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Full text of "Miller's New York as it is, or Stranger's guide-book to the cities of New York, Brooklyn, and adjacent places .."


LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



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BLmWIv-Si .i.; of M I .ONERY, ETC. 



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INCORPORATED 1852. 

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Cash Capital, - ^~' " «^400,000.00 
Assets, Jaiaxxaryls^_1872 ^872,072.91 

Aqencies in all the Principal Towns in the Vnited States. 
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MILLER'S 

NEW YORK AS IT IS, 

OR 

STRANGER'S GUIDE-BOOK 

TO THE CITIES OF 

NEW YORK, BROOKLYN 

AND ADJACENT PLACES; 

COMPRISING NOTICES OF 

EVERY OBJECT OF INTEREST TO STRANGERS; 

IN'JLUDTNG 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CHURCHES. HOTELS. ^L.^CE3 OT 

Tmusement. liteuaut institutions, etc. 

mm fElap ant, mimcrous IlIuattatianB. ; ^ 

NEW YORK: 
JAMES MILLER. 647 BROADWAY. 

1872, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Historical Localities ; . 5 

Historic Retrospect 13 

General View 20 

New York as It is 28 

Parks and Public Squares 27 

Public Buildings 35 

Benevolent Institutions 39 

Literary and Scientific Institutions 43 

Theological Institutions 58 

New York Press 60 

f laces of Amusement 63 

Carmen .. 65 

Hotels 66 

Churches of New York Tl 

filegant Private Residences 80 

Notable Stores, &c 82 

Banks 86 

Savings Banks 88 

Public Works 89 

Clipper Ships, Packets, &c 92 

Forts and Fortifications 92 

Principal Restaurants and Saloons 93 

Principal Hotels 94 

New York Markets 94 

Ocean Steamships 95 

Telegraph Lines 98 

Foreign Consuls.. • y** 

Omnibuses and Rail Cars 99 

Railroads 1<*2 

The Ferries 1"4 

Expresses and depots l"o 

List of Piers 1"6 

The City of Brooklyn 10' 

Brooklyn Hotels 1'2 

Publiclnstitutions 112 

Greenwood Cemetery I'j^ 

Churches of Brooklyn 1^9 

Brooklyn City Railroads " ' 

Pleasure Excursions 1 '8 

The Environs of the City j20 

Distances in the City J'-'t 

The Hudson River 12i 

Supplemental Hints \^" 

Metropolitan Police ^^ 



NEW YORK AS IT WAS 



HISTOKICAL LOCALITIES. 



The denizens of New York are such utilitarian* that 
they have sacrificed to the shrine of Mammon ahnost 
every relic of the olden time. The feeling of venera- 
tion for the past, so characteristic of the cities of the 
Old World, is lamentably deficient among the people of 
the New. Still, as there are some who may take an in- 
terest in knowing even the sites of memorable historic 
places of the city, we will briefly refer to some of them. 
Few, we presume, are not patriotic enough to gaze 
with interest as they pass through Franklin Square, 
on the site of the old town mansion of Washington, 
which stood at the northeast angle of Franklin Square 
and Pearl street ; or tread the sod of Fort Greene, 
Brooklyn, that battle-ground of the Martyrs of Liberty. 

Taking the Battery as a starting-point, the first ob 
ject of historic interest we encounter, is the old Ken- 
nedy Eome^ No. 1 Broadway. During the war of in- 
dependence, it was successively the residence of Lord 
Cornwallis, Gen. Chnton, Lord Howe, and Gen. Wash- 
ington. This house was erected in 1760, by Hon. 
Capt. Kennedy, who returned to England prior to the 
Revolution, It subsequently came into the possession 
of his youngest son, from whom it ultimately passed into 
that of the late Nathaniel Prime. Talleyrand passed 
some time under its roof. 

From this house anxious eyes watched the destruc- 
tion of the statue of George HL, in the Bowling 
Green ; and a few years afterwards, other eyes saw, 



% NEW TOKK AS IT WAS. 

from its windows, the last soldiers of that king passing 
forever from our shores. Still later, others looked 
sadly on tlie funeral of Fulton, who died in a house 
which had been built in what was once the garden. 

Here Arnold concerted his treasonable project with 
Andre at the Clinton's — his head-quarters at the time. 
Arnold also occupied more frequently the third house 
from the Battery, in Broadway. Arnold is said to 
have had a sentinel at his door. "When his traitorous 
character had become known, he used to be saluted in 
the streets by the epithet of "the traitor-general." 
He was guarded by an escort from Sir Henry Clinton. 
Gen. Gage's head-quarters, in 1765, was the small low 
building since known as the Atlantic Garden. 

The Bowling Green was originally inclosed, in 1732, 
"with walks therein for the beauty and orname-nt of 
said street, as well as for the sports and delight of the 
inhabitants of the citie." 

In 1697, it was resolved "that the lights be hung 
out in the darke time of tlie moon within this citty, 
and for the use of the inhabitants ; and that every 7th 
house doe hang out a lanthorn and a candle in it," &c. 

The site of the old Government house is now occu- 
pied by a range of dwelling-houses, at the south side 
of the inclosure, called the Bowling Green. It was 
subsequently used as the Custom House (from 1790 to 
1815), when it was taken down. Earlier recollections 
even belong to this location ; here the Dutch and Eng- 
lish forts were erected. At the corner of Wall and 
William streets, now the Bank of New York, once 
stood the statue of William Pitt. The old Stadt 
Huys stood at Coenties Slip. On the site of the pres- 
ent U. S. Treasury, was situated the ToAvn Hall, or 
" Congress Hall," which included also the Law Courts 
and Prison. In front of this building were the stocks, 
a pillory, and a whipping-post. This edifice was sub- 
sequently converted into a hall of legislature. 

It was in its gallery, on Wall street, in April, 1789, 
that Gen. Washington was inaugurated the first Preair 



HISTOEIOAL LOCALITIES. 7 

dent of the United States. This important public cere- 
mony, the oath of office, took place in the open gallery 
in front of the Senate Chamber, in the view of an im- 
mense concourse of citizens. There stood Washington, 
invested with a suit of dark silk velvet, of the old 
cut, steel-hilted small-sword by his side, hair in bag 
and full powdered, in black silk hose, and shoes with 
silver buckles, a's he took the oaili of office, to Chancel- 
lor Livingston. Dr. Duer thus describes the scene of 
the inauguration : 

"This auspicious ceremony took place under the por- 
tico of Federal Hall, upon the balcony in front of the 
Senate Chamber, in the immediate presence of both 
Houses of Congress, and in full view of the crowds 
that thronged the adjacent streets. The oath was ad- 
ministered by Chancellor Livingston, and when the 
illustrious chief had kissed the book, the Chancellor, 
with a loud voice, proclaimed, "Long live George 
Washington, President of the United States." Never 
shall I forget the thrilling effijct of the thundering 
cheers which burst forth, as from one voice, peal after 
peal from the assembled multitude. Nor was it the 
voices alone of the people that responded to the an- 
nouncement, their hearts beat in unison with the 
echoes resounding through the distant streets; and 
many a tear stole down the rugged cheeks of the hard- 
iest of the spectators, as well I noted from my station 
in an upper window of the neighboring house of Col. 
Hamilton." 

Washington's farewell interview with his officers 
took place at France's Tavern, corner of Pearl and 
Broad streets. 

New York is noted for its pageants and processions. 
That on the occasion of the last visit of Gen. Lafay- 
ette, presented the most imposing spectacle of its time. 

In ancient times boats were used to convey passen- 
gers across Pearl street. Canal and Cliff streets derive 
their names from a like circumstance. The Old Dutch 
records show that the outskirts of the to^vi? were di- 



O NKW TOKK AS IT WAS. 

vided into farms — called " Bouwerys ;" From this fact 
the Bowery derived its name. 

The hills were sometimes precipitous, as from Beek- 
man's and Peck's hills, and in the neighborhood of 
Pearl, Beekman, and Ferry streets, and from the Middle 
Dutch Church, in Nassau street, down to Maiden lane ; 
and sometimes gradually sloping, as on either hills 
along the line of the water, coursing 'through Maiden 
lane. 

When Hamilton acted as Secretary of the Treasury, 
he wrote the " Federalist," at a house in Wall street, 
between Broad and William streets, its site being now 
occupied by the Mechanics' Bank. His last residence 
was the Grange, at Bloomingdale. He lived also for 
some time at Bayard House on the banks of the North 
Kiver. His hapless duel with Burr, near Weehawken, 
is pointed out to visitors, — a stone marks the spot where 
Hamilton fell. 

Leisler and Milbourne, the proto-martyrs of popular 
liberty in America, met with a sanguinary death. May 
16th, 1691, on the verge of Beekman's swamp, near the 
spot where Tammany Hall now stands. 

Where Catharine street now stands, was the spot 
where the stamps were burnt, at the dead of night, by 
citizens, in the year 1776. 

Benjamin Franklin, while residing in New York, used 
as an observatory for experipienting on electricity, the 
steeple of the old Dutch Church, — now, the Post-Office, 
in Nassau street. 'Who will not gaze with interest at 
this starting-point of that luminous train which now en- 
circles the globe, and by which we communicate in let- 
ters of light, with our antipodes, almost with the celer- 
ity of thought. 

The old City Hotel, in Broadway, the site of which is 
now occupied by a row of brown stone buildings, was 
for a long time the most notable edifice of the kind in 
the city. Here Washington, with his suite, attended the 
brilliant assemblies of his days. 

A still more interesting relic of the pa,st, was the old 



niSTOKIOAL L00ALITIK8. 9 

Jugar-House Prison, which, till within a very few years, 
stood in Liherty street, adjacent to the Dutch Church, 
now the Post-Office. It was founded in 1689, and oc- 
cupied as a sugar-refining factory, till 1777, whec. Lord 
Howe converted it into a place of confinement for 
Amei'ican prisoners. Here is a sketch of it. 




The old "Walton House, in Pearl street (N"o. 326), was 
one of the memorabilia of New York city. This cele- 
Dnited mansion was erected, in 1754, by "Walton, a 
wealthy English merchant. It continued in possession of 
the family during the Kevolutionary war, and was the 
scene of great splendor and fest'vity. 

AVashington's city mansion stood at the junction of 
Main and Pearl streets — the northern angle of Franklin 
Square. Here the General was accustomed to hold 
state levees. 

The Old Brewery, at the Five Points, recently taken 
down, is deserving of some notice. Its purlieus were 
those of wretchedness and crime ; they have been fitly 
described as " an exhibition of poverty without a par- 



10 



NEW YORK AS XT WAS, 



allel — a scene of degradation too appalling to be believed, 
and too shocking to be disclosed, where you find crime 
■without punishment, — disgrace without shame, — sin 
without compunction, — and death without hope." 

During the past few years, the attention of the be- 
nevolent has been attracted to this locality, and a 
missionary station has been erected there, under the 
direction of Mr. Pease. The entire cost of the estab- 
lishment lias been estimate*' at over $80,000. 

The old Metliodist Chv.rch in John street, nearly 
facing Dutch street, is an object of antiquarian interest. 
In William street, about midway between John and 
Fulton streets, stands a range of modern houses, about 
the centre of which was the birth-place of Washington 
Irving. 




Old Governor Stuyvesant's house, a fine view of 
which is annexed, stood upon his " Bowerie Farm," a 
little to the south of St. Mark's Church, between the 
Second and Third Avenues. A pear-tree, imported 



HI8T0EI0AL LOCALITIES. H 

from Holland in 1647, by Stuyvesant, and planted in 
his garden, yet flourishes on the corner of Thirteenth 
street and Third Avenue, the only living relic which 
preserves the memory of the renowned Dutch Gov- 
nor. This patriarchal tree is two hundred and twelve 
years old. 

We present the reader with a, facsimile of Governor 
Stuyvesant's seal. 




He lived eighteen years after the change in tne gov- 
ernment, and at his death was buried in his vault 
within the chapel. Over his remains was placed a slab 
(which may yet be seen in the eastern wall of St. 
Mark's), with the following inscription: "In this vault 
lies buried Petrus Stuyvesant, late Captain General and 
Commander-in-Chief of Amsterdam, in New Nether- 
lands, now called New York, and tiie Dutch West India 
Islands. Died in August, a. d., 1682, aged eighty 
years.'' 

At the corner of Charlton and Varick streets stood 
a wooden building, formerly of considerable celebrity, 
known as the " Richmond Hill House." It has had 
many distinguished occupants, having been successively 
the residence of General Washington, John Adams, and 
Aaron Burr. It has been the scene of great festivities. 
Baron Steuben, Chancellor Livingston, and numerous 



12 



NEW YORK AS IT WAS. 




other notable men of their times, having met within its 
walls. 

Aaron Burr once lived at the corner of Cedar and 
Nassau streets, and, after he held the office of Vice- 
President, at the corner of Pine and Nassau. 

Cobbett kept his seed store at 62 Fulton street. His 
farm was at Hempstead, Long Island. 

Grant Thorburn's celebrated seed store, which was one 
of the notable objects of the city, in its time, was in 
Liberty street, between Nassau and Broadway, and oc- 
cupied as large a space as the present establishment in 
John street. His store was previously used for a Qua- 
ker meeting-house, the first that that society had erect- 
ed in the city. 

The brick meeting-house, built in 1764, in Beeknian 



HI8T0EI0AL LOCALITIES. 13 

street, near ITassau street, then standing on open fields, 
was the place where Whitefield preached. 

On the site of the present Metropolitan Hotel, once 
lived the diplomatist — Talleyrand, when ambassador to 
the United States. He published a small tract on 
America, once much read ; he it was who affirmed that 
the greatest sight he had ever beheld in this country, 
was Hamilton, with his pile of books under his arm, 
proceeding to the court-room in the old City Hall, in 
order to expound the law. 

James R'-ington, from London, opened a bookstore 
in 1761, near the foot of "Wall street, from which his 
" Koyal Gazetteer " was published in April, 1773. 

Gaine's '' New York Mercury," in Hanover Square, 
was established in 1752 ; Holt's " New York Journal," 
in Dock (Pearl) street, near Wall, commenced in 1776 ; 
and Anderson's " Constitutii.flal Gazette," a very small 
sheet, was published for a few months in 177o, at Beek- 
man's Slip. 

Gaine kept a bookstore under the sign of the Bible 
and Crown, at Hanover Square, for forty years. Among 
the early publishers and booksellers, may be named. 
Evert Duyckinck, who lived at the corner of Pearl 
street and Old Slip ; and Isaac Collins, George A. Hop- 
kins, Samuel Campbell, and T. & J. Swords. 

"William Barks, of Maiden Lane, was himself an ex- 
cellent scholar. He published classical books. He was 
the friend and correspondent of Newton — Cowper'a 
friend. 



HISTORICAL RETEOSPECT. 

In the year 1607, the memorable year in which forty- 
seven learned men began the English version of the 
Bible, Henry Hudson sailed in search of a northeast 
passage to India. For two seasons he strove in vain to 



14 NKW YORK AS IT WA8, 

penetrate the ice barriers, and then turned liomeward. 
His patrons abandoned their ent^prise, and Hudson 
went over to Holland and entered the service of the 
Dutch East India Company, whose fleets then agitated 
the waters of almost every sea. 

On the 3d of September, 1609, the intrepid navigator 
first entered the Bay of New York. Here commence 
the acknowledged chronicles of European civilization 
on these shores of the newly-discovered continent, over 
which, till then, the wild Indian had held undisputed 
sway. According to Scandinavian records, it is af- 
firmed, the Norsemen visited our shores even prior to 
the discovery of the continent by the famed Genoese. 

Among those supposed early navigators, was Prince 
Madoc; and Verrazani, Avho, in the year 1514, is be- 
lieved to have anchored in tliese waters, and explored 
the coast of what was then known as part of ancient 
Vinland. We shall take a cursory glance at the lead- 
ing events which have been handed down to us, since 
they will serve to illustrate the progressive advance- 
ment of the civilized, over the savage forms of life, of 
which this memorable island has been the theatre. 

Although Hudson has not recorded, in his diary, his 
landing in the harbor of New York, we possess a tra- 
dition of the event, by Heckewelder, the Indian histo- 
rian. He describes the natives as greatly perplexed 
and terrified when they beheld the approach of tho 
strange object — the ship in the ofling. They deemed 
it a visit from the Manitou, coming in his big canoe, 
and began to prepare an entertainment for his recep- 
tion. "By-and-by, the chief, in red clothes and a 
glitter of metal^ with others, came ashore in a smaller 
canoe ; mutual salutations and signs of friendship were 
exchanged ; and after a while, strong drink was offered, 
which made all gay and happy. In time, as their mu- 
tual acquaintance progressed, the white shins told them 
they would stay with them, if they allowed them as 
much land for cultivation as the hide of a bullock, 
spread before them, could cover or encompass. The 



HISTORICAL RETROSPECT. 15 

request was gratified ; and the pale men, tliereupon, 
beginning at a starting point on the liide, cut it np into 
one long extended narrow strip, or thong, sufficient to 
encompass a large place. Their cunning equally sur- 
prised and amused the confiding and simple Indians, 
who willingly allowed the success of their artifice, and 
backed it with a cordial welcome." Such was the ori- 
gin of the site of New York, on tlie place called Man- 
hattan (i. e. Manahachtanienks), a revelling name, im- 
porting "the place where they all got drunk!" and a 
name then bestowed by the Indians, as commemorative 
of that first great meeting. 

Hudson afterwards proceeded to explore the North 
Eiver, since called after his name — the Eudson. The 
Half-Moon anchored at Yonkers, and the Indians came 
ofl? in canoes to traflic with the strangers. But the 
river narrowed beyond the Highlands, and Hudson, 
after sailing up as far as the site of Albany, retraced 
his way to Manhattan, and at once sailed for Europe. 
His favorable reports gave rise to iin expedition of two 
ships in 1614, under Captains Adrian Block and Hend- 
rick Christiaanse. It was under their auspices that the 
first actual settlement was begun upon tlie site of the 
present New York, consisting in the first year oi four 
houses^ and in the next year of a redoubt on the site of 
the Bowling Green. To this small village they gave 
the name of New Amsterdam. The settlement was of 
a commercial and military character, having for its 
object the traffic in the fur trade. 

At the time Holland projected this scheme of com- 
mercial settlement, she possessed 20,000 vessels and 
100,000 mariners. The city of Amsterdam was at the 
head of the enterprise. 

From its earliest period, " Nieuw Amsterdam" had a 
checkered history. The English turned towards it a 
wistful eye, and took it from the Dutch in 1GG4, who 
succeeded, however, in recovering it in 1673. Not more 
than a year after, it was ceded again to the British, and 
underwent a change of name, from New Amsterdam 



16 NEW YORK AS IT WAa. 

to New York, in honor of James, duke of York, to 
whom it Avas made over by Cliarles the Second. From 
this period it began to make progress, although slowly, 
in buildings, population, and municipal arrangements. 

The city, prior to British rule (that is in 1C56), was 
laid out in streets, some of them crooked enough, and 
contained " one hundred and twenty houses with ex- 
tensive garden lots," and about one thousand inhab- 
itants. In 1677, another estimate reports that it com- 
prised three hundred and sixty-eight houses, while its 
assessed property amounted to ninety-five thousand 
pounds sterling. 

During the military rule of Governor Colve, who 
held the city for one year under the above-mentioned 
capture, for the States of Holland, every thing partook 
of a military character, and the laws still in preserva- 
tion at Albany show the energy of a rigorous discipline. 
Then the Dutch mayor, at the head of the city militia, 
held his daily parades before the City Hall (Stadt Huys), 
then at Coenties Slip ; and every evening at sunset, he 
received from the principal guard of the fort, called 
the Jioofd-wagt^ the keys of the city, and thereupon 
proceeded with a guard of six, to lock the city gates; 
then to place a hurger-wagt — a citizen guard, as night- 
watch, at assigned places. The same mayors also went 
the rounds at sunrise to open the gates, and to restore 
the keys to the officers of the fort. 

In 1683, the first constitutional assembly, consisting 
of a council of ten, and eighteen representatives, was 
elected, to aid in the administration of public affairs. 
In this year the ten original counties were organized. 
In 1685, on the demise of Charles II., the Duke of 
York ascended the throne, with the title of James II. 
This bigoted monarch signalized himself by forbidding 
the establishment of a printing-press in the colony. 

Gov. Dongan was far better than his sovereign, and 
at length was recalled in consequence of his remon- 
strances against other arbitrary measures lie was in- 
structed to carry out with regard to the confederate 




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HISTORICAL RETROSPEOT. 17 

Indian tribes and the Jesuits. Andros -was appointed 
to supersede him, but his also was but a short reign, 
for the populace grew disaffected, and in a civil com- 
motion, one Jacob Leisler, a Dutch merchant, was pro- 
claimed leader, and ultimately invested with the reins 
of government. 

He also summoned a convention of deputies, from 
those portions of the province over which his influence 
extended. This convention levied taxes, and adopted 
other measures, for the temporary government of the 
colony ; and thus for the fii'st time in its existence, was 
the colony of New York under a free government. 
The strong prejudices, however, which had been 
awakened by Leisler's measures, soon produced in the 
minds of his adversaries a rancorous bitterness, which 
was, perhaps, never surpassed in the annals of any 
political controversy. 

. This condition of things existed for nearly two years. 
To the horrors of civil commotion, v;-ere added the mis- 
eries of hostile invasion by the French in Canada. 

The earhest dawn of intellectual light — fur the diffu- 
sion of popular intelligence had been heretofore wholly 
neglected — was the establishment of a free Grammar 
School in 1702. In 1725, the first newspai)er made its 
appearance ; and four years later, the city received the 
donation of a Public Library of 1642 volumes, from 
England. In 1732, a public Classical Academy was 
founded by law; and with the advance of general in- 
telligence came a higher appreciation of popular rights. 
But New York was destined to be convulsed by a 
series of commotions ; and among them tlie memorable 
one known as the Negro Plot, Avliich resulted in a great 
destruction of life. 

The trade of New York increased. Her ships were 
already seen in many foreign ports; neither Boston 
nor Philadelphia surpassed her in the extent _ of her 
commercial operations. Provisions, linseed-oil, furs, 
lumber, and iron, were the principal exports. From 
1749 to 1750, two hundred and eighty-six vessels left 
2* 



18 KEW YORK AS IT WAS. 

New York, with cargoes principally of flour and grain, 
In 1755, nearly tliirteen thousand hogsheads of flax 
seed were shipped abroad. 

The relations of the colonies with the mother conn- 
try were assuming a serious aspect. In 1765, a con 
gress of delegates met at New York, and prepared a 
declaration of their rights and grievances. The arri- 
val of the stamped paper, so notorious in the colonial 
annals of America, towards the end of this year, 
marked the commencement of a series of explosions 
that were not to terminate until the city and colony of 
New York, in common with the other colonies, were 
forever rent from the dominion of Great Britain. The 
non-importation agreements of the merchants of New 
York, and otlier places, in 1768, were followed by 
stringent measures on the part of the British govern- 
ment. War was the result. 

On the 28th of June, 1776, the British army and 
fleet, which had been driven from the city and liarbor 
of Boston, entered the southern bay of New York. 
The troops Avere landed upon Stateu Island. On the 
22d of August, the British forces crossed the Narrows 
and encamped near Brooklyn, where the American 
army was stationed. The battle of Long Island en- 
sued, in wliich, owing to unfortunate circumstances, 
the Americans were entirely defeated. "Wa,shington, 
with consummate skill, crossed the river the succeed- 
ing night, without observation ; but the previous dis- 
asters, and the subsequent successful landing of the 
British troops at Kip's Bay, rendered it impossible to 
save the city. 

For eight j'ears New York was the head-quarters 
of the Britisli troops, and the prison-house of Ameri- 
can captives. Public buildings were despoiled, and 
churches converted into hospitals and prisons. A fire 
in 1776, sweeping along both sides of Broadway, de- 
stroyed one eighth of the buildings of New York. 

On the 25th of November, 1783, the forces of Great 
Britain evacuated the city, and Washington and the 



HISTUKIOAL RKTKOSPEOT. 19 

Governor of the State made a public and triumphal 
entry. 

This importaut national event, forming the brightest 
day in the American calendar, is annually celebrated 
■with appropriate military pomp and parade. 

In ten years after the war of independence. New 
York had doubled its inhabitants. Yet the city had 
repeatedly suffered from the scourge of the yellow 
fever, from calamitous fires, &c. Notwithstanding alL, 
its commercial enterprise has been rapidly and largely 
increasing, Avhile its shipping has gallantly spread over 
every sea, and won the admiration of the world. The 
first establishment of regular lines of packets to Eu- 
rope originated with New York, and it is also claimed 
for her the honor of the first experiments in steam-nav- 
igation. 

Improvements hitherto had been principally con- 
nected with foreign commerce. But an impulse was 
now to be given to inland trade by the adoption of an 
extensive system of canal-navigation. Several smaller 
works were cast into the shade by the completion of 
the gigantic Erie Canal, in 1825. The union of the 
Atlantic with the Lakes, was announced by the firing 
of cannon along the whole lino of the canal and of the 
Hudson, and was celebrated at New York by a mag- 
nificent aquatic procession, Avhich, to indicate more 
clearly the navigable communication that had been 
opened, deposited in the ocean a portion of the waters 
of Lake Erie. 

Municipal history is a narrative of alternate suc- 
cesses and reverses. For many years nothing had 
occurred to mar the prosperity of the city. Again 
misfortune came. In 1832 the Asiatic cholera appear- 
ed, and 4360 fell victims to the disease. This calamity 
had scarcely passed, when the great fire of 1835 de- 
stroyed, in one night, more than 600 buildings, and 
Eroperty to the value of over $20,000,000. The city 
ad not recovered from the effects of this disaster, 
when the commercial revulsions of 1830 and 1837 



20 NEW TOEK AS IT WAS, 

shook public and private credit, to their centre, and in 
volved many of the most wealthy houses of New 
York in hopeless bankruptcy. 

The completion of the Oroton Aqueduct, in 1842, re- 
moved the inconvenience of a deficiency of water, and 
left an imperishable monument to the glory of New 
York. 

A temporary check in the progress of the city was 
sustained by the great fire of 1845, which destroyed 
property to the extent of about $7,000,000 ; but shortly 
afterwards a new and vigorous impulse was again given 
to the commercial enterprise of the metropolis, by the 
constant influx of gold from the seeming exhaustless 
resources of the El Dorado of the Pacific. 



GENERAL VIEW. 

The City of New York, from its geographical posi- 
tion, having become tne great centre of commercial 
enterprise, is justly regarded as the Metropolitan City 
of the New World. In mercantile importance it bears 
the same relation to the United States that London does 
to Great Britain. Its past history is replete with in- 
terest, for it has been the theatre of some of the most 
important events that pertain to our country's memo- 
rable career: and although it possesses fewer historic 
shrines than are to be found in many cities of the Old 
World, yet its chronicles still live as treasured relics in 
the hearts of its people, and on the page of its national 
records. If we take a retrospective glance, we shall 
find that a little more than two centuries ago, this 
island of Mannahata — its earliest recorded name, had its 
birth-day of civilization in a few rude huts, and a fort 
situated where the Bowling Green now stands ; and, in 
this comparatively brief interval in the lifetime of a na- 
tion, it has bounded from the infant Dorp or village into 



QENEEAL VIEW. 21 

a noble city of palaces with its half million of inhabit- 
ants. It is now the great workshop of the Western 
world — the busy hive of industry, with its tens ot 
thousands of artisans, mechanics, and merchants, send- 
ing out to all sections of its wide-spread domain, the 
magic results of machinery for all departments of han- 
dicraft, and argosies of maguificent vessels for garner- 
ing in the wealth of foreign climes. 

If we glance prospectively, how shall we venture to 
limit its progressive march in opulence and greatness? 
In less than half a century hence, it will doubtless 
double its present numerical importance. As illustra- 
tions of the enormous increase in the value of real 
estate, it may be mentioned that a lot on the northwest 
corner of Chambers street and Broadway, was i)ur- 
chased by'a gentleman who died in 1858, for $1000. 
Its present value is now estimated at no less a sum thau 
$125,000. 

The site on which the new Eerald building now 
stands was lately purchased by James Gordon Bennett, 
Esq., for four hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in- 
cluding two hundred thousand dollars paid to Bar- 
num for an unexpired lease of thirteen years, held 
at the time his American Museum was burned. Also 
the lot immediately adjoining this, with a frontage 
of less than sixty feet, on Broadway, was sold at 
auctio.n a short time since for three hundred and ten 
thousand dollars ! 

A little more than two centuries since, the entire 
site of this noble city was purchased of the Indians for 
what was equivaleiit to the nominal sum of twenty- 
four dollars. Now the tot.d .nmonnt of its assessed 
property tax is nearly eight hundred millions. If such 
vast accessions of wealth have characterized tlie history 
of the past, who shall compute the constantly augment- 
ing resources of its onward course? Half a century 
ago, the uses of the mighty agents of steam and the 
electric current were uniinowu: now the whole sur- 
face of our vast country is threaded over with a 



za NEW TOEK AS IT WAS. 

net-work of railroads, and our seas, lakes, and rivers 
are thickly studded with steamers; stately vessels, 
freighted with the fruits of commerce, all tending to 
this city as the central mart of trade. Half a century 
ago it took weeks to transmit news from New York to 
New Oi'leans— ^now our communications are conveyed 
over the length and breadth of the land almost with 
the velocity of the lightning's flash. Within a like in- 
terval the most rapid printing-press was slowly worked 
by hand-power — now the winged messengers of intel- 
ligence are multiplied with the marvellous rapidity of 
60,000 copies an hour. While the mechanic arts have 
thus revolutionized the social condition of the past, a 
corresponding change has marked its history, in the 
establishment of numerous schools of learning — dif- 
fusing their beneficent influence on the minds and 
morals of the masses. 

Then, again, as respects its costly stores and private 
residences. New York seems to vie with London and 
Paris. All along Broadway, and its intersecting streets, 
the eye is greeted everywhere by long lines of marble 
and stone buildings, many of them of great architect- 
ural elegance. The several broad Avenues and Squares, 
in the upper part of the city, are studded with a succes- 
sion of splendid mansions — in some instances costing 
from $50,000 to $200,000 each. There are, it is esti- 
mated, some three hundred churches, many of them of 
costly and magnificent proportions ; while its superb 
hotels — the boast of the metropolis — are, in some in- 
stances, capable of accommodating about one thousand 



How mighty and far-reaching must its influence be- 
come in its future progress, it were diflicult to com])ute: 
since its numerical extent, numbering at present, if we 
include Brooklyn and the adjacent ])laces on the west, 
over 2,000,000 of souls, will ere long place it, in the 
scale of cities of the world, in the foremost rank. 



NEW YOUK AS IT IS. 



Society in New York has many phases— it is cos- 
mopohtan— an amalgam, composed of all imaginable 
varieties and shades of character. It is a confluence of 
many streams, whose waters are ever turbid and con- 
fused in their rushing to this great vortex. What in- 
congruous elements are here commingled,— the rude 
and the refined, the sordid and the self-sacrificing, the 
reli"-ious and the profiine, the learned and the illiterate 
the'affluent and the destitute, the thinker and the doer, 
the virtuous and the ignoble, the young and the aged- 
nil nations, dialects, and sympathies— all habits, man 
ners, and customs of the civilized globe. 

City hfe everywhere presents protean aspects ; let us 
lake a glance at some of its more striking features, 
Botwithstanding the mixed multitudes that are inces- 
iantlv thron-ing its various avenues. There are yet 
certain localities that exhibit distinct cliaracterist^cs : 
life in Wall-street presents an epitomized view ot iW 
mercantile phase. Here are its banks, its money-ex- 
jhangers, and their great place of rendezvous, the 
Excluange; beneath the dome of which many mighty 
proiects have had their birth. Here have been con- 
cocted vast schemes of commercial enterprise and here, 
too, have originated many noble acts ot public bene- 



faction 



Up Nassau street, to its junction with Chatham 
Btreet, of mock-auction notoriety, we catch a gjimP^e 
of another phase of city life. To denizens of New 



24 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

York, society is usually known under the generic di- 
visions of Broadway and Bowery. Each has its dis- 
tinct idiosyncracies : the former being regarded as 
patrician, and the latter as plebeian. Looking at New- 
York longitudinally, we may say that Canal street, at 
present, marks the boundary of the great workshop. 
In the precincts of Union Square and Madison Square, 
and especially the Fifth Avenue, we find the monu- 
ments of the wealth, taste, and splendor of its citizens. 

The southern part of the city — its original site — ex- 
hibits all kinds of irregularity — the streets are narrow, 
sinuous and uneven in their surface ; but the northern 
or upper portion is laid out in right angles. There are 
some twelve line avenues, at parallel distances apart of 
about 800 feet. There are about .300 miles of paved 
streets in the Metropolis, extending to Ninety-sixth 
street; exclusive of projected streets not yet paved, 
over 100 streets more. The city has been laid out and 
surveyed to the extent of 12 miles from the Battery. 
The portion occupied exceeds in circumference more 
than that extent. 

Perliaps the densest part of tlie Metropolis, — its 
very heart, from wlience issues tlie vitalizing tide of 
its commerce, — is tlie junction of Broadway and Fulton 
street, and its vicinity. The collision of interests 
which all the stir and traffic of these crowded scenes 
involve, brings human nature into strong relief, and 
intensifies the lights and sliades of character. 

It is in these dusty avenues to wealth — these vesti- 
bules where fraud contends with honor for an entrance 
into the temple, that we read the heart of maa better 
than in books. 

Tlie great characteristic of New York is din and ex- 
citement, — every thing is done in a hurry — all is intense 
anxiety. It is especially noticeable in the leading 
thoroughfare of Broadway ; where the noise and con- 
fusion caused by the incessant passing and repassing of 
some 18,000 vehicles a day, render it a Babel scene oi 
confusion. 




r ,:^^' "^*"^ 



A bird's eye view. 25 

New York has been ever and justly renowned for its 
catholic and liberal public benefactions and charities. 
Among her many glories, this is most conspicuous. 
New York may be called the asylum for the oppressed 
and distressed of all nations. Abounding in beneficent 
institutions suited to the relief of the various " ills that 
flesh is heir to," and enriched with the most liberal en- 
dowments for classical and popular instruction, she 
bears the palm in all that pertains to the moral, intel- 
lectual, and physical advancement of society. It is 
true we are a mercantile and money-making people, 
but the empire city is an illustration of some of it3 
noblest uses. 

By way of introduction to the city in detail, we rec- 
ommend the visitor first to get a bird's-eye view of 
it from the steeple of Trinity church. A view from 
this elevation, over 320 feet in height, affords a good 
idea of the general extent and topography of the city. 
The tower is accessible to the public at any time of the 
day, excepting the hours devoted to divine service, 
morning and afternoon. To facilitate the ascent of the 
church tower there are landing-places ; at the first of 
these you have a fine view of the interior of this 
Cathedral-like edifice. At the next resting-place is the 
belfry, with its solemn chimes : here too is a balcony 
allowing us a first view of the city. Still higher up 
we gain a magnificent panoramic view of all we have 
left below us, — which amply repays our toilsoitie tour 
of many steps. • The variegated scene stretches out in 
every direction, with new beauties, — nortli and soutli 
lies Broadway with its teeming multitudes and its 
numberless vehicles ; west and east are crowded 
streets of house-tops terminating only with the waters 
of the inclosing rivers. Looking eastward, we see 
Wall street immediately below us, with the Treasury 
Building on the left, and a little further on the right 
the Custom-house, the Wall-street ferry, and the Easi 
River which separates New York from Brooklyn 
with the New York bay stretching to the southeast 



ZO CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Sandy Hook, the Highlands of Neversink, and the 
coast of Staten Island. To the northeast, the eastern 
district of Brooklyn, formerly known as Williamsburg, 
the Navy Yard, &c., and still further to the north, tlie 
rocky channel called Hurl-gate, — so perilous to our 
Dutch forefatliers ; near by Randall and Blackwell's 
Islands, with their City Asylums. Transferring our 
gaze to I^roadway, we notice the National Bank of 
the Republic, and on the next street the National Met- 
ropolitan Bank. Passing several fine marble buildinga, 
we notice the Herald Office, corner of Ann-street, on 
the east side of Broadway, and opposite to it St. Paul's 
Church, then the Astor House, the Park, and the City 
Hall ; tlie brown-stone building on the east side being 
that of the Times Office. Beyond the City Hall in- 
closure is Stewart's marble palace, then the City Hos- 
pital, surrounded with trees, and opposite it. Judge 
Whiting's fine marble building ; further north are 
numerous elegant stores, including Brooks' brown- 
stone structure. Lord & Taylor's marble edifice, St. 
Nicholas Hotel, the Metropolitan, and still further on 
in the distance, Grace Church, with its beautiful white 
spire, Union Park, &c. 

Turning to the oppos/te point of view, the Hudson 
river, with Jersey City, and Hoboken, with its beauti- 
ful walks, its distant hills and vrjleys ; on this side of 
the river, the steamers, ships, and docks. This superb 
river has been often compared with the Rhine for its 
picturesque beauty, we can here get but a faint idea of 
it, for its bold scenery is seen only after journeying 
some 40 miles to the north, we catch merely a glimpse 
of the Palisades, beginning atWeehawken and extend- 
ing about 20 miles. Veering to the south, we see the 
fortified islets of the lower bay, with Staten Island, 
Richmond, &c., with their numerous picturesque cot- 
tages, villas, and castellated mansions, and to the south- 
west, the Raritau bay, the Passaio river, leading tc 
Newark in the distance, &c. 



PARKS AND PUPHfl 8QUABK3. 27 



PAEKS A^^D PUBLIC SQUAEES. 

BATTERY. 

Commencing our descriptions of the notahilia of 
New- York with its pleasure-grounds and parks, we 
ought tirst to mention the Battery^ situated at the 
soutliernmost terminus of the metropolis. These 
grounds cover an area of about twelve acres, of the 
crescent form, having a profusion of stately trees, 
which afford a delightful place of retreat in the sum- 
mer-time, for pleasure-seekers, who prefer to inhale 
the fresh sea-breeze under their shade to the crowded 
throngs of fashion in the city. The walks stretching 
along the margin of these grounds were formerly much 
frequented, but of late years, in consequence of the 
rapid growth of the city, all private residences having 
been transferred to the upper or northern part of the 
city, are consequently now not so much an object of 
attraction. Connected with the Battery is Castle 
Garden. Originally a fortification, it was subsequently 
let on lease as a place of public amusement. It was prob- 
ably the largest audience-room in the world. It Avas 
the scene of Jenny Lind's first appearance in America. 
This buildiug has now little architectural beauty to 
boast; having been for some time used as a depot for 
emigrants. The grounds of the Battery have been need- 
lessly extended within the last few years at an enormous 
expense to the city. 

BOWLING GREEN. 

Close to the Battery, at the entrance to Broadway, 
is the small inelosure so called, from having been 
used as sucli prior to the devolution. At that time 
it contained a leaden equestrian statue of George III., 
which the populace in their patriotic zeal demolished, 



as CITY OF NEW YORX 

and converted into musket-balls. On this site there is 
now a fountain, which is during sum.mer to be seeu 
bubbling up with the clear waters of the Croton. 

CITY HALL PAEK. 

An enclosure of about eight acres, contains the City 
Hall, New Court House, and other public buildings. 
This Park formerly extended on the south to the junc- 
tion of Broadway and Park Row, but the southern 
portion has been ceded to the United States Govern- 
ment as a site for the New Post-OfHce, now in course 
of erection. When completed, this building, in point 
of massiveness and architectural beauty, will be unsur- 
passed by any public edifice in this country. 

WASHINGTON SQUAEE. 

Another great and most effective ornament to the city 
was formed by laying out the ground formerly occupied 
as a Potter's Field. The bones were collected in a vast 
trench, one on each side of the Square, which were in- 
closed with fences, and planted with trees. For many 
years this was used for burial purposes, and it is com- 
puted that over a hundred thousand bodies have been 
buried where now assemble for pleasure multitudes of 
living beings. The Square is surrounded with splendid 
private houses, and on one side is the University build- 
ing and a splendid church. One-third of the ground 
comprismg the Square was purchased for $80,000, mak- 
ing a gross value of $240,000, devoted to the improve- 
ment of this quarter of the city. The Square contains 
a little over nine acres, and is ornamented with a 
fountain. i 

UNION PAEK j 

Is m Union Square, at the upper or northern end 
of Broadway — extending from 14th to 17th sti'eets. 
This pleasure-ground is inclosed by a handsome u"on 
railing, and contains a variety of fine ti-ees, gravel- 



PARKS AND PUBLIC SQUARES. 29 

•walks, and also a fountain. At the southeast corner is the 
bronze equestrian statue of Washington, and at the south- 
west is Brown's bronze statue of Lincoln, lately erected 
by the Union League Club. On the west side is the 
Spingler House, and just above, on the site of Dr. Chee- 
ver's church, is Tiffany's magnificent iron building. On 
the north side are the Everett House, Clarendon, and 
Westmoreland Hotels. 



GBAMSBCT FABK, 

Situated a little to the northeast of the above, is a 
select and beautiful inclosure on a smaller scale. This 
park is private property, having been ceded to the 
owners of the surrounding lots by S. B. Ruggles, Esq. 
It forms the area between 20th and 21st streets, and 
the 3d and 4th Avenues. 

STUYVESANT PARK 

Extends from 15th to 17th streets, and is divided by 
the intersecting passage of the Second Avenue. The 
Rev. Dr. Tyng's Church is upon the west side of this 
park. Tlie ground was presented by the late P. G. 
Stuyvesant, Esq., to the corporation of the church. 

TOIIPKINS SQUABE 

Is one of the largest parks of the city. It occupies the 
area formed by Avenues A and B, and 7th and 10th 
streets. 

MADISON SQUARE, 
Comprising 10 acres, is at the junction of Broadway 
and Fifth Avenue. On the west side stands the monu- 
ment of General Worth. The houses surrounding thia 
park include some of the most elegant of the city. 



30 CITY OF NEW TORK. 



CENTRAL PARK. 

This great pleasure-ground of the city may be reached 
by most of the city railroads, and as each entrance has 
its own peculiar attractions, strangers will naturally 
take the cars that are most convenient for them. At 
the gates on 59th Street, at 6th, 7th, and 8th Avenues, 
and at 72d Street, on the 5th Avenue, carriages are 
generally standing for hire : not being under the control 
of the Park Commissioners, they are not responsible 
for their regulation and management. 

If you close with the offer of one of the owners of 
these carriages to " take you all around the Park," you 
must not conclude that you have seen the attractions. 
Should the driver take you over all the drives, you have 
not seen the full attractions of the Park ; they can be 
seen only by taking the foot-paths, and the visitor should, 
if possible, take more than one day for it. The extent 
of the walks and the number of things to be seen are 
sufficient to afford a new and interesting walk through 
the Park each day for a fortnight. 

TTie Time to go to the ParTc 

depends upon the season of the year and upon the ob- 
jects and tastes of the visitor. 

The gates are open at the following hours : during the 
months of December, January, and February, from 7 
A. M. to 8 p. M. ; during March, April, May, June, Octo- 
ber, and November, from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m. ; during July, 
August, and September, from 5 a. m, to 11 p. m. 

Those who go to see the foliage and the flowers, or 
on a botanical expedition, will be best satisfied from the 
1st of April to the middle of November, at any time in 
the day. In the hottest days ot the months of July, 
August, and September, until the trees are more fully 
grown, the visitor will perhaps prefer to be at the Park 



CENTRAL PARK. 31 

before 10 a, m., or after 3 p. m., but at any hour agree- 
able seats and shade may be found. Those who desire 
to see tlie equipages, fine turn-outs, and the gayeties of 
the city will go to the Park from April to November, 
from 3 p. M. to V p. m. In the Avarm months the fasliion 
is at the Park from 5 to 7.30 p. m. In the season, Juno 
to October, the well-selected and thoroughly accom- 
plished band of the Park plays at the music pavilion 
on the mall, on Saturday afternoons, free to all. The 
pieces performed include popular national airs, and the 
best new music that appears in Europe or America. 
Every pains is taken to maintain a high standard of 
these musical entertainments. 

In the skating season, December to !March, the great- 
est numbers are at the Park after 3 p. m., but many 
persons are on the ice in the morning and through tlio 
day. "When the ice is in good condition a ball is hoisted 
on the arsenal building, and generally the city cars in- 
dicate by small flags when the skating is good. 

The Park is a parallelogram, boimded on the South 
by 59th Street, on the North by 110th Street, on the 
East by the oth Avenue, and the West by the 8th Av- 
enue, containing, including the reservoirs, 848 acres. 
It is about 2Va miles long, and half a mile in width ; it is 
intersected by four transverse roads, which are laid 
at a lower level to accommodate the business trafHc of 
the city ; without interfering with the pleasure travel. 
The Park was originally a bare, unwholesome suburb 
of the city, acres of it were naked of soil, and stagnant, 
marshy spots gathered the filth of bone-boiling estab- 
lishments and pig-styes. The change to its present 
beauty has been accomplished in an almost inconceiva- 
ble short period of time. Work was commenced on the 
place in 1858, and in one year thereafter a part was 
thrown open to public use, to which other completed 
portions have since been added, from time to time, as 
completed. 

The Central Park is larger than any park on this con- 



32 OITT OF NEW TOKK. 

tinent, larger than any of the London parks, and 
with three exceptions larger than any city park in the 
world. Th^se exceptions are the Bois de Boulogne at 
Paris, the Prater at Vienna, and the Phenijc Park at 
Dublin. 

There are in it about 9 miles of carriage drive, 4 of 
bridle road, and about 25 miles of walk. Intersections 
of lines of travel are made by archways, to avoid dan- 
ger. Every effort has been made to preserve the natu- 
ral features of the Park. 

More than 260,000 trees and shrubs of all kinds have 
already been planted, and the work is still going on. 
The grounds are laid out on a plan : the system of walks 
will conduct the visitor from one end of the Park to the 
other, and bring him in view of most of the objects de- 
sirable to be seen. 

It possesses already the several essentials of a pic- 
turesque park — pond, stream, hill, rock, plain, and 
slope. The ridge which rises near the Battery, and 
forms the back-bone of the Island of Manhattan, trav- 
erses the Park from end to end ; forming, in its course, 
at least two admirabl-e points of view, from which deli- 
cious views of the adjacent scenery may be obtained. 
Through the valleys beneath course little brooks, 
which, with the help of thorough drainage, have been 
swelled into considerable streams, while a swamp has 
been converted by skilful engineering into a lake of one 
hundred acres, serving as one of the receiving reser- 
voirs of the city. There are hills, too, with rough, 
rocky sides, which will pass, with a little trimming, for 
mountain scenery ; and there are passes, which, with 
appropriate foliage, may almost figure as Alpine valleys. 
From botanical surveys already made, it appears that 
the ground is adapted to the cultivation of an unusual 
variety of plants and flowers. In fact, so many and so , 
various are the charms of this beautiful resort that, al- 
though it is visited annually by hundreds of thousands 
of persons, it may still be said that it is not yet fully 



CENTRAL PARK, 33A 

and justly appreciated by those who live within reach 
of its enjoyments ; and one object which we have in 
view in giving a fuller synopsis of its attractions, is to 
induce the tired resident of the city to avail himseir 
more frequently of this retreat. As a place of educa- 
tion, a pleasant school for the instruction of the taste, 
the value of the Park can scarcely be exaggerated. 

The Terrace is the principal architectural structure. 
This terminates the Mall on the north ; below it is the 
explanade surrounding the main fountain. The visitor 
will be well repaid by the examination of the design 
and execution of the detail of the stoue work of the 
te.rrace : to the Mall all of the walks of the lower park 
lead ; the walks at all the entrance gates on 59th street 
will lead to it under the marble arch. But we must an- 
swer the question : 

Eow are we to get there ? 

The cars of the Second, Third, Sixth, and Eighth 
Avenue railroads, stopping either at 6oth street, which 
leads to tliat portion of the Park known as the " Green," 
or at 70th street, leading to the " Eamble," afford con- 
venient access ; to which means of conveyance may bo 
added the various stage lines which carry passengers to 
within a few blocks of the Park. The cars should al- 
ways be avoided by those who are unwilling to pay for 
the privilege of standing up. 

Whither to go after reaching the Parh. 

The principal walks of the lower park lead more or 
less directly to the Mall Terrace, and through this to 
the Terrace, which is the central architectural feature of 
the plan. The attractions of this spot are perhaps as 
great as any within the limits of the Park, and from it 
we may take a view of the scene before us, and may 
note especially 



82B CITY OF NEW TOEK. 

The Archways and Bridges^ 

which are objects of admiration to the visitor, and are 
about thirty in number, of great beauty and variety 
of form and material, no two of the entire number 
being alike. Passing from the Terrace to the Fountain 
and Bow Bridge, we find ourselves among the attrac- 
tions of the 

Eamble, 

of which a good view can be had from the hill which 
rises about forty yards distant from the Bow Bridge, 
and commands a fair prospect of the lower park. But 
the beauties of this place must be explored by the 
tasteful visitor, who will admire, in turn, the paths 
leading along the shore, the bold projections of rock, 
the well-ai-ranged contrivances for rural effect, and, 
above all, the intermingled beauties of wood and water, 
verdure and rock. A charming view of the entire area 
of the Park may be had from the 

Hill 

that rises on the south side of the old reservoir, and 
attains an eminence surpassing that of any other point. 
From this we have the whole lower park lying in full 
view for a mile below us: the Lake and the Ramble 
are almost at our feet ; the Croton Reservoirs are close 
to us on the north ; and a mile and a quarter away is 
seen a pile of brick and painted wood, now used as 
a hospital for U. S. soldiers — being more than a quarter 
of a mile this side of its northern boundary. Still 
further beyond, we see the High Bridge — Westchester 
County — and the East River. 

Under the rock on which we are standing passes one 
of the 

Sub -way 8^ 

or transverse-roads, as they are less descriptively called 
in the nomenclature of the Park, These are of infinite 



CENTRAL PARK. 33 

importance to the beauty and convenience of the 
arrangements, as they allow the travel incident to 
business to pass unhindered on its way, crossing the 
park at four places, viz., at 65th, 79th, 85th, 97th 
streets ; while no impediment is sufi'ered by the plea- 
sure-seekers, who are left in the uninterrupted enjoy- 
ment of their rides, drives, or walks. Much credit has 
been given, both in this country and in Europe, to the 
architects of the Park for the clever suggestion of these 
useful roads. 

The Upper Parh 

is the most bold and romantic, and at the same time 
the richest in its historical associations. It is said that 
" the deep valley called McGovvan's Pass, dividing this 
northern portion, is the valley which by means of its 
darkly wooded hillsides sheltered the secret messengers 
passing between the scattered parties of the American 
troops who, during the few days intervening between 
their disheartening rout on Long Island and the battle of 
Harlem Plains, rallied about the range of hills extending 
from Fort Washington to Bloomingdale." A portion of 
the " Old Boston Road," venerable as being the oldest 
road out of New York, on the east side of the island, is 
still visible in the northeastern section of the Park. It 
should, if possible, be sutfered to remain as an interest- 
ing and precious relic of the past. It was by this road 
that the Huguenot refugees, living in New Rochelle, 
came into the city to attend the services at the French 
Church on Sunday. 

Miscellaneous Items. — The soil is composed for the 
most part of diluvial deposits, in which are many 
boulders (mainly trap rock), and the debris of the 
gneiss rock. 

The lowest point, about 109th street and Fifth 
Avenue, is less than 2 feet above the tide ; the highest, 
at 83d street, near Eighth Avenue, is 138 :^eet above the 
tide. 



34 



CITY OF NEW TOEK. 



Urinais are located at couvenient no.nts about the 
grounds. 

Cottages for ladies are also located about the 
grounds, each m charge of a female attendant, whose duty 
It is to wait upon visitors, to aid them in case of illness 
and to keep every thing in order in the place of which 
she has charge. 

To avoid accidents, persons on foot should keep on 
the walks, and not walk in the ride or drive. 

Visitors are requested 
Not to walk on the grass, except in those places where 

the word common is posted, 
Not to pick any Flower, Leaf, Twig, or Fruit, 
Not to deface or mark the seats or other structures 
Not to throw stones or other missiles, ' 

Not to annoy the Birds, 
Not to offer any thing for sale. 

At each gate stands a gate-keeper, and on the grounds 
wdl be found Park Keepers, in uniform, who are re- 
quired to give information about the Park to visitors, 
and to deport themselves with politeness to all. 

No person employed at the Park is allowed to receive 
any pay or reward for his services. They are amply 
paid for the performance of their duties. For lost arti- 
cles apply to the Property Clerk, in the old arsenal 
building. 

The Park is under the management of a Board of 
Commissioners, appointed by the Mayor, 

The chief executive officer is Peter B. Sweeny, Presi- 
dent of the Board. ^ 
The office of the Board is at No. 31 Nassau Street. 



PARKS AND PUBLIC SQUARED 34 A 



RESERVOIR PARX. 

Eeservoir Square is located between the Fifth and 
Sixth avennes, and 40th and 42d streets, and has an 
extent of between nine and ten acres, upon one-half of 
which is the "Distributing Eeservoir." The other, or 
western lialf, once had upon it the "New York Crystal 
Palace," but since the destruction of that building by 
the lire of 1858, the grounds have been kept open as a 
park. This square has been selected as the site of the 
College of the City of New York. 



MT. MORRIS SQUARE. 

Mt. Morris Square presents the anomalous appearance 
of an abrupt lull, with thickly wooded side?, rising from 
the midst of a plain that has no other liills upon it. It 
"head's off" the Fifth Avenue at 120th street, and ex- 
tends as far north as 124th street, and its area is nearly 
twenty acres. It is the breathing spot of the pretty 
village of Haidem, and the favorite resort of the citizens. 



OTHER SQUARES. 

The other squares, such as Hamilton, Manhattan, 
Bloomingdale, etc., contain from fifteen to twenty-two 
acres each, but are not at present prepared for park 
purpoees, being in an unimproved condition. 



84 B OITT OF NEW YOEK. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

THE NEW COURT HOUSE. 



Tliis immense building, now m process of construc- 
tion, is situated in tlie rear of the City Hall, on Cham- 
bers-street, and will be, when completed, one of the 
most substantial edifices in the United States. Its 
equal is certainly not to be found in the city, and the 
immensity of the structure can only be seen and felt by 
a compai'ison with buildings of great capacity, towering 
as it does above the five-story buildings in the vicinity, 
completely overlooking the present City Hall, and com- 
manding as fine a view of the surroundings of New 
York as can possibly be bad. It was commenced in 
September, 1861, under the direction and superinten- 
dence of Mr. Curamings H. Tucker, who was appointed 
by the Board of Supervisors for this purpose. The 
architect is Mr. John Kellum, the same who also has 
charge of A. T. Stewart's immense building, corner of 
Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fourth street, and who also 
built the Stock Exchange, and several other large build- 
ings in this city. The entire length of the building is 
250 feet, and the breadth 150; rectangular in form, and 
three stories in height above ground. The plans and 
designs called for materials (particularly with reference 
to iron and marble) of great magnitude, and the expense 
attendant upon their selection, preparation, and adapta- 
tion, together with all the embellishments, is necessa- 
rily very heavy. The original cost was estimated at 
about $800,000, but the increased expense of material 
and labor since tliat time will bring the entire expenses 
over $7,500,000, when completed, at the lowat estimate. 
The cost of the City Hall, which was nine years in build- 



PUBLIC BUILDrNGS. 34 

ing, was about $700,000, The height of the new Court 
House, from the base course to top of pediment, is 97 feet. 
The dome will be 128 feet high above tlie pediment, 
making a total height of the building, from the base 
course to the top of dome, 225 feet. From the side- 
walk to the pediment tlie building is 82 feet high, and 
from sidewalk to top of the dome 210 feet. 

The new Court House is an entirely fire-proof build- 
ing — the ceilings from base to attic all being formed of 
brick arches. And when we consider that in this will 
be deposited all the records, wills, leases, and docu- 
ments of the offices of the Eegister, County Clerk, and 
Surrogate, the citizens of New York, who are all more 
or less interested in the preservation of these, will feel 
a security as to their property and interests not hitherto 
felt. 

It affords accommodations for County Clerk, Eegis- 
ter, Surrogate, Sheriff, and Tax Departments, and Tax 
Offices— departments in which it is of the utmost im- 
portance that business should be transacted daily aud 
with dispatch. 

The Court-rooms are large, airy, unobstructed by 
columns, made with reference to the principles of 
acoustics, and finished in an agreeable and pleasing 
manner, so that they form an attractive feature to the 
spectator, and all to whom may be intrusted the admin- 
istration of justice ; differing in this respect from most 
of the large rooms in the Capitol at Washington, the 
City Hall, and other public buildings, in which, as a 
general thing, the shadows and sombre hues are so 
strong as to intercept that light and heat so necessary 
to lend a cheerful aspect to any auditory. 



SEVENTH EEGIMENT ARMORY. 



This large iron edifice is located almost directly op- 
posite the Cooper Union, on the Third avenue, and oo- 



84 D 



CITY OF NEW YOEK. 



cupies the entire block between Sixth and Seventlj 
streets. It is constructed entirely of iron, is 200 feet 
long by 100 wide, and cost over $250,000. The first 
floor IS used as a market, and known as "Tompkins 
Market." The second floor is divided into company 
armories and meeting-rooms, which are fitted up aud 
furnished at the expense of the several companies of the 
regiment. The entire expense on the interior of the 
building nearly or quite equals the original cost of the 
structure. The third floor is used for a drill-room by 
the whole regiment. The basement, or floor beneath 
the market, has been prepared for target practice and 
squad-drUls. 

By resolution of Common Council, approved April 6 
1855, the use of the armory was given the Seventh 
Kegiment, New York National Guard, during the 
pleasure of the Common Council, but was not built, and 
used by the regiment, till the year 1859. 

EIGHTH EEGIMENT ARMOKT, 

Comprises the upper part of Centre Market, situated at 
the corner of Grand and Centre streets. 

TWENTY-SECOND REGIMENT ARMORY, 

located in Fourteenth-street, near Sixth avenue, WM 
Erected in 1863, at a cost of $150,000. 

THIRTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT ARMORY, 

At the junction of Broadway and Sixth avenue, is a 
stately-looking building, occupying an entire square 
block, and was erected in 1861, at a cost of $200,000. 



PUBUO BUILDINGS, 35 

THE CITY HALL. 

This is an imposing edifice, and, for the most part, 
built of marble. It was constructed between the years 
1803-10. At the celebration of the Atlantic Telegraph, 
the clock-tower and other npper portions of the build- 
ing were destroyed by fire, but have since been rebuilt. 

Previous to the completion of the new cupola, our 
City Fathers contracted with Messrs. Sperry &; Co., tho 
celebrated tower-clock makers of Broadway, to build a 
clock for it, at a cost not exceeding 14,000, that our 
citizens might place the utmost reliance upon, as a time- 
keeper of unvarying correctness. During the month of 
April the clock was completed, and the busy thousands 
who were daily wont to look up to the silent monitor, 
above which the figure of justice was enthroned, hailed 
its appearance with the utmost satisfaction. It is un- 
doubtedly the finest specimen of a tower clock on this 
side of the Atlantic, and as an accurate time-keeper 
competent judges pronounce it to be unsurpassed in the 
world. The main wheels are thirty inches in diameter, 
the escapement is jeweled, and the pendulum, which is 
in itself a curiosity, is over fourteen feet in lengtli. 
It is a curious fact that the pendulum bob weighs 
over 300 pounds; but so finely finished is every 
wheel, pinion and pivot in the clock, and so little power 
is required to drive them, that a weight of only 100 
pounds is all that is necessary to keep this ponderous 
mass of metal vibrating, and turn four pairs of hands on 
the dials of the cupola! The clock does not stand, as 
many suppose, directly behind the dials, but in the story 
below, and a perpendicular iron rod twenty -five feet in 
length connects it with the dial-works above. 

in the building are the several offices of the Mayor, 
Common Council and Aldermen, the Governor's room. 
City Library, and other business offices. 

The United States District Court is located in Cham- 
bers street, at the rear of the City Hall. The several 
otlier Courts are held in the brown stone building, sit- 
uated at the northeast angle of the City Hall. 



46 OTTY OF NEW YORK. 



THE CUSTOM-HOUSE, 



Occupying the building which was formerly the Mer 
chants' Exchange, is located between Wall street, Ex- 
change Place, William and Hanover streets. The material 
employed in its construction is blue Quincy granite, and 
it is characterized by fine proportions, and massive, sub- 
stantial qjpearance. Its dimensions are on such a scale 
as to produce a fine architectural effect, being in length, 
200 feet; in width, from 144 to 171; while it has an 
elevation of 77 feet at the cornice, and 124 feet at the 
top of the dome. The portico of eighteen Ionic columns, 
which graces its front, imparts to it an imi)osing effect. 
The interior of the building fully sustains the impression ; 
for besides the numerous apartments set apart to various 
uses, it contains a rotunda in the centre, surmounted 
by a lofty dome, which is supported, in part, by eight 
Corinthian columns of Italian marble. This rotunda ig 
capable of containing 3000 persons. Its entire cost, 
including the ground, was over $1,800,000. The archi- 
tect was Isaiah Rogers ; and it was built on the site of 
the old Exchange, destroyed by the fire of 1835. The 
original stockholders lost every penny of their invest- 
ment, it having been sold to other hands to defray the 
mortgage held by the Barings of London, 

THE MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE 

Is now held in William street, near Exchange Place. 
The Merchants' Exchange sales-room is in the Trinity 
Building, on Broadway, north of Trinity Church. 

THE POST-OFFICE, 

In Nassau street, between Cedar and Liberty streets, 
was formerly the Middle Dutch Church. At a time — 
namely, during the war of the Revolution — when most 



PUBLIC BUtLDINQS. 87 

of the churches were turned to military use by the 
British, this one sustained the greatest injuries ; which 
more or less, however, fell upon all. In 1790, it received 
such repairs as fitted it again for public worship ; but it 
Vfas afterwards secured by the government and devoted 
to its present use, — that of a post-office. Its internal 
arrangements are extensive, and well adapted to tho 
objects of its present use ; the postmaster's room is so 
situated as to command a view of all that is going on in 
the building. It was in the old Avooden steeple of this 
building that Franklin practised his experiments in 
electricity. 

THE UNITED STATES TREASURY AND ASSAY OFFICE, 

On the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, is a splendid 
building, constructed in the Doric order of Grecian 
architecture. It is built in the most substantial manner 
of white marble, something after the model of the Par- 
thenon at Athens; as a piece of masonry, it is equal to 
any structure extant, and to judge from appearances, 
likely to become as enduring as the pyramids; it occupies 
the site of the old Federal Hall. The building is 200 
feet long, 80 feet wide, and 80 feet high : at the southern 
end, on Wall street, is a portico of eight purely Grecian 
columns, 5 feet 8 inches in diameter, and 32 feet high ; 
and on the northern end, on Pine street, is a correspond- 
ing portico, of similar columns. The front portico is 
ascended by eighteen marble steps, and the rear portico, 
on Pine street, by only three or four marble steps. It ia 
two lofty stories high above the basement story. The 
great business hall is a splendid room, 60 feet in diame- 
ter. The cost of the building, including the ground, was 
$1,195,000. 

THE CITT ARMORY. 

The old City Akmory or Arsenal, is situated at the 
junction ■>f Elm and White streets, extending 84 feet oo 



3» CITY OF NEW YOEK. 

Elm, and 131 feet on White street. The edifice is so con- 
structed, tliat in case of any popular tumult, it could be 
defended by a garrison of 50 men. The ground-tloor 
is used as a gun-room, and the upper room for drilling, 
&c. The style of the architecture is a kind of gothic, 
with castellated towers. This arsenal contains a por- 
tion of the artillery of the first division of the New 
York State Militia. It is intended that a large flagstaff 
shall be erected on the centre of the roof of this build- 
ing, in order that telegraphic communications may be 
conveyed by wires from it to the new arsenal up town, 
which is situated on the corner of Thirty-fifth streat 
and Seventh Avenue. 

THE HALL OF RECORDS, 

Located to the east of the City Hall, was origiially 
used for a prison, and subsequently as a cholera hos- 
pital. It is of coarse stone stuccoed over ; th( en- 
trances north and south, are ornamented Avith [gnio 
columns. The building is now used as the Depository 
for Deeds, Eecords, &c. 

THE HALLS OF JUSTICE. 

This is the city prison, or as it is more familiarly sfyled, 
from its gloomy aspect, "the Tombs." It is a spacious 
building, or rather series of buildings, — occupying the 
square bounded by Centre street on the east. Elm street 
on the west, and Franklin and Leonard streets on the 
north and south. It is a massive structure, in the 
Egyptian style, the main entrance being by an ascent 
of steps beneath a large portico supported by massive 
Egyptian columns. The Court of Sessions, Police 
Court, and others, are held in this building. It also 
comprises the prison, which has about 150 cells. The 
house of detention measures 142 feet by 45. The 
place of execution of criminals is the interior court- 
yard. The edifice was completed in 1838. On appli- 
cation to the keeper, visitors may obtain admission to 
the building. 




Sue-Tkeasuey. 



BENKVOLBNT INSTITUTIONS 89 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

BLACKWELL'S ISLAND. 

A visit to the several establishments on this island will 
well repay any one interested in the efforts for amel- 
iorating human suffering. There are on the island, tho 
Penitentiarj', with its 500 to 1000 convicts, the Alras- 
House Hospital, the Lunatic Asylum, and the New 
Work-House, — which last is one of the most complete 
edifices in the country. It is built of stone taken from 
the quarries of the island. It is a very spacious build- 
ing, being capable of holding about 600 persons ; all its 
internal arrangements are very complete. The humane 
object of this institution is to separate vagrants froni 
criminals, and to compel all to work who are able to 
do something towards their own support. The build- 
ing, which is 325 feet in length, cost about $100,000. 
Tickets for admission to the island can be obtained of 
the Uommissioners of Public Charities and Correction : 
office, corner Eleventh street and Third avenue. 

There are various modes of conveyance to the is- 
land, — by the Second or Third avenue cars to Ninety- 
second street, where a boat will be found at almost 
any hour ; also by steamer from foot of Twenty-seventh 
street, East River. 

WAKD'S ISLAND 

May also be visited by the same conveyances, on ob- 
taining a permit from the Commissioners of Emigra- 
tion, at their office in the New City Hall, near the 
junction of Chambers and Centre streets. 

RANDALL'S ISLAND 

May be reached also by boat from foot of 27th. St. E.R. 
each day at noon. Here aio the nurseries for tho sup' 



40 OITY OF NEW YORK. 

port and instruction of destitute children. This insti- 
tution is the most interesting of all, and conimenda 
itself to the sympathies of all who would become 
acquainted with the benevolent agencies of New York 
city. Permits may be had, as for Blackwell's Island. 
There are usually to be seen here, in the several insti- 
tutions, from 4000 to 5000 persons young and old. 

THE NEW YORK ORPHAN ASYLUM, 

Situated in Blooraingdale, near Eightieth street, com- 
prises a fine building 120 feet by 60, and nine acres ot 
ground, laid out with much taste. These grounds com- 
mand a splendid view of the Hudson and East Rivers 
with the surrounding scenery. There are in this insti- 
tution about 200 orphans. The institution was incor- 
porated by charter in 1807, and its present edifice was 
completed in 1840. It is a most praiseworthy insti- 
tution, and a very interesting one to visit. 

THE BL00MIN6DALE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, 

A branch of the New York Hospital, is situated in tho 
Bloomingdale Road, at a distance of about seven miles 
from the City Hall. It occupies a most beautiful and 
commanding site, and its approach and surroundings 
are admirably fitted to lighten the sense of depression 
and gloom which we instinctively associate with every 
establishment of the kind. The treatment administer- 
ed to its unfortunate inmates, too, is of the most en- 
lightened, humane, and rational sort. The principal 
building is 211 feet in length, 60 in depth, and four 
Ktories in height; with side buildings. 

The approach to the Asylum from the southern en- 
trance, by the stranger who associates the most sombre 
scenes with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The 
sudden opening of the view, the extent of the grounds, 
the various avenues gracefully winding through so 
arge a lawn ; the cedar hedges, the fir and other orna- 
mental trees, tastefully distributed or grouped, the 



;■ |,iif-:^:"I'iKil" 




BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 41 

variety of shrubbery and flowers. Tlie central building, 
however, is always open to visitors, and the view from 
the top of it, being the most extensive and beautiful of 
any in the vicinity of the city, is well worthy of their 
attention. 



THE NEW YOEK HOSPITAL, 

Situated on the comer of Duane and Church streets, (en- 
trance 319 Broadway,) is a most important benevolent 
institution. It dates Ijack to 1771, when it was founded 
by the Earl of Dunmore, who was at that time governor 
of the colony. The accommodation for patients is not 
very extensive, though excellent in every respect. It is a 
receptacle in cases of sudden accidents. It is not al- 
together gratuitous ; but to such as are able to pay a little, 
it offers most important advantages, four dollars a week 
commanding the best medical attendance, besides nurs- 
ing and medicine. The students, too, have the benefit, 
for a small annual fee, of accompanying the surgeons in 
their rounds. The institution has an annual revenue, 
from various sources, of about $80,000, which is expended 
in support of the establishment. The hospital grounds 
were formerly as represented by the accompanying cut, 
but owing to the gigantic strides of commerce, it was 
found desirable, a few years ago, to dispose of the larger 
portion of the same for business purposes. 



THE BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, 

Under the management of the Board of Commissioners 
of Charities and Correction, is located at Twenty-sixtlx 
street and East River. The accommodations here are also 
excellent. 



JEWS' HOSPITAL 
Is located at 158 West Twenty-eighth street 



« CITY OF NEW TOBK. 

THE INSTITUTION FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

This noble and well-conducted Asylum is situated 
at Fanwood, Washington Heights, on 162d street, 
which is reached by means of the Hudson River raiU 
road. The prmcipal building measures 110 feet by 60 
and IS five stories high. It is capable of accommodating 
Ironi 200 to 300 pupils, exclusive of the principal and 
teachors, &c. It is one of the best-endowed institutions 
of benevolence in New York ; being sustained by ap- 
propriations made by the State Legislature, by the City 
Corporation, and private benefactions. The pupils are 
instructed in the ordinary branches of learning, and 
some of them in the various trades. Dr. Peet is the 
superintendent. Open to the public from half-past one 
to four p. M. every day. 

THE INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND 

Is on the Ninth Avenue, between Thirty-third and 
Thirty-fourth streets, occupying 32 lots of ground, pre- 
Bented by James Boorman, Esq. The edifice is of gran- 
ite, and of the Gothic order of architecture. It owes 
its origin mainly to Dr. J. D. Russ, whose attention was 
directed to the sightless condition of a large number of 
the children in the City Alms House. Moved by the 
spectacle, he determined to devote himself to their re- 
lief, and for that purpose took seven children from the 
Alms House and gratuitously instructed them for nearly 
two years, and finally obtained the passage of an act by 
the legislature for their support. In this effort he was 
ably supported by Samuel Wood, a well-known member 
of the Society of Friends, and Dr. Samuel Akerly, dis- 
tinguished for his zeal and labors in behalf of the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb. Here also the usual 
branches of education are taught, and the pupils are in- 
structed in the several useful arts of life. It is an ex- 
ceedingly useful object to visit, as is also the Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum. The Institution is open to visitors on 
week days, from one to six p. m., and may be conven- 
iently reached by stages and cars that run on the Eighth 
Avenue. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 45 

THE HOUSE OF INDUSTRY AND HOME FOR THE 
FRIENDLESS 

Is located on Thirtieth street, between Fourth and Madi- 
son Avenues. It is under the direction of a society de- 
voted to the protection of deserted children, and adult 
persons who may be in distress. This association has 
largely contributed to the relief of the poor and desti- 
tute of the city, — in one year it relieved, and provided 
with places, over 600 young and old. The society pub- 
lishes a paper semi-monthly, entitled " The Advocate 
and Guardian,'''' which has a circulation of about 15,000 
copies; it has also published over 10,000 t^-acts, &c. 

THE HOUSE AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY 

Has its rooms No. 100 West Sixteenth street. It was 
organized in 1850. 

THE SOCIETY FOR THE RELIEF OF POOR WIDOWS 
WITH SMALL CHILDREN, 

Was organized in 1797, by the efforts of the late Mrs. 
Isabella Graham. Its average number of persons re- 
lieved, is about 200 widows and 500 children. Mrs. L. 
Perkins, 1st Directress, 78 West Fourteentli street. 

THE HOUSE OF INDUSTRY, 

In the Five Points, near Centre and Pearl streets, Mr. 
S. B. Halliday now has charge of the House of Indus- 
try. Placed in the very midst of squalid poverty 
and crime, this excellent charity has achieved great 
results in rescuing and reclaiming the youth of vicious 
parentage. Mr. Pease's institution dates back only to 
1848, yet thus far has its progress been incomparably 
the most successful of any of the numerous noble chari- 
ties of New York. Persevering through numberless 
difficulties, Mr. Pease at length has achieved a great 
success in his laudable endeavors. He has now from 
100 to 200 inmates, rescued from the pnrlieus of r>?e 
4* 



46 qiTT OF NEW YORK. 

and poverty; hopefully engaged in liis "House of In- 
dustry." Since its foundation, between 800 and 900 
women have been sent out to places in the country. 
By his economical plan, the major part of the expenses 
of the establishment liave been defrayed by the pro- 
ductive labor of the inmates. 

Tliere are many other pliilanthropic societies in New 
York, which it is not necessary to detail, as they may 
be found briefly named in the City Directory. The 
more prominent are the following benevolent societies: 

ODB FELLOWS HALL. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows number, in 
New York city, about 90 lodges, and about 12 encamp- 
ments, including many thousand members; many of 
the lodges have fine halls, in various parts of this city 
and the neighboring cities of Brooklyn, Williamsburg, 
Jersey City, &c. ; but the grand rendezvous of tlie order, 
is the large brown-stone building at the corner of Grand 
and Centre streets, erected at a cost of $125,000. This 
imposing edifice presents a noble appearance, being sub- 
stantially built, lofty, and surmounted by a dome. It 
contains a series of highly ornamented lodge-rooms, 
richly furnished and in different styles of architecture : 
some Egyptian, Grecian, Elizabethan, &c. These ele- 
gant apartments are well worth a visit. The average 
receipts of the association which owns this edifice, is 
estimated at about $75,000. Their distribution in the 
form of benefactions to the sick and poor, is on a scale 
of corresponding liberality. 

ANCIENT AND HONORABLE FRATERNITY OF FREE 
AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

The M. "W. Grand Lodge of the ancient and honorable 
fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of 
Few York, meets at such commodious place as may be 
appointed on the 1st Tuesday in March, June, Septem- 
ber, and December. Subordinate lodges meet every 




.VAlV.K'e'4't.i •• 



Odd Fkllows' Hal; 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIO:TS. 47 

evening in Crosby street, corner of Broome street, and 
at Odd Fellows Hall, Grand and Centre streets. 

THE SAILORS SlfUG HAEBOR, 

An Asylum for aged and infirm seamen, is situated on 
the north side of Staten Island. It was founded by 
Capt. Randall in 1801, and incorporated in 1806 in New 
York ; the present noble building on Staten Island, 
measures 225 feet in length, with 160 acres of ground; 
about 300 aged and disabled seamen are here supported. 
Near tlie Quarantine grounds, are the Seamen's JRetreat 
for the sick, and the Rome for Sailor's Children^ also the 
Marine Hospital^ which is supported by an emigrant 
tax of $2 on every cabin passenger, native of a foreign 
country, and 50 cents for every steerage passenger. 
The fund from these sources, amounts to nearly $100,000 
per annum. There is yet another benevolent marine 
society, styled The American Seamen''s Friend Society^ 
whose object is to bring good influences to bear upon 
this class, by preaching, and by opening boarding-houses, 
reading-rooms, savings banks, &c. 

The Marine Societyh office is at 67 Wall-street. 
St. George's Society of New York, 40 Exchange PIai«. 
St. Andreio's Society, 90 Broadway. 
St. Nicholas " 11 Wall-street. 
Neio England " Aster House. 
Italian Benevolent Society, 685 Broadway. 
Irish Emigrant " 51 Chambers-street. 

Hibernian Benevolent Society, 195 West Seventeenth st 
German Society of New York, 5 Battery Place. 
Hebrew Benevolent Society, 3d Av. and E. 77th St. 
German Mutual Assistance Society, 17 North William-st. 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, 215 Hester-street. 

The respective addresses of Societies not given in Ihia 
list are to be found in the New York Directory. 



48 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 



DEPAETMENT OF OHAEITIES AND COERECTIONS 
Have erected on the corner of Eleventh street and Third 
Avenue a neat and substantial building, which they oc- 
cupy. This very important department was created by 
an act of the State Legislature, and is the most benevo- 
lent mstitution in the city. Almost hourly through the 
winter the rooms are crowded with applicants for relief, 
whose wants are amply and promptly attended to. A 
large and very efficient corps of assistants are employed 
to carry out the objects for which this institution was cre- 
ated. This department is under the management of a 
Board of Five Commissioners, who have entire control 
over all the public institutions of the city, including Kan- 
dall's, Ward's, and Blackwell's Islands. Any person de- 
sirous of visiting any or all of these places, can obtain 
permits at this office. 



LITERARY & SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 

THE ASTOR LIBRARY, 

Situated on Lafayette Place, near Astor Place, is justly 
regarded as the library collection of the continent. Its 
literary treasures comprise some of the rarest and most 
valuable productions of art extant. Dr. Cogswell, the 
learned Librarian, has collected from all parts of the old 
world a vast accumulation of costly works in all de- 
partments of human knowledge ; including about 1000 
bibliographical books, and numerous superbly illustrat- 
ed works of great rarity and value, on almost all sub- 
jects — science, history, biography, philology, &c., &c. 
It already contains over 100,000 volumes, and further 
additions are constantly being made to this collection^ 
by the munificence of its founder, John Jacob Astor' 
who endowed it with the sum of $400,000. 



UIJ>iHl-lls;.sil--.ji:,fell':|Hl-lt 







LITBRART AlfD SOIENTIFIO IN8TITD riOXa. 49 

This stately edifice, bnilt of brick, ornamented with 
Drown stone, is of the Eoinanesque style, and of great 
Bymmetrical beauty. Its interior, however, is much 
more imposing. The entrance to the Library Hall is 
by a flight of 38 marble steps leading to the second 
story. This splendid hall is richly decorated with 14 
piers finished in imitation of Italian marble, and over 
these are galleries ranged on either side, inclosed with 
gilt iron railings. These upper galleries are reached by 
eight spiral stairways. The height of the Library is 
near 50 feet, and in the centre of the ceiling is a largo 
skylight, measuring 54 feet by 14, and at each side 
smaller lights ; there are no other windows, these how- 
ever afford sufficient light for the building. In the east 
end are mclosures railed in, and the Librarian's rooms 
In the lower, or first floor, are the Lecture room and 
Reading rooms. The floors are of mosaic work. A 
visit to this noble institution, with its rich and rare col- 
lection of sumptuous books, will become a necessity to all 
who have any love for literature and art. 

In the year 1857, William B. Astor, Esq., made a do- 
nation, to the Trustees, of the adjoining lot; upon 
which another structure, in all respects corresponding 
with the first, has just been erected. Thus the Astor 
Library has now doubled its proportions— forming 
the most imposing architectural edifice of its class in 
the United States, This new building was o-,ened to 
the public in the Autumn of 1859— immediately after 
the return of Dr. Cogswell from Europe with a further 
collection of literary spoils. 

THE COOPEE UNION 

Is a noble building erected by Mr. Peter Cooper, of New 
York, and is devoted to the " moral, intellectual, and 
physical improvement of his countrymen." The build- 
ing covers an entire block, having a front on Third Av- 
enue of 195 feet, on Fourth Avenue 155, on Eighth 
street 143, and on Seventh street 86. It is in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the new " Bible House." the "Astor 



ZO CITY OF NEW' TOEK. 

Library,*' the " Mercantile Library," and the rooms of 
various literary and scientific societies. In the base- 
ment is a large lecture-room, 125 feet long by 85 wide 
and 21 high; and this, and also the first and second 
Btories, which are arranged for stores and offices, are 
rented, so as to produce a revenue to meet the annual 
expenses of the " Institute." The " Institute" proper — 
or the "Union" — commences with the third story, in 
which is an "exhibition-room," 30 feet high and 125 by 
82, lighted from above by a dome. The fourth story 
may be considered as a part of the third, being a con- 
tinuation of galleries with alcoves for painting and 
sculpture. In the fifth story are two large lecture- 
rooms ; and the library, consisting of five rooms, which 
connect with each other and with the lecture-rooms. 
There are also rooms for experiments, for instruments, 
and for the use of artists. The cost of the building is 
about $300,000, and the annual income from the rented 
parts is from $25,000 to $30,000. The whole is under 
the control of a Board of Directors for the benefit of the 
public; the course of lectures, the library, and the 
reading-rooms being all free. In the munificence both 
of the gift and the endowment, the " Coopeu Institute" 
stands as a monument to its noble-hearted founder 
more enduring than the pyramids. The School of De- 
sign for women has rooms in this building. 

THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, 

In Twenty-third street, corner of Lexington Avenue, 
was established in 1 848, by the Board of Education of 
the city of New York, in pursuance of an act passed 
May 7, 1847, for the purpose of providing higher educa- 
tion for such pupils of the Common Schools as may 
wish to avail themselves thereof. The college is under 
the general superintendence of the Board of Educa- 
tion ; but it is specially under the supervision of an 
Executive Committee, for its care, government, and 
management, appointed by the Board. All its expenses 






ku' 



■^S^sS^!^^, 





-<e^H^>z-!!i" 



LITERARY AND SOIKNTIFIO INSTITUTIONS. 51 

for instruction, apparatus, library, cabinet collections, 
books and stationery, are paid out of the public treasury. 
The cost of the ground was $37,810, the edifice, 
$75 000, and the interior furniture, apparatus, «&c., 
$26,'867. The building measures 125 feet by 80, and 
will' accommodate 1000 pupils. 

The students are admitted in annual classes, and the 
full course of study embraces five years. 

The Board of Education is authorized by law to con- 
fer the usual collegiate degrees on the recommendation 
of the faculty. ^ , ^ » a 

Graduates may become " Kesident Graduates, and 
continue their studies at option. The Academical stud- 
ies during Term time, continue daily (except Saturday 
and Sunday) from a quarter before 9 o'clock a. M. to 3 
o'clock p. M. 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 
Occupy the Clinton Hall building in Astor Place, Eighth 
street. This noble establishment comprises a fane li- 
brary, reading-room, and lecture-room, also cabmets of 
minerals, &e. Its literary collections numbering be- 
tween 90, and 100,000 volumes, in the several depart- 
ments of general knowledge, including also a valuable 
series of periodical works, unsurpassed by any other 
institution. Tlie number of its members at the present 
time exceeds 4000. This institution, originally estab- 
lished for the use of clerks, has been since thrown open 
to the public on payment of the subscription, $5 per an- 
num. Clerks pay $1 initiation fee, and $2 subscription. 

THE NEW YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY 
Is situated in University Place, near Twelfth street. 
This time-honored institution, founded in 1754, pos- 
sesses a fine collection of books in general literature, 
numbering about 38,000 volumes. Permanent mem- 
bers of this institution, by the payment of $25, and 
the annual fee of $6, become stockholders lem- 
porary members are admitted on the payment ot $7V 



CITY OF NEW TOEK. 



per annum. To all these literary establiskments, visit' 
ors are admitted. 



THE CITY LIBRARY 

Is in the City Hall, and is free to all persons. 

THE NEW YORK LAW INSTITUTE 

Have a valuable library of law books at No. 41 Cham- 
bers street. Open daily. 

THE PRINTERS' FREE LIBRARY, 

Located at No. 3 Chambers street, has over 4000 vol* 
umes. It is open every Saturday evening. 

THE WOMAN'S LIBRARY 

Is in the New York University Building, fronting on 
"Washington Square. 

THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Is a society of scientific men, formed for the study of 
natural history. Its rooms are in Fourteenth street, 
near the 4th Avenue. It. possesses a good library, and 
a large museum of minerals, plants, and specimens of 
.natural history. It is accessible to the public. 

THE APPRENTICE'S LIBRARY, 

containing about 16,000 volumes for the use of youth- 
ful apprentices, is in the Mechanics' Hall, 472 Broad- 
way, near Grand street. 

THE MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, 

No. 20 Fourth Avenue, has a collection of upwards of 
8000 volumes. There is a school attached for the edu- 
cation of the children of mechanicsi, 




New Yckk University. 



LITERART AXD SOIENTIFIO INSTITUTIONS. 63 



THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

Est.ablished upwards of half a century, have a noble 
edifice on the corner of Eleventh street and Second 
Avenue. It is an elegant fire-proof structure, built of 
yellow sandstone from the province of New Brunswick, 
and is splendidly fitted up. Its literary collections con- 
sist of rare and valuable books pertaining to the history 
and antiquities of the country; also medals, coins, 
maps, engravings, &c. The Library comprises about 
20,000 volumes. There is a fine Picture-gallery in the 
uppermost story ; the Library Hall, Lecture-room, and 
various offices are characterized by great architectural 
beauty. Recently there have been added a fine collec- 
tion of Nineveh Marbles, presented by James Lenox, 
Esq., and Dr. Abbott's Egyptian Collection (obtained 
by liberal subscription), one of the most valuable mu- 
seums of Egyptian antiquities in the world. The meet- 
ings of the society are lield on the first Tuesday of each 
month ; there are also occasional Lectures given, in ad- 
dition to the regular series. Rev. Thomas De Witt is 
the President, and the membership of the association 
numbers about 1,500, including the leading literary men 
of the country. 



AMERICAN ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

Founded in 1842. The first President of this society 
was the late Albert Gallatin, formerly Secretary of the 
Treasury, &c., who held the ofiice until his deatli in 1849. 
The object of the society is "the prosecution of in- 
quiries into tlie origin, progress, and characteristics of 
the various races of men." This society has collected 
a large amount of materials, and has published three 
volumes of Transactions. The meetings are held at the 
houses of members, on the second Tuesday in each 
month. 



54 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

THE NEW YORK JUVENILE ASYLUM, 

A fine stone edifice, situated near Higjh Bridge, 19 a 
home and reformatory for neglected children. The asy- 
lum, by its charter, becomes the legal guardian of all 
such children as may be committed to it by the volun- 
tary act of their parents or by the precept of a police 
magistrate. The institution owes its origiji to Dr. J. D. 
Russ of this city, so favorably known for his exertions 
in establishing the New York Institution for the Blind. 
The success of the institution has been largely promoted 
by A. R. Wetmore, Esq., who has been its president 
and financier almost from its organization. It occupies 
about 20 acres of ground, which is in part cultivated by 
the children, who, during their stay in the asylum, are 
instructed in all the branches of a common school edu- 
cation. As soon as their improvement will warrant 
their removal, they are sent to the Great West and in- 
dentured, where, in a few years, instead of being drawn 
into the vortex of crime as they almost inevitably would 
have been if left unprotected in our streets, they will 
many of them become our law-makers and occupy places 
of trust. The institution has a House of Reception for 
200 children, at No. 71 West Thirteenth street. All 
children, when first committed, must remain in this 
house ten days, to afford their parents an opportunity 
of reclaiming tliem. The two buildings can accommo- 
date about 700. Take Hudson River railroad'or Man- 
hattanville stages to Fort Washington or High Bridge. 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

This society have their rooms on the corner of Fourth 
Avenue and Twenty-third street. The Association has 
a reading-room, which is entirely distinct from the 
library and department for committee and other meet- 
ings. Devotional services are held on Wednesday and 
Saturday evenings. Young men, strangers, and the 
public are cordially invited. 



UTEBAEY AND SCIKNTIFIO INSTITUTIONS. 56 

THE AMERICAN INSHTUTE, 
At Cooper Union, lias also a select library of works, 
principally relating to the inventive and mechanic arts. 
Under the auspices of this association have been held 
the annual fairs for the purpose of exhibiting the pro- 
gress of new inventions in science and art. 



THE AMERICAN GEOSRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL 
SOCIETY 
Of New York, hold their monthly meetings at Qinton 
Hall, Astor Place. C. P. Dally, president. 

THE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

Is located on the east side of Washington Square, and 
forms a noble architectural ornament, being of the 
English collegiate style of architecture. The Uiiiver- 
eity was established in 1831, and has ever maintained 
its high reputation. It has a chancellor, and a corps 
of professors in the various departments of learning. 
There is also a grammar school connected with the 
institution; also a valuable library, philosophical ap- 
paratus, &c. The edifice is of marble, and measures 
about 200 feet in front by 100 in depth: it presents a 
very beautiful appearance as seen through the thick 
foliage of the park. The great central gothic window 
lights the chajiel of the University ; divine service is 
held here every Sunday at the usual hours. The prin- 
cipal entrance is by the centre door, up a flight of 
marble steps. In the upper parts of the building are 
several chambers and offices, occupied by various so- 
cieties, literary persons, and artists. 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE, 

Originally chartered by George II., in 1754, under the 

title of King's College, till within a short period, stotxJ 

5 



66 CITY OP NEW YOHK. 

in Park Place. The present edifice is on Forty -ninth 
street, near the Fifth avenue. It has a president and 
twelve professors ; a choice library of rare classical 
works of about 18,000 volumes, museum, &c. A gram- 
mar school is attached to the institution, over which a 
professor presides as rector. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



New York city stands at the veiy head in all efforts 
to promote the interest of popular education. There 
are ninety-three grammar schools, mostly of three de- 
partments each — male, female, and primary,— and ninety- 
one primary schools, for boys and girls, besides six for 
colored pupils, making in all about two hundred schools 
at the present time. The buildings are of the most sub- 
stantial character ; are admirably arranged, and fitted 
with every modern improvement. 

The whole number taught during the year 1869 was 
236,526, being an increase of nearly 12,000 on the pre- 
vious year. The number of teachers employed exceeds 
2,500. The course of study is most thorough, and scholars 
entering the primaiy class pass through the various 
grades of that and the grammar department, and finally 
graduate at the College of the City of New York (for- 
merly the Free Academy) with full collegiate honors. 

The cost of maintaining this vast system was (for the 
year 1869) no less than three millions of dollars ; yet this 
great work is carried on, and this enormous expenditure 
borne, without any expense to the pupils — buildings, 
tuition, books, and whatever else is needed being sup- 
plied without cost to the scholara. 

The present value of the school property is estimated 
at upwards of $6,000,000. 







.itirJI; 



M\ 



« 




iji ililltiiilil!!!- 



Bible House. 



NKW BIBLE HOITSE. 57 



THE NEW BIBLE HOUSE, 



Which rs approached from Broadway througli Astor 
Place, occupies three fourths of an acre of ground, 
bounded by Third and Fourth Avenues, and Eighth and 
Ninth streets. The form of this gigantic edifice is 
nearly triangular. It has a front of ) 98 feet on Fourth 
Avenue, 202 on Eiglith street, 96 on Third Avenue, 
and 232 on Ninth street. Its average depth is about 
50 feet. It is the property of the American Bible Soci- 
ety. This imposing-looking edifice, Avhich is substanti- 
ally built of brick, with stone facings, cost nearly 
$300,000. The principal entrance, which is on the 
Fourth Avenue, has four colunms, surmounted with 
cornice. In the fourth story is a stone figure repre* 
Benting Eeligion holding a Bible. 

The receipts of the Society, at the first year of its 
organization in 1816-17, were $37,779.35 ; its receipts 
since then amount to about $5,000,000. It has put in 
circulation about nine millions of Bibles and Testa- 
ments ; and given some $500,000 to various Missionary 
Stations to aid in the publications of the Holy Scrip- 
tures. It has supplied thousands of seamen and crimi- 
nals with copies; as well as distributed hundreds of 
thousands to private families, hotels, &c., in every part 
of the United States. It has produced editions of the 
Bible, or portions of it, in about 24 different dialects, 
and aided in issuing it in otliers. In this spacious 
building the following Societies have their Rooms, viz • 
the Protestant Episcopal Society for the Promotion of 
Evangelical Knowledge, the American Board of Cora- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, the American Home 
Missionary Society, the New York Colonization Soci- 
ety, Society for tlie Amelioration of the Condition of 
the Jews, the House of Refuge, Children's Aid Society, 
Home of Iha Friendless. Nearly 600 persons ar« 
employed in the Bible House when in full operation. 



58 OITT OF NEW YORK. 

COLLEGE OF ST. FRANCIS XAVIER. 
This institution, situated on Fifteenth street, betweer; 
Fifth and Sixth Avenues, was founded in 1850, and in- 
corporated as a University in 180*. With its Grammar 
School it contains about four hundred pupils. Tho 
library contains about 15,000 volumes. The Kev. Jo- 
seph Loyzance is president. 

MANHATTAN COLLEGE. 
This newly incorporated University is situated at 
Manhattanville. 



THEOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS. 

THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
Is situated No. 9 University Place, between Waverley 
Place and Eighth street. The principal edifice com- 
prises four large lecture rooms, a chapel, library of 
16,000 volumes, and studies, also other rooms for stu- 
dents. It has 6 professors, and usually about 100 stu- 
dents. It was founded in 1836. 

THE GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
Of the Episcopal Church is situated in Twentieth street, 
corner of Ninth Avenue, near the Hudson, two milea 
from the City Hall. There are two handsome buiWinga 
of stone, for the accommodation of professors and stu- 
dents. The Board of Trustees consists of all the bish- 
ops, and one trustee from each diocese in the United 
States. The institution is well endowed and in a flour- 
ishing condition. 



PICTURE GALLEEIES, &c. 

THE ARTISTS' STUDIO BUILDING 

la a fine brick edifice in Tenth street, near the Sixth 
Avenue, and occupied by artists, &c. 



^rr/^'-f 




PIOTUKK OALLEKIKS, ETC. 59 

THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN. 

The new building for the National Academy of De- 
sign is one of the most remarkable structures in the city. 
Principally so, because it is the most prominent example 
thus far set before the public, of the effort now being 
made to revive the Gothic Architecture of the Thir- 
teenth Century in its true spirit, and adapt it to our own 
circumstances, materials, and necessities. The public 
have, unfortunately, been led to call it Venetian Gothic ; 
and, from its similarity in proportion, and the fact that 
the upper story is decorated with diagonal lines of color 
introduced into the wall itself, and has no windows, lihat 
it is a copy of the famous Ducal Palace. But a careful 
examination, in comparison with a good photograph of 
that building, will dispel the delusion. 

The carvings on the capitals of the first and second 
stories are well worthy of careful examination, and are 
more particularly remarkable from the fact that they 
are almost entirely designed by the men who carved 
them, and are the result of careful study from natural 
leaves and flowers. The work of the architect, in con- 
nection with this decorative work, consisted principally 
of instructions given to the workmen in the art of de- 
sign applied to their own work. 

The fronts of the building are built of white "West- 
chester county marble, banded with grey-wacke. The 
ornamental iron work of the exterior is worthy of care- 
ful attention, being entirely wrought out on the anvil. 
The main entrance-gates are wonderful for their light- 
ness, careful finish, and strength, being the most elabo- 
rate piece of architectural wrought-iron in this country. 

The building is finished throughout with white pine, 
ash, mahogany, oak, and black walnut, — no paint being 
used, but all the woods showing then- natural grain. 

The grand staircase approaching the galleries is of 
solid oak, trimmed with walnut, finished in wood on 
the under as well as upper sides. 

The interior accommodations consist as follows : On 



60 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

the first floor are the janitor's apartments and the 
schools, with their appropriate dressing rooms. On the 
second story are tlie reading-room, libraries, council- 
room, and lecture-room, together with necessary re- 
tiring rooms and an office for business. On the third 
story are the grand central hall, four picture galleries, 
and the sculpture -room. This edifice has been erected 
at a cost of about $150,000, under the superintendence 
of the architect, P. B. Wright, Esq., of this city. 

The annual exhibitions of the Academy are held 
during the months of April, May, June, and July, 
during which the building is open to the public for a 
small admission fee. The works of living artists only 
are exhibited, and no pictures are accepted that have 
been previously exhibited in New York. 

The exhibition of the Artists' Fund Society is gener- 
ally held in the galleries of the Academy, and takes 
place in November and December, annually. It is a 
noble charity, devoted to the relief of sick and poor 
artists. 

THE INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS 
Is situated at 625 Broadway. This is a fine collection of 
paintings and statuary. 



THE NEW YORK: PRESS. 

There are about thirty daily papers published in New 
York, with an aggregate circulation of 400,000 copies. 
About two thirds of this number are distributed in the 
city, the balance are sent by mail to various parts of the 
country. Most of the oflSces are accessible to public in- 
spection during the hours of 2 to 4 o'clock. 

THE TIMES OFFICE 

Is situated at the end of Park Row, facing Chatham 

street. It is an attractive architectural ornament to 

this active centre of the printing business. In the 

5* 



OITT OF NEW TOEir. 61 

vicinity are the N. Y. Tribune office, the Tract Society, 
the Sunday Times, the Sunday Courier, the Mercury, 
and other papers. On the Nassau side of the Times 
building are the Observer, Scientific American, the 
Century, the United States Journal, &g. On this ac- 
count this site has been recently styled "Printing 
House Square." 

The New York Times building, erected during the 
panic year, and first occupied on the first day of May, 
1858, is a noble structure, constructed of stone and 
iron, and perfectly fireproof; five stories in height; the 
walls a light olive-colored stone, brought from Nova 
Scotia. Complete in all its appointments, this building 
deserves especial mention, if for no otlier reason than 
that it is the only newspaper office in the United States 
which combines within itself the requisites of thorough 
fitness and the elegance of refined taste. Our readers, 
we are assured, will be interested in a description of 
the parts of this establishment. 

The site is that which was for many years occupied 
by the Old Brick Church (the Rev. Dr. Spring's), an 
ancient place of worship, erected at the period when 
green fields adorned the space now densely crowded 
with great warehouses, stores, and banks; when honest 
old Knickerbockers held the site of the Park to be a 
journey out of town ; and where the bones of early 
residents of the city were solemnly laid in earth that is 
now undermined by lighted vaults and rendered vocal 
by the ceaseless clash of ponderous machinery. 

Thus much for the exterior. We descend into the 
spacious vaults which run down and out towards the 
centre of the square. The peculiar fitness of the loca- 
tion for the purposes of a newspaper establishment is 
here displayed in perfection. No daily paper of circu- 
lation so large as that of the Times (40,000) can dis- 
pense with the use of Hoe's lightning press. That 
magnificent piece of machinery is necessarily bulky, 
and requires ample space. The press-room vaults of 
the Time** are of extraordinary dimensions, extending 



62 



THE NEW YORK PRESS. 



around the three fronts of the building, and having the 
following measurements: On Spruce street, one hun- 
dred by twenty-six feet ; on Park row, one hundred by 
twenty feet; on Nassau street, ninety-five by fifteen 
feet, with a uniform depth of twenty-four feet below 
the curb. These vaults are far the finest ever con- 
structed in New York. 

On the Nassau street or easterly side are the steam 
toilers and engine; on the northerly side, two im- 
mense power-presses, of Hoe's manufacture, one ten- 
cylinder and one six-cylinder, are placed. On the 
Park row side are the folding and mailing rooms and 
the storerooms for paper — the latter opening to the 
pavement above by means of a huge movable vault- 
light, which admits of the passage of the largest reams 
of paper required in printing. The vaults are admira- 
bly lighted, and an excellent ventilation is sustained. 

The various editorial, composing, and other oflaces of 
the establishment are upon a most extended scale. The 
cost of the edifice and ground, amounted to something 
less than $300,000. 

The New York iTerald OflBce is located on the south- 
east corner of Broadway and Ann street (opposite St. 
Paul's Church) — a massive building of wliite marble, 
and the most elegant newspaper office in the world. 
The Sun Ofiice is on Park Row, corner of Frankfort 
street, on the site of the old Tammany Hall. 

The Tribune Office is on the northeast corner of Nas- 
sau and Spruce streets, and the Evening Post on the 
northwest corner of Nassau and Liberty streets, opposite 
the Post Office. The World Office is on the northeast 
comer of Park Row and Beekman street. The vaults 
of the above papers are of gigantic proportions, and well 
worthy of a vifiit. 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 



63 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 



WALLACK'S THEATBE 



Is situated on the comer of Broadway and 13th street. 
This popular and well-conducted theatre is much re- 
sorted to by the patrons of the cb-ama. Great pains are 
taken to provide for the public entertainment, and the 
result is in most instances successfully attained. 



NIBLO'S GARDEN 

Is another favorite resort, and is situated on Broadway, 
between Prince and Houston streets, with the entrance 
under the Metropolitan Hotel. It is elegantly fitted up, 
and capable of seating two thousand persons, and is gen- 
erally well filled with a fashionable audience. 



THE OLYMPIC THEATEE, 

At 623 Broadway, between Houston and Bleecker streets, 
is another fashionable resort ; as is also 



BOOTH'S THEATRE. 

This beautiful theatre is situated on the corner of 
Twenty-third street and Sixth Avenue, entrance on 
Twenty-third street. 



64 PLACES OF AMIT8EMBNT. 

THE BOWESY TTTRATBE, 

Situated in the Bowery, near Canal street, occupies 
the site upon which three theatres have been succes- 
sively burnt and rebuilt. The present edifice is of the 
Doric order of architecture. This place of entertain- 
ment is usually celebrated for spectacle and tlie broader 
kind of humor. 

THE GBANB OPERA HOUSE, 

On the northwest corner of Twenty-third street and 
Eighth Avenue, an elegant white marble building, admi- 
rably suited for the purpose for which it was built. 

TAMMANY THEATRE, 

Known as the Alhambra Palace, is in Fourteenth 
street, near the Academy of Music. 

THE EGYPTIAN MUSEUM 

Is located in the New York Historical Society Building. 
It contains several hundred relics, collected with great 
care and industry by the learned Dr. Abbott, during a 
residence of twenty years oh the banks of tiie Nile. 
Here are to be seen mummied men and quadrupeds, the 
slates of the school-boys in Pharaoh's time, and the re- 
mains of the lamps that were used to lighten the dark- 
ness of Egypt. Many of the objects here are tJiree 
thousand years old. 

THE NEW YORK STADT THEATRE, 

In the Bowery, nearly opposite the Bowery Theatre, 
is a German Opera House, and has a well-selected 
company. 




St De>.is Hotel 



65 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC, 

On corner of Fourteenth street and Irving Place, is a 
large and attractive building, well adapted for the pro- 
duction of operas, for which it is famous. 

WOOD'S MUSEUM, 

At No. 1221 Broadway, near Thirtieth street, is worthy of 
a visit 

BEYANT'S NEW OPERA HOUSE, 

Twenty-third street, near Sixth avenue, one of the best 
places to while away an hour. 

THE FIFTH AVENUE THEATRE, 

Situated on Twenty-fourth street, a few doors west 
from Broadway. This place of amusement was for- 
merly occupied by " Christy's Minstrels." 



CARMEN. 

Tlie pricej authorized by law for carmen, for ordi- 
nary loads, within the distance of half a mile, is 60 
cents ; if over that, and within a mile, one third more 
may be charged ; for any greater distance, in the same 
proportion. If a carman charges beyond the legal 
rates, he cannot collect any thing for his services ; but 
Le is not obliged to deliver goods conveyed by him 
oiitil his legal charge be paid. Every carman is re- 
quired to have his number distinctly marked on his cart 



HOTELS, 



New York is justly distinguished for the number and 
magnificence of its hotels. On the line of Broadway 
there are upwards of 25 of these stately and capacious 
buildings. In other parts of the city they no less 
abound, although less costly in their appointments. It 
will be necessary to detail the more important of these 
hotels separately. 



THE ASTOK HOUSE, 

The first colossal edifice of its class, was built over 20 
years ago, of solid granite, and although so many 
others have arisen since, this well-appointed and ex- 
tensive establishment still retains its high position. It 
is capable of accommodating 600 guests. 

Several of the hotels are conducted upon the Euro- 
pean plan — the guests hiring their rooms witli or with- 
out board. 



GILSEY HOUSE, 

New and elegant in all its fittings, is situated corner of 
Twenty-ninth street and Broadway. 



THE WESTMINSTEK HOTEL 

Is situated on the northwest corner of Irving place and 
Sixteenth street, and is well arranged for families and 
transient visitors. 



THE METKOPOLITAN HOTEL, 

Situated on Broadway, corner of Prince street, is built 
of brown stone, and is six stories in height. The cost 
of this building and ground was upwards of $800,000. 
It is furnished throughout in the most splendid and 



CIT1 OF NEW YOKE. 67 

costly style, having all the accommodations and con- 
veniences that the most luxurious taste could devise. 
The entire establishment is heated by steam, and has 
a ventilating pi-ocess. The cost of the interior decora- 
tions and furniture has been estimated at about $200,000; 
making the whole investment in this superb establish- 
ment, one million of dollars. It is stated that the water 
and gas pipes, which are carried throughout all the 
apartments of this mammoth hotel, measure 12 miles; 
and there are 13,000 yards of carpeting spread over its 
400 or 500 rooms, which, with the superb drapery, cost 
$40,000; the furniture, $50,000; the mirrors (including 
some of the largest ever imported), $18,000 ; the silver- 
ware, $14,000 — not to mention other items. 

THE ST. NICHOLAS, 

Occupying about 300 feet on Broadway, corner of 
Spring St., stands a monument of architectural beauty, 
of the Corintliian order and of marble. The immense 
fufade^ six stories high, is of surpassing elegance. It 
was erected in 1854, at a cost of over a million of dol- 
lars. "Within the portico of the main entrance, support- 
ed by four Corinthian pillars with rich capitals, the 
spectator looks down a columned vista two hundred 
feet in length and averaging sixty feet in width. Tho 
npper part of the house, reached by a massive staircase 
of polished oak, is divided into three sections commu- 
nicating by corridors, and contains six. hundred rooms. 
On the second and tliird floors are one hundred suites 
of apartments. The three largest dining-rooms com- 
fortably accommodate six hundred guests. The pub- 
lic rooms and chambers are decorated and furnished 
in the most sumptuous style, while the immense corri- 
dors are carpeted entire with the richest tapestry fab- 
rics, rendering the step inaudible, and lighted by mag- 
nificent chandeliers and candelabras placed at short in- 
tervals throughout their whole extent. The fourth, 
fifth, and sixth floors are devoted to private parlors, 
chambers, and single rooms. The original disburse- 



68 HOTELS. 

meut for mirrors amounted to $40,000, and the service 
of silver ware and Sheffield plate cost $50,000. What- 
ever ornament wealth could purchase or skill produce 
has been lavished upon this palatial structure, in which 
one thousand guests may enjoy all of the comforts and 
luxuries of life. 

From tlie telegraph office in the bar-room, messages 
may be transmitted to almost any part of tlie Union. 
More than three Imndred waiters are in attendance. 
The hotel is lighted by gas. The daily expenses of the 
St. Nicholas are $1,500. As a security against fire the 
entire establishment can be deluged with water in five 
minutes. 

THE PSESCOTT HOUSE 

Occupies the opposite corner of Spring street, being 
Nos. 529 and 531 Broadway. The hotel was so named 
in honor of the celebrated American historian. It is 
built of brick with quaintly wrought stone work about 
the windows. The spacious triple-columned and highly 
ornamented entrance hall is one of the finest in the 
country. 

A building of sixty rooms has lately been added to the 
Hotel, which is now capable of accommodating upwards 
of three hundred guests with eveiy comfort. The Hotel 
now has all the modern improvements, including a 
steam elevator, etc. 

The floors of the principal rooms and halls are cov- 
ered with tiles of various rich colors, arranged in a 
carpet-like pattern, which contrast beautifully with the 
white and gold of the walls and ceilings. 

THE CLABENDOB 

Is another elegant establishment on the corner of Fourtb 
Avenue and Eighteenth street, in the vicinity of Union 
and Gramercy Park. This hotel is divided into suites 
of apartments, with all the modern improvefnents and 
adornments of taste. It is of the Elizabethan order oi 
architecture, and cost $80,000. 



OITT OF NEW TORK, Q8A 

BRANSBETH HOUSE, 

Corner of Broadway, Canal, and LLspenard Streets, 
18 located in the most central part of Broadway, and 
all parts of the city can be reached by city cars and 
omnibuses constantly passing the door. The rooms are 
elegantly furnished — many of them in suites of com- 
municating parlors and chambers, suitable for families 
and parties travelling together. Being kept on the 
European plan, guests may live in the most economical 
or luxTirious manner. Meals served at all hours at the 
shortest notice. The attention of merchants visiting the 
city is particularly called to this hotel, as it is situated 
on Broadway, in the very centre of the wholesale, job- 
bing, and retail business of New York, and can be 
reached by omnibus or city cars from all the steamboat 
landings and railway depots. Wm. J. Kerr, Proprietor. 

GRAMERCY PARK HOUSE, 
Is another first-class edifice, of colossal proportions, 
between 20th and 21st streets, facing the delightful 
shrubbery of a beautiful inclosure called Gramercy 
Park, from whence the house derives its name. This 
is one of the largest hotels in the city, built of substan- 
tial brown stone, and in one of the most aristocratic 
localities of Gotham. In its internal arrangements it is 
unsurpassed, and contains spacious accommodations for 
six to eight hundred guests. Those who may be so 
fortunate as to select this hotel during their residence 
in the city, will find its kind and courteous proprietors, 
Messrs. Judson & Ely, ever ready to contribute to their 
comfort and enjoyment. 

HOFFMAN HOUSE, 
Is another elegant establishment on the comer of 
Broadway and 25th street, and opposite Madison 
Square. This hotel is one of the most beautiful in the 
city, and none who visit New York should fail to see 
it. It is built of white marble, and conducted on the 
European plan. It has a capacity for about 350 guests, 
•with superior accommodations, and is extensively 
patronized by the " Upper Ten." Its situation is in a 



6dB HOTELS. 

delightful part of the city, and is a central location for 
all of the Eastern and Northern railroads, and forms a 
most eligible and convenient stopping-place for travel- 
lers, while the cool and delightful square opposite forms 
an attractive feature to all. 

THE GRAND HOTEL, 

Comer of Broadway and 31st street. By a glance at 
tlie city map, it will be seen that the central locality of 
this large and pleasant hotel secures ready communica- 
tion, by railroad and stage, with all the most desirable 
parts of the city — from the Battery to Central Park. 
This entire establishment has lately been thoroughly 
renovated throughout, and furnished with accommoda- 
tions that cannot fail of giving satisfaction to the most 
fastidious. 

THE BELVIDERE HOUSE, 
Occupies the northwest corner of Irvin? Place and Fif- 
teenth street, opposite the Academy of Music and Irving 
Hall. The hotel has been rebuilt upon the most im- 
proved European plan, and contains, on a large scale, all 
those conveniences for the comfort of families and the 
travelling public, for which the Belvidere House has been 
famous for a number of yeart. The Restaurant is always 
supplied with delicacies of every season. 
UNION SQUARE HOTEL, 
Corner 15th street and Union Square, A. J. Dam, pro- 
prietor. The location of this house is one of the most 
pleasant in the city. Fine suites of rooms, handsomely 
furni.shed, for the accommodation of transient as well as 
permanent boarders. This house is kept on the old plan 
of the regular table d^ hote, and connected with it is a first- 
class restaurant. 

IRVING HOUSE, 
U a first-class hotel, conducted on the European plan, 
at the corner of Broadway and 12th street. Accommo- 
dations for families or transient guests. The location is 
unsurpassed, being in the immediate vicinity of A. T. 
Stewart's new store, Wallack's Theatre, etc., and near 
th« Union Square. Geo. W. Hunt, Proprietor. 



OITX OF NEW YORK. 



ST. DENIS HOTEL. 



69 



Opposite Grace Church, and only three blocks below 
Union Square and the Academy of Music, is the St. 
Denis Motel. It is architecturally one of the hand- 
somest buildings on Broadway, occupying seventy-six 
feet on tliat thoroughfore, and one hundred and twenty 
on Eleventh street. Besides parlors, reception-rooms, 
and reading-rooms, the St. Denis contains over one 
hundred and fifty Avell lighted and ventilated apartments. 
The hotel is kept on the European plan, aud like the 
Prescott is the frequent resort of wealthy and distin- 
guished foreigners. The " up town " location of the 
St. Denis is on the most fashionable part of Broadway. 

THE EVERETT HOUSE, 

Located on the north side of Union Square and Seven- 
teenth street, from its position is, like the Clarendon, a 
convenient and deliglitful j^lace for visitors, being not 
only in the fashionable part of the city, but also con 
tiguous to the cars, stages, &c. 

GRAND CENTRAL HOTEL. 

In Broadway, facing Bond street, is a magnificent 
structure, with a frontage of 150 feet and depth of 200 
feet, eight stories high, and built of marble. It was 
formerly the " Southern Hotel," but has been greatly 
enlarged and improved, having six hundred rooms, cap- 
able of accommodating fifteen hundred people. 

THE NEW YORK HOTEL, 

Broadway, extending from Washington to Waverley 
Place, is another large and fashionable house, and ad- 
mirable in all its departments. 

THE BREVOORT HOUSE, 

On the Fifth Avenue, corner of Eighth street, is a no- 



70 HOTELS. 

ble and spacious Hotel, fitted up in elegant style, and 
being on the ^reat avenue of fashion, commands a fine 
view of the beau monde. 

THE FIFTH AVENUE HOTEL, 
Darling, Griswold & Co., proprietors, is an object of 
special note. In addition to its beautiful site — being 
opposite to the shrubbery of Madison Square — it 
stretches its facades of white marble down Twenty-' 
third and Twenty-fourth streets, both equally known \ 
as among the most aristocratic of our thorouglifares. 
In its internal arrangements, it is unsurpassed — fur- 
nishing entire accommodation for eiglit hundred 
gnests, and containing more than one hundred suites 
of apartments, each combining the conveniences and 
luxury of parlor, chamber, dressing, and bathing 
rooms. All the rooms, besides being well lighted and 
ventilated, will have means of access by a perpendicu- 
lar railway — intersecting each story — in addition to the 
broad and capacious corridors and stairways, indepen- 
dent of the ordinarv and usual approaches from floor 
to floor. 

As to location, tl'is hotel is much nearer the termini 
of the Eastern and Northern Railroads than others fur- 
ther down town, and from the evidence of the marcli 
of improvement, it must continue to be the centre of 
civilization for many years to come. It will be the 
most eligible for Southerners, not only as a transient 
Ktopping-place en route, but as a delightful home during 
those periods devoted to summer recreation. 

THE ALSEKARLE, 

Another very elegant hotel, is situated at the corner o 
Broadway and 24th street. 



, i ■^iy:"'' f^^, 




^fe^^ ^ i -ill 



OITT OF NKW YORK. 71 



THE CHUECHES OF NEW YORK. 



It is estimated that there are about 300 churches in 
New York; many of them being of great elegance. 
We annex brief notices of the more prominent and 
noteworthy. 

TEINITY CHUBCH. 

Fronting Wall street, with its portals invitingly open 
every day in the year, stands Trinity Church, a beauti- 
ful tera[)le of worship, in strange contiguity with the 
busy marts where " merchants most do congregate." 
It is the third edifice of the kind erected upon the spot, 
the first having been destroyed in the great fire ot 
1776. This fine gothic structure was completed in 
1846, having been seven years in building, under the 
careful superintendence of Mr. Upjohn, the architect. 
The church is 192 feet in length, 80 in breadth, and 60 
in height. The interior will richly repay examination. 
Among many relics there carefully preserved, is an 
elaborate chancel service of silver, presented to the 
corporation by Queen Anne. 

The steeple towers up 284 feet in height; the wall.-i 
of the church are nearly 50 feet high, and the whole 
edifice, both as to its exterior and interior, is regard- 
ed by most persons as the most elegant and cathedral- 
like of the churches of the city. Do not forget to as- 
cend the steeple to get a panoramic view of the city. 

The grave-yard of Old Trinity occupies nearly an 
entire block. Within it are the venerated tombs of 
Alexander llamilton, the statesman and friend of 
Washington ; the heroic commander Lawrence, and 
many other illustrious public men. 



72 CHUBOHES. 

Adjoining Trinity buildings, and a few feet from 
Broadway, stands the monumental tribute of the Cor- 
poration of Trinity Church to the honored. " Sugar 
House Martyrs." Of finely cut and ornamented brown 
stone, it presents a graceful appearance, while it at- 
tracts the especial interest of every American patriot 
from the fact, that the ground immediately under and 
around it, is rich with the ashes of our Revolutionary 
fathers. 

ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL, 

The third Episcopal church established in the city, was 
erected in 1766. It stands between Fulton and Vesey 
streets, opposite the N. Y, Herald. The length ol 
Ihe edifice is 151 feet, and the width 73 feet. The 
steeple is 203 feet high. 

On the front, in a niche of red sandstone, in the 
centre of a large pediment supported by four Ionic 
columns, is a white marble statue of St. Paul, leaning 
(m a sword. Also in the front part of the niche there is 
inserted a slab of white marble, bearing an inscription 
to the memory of General Montgomery, who fell at 
Quebec during the Revolution, and whose remains were 
I'emoved to New York by order of the State in 1818. 
At the lower side of the church, facing Broadway, 
is an obelisk of white marble, erected in honor of 
Thomas Addis Emmet, the Irish patriot and barrister, 
who died here in 1827. The inscriptions are in Latin, 
Irish, and English. 

ST. JOHN'S CHAPEL 

^Episcopal). This is one of the associate churchefl 
of the Trinity Corporation. It is located opposite 
the Hudson River R. R. Freight Depot. It is not 
modern in style, but yet a very noble looking edifice. 
It is built of sandstone, and is very spacious, measur- 
ing 132 feet by 80. It has a deep portico in front, 
formed by a pediment and four massive columns. 




Chuech of the Ascension, 5th Avenu 



OITT OF NE^ YORK. 



73 



In all the ancient cliarches of New York city, the 
plan of a collegiate charge was the rule. Tiie ancient 
Episcopal chnrch of the city was established on this 
basis. Trinity church was considered the parish 
church, and had a collegiate charge ; St. George's, St. 
John's, and St. Paul's were called " Chapels." St. 
George's is now a distinct charge, but the other two 
are still collegiate. 

ST. MARK'S CHURCH 

(Episcopal), situate in Stuyvesant street, to the east of 
the Bowery, was built in its present form in 1826. 

The steeple is lofty, but somewhat venerable in 
appearance, wliich is indeed tlie character of the en- 
tire structure. The church is venerable also on account 
of its historic associations ; it stands on what was the 
estate of Petrus Stuyvesant, the last of the Dutch 
governors, and his remains rest in a vault under the 
church, over which, on the east side, is a tablet indi- 
cating tlie fact. Here also repose the mortal remains 
of the English governor, Col. Sloughter, and those of 
the American governor, Tompkins. The Rev. Dr. 
Vinton is the present minister. 

ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH 

(Episcopal). This spacious and elegant structure, the 
most capacious ecclesiastical edifice in tlie city, is 
situated in East Sixteenth street, ojiposite Stuyvesant 
Square. It was erected in 1849, and for architectural 
beauty is entitled to the first rank among the religious 
edifices of New York. Its imposing exterior, and vast 
interior, unsupported by any visible columns, either to 
roof or gallery, impart to it a fine efi'ect. Its architecture 
is of the Byzantine order ; its length 170 feet by 94 
in width. Its entire cost $250,000, The adjoining rec- 
tory cost $20,000, and the chapel $10,000. The ground 



74 0HUE0HE8. 

npon which the church stands was given by the late 
Peter G. Stuyvesant. The Rev. Dr. Tyng is Rector. 
The interior of this splendid church was onth'ely de- 
stroyed by fire, supposed to be the work of an incen- 
diary, during the latter part of 1865, entailing a very 
heavy loss on the society, as it was but partially insured. 
The fine towers of red sandstone were, however, left 
intact and uninjured, as were also the massive walls of 
tlie building. The interior was accordingly rebuilt, and 
the edifice now surpasses, in its internal appointments, 
even its former elegance. 

TRINITY CHAPEL 

(Episcopal), situated on Twenty-fifth street, near Broad 
way, and extending from Twenty-fifth to Twenty-sixth 
street, is a spacious and elegant edifice, erected by the 
Trinity Church Corporation, and cost $260,000. The 
length of the building is 180 feet; width, 54 feet. The 
inside walls are of Caen stone; the windows are ot 
richly stained glass, and the ceiling painted blue, with 
gilt ornaments. The floors are tiled ; and the seats are 
movable benches, as in the cathedrals of the Continent. 

6BACE CHURCH 

(Episcopal). This superb edifice, the most ornate of 
the ecclesiastical buildings of New York, is located in 
Broadway, near Tenth street, and commands a fine 
view of the great avenue of the city, north and south. 
The lofty spiral and richly decorated steeple is an object 
of universal admiration. There is one large and two 
less sized doors in front. Over the main entrance is a 
circular window of stained glass, and two tall, oblong 
windows in each side of the upper section of the tower. 
"Within is a grand array of pillars, carved work, and 
upwards of forty windows of stained glass, each giving 
different hues of vision. There is a little too much of 
theatrical glitter in the interior, to comport with the 
chastened solemnities of religious worship. It was 




IPH 




Ds. Alexandeu's Ouuucu. 



CITY OF NEW TOKK. 



75 



built in 1845. Mr. Kenwick was the aicliitect. The 
cost of the building was $145,000. The Rev. Dr. Pot- 
ter is the present rector. 

THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, 

Corner of Broome and Elizabeth streets, was erected 
in 1811. It measures 99 by 75 feet, and 70 in height, 
is of the Gothic order, built of rough stone, with the 
lintels, cornices, and battlements of brown sandstone. 
It was constructed during the pastorate of the late Dr. 
Spencer H. Cone. 

THE DUTCH BEFOBMEB CHTTBCH, 

Situate on Fourth street and Lafayette Place, was built 
in 1839. It measures 110 feet long by 75 wide; it cost 
$160,000. Its exterior is very good, but its interior is 
characterized by simple elegance. The pulpit is of 
white marble. The Collegiate Dutch Church is one of 
the oldest establishments of the kind in the city. As- 
sociated with this Church Association are the " North 
Church," in Fulton street; the new and elegant Church 
in Fifth Avenue, corner of Twenty-ninth street; the 
Ninth Street Church, and that we have just described, 
on Lafayette Place. Tiie venerable Dr. De Witt and 
others are the officiating clergymen. 

THE DUTCH EEFORMED CHUECH, 

Situate on the east side of Washington Square, was 
erected in 1840, of rough granite. It is in the Gothic 
style, with a large centre window, and two towers. 
Its interior is very finished and eiFective, especially the 
ornamental carved work of the organ, pulpit, &c. The 
entire cost of the edifice was $125,000. The Rev. Dr. 
Hutton has long been the minister. 

ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL 

(Roman Catholic), on the corner of Prince and Mott 
streets, was erected in 1815. This building, although 



70 OHTTROHES. 

not of much architectural beauty, is very spacious, It 
being nearly 160 feet in length by 80 in width. The 
rear of the church is ornamented with Gothic windows. 
The interior presents an imposing eifect, the ceiling be- 
ing very lofty, from which spring large pillars, on 
which are lamps pendant. It will accommodate 2000 
persons. 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY BEDEEMER, 

A new German Catholic Church, on Third street, near 
Avenue A, is a very costly and elegant structure. The 
spire is 265 feet high, and the edifice is of the Byzan- 
tine order. It is a most ornamental churcli, as to its 
interior, having^ richly stained windows, broad aisles, 
marble columns,' lofty roof, richly decorated, and a mag- 
nificent altar, with confessionals, &c. It is estimated 
at over $100,000. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

On the Fifth Avenue, between Eleventh and Twelfth 
streets, is a fine stone building, measuring 119 feet by 
80; the height of the tower being 160 feet. It cost 
$75,000. 

THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 

Corner of Thirty-fourth street and Si.xth Avenue, is a 
new and beautiful edifice, very spacious and imposing 
in its aspect. Its style is Gothic, and the interior deco- 
rations are in excellent keeping. The organ-screen 
and pulpit present exquisite specimens of carved worli. 
The Kev. Dr. Thompson is the minister. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

On Madison Avenue, facing the Square, is another brown 
stone church, exceedingly neat in style. Rev. Dr. 
Adams is the minister. 




F 1 1: b T i ' 



, L s i; V . L 



111 AV LS L K. 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 77 

THE BRICK CHURCH 

(Presbyterian), situate on the corner of Thirty-seventh 
street and Fifth Avenue, is a spacious brick ediiice, with 
lofty spire. Rev. Dr. Spring is the minister. 

ST. PAUL'S M. E. CHURCH, 

On Fourth Avenue, corner of Twenty-second street, is 
a new magnificent edifice, built of marble, in the Ro- 
manesque style. Its entire length is 146 feet, by 77 , 
the height of the spire is 210 feet. The cost of the 
church, parsonage, &c., is estimated at $130,000. 

CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH, 

(Unitarian), of which the Rev. G. H. Hepworth, is 
minister, is situated on the comer of 34th street and 
Park Avenue. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

On the junction of Tenth street and University Place, 
is a neat stone edifice, measuring 116 feet by 65, exclu- 
sive of a lectitre-room in the rear, 72 feet by 25. There 
is a fine Gothic window over the principal entrance. 
The tower is 184 feet in height. The cost of this 
church was $56,000. Rev. Dr. Kellogg is the minister. 

THE FOURTH UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. 

This is the Rev. Dr. Chapiu's. Situated on the corner 
of Fifth" Avenue and Forty-fifth street. The main build- 
ing is 80 feet by 100. Gothic style. It has a frontage, 
including the towers, of 95 feet, and the towers are 185 
feet high. The height of the main building is 90 feet. 
The basement for Sunday-school, lecture-room, etc., ex- 
tends over the entire church, and is 11 feet in height. 
The entire cost of the church and ground is estimated 
at $170,000. 



78 0HUK0HE8. 

CHUBCH OF THE HOLY COMMUNION 

(Episcopal), on the corner of Twentieth street and Sixth 
Avenue, is a singular-looking building of brown stone, 
in the form of a cross. Its extreme length is 104 feet, 
by 66 in width. The turret on the south corner is 70 
feet in height. The interior is novel and imposing, 
although divested of ornament. It is, strictly speak- 
ing, the only free Episcopal Church of its class, in the 
upper part of the city. Strangers can enter the church 
with perfect freedom, and seat themselves in any part 
of it. There is a great want of other accommodations 
of this class. Will not some one of our wealthy citi- 
zens (while living we should prefer) endow another 
truly Free Episcopal Church like this? It would be 
an enduring monument of Christian liberality to such 
a spirit. Rev. Dr. Lawrence is the rector. 

FIFTH AVENUE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH, 

On the corner of Nineteenth street and Fifth Avenue, 
erected in 1853, is another of the elegant religious edi- 
fices which adorn the city. Its cost is estimated at 
nearly $90,000. Rev. Dr. Hall is the minister. 

THE FRENCH CHURCH 

The congregation of the French Church, styled Eglise 
du St. Esprit, has removed from Franklin street, cor- 
ner of Church, to 22d street, between Fifth and Sixth 
Avenues. The new church is Gothic, and very elegant. 
It will seat about one thousand persons. The rector is 
the Rev. Dr. Verren. 

JEWS' SYNAGOGUES. 

There are upwards of a dozen Synagogues in this 
city. The most notable are the following: 

Shaa,rai TepMla (Gates of Prayer), No. 112 Wooster 
street, near Prince street, and 



CITY OP NEW YORK. 78 

JEWISH TEMPLE, 
Comer Fifth avenue and Forty-tliird street 
CALVARY CHURCH 

(Episcopal), on the corner of Fourth Avenue and 21st 
street, was erected in 1847, at the cost of $80,000. It 
presents a picturesque appearance, being built of brown 
stone. The interior is very spacious and cathedral-like. 
Adjoining the church is the rectory, also in the Gothio 
style. 

THE NEW ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL, 

On the Fifth Avenue and 50th street, now in process 
of erection, will, when finished, become the crowning 
architectural ornament of the city. 

CHURCH OF ALL SOULS 

(Unitarian), corner of Fourth Avenue and 20th street, 
is an eccentric and remarkable edifice, being built in 
the style of the Italian churches of the middle ages, of 
brick and delicate cream-colored stone in alternate 
courses. Adjoining the church, on 20th street, is the 
parsonage. Included in the design is to be a spire, or 
campanile, 300 feet high. The Kev. Dr. Bellows is the 
minister. 

TH£ TABERNACLE CHURCH 

(Baptist), in Second Avenue, near 10th street, adjoin- 
ing the Historical Society's building, is another Gothio 
edifice of much beauty and architectural attraction. 



80 BLEOANT PRIVATE RESIDENCES. 



ELEGAKT PKIYATE EESIDENCES. 

In order to form any adequate idea of the progress 
and opulence of New York, the visitor should not omit 
to visit the Fifth Avenue, the great centre of wealth 
and fashion. In other sections of the city are to be 
seen numerous costly private mansions, such as Lafa- 
yette Place, St. Mark's Place, Washington Square, Gra- 
mercy Park, Madison Park, Union Square, and the sev- 
eral streets that intersect the upper portions of the 
metropolis. Passing into the Fifth Avenue from Wash- 
ington Square, we meet at the junction of Ninth street 
a stately edifice, once the residence of the late Henry 
Brevoort. Diagonally opposite to this, on the corner 
of 8th street, is the Brevoort House, a first-class family 
hotel ou a large scale. On the corner of Tenth street 
is a house in the style of a French chateau, the prop 
erty of Mr. SchiflF. 

On the southeast corner of Fifteenth street, is the 
■junerb establishment formerly occupied by Mr. Haight, 
but now the headquarters of the New York Club. 
Directly opposite, the Manhattan Club have their rooms. 
This building was at one time the private residence of 
Mr. Benkard. Turning to the corner of Sixteenth 
street, to the left, may be seen the elegant mansion of 
Col. Thorne, to be distinguished by its ample court-yard. 

On the right-hand corner of 16th street is the stately 
mansion of Mr. Lorillard Spencer, which is said to have 
cost $100,000. At the northeast corner of 18th street 
may be seen Mr. Belmont's elegant house ; and on the 
northwest corner of 20th street is the residence of 
E. L. Stuart, Esq. At the northwest corner of 34th 
street and Fifth Avenue is to be seen perhaps the most 
sumptuous private mansion in the city — that of A. 
T. Stewart. It contains a very clioice gallery of 
paintings. The private residence of W. B. Astor, Esq. 



^^r.^rr.^-^% 




bu-Tii A' 



KE.N'lil ^TKKK', 



CITT OF NEW YOKK. 81 

on Fifth Aveuue and 33(1 street, is another magnificent 
edifice. There are numerous other superb buildings 
that we have not indicated, along the line of this avenue 
and elsewhere, which deserve a separate notice, but this 
oui- limits forbid. 

THE BLOSSOM CLUB 
Have their rooms at 129 Fifth Avenue. 



AMERICAN JOCKEY CLUB. 
Headquarters are at 920 Broadway. 

THE UNION CLUB, 

On comer of Fifth Aveuue and 22d street, is one of the 
most splendid structures in the city. It measures 
about 50 feet by 100, is built in superb style of brown 
stone, and cost about $300,000. 

THE NEW YORK CHESS CLUB 

Have their rooms in the K Y. University. It numbers 
about 80 members. Initiation fee, $5. Subscription, 
$10 per annum. 

THE CENTURY CLUB 

Have their rooms at 109 East 15th street 

THE TRAVELLERS' CLUB 

Is situated at 233 Fifth Avenue, between 26th and 27th 
streets. 

THE MANHATTAN CLUB 

Is situated at 96 Fifth Avenue, southwest comer of 15th 
street. 

THE UNION LEAGUE CLUB 

Is situated on the comer of Madison Avenue and 23d 
street. 



NOTABLE STOEES, ETC. 



The stores of New York, being celebrated alike for 
the beauty of their architecture and variety of their stock, 
claim our special notice. Starting from John street, 
passing up Broadway, we come upon St. Paul's Church, 
opposite to which is the new and handsome marble 
building of the Park National Bank, universally ac- 
knowledged to be the most splendid structure for a bank- 
ing-house in the United States. Adjoining this is the 
New York Herald building, also of white marble, and 
which outvies every establishment of the kmd in the 
countiy. 

A little further on stands the far-famed Astor House. 

On the corner of Park Place and Broadway is a beau- 
tiful brown-stone building occupfed by the Broadway 
National Bank. 

Next in order we come to Stewart's marble palace, at 
the corner of Chambers street, covering a space of 153 
feet on Broadway, and 100 feet deep on the side streets. 

On the site of the old Broadway Theatre, Judge 
"Whiting has erected, at a cost of $200,000, a marble 
building, with 75 feet front on Broadway by 175 feet 
deep. 

At No. 340 Broadway is the ancient site of the famous 
Broadway Tabernacle, once known throughout the 
whole land as the great rendezvous of the various reli- 
gious and benevolent institutions during the May Anni- 
versaries. The frontage on Broadway is 30 feet, and the 
depth 200 feet, with an extension on Worth street and 
Catharine Lane of 100 feet square. 

On the comer of Worth and Church streets, occupy- 
ing the whole block, is the massive stone building of 
Messrs. H. B. Claflin& Co. 




' m 







NOTABLE STORES, ETC. 83 

At the comer of Leonard street and Broadway stands 
the noble edifice erected and occupied by the New York 
Life Insurance Company. This is the most magnificent 
structure devoted to Life Insurance in the country. 

Continuing up Broadway, we come to the magnificent 
brown-stone building fonnerly occupied by tlie Mer- 
chants' Union Express Co. 

On the corner of White street and Broadway stands 
one of the finest specimens of architecture of which our 
city can boast. The building is of white marble, and is 
owned by Mr. Astor. 

The attention is next arrested by the elegance of a 
building at the coi'ner of Broadway and Grand street. It 
has a front of 100 feet on Broadway, and 125 feet on 
Grand street. The whole structure is of highly orna- 
mented white marble, and is occupied by Messrs. Lord 
& Taylor as a dry-goods store. On the lower corner, 
Messrs. Devlin & Co., the clothiers, have their store, 
whilst on the opposite corner Messrs. Cochran, McLean 
& Co. occupy a fine brown-stone building. 

On the coi'ner of Broadway and Broome street is a 
handsome iron building, while opposite is another iron 
building, in tlie Gothic style, occupied by tlie Grover 
& Baker Sewing Machine Company. Just beyond is 
the St. Nicholas Hotel, a white marble sti'ucture reach- 
ing to the corner of Spring street. 

On the opposite corner is the Prescott House. Ad- 
joming this is a very extensive and beautiful iron build- 
ing, occupied by Evans, Gardner & Co. Just above, on 
the opposite side, is a handsome white marble building, 
occupied by the American National Bank. 

Messrs. Ball, Black & Co., have a beautiful white 
marble building on the corner of Prince street and 
Broadway. 

Next in view is the Metropolitan Hotel. Opposite 
the Metropolitan Hotel, Messrs. E. & H. T. Antliony 
& Co., dealers and importers of Artists' Materials, 
Stereoscopes, etc., have their extensive establish- 
ment 

Adjoining the Metropolitan Hotel are the attractive 
Warerooms of the Mason & Hamlin Organ Co. 



84 NOTABLE STORES, ETC. 

The next building which claims our attention is 025 
Broadway, known as Wheeler & Wilson's Sewing Ma- 
chine Company, and which is acknowledged to lie one 
of tlie most beautiful stores on Broadway. 

We have now reached the corner of Bleecker street, 
just above wliich is the white marble building known 
as ililler's Book Store, where may be found, in addition 
to a large and well-selected stockof English and Ameri- 
can books, eveiy thing in the stationerj- line. James 
Miller makes a specialty of fancy and commercial sta- 
tionery. 647 is famous for its beautiful designs for 
monograms, as well as for wedding gifts. 

We now pass to Astor Place, where is situated the 
Mercantile Libraiy and the Book Trade Sales Rooms 
of Leaviti, Strebeigh & Co. At the junction of Astor 
Place and Fom'th avenue is the Cooper Union, also the 
Bible House. 

Returning to Broadway, the next object tliat stiikes 
our attention is Stewart's magniticent retail store on the 
comer of 10th street, and on the opposite comer stands 
Grace Church. 

Continuing our walk, we reach Union Square, at the 
junction of which witii Fourth avenue stands Brown's 
Statue of Washington. It is a bronze equestrian fig- 
m-e, placed upon a plain granite pedestal. The statue 
is fourteen and a half feet, and the whole, including the 
pedestal, is tweuty-nine feet high. It occupied the artist 
four yeai-s in its' construction, and cost over $30,000. 
The statue is universally admired. The artist has, in a 
masterly manner, overcome the almost insuiTuountable 
difficulty of all equestrian statues, inasmuch as he has 
succeeded in making the interest of the horse .subordi- 
nate to that of the rider. The majestic presence of 
Washington is the object first to catch and fix the be- 
holdea"'s gaze. The true proportions and fine attitude 
of the animal but enter into and complete the inspuing 
effect of the perfect statue. 

On the corner of Broadway and 23d street we reach 
the Fifth Avenue Hotel, a very handsome white marble 
building, nearly opposite to which is a beautiful granite 
shaft erected to the memory of General Worth. Tta 
erection was celebrated by a public ceremonial. 



WHEELER *St WILSO]V 

HIGHEST PEEMIUM 








LOCK-STITGH .M.UIM. JlACllLM-S. 

No. G95 BROADWAY, NKW YORK. 
EXPOSITION IINIVERSELLE, PARIS, 1867. 

The only Cold Medal for Perfection of Sewing Machines. 



POST OFFIOK. 8d 

POST OFFICE. 

Cornet of Nassau and Liberty Streets. 

Office Hours. — Daily at all hours, except Sundays. 
Sundays from 9 to 10 a. m., and from 12^ to li p. m. 



U. S. Mail Stations.— Open from 6.30 a. m. to 9.30 p. m 

A, 129 Spring street, 

B, o83 Grand street, 

C, Fourth street, corner "W. 

Twelfth street. 



D, Bible House, 

E, 368 Eighth Avenue, 

F, 474 Third Avenue, 



G, 1259 Broadway, 
H, Yorkville, 
J, Harsenville, 
K, Manhattanville, 
L, Harlem, 
M, Carmansville, 
N, Tubby Hook. 



Hates of Postage. 

N"o letter will be sent from this Office, to any place 
•witbiu the United States, unless the postage is prepaid 
by stamps. 

Stamps and stamped envelopes can be procured at 
the office of sale, in the second story of the Post Office 
building ; entrance at the east end of the Cedar street 
front, open from 9 a. m. to 3 p. m., at the first window 
from Oedar on Nassau street, and at all the stations. 

The inland postage (which must be prepaid) upon 
single letters, is three cents ; double letters twice, and 
treble letters, treble these rates. 

Every letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce in 
weight, shall be deemed a single letter, and every addi- 
tional weight of half an ounce, or less, shall be charged 
with an additional single postage, prepaid by stamps. 

City letters must be prepaid by stamps at the rate of 
two cents for each half ounce, or less, and two cents 
for each additional half ounce, whether deUvered from 
the office or by the carriers. 

Advertised letters are charged with two cent, in ad- 
dition to the regular postage. 



86 



EATES OF POSTAGE ON NEWS- 
PAPEES. 

Daily newspapers, per quarter, 35c, 

Six times a week, " 30 

Tri-weekly, " 15 

Semi-weekly, " 10 

Weekly newspapers, " 10 

Transient papers, 4 ounces, 2 

Monthly magazines, 4 " 3 

Monthly magazines, 8 " 6 

Books, each, 4 " 4 



BANKS. 



The more prominent banks of New York include, 
the Bank of New York, corner of Wall and Wil- 
liam streets, the Bank of America, the Mechanics' 
Bank, the Merchants' Bank, the Manhattan, the Bank 
of Commerce, Nassau Bank, &c. The Banks of New 
York are daily becoming more important in an archi- 
tectural point of view. 

The American Exchange Bank, 128 Broadway, corner 
of Liberty street, is a splendid building of Caen stone. 

The Bank of Commerce, in Nassau street, facing the 
Post-Office, is one of the finest marble edifices in the 
city. Its capital is ten millions of dollars. 



MASON S, HAMLIU OUGAK CO., 

596 Broadway, 




Announce the intuiiiiKti. n iln- ~. i-w , <il iiuino^ements of more 
than ordinary inteic-l, which Iruis; ualeuud, will be made only by 
the M. & H. "0. Co. 

Four Octave Organs, $50 each. 

Five Octave, double-reed Organs, $125, $133, $140, and upwards. 

FORTY OTHER STYLES 

••It proportionate i)rices up to $\,i>W each. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

with full descriptions of all styles and improvements, also testimonial 
circular, givii:g accounts from those who have used these Organs in 
Europe. Asia, Africa, and America, and from Sea-Captains, Mission- 
aries, and many others, as regards their durability in all climates, 
sent free to any address. 

MASON (Si HAMLIN ORGAN CO., 

oOO Broad H'(tf/, X. 1'., 

lo4 Trcinout St., lioston. 




. X K OF THE R E P r li L I C 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 87 

Duncan^ Sherman cC Co.'s Banhing House is built of 
brown stoue, and stands on tlie corner of Nassau and 
Pine streets ; it cost $150,000. Adjoining this is another 
splendid establishment, — The Continental Banh. 

The Bank of the Republic is situated at the corner 
of Eroadway and Wall street; it is a noble edifice, built 
of brown stone ; its entire cost is estimated at about 
$175,000. Its capital is $2,000,000. 

The Metro'politan is also built of brown stone, and is 
located at the corner of Pine street and Broadway; 
its cost is stated at $160,000. 

The Banh of the Commonwealth^ 15 Nassau street, is a 
beautiful brown stone structure of elegant proportions. 

TTie Banh of America is one of the old established 
banks, situated 46 Wall street. Its capital is $3,000,000. 

On the corner of Wall and William streets, is another 
fine edifice, the Banh of New Yorh\ recently rebuilt 
with brick and brown stone facings; its capital is 
$2,000,000. 

The Banh of North America^ 44 "Wall street, has a 
capital of $1,000,000. 

Broadway Banh^ corner of Broadway and Park 
Place, is a massive brown-stone building; its cost is 
stated at $127,000. 

The Park Bank, 214 and 216 Broadway, is a recent 
establishment, with a capital of $2,000,000 

The Phenix Banh, 45 Wall street. 

The Shoe and Leather Banh, corner of Broadway and 
Chambers street, has a capital of $1,000,000. 

The Union Banh, 34 Wall street, has a capital of 
$1,500,000. 

The Importers and Traders Banh, 245 Broadway, has 
a capital of $1,500,000. 

The Pacific Banh has recently erected a fine marble 
edifice in Broadway, adjoining Brooks' building, corner 
of Grand street. 

The Manhattan Company, 40 Wall street, has a capi- 
tal of $2,050,000. 

The Clearing House is at 72 Broadway. 



88 aAYINGS BANKS. 

For a general list of the City Banks, the reader is re- 
ferred to the New York Directory. 



SAYINGS BANKS. 

Among the excellent institutions of New York, may 
be mentioned the Savings Banks. The principal estab- 
lishments are the following: 

Bank for Savings, 67 Bleecker street, is a beautiful 
marble edifice, the most elegant and spacious of its 
class in the city. 

Bowery Savings Bank, 130 Bowery, is a splendid 
brown stone building — one of the architectural orna- 
ments of this portion of the city. We refer the reader 
to the annexed illustration of this edifice. 

Broadway Savings Bank is on the corner of Park 
Place. 

Hast River Savings Bank is situated 3 Chambers 
street. 

The Irving, 96 "Warren street. 

The Gi'eenwich, 73 Sixth Avenue. 

2'he Emigrant ludusti-ial, 51 Chambers street. 

The Mechanics and Traders', 283 Bowery. 

The Manhattan, 644 Broadway. 

The Dry Bock, 603 Fourth street. 

2 he Merchants' Clerks^ Savings Bank, 516 Broadway. 

Seaman's Bank for Savings, 78 Wall. 

Sixpenny Savings Bank, Clinton Hall, Astor Place. 



CITT OF NBW ^OEK. 



PUBLIC WORKS. 

THE CEOTON AQUEDUCT, 

By -which the city is supplied with pure water, is one 
of the most gigantic enter[)rises of the Ivind undertaken 
in any country. The distance which the water travels 
through this artificial channel, exclusive of the grand 
reservoir, is about forty miles. The Dam crosses the 
Croton River six miles from its mouth, and the whole 
distance from this dam, thirty-two miles, is one un- 
broken under-ground canal, formed of stone and brick. 
The great receiving reservoir is on York Hill, five miles 
from tl e Citj' Hall ; it can receive a depth of water to 
the extmt of twenty feet, and is capable of containing 
150,000,000 gallons. Two miles further on is the dis- 
tributing reservoir, at Murray Hill. This reservoir is 
of solid masonry, built in the Egyptian style of archi- 
tecture, with massive buttresses, hollow granite walls, 
&c. On the top of the walls is an inclosed promenade. 
It is three miles from the City Hall. The cost of this 
immense undertaking was over thirteen millions of dol- 
lars. 

During the past years the works have been thoroughly 
examined and repaired from the Oroton Dam to the 
receiving reservoir at an immense cost. In connec- 
tion with this a typographical survey of the valley of 
the Croton was effected, by which it appears that the 
ridge defining the waters above the point at which the 
Aqueduct begins, measures 101 miles. Within this cir- 
cuit there are 31 lakes and ponds ; and the aggregate 
area of waters including the tributaries is 352 square 
miles; which is equal to 96,034 gallons per square mile 
during the driest season. Yet large as this supply may 
appear, the resources of the Brooklyn water-works are 
nearly six times as great. 



90 PITBLIO .VORKS. 

Among the improvements now contemplated in these 
colossal works is the erection of still another immense 
reservoir in the northeastern part of the city, provided 
with a high column (pumped up by steam) in order to 
increase the pressure in the pipes of the Division where 
the present head of water is ineffective, owing to the 
altitude of the ground. 

The immense New Reservoir cost $2,250,000 when 
completed. 

The New Reservoir is located at York hill, in the 
Central park, between Eighty-fifth and Ninety-seventh 
streets. The gate-houses, which are to cost $193,513, 
are to be built in the outer reservoir bank, and at the 
ends of the central bank of the new reservoir, the 
aqueduct will extend therefrom to about 50 feet east of 
the existing acpieduct, near the Ninth Avenue. The 
south gate-house will be located near Eighty-sixth 
street ; 83 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 42 feet above the 
pavement of the bays, which are to be divided. The 
masonry will be very massive, and supported by but- 
tresses four feet wide and sixteen feet high. The north 
gate-house will be 72 feet by 40, and correspond with 
the other so far a relates to distribution and waste- 
pipes, &c. 

At the distance of about eight miles from the City 
Hall is 

THE HIGH BBIOGE, 

The most important structure connected with the Oro- 
ton Aqueduct. It is thrown across the Harlem valley 
and river. It spans the whole width of the valley and 
river at a point where the latter is 620 feet wide, and 
the former a quarter of a mile. Eight arches, each with 
a span of 80 feet, compose this structure ; and the ele- 
vation of the arche'j gives 100 feet clear of the river 
from their lower side. Besides these, there are several 
other arches rising from the ground, the span of which 
is somewhat more than half that of the first mentioned. 
The material employed throughout the whole of this 



..0\\m9ry'w wfwwmMiimp^^wvimiiim m - jiM)|n 




CITY OF NEW YORK. 91 

imposing object is granite. The Tvorks cost $900,000. 
The water is led over this bridge, which is 1450 feet in 
extent, in iron pipes ; and over all is a patliwav, which, 
though wide enough for carriages, is available to pedes- 
trians only. The fare by a carriage, allowing passen- 
cjers to remain two or three hours at the bridge, is $5. 
It can be reached pleasantly and expeditiously by the 
Harlem Railroad (Depot 4th Avenue and 26th street), 
or in summer by the Third Avenue Eailroad and steam- 
boat from Harlem. 

SmP-BUILDING YASDS AND DRY DOCKS. 

Of the numerous works in and around New York, tha 
stranger must not fail to pay a visit to the Ship-Build- 
ing Yards and Dry BocJcs, where gigantic steamers may 
be seen in every stage of progress, and all the most 
approved jnachinery connected with ship-building in 
active operation. 

THE NOVELTY WOEKS, 

At the foot of Twelfth street, are of themselves a per- 
fect marvel, and here the stranger may spend an hour 
v*rith the greatest pleasure and profit in witnessing aL 
the wonders of the steam-engine. 

THE NAVAL DRY DOCK, 

A stone structure, said to be the largest of the kind In 
the world, and a perfect monument of engineering skill, 
will also well repay the trouble of a visit. Tlie dimen- 
sions of this gigantic dock are 400 feet in length by 120 
in breadth at their base. The work took ten years in 
its construction; it cost $2,150,000. 

THE SECTIONAL DOCK, 

At the foot of Pike street. East River, is an object well 
worth visiting. The dock is constructed for the pur- 
pose of lifting vessels, by means of tanks filled with 
water. There is also another process of raising a ves 
sel, by means of pulleys, worked by hydraulic power. 



92 SHIPS. — FOKTIFIOATIONS. 



CLIPPER SHIPS, PACKETS, ETC. 

The docks along the North Eiver, from the Battery 
northward, and also especially along the East River, 
exhibit a complete forest of masts of the naval architec- 
ture of the city. Splendid packet-ships, clippers, and 
steamboats, of all descriptions and sizes, hem in the 
margins of these rivers. On the North River may be 
seen the stately ocean-steamers. These also are objects 
of interest to strangers, and they may inspect the ele- 
gant cabins of these splendid vessels on application. 



FORTS AND FORTIFICATIONS. 

The national defences of New York comprise the 
following: the strong fortifications of tlie Narrows — on 
the one side, Forts Ilamilton and La Fayette, the latter 
having three tiers of guns, &c. ; on tbe otlier side, 
Fort8 TompMns and Richmond^ situated on Staten 
Island heights. To protect the inner harbor, there are 
Forts Columbus and Castle William, on Governor's 
Island, and the works on Bedlow's and Ellis' Islands. 

Castle William, measuring 600 feet in circumference, 
and 60 feet high, is a circular stone battery, with 
magazines, &c. 

Fort Columbus, on the same island, connects with the 
former. Here are barracks and a corps of the United 
States troops. 

Governor's Island, formerly known as Nut Island, 
from its formerly being covered with nut-trees, was, 
in colonial times, used by the English governors as 



ATLAI^TIl; ITIUTUAL 

INSURANCE COMPANY, 



51 WALL STRKK'l'. 




MAIJIXK AM) IMAM) l\S| KA\(i:. 



JOHN D. JONES. Pres. 
CHARLES DENNIS, V. Pres. 
W. H. H. MORE. 2d V. Pres 
JOHN D HEWLETT, 3d V. Pres. 
J. H. CHAPMAN, Secretary 



OTTT OF NEW YORK, QS 

pleasare-grounds. The several fortifications here, may 
be easily seen, by taking a boat from Castle Garden, 
foot of the Battery. There are other fortifications for 
the defence of Long Island Sound, and also towards 
Sandy Hook. 



PRINCIPAL RESTAURANT SALOONS. 

These are Delmonico's Saloon, Fifth avenue, corner 
14th street, the largest and most sumptuous in the 
city or country. 

Maillard!s Saloon, 621 Broadway. 
Florence's Saloon, 609 Broadway. 
A. Bangs & Go's Saloon, 231 Broadway. 
Delmonico Lorenzo's Saloon, 275 Broadway, and 22 
Broad street. 

Crooke, Fox & NasNs, 39 Park Row. 

Riley's, corner 11th street and University Place. 

Sinclair House, corner Broadway and Sih street. 

Thompson's, 292 Broadway. 

Willard's, 532 Broadway. 

The consumption of oysters in New York is immense ; 
It having been computed that the daily consumption b 
valued at $18,000, and that some 1500 boats are con- 
stantly engaged to obtain the supply for this city alone. 



94 HOTELS.— MARKETS. 



PRINCIPAL HOTELS 



The Astor House, Broadway, near the City Hall Park. 
The Metro]}olitan, Broadway, corner of Prince street. 
St. NicJwlas, Broadway, corner of Spring street. 
Prescott House, Broadway, corner of Spring street. 
The Everett House, north side of Union Square. 
Grand Central Hotel, Broadway, opposite Bond street. 
New York Hotel, Broadway, cor. of Washington place. 
The Clarendon, cor. Fourth avenue and Eighteeutli street 
St. Denis, corner of Broadway and Eleventh street. 
Oilsey Home, Broadway and Twenty-niuth street. 
Brevoort House, Fifth avenue and Clinton place. 
St. James, Broadway and Twenty-sixth street. 
Westmoreland Hotel, Fourth avenue and Seventeenth st. 
Coleman House, Broadway and near Twenty-eighth street 
Hoffman House, Broadway and Twenty-fifth street. 
Grand Hotel, Broadway and Thirty -first street. 
Fifth Avenue Hotel, Fifth avenue and Twenty-third street. 
In addition to the above there are numerous other 
hotels and houses, which may readily be ascertained. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 

THE FUITON MABKET, 

Built in 1821, at a cost of $220,000, is located on a 
block described by Fulton street on the south, Beek- 
man on the north, Front on the west, and South street 
on the east. 

WASHINGTON HABKET 

Is on the western side of the city, on the North River, 
at the foot of Vesey street and Washington street. 
This market receives the produce from the West, as the 
Fulton does from the East district. 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 95 

CATHASINE MABZET 

Is smaller than the above, occupying a square between 
Cherry and Soutli streets, East River. There are also 

CHELSEA MARKET, 

In the Ninth Avenue, near Eighteenth street ; 

JEFFEKSON MARKET, 

Corner of Greenwich and Sixth Avenues ; 

CLINTON MARKET, 

Situate at the foot of Canal street, between the North 
Kiver and Washington street ; and 

TOMPKINS MARKET, 

Between Sixth and Seventh streets, Third Avenue. 

There is yet another, more central, and on a larger 
scale, known as 

CENTRE MARKET, 

In Centre street, extending from Grand to Broome 
streets. This is a well-built and commodious place, 
adapted for the various departments of a public market. 
The building is substantial, built of brick, two stories 
nigh ; the upper portion being used as armories and 
drill-rooms by military companies, &c. 



THE OCEAN STEAMSHIPS. 

The offices of the several lines of steamships are as 
follows : 

Cunard Steamers. — E. Cunard, 4 Bowling Green. 



96 FOREIGN OONSULS. 

IT. S. Mail Steamship Co., for Aspinwall.— J. W Kav- 
mond, 177 West street. 

Glasgow Steamers.— R. Craig, 6 fowling Green. 

Charleston Steamers.— ^^oSovd, Tifeston & Co. 29 
Broadway. ' 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co. — 88 Wall street. 

The Liverpool and New York S. S. Co.-^ohn G. 
Dale, 15 Broadway. 

M. 0. Roierts' Line to San Francisco and Oregon — 
D. K Carrington, 177 West street. 

U. S. Mail Line for California via Panama.— D. B. 
Allen, No. 5 Bowling Green. 

Steam to Hamlurg, Havre, Southampton, and Lon- 
don.— 0. B. Eichard & Boas, 181 Broadway. 

Mail Steamers to France direct.— The General Trans- 
atlantic Company's new line of first class side-wheel 
steamships between New York and Havre. George 
Mackenzie, Agent, No. T Broadway. 

For Havana.—Spofford, Tileston & Co., 29 Broad- 
way. 

Advertisements of other lines are to be found either 
in the Directory, or in the columns of the New York 
Serald. 



STEAMBOATS. 



NORTH RIVER. 

Albany, etc. (morning boat), Pier 

No. 39. 
Albany (night line), Pier No. 41. 
Troy (nigbt line). Pier No. 34. 
Boston and Providence (Prop.), 

Pier No. 2T. 
Boston (Fall River Line), Pier No. 



Boston (Norwich and Wor. Line), 

Pier No. 39. '' 

Barrytown, Bhineheck <fc Tivoli, 



Pier No. 37. | No. 84. 



Cattskill and Hudson, Pier No. 39. 
Coney Island and Fort Ilamilton. 

Pier No. 4. 
Coxsackie, Bristol, Cattskill, etc. 

Pier No. .37. 
Coszen\ Cornwall, etc.. Pier No. 

39. 
Dohbs" Ferry, Yonkers, etc.. Pier 

No. 84. 
Elizalethport, etc.. Pier No. 14 
Fort Lee, Bull's Ferry, etc.. Pier 

No. 51. 
Grassy Point, Cold Spring, ete.. 

Pier No. 39. 
Hastings, Dobbs' Ferry, etc., Pici 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 



97 



Hudson. Pier No. 37. 
Havergtraw, Yonkera, eto.. Pier 

No. 34. 
Keyport and Middletown Point, 

Pier No. 36. 
Long Branch., Shrewsbury, etc.. 

Pier No. 82. 
Mariner'fi I/arbor and Bergen 

Point, Pier No. 14. 
Marlboro and Milton, Pier No. 33. 
New Brighton and P. Richmond, 

Pier No. 19. 
Newark, Pier No. 26. 
New Brunswick and Wood's 

Landing, Pier No. 14. 
New London, Norwich <& Mystic, 

Pier No. 38. 
New Hamburg and Milton, Pier 

No. 39. 
Newbxirgh, Poxighkeepsie, etc.. 

Pier No. 39. 
Newport, Pall River, etc.. Pier 

No. 28. 
Norwich. Pier No. 33. 
Nyack, Tarrytown and Tonkers, 

Pier No. 34. 
Peekskill, Pier No. 34 
Perth Amboy, Rossville, etc.. Pier 

No. 30. 
Perth Ambo-y, Pier No. 1. 
Port Monmouth and Middletown, 

Pier No. 32. 
Port Washington and Fairhaven, 

Piers No. 26 and 80. 
Poughkeepsie and Cornwall, 

Pier No. 33. 
Poughkeepsie, Yonkers, etc.. Pier 

No. 39. 
Providence, Pier No. 35. 
Rockland Lake, Nyack, etc.. Pier 

No. 34. 
Rockaway, Pier No. 30. 
Rondout and Kingston, Pier No. 



RossviUe, Woodbridge, etc.. Pier 
No. 80. 

Red Bank, N. J., Pier No. 32. 

iSaugerties, Rhinebeck <& 7'ivoli, 
Pier No. 3T. 

South Amboy, Pier No. 1. 

Sing Sing, Pier No. 34. 

Sing Sing, Lrvington and Tarry- 
town, Pier No. 30. 

Staten Island, Whitehall Slip. 



Snug Harbor, Factoryville, etc.. 

Pier No. 19. 
Shrewsbury, Long Branch, etc.. 

Pier No. 32. 
Staten Island {North Shore), Pier 

No. 19. 
Tarrytnwn, Yonkera, Nyack, 

Pier No 34. 
Tottens, Chelsea and Biasing St., 

Pier No. 30. 
We.<<t Camp, 'Maiden, etc., Pier 

No. 35. 
West Point, Newburg, etc.. Pier 

No. 39. 
Yonkers, Tarrytown and Nyack, 

Pier No. 84. 

EAST EIVEE. 
Astoria. Harlem and YorkviUe, 

Pier No. 24. 
BlackwelVs Island, etc., Foot of 

26th street. 
Bridgeport, Pier No. 85. 
Bridgeport, Pier No. 26. 
City Island, New Rochelle, etc.. 

Pier No. 43. 
College Point, Pier No. 22. 
Derby, Conn., Pier No. 37. 
Flushing, Pier No. 22. 
Greenwich, Portchester and Rye, 

Pier No. 26. 
Harlem. YorkviUe & High Bridge, 

Pier No. 24. 
Hartford & intermediate places. 

Pier No. 24. 
Glen Cove, Roslyn, Bayley a VK, 

Pier No. 24. 
Lloyd's Dock, and Huntington, 

Pier No. 26. 
Motfs Dock, Sands' Point, Great 

Neck, Pier No. 24. 
Mystic and Noank, Conn., Pier 

iSfo. 23. 
New Haven, Pier No. 24. 
Norwalk and Danbury, Pier No. 



37. 
Northport, Oyster Bay, etc.. Pier 

No. 26. „ „ ^ 

Orient, Greenport and S. Harbor, 

Pier No. 33. 
Portland, for Canada, Pier No. 38. 
Rye Point, Portchester, etc, Pier 

No. 26. 
Stamford, Pier No. 22. 



98 OITY OF NEW TOEK. 



WESTEEN UNION TELEGEAPH. 

General Office, 145 Broadway. 

Produce Exchange, cor. Pearl street and Whitehall. 

Cor. William and Beaver streets, " Basement." 

134 Pearl street. 

22 Broad street. 

Merchants' Exchange News Room, 50 and 52 Pine street 

Fulton Market, 83 Fish Market. 

Astor House. 

Washington Market, 100 Vesey street. 

Hudson River Railroad Depot, W^arren street. 

239 Broadway. 

Dry Goods Exchange, 49 and 51 Park Place. 

Pier 39 N. R., Vestry street. 

Pier 41 N. R. 

280 Canal street, near Broadway. 

Westchester House, cor. Broome and Bowery. 

St. Nicholas Hotel. 

Prescott Heuse. 

Metropolitan Hotel. 

New York Hotel. 

95 Eiij:hth Avenue, near 14th street. 

Dry Dock, cor. 10th street and Avenue D. 

Everett House. 

Madison Square, 945 Broadway. 

Fifth Avenue Hotel. 

Hoffman House. 

Harlem R.R. Depot, cor. 26th street and Fourth Avenue. 

N. Haven R.R. Depot, cor. 27th st. and Fourth Avenue 

AUerton's West , Eleventh Avenue and 41st street. 

Cor. Sixth Avenue and 42d street. 

Yorkville, cor. Third Avenue and 86th street. 

Harlem, cor. Third Avenue and 135th street. 

Manhattanville Railroad Depot. 

Astoria, Fulton street, near junction of Main. 

Jersey City, 26 Exchange Place. 

Hoboken, Morris and Essex Railroad Depot., 




BowK.ii Samnlis Bank. 



OTTT OF NEW YORK. 98 A 

LIST OF NUMBERS AND LOCALITIES OF THE FIRE 
ALARM STATIONS. "^ '^t^ 

ExAMPr.Es.— Two strokes — an interval— then three 
strokes, indicate 2-3 (twenty-three), wliich will be re- 
peated at longer interval-s, and will give notice of a fire 
in the vicinity of the Engine House, Henry-street, near 
Gouverneur-street. 

123 (one— two — three) given in the same manner, 
will indicate a fire in the vicinity of Old Slip and VVater- 
etreet, 

SIGNALS. LOCALITY. 

1. Firemen's Hall, Mercer-street. 

2. Engine house, Chambers-street, corner Centre. 

3. Engine house. Centre-street, near Chambers. 

4. Engine house, Cedar-street, near Tiinity-placo. 
6. Engine house. Beaver-street, near Broad. 

6. Engine house. Liberty-street, near Nassau. 

12. Engine house. Burling Slip, near Water. 

13. Engine house, William-street, near Pearl. 

14. Engine house, East Broadway, near Catherine-street. 

15. Engine house, Franklin-street, near Hudson. 

16. Engine house, Franklin-street, near Varick. 
21. Engine house, Clinton-street, near Division. 

23. Engine house, Henry-street, near Gouverneur. 

24. Engine house. Eleventh-street, near Avenue B, 

25. Engine house, Ludlow-street, near Delancey. 

26. Engine house, Houston-street, near Columbia. 

31. Eepair Yard, Elizabeth-street, near Bayard. 

32. Engine house, Elizabeth-street, near Prince. 

34. Engine house, Marion-street, near Prince. 

35. Engine house, Wooster-street, near Spring. 

36. Engine house. Mercer-street, near Fourth. 

41 . Engine house, Fifth-street, corner First avenue. 

42. Engine house. Fourteenth-street, near First avenue. 

43. Engine house. Thirteenth-street, near Fourth avenue. 

45. Engine house. West lOth-street, near Greenwich ave. 

46. Engine house, Cliarles-street, near Bleecker. 

61. Engine house, Morton-street, near Hudson. 

62. Police station, New-street, near Wall. 



98 iJ FIBE ALAKM STATIONS. 

53. Police station, Beekman-street, near William. 

54. Police station, Grand-street, near Ludlow. 
56. Police station, Madison-street, near Clinton. 

61. Police station, Franklin-street, near Baxter. 

62. Police station, Attorney-street, near Delancey. 

63. Engine house. Eighteenth-street, near Broadway. 

64. Engine house, Seventeenth-street, near Ninth avenue. 

65. Insurance Patrol, Elm-street, near Broome. 

71. Engine house. Spring-street, near Varick. 

72. Engine house, Leonard-street, near Elm. 

73. Engine house. Fifth-street, near Avenue D. 

List of Numbers and Localities ichich will be indicated 
by the Telegraph, but at which no Signal Stations ara 
yet established. 

SIGNALS. LOCALITY. 

123. Old Slip, corner Water-street. 

124. Custom House, Wall-street. 

125. Foot of Wall-street, East River. 

126. Harpers' Buildings, Pearl-street. 

131. Morris-street, corner Washington. 

132. Courtlandt-street, corner Washington. 

134. St. Paul's Church, Broadway and Vesey-street. 

135. Greenwich-street, corner Barclay. 

136. Police station. Chambers-street, near Greenwich. 

141. City Hospital, Broadway. 

142. Broadway, corner Canal-street. 

143. Bowery, corner Grand-street. 

145. Canal-street, corner Hudson. 

146. Hudson-street, corner King. 

151. Houston-street, corner Thompson. 

152. Wasliington-street, corner Bank. 

153. Twelfth-street, corner Ninth avenue. 

154. Fifth avenue, corner Ninth-street. 
156. Cooper Institute, Third avenue. 

161. Avenue D, corner Eighth-street. 

162. Third-street, corner Avenue B. 

163. Houston-street, corner Second avenue. 

164. Foot of Grand-street, East River. 

165. Keeker's Mills, Cherry-street near Pike. 



OMNIBUSES AND RAIL-CARS. 

The omnibus lines are 8 in number, comprising 204 
vehicles, which average about 10 down aud as many 
up trips daily. Besides .these stages there are 14 lines 
of commodious city cars, drawn by horses or mules 
along rails laid on the streets. The fare is only 6 cents. 
They run as follows : 

Harlem Co-'s City Cars—Yrom Park Row to Centre 
street, through Centre to Grand, Grand to Bowery, up 
Bowery to Fourth Avenue and Twenty-seventh street. 
Second Avenue Cars— Fvoiw. Peck Slip, through Pearl, 
Chatham, Bowery, Grand, and Allen streets. First Ave 
nue, East Twenty-third street and Second Avenue, to 
Harlem. 

TJiird Avenue Railroad — Park Row, Bowery, Third 
Avenue, to Yorkville. 

Sixth Avenue Railroad — Vesey, througn Church and 
Chambers streets. West Broadway, Canal, Varick, and 
Carmine streets, Sixth Avenue, to Fifty-ninth street. 

Seventh Avenue Railroad — From corner of Broadway 
and Barclay street, through Church, Greene, University 
Place, Broadway, Forty-third street, and Seventh Ave- 
nue to Fifty-ninth street. There is also a branch start- 
ing-place from corner of Broadway and Broome street. 
Eighth Avenue Railroad — Vesey, through Church, 
Chambers, West Broadway, Canal, Hudson streets, and 
Eighth Avenue, to West Fifty-ninth street. 

Ninth Avenue Railroad— B&rda,}', corner of Church, 
through Church, Chambers, West Broadway, Canal, 
Greenwich, and Ninth Avenue, to Fifty-ninth street. 

Central Park, North and East River Railroad- 
Eastern Division — From South Ferry, foot of White- 
hall street, through Front, Water, and South street", 
to Grand Street Ferry ; thence through Grand, Man- 
gin, Corlears and Houston streets, to Avenues D and A ; 
thence through 14th street to First Avenue, and through 
First Avenue and 59th street to the Fifth Avenue en- 
trance of the Central Park. 



100 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Central Parh, North and East River Railroad — 
Western Division — From South Ferry, foot of White- 
hall street, through Whitehall and State streets, Bat- 
tery Place, West street. Tenth Avenue and 59th street, 
to Fifth Avenue entrance of Central Park. 

Broadway and Grand Street Ferry Railroad — From 
junction of Broadway and Canal street, through New 
Canal street. East Broadway, and Grand street to 
Grand Street Ferry. 

Broadway and Seventh Avenue Railroad — From 
junction of Broadway and Barclay street, through 
Barclay, Church, Greene, and Eighth streets, Univer- 
sity Place, Broadway, Seventh Avenue, and 69th 
street.— Branch from junction of Broadway and 
Broome street, through Broome, Greene, Eighth 
streets. University Place, Broadway, Seventh Avenue, 
and 59th street. Kkturn Route — From corner of 
59th street and Seventh Avenue, through Seventh 
Avenue, Broadway, University Place, Eighth street, 
Wooster street (Branch Road from Wooster through 
Broome street, to Broadway), Canal street, West 
Broadway, Barclay street, to Broadway. 

Forty-second Street and Grand .Street Ferry Rail- 
road — Forty-second street and Eleventh Avenue, along 
Forty-second street to Tenth Avenue, through Tenth 
Avenue to Thirty-fourth street, Broadway, Twenty- 
third street. Fourth Avenue, Fourteenth street, Avenue 
A, Houston street. Cannon street. Grand street, to 
Grand Street Ferry. Return Route — From Grand 
Street Ferry to Goerck street, through Goerck, Hous- 
ton, and Second streets. Avenue A, Fourteenth street, 
Fourth Avenue, Twenty-third street, Broadway, Thir- 
ty-fourth street, Tenth Avenue to Forty-second Street 
Ferry. 

East Brojdway and Dry Dock Railroad — From 
junction of Park Row and Broadway, through Park 
Row, Chatham street, Chatham Square, East Broad- 
way, Grand street, Goerck, Houston, to Avenue D, 
thence through Avenue D to Dry Dock. Return 



OMNIBUSES AND EAIL-CARS. 101 

Route — From Dry Dock, tlirougli Avenue D, Eiglith, 
Lewis, Grand streets, East Broadway, Chatham Square, 
Chatham-street, Park Row to Broadway. 

Fourteenth-street and Fulton Ferry Railroad — From 
foot of Fourteenth-street, North River, through Hudson, 
Bleecker, Crosby, Howard, Elm, Reade, Centre, Beek- 
mon, and South streets, to Fulton-street ; and return 
through Fulton, William and Ann streets to Park Row, 
and thence to Fourteenth-street along the route above 
mentioned. 

Grand-street Ferry and Courtlnnd-street Ferry Rail- 
road — From Grand-street Ferry through Grand-street, 
East Broadway, Walker, Greenwich, and Oourtlandt 
streets to the ferry. 

For the several stage and omnibus routes throughout 
the city, see the New York Directory. Most of them 
have their routes designated on the outside of the ve- 
hicle. A large proportion of them pass up and down 
Broadway almost incessantly. 



102 BAILBOADB. 



KAILROADS. 

ITEW TOBK AND NEW HAVEN. 

This is much frequented ; the distance to New Ha- 
ven is 76 miles ; but the route is continued on to Spring- 
6eld 63 miles further, and thence a distance of 100 
miles more reaches Boston. The whole journey, which 
saves the passage on the Sound, is accomplished in about 
8 hours. The depot is on the corner of Fourth Avenue 
and Twenty-seventh street. This road cost $4,233,000. 

NEW YORK AND HARLEM. 

The trains run on this road as far as Albany, stop- 
ping at intermediate places. As far as Williams' 
Bridge, which is 14 miles from the city, they run on 
the same track as the New Haven trains, afterwards 
they branch off. The Harlem tunnel, a quarter of a 
mile in length, is a wonderful excavatior., being cut 
through solid granite ; — while it is approached by a 
^ong deep cut ol more than a mile in length. Cars 
leave the depot opposite the Astor House, every five 
minutes, for Twenty-seventh street, from half-past 7 
A, M., to 8 p. M ; and the night line every 20 minutes, 
from 8 to 12. Cars for Harlem, only, leave from the 
same place every hour throughout the day. 

THE HUDSON RIVEE. 

Tbe city depot of this road is at Thirtieth street, cor- 
ner of Tenth Avenue. This road extends to Albany, 
and stops at the intermediate places. Its time-table 
varies, but can be had on application. This is consid- 
ered the best-constructed road in the country; its cost, 
for 144 miles, is stated at $9,300,000. 



OITT OF NEW YORK. 102 

NEW JERSEY RAILROAD. 
For Washington, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, and 
intermediate places, leaves New York I'roui foot of 
Cortlandt street^ via Jersey City Ferry. 

CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY. 

For Harrisburg, Reading, Pottsville, Mauch Chunk, 
and intermediate places, leaves Pier No. 15, N. Pw. 

NORTHERN RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY. 

For Piermont and intermediate places, leaves New 
York from foot of Chambers street. 

CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 

For Philadelphia, via steamers to Amboy, leaves 
Pier No. 1, N. R. 

MORRIS AND ESSEX RAILROAD. 
For Hackettstown and intermediate places, leaves 
foot of Barclay street. 

LONG ISLAND RAILROAD. 
For Greenport and intermediate places, leaves James 
Slip, and foot of Thirty-fourth street, E. R. 
CONEY ISLAND RAILROAD. 
All Brooklyn horse-cars for Greenwood connect with. 
this road. Depot, Thirty-sixth street, near Fifth Av- 
enue, Brooklyn, 

FLUSHING RAILROAD, L. I. 
Leaves foot of 34th street, and James Slip, N. Y. 

RARITAN AND DELAWARE BAY RAILROAD. 

For Middletown, Red Bank, Long Branch, Tom's 
river, and intermediate places, leaves wharf foot of 
Duane street. 

STATEN ISLAND RAILROAD. 

For Tottenville and intermediate places, leaves New- 
York from Pier No. 1, foot of Whitehall street, E. R. 



104 OTTY OF NEW YOKE. 



FERRIES. 

BrooTclyn — Catherine Slip to Main street. From 
6 A. M. to 9 p. M., every ten minutes; from 9 p. m. to 
12 A. M., every twenty minutes. 

Brooklyn— Foot Fulton street, N. Y., to Fulton street, 
B'klyn. From 3 a. m. to 12 p. m., every five minuter; 
froni 12 p. M. to 3 A. M., every fifteen minutes. 

Brooldyn — Foot Jackson to Hudson Avenue. From 
6 A. M. to 10 p. M., every fifteen minutes. 

Brooklyn (E. D.) — Foot Roosevelt to South Seventh 
street. From 5 a. m. to 8 p. m., every ten minutes. 

Brooklyn — Foot Wall to Montague street. From 
5 A. M. to 8 p. M., every ten minutes; from 8 p. m. to 
midnight, every twenty minutes. 

BrooUyii— Foot Whitehall to Atlantic street. From 
5 A. M. to H p M., every 12 minutes; from 11 p, m. to 

5 A. M., every half hour. 

BrooMyn {E. i>.)— Foot Grand street, K Y., to Grand 
street, B'klyn, and to Division Avenue. 

Brooklyn {E. JD.)— Foot E. Houston to Grand street. 

BuWs Ferry and Fort Lee—V\er No. 44 K R. 

Greenpoint — Foot Tenth and foot East Twenty-third. 
From 6 a. m. to 9 p. m., every fifteen minutes. 

Hamilton Avenue — Foot Whitehall to Atlantic Dock. 
From 7 a. m. to 6 p. m., every ten minutes; from 

6 p. M. to 12 A. M., every fifteen minutes. 

Hohoken — Foot Barclay. From 6 A. m. to 7^ p. m., 
every fifteen minutes; from 7| p. m. to 12 p. m,, every 
half hour; from 12 p. m. to 4 A. M., every hour; from 
4 to 6 A. M., every half hour. 

Hohoken— Foot Canal. From 5|^ A. m. to 9 p. m., 
every half hour. 

Hunter^s Point — Foot East Thirty-fourth street 
From 44 A. M. to 12 p. m., every fifteen minutes. Fare 
4 cents. 

Hunter''s Point — James Slip to Ferry street, every 
half hour. 



105 

Jersey City — Foot Courtlaadt to Montgomery street. 
From 3 a. m. to 1\ v. m , every ten minutes ; from 7| 
i». M. to 12 p. M., every fifteen minutes j from 12 p. m. 
to 3 A. M., every thirty minutes. 

Jersey City — Foot Desbro3ses to Exchange Place. 
From 5 a. m. to 10 p. m., every fifteen minutes; from 
10 p. M. to 5 A. M., every thirty minutes. 

Mott Haven — Foot Peck Slip. Boats leave at 7, 8, 
9.15, and 11.30 a. m., 1.15, 3.15, 4.15, 5.15, G.15 p. m. 
From foot of Eighth street, fifteen minutes later. 

Pavonia — Foot Chambers, N. E., to Long Dock. 
From 1 A. ji. to 7 p. m., every fifteen minutes ; from 
7 p. M. to 1 A. M., every half hour. 

Stateti Mand — (New Brighton, Port Richmond, and 
Snug Harbor.) — Foot Whitehall. 5 trips daily. 

Staten Idand — (Quarantine, Stapleton, and Vandcr- 
bilt's Landing.) — Foot Whitehall. From G a. m. to 
7 p. M., every hour. The 7 and 9 a. m. and 1, 4, and 
6 p. M., connect with the trains of the iStaten Island 
Railroad. 

WeehawJcen—Y ooi West Forty-second. From 7 a. m. 
to 9 p. M., every twenty minutes. 

Astoria Ferry— Foot East Ninety-second. Boats 
run every fifteen minutes. 



EXPKESS COMPANIES. 

Adamn Express, 59 Broadway, Spring and Broadway, and 2Tth street 

and Fourth Avenue. 
American, 61 Hudson street and 280 Canal street 
American- European, 72 Broadway. 
Astoria and Ravenswood, 13 John street 
Bath (Remson's), 117 John street 
Bergen Express ( Van Riper), 56 Coiirtlandt street. 
Breese Express, 162 Broadway and 2S0 Canal street 
Brooklyn Express ( WestcotCs), 1 Park Place 
Brooklyn (PlumVs) 170 West street. 
Brooklyn {Stiidley's) 142 Grand street 



106 OITY OF NEW YOBK, 

Brooldyn and New York (Simonson's), 181 Atlantic street, Brooklyn, 

and 71 Courtlandt street, New York. 
Sudd's Newark Expres.% 66 Courtlamlt street 
Burnham^a Furniture Express, 115 West Eleventh street 
Coney Island Express, IIT John street. 
Oonneclicut River Express, 254 Broadway. 
Oiiba {Bomhnlier ,& Co's) Express, 42 Broadway. 
Denning's Express, Pier 30 N. E. 
Dodds' Express, toot Courtlandt street 
Fori Washington and CannnnseiUe, 280 Canal street 
Flushing Express (Foster's), ]] James Slip. 
Flushing (Latvrence's), 179 Sontli street. 
Freehold, N. J. (VanwoerVs), 153 West street 
Greenpoint and Hunter's Point, 13 John street 
Hackensack Express, foot Chambers street 
JTandford's (City) Express, 170 West street 
Harnden's Express Company, 65 Broadway. 
Hempstead and Jamaica Express, 117 John street 
Hohoken and tlamhurg- Bremen Steamship Express (liaab <& Oo.\ 

222 Washington street 
I/oboken (Vaniassel's) Express, Pier 26 N. R. 
Hope Express, 162 Broadway and 230 Canal street 
Huntington (Barney's) Express, Pier 26 E. E. 
Jersey City (Craig's), 74 Courtlandt Street 
Kennedy's City Express, 47 John and 183 East Fortieth street 
Kingston (Ja.) and Mexican Express, 30 Broadway. 
Kinsley & Co.'s Express, 72 Broadway and 280 Canal street. 
Long island Railroad Express, 5 James Slip. 
Manhattanville (Bowden), 280 Canal street 
Merchant's Union, 194 Broadway. 

Metropolitan I'ublio Conveyance Company, 25 Chambers street. 
Mittnacht's, 203 Church street. 

Morgan's City Express, 952 Broadway and 280 Canal street. 
Morris Express, 50 Broadway. 

National Express Company, 65 Broadway and 280 Canal street 
National Express and Transportation Company, 298 Broadway. 
New Bedford, Express, 65 Broadway. 
Neptune (Prov.) Express, 193 Broadway. 
New Jersey Express Company, foot Courtlandt street 
New Jersey Express. 222 Washington street 
New York Express Company, 146 Fifth Avenue. 
New York (Rollings) Jay and Greenwich streets. 
Neicark B <& B., 227 Pearl street. 
Newark (Buck <fc Pomeroy), 167 Washington street. 
Nyaek (Barclay's), 2 Harrison street,. 
Paterson (Blundell's) Express, 271 Washington street 
Paterson (Scott's Express), 114 Keade street 
Paterson Express, 187 Chambers street 
Paierson (McGregor's), 195 Chambers street 
Paterson (Adams') Express, 187 Chambers street. 
PuUen's, 1 Tryon Eow. and Twenty-sixth street and Fourth Avenue. 
Raynor's Furniture Express, 269 Canal street 
Reid'a Express, 48 Broadway. 

Rockaway and Yorkville Express, 117 John street 
Rowland's (^Brooklyn) Express, 13 Park Place. 



LOCATION OF PIERS. 



106 A 



Stvdlei/y City Eivpress Company/, Fourth Avenue and 27th street. 

Sing Sing, 1 Hudson street, 

SmiWs City Express, S Old Slip. 

Spaulding^s Express, 2 Astor House. 

Union Express Company, 127 Broad street. 

Tarrypywn {Riker'n), 271 Washington street 

United States Express, S2 Broadway and 280 Canal street 

Yonkers {Riker's), 271 Washington street. 

WESTCOTT'S 
New York. Brooklyn, Williamsburg, Jersey City, Hoboken and Long 

Branch EXPRESS. 
Offices in NeioYork : Nos. 239, 785 and 945 Broadway and 1 Park Place. 

Corner Si.\th Avenue and Forty-second street 

Harlem K.U. Depot Twenty-si.-vth street and Fourth Avenue, Hudson 

Kiver R.K. Depot, Twenty-ninth street, bet Ninth and Tenth Avenues. 
Brooklyn: No. 269 Washington street, City Hall Square. 



LOCATION OF PIERS. 



NORTH RIVER. 

1, Battery Place. 

2, 3. Bstttery Place and Morris. 
4, Morris. 

6, 6, 7, Morris and Rector. 

8. Rector. 

9, 10, Rector and Carlisle. 

11, Carlisle. 

12, Albany. 

13, Albany and Cedar. 
14, 'Cedar. 

15, Liberty. 

16, Liberty and Courtlandt 

17, 18, Courtlandt 

19, Courtland' and Dey. 

20, Dey. 

21, Fulton. 

22, 23, 24, Fulton and Vesey. 

25, Vesey. 

26, Vesey nnd Barclay. 

27, Robinson. 

28, Murray. 

29, Warren. 

30, Chambers. 

31, Duaiie. 

32, Duane and Jay. 
3:3, Jay. 

84, Harrison. 

85, Franklin. 

86, North Moore 

87, Beach. 

88, Hubert 



39, Vestry. 

40, Watts. 

41, Hoboken. 

42, C^nal. 

43, Spring. 

44, Spring and Charlton. 

45, Charlton. 

46, King. 

47, West Houston. 

48, Clarkson. 

49, Leroy. 
60, Morton. 

51, Christopher. 

EAST RIVER. 
1, 2, Whitehall. 

3, Moore. 

4, Moore and Broad. 

5, Broad and Coenties Slip. 

6, 7, 8, Coenties Slip. 

9, 10, Coenties and Old Slip. 
11, 12, Old Slip. 

13, Old Slip and Gouverneur 

14, Jones Lane. 

15, 16, Wall. 

17, Pine. 

18, Maiden Lane. 

19, Fletcher. 
20,21, Burling Slip. 

22, Fulton. 

23, Beeknian. 

24 Beekmnn and Peck Sllpti 



106B 



CITY OF NBW YOEK, 



55, 26, Peck Slip. 


45, Rutgers and Jefferson. 


27, Dover. 


46, Jefferson. 


28, Dover and Roosevelt 


47, Jefferson and Clinton. 


29, Roosevelt. 


48, Clinton. 


80, Roosevelt and Jamea Slip. 


49, Clinton and Montgomerj. 


31, 32, Janies Slip. 


50, Montgomery. 


88, Oliver. 


51, 52, Gouverneur. 


34, 35, Catherine. 


53, Jackson. 


36, Catherine and Market. 


54, Corlears. 


37, 38, Market 


55, Cherry. 


39, Market and Pike. 


56, 57, Broome. 


40, 41. Pike. 


58, 59, Delancey. 


42, Pike and Rutgers. 


60, Rlvington. 


48. 44, Rutgers. 


61, Rivington and Stanton. 



OFFICES OF CITY GOVERNMENT. 



Bureau of Cleaning Streets, Office, 237 Broadway. 

Law Department, Office, 82 Nassau street. 

Bureau of the Corporation Attorney, OfQce, 115 Nassau 

street. 
Bureau of the Public Administrator, Office, 115 Nassau 

street. 
County Clerk's Office, New Court-House. 
Board of Supervisors, New Court-House. 
Sheriff's Office, New Court-House. 
Register's Office, 1 Hall of Records. 
Surrogate's Office, 1 Hall of Records. 
Coroner's Office, 11 City Hall. 
Commissioners of Jurors, Office, 3 Chambers street. 
Commissioners of Emigration, Office, Castle Garden. 
Board of Health Commissioners, 301 Mott street. 
Tax Commissioners, Office, Basement New Court-House, 

32 Chambers street. 
United States Loan Commissioners, Office, 83 Nassau 

street. 
Commissioners of Central Park, Office, 31 Nassau street. 
Police Commissioners, Office, 300 Mulberry street. 
Commission of Public Charities and Correction, Office, 

Eleventh street, corijer Third Avenue. 



OTTY OF BBOOKLYN. 107 

Board of Inspection of Buildings, Office, 2 Fourth 



CIVIL COUETS FOR THE COUNTY 
AND CITY OF NEW YOEK. 

Supreme Court. New Court House, 32 Cl-iambors-street. 

Superior Court; J^ew Court House. 

Common Pleas, New Court House. 

Marine Court, New Court House, 32 Chambers-street. 



THE CITY OF BROOKLYN, 

Being by far the largest and most important place 
adjacent to New York, claims more than a passing 
notice. 

Brooklyn has, within the past few years, been char- 
acterized by the same degree of advancement as New 
York. Its present population is estimated at 450,000 ; 
while its numerous and elegant churches, public build- 
ings, and stately private residences, render it equally 
conspicuous. It is a tiivorite place of residence by the 
New Yorkers, from its pure air, as well as its numerous 
trees, wliich line most of its streets, and impart to it a 
rural aspect. Faltcm Aveiuie, Flatbush Avenue, and 
the intersecting great highways, are tine thorougiifares. 
Brooklyn, as to its name, is supposed to be derived 
from the Dutch, Breucklen (bi-oken land). It was in- 
corporated as a village in 1816. It has but few relics 
remaining. Tliere is an old house, dated 1690, on the 
route to Gowanus, by the Fifth Avenne. It is known 
as the Cortelyou House. 

The first European settler in this town is supposed 
to have been George Jansen de Rapelje, at the Waal- 



108 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Doglit, or "Waaloons Bay, during the Directorship of 
Peter Minuit, under the charter of the West India 
Company. 

FO£T GSEENE, 

An elevated plateau, northeast of the Brooklyn City 
Hall, was, during the Eevolutionary war, the site of 
important fortifications. It has recently been laid out 
as a public park, and planted with trees. The view of 
the surrounding country from this elevation is exceed- 
ingly attractive. 

THE CITY HALL 

Faces the junction of Fulton and Court streets, and is 
distant from Fulton Ferry about one mile. It is a noble 
Ionic structure, built of Westchester marble, and admi- 
rably planned. It has a solid, substantial look. Its 
measurement is as follows : 162 feet in length by 102 
in width ; height 75 feet ; to the top of the cupola the 
height is 153 feet. The cost of the Hall was about 
$200,000. The Park, which is inclosed with the build- 
ing, is of a triangular form. 

THE CITY AKMOBY, 

An elegant brick and brown stone structure, on the 
corner of Henry and Cranberry streets, occupies the 
site of the old Apprentices' Library, the corner stone 
of which was laid by Lafayette. The armory was fin- 
ished, January, 1859. It measures 100 feet by 50 — is 
four stories high, with basement. The three upper sto- 
ries are occupied by the 13th, 14th, and 72d Regiments ; 
the fourth being used as a general drill room. The cost 
was $14,300. 

THE STATE AESENAL 

Is located on the corner of Portland Avenue and Au- 
burn Place, opposite Fort Greene, on Washington Park. 
It is 200 feet by 60 in measurement, having 2 towers, 
and is 2 stories high. It incloses 14 lots of ground. 



BROOKLYN PUBLIC BDILDINGS. 109 

The 70th Reghncnt of Artillery have their quarters 
here. The cost was $40,000. 



THE POST-OFFICE 

Is located on Washington street, near the junction of 
Fulton street and Myrtle avenue. The mail deliveiy 
between the General Post-Office of New York and 
Brooklyn occurs several times every day. 

THE ACADEMY OF MUSIC. 

This is a noble edifice constructed of brick, and costinj* 
about $125,000. It is located on Montague near Court 
street, nearly opposite the City Post Office. 

THE WATEE-WORKS. 

This great desideratum of Brooklyn has recently come 
into operation, and promises an abundant su[)[)ly to its 
inhabitants of pure water. It has already been intro- 
duced into the streets and houses. The sources from 
which the supply is obtained is Rockville reservoir, and 
others adjacent to Hempstead, L. I. From thence it 
is conveyed by an open canal to Jamaica reservoir, 
through a conduit to Ridgewood reservoir, where it is 
forced up to an elevation sufficient to answer all pur- 
poses required. The water is pronounced e([iial, if not 
superior, in purity of taste to the Croton water. 

THE KINGS COUNTY JAIL 

Is situated in Raymond street, at the foot of Fort 
Greene. It is a dark, heavy-looking, castellated Gothic 
edifice in front, built of red sandstone, witli Gothic win- 
dows at each side, and a large yard at tlie back. 

THE UNITED STATES NAVY YAKD, 
At Brooklyn, well deserves the notice of visitors. It 



110 CITY OF NEW TOEK. 

is situated upon the south side of Wallabout Bay, in 
the northeast part of tiie city. It occupies about forty 
acres of ground, inclosed by a high wall. There are 
here two large ship-houses for vessels of the largest 
class, with workshops, and every requisite necessary 
for an extensive naval depot. A dry dock constructed 
here cost about one million of dollars. 

The United States Naval Lyceum, an intei-esting 
place, also in the Navy Yard, is a literary institution, 
formed in 1833, by officers of the navy connected with 
the port. On the opposite side of the Wallabout, half 
a mile east of the Navy Yard, is the Marine Hospital, 
u tine building, erected on a commanding situation, and 
surrounded by upwards of tliirty acres of well-culti- 
vated ground. At the Wallabout were stationed the 
Jersey and other prison-ships of the English, during 
the Kevolutionary war, in which it is said 11,500 
American prisoners perished from the bad air, close 
confinement, and ill-treatment. In 1808, the bones of 
the sufferers, which had been washed out from tlie 
bank where they had been buried, were collected and 
deposited in thirteen coffins, inscribed with the names 
of the thirteen original States, and placed in a vault 
beneath a wooden building, erected for the purpose in 
Hudson Avenue, opposite Front street, near the Navy 
Yard. 

It is estimated that the Navy Yard contains property 
to the amount of over $23,000,000. 

THE ATLANTIC DOCK. 

These extensive works are situated below the South 
Ferry, within what is called Red Hook Point, the out- 
side pier extending some 3000 feet on the " Butter- 
milk Channel." They are owned by a Company, which 
was incorporated in 1840, with a capital of one million 
of dollars. The basin within the piers comprises about 
42 acres, with a sufficient depth of water to receive 
ships of the largest size. The masonry of these granite 
works is very well worth visiting. The Hamilton Fer- 



BKOOKLYN PUBLIC BtriLDINGS, 111 

ry, from the Battery, is tlie readiest approach to the 
Atlantic Dock. 

THE LONG ISLAND COLLEGE HOSPIIAL, 

Henry street, near Pacific street, is a noble instita- 
tioii, liberally endowed, and occupying a spacious and 
elegant edifice, with grounds inclosed. It is sustained 
by the most eminent medical skill, and highly prosper- 
ous in its results, although but comparatively a recent 
institution. 

THE FEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM 

Is situated in Congress street, and the 

MALE ORPHAN ASYLUM, 
In Bedford Avenue. 

THE CITY HOSPITAL, 

In Raymond street, near De Kalb Avenue, organized in 
1845, took possession of its present edifice in 1852. 

THE DISPENSARY FOR THE EYE AND EAR, 

No. 109 Pineapple sti-eet, was established in 1850. 
THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, 

On Livingston street, between Court and Boerum 
streets, is a beautiful modern edifice, devoted to the 
education of young lads. It possesses a fine lecture- 
room, and is under the management of a regular 
faculty. 

THE PACKER COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE, 

For the instruction of young ladies, is situated in Jora- 
leraou street, between Court and Clinton streets. It is 
an elegant Gothic building of brick, and very spaciouj 
and elegant in its appointments. There is a large loo 



113 CITY OF NEW TOEK. 

ture-room in the centre of the edifice, which is lighter! 
by a long Gothic window. 

There are in Brooklyn and its suburbs over 30 ward 
schools, some being of the largest dimensions, capable 
of accommodating 1500 to 1800 children, besides pri- 
mary schools and schools for colored children. 



BROOKLYN HOTELS. 

THE PIERKEPONT HOUSE, 

fn Montague Place, overlooking the Wall Street Ferry, 
IS a very spacious and elegant establishment, possessing 
all the modern accessories of a first-class hotel, being 
adapted to every conceivable want, 

THE MANSION HOUSE, 

On Henry street, not far from the corner of Pierrepont 
street, is another of the large hotels, furnishing elegant 
accommodations for some 250 guests. 

THE GLOBE HOTEL, 

No. 244 Fulton street, is a conveniently located house 
for visitors. The Brooklyn cars pass it every five 
minutes. It is much frequented by oflBcers of the navy 



PUBLIC mSTTTUnONS. 

THE BBOOELYN ATHENiBUlir, 

On the corner of Atlantic and Clinton streets, is a 
literary institution, containing a fine library, reading- 



BEOOKLIN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 113 

room, lecture-room, &;c. There is a Mercantile Library 
Association connected with it, on the plan of the New 
York society of that name. It is a liandsonie brick 
building, with stone facings. There is a good library 
connected with the Association. 

THE LYCEUM, 

Situate in Washington street, corner of Concord street, 
is a literary institution of repute. It contains a good 
library, designed for youth ; also, a museum of natural 
history, lecture-room, &c. 

THE BEOOKLYN SAVINGS BANK, 

On the junction of Concord and Fulton streets, has 
long been one of the architectural ornaments of this 
city. It is one of the most elegant, externally and in- 
ternally, of the numerous elegant edifices of Brooklyn. 

HAISEY BiriLDINGS, 

A splendid range of iron buildings, on Fulton street, 
facing the City Hall, present a fine specimen of archi- 
tectural skill. The same remark will api)ly to the 
stately mansions that cluster along Montague street, 
Remsen street, and the vicinity of Wall Street Ferry, 
and several parts of South Brooklyn. 

GBEENWOOD CEMETEEY. 

(Office No. 30 Broadway.) 

The situation of this cemetery is on Gowanua 
Heights, about two and a half miles from the South 
Ferry, whence visitors can easily be conveyed to the 
cemetery in an omnibus. 

Tire cemetery is laid out in the most tastefully varie- 
gated manner, with fifteen miles of avenues, besides nu- 
merous paths. In its more elevated parts it commands 
beautiful and attractive views, such as the city of New- 
York, with its bay and harbor, its islauds and fort% 



114 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

and reaching away beyond all interjacent objects, it 
carries out the eye to the great ocean itself. 

On the margin of " Sylvan Lake" stands the memo- 
rial of the fair, yet hapless girl of the forest ^'■Do-hum- 
me," who so soon exchanged her bridal for her burial. 
Not far from this monument is the tomb of the friend- 
less poet, McDonald Clarke, and near by, that of the 
young and beautiful votary of fashion, Miss Cauda, 
whose sudden death caused such deep syinpathy some 
years since. This magnificent tomb cost $10,000. 
Among the numerous costly monuments, ought to be 
named the Pilots' and the Firemen's columns. 

This cemetery is 330 acres in extent, and is of undu- 
lating and varied character. Free admission is granted 
to the public on week day^ by tickets obtainable from 
any undertaker, but ou Sabbath this privilege is re- 
stricted to proprietors, their families, and persons who 
may be of their party. The principal avenue is named 
The Tour, and by keeping in this, strangers will secure 
the most ttivorable general view. A little careful at- 
tention, however, to the guide-boards in tlie grounds, 
will enable them, ere long, to thread their way through 
the more retired, but not less beautiful passages, within 
this solemn inclosure. 

Some four or five miles eastward of Brooklyn are 
the Cemeteries of the Evergreens and Cypress Hills; 
they do not, however, compare with Greenwood for 
beauty of scenery or architectural adornment. 

The vicinity of Brooklyn possesses many points of 
interest; we can but name some of them. Williams- 
hurgh — which, were it not now incorporated with 
Brooklyn, would be considered a city of itself — Flush- 
ing, Flatbush, Jamaica, Bath, Fort Hamilton, Coney 
Island, New Utrecht, EocTcaway, &e. Near Ouildford, 
on a rocky peninsula, is the cave of the notorious 
pirate, Oapt. Kidd ; it is marked with his initials. 



CHtlKCHES OF BROOKLYN. HQ 



CHURCHES OF BROOKLYN. 

In addition to numerous elegant stores and private 
mansions, tliat in many instances vie witli tliose of the 
Fiftli Avenue of New York, Brookl}^ possesses about 
80 churclies. The most notable of these are 

CnURCH OF THE HOLY TMNITY, 

Corner of Clinton and Montague streets, is a splendid 
Gothic edifice, of brown stone, measuring, with the rec- 
tory adjoining, 160 feet; widtli, 80 feet. The windows 
are of richly-stained glass. That in the church, repre- 
senting the scene of the Ascension, is especially note- 
worthy. This elegant edifice cost $100,000. Tlie Rev. 
Dr, Littlejohn is the rector. 

THE CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMS, 

On the corner of Uenry and Ilemsen streets, erected in 
1845, is of stone, and built in the early Norman style. 
It is very spacious, measuring 135 feet by 80. In the 
main tower, about six feet from the ground, may he 
seen inserted a piece of the "Pilgrim Rock," from 
Plymouth. The lecture-room is at the rear of the 
church, and is very spacious. The cost of the building 
was about $50,000. Rev. Dr. Storrs, Jr., is the pastor. 

GRACE CHURCH, 

Situated in Hicks street, near Remsen street. It is 
built of brown stone, and presents a fair specimen of 
the florid Gothic. Its interior is very beautiful — length 
of the nave, 85 feet; width, GO feet; and the chancel, 
28 by 24 feet. There is an adjoining chapel, 60 by 22 
feet. The cost of the church was $42,000. 

CHURCH OF THE SAVIOUE 

(Unitarian), on the corner of Pierrepont street and Mon- 



116 CITY OF NEW TOEK. 

roe Place, is of red sandstone, in the pointed Gothic. 
It is an elaborately-decorated and symmetrical struc- 
ture. The cost is estimated at $60,000. Eev. Dr. 
Putnam is the incumbent. 

FIRST EETOKMED DUTCH CHTTRCH, 

At the rear of the City Hall, was erected in 1834. It 
measures 111 feet by 66; is of the Grecian order, and 
has a deep pediment, supported by eight massive lonio 
columns, which impart to the edifice a fine eftect. In 
the rear of the pulpit is an eifectively-painted recess. 
The Rev. Dr. Dwight is the pastor. 

PLYMOUTH CHUKCH, 
In Orange street, between Hicks and Henry streets, is 
perhaps the largest church in Brooklyn, and is yet 
found insufficient for the large concourse which attends 
the preaching of the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, since 
the society contemplate the immediate erection of a yet 
more spacious building, on the Heights, near the Wall 

Street Ferry. 

CHSIST CHUBCH, 
In Cliiiton street, is a Gothic building, measuring 100 
feet by 60, with a tower 100 feet high. There is, in 
the rear of the church, a lecture-room. The cost was 

$28,000. 

STB0N6 PLACE CHUBCH, 

South Brooklyn, is another fine Gotliic edifice, built of 
stone, and much ornamented in the interior. The Rev. 
Dr. Taylor is the pastor. 

THE FIBST PRESBYTEBLAN CHURCH, 

In Henry street, near Clarke, is a massive-looking struc- 
ture ; lecture-rooms, &c., attached. 

THE DUTCH BEFORMED CHUBCH, 

In Pierrepont street, is a remarkable structure, and well 



BBOOKLTN. RAII.K0AD3. 117 

worth visiting. Its interior is exceedingly beautiful, ana 
said to have been modelled after the earliest Christian 
church, built by the mother of Constantino. Its elab- 
orate, yet chaste decorations present a rich effect. The 
Rev Dr. Bethune, till recently, was the pastor. 

ST. ANN'S CHUBCH, 

Corner of Sands street and Washington, is one of the 
early churches of Brooklyn ; and althougli of a modest 
exterior, has a plot of green sward surrounding it which 
is very inviting to the eye. 

THE METHODIST CHURCH, 

In Clinton street, near Atlantic, is a rough-hewn stone 
edifice, of the Norman style ; over the principal entrance 
there is a large circular window. The interior is neat 
and attractive in its arrangement. 

There are numerous other religious edifices, which 
proves that it is no misnomer which has b6en applied 
to Brooklyn—" the City of Churches." 



CITY RAILKOADS. 

The Broollyn CUt/ Railroads take the following routes, 
starting from the Fulton Ferry : one line runs through 
Fulton street, up Fulton Avenue, terminating at East 
New York, about 7 miles from the City Hall ; another 
passes through Sands street to Williamsburgh ; a third 
line goes up Fulton street, Myrtle Avenue, to Division 
Avenue; a fourth passes up Fulton street, through 
Court street, to Greenwood Cemetery, and tlio iifth 
from South Ferry, through Atlantic Avenue to BedforJ, 



118 CITY OF NEW TOKK. 



PLEASURE EXCUESIONS. 

The environs of New York abound in picturesque re- 
treats for the lover of rural beauty. Not only are abun- 
dant facilities rendered available to the pleasure tourist, 
in the multiplicity of modes of conveyance by land or 
by water, but the geographical position of the metropolis 
places within the circuit of a few miles almost every 
variety of beautiful scenery, as well as villages, towns, 
and localities of historic interest. For a cool sea-breeze 
and pleasing aquatic excursion, the trip by the steamer 
for Shrewsbury and Long Branch, or Coney Island, 
will be found full of interest. Boats for the former 
leave foot of Robinson street, North River, and Peck 
Slip, East River, daily ; for the latter the boat starts 
from the foot of Battery Place. 

STATEN ISLAND 

Is a place of much attraction as a summer resort, and 
the boats make tlie trip every hour, from Whitehall 
dock, near the Battery, The scenery is exceedingly fine, 
and the drives to the Telegraph station, Stapleton, 
Richmond, New Brighton, with their clusters of beau- 
tiful villas and country seats, are full of attraction. 



On the New Jersey shore, is Hoboken, with its 
Elysian fields and pleasure grounds, the bold blulfs of 
Weehawken, the Sybil's cave, and the memorable spot 
of the duel between Col. Burr and General Hamilton. 
The boats for Hoboken leave every half-hour from 
Canal street, Barclay street, and Christopher street 
ferries 



PLEASURE EXOTTRSIONS, 



THROG'S POINT 



Is another pleasing excursion. Sixteen miles from the 
city. It is the termination, at Lon<^ Island Sound, of 
Throg's, or rather Throgiuorton's Neck. From this 
headland, which divides the East River from the 
Sound, a very splendid view is obtained. Fort Schuy- 
ler, on the point, and Pelham Bridge, may be em- 
braced in this excursion. 

ASTOSIA. 

A third excursion may take for its terminus the 
thriving village of Astoria, six miles to the northeast 
of New York. The academy, botanic gardens, &c., are 
worthy of notice ; but its most interesting feature is the 
singular whirlpool in its neighborhood, denominated 
Helle Ga^-" Hell Gate"— by the Dutch. 

CItOTON DAM. 

A visit to the great Croton Aqueduct is one of the 
most interesting expeditions, as well as the easiest, 
that could be devised. The village of Croton is about 
35 miles from the city, which is reached best by the 
Hudson River Railroad. The famous Bam pertaining to 
the works is well worthy of a visit. The lake, meas- 
uring 5 miles, covers an area of 400 acres; it is formed 
by a dam 250 feet long, and 38 feet wide at the base, 
allowing a discharge of GO million gallons of water daijy. 
Cars leave the Chambers-street depot, at the junction 
of West Broadway, every hour. 

DAVID'S ISLAND, 

Which may be reached by taking the New Haven cars 
to New Rochelle, and thence by stage to the ferry, ic 
now occupied as a hospital for sick and wounded sol- 
diers, and is admirably arranged under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. Simmons of the army. It is well worth 
a visit. 



120 CITY OF NEW TOBK. 



THE ENVIEOIS'S OF THE CITY. 

FLUSfflNG. 

A pleasant trip to the entrance of Long Island Sound, 
brings one to Flushing, a remarkably rural and pictu- 
resque town, with extensive botanic gardens, nurseries, 
and numerous elegant residences. It is a chosen subur- 
ban retreat of the New Yorkers. The Flushing boat 
leaves, twice a day, the dock adjoining the Fulton 
Ferry. 

FORT HAMILTON, 

An attractive place on the southwestern shore of Long 
Island, about five miles from the city ; and 

CONEY ISLAND, 

A short distance beyond, forming a part of Gravesend 
Township,' is a sea-girt barren sand-heap, but com- 
mands a splendid view of the ocean, and is a place of 
much resort by bathers. Cars from Brooklyn, and 
boats from pier No. 1 North River, New York, leavo 
daily for these places. 

JAMAICA, 

Which is easy of access by the L. I. Railroad, South 
Ferry, which leaves three or four times a day, is an 
interesting old rural town, and is the highway of com- 
munication to Hempstead, Greenpoint, Rockaway, and 
Montauk : the last named, on the extremity of the island, 
affords a magnificent view of the broad ocean, which 
there skirts the horizon in almost every direction. 
There is a remnant of pure Indians still living on thia 
eastern extremity of the coast. 

BOCKAWAY BEACH 

[3 another fashionable watering-place ; there is a splen- 



ENVIRONS. 321 

did hotel here, and every accommodation for tlio com- 
fort of the valetudinarian. Turning again to the shores 
of New Jersey on the west, we find no less inviting 
Attractions. 

JERSEY CITY, 

With its prodigious Depot of the Philadelphia and other 
trains, its noble Ferry Depot, and its numerous facto- 
ries, streets of busy merchants, &c., first greet us. This 
city is the starting point of several important railroad 
trains, which convey the tourist at almost any hour to 
the several places we shall briefly specify : namely- - 

PATERSON, 

A large manufacturing village, with its picturesque Falls 
of the Passaic — one of the most romantic cascades that 
are to be seen. The water is not of great volume, but 
its precipitous leap over rocky precipices, gives to the 
scene a beautiful eifect. 

ELIZABETH CITY 

Is another place of interest, not only from its being one 
of the oldest settlements in the State (1664), but also 
on account of its handsome buildings, and beautifully 
arranged streets, wliich are garnished with the richest 
foliage. 

NEWARK, 

One of the most important manufacturing cities of the 
State, is fast becoming a great centre of activity in all 
the useful arts. Being a convenient halting-place for 
the Philadelphia trains, this city has increased with 
wonderful rapidity during a few years. It abounds 
with magnificent churches, and is considered in all re- 
spects a model city for its municipal and civil order. 
Newark's first settlement is ascribed to an ancient date, 
1666, by a colony from New England. Many other 
adjacent places might be mentioned, as worthy of note, 
snch as 



122 



OITT OF NKW YOEK. 



KEW BRUNSWICK, 

Also an incorjiorated city, with its celebrated Prince- 
ton College, &c., 

PERTH AMBOY, 

So named from its originally having been chartered to 
the Earl of Perth in 1683, is a neat and picturesque 
watering-place. 



DISTANCES IN THE CITY. 



FROM 


FROM 


FROM 




BATTERY. 


EXCHANGE. 


OITT HALL. 


TO 


i mile. 






Rector street 


i 


i mile. 




Fulton. 


i 


i 




City HalL 


1 


J 


i mile. 


Leonard. 


li 


1 


i 


Canal. 


n 


n 


i 


Spring. 


n 


14 


1 


Houston. 


a 


n 


1* 


Fourth. 


2i 


2 


Ninth. 


2i 


2i 


H 


Fourteenth. 


n 


2= 


2 


Nineteenth. 


8 


2? 


2i 


Twenty-fourth. 


8i 


S 


2i 


Twenty-ninth. * 


»l 


Si 


2* 


Thirty-fourth. 


8| 


Si 


3 


Thirty-eighth. 


4 


3* 


Si 


Forty-fourth. 


H 


4 


Si 


Forty-ninth. 


*k 


4J 


Si 


Fifty-fourth. 


4* 


4i 


4 


Fifty-eighth. 


5 


4i 


4i 


Sixty-third. 


H 


6 


4i 


Sixty-eighth. 


5.V 


51 


4f 


Seventy-third. 


6| 


H 


5 


Seventy-eighth. 


6 


&i 


51 


Eighty-third. 


61 


6 


5i 


Eighty-eighth. 


6i 


6J 


5J 


Ninety-third. 


6* 


61 


6 


Ninety-seventh. 


7 


6} 


6i 


One Hundred and Second. 


^i 


T 


el 


One Hundred and Seventh. 


n 


7 


4 


One Hundred and Twelfth. 


n 


7 


7 


One Hundred and Seventeenth. 


8 


7 


7i- 


One Hundred and Twenty-flrst. ' 


8i 


8 


7i 


One Hundred and Twenty-sixth. | 



THE HUDSON EIVEB. 12S 

STREETS AND AVENTJES, 

The length of the blocks between First and One 
Hundred and Twenty-first streets, vary from 181 to 
211 feet 11 inches. 

Those between the Avenues (whicli run at righl 
angles to the streets), vary from 405 to 920 feet. 

The Avenues are all 100 feet wide, excepting Lex- 
ington and Madison, wliich are 75, and Fourth Avenue, 
above Thirty-fourth street, which is 140 feet wide. 

The numerical streets are all 60 feet wide, excepting 
Fourteenth, Twenty-third, Thirty-fourth, Forty-second, 
and eleven others, north of these, which are 100 feet 
wide. 



THE HUDSON RIVER. 

The tour of the noble Hudson is of such especial at- 
traction and interest to travellers, that we deem it fit- 
ting to devote a page or two to its description. This 
magnificeuL river has been appropriately styled the 
Khine of America, on account- of its bold and pictur- 
esque scenery, which presents every variety of the 
beautiful in nature. On the western shores may bo 
seen the long line of its natural ramparts — the pali- 
sades; on the opposite side, its magnificent slopes and 
towering heights crowned with numerous elegant coun- 
try mansions. Adjacent to West Point are the colos- 
sal Highlands — those grand old mountain-peaks that 
rear themselves into the blue sky; and farther up, on 
either side, are the numerous towns and hamlets that 
gem the margin of this renowned historic river. Not 
alone for physical beauty is the Hudson celebrated ; it 
is full of historic and legendary lore. Its waters are 
vocal with the hallowed reminiscences of our Revola- 
tionary struggle ; and all along its shores linger memo 



124 OITT or NEW VORK. 

ries of heroic deeds of our forefathers. Its rocks find 
valleys are chronicled with the blood of the martyrs 
and heroes of freedom. 

What though no cloister gray, nor ivied column, 

Along these cliflfe their sombre ruins rear; 
What though no frowning tower, nor temple solemn, 

Of tyrants tell of superstition here ; 
There's not a verdant glade, nor mountain hoary, 
But treasures up the memory of freedom's story. 

While nature has been thus lavish in her decorations 
of this noble river, art has fitted up for the accommo- 
dation of the lover of the picturesque, those costly and 
elegant aquatic palaces — the steamboats, which have 
been long, and so justly, the pride of New York. Har- 
riet Martineau mentions, in her book on America, that 
if she were a New Yorker, she would sleep three nights 
out of the week, during summer time, on board the 
Hudson river steamers. These floating palaces are the 
frequent resort, not only of the stranger, but also of the 
ienizens of the city, who seek the refreshing free air 
ind enchanting scenery afforded by such an excui'sion. 
As the vessel leaves the dock, we first pass the Elysian 
fields of Hoboken, Weehawken blutf, and Bergen heights, 
on tlie west, and tlie long line of the city wharves and 
factories on the east. A little farther onward rises 
Fort Lee, a rocky bluff whicli commences the palisades, 
and which extend some twenty-five miles up tlie river, 
and then strike inland. The palisade range are of trap- 
rock, and resemble tlie Giant's Causeway, in Ireland. 
The island of Manhattan, on which New York is situ- 
ated, is of primitive granite, while the opposite shore 
is of tlie tertiary formation. Among other prominent 
buildings which garnish the edge of the island, may be 
seen the Orphan and the Lunatic Asylums, also numer- 
ous cottages and villas. The town of ManhattanvUU 
is next visible, beautifully embosomed in a valley, being 
surrounded with hills. Here the celebrated naturalist 
Audubon resided. Carmansville, about nine miles 
from the city proper, is clustered with neat rural resi- 
dences, and is a favorite resort of New Yorkers, as a 



THE HUDSON EIVEB. 125 

Buburban retreat. Near this spot is the High Bridge, 
which carries the Crotoa aqueduct across the Harlem 
river. One mile farther is the bold, rocky height, 
known as Fort Washington, memorable in our Revolu- 
tionary annals. It was the scene of a sanguinary en 
counter with the invading army, in which the British 
lost eight hundred men, and we some two thousand 
prisoners. The next object of interest is Spuyten Duy- 
vel Creek, the origin of which name is humorously de- 
scribed in Knickerbocker's History of New York. 
This stream, which flows into the Harlem river, forms 
the northern boundary of the island of Manhattan. 
The next town we meet, some sixteen miles from the 
city of New Yvi.-k, is Yonkers, a beautiful and pic- 
tures(pie spot, and one of great resort as a rural re- 
treat. It is full of elegant villas and i)retty cottages. 
Near the town are Fordham, with its Roman Catholic 
College, and Tetard^s Hill, noted in Revolutionary 
history. Eastings is the next place of note. Here 
the palisades begin to recede from the river. DoWa 
Ferry, an important spot in Revolutionary times, is 
situate on the western shore. On the opposite side of 
the river is the residence of Washington Irving — Sunny- 
side. This beautiful, antique villa is scarcely visible 
from the water, being enveloped with the thick foliage 
which surrounds it. It is styled WolferVs Boost, in 
the "Sketch Book." The pleasure-grounds of Mr. 
Irving's residence are laid out with excellent taste, and 
the picturesque beauty of the place, as well as the 
world-wide fame of the author, render it the great 
attraction of tourists from all parts of tiie world. We 
notice a little further up, Piermont, on the west, the 
starting point of the Erie Railroad. About three 
miles beyond is Tappan village, with its spreading bay. 
Tappan is celebrated as being the head-quarters of 
Washington during the war of Independence, and also 
of being the place of Major Andre's execution, in 1780. 
Tarrytown, distant twenty-six miles from New York, 
is famed as the place of the capture of Andre, by 



126 OITT 07 NEW TOEK. 

Paulding and his compatriots. The spot is indicated 
by a monument, erected about half a mile northward 
of the town. About two miles distant is " Sleepy Hol- 
low," the scene of lohabod Crane's adventure with the 
" Galloping Hessian," so amusingly described by Irving, 
in his Legend of Sleepy Hollow. The scene is in ex- 
cellent keeping with the story — a death-like stillness 
reigns here, which is only disturbed by the low mur- 
muring of the mill-streain. Every person who wants 
a fitting book to amuse him on his trip up the Hudson, 
should make Irning'a Sketch Booh his companion du 
voyage. 

Sing-Sing., 82 miles distant, is now in view, and from 
its elevated position presents an imposing aspect. Here 
is the State Prison, 444 feet in length, built of marble 
dug from the neighboring quarries. Opposite Sing- 
Sing, across Tappan Bay, which at this point is widest, 
is Verd/ritege''s RooTc, a bold headland, on the summit 
of which is a lake, the source of the Hackensack river. 
CrotonVillage is 3 miles farther, with ^*^« river which 
supplies New York with its water. The Croton Aque- 
duct and Reservoir are objects of great interest. These 
splendid works cost about $14,000,000. The fountain 
reservoir is 40 miles from New York. The dam built 
at this place is 250 fi'et long, 70 wide at the base. On 
the western side is Haveir^raw., and 3 miles above it 
Stony Point., the site ot the historic fort of that name. 
Directly opposite is Verplanlc's Point., also interesting 
for its historic associations. Peelcskill is a romantic 
and picturesque place, and abounds with beautiful resi- 
dences. On the opposite shore is CaldwelVs Landing., 
which is at the base of the Dunderburg, or thunder- 
mountain. Passing on, we next see the small but pic- 
turesque Buttermilk Falls, about 200 feet in descent. 
West Point, distant 50 miles, is the next place of at- 
traction, and affords, doubtless, the most magnificent 
series of beautiful scenery in America. It is surround- 
ed with the Highlands, and commands from its great 
elevation an extensive and ever-varying succession of 



TUK HUD30N KIVEE. 127 

picturesque aspects. The Military Academy is one of 
the noble institutions of the Government, and an object 
of great interest. The beautiful grounds attached are 
laid out with taste and elegance, and are much resorted 
to by visitors. The Hotel is an establishment of the 
first class, and excellent in all its appointments. The 
view from the observatory of this hotel is very exten- 
sive and imposing. Near the steamboat landing is seen 
the rock from which the chain was stretched across tlie 
river during the Kevolutionary war. Almost every 
spot of ground at West Point has historic interest. 
Fort Clinton stood where the Academy is now. Fort 
Putnam, and most others, are now in ruins. Passing 
through the magnificent mountain range we reach Cold 
Spring and Undercliff^ the residence of Gen. G. P. 
Morris. On the opposite side of the river, but invisible 
from the water, is Idlewild, the residence of N. P. 
Willis. The next prominent village is Fishkill, 60 
miles distant, and here the mountain scenery is in all 
its grandeur ; but we soon pass to a difi'erent style of 
the picturesque. ISfewhurg^ on the opi)osite shore, 
noted as the head-quarters of Washington, is a largo 
town, built on a steep acclivity. The next place of 
note is PougMeepsie, also built on an eminence, and 
eminently picturesque. There are numerous minor vil- 
lages, along either shore, all the way on to Albany, tho 
capital of the State ; but as the pleasure tourist may 
not possibly wish to extend his trip to 150 miles, Wd 
shall here respectfully part company. 



128 OITT OF NEW TOfiK. 



SUPPLEMENTAL HINTS. 

Peksons who, for the first time, visit a great city like 
that we have already briefly described, doubtless fancy 
themselves in a very Babel of excitement and confu- 
sion ; and would gladly accept the services of some 
good cicerone, or guide, who could conduct them 
through its perplexing mazes, pointing out what there 
is to see, and how to see it. No city of the New World 
is so truly cosmopolitan in its character as New York ; 
consequently it presents an almost endless variety of 
objects of interest for the visitor. It is difficult to de- 
scribe its many-hued aspects, for it is, in fact, an epit- 
ome of the civilized world ; and the physical as well 
as the moral aspects of the city present a like compli- 
cated character. 

As the tour of the entire city would be a too ardu- 
ous performance for a pedestrian, we would advise the 
visitor to limit his perambulations to Broadway, from 
the Bowling Green to Union Square. Along this great 
promenade he will see enough to engage his attention 
for one day. Here are to be seen a long succession 
of splendid marble stores, churches, theatres, etc. 
Throughout the whole length of this great artery of 
the city, are to be seenthe ebb and flow of a ceaseless 
tide of human beings, of every class and order; the 
belles and beaux of fashion, the busy devotees of toil, 
and the hapless ones who have not the will to work; 
men who seek their illicit gains at the gaming-table, 
and who practise upon the unwary at mock auctions. 

Commencing, then, our journey up Broadway from 
the Bowling Green, the first noteworthy object we ob- 
serve is the hotel at the southwestern corner, formerly 
Kennedy House^ described in the chapter on Historical 
Localities. Passing several rows of stone buildings, 
including Adam^s Bxpress office, we reach Trinity 



SUPPLEMENTAL HINTS. 129 

Church, the metropolitan churcli, which, being open 
to visitors, should certainly claim our attention. Not 
only should the interior be seen, but we ought to 
ascend the lofty steeple to view the maguificent pano- 
rama it atfords of the city and its suburbs. We ought 
also to take a saunter among the venerable memorials 
of the sainted dead, not forgetting the recently erected 
Gothic monument to the memory of the martyrs of our 
Revolutionary struggle. Leaving Trinity Church and 
looking down Wall street, innnediately opposite, we 
catch a partial glimpse of the United States Treasury 
on the north side; and further down on the oppo- 
site side of the street, tJie Custom house, a huge, 
colossal granite structure, where importers do chiefly 
congregate. On the corner of Wall street and Broad- 
way stands the elegant edifice of the Bank of the Re- 
public, and at the junction of the next (Pine) street 
we see the Metropolitan Bank ; also, a superb marble 
building, occupied by Insurance Oflices, &c. We now 
need Argus' hundred eyes to look about us; for not 
only is it a perilous thing to attempt to pass over from 
one side of the street to the otlier from the incessant 
crowding of all sorts of vehicles, but we are every 
moment in danger of being jostled or pushed aside by 
the still greater crowds of pedestrians, all eagerly in 
pursuit of something. There are some further demands 
made upon us, also, by the shops which invite our curi- 
osity by their novel and motley contents. We now 
reach the junction of Fulton street and Old St. Parul's 
Church, with its sacred inclosure, containing the tall 
monument of the patriot Emmett, and the tombs of 
other celebrated characters. We pass on a few paces to 
the Ador House, the earliest establishment of its class, 
and still one of the most elegant of the larger hotels of the 
city. Here we see the Park, City Hall, the Times Office, 
and the Tribune building. 

The New York Herald building, on the corner of Ann 
street and Broadway, is the most elegant building in the 
country from which any paper is issued. It is built of 



130 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

white marble. No person can pass up Broadway with* 
out noticiug this magnificent edifice. The eye of the 
stranger is next attracted to the beautiful brown stone 
building on the corner of Park Place, occupied by the 
Broadway National Bank. 

In the intersecting streets to the west, between the 
Astor House nnd Stewart's, we catch a glimpse of long 
lines of splendid marble buildings, which give an imposing 
indication of the mercantile opulence of the city. 

Just opposite the new Court House we notice, at the 
junction of Chambers street and Broadway, Stewart's Dry 
Goods Palace, occupying an entire block on Broadway. 
This is the great emporium of costly shawls, silks, bro- 
cades, &c. It is now, however, devoted to the wholesale 
trade, the retail being removed to Stewart's new palace 
on Broadway, between Ninth and Tenth streets. 

Passing up Broadway we soon approach the site of the 
old New York Hospital, on which has been recently 
erected a beautiful row of stores. Opposite is a beautiful 
marble structure of Judge Whiting's, now occupied by 
Messrs. S. B. Chittenden & Co., the famous dry goods 
merchants. As we continue our up-town progress, we 
pass numerous other large buildings, includmg the most 
magnificent structure of the New York Life Insurance 
Company, which is situated on the corner of Leonard 
street and Broadway. This is the most perfect building, 
in every respect, devoted to Life Insurance, in the coun- 
try. We next observe, on the corner of Franklin street, 
the brown stone structure formerly occupied by the Mer- 
chant's Union Express Company, 

On the corner of White street Mr. Astor has erected a 
beautiful white marble building. This is one of the orna- 
ments of Broadway. On the opposite side the Ninth Na- 
tional Bank have just erected a beautiful white marble 
building. 

We now cross Canal street, which, until within a quar- 
ter of a century, formed the boundary limits of the city in 
this direction. Pursuing our tour toward Grand siieet, 
we notice on the west side a while marble structure re- 



SUPPLEMENTAL HINTS. 131 

cently erected. Above, on the east side, is a brown stone 
building occupied by Mcusrf!. Cochran, McLean & Co., and 
opposite to it Lord & Taylor s dry-goods establishment, 
one of the most conspicuous architectural ornaments of 
Broadway. The next street en route we pass is Broome 
street, at the corner of which is the elegant iron building 
erected by Mr. Langdon. Further on, on the west side, 
stands the celebrated *S'^ Nicholas hotel, extending to 
Spring street. On the opposite corner is the Prescott 
House, with iis gorgeous dec rations. The next import- 
ant edifice that we meet is Ball, Black & Co.'s jewelry 
store, which is a most magnificent buikling. Opposite to 
this is the Metropolitan Hotel and Nihlo's Theatre. Stil! 
farther up we cross lUeecher street and reach G47. This 
is known as Miller's bookstore. No stranger should come 
to New York without calling to inspect his fine stock of 
Books, Chromes, and Stationery. He furnishes mono- 
grams and stamps paper at the shortest aotice, and is 
noted for the taste he displays in each. 

Just above Miller's bookstore stands the famous Grand 
Central Hotel. Broadway is proverbial for its incessant 
changes and improvements, but from Caual street to 
Grace Church these mutations will be found most con- 
spicuous to persons who have not visited the city for the 
past few years. Grace Church is legarded as the culmi- 
nating glory of Broadway. Its delicate spire ami richly 
chiselled exterior, as well as its superb, though too gaudy 
interior, renders it the object of universal observation. 
On the opposite corner of Grace Church stands Stewart's 
iron dry-goods palace, occupying one whole square. On 
the corner of Eleventh street stands the Methodist Book 
House. A short distance further up brings us to Union 
Square, with its incMsed pleasure-grounds and fountain. 
Ou either side are elegant mansions and hotels. At the 
north the Everett House meets our gaze, on the west Tif- 
fany's new iron building, aud on the southeast corner is 
the Equestrian Statue of Washington, with the Union 
Square Hotel, &c. Fioni this point we catch a glimpse of 
the Academy of Music, on the corner of 14th street and 



132 CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Irving Place. Our peregrinations are not yet completed. 
The Fourth Avenue, which extends northward from the 
east side of Union Square, leads us to numerous objects 
of interest, such as Dr. Bellow's Church, a singular speci- 
men of medieval architecture, built with layers of different 
colored bricks, and cased with stone facings. Next comes 
Calvary Church, with its two pointed towers, built in the 
cathedral style, and St. Paul's (Methodist) Church, of pure 
marble, are adjacent. We have before indicated that the 
Fifth Avenue is the headquarters of New York aristoc- 
racy, and abounds with the sumptuous residences of our 
merchant princes. This splendid .avenue extends north- 
ward to the Harlem River, and the better mode of 
entering upon this expedition, is to hire a carriage and 
take a leisurely drive through this grand avenue up to 
the Aqueduct and the Central Park. It would be well 
to adopt the same plan with the eastern part of the 
city, to the Shipping- Yards, Dry-Docks, &c. Brook- 
lyn, which is virtually a part of New York, is by no 
means to be omitted, for it is replete with interest, and 
is easily accessible by means of the several ferries. 
The churches of both cities are fully detailed, for these 
form a characteristic feature, and well deserve the 
notice of the tourist. The several larger hotels are 
also specified, and those on a less expensive scale, 
which abound in New York, can be ascertained with- 
out difficulty. The visitor should not forget the many 
beautiful environs of the city. 



APPENDIX, 



THE METROPOLITAN POLICE. 

The recently organized Department of Protecnve and 
Detective Police of New York is considered eminently effec- 
tive and successful. The heads of the Department, appointed 
by the Mayor of the City, comprise a Board of Commission- 
ers ; John Jourdan, General Superintendent ; and Scth C. 
Hawley, Clerk, etc. By the last quarterly report, it appears 
that the Police force of the City of New York consists of 
thirty-five Captains, one hundred and thirty-three Sergeants, 
seventy -five lloandsmen, eighty Detailments, one thousand 
nine hundred and twenty-five Patrolmen, and sixty-five 
Doormen. 

The Police Telegraph has become an important auxiliary 
in the prevention and detection of crime, and also is a great 
convenience to the public. By this medium, several hundred 
lost children have been restored to their homes, and many 
thousand instances of criminals brought to justice. 

By the statistics submitted to the Board of Supervisors, it 
is shown that the most fertile source of crime is the dram- 
shop. There are in this city seven thousand seven hundred 
and seventy-nine places where intoxicating liquors are sold 
at retail. 

The police force of Brooklyn is organized on the same 
plan, and numbers in all two hundred and forty-eight. 

The City of New York is divided into thirty -five Precincts*, 
the station-houses of which are situated as follows : 



134 



POLICE STATIONS. 

Commissioners' Office — 300 Mulberry street. 

First Precinct— Station Honse, at 52 New etreet. 

Second Pred«c<— Station House, 49 Beekman street. 

Third PrecinctStntion House, 160 Chambers street. 

Fourth P9'€Cinct— Station House, 9 Oak street. 

Fifth Precinct— St&tion House, 19 and 21 Leonard street. 

Sixth Precinct— St&tion House, 9 Franklin street. 

Seventh Precinct— Station House, 247 Madison street. 

Eighth Precinct—Sintion House, Prince, cor. Wooster street. 

Ninth Precinct— Station House, 94 Charles street. 

Tenth Pi-ecitict-StSLtion House, 87 and 89 Eldridge street. 

Eleventh Precinct— Station House, Union Market. 

Twelfth Precinct— Station House, 126th street, n. Third avenue. 

Thirteenth Precinct— Station House, Attorney, cor. Delancey st. 

Fourteenth Precinct — Station House, 53 Spring street. 

Fifteenth Precinct— Station House, 220 Mercer street. 

Sixteenth Pi-ecinct—St&tion House, W. Twentieth street, betwee« 
Seventh and Eighth avenues. 

Seventeenth P>-ecinct— Station House, First avenue, cor. Fifth st. 

Eighteenth Precinct— Station House, E. Twenty-second street, neu 
Second avenue. 

Nineteenth Precinct— Station House, E. Fifty-ninth street, near 
Third avenue. 

Twentieth Precinct— Station House, 212 W. Thirty-fifth street. 

Twenty-first Precinct— Station House, E. Thirty-fifth street, neai 
Third avenue. 

Twenty-second /V6«wc<— Station House, 547 W. Forty-seventh st. 

Twenty-third Precinct— Station House, E. Eighty-sixth street, near 
Fourth avenue. 

Twenty-fourth Precinct— ToMce Steamboat, foot Whitehall street. 

Twenty-fifth Precinct— StAtion House, 301 Mott street. 

Twenty-sixth Precinct— City Hall. 

Twenty-seventh Precinct— Station House, cor. Liberty and Church 
streets. 

Twenty-eighth Precinct — Station House, 550 Greenwich street. 

Twenty-ninth Precinct— Station House, W. Thirtieth street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh avenues. 

Thirtieth Precinct— St&lion House, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth street and Broadway. 

Thirty-first Precinct— Station House, W. One Hundredth street, 
between Eighth and Ninth avenues. 

Thirty-second Precinct— Station House, One Hundred and Fifty- 
second street, cor. Tenth avenue. 

Thirty-third Precinct— Central Park Police. 

Thirty-fifth Precinct— Station House, 300 Mulberry street. 



HOW TO LEAVE NEW YORK. 



For Philadelphia, via New Jersey R. R. Depot at 
Jersey City. Proceed to 171 Broadway, thence to the 
foot of Cortlandt street, and cross the Ferry. 

For Philadelphia, via Camden and Amboy R. R. 
From Pier No. 24 North River, Proceed to No. 227 
Broadway, and west through Barclay street to tlie River. 

For Boston, via Stouiugtoii and Providence. From 
Pier No. 18, North River. Proceed to No. 171 Broad- 
way, and west through Cortlandt street td the River. 

For Boston, via Fall River and Newport. From Pier 
No, 3, North River. Proceed to No. 1 Broadway, and 
west through Battery Place to the River. 

For Boston, via Norwich and Worcester, From foot 
of Vestry street. Proceed to No. 417 Broadway, and 
thence through Canal street to the River. 

For Boston, via New Haven R. R, Depot, 27th street 
and 4th Avenue. Take a 4th Avenue car, which starts 
from Astor House, or a Broadway and 4th Avenue stage, 
north to 27th street. 

For Albany, via Hudson River R. R. Depot, Warren 
street and College Place. Proceed to 2 GO Broadway, 
west in Warren street to College Place. 

For Albany, via Harlem R. R. Depot, 2Gth street 
cor. 4th Avenue. Take a 4th Avenue car, which starts 
from Astor House, or a Broadway and 4th Avenuo 
stage, north to 26th street. 

For Albany, via People's Line Steamboats, From 
foot of Canal street. Proceed in Broadway to No. 417, 
and west through Canal street to the River. 

For Buffalo or Dunkirk, via N. Y. & Erie R. R. De- 
pot, foot of Duane street. Proceed in Broadway to No. 
303, and west in Duane street to the River. 

For New Haven, by Steamboat. From Peck Slip. 
Proceed to No. 208 Broadway, and east in Fulton street 
to the River : thence northeast two blocks. 



Published by JAMES MILLER, 647 Broadwat. 
Paley's Evidences of Christianity : 

With Annotations by Richard Whatelt, 
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A Series of Readmgs and Discourse Thereon. 
By Arthur Helps. 2 volumes, 12mo, 
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Being that of Albert Durer. Translated from 
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And other Poems. By TnosiAS BABBtNGTON 
Macaulay. 12mo, .... $1.25 

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By Thomas Carlyle. 13mo, - - $1.00 

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Translated from the German of Fouquk. A 
new edition. 1 vol., 12mo, - - - $1.25 
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Theodolph, the Icelander. 

Translated from the German of Fouque. 

12mo, $L50 

Guide to Health and Long Life ; 

Or, What to Eat, Drink, and Avoid, etc., • $L00 



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GieiiE L LEMITT & CO., 

AUCTIONEERS, 

BOOK SALE ROOMS, Clinton Hall, Astor Place, New tork. 
LEAVITT ART ROOMS, 817 & 819 Broadway, 

Devote their attention exclusively to the Sale 
by Auction, of 

PAiNTINGS, LIBRARIES, 
eOUECTIOHS OF BOOKSt 

AUTOGRAPHS, 
COINS, WORKS OF ART, 

ALL KINDS OF LITEEARY PROPERTY, 

Librdricft Cafalogned and Sold. 

Collections of Paintings Catalogued and Sold. 

^^- Having recsntly leased the Galleries, 317 .fe 810 
Broadway, formerly known as the" Leeds Art Galleries," 
the Undersigned offer unusual facilities for the Exhibi- 
tion and Sale of Painting-s. 

GEOEGE A. LEAVITT & CO. 




GET THE BEST. 

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. 

10,000 Words and Meanings not in other Dictionaries. 

3000 EngraTings; 1840 Pages Quarto. Price, SI*-. 

Wlienevcr I wish to obtain exact definitions 1 cfinsult it. [Scliuyler Uolfax.] 
Every scUolar liiiowa its value. [W. H. Prescott. the Historian] 

Been one of my daily companions. [Jolin L. Motley, the Historian, Ac] 

So far .IS I linow, liest defliiins Dictionary. [Horace Mann ] 

The best fruiilc of studenUsofour language. [John O. Wliittier] 

E.^cvls all others In deflninfr BciontiBc terms. [President Hitchcoclj.] 

Itennirkable conipendium of human knowledge. 

[W. S. Clark, Pres't Ar. College.] 

A necpRsitv for every Intelligent family, student, teacher and professional 
mail. What library is complete without llie bu:.l Euglibh Dictionary ? 

ALSO 

WEBSTER'S NATIONAL PICTORIAL DICTIONARY 

1040 Pages Octiiro. 600 KngraTlngs. Price, to. 

The work is really a gem of a Dictionary, jnst the thing fur the million. 

Ainericati Educational Monthly. 

Published by G. & C. MERRIAM, SprlngHold, Mass. 

SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

A. i^ERWii^, Auctioneer. 



AUCTION SALES 

OP 

PBIVA^S lilBBAKlBB 

Bot>]i;sellers' Stock, 

PAINTINGS, ENGRAVINGS, COINS, AUTOGRAPHS, 
FA?JCY GOODS, &c., Ac, 

Arc made by us rc^'ularly during tlit; business season. Our facilities, 
arraujjemeuts and rocatioii are uiisiii-pii^sed. 

BANGS, ME II WIN <C CO., 

696 Broadway, Cor. of Fourth St, 



TRAVELERS 

TO THE MOUNTAINS, 

TO THE COUNTRY, 
TO THE SEASIDE, 

BY RAILROAD OR STEAMBOAT, 
BY STAGECOACH OR CARRIAGE, 

ON HORSEBACK OR ON FOOT, 
ON BUSINESS OR PLEASURE. 

Before yon go obtain u yearly policy, to eover 
the risk of ucideiir, in tlie 

TRAVELERS' 

Life and Accident Insurance Companf 

OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. 



1^3^ The Travelers' has paid over Fonrteeii 
Thousaiul Claims for death, or injury, by accident. 
The anionnt of money thus disbursed is greater 
than that paid by any other Insurance Company 
of its age in the world, and averages about seven 
hundred dollars a day, for every working day, 
durini; seven years. 



Cash Asset s, - - $2 ,000 000 00. 

NEW YORK OFFICE, 207 BROADWAY. 

R. M. JOHNSON, Manager. 



F. W. LASAK'S SON 

(ESTABLISHED 1827.) 



k«k 



RUSSIAN-AMERICAN 

AND 

HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY 
FURS. 

Ladies' and Gents' manufactured Purs of every description 
on hand and to order. All goods of our own manufacture, and 
warranted of superior quality and workmanship. 



F. W. liASAK'S SOIV, 

682 BROADWAY. 



Hamilton Fire Insurance Co., 

Office, No. 11 Wall Street, 
NEW YORK. 



Assets $280,000 

Cajntal, 150,0 00 

Surplus, $130,000 



ITVSURE AT LOAVES?«X XlATIi:!**. 

LOSSES PROWPTL'S" PAID. 

J. 0. WINANS, Pres't. JAMES GILMO^E, Sec'y. 

DIRECTORS. 

JOHN C. WINANS, Pkesident. 
TIMOTHY H. BURGHER, BERNARD McFEl. -Y, 

THOMAS MORTON, MERRITT H. SMITH, 

HENRY DAVID. J- WINDMULLER 



CHARLES JENKINS, 
M. M. VAN BUREN, 



GEORGE TUONOT, 
WM. H. MONTANYE, 



J ■ W.BROWN. ' JOHNA. BAUSH. 

EDWARD SCULLY. JAMES NEEVES. 

u » VAVFREAU THOMAS WEBB, 

Wi'lLIAM SS' GEORGE C. JEFFERIE3. 

DANIEL S. SCHANCK. NOAH A. CHILDb. 



NELSON SAMMIS, 



wm. van name, 



JOSIAH M. WHITNEY, 8- S. WYCKOFF, 

CLEMENT S. PARSONS, ALFRED SCHANCK, 

HAML'N BLYDENBURGH, '^'^"^ i^', ^/■'i^?.,' 

DANIEL D. WHITNEY 
ABRAM WAKEMAN 



ANDREW J. BLEAKLEY, 
NICHOLAS SEAGRIST. 



R. Q. HATFIELD, ' I>AVID MAHANV 



CYRUS H. LOUTREL. 



JOHN ROMKR, 



ISRAEL C. LAWRENCE, J- B. BLYDENBURGH. 

H. C. BARINGER.