infantry being suited for close or distant combat, the aim of its tac- 
tics is to prescribe the best order for the shock, and the l.est orders for 
firing. The chef-d'oeuvre of art consists in the most rapid and success- 
ful transformations of these orders; in the mechanism of changes of 
front ; and in the ploymcnts and deployments of columns of attack and 
the formation of squares against cavalry. 

In campaign, infantry prefeniMy occupies broken ground, woods, 
&C, A trench, abatis, or chevaux-de-friso is sufficient to secure its 


safety. In crossing plains, its head and flanks should be covered by 
cavalry ; in retreat, the infantry forms the rear guard, to protect the 
column of cavalry. For this purpose it occupies hills or ravines, or, 
standing firm in heavy masses, the cavalry denies until it has gained 
ground suited to cavalry operations. When the cavalry has reached 
such a position, it deploys, faces to the rear to cover in its turn the re- 
treat of the infantry. 

Didactic authors, as well as historians, recognize the superiority of 
infantry. VOLTAIRE calls it the soul of armies ; MACHIAVEL, the sinew ; 
it is the principal force and lever of power in time of war ; it can act 
alone ; other arms move to second it : thus good infantry is the true 
strength of nations ; every one in an. army feels its importance ; its 
posts guard the army ; its duties are, of all others, the most constant, 
the most simple, the most easily regulated, and the most certain and 
most important. 

The duties of engineers and artillery require more learning ; those 
of cavalry, in war, are sometimes more dashing and brilliant ; but the 
services of infantry are always in demand. In attack and defence of all 
kinds ; the descent into the ditch ; or the defence of the breach, the 
trench, and the rampart ; the insult of palisades, or the fire from the 
parapet ; in ambuscades ; or on any field of battle whatever, infantry 
must exercise its skilfulness and attest its valor. Valleys, fords, de- 
files, water-courses, ravines, abatis, forests, heights, plains, parallels, 
camps, outworks, covered ways, advance guards, and rear guards, are all 
in turn its theatre of action. All kinds of troops mutually aid each other, 
and it is the skilful combination of their efforts which constitutes, in part, 
the science of the general-in-chief. To make good infantry, it is essential 
that it should pass some months in a camp of instruction. The soldier 
must be taught to take care of his arms and accoutrements, to march, 
to fire well, to build huts, to handle the axe, spade, and shovel, to make 
cartridges, fascines, hurdles, and gabions, suited to field-works, to cook, 
and to consider his knapsack, haversack, &c., as part of himself. (See 
Consult BARDIN.) 

INFORMANT. In case a civil person is the complainant, he be- 
comes the principal witness before a court-martial, and after giving his 
evidence may remain in court, in order that the judge-advocate may re- 
fer to him ; (HOUGH.) 

INITIAL VELOCITY. The velocity with which a projectile 
leaves the piece, that is, the space in feet then passed in a second, is 
called its initial velocity ; the space passed over in a second at any sue- 




oeeding point of the trajectory its remaining velocity, and the terminal 
Telocity is the velocity with which it strikes the object. The greatest 
initial velocities do not exceed four or five hundred yards, and are 
by charges not exceeding one-third the weight of the hall ; the feeblest 
are produced by charges of about one-twenty -fourtli the weight of the 
ball. The musket pendulum used at Washington Arsenal has sh"\\n 
the initial velocity of the elongated ball for the rifle-musket to be 9C3 
feet per second, and that of the pistol-carbine 603. For ordinary prac- 
iiere the weight of the powder and the projectile alone vary, initial 
v !'< ities may be considered din-ctly proportional to the square root of 
the weight of powder divided by the square root of the weight of the pro- 

In the experiments made at Washington by Major MorJecai with 
the gun and ballistic pendulums combined for the purpose of as< 
ing the initial velocities produced by equal charges of powder in the 
same piece of ordnance on balls of different weights, it was found thai, 
with a 24-pounder gun and a charge of 4 Ibs. of powder, the windage 
being .175 inch, the initial velocity of a shell filled with l-a<l and weigh- 
ing 27.68 Ibs., was 1,325 feet; of a marble ball weighing 9.29 11 
2,154 feet; and of a lignum vite ball weighing 4.48 Ibs., was 
The two first of these velocities are nearly in the inverse ratio of the 
square roots of the weights of the shot ; but the two last are nearly as 
the cubo roots of the weights inversely. (Consult BENTON. See BAL- 











. mi 


e-ndr. FloM.... 



1 i 


1 857 

Wlion (ho Inltlnl vo- 

1*-|*lr. Ki,-M..., 



I \-n 

IX-pdr. Flvkl HowlUer 
24-jMlr. BlegvGun.... { 




rlcnl cane shot 
are g)v< 






of the charge 

si ,,! 

JW-t-lf. -.r-r,, :v >t (inn.. . 

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15-Inch Columbia*! . . . 


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I N. JURIES, LIABILITY FOR PRIVATE Ix.n nn.s. In the exercise of 
professional duty by military officers, injuries may frnjnently bo oc- 
casioned to (tther officers, or to private individuals, \vhns.* l'-ir;il r-me- 
:-ilT. (1. As bet woo 11 i.fliei-rs thenisolv. s. tin- language 
Arti.l.s of War in suffi.-iently comprehensive to bring most of 
such cases within the cognizance of a court-martial ; but a court-martial 


has no power to award pecuniary damages for injurious conduct. Its 
jurisdiction is criminal, and its judgments are penal. It may happen, 
too, that the common feeling of the service, to which the offending or 
the complaining party belongs, would in many cases render an applica- 
tion to such a tribunal utterly fruitless; as the general sentiment of the 
members of a particular profession or class of society, respecting a mat- 
ter of professional or corporate right or conduct, is often found to be at 
variance with the public law of the land. Civil actions are therefore 
maintainable against commissioned officers, for exceeding their powers, 
or for exercising them in an oppressive, injurious, and improper man- 
ner, whether towards military persons or others. Extreme difficulties, 
however, lie in the way of plaintiffs in actions of this nature ; for no 
such action is maintainable for an injury, unless it be accompanied by 
malice or injustice : and the knowledge of this, (says Mr. Baron Eyre,) 
while it can never check the conduct of good men, may form a check on 
the bad. Where an officer (says the same learned judge) makes a slip 
in form, great latitude ought to be allowed ; but for a corrupt abuse 
of authority none can be made. 

It will be convenient to consider the law upon this subject : 1st, 
as it applies to wrongs committed by officers towards persons under 
military authority ; and, 2dly, as it applies to persons not subject to 
such authority. Some of the decisions that will be quoted were 
pronounced in cases where naval officers were concerned ; but the 
principle of the decisions applies equally to both services. I. Wrongs 
towards Persons under Military Authority. A notion appears to 
have at one time extensively prevailed that an officer could have 
no remedy against ill treatment received from his superiors in the 
course of professional duty, except by bringing the offending party 
to a court-martial, and subjecting him to the penalties of the Arti- 
cles of War. This opinion, however, was quite unfounded in point 
of law ; and such a state of things might oftx'u be productive of the 
worst consequences. The question was distinctly raised in Grant v. 
Shand, where an actioa was brought by an officer in the army against 
his superior officer for oppressive, insulting, and violent conduct. The 
plaintiff was directed to give a military order : and it appeared that he 
sent two persons, who failed. The defendant thereupon said to the 
plaintiff, " What a stupid person you are," and twice struck him ; and 
although the circumstances occurred at Gibraltar, and in the actual 
execution of military service, it was held by the learned judge at the 
trial that the action was maintainable ; and a verdict was found for the 
plaintiff. An application was afterwards made to the Court of King's 


Bench to set aside the verdict ; and Lord Mansfield, the chief-justice, 
was very desirous to grant a new trial ; but the court, after argument, 
refused to disturb the verdict. So also an action will lie for unjust 
treatment under the t'.nn of discipline, as in Swinton v. Molloy, where 
the defendant, who was captain of the Trident man-of-war, put tho 
purser into confinement, kept him imprison, -d for three days 'without 
inquiring into the case, and then released him on hearing his i!< 
The purser brought his action against Captain Molloy, for this unlawful 
detention in custody ; and, upon the evidence, Lord Mansfield said, 
such conduct on the part of the captain did not appear to have been a 
pp-per discharge of his duty, and therefore that his justification under 
the discipline of the navy had failed him. The jury gave 1,000 dam- 
ages. In the foregoing case no want of uprightness was attributed to 
Captain Molloy ; and the decision rested wholly on tho circum 
of his having committed an injustice, although without a corrupt inten- 
tion. Cruelty or unnecessary severity, when wilfully committed in the 
exercise of superior authority, are also good causes of action. Thus in 
Wall v. Macnamara, the action was brought by the plaintiff, as captain 
in the African corps, against the defendant, Lieutenant-governor and 
Military Commandant of Senegambiu, for imprisoning the plaintilV for 
the space of nine months at Gambia, in Africa. The def< IK . \\as a jus- 
tification of the imprisonment under tho Mutiny Act, for the disobedience 
of orders. At the trial it appeared that tho imprisonment of Captain 
Wall, which was at first legal, namely, for leaving his post without 
leave from his superior officer, though in a bad state of health, was ag- 
gravated with many circumstances of cruelty, which were adverted to 

i (1 Mansfield, in the following extract from his charge to the jury : 
" It is admitted that the plaintiff was to blame in leaving his post, 
there was no enemy, no mutiny, no danger. His health was de< -liniiu:, 
and he trusted to tho benevolence of the defendant to consider tho cir- 
cumstances under which ho acted. But supposing it to have been tho 

! int's duty to call the plaintiff to a military account for his miscon- 
duct, what apology is there for denying him tins, use of the common air 
in a sultry climate, and shnttiti!i him up in a gloomy prison, when them 
was no possibility of bringing him to a trial 1 months thrro 

not being a sufficient number of offic mi a court-martial? 

These circumstances independent of the direct evidence of ma!'. 
sworn to by one of the witnesses, are sufficient for y< >u to prc-nme a 
bad, malignant motive in tho defendant, which would destroy his juMifi- 
cation, had it even been within the powers delegated to the defendant 
by his commission." The jury thereupon found a verdict, for Captain 


Wall, with 1,000 damages. An undue assumption of authority in 
matters not within the range of military discipline, is also a good ground 
of -action against a superior officer. This appears from the case of 
Warden v. Bailey, where the plaintiff was a permanent sergeant in the 
Bedford regiment of local militia, of which the defendant was the adju- 
tant. In November, 1809, the lieutenant-colonel issued a regimental 
order for establishing an evening school at Bedford. He appointed the 
sergeant-major the master, and ordered all sergeants and corporals, in- 
cluding the plaintiff, to attend and pay eight-pence a week towards the 
expenses of the school. The plaintiff and some other of the scholars 
having afterwards omitted to attend, several were tried by court-martial 
and punished. The plaintiff, however, was only reprimanded, and he 
promised regular attendance in future. Shortly afterwards he was 
ordered to attend a drill on parade, when the defendant, who appears 
to have been a shopkeeper, shook his fist at the plaintiff, called him a 
rascal, and told him he deserved to be shot. The defendant then direct* 
ed a sergeant to draw his sword and hold it over the plaintiff's head, 
and if he should stir to run him through ; and, by the defendant's direcs 
tion, a corporal took off the plaintiff's sash and sword. The plaintiff 
was then conducted, by the defendant's order, to Bedford gaol, with 
directions that he should be locked up in solitary confinement, and kept 
on bread and water. He was thus imprisoned for three days. He was 
then brought up before the colonel and the defendant, and other officers 
of the regiment, and again remanded to the gaol. The plaintiff's health 
having been impaired by the continuance of this treatment for several 
weeks, he was afterwards conducted to his own house, and there kept a 
close prisoner until January, 1810, when he was escorted by a file of 
corporals from Bedford to Stilton, to be tried by court-martial for 
mutinous words spoken on parade at the time of his arrest, and for 
thereby exciting others to disobedience. He was tried accordingly, but 
liberated in March, 1810. Upon this he brought his action against the 
adjutant for the wrongful imprisonment, when an objection was taken 
that the question of the propriety of the arrest was not within the 
jurisdiction of the civil courts The Court of Common Pleas, however) 
overruled this objection. Sir James Mansfield, C. J. : " It might be 
very convenient that a military officer might be enabled to make the 
men under his command learn to read and write, it might be very 
useful, but is not a part of military discipline. Then, further, there is 

a tax of 8d. a week for learning to read and write The 

subject cannot be taxed, even in the most indirect way, unless it origi- 
nates in the Lower House of Parliament." Mr. Justice Lawrence : 


a It is no part of military duty to attend a school, and learn to write 
and read. If writing is necessary to corporals and sergeants, the supe- 
rior officers must select men who can write and read ; and if tli. \ do 
not continue to do it well, they may be reduced to the ranks. Nor is 
it any part of military duty to pay for keeping a school light and 
warm : this very far exceeds the power of any colonel to order.*' In a 
subsequent stage of the same case, when it was attempted to justify or 
defend the mutinous expressions used by Wan 1m on parade as above 
stated, on the ground of the illegality of the order whii-h gave rise to 
them, the court held, that although Warden had been unlawfully ar- 
rested for disobedience to that order, sueh a circumstance afford* d no 
warrant for insubordinate language on Warden's part, and there! 
exemption from military arrest and punishment for the same. " Nor 
will he (said Lord Ellenborough, C. J.) be less an object of military 
punishment, because the order of tho lieut.-colonel, to which this lan- 
guage referred, might not be a valid one, and such as he was strictly 
competent to make There may be disorderly conduct to tin- 
prejudice of good order and military discipline, in the manner and tuns 
used and adopted by one soldi r in dissuading another soldier not to 
obey an order not strictly legal. If every erroneous order on tho part 
of a commanding officer would not only justify the individual disobe- 
dience of it by the soldier, but would even justify him in mak; 
fiammatory and reproachful public comments upon it to his fellow-sol- 
diers, equally the objects of sueh order \\ith himself, is it possible that 
military order and discipline could bo maintained 1 " The common de- 
fence of officers, against whom actions of this nature are brough 
justification of their conduct as agreeable to the discipline of tl 
vice, and contributory to the maintenance of that discipline. And there. 
can be no doubt, that where the conduct brought into question is not an 
oppressive, malicious, or unreasonable exercise of j 
amount to an excess or abuse of authority, an action is wholly unsus- 
tainable. The principles upon which tho Courts of Law pr..e,-ed in 
actions arising out of the abuse of military power, will n ive further 
from tho language of Lord Mansfield, in summing up the 
the jury in Wall ?. Maenamara. Hi* lordship thus CX- 
promcd himself: In trying the legality of acts done by military oilieers 
exercise of their duty, particularly beyond the seas, where cases 
may occur without tho. possibility of application for prop, r advic, . 
latitude ou^ht to be allowed ; and they ought n<>t to suffer for a slip of 
form, if their intention appears by the evidence to hav.- hem upright, 
he same as when complaints are brought against infivrior civil 


magistrates, such as justices of the peace, for acts done by them in the 
exercise of their civil duty. There the principal, inquiry to be made by 
a court of justice is, how the heart stood? and if there appear to be 
nothing wrong there, great latitude will be allowed for misapprehension 
or mistake. But, on the other hand, if the heart is wrong, if cruelty, 
malice, and oppression appejar to have occasioned or aggravated the 
imprisonment, or other injury complained of, they shall not cover them- 
selves with the thin veil of legal forms, nor escape under the cover of a 
justification the most technically regular, from that punishment, which 
it is your province and your duty to inflict on so scandalous an abuse 
of public trust." It is no legal objection to an action for the abuse of 
military authority, that the defendant has not been tried and convicted 
by a court-martial, for that argument holds in no case short of felony. 
The infliction of an unjust or illegal sentence, pronounced by a court- 
martial, is a good cause of action by the prisoner, against all or any of 
the members 0f the court, and all persons concerned in the execution of 
the sentence ; such a sentence, if it exceeds the authorized measure of 
punishment, being not merely invalid for the excess, but absolutely 
void altogether. The most remarkable case on record of this kind is 
that of Lieutenant Frye, of the Marines, who, after an unnecessary 
previous imprisonment for fourteen months, was brought to trial before 
a naval court-martial at Port Royal in the West Indie^, and sentenced to 
be imprisoned for fifteen years, for disobedience of orders, in refusing to 
assist in the imprisonment of another officer, without an order in writ- 
ing from the captain of Her Majesty's ship Oxford, on board of which 
Lieutenant Frye was serving. At the trial the written depositions of 
several illiterate Blacks were improperly received in evidence against 
him, in lieu of their oral testimony, which might have been obtained 
and sifted by cross-examination ; and the sentence pronounced was 
itself illegal for its excessiveness, the Act 22 George II., which contains 
the naval Articles of War, not allowing any imprisonment beyond the 
term of two years. On the return to England of Admiral Sir Chaloner 
Ogle, the president of the court-martial, Lieutenant Frye brought an 
action against him in the Court of Common Pleas for his illegal conduct 
at the trial, when the jury, under the direction of the Lord Chief-Justice 
Willes, gave a verdict for the plaintiff, with 1,000 damages. The 
Chief-Justice at the same time informed Lieutenant Frye that he might 
have an action against all or any of the other members of his courts 
martial ; and Lieutenant Frye accordingly issued writs against Rear 
Admiral Mayne and Captain Renton, upon whom the same were served 
as they were coming ashore at the conclusion of the proceedings of the 


day at another court-martial, of which they were acting meml>< 
the trial of Vice-admiral Lestock, for his conduct in a naval riijiaviement 
with the French fleet off Toulon, in tin- arly part of the same yeac 
This was deemed a great insult by the members of the sitting court 
martial, who accordingly passed some resolutions or remonstrances in 
strong language, highly derogatory to tlu rhirf-justire, which th 
warded to the Lords of the Admiralty, by whom the affair was reported 
to the king. His Majesty, through the Duke of Newcastle, signified to 
the Admiralty *' his great displeasure at the insult offered to the court- 
martial, by which the military discipline of the navy is so much affected ; 
and the king highly disapproved of the behavior of Lieutenant Kryo on 
the occasion." The Lord Chief-Justice, as soon as ho heard of the reso- 
lutions of the court-martial, ordered every member of it to be taken 
into custody, and was proceeding to uphold the dignity of his court, in a 
very decided manner, when the whole affair was terminated in Nov., 
1746, by the members of the court-martial signing and eending to his 
lordship a very ample written apology for their conduct. On the re- 
ception of this paper in the Court of Common IMra*, it was read aloud, 
and ordered to be registered among the records as a " memorial, 
the Lord Chief-Justice, "to the present and future ages, that \\li<. \, r 
set themselves up in opposition to the laws, or think themselves alx.vo 
the law, will in the end find themselves mistaken." The proc< > 
and the apology were also published in the London Gazette oi 
Nov., 1746. At a naval court-martial for the trial of Mr. Crawford, a 
midshipman of Her Majesty's ship Emerald, for contempt and <lis. ,l. 
dience to the orders of his superior officer, Captain Knell, the court in- 
advertently found Mr. Crawford guilty only of having been <//\o/v/rr/// 
when a prisoner at large, which formed no part of the offence of which 
h* was accused ; and he was reprimanded accordingly. Mr. Crawford 
thereupon brought an action against the captain for damages ; and the. 
learned judge who presided at the trial, having made some 
animadversions on the illegality of the proceedings the jury awarded 
heavy damages. A similar action was brought against Colonel 1 
colonel of the Middlesex militia, for improperly flogging a pri\ 
the militia, and the jury gave 600 dama^. In Moore v. Bastard also, 
an action was brought against the president of a court-martial for im- 
.c plaintiff upon an alleged charge of subornation >f per- 
jury gave 300 damages. An action was tried in IV 
Ir. Harron IVrp.t, at the spring assizes for the county .f I >. \,, n , 
t the officers of the Devon militia, for inflicting 1,000 lasl 
.intiff, in pursuance of their sentence pronounced against him at a 


court-martial, held to try him upon a charge of mutiny ; the only act 
proved being that the plaintiff had written a letter to the colonel of the 
regiment, which was not communicated to any one else, telling him that 
the men of the regiment were discontented. The jury gave 500 dam- 
ages ; and the case is quoted with approbation by Mr. Justice Heath, 
who also intimated, that if the plaintiff had died under the punishment, 
all the members of the court-martial would have been liable to be hanged 
for murder. There was also another case of an action against Captain 
Touyn, a naval officer, in which the plaintiff recovered damages for the 
infliction of several dozen lashes without a court-martial, for a single 
offence, thereby exceeding the custom which had prevailed in the navy, 
that commanding officers might inflict one dozen lashes (called a start- 
ing) without a court-martial. No action, however, will lie for merely 
bringing a man to a court-martial, nor for the previous arrest or sus- 
pension ; such acts being clearly within the limits of military author- 
ity, and exercisable, like all other such powers, in a discretionary man- 
ner, under the safeguards and at the risks provided by the Articles of 
War. A commanding officer has, of necessity, a discretionary power to 
arrest, suspend, and bring to trial by court-martial, any person under 
his orders. But though this power is indispensable, and its limits can- 
not, like those of the power of punishment, be exceeded in point of 
extent, it may, nevertheless, be oppressively, or improperly used ; and 
therefore, by the Articles of War, such conduct is of itself a distinct 
military offence, triable by a military jurisdiction. This was the opin- 
ion of the Judges of the Exchequer Chamber, in the case of Button v. 
Johnstone, and it seems also to be a just inference from the judgment in 
the same case, that when an officer is expressly charged and found guilty 
before a court-martial, of having improperly brought another to trial 
before a similar tribunal, an action is sustainable for the special damage 
resulting from the offence ; but that, until the officer procuring the first 
trial has been found guilty of improper conduct by a court-martial, a 
court of law cannot interfere ; no civil tribunal being capable of appre- 
ciating, with sufficient delicacy, the circumstances which attend the ex- 
ercise of military power, or of accurately discriminating the grounds of 
its application. Want of probable cause for the accusation is the only 
basis on which an action for a malicious prosecution before a court- 
martial can rest ; and when that is shown, malice will be inferred by 
the law. An acquittal, however, by the court-martial, of the party who 
brings the action, is not conclusive as to the want of probable cause. 
At the same time, such an acquittal is an essential preliminary to the 
action, for though the accuser may have been actuated by the most clear 


and undisguised malice, yet if ho substantiates his original charge to the. 
satisfaction of a court-martial, the U.-.-UM-.! has no locus standi in a ci\ \\ 
court, even upon the fullest evidence of his prosecutor's mal 
impossible to say that there was a want of probable cause, after a 
court-martial has adjudged that there was a positive cause. Innocence 
and uprightness of intention will therefore, on the one hand, be no de- 
fence to an action of this nature, when there appears to have been a 
want of probable cause for the prosecution before the court-martial; 
while, on the other hand, the most malicious, or even corrupt intention, 
will not subject the accuser to a civil action, where he succeeds in estab- 
lishing the criminal charge before the military tribunal. A wrongful 
imprisonment being, in the language of the law, a tort, savoring of crime, 

.Id that if two commit a tort, and the plaintiff reco\ 
one, he cannot recover against the other for the same tort. This rule 
was applied in the above-mentioned case of Warden v. Daily, where an- 
other action was brought against the colonel of the Bedford militia for 
the same transaction, and the court held that the imprisonment hiiliet.-d 
by the defendant, the adjutant, terminated on the plaintiff being brought 
up before the colonel on the third day, and being then remanded by 
him, so that the adjutant was held not liable for more than the first 
three days* imprisonment, and the colonel not liable, except from the 
time of the commencement of the remand ordered by himself. It should 
be observed, however, that no civil action will lie, in the first instance, 
against a commissioned officer for a discretionary exercise of military 
authority while in the performance of actual duty in the field in time of 
war. Where a discretionary power is clearlv vested by military usage 
in the officer whose conduct is impeached, questions as to t ! 
of such authority are so essentially military, that the civil triKui; 
cline to consider them without the previous judgment of n court-mar- 
tial. This was settled in the case of Darwis v. Keppel, in which tV- 
plaintiff* was a sergeant in the second battalion of tin- i 
foot guards. The defendant, Colonel Keppel, was the second major of 
that battalion; and in the absent e ,f 1, r officers ho had the 

command of it. In 170, the battalion was ordered to (J.-rmany, under 
the command of the defendant, to form part .-f the kit;. ' -rxing 

nnd.T l'r;nce Ferdinand. In Septemb,--. L76I, tfo prince, being in 
hourly exp :' a bat'l-, issued an order that, all des 

the enemy should be. immediately sent, to headquarters without a 
. The plaintiff had full notice ,f this order; and three* 
: n nd, red to him, he detained them six hours 
without bringing them to head-quarters < Ig their arrival. For 


this neglect of orders the plaintiff was tried by court-martial, and sen- 
tenced to be suspended from his rank of sergeant for a month, and to do 
the duty and receive the pay of a private soldier during the same time. 
On the sentence being reported to Colonel Keppel, he did not confirm 
it, but made an order at the foot of the sentence in the following terms : 
" But, as Sergeant Barwis could not be ignorant of the duke's order 
concerning deserters, and Colonel Keppel thinking his neglect might 
have been attended with the utmost bad consequences, orders that he be 
broke, and that Corporal Billow be appointed sergeant in his room." 
This order was carried into execution, and the plaintiff served accord- 
ingly as a private until his battalion returned to England. Colonel 
Keppel was appointed, in 1762, to command an expedition against the 
Havannah ; and, on his return to England, Barwis brought an action 
against him for maliciously and improperly reducing him (Barwis) to 
the ranks. A verdict was found for the plaintiff, with 70 damages, 
subject to the opinion of the Court of Common Pleas, upon the question, 
whether the action was maintainable. The court held, that as the whole 
matter took place abroad, and in the field, in open war, the conduct of 
the defendant, Colonel Keppel, could not be tried in a civil court. Per 
curiam : " By the Act of Parliament to punish mutiny and desertion, 
the king's power to make articles of war is confined to his own domin- 
ions. When his army is out of his dominions, he acts by virtue of his 
prerogative, and without the Statute or Articles of War, and, therefore, 
you cannot argue upon either of them, for they are both to be laid out 
of this case ; and, flagrante bello, the common law has never interfered 
with the army ; silent leges inter arma. We think (as at present ad- 
vised) that we have no jurisdiction at all in this case ; but if the plain- 
tiff's counsel think proper to speak more fully to this matter, we are 
willing to hear him." The report contains the following memoran- 
dum : " But plaintiff, seeing the opinion of the court against him, 
acquiesced, and the judgment was for the defendant, ut audivi." 

It was intimated, however, by the two Chief-Justices, Lord Mans- 
field and Lord Loughborough, on a subsequent occasion, that if the con- 
duct of Colonel Keppel had been previously condemned by a court- 
martial, an action at law would have been maintainable against him, 
although the transaction in question took place in the field, and in open 

Again, with respect to the exercise of military power by command- 
ing officers in the execution of actual service, and the right of action 
against them on such grounds, the following observations fell from the 
court in Sutton v . Johnstone : " Commanders, in a day of battle, must 


act upon delicate suspicions ; upon the evidence of their own eye ; tin y 
mu>t give desperate commands; they must require instantaneous 
obedience. In case of a general misbehavior, they may be forced to 
suspend several officers, and put others in their places. A military 
tribunal id capable of feeling all these circumstances, and understand- 
ing that the first, second, and third part of a soldier's duty is obedience. 
But what condition will a commander be in, if up. n tin exercising of 
his authority ho is liable to be tried by a common-law judicature f . . 
Not knowing the law, or the rules of . KM command- 
ing or superior oflicer will dare to act; their inferiors will insult and 

threaten them Upon an unsuccessful battle, there are mutual 

n criminations, mutual charges, and mutual trials Party pre- 
judices mix. If every trial is to be followed by an action, it is easy 
to see how endless the confusion,. ho\v infinite the mischief must be. 
The person unjustly accused is not without his remedy. He has the 
properest among military men. Reparation is done to him by an ac- 
quittal ; and he who accused him unjustly is blasted forever, and dis- 
missed the service. These considerations induce us to turn against 
introducing this action." 

It may be gathered, also, from the case of Sutton v. John- 
which was an action between naval officers, that, unless a court-martial 
shall first expressly decide that it was physically impossible for an 
oflicer t" execute, the orders delivered to him in the field or on actual 
duty, he has no right of action against his commanding olli n fur bring- 
ing him to a court-martial on a charge of disobedience to those orders, 
even though the court-martial may have acquitted him of misconduct. 

Delay in bringing an oflicer to a court-martial, after he has ! n 
put under arrest, is also no ground of action against the officer or- 
dering the arrest; this being a point of purely military conduct and 
Authority, of which a court-martial alone can prop, rly jud- . ! 
a court-martial should condemn the commanding olli. . r's conduct on 
such an occasion, an action against him would probably lie. Captain 
Sutton, of II. M. S. /'*, brought an action against Commodore .lohn- 

for maliciously bringing him \o a court-martial on char 
disobedience to orders during an engagement with a l-'n -n -h l 
1781. It appeared that Captain Sutton, alter his arrest at the < ! 
the engagement, was carried with the squadron to India, win-re lie was 
d in arrest for two years, during a lengthened cruise and various 
S before he was eventually sent to England by Ad- 
miral Sir Kichanl Hughes, to be tried. His trial was thus d. l.iy. d for 
two years and a half; and great stress was laid on these circumstances, 


as an unnecessary aggravation of his arrest. But the court said : " Tho 
delay is charged to be contrary to the defendant's duty as commander- 
in-chief. There is no rule of the common or statute law applicable to 
this case. It is a mere military offence. It is the abuse of a mili- 
tary discretionary power ; and the defendant has not been tried for it 
by court-martial. A court of common law cannot in such a case assume 
an original jurisdiction. It is like the case of Barwis v. Keppel ; this 
objection we think fatal." 

But, although questions regarding the use or abuse of military dis- 
cipline can thus in some instances be discussed in the civil courts, the 
learned judges of those tribunals have deprecated the resort to such 
proceedings in ordinary circumstances ; and in Warden v. Bailey, 
where the court entertained the case, and ordered a new trial, the Chief- 
Justice, Sir James Mansfield, said, " I must express the strongest wish 
that the cause will not be again tried, for all disputes respecting the 
extent of military discipline are greatly to be deprecated, especially 
in time of war ; they are of the worst consequence, and such as no 
good subject will wish to see discussed in a civil action ; they ought 
only to be the subject of arrangement among military men." In the 
case which gave rise to the foregoing observations, the learned judges 
allowed that a considerable amount of unnecessary violence and indig- 
nity had taken place. 

A recent case of Walton v. Major Gavin of the 16th Lancers, for 
alleged false imprisonment, gave rise to a very important question with 
reference to the Article of War which directs that no officer command- 
ing a guard, or provost-marshal, shall refuse to receive or keep any 
prisoner committed to his charge by any officer or non-commissioned 
officer belonging to the queen's forces, which officer or non-commis- 
sioned officer shall, at the same time, deliver an account in writing 
signed by himself, of the crime with .which the prisoner is charged. 
And, after very elaborate argument, it was held by Lord Campbell, 
C. J., and Mr. Justice Coleridge and Mr. Justice Wightman, (Erie, J. 
dissenting,) that a commanding officer, receiving into his custody a per- 
son subject to military law and accused of desertion by a non-commis- 
sioned officer who signed the charge, was justified in detaining the prisoner, 
notwithstanding any irregularity in the proceedings antecedent to his 
own reception of the prisoner, and was not bound to inquire into the 
legality of such proceedings. Judgment was therefore given for the 
defendant. The principle appears to be the same which is applied to 
the governor or keeper of any ordinary prison, who on receiving a 
prisoner with a warrant, regular in point of form, for his detention, is 


justified in receiving him without inquiring whether tho magistrate 
who signs tho warrant is duly qualified to act as a justice, or whether 
in a poaching case the bird mentioned in the warrant, as the corpus de- 
licti, was properly designated a partridge. 

Negligence in the use of military arms or weapons is also a good 
cause of action. In Weaver r. Ward, the case was, that tho plaint ill' 
and defendant were both soldiers of the trained bands of London. 
While Ward's band was skirmishing, by way of military e.v 
their muskets charged with powder, against another train-band to whieh 
Weaver belonged, Ward's musket was discharged in such a manner as 
to wound tho plaintiff, who thereupon brought an action of trespass 
against Ward. The defence made by Ward was, that ho was in 
training by order of the Lords of the Council, and skirmishing in 
obedience to military command, and that tho injury happened casually, 
by misfortune, and against his will. But this was decided not to be 
enough. Per curiam : " No man shall bo excused of a trespass except 
it may bo judged utterly without his fault. As if a man by force take 
my hand and strike you, or if hero the defendant liad said that the 
plaintiff ran across his piece when it was discharging, or had set forth 
the case with the circumstances, so as that it had appeared to tho court 
that it had been inevitable, and that tho defendant had committed no 
negligence to give occasion to the hurt." 

As a general rule, all language traducing or defaming .1 man in the 
way of his profession or calling is actionable, as it tends to his pecu- 
niary damage or loss. 

The communication to tho Judge-advocate General, by tho pres- 
id.-nt of a court-martial, of their opinion, in the form of a cmsur. -, re- 
specting the prosecutor's charges, and his conduct in preferring them, 
is not a libel, and cannot be made the subject of an action at law. This 
point was decided in 1806, in tho case of Jekyll v. Moore. Captain 
Jekyll, of the 43d regiment, had preferred certain charges against Col- 
onel Stewart of tho same regiment, who was accordingly tried by a 
1 rourt-martial, of which Sir John Moore was president. The 
judgment of the court was, that " tho court do most fully and most ae.piit him:" but to this sentenei. the following remarks 
Were subjoined : "The court cannot pass without observation the mali- 
md groundless accusations that have been pn.duryd by Captain 
Joky 11 agatsmt an officer whose character has, during a long period of 
o, been so irreproachable as Colon. -1 Stewart's ; and tho court do 
unanimously declare that tho conduct of Captain .Jekyll, in endeavoring 
falsely to calumniate the character of his commanding officer, is most 


highly injurious to the good of the service." Captain Jekyll contended 
that the foregoing passage formed no part of the matter submitted to 
the judgment of the court, and was, therefore, a libel on him. He ac- 
cordingly brought his action for it in the Court of Common Pleas, 
against Sir John Moore, but the whole court was of opinion that no 
such action could be maintained. Sir James Mansfield, chief-justice : 
" In order to enable the court-martial to decide upon the charges sub- 
mitted by the king, they must hear all the evidence, as well on the part 
of the prosecution as of the defence ; and after hearing both sides, are 
to declare their opinion whether there be any ground for the charges. 
If it appear that the charges are absolutely without foundation, is the 
president of the court-martial to remain perfectly silent on the conduct 
of the prosecutor, or can it be any offence for him to state that the 
charge is groundless and malicious 1 It seems to me that the words 
complained of in this case form part of the judgment of acquittal, and 
consequently no action can be maintained upon it." 

It may perhaps be fairly inferred from the foregoing decision, that 
if a court-martial pass a censure upon the prosecutor, with reference to 
a matter which is not expressly connected with the charge under trial 
before such court-martial, or with the proceedings of the court, the case 
would stand upon a different footing, and would probably be held ac- 
tionable on the principle of Mr. Crawford's case already noticed. 

Confidential communications from the members of a military court 
of inquiry to the superior military authorities are likewise privileged, 
and furnish no ground of action to the officer whose conduct is impli- 
cated in the documents. 

Neither is the promulgation of a sentence in the gazette by a com- 
petent official person to be deemed a libel on the officer named in the 
paper. In 1807 Lord Win. Bentinck, governor of Madras, issued the 
following public order : " The Honorable the Court of Directors having 
resolved to dismiss Colonel Oliver of this establishment from the ser- 
vice of the Honorable Company, for gross violation of the trust reposed 
in him as Commanding Officer of the Molucca Islands, the Right Hon- 
orable the Governor in Council directs that the name of Colonel Oliver 
be erased from the Army List of this Presidency, from the 20th June 
last." In 1811, Colonel Oliver brought an action at Westminster 
against Lord William Bentinck for the publication of this order, on the 
ground of its containing libellous matter injurious to the plaintiff. But 
the Court of Common Pleas decided it to be no libel. Sir James 
Mansfield, chief-justice. : " How should an officer in India know why 
he was dismissed, if the reason assigned is not to be made known 1 If 


the Court of Directors were peremptorily to dismiss him, without 
assigning a reason, that would be a greater hardship on the d. -fondant. 
. . . One should be very sorry to have any tiling like a judgment in 
favor of a plaintiff in such an action as this, than which a more foolish 
or a more mischievous one cannot easily be imagined ; it is much better 
for the Company, for the country, and for the plaintiff himsi-lf, that the 
cause of his dismissal should be stated, than that it should be supposed 
that the East India Company did it suo arbitrio" 

** On the same principle, (says Mr. Justice Heath, in the same cast*,) 
when a delinquent, guilty of some enormity, has been brought to a 
omirt-inartial, the commander-in-chicf is not chargeable with libel for 
directing the sentence to be read at the head of every regiment/' 

It is decided also, that any communications made by private indi- 
viduals to superior officers, for the bonajide purpose of obtaining re- 
dress of grievances, or otherwise invoking the exercise of authority over 
other officers, will be deemed privileged communications, and no libels. 

The principle of the law on this subject, was declared by the court, 
in Cutler v. Dixon, to be this, that, " if actions should bo permitted in 
such cases, those who have just cause of complaint, would not dare to 
complain for fear of infinite vexation." 

But where the author of a written communication traducing another 
person in his professional character has himself no interest in the mat- 
ter, the bona fides of the proceeding will be no defence against an action. 
In I larwood v. Green, the plaintiff was master of the Jupiter transport ; 
and the defendant, a lieutenant in the navy acting as government agent 
on board, wrote a letter to the secretary at Lloyd's, imputing to 11 u- 
wood misconduct and incapacity in the management of the vessel. In 
consequence of this letter, Ilarwood brought an action nL r :iinM Lieuten- 
ant Green -for a libel. Lieutenant Green defended himself on the ground 
that his letter was a privileged communication. But the Lord Chief- 
Justice Best declared his opinion to the jury, that an officer in tin- navy 
had not, as such, the right to make any communication to Lloyd's, but 
only to the government, by whom, if tho matter were important, it 
might be again communicated to Lloyd's ; and the jury i I larwood 
a verdict with 50 damages. 

It may be useful to mention here, as a legal point giving rights of 
redress between military men, that a superior officer cannot sail -l\ deal 
for his own ad 1 - money matters, with a junior officer under 

his command. The influence which a senior officer can exercise over 
his junior is such as to destroy, or at least to control, in the purview 
of a Court of K.juity, that entire freedom which is essential to the per- 


fection of a bargain or contract ; and if a regimental officer places him- 
self in a position where such influence may operate to the prejudice of 
the junior, the transactions between them are liable to be set aside for 
want of fairness or conscientiousness. This is the rule applied to deal- 
ings between a guardian and his ward, a physician and his patient, a 
landlord and his steward, a clergyman and a penitent, and all other 
cases where the existence of a just and unavoidable influence may lead 
to abuse. 

II. Wrongs towards Persons not under Military Authority. Injuries 
may be occasioned to persons not subject to military authority, by 
officers mistaking or exceeding their powers, or exercising them with 
malice, negligence, or unskilfulness ; but for acts of this kind a remedy 
lies only in the civil courts ; the military tribunals, as already observed, 
having no power to grant pecuniary compensation by way of damages, 
and non-military persons having no locus standi as prosecutors before 
such courts, which are instituted solely for the maintenance of order and 
discipline among the armed forces. 

In cases of the kind now under consideration, it is quite immaterial 
whether the cause of action has arisen within the realm, or beyond the 
seas ; though this proposition was not finally established until the year 
1774, when the great case of Fabrigas v. Mostyn was determined in the 
Court of King's Bench, and put an end to all further question or doubt 
upon the subject. The plaintiff was a native of Minorca, of which island 
the defendant, General Mostyn, was governor. The general had by his 
own absolute authority imprisoned the plaintiff and banished him from 
the island without a trial. The defence was, that in the peculiar district 
of Minorca, where the offence occurred, no ordinary court or magistrate 
had jurisdiction. But the proof of this defence failed, and the jury gave 
the plaintiff 3,000 damages. The objection, however, was taken that 
the action did not lie, by reason of the foreign locality of the cause of 
it, and the point was twice argued at great length ; but judgment was 
eventually pronounced against General Mostyn, in accordance with the 
verdict of the jury. It should be noticed also that, as General Mostyn 
happened to be a governor, his appointment gave him the character of 
a viceroy, so that locally and during his government no civil or criminal 
action lay against him. On principles of public justice, therefore, it 
was necessary that a remedy should be had in England. 

The undue assumption or mistaken exercise of authority by officers 
towards non-military persons, is a clear ground of action against them 
in the civil courts, even though there be no malice accompanying the 


Captain Gambler, of the navy, under the orders of Admiral Bos- 
cawen, pulled down the houses of some sutlers on the coast of Nova 
Scotia, who supplii .1 the seamen of the fleet with spirituous liquors. 
The act was done with a good intention on the part of the admiral ; for 
the health of the sailors hud been ull'-eted by frequenting these houses. 
Captain Gambier, on his return to England, incautiously brought home 
in his ship one of the sutlers whose houses had been thus demolished. 
The man would never otherwise have got to England ; but on his ar- 
rival he was advised to bring an action against Captain Gambier. lie 

, and recovered 1,000 damages. But as the captain had acted 
by the orders of Admiral Boscawen, the representatives of the admiral 
1 the action, and paid the damages and costs. This was a ia\ Ar- 
able case, unaccompanied by any malicious feeling ; but the parties con- 
cerned did not attempt to disturb the verdict. 

Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser was defendant in a similar action for 

yinu fishing huts on the Labrador coast. After the treaty of 
Paris, the Canadians, early in the season, erected huts for fishing, and 
by such means obtained an advantage ov.-r the fishermen who came 
from England. It was a nice question upon the rights of the Canadians. 
But the admiral, on grounds of public policy, ordered the huts to be 

yed. An action was brought against him in England by one of 
the injured parties, and the case ended in arbitration. But on the part 
of the admiral it was never contended that the action did not lie by 
reason of the subject-matter of it having occurred beyond the seas. 

" I remember," said Lord Mansfield, "early in my time being coun- 
sel in an action brought by a carpenter in the train of artillery against 
Governor Sabine, who was governor of Gibraltar, and who had barely 
confirmed the sentence of a court-martial, by which the plaintiff had 
been tried and sentenced to bo whipped. The governor was very ably 

led, but nobody ever thought that the action would not lie ; and it 
being proved that the tradesmen who followed the train were not liable 
to martial law, the court were of that opinion, and the jury found the 
defendant guilty of the trespass, as having had a share in the sentence, 
and gave 700 damages." 

The following case, involving the same principle, occurred in India, 
and was there tried before the Supreme Court of Madras. Mr. II. 
Smith was agent, at Sccunderabad, of a mercantile house at Madras, 
from whom he received a very handsome salary. He became indebted 
to a soldier of II. M.'- .'3d regiment for some work intrusted to him, 
and a dispute having arisen between them as to the amount, this led to 
a violent altercation between Mr. Smith and the superintendent of the 


bazaar acting under local military regulations. Lieutenant-colonel Gore 
thereupon sent a file of men to arrest the plaintiff, who was accordingly 
seized about six o'clock in the evening, and marched from his house 
through the streets of the cantonment to the main guard at Secundera- 
bad, where he was kept till twelve o'clock the next day. In conse- 
quence of these proceedings, he brought an action against Colonel Gore 
for false imprisonment. Secunderabad was an open cantonment for a 
part of the subsidiary force serving in the territories of the Nizam ; the 
force consisting partly of British and partly of native troops. It had 
barracks, and the men were hutted. It was also upon a field establish- 
ment, constantly ready for immediate service. The Article of "War 
then in force, being the 22d in the llth section of the Statute 27 Geo. 
II., was thus intituled, " Of duties in quarters, in garrison, and in the 
field ; " and it enacted, " that all sutlers and retainers to the camp, and 
all persons whatsoever serving with forces in the field, though not en- 
listed soldiers, are to be subject to orders, according to the rules and 
discipline of war." Sir Thomas Strange, C. J. : " The question was, 
whether the troops, being cantoned, were in the state to which the cited 
Articles of War applied. The court thought they were not. It might 
have been a field force, being upon a field establishment, so as to be 
ready to move at the shortest notice. There might be great similarity 
in the arrangements adopted for an army, whether in the field or can- 
toned. A respectable witness, Brigade-major Lyne, intimated as much. 
Still, so far as the court could form a judgment upon a question of this 
nature, there seemed to be a difference between a camp and a canton- 
ment, which appeared material When in the field, not only 

the army, but its appendages, must be under the immediate control of 
the officer commanding it, according to the rules and discipline of war. 
So situated, the sutler, who chose to follow the camp, identified himself 
in a manner with the soldier for every purpose almost but that of fight- 
ing The plaintiff called upon the court to say, whether the 

force in question, under the command of the defendant, was at the time 
in the field. It seemed impossible to say that it was, without confound- 
ing ideas apparently very distinct The defendant appeared to 

have acted under a mistake of his authority, for which he was liable to 
answer, as it had been productive of serious injury to the plaintiff." 
Judgment was therefore given against Colonel Gore, with fifty pagodas 

In the foregoing case reference was made to an action brought by 
Mr. Robert Bailie, an up-country trader in the province of Bengal, 
against Major-general Robert Stewart, for an assault and false imprison- 


ment Mr. Bailie had resided within the cantonments of Cawnpore for 
many years, and dealt in European articles, which ho principally dis- 
posed of to the military stationed there. In October, 1797, upon a 
complaint made to him by one of the people of his Xeiianah, ho tied up 
and very severely flogged one of his chowkydars. For this aet Major- 
general Stewart ordered Mr. Bailie to be tried by court-martial ; and 
as he acknowledged to have used no less than six switch whips in the 
I '!, alleging as his reason, that as they were new whips, he was 
of breaking them and spoiling their sale, the court-martial sen- 
him to five days' imprisonment, and to make an apology to the 
commanding officer. This sentence General Stewart, though he did not 
approve of it, confirmed ; and issued orders for Mr. Bailie to depart the 
camp as soon after his enlargement as possible. The Supreme Court 
of Calcutta held Mr. Bailie to be a sutler within the meaning of the Ar- 
ticles of War, so as to render him amenable to military law. But in 
the above-mentioned action of Smith v. Lieut.-col. Gore, the chief-justice, 
Sir T. Strange, declined to be governed by the decision in (J< 

.rt's case, as the note furnished to the court did not clearly show 
whether or not the^army was in the field when the transaction occnn v.l. 

An unreasonable or malicious exercise of power will, in like manner, 
render an officer liable to an action for damages. An instance pf this 
occurred in the year 1783, when an action was brought against (J 
Murray, governor of Minorca, for improperly suspending the judge of 
the Vice-admiralty Court of that island. The general had pro; 
himself ready to restore the judge on his making a particular apology ; 
and, on reference to the home authorities, the king approved of the sus- 
ii, unless the governor's terms were complied with. There was 
no doubt as to General Murray's power to suspend the judge for proper 
cause; yet, on the proof of his having unreasonably and improperly 
-ed the authority, and notwithstanding the king's approbation of 
his proceedings, damages to the amount of 5,000 were awarded against 
him by a jury ; and, as Mr. Baron Eyre observed, it never occurred to 
any lawyer that there was any pretence for questioning the verdict. 

Negligence or vnttilf 'nines* in the exercise of an officer's duty may 
Also be a cause of action for damages in respect of private injuries thus 
occasioned; and in such cases the approval of an officer's conduct l>y 
the government, or by the superior military authorities, will neither 
him from liability to an action, nor have any influence upon the 
decisi" >urN ..f Westminster Hall. Those tribunals investigate 

such matters <.n independent evidence, according to their own rules, and 
pay no regard to the previous conclusions of official functionaries, how- 
ever high th'-ir rank may be. 


It is a rule of English law, in unison with the law of nations, by 
which all civilized states are governed, that no officer engaged in mili- 
tary operations in his country's cause, by the order or with the sanction 
of the constituted authorities, shall incur any individual or private re- 
sponsibility for acts done by virtue of his commission or official instruc- 
tions. Such transactions being of a public nature, redress or satisfac- 
tion for injuries to which they give birth, is to be sought by public 
means alone, from the sovereign power of the belligerent or offending 
state, according to the principles of international law, and the general 
usages of civilization, which never suffer such matters to be litigated 
before ordinary tribunals. 

If, in time of peace, the citizens of a friendly foreign state sustain a 
private injury at the hands of a naval or military officer serving under 
the orders of the British government, but unauthorized by his commis- 
sion or instructions to do the act complained of, the ordinary tribunals 
of England afford the same redress against him as in the case of a Brit- 
ish subject similarly aggrieved ; and this rule applies even in those 
cases where the violated rights of tho foreigner are such as the law of 
England denies or prohibits to its own subjects. 

But if the British government have expressly instructed the officer 
to convmit the act which constitutes or gives occasion to the grievance, 
the matter becomes an affair of state which is not cognizable by the 
courts of law, and must be adjusted by diplomatic arrangement be- 
tween the two governments concerned. In such cases also it is quits 
sufficient, if the officer's proceedings, though not originally directed or 
authorized by the terms of his instructions, are afterward sanctioned 
and adopted by the government ; for this renders them public acts, over 
which courts of law have no jurisdiction. (Consult PREXDERG AST'S 
Law relating to Officers of the Army.} 


INLYING PICKET. A body of infantry or cavalry in cam- 
paign, detailed to march, if called upon, and held ready for that purpose 
In camp or quarters. 

INSPECTORS-GENERAL. There are two inspectors-general of 
the army with the rank of colonel. Assistant adjutants-general are ex- 
officio assistant inspectors-general. The duties of inspectors-general are 
prescribed by Army Regulations. In the French army, a certain num- 
ber of general officers are annually designated to make inspections, and 
such inspections embrace every thing relative to organization, recruit- 
ing, discharges, administration, accountability for money and property 
instruction, police, and discipline of the several corps of the army. At 


these inspections all wrongs are redressed, and each inspection is con. 
tiuued from eight to ten days. The inspector examines and studios the 
condition of the corps under arms, as well as off parade ; ho receives all 
applications for disc-barge, and for the retired list. He notes those 
who merit promotion, rewards, or reprimands. He assembles the 
council of administration, and verifies their accounts ; visits the store- 
houses, quarters, hospitals, prisons; inspects the clothing, arms. 
&c., and, in fine, scrutinizes every thing which it is desirable should be 
known. He gives his orders to the regiment for the ensuing 
makes a detailed report of what he has seen and done. 

served that whenever the President of the United States is auth- 
by law to we the military force in cases of insurrection or obstruction 
to the laws, ho must first, by proclamation, have commanded the in- 
surgents to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes with- 
in a limited time ; (Act Feb. 28, 1795. See OBSTRUCTIONS TO THE LAWS.) 

INTERIOR FLANKING ANGLE is formed by the line of de- 
fence and the curtain. 

INTERIOR SIDE -is the line drawn from the centre of ono bas- 
tion to that of the next, or the lino of the curtain produced, to tho two 
' oblique radii of the front. 

INTRENCHED CAMP. A position is so called when occupied 
by troops, and fortified for their protection during tho operations of 
a campaign. 

INTRENCHMENT. A ditch or trench with a parapet; field- 
works. In permanent fortification, intrenchments aro mode in va; 
parts of tho works to prolong the defence, as a breast-work and ditch at 
the porcje of the bastion, &C. 

INUNDATION. An inundation or collection of water is produced 
by forming across a stream one or more dams. 


INVERSION. In case a column, marching right in front, shall be 
undrr tho necessity of forming into lino faced to the NtrerM Hank by 
the promptest means the command is given : Halt ! By inversion riirht 
into line wheel, battalion guide right. This movement will ^ive an or- 
der of battle with tho left company occupying tho right of t lie battalion, 
and tne right the left. 

Inversion* nre very important in the field, mid they offer such great 
advantages, that Bonaparte jtoongly advised their employ incut in many 
circumstances. Our tactics admit the employment of inversions in the 


formations to the right and left in line of battle, and also in the successive 
formations, except in that of faced to the rear into line of battle. When 
used, the first command always begins, By inversion. (See INFANTRY.) 

INVEST. To take the initiatory measures to besiege a town, by se- 
curing every road and avenue leading to it, to prevent ingress or egress. 

IRON PLATES. In the experiments made against the "Un- 
daunted," at Portsmouth, the following results were obtained : Six 
wrought-iron 68-lb. shot were fired with a charge of 16 Ibs. at 200 
yards, the iron plates being 4 in. thick ; four of these shot broke the 
plates, but did not penetrate the timber ; two passed entirely through 
both plates and timber. Forty-three cast-iron 68-lb. shot were fired 
against other plates of similar thickness. Of these, four passed through 
the plates but not the timber. Nine passed through both ; but there 
was only one case of a shot taking good effect after striking an uninjured 
plate. Thus of the four shots that passed through the plates without 
penetrating the timber, only one went through a plate that had not been 
previously weakened. 

The shot that penetrated entirely through the plates and the timber 
had all passed through plates previously weakened. No penetration 
was effected by red-hot 68-lb. shot, with a charge of 10 Ibs. The 3 and 
2^-in. plates were all penetrated by 68-lb. shot and shells. 

The following conclusions have been drawn from experiments : 

1st. That thin plates of wrought iron are proof against any shells ; 
for, though the shells may pass through the plates, they will be in a 
broken state. 

2d. That being proof against shells will avail little, unless vessels 
are likewise proof against solid shot; for shells would, of course, not be 
fired against ships proof against them, whereas the destructive effects 
produced by fragments of shot and of plates, and the great damage 
done to the scantling of the ship by solid shot, appear more like the 
result of a shell than of a shot. 

3d. That rifled projectiles produce greater effect than spherical pro- 
jectiles of the same weight at long than at short ranges, on account of 
the rifled elongated projectiles the resistance to which is a minimum 
retaining more of their initial velocity than spherical projectiles at 
the same distance. 

4th. That the thickness of plates required to resist shot fired from 
the heaviest nature of guns, must not be less than 4 in. 

5th. That, to secure the resistance of the plates and the impenetrabil- 
ity of the sides of a ship, it is indispensable (fcat the plates be strongly 
backed by masses of the strongest and most resisting timber, as, in alJ 


the cases to which reference has just been made, it appears that the 
plates are easily broken when the support is removed from behind 
them, by the crushing, fracturing, and damaging effects of the impacts 
of the shot; (Sir HOWARD DOUGLAS.) 

With the knowledge of these data, an iron-clad ship, " Le Gl< 
has been built in France, carrying 38 rifled 50-pounders, and France, 
it is said, will soon have 300 rifled guns in such vessels. 

In England, the iron-clad " Warrior," 420 feet long and over 6,000 
tons' burden, has been built. The new principle introduced in England, 
of inclining the iron-clad sides inwardly, so as to make an angle w ith 
the horizontal of from 35 to 40, will cause the shot to glance off, with 
little injury to the sides. In addition to this, it is proposed to suppress 
the port-holes, and place the guns in rotating iron cupolas, from which, 
by a rotatory of 180, they fire over the bulwarks on either broadside 
the gunners being perfectly sheltered under these shot-proofi co\ 
(BARNARD'S Sea-coast Defence.) The great objection to such an ar- 
rangement is its unwieldiness, and the opinion of distinguished officers 
that iron plates are only practicable for floating batteries, gunboats, 
and other vessels of small draft of water, for special purposes, may 
prove the better opinion, notwithstanding the great outlay made by the 
' French and English governments. 

JOISTS. The timbers of a floor, whereto boards or lathing for 
ceiling are nailed. They either rest on the wall or on girders, or some- 
times on both. (See CARPENTRY.) 

JOURNAL, OR ITINERARY. Directions for keeping the journal of a 
march west of the Mississippi. The journal should bo kept in a pocket 
note-book ; or, if one cannot bo obtained, in a book made of sheets of 
paper folded to half the letter size. The record is to run from the bottom 
to the top of each page. The horizontal divisions in the column headed 
"Route? represent portions of a day's march. The distance, in miles, 
between each of tho horizontal divisions, will bo noted in tho column 
headed " Distance," which will bo summed up at the top of each column, 
and the sum carried to the bottom of the next column. The notes 
within each horizontal division are to show the general directions of 
the march, and every object of interest observed in passing over the 
distance represented thereby; and all remarkable features, such as 
hills, streams with their names, fords, springs, houses, villages, forests, 
marshes, &c., and the plaxjp of encampment, will be sketched in their 
relative positions. The " Re marks " corresponding to each division 




will be upon the soil, productions, quantity and quality of timber, grass, 
water, fords, nature of the roads, &c., and important incidents. They 
should show where provisions, forage, fuel, and water can be obtained ; 
whether the streams to be crossed are fordable, miry, have quicksands 
or steep banks, and whether they overflow their banks in wet seasons ; 
also the quality of the water ; and, in brief, every thing of practical im- 
portance. When a detachment leaves the main column, the point on 
the " Route " will be noted, and the reason given in the Remarks. The 
commander of the detachment will be furnished with a copy of the 
journal up .to that point, and will continue it over his new line of march. 

JOURNAL of the march of [here insert the names of the regiments or companies composing 

the column,] commanded by , from [here insert the point of departure] to \tht 

stopping place,] pursuant to [here give the No. and date of order for the march.] 








Total, 19 

Road rocky ; but little 


grass ; good water. Plenty 


of timber on summit of 


hills, extending 3 miles ; 

July 8. 

5. A. M. 

^Bl ^ 

road to right of hills. 

1 P.M. 



tl/ig-A timbered Peak 
A Camp No. 1. 

Good shelter for camp 
at foot of peak ; fuel plen- 
ty. Springs of sweet wa- 
ter, with good grass near. 



Road to this point rather 


more sandy. 





Road runs through a 


canon i mile long, to right 


of a small stream ; marsh 


on left of stream ; water 


sweet; grass excellent. 
Halted to graze two hours. 


No Indian signs. 







Companies F, G, and I, 
3d , detached at Mt. 


,A X^- 

P , under command of 


, (see par. 3,Gen- 
eral Orders, No. ,) to 


LilKC rOtlQ tO 

A small creek, easily 






1 / * 

Road turns short to right 
at top of hill after crossing 
river; crossing good, but 

4/ ^W- ^ 

a little boggy on right 
bank. This bottom shows 

\ \ nftv^ 

signs of recent overflow, 

ti\V v\\vi^ 

when it must have been 


impassable ; banks low ; 

** \^ 

water sweet ; no wood 

July 7. 


near crossing ; road hard 
and good up to river. 





\\,. ::.,.-. 





Total, 47 




Fork in Road. 

At the point where the 
road forks, turn to the 
right. The left -hand road 
leads to a deep ravine, 

July 9. 

4.80 A. M. 

which cannot be crossed. 



A Camp No. 2. 

After the road strikes 
the ravine, it runs one 

*s\> l ' l V^'~ 

mile along its bank before 


coming to the crossing 





place. The camping 
ground is at springs, half 
a mile beyond the ravine. 
Old Indian signs at the 






Road less rocky ; last 

x Grave. 

three miles rather sandy ; 

Mt. T 

no water. Passed at the 
point marked + an In- 



dian grave. 





Road still rocky ; good 
springs, where casks 
should be filled. No more 
water for twenty miles 


after leaving *|> 
Occasional hills to i 

S 5 

road ; no wood or gross. 

July 8. 

6.30 A. M. 



JUDGE-ADVOCATE. There is one judge-advocate selected fr- -m 
the captains of the army with the brcvi-t rank and pay of a major 
of cavalry. The judge-advocate, or some person deputed by him, or 
general, or officer commanding the army, detachment, or garri- 
on, shall prosecute in the name of the United States, but shall so far 
consider himself as counsel for the prisoner, after the said prisoner shall 
have made his plea, as to object to any leading question to any <>f (lie 
witnesses, or any question to the prisoner, the ans\\.-r to which might 

to criminate himself. The judge-advocate administers th 
scribed oaths to the court and witnesses ; (A 


The appropriate functions of the judge-advocate, as an essential officer 
in all general courts-martial, are various in their nature ; and as the 
Articles of War do not describe them with much precision, it is proper 
to resort to the less positive, though equally binding authority, of estab- 
lished usage and practice. 

The Articles of War are silent on the subject of the judge-advocate's 
assisting the court with his counsels and advice as to any matters of 
form or law ; it nevertheless is his duty, by custom, to explain any 
doubts which may arise in the course of its deliberations, and to pre- 
vent any irregularities or deviations from the regular form of proceed- 
ings. The duty assigned the judge-advocate by ART. 69, is more espe- 
cially incumbent on him in cases where the prisoner has not the aid of 
professional counsel to direct him, which generally happens in the trials 
of private soldiers, who, having had few advantages of education, 
or opportunities for mental improvement, stand greatly in need of 
advice under circumstances often sufficient to overwhelm the acutest 
intellect, and embarrass or suspend the powers of the most culti- 
vated understanding. It is certainly not to be understood that, in 
discharging this office, which is prescribed solely by humanity, the 
judge-advocate should, in the strictest sense, consider himself as bound 
to the duty of counsel, by exerting his ingenuity to defend the prisoner, 
at all hazards, against those charges which, in his capacity of prosecutor, 
he is, on the other hand, bound to urge, and sustain by proof; for, un- 
derstood to this extent, the one duty is utterly inconsistent with the 
other. All that is required is, that in the same manner as in civil 
courts of criminal jurisdiction, the judges are understood to be counsel 
for the person accused, the judge-advocate, in courts-martial, shall do 
justice to the cause- of the prisoner, by giving full weight to every cir- 
cumstance or argument in his favor ; shall bring the same fairly and 
completely into the view of the court; shall suggest the supplying 
of all omissions in exculpatory evidence ; shall engross in the written 
proceedings all matters which, either directly or by presumption, 
tend to the prisoner's defence ; and finally, shall not avail himself 
of any advantage which superior knowledge or ability, or his influence 
with the court may give him, in enforcing the conviction, rather than 
the acquittal, of the person accused. 

When a court-martial is summoned by the proper authority, for the 
trial of any military offender, the judge-advocate, being required to 
attend to his duty, and furnished with articles of charge or accusation, 
on which he is to prosecute, must, from the information of the accuser, 
instruct himself in all the circumstances of the case, and by what evi- 


dence the whole particulars are to be proved against the prisoner. Of 
these, it is proper that he should prepare, in writing, a short analysis, 
or plan, for his own regulation in the conduct of tin- trial, ami examin- 
ation of the witnesses. He ought then, if it has not been done by some 
other functionary, to give information to the prisoner of the time and 
place appointed for his trial, and furnish him, at the same time, with a 
copy of the charges that are to be exhibited against him, and likewise 
a correct detail of the members of the court. The judge-advocate 
ought then to hand in to the adjutant -<;i -in -ral, or stall-officer charged 
with the details, a list of witnesses for the prosecution, in ml T that 
they may be summoned to give their attendance at the time and place 

It is proper, likewise, that ho should desire the prisoner to make a 
similar application, to insure the attendance of the witnesses necessary 
for his defence. These measures ought to be taken as early as possible, 
that there may be sufficient time for the arrival of witnesses who may 
be at a distance. When the court is met for trial, and the members are 
regularly sworn, the judge-advocate, after opening the prosecution by a 
recital of the eharges, together with such detail of circumstances as he 
may deem necessary, proceeds to examine his witnesses in support of the 
charges, while at the same time he acts as the recorder or clerk of the 
court, in taking down the evidence in writing at full length, and as 
nearly as possible in the words of the witnesses. At the close of the 
business of each day, and in the interval before the next meeting of the 
court, it is the duty of the judge-advocate to make a fair copy of the pro- 
ceedings ; which ho continues thus regularly to engross till the conclu- 
sion of the trial, when the whole is read over by him to the court, 
before the members proceed to deliberate and form their opinions. 
The sentence of the court must bo fairly engrossed and subjoined to the 
record copy of the proceedings ; and the whole must be authent (d 1 <y 
the signature of the president of the court, and that of the jud-rc-a-n 

It is required by the Articles of War, (ART. 90,) that " every judge- 
advocate, or person officiating as such, at any general court-martial, 
shall transmit, with as much expedition as the opportunity of time and 
distance of place can admit, the original proceedings and sentence of 
such court-martial, in tin- Secretary of War; which said original pro- 
ceedings and SCT/ 11 l.c c.-irefiilly kept and preserved in the office 
of the said secretary, to the end that the persons entitled thereto, may 
be enabled, upon application to the said office, to obtain copies th 
The j '-ate sends the proceedings to the Secretary of 
through the adjutant-general. 


The judge-advocate cannot be challenged. He may be relieved at 
any time. He. should, in complicated cases, arrange and methodize the 
evidence, applying it distinctly to the facts of the charge. Besides ap- 
plying the evidence fairly to each side of the question, he should inform 
the court as to the legal bearing of the evidence, for there may have 
been admitted evidence which ought to be rejected from their minds as 
illegal ; ( HOUGH'S Military Law Authorities.) 

JURISDICTION. All officers, conductors, gunners, matrosses, 
drivers, or other persons whatsoever, receiving pay, or hire, in the ser- 
vice of the artillery, or corps of engineers of the United States, shall be 
governed by the aforesaid rules and articles, and shall be subject to be 
tried by courts-martial, in like manner with the officers and soldiers of 
the other troops in the service of the United States ; (ART. 96.) 

The officers and soldiers of any troops, whether militia or others, 
being mustered and in pay of the United States, shall at all times and 
in all places, when joined or acting in conjunction with the regular forces 
of the United States, be governed by these Rules and Articles of War, 
and shall be subject to be tried by courts-martial, in like manner with 
the officers and soldiers in the regular forces, save only that such courts- 
martial shall be composed entirely of militia officers ; (ART. 97.) 

No person shall be liable to be tried and punished by a general 
court-martial for any offence which shall appear to have been com- 
mitted more than two years before the issuing of the order for such 
trial, unless the person, by reason of having absented himself, or some 
other manifest impediment, shall not have been amenable to justice 
within that period ; (ART. 88.) 

JURISDICTION, (CONCURRENT.) Can courts-martial and civil 
courts have concurrent jurisdiction over offences committed by soldiers ? 
Or, in other words, if a soldier is guilty of an offence which renders him 
amenable for trial before the civil courts of the land, can he also be 
tried for that offence (if its specification should establish a violation of 
the Rules and Articles of War) by a court-martial ? 

By the Constitution of the United States Congess is authorized " to 
make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 
forces ; " and Congress, pursuant to this authority, has established rules 
and articles for the government of the armies of tbe United States. 
These rules are an additional code, to which every citizen who becomes 
a soldier subjects himself for the preservation of good order and mil- 
itary discipline. The soldier, however, is still a citizen of tho United 
States. He has not, by assuming the military character, become, as in 
many European countries, a member of a privileged body who may 


claim trial for all offences by court* martial. He is still amenable to 
the ordinary common law courts for any offences against the persons or 
property of any citizen of any of the United States, such as is punish- 
able by the known laws of the land ; (ART. 33.) An examination of 
the Rules and Articles of War will show that the offences therein de- 
scribed, and against which punishment is denounced, are purely mili- 
tary. They are crimes which impair the efficiency of the military body, 
and even in cases, in which they would be recognized as offences by the 
ordinary common law courts, they could not be considered the same 

Take, for instance, Article 9, which inflicts the punishment of death 
or other punishment, according to the nature of his offence, upon any 
officer or soldier who shall strike his superior officer. Here is an 
offence punishable under the known laws of the land as an assault and 
battery, and, as such, it could be tried by tho common law courts. But 
such trial would not prevent a court-martial from afterwards taking 
cognizance of it under Article 9 ; for the offence before the common law 
court would bo striking an equal, while before the military court it 
would have essentially changed its character. 

Again, suppose an officer had been guilty of stealing, he might be 
prosecuted before the common law court for the felony, and afterwards 
charged with conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman, and dis- 
missed the service. It can hardly be contended that the offences in 
either of the cases cited would be the same before the different courts ; 
and if not, Article 87, which forbids a trial a second time for the same 
offence, could not bo pleaded in bar of trial. Rccogni/iut:, then, the 
principle that the soldier, as citizen, io subject to the common law 
courts for offences committed against the well-b in^- .f the State, it 
must also be recollected that ho is subject to trial by a court-martial 
for any violation of tin- J Jules and Articles of War. , 

In the case of" Eels, plaintiff in error, v. ftie Peopl.- of the State of 
Illinois," it was urged that the aet of the State of Illinois under \\hieh 
! as \ as it would subject tin- del'm-pient to a double 

punishment for the same offence, the crime with which he was chared 
being actionable under a law of the United States. The Supremo Court 
decided that, admitting the plaintiff in error to be, liable to an 
undtT the act of Congress, it did not follow he would be twice punished 
for the same offence, and gave the following definition of that term : 

u An offence in its legal signification means the transgression of a 
law. A man may be compelled to make reparation in damages to the 
injured party, and bo liable also to punishment for a breach of the pub 


lie peace in consequence of the same act, and may be said, in common 
parlance, to be twice punished for the same offence. Every citizen of 
the United States is also a citizen of a State or Territory. He may 
be said to owe allegiance to two sovereigns and may be liable to pun- 
ishment for an infraction of the laws of either. The same act may be 
an offence or transgression of the laws of both. Thus an assault upon 
the marshal of the United States and hindering him in the execution of 
legal process is a high offence against the United States, for which the 
perpetrator is liable to punishment ; and the same act may also be a 
gross breach of the peace of the State, a riot, assault, or a murder, and 
subject the same person to a punishment under the State laws for a 
misdemeanor or felony. That either or both may, if they see fit, pun- 
ish such an offender cannot be doubted. Yet it cannot be truly averred 
that the offender has been twice punished for the same offence, but only 
that by one act he has committed two offences, for each of which he is 
justly punishable. He could not plead the punishment by one in bar 
to a conviction by the other ; consequently, this court has decided, in 
the case of Fox v. the State of Ohio, (5 Howard, 432,) that a State may 
punish the offence of altering or passing false coin as a cheat or fraud 
practised on its citizens ; and, in the case of the United States v. Mari- 
gold, (9 Howard, 560,) that Congress, in the proper exercise of its au- 
thority, may punish the same act as an offence against the United 


KEEP. To keep troops is to maintain organized forces. 

KIT. A cant word among soldiers to express the necessary arti- 
cles provided for them, and which they are obliged to keep in order. 

KITCHEN. For proposed kitchen-cart for field service see 

KNAPSACK. A square frame covered with canvas carried on an 
infantry soldier's back, containing his clothing and other necessaries, 
but not his rations. 

KNOTS. The three elementary knots, which every one should 
know, are here represented (Fig. 147) viz., the Timber-hitch, the Bow- 
line, and the Clove-hitch. The virtues of the timber-hitch are, that, so 
long as the strain upon it is kept up, it will never give ; when the strain 
is taken off, it is cast loose immediately. The bowline makes a knot 
difficult to undo ; with it the ends of two strings are tied together, or 
a loop made at the end of a single piece of string, as in the drawing. 
For slip-nooses, use the bowline to make the draw-loop. The clove- 
hitch binds with excessive force, and by it, and it alone, can a weight 



be hung to a smooth pole, as to a tent-pole. A kind of double 
hitch is generally used, but the simple one suffices, and is more easily 

Fio. 147. 

The following additional remarks deserve attention: A timber- 
hitch had better have the loose end twisted more than once ; it is liable 
to slip, if not. To tie a bowline, or any other knot for temporary pur- 
poses, insert a stick into the knot before pulling tight. The stick \\ill 
enable you, at will, to untie the knot to break its back, as the sailors 
aay with little difficulty. A bowline is firmer, if doubled ; that is, if 
the lower loose end in the figure be made to wrap round a second time. 
A double clove-hitch is firmer than a single one; that is, the rope 
should make two turns, instead of one turn, round the pole beneath th 
lowest loose end in the figure. To make a large knot at the end of a 
piece of string, to prevent it from pulling through a hole, turn the end 
of the string back upon itself, so as to make it double, and then tie a 
common knot. The string may bo quadrupled instead of doubled, if 
required. A toyyle and strap is a tourniquet. A single or a double 
band is made to inclose the two pieces of wood it is desired to lash to- 
gether. Then a stick is pushed into the band and forcibly tv 

. The band should be of soft material, such as the strands of a 
rope that has boon picked to pieces on purpose. The strands must, 
each of them, be untwisted and well rubbed with a stick t> take the 
kink out of them, and finally twisted in a direction opposite to their 
original one ; (G ALTON'S Art of Travel.) 

LADDER BRIDGE may be formed by running a cart or gun 
limber into the stream and securing it then-, with the shafts in a verti- 
cal position, by ropea from both sides of the river ; one end of a ladder 


from each bank resting upon it, and covering the steps or rungs with 


LANCE. The lance is composed of a sharp steel blade, from 8 to 
10 inches long, grooved like a common bayonet with a socket at its 
base and two iron straps for attaching it to the handle. The handle is 
of strong light wood, with a tip of iron at its lower end and a leathern 
loop at its centre of gravity to support and guide the lance. It is usually 
from 8 to 11 feet long, and weighs about 4 Ibs. This weapon is not 
used in the United States service. The Russians have their regular and 
irregular Cossacks armed with the lance. The Austrians, also, have 
lancers ; but the Polish cavalry use the lance better than any other 
people. The lance, when not in use, rests in a leather boot attached to 
the stirrup, the right arm being passed through the leather loop of 
the lance ; or by putting the lower end in the boot and strapping the 
handle to the pommel of the saddle. Lancers are more formidable 
than other cavalry because they are able to reach further. Skill in 
combating a lancer, consists in keeping to his left, in order to shun his 
lance. Pressed too nearly, the lancer must have recourse to his sabre 
and let his lance rest upon his arm. The moment in which he attempts 
to seize his sabre is dangerous to him. The Mexican cavalry are gen- 
erally lancers. 


LASHES. A general court-martial may sentence a soldier to receive 
fifty lashes for desertion. No other crime is punishable with lashes. 

LAW is a rule of action prescribed by a superior power. 

Natural law is the rule of human action prescribed by the Creator, 
discoverable by the light of reason. 

Divine law is the law of nature revealed by God himself. 

The law of nations is that which regulates the conduct and mutual 
intepcourse of independent nations with each other, according to reason 
and natural justice. (See WAR.) 

Municipal or civil law is the rule of civil conduct prescribed by the 
supreme power in a State, commanding what is right, and prohibiting 
what is wrong. 

The parts of a law are : 1. The declaratory ; which defines what is 
right and wrong. 2. The directory ; which consists in commending the 
observation of right, or prohibiting the commission of wrong. 3. The 
remedial ; or method of recovering private rights, and redressing pri- 
vate wrongs. 4. The vindicatory sanction of punishments for public 
wrongs ; wherein consists the most forcible obligation of human laws. 


To interpret a law, we must inquire after the will of the maker ; 
wh'u-h may be collected either from the words, the context, the subject 
matter, the effects and consequence, or the spi riband reason of the law. 

From the latter method of interpretation arises equity, or the cor- 
rection of that whervin the law (by reason of its universality) is defi- 
cient; (BLACKSTONE'S Commentaries.) 

LAW, (MARTIAL.) By martial law is understood, not laws passed 
for raising, supporting, governing, and regulating troops, but " it is in 
truth and reality no law, but something indulged, rather than allowed as 
la\\ ; " (HALE and BLACESTONE.) The Constitution of the United States 
has guarded against the effects of any declaration of martial law within 
the United States, by providing : " No person shall be held to answer 
for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval 
forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public 
danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal 
case, to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use without just compensation," (ART. 5, Amendments;) 
and further, " In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and 
district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district 
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the wit- 
DOSSM against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses 
in his favor ; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence ; " 
(ART. 6, Amendments.) 

"Within the United States, therefore, the effect of a declaration of 
martial law would not be to subject citizens to trial by courts-martial, 
but it would involve simply a suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, r tho authority given in the 2d clause of Sec. 9 of the Constitution, 
viz. : " Tho privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be susj 
unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may re- 
practice of all nations has been to givo supremacy to 
ilitary commander in all sieges. " Inter arma silent teycs," is 
then a maxim universally admitted. The public safety in that MM im- 
periously requires that tho orders of the commander of the troops 
should be obeyed, and a commander in the United States is then only 
yistilied, ex necessitate r<ri, in suspending the privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus. 


The suspension of this privilege would enable a commander to in- 
carcerate all dangerous citizens ; but when brought to trial, the citizen 
would necessarily come before the ordinary civil courts of the land. 

Beyond the United States, troops take with them the Rules and 
Articles of War, but not the municipal law, to which they are also 
subject at home. It is necessary, therefore, for a commander, in the 
absence of laws made by Congress, to declare his own will, command, 
ing what is right, and prohibiting and punishing what is wrong, in the 
new relation established between his army and the citizens of the for- 
eign country. The following order was the declaration of martial law 
by Gen. Scott in Mexico : 

National Palace of Mexico, Sept. 17, 1847. f 


The General-in-Chief republishes, with important additions, his General Orders, No. 20, 
of February 19, 1847, (declaring MARTIAL LAW,) to govern all who may be concerned. 

1. It is still to be apprehended that many grave offences not pro- 
vided for in the act of Congress " establishing rules and articles for the 
government of the armies of the United States," approved April 10, 
1806, may be again committed by, or upon, individuals of those ar- 
mies, in Mexico, pending the existing war between the two republics. 
Allusion is here made to offences, any one of which, if committed with- 
in the United States or their organized territories, would, of course, be 
tried and severely punished by the ordinary or civil courts of the land. 

2. Assassination, murder, poisoning, rape, or the attempt to commit 
either ; malicious stabbing or maiming ; malicious assault and battery ; 
robbery ; theft ; the wanton desecration of churches, cemeteries, or 
other religious edifices and fixtures ; the interruption of religious cere- 
monies ; and the destruction, except by order of a superior officer, of 
public or private property, are such offences. 

3. The good of the service, the honor of the United States, and the 
interests of humanity, imperiously demand that every crime enumer- 
ated above should be severely punished. 

4. But the written code, as above, commonly called the Rules and 
Articles of War, does not provide for the punishment of one of those 
crimes, even when committed by individuals of the army upon the per- 
sons or property of other individuals of the same, except in the very 
restricted case in the 9th of those articles ; nor for like outrages, com-, 
mitted by the same class of individuals, upon the persons or property 
of a hostile country, except very partially, in the 51st, 52d, and 55th 
Articles ; and the same code is absolutely silent as to all injuries which 


may bo inflicted upon individuals of the army, or their property, against 
the laws of war, by individuals of a hostile country. 

.">. It is evident that the 99th Article, independent of any restriction 
in the 87th, is wholly nugatory in reaching any one of those high 

0. For all the offences, therefore, enumerated in the second para- 
graph above, which may be committed abroad in, by, or upon the 
army, a supplemental code is absolutely needed. 

7. That unwritten code is Martial Law, as an addition to the written 
military code, prescribed by Congress in the Rules and Articles of \Yar, 
and which unwritten code all armies, in hostile countries, are forced to 
adopt, net only for their own safety, but for the protection of the un- 
offending inhabitants and their property, about the theatres of military 
operations, against injuries on the part of the army, contrary to the 
laws of war. 

8. From the same supreme necessity martial law is hereby declared 
as a supplemental code, in and about all cities, towns, camps, posts, 
hospitals, and other places, which may bo occupied by any part of the 
forces of the United States in Mexico, and in and about all columns, 
escorts, convoys, guards, and detachments of tho said forces, while en- 
gaged in prosecuting tho existing war in and against the said republic, 
and while remaining within the same. 

0. Accordingly every crime enumerated in paragraph No. 2 above, 
whether committed: 1. By any inhabitant of Mexico, sojourn, r or 
traveller therein, upon the person or property of any individual of the 
forces, retainer, or follower ot tho same ; 2. By any in- 
dividual of the said forces, retainer or follower of the same, upon tho 
person or property of any inhabitant of Mexico, sojourner or traveller 
therein; or 3. By any individual of tho said forces, retainer r fnllower 
of tin* same, upon tho person or property of any other individual of the 
: >rccs, retainer or follower of the same, shall be duly tried and 
!u-d under the said supplemental < 

10. For this purpose it is ordered that nil offenders in the matters 
aforesaid shall bo promptly seized, confined, and reported f..r trial, be- 
fore Military Commissions, to be duly appointed, as follows : 

1 1. K\.-ry military commission, under this order, will be appointed, 
governed, and limited, as nearly as practicable, as prescribed by tin* 
05th, 60th, 07th, and 97th of tho said Rules and Arti.-l, s . f \V. 

the proceedings of such commissions will be duly recorded in writing, 

wed, revised, disapproved or approved, and the sentences exe. 
all, as near as may be, as in the cases of the proceedings and sentences 


of courts-martial, provided, that no military commission shall try any 
case clearly cognizable by any courts-martial, and provided, also, that 
no sentence of a military commission shall be put in execution against 
any individual belonging to this army, which may not be, according to 
the nature and degree of the offence, as established by evidence, in con- 
formity with known punishments, in like cases, in some one of the 
States of the United States of America. 

12. The sale, waste, or loss of ammunition, horses, arms, clothing, 
or accoutrements, by soldiers, is punishable under the 37th and 88th 
Articles of War. Any Mexican, or resident, or traveller in Mexico, who 
shall purchase of an American soldier either horse, horse-equipments, 
arms, ammunition, accoutrements, or clothing, shall be tried and se- 
verely punished by a military commission, as above. 

13. The administration of justice, both in civil and criminal matters, 
through the ordinary courts of the country, shall nowhere, and in no 
degree, be interrupted by any officer or soldier of the American forces, 
except, 1. In cases to which an officer, soldier, agent, servant, or fol- 
lower of the American army may be a party ; and 2. In political cases, 
that is, prosecutions against other individuals on the allegations that 
they have given friendly information, aid, or assistance, to the Ameri- 
can forces. 

14. For the ease and safety of both parties in all cities and towns 
occupied by the American army, a Mexican police shall be established 
and duly harmonized with the military police of the said forces. 

15. This splendjd capital its churches and religious worship; its 
convents and monasteries ; its inhabitants and property, are, moreover, 
placed under the special safeguard of the faith and honor of the Ameri- 
can army. 

16. In consideration of the foregoing protection, a contribution of 
$150,000 is imposed on this capital, to be paid in four weekly instal- 
ments of thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars ($37,500) each, be- 
ginning on Monday next, the 20th instant, and terminating on Monday 
the llth of October. 

17. The Ayuntamiento, or corporate authority of the city, is specially 
charged with the collection and payment of the several instalments. 

18. Of the whole contribution to be paid over to this army, twenty 
thousand dollars shall be appropriated to the purchase of extra comforts 
for the wounded and sick in hospital ; ninety thousand dollars ($90,000) 
to the purchase of blankets and shoes for gratuitous distribution among 
the rank and file of the army, and forty thousand dollars ($40,000) re- 
served for other necessary military purposes. 



19. This order will be read at the head of every company of the 
United States' forces serving in M \ , and translated into 
the information of Mexicans. 

LAW, (MILITARY.) Under tho Constitution of the United States, Con- 
gress is intrusted \\ itli tlio creation, government, regulation, and support 
of armies ; and) all laws passed by Congress for those purposes aiv mili- 
tarv laws. Congress, being also invested with powrr " to make all laws 
which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution tho 
foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in 
tho Government of the United States, or in any department or officer 
>f," is supreme in nil military matters. The office of commander- 
in-chief, intrusted by the constitution to the President, mi: 
functions first defined by Congress. Such military powers only as 
Congress confers upon him can be exercised. Excepting tint, li.-in^ 
the commander-in-chicf under tho constitution, he of cours 
all authority that Congress may delegate to any military commander 
whatever, by reason of the axiom that the power of the greater includes 
that of the less. 

Many of the functions, thus devolved by tho constitution on Con- 
gress, in most governments belong to tho executive. The king of 
Great Britain makes rules and articles for the government of armies 
raised by him with the consent of parliament. Congress, \\ith i; 
raises and governs armies. An army raised in Great Britain is tho 
king's army ; with us it is tho army of the United States, i 
essential distinctions should cause Congress to give more of it- 
tion to the army. It should be borne in mind tliat our rules f,.r the 
government of the army have been borrowed almost entirely fn-in 
Great Britain ; that the relation of tho army to tho people is in the two 
countries entirely distinct ; therefore, that rules adapted to .n arist- 
L'veniment may not be entirely suited to democrat ie f..nn*. 
(See ACADEMY, (Military ;) ACCOUNTS; ACCOUNTAHILITV, (Sytttmof;) 
OF WAR, and references under that head ; A \filittiry , ) 


ADMINISTRATION; COURT-MARTIAL, and - under that head; 



references under that head ; INDEMNIFICATION ; INDIAN ; INSURRECTION ; 
PARTMENT ; RAISE, and references under that head ; RANK ; RATION ; 
references under that head ; REPRIEVE ; RETAINERS ; RETURNS ; RE- 
and references under that head; STAFF; STANDARDS; STORES; STORE- 

LEAD BALLS are now generally made by compression, by 
means of machinery, either at arsenals or at private establishments. 

LEGION. A variable number of men in the Roman army, from 
four to six thousand, but which always retained its distinctive charac- 
teristic of combining all the elements of a separate army. (Consult 
BARDIN, Dictionnaire de VArmee de Terre, and ARNOLD'S &ome for a full 
account of the Roman legion.) 

LEVER. The effective arm of a lever is the perpendicular distance 
from the fulcrum to the line of direction of the power or weight. The 
power is to the weight inversely as the effective arms of the lever : 

P D = w d 

The pressure on the fulcrum is the resultant of the power and weight. 
The common balance is a simple lever, the arms of which are equal. 
If the balance is not accurate, the true weight of a body may be found 


by placing the body in one scale and counterpoising it by any weight* 
in the opposite scale ; thru n-inove the body and replace it by known 
weights until the equilibrium is again restored. The sum of the latter 
weights will be the weight of the body ; (Ordnance Manual.) 

LIEUT 1 ! \ A \ T. Rank next below captain. 

LIE I T I ! N ANT-COLONEL. Rank next below colonel, and above 

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL. Rank above major-general. Cre- 
ated by Act May 28, 1798. Revived by brevet by Act Feb. 15, 1855. 
To expire with present incumbent. Appoints in time of peace i 
ceeding two aides and one secretary with rank, pay, and emoluments of 
lieutenant-colonel. In war, entitled to four aides nnd two secretaries. 

LIFTING JACK. A geared screw-jack, for lifting heavy \v, 5-jhts, 
used in mechanical manoeuvres of heavy artillery, (gpnsult Instruction 
for Heavy Artillery.) 

LIGHT BALL. A projectile of an oval shape formed of sacks 
of canvas filled with a combustible composition, which emits a bright 
flame. Used to light up our own works. 


LIMBER. The forepart of a travelling gun carriage to which tho 
horses are attached. The same limber is used for all field-carriages. It 
has two wheels and carries the same ammunition chest as tho caisson. 

LINCHPINS prevent the wheel from sliding off the axle-tree. 

LINE. President Fillmoro in general orders, No. 51 of 1851, has 
given the following satisfactory exposition of tho use of the word line 
in our statute book : The 02d Article of War provides that " If, upon 
marches, guards, or in quarters, different corps of the army shall hap- 
pen to join, or do duty together, the officer highest in rank of the lino 
of the army, marine corps, or militia, by commission there, on duty, or 
in quarters, shall command the whole, and give orders f..r what is need- 
ful to the service, unless otherwise specially directed by the President 
of the United States, according to tho nature of the case." The inter- 
pretation of this act has long been a subject of controversy. The 
difficulty arises from the vague and uncertain meaning of tho words 
"line of the army," which, neither in the English service, ( which 
most of our military terms are borrowed,) nor in our own, have a well- 
defined and invariable meaning. By sonic they are understood to des- 
ignate the regular army as distinguished from the militia: ly others, 
as meant to discriminate between officers by ordinary commissions and 
those by brevet; nnd, finally, by others, i designate all officers not be- 
longing to the staff. The question is certainly not without difficulty, 


and it is surprising that Congress should not long since have settled, by 
some explanatory law, a question which has been so fruitful a source 
of controversy and embarrassment in the service. The President has 
maturely considered the question, and finds himself compelled to differ 
from some for whose opinions he entertains a very high respect. His 
opinion is, that, although these words may sometimes be used in a 
different sense, (to be determined by the context and subject-matter,) in 
the 62d Article of War, they are used to designate those officers of the 
army who do not belong to the staff, in contradistinction to those who 
do, and that the article intended, in the case contemplated by it, to con- 
fer the command exclusively on the former. The reasons which have 
brought him to this conclusion are briefly these : 1st. It is a well- 
settled rule of interpretation that in the construction of statutes, words 
of doubtful or ambiguous meaning are to be understood in their usual 
acceptation. Now it must be admitted that, in common parlance, both 
in and out of the army, the words " line " and " staff" are generally 
used as correlative terms. 2d. Another rule of construction is, that the 
same word ought not to be understood, when it can be avoided, in two 
different senses in different laws, on the same subject, and, especially, 
in different parts of the same law. Now in another article (74) of this 
same law, the words " line and staff of the army " are clearly used as 
correlative and contradistinctive terms. The same remark applies to 
almost every case in which the words " line " and " staff" occur in acts 
of Congress. See 

Act of 1813, sec. 4, Cross' Military Laws, p. 165 ; 

1813, " 9, " 166; 

1814, " 19, " 174; 
1816, 10, " . 190; 
1838, " 7, " 263; 
1838, " 8, " 263; 
1838, " 15, " 264; 
1838, pars. 7 & 9, " 268; 
1846, sec. 2, " 283 ;. 
1846, " 7, " 286.' 

There are many other instances in which the words are so employed, 
but I have selected these as the most striking. On the other hand, I 
find but one act of Congress in which the words " line of the army " 
have been employed to designate the regular army in contradistinction 
to the militia, and none in which they have been manifestly used as con- 
tradistinctive of brevet. 3d. If Congress had meant by these words to 
discriminate between officers of the regular army and those of the mili- 


tia, or between officers by brevet and by ordinary commission, it is to be 
presumed that they would have employed those terms, respectively, 
whkh ore unequivocal, and are usually employed to express those 
ideas. 4th. If we look at the policy of the law, we can discover no 
reasons of expediency which compel us to depart from the plain and 
ordinary import of the terms : on the contrary, we may suppose strong 
reasons why it may have been deemed proper, in the case referred to 
by the article, to exclude officers of the staff from command. In th 
first place the command of troops might frequently interfere with their 
appropriate duties, and thereby occasion serious embarrassment to the 
ser v ire. In the next place, the officers of some of the staff corps are not 
qualified by their habits and education for the command of troops, and 
alhough others are so qualified, it arises from the fact that, (by laws 
passed long subsequently to the article in question) tho officers of the 
corps to which they belong, are required to be appointed from the line 
of the army. Lastly, officers of tho staff corps seldom have troops of 
their own corps serving under their command, and if tho words " officers 
of the line" are understood to apply to them, the effect would often be 
to give them command over the officers and men of all tho other corps, 
when not a man of their own was present an anomaly always to bo 
avoided where it is possible to do so. 5th. It is worthy of observation 
that Article 25, of the first " rules and articles," enacted by Congress for 
the government of the army, corresponds with Article 62 of the present 
rules and articles, except that the words " of the line of the army " are 
not contained in it. It is evident, therefore, that these words were in- 
serted intentionally with a view to a change in tho law, and it is prob- 
able that some inconvenience had arisen from conferring command in- 
discriminately on officers of the line or tho staff, ami had suggested tho 
necessity of this change. It is contended, however, that sec. 10, of the 
act of 1795, enumerates the major-general and brigadier-general as 
among the staff officers, and that this construction of the article would 
exclude them from command, which would be an absurdity. No such 
consequence would, however, follow. The article in question was ob- 
yiously designed to meet the case (of not unfroquont occurrence) where 
officers of different corps of the army meet together with no officer 
among them who docs not belong exclusively to a corps. In such a 
case, there being no common superior, in the absence of some express 
provisi> ^conferring tho power, no ollieer, merely of a corps, would have 
the right to command any corps but his own : to obviate this difficulty, 
the article in eff. ct provides that, in such an event, the officer of the fine, 
highest in rank, shall command tho rest. But if there be a major- 





general or brigadier-general present, the case contemplated by tha 
article does not exist. No question can arise as to the right of com- 
mand, because the general officer, not belonging to any particular corps, 
takes the command by virtue of the general rule which assigns the com- 
mand to the officer highest in rank. (See RANK ; COMMAND ; BUEVET.) 

LINE OF DEFENCE is the line which extends from the angle 
of the polygon or extremity of the exterior side, through the inner end 
of the perpendicular, to the flank, of the bastion. 

LINE OF LEAST KESISTANCE (THE) is that which is sup- 
posed to extend, from the centre of the charge of a mine, to the nearest 
surface of the ground. 

LINES. A connected series of field-works, whether continuous or 
at intervals. 

LINES AT INTERVALS are lines composed of separate field- 
works, so arranged as to flank and defend one another. 

LINES CREMAILLERE are composed of alternate short and 
long faces, at right angles to each other. 

LINES OF BASTION as the name indicates, are formed of a 
succession of bastion-shaped parapets, each consisting of two faces and 
two flanks, connected together by a curtain. 

LINES OF TENAILLES consist of parapets, forming a series 
of salient and re-entering angles. 

LINSTOCK. A pointed forked staff used for lighting fort fires; 
the lower end pointed and shod with iron. 

LITTER. If a man be wounded or sick, and has to be carried along 
upon the shoulders of the others, make a litter for him in the Indian 
fashion, (Fig. 148 ;) that is to say, cut two stout poles, each 8 feet long, 

FIG. 148. 


to make its two sides, and three other cross-bars of 2$ feet each, to be 
lashed to them. Then, supi>orting this ladder-shaped framework over 
the sick man as ho lies in his blanket, knot the blanket well up to it ; 
and so carry him off. One cross-bar will bo just behind his head, 
another in front of his feet; the middle one will cross his stomach, and 
keep him from falling out; and there will remftin two short handles for 
the carriers to lay hold on. The American Indians carry their wounded 
companions by this contrivance after a fight, and in a hurried i 
for wonderful dista: 

LOAD. Command in infantry and artillery instruction. (Consult 
Tactics of those arms.) In loading small arms the powder should 
!1 shaken out of the paper, to prevent the formation of gas, which, 
forcing the paper against the sides of the bore, prevents it from leaving 
with the charge, and endangers the explosion of the next ehargo when 
loading, from the lighted paper. There is no danger of heating the piece 
by rapid firing so as to cause premature explosions, since long before it 
reaches 600, the temperature at which gunpowder inflames, it is entirely 
too hot to handle. In loading cannon the vent should always bo kept 
carefully closed, while the loading is going on, especially when spong- 
ing, to prevent the current of air from passing out and collecting there 
pieces of thread, paper, &c., from the cartridge-bag, which would retain 
fire in the gun, and cause premature explosion the next time the gun 
was loaded. This precaution is the more necessary, when the sponge 
fits the bore tight, and acts as a piston. The sponge should bo well 
pressed down against the bottom of the bore, and turned, so as to leave 
no remnant of the cartridge-bag. In mortars, where a sponge is seldom 
used, or when it does not fit tightly, the stopping of tho vent is not 
Decenary ; but it should always bo cleared out with the priming w ire 
before tho powder is placed in. Mortar-shells should be letdown 
gently so as not to bo forced into the chamber, or crush suddenly any 
powder they may meet. The use of sabots is avoided when firing ^ <T 
the heads of our own men. It may sometimes become necessary to lire 
a shell from a mortar too largo for it ; in which case it is wedged in on 
different sides with pieces of soft wood, and the space between it and 
re filled in with earth. 

LOCK < <r? ARMS.) 

LODGEMENT. In a sioge lodgement signifies the occupation of a 
position and the hasty formation of an entrenchment thereon to main- 
tain it ftga : : Thus it is said the besiegers, having carried 
thedemi-lu! n, effected a lodgement, or the besieged dcst: 
the lodgements of the enemy. (See SIEGE.) 


LOGARITHM. The logarithm of a number is the exponent of 
the power to which another given invariable number must be raised in 
order to produce the first number. Thus in the common system of 
logarithms in which the invariable number is 10, the logarithm of 1,000 
is 3, because 10 raised to the third power is 1,000. In general, if 
a*=y in which equation a is a given invariable number, then x is the 
logarithm of y. All absolute numbers positive or negative, whole or 
fractional, may be produced by raising an invariabe number to suitable 
powers. This invariable number is called the base of the system of 
logarithms : it may be any number whatever greater or less than unity ; 
but having been once chosen, it must remain the same for the formation 
of all numbers in the same system. Whatever number may be selected 
for the base, the logarithm of the base is 1, and the logarithm of 1 is 0. In 
fact if, in the equation a x =y, we make #1 we shall have a*=a, whence 
by definition log. a=l ; and if we make #=0 we shall have a=l, 
whence log. 1 =0. Thechief properties of logarithms are : that the log- 
arithm of a product is equal to the sum of the logarithms of its factor ; 
the logarithm* of a quotient is equal to the difference between the log- 
arithm of the dividend and the logarithm of the divisor ; and the log- 
arithm of the power of a number is equal to the product of the log- 
arithm of the number by the exponent of the power ; and the logarithm 
of any root of a number is equal to the logarithm of the number di- 
vided by the index of the root. These properties of logarithms great- 
ly facilitate arithmetical operations. For if multiplication is to be 
effected, it is only necessary to take from the logarithmic tables the 
logarithms of the factors, and then add them into one sum, which gives 
the logarithm of the required product ; and on finding in the table the 
number corresponding to this new logarithm, the product itself is ob- 
tained. Multiplication is thus performed by simple addition. In like 
manner division is performed by simple subtraction, and by means of 
a table of logarithms numbers may be raised to any power by simple 
multiplication, and the roots of numbers extracted by simple division. 
(Consult BABBAGE, Logarithms of Numbers ; FARLEY'S Tables of Six- 
Jigure Logarithms.} 

LOGISTICS. Bardin considers the application of this word by 
some writers as more ambitious than accurate. It is derived from Latin 
LOGISTA, the administrator or intendant of the Roman armies. It is 
properly that branch of the military art embracing all details for mov- 
ing and supplying armies. It includes the operations of the ordnance, 
quartermaster's, subsistence, medical, and pay departments. It also em- 
braces the preparation and regulation of magazines, for opening a cam- 


paign, and all orders of march and other orders from the general-in- 
chief relative to moving and supplying armies. Some writers l,a\r, 
how. ided its signification to embrace STRATEGY. 

LOOPHOLED GALLERIES are vaulted passages or case- 

mates, usually placed behind the counterscarp revet nu-nt, ami behind 
the gorges of detached works, having holes pierced through the walls, to 
enable the defenders to bring a musketry fire from unseen positions, 
upon the assailants in the ditch. Loopholes, however, are not coiiliin-1 
to flralleries. In modern fortifications, the revetments, both scarp and 
counterscarp, are very generally pierced for a musketry fire. 

LOOPHOLES are apertures formed in a wall or stockade, that 
through them a fire of musketry may be directed on the exterior ground. 
LOSSES. In the British army there is a regular provision made 
for indemnification for losses by fire ; by shipwreck ; iu action with the 
enemy ; by capture at sea ; by destruction or capture of a public store- 
house ; by the destruction of articles or horses, to prevent their falling 
into the hands of the enemy, or to prevent the spreading of an infec- 
tious disorder. In the United States it would seem just that C<>i 
should establish some general rules regulating such matters. The. prin- 
ciple of settling all such claims by special 1 
tion cannot but bear hardly <>n a number f indi- 
viduals, and also probably in the end imposes 
greater burdens upon the treasury. 

LUNETTES are redans having flanks paral- 
lel to their capitals, as in Fig. 149. The fao 
flanks may have any moderate extent, according 
to the purpose for which they are intended ; 50 
yards for the face, and 23 yards for the fl 
would be a convenient size for many positions. 
ing to the nature of the offence, by a court-martial ; (Aui. ; 


MACHICOULIS. A projecting wooden pillcrv from the second 
tory of a house to enable the assailed to fire down on their opponent*. 

KAGAZIti i: CO VER of Rifle Musket, 1855. (See ARMS, Small.) 
. XINES. Powder inaijaxincs miu'ht to secure an unob- 
structed circulation of air undi-r the flooring as well as above. The 
magazine should be opened and aired in dear dry weather ; the veil- 
tilatora should be kept free ; and no shrubbery or trees should be al- 
lowed to grow so near as to protect the building from the sun. 


All batteries of attack require magazines capable of holding ammu- 
nition for daily consumption. Fig. 150 is a section of two strong splin- 
ter-proof timbers, say 8 to 9 feet long, and 
9 to 12 inches in breadth and thickness, 
resting on sleepers, and giving an interior 
space of about the dimensions seen in the 
figure, covered with one or two tiers of 
fascines, and over them 3 or 4 feet of 
dung or stiff earth ; this simple construc- 
tion would answer in many cases. By some persons it is considered 
better to have two small magazines in a battery, made of very stout 
mining cases, and constructed in the epaulements. Sir John Jones, in his 
work on " Sieges," says : " Splinter-proof timbers for magazines were cut 
12 feet in length, and from 8 to 10 inches in breadth and thickness, and 
were placed against an epaulement, or parapet, at an angle making the 
base equal to half the height. They were then covered with a tarpaulin, 
extending well over the top of the epaulement upon which were laid one 
or two rows of filled sand-bags, so as to prevent the possibility of the 
tarpaulin being cut by splinters of shells. A second tarpaulin was usually 
thrown over the exterior in rainy weather. On this construction, the 
magazines were found to be perfectly dry, and sufficiently spacious, and 
of the strength no doubt can remain, as the sand-bag covering was fre- 
quently knocked off by large shells, and in no instance were the splinter- 
proofs broken. The best situations for magazines are on the flanks of 
the batteries. Nothing can be worse than to place them in rear of the 
centre of a battery, as then every cartridge has to be carried along the 
most exposed and dangerous part of the battery, and the number of 
accidents and casualties which arise therefrom is very great indeed. 
The artillery always preferred having two magazines formed, rather 
than to have one exceeding 10 or 12 feet in length ; when two were 
made, they were placed one on either flank, a situation which was found 
to answer extremely well." (Consujt HYDE'S Fortification ; Ordnance 

MAGISTRAL LINE in a plan, is that which regulates the form 
of the works. It is that which is first laid down, and from which the 
other parts of the works are traced. (See CORDON.) 

MAJOR. Rank between captain and lieutenant-colonel. 

MAJOR-GENERAL. Rank between brigadier-general and lieu- 


MALINGERER. A soldier who feigns illness in order to avoid 


his duty. Any soldier, in the English army, convicted of malingering, 
f.-L'n'mg or producing disease or infirmity, or of being detained in hos- 
pital in consequence of materially injuring his health by his o\\ 
or intemperance, and thereby rendering himself unfit for the si : 
or of absenting himself from an hospital whilst under medical treat - 
ment ; or of being guilty of a gross violation of the rules of the hospi- 
tal ; or of intentionally protracting his cure ; or of wilfully aggravating 
his disease, is liable to be tried by a court-martial for " disgraceful 
conduct," and to suffer the punishments attached to that crime. 

MANOEUVRE. ' For prescribed manoeuvres consult Cavalry Tac- 
tics ; Infantry Tactics; Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics; Instruction 
for Field Artillery, horse and foot ; and Instruction for Heavy Artil- 
lery, embracing Mechanical Manoeuvres. 

The word manoeuvre signifies also movements of entire corps in 
war executed with general views; and by some writers it is confine. I 
to that signification, and the word evolution is made to designate tin- 
particular means, or the elements of manoeuvres ; (.TAIJKO.) Maim-u- 
vrcs, according to Bardin, are operations in war whether really l>< fore 
an enemy, or simulated on a field of exercise. Their precision and 
aptness depend upon the skill of the general ; the intelligence of his 
aides-de-camp ; upon the chiefs of battalions and their adjutants, and 
the general guides. Evolutions and manoeuvres are, however, often ap- 
plied in the same sense, and indeed it may well bo questioned whether 
there beany propriety in retaining in books of instruction evolutions 
which are not used as manoeuvres against an enemy. 

Manoeuvres of Infantry in battle. The vicious idea that t . 
evolutions are not used in war is by no means uncommon, nnd 1 
quently caused the loss of battles. It is true that the number of ma- 
noeuvres used in combats is limited, and that those which are needed can 
only be judiciously applied by keeping in view moral i%d physieal re- 
quirements. The judicious tactician will, then -fore, in war s< In \\ : de- 
pi. >\ nieiiN, which cause the soldier to turn his back towards an enemy ; 
countermarches; forming a battalion on the right or left, by file into 
;id some other movements suited only to parades. One of the 
most hazardous manoeuvres is the formation of columns of great depth 
and deploying those columns when too near the enemy. "Without giv- 
ing names or places, (says Marshal Bugcaud.) I affirm that I have seen 
ire division in column of regiments, which bepm its deployment 
within range of the enemy's guns, routed before it finished its ma- 

The column is an order of march and manoeuvre, rarely an order of 


battle. When beyond the range of cannon, and at a distance from the 
line of battle to be occupied, if the enemy approach and time permits, 
it is necessary to close in mass, in order to hold the troops in hand for 
all possible dispositions. 

So, in marches near the enemy the columns should march at half 
distance, when roads permit, in order that they may be less elon- 
gated, and all the troops be ready to act promptly. If surprised in 
this order by the necessity of forming immediately forward into line 
of battle, or, if without being under this pressing necessity, there is be- 
tween us and the enemy ground admitting an easy march in line of 
battle, the column ought to execute forward into line, according to the 
principles of the tactics. This movement is more prompt and greatly 
better than closing column in mass, in order to deploy afterwards. In the 
first case troops only pass over one side of the triangle, whilst by mass- 
ing the column to deploy afterwards, they must pass over two sides by 
a complicated manoeuvre, which is dangerous from the beginning. In 
general, it is necessary to shun as much as possible the deployment of 
great massed columns, for this movement is badly executed even in 
exercises. It can only be performed far from the enemy, and it is even 
there inconvenient. It should be renounced in all formations whose 
object is to take the enemy in flank or reverse, if he be sufficiently neai 
to take measures to prevent success. In that case, the formation of the 
close columns in mass upon the right or left into line of battle is a 
necessary manoeuvre. This movement, as Marshal Bugeaud suggests, 
is most important in war; (Fig. 151.) It would have an influence 
upon battles by the simplicity and rapidity of its execution, and 
accidents of ground would often be found to conceal the movement 
from the enemy. It admits of an attack in echelons of battalions 
against an enemy being commenced as soon as one battalion or the 
half of a battalion has formed on the right or on the left of the line of 
the enemy. It also offers the advantage of giving to the line, with the 
greatest facility, every form that may be wished, and protecting the suc- 
cessive formations by a mass that may be disposed of at pleasure, 
whether at the extremity of the line to form square against cavalry, or 
to occupy in advance upon the right or left a commanding position, pro- 
tecting the flanks of our line. When circumstances, then, compel a 
march in heavy mass, it is better to present to the enemy a flank of 
columns, in order to deploy them b/ formations on the right or on the 
left into line of battle. 

When a line has to pass over a great distance, it is commonly formed 
into columns of attack. The formation by company in column, in rear of 



the grenadiers of each battalion, is preferred by Marshal Rugeaud, because 
it is thus easier to make good dispositions against cavalry. TV 
adiors of each battalion make a half wheel, and each battalion, after 

Fio. 151. 

being closed in mass, forms square. But neither the column by com- 
j-anii-s or divisions ought to bo used within range of cannon, wli- 
there is a possibility of marching in line of battle. It is time that tho 
fact should be admitted, that although the moral effect of tho column 
may bo considerable, yet this may 1>c j-araly/. <\ by a little nianu-u- 
vring on the part of the enemy's line, which would necessarily obtain 
great advantage from the superiority of its fire. Small columns, at 

i's of three battalions from C.H li other marching '"i<ii 
the line, may render <_\->'nt scr\ i*-r->. Tlu-v would lie ready promptly 
to fill th" h-.lcK imide in the lin<> of battle, and the best means of doing 
this would bo to take the enemy in flank \sho had pi.-r-ed them, when- 
ould. It i-; flesirablc. that the-e ci.luiuns should each not 
exceed a half battalion, and bo commanded by < neriretic of]'. 

The depth of the column adds nothing to the stmujtji of ihr first 
battalion composing it, and diminishes tint of (fie mass. It is, thru, 
vicious to employ more than one battali in the small number 


of cases where it is necessary to fight in mass, as in carrying a bridge, 
a defile, an entrenchment, a breach, &c. The other battalions ought to 
follow at such a distance that they may sustain the attacking battalion 
without sharing in its disaster or rout, if such should take place. With 
an interval the chiefs of battalions have time to prepare their troops, 
and make necessary dispositions ; with a single mass the disorder at 
the head of the column is communicated to the rear almost as readily 
as an electric spark. 

Flank marches, in presence of the enemy, ought always to be made 
in open column. In this order we are always ready to fight by a sim- 
ple wheel of each subdivision of the column. Nothing is deranged in 
the order of battle, whatever may be the strength and number of the 
lines. Without derangement an excellent disposition may also be 
made against cavalry. The column will be halted, and each battalion 
will be closed in mass upon its grenadiers, who make a half wheel. The 
field-officers, staff, and the officers of grenadiers will be previously warned. 
Each battalion will form then Marshal Bugeaud's square. The first 
order will be resumed by taking distances by the head of each battal- 
ion ; the grenadiers retaking their direction at once. 

If deep columns are condemned as an order of attack, those barba- 
rous columns employed in some of the last battles of Napoleon, and 
particularly at Waterloo, ought to be condemned still more. That 
column, which appeared to announce the decline of art, consisted in em- 
ploying all the battalions of a division one behind the other, and thus 
marching towards the enemy. 

Every column has for its object to pass rapidly, and without con- 
fusion, into the order of battle, to pass over lightly a given space, and 
to make prompt dispositions against cavalry. The column against 
which these remarks are made does nothing of that kind, and if it be 
attacked upon its flanks, whether by cavalry or infantry, it cannot fail 
to be destroyed. 

Order of battle, march in line of battle, and changes of front. The 
line of battle is the true order of battle. It is also the best order of 
march when in range of cannon, and not exposed to cavalry. It is only 
in this order that infantry can make use of its fire. If battalions con- 
sist of 800 men they will, ih a formation of two ranks, be too much 
extended for most chiefs of battalions. Two companies of each battal- 
ion ought then to be formed as columns of reserve. The order in two 
ranks is beyond question best suited, in oblique attacks, for that part of 
the line not to be engaged ; and with rifle muskets now used the two- 
rank formation will be found better for that part of the line which is to 


strike also. Even with old muskets the two-rank formation was used 
by the British very successfully at Waterloo in squares against r.. 
The fire in two-rank formation is made with more order, n. 
and is better aimed. The march in lino of battle ought to be employed 
whenever the ground permits it, within 1,000 yards of the enemy. \\ V 
lose then fewer nun by cannon, and even if it be desirable to approach 
the enemy in column, (which is very rare, and should even then be in 
columns of single battalions,) the march ought still to be in lino of 
battle until within two hundred yards, and then the column of attack 
ought to be formed while marching. Troops cannot be too much ex- 
ercised in marching in lino of battle. This march is no more difficult 
than the march of many heads of columns upon the same line, perhaps 
even less so, for it is difficult to maintain between the columns the in- 
tervals necessary for deployments. 

Changes of front very near the enemy are rarely perpendicular. 
The new front nearly always forms with the lino of battle an acuto 
angle. In this case, it is necessary to guard against breaking the bat- 
talions into column. It is better to use the changes of direction for the 
line of battle prescribed by the tacties. The two pivot battalions may 
bo thrown upon the new line by companies half faced to the right or 
left. The other battalions ought to bo directed upon the now lino by 
changes of direction which would least expose tin-in to artillery. If, 
however, we have to guard against cavalry during tho execution of the 
movement, it will bo better to break into column the battalions of the 
leading wing. They will thus form tho stem of the battery, and would 
rapidly make good dispositions against cavalry, as they would only bo 
obliged to close in mass upon the grenadiers and form sqn. 

Changes of front forward arc possible under fire, but changes of front 
to the rear arc not so. I l>elievc, (says Marshal Bugeaud,) that tho loss 
of one of our battles in Spain may, in great part, bo attributed to a 
change of front in rear of tho left wing, which was attempted at 
ment when warmly engaged. The movement rapidly degenerated into 
a rout; and it could not be otherwise. There are no troops with 
s.ill'i. lent sany-froiil and self-possession to make that movement under 
the fire of ball and grape. To make the movement, it is necessary first 
to stop tho enemy, and the means of doing that vary with circum- 
stances, and the resources within our command. Charges of cavalry 
above all if they thn-at.-n the Hanks of the enemy's line, would 
the change of front to tho rear. If cavalry bo not at hand, there is no 
better i :n to advance the. second line to the position that it is 

desired that tho front should occupy after its change of front, and with- 


draw the first line at a run, directing it to form the second line, passing 
through the intervals of the battalions, now become the first line. 

If a line is about coming up with the enemy at the moment of re- 
ceiving the order to change front, it would be better to finish the charge, 
by putting the first line of the enemy in rout before executing the 
movement to the rear. This last principle is applicable to retreats 
generally : it is often necessary to overthrow an enemy who is too nigh 
before retiring. 

Running movements may, in many cases, save us from destruction. 
It is necessary, then, to exercise troops in such movements, and make 
them run in disorder, and re-form at some given point. 

Echelons. The order in echelons is the manosuvre of oblique at- 
tacks. By that means we approximate those troops only who are to 
fight. The remainder are at once threatening and defensive. They 
hold in check one or many parts of the order of battle of the enemy, 
and present the best possible protection to the attacking portion. Some 
echelons to the right and left of that which attacks, are greatly better 
than any other support. They render, if not impossible, at least very 
difficult, an attack upon the flank of the attacking portion, as that cannot 
be assailed without the enemy in turn being taken in flank by echelons. 
And the latter cannot be turned, except by strong movements, which 
must weaken the army executing them, and also afford necessary time 
to guard against them. 

Instead of placing flank brigades in advance of the front of the col- 
umns or lines that they protect, it is better to place them in rear. Be- 
sides the physical advantages of this disposition, there are moral advan- 
tages, inasmuch as the latter position enables the echelons to assail, 
whereas, if they were immediately on the flank of the attack, they might 
be assailed. 

In theory, echelons are placed at regular distances. In practice, 
the distance is determined by circumstances, and, above all, by the 
formation of the ground. The regularity of echelons can, therefore, 
only exist in broad plains. The greater or less distance between eche- 
lons depends upon the number of troops, the distances between those 
of the enemy, and the ulterior views of the general-in-chief ; but in gen- 
eral they ought to be within mutual succor, and if cavalry is to be re- 
pulsed, they ought to cross fire at about 150 paces after having formed 
square. The different movements of echelons, the changes of front in 
each echelon, with the same angle, are very useful in war ; it is neces- 
sary, therefore, that troops should be exercised in such movements. 


suit Apt r fits sur qiielqttts Details de la Guerre, par MARSHAL BUOKAUD ; 
Tactile des Trots Armes, par DECKER.) 

MANTLET is a musket-proof shield, which is sometimes used for 
the pr of sappers or riflemen during the attack of a fortress. 


MANUAL. Exercise of arms ; books of reference, as Ordnance 
Manual, I 


MARCH. Recruits are taught to march by explaining the princi- 
ples of the cadenced step in common, quick, and double-quick time. The 
march in lino of battle is the m>st dim'cult and most important of the 
.1 marches. A regiment which can pass over two hundred paces 
in lino of battle without losing its allignment, is well instr 
Marches may be divided into : marches in time of war ; man lies in 
route, in time of peace; and tactical marches. Those in time of war 
are either movements to pass over ground? or else mamruvivs t<> ob- 
tain an advantageous position. When an army moves forward t 
an enemy who is still very distant, it will be sufficient to have ad\ 
and rear guards, some flankers, and march in parallel columns over the 
best routes, each column having its squadrons of cavalry, bai 
tillery, and wagon trains. If the enemy is, however, in the neighbor- 
hood, if we march along the front of his camp, or his lino of posts, 
precaution must be redoubled to gain information of his movements 
and guard against surprise. 

When the march is only a manoeuvre, it is often made across fields ; 
through by-roads ; then it is necessary to reconnoitre in advance, clear 
away obstacles, and sometimes even construct little bridges ; guides are 
taken, and information gained from them as well as by recofimiissunccs. 
Armies are collected together by routes of march, the troops usually 
marching about 17 miles a day. In general, the marches an- made by 
battalions echeloned at intervals one day's distance from each other. 
Cavalry ordinarily marches alone and follows the least direct roads, but 
it is difficult to subsist a numerous cavalry without retarding military 
kfaos. Artillery follows the cavalry, or if it has a large convoy, 
it marches l,y another route alone. The troops begin to e.mcrntr 
the base of operations. Still advancing, the echelons con verge, and the, 
troops are cantoned together by lines <>iie day's march from each other. 
The n< pproach the enemy, the more columns arc used ; if the 

eountr;, ..ralli-l d-d., niches, it is always advant:r march 

an army < orps on mnny routes, if they are within distance- f..r dej.Ioy- 
, but if there is only one means of communication, the dii 


arms are kept 200 yards distant from each other, and the cavalry- 
marches in rear of the column. 

On these marches, when a defile is to be passed, the successive pas- 
sage of each echelon is commanded in advance ; and it is a general rule 
never to crowd troops, so as to paralyze their action, or even render 
movements difficult ; but care must be taken always to keep troops 
within easy supporting distance of each other. 

Sometimes an army is collected very near the enemy. It is neces- 
sary then nicely to calculate distances, &c., in order to combine marches 
for a simultaneous convergence of columns on the offensive point.* To 
bring troops suddenly together, forced marches are made by some of 
the troops ; relays and railways are also used. By forced marches the 
ordinary day's march is doubled, but under extraordinary circumstances 
62 miles have been made in 26 hours. Relays are the use of wagons, 
&c., obtained by requisition. 250 wagons may carry from 2,000 to 
2,300 men. Sometimes the march is made entirely in wagons, and each 
echelon passes over three days' march in 8 hours. This is done by the 
troops taking new wagons twice, the old returning empty for other troops. 

It is but seldom that any one arm is exclusively employed when near 
the enemy ; it is usual to operate with a combined force of cavalry, 
infantry, and artillery, so that it may be always possible to employ one 
or the other arm, according to circumstances and locality. If the main 
body of the army is composed of the different arms, then the advanced 
guard is similarly constituted, that it may be able to act in all localities. 

The composition of such an advanced guard depends ' 

1st. Upon the object and nature of its intended operations. During 
marches in pursuit, it is reinforced by cavalry ; but if it is to make an 
obstinate resistance, it is strengthened with much infantry and artillery. 
In general, light cavalry are the best for advanced guards, wherever the 
nature of the ground permits them to operate, but infantry are neces- 
sary to support them. Mounted rifles and mounted engineer troops are 
of great service in advanced guards. 

* To calculate exactly the time T necessary for the execution of a march : A column of in- 
fantry will generally pass over about five miles in two hours, halts included. A column of cavalry 
at a walk and trot alternately makes about six miles per hour. Let D then be the distance to be 
accomplished, d the distance that the men comprising the column pass over in an hour, halts in- 
cluded; I the length of the column ; o the delay caused by obstacles; then t= - will be the 


time that passes until the left arrives at its destination, and the formula T = t + o + D will give 
the time sought. One of the elements of o is the lengthening I' of a column in a defile; it is 

considered by introducing - into the formula; o is also the delay caused by marching across fields. 
These elements may all be estimated and introduced into the formula. 



2d. The composition of tho advanced guard depends also upon the. 
localit ground is broken, much infantry is required ; if it is 

open, much cavalry ; and, in general, light troops. 

Tho order of march of an advanced guard depends principally upon 
its compoMtion, tin- order of march of the main body, tin- h'calitv, vVe. 
The main rule is, that it should never be too much divided, so that 
there may always be a considerable force in hand to seek the ninny 
more boldly, and detain him longer. Therefore, even when tin 
body moves in several columns, tho principal part of the id* 
guard marches on the main road, sending only small parties on the 
others to watch the enemy and detach patrols as far as possible in all 
directions. In an open, level country, tho cavalry marches at the head ; 
in a broken country, there is only a small detachment of cavalry at tho 
head, to furnish advanced detachments and patrols. An n<! 
tachment of cavalry, which sends out patrols in front and on its flanks, 
moves at the distance of a few miles in front of the advanced uanl. 
Small detachments of cavalry move in a lino with it on the other ' 
also others on the flanks of the main advanced guard, to secure it 
against being turned. All the front and flank detachments maintain 
constant mutual communication by means of patrols, and thus pianl 
tho whole space in front of the main body over a gr 
But if the flank columns of the main body march at a gr. 
from tho main road, followed by tho advanced guard, th. n, in addition 
to this last, each flank column detaches a small advanced guard for its 
own security. 

If the advanced guard is composed of different arms, its distance 
from tho main body depends not only upon its strength, but also on the 
following circumstance's : 1. On its composition. Cavalry ma\ advance 
much further than infantry. 2. Upon the locality. The more fully tho 
nature of tho country secures tho advanced guard against being turned, 
the further may it move from the main body. 3. Upon the obi 

Prior to defensive combats in position, it is advantage 

have the advanced guard as far from the main body as possible, in or- 

socure time for making tho necessary arnu but. if the 

main body i concentrated for a decisive attack upon the enemy, 

it is sometimes well to be entirely without an advanced guard ; during 

a pursuit, tho main body should follow tho advanced guard as closely 

as possible. 4. Upon the order of march of tho main body. The 

th.- tim.- needed by the main body to form in order >f battle, on 

account of the intervals between tho columns, the nature of tho ground 

between them, the length of tho columns, &c., so much further forward 


should the advanced guard be pushed. In general, the distance of the 
advanced guard from the head of the main body should be a little 
greater than the interval between the outside columns of the main 

Fig. 152 gives an example of the arrangement of an advanced guard 
composed of one brigade of light cavalry, 8 battalions of infantry, one 
battalion of sappers, 6 pieces of horse artillery, and 12 pieces of foot 
artillery ; the main body following in 3 columns. 

Whatever slight changes may be made necessary by the nature of 
the country, can easily be made with the aid of a map and the special 
information obtained in other ways. 

If the country is partially broken and obstructed, it is advantageous 
to have four or five companies of infantry just behind the leading de- 
tachment of cavalry to examine places that are difficult oridangerous 
for the latter. 

Upon the plains, the patrols are of cavalry ; in a mountainous re- 
gion, of infantry. In the latter case, not only the advanced detachments 
and patrols are of infantry, but also the head and rear of every column ; 
the cavalry and artillery march in the middle, under the protection of 
the infantry. 

In passing through a village, the infantry enter it first, if there are 
any with the advanced guard ; the cavalry either ride rapidly around 
it, or, according to circumstances, halt a little before reaching the vil- 
lage, and wait until the infantry have passed through. 

The passage of important bridges, ravines, and defiles, should be 
effected in the same manner, the infantry examining them. As soon as 
the infantry have crossed and formed on the other side, the cavalry 
send out patrols to a great distance to examine the ground in front be- 
fore the main body of the advanced guard begins to cross. 

The advanced guard having crossed rapidly, forms in front of the 
passage, to cover the debouche of the main body. The distance of such 
a position from the passage should be such that, in the event of being 
attacked, the advanced guard may not be too quickly forced back upon 
the main body while debouching, and that the latter may have ample 
time to form without disorder. 

Since attacks should be most expected when passing through defiles, 
or when issuing from them, they should be traversed rapidly, and with 
the most extended front possible, to prevent the column from stretching 

An advanced guard possessing a certain degree of independence, 
without neglecting any of the precautions here laid down, should not be 




Fto. 153. 




too apprehensive, and, in examining the country, ought not to be de- 
tained by objects which cannot conceal the enemy in sufficient force to 
make him dangerous to the advanced guard. 

In very mountainous regions, it is necessary to rely upon the infan- 
try alone ; the cavalry and train remaining in rear, and not entering the 
defiles until they have been occupied. Here the infantry patrols are 
sent ou