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Full text of "The military history of Wisconsin : a record of the civil and military patriotism of the state, in the war for the union, with a history of the campaigns in which Wisconsin soldiers have been conspicuous--regimental histories--sketches of distinguished officers--the roll of the illustrious dead--movements of the Legislature and state officers, etc"

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THE 



MILITAEY HISTOKY 

WISOOKSIN: 



A RECORD OF THE 



€ml m& piUtarjj f atwfltfem ot the ^tixU, 



WAR FOR THE UNION, 



HISTORY OP THE CAMPAIGNS IN WinCH WISCONSIN SOLDIERS HAVE BEEN 

CONSPICUOUS — REGIMENTAL HISTORIES — SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED 

OFFICERS- THE ROLL OF THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD— MOVEMENTS 

OF THE LEGISLATURE AND STATE OFFICERS, ETC. 



BYE. B. QUIISTEE, ESQ., 

OF MADISON, -WIS. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH STEEL ENGRAVINGS OF. EMINENT MEN. 



IN ONE VOLUME. 



^ CHICAGO: 

CLARKE & CO., PUBLISHERS. 

1866. 

G S -:- ' 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, 

By CLARKE & CO., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Nortlaern District of Illinois. 



CHICAGO TTPE FOUNDST 

J. CONAHAN, 

BTEEEOTYPEB. 



ES3n 



TO THE 

BRAVE OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS 

OF WISCONSIN, 
WHO 

''loUoiml tfe |lHg/' mwm §'mMt§, ilnxlnq tlu "gtMlm; 

AND THE 

RELATIVES AND FRIENDS OF THOSE WHO LAID DOWN 
THEIR LIVES IN THEIR COUNTRY'S CAUSE ; 

AND THE 

PEOPLE OF WISCONSIN, 

WHO SO NOBLY AND PATRIOTICALLY AIDED IN UPHOLDING THE 
INTEGRITY OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT; 

THIS VOLUME 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



Ij^TEODUOTIOI^. 



The collection of tlie material for this work was begun soon 
after the outbreak of the rebellion. Being placed in a favorable 
position — in a clerical capacity — where most of the correspond- 
ence relating to the organization of the earlier regiments, passed 
through his hands, the author obtained the consent of Governor 
Randall, to the copying of such matters as would possess histor- 
ical importance. The collection of material was continued during 
the rebellion. The business in which the author was engaged 
during the war, enabled him still further to become acquainted 
with the movements of all the regiments or other organizations 
sent from the State. In addition, access has been had to the 
reports and documents on file in the Executive and Adjutant 
General's Offices. From these sources the author has been 
enabled to prepare the work now presented to the public. Our 
object has been to give a plain statement of facts, as far as 
possible, in a concise form, without attempting an elaborate 
historical style. 

"We have endeavored to give a correct narrative of what was 
accomplished by the State authorities during the war, in filling 
the requisitions made for troops by the General Government — 
of the legislation necessary to enable the State officers to act 
efficiently in support of the Government, and to provide means 
to aid the families of those who enlisted in the United States 
military service from this State — and the various matters relating 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

to military affairs wliich engaged the attention of the several 
Executives and the Adjutant Generals of the State, during the 
war. 

The chapter on the Sanitary operations of the State, gives an 
account of the several expeditions sent out by Governors Salo- 
mon and Lewis, under the superintendence of Surgeon General 
VV^olcott, to the several battle-fields wherever Wisconsin soldiers 
were engaged, showing that the State has always exhibited an 
active and noble interest in the comfort and welfare of our sick 
and wounded heroes, as well on the battle-field, as in the several 
hospitals, where State agents were sent to attend to the wants 
and comfort of those of our soldiers who were inmates of those 
institutions. 

In order that the general reader may understand the connec- 
tion which Wisconsin regiments had with the general military 
operations of the Government, we have endeavored to make a 
short sketch of those operations in the several divisions or 
departments into which the rebellious district was divided, and 
the war was prosecuted, by the Government. 

The regimental histories are prepared from the best material 
within reach. They are necessarily brief, but are believed to 
contain a fair history of the organizations, and the lists of casu- 
alties have been gathered wherever they have been officially 
published, or otherwise made public, and the names corrected, 
wherever it could bo done. They . are necessarily imperfect as 
even the original muster rolls cannot be considered as giving the 
names of enlisted men correctly, as every person knows who has 
occasion to examine the rolls. In many cases the casualties are 
not reported, or are so mixed up in the monthly reports as to 
defy all attempts to make up a reliable list. Besides this, the 
monthly reports, in many cases, contain only the names of those 
who were wounded and absent from the regiment when the 
report was made. The gathering of these casualties has involved 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

mucli time'and labor, and tliey have swelled the work to much 
larger dimensions than was originally intended. 

In the sketches of the military services of our general officers 
and others, we have attempted no literary effect, but have been 
contented to give a correct outline of their services as far as 
practicable. In many cases, due credit has been given these offi- 
cers in the regimental histories, for the several actions in Avhich 
they were engaged. A biographical notice of each of the regi- 
mental officers would have been an interesting feature, but it 
was impossible to obtain data for that purpose, except by per- 
sonal application to the parties themselves, which in many cases 
would not have secured a reply. 

Our acknowledgements are due to Governors Lewis and 
Fairchild, for the favoi-s which they have extended for the 
preparation of the work. 

To Adjutant General Gaylord were we especially indebted 
for numerous favors we have received at his hands, and the read- 
iness with which our request to examine the reports and records 
in his office, has been responded to. At great labor the General 
has caused to be prepared from the monthly reports, a list of 
those killed in battle, or died of wounds received. By reference 
to the regimental histories, it will be seen that we have largely 
availed ourselves of this valuable record, deeming it the most 
correct of any list attainable, as it is taken from the original 
reports, and published in the Adjutant General's report of 1866. 
The statistics found at the end of each regimental history are 
taken from a table, also prepared in the office of Adjutant 
General Gaylord from the original reports. 

We are also indebted to various officers for memoranda relat- 
ing to their several regiments, among them, Brigadier General 
Fairchild, of the Second Regiment, Brigadier General Paine, 
of the Fourth, Brigadier General Allen, of the Fifth, Major 
General Solomon, of the Ninth, Chaplain Walker, of the Twelfth, 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

the Chaplain of the Thirteenth, Colonel Hancock, of the Four- 
teenth, Major "Wilson, of the Fifteenth, Brigadier General Ho- 
bart, of the Twenty-first, General Winkler, of the Twenty-sixth, 
Mr. Tompkins, of the Twenty-ninth, Major Ball, of the Thirty- 
first, Colonel "Warner, of the Thirty-sixth, Lieutenant Colonel 
R. C. Eden, of the Thirty-seventh, and Lieutenant Colonel Pier, 
of the Thirty-eighth Infantry, and to Lieutenant Stevens, of 
Company G, Sharpshooters, and Captain Zichrick, of the Twelfth 
Light Battery. To Sergeant George Fairfield, of Company C, 
of the Sixth Lifantry, we are indebted for the loan of a well 
kept diary, from July, 1861, to the battle of Antietam, where he 
was severely wounded, and during the Wilderness campaign, up 
to the assault of the 18th pf June, 1864, where he was again 
wounded. 

A summing up of what was accomplished will show that Wis- 
consin sent to the field over 91,200 men, over 1,200 more than 
the several requisitions of the General Government called for. 
That nearly 11,000 of these were killed or died of wounds 
received in battle, or fell victims to diseases contracted in the 
military service, to say nothing of those who died after their dis- 
charge, and whose deaths do not appear upon the military rec- 
ords — that nearly $12,000,000 were expended by the State 
authorities, and the people of the several counties and towns 
throughout the State, in their effort to sustain the National 
Government. 

At this date, only two regiments of Wisconsin remain in the 
field, viz: the Fourth Cavalry, in Texas, and the Fiftieth Lifantry, 
at Fort Union, in Dakotah Territory. Since writing up the regi- 
mental histories, the Thirty-fifth and Forty-eighth regiments 
have been mustered out of service and disbanded. 

After the completion of the body of the work, which has 
swelled to a volume far beyond the limits first intended, the 
Legislature of 1866, convened, and among other matters, passed 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

a law authorizing the establishment of the " Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home of "Wisconsin," appropriating $10,000 for the purchase of 
the necessary buildings and grounds, and also, $25,000 for the 
support of the " Home," during the current year. In order that 
our readers may understand the character of the Institution, so 
nobly established by the efforts of Mrs. Harvey, and her friends, 
in a subsequent page of this introduction, we have given a 
description of the building, after a personal examination, accom- 
panied by an engraving taken from a photograph made expressly 
for this work, together with a synopsis of the law establishing 
the institution, by which the friends of the soldiers' orphans will 
be able to understand the manner in which admission to the 
" Home " may be obtained. 

Wisconsin may well feel proud of her record made in defence 
of the N"ational existence. Shoulder to shoulder with the other 
lo3'al States of the Union, she has stood in the front rank. From 
her workshops, her farms and her vast pineries, have poured 
forth the stalwart men, who have filled up the organizations 
which she has sent to the field. The blood of these brave men 
has drenched almost every battle-field of the rebellion from Get- 
tysburg to the valley of the Rio Grande. Establishing at an early 
day, a reputation for gallantry and endurance, Wisconsin regi- 
ments always occupied positions where hard fighting was to be 
done, and reference need only to be made to the history of the 
Iron Brigade, the Third and Fifth, the Twenty-sixth, the Thirty- 
sixth, Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Infantry in the army of 
the Potomac, to show that their pathway was marked by a 
bloody record. 

It is out of place to assume that Wisconsin did better than 
her sister States. We claim that she did her full duty — that her 
several Executives in every way, used their best efforts to for- 
ward the desires of the General Government for troops — that 
her people responded from first to last, with a noble patriotism, to 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

tlie several calls — aud tliat those who remained at home, were 
lavish of their means, not only to stimulate enlistments by the 
payment of extra bounties, but to aid and support that left wing 
of the grand army of the Union, composed for the most part, of 
the mothers and daughters of the ITation, and the effect of whose 
labors and patriotic efforts are seen in the happiness of many a 
family, for the return and restoration to health of' many a son 
and father, who otherwise would have slept in death on Southern 
soil. 

April 12, 1866. 



SOLDIEES' OEPHAXS' HOME. 



In the chapter on the sanitary operations of the State, we have 
incidentally mentioned that a project was on foot to establish a 
" Home " for the orphan children of soldiers of Wisconsin, who 
were killed or died in the service of the United States during the 
rebellion. 

We are gratified to be able to state that the " Home " has been 
established, and by a recent act of the Legislature, adopted as 
one of the Benevolent Institutions supported by the State. 

To correct a sentence in the notice of the institution given 
elsewhere, we here state that an erroneous impression prevails 
that the General Government donated the buildings. This is not 
so, as we are assured by Mrs. Harvey. The buildings were turned 
over to the owners of the property, in consideration of the rent 
and repairs necessary to place the main building in its original 
condition when taken possession of by the United States 
authorities. 

Mrs. Harvey had entertained the idea of establishing an insti- 
tution of this kind for two years preceding the end of the war,, 
and on her return after the closing of her business as State- 
agent, in the summer of 1865, she immediately set about the 
work which had occupied her thoughts for so long a period. It 
was ascertained that Government was about to discontinue- the 
general Hospitals in the N'orthern States, among them, " Harvey 
United States Hospital," at Madison. Being eligibly situated, 
and admirably adapted for the purpose designed by Mrs. Harvey, 
negotiations were entered into with the proprietors of the pro- 
perty, and so liberal a proposition was received from them, that 
it was deemed advisable by Governor Lewis, and other promi- 
nent friends of the undertaking, that Mrs. Harvey should proceed 
to Washington to endeavor to secure a title to the buildings 



12 soldiers' orphans' home. 

erected by the United States, The War Department had no 
authority to make a donation, hut on investigation of the matter, 
it was ascertained that the buildings, which would have to be 
torn down, would have no value to the Government except as 
"old lumber," amounting to but a small sum, an arrangement 
was made as we have stated above — the proprietors receiving 
the buildings in lieu of rent and repairs, on condition that the 
property should be devoted to the purposes of a " Soldiers* 
Orphans' Home." 

Soon after the return home of Mrs. Harvey, a sale of the 
" Hospital property " at Harvey Hospital, took place, the most 
of which, was purchased by the friends of the Home, at a price 
which Mrs. Harvey was enabled to pay by the liberality of the 
noble hearted citizens of Madison, and a few other places. It 
will thus be seen that the General Government did not donate 
any portion of the property, although it dealt liberally with the 
friends of the enterprise, and enabled them to establish at once 
the institution contemplated. 

Repairs were immediately commenced, and the " Home " was 
ready for the reception of inmates on the 1st of January, 1866. 
The personal exertions of Mrs. Harvey, and liberality of the 
citizens of the State, had secured means for the opening and sup- 
porting of the " Home," until the needed legislation for making 
it a State institution could be perfected. 

The property consists of a main building, built of stone. It is 
octagon in shape, three stories in height, with a roomy attic 
above, and an observatory at the top of the building. The sev- 
eral stories are reached by a spiral staircase in the centre, from 
the lower floor to the observatory. The lower floor of the main 
building is divided into a reception room — dining room for the 
ofiicers and attendants — store room for bed linen and other arti- 
cles — a small kitchen with range, complete with closets, pantries, 
etc. A bath and wash room, with a sleeping room for the super- 
intendent of the lower dormitory, completes the lower floor. 
The upper stories are occupied as rooms for the officers and 
attendants, with a public parlor in the second story, and a recita- 
tion room, and two rooms used for hospital purposes, and a 
sewing room in the third story. 



soldiers' orphans' home. 



13 



In order that the reader may better understand our description 
we have had a photograph taken, an engraving of which we here 
insert: 




/^ 













From the west side of the main building extends a wing two 
Btories in height, used as dormitories. Here the beds are arranged 
lengthwise of the building in four rows. These rooms are well 
ventilated, light and airy. On the south side of the main build- 
ing is a wing seventy-five feet in length, and twenty-five in width, 
the lower story of which is used as a dining room for the children 
of the " Home," and a large kitchen in which is a range sufiicieut 
for cooking for a large number of persons. The second story of 
this wing is occupied as a school room capable of seating one 
hundred and fifty pupils. An office is also attached to this wing. 
The building is heated by furnaces in the basement story. A 
large octagon barn also belongs to the premises, with a laundry, 
and a steam engine which supplies the building with water from 
the Third Lake, that forms the southern boundary of the 

premises. 

At this time, April 6th, 1866, there are eighty-five children at 
the " Home," all of whom are well cared for, and a good school 
provided for them under the superintendence of Miss Torrey, a 
niece of Colonel J. H. Howe, of Green Bay. Another school 



14 soldiers' orphans' home. 

room is to be fitted up as the number of inmates of the " Home" 
increases, and it is expected that three hundred will be admitted 
by the first of June. 

The arrangement and organization of the " Home," has been 
entirely under the supervision of Mrs. Harvey, who has been 
untiring in her exertions, both in securing the means to start the 
institution, and to place it in active operation. She fully appre- 
ciates the liberality of the generous people of the State who have 
lent their aid to the undertaking, and enabled her to carry out 
her benevolent design. 

The object of the " Orphans' Home," is to afford to the friend- 
less little ones, the blessings and comforts of a real Home, and 
no mother need feel any backwardness in confiding her children 
to its care. Proper attention will be directed to the physical, 
intellectual and moral development of the children, so that when 
the proper time arrives for their re-entering the active world, 
they will be qualified to fulfil the duties of useful citizens and 
reflect honor upon the State that adopted them. 

On the 31st of March, 1866, Governor Fairchild approved a 
bill providing for the establishment of a " Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home." We append a s^'nopsis of the law for the information 
of our readers : 

Section 1. Establishes an institution to be stj-led "Tlie Soldiers' Orplians' Home." 

Sec. 2. Authorizes the Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer and Attorney 
General to provide suitable buildings, and purchase block 152 ("The Farwell Property" 
in the City of Madison,) together with buildings and impi'ovements, provided there is a 
perfect title, and it can be purchased for 510,000. 

Sec. 3. When title is perfected, authorizes the Governor to appoint seven Trustees, to 
be known as "Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, of Wisconsin." Majority to 
constitute a quorum. Three to serve for three yeai's, two for two years, and two for one 
year, or until their suece.ssors are appointed. Vacancies to be filled by the Governor. 

Sec. 4. The Trustees to manage and direct the affairs of the " Home," making, with 
the sanction of the Governor, all needful by-laws and regulations for the proper admin- 
istration of the " Orphans' Home," not inconsistent with the Constitution of the State 
and United States. No comijensation to Trustees for services, but necessary expenses 
incurred in performance of their duties. 

Sec. 5. Trustees to appoint the President and Secretary, who are to perform their du- 
ties under such regulations and instructions as is required by their by-laws. The State 
Treasurer to be ex-offlcio Treasurer of the Board. The Secretary to keep a faithful record 
of all transactions of the Board. The President to have power to call extra meetings 
of the Board on a written request of not less than two members. 

, Sec. 6. Board of Trustees to appoint the Superintendent of the " Home," and other 
officers provided for in tlie by-laws, and to fix the coftipensation of ofHcers of the insti- 
tution. Board to meet annually on the first Tuesday in October, and sani- annually on the 
second Tuesday in April. At each meeting to visit and examine into the affairs of the 
" Home," and at their annual meeting make a full report to the Governor of all their 
proceedings. 



soldiers' orphans' home. 15 

Sec 7. Board of Trustees to have power to take and hold in trust, for the use and 
benefit of the "Home," any grant or demise of real estate or any donation or bequest 
of money or other personal property to be applied to the maintenance of soldiers' 
orphans or general use of the " Home." 

Sec. 8. Superintendent to be chief executive officer of the " Home ;" to have control 
and authority over all assistants connected with the institution below the grade desig 
nated in the by-laws as olHcers ; to employ or discharge as he may see fit, being respon- 
sible to the Trustees for the proper discharge of that duty. For satisfactory causes, the 
Superintendent may be removed by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Board. 

Sec. 9. All soldiers' orphans admitted to the "Home" to be maintained therein at 
the expense of the State. 

Sec. 10. Board of Trustees to apportion, as near as practicable, the number of orphans 
to be received from each county on the basis of the number of soldiers' orphans actually 
residing in said county, and the County Board to apportion, as near as practicable, the 
number to be admitted from the county, between the several towns thereof, upon the 
basis of the returns made to the Clerk of the Board of Supervisors, as provided by 
Section 12 of this Act. 

Sec. 11. Establishes the prerequisite for admission into the institution, as follows : — 
All orphans over the age of four and under fourteen years, whose fathers enlisted from 
this State, and who have either been killed or died while in the military or naval .service 
of the United States, or of this State, during the late rebellion, or who have since died 
of diseases contracted while in such service, and who have no means of support, shall 
be entitled to the benefits of this institution, giving the preference to those having 
neither father nor mother in deciding upon applications. 

Sec. 12. Board of Trustees to furnish each Clerk of the County Board with uniform 
blanks, with necessai*y instructions as to filling the same. These blanks to be distributed 
to the Chairman of each Town Board of Supervisors, and to the Mayor or President of 
the incorporated cities or villages within the several counties of this State. In cases of 
doubt, the death of the father is determined by the records of the Adjutant General ot 
the State. 

Sec. 13. On acceptance of any application for the admission of an orphan, the Chair 
man of Town Board of Supervisors or Mayor or President of a city to make an order for 
the removal of such orphan, so accepted, to the " Orphans' Home," in the care of some 
suitable person, and all necessary expenses incurred in such removal to be paid by the 
county in which such orphan child has a legal residence. 

Sec. 14. Trustees to appoint an Executive Committee from their own number to per- 
form such duties as may be prescribed by the by-laws established by the Board. Said 
Executive Committee is authorized to draw warrants on the fund belonging to the 
"Home," as may be directed by the Trustees, in conformitj^ with this Act. All warrants 
60 drawn to be countersigned by the Secretary of State, and to designate the 
appropriation from which the same shall be paid. 

Sec. 1.5. Appropriates $10,000 out of the State Treasury to pay for the property 
authorized to be purchased by Section 2 of this Act. 

Sec. 16. Act to take efiect on publication. 

In addition to the above, the Legislature appropriated the sum 
of $25,000 for the support of the institution for the coming year. 

Under this law, Governor Fairchild has appointed the following 
persons as trustees : 

F(yr three j/ears— Colonel R. M. Strong, Reedsburg; Colonel Henry Harndex, 
Jefferson ; General C. C. Washburn, La Crosse. 

For two years — 'B.on. N. M. Littlejohn, Whitewater; Hon. W. J. Abrams, Green 
Bay. 

For one year— "Hou. B. F. Hopkins, Madison; General E. S. Bragg, Fond du Lac. 



16 soldiers' orphans' home. 

The Board of Trustees met at Madison on the 18th of April, 
and Hon. N. M. Littlejohn was elected President, and Colonel 
R. M. Strong appointed Secretary. The Board were in session 
several days, appointing Mrs. Harvey Superintendent of the In- 
stitution for the ensuing year, and passed such hy-laws, rules and 
regulations as were necessary for the full establishment of the 
"Home." 

It will be seen that the law establishes the manner in which 
orphans are to be admitted into the " Home," through the 
County Boards of Supervisors of each county, and persons who 
may have orphans in charge, will know how to proceed in 
securing the benefits of the "Home " for their wards. 

The author has visited the Home, where he found about eighty 
children of both sexes, varying from four to fourteen years of 
age, all in good health, and apparently happy in their new 
" Home." They are well cared for, with plenty of good whole- 
some food, and everything to make them comfortable, without 
any appearance of being subjects of public charity. In case of 
sickness, every care and the best of medical attention is given. 



TABLE OF OOISrTEJSrTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

ACTION OF THE STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1861. 

PAQK 

state Administration of 1860 and 1861 — Resources — Legislature of 1861 —Governor's 
Message — Laws Passed — Fort Sumter — Popular Excitement- Call for 75,000 
Militia— Governor's Proclamation — First Tender of Service — Only one Regi- 
ment — Reserve Regiments Authorized — First Regiment Organized — Captain 
Little — Proclamation to Women of Wisconsin — To the People — Companies 
Tendering Service— Surgeon General Wolcott — Adjutant General Utley— Camp j 
Randall — Second, Third and Fourth Regiments — Defense of Washington— I 
Meeting of Loyal Governors — Governor's Letter to President Lincoln — Generals 
King and Schurz — Two naore Regiments Accepted — Patriotic Women— Letter to 
Governor Randall 33 



CHAPTER II. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1861 — CONTINUED. 

Extra Session of the Legislature — Governor's Message — Laws Passed — State Mili- 
tary Departments — Third and Fourth Regiments — Six Regiments Accepted- 
Fifth and Sixth Regiments— Letter to President Lincoln — Seventh and Eiglith 
Regiments — Cavalry Authorized — Sharpslaooters — State Agents — Circular to 
Loyal Governors — State Bonds — Letter to Secretary of War — More Infantry 
Accepted — Artillery Wanted — First, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Regiments — 
Letter to Secretary of War — Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth 
Regiments — $205,000 Reimbursed— Correspondence — First Cavalry— Second Cav- 
alry — More Artillery Accepted — Third Cavalry — Consolidation of Companies — 
Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Regiments — Recruiting 
Discontinued — Letter of Captain Eddy — Report of Gov. Randall — Biographical 
Sketch of Gov. Randall— Close of 1861 71 



CHAPTER III. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1862. 

New State OflScers — Legislature Meets— Governor's Message — Laws Passed — 
Eleventh and Twelfth Batteries — Recruiting Service Discontinued — Battle ot 
Shiloh — Fourteenth, Sixteenth and Eighteenth Regiment* Engaged — Expedi- 
tion to Pittsburg Landing- Death of Governor Harvey — 1 iographical Sketch— 

2 



18 CONTENTS. 

PA8E. 

Twentieth Regiment — Legislature Re-assembles — Governor Salomon's Message 
— Laws Passed — State Sanitary Agents — Call for 300,000 more — Monster meeting 
in Milwaukee — Twenty-flrst to Thirty-third Regiments Authorized — Extra 
Session of Legislature — Governor's Message — Laws Passed — 300,000 Militia to be 
Drafted— Draft Ordered — Draft Riots — Thirty-fourth Regiment — Close of 1862... 109 



CHAPTER IV. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1863. 

State Military Officers — Legislature Meets — Governor's Message — Laws Passed — 
Number of Regiments Furnished —Thirteenth Light Artillery — Heavy Artillery 
Battalion — Six Months Men Wanted — Enrolment Act — Provost Marshal Gen- 
eral's Department— State Districted — Thirty-fourth Regiment Mustered Out — 
Thirty-fifth Regiment — Harvey Hospital Established — Quotas and Credits — 
Settlement of Credits — Results of Draft of 1863 — Negro Soldiers— Call for 300,000 
More — Towns, etc., to be Credited — Big Bounties — Sixteenth Regiment — 
Biographical Sketch of Governor Salomon— Close of 1863 150 



CHAPTER V. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 186*. 

State Officers Elect in 1864 — State Military Officers — Legislature Meets— Governor's 
Message — Laws Passed — Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettj'sburg — Re-enlist- 
ment of Old Regiments — Call for 500,000 more — Thirty-sixth, Thirt5^-seventh and 
Thirty-eighth Regiments— Veteran Re-enlistments— Veteran Regiments ordered 
to General Sherman— One Hundred Day Troops Organized — Thirty-ninth, 
Fortieth and Forty-flrst Regiments — Call for 500,000 Men for One, Two and Three 
Years— Excessive Quota — Enrolment Lists Corrected — Quota Reduced — Error 
Corrected — Forty-second Regiment — Fifth Regiment Re-organized — Forty-third 
Regiment — Heavy Artillery Regiment— Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Regiments 
— Draft in September— Result— Another Call for 300,000 — Close of 1864 168 



CHAPTER VI. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1865. 

Military Officers of the State — Resignation of Quartermaster General Lund — Legis- 
lature Meets — Extracts from Governor's Message — Laws Passed — Forty-sixth 
and Forty-seventh Regiments — Change in Manner of Recruiting — Recruiting 
Agents Authorized — Quota under Call of 19th December — Reduced— Appor- 
tioned to Congressional Districts — Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Regi- 
ment—Draft Ordered — Fifty-first, Fifty-second and Fifty-third Regiments — 
Last Regiments Raised in the State — Correspondence between Grant and Lee — 
Surrender of the Rebel Army — Final Overthrow of the Rebellion — Recruiting 
Discontinued — Orders for Mustering Out of Regiments — Biography of Governor 
jje^is— Adjutant General Gay lord— Quartermaster General Lynch 183 



CONTENTS. X9 

CHAPTER VII. 

SANITARY OPERATIONS OF THE STATE. 

Surgeon General's Department — His Duties — Expedition to Pittsburg Landing- 
Second Expedition— Expedition to Perryville Battle-fleld — To Murfreesboro — 
Visit toVicksburg— ToWashington Hospitals— Expedition to Chicamauga Battle- 
field—Visit to Army of Potomac —Visit of Governor Lewis and Surgeon General 
Wolcott to Hospitals for Transfer of Sick and Wounded —United States Hospitals 
in Wisconsin — Sanitaiy Agents — Soldiers' Aid Societies —Wisconsin Soldiers' 
Home — Soldiers' Orphans' Home — Bureau of Employment 208 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS— EASTERN DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations in Eastern Division — Skirmish at Falling Waters — First 
Battle of Bull Run — Bolivar Heights — Winchester — Peninsula Campaign — 
Banks' Retreat — Battle of Cedar Mountain — Gainesville — Second Bull Run- 
South Mountain — Antietam— Fredericksburg— Chancellorville—Marye's Heights 
— Gettysburg — Rappahannock Station — Battles from the Rapidan to Petersburg 
— Weldon Railroad — Explosion of the Mine— Ream's Station— South Side Rail- 
road—Hatcher's Run — Fort Stedman — Five Forks — Evacuation of Petersburg 
and Richmond — Pursuit of Lee's Army— Sailors' Creek — Surrender— Sherman's 
March from Savannah— A veiysboro—Rentonville — Johnston's Surrender — 
"Johnny Comes Marching Home," .*. •2A^ 



CHAPTER IX. 

GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS— CENTRAL DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations in the Central Division — Bowling Green — Nashville — 
Huntsville — Bragg's March on Louisville — Battle of Perryville — Jefferson Pike 

— Stone River — Spriug Hill — Tullahoma— Dug Gap — Chicamauga— Chattanooga 

— Mission Ridge— Dal ton — Buzzard's Roost — Resaca — Dallas— Kenesaw Moun- 
tain— Atlanta— Jonesboro—Lovejoy's Station— AUatoona— Destruction of At- 
lanta — Shei-man's March to Savannah — Battle of Nashville— General Wilson's 
Campaigns in Alabama and Georgia 320 

CHAPTER X. 

GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS —WESTERN DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations in Western Division — Battle of Frederickton — Pea Ridge 

— New Madrid — Island No. 10 — Shiloh — Siege of Corinth —Battle of luka — 
Corinth — Bayou Cache — Prairie Grove — New Orleans Captured — Vicksburg 
Bombarded in 1S62 — Sherman's Attempt — Arkansas Post— Grant's March on 
Vicksburg — Port Gibson — Jackson — Champion Hills — Black River — Invest- 
ment of Vicksburg — Surrender — Jackson— Yazoo River — Teche Expedition — 
Port Hudson Surrenders— Little Rock Captured — Second Teche Expedition — 
Carrion Crow Bayou — Texas Expedition — Honey Springs — Battle of Helena — 
Meridian Expedition— Red River Expedition — Fort de Russey — Sabine Cross 
Roads — Pleasant Hill — Cane River — Alexandria — General Bailey's Dam- 
Jenkins" Ferry— Price's Raid in Missouri— Fort Morgan— Siege and Capture of 
Mobile , „ ., 377 



if 



20 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XI. 

KEGIMENTAL HISTORY— FIRST INFANTRY, (THREE MONTHS.) 

PAQB. 

Regimental Roster— Ordered to Chambersburg — Hagerstown— Skirmish at Falling 
Waters — March to Martinstaurg — Bunker Hill — Charlestown- Upper Potomac 
— Mustered out — Regiment Reorganized — Regimental Roster — Skirmish on 
Granny White's Pike — Rogersville — Battle of Pen-y ville — JeflFerson Pike — 
Stone River— Hoover's Gap— Chicamauga — Resaca— Dallas — Kenesaw Moun- 
tain — Atlanta — Jonesboro — Return to Wisconsin — Muster out — Statistics 42$ 



CHAPTER XII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— SECOND INFANTRY AND IRON BRIGADE. 

Regimental Roster— First Battle of Bull Run — King's Brigade — Roster of the Sixth 
Regiment— Roster of the Seventh Regimen t^Organization of the "Iron Brigade" 
— Operations near Fredericksburg— Beverley Ford — Battle of Gainesville — 
Second Bull Run — South Mountain — Antietam — Fredei-icksburg-Fitzhugh's 
Crossing— Cliancellorville — Gettysburg— Veteran Re-enlistments— Battles of the 
Wilderness — Spottsylvania— North Anna — Cold Harbor — Second Regiment Re- 
turns Home — Mustered out — Statistics — Independent Battalion — Subsequent 
Brigade History— Assault on Petersburg — Battle at Weldon Railroad — Hatcher's 
Run — Dabney's Mills — Five Forks — Capture of Lee's Army —March to Wash- 
ington — Grand Review — Sent to Louisville — Return to Wisconsin — Mustered 
out— Iron Brigade Dissolved — Statistics 438 



CHAPTER XIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRD INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Sliirmish at Bolivar — Occupation of Frederick — Pursuit of 
Jackson — Fight at Buckton Station — Retreat of General Banlcs- Battle of 
Cedar Mountain — Antietam — Cliancellorville — Fight at Beverley Ford— Gettys- 
burg — Sent to New York — Transferred to Army of the Cumberland —Veterans 
Re-enlist— Veteran Tliird on Furlough — Battle of Resaca— Dallas — Pine Knob 

— Kenesaw — Atlanta — March to Savannah — March to Goldsboro — Battle of 
Averysboro — 6entonville — Surrender of Jolmstou's Army — Homeward Bound 

— Return to Wisconsin — Muster out — Regimental Statistics 483 



CHAPTER XIV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FOURTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Regiment Arrives at Baltimore — Expedition to the Eastern 
Sliore — Newport News — Ship Island — Capture of New Orleans — Baton Rouge — 
First Attack on Vicksburg— Burning of Grand Gulf— Second Attack on Vicks- 
burg — Gunboat Tyler — Battle of Baton Rouge — Texas Rangers Captured — 
Bombardment of Port Hudson — Fii-st Teche Expedition — Battle at Bislaud — 
Port Hudson — Assault of May 27th and June 14tli — Surrender of Port Hudson — 
Changed to Cavalry Regiment 498 



CONTENTS. 21 

CHAPTER XV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FIFTH INFANTRY, 

PAOE. 

Regimental Roster — Winter near Washington — Embark on Peninsula Campaign — 
Battle of Lee's Mills— Williamsburg— Qolden's Farm — Change of Ba.se — Rear 
Guard, at White Oak Swamp Bridge — Malvern Hill— Return to Alexandria — 
Battle at Crampton's Gap — Antietam— Fredericksburg- Marye's Heights— Salera 
Church — Gettysburg — On Duty in New York — Rappahannock Station — Mine 
Run — Battles of the Wilderness— Spottsj'lvania — North Anna — Cold Harbor- 
Petersburg- Ream's Station —Veterans Return Home — Defense of Washington 

— Independent Battalion — Battle of Snicker's Gap — Charlestown — Cedar Creek 

— Regiment Reorganized — Roster — Joins Sheridan at Cedar Creek — Return to 
Petersburg— Battle at Dabney's Mills — Capture of the Enemy's Works at Peters- 
burg—Battle of Sailor's Creek — Lee's Surrender — March to Washington — 
Return to Wisconsin — Muster out 508 



CHAPTER XVI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— EIGHTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Arrives at St. Louis— Battle of Fredericktown — New Madrid 
and Island No. 10 — Farmington — Siege of Corinth — Battle of luka — Corinth — 
Sei-vice in West Tennessee — Move to Vicksburg — Battle of Jackson— Siege of 
Vicksburg — Expedition to Canton — Meridian Expedition — Red River Expedi- 
tion—Rear Guard of Banks' Army — Battle of Lake Chicot— Veterans Return 
Home — Retui'n to Memphis — Move to White River —Join in Pursuit of General 
Price — Reinforce General Thomas— Battle of Nashville — Return to Vicksburg — 
New Orleans— Battles before Mobile — Mustered out of Service — Statistics 526 



CHAPTER XVII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— NINTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster— Move to Leavenworth, Kansas— March to Fort Scott— Join the 
Indian Expedition— Battle of Newtouia — Prairie Grove — Service in Missouri — 
Embark for Helena, Ark. — Join General Steele's Army at Little Rock — March 
to Camden — Battle of Elkins' Ferry — Jenkins' Ferry — Return to Little Rock — 
Non-veterans — Mustered out — Independent Battalion — Expedition to the Saline 
River.-. 540 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster— Arrival in Kentucky — Move to Nashville — Capture of Hunts- 
ville — Railroad Guard Duty — Brilliant Fight at Paint Rock Bridge — Death of 
Captain Moore — Rear Guard at Stevenson — March to Louisville — Battle of Per- 
ry ville — Battle of Stone River — Hoover's Gap — Cross th5 Tennessee — Battle of 
Chicamauga — Severe Loss — Assault on Mission Ridge — Battles from Dallas 
to Atlanta — On Guard at Marietta — Return Home —Mustered out — Statistics 548 



22 . CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— ELEVENTH INFANTRY. 

PAGK. 

Hegimental Roster — At Sulphur Springs — Steele's Advance into Arkansas — Battle 
of Bayou Cache — Helena, Ark.— Return to Missouri — Join Grant's Forces near 
Vieksburg — March Across the Peninsula — Battle near Port Gibson — Champion 
Hills — Black River Bridge — Before Vieksburg — Assault of the 22d of May — 
Second Battle at Jackson, Miss.— Transferred to the Department of the Gulf— 
Berwick City — Teche Expedition — Return — Embark for Texas — Return to Bra- 
shier City— Move to Mobile— Assault on Fort Blakely— "War Closed — On Duty 
at Mobile — Mustered Out— Return Home— Statistics 559 



CHAPTER XX. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWELFTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster— Leavenworth City— March to Fort Scott — To Fort Riley— Re- 
turn to Leavenworth— Embark for West Tennessee — Join Grant's Southward 
Movement— March to Memphis — Expedition to Coldwater — Move to Vieksburg 
— The Siege — Battle of Jackson — Natchez — Return to Vieksburg — Veteran Re- 
enlistments— The Meridian Expedition— Skirmish at Baker's Creek— On Veteran 
Furlough — Joins General Sherman in Georgia — Battle at Kenesaw Mountain — 
Nickajack Creek — Bald Hill, July 21-22 — Battle of the 28th of July — Siege of At- 
lanta— Jonesboro—Lovejoy's Station— Join Sherman's Grand March — Savan- 
nah — Pocotaligo — Orangebui'g — Goldsboro — Johnston's Surrender — March to 
Washington — Grand Review — Move to Louisville — Return to Wisconsin — 
Disbanded — Statistics 574 



CHAPTER XXI. 

RECtlMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Leavenworth — March to Fort Scott — To Fort Riley — 
Return to Leavenworth — Move to West Tennessee — Stationed at Fort Henry — 
Fort Donelson — At Stevenson, Ala.— Huntsville — Guard Sherman's Communi- 
cations-Veteran Re-enlistments— Return to Huntsville — Move to Knoxville — 
Return to Nashville — Move Down the Mississippi— New Orleans — Texas — 
Muster out — Return Home — Statistics 590 



CHAPTER XXII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Arrive at St. Louis — Move up Tennessee River — Battle of 
Shiloh— Battle of Corinth — Joins Grant's Southward Movement — March to 
Memphis — Move to Vieksburg — To Lake Providence — Return to Vieksburg — 
Assault of the 22d of May — The Siege — Move to Natchez — Re-enlistments — 
Veteran Furlough — Red River Expedition — Worden's Battalion — Battle of 
Tupelo — Expedition to Augusta, Ark.— Pursuit of Price through Missouri — 
Battle of Nashville -^ Return to Vieksburg — New Orleans — Investment of 
Mobile — Attack on Spanish Fort — Mobile Captured— Muster out— Return 
Home — Disbanded — Statistics 598 



CONTENTS. 23 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. 

PAGE, 

Regimental Roster — Arrive at St. Louis — Bird's Point — Island No. 10— Skirmisli at 
Union City— Capture of Island No. 10 — Move to West Tennessee — Transferred to 
Army of the Cumberland — Florence, Ala.— Move to Louisville— Battle of Perry- 
ville — Knob Gap — Stone River — Death of Lieutenant Colonel McKee — March 
on Tullahoma — Battle of Chieamauga — Death of Colonel Heg — Battle of Mission 
Ridge — Move to East Tennessee — Battle at Rocky Face Ridge — Resaca — Dallas 

— Kenesaw Mountain — Atlanta— At Whitesides — Mustered out — Statistics 613 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move up Tennessee River — Battle of Pittsburg Landing — Siege 
of Corinth — Battle of Corinth — Lake Providence — Stationed at Redbone Church 

— New Companies— Old Companies on Veteran Furlough — Move to Cairo — Join 
Sherman's Army in Tennessee — At Ackworth — Brush Mountain — Kenesaw— 
Cross the Chattahoochie — Battle at Bald Hill— Atlanta— Jouesboro — Pursuit of 
Hood — Join in Sherman's Grand March — Savannah — Goldsboro — Surrendep of 
Johnston's Ai'my- Return Home— Mustered out — Statistics.....". , 632 

CHAPTER XXV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to St. Louis — To Pittsburg Landing— Siege of Corinth — 
Battle of Corinth — In West Tennessee — Move to Vicksburg— Lake Providence 

— Return to Vicksburg — Assault of May 19th — Siege of Vicksburg — Move to 
Natchez — Fort Beauregard — Vicksburg — Veterans Return Home on Furlough 

— Return to Cairo — Join Army of General Sherman — Battle of Kenesaw Moun- 
tain — Bald Hill — Atlanta — Jonesboro — Pursuit of Hood — Sherman's Grand 
March — Savannah — Goldsboro — Raleigh — Richmond — Washington — Return 
Home — Muster out — Statistics 644 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Sent to Tennessee River — Battle of Pittsburg Landing — Siege 
of Corinth — Battle of Corinth — Lake Providence— Battle of Jackson — Champion 
Hills — Siege of Vicksburg — Move to Chattanooga — Battle of Mission Ridge — 
Battle of AUatoona — Veterans on Furlough — Non-veterans In Sherman's March 
— Veterans in Provisional Division — Proceed to Goldsboro — Rejoin the Regiment 

— Review at Washington — Return Home — Muster out — Statistics 656 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY- NINETEESTTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Ordered to Fortress Monroe — Norfolk — Suffolk —Yorktown 

— Newbern — Join Eighteenth Aimy Corps — Before Petersburg — Fort Darling— 
Veterans on Furlough — Battle of Fair Oaks — Enter Richmond— Mustered out- 
Return Home— Statistics 668 



24 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTIETH INFANTRY. 

PAGE. 

Regimental Roster— Ordered to Missouri — Marcli to Cross Hollows — Battle of Prai- 
rie Grove — Expedition to Van Buren — Move to Rolla — Siege of Vicksburg — 
Expedition to Yazoo City — At Carrol ton — Expedition to Texas — Proceed to 
Matamoras, Mexico — Return to New Orleans — Proceed to Mobile — Capture cf 
Fort Morgan — East Pascagoula — Capture of Spanish Fort— Proceed to Galveston 
•—Return Home— Mustered out — Statistics 675 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY- FIRST INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Cincinnati — To Louisville — Battle of Perryville— 
Jefferson Pike — Stone River— Hoover's Gap — Move into Georgia— Dug Gap — 
Battle of Chicamauga — Resaca — Dallas — Kenesaw Mountain — Peach Tree Creek 
— Atlanta — Jonesboro — Pursuit of Hood — Join the Grand March of Sherman — 
Savannah — Bentonville — Goldsboro — Raleigh — Review at Washington — Return 
Home — Muster out— Statistics 686 



CHAPTER XXX. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY- SECOND INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Proceed to Cincinnati — On Duty in Kentucky— Proceed to 
Nashville — Battle at Thompson's Station— Brentwood Station— Regiment again 
Organized — At Murfreesboro — Battle of Resaca — Dallas — Kenesaw — Chatta- 
hoochie — Peach Tree Creek — Siege of Atlanta — First to Enter the City— Accom- 
pany the Grand March — Savannah — Bentonville — Goldsboro — Return Home- 
Muster out— Statistics 697 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY- THIRD INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Depart for Cincinnati — Service in Kentucky— Move to Mem- 
phis—Sherman's Attack on Vicksburg— Battle of Arkansas Post — March to Rear 
of Vicksburg — Battle of Grand Gulf — Champion Hills — Black River Bridge- 
Siege of Vicksburg — Transferred to Department of the Gulf — Teche Expedition 
— Battle of Carrion Crow Bayou — Return to Berwick City — Embark for Texas — 
Return to Berwick City— Red River Expedition— Battle of Sabine Cross Roads — 
Expedition to Mobile — Return to Morganzia — Expedition to Mobile — Capture 
of Spanish Fort and Blakeley— Mobile — Muster out — Return Home — Statistics.. 707 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY- FOURTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to J,ouisville — Battle of Perryville — Stone River- 
Chicamauga — Mission Ridge — East Tennessee Campaign— Atlanta Campaign- 
Rocky Face Ridge — Resaca — Adairsville — Dallas — Kenesaw Mountain — Peach 
Tree Creek— Siege of Atlanta — Jonesboro — On Duty at Chattanooga— Battle of 
Franklin -Nashville — Service in East Tennessee — Muster out— Return Home- 
Statistics 720 



CONTENTS. 25 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 

PAGE. 

Regimental Roster — Sent to Minnesota — Return to Wisconsin- Move to Colum- 
bus, Ky. — Satartia, on the Yazoo River — Snyder's Bluff— Siege of Vicksburg — 
On Duty at Helena — Slierman's Meridian Expedition — Move to Cairo — Thence 
to Decatur, Ala.— Join Slierman's Anny — Battle of Resaca — Dallas — Battle of 
Decatur, Ga.— Atlanta — Jonesboro — Pursuit of Hood — Join in the Grand Marcli 

— Savannah — Battle of the Salkchatchie — Reach Goldsboro — Surrender of Joim- 
stou's Army — Homeward March — Grand Review at Washington — Muster out — 
Return to Madison — Statistics 734 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Virginia — Battle of Chancellorville — Gettysburg — 
TransfeiTed to Tennessee — Battle of Mission Ridge— Atlanta Campaign — Battle 
of Resaca — Dallas — Kenesaw Mountain — Peach Tree Creek— Atlanta— March 
with Sherman — Battle of Averysboro — Ben ton ville— Return Home — Muster 
out — Statistics '. 74g 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster— Move to Columbus, Ky.— Down the Mississippi — Up the Yazoo 

— March to Snyder's Bluff— Siege of Vicksburg — Move to Arkansas — Capture of 
Little Rock — March to Camden — Battle at Jenkins' Ferry — Return to Little 
Rock — Ordered to Join Canby's Forces — Capture of Spanish Fort — Move to 
Texas — Mustered out — Return Home — Statistics 760 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Columbus, Ky.— To Helena — At St. Charles— Yazoo 
Pass Expedition — Return to Helena — Battle of Helena — Capture of Little Rock 

— Expedition to Mount Elba— Skirmish— Return to Pine Bluff— Join Canby's 
Forces before Mobile — Surrender of Spanish Fort and Blakely — On Service in 
Alabama — Move to Texas — Mustered out of Service — Return Home — Disbanded 

— Statistics 7(37 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Cairo- To Helena— Friar's Point— Cotton Specula- 
tors—Expedition to WTiite River— Yazoo Pass Expedition — March to Hard 
Times Landing — Battle of Port Gibson — Cliampion Hills — Assault of May 22d — 
Siege of Vick.sburg — Battle of Jackson — Transferred to Gulf Department — Sec- 
ond Teche Expedition— Texas- Red River Expedition — Battle of Sabine Cross 
Roads — Retreat to Alexandria— Assist in Building Bailey's Dam — Stationed at 
Morganzia — Join General Canby's Forces — Siege of Spanish Fort and Blakely — 
Move to Shreveport- Muster out— Return Home — Statistics... 774 



2!8, CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

KEGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTIETH INFANTRY. 

PAOB 

Regimental Roster — On Duty in the State — Move to Dacotah Territory— Take Part 
in Sully's Indian Expedition — Build Fort "Wadsworth — Return — Move to 
Louisville, Ky.— Muster out — Return Home — Statistics 789 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Columbus, Ky.— Thence to Nashville — Ordered to the 
Front — Siege of Atlanta — Join General Sherman's Grand March — Battle of 
Averysboro—Bentonville— Arrival at Goldsboro — Surrender of Johnston's Army 

— Homeward March — Bichmond—Washington— Grand Review — Move to Louis- 
ville, Ky.— Muster out — Return Home — Statistics 793 

CHAPTER XL. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY- SECOND INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Memphis — Join Grant's Southward Movement — Dis- 
aster at Holly Springs — Return to Memphis — On Provost Duty — Move to Mos- 
cow, Tenn.— Move toVicksburg — Take Part in Meridian Expedition — Move up 
the River— Caii-o- Up the Tennessee — Decatur, Ala.— Ordered to Atlanta— In 
Atlanta Campaign — In Sherman's Grand March— Savannah — Fight at Pocotaligo 

— River's Bridge — South Edisto — Bentonville — Goldsboro — Surrender of John- 
ston's Armj' — Homeward March —Washington — Grand Review — Muster out — 
Return Home — Statistics 800 

CHAPTER XL I. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Memphis — Join Sherman's Army — Join Grant's 
Southward Movement — Expedition Abandoned — Return to Memphis — Expedi- 
tion to the Cold water River — Move to Vicksburg — Snyder's Bluff — Move to the 
Rear of Vicksburg — Engage in the Siege — Battle of Jackson — Return toVicks- 
burg— Move to Natchez — Return to Vicksburg — Meridian Expedition — Red 
River Expedition — Vicksburg — Expedition to Central Mississippi — Camargo 
Cross Roads — Tupelo — Move to Brownsville, Ark. — Pursuit of General Price 
into Missouri — Move to Nashville — Battle of Nashville — Move to New Orleans 

— Move to Mobile— Spanish Fort — War Closed — Move to Vicksburg — Mustered 
out — Statistics • 808 

CHAPTER XLII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY- FOURTH INFANTRY. 

Kegimental Rost«r — Move to Columbus, Ky.— Engage in Garrison Duty — Time 
Expires— Return Home — Muster out — Statistics 820 



CONTENTS. 27 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. 

PiOE. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Alexandria, La.— Port Hudson — Morganzia — St. 
Charles, Ark.— Join General Canby's Forces- Siege of Spanish Fort — On Daty 
in Alabama — Move to Texas 821 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Washington — Join Hancock's Corps — Battle of Tolo- 
potomy— Cold Harbor — Before Petersburg— June 18th — Jerusalem Plankroad — 
Strawberry Plains— Explosion of the Mine — Battle at Deep Bottom — Weldon 
Railroad — Battle at Ream's Station — Hatcher's Run — Dabney 's Mills — Peters- 
burg Captured — Pursuit of Lee — Surrender of his Army — March to Washing- 
ton— Grand Review— Proceed to Louisville — Mustered out — Return Home — 
Statistics 82:1 

CHAPTER XLV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to Washington— Join Grant's Army — Move to Peters- 
burg— Assault of 17th and 18th of June— Explosion of the Mine — Assault of 30tli 
of July— Weldon Railroad — South Side Railroad— Hatcher's Run — Raid on tlie 
Weldon Railroad —Winter Quarters — Fort Steadman— Capture of Fort Mahone 
— Enter Petersburg — Surrender of Lee's Army— War Closed — Move to Wasli- 
ington — Grand Review— Muster out — Return Home — Regiment Disbanded — 
Statistics 835 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. 

Regimental Roster — First Battalion Arrives at Washington — Join the Army of the 
Potomac — Cold Harbor — Cross the James River— Petersburg —Assaults of June 
17th and 18th — June 30th — Battle on Weldon Railroad — Hatcher's Run — Second 
Battalion Arrives at Petersburg — Regimental Organization Complete — Capture 
of Fort Mahone— Occupation of Petersburg— War Closed— Proceed to Washington 
—Grand Review — Muster out— Return to Wisconsin — Statistics 845 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— ONE HUNDRED DAY TROOPS. 

Rosters— Thirty-ninth— Fortieth — Forty-flrst — Move to Memphis— On Picket and 
Guard Duty — Forrest's Raid— Time Expires— Return Home— Muster out 8.54 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY- FORTY-SECOND TO FIFTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 8<^ 



4 



28 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

COMPANY HISTORY— COMPANY G, BERDAN'S SHARPSHOOTERS. 

PAGE. 

Organization — Move to New York— To Washington —At Battles on the Peninsula — 
Second Bull Run— Antietam — Blackburn's Ford — Battle of Fredericksburg — 
Chancellorville — Gettysburg — Wapping Heights — Locust Grove — Campaign of 
1864 — In Battles from the Wilderness to Cold Harbor— Before Petersburg — Term 
Expires— Muster out— Return Home 871 

CHAPTER L. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FIRST CAVALRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to St. Louis — To Cape Girardeau — Operations in South- 
east Missouri — Raid into Arkansas — Disaster at La Anguille Ferry — Helena — 
Return to Cape Girardeau — Attack on Cape Girardeau — Ordered to Tennessee — 
In Rosecrans' Army — Battle of Chieamauga— Anderson's Cross Roads — Opera- 
tions in East Tennessee — In the Atlanta Campaign — Campaign of 1865— Assault 
and Capture of West Point — Cessation of Hostilities — Pursuit of Jefferson Davis 
— His Capture— Muster out — Return Home — Statistics 881 



CHAPTER LI. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— SECOND CAVALRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to St. Louis— To Springfield— First Battalion Bent to 
Cassville — Second and Third Battalions March through Arkansas— At Helena- 
Memphis — Snyder's Bluff— On Big Black River— Battle of Jackson — Expedi- 
tion to Canton —At Redbone Church — Fight near Yazoo City — Move to Memphis 
— Move to Texas — Muster out— Return Home — Statistics 900 



CHAPTER LII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— THIRD CAVALRY. 

Regimental Roster — Move to St. Louis — To Leavenworth City — On Duty in Kansas 
— Major Henning at Fort Scott — Regiment Joins Salomon's Brigade — At Battle 
of Cane Hill — Prairie Grove — Fight at Fort Gibson — Honey Springs— Cabin 
Creek — Massacre at Baxter Springs — On Veteran Furlough — Return to Little 
Rock — Regiment Reorganized — On Duty in Ariiansas — Missouri and Kansas — 
Ordered to Leavenworth City — Muster out — Return Home — Statistics 909 



CHAPTER LIII. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FOURTH CAVALRY. 

Organization as a Cavalry Regiment — On Scouting Duty — Exploit of Lieutenant 
Earl — Expedition to Rosedale — To Gros de Tete— Veteran son Furlough — Expe- 
dition to Clinton, La.— Death of Colonel Boardman — Earl's Independent Scouts 
— Major Craigue Captures Clinton — March towards Mobile — Return to Baton 
Rouge — Skirmish — March to Mobile — Into Georgia — Return to Vicksburg — 
Move to Texas — Still in Service 92i 

MILWAUKEE CAVALRY 928 



CONTENTS. 29 

CHAPTER LIV. 

COMPANY HISTORIES— LIGHT ARTILLERY. 

PAGE. 

Batteries One to Thirteen 928 

CHAPTER LV. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY— FIRST HEAVY ARTILLERY. 

Regimental Roster— Battery A in Defenses of Washington— Battery B at Lexington, 
^ Ky.— Battery C at Cliattanooga— In East Tennessee— Battery D at Brasliier City, 

La.— Batteries E to M in Defenses at Washington— Muster out — Statistics 970 

CONCLUSION 973 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Major General Charles S. Hamilton— Major General C. C. Washburn— Major General 
Carl Schurz— Brevet Major General T. H. Ruger— Brevet Major General Frederick 
Salomon — Brevet Major General Lysander Cutler — Brigadier General Rufus 
King — Brigadier General Halbert E. Paine — Brigadier General John C. Stark- 
weather—Brigadier General Lucius Fairchild — Brigadier General E. S. Bragg — 
Brigadier General Joseph Bailey — Brevet Brigadier General Harrison C. Hobart 
— Brevet Brigadier General Oscar H. La Grange — Brevet Brigadier General T. S. 
Allen — Brevet Brigadier General Jeremiah M. Rusk — Colonel Charles R.Gill — 
Colonel Sidney A. Bean — Colonel Frederick A. Boardman — Lieutenant Colonel 
David McKee — Mrs. Cordelia A. P. Harvey 975 



ILLUSTEATIOISrS. 



Governor ALEXANDER W. RAKDALL. 
Governor LOIJIS P. HARVEY. 
Governor EDWARD SALOMOIS'. 
Governor JAMES T. LEWIS. 
Adjutant General AUG. GAYLORD. 
President ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 
Lieutenant General ULYSSES S. GRANT. 
Major General WILLIAM T. SHERMAN. 
Mrs. CORDELIA A. P. HARYEY. 
Brigadier General HALBERT E. PAINE. 
Brigadier General LUCIUS FAIRCHILD. 
Brigadier General T. S. ALLEN. 
Lieutenant Colonel DAVID McKEE. 
Colonel 0. H. LaGRANGE. 
Colonel F. A. BOARDMAN. 
Colonel SIDNEY A. BEAN. 



MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTEE I. 



ACTION OF THE STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1861. 

State Administration of 1860 and 1861 — Resources — Legislature; 
OP 1861 — Governor's Message — Laws Passed — Fort Sumter — 
Popular Excitement — Call for 75,000 Militia — Gtovernor's Pro- 
clamation — First Tender of Service — Only one Regiment — 
Reserve Regiments Authorized — First Regiment Organized — 
Captain Little — Proclamation to Women op Wisconsin — To the 
People— Companies Tendering Service — Surgeon General Wol- 
cott — Adjutant General Utley — Camp Randall — Second, Third, 
and Fourth Regiments — Defense op Washington — Meeting op 
Loyal Governors — Governor's Letter, to President Lincoln — 
Generals King and Schurz — Two more Regiments Accepted — • 
Patriotic Women — Letter of Governor Randall. 

IK N"ovember, 1859, His Excellency Governor Alex. "W. Ran 
clair, was reelected to the office of Governor of Wisconsin, and 
entered upon the duties of his second term on the first Mon- 
day of January, 1860. The other State officers, elected in 1859, 
were the Hon. Butler G. ISToble, as Lieutenant Governor, Hon. 
Louis P. Harvey, Secretary of State, Hon. Samuel J). Hastings, 
State Treasurer, being his second term, Hon. J. H. Howe, Attor- 
ney General, Hon. J. L. Pickard, State Superintendent of Schools, 
and Hon. G. Van Steenwyck, Bank Comptroller. The above 
named individuals composed the State administration for the 
years 1860 and 1861. 

The reports of the several State ofiicers, in 1860, exhibited the 
condition of the State before the outbreak of the rebellion. 
3 



34 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The decennial enumeration of the population of the State was 
made in the year 1859, and Wisconsin was found to contain 
775,881 inhabitants, being an increase of 470,490 in ten years, 
the population in 1850 being 305,391. Wisconsin was organized 
as a Territory in July, 1836, at which time the enumeration 
showed a population of 11,683. From that period up to 1842, the 
population increased very slowly, the tide of emigration not 
setting towards Wisconsin until that year, when the population 
of the State rapidly rose from 44,478, in the year 1842, to 155,277, 
in 1846. Wisconsin was organized as a State in 1848, when it 
was admitted into the Union. In 1846, the first wave of the 
great flood of emigration from the old countries reached the 
western shore of Lake Michigan, and from that time, yearly, our 
State has received a large share of population from that source. 

We desire to show, by the above statement, the aggregate of 
the population of the State immediately preceding the war, and 
to state that fully one-third of our people being of foreign 
birth, many of them were not liable to do military duty, not 
being recognized as United States citizens. In round numbers, 
the population of Wisconsin, at the beginning of 1861, was 
about 800,000. 

The valuation of real and personal estate, in 1861, was as 
follows : 

Number of acres assessed $17,298,631 d8% 

Aggregate value of lands, exclusive of city and village lots, 96,513,421 77 

" " " " of city and village lots, 32,013,734 42 

Total aggregate of real property, as assessed, 128,527,156 19 

» " " " " as equalized by State Board, 158,175,360 58 

Aggregate value of personal property, 24,331,861 55 

Total value of all property in tlie State, as equalized by the State 

Board of Equalization, was 182,507,222 13 

At the beginning of 1861, the total banking capital of the 
State was $7,237,000, with a circulation of |4, 580,832, which 
was secured by the deposit of State stocks to the amount of 
$5,120,080, and specie amounting to $88,725 60. Of the State 
stocks deposited for security, as above stated, $3,163,560 were 
issued by States who were eventually in open rebellion' against 
the government. In consequence of the attitude assumed by 
these States, their stocks rapidly depreciated in the New York 
market, and the Bank Comptroller was obliged to call for further 
security from the banks of the State. This crippled many of the 



RESOURCES OF THE STATE. 35 

banking institutions, and the financial aiiairs of the State were 
in a very critical condition when the war of the rebellion began 
in April, 1861. This state of aifairs was in a great degree reme- 
died during the summer of that year, by the sale of the State 
bonds authorized to be issued at the regular and extra sessions of 
the Legislature, in 1861, for war purposes. These bonds were 
sold to the bankers of the State, on condition that they should be 
deposited as security for the circulation then outstanding. To 
etfect this, the stocks of the rebellious States were disposed of at 
the best price to be had in New York, and the proceeds invested 
in Wisconsin State bonds. 

We cite these statistics of the State to show its numerical, eco- 
nomical and financial condition prior to the terrible contest which, 
for the past four years, has drawn so enormously upon * the 
resources of the country, in the shape of men and money. 

The educational and other institutions of the State exhibited a 
good degree of prosperity, but as they were only incidentally 
afiected by the war, we content ourselves by merely mentioning 
the aggregate amounts of the different funds under the manage- 
ment of the State ofiicers : 

The School Fund was estimated at 83,234,1.56 00 on the 1st of October, 1860. 
" University" " " " 286,725 92 " " " " " " 

The number of persons between the ages of four and twenty, 
as reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, for 1860, 
was 288,984, of which number, 199,455 attended school during 
the year. 

Such was the condition of Wisconsin when she was called upon 
to aid the General Government in its efifort to sustain itself 
against the designs of the secession conspirators. The commer- 
cial afiTairs of the State were sadly embarrassed by the deprecia- 
tion of the currency, which was felt very severely by the State 
authorities when they entered upon the labor of raising forces 
for the IsTational defense. 

The designs of the secessionists were so far developed at the 
close of 1860 as to show that resistance to the National authority 
had been fully determined on. The formal act of secession in 
South Carolina, on the 20th of December, the seizure of the 
forts, arsenals and other property of the Nation, in the Southern 



36 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

States, indicated that a struggle was at liand, whicli would necessi- 
tate a call, ou the part of the President, for a military force, iu 
order to preserve the National authority. 

It is not the province of this work to discuss the points at issue 
or to enumerate the causes which led the Southern States to seek 
a disruption of the Union. Those matters more properly belong 
to the general historian. Our mission is merely to show what a 
single State has done towards sustaining the National Govern- 
ment in its great struggle for existence — to gather, and place in 
permanent form, the deeds of those of its people who went forth 
to battle for the preservation of the blessings which our favored 
country had so long enjoyed, under the liberal principles of our 
National Constitution. 

The open acts of the conspirators attracted the attention of the 
authorities of the loyal States, and their several Executives took 
early occasion to lay before their respective legislative bodies the 
necessity of such action as would empower them to respond to 
any call which might be made by the President for aid to put 
down the threatened insurrection. 

The Legislature of Wisconsin met at Madison on the 9th day 
of January, 1861. In his annual message, Governor Randall set 
forth the dangers which threatened the National Union, as de- 
veloped in the actions of the secessionists up to that date. He 
also elaborately argued the question of the right of a State to 
secede from the Union, and goes on to say : 

A variety of excuses are made for the threatening attitude assumed toward the 
Government and Union. Tlie extreme Southern States complain of the personal liberty 
laws, and demand their immediate and unconditional repeal. * * * Further com- 
plaints are made because of the difficulty of enforcing the Fugitive Slave Law in the 
North. 

******************* 

Personal liberty laws are found, or should be found, upon the statutes of every State. 
They ought to be there. All States have them, both North and South, varying in their 
character and provisions, yet still personal liberty laws. The highest duty of the Leg- 
islature of any civilized State is to provide, by every constitutional means for the protec- 
tion of the rights of person of the citizens. So a law for the protection and preservation of 
the liberty of the people cannot be too stringent, if it is within the Constitution. The 
States never surrendered the right to protect the person of citizens. Every living human 
being has a right to a legal test of the question of whether he is a free man or a slave. 
While it cannot be consented that laws, looking to the protection of liberty, should bo 
repealed, yet all such laws should conform to the Constitution of the United States. If, 
on, a close examination and scrutiny, you are satisfied that any of the provisions of our 
personal liberty laws are in conflict with the Constitution, it will be your duty, as your 
pleasure, to so change them that they shall conform to that Constitution. But no fear, 
no favor, no hope of reward, no demand, no threat, should ever induce or drive a free 



governor's message. 37 

people to break down the walls of their protectiou. We love the Constitution and the 
Union of tliese States. We will make sacrifices of feeling to appease and conciliate our 
brethren, but lue will make no more sacrifices of principle. While this Government stands, 
and we consent to live under it, Liberty may pay to Slavery the price the Fathers 
agreed should be paid, but, with our consent, it shall pay no more. We will abide by, 
and have never refused to abide by, the compromises of our common Constitution. 
But, subject to that Constitution, the civil and religious liberty, for which the flesh of 
the martyrs melted, and their bones crackled, in the flames ; for which the Pilgrims 
becanie Pilgrims, and for which our fathers fought, shall travel down to otiier genera- 
tions as they came careering on in the midst of the ages, with not one right impaii'ed or 
one attribute lost. 

******************* 

Secession Is revolution; revolution is war; war against the Government of the 
United States is treason. 

It is time, now, to know whether we have any Government, and if so, whether it 
has any strength. Is our written constitution more than a sheet of parchment ? The 
nation must be lost or preserved by its own strength. Its strength is in the patriotism 
of the people. It is time, now, that politicians become patriots, that men show their 
love of country by every sacrifice taut that of principle, and by unwavering devotion to 
Its interests and integrity. 

The hopes of civilization and Christianity are suspended now upon the answer 
to this question of dissolution. The capacity for, as well as the right of, self-govern- 
ment is to pass its ordeal, and speculation to become certainty. Other systems have 
been tried and have failed, and all along, the skeletons of nations have been strewn, as 
warnings and land-marks upon the great highway of historic government. Wisconsin 
is true, and her people steadfast. She will not destroy the Union, nor consent that it 
shall be done. Devised by great, and wise, and good men, in days of sore trial, it must 
stand. Like some bold mountain, at whose base the great seas break their angry floods, 
and around whose summit the thunders of a thousand hurricanes have rattled, strong, 
unmoved, immovable — so may our Union be, while treason surges at its base, and 
passions rage around it, unmoved, immovable — here let it stand forever. 

In the same message, His Excellency urged the necessity of 
farther legislation, in order to effect a more efficient organization 
of the militia of the State, and concluded in words that indicated 
that he " scented the battle afar off," and warned our legislators 
to make preparation. 

The signs of the times indicate that there may arise a contingency in the condition 
of the Government, when it will become necessary to respond to a call of the National 
Government for men and means to maintain the integrity of the Union, and to thwart 
the designs of men engaged in an organized treason. While no unnecessary expense 
should be incurred, yet it is the part of wisdom, both for individuals and States, in 
revolutionary times, to be prepared to defend our institutions to the last extremity. 
I commend this subject to your wisdom and discretion. 

On the 16th of January, the following joint resolution was 
adopted by the Senate, which was concurred in by the Assembly : 

Resolved, hy the Senate, the Assembly concurring/, That the people of Wisconsin are ready 
to co-operate with the friends of the Union everywhere for its preservation, to yield a 
cheerful obedience to its requirements, and to demand a like obedience from all others; 
and therefore adopt, as the sentiments of this Legislature, the preamble and resolutions 
of the State of New York, as follows : 

Whereas, The insurgent State of South Carolina, after seizing the Post Ofllce, Custom 
House, moneys and fortifications of the Federal Government, has, by firing into a 
vessel ordered by the Government to convey troops and provisions to Fort Sumter, 
virtually declared war ; and 



38 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Whereas, The forts and property of the United States Government in Georgia. 
Alabama and Louisiana have been unlawfully seized with hostile intentions; and 

Whereas, As treason, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, exLsts in. 
one or more of the States of the Union ; and • 

Whereas, further. Senators and Congressmen avow and maintain their treasonable 
acts ; therefore 

Hesolved, by the Senate, the Assembly concurring. That the Legislature of Wisconsin, pro- 
foundly impressed with the value of the Union, and determined to preserve it unim- 
paired, hail with joy the recent firm, dignified and patriotic special message of the 
President of the United States : that we tender to him, through the Chief Magistrate of 
our own State, whatever aid, in men and money, may be required to enable him to en- 
force the laws and uphold the authority of the Federal Government, and in defense of 
the more perfect Union, which has conferred prosperity and happiness on the American 
people. Renewing the pledge given and redeemed by our fathers, we are ready to 
devote our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honors in upholding the Union and the 
Constitution. 

Resolved, by the Senate, the Assembly concurring. That the Union-loving citizens of Dela ■ 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri and Tennessee, who 
laJjor witli devoted courage and patriotism to withhold their States from the vortex of 
secession, are entitled to the gratitude and admiration of the whole people. 

Resolved, by the Senate, the Assembly concurring. That the Governor be respectfully re- 
quested to forward, forthwith, copies of the foregoing resolutions to the President of 
the Nation, and the Governors of all the States of the Union. 

A lively intei'est was manifested in the discussion of these reso- 
lutions in botli branches of the Legislature. Several proposed 
amendments were defeated, and the resolutions adopted unani- 
mously by both houses. It is worthy of remark, however, that 
the democratic members voted for the resolutions under protest, 
as follows : 

In voting for the preamble and joint resolutions. No. 6, adopted by this honorable 
body, the undersigned ask the consent of the Senate to have this their protest go on the 
journal in connection with their votes, to the end that the country may know, that 
wiiile we cannot vote against any reasonable proposition to aid the President of our 
common country in maintaining the Constitution and the laws thereof against treason- 
able violence and lawless force, we at tlie same time are in favor of announcing to the 
world our purpose to be just and even magnanimous to our brethren of the South, in all 
things j ust and proper under the Constitution, before (or at the time) we declare our pur- 
I)Ose to resort to extreme measures. In other words, we believe it our duty that while we 
vote to aid in the execution of the laws, and the maintenance of order, we should at the 
same time hold out a means of reconciliation, with a view to avoid bloodshed if possible. 
Having failed, for want of numerical strength, to enforce these, our solemn views in the 
resolutions before this honorable body, we yielded to overpowering numbers in pursu- 
ance of patriotic motives, and voted for the resolutions, while earnestly, yet respectfully, 
protesting against the action of the majority in voting down the propositions we have 
contended for, with a view to a harmonious solution of the complications by which we 
are surrounded. 

This protest, signed by the democratic members of the Senate 
and Assembly, was entered on the journals of both Houses. 

On the 26th day of January, Governor Randall sent to the 
Legislature the preamble and resolutions adopted by the Gene- 
ral Assembly of Virginia, on the 19th January, 1861. As these 



VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS. 39 

resolutions possess historical interest, from the fact that they 
formed the foundation of the celebrated "Peace Congress" 
which met at Washington City in 1861, we insert a synopsis here. 

In the preamble, it is set forth as the deliberate opinion of the 
General Assembly of Virginia, that if the unhappy controversy 
between the South and North could not satisflictorily he settled, 
a permanent dissolution of the Union was inevitable — that the 
General Assembly, representing the wishes of the people of Vir- 
ginia, was desirous of averting such a calamity, they therefore 

Resolved, That, in behalf of Virginia, they extended an invi- 
tation to all States willing to unite with Virginia, for the adjust- 
ment of the alleged difEerences, to appoint Commissioners to meet 
at Washington on the 4th of February, 1861, to consider and 
agree, if practicable, upon some suitable adjustment. 

The second resolution appointed five Commissioners to repre- 
sent Virginia in said Convention. 

The third resolution instructed said Commissioners, if any 
plan of adjustment was agreed on, involving amendments to the 
Federal Constitution, to communicate such proposed amendments 
to Congress, for the purpose of having the same submitted by 
that body to the several States for ratification. 

The fourth resolution provided that if Congress should refuse 
to submit such amendments for ratification, as may be proposed, 
the Commissioners shall immediately communicate the fact to 
the Executive of Virginia, to be laid by him before a Convention 
of the people and the General Assembly. 

The fifth resolution gave it as the opinion of the General As- 
sembly that the resolutions submitted to the Senate of the United 
States by Hon. J. J. Crittenden should be modified, so that the 
first article proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States should apply to the territory south of latitude 36° 
30', and requiring the protection of slavery therein during terri- 
torial government, and that slave owners should be secured in 
the right of transit between and through the non-slaveholding 
States, and that this proposition should be the basis of settle- 
ment that would be accepted by the people of Virginia. 

The remaining resolutions appointed Ex -President Tyler a 
Commissioner to the President of the United States, and Judge 
John Robertson, Commissioner to South Carolina and other 



40 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

seceded States, for the purpose of requesting a suspension of any 
action which might produce collision between those States and 
the United States, during the pendency of the deliberations of 
the convention so desired by the people of Virginia. 

Copies of the resolutions were telegraphed to the Execlitives 
of the several States and the President of the United States. 

We have given a synopsis of these Virginia resolutions, deem- 
ing it sufficient for a perfect understanding of their import. 

Resolutions appointing Commissioners to this proposed " Peace 
Congress " were adopted in the Senate and Assembly of Wis- 
consin, but there being some dissimilar features in the resolutions, 
as proposed by each house, so much delay was occasioned by the 
usual parliamentary manoeuvering for a Committee of Conference, 
that the time for the meeting of the "Peace Congress" passed, 
and fortunately Wisconsin was saved the humiliation of partici- 
pating in the attempt to- settle our national difficulties on the 
basis set forth in the Virginia resolutions. 

The result of that " Peace Convention," or rather the attempt 
to patch up our ITational Union, by making protection to slavery 
one of the amendments to the Constitution, has become matter 
of history. It is sufficient here to say that, on the submission of 
its propositions to Congress, that body, in both houses, speedily 
rejected them, as well as the Crittenden resolutions. 

Those desirous of examining more fully the proceedings of this 
" Peace Convention," are respectfully referred to the general 
history of the rebellion, and also Moore's " Rebellion Record," 
where the proceedings may be found in full. 

We are inclined to look upon that " Peace Congress " as a 
farce, got up by the secession conspirators, to amuse the people 
of the North, while they obtained time to proceed with their 
nefarious plottings, looking with contempt at the efforts for com- 
promise thus being made, having resolved that no compromise or 
conciliation whatever would be concurred in by them, as they 
had fully made up their minds to break up the Union at all 
hazards. 

At the beginning of the session, Senator Gill offered a resolu- 
tion calling for a joint committee of the Senate and Assembly to 
inquire into the expediency of putting the State on a " war 
footing," and if deemed by such committee necessary and 



LAW PASSED. 41 

expedient, that the}" report a phiii or bill for that purpose. A bill 
was reported and became a law — for the defense of the State, 
and to aid in enforcing the laws and maintaining the authority 
of the General Government. 

Under this act, and its amendments, Governor Randall was 
enabled to organize the earlier regiments for Wisconsin. 

Section 1 stated that, in case of a call from the President of 
the United States, to aid in maintaining the Union and the suprem 
acy of the laws, to suppress rebellion or insurrection, or to repel 
invasion within the United States, the Governor was authorized 
to provide, in the most efficient manner, for responding to such 
call — to accept the services of volunteers for active service, in 
companies of seventy-five men each, rank and file, and in regi- 
ments of ten companies each, and to commission officers for the 
same. 

Section 2 authorized the Governor to contract for uniforms and 
equipments necessary for putting such companies into active 
service. 

Section 3 appropriated one hundred thousand dollars, for the 
purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act, and to pay for 
the transportation of troops, arms and munitions of war. 

Section 4 authorized the issue of State bonds to the amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars — directing how they should be pre- 
pared and made payable. 

Section 5 authorized the Governor to negotiate the sale of the 
bonds, and directed the money to be deposited in the State 
Treasury, to be applied to war purposes. 

Section 6 authorized the levying of a tax upon the property of 
the State, to pay ^le interest. 

This law was amended subsequently, at the close of the ses- 
sion, so as to increase the amount of bonds to two hundred thous- 
and dollars. 

Escaping the hands of the conspirators who had been set upon his 
track by the secession leaders to prevent his inauguration, on the 
4th of March, 1861, President Lincoln politely bowed his prede- 
cessor into retirement, and took up the reins of Government, and 
at once set to work in the effort to save the Nation from destruc- 
tion. The conciliatory tone of his inaugural address, while, at 
the same time, he insisted that the integrity of the National 



42 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Union should be preserved, gave token to tlie people of the 
ISTortli that a man was at the helm of Government, who was dis- 
posed to sustain the principles of the Constitution, and, if neces- 
sary, to resort to stringent measures in order to preserve the 
Union intact. The public mind at the ISTorth became easier, and 
the development of events was watched by millions of jealous 
eyes, and when news spread throughout the land that the rebel 
cannon were levelled at and about to open on Fort Sumter, the 
people of the North prepared to gird on their armor and meet 
the onset, which had now become inevitable, with that determi- 
nation and courage which the brave man feels when he has used 
every endeavor to conciliate and settle a contest without resort to 
blows. This was the condition of the public mind at the l^orth, 
when the news arrived that the flag of Fort Sumter was lowered 
to the rebel conspirators, on the 14th of April, 1861. 

l!^o sooner had the news come over the wires, than all other 
business was laid aside, and nothing but " war, war, war," was 
heard in the cities, and villages, and hamlets. The pen is inade- 
quate to describe the excitement which prevailed everywhere. 
Political parties seemed to be forgotten, and the public will was 
bent upon one idea, of sustaining the General Government, with 
men and money to the "bottom dollar." Political diflierences 
were merged in a single desire for the public good. Then we 
had a united N^orth. 

Early on Monday morning April 15th, Governor Randall 
received the Proclamation of President Lincoln, which reads as 
follows : 

Whereas, the laws of the United States have been for some time past, and now are 
opposed, and the execution thei'eof obstructed, in the States of Soutli Carolina, Gteorgia, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, by combinations too powerful to 
be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in 
the Marshals by law : 

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, in virtue of the 
power in me vested by the Constitution and Laws, have thought fit to call forth , and 
hereby do call forth, the niilitia of the several States of the Union, to the aggregate 
number of 75,000, in order to suppress said combinations and to cause the laws to be 
duly executed. 

Tlie details for this object will be immediately communicated to the State authorities 
througli the War Department. 

I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate and aid this effort to maintain the 
lionor, the integrity, and the existence of our National Union, and the perpetuity of 
popular government; and to redress wrongs already long enough endured. 

I deem it proper to say that the first service assigned to the forces hereby called forth, 
will probably be to re-possess the forts, places and property which have been seized from 



POPULAR EXCITEMENT. 43 

tlie Union ; and in every event, the utmost care will be observed, consistently with the 
objects aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, any destruction of or interference with, 
property, or any disturbance of peaceful citizens in any part of the country. 

And I hereby command the pei'sons composing the combinations aforesaid to dis- 
perse, and retire peaceably to their respective abodes within twenty days from this date. 
Deeming that the present condition of public affairs presents an extraordinary occa- 
Bion, I do hereby, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution, convene botli 
Houses in Congress. Senators and Representatives are therefore su mmoned to assem- 
ble at their respective chambers, at twelve o'clock, noon, on Thursday, the fourth day 
of July next, then and there to consider and determine suclx measures as, in their wis- 
dom, the public safety and interest may seem to demand. 

In witness whereof, I have hei-eunto sot my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington, this fifteenth day of April, in the year of our 
[l. S.] Lord, one tlaousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of 
the United States the eighty-tilth. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 
By the President, 

William H. Seward, Secretary of Stale. 

Oil the reception of the news of the fall of Fort Sumter, the 
excitement was intense. For months the people had watched 
the lowering clouds, looking with anxiety for the storm to break, 
hoping, however, that- some measure might he adopted whereby 
a resort to arms might be prevented. The persistency with 
which the Southern States proceeded in their mad career, by 
seizing National property, holding Secession Conventions, firing 
upon the steamer bearing succor to Major Anderson, and at last 
opening a cordon of fire upon the devoted garrison at Fort Sum- 
ter, demonstrated to Northern people that the great contest had 
begun. 

With a unanimity unknown in the history of the Nation, the 
people of the north, ahnost as one man, arose and gave assur- 
ances to the National Executive that the Government should be 
preserved at all hazards. ■ 

In "Wisconsin, as elsewhere, the public pulse quickened under 
the excitement. The dangers which surrounded the Nation 
awakened the liveliest sentiments of patriotism and devotion. 
For the time, party fealty was forgotten in the general desire to 
save the Nation. The minds of the people soon settled into the 
conviction that a bloody war was at hand, and that the glorious 
fabric of our National Government, and the principles upon 
which it is founded, were in jeopardy, and with a determination 
unparalleled in the history of any country, they rushed to its de- 
fense. On every hand the National flag could be seen displayed, 
and the public enthusiasm knew no bounds, and in city, town, 
and hamlet, the burden on every tongue was war. 



4-4 MILITARY 'HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

At Madison, the Madison Guard and Governor's Guard ap- 
peared on parade, and after marching about the Park, proceeded 
to the Capitol, and paid their respects to Governor RandalL A 
large concourse of people had assembled in the Park and about 
the Capitol. Captain J, P. Atwood presented the companies, in 
an appropriate speech, to which the Governor responded, in 
substance as follows : 

We have never been accustomed to consider the military arm as essential to the 
maintaiuence of our Government, but an exigency has arisen tliat demands its em- 
ployment. The time has come when parties and platforms must be forgotten, and all 
good citizens and patriots unite together in putting down rebels and traitors. The war 
just commenced should be fought where it had begun, on the ground of the seceding 
States, Charleston, where the first act was rehearsed, should be the theatre of the clos- 
ing scene. Fort Sumter should be retalien, and held, though it cost fifty tliouaand 
lives and a hundred million of dollars. What is money— what is life— In the presenc« 
of such a crisis ? 

The Governor closed by declaring that whatever power and 
whatever means should be placed at his disposal tor equipping 
the army of Wisconsin should be most faithfully employed to 
prosecute the war, and to aid in restoring peace. 

The occasion was one that roused up every patriotic impulse, 
and the speaker and audience seemed to feel that the hour had 
come for every man to do his duty. 

The meeting adjourned with three rousing cheers for the 
Governor, and three for the " Star Spangled Banner." 

The Legislature had voted to adjourn sine die, on Monday 
morning, April 15th, at 8 o'clock. No quorum being present in 
the Assembly, a call of the house was had, and the Sergeant-at- 
Arms sent for absentees. When a quorum was obtained, the 
following message was received from the Governor : 

To THE HONOEABLE THE LEGISLATURE : 

Extraordinarj' exigencies have arisen which may create the necessity of further legis- 
lation in order to aid efficiently tlie Federal Government to maintain its integrity. The 
act approved April 13, 1861, is entirely ineflicient. It provides for an expenditure and 
outlay of money, and provides nowhere for drawing money until after it has been ex- 
pended. Before anything can be done under that act, it requires a material amend- 
ment. It is a time when party politics sinlt into insignificance, and when the patriot- 
ism of legislators and the people must be manifested by works. An amendment of the 
law at this time will save the expense of a special session of the legislature, which 
I shall be compelled to call unless the necessary legislation is passed before an 
adjournment, A. W. RANDALL, 

On motion of Mr. Spooner, in the Assembly, and Senator 
Foot, in the Senate, the resolution to adjourn sine die, at 8 o'clock, 
was rescinded. 



AN UNITED NORTH. 45 

On the evening of tlie 15tli, there was an informal meeting of 
republican members of the Legislature and others in the Execu- 
tive Rooms. The object was to discuss the subject of providing 
for a resjionse to the President's call. Judge Cole, of the Supreme 
Court, was called to the chair, addressing the meeting in a sterliuo- 
speech, full of patriotism and the noblest sentiments. 

The democratic members had assembled elsewhere to discuss 
the mode of action which they should adopt under the circum- 
stances. About 9 o'clock, a committee of three was appointed 
to wait upon the meeting in the Executive Rooms and inform 
that body that they cordially endorsed every reasonable effort 
which could be suggested, in order to render aid to the General 
Government, and desired the opportunity to unite with the 
balance of their fellow members in the great work. 

The announcement of this decision, on the part of the demo- 
cratic members, was received with heartfelt enthusiasm, and a 
committee of three appointed to accompany the committee, and 
invite the gentlemen composing the democratic side of the Leg- 
islature to seats in the Convention, and to a cooperation in the 
objects of the meeting. Their entrance was greeted with ap- 
plause, and they were received in a brief and eloquent welcome 
by Judge Cole. Their chairman, Hon. W. H. Ramsay, remarked 
that, on behalf of the democratic members of the Legislature, he 
wished to express their hearty desire to promote the welfare of 
our common country, by lending their aid and counsel in any 
deliberation which had for its object the defense of the country 
and the restoration of the principles of our National Constitution. 

Li response to calls, several speeches were made, brief and to 
the point, all uniting in the declaration that they were ready to 
sustain the appropriation of whatever sum might be necessary to 
ejiforce the laws and quell the revolt. Various sums were pro- 
posed. $500,000 or 11,000,000, if adopted, it was contended, 
would show to the South that JSTorthern men were not parsimoni- 
ous of money or courage ^'hen called upon to sustain the 
Government. 

It will be well to state here that the rebels afterwards expressed 
themselves as astonished at the manner in which the Northern 
people met their hostile demonstrations. They had counted on 
a quiet submission, on the part of the North, to their demands, 



46 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and that a few weeks or months would serve to place the South- 
ern Confederacy among the recognized Nations of the earth. 
The uprising of the North, with its armed millions of men, and 
thousands of millions of wealth to hear the expense of a long 
war, startled the Southern conspirators to a realization that they 
had awakened a mighty power, which must eventually crush their 
treasonable designs. 

The law passed on the 13th of April was so amended as to 
authorize the issue of $200,000 of bonds. 

Before adjourning, the Legislature passed a law exempting 
from civil process all persons enlisting and mustering into the 
United States service from this State. 

The closing scenes in the Legislature are worthy of note, as 
showing the state of feeling which pervaded all classes at this 
period. In the forenoon, while waiting for business from the 
Assembly, the Senate took an informal recess, during which 
some patriotic senator struck up the song of " The Star Spangled 
Banner." No sooner had the first line been sung, than the whole 
crowd joined in singing both song and chorus, and never has 
that glorious old song inspired a more enthusiastic crowd than 
was then assembled. Hardly had the echoes died away, ere the 
strain was taken up in the Assembly Chamber, which was added 
to by the rushing crowd from the Senate, and from outside the 
Capitol, who joined in the chorus, and the volume of sound from 
hundreds of patriotic throats permeated through the whole 
building, and the old Capitol shook from basement to dome with 
the echoes. Every one, whether possessed of "music in his 
soul " or not, did his utmost to do justice to the song. The 
" Star Spangled Banner " hung over the Speaker's chau', and 
never did it look more lovely, or its stars brighter, than when 
thus saluted by the hundreds of patriotic hearts there assembled. 

The Legislature finally adjourned, giving nine cheers for the 
Star Spangled Banner and three cheers for the Governor's Guard, 
who had just then tendered their services. 

During Monday April 15th, the following despatch was received 
from the Secretary of "War : 

To His Excellency, 

A. W. RandalI/, Governor of Wisconsin. 
Call made on you by to-night's mail for one (1) regiment of miUtia for immediate 
service. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. 



governor's proclamation. 47 

The letter spoken of in the despatch was duly received and read 
as follows : 

War Department, Washington, April 1.3th, 1861. 
Under the Act of Congress " for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrection, repel invasion, etc., approved February 2Sth, 1795, 1 have 
tlie honor to request your Excellancy to cause to be immediately detached from the 
militia of your State the quota designated in the table below to serve as Infantry or 
Riflemen for the period of three months unless sooner discharged. 

Your Excellency will please communicate to me the time at or about which your 
quota will be expected at its rendezvous, as it will be met as soon as practicable by an 
officer or officers to muster it into the service and pay of the United States. At the same 
time the oath of fidelity to the United States will be administered to every officer and 
man. 

The mustering officer will he instructed to receive no man under the rank of commis- 
Bioned officer who is in years apparently over forty-flve or under eighteen, or who is not 
in physical strength and vigor. 

[Here follows the table of quotas of each State.] 
The rendezvous of your State will be at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

I have the honor, etc., 
To His Excellency, SIMON CAMERON. 

Alex. W. Randall, (Governor of Wiscotisin. 

In obedience to the call of the President and order of the 
Secretary of War, and under the provisions of the law of the 
State, the Governor on the 16th of April, issued his proclamation, 
as follows : 

To the Loyal People of Wisconsin: 

For the first time in the history of this Federal Government, organized treason has 
manifested itself witliin several States of the Union, and armed rebels are making war 
against it. The Proclamation of tlie President of the United States tells of unlawful com- 
binations too powei'ful to be suppressed in the ordinary manner, and calls for miLtary 
forces to suppress such combinations, and to sustain him in executing the laws. The 
treasures of the country must no longer be plundered ; the public property must be pro- 
tected from aggressive violence ; that already seized, must be retaken, and the lawa 
must be executed in every State of the Union alike. 

A demand made upon Wisconsin by the President of the United States, for aid to 
sustain the Federal Arm, must meet with a prompt response. One Regiment of tlie 
Militia of this St-ate, will be required for immediate service, and further services will be 
required as the exigencies of the Government may demand. It is a.time when, against 
the civil and religious liberties of the people, and against the integrity of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, parties and politicians and platforms must be as dust in the 
balance. All good citizens, everywhere, must join in making common cause against a 
common enemy. 

Opportunities will be immediately offered to all existing military companies, under 
the direction of th« proper authorities of the State, for enlistment to fill the demand of 
the Federal Government, and I hei-eby invite the patriotic citizens of the SVite to enroll 
themselves into companies of seventy-eight men each, and to advise the Executive of 
their readiness to be mustered into service immediately. Detailed instructions will be 
■ furnished on the acceptance of companies, and the commissioned officers of each regi- 
ment will nominate their own field officers. 

In times of public danger bad men grow bold and reckless. The property of the citi- 
zen becomes unsafe, and both public and private rights liable to be jeopardized. I 
enjoin upon all administrative and peace officers within the State renewed vigilance in 
the maintenance and execution of the laws, and in guarding against excesses leading 
to disorder among the people. \ 

Given under my liand and the Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin, this 16th 
[L. s.] day of AprU A. D. 18C1. 
By the Governor, ALEX. W. RANDALL 

L. P. Harvey, Secretary of Stale. 



48 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Thus did Wisconsin wheel into line, and take her place with 
other loyal States, and gird on her armor to battle for the Union 
and its perpetuity. Gloriously has she fought the great fight, 
and all honor is due to the brave boys who have gone forth to 
represent her in the battle field, too many, alas, never to return. 

Before entering upon the task of detailing the particulars of 
the organization of our military forces, we desire to show the 
reader the material which Governor Randall found at hand, out 
of which to meet the requisition of the President and Secretary 
of War. 

Up to the opening of the rebellion, Wisconsin enjoyed the 
benefits of a militia law, to a sufficient degree to permit the 
Adjutant General of the State of Wisconsin to draw his annual 
sahary, his stationery, and to enable him to make a report of the 
number of men subject to military duty, and the condition and 
whereabouts of a few hundred rusty guns, which were in the 
hands of a score of independent companies, whose duty was to 
ornament the occasion of a 4th of July, or some other gala day. 

According to the Report of the Adjutant General, for 1860, 
there were 130,000 persons in the State liable to military duty, 
of these, 1,993 were doing duty as follows : 

Infantry, 23 companies, rank and file 922 men. 

Artillery, 6 " " " " 198 " 

Cavalry, 2 " ■ " " " 104 " 

Riflemen, ...19 " " " " 769 " 

Total, ....50 " " " " 1993 " 

According to the same Report, there were then in the hands 
of the above companies, and in the armory, 56 tents, 6 brass 
cannon, with carriages and limbers, without caissons, 135 flint 
muskets, 796 percussion muskets, 811 rifles, 35 flint pistols, 66 
percussion pistols, 80 musketoons, 40 cavalry sabres, 118 artillery 
sabres, 44 swords, 1118 cartridge boxes and plates, 1340 cartridge 
box belts, 1360 cap pouches, 88 pistol holsters, 407 powder 
flasks, 371 gun-slings. This included condemned arms and 
accoutrements of all kinds. 

Notwithstanding the inadequate operation of our militia law, 
several independent companies had been organized in various 
parts of the State, who took a soldierly pride in their knowledge 
of drill. To these Governor Randall naturally looked for men 



THE STATE MILITIA. 49 

to fill the requisition of the Secretary of War, and it is the 
promptitude with which several of these independent companies 
responded to his call that enabled him, in so short a time, to 
organize the First (three months) Regiment. Eight of the ten 
companies composing the First Regiment were organized parti- 
ally under this defective militia law, and had attained considerable 
proficiency in drill. 

Governor Randall determined to avail himself of the services 
of these companies, or, on their declining to volunteer, to dis- 
arm them, and use the State arms for the drilling of companies 
raised for active service. He accordingly sent out trusty agents, 
with orders to the commanding ofiicers of such organized com- 
panies, to muster their commands within twenty-four hours of 
the reception of the order, and have them determine whether 
they would volunteer and prepare for immediate service. By 
this course, he gave such companies the first opportunity of 
mustering into the service of the country. In case they declined 
to volunteer, the agent was authorized to demand the arms and 
accoutrements belonging to the State, and forward them at once 
to the State armory. Many of the companies refusing to volun- 
teer for active service, their arms were delivered over to the 
Governor's agent, and sent to the State armory. 

To show that our old military system was not entirely devoid 
of good fruits, we append a list of such companies as responded 
favorably to the call of the Governor, with the positions they 
severally occupied in the regiments subsequently organized, as 
the Wisconsin Active Militia : 

First Regiment (three months. >— Company A, Milwaukee I>lght Gu.ard; Company C, 
Horicon Guards ; Company D, Black Yagers, Milwaukee ; Company E, Madison Guards, 
Color Company ; Company F, Beloit City Guards ; Company G, Park City Greys, Keno- 
sha ; Company H, Milwaukee Riflemen ; Company K, Governor's Guard, Madison. 

Second iJeg^iwe^ii.— Company A, Citizens' Guard, Fox Lake; Company B, La Crosse 
Light Guard ; Company E, Portage Light Guard ; Company I, Miner's Guards, Mineral 
Point. 

Third Megiment.— Company A, Watertown Riflemen; Company D, Waupun Light 
Guard; Company E, Williamstown Union Rifles, (late Mayville Rifles); Company G, 
Neenah Guards ; Company F, Geneva Independents ; Company G, Hudson City Guards. 

Sixth Iieginient.—Com.pa,ny B, Prescott Guards ; Company D, Montgomery Guard.s, 
Milwaukee. 

Such was the material on hand, to which Governor Randall 
was obliged to resort, in order to fill the requisition for one regi- 
ment of the militia. It will be seen that the First Regiment 



50 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

was nearly completed from the old militia companies, recruited 
to the required strength. 

The question having arisen as to which was the first company 
that tendered service, we have been to the trouble of securing evi- 
dence, from papers in the Executive Department, which seems 
to establish the fact without doubt. 

In view of the threatening aspect of public affairs, at the 
beginning of the year 1861, and the evident tendency to a war- 
like collision, the Madison Guards, on the 9th day of January, 
1861, held a meeting at their Armory, the proceedings of which 
were embodied in a letter to the Executive, as follows : 

Madison, Wis., Jan. 9th, 1861, 
To Your Excellency Axexander W. Randall, Governor of Wiscmisin: 

Sir :— I have the honor to report to the Commander-in-Chief of the Military of Wis- 
consin tlie following resolution introduced by Lieutenant Plunkett, and this day 
approved by my command : 

" Resolved, That Captain George E. Bryant be instructed to tender to Governor Ran- 
dall the services of the ' Madison Guards,' in case their services may be required for 
the preservation of the American Union." 

And I pledge you the services of my company at any and all times when you may 
require them for the preservation of our State and of our American Union. 
Your obedient servant, 

GEORGE E. BRYANT, Captain Madison Guards. 

This tender of service was duly acknowledged by Governor 
Randall, the Company highly complimented, and the assurance 
given that if the exigencies of the country demanded an exQi-cise 
of military authority, the Madison Guards would be among the 
first to be called to duty in the field. Accordingly, on the 16th 
of April, 1861, the following letter of acceptance was forwarded 
to Captain Bryant : 

State of Wisconsin, Executive Office,) 
Madison, April 16th, 1861. J 

Captain George E. Bryant, Commanding Madison Guards : 

Sir :— Tlie offer of the services of yourself and Company, made some time since, to be 
enrolled in the service of the Federal Government, is hereby accepted, and you are 
authorized to fill your Company to eighty men. 

Your obedient servant, 

A. W. RANDALL, Governor of Wisconsin. 

At the outbreak of the rebellion, little did the mass of people 
of the loyal States know the perilous condition in which the 
Government was placed. The infamous conspirators had taken 
care that the National Executive should be made as powerless as 



POPULAR ENTHUSIASM. 5X 

possible. Tlie contents of the ISTational arsenals liad been trans- 
ferred to the armories of the seceding States, and placed in the 
hands of those who, it was designed, should use them in the 
overthrow of the Government. Military organizations were per- 
fected, and thousands of men drilled to the use of arms, so that 
when the first cloud of smoke rolled away from Sumter, the Na- 
tional authorities discovered that the conspirators had a well 
drilled army, ready to go to the field, and that the hundreds of 
thousands of glistening bayonets, stolen from Northern armories, 
were ready to march to the destruction of the Republic. "With 
its regular army scattered to distant sections, and the naval force 
sent to the farthest corners of the earth, and for the moment 
left almost powerless, the Government officials chose to keep 
their own councils until they were able to place the National 
Capitol in comparative safety. Such was at that time the condi- 
tion of the Government, that it was compelled to call for volun- 
teers from the loyal States, and request the several State Exe- 
cutives to clothe and equip them, relying upon the future ability 
of the National Government to reimburse the expenditure. 

Under these circumstances. Governor Randall was instructed 
to organize, clothe and equip the force required from "Wisconsin. 
"Without experience in military affairs, and entirely ignorant of 
what was necessary to put a force of a thousand men into the 
field. Governor Randall went at the work with characteristic 
energy, and in four days a sufficient number of men were enrolled 
to enable him to report to the Secretary of "War, on the 22d of 
April, that the First Regiment was ready to go into rendezvous. 

No sooner was it known that Governor Randall had received 
a requisition for troops to sustain the Government than tenders 
of personal service, and of companies of men, were made to the 
Governor, and in all sections of the State public meetings were 
held to raise volunteers and money to aid the families of such as 
could go to the war was freely subscribed. At Milwaukee, 
Madison, and all the principal cities and towns, large sums were 
subscribed", and appropriated to the use above specified. In all 
these gatherings, the democrat and republican met on the same 
platform, advocated the same principles for carrying on the war, 
even to the annihilation of slavery itself, if necessary to preserve 
the Union, many of the democracy being more radical on that 



52. MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

point, as their published remarks will show, than their radical 
republican friends. 

Justified by the overwhelming patriotism of the people every- 
where exhibited throughout the State, and the large accumula- 
tion of requests for active service, the Governor telegraphed to 
Secretary Cameron, stating the facts, and requesting the assign- 
ment of more regiments from Wisconsin, urging that injustice 
had been done in calling for six regiments from Illinois, and only 
one from Wisconsin, when Illinois had not quite double the 
population of Wisconsin. 

" To this request, the Secretary replied thus : " one regiment for 
the present will suffice." It was interesting to see the outbreak 
of feeling exhibited when this reply was received, and to view 
the scenes enacted at the recruiting stations, when men were re- 
jected for some imperfection, or declined on account of the com- 
pany being full. Many a poor fellow was seen weeping, almost 
broken hearted, on being told that the company was full, or that 
he was physically disqualified for a soldier. 

Repeatedly did Governor Randall plead for permission to raise 
more men, but without avail. The War Department seemed de- 
termined not to comprehend the magnitude of the rebellion, 
while the people themselves could see that a long war was in 
prospect, and were ready, with their blood and treasure, to sus- 
tain the Government, if they could be permitted to do so. 

Notwithstanding this refusal of the War Department, the peo- 
ple still kept up their enthusiasm, and company after company 
was organized, filled up, and tendered to the Governor, until a 
dozen regiments were on the roll of the Military Secretary. 

With Jackson-like disposition to assume responsibility, when 
necessary, so characteristic of Governor Randall, he determined 
to organize two or three regiments, which might be held in re- 
serve for any further calls of the President. The Governor had 
been an attentive observer of the events which preceded the final 
action of South Carolina, in December, 1860. By a careful study 
of Southern character and institutions, and a thorough under- 
standing of the principles on which the Southerners based their 
theory of secession and the establishment of a separate Govern- 
ment, Governor Randall had formed conclusions in regard to the 
magnitude of the contest, which led him to advise the strongest 



FIRST REGIMENT. 53 

measures, on the part of the Government, for its suppression. It 
was, therefore, with no little chagrin that he received the reply 
of Secretary Cameron. Persistent in his views of the necessity 
of the case, he immediately threw all his energies into the work 
of organizing additional forces. Therefore, no sooner had the 
several companies of the First Regiment been assigned, filled up 
and ordered into camp, than he ordered his Military Secretary 
to assign the next ten companies on the roll to the Second Regi- 
ment, with orders to hold themselves in readiness to come into 
camp at twenty-four hours' notice. 

The several companies composing the First Regiment were 
ordered to rendezvous at Milwaukee by Saturday, the 27th of 
April, at which time they were assembled. Captain J. C. Stark- 
weather, of Milwaukee, had been commissioned as Colonel ; 
Charles L. Harris, of Madison, as Lieutenant Colonel ; David H. 
Lane, of Kenosha, as Major; and Alfred R. Chapin, of Milwaukee, 
as Adjutant. 

The departure of the several companies for Milwaukee was 
characterized by public proceedings at their several localities, 
and these pioneer soldiers of our State were greeted by the en- 
thusiastic cheers of thoiiSands of their neighbors and friends as 
they departed from their homes and firesides to put on the habi- 
liments aud accept the duties and dangers incident to a soldier's 
life. 

Colonel Starkweather, assisted by James Holton, Esq., ot 
Milwaukee, who had been appointed the agent of the State by 
Governor Randall, provided temporary quarters for the com- 
panies, as they arrived, in several of the public buildings and 
halls, where they remained, being boarded at the several hotels, 
until the Camp on the Fair Grounds, on Spring Street, could be 
made ready for their reception. 

The State being required to clothe the soldiers sent to the 
field, the Governor ordered the purchase of the necessary quan- 
tity of grey cloth, and authorized contracts to be made for its 
manufacture into uniforms. He also ordered the purchase of 
shoes, caps and other articles necessary to the full equipment of 
the Regiment. 

Awakened suddenly from a long period of peace, to assume, 
without delay, the attitude of a nation at war, the country was 



54 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

found to be unprepared for the organization and full equipment 
of large bodies of troops. Particularly was this the case in the 
Northwest, being a great distance from the large manufactories 
and depots of goods. The Military Secretary of the Governor 
encountered much difficulty in procuring such supplies of cloth 
as would enable the Regiment to appear in uniform. It was, 
however, accomplished, although the several Companies showed 
a diversity of shades of grey, in their coats and pants, which 
gave a somewhat unique appearance when the Regiment was on 
parade. 

A mess-house and other buildings were erected in the Fair 
Grounds, and the Regiment was in a few days encamped under 
canvass. Colonel Starkweather gave to the encampment the 
name of " Camp Scott." 

Captain Henry Little, of the Seventh United States Infantry, 
had been ordered to this State as a mustering officer for the 
troops in Wisconsin. It seems, however, that the gentleman 
preferred to take up on the rebel side, and accordingly forwarded 
to Governor Randall the orders and books which he had received, 
with the information that he had tendered his resignation as an 
officer of the United States army, ^n being informed of the 
defection of Little, the Secretary of War ordered Lieutenant J. 
B. Mclntyre, of the First United States Cavalry, to Wisconsin, to 
muster in our regiments. 

The subsequent history of Captain Little shows that he joined 
the rebel army, under General Sterling Price, of Missouri, was 
present at the battle of Boonville, in that State, and when Mar- 
maduke refused longer to lead his men in a hopeless charge upon 
the National forces, the rebel Governor of Missouri, Claib 
Jackson, placed Captain Little in command of Marmaduke'a 
Brigade. lie followed the fortunes of General Price into Ar- 
kansas, and across the Mississippi into Tennessee, and took part 
in the Battle of luka, on the 19th of September, 1862, where, 
in command of a Division in a charge against the gallant heroes 
under General Charles S. Hamilton, of our State, who com- 
manded the Union forces, Little was shot from his horse by the 
side of General Price, being instantly killed. 

The organization of the First was completed, and the regiment 
mustered into the United States service on the 17th of May, and 



APPLICATION FOR ARMS. 55 

the War Department informed that it awaited orders to march. 
The danger to the National Capital, which was the cause of the 
urgent call for 75,000 men, had passed away, and the Regiment 
was allowed to remain in camp until the 9th of June, when, in 
obedience to orders of the AVar Department, it left the State for 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Called for, as the First Regiment was, in haste, and with the 
popular impression that the City of Washington was in danger. 
Governor Randall is entitled to much credit for the energy dis- 
played in calling in a regiment of men, and, in ten days, placing 
them at the disposal of the Government, uniformed and ready to 
march. It is w^ell to consider that our people were unused 
to war, that we lacked experience, supplies and everything 
requisite for the full equipment of so large a body of men as a 
regiment, and what, to-day, may appear trivial and unimportant, 
in 1861, was of a character to put the most energetic of men to 
a test of their best abilities. Secretary Cameron returned a high 
compliment to Governor Randall for the energy he displayed in 
responding to this first call of the Department for troops. 

Finding it impossible to get early replies to communications 
f ent to the War Department, at Washington, in regard to uni- 
forms, arms and equipments for our volunteers. Governor Ran- 
dall despatched a special messenger, with authority to lay before 
the Department the urgent necessity for supplying such informa- 
tion and instructions as would enable the State authorities to 
organize the several bodies of men which might be required from 
the State, and place them in camps of instruction, where they 
would be drilled and otherwise prepared to render eflective aid 
to the Government, and also to procure arms, for use in these 
camps of instruction, and further, to ascertain whether uniforms 
and clothing would be supplied by the General Government. 

The messenger reported that, at the War Department, he had 
been informed that our regiments would be furnished with arms 
after they were mustered into the United States service, that 
further than that they could not go, as the regiments arriving at 
Washington must be first served ; that the Springfield Armory 
was the only source of supply at that time ; that the large amount 
of arms which had fallen into the hands of the rebels had made 
it necessary to economize, in order that troops ordered forward 



56 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

might be supplied ; that all our troops would be armed by the 
Government as fast as called for. Further, that the G-overnment 
could not get uniforms and clothing in sufficient quantity to sup- 
ply the State troops, but that the State was depended on to fit 
its soldiers for the field, and look to the National Government 
for reimbursement. 

The Governor endeavored to procure arms at New York city. 
A requisition from General Wool, on the Governor of Illinois, 
was secured, for three thousand stand of arms. This requisition, 
in the hands of a special agent, was sent to Governor Yates, of 
Illinois, who declined to fill it, as he doubted the authority of 
General Wool to make the order. The arms, under the control 
of Governor Yates, were examined by the agent of Governor 
Randall, land found to be of inferior quality, and pronounced 
unfit for the uses contemplated by Governor Randall. A scheme 
to get possession of the arms in St. Louis Ai-senal had been set 
on foot by influential men at St. Louis, and the Governors of 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin were requested to cooperate. It 
was feared that the secessionists would obtain possession of the 
arms, and use them against the Government. Agents were sent 
to St. Louis, but the seizure had been accomplished by Captain 
Stokes, and the arms stored at Springfield, Illinois. 

Much complaint was made that our regiments were sent out 
of the State without being armed. It will be seen that Governor 
Randall used every means to procure them, and that Government, 
at the time, was actually unable, by reason of Floyd's treacher- 
ous conduct, to supply them. 

In order to carry out his design of a reserve force in advance 
of the calls of the President, Governor Randall ordered the for- 
mation of the Second and Third Regiments, and eventually the 
Fourth. 

Camps were formed for the reception of these Regiments, on 
the State Fair Grounds, at Madison, at Fond du Lac, and at 
Racine, at each of which places suitable buildings were erected 
for the accommodation of the soldiers. 

On the 22d of April, the Governor sent out the following 
proclamation to the ladies of the State ; 



governor's proclamations. 97 

To THE Patriotic Women of Wisconsin : 

I know that you will respond cheerfully to my request that you contribute your aid ia 
the present crisis, in the way of preparing lint and bandages for the use of the array, 
A much larger amount of such necessaries for an army may be prepared than may be 
required by the sons of Wisconsin, but in the long war likely to follow, there may be 
thousands who will require such kindness. Whatever is prepared can be forwarded to 
James Holton, Esq., Milwaukee, who will attend to its proper distribution 

Your husbands and brothers and sons are called upon to aid in subduing rebellion, in 
punishing treason, in the maintenance of the Government, and in the execution of the 
laws. It is your country and your government, as well as theli's, that is now in danger, 
and you can give strength and courage and warm sympathies and cheering words to 
those who go to do battle for all that is dear to us here. Bitter as the parting may be to 
many, I am assured that you will bid them go bravely forward for God and Liberty, to 
"return with their shields, or on them." 

I commend the soldiers to your kindness and encouragement and prayers, with full 
confidence, that when occasion calls, many, very many, Florence Nightingales will be 
found in our goodly land. Most respectfully, 

ALEX. W. RANDALL, 

On the same day, the following proclamation appeared, in- 
forming the people of the progress making in the organization 
of companies, &c. : 

To THE Patriotic People of Wisconsin : 

In six days from the issue of my Pi-oclamation of the 16th instant, the First Regiment 
called for by the President of the United States, for the defense of the Union, is enrolled 
already for service. Five companies from Milwaukee, one from Kenosha, two from 
Madison, one from Horicon, and one from Beloit are assigned to the First Regiment, 
while nineteen more companies have tendered their services. It is to be regretted that 
Wisconsin is not permitted to increase largely her quota, but her loyal citizens must 
exercise patience tiU called for. I urge the formation of companies of able-bodied men 
to the number of seventy-seven each, in every locality where it can be done without ex- 
pense for subsistence ; men, who will pledge themselves to be minute men, standing 
ready, at short notice, to answer to other calls of the Government. When such com- 
panies are full, if infanti-y or riflemen, let them elect a Captain, Lieutenant and Ensign, 
and report to the Adjutant General for commissions and for orders. It is not necessary 
that men be taken from their peaceful avocations to be drilled for active service, thougli, 
where companies are located in large towns, it is desirable that they be drilled as fiir as 
possible in the use of arms. Whenever they are called into service, all their expenses 
will be paid. Where companies have been enrolled, and have reported, offering their 
sei-vices, they will be first called upon whenever a new demand is made ujjon the State 
by the President, which is likely to be very soon. I thank the good people of the State 
for their ready response to my Proclamation, and for their patriotic devotion to the 
country. 

ALEX, W. RANDALL. 

In seven days after the Governor's proclamation, thirty-six 
companies had tendered service, although but one regiment had 
been called for by the Government. We give the locality of 
these companies, and name of the Captain, in the order of accept- 
ance, to show the manner in which all parts of the State respond- 
ed to the call of the Governor; — Madison' Company, Captain 
Bryant ; Kenosha Company, Captain McVean ; Horicon Com- 
pany, Captain Twogood ; Milwaukee Company, Captain Bing- 
ham ; Madison Company, Captain Fairchild ; Milwaukee Com- 
pany, Captain Mitchell ; Milwaukee Company, Captain George ; 



ft8 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Milwaukee Company, Captain Draher ; Beloit Company, Captain 
Clarke ; Fond du Lac Company, Captain McCall. These com- 
panies composed the First Regiment, and entered the service for 
three months. Milwaukee Company, Captain O'lvourke ; La 
Crosse Company, Captain Colwell ; Milwaukee Artillery Com- 
pany, Captain Herzberg ; Fox Lake Company, Captain Stevens ; 
Portage City Company, Captain Mansfield ; Milwaukee Dragoon 
Company, Captain Von Deutsch ; Keenah Company, Captain 
Hubbard; Mineral Point Company, Captain Allen; Prescott 
Company, Captain Dill; Beloit Company, Captain Slaymaker; 
Oshkosh Company, Captain Bouck; Racine Company, Captain 
Strong; Janesville Company, Captain Ely; Shullsburg Com- 
\ydny, Captain Vandergrift; Grant County Company, Captain 
McKee ; Madison Company, Captain Randolf ; Watertown Com- 
pany, Captain Gibbs; Sheboygan Company, Captain Grey; 
Williamstown Company, Captain Hammer ; Geneva Company, 
Captain Roundy ; Oshkosh Company, Captain Scott ; Janesville 
Company, Captain Wheeler ; Green County Company, Captain 
Flood ; Darlington Company, Captain Whitman ; Grant County 
Company, Captain Limbocker; Berlin Company, Captain Bugh; 
Waupun Company, Captain Clark; Beaver Dam Company, Cap- 
tain Catlin ; Hudson City Company, Captain White. Of these 
thirty-six companies, it is worthy of remark, that although when 
originally organized, the President's call contemplated three 
months service only, they, with one exception, enlisted for three 
years. When it was known that Government required enlist- 
ments for that length of time, they, with alacrity, accepted the 
proposition, and were embodied in the first six regiments raised 
by Wisconsin, and all of them were engaged in the severest 
actions of the war, and covered themselves with honor. The , 
exception was the Beloit City Rifles, many of whom were stu- 
dents in the College at Beloit, and had made no preparation for 
longer than a three months service. This induced some of the 
company to hesitate in mustering for three years, which, together 
with a misunderstanding with some of the officers, prompted the 
Adjutant General of the State to order them aside, and another 
company took their place in the Second Regiment. The com- 
pany was afterwards disbanded, and many of its members entered 
other companies for three years. The people of Beloit were much 



governor's aids. 59 

disappointed, as this company was composed of some of its 
best young men, and tlie city had taken much pride in its 
organization. 

In order to distinguish the volunteer service from the organi- 
zations under the Militia Law, the Governor ordered that the 
new regiments and companies should be designated as the Wis- 
consin Active Militia. It was made the duty of the company 
officers to muster their men into the State service prior to muster 
into the United States service. 

Dr. E. B. Wolcott, of Milwaukee, was appointed Surgeon 
General of the State on the 17th of April, and entered immedi- 
ately upon his duties. The well known professional reputation 
of Dr. Wolcott, and the fact that he formerly occupied the posi- 
tion of Surgeon in the United States Army, induced Governor 
Randall to avail himself of his services in the organization of the 
Medical Department of our regiments. To this foresight of 
Governor Eandall, and the eminent ability of Dr. Wolcott, our 
Wisconsin regiments, organized during the year 1861, are in- 
debted for the outfits of stores and implements with which their 
Surgeons have been furnished, and which have conduced so much 
to the welfare of the soldiers in the field, and also to Dr. Wolcott's 
personal labors, after the battles in which our Wisconsin troops 
were engaged. 

Seeking further for the services of men of experience, Gover- 
nor Randall called Lieutenant T. H. Ruger, of Janesville, to his 
aid, and appointed him as Engineer- in -Chief on his stafi'. He 
also subsequently appointed Captain C. S. Hamilton, of Fond du 
Lac, as one of his aids. Both these gentlemen were graduates 
at West Point, and had served in the Mexican war — ^Lieutenant 
Ruger in the Engineer Department, and Captain Hamilton in 
the Infantry service. These gentlemen acted as military advisers, 
and contributed their military experience towards the organiza- 
tion of our earliest regiments. They were subsequently com- 
missioned, and served during the war with distinction, both being 
made Major Generals of volunteers. 

On the 25th of April, General James A. Swain, Adjutant 
General of the State, resigned, and the Governor appointed 
Colonel William L. Utley, of Racine, as his successor. The 
military department continued under the general supervision of 



60 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Governor Randall, until the organization of new regiments so 
increased the business of the ofhce as to require the formation 
of Quartermaster, Commissary and Paymaster's Departments. 
The Quartermaster Department was placed in charge of Major 
W. W". Tredway on the lltli day of May, who acted also 
as Commissary General until the 28 th of May, when E. R.. 
Wadsworth was appointed Commissary General. 

Sixteen hundred army blankets were purchased in New York 
by Governor Randall, for the use of the First and Second Regi- 
ments, and contracts for several thousand yards of grey cloth 
were made with Stewart & Co., Beaver Dam, and the Burlington 
Woolen Factory. 

The Governor having determined to organize more regiments, 
as a reserve for future calls, accepted the proposition of the State 
Agricultural Society, tendering the use of their Fair Grounds, at 
Madison, as one of the Camps. These grounds were already 
enclosed with a high board fence, with several buildings which 
might be fitted for use until more substantial ones could be 
built. About the 27th of April, carpenters and laborers were 
set to work to clear up the grounds, enlarge one of the buildings 
for a mess house, and otherwise prepare for the reception of the 
Second Regiment. Halbert E. Paine, Esq., of Milwaukee, had 
been commissioned as Quartermaster of the Second Regiment, 
and superintended the preparation of Camp Randall, until 
Horace A. Tenney, Esq., was appointed Superintendent by 
Governor Randall, to oversee the erection of buildings, the pre- 
paration of suitable quarters, and to attend generally to matters 
pertaining to the fitting of the grounds for the reception of 
troops. Mr. Tenney acted as such Superintendent until 1862, 
when Camp Randall ceased to be a State institution, and passed 
entirely under the control of the United States authorities. 

The following companies had been assigned to the Second 
Regiment, and were ordered to commence moving into Camp, 
at Madison, on the Ist of May : — Fox Lake Company, Captain 
Stevens ; Beloit Company, Captain Slaymaker ; Oshkosh Com- 
pany, Captain Bouck ; Racine Company, Captain Strong ; Janes- 
ville Company, Captain Ely ; La Crosse Company, Captain Col- 
well ; Mineral Point* Company, Captain Allen ; Grant County 
Company, Captain McKee ; Madison Company, Captain Randolf ; 



SECOND REGIMENT. 61 

Portage City Company, Captain Mansfield. The Fond du Lac 
Badgers, Captain McCall, was originally assigned to the Second 
Regiment, but the Montgomery Guards, of Milwaukee, not being 
full in time for the First Regiment, they were set aside, and Cap- 
tain McCall's company took their place in the First Regiment. 
The Second Regiment were all in camp by the 6th of May. The 
weather being cold and wet, and the barracks leaky, the soldiers 
suffered severely. They also suffered from the want of blankets, 
which the State was unable to purchase. The Governor appealed 
to the ladies of the State to furnish blankets and comfortables 
for the use of the soldiers until blankets purchased in New York 
city should be received. Some of the companies of the Second 
Regiment had procured uniforms at the several localities where 
they were recruited. The others were uniformed by the Quarter- 
master General. The patriotic ladies in Madison,Watertown, and 
other places volunteered to make up the flannel shirts and draw- 
ers needed by the volunteers of the earlier regiments. 

On the 7th of May, the Secretary of War telegraphed to Gover- 
nor Randall that no more three months volunteers were wanted ; 
that those companies recruited must enlist for three years or the 
war, or be disbanded. This question was submitted to the com- 
panies of the Second, and about 500 of those enlisted consented 
to go in for three years. The Beloit Rifles, Captain Slaymaker, 
did not appear on the ground, and it being understood that they de- 
clined going for three years, they were set aside by the Adjutant 
General, and the Milwaukee Rifles, Captain Langworthy, took 
their place. The companies short of men, by the order to enlist 
for three years, were given time to fill up, which they did in a 
few days. 

For some time before the downfall of Fort Sumter, the atten- 
tion of the Government authorities had been given to prepara- 
tion for the defense of the Capital. Orders were given for the 
assembling of the Militia of the District of Columbia, and their 
muster into the United States service. Many of them refused to 
do so, alleging one pretense or another for this course, but in 
many cases it was evidently owing to the sympathy with the 
rebel cause. Volunteer companies were also formed. It was said 
that President Lincoln had reliable information that the rebels 
designed an immediate attack on Washington, with 30,000 men, 



62' MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and that the Governors of the nearest loyal States were desired 
to call troops together, to be used for the defense of the City in 
case of a rebel attack. These preparations were going on when 
President Lincoln issued his Proclamation for 75,000 militia. 
To still further add to the public defense, the employees of the 
several Departments were organized into military companies. 
Many strangers, temporarily in the City, with a patriotic 
desire to aid in the defense of the Capital, enrolled themselves 
under the command of Colonels Cassius M. Clay and Jim Lane, 
of Kansas, and took their turns in guarding the several avenues 
leading into the City, a heavy force being stationed at the end of 
Long Bridge, over which, it was supposed, the rebels would 
march to the attack. Many of our Wisconsin people thus evinced 
their patriotic impulses, and shouldered arms in defense of 
Washington City. The basement of the Capitol was turned into 
quarters for the troops, and the lower stories of the Patent Office 
and other public buildings were barricaded, or fitted up for 
defense, or for military quarters. 

The excitement at the North, over the attack on Fort Sumter, 
was redoubled at the reports circulated in regard to the rebel de- 
signs on Washington. In thirty-six hours after the call for 
75,000 militia, old Massachusetts, God bless her, had more than 
five regiments ready to march. The Sixth was sent to Washing- 
ton April 17th, and on the 19th encountered the mob, in going 
through Baltimore, losing several killed and wounded, but deal- 
ing a fearful lesson to their assailants, and arrived in Washing- 
ton, being the first regiment of volunteers, fully equipped, which 
entered the city for its defense. Four or five hundred unarmed 
troops, from Pennsylvania, had arrived the day before. 

The attack on the Massachusetts troops, by the mob at Balti- 
more, closed for a time the communications with Washington, 
and the excitement became intense throughout the North, lest 
the rebels should attack the Capital in its defenseless condition. 
The Governor of Maryland declared that no more troops should 
pass through Baltimore. This only tended to increase the indig- 
nation of the people of the North, and a determination was made 
to go through Baltimore, even if it was necessaiy to raze it to 
the ground. In the meantime, the railroad bridges between 



SECOND CALL FOR TROOPS. 63 

Havre cle Grace and Baltimore had been destroyed, and commu- 
nication, by rail, with Washington was impossible. At this time, 
General Ben. Butler reached Philadelphia with the Eighth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, where he learned that the railroad was im- 
passable beyond Havre de Grace. He accordingly run the trains 
to that point, seized the ferry boat, and took the responsibility of 
ordering the Captain to steam down to Annapolis, below Balti- 
more ; arriving there, he was soon. followed by the Seventh New 
York Regiment. Repairing the locomotives and relaying the 
track, which had been torn up by the secessionists, the Seventh 
Regiment reached Washington on the 25th of April, where they 
were received with the intensest enthusiasm. The next day, 
several thousand troops landed at Annapolis, from steamers sent 
round by Chesapeake Bay. These were despatched as fast as the 
railroad from Annapolis would permit, and on their arrival at 
Washington were greeted with heartfelt satisfaction, and the 
Government authorities began to feel that the Capital was safe. 
Troops continued to arrive, the route through Baltimore having 
been opened by General Butler, with his Massachusetts troops, 
and the public heart of the North beat more freely. 

The dimensions of the conspiracy had been increased by the 
formal secession of Virginia. Reports were rife of the assemb- 
ling of rebel troops at Richmond, for the purpose of moving on 
Washington. The uncertain position of Maryland also gave 
cause for the apprehension that she, too, would finally go over to 
the rebels. Under these circumstances, President Lincoln, find- 
ing the 75,000 men called for on the 15th of April insufficient to 
suppress the rebellion, issued another Proclamation for 83,748 
men — 42,034 volunteers, 22,714 recruits for the regular army, and 
18,000 seamen for the navy, all for three years service. The 
tone of the Proclamation seemed to indicate that the President 
did not consider his authority to call out troops for the defense 
of the Government sufficient unless sanctioned by Congress. He 
could not mistake the opinions and desires of the people of the 
Northern States, for, at the very moment he issued that Procla- 
mation, at least 500,000 men had been enrolled, and anxiously 
waiting for him to accept their services. 



64 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

A convention of the Governors of the several loyal States was 
called at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 3d of May, at which were pre- 
sent the Governors of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan 
and Indiana. The Governors of New York and Illinois were 
represented by proxies. The several members of the convention 
were serenaded at the Angier House, which was responded to 
by their appearing on the balcony, and acknowledging the com- 
pliment. Being severally introduced to the audience by the 
Mayor of the City, addresses were delivered. Governor Ran- 
dall, on being introduced, spoke as follows : 

Fellow Citizens of Ohio: 

I thank you for the honor you have conferred upon me, and upon the State ■whicli I 
represent, by thus calling me out. We have been in the habit of saying that the strength 
of the Government was in the ten thousand chords which bind together the people of our 
land, l)ut now this is all changed, and without fault of ours. Rebellion and treason are 
abroad in our land. We know where this commenced, and we know, too, where it must 
end. Tliere is but one course for us to pursue, and that should be followed. We should 
transport an army down the Mississippi, and blaze a broad track through the whole 
South, from Montgomery to Charleston. Charleston should be razed, till not one stone 
is left upon another, till there is no place left for the owl to hoot nor the bittern to 
mourn. Had I the power, were I possessed of the thunderbolts of Jove, I would wipe 
out not only traitors but the seed of traitors. We are no longer republicans or demo- 
crats, but all parties are blended into one. We are brothers and patriots in a common 
cause. Have we interfered with Southern institutions ? Have we not given them what 
our Constitution and the Constitution of our fathers requires ? We will pay the price 
which our fathers paid, and no more. Wisconsin is a younger sister, but she, like Ohio, 
was born of Virginia, when liberty was the theme of her orators, and her children have 
not forgotten the lessons taught. 

The objects of the convention are well set forth in the letter 
of Governor Randall to President Lincoln, and we, therefore, 
lay it before our readers, with the information that the letter was 
sent to President Lincoln by the hands of our esteemed fellow 
citizen, Judge Hood, who bore also a letter of introduction in- 
forming the President that Judge Hood was a true, reliable and 
intelligent man, entitled to confidence in all things, and who was 
authorized to consult upon the difficulties as affecting the North- 
ern border and Northwestern States, and to receipt for such arms 
as might be furnished by the Government to the State : 

Executive Office, Madison, Wis., May 6, 1861. 
His Excellency, Abraham Lincoln, Ih-esident of the United States : 

A meeting of the Governors of several of the Western and Border States, on the even- 
ing of Friday last, at Cleveland, Ohio, resulted In a determination to make to you some 
suggestions in regard to the supposed condition of portions of the country, and to ask 
advice from the President. Messengers were selected to confer with you. The extreme 
anxiety we feel, and the anxiety felt by the people of the Border and North-western 



LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT. .65 

States, must be our sutflcient warrant for urging some moi-e definite course of policy in 
regard to the relations bejtween the Government and these States. We are prepared, and 
the people of the States we represent are prepared, to sustain you and your Administra- 
tion in every measure, however extreme, for the suppression of tliis untoward rebellion, 
and for the punishment of the treason. "We appreciate, also, most fully, the difficulties 
under which you labored in taking the reins of Government at a time when its treasury 
was empty and its credit exhausted ; when its army was scattered, its ships dismantled 
or disabled, or in foreign ports, and its arms secured by deposit in the ha7ids of traitors. 
We appreciate, also, the anxieties incident to the known or suspected treachery of a 
multitude of civil, military and naval officers. We can understand the immense labor 
that must have been performed to bring back the Government to the point it has now 
reached. We approve most fully of what has been done by the Government, and are 
prepared to expect still further exhibitions of energy, such as the public exigencies de- 
mand. But now we wish to submit to you the absolute necessity, since Washington is 
safe, of giving more attention to the country imruediately contiguous to the line be- 
tween the free and slave States. The fierceness of this wicked rebellion is to exhibit 
itself through the last named extent of country more than anywhere else, and on the 
law and Government side of that line, there is less preparation than almost anywhere 
else. From Pittsburg and Cincinnati to the mouth of the Ohio, on tlie northern side of the 
river, the country is almost entirely defenseless against an armed enemy. Cincinnati, 
and numerous smaller towns on the river, could be utterly destroyed, and the country 
about them laid waste, without the means of resistance. It would require no very heavy 
battery and no very large army to take Cairo, and for a long time to hold it. The com- 
manding positions, for defense or attack, are on the south side of the Ohio. It is matter of 
absolute necessity, not only for the Northern Border States, but for all the North-western 
States, to be able to control the business and commerce of the Ohio River, and the Uppci 
Mississippi, in order to reach a vital part of this rebellion. We must be able to cut oft all 
supplies of breadstufTs, and alsolo stop the transit or transportation of arms or mimi- 
tions of war. An enemy to our common Government cannot be permitted to hold an 
important point like Cairo. The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers must be kept, at all times, 
open to the legitimate commerce and business of the North-west. The vast lumber ajid 
mineral interests of Wisconsin, independent of her commanding produce and stoclv 
trade, bind her fast to the North Border States, and demand, like them, the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi, and all its tributaries, from their highest navigable waters to 
their mouths. 

It requires but slight knowledge of the country and of the character of the States to 
see all this. The necessities I have named being granted, we must look to the means ne- 
cessary to do what ought to be done in the least possible time. It needs men, will, ajans 
and munitions of war. One hundred and sixty thousand men can be rallied, in four 
weeks, for this purpose, and among the swarming millions of the North Border and 
North-western States, there is but one pulse beating to-day, and but one puipose : to 
hold up your hands, sustain the integrity of the Government, and aid in executing tlio 
laws in every State alike. The North-west needs a better military organization, and a 
militai-y head to which it can immediately look for orders, and to which it can commu- 
nicate its necessities without tedious and mischievous delays. I know full well that the 
Government will do for the West and Border States just as fast as it seems to see a neces- 
sity. We see a necessity now, not only for the safety of the Government, but for the 
safety of the free Border States, for immediate action. There is no occasion for the Gov- 
ernment to delay, because the States themselves are willing to act vigorously and effi- 
ciently. I must be permitted to say it, because it is a fact, there is a spirit evoked by this re- 
bellion, among the liberty-loving people of the country, that is driving them to action 
and if the Government toill not permit them to act for it, they will act for themselves. It i« 
better for the Government to direct this current than to let it run wild. So far as pos- 
sible we have attempted to allay this excess of spirit, but there is a moral element and a 
reasoning element in this uprising, that cannot be met in the ordinary way. There is a 
conviction of great wi-ongs to be redressed, and that the Government is to be preserved 
by them. The Government must provide an outlet for this feeling, or it will find one for 
Itself. If the Government does not at once shoulder this difficulty, and direct this cur- 
rent, there will come something more than a war to put down rebellion ; it will be a war 
between Border States, which will lose sight, for a time, of the Government. If It was 
absolutely certain that the seventy-five thousand troops first called -y^ould wipe out this 



66- MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

rebellion in three weeks from to-day, it would stUl be the policy of your Administration, 
and for the best interests of the Government, in view of what ought to be the great 
future of this Nation, to call into the field, at once, three hundred thousand men. The 
majesty and power of the Government, if it has either, should be manifested now, so thai 
the world may see it. When the people see that tlieir uprising has put down the rebellion, 
they will be satisfied, and not before, because they understand the Government. to be 
theirs, and that they are a part of it. 

The Border and Northwestern States cannot wait to see their towns and cities, upon 
navigable streams, sacked and burned, and the contiguous country wasted, and then 
content themselves with retaliation. They should have the means of preventing disasters 
of the kind. 

These States cannot be satisfied with small call after small call of raw troops, to be put 
into the field as soon as mustered, without discipline or drilling. They would not be 
soldiers, but marks for an enemy to shoot at. We want to understand the use of arms, 
to be efficient soldiers, either in defending ourselves or in aiding the Government. We 
cannot learn the use of them until we get them. 

We want an authority to put more men into the field, and we want arms for the men. 
The soldiers must go into camp and learn the use of weapons and the duties of soldiers. 
If the Government cannot at once furnish arms, the States are ready to do it, and wait 
upon and aid the Government. Unless something of this kind is done, I much fear that 
what we count our greatest strength will prove our most dangerous weakness. 

It should be determined now to what extent the Government expects aid from the 
States, so that the States can be preparing that aid, both in furnishing men and provid- 
ing arms, and so that, when niustered into service, the army may be eflicient. If the 
Government authorizes the States to act efliciently, in organizing military forces, and in 
ai'ming them, it can then both hold the control of those forces, and by distributing arms 
to the States, or authorizing their purchase by the States, for the use of the Government, 
it would have the right, as well as power, of ultimate dil-ection and control, without the 
confusion that otherwise might arise between the States and the Government. 

In Wisconsin, we need arms now. Illinois has but a trifle over double the popxilation 
of Wisconsin, and the call for six regiments from Illinois, and but one from Wisconsin, 
was so disproportionate as to excite extreme dissatisfaction. Companies for five regi- 
ments, instead of one, are drilling now, without arms, and two regiments, but partially 
armed, are in camp. I have endeavored, time after time, to ascertain, both by messen- 
gers and letters, to what extent service would be required, or proffered service received ; 
and to what extent it was expected the States would arm, equip and uniform the men. 
I have failed to obtain any satisfactory information. The Government, in order to 
retain the confidence of the people, must show sonve confidence in the people. The people 
are anxious to know what, and how much, is expected of them, and they are ready to 
respond. While the details of the policy of the Government should not be made public, 
information of the general purposes of the Government should be lodged somewhere in 
each loyal State, so that there can be an authoritative assurance of what the Govern- 
ment expects and intends. I received a request to send to St. Louis for arms, but before 
my messengers reached there, the arms had been moved to Illinois. I received, then, an 
order from General Wool upon the Governor of Illinois, for three thousand stand of 
arms— enough, with what Wisconsin already had, to arm five regiments of men. While 
my messenger was on his way to Springfield, a despatch from General Wool stated that 
his powers had been suspended, and that the Governor of Illinois, of course, could not 
answer the order. I have to request that arms be furnished to arm such troops as are 
likely to be called into service from this State, so that our soldiers may become accus- 
tomed to the use of them, or that a license be given to purchase arms to be used for the 
same purpose, and ultimately turned over to the Government, after its troubles are 
quieted, upon its order. 

You will excuse the frankness and freedom of this communication. The great inter- 
ests involved, and the anxiety of the whole people, have induced me to thus address 
you, and I feel assured that you will receive it with the good will with which it is in- 
tended. Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

ALEX. W. RANDALL. 



WISCONSIN GENERALS. 67 

In response to this letter, the Governor received the following 
from the Secretary of War : 

War Department, Washington, May 15, 1861. 
Governor A. W. Randall, Madison, Wis. : 

Dear Sir: — X have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th 
instant, addressed to the President of the United States, and by him referred to this 
Department, giving an account of the proceedings of the Governors of a number of the 
States, held at Cleveland, on the 6th instant, and containing suggestions in regard to the 
condition of public affairs. 

The assurances of those who composed that meeting, that the pyeople of the States 
whom they represented are prepared to sustain the President and his Administration 
In every effort which may be made to suppress tlie present rebellion is gratifying to the 
President and those connected with him in the administration of the Government, and 
honorable to the people of the States those high functionaries represented at thai 
meeting. 

Concurring fully with you and your associates, as to the necessity of giving attention 
to the country immediately contiguous to the line between the free and slave States, I 
beg leave to assure you that all the steps deemed necessary to be taken have already, or 
are now being taken. Before tliis letter reaches you, you will have received a dispatcl\ 
from this Department, informing you of the number of regiments desired from your 
State, to serve during the war, which will be mustei-ed into service as soon as practicable, 
and ordered to be marched into tlie field when they may be most needed. 

I learn from your communication that in Wisconsin there is a need for arms now. 
These, I beg to assure you, will be furnished immediately to all your regiments on beiJig 
mustered into service. Difficulties like those you mention to have occurred under the 
first call of the Pi'esident, in regard to the arms of Wisconsin, are naturally incident to 
an occasion like that then existing, and I trust it will not happen again. I regret that 
the people of your State should for a moment doubt the disposition of the Government 
to do full justice to them and to give them as large a quota of troops to be furnished for 
the war as can consistently be given to her, and I trust the requisition now made will 
be entirely satisfactory to them. I am, sir, very respectfully, 

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. 

The requisition spoken of was for three regiments — one for 
three months, and two for three years or the war. At this time, 
companies sufficient for over ten regiments were reported as ten- 
dering service, and anxious to go to the war. The War Depart- 
ment, for some reason, was disposed to throw a wet blanket on 
the effi^rts of the Governor, and the patriotism of the people, at 
this stage of the rebellion. 

On the 7th of May, orders were issued by the Governor ap- 
pointing General Rufus King as Brigadier General, and assigning 
the First, Second, Third and Fourth Regiments, as the First Wis- 
consin Brigade, to his command. This brigade organization was 
never recognized by the General Government, but General King 
was appointed by President Lincoln Brigadier General, and or- 
ganized the famous " Iron Brigade," consisting of the Second, 
Sixth and Seventh Wisconsin, and Nineteenth Indiana, which 
command he retained until placed in command of a division. 



68 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

General King was on his way to Europe, as Minister to Rome, 
when the rebellion broke out. He immediately resigned his 
position, and accepted a Brigadier Generalship. 

Our fellow citizen, Carl Schurz, was about this time appointed 
Minister to Spain, but his steps were arrested by the approach- 
ing contest, and procuring leave of absence from his European 
post, entered the military service of the United States, being 
commissioned as Major General, which position he held during 
the war. 

Early in May, companies had been assigned to the Third and 
Fourth Regiments, and their officers instructed to board and 
lodge their men at recruiting rendezvous, to be ready to be called 
into camp at short notice. This work was done before it was 
known that Government would require any more men. 

On the 6th of May, Governor Randall received a telegram 
from Secretary Cameron, stating that it was desirable that regi- 
ments sent from Wisconsin should enlist for three years, or dur- 
ing the war, and ordering the mustering out of such persons as 
declined to enlist for that time. In a subsequent telegram, the 
Secretary of War stated that the quota of Wisconsin, under the 
new call, was two regiments. 

The Governor still wishing to gratify the enthusiastic desires 
of the companies who had tendered their services, again wrote to 
the Secretary, urging the Department to call for five more regi- 
ments from Wisconsin. The Secretary replied " that as anxious 
as are the people of your State to furnish the volunteers, they 
are no more so than I am to gratify their wishes, but this I can- 
not do, but I have done the best I could, by giving you three 
regiments — one for three months, and two for three years." In 
reply to another letter of Governor Randall, the Secretary made 
answer, " Two regiments are assigned to your State in addition 
to the regiment of three months militia already called for, mak- 
ing three regiments. It is imjportant to reduce rather than enlarge 
this number^ and in no event to exceed it. Let me earnestly re- 
commend to you, therefore, to call for no more than three regi- 
ments, and if more are already called for, to reduce the number 
by discharge J' 



PATRIOTIC LADIES. 69 

Nothing daunted by these discouraging refusals, Governor 
Eandall proceeded to organize the Second, Third and Fourth 
Regiments. The Second Regiment was in camp, and the 
companies of the Third and Fourth were at rendezvous. 

One of the great features of this war of the rebellion has been 
the position occupied by the women of the loyal States, and the 
great work which they have been able to accomplish, stands out 
in bold relief, and challenges the admiration, not only of our own 
people, but of the civilized world. For the spirit manifested by 
the daughters of America, history finds no parallel in the records 
of any nation, and the patriotic women of the loyal States de- 
serve a monument higher than that on Bunker Hill, for their 
achievements in aiding our suffering soldiers in the hospitals and 
on the bloody field. 

At the Assembly Hall, the ladies performed a large amount 
of labor, done at a time when great suffering would have occur- 
red, if their timely assistance had not been rendered. Ladies in 
Watertown and other places were supplied with material, and 
assisted in making up the shirts and drawers so much needed 
by our volunteers. 

Much credit is due Mrs. B. F. Hopkins, and her staff of assist- 
ants, in carrying out the benevolent designs of the ladies, and 
the Governor in a letter, on the occasion of a collation in the As- 
sembly Hall, on the conclusion of their labors, gratefully acknowl- 
edged the services performed by the ladies in aid of the Quarter- 
master's Department of the State. The Governor's letter is 
worth preserving : 

Executive Office, Madison, May 11, 1861. 
To THE Patriotic Ladies of Madison : 

I am necessarily compelled to be absent from [Madison this morning, or I would, in 
person, pay my respects to you. 

I thank you for the devotion you have manifested, and the sacriflces you have made, 
in aiding to prepare comforts and necessaries for the gallant sons of our beloved State, 
-who go so bravely to defend and maintain our common Government. Next to the devo- 
tion they must feel to the good cause in which they are engaged, will be the homage 
their noble hearts will pay you for the kindness and consideration and care you have 
bestowed for them and upon them. It is not the business of your sex to mingle in the 
severer strifes of the thronging heaving world, but we know that where smiles are 
sweetest and eyes are brightest, there hearts are warmest, and that thence comes en- 
couragement and moral strength to the stalwart-heart«d men of the land. In another 
age, wives and mothers and daughters sent husbands and sons and brothers to the 
fierce battle fields, to gain for themselves and for us and for all who are to come after 



70 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

us, all that is great and useful and good in our institutions. To-day, you, following the 
patriotic example of the noble women of the Revolution, send freely out all who are 
near and dear to you, to preserve and maintain, for all coming time, what was so fear- 
fully acquired. Remember now, and always, that your kindness will never be 
forgotten. Very respectfuUy, 

ALEX. W. RANDALL. 

It is proper here to remark that the effort of the ladies at Madi- 
son and other places laid the foundation for the permanent or- 
ganization of the " Soldier's Aid Society," and kindred benevo- 
lent institutions throughout the State, having for their object the 
gathering and forwarding of sanitary supplies to the soldiers in 
the hospitals and in the field — a labor that has contributed much 
to the comfort and welfare of the soldier, and smoothed the 
death-bed of many of our brave boys, who have in the field and 
hospital laid down their precious lives for the cause of their 
country. 



CHAPTEK II. 



ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1861— CONTINUED. 

« 

Extra Session of the Legislature — Governor's Message — Laws 
Passed — State Military Departments — Third and Fourth Regi- 
ments — Six Regiments Accepted — Fifth and Sixth Regiments — 
Letter to President Lincoln — Seventh and Eighth Regiments — 
Cavalry Authorized — Sharp-shooters — State Agents — Circu- 
lar to Loyal Governors — State Bonds — Letter to Secretary 
OP War — More Infantry Accepted — Artillery Wanted — First, 
Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Regiments — Letter to Secretary 
OF War — Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Regi- 
ments — 8205,000 Reimbursed — Correspondence — First Cavalry- 
Second Cavalry — More Artillery Accepted — Third Cavalry — 
Consolidation of Companies — Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eigh- 
teenth AND Nineteenth Regiments — Recruiting Discontinued 
— Letter of Captain Eddy — Report op Governor Randall — 
Biographical Sketch op Governor Randall — Close of 1861. 

ON being notified of the second call of the President for troops, 
Governor Randall immediately issued a Proclamation con- 
vening a special session of the Legislature on Wednesday, the 
15th of May. On that day the Legislature met in extra session, 
and the Governor delivered a message, from which we extract 
Buch portions as have a military bearing : 

Senatoes and Representatives : 

At the close of the last annual session of the Legislature, to meet a sadden emergency 
an act was passed authorizing me to respond to the call of the President of the United 
States, for "aid in maintaining the Union and the supremacy of the laws, or to suppress 
rebellion or insurrection, or to repel invasion within the United States," and I was au- 
thorized, and it was made my duty, to take such measures as, in my judgment, should 
provide in the speediest and most efficient manner, for responding to such call : and to 
this end I was authorized to accept the services of volunteers for active service, to be 
enrolled in companies of not less than seventy-five men each, rank and file, and in regi- 
ments of ten companies each. I was also authorized to provide for uniforming and 
equipping such companies as were not provided with unilbrms and equipments. 
, The flist call of the President, for immediate o«tive service, was for one regiment of 
men. 



72 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

My proclamation, issued immediately after the passage of the act of the Legislature, 
■was answered within less than ten days, by companies enough, each containing the re- 
quisite number of men to make up at least five regiments, instead of one. I then issued 
another proclamation, announcing the offers that had been made, and advising that 
thereafter companies might be enrolled to stand as minute men, ready to answer further 
calls, as they might be made, but without expense to the State, except as they are mus- 
tered into service. In less than one month from the date of my first proclamation, at 
least five thousand men, either as individuals or in enrolled companies, have oflFered 
their services for the war, and all appear anxious for active service in the field. 

In providing for the First Regiment, embarrassments have resulted from the fact that 
there has never been an eflScient military organization in this State — no system or dis- 
cipline. The men who had seen active field service were very few, or were almost en- 
tirely unknown ; and the order and manner of equipping and uniforming and arming 
soldiers and officers for rugged war were mysteries, the solution of which could only be 
found by actual experiment. * 

So the expenses incurred in preparing the First Regiment have been greater, to some 
extent, than they otherwise would have been, or than they hereafter will be. 

The spirit evoked by the rebellion against the Government of the United States is 
such as has never before been manifested since its organization. The x>eople understand 
that it is their government that is assailed, and everywhere throughout the North they 
are rising up to rebuke the treason so rife in some portions of the land. 

The deepening and widening dangers that threaten our institutions, and the pressure 
of public opinion from all parts of the State, with the growing certainty that further 
calls would be made upon this State, forced me to form another camp, and to bring to- 
gether another regiment of men, and to authorize a number of isolated companies 
which had volunteered, to remain together, and to learn so far as was possible without 
suitable arms, the discipline and drilling necessary for men going into actual war. 

T Illinois has but a trifle over double the population of Wisconsin, and the call for six 
regiments from Illinois, and only one from Wisconsin, is so disproportionate, as to ex- 
cite extreme dissatisfaction. Companies enough for five regiments, almost, are enrolled 
and drilling without arms, and two regiments, partially atmed with indifferent weap- 
ons, are in camp. We need, for the protection, and use, and benefit of our own citizen 
Boldierjj, arms now, war or no war. It is as yet impossible to ascertain to what extent 
the Stales, particularly this State, will be called upon to furnish forces, or to what extent 
the forces called for must be armed, equipped and uniformed for service. The people of 
the State, and of all the States, are anxious to know what and how much is expected of 
them, and are ready to respond. While the details of the policy of the Administration 
should not be made public, information of the general purposes of the Government 
should be lodged somewhere in each loyal State, so that there can be an authoritative 
assurance of what is intended and expected. In the absence of such information, the 
judgment of this Legislature must determine for Wisconsin what aid she can afford to 
extend to the Federal Government in the way of regiments of men, and in the way of 
arming, equipping and uniforming its own citizens, for military purposes, and how far 
it will make its military forces useful and efficient, bj' putting them, in the shape of 
regiments, into camp to be drilled, inured to the hardships of the soldier's life, and made 
skillful in the use of arms, before being called upon to face experienced ai-mies in battle. 

In my judgment, at least six regiments of soldiers ought to be put into camp to learn 
soldiers' duties, in addition to the one first called for. They should be armed and uni- 
formed and equipped by the State now, and when mustered into the service of the 
United States, their arms and uniforms and equipments accounted for to the State by 
the National Government. The men sent to war should be soldiers when they go, or 
there will be few of them living soldiers when it is time for them to return. 

An appropriation of at least one million of dollars wUl, in mj^ judgment, be necessary 
for the purpose of putting into the field a reserved force, and for providing to meet the 
demands of the Government as they are made. An authority ought to be given' to pur- 
chase, for the use of the State, in addition to such arms as are required for the use of 
jregiments going into tlie field, six rifled cannon. 



LAWS PASSED. 73 

Tlie people ■will never consent to any cessation of the war, forced so wickedly upon 
us, until the traitors are hung or driven into ignominious exile. This war began where 
Charlestons; it should end where Charleston li'cw. The Supreme Ruler can but smilts 
upon the efforts of the law-loving, government-loving, liberty-loving people of this 
land, in resisting the disruption of this Union. These gathering armies are the instru- 
ments of His vengeance, to execute His just judgments; they are His flails wherewith, 
on God's great Southern threshing floor He will pound rebellion for its. sins. 

The Legislature, by joint resolution, determined to transact no 
business except that for which it was expressly called. 

The limits of a single volume forbid our publishing in full the 
laws of this or subsequent sessions, and we are compelled to 
content ourselves with naming such acts as are passed, bearing 
upon military mattei^, referring the reader to the published 
volume for the laws in full. 

The law hurriedly passed at the close of the regular session, 
and under which Governor Randall had organized the First Regi- 
ment, was found inadequate to meet the second call of the Presi- 
dent. A bill was introduced, and became a law, which author- 
ized the Governor to raise six regiments of intantry, inclusive of 
those he had organized or placed at quarters. When the six 
regiments were mustered into the United States service, he was 
authorized to raise two additional regiments, and thus to keep 
two regiments continually in reserve to meet any future call of 
the Government. He was authorized to quarter and subsist vol- 
unteers at rendezvous, to transport, to clothe, subsist and quarter 
them in camp at the expense of the State. Arms and munitions 
were to be furnished by the United States. Recruits were to be 
mustered into State service, and into United States service for 
three years. Two assistant surgeons to each regiment were to be 
appointed and paid by the State. The regiments, as they came 
into camp, were to be instructed in drill and various camp duties 
to secure efficiency in the field. The troops, so called in, were 
to be paid monthly by the State, the same pay and emoluments 
as the soldiers in the United States army, from the date of enlist- 
ment. The Paymaster General was authorized to draw funds 
from the State Treasury for the payment of the State troops, 
and the expenses incurred in subsisting, transporting and cloth- 
ing them. The Governor was authorized to purchase military 
stores, subsistence, clothing, medicine, field and camp equipage ; 
and the sum of one million dollars was appropriated to enable 
the Governor to carry out the law. 



74 MILITAKY HISTORY OP WISCONSIN. 

Under another law, he was authorized to purchase 2,000 stand 
of arms, and fifty thousand dollars was appropriated. 

Another law was passed, authorising counties, towns, cities 
and incorporated villages to levy taxes for the purpose of provid- 
ing for the support of families of volunteers residing in their 
respective limits. 

The law exempting volunteers from civil process was amended, 
so as so include all who might thereafter enlist. 

A law granting five dollars per month, as extra pay, to enlisted 
volunteers having families dependent upon them for support, 
payahle to the volunteer's family, was passed. 

The Governor was authorized to employ such aids, clerks and 
messengers as he deemed necessary for the public interest. 

A law was also passed, authorizing the payment of those who 
had enlisted for three months, but declined to go in for three 
years. 

The expenses of the extra session were ordered to be pail out 
of the War Fund. 

One million dollars, in bonds, were authorized to be issued for 
war purposes, to be known as the " War Fund," The Governor, 
Secretary of State and State Treasurer were authorized to nego- 
tiate the sale of these bonds, &c. A section of the law required 
all claims against the " War Fund " to be presented in three 
months from the time they accrued. 

The Governor was authorized to be absent from the State 
during the war, if thought advisable, in connection with military 
matters of the State. 

A resolution was passed, recommending the appointment of 
General King to a Brigadier Generalship. 

Governor Randall having, by the Legislature, been invested 
with full powers to act in the matter of raising troops, proceeded 
to organize the Military Departments of the State, as follows : 

His Excellency, Alexander W. RandalI/, Governor and Oommander-in- Chief. 

Brigadier General William L. Utley, Adjutant General. 

Brigadier General W. W. Tredway, Quartennaster General. 

Colonel Edwin R. Wadsworth, Commissary General. 

Brigadier General Simeon Mills, Paymaster General. 

Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, Sturgeon General. 

Major E. L. Buttrick, Judge Advocate. 

Colonel W11.LIAM H. Watson, Military ISecretary, 



STATE MILITARY OFFICERS. 75 

The several offices were organized, as follows : 

Adfuiant GeneraPs Q^e.— William L. Utley, Adjutant General; H. K. White, 
Assistant Adjutant General. 

Quartermaster General's Office. — W. W. Tkedway, Quarterma.^ter General; N. B. Vax- 
8LYKE, James Holtqn and William R. Mears, Assistant Quartermaster Generals. 

C&mmissary General's Q^ce. — Edwin R. Wadsworth, Commissary General; F. L. 
Hicks, John G. Clark and S. D. Clough, Assistant Oymmissary Genei-als. 

J>apmaster General's Office.— Simeon Mills, Paymaster General; James R. Mears, 
Assistant Paymaster General. 

The assistants in these several departments were appointed, 
as the business of the respective offices required additional 
assistance. 

The volunteers raised in "Wisconsin, in the year 1861, were all 
recruited, subsisted, clothed and equipped, (except arms,) and 
paid by the State authorities ; the General Government not as- 
suming control of the recruiting service until the 1st of January, 
1862. 

Quartermaster General Tredway was authorized to contract 
for all the supplies necessary to equip the several regiments and 
batteries called for in 1861. 

Commissary General Wadsworth had under his supervision the 
subsistence of recruits at rendezvous and in camp, until the regi- 
ments were mustered into the United States service, after which 
time, the Government paid their subsistence bills. All accounts 
for subsistence of recruits in rendezvous were examined and 
adjusted by this department. 

The expenses incurred by the State, in 1861, became a rightful 
claim against the General Government, by whom the State was 
eventually reimbursed, with the exception of some of the ac- 
counts which were returned for irregularity, but which will 
eventually be adjusted. 

Governor Randall determined to make another effort for the 
acceptance of more regiments. By the hands of General King, 
he sent the following letter to the Secretary of War : 

You will excuse me for urging, respectfully, that the disposition of the St:Tte in fur- 
nishing men and means in aid of the Government may warrant a recognition from the 
Gtovernment, by accepting, as has been done with other States to some extent, the addi- 
tional force of three regiments ordered into camp by tlie Legislature of the State, to be 
turned into efficient soldiers, in anticipation of further calls of the President. General 
King is the bearer of this letter, and is authorized to communicate fully with you upon 
the subject herein suggested, and upon such questions as may suggest themselves of 
interest between the Government and this State. 



76 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Bringing to his aid the influence of the President and Secretary 
Seward, General King succeeded at length in obtaining from Sec- 
retary Cameron an agreement to accept the six regiments from 
Wisconsin, provided they could be got ready in three weeks. 

The First and Second Regiments were ordered to move for- 
ward to Harrisburg. The First Regiment left the State on the 
9th of June, and the Second on the 20th. 

The six regiments being thus accepted, the Governor proceeded 
to call into camp the Fifth and Sixth Regiments. 

The Third Regiment was composed of the Watertown Com- 
pany, Captain Gibbs ; "Williamstown Company, Captain Ham- 
mer ; Oshkosh Company, Captain Scott ; Neenah Company, Cap- 
tain Hubbard ; Lafayette County Company, Captain Whitman ; 
Grant County Company, Captain Limbocker; Waupun Company, 
Captain Clark ; Green County Company, Captain Flood ; Dane 
County Company, Captain Hawley ; Shullsburg Company, Cap- 
tain Vandergrift. These companies were ordered into camp, at 
Fond du Lac, about the 15th of June. Here the regimental or- 
ganization was completed, under the supervision of Captain C. 
S. Hamilton, who had been commissioned as Colonel, and the 
Regiment was mustered into the United States service on the 
29th of June, and left the State, for Harrisburg, Pa., on the 12th 
of July. On their arrival at Harrisburg, the regiment received 
arms, and were sent forward to Hagerstown and Harper's Ferry. 

The Fourth Regiment was composed of the Calumet County 
Company, Captain Hobart; Sheboygan Company, Captain Grey; 
Geneva Company, Captain Roundy ; Jefferson County Company, 
Captain Moore; Columbia County Company, Captain Bailey; 
Monroe County Company, Captain Lynn ; Hudson City Company, 
Captain White ; Ripon Company, Captain La Grange ; White- 
water Company, Captain Curtice ; Oconto County Company, 
Captain Loy,* and was ordered into camp, at Racine, on the 6th 
of June. Halbert E. Paine, Esq., was promoted from Quarter- 
master of the Second to Colonel of this Regiment, under whose 
supervision the organization was completed, and the Regiment 
left the State on the 15th of July, to report at Baltimore, Md. 



* The Black Hawk Rifles, of Fort Atkinson, were originally assigned^ to the Fourth 
Regiment, but, not being full, was displaced, and the Oconto County Company 
substituted. 



FIFTH AND SIXTH REGIMENTS. 77 

The companies composing the Fifth Regiment were recruited, 
two in Milwaukee, one eacli in Janesville, Waukesha, Richland, 
Taychedah, Beaver Dam, Manitowoc, Berlin, and Meuomonee, 
in Dunn County, and were all assembled in Camp Randall by 
the 28th of June, where their organization was perfected under 
the supervision of Amasa Cobb, of Mineral Point, as Colonel, 
and were mustered into the United States service. 

The Sixth Regiment was composed of companies recruited at 
Prairie du Chien, Baraboo, Prescott, Beloit, Fond du Lac, 
Buftalo County, two from Milwaukee, and two from Mauston, 
and were all in Camp Randall by the 1st of July. Lysander 
Cutler, of Milwaukee, was appointed Colonel. The organization 
was completed, and the Regiment mustered into the United 
States service. 

The disastrous news of the defeat of our army at Bull Run, on 
the 21st of July, was recei\'ed at Camp Randall, while these regi- 
ments were yet in camp. On that day, orders were received 
from the Secretary of War for the immediate forwarding of all 
the troops in the State, to Washington. Colonels Cobb and 
Cutler were notified to have their commands in readiness, and as 
soon as transportation could be procured they left the State, the 
Fifth on the 24th of July, and the Sixth on the 28th. 

The necessary number of Companies to form the Seventh and 
Eighth Regiments were severally assigned, but the Governor 
declined calling them in until after harvest, unless specially 
required to do so. 

A letter from President Lincoln under date of June 24th, 
requesting a full report from the Adjutant General and Quarter- 
master General of the State, concerning the troops sent from 
Wisconsin, was replied to, by the Governor forwarding the 
required reports and by the following letter : 

EXECTTTIYE DEPARTMENT, MADISOK, WIS., July Ist, 1861. 

To Bis ExceUeney, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United Slates: 

Sir:—1 have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 24th of June, 
desiring certain information in regard to the military preparations of the State of Wis- 
consin, and in reply, forward to you the enclosed reports relating to the six regiments 
accepted from this State. 

In addition to the six regiments thus accounted for, we have organized and in readi- 
ness to be called into service at short notice, two more regiments of three years' volun- 
teers. The companies composing them have for the most part been drilling at their 
Beveral localities in the State for some time past, and could be called together in a brief 
time. At the outbreak of hostilities, we had in this State, a very few good uniformed 



78 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

companies, and a very insufficient militia law, so that we liave been obliged to form our 
regiments entirely of new material. I think however, that the troops which we have 
sent forward will bear comparison as to drill and efficiency with most of those sent from 
other States, and that our succeeding regiments will be satisfactory in those respects. 
We have endeavored to furnish them with everything necessary except arms. As to 
the latter we have been unable to furnish them except at such exorbitant prices that 
understanding that the government was in a condition to furnish them, we have not 
attempted to do so. 

We have had volunteer companies tendered in this State to the number of about one 
liundred and twenty. So long a time elapsed before we were assured of the acceptance 
of more than two that their organization and withdrawal from their usual avocations 
was discouraged, until the acceptance of six regiments by telegraph reaching me June 
lOth, enabled me to say to those who wished to enter the service that there was some 
prospect for them to do so. We shall, in a few days have forwarded the six regim.ents 
to their appointed rendezvous, at the East, fully equipped except arms. 

Owing to the necessity for men to take care of the abundant harvest, it was not my 
intention to call the Seventh and Eighth Regiments into camp before the 20th of August, 
unless the emergency should make it necessary, and the companies have been so 
advised. If they are needed sooner, a call will be immediately responded to, and we 
shall have their uniforms and equipments ready for them. By the authority of our 
Legislature I shall, after the middle of August, keep two regiments equipped and in camp 
ready for a call to service and will have them ready at an earlier day if needed. Our 
people are ready and anxious to take part in this war to sustain the Constitution and 
the Union, and only wait to know that they are wanted, to respond immediately to any 
call that the Government may make upon them. 

I beg leave to urge upon your attention the fact that we have not in this State arms of 
all kinds sufficient to supply two regiments, and that as it is necessary to leave a suffi- 
cient supply in the hands of companies in various parts of the State, to guard against 
outbrealcs in our large towns, such as has recently occurred in Milwaukee, and for the 
protection of our Northwestern frontier, there is a pressing need of a supply of 1,500 or 
. 2,000 stand, with swords, for non-commissioned officers, if they can possibly be spared 
from the exigencies of the war. I trust that they may be forwarded to us. 

I am very respectfully 

Your obedient servant, 

ALEX. W. RANDAIjL. 

General Scott at the beginning of the war had assumed that 
infantry would compose the chief force called for, ignoring 
artillery almost entirely, and throwing cavalry aside as unneces- 
8ary. Repeated offers of artillery and cavalry had been made 
by several of the loyal Governors, which were uniformly declined, 
until about this period a change appeared to have taken place in 
General Scott's plans. 

In the latter part of June, Edward Daniels, Esq., of Ripon, 
made personal application at Washington, and received a special 
permit to raise a squadron of cavalry, and was commissioned by 
Governor Randall, as Lieutenant Colonel, in order to enable him 
to recruit for that arm of the service. We will state here that 
all of the cavalry regiments which were subsequently sent from 
Wisconsin, were " independent organizations," authorized to be 
raised by the General Government, independent of the State 



COMPANY OF SHARPSHOOTERS. 79 

authorities, although the commissions were issued by the State 
Government. Colonel Daniels proceeded at once to recruit and 
organize a battalion at Ripon. 

About the latter part of June, the General Government author- 
ized the raising of a regiment of sharpshooters, and placed the 
matter in the hands of Mr. Berdan, for the recruiting and organ- 
ization of such a corps, to consist of the best marksmen in the 
loyal States. Knowing the character of our population as 
pioneers and woodsmen. Colonel Berdan authorized Captain 
Rowland to act as his agent. The matter was laid before 
Governor Randall, and an order was issued by Adjutant General 
Utley, detailing the manner in which these recruits were to be 
examined, enumerating the qualifications necessary to secure a 
position in this company, of which only one was to be raised. 
Captain W. P. Alexander of Beloit, a good marksman himself, 
was commissioned as Captain, with authority to raise a company. 
The Captain at once engaged in the work, taking only those who 
could show, practically, that they could put ten consecutive shots 
in a target not to exceed the average of five inches from the 
centre of the bull's eye. Each applicant was required to exhibit 
his skill, and only those who could meet the requisition were 
enlisted. The company was filled to one hundred and three 
privates and three officers, and left the State about the middle of 
September, under Captain Alexander, and was mustered into the 
United States service at Weehawken, on the 23d of September. 
This Regiment went to the Army of the Potomac and performed 
gallant service. Company G, from "Wisconsin, holding a position 
among the best in the regiment. The history of this company 
will be found in subsequent pages of this work. 

One feature has characterized this war, difiering entirely from 
any other war on record. We mean that portion of it represented 
by the several Sanitary Commissions and Soldiers' Aid Societies. 
It may have had a prototype in the benevolent noble hearted 
efforts of Miss Nightingale in the Crimean war, but hers were 
the unaided labors of a single individual, isolated and alone, 
dependant on her own resources, to carry out her benevolent 
intentions. Ours assumed the character of a National enterprise, 
and became so gigantic in its several channels of benevolence, 



80 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

that its aggregate labors have become as much matter of astonish, 
ment to ourselves, and to other civilized nations, as the organizing 
and maintaining of our vast armies in the field. It is a pleasant, 
reflection, that through this bloody struggle, there has been so 
much noble-heartedness and genuine benevolent feeling displayed 
in the endeavor to contribute to the wants of our sick and 
wounded, and so much consolation aflforded those who have closed 
their eyes in death upon the battle-field or in the hospitals. It is 
not out of place to turn back to the early portion of the rebellion, 
and trace the incipient eflforts of those who began this system of 
benevolence. The idea of affording relief to the sick and 
wounded, was first developed in the appointment of agents by 
the Governors of the loyal States, whose duty it was to accompany 
the reofiments to the field and furnish to the sick and wounded 
such articles as would contribute to their restoration to health as 
were not permitted by the army regulations. True, these 
appointees may have failed to perform the duties they were 
ordered to, but that did not vitiate the principle. Faulty it may 
have been in its first organization, but theprinciple being establish- 
ed it ripened into a system that accomplished, in a more ex- 
tended field, the object sought in the original design. The his- 
tory of all wars shows that the disasters of the battle-field are 
less fatal than the diseases which are incident upon the exposures 
to heat and cold, the exhaustion of long marches, the disarrange- 
ments arising from insufficient or indifferently cooked food, the 
use of impure water, and other health destroying elements, 
which enter largely into the experiences of a military campaign. 
The Government furnishes Surgeons to take care of the sick and 
wounded, but it does not furnish them all with the requisite skill, 
with patience and enduranee, and that kindness of heart which 
often proves so efficacious in the welfare of the patient. Constant 
attention to a Surgeon's duties often sears his sensibility, and he 
becomes indifferent to the distress around him, and careless of his 
patients, and they suffer and die sometimes, through his neglect. 
Under these circumstances, the Sanitary agent is a fit person to 
step in and bestow those attentions which the Surgeon has not 
time or disposition to give. To show that Governor Randall 
appreciated the sufferings incident to the military service, which 



STATE SANITARY AGENTS. 81 

it was not in the power of the Government wholly to relieve, we 
insert here the circular sent by him to the Executives of other 
loyal States : 

ExECTTTiVE Ofeice, Madison, Wisoonsin, July 4th, 1861. 
To His Excellency, The Governor of New York, 

Dear Sir: It seems to be assumed that the moment one of our citizens enlists as a sol- 
dier in the service of the United States, he loses to a certain extent his citizdbship, and 
that he is entitled to but little further consideration. This has been at all times an 
Inhuman error, but at this time it is doubly so. The men who have enlisted as soldiers 
in the present war have not done so for the pay of the soldier, nor because they were out 
of employment. The men who fill the armies of the United States, to-day, enlisted with 
the patriotic purpose of putting down a wicked rebellion, and maintaining the Integrity 
of the Federal Government. They are our neighbors and fellow-citizens, who, braver 
than we are, go to endure the privations of the camp, and to brave the dangers of the 
battle-field, not only for themselves, but for us. From Wisconsin — and I doubt not the 
same may be said of all the loyal States — all classes and conditions of men, men of all 
the professions and avocations and employments of life, swell the ranks of our regi- 
ments. There is scarcely a soldier but leaves behind him a family or social circle broken 
by his absence. In every conceivable way they make great sacrifices. They carry the 
honor of their respective States with them, and are pledged to uphold that honor as well 
as to punish rebellion. They are entitled to our greatest consideration and care. Who- 
ever defrauds a patriotic, liberty-loving, government-loving soldier is a thief. So far as 
possible, the several States should do, and are doing, all in their power to send their 
regiments forward well uniformed and provided for the service in which they are to 
engage. I feel impelled to submit that the duties of the authorities of the several States 
toward the stalwart-hearted men who go to do our battles for us, do not and cannot end 
here. The history of all wars tells us that both during their continuance and after their 
close, thousands of soldiers, sick and diseased and maimed, go wandering homeward, 
suffering with privation and want, begging their weary way, and meeting that curious 
public gaze, which has no sympathy or kindness in it. Each State has a rich reversion- 
ary interest in the citizen soldiers who represent it, and each State owes to itself and to 
every soldier, an obligation to take care of that interest. 

I have determined, in behalf of Wisconsin, to send with each regiment, men whose 
sole business it shall be to stay with the regiment, look after its welfare, and to see that 
every man who, from sickness or the casualties of war, becomes so far disabled that he 
can no longer endure the fatigues or perform the duties of the camp or field, shall be 
safely and comfortably returned to this State, and to his family or friends. In health or 
sickness, in triumph or defeat, these men are ours and our country's, and our obliga- 
tions and hopes equally go with them. May I invite you to co-operate in this move- 
ment ? The agents appointed by and for the several States, for these purposes, can, to a 
very large extent, act in concert, and aid each other. I cannot doubt but that by a 
proptr effort, all Railroad and Steamboat Companies, touched by the humanity of the 
object, can be induced to pass all disabled persons free, upon a certificate from the proper 
responsible authority, that as such they were honorably discharged from service. The 
expense will be comparatively light, and the good to result, incalculable. 

Very respectfully, 

ALEX, W. RANDALL. 

In compliance with the circular, Governor Randall appointed 
agents to accompany our earlier regiments to the field. In some 
cases these agents acted for the Quartermaster's Department of 
the State, in attending to the shipment and distribution of such 
supplies as could not be furnished the regiments before they left 
the State. The fact is undeniable, that the Medical Department 
6 



82 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of the United States Army, at the outbreak of the war, was 
very inefficient, and many of the soldiers in the earlier battles 
suffered severely, and many lost their lives by the inadequate 
provision made by the Medical Department in the several hos- 
pitals. To our own knowledge several of our brave boys were 
permitted to die for want of proper medical attention, especially 
at the btttle of Shiloh. 

To the humane intentions of Governor Randall, and the untir- 
ing industry and eminent ability of Surgeon General Wolcott, our 
several regiments are indebted for the perfection of their medical 
outfit. Ordered by Governor Eandall to see that nothing was 
lacking in medical supplies for each regiment. Surgeon General 
Wolcott, gave the matter his personal attention, and it became 
notorious that Wisconsin regiments were superior in their 
medical stores and instruments, to those of other States. 

The organization of the several Sanitary Commissions, ren- 
dered unnecessary a continuance of the system of regimental 
agents, and they were finally recalled. 

In explanation of the manner in which the bonds authorized 
to be issued by the regular session of 1861, and also the extra 
session, amounting to $1,200,000, were disposed of, we insert 
here an extract from the report of the Secretary of State, for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 1861 : 

Chapter 13 of the General Laws, passed by the Legislature of 1861, at the extra session, 
constituted a Board of Loan Commissioners, consisting of the Governor, Secretary of 
State, and State Treasurer, who were charged with the duty of negotiating, in such man- 
ner as they should deem proper, and "on the most favorable terms which in their judg- 
m^ent could be obtained," a loan or loans for war purposes, not exceeding in the aggregate 
tJtie sum of one million of dollars. 

Through an alleged defect in the law, and owing to other causes not necessary to recite, 
it was found to be impracticable to effect a negotiation of the bonds authorized by said 
chapter 13, in the money marts of the East. But an arrangement was, after some delay, 
perfected with the bankers of our own State, by which it was agreed that the Loan Com- 
missioners should sell to them, and the said banlcers should purchase, eight hundred 
thousand dollars of the one million authorized to be issued, at seventy per cent, of their 
face, cash in hand, {sixty per cent, thereof in specie or New Yorlc exchange, and/tw/y per 
cent, in current bank bills, as directed by section 8 of the Loan Act,) and the remaining 
thirty per cent, in installments of one per cent, every six months ; the corporate bond of 
each bank purchasing bonds to be taken for this thirty per centum. 

An understanding was had by the Loan Commissioners with the leading bankers of 
the State, that all bonds so purchased should be placed with the Bank Comptroller, as 
security for Wisconsin currency then in circulation ; that the notes of all banks current 
at the time the arrangement was made, (June 25th,) were to be made par by the deposit 
of additional securities with the Bank Comptroller, and, finaUy, that bonds then in tho 
Department as security, chiefly of Southern States, whose rapid depreciation was stag- 
gering all confidence in our currency, should be sold in New York by the Bank Comp- 
troller, sufficient to provide the means of effecting the purchase of the Wiscoosiu Bonds 
oy which they were to be replaced. 



SALE OF BTATB BONDS. 83 

It Is believed that the seventy per cent, thus realized on the bonds sold, Is nearly, if not 
quite, as high a rate as could have been realized from their sale in Wall street, after the 
expense and delay of another extra session of the Legislature, and all objection to the 
legality of their issue had been removed. On the other hand, the diversion of the entire 
discount of the State must have suffered upon a sale at the East, to strengthen the cur- 
rency then perishing In the hands of the people, has proved an Incalculable relief and 
protection to all the business interests of the State, while at the same time the plan of 
Bale promises the return to the Treasury of the State, in greater part, at least, the discount 
thus abated. 

But whether the obligations taken of the banks for the thirty per cent, remaining unpaid 
at the time of purchase, are all of them paid or not, it is submitted that the substantial 
Interests of the State have already been benefitted through this negotiation, in the manner 
before indicated, far more than to equal in value the entire amount for which credit was 
given in the sale of the bonds. 

The exact number and amount of bonds sold and delivered (of the one million issue) 
np to October 1st, are as follows : 

794 bonds for $1000 each, for cash in hand 8555,800 00 

90 bonds for $500 each, for cash in hand 31,920 00 

6 bonds for $100 each, at par „ 500 00 

$588,220 00 

Leaving now on hand — 

6 bonds of $1000 each 6,000 00 

110 bonds of 500 each 55,000 00 

995 bonds of $100 each ., 99,500 00 

$160,.500 00 

An issue of two hundred thousand of State bonds for war purposes, was authorized by 
an act of the regular session of the Legislature, the negotiation of which was left to the 
Governor alone. Owing to a restriction in the law, those bonds cannot be negotiated 
below par, and consequently all but twelve remain unsold. 

"WTien tlie news of the disaster at Bull Run was received, 
Governor Randall was in New York. He took the first train 
and was in "Washington at the earliest possible moment. Imme- 
diately upon his arrival, he entered upon the work of hunting up 
our sick and wounded of the Second Regiment, visiting the 
camp and cheering up the drooping hearts of our brave soldiers, 
by his electrifpng speeches, assuring them that the State had not 
forgotten them; that their welfare should be attended to, and 
the evils they had labored under remedied. Several persons 
were employed to assist in this labor of looking after the sick and 
ailing, in furnishing new clothing, shoes or other articles which 
had been lost in the fight, and relieving those who were suffering 
from hunger and from the hardships incident to the heat of the day. 
In this work of humanity the Governor took the responsibility of 
authorizing the purchase of supplies and comforts for the sick, 
and paid it from funds he was permitted to use for purposes con- 
tingent upon the organization of our Wisconsin troops. In this 
he was governed by the impulses of a noble patriotism and 



84 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

generosity, which could not see the faithful defenders of our 
country's liberty suffer and die when he had the power to relieve 
them. However much the Governor's action in assisting our 
exhausted soldiers, after Bull Run, may have been censured by 
those desirous of criticising his administration, it is certain that 
the mass of the people of the State upheld the Governor in his 
efforts for the relief of our soldiers at that time. 

The disaster at Bull Run was destined to be one of the import- 
ant points in the rebellion, and to awaken the administration to the 
magnitude of the task which they had before them, and Congress 
next day passed an act authorizing President Lincoln to call for 
a million of men, if necessary, to suppress the rebellion. After 
this no trouble was had by Governor Randall in the acceptance 
of troops from Wisconsin. 

The news of the defeat of our army at Bull Run, on the 21st 
of July, was received with dismay, at first, but a reaction soon 
took place, which had a tendency to augment recruiting, and to 
rouse the public enthusiasm, to an ardent desire to wipe out the 
stigma of defeat. 

On the 26th of July a commission was issued to G. Von 
Deutsch, of Milwaukee, to raise a company of cavalry. He 
succeeded in filling this company to eighty-four men. It left the 
State in September, joining the forces under General Fremont, 
and was afterwards attached to the Fifth Missouri Regiment of 
cavalry. 

A despatch from the Secretary of "War, under date of August 
13th, requested Governor Randall to send all the available 
force in the State to General Fremont without delay, and to furnish 
a full supply of field artillery and small arms. 

The defeats of Bull Run and Wilson's Creek — the death of 
the brave General Lyon — the peril of the National Capital, 
showing the inadequate force opposed to the rebel armies in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, opened the eyes of the officials at 
Washington, to the fact that the rebellion was something more 
than a riotous demonstration, and that the people were ahead 
of the War Department, when their Governors were urging 
Cameron to accept more troops to crush out the rebellion. 

Governor Randall was not in the State at the time when the 
dispatch was received, but answered it on the 16th of August as 
follows : 



GERMAN REGIMENT. 85 

^on, Simon- Cameron: 

Some days since, I received from your Department a telegraphic dispatcli, calling upon 
me to forward immediately to General Fremont, all the organized and available force in 
this State, and to send a full supply of field artillery and small arms. I replied imme- 
diately, stating in the brevity of a telegraphic dispatch, the facts in the case, but desire 
that your Department should be more fully informed of our condition. We have two 
regiments organized, so far as the companies to form them are concerned. One of these 
Is now coming into camp, many of the men sacrificing their harvests in their patriotic 
feeling. We did not intend to call the other to camp until after harvest. After the first 
of September we can proceed rapidly with the organization of regiments, the men being 
ready and anxious for service, if we can avail ourselves of the arrangements which we 
observe are extended to other States, for reimbursing our expenditures tlius far made. 
It is very desirable that we should thus be provided with means in order that our work 
of organization may proceed without delay. If the Government is prepared to furnish 
any portion of the outfit of succeeding regiments, we should be relieved to that extent. 

In relation to artillery and small arms, we have in this State, six old six pounder can- 
non, which have for a number of years, been in the possession of independent compa- 
nies, some of them more than ten years — all without caissons — and neither in harness 
nor implements fit for use. We have no arsenal nor accumulation of ammunition. 
When the war broke out we had some sixteen hundred stand of arms of all kinds and 
patterns, in the hands of independent companies. These were called in for use in drill- 
ing our troops, and by reason of hard usage among six regiments, are mostly unfit for 
service. This is our condition and explains why we are unable to respond to your call 
upon this State. 

The Governor also wrote to General Fremont explaining the 
reason why he could not respond to the order of the Secretary of 
War. In conclusion he says : 

If your authority extends far enough to enable you to equip and arm a German regi- 
ment, we think we can send you in ten days after your acceptance, a regiment, more 
than half of which has seen service, and who are anxious to join your force. 

This proposition was made to General Fremont in deference 
to the Germans of the State, many of whom desired the oppor- 
tunity to serve under the " Pathfinder." Out of this grew the 
organization of the Ninth or German Regiment, though it was 
too late to eerve under Fremont. 

On the 19th of August Secretary Cameron telegraphed to 
know if a part of our uniformed militia, or "Home Guards,'* 
could be spared for temporary service. The Governor replied as 
follows : 

Hon. Simon Camehon : 

In reply to your dispatch of the 19th, I would say that our uniformed militia have gone 
into service. We have no Home Guards to call upon. We have been embarrassed from 
the first with a large number of companies seeking service, but we could not get them 
accepted. If Government will call on us for four or six, or more regiments, agree to 
muster them into service at once, and to refund our expenses on presentation of vouchers, 
we can have all the men we want speedily. On the same understanding we can raise a 
regiment of cavalry, and we have large numbers of European artillery men but no 
cannon. 

♦ ^Bwer by telegraph, and send detailed instructions by letter, 

ALEX. W. RANDALL. 



86 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In response to the above, the Governor received the following: 

To Governor Rand all, of WiscanMn : 

You may organize and equip as rapidly as possible, five regiments of infantry and five 
batteries of artillery, and procure for them necessary clothing and equipments according 
to TTnlted States Regulations and prices, subject to the inspection of United States offl- 
cei-p, Exjyenses incurred will be refunded by the Government. If you need the cannon 
at once, send us an order and they shall be forwarded, and such other arms as may be 
necessary. Please answer if this is understood and satisfactory, 

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. 

The companies for the Seventh Regiment were ordered into 
Camp Randall during the last week in August. They were 
recruited at Lodi, Fall River, Platteville, Stoughton, Montello, 
Lancaster, Grand Rapids, Fennimore, Beloit and Dodge County. 
These companies were mustered in by the United States officers 
soon after they arrived in camp, by companies. Captain Mcln- 
tyre and Major Brooks were the mustering officers at Madison, 
and Captain J. M. Trowbridge at Milwaukee. 

Immediately on the receipt of the order of the Secretary of 
War, Governor Randall issued a Proclamation calling for volun- 
teers for the five regiments of infantry and five batteries of 
artillery. One regiment of infantry was to be German. The 
plan for organization was recited in the Proclamation. 

From the beginning of the war a great desire was manifested 
for the organization of artillery companies, and when this requi- 
sition was received, but a few hours elapsed before commissions 
to raise artillery companies were issued. Captain Hertzberg's 
tender of service of the Washington Artillery of Milwaukee, 
was accepted, and he was ordered to fill up to one hundred and 
fifty men ; the same order was sent to Captain Foster of La 
Crosse Artillery Company. Captain Pinney, Captain Drury and 
others, were authorized to recruit for the artillery. 

As instructed in the dispatch of Secretary Cameron, the 
Governor made a formal requisition for the guns and the neces- 
sary stores and ammunition for the five batteries of artillery, 
and also for the arms and equipments for the five regiments, 
ordered to be raised in addition to the Seventh and Eighth. 

In reply to the above requisition the Secretary wrote, that orders 
would be issued to send arms for three full regiments of infantry, 
and guns for two batteries of six guns each. The remaining 
regiments and batteries were ordered to be sent forward to 



FIRST REGIMENT. 87 

Wiisliington without arms, to report to General McClellan for 
orders, and arms and equipments would then be provided. The 
Secretary concluded his letter thus — " K you desire to add more 
regiments to those already off'ered, I should be glad to hear from 
you. Before closing this communication, permit me to extend 
the acknowledgements of this Department for your prompt and 
liberal response to all calls that have been made upon you for 
forces." 

It appears that an order of the "War Department required that 
Adjutants and Quartermasters should be Lieutenants in the regi- 
ments attached to companies. Governor Randall found it neces- 
sary sometimes to disregard this order and appoint such regimen- 
tal officers from civil life. lie addressed a paragraph to the 
Secretary of War, enquiring if the order could not be modified 
and suspended as it was in Illinois, to enable him to appoint 
such officers as were fully competent for the positions without 
depriving the companies of their officers. To this the Secretary 
subsequently replied, authorizing the appointment of officers on 
the recommendation of the Colonel of each regiment with the 
rank of Lieutenant, who can then be appointed Quartermaster 
or Adjutant by the Colonel. 

On the 22d of August the term of service of the First Regi- 
ment having expired, that organization was mustered out. To a 
telegram from Governor Randall, inquiring if the First Regi- 
ment reorganized for three years, would be accepted in addition 
to those in service and the five regiments recently authorized, 
the Secretary replied in the affirmative, thus making six infantry 
regiments, in addition to the Seventh and Eighth. 

In order to meet the desires of the German portion of the 
population of Wisconsin, the Governor authorized the formation 
of a German regiment, to be known as the Ninth. Orders were 
issued on the 24th of August appointing Frederick Salomon of 
Manitowoc, as Colonel, and William Finkler was appointed 
Quartermaster, with authority to recruit and organize the regi- 
ment, under special instruction until the Colonel took command. 
They were ordered to encamp in Milwaukee. The men were 
recruited in squads and sent into camp, where they were formed 
into companies. 



88 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN, 

On the 28tli of August, orders were issued for the reorganiza- 
tion of the First Regiment for three years, under the command 
of John C. Starkweather, as Colonel, David H. Lane, Lieutenant 
Colonel, and George B. Bingham, Major. 

On the same day orders were issued assigning companies to 
the Eighth Regiment, as follows : one company from "Waupaca, 
Greenbush, Eau Claire, Fox Lake, Fitchburg, Janesville, Belle- 
ville, La Crosse, the other two companies originally assigned, 
failing to fill up, companies from Prairie du Chien and Racine, 
were substituted. They were ordered to move to Camp Randall, 
the first week in September, where they all arrived and were 
mustered into the United States service by the 13th of September. 

Daniels' battalion of four companies of cavalry being reported 
ready for muster. Captain J. M. Trowbridge was ordered to 
muster them. The muster was completed on the 10th of 
September. 

At this time Government had organized general camps of 
rendezvous, at different points in the loyal States, under the 
orders of the Government. The mustering ofiicer. Major Brooks, 
insisted on sending recruits to these general rendezvous, which 
compelled Governor Randall to telegraph to Washington as 
follows, on the 3d of September : 

Hon. Simon Cameron: 

Your mustering officers in this State do not understand that they are to provide for 
mustering, subsisting and transporting to the State camps, where we are gatliering our 
new regiments. They expect to forward recruits to the general camps of rendezvous 
■which have been provided elsewhere. This is all wrong — men will not enlist to be 
lent away. Please instruct your officers, at once, by telegraph and mail. 

A. W. RANDALL. 

This dispatch brought about the desired reform in the action 
of Major Brooks. 

The Secretary of "War, on the 7th of September, desired 
" information as to what number of regiments could be ready 
to march on a few hours notice, if required, to meet an emer- 
gency, urging that organization and equipment should pro- 
gress as rapidly as possible, and in such manner as will enable 
the Government to use the force actually mustered ?" to which 
the Governor replied — " We can send our Seventh Regiment by 
Wednesday or Thursday of this week. Another will be ready 
in ten days thereafter, and we hope to be able to give you four 



TENTH AND ELEVENTH REGIMENTS. 89 

more regiments at intervals of ten days. "We send three com- 
panies to camp this week for drill. We are so far from the scene 
of action that we do not wish to send incomplete regiments 
miless absolutely necessary." 

Leave of absence was obtained by the Governor, for Captain 
Maurice Maloney, of the Fourth Regular Infantry, to enable him 
to take command of one of our volunteer regiments. Captain 
Maloney was a resident of Green Bay, and had been promoted 
from the ranks, for distinguished services. He was appointed to 
the command of the Thirteenth Regiment which was authorized 
to be raised in Rock and Green counties. 

Orders were issued September 18th, assigning to the Tenth 
Regiment, companies from Delavan, Kekoskee, Horicon, Juneau, 
Black River Falls, New Lisbon, and Waupun, to which were 
subsequently added companies from Menasha, Lancaster, and 
Platte\alle. This Regiment was ordered into camp at Milwaukee 
and was fully organized about the 1st of October. 

The same order assigned to the Eleventh Regiment, companies 
from Madison, (three companies,) Waterloo, Richland Centre, 
Mineral Point, Mazomanie, to which was subsequently added, 
companies from Portage City, Markesan, and Neenah. These 
were all ordered to be in Camp Randall by the 1st of October. 

We have stated that the First Regiment had been mustered 
out from its three months service on the 22d of August. 
Availing himself of the experience acquired by the officers and 
soldiers in their short service in the field, the Governor apjaointed 
several of them to official positions in the new regiments. 

An attempt was made by Major Brooks, the United States 
mustering officer, to put the soldiers of the Eighth Regiment in 
Camp Randall on raw rations, compelling them to do their own 
cooking. It produced a small rebellion immediately, and was 
only pacified by an order from the Secretary of War, instructing 
Major Brooks to rescind the obnoxious order. 

The batteries authorized to be raised were reported full. 
These companies numbered one hundred and fifty men each, and 
were raised as follows: No. 1, at La Crosse, by Captain Foster; 
No. 2, at Milwaukee, Captain Hertzburg; No. 3, at Madison and 
Berlin, by Captain Drury ; No. 4, at Beloit, by Captain Vallee; 
No. 5, at Monroe, by Captain Pinuey. It was ascertained that 



90 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

seven companies had been raised, and the Secretary of War was 
telegraphed to and the extra companies were accepted, making 
No. 6, Captain Dillon, at Lone Rock, and No. 7, Captain Griffith, 
at Milwaukee. 

Daniels' cavalry battalion, although mustered into United 
States service as an " independent acceptance," was suffering for 
the want of blankets, tents, etc. It was entirely under the con- 
trol of the United States authorities. On the Department being 
informed, acting Governor Harvey was requested to furnish the 
articles needed, and the General Government would reimburse 
the State. 

The 3,000 stand of arms for the infantry arrived, but were 
without accoutrements. The Governor urged the necessity of 
an immediate supply, and informed the Department that seven 
hundred artillerymen were in camp waiting for the guns and 
stores. 

On the 21st of September, the Seventh Regiment left the State, 
being ordered to report at Washington, under the command of 
Colonel Vandor. 

Up to, and including the Eighth, our Wisconsin regiments 
had been clothed in grey uniforms. This being the color worn 
by the enemy had produced much confusion, when the contend- 
ing parties became mixed up in the battle-field. The War De- 
partment promulgated an order, dated September 23d, recom- 
mending that no more troops should be sent to the field in grey 
uniforms, substituting the army blue. Before the order was 
received, the outfit for the Eighth had been furnished, except 
overcoats. These were made, in pursuance of the order, of sky 
blue cloth. Subsequent regiments were clothed in blue. 

This change of color was the occasion of great loss to the 
soldiers of our regiments, as on their arrival in the field they 
were compelled to throw aside their grey clothes, and receive 
blue uniforms, being obliged to pay for both suits. This was 
a hardship, and occasioned much complaint, as the grey clothing, 
which the soldier was compelled to pay for and throw aside, 
was an utter loss in most cases. Repeated efforts were made to 
secure a refunding of the amounts paid for these grey suits, but 
no satisfaction was ever received from the Quartermaster's 
Department. 



SCANDINAVIAN REGIMENT. 91 

The raising of a regiment from the Scandinavian portion of 
our population, was determined on by the Governor, and Kiler 
K. Jones, was commissioned as Lieutenant Colonel, and author- 
ized to raise a regiment to be composed of Norwegians and 
Swedes. It was understood that the regiment was to be com- 
manded by nans Heg, then acting as State Prison Commis- 
sioner. Mr. Heg had been unanimously renominated for a 
second term as Commissioner but he declined it; desiring to 
enter the military service of his adopted country. He was 
commissioned as Colonel, but was necessarily occupied with 
his official duties at the prison, until the 1st of January, 
after which time his personal attention was given to the recruit- 
ing and organizing of his regiment. The subsequent history of 
the Fifteenth will show that the Scandinavians proved equal to 
our best soldiers. 

The Eighth Regiment was mustered .into the United States 
service by companies from September 5th to September 13th, 
1861, and 'left the State on the 12th of October, being ordered 
to report to General Fremont, at St. Louis. 

Li the month of August, certified accounts of the disburse- 
ment made by the State for supplies furnished and subsistence 
and pay for the first six regiments of infantry, amounting to 
$512,000, were made and presented to the Treasury Department 
at Washington, by State Treasurer Hastings, upon which the 
Secretary of the Treasury paid forty per cent., being about 
$205,000. This amount was received during the month of 
September and passed to the credit of the " War Fund." 

A German gentleman named Fritz Anneke was strongly 
recommended to the Governor as an artillerist and experienced 
soldier. He was appointed Colonel of the First Wisconsin 
Regiment of Artillery, with a view to the regimental organiza- 
tion of the batteries authorized to be raised in this State. The 
Governor sent him to Washington to confer with the authorities 
upon the subject, bearing a letter from which we extract 
After stating the business on which Colonel Anneke was sent, 
the Governor says : 

There are now seven cdmpanles reported full, and more can be filled, with excellent 
men. Yon made requisition for five batteries, and made an order, or said you would, 
that the guna would be forwarded to this State. I have heard nothing from any officer 



92 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of the war department on the subject. The artillery companies are at quarters await- 
ing action and orders. The manner in which this business is done — or rather in which 
it is not done — makes costs and trouble both to the State and Governnnent. If this 
State can be met with the promptness with which it is ready to respond to all demands 
of the Government, I submit it will be better for all parties, and keep alive the spirit 
of our people. I can fill up to sixteen or seventeen regiments, if business can be so dis- 
patched by your subordinates as to give us confidence that what is said is intended by 
the Government authorities. 

Finding himself still unable to secure attention to matters 
pertaining to the artillery and infantry ordered by the War 
Department, Governor Randall, on the Ist of October, again 
Bays in a letter to the Secretary : 

I am failing constantly in securing attention to our necessities here as they deserve, 
and have been on the point of giving up the attempt to do anj'thing further in the way 
of furnishing forces, although I could furnish two regiments a week, until our forces 
amount to seventeen or eighteen thousand men, if the authorities of the State can be 
aided at all, and if we can be furnished with information and assistance when we need 
it. I don't know who to write to any longer, to get any attention. The Government 
has not been cheated here yet, but will be exposed to large expense unless somebody is 
authorized to act for it. We want arms and horses and equipments if you expect 
cavalry, batteries or soldiers. You will excuse my plainness, but it is due to you that 
you should know, in general terms, that your subordinate officers stop playing 
" captain." 

The "War Department telegraphed that the two extra companies 
of artillery were accepted, with the understanding that the com- 
missions of officers would be revoked if found incompetent to 
perform the duties. Information was also sent that 3,000 sets 
of infantry accoutrements had been sent from the N"ew York 
arsenal by Express, and also that it was impossible to send the 
guns and supplies for the batteries, as all the available field 
artillery was required at Washington. 

On the 3d of October a proclamation was issued forbidding 
the recruiting of soldiers in Wisconsin to serve in other States. 

Military Secretary Watson was sent to Washington to confer 
with the Department, on the business which the Gbvernor had 
eo diligently sought to accomplish. lie wa-ites on the 7th 
of October : 

Daniels'cavalry is left you to organize and provide for throughout, and may be in- 
creased to six companies. In regard to artillery, the Government accepts three more 
companies, making ten in all. * * * As to regimental organization of artillery, Mr. 
Scott, Assistant Secretary of War, declared decisively that Government wished only de- 
tached batteries. Quartermaster General Meigs promised to send usliorses if we c uld 
get cannon. • * * Quartermaster General Meigs assured me that authority sliould be 
given, by some arrangement soon to be devised, by which Government will assume the 
payment of all our bills for the enrolment, subsistence and outfit of all tlie troops 



CORRESPONDENCE. 93 

authorized by Government to be raised in our State. From the Quartermaster General's 
office, I went to the Ordnance Office. General Ripley showed me that the failure to 
send accoutrements with the 3,000 muskets was caused by an omission in the order of 
the War Department. 

On the 8th, he says : 

I telegraphed you to-day relative to Herzberg's artillery company. Secretary Camen >n 
has left the city, and the business is in Mr. Scott's hands. In conferring with him as to 
our artillery, he enquired the character of the several companies, and on being inform- 
ed that one was composed of Germans, many of whom had seen service, he requested 
me to forward the order for them to come to Washington. They are to go to Fortress 
Monroe. * * * i enclose an official order from Mr. Scott, directing that the cavalry 
and artillery be sent to St. Louis, as soon as uniformed, to report to General Fremont. 
* * * The project of placing Colonel Anneke in command of the cavalrj' regiment is 
broken up, by reason of there being no regimental organization authorized. On inquiring 
whether the German regiment would be authorized to fill up to 1,500 men, Mr. Scott 
refused to sanction it, as such organizations are productive of much trouble. I have, 
therefore telegraphed to Milwaukee, so that the matter may not proceed further. I 
secured, and took personally to the Ordnance Office, an order for 5,000 stand of arms and 
accoutrements. In reply to a question of mine, the Acting Secretary of War stated 
that no man will be discharged from the service to raise a volunteer company, though 
he might be detailed for that purpose, to return to duty if he failed to get his company 
by a certain date. 

He again writes, on the 9th : 

Enclosed you will find the order in relation to artillery, cavalry and infiintry. 

This order reads as follows : 

His Excellency, Govekxor Rai; daxl : 

/Sir .-—Please consider yourself authorized to raise and organize three additional 
batteries of artillery, and five regiments of infantry, also six companies of cavalry to be 
added to the six already authorized under Mr. Daniels, thus forming a full regiment of 
cavalry for Wisconsin. These organizations to be perfected as rapidly as possible, and 
in accordance with general orders, as issued from time to time, from the Adjutant 
General's Department. 

THOS. R. SCOTT, Acting Secretary of Wot. 

Under this order it will be seen that Governor Randall was 
authorized to organize artillery companies, to the number of ten 
in all — to also organize five regiments of infantry in addition 
to the five authorized in September, making eighteen in all, and 
to complete Daniels' cavalry up to a full regiment. 

On the 15th of October, Governor Randall telegraphed to the 
Secretary of War as follows : 

Unless steps are taken immediately to reimburse the State to some extent, we must 
•top and disband our regiments and companies. 

To this a reply was received on the 17th, as follows : 

Disbursing officer will soon have funds to pay just accounts. 

(Signed) J. W. RUGGLES, A$»i*tani Aci/iUani OenercU. 



94 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the 16th of October, orders were received to send the First 
and Tenth regiments to General Sherman at Louisville, and 
also two artillery companies, without delay, whether armed or 
not. Governor Randall replied : 

Cannot send regiments out of the State until properly flttea out. Can send two or 
three regiments per week if the Gtovernment will begin to reimburse. 

The Honorable C. C. "Washburn had made application to the 
War Department for authority to raise a second cavalry regi- 
ment in Wisconsin. An order, authorizing him to do so, was 
received from acting Secretary of War, Mr. Scott, on the 15th 
of October, the Department reserving the power to revoke 
commissions of officers found incompetent. 

On the 25th of October, Commissary General Wadsworth 
reported Camp Randall as ready to receive the Twelfth Regi- 
ment — whereupon the several companies composing it were 
called into camp, viz : one company each, from Prescott, 
Reedsburg, Dodgeville, West Bend, Newport, Oconto, Grand 
Rapids, Green Bay, Richland County, Boscobel. The Twelfth 
was mustered into- the United States service by companies 
between October 28th, and November 6th. 

The several companies composing the Thirteenth Regiment, 
were recruited in the counties of Rock, Walworth, and Green, 
and were ordered into camp at Camp Tredway, Janesville, 
whenever they reported full. The companies were recruited in 
three towns of Rock County, Janesville, three companies, Evans- 
ville, Milton ; in three towns in Walworth County, Whitewater, 
Sugar Creek, and Sharon, and in Green County, town of 
Albany. The regiment was mustered into United States service 
by companies, between October 17th, and November 13th. 

Under the authority to raise three additional companies of 
artillery, C. H. Johnson, of Milwaukee, Stephen J. Carpenter 
and Yates Beebe were authorized to recruit for the formation of 
these additional companies, to be known as the Eighth, Ninth 
and Tenth Batteries. These batteries were all filled, and went 
into camp, at Racine, by the latter part of the year. 

On the 22d of October, orders were received directing the 
First and Tenth Regiments to be sent to Louisville, and the 
Eleventh to St. Louis. The First Regiment left on the 28th of 



WINTER QUARTERS AT CAMP RANDALL. 95 

October, the Tenth on the 9th of November, and the Eleventh 
on the 11th of November, being the last regiments sent from 
the State in 1861. 

In response to a request as to the number of regiments 
organized up to this date. Governor Randall replied : 

Wisconsin sent one regiment for three months, officers and men 810. The other regi- 
ments for the war, up to the 13th, (including the First, reorganized,) will average 1,000 
men each ; one company of sharpshooters for Berdan's regiment, 103 men ; and seven 
companies of artillery. By the first of December, if we get any money from Govern- 
ment, we can furnish seventeen regiments of infantry, a full regiment of artillery, and 
one regiment of cavalry. 

In view of the approach of winter, and the consequent need 
of more comfortable quarters for our regiments in process of 
organization, Governor Randall wrote to the Secretary of War, 
as follows, under date of November 4th : 



Hon. Simon Cameeon: 

Sir:— I beg leave to lay before you, for immediate consideration, the following facts in 
relation to our military operations in this State, and request that a reply be given at the 
earliest day possible. The reasons for haste will readily occur to you. 

Besides the regiments and squadrons now in camp at diflferent points in this State, 
and almost ready for departure to such points as they are ordered, we have four more 
regiments of infantry and two of cavalry in process of formation at the present time. 
One of these is composed of full companies now at quarters in their several localities, 
ready to be called into camp, while the companies for the others are likewise mostly a t 
quarters at the points where raised, in various stages of progress. Enlistments have 
been, and are progressing very rapidly, and will do so to an aggregate beyond our quota. 
If we can make our men reasonably comfortable in camp. The season has advanced so 
far that in this latitude we cannot insure that reasonable comfort in tents. 

We propose, and desire to erect here, at Madison, barracks for quarters, in which our 
regiments of infantry may succeed each other. How rapidly they will be sent out de- 
pends upon the rapidity with which we may obtain their outfit. As this again is 
dependent upon the arrangements of Government, in providing for reimbursing our 
past expenses and meeting our current bills, I shall make the matter subject of a 
separate communication. After inquiries into the probable expense of the proposed 
barracks, I am of the opinion that we can make the necessary provisions here for three 
regiments (by erecting barracks for two regiments, and repairing the existing board 
barracks for another regiment) for 18,000 or S9,000. We can obtain the use of Fort Craw- 
ford, at Prairie du Chien, gratis, from its present private owners, for a cavalry regiment, 
and it can be placed m comfortable condition for less than 81,000. I wish to be advised 
immediately whether our contracts for such expenses will be met by Government when 
due, and this question I desire to have answered by telegraph, that we may proceed without 
delay with the work. I know that money to a large amount will be saved by Govern- 
ment by the plan suggested, since, unless we can provide such winter quarters in which 
to place tlie troops, the companies must remain at their local quarters throughout the 
State, and their expenses of pay or subsistence meanwhile are going on, whereas, if we 
can bring them Immediately to camp, they can be subsisted at a much cheaper rate, 
after being sworn into the United States service, and we can the sooner prepare them 
for being sent into service. I desire, therefore, to be understood as urging in the strong- 
est terms the policy of the immediate provision of the barracks alluded to, under the 
best contracts that we can make, such contracts to be met by Government when due. 



»6 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

If this cannot be done, it will be better to direct the disbanding of the companies noir 
ready to come into camp, amounting to three or four thousand men, for it will be impos- 
sible, and inhuman if it were possible, to keep them together in their local quarters, in 
a climate in which we sometimes have the mercury at 20° below zero in December. 

Yours very respectfully, 

A. W. RANDALL. 

Early in November, the "War Department issued an order dis- 
continuing enlistments for the cavalry service, and circulars 
were sent to the different State Executives to consolidate all 
incomplete regiments. Ex-Governor Barstow, by authority of 
General Fremont, which authority was confirmed by the Gene- 
ral Government, had commenced the organization of a third 
cavalry regiment in "Wisconsin, and made considerable progress, 
when Governor Randall received information that the authority 
of Ex-Governor Barstow had been revoked. Colonel Barstow 
immediately repaired to "Washington, and upon representation 
as to the advanced condition of his regiment, his authority was 
restored, on condition that his regiment should be full by the 
5th of December. 

Several loyal States having agents in the market for the pur- 
chase of arms. Government found such competition increased the 
price put upon arms by the holders and speculators, and issued a 
circular to the States to withdraw their agents, and permit the 
Government to purchase all arms necessary, which would be 
equitably divided among the several States. With this circular. 
Governor Randall received notice that Major Hagner, of the 
Kew York Arsenal, would forward to his address 5,000 muskets 
and accoutrements. 

Companies from Fond du Lac, "Waupaca, Omro, La Crosse, 
Manitowoc, Depere, Chilton, Greenbush, Black River Falls and 
Mazomanie were assigned to the Fourteenth Regiment, and 
ordered to proceed to Camp Hamilton, at Fond du Lac. Hon. 
D. E. "Wood had been appointed Colonel of the Fourteenth. 

The Fifteenth Regiment (Scandinavian) was recruited in dif- 
ferent parts of the State, among the Norwegian population 
mostly. Some of the first companies were ordered into camp 
in November, where they were filled to a minimum from recruits 
brought in in squads. The regiment was several Weeks in tiling 
up, and was eventually fally organized by Colonel Heg. 



REGIMENTS ORGANIZINQ. 97 

In reply to, a communication from .the Cavalry Bureau at 
Washington, Governor Eandall reported the condition of the 
cavalry regiments. The First was reported as having 1,000 men 
in camp at Kenosha ; the Second, in camp at Milwaukee, reported 
six companies in camp, and four more ready to report, making 
964 men ; the Third at Janesville, reported with 700 men in 
camp. The Milwaukee cavalry company was reported to be in 
service with General Fremont. The Governor stated that these 
regiments were not under the control of the State, their several 
commanders having been authorized by the War Department to 
raise cavalry regiments. 

On the 26th of November, acting Governor Noble received 
instructions from the War Department, that the Eighteenth 
Regiment would complete the quota of infantry from the State 
of Wisconsin for the present. A proclamation was therefore 
issued directing the consolidation of such fractional companies 
as had been raised for the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Regiments, in order that the companies might be 
filled to a minimum number, and the organization of these four 
regiments completed. 

There being a conflict in the several orders relative to sending 
forward the artillery companies. Adjutant General Thomas, on 
the 27th November, countermanded all previous orders, and 
instructed the Governor to send two companies to Baltimore' 
without guns. 

Companies from Oconomowoc, Ozaukee, Mauston, Friend- 
ship, Wautoma, Chippewa Falls, Beaver Dam, Hanchetville,. 
Darlington and Waushara County were assigned to the Sixteenth 
Regiment, and ordered into Camp Randall, Madison. Benjamia 
Allen, of Pepin, had been commissioned as Colonel. 

The Seventeenth, or Irish Regiment, was authorized to be 
raised under J. L. Doran, of Milwaukee, as Colonel. The regi- 
ment was recruited in different parts of the State, among the 
Irish population, and was ordered into Camp Randall, where 
the organization was completed in the month of January, 1862. 

The Eighteenth Regiment, completing the quota of infantry 
called for by the General Government, was authorized to be 

7 



98 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

raised under Colonel Alban, of Portage County, to rendezvous 
at Camp Sigel, Milwaukee. The regimental organization was 
not completed till about tlie 1st of February, 1862. 

Colonel Sanders, of Racine, had secured the acceptance of a 
regiment from the "War Department, and had made but little 
progress before the year expired. The regiment was ordered 
into Camp Utley, Racine, where it completed its organization 
the latter part of March, 1862. 

The Ninth, Twelfth and Thirteenth Regiments were ordered 
to be sent to Fort Leavenworth, to report to General Hunter. 
Governor Randall sent a despatch stating that these regiments 
and th6 artillery companies were all ready, and would be sent 
as soon as paid. 

On the 3d of December, the Government became alarmed at 
the prospect of too large an army, and promulgated an ordei 
changing the manner of recruiting, as follows : 

Adjutakt Geneeax's Office, Washtnoton, December 3, 1861. 
[General Orders, No. 105.] 
The following orders liave been received from the Secretary of War : 

I. No more regiments, batteries or independent companies will be raised by the 
Governors of States except upon the special requisition of the War Department. Those 
now forming will be completed under direction of the respective Governors thereof 
unless it be deemed more advantageous to the service to assign men, already raised,to 
regiments, batteries or independent companies, now in the field, in order to fill up their 
organizations to the maximum standard prescribed by law. 

II. The recruiting service in the various States, for the volunteer forces in service, 
and for those who may hereafter be received, is placed under charge of general superin- 
tendents for those States respectively, with general depots for the collection and 
instruction of recruits. 

By this order, the system of recruiting was entirely changed, 
being taken out of the hands of the State Executives, and 
assumed by the General Government. 

The suspension of the recruiting service at this time must be 
considered as one of the many unfortunate mistakes made by 
the War Department while under the management of Secretary 
Cameron. The delusion that fixed itself upon the minds of the 
powers at Washington at the outbreak of the rebellion, that the 
insurrection was a temporary afiair to be easily put down, seemed 
still to govern the President and his advisers, dp to this time, 
the officers of the Government, including the President, were 
very far behind the people in their estimate of the magnitude of 



CHANGE IN RECRUITING SERVICE. 99 

tlie contest. In the eyes of the Government officials, the stu- 
pendous array of troops congregated in the vicinity of Washing- 
ton, under McClellan, seemed sufficient to crush every particle 
of vitality out of the insurgents. Almost as ignorant of the 
strength of the rebels at the end of the year as when the rebel- 
lion began, the sanguine hope was cherished that the immense 
army which McClellan had collected on the Potomac would be 
able to bring the rebel government to terms and end the war, 
without any further call for troops. It had been ascertained 
that over 500,000 men had been mustered into service since the 
war opened. Of these, nearly 200,000 were congregated under 
the command of General McClellan, and constituted the Army 
of the Potomac. "With this force, it was deemed possible to 
march upon the rebel Capital, and conquer the rebellion. The 
result proved the short sightedness of the officials at Washing- 
ton, and the suspension of the recruiting service, at the close of 
1861, proved to be one of the gravest of errors. 

The order changing the system of recruiting defined the 
duties of the several Superintendents, and appointed Major R. 
S. Smith, Twelfth Infantry, as Superintendent for Wisconsin, 
with headquarters at Madison. Major Smith reported himself 
at Madison, on the 3d of January, and immediately entered upon 
the duties of his office. 

In reply to despatches from General Halleck, at St. Louis, 
and Adjutant General Thomas, at Washington, dated December 
10th, asking as to regiments, or parts of regiments, organized in 
the State, Governor Randall telegraphed : 

We have three regiments of infantry fuU to maximum, and equipped. These are 
ordered by Adjutant General Tliomas to Fort Leavenworth, and arms sent tliere for 
them. They only wait their pay to be sent immediately. Besides these, our Fourteenth 
Infantry is full and in camp, and can be ready, if paid, in ten days. Fifteenth has five 
companies in camp, and filling up. Sixteentli has eight companies in camp, and will be 
full by the 25th of December. Seventeenth has some 400 men enlisted. Eighteenth will 
be in camp, full, by January 1st. Seven maximum companies of artillery in camp, all 
ready and waiting pay — two of them ordered to Baltimore without cannon. Three 
regiments of cavalry— two full above the maximum ; the third, about 800 men in camp. 

The State authorities were greatly embari^^sed by the neglect 
of the General Government to promptly respond to the Gover- 
nor's urgent appeals for the payment of regiments before they 
left the State, and also the expenses incurred by the State in 
their outjS.t. 



100 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the 19tli of December, Governor Randall telegraphed to 
the Secretary of War : 

We are distracted beyond endurance. Must the State give up getting any money ? 
Send some instructions to your Quartermaster here to pay us the money we have 
expended for the Government. 

Quartermaster General Meigs was also appealed to, who 
replied : 

Requisitions for two hundred thousand dollars, for expenses of Wisconsin, were made 
ou the Treasury, in favor of Captain Eddy, November 29th. 

Soon after this, Captain Eddy reported that he had five hun- 
dred thousand dollars for account of Wisconsin, but he could use 
it only in paying bills due and current. 

Company K, of the Second Regiment, as originally organized, 
was detached and ordered to fill up as a heavy artillery company, 
and was ordered to garrison duty at Washington. Captain 
Stahel's company was ordered to take the place of Company K, 
in the Second Regiment, and left Madison to join the regiment 
late in December. 

As a suitable termination to our recital of what was done by 
the State authorities in 1861, towards furnishing troops for the 
defense of the Union, we append here a letter from Captain 
Eddy to Governor Randall on the latter's retiring from his posi- 
tion as Governor. At the close of Governor R.'s administra- 
tion, a bitter partisan feeling was manifested, and the acts of 
himself and subordinates were unjustly censured by some who 
chose to let personal malignity overcome their sense of patriotism 
and courtesy : 

United States Qtjartekmastek's Office, ) 
Madison, January 6, 1862, / 

To His Excellency, A- W. Randall, Governor of Wisconsin : 

Dear Sir: — The uniform courtesy and kindness with which I have been treated, as the 
representative of the United States Quartermaster's Department, by the State authori- 
ties, and your evident desire to assist the United States, as far as in your power, in as- 
suming the direction of all war expenditures wherever practicable, makes it no less a 
duty than a pleasure to give you, upon your retirement from the Chair you have so long 
and so honorably filled, the assurance that the strictest investigation into the State war 
expenditures, belonging to my department, will show that honesty, faithfulness and 
integrity have characteriaed the oflicials whom you appointed to control them. I cannot 
speak in too complimenffin-y terms of Quartermaster General Tredway and his gentle- 
■ manly assistants. They have rendered me every aid in their power to complete the 
perplexing duty incident to the settlement of State war accounts ; and I can wish the 
State of Wisconsin no better fortune than to be hereafter as faithfully served as she has 
been since the commencement of our domestic troubles. 

Respectfully your friend and servant, 

4. R. EDDY, U7iUed States Quartermatter, 



1 



GOVERNOR RANDALL'S REPORT. 10] 

Governor Randall, in a report made to the Legislature of 1862, 
accounting for the expenditure of the " "War Fund," under his 
administration, after explaining the manner in which the two 
hundred thousand dollars, appropriated at the regular session of 
1861, and made subject to his warrants, was used — stating the 
disposition made of the $1,000,000 worth of bonds, and the man- 
ner in which the money realized from their sale was expended 
through the office of the Secretary of State — he thus speaks of 
the manner in which the $10,000, extra expenditure fund, placed 
at his disposal by the Act of May 25th, 1861, was expended : 

When this war broke out, and the State was called upon by the President for aid, 
there were no military forces in the State, organized and liable to be called upon for 
actual service. The few arms which had been distributed to the State by the Federal 
Government were scattered over the Stat«. We had no militarj- organization, and so 
far as was known to the authorities, no experienced military men in the State. For 
three successive years I had asked the Legislature to provide some kind of an organiza- 
tion, to the end that although not a military people, there might be some militai-y 
education in the State. The Legislature judged this to be unnecessary, and it was not 
done. The State authorities were suddenly called upon to organize, and uniforni and 
equip large military forces for active service. The General Government had issued no 
specific instructions as to the manner in which this work was to be done. We had no 
system, and labored constantly under difficulties and embarrassments at a great dis- 
tance from the seat of Government. While supporting large bodies of men, to save time 
was to save money. My experience was like the experience of the Executives of other 
States, and like them I was compelled to send messengers frequently to Washington. 
It was the surest, the quickest and only effectual mode of transacting any important 
business with the Departments. The experience of Treasurer Hastings and others will 
bear this witness. I judged this the best course to take, and adopted it. What was 
eflfected by these messengers proved that I acted wisely. A part of the ten thousand 
dollars was appropriated for this purpose, and so used. 

The insufficient accommodations for transporting large bodies of men, and large mili- 
taiy stores, except upon the direct lines of railroads, and the want of experience in the 
care of soldiers, both well and sick, induced me to adopt the plan of sending with our 
regiments agents, whose business it should be to see that our neighbors who had volun- 
teered to fight for us, should not suffer for want of care, in case of accident or sickness. 
The precaution was a wise one, it it is wise or right to take care of sick and suffering 
men. While some of our regiments reached the seat of war without accident, and 
without serious sickness, and so requiring no essential attention or expense, some of the 
soldiers in many of them were left on the way, and, but for the care and attendance of 
these agents, would have died. The sick soldiers left at Elmira and Harrisburg, and 
Baltimore, who were cooked for, and washed for, and attended upon, day after day, and 
night after night, by Sanders and Hurlbut and Hill and others, and the sick men 
brought home to their families and friends by Fairchild, received relief worth the whole 
amount expended, and more. While all the agents may not have been well chosen, I 
conceived the course a wise one. It was for such purposes that other portions of the 
ten thousand dollars were used. This course has been adopted by many of the other 
States, and has received not only the commendation of the authorities of those States, 
but the commendation of the Secretary of War, who complimented Wisconsin for in- 
augurating the system, and for the interest manifested for the welfare of her soldiers. 
My only regret is, that I had so little means at my command to devote to such uses. In 
the movements of our regiments, large amounts of clothing and other State and Gov- 
ernment property have been taken care of by these agents, which otherwise would have 
been lost or destroyed, in value far greater than the whole amount expended. 



102 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The Legislature, when the first call was made upon the States for aid, did not antici- 
pate what has since followed. It was supposed that not more than six or eight regiments 
would be required from the State, and made provision only for that, while nearly, if not 
quite,* twenty thousand men have been mustered into the United States service. It is 
the universal testimony wherever the Wisconsin regiments have gone, and along the 
routes over whicli they have passed, that no better troops can be found, and that none 
have been better uniformed or equipped, or provided for, than those from this State, 
and I believe that the closest examination will show that in the Paymaster's, and 
Quartermaster's, and Commissary's Departments, every eflfort has been made to save 
the State expense and loss. 

Many expenses have been incurred not authorized by army regulations, because for a 
long time we did not know what the army regulations were. Some expenses have 
been incurred and money paid by the Paymaster, Quartermaster and Commissary that 
I knew were not according to army regulations, under my direction, because I did not 
wish to see our soldiers, unused totiie hardships of camp life, and going from comfortable 
and pleasant homes, suffer or die according to strict military rule. 

These soldiers help pay the expense as well as fight the battles, and I have directed a 
few newspapei-s to be sent to each company. To provide against necessity or accident, a 
few extra blankets, and a few extra pairs of shoes, and a few extra uniforms have been 
sent forward with each regiment. I have audited and ordei-ed paid some small bills of 
officers, made under misunderstanding of army rules, and have paid some small bills 
for injuries done to the property of citizens by bands of soldiers, rather tlian have regi- 
ments delayed at the expense of hundreds of dollars, growing out of threatened contro- 
versies. Knowing that soldiers who drill eight hours in the day cannot well perform 
much other labor, and to enable them to perfect themselves as fast as possible in the 
discipline and duties of soldiers, I have relieved them as far as possible from other labors 
in camp, and endeavored to make them forget their privations by supplying their 
wants. If more ineans had been at my disposal, I should have expended more upon 
them. 

As required bylaw, I fixed the compensation of the Quartermaster General, Paymaster 
General, Inspector General, Adjutant General, Commissary General, their assistants 
and clerks. After seeing the great amount of labor they performed, and the pay 
adopted in other States, and upon consultation with the United States Assistant Quarter- 
master, I increased their compensation, keeping within the rule prescribed by the act, 
adopting the rule of paying men for well doing what their services were worth. These 
officers all desire that the Legislature should investigate their acts. 

The policy of experimenting with soldiers, to ascertain how little they can live upon, 
or how hard fare, and how extreme privations they can endure, and escape sickness or 
death, is the policy of all time, and its result has been with all armies and in all nations, 
that more men die in camp than are slain in battle. I believe this rebellion is to be 
atoned for in blood, and that the business of an army is to fight, and that, therefore, 
that course which will most husband the strength and preserve the health of the soldier 
until the day of battle, is the wisest and best. Respectfully, 

ALEX. W. RANDALL. 

The action of the State authorities of 1861, closed on the 6th 
of January, 1862, when Governor Randall transferred the duties 
of his office to his successor. 

The latter portion of Governor Randall's term of office, being 
about eight months and a half, was destined to be the most 
important of his Gubernatorial career, involving much labor, 
care and responsibility, to the execution of which he brought all 
his energies, and by his indomitable will, industry and 

* Since ascertained to be nearly 25,000 men. 



GOVERNOR RANDALL. 103 

unbounded patriotism, performed a work wliicli has placed his 
name among the ablest and noblest of the Executives in the 
loyal States. 

The long residence of Governor Randall in Wisconsin, has 
made the most of the citizens of the State familiar with his career 
as a public man. It is therefore unnecessary for me to indite a 
formal biography. He was born in one of the interior counties 
of New York, where he studied law, and removed to Waukesha 
in this State, about twenty years ago, where he has since resided, 
engaged in the practice of law, up to the tihie of his election as 
Governor, in 1857. He served one term as a member of the 
Legislative assembly. His first term as Governor, gave such 
Batisfactian to the people of the State, that he was reelected for 
a second term by a very large majority. 

The stormy proceedings at the Democratic ITational Conven- 
tion at Charleston, early in 1860, attracted the public attention by 
the manner and threats of certain well known leaders of the South- 
ern States, who openly declared that if the demands of the South 
were not acceded to, the delegates from their respective States 
would retire in a body from the Convention. So violent and 
seditious became these malcontents, that discerning men were 
led to anxiously watch the whole proceedings until it became 
evident that the disaifection of Southern members was part of 
the grand plot for the secession of the Southern States. By 
increasing the chances of the defeat of the Democratic candidate, 
they intended to secure the election of a " Black Republican" 
as President, for the purpose of " firing the Southern heart," 
and thus induce a general uprising of the South against the 
Government. That such was the design of the Southern mem- 
bers of that Convention, subsequent events has fully proven, 
and the election of Mr. Lincoln was ardently desired by South- 
ern politicians as affording them a pretext for raising the flag 
of rebellion. The Charleston Mercury, and other leading 
Southern papers, rejoiced heartily at the nomination and elec- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln, congratulating their readers and the people 
of the South, on the auspicious event as fraught with great 
blessings to the Southern people, enabling them to throw off" 
the hated yoke that had so long bound them to the National 
Union. 



104 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

It no longer admitted of doubt as to the designs of the rebel 
leaders, and the formal secession of Soutli Carolina, in Decem- 
ber, was looked upon as a foregone conclusion. The National 
Administration of Buchanan, permitted these rebellious acts, 
his own Secretary of War aiding the traitors by supplying them 
clandestinely with arms, and his Secretary of the Interior, 
Thompson, attending a Convention in North Carolina, and 
advocating the doctrine of secession. "With these matters tran- 
spiring in full view of the country, the loyal men of the nation 
began to awake to a consciousness of the volcano upon which 
the welfare of the Republic was resting. The Executives of the 
loyal States vigilantly watched the threatening cloud which was 
lowering upon the peace of the nation, and took early occasion 
to call upon their several legislative bodies to prepare to meet 
the crisis. We have shown elsewhere that Governor Randall 
fully understood the perils of the country, and recommended 
immediate preparation. In the foregoing pages we have endeav- 
ored to give a clear and concise history of the action of the 
Governor and the Legislature, in performing the duties required 
of them by the National Government. 

The passage of the act placing the State on a " war footing," 
imposed great and heavy responsibility upon the Executive of 
the State, and it is due to Governor Randall to say, that in 
the execution of the important duties imposed upon him by 
the Legislature in April and May, requiring him to respond to 
the call of the President, in the raising and equipping of the 
troops of this State, he threw into the work all the energy and 
will which so eminently characterized him as a public man. 
Suddenly called to act in a new and untried capacity, without 
a practical knowledge of the organization of military forces, 
without means, or instructions from the General Government, 
he boldly took the responsibility of acting on his own judgment 
in the performance of the duties thus imposed on him. He heard 
the call of the Chief Magistrate of the Nation for troops to pro- 
tect the National Capitol. His efforts never ceased till he had 
secured the men necessary under that call, and in the shortest 
possible time the First Regiment was reported as being at the 
service of the Government. That duty being performed, his 



GOVERNOR RANDALL. 105 

f )rethouglit and wisdom taught him that still further calls would 
I e made, and he resolved to organize other regiments as reserves. 
J ustly indignant at the wrong done to the patriotic desires of 
oar people, in fixing upon a single regiment as the extent of 
our quota, while other States were allowed an undue propor 
tion, he protested to the War Department and succeeded in 
securing the acceptance of two more regiments under the second 
call. These were soon organized from the companies held in 
reserve, but he still pushed his importunities upon the "War 
Department until three more regiments were permitted to be 
raised. After that the folly and disaster of Bull Run opened a 
way for all the regiments which could be raised in the State. 
In the equipping and furnishing of the troops sent to the field 
under his administration, he spared no pains in making their 
outfit in everyway complete, and his often repeated instructions 
to the Quartermaster General and Surgeon General, were to 
have everything furnished that would insure the full efficiency 
of our regiments when they arrived on the field. He refused 
to allow the soldiers in camp to cook their own rations or 
perform camp labor, stating that it was more important that 
the soldier should have his time to perfect himself in drill, and 
to make himself as efficient as possible in the field. To this 
desire of Governor Randall to secure the utmost efficiency, not 
only in the several duties which make the thorough soldier, but 
also in the perfection of the regimental outfit of equipage, stores 
and medical supplies, may be ascribed much of the credit which 
the troops of Wisconsin have everywhere received, for effi- 
ciency in drill and soldierly conduct, to say nothing of the 
honors they have secured for themselves by their own deeds of 
heroism in the field. 

Wisconsin and her soldiers owe much to Governor Randall 
for the manner in which he commenced the work of putting the 
State on a " War footing," and it is no disparagement to his 
successors to say that by his thorough energetic action, he laid 
the foundation for the reputation which our State enjoys of 
having sent the most efficient and thoroughly equipped troops 
into the field. 

His intercourse with the authorities at Washington, relating 
to military affairs, shows that Governor Randall, was constantly 



106 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and actively watcliing the interests of the State, at the same 
time that he was ready to lend every aid in his power to sustain 
the National Government in its great struggle. Hampered, as 
he was sometimes, hy the red tape inefficiency of some of the 
subordinate officers of the Government, he hesitated not to take 
the responsibility of ordering such expenditures as he was satis- 
fied the exigencies of the cause demanded, thereby saving the 
Government much expense and materially expediting the 
movement of troops from the State. 

Through the whole of his administration after the fall of Sum- 
ter, Governor Randall exhibited the most exalted patriotism, and 
the greatest energy in his effi3rts to meet the requirements of 
the I^ational Government. As evidence of this, we have his 
speeches made on several public occasions, also the correspond- 
ence with the authorities at Washington, as shown in the pre- 
ceding pages, in which he frankly assures the Secretary of 
War that his efforts and success is only limited by the necessary 
means at his command. When Governor Randall retired from 
the Gubernatorial Chair, he left his own best eulogy in the 
recx)rd of his actions in the last nine months of his adminis- 
tration, and th.e people of the State accord to him their cordial 
approbation for the manner in which he executed the difficult 
labors imposed upon him. 

Before the expiration of his term of office. Governor Randall 
had been appointed Minister to Rome. He left for Europe in 
the spring of 1862, and remained there several months, but his 
ardent patriotism could not endure the inactivity of his position 
when the cloud which rested over his beloved country seemed 
to increase in intensity, he therefore asked to be recalled in 
order that he might be nearer the scene of hostilities. He 
accordingly returned, and was appointed by President Lincoln 
to the post of First Assistant Postmaster General, which office 
he has held ever since. 

Although Governor Randall has not occupied a military 
position, he has been so situated that the Government has been 
able to make use of his abilities and talents in furtherance of 
the great cause, and we are happy to say that he has established 
a national reputation as a public speaker, not only for the bril- 
liancy of his language, but also for the able and statesmanlike 



GOVERNOK Randall's staff. 107 

manner in vvliicli he handles the great questions which have 
agitated the country for the past four years. 

It is due to the gentlemen composing the military staff of 
Governor Randall to say, that each and all of them, devoted 
theiSbest efforts in assisting the Executive in the very arduous 
duties of organizing and equipping the several bodies of troops 
sent to the field in 1861. General W. L. TJtley was indefatig- 
able in the performance of the multifarious duties required of 
him as Adjutant General. Early and late the General and his 
assistants were at their desks, regardless of business hours, occu- 
pied in preparing records, answering correspondence, and per- 
forming all the various duties which continued to accumulate 
as the forces called for increased. 

Quartermaster General Tredway's office exhibited a hive of 
industry. The General, with characteristic business tact, was 
soon immersed in transactions which eventually reached the 
expenditure of over a million dollars. The entire business of 
purchasing supplies and their issue to the different regiments 
was in his hands. His subordinates were equally active and 
attentive to their duties. 

Commissary General Wadsworth's sphere of duty did not 
involve quite as great responsibility, but the business of his 
Department was promptly and expeditiously attended to, and 
the interest of the State scrupulously guarded, while at the same 
time the soldier was protected from imposition, and not allowed 
to suffer by the mercenary disposition of contractors. 

The labors in the office of Paymaster General Mills were 
performed with ability and satisfaction to those having business 
with the department. 

During the latter portion of Governor Randall's administra- 
tion, the office of Private and Military Secretary was no sine- 
cure. From early morning till far into the night, Colon'el W. H. 
Watson was engaged at his desk in performance of the extra 
duties which military affairs imposed upon him. The usual 
business hours were ignored, and the Governor and his subor- 
dinates were employed till midnight, oftentimes, in disposing of 
the large amount of business on hand. 

Surgeon General Wolcott, was equally attentive to the duties 
of his department. Under his supervision was the examination 



108 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and appointment of the medical officers of the regiments. 
Another of his duties was to superintend personally the pur- 
chase of medical supplies and instruments for the care of sick 
and wounded soldiers in the field. To this duty Dr. Wolcott 
faithfully devoted his attention, and the soldiers of Wisc^sin 
owe much to his kind care and attention. 

The labors of the offices of Secretary of State and State 
Treasurer were more than doubled, and those two officers were 
indefatigable in the performance of the new duties imposed 
upon them, while their several subordinates were equally atten- 
tive and industrious ; every attention being paid to applicants for 
the aid to soldiers families and other claims. 



OHAPTEE III 



ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1862. 

Nrw State Officers — Legislature Meets — GtOVErnor's Message 
— Laws Passed — Eleventh and Twelfth Batteries — Kecruit- 
ING Service Discontinued — Battle of Shiloh — Fourteenth, Six- 
teenth AND Eighteenth Regiments Engaged — Expedition to 
Pittsburg Landing — Death of Governor Harvey — Biographical 
Sketch — Twentieth Regiment — Legislature Re-assembles — 
Governor Salomon's Message — Laws Passed — State Sanitary 
Agents — Call for 300,000 more — Monster Meeting in Milwau- 
kee — Twenty-first to Thirty-third Regiments Authorized — 
Extra Session of Legislature — Governor's Message — Laws 
Passed — 300,000 Militia to be Drafted — Draft Ordered — Draft 
Riots — Thirty-fourth Regiment — Close of 1862. 

THE administration of Governor Randall, and the otiier State 
officers, terminated at 12 o'clock, noon, of January 6, 1862. 
The officers elect for the succeeding two years were : 

Hon. Lotns P. Harvey, Governor; Hon, Edward Salomon, lAeutenant Governor; Hon, 
James T. Lewis, Secretary of State ; Hon. S. D. Hastings, (S'tote lYeasurer, (third term;) 
Hon. James H. Howe, Attorney General, (second term ;) Hon. J. L. Pickard, State Super- 
intenderU, (second term;) Hon. WiiiLiAM H. Ramsey, Bank CmnptroUer. 

The military officers of the State, at the commencement of 
1862, were : 

His Excellency, Lours P. Harvey, Governor and Commander-in-Chi^. 
Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, Adjutant General. 
Brigadier General W. W. Tredway, Quartennaster General. 
Colonel Edwin R. Wadsworth, Oommi.isary General. 
Brigadier General Simeon Mills, Paymaster General. 
Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, Surgeon General. 
Major M. H. Carpenter, Judge Advocate. 
Colonel William H. Watson, Military Secreiary, 



110 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the deatli of Governor Harvey, on tlie lOtli of April, 
Lieutenant Grovernor Salomon assumed the duties of Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief. 

On the last of August, 1862, General Tredway resigned the 
position of Quartermaster General^ and Nathaniel F. Lund was 
appointed to his place. 

The office of Commissary General was closed ahout the 1st 
of June, and the duties of the office transferred to the Quarter- 
master General. 

Paymaster General Mills resigned his position, and James 'R. 
Mears was appointed his successor. The office finally closed 
on the 10th of July. 

On the 6th of January, 1862, at 12 o'clock, noon, the Hon. 
Louis P. Harvey took the oath of office, and assurned the duties 
of Governor of Wisconsin, as the successor of Governor Ran- 
dall. His inauguration was characterized by the unusual feature 
of an armed escort of three regiments — the Twelfth, Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth, acting as a guard of honor, accompanying the 
Governor elect and his predecessor in a procession, and forming 
in front of the east portico of the Capitol, where the oath of 
office was administered to the State officers elect. 

The several military departments of the State remained the 
same as under the preceding administration, except that the Hon. 
Augustus Gaylord was appointed to the office of Adjutant 
General. 

We have before stated that the General Government had taken 
the recruiting service out of the hands of the Executives of the 
States, and appointed superintendents of recruiting service in 
each State. The active services of the Quartermaster, Commis- 
sary and Paymaster Generals were no longer necessary, and 
their time, after January 1st, was employed in settling up the 
business of their respective offices. 

Major R. S. Smith, of the Twelfth United States Infantry, 
entered upon the duties of Superintendent of the Recruiting 
Service in Wisconsin, on the 3d day of January, with his 
headquarters at Madison. 

On the 8th of January, 1862, the Legislature convened at 
Madison. We extract from Governor Harvey's message that 



GOVERNOR HARVET'S MESSAGE. 11] 

portion relating to military matters, as it is a full statement of 
wliat was done by the State, under the administratioti of his 
predecessor. 

Speaking of the transactions in the "War Fund, created by 
chapters 239 and 307 of the acts passed by the last Legislature, 
at the regular session, and chapter 18 of the acts passed at the 
special session, the Governor states the receipts into the "War 
Fund to be as follows : 

From sale of bonds of the S200,000 issue $13,007 50 

From sale of bonds of the 81,000,000 issue 646,590 00 

From United States, 40 per cent, of State's claim for expenses on first six 

regiments 205,000 00 

From. United States, for subsistence of First Regiment 3,531 00 

From United States, Quartermaster's bills, audited and paid Dec. 31, '61.. 88,320 23 
From Monroe County Bank, one per cent, on §42,000 bonds 420 00 

DISBTTRSEMENTS. $957,368 79 

To A. W. Randall, Governor, on appropriations by chapter 307, regular 

session, and chapter 3, special session $200,668 39 

To Simeon Mills, Paymaster 650,748 51 

To expenses of special session 8,256 79 

To extra pay to volunteers and their families 31,480 17 

To discharged volunteers 1,169 97 

To printing and advertising 10,357 76 

To postage, clerk hire, and gas bills 1,460 11 

To balance on hand January 1, 1862 50,227 09 

Total disbursements and balance 1957,368 79 

Vouchers have been filed in the Secretary of State's oflice, by the Paymaster General 
of the State, for the expenditure of $820,526 43 ; the accounts audited directly by the 
Secretary of State amount to $55,724 80— the remaining S30,890 47 includes. Military Con- 
tingent Fund, $2,500; appropriation of $10,000 for Extraordinary Expenses, and certain 
expenditures directly by the Governor, for which vouchers will be presented to the 
Legislature with the report shortly to be made by my predecessor. 

Wisconsin furnished to the service of the General Government, under the call for 
volunteers for three months, one regiment. First Wisconsin, Colonel J. C. Starkweather. 
This regiment— numbering 810 men— left Milwaukee the 9th day of June last, and 
returned, and was mustered from the service, August 17th. A portion of this Regiment 
played a distinguished part in the engagement at Falling Waters, Virginia. 
Under tlie call for volunteers, for three years, or the war, Wisconsin has now in the 

field ten regiments, as follows : 

JYo. of Officers, 
Mii.ncians and 
JSTo. Ctoloncl Commanding. Left the State. DestincUion. Jh-ivates. 

2d S.Park Coon June 20 Washington 1062 

3d C. S. Hamilton July 12 Harper's Ferry, Va 979 

4th Salbert E. Paine July 1.5 Washington 1053 

5th AmasaCobb July 24 .'. Washington 1057 

6th .Lysander Cutler July 28 .Washington 1083 

7th Joseph Van Dor September 21. ...Washington 1016 

8th .R. C. Murphy October 12 St. Louis, Mo 966 

10th A. R. Chapin November 9 Louisville, Ky 908 

•1st J. C. Starkweather October 28 Louisville, Ky 947 

Uth ..C. L. Harris .November 20....St. Louis, Mo -•1046 

Total 10,117 

•.Reorganized. 



112 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

There axe now organized in camp, and awaiting orders, the following regiments : 

9th, Frederick Salomon, Camp Sigel, Milwaukee 940 

12th,*George E. Bryant, Camp Randall, Madison 1039 

13th, M. Malony, Camp Tredway, Janesville , 919 

I4th, D, E. Wood, Camp Wood, Fond du Lac 859 

Total 3,757 

The Fifteenth, or Scandinavian Regiment, Colonel H. C. Heg, 700 men, and the Six- 
teenth, Colonel Benjam.ln Allen, 900 men, are also at Camp Randall, in near readiness 
for marching orders. The Seventeenth (Irish) Regiment, Colonel J. L. Doran, and the 
Eighteenth, Colonel James S. Alban, have their full number of companies in readiness, 
lacking one, and are notified to go into camp— the former at Madison, and the latter at 
Milwaukee. These companies are not all full, but will muster 1,400 men. Seven com- 
panies of artillery, numbering together 1,050 men, have long remained in Camp Utley, 
Racine, impatient of the delays of Government in calling them to move forward. Three 
additional companies of artillery are about going into camp, numbering 334 men. 
Besides these, the State has furnished an independent company of cavalry, now in Mis- 
souri, raised by Captain Von Deutsch, 81 men ; a company of 104 men for Berdau's 
Sharpshooters ; and an additional company for the Second Regiment, of about 80 men. 
Three regiments of cavalry— the First, Colonel E. Daniels; the Second, Colonel C. C. 
Washburn ; and the Third, Colonel W. A. Barstow, are being organized, and number, 
together, 2,4.50 men. A Nineteenth (independent) Regiment is being rapidly organized 
under the direction of the Government, by Colonel H. T. Sanders, Ra.cine. Not calcu- 
lating for this last, the State has furnished, and has organizing, 20,973, or adding for the 
First, in the three months service, 21,783 men.' 

The incomplete regiments are being rapidly filled, and when filled, as they shortly 
will be, to the average number with which our regiments have left the State, and adding 
the Nineteenth infantry, of which no estimate has been included above, the number of 
volunteers from Wisconsin in the United States service will be full 24,800, 

No State has furnished better material for soldiers than Wisconsin. Her regiments 
have been filled by men who worthily represent the intelligence and loyalty of her peo- 
ple. Universal testimony agrees that no troops have taken the field better provided in 
all respects ; and it is believed that by no other State in the Union has a like service 
been performed at a less expense. 

The expenses of recruiting, organizing, uniforming, "paying and forwarding these 
regiments, thus far, have been : 

In Quartermaster General's Department $1,189,120 20 

In Commissary General's Department 167,107 40 

In Paymaster General's Department, on pay roll of the regiments... 213,827 02 

$1,570,054 62 

Add for war expenses, audited by Secretary of State 55,724 80 

Expended by the Governor 30,890 47 

Total war expenses $1,656,659 98 

Tliis includes the liabilities of the Quartermaster General's office, for uniforms, ana 
everything furnished, or to be furnished, by that Department, for eighteen regiments of 
infantry, one of artUlery, and one of cavalry, with all articles supplied the First and 
Third Cavalry. 

As nearly as can now be ascertained, the liabilities of the State stand as follows : 

Total expenses, as above $1,656,659 98 

Payments by State Paymaster General $820,526 43 

" of accounts audited by Secretary of State 55,724 80 

" by the Governor 30,890 47 

" by United States Paymaster, direct on Quar- 
termaster's contracts 387,765 78 

" on Commissary bills 18,743 78 

. 1,313,651 28 

Present liabilities of the State $343,008 73 



MILITARY LAWS PASSED. 113 

Some further allowance — not, as is believed, to exceed S30,000— should be made for 
salaries due to members of the Governor's military staff, the Assistant Surgeons sent by 
the State with her regiments, and wages due to agents and employees, in one service or 
another, connected with our military operations. 

The General Government having assumed all further responsibility of providing for 
our volunteers, within as without the State, the services of many persons now in the 
employ of the State can be dispensed with. Provision should at ouce be made of means 
to settle their claims of wages or salaries. 

Provision should also be made to continue the payment of the aid pledged by chapter 
8 of the acts of the special session, to families of volunteers ; and all volunteers from the 
State should be held in equal regard, in whatever branch of tlie service they may have 
enlisted. A special tax or temporary loan may be necessary. Action on this raatter 
should be taken at once, or much complaint and suffering may be the result. The 
statute also requires amending in details, to the end that the State be better protected 
against abuse of its provisions. Especially should heavy penalties be enacted against 
justices making false certificates. 

Speaking of tlie Government tax, Governor Harvey said: 
" that the proportion of the $20,000,000, annually levied, is 
$519,688 67 for the State of Wisconsin, being a valuation of 
00.3312 ujDon the dollar of the present value of the real property 
of the State — that this is to be assessed on the landed property 
alone, the personal estate escaping altogether — that the State 
can assume the collection of the tax, and thereby secure a de- 
duction of 15 per cent." — and recommended that the Governor 
be authorized to liquidate the tax by off-set of claims of the State 
against the United States. 

He also recommended compensation to the Allotment Commis- 
sioners, appointed by the President, to receive from the volun- 
teers their allotments of pay to their families and friends, such 
Commissioners receiving no pay from the United States. 

On the 18th of February, Governor Harvey sent in a message 
to the Legislature, informing that body that the funds necessary 
to the payment of the State aid to families of volunteers vt^ere 
exhausted — that no payments had been made since the last of 
January — that seven or eight hundred warrants had accumulat- 
ed in the State Treasury, without means to pay them. The 
Governor urged immediate steps to afford relief to the suffering 
families of the soldiers. 

The laws enacted by this Legislature, relative to military 
matters, we epitomize : 

An amendment to Chapter 13 of Extra Session, 1861, made it 
necessary to present all claims which were made payable out ot 
the " "War Fund " within twelve months from the time they 
accrued. 
8 



114 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Chapter 89 authorized the investment of the principal of the 
School Fund in the Bonds of the State, issued under the Acts 
of Sessions of 1861. 

Chapter 7 of Extra Session, 1861, granting exemption to per- 
sons enrolled in the military service was amended, so as to 
except persons acting as fiduciary agents, either as executors or 
administrators, or guardians, or trustees, or persons defrauding 
the State, or any School District, of any moneys belonging to 
the same. It also authorized the issue of a stay of proceedings 
in foreclosures of mortgage, by advertisement, under Chapter 
154, R. S. 

" The State Aid Law " was amended, so as to apply to all 
regiments of infantry, cavalry, artillery and sharpshooters, de- 
fining the rights of " families," fixing j)enalties for the issue of 
false papers, imposing duties on military ofiicers in the field to 
make certain reports. These amendments only embraced regi- 
ments and companies organized since April 16, 1861, up to and 
including the Twentieth, which was in process of organization 
before the Session closed. 

Chapter 131 suspended the sale of lands mortgaged to tho 
State, or held by volunteers. 

Chapter 190 defined the duties of the Allotment Commissioners, 
appointed by the President, and fixed their compensation. 

Chapter 228 authorized the issue of Bonds for $200,000, for 
war purposes. 

Chapter 229 authorized a temporary loan from the General 
Fund, to pay State aid to families of volunteers. 

Chapter 230 authorized the appointment of a Joint Committee, 
to investigate the sale of War Bonds, &c. 

Chapter 262 authorized the Governor to appoint surgeons to 
batteries, and assistant surgeons to cavalry regiments. 

The Legislature took a recess until the 3d of June. The laws 
above mentioned were approved by Governor Harvey. 

Of the regiments mentioned by Governor Harvey, as being 
in camp awaiting orders, the Ninth, Twelfth and Thirteenth left 
the State for Fort Leavenworth on or before the 18th of January, 
and the Fourteenth on the 27th of March. The First and Third 
Baiteries left for Louisville, Ky., on the 20th of January, and the 
Second and Fourth Batteries on the same day for Baltimore. 



ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH BATTERIES. 115 

The Fifteentli, Sixteentli, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Regi- 
ments of infantry, and the First, Second and Third Regiments 
of oavalr}^, with the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and 
Tenth Batteries, all left for St. Louis in the month of March. 

In the formation of the Seventeenth Regiment, it was ascer- 
tained that one company in excess had been assigned to that 
regiment. The Oconto company was, therefore, detached, and 
permitted to organize as an artillery company, under Captain 
O'Ronrke, and was attached to Malligan's Brigade, in Chicago, 
where the company was tilled to a full artillery company. This 
is known as the Eleventh AVisconsin Battery. 

On the 30th of January, Governor Harvey having consented 
to the recruiting of three companies in the State for the First 
Missouri Light Artillery, Chaplain W. A. Pile was detailed by 
the commanding ofhcer of that regiment as recruiting agent, 
and reported to Major R. S. Smith, Superintendent of Recruit- 
ing Service, on the 20th of February. Chaplain Pile succeeded 
in recruiting ninety-nine men in this State, which formed the 
nucleus of one battery — the balance of the company were after- 
wards recruited later in the season by Lieutenants Harlow and 
Mills. Captain Pile left the State "vvith his recruits, April 16th, 
for St. Louis. This company is known as the Twelfth A\"isconsin 
Battery. 

Owing to the imperative orders of General Halleck, Governor 
Harvey was obliged to send the Eighth, jSTinth and Tentli 
Batteries, the Seventeenth Infjintry, and the First and Third 
Cavalry, to St. Louis, without being paid before they left the 
State ; thus being compelled to depart from the practice of his 
predecessor, who alwa^-s insisted on the payment of a regiment 
before leaving the State. He perfected arrangements for their 
payment on arrival at St. Louis, by sending Adjutant General 
Gaylord in advance, who agreed with Paymaster Cumback for 
their payment. Notwithstanding these eflbrts, some trouble oc- 
curred in the Seventeenth Regiment, which required stringent 
measures on the part of his Excellency. The regiment was, 
after a little delay, got off', and was j)aid at St. Louis, as agreed 
upon by Governor Harvey. The cavalry and artillery companies 
were also paid off". 



116 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the 16th of January, Governor Harvey telegraphed to the 
Paymaster G-eneral informing him that the State had advanced 
1214,000 for the payment of troops before they left the State, 
and also to Adjutant General Thomas, that the State had 
advanced $165,000 for the subsistence of troops at rendezvous 
and at camp, and asked that the State might be reimbursed. 

A reply was received stating that these accounts must be 
presented to the Treasury Department for settlement. Accord- 
ingly Paymaster General Mills and Commissary General Wads- 
worth proceeded to Washington to secure the settlement of 
these claims. Upon submitting their papers, the Department 
required the original vouchers upon which the claims had been 
paid by the State. These original vouchers were on file in the 
ofiice of the Secretary of State as required by law. 

Forty per cent, of the amount disbursed by the State in organ- 
izing the first six regiments, had been paid to Treasurer Hast- 
ings in September of 1861. In order to settle the balance due on 
the six regiments, the law of Congress required the presentation 
of the original vouchers. 

Governor Harvey sent in a message to the Legislature on the 
3d of March, giving the information, and requested the passage 
of a law, authorizing the Secretary of State to have certified 
copies of such accounts as were not in duplicate in the Quarter- 
master, Paymaster, or Commissary General's of&ces, made and 
retained in his ofiice, while the originals were handed over to 
the Governor for transmission to Washington. 

An act to this effect was finally passed, and the several 
accounts, amounting to over a thousand, were carefully copied, 
compared and delivered to the Governor, whose receipt was 
taken therefor, and the originals were transmitted to Washing- 
ton. The claims of the State for war expenditures were thus put 
in a way of liquidation by the General Government. The most 
of them have been allowed, the last payment being secured by 
Governor Lewis, to the amount of over $300,000. A few claims 
laid aside for irregularity are yet unsettled, but they will, 
undoubtedly, be paid eventually. 

Orders were received from the War Department, dated Feb- 
ruary 21st, 1862, stating that " independent organizations " 
would be no longer recognized by the department, and the 



BATTLE OF SIIILOH. 117 

Nineteenth infantry, and the First, Second, and Third cavalry 
were jilaced under the control of the State authorities. 

Under the idea that the army as then constituted was suffi- 
cient to cope with the rebellion, the War Department issued an 
order discontinuing the recruiting service in the several States, 
and directino; officers detached on recruitins; service to return to 
their regiments with their recruits — ordering the superintend- 
ents to disband their parties, close their offices and dispose of 
the public property belonging to their respective stations. The 
business of recruiting had been taken out of the hands of the 
State Executives and no one was authorized to recruit after the 
3d of April. This order remained in force until the 6th of June, 
when general order iSTo. 60, was issued reopening the recruiting 
service and ordering the superintendents to reestablish depots at 
their several stations. 

The Fourteenth, Sixteenth, and Eighteenth Regiments on 
their arrival at St. Louis, were immediately sent forward up the 
Tennessee river, the latter regiment arriving at Pittsburg Land- 
ing on the evening of the 5th of April, marching directly to 
the front, was placed in the division of General Prentiss, with 
the Sixteenth Regiment. They had not pitched their tents 
before the terrible battle began, in which nearly one third of the 
regiment were taken prisoners or killed and wounded, and the 
Sixteenth Regiment was badly cut up. 

Telegrams brought news of the terrible battle at Pittsburg 
Landing. The absolute certainty that some of our regiments 
were in the engagement, and that they had suffered severely, 
prompted Governor Harvey to organize an expedition for the 
relief of our wounded and suffering soldiers. In less than twen- 
ty-four hours, supplies and necessaries for the treatment of the 
wounded and sick, were gathered, and the party started next 
day, the 10th of April. On their arrival at Chicago, they found 
a full car load of supplies, consisting of ninety boxes, famished 
on the call of the Governor, sixty-one from Milwaukee, thirteen 
from Madison, nine from Janesville, six from Beloit, and one 
from Clinton. 

The party consisted of Governor Harvey, Commissary General 
Wadsworth, Surgeon General Wolcott, with a staff of eight 
medical assistants, and General E. H. Brodhead, who was 



118 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCOiSrSIN 

appointed by the citizens of Milwaukee, as tlieir representative 
on the expedition. Arriving at Mound City, about thirty Wis- 
consin sokliers were found, whose wants were attended to, and 
those who were able to go, were sent to the State. Two of the 
Surgeons with part of the supplies were left at the hospital to 
care for those remaining. Governor Harvey visited the hospitals 
at Mound City and Paducah, calling upon all the Wisconsin 
patients, taking them by the hand and cheering them by his 
kindness and attention. At Savannah, the same scenes were 
repeated. Over two hundred of our wounded were there, suffer- 
ing from the neglect of their medical attendants, and lacking the 
kind care to which they were entitled. The scene at the camp 
of the Eighteenth is described as very affecting, and also with 
the Fourteenth and Sixteenth regiments. The presence of the 
Governor and party brought with it sunshine and gladness. 
Everywhere did the Governor display the utmost energy in 
examining into the wants of our soldiers, and the rest of the 
party bear testimony to his indefatigable exertions and benevo- 
lence of heart. The regiments and hospitals and depots of sick 
and wounded, were all visited, and the wants of all, as far as 
possible, attended to. 

The party had nearly completed its labors with our wounded 
troops, and was at Pittsburg Landing to take the boat for 
Cairo, on Saturday evening, the 19th of April. They were on 
board the steamer Dunleith, awaiting the arrival of the steamer 
Minnehaha, on which they were to go down the river. She hove 
in sight about ten o'clock in the evening, and the party was 
standing near the guards in the fore-part of the Dunleith, when 
the bow of the Minnehaha coming in contact with the Dunleith, 
the Governor stepped aside, as if to get out of the way. The 
night being dark and rainy, he made a mistep and fell over- 
board between the two steamers. Dr. Wilson of Sharon, as 
soon as he saw him fall, reached out his cane, but the Gover- 
nor seized it with such force as to pull it out of the Doc- 
tor's hands. Dr. Clark of Racine, immediately jumped into 
the water, clinging to the wheel of the Minnehaha, and reached 
out as far as possible, but was unable to grasp the Governor 
by a few inches. The current being very strong, Governor 
Harvey was swept down the stream, passing under a flat boat 



DEATH OF GOVEENOB HARVEY. 119 

lying just below. Every effort was made to rescue him from 
his perilous position, but the darkness of the night rendered 
these attempts unavailing. Dr. "Wolcott, General Brodhead, 
and others, w^ere left to pursue the search for the body, and a 
reward of a thousand dollars was offered for its recovery by the 
authorities of the State. 

Attorney General Howe, on the receipt of the news at Madi- 
son, took the cars for Cairo, with a view to the recovery of the 
body of Governor Harvey, and was empowered to offer the 
above reward. 

Lieutenant Governor Salomon assumed the duties of Gover- 
nor, ancl, on the 22d day of April, issued a proclamation stating 
the fact of the death of Governor Harvey, by drowning, on the 
19th of April, while executing a noble and self-chosen mission 
of philanthropy, in trying to recover from the recent battle field 
in Tennessee, the dead, and to alleviate the sufferings of the 
wounded soldiers of the State — that in assuming the duties of 
the office, which devolved upon him by that sad event, he 
"tendered to the bereaved widow of its late beloved Chief Magis- 
trate the deep and sorrowful sympathy and condolence of the 
people of the State. 

He recommended that, for thirty days from the date of the 
proclamation, all public offices, court houses and other public 
buildings be draped in mourning, and that, during that time, the 
people of the State wear the usual badges of sorrow. 

He further appointed Thursday, the first day of May, 18G2, as 
a day of public rest and cessation from public business, and re- 
commended the people of the State, on that day, between the 
hours of ten and twelve in the morning, to assemble in their 
respective towns, cities and villages, then and there to commemo- 
rate the death of the late Governor, by such public demonstra- 
tions as may be appropriate to the occasion. 

The national flags on the public buildings and camps, and 
shipping and private dwellings, in different parts of the State, 
were at half mast, and the people united in rendering homage to 
the virtues of the departed Chief Magistrate. 

Funeral ceremonies were performed in most of the cities of 
the State. At Madison, the public offices and business houses 



120 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

were all closed, and a large audience congregated in tlie Assem- 
bly Hall to take part in the solemn and interesting services. 

On the evening of the same day, dispatches were received 
from Captain J. R. Cannon and Colonel D. E. Wood, of the 
Fourteenth Regiment, informing the friends of Governor Har- 
vey that the body had been found, and would be sent home 
immediately. It had drifted about sixty miles below Savannah, 
and was discovered by some children, who were playing near 
the river, on the 27th of April. A negro man, living near by, 
pulled it out of the river. The pockets of his clothes were cut 
out by the children and negro, and the contents divided among 
them, the negro retaining the watch. The body was then re- 
turned to the river, but an eddy kept it close to shore. A white 
man, living near, hearing the facts, caused the body to be taken 
out and buried, in its clothing, on the bank. On examination 
of the papers found on the body, it was ascertained to be Gover- 
nor Harvey. A Mr. Singleton, living about two miles from the 
river, hearing of it, immediately went to the spot, and succeeded 
in recovering the most of the valuables taken from the body. 

On the 30th of April, the steamer Lady Pike, Captain Walker, 
was passing Britt's Landing, on the left bank of the Tennessee 
River, when she was hailed by Mr. Britt, who informed Captain 
W&lker that the body of Governor Harvey had been found, and 
was buried about two miles below. Mr. Britt went on board, 
and piloted the boat to the spot. Mr. Singleton was sent for, 
and brought all the effects that had been recovered. 

The body was disinterred, undressed, washed, wrapped in 
blankets, by Captain Fosdiek, of the Twenty-ninth Indiana 
Volunteers, and placed in a box, made for the purpose on the 
boat, and taken to Pittsburg Landing on the Lady Pike. At 
Savannah, a much larger box was obtained, and the smaller one, 
containing the body, was placed therein, with lime to fill the 
space between the two boxes, as the best disinfectant that could 
be had. 

At Pittsburg Landing, the body was taken possession of by 
the oflicers of the Fourteenth Wisconsin, stationed there on 
provost duty. Captain Walker desired to take the remains to 
Paducah, but was overruled, and they were sent to Cairo, by 
the steamer La Crosse, with a guard of honor, consisting of 



THE FUNERAL. 121 

twenty soldiers of tlie Fourteenth Regiment, to the care of 
Attorney General Howe, at Cairo. General Ilowe had made an 
ineffectual search for the body, and had started on his return to 
Cairo the night the body was taken to Pittsburg Landing. It 
was received at Cairo by Perry H. Smith, Esq., and other friends, 
and sent forward to Chicago, where it arrived on Monday morn- 
ing, and was received by the committee, consisting of Governor 
Salomon and the other State officers, and removed to the Tre- 
mont House, under an escort of the Eleventh Wisconsin Bat- 
tery, Captain O'Rourke. As the procession passed along the 
streets, the bells of the city were tolled, and the flag on the City 
Hall was displayed at half mast. 

Next day, a special train on the Chicago and iNTorthwestern 
Railway conveyed the body and attendant Committee of Arrange- 
ments to Madison, where it arrived about five o'clock in the 
afternoon. The committee, on the part of the citizens, met the 
train at Janesville, and accompanied it to Madison. The coffin 
was placed on a hearse at the depot, and conveyed to the Capi- 
tol, escorted by a procession of carriages, where it was deposited 
in the Assembly Chamber, which had been very appropriately 
decorated for the occasion. 

A military guard of honor, from the JSTineteenth Regiment, 
was stationed around the bier. 

The funeral was appointed to take place at ten o'clock, next 
day, but a change of arrangements was made, and the funeral 
ceremonies were performed in the afternoon. 

The body lay in state till about three o'clock, having been 
visited by large numbers of people. Upon the rekitives of the 
deceased retiring, the body, enclosed in a handsome metallic 
coffin, with a plate inscribed " Louis P. Harvey, aged ^7," was 
taken by the bearers to the hearse in waiting. The hearse, 
trimmed with white and black crape, and white and black 
plumes, was drawn by four wliite horses, with black plumes, 
each led by an attendant. 

The procession was half a mile long, under marshals and as- 
Bistants, preceded by a band and a military detachment from the 
Nineteenth Regiment, and the clergy; the hearse, with the State 
Officers as pall bearers, with a guard of honor, was followed by 
the relatives of the deceased, Committee of Arrangements, 



122 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. ' 

United States Officers, Resident Physicians, Judges, Senators and 
Members of Assembly, Mayor and City Council, Assistant 
State Ofiieers, and Clerks of State Departments, Officers of the 
University, and several Societies, Members of the Bar, and 
citizens. As the procession moved on, the several bells of the 
city tolled, and all business places were closed. The ceremonies 
at the grave were performed by Rev. Mr. Kinney, of Janesville. 

Governor Harvey lies buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, about 
three miles from the City of Madison. The burial place is near 
the centre of the grounds, from which a beautiful view is ob- 
tained of the city and the lakes. The grave is walled up with 
brick, and is surrounded by a handsome iron fence, put up at 
the expense of the State. 

Cut down in the flower of his manhood, the memory of 
Governor Harvey is tenderly cherished in the hearts of those 
who knew him, and his untimely decease was sincerely mourned 
by the people of the whole State. 

Louis Powell Harvey was born in East Haddam, Conn., July 
22d, 1820. In 1828, his parents removed to Ohio. Like many 
young men, Mr. Harvey was obliged to be the artificer of his 
own fortune. He entered the Freshman Class in the Western 
Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, in 1837. With brilliant 
^lents, good scholarship and pleasing manners, he became a 
favorite among his fellow students. He possessed those ele- 
ments of character which go to make up a good Christian. Ill 
health compelled him to leave the College previous to graduat- 
ing. He was employed about two years as tutor in Woodward 
College, Cincinnati, and in 1841, removed to Wisconsin, and 
located at Southport, (now Kenosha.) Engaging in teaching, he 
met with moderate success, and in 1843, assumed the editorship 
of the Southport American, a whig paper. For a short time, he 
held the position of postmaster, under Mr. Tyler. Marrying in 
1847, he removed to Rock County, where he engaged in trade 
and milling. He was a member of the first Constitutional Con- 
vention, and evinced much ability as a debater. In 1853, he 
was elected to the State Senate from Rock County, and served 
two terms. In 1859, he was elected Secretary of State, which 
office he filled to the satisfaction of the people. In 18G1, he 
was elected Governor, and was inaugurated on the 6th of January, 



I 



LEGISLATURE RE-ASSEMBLES. 123 

as elsewliere related. His services as Governor were sud- 
denly cut short by Ms untimely death. Of a generous nature, 
he engaged in the labor of alleviating the suflerings of the sick 
and wounded, and died in the midst of his philanthropic labors. 

Desiring to add to the force for the protection of Washington, 
which city was not considered sutficiently safe after the departure 
of McClellan to the Peninsula, President Lincoln made an in- 
formal call for additional troops. Governor Salomon was in- 
formed that one regiment was required from Wisconsin. lie at 
once proceeded to the organization of the Twentieth Regiment. 
Thirty days was the time limited, but the fact that the recruiting 
service had been discontinued, extended the period of organiza- 
tion into the month of August. The regiment was all in camp 
and mustered by the 23d of August, and left the State for St. 
Louis on the 30th of that month. The delay in the organization 
was the occasion of a change of destination, and the regiment 
was sent into Missouri. 

The Legislature reassembled on the 3d of June. Lieutenant 
Governor Salomon had assumed the duties of Governor. In his 
message, he informed the Legislature of the death of Governor 
Harvey, and recommended that the thanks of the State be ex- 
tended to those who had been actively engaged in the recovery 
of the remains. A resolution of condolence to the widow of 
Governor Harvey was passed, and a vote of thanks to Captain 
Cannon, Perry H. Smith, Esq., Captain Walker, of the Lady Pike, 
Captain Fosdiek, of the Twenty-ninth Indiana Regiment, Mr. 
Singleton and Mr. Britt, for their disinterestedness and liberality 
in their efforts to recover the body of our late Governor. 

Governor Salomon also stated in his message that the Com- 
missary General had been relieved from active duty and his 
salary had ceased. That the salary of the Adjutant General 
had been fixed at $1,600 per annum, including the salary 
allowed by statute — and that he was allowed one clerk, and the 
State Armorer was also under his direction. That the salary of 
the Quartermaster General had been reduced to $1,200 per 
annum, and the clerical force consisted of two clerks, to be 
employed until his accounts were in proper condition for settle- 
ment with the Government. That the salary of the Military 
Secretary had been reduced to §400, and that of the Paymaster 



124 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

General to $1,200 per annum, without any clerk or assistant. 
That tlie services of the Surgeon General could not be dispensed 
with for the present. 

We will here state that the active duties of the Paymaster 
General, ceased about the 10th of July. That the business of 
the Quartermaster General's office was so nearly closed that 
General Tredway resigned the office about the last of 
August, and Nathaniel F. Lund, Esq., who had been employed 
in the office since its organization, as chief clerk, was appointed 
Quartermaster General in order to finally close the accounts. 
General Lund remained in the office, to which other duties were 
added, until the 1st of January, 1865, when he was succeeded by 
General J. M. Lynch, the present incumbent. The Governor, 
in his message, continues : 

The office of Adjutant General and that of the Military Secretary will continue to 
involve considerable labor, owing to the large military force in tlie held from our State, 
and the recruiting service. The services of a Quartermaster General will also, probably, 
have to be retained, but those of the Paymaster General can soon be dispensed with, if 
proper provisions are made by law for the winding up of his Department. 1 would 
recommend that a law be passed authorizing the discontinuance, at a proper time, of 
the active duties of the Paymaster General, Quartermaster Genei-al and Commissary 
General, and that their duties, so far as they are auditing duties, be devolved upon the 
Secretary of State, and so far as they are disbursing duties, upon the State Treasurer. 
The books, papers and records of those offices should then be deposited in the office of 
the Secretary of State. 

It has been a source of very great embarrassment to the Executive Department that 
no provisions had been made for the contingencies which have arisen since your ad- 
journment, concerning the sick and wounded soldiers fi'om our State. Wisconsin has 
sent into the field 24,000 men, and a new regiment is now being organized. As our army 
has advanced, a great many of our brave soldiers have become sick, and many have 
been wounded upon the battle field. Especially has this been the case in the Army of 
the Mississippi. After the battle at Pittsburg Landing, my lamented predecessor went 
to the battle field to aid and assist the wounded. What he had so nobly commenced, I 
did not hesitate to carry out, so far as having those soldiers transported to their homes 
who had by him been sent up the Mississippi River. Subsequently, when reliable and 
continued accounts reached me of the helpless condition of our sick soldiers along the 
Tennessee River, of the inadequate relief granted by the United States authorities, 
when a battle was hourly expected, and when I was actually and credibly informed that 
a great battle near Corinth had commenced, I sent another commission under the 
charge of the Commissary General, E. R. Wadsworth, and the Surgeon General, Dr. E. 
B. Wolcott, to Pittsburg Landing ; and although no battle occurred then, the commission, 
consisting of gentlemen who volunteered their services, saved the lives of many brave 
Wisconsin soldiers wiio were lying sick from the effects of tlie climate, and who would 
have died had they not been removed. Since then, all State aid has been excluded by 
the military authorities, until after a battle. But in that event, aid ought again to be 
granted to those who fall wounded upon the field. 

I trust that you will sanction what has been done, and will speedily make provision 
for future emergencies. The great and noble State of Wisconsin ought not to let her 
brave sons, who fight the battles of the Union, die for want of attention. The people, 
the poor, sick, and wounded soldiers, look to the Executive for aid in such emergencies ; 



STATE SANITAKY AGENTS. 125 

but his hands are tied unless you place the necessary means at his disposal. The ex- 
penses of such expeditions are necessarily large, notwithstanding the graiuitoua 
services of physicians and nurses. 

Aside from sucli expeditions, in cases of emergency there are, constantly, claims made 
upon me in individual cases. It is but very recently that the General Government has 
made provision for the transportation of such sick and wounded soldiers as have money 
due them from the Government. Those who have no pay due them will not be furnished 
with transportation, but must shift for themselves. In the cities of New York, Cincin- 
nati, St. Louis, and other places, there are constantly arriving some of our sick and 
wounded soldiers, anxiously expecting to And some agency from our State that will aid 
them to get to their homes. Something should be done to relieve these poor, suffering 
men; many a life may be saved, and many a heart made glad. I am confident that the 
proud State of Wisconsin will not remain behind her sister States in that respect. Ac- 
companying this, I lay before you copies of a few of the many communications I have 
received concerning the necessity of appointing State agents to look after the sick and 
wounded soldiers from Wisconsin. 

The laws passed at this adjourned session, bearing upon the 
military operations of the State, are : 

Chapter 364 providing for the discontinuance of the active 
services of the Paymaster General, Quartermaster Greneral and 
Commissary General. 

Chapter 371 appropriated $20,000 to enable the Governor to 
care for the sick and wounded soldiers of our State. 

Under this law Governor Salomon authorized the Surgeon 
General to visit the battle-fields, and attend to our sick and 
wounded soldiers, and visit them in hospitals. The duties and 
services of the Surgeon General will be noticed more at length 
in a subsequent chapter. The Governor was also enabled to 
appoint State agents, who were located at the principal military 
points East and West. Speaking of these agents in his message 
for 1863, Governor Salomon says : 

The results obtained by these agencies have been very beneficial and satisfactory. 
Regular and accurate information has constantly been furnished by them to the people 
of the State, of the sick and wounded soldiers in the several hospitals; the agents 
have attended to the wants of the sick, that could not otherwise be supplied ; they have 
seen that abuses in hospitals were brought to the attention of the proper authorities 
and remedied; they have endeavored to obtain and accelerate the discharge of such as 
were unfit for service; besides their ofllcial reports, of which I caused the substance to 
be published, making, as I am informed, not less than sixty columns in the Daily Jour- 
nal, of this city, they have furnished constant information to the press and to private 
pei-sons. Applications have been and are almost daily made to me by the relatives of 
sick soldiers concerning their condition, and soliciting interference on their behalf, 
which, witliout these agents, I should not be able to answer or properly attend to. 

We give the names of the sanitary agents appointed by 
Governor Salomon. 

The Honorable J. W. Beardsley w^as appointed June 18th, 
1862, as sanitary agent at St. Louis. Reported from there till 



126 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

July 2d, when he visited the hospitals, caring for our "Wisconsin 
sick and wounded, at Cairo, Mound city, Paducah, Humbolt and 
Corinth, returning to St. Louis and closing his labors on the 
23d of July. 

Mrs. Cordelia P. Harvey, widow of the late Governor Harvey, 
was appointed September 10, 1862, as agent at St Louis. Mrs. 
Harvey remained in the service of the State as agent, until the 
close of the war. Her station was principally at Vicksburg, 
moving up or down the river, when necessary to examine the 
hospitals at Memphis, Natchez, or New Orleans. The services 
of Mrs. Harvey, have been of great value to the soldiers of our 
State, as she has been able from her influential position, to 
alleviate a great amount of snftering, and to be very instrumen- 
tal in returning many a poor worn out soldier to family and 
friends. 

The "Wisconsin Soldiers' Aid Society at Washington, of which 
Ex-Governor Randall was President, through its Vice President, 
W. Y. Sellick, and Norman Eastman, as Secretary, rendered effi- 
cient aid to the sick and wounded soldiers of our State. Mr. 
Sellick subsequently acted as the State agent at Washington, 
nearly to the close of the war. 

Robert R. Carson of Philadelphia, Secretary of the famous 
" Coopershop Refreshment Saloon Association," at which sol- 
diers passing through Philadelphia were supplied with food and 
lodgings free of charge, acted as State agent in that city, from 
July 31st, 1862. 

Colonel Frank E. Howe, General agent of the New England 
Soldiers' Relief Association, acted as our State agent, in New 
York city, without charge, this State bearing its proportion of 
the many expenses of the Association. Colonel Howe continued 
to act until nearly the close of the war. 

George W. Sturgis was appointed sanitary agent, June 18th, 
1862, first proceeding to Kentucky and Tennessee, visiting the 
hospitals and convalescent barracks. Was afterwards stationed 
at Keokuk, and subsequently took up a permanent position at 
St. Louis, devoting his attention to the hospital, at Keokuk, St. 
Louis, Mound City, Paducah, and Cairo. Mr. Sturgis was 
in the service of the State up to the close of the war, and his 



SECESH PRISONERS. 127 

services have been invaluable to tlie sick and wounded, and to 
tlie soldiers generally. 

Godfrey Stamm was appointed June 18th, 1862, at first sta- 
tioned at Keokuk, but subsequently was transferred to Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, where he remained until the last of 1863, 
or Spring of 1864. 

George R. Stuntz was appointed June 19, 1862, as agent for 
Tennessee, where he remained several months, and was then 
transferred to "Washington. 

George C. Smith was also appointed State agent at Memphis, 
and remained several months engaged in attending to the wants 
of the soldiers, subsequently visiting Vicksburg, JSTatchez, iSTew 
Orleans and Mobile. 

Chapter 379 authorized the auditing, by the Quartermaster 
General, of bills for subsistence and transportation of the 
"Wisconsin cavalry regiments. 

Soon after the capture oi Island ISTo. 10, Government made 
arrangements for the use of Camp Randall as a depot for secesh 
prisoners taken at that place. About the 20th of April, a de- 
tachment of about 900 arrived on the cars, under the charge of 
Captain J. A. Potter, Assistant Quartermaster. Several compan- 
ies of the ITineteenth I^giment were ordered to Camp Randall, to 
guard these prisoners. They were disembarked from the cars 
near the camp, and were marched between two ranks of the 
Nineteenth into the barracks at Camp Randall. These prisoners 
remained in that camp, their numbers being added to, until 
the latter part of May, when they were sent to Camp Douglas, 
in Chicago, and the Nineteenth Regiment left the State for 
Eastern Virginia. Many deaths occurred among these prisoners 
during their stay at Camp Randall. The dead were all decently 
buried in Forest Hill Cemetery. No other prisoners were stationed 
in the State during the war. 

The apparent absence of a fixed policy on the part of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and his Cabinet, in the conduct of the war, was 
the subject of concern to the loyal people of the North, who 
began to feel that the war was not carried forward with that 
degree of energy and skill which they had a right to expect, 
after having done their part by furnishing unlimited means and 
hundreds of thou,sands of men in aid of the Government. 



128 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Meetings were held in all sections of the North, calling for a 
more vigorous prosecution of the war, and tendering to the 
Government, the wealth of the country, and millions of men, 
if necessary, to crush the rebellion. Party ties were forgotten, 
and men of all political creeds seemed to have adopted the 
sentiment of the departed Douglas, " that there can be but two 
parties in this war — loyal men and traitors!" Side by side 
with life long Whigs and Republicans, stood the representative 
men of the Democratic party, and with a heightened eloquence, 
imbibed from the flood of patriotism which everywhere surged 
over the country, were loudly calling for the Government to 
visit the rebellion and its leaders with annihilation. At this 
time there was a " united North" on the question of a vigorous 
prosecution of the war, and immediate suppression of the rebel- 
lion. So intense had public feeling become that the Governors 
of the loyal States met in Convention at Cleveland, Ohio, to 
consult upon the public welfare, and determine upon the best 
manner in which to render further aid to the National authori- 
ties. On the 28th of June, the following letter was sent to 
President Lincoln. 

To the Pkesident : 

The undersigned Governors of loyal States of the Union, impressed with the belief that 
the citizens of the States which they respectively represent, are of one accord in the hearty 
desire that the recent success of the Federal arms may be followed up by measures 
which will insure the speedy restoration of the Union, and believing that in the present 
state of important military movements, and the reduced condition of our effective forces 
in the field, resulting from the usual and unavoidable casualties of the service, that the 
lime has arrived for prompt and vigorous measures to be adopted by the people in sup- 
port of the great interests committed to your charge, we respectfully request, if it meets 
with your entire approval, that you at once call upon the several States for such num- 
ber of men as may be required to fill up all the military organizations now in the field, 
and add to the armies heretofore organized, such additional number of men as may, in 
your judgment, be necessary to govern and hold all the numerous cities and military 
positions that have been captured by our armies, and to speedily crush the rebellion 
that still exists in several of our Southern States, thus practically restoring to the civil- 
ized world, our great and good Government. All believe that the decisive moment is 
near at hand, and to that end, the people of the United States are desirous to aid 
promptly in furnishing all reinforcements you may deem needful to sustain the 
Government. 

This memorial was signed by the Governors of all the loyal 
States, including Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, and 
the Military Governors of Virginia and Tennessee. 

Executive Mansion, Washington, July 1, 1862. 
Oentlemen: — Truly concurring in the wisdom of the views expressed to me in so patri- 
otic a manner by you in your communication of the 28th of June, I have decided to caU 




I 



■''•^^ar Siraji^mrs Co CSl'^ 



I 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 
Pre sa dent of the United States. 



ENGRAVED EXPf?ESSQr FOR CLARKE & CO_ PUBLISHERS. 



THREE Hundred thousand more. 129 

Into service an additional force of three hundred thousand men. I suggest and recom- 
mend that tlie troops should be chiefly of infantry. I trust they may be enrolled with- 
out delay, so as to bring this unnecessary and injurious civil war to a speedy and 
satistactory conclusion. An order fixing the quotas of the several States will be issued 
by the War Department to-morrow. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

Proclamation was immediately made on the receipt of this 
new call. The President had struck a chord, in harmony with 
the popular feeling and the war spirit of 1861, was again aroused, 
and immediate measures taken to meet the emergency. War 
meetings were the order of the day. A monster mass meeting 
of the people of the State, was called at Milwaukee, where 
50,000 people were in attendance. Resolutions urging the vig- 
orous prosecution of the war, and tendering men and money 
to any extent, were unanimously adopted, and the Governor was 
requested to ofler $50 as a State Bounty, for volunteers enlisting 
under the new call, in addition to the month's pay and bounty of 
$25 in advance by the General Government. Meetings were 
held all over the State, and the work of recruiting was revived, 
and the w^hole community, throwing aside other avocations, 
made the business of war, a special occupation. 

Under this call of President Lincoln, Governor Salomon was 
informed that five regiments of infantry were required as part 
of the quota from this State. In order to facilitate the filling of 
these five regiments, the Governor ordered the division of the 
State into districts. Each district was required to furnish 
men sufficient for one regiment. Camps of rendezvous were 
designated and placed under control of Post Commandants, as 
follows : 

The Twenty-first Regiment— From the counties of Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Calumet, 
Manitowoc, Kewaunee, Door, Brown, Outagamie, Oconto, Waupaca, Shawano, Portage, 
Wood, Marathon and Green Lake. Rendezvous at Oshkosh— Colonel B. J. Sweet, 
commandant. 

The Twenty-second Regiment— From the counties of Racine, Kenosha, Waukesha, 
Walworth, Jefi'erson, Rock and Green. Rendezvous at Camp Utley, Racine— Colonel 
W. L. Utley, commandant. 

The Twenty-third Regiment— From the counties of Dane, Columbia, Sauk, Marquette, 
Wausliara, Iowa and La Fayette. Rendezvous at Camp RandaU, Madison— Colonel 
Bertine Pinckney, commandant. 

The Twenty-fourtli Regiment— From the counties of Milwaukee, Ozaukee.Washington, 
Sheboygan and Dodge, Rendezvous at Milwaukee — Lieutenant Colonel Herman L, 
Page, commandant. -i^ 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment^From the counties of Grant, Crawford, mchland.Vernon, 
Juneau, Adams, La Crosse, Monroe, Jackson, Trempeleau, Bufl^alo, Pepin, Eau Claire, 
Clark, Pierce, St. Croix, Dunn, Polk, Dallas, Chippewa, Burnett, Douglas, La Pointe and 
Ashland. Rendezvous at La Crosse— Colonel L. S. McKinney, commandant. 

9 



130 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Governor Salomon desired to promote competent officers in 
the field to the regimental positions of these new organizations. 
Finding the War Department averse to discharging officers in 
the field, fi^r that purpose, the Governor was compelled to 
abandon the efibrt, although the Department consented finally 
to the discharge of such officers as had been appointed by him, 
up to that time, but would not sanction any further appointments. 

Governor Salomon issued the following letter of instructions 
to the commandants of the old regiments, requiring them to 
report in accordance therewith : 

State of Wisconsin, Execittive Department,! 
Madison, July 8, 1862. / 

This State being called upon for several new regiments of volunteers, it is my earnest 
desire to find some method by which, in their organization, I can testify my apprecia- 
tion of the fidelity, gallantry and soldierly qualities of some, at least, of the non-com- 
missioned ofiicers and privates in the regiments from this State which have been longest 
in the field. It is difficult to do this, since the companies and regiments must be raised 
by the eflbrts of men who are in the State ; and the commissions will properly be 
expected by those who raise the men ; but I shall use my best eflfbrts to bring about the 
desired end. 

For this purpose, I earnestly request the Captain of each company to recommend, in 
concurrence with his Lieutenants, such of his non-commissioned officers or men as have 
exhibited such qualities as to fit them in remarkable degree for commission. These 
recommendations should be handed to the Colonels commanding the several regiments, 
and I request that the Colonels, in conference with the field officers select, from the 
number so recommended, not more than ten persons for each regiment, and forwai'd 
their names immediately to me, preparing the list in the supposed order of merit. This 
should be done as speedily as possible. 

While I cannot, of course, promise commissions to all of the persons who shall be so 
named to me, I shall spare no pains to testify to as many of them as possible, my appre- 
ciation of their patriotism, bravery and soldierlj' attainments ; and I trust that througli 
contemplated arrangements with the War Department, I may soon be able to gratify 
my wishes in this respect, and do justice to some, at least, of the gallant heroes who 
have left Wisconsin homes to peril their lives at the call of their country. 

EDWARD SALOMON, Govet-nor of Wisconsin. 

In response to the request of Governor Saloiiion, the com- 
manders of several regiments furnished the following list of non- 
commissioned officers and privates, as worthy of' promotion. 
Although the Governor was unable to commission all thus 
recommended, we publish the names as worthy of preservation 
and in justice to those who were thus selected from the many 
brave soldiers in the ranks, for their gallantry and soldierly 
qualities : 

First i?cj7wnen<.^fcompany A — Sergeants, Edward Ferguson, William Wilson, George 
Bleyer; Company B— Henry Martin; Company C— Corporal Miles M. Trowbridge, A. J. 
McKisson; Company D — T. M. Caliger, S. M. Smetzer, L. T. Battle; Company E — 
Chauncey R. Thayer; Company F— Lewis O. Marshall; Company G — Charles A Sear les ; 
C!ompany H — Zerah P. Clark ; Company K — Charles H. Morgan. , 



ROLL OF HONOR. 131 

Second Hcffiment—Compuny A — Alured Lark ; Company B— Parker C. Dunn ; Company 
C — Thomas Barnett ; Company E— Walker S. Rouse; Company E'' — George Bowman, 
Company G — E. S. Fletcher; Company H — D. C. Holdi-idge, Samuel M. Bond; Company 
I — William Noble, Samuel W. Smith, Albert S. Cole. 

Third iJefirw/ie?!/.— Quartermaster Sergeant John H. Gowan; Company C — Corporal 
George Gay; Company D — Sergeant Lyman D. Balcom, Charles R. Barrager; Company 
E — Sergeant Edmund L. Blanchard; Company P — Sergeant Anson Titus; Company 
G — Sergeant H. K. Edwards; Company H — Private Abdon L. Burke; Company I — 
Corporal Wilson S. Brick; Company K — Sergeant Jens Moe. 

Fourth Jiegiment.— Company A — Orderly Sergeant Harrington, Marcus W. Morton; 
Company B — W. S. Whiting; Company C — Edward E. Sharpe; Company D— Carl 
Moller; Company E— John W. Blake; Company H — Henry Mellen; Company I — 
Myron Chase; Company K— S. Curtis Mower, John S. Sweet, Carl Witte. 

2'i/th Ref/iment.— Company A— James McComber, Frederick Borcherdt, A.W.Hale; 
Company B — E. K. Holton; Company C — Charley Von Baumbaek, Kempf; Com- 
pany D— Samuel White; Company E — James McDaniel ; Company F — B. F. Crane; 
Company G — George E. Hilton; Company H— William H. Bennett; Company I — 
William Norton, I. Balding. 

Sixth Iiegi7ne)it.— Company A— Jacob A. Schlick; Company B — Charles P. Hyatt; 
Company C — Charles H. Palmer; Company D— Andrew J. Gilmore; Company E— An- 
drew G. Deacon ; Company F — Christian Nix; Comjjany G— Lewis A. Kent; Company 
H— John Beeley, John Starks; Company I —William Clay water; Company K — Erastus 
Smith. 

Seventh Hegiinent.— Company A— Linus Bascom; Company B— William H. Dunham ; 
Company C— Jefferson Newman; Company D — E. Andre Camp))ell; Company E — O. 
H. Sorenson; Company F— George W. Cowan; Company G — D. W. Mitchell; Company 
H — Charles Fulks; Company I — Christopher Pretzman, Henry Thorngate; Company 
K — Amos D. Rood. 

Eighth Regiment.— Company A— John C.Stringham; Company B— William H. Conner; 
Company C — Benjamin Cowan; Company D — Archibald Thompson; Company F — 
John W. Greenman; Company G — David H. Sla\«son; Company H — T. B. Corbin; 
Company I— Joseph C. Chilson; Company K — Alfred S. Henderson, Henry L. Bull, Levi 
Billings. 

Eleventh Regiment. — Sergeant Major Dudley Wyman; Company A — Sergeant Joseph. 
B. Hillier; Company B— Sergeant W. W. Day ; Company C— Sergeant P. Holden Swllt; 
Company D — Corporal Richard Caddie ; Company E — Sergeant Thomas Prie-stly; Com- 
pany F— Sergeant Caleb B. Northrup ; Company G— Sergeant Andrew Winn ; Company 
H — Sergeant L. F. Grow; Company I — Sergeant Henry C. Welcome; Company K — 
Sergeant B. F. Lisk. 

Twelfth Regijnent.Sergeant Major Henry Vilas, Commissary Sergeant William C. 
Stevens; Company A— Ezra R. Strong; Company C — D. G. Jones; Company D — N. S. 
Gilson; Company E— S. G. Swain; Company G— Elias H. Ticknor; Company H— Paul 
Dakin; Company I — Sabina Rogers; Company K — Albert S. Samson. 

Thirteenth Regiment. — Sergeant Major Williani M. Scott, Quartermaster Sergeant J. B. 
Dutton, Commissary Sergeant Gage Burgess; Company A — Henry Payne, Samuel C. 
Cobb; Company B— Jason W. Hall, V. E. Huginin; Company D— John Glading, Daniel 
Phillip, William Everest; Company E— James Ray nor; Company F— Charles W. Starke, 

Alexander McGregor ; Company G Frydenlund; Company I — Isaac W. Kingman ; 

Company K— R. J. Wliittleton. 

Fourteenth Regiment. — Company A — Edward Delany; Company B — James M.Randall; 
Company C— William Bridge; Company D— Samuel H. Harrison; Company E — Benja- 
min F. Goodwin; Company F — Oscar Cooley; Company G — Joseph Lacount; Com- 
pany H — Eliphalet N. Moore; Company I— Michael Higgins; Company K— Heniy S. 
Blackett. 

Fifteenth Regiment.— Company A— Sergeant Arnoldus Schlambush; Company C — Ser 
geant Christian Mayer; Company D — Sergeant Nelson G. Tufte. 

Sixteenth Regiment.— Harry M. Robinson ; Company B— Charles M. Fedderly ; Company 
C — T. G. Boss; Company F — Abel Brownell; Company G— Henry M. Culbertson 
Company K— Edward Bradford. 



132 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Eighleenth lier/hnent. — Company A— Private "William Lyon; Company C — Corporals 
Ransom Chase, George Holmes; Company H — Sergeant Alfred S. Tucker; Company I — 
Private Oscar Todd. 

First Cavalry Regiment.— Y. A. Blood, G. G. Seaton, A. Holcomb, P. J.Williamson, F. S, 
Schuyler, Charles H. Russell, Cyrus Hutchinson. 

Third Cavalry Regiment.— W . H. Hewitt, Solon Johnson, Charles T. Porter, Henry 
Bannister. 

First Battery— MiMon E. Powell; Second Baitery—Oa.i<ir\QS May; Third Battery— AlAew 
Woodbury; Fourth Battery— Ciia-rlea H. Clark; Seventh Battery— 3. N. Langworthy, Wel- 
lington G. Sprague; Tenth Battery— Yl.W. Stetson; I'lvel/th Battery— T. H. Kennedy. 
Wiscoymn Heavy Artillei-y.— Company A — Charles Hyde. 

"We have before stated tliat the recruiting service was reopened 
on the 6th of June, and depots reestabhshed. The system of 
recruiting differed from that of 1861. Recruits were now 
enhsted on regular " enlistment papers," and were entitled to 
pay from date of enlistment. Muster into State service was 
dispensed with. The duty of Major Smith, Superintendent of 
Recruiting Service, was to subsist the recruit at rendezvous, 
furnish transportation and clothing, and quarters in camp, at the 
expense of the United States, payable from a fund under his 
control. When forty men were enlisted, they were entitled 
to muster with a First Lieutenant, and the Captain and Second 
Lieutenant could not muster till the company was full to the 
minimum. These officers were designated by the Governor, and 
the old system of election of officers was done away with, 
thereby securing more efficient men for the command of com- 
panies. A system of advance pay and bounty was authorized 
by the War Department, giving the new recruit one month's 
pay, $13, and $25 of the $100 bounty, in advance. 
■• In compliance with the general wish of leading men throughout 
the State, Governor Salomon issued a proclamation with a view 
to the raising of funds by the several counties of the State, to 
enable him to oifer to each recruit the sum of $50 in addition to 
the advanced pay and bounty from the United States, as stated 
above. The subsequent call, in August, of President Lincoln, 
for 300,000 militia, rendered the project impracticable, and 
Governor Salomon revoked his proclamation authorizing the 
collection of funds, and the State bounty was abandoned. 

On the 22d of July, President Lincoln announced a policy 
which gave assurances to the people of the North that the war 
was to assume a new phase — that the rebels were to be treated 
to hard blows, not only on the battle field, but in their social 



A MORE VIGOROUS POLICY. 133 

relations — that the "mud sills" of the South, on whom the 
slavocracy relied to feed the armies opposed to the National 
Government, were to be used by our commanding generals, in 
aid of the Union cause, to relieve our soldiers from the severe 
duties in the trenches, and, as the sequel proved, to arm them 
against their rebel masters. It was in this manner that the poor 
down-trodden slave, whose right to appear as a party to the 
contest had been ignored by the officers of Government and 
their generals in the field, was ordained, under Providence, to 
assume position as a prominent feature in this war of ideas. 
" There is a Providence that shapes our ends, rough hew them 
as we may !" 

The "kid-glove" arrangement, whereby our soldiers were 
made to act as guards over the property of our " Southern 
brethren," wdiile these same "brethren" were lighting our 
armies in the field, was to be discarded, and every means, 
authorized under the rules of civilized warfare, brought to bear, 
and vigorous measures adopted, to crush the rebellion at the 
earliest possible moment. The manner in which the war was 
conducted, had disheartened people at the North, and indigna- 
tion "loud and deep" was being heard in condemnation of this 
"milk and water" policy of the Government. It was with no 
small degree of satisfaction, therefore, that the loyalists hailed 
the news, that the President had determined to recognize the 
Rebels as belligerents, to be encountered, and, if possible, con- 
quered by the usual modes of warfare, and that the negro was 
to have a part in the contest, to be used as effectually for us as 
he had been against us. The other property of the secessionists, 
which had been so carefully guarded, was to be subject to the 
control of the conqueror. 

President Lincoln ordered the military commanders, in the 
seceding States, " to seize and use any property, real or personal, 
which may be necessary or convenient for their several com- 
mands, for supply or for other military purposes, and that while 
property might be destroyed for proper military objects, none 
shall be destroyed in wantonness or malice. That commanders, 
military and naval, should employ the negroes of the seceded 
States, whenever necessary, in military or naval operations." 



134 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Slowly and surely President Lincoln approached tlie great 
work he was, under the will of Providence, destined to perform. 

The disorganization of our several national armies, by reason 
of the granting of furloughs to sick men to go to their homes, 
liad become a great evil, and the attention of the War Depart- 
ment was directed towards a correction of the abuse. To this 
end, general hospitals were estabhshed, in the vicinity of army 
operations, to which the sick and wounded could be sent for 
treatment. The battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, "Wilson's 
Creek, and other points in the West, had found the Government 
unprepared with hospital conveniences, and the Executives of 
the several States considered it a humane duty to have the sick 
and wounded of their respective States furloughed and sent 
home for treatment. Many of these soldiers were either unable 
or unwilling to return to duty, until the absence of large num- 
bers began to act upon the efficiency of the armies in the field. 
To stop this depletion, the War Department ordered that no 
more furloughs should be issued, and directing the return of 
those out on furlough, and their arrest, by civil officers or other 
persons, if the order was not complied with. Finding this 
course not entirely effectual, on the 31st of July, an order was 
promulgated, revoking all leaves of absence or furloughs, by 
whomsoever given, unless by the War Department, absolutely 
annulling such papers, and requiring all officers and privates to 
return to their regiments, or they would be rated as deserters, 
and subject to the penalties in such cases. Where wounds in 
service, or disability from sickness, rendered the party unfit for 
duty, they were ordered to report to the nearest military post. 
The order further fixed the 18th of August as a day of general 
muster, when absentees would be entered on the rolls as desert- 
ers. Much difficulty has arisen to soldiers in this State from the 
operation of this order, preventing the settlement of their claims 
against the Government. 

General Sigel having received from the War Department au- 
thority to raise twelve regiments of infantry and six batteries of 
artillery, called upon the Governor of Wisconsin for one regi- 
ment of infantry. The request was responded to, and the 
Twenty-sixth Regiment, Colonel Jacobs, was authorized to be 
raised. 



REGIMENTS ORGANIZED. 135 

Recruitiug for tlie five regiments of volunteers, called for, 
proceeded rapidly, the prospect of a draft giving it a renewed 
impulse. These regiments, including the one for General 
Sigel, received the earliest attention. Companies were assigned 
and ordered into their respective district rendezvous, where they 
were mustered, clothed and quartered. 

The Twenty-first Regiment was composed of two companies 
from Oshkosh, two from Fond du Lac, and one company, each, 
from Menasha, Waupaca, Appleton, Chilton, Oakfield and Mani- 
towoc, and were ordered into camp, at Oshkosh, on the 1st of 
September. Here the organization was perfected. B. J. Sweet 
was appointed Colonel, and the regiment being ready, left the 
State on the 11th of September, to report to General Wright, at 
Cincinnati. 

The Twenty-second Regiment was composed of three com- 
panies from Racine, two from Monroe, two from Beloit, and 
one, each, from Janesville, Geneva and Delavan, and were 
ordered to Camp TJtley, Racine, on the 2oth day of August. 
Completing their organization, with W. L. Utley as Colonel, 
they left the State on the 16th of September, to report to 
General Wright, at Cincinnati. 

The Twenty-third Regiment was composed of four companies 
from Dane County, three from Columbia County, two from 
Sauk County and one from Lafayette County, and was ordered 
to Camp Randall, Madison, on the 25th of August. The organi- 
zation was perfected, with J. J. Guppey, as Colonel, and left the 
State on the 15th of September, to report to General Wright, at 
Cincinnati. 

The Twenty-fourth Regiment was made up of companies re- 
cruited mostly in Milwaukee County, under the personal super- 
vision of Lieutenant Colonel H. L. Page. The extensive 
acquaintance of the Lieutenant Colonel, from his many years of 
business and oflicial intercourse with the people of Milwaukee, 
and the energy and perseverance for which he is distinguished, 
enabled him, in a very short time, to fill the regiment to its 
maximum number, most of its members being residents of 
Milwaukee City and County. A splendid flag, offered by the 
citizens of Madison to the first regiment which should fill up, 
of the five ordered to be raised, was awarded to the Twenty- 



136 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

fourth. The regiment being nearly ready, through the efforts 
of some Milwaukee gentlemen, Major C. il. Larrabee, of Dodge 
County, was appointed Colonel. This appointment being dis- 
tasteful to Lieutenant Colonel Page, that gentleman resigned 
his jjosition before the regiment left the State, and was succeeded 
by E. L. Buttrick, Esq., of Milwaukee. The regiment left the 
State on the 5th of September, to report at Louisville, Ky. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment was made up of companies recruit- 
ed in Grant, Richland, Yernon, La Crosse and Monroe Counties, 
and was ordered into camp, at La Crosse, on the 4th of Septem- 
ber, w^here its organization was perfected, under Captain Milton 
Montgomery, as Colonel. Wisconsin had been placed in the 
newly created " Department of the Northwest," General Pope, 
commanding, with headquarters at St. Paul, Minn. The Indians 
were massacreing the inhabitants, and General Pope telegraphed 
to Governor Salomon to send him all the organized regiments 
in the State. The Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth being the only 
regiments then organized, the Twenty-fifth was ordered to Ge- 
neral Pope, who was informed that the Twenty-sixth was raised 
especially for General Sigel. The Twenty-fifth left the State on 
the 19th of September, to report to General Pope, at St. Paul. 

The Twenty-sixth Regiment was recruited among the German 
population, throughout the State, and the companies were 
ordered into Camp Sigel, Milwaukee, on the 5th of September, 
where the organization was completed, with William H. Jacobs, 
as Colonel. They left the State on the 6th of October, to report 
to General Sigel, in the Army of the Potomac. 

The additional call, on the 5th of August, of the President, 
for 300,000 men, to be drafted from the militia of the State, had 
given such an impetus to recruiting, that the Governor deter- 
mined to organize seven other regiments. By the instructions 
of the War Department, the quota of volunteers was to be filled 
by the 15th of August, and if there was any deficiency it would 
then be drafted. The time for enlisting in new regiments was 
finally extended to August 22d, at which time, bounties and 
advance pay were discontinued to recruits in new regiments. 
Regiments were authorized, numbering from the Twenty-seventh 
to Thirty-third, both inclusive. 



MORE REGIMENTS ORGANIZED. 137 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment was made up of recruits prin- 
cipally from Sheboygan and Manitowoc Counties. When the 
recruiting for new regiments was stopped, on the 22d of August, 
the Twenty-seventh had only seven companies fully organized. 
These were ordered into Camp Sigel, at Milwaukee, on the 17th 
of September. The remaining companies were authorized by 
the War Department to fill up. The partially organized regi- 
ment remained through the winter in Milwaukee, doing duty, 
part of the time, in guarding the Ozaukee draft rioters. In 
March, 1863, the remaining companies being filled, the regiment 
was mustered into the United States service, with Conrad Krez, 
as Colonel. On the 16th of March, 1863, they left the State 
for Columbus, Ky. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment was made up from companies 
recruited in Waukesha and Walworth Counties, and was ordered 
into Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, on the 13th of September. 
The regiment was sent by the Governor to Ozaukee County to 
assist United States Provost Marshal Mclndoe in the arrest of 
the rioters, a work which the regiment performed in an admir- 
able manner. It was engaged in this duty until the 20tli of 
December, when it left the State, under command of Colonel 
James M. Lewis, to report at Cairo, III. 

The Twenty-ninth Regiment was recruited in the Counties of 
Jefiferson, Dodge, Columbia and Dane, and was ordered into 
Camp Randall, Madison, on the 20th of September, where its 
organization was perfected, with C. R. Gill, as Colonel. On the 
2d of November, they left the State, being ordered to report at 
Cairo, 111. 

The Thirtieth Regiment was raised principally in the North- 
western counties of the State, and was ordered to rendezvous 
at Camp Randall, Madison, about the middle of October. The 
organization was completed, with Captain D. J. Dill, as Colonel. 
This regiment did not leave the State until 1864, having been 
engaged in a variety of duties in the State. 

The Thirty-first Regiment was incomplete when the recruiting 
for new regiments was discontinued, on the 22d of August. It 
was, however, ordered into camp, at Prairie du Chien. By spe- 
cial authority, recruiting for the regi^nent was continued. On 
the 14th of November, it was ordered to move to Camp Utley, 



138 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Hacine, to take charge of the drafted men at that rendezvous. 
There it remained, and was completely organized, with J. E. 
Messmore, as Colonel. It left the State on the 1st of March, 
1863, to report at Columbus, Ky. 

The Thirty-second Regiment was composed of recruits from 
the Counties of Brown, Columbia, Portage, Outagamie, "Winne- 
bago, Marquette, Fond du Lac and Green Lake, and was ordered 
into camp, at Oshkosh, on the 13th of September, where its or- 
ganization was perfected, with James H. Howe, as Colonel. It 
left the State on the 30th of October, to report at Memphis, 
Tenn. 

The Thirty-third Regiment was recruited in Grant, Kenosha, 
Rock and Lafayette Counties, and was ordered into Camp Utley, 
Racine, on the 29th of September, and its organization perfected, 
with Jonathan B. Moore, as Colonel. The regiment left the 
State on the 12th of IS'ovember, to report at Cairo, 111. 

In the equipment of the several regiments above described, a 
deficiency of blankets in the Quartermaster's Department com- 
pelled the Governor to call on volunteers to furnish their own, 
and on the people of the State to supply such as could be 
spared. 

Deeming the exigencies of the public service to demand it, 
Governor Salomon called an Extra Session of the Legislature on 
the 10th of September. In his message, the Governor urged the 
necessity of a thorough organization of the militia of the State, 
making an enrolment of all able bodied men, between the ages 
of eighteen and forty-five years, to enable the State to respond 
promptly to any call which might be made by the IsTational au- 
thorities, and, in case of draft, to make such exemptions as 
would cause the draft to fall lightly on those who would be dis- 
tressed by its operations, recommending " that two classes sub- 
ject to draft should be established, viz., those between eighteen 
and thirty-five years to be called first, and that class exhausted 
before men between thirty-five and forty-five should be compelled 
to go. Distinction might be made between married and unmar- 
ried men, and also where one or more in the same family are 
already in the service." 

"We cite these portions cff the message for the purpose of show- 
ing that Governor Salomon was feelingly alive to the hardships 



DRAFT FOR THREE HUNDRED THOUSAND MILITIA. 139 

which woiikl be imposed on the people of the State, by the en 
forcement of the draft then pending, under the instructions ot 
the War Department. Had due consideration been paid by the 
Legislature to the suggestions of the Governor, much distress 
would have been avoided, and the disgraceful scenes in Milwau- 
kee, Ozaukee and a few other counties would, possibly, have 
never occurred. 

He also recommended the passage of a law allowing soldiers 
in the field to vote, and the levying of a State tax of $150,000 to 
enable the State officers to continue the payment of "State aid" 
to families. The Legislature failed to meet the recommenda- 
tions of Governor Salomon, in reference to a law in regard to 
drafting. 

An amendment w^as made to the law granting aid to families 
of volunteers, by including all regiments of cavalry, infantry or 
batteries of artillery heretofore raised, or that may hereafter be 
raised, in this State, and mustered into the United States service. 
It also authorized the levying of a State tax of $275,000, to be 
placed to the credit of the War Fund, and used in the payment 
of warrants for " State aid" to families of volunteers. 

Chapter 7 authorized commissioned officers out of the State 
to administer oaths, take acknowledgments, &c. 

Chapter 11 authorized the soldiers in the field to exercise the 
right of suffrage. 

Chapter 13 authorized towns, cities, incorporated villages and 
counties to raise money to pay bounties to volunteers. 

On the 5th of August, Governor Salomon received from the 
War Department, a dispatch stating that orders had been issued 
for a draft of 300,000 men to be immediately called into the 
service of the United States, to serve for nine months unless 
sooner discharged. That if the State quota under the call of July 
2d, for 300,000 volunteers, was not filled by the 15th of August, 
the deficiency would be made up by draft. The Secretary of 
War would assign the quotas to the States, and establish regula- 
tions for the draft. On the 8th, the Secretary of War ordered 
Governor Salomon to immediately cause an enrollment of all 
able bodied citizens between eighteen and forty-five years, by 
counties. If State laws did not provide officers, Governor Salo- 
mon was authorized to appoint them, and the United States 



140 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

would pay all reasonable expenses. The quota under tlie call 
for 300,000 militia for nine months, was 11,904. It was under 
these orders that Grovernor Salomon undertook to make the 
draft in 1862, and was the first and only draft, made by the 
authorities of the State. Subsequent drafts were made under 
the direction of the Provost Marshal General at Washington. 

Orders were issued under the direction of the Governor, for 
the enrolment of all persons liable to military duty, and the 
sherifts of the several counties were directed to make such 
enrolment — to appoint deputies — to make lists of all able 
bodied men between eighteen and forty-five years of age — to 
exhibit such lists to public inspection — to send a correct copy 
of roll to Adjutant General, and to complete the lists by the 1st 
of September. 

Orders of the War Department prohibited any one liable to 
draft from leaving the State or United States, and suspended the 
writ of habeas corpus in cases of arrests under this order, and the 
President issued a proclamation on the 24th of September, 
declaring that during the existing rebellion, and as a necessary 
measure for the suppression of the same, all rebels and insur- 
gents, their aiders and abettors within the United States, and all 
persons discouraging volunteering and enlistments, resisting 
military drafts, etc., should be subject to martial law and liable 
to trial by court martial or military commission, and suspending 
the writ of habeas corpus in such cases. 

The impetus given to recruiting by fear of the draft, was 
truly wonderful. Many of the towns were able to fill their 
quotas by oftering extra bounties, they being assured by the 
Government that they should receive proper credit on the 
draft. 

The law establishing a Bureau of Internal Revenue, and 
dividing the loyal States into districts, for the collection of 
Government tax, on the production and business of the country, 
was carried into effect in this State. On the Ist of September, 
the several offices were opened for business. Each Congres- 
sional District constituted a collection district, to .each of whici 
a Collector and Assessni" was appointed, viz: — First District — 
Charles A. Bronson, Milwaukee, Assessor, Thomas J. Emerson, 
Racine, Collector. Second District — David Atwood, Madison, 



THE DRAFT IN WISCONSIN. 141 

Assessor, E. R. "Wadswortli, Madison, Collector. Third Dis- 
trict — B. W. Brisbois, Prairie du Chien, Assessor, J. H. War- 
ren, Albany, Collector. Fourth District — Orrin Hatch, Oak- 
field, Assessor, Joseph H. Babcock, Beaver Dam, Collector. 
Fifth District — George Gary, Oshkosh, Assessor, Horace Meriam, 
Berlin, Collector. Sixth District — James B. Gray, Hudson, 
Assessor, William T. Price, Black River Falls, Collector. 

Anxious to lighten the burden of the draft. Governor Salo- 
mon wrote to the War Department enquiring, whether, if more 
than the quota of three years volunteers was raised, they would 
be credited on the draft. He also urged that volunteering for 
three years might be continued in order to fill up the regiments 
then organizing. 

To this the War Department replied ; 

Any surplus of three years volunteers will be credited on your draft. Volunteering 
for new regiments will close after August 15th, unless otherwise ordered. It may 
continue for old regiments until after the draft. 

Governor Salomon again urged a postponement of the day for 
volunteering, stating that if delayed a few. days, he would be 
able to fill the two quotas without resort to draft. That he 
would have the five regiments ordered under the call of July 
2d, full by the 15th, and would then have to stop except for old 
regiments. Day after day, the Governor urged the Department 
to extend the time of volunteering, stating that it would be 
impossible to commence drafting until the rolls were made and 
corrected, and begged that volunteering in the new regiments 
should be continued until the draft began. 

Under date of August 11th, Governor Salomon, writes that 
he is proceeding w^ith the enrollment, but it will be the 10th of 
September before drafting can actually commence. That volun- 
teering was delayed by the harvest, but he would undoubtedly fill 
the first call by the 15th. Great anxiety was manifested to 
avoid the draft, and many inquiries made as to whether towns 
would receive credit, if they furnished their quotas under both 
calls, and be exempt from further draft. He asked the Depart- 
ment to " name the 10th of September, or if that was impos- 
sible, the 31st of August, in which volunteers for new regiments 
could be received. That to cut ofi" volunteering on the 15th of 
August would check the spirit among the loyal people of the 



142 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

State, who are thoroughly aroused to the determination to fill 
all by volunteering, if they can be allowed to do so, by giving 
them time enough. To cut otF volunteering in this State, where 
it takes ten days to reach the most distant portions, is unfair 
and unjust, and our people so feel it." 

In reply to a request of the Secretary of War for information 
as to number of volunteers under call of July 2d, enlisted at 
twelve o'clock, August 13th, the Governor says: 

From the best information at hand, I should think that the five regiments called for 
from this State, under the first call are full. B3' the Ifith they wUl be full and one or two 
surplus regiments. If we can have till September 1st to receive volunteers, we shall fill 
our whole second call with three years' volunteers, and I earnestly desire such extension. 

In reply to these several and repeated requests for extension 
of time. Governor Salomon, on the 14th of August, received the 
following from the Secretary of War : 

To GovERXOR Salomon: 

Order respecting volunteers and militia, ordered — 

Isl. That after the 15th day of this month, bounty and advance pay shaU not be paid 
to volunteers for any new regiments, but only to volunteers to regiments now in the 
fleld, and volunteers to fill up the new regiments now organizing but not yet full. 

2d. Volunteers to fill up the new regiments now organizing will be received and paid 
the bounty and advance pay until the 22d day of this month, and if not completed at 
that time, the incomplete regijnients will be consolidated and surplus officers mustered 
out. 

3d. Volunteers to fill up the old regiments will be received and paid the bounty and 
advance pay until the first day of September. 

IM. The draft for 300,000 militia called for by the President, will be made on Wednes- 
day, the third day of September, between the liours of nine o'clock, A. M., and five 
o'clock P. M., and continued from day to day between the same hours until completed. 

5ih. If the old regiments should not be filled up by volunteers before the first day of 
September, a special draft will be ordered for the deficiency. 

Gth. The exigencies of the service require that officers now in the fleld should remain 
with their commands, and no officers now in the field in the regular or volunteer service 
will, under any circumstances, be detailed to accept a new command. 

The War Department informed Governor Salomon on the 
18th of August, that the number required to fill the old regi- 
ments was 5,904. On inquiry by Governor Salomon as to 
whether this number was in addition to the call for 300,000 of 
2d July, and the 300,000 by draft, the Department says, August 
26th : 

Your quota of the 300,000 drafted men is 11,904 — the number of volunteers called July 
2d, being the same. If your volunteers for old and new regiments mustered in from 
July 2d to September 1st, exceeds this number, the excess may be deducted from the 
number drafted. If ycm cannot make the draft on the Sd day of September, make it there- 
ajter as soon as possible, yourself taking the responsibility of cxtendiim the time. 



COKRESPONDENCE. 143 

Tliis order for postponing the draft was given, on the 
representation of Governor Salomon on the 13th, to wit : 

In reply to yours of this date, I would say, that a special enrolment of the militia was 
ordered, and the instructions sent out August 10th ; that some portions of the State have 
no railroads or telegraphs and cannot be reached in less than a fortnight by mail. 
The returns were ordered to be made by the 1st of September at farthest. It will take 
some time to collect these returns when made; we cannot possibly carry into effect the 
order for September 3d, but will do it as soon as possible thereaftei-. 

On the 8th of Jnlv, the War Department requested Gov- 
ernor Salomon to raise five regiments of infcntry, part of the 
quota under the call of the President for 800,000 volunteers. 
Under the impression that the five regiments, in addition to the 
surplus over former calls, for which the State was entitled to 
credit, would make up the quota under this call, Governor 
Salomon proceeded to organize eight other regiments to comply 
with the second call for drafted men. He was, however, 
informed that h.e was in error, by the War Department. It 
appears that the "War Department had made up the quota of this 
State for calls previous to July 2d, 1862, from the aggregate 
number of troops called out and furnished to July 1st, 1862, 
viz : 548,448, of which the quota of Wisconsin was 21,753. The 
rolls in the Adjutant General's office at Washington, showed 
that Wisconsin furnished 22,263 up to July 1st, making our 
surplus only 510. In order to right the error of the War 
Department, Governor Salomon sent a dispatch, on the 29th of 
August, as follows : 

Your dispatch received. I had calculated on the call of 500,000 men, not on what had 
been furnished. But the Adjutant General's records are defective. The duplicate rolls 
here show we had furnished nineteen regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, twelve 
batteries of artillery, one detached company of cavalry, and one of sharpshooters, mak- 
ing in the aggregate 24,653 men. This is a surplus of 2,900 men. You have promised to 
credit us this, and I have so published to the people. The neglect of any officers to file 
our rolls should not operate to our disadvantage. 

In response to this, Governor Salomon received tbe following, 
August 30th : 

No doubt is entertained of your desire to bring your State to the full measure of her 
duty in defending the Government, and your proceedings, therefore, in accordance with 
your published notices to the people. M'ill be sanctioned by this department. 

Notice was sent by the War Department, on the 81st of 
August, that recruits for old regiments might be received until 
further orders. Bounty and advance pay to be continued. 



144 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On tlie lltli of September, Governor Salomon reported eiglit 
regiments as about going into camp, exclusive of the j&ve wbich 
were about leaving the State. He also requested permission to 
raise four companies to fill the Thirty-first Regiment, with the 
advance pay and bounty, which was answered favorably, and the 
regiment eventually filled to a minimum. 

We have, in the foregoing pages, given, in a condensed form, 
the correspondence which passed between the Governor and 
War Department, to show that Governor Salomon did his 
utmost to procure an extension of time for the filling of our 
quota, and thus rendering a draft unnecessary. A singular 
short sightedness seemed to govern the War Department, as it 
was evident to any one, conversant with the subject, that the 
quota of the State could have been easily filled before the draft 
took place, but it will be seen that volunteering in the new 
regiments was cut off on the 22d of August. 

Governor Salomon having caused the enrolment to be perfect- 
ed, and otherwise made arrangements for the draft, to supply the 
deficiency in the quota of the State, on the 21st of October, 
directed that the draft should take place on the 10th day of 
iN'ovember. Orders were, therefore, issued by the Adjutant 
General, directing that the draft should commence on Monday, 
the 10th of November, at 9 o'clock, A. M., and continue, from 
day to day, until completed. Drafting was to be made by towns. 
Volunteering was allowed for four companies of the Thirty-first 
and two companies of the Twenty-seventh, the advance pay and 
bounty being eontinued to those enlisting in those regiments. 
The quotas of the towns were assigned on the 24th of October, 
with the exception of those in Milwaukee, Kewaunee and 
Washington Counties. 

The camps of rendezvous for drafted men were established, as 
follows : — For the Counties of Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Kenosha, 
Racine and Kewaunee — at Camp Utley, Racine, under Lieuten- 
ant Colonel David H. Lane, commandant. For the Counties of 
Brown, Dodge, Door, Outagamie, Marathon, Milwaukee, Ozau- 
kee and Washington — at Camp Washburn, under Lieutenant 
Colonel H. L. Page, commandant. For the Counties of Yernon, 
Buffalo, Dane, Iowa, Green, Green Lake, Marquette, Jefferson, 



RESISTANCE TO THE DRAFT. 145 

Lafayette, Pepin, "Waukesha and Waushara — at Camp Randall, 
under Captain E. R. Chase, commandant. 

The Hon. Walter J). Mclndoe had been appointed United 
States Provost Marshal, to assist in carrying out the draft. 

The quotas of wards and towns in Milwaukee County were 
assigned on the 7th of November. Indications of an intention 
to resist the draft were manifested in JSIilwaukee, and a commit- 
tee waited on the Governor, to secure its postponement in that 
county. It was urged that the assignment was only made two 
days before the draft was to commence, and that a postponement, 
for a few days, was desirable, to enable the different wards and 
towns to fill their quotas as far as possible. The draft was ac- 
cordingly postponed until the 19th of November. Gross errors, 
were detected in the returns of the sheriif. The Governor 
ordered an investigation, and it was ascertained that the sheriff's 
returns repeated a large number of names of volunteers three or 
four times,and that he also returned some hundreds of names of 
volunteers who could not be found on the, muster roll. By this 
means, the quota of Milwaukee was made out to be only 105, 
while returns, properly made, showed it to be over 700. 
Evil disposed persons, operating upon the minds of the foreign- 
born citizens, had incited threats of resistance, so much so as to 
induce the Draft Commissioner to resign his position. 

The draft was commenced on the 10th of November, except 
in Milwaukee County. 

On the morning of the 11th of November, Governor Salomon 
received a despatch stating that the militia rolls of Ozaukee 
County had been seized and destroyed by a mob, and that seve- 
ral citizens had been injured, and their property destroyed. The 
Governor immediately gave orders for the march of a military 
force to the scene of disturbance. 

It appears the Commissioner, Mr. Pors, was just prepared 
to begin the draft, when he was unceremoniously crowded upon 
by the mob, who seized him, dragged him to the door, and fling- 
ing him down the steps of the Court House, injured him severely. 
Succeeding in getting into the Post Office, he concealed himself 
for a while in the cellar. The mob followed him to the door of 
the Post Office, but could not gain entrance. After they depart- 
ed, Mr. Pors left his hiding place, entered a carriage with a 
10 m, 



m 



146 , MILITARY HISTdRY OF WISCONSIN. 

friend, and, taking down the lake shore, succeeded in getting 
out of Port Washington, and arrived at Milwaukee. 

The mob, after losing their victim, determined to destroy his 
property. They went to his dwelling, which was a very hand- 
some house, well finished and furnished. This they completely 
demolished in the interior, smashing furniture, pictures and 
everything they could lay their hands on. 

Leaving this scene of their barbarous outrage, they proceeded 
to the residences of other prominent citizens, destroying them in 
the same way. It is needless to say that whiskey contributed to 
keep up the rebellious spirit. When the mob commenced, a 
thousand men were present, and two hundred or three hundred 
were actively engaged all day, led on by a saloon-keeper and 
other similar characters. The mob appeared to belong to a class 
of Germans or Belgians called Luxembergers. Kot an Irishman 
was to be seen in the crowd. 

On the afternoon of the 11th, Colonel Lewis, of the Twenty- 
eighth Regiment, in camp, at Milwaukee, was telegraphed to by 
Governor Salomon, and informed that a riotous mob was re- 
sisting the operations of the Draft Commissioner at Port "Wash- 
ington, and ordered to send a detachment of the Twenty-eighth 
to quell the riot. Accordingly eight companies were detailed 
for that purpose, who immediately prepared to leave, and by 
midnight were on the steamer, bound for Port Ulao, the nearest 
port to Port Washington. A portion of the troops were landed 
south of the town, and marching to the rear of it, encompassed 
it on the one side, while the balance of the forces were landed 
at the pier, thus completely surrounding the scene of disturbance. 
Provost Marshal Mclndoe immediately proceeded to arrest those 
engaged in the riot, and established his headquarters at the Court 
House. 

Governor Salomoii issued a proclamation to the people of 
Ozaukee County, informing them that those engaged in resisting 
the draft would be arrested and punished, according to the pro- 
clamation of the President of the United States, of September 
25th, 1862. ^That every Government had an inherent right to 
call upon its citizens to bear arms in its defense. That Congress 
had authorized the President to call out militia, and a draft was 



RIOT IN OZAUKEE COUNTY. 147 

ordered for that purpose. That resistance to the orders of the 
Government would onlj^ end in cahimity to those engaged in it. 
That a sufficient military force had been sent into Ozaukee 
County, under the command of the Provost Marshal of the 
United States, to arrest those who had committed the recent 
outrages, and to see that the di-aft was properly enforced, and 
counselled the people of the count}'- to make no further resistance 
to the constituted authorities, but to submit to the laws of the 
country. 

The Provost Court, opened by the Provost Marshal, examined 
into the cases of those persons arrested for complicity in the riot, 
and adjudged the evidence against eighty-one to be sufhcient to 
commit them, and they were sent, under charge of Captain 
"White, to Camp Washburn. The arrests, afterwards made, in- 
creased the number of prisoners to about one hundred and thirty. 
They were placed under guard at Camp Washburn, and after- 
wards removed to Camp Randall, where they had quarters iti the 
" Bull Pen." They were subsequently placed in charge of Gene- 
ral Pope, who retained them as prisoners for some months, and 
were subsequently released informally by the Government. The 
sufferers by the mob at Ozaukee presented their claims to the 
Legislature, at its next session. They were allowed, and the 
amount charged to the Government. 

On Tuesday, at West Bend, in Washington County, a mob of 
fifteen or twenty men attacked the Draft Commissioner, and 
drove him out of town, and, for the time, broke up the draft. 
Four companies of the Thirtieth Regiment were sent to West 
Bend, and the draft, in that county, was completed on the 24th 
of November, under the Draft Commissioner, who had been 
driven away, superintended by Provost Marshal Mclndoe and 
Colonel Dili, of the Thirtieth Regiment. 

The draft in Ozaukee was afterwards made, and completed 
without further disturbance. The display of force had been 
sufficient to intimidate the rabble. In a few other counties, a 
fractious spirit was manifested, but no serious opposition occurred. 

The draft in Milwaukee had been postponed until the 19th of 
November. A committee was appointed to wait upon Governor 
Salomon to get farther time. The Governoi" gave excellent 
reasons why he could not extend the time. To a request for him 



148 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

to accept nine montlis volunteers, he replied that he had no au- 
thority to enlist volunteers for nine months — that no other State 
had ever had authority to raise nine months volunteers, although 
it was so stated by the committee. The committee returned to 
their constituents, and advised them to raise all the substitutes 
they possibly could before the day of draft. 

Governor Salomon determining that the scenes in Ozaukee 
County should not be reenacted in the City of Milwaukee, placed 
the military forces in the city under the charge of Colonel 
Starkweather, of the First Regiment. He also issued a Proclama- 
tion to the people of Milwaukee County. In it, he says : 

As Chief Executive of this State it is my duty to. execute this draft. A sufficient 
military force has been employed to protect the officers who have been entrusted with 
the execution of this law In your countj% to enforce obedience to it, and promptly to 
suppress any tumultuous or riotous proceedings. I trust it will not become necessary 
to employ force in order to enforce the law and maintain peace in your community, but 
should it become necessary, I shall not shrink from the responsibilities which the laws 
impose upon me. Your county and its several towns and wards have been justly and 
^irly treated in the apportionment of the number of men required, and leniency was 
eiven shown to you By the extension of time in order that volunteers or substitutes 
might be provided. If bloodshed should occur, the responsibility must fall upon the 
heads of those who resist the laws. My duty is to see them enforced. The disgraceful 
scenes that recently occurred in a neighboring county shall not be re-enacted in your 
community. 

The Governor concluded his proclamation by urging the peo- 
ple of Milwaukee County to quietly submit to the laws of the 
country and its legally constituted authority. 

Every preparation was made by Colonel Starkweather on the 
19th of November, when the draft commenced. All the roads 
leading into the city were picketed, and soldiers stationed in 
diiferent wards, in squads, to assemble at a given notice. Com- 
panies were marched through the streets, and everything indi- 
cated that Governor Salomon had made ample provision for any 
outbreak. The draft proceeded without disturbance and was 
finally concluded under the management of William J. Whaling, 
Esq., Draft Commissioner. 

From inaccuracies in the rolls of Manitowoc County, the draft 
in that district did not take place until the winter or sprino-. 

The drafted men were allowed ten days after muster, in which 
to furnish substitutes. They were also permitted to volunteer in 
old regiments for three years, or in the old regiments for nine 
months, but without advance pay or bounty. All drafted men 



SANITARY EXPEDITIONS. 149 

who had not furnished substitutes were ordered to report at the 
rendezvous of the district to which they were assigned. 

The rendezvous for drafted men at Racine was abolished, aiid 
those stationed there were removed to Camp Randall and placed 
in charge of Captain E. R. Chase. 

The original design was to organize the Thirty-fourth and 
Thirty-fifth Regiments as drafted men, but there had been so 
many enlistments after draft, in old regiments, that the number 
to be organized for service, was insutficient for two regiments. 
The Governor therefore ordered the consolidation of the men 
under charge of Captain E. R. Chase, at Madison, with the com- 
panies of the Thirty-fourth mastered in at Milwaukee. The 
organization of the Thirty-fourth was completed, with Fritz 
Anneke as Colonel, and left the State for Columbus, Kentucky, 
on the 31st of January, 1863. 

During the year, several expeditions to relieve the sick and 
wounded on the battle-field were sent out by Governor Salomon, 
under the supervision of Surgeon General Wolcott. The next 
after that where Governor Harvey lost his life, was sent up the 
Tennessee River, and succeeded in removing several hundred of 
our "Wisconsin soldiers to the hospitals at St. Louis. An expe- 
dition was sent to Kentucky immediately after the battle of 
Perryville, in October, where much good was accomplished by 
Surgeon General "Wolcott and his stafl' of assistants. Another 
was sent to the battle-field of Stone River, near Murfreesboro, 
Tennessee, where our regiments suffered severely. 

By the report of the Adjutant General, it appears that the 
number drafted under orders of the War Department in 1862, 
was 4,537. Of these 1,739 were mustered into service, 988 were 
discharged, nineteen deserted, 129 were furloughed till further 
orders, and 1662 failed to report. 



w 



OHAPTEE lY. 

ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITES IN 1863. 

State Military Officers — Legislature Meets — G-overnor's Mes- 
sage — Laws Passed — Number of Regiments Furnished — Thir- 
teenth Light Artillery — Heavy Artillery Battalion — Six 
Months Men Wanted — Enrolment Act — Provost Marshal Gen- 
eral's Department^ — State Districted — Thirty-fourth Regiment 
Mustered Out — Thirty-fifth Regiment — Harvey Hospital Es-'* 
tablished — Quotas and Credits — Settlement of Credits — Re- 
sults OF Draft of 1863 — Negro Soldiers — Call for 300,000 More 
— Towns, etc., to be Credited— Big Bounties — Sixteenth Regi- 
ment — Biographical Sketch of Governor Salomon — Close of 
18t)3. 

THE military officers of the State on the opening of the year 
1863, were as follows : 

His Excellency, Edward Salomon, Governor and Commander in Chief. 

Brigadier General Augustus G'aylord, AdjutaiU General. 

Colonel S. Nye Gibbs, Assistant Adjutant General. 

Brigadier General Nathaniel F. Lund, Quartermaster General. 

Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, Surgeon General. 

C!olonel W. H. Watson, Military Secretary. 

At the close of the year 1862, hut three incomplete regiments 
were in the State, viz : the Twenty-seventh and Thirty-first 
Volunteers, and Thirty-fourth Drafted Regiment. These were 
completed and all in the field by the 1st of March. 

The Legislature convened at Madison on the 14th of January. 
In the Governor's Message, he gives the annexed exhibit of the 
expenditures of the War Fund : 

The following is a summary of tlie transactions of the War Fund during the calendar 
year: 

Balance on hand December 31st, 1861.... S 50,227 09 

Receipts 757,700 98 

Total amout 8807,928 07 

Disbursements ^ 760,929 72 

Balance in Treasury December 31st, 1862 $ 46.998 35 



GOVERNOR Salomon's message — extracts. 151 

The receipts .in this fund are made up mainly of money received on sales of State 
bonds and advances made by the United States upon the claims of the State for war 
expenditure. The amount of these claims sent to the Secretary of the Treasury for 
examination and adjustment, is, up to the present time $125,349 57. 

Of this amount there has been refunded to the State and passed to the 

War Fund $ 577,800 72 

Applied in payment of the direct tax due from the State 441,735 :?7 

Total amount refunded $1,019,546 09 

Leaving due the State the sum of. 105,803 48 

It is a source of great gratification to me that, in addition to the settlement of the 
direct tax due from the State, and amounting originally to the sum of $519,6SS 6(5, but 
reduced fifteen per cent, on account of having our vouchers filed in proper time, I was 
enabled to obtain an advance sufficient from the General Government upon our unset- 
tled claims to enable the State to discharge all its outstanding indebtedness on account 
of war expenses of last year. Under the great pressure of business and the vast trans- 
actions of the United States Treasury Department, the examination and settlement of 
these State claims progress but very slowly, and great embarrassment would have re- 
sulted to the State and its creditors, had these liberal advances not obviated the diffi- 
culties. No further advance can however, now be counted upon, as the margin left for 
accounts that may not be allowed is already a very small one, and as the financial 
embarrassments of the General Government would also prevent further advances. 

The sources of income, then, to meet the expenditures of this fund during the present 
year will be confined to the tax of S275,000 provided at the extra session of last year, and 
such other provisions as may be made by you to meet the demands upon this fund. 
Tliese demands will be large, and in addition to the necessary expenses of our military 
department, or State Surgeons for cavalry and artillery, and of taking care of our sick 
and wounded soldiers, will mainly consist of tlie extra pay of five dollars per month 
allowed to soldiers who have families dependent upon them. It is estimated that this 
will require §60,000 per month. The special tax of $275,000 will probably be exhausted in 
the month of March or April. The State of Wisconsin cannot permit the families of her 
brave soldiers to suffer for want of this additional pay — it should not be discontinued; 
but I know of no way in which the money necessary for this purpose can be procured 
except by an additional loan. This subject will undoubtedly receive your most careful 
consideration, and you will adopt such measures as your wisdom may dictate. 

The Governor also gave a summary of what was clone in 1862, 
in the recruiting of military forces, and the manner in which 
the calls of the President were responded to, stating that the 
enrolment made by the sheriffs of the State showed 127,89-1: men 
liable to military duty. The result of the draft was also given, 
which we have already stated as shown by the report of the 
Adjutant General, lie urged the Legislature to take action in 
regard to an efficient militia law, to secure an enrolment of all 
men liable to do military duty, and be prepared to fully meet 
any future call of the National Government. He stated that 
Wftconsin had furnished 38,511 men in the organization of new 
regiments; that 2,155 recruits had been sent to the old regi- 
ments,; that 795 drafted men were in camp ; that the reports of 
the Adjutant General of the State showed the total loss of our 
troops in the field by deaths, discharges and desertions to bo 



152 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

7,875 ; that of the appropriation of $20,000, of last Session, for 
taking care of the sick and wounded, $10,828 94 had been 
expended; that several expeditions had been sent South during 
the past summer, under the charge of the Surgeon General, 
consisting of physicians and nurses, for the purpose of bringing 
home the sick and wounded of our regiments. The Governor 
further says : 

These exiseditions have been of the greatest usefulness to the brave wounded soldiers, 
atldiug much to then- comfort and immediate help; and great credit is due to the Sur- 
geon General and tlie philanthropic gentlemen who, always without compensation, 
accompanied him, for the manner in which they always discharged their missions. 
Often have I heard of the touching scenes that took place on the arrival of these parties, 
when the gallant unfortunate men could not repress their tears on seeing that the State 
followed them upon the battle-field, tendering them the aid and comfort which they so 
■well deserved and were in need of. 

Last fall, with Governors of many other States, I presented a request to the President 
to cliange the system of placing men in General Hospitals, to some extent, by establish- 
ing hospitals in the several States and removing as much as possible the sick to the 
respective hospitals in their own States, where they would be nearer their friends, and 
where, to a limited extent at least, the system of furloughing such as could go to com- 
fortable homes could safely be carried out. Prior to this I had repeatedly and urgently 
applied for the establishment of a hospital at some pi'oper place in our State, with a 
view of having our sick and wounded removed thereto. The reason why these requests 
have not been granted is the one, I presume, which induced the Government originally 
to cease the system of furloughing. I am not prepared to deny that the present system 
is on the whole the best, and one dictated by necessity; and I will here take occasion, 
from my own observation, and from all the reports I have received from reliable sources, 
to bear witness to the really excellent manner in which the Government/ hospitals are 
generally kept. 

Immediately after the appropriation, I sent several competent gentlemen to the 
principal hospitals to act as agents on the part of the State in looking after and aiding 
our sick and wounded soldiers. But few such agents, not exceeding four at any one 
time, have ever been sent, and their labor has in all instances been most usefully 
bestowed. In the cities of New York and Philadelphia, I have made use of agencies 
already establislied by other States, and in the city of Washington the Wisconsin Aid 
Society has rendered most valuable and gratuitous services. A soldier lying in a hospital 
sick and wounded has many wants that the regular hospital attendants cannot well 
supply. The agents can see to these wants, procure descriptive lists, place sick men in 
communication with their relatives, see that those who are entitled to discharges obtain 
Buclj, and see that abuses in hospitals are promptly brought to the attention of superior 
ofllcers and remedied. Much complaint, and, I regret to say, just complaint, has been 
made upon the matter of discharges. Men wholly unfit for service have often been 
obliged to remain in hospitals, for want of their discharges, an unreasonable length of 
time; many have died who, but for the negligence of some oflicer in not promptly for- 
warding the papers, might have recovered if permitted to go home, or at least might 
have expired in the arms of their friends. In this matter the State agents have woj^ed 
incessantly, and have often made complaint to the proper authorities, not ah 
however, with success. 



t'c^ed 
1-^ys, 



The Governor pays a proper tribute to the several aid societies, 
mostly the women of our State, who have incessantly labored to 
eupply the wants of the sick . and wounded soldiers. He also 



MILITARY LAWS PASSED. 153 

states the amount allotted by oiir soldiers in the field, through 
the allotment Commissioners up to December 15th, to be 
$1,783,705 92. 

We give the purport of the laws of this session of a military 
character, as follows : 

Chapter 32 established the manner of commencing and prose- 
cuting suits against persons in the military service of the country. 

Chapter 33 appropriated $3,000 to William A. Pors for 
damages done to his property by the mob in Ozaukee Count3\ 

Chapter 59 amended the act granting soldiers in the field the 
right of suffrage — authorizing them to vote for Judges of County 
or Circuit Court, or Justices of the Supreme Court. 

Chapter 139 authorized the levy of a State tax of $200,000 for 
the support of families of volunteers. 

Chapter 140 appropriated $5,000 to the Governor for contin- 
gent expenses of the Executive office. 

Chapter 141 appropriated $3,000 to the Governor for a military 
contingent fund. 

Chapter 154 authorized the Governor to furnish tourniquets 
for the use of volunteers. 

Chapter 157 authorized the issue and sale of bonds for $300,000 
for war purposes. 

Chapter 162 amended the act granting aid to families of volun- 
teers, defining more fully the rights of families. 

Chapter 185 amended the act suspending sales of lands mort- 
gaged to the State, or held by volunteers, extending the time for 
application to May 30th, 1863. 

Chapter 186 gave volunteers the right to redeem lands sold for 
taxes, within two years from April 1st, 1863. 

Chapter 196 authorized the Governor to take care of the 
sick and wounded soldiers of the "Wisconsin volunteers, and 
appropriated $15,000 for that purpose. 

Chapter 215 authorized the Governor to purchase flags to replace 
flags of regiments in the field, injured or destroyed in battle. 

Chapters 259 to 262, appropriated to A. M. Blair, $1,200; to 
J. C. Loomis, $800; to II. W. Stillman, $1,400, and to H. H. Hunt, 
$2,000, as compensation for destruction of property by Ozaukee 
Countv rioters. 



154 MILITARY HISTORY OP WISCONSIN. 

Chapter 264 extended the volunteer aid to families for six 
months after the death of the soldier. 

Chapter 266 amended former acts so that claims against the 
war fund must be presented within two years from the time the 
same accrued. 

Chapter 295 provided for the collection of subscriptions made 
to pay bounties to volunteers and subscriptions to support families 
of volunteers. 

A multitude of special acts authorizing towns to raise bounties 
for volunteers were passed. 

A Joint resolution was adopted asking for the promotion of 
Colonels J. C. Starkweather and George E. Bryant to Brigadier 
Generals. 

A joint resolution was adopted establishing the design for a 
State flag for the State of Wisconsin. 

A Memorial to the President of the United States asking for 
the establishment of a military hospital within the limits of the 
State of Wisconsin for the sick and wounded soldiers of the 
State, was adopted. 

Up to the 31st day of December, 1862, Wisconsin furnished to 
the General Government, thirty-one regiments of infantry, (not 
including the First, three months regiment,) three regiments and 
one company of cavalry, twelve batteries of light artillery, one 
battery of heavy artillery, and one company of sharpshooters, 
(company G, First Regiment Berdan's Sharpshooters.) The 
Twenty-seventh, Thirty-first, and Thirty-fourth regiments were 
not completely organized at that date. 

No additional regiments of infantry were organized in 1863, 
although recruiting for old regiments continued. 

On the 25th of May, the Governor was notified that a company 
of light artillery would be accepted from Wisconsin. Recruiting 
commissions were accordingly issued for the Thirteenth Light 
Artillery, but recruiting progressed slowly, and it was November 
before snfiicient men were recruited to muster a first Lieutenant. 
Under the impulse of high bounties at that time it was soon filled 
to a maximum, and was ordered to Camp Washburn, where the 
organization was completed with Richard R. Griffin, as Captain. 
They left the State on the 28th of January, 1864, to report at 
New Orleans. 



BATTALION OF HEAVY ARTILLERY. 155 

On the 1st of May, the business of recruiting in the several 
States was placed under the supervision of the Provost Marshal 
General.* 

On the 8th day of June, Captain Charles C. Messervey, com- 
manding Company A, Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, was author- 
ized to recruit three batteries of heavy artillery in Wisconsin, 
which, with Company A, as a base, would constitute a battalion. 
A Major was to be mustered in, when the companies were re- 
cruited to a maximum. With high commendation from General 
Barry, Inspector General of Artillery, Captain Messervey came to 
Wisconsin, and entered upon the recruiting 'service. Company 
B was completely organized, and left Camp Washburn, Milwau- 
kee, in October, being ordered to Mumfordville, Tenn. Company 
C was mustered into the United States service October 1st, and 
left the State for Chattanooga, Tenn., on the 30th of October. 
Company D was mustered in November 7th, and left the State 
on the 1st of February, 1864, for New Orleans. 

On the 15th of June, the Secretary of War telegraphed that 
General Lee was marching to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
and stated that the President had called for 100,000 militia, for 
six months, from Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Western 
Virginia, and desired other States to furnish militia for a short 
term, to be credited on the draft. The Governor replied that 
there was no organized militia in the State, and that he could 
not organize a force in time to be of service, but would proceed 
to organize a force of six months volunteers if desired. He fur- 
ther stated that there were only about three hundred men in the 
State available to sustain the enrolling officers. 

On the 3d day of March, 18G3, the Congress of the United 
States passed an " act for the enrolling and calling out the Na- 
tional forces, and for other purposes." This act is better known 
as the " Conscription Act;" declaring every able bodied citizen 
of the United States, between the ages of twenty and forty-five, 
as liable to military service. The difficulties surrounding the 
enforcement of the draft of 1862, induced the President to re- 
commend the passage of an act which would give the National 
Government control of the militia of the country, and thereby 
secure a more prompt response to the calls of the National Exe- 
cutive, for forces to suppress the insurrection. It did not abolish 



156 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

the system of voluuteering, but, on the eoutraiy, greatly contri- 
buted towards filling our armies with men of character and value 
as soldiers, who did not relish entering the service as conscripts. 

For the carrying out of the provisions of this " Conscription 
Act," a Bureau was established at Washington, styled the 
" Provost Marshal General's Bureau," and Colonel James B. 
Fry, Assistant Adjutant General, United States Army, was de- 
tailed as Provost Marshal General. In each State, an Assistant 
Provost Marshal General was appointed to supervise the business 
of the Bureau. Each State was subdivided into Districts, co- 
extensive with the Congressional Districts. In each of these 
Districts, a Board of Enrolment was established, consisting of a 
Provost Marshal, a Commissioner and an Examining Surgeon. 
Each of these Enrolment Districts were again divided into Sub- 
districts. These Sub-districts were composed of a single town- 
ship or ward' of* a city. The duty of this Board of Enrolment 
was to cause a thorough and correct enrolment of all able bodied 
men in each of these Sub-districts, between the ages of twenty 
and forty-five, who were not exempted by the " Conscription 
Act " from military duty. Before the enforcement of a draft, on 
any call made for the National forces, the persons so enrolled had 
the privilege of claiming exemption from draft, under rules 
established by the Act. On proving their right to exemption, 
their names were stricken from the roll, and they were registered 
as exempts. A draft being ordered, the names of those liable to 
draft were written on pieces of card-board, and arranged in paper 
parcels, each town or sub-district by itself. These names were 
placed in the wheel, as each town was called, and the wheel put 
in motion to intermingle the bits of card-board. A person, 
blindfolded, or a blind person, then drew from the wheel one of 
these bits of card, and presented it to the Provost Marshal, by 
whom the name on the card was read aloud, and entered on the 
list of the town. In this way, the number of conscripts a town 
or sub-district was to furnish was drawn from the wheel, and 
entered on the list as drafted men. The drafted man was 
notified to appear, at a certain time, for examination by the Sur- 
geon of the Board of Enrolment, and be examined for physical 
defects. If found entitled to exemption, by physical disability, 
he was discharged. If found to be able bodied, he was allowed 



DISTRICT PROVOST MARSHALS. 157 

a few days to obtain a substitute, or pay the commutation of 
$300. If lie concluded to serve, he was clothed by the Provost 
Marshal, and sent to the rendezvous, and assigned to a regiment. 

The pay of drafted men differed from volunteers, in their 
not being entitled to bounty, the same as volunteers. The con- 
scripts for nine months, of 1862, were not entitled to bounty. 
The conscripts of 1863 and Spring of 1864 were entitled to the 
bounty of $100. The conscripts, under the draft of Summer and 
Fall of 1864, were not entitled to any bounty. 

We have analyzed the practical operation of this " Conscrip- 
tion Act," for a more thorough understanding of its provisions 
and mode of operation, by those who are not fully conversant on 
the subject. 

The State of Wisconsin was districted and" officered as follows: 

First lyistrict — I. M. Bean, Provost Marshal; C. M. Baker, Commissioner, and J. B. 
Dousman, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at MilM^aulcee. 

Second District — S. J. M. Putnam, Provost Mai'shal; L. B. Caswell, Commissioner, and 
Dr. C. R. Head, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at Janesville. 

Third District — J. G. Clark, Provost Marshal; E. E. Bryant, Conamissioner, and John 
H. Vivian, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at Prairie du Cliien. 

Fourth District — E. L. Pliillips, Provost Marshal; Cliarles Burchard, Commissioner, 
and L. H. Gary, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at Fon du Lac. 

FifthDUtrict — C. R. Meri'ill, Provost Marshal; William A. Bugh, Commissioner, and 
H. O. Crane, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at Green Bay. 

Sixth District — B. F. Cooper, Provost Marshal; L. S. Fisher, Commissioner, and D. D. 
Cameron, Examining Surgeon. Head-quarters at La Crosse. 

Lieutenant Colonel Charles S. Lovell, Sixteenth United States 
Infantry, was detailed as Assistant Provost Marshal General of 
the State, and Superintendent of the Recruiting Service. This 
position was held by Colonel Lovell, with the exception of a 
short time, until the business of the office was discontinued by 
the close of the war. 

The task of enrolling the State was commenced in the month 
of May, Enrolling Officers being appointed for each Sub-district. 
Opposition was made in some counties to the progress of the 
Enrolling Officers, and one of them in Dodge County was shot. 
Detachments from the Thirtieth Regiment were ordered to the 
several points of disturbance, and order was restored, the officers 
being allowed to proceed with their labors. 

Governor Salomon was informed that Governor Curtiu was 
about purchasing ground for a cemetery for the burial of Union 
soldiers at Gettysburg. He informed the agent of Governor 



158 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Curtin that the State of AVisconsin would cooperate with other 
States in the work, and W. Y. Selleck, Esq., State Agent at 
Wasliington, was authorized to represent the State. 

The nine months term of service of the Thirty-fourth Regi- 
ment, drafted militia, expired, and the regiment was mustered 
out of service on the 8tli of September. Special authority was 
given to Governor Salomon, by Provost Marshal General Fry, 
to organize the Thirty-fifth Regiment as veteran volunteers, 
under General Orders, JSTo. 191. That order directs " that all 
able bodied men, between eighteen and forty-five years, who have 
been heretofore enlisted, and served nine months, and who can 
pass the examining surgeon, may be enlisted as veteran volun- 
teers." Each veteran volunteer, so reenlisted and mustered into 
the United States service, was to receive a bounty from the 
United States of $402, in instalments. 

The regimental and line officers of the Thirty-fourth were 
ordered to recruit veteran and other volunteers for the Thirty- 
fifth Regiment. Many of them, however, declining to reenter 
the service, the order was revoked, and the regiment was directed 
to reorganize as the Thirty-fifth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, 
under the supervision of Colonel Henry OrflJ". The camp was 
established at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee. A considerable 
number of the drafted men who composed the Thirty- fourth 
Regiment reenlisted in the Thirty-fifth. This being a new regi- 
ment, much delay occurred in filling up. The large bounties au- 
thorized to be paid new recruits to new regiments did not' go 
into efiect until December, and the Disbursing Officer refused to 
pay the premium for the delivery of recruits enlisted for the 
Thirty-fifth, consequently the regiment filled up very slowly. It, 
however, perfected its organization, and left the State the latter 
part of April, 1864, to report to General Steele. 

From the commencement of his term of office. Governor 
Salomon had endeavored to secure the establishment of United 
States General Hospitals in the State, where our sick and wound- 
ed soldiers could be cared for. His persistent efi:brts at last suc- 
ceeded, and in October, of 1863, a General Hospital was estab- 
lished at Madison. It was located in a large stone building, 
built by Governor Farwell for a dwelling house. It was situated 
on the banks of the Third Lake, a beautiful sheet of water with 



QUOTAS AND CREDITS. 159 

a pure atmospnere, free from the annoyance of dust or street 
travel. In honor of the late Governor Harvey, it was named 
the "Harvey United States Army General Hospital." This 
was the first United Stiites Hospital established in the State, 
others were subsequently established at Prairie dii Chien and 
Milwaukee, but on a smaller scale. Harvey Hospital was i~)laced 
under the care of Surgeon H. Culbertson, United States Army, 
by whom it was admirably conducted, assisted by Drs. Favill, 
Brown and Henderson. 

Quotas and credits became the chief subjects of consideration 
in the Military Department of the State. 

The Adjutant General, in his Report, of 1863, states that, in 
settling the quotas and credits of 1861 and 18^, the War De- 
partment adopted the plan of bringing all terms of service less 
than three years to a three years basis, under the provisions of 
the Conscription Act. In this way, four nine months men were 
equal to one volunteer of three years service, numerically 
reducing the quota of nme months men to one-fourth. 

The report of the Adjutant General shows that the number of three j-ears 

men furnished under the calls of 1861 and 1862, was 40,314 

Of nine months men, 961 divided by 4 240 

Credits in 1861 and 1862 40,554 

Quota of 1861 21,7.53 

Quota of July 2d, 1862 11,904 

Quota of August4th, 1862, 11,904 divided by 4.... 2,970- 

Total quotas 1861 and 1862 36,633 

Leaving an excess of - 3,921 

In settling with the Department, in 1863, the new recruits 
were added up to October 12, 1863. 

The Governor, in correspondence with the "War Department, 
was repeatedly assured that each town should be credited with 
the number already furnished under former calls. By Adjutant 
General Gaylord's Report, for 1863, we will show what was done 
in settling with the War Department : 

Upon receipt of notice from the War Department of the draft ordered under the act of 
Congress of 1863, measures were immediately taken to secure the proper credit due to 
this State. 

Claim was made for all volunteers in the original organizations, and all subsequent 
recruits, of whicli this office afforded the requisite information. A difference appeared 
upon comparing the records, between the War Department and this office, of but 342. 
Further information was furnished proving the correctness of the records in tliis office; 
the claim was allowed and settlement obtained with the War Department, October 12th, 



160 



MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 



The question had already been raised as to a proper distribution of the credit, allowed 
by the War Department, to the several localities of the State entitled to such credit. 

Your Excellency urged the expectation, under former promises from both tlie State 
and United States authorities, and the justice of crediting eacli locality, upon this draft, 
with the excess over former calls. To this consent was at first given, with the added 
direction that the people of each locality should make out new lists of all volunteers 
claimed, giving the company and regiment in which eacli person had served, that com- 
parison might be made with the muster rolls in the Adjutant General's office at Wash- 
ington. The experience of the department in other States, where a similar course was 
undertalsen soon proved this to be impracticable, as was apparent from the beginning to 
all who had any knowledge of the amount of labor and delay involved in it, and the 
Government declared its inability to give credit to localities for any excess heretofore 
furnished, and announced that credits would be allowed only by Congressional districts. 

A statement was then prepared by Congressional districts reducing the erroneous ex- 
cess in each in proportion to the number heretofore claimed and bringing the total to 
the exact credit allowed by the War Department. This was presented to the department 
by your Excellency in person, with the renewed request tliat the Government should 
take this enrolment of volunteers as made in 1862, as a basis, and through the sub-dis- 
trict enrolling officers in the State, secure a correct revision of the same, and thereby 
give the proper credifto each locality entitled thereto. This was deemed entirely feas- 
ible, from the fact that the Government had already in the State the machinery neces- 
sary to secure this result, witla but temporary delay. Although persistently urged with 
the assurance that, with our experience the past year, such a plan was proven to be 
practicable ; all attempts to convince the department proved futile ; they had concluded 
upon the plan announced, and declined further argument upon the subject. The follow- 
ing statement of credits for the several Congressional districts was then made tlie basis 
of settlement between the General Government and the State, which credit is to be dis- 
tributed among the several sub-districts in proportion to the number of first class men 
enrolled, without regard to former excess or deficiency. 

The following is the tabular statement, agreed upon, October 12th, 1863, to which have 
been added such recruits as have enlisted up to the present date, (November 1st,) and to 
which all volunteers in new organizations will be added up to the day of the draft. 

Statement, showing the number of Volunteers, Recruits and Drafted men furnished by 
the several Congressional Districts in the State of Wisconsin. 



CONGBESSIONAIi DISTBICTS. 



Wg-o--^ 


aO 


R*^ 








l^gg 


3 £, 


li" 








eers 
riffs 
I by 
men 


O 1-1 


J i 


rp-2 a 


^ c& 




: o S-S. 


4- 




: ?> 3 2 


a a 






• ' 




6,847 


275 


370 


7,416 


27 


2a8 


6,700 


60 


200 


6,9.35 


423 


lis 


6.'216 


201 


159 


5,684 


32 


84 


38,798 


1,018 


1,169 



First 

Second,. 
Third,.... 
Fourth,. 
Fifth, .... 
Sixth,.... 



Total,., 



7,492 
7,681 
6,960 
6,476 
6,576 
5,800 



40,985 



October 12th, 1863, net excess, 4,.'552. 

The question has been asked, and the same inquiry may have arisen- in other localities, 
why the draft was made by tlie State authorities in 1862, if, as now appears, the State 
has an excess over all previous calls, to apply on the present draft. The reason is, tliat, 
in the assignment of quotas in 1861 and 1862, the term of service was not taken into 
account by the General 'Government, the calls were made for a given quota, and credit 
was given for the number of men furnished, without regard to the term of service; on 
Which basis our State was lacking some four or five thousand men. The conscription 



DRAFT OF 1863 — RESULTS. 



161 



act of the present year, however, obligated the Department to bring all debt and credit 
with the several States for troops to a three years basis, by which course our State now 
receives the benefit of her three j'ears enlistments, in an excess on all calls heretofore 
made. 4 

The enrolment of 1863 included all male residents of the State, 
between the ages of twenty and forty-five years, divided into two 
classes, from the first of which, composed of all persons liable to 
military duty between the ages of twenty and thirty-five years, 
and all unmarried persons subject to do military duty, above thirty- 
five and under forty-five years of age, a draft, of onefifih of the 
number enrolled, was to be made with fifty per cent, added. 

The draft of November, 1863, differs from other drafts, either 
before or since, in not ordering a given quota to be raised. The 
enrolment of the State was 121,202. ' 

The draft was ordered to take place in "Wisconsin, in Novem- 
ber, beginning on the 9th, in the First District, at Milwaukee. 

"We extract from the Adjutant General's report of 1864, a table 
showing the results of the draft of 1863. 





a 
3 




2! 
a 
3 


2! 
1 


DRAFTED MEN ACCOITNTED FOR. 


r 

a 


^ 


£? 












a 


a 
i 


3 




e 

1 

"-J 

a. 


CD 

c 


P 

■8 


1 

p< 


p. 
a 

i 


s. 




■♦■ 








5' 
•a 

i 

o 

B 


I 


p. 
1 


1 

►-J 


1 
5" 


1 


1 


25,0M 


1,172 


34 


140 


1,787 


1,047 


1,164 


$349,200 


2 


21,107 


,758 


43 


15 


748 


183 


769 


230,700 


3 


17,746 


,898 


147 


4 


543 


152 


552 


165,600 


4 


18,704 


:,124 


83 


61 


1,316 


5;^7 


1,127 


338,100 


5 


20,709 ; 


i,840 


195 


23 


1,196 


564 


862 


258,600 


6 


17,852 


1,048 


126 


9 


695 


206 


607 


182,100 


Tot 


al. 


121,202 1- 


1,935 


628 


252 


6,285 


^,689 


5,081 


$1,524,300 



Under the modification of the Draft Act by Congress, then in session, the number 
required under the draft of 1863, was merged into the new call by the President of Feb- 
ruary 1st, 1864, for 500,000, and it was ordered that a new assignment of quotas be made, 
and that each sub -district be credited upon the new call with the number of men 
obtained by the foregoing draft. By this course, the State received credit for five 
thousand eight hundred and seven, (5,807,) upon the calls of February 1st and March 
14th, and, with the veteran re-enlistments before mentioned, the new organization 
completed and the recruits for old regiments, the quota of the State was filled, as 
announced by the Secretary of War on the 5th of June. 
11 



162 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In 1863, the policy of the Government in regard to arming 
negroes to aid in the suppression of the rebellion was changed. 
The bloody assault on Port Hudson, in the spring of this year, 
had established the fact that color was not the test of heroism — 
that the negro with a musket in his hands, could show an amount 
of skill, courage, and endurance, equal to the white man, and 
Government reluctantly gave the order for the organization of 
negro regiments, on which duty Adjutant General Thomas made 
a tour to the lower Mississippi in 1863. Regiments of colored 
men were authorized to be raised in the Northern States, and on 
the 26th of October, Governor Salomon received authority from 
the War Department to raise a regiment, battalion, or company 
in this State, and issued orders to that effect. 

There being so few colored persons residents of the State, but 
little effort was made to raise the company, until in December of 
1863, Colonel Bross of Chicago, who had been commissioned to 
raise the Twenty-ninth Regiment United States colored infantry, 
sent his recruiting agents into this State and succeeded in enlisting 
about two hundred and fifty able-bodied colored men, who were 
credited to the State. Colonel Bross, with his regiment, joined 
Burnside's Corps before Petersburg, in June 1864. In one of the 
numerous charges made upon the enemy's lines. Colonel Bross 
lead the Twenty-ninth United States colored regiment, far in 
advance of any other. Seeing the hopelessness of the attempt 
to storm the enemy's works, he ordered them to fall back. Just 
at that time, Colonel Bross was struck by a musket ball, and fell 
dead, wrapped in the folds of the flag which he had just seized. 
In this attack the regiment lost two hundred enlisted men killed, 
wounded, and missing. 

"While the preparations for the draft in ITovember, 1863, were 
going forward, Pre*dent Lincoln, on the 17th of October, issued 
another call for 300,000 volunteers, to serve for three years or 
during the war. The men under this call were intended to be 
enlisted for the regiments then in the field, the term of service 
of many of'" those regiments expiring in 1864, it was desirable to 
keep their organizations up by new recruits. The President 
ordered that a draft should take place on the 5th day of January ^ 
1864-, in all districts, that had not raised the quotas assigned to 
them respectively. 



CREDIT TO TOWNS. 168 

Adjutant General Gaylord, under direction of the Governor, 
issued an order stating that the quota of the State was 10,281, 
there being 74,976 persons of the first class enrolled. The quotas 
of Congressional Districts were assigned by the War Department 
as follows : First District, 2204 ; Second District, 1829 ; Third 
District, 1414 ; Fourth District, 1432 ; Fifth District, 1697 ; Sixth 
District, 1705. The quotas of the several towns and wards in the 
State, were assigned in accordance with the number of men of 
the first class in each town or ward, enrolled by the United States 
District Provost Marshals. Credits were to be given each town 
for all volunteers enlisted since October 17th, and those who 
might thereafter enlist in any of the old regiments or batteries, 
or the Thirty-fifth Regiment of infantry, or Thirteenth Light 
Artillery. Bounties were offered to veterans of $402, and to new 
recruits in old regiments of $302. Premiums were also offered 
to persons bringing in recruits for veterans, $25, and for new 
recruits, $15. 

Books were opened in the Adjutant General's office, and the 
rolls of those mustered into the United States service since Octo- 
' ber 17th, 1863, were entered, and also the name of the town to 
which the recruit was credited. A register of the towns was also 
kept, showing the names of volunteers credited to each town, 
including those veterans who enlisted in the field. 

The violation of good faith, by the Provost Marshal General, 
after repeated promises that the towns and wards should be 
credited with the men already sent into the service, was produc- 
tive of much dissatisfaction, not that the people disliked to sus- 
tain the government, but they felt that injustice was done those 
towns who had more than filled their quotas, while many locali- 
ties, for want of patriotism, or by reason of opposition to the war, 
had made no efifort to furnish men for the service, were allowed 
to escape the operation of the draft. 

In order to set right the matter of credits in future drafts, the 
following propositions from the Governor of New York, received 
the approval of the War Department in December, and were 
declared as governing in the matters referred to. 

First, That quotas be apportioned to towns and wards in the 
several Congressional districts in the State of New York, and that 
assurance be given to such towns and wards as may furnish their 



164 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

full quota of volunteers under the recent call of the President 
for 300,000 men, that they will be exempt from the pending 
draft, should one he rendered necessary in January next. 

Second, That the several towns and wards receive credit for 
all such volunteers as may have been mustered into the service 
of the United States since the draft; and that the number so 
credited be deducted from their portion of the quota assigned 
to the State under the recent call. 

A letter from Provost Marshal General Fry, enclosing a copy 
of the above propositions, was received by Assistant Provost 
Marshal General Lovell, in which General Pry says : 

The principles therein announced, will, as far as they may be applicable, govern with 
regard to the State of Wisconsin. 

He requested that the information be communicated to his 
Excellency, Governor Salomon. 

Under the impulse of this decision of the "War Department, 
the larger cities, by popular assemblages, requested their respec- 
tive Councils to levy and assess a tax to raise money for extra 
bounties to volunteers, and thus fill their respective quotas. The 
city of Madison led oiF in this matter, and by offering an exti-a 
bounty of $200 to each volunteer, the quota of the city, which 
was one hundred and twenty-five, was filled in less than eight 
days. Other cities and towns adopted the same plan, and very 
large extra bounties were paid in some instances. 

The Sixteenth Regiment having been reduced below the mini- 
mum, had been consolidated into five companies. With the con- 
sent of the War Department, Governor Salomon proceeded to 
reorganize the regiment and issued commissions for recruiting 
five companies, in November, 1863. 

During the year. Governor Salomon made a visit to Washing- 
ton, and the Wisconsin regiments in the army of the Potomac, 
and made a personal inspection, cheering the boys by his pres- 
ence, and in his speeches assuring them of the continued consid- 
eration of the State authorities for their welfare. He also in 
company with General Gaylord, visited the regiments in Missouri, 
Arkansas, and Vicksburg during the seige of that place. 

In closing our historical sketch of the military operations of 
Wisconsin during Governor Salomon's term of ofiice, we desire 



GOVERNOR SALOMON'S ADMINISTRATION. 165 

to express our opinion of the manner in which the military 
affairs of the State were conducted. 

By an unforeseen accident, Governor Salomon was suddenly 
called from his usual avocation, to perform the duties of Governor, 
during one of the most trying periods of our country's history. 
The nation was in extremity, and adversity had settled on her 
banners. The jealousies of the general officers in the Potomac 
army, had jeopardized the safety of the Republic, and the Presi- 
dent was calling upon the State Executives to aid him, by fresh 
levies of men, in upholding the power and authority entrusted 
to him as the President of a united people. His predecessor had 
just laid down his lif'^ in the cause of humanity, glorying in the 
impulses which had carried him to the bedsides of our dying 
Wisconsin soldiers, and by that self-sacrificing heroism, which 
characterizes the true christian and philanthropist everywhere, 
had visited the terrible battle-field, and gathered the bleeding 
and mangled bodies of our brave Wisconsin boys, into comfort- 
able hospitals, and administered personally to their comfort and 
welfare. 

With a detrrmination to give the JSTational Executive his 
bearty support, and to bring all the resources of the State to b^ar 
m aiding thft General Government to maintain itself against the 
designs of those who sought its overthrow, he entered upon his 
i'jty of Governor. 

Ilis first acts were to issue Proclamations in response to Presi- 
•dent Lincoln's calls for 600,000 men, one half to be raised by 
volunteering, the other by draft. In the military organizations 
of 1861, his predecessor. Governor Randall, had laid a foundation 
which afforded a precedent for his successors to follow in the 
enlistment of volunteers, and in the full and complete equipment 
for the field, thereby giving a national reputation to the troops 
of Wisconsin, for their efficiency and valor. Governor Salomon 
determined that the reputation of Wisconsin should be sustained, 
and with untiring energy entered upon the task of meeting the 
renewed calls of the Government. In addition to the organizing 
of volunteers. Governor Salomon was called upon to enforce the 
orders of the General Government, in the drafting of the quota 
of the State under the call for 300,000 militia. Conscription is an 
odious measure, not only in this but in any country, and Governor 



166 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Salomon had not only to contend with the difficulties of organiz- 
ing the draft in the total absence of any State or National law, 
but also those vexations and trials, incident upon the unpopular 
character of the measure, heightened by efforts made by vicioua 
disloyal men to array the foreign element of our population in 
opposition to its enforcement. 

"With the euergy and ability characteristic of him. Governor 
Salomon proceeded at once to obey the orders of the "War De- 
partment, and in a short time had fourteen regiments of infantry 
partially organized, which were nearly all in the field before the 
close of the year. Under the instructions of the War Depart- 
ment the county sheriffs were directed to enrol the able bodied 
men in their respective counties, and when the rolls were suffi- 
ciently correct, the draft was ordered to take place simultaneously 
throughout the State, with one or two exceptions. Rumors of 
opposition to the draft, were frequent, and riotous exhibitions 
expected. They did not find the Governor unprepared. On the 
instant of the news of the first outbreak, the order went over the 
wires for the march of a military force to the scene of disturb- 
ance — again at West Bend in Washington county — and lastly 
wken the excited populace of the commercial city of the State, 
gave evidence of insubordination and determination to resist the 
authorities, companies of armed men were gathered from Racine 
and Madison, and the camps in Milwaukee, and under the super- 
intendence of a tried soldier, every avenue was guarded leading 
into the city, and when the evil disposed rioters saw around them 
the evidences of a strong hand, they quietly acquiesced, in the 
action of the draft commissioner, and retired to their homes 
wiser, if not better men. Other portions of the State were intimi- 
dated by these demonstrations of Governor Salomon, and the 
draft passed off without opposition, except in the localities indi- 
cated. Throughout the whole of his administration, Governor 
Salomon evinced the same determined energy and patriotism, 
and our people and soldiery owe much to the manner in which 
the Governor and his subordinate officers conducted the military 
affairs of the State in 1862 and 1863. 

We know little of the personal history of Governor Salomon. 
He was born in Prussia in the year 1828, and was educated in 
the High School at Halberstadt and the University of Berlin, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 167 

where he pursued principally the study of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy. In the year 1849, he came to the United 
States and took up his abode in Wisconsin, residing in Manito- 
woc until the fall of 1852, when he removed to Milwaukee in 
order to qualify himself for the legal profession, where he has 
since resided. He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court 
in 1855, and entered upon the practice of his profession in the 
fall of that year. In the fall of 1861, his name was placed on 
the Republican or Union ticket for Lieutenant Governor, and he 
was elected by a large majority. At the succeeding session of the 
Legislature he took his seat as the presiding officer of the Senate, 
and performed the duties of the position with great ability. By 
the untimely death of Governor Harvey, he became the Execu- 
tive officer of the State, and by the manner in which, for nearly 
two years, he managed the State affairs, both civil and mihtary, 
he secured the esteem and friendship of many of the leading 
men of the State. Governor Salomon retired from the Guber- 
natorial office, with the good wishes and respect of hosts of 
friends. Being no politician in the popular sense of the term, 
he always conducted the affairs of the State, without any sinister 
view to any future political aspirations. In this way, he was 
never the tool of any faction, neither could his better judgment 
be warped to subserve the purposes of political adventurers. 



OHAPTEE Y. 



ACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1864. 

State Officers Elect in 1864 — State Military Officers — Legis- 
lature Meets — Governor's Message — Laws Passed — Soldiers' 
National Cemetery at Gettysburg — Re-enlistment of Old Regi- 
ments — Call for 500,000 more — Thirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh 
ArJ'D Thirty-eighth Regiments — Veteran Re-enlistments — Vete- 
ran Regiments ordered to General Sherman — One Hundred 
Day Troops Organized — Thirty-ninth, Fortieth and Forty-first 
Regiments — Call for 500,000 Men for One, Two and Three 
Years — Excessive Quota — Enrolment Lists Corrected — Quota 
Reduced — Error Corrected — Forty-second Regiment — Fifth 
Regiment Re-organized — Forty-third Regiment — Heavy Artil- 
lery Regiment — Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Regiments — 
Draft in September — Result — Another Call for 300,000 — 
Close of 1864. 

OI:T the first Monday in January, 1864, Governor Salomon re- 
signed the duties of his position to his successor, the Hon. 
James T. Lewis, who was that day inaugurated as Grovernor of 
the State. 

The State officers elect, for 1864, were : 

Hon. James T. Lewis, Governor; Hon. Wyman Spooner, Lieutenant Ooverrwr; General 
Lucius Fairchild, Secretary of Slate; Hon. S. D. Hastings, Sltate Treasurer, (fourth term ;) 
Hon.WiNFiELD Smith, Attorney General; Hon. J. L. Pickard, State Superinlendent, (third 
term ;) Hon. William H. Ramsey, Bank Comptroller, (second term.) 

The military officers for the State, for 1864, were : 

Has Excellency, Jabies T. Lewis, Governor and Commarlder-in- Chief. 
Brigadier General Augustus Gaylorb, Adjvlant General. 
iColfflnel S. Nye Gibbs, Assistant Adjutant General. 

Brigadier General Nathaniel F. Lund, Quartermaster and Oommisaary General, and 
Chief of Ordnance. 
■Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, Surgeon General. 
ColQuel Frank H. Firmin, Military Secretary. 



GOVERNOR LEWIS' MESSAGE — EXTRACTS. 169 

The Legislature of the State met at Madison on the 13th of 
January. We extract from Governor Lewis' message such por- 
tions as relate to military matters : 

Of her volunteers In the field, Wisconsin has reason to be prond. She sent forth noble 
men, and nobly have they done their duty. By deeds of valor, they have won the high 
position they now occupy. Troops from other Northern States are entitled to great credit. 
We yet must claim for Wisconsin soldiers the highest meed of praise. 

In response to the calls of the General Government, Wisconsin had sent to the field, 
on the first day of November last, exclusive of three months men, thirty-four regiments 
of infantry, three regiments and one company of cavalry, twelve batteries of light ar- 
tillery, three batteries of heavy artillery, and one company of sharpshooters.. Making 
an aggregate of forty-one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five men. Of this num- 
ber, sixteen thousand nine hundred and sixty-three have been lost to the service, by 
death, discharge and desertions, leaving in the service, on the first day of November 
last, twenty-four thousand eight hundred and twelve men. The State can never fully 
repay our soldiers for the sacrifice they have made and are now making. It can and 
should do much to aid them, however, by adding to their comforts in the field and in 
hospitals, caring for their families, and assisting them in procuring their pay for services 
rendere<l the Government. 

Many of our volunteers have been transferred to the Invalid Corps. The families of 
these soldiers are equally entitled to the aid furnished by the State, with those who 
rtjmain in their regiments. Provision should be made for their payment, upon proper 
reports being furnished from oflicers in command of this corps. 

Pi'ovision was made, at the last session of the Legislature, for the payment, to the 
families of certain deceased soldiers, of five dollars per month for six months after the 
death of the soldier. I doubt not the intention of the Legislature was to extend this 
benefit to the families of all deceased soldiers residing in the State, but from the wording 
of the act it could only be paid to the families of soldiers who were in the sei-vice at the 
time of its passage, and who died in the service after that date. This law should be so 
amended as to extend equal benefits to the families of all deceased soldiers residing in 
tho State. 

The amount received into the War Fund during the last fiscal year, in- 
cluding the balance in the Fund at the commencement of the year, 

was $818,032 44 

Amount disbursed from this Fund, during same period, was 7SG,893 85 

Balance in Fund, September 30th, 1863 31,139 59 

The amount disbursed during the last fiscal year by the Governor, for 

the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers, was 13,999 91 

1 he whole amount of the State indebtedness, on the first day of the present month ' 
was seventeen hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. This debt was created, pur- 
suant to provisions of law, by the issue of State bonds and certificates of indebtedness, 
the bonds bearing interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum, and the certificates at 
the rate of seven per cent, per annum. 

The money, arising from the sale of these bonds and certificates, has been expended, 
pursuant to law, for building the State Capitol ; payment of tax levied by the General 
Government, upon the property of the State, for war purposes ; payment of bounty of 
five dollars per month to the families of voluuteei-s; boarding soldiers, and preparing 
them for the field ; caring for sick and wounded soldiers, and other war purix>ses. The 
greater proportion of this debt, having been created for war purposes, is a legitimate 
Charge against the General Government. The General Government has already repaid 
a part of the money advanced by the State for carrying on the war, and, I doubt not, 
will e-^entually repay the balance. This money, if refunded, will be sulBcient to liqui- 
date all State indebtedness, and should be applied to that purpose. 

The amount paid to families of volunteers, from the commencement of the war up to 
January 1st, 18ft4, was 81,197,044 70. Amount paid on United States tax, 8411,7.35 37. 
Amount advanced by the State, for boarding and equipping soldiers, caring for sick. 



170 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and other war expenses not enumerated above, and still a charge against the General 
Government, about 1200,000. Amount still due the State from Banks, on sale of war 
bonds during the year 1861, S173,950. 
The State bonds and certilicates, referred to above, were issued as follows : 

In the .vear 1861 81,200,000 

In the year 1862 250,000 

In the year 1863 325,000 

The laws passed at this Session, relative to military matters, 
are as follows : 

Chapters 39, 57 and 80 were acts to authorize towns, cities and 
villages to raise money, by tax, for the payment of bounties to 
volunteers, and to provide for levying and collecting the same. 

Chapter 117 revised, amended and consolidated all laws relative 
to extra pay to Wisconsin soldiers in the service of fhe United 
States, providing for the relief of families, &c. Under this law, 
the State aid to soldiers' families has been disbursed since its 
passage. 

Chapter 143 provided for the proper reception, by the State, of 
"Wisconsin volunteers returning from the field or service of the 
United States. Under this law, veteran regiments returning 
home on furlough, or regiments returning on expiration of term 
of service, have been received and entertained by the State 
authorities. 

Chapter 247 repealed the law relative to Allotment Commis- 
sioners, 

Chapter 248 authorized the Governor to purchase flags for 
regiments or batteries whose flags were lost or destroyed in 
service. 

Chapter 341 amended the law suspending the sale of lands 
mortgaged to the State or held by volunteers, so as to apply to 
drafted men. 

Chapter 349 provided for levying a State tax of $200,000 for 
the support of families of volunteers. 

Chapter 354 authorized the Governor to take care of the 
sick and wounded soldiers of Wisconsin, and appropriated 
$10,000 for that purpose. 

Chapters 360, 361 authorized the borrowing of money for 
repelling invasion, suppressing insurrection and defending the 
State in time of war, one for $350,000, and the other for $300,000. 

Chapter 435 amended chapter 117 of this session, being the 
State aid law. 



soldiers' national cemetery. 171 

Chapter 467 prohibited the taking of fees for procuring volun- 
teers extra bounty. 

Chapter 471 defined the residence of certain soldiers from this 
State in the service of the United States, who had received local 
bounties from towns other than their proper place of residence. 

An appropriation was made to aid the Gettysburg National 
Cemetery of $3,523. 

On the 18th of February, Governor Lewis sent into the 
Legislature the following Message and accompanying document: 

State ov Wisconsin, Execotive Depaetment, 1 
Madison, February 18, 18&1. i 

To the Honorable, the Senate and Assembly ; 

I herewith lay before you the report of W. Y. Sellick, in regard to the Soldiers' Na- 
tional Cemetery at Gettysburg, and would recommend the appointment of a committee 
to inquire into the necessity of further legislation upon this subject, on the part of this 
State. I shall be pleased to lay before such committee all information, in my possession, 
bearing upon the subject. 

JAMES T. LEWIS. 

Washington, December 28, 1863. 
His Excellency, Edward Salomon, Govemvr of Wisccm^n, Madison, Wis, : 

Sir:—I have the honor to herewith report to you my action as agent or commissioner 
for the State of Wisconsin, appointed by you to act in conjunction with tlie commission- 
ers of the other States interested in arranging and carrying out a plan for the completion 
of a cenaetery at Gettysburg, Pa., in which the remains of the brave and gallant Union 
soldiers, who fell in the battle of Gettysburg, should be interred. 

Receivingyour letter of August 3d, 1863, directing me to go to Gettysburg and confer 
with Mr. David Wills, agent for the Governor of Pennsylvania, I started for Gettysburg, 
August 9th, for the purpose mainly of looking after a number of Wi.sconsin soldiers 
remaining there, and who were dangerously wounded. Wliile there, I called on Mr. 
Wills, and informed him that I had been requested by the Governor of the State of 
Wiscousin to call and confer with him in relation to the establishing of a "Soldiers' Na- 
tional remetory," at Gettysburg. Mr. Wills informed me that he had received answers 
from nearly all the Governors of the several States who had soldiers killed in the battle 
of Gettysburg, expressing their approval of the proposition to establish a Soldiers' 
Cemetery as aforesaid. In company with Mr. Wills, I visited the proposed site for the 
cemetery, the lot then selected contained about fourteen acres; there was a site near by 
which was far more desirable for the purpose of a cemetery, but at that time Mr. Wills 
had been unaljle to negotiate successfully for it ; he lias since been able to procure it, 
and it is now the site of the "Soldiers' National Cemetery," containing seventeen 
acres, and from which a full view can be had of the whole battle field. Mr. Wills, at the 
time, delivered to me a circular letter whicli he had addressed to the Governors of the 
various States interested, in which was proposed a plan for the establishment of the 
cemetery, and the amount of money to be expended thereon, which letter I forwarded 
to you, enclosed with one from myself, dated August 16, 1863. While at Gettysburg, I 
visited the battle field in company with some of the soldiers of the Second Regiment 
Wisconsin Volunteers, who were in tlie battle, and endeavored to identify some of the 
graves wherein the soldiers belonging to Wisconsin regiments were buried. We were 
enabled to identify graves or trenches, as containing Wisconsin soldiers, but there was 
no sign or mark by which we could learn the names of the inmates. As the most of 
the Wisconsin soldiers were killed in the first day's fight, and our forces falling back 
and leaving the remains of their killed on the field, they fell into the hands of the rebels, 
and were buried without any mark being placed at the head of their graves by which 
they could be identified. 



172 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In the latter part of August, I sent Mr. WiUiam P. Taylor to Gettysburg, with soma 
sanitary stores, and to render assistance to our wounded soldiers who were there. I 
also instructed him to go over the battle field and to mark every grave known or sup- 
posed to contain the remains of a Wisconsin soldier or soldiers, by putting up a board oi 
stave, upon which should be inscribed the name of the soldier, his company and regi- 
ment, when known ; which instructions he carried out, as will be seen by the enclosed 
copy of his report to me, of September 5, 1863, marked " E." 

Enclosed, I forward to you copies of all the correspondence that has taken place 
between myself and others relative to the establishment of the aforesaid cemetery, 
(with the exception of a copy of my letter to you under date of August 16, 1863,) marked 
respectively from "A" to "M;"* also a copy of the "specifications," under which pro- 
posals were received by Mr. David Wills, for the removal of the remains of the Union 
soldiers from the various parts of the battle field, and the depositing of them in the 
cemetery in the lots set apart to the States, to which they respectively belonged, and 
official copies received from the commanders of the Wisconsin regiments engaged in 
the battle of Gettysburg, containing complete lists of names of the soldiers belongin-g to 
their regiments killed in the battle, or who died of their wounds in and about Gettys- 
burg, copies of which were sent by me to Mr. Wills. I also enclose copies of the bills of 
expenses incurred by me to date in attending to this matter. 

In accordance with the invitation in Mr. WiUs' letter of December 3, 1863, requesting 
me to be present at the meeting of the commissioners at Harrisburg, on the 17th of 
December, 1863, to complete a plan of details for the completion of the cemetery, I left 
this place on the evening of the 16th of December for that place. The commissioners 
present at Harrisburg met at three o'clock, P. M., on the 17th of December, at the Jones 
House, and organized by electing Mr. David Wills, of Pennsylvania, chairman, and W. 
Y. Selleck, of Wisconsin, secretary. Enclosed I send you copies of their proceedings as 
part of my report. The photographs of the plan of the cemetery, ordered by the con- 
vention, have not yet been completed ; as soon as they are, I will forward to you one or 
more. 

You will perceive that the amount to be expended is nearly double that stated by Mr. 
WiUs in his circular letter of August last ; the reasons for the increase, or rather the 
items on which the increase is made, are as follows, viz:— 1st, There are seventeen 
acres to be enclosed instead of fourteen as at first proposed. 2d, The sum to be ex- 
pended on the monument, 12.5,000, instead of 110,000, as at first proposed. 3d, That in 
the laying out and ornamenting of the grounds and the finishing and placing of head 
stones to the graves of the soldiers, would, if properly done, be more expensive than at 
first calculated on. 

The sum of $63,500, the amount designated for the completion of the cemetery, is the 
maximum of the amount to be expended. It was thought by the commissioners that 
the amount mentioned would more than cover the expenditures to be made, if judici- 
ously handled. It was deemed best that a liberal amount should be expended in the 
making of the cemetery a " Soldiers' National Cemetery," that the country should be 
justly proud of in all time to come, and meritorious to the noble dead that sleep within 
its precincts. The sum of 163,500, divided among the States having Union soldiers buried 
in the cemetery, according to their population as represented in Congress, will be S420 53 
for each member,' making the share of the State of Wisconsin, in said sum of $63,500 to 
be paid, $2,,523 18. 

His Excellency, A. G. Curtin, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, desires and re- 
quests of the commissioners, that they inform the Governors of their respective States, 
that he would be much obliged to them, if they would send to him the name of the per- 
son they had or would appoint trustee for their respective States, as requested in the 
second clause in the resolution mentioned in the proceedings of the convention, that 
he may present their names in the bill for the incorporation of the board of trustees of 
the " Soldiers' National Cemetery," at Gettysburg, Pa., at the meeting of the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania in the first week of January next. 

The question of allowing individuals or States to erect inonuments in the cemetery 
grounds was left open to be decided by the board of trustees when they shall become 
organized. 



* These accompanying papers are omitted, as being unimportant to the general 
reader. 



soldiers' national cemetery. 173 

Nearly all of the rema'ns of the Union soldiers, killed in the battle of Gcttysbnrg, 
have been removed to the cemetery; all of those killed in the first day's light have been 
removed ; a great many of them were not identified ; such are placed in the lots that 
are marked un/mown ! Quite a number of the soldiers belonging to the " Iron Brigade," 
are buried in those lots. 

Trusting that my action, as the representative of Wisconsin in this matter, will meet 
with your approval, 

I am, sir, very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. Y. SELLECK, Military Agent far Wis. 

At the meeting of the commissioners, spoken of in the report 
of Mr. Selleck, a committee of four was appointed to report a 
plan in reference to the Soldiers' National Cemetery, as follows : 
Colonel John G. Stephenson, of Indiana, Chairman ; Mr. Henry 
Edwards, of Massachussets ; Hon. Levi Scohey, of New Jersey; 
Mr. David Wills, of Pennsylvania. 

On motion of Mr. Alfred Coit, of Connecticut, the convention 
took a recess, to await the action of the committee. 

The convention met again at 5 o'clock, P. M., to hear the re- 
port of the committee. 

The committee made the following report : 

WffEREAS, In accordance with an invitation from David Wills, Esq., agent for his 
Excellency, A. G. Curtin, Governor of Pennsylvania, the Governors of the several 
States appointed commissioners, who met at Harrisburg, December 17, 1863, to represent 
the States in convention, for the purpose of making arrangements for finishing the 
Soldiers' National Cemetery, therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the said commissioners, in convention assembled, that the following be 
submitted to the diflerent States interested in the "Soldiers' National Cemetery," 
through their respective Governors : 

1st, That the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania shall hold the title to the land which 
she has purchased at Gettysburg for the Soldiers' National Cemetery, in trust for States 
having soldiers buried in said cemetery, in perpetuity for the purpose to which it is now 
applied. 

Sd, That the Legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania be requested to 
create a corporation, to be managed by trustees, one to be appointed by each of the 
Governors of the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Veiinont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, West 
Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and of such other 
States as may hereafter desire to be represented in this corporation, which trustees 
shall, at their first meeting, be divided into three classes. The term of ofllce of the first 
class to expire on the first day of January, 186.5. The second class, on the first day of 
January. 1866. The third «lass, on the first day of January, 1867. The vacancies thus oc- 
curring to be filled by the several Governors, and the persons thus appointed to fill such 
vacancies to hold their office for the term of three years. This corporation to have ex- 
clusive control of the Soldiers' National Cemetery. 

3d, The following is the estimated expense of finishing the cemetery : 

Enclosing grounds « 815,000 

Burial expenses and superintending 6,000 

Headstones 10,000 

Laying out grounds and planting trees 5,000 

Lodge 2,500 

Monument 2.5,000 

Total .'. $63,500 



174 MILITARY JIISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Uh, That the several States be asked to appropriate a sum of money, to be determined 
by a division of the estimated expenses according to representation in Congress, to be 
expended in defraying the cost of removing and reinterring the dead, and finishing the 
cemetery, under directions of the cemetery corporation. 

5fh, When the cemetery shall have been finished, the grounds are to be kept in order, 
the house and inclosures in repair, out of a fund created by annual appropriations made 
by the States which may be represented in the cemetery corporation, in proportion to 
their representation in Congress. 

The report was accepted and adopted. 

Letters were received from the following Governors who were 
not represented at the meeting but who approved any reasonable 
action of the convention in reference to the completion of the 
Cemetery at Gettysburg, Pa. Governor Seymour, of New York ; 
Governor Blair, of Michigan; Governor Smith, of Rhode Island; 
Governor Cannon, of Delaware ; Governor Swift, of Minnesota. 

A committee was appointed to procure designs of a monument 
to be erected in the Cemetery. 

The plans and designs for laying out the grounds by William 
Sanders, were adopted. 

These plans Mr. Sanders had furnished gratuitously. Mr. 
Sanders was requested to furnish forty photographs of the plan 
of the Soldiers' National Cemetery for the use of the States 
having soldiers buried therein. 

The commission then adjourned. 

At this meeting Commissioners were present from Maine, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana and Wisconsin. 

The Legislature of our State appropriated the sum of $3,523, 
in aid of the project for the Gettysburg Cemetery. 

It is well to State here that the plans of the Commissioners 
were carried out, the bodies of Wisconsin soldiers were removed 
to the designated plat of the Cemetery and all those whose names 
could be ascertained, were furnished with an appropriate head- 
board, while those that could not be recognized, were placed 
in a part of the plat and marked " Unknown." 

On its completion the Cemetery was appropriately dedicated. 

In June 1863, the War Department authorized the reenlist- 
ment of the men composing the old regiments, where their first 
term of service expired by a certain time. As an inducement to 
this reenlistment, these veterans were to receive thirty days fur- 
lough. On the 23d of December, 1863, three-fourths of the 



NEW REGIMENTS. 175 

Third Reii;iment reenlisted as veterans, under the order above 
specified, and arrived at Madison on the 28th of December, on a 
furlough of thirty days. This was the first veteran regiment that 
received this furlough. 

At the opening of 1864, there were recruiting in the State, the 
Thirty-fifth Regiment of Infantry, Thirteenth Battery Light 
Artillery and Battery D, Heavy Artillery. Five companies for 
the filling of the Sixteenth Regiment to a minimum, were 
also being recruited. 

On the 1st of February, President Lincoln issued a call for 
500,000 volunteers which was to be considered as including the 
300,000 called for on the 17th of October. On the 14th of March 
lie issued another call for an additional 200,000. 

At the beginning of 1864, the system of extra bounties by 
towns, gave great impetus to recruiting for old and new organi- 
zations, so that no draft under the calls of February 1st, and 
March 14th, was necessary, the number of men drawn in the 
draft of i^ovember, 1863, being credited to the several sub-districts 
in the two last calls. 

In February, authority was given by the War Department, to 
organize another Tegiment of infantry to serve for three jears or 
during the war. Recruiting appointments were issued, and the 
regiment was designated as the Thirty-sixth, and was ordered to 
rendezvous at Camp Randall, Madison. Lieutenant Frank A. 
Haskell was appointed Colonel, The prestige of his name, and 
his gallant deeds, as Assistant Adjutant General of Gibbon's 
" Iron Brigade," gave such impetus to the business of recruiting 
that in a short time a full regiment was raised and the organiza- 
tion completed. They left the State on the 10th of May, to 
report at Washington. 

The Thirty-seventh Regiment was authorized to be raised on 
the 7th of March, and the Thirty-eighth Regiment on the 8th. 
Recruiting for the old regiments was very brisk, and the an- 
nouncement was made by the Secretary of War that the quota 
of the State was full under the two last calls. This news was 
received when the Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth regiments 
were lesy than half filled. 

The Thirty-seventh was recruiting under the superintencfence 
of Colonel S. Harriman. Owing to the State quota being filled, 



176 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

recruiting ceased almost entirely. Slow progress being made, the 
War Department ordered six companies, recruited in March, to 
Washington on the 1st of May, under command of Major Ker- 
shaw. Remaining at Washington until the 17th, two companies 
of drafted men who had been assigned to the Thirty-seventh 
joined them. The regiment thus made up of eight companies, 
was sent by boat to White House, Virginia. Acting as guard to 
a wagon train they joined the Ninth Army Corps under General 
Burnside, on the 10th of June. Colonel Harriman was ordered to 
remain and recruit his regiment, whioh was finally accomplished, 
and the Colonel took his position in the field. 

The Thirty-eighth labored under the same difiiculties. Four 
companies had been recruited by the last of March, before the 
State quota was known to be filled, under the superintendence 
of Colonel BintliflT. The prospect of filling up to a minimum 
regiment being dull, the War Department ordered forward the 
four companies, and they left Camp Randall on the 3d of May, 
under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Pier. Company E 
was sent forward in July, and on the 22d of September the 
remaining companies left Camp Randall, to join the balance of 
the regiment in the trenches before Petersburg. 

We have elsewhere stated that Government had authorized the 
reenlistment of men whose first term of service had not expired 
in the old regiments, constituting thereby a veteran organization. 
In order to claim the title of " Veteran Regiment," it was neces- 
sary that three-fourths of the regiment should reenlist. That 
number failing to reenlist, the non-veterans on the expiration of 
their regular term of service were to be sent home and mustered 
out, the remainder were attached to other organizations to serve 
out their new term of enlistment. Where the requisite number 
reenlisted to constitute a " Veteran Regiment," they were 
awarded a furlough of thirty days, whenever the exigency of the 
service would permit their absence from the army in the field. 
All the organizations of 1861, admitted of reenlistments. We 
annex a list of regiments with number of reenlistments, copied 
from the Adjutant General's report of 1864. ^ 

Infantry— First 15; Second 78; Third 237; Fifth 204; Sixth 237; Seventh 218; Eighth 301; 
Ninth 219; Tenth 13; Eleventh 363; Twelfth 519; Thirteenth 391; Fourteenth 272; 
Fifteenth 7 ; Sixteenth 242 ; Seventeenth 287 ; Eighteenth 178 ; Nineteenth 270. 

Oavaljy— First 61; Second 385; Third 357; Fouith260; Milwaukee Cavalry 9. 



REGIMENTS MUSTERED OUT. 177 

LtgM Artillery— Batteries— First 34; Second 48; Third 33; Fourth 43; Fifth 79; Sixth 
84; Seventh 92; Eighth G6; Ninth 78; Tenth 11; Eleventh 39; T^vell■th 31 ; First Heavj' 
Artillery Company A, 29. 

Berdan's Sharpsliooters, Company G, 9. 

The total number of re-enlistments was 5822, 

Of these the following constituted veteran organizations — Third, 
Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth Infantry; Fourth Cavalry; Seventh Light Artillery. 

Diying the year 1864, besides the one hundred day troops, the 
term of three years' service of the non-veterans expired, in the 
following organizations, to-wit : The first twelve regiments of 
infantry. First and Fourth Regiments and one company of cav- 
alry, one company (G) of sharpshooters, the first ten batteries of 
light artillery, and Battery A of heavy artillery. 

These regiments and companies having completed their origi- 
nal term of service, their history as such is also complete; the 
remaining portions of these regiments being thereafter known as 
veteran organizations. 

The reenlisted veterans and recruits of the First Regiment 
were assigned to the Twenty-first Infantry. Those of the Second 
Regiment were assigned to the Sixth Infantry. Those of the 
Tenth to the Twenty-first Infantry. Veterans in Company G, 
Sharpshooters, were assigned to Company D, First Regiment 
United States Sharpshooters. 

The Fifth Infantry and First Cavalry were reorganized. 

The Second Regiment was mustered out of service June 11th, 
1864. The First on the 13th of October. The Tenth, about the 
last of October. Company G, Berdan's Sharpshooters, on the 
22d of September. 

On the 8th of April, a telegram was received from Major Gen- 
eral W. T. Sherman, notifying the Governor that the War De- 
partment had given him control over the veteran regiments of 
"Wisconsin on furlough, and desired notice to be given that all 
our veteran regiments should report forthwith, on the expiration 
of their furloughs, and proceed to join their brigades. Those 
belonging to the armies of the Ohio and Cumberland to go to 
Nashville. Those of the army of the Tennessee to Cairo, where 
they would receive further orders. Not a day was to be lost, and 
no excuse would be received, and regimental commanders would 
be held to a strict account for absence a single day. 
12 



178 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the 21st day of April, a proposition was made to the Presi- 
dent by the Executives of the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa, and Wisconsin, tendering for extra service 85,000 troops 
for the term of one hundred days. The term of service to com- 
mence from the date of muster into the United States service. 
The organizations were to be governed by the regulations of the 
War Department, and were to be raised in twenty days from 
date of notice of acceptance. The troops were to be clothed, 
armed, equipped, subsisted, transported, and paid as other United 
States intantry volunteers, and to serve in fortifications, or 
wherever their services may be required within or without their 
respective States. No bounty was to be paid nor the service 
charged or credited on any draft. In case of being drafted the 
person should be entitled to credit for the service rendered. 

The proposition was accepted by the President, and Governor 
Lewis proceeded at once to issue orders to carry out the arrange- 
ment. Recruiting appointments were sent out. The limited 
time allowed compelled the consolidation of companies and 
squads, and two regiments and one battalion were organized. 
These regiments were numbered Thirty-ninth, under Colonel 
Buttrick; Fortieth, under Colonel Ray, and Forty-first, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Goodwin, and they left the State on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of June, for Memphis, Tennessee. 

On the 18th day of July, President Lincoln called for 500,000 
volunteers for one, two, or three years service. The quota of the 
State was given as 19,032, This number was to be raised by 
voluntary enlistments in any of the old regiments or batteries. 
If the quota was not filled by voluntary enlistments, a draft was 
ordered to take place on the 5th day of September. The quota 
designated, was deemed very excessive in view of the fact that 
the State had but just filled its quota under the call for 700,000. 
An investigation was made by Adjutant General Gaylord, and it 
became apparent that the quota under this call had been based 
on an erroneous enrolment, or rather that the enrolment lists 
had not been corrected, and the names of men alread}^ furnished 
had not been stricken off. Attention thus called to the matter, 
resulted in finding also, that the names of aliens and persons 
physically disabled, and who had been exempted, were still 
retained on these lists. Consequently the lists as reported showed 



CORRECTION OF CREDITS. 179 

a larger number thuu were actually subject to militaiy duty in 
the State. These lists, thus incorrect and unjust, were returned 
to the Provost Marshal General at Washington, as the number 
of persons subject to military duty, and were made the basis of 
the quota which had been assigned as due from the State under 
the call of July 18th, 1864. 

Adjutant General Gaylord was authorized to proceed to Wasli- 
ington and adjust this and other matters which required correc- 
tion. On presenting the subject in a proper light the department 
conceded the injustice inflicted, and Provost Marshal General 
Fry, sent the following order to Assistant Provost Marshal General 
Lovell, under date of August 23d, 1864 : 

Proceed at once thoroughly to correct the enrolment, striking off all men actually in 
the service, at the present time, all who have been drafted and paid commutation or 
furnished substitutes, all aliens, non-residents, men wlio are over age and those who 
are permanently disabled. Report the total number of the revision tlius made before 
the 1st of September, 1864, to this ofQce. The quota of Wisconsin will be reduced accord- 
ingly. Give your entire attention to this work and give publicity to these instructions. 
Acknowledge receipt by mail. 

General Gaylord urged the necessity of a longer time to accom- 
plish the work of correcting the lists, but was unable to secure a 
modification of the order. By this means he succeeded in hav- 
ing the quota reduced to 15,341 — being 3,691 less than the quota 
first required. 

In the investigation of this matter. General Gaylord discovered 
an omission on the part of the War Department, in giving the 
State proper credit on the preceding calls, ascertaining that the 
excess of 4,352, which was found due the State in the settlement 
with the War Department on the 12tli of October, 1863, had not 
been credited to the State on the books of the Provost Marshal 
General. Under the arrangement of October 12th, 1863, this 
credit was apportioned to the several Congressional districts, 
according to the excess raised and due to each. Under the mod- 
ification of the law by act of Congress of 1864, the draft of 1863, 
and the call for volunteers of October 17th, 1863, were merged 
in the call of February 1st, for 500,000 men, and the credits by 
volunteering since October 17th, 1863, and by draft of jSTovember 
1863, were to be brought forward and credited to the sub-districts 
under the call of February 1st. On examination of the table of 
credits prepared by the War Department, and forwarded to the 



180 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

office of tlie Assistant Provost Marshal General of this State, it 
was found that this excess of credit due to Congressional districts 
in 1863, had been omitted. 

On proper showing to the department, General Gaylord 
obtained a correction of the omission and the Congressional dis- 
tricts were credited with the 4,352, in the following proportion : 
First district 270 ; Second district 1,256 ; Third district 987 ; 
Fourth district none, there being a deficiency in the district, 
Fifth district 493 ; Sixth district 1346— total 4,352. In addition 
to this, 216 were allowed to be credited to the several sub-districts 
found to be entitled. 

The quota of the State under the calls of February 1st, and 
March 14th, being declared full by the Secretary of War in June, 
the correction of this credit reduced the number to be raised 
under the call of July 18th, to less than 11,000. 

On the 30th of July, Governor Lewis having been authorized 
by the War Department to raise new regiments, ordered the 
formation of the Forty-second. Recruits for this regiment were 
authorized to enlist for one, two, or three years, and were entitled 
to the bounties offered by the United States, of one, two, orthret 
hundred dollars, according to their enlistment of one, two, oi 
three years, and those having families dependent, would be 
entitled to receive the benefit of the " extra pay " of five dollars 
per month from the State. 

The Forty-second Regiment organized under the superintend- 
ence of Colonel Ezra T. Sprague, as Colonel. It was ordered to 
rendezvous at Camp Randall, Madison, where it completed its 
organization, and left the State on the 22d of September, for 
Cairo, Illinois. 

The regiments organized in the State after the 18th of July, 
were composed mostly of one years men, those enlisted previously 
were three years men. 

The Fiftli Regiment having failed to organize as a veteran 
regiment, all but three companies returned home and were 
mustered out. On the 8th of August, Governor Lewis having 
authority from the War De]3artment, recommissioned Colonel 
Allen and ordered the reorganization of the Fifth. Accord- 
ingly seven companies were recruited, and left Camp Randall 



DRAFT OF 1864. 181 

on the 2d of October, to join the three companies of veterans 
who had remained in the fiekL 

The Forty-third Reg-iment was authorized to be raised on tiie 
10th of August, and Colonel Amasa Cobb was appointed Colo- 
neb The companies composing it were ordered to report at 
Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, where they completed their 
organization and left the State on the 10th of October, for 
Tennessee. 

On the 14th of September, the Governor received special 
authority from the War Department to organize eight compa- 
nies to complete the First Regiment of Heavy Artillery, ]le- 
cruiting commissions were issued, and in a short period the 
companies were filled, and were all en route for the field before 
the 12th of JSTovember. 

The Forty-fourth Regiment was authorized to be raised on 
the 14th of September, and Captain George G. Symes was 
appointed Colonel. The Forty-fifth Regiment was authorized 
September 17th, and Henry F. Belitz was appointed Colonel. 
The companies composing these regiments were ordered to ren- 
dezvous at Camp Randall, where they were mustered by com- 
panies. It being found impossible to organize full regiments 
without delay, and there being an urgent necessity for men in 
the field, these two regiments left the State in companies for 
Tennessee. 

The quota of the State not being filled by volunteering, a draft 
took place on the 19th of September, which resulted as follows : 
total number subject to draft 94,068, number drafted, 17,534, 
mustered in, 2,494, substitutes after draft, 945, discharged after 
draft, 6,724, failed to report, 7,367, paid commutation, 4, amount 
of commutation, $1,200. 

Subsequent to this draft the Government ordered a revision 
and further correction of the enrolment lists, and in the month 
of November, Governor Lewis issued a j)roclamation calling the 
attention of the people to the necessity of affording all possible 
aid in having this correction made, in order that the quota of 
the State in the next call might be made in proportion to the 
number of persons in the State liable to military duty. The 
town authorities were requested to cooperate in assisting the 
enrolling officers. 



182 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

President Lincoln on the 19tli of December, made another call 
for 300,000 men for one, two, or three years. His reason for so 
doing was, that by the action of Congress, the credits authorized 
to be made on the call for 500,000 men in July, had reduced 
that call to about 280,000 men ; that from the position of affairs 
in some of the border States, their quota could not be filled, and 
that only 250,000 men had been raised under the call of July 
18th, for the army, navy, and marine corps. In order therefore 
to supply this deficiency he had made the additional call for 
300,000 men, which if not furnished by volunteering, would be 
drafted for on the 15th of February, 1865. 

The Governor receiving many requests for the organization of 
another regiment of Cavalry, asked authority for so doing from 
the War Department. The Secretary of War declined granting 
authority for cavalry or artillery, but authorized Governor Lewis 
to raise two additional regiments of infantry provided they could 
be mustered in by the 15th of February. K not full, at that time, 
incomplete regiments and companies were to be consolidated 
and mustered in with complete regimental organization. 



OHAPTEE YI. 



ACTION OF THE STATE AUTHORITIES IN 1865. 

Military Officers of the State — Resignation of Quartermaster 
General Lund — Legislature Meets — Extracts from Gover- 
nor's Message — Laws Passed — Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh 
Regiments — Change in Manner of Recruiting — Recruiting 
Agents Authorized — Quota under Call of 19th December — 
Reduced — Apfortioned to Congressional Districts — Forty- 
eighth, Forty-ninth, and Fiftieth Regiments — Draft Ordered 
— Fifty-first, Fifty-second, and Fifty-third Regiments — Last 
Regiments Raised in the State — Correspondence between 
Grant and Lee — Surrender of the Rebel Army — Final Over- 
throw of the Rebellion — Recruiting Discontinued — Orders 
FOR Mustering Out of Regiments — Biography of Governor 
Lewis — Adjutant General Gaylord — Quartermaster General 
Lynch. 

NO change was made in the military otfices of the State in 
1865, except that Brigadier General Lund resigned his posi- 
tion as Quartermaster General, and James M. Lynch, Esq., Chief 
Clerk in the office of the Adjutant General, was appointed to the 
place. 

The long and faithful public service of General Lund, entitles 
him to more than a mere notice of his retirement. Soon after 
the organization of the Quartermaster's Department by Governor 
Eandall in 1861, Mr, Lund was called to occupy the position of 
Chief Clerk in that Department. His recommendations for 
ability and talent as a book-keeper and thorough accountant, and 
the reputation he enjoyed as an honest, industrious, reliable man, 
were of the highest character, and the manner in "wdiich he con- 
ducted the business entrusted to his care while in a, subordinate 
position, as well as in the administration of his more responsible 



184 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN'. 

duties as tlie liead of tlie department to wliicli lie was promoted, 
eminently justified tlie action of Governor Salomon, in appoint- 
ing him to the position so held by him. No oflicer of the State 
discharged his duties with more faithfulness and ability than 
General Lund. Under his supervision the accounts of the Quar- 
termaster and Commissary Departments, remaining unsettled on 
the retirement of his predecessor. General Tredway, were pro- 
perly arranged, adjusted, and finally settled. By the laws of 
1864, the duties of Commissary General and Chief of Ordnance 
were added to his duties, placing him in charge of all the military 
property of the State, including the several battle-flags of our 
regiments, and such trophies as were received by the State 
authorities. In his report of October 1st, 1864, he says : 

The few claims against the State conti'acted under the laws of 1861-62, authorizing the 
raising and fitting out of volunteers for tlie service of the United States remaining 
unsettled at the date of my last annual report have been presented and adjusted. And 
I have no knowledge of the existence of any valid claim against the State contracted for 
the volunteer service which now remains unsettled. Should such claims exist, they can 
only be allowed under future legislation, as the law limiting to two years the time for 
presenting such claims would bar all further action by this department in relation to 
them. The books connected with this service have therefore been balanced and closed. 

Describing the " shot-torn, powder-stained," battle-flags whicli 
our soldiers bore so bravely and so well upon the bloody field of 
strife and carnage, he says : 

■ The Old Flags of our regiments, whenever received, have been found torn and shat- 
tered by shot and shell — often, all that remained of them being a few " honorable rags." 
They have been put in the best possible condition that could be devised for their 
preservation. 

These trophies, with those captured from the hands of rebels, attest the daring and 
courage of Wisconsin soldiers. Each has its histoi'y, of the patriotic devotion and self- 
sacrifice of those who fought and died defending or capturing it, and in returning them 
to their State, the heroes of Wisconsin have placed in her keeping, the noblest record 
that can exist, of the bravery of her sons. Thousands have visited them during the past 
season. This fact alone exhibits the interest attached to them by the people ; and I 
txnst a fitting place will soon be provided, where they can be properly preserved. 

Speaking of the return of our "Wisconsin regiments on farlough 
or for muster out of service, he says : 

upon the return to the State of regiments, companies and batteries of Wisconsin 
volunteers on veteran furlough, or oil the expiration of their term of service, receptions 
and entertainments have been provided for them by this department, (whenever notice 
of their coming has been received,) on the order of your Excellency, as authorized under 
the provisions of chapter 143, of the laws of 1861. All accounts of expenditures for this 
purpose have been certified to the Secretary of State for audit; and in no instance has 
that expenditure exceeded the sum authorized under the act. Much credit is due to the 
several proprietors of the Railroad Hotel in this city, for the promptness with which 
they have at all times furnished ample '?ntertainnients of excellent quality for our • 



GOVERNOK lewis' MESSAGE — EXTRACTS. 185 

returning troops. It has frequently occurred that commands have arrived during the 
Dight ; liaving passed days witliout otlier food lliaii tlie sliglit ration from tlie liavorsaclc, 
and tliat supply often exhausted, — when, but for the provision made Vjy tlie 8tate, no 
food could have been procured for hours. Under such circumstances, the hot coffee and 
bountiful supply of warm meats and vegetables provided, have been most timely. and 
acceptable, and the thanks of officers and men have been freely given to the State, for 
thus caring for them. I trust this wise provision of the Legislature may be continued 
until Wisconsin' s last volunteer shall have returned to his home. Should anything 
farther be required, let the appropriation be increased, and the care and honor to be 
shown our soldiers correspondingly increased. The debt due for their sacrifices may be 
acknowledged,— to discharge it is impossible. 

The Legislature of 1865, met at Madison on the 11th of Jan- 
uary. Governor Lewis, in his annual Message, speaks of the 
military matters of the State, as follows : 

To the calls of the Government for troops, no State has responded with greater alacrity 
than has Wisconsin. She has sent to the flekl since the commencement of the war, 
forty-four regiments of infanti'y, four regiments and one company of cavalry, one regi- 
ment of heavy artillery, thirteen batteries of light artillery, and one company of sharp- 
shooters, making an aggregate (exclusive of hundred day men,) of seventy-five thousand 
one hundred and thirty-three men. To this large number furnished by our young State 
should be added the three regiments of one hundred day men, who so nobly responded 
to the call at a critical moment, when their services were so much needed, and whose 
services were of so much importance to the Government, as to call forth from the 
Commander-in-Chief the highest special commendation. 

Furtlier provision should be made for keeping and preserving records of the names, 
and deeds of valor, of all Wisconsin's sons who have taken i)art in the great national 
struggle in which we are now engaged. It is due to them, and to posterity, that such 
records should be handed down to future time, and spread before the rising generation 
for their emulation. 

The debt of gratitude we owe to our soldiers and sailors for their great achievements, 
we can never fully repay. To their exertions, under the guidance of an All-wise Provi- 
dence, is due the salvation of our country, and to no equal number is greater credit due, 
than to the soldiers and sailors of our own State. They have fought in nearly every 
action on land and sea, and none have fought better, none have made the last greaf 
sacrifice, the sacrifice of life itself, more willingly at their country's call than they. But the 
soldiers and sailors of Wisconsin need no eulogy from me ; with their own right arms they 
have written their own proud history. Their patriotism, valor, courage and endurance 
have never been excelled. Their praises are upon every tongue. As a State, we should 
al.so pay sonae further tribute of respect to, and adopt some further measures to perpet- 
uate the meniory and example of, the noble heroes from Wisconsin who have fallen in 
defense of the liberties of the Nation. A suitable monument should be erected at the 
Capital of the State, on which should be inscribed tlieir names. I doubt not their names 
are registered in Heaven — let them also be registered on earth. They should ever be 
borne in remembrance by those for whom Ihey fought and died. Their families should 
also receive our attention. The heroic dead are gone — their orphan children are still 
with us. Let us seek them out and cherish them as the children of that State and 
country for whose benefit their natural protector offered up his life. 

Every effort ha.s been made for the relief of the sick and wounded soldiers, of which 
the nature of the case, and the means at my disposal would admit. But so extended has 
been the field of military operations, and so numerous and scattered the cases, tluit I 
have found it impossible to meet the wants of all as fully as I would wish to have done. 
Much has been done by correspondence, in obtaining furloughs, transfers, discharges, 
descriptive rolls, and otherwise assisting them. I have personally visited them in Hos- 
pitals, so far as time and attention to other duties of my office would permit. I have 
also sent agents to them, and through these means many who were lingering in Hos- 
pitals, and who could be of no further use to the Government, have been discliarged 
and returned to their families. Many others have been provided with comforts, which 



186 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

have tended to soften their afflictions and materially aid in their speedy recovery and 
return to duty. Great credit is due our citizens generally for their eflforts in behalf of 
our sick and wounded soldiers. From nearly every hamlet and village all over the 
State, have gone forth comforts for them. To the Ladies' Aid Societies especially is 
great credit due for the assistance they have rendered in caring for them and their 
families. They have with timely aid alleviated much suffering, and have doubtless 
been the means of saving many valuable lives. The thanks of a grateful people, the 
gratitude of the brave soldier, the destitute orphan, wife and mother, are their rewards. 

Hospitals have been established at Madison, Prairie du Chien and Milwaukee, and 
Wisconsin soldiers are enjoying their benefits, so far as I have been able to get them 
transferred or ordered to report to these Hospitals. I have urged upon the War Depart- 
ment the importance of providing Hospital accommodations, and sending all our sick 
and wounded soldiers into our own State, where they might receive the benefits of our 
bracing and invigorating atmosphere, and be accessible to their relatives and friends, 
whose kind care and attention would aid much in restoring them to health and useful- 
ness. The claims of the sick and wounded soldiers should receive careful consideration 
at your hands. Ample provisions should be made for their wants, and for the wants of 
the families of all Wisconsin soldiers now engaged in this great struggle. 

The amount of State indebtedness is two millions and five thousand dollars. With 
the exception of one hundred thousand dollars borrowed, and used for the purpose of 
erecting the State Capitol, this debt was created for war purposes, and is a legitimate 
charge against the General Government. Large amounts advanced by the State for the 
purposes above named, have already been repaid. Vouchers for a considerable furthei 
amount, are now in the hands of the proper United States auditing officers. Others will 
soon be presented, and we confidently hope and expect that the day is not far distant, 
when all the money advanced by the State, for war purposes, will be refunded by the 
General Government, and the whole debt of the State, except the hundred thousand 
dollars used in erecting the State Capitol, liquidated thereby. Authority should bo 
given to the State Treasurer to pay off any bonds outstanding against the State, before 
maturing, whenever they are presented, and the surplus in the State Treasury will 
warrant him in so doing. 

We give a summary of tlie laws passed, of a military character. 

Chapter 14 authorizing cities, towus, and villages to pay 
bounties to volunteers. 

Chapter 16 incorporated the Wisconsin Soldiers' Home. 

Chapter 28 and 362 amended the act relative " to the com- 
mencement and prosecution of civil actions against persons in the 
military service of the country." 

Chapter 30, authorized the payment of salaries, clerk hire and 
expenses of the offices of the Adjutant General and Quartermaster 
General from the war fund. 

Chapter 74 amended the act authorizing commissioned officers 
to take acknowledgment of deeds, affidavits, and depositions. 

Chapter 88 amended the act extending the right of suffrage 
to soldiers in the field. 

Chapter 179 provides for correcting and completing the records 
of the Adjutant General's office, relative to the military history 
of the individual members of the several military organizations 
of this State. 



MILITARY LAWS OF 1865. 187 

Chapter 266, fixing the salary of the Adjutant General and 
Quartermaster General, and their clerks and assistants. 

Chapter 301 prohibits volunteer or substitute brokerage. 

Chapter 403, supplementary and explanatory of chapter 14, of 
this Session, authorizing towns, cities or villages to raise money 
to pay bounties to volunteers. 

Chapter 416 amended chapter 117, laws of 1864, relating to 
the relief of soldiers' families. 

Chapter 465 to provide for the establishment of State agencies 
for the relief and care of sick, wounded and disabled Wisconsin 
soldiers. 

Chapter 478 authorized the borrowing of money for a period 
not exceeding seven months, to repel invasion, suppress insur- 
rection and defend the State in time of war, not exceeding 
$850,000. 

Joint resolution, No. 2, relative to raising a veteran regiment 
for General Hancock's corps. 

Joint resolution, No. 3, requesting the Governor to apply to 
the President to have the draft postponed until April 1, 1865. 

Joint resolution, No. 4, recommending disabled soldiers for 
postmasters and other offices. 

The committee on State affairs reported a bill appropriating 
$2,623 towards completing the "Soldiers' National Cemetery," at 
Gettysburg, Pa. This bill was referred to the committee on 
claims, but by some inadvertence, it was not reported back for 
action in the Assembly. 

The Governor, by special order, was authorized to raise two 
new regiments. On the 3d and 5th of January, he directed the 
immediate organization of the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh 
regiments. Lieutenant Colonel F. S. Lovell, of the Thirty- 
third, was appointed Colonel of the Forty-sixth, and Major Geo. 
C. Ginty, Colonel of the Forty-seventh Regiment. Both regi- 
ments were ordered to Camp Randall. For some reason, the 
War Department changed its plan for recruiting these regiments, 
and authorized a Second Lieutenant to be mustered, whose duty 
it was to recruit the company. It was found to work badly, as it 
retarded the organization of tlie company, and almost checked 
recruiting. The Legislature and the Governor protested against 
this innovation on former usages, and the Governor, on the 9th 



188 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of February, received authority to appoint three recruiting 
agents for each company. 

The quota under the call for 300,000, on the 19th of Decern- 
ber, was put at 17,800. This being considered excessive by the 
Governor, correspondence ensued between the State and Provost 
Marshal General. An examination was made, and the enrolment 
lists, which had been in process of correction in ISTovember and 
December, were examined, and the reported credits, up to De- 
cember 31, were deducted. The result was sent to the Governor 
by the hands of Assistant Provost Marshal General Lovell, on 
the 23d of January, as follows : — " The revised quota of the State 
of "Wisconsin, under call of December 19th, is 12,356." 

This quota was apportioned to the several Congressional Dis- 
tricts, as follows :— First, 1,740 ; S&cond, 2,291 ; Third, 2,105 ; 
Fourth, 1,632; Fifth, 2,127; Sixth, 2,461. 

The members of the Legislature, composing the delegation 
from the Sixth District, protested against the quota assigned to 
their district as being excessive, and that it was occasioned by 
the failure to correct the enrolment lists, the district being of that 
extent that it was impossible to ascertain the changes necessary 
to make such correction. Provost Marshal General Fry declined 
to make any change or give any further time for correction, and 
the district was thus compelled to submit to the injustice. 'No 
district in the State has sent more men to the held, in proportion 
to population, than the Sixth, and it was evidently entitled to 
have large numbers of names stricken from their enrolment lists, 
by reason of many being already in service. 

On the 26th and 27th of Januarj^, Governor Lewis ordered 
the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Regiments to be organized, the 
first to rendezvous at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, and the other 
at Camp Randall. 

On the 17th of February, recruiting being very brisk. Assist- 
ant Provost Marshal General Lovell reported to Provost Marshal 
General Fry that two or three more regiments might be fur- 
nished from Wisconsin, if called for. Accordingly, General Fry 
authorized Governor Lewis to organize four more regiments 
of infantry, whereupon Llis Excellency immediately directed the 
organization of the Fiftieth Regiment, to rendezvous at Camp 
Randall. 




^^'•■^^v.Sro^.^^ Co.CSICJ^'"'- 



^-^ 



LIEUT. GEN. U- S. G-RANT_ 



■NGRiSAfED EXPRESSLY FOR CLARKE &. CO. PUBLISHERS. 



LAST REGIMENTS ORGANIZED. 189 

Salutes were fired at all the camps in the State, by order of 
Secretary of "War, on the 22d of rebruary, in honor of the 
restoration of the flag on Fort Sumter. 

The draft was ordered to take place on the 27tli of March in 
all sub-districts as were not making an eflbrt to fill their quota. 
A new impetus was thereby given to recruiting, and Governor 
Lewis gave directions for the organization of several new regi- 
ments. The Fifty-first, Colonel Martin, to rendezvous at Camp 
Washburn, the Fifty-second, Colonel "Webb, and the Fifty-third, 
Colonel Johnson, both to rendezvous at Camp Randall. 

The Forty-sixth, Colonel Lovell, the Forty-seventh, Colonel 
Ginty, the Forty-eighth, Colonel Pearsall, the Forty-ninth, Colo- 
nel Fallows, and Fiftieth, Colonel Clark, were all filled to the 
minimum, and left the State in March. 

Before these regiments were full, Congress passed an amend- 
ment to the Enrolment Act, which compelled the recruit to be 
credited to the place where he was enrolled, thus interfering ma 
terially with the filling of quotas of towns. As a consequence, 
recruiting fell off, and the organization of the Fifty-first, Fifty- 
second and Fifty-third was delayed until indications of the rapid 
collapse of the rebellion was manifested by the evacuation of 
Petersburg and Richmond. The Fifty-first was filled up by a 
company or two of drafted men, and the regiment left the State. 
The Fifty-second and Fifty-third were unable to complete their 
regimental organizations. Five companies of the Fifty-second 
were sent forward to St. Louis, and organized as a battalion, 
under Lieutenant Colonel Lewis. Four companies were organ- 
ized for the Fifty-third, and mustered in as a battalion, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Pugh, and were sent to St. Louis. 

These were the last regiments organized in the State. 

We cannot close tbe narrative of the action of the State au- 
thorities of Wisconsin, in their efforts to aid in the suppression 
of the " Great Rebellion," in a more fitting manner, than by 
inserting here the special message of Governor Lewis to the 
Legislature, with accompanying documents : 

Executive Department, Madison, Wis., April 10, 186.5. 
To THE Honorable the LEOisiiATtiRE : 

Four years ago on the day fixed for adjournment, the .sad news of the fall of Fort Sum- 
ter was transmitted to the Legislature. To-day, thank God, and next to Him tlie brave 
officers and soldiers of our ai'my and na\Ti I am permitted to transmit to you the official 



190 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Intelligence, just received, of the surrender of General Lee and his army — the last prop 
of the rebellion. Let us rejoice and thank the Ruler of the Universe for victory, and 
" the prospect of an honorable peace. 

JAMES T. LEWIS. 

The intelligence mentioned in the message was the following 
dispatch from Secretary Stanton, dated "Washington, April 9th, 
8 o'clock, P. M. : 

To Oovernor Lewis : 

This Department has just received official report of the surrender, this day, of General 
Lee and his army to Lieutenant General Grant on the terms proposed b5' the Lieutenant 
General Grant. Details will be given speedily as possible. 

(Signed) EDWIN M. STANTON, Seo-etary of War. 

The information of the surrender was received from General 
Grant, by Secretary Stanton, on the same day, at 4.30 P. M., as 
follows : 

General Lee surrendered the army of Northern Virginia this afternoon, upon the 
terms proposed by myself. The accompanying additional correspondence will sliow the 
conditions fully. 

U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant General. 

The following is the additional correspondence between Lieuten- 
ant General Grant and General Lee, referred to in the preceding 
dispatch to the Secretary of War. In sending the dispatch, 
General Grant states that there had been no relaxation of the 
pursuit during the negotiation. The first note to General Lee is 
dated on the 7th of April : 

General R. E. Lee, Commanding C. S. A. : 

General: — The result of last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further 
resistance on the part of the army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it 
is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further 
effusion of blood, by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the C. S. A. known 
as army of Northern Virginia. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant General. 

Lieutenant General U. S. Grant : April 7, 1865. 

General: — ! have received your note of this date, though not entirely of tlie opinion 
you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the army of Northern 
Virginia. I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and, therefore, 
before considering your proposition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its 
surrender. 

(Signed) R. E. LEE, General. 

General R. E. Lee, Commandinff C. 8. A. : April 8, 1865. 

General : — Your note of last evening, in reply to mine of same date, asking conditions 
of which I will accept the surrender of the army of Northern Vii-ginia, is just received. 
In reply, I would say, that peace being my first desire, there is but one condition I insist 
upon, viz. : That the men surrendered shall be disqualified from taking up arms against 
the Government of the United States, until properly exchanged. I will meet you, or 



GENERAL LEE'S SURRENDER. 191' 

designate officers to meet any officers you may name for the same purpose, at any point 
agreeable to you, for the purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon which surrender 
of the army of Northern Virginia will be received. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant OcneruL 

lAeutencht General U. S. Grant : April 8, 1865. 

General : — I received, at a late hour, your note of to-day, in answer to mine of yester- 
day. I did not intend to propose the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia, but to 
ask the terms of your proposition ; to be frank M'ith you, I do not think the emergency 
has arisen to call for the surrender of this army ; but as the restoration of peace should 
be the sole object of all, I desire to know whether j'our proposals would tend to that end. 
I cannot, therefore, meet you with a view to surrender the arnij- of Nortliern Virginia, 
but as far as your proposition may afl'ect the C. S. A. forces, under my command, and 
tend to the restoration of peace, I should be glad to meet you at 10, A. M., to-morrow, on 
tlie old stage road to Richmond, between the picket lines of the two armies. 

Very respectfully, &c., 
(Signed) R. E. LEE, General. 

General R. E. Lee, Commanding C S. A. : April 9, 186.5. 

Your note of yesterday is received. As Ihave no authority to treat on the subject of peace, 
the meeting proposed for 10, A. M., to-day, could lead to no good. I ■will state, however, 
General, that I am equally anxious for peace with yourself, and the whole North enter- 
tain the sanie feelings. The terms upon which peace can be had are well understood by 
the South. Laying down their arms, they will hasten that most desirable event, save 
thousands of human lives and hundreds of millions of property not yet destroyed. 
Sincerely hoping that all our difficulties may be settled without the loss of another life; 
I subscribe myself, 

Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant General. 

Lieutenant General U. S. Grant, Commanding U. S. Armies : April 9, lS6o. 

General :— I received your note this morning on picket line, whither I had come to 
meet you and ascertain definitely what terms were embraced in your proposition of 
yesterday, with reference to the sun-ender of this army. I now request an interview in 
accordance with the offer contained in your letter of yesterday for that purjiose. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) , R. E. LEE, General. 

General R. E. Lee, Commanding C. S. A. : April 9, 1S65. 

Your note of this day is but this moment (11.50) received, in consequence of my having 
passed from the Richmond and Lynchburg to the Farmville and Lynchburg road. I am 
at this writing about four miles west of Walters Church, and will push forward to the 
front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me on this road, where you wish 
the interview to take place, will meet me. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant General. 

Appomatox CmjRCH, April 9, 1865. 
General R. E. Lee, Commanding C. tS. A.: 

In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th instant, I propose to 
receive the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit : 

Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an 
officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may 
designate, the officers to give their individual parole, not to take up arms against the 
Government of the United States, until properly exchanged, and each company or 
regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, 
artillery and public property to be parked and stacked and turned over to officers ap- 
pointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side arms of the officers, nor 



192 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to 
return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority, so long as they 
observe their parole and the laws in force where they may reside. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) U. S. GRANT, LieiUenant General. 

Headqxjaeteks Army of Northern Virginia, April 9, 1865. 
To General U. S. Grant, Commanding U. 8. A. : 

General: — ! have received your letter of this date, containing the terms of surrender 
of the army of Northern Virginia, as proposed by you. As they are substantially the 
same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th instant, they are accepted. 
I will proceed to designate the proper officer to carry the stipulations into effect. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) R. E. LEE, General. 

War Department, Washington, 9.30, P. M. 
To Lieutenant General Grant : 

Thanks to Almighty God for the great victory with which He has this day crowned 
you and the gallant army under your command. The thanks of this Department and 
of the Government and of the people of the United States, their reverence and honor, 
have been deserved and will be rendered to you and the brave and gallant officers and 
soldiers of your command for all time. 

(Signed) E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War. 

War Department, Washington, April 9, 10, P. M. 
Ordered, That a salute of 200 guns be fired at the head quarters of every army depart- 
ment, and at every post and arsenal in the United States, and at the military academy 
at West Point, on the day of the receipt of the order, in commemoration of surrender of 
General R. E. Lee and the army of Northern Virginia, to Lieutenant General Grant and 
the army under his command. Report of the receipt and execution of this order to be 
made to the Adjutant General, Washington. 

(Signed) EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War, ■ 

The surrender of General Lee and liis army was virtually the 
close of the war. The surrender of General Johnston and his 
army, to General Sherman, followed, as a natural consequence. 
Thereafter, the rebel army lost its identity, and such fragmentary 
portions of it as were scattered throughout the Southern States, 
entered into negotiations with the United States authorities, sur- 
rendered and disbanded. The last to do so being the army of 
Kirby Smith, in Texas. 

On the 13th of April, orders were received by Assistant Pro- 
vost Marshal General Lovell to discontinue recruiting, and dis- 
charge drafted men who had not been mustered in. About the 
1st of May, orders were promulgated for the muster out of all 
organizations whose term of service expired on or before the 1st 
of October, 1865. Many of our "Wisconsin troops coming under 
the operations of this order, they were soon on their way home, 
and the action of the State officers has, since the close of the war, 
been devoted to the reception of returning regiments, their 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GOVERNOR LEWIS. 193 

payment by the United States, and the settlement with those who 
were entitled to the extra pay from the State. The several Dis- 
trict Provost Marshals' offices were closed, their husincss having 
been wound up. The mustering out of the several regiments 
continued during tlie summer, fall and winter, many of them 
being sent to the Eio Grande or the Northwestern frontier. 



James T. Lewis, eighth Governor of the State of Wisconsin, 
was born in Clarendon, Orleans County, New York, on the 30th 
of October, 1819. In addition to the ordinary common school 
education, he completed a course of English and Classical study 
preparatory to entering College. He did not, however, enter 
any Collegiate Institution, but proceeded to read law with Gov- 
ernor Selden, at Clarkson, Monroe County. lie came to Wis- 
consin in July, 1845, w^as admitted to the bar of the Supreme 
Court of this State, and opened an office for the practice of his 
profession at Columbus, in Columbia County, where he has 
since resided. 

As a public man he has been elected by his fellow citizens, 
to several responsible positions, among them that of District 
Attorney, County Judge, member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, member of Assembly, State Senator, Lieutenant Governor, 
and Secretary of State. In July, of 1865, the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon Governor Lewis, by the Lawrence Univer- 
sity at Appleton. Such was his personal popularity, that in 1861, 
when he was a candidate for Secretary of State, he received 
every vote cast in the town of Columbus, his place of residence, 
and in 1863, when a candidate for Governor, he received nearly 
25,000 majority, the largest vote ever given in this State to any 
person for that office. 

In his Inaugural Address, delivered January 4th, 1864, he 
indicated the policy which would govern his administration. He 
said: 

You will doubtless expect of me at this time a brief exposition of the general policy 
that will govern my administration. 

It has often been remarked, and 1 fear with too much truth, tliat public offlcers are 
prone to use their patronage during their first term of office to secure a re-electiou. 
Not expecting or desiring again to be a candidate for this or any other public position, I 
trust this motive will not influence my action, 

13 



194 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In whatever I may do, I shall, with a mind free from party prejudice, endeavor to 
consult the best interests of the people regardless of friends or foes, or my own private 
interests. 

It shall be my aim to inculcate principles of morality, foster benevolent institutions, 
observe the closest economy in public expenditures compatible with the public good, 
promote the interests of education, agriculture, manufactures, mining, and commerce, 
and to aid in developing all those natural resources with which our noble State is so 
richly endowed. 

Among the important duties devolving upon the Executive at this time, are those 
connected with our soldiers in the field. They went forth to flght the battles of the 
nation under pledges of support. Good faith, honor, justice, and hunianity require that 
these promises should be redeenied by filling up their thinned ranks, caring for their 
sick in hospitals, and their families at home. No eflbrt on my part shall be wanting to 
redeem these pledges. 

Perhaps no more important and trying duties will engage our attention than those 
connected with the General Government. A wicked rebellion is now raging in our 
midst, threatening the life of the nation. Civil war, the great bane of a free govern- 
ment, has been inaugurated with the avowed object of dismembering our gloi-ious 
Union. This must never be. This great crime against man and sin against God, must 
not be permitted. No, let us rather "strike till the last armed foe expires." 

We must pay the debt of allegiance we owe to the General Government. "We must 
support and sustain it in this hour of its peril. To this end I shall co-operate with the 
officers of the General Government in those measures deemed necessary for its safety. 

The pledges tlius enunciated, Governor Lewis has ably carried 
out. 

The messages of Governor Lewis to the Legislature have been 
characterized by their genuine patriotism, their zealous support 
of the national cause, their practical suggestions in regard to 
State affairs, and their clear statements of the State finances as 
well as resources. 

In his first annual message, he calls attention to the necessity 
of a more perfect military organization, and points out some of 
the vital defects of the militia law passed at the previous session. 
His remarks on what Wisconsin had done, and ought to do, in 
the national struggle, are to be found in the preceding pages. 

The necessity of having a school in the State where military 
instruction could be obtained, induced the Governor to suggest 
the propriety of incorporating into the organic act establishing 
the State Agricultural College, a provision that the rudiments 
of military science should be included in its course of study. 

Speaking of national affairs, he says : 

In commenting, as we have, thus far, upon subjects more immediately connected 
with our State affairs, we are not unmindful that we owe allegiance to the General 
Government, and have duties to perform in connection therewith. 

Notwithstanding peace and plenty reign within the borders of our State, we cannot 
lose sight of the fact that the nation is engaged in war — a war of great magnitude and 
importance ; of immense importance to us as a State ; of immense importance to the 
world. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GOVERNOR LEWIS. 195 

The interests, the hopes and fears of millions now hant; tremblinfj; in the balance, anil 
the position of our State may turn tlie scale. How important that we cxantinc carefully 
the ground on which we stand, and that we are found arrayed upon the side of justice 
and humanity, 

Wisconsin is now standing side by side with all the Free States in support of the Gen- 
eral Government; in support of law and order; in support of freedom. The important 
question which presents itself to our mind is, are we right in our position? If we are, 
it is our duty to go forward, press on the war with renewed energy until victory and 
peace shall crown our efforts. If wrong, our first duty should be to place ourselves in 
a true and correct position. In judging of this matter, we may very properly ask our- 
selves the question, are our minds free frona prejudice and passion? It is natural tii;it 
the monarchs of the old world, as well as the aristocrats upon our own soil, im- 
pressed with the dangers that threaten their tenure of place and power from the spreswl 
of our free principles, should desire the downfall of this Government, and to accomplish 
this end should counsel the withdrawal of our armies, and the final separation of these 
States. There may be those, also, in our midst wliose narrow prejudices, whose love of 
gain or fear of personal harm, will induce them to withhold support from the Adminis- 
tration, favor the withdrawal of our troops, and the consequent destruction of the 
Government. Our faith, however, in the integrity and loyalty of our people, is too 
strong to permit us to believe there are many of this class of persons in our State. It is 
true some within our borders may have arrayed themselves against the Government, 
but we have the charity to believe that most of them were but temporarily misled, and 
that they will, when their eyes are opened to their true position, place themselves on 
the side of law and order. The large numbers wdio have gone foith to battle, the voice 
of the people of this State heard in the late election, afford incontestible proof, that witii 
the great majority of our people, patriotism rises above prejudice and passion; that rhe 
hearts of the people are rightly attuned to the music of the Union. 

If our fathers were patriots in establishing this government, we certainly cannot be 
far wrong in maintaining it. Believing then, as we since relj^ do, that the government 
is in the right, that it is lighting in a holy and just cause, that duty demands of us action 
and sacrifice in its behalf, that etTorts to patch up a temporary peace to obtain it by 
concessions to traitors, are not only dislionorable, but tend to protract the war and 
make it more expensive and dangerous — we hope to see Wisconsin unite all her ener- 
gies, without distinction of party or sect, in prosecuting the war with the utmost 
vigor. Let us sustain the govei'nment and prosecute tlie war with a will and determin- 
ation that shall carry the conviction to the minds of traitors, that obedience to the 
legally constituted authorities is the only course left to them ; that our Government 
must be respected. The Union must stand, and we shall soon see the principles of Ijt)- 
erty and equality re-established in every part of our National domain, firm as the rv.'.k 
Of ages, there to stand a blessing to the world, an enduring monument of the fidelity 
and patriotism of those noble men of the Revolution wlio founded, and the noble 
patriots who now defend it. 

In his second message, speaking of the diiferent funds phxced 
under his control, Governor Lewis stated that the Military Con- 
tingent Fund, of three thousand dollars, appropriated by the 
Legislature of 1863, and for the expenditure of which the Exe- 
cutive was required to report to the Legislature, had not been 
expended, for the reason that no necessity had arisen for its use, 
and that the money remained in the Treasury, unexpended, ex- 
cept so much as was drawn by liis predecessor. Of the Conting- 
ent Fund, for the payment of the contingent expenses of the 
Executive office, but a small proportion had been used, and that 
the sum now in the Treasury would render any further 
appropriation unnecessary at the present time. 



196 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Tliat portion of Governor Lewis' second message as treats of 
the military affairs of tlie State will be found under the head of 
the action of the State authorities in 1865. 

In eubmitting to the Legislature of 1865, the proposed consti- 
tutional amendment abolishing slavery in the United States, the 
Governor in his special message says : 

I have the honor herewith to lay before you a copy of a joint resolution of Congress, 
approved February 1st, I860, passed pursuant to said article V, proposing to the Legisla- 
tures of the several States, an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, to be 
designated as article thirteen of the said constitution, and to req^uest your decision on 
said proposed amendment. 

Seldom has there been presented to any legislative body a more important question, 
or one in which the people of the United States feel a deeper interest, than is presented 
by this resolution. 

Though the last few months have been crowded with important events, important 
victories causing the people to shout for joy, yet the announcement of no event, lias 
sent a deeper thrill of joy to loyal hearts than will the announcement of the adoption 
of this amendment. 

Upon its adoption hangs the destiny of nearly four millions of human beings, and it 
may be the destiny of the nation. I trust, and doubt not, the Legislature of Wisconsin 
will record its decision firmly, and I liope unanimously in favor of the amendment. 
Let us wipe from our escutcheon the foul blot of human slavery, and show by our 
action that we are worthy the name of freeman. 

May God in His providence grant that this contemplated amendment of the funda- 
mental law of our land may be adopted by every State in our Union, that it may nerve 
the arms of our patriotic soldiers to strike still harder blows for liberty, and that it may 
redound to the glory of our beloved country. 

The Governor also called the attention of the Legislature to 
the subject of establishing permanent hospitals or retreats to 
become the homes of disabled soldiers, and issued a proclama- 
tion to the people recommending liberal contributions in aid of 
the proposed " Wisconsin Soldiers' Home." ' 

We have endeavored to give, in detail, in the preceding pages, 
the action of Governor Lewis in the organization of regiments, in 
response to calls pending when he assumed the office of Gover- 
nor, as well as under calls made during his administration. Li 
the year 1864, four calls were made, amounting in the aggregate 
to 1,500,000 men. 

The State quotas under these various calls were organized under 
the direction of Governor Lewis, into thirteen regiments of 
infantry, besides two regiments of which only one battalion each 
was sent to the field ; the AYar Department deeming the war 
virtually closed before these regiments could be fully organized, 
ordered a discontinuance of the recruiting service, and the dis- 
charge of such recruits as had not been mustered into the United 
States service. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OV GOVERNOR LEWIS 197 

In 1864, Governor Lewis, aetiii<^ in concert with other Western 
Governors, tendered to the President 5,000 infantry troops from tiie 
State of Wisconsin to serve one hnndred days, in ])erforniino- guard 
and garrison duty, in order to relieve the vetei-an regiments and 
permit their aiding Generals Grant and Sherman in tlieir expe- 
ditions wliich were destined to be the crowning acts of tlie war. 
The proposition was accepted, and the Governor was successful 
in organizing the Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, and Forty -first regiments 
as one hundred day men. The operations of these regiments will 
be found in the regimental records. 

Under Governor Lewis' direction, eight companies of Heavy 
Artillery were organized, completing the First Regiment of 
Heavy Artillery. Three companies of colored troops were also 
recruited for Colonel Bross's Twenty-ninth United States colored 
troops. 

The total number of troops raised during the term of Governor 
Lewis up to April 30th, 1865, amounted to 38,618 men. This 
includes volunteers for new regiments and batteries, recruits for 
old organizations, veteran reenlistments, drafted men and the 
one hundred day troops. 

Governor Lewis is entitled to special credit for the manner in 
which he has watched over and protected the interests t)f the 
soldiers, personally visiting them in the field, inspecting their 
proficiency in the usual duties of the soldier, and encouraging 
them by generous words and deeds in their patriotic efforts to 
sustain the National cause. Attending to their physical welfare, 
he has visited the General Hospitals both at the East and West, 
and also made a tour of inspection of the hospitals from Wash- 
ington by the w^ay of Fortress Monroe, j^orfolk, Richmond, 
Mobile, and New Orleans, returning up the Mississippi, visiting 
the hospitals at the diflerent points on the route. Before leav- 
ing Washington, he secured an order from the Surgeon General 
of the United States for the transfer of all Wisconsin soldiers 
to hospitals in our own State. In this round trip he visited the 
sick and secured under the Surgeon General's order, their imme- 
diate transfer, and also transmitted copies of the special order of 
Surgeon General Barnes, to the Medical Directors of such dis- 
tricts as be was unable to visit, with a request that the same 
should be immediately complied with. He also secured the 



198 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

establishment of United States Hospitals at Prairie du Cbien and 
Milwaukee. 

At all times tlie soldier and the friends of the soldier have had 
access to the Executive attention, and every eflbrt made to assist 
them if possible. Communications from the soldiers, their fami- 
lies or friends, have been speedily attended to. All business con- 
nected with the several departments of the army has been 
vigorously prosecuted, and in every way has the Governor 
endeavored to do his full duty to the brave representatives of the 
State, in the great contest just closed. 

The business between the State and the War Department, and 
its auxiliary bureau under the charge of the Provost Marshal 
General, has been promptly attended to, and the interests of the 
State watched with jealous care, while at the same time the 
General Government was accorded the fullest confidence and 
support. Credits were adjusted and quotas reduced, and the 
burdens of the people lightened, as much as possible, from the 
exactions of the draft, or the requirements of the General 
Government. 

Under the supervision of Governor Lewis, the claims of the 
State against the United States, have been prosecuted success- 
fully, -and about half a million of dollars was collected during 
his administration, one item alone of $300,000 being allowed. 
The famous five per cent, claim, which has been in abeyance 
for twenty- two years or more, has been finally settled under 
his supervision, and the amount of nearly $300,000 added to the 
resources of the State. 

The duties of a civil character pertaining to the Executive 
office, have been carried forward with the same degree of ability, 
and with a view to the greatest economy compatible with a 
suitable execution of the work to be performed. 

In the selection of his subordinates, the Governor was exceed- 
ingly fortunate in securing able, industrious, and efficient helpers. 
Colonel Frank H. Firmin, his Private and Military Secretary, 
has been indefatigable in the performance of the duties of his 
office. Prompt, pleasant and obliging, he has secured the respect 
and friendship of those who have had business with him. The 
arduous duties of this position can be understood only by those 
who have had opportunity to see the amount of correspondence 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GOVERNOE, LEWIS. 199 

which is daily received at tlie Executive office, all of which it is 
necessary to answer without delay, as an accumulation would 
produce incouceivahle confusion and annoyance, besides often 
occasioning hardships. During the continuance of the war, the 
office of Military Secretary has been one of great labor, requiring 
a remarkable degree of industry and endurance to perform its 
duties. Both Colonel Firmin and his predecessor, Colonel 
"Watson, have filled the position with marked credit to themselves. 
In closing our sketch of the Gubernatorial career of Governor 
Lewis, we cannot do better than insert the resolution unanimously 
passed at the Union State Convention in September, 1865. In 
March 1865, Governor Lewis published a letter declining to be a 
candidate for reelection, in which he said : 

Wliile there are so many good and true men who are not only willing but desirous to 
serve the people in this, as well as In other public stations, I cannot feel it a duty again 
to enter the political field, and when I consult my own happiness, the pleasure of a ciuiet 
home far outweighs that of a public station. 

I may be permitted further to say, that this decision has not been made hastily, as it 
■will be remembered that on assuming the duties of my present position, I publicly 
stated that I did not desire again to be a candidate. 

The resolution which was unanimously adopted by the Union 
State Convention is as follows : 

Resolved, That by his continued adherence to the pui-pose publicly avowed by him on 
the day of his inauguration not to be a canditate for re-election, there is left to us no 
other mode of manifesting our sentiment towards the present Chief Magistrate of the 
State, Honorable James T. Lewis, than by giving expression to our cordial approbation 
of his administration of the Executive office. In the discharge of his official duties he 
has shown a fidelity, zeal, economy and untiring watchfulness in protecting tlie inter- 
ests of the State which are recognized and appreciated by an intelligent people, and in 
the voluntary retirement from public life which he seeks, he will be followed by their 
sincere respect and warm good wislies. By his unremitting efforts to aid and cheer our 
brave soldiers in the field. By his tender care for the sick in hospitals, and his Icind 
deeds to their families at home. By his careful attention to the financial affiiirs of the 
State, and his judicious expenditure of funds appropriated for his use. By his steadfast 
devotion to all the varied interests of the State of which he has been the Chief Execu- 
tive, and above all by his hearty and unwavering support of the National administra- 
tion in its efforts to put down the rebellion. Governor Lewis has won for himself the 
esteem of all good citizens who know and appreciate his services as a public ofiicer, and 
has merited the commendation of the people—" well done good and faithful servant." 



There is another official, whose labors during the war have 
been such as to entitle him to notice in the record of the mili- 
tary operations of the State. We allude to Adjutant General 
Gaylord. 



200 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, Adjutant General of the 
State, was born in the town of Torriugton, Litchfield County, 
Connecticut, in the year 1826. In 1846, he went to 'New York 
as a clerk for a Connecticut manufacturing establishment, in 
which he subsequently had an interest. In 1853, he became 
engaged in business as a broker. A bronchial difficulty which 
threatened serious results, compelled a change of climate, and in 
1857, he removed to Wisconsin, and located at St. Croix Falls, 
in Polk County, where he opened a store and exchange ofiice. 
He was elected County Treasurer in 1859. 

On the breaking out of the rebellion. General Gaylord came 
to Madison and held a position as confidential clerk under Hon- 
orable Louis P. Harvey, then Secretary of State, up to the time 
of his inauguration as Governor, and was by Governor Harvey, 
appointed Adjutant General, on the 7th of January, 1862. On 
the death of Governor Harvey, General Gaylord tendered his 
resignation to his successor, Governor Salomon. The resignation 
was not accepted, and he was retained in his j)Osition. 

From the beginning of the rebellion the duties of the Adju- 
tant General's office have been extremely arduous, requiring a 
large amount of labor, and constant supervision and attention. 

In 1861, the State authorities had the control of recruiting, 
subsisting, and supplying the troops of the State, and the several 
departments were organized fully and efficiently. The labors 
performed by the several military departments during that year 
were very great, increasing with the increased number of regi- 
ments raised, until the Adjutant General's office at the end of 
the year had become one of the most important in the State. 
The General Government assuraino; the control of the recruitino; 
service, at the beginning of the year 1862, relieved the Quarter- 
master, Commissary, and Pay departments of the State, and 
changed, in some of its features, the business of the Adjutant 
General's office, without occasioning any decrease in the amount 
of labor to be performed. 

In addition to the usual duties of an Adjutant General, consist- 
ing of the promulgation of the orders of the Commander-in-Chief, 
and proper attention to their being carried out, the making up, 
signing, registering and transmission of military commissions, 
and the usual correspondence incident to the office, was added 



ADJUTANT GENERAL GAYLORD. 201 

many special duties, growing out of the exigencies and necessi- 
ties of the war. An enumeration of some of these will show 
that the Adjutant General's office has been no sinecure during 
the rebellion, and that the head of the bureau is entitled to much 
credit for the amount of labor performed, and the manner in 
which it has been accomplished. 

In 1861, a system of issuing passes to soldiers in camp to 
enable them, while on furlough, to visit their friends, was inaug- 
urated. Although very convenient to the soldiers, it devolved 
a large amount of labor upon the Adjutant General's Depart- 
ment, outside of its regular duties. Tickets were issued to the 
soldier by the Adjutant General, and the amount charged on 
the muster rolls, to be deducted on pay day. As long as the 
State Paymaster paid the troops, but little trouble was experi- 
enced with this system. But when, at the latter end of the year, 
the United States assumed the payment of our troops, difficulties 
arose, and the pass system was suspended. 

On Governor Harvey's taking the Gubernatorial Chair, Adju- 
tant General Gaylordwas directed by him to make arrangements 
with the railroad officers at points where the regiments were 
encamped, for the transportation of the men having furloughs, 
in some w^ay, so that the State would not be liable. Accord- 
ingly, arrangements were made with the Milwaukee & Mississippi, 
the La Crosse & Milwaukee, and the Chicago & IsTorthwestern 
Railroads, whereby passes were to be issued by the Adjutant 
General, and countersigned by an officer of the regiment. Ac- 
counts for transportation were to be made monthly, giving the 
name of the volunteer and the route traveled. The Adjutant 
General was to use proper diligence to secure the amount due 
from each volunteer, by stoppage on the pay roll, and to pay 
over the amount thus collected to the several roads. This extra 
duty involved a large amount of labor, in the collection and 
settlement. 

By the law of the Extra Session of 1861, five dollars per 
month was allowed the families of volunteers. In order to 
enable the Secretary of State to audit these claims with safety, 
the regimental officers or commanders of batteries were required 
to report to the Adjutant General, monthly, the names of all non- 
commissioned officers, musicians or privates who had died, 



202 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

deserted, been made prisoners by the enemy or honorably dis- 
charged, or dishonorably dismissed from the service since their 
last report, with the respective dates of such deaths, desertions, 
discharges or dismissals, a copy of which report was to be forth- 
with transmitted by the Adjutant General to the Secretary of 
State. In order to secure these reports in proper shape, blanks 
were prepared and furnished to each organization, which, on 
their return, were examined and copied, involving much care 
and labor. 

Under the calls of 1862, Governor Salomon organized fourteen 
regiments of infantry, besides large reinforcements sent to regi- 
ments in the field, all three years men. "While these regiments 
were in progress, requiring the issue of large numbers of recruit- 
ing appointments and subsequent commissions, with examina- 
tions of accounts for subsistence and transportation of recruits 
and companies, orders came for an enrolment of the able-bodied 
men of the State, preparatory to a draft. The General Govern- 
ment required this draft to be made by the Governors of the 
loyal States. This duty involved the labor of causing an enrol- 
ment to be made — a deduction for exemptions — compilations 
from the muster rolls of the volunteers previously enlisted, to 
enable localities to receive appropriate credits — computation of 
quotas — preparation of lists of draft commissioners and examin- 
ing surgeons, and instructions — all of which were necessary 
before the draft could be made. And after the draft was made, 
the transportation to rendezvous, subsistence and care of drafted 
men was performed through the office of the Adjutant General, 
making the labors, from the nature of the case, extremely 
perplexing and arduous. 

Under the provisions of the " Militia Law," of 1863, the duty 
of organizing the State militia devolved upon the Governor. 
The enrolment by the sherifis, of 1862, was adopted, and four 
regiments and a battalion of infantry, and two batteries for 
service in the State, were organized. 

During the greater part of the year 1863, the transportation 
of recruits, from their homes to the designated rendezvous, was 
furnished through the Adjutant General's office. 

Upon the United States taking the entire charge of the re- 
cruiting business, under the provisions of the "Conscript Law," 



ADJUTANT GENERAL GAYLORD. 203 

it became necessary to efiect a settlement "witli the General Gov- 
ernment, for all credits due for troops furnished under previous 
arrangements. This was made, and showed a net excess of 
4,352, three years men. In order to efiect this settlement, a 
complete overhauling of all the rolls in the office was necessary, 
requiring a large amount of labor in the research. 

The draft of 1863 was under the supervision of the General 
Government, and the quotas were assigned by the Provost Mar- 
shal General, only to Congressional Districts. In order to enable 
the people of each locality to ascertain its exact indebtedness, 
the quotas were computed in this office, on the basis of the 
United States enrolment, and published for the information of 
the public in General Orders, No. 21, dated November 23, 1863. 

In the latter part of 1863, an order from the Provost Marshal 
General authorized credits to the several towns and wards for 
such volunteers as were mustered into the United States service. 
In the beginning of 1864, in order to satisfy the public demand 
for information as to the men credited in the different localities 
throughout the State, books were opened in the Adjutant Gene- 
ral's office, in which were entered to the credit of the appropri- 
ate towns and wards the name, regiment and date of muster of every 
volunteer credited to such locality. It is worthy of notice here 
that this information could not be obtained under the system of 
records kept b}^ the Provost Marshal General's Department— 
the United States giving such credit only in numbers. A great 
amount of labor was required in reconciling conflicting claims 
for credit, not only of ]iew recruits but of veteran reenlistmenta 
— the names of these men being taken from the reenlistment 
rolls, and appropriately recorded to the credit of the proper 
locality — and a condensed statement or summary of such credits 
prepared and forwarded to the War Department. This state- 
ment was made official authority by order of the Department, 
and Provost Marshals throughout the State were directed to 
credit localities accordingly. 

Early in the year 1864, four regiments of infantry, and several 
companies of artillery were organized — large numbers of re- 
cruits for old regiments vrere sent forward, filling up those regi- 
ments to a maximum, and, in April, three regiments of 100 day 
men were authorized, recruiting commissions were issued, 



204 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

companies organized and consolidated, officers commissioned, 
and tlie regiments sent forward. 

Under the call of July 18, 1864, for 600,000 volunteers, the 
quota of Wisconsin was fixed at such figures as to puzzle the 
calculations of able arithmeticians to find out upon what prin- 
ciple it was based. Adjutant General Gaylord set to work, and 
ascertained that the State had not received the benefit of the 
enlistments under prior calls, by having the names of the volun- 
teers and drafted men, already sent to the field, stricken from 
the enrolment lists, leaving those lists as originally made, on 
which the quota of the State was computed at Washington. It 
was also found that a credit of 4,352, originally allowed in the 
settlement of credits, October 12, 1863, had not been given. By- 
direction of the Governor, Adjutant General Gaylord visited 
Washington, and presented these matters to the War Depart- 
ment, in person, and asked that a correction be made upon a 
proper explanation, and the presentation of the necessary proofs, 
which received the prompt and favorable consideration of the 
Department. The claim of the State for credit was conceded, 
and the correction of the enrolment was directed to be made by 
the Provost Marshal General. By this correction, a reduction 
of 3,691 was made in the quota, and a credit of 4,568 was ob- 
tained, reducing the number to be raised, under the call of July 
18, 1864, to 10,773. 

In the fall and winter of 1864-5, thirteen regiments of infantry 
were organized, involving the usual amount of recruiting 
commissions, officers' commissions, &c. 

By an act of the Legislature, of 1865, it was made incumbent 
on the Adjutant General to procure a complete history of every 
man mustered into the United States service in this State, in 
such form as to make them part of the records of his office, and 
thus give them a place in the archives of the State. Blank 
books were prepared, which were furnished to the command- 
ers of companies on the muster out of their commands, who 
were required to give the history of every man mustered into 
their companies while in the United States service. This record 
will prove of great value in the future. 

The war being closed, the muster-out rolls, and regimental and 
company books and papers, were placed in the custody of the 



AEJUTANT GENEEAL GAYLORD. 205 

Adjutant General, and the completion of the final records, and 
supplying deficiencies in the records of the earlier regiments, 
added to the labors of the office. 

During the whole time, the permanent records of the office 
have been kept up. Making out and recording of commissions, 
recruiting appointments, resignations and discharges, furnishing 
monthly to the Secretary of State a complete abstract of the regi- 
mental returns, upon which to base the auditing of claims against 
the State for the State aid to the families of the soldiers, corres- 
pondence, and the preparation of annual reports, have formed, 
the regular duties of the office since its first organization. 

The preparation of the annual reports of the office has involved 
a great amount of labor and research, and we venture to say that 
no State in the Union can show a better arranged record of its 
military operations, or a better prepared roster of its regimental 
or line officers, than that sent out from the office of Adjutant 
General Gay lord. We know, personally, of the many difficulties 
in the way of the preparation of such a work. Scattered, as our 
regiments were, from one end of rebeldom to the other, many of 
them furnishing very meagre reports, and some of them none at 
all, we think much credit is deserved for the ability and labor 
displayed in the preparation of these annual reports, which was 
under the charge of James M. L3'-nch, Esq., Chief Clerk. 

In season, and out of season. General Gaylord has attended 
faithfully to the duties of his position, having been very seldom 
away from his post. He has managed, with preeminent ability, 
all the vexatious questions brought before him. Always gentle- 
manly and courteous, he has won hosts of friends among those 
with whom he has come in contact. In General Gaylord, the 
" boys in blue " have always had one of their best friends, and 
the State w^ill find that in the performance of the duties of 
Adjutant General, no better man could have been found. 

In the performance of the clerical labors of his office. General 
Gaylord has had the assistance of Colonel ISTye S. Gibbs, As8isi> 
ant Adjutant General, and James M. Lynch, Esq., Chief Clerk, 
now Quartermaster General. Colonel Gibbs has been employed 
in the Adjutant General's Office since the summer of 1861, and 
has filled the several posts which he has occupied with marked 



206 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

ability. In the absence of Adjutant General Gaylord, the office 
has been under his charge. 

The employees in the Adjutant General's office, during the 
war, have been occupied not only during the usual business hours, 
but often, when the pressure of business required it, have extended 
their labors, for days and weeks, late into the night, in order to 
accomplish work which the exigencies of the times required 
should be promptly performed. A more faithful and industri- 
ous corps of clerks cannot be found than those who have labored 
in the military department of the State during the war. 



Brigadier General James M. Lynch, Quartermaster and Com- 
missary General, and Chief of Ordnance of "Wisconsin, was born 
in the city of J^ew York, September 28th, 1832. His parents 
removed with their family to Wisconsin in 1842, and settled on 
a farm in Kenosha County. In 1845, the subject of this sketch, 
was attacked by disease, from which he has never fully recov- 
ered, being crippled for life, and necessitating the use of crutches. 
From the fall of 1851, until the spring of 1853, he was a teacher 
in the public schools, first in the country and subsequently in 
the cjty of Kenosha, during which time he devoted his leisure 
hours to the acquisition of the higher branches of education. 
In May 1858, he became engaged in the business of bookselling, 
which he discontinued in the summer of 1859. He engaged in 
other pursuits until February 1862, when he received an appoint- 
ment as clerk in the office of Adjutant General Gaylord, which 
position he occupied until his appointment to the office of Quar- 
termaster General, which, requiring only a portion of his time, he 
retained his desk in the Adjutant General's office. He was 
appointed Quartermaster General at the beginning of the year 
1865, and has performed the duties pertaining to his position 
with perfect satisfaction. General Lynch is a person of fine 
abilities, which he has taken every opportunity to improve. He 
has been engaged in the office of Adjutant General Gaylord, as 
Chief clerk, for nearly four years, during the time performing a 
laro-e amount of clerical labor. In executing the multifiirious 
duties which have been imposed upon the Adjutant General's 



QUARTERMASTER GENERAL LYNCH. 207 

office during that period of time, Mr. Lyncli lias exhibited great 
skill and ability. The gathering of the material for the reports 
of the Adjutant General, was entrusted to Mr. Lyncli, and the 
manner in which that labor was performed, indicates a degree of 
patience, industry, and research on his part, which entitles him 
to much credit. We speak intelligently on this point, having 
had occasion in the preparation of this work, to pursue much the 
same course in the collection and preparation of our historical 
material of the different regiments, and find an immense amount 
of labor and patience involved in the vmdertaking. The very 
complete regimental roster prepared for the report of 1864, is 
the result of the labors of Mr. Lynch, as are also the various 
tables in that and preceding volumes. Of a gentlemanly quiet 
disposition. General Lynch has secured a large circle of friends, 
who esteem him highly for the many good qualities he possesses, 
and who look with gratification upon his promotion to a position 
of responsibility and trust. 



CHAPTEE YII. 

SANITARY OPERATK/nS OF THE STATE. 

Surgeon General's Department — His Duties — Expedition to 
Pittsburg Landing — Second Expedition — Expedition ■<?o Per- 
ry ville Battle-field — To Murfreesboro — Visit to Vuksburg 
— To Washington Hospitals — Expedition to Chicamauga Bat- 
tle-field — Visit to Army op Potomac — Visit op GrOVERNoa 
Lewis and Surgeon General Wolcott to Hospitals for Transfer 
of Sick and Wounded — United States Hospitals in Wisconsin 
— Sanitary Agents — Soldiers' Aid Societies — Wisconsin Sol- 
diers' Home — Soldiers' Orphans Home — Bureau of Employment. 

I!N" contributions to the several National Sanitary organizations 
our State has not been parsimonious, as we think the records of 
those societies will show that Wisconsin stands equal with tho 
best in its liberal support of the objects of the United States 
Sanitary Commission, Christian Commission, and kindred 
undertakings. 

Foremost among the Sanitary operations of the State, was the 
organization of the Surgeon General's Department. Dr. E. B. 
Wolcott, of Milwaukee, as Surgeon G-eneral, was the first appoint- 
ment made by Governor Randall, on his Staff, only a day or two 
after the issue of his Proclamation calling for a regiment of 
militia. General Wolcott is an old settler in Wisconsin, having 
been stationed at some of the military posts in this region long 
before Wisconsin was thought of as a Territory. He was for 
some years a Surgeon in the United States army. The experi- 
ence and skill acquired by him in that position, combined with 
his well known character as a man of integrity and judgment, 
prompted Governor Randall, as the first move in organizing our 
regiments, to select him to fill the very responsible position of 



SURGEON general's OFFICE. 209 

Surgeon General of the State. In this the Governor evinced the 
principle, which he followed out in other departments, that the 
troops which he should send to the field from Wisconsin, should 
be made as efficient as possible before they left the State, not only 
in outfits of clothiug, camp equipage, and if possible, arms and 
accoutrements, but in that important particular of a complete 
and adequate supply of medicine and instruments, as well as an 
efficient medical staff. 

The results of four years of war, have shown that Governor 
Kandall's judgment and decision, on this particular point, was 
sound and eminently just. 

\Ye cannot better define the duties of the Surgeon General's 
oflBice, than by inserting a portion of Dr. Wolcott's report to 
Governor Salomon in 1863. He says : 

Without adequate conception of the maguUude ol the worK entered upon, being 
entirely without precedent — tlie office of Surgeon General heretofore ha\'ing been 
purely complimentary — the medical department was not organized as it would have 
been, had prescience been among our prominent qualifications ; therefoi"e, tlie course 
pursued has been developed by exigencies as they have arisen, rather than by any 
predetermined system. 

In tlie organization of regiments under the existing laws of the State, the command- 
ants were authorized to appoint tlieir ownstalT. To tliis there could be no objection; 
for as in the case of the Surgeon General, it was a mere nominal matter, involving 
neither duty nor responsibility ; but under existing circumstances, it became a matter 
of grave importance that the appointee should possess those qualifications, both 
acquired and natural, that are essential to the practical surgeon and physician. The 
right of granting commissions, belonged to the Governor, and it tlierefore became both 
his province and duty to ascertain tlirough some channel, tlie professional character 
and standing, and tlieir adaptation to active duties in the fleld, of the applicants for 
positions in the medical staff of tlie regiments. 

In the absence of an examining board, it was made the duty of the Surgeon General to 
inquire into and report upon the qualifications of Piiysicians seelcing appointments — 
an endorsement from this source being in most instances necessary thereto. Tlie physi- 
cal condition, professional education, cliaracter, and habits generally, were all legiti- 
mate subjects of inquiry. A personal and intimate acquaintance witli many, left no doubt 
as to their qualifications, but in a majority of cases tliey were compai-atively or totally 
strangers. In such cases, through correspondence with the most reliable parties, no 
pains have been spared to learn tlie true position, character and professional standing of 
the applicant at home, in his place of liusiness. After obtaining satisfactory reports from 
such sources, a personal interview and such examination as was deemed necessary follow- 
ed. Ifsatisfactory, a recommendation for theposition,eitlicr of Surgeon or Assistant was 
granted. A diploma, or, in its absence, satisfactory evidence of his being a graduate of 
some regular medical college authorized to grant degrees in medicine, has, with few 
exceptions, been insisted upon. A diploma proves that tlie individual possessing it has 
had the advantages, according to the school, of acquiring a professional education, that 
is, of learning those things essential to be known before entering upon practice. It is 
the foundation to build upon. If possessed of the essential natural parts, a fair super- 
structure, after years of labor, may be reared thereon — but without it, neither time nor 
labor will avail, and the superstructure will turn out, instead of a castle, a shanty. Ab- 
solute qualification for the responsible duties of the position, is what I have endoavore<l 
to secure. All will admit the indispensable necessity of a thorough medical education, 
but no one will concede the fact that all tlioroughly educated medical men are adapted 

14 



210 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

to the arduous duties of the military surgeon. After all there is no denying the fact 
that, neitlier in civil nor military practice, in either surgery or medicine, any more than 
in other avocations of life, is scholarship the measure of practical ability. 

I have been lead to the foregoing remarks from the fact, that on my recommendation, 
in a few instances, gentlemen have received appointments who have not obtained a de- 
gree in medicine — notwithstanding which, I have the most positive assurance that they 
have acquitted themselves most creditably. 

This has proved a delicate, laborious and responsible duty — that errors have been 
committed is very probable. In this connection I have qnly to say, that a conscientious 
regard for botli individuals and the public service, has in all cases, guided my decisions. 
The true test of qualifications, is in the discharge of the dutiestof the position. It is 
here that on more occasions than one, I have had good reasons fbr feeling proud of our 
Wisconsin Surgeons, who on the battle-fleld and subsequent thereto, have occuiDied an 
enviable position, among the most prominent, in these trying times. 

In my first interview with Ex-Governor Randall, after assuming the duties of this 
office, the question arose, whetlier one Surgeon and one Assistant, or two Medical Officei-s, 
were sufficient to secure the necessary medical and surgical treatment that a regiment 
of men, consisting of about one thousand, would require when ii? active service in the 
field? In view of disabilities, incident as well to surgeons as soldiers, from accidents, 
disease, etc., from- the exposure and hardships inseparable from camp life, involving a 
radical change in all the habits, greatly increasing the liability to numerous forms of 
disease — not to mention those plagues of armies, diarrhoea, dysentery, and the whole 
family of fevers, assuming not unfrequently, a low or typhoid grade of frightful mor- 
tality ; and measles, much worse to be dreaded, since the introduction of vaccination, 
than small pox — there was not a doubt on my mind that the prescribed number was in- 
sufficient, and an additional Assistant Surgeon was recommended. This resulted in the 
appointment of a State Assistant to each of our regiments — rank, pay, emoluments, 
etc., same as in the United States service, but paid by the State. The fact that the 
United States has made the same addition to tlie regular army and mustered our State 
Assistants into the service, is conclusive as to its propriety and necessity, and should 
secure, in a final settlement with the General Government, a reimbursement of all sums 
paid by the State to such Assistants, prior to their being mustered into the United States 
service. 

Three months' supply, according to the standard supply table for field service (Revised 
Regulations,) of medicines, instruments, books, hospital stores, bedding, furniture, and 
dressings, was furnished each of our Wisconsin regimente before leaving the State, at 
the State expense. This practice resulted from the apprelrension that the vast augmen- 
tation of the army would impose such accumulation of dulses on the Department at 
Washington, that more or less delay would be very apt to exist, and as our troops wero 
liable to be ordered not only to the field, but into immediate conflict with the enemy, 
delay or disappointment in the receipt of those supplies, would, especially in the event 
of a battle, place our soldiers in a most embarrassing position — for surgeons, few or 
many, without the necessary means, medicines, instruments, etc., would be useless. In 
this matter the result proved the wisdom of the precaution. In numerous instances, 
regiments were months in the field, and in some instances, in actual engagements, — as 
at the battle of Falling Waters — before any supplies, in the Medical Department, were 
received from the United States. In this battle the First Regiment Wisconsin Volun- 
teers, (its first organization,) was engaged, and furnislied the surgeons of a Pennsylvania 
regiment, also in the action, witli instruments, dressings, medicines, etc., they beiii^ 
totally destitute. It is presumable that this practice has cost a trifle more tlian it would 
had the supplies been furnished through the regular channels of the Department ai 
Washington, but as a compensation therefor, we have the proud satisfaction of knowing 
that our brave volunteers were as well protected and provided for in that most essential 
point — both in their medical attendants and in the supplies furnished — as the powers 
and wisdom of this Department could secure to them. 

The duties of Surgeon General Wolcott did not call him out 
of the State in 1861. Two actions only occurred in that year, in 



EXPEDITION TO PITTSBURG LANDING. 211 

wliicli Wisconsin troops were engaged. The first at Falling 
"Waters, on the 2d of July, and the other at Bnll Run, on the 
21st of the same month. To take care of the sick and wounded 
in the First Regiment at Falling Waters, an agent was sent by 
Governor Randall, and the wounded and sick after Bull Run, 
were attended to and cared for under the Governor's own super- 
vision. After the retreat of the Second Regiment from the hat- 
tie of Bull Run, the men were in a very destitute condition. 
All were in a state of confusion, and much scattered. Some of 
them were destitute of shoes, others of blankets, and other arti- 
cles, and were hungry and worn down by the exertion on the 
battle field, through the excessive heat and smoke and dust. 
The usual channel of supplies through the Quartermaster and 
Commissary, would not afford the immediate relief needed. The 
Governor therefore, expended means .under his control, for the 
food, and shoes, and other articles necessary to make them com- 
fortable. About six hundred dollars were thus expended for 
provisions, meals, lodging, shoes, and money in small amounts to 
the soldiers. This was after the battle. During the battle of the 
21st of July, Messrs. 'N. B. Van Slyke and S. G. Benedict, were 
engaged in attending to the sick and wounded, as they were 
brought into the hospital. Dr. Lewis, Surgeon of the Second 
Regiment, was engaged professionally in the same hospital. 
Van Slyke and Benedict, left the hospital when it was charged 
on by the cavalry, and escaped. Dr. Lewis was taken prisoner. 

Governor Randall, in July, instituted the practice of sending 
agents to accompany each of the regiments, many of whom 
were of much service to the sick. Governor Harvey discon- 
tinued it. 

On the 6th of April, 1862, occurred the terrible battle of Shi- 
loh, in which the Fourteenth, Sixteenth, and Eighteenth Wis- 
consin regiments were engaged, and were badly cut up. The 
news was received on the 9th of April. Governor Harvey deter- 
mined to organize an expedition for the relief of the sick and 
disabled. He immediately called upon the ladies of Madison for 
supplies for the sick and wounded, and telegraphed for the same 
to other points. At Milwaukee the following dispatch was 
received on the 9th : 



212 MILITABY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

To W. B. Hibbakd: 

Call a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce — see that a supply of bandages, sheets, 
and shirts are gathered and packed to go by to-morrow's train, with Dr. Wolcott, to our 
regiments in tlie fight in Tennessee. 

L. P. HARVEY, Govo-nm: 

The dispatch was received at noon — read at the Chamber of 
Commerce, and a committee appointed to act in the matter. 
Such was the energy displayed in the several localities tele- 
graphed to by Governor Harvey, that ninety boxes of supplies 
were forwarded to Chicago, subject to the direction of the 
Governor. 

At Milwaukee, several hundred dollars in cash were donated, 
and General E. II. Brodhead was sent as a delegate on the part 
of the City of Milwaukee. The delegation was made up as 
follows : 

Governor Harvey, Commissary General Wadsworth, General 
E. H. Brodhead, and J. W. Bundy, of the Wisconsin, who acted 
as Secretary of Governor Harvey. 

The Medical staff was composed of Surgeon General Wolcott, 
Dr. J. K. Bartlett, and J. B. Dousman, of Milwaukee; Dr. A. S. 
McDill, of Plover, Portage County; Dr. Treat, of J anesville ; 
Dr. Cody, of Watertown ; Drs. John L. Page, and Orrin Peak, 
of Racine, and Dr. Reuben Wilson, of Sharon. 

On arriving at Chicago, Governor Harvey found an entire car 
load of supplies, ninety boxes, donated as follows : Milwaukee, 
61 boxes, Madison, 13, Janesville, 9, Beloit, 6, Clinton, 1. The 
contents of these boxes were found to be of the character re- 
quired, special instruction having been given by Dr. Wolcott, as 
to what was wanted. 

General Halleck ordered the railroad authorities to pass Gov- 
ernor Harvey and delegation, over the Central Road to Cairo ; 
and arrangements were also made for transportation of the party 
and stores up the Tennessee River. 

Arriving at Cairo, Governor Harvey found the steamer Gladi- 
ator, placed at his disposal- for the conveyance of himself and 
party up the Tennessee, General Strong, in command of the post 
at Cairo, having provided transportation as desired. Incessant 
applications for passages up the river, were made by the crowd 
3f anxious people, desirous of reaching the battle-field, but Gov- 
ernor Harvey was constrained to deny the greater portion of 



EXPEDITION TO PITTSBURG LANDING. 213 

them, making an exception, however, in favor of a corps of Sur- 
geons from Indiana. These were permitted to make a portion 
of the steamer's passenger list. 

The party were obliged to remain at Cairo until the 14th of 
April. Hospital boats were constantly passing with loads of 
wounded from the battle-field. These were visited by the Gov- 
ernor, or some of the Surgeons, and inquiry made for Wisconsin 
Boldiers on board. His Excellency visited Mound City Hospital, 
and found about forty men from Wisconsin wounded at Pitts- 
burg Landing. Seeking them out, the Governor took each of 
them by the hand saying a kind w^ord, and expressing the warm- 
est sympathy for them in the heartiest manner. The happy 
eflectof this visit could be seen in the countenances of the brave 
fellows. The work in the hospital being largely increased by 
arrivals from the battle-field. Governor Harvey tendered the ser- 
vices of two of the Surgeons of his party, as assistants to Dr. 
Franklin, the Surgeon in charge of the hospital. The offer was 
accepted, and Drs. Page and Peak were detailed to remain at 
Mound City. A portion of the sanitary stores were also left. 

On the 14th of April, they began the ascent of the Tennessee 
Kiver. Arriving at Savannah, they found about two hundred of 
our Wisconsin wounded, who were sufiering badly from the 
neglect of the regimental and post Surgeons. These were 
attended to as well as the circumstances would admit, and the 
Governor and his party proceeded to Pittsburg Landing, visiting 
the Fourteenth, Sixteenth, and Eighteenth regiments. They 
were received with delight, and the very idea that our State and 
friends at home had not forgotten them, tended greatly to cheer 
the depressed hearts of our Wisconsin soldiers. 

We regret exceedingly, that no official report was ever made 
of this expedition, that full justice might be done to the noble 
corps of professional men who gratuitously gave their services to 
aid in giving relief to the sick and wounded, which were found 
upon this expedition. 

The death of Governor Harvey gave a mournful conclusion to 
the benevolent undertaking, and the several members retifrned 
home with saddened hearts at the loss of him who had planned 
the great errand of mercy, and finally sealed his devotion to the 
cause of humanity with his life. 



214 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the 22d of April, Commissary General Wadswortli, by 
the direction of Governor Salomon, proceeded to Keokuk, Iowa, 
and was instrumental in returning thirty-five of our wounded 
soldiers, who were able to travel, to their homes in "Wisconsin. 

Another expedition to Pittsburg Landing, was undertaken by 
direction of Governor Salomon, by a party of Surgeons, under 
Surgeon General Wolcott, and a number of gentlemen who 
volunteered to act as nurses. The whole was under the direc- 
tion of Commissary General Wadsworth. The steamer Sam 
Gaty, at St. Louis, was chartered, and Surgeon General Wolcott, 
with his medical staff, and General Wadsworth, with the rest of 
the party, arrived at Chicago, on the morning of the 5th of May. 
Waiting upon the Sanitary Commission, Surgeon General Wol- 
cott, succeeded in securing ample provision for fitting out the 
boat, with the exception of cots. 

When all together, the party consisted of thirty-four persons, 
of whom the following were physicians, who patriotically volun- 
teered their services, viz : Drs. Garner, Kisling, Hoyt, Perrine, 
and Robinson, of Milwaukee; Parr and Thompson of Kenosha; 
Taggart and Morgan, of Beloit; Riddell, of Palmyra; Peed, of 
Jefferson ; Miller and Boyce of Geneva. 

They arrived at St. Louis, on Tuesday, the 6th of May. Dr. 
Wolcott, in his report says, that the expedition received from 
all the authorities, military, sanitary, and the regular medical 
department of the army, every assistance to facilitate their 
movements and secure their speedy departure. 

Leaving St. Louis on the 7th, the expedition arrived at Savan- 
nah on the 9th. Here arrangements were made to take all that 
remained of the Wisconsin wounded, on the return of the boat. 
Peaching Pittsburg Landing, Dr. Wolcott learned from the 
Medical Director, Dr. McDougal, the localities of the principal 
hospitals, and proceeded at once, accompanied by Dr. Taggart, 
to make a personal inspection of the sick, in order to determine 
who should be removed. There was a general tendency to 
typhoid fever, and many were too far advanced to be removed. 
These, and those least ill, were to be left. The Surgeon General 
says: 

During our absence, under direction of the medical gentlemen on board, the boat was 
converted into a hospital — carpets removed, floors cleansed, cots and mattrasses ar- 
ranged, dispensary opened, and under the eflicient and intelligent direction of Mrs. 



CHAPLIN HILLS BATTLE FIELD. 215 

Woi'den, the culinary department, so essential to the sick, put in complete order. Some- 
thing like eighty cases were already on board. This was unexpected, thougli unavoida^ 
ble, for it soon became known that a boat had arrived for the purpose of carrying home 
the sick 

This was sufficient to call into requisition baud stretchers, ambulances, and all the 
various metliods of moving the sick and wounded. Night soon, came on and ended 
operations till morning. 

Early in the morning of the 11th, ambulances from the hospital began to leave their 
freight, and soon after 11 A. M., we found our boat filled to its utmost capacity. Notliing 
now remained but to submit our boat to the inspection of the medical Director, and to 
procure from him the necessary papers for the ultunate disposition of what he very 
feelingly styled our "precious charge." 

I cannot allow this opportunity to pass without acknowledging the uniform courtesy 
and prompt co-operation, of tlie medical Director, Dr. Charles McDougall, United States 
Army. He manifested not only the readiness consequent on long experience, but 
proved conclusively by his acts, that his heart was in tlie work, and impressed all 
indelibly, with the fact, that he possessed the qualities of a true soldier and gentleman. 

Tlie inspection over, and necessary papers furnished as usual, thanks to General Wads- 
worth, we now prepared to leave, and in a few moments were " homeward bound." "We 
left at 12 M., on Monday the 12th inst., and arrived at St. Louis "Wednesday evening, 
the 14th. 

About one hundred and eighty patients were on board the 
boat, sixty of whom were down with typhoid fever, and seventy- 
eight with diarrhoea. Six deaths occurred on board, and one 
man was supposed to have fallen overboard and drowned. 
Surgeon General "Wolcott .says : 

Most of the cases improved rapidly on the way, so much so that one hundred and eight 
were selected for the convalescent hospital, Benton Barracks, and the balance were 
received in the Fourth Street Hospital, under charge of Dr. Madison Mills, United States 
Army, where they will no doubt receive all the attention that skill and ample accom- 
modations can bestow. I have no doubt that a number of the cases of typhoid fever 
left in the above named hospital will prove fatal ; still the number of deatlis must be 
very small, compared with what would have taken place had they been left on the bat- 
tle-field of Shiloh in the situation we found them. That many lives were saved by the 
expenditure does not admit of a doubt. 

Our ample supplies of medicines, hospital stores, cots, etc., remaining on hand after 
discharging our sick, were all delivered to the Sanitary Commission at St. Louis ; receiv- 
ing the assurance from the President, Mr. Yeatnian, that should the necessity arise for 
another expedition (which at that time was highly probable,) we could draw on him at 
sight for the necessary outfit. St. Louis being the centre of military operations for the 
Department of the Mississippi, it was obviously the point from which auotiier outfit 
could most conveniently be made. Hence the course taken as above stated. 

Dr. Wolcott concludes his report by acknowledging his obli- 
gations to the entire corps of medical gentlemen and attendants 
for their cordial cooperation in the performance of the several 
responsible duties incident to the expedition. 

In compliance with instructions received by telegram from 
Governor Salomon, on the 16th of October, 1862, Surgeon Gen- 
eral Wolcott organized an expedition to visit the battle-field of 
Chaplin Hills to aid the sick and wounded. From the Surgeon 
General's special report we compile a statement ot his operations. 



216 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

His party consisted of Surgeons Hatcliard, Dunlap, Thompson, 
Ellswortli and Kessling, of the Medical Department, and Messrs. 
Babcock, Caswell, Mitchell, Drmy, Douglas, Rood, Ferguson, 
Plummer, Morgan, and Hopkins, as nurses. Leaving Mil- 
waukee on the first train after the reception of the telegram, 
they arrived at Chicago, at noon of the 17th. Calling on Judge 
Skinner, Secretary of the United States Sanitary Commission, 
and informing him of the business on hand, he at once went to 
the Commission Eooms, and ordered the clerk to box and 
prepare for transportation, every article that was on hand, that 
could minister to the relief of the sick and wounded they were to 
visit. The result was, forty-two packages of most appropriate 
articles were ready for the evening train. 

They took the seven and a-half P. M. train on the Michigan 
Central for Louisville, via Lafayette and Indianapolis, arriving 
at Louisville about noon on the 18th. Availing themselves of 
the aid of the managers of the United States Sanitary Commis- 
sion, by means of a letter of introduction from Judge Skinner, 
passes and transportation to go to the field were procured. They 
received the hearty cooperation of the commission, and from 
them received much valuable information. Li his report the 
Surgeon General heartily recommended individuals and associa- 
tions in Wisconsin, to send their donations to the " Chicago San- 
itary Commission," stating that although our soldiers might not 
get the identical articles, others equally needy and worthy would, 
and ours would receive from other sources, like favors, so that in 
the end all would be benefitted. 

Being ready to start for the battle-field, rumors were circu- 
lated that Morgan and his guerrillas, were in the rear of our 
army, and probably along the route towards Lebanon, General 
Boyle was therefore consulted as to the propriety of moving for- 
ward. He advised against it, and subsequent events indicated 
the wisdom of the advice. 

The delay was, however, well improved, as the numerous hos- 
pitals, thirteen in number, in the city, were visited by the Sur- 
geon General and his assistants, and the condition of all sick and 
wounded soldiers from Wisconsin, numbering about three hun- 
dred, was ascertained. Considering the hurried manner in 
which the hospitals were prepared, and the accumulation of 



SURGEON general's REPORT. 217 

inmates, tlie condition of the sick and wounded was as comfortable 
as could be expected. 

On Wednesday, October 22d, it being deemed safe, the expe- 
dition started for Lebanon, on the Lebanon Branch Railroad. 
On the train, the Surgeon General made the acquaintance of 
Colonel Charles B. Flood, agent of the United States Sanitary 
Commission, also going to the Chaplin Hill battle-field, from 
whom the party received many courtesies and favors. 

Being detained by the unfinished condition of the road, the 
party did not arrive at Lebanon till late, when they found some 
difficulty in procuring quarters, the hotels being overcrowded. 
"We condense from the Surgeon General's report, the subsequent 
action of the expedition : 

A portion of BueU's army was encamped in the neighborhood of Lebanon, inchiding 
several regiments from Wisconsin— these were visited by most of the party wliilst pre- 
parations Avere mailing for transportation, the arrangements for whicli having been 
completed, we were again on our way to Perryville, the sanitary stores having left sev- 
eral hours in advance. About midway we met tlie Chaplain of the First Regiment 
Wisconsin Volunteers, Captain McNamara on his route to Lebanon after sanitary sup- 
plies. He gave us a hearty welcome, immediately changed his course and returned with 
us. Rooms were secured at Perryville, by the Sanitary Commission, which on our ar- 
rival came under the charge of Commissioner Flood, who kindly offered us their occu- 
pancy, which we gladly accepted, and therein we established our headquarters. We 
found the Ciiaplain most thoroughly posted as to the locality, condition and wants of 
our wounded Wisconsin soldiers— active and untiring — benevolent and sympathizing, 
with ample means now on hand to relieve the urgent wants of our brave boys — it can 
easily be imagined, that, aided by the anxious and willing hands of our party, a rapid, 
and, I trust, judicious distribution of the sanitary stores entrusted to our care, ensued. 

Tlie Surgeons were detailed to visit all the hospitals, and examine personally into the 
condition of every Wisconsin soldier, whether sick or wounded, and report at he.ad- 
quarters as early as possible, the primary object being to better understand their wants, 
with a view to a more intelligent distribution of nieans for their relief, and next to en- 
able me to report, as fully and early as possible, for the benefit of all parties concerned. 
As soon as returns were made to me, they were again forwarded. 

I will not attempt to detail what took place at Perryville, suffice it to say that our visit 
was timely; that every member of the party exerted himself to make it effective and 
successful, that we were cordially welcomed by the officers of every department of the 
army, from whom we received numerous courtesies, and assistance whenever needed, 
and that I express the feelings of all the members of our delegation in saying that they 
have been instruniental, by disbursing the munificence of the public, in alleviating a 
vast amount of physical suffering, whilst the moral effect is by no means to be over- 
looked. Everywhere, the moistened eye, the expression of face and the language of 
those ministered to, spoke the joy, gratitude, and exultation felt, that they were notfor* 
gotten by the government and people of Wisconsin. The words of one may be regarded 
as expressing the thoughts and feelings of all. Said he, "when we get into the field 
again, we shall fight better for knowing that we are remembered by the good folks at 
home, expecting, if we get wounded, another visit of aid and comfort." Nor is this in- 
fluence confined to the sick and wounded, but extends equally to all Wisconsin soldiers, 
a« is abundantly evinced by the expressions heard in camp as well as hospital. This 
potent moral influence alone, upon our soldiers, furnishes abundant compensation for 
the time, labor, and expense incurred, and should another emergency arise, c:'.lling for 
a similar expedition, the wisdom of ordering it, and if possible, securing an earlier 
arrival on the field, cannot be questioned. 



218 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Drs. Dunlap and Tlaompson, were detached to visit Danville, to report to Dr. Defendorf 
with the necessary supplies, and Dr. Ellsworth returned to Lebanon to aid such as 
required it on their way to Louisville. 

On closing our operations at Perry ville, the various articles remaining on hand were 
placed in charge of Colonel Flood, who was to be aided by Mrs. Dr. Roberts.an estimable 
lady of Perry ville, and President of the Ladies' Aid Society, in their proper distribution 
and use. In such hands we felt assured that the utmost good would be accomplished by 
a judicious use of what remained. 

As to the general condition of the wounded and sick soldiers, I cheerfully bear testi- 
mony to the general good management of the medical officers in charge. The difficulties 
surrounding them none can appreciate, save those who have experienced them ; hence 
sufficient allowance is not made by medical gentlemen whose professional duties have 
been confined to civil practice, either in or out of hospitals. It is quite a diflferent thing 
to prepare hospitals, with very limited or no means, for two or three thousand men, do 
all the operations immediately called for, and dress and make clean and comfortable the 
balance, from the duties performed by professional gentlemen in civil life. I must say 
that I have been much more surprised that so much has been done, than at there not 
having been more. 

To the well organized and generally capable medical officers and the liberal Govern- 
ment supplies, add the unbounded means of the Sanitary Commission, with its faithful 
and able management, better provision is made for the sick and wounded of our armies 
than has ever before been witnessed, on so large a scale, in any country or age of the 
world. 

"Wednesday, October 29th, our work being about completed, and aU necessary 
arrangements made, we left for home, where we arrived on the 31st inst., midnight. 

"We find the following letter published in regard to the Sanitary 
Expedition sent to the Perryville battle-field : 

United States Sanitary Commission, Perryville, Ky., October 28, 1862. 
To His Excellency, the Governor of Wisconsin : 

^>.._ The subject matter of this hasty note will, I know, be a sufficient apology for 
trespassing on your time. 

Attached to the United States Sanitary Commission, and having charge of its rooms 
and stores at this place, being the village around and in which the late sanguin- 
ary battle of Chaplin Hill was fought, I offered a portion of the storehouse secured 
for me, to the Wisconsin commission sent out by you, under the command of Surgeon 
General Wolcott, for the reUef of the sick and wounded of your State, and hence being 
with them day and night, and present at all their consultations, I feel that it may be a 
satisfaction to you to have it from one who has no interest in your State, save as a mem- 
ber of the American Union, how faithfully and energetically they fulfilled their duty 
in seeking out and rendering aid to the sick and wounded of your State; and when the 
commission leave, which will be in the course of a few hours, they will leave more 
friends behind them than any other commission sent out, while the gratitude of the 
Wisconsin wounded, if excelled at all, is by exultation of men of that State, in the feel- 
ing of pride and exultation in hailing from a State that so nobly and so promptly 
succored her wounded in the service of their country. 

I write this merely to express to you. Governor, and to such of your people as you may 
choose to show this letter, the unfeigned admiration expressed by gentlemen of different 
States, at the noble example set by your young State; and in this admiration, I join not 
only in giving all praise to Wisconsin, but to her Chief Magistrate for sending so faithful 
and intelligent a body of gentlemen, to represent her noble sons, my thanks are specially 
due. 

In Kentucky, and in this immediate vicinity, Wisconsin this day, has admirers that 
she has earned by her generous action and the chivalrous and gallant devotion to 
suffering humanity exhibited by Drs. Wolcott, Thompson, Dunlap, Hotchkiss, Ellsworth, 
Kessling and Douglass, and to Mr. Hopkins, and the other gentlemen of the expedition. 

With great respect, your ob't servant, 

CHARLES B. FLOOD. 



BATTLE FIELD OF STONE RIVER. 219 

Tlie following letter to Mr. Hopkins, of Milwaukee will throw 
additional liglit upon tlie operations of tliis expedition. 

Camp Reid, Perryville, Ky., October 27 1SC2. 
Otis B. Hopkins, T.sq., Jlilwmtkee, Wisccmsin: 

Dear Sir: — As your mission at this place is about ending, I have thought that it would 
be ungenerous in nie if I did not express to you, and the members of the Sanitary com- 
mittee from your State, the thanks of the sick and wounded soldiers of the One hundred 
and twenty-flrst Ohio Regiment, commanded by Colonel William P. Reid, for your 
generosity towards them in donating clothing, fruit, periodicals, etc. 

As far as I can learn, you have, in the first place, made your own brave wounded and 
afflicted men comfortable, by giving them the sanitary stores sent them by your noble 
and generous people. After this was accomplished, you extended the hand of benevo- 
lence to the sick and wounded of other regiments, for which I again extend the kind 
regards of our afflicted and wounded men. When the benevolent men and women of 
your noble State shall hear how grateful these self-sacrificing men feel towards their 
donors, they will feel amply rewarded for all their trouble and expense. 

May the benedictions of the Great I Am, rest upon the committee, and upon the kind 
hearted and generous people of your great and growing State. 

Much praise is due unto your Governor for the part he has taken in making his 
soldiers comfortable. 

Yours, fraternally, 

L. F. DRAKE, Chaplain 121st Ohio IlegH. 

The next Sanitary expedition was made by the Surgeon Gen- 
eral to the battle-field of Stone River, near Murfreesboro. Dr. 
Wolcott received orders from Governor Salomon, on the 3d of 
January, 1863, to repair forthwith to the scene of the battles 
near Murfreesboro, with the assistance deemed necessary, and 
such sanitary stores as could be speedily got together. Tele- 
graphing to the Sanitary Commission at Chicago, and applying 
to the Chamber of Commerce and Ladies' Aid Society of Mil- 
Avaukee, the necessary stores were soon got together, and Dr. 
Wolcott found an ample outfit. The citizens of Milwaukee 
responded nobly to the call for supplies, and the Sanitary Com- 
mission of Chicago investe'd five hundred dollars cash in groce- 
ries and such articles as were needed to complete the outfit, all 
of which the Surgeon General found neatly packed and ready 
for shipment on his arrival at Chicago. Several packages were 
received from Racine. 

Leaving Milwaukee on Monday morning, January 5th, with 
Drs. Raymond and Lilly, of Fond du Lac, Ilarshaw, of Iloricon, 
and Selby of Milwaukee, in the Medical Department, and JNlcssrs. 
Douglas, Hart, Babcock, and Davis, as nurses and attendants, 
all of Milwaukee, the party passed through Chicago, adding to 
their stores, the articles furnished by the Sanitary Commission, 



220 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and arrived at ITa&hville, on Friday, January 9tli, and quartered 
at the City Hotel. The wounded in Nashville were visited next 
day, and found to be well provided for. Passes and transporta- 
tion to Murfreesboro were procured. As a portion of the party 
could be advantageously employed at JSTashville, they were all 
left under the direction of Dr. Raymond, except Drs. Harshaw, 
Douglas, and Davis, who accompanied the Surgeon General to 
Murfreesboro, arriving there on Sunday evening. Dr. Wolcott 
Bays, in his report : 

The next day was spent in visiting tlie hospitals containing the wounded froTn Wis- 
consin. They were widely scattered, every house in the neighborhood of the battle-field 
being a hospital. As fast as beds could be prepared in Murfreesboro, those able to be 
moved were sent to them, the object being to get them all as near the source of supplies 
as possible. Every possible effort was made bj' both Surgeons ai. I attendants in behalf 
of the wounded and suffering soldiers, and the additional supplies furnished by and 
through the Sanitary Commission, placed at the disposal of the Surgeons nearly every 
essential article, for both comfort and recovery. 

Our supplies arrived at Nashville the day we left; they were immediately transferred 
to government wagons, — a train from Murfreesboro being in Nashville at the time — 
and the next day, Monday, the 12th, were forwarded to their final destination, Murfrees- 
boro. Arrangements with the agents of the Sanitary Commission, for occupying their 
rooms, having been made, we proceeded the next Monday, to unpack and place in con- 
venient shape for distribution and use, all the articles, except those sent to individuals, 
which were dispatched as soon as possible to their destination. 

The Surgeons were informed of our whereabouts, and instructed to make their requi- 
sitions on the Sanitary Commission, endorsed by the Medical Director, for any articles 
on hand, necessary for their hospitals, — that they were brought there to be used, — pru- 
dently and carefully, of course — and not to remain, when needed, on the shelves. This 
is the only channel, outside of the regular operations of the Medical Department, 
through which the friends of the wounded and sick soldier can properly reach him. 
The operations of the commission are on a scale commensurate with the objects to be 
accomplislied ; it is catholic in the fullest sense; the needy share and share alike its 
bounty. This is what the soldier desires, and certainly nothing short of this can satisfy 
the surgeons in charge. 

We remained in Murfreesboro a week. It would be useless and tedious to detail the 
scenes passed through during this time. Of those accompanying me, — botli surgeons 
and nurses — it gives me unfeigned pleasure to say that all their duties were faithfully 
performed; as evidence of whit h, I think it excusable to give tlie unsolicited testimony 
of an impartial and very competent witness. On our application for transportation, to 
the Medical Director, he at once gave the order, and accompanying letter : 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., January 17, 1863, 
To all whom it may concern : 

It gives me great pleasure to attest to the efficiency and thoroughness of the assistance 
rendered by Surgeon General Wolcott and corps, of Wisconsin, in attending to the wants 
of the wounded, who fell in the battle of Stone River. The medical staff and country 
owe them a debt of gratitude. 

JAMES F. WADSWORTII, 
Assistant Medical Director, lUh Army Corps. 

The party left Nashville on the 20th of January, except Dr. 
Lilly, who entered the United States service as a surgeon, and 
was placed on duty at Nashville. Dr. Harshaw, of Horicon, was 



VISIT TO VICKSBURG. 221 

subsequently tendered a responsible position in the United States 
Sanitary Commission, but his health compelled him to decline. 
Arriving at Milwaukee on the 23d, the expedition ended. 

Late in February, 1863, intelligence was received that the 
troops in the vicinity of Vicksburg, were suffering for the want 
of vegetables, and that anti-scorbutics were greatly needed. 
Surgeon General Wolcott, and General W. W. Tredway, called 
on the Governor about the 1st of March, when it was definitely 
arranged that they should gather supplies of this character, and, 
with them, proceed to Vicksburg, as soon as practicable. 

They left Madison on the 7th of March, General Tredway 
appropriating a charitable fund at his disposal of about $125, 
investing it at Chicago, in dried fruits, pickled cabbage, etc., 
which, with contributions of like character from Madison and 
vicinity, and including some twenty-five barrels of potatoes and 
onions, with other articles from Sauk County, made about four 
tons. At Chicago, they conferred with Judge Skinner, the eflS,- 
cient President of the Sanitary Commission, who assured them 
that their supplies were greatly needed at Milikin's Bend, near 
Vicksburg — that all points above were supplied, and informed 
them that an agent of the Commission would leave Chicago the 
next day, with supplies for that point. Their supplies, with 
those of the Sanitary Commission, left on the same train, and at 
Cairo, they were joined by an agent of the St. Louis Sanitary 
Commission with a large supply, all of which were embarked on 
the same vessel, and some of which were distributed, at the dis- 
cretion of the agents, at various points as they proceeded to their 
destination. 

Generals Wolcott and Tredway arrived at Milikin's Bend on 
the 19th of March, where they found much suffering and great 
mortality among the troops, arising, in a great degree, from a 
deficiency of vegetable food. The entire supply was transferred 
to a steamer, which had been placed at the disposal of the Sanitary 
Commission by General Grant, and thence distributed to regi- 
ments and hospitals, as in the judgment of the agents seemed 
appropriate. The First Battery of Wisconsin, and the Twenty- 
third Infantry, were the only Wisconsin troops there, and their 
wants were met as far as practicable. Eleven members of this 



222 MILITAB.Y HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

regiment died during tkt four or five days they remained there, 
and the hospital was crowded with emaciated patients. 

Surgeon General Wolcott remained hehind, and examined the 
hospitals around Milikin'sBend, and also at Memphis, at which lat- 
ter place, large general hospitals had heen established, and the 
sick from all points on the lower Mississippi were being concen- 
trated there. Large numbers of sick soldiers were landed there 
from every transport, and much suffering existed among them, 
and many deaths occurred. On the representation of the state 
of things at Memphis, to Governor Salomon, George C. Smith, 
Esq., was sent to that city as the Sanitary agent of the State, to 
look after the soldiers of Wisconsin. 

On the 6th of May, 1863, Governor Salomon requested Surgeon 
General Wolcott to proiceed to the battle-field in Virginia, with 
assistants, to aid our Wisconsin wounded. 

The battles in the vicinity of Fredericksburg and Chancellor- 
ville were in progress, when the request of the Governor was 
received. Dr. Wolcott finding no assistant ready to accompany 
him on short notice, started himself with the intention of tele- 
graphing, if assistants were necessary, after an inspection of the 
field in person. He accordingly proceeded to Washington direct, 
arriving there on the 9th of May. Reporting next day to the 
Surgeon General of the United States Army, he applied for a 
pass to go to the front. He was informed that an order from the 
headquarters of the army of the Potomac, prohibited the issue 
of passes. In his report, the Surgeon General says : 

A pass could not be obtained to visit the army, and nothing remained for me to do, 
but to visit the several general hospitals in and around Washington, where most of the 
wounded from the battle of Chancellorville had already arrived. There are eighteen 
hospitals in and around the City of Washington, about as widely scattered as this "city 
of magniflcent distances" will permit. It was no trifle, therefore to find our Wisconsin 
boys, so widely scattered and mixed >Tith such large numbers from other States, and 
but for the assistance of Mr. Selllck, it would have cost me much more of both time and 
labor. 

A letter from the Surgeon General secured every facility for the work before me, and 
the courtesy and attention of the surgeons in charge, as well as the assistants, expedited 
and rendered pleasant my visits to each hospital. Notwithstanding they were sur- 
rounded by every comfort and many luxuries, so much so, that in no case did I hear a 
complaint, still the gratification from the visit was as obvious as on any former occasion, 
when under very different circumstances, both professional assistance and sanitary 
means were needed and supplied. 

I have, from the commencement of my visits to our sick and wounded soldiers, con- 
sidered that the gratification felt by them for such attentions— knowing they were by 
the State authority, and regarded by them in the light of maternal kindness and care— 
constituted the chief source of benefit. 



GOVERNOR SALOMON'S VISIT TO VICKSBURG. 223 

I continued my rambles through the hospitals until I found and examined all our "Wis- 
consin boys, a list of whom accompanies this report. In the meantime I endeavored to 
familiarize myself with the general arrangements, and devoted the necessary time to 
the numerous interesting cases met in almost every ward. In this way I spent much 
more time than was necessary to barely visit our wounded, as sucli ojiportunities rarely 
offer in this or any other country. I trust I shall be pardoned for the tinie so expended'; 
tor it was more with a view to public than private benefit. With the same views I 
visited the hospitals at Alexandria, Annapolis, and Baltimore, and other large cities. 
Passed through, also the Convalescent Camp Virginia. The result of this wide survey of 
our Government hospitals, their general management and munificent provisions in 
every department essential to the well being of the inmates, confirmed me in the ojiin- 
ion heretofore expressed, that the history of the world can furnisli no example where 
the medical Department, or the remedial and sanitary means have been so ample and 
successful for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers. 

On tlie 15th of Ma}^, Governor Salomon and lady, and Adjut- 
ant General Gaylord, left Madison, with the intention of visiting 
as far as practicahle, all Wisconsin troops in Missouri, and in 
proximity to the Mississippi River, as far toward Vieksbnrg as 
possible, but more particularly to make a thorough visitation of 
all hospitals in the Western Department, with a view to the 
transfer of patients to Northern hospitals. Arrangements had 
been perfected with Colonel Woods, Assistant Surgeon General, 
stationed at St. Louis, for the opening of a United States Hos- 
pital at Prairie du Chien, and cots, with other furniture necessary 
had already been shipped from St. Louis. All the hospitals at 
St. Louis, Jefferson Barracks, and Benton Barracks, and at 
Rolla, were visited, which labor was just completed, and the 
Governor returned to St. Louis, when news came of the assault 
on Vicksburg, of May 22d, and the terrible loss in our army. 

The Governor decided to go immediately to Vicksburg for the 
relief of such of our soldiers, as he might be able to reach. The 
Western Sanitary Commission boat Champion was already 
loaded with sanitary stores, and a corps of experienced nurses, 
and the President of the commission tendered passage to Gover- 
nor Salomon and his party, also to Governor Kirkwood and Ad- 
jutant General Baker, of Iowa, and the trip was made direct to 
Chickasaw Bayou, the nearest point of approach by water to our 
forces. 

Here the field hospitals of our troops were visited, and such as 
could Joe moved, were sent to the boat, and transferred up the 
river. Mrs. Salomon remained on board the boat, and labored 
assiduously, in rendering aid to the sick and wounded. The 
larger part having already been sent to Memphis, the Governor 



224 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and party, started on the return for tliat point, the Governor and 
Mrs. Salomon, stopping at Helena, the Adjutant General being 
directed to proceed to Memphis and inform Colonel Woods of 
the number of "Wisconsin wounded, with a request for a boat to 
ti'ansfer them direct to Prairie du Chien. 

On arriving at Memphis, information was sent to Colonel 
Woods, who replied that the request had been forwarded to 
"Washington and must await reply. It came, denying the request 
and revoking the permission before given to Indiana and other 
States, for the transfer of their wounded to hospitals in their 
several States. Indiana had succeeded in removing one boat 
load from Memphis before the order was countermanded. Mea- 
sures were taken to secure the removal of as many as possible 
to the Government hospitals at Jefferson Barracks and other 
points up the river, w^ith a good degree of success. 

Arriving at St. Louis, Governor Salomon learned from Assist- 
ant Surgeon General "Wood, that the Medical Department had 
changed its mind in reference to the hospital at Prairie du Chien. 
Their labors being completed. Governor Salomon and lady, and 
Adjutant General Gaylord, returned to Madison in the early part 
of June. 

The hospital at Prairie du Chien, was established, and organ- 
ized in the following year. 

In his regular annual report to the Governor for the year 1863, 
Surgeon General Wolcott says : 

In the month of August last, a communication was received from the Surgeon General 
of the United States, requesting the organization of a "Surgical Aid Corps," in this 
State — said corps to consist ot thirty members, selected with due care — who were to 
hold themselves in readiness, whenever called upon, to render such aid immediately 
after severe battles as circumstances might require. They were to continue in service 
at least fifteen days, obeying their superiors in the medical Department, and receive pay 
or not, at their option, the amount being the same as for contract surgeons. 

I proceeded without delay, in accordance with instructions from the Surgeon General, 
to organize said corps, and succeeded in completing it, prior to the battle of Chicamauga, 
which was the first after my instructions were received, of sufficient severity to require 
any outside assistance. The following list of names, composing said corps, was 
immediately forwarded to the Sui'geon General's office, Washington, D. C. 

W.W. Blackman, Stoughton ; John A. Jackson, Mineral Point ; B. B. Spaulding, Ripon ; 
A. C. Boyers, Highland ; George W. Burwell, Dodgeville ; L. G. Armstrong, Fennimore ; 
W. C. Boi'den, Milton ; George W. Jenkins, Kilbourn City ; H. A. Hitchcock, East Ran- 
dolph; A. S. Martin, Plainfleld; W. W. Reed, Jefferson; George D. Wilber, Mineral 
Point ; H. E. Tiley, Clinton ; C. F. Ellsworth, Hale's Corners ; H. J. Bennett, Juneau ; J. 
Copp Noyes, Fairwater ; William Riley, Ripon ; S. S. Clark, Menomonee Falls ; H. F. 
Day, Wauwatosa ; J. W. Coman, Delavan ; S. S. Bicknell, Jefferson ; H. F. Whitcomb, 
Racine; Ira Manly, Markesan ; John R. Orin, Green Bay ; C. C. Robinson, Milwaukee; 
J. F. McClure, Beaver Dam ; A. P. Barber, Oshkosh ; H, Van Duser, Mineral Point ; C. F. 
Dodge, Janesville ; A. L. Castleman^ Milwaukee. 



SURGICAL AID COUPS. 225 

The necessity for this measure gi'ew, I have no doubt, out of the fact that largo num- 
bers of medical gentlemen from dilTerent States, visited battle-fields without adequate 
organization, and consequently, without systematic and concerted action — and, as 
might be expected, without accomplishing the amount of good they would have done, 
had they been properly organized, and placed under the rules of the Medical Department. 
Doubtless, there were also, in many instances, a greater number than Ihe occasion 
required, so that, in various ways, the good that was intended, failed to be accomplished. 

Under the present system, the whole matter of surgical assistance from the States, is 
at the disposal of the Surgeon General of the United States. He, no doubt, as soon as 
any one, receives information during and after battles, of all those facts essential to the 
formation of a correct opinion as to whether any, or how many, may be needed from the 
several " Aid Corps" of such States as are most immediately interested in the wounded 
requiring assistance. Whatever number he deems necessary, he then calls for by tele- 
graphing the Surgeon General ; or if, as is the case in some of the States, there be no such 
officer, then the Governor or Adjutant General, for such number as he thinks necessary, 
and they are immediately ordered to the battle-field for such duties as may be assigned 
them. 

Practicallj% this plan has been in operation in Wisconsin from the commencement of 
the war, the only difference being that the Surgeon General of the United States deter- 
mines the question whether any, or how many are needed, instead of the Governor, and 
those liable to be called for are apprised of the fact by belonging to the " Surgical Aid. 
Corps," from the members of which the number called for are to be drawn. 

In speaking of sanitary and surgical assistance furnished by- 
States, the Surgeon General, in the same report, takes the 
ground, that they should operate through organizations suffi- 
ciently comprehensive to embrace the whole army, breaking 
over the distinction of States, and treating soldiers as belonging 
to a general Union army, engaged in the same glorious work of 
subduing the rebellion, and that contributions should be made to 
a general fund to be appropriated to the use of any of the brave 
boys in the field, regardless of the State from whence they came, 
and cites the United States Sanitary Commission, as an institu- 
tion organized with a view of doing the most good to the great,- 
est number, without enquiry as to State, nation, or color, dispos- 
ing of the means within its control, having but one grand object 
in view, and that is, that their labors and efforts shall contribute 
to the welfare of our gallant boys, inmates of hospitals from 
sickness and wounds. The Surgeon General further says : 

The same general principles are applicable to State efforts, for rendering surgical aid. 
All expeditions fitted out by State authority, at State expense, feel under obligations to 
make the soldiers of their respective States the recipients of their favors, whether of 
services or sanitary supplies . This is specious in theory, and would be correct if prac- 
ticable; but it is easy to say, that, all the time allotted for useful assistance, would )ip, 
consumed in seeking after the particular soldiers for whose benefit the expedition was 
sent out. 

The organization of "Aid Corps" in the several States, will obviate this difficulty by 
placing all called out, under the orders of the Medical Department, thereby at once, sys- 
tematizing and rendering efficient, what has heretofore not unfrequently been chaotio 
and nearly useless. 

15 



226 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Mistakes may, nevertheless, arise under the present " Aid Corps " system, in not call- 
ing for assistance when needed. Such, I think, was the case after the battle of Chica- 
mauga. I am not aware that any assistance was called for from any of the States, 
through the " Aid Corps " organization, and yet, if my experience and observation may 
be trusted, no battle during the war, at least, none at the South-west, more imperatively 
called for aid, than that. 

In the early part of the war, much was said throughout the country about the in<;om- 
petence of the surgeons, and the abuses the soldiers were subject to in consequence. 
Then the whole volunteer army, from private to general, was inexperienced and very 
Incompetent to judge of the efforts of the surgeons. No one seemed to appreciate the 
great change from the home life of a volunteer, to the life of a soldier in active service 
in the field ; consequently no one anticipated any especial amount of sickness, and pro- 
bably all expected about the same attention and care when sick, they had been accus- 
tomed to at home. In all this they were destined to sore disappointment, and it is not 
remarkable that all the reports in circulation at that time, should have originated under 
such circumstances ; but time, the infallible test and corrective of all such things, has 
been busy at work, and by various means has removed nearly all cause of complaint, 
consequently but little is now-a-days said on the subject. The incompetent, whether 
from physical disability, lack of professional qualifications, irregular habits, or general 
want of adaptation to the service, on the part of the surgeon, and the weeding out of 
the ranks, of both men and oflacers, unsuitable material, together with the accliniation 
of the balance, and the experience acquired in self-protection, not only against their 
open enemies, but what is of still greater consequence, those insidious and much more 
fatal ones, disease, in its hundred forms, always watching an opportunity to seize a 
picket or outpost, and by flank movement, if the force is not suflicient to overwhelm 
by direct attack, gain possession of the interior works, from which a dislodgment can 
only be effected, if at all, by desperate means. In this way the army, as well as the 
surgeons, has been winnowed. In both cases, most of the chaff has been blown away, 
hence there Is now very little sickness among our veterans. In my last visit to the 
front at Chattanooga, the hospitals were filled, it is true, but with wounded, not otherwise 
Bick men. Scarcely a man was to be found on sick report. 

Instructions were sent by Governor Salomon to Surgeon Gen- 
eral Wolcott, on tlie 22d of September, 1863, for him to visit 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, with such surgical aid as was deemed 
necessary. Selecting six from the list constituting the " Surgi- 
cal Aid Corps " described on a preceding page, the following 
named gentlemen were notified by telegraph : William C. Bor- 
den, M.^D., of Milton ; William Willey, M. D., of Ripon ; E. F. 
Dodge, M. D., of Janesville; and L. Kissling, M. D., of Mil- 
waukee; B. B. Spalding, M. D., of Ripon, was also notified but 
getting no response from him, Dr. Crugom, of Milwaukee, was 
substituted. Dr. Spalding was absent when the telegraph was 
received. Immediately on his return he found it, and started at 
once, and joined the party at Nashville, making one more than 
originally intended, but Dr. Crugom returned soon after reaching 
Nashville. 

Proceeding by the way of Indianapolis, they passed through 
Louisville, reaching JSTashville on the 25th of September. Secur- 
ing quarters, after tea. Surgeon General Wolcott immediately 



EXPEDITION TO CHATTANOOGA. 227 

reported to the Medical Director, Dr. Clendennin, stating that he 
had with him six competent medical gentlemen, ready for ser- 
vice, in whatever field they could be most useful — that they 
came to work — were ready to become members of his depart- 
ment, and obey all orders during their term of service. The 
Surgeon General was informed by Dr. Clendennin, that Nash- 
ville was unquestionably the place where their services were most 
needed — that in the commencement of the battle, he had been 
called on for all the surgeons he could spare — that they had not 
yet returned, whilst many wounded men were already in Nash 
ville, and more constantly coming — that some five hundred had 
arrived that evening whose wounds had not been dressed — that 
his whole corps was overworked, and consequently the aid oftered 
was exceedingly opportune, — and after expressing much gratifi- 
cation, assigned them all to duty, and not till two o'clock next 
morning did they complete their task for the night. 

Reporting again in the morning, they were assigned perman 
ently to duty, Dr. Clendennin giving them all wards in the seve- 
ral hospitals to look after, thus losing no time in entering on the 
duties they were sent to perform. 

Considering his whole force satisfactorily employed. Dr. Wol- 
cott determined to go to Chattanooga. Through the kindness 
of Dr. Castleman, one of the Inspectors of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion, the Surgeon General was provided with a pass, which 
enabled him to leave Nashville, and reach Stevenson, Alabama, 
at 6, P. M., on the 29th, and from thence, next day, to Bridge- 
port, the end of Railroad transportation. We cannot do better 
than to let Dr. Wolcott tell his own story : 

The choice now lay between the ambulance route, or a shorter, or quicker way across 
the mountains on foot. I cliose tlie latter, after failing to procure means for the best way, 
to wit; on liorseback. I placed niy luggage in care of Captain Ravenscraw, conductor 
of an ammunition train, which was about to start for Chattanooga, and in company 
with a loyal Geoi'gian, who was well acquainted with the shortest mountain passes, set 
out for Jasper, twelve miles towards Chattanooga, where we arrived before darlc. We 
got off in the morning about seven o'clock, having thirty-three miles between us anil 
Chattanooga. The route lay over a high mountain, and the way about as rugged as it 
could well be. We had, therefore, no time to lose, for a moderate rain that began in 
the night, still continued with a good prospect of lasting through the day. After ;i 
pretty hard walk through a day of uninterrupted rain, whicli was drenching in the 
afternoon, we arrived at our destination before sun-down, a little tired, very wet, sorno 
hungry, but in no way damaged by the walk, save blistered ankles from the wrinkles 
of wet boot-legs. Although compelled to wear wet clothes till they became diy, no 
disturbance resulted, notwithstanding it required nearly twenty-four hours. 



228 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In the morning I ascertained the locality of the Field Hospital of the Fourteenth 
Army Corps, and made my headquarters with Surgeon Marks of our State, by whom, as 
well as his assistant, Dr. Benson, and the other medical gentlemen connected therewith, 
I was most hospitably and courteously entertained. 

I could not have been present at a more favorable period for either observation or 
service. The time for secondary operations had arrived, and it was most gratifying to 
observe the course pursued by the Surgeon in charge. When an operation was indis- 
pensable, it was skilfully performed — no limb being sacrificed as long as there was a 
reasonable hope that it could be saved in useful shape. Skill, kindness, and prompt 
attention, whether by day or night, characterized the medical corps, and I can now, 
with wider experience and in<_./eased confidence, repeat what I said in some former 
report — that no army in the history of the world, was ever so well cared for in the med- 
ical Department, as ours — bountifully provided for by the Government — with almost 
exhaustless additions of the Sanitary Commission — but what is of still greater conse- 
quence, the combined results of thorough instruction, ample experience, discipline, and 
system in the Medical Department— making the means above alluded to in the greatest 
degree available, presenting a most gratifying spectacle to any man, competent to 
appreciate the facts, who visits the scenes of carnage, after such battles as Chicamauga. 

After two days in Chattanooga, rumors were heard, that the ammunition and supjjly 
trains were captured and destroyed. Finally, during the third day, stragglers, who 
escaped capture, began to come in, and reported the facts. Over four hundred wagons, 
including the ammunition train, were totally destroyed. My baggage, consisting of an 
entire suit — more than I usually carry, in consequence of my anticipated return through 
Washington, "went up,"— not a shirt collar left. Perhaps, on the whole, I ought to 
consider myself fortunate, as this is the first loss I have directly sustained at the hands 
of the rebels. 

All the wounded, in a condition to be moved, had now been sent to the rear, and there 
being ample surgical aid for those remaining, I set out on my return, October 7th, at 4, 
P. M., and spent the night at the Pioneer Camp, some ten miles towards Bridgeport, 
finding quarters with Assistant Surgeon Fuller, of the Twenty-first Regiment Wisconsin 
Volunteers, who, by a long, faithful, and skillful performance of duty, has earned pro- 
motion, whenever an opportunity offers. Getting off in good season, I reached Bridge- 
port, on horseback, about 6, P. M., and the next day moved on to Stevenson, where I was 
compelled to remain till the 12th, from interruption of the trains. We arrived at Nashville 
Monday, the 12th, at 10, P. M., finding quarters at the Sewanee House. 

On reporting to the Medical Director, I learned that in consequence of my detention, 
making my absence much longer than was anticipated when 1 left, all my assistants 
had returned home, after discharging their duties in a creditable and satisfactory 
manner 

It was my desire and design to return to Nashville before they left, and from thence to 
Louisville with them in a body, but for unavoidable delay, this would have been 
accomplished. 

Before closing, I deem it proper to advert to one fact, that with some may need expla- 
nation. Tliis, like other similar expeditions heretofore, was fitted out under State 
authority, and at State expense, although in its organization and proceedings, it was 
strictly in accordance with the request of the Surgeon General on this subject, except 
that he, not decniing it necessary, did not call for our assistance. Your Excellency, on 
the contrary, believing it necessary, did so call, and I can bear testimony to the fact, 
which I have no doubt will be sustained by Dr. Clendennin, Medical Director, at Nash- 
ville, that it was both necessary and timely, meeting the demand as opportunely as 
could well be. But inasmuch as the State furnished both men and means, should not 
Wisconsin soldiers mainly receive the benefit? In theory, perhaps, they should, but 
practically it is impossible. Our army is a great family, scattered through which, are 
our Wisconsin soldiers, and on such occasions, so widely, that an attempt to hunt them 
up would alone, consume all the time allotted for useful aid, and the whole effort prove 
equally abortive, not only to the rest of the family, but also to them. 

Experience shows that the success of such expeditions, depends on such an organiza- 
tion as permits prompt action, entering upon and discharging such duties as are required, 
no matter when or where, or for whom. It is sufficient to know that our brave and 
patriotic soldiers, are recipients of our labors, and the surgeon who duly appreciates his 
duties and privileges, will strive to do the most good to the greatest number, without 
knowing or caritig who they are, or where they are from, so they be Union soldiers. 



VISIT TO THE POTOMAC ARMY. 229 

The battle of Chicamanga, was the hist severe l)attle wliich 
took place in 1863, and no other sanitary expeditions were 
undertaken. 

In the early part of the year 1864, the efforts of the National 
armies were chiefly concentrated in the campaigns of General 
Grant, on the Potomac, and General Sherman, in Tennessee, 
both commanders beginning their campaigns, by agreement, in 
the month of May. General Grant opening with the celebrated 
battles in the Wilderness, in Virginia, on the 6th, and Sherman 
on the 7th, commencing the grand forwai'd movement of the 
army in the direction of Atlanta, Georgia, opening with the bril- 
liant action at Resaca, the first of the series of battles and flank 
movements which culminated in the fall of Atlanta. 

In the Spring of 1864, Governor Lewis, being in Washington, 
on civil business, took occasion to visit the dift'erent hospitals in 
and around the city, and in its vicinity, inquiring as to the welfare 
of the soldiers from Wisconsin. He also visited the army before 
they crossed the Rapidan, in the onward movement of May 6th, 
reviewing the " Iron Brigade," presenting a new flag to the Fifth 
Regiment, and otherwise caring for the interests and welfare of 
the troops from the State. 

Surgeon General Wolcott was in Washington at the same 
time. General Grant having opened the campaign of 1864, at 
the battle of the Wilderness, bj' request of Governor Lewis, Dr. 
Wolcott i)roceeded on a visit to the army of the Potomac. 
Learning from the Surgeon General's ofiice, that the wounded 
had accumulated to such an extent at Fredericksburg, as to 
make outside assistance acceptable. Dr. Wolcott proceeded at 
once to that point. Fredericksburg was the general depot where 
the wounded and sick were collected for treatment and distribu- 
tion to the general hospitals at Washington, and other points 
ITorth. The railroad from the mouth of Acquia Creek to Fred- 
ericksburg, had not been repaired, and army supplies were 
wagoned across from Belle Plain, to Fredericksburg, twelve 
miles. No transportation could be procured from Belle Plain, 
and the Surgeon General, and others forming a party of twelve, 
were compelled to perform the journey on foot. The guerillas 
on the day before, had captured a party of stragglers, but fortu- 
nately for the Surgeon General, and his party, they were got 



230 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

througli unmolested. The weather was warm and rainy, and the 
roads very muddy. The walk was enlivened by the cannonad- 
ing in front, which became more and more audible as they 
advanced, the excitement lending vigor to their footsteps and 
alleviating the tediousness of the tramp. 

We prefer to let the Surgeon General give the particulars of 
this visit to the Potomac army. He says : 

On arriving at Fredericksburg, I immediately reported to Dr. Dalton, Medical Directoi , 
for orders. Ascertaining that the Second, Sixth, and Seventh Regiments Wisconsin 
volunteers were in the Fourth Division of the Fifth Army Corps, I requested that I might 
be assigned to duty in that division, which was accordingly done, and I reported to Dr. 
Ebersole, who was the Surgeon in charge of that division, and who assigned me the 
position of Consulting Surgeon to the several hospitals in that division. This was very 
gratifying, as it gave me an opportunity to see all our Wisconsin wounded in the 
division, and a voice in all important measures in their cases. 

In consequence of the bad state of the roads, and the distance from Belle Plaine to the 
army, over which all supplies had to be wagoned, every available means for transporta- 
tion was required to supply the army. So pressing was this necessity, that for about a 
week, not even bed sacks and the necessai-y material for filling them, could be obtain- 
ed — and the wounded were compelled to lie on floors with nothing under them but their 
blankets. To this, as to all other privations, they submitted most patieptly— knowing 
that every precaution had been taken to provide all necessaries, and nothing but the 
bad state of the roads, and the indispensable necessities of the army at the front, pre- 
vented their arrival. Supplies at Belle Plaine, for the Medical Department, had accum- 
ulated in large quantities, and with an improvement in the roads, they began to come 
forward, and the pressing wants of the men were more satisfactorily met. At length, 
the railroad being repaired, and navigation up the Rappahannock opened, the crowded 
condition of the hospitals was soon relieved; and notwithstanding large numbers 
arrived almost daily from the front, still larger numbers were shipped for the North 
where hospitals, possessing every comfort and even luxuries, awaited them. Finally, a 
change of base to White House being ordered, (which is at the head of navigation of 
York River,) the wounded from the front took that direction, and the newly opened 
facilities for transportation soon cleared Fredericksburg of the hosts of wounded, all of 
whom no doubt, bade a willing adieu to a place that had offered so little to comfort and 
assuage their sufferings. 

In the mean time I had visited the hospitals of the Second Division of the Sixth Army 
Corps, in which I found most of the wounded of the Wisconsin Fifth Regiment. Many 
of them, however, as was more or less the case with the other regiments, were scattered 
through other divisions and hospitals, after whom I did not look. As soon as the 
wounded were reduced within the easy attendance of the Army Medical Staff", I returned 
to Washington, where I determined to await, for a time, operations at the front, deeming 
it possible, that further assistance might become acceptable. 

On the 6th of June, I learned from Colonel Barnes, Acting Surgeon General U. S. A., 
that assistance was again needed at White House, I accordingly left on the 7th, and ar- 
rived the next day before noon. On reporting to Medical Director Dalton, I was assigned 
to duty in the Eighteenth Corps. Dr. Fowler, surgeon in charge, gave to me the same 
duties and position as at Fredericksburg. 

Here were abundant supplies— no wagoning over bad roads to prevent their timely 
arrival. It is due to Surgeon General Barnes to say that the delay that occurred at 
Fredericksburg was not attributable to any neglect or mistake connected with his de- 
partment— every essential article having been seasonably landed at Belle Plaine — but 
solely to the want of transportation from that point. Again, at the end of a week the 
number of the wounded was so far diminished, and the determination to change the 
base of operation to City Point, on the James River, being understood, I concluded to 
embark with the Second Regiment Wisconsin volunteers, their time of service having 
expired, on board the mail boat Lizzie Barker, for Washington, where we arrived on the 
13th inst., at 12 M. 



GOVERNOR lewis' VISIT TO THE HOSPITALS. 231 

A detail of the occurrences connected with these visits would swell this article beyond 
the intended limits. I would, however, say, that in the management of the Medical 
Department of our amies, quite as much as in otiiers, the fruits of experience are most 
obvious. Order is now as triumphant as the want of it was in the commencement of the 
volunteer service. Our wounded now, from the battle-field to the United State.s General 
Hospitals, have all that skill, science and experience can do for men under such circum- 
stances. On all occasions requiring outside assistance, the best professional talent of tlie 
country is commanded — with ample supplies of every description, for if anythin<i the 
Government lacks, the Sanitary Commission is sure to be present with its almost unlim- 
ited resources to supply the deficiency. I need not repeat here what I have so frequently 
said of the United States Sanitary Commission, and will only add that the more inti- 
mately one becomes acquainted with the comprehensiveness of its plans, the skill and 
economy with which they are carried into execution, and the vast amount of relief and 
benefits resulting, all the sanguine expectations formed in the beginning of its opera- 
tions, are so far transcended by its practical workings that it towers into sublimity when 
compared with any, or all other efforts of a similar natui-e, however commendable or 
useful they may be. In several of its most important departments, be it remembered, 
this grand work is conducted mainly by the women of our country. When was there 
ever before a field of such unselfish patriotic, useful labor opened for the occupancy of 
woman, and when was ever an opportunity more gloriously embraced? Work on, ye 
women of America! In the history of this gigantic struggle, your deeds will add lusti e 
to the achievements of our arms, and go down in the menioiy of mankind " to the lasi 
syllable of recorded time." 

In liis annual report to the Governor for 1864, Surgeon Gen- 
eral Wolcott, thus speaks of the important position which the 
duties of Surgeon General had been made to assume by the 
progress and magnitude of the rebellion. He says : 

In my first annual report for the year 1862, 1 alluded to the fact, that in the commence- 
ment of the war, no adequate conception of the magnitude of the work entered upon, 
was claimed. Could I have foreseen the vast proportions and desperate character of the 
struggle, and the length of time it was to occupy, I should have considered the matter 
much more maturely, before consenting to act as Surgeon General of the State. In order 
to have done full justice to either myself or the State, a medical bureau should at once 
have been established, located at the State Capital, to the duties of which my whole time 
and such assistance as experience proved to be necessary, should have been devoted. 
This would have involved large additional expense to the State, it is true, but wliich 
results, I think, would have fully justified. I do not allude to this subject in a spirit of 
complaint, but rather of apology, for the want of such interesting and valuable facts as 
should abound in a report of this nature, and which, under such circumstances, could 
easily have been supplied. But the heat and burden of the great day of our regeneration 
is so far passed, with the bright and cheering prospect of a speedy and glorious termina- 
tion, already rising before us, that it is too late now to think of radical changes, and in 
tKe future as in the past, what time I occupy the place, I shall endeavor to discharge its 
d aties, as well as circumstances and ability will permit. 

In the Spring of 1865, Governor Lewis, and Surgeon General 
Wolcott, visited Washington, with a view to a general inspection 
of the hospitals, and if possible, to secure a transfer of the sick 
and wounded of our Wisconsin soldiers to the general hospitals 
established at home. To do this, the Governor secured an order 
from Surgeon General Barnes, authorizing the transfer. Thus 
prepared, with Dr. Wolcott, he proceeded on his tour visiting 



232 MILITARY HISTORY OF -WISCONSIN. 

the hospitals at Fortress Monroe, Richmond, and Norfolk, secur- 
ing transportation with the expedition sent to Texas under Gen- 
eral Wetzel. They visited Mobile and l^ew Orleans, and going 
up the river, stopped at all the principal places where hospitals 
were located, visiting the sick of Wisconsin, and securing their 
transfer to hospitals in this State. By this means. Governor 
Lewis secured the immediate removal of at least a thousand 
invalids, and as many more were transferred from such hospitals 
as could not he reached by his Excellency, but to the directors 
of which he sent copies of the order of the Surgeon General. 

UNITED STATES GENERAL HOSPITALS. 

Soon after Governor Salomon was invested with the duties of 
the Executive, he broached the subject of establishing a hospital 
in the State, by the General Government, in order that our sick, 
wounded, and disabled soldiers should have the privilege of being 
near their friends and homes. Experience had also demon- 
strated that a removal, to our clear bracing atmosphere, would 
hasten the convalescence of many who wovild otherwise die if 
left in the hospitals in the unhealthy districts of the lower Mis- 
sissippi, or the seaboard of Virginia. In May, 1863, an order was 
sent to the Medical Director of the department, to organize a 
General Hospital at Prairie du Chien. Dr. Town proceeded to 
Prairie du Chien, where a large stone building, built for a hotel, 
had been selected as a suitable place for the hospital — the con- 
tract was closed — the papers executed, and the tenant notified 
to leave, and every arrangement made to commence the under- 
taking when an order was received, directing an abandonment 
of the project. Accordingly no further progress was made in 
that direction. 

Still further efforts were made, however, and finally, in October, 
1863, an order was received for the establishment at Madison, of a 
"United States General Hospital. Several buildings were exam- 
ined, and a choice made of the Farwell mansion, a large octagon 
stone building, three stories in height, beautifully situated on 
the Third Lake, in the Third Ward of the City of Madison. 

Of this hospital, Surgeon General Wolcott, in his report for 
the year 1864, says : 



HARVEY HOSPITAL. 233 

Somewhere about the middle of October, 18C3, it was opened for the reception of In- 
mates, under the care of F. L. Town, Assistant Surgeon United States Army. Within 
a month, however, the present Surgeon, Dr. Howard Culbertson, Surgeon United States 
volunteers, was placed in charge. 

I have frequently visited the Harvey Hospital, and it affords me great pleasure to bear 
testimony to the untiring zeal and ability of the Surgeon in charge, and the medical 
officers and subordinates under him. 

The essential excellence of a Hospital, consists in the successful results of ellbrts to 
restore the inmates to health, or the nearest approximation to it possible. The general 
police, hygienic regulations, orders, rules, etc., should all tend to this grand result. 
Viewed in this light, although there are many much more spacious and comiiiodious 
hospitals in the country, very few will be found superior to the Harvey Hospital. Rem- 
ediable cases, whether requiring surgical or medicinal means, or both, are seasonably 
and skilfully treated. Another feature, second only in importance to the one above 
alluded to, is the perfect system of records of cases, so that in the briefest possible man- 
ner, compatible with accuracy, all the important facts connected with each individual 
case, can be seen at a glance, thus leaving a reliable, rich, and convenient legacy to the 
professional statistician. Those of our gallant sick and wounded boys, who are so fortu- 
nate as to be inmates of the Harvey Hospital, have abundant reason for self-gratulation. 
Of such, there are at this time, about six hundred and thirty, including those at the 
Branch, Camp Randall. 

Harvey United States General Hospital continued under the 
charge of its able superintendent, Dr. Culbertson, until after the 
end of the war, when it was ordered to be closed. The patients 
were discharged or transferred to the Post Hospital, at Camp 
Randall, and the hospital property disposed of about the 1st of 
October, 1865. The United States generously released to Mrs, 
Harvey, all right and title to the additional buildings put up on 
the grounds, on condition that the building should thereafter be 
appropriated to the purposes of a " Soldiers' Orphan's Home." 

General Hospitals were established in 1864, at Prairie du 
Chien, and Milwaukee. The Prairie du Chien hospital was 
placed under the charge of Dr. F. "W. Kelley, Assistant Surgeon 
United States Army, and continued its operations until after the 
end of the war. The Milwaukee hospital was designed for an 
officers' hospital, and was placed under the care of Dr. A. Xelley, 
Assistant Surgeon United States Army, and continued up to the 
period when a general order closed the United States General 
Hospitals in Wisconsin. 

These three general hospitals, and the Post Hospital at Camp 
Randall, were the only institutions of the kind established in 
Wisconsin, by the United States, during the war. 

Two of the public hospitals in Milwaukee, did much towards 
the care of our sick soldiers, particularly during the early part 
of the war, viz : the St. Mary's, under the charge of the Sisters 
of Charity, and the Milwaukee Hospital. Much praise is due 



234 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

these institutions for tlie kind attention and care shown to the 
sick and disabled of our soldiers who came under their care. 

SANITARY AGENTS. 

In a preceding chapter devoted to the action of the State 
authorities in 1861, it will be seen that Governor Randall intro- 
duced the practice of appointing agents to travel with the regi- 
ments to the field, who were to take charge of the sick, and to 
care for them in case they were unable to travel, etc. The 
practice was not continued by Governor Harvey. 

At the reassembling of the Legislature in 1862, subsequent 
to the death of Governor Harvey, Governor Salomon called the 
attention of that body to the necessity of an appropriation, to be 
placed at the control of the Executive, whereby in the case of a 
battle, in which Wisconsin troops were engaged, the sick and 
wounded might be cared for by the State authorities, and such 
of them as could be removed, returned home, or to Northern 
hospitals. 

^Notwithstanding the assertion has been made that the United 
States takes care of the sick and wounded, and that they are not 
left to perish, it is a lamentable fact, that at the opening of the 
war in 1862, many brave men died for want of proper care on 
the part of regimental and hospital Surgeons. At that time the 
medical department was not thoroughly organized, and Surgeons 
of regiments lacked that experience and skill which a few months 
practice in the field afterwards gave them. It was on this ac- 
count, as well as others, that Governor Salomon desired that 
funds should be placed in his hands. Two expeditions to bring 
home the sick and wounded at Pittsburg Landing, and one to 
Keokuk, had been undertaken with beneficial results. 

The Legislature passed an act which became a law on the 17th 
of June, authorizing the Governor to take care of the sick and 
wounded soldiers of "Wisconsin, and appropriated |20,000 for 
that purpose. Under this act, the several expeditions mentioned 
in the Surgeon General's report on preceding pages, were pros- 
ecuted. At this time many of the Governors of the loyal States 
had placed agents at the several great military points, both East 
and West, whose duty it was to look after the welfare of the 



STATE SANITARY AGENTS. 235- 

soldiers of their respective States, and to visit the sick and 
wounded in the hospitals, and furnish them with such necessaries 
for their comfort as were not comprised in the usual hospital 
supplies. Governor Salomon immediately appointed the follow- 
ing named persons to act as agents : Honorable J. "W. Beardsley, 
for St. Louis; Mrs. Cordelia P. Harvey, widow of Governor 
Harvey, at St. Louis; Robert R. Carson, at Philadelphia; Colo- 
nel Frank E. Howe, at New York; George W. Sturgis, at Keo- 
kuk; Godfrey Stamm, agent in Kentucky and Tennessee; 
George R. Stuntz, agent in Tennessee. The Wisconsin Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Washington, also acted as the agent of the State. 
Speaking of the operations of these agents in his message to the 
Legislature in 1863, Governor Salomon says : 

The results obtained by these agencies have been very beneficial and satisfactory. 
Regular and accurate information lias constantly been furnished by them to tlie people 
of the State, of the sick and wounded soldiers in the several hospitals ; the agents have 
attended to the wants of the sick, that could not othei'wise be supplied; they have seen 
that abuses in hospitals were brought to the attention of the proper authorities and 
remedied ; they have endeavored to obtain and accelerate the discharges of sucli as were 
unfit for service; besides their oflicial reports, of which I caused the substance to be 
published, making, as I am informed, not less than sixty columns in the " Daily Jour- 
nal" of this city, they have furnished constant information to the press, and to private 
persons. Applications have been, and are almost daily made to me by the relatives of 
sick soldiers, concerning their condition, and soliciting interference on their behalf, 
which, without these agents, I should not be able to answer or properly attend to. 

In addition to the employment of these agents, Governor 
Salomon authorized the use of a portion of this fund to assist 
the sick or discharged soldiers to their homes from Madison. 
In the summer of 1862, large numbers of soldiers were exam- 
ined by the Post Surgeon at Camp Randall, and being found 
unfit for military duty, were discharged by Major R. S. Smith, 
then miUtary commander at this post. This was before the 
establishment of a Department of the Northwest, under General 
Pope. The men thus discharged, were unable to get their pay 
on their final accounts, for the reason that no Paymaster was 
stationed at this point. The Governor authorized the loan of a 
sufficient amount to the soldier, to enable him to go to his home, 
on his signing an order to his attorney to return the amount 
when his claim was settled. In this way large numbers of our 
soldiers were enabled to reach their homes. 

The system of State Sanitary agents has been continued by 
the subsequent administration up to the close of the war. Some 



236 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

changes were made in 1864. The offices at New York and Phi- 
ladelphia, were discontinued. Plonorable J. W. Beardsley, 
returned, after serving about a month. M. D. Bartlett, tooktlie 
place of Mr. Stamm, in Tennessee, served several months, came 
home, and L. B. Nichols was sent as his successor. D. R. 
Spooner, E, L, Jones, and Captain M. J. Meade, were succes- 
sively appointed at Nashville, whenever business or health com- 
pelled his predecessor to resign. George C. Smith, and George 
E. Davenport, were both appointed by Governor Salomon, at 
Memphis, who were superceded by Jacob Low, of Lowville^ 
who remained until some time in the summer of 1864, when the 
office was discontinued. William Y. Sellick acted as the only 
State agent at Washington, until the beginning of 1865, when 
D. Ostrander was sent forward to assist him. 

Mrs. C. A. P. Harvey, George W. Sturgis, E. L. Jones, W. 
Y. Sellick, and D. Ostrander, remained in the field as agents of 
the State, until the close of the war. 

That the services of these agents have been of great value to 
the soldiers and their relatives and friends, does not admit of 
doubt, but that their labors might have been made more efficient 
by the exercise of a more liberal spirit, permitting them to 
sitpply the sick and weary soldiers with many little comforts in 
the way of more palatable food, or articles of clothing, which 
they sorely needed, and which might have been supplied to them 
had the formal instructions sent to State agents been accompa- 
nied with means sufficient to enable them to meet these wants 
of the soldier. The expenditure of a few thousand dollars in 
this way, would have never made our great State any poorer, and 
much suffiBring might have been prevented. We have to confess 
that Wisconsin has not been as liberal in making her State 
Sanitary agencies as effective as other States. 

The heroism displayed by Mrs. Harvey, in devoting nearly 
four years of her life, to the sacred duty of looking after the sick 
and wounded of our soldiery, to the alleviation of their suffer- 
ings, to her kind christian attention at the bedside of the dying, 
her efforts to cheer the desponding, and where the neces- 
sity demanded it, her determined energy in securing the final 
discharge of those who would be no longer serviceable as 
soldiers, is worthy of the greatest praise. To the perseverance 



/ 




'^^STERK EKOEATOia CO. CHIC^""' 



-^W (S®mo)mitSJL ^ oIPo ISL^JSWlETo 



ESr&BAVED EXPRESSEf FOR CLARKE &. CO. PUBLISHERS. 



MRS. C. A. P. HARVEY. 237 

of Mrs. Harvey, our soldiers are indebted for the establishment 
of the Harvey Hospital, where so many have received treatment. 
On presenting to the authorities at "Washington, a request for 
the establishment of a United States Hospital in Wisconsin, it 
was refused. She determined to apply to the President. On 
securing an audience with Mr. Lincoln, he kindly heard her 
appeal, but stated that her request could not be granted, stating 
that the general hospitals already established were sufficient for 
the accommodation of the soldiers in the army, that they were 
w^ell managed, and that no necessity existed for the establishment 
of new hospitals. Nothing daunted by this refusal, she explained 
to Mr. Lincoln her experience in the several hospitals on the 
Mississippi, giving him to understand how they were managed, 
and how the soldiers were treated, how the hospitals were in- 
spected, and showing that the glowing reports of the inspectors 
were not based upon their real condition and management, but 
that the institutions were prepared expressly for the reception of 
these inspectors, and that her own personal knowledge of these 
matters, prompted her to apply for the establishment of a hos- 
pital within the borders of Wisconsin, where the soldiers could 
be better cared for than in the hospitals on the river. By her 
persistent effort, calling again and again, upon the President, 
and the Secretary of War, she attained her object, and on her 
last call on President Lincoln, he good naturedly informed her 
that he had concluded to give her a hospital for Wisconsin. On 
her return home, she received a telegram from Secretary Stanton. 

Washington, September 27, 1863. 
To Mrs. Governor Harvey : 

I have ordered the establishment of a hospital at the Farwell house In Madison, to be 
called the Harvey Hospital, in memory of your late lamented husband, the patriotic 
Governor of Wisconsin, who lost his life while caring for the wounded soldiers of the 
State. 

edwin m. stanton, 
soldiers' aid societies. 

In addition to what the men of Wisconsin have done in the 
war, the women of the State are entitled to notice for their great 
and persistent efforts to uphold the arm of the National 
Government in the recent struggle. 

At an early day, the sympathy of the women of the State was 
enlisted in the National cause. By their timely assistance, the 



238 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

State authorities were enabled to comfortably clotlie the earlier 
regiments. Meeting in concert, these worthy descendants of 
" our revolutionary mothers," devoted their time to the fabrica- 
tion of garments necessary for the comforts of those who had 
voluntarily relinquished the endearments of home, not only to 
contend with an armed foe, but also to expose themselves to all 
the hardships incident to a soldier's life. This first work being 
accomplished, naturally induced those engaged, to continue their 
efforts. Soon the call came for lint and bandages, with an inti- 
mation that a supply of those articles and delicacies so necessary 
to the comfort of the sick, would not be declined. These hints, 
at once showed to woman what was to be her duty during the 
war, and with great alacrity she proceeded to fulfil that duty. 

At first, these benevolent impulses manifested themselves in 
donations to individuals, squads or companies, raised in the town 
or neighborhood of the donors, being their sons, brothers, or 
intimate friends. The practical .difficulties surrounding this 
manner of sending supplies, soon manifested itself by repeated 
failures of the packages to reach their destination. Another 
source of disquietude arose from reports that the supplies sent 
were diverted from their original destination, and that they were 
appropriated to the personal use of the officers, or medical 
attendants. For these, and other reasons, the general ardor for 
furnishing sanitary assistance to the soldiers, became somewhat 
dampened. Like other great projects, where large numbers 
were working to the same end without concert of action, it was 
found that this army of benevolent women, needed organization 
in order to make their efibrts effective. At this juncture, the 
United States Sanitary Commission was organized in June, 1861. 
Branches were soon established at Chicago, Louisville, and St. 
Louis. This institution and its several branches, were dependent 
upon the benevolent men and women of the loyal States, for 
means to carry out their great sanitary measures, and they at 
once became the medium, by which the local " Aid Societies," 
which had been formed in all the cities, villages and townships 
of this, and other States, could send their donations to the field, 
with the- assurance that the supplies thus sent, would be properly 
bestowed. 



soldiers' aid societies. 239 

"We would gladly accord a chapter for the relation of what the 
women of Wisconsin have done to sustain the government in 
the recent war, hut the limits of a single volume will not permit 
us to do so, had we the time to gather the material for such a 
history. The subject is worthy of a volume by itself, and we 
have no doubt a history will some day be written, by one fully 
conversant with all thatjias been done by the women of the loyal 
States, as their efforts form one of the marked features of the 
war, having no parallel in the military history of any nation in 
the world. 

" Soldiers' Aid Societies " were formed throughout the State 
soon after the disaster at Bull Run, the sufferings of our soldiers 
on that field of battle being the first to call out the sympathies 
of the non-combatants at home. At Milwaukee and Madison, 
strong societies were organized, other cities and towns following 
closely. The society at Milwaukee, at first styled the " Ladies 
Association for the Aid of Military Hospitals," became the 
nucleus for a State organization, and the " Wisconsin Soldiers' 
Aid Society " was subsequently formed. This institution became 
the centre of over three hundred auxiliary societies, and con- 
tinued its labors until the close of the war. The reports of this 
society, exhibit the number of boxes received from its several 
auxiliaries — the amounts in cash received from different parts 
of the State — a statement of its disbursements — and treats of 
other matters of charity to which the society devoted its attention. 

A "Wisconsin Soldiers' Aid Society" was organized at Wash- 
ington City, by citizens of Wisconsin, temporarily resident there. 
Ex-Governor Randall, was the President. This society contrib- 
uted much to the relief of our soldiers in the hospitals in and 
around the City of Washington, and was the medium through 
which Governors Salomon and Lewis, extended relief to our 
soldiers on the Potomac. 

The following from the farewell address of the United States 
Sanitary Commission, giving notice of the close of their labors, 
shows in what estimation the efforts of the patriotic women of 
the North were held by those who were best able to judge of 
their extent and value. They say : 

For more than four years the United States Sanitary Commission has depended on ita 
branches, mainly directed and controUed by women, for keeping alive tlie interest in 



240 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

its work in all the villages and homes of the country, for establishing and handing 
together the Soldiers' Aid Societies which in thousands have sprung up and united their 
strength in our service. By correspondence and by actual visitation, as well as by a 
system of canvassers, you, at the centres of influence, have maintained your hold upon 
the homes of the land, and kept your storehouses and ours full of their contributions. 
By what systematic and business like devotion of your time and talents you have been 
able to accomplish this, we have been studious and admiring observers. 

Nor do we suppose that you, who have controlled and inspired our branches, and with 
whom it has been our happiness to be brought into personal contact, are, because acting 
In a larger sphere, more worthy of our thanks and respect than the women who have 
maintained our village Soldiers' Aid Societies. Indeed, the ever-cheering burden of 
your communications to us has been the praise and love inspired in you by the devoted 
patriotism, the self-sacrificing zeal of the Aid Societies and their individual contribu- 
tors. Through you we have heard the same glowing and tear-moving tales of the sacri- 
flees, made by humble homes and hands, in behalf of our work which we often hear from 
the comrades of privates in the field, who throughout the war have often won the 
laurels their officers have worn, and have been animated by motives of pure patriotism, 
unmixed with hope of promotion or desire for recognition or praise, to give their blood 
and their lives for the country of their hearts. To you, and through you to the Soldiers' 
Aid Societies, and through them to each and every contributor to our supplies, to every 
woman who has sewed a seam or knitted a stocking in the service of the Sanitary Qom- 
m.ission, we now return our most sincere and hearty thanks— thanks which are not 
ours only, but those of the camps, the hospitals, the transports, the prisons, the pickets 
and the lines, where your love and labor have sent comfort, protection, relief and some- 
times life itself. It is as it should be. The soldier will return to his home to thank hia 
own wife, mother, sister, daughter, for so tenderly looking after him in camp and field, 
in hospital and prison ; and thus it will be seen that it is the homes of the country 
which have wrought out this great salvation, and that the men and women of America 
have an equal part in its glory and its joy. 

PERMANENT BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

With, the close of the war, the several benevolent and sanitary 
organizations, which had their origin in the necessities arising 
from a state of warfare, brought their labors to an end. The 
great United States Sanitary Commission found its principal 
mission ended, and therefore closed up its labors, except in some 
small matters. The Christian Commission did likewise; the 
several temporary " Homes " for soldiers were closed and the 
country began to assume the garb of peace. 

The casualties of war, however, had left many subjects for the 
exercise of the benevolent impulses, which had been so nobly 
exercised in the days of bloody battles. The armless sleeve, or 
the crutch, told of suffering in the past, and of trial and hardship 
in the future, — the wail of the soldier's widow, or the cry of his 
orphaned children, as they mourned for the lost one who was to 
return no more — were left to remind us of the great struggle 
through whioh the nation had passed. These maimed and 
bereaved ones should not be left dependent upon common 
charity. They are entitled to the best of care and consideration. 



PERMANENT SOLDIERS' HOME. 241 

The maimed are not to be neglected, those who have no friends 
to care for them, must have friends furnished them, and those 
who have no homes to shelter them, must have them provided. 
The helpless must be sustained — those who are not entirely dis- 
abled, must have employment furnished them ; the fatherless and 
motherless little ones must be gathered together, and fostered, 
cared for, and educated at the hands of the people who have 
been benefitted by the services of those brave heroes, who have 
been deprived of life or limbs in their struggle for the national 
defence. 

To carry out these charitable propositions, it was found neces- 
sary to establish permanent institutions. In this State it was 
proposed to locate in Milwaukee, the " Wisconsin Soldiers' 
Home," for the purpose of providing and caring for the sick, 
wounded, and disabled soldiers, and also to give to those 
permanently disabled, a quiet comfortable home. 

A brief statement of what is already accomplished, and what 
is designed in the future, we give here. 

In the spring of 1864, the attention of benevolent individuals 
in Milwaukee, was attracted to the numerous instances of sick 
and disabled soldiers, who were constantly passing through the 
city. Cases of unusual suffering were brought to their attention. 
Frequently soldiers were destitute of means to procure food and 
lodging, and were compelled to ask charity, or they were unable 
to pay their way to their homes. Under these circumstances 
they were subjected to much suffering, which the ladies of the 
city determined to alleviate as far as possible. Accordingly an 
association was formed, for the purpose of affording relief to 
these cases of distress, by the opening of a " Soldiers' Home." 
Large and airy rooms were procured in one of the blocks on 
West Water Street, and arrangements were soon perfected for 
the reception of the maimed, sick, and w^ounded of our soldiers, 
who had occasion to pass through the city. Here the soldier 
could come and be provided with temporary rest and entertain- 
ment, and when too sick to proceed on his journey, he could 
receive such medical aid as was required, and kind and careful 
nursing. 
16 



242 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The expenses of the institution were defrayed by the contribu- 
tions of the benevolent people of the city and State. Supplies 
were solicited and received from all parts of the State. 

We copy from the report of 1865, some of the results of the 
labors of this institution : 

This Home is not a wayside charity, or transient recreation, but a serious and per- 
manent assumption of a sacred duty wliich we owe tlie defenders of our common 
country. It is food for the hungry, comfort for the cheerless, sympathy for the afflicted. 
It is a constant acknowledgment, that we too have duties, personal and direct, con- 
nected with the conflict that convulses our country, which can neither be postponed or 
evaded. It is an embodied declai-ation, that we at home acknowledge our obligations 
and are willing to share with them the arduous responsibilities of the hour. There has 
been no victoiy gained by a loyal army which the strong arms and brave hearts of Wis- 
consin soldiers have not helped to win. Tlirough the heroism of these men we are still 
enabled to say we have peaceful homes and a stable government. 

Having with a year's success and experience, learned many useful l^sons, and 
demonstrated the positive need of tills institution, we trust that a generous public will 
continue to sustain and firmly establish a work which we confess has arrived to this 
level of success with many inconveniences and sacrifices. 

The Home is conducted wholly by ladies, with the counsel of an advisory committee 
of gentlemen ; the total number of the corps being fifty-five. The regular meetings arc 
held semi-monthly, and the average number of ladies present is twenty-five. Tho 
Home is in charge of a male superintendent and matron, and the President or one Vice- 
President, and a Directress is daily in attendance. At the opening of the enterprise 
only one building of limited capacities, was occupied, such as our means could warrant, 
for from the fli'st our motto has been " owe no one," and the financiering has been, at 
times, fearfully close. As our contributions and necessities increased, we added another 
building, thus lessening the labor and increasing the alacrity with which meals could 
be provided and lodgings furnished. 

The Committee on Benevolent Institutions of the Senate, and the Committee on 
Benevolent and Charitable Institutions of the Assembly, visited the Home in March. 
We copy with pride the closing paragraph of their Report to the Legislature :— " The 
committee extend to the ladies who compose this society, their most cordial approbation 
and commendation for their self-sacrificing devotion, tlieir kindness and benevolence, 
their perseverance and industry, and also for the financial ability and business capacity 
which characterizes their eflTorts in this behalf." 

Statistics. — The total number of enlisted men who have received free entertainment 
and assistance during the year, has been two thousand eight hundred and forty-two 
(2,842.) Besides this number entertained at the Home, there have been fed at camps and 
depots, two thousand soldiers passing through the city to and fi'om the field — making a 
total of four thousand eight hundred and forty-two (4,842,) soldiers who have been 
entertained by this Association. 

It adds to the pleasure of our labors that the Superintendent reports the behavior of 
the guests of the Home, as almost without exception, of the most decorous and soldierly 
character. 

Of the soldiers who have shared the hospitalities of the Home there were representa- 
tives from twenty difl"erent States, as follows :— Wisconsin, 2,090 ; Minnesota, 237 ; Iowa, 
14; Missouri, H; Pennsylvania, 17 ; New York, 20; Illinois, 26; Indiana, 4; Michigan, 23; 
Ohio, 4; Maryland, 4; Virginia, 4; Connecticut, 6; Massachusetts, 7; Maine, 2; New 
Hampshire, 2 ; Veteran Reserves, 226 ; Rebel Deserters, S7 ; Delaware, 1 ; North Carolina, 
1; Louisiana, 1; Mississippi, 1; Regulars, 34; Christian Commission Delegates, 13; 
Civilians, 47. 

The last named, principally in attendance upon the sick and dying. 

The total number of meals served for the year ending April 15th, 1865, was seventeen 
thousand four hundred and fifty-six (17,456) — an average of forty-eight daily. 



REPORT OF 1865. 243 

The meals have been prepared, cooked, and served with as much care as In private 
families. The food hs»« always been the most wholesome, fresh and healthful to be 
purchased in the market. 

No pains, labor or expense, on the part of the officers and nirectresses, has been 
spared to render this department of the Homk as near the standard of the family circle 
as possible, with our limited means, thus keeping fresh in the minds of our soldiers the 
firesides they went forth to defend. 

The number of sick and wounded that have received medical or surgical treatment at 
the Home, for the year, amounted to upwards of four hundred (400.) And this number 
does not include the many soldiers arriving in need of special diet and careful nursing. 
The brief and refreshing rest afl'orded by this institution, to the sick, wounded, and 
worn soldier, has no doubt been the direct means of saving many precious lives to the 
cause of the nation, and to distant and anxious friends. 

Just here we have to acknowledge the cheerful and principally gratuitous services of 
the physicians of the city. 

It is due to the public to state that during the stay of a large number of sick and 
wounded from the Thirty-ninth and Forty-first Regiments, being quartered in different 
buildings, many contributions were made unaccompanied with names, hence they are 
not included in the list of contributions contained in this report. 

The number of deaths at the Home for the year, was fifteen. « 

The funeral expenses, in most instances, have been paid and the remains foi-wardea 
to the homes of the deceased, in charge of the Superintendent or some responsible per- 
son. When friendless, the ladies have stood by them, until the last whisper had ceased, 
as by those to whom they owed a debt which no human tongue could tell. They were 
borne to honored graves in our beautiful " Forest Home " — followed to the last by some 
of the ladies. They rest in hallowed ground, belonging to the "Wisconsin Soldiers' 
Home, which is forever set apart as sacred to the ashes of heroes. 

The Treasurer's report shows the amount received as contri- 
butions during the year, up to April 15th, 1865, to be $6,429 68. 
The Legislature of 1865, also appropriated $5,000 to the 
institution, making a total of $11,429 68. 

The disbursements were, $4,591 93. 

The necessity for a permanent institution of this kind, which 
should continue its operations after the close of the war, early 
impressed itself upon the minds of the ladies who had the insti- 
tution in charge. Steps were, therefore, taken to secure an act 
of incorporation, for more efiectually carrying out the project. An 
act was passed at the session of 1865, incorporating the institu- 
tion, and an appropriation of $5,000 was made on the recom- 
mendation of the Committee on Benevolent and Charitable 
Institutions. 

In order to place funds in the hands of the Directors of the 
Institution, a State Fair was projected. It was held at Milwau- 
kee, and proved a splendid success, one hundred and one thous- 
and dollars having been realized after paying all expenses. "With 
this sum, it is proposed to build and endow a Permanent Soldiers' 
Home. 



244 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN". 

Since tlie puMication of the Eeport, of 1865, many thousands 
of the returning soldiers of- the State have been entertained at 
the " Home," and there are now (in October, 1865,) forty per- 
manent residents in the Institution. It is proposed to complete 
the building by the 1st of May, 1866, until which time the rooms 
at present occupied by the Association will be open for the 
reception of those of our battle-scarred heroes who need a home. 

soldiers' orphans' home. 

Another project was, to establish an asylum for the orphan 
children of our deceased soldiers at Madison, to be placed among 
the other benevolent institutions of the State, and receive its 
support in the same manner. 

On the discontinuance of Harvey Hospital, at Madison, the 
idea was conceived of making use of the hospital buildings for 
the purposes of a home for the orphan children of soldiers who 
have died in the service of the United States during the recent 
war. 

It was ascertained at the office of the Secretary of State that 
there were in Wisconsin at least 8000 orphan children of soldiers. 
The pledges given by every community that the families of those 
who went forth to battle should have the protection of those 
whose liberties and property were defended by the heroic fathers 
in the field, are doubly binding in the case of those helpless and 
homeless ones who have been left fatherless by the casualties of 
war. While the " lost one " cannot be restored, the hand of 
charity can mitigate the poignancy of the bereavement, by pro- 
viding an asylum where the soldiers' children, many of whom are 
motherless also, may be cared for, protected and educated as the 
wards of a grateful people. 

The large and elegant building, erected by Governor Farwell 
on the banks of the Third Lake, in Madison, and recently occu- 
pied as Harvey Hospital, being eligibly situated for the purposes 
of the contemplated institution, the proprietors proposed to sell 
the property for a nominal sum, on condition that the State 
would take the institution under its patronage, and the General 
Government would contribute, without charge, the extensive 
wings which had been added, at a cost of |15,000. 



soldiers' orphans' home. 245 

Mrs. Harvey proceeded to Washington, and laid the matter 
before the proper department. She sneceeded in securing the 
donation of the Government additions, on condition that the 
main buildings should be purchased, and used for the purposes 
of a " Soldiers' Orphans' Home." 

The citizens of Madison promptly contributed $5,000 for the 
purchase of the buildings, and mechanics were set immediately 
to work, making such alterations as were necessary. It was 
proposed to refit and furnish the buildings for the immediate 
reception of at least two hundred children, to put it in complete 
operation, and then hand it over to the State, to be adopted as 
one of its benevolent institutions. 

The sum required for this purpose is estimated at $30,000, ol 
which ^5,000 has been subscribed by the citizens of Madison, the 
balance, it is expected, will be raised among the citizens of the 
State. Mrs. Harvey is devoting her time and energies in secur- 
ing such donations to the enterprise as will secure the early 
organization of the institution, and the reception of inmates. 

The design of this Institution is one of the noblest of the age, 
and it is the duty of every locality in the State to lend its aid to 
the undertaking, and thereby furnish a home to the destitute 
orphans of our deceased soldiers, where they may be protected, 
fostered and educated. 

The following persons were selected as officers of the Institutiou, 
preliminary to a formal organization : 

His ExceUency, James T. Lewis, President. 

Hon. David Atwood, Vice-Pi-esident. 

Hon. Denison Worthington, Secretary. 

Samuel Marshall, Ti-easwer. 

Mrs. Cordelia A. P. Harvey, General Superintendent. 

Executive Committee. — Governor James T. Lewis, Hon. David Atwood, Hon. Dknison 
Worthington, Samuel Marshajll, Philo W. Dunning, Benj. F. Hopkins, N. B. 
Van Slyke. 

A Board of Trustees was chosen, to present the subject, and 
solicit subscriptions in their several localities. 

BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT. 

For the purpose of continuing benevolent efforts to assist 
the disabled soldier, a " Bureau of Employment for Discharged 
Soldiers " was established at Milwaukee, by William H. Byron, 
Esq., at the rooms of the "Young Men's Christian Association," 



246 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

409 Main Street. This project was heartily endorsed by the 
"Wisconsin Soldiers' Aid Society and the Christian Commission. 
We append a statement of the objects of this Agency for 
Employment : 

1. To aid those who have served in the Army and Navy of the United States In 
obtaining employment. 

2. To prevent, as far as practicable, the necessity for costly charitable institutions, by 
thus encouraging industry, and aiding the disabled soldier who might otherwise seek 
an asylum, to strive for self-support. 

3. To lessen the pauperism and crime necessarily more or less a consequence of war, 
and which surely attend on large numbers of unoccupied men left to themselves without 
employment or means of subsistence. 

4. To save to tlie country a large amount of prgductive labor, at a time when it can 
least afford to maintain idle hands. 

Information and suggestions are solicited relative to employments adapted to maimed 
and disabled men. Employers are earnestly requested to make application to this office 
for every class of labor ; and are reminded that our Army and Navy have contained 
many of the best and most trustworthy young men of the nation — skilled in every 
occupation. 

It is demanded by both patriotism and humanity, that the light occupations of all 
towns and communities, and whatever work can be as well done by invalid soldiers as 
by others, be given to the men who may have incapacitated themselves for rivalry in 
more active and laborious fields of duty, by giving their limbs, their health, and their 
)i>lood to the nation. 

f 

These benevolent projects we heartily recommend to the atten- 
tion of the people of Wisconsin, who are second to none in 
patriotism or benevolence, and to whom an appeal for aid, in 
any good cause, has never been made in vain. 



In the preceding pages, we have endeavored to give a history 
of the action of the State authorities of Wisconsin, in the or- 
ganization of the military force, which was required by the Gen- 
eral Government, to aid in the suppression of the recent rebel- 
lion. It is necessarily brief, but gives a sufficiently explicit 
statement to enable the reader to fully understand what was 
done by the State. While it might be more interesting to some, 
if more detail had been given, and the several public documents 
inserted at large, we are constrained to think that the general 
mass of readers would prefer a short, concise relation of the 
facts, such as we have endeavored to give. An experience in 
the preparation of this work has demonstrated to us that a com- 
plete and full history of the State action, with the documents 
pertaining thereto, would make a large volume, which would 
prove of more interest to the student or historian than to the 
general class of readers. 



CHAPTER YIII. 



GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS— EASTERN DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations in Eastern Division — Skirmish at Fal- 
ling Waters — First Battle or Bull Bun — Bolivar Heights — 
Winchester — Peninsula Campaign — Banks' Retreat — Battle 
OE Cedar Mountain — Gainesville — Second Bull Run — South 
Mountain — Antietam — Fredericksburg — Chancellorville — 
Marye's Heights — Gettysburg — Rappahannock Station — 
Battles from the Rapidan to Petersburg — Weldon Railroad 
— Explosion of the Mine — Reams' Station — South Side Rail- 
road — Hatcher's Run — Fort Stedman — Five Forks — Evacua- 
tion OP Petersburg and Richmond — Pursuit of Lee's Army — 
Sailors' Creek — Surrender — Sherman's March from Savannah 

— AVERYSBORO BeNTONVILLE — JoHNSTON's SURRENDER — '' JOHNNY 

Comes Marching Home Again." 

Ij^ order that the reader may more fully understand the position 
occupied by our Wisconsin regiments in the general military 
operations instituted by the National Government for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion, we have compiled a brief sketch of the 
several campaigns in the Eastern, Central and Western Depart- 
ments. We do not pretend to give a general history of the war, 
or of any campaign, confining ourselves to that portion in which 
our Wisconsin regiments were engaged. It is necessarily brief, 
but sufiiciently explicit for the reader to understand the connec- 
tion which our regiments had with the several great military 
movements which characterized the recent terrible struggle. We 
have drawn our information chiefly from the official reports of 
the several commanding generals. Where we failed to secure 
these, we have had recourse to the most reliable histories of the 
war. Many minor aflairs may not be noticed, but the organiza- 
tion engaged will receive due credit in their regimental or 



248 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

company history. "We have divided the subject into three divisions, 
intended to coincide with the three grand divisions, into which 
the General Government divided the rebel territory in order to 
more readily prosecute the war. 

EASTERN DIVISION. 

The following Wisconsin regiments were, at different periods, 
assigned to duty in the Eastern Division, which comprised the 
territory on both sides of the Potomac, and the seaboard from 
Baltimore to Savannah : — First (three months,) Second, Third, 
Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Nineteenth, Twenty-sixth, Thirty- 
sixth, Thirty-seventh and Thirty- eighth Infantry, and Company 
G, First Regiment Berdan's Sharpshooters, and Batteries Nos. 
Two and Four, and Battery A, Heavy Artillery. The Heavy 
Artillery, in time, was increased to a regiment, with full organi- 
zation. The batteries composing it, with the exception of Com- 
panies B, C and D, were assigned to duty in the fortifications 
around "Washington, in the latter part of the year 1864, where 
they remained until the close of the war. 

The Third and Twenty-sixth Regiments were transferred to 
the Central Division, in 1863, and took part in the Atlanta Cam- 
paign and the grand march of General Sherman. The Fourth 
Regiment was, in the Spring of 1862, transferred to the " De- 
partment of the Gulf," under General Butler, and subsequently 
operated in the Valley of the Mississippi. 

To the proclamation of President Lincoln, of April 15, 1861, 
calling for 75,000 men, the loyal States responded with such 
alacrity, that in a short time the City of Washington was so far 
supplied with troops from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, as to insure its safety against any attack which 
the rebels might make. This object being attained, the General 
Government turned its attention to other points in the vicinity 
of the National Capital. On the 25th of May, part of the forces 
congregated at Washington proceeded to take possession of the 
City of Alexandria, and to occupy and fortify the elevated grounds 
on the Virginia side of the Potomac, known as Arlington Heights. 
A portion of the militia of the district was also sent to occupy 
the several fords on the Potomac, above Georgetown, as far as 



OPERATIONS ON THE UPPER POTOMAC. 249 

Edwards' Ferry, midway between "VYasliington and Harper's 
Ferry. General Patterson, of Pennsylvania, was also appointed 
as commander of a military department, composed of the State 
of Pennsylvania and a portion of Maryland. He was ordered to 
congregate an army for active operations on the Potomac, above 
where the forces of the district were stationed, at Edwards' 
Ferry. 

On the 18th of April, or three days after the issue of the Presi- 
dent's proclamation, Governor Letcher, the secession Governor 
of the State of Virginia, dispatched a body of State troops to 
Harper's Ferry, for the purpose of seizing the United States 
Arsenal at that place, and taking possession of the arms there 
stored. The energetic Lieutenant Jones, of the Regular Army, 
who was in charge of the Government property, however, de- 
feated the designs of the enemy, by setting fire to the work-shops 
and store-houses. The rebels found very few serviceable arms, 
but secured much of the valuable machinery, which was removed 
to Fayetteville, North Carolina, and used by the rebels in fabri- 
cating and repairing arms during the war. Sometime in May, 
the Confederate Government sent a large force, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Jo. Johnston, to hold the place as a military 
point. 

Several of the regiments organized under the first call of the 
President were ordered to report to General Patterson, at Cham- 
bersburg, Penn. A few regular cavalry and artillery were 
added, together with a Rhode Island battery, under command of 
Colonel Burnside. On the 15th of June, General Patterson 
moved his troops to Hagerstown, Md,, and from there made a 
demonstration into Virginia, crossing the Potomac River, on the 
17th, at Williamsport. His forces, under General Cadwallader, 
commenced their march to the rear of Harper s Ferry, Avhich 
was situated a few miles below Williamsport, on the Virginia 
side, at the confluence of the Shenandoah River with the Poto- 
mac. The rebels apprehending that they would be cut oft' from 
communication with their main force, at Centerville and Manas- 
8€8, Colonel Johnston evacuated the place, and took possession 
of Winchester, about thirty miles west of Harper's Ferry. 

This first expedition of General Patterson was destined to be a 
failure, as it had advanced but a few miles when orders were 



250 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

received from General Scott, at Washington, for General Patter- 
son to send fortliwitli all the regulars in his army, horse and 
foot, to Washington, as an attack on the city was apprehended. 
This compelled the recall of General Cadwallader, and the 
abandonment of the expedition. 

The arrival of other troops enabled General Patterson to make 
another demonstration. The First Wisconsin, under Colonel 
Starkweather, was among the number. General Patterson, with 
about 18,000 men, crossed the Potomac, at Williamsport, on the 
2d day of July. The First Wisconsin had been brigaded with 
some Pennsylvania regiments, and was under the command of 
Colonel Abercrombie. This brigade was the first infantry force 
to wade the River — the First Wisconsin in the advance. After 
crossing and marching a few miles, the rebels, under Colonel 
Jackson, were encountered at a place called Porterfield's Farm, 
near the village of Falling Waters. The six right companies 
of the First Wisconsin were deployed as skirmishers, and at- 
tacked the rebels with such vigor, that with the assistance of a 
section of a battery, which opened a severe fire, the enemy soon 
retreated, and were pursued two or three miles by the First 
Wisconsin and a Pennsylvania regiment. The fight was over 
before the rest of Patterson's command made its appearance. 
Proceeding to Martinsburg, his army encamped. There he 
was instructed by General Scott to hold Colonel Johnston in 
check at Winchester, and prevent his joining the forces of 
Beauregard, at Manassas, as he (General Scott) proposed to 
attack the latter in that strong position. General Patterson 
was to fight Johnston if. he could not be detained in any other 
way. From cowardice, or some other cause, Patterson failed 
to carry out the instructions of General Scott, and permitted 
Johnston to escape to Manasses, and take part in the battle 
of Bull Run, on the 21st of July, his rear division arriving 
on the field of battle in the afternoon, and snatching the vic- 
tory from the hands of our exhausted soldiers. General Pat- 
terson retired with his forces to Harper's Ferry. He was soon 
after mustered out of the United States service, and was per- 
mitted to retire to private life, without any investigation as 
to his misconduct. 




^■''ESTEf'/^KfJGRAyrtfa CaCsicAOO. 



MAJ- GEN_VvTLiiAM. T. SHERMAN. U S- A- 



ENGR'\VED EXPRESSLY FOR CLARKE 5. CO. PUBLISHERS. 



BATTLE OF BULL RUN. 251 

While those operations were progressing on the Upper Po- 
tomac, the Government planned a campaign against the rebels 
at Manassas, and placed the execution of it under the control 
of General McDowell, who immediately made preparations, and 
congregated his troops on the Virginia side of the Potomac, 
near Washington. The Second Wisconsin, under Colonel Coon, 
had arrived at Washington, and was incorporated with a brigade 
commanded by Colonel, now General W. T. Sherman. This 
brigade was the Third, in General Tyler's division, and marched 
with it to Centreville, where General McDowell concentrated his 
forces on the 18th of July. A portion of General Tyler's divi- 
sion was engaged in the afternoon of that day, in areconnoissance 
at Blackburn's Ford, on Bull Run, about two miles from Center- 
ville. The rebels were found in strong force, and returned the 
flre of General Tyler's guns with such vigor as to induce that 
General to withdraw his forces after a loss of one hundred killed 
and wounded. Although not actively engaged, the Second Reg- 
iment was under the rebel fire and lost one man killed and two 
wounded. 

Participating in the movement of the 21st of July, General 
Tyler's division in the morning, marched to the neighborhood 
of the Stone Bridge, which crosses Bull Run on the Warrenton 
turnpike, four miles west of Centerville. Here the brigade was 
stationed at the right of the road till about eleven o'clock, when 
it was ordered to cross Bull Run, to the assistance of General 
Hunter. Arriving on the field, the several regiments of the 
brigade were ordered singly to assault the battery of the enemy 
strongly posted on a hill. Marching forward under a withering 
fire, the men of the Second Wisconsin, assailed the rebel 
works, but were unable to carry them by reason of the superior 
strength of the enemy, and the want of proper support. After 
repeated advances, the regiment retired. About this time, the 
rear guard of Johnston's army from Winchester deployed on the 
battle-field, and opened fire upon our fatigued troops, who were 
compelled to retreat, being too far exhausted to withstand the 
charges of these fresh battalions. Leaving the field, the Union 
troops returned to their encampments around Washington, 
somewhat demoralized. 



252 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

This was the only campaign planned in the Eastern department 
during 1861, in which Wisconsin regiments were engaged. 

In addition to the First and Second regiments already men- 
tioned, the Third Wisconsin, Colonel Hamilton, arrived in July, 
and reported to General Banks, at Harper's Ferry, and was 
stationed under his command on the Upper Potomac, during the 
fall and winter. Companies A, C, and H, of this regiment, en- 
gaged the enemy at Bolivar Heights, in October, driving the 
enem}?^ from the village — losing six killed, and eight wounded. 
The Fourth Wisconsin, Colonel Paine, arrived at Baltimore in 
July, and was employed in guarding the railroads, encampiiig at 
the Relay House, and taking part in a reconuoitering expedition 
to the Eastern shore of Virginia, returning to winter quarters, 
near Baltimore. The Fifth Wisconsin, Colonel Cobb, and Sixth 
Wisconsin, Colonel Catler, arrived at Washington during the 
latter part of July, and were brigaded with the Second, in King's 
brigade, and were engaged, during the month of September, in 
outpost duty, building earthworks, and attaining perfection in 
drill and discipline preparatory to a grand advance against the 
rebels in the spring. In October, they were joined by the Seventh 
Wisconsin, Colonel Vandor, which was added to King's brigade, 
the Fifth having been transferred to Hancock's brigade, in Gene- 
ral Smith's division. Company " G," of the First Regiment of 
Berdan's sharpshooters, was also a Wisconsin organization, and 
was encamped with the regiment near Washington, during the 
fall and winter of 1861. In March, 1862, the Fourth Wisconsin, 
was transferred to the department of the Gulf, under General 
Butler, and sailed for Ship Island. 

The first movement of the forces in Northeastern "Virginia, in 
1862, was commenced by General Banks, under the direction and 
personal supervision of General McClellan. On the 24th of 
February, General Banks crossed the Potomac and took posses- 
eion of Harper's Ferry, and the surrounding heights. On the 2d 
of March, Leesburg was occupied by Colonel Geary, and 
Martiusburg was taken possession of on the 3d. 

After the battle of Bull Run, in 1861, and during the fall and 
winter, the Confederate forces occupied a line extending fi-om 
Acquia Creek, on the Potomac, below Alexandria, passing 
through Manassas and Centerville, to Winchester, on the Upper 



BATTLE OF WINCHESTEK. 253 

Potomac. The effect of this movement of General Banks on 
the enemy's left flank, caused the evacuation of Winchester, and 
subsequently of Manassas, and a general change of the rebel 
line to the Rappahannock River. 

General C. S. Hamilton, formerly Colonel of the Third Wis- 
consin, was ordered by General Banks, to drive the rebels from 
Winchester. Advancing againstthat town on the 11th of March, 
the rebel General Jackson, evacuated and retired from the place 
during the night. General Shields followed up the retreat, and 
found General Jackson reinforced, and within supporting dis- 
tance of the main body of Confederates, under General Johnston. 
General Shields immediately retreated in great haste to Win- 
chester. The rebel General pursued and made his appearance 
near that place, when being led by the departure of one division 
of General Banks' corps, towards Centerville, to the conclusion 
that Winchester was evacuated, he made an attack on General 
Shields' division and was defeated after a hard fought battle. 
General Banks, at Harper's Ferry, where he had arrived on his 
way to Washington, hearing of the action, returned and took 
command of the army, recalling the division which had been sent 
to Centerville, and went in pursuit of the enemy, following him 
to Woodstock, where the retreat became a rout. 

In the meantime the grand army of General McClellan, which 
had been so long stationed around Washington, perfecting its or- 
ganization, began an onward movement towards Manassas. Find- 
ing that post evacuated, the army was ordered to Alexandria, to 
embark for Fortress Monroe, to enter upon the Peninsula cam- 
paign. The army was styled " the Army of the Potomac," and 
had been organized into five corps, viz : First, under General 
McDowell; Second, under General Sumner; Third, under Gen- 
eral Heintzelman ; Fourth, under General Keyes ; and the Fifth, 
under General Banks. The first four of these corps were de- 
signed to form the force for the Peninsula campaign ; the Fifth, 
under General Banks, being intended as a part of the force which 
President Lincoln insisted should remain for the defense of 
Washington. 

The troops commenced embarking for Fortress Monroe, pro- 
gressing very slowly for the want of transports, and it was two 
weeks before the embarkation was fully accomplished. Before 



254 ^ MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

this, the rebel movements in the Shenandoah valley, as we have 
before related, prevented General Banks from complying with 
the order to concentrate his corps at Manassas for the defense of 
the Capital. President Lincoln at once took the responsibility 
of detaining McDowell's corps, which had not yet embarked for 
the Peninsula. 

The only regiment of Wisconsin which took part in this Pen- 
insula campaign, was the Fifth, under Colonel Cobb, which was 
attached to Hancock's brigade, in General Smith's division, 
Fourth army corps. General Keyes. Landing at Hampton, oppo- 
site Fortress Monroe, the Fifth Eegiment advanced with tbe 
brigade — was present at the battle of Lee's Mills — taking no 
part however — entered Yorktown, after its evacuation — was in 
the advance in the pursuit of the rebels, and was with Hancock's 
brigade, sent to the right, while General Hooker was fighting 
the rebels at Williamsburg, on the left. Marching to Cumber- 
land Landing, Smith's division was transferred to the Provisional 
corps of General Franklin, and marched to the Chicahominy, 
taking part in the battles on that stream, and finally occupied the 
position of rearguard for the protection of the grand army on 
its retreat to the James River, and camping about the 3d of July, 
near Harrison's Landing, where it remained till the final with- 
drawal of the army from the Peninsula, in August. Company 
" G," First Regiment, Berdan's Sharpshooters, also accompanied 
the army on the Peninsula, and performed valuable service in 
nearly all the battles. 

General McDowell's corps, was retained for the defense of 
Washington, with the exception of Franklin's division, which 
was finally sent to McClellan on the Peninsula. The Depart- 
ment of the Rappahannock was established, and General 
McDowell placed in command. His corps consisted of the divi- 
sions of Generals McCall and King. The Second, Sixth, and 
Seventh Wisconsin regiments were brigaded with the Nineteenth 
Lidiana, under Brigadier General John Gibbon, in the division 
of General Rufus King. 

At the same time, the department of the Shenandoah was 
created and placed under the command of General Banks. His 
forces consisted of the divisions of Generals Williams and 



banks' retreat. 255 

Shields. The Third Wisconsin Regiment was attached to the 
Third Brigade of General Williams' division. 

General McDowell was directed by special order to consider 
Washington as under his protection, and was not to make any 
movement whereby his force should be thrown out of position 
for the discharge of that primary duty. On the 17th of April, 
General McDowell was directed to move towards the Rappahan- 
nock, and occupy a position near Fredericksburg. The enemy's 
pickets were encountered and driven in, and several skirmishes 
took place. The next day, their whole force was driven over the 
bridges at Fredericksburg. Not being able to defend the place, 
the rebels abandoned it after destroying everything of value to 
themselves which could not be carried away, and on the next day 
the city was surrendered by the authorities, but was not occupied 
by the National forces until the 4th of May. 

Repeated requests from General McClellan, for reinforcements, 
induced the Government to endeavor to send a force which could 
cooperate with him, at the same time that it would not uncover 
Washington. Accordingly General McDowell was directed to 
enter Fredericksburg, and await the arrival of General Shields, 
who had been ordered to detach his division from General Banks' 
corps, and join General McDowell, which he did on the 22d of 
May. On his arrival McDowell was directed to commence his 
advance towards McClellan, taking the road by Bowling Green 
and Hanover Court House. He had thrown out his advance as 
far as the former place, when he was ordered to suspend opera- 
tions, and send 20,000 men to aid General Fremont in cutting 
off Generals Jackson and Ewell, who had succeeded in compel- 
ling General Banks to retreat down the valley of the Shenandoah, 
and across the Potomac. The withdrawal of General Shields' 
division, left only General Williams' division under General 
Banks' command, one brigade of which, (Geary's,) was detached 
to guard Manassas Junction, leaving only two small brigades 
with General Banks, amounting to about 6,000 men, to oppose 
the attack of Jackson and Ewell, with at least 20,000 men. The 
great error lay with the War Department, and General Banks is 
entitled to much credit for the masterly retreat made in the front 
of such overpowering numbers as the enemy were able to bring 
to bear against his small force. 



256 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

We have elsewhere stated that General Banks had pursued 
Jackson as far as Woodstock, after the battle of Winchester in 
March. He remained in that neighborhood until after the de- 
parture of General Shields with his division, to join McDowell. 
He then fell back to Strasburg. Before he could entrench him- 
self there. Generals Ewell and Jackson made an attack on a 
small detachment at Front Royal, but such was the gallant re- 
sistance made by the Union forces that the enemy's advance was 
checked about six hours, which enabled General Banks to put 
his main force on the retreat towards Winchester. The attack 
at Front Royal had developed the designs of the enemy to get 
in his rear, and intercept his retreat, and endeavor to capture his 
whole army. On the road to Winchester, the enemy continually 
harrassed his flanks and rear. Reaching that place, he threw 
his command into line of battle, and held the enemy in check 
five hours, while his trains moved towards the Potomac. He 
again turned towards the river, with his troops in three columns, 
with a strong rear guard. The pursuit was prompt and vigorous, 
and the retreat rapid and without loss, after leaving Winchester. 
The whole force reached the banks of the Potomac about sun- 
down of the 25th, and had crossed the river by noon of the 26th, 
having marched fifty-three miles in forty-eight hours, thirty-five 
of which were performed in one day. The loss was, killed 38, 
wounded, 155, missing, 711 — total 904. The wagon train of 
500 wagons, were all brought in except 55. All the guns were 
saved. The Third Wisconsin occupied a prominent position and 
did much towards repelling the attacks of the enemy. 

The attack on General Banks was designed to prevent General 
McDowell from carrying out the instructions of President Lin- 
coln, to reinforce McClellan, as soon as General Shields should 
join him. In this the enemy succeeded. General McDowell 
being ordered to suspend, for the time being, his attempt to aid 
General McClellan, and to send 20,000 men, including General 
Shields' division, to cooperate with General Fremont, who was 
in the Mountain Department, next west of the Shenandoah valley, 
and endeavor to intercept the return of the rebel Generals from 
the pursuit of General Banks. General King's division, which 
had advanced to Bowling Green, was recalled. The division of 
General Shields, returned to the upper part of the valley, with a 



GENERAL POPE IN COiMMAND. 257 

portion of General McDowell's corps. General King's division, 
which was also despatched by General McDowell, not being able 
to secure railroad transportation, marched to Haymarket on the 
Manassas Gap Railroad, where it remained until news was re- 
ceived of the escape of Jackson and Ewell, when they returned 
to Warrenton, and encamped until the 8th of June, returning to 
their old camp at Falmouth, on the 10th. The forces of General 
Jackson, were transported to Richmond, and took part in the 
operations against General McClellan, during the celebrated 
" seven days' fights." 

A second attempt was made by General McDowell, to lein- 
force General McClellan, but a portion only of his force suc- 
ceeded. The division of General McCall was sent by the way 
of Fortress Monroe, and took part in the battles on the 
Chicahominy. 

The news of the retreat of General Banks caused great con- 
sternation throughout the country. Secrelary Stanton, of the 
"War Department, issued the following to the Governors of the 
several States : 

Intelligence from various quarters, leaves no doubt that the enemy in great force are 
marching on Washington. You will please organize and forward immediately, all the 
militia and volunteer force in your State. 

The North flew to arms, and in a few days, 500,000 men had 
tendered their services for the defense of Washington. It was 
under this extraordinary call that the Twentieth Wisconsin 
Regiment was organized by Governor Salomon, in 1862. 

The disastrous news from General McClellan, induced Presi- 
dent Lincoln, to call General Pope from the West, to take com- 
mand of the army of Virginia, which was organized with a view 
to consolidating the forces in the several distinct departments of 
tne Rappahannock, the ShenandoaL, and the Mouiii-ain. 

General Fremont's troops were organized into the First corps, 
and placed under the command of General Sigel, General Fre- 
mont declining to act under General Pope, The troops of Gen- 
eral Banks were organized into the Second corps, under his 
command, and the troops of McDowell, formed the Third corps. 

General Pope issued an address to the officers and soldiers of 
the army of Virginia, and also an order for the subsistence of the 
troops under his command, in the country in which military 
17 



258 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

operations were to be carried on. The inhabitants along the 
lines of railroads and telegraphs, and the routes of travel, were 
to be held responsible for any injury done to the track, line or 
road, or for any attacks on trains or stragglers, by bands of 
guerillas in their neighborhood. 

The main divisions of General Pope's army by the 17th of July, 
were stationed at Culpepper Court House and Fredericksburg. 

The repulse of General Banks in the Shenandoah valley, and 
the discomfiture of McClellan on the Peninsula, gave the rebels 
such an estimation of their own powers, that consultations were 
held at Richmond, and it was resolved to abandon the defensive 
policy, and a general advance was to be made in Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, and other border States. Maryland was to be liberated, 
and not only "Washington and Baltimore were to be captured, but 
also Harrisburg and Philadelphia, and Louisville, and Cincinnati, 
were to be taken and destroyed. Measures were immediately 
adopted for the execution of these plans. 

In order to facilitate the withdrawal of McClellan from the 
Peninsula, and to gain time also, by a demonstration against the 
enemy, General Pope was ordered to push his forces across the 
Rappahannock, and occupy Culpepper, and threaten Gordonsville. 

In view of the threatened invasion, of the loyal States, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation, ordering a draft of three 
hundred thousand militia for nine months service. 

On the 24th of July, General King, in command at Freder- 
icksburg, ordered General Gibbon to move forward with sufii- 
cient force to make a reconnoissance to Orange Court House, and 
ascertain the force of the enemy at that point. With three reg- 
iments of infantry, sixty sharpshooters, one battery of artillery, 
and a squadron of cavalry. General Gibbon proceeded to within 
five and a half miles of the Court House and camped. "With 
one regiment of infantry, the sharpshooters, two pieces of artil- 
lery, and the squadron of cavalry, he pushed forward to within a 
mile and a half of the Court House, and ascertained the where- 
abouts of the enemy. 

The enemy's cavalry pursued them on their return, and a dash 
was made on the rear guard, but was easily repulsed. The expe- 
dition returned to camp opposite Fredericksburg, without the 



BATTLE OF CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 259 

loss of a man. The Second Wisconsin formed part of this 
expedition. 

Another expedition was sent out by General King, under the 
command of General Gibbon, in which his brigade, composed of 
the Second, Sixth, and Seventh "Wisconsin, and ISTineteenth Indi- 
ana, took part. It was for the purpose of destroying the Virginia 
Central Railroad. The Sixth Eegiment, with a small force of 
cavalry and artillery, was placed under command of Colonel 
Cutler, of the Sixth, who proceeded to Frederickshall, on the 
Virginia Central Railroad, and destroyed two miles of the track, 
the depot, etc. They penetrated to a point thirty miles within 
the enemy's lines. 

General Pope reached Culpepper Court House on the 8th of 
August, where he found Crawford's brigade of Banks' corps, and 
General Ricketts' division of McDowell's corps. General 
McDowell had taken command of these forces. At the same 
time General Banks was moving to Culpepper Court House with 
the rest of his corps, having left Front Royal on the 10th of July, 
and reaching Culpepper by way of Flint Hill, Warrenton, and 
Little Washington, and the First corps, under General Sigel, 
who had succeeded General Fremont in its command, was en- 
camped at Sperryville, twenty miles from Culpepper. The 
cavalry of Generals Bayard and Buford, were guarding the fords 
of the Rapidan. General Bayard reported, on the 8tli, that the 
enemy had crossed the river and driven in his pickets, and he 
was obliged to retire before them. General Buford reported the 
enemy advancing with heavy force upon Madison Court House. 

General Pope ordered General Crawford's brigade to the sup- 
port of General Bayard, and sent orders to Generals Banks and . 
Sigel, to concentrate their forces at Culpepper. This order was 
complied with, and General Banks proceeded to the neighbor- 
hood of Crawford's brigade, seven miles from Culpepper. Sigel's 
corps also arrived. 

The enemy showed a strong force at Cedar or Slaughter 
Mountain, two miles west of the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road, at Mitchell's Station. Here a severe battle took place on 
the 9th of August, between the command of General Banks and 
the rebels, under General Ewell, who were reinforced by General 
Jackson, during the night. The loss was heavy on both sides. 



260 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

At daylight the enemy retired a couple of miles, and higher up 
the mountain. The army rested during Sunday. Monday was 
spent in burying the dead, and caring for the wounded. The 
enemy retired during the night in the direction of Gordonsville. 
In this fight the Third Wisconsin was engaged, losing heavily, 
among others, Lieutenant Colonel Crane. 

General Pope pushed forward his whole force to the Rapidan, 
but subsequently fell back and took position on the north bank 
of the i^orth Fork of the Rappahannock. Important documents 
were captured showing it to be General Lee's design to attack 
General Pope, before a junction could be formed with the army 
of the Potomac, then on its return from the Peninsula. 

General Halleck had been called from the Western Depart- 
ment, by the President, to assume the duties of General-in- 
Chief of the entire army of the United States. He immediately 
visited tlie army of the Potomac, at "its encampment at Harri- 
son's Landing. Not being able to furnish the additional forces 
estimated to be necessary by General McClellan, for another 
attempt on Richmond, he ordered that General to withdraw hia 
forces from the Peninsula, and send them to Acquia Creek, for 
the purpose of -cooperating with the army of General Pope. The 
evacuation of Harrison's Landing did not commence until the 
14th of August, eleven days after it was ordered. 

On the day that General Pope retired to the north bank of 
the North Fork, at Rappahannock Station, General Lee crossed 
the Rapidan, with a large force of all arms, and his cavalry 
advance made an attack on the rear of General Pope's forces as 
they crossed the bridge at Rappahannock Station, but were easily 
jepulsed. 

A portion of General Burnside's corps reached General Pope 
from Fredericksburg, and a few regiments from Port Royal, 
South Carolina. General Lee made various atteinpts to cross 
the North Fork of the Rappahannock, but was defeated by his 
antagonist. He therefore attempted a crossing higher up, and 
was again unsuccessful. His design was to flank General Pope 
on his right, and get between him and Washington. To do this, 
he sent a force to the west of Bull Run Mountains, under Gene- 
rals Ewell and Jackson. To confront this movement. General 
Pope sent McDowell's corps, and that of Sigel, and the division 



BATTLE OF GAINESVILLE 261 

of General Reynolds, to Gainesville, on the Manassas Gap Kail- 
road, to prevent reinforcements reaching General Jackson 
through Thoroughfare Gap. The other forces of General 
Pope were brought up to the vicinity of Manassas. One division 
of Fitz John Porter's corps, from the army of the Potomac, was 
among them, and also the entire corps of General Ileintzelman, 
under Generals Hooker and Kearney. 

On the 26th of August, the small force on guard at Manassas 
Junction, was driven across Bull Run, by General Ewell, and 
the immense stores deposited there, fell mto the hands of the 
rebels. General Ewell next day, however, suffered a terrible 
defeat at the hands of General Hooker's division. 

The defeat of Ewell })laced General Jackson in a dangerous 
position, and he was obliged to fall back towards Centerville, as 
the corps of McDowell, and Sigel, and Reynolds' division were 
between him and Longstreet, who was advancing through 
Thoroughfare Gap to reinforce him. 

At noon on the 28th, Manassas was occupied by the troops of 
General Pope, and on the same day, General Heintzelman's 
corps, consisting of the divisions of Generals Hooker and Kear- 
ney, pushed on to Centerville, and entered the place soon after 
the rear of General Jackson had retired, in order to join General 
Longstreet. The advance of General Jackson encountered, near 
Gainesville, on the Warrenton Turnpike, General Gibbons' brig- 
ade, of King's division, on whom they opened fire, and a severe 
fight ensued which lasted until darkness closed the contest. 

This is known as the battle of Gainesville, fought on the 28tli 
of August, 1862, in which the Second, Sixth, and Seventh Wis- 
consin, and the Nineteenth Indiana, won the proud name of 
" The Iron Brigade of the West." Single and alone, although 
the balance of the division was within hearing, if not within 
sight, of the contending parties, this brave band of heroes fought 
the whole left wing of Jackson's corps, and only ceased their 
efforts because of the darkness of the night. Here the brave 
Colonel O'Connor, of the Second, lost his life. We give the 
particulars of the fight in the history of that brigade. The 
"Iron Brigade," as we shall in the future style it, held posses- 
sion of the ground until midnight, when the}* were ordered, with 
the rest of General King's division, to retire to Manassas, and the 



262 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

road was left open for Jackson to reach Longstreet, and form a 
junction on tlie next morning. Had the efforts of Gibbon's 
brigade been sustained by other forces in close neighborhood, it 
is the opinion of good military men who were present at the 
fight, that the concentration of the rebel forces could have been 
prevented. It is evidently a case of " somebody blundered." 

This concentration of the rebel corps of Longstreet and Jack- 
son brought the whole rebel force to bear upon General Pope's 
position, and no alternative was left him but to retreat before 
them, making the best fight he could. The "Army of the 
Potomac " was tardily sent forward to his assistance. 

On the 29th, the contest began between General Sigel's corps 
and Reynolds' division, of General McDowell's corps, and the Con- 
federate forces. These divisions were on the west, towards 
Gainesville. The plan of General Pope was for General Ileint- 
zelman, with Generals Hooker, Kearney and Reno, to proceed 
from Centerville towards Gainesville, and attack the enemy 
on that side, and General Porter, with General King's divi- 
sion, to make another attack from the south, and Generals 
McDowell and Sigel from the west, thus attacking them on 
three sides. The contest continued until the afternoon, when 
General Heintzelmau's corps joined General Sigel, soon after 
Longstreet had joined General Jackson. Just at night. Gene- 
ral Heintzelmau's right division, under General Kearney, suc- 
ceeded in turning the enemy's left towards Sudley Springs, 
and driving him half a mile. The entire force of Gene- 
ral Pope, including General McDowell's corps, was in this 
engagement with the two wings of Lee's army. 

The contest was renewed next day, when a terrible slaughter 
was carried on for several hours, the men behaving with great 
firmness and gallantry, under the command of General McDowell. 
The left was driven back half a mile, remaining firm and un- 
shaken, while our right held its ground. General Franklin's 
corps arrived at Centerville after dark, and General Sumner was 
four miles in the rear of Franklin. It appears at this time that 
General Pope was suffering for provisions for his men and 
forage for his horses. 

Apprehensions that the enemy would attempt to occupy the 
road to Centerville, in their rear, made it necessary for General 



INVASION OF MARYLAND. 263 

Pope's forces to fall back, which they did, leaving the field of 
battle with its killed and wounded in the hands of the enemy. 
The "Iron Brigade" acted as the rear guard. 

A truce was made between Generals Pope and Lee for the 
removal of the wounded. 

An attempt was made by the enemy on the 31st to turn Gene- 
ral Pope's right. This was prevented by that Genferal changing 
his front. General Banks joined General Pope at Germantown, 
on Sunday, September 1st, after burning large quantities of rol- 
ling stock, ammunition, etc., on the railroad, near Manassas. On 
the same day, General Burnside evacuated Fredericksburg, after 
burning commissary stores, and destroying the bridges. Aquia 
Creek was also evacuated. 

General Pope's forces, on the 1st of September, were posted 
in and around Germantown and Fairfax Court House, General 
McDowell's corps being two miles to the west of Fairfax. A severe 
fight occurred in this position on the 1st of September, in which 
Generals Stevens and Kearney were killed. On the 2d, the 
whole army was ordered to fall back to the defenses at Washing- 
ton, which was executed on the 2d and 3d of September, after 
fifteen days of fighting and retreating. 

The Confederate Army moved towards Vienna, threatening 
the Chain Bridge near Washington. The invasion of Mary- 
laud was now open to the rebel forces. Lee accordingly drew 
off" his army towards Leesburg, and crossed the Potomac at 
Poland's Ferry, and also above Point of Rocks. His force 
consisted of the divisions of Longstreet, Jackson, Ewell, A, P. 
Hill and D. H. Hill. Proceeding in the direction of Frederick, 
he entered that city on the 6th of September, leaving it on the 
10th, continuing toward Hagerstown, entering that city the 
same day. Evacuating Frederick and Hagerstown, he posted 
himself along the crest of South Mountain, awaiting the 
advance of McClellan's forces. 

This invasion of Maryland caused great excitement in the 
adjoining counties of Pennsylvania, the farmers sending away 
their wives, children and cattle, and hastening to take up arms. 
Governor Curtin, of Pennsylvania, called for fifty thousand 
volunteers to defend the State from invasion. Seventy-five 
thousand men responded to the call. The neighboring States 



264 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

were equally excited, and the troops collected under tlie call 
for three hundred thousand men were hurried to Washington 
and Ilarrisburg. 

General McClellan was, by order of September 2d, placed 
in command of the fortifications around "Washington, and of 
all the troops for the defense of the Capital. He found it ne- 
cessary to reorganize the several distinct armies, which were 
then congregated around "Washington, composed of the forces 
formerly under General Pope, and his own army of the Potomac, 
and the army which occupied the defenses of Washington. 

The army designed for the march into Maryland was or- 
ganized as follows: — The right wing, composed of the Ninth 
Corps, under General Reno, and the First Corps, made up 
mostly of the troops of McDowell's old corps, under General 
Hooker, was commanded by General Burnside. The center, 
formed of the Second Corps of General Sumner, and the 
Twelfth Corps, made up of General Banks' old corps, under 
General Williams, subsequently at the battle of Antietam, under 
General Mansfield, was commanded by General Sumner. The 
left wing was formed of the Sixth Corps of the Army of the 
Potomac, General Franklin, and Couch's division and Sykes' divi- 
sion, of the Fifth Corps, all under command of General 
Franklin. 

General King's division was in General Hooker's corps. Gene- 
ral King accompanied it until near South Mountain, when he 
was relieved, and General Hatch took command. In the battle 
of South Mountain, General Hatch was wounded, and General 
Doubleday was placed in command of King's old division. Gib 
bon's " Iron Brigade " was still attached to the division. 
. The Third Wisconsin was located in General Williams' Twelfth 
Corps, and the Fifth in Franklin's Sixth Corps. The sharpshoot- 
ers were in Fitz John Porter's Fifth Corps, (Couch and Syke's 
divisions,) which was held in reserve at Antietam. 

Having intelligence that General Lee was in Maryland, Gene- 
ral McClellan was ordered to pursue him with all the troops not 
required for the defense of Washington. On the 5th of Septem- 
ber, most of the army was in motion, rapidly advancing into 
Maryland. On the 13th, General McClellan's forces came in 



BATTLE OF SOUTH MOUNTAIN. 2G5 

contact with the Confederate rear, and drove it out of Middle- 
town. On the 14th, the Confederates were found posted on the 
east side of the South ^Mountain, stretching on a line north and 
south. Early in the morning, the advance came in contact with 
the enemy, who retreated slowly towards Boonsboro. 

The enemy were found strongly posted in the vicinity of 
Turner's Pass. General Reno, in the forenoon, carried the crest 
of the heights on the left of the Pass or Gap, and General 
Hooker, with the Pennsylvania Reserves, carried the heights to 
the right, while Gibbon's " Iron Brigade " were assigned the 
duty of storming the Pass itself on the main road, which they 
accomplished, after an obstinate resistance, some time after dark. 
The brigade used up the last of its ammunition, and also the 
contents of the cartridge boxes found on the dead and wounded, 
and held the Pass until they were relieved by Gorman's brigade 
of Sedgwick's division. Here Captain Colwell, of Company B, 
Second Wisconsin, was killed. 

During the night of the 14th of September, the enemy left his 
position at South Mountain. Pursuit was made next day, and 
General Lee was found in a strong positioi) on the Elk Ridge, on 
the west side of Antietam Creek. On the 16th of September, 
examination showed the enemy's lines stretching across the angle 
formed by the Potomac and Antietam, protected on the flanks 
by these streams. General McClellan's line confronted the 
enemy. General Hooker's corps occupying his extreme right, 
and General Burnside the extreme left, Mansfield's corps was 
on Hooker's left. 

In the afternoon of the 16th, General Hooker's corps crossed 
the Antietam, and attacked the enemy, and attempted to turn 
his left flank. General Meade's division advanced, and a sharp 
contest ensued, in which General Meade succeeded in driving 
his antagonist from the strip of woods where he was first met. 
The firing lasted till dark, Avhen General Hooker's corps rested 
on their arms on the ground won from the enemy. 

During the night, General Mansfield's Twelfth Corps, consist- 
ing of the divisions of Generals Green and Williams, crossed at 
the same place as Hooker did the day before. At day light on 
the 17th, the action commenced, and General Hooker's corps was 
soon engaged, and drove the enemy from the open field in front 



266 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of the first line of woods into a second line "beyond. The con- 
test was obstinate, and became more determined as General 
Hooker advanced. He, therefore, ordered up the corps of Gene- 
ral Mansfield. The First Division (General Williams) deployed 
to the right on approaching the enemy, Crawford's brigade on 
the right and Gordon s on the left. Green's division joined the 
left of Gordon's brigade. While deploying thus. General Mans- 
field fell mortally wounded. The command of the Twelfth 
Corps devolved on General Williams. General Crawford took 
command of the First Division. Line of battle was forjned, and 
the battle began about 7, A. M. The enemy met the attack in 
the open fields while his main force occupied the woods to the 
west of the turnpike. These woods were traversed by out- 
cropping ledges of rock. To the right and rear was a hill com- 
manding the debouche of the woods, and in the fields was a 
long line of stone fences continued by breastworks of rails which 
covered the enemy's infantry. For two hours the battle raged 
with varied success. Ultimately, our troops succeeded in forcing 
the enemy back into the woods near the turnpike. At about 9, 
A. M., General Sedgwick's division of Sumner's corps arrived 
on the field. Forming in three lines, the division moved upon 
the field of battle, passing diagonally to the front across the open 
space in front of General Williams' division, which enabled the 
latter to withdraw. 

Driving the enemy before them, the first line met a heavy fire 
of musketry and shell from the infantry behind the stone wall, 
and the batteries on the hill, meanwhile the enemy crowded back 
the troops of General Green's division, and appeared in Sedg- 
wick's rear. Pouring in a hot fire, he was able to throw Sedg- 
wick's division into temporary confusion. It soon rallied, 
however, and again poured a destructive fire into the enemy. 
During this attack on Sedgwick's division. General Gordon, of 
Williams' division, moved forward with part of his brigade, to 
his support, teaching the position of Sedgwick's left, he found 
that it had given way, leaving him with his small force, alone 
opposed to the enemy. He therefore withdrew to the rear of the 
batteries in the second line of woods. These batteries opened 
with such a hot fire as to compel the enemy to take shelter in 
the woods and rocks beyond the turnpike. 



BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. 267 

Tlie battle was equally severe along the whole line, particularly 
ill the afternoon. Our Wisconsin regiments, " the Iron Brig- 
ade," and the Third Regiment, were engaged in the tight on the 
right, which we have endeavored to describe. Franklin's corps 
arrived on the iield between twelve and one, and were intended 
as a reserve, but it becoming necessarj^ to aid a battery which 
occupied a position without support, the several regiments of 
Hancock's brigade, in Smith's division, were ordered to its sup- 
port, with additional batteries. General Hancock had taken 
command of General Richardson's division, that oiRcer being 
mortally wounded, leaving his brigade in command of Colonel 
Cobb, of the Fifth Regiment. Colonel Cobb retained this 
position until the battle was over. 

On the extreme left. General Burnside was fighting gallantly, 
endeavoring to hold the lower bridge across the Potomac. Find- 
ing his force inadequate to do so, he sent to General McClellan 
for reinforcements, that General replied by sending him a single 
battery. The fight continued on the left till dark, resulting in 
the repulse of the enemy. Nearly two hundred thousand men and 
five hundred pieces of artillery were for fourteen hours engaged 
in this sanguinary strife. 

On the 18lh, General Lee withdrew across the Potomac, and 
abandoned the invasion of Maryland. On the 20th, Harper's 
Ferry was evacuated by the enemy, who fell back on Winchester, 
while McClellan rested his exhausted troops a few days. On the 
1st of October, the army was visited by President Lincoln, who . 
was cordially received, and remained until the 4th. 

General McClellan did not move his army in pursuit of the 
enemy until the 26th of October. Then the enemy fell back as 
his force advanced. 

General McClellan established his headquarters at Rectortown, 
on the Manassas Gap Railroad, between Manassas Gap and 
Thoroughfare Gap. On the night of the 7th of November, Ge- 
neral AlcClellan received an order from President Lincoln to 
surrender the command of his army to General Burnside, and 
report himself immediately at Trenton, New Jersey. This order 
ended the services of General McClellan in the war of the 
rebellion. 



268 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The mass of General Lee's forces retired to Gordonsville, soutli 
of the Rapidan, and General Burnside's army concentrated at 
Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg. Acquia Creek was again 
made the point of supplies. The army was organized into three 
grand divisions, viz., the Second and Ninth Corps formed the 
right grand division, under Major General Sumner ; the First 
and Sixth Corps formed the left grand division, under Major Ge- 
neral Franklin ; the Third and Fifth Corps formed the center 
grand division, under Major General Hooker. The Eleventh 
Corps, under General Sigel, was assigned as a reserve. To this 
corps the Twenty- sixth Wisconsin, under Colonel Jacobs, was 
attached, having arrived at Washington the second week in Oc- 
tober. We are not going into detail of all the operations at Fred- 
ericksburg, further than to say that General Burnside's plan of 
operating against Richmond was frustrated by the untimely 
detention of the pontoons which delayed the crossing of the river 
and the occupation of Fredericksburg until the enemy had con- 
centrated so strong a force there that when General Burnside, in 
December, attacked the city, he was repulsed. 

In the battle of Fredericksburg, the " Iron Brigade," the Fifth 
Wisconsin, and Company G, sharpshooters, were engaged, but 
not in a very exposed position, and their losses were small. 

After the battle of Fredericksburg, the army of General Burn- 
side remained inactive for some weeks. About the middle of 
January, the roads being dry and hard, the pontoons were 
brought up from Belle Plain to Falmouth, and taken to the river 
some distance above. Orders were issued for the march of the 
army, and a general movement was commenced on the 20th of 
January ; but on that night a storm of wind and rain commenc- 
ed, which, before morning, rendered the roads impassable. In 
every gully, batteries, caissons, supply wagons, ambulances 
and pontoons were mired. Such was the condition of the roads, 
that it was found impossible to move the array forward, and on 
the 23d of January, the movement was abandoned, and the 
troops returned to winter quarters. This is known as the " Mud 
Campaign." 

On the 26th of January, the command of the Army of the Po- 
tomac was transferred to General Hooker, at General Burnside's 
request. The troops remained in winter quarters until the 27th 



BATTLE OF CHANCELLORVILLE. 269 

of April, when a forward movement was commenced. The 
enemy held a line running from northwest to southeast. Its 
right wing extended from Port Royal, on the Rappahannock, 
while its left wing rested above Fredericksburg, on the same 
river. His army consisted of seventy thousand men. General 
Hooker had one hundred and twenty thousand men under his 
command. He proposed to attack General Lee, by massing 
three corps below Fredericksburg, to cross there and make a 
feint attack on the enemy, when two of the corps were to return 
and join the other four corps, which, in the meantinie, would 
cross at fords ten to twenty miles above Fredericksburg. His 
object in moving down upon the enemy's left was to force him 
to light outside of his entrenchments, or to fall back on 
Richmond. 

At the opening of the campaign, in 1863, the Wisconsin regi 
ments were located as follows : — The " Iron Brigade " was the 
First Brigade, First Division, General TVadsw^orth, First Corps, 
under Major General Reynolds. The Third Regiment was in 
General "Williams' Division of the Twelfth Corps, General How- 
ard. The Fifth Regiment was in the " Light Division " of the 
Sixth Corps, General Sedgwick. The Twenty-sixth Regiment 
was in the Eleventh Corps, General Sigel. The Sharpshooters 
were attached to the Third Division, General Whipple, Third 
Corps, at the battle of Chancellorville, but was transferred on 
the 11th of June to the Second Brigade of the First Division. 

On the 27th of April, the Eleventh Corps, General Howard, 
the Twelfth Corps, General Slocum, and the Fifth Corps, under 
General Meade, marched westward, the Eleventh Corps crossing 
near Kelly's Ford, and the Twelfth Corps crossed the next morn- 
ing. The Fifth Corps crossed a little lower down. The three corps 
were massed at Chancellorville, between five and ten miles from 
the Ford, where General Hooker arrived, and established his 
headquarters. The Second Corps, under General Couch, took 
position at Banks' Ford, five miles above Fredericksburg. 
Stoneman's cavalry were sent to cut the enemy's communica- 
tions with Richmond. Of the other three corps, the First, Third 
and Sixth moved, and took position two miles below Fredericks- 
burg. Early next morning, one division of the Sixth Corps 
crossed two miles below Fredericksburg, and one division of the 



270 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

First Corps, the Iron Brigade leading the advance, about one 
mile further down. The Third Corps was ordered to join Gene- 
ral Hooker at Chancellorville, and crossed at United States Ford 

About noon of Friday, May 1st, the Fifth and Twelfth Corps 
were advanced by separate roads towards Fredericksburg, the 
former on the left, the latter on the right. Heavy firing ensued 
in about an hour, which continued for some time, extending 
towards the right wing. Orders were sent by General Hooker 
for the two columns to fall back slowly, w^hich was done, and 
everything became quiet till about 4 o'clock, when the enemy 
appeared in line of battle in an open field, fronting a dense wood 
on the right of General Hooker, about a mile from Chancellor- 
ville. An artillery fire on both sides was kept up all night, 
when the enemy retired. Intrenchments were thrown up by 
Hooker's army. On the next day, Saturday, the First Corps, under 
General Reynolds, crossed at United States Ford and took a 
position on the right. 

The enemy, during the night, were engaged in cutting a road 
past the Federal pickets on the right, and wagons were seen 
passing up the road on Saturday. By a reconnoi-sance next day, 
it was ascertained that these trains were ordnance wagons and 
ambulances following a column of troops. It was at once in- 
ferred that Jackson was to make a sudden and fierce attack upon 
the extreme right. To defeat this object, General Sickles was 
ordered to push forward Birney's division of his corps, which 
advanced with great vigor, cutting in twain a column of the 
enemy still moving up the road. General Williams, of Slocum's 
corps, which had orders to cooperate, then commenced a flank 
movement which promised great success, Notwithstanding 
these movements, the enemy, about five o'clock, opened the 
battle by a terrific musketry fire on the extreme right. The 
First Division of General Devin, of the Eleventh Corps, was the 
first assailed, and almost instantly gave way, it being attacked in 
the front and flanks at the same time. The division finding 
themselves overpowered, turned and run over and through the 
division of General Schurz, causing some confusion in the latter, 
but they soon rallied, and the second line of this division changed 
front from south to west, and with the assistance of a battery on 
the left, checked the enemy for a short time, while the first line 



BATTLE OF CHANCELLORVILLE. 271 

of Schurz's division, in connection with Colonel Biishbeck's 
brigade of General Steinwher's Second Division formed behind 
this second line, and occupied the rifle pits, receiving the entire 
shock of the battle, and holding the enemy in check for at least 
an hour, when the corps behind came to their assistance. For 
the panic and disaster which occurred in the Eleventh corps, 
General Schurz was in no way responsible, as General Howard 
has willingly asserted. 

General Hooker sent to General Howard's assistance, the divi- 
sion of General Berry, of the Third Corps, whose artillery, under 
Captain Best, after a sanguinary contest, checked the advance of 
the enemy. Generals Sickles and Slocum, were recalled. Gen- 
eral Williams' division found a portion of their works occupied 
by the enemy, and General Sickles found himself cut off on the 
route by which he had advanced. The communications were, 
however, established by a night attack, under General Woods. 
General Hooker was compelled to contract his lines and act 
on the defensive, protected by breastworks and intrenchments. 

During the night, the First Corps, General Reynolds, and the 
Fifth Corps, General Meade, were transferred to Hooker's right, 
where they intrenched themselves. The Eleventh Corps was 
transferred to the old position of the Fifth Corps, and reorganized. 

On the next morning, Sunday, the enemy were seen about a 
mile and a-half from the Chancellorville House, the headquarters 
of General Hooker. The Federal line was formed by General 
Berry's division on the right. General Birney's on his left, and 
Generals Williams and Whipple, supporting. In General Wil- 
liams' division, the Third Wisconsin was brigaded, and Berdan's 
Sharpshooters were attached to Whipple's division. The enemy 
advanced in overwheliming numbers for the purpose of crushing 
the Federal lines, but the forces of Generals Sickles and Slocum, 
held them in check. The struggle was desperate, the carnage 
great — continuing till near nine o'clock, without the slightest 
intermission, when it lulled for the reason that the ammunition was 
expended on the Federal side. Bayonets took the place of pow- 
der, and the position was held until a fresh supply was received, 
and orders came to fall back to headquarters, where the contest 
was continued — the house being burned by a shell from the 
enemy — until nearly twelve o'clock, midnight, when the musketry 



272 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

fire ceased. General Hooker contracted his lines still further, 
acting on the defensive. The enemy attacked next day, but were 
driven back. 

While this was transpiring near Chancellorville, General Sedg- 
wick was operating against the Heights of Fredericksburg, being 
ordered to march out on the plank road to Chancellorville, until 
he connected with Hooker's right. The three divisions of the 
Sixth Corps crossed on the night of the 2d of May, two or three 
miles below the city. At four o'clock, on the 4th of May, the 
head of the corps was in motion towards Fredericksburg. It 
was halted, and the several intrenchments on the heights were 
assaulted and taken with considerable loss, among others, the 
forts on what is known as " Marye's Hill," were taken by the 
gallant Fifth Wisconsin, led by the brave Colonel Thomas S. 
Allen. The ground in front of this hill, was known as the 
" Slaughter Pen," General Burnside having lost 6,000 or 7,000 
men in the attempt to take these heights in December preceding. 
The Sixth Corps was immediately sent in pursuit of the enemy, 
and their captured works were left without protection, and were 
repossessed by the enemy next day. The advance of the Sixth 
Corps engaged the enemy about six miles out on the road to 
Chancellorville. With Howe's division deployed with its left 
wing to the rear, to confront the enemy who was reoccupying 
the heights, the army of General Sedgwick spent the night in 
line of battle, distant about six miles from General Hooker. In 
the morning the enemy made an advance in strong force, which 
Sedgwick was unable to check, and he fell back towards Banks' 
Ford, and on Monday night crossed the Rappahannock. The 
Fifth Regiment took part in this movement. While these opera- 
tions were going on, no serious attack was made on General 
Hooker. They began shelling his trains on Monday, and until 
Tuesday, a harrassing and annoying fire was kept up. At ten 
o'clock, P. M., the army commenced crossing the Rappahannock 
at United States Ford, and was not disturbed by the enemy. 
The river rose rapidly during the night, and General Lee dared 
not follow in pursuit. General Hooker's army returned to its 
original camp opposite Fredericksburg. 

General Hooker's loss was 1,512 killed, and 9518 wounded. 
About twelve hundred of the wounded remained on the battle 



FIGHT AT BEVERLEY FORD. 273 

field for ten days or more. General Lee sent in a flag of truce 
stating that his medicine and hospital stores were exhausted. A 
fresh sujjply was sent over for the wounded of General Hooker's 
army. The celebrated " Stonewall Jackson," was wounded in 
this affair, and died on the 10th of May. He was shot by his 
OAvn skirmishers, himself and staff being mistak-^n for Federal 
officers in the darkness of the night. He was struck by three 
balls. 

The two hostile armies remained confronting each other at 
Fredericksburg, and for sometime were inactive. Suspicions 
began to exist that a portion of the rebel army had been sent 
off from the main body, and was on its way to make another 
invasion of Maryland or Pennsylvania. Reconnoisances were 
frequently made by the cavalry ; among others, one on the 6th 
of June, which was composed of a cavalry force under General 
Pleasanton, assisted by Generals Buford aiid Gregg, and Colo- 
nel Duffie. In addition, two small brigades of picked infantry, 
under General Ames, of the Eleventh Corps, and General Kus- 
sel, of the Sixth Corps, were detailed to accompany the expedi- 
tion, and also one battery of artillery to each brigade. The 
infantry force selected, challenged particular admiration, among 
others, a portion of the Second and Seventh Wisconsin, under 
Colonel Robinson, and the Third Wisconsin, with several 
regiments of other States. 

The infantry marched by different routes to the rendezvous. 
That under General Ames, in which was the Third Wisconsin, 
crossed, with Pleasouton's cavalry force, at Beverly Ford, where 
the cavalry became engaged with the enemy, and where th»e 
infantry acted as skirmishers. The other infantry force, under 
General Russel, in which were the Seventh Wisconsin, and two 
companies, A, and I, of the Second Wisconsin, crossed at Kelly's 
Ford, with General Gregg's cavalry force, and advanced to 
Brandy Station, where a severe cavalry fight occurred, after 
which the force returned and joined Pleasonton's force at Bev- 
erly Ford, and soon after reached Bealston Station. In this fight, 
letters were captured, which indicated that Longstreet's corps 
had already been sent as an advance guard for the invasion of 
Pennsylvania or Maryland, moving by the Shenandoah Valley. 
It also discovered that the enemy was massing his cavalry on the 
18 



274 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Upper Rappahannock, and that 250 of them crossed the Potomac 
at Edwards' Ferry. 

The troops detached by General Lee, for the invasion of Penn- 
sylvania, were far advanced towards their destination, before 
General Hooker was aware of the movement On Saturday, the 
13th of June, his army began to move from Falmouth, and the 
stores at Acquia Creek were removed to Alexandria. On the 
next day, the last of General Hooker's army left Falmouth, 
and by night his troops encamped at Dumfries, half-way from 
Falmouth to Fairfax. General Lee had massed his troops at 
Culpepper to fall upon the right of General Hooker, and cut 
his communications with Washington. His design Avas frust- 
rated by the rapidity of General Hooker's march. On Monday, 
the army reached the Bull Run battle field. Li this position 
General Hooker was prepared to defend Washington. General 
Milroy retreated from Winchester on the 15th of June, and 
General Tyler from Martinsburg. 

The advance of General Lee's army, under General Ewell, 
crossed the Potomac, passed through Williamsport and Hagers- 
town, and entered Greencastle, Penn., on the 22d of June. 
On the next day Chambersburg was occupied by General Ewell. 
General Lee crossed the Potomac into Maryland, near Shepards- 
town, on the 24th of June. The advance was made in two divi- 
sions, one by way of the Harrisburg and Chambersburg Railroad 
towards Harrisburg, the other from Gettysburg to the Central 
Railroad to York and Lancaster. Carlisle was reached on Satur- 
day, the 27th, and the advance continued to Kingston, thirteen 
miles from Harrisburg. On the other line of advance, Gettys- 
burg was occupied by a force from Hagerstown, on the 26th, 
which force continued on to a point on the Central Railroad, 
thirty miles south of Harrisburg. York was occupied the same 
evening. On the same day the advance from Carlisle approached 
within four miles of Harrisburg, where some skirmishing took 
place. On the 28th, the rebels demanded of the town of York, 
$100,000 in Treasury notes, and a large amount of provisions 
and other supplies. A train of 178 wagons and 1,000 mules 
were captured a few miles north of Georgetown. Stewart's 
cavalry were scouting through the country bordering on the 



GETTYSBURG. 275 

Potomac, some of tliem penetrating to Silver Spring, on the 
Seventhi Street road, near Washington. 

On the 28th of June, General Lee, ordered his forces to con- 
centrate at Gett^'sburg. General Hooker's army had advanced 
as far as Frederick, Maryland, on the 27th of June, when that 
General was served with an order to transfer the command of 
the army to General JNIeade, of the Fifth Corps, and to report 
himself at Baltimore. The change caused great surprise to the 
public as well as the army. 

General Meade's first business, after being placed in command 
of the army, was to ascertain the position and strength of the 
different coi-ps, and to bring up the cavalry which had beer 
covering the rear of the army in its passage over the Potomac. 
General French, commanding at Harper's Ferry, was ordered to 
move with 7,000 men, and occupy Frederick, Maryland, and 
with the balance of his force, about 4,000, to remove and escort 
the public property to Washington. 

The army was put in motion on the 29th, and on the 30th 
three corps, the First, Third, and Eleventh, were at Emmetsburg. 
The right wing was at Manchester. General Buford having 
reported the enemy's appearance on the Cashtown road, near 
Gettysburg, General Beynolds was directed to occupy that town. 
General Meade's force, consisted of the First Corps, under 
General Reynolds, in which was the " Iron Brigade," under 
General Meredith, in Wadsworth's division, and a brigade com- 
manded by Colonel Cutler, of the Sixth Wisconsin; the Second 
Corps, General Hancock ; Third Corps, General Sickles, t.o 
which Berdan's regiment of Sharpshooters was attached ; the 
Fifth Corps, General Sykes ; Sixth Corps, General Sedgwick, in 
which the Fifth Regiment was brigaded ; Eleventh Corps, Gen- 
eral Howard, in which the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin was located ; 
and the Twelfth Corps, General Slocum, in which the Third 
Wisconsin was brigaded in the division of General Williams. 

Gettysburg, which was destined to become historically famous, 
is a town of about three thousand inhabitants, the county seat of 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, possessing no particular attrac- 
tions of itself, except that quiet plainness which characterizes 
most of the towns of Pennsylvania. Several important roads 
diverge from this point. A mile south of the town is Cemetery 



276 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Hill, the termination of an important ridge running two or three 
miles in a southerly direction, and. terminating in an isolated 
knoll called Round. Top. Cemetery Hill, and the adjacent ridge 
as far south as Round Top, was the position of the National 
army after the first day's fight at Gettysburg. A little to the 
northwest of the town of Gettysburg, near the Chambersburg 
road, is a Seminary, on a ridge called Oak Ridge, which runs in 
a north and south direction, and terminates opposite the Round 
Top, which we have described as the most southern spur of the 
Cemetery Ridge. 

Roads enter Gettysburg, from all the points of the compass, 
centering in the town. The rebel force entered by the roads 
from the north, northeast, and northwest, while the Union forces 
reached Gettysburg, the First and Eleventh corps, by the Em- 
mettsburg road, from the southwest, the Second and Twelfth 
corps, from the south, by the Taneytown road, which was also 
the route of the Third and Fifth corps. The Sixth Corps, on 
Thursday, came up on the road from "Westminster, from the 
southeast. 

In pursuance of the order to occupy Gettysburg, General 
Reynolds marched on the 1st of July, and arrived about ten 
o'clock, where he found Buford's cavalry warmly engaged with 
the enemy, who was posted on a ridge on the west side of Wil- 
loughby's Run, near the Cashtown road. The First Corps en- 
tered the town, and turned to the northwest, and marched out 
by the Seminary, on the Cashtown road, where they found Heth's 
division of rebels advancing and driving Buford's cavalry. 
General Wadsworth's division was in the advance, and without 
a moment's delay, it was deployed into line of battle on the 
double quick, and attacked the enemy with great vigor. The 
Second Wisconsin, under Colonel Fairchild, leading the brigade, 
opened the battle on the enemy's centre, receiving a deadly fire, 
which caused great havoc in their ranks. The enemy came on 
in overwhelming numbers, and gradually pressed the First Corps 
nntil crowding the right centre too rashly, a movement of the 
left centre upon the flank of the enemy, resulted in the capture 
of a large number of prisoners, among them, General Archer. 
This checked the enemy's advance. "When the attack com- 
menced, General Reynolds sent a courier to the Eleventh Corps, 



BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 277 

General Howard, wliicli was about eleven miles from Gettysburg, 
to hurry it up. General Howard put his men at the quick step, 
and arrived on the field about noon. The enemy being repulsed, 
General Reynolds went forward with his corps, driving the 
enemy to the ridge on the opposite side of the valley, suft'ering 
severely from the enemy's fire, and occupied the position lately 
held by the rebels, which was a ridge to the west of, and nearly 
parallel with the Seminary ridge. General Reynolds advanced 
to reconnoitre, when he was mortally wounded by a rebel 
sharpshooter, and died shortly after. 

General Howard, on his arrival, assumed command on the field 
while General Schurz took command of the Eleventh Corps. 
General Doubleday temporarily commanded the First Corps 
until General Meade appointed General Newton to that duty. 
The First Corps had held the whole of the rebel force at bay 
until about one o'clock, when the first and third divisions of 
the Eleventh Corps were sent to the aid of the First Corps, tak- 
ing position on its right, while the division of General Stein- 
wher, with three batteries, was sent to occupy Cemetery Hill, to 
the south of the town. About 2.30, P. M., the enemy being 
reinforced by General Jackson's old corps, under Early and 
Rhodes, advanced across the valley in line of battle. In over- 
powering numbers they attacked the right, where the Eleventh 
Corps was posted. A stout resistance was made, but the advan- 
tages were all on the side of the rebel's " heavy battalions," and 
the line was forced to retire, which was done with deliberation, and 
without confusion, until the town was reached. A heavy enfilad- 
ing fire swept the streets, and in attempting to protect them- 
selves from this, the Eleventh became confused, and a temporary 
panic ensued, but they were rallied around the second division on 
Cemetery Hill, and reorganized. The left, wdiich was composed 
of the exhausted veterans of the First Corps, was attacked by 
the combined corps of Hill and Ewell, pouring in the most ter- 
rific fire, which it was impossible for flesh and blood to stand. 
The right of the corps slowly gave way, the centre, under Wads- 
worth, held on awhile longer, being supported by three regiments 
fi^-om Doubleday's division. But further resistance to the fierce 
attacks of the greatly superior force of the enemy was useless. 
The Eleventh had left the right of the First Corps exposed which 



278 MILITAKY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

compelled Robinson's division of the First, to fall back, by 
which Wadswoi'th was exposed on the flank. Doubleday's divi- 
sion on the left, was also overrun and fell back. With only 
Wadsworth's division confronting them, the rebels poured round 
both flanks and in front. To save itself from annihilation, the 
division, slowly and sullenly fell back, through the toAvn to 
Cemetery Hill ; the First Corps occupying position on the east 
side of the point of the hill, the Eleventh Corps adjoining it on 
the west side of the point. The enemy made a slight attack on 
the right flank, where the First Corps was posted, which was 
repulsed, and the enemy desisted from further attack that day. 
"We here remind the reader that the First and Eleventh Corps 
was all of Meade's army which engaged in the first day's fight, 
except Buford's cavalry. The Twelfth Corps, and part of the 
Third, arrived on the ground about seven o'clock in the evening, 
and took position, the Twelfth on the right of the First Corps, 
the Third Corps on the left of the Eleventh. 

General Meade had sent General Hancock to represent him 
on the field, from whose reports, he became satisfied that the 
enemy designed to support the attack already made, by his whole 
army. He therefore ordered forward the other Corps of his 
army, and himself appeared on the field at one o'clock on the 
morning of the 2d. About 7, A. M., the Second and Fifth 
Corps, with the rest of the Third, arrived. The Second was 
posted to the left of the Eleventh, and the Third to the left of 
the Second, while the Fifth was held in reserve until the arrival 
of the Sixth, which did not come up until about 2 o'clock in 
the afternoon. 

We have before stated that the ridge on which the Seminary- 
was located, ran in a southerly direction, continuing parallel to 
the Cemetery Ridge.' On this continuation of the ridge, the 
enemy had arrayed his forces in the front of the army of General 
Meade. A valley, one and a half miles in width, lay between 
the two armies. 

On the arrival of the Sixth -Corps, in which the Fifth Wiscon- 
sin was brigaded, the Fifth Corps was posted on the extreme 
left, and the Sixth Corps occupied its position in the reserve, 
having marched thirty-two miles from nine o'clock the night 



BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 279, 

before. Along the ridge from Cemetery Hill, southward, Gen- 
eral Meade posted his artillery, consisting of about one hundred 
guns. 

* The enemy were posted on the ridge, running parallel to Cem- 
etery Ridge, west of Meade's position, as follows : General 
Longstreet's Corps, opposite General Meade's extreme left, ex- 
tending north, first Hood's division forming Longstreet's right, 
then McLaws, and then Pickett's division; Hill's Corps joined 
Longstreet, with the division of Anderson, Prender, and Heth, 
who occupied the extreme left of the rebel line. Ewell's corps 
was posted in Gettysburg, in the front and on the right flank of 
General Meade, confronting the Eleventh, First, and Twelfth 
corps. 

The enemy made a vigorous assault about 3 o'clock, P. M., 
of Thursday, on General Meade's left and centre. Opening 
with a heavy fire of artillery. General Longstreet sent forward 
his corps to the assault of General Sickles' position on an emi- 
nence, in advance of the line near Little Round Top. The Third 
Corps stood the shock nobly, and were soon reinforced by troops 
from the Second and Twelfth corps, and by the Fifth Corps. 
Round Top was occupied by a portion of the Fifth Corps. The 
enemy made desperate attempts to take the position, and thus 
turn Meade's left flank, but were repulsed. General Sickles' 
corps fell back from its advanced position and reformed on the 
original line. The Sixth Corps, and parts of the First and 
Second corps, were brought up at difterent periods, and suc- 
ceeded with the gallant Fifth Corps, in repulsing the assaults of 
the enemy, who retired in confusion and disorder, about sunset. 
About 8, P. M., an assault was made on the Eleventh Corps, 
which was repelled with the assistance of troops from the First 
and Second Corps. The Twelfth Corps on the right of Cemetery 
Hill, had been weakened by the withdrawal of Geary's division 
to assist at the left. This was taken advantage of by the enemy 
who occupied part of the line. 

At daylight, on the morning of the 3d, General Geary re- 
turned, and with General Williams' division, attacked the enemy, 
drove him back, and reoccupied his former position. The con- 
test was continued all the morning at this point, and a brigade from 
the Sixth Corps coming to the aid of the Twelfth, inflicted severe 



280 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

losses on the enemy. Other parts of General Meade's line re- 
mained quiet until about 1, P. M., when the enemy opened with 
125 guns, playing upon the centre and left. General Meade 
replied with all his guns on the ridge. For two hours this 
artillery duel continued, when General Meade's guns slacking 
fire, the enemy's infantry were seen massing for an advance on the 
left and centre. The assault was directed principally against the 
Second Corps, and was met with great firmness by that corps, 
supported by a division and brigade of the First Corps. This 
terminated the battle, the enemy retiring to his lines, leaving 
the field covered with his killed and wounded, and numerous 
prisoners in the hands ot General Meade. Generals Hancock, 
Sickles, and Gibbon, were all severely wounded at this sanguinary 
"battle. 

Buford's cavalry had been sent to Westminster to refit and 
guard trains. Kilpatrick's corps was occupied on General 
Meade's left on the Emmetsburg Road, in protecting the left 
flank, while General Gregg engaged the enemy on the right. 

On the 4th, both armies engaged in burying their dead and 
caring for the wounded, the enemy sending many of his wound- 
ed to Hagerstown. In the afternoon, their artillery and wagon 
trains commenced moving in that direction, and at dark their 
whole army was in motion on the road to Fairfield, crossing 
South Mountain to Waterloo Gap. Lee reached Hagerstown on 
the 6th, and on the 7th, Meade reached Funkstown, within six 
miles of Lee. Lee proceeded to Williamsport, and took posi- 
tion, but on Meade's advancing, crossed the Potomac on the 14th 
of July, and marched up the Shenandoah Valley, and, by the 
way of Strasburg, "retired, and took position with his army on 
the Rappahannock, about the last of July. General Meade pur- 
sued by a flank movement on the east side of the Blue Ridge, 
keeping the enemy to the west of the Rappahannock, and 
halting his army at Warrenton on the 25th of July. 

No other operations of importance, in which Wisconsin regi- 
ments were engaged, occurred in the Army of the Potomac 
until about the middle of October. 

Soon after the battle of Gettysburg, the Third and Fifth Wis- 
consin Regiments were sent to New York City, to assist the 
United States Provost Marshals in the execution of the draft. 



meade's retreat. 281 

They returned in October to the Army of the Potomac. The 
War Department had assigned the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, 
under General' Hooker, to the aid of General Rosecrans in Ten- 
nessee. The Third and Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Regiments being 
located in these two corps, were thus transferred to the Central 
Department. 

After the battle of Gettysburg, General Lee, with his army, 
retired to the vicinity of Orange Court House, where he remained 
quietly until about the 1st of September. About this time. 
General Rosecrans was preparing for an attack on Chattanooga. 
He was confronting the rebel General Bragg at that point. De- 
termined to crush Rosecrans, if possible, the rebel forces were 
concentrated under Bragg. The army which had been paroled 
by Grant at Vicksburg, was declared exchanged by the Con- 
federate Government, and were again marshalled to fight our 
forces in Georgia. In order to still further strengthen General 
Bragg, Lee had sent Longstreet's corps from the Army of the 
Potomac. The army of Grant and Sherman could not reach 
Rosecrans in time, and the War Department sent the Eleventh 
and Twelfth Corps of the Army of the Potomac, under General 
Hooker; to reinforce and keep open Rosecrans' communications. 
They did not reach him in time to take part in the battle of 
Chicamauga. 

With a view to still further aid their operations at Chattanooga, 
General Lee assumed a threatening attitude against General 
Meade, and manoeuvered to turn his left flank at Culpepper 
Court House. His main object was to keep Meade's forces 
employed, so that no more reinforcements could be sent to 
Rosecrans. Lee's forward movement began on the 8th day of 
October. 

Proceeding by way of Madison Court House, the corps of A. 
P. Hill and Ewell advanced towards Culpepper, from which 
General Meade fell back along the line of the Orange and Alex- 
andria Railroad. On the 12th, General Lee advanced in two 
columns, with the design of intercepting General Meade's re- 
treat. Attempting to cross the Rappahannock at Warrenton 
Springs, the Federal troops disputed his passage. On the arrival 
of his main force, they fell back. On the next day. General 
Lee's columns united at Warrenton, where they halted, and next 



282 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCON.SIN. 

day a portion of his army moved towards Bristoe Station, by 
way of JSTew Baltimore, the rest proceeding to the same point, 
by the way of Auburn and Greenwich. A skirhaish occurred 
near the latter place. General Meade's retreat was conducted 
on direct parallel roads, while the enemy pursued a circuitous 
route, and were thus unable to cut off" his retreat. General 
Meade's rear guard, being the Second Corps, under General 
Warren, reached Bristoe's Station about noon on the 14th, where 
it was attacked by General Hill. After a sharp struggle of seve- 
ral hours, the enemy were repulsed with a severe loss. Retain- 
ing the position a short time, the Second Corps fell back across 
Broad Run. General Meade now fortified his position beyond 
Bull Run, extending his line toward the Little River turnpike. 
The enemy ceased his advance, and on the 18th, after destroying 
the railroad from Cub Run to the Rappahannock, retreated to 
the line of that river, leaving his cavalry in front of General 
Meade. On the 19th, General Meade's cavalry advanced until 
an attack was made on their flank by General Fitz Hugh Lee, 
near Buckland's Mills. Meade's cavalry retired to near Hay- 
market, where the infantry came to the support of the cavalry, 
and succeeded in driving back the cavalry force of the enemy. 
The " Iron Brigade " took part in this afl:air. 

At Rappahannock Station, on the 7th of November, Generals 
French and Sedgwick attacked the enemy in his entrenchments, 
capturing several redoubts, guns, battle flags, and two thousand 
prisoners. In this encounter, the Fifth Wisconsin gallantly as- 
saulted the works with the same regiments which accompanied 
it to the assault of Marye's Hill in the preceding May. An un- 
successful attack was made upon the enemy at Mine Run in No- 
vember. This closed the campaign of 1863. That of 1864 was 
destined to open under new auspices. 

The headquarters of General Meade, in command of the 
Army of the Potomac, was near Culpepper Court House. 
This position was occupied until May, 1864. On the 12th of 
March, General Grant was appointed Lieutenant General, and 
assigned to the command of all the armies of the United 
States. He announced his headquarters to be with the Army 
of the Potomac. By order of the War Department, on the 
23d of March, the Army of the Potomac was reduced to three 



ARMY REORGANIZATION. 280 

corps, viz., the Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps. The troops 
belonging to the First and Third Corps were distri])uted 
among the other corps. The Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps 
were each consolidated into four divisions. To each corps 
was assigned eight batteries. This reduction of the number 
of corps was occasioned by the reduced strength of nearly all 
the regiments serving in the army. The month of April was 
spent in reorganization. 

At this time, the Second, Sixth and Seventh Regiments of 
the Iron Brigade, and the Fifth Wisconsin, and Company G 
of the Sharpshooters, were the only Wisconsin organizations 
in the Army of the Potomac. In May, the Thirty-sixth Wis- 
oonsiu reported for duty, and in June, eight companies of the 
Thirty -seventh and four companies of the Thirty -eighth re- 
ported for duty in the Army of the Potomac. The two last 
regiments were subsequently tilled up. 

In the reorganization of the armj^ the " Iron Brigade " was 
designated as the First Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifth Army 
Corps. Brigadier General J. S. Wadsworth was appointed Di- 
vision Commander, and Major General Warren commanded 
the Fifth Corps. The Fifth Regiment was in the Third Bri- 
gade, First Division, General H. G. Wright, in the Sixth Corps, 
under General Sedgwick. The Thirty-sixth Regiment, Colonel 
Haskell, was placed in the First Brigade, General Webb, Se- 
cond Division, General Gibbon, Second Corps, General Han- 
cock. The Xinth Corps, under General Burnside, joined the 
Army of the Potomac at Culpepper, on the 24th of April. 
The Thirty-seventh VV^iseonsin, under Major Kershaw, reported to 
General Burnside on the 10th of June, and was assigned to 
the First Brigade, Third Division. About the same time, the 
battalion ■ of the Thirty-eighth Wisconsin was assigned to the 
First Brigade, First Division of the Ninth Corps. These three 
Wisconsin regiments joined the army during its progress fi'om 
the Wilderness to the James River. The Berdan Sharpshooters, 
in which was the Wisconsin company, were attached to the 
Second Brigade, Third Division of the Second Army Corps. 

A short statement of the plan of the campaign by General 
Grant will enable the reader to understand the reasons of certain 
movements. General Sigcl was to move up the Shenandoah 



284 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Valley to gain possession of tlie Virginia Central Railroad, and 
hold Lynchburg, thus cutting oft' Lee's source of supplies from 
the west. Other operations in West Virginia were for the same 
general object, viz., to cripple Lee in regard to supplies for his 
army. General Butler, in command of the Army of the James, 
was, if possible, to capture Petersburg to the south of Richmond. 
By holding this point and Lynchburg, all Southern connection 
would be cut off" from Richmond. The grand leading object of 
General Grant was to destroy or capture the rebel army, 
considering it to be the soul and life of the Confederacy. 

On the 3d of May, General Meade issued a spirited address to 
his arm}', and on the 4th, camp was broken up, and with six 
days rations, the army was put in motion, in light marching 
order. The three corps crossed the Rappahannock on the same 
day, and at night, encamped — the Second on the Chancellor- 
ville battle field ; the Fifth at the old Wilderness Tavern ; the 
Sixth at the latter place and at Germania Ford. 

The Confederate army consisted of three corps, under Gene- 
rals Longstreet, A. P. Hill and Ewell, and occupied a position 
around Orange Court House, south of Culpepper. General 
Grant's plan was to follow a line nearly corresponding to the 
route of the Fredericksburg and Richmond Railroad. This 
would endanger Lee's communications, and that General deter- 
mined to give General Grant battle, and accordingly his three 
corps were placed so as to confront the army of General Grant. 

Early on the morning of the 5th of May, General Grant's 
forces began to move, the Fifth Corps, General Warren, advanc- 
ing five miles to Parker's store. The Sixth Corps, General 
Sedgwick, followed and assumed position on Warren's right. 
The Second Corps, General Hancock, taking to his left. The 
center was a little in the advance when the battle began. Gene- 
ral Grifiin advanced with the First Division of the Fifth Corps 
about a mile when he came in contact with General Ewell. A 
sharp engagement ensued, when he was driven back to the line 
of battle. The Fourth Division, General Wads worth, and Se- 
cond, General Robinson, now advanced, relieving General Grif- 
fin, and holding the enemy in check. A gap having been made 
"between Hancock and Warren, the enemy attempted to take 



BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS. 285 

advantage, when a severe action occurred, lasting till late in the 
night, when the enemy were compelled to desist, failing in their 
object. 

On the right, General Sedgwick was attacked in the afternoon, 
the enemy making a desperate eftbrt to turn his right. General 
Burnside had come on to the field with his corps, and he was sent to 
assist General Sedgwick. The enemy was repulsed, but the 
attack was resumed near nightfall, and continued for two hours 
after dark. General Grant's line continued the same as when 
the battle commenced, stretching northwest and southeast, thus 
fully protecting his communications and supplies at Germania 
Ford. 

During the night, both armies threw up slight barricades or 
earthworks. The battle on the 6th of May, was a series of 
fierce attacks made on each side. The engagement became ge- 
neral about 6 o'clock, A. M. The ground between the two 
armies was fought over several times, the combatants driving 
each other in turn from the opposite line of rifle pits. The 
enemy tried to break though the different corps, but were frus- 
trated by the closing of the gaps by the Ninth Corps. The 
enemy massed his forces, and hurled them against the Second 
Corps of Hancock with such vigor as to nearly overcome them. 
Burnside's corps reinforced Hancock, and the enemy were 
checked. About noon. General Wadsworth, commanding the 
Fourth Division, was shot in the forehead, and killed, and Gene- 
ral Cutler, of Wisconsin, took command of General Wadsworth's 
division. In the afternoon,the attack on the Second and Fifth Corps 
was renewed with great fury, and the enemy succeeded in driving 
in one of Hancock's divisions and rushed into the gap, but were 
repulsed,- with great slaughter. Towards night, an assault was 
made on the brigades of Generals Seymour and Shaler, of the 
Third Division of the Second Corps. They were overwhelmed, 
and their commanders captured. The whole right wing was 
now in peril, but General Sedgwick rallied the Sixth Corps, and 
held his troops, .saving the army from threatened destruction. 
The enemy retired in the darkness. The lines remained nearly 
the same, the intervening space being occupied by the dead and 
wounded. 



286 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the afternoon of the 7tli of May, Gleneral Lee witlidrcw 
his forces in the direction of Spottsylvania Court House. At 
dark, the Second Corps, General Hancock, moved by way of 
Brock's Road, followed by the Fifth Corps. The Sixth and 
Ninth Corps moved by the old Chancellorville Road, and arrived 
on the field near Spottsylvania at noon on Sunday. The Fifth 
Corps arrived within three miles of Spottsylvania on Saturday 
night, where they then came upon the enemy behind earth- 
works near Alsop's Farm, and fought them several hours, hold- 
ing their ground until a brigade of the Sixth Corps came to their 
aid, when the enemy were driven from the position. 

Mon'day, the 9th of May, was comparatively quiet, with some 
cannonading and skirmishing, but no general battle. While 
superintending the mounting of artillery, General Sedgwick 
was killed by a sharpshooter. On General Sedgwick's death, 
General Wright assumed command of the Sixth Corps. Gene- 
ral Warren, with the Fifth Corps, occupied the center. General 
Hancock's Second Corps on the right, and the Sixth Corps, late 
Sedgwick's, occupied the left, under General Wright. Towards 
night. General Grant ordered another advance on the enemy. 
Hancock's corps crossed to the south bank of the Po River. A 
severe fight ensued ; the enemy held Spottsylvania Court House, 
and General Hancock retired his corps. 

On Tuesday, the 10th, Grant's line occupied" substantially the 
same position as the day before, stretching about six miles on 
the north bank of the Po, taking the general form of a crescent. 
The enemy held Spottsylvania and the region north of the Court 
House. The conflict opened with a terrific fire of artillery, which 
was incessant during the forenoon. A vigorous attack was 
made by the Fifth Corps and two divisions of the Second Corps 
on General Lee's center. In these charges, General Grant's 
losses were very severe. Kear the close of the day, an energetic 
assault was made along the whole line, in which the enemy's 
works were scaled, and over a thousand prisoners taken, with 
several guns, by a brigade of the Sixth Corps. , 

Nothing important occurred on the 11th. A plan was formed 
to assault the enemy's left on the next morning, and the position 
of the Second Corps was changed during the night, from the 
extreme right to the left. 



NORTH ANNA RIVER. 287 

At dawn, on the 12tli of May, a dense fog enveloped the 
conntrv, nnder cover of which the Second Corps advanced to 
the enemy's hnes, reaching his intrenchments, and with loud 
cheers, the command leaped over them and dashed among the 
astonished enem3% compelling their surrender in mass. A whole 
division was thus surprised and taken prisoners. The second 
line of rifle pits was stormed and wrested from the enemy. A 
cannonade now commenced, and the whole line advanced to the 
support of the Second Corps. The enemy endeavored to recover 
their lost works, and for three hours kept up a terrible tight, but 
about noon they abandoned the attempt. The advance of the 
Second Corps was checked, and the enemy's position was found 
to be impregnable. Meade now sought to turn the enemy's right. 
Every inch of ground was fought for, and the bloody contest 
continued till darkness closed upon the fearful scene. 

On the 14th, continual skirmishing and artillery tire was kept 
up, and Grant's army occupied itself in throwing up earthworks. 
Rain began to fall, which impeded military operations, and no 
important movement took place on the 15th, IGth, or 17th of 
May. On the 18th, two lines of the enemy's rifle pits were car- 
ried, but were afterw^ards abandoned. On the 18th of May the 
Thirty-sixth "Wisconsin, under Colonel Haskell, reported for 
duty, and was assigned to General Gibbon's division of the 
Second Corps. 

On the 19th, Ewe 11 attempted to turn Grant's right in order 
to cover General Lee's withdrawal to the North Anna, which 
was two day's march from Spottsylvania. 

On the night of the 20th, the cavalry was put in motion 
towards Guiness' Station, as the advance of the army in its next 
movement towards Richmond. During the 21st, the whole army 
was in motion. The advance reached JSTorth Anna river on the 
22d. The Fifth Corps arrived by the telegraph road in the 
neighborhood of the Jericho Mills. The Second Corps arrived 
during the afternoon, and took position on the left of the Fifth. 
Here the enemy opposing the crossing of the river, a bridge in 
front of the Second Corps became the subject of contest. The 
enemy were finally driven from the earthwork which com- 
manded the bridge, and the Second Corps crossed the river next 
morning. The Fifth etfected a crossing at Jericho Ford, on the 



288 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

afternoon of the 23d, and threw up slight breastworks. They 
were soon after attacked by a heavy force of the enemy, which 
was repulsed by the Fifth Corps, after suffering a loss of five 
hundred men. The Sixth and Ninth corps arrived, and the 
whole army crossed the river, and considerable skirmishing took 
place along the whole line, with a loss of about five hundred. 
Here General Sheridan's cavalry force reached General Grant's 
army from the James River. 

On the 25th, the enemy were found within two miles of Gen- 
eral Grant's position. He was very strongly posted, and it 
would require a great sacrifice of life to drive him from the posi- 
tion. General Grant, therefore, determined on a new movement. 
A strong cavalry demonstration was made on the enemy's posi- 
tion, on the evening of the 26th. While his attention was thus 
occupied, the several corps of General Grant recrossed the river, 
and moved easterly for the Pamunkey River, the rear protected 
by General Hancock's corps. At 10, A. M., on the 27th, Han- 
overtown, on the Pamunkey, was reached. This place is fifteen 
miles from Richmond, and sixteen miles from the White House. 
To the last named place, General Grant changed his base of sup- 
plies. In the course of next day, the crossing of the river was 
secured. The whole army was across the Pamunkey on the 
29th, and on the 30th, General Lee was found in force on the 
Mechanicsville road, south of Tolopatomy Creek, with his right 
resting on Shady Grove. The Sixth Corps was on the right of 
Grant's army, the Second Corps formed the right centre, and 
the Fifth Corps the left centre, the Ninth Corps occupied the 
left. About 5, P. M., the Fifth Corps was attacked, the enemy 
attempting to turn its flank. Timely reinforcements prevented 
it. A sharp engagement followed, and the enemy were forced 
to return. General Hancock captured the enemy's rifle pits and 
held them all night. General Warren held his position near 
Mechanicsville. 

On Tuesday, the 31st of May, the army of General Grant was 
further reinforced by the Eighteenth Corps, under General 
Smith. The Nineteenth Wisconsin was attached to the Second 
Brigade, Second Division of this Corps. The headquarters of 
G eneral Grant were about five miles from Hanover Court House. 
In front, line of battle extended, the Sixth Corps on the right, 



BATTLE OF COLD HARBOR. 289 

next the iSecond Corps, next the Ninth Corps, and the Fifth 
Corps on the left. Firing continued through the day. At night 
the Sixth Corps was sent to Cokl Harbor. It formed on the 
Gaines Mill road. The Eighteenth Corps arrived and joined the 
Sixth Corps on the 1st of June. The object of this movement, was 
to prevent General Hoke's division of rebels from taking posses- 
sion of Cold Harbor. He had repulsed General Sheridan, and 
had been reinforced. The Eighteenth charged and took the 
enemy's first line of rifle pits, which the enemy attempted, dur- 
ing the night, to recover, but in vain. The result of this days' 
fighting, was the complete occupation and holding of Cold 
Harbor. 

An attempt was made on the 2d of June, to push the enemy 
across the Chickahominy, and to secure a place to ford that 
stream. The Second Corps was changed to the extreme left. 
The attack was delayed by the rain, but took place on Friday, 
the 3d of June. The whole line was engaged, but the brunt of the 
battle was borne by the Second Corps, General Hancock. Bar- 
low and Gibbon's divisions, fought splendidly, and were tempo- 
rarily in possession of the enemy's position, but their second line 
was massed and hurled against them, and overwhelmed and 
drove back those divisions. Intrenching themselves, they re- 
mained through the day. The Eighteenth and Sixth, were simi- 
larly repulsed, and fell back and intrenched. The Fifth and 
Ninth corps, were not so severely handled, as the enemy had 
massed his forces on his right. All etforts to cross the Chicka- 
hominy at that point, were repelled. In this battle, Colonel 
Haskell, of the Thirty-sixth Wisconsin, was killed. The posi- 
tions gained, were held, and the next day temporary breastworks 
were erected. A fierce attack on the Second, Eighteenth, and 
Sixth Corps, was repulsed on the 4th of June. 

During the 5th and 6tli of June, the lines remained the same, 
except that the Fifth Corps was withdrawn to the rear, and the 
Ninth Corps transferred to its place in the line. An attack on 
Smyth's brigade, of Gibbon's division, Second Corps, was suc- 
cessfully repelled. New earthworks were built along the Chicka- 
homony, the enemy erecting works parallel to them. On the 
7th, an attack on the Ninth Corps was repelled. The divisions 
of Generals Gri£S.n and Cutler, of the Fifth Corps, drove the 
19 



290 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

enemy from Sumner's bridge, across the Chickaliominy, but were 
unable to bold the bridge, as it was commanded by the enemy's 
artillery. 

During the succeeding four days, affairs remained about the 
same. Intrenching was continued, and an advance was made 
to Bottom bridge, next below the railroad crossing of the 
Chickahominy. The enemy confronted the advance, and fortified 
at the bridge. On Friday, the destructipn of the railroad to 
"White House, was begun, preparatory to a change of base to 
James River. 

On Sunday night, June 12th, the army began its march to- 
wards the James River. The Second and Fifth Corps, crossed 
at Long Bridge, six or seven miles below Bottom Bridge, which 
was commanded by the enemy's artillery, and could not be 
crossed. These two corps marched to Wilcox's wharf, on James 
River. The Sixth and Ninth corps, crossed at Jones' bridge, 
below Long Bridge, and marched to Charles City Court House. 
The Eighteenth Corps marched to the White House, and em- 
barked on transports, and proceeded to Bermuda Hundred. On 
Wednesday, the entire army of General Grant was transferred 
to the south side of James River. The whole movement was 
attended with some skirmishing, and the loss of about four 
hundred men. 

An attempt had been made to capture Petersburg, by forces 
under General Gilmore, and a cavalry force under General 
Kautz. The movement commenced on the 8th of June. Gen- 
eral Gilmore advanced within two miles of the city, and drove 
in the enemy's skirmishers. On arriving near enough to exam- 
ine the fortifications, General Gilmore found them too strong 
for his force to attempt an assault, and accordingly withdrew, 
and returned to camp. In the meantime, General Kautz had 
forced the enemy's intrenchments, and reached the streets of the 
city, and was sharply engaged. The withdrawal of Gilmore, 
permitted the enemy to concentrate on General Kautz, who was 
forced to retire. The Fourth Wisconsin Battery was attached 
to Kautz's division, having been converted into Horse Artillery. 

Petersburg is situated on the south bank of the Appomattox 
River, twenty miles south of Richmond, and ten miles from City 
Point, on James River. The city was defended by a series of 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 291 

strong earthworks, consisting of square redoubts, and well 
established and commanding rifle trenches. Petersburg was 
destined to be the strong point of all the military operations 
around Richmond, as it proved to be the key of the enemy's 
position, and its surrender, finally, involved the destruction of 
the Southern Confederacy. 

On the 15th of June, it was ascertained that General Hill's 
Corps occupied the region southeast of Richmond, in strong 
force. The Eighteenth Corps arrived from White House, and 
marched, on the 15th, to Petersburg, crossing the Appomattox 
on a pontoon bridge, on nearly the same route takcM by Gen- 
eral Gilmore. General Hink's colored troops, captured a row 
of rifle pits, and two twelve pounders. In the afternoon line 
of battle was formed in front of the outer intrenchments and 
an assault was made about sunset. Advancing under a heavy 
artillery fire from the enemy, the entire range of rifle pits were 
swept with great gallantry. The enemy deserted their works, 
losing sixteen guns, a battle-flag, and three hundred prisoners. 
The Nineteenth Wisconsin took part in this assault. The posi- 
tion was held, but no further advance was made. The enemy's 
force was small, but was heavily reinforced before the arrival 
of the corps of General Grant. The Second corps arrived, and 
occupied the captured intrenchments, the other corps coming 
up during the night. 

On the morning of the 16th, General Birney, of the Second 
Corps, carried a redoubt on his left. The intrenchments of the 
enemy ran in a semi-circle from the river on the north to the 
river on the south, and the north end was strengthened by bat- 
teries on the opposite bank of the Appomattox River. In the 
afternoon a line of battle was formed with the Eighteenth Corps, 
General Smith, on the right, the Second Corps, under General 
Birney, in the Centre, and the Ninth, General Burnside, on the 
left. An attack was made about six o'clock. The assault did 
not result in any permanent advantage, and was abandoned after 
continuing three hours. 

The assault was renewed on Friday morning, June 17th, by 
General Patten's division of the Ninth Corps. Two of his brig- 
ades, under Generals Curtin and Gritfin, carried the works in 
the front, capturing six guns, sixteen ofiicers, and four hundred 



292 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

men, witli a loss of five hundred men. Patten's division was, in 
the afternoon, relieved by General Ledlie's division. This divi- 
sion also succeeded in carrying and holding the enemy's breast- 
works in their front, until about 9, P. M., when massing their 
forces by desperate eftbrts, General Ledlie was obliged to relin- 
quish his dearly bought success, having lost a thousand men. 
The rest of the line accomplished nothing decisive. 

A renewal of the assault was designed next morning, but it 
was found that the enemy had retired to his inner line of works. 
This destroyed the plan of operations agreed on. At noon, the 
Second, Fifth, and I^inth corps, were ordered to advance. An 
assaulting column of three brigades of the Second Corps, was 
sent forward, while the rest of the corps threw out skirmishers 
to attract the enemy's attention. The assaulting column was 
received with such a desperate enfilading fire from the enemy's 
left, that they retired before reaching the breastworks, leaving 
their dead and wounded on the field. A second storming party 
in the afternoon, met the same repulse. The works assaulted 
were near the Petersburg and City Point Railroad. The IS mth 
Corps were skirmishing during the day. The Fifth Corps dA- 
vanced against the works on the south side of the Norrolk 
llailroad with partial success. The result of the day was 
disastrous. 

On the 19th and 20th of June, no important results Trere 
obtained. 

On Tuesday, the 21st, a movement was made to destro} the 
railroad from Petersburg to Weldon. The Second Corps sup- 
ported by a division, from each of the Fifth and Sixth ccrpj, was 
marched in a southerly direction, and found the enemy in strong 
position at Davis' Farm, three miles below Petersburg^ and one 
mile from the railroad. It was not deemed advisable to make 
a general attack, and the force retired to their former position for 
the night. 

Early next morning, June 22d, the movement against Weldon 
Railroad, was resumed. The object was to destroy the railroad, 
General Wilson's cavalry being sent ten miles further south for 
that purpose. The Second and Sixth corps, and Grifl3.n'8 division 
of the Fifth Corps, were engaged in the movement. In an ad- 
vance against the enemy's works, each corps was to protect its 



WELDON RAILROAD. 293 

own flanks. As they closed on the enemy, gaps occurred be- 
tween the corps, which was taken advantage of by the enemy, 
who threw General Mahone's division into an interval on Gen- 
eral Barlow's flank, which was immediately rolled up, and a 
large number made prisoners. Barlow's disaster uncovered Gen- 
eral Mott's flank, who was compelled to fall back, thus in turn 
exposing the flank of General Gibbon's division. The enemy 
took possession of Mott's intrenchments, and thus pressed Gen- 
eral Gibbon's division in front and rear. Several regiments were 
captured before the enemy was checked. The broken corps 
were soon rallied, and a new line formed, and further attacks of 
the enemy repulsed. The left flank of the Sixth Corps was also 
driven back. General Meade afterwards rallied the two corps, 
and ordering an advance, the Sixth recovered its former line, 
and the Second part of its line, and intrenched for the night. 
At daylight, the enemy were strongly intrenched before the Wel- 
don railroad. The loss for the day, was two thousand prisoners, 
four guns, and some colors. 

On the 23d, General Wright, of the Sixth Corps, moved out 
to the extreme left, and finding no enemy, sent out a recon- 
noitering force to the railroad, who cut the telegraph. Three 
Vermont regiments were sent to hold the road, when the enemy 
attacked them on the flank, and drove them back on the main 
body, and made a general attack. The line was withdrawn at 
night, to the breastworks. 

No important movements in the Second, Fifth, Sixth, Ninth, 
or Eighteenth corps, in which the Wisconsin regiments were 
located, took place on the 24th and 25th of June. On the 29th 
of June, the Sixth Corps was sent to Ream's Station, on the 
Weldon Railroad, to render assistance to Wilson's cavalry force, 
who had been sent to the Danville Railroad, to destroy it. Here 
they remained until the lltli of July, when the Sixth Corps de- 
parted for Washington, to defend that city against a force sent 
there by General Lee. No movements of importance, were 
made before Petersburg for several days, excepting the artillery 
fire. 

About the 1st of July, General Lee, finding himself able to 
spare part of his force before Petersburg, and that the army of 
General Hunter, the successor of General Sigel, sent to operate 



294 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

against Lyncliburg, had retired to "West Virginia, leaving the 
Shenandoah Valley open for his operations, detached a portion 
of his troops for the invasion of Maryland, hoping thereby, to 
compel the recall of some of General Grant's force for the 
defence of "Washington. 

The enemy advanced, and crossed the Potomac, at Ilagers- 
town, on the 3d of Jnly. On the 7th, after skirmishing with the 
enemy, near Frederick, Md., the Federal troops, at Hagerstown, 
retired to Chambersbiirg. General Wallace was put in command 
of the troops in Maryland, and advanced against the enemy at 
Monocacy, when his skirmishers were driven back. On the 9th 
of July, the enemy advanced against him, on the east bank of 
the Monocacy, and drove him back towards Ellicott's Mills. 
This disaster created great panic at Washington, and through 
the Northern States. Washington appeared to be in imminent 
peril, and reinforcements were hurried forward. The Nineteenth 
Corps, on its way from New Orleans, to reinforce General Grant, 
was sent to Washington, and the Sixth Corps, General Wright, 
was sent from Grant's lines, before Petersburg. The enemy's 
cavalry appeared within six miles of Baltimore, then turning 
south, they joined their command near Washington. The enemy 
appeared before Fort Stevens, on the Seventh Street road, just 
north of Washington. Here their Sharpshooters became very 
annoying, and a brigade of the Veteran Reserve Corps was sent, 
which encountered the enemy and drove them off, leaving about 
a hundred dead and wounded on the field. On their retreat, 
they were followed by General Wright, with the Sixth Corps, 
and one division of the Nineteenth. Following them across the 
Potomac, General Wright had an engagement with the retreat- 
ing enemy, near Snicker's Gap. Soon after. General Wright 
abandoned further pursuit, and returned to Washington. The 
rebel force was under the command of General Early. 

The enemy made incursions from the west bank of the Poto- 
mac, into Pennsylvania, burning Chambersburg, and committing 
other depredations. He also defeated General Crook, at Win- 
chester, and compelled him to cross into Maryland. On hearing 
of the defeat of General Crook, the Sixth Corps, General 
Wright, started on the 26th of July, and reached Halltown, 



, FIGHT AT STRAWBERRY PLAINS. 295 

three miles from Harper's Ferry, with orders to march in pursuit 
of General Early, in Pennsylvania. 

The result of operations in Maryland and Pennsylvania, secured 
the organization of a force under General Sheridan for the defence 
of the Shenandoah Valley, consisting of the Sixth Corps, and 
K'ineteenth Corps, General Crook's division of infantry, and cav- 
alry under General Torbert, and four brigades of Hunter's cavalry. 
The Sixth Corps, in which the Fifth Wisconsin (reorganized) was 
brigaded, remained in service, under General Sheridan, in the 
valley until about the first of December, when it rejoined the 
army before Petersburg, 

During these operations in Maryland, the army of General 
Grant remained comparatively quiet before Petersburg. The 
firing being principally on the right and centre, where General 
Grant's lines were pushed steadily forward, the enemy's 
batteries, and also the city, were pertinaciously shelled. 

In the latter part of July, General Grant's lines extended a dis- 
tance of twenty miles. The Second Corps was transferred from 
the trenches before Petersburg to the north side of the James 
River, about the 27th of July. JAne of battle was formed with 
Sheridan's cavalry on the extreme right, the Second Corps next, 
at Strawberry Plains, a brigade of the Nineteenth on its left, and 
General Foster on the extreme left. The position of the enemy 
was in front of the Second Corps, occupying rifle pits, defended 
by one battery. The Second Corps advanced upon them, and 
General Miles' brigade, under cover, flanked the whole position 
under a brisk charge. The enemy retreated, losing their guns and 
some prisoners, A cavalry battle took place the next day. Four 
hundred supply wagons were sent across the pontoon bridge, ap- 
parently for an advance on Malvern Hill. A considerable force 
was sent by the enemy, from Petersburg, to oppose any advance. 
After this transfer of troops by the enemy, the Second Corps and 
the cavalrv very quietly returned to Petersburg. This move was 
made to decoy the forces of the enemy from Petersburg, in order 
to explode a mine under one of the enemy's heaviest works. 

The plan was to explode the mine, and immediately after open 
a cannonading from every gun on the lines. Under cover of this 
tire a storming party was to rush through the gap made by the 



296 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

explosion, and endeavor to carry the enemy's position on the hill 
beyond. Nearly a hundred heavy guns could be brought to bear. 

The assaulting force was the Ninth Corps of General Burnside, 
supported by the Eighteenth Corps, with the Second Corps in 
reserve on the right, and the Fifth on the left, the whole closely 
massed. This force was in position soon after midnight, on 
Friday, July 29th. 

The Ninth Corps was arranged, with General Ledlie's division, 
in advance, Generals "Wilcox and Potter's next, and General Fer- 
rero's colored division in the rear. In this last was the Twenty- 
ninth colored regiment, under Colonel Bross, of Chicago, in 
which about 250 of the colored men of Wisconsin were enlisted. 

The explosion took place a few minutes before five o'clock in 
the morning. A heaving and trembling of the ground was fol- 
lowed by huge clouds of earth and all the contents of the fort, as 
guns, cassions, timbers, and the soldiers which manned them, 
were thrown into the air. The crater was one hundred feet or 
more in length, and half as wide, and a depth of twenty feet, 
with heaps of ruins, remained where once was a six gun fort, its 
camp equipage, and two hundred men. The cannonading from 
a hundred guns commenced. The enemy recovering from his 
surprise, began to respond. Soon Marshall's brigade, of Ledlie's 
division, began to advance across the deadly plain. The sup- 
porting brigades spread out and enveloped the flanking rifle pits, 
capturing two hundred prisoners. The breech was gained, and 
the troops began to reform for the assault. The assaulting force 
stopped to throw up entrenchments and get two guns to bear, 
thus delaying an advance until the enemy had recovered and ral- 
lied and poured in a terrible enfilading fire upon the captured 
fort. This delay proved fatal to the final assault. The Ninth 
Corps, with General Potter's division on the right, Ledlie's in the 
centre, and AVilcox's on the left, under the fire of two guns, began 
the charge. On the right and on the left, and from the crest in 
front, the enemy concentrated a terrible fire upon those devoted 
divisions, and ploughed their ranks with slaughter. The charge 
was .checked — a halt took place — and finally the whole line 
recoiled to the fort. The colored division, as a forlorn hope, was 
ordered to accomplish what the other three failed to do. As 
might be expected, they, too, were obliged to fall back, and 



BATTLE AT EEAM'S STATION. 297 

entered the captured fort on wliicli the enemy poured a concen- 
tric fire, making of it a slaughter pen. It was difficult to retreat 
from the position, the fire of the enemy sweeping every foot of 
ground between the crater and our lines. By leaving in squads 
many of our men got back in safety. In the afternoon a general 
retreat was ordered. Those left in the fort were captured. In 
this assault five thousand were killed, wounded or made pris- 
oners on our side. The dead lay on the field thirty-six hours, 
when they were removed under a flag of truce. The Thirty- 
seventh Regiment and the five companies of the 38th were 
engaged in this bloody struggle. Of the former regiment only 
ninety returned, out of two hundred and fifty-five. 

On the 5th and on the 9th of August, sharp skirmishes and 
artillery duels occurred in front of the IsTinth Corps, but nothing 
further of importance took place until the 18th of August, when 
the Fifth Corps marched to Ream's station, on the Weldon Rail- 
road, and surprising a body of the enemy took possession of the 
road. Next day, August 19th, the enemy, under General Ma- 
hone, made an impetuous attack upon their right, driving back 
the pickets and an advanced regiment, and rushing through a 
gap in the line separating the divisions of Crawford and Wilcox. 
A desperate engagement ensued. The left was also attacked by 
General Ileth and the temporary intrencliments carried. Reach- 
ing the second line, the enemy was checked and driven back with 
great slaughter. The First and Second divisions of the Ninth 
Corps, arrived as reinforcements. The lines were finally rallied, 
and the enemy forced to retire. The Federal loss was estimated at 
3,500 or 4,000. The Weldon Railroad was thus recovered by 
the enemy as far as Yellow Tavern, but the position first taken 
by General Warren was held. * 

The Second Corps was engaged in an affair at Deep Bottom, 
north of James River, on the 14th of August. On the 12th the 
corps marched to City Point, and embarked on transports and 
steamed down the James River until after d-irk, when the whole 
fleet turned and steamed back, landing the troops near the old 
position occupied by General Foster, on whose right the Second 
Corps formed. An attack was made on the enemy on the 14th, 
which resulted in his retiring to a stronger position, losing fiv^ 
hundred prisoners, six cannon and two mortars. The object of 



298 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

this attack was to draw the forces of the enemy from Petersburg, 
while the Fifth Corps made its demonstration on the "Weldon 
Baih'oad, as stated in the preceding paragraph. The Second 
Corps remained on the north side of the river until the 20th, 
when it moved to its old position to the south of Petersburg, and 
thence to the Weldon Railroad, where it arrived on the 23d, in 
support of the Fifth and Ninth Corps, 

Leaving the front of the Fifth and ISTinth corps, the Confede- 
rates, on the 24th of August, reappeared on the flank and 
rear of the First and Second divisions of the Second Corps, at 
Ream's Station, who were engaged in destroying the Railroad. 
Falling behind some breastworks, the Second Corps awaited the 
attack. Three assaults were made and repulsed. A desperate 
charge was then made, the rebels were mowed down by the terrible 
musketry fire, but they still pushed on until the center gave way, 
when General Hancock withdrew his men to a wood near by, 
from which he sallied against the enemy's flank. Kight closed 
the contest. 

Matters remained comparatively quiet until the latter part of 
September, when General Grant determined to press General 
Lee's army in their intrenchments covering Richmond and Pe- 
tersburg. His movement was directed against both flanks of 
the enemy. On the 28th the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps were 
transferred to the north side of the James, and carried the outer 
works of Richmond at Chapin's Farm. Fort Harrison, occupy- 
ing a commanding position below Fort Darling, was captured, 
with sixteen heavy guns and two or three hundred prisoners. 

The enemy's works at New Market Heights were captured by 
General Birney's Tenth Corps. An unsuccessful attack was 
made on Fort Gilmer, on Laurel Hill, near Richmond. A re- 
connoissance was made by General Kautz' cavalry, within two 
miles of Richmond, which demonstrated that there were no for- 
midable defenses until within four miles of that city. This de- 
velopment of the enemy's weakness, at this point, inspired Gene- 
ral Grant with the idea that Richmond might possibly be captured, 
and he accordingly redoubled his exertions, which induced Gene- 
ral Lee to mass his forces for the immediate protection of the 
j^bel Capital. On the 30th, General Lee's forces attacked and 
endeavored to penetrate the lines between the two corps, at their 



BATTLE OF HATCHER'S RUN. 299 

junction. Two assaults were made, at a great sacrifice of life on 
the part of the enemy, but without success. On the same day, 
General Meade, with the Fifth and Ninth Corps, advanced from 
his position on the Weldon Kailroad, encountering- the enemy at 
Peeble's Farm, w^est of the railroad. The enemy's position was 
carried, and he was compelled to fall back to his fortiiications, 
covering the South Side Kailroad. These were also attacked. 
A brilliant charge made upon the works failed, and the Fifth and 
Sixth Corps withdrew. The rebels made a counter charge, pene- 
trating to our lines, and taking many prisoners. Ayres' division 
of the Fifth Corps was attacked next day, but the enemy were 
repulsed, as was an attack on Gregg's cavalry by the rebel General 
Hampton in the afternoon. 

The operations of General Grant, with the Army of the James, 
immediately around Richmond, on the north side of the James, 
were continued with varying results until the 27th of October, 
when General Grant again moved against the Confederate right 
and left. The Armies of the James and Potomac moved simul- 
taneously. In the former, the Tenth Corps occupied a position 
on the Darby town Road, skirmishing with the enemy. The 
Eighteenth Corps, with Kautz' cavalry, endeavored to turn Lee's 
left flank, near the old " Seven Pines " battle field ; two brigades 
assaulted the enemy's position, but were repulsed. Ilolman's 
colored brigade captured a redoubt of two guns. The entire 
command then retreated to their intrenchments. 

The main attack of General Grant was on the enemy's right, 
near the South Side Railroad. The Second, Fifth and Ninth 
Corps were engaged. The Second Corps, with Gregg's cavalry, 
started at 2, P. M., on the 2Gth of October, leaving Miles' divi- 
sion in camp, moved southwesterley, towards Hatcher's Run, 
followed by the Fifth and Ninth Corps. Gregg, keeping to the 
left, found Hampton's cavalry pickets at the bridge, over the 
Run, and fell back to the Second Corps, skirmishing all the while. 
The Second Corps had crossed the Run, and marched directly 
westward, to the Boydtown Road. Mott's brigade had captured 
the rebel works at Armstrong's Mill. Generals Grant and Meade 
were on the ground. The enemy were strongly posted where 
the Boydtown Road crossed the Run at the bridge before spoken 
of. General Hancock's corps was drawn up across the road 



300 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

fronting nortli towards the bridge. The Fifth Corps, having 
missed the road, did not come up on the right of the Second 
Corps, as was expected. The enemy attacked Mott's division, 
which was driven back, and exposed Egan's flank. That gene- 
ral promptly changed front, and repulsed the enemy with heavy- 
loss. The federal forces then withdrew to the former position. 

The Sixth Corps returned from the Shenandoah Valley, and 
took up its position in the lines before Petersburg, about the 5th 
of December. 

On the 7th of December, a raid upon the Weldon Railroad 
was made, under the lead of General Warren, with the Fifth 
Corps and Mott's division of the Second Corps, and Gregg's 
cavalry. On that day, Warren moved rapidly to the Nottaway 
River, crossing it on pontoons. Leaving a cavalry guard at the 
Grossing, and protecting his flanks with cavalry, he continued by 
Sussex Court House, to Nottoway Bridge, driving back the 
enemy's cavalry till the bridge was reached, which he burned. 
He then destroyed eight miles of the railroad south of the bridge. 
Jarret's Depot was burned, and the road destroyed southward, 
reaching Bellfield Station, near the Meherrin River, at night. 
Twenty miles of the road had been destroyed. Finding the ene- 
my were posted at Hicksford, with considerable artillery, Warren 
turned northward on the 10th. The town of Sussex Court 
House was burned in retaliation for soldiers murdered. The 
railroad destroyed by General Warren entirely cut o& General 
Lee's supplies from Eastern North Carolina and Virginia, east 
of the Weldon Railroad. 

On the Ist of January, the Second Corps was commanded by 
Major General Humphreys, the Fifth by Major General Warren, 
the Sixth by Major General Wright, the Ninth by Major General 
Parke. The Eighteenth Corps was discontinued. 

The month of January, 1865, passed off without any particular 
demonstration, except the attempt of the rebel iron-clads to de- 
scend the James River and attack Grant's headquarters at City 
Point. The land batteries, however, thwarted their designs. 

On the 6th of February, General Grant made a movement to 
extend his left toward Hatcher's Run. The Second and Fifth 
Corps were engaged in this movement. They advanced until 
near the enemy's works, when they halted and intrenched. The 



CAPTURE OF FORT STEADMAN. 301 

enemy attacked the intrenchments, and were repulsed. By this 
movement, General Grant gained some three or four miles of 
ground. 

On the 25th of March, the campaign around Petersburg open- 
ed. General Lee suddenly attacking General Grant's lines, south 
of the Appomattox. Fort McGilvrey is the first fort south of 
that stream. A mile to its left is Fort Steadman, on Hare's Hill, 
and still farther to the left is Fort Haskell. Fort Steadman 
was the strongest position on the whole line. Three divisions of 
Lee's army, under General Gordon, were massed in front of 
Fort Steadman, and at daybreak, by a sudden rush, they seized 
the line held by the Third Brigade of the First Division, at the 
foot of the hill to the right of Fort Steadman, wheeled, and over- 
powering the garrison took possession of the fort, turning the 
guns upon the federal lines. An attack made on Fort Haskell, 
which was held by part of McLaughlin's brigade of Wilcox's 
division, was repulsed with great loss to the enemy. Fort Stead- 
man was retaken by the troops of the First Division on either 
flank and a brigade from Hartruft's division. 

During the afternoon of the same day, the enemy made a 
strong demonstration all along our lines, in front of the Second, 
Sixth and Ninth Corps, and were repulsed at all points, losing 
heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners. This was a last des- 
perate move by General Lee, in hopes of breaking our lines, and 
cutting our extreme left from communications with City Point. 
He signally failed, and, from this moment, further defense of 
Petersburg and Richmond became hopeless. The Second and 
Sixth Corps pushed forward and captured the enemy's intrench- 
ed picket line, and held it. An attempt to retake this prolonged 
the battle to 8 o'clock at night, the enemy losing heavily. 

Pursuant to orders, the Army of the Potomac formally resum- 
ed operations against the enemy around Petersburg. The white 
troops of the Army of the Ja^mes crossed the James River on 
the 27th of March. The cavalry force of General Sheridan, 
which had just marched from Winchester, on the Upper Poto- 
mac, also joined General Grant, and on the 29th, marched by 
Reams' Station, on the "Weldon Railroad, and took position at 
Dinwiddle Court House. 



302 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the same day, the Second and Fifth Corps moved across 
Hatcher's Run. The Second Corps was relieved from its position 
on the extreme left, before Petersburg, by two divisions of the 
Twenty-fourth Corps, nnder General Gibbon. The Second 
Corps took position, with its right resting on Hatcher's Run, 
near Dabney's Mill, and its left on the Quaker Road, near 
Gravelly Meeting House. The Fifth Corps was ordered tf 
move up the Quaker Road, beyond Gravelly Run. In doing so, 
they were obliged to build a bridge across the Run. Griifin's 
division was attacked about 4 o'clock, P. M. The enemy were 
repulsed and driven back. 

On the 30th, the Second Corps again advanced, driving the 
enemy into his main line of works, and by night occupied a line 
from the Crow House, on Hatcher's Run, to the intersection of 
the Dabney Mill and Boydtown Plank Road. The Fifth Corps 
advanced on the Quaker Road to the Boydtown Plank Road, 
and Ayers' division was pushed over to the White Oak Road. 
On the night of the 30th, Miles' division of the Second Corps 
occupied the position of the divisions of Griffin and Crawford of 
the Fifth Corps who were sent to support Ayers' division on the 
"White Oak Road. On the following morning, Ayres' division 
attempted to dislodge the enemy, in position on the White Oak 
Road, but was unsuccessful, and was compelled to fall back upon 
Crawford, who, in turn, was attacked, and both divisions fell 
back on Griffin's division, when the pursuit ceased. Miles' divi- 
sion of the Second Corps attacked the enemy in flank, and drove 
him back to his position on the White Oak Road, capturing 
several colors and many prisoners. About the same time, War- 
ren advanced with Griffin's division, supported by portions of 
Ayres' and Crawford's divisions, and succeeded in driving the 
enemy,' and securing a lodgment on the White Oak Road. Dur- 
ing the night, pursuant to orders of General Grant, General 
Warren proceeded to Dinwiddle Court House, to the support of 
General Sheridan. During these operations, the Sixth and Ninth 
Corps remained in the lines before Petersburg, watching the 
enemy. 

The Fifth Corps moved to the Five Forks Road, reaching 
there after daylight. Meantime, Sheridan had moved against 
the enemy posted in his front at Dinwiddle Court House. The 



BATTLE OF FIVE FORKS. 803 

rebel commander finding the Fifth Corps in his rear, hastily left 
his position, moved oli"by his right flank across Chamberlain Creek, 
towards their works at Five Forks. They were followed by tho 
cavalry, who succeeded in driving them ^ito their main works 
at the Five Forks. Sheridan's plan was to coop them up in their 
M^orks, and make a feint with the cavalry on their right flank, 
while the Fifth Corps made a real attack on their left, and crush 
their whole force, if possible, and drive westward those who 
might escape, thus isolating them from the main army at Peters- 
burg. In this he succeeded admirably. By two o'clock the 
enemy was behind his works, at the Forks, and his skirmish line 
drawn in. The Fifth Corps was then ordered up, and put in 
position on the Gravelly Church road, obliquely to, and at a short 
distance from the White Oak road, and about one mile from the 
Five Forks. The division of Ayers was on the left, in double 
lines, Crawford's division on the right, in double lines, and Grif- 
fin's division in reserve, behind Crawford. General Merrit was 
ordered to demonstrate on the enemy's right flank, he being in- 
formed that the Fifth Corps would strike the enemy's left, and 
that the cavalry would assault the enemy's works when the 
Fifth Corps became engaged, w^hich would be determined by the 
volleys of musketry. As soon as the Fifth Corps were in posi- 
tion they were ordered to advance. They reached the White 
Oak road, made a left wheel and burst on the enemy's flank and 
rear, like a tornado, and pushed rapidly on, orders having been 
given, that if the enemy was routed, there should be no reform- 
ing of broken lines. General Merritt promptly responded to the 
designated signal, and the works of the rebels were soon carried at 
several points, and they were completely routed, the Fifth Corps 
dou-bling up their left flank in confusion, and General Merritt 
dashing on to the White Oak road, and seizing their artillery, 
turned it against them, and riding into their broken ranks, so 
demoralized them, that they made no serious stand, and fled in 
disorder. Five or six thousand prisoners were taken, and the 
fugitives pursued in their flight to the westward. This is con- 
sidered one of the most brilliant achievements of the war, and 
had much to do in deciding the contest with General Lee's army. 
It is known as the battle of Five Forks. 



804 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Soon after the engagement, General Sheridan being dissatisfied 
with General Warren's want of energy, relieved him of the 
command of the Fifth Corps, and ordered General Griffin to 
assume the commai^d. General Sheridan, in his report, spoke 
highly of the conduct of the Fifth Corps, as well as of his cavalry 
command. The Fifth Corps retired to a position on the Gravelly 
Church road. 

Intelligence having been received of the brilliant success of 
the cavalry and Fifth Corps, orders were immediately given to 
General Wright, of the Sixth, and General Parke, of the Ninth 
corps, to open their batteries and press the enemy's picket line. 
At 4 P. M., of April 2d, the Sixth Corps, under General Wright, 
attacked, carrying everything before him, taking possession of 
the enemy's strong line of works, with many guns and prisoners. 
After reaching the Boydton road. General Wright turned to his 
left, and swept the enemy's line of intrenchments till near 
Hatcher's Run, where meeting the head of the Twenty-fourth 
Corps, General Wright retraced his steps, and advanced on the 
Boydton plank road toward Petersburg, encountering the enemy 
in an inner line of works, immediately around the city. He 
immediately deployed his corps in front of the enemy's works, 
in conjunction with the Twenty-fourth, and part of the Second 
Corps. 

General Parke's attack was also successful, carrying their lines, 
and capturing guns and prisoners, but it was found that the 
enemy occupied an inner and stronger line of works, which 
General Parke was unable to carry. Reinforcements from City 
Point were immediately sent, which enabled him to hold his 
lines. The remaining portion of the Second Corps, under Gen- 
eral Humphrey, advanced and captured a redoubt in front of the 
Crow House. Mott's division advanced on the Boydton plank 
road, and finding the enemy's lines evacuated, the two divisions 
joined the Sixth Corps, confronting the enemy. Miles' division 
of the Second Corps, returning from Sheridan's support, attacked 
the enemy at Sutherland Station, defeating them, and capturing 
several guns, and many prisoners. 

At 3 o'clock, P. M., Major Generals Parke and Wright, re- 
ported no enemy in front, when on advancing, it was ascertained 
that Petersburg was evacuated. Wilcox's division of the Ninth 



BATTLE OF SAILOR'S CREEK. / 305 

Corps, was ordered to occupy the town, and the Second, Sixth, 
and Ninth Corps, immediately moved np the river, arriving that 
night, near Sutherland's Station. 

The City of Richmond was taken possession of at 8.15 P. M., 
of the 3d, of April, by the Twenty-fifth Corps, under General 
Weitzel. General Grant immediately started toward the Dan- 
ville road, to cut oif Lee's retreating army. In the pursuit, the 
Fifth Corps accompanied General Sheridan's cavalry, striking 
the South Side Railroad at Ford's Depot, from thence to Suther- 
land's Station, and supported Miles' division of the Second 
Corps. On their approach, the enemy fled along the main road 
by the river. Crawford's division of the Fifth Corps, engaged 
them about dusk. ISText morning the cavalry took up the pursuit, 
followed rapidly by the Fifth Corps, picking up prisoners, and 
artillerj'. On the 4th of April, the Fifth Corps moved rapidly to 
Jettersville, on reaching which place, it was found that Lee's 
whole army was at Amelia Court House. General Sheridan 
immediately wrote to General Grant, asking for his presence at 
his headquarters, that he was confident of capturing Lee's whole 
army, and that there was no escape for him. General Grant im- 
mediately went to the front. The Fifth Corps was ordered to 
intrench at Jettersville, to hold it until the main army came up. 
The Second and Sixth Corps were following the Fifth, while 
the Ninth had been detached to guard the Southside Railroad. 
On receiving news that Sheridan was in position at Amelia 
Court House, the Second and Sixth Corps were pushed forward, 
reaching Jettersville about 5 P. M., of the 5th of April, where 
they found the Fifth Corps intrenched, expecting an attack. 

On the 6th of April, it being ascertained that Lee had moved 
from Amelia Court House toward Farmville, the Second Corps 
was ordered to move to Deatonville, the Fifth and Sixth Corps, 
to move in parallel direction, the Fifth on the right, and the 
Sixth on the left. The Second soon overtook the enemy's rear 
guard, and fought it all day, capturing a large train which the 
enemy abandoned at Sailor's Creek. The Sixth Corps on the 
left, came up with the enemy, posted on Sailor's Creek. Gen- 
eral Wright with two divisions attacked, and completely routed 
him. In this fight. Lieutenant General Ewell, and four other 
20 



306 . MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

general officers, with tlie most of General Ewell's Corps, were 
captured. 

On the 7th, the Fifth Corps moved toward Prince Edward 
Court House, the Second resuming direct pursuit of the enemy, 
coming up with him at High Bridge, over the Appomatox. He 
attempted to hurn the railroad and common bridges, but the 
destruction of the latter was prevented. General Humphrey, 
of the Second, immediately crossed in pursuit, coming up with 
the enemy at the intersection of the High Bridge and Farmville 
roads, where he was found intrenched behind rail breastworks. 
An assault on the enemy's works, by Miles' division of the 
Second Corps, was unsuccessful. The Sixth Corps moved to- 
ward Farmville, in the morning, but the road was obstructed so 
that it did not reach there nntil late in the afternoon, when it 
was found that the enemy had destroyed the bridge. Being 
ordered to the support of the Second, in front of the enemy, a 
temporary bridge for infantry was constructed, over which Gen- 
eral Wright crossed, but it was after dark before this could be 
effected. The enemy abandoned the position during the night. 

The pursuit was continued next day, April 8th, on the Lynch- 
burg stage road. On the 9th, the enemy were overtaken by the 
Second Corps, about three miles from Appomattox Court 
House. Here General Meade, who accompanied the Second 
Corps, received a letter from General Lee, asking for a suspen- 
sion of hostilities pending negotiations for a surrender. Being 
informed that General Ord, of the Twenty-fourth Corps, on the 
other side of Appomattox Court House, had consented to a 
truce. General Meade replied to General Lee, that he should 
suspend hostilities for two hours. He was subsequently in- 
structed by General Grant, to continue the armistice till further 
orders. 

At about four o'clock in the afternoon, General Meade was 
informed officially, of the surrender of the army of General 
Lee. 

General Meade, in his report, speaks in the highest terms of 
the gallantry and heroism displayed by the Second, Fifth, Sixth, 
and Ninth corps, in the several positions in which they had been 
placed during the campaign against Petersburg. 



Sherman's march from savannah. 307 

"We thus close our sketch of the military operations of the 
army of the Potomac, in which our Wisconsin regiments were 
engaged. It is more lengthy than originally intended, for the 
reason that the several corps in which Wisconsin was repre- 
sented, embraced the entire army of the Potomac, proper, and 
the history of the actions of our Wisconsin regiments involved 
a general history of the whole army. We trust that we have 
given the statement such plainness, that the readers of our work 
will be able to understand the main facts of the campaign in 
which our Wisconsin boys performed so honorable a part. 

Sherman's march from savannah. 

Under the head of military operations in the central military 
division, we have given an outline of General Sherman's great 
march from Atlanta to Savannah. Considerino- that the sketch 
of the second part of General Sherman's grand expedition, per- 
tains more to operations in the Eastern or seaboard division, wo 
will close up our sketch of military operations in the Eastern 
division, by giving a condensed statement of General Sherman's 
advance from Savannah through the Carolinas to the second act 
of the great drama, which closed the bloody rebellion, by the 
surrender of the Confederate army under general Johnston, 

By a singular connection of circumstances, the armies of the 
East, and those of the West, were destined to take part in tlie 
last great military operations of the government against rebel- 
lion, and the armies of these two divisions of the Republic, were 
each through their recognized leaders, to receive the submission 
of the two principal armies of the rebels, General Grant, at 
Appomattox Cotirt House, on the 9th of April, and General 
Sherman, at Durham's Station, JSTorth Carolina, on the 26th of 
April. 

General Sherman took possession of Savannah about Christ- 
mas, of 1864. lie spent nearly a month in refitting his army, 
and preparing it for the second part of its grand march. On tlic 
15th of January, he was ready to start northward. The same 
order of march as that from Atlanta to Savannah, w^as to be 
maintained, the Fourteenth and Twentieth corps still continuing 



308 MILITAKY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

as the left wing, under General Slocum, and the Fifteenth and 
Seventeenth corps, as the right wing, under General Howard. 
TheWisconsin regiments retained positions as when the expedition 
started for Savannah. Preliminary to commencing the march, 
General Howard, in pursuance of orders, conveyed his command 
by water, to Beaufort, and from thence to the main land. Ad- 
vancing along the Charleston Railroad, they met the enemy, 
who fell back after a sharp skirmish. On threatening a flank 
movement, the enemy evacuated their works, and General How- 
ard's troops occupied the position at Pocotaligo. The left wing 
and Kilpatrick's cavalry, were ordered to rendezvous about the 
same time, near Sister's Ferry, on the Savannah River. The 
heavy rains, which deluged the swampy region around Savannah, 
delayed General Slocum's advance so that he did not reach 
Sister's Ferry, until the first week in February. 

General Grant had sent to General Sherman, Grover's division 
of the Nineteenth Corps, to garrison Savannah, and had trans- 
ferred the Twenty-third Corps, General Schofield, to North 
Carolina, to assist General Sherman in his operations. On the 
18th of January, General Sherman transferred the city and forts 
of Savannah to Major General Foster, commanding the Depart- 
ment of the South. He informed General Grant, that he should 
make Goldsborough, North Carolina, his objective point, and 
sent Colonel Wright, his Superintendent of military railroads, 
to Newbern, North Carolina, with orders to be prepared to ex- 
tend the railroad out from Newbern to Goldsborough by the 
15th of March. 

His Quartermaster and Commissar}' were ordered to complete 
the supplies at Sister's Ferry and Pocotaligo, and then to follow 
the movement coastwise, to Newbern, and open communica- 
tions with him, at Morehead City, about the 15th of March. 
General Sherman joined the right wing at Pocotaligo, on the 
24th of January. 

The march began on the Ist of February. The continued 
rains had flooded the country, and Wheeler's cavalry had en- 
deavored to obstruct the roads by felling trees, and burning 
bridges. These, however, proved small impediments to the well 
Drganized pioneer corps. The felled trees were removed, and 
bridges were rebuilt before the rear could close up, impassable 



SKIRMISH AT ORANGEBURG. 309 

roads were corduroyed, and rivers and swamps were often 
crossed, the men wading, sometimes, up to their armpits. Such 
was the spirit which the resolute men of the difterent regiments 
exhibited, that no obstacle could stand a moment before their 
all conquering march. The main points of General Sherman's 
route, were Orangeville, Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville, and 
Goldsborough. 

On the 2d of February, the Fifteenth Corps arrived atLoper's 
Cross Roads, and the Seventeenth Corps, at River's Bridge. 
The Seventeenth Corps was ordered to carry River's Bridge, and 
the Fifteenth Corps, Beaufort Bridge, which was done. The 
first position was carried by the divisions of Generals Mower, 
and Giles A. Smith, on the 3d of February, by crossing the 
swamp, nearly three miles wide, with water varying from knee 
to shoulder deep. Led by their gallant generals on foot, they 
waded the swamp, made a lodgment below the bridge, and 
drove the rebel brigade, which guarded it, in confusion, to 
Branchville. The w^hole army pushed rapidly to the South 
Carolina Railroad at Midway, Bamberg, and Graham's Station. 
All hands were at once set to work destroying railroad track. 
This occupied till the 10th of February, at which time General 
Slocum reached Blackville, and on the 11th, all the army was 
on the railroad from Midway to Johnson's Station. 

On the same day, the movement commenced on Orangeburg. 
The Seventeenth Corps crossed the Edisto, at Birmaker's Bridge, 
and the Fifteenth, at Holman's Bridge, moving directly to 
Orangeburg. The left wing, and cavalry, were ordered to cross 
at New and Guignard's bridges. The Seventeenth Corps, found 
the enemy at the Orangeburg bridge, swept him away by a dash, 
and followed him, forcing him across the bridge, which was parti- 
ally burned. One division held the bank of the river, and two divi- 
sions crossing a mile or two below, flanked the enemy, who aban- 
doned their position and fled. Taking possession of the enemy's 
works, the bridge was soon repaired, and the whole corps was 
in Orangeburg, tearing up the railroad track. General Blair 
was ordered to continue its destruction to Lewisville, and to push 
the enemy across the Congaree, and force him to burn the 
bridges, which he did, on the 14th, leaving Charleston to fall 
by cutting off its communications w^ith the interior. General 



310 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Sherman pushed his columns straight on Columbia, whicli, next 
to Charleston, was the hotbed where treason first sprung up to 
curse the nation. 

The Seventeenth Corps followed the State road to Columbia, 
the Fifteenth Corps crossed the North Edisto, at Schilling's 
bridge, and took a country road, which came into the State road 
at Zeigler's. They found the enemy at a strong position at 
Little Congaree-bridge, on the Congaree Creek, with a tcte de po7ii 
on the south side, and a well constructed fort on the north side, 
commanding the bridge with artillery. Their flank was turned, the 
tete de j^ont abandoned, and the bridge and fort beyond, were taken 
possession of. The bridge requiring repairs to permit the pas- 
sage of artillery, the corps was so delayed that it did not reach 
the bridge across the Congaree, at Columbia. The next morn 
ing, before the head of the column reached the bank of the Con- 
garee, the enemy had set fire to the fine bridge which spanned 
the river. A few shells were thrown at the railroad depot to 
scatter the people who were seen carrying away sacks of corn 
and meal. 

General Howard was directed by General Sherman, to cross 
about three miles above the city, at the Saluda Factory, and 
afterwards the Broad Hiver, so as to approach Columbia from 
the north. General Slocum arrived with the left wing, soon 
after General Howard's column reached the bank of the river. 
General Sherman ordered him to cross the Saluda, at Zion 
Church, and to take roads direct to Winnsboro, breaking up, en 
route, the railroads and bridges about Alston. 

General Howard crossed as directed, skirmishing with cavaliy, 
and on the 17th, the Mayor surrendered the city to Colonel 
Stone, of the Twenty-fifth Iowa infantry. The Fifteenth Corps 
passed through Columbia, and out on the Camden road. The 
Seventeenth did not enter town at all, neither did the left 
wing, under General Slocum, or Kilpatrick's cavalry, come 
within two miles of the city. The brigade of Colonel Stone 
was properly posted in the town. General Sherman, and Gen- 
eral Howard, were the first to enter the city. General Hampton, 
of the rebel cavalry, ordered that all cotton, public and private, 
should be moved into the streets and fired, to prevent the Fede- 
ral troops from making use of it. Bales were piled everywhere, 



BURNING OF COLUMBIA. 311 

the rope and bagging cut, and tufts were blown about in tlie 
wind, lodged in the trees, and against the houses. Some of these 
j)iles were burning, especially', one in the very heart of the city. 
Before one single public building had been fired by order of 
General Sherman, the smouldering fire, set by Hampton's order, 
was rekindled by the wind, and communicated to the buildings 
around. About dark, the fire began to spread, and got beyond 
control of the brigade on duty within the city. The whole of 
Wood's division was brought in, but it was found impo&sible to 
check the flames, which raged until about four o'clock in the 
morning, when the Avind subsided, and the flames were got un- 
der control. Our oflicers and men on duty, worked industriously 
to extinguish the flames. During the 18th and 19th, the arse- 
nals, railroad depots, machine shops, foundries, and other build- 
ings were destroyed by detailed working parties and the rail- 
road track torn up and destroyed, to the Wateree bridge, and 
up towards Winnsboro. 

The left wing and cavalry reached Winnsboro, on the 21st of 
February, having broken up the railroad in their rear. They 
continued its destruction up to the Blackstakes depot. The 
Twentieth Corps reached Rocky Mount, and crossed the Catawba, 
on the 22d, on a pontoon bridge. Kilpatrick's cavalry followed, 
and crossed over in a terrible rain, during the night of the 23d, 
and moved up to Lancaster, in order to create the impression 
among the rebels, that his next point of attack was Charlotte, 
JSTorth Carolina. From the 23d to the 26th, rain had fallen ren- 
dering the roads almost impassable. Much trouble was occa- 
sioned in crossing the Catawba, the heavy rains having swollen 
the river and broken the pontoon bridge. 

General Howard's column broke up the railroad as far as 
"Winnsboro, then turned for Peay's Ferry, where it crossed the 
Catawba, before the heavy rains set in, the Seventeenth Corps 
moving straight on Cheraw, by Young's bridge, and the Fifteenth 
Corps, by Tiller's and Kelly's bridges. Detachments were sent 
from the Fifteenth Corps, to destroy the bridge and railroad 
depots, stores, etc., at Camden. An unsuccessful attempt was 
made b}- a mounted force, to destroy the railroad from Charles- 
ton to Florence. Meeting Butler's cavalry, a skirmish ensued, 



312 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

when they were compelled to return without accomplishing their 
purpose. 

The Seventeenth Corps entered Cheraw, on the 2d of March, 
the enemy crossing the Pedee, and burning the bridge. Here a 
great quantity of guns and ammunition were found, which had 
been brought from Charleston, on the evacuation of that city. 
The enemy did not suppose it possible that this point would be 
invaded by the hostile Yankees. These articles were destroyed, 
as well as the railroad. 

On the 7th of March, the columns were again in motion, the 
right wing crossing the Pedee at Cheraw, and the left wing and 
cavalry at Sneedsboro. The Fourteenth Corps moving by 
Love's bridge, was given the right to enter and occupy Fayette- 
ville first. The roads were bad, but the Fourteenth Corps of the 
left wing, and the Seventeenth Corps of the right wing, reached 
Fayetteville, on the 11th of March, skirmishing with Hampton's 
cavalry, that covered the rear of Hardee's retreating army, which 
had crossed Cape Fear river, burning the bridge, as usual. Dur- 
ing the march fi'om the Pedee, General Kilpatrick had kept his 
cavalry well on the left, and exposed flank. During the night of 
the 9th of March, his three brigades were divided to picket the 
roads. General Hampton detecting this, dashed in at daylight, 
and gained possession of the camp of Colonel Spencer's brigade, 
and the house in which General Kilpatrick and Colonel Spencer, 
had their headquarters. The surprise was complete, but Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick quickly rallied his men on foot, in a swamp near 
by, and by a prompt attack, well followed up, regained his artil- 
lery, horses, camp, and everything, save some prisoners, whom 
the enemy carried off, leaving their dead on the ground. 

The next three days were spent at Fayetteville, in destroying 
the United States arsenal and the vast amount of machinery 
which had formerly belonged to the old Harper's Ferry United 
States arsenal. Every building was demolished, and the 
machinery utterly broken up and ruined. A great quantity of 
property of great use to the enemy was here destroyed, or cast 
into the river. 

At Fayetteville, General Sherman succeeded in opening com- 
munication with the outside world, by means of a tug and a 
gunboat from Wilmington. Dispatches were sent to Generals 



BATTLE OP AVERYSBOEO. 313 

Terry and Schofield, informing them that General Sherman, on 
"Wednesday, the 15th of March, would move on Goldsboro, 
making a feint on Raleigh, and ordering them to march straight 
to Goldsboro, which he expected to reach by the 20th. 

N"o concentration of a rebel force had, as yet, been made to 
oppose General Sherman's advance. About this time, however, 
there were indications that a force was gathering in his front. 
Hardee was just ahead of him. Beauregard had been reinforced 
by Cheatham's Corps, from the "West, and the garrison at Au- 
gusta, and had had ample time to move them to Sherman's 
front and flank at Raleigh. These several forces, with those 
under Johnston and Hoke, the whole under the command of 
General Johnston, their most skillful and experienced General, 
made up an army superior to Sherman, in cavalry, and formida- 
ble in artillery and infantry, sufiicient to induce Sherman to 
prepare for a severe contest, at some point on his march. He 
therefore put his several columns in fighting condition. 

General Kilpatrick was ordered to move up the plank road to 
and beyond Averysboro. He was to be followed by four divi- 
sions of the left wing, with as few wagons as possible, the rest of 
that wing to take a shorter and more direct road to Goldsboro. 
General Howard was ordered to send his trains to the right, 
towards Faison's Depot and Goldsboro, and hold four divisions, 
light, ready to go to the aid of the left wing, if attacked while 
in motion. The weather was bad, and the roads had become 
mere quagmires. 

On the loth of March, the columns moved out from Cape 
Fear river. General Slocum moved up the plank road with 
Kilpatrick's cavalry in advance, to Kyle's landing. The cavalry 
skirmished heavily with the enemy's rear guard, three miles be- 
yond, near Taylor's Hole Creek. Advancing in the same order 
next morning, the enemy was developed with artillery, infantry, 
and cavalry, in an intrenched position. It was Hardee's force 
of about 20,000 men. General Slocum was ordered to press 
and carry the position. "Ward's division of the Twentieth Corps, 
having the advance, was deployed and developed a brigade of 
Charleston Heavy Artillery armed as infantry, posted across the 
road, behind a light parapet. General Williams sent a brigade, 
which made a circuit, turned the enemy's line, and by a dashing 



314 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

charge, broke the brigade, wliicli rapidly retreated to a second 
line. On advancing Ward's division over this ground, General 
Williams captured three guns, and 217 prisoners. Over one 
hundred rebel dead were buried. Ward's advance developed a 
stronger line, when Jackson's division of the Twentieth Corps 
was deployed on Ward's right, and the two divisions of the 
Fourteenth Corps on his left, and Kilpatrick was ordered to mass 
his force on the extreme right, and to act with Jackson's divi- 
sion. He got a brigade on the road, but it was furiously 
attacked by McLaw's division, and though it fought bravely, 
it was obliged to draw back to the flank of the infantry. The 
whole line advanced late in the afternoon, drove the enemy into 
his intrenched line, and pressed him so hard that next morn- 
ing he was gone, having retreated in a stormy night, and over 
the worst of roads. Ward's division followed to and through 
Averysboro, and developed the fact, that Hardee had retreated 
to Smithfield. Slocum's loss in this aifair, known as the battle 
of Averysboro, was 12 oflicers and 65 men killed, and 477 
wounded. Ward's division kept up a show of pursuit, and Slo- 
cum's column turned to the right, and crossed the South river, 
and took the road to Goldsboro, Kilpatrick moving to the east- 
ward, to watch that flank. Howard's column during this 
time, was wallowing along the miry roads between Benton- 
ville and Goldsboro. Slocum's column camped on the 18th, ou 
the Goldsboro road, twenty-seven miles from Goldsboro, and five 
miles from Bentonville. Howard was at Lee's store, two milea 
south, and both columns had pickets out three miles in front. 

General Sherman had left Slocum's column and just joined 
General Howard's, when he heard artillery in Slocum's direction. 
Soon Slocum's staft'oflicers came in, informing General Sherman, 
that Slocum had developed the whole rebel army, near Benton- 
ville, in his front, under Johnston himself. Orders were sent for 
him to call up his two divisions guarding his wagon trains, and 
Hazen's division, of the Fifteenth Corps, to fight defensively, 
until Blair's corps could be brought up and with the three 
remaining divisions of the Fifteenth Corps come upon Johnston's 
left rear from the direction of Cox's bridge. 

General Slocum advanced from his camp, on the 18th, and 
fii-st encountered the enemy's cavalry, but soon found hia 



BATTLE OF BENTONVILLE. 815 

progress impeded by infantry and artillery. Tliey attacked the 
head of Lis column, gaining a temporary advantage, and took 
three guns, driving the leading brigades of Carlin's division, 
back on the main body. General Slocum immediately deployed 
the two divisions of the Fourteenth Corps, General Davis, and 
brought up on their left, the two divisions of the Twentieth 
Corps. These he arranged on the defensive, behind hastily con- 
structed barricades. General Kilpatrirk also massed his cavalry 
on the left. In this position the left wing received six distinct as- 
saults by the combined forces of Iloke, Hardee, and Cheatham, all 
under General Johnston's command, without giving an inch of 
ground, and doing great execution with the artillery. Johnston 
had moved from Smithfield in order to surprise the left wing 
before the right wing could be brought up. During the night, 
Slocum got up his wagon trains with their guard of two divisions, 
and Ilazen's division of the Fifteenth Corps, which enabled him 
to make his position impregnable. 

The head of the right wing encountered the rebel cavalry about 
three miles from the battle ground of the day before. General 
Howard soon put his column in line of battle, connectijig closely 
on Slocum's left. By 4 o'clock of the 20th, a complete and strong 
line of battle confronted the enemy in his intrenched position, and 
General Johnston was soon himself put on the defensive, with 
Mill Creek and a single bridge in his rear. Skirmish firing and 
artillery were freely used, but no general charges were made. 

On the 21st of March a steady rain prevailed. During the day 
General Mower got well into the rear of the enemy, towards the 
bridge over Mill Creek, which developed the weakness of Gen- 
eral Johnston s position. In doing so, however, General Mower 
liad exposed himself to an attack of Johnston's reserves, and he 
was therefore ordered to regain connection with his own corps, 
the enemy, in the meantime, being attacked all along the skir- 
mish line. That night the enemy retreated on Smithfield, with- 
out withdrawing his pickets, and leaving his dead unburied and 
/his wounded in field hospitals. Pursuit was made about two 
miles beyond Mill Creek, when it was recalled. General Slo- 
cum's losses at Bentonville were 9 officers and 145 men killed, 51 
officers and 816 men wounded, and 3 officers and 223 men miss- 
ing and taken prisoners ; total, 1,247. He buried on the field 



816 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

167 rebel dead, and took 338 prisoners. General Howard's losses 
were 2 officers and 35 men killed, 12 officers and 289 men 
wounded, and one officer and 60 men missing, total, 399. He 
also buried 100 rebel dead, and took 1,287 prisoners. The 
aggregate loss was 1,646. 

On the 21st General Schofield entered Goldsboro with the 
the Twenty-third Corps, and General Terry was in possession of 
the Neuse River at Cox's bridge, so th-at the three armies were 
in actual connection, and the object of the campaign was 
accomplished. 

The railroads to the seacoast, at Wilmington and Beaufort, 
North Carolina, were rapidly repaired. Ample supplies were at 
Kingston, which were brought forward to Goldsboro, where both 
wings of the Grand Army were congregated on the 24th. On the 
25th the railroad to Morehead City was finished, thus enabling 
General Sherman to draw full supplies for his arm}^ at that point. 

General Sherman on the 25th, left General Schofield in chief 
command, took cars to Morehead City, thence went by steam to 
City Point, on James River, where he had an interview with 
General Grant, President Lincoln, Generals Meade, Ord and 
others of the Army of the Potomac, and soon arranged plans for 
the further prosecution of the campaign, returning to Goldsboro 
on the 30th of March. 

In his report of the march to Goldsboro, General Sherman 
Bays that " the real object was to place his army in a position 
easy of supply, whence it could take an appropriate part in tke 
spring aud summer campaign of 1865." This was completely 
accomplished on the 21st of March, by the junction of the three 
armies, and occupation of Goldsboro. 

On the 1st of April the troops around Goldsboro occupied posi- 
tions as follows: — The Army of the Ohio, under General Schofield, 
lay at Goldsboro, with detachments to secure and cover the routes 
of communication and supply, at Wilmington and Morehead 
City ; the Tenth Corps, General Terry, was at Faison's depot ; 
the Army of the Tennessee, Major General 0. 0. Howard, com- 
manding, was encamped to the right and front of Goldsboro ; and 
the Army of Georgia, Major General Slocum, commanding, to 
the left and front. The cavalry, Brevet-Major General Kilpatrick 
commanding, were at Mount Olive. All were engaged in repairing 



PURSUIT OF Johnston's army. 317 

the wear aud tear of the recent hard march from Savannah, 
and in replenishing clothing and stores necessary for a further 
progress. 

Notwithstanding the inadequate supply of railroad cars, which 
delayed the accumulation of supplies, by the 10th of April the 
men were all reclad, the wagons reloaded, and a fair amount of 
forage collected. 

General Sherman received the news of the battles around 
Petersburg, at Goldsboro, on the 6th of April. His designs were 
to move rapidly northward, feigning on Ealeigh, and striking 
straight for Burkesville, thereby interposing himself between Lee 
and Johnston. Events in Virginia, since his interview with 
General Grant, at City Point, had changed the whole military 
problem. The grand objective points now were the armies of 
Lee and Johnston. General Grant was to capture the former, 
whijje General Sherman would endeavor to take care of the 
latter. 

At that time General Johnston had an army of about 45,000 
men at Smithfield, directly between General Sherman and Ea- 
leigh. A forward movement was ordered on the 10th of April. 
At daybreak of that day all the heads of the columns were in 
motion, straight against the enemy. Major General Slocum 
taking the direct road to Smithfield, Major General Howard tak- 
ing a circuit by the right, and feigning up the Weldon road to 
disconcert the enemy's cavalry, Generals Terry and Kilpatrick 
moving on the west side of the Xeuse river, and aiming to reach 
the rear of the enemy, between Smithfield and Raleigh. General 
Schofield followed General Slocum as a support. 

Sweeping away the slight opposition six miles from Goldsboro, 
the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps entered Smithfield. John- 
ston retreated, availing himself of the railroad to lighten his 
trains. Having burnt the bridge, the pontoons were sent for, 
and General Slocum crossed over one division of the Fourteenth 
Corps. 

Here General Sherman first heard of the surrender of General 
Lee's army, which was received with the liveliest satisfaction by 
the whole army. Under the impulse of this glorious news the 
army of Sherman was impatient to push ahead, and endeavor to 
capture the other rebel army. The trains were dropped without 



318 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

hesitation, and the whole army marched rapidly in jDursuit, to 
and through Raleigh, reaching that place on the 13th, in a heavy 
rain. 

Johnston's army was retreating rapidly on the roads from 
Hillsboro to Greensboro. From Raleigh, the cavalry pushed on 
through the rain to Durham's Station, the Fifteenth Corps fol- 
lowing to Monroeville Station, and the Seventeenth Corps 
to Jones' Station. The other columns were turned off towards 
Ashboro. By the 15th, though the rains were incessant and the 
roads were almost impassable. Major General 'Slocum had the 
Fourteenth Corps near Martha's Vineyard, with a pontoon laid 
across Cape Fear River, at Aven's Ferry, with the Twentieth 
Corps, General Mower, who had been appointed to its command, 
supporting the Fourteenth Corps. General Howard had the 
Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps stretched out on the road to 
Pittsboro, while General Kilpatrick held Durham's Station^and 
Chapel Hill University. 

Thus matters stood, when General Sherman received General 
Johnston's first letter, dated April 14, copies of which were sent 
to the Lieutenant General and Secretary of AVar, with General 
Sherman's reply. We do not propose to enter at length into the 
discussion of the points in the negotiations which took place 
between General Sherman and General Johnston. It is sufficient 
for us to state in general terms that the basis agreed upon be- 
tween those generals was rejected by the President of the United 
States, and General Grant was requested to repair immediately 
to General Sherman's headquarters and direct operations against 
the enemy. 

On the 24th of April, General Sherman served a notice on 
General Johnston, informing him that the truce or suspension 
of hostilities agreed to under the first articles of their agreement 
would cease in forty-eight hours after the notice was received at 
General Johnston's headquarters. 

On the same day, he sent to General Johnston a letter stating 
that he had received replies from Washington in answer to his 
communication of April 18. That he was instructed to limit his 
operations to General Johnston's immediate command, and not 
to attempt civil negotiations, and therefore demanded the 



SUREENDER OF JOHNSTON'S ARMY. 319 

surrender of his army on the same term-s as were given to General 
Lee at Appomattox, of April 9, purely and simply. 

These communications led to an interview between the two 
generals, which resulted in the surrender, by General Johnston, 
of his whole army, to General Sherman, on the 26th day of 
April, 1865. 

Thus ended the great march of General Sherman, one of the 
most remarkable expeditions in this or any other age. 

It is left to us to state how the gallant armies which had so 
gloriously carried the old flag through the heart of the rebellious 
States closed their career. The Tenth and Twenty-third Corps 
were ordered to remain in the Department of ISTorth Carolina, as 
was also the cavalry under General Xilpatrick. Major General 
Howard was ordered to conduct the Army of the Tennessee to 
Eichmond, by the<(vay of Lewisburg, Warrenton, Lawrenceville 
and Petersburg, or to the right of that line. Major General 
Slocum was ordered to conduct the Army of Georgia to Rich- 
mond, by roads to the left of the one indicated for General How- 
ard, by Oxford, Boydton and Nottaway Court Houses. The 
armies were ordered to turn in at Raleigh the contents of their 
ordnance trains, and use the wagons for extra forage and provi- 
sions. The colamns were to be conducted slowly and in the 
best of order, aiming to be in Richmond, ready to resume the 
march, by the middle of May. 

Reaching Richmond, the Army of General Sherman was 
ordered to march to "Washington, having been preceded on the 
road a few days by the Army of the Potomac. They reached 
the neighborhood of Washington about the 18th of May, where 
they went into camp. Here they remained until the 23d and 
24th of May, when a grand review of the troops of the Army 
of the Potomac, and of the Army of General Sherman, took 
place at Washington, in presence of the President, and generals 
and other dignitaries. From Washington, the troops from the 
West were sent to Louisville or St. Louis, where they were 
mustered out, and sent to their respective States for payment 
and disbandment. 



OHAPTEE IX. 



GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS— CENTRAL DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations in the Central Division — Bowling 
Green— Nashville — Huntsville — Bragg's March on Louisville 

— Battle op Perryville — Jefferson Pike — Stone River — 
Spring Hill — Tullahoma — Dug Gap — Chicamauga — Chatta- 
nooga — Mission Ridge — Dalton — Buzzard's Roost — Resaca — 

— Dallas — Kenesaw Mountain — Atlanta — Jonesboro — Love- 
joy's Station — Allatoona — Destruction of Atlanta — Sher- 
man's March to Savannah — Battle op Nashville — General 
Wilson's Campaigns in Alabama and Georgia. 

THE Wisconsin organizations originally assigned to the Central 
Division, embracing Kentucky, Tennessee, Northern Alaba- 
ma and Georgia were as follows, viz. : The First, (reorganized,) 
Tenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-fourth, Forty-third, Forty-fourth, 
Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Infantry, and Batteries 
Nos. 1 and 3, Light Artillery, and Companies B and C, Heavy 
Artillery. The following were transferred from the "Western 
Division, at different periods during the war, viz. : Thirteenth, 
Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twenty -fifth, 
Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second Infantry, First Cavalry, 
and Batteries 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12, Light Artilleiy. The Third and 
Twenty-sixth Infantry were transferred from the Eastern Division. 
The First Battery was transferred to the Western Division in 
1862. 

The military operations of the Government in the Central 
Division, comprising Kentucky, Tennessee, and Northern Geor- 
gia, commenced in June, 1861, by authorizing General Rosseaii 
to organize two or three regiments of loyal Kentuckians. For 
fear of disturbing the neutrality, which Kentucky hypocritically 



AFFAIRS IN KENTUCKY. 321 

claimed to maintain, General Rosseau established a camp for his 
ti'oops on the Indiana shore, two miles below Louisville, naming 
it " Camp Holt." A camp, called " Dick Robinson," was located, 
at a later day, in Garrard county, and Colonel, afterwards Genera] 
Nelson, commenced the enrolment of recruits. 

On the 4th of September, the Confederate General Polk took 
possession of Columbus, on the Mississippi, which was followed 
by General Grant taking possession of Paducah, at the mouth of 
the Tennessee River. This destro^^ed Kentucky's ueuti'ality, and 
henceforth, her soil was to echo to the tramp of armed men. 
General Buckner, who had enlisted for the Confederate army a 
large number of Kentuckians, raising the standard of rebellion, 
advanced with a band of armed men, and established a camp at 
Bowling Green, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, about 
forty miles north of the Tennessee line. Placing his men on the 
cars, he attempted to reach the Ohio River, and capture Louis- 
ville. A few miles out of Bowling Green, a loyal young man 
tore up two or three lengths of the rails, by which the trains con- 
taining the rebel troops were thrown off" the track and detained, 
which enabled General W. T. Sherman, who had been appointed 
to command the department, to congregate the troops of General 
Rosseau at Camp Holt, and the Home Guards of Louisville, and 
place them enroute to meet General Buckner. He succeeded in 
getting as far as Elizabethtown, 35 miles from Louisville, where 
he was deterred from a further advance. General Sherman en- 
camped at Muldraugh's Hill, three miles from Elizabethtown, 
with his forces, and the rebel Buckner returned to Bowl- 
ing Green, where he spent the winter, gathering recruits and 
strengthening his army for the spring campaign. 

In the meantime, requisitions had been made for troops from 
the neighboring Western States, and soon several regiments 
arrived, among them the First Wisconsin, reorganized under 
Colonel Starkweather, "and the Tenth Wisconsin, under Colonel 
Chapin. 

General Buell succeeded General Sherman, in November, and 
immediately entered on the duty of organizing an army, for the 
spring campaign, of nearly 100,000 men. 

Intending to confine our remarks to a brief sketch of the sev- 
eral operations of the Union armies, in which Wisconsin 
21 



322 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

regiments were enrolled, the general movements, in otlier respects, 
will be but incidentally noticed. 

General Buell, early in the 3'ear 1862, had disposed his troops 
so as to flank the rebel Buckner on the left, by sending General 
Thomas with his division, on that duty, while General Mitchell 
advanced toward the rebel stronghold in ft-ont. On the 1st of 
February the capture of Fort Henry was undertaken by General 
Grant, and accomplished on the 7th. This was immediately 
followed by the downfall of Fort Donelson, in which the rebel 
Buckner was taking prisoner, he having left Bowling Green, with 
a portion of his forces, to reinforce the Fort. 

These important captures were followed by the immediate 
evacuation of Bowling Green, under General Johnston. General 
Mitchell advanced with his division, and took possession of the 
town on the 14th of February. The control of the Cumberland 
and Tennessee Rivers, by the Union gunboats, insured the early 
abandonment of Nashville by the rebels, which was done on the 
advance of General Nelson's brigade, on transports up the river, 
on the 24th of April. Nelson's troops landed without opposition, 
and took possession of the city just about the time General Buell's 
advance made its appearance on the bank of the river opposite. 
Columbus, on the Mississippi, was also evacuated, and the rebel 
forces were removed to Island No. 10 and New Madrid. 

General Buell's forces congregated around Nashville, encamp- 
mg within five miles of the city, with pickets extending for ten 
miles. The Confederate forces, under General A. S. Johnson, 
retired to Murfreesboro, 32 miles from Nashville. Here they were 
soon joined by the Confederate force under General Crittenden. 

In January, 1862, the Wisconsin Batteries, No. 1, Captain Fos- 
ter, and No. 3, Captain Drury, arrived at Louisville, where they 
entered the " Camp of Instruction." 

A change had been made in the plans of General Buell, by the 
retiring of the rebel forces, and their concentration in the vicinity 
of Corinth, with a view to an attack on General Grant, who had 
transported a large army up the Tennessee River, to Pittsburg 
Landing. The Departments of Kansas and Kentucky were 
merged in that of Missouri under the designation of the Depart- 
ment of the Mississippi, and General Halleck assigned to the 
command. General Halleck thereupon directed General Buell 



i 



CAPTURE OF HUNTSVILLE. 323 

to join his forces with General Grant. lie accordingly left l^ash- 
viile on the 28th of March, and sncceedcd in reaching Pittsburg 
Landing on the evening of the tlrst day of the fight at that phu;e 
on the 6th of April, and contributed materially to the defeat of the 
enemy. 

General Buell, before he left ITashville, had sent the divis- 
ions of Mitchell, Nelson, and McCook, to occupy the northern 
portions of Alabama and Georgia. Overhauling these divisions, 
on his route to Pittsburg Landing, General Buell changed the 
route of McCook and Nelson, and they accompanied him to Pitts- 
burg Landing, while General Mitchell was permitted to continue 
his route into Alabama. The Division of Geneial Negley had 
been detached from McCook's corps, and sent to Columbia on 
special duty. Colonel Starkweather's First Wisconsin Regiment 
was attached to this division. 

General Mitchell remained at Murfreesboro, which had been 
abandoned by the rebel troops, who had gone to reinforce Beau- 
regard at Corinth, until the 4th of April, when he pushed south, 
through Shelbyville and Fayetteville, crossing the Alabama line 
on the 8th. He proceeded to within four miles of Huntsvillo, 
where he captured a railroad train with 150 prisoners. Putting 
his men on the quickstep his army arrived in the city at the dead 
of night, when the inhabitants were all asleep. The clatter of the 
cavalry aroused them from their slumbers, and they awoke to 
find their beautiful city in possession of the hated Yankees. By 
his energy, before night. General Mitchell had possession of one 
hundred miles of railroad, stretching from Stevenson to Decatur. 
General Mitchell continued in possession of the territory which 
he had at first occupied, although he was closely pressed on the 
west end of his line. On the 1st of May, he reports to the Secre- 
tary of War, " The campaign is ended, and I now occupy Hunts- 
ville in perfect security, while all of Alabama, north of the Ten- 
nessee River, floats no flag but that of the Union." The Tenth 
Wisconsin, Colonel Chapin, in Sill's brigade, performed very 
important services during the administration of General Mitchell. 

On the advance of General Buell, this division of his army was 
placed under the command of General Rosseau, and General 
Mitchell was transferred to a command at Port Royal, South 
Carolina. 



324 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

' General Buell left Corinth with the main body of his army, 
for Chattanooga, on the 10th of June. Taking positions at 
Battle Creek, Huntsville, and McMinnville, he commenced the 
reorganization of ajffairs in this department. The Confederate 
General Bragg, massed his forces at Chattanooga and Knoxville. 
General Kirby Smith was stationed at the latter place. 

We have elsewhere stated that the Confederate authorities had 
determined on taking the ofiensive, and planned an invasion of 
the Northern States. In furtherance of this plan in the west, 
General Kirby Smith, on the 22d of August, made his appear- 
ance at the Gaps, in the southeast corner of the State of Ken- 
tucky. At the same time. General Bragg marched for a similar 
purpose, crossing the Tennessee River above Chattanooga, and 
turning General Buell's left, proceeded by the mountain road, to 
Dunlop, thence to Pikeville. Throwing out a large force towards 
McMinnville, the main body of his army marched by way of 
Crossville. The force sent toward McMinnville, was suddenly 
withdrawn, and followed after the main body, which passed into 
Kentucky, on the 6th of September. On the 13th, this force 
appeared before Mumfordville, and demanded its surrender. 
Colonel "Wilder refused, an attack was made, and after seven 
hours fight, the enemy was repulsed. The attack was renewed 
on the 16th, with great spirit, and the place was surrendered 
next day, by Colonel Dunham. In the meantime. General Kirby 
Smith had advanced into Kentucky, occupying Lexington and 
Frankfort, and throwing his advance within a few miles of Cin- 
cinnati. This movement created great excitement at Cincinnati 
and Louisville. At the former city, martial law was declared. 
General Lew. Wallace took command of Cincinnati, Covington 
and Newport, on the 1st of September. Places of business were 
ordered to be closed at nine o'clock, and the citizens were re- 
quired to assemble at ten o'clock, for defence. The citizens 
turned out, and took turns in working upon the fortifications on 
the opposite side of the river. 

Meanwhile General Buell was not idle. Dispatches to General 
Bragg, were intercepted, by which it was ascertained that Louis- 
ville was the point aimed at by the Confederate army. Forced 
marches were to be made without supplies, subsisting on the 
country, and the city reached, when it was unprepared for 



BRAGG INVADES KENTUCKT. 325 

defense. The canal around the Falls, was to be destro^'cd, the 
public stores seized, and the city held, under the impression that 
the Federal forces would not bombard it. 

The march of General Bragg commenced on the 21st. Gen 
era! Buell was on his left tlank at Lebanon, guarding against his 
approach to jS'ashville. General Buell harrassed his rear, shelled 
him out of Woodsonville, forded Green River, and drove him 
out of Mumfordville, followed him along the turnpike road to 
Louisville, until Bragg turned off to the east, through Ilodge- 
ville, evidently endeavoring to unite with the forces of Kirby 
Smith, Humphrey Marshall, and Colonel Morgan, and make a 
combined attack on Louisville. General Buell continued on 
directly to Louisville. 

Plunder seemed to be the main object of this movement. 
Everything was seized that could be of use to the Confederate 
army, or to the Southern people. From Mumfordville, the Con- 
federate force moved to Bardstown, Glasgow, and the central 
part of the State. 

While this invasion was in progress, reinforcements from the 
"Western States were pouring into Cincinnati and Louisville. 
The State of Wisconsin furnished the Twenty-first, under Colo- 
nel Sweet; the Twenty-second, under Colonel Utley ; the Twen- 
ty-third, Colonel Guppy ; the Twenty-fourth, Colonel Larrabee. 
These regiments were ordered to Cincinnati, where they remained 
until the excitement died away, when the Twenty-first moved to 
Louisville, where it was placed with the First Wisconsin, in Col- 
onel Starkweather's Twenty-eighth Brigade. The Twenty-second 
performed service in different parts of Kentucky, until the close 
of the year. The Twenty-third remained in Kentucky, until 
the 19th of November, when it moved to Memphis, Tennessee. 
The Twenty-fourth was subsequently attached to the Thirty- 
seventh Brigade of the Eleventh Division, under command of 
Colonel Greusel, and took part in the battle of Perryville. The 
Fifteenth, Colonel Heg, had been transferred to Tennessee, in 
September, 1862. 

In the march of Kirby Smith, through the eastern gaps of 
Kentucky, the flank of General Morgan, who was sent in April 
to hold Cumberland Gap, was turned, and he was forced to 
retreat, after fighting the battle of Tazewell, and standing a 



326 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

montli's siege, tlie men being part of the time on half and 
quarter rations. The Gap was evacuated on the 17th day of 
September, and after a laborious march of twp hundred miles, 
during which the troops suffered great hardships, they reached 
Greenupsburg, Ky., on the 3d of October. In this march, 
Captain Foster, of the First Wisconsin Battery, bore a con- 
spicuous ]Dart, as chief of artillery, bringing off" the most of his 
guns. 

The following Wisconsin batteries were also with the forces 
under General Buell, when the advance , against Bragg com- 
menced : — The Third, Captain Drury, the Fifth, Captain Pin 
ney, the Eighth, Captain Carpenter — the two last having re 
cently been transferred from the Army of the Tennessee. Thi 
Tenth Battery, Captain Bebee, was transferred to JSTjishville in 
ISTovember, and was permanently attached to the Fourteenth- 
Corps. 

On the 1st of October, Buell began his march in pursuit of 
the Confederate forces under General Bragg, who was now 
endeavoring to make his escape- with his immense trains of 
plunder. 

On the 7th, a large Confederate force was reported to be at 
Perryville, forty-two miles from Frankfort. Here they were 
met by the corps of Generals McCook and Gilbert, on the 8th, 
and a severe battle ensued, in which the First and Twenty- 
first Wisconsin, in the Twenty-eighth Brigade, of Colonel 
Starkweather, the Tenth, in Harris' Brigade, the Fifteenth, in 
Carlin's Brigade, the Twenty -fourth, in Colonel Greusel's 
Brigade, and the Third, Fifth and Eighth Batteries were more 
or less engaged, the First, Tenth, Fifteenth and Twenty -first 
Regiments being in the hottest of the tight, and losing heavily. 
The Confederate forces retired during the night, and were 
pursued towards the southeast, where they passed into Ten- 
nessee, through the Cumberland Gap, and the pursuit was 
given up. 

On the 25th of October, General Bosecrans was ordered 'to 
Cincinnati, to take command of the Army of the Ohio, as the 
successor of General Buell. The army was reorganized, and 
eventually became the second army of the Union in size. 



■ BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 327 

The new plan of operations was the advance of a powerful 
army, under Rosecrans, through Tennessee and Alabama. This 
army became the famous "Army of the Cumberland." It was 
divided into the right wing, center and left wing, and the reserve. 
General McCook commanded the right wing. General Thomas, 
the center, and General Crittenden, the left wing, and the reserve, 
General Rosseau. 

On the 10th of November, General Rosecrans arrived at Nash- 
ville, and was constantly engaged in concentrating, reorganizing, 
reequiping and disciplining his army, accumulating supplies by 
railroad, and preparing for a forward movement. The Con- 
federates manifested a purpose to contest the possession of Middle 
Tennessee. Troops were hurried to Murfreesboro, and General 
Jo. Johnston was placed in command. 

The advance of General Rosecrans against the enemy, at 
Murfreesboro, was begun on the 26th of December. The Con- 
federate skirmishers were encountered and driven back, as wa.s 
also the case on the 27th, the Confederates retiring as the Na- 
tional army pushed on their advance. This continued until the 
30th, when the Confederates were encountered in line of battle, 
within two miles of Murfreesboro, with its right resting on the 
Lebanon turnpike, extending west across Lytle's Creek and the 
Nashville turnpike, under the command of General Polk, the 
center was under General Kirby Smith, and the left under Gene- 
ral Hardee. The Federal right, under McCook, faced the com- 
mand of Hardee. Near the extreme right, the division of Gene- 
ral Jefferson C. Davis was posted, in which was Carlin's brigade, 
to which the Fifteenth "Wisconsin Regiment was attached, and 
Battery No. Five, Captain Pinney, and Eighth Battery, Cajttain 
Carpenter, were posted in their neighborhood. Next to Davis' 
division was Sheridan's division, in which was posted the Twenty- 
fourth Wisconsin, in Greusel's brigade. The First, Tenth and 
Twenty-first Wisconsin Regiments were in the reserve, under 
General Rosseau, while the Third Battery was in Van Cleve's 
division, on the extreme left. General Starkweather's brigade 
was detached on the 30th, to guard division trains, and had a 
severe skirmish with Wheeler's cavalry, who attacked the train 
on the 30th, and were repulsed by the brigade. In consequence 



328 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of this affair, Starkweather's brigade did not arrive on the field 
of battle on the 31st until evening. 

The attack commenced on the morning of the 31st, by an ad- 
vance of the rebel left upon the Federal right. The charge was 
so overwhelming, that the whole right wing of McCook was 
obliged before night to fall back upon the Nashville turnpike, in 
the rear of the center. The fighting on the 31st was tremendous, 
and the Wisconsin regiments suffered severely. Lieutenant 
Colonel McKee, of the Fifteenth, was killed, as well as Captains 
Pinney and Carpenter, of the Fifth and Eighth Batteries. The 
fight on the 1st of January was chiefly confined to rebel attacks 
upon the front and flank of the wing which had been driven 
back the day before. These attacks were successfully resisted. 
The First, Tenth and Twenty-first Wisconsin suffered but little, 
although exposed to a severe fire. On the 2d, the rebel tactics 
were changed, and massing three divisions on their right, they 
made a bold dash at the division of Van Cleve, who was posted 
on the extreme left of the Union line, across the creek. Such 
was the vigor of their charge, that Van Cleve was forced to retire 
across the river, in the face of a terrible fire. The rebel foe, 
emboldened by their success, were stepping into the water for 
the purpose of following up their attack, when General Rosecrans, 
who had massed fifty-six pieces of artillery on the opposite bank, 
gave the orders to fire, and such a storm of cannister and grape 
was vomited forth, that their front ranks withered and disappear- 
ed, and when the smoke cleared away, they were seen to be fall- 
ing back. This movement being expected, General ISTegley was 
at hand to follow up the advantage. His forces dashed across 
the stream and up the bank, and it was not long before the rebels 
were seen to be in full retreat, and the battle of Stone River was 
fought and won, although the rebels did not evacuate Murfrees- 
boro until the 4th of January, when it was taken possession of 
by the Union forces. 

The battle of Murfreesboro was in progress at the beginning 
of the year 1863. On the 4th of January, the enemy evacuated 
Murfreesboro, and on the 5th the headquarters of General Rose- 
crans were established there. The army occupied positions around 
the town, and earthworks were constructed encircling it, in order 



FIRST WISCONSIN CAVALRY. 329 

to protect it as a depot of supplies, and the base of future 
operations. 

The army was divided into three corps, designated the Four- 
teenth, Twentieth and Twenty-first, commanded respectively by 
Major Generals Thomas, McCook, and Crittenden. The first 
duty which absorbed the attention of the commanding general, 
was the collection of supplies at this point, and to organize an 
adequate cavalry force to meet that of the enemy, and to protect 
the lines of communication. The rise of water in the Cumber- 
land facilitated the accumulation of supplies at Nashville, which 
was made a great central depot. Transportation on the Cumber- 
land was materially interfered with, by the enemy's cavalry, and 
wagon trains were often captured. His weakness in this arm of 
service. General Rosecrans endeavored to remedy by the organi- 
zation of mounted infantry regiments, and the accumulation of 
such cavalry regiments as might be assigned to his department. 
Such, however, was the difiiculty of securing forage, that it w^as 
the 15th of June before the cavalry force could be brought into 
available condition. About that time the First Wisconsin cav- 
alry, which had been doing duty at Cape Girardeau, Mo., was 
ti'ansferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 

On the 31st of January, Brigadier General Davis, with a divis- 
ion of infantry and two brigades of cavalry, moved against the 
rebels at Franklin and contiguous places. The force was absent 
thirteen days, and captured one hundred and forty-one prisoners. 
The Fifteenth Wisconsin was engaged in this affair. Several expe- 
ditions, of a like character, were sent out from time to time, but 
none of great moment until March. On the 4th, an expedition, un- 
der the command of Colonel John Coburn, of whicli the Twenty- 
second Wisconsin, Colonel Utley, formed a part, consisting of 
1589 men, with 600 cavalry, and a battery of 6 guns, was ordered 
to proceed from Franklin to Spring Hill, ten miles south on the 
Columbia turnpike. Skirmishing commenced soon after start- 
ing, which was kept up at intervals, the enemy retreating, in 
order to draw the force into a fiivorable position, when he devel- 
oped his full force. A severe struggle ensued, which was con- 
tinued until General Forrest, with his cavalry, turned their flanks, 
and got into the rear of Colonel Coburn's force. Finding his 
amnmnition failing, and his retreat cut off", Colonel Coburn was 



330 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

obliged to surrender. The cavalry, whicli were not engaged, 
and the artillery escaped, as also did a portion of the Twenty- 
second "Wisconsin, under Lieutenant Colonel Bloodgood, who, 
seeing the enemy about closing up on the rear, succeeded in 
getting about one hundred and fifty away by a flank movement. 
The Confederate force consisted of six brigades of cavalry and 
mounted infantry, under the command of Major General Van 
Dorn. 

On the 8th of March, the balance of the Twenty-second regi- 
ment, which had been left at Franklin, were sent to Brentwood 
Station, on the JSTashville and Decatur railroad. Here they were 
attacked b}^ overwhelming numbers and obliged to surrender. 
The officers and men thus captured in the two engagements 
wei-e sent to Richmond, where they were soon paroled, and sent 
to Annapolis, Md. A rendezvous, at St. Louis, was established, 
where the regiment was reorganized, and resumed service in the 
Army of the Cumberland about the 1st of July. 

In June General Rosecrans was prepared to take the field. 
The rebels under General Bragg, at this time occupied a strong 
position north of Duck River, the infantry extending from Shel- 
byville to Wartrace, and their cavalry to McMinnville, and on 
their left to Columbia and Franklin, where Forrest's forces were 
concentrated and threatening Franklin. Chattanooga was their 
main base of supplies, but their superior cavalry force had ena- 
bled them to command the rich country of Duck Creek valley, 
and the country south, and Tullahoma, a large intrenched camp, 
at the intersection of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad 
with the McMinnville branch, was their main depot. Bragg's 
infantry position was covered by a range of high, rough, rocky 
hills, the priiic'ipa] routes passing southward, from Murfreesboro 
to Tullahoma. The enemy held the passes through the hills. 

We cannot enter into the particulars of the movement of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans to drive Bragg from his position at Shelby ville, 
but will content ourselves to say, that the army commenced its 
onward march on the 24th of June, General Rosecrans' plan 
was to make a feint upon Bragg's left and center, with the smaller 
portion of his army, in the direction of Shelbyville, while the 
main blow was to be struck by marching rapidly, with the main 
body, upon Bragg's right ; and after turning or defeating it, to 



GENERAL BRAGG OUTFLANKED. 331 

move upon Tullalioma, bj way of Manchester, thus seizing the 
enemy's base and lines of communication at that point. 

The Twentieth Corps, under General McCook, was to advance 
on the Shelbj^'ille road, turn to the left, and advance on the War- 
trace road, seize and hold Liberty Gap. The Twenty-fourth 
Wisconsin, under Lieutenant Colonel West, was brigaded under 
General Lytle, in Sheridan's division of McCook's corps. The 
Fifteenth Wisconsin w^as in Colonel Ileg's brigade, (the Third,) 
in General Davis' division, of the same corps. 

The Fourteenth Corps, under Major General Thomas, was to 
advance on the Manchester pike, seize and hold with its advance, 
if possible, Hoover's Gap, and bivouac, so as to command and 
cover that and the Millersberg road. Liberty and Hoover's 
gaps were narrow passes through the high hills, the latter being 
three miles in length. Li the Fourteenth Corps the First and 
Twenty-first Wisconsin were brigaded in General Starkweather's 
brigade, in Rossean's division (the First) in this corps. The 
Tenth Wisconsin was in Scribner's brigade, of the same divis- 
ion. The Fifth and Eighth Wisconsin batteries formed a portion 
of this corps. 

The Twenty-first Corps, under General Crittenden, was to 
leave Van Cleve's division at Murfreesboro, and concentrate the 
other two at Bradyville, and await orders. 

The several movements above described were all executed 
promptly in the midst of a continuous rain which so softened the 
gi'ound as to make the roads almost impassable. The occupation 
of these gaps gave Rosecrans the command of the position, and 
as soon as he advanced through them, to Manchester and Win- 
chester, he flanked General Bragg at Tullahoma, and obliged 
him to retreat. On learning of this. General Rosecrans ordered 
a rapid advance of his forces. General Thomas moved on the 
Manchester road, and General McCook on the one to Tullahoma. 
The enemy reached the crossing of Elk River before he was over- 
taken. The rear of General Hardee was encountered about four 
miles north of Elk River. General Wheeler, with his cavalry, 
resisted General jSTegley so stubbornly that the rebel trains were 
successfully got across the river. After crossing, the enemy 
endeavored to cover the retreat of his infantry and trains to the 



332 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

mountains, by burning the bridge, and hastily throwing up earth- 
works on the opposite side of the river. A passage was forced 
across the river, and General Sheridan, supported by General 
Davis' division, pursued the enemy to Cowan, where he ascer- 
tained that he had crossed the mountains with his artillery 
and infantry, and that his cavalry was covering his rear. 
The enemy having thus entirely escaped them, the army of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans halted to await supplies from Murfreesboro. This 
ended the first part of the campaign which drove the rebel forces 
again out of Middle Tennessee. Had not operations been 
retarded at Hoover's Gap and Manchester, the enemy would 
have been compelled to give battle in defence of his 
communications. 

In these operations to recover Middle Tennessee, General 
Rosecrans lost 85 killed, 462 wounded, and 13 missing. The 
entire loss of the enemy is unknown, but 1,634 were made pris- 
oners, six pieces of artillery, and many small arms, much camp 
equipage, and large quantities of commissary and quartermaster's 
stores were taken. 

General Bragg returned to Chattanooga, on the south side of 
the Tennessee River, and threw up defensive works, to protect 
his position and the crossing of the river. 

The first step of General Rosecrans was to repair the rail- 
roads and get forward his supplies. As soon as the main line 
to Stevenson was finished, Sheridan's division was advanced, 
two brigades to Bridgeport, and one to Stevenson, and the sup- 
plies were pushed rapidly forward to the latter place. By the 
8th of August, a sutficient quantity had been collected, and 
corps commanders were ordered to supply their commands with 
Buflicient rations and forage for a general movement. 

The movement over the Cumberland Mountains began on 
the 16th of August. 

General Crittenden's Corps advanced in three columns, into 
Sequatchie Valley; General Wood, from Hillsborough, by Pel- 
ham, to Thuman, in Sequatchie Valley ; General Palmer, from 
Manchester, by the best route, to Dunlop ; General Van Cleve, 
with two brigades, by the best route, to Pikeville, the head of 
Sequatchie Valley. To General Van Cleve's division, the Third 



ADVANCE ON CHATTANOOGA. 333 

Wisconsin Battery was attacliecl. Captain Drury was appointed 
Chief of Artillery, in this division. 

The Fourteenth Army Corps of General Thomas, moved as 
follows : The divisions of Generals Reynolds and Brannan, to 
Battle Creek, where they were to take post, concealed, near its 
mouth ; General Is'egley, to go by Tantallon, and halt on Crow 
Creek, between Anderson and Stevenson ; General Baird, to follow 
him, and camp near Anderson. General Baird had been tem- 
porarily placed in command of General Rosseau's division, in 
which the First, Tenth, and Twenty-first "Wisconsin regiments 
were brigaded. 

The Twentieth Corps, under General McCook, was to move 
as follows : General Johnson, by Salem, to Bellefont, and General 
Davis, by Crow Creek, to near Stevenson. 

Thus the army passed the barriers between them and the 
enemy and arrived opposite his position, on the banks of the 
Tennessee. 

To cross the river, General Sheridan, not having pontoons for 
two bridges, began trestle work for a bridge at Bridgeport. 
General Reynolds, at Shellmount, collected the means for cross- 
ing at that point, and Brannan prepared rafts to cross his troops 
at the mouth of Battle Creek. 

The laying of the pontoons at Caperston Ferry, was done by 
Colonel Ileg's brigade, under the direction of General McCook, 
and the Fifteenth Regiment was the first to cross the Tennessee, 
throwing out skirmishers, and advancing two miles from the river. 

The several corps were all across the river by the 8th of Sep- 
tember. This barrier overcome, the enemy was found holding 
the Point of Lookout Mountain with infantry and artillery. 
The forces of the rebels from East Tennessee were reported as 
concentrating at Chattanooga. To dislodge him fi-om Chatta- 
nooga, it was necessary to carry Lookout Mountain, or to 
endanger his communications. 

By a judicious disposition of his several corps. General Rose- 
crans succeeded in compelling the evacuation of Chattanooga, 
on the 9th of September, General Crittenden, entering and 
taking peaceable possession, at 1 o'clock, P. M. Passing around 
the point of Lookout Mountain, on the 10th, General Crittenden 



334 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

encamped for the night, at Rossville, five miles soutli of 
Chattanooga. 

General Thomas' corps pushed over the mountains at the 
designated points, each division consuming two days in the 
passage. 

At this time, the attention of the authorities at "Washington was 
drawn to the movements of troops from Richmond. It was certain 
that General Longstreet's corps had left the rebel capital, but its 
destination was unknown. At first, surmises placed their loca- 
tion in North Carolina, but subsequent developments showed 
that the corps had gone to Bragg's assistance. Burnside had 
just driven the rebel fo»rces out of East Tennessee, and a portion 
of them under Buckner had also joined Bragg, at Chattanooga, 
and accompanied him on his retreat. Bragg had also been rein- 
forced by troops from General Johnston in Mississippi, and the 
prisoners taken at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, released on 
parole, whom the Confederate authorities had declared to be 
exchanged. 

Under these circumstances, General Halleck ordered General 
Burnside to move down his infantry towards Chattanooga, on 
the left of General Rosecrans, at the same time requiring Sher- 
man at Vicksburg, to send all the available forces at that point, 
to Memphis, thence to Corinth, and Tuscumbia, to cooperate 
with General Rosecrans in case the enemy should attempt to 
turn his right. At the same time General Schofield, commanding 
the Department of Missouri, and General Pope, in command of 
the Northwest Department, were ordered to send forward to the 
Tennessee line, every available man in their departments, while 
the commanding otficers of Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky, were 
ordered to make every possible exertion to secure General 
Rosecrans' line of communications. 

General Rosecrans was, however, destined to encounter the 
enemy at Chicamauga, without the reinforcepients, which the 
Government had so energetically ordered forward. 

For a minute description of the'battle of Chicamauga, we are 
obliged to refer the reader to the general histories, as we can only 
give a short account compiled from the reports of Genera] 
Rosecrans, Thomas, and McCook. 



MOVEMENTS AGAINST BRAGG. 335 

It is veiy evident that General Rosecrans was not aware of the 
largo reinforcements that General Bragg had received, or he 
woiikl never have sent General McCook to Alpine with his corps, 
this place being three da3's' march in advance of the corps of 
Generals Thomas and Crittenden, to the right and roar of the 
position at Lafayette, whore Bragg had concentrated liis forces. 
He certainly jeopardized the safety of that corps, which it is 
fair to presnme he won Id not have done, had he known the 
superior force of the enemy. 

After crossing the mountains, it was found that General Bragg 
had concentrated his forces at or in the vicinity of Lafayette. 
This place is the capital of Walker County, Georgia, being 
twenty-two miles from Chattanooga, and eighteen from Dalton. 
Ringgold is eighteen miles from Chattanooga, on the Georgia 
State road. Rome is sixty-five miles southwest of Chattanooga, 
on the Coosa River. The road from Chattanooga to Rome, 
known as the Lafayette road, crosses Missionary Ridge, into 
Chicamauga Valley, at Rossville, and proceeding in a southwest- 
erly direction, crossing Chicamauga Creek, eleven miles from 
Chattanooga, at Lee's and Gordon's Mills, and passing to the 
east of Pigeon Mountains, goes through Lafayette. A road from 
Caperton's Ferry, on the Tennessee River, below Chattanooga, 
leads over Sand Mountain, to Trenton, and from Trenton, over 
Lookout Mountain, through Cooper's and Stevens' Gaps, into 
McLemore's Cove, and over Pigeon Mountain, by Bug Gap, to 
Lafayette. The road from Trenton, continued up Will's Valley 
between Raccoon and Lookout Mountains, to Valley Head, 
over twenty miles from Trenton. From Valley Head to Alpine, 
was about twelve miles. By reference to the map, it will be seen 
that this point is nearly south of Lafayette, the position where 
Bragg was concentrating his forces. 

When the river was crossed. General McCook was to move 
from Caperton's Ferry across to Trenton, thence up Will's 
Valley to Valley Head, and seize Winston's Gap. This was 
done under the belief that when he fell back from Chattanooga, 
Bragg would continue his retreat to Rome, and that no fight 
would take place to the north of the Coosa River, on which 
Rome is situated. The movement of McCook was ]nade to 
intercept his retreat in that direction. The cavalry, under 



836 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

General Stanley, was ordered to advance on tlie extreme right, to 
Somerville, and General McCook was to support the movement 
by throwing forward a division of infantry to Alpine. General 
McCook, on the 9th of September, received notice from General 
Rosecrans, that the enemy had evacuated Chattanooga and 
was retreating southward, and ordering him to move rapidly 
upon Alpine and Somerville in pursuit, to intercept his line of 
retreat, and attack him in flank. Thus it will be seen that 
McCook was about forty miles in advance of the balance of 
Rosecrans' army. 

After crossing the river, the several divisions of General 
Thomas corps, the Fourteenth, marched over Sand Mountain to 
Trenton, in the vicinity of which place they were to concentrate. 
Crittenden's corps was ordered to reconnoitre the front of 
Lookout Mountain, and enter Chattanooga in case the enemy 
should evacuate it. • 

These forward movements of the several corps were begun on 
the 8th and 9th of September, Crittenden's movement resulted 
in the discovery that Chattanooga was evacuated, and his ad- 
vance took peaceable possession of the town. His whole corps 
passed round the point of Lookout Mountain, and encamped 
that night, on the Rossville road, five miles from Chattanooga. 

It being supposed that Bragg had returned on the road to 
Lafayette, General Crittenden was ordered to advance as far as 
Ringgold. His report indicated that the main body of the 
rebel army was at Lafayette. Crittenden was, therefore, ordered 
to move his corps from Ringgold to Gordon's Mill, at the cross- 
ing of Chicamauga Creek, on the Lafayette road, and communi- 
cate with General Thomas, who had passed through Lookout 
Mountain by Cooper's and Stevens' Gap, and was moving on 
Lafayette through Dug Gap of the Pigeon Mountain. 

On the 8th of September, Negley's division had seized and 
occupied Cooper's and Stevens' Gap. On the 9th, he moved for- 
ward into McLemore's Cove and took a position near Rogers' 
Farm, throwing out skirmishers, and the enemy's cavalry were 
seen, and a heavy force of infantry, cavalry and artillery were 
reported as concentrated in his front, at Dug Gap. On the 10th, 
Negley advanced to within about a mile of Dug Gap, and on the 
11th, General Baird's division, in which were the First, Tenth 



starkweather's brigade at dug gap. 337 

and Twenty-first Wisconsin, were ordered to Negley's support. 
Tlie enemy advanced in heavy force, when a severe skirmish 
took place, in which General Starkweather's brigade skilfully 
covered tlie retreat of General Negley's force, permitting them to 
fall back to a strong position, in front of Stevens' Gap. 

Stanley's cavalry division, which had been sent to the right 
and rear, with McCook's corps, had a brisk fight with the enemy 
at Alpine, on the 9th of Se[)teniber, which continued for two 
hours, with the loss of four killed and twelve wounded. In this 
fight, the first Wisconsin cavalry was engaged, having joined the 
cavalry corps, and been placed in the First Division, Second 
Brigade. 

Convinced by this attack on ISTegley, and information from 
General McCook, that Bragg was concentrating all his forces at 
Lafayette, preparatory to a battle. General Rosecrans became 
alarmed, and at once proceeded to concentrate the corps of his 
army, which were at Gordon's Mills, Bailey's Cross Roads, at 
the foot of Stevens' Gap, and at Alpine, a distance of forty miles 
from flank to flank. Orders were therefore sent to General 
McCook to close up his forces on Thomas' right, while General 
Crittenden was ordered to take a good defensive position at Gor- 
don's Mills. General McCook was at least three days march 
from General Thomas. General Crittenden could not reinforce 
General Thomas without exposing Chattanooga; and General 
Thomas could not move to General Crittenden's position without 
exposing McCook. 

• As soon as General McCook's corps arrived, General Thomas 
moved down the Chicamauga towards Gordon's Mills. The 
troops were finally placed in position. Orders were sent to General 
Thomas to relieve General Crittenden's corps, posting one divis- 
ion near Crawfish Spring, and to move the remainder of his 
corps, by the Widow Glenn's house, to the Rossville and Lafayette 
road, the left extending obliquely across it, near Kelley's house. 
This placed General Thomas to the left of General Crittenden's 
corps, with which he connected at Gordon's Mill. The First 
Division, General .Baird, took up a postion at the forks of the 
road, facing towards Reid's and Alexander's bridges. Over these 
bridges the enemy had crossed the night before, and driven 
Colonel Wilder's brigade of mounted infantry across the State 
22 



338 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

road to the heights on the east of the Widow Glenn's house. 
General Brannan's division was placed in position to the left of 
General Baird's. The battle began on the extreme left of Gen- 
eral Thomas, Croxton's brigade, of Brannan's division, opening 
the battle about 10 o'clock. General Baird was ordered forward 
to his support with his whole division, which was done, and the 
enemy were driven back for some distance. Croxton's brigade 
having exhausted their ammunition, moved to the rear to fill 
their cartridge-boxes, when Baird and Brannan,'combining their 
forces, drove the enemy from their immediate front. Learning 
that the enemy were in heavy force on his immediate right, Gen- 
eral Baird threw back his right wing in order to meet the attack, 
which was made by the rebels in overwhelming numbers, assault- 
ing Scribner's and King's brigades, and driving them back in dis- 
order. A combination of Johnson's, B,eynolds' and Palmer's divi- 
sions with Baird's and Brannan's was soon formed and advanced 
upon the enemy, attacking him in flank, and driving him in 
great confusion for a mile and a half, recapturing the artillery 
which had been temporarily lost by Baird's brigade, and com- 
pelling the rebels to fall back on their reserves, between Reid's 
and Alexander's bridges. Baird's and Brannan's commands 
were then reorganized, and took position on the road to Reid's 
bridge. Several attacks were made, by the enemy, on Baird's 
division during the afternoon, but were handsomely repulsed, 
and towards evening the combat ceased for the night. 

General Davis' division of McCook's corps, in which the Fif- 
teenth Wisconsin was brigaded, under Colonel Heg, fought on 
the right of the Widow Glenn's house, against vastly superior 
numbers, maintaining the conflict gallantly until near nightfall, 
when it was relieved by Bradley's brigade of Sheridan's division. 

General Sheridan, with his division, relieved General N'egley 
at Gordon's Mills, soon after the battle began in the morning, 
and that General proceeded towards the left. General Sheridan 
remained in this position till General McCook received an order 
to send two brigades of Sheridan's division to the Widow Glenn's 
house, leaving the First Brigade, General Lytle, at Gordon's 
Mills, The Twenty-fourth Wisconsin, Lieutenant Colonel West, 
was in this brigade. 



BATTLE OF CIIICAMAUGA. 339 

The first day's fight being over, preparations were made for 
the next day ; temporary breastworks of logs were thrown up, 
during the night. Baird's division was attacked on the left early 
in the morning, the enemy commencing a furious assault, and 
partially succeeding in gaining his rear ; Baird was soon rein- 
forced, when the enemy were driven entirely from his left and 
rear. At the time of this attack, the divisions of Johnson, 
Palmer and Reynolds were furiously assailed. This contest con- 
tinued two hours, assault after assault being made, with freeh 
troops, which were met by those divisions with a most determined 
coolness and deliberation. The enemy having exhausted his en- 
ergies, fell back, and the left of the army was not disturbed 
again until the withdrawal to Rossville began in the evening. 

The right and center did not fare as well as the left on the sec- 
ond day. Late on the 19th, General McCook was ordered to post 
his command, so as to form the right of the new battle front, and 
hold the same. In compliance with this order, Lytle's brigade, of 
Sheridan's division, was posted in a strong position, in the rear 
of the Widow Glenn's house. Davis' division, consisting of 
Carlin's and Heg's brigades, was posted to the left and rear of 
Lytle's position, in reserve. 

General Rosecrans, at this time, passed along the line, and 
noticing a portion of the log breastworks unoccupied, on Gen- 
eral Wood's right, ordered General Davis' division to occuj^y the 
vacant space, which was done by one brigade, the other being- 
held in reserve. Davis' instructions were, to keep well closed 
upon the left with Wood's division. One of Sheridan's brigades 
was posted in column on Davis' right and rear, as his support. 
At a little after 10 o'clock, A. M., General McCook received an 
order from the commanding General to withdraw his right, bo 
as to spare as much force as possible to reinforce Thomas on 
the left, who was being heavily pressed. The order said : " The 
left must be held at all hazards, even if the right is withdrawn 
wholly back to the present left. Select a good position back 
this way, and be ready to start reinforcements to Thomas, at a 

moment's warninc;." 

* . . . 

In a few minutes after, another order was received, directing 

him to " send two of Sheridan's brigades at once to support 



840 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

General Thomas, and the Third Brigade as soon as the lines 
can be withdrawn sufficiently." 

This order was executed at once. Lytle's and "Walwortli's 
brigades were taken from the extreme right and moved at the 
double quick to the support of General Thomas. Simultaneously 
with this movement, Wood's division left the position it had held 
in line of battle on General Davis' left, marching by the left flank, 
leaving a wide gap in the line. General Davis made an attempt 
to fill up this space, thus vacated, but the last brigade had not 
m.arched more than its length before the enemy made a furious 
assault, in overwhelming numbers, on this portion of the line. 
By this withdrawal of General Wood, Brannan's right was ex- 
posed, and the enemy rushed into the gap. The enemy's line 
of battle extended from a point beyond Brannan's right to a 
point far to the right of the "Widow Glenn's house, and in front 
of the strong position just abandoned by Sheridan's two brigades. 
To resist this attack, McCook had but two brigades of Davis' 
division, Heg's and Carlin's, numbering about 1,200 men, and 
Laibold's brigade of Sheridan's division for a support. 

Finding the enemy pouring through the interval between Davis 
and Brannan, Lytle's and Walworth's brigades, were deflected 
from their line of march, and ordered to assist in resisting the 
enemy. Colonels Wilder and Harrison, of the mounted infantry, 
closed in with their commands on Sheridan's right, as speedily 
as possible, and did good service. General Davis' division, being 
overwhelmed by numbers, was compelled to abandon its position, 
in order to save itself from complete annihilation or capture. 
Laibold's troops, coming up to Davis' support, met with a similar 
fate. The other two brigades of Sheridan, Lytle's and Wal- 
worth's, struggled nobly, and for a time checked the enemy in 
their immediate front, but the position being turned far to the 
left, they were compelled to withdraw from the unequal contest. 

It was thus that these five brigades of the Twentieth Army 
Corps were cut oft' and separated from the remainder of the 
army. No troops fought with more heroism, or suftered greater 
losses, than these fiye brigades. Their loss was over forty per 
cent, of the number engaged, in killed and wounded. 

The troops of Generals Sheridan and Davis were rallied a 
short distance in the rear of the line of battle, and marched 



BATTLE OF CHICAMAUGA. 341 

towards Rossville, to endeavor to form a junction with the troops 
of General Thomas. They were reported to General Thomas, 
who placed them in position on the road to Rossville, and 
they withdrew to that place with the remainder of the army. 

"While the attack on the right and center was progressing. 
General Thomas sent an aid to hurry up General Sheridan's 
divisions, who soon after returned, stating that he had met a 
large force of the enemy in the field in the rear of Reynolds' 
division, advancing cautiously, with a strong line of skirmishers. 
Hearing heavy firing to his right and rear, through the woods, 
General Thomas rode to the slopes of the hill, to ascertain the 
cause. Meeting Colonel Harker, of General Reynolds' division, 
he was told by General Thomas that General Sheridan's division 
w\T,s expected from that direction, but if the troops, seen advanc- 
ing, fired on him, seeing his fiag, that he w^as to return their fire, 
and resist their advance. He immediately commenced skirmish- 
ins: with them. On further inspection. General Thomas became 
convinced that the troops advancing upon him were the enemy, 
although he was not aware of the disaster to the center and 
right. Ordering General Wood to place his division in prolong- 
ation of Brannan's division, and to resist the further advance of 
the enemy as long as possible. General Thomas sent an aid to 
inform General Reynolds that his right had been turned, and 
that the enemy was in his rear in force. Scarcely had General 
Wood time to dispose his troops on the left of Brannau before 
another of those fierce assaults, similar to those made in the 
morning, was made on him and Brannan combined, and kept 
up by the enemy throwing in fresh troops as fast as those in their 
front were driven back, until near nightfall. 

About this time General Granger appeared on General Thomas' 
left flank, with General Steadman' s division of his corps. He 
was immediately ordered to take position on Brannan's right, 
which was done with promptness and alacrity, driving the enemy 
down the hill with a terrible loss. This addition of fresh troops 
revived the flagging spirits of General Thomas' men, and inspired 
them with more ardor for the contest. Every assault of the 
enemy from that time, until nightfall, was repulsed in the most 
gallant style, by the whole line. By this time, the ammunition 
was reduced to two or three rounds per man, and a small supply 



342 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

could only be liad from Steadman's command. This being 
distributed, gave about ten rounds to a man. 

General Garlield, Chief of Staff of General Rosecran?, reached 
General Thomas' headquarters, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, 
giving the first reliable information that the centre and right had 
been driven back. General Thomas, soon after, received a dis- 
l>atch from General Rosecrans, ordering him to take command 
of all the forces, and with Crittenden and McCook, occupy a 
strong position, and assume a threatening attitude at Rossville, 
sending the unorganized forces to Chattanooga. 

The retirement to Rossville, was begun about half past five, 
P. M., when a column of the enemy was seen approaching, 
wliicli was met, and driven from the field by General Turchin, 
of Reynolds' division. Reynolds' division was placed on the 
Rossville road, to cover the retiring columns. Wood's, Bran- 
nan's, and Granger's divisions, withdrew from their positions, 
and took the road to Rossville. Johnson's and Baird's divisions, 
were attacked at the moment of retiring, but being prepared, 
retired without confusion or loss, Baird's division being in the 
rear. A cavalry force covered the rear of the retreating columns, 
among them, was the First Wisconsin Cavalry. 

The whole army were finally withdrawn to the intrenchments, 
at Chattanooga, on the 22d. 

In conclusion, we have to say, that the dead and wounded were 
left on the battle-field, many of the former, were not buried for 
months. In this battle, our Wisconsin troops suflfered severely. 
Rosecrans' loss was 16,851, that of the enemy, was 18,000. 

After the retreat to Chattanooga, General Rosecrans withdrew 
his troops from the passes which covered his lines of supplies, 
from Bridgeport, which were immediately occupied by the 
enemy, who also sent a cavalry force across the Tennessee, and 
destroyed a large train of wagons in the Sequatchie Yalley, and 
captured McMinnville, and other points on the railroad, and 
thus almost completely cut ofif the supplies of the army at Chat- 
tanooga. The enemy's cavalry were attacked by Mc Cook's 
cavalry, at Anderson's Cross Roads, on the 2d of October, in^ 
which the First Wisconsin, bore a conspicuous part. The rebels 
were signally defeated. 



GENERAL GRANT IN COMMAND. 343 

"We have before stated, that the forces of General Grant had 
been ordered to Tennessee. Before an answer was received 
from General Grant, General Hooker was, on the 23d of Septem- 
ber, sent to Tennessee, m command of the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Corps of the Army of the Potomac, which were detached for 
that object. They were assigned to protect General Rosecrans' 
line of communication from Bridgeport to JSTashville. In the 
Eleventh Corps, was the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, and in the 
Twelfth Corps, the Third Wisconsin, who were thus transferred 
to the Central Department of* Tennessee. 

On the 18th of October, General Grant assumed command of 
the Departments of Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio, by order 
of the President, the command being consolidated and styled 
the " District of Mississippi." General G. II. Thomas was 
placed in the immediate command of the army and Department 
of the Cumberland; and General W. T, Sherman, in that of the 
army and Department of Tennessee; General Rosecrans was 
relieved ; and Generals McCook and Crittenden, were ordered 
to Cincinnati, and their corps consolidated to form the Fourth 
Army Corps, which was placed under the command of General 
Gordon Granger. 

Since the retreat to Chattanooga, the army had lain at that 
point behind intrenchments, its right flank lying at Chattanooga 
Creek, near the base of Lookout Mountain, and its left at Citico 
Creek. This was the only point on the south side of the river, 
held by a Federal force. The base of the army was at Steven- 
son and Bridgeport. The south side of the river, from Lookout 
Mountain to Bridgeport, was in possession of the enem}-, and 
the north l)ank of the river was rendered impassable. In order 
to support the troops at Chattanooga, it was necessary to trans- 
port supplies over the mountains into the Anderson road, thence 
to Chattanooga. 

General Hooker, with the Eleventh and Twelfth corps, arrived 
at Bridgeport, and proceeded at once to open the river commu- 
nication with Chattanooga. A series of movements were entered 
into after the arrival of General Sherman with his Corps, and 
General Grant, who took command of the whole military opera^ 
tions. The most prominent of these was the driving of the 
enemy from Mission Ridge, on which General Bragg had 



344 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

established himself. The original plan of attack on this celebrated 
position, contemplated only the capture of the rifle pits at the 
base of the mountain, but the heroes of the arm}' of the Cum- 
berland, remembering Chicamauga, and having been impatient 
spectators of the operations of Generals Sherman and Hooker, 
for t\\-o days, went forward with a will, drove the enemy from 
his lower works, and went on, heedless of the heavy artillery 
and musketry hurled against them from the crest of the ridge. 
Half way up they faltered, but it was for the want of breath. 
Without returning a shot they ke^3t on, around the ridge, cap- 
tured thirty-five out of the forty-four pieces of artillery on the 
hill, turned some of them against the rhasses in Sherman's front, 
and the routed line fell back, while the rest of Bragg's army, in- 
cluding Bragg and Hardee, fled routed and broken, to Ringgold. 
Thousands of prisoners and small arms, and large quantities of 
munitions of war were taken. That night Mission Ridge blazed 
with loyal camp fires. 

In this brilliant exploit, the Tenth, Fifteenth, Eighteenth, 
Twenty-first, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-sixth regiments, and 
Sixth and Eighth Batteries, took part. Battery C, Heavy 
Artillery, garrisoned Fort Wood. This is commonly known as 
the battle of Chattanooga, or storming of Mission Ridge. 

After the battle of Chattanooga, the pursuit of the enemy was 
not continued, for the want of horses for hauling the artillery 
and supply trains. General Sherman proceeded, with a body of 
troops, to the relief of Knoxville, which was being besieged by 
the forces of General Longstreet. The Fourth, Eleventh, and 
Fifteenth corps, were engaged in this expedition. On the night 
of December 3d, the cavalry of General Sherman reached 
Knoxville, thereby turning the flank of General Longstreet, who 
raised the seige, and retreated toward Rutledge that night. The 
Fourth Corps arriving the next day, in conjunction with General 
Burnside's forces, commenced the pursuit of Longstreet, who 
fell back into the border of Virginia, and took a strong position. 
The Fifteenth and Twenty-fourth Wisconsin accompanied the 
Fourth Corps, to which they were transferred on the discontinu- 
ance of the Twentieth Corps, and the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin 
were with the Eleventh Corps. 



FEINT ON DALTON. 845 

The expedition of General Sherman towards Meridian, in 
February, 1864, was supposed by the rebel authorities, to be in- 
tended as an attack on Mobile. General Johnston, who had suc- 
ceeded General Bragg in the command of the Confederate army, 
near Dalton, dispatched two divisions to the aid of General Polk, 
at Meridian. In order to counteract this movement, General 
Grant set on foot an expedition against Dalton. The Four- 
teenth Corps, under General Palmer, advanced against that place 
on the 22d of February. The divisions of Generals Davis, 
Johnson, and Baird, participated on the right or Dalton road, 
and General Stanley's division on the left. The whole force 
moved in line of battle, till it reached Tunnel HilL Here an 
artillery fire was opened on them, which was soon silenced, and 
the ridge occupied in the afternoon. The advance continued, 
and the cavalry force pressed forward in pursuit of the few 
scattered enemies, until it was checked bj^ a cross fire from artil- 
lery on Rocky Face, a gorge through which the roads pass. The 
enemy were dislodged, and the movement continued to Dalton, 
seven miles from Tunnel Hill. Advancing cautiously within 
two miles of Dalton, they found that General Johnston had 
made preparations to receive them with his whole army. De- 
serters reported that the two divisions which had been sent to 
Mobile, had returned. General Palmer now fell back on Tun- 
nel Hill, and finally to Ringgold. His loss was about three 
hundred and fifty killed and wounded. The First, Twenty-first, 
and Tenth Wisconsin regiments were in General Baird's 
division, and took part in the expedition. 

In February, 1864, Congress passed an act reviving the grade 
of Lieutenant General. President Lincoln immediately sent in 
the nomination of General Grant for confirmation. This was 
done. General Grant left Tennessee, and reached Washing-ton 
on the 9th of March, where he was presented, by President Lin- 
coln, with his commission, in the presence of the Cabinet, and 
several distinguished military and civil gentlemen. 

Orders were issued, on the 12th of March, assigning General 
Grant to the command of the Armies of the United States, and 
General Halleck to duty as Chief of Staft' for the Army, under the 
direction of the Secretary of War and Lieutenant General com- 
manding. General W. T. Sherman was assigned to the command 



346 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of the Military Division of Mississippi, vacated by General 
Grant, and Major General McPherson was assigned to the com- 
mand of the Department and Army of Tennessee, recently held 
by General Sherman. 

Under General Grant's direction, the campaign upon the Poto- 
mac, and upon Atlanta, by General Sherman, were to begin 
simultaneously, and immediate preparations were commenced. 
General Grant summoned General Sherman from Vicksburg to 
a conference at Nashville, in which a full and complete under- 
standing of the policy and plans for the ensuing campaign was 
had, covering a vast extent of country, and embracing nearly the 
programme which was subsequently carried out by Generals 
Sherman and Grant. Visiting the commanders of the Depart- 
ments of Tennessee, Cumberland, and the Ohio, at their respec- 
tive headquarters, at Huntsville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, he 
made all needful arrangements for the coming campaign, and 
fixed the 1st of May as the time when all things should be ready. 
These officers were to complete the details of organization and 
preparation, and General Sherman turned his attention to the 
question of supplies. The depots of I^ashville were found with 
an abundance of the munitions of war, and the railroads in 
fair condition, and new supplies of cars and locomotives were 
ordered to fill the new and increased demands of the service. 
The General found it necessary to discontinue the issue of sup- 
plies to the inhabitants of East Tennessee, who, up to that time, 
had been fed by the government. By the 1st of May the store- 
houses at Chattanooga began to fill up, and continued to afford 
a large supply of all the necessaries for the maintenance of the 
army. 

General Sherman notified the Governors of the Worth western 
States, that Government had given him control of veteran regi- 
ments on furlough, and ordered all such regiments belonging to 
the armies of the Ohio and Cumberland Departments, to come 
direct to IsTashville, and those belonging to the Department of 
Tennessee, to Cairo, there to receive further orders. Under this 
order several Wisconsin regiments, who had been serving with 
Grant and Sherman in the Mississippi Valley, were transferred 
to the seat of operations near Chattanooga. 



AllMY ORGANIZATION. ' 347 

The Eleventh and Twelfth Army corps, which had h^cn hrought 
from the Army of the Potomac by General Hooker, were consol- 
idated into the Twentieth Corps, and placed under command of 
General Hooker. The several departments in the District of 
Mississippi, under General Sherman, were organized for the sum- 
mer campaign as follows : The Department of the Cumberland, 
under General Thomas, consisted of the Fourth Army Corps, 
General Howard, Fourteenth Army Corps, General Palmer, and 
Twentieth Army Corps, General Hooker. The Department of 
the Tennessee, under General McPherson, consisted of the Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, General Logan, Sixteenth Army Corps, 
General Dodge, and Seventeenth Army Corps, General Blair. 
This last did not join the Army of General Sherman till about 
the 1st of June. The Department of the Ohio consisted of the 
Twenty-third Corps, under General Schofield. 

The Wisconsin regiments were severally located in the Army 
Corps as follows : Department of the Cumberland, Fourth 
Corps, Fifteenth and Twenty -fourth Infantry; Fourteenth 
Corps, First, Tenth, and Twenty-first Infantry, and Fifth Bat- 
tery; Twentieth Corps, Third, Twenty-second, Twenty-sixth, and 
Thirty-first Infantry. In Department of the Tennessee, Sixteenth 
Corps, Twenty-fifih and Thirty-second Infantry; Seventeenth 
Corps, Twelfth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Infantry. The Eighth 
Wisconsin Battery was attached to Kilpatrick's division of cav- 
alry, and the First Cavalry was in McCook's division of cavalry. 
The Thirteenth Regiment was attached to the First Brigade, 
Fourth Division, Twentieth Army Corps, but was detached on 
railroad guard duty. The Eighteenth was attached to the De- 
partment of the Cumberland, but took no part in the Atlanta 
campaign, being occupied in guarding railroads in Alabama, and 
subsequently at Allatoona, Georgia. The Third Battery, and 
Batterj' C, Heavy Artillery, were stationed at Chattanooga, and 
the Sixth Battery was stationed successively atlluntsville, Kings- 
ton, and on the Etowah Iviver, near Cartersville. The Twelfth 
Wisconsin Battery was stationed, successively, at Iluntsville, 
Kingston, and Allatoona. 

General Grant notified General Sherman that he should move 
from his camp, round Culpepper, on the 5th of May, and requested 
General Sherman to begin his forward movement on Atlanta at 



348 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

that time. On the 27th of April the troops of the three depart- 
ments were put in motion for Chattanooga, and on the 6th of 
May were found in their designated positions, the Army of the 
Cumberland at Ringgold, 23 miles southeast of Chattanooga ; 
the Ai-my of the Tennessee at Gordon's Mills, on the Chica- 
mauga, eight miles from Ringgold ; the Army of the Ohio, near 
Red Clay, ten miles northeast of Ringgold ; the first amounting 
to 60,773 men and 130 guns, the second, 24,465 and 96 guns, and 
the third of 13,559 and 28 guns, — aggregate, 98,797 men, and 
254 guns. 

The enemy lay in and about Dalton, fifteen miles from Gen- 
eral Thomas, at Ringgold, under the command of General Joseph 
E. Johnston, whose army consisted of the corps of Hardee, Polk, 
and Hood, and about 10,000 cavalry under Wheeler. 

After a reconnoissance, General Sherman became satisfied that 
tbe position of General Johnston, at Dalton, could not be success- 
fully attacked in front, as it was covered by an inaccessible ridge, 
known as " Rocky Face," through which was a pass, between 
Tunnel Hill and Dalton, known as the Buzzard Roost, which was 
traversed by the railroad and wagon road. It was narrow, ob- 
structed by abatis, and flooded by dams across Mill Creek. Bat- 
teries commanded its whole length. General Sherman deter- 
mined to turn the position, and, if possible, compel Johnston to 
evacuate Dalton, thus inaugurating that system of flank move- 
ments which have made the operations of Generals Grant and 
Sherman famous in military annals. 

Resaca, eighteen miles below Dalton, on the railroad. General 
Sherman found could be reached by way of Snake Creek Gap. 
General McPhersou, therefore, marched from Gordon's Mills, by 
way of Ship Gap, Villanow, and Snake Creek Gap, directly on 
Resaca, while General Thomas, with the Army of the Cumber- 
land, advanced, on the 7th of May, toward Tunnel Hill, which 
was carried by the Fourteenth Corps, under General Palmer, the 
enemy retiring to Buzzard Roost. Next day demonstration was 
made on Rocky Face and Buzzard Roost; on the 9th General 
Newton's division, of the Fourth Corps, carried the Ridge, but 
found the crest too narrow to enable it to carry the pass. The 
Fifteenth and Twenty-fourth Wisconsin were in this division. 



BATTLE OF RESACA. 349 

General McPherson found Resaca too strong to be carried by 
assault, he therefore fell back and took a strong position at the 
west end of Snake Creek Gap. Failing, by this movement, to 
compel the enemy to evacuate Dalton, General Sherman, on the 
10th, ordered General Thomas to send General Hooker's corps 
forward to Snake Creek Gap, to the support of General McPher- 
son, and follow with the Fourteenth Corps, General Palmer, 
leaving the Fourth Corps, General Howard, to threaten Dalton. 
General Schofield was ordered to follow by the sarme route. On 
the lltli the whole army, excepting General Howard's corps and 
some cavalry, were in motion on the west side of Rocky Face 
Gap, for Snake Creek Gap and Resaca. 

On the next day General Sherman's forces moved against.Res- 
aca, General McPherson on the direct road, preceded by Kilpat- 
rick's cavalry ; General Thomas to come up on his left, and Gen- 
eral Schofield on Thomas' left. The cavalry met and drove the 
enemy's cavalry from across the road, two miles from Resaca, and 
then stood aside and let General McPherson pass, who struck the 
enemy's infantry pickets near Resaca and drove them inside their 
lines, and occupied a ridge of hills, — his right on the Oostanaula, 
and the left abreast of the town. Generals Thomas and Schofield 
occupied the places assigned them. 

The rebel general finding his position at Dalton no longer tena- 
ble, moved with his army to Resaca, before Sherman's forces 
could reach it through the impracticable roads, by the way of 
Snake Creek Gap. General Howard's divisions entered Dalton 
and finding it deserted pushed on and united with the Federal 
forces near Tilton. The naturally strong position of Dalton was 
thus overthrown by the exercise of that quality styled " strategy." 

Safely in Resaca, the rebels at once proceeded to strengthen 
the position by additional earthworks. Skirmishing began at an 
early hour on the 14th. A force of cavalry and infantry was sent 
to threaten Calhoun, four miles in the rear of Resaca. General 
Garrard, with his cavalry division, was sent to break the railroad 
between Calhoun and Kingston, if possible. At 1, P. M., an 
attempt was made to break the enemy's line, and force him from 
the elevated position which he occupied. In order to do this, it was 
necessary to descend a hill, in full range of the rebel artillery, 
ford a stream, obstructed on its banks by a thick undergrowth, 



350 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and then cross a valley full of ditclies and other obstructions, to 
mount the opposite eminence. In performing the movement the 
troops became entangled in the obstructions, and being unable to 
shelter themselves, or return the murderous fire, they were com 
pelled to return with a loss of upward of a thousand. Farther to 
the left a division of the Twenty-third Corps, and ISTewton's of 
the Fourth Corps, succeeded, after a desperate struggle, in forc- 
ing the enemy to abandon an important position on their outer 
line. 

Later in the afternoon. General Johnston attempted to turn 
the left flank of Sherman, held by Stanley's division, and charged 
with such impetuosity and overwhelming numbers, that that 
division was forced to fall back in confusion ; the rebels followed 
up, but Hooker's Twentieth Corps checked their advance, and 
Stanley's division was enabled to rally, and at dusk the enemy 
was driven into his intrenchments with severe loss. General 
McPherson sent the Fifteenth Corps, General Logan, and a por- 
tion of the Sixteenth Corps, across Camp Creek, which carried 
a hill and line of rifle pits on the enemy's extreme left, in front 
of Resaca. This position enabled General Logan to pour a 
destructive enfilading fire upon the rebel works, and to command 
the railroad and trestle bridges across the river. A desperate 
eifort was made, after dark, to retake it ; column after column 
of infantry moved up to the very crest of the hill, but recoiled 
under the steady fire of the Federal troops, and retired in 
confusion. 

Strengthening their positions during the night, the two op- 
posing armies opened the fight next day with heavy skirmishing 
along the Federal center, under cover of which troops were 
massed for an assault on two fortified hills on the enemy's ex- 
treme right, which were considered the key of the position. 
Hooker's corps had been sent to the left, and Howard's, Scho- 
field's and Palmer's troops moved to the right to fill up the gap. 
Soon after 1 o'clock Butterfield's division was sent forward by 
General Hooker as the assaulting column, supported by Geary's 
and "Williams' divisions. After repeated assaults, the enemy was 
finally driven from a portion of their lines, and a lodgment se- 
cured under the projecting works of a lunette, mounting four 
guns. The severe fire of the interior rebel lines rendered further 



BATTLE NEAR DALLAS. 361 

advance impossible, and the Federal troops were content to hold 
the position. Under cover of the darkness the walls of the works 
were dug through, and the guns hauled out, by means of ropes, 
under a destructive fire from the rebels ; a breach made, the 
lunette was soon captured. 

During the night the enemy abandoned Resaca, which was en- 
tered next day by General Sherman's forces. An immediate 
pursuit was commenced by the whole army ; General Thomas 
directly on his heels. General McPherson by Lay's Ferry, and 
Schofield by roads to the left. General Davis was sent along the 
west banks of the river to Rome. About sunset of the 17th, 
General Newton's division, of the Fourth Corps, had a severe en- 
counter with the rebel rear guard, but the next morning he was 
gone, and was not seen again until about four miles bej^ond 
Kingston ; he was found on ground well adapted for a battle. 
General Sherman made the proper dispositions, but when the 
enemy found the National forces closing around him, he retreated 
in the night across the Etowah River, burning all the bridges 
across that stream near Cartersville. 

General Thomas' army encamped near Cassville, McPherson's 
about Kingston, and Schofield's at Cassville Depot, toward the 
Eto\v^ah Bridge, awaiting supplies for the next stage of the 
campaign. General Davis, after a sharp fight, obtained posses- 
sion of Rome, with its forts, and its valuable mills and foundries 
employed in the service of the Confederate Government. 

Leaving garrisons at Rome and Kingston, General Sherman, 
put his army in motion for Dallas, by the way of Van "Wert, 
with twenty days rations in his wagons. By this route, he 
turned General Johnston's position at Allatoona Pass, which 
was considered an impregnable barrier to a direct advance upon 
Atlanta by the railroad. General Davis moved direct from Rome 
for Dallas, by Van Wert. General McPherson took the road to 
Dallas, by Van Wert; General Thomas took the road by the 
Euharlee and Burnt Hickory; General Schofield moved by roads 
more to the East. General Thomas captured a courier with a 
letter of General Johnston's, showing that he had detected the 
move, and was preparing to meet General Sherman near Dallas. 
The country was verj^ rugged, mountainous, and densely wooded, 
with few and obscure roads. 



352 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

On tlie 25tli, the enemy were met in line of battle, two or 
three miles from the crossing of Pumpkin Vine Creek. Gen- 
eral Hooker being in the advance, his leading^division. General 
Geary, had a severe encounter. General Hooker's other two 
divisions were on other roads. They were immediately ordered 
in, and about 4 o'clock, P. M., he had his whole corps well in 
hand, when he deployed two divisions and made a bold push to 
secure possession of a point known as the New Hope Church, 
where three roads meet from Ackworth, Marietta and Dallas. 
Here a hard battle was fought, and the enemy driven back to 
'New Hope Church, but he had thrown up some earthworks, and 
a dark, stormy night setting in. General Hooker was unable to 
drive him from from these roads. In the morning the enemy 
were found well intrenched. This compelled General Sherman 
to change the disposition of his forces. General McPherson waa 
moved up to Dallas, General Thomas was deployed against New 
Hope Church, and General Schofield was placed to turn the 
enemy's right. General Garrard's cavalry operated with Genera] 
McPherson, General Stoneman with General Schofield, Genera] 
McCook looked to the rear. 

The 26th and 27th were occupied in making these new disposi- 
tions ; on the 28th, while General McPherson was attempting to 
close up with General Thomas, the enemy suddenly made a bold 
and daring assault upon him at Dallas. Breastworks having 
been erected by the Federal troops, the rebel forces were repulsed 
with terrible and bloody slaughter. 

By a series of movements. General Sherman succeeded in dis- 
posing of his forces, so that he occupied all the roads leading 
back to Allatoona and Ackworth. On the 1st of June, Stone- 
man's cavalry were sent to the east end of the Allatoona Pass, 
and Garrard's to the west end, which was accomplished without 
trouble, and thus General Sherman succeeded in his real purpose 
of turning the Allatoona Pass. The bridges across the Etowah 
were rebuilt, and on the 4th of June, General Sherman contin- 
ued his movements by the left, for the purpose of leaving John- 
ston in his intrenchments at New Hope Church, and moved to 
the railroad at Ackworth, which he reached on the 6th of 
June. Allatoona Pass was found admirably adapted as a second- 
ary base for the operations of the campaign. General Sherman 



BATTLE OF KENESAW MOUNTAIN. 353 

gave orders for the defence of the pass, and as soon as the rail- 
road bridge across the Etowah was finished army supplies came 
forward by railroad. 

On the 8th of June, General Blair joined General Sherman, 
with two divisions of the Seventeenth Corps that had been on 
veteran furlough. The Twelfth, Sixteentb and Seventeenth 
Wisconsin regiments were attached to this army corps, being 
thus transferred from the army on the Mississippi River. 

The communications to the rear being secure, on the 0th of 
June, General Sherman moved forward to Big Shanty. Intent 
on the advancement of his army to the Chattahoochie, the grand 
object of the campaign. General Sherman permitted no obstacle 
to interfere to prevent his success. 

Kenesaw Mountain, crowned with the frowning batteries of 
the enemy, was the next point to which he was compelled to 
turn his attention. This mountain was now in his front, a range 
trending from it towards the northeast, terminated in another 
peak called Brushy Mountain. To the right was a smaller 
mountain called Pine Knob, or Mountain, and beyond it, in the 
distance, is Lost Mountain. All these present a sharp conical 
appearance, distinct ftom any of the hills that abound in that 
section. These three Mountains form a triangle, covering per- 
fectly the town of Marietta, and the railroad, back to the Chat- 
tahoochie. Signal stations w^ere on their summits, and their 
sides were covered with batteries, and alive with men, busy in 
felling trees digging pits, and preparing for the grand struggle 
impending. 

The line of the enemy was found to be twelve miles long. 
General McPherson w^as ordered to move toward Marietta, his 
right on the railroad ; General Thomas, on Kenesaw and Pine 
Mountains, and General Schofield, off towards Lost Mountain, 
wdth cavalry to the right and left of the line. 

On the 11th of June, dispositions were made to break the 
enemy' s line between Kenesaw and Pine Mountain. General 
Hooker was on the right and front, General Howard on the 
left and front, and General Palmer between it and the railroad. 
During a sharp cannonading on the 14th, the rebel General Polk 
was killed by a fragment of a shell, and on the 15th, Pine 
Mountain was found evacuated by the enemy. Generals Thomas 
23 



354 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

and Scliofield advanced and found him again strongly in- 
trenclied along the line of rugged hills connecting Kenesaw 
and Lost Mountain. General McPherson, also advanced his 
line on the left. On the 17th, arrangements for an assault were 
made, but in the night the enemy abandoned Lost Mountain 
and their line of intreuchments connecting it with Kenesaw. 
Closing up on the enemy's works round Kenesaw, he was found 
strongly posted, and intrenched, with Kenesaw as his salient, 
his right covering Marietta, his left behind ISTose's Creek cover- 
ing the railroad back to the Chattahoochie. It must be remem- 
bered that this mountain was the last important and strong 
position to the north of the Chattahoochie. Driven from this 
point, the way to that important Confederate military depot, 
Atlanta, was open to the invincible army of Sherman. 

During ail these operations about Kenesaw, the weather was 
very bad, rain falling almost continuously for three weeks, ren- 
dering the roads impassable for a general movement. Work, 
however, progressed daily closer and closer to the intrenched 
foe. On the 22d of June, as General Hooker had advanced his 
line, with Schofield on his right, the enemy, under General 
Hood, suddenly sallied out and attacked. The blow fell mostly 
on General Williams' division of Hooker's corps, and one of 
General Schofield's brigades. The enemy was repulsed by a 
terrible fire, from our lines, leaving his dead and wounded, and 
many prisoners. Upon studying the ground. General Sherman 
found that he had no alternative but to assault in turn or turn 
his position. Orders were therefore issued on the 24th, and on 
the 27th, two assaults were made, and both failed, costing many 
valuable lives. 

Failing in this manner of attack, the old plan of flank move- 
ment was ordered, and on the night of the 2d of July, General 
McPherson threw his whole army by the right flank, down 
towards the Nickajack Creek, threatening Turner's Ferry across 
the Chattahoochie. The next morning Kenesaw was abandoned 
and occupied by the Federal skirmishers. General Thomas 
moved along the railroad and turned south in pursuit, towards 
the Chattahoochie, and General Sherman entered Marietta at 
half past 8 o'clock, A. M. General Logan, of McPherson's 
army, was ordered to occupy Marietta, while Generals McPherson 



CROSSING THE CnATTATIOOCIIIE. 355 

and Schofield were ordered to cross the Nickajack and at- 
tack the enemy in flank and rear and to interrupt his crossing 
of the Chattahoochie. The rebel General had, however, pro- 
vided against this emergency. He had thrown np intrcnch- 
ments across the road at Smyrna, five miles from Marietta, and 
also had intrenched a strong tete de pont on the Chattahoochie, 
where he was found by General Thomas, with his front protected 
and his flanks behind the Il^ickajack and Rottenwood creeks. 

On the 4th of July, the enemy's line at Smyrna was caj)- 
tured, and a strong demonstration made along Nickajack Creek, 
and about Turner's Ferry, to the right of Johnston's position 
on the river. This movement compelled Johnston, that night, 
to cross the main body of his forces to the left bank of the 
river, leaving Hardee's corps on the right bank behind his in- 
trenched position. General Sherman then moved up to the 
Chattahoochie, and on the evening of the 5th, Thomas and 
McPherson's troops occupied a line extending from above the 
railroad bridge, to the mouth of Nickajack Creek, two or three 
miles below. The enemy lay behind a line of unusual strength, 
covering the railroad and pontoon bridges, and beyond the Chat- 
tahoochie. An inspection of these works, satisfied General 
Sherman, that from their great strength, they could only be 
carried by crossing the Chattahoochie, which was a rapid and 
deep stream, only passable by means of bridges, except at two 
or three difficult fords. To accomplish this result. General 
Schofield was sent from Smyrna to the mouth of Soap Creek, 
eight miles northeast of General Sherman's position on the rail- 
road, where he eftected a lodgment on the east bank of the 
Chattahoochie, on high and commanding ground, with good 
roads, leading to the eastward. He succeeded in laying a good 
pontoon bridge, and a trestle bridge. At the same time, Gen- 
eral Garrard's cavalry force moved up the river, seven miles 
further north to Roswell, where he destroyed several woollen 
factories, which had supplied the rebel armies with cloth, and 
also secured the ford, holding it until General Newton's v.ivision 
of the Fourth Corps arrived, which was superseded by General 
Dodge's Sixteenth Corps, which in turn, was followed by Gen- 
eral General McPherson's whole army. General Howard also 
built a bridge at Power's Ferry, two miles south of Schofield's 



356 - MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

position at Soap Creek. These demonstrations caused General 
Johnston to again give the order for retreat on the night of the 
9th of July. His heavy guns were removed to Atlanta, Gen- 
eral Hardee's corps crossed to the left bank, and at daylight of 
the 10th of July, the pontoons and railroad, and road bridges, 
were in flames, the whole rebel army falling back towards At- 
lanta, his left wing remaining in the neighborhood of Turner's 
Ferry, in expectation of an attack. 

Having accomplished his object, of driving the enemy across 
the Chattahoochie, General Sherman determined to give his 
troops a week's rest, while he brought forward his supplies. 
Recalling McPherson, Dodge and Schofield to their former posi- 
tion, detailing a sufficient force to secure the several positions 
on the east bank of the river, and occupy the enemy's works, 
the army rested until the 16th of July. 

The enemy's works were found to be of great strength, cost- 
ing many months of labor, and extending for five miles and a 
half along the river, with almost impenetrable abattis in front. 

General Sherman had thus accomplished the main object of 
the campaign, and was in possession of both banks of the Chat- 
tahoochie. Atlanta, the great entrepot of military supplies, lay 
within eiglrt miles, with its magazines, stores, arsenals, work- 
shops, foundries, etc., and its railroads which there diverge to 
the four cardinal points. The next move was, therefore, the 
capture of this important point. 

Pending the efforts to drive Johnston across the Chattahoochie, 
General Sherman had collected a force of 2,000 cavalry, which 
was placed under the command of General Rosseau. As soon 
as the enemy were driven from the position at the railroad bridge. 
General Rosseau was ordered with his cavalry force, from Deca- 
tur, Alabama, to push rapidly south, cross the Coosa, at the rail- 
road bridge, and thence direct to Opelika. There was but a 
single line of railroad connecting Alabama and Mississippi with 
Georgia, which was from Montgomery to Opelika. General 
Itosseau reached this single line of road twenty-five miles west 
of Opelika, and broke it up nearly to that place, and also por- 
tions of the branch road towards Columbus, and towards West 
Point. He then returned, having performed the object of his 
mission. 



BATTLE OF PEACH TREE CREEK. 3o7 

Having collected a sufficient quantity of stores at Allatoona, 
Marietta, and Vining's Station, strengthened the railroad guards 
and garrisons, and improved the pier hridges and roads leading 
across the river, General Sherman ordered a general advance to 
commence on the 17th. General Thomas crossed at Powers' and 
Paise's Ferry bridges, and marched by Buckhead ; General Scho- 
field marched by Cross Keys, and General McPherson, crossed 
at Roswell, and reached the Augusta railroad, seven miles east 
of Decatur, breaking up about four miles of the railroad. General 
Schofield reached Decatur. 

The Confederate authorities being dissatisfied with the manner 
in which General Johnston had conducted the campaign, 
appointed General Hood to the command of the Confederate 
forces. 

On the 20th, all the armies had closed in, converging towards 
Atlanta. The army of the CumberLand occupied the right wing 
and right centre; the army of the Ohio, under General Scho- 
field, the left centre, and the Army of the Tennessee, the left. 
Two divisions of General Howard's corps were sent to fill a gap 
between General Thomas and General Schofield, leaving ITew- 
ton's division to hold an important position on the Buckhead 
road. 

Discovering an inadequate force at jSTewton's position, the rebel 
Gejieral Hood, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the 20th, sal- 
lied from his works in force and fell, in line of battle, against the 
position held b}' General ISTewton, which was the right centre on 
the Buckhead road ; the blow was sudden and unexpected, but 
General ITewton had hastily covered his front by a line of rail 
piles, which enabled him to meet the attack. Geary and Wil- 
liams' divisions, of Hooker's Corps, being next to ]!^ewi:on, on the 
left, were involved in the attack. The enemy had massed his 
main body in front of these three divisions and advanced with- 
out skirmishers, and hoped, by one of those bold dashes charac- 
teristic of General Hood, to retrieve, at one blow, the disasters of 
the campaign. The whole corps of General Hooker participated. 
The rebels attacked with great desperation, but after four hours 
of incessant fighting he retired precipitately to his intrenchments, 
leaving on the field six hundred dead, one thousand severely 
wounded, and several regimental flags and prisoners. His total 



358 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCOlNSIN. 

loss was estimated at five thousand. Tlie National loss was about 
one thousand nine hundred, of which the greater part fell on 
General Hooker's corps. This is known as the battle of Peach 
Tree Creek, and was participated in by the Twenty-fourth Wis- 
consin, in ISTewton's division, and the Third, Twenty-second and 
Twenty-sixth Regiments in Hooker's corps. 

, On the 21st the enemy occupied an intrenched position on the 
heights commanding the valley of Peach Tree Creek, his right 
beyond the Augusta Railroad to the east, and his left towards 
Turner's Ferry, at an average distance of four miles from At- 
lanta. During the day a hill, known as Bald Hill, a few hundred 
yards in advance of the extreme left of McPherson's army, which 
had been strongly fortified by the enemy, was gallantly carried 
by General Leggett's division of the Seventeenth Corps, with a 
loss of seven hundred and fifty men. The rebel General Cle- 
borue made four desperate attempts to regain the position, but 
he was compelled to retire, leaving his dead and most of his 
wounded on the slope of the hill. This hill commanded Atlanta 
and the two principal roads leading north and south from the 
city. In this contest the- Twelfth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Wisconsin Regiments distinguished themselves. 

The line on Peach Tree Creek being found abandoned on the 
morning of the 22d, General Sherman's forces swept over the 
abandoned works of the enemy and closed in upon Atlanta, occu- 
pying a line in the form of a quarter circle of about two miles 
radius ; here in their front they found the enemy occupying, in 
force, a line of finished redoubts covering all the roads leading 
into* Atlanta. His Avorking parties were busy connecting these 
redoubts with curtains, strengthened by rifle trenches, abatis and 
cheveaux de frize. 

The general advance of all the Federal armies contracted the 
circle, and the Sixteenth Corps, General Dodge, being on the 
right of McPherson's army, was thrown out of line by the Fif- 
teenth Corps, General Logan, connecting on the right with 
General Schofield, near the Howard House. 

General Dodge was ordered by General McPherson to move 
fi'om the right to the left of the Seventeenth Corps, and occupy 
Bald Hill, captured the day before by General Leggett's division 
of the Seventeenth Corps. This hill lay to the south and east of 



BATTLE OF JULY TWBNTY-SECOND, BEFORE ATLANTA. 359 

the railroad ; in order to reacli it General Dodge moved by a di- 
agonal path or wagon road in the direction of Blair's left flank. 
General McPherson after having explained to General Sherman 
the disposition he had made of General Dodge's corps, which that 
General readily acceded to, started to ride over to General 
Dodge's column, then marching to take possession of the hill be- 
fore described. Passing into a narrow road that led to the left 
and rear of General G. A. Smith's division, which was the ex- 
treme left of General Blair's corps, a sharp volley was heard, and 
soon after the horse of General McPherson came out of the woods, 
riderless and wounded in two places. It was afterwards ascer- 
tained that he rode into the enemy's skirmish line, and when it 
was too late he found himself within lifty feet of it. He was 
called upon to surrender, but he only dashed his horse to the 
right of the road and was almost instantly brought to the ground, 
mortally wounded, by a volley from the skirmishers ; his body 
was for a time in possession of the enemy, but was subsequently 
recovered and brought into the Union lines, when it was sent 
north by General Sherman for burial. On hearing of this disas- 
ter General Sherman ordered General Logan to assume command 
of the Army of the Tennessee. 

It soon became evident to General Sherman that the plan of 
the enemy's action was to throw a superior force on McPherson's 
left flank, while he held the center and right with his forts in 
front. General Sherman immediately ordered his center and 
right to press forward and give full employment to all the enemy 
in his lines, while General Schofield was to hold as large a force 
in reserve as possible, awaiting developments. 

The whole line was already engaged in battle. Hardee's corps 
had sallied from Atlanta, and by a wide circuit to the east, had 
struck General Blair's left wing, enveloping it, and his right had 
swung round and hit Dodge's column, which was moving towards 
the hill, in obedience to General McPherson's order. General 
Blair's line was substantially along the old line of rebel trencher, 
which were fashioned to fight on either side. A gap of half a 
mile intervened between the head of General Dodge's column 
and General Blair's line, through which the enemy had poured, 
but General McPherson's last action was to order up a brigade 
of the Fifteenth Corps to occupy the gap, which came in on the 



360 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

double quick, and checked tke enemy. Hardee attacked in 
flank, sweeping across the hill our men were fortifying, capturing 
the working party, and bore down on Blair's left. General 
G. A. Smith's division of the Seventeenth Corps was forced to 
fight, first from one side of the old rifle pits, and then from the 
other, Stewart's corps attacking in front directly from the main 
works, while Hardee attacked the flank. General Smith grad- 
ually withdrew regiment after regiment, so as to form a flaiik 
to General Leggett's division, which held the apex of the hill, 
this being the only part essential to General Sherman's plans. 
General Dodge held in check the enemy's right, punishing him 
severely. General G. A. Smith had gradually given up the ex- 
tremity of his line, and formed a new one whose right connected 
with General Leggett, and his left refused facing southeast. On 
this ground, and in this order, the men fought well and desper- 
ately, for nearly four hours, checking and repulsing all the 
enemy's attacks. The execution on the enemy's ranks at the 
angle was terrible, and great credit is due both Generals Leg- 
gett and Giles A. Smith, and their men, for their hard and stub- 
born fighting. The enemy made no further progress on that 
flank, and by 4, P. M., had almost given up the attempt. The 
Twelfth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Wisconsin regiments, in 
Leggett's division, took part in this atfair, on the left of the 
Seventeenth Corps. 

While this action was progressing, General Wheeler's cavalry 
taking advantage of the absence of General Garrard's cavalry 
force, made an attempt to capture the wagon trains at Decatur, 
but Colonel Sprague, with three regiments of infantry, succeeded 
in covering them, and sending them to the rear of Generals 
Schofield and Thomas. To do this, some severe fighting was 
done, in .which the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin, under Colonel 
Montgomery, participated. 

Between four and five in the afternoon, the enemy, by massing 
his troops opposite a position in the Fifteenth Corps, which had 
been weakened by sending a brigade to the extreme left, suc- 
ceeded in making a break in the line of that corps, causing the 
brigade to fall back in confusion, for four hundred yards, leav- 
ing the enemy in possession of two batteries of much import- 
ance to the Union forces, and separating the divisions of Generals 



MOVEMENT BY THE RIGHT FLANK. 361 

Wood and Harrow. General Sherman ordered the Fifteenth 
Corps to regain its lost ground at any cost, which it did in gal- 
lant style, assisted by several batteries from General Sehofield's 
Corps. All the guns were retaken but two, which the enemy 
had removed into his main works. "With this, terminated the 
battle of the 22d of July, which proved to be the hardest in the 
vicinity of Atlanta. 

The Union loss in this battle, was 3,722 killed, wounded, and 
missing. The loss of the enemy was computed at 8,000, of 
which, 3,240 were killed. 

In order to cut the several railroads radiating from Atlanta, 
General Sherman sent out a large force of cavalry, under Gen- 
erals Stoneman, Garrard, and McCook. In this expedition, 
General Stoneman proceeded too far towards Macon, and was 
captured with a part of his command, two-thirds of it escaping. 
General Sherman attributes General Stoneman's misfortune to 
disobedience of orders, in not concentrating with Garrard and 
McCook, at Lovejoy's Station. General McCook burnt the de- 
pot at Lovejoy's, and tore up some of the track, but was obliged 
to leave by the overpowering force which the rebels brought 
against him ; retiring to Newman, on the West Point Road, 
where he was surrounded by a heavy force, through which, he cut 
his way, losing 500 officers and men, and returned to Marietta. 

On the 27th, the army of the Tennessee changed its position, 
passing behind the rest of the army to Proctor's Creek, and south 
to prolong the Union line due south, facing east. The object of 
this movement was to work the Union forces around to the south, 
in order to command the enemy's line of communications. 
General Howard, on the 27th of Jul}^ assumed command of the 
Army of the Tennessee, by authority of the President. At 
Eastpoint, a few miles southwest of Atlanta, is the jnu'Ction of 
the Macon and West Point Railroads. The object of this move- 
ment by the right flank, was to control these roads below East 
Point. The Sixteenth Corps took position on Proctor's Creek, 
the left nearest the enemy, the Seventeenth came up next, on its 
right, and the Fifteenth, on the right of the Seventeenth Corps, 
giving it the position on the extreme right. The army was in 
position by 10, A. M. of the 27th, and the men began throwing 
up rails and logs, which, after a while, assumed the form of a 



362 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

parapet. General Davis' division, of tlie Fourteenth Corps, was 
ordered to the extreme right, in order to catch the attacking 
force in the flank if the enemy should attempt the game of the 22d. 
However, hefore General Davis could reach the designated 
position, the enemy advanced against the Fifteenth Corps, by 
the Bell's Ferry Eoad, hut they were met by such a terrible fire, 
from behind the logs and piles of rails, that they at last, after 
four hours fighting, disappeared, leaving over 600 dead on the 
field, besides the wounded. General Howard ordered up a re- 
serve of some of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Corps, to protect 
his right flank. This was the last effort of the enemy to check 
General Sherman's extensions by the flank. General Schofield's 
corps, and General Palmer's corps, of General Thomas' army, 
were moved from the left to the right', as far as Eastpoint. 

About this time, General Hooker resigned the command of the 
Twentieth Corps, and General Slocum was appointed to his 
place, and General Palmer resigned the command of the Four- 
teenth Corps, and General Jefferson C. Davis, was appointed his 
successor. An unsuccessful attempt was made to get a foothold 
on the West Point and Macon Railroads. In order to reach the 
Macon road, and control the supplies for Atlanta, General 
Sherman became convinced that he must move his whole army. 

The army remained in this position till the 18th of August, 
during which time General Sherman fired upon the city, with 
his four and a half inch rifle guns, causing much destruction. 
After the departure of the Seventeenth Corps from the extreme 
left. General Wheeler's cavalry started on a raid northward, for 
the purpose of destroying General Sherman's communications, 
striking the railroad, and tearing up the track. This opportune 
departure of Wheeler gave Sherman perfect control of his own 
cavalry ; he accordingly sent Kilpatrick with 5,000 men, to de- 
stray the West Point road, and Macon road. He succeeded in 
damaging the former, but was prevented in his intentions on the 
latter, at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's, by the superior force of the 
eneni}'. 

In order to enable General Sherman to move his whole army 
against the enemy's communications, the Twentieth Corps, tem- 
porarily under the command of General Williams, was ordered 
to return to the intrenched position at Chattahoochie Bridge, to 



BATTLE OF JONESBOEO. 363 

whicli point the army commanders were ordered to send tlicir 
surplus wagons and incumbrances of all kinds, and also the sick. 
This being done, the movement began on the 25th of August. 
The army was moved to the neighborhood of Fairborn, on the 
West Point Eailroad, where twelve or thirteen miles of road 
were destroyed. On the 29th of August, the army Avas again 
put in motion, and marched from the West Point Railroad, to 
the Macon Railroad, at Jonesboro, which was reached by the 
Army of the Tennessee, on the night of the 30th of August. 
In the morning, General Howard found himself in the presence 
of the enemy. He deployed the Fifteenth Corps, and disposed 
the Sixteenth and Seventeenth, on its flanks. The usual log and 
rail parapet was thrown up, and the men were soon prepared 
to act oftensively or defensively, as the case called for. During 
the day, the enemy came out of his works at Jonesboro, and 
attacked General Howard in his position just described. They 
consisted of Lee's and Hardee's corps, and after two hours severe 
fighting, withdrew, leaving 400 dead on the field, and having at 
least, 2,500 wounded. During this time. General Schofield's 
Corps was at Rough and Ready, passing up the road, breaking 
it up as he went. General Stanley, was also breaking up the 
road south of Schofield, and General Baird, of the Fourteenth 
Corps, was still lower down, about four miles from Jonesboro. 

Orders w^ere at once given for these troops to march to Jones- 
boro, and were directed to reach that point on the 1st of September. 
General Davis' Corps was on time, and he deployed his right in con- 
nection with General Howard, and his left on the railroad. Gen- 
erals Stanley and Schofield, with the Fourth and Twenty-third 
corps, were coming down on the Rough and Ready road; but from 
the unfavorable character of the roads these two corps did not 
arrive to participate in the battle of Jonesboro. Blair's corps 
was thrown in reserve, and sent to the right, below Jonesboro, to 
act against that flank in connection with Kilpatrick's cavalry. 
At 4, P. M., Davis' Fourteenth Corps made an assault on the 
enemy's lines, across open fields, carrying them handsomely, and 
taking prisoners nearly the whole of Gowan's brigade, including 
its commander and two four gun batteries. 

The next morning the enemy was gone, retreating south. A 
general pursuit was begun, our troops overtaking him at 



364 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Lovejoy's Station in a strongly intrenched position, with his 
flanks well protected. 

Rumors began to arrive that Atlanta had been abandoned dur- 
ing the night of September 1st, and that Hood had blown up his 
ammunition trains, which accounted for the explosions which 
had been heard in the direction of Atlanta since 2 o'clock of 
September 1st. 

On the night of September 4th, a courier arrived from General 
Slocum, stating that Atlanta had been evacuated ; that the enemy 
had blown up some trains of cars, and retreated on the McDon- 
ough road ; General Slocum had entered and taken possession 
on the 2d of September. Deeming the end of the campaign 
accomplished General Sherman, on the 7th of September, ordered 
the return of the Army of the Cumberland, General Thomas, to 
the vicinity of Atlanta; the Army of the Tennessee to East 
Point, and General Schoiield to Decatur. 

General Hood on abandoning Atlanta marched towards Mc- 
Donough, whence, moving west, he joined the corps of Hardee 
and Lee. 

General Wheeler, with his cavalry, proceeded towards Chatta- 
nooga, destroying the railroad in places, thence into East Ten 
nessee, performing the same kindofvork; and in September 
endeavored to interrupt communication between Nashville and 
Chattajiooga, but was driven into Northern Alabama by Generals 
Rosseau, Steadman, and Granger. 

General Sherman on his return to Atlanta deemed it necessary 
to appropriate the place exclusively for military purposes, and 
orders were immediately issued for the departure of all civilians, 
both male and female. A truce was entered into with General 
Hood for the purpose of securing the removal of the inhabitants. 
This work was accomplished by the 21st of September, soon 
after which the truce ceased. 

The occupation of Atlanta by General Sherman struck terror 
into the hearts of the leaders of the Confederacy, and immediate 
steps were taken by Jeif. Davis to arrest the progress of the Fed- 
eral armies in Georgia. He accordingly visited that and the 
other Gulf States, on a tour of inspection, during which he 
delivered several speeches, the tone and character of which 
elicited much remark among the Confederate press. The effect 



BATTLE OF ALLATOONA. 365 

of his visit to the army was the adoption of a plan, whereby the 
President proposed to retrieve the past and drive the hated in- 
vaders from Southern soil, — to harrass and destroy Sherman's 
army as the Cossacks did that of Napoleon. 

A campaign in the rear of Sherman was concluded upon, and 
General Forrest with his cavalry was soon operating in Southern 
Tennessee. General Hood was also on the march, crossing the 
Chattahoochie 'on the 2d of October, and proceeding to Dallas, 
where the several corps were to concentrate. On the 4th he cap- 
tured the stations at Big Shanty and Ackworth,and destroyed the 
railroad between the two places. He also sent a division to cap- 
ture Allatoona, but was signally defeated by General Corse, al- 
though three companies of the Eighteenth Wisconsin, who were 
guarding a bridge about two miles from the depot, were taken 
prisoners. 

General Sherman took steps to follow up the defeated rebel 
General, by sending General Corse to Rome with reinforcements, 
who arrived in time at Allatoona and defended that place success- 
fully. The previous week he had sent General Thomas with 
troops to ISTashville. The bridges having been carried away by 
a freshet, on the 4th of October pontoons were laid across the 
Chattahoochie, and the armies of the Cumberland, Tennessee, and 
Ohio crossed and took up their march towards Marietta, with 
fifteen days' rations. The Twentieth Corps, General Slocum, 
remained to garrison Atlanta. 

Learning that the enemy had taken Big Shanty and Ackworth, 
and threatened Allatoona, General Sherman signaled from Ken- 
esaw Mountain, to General Corse at Rome, to reinforce the gar- 
rison at Allatoona, and hold it until the main army should arrive. 
Corse immediately sent nine hundred men on the cars before the 
attack commenced. The enemy, under General French, num- 
bered seven thousand men. The brave garrison refused to sur- 
render, and the enemy assaulted the works with the greatest 
vigor, but were as vigorously repulsed until they were com- 
pelled to retire, beaten and disheartened, towards Dallas. The 
enemy lost seven to eight hundred killed, wounded, and prison- 
ers. The Eighteenth Wisconsin took a prominent part in this 
battle, and three companies, in an isolated block house, were 
taken prisoners by the enemy. General Hood proceeded to 



366 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Resaca, and engaged in the destruction of the railroad towards 
Dalton. On the 14th, General Sherman's main army encamped at 
Resaca. Capturing the colored garrison at Dalton, the enemy 
continued the destruction of the railroad as far as Tunnel Hill. 
The near approach of the Union forces compelled him to retreat 
to Lafayette, from thence to Alabama, by the way of Gaylesville 
to Gadsden on the Coosa River, seventy-five miles from Lafay- 
ette. General Sherman succeeded in capturing part of the 
Twenty-fourth ISTorth Carolina Regiment at Ship's Gap. 

At Gadsden, General Hood was superseded by General Beau- 
regard, who took command of the Confederate Army on the 17th 
of October, issuing an address to the Southern people in his usual 
style of bombast. 

General Sherman proceeded to Gaylesville, where he watched 
the enemy's movements. The injuries to the railroad were only 
temporary, and on the 28th cars were again running from Chat- 
tanooga to Atlanta. On the 1st of November, General Hood 
moved with his army to Warrington, on the Tennessee River. 

Ko sooner had General Sherman ascertained that Hood had 
started on his expedition into Tennessee than he moved his 
whole army to Rome, and proceeded at once to perfect his plans 
for a new campaign into the heart of the Confederacy. Consid- 
ering his army unnecessarily large for the purpose, he sent the 
Fourth and Twenty-third corps to reinforce General Thomas at 
Il^ashville. The original plan of holding Atlanta as a secondary 
base was abandoned, as the new expedition was to cut loose from 
all bases and subsist on the enemy. The destruction of the city 
and the railroads leading thereto became a necessity, as it was 
not considered expedient to keep an army to guard the roads, or 
the cit}' as a depot of supplies. 

The first ten days of iTovember were occupied in sending north 
the hospital inmates, and such supplies as there was time to re- 
move. The vast supplies of provisions, forage, stores and ma^ 
chinery which had accumulated at Rome and Atlanta were sent 
in safety to Chattanooga. On the 11th of November, the last 
train left Atlanta for the North, and the army was supplied 
with every man, and horse, and gun which it needed, and with 
thirty days' rations in the wagons, was ready to move toward the 
coast. 



Sherman's grand ExrEDiTioN. 367 

The five corps reserved for the expedition were concentrated 
into four by assigning one division of the Sixteenth Coips to 
the Fifteenth, and the other division to the Seventeenth Corps. 

The expeditionary army consisted of the Fourteenth Corps, 
General Jeff. C. Davis, the Fifteenth, General Logan, the Seven- 
teenth, General Blair, and the Twentieth, General Slocuin, be- 
sides four brigades of artillery, one for each corps, and two more 
batteries and two divisions of cavalry. This army was divided 
into two wings. The right commanded by Major General 0. 0. 
Howard, consisting of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth corps, and 
the left commanded by Major General Slocum, consisting of the 
Fourteenth and Twentieth corps. In consequence of General 
Slocum's appointment to the command of the left wing, General 
A. S. "Williams took command of the Twentieth Corps. 

The following Wisconsin regiments took part in this celebrated 
expedition, assigned as follows: — In the Left Wing, Fourteenth 
Corps, General Davis, the Twenty-first Regiment was located in 
the First Brigade, Colonel Hobart, First Division, Brigadier 
General Carliu ; in the Twentieth Corps, General Williams, the 
Third Regiment, Colonel Hawley, was located in the Second 
Brigade, Colonel Carman, Fir^t Division, Brigadier General 
Jackson ; the Thirty-first Regiment, Colonel West, in the Third 
Brigade, Colonel Robinson, in the same division ; the Twenty- 
second Regiment, Colonel Bloodgood, was in the Second Brigade, 
Colonel Dusten, Third Division, Brigadier General Ward ; the 
Twenty-sixth Regiment, Colonel Winkler, was in the Third 
Brigade, Colonel Ross, of the Third Division, Brigadier General 
Ward. 

In the Right Wing, under General Howard, and Seventeenth 
Corps, General Blair, the Twelfth Regiment, Colonel J. K. 
Proudfit, and the Sixteenth Regiment, Colonel Fairchild, was in 
the First Brigade, Colonel Ewing, Third Division, General Leg- 
gett; the Seventeenth Regiment, Colonel Malloy, was in the 
Third Brigade of the same division ; the Twenty-fifth Regiment, 
Lieutenant Colonel Rusk, was in the Second Brigade, of the First 
Division, Major General Mower; the Thirty-second Regiment, 
Colonel DeGroat, was in the Third Brigade, of the First Division, 
General Mower. In the Fifteenth Corps, General Logan, was 



368 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

the Eighteenth Wisconsin, Lieutenant Colonel Jackson, in the 
First Brigade, Third Division, Brigadier General J. E. Smith. 
The Twelfth Wisconsin Battery was attached to the First Divis- 
ion, in the Fifteenth Corps ; the Fifth Wisconsin Battery, Cap- 
tain McKnight, was attached to the Third Division, ot the Four- 
teenth Army Corps, in the Left Wing; and the Tenth Wisconsin 
Battery, Captain Beehe, was attached to the First Brigade, 
Colonel Murray, Third Division, Kilpatrick's cavalry corps. 

Company E, of the Fourteenth Wisconsin, was attached to the 
Seventeenth Corps, and acted as guard to the pontoon train 
belonging to that corps. 

A synopsis of the order of march will show the manner in 
which the expedition was conducted. Ist. Organized the army 
into two wings. 2d. The march was to be on four parallel roads, 
if possible. 3d. No general train of supplies, — each corps to 
have its ammunition and provisions distributed as follows : be- 
hind each regiment one wagon and one ambulance; behind each 
brigade, a due proportion of ammunition and provision wagons, 
and ambulances. Li case of danger, these incumbrances were to 
occupy the center of the column. 4th. The army to forage on 
the country; each brigade to have a foraging party, who was to 
gather corn or forage, meat, vegetables, corn meal, or whatever 
is needed by the command ; to keep in the wagons ten days' pro- 
visions and three days' forage ; soldiers forbidden to enter dwell- 
ing houses, or commit trespass ; at halt or camp, had permission 
to gather turnips, potatoes and vegetables, and drive in stock in 
front of their camps. 5th. Corps commanders had power to 
destroy mills, houses, cotton gins, etc.; if the army is unmolested 
no destruction is to take place ; but, if molested by guerrillas or 
bushwhackers, or inhabitants should burn bridges, obstruct roads, 
etc., then corps commanders should retaliate. 6th. Cavalry to 
appropriate horses, mules, wagons, etc., freely and without limit, 
discriminating between the rich, who are hostile, and the poor, 
who are usually neutral or friendly ; foraging parties to take 
mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to 
serve as pack mules ; foraging parties not to be abusive, and may 
leave certifiicates, if the officer thinks proper, but no receipts ; 
to leave with each family sufficient for its maintenance. 7th. Able 
bodied negroes to betaken along, if supplies are sufficient. 8th. A 



GRAND MAllCII BEGUN. 369 

pioneer battalion of negroes, for each corps, was authorized to 
follow the advance guard, to repair roads, and double them if 
possible; army commanders were directed to give artillery and 
wagons the road, and furnish them assistance at steep hills or 
bad crossings. 9tli. Gives to each wing of the army a pontoon 
train. 

The troops were instructed, in a circular, to carry in haversacks 
two days' rations of salt meat and hard bread, ten days coffee and 
salt, and five days sugar ; sixty rounds ammunition on his per- 
son ; to be careful of ammunition ; foraging forbidden by the 
soldiers; pillaging, marauding, and acts of cruelty to be punished 
severely ; brigade commanders to have a strong guard to arrest 
stragglers. 

Thus was this extraordinary expedition organized. The 
several corps were concentrated at Atlanta, on the 14th of JSTo- 
vember, having destroyed the several railroads on their march 
thither. On the 15th, the city of Atlanta was set on fire and 
destroyed, and on the 16th, the whole army marched eastward, 
having cut loose from all its communications. "We can only give 
an outline of the march of this remarkable expedition, sutficient 
to show its general direction, and the position of the several 
corps in the two wings, and the result. 

On the 16th of jSTovembcr, the whole army marched eastward, 
in four columns, the two under General Slocum, as the left wing 
with which was General Sherman, following the railroad to 
Augusta, while the right wing, under General Howard, moved 
along the Macon and Augusta road. Each wing had cavalry 
moving on its flanks. 

General Howard's command, of which the Fifteenth Corps 
formed the right wing, proceeded to Jonesboro, thence moved 
east through McDonough and Jackson, to the Ocmulgee River, 
which it crossed, and passing between Milledgeville and Clinton, 
struck the Georgia Central Railroad at Gordon, twenty miles 
cast of Macon. Apprehensive of an attack at Macon, the rebels 
concentrated all their available troops there. To«still further 
deceive the enemy, a force of cavalry was sent to East Macon, 
to make a feint ; a collision occurred. In this affair, a rebel bat- 
teiy was taken, but was abandoned by its captors. On striking 
24 



370 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

the Georgia Railroad, tlie army proceeded to destroy the rail- 
road track, which was done in a very thorough manner. While 
this was in progress, the extreme right wing of the Fifteenth 
Corps, under General Walcott, was attacked near Griswoldville, 
where they had destroyed some of the principal buildings. Pro- 
tected in front by a rail barricade, a rebel force of about five 
thousand, approached from towards Macon, who advanced and 
attempted to carry the Federal position by storm, but they re- 
ceived such a fire from the Union troops behind their barricades, 
that after six desperate assaults, they retired from the contest, 
leaving three hundred dead on the field, and a total loss of 
twenty-five hundred. 

The left wing, under General Slocum, proceeded along the 
Augusta Railroad, in two columns, the left or outer one being 
the Twentieth Corps. General Sherman accompanied the Four- 
teenth Corps in person. Having destroyed the railroad to Cov- 
ington, the Fourteenth turned southward towards Milledgeville, 
while the Twentieth Corps continued the work of destruction 
to Madison, sixty-nine miles from Atlanta,. To create the im- 
pression that the advance was to be on Augusta, a cavalry force 
was sent to within seventy-five miles of that place. This caused 
the enemy to concentrate a force there. From Madison, the 
Twentieth Corps marched due south to Milledgeville, arriving 
there on the 21st, and the Fourteenth Corps followed on the next 
day, by way of Eatonton. At the time the expedition started 
from Atlanta, the Georgia Legislature was in session at Milledge- 
ville. On the 18th, hearing of the approach of General Howard 
from the west, and General Slocum from the north, the honor- 
able body were struck with panic and consternation, and with 
Governor Brown, fled in haste to Augusta. Cn the 20th, a few 
Federal scouts dashed into the town, which was at once 
surrendered to them by the Mayor. 

Only two or three regiments of Sherman's army were per- 
mitted to enter the town, detailed to do provost guard duty, and 
destroy the public buildings. The magazines, penitentiaiy, arse- 
nals, depot Ibuildings, factories, and storehouses, with a large 
quantity of cotton were destroyed, but the State Capitol, and 
private buildings received no injury. During this time the right 



FEINT ON AUGUSTA. 371 

wing was progressing along the Georgia Railroad, destroying it 
effectually. 

The left wing crossed the river at Milledgeville, on the 24th, 
and moved to Sanderville. The Fourteenth Corps here took the 
left flank of the column, which position it retained during the 
campaign. On the 27th and 28th, hoth wings were temporarily 
encamped between Sanderville and Irwin's Cross Roads, a few 
miles south of the railroad. General Sherman here transferred 
his quarters from the left wing, to the Seventeenth Corps, in the 
right wing. 

General Kilpatrick, wnth his cavalry, on the 2oth, started from 
Milledgeville to Waynesboro, seventy-five miles due east, for the 
purpose of covering the passage of the main body across the 
Ogeechee, and to make a feint on Augusta. One of the main 
objects was to surprise Alillen, and liberate the Union soldiers in 
prison there, but they had been a few days before removed to 
other prisons in Southern Georgia. On the 28th, the Fourteenth 
Corps crossed the Ogeechee, at Fenn's bridge. The Twentieth 
Corps moved by the way of Davisboro. The right wing moved 
south of the railroad, and Wheeler's cavalry fell back steadily 
before them, seeking to delay their movements, and some sharp 
skirmishing occurred on the 28th and 29th with the Federal 
cavalry, near Louisville. Surmising that Augusta was Sherman's 
point of attack, Wheeler turned off" tow\ards that place, to ob- 
struct his advance. General Sherman was thus permitted to 
cross the Ogeechee, unmolested, with the Seventeenth and Twen- 
tieth corps, the Fifteenth Corps remaining on tlie west side of 
the Ogeechee. In order to still further lead the rebels to believe 
that Augusta was his objective point, General Sherman caused a 
strong demonstration to be made in the direction of Waynes- 
boro by the Fourteenth Corps, in connection with Kilpatrick's 
cavalry. During the 1st, 2d and 3d of December, constant skir- 
mishing took place between the Federal and rebel cavalry, the 
latter being gradually pushed towards Waynesboro, where they 
intrenched themselves, from which they were driven by the 
cavalry. The three divisions of the Fourteenth Corps engaged 
in this demonstration, with Kilpatrick's cavalry, united at Jack- 
eonboro, twenty miles east of Millen. The Seventeenth and 
Twentieth corps, advancing along the railroad, reached Millen 



372 MILITAKY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

on the 2d of December. The whole army now pivoting on that 
place, swung round from its eastern course, and moved in paral- 
h^.l columns directly southward, all with the exception of the 
Fifteenth marching down the Peninsula, between the Ogeechee 
and Savannah rivers. • The Fifteenth moved in two columns, on the 
west bank of the Ogeechee, a day's march in advance of the 
main body. The Seventeenth Corps followed the railroad, 
destroying it from Millen downward. General Sherman's feints 
on Augusta had induced the rebels to concentrate a heavy force 
there, too far in the rear to check his onward progress. He was, 
therefore, unmolested until he neared the City of Savannah, 
where he found a line of works stretching from river to river, to 
delay his advance and for the purpose of preventing an attack on 
the Savannah and Gulf Eailroad, which was the main road for 
supplies to the city, a force had been sent across the Ogeechee to 
oppose the progress of the Fifteenth Corps. This corps, how- 
ever, had crossed near Eden, on the 7th, and on the next day, 
General Corse's division was pushed forward, between the Little 
and Big Ogeechee rivers, thirteen miles in advance of the main 
column, to a canal connecting the Ogeechee with the Savannah 
River. Bridging the canal, the division was soon intrenched in 
a strong position on the south side. After a brief resistance, the 
enemy abandoned his advanced lines, and took refuge within the 
fortifications proper in Savannah. Other portions of the Fif- 
teenth Corps went to the support of General Corse, and on the 
9th, a detachment moved forward to the Savannah and Gulf 
Railroad, destroyed the track for several miles, and captured a 
train of eighteen cars, with many prisoners, thus cutting off che 
communications between Savannah and the South. 

AYliile this was being done by the extreme right wing, the 
main body moved south, between the Ogeechee and Savannah. 
Rain had set in, and the swampy regions near the coast became 
impassable, except by bridging the streams and corduroying the 
swamps. Inspired by their continued success, the troops pushed 
forward in spite of these obstacles. On the 9th, the advance 
had reached positions from three to eight miles from Savannah. 
On the" 12th, the army was concentrated in a semi-circle, extend- 
ing from the Savannah River to the Savannah and Gulf Railroad. 
The line was about ten miles long, the extreme left, held by the 



SURRENDER OF SAVANNAH. 373 

Twentieth Corps, being about tliree miles from the city, and the 
extreme right of the Fifteenth Corps was eleven miles distant. 
Next to the Twentieth Corps was the Fourteenth Corps, and on 
its right the Seventeenth. Everywhere they encountered a strong 
line of earthworks, having guns in position, and held apparently 
by a large force. These works were flanked by a series of 
impassable swamps. 

On the 9th, a dispatch was sent by scouts through the lines, 
by General Howard, which reached General Foster, giving the 
firi^t intelligence of General Sherman's army since it left Atlanta. 
General Sherman determined to open communication with the 
fleet through Ossibaw Sound, and therefore took measures to 
reduce Fort McAllister, which commands that body of water. 
On the 12th of December, the attack was made by General 
Hazen's division of the Fifteenth Corps. The assault barely 
occupied twenty minutes, the storming column never wavering 
an instant. As soon as the Fort was taken, General Sherman 
went on board the steam tug Dandelion, and wrote his first dis- 
patch to the Secretary of War, announcing his successful arrival 
near Savannah. Next day he met General Foster and Admiral 
Dahlgreen, and made arrangements for a combined movement 
of the army and fleet, iu the reduction of Savannah. A num- 
ber of transports passed up the river, and several tons of mail 
matter was distributed among the soldiers. The investment of 
the city being complete, on the 16th of December, General Sher- 
man sent in a formal demand of its surrender, which General 
Hardee refused. General Sherman immediately caused his 
heavy guns to be placed in position. Seeing the extent of his 
danger. General Hardee proceeded to destroy the navy yard and 
Government property, while the formidable iron clads, Georgia 
and Savannah, opened fire on the Federal left, supported by sev- 
eral batteries. Under cover of this fire, the garrison was trans- 
ported during the night of the 20th, by steamboats, rowboats 
and rafts, to Union Causeway, and next morning the troops 
were well on their way to Charleston. 

General Sherman entered the city in the morning and received 
its formal surrender from the city authorities, and soon after sent 
the following dispatch to President Lincoln : 



37 i: MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Savannah, Ga., December 22, 1864. 
JJia Excellency, President Lincoln : 

I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the City of Savannah, with one hundred and 
fifty heavy guns, and plenty of ammunition, and also about twenty-five tliousand bales 
of cotton. 

W. T. SHERMAN, Majcn- General. 

The winter campaign tlirougli Georgia, ended with the capture 
of Savannah, just five weeks after the Union army left Atlanta. 

The first part of this extraordinary military movement had 
been successful. It was soon to enter upon another campaign, 
which was destined to prove a final one, ending with the total 
destruction of the rebellion. 

General Geary was appointed the military commander of 
Savannah, the people of which city, evinced a great deal of 
rare common sense in quietly accepting the sudden change in 
their afifairs, and submitting to a return to the protection of the 
old flag. 

During the period of General Sherman's march to Savannah, 
General Hood was tempted to move into Tennessee, and in 
cooperation with General Breckenridge, make an attempt to 
capture ISTashville. On the 21st of ISTovember, he moved his 
army north from the Tennessee River, and on the 23d, took pas- 
session of Pulaski, and on the 26th, occupied Columbia. The 
Federal force, under Thomas, continued to fall back towards 
Nashville. On the 30th, the enemy appeared before Franklin, 
where General Schofield prepared to make a stand. Hood 
divided his forces, one column was to attack Franklin in front, 
while the other moved down Harpeth River to get into the Fed- 
eral's rear. Hood made an attack on Schofield on the 30th, but 
that General managed to hold his own until dusk, and then 
ordered a retreat, continuing which all night, at daylight he 
reached a point seven miles south of Nashville, where General 
A. J. Smith's corps, the Sixteenth, was posted. The Confederate 
flanking column, after crossing the Harpeth River, attacked a 
Federal cavalry brigade, compelling it to retreat ; this force 
reached General Smith's position about the same time as General 
Schofield. The enemy followed up so close and heavy that Gen- 
eral Smith was obliged to abandon his position and fall back to 
the outer line of the intrenchments, three miles from Nashville. 

Great consternation prevailed at Nashville ; business was sus- 
pended ; the citizens and Government laborers were put under 



BATTLE OF NASHVILLE. 375 

arms. General Thomas' army formed in line of battle three 
miles south of the city, the enemy advancing to within two miles 
of Thomas's line. 

Hood now attempted to destroy Thomas' communications with 
Louisville, by cutting the railroad and blockading the Cumber- 
land River, thus compelling Thomas to evacuate Nashville ; he 
also moved back to the Overton Hills, thereby cutting off" Thomas 
from Rosseau, at Murfreesboro, and also cut off Bridgeport and 
Chattanooga. Reinforcements rapidly arrived to General Thomas, 
and he determined to attack Hood in his position. On the 15th 
of December a feint was made on Hood's right and a real attack 
on his left, which drove him from the river to Franklin pike, 
eight miles. A thousand prisoners and two trains of wagons, 
including Chalmer's headquarters train, and sixteen pieces of 
artillery were captured. During the night Hood contracted his 
lines back to the Brentwood hills. The battle was renewed m 
the morning. Steadmau was on the extreme left, Wood connect- 
ing with his right, Garrard's division of A. J. Smith's corps, 
joined with Wood's right, then McArthur, then Colonel Moore 
connecting with Schofield's left; General Cox formed Schofield's 
rig-ht, and Couch his left. "Wilson's cavalry, on Schofield's right, 
was ordered, if possible, to turn the enemy's flank and cut off his 
retreat. Commencing at 10 A. M., in the afternoon the action 
became close and obstinate. About dusk the enemy began to 
give way, and a rout soon followed. They were pursued until 
dark, through the gaps of the hills and along the Franklin pike, 
and some four thousand prisoners were captured. The entire 
loss of the enemy was 13,189 in prisoners, including several gen- 
erals and nearly one thousand officers of lower grades, and sev- 
enty-two pieces of artillery. Two thousand deserters were also 
received. The Federal loss was 10,000 in killed, wounded and 
missing. General Hood retired with his remaining force into 
Alabama. In this battle the Eighth, Fourteenth, and Thirty-third 
Wisconsin were in A. J. Smith's corps ; and the Twenty-fourth 
Wisconsin also participated in the battle. 

This ended the principal military operations in the central divis- 
ion, embracing Kentucky, Tennessee, and Northern Georgia and 
Alabama, as the battle of Nashville was the last action of any 
magnitude which took place in 1864. 



876 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The most prominent military movement in the Central Divis- 
ion, in 1865, was General Wilson's cavalry raid. He left Chick- 
asaw, Ala., on the 22d of March, encountering Forrest's rebel 
cavalry at Ebenezer Church, near Plantersville, Ala., defeating 
him and taking two hundred prisoners. Next, he captured Tus- 
caloosa, and destroyed a large amount of rebel government prop- 
erty. Selma was captured on the 2d of April, with 2,700 prison- 
ers, and a large number of cannon; rolling mills, foundry, 
arsenal, powder works, magazines and railroad cars were 
destroyed. Montgomery w^as surrendered to General Wilson, 
where a large amount ot property was destroyed. Columbus, 
Geo., was taken by assault, capturing 1,200 prisoners, 53 guns, 
100,000 bales of cotton, and immense quantities of ordnance, 
quartermaster and commissary stores. Several important public 
buildings were destroyed. West Point was stormed and taken 
by Colonel La Grange's brigade ; Macon was taken without oppo- 
sition ; here General Wilson received official information of the 
armistice between Generals Sherman and Johnston, after M^hich 
no further important movements took place, except the capture 
of Jeff. Davis, the fugitive Confederate President, by a detach- 
ment of Michigan cavalry, who succeeded in securing the prize, 
after Lieutenant Colonel Harndon and the First Wisconsin 
cavalry had driven him to cover, and was about to capture him. 

As General Sherman had changed his field of operations to the 
Atlantic coast, and his subsequent movements were made in con- 
junction with those of General Grant, we have incorporated our 
narrative of the contination of his march, from Savannah, with 
the military operations of the First Division. 



OHAPTEPv X. 



GENERAL MILITARY OPERATIONS— WESTERN DIVISION. 

Wisconsin Organizations IN Western Division — Battle of Fred- 
ERiCKTON — Pea Ridge — New Madrid — Island No. 10 — Siiiloh — 
Siege of Corinth — Battle of Iuka — Corinth — Bayou Cache — 
Prairie Grove — New Orleans Captured — Vicksburg Bombarded 
in 1862 — Sherman's Attempt — Arkansas Post — Grant's March 
on Vicksburg — Port Gibson — Jackson — Champion Hills — Black 
River — Investment of Vicksburg — Surrender — Jackson — 
Yazoo River — Teche Expedition — Port Hudson Surrenders — 
Little Rock Captured — Second Teche Expedition — Carrion 
Crow Bayou — Texas Expedition — Honey Springs — Battle op 
Helena — Meridian Expedition — Red River Expedition — Fort 
de Russey — Sabine Cross Roads — Pleasant Hill — Cane River 
— Alexandria — General Bailey's Dam — Jenkins' Ferry — 
Price's Raid in Missouri — Fort Morgan — Siege and Capture 
of Mobile. 

THE following "Wisconsin organizations served in the "Western 
Division during the war, viz., Eighth, Ninth, Eleventh, Fonr- 
teenth. Twentieth, Twenty-third, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth, 
Twenty-ninth, Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty- 
ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty-eighth, Forty- 
ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty-second and Fifty -third Infantiy, 
Second, Third and Fourth Cavalry, " Milwaukee Cavalry,' the 
First, Seventh, Ninth and Thirteenth Light Batteries, and Battery 
D, Heavy Artillery. The following were originally assigned to 
the Western Division, but were transferred to the Central Divi- 
sion, viz.. Twelfth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, 
Twenty-fifth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second Infantry, the First 
Cavalry, and Batteries Nos. 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12. 



378 MILITARY HISTORY OP WISCONSIN. 

St. Louis was at an early period of tlie war selected by tlie 
General Government as the headquarters of military affairs in the 
Mississippi valley. 

The action of the State Executive of Missouri in response to 
the call of President Lincoln for 75,000 troops, indicated very 
strongly his secession sympathies, which subsequently prompted 
him to go over to the rebel cause. 

Captain Nathaniel Lyon was, at the time of the outbreak of 
the rebellion, in command of the United States Arsenal at St. 
Louis. By his energy and coolness the State of Missouri was 
prevented from going bodily into the Southern Confederacy. 
The police commissioners were secessionists, and openly opposed 
the National Government, The Governor had authorized the 
formation of camps in the State, the principal one being Camp 
Jackson, near St. Louis. He was known to be a secessionist at heart, 
and this movement was considered an evidence of hostility to 
the Government. Captain Lyon organized a force of " Home 
Guards," principally from the German population of St. Louis, 
under Colonels Blair and Sigel, planted his guns, and compelled 
the surrender of Camp Jackson, by General Frost. All the in- 
terior arrangements of this camp indicated the secession sympa- 
thies of those who were congregated there for organization ; 
many of the men being known to advocate the interest of the 
secessionists, and wearing the distinguishing dress and badge of 
the army of the Southern Confederacy. Arms were also found 
which had been furnished from the stores of the Baton Rouge 
Arsenal, then in the hands of the rebels. 

General Harney soon after arrived, and assumed command, and 
Captain Lyon was appointed General of Missouri Volunteers. 
He commenced active duty by breaking up a Confederate force 
at Potosi, and seizing war material intended for Camp Jackson. 

General Lyon was placed in command of the department on 
the removal of General Harney. Governor Jackson and General 
Price waited on him, and insisted that no United States troops 
should march through or quarter in Missouri, although Confed- 
erate troops had been permitted to do so. Lyon replied that 
United States troops should pass anj^where in the United States, 
and he would oppose every attack, and crush every effort to 



BATTLE OF FKEDERICKTOWN. . 879 

molest til em. ITpon this Governor Jackson withdrew from St. 
Louis and prepared for war. 

General Lyon immediately took the field and issued a procla- 
mation to the citizens of Missouri. He advanced towards Jeffer- 
son City with a small force, and Governor Jackson and General 
Price retired with their secession forces to Booneville, where 
Lyon attacked and routed them on the 17th of June, all their 
tents, aniniunition and supplies falling into his hands. Entering 
Boonvillc, ho issued a proclamation, stating that he should en- 
deavor, with the force at his command, to maintain the authority 
of the National Government at all hazards. 

In the latter part of Judc, General Fremont was ordered to 
take command of the Western Department. 

General Lyon continued his operations against the Confeder- 
ates under Price and Jackson, and on the 10th of August, fought 
the battle of Wilson's Creek, near Springfield, where he lost his 
life, being killed by a rifle ball while leading an Iowa regiment 
that had lost its colonel. 

On the 26th of July, General Fremont arrived at St. Louis, to 
take command of the Western Department, and commenced 
military operations with great vigor. Troops were sent into St. 
Louis from adjoining States, and were encamped there or sent 
into the interior. The emancipation ideas of General Fremont, 
and the alleged extravagance of his military expenditures, was 
made an excuse for his removal, and the command devolved on 
General Hunter. 

General H. W. Halleck took command of the Western 
Department on the 18th of ISTovember. 

No military movements, in which Wisconsin regiments took 
part, were made in Missouri in 1861, except in the battle at 
Frederiektown, on the 21st of October, where the Confederates, 
under General JeiF. Thompson and Colonel Lowe, were attacked 
by a Federal force, under command of Colonel J. B. Plummer, 
of the Eleventh Missouri. The fight continued two hours and 
a-half, when the Confederates were routed along their whole line, 
and compelled to fly, leaving one hundred and seventy killed on 
the field of bnttle, Colonel Lowe being among the number. The 
Eighth Wisconsin, during this engagement, was attached to the 



380 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

command of Colonel Carlin, and was left in tlie town of Frede- 
ricktown to guard tlie rear of the Union forces. It joined in the 
pursuit for twenty-two miles, but not finding the enemy, the 
command returned to Fredericktown. 

The Eighth and Eleventh Regiments were the only Wisconsin 
organizations in Missouri in 1861, except the company of 
" Milwaukee Cavalry." 

The plan of the campaign for 1862, in the Western Depart- 
ment, was a military and naval expedition to proceed from St. 
Louis and Cairo, down the Mississippi River. For this purpose 
the gunboats were originally constructed. They were found of 
sufficient light draft to navigate the Cumberland and Tennessee 
rivers. The expedition down the Mississippi was suspended to 
admit of the reduction of Forts Henry and Donelson, which 
was accomplished early in February, and the enemy was com- 
pelled to fall back along his whole line. Nashville soon after 
was in possession of the National forces, and Columbus, on the 
Mississippi, was evacuated, the enemy moving his military sup- 
plies down the river, and making a stand at Island No. 10. This 
was the situation in Western Kentucky and Tennessee in the 
latter part of February. General Ilalleck was in command of 
the department, with headquarters at St. Louis. The army in 
the field was under the command of General Grant. 

At the beginning of 1862, Wisconsin had but two regiments 
in the field in this department, the Eighth and Eleventh, both 
of which camped during the winter near Sulphur Springs, in the 
neighborhood of St. Louis, A company of cavalry had been 
sent from Wisconsin in the fall of 1861, under Captain Yon 
Deutsch, which had been incorporated into a Missouri regiment 
of cavalry, and was on duty in the State of Missouri. 

The Ninth, Twelfth and Thirteenth regiments were sent in 
January to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The Fourteenth, Fif- 
teenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Infantry, First, 
Second and Third Cavalry, and Batteries No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 
were sent to St. Louis in March, and the Twelfth Battery in 
Aprih These were distributed as follows: — The Fourteenth, 
Sixteenth and Eighteenth Infantry were sent with the expedition 
of General Grant to Pittsburg Landing late in March, the Fif- 
teenth was sent to garrison Bird's Point, opposite Cairo, on the 



ISLAND NUMBER TEN. 381 

Missouri side ; the Seventeentli remained in St. Louis till after 
tlie battle of Sliiloh, when it was also sent to Pittsburg Landing. 
The First Cavalry was sent to Cape Girardeau, the Second 
Cavalry to Springfield, Mo., the Third Cavalry to Fort Leaven- 
worth. The Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Batteries were sent to 
General Pope's command at New Madrid and Island ISTo. 10. 
The Eighth and Ninth P)atteries were sent to Fort Leavenworth, 
the Tenth and Twelfth to Corinth, Miss. 

The battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., was fought by General Curtis 
on the 6th and 7th of March. Wisconsin had one company in 
this battle, the " Milwaukee Cavalry," under Captain Lehman. 

On the 14th of March, a formidable expedition moved from 
Cairo, down the Mississippi River, consisting of gunboats and 
mortar boats. Its object was to cooperate with General Pope iu 
the reduction of the rebel works at Island No. 10 and New 
Madrid. Two transports accompanied the expedition, on which 
w^ere conveyed the Twenty-seventh Illinois Infantry and six com- 
panies of the Fifteenth "Wisconsin, Colonel Heg. The remaining 
companies joined the regiment the last of March. 

Island No. 10 is situated in a bend of the Mississippi River, a 
few miles from New Madrid. The bombardment of Island No. 
10 commenced on the 16th of March, and continued until the 7tli 
of April. A canal was cut across a bend of the river, four miles, 
by which boats could be placed below the enemy's position. 

In February, General Pope marched with an army of forty 
thousand men, and arrived at New Madrid on the 3d of March, 
and found the place defended by five regiments of infantry and 
several companies of artillery. Two earthworks, one mounting 
fourteen and the other seven guns, connected by lines of intrench- 
ments, were found, and six gunboats carrying from four to eight 
heavj^ guns each were anchored along the shore, between the 
upper and lower earthworks. The river was very high, and the 
guns of the boats ranged directly over the bank, thus command- 
ing the approaches to the town for miles with guns of heavy 
calibre. 

His first step was to occupy Point Pleasant, twelve miles below 
New Madrid. The Eighth Wisconsin, Colonel Murphy, was 
stationed near Point Pleasant, in the command of General Plum- 
mer. The men composing the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Batteries 



382 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

were employed in the working of heavy guns in battery on 
the bank of the river during the attack on New Madrid. 
These guns were received from Cairo on the 12th, and were 
placed within eight hundred yards of the main rebel works. 
Opening fire on the 13th, the enemy replied from land and 
water. Several of the gunboats were disabled, and three of the 
heavy guns dismounted on the main work. Convinced that he 
could not hold the town, the Confederate commander evacuated 
the place during the night, in a storm, and crossed over to the 
Kentucky shore, leaving nearly everything behind — twenty- 
three pieces of artillery, magazines, fixed ammunition, and a 
large amount of general army supplies, including horses, mules, 
wagons, etc., sufficient for an army of ten thousand men. 

Possessing these works, General Pope commanded the river 
so as to cut off" all communication with Island No. 10. In order 
to cut oif the retreat of the rebels from Island No. 10, it was 
necessary that General Pope's army should cross the river into 
Tennessee. To do this, the canal was cut as above stated, and 
the boats were drawn through by hand. The gunboats Caron- 
delet and Pittsburg succeeded in running by the rebel batteries, 
and assisted in the crossing of General Pope's forces. As soon 
as that was accomplished, the enemy evacuated the island and 
the batteries on the Kentucky shore. The Confederate force was 
driven back by General Pope until they reached the swamps, 
when they were forced to surrender. About 5000 prisoners were 
taken, and an immense amount of commissary stores, etc., and also 
eleven earth works, with seventy heavy cannon, from 32 to 100 
pounders. The works possessed great strength, and exhibited 
the highest degree of engineering skill. The canal was cut 
through about four miles, under the superintendence of Colonel 
Bissel, by an engineer regiment. The Eighth Wisconsin crossed 
the river with General Pope's forces, and the Fifteenth Regiment 
was left as guard on Island No. 10, Colonel Heg having been 
appointed to command the post. 

The gunboats and mortar boats, under Commodore Foote, con- 
tinued down the river, capturing the rebel forts on the way, de- 
feating the rebel fleet near Memphis, and taking possession of 
that city. Wisconsin had no troops engaged in this movement. 



BATTLE OF PITTSBURG LANDING. 383 

An expedition up the Tennessee river, under General G rant, was 
fitted out, consisting of fifty-seven steamers and two gunl)oats to 
transport and convey the troops. It consisted of five divisions, 
each composed of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The first divis- 
ion was under command of General W. T. Sherman, second, 
under General Ilurlbut, third, under General McClernand, fourth, 
under General Lew Wallace, and fifth under Colonel Launian. 
The transports began to arrive at Savannah on the lltli of 
March. The Tyler and Lexington gunboats were sent up the 
river to Eastport, forty miles above Savannah, to reconnoitre. 
The enemy were found constructing fortifications, and in consid- 
erable force. The rebels were concentrating in and around Co- 
rinth, Miss., which was a great railroad junction and crossing. 
The K'atioual army landed from the transports at Savannah, and 
advanced seven miles to Pittsburg Landing. Corinth, where the 
rebel force was concentrated, was eighteen miles from Pittsburg 
Landing. General Grant's forces lay two or three miles out on 
the road to Corinth ; the advance line was composed of Generals 
Sherman's, Prentiss' and McClernand's divisions ; between them 
and the Landing were the divisions of Generals Hurlbut and 
Wallace ; General Prentiss' division occupied the advance posi 
tion on the Corinth road. But little preparation had been made 
for any defence in case of attack, although the position was an 
exposed one. 

The information that Buell was marching to join General Grant, 
determined the rebels to attack before he should arrive. Beau- 
regard accordingly advanced early in the morning of the 6th of 
April, driving in the pickets of General Prentiss, which were com- 
posed, in part, of three or four companies of the Sixteenth Wis- 
consin, which regiment, with the Eighteenth Wisconsin, was 
brigaded in General Prentiss' division. The onslaught of the 
rebels was so overwhelming that they appeared in Prentiss' camps 
as soon as the pickets. General Prentiss fell back, with his forces 
fighting from position to position, till finally the rebels succeeded 
in nearly surrounding him, when, considering further resistance 
useless, he surrendered with about two thousand of his men, 
among them nearly two hundred of the Eighteenth Wisconsin, 
whose colonel and major were amongst the killed. The Six- 
teenth also suflered very severely, although it fought through the 



384 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

first day and part of the next. The full details of the battle of 
Shiloh are interesting, but we confine our narrative to the portion 
where our Wisconsin regiments were engaged. 

The Fourteenth Wisconsin, Colonel Wood, was at Savannah 
during the fight on Sunday, but came up during the night, and 
were temporarily placed in the brigade of Colonel Smith, of 
Kentucky. They fought splendidly during the second day of 
the fight. General Buell's forces arrived at the Landing on the 
evening of the 6th, and took a prominent part in the battle of 
the next day, in which the enemy was completely routed and 
driven into his intrenchments at Corinth. 

General Halleck arrived a few days after the battle, to take 
command of the army. The state of the roads delayed for some 
days any movement of importance. General Pope arrived at 
Pittsburg Landing on tlie 22d of April, with 25,000 troops. Gen- 
eral Grant 's army formed the right wing. General Buell's the 
centre, and General Pope's the left wing. On the 8th of May, 
General Halleck' s army of 108,000 men were within eight miles 
of Corinth. 

General Paine was sent to Farmington with his division, on 
the 3d of May, and encountered a force of 4,500 Confederates, 
who were attacked and defeated, with a loss of 30 killed, and 
200 prisoners. The Eighth Wisconsin Infantry, and the Fifth 
Wisconsin Battery, took part in this battle. 

Corinth was invested by General Halleck's forces, who ad- 
vanced very slowly, so that it was the 30th of May, before the 
advanced guard was able to occupy it. The enemy had evacu- 
ated the position after removing all his troops, and an immense 
amount of stores. In the siege of Corinth, the Eighth, Six- 
teenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Wisconsin regiments, and 
the Fifth and Sixth batteries took part. The retreating rebels 
were pursued by a portion of General Pope's command, as far as 
Baldwin and Guntown, where the pursuit terminated on the 
10th of June. General Halleck was called to Washing'ton to 
act as General in Chief, and General Pope to the command of 
the Army of Virginia, near Washington, in the month of July, 
and General Grant was appointed to the command of the 
Department of West Tennessee. 



BATTLE OF CORINTH. 385 

The rebels made no furtlicr demonstration in tliat section until 
September,\vhen tliej^ advanced on Tuscumbia,wliicli was occupied 
by the Second Brigade, of General Stanley's division, command- 
ed by Colonel Murphy of the Eighth Wisconsin. On their 
advance, Colonel Murphy evacuated the place, and retired thii-ty 
miles to luka. Here Colonel Murphy was attacked on the 12th, and 
compelled to evacuate the place on the 14th, retiring to Farmington. 

The battle of luka was fought on the 19th of September, b}^ 
General Hamilton, and Generals Price and Van Dorn were com- 
pletely routed. The Eighth Wisconsin, and Twelfth Wisconsin 
Battery were present at this battle. 

The next movement of the rebels was on Corinth. Immedi- 
ately after the battle of luka, the rebel Generals Price and Van 
Dorn, perfected their arrangements for an assault on Corinth, 
and on the 3d of October, they made a simultaneous attack on 
the whole Federal line. General Kosecrans was in command 
at Corinth, and had for several days, been occupied in making 
preparations to receive the rebels. The old rebel fortifications 
were made use of in some particulars. The rebels came on in 
a wedge like form at an impetuous charge. They extended to 
the right and left, and approached, covering the whole ground. 
In the meantime the Federal batteries were sweeping their ranks 
with a terrible fire. Without stopping, the ranks closed up 
and the mass moved on, insensible to fear and the terrible fire, 
until they reached Rosecrans' headquarters. A portion of General 
Davies' division falling back in disorder. Fort Richardson was in 
danger of falling into their hands, when the Fifty-sixth Illinois, 
rising from cover in a ravine, fired a deadly volley, and with a 
shout, made a charge, which the foe in their front could not 
withstand, and they accordingly fled. On the left General Van 
Dorn made the attack, which was bloody and desperate. He 
was finally repulsed. General Hamilton, of Wisconsin, com- 
manded on the right of the Union army. By his skill, and the 
judicious management of his troops. General Hamilton was in- 
strumental in defeating the rebels, and driving tljem from their 
position in the town, which they had succeeded in reaching dur- 
ing the first day's fight, by the discomfiture of Davies' troops in 
the centre. His troops on the second day, fought gallantly, 
defeating the rebels at all points. 
25 



386 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Ill this battle, the Eighth, Fourteenth, Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth, and Eighteenth Wisconsin infantry regiments, and the 
Sixth, Tenth and Twelfth batteries were engaged. 

The Confederates retreated by the Chewalla road, crossing the 
Tnscumbia River at Pocahontas. They sent a force to Hatchie 
Bridge, to protect it. Generals Ord and Hurlbut moved down 
and encountered this detachment and defeated it, capturing a 
large number of prisoners and twelve guns. 

On the 4th of ISTovember, General Grant's forces advanced 
from Jackson and Bolivar, to LaGrange, three miles east of 
Grand Junction, the rebels rallying at Cold "Water and Holly 
Springs. On the 28th, General Hamilton's corps moved in the 
direction of Holly Springs, and entered it on the 29th. Gen- 
eral Grant's forces soon after encamped at Lumpkin's Mills, 
seven miles north of the Tallahatchie River. The Confederate 
force had retired to that stream. Fortifications were erected, 
but through fear of being attacked in the rear by General Curtis, 
General Van Born, on the 1st of Becember, abandoned the 
position, and retired further south. On the 4th, General Grant's 
headquarters were at Oxford, and the main body at Abbeville. 
The rebels fell back towards Grenada. An expedition from 
Helena, under General A. P. Hovey, moved from that place on the 
2Tth of IsTovember, to operate on the Tallahatchie. In this 
movement a portion of the Second Wisconsin cavalry was en- 
gaged under Colonel AYashburn, defeating a cavalry force near 
Oakland, killing five, and wounding several, and taking fifty 
prisoners. 

An attack was made by Van Born in General Grant's rear, 
to cut off his supplies. On the 20th of Becember, a cavalry 
force surprised Holly Springs, thirty miles north of Grant's head- 
quarters, and took the garrison prisoners. The immense stores 
for Grant's army were destroj'ed besides a large quantity of cot- 
ton. For surrendering this post. Colonel Murphy of the Eighth 
Wisconsin, who was in command at the time, was cashiered. 
Similar attacks were made along the line of the railroad from 
Columbus to Corinth, in order to cut off Grant's supplies. As a 
consequence, General Grant fell back to Holly Springs. 

Tbe object of General Grant in making a southward movement 
at this time, was to reach Jackson in the rear of Vicksburg, 



BATTLE OF BAYOU CACHE. 387 

while General Sherman shonld descend the Mississippi to attack 
Yickshurg. Forces were collecting at Cairo and Memphis at the 
close of the year, for the expedition down the river under Gen- 
eral Sherman. General Grant, however, was obliged to abandon 
the idea of getting in the rear of Vicksburg by the route he at 
first contemplated, because of the severance of his communica- 
tions, and the destruction of his supplies at Holly Springs, on 
the 20th of December. A division of his troops, however, 
were sent to General Sherman frc^m Ilolty Springs. 

In March, of 1862, an expedition left the south part of the 
State of Missouri under General Steele, to march south into 
Arkansas, to make a conjunction with General Curtis, who was 
to march from the northwest corner of the State to Helena. In 
this expedition under General Steele, the Eleventh was attached 
to the brigade of Colonel Ilovey. Marching by way of Black 
River to Batesville and Jacksonport, on White River, and pass- 
ing Augusta, the Eleventh Regiment participated in a severe 
fight with the rebels near Bayou Cache, losing four killed, and 
twenty wounded. The expedition succeeded in reaching Helena 
on the 11th of July, having passed through an unhealthy country 
difficult to traverse, and subsisting much of the time on half 
rations. 

A "Great Southwestern Expedition" was projected to start 
from Leavenworth, Kansas, under the command of General Jim 
Lane. In this expedition, the Ninth, Twelfth, and Thirteenth 
"Wisconsin Infantry, and the Eighth Battery were engaged. 
They marched to Fort Scott, where they remained a short time, 
and returned to Kansas on the abandonment of the expedition. 
The ■N'inth Regiment was afterwards attached to the " Indian 
Expedition," and was subsequently posted in Missouri, where it 
performed important services during the year 1862. The Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Wisconsin, were transferred to Tennessee in the 
summer of 1862. The Third Cavalry was placed on duty in 
Kansas, and was attached to the " Army of the Frontier," under 
General Blunt. 

The Twentieth Wisconsin was sent to Missouri in August, of 
1862, and joined General Herron's brigade in the Army of the 
Frontier, and did splendid service at the Battle of Prairie Grove, 
in Arkansas, on the 6th of December, as also did the ISTinth 



388 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

"Wisconsin, and a portion of the Second and Third Wisconsin 
cavahy. 

In September, 1861, an expedition was projected to take pos- 
session of Ship Island, as a point in the gulf of Mexico, f6r the 
concentration of a force, ultimately designed to cooperate with 
the fleet under Commodore Farragut, for the capture? of New 
Orleans. General Butler was authorized to enlist troops for this 
expedition soon after his return from the expedition to Hatteras 
Inlet. After much delay, the first troops were embarked at Bos- 
ton, on the 19th of November, on transports, arriving at Ship 
Island on the 3d of December. 

Additional troops were sent from- time to time, during the 
winter, until a force was accumulated sufficient to begin the 
campaign against New Orleans. Among these troops was the 
Fourth Wisconsin Regiment which embarked from Newport 
News, on the 6th of March, 1862, and arrived at Ship Island on 
the 12th. 

In February, Captain Farragut arrived at Ship Island, com- 
missioned to the command of the blockading squadron of the 
Gulf, and was specially charged with the reduction of the forts 
below New Orleans, in conjunction with General Butler, who 
had been appointed to the command of the Department of the 
Gulf. A fleet of bomb vessels under command of D. D. Porter, 
was placed under his control, with which his fleet were to 
cooperate, sailing up the Mississippi River, reducing the defences 
which the rebels might have erected to dispute the passage, and 
appearing before New Orleans, to take possession of it under the 
guns of his fleet, and to keep possession of it until the troops 
should arrive. AVithout entering into the particulars of the 
expedition, we here state that forts St. Philip and Jackson, were 
passed by the fleet, and New Orleans taken possession of on 
the 25th of April. The Forts surrendered on the 29th. Gen- 
eral Butler was placed in command, and held possession, 
and the fleet proceeded up the river to Baton Rouge and 
Natchez. The advance of the fleet reached Vicksburg on 
the 18th of May, and demanded its surrender, whicli was 
received with a defiant refusal. Troops arrived under the com- 
mand of General Williams, among whom were the Fourth Wis- 
consin Regiment, Colonel Paine. After a week's bombardment. 



FIRST ATTACK ON VICKSBURG. 389 

tins expedition was abandoned, and the fleet and transports 
moved down tlie river to Baton Rouge. On the 16th of June, 
the fleet, mortar boats and troops again ascended the river to 
Vicksburg, and a second bombardment was commenced gn the 
26th of June. 

The main part of the fleet succeeded in passing by the batteries 
at Vicksburg and got above the city. The hxnd force was found 
to be insuthcient to cooperate in the attack. An expedition 
went up the Yazoo River, consisting of the gunboats Carondelet 
and Tyler, and the ram Queen of tlie West, strengthened by 
sharpshooters from the army. At the mouth of the river the 
rebel ram Arkansas was encountered, and a fierce fight ensued. 
A shell from the enemy fell on board the Tyler, and exploded 
killing Captain Lynn, of Compan}^ I, Fourth Wisconsin, and 
five others belonging to the regiment, they having been detached 
in a squad of twenty to act as sharpshooters on the gunboat. 
The attack on Vicksburg was finally abandoned on account of 
the low water which impeded the operations of the heavy draft 
vessels of the fleet. 

General Williams commenced a canal across the " Cutoff"," but 
finally abandoned the project. The fleet returned to ISTew Orleans 
and the Fourth Regiment remained at Baton Rouge where it 
took part in the battle with the forces of Breckenridge, on the 
5th of August. On the evacuation of the place on the 21st of 
August, the regiment returned to the vicinity of 'New Orleans, 
remaining there until December, when it moved with General 
Banks' army, and again took possession of Baton Rouge. 

The most important operation in 1863, in the Western Depart- 
ment, was the capture of Vicksburg by the forces of General 
Grant, on the 4th of July. This event was really the turning 
point in the fortunes of the Confederacy, We have before 
stated that the original project of General Grant was to march 
to Jackson, Mississippi in the rear of Vicksburg, while General 
Sherman attacked the place from the Mississippi River. The 
disaster at Holly Springs, by which all the supplies of his army 
fell into the Jiands of the enemy, frustrated this plan and com- 
pelled him to fall back to secure his communications. This left 
the Confederate General Pemberton to concentrate his forces at 
A'icksburg to resist General Sherman. The difficulties surrounding 



390 MILITARY HISTOBT OF WISCONSIN. 

the army of General Grant, in West Tennessee, growing out 
of the rainy season, the destruction of the raih'oads, and the 
impossibility of making an advance on that line, without adequate 
supplies in the rear, induced General Grant to withdraw his 
forces for the purpose of joining General Sherman in his attack 
on Vickshurg. A division of his army was sent to General 
Sherman in December. 

General Sherman commenced his movement on Yicksburg on 
the 20th of December, 1862. Embarking with one division, he 
dropped down to Friar's Point, below Helena, the place of ren- 
dezvous, where he was joined by Admiral Porter in his flagship, 
with two gunboats to act as convoy. The main body of the naval 
force was at the mouth of the Yazoo Kiver. Troops from 
Helena also arrived. Embarking next day, the expedition ar- 
rived at the mouth of the Yazoo River, twelve miles above 
Vicksburg. Moving up the Yazoo, the troops were landed at 
different points from the mouth of Old River to Johnson's Farm. 
It was the design of General Sherman to attack Yicksburg in the 
rear. The bluffs on which Vicksburg is built extend from a 
little below the city in a northerly direction to the Yazoo River 
terminating in Haines' Bluff, about twelve miles above the 
town. They were fortified their whole length. A short distance 
above where the troops landed, the Chickasaw Bayou puts out 
from the river at nearly right angles until it approaches the 
bluffs, where it turns and follows their base until it empties into 
the Mississippi, just above Vicksburg. The bottom land of the 
Yazoo is covered with a dense growth of cypress, interspersed 
with heavy undergrowth, though much of it is quite clear. The 
force of General Sherman consisted of four divisions under 
Generals Morgan, M. L. Smith, A. J. Smith, and Steele. To the 
division of General Morgan, the First "Wisconsin Battery, Cap- 
tain Foster, was attached and took part in the expedition. The 
Twenty-third Wisconsin was also present in the line of battle. 

The enemy's works were attacked by a portion of the force 
under General Blair. The unexpected strength of the position 
of the enemy, and the failure of General Grant to attack in the 
rear, while Sherman moved in front, disconcerted the whole plau 
as originally made. The causes of General Grant's failure we have 
before stated. The force of General Sherman was considered 



BATTLE OF ARKANSAS POST. 391 

sufficient to assault the rebel works on the crest, but it was 
thought that they could not hold it. General Sherman therefore, 
withdrew his forces, and on the 2d of January, 1863, embarked, 
and moved down to the mouth of the Yazoo, where General 
McClernand had arrived with forces from Cairo. 

A new department had been created called the " Department 
of the Mississippi," and General McClernand appointed to its 
command. General Sherman relinquished his command of the 
right wing of the " Army of the Tennessee," as his army had 
before been known, and General McClernand assumed command 
of the " Army of the Mississippi," which was composed of the 
two army corps of Generals Sherman and Morgan. 

An expedition had been planned by General Sherman, with 
the cooperation of the gunboats, against Arkansas Post, or Fort 
Hindman. General McClernand, Sherman's successor, approved 
of the enterprise. On the 9th of January, three ironclads, with 
the light draft gunboats, moved up the White River, followed by 
a fleet of transports. Among the forces engaged in this expedi- 
tion, was the Twenty-third Wisconsin, Colonel Guppy, and the 
First Wisconsin Battery. Ascending aboat fifteen miles, the 
fleet passed through the " Cut-ofl:'," which unites the waters of the 
White with Arkansas River, about eight miles in length. Near 
the junction with the Arkansas, is the fort known as " Arkansas 
Post," or Fort Hindman. 

The troops were under the command of General McClernand, 
who informed the fleet that the army was ready to move at noon, 
on the 11th of January, and a joint attack was made. The gun- 
boats approached the fort, which opened upon them. The fire 
was returned by the fleet, with the assistance of the field batte- 
ries, among which the right section of the First Wisconsin Bat- 
tery, under Lieutenant Webster, did splendid service. While 
this cannonading was proceeding, the fort was invested by the 
land forces and a severe engagement ensued. The Twenty-third 
Wisconsin was in the engagement, behaving admirably, and re- 
ceiving the thanks of their division and brigade commanders. 
The fight continued until 4, P. M., when the rebels raised a 
white flag. A rush was made to occupy the fort and the 
surrender was complete. 



392 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

Soon after the capture of Arkansas Post, an expedition of liglit 
draft steamers, under tlie command of General Gorman, was 
sent up the White River over a hundred miles, capturing the 
towns of Des Arc and Duvall's Bluffs. Des Arc was a small 
town about fifty miles northeast of Little Rock. Duvall's Bluff", 
a little below, on White River, was the station of a Confederate 
camp, protected by earthworks. St. Charles, another town on the 
river, between Arkansas Post and Duvall's Bluff", was captured, 
and the Twenty-eighth Wisconsin, Colonel Lewis, was left -in 
charge of the post, while the expedition proceeded to Duvall's 
Bluff", in which the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, Colonel Gill, took 
part. 

General ]McClernand returned with a portion of his troops to 
Napoleon, where he was met, on the 18th of January, by General 
Grant, and future movements were arranged in consultations 
wuth General Sherman and others. General McClernand imme- 
diately ordered a concentration of his forces at Young's Point, 
which is about nine miles above Vicksburg, on the western side 
of the Mississippi River, and nearly opposite the mouth of the 
Yazoo. 

The army of General Grant, which had been concentrated at 
Memphis, was transported to Young's Point on the 20th of 
January, General Grant arriving on the 2d of February, and 
assuming command. The Army of the Tennessee had reached 
Young's Point, except General Logan's division and the troops 
occupying the posts in West Tennessee. 

On investigation, General Grant arrived at the conclusion that 
Vicksburg could only be turned from the south side, and accord- 
ingly ordered work to commence on the canal begun by General 
Williams the year before, at the first attempt to capture the city. 
The high water prevented the final completion of this project, 
and it was ultimately abandoned. 

Soon after commencing this work, General Grant caused a 
canal to be cut from the Mississippi into Lake Providence, on 
the west side of the river, with the idea that a practicable route 
by Bayou Baxter and Bayou Macon, to the Tensas, Wachita and 
Rod rivers, might be established, which would enable him to 
cooperate with General Banks. Another channel was cut from 
the Mississippi, on the east side, into the Coldwater River, by 



YAZOO PASS EXPEDITION. 393 

the Yazoo Pass. From the Coklwater, he expected to get into 
the Tallahatchie, from thence into the Yazoo River, where the 
enemy had a number of transports and also gunboats building. 
These he proposed to destroy, by sending an expedition in light 
gunboats and transports. 

This " Yazoo Pass Expedition," as it is known in history, was 
to be composed of McPherson's Se^^enteenth Army Corps and a 
division each from the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Army Corps. A 
sufficient number of light draft boats could not be found, and 
the expedition was reduced to one division only from the Thir- 
teenth Army Corps, commanded by Brigadier General Poss, and 
two Missouri regiments as sharpshooters. In this expedition, 
the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Wisconsin regiments of 
infantr}^ and Twelfth Wisconsin battery were engaged. The 
expedition penetrated to the Coklwater, from thence to Fort Pem- 
berton, with no great difficulty in the navigation. Fort Pember- 
ton extends from the Tallahatchie to the Yazoo river. The sur- 
rounding grounds were overflowed, and no movement of the 
troops could take place. The gunboats were unable to silence 
the guns of Fort Pemberton, and after several hours trial, they 
withdrew. General Quimby, after this, took command, and the 
expedition finally withdrew, without effecting its object, and the 
forces operating in that direction were ordered to concentrate at 
Miliken's Bend. While the above expedition was in progress, 
another expedition, under Admiral Porter, attempted to reach 
Fort Pemberton, up the Yazoo River to Cypress Bayou, thence 
to Steele's Bayou, through Cypress Lake to Little Black Fork, 
thence into Deer Creek. This expedition failed for the want of 
sufficient knowledge of what would be required to open the 
route. With this expedition. General Sherman was sent with 
one division of troops. This is known as the " Steele's Bayou 
Expedition." 

The plan of transporting the troops past the batteries of Vicks- 
burg, by means of the canal across the Bend having been 
defeated, and it being de?med impossible for the transports to 
run the batteries by the river. General Grant endeavored to find 
some other means of transit through the bayous between Miliken's 
Bend and Carthage. Men were set to work, and three di-cdge 
boats were used, so that the work progressed rapidly. One 



394 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

small steamer and several barges were taken througli tlie channel 
tlius opened, but the river, about the middle of April, began to 
fall, and the roads becoming passable between Miliken's Bend 
and ISTew Carthage, made it impracticable and unnecessary to 
open water communication between these points. As soon as 
General Grant determined to open water communication with 
New Carthage, he concluded to occupy that place, it being the 
first point below Vicksburg which could be reached by land. 
The Thirteenth Army Corps, under General McClernand, was 
accordingly ordered to take up its line of march on the 29th day 
of March, for New Carthage, to be followed by the Fifteenth 
and Seventeenth Army Corps, moving no faster than supplies 
and ammunition could be transported to them. The roads, 
though level, were exceedingly bad, and the movement was, there- 
fore, necessarily slow. Arriving within two miles of New Carth- 
age, it was found that the levee of Bayou Yidal was broken up in 
several places, and that New Carthage was an island. Boats 
could not be had in sufficient numbers to cross the bayou, and a 
new route, therefore, had to be found. A further march of 
twelve miles was made around the bayou, to Perkins' Plantation, 
making a distance of thirty-five miles from Miliken's Bend, to 
reach water communication on the opposite side. Over this 
distance, with bad roads, ordnance stores and provisions had to 
be hauled in wagons, with which to commence the campaign on 
the opposite side of the river. 

As these movements were being made by land, three trans- 
ports were run past the batteries. They were struck by the rebel 
shots, but two of them passed through safely, the other was set 
on fire by a rebel shell and burnt. Six more transports were 
runpastthe batteries, five of them successfully, although somewhat 
damaged, the other was sunk by a rebel shot. These boats were 
manned by volimteers from the army. Twelve barges, loaded 
with forage and rations, were sent down, attached to these six 
transports, one-half of which got through in a condition fit to be 
used. 

The route of travel had to be extended to Hard Times, which 
by the circuitous route, it was necessary to take, increased the 
distance to seventy miles. The Thirteenth Army Corps being 
through to the Mississippi, as much of it as could be, was 



BATTLE OF PORT GIBSON. 395 

embarked on the transports and barges, and moved down to tbe 
front of Grand Gulf, on tbe 29tb of April, The gunboats were 
to silence tlie guns of the enemy, and the troops were to land 
under cover of the gunboats, and carry the place by storm. 
The navy made tbe attack at 8 o'clock, A. M., and kept it up 
for more than five hours, in the most gallant manner. It became 
evident to General Grant, who witnessed the contest from a tug 
boat, that the fortifications were too strong to be taken from the 
water side, he therefore, determined again to run the enemy's 
batteries, and turn his position by landing at Bruinsburg or 
Rodney, still further below. Orders were given for the troops 
to debark at Hard Times, in Louisiana, and march across to the 
point immediately below Grand Gulf, An attack was again 
made by the gunboats, and all the transports run by, receiving 
but two or three shots in the passage, and these without injury. 

General Grant had learned from a negro, that a good road 
existed from Bruinsburg to Port Gibson, he accordingly deter- 
ined to land there. The Thirteentb Corps was ferried across to 
Bruinsburg next day, the gunboats and transports being uSed 
for that purpose. As soon as landed, being furnished with three 
days' rations, they started for Port Gibson, General Grant deem- 
ing it of vast importance that the highlands should be reached 
without resistance. The Seventeenth Corps followed as rapidly 
as possible. 

The Eleventh "Wisconsin, Colonel Harris, Twenty-third Wis- 
consin, Colonel Guppy, Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, Colonel Gill, 
were brigaded in the Thirteenth Army Corps. Tbe Eleventh 
and Twenty-ninth, took part in the battle at Port Gibson; the 
division in which the Twenty-third was brigaded, was held in 
reserve until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The Twenty-ninth was 
highly complimented for its gallantry in this its first engagement. 
The First Wisconsin Battery was also engaged at Port Gibson. 
The Sixth and Twelfth Wisconsin Batteries were also attached 
to the Thirteenth Corps. The Fourteenth, Seventeenth and 
Eigbteenth Wisconsin Infantry were attached to the Seventeenth 
Corps, General McPherson. 

About 2 o'clock, on the 1st of May, the advance of the enemy 
was met eight miles from Bruinsburg, on the road to Port Gib- 
son, and was forced to fall back. The enemy had taken possession 



396 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

of the forks of the road leading to Port Gibson. The nature 
of the ground was such that a small force could retard the pro- 
gress of a much larger one for many hours. The divisions of 
Hovey, Carr, and Smith, succeeded in driving the enemy from 
position to position, back towards Port Gibson steadily all day, 
Osterhaus on the left, was unable to force the enemy back, until 
reinforced by General Smith's brigade of Logan's division of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps, when a position was obtained which 
soon drove the enemy from that part of the field. 

Sleeping on their arms during the night, it was found the next 
morning, that the enemy had retreated across Bayou Pierre, on 
the Grand Gulf road, and a brigade of Logan's division was sent 
to divert his attention, while a bridge was being built across the 
Bayou. Tliis being completed, McPherson's corps marched 
eight miles to the north fork of the Bayou, that stream being 
also bridged, the Seventeenth Army Corps passed over, the next 
morning. On the 3d the enemy were pursued to Hawkinson's 
Ferry, with sligl\t skirmishing all day, in which many prisoners 
were taken. 

General Grant being notified of the evacuation of Grand Gulf, 
with a cavalry escort of twenty men, returned to that place and 
made it his base of supplies. 

In order to divert the attention of the enemy from General 
Grant's movements near Grand Gulf, General Sherman, with 
his Fifteenth Corps, was ordered to make a demonstration on 
Haines' Blufi:', north of Vicksburg. This was done, and the 
rebels were kept well employed on that side of the city, La the 
Fifteenth Corps, the Eighth Wisconsin was located. 

General Grant's intentions was to collect all his forces at 
Grand Gulf, and accumulate an ample supply of provisions and 
ordnance stores before moving, and to detach an army corps 
to cooperate with General Banks, and unite in the reduction 
of Port Hudson, which being accomplished, that Genex'al would 
be able to join him with 12,000 men. He however, had leax'ned 
that the enemy were expecting troops from other States to con- 
gregate at Jackson, under the command of Beauregard, which 
would not permit of the delay necessary to the capture of Port 
Hudson. General Grant therefore determined to move forward 
at once. Waiting at Hawkinson's Ferry for wagons, supplies, 



BATTLE OF JACKSON. 397 

and General Sherman's corps to join him, demonstrations were 
made so as to deceive the enemy as to the route which lie 
intended to pursue. The Fifteenth Corps joined General Grant 
on the 7th of May. 

On the 7tli of May, McPherson's corps began the advance, 
keeping the road nearest Bhack River to Rocky^ Springs, McClern- 
and's corps keeping the Ridge Road from Willow Springs, and 
Sherman following with his corps divided on the two roads. The 
ferries were closely guarded. The destination of McClernand's 
and Sherman's corps was a point on the railroad from Yicksburg 
to Jackson, between Edwai'ds' Station and Bolton, McPherson 
was to move by way of Utica to Raymond, and from there to 
Jackson, destroying the railroad, telegraph, and public stores. 
McPherson met the enemy near Raymond, and after several 
hours hard fighting, drove him with heavy loss in killed, wounded 
and prisoners. The Twelfth Wisconsin Battery was in this fight 
at Raymond. 

The enemy retreated towards Jackson, where it was reported 
that reinforcements,were daily arriving, and that General John- 
ston was to take command. General Grant, therefore, deter- 
mined to capture Jackson, and destroy the force there, and thus 
prevent reinforcements reaching General Pemberton, who was 
cooped up in Yicksburg. He accordingly changed his orders to 
Sherman and McClernand, and their army corps were put en 
route for that place. The latter named General moved to a 
point near Raymond, while Sherman and McPherson proceeded 
with their forces to attack Jackson. On the 14th of May, after 
marching fourteen miles, they came in contact with the enemy 
near that place, about 12 o'clock, M. 

McClernand occupied Clinton with one division, Mississippi 
Springs with another, Raymond with a third, and his Fourth 
Division, and Blair's division of Sherman's corps, with a wagon 
train in the rear, were near I^ew Auburn, while McArthur, with 
one brigade of his division of McPherson's corps, was moving 
towards Raymond on the Utica road. These forces were to be 
held as supports in case the resistance at Jackson should prove 
obstinate. 

The enemy marched out about two and a -half miles, and 
engaged McPherson's corps. The strength of the enemy was 



398 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

soon ascertained by Sherman's sconts, and skirmishers drove 
the enemy to their rifle pits just outside the city. Two divisions 
of McPherson's corps engaged the main force of the enemy. 
The discovery of their weakness by General Sherman induced 
the enemy to retreat from that part of the line in his front. On 
entering the city, it was found that the main body of the enemy 
had retreated north, after a heavy engagement of two hours with 
McPherson's corps, in which they were badly beaten, and were 
pursued until night. The Eighth and Eighteenth "Wisconsin 
Infantry and Sixth Wisconsin Battery were engaged in the attack 
on Jackson. 

During the evening, a bearer of dispatches from Johnston to 
Pemberton was captured, on whom was found an order from 
Johnston to the latter general, instructing him peremptorily to 
march out from Vicksburg and attack the rear of General Grant's 
forces. General Grant immediately ordered Generals McCler- 
nand and Blair, of Sherman's corps, to face their troops towards 
Bolton, with a view to reaching Edwards' Station, marching on 
different roads converging near Bolton. McPherson was ordered 
to retrace his steps early on the morning of the 15th, on the 
Clinton road. Sherman was left at Jackson to finish the destruc- 
tion of everything valuable to the enemy. The Eighth Regiment 
acted as provost guard. Lieutenant Colonel Jefferson being 
appointed Provost Marshal. 

On the 15th, General McClernand was ordered to move his 
corps early next morning towards Edwards' Station, with a view 
to feel the enemy, but not to bring on an engagement, unless he 
was confident he could defeat them. Blair was also ordered to 
move with him. 

From information received from prisoners, it was ascertained 
that Pemberton's force amounted to 25,000 men. General Grant 
also ascertained the position of the enemy, and his intention to 
attack the rear of his army. General Sherman's whole force at 
Jackson was sent for, to move with all possible speed until he 
came up with the main force at Bolton. His advance division 
was in motion in one hour from the time of receiving the dis- 
patch. Blair was instructed to push forward with his division in 
the direction of Edwards' Station with all possible dispatch. 



BATTLE OF CHAMPION HILLS. 399 

McPherson was ordered forward at 5.40, A. M., to join McCler- 
nand. At the crossing of the Jackson and Vicksburg Raih-oad 
with the road from Raymond to Bolton, McPherson, with his 
pioneers, were engaged in rebuilding a bridge, when General 
Grant overtook him, and finding the road blocked with Hovey's 
division train, peremptorily ordered all quartermasters and 
wagonmasters to draw their teams to one side and make room 
for the passage of troops. This done, McPherson's corps resum- 
ed their march. At the front, Hovey's division of the Thirteenth 
Army Corps was at a halt, with his skirmishers and the enemy's 
pickets near each other. Hovey was bringing his troops into 
line ready for battle when General Grant appeared on the ground, 
and took a surve}" of affairs. The enemy had taken up a very 
strong position on a narrow ridge, his left resting on a height 
where the road makes a sharp turn to the left approaching 
Vicksburg. The top of the ridge and the precipitous hillside to 
the left of the road were covered b}?^ a dense forest and under- 
growth. To the right of the road the timber extended a short 
distance down the hill and it then opened into cultivated fields on 
a gentle slope and into a valley extending for a considerable dis- 
tance. On the road and in the wooded ravine and on the hillside, 
Hovey's division was disposed for the attack. McPherson's two 
divisions — all of his corps with him on the march from Miliken's 
Bend, until Ransom's brigade arrived that day, after the battle — 
were thrown to the right of the road. 

McClernand was advancing with four divisions, but was yet 
some two and a-half miles to the left of Hovey's division. The 
commanding general sent couriers to hurry him up. The battle, 
however, began in earnest about 11 o'clock, and was fought alone 
by Hovey's division for some time, but the enemy being found 
too strong for him. General Grant sent two brigades of Crocker's 
division of McPherson's corps to his aid. Logan's division was 
also aiding Hovey in the attack, and getting to the enemy's rear, 
compelled him to retreat, after a terrible contest of several hours, 
with a heavy loss of killed, wounded and prisoners, and a number 
of pieces of artillery. 

Carr and Osterhaus, of McClernand's corps, did not arrive in 
time to participate in the battle, but took part in pursuit of the 
enemy to Black River. 



400 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

In tlie battle of Champion Hills, or Baker's Creek, on the IPtli 
of May, the Eleventh Wisconsin was in the reserve in Carr'a 
division ; the Fourteenth and Seventeenth v^ere with Eansora's 
brigade, but did not arrive until the fight was over; the Eigh- 
teenth, Twenty-third and Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry par- 
ticipated actively in the fight, as did also the Sixth and Twelfth 
Wisconsin Batteries ; the First Battery was also present. 

The battle of Champion Hills, or Baker's Creek, was fought 
mainly by Hovey's division of McClernand's corps, and Logan's 
and Quimby's divisions, (the latter commanded by Brigadier 
General M. M. Crocker,) of McPherson's corps. After the 
engagement, orders were sent to General Sherman to march with 
his corps towards Bridgeport,which lies a short distance directly 
north of Edwards' Depot, and General Blair was ordered to join 
him at that place. 

At daylight, on the 17th, the pursuit was renewed with 
McClernand's corps in advance. The enemy was found strongly 
posted on both sides of Black River. On the west side of the 
river, the blufifs extended to the water's edge. On the east side 
is an open cultivated bottom of near one mile in width, nearly 
surrounded by a bayou, and a bend of the river. Across this bend 
the rebels haci constructed rifle pits, so that the bayou served par- 
tiall}^ as a ditch on the left. Carr's division occupied the right in 
investing this place, and Lawler's brigade the right of his division. 
To Lawler's brigade the Eleventh Wisconsin was attached. 
Burbridge's brigade, in which the Twenty-third Wisconsin was 
also located, was present at this fight of Black River Bridge. 
After some skirmishing, the works were assaulted and carried, 
the Eleventh Wisconsin leading the charge, and capturing several 
hundred prisoners. The enemy on the weSf bank burnt the 
railroad bridge, thus cutting off" the retreat of the forces on the 
east bank. 

Sherman, at Bridgeport above, had the only pontoon train in 
the expedition, and crossed the river on the 18th, and was ready 
to march to Walnut Hills. McClernand and McPherson built 
floating bridges during the night, on which they crossed the next 
day. Sherman marched by the Bridgeport and Vicksburg road, 
turning to the right when within about three and a half miles of 
Vicksburg, to get possession of Walnut Hills and the Yazoo 



INVESTMENT OF VICKSBURG. 401 

river. This was sncccssfully accomplislicd before the night of 
the 18th. McPherson crossed the river above the Jackson road 
and came into the same road with Sherman, but to his rear. Ko 
arrived after nightfall with his advance to where Sherman turned 
to the right. McClernand moved by the Jackson and Vicksburg 
road to Mount Albans, and then turned to the left to get into, 
the Baldwin's Ferry road. By this disposition, the three army 
corps covered all the ground their strength would admit of, and 
by morning of the 19th, the investment of Yicksburg was made 
as complete as could be by the forces at General Grant's 
command. 

Continuous skirmishing took place on the day of the invest- 
ment, and General Grant was not without hope of carrying the 
works. Relying upon the demoralization of the enemy in conse- 
quence of repeated defeats outside of Vicksburg, General Grant 
ordered a general assault at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the 19th 
of May. The Fifteenth Corps of General Sherman, having 
attained a good position the previous day, were enabled to make 
a vigorous assault. The Thirteenth and Seventeenth corps suc- 
ceeded no further than to gain advanced positions covered from 
the fire of the enemy. 

The two succeeding days were spent by General Grant, in 
perfecting communications with his supj^lies, his troops having 
so far subsisted for twenty days, on five days' rations. They 
suffered the most from want of bread to accompany the other 
rations. His arrangements for drawing supplies being complete, 
General Grant determined on making another effort to carry 
Vicksburg by assault. His reasons were, that he believed it 
could be successfully accomplished — that Johnston had been 
heavily reinforced and more troops were daily reaching him — 
that in a short time he would make an attack in the rear of the 
small force investing the city, and thus relieve the besieged gar- 
rison — that possession of Vicksburg at that time would have 
enabled him, (General Grant,) to turn upon Johnston and drive 
him from the State, and thus secure control of the west half of 
the State of Mississippi. Besides these considerations, the troops 
themselves were impatient to possess Vicksbui'g. Accordingly 
orders were issued for a general assault on the whole line, to 
commence at 10, A. M., the next day, (the 22d of May.) 
26 



402 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

The corps commanders set their time with General Grant's, 
and at the hour designated, the three army corps then in front 
of the works commenced the assault. The result of this move- 
ment is well known. The assault was gallantly made along the 
whole line, but the enemy's position was too strong both natur- 
ally and artificially to be taken in that way. At every point 
assaulted, and at all of them at the same time, the enemy was 
able to show all the forces his works could cover. The assault 
failed with a heavy loss of killed and wounded on our side, but 
without weakening the confidence of the troops in their ability 
to ultimately succeed. This was manifested in the alacrity with 
which they commenced work in the trenches. 

Only in one instance were the works of the enemy entered. 
About a dozen men of the Twenty-first Iowa Regiment in 
McClernand's corps, succeeded in the attempt. Kone of these 
returned, except the Sergeant, named Grifi&th. The work entered, 
from its position, was of no advantage to General Grant, unless 
others to the right and left had been carried. 

General Grant determined upon a regular siege, and his troops 
entered heartily into the work, progressing rapidly with the 
several necessary siege works, so that on the 3d of July, every 
thing was nearly ready for the final assault. 

On the afternoon of the 3d of July, propositions for a surren- 
der were made by General Pemberton, and on the next day the 
city and garrison of Vicksburg capitulated, and the Union troops 
entered the city. The rebel flag floating on the Court House 
Mas torn down by Lieutenant Colonel Strong of the Twelfth 
"Wisconsin, and the stars and stripes run up in its place. 

In the investment and siege of Vicksburg, the Eighth, Elev- 
enth, Twelfth, Fourteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twentieth, 
Twenty-third, Twenty-ninth, and Thirty-third Wisconsin regi- 
ments, and the First, Sixth, and Twelfth Wisconsin batteries 
took part. 

Reinforcements arrived during the siege, which were present at 
the capitulation of the place. Lauman's division arrived during 
the siege, and was posted on the left of the Thirteenth Corps. 
To this division the Twelfth and Thirty-third Wisconsin were 
attached. In June, General Herron's division arrived from 
Missouri, and took position to the left of Lauman's division, 



WISCONSIN REGIMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 403 

being the extreme left of the besieging forces. In this division 
the Twentieth Wisconsin was brigaded. 

Smith and Kimball's divisions of the Sixteenth Army Corps 
arrived and were assigned to the command of Major General 
C. C. "Washburne, who was ordered to occupy a position at 
Haines' Bluff. To these were added, on the 14th of June, two 
divisions of the JSTinth Army Corps from General Burnside, 
under command of General Parke. During the siege of Vicks- 
burg, the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh Wisconsin infantry, 
and two squadrons of the Second Cavalry were doing duty at 
Snyder's Bluff, about four miles south of Haines' Bluff, six or 
eight miles north of the city. These places had been strongly 
fortified. General Grant fearing an attack on that end of his 
lines by General Johnston. The increase of Grant's forces en- 
abled him to make the investment complete, and left him a large 
reserve to watch the movements of Johnston. 

During the siege, Johnston crossed Big Black Eiver with a 
portion of his army, and evidently intended an attack on Gen- 
eral Grant's forces. General Sherman was immediately put in 
command of such forces as could be spared, and ordered to 
watch the motions of Johnston. Johnston did not attack, but 
General Grant determined to move against him as soon as Vicks- 
burg was in his possession. He therefore informed General 
Sherman that he should make a final assault on the 6th of July, 
and instructed him to be prepared to march against Johnston at 
short notice. The city was surrendered on the 4th of July, of 
which General Sherman was immediately informed. He put his 
force in motion at once to attack Johnston, who had fallen back 
to Jackson. This force consisted of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth 
corps, and General Parke's division of the Ninth Corps. 

With this force General Sherman crossed the Big Black River, 
on the 6th of July. Skirmishing commenced at Clinton, a few 
miles west of Jackson. The enemy's pickets were driven in, 
and Sherman's troops soon closed around the city of Jackson, 
BO that on the 13th of July, the place was completely invested, 
and the Union forces had possession of all the roads leading into 
the city on the west side of Pearl River. Detachments had been 
Bent to the north and south of the city to destroy the railroads. 
The only line in possession of the enemy was that leading east 



404 MILITARY HISTORY 0^ WISCONSIN. 

from Jackson. This the enemy availed himself of on the night 
of the 16th, when he evacuated the place, which was entered on 
the next day by General Sherman's forces. The Eleventh, 
Twelfth, Twenty-third, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-third Wisconsin 
infantry, and the First Wisconsin Battery, and the Second 
"Wisconsin cavalry were engaged in this second battle at Jackson. 

The surrender of Port Hudson immediately followed the fall of 
Vicksburg, taking place on the 8th of July. The Fourth 
Wisconsin took an active part in the operations at Port Hudson. 

These two important points gained, the opening of the Missis- 
sippi River was accomplished, and it was not again closed. The 
I Southern Confederacy was thus cut in two, and the scheme of 
the secessionists was fast tending to a downfall. 

Soon after the surrender of Yicksburg, the report came that the 
enemy was fortifying Yazoo City, and concentrating troops there 
for the purpose of gathering supplies for his army. Accordingly, 
General Grant ordered General Herron with his division, which 
was under orders to proceed to Port Hudson and reinforce Gen- 
eral Banks, to proceed in the transports, convoyed by three gun- 
boats of Admiral Porter's fleet, to Yazoo City, and cooperate 
with the naval force in the capture of the enemy's works. Sail- 
ino- on the 12th, he arrived at Haines' Bluff in the after- 
noon, and took on board a small detachment of the Second Wis- 
consin Cavalry, under Lieutenant Myers, and arrived at Yazoo 
City next day at noon. The gunboats went up to the city and 
engaged the batteries, and ascertaining their strength, returned 
to where General Herron was disembarking his troops. The 
squad of the Second Wisconsin Cavalry was landed three miles 
below, and ordered to proceed to the rear of the city, and prevent 
the enemy, if possible, from removing any of the boats reported 
to be there, and also obtain information as to his strength and 
position. Three regiments were landed, one of which was the 
Twentieth Wisconsin, and ordered forward directly on the 
enemy's works. A bridge across a bayou had to be repaired, 
which hindered the march. On getting to the other side and 
reaching the earthworks, they were found deserted, the enemy 
having fled. The Twentieth Wisconsin went in pursuit for ten 
miles, taking many prisoners and some arms, besides compelling 
the enemy to abandon some of his wagons. 



BOMBArvD:\IENT OF TORT HUDSON. 40r> 

General Herron, with Lis transports and the gnnlxKits, pro- 
ceeded up to the city, going on board the DeKalb ironclad in 
advance of them. When opposite the city, the DeKalb was 
blown up by a rebel torpedo, sinking her in fifteen feet water. 
No one was hurt. The boats were sent up the river by the enemy 
but were so closely pursued by the cavalry sent out, that they 
were compelled to leave five of them, four others escaped. The 
cavalry captured one small side wheel steamer. General Herron 
received orders to cross the country to Jackson, in aid of the 
forces under General Sherman, then investing the place, and had 
reached Canton, when he was informed of the surrender, when 
he retraced his march to Yazoo city, and from thence returned to 
Vicksburg on the 21st. 

After the capture of Vicksburg, the Wisconsin regiments 
engaged in the siege, were transferred to other fields of service. 
The Eleventh, Twenty-third, and Twenty-ninth, and First Wis- 
consin Battery, were sent with the Thirteenth Army Corps to 
reinforce General Banks. The Twelfth, Fourteenth, Seventeenth, 
and Thirty-third, were sent to Natchez. The Eighteenth, with 
the Fifteenth Army Corps went to Tennessee. The Twentieth 
went to New Orleans with Herron's division, and was attached 
to' the Texas Expedition on the Rio Grande. The Twenty 
seventh was sent to Steele's department, at Little Rock. The 
Sixth and Twelfth batteries accompanied Sherman's Fifteenth 
Corps, to Tennessee. 

The operations of the army of General Banks belong to the 
military division comprising the Valley of the Mississippi. Gen- 
eral Banks succeeded General Butler in the command of the 
"Department of the Gulf" in November, 1862. He had gath- 
ered a military force, of about ten thousand men, which ac- 
companied him to New Orleans. The leading object of Banks' 
expedition was to strengthen the military in Louisiana, and to 
cooperate in opening the Mississippi. After the reduction of 
Port Hudson and Vicksburg, an expedition to Texas was to be 
undertaken. 

In March, 1863, General Banks concentrated his forces at 
Baton Rouge, numbering nearly twenty-five thousand men. A 
demonstration was made by the naval forces under Admiral 
Farragut, on Port Hudson. Some of the fleet succeeded in running 



406 MILITARY HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. 

the batteries and getting above Port Hudson. During this 
part of the programme, the steam frigate Mississippi was set on 
fire by the enemy's guns, and totally destroyed. The land force 
under General Grover, marched out of Baton Rouge, with a view 
to cooperate with the fleet, but it was found impracticable as the 
lands adjoining the river had been flooded by the cutting of the 
levees by the rebels. 

An expedition was now planned to operate in the Teche 
country, west of New Orleans. The Teche River commences 
near Opelousas, and flows southeast for two hundred miles. 
During high water, it is navigable nearly its whole length. On 
its banks flourish the finest sugar plantations in the State. 
The region comprised the parishes or counties of Terrebone, 
Lafourche, Assumption, St. Mary, and St. Martin. General 
Banks' object was the reclamation of this rich country, which 
had furnished a large amount of supplies to the enemy, and 
M^hich sustained a dense slave population. The advance of the 
expedition was under Generals Weitzel and Emory, who drove 
the enemy before them towards his fortifications near .Bisland. 
Another force under General Grover, coming up in their rear, 
compelled the enemy to take flight, after destroying the Queen of 
the West and Diana gunboats, which they had captured from 
the [Rational forces a short time before, and several transports. 
General Grover had a flght with the enemy near Bayou Vermil- 
lion, and drove them from their position. On the 20th of April, 
General Banks occupied Opelousas. From Opelousas he pro- 
ceeded to Alexandria, on Red River, which place had been cap- 
tured by the fleet of Admiral Porter. In this expedition, the 
Fourth Wisconsin was engaged ; Colonel Paine having been put 
in command of a brigade in Emory's division, of which the 
Fourth formed a part, the regiment was under the command of 
Colonel Bean. 

Returning from the Red River, General Ban