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The Photographic History
of The Civil War
In Ten Volumes
EVIEW OF REVIEWS CO
PREPARING FOR WAR A CONFEDERATE PHOTOGRAPH OF 61
Florida Opens the Grim Game of War. On a sandy point at the entrance to Pensacola Bay over two hundred years ago, the Spaniards
who so long held possession of what is now the Gulf coast of the United States had built a fort. On its site the United States Gov
ernment had erected a strong fortification called Fort Barrancas. Between this point and a low-lying sandy island directly opposite,
any vessels going up to Pensacola must pass. On the western end of this island was the strongly built Fort Pic-kens. Early in 1831
both forts were practically ungarrisoned. This remarkable picture, taken by the New Orleans photographer Edwards, in February,
1861, belongs to a series hitherto unpublished. Out of the deep shadows of the sally port we look into the glaring sunlight upon one
of the earliest warlike moves. Here we sec one of the heavy pieces of ordnance that were intended to defend the harbor from foreign
foes, being shifted preparatory to being mounted on the rampart at Fort Barrancas, which, since January 12th, had been in possession of
State troops. Fort Pickens, held by a mere handful of men under Lieutenant Slemmer, still flew the Stars and Stripes. But the mo/c
of State troops under orders from Governor Perry of Florida, in seizing Fort Barrancas and raising the State flag even before the shot that
aroused the nation at Fort Sumtcr, may well be said to have helped force the crisis that was impending.
*ST ** *
The Photographic History
of The Civil War
In Ten Volumes
FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER - EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
ROBERT S. LANIER
Thousands of Scenes Photographed
1861-G5, with Text by many
THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS Co.
. v .\
The Photographic History
of The Civil War
The Opening Battles
WILLIAM H. TAFT GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM
President of the United States Major, U. S. V.
HENRY WYSHAM LANIER MARCUS J. WRIGHT
Art Editor and Publisher Brigadier-General, C. S. A.
EBEN SWIFT HENRY W. ELSON
Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. A. Professor of History, Ohio University
FRENCH E. CHADWICK JAMES BARNES
Rear -Admiral, U. S. N. Author of "David G. Farragut "
The Review of Reviews Co,
COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY PATRIOT PUBLISHING Co., SPRINGFIELD, MASS.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION
INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN
Printed in New York, U.S.A.
THE TROW PRESS
Map BATTLE GROUNDS OF THE CIVIL WAR 2
Frontispiece PREPARING FOR WAR ... 4
GREETING . 12
DEDICATION . 13
ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . 14
EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY 15
Francis Trevelyan Miller
PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR . . 30
Henry Wysham Lanier
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AS HISTORY 60
George Haven Putnam
THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH 88
French E. Chadwick
RECORDS OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 102
Marcus J. Wright
THE STRATEGY OF THE CIVIL WAR LEADERS 112
THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS 137
Henry W. Elson
BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS FACE FIRR 142
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY . ...... 171
THE FALL OF FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON . . ITS
Henry W. Elson
SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE . ... 100
Henry W. Elson
NEW MADRID AND ISLAND NUMBER TEN .... .... 210
Henry W. Elson
NEW ORLEANS THE NAVY HELPS THE ARMY .... ... 220
Jam eft Barnes
FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS GUNBOATS AND BATTERIES . . . 230
Henry W. Elson
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND ... ... 251
Henry W. Elson
YORKTOWN UP THE PENINSULA .... ..... 254
FAIR OAKS IN SIGHT OF RICHMOND . . 282
THE SHENANDOAH AND THE ALARM AT WASHINGTON . . 304
SEVEN DAYS THE CONFEDERATE CAPITAL SAVED . . 311
ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR UP TO JULY, 1802 . . . .345
George L. Kilmer
Map THEATER OF CAMPAIGNS IN VIRGINIA ......... 309
PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS THROUGHOUT THIS VOLUME
GREETING FROM PRESIDENT TAFT
THE WHITE HOUSE
We have reached a point in this country when we can look
back, not without love, not without intense pride, but without
partisan passion, to the events of the Civil War. We have
reached a point, I am glad to say, when the North can admire
to the full the heroes of the South, and the South admire to
the full the heroes of the North. There is a monument in
Quebec that always commended itself to me - a monument to com
memorate the battle of the Plains of Abraham. On one face
of that beautiful structure is the name of Montcalm, and on
the opposite side the name of Wolfe. That always seemed to
me to be the acme of what we ought to reach in this country;
and I am glad to say that in my own alma mater, Yale, we have
established an association for the purpose of erecting within
her academic precincts a memorial not to the Northern Yale men
who died, nor to the Southern Yale men who died; but to the
Yale men who died in the Civil War.
FIFTY YEARS AFTER
TO THE MEN IN BLUE AND GRAY
WHOSE VALOR AND DEVOTION
HAVE BECOME THE
OF A UNITED
TO Mr. Francis Trevelyan Miller the publishers of these books must confess an
obligation quite apart from the usual editorial services. Seldom indeed has it
been possible to construct the text of such an extended history in accordance with a single
broad idea. Yet it is true that the contributions throughout the entire ten volumes of the
PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY are a direct outgrowth of the plan created years ago by Mr. Miller,
and urged since by him with constant faith in its national importance to emphasize in
comprehensive form those deeds and words from the mighty struggle that strike universal,
noble human chords. This was a conception so straightforward and so inspiring that
the opportunity to give it the present embodiment has become a lasting privilege.
Readers as well as publishers are also indebted to the collectors, historical societies,
and others who have furnished hundreds of long-treasured photographs, unwilling that the
HISTORY should appear without presenting many important scenes of which no actual
illustrations had ever before been available to the public. Hence the Civil War-time
photographs in the present work are not only several times as numerous as those in any
previous publication, but also include many hundreds of scenes that will come as a reve
lation even to historians and special scholars photographs taken within the lines of the
Confederate armies and of the hosts in the Mississippi Valley, whose fighting was no less
momentous than the Eastern battles, but in the nature of things could not be as quickly
or as fully heralded. With these additions to the "Brady-Gardner" collection the loss
and rediscovery of which Mr. Henry Wysham Lanier s introductory narrates it is now
possible for the first time to present comprehensively the men and scenes and types of the
American epic, in photographs.
Deep acknowledgment is due the owners of indispensable pictures who have so gen
erously contributed them for this purpose. Especial mention must be given to: Mrs. W.
K. Bachman; Mr. William Beer; Mr. James Blair, C. S. A.; Mr. George A. Brackett; Mr.
Edward Bromley ; Mr. John ( .Browne; Captain Joseph T. Burke, C. S. A.; Captain E. M.
Colston, C. S. A.; Colonel E. J. Copp, U. S. V.; Colonel S. A. Cunningham, C. S. A.; The
Daughters of the Confederacy; Mr. Charles Erankel; Mr. Edgar R. Harlan; Colonel ("has.
R. E. Koch, U. S. V.; Miss Isabel Maury; Mr. F. H. Meserve; The Military Order of the
Loyal Legion; Colonel John P. Nicholson, U. S. V.; General Harrison Gray Otis, U. S. V.;
Captain F. A. Roziene, U. S. A.; General G. P. Thruston, U. S. V.; The University of
South Carolina; The Washington Artillery, and the various State historical departments,
state and government bureaus, military and patriotic organizations which courteously
suspended their rules, in order that the photographic treasures in their archives should
become available for the present record.
OX this semi-centennial of the American Civil War -the war of the modern Roses
in the Western World these volumes are dedicated to the American people in
tribute to the courage and the valor with which they met one of the greatest crises that a
nation has ever known a crisis that changed the course of civilization. We look back
at Napoleon through the glamor of time, without fully realizing that here on our own
continent are battle-grounds more noble in their purport than all the wars of the ancient
regimes. The decades have shrouded the first American Revolution in romance, but the
time has now come when this second American revolution, at the turning point of its
first half century, is to become an American epic in which nearly three and a half million
men gathered on the battle-line to offer their lives for principles that were dear to them.
It is as an American "Battle Abbey" that these pages are opened on this anniversary,
so that the eyes of the generations may look upon the actual scenes not upon the tar
nished muskets, the silenced cannon, nor the battle-stained flag, but upon the warriors
themselves standing on the firing-line in the heroic struggle when the hosts of the North
and the legions of the South met on the battle-grounds of a nation s ideals, with the destiny
of a continent hanging in the balance. And what a tribute it is to American character to
be able to gather about these pages in peace and brotherhood, without malice and without
dissension, within a generation from the greatest fratricidal tragedy in the annals of man
kind. The vision is no longer blinded by heart wounds, but as Americans we can see
only the heroic self-sacrifice of these men who battled for the decision of one of the world s
In this first volume, standing literally before the open door to the "Battle Abbey," in
which the vision of war is to be revealed in all its reality, I take this privilege to refer
briefly to a few of the intimate desires that have led to this revelation of THE PHOTO
GRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. As one stands in the library of the War Department
at Washington, or before the archives of the American libraries, he feels that the last
word of evidence must have been recorded. Nearly seven thousand treatises, containing
varying viewpoints relating to this epoch in our national development, have been written
so Dr. Herbert Putnam, Librarian at the Congressional Library at Washington, tells
me; while in my home city of Hartford, which is a typical American community, I find
nearly two thousand works similar to those that are within the reach of all the American
people in every part of the country.
W ith this great inheritance before us, military writers have informed me that they
cannot understand why the American people have been so little interested in this remarkable
war. Great generals have told how they led their magnificent armies in battle; military
tacticians have mapped and recorded the movements of regiments and corps with tech-
nical accuracy, and historians have faithfully discussed the causes and the effects of this
strange crisis in civilization all of which is a permanent tribute to American scholar
ship. I have come to the conclusion that the lack of popular interest is because this is
not a military nation. The great heart of American citizenship knows little of military
maneuver, which is a science that requires either life-study or tradition to cultivate an
interest in it.
The Americans are a peace-loving people, but when once aroused they are a mighty
moral and physical fighting force. It is not their love for the art of war that has caused
them to take up arms. It is the impulse of justice that permeates the Western World.
The American people feel the pulse of life itself; they love the greater emotions that
cause men to meet danger face to face. Their hearts beat to the martial strain of the
national anthem "The Star Spangled Banner" and they feel the melody in that old Mar
seillaise of the Confederacy, "Dixie," for in them they catch mental visions of the sweep
ing lines under floating banners at the battle-front; they hear the roar of the guns and
the clatter of cavalry; but more than that they feel again the spirit that leads men to
throw themselves into the cannon s flame.
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR comes on this anniversary to witness
a people s valor; to testify in photograph to the true story of how a devoted people whose
fathers had stood shoulder to shoulder for the ideal of liberty in the American Revolution,
who had issued to the world the declaration that all men are created politically free and
equal, who had formulated the Constitution that dethroned mediaeval monarchy and
founded a new republic to bring new hope to the races of the earth parted at the dividing
line of a great economic problem and stood arrayed against each other in the greatest
fratricidal tragedy that the world has ever witnessed, only to be reunited and to stand,
fifty years later, hand in hand for the betterment of mankind, pledging themselves to
universal peace and brotherhood.
This is the American epic that is told in these time-stained photographs an epic
which in romance and chivalry is more inspiring than that of the olden knighthood;
brother against brother, father against son, men speaking the same language, living under
the same flag, offering their lives for that which they believed to be right. No Grecian
phalanx or Roman legion ever knew truer manhood than in those days on the American
continent when the Anglo-Saxon met Anglo-Saxon in the decision of a constitutional
principle that beset their beloved nation. It was more than Napoleonic, for its warriors
battled for principle rather than conquest, for right rather than power.
This is the spirit of these volumes, and it seems to me that it must be the spirit of
every true American. It is the sacred heritage of Anglo-Saxon freedom won at Runny-
mede. I recall General Gordon, an American who turned the defeat of war into the vic
tory of citizenship in peace, once saying: "What else could be expected of a people in
whose veins commingled the blood of the proud cavaliers of England, the blood of those
devout and resolute men who protested against the grinding exactions of the Stuarts;
the blood of the stalwart Dissenters and of the heroic Highlanders of Scotland, and of
0f (Html Mar
the sturdy Presbyterians of Ireland; the blood of those defenders of freedom who came
from the mountain battlements of Switzerland, whose signal lights summoned her people
to gather to their breasts the armfuls of spears to make way for liberty. " It was a great
battle-line of Puritan, of Huguenot, of Protestant, of Catholic, of Teuton, and Celt every
nation and every religion throwing its sacrifice on the altar of civilization.
The causes of the American Civil War will always be subject to academic controversy,
each side arguing conscientiously from its own viewpoint. It is unnecessary to linger in
these pages over the centuries of economic growth that came to a crisis in the American
nation. In the light of modern historical understanding it was the inevitable result of a
sociological system that had come down through the ages before there was a republic on
the Western continent, and which finally came to a focus through the conflicting interests
that developed in the upbuilding of American civilization. When Jefferson and Madison
construed our constitution in one way, and Washington and Hamilton in another, surely
it is not strange that their descendants should have differed. There is glory enough for
all for North, for South, for East, for West, on these battle-grounds of a people s tra
ditions a grander empire than Caesar s legions won for Rome.
To feel the impulse of both the North and the South is the desire of these volumes.
When, some years ago, I left the portals of Trinity College, in the old abolition town of
Hartford, Conn., to enter the halls of Washington and Lee University in historic Lexing
ton in the hills of Virginia, I felt for the first time as a Northerner, indigenous to the soil,
what it means to be a Southerner. I, who had bowed my head from childhood to the
greatness of Grant, looked upon my friends bowing their heads before the mausoleum of
Lee. I stood with them as they laid the April flowers on the graves of their dead, and I felt
the heart-beat of the Confederacy. When I returned to my New England home it was
to lay the laurel and the May flowers on the graves of my dead, and I felt the heart-beat of
the Republic more than that, I felt the impulse of humanity and the greatness of all men.
When I now turn these pages I realize what a magnificent thing it is to have lived;
how wonderful is man and his power to blaze the path for progress ! I am proud that my
heritage runs back through nearly three hundred years to the men who planted the seed
of liberty in the New World into which is flowing the blood of the great races of the
earth; a nation whose sinews are built from the strong men of the ages, and in whose hearts
beat the impulses that have inspired the centuries a composite of the courage, the per
severance, and the fortitude of the world s oldest races, commingled into one great throb
bing body. It is a young race, but its exploits have equalled those of the heroic age in
the Grecian legends and surpass Leonidas and his three hundred at Thermopylae.
In full recognition of the masterly works of military authorities that now exist as in
valuable historical evidence, these volumes present the American Civil War from an en
tirely original viewpoint. The collection of photographs is in itself a sufficient contribution
to military and historical record, and the text is designed to present the mental pictures of
the inspiring pageantry in the war between the Red and the White Roses in America,
its human impulses, and the ideals that it represents in the heart of humanity.
The military movements of the armies have been exhaustively studied properly to
stage the great scenes that are herein enacted, but the routine that may burden the memory
or detract from the broader, martial picture that lies before the reader has been purposely
avoided. It is the desire to leave impressions rather than statistics; mental visions and
human inspiration rather than military knowledge, especially as the latter is now so abun
dant in American literature. In every detail the contradictory evidence of the many
authorities has been weighed carefully to present the narrative fairly and impartially. It
is so conflicting regarding numbers in battle and killed and wounded that the Government
records have been followed, as closely as possible.
The hand of the historian may falter, or his judgment may fail, but the final record of
the American Civil War is told in these time-dimmed negatives. The reader may con
scientiously disagree with the text, but we must all be of one and the same mind when we
look upon the photographic evidence. It is in these photographs that all Americans can
meet on the common ground of their beloved traditions. Here we are all united at the
shrine where our fathers fought Northerners or Southerners and here the generations
may look upon the undying record of the valor of those who fought to maintain the Union
and those who fought for independence from it each according to his own interpretation
of the Constitution that bound them into a great republic of states.
These photographs are appeals to peace; they are the most convincing evidence of the
tragedy of war. They bring it before the generations so impressively that one begins to
understand the meaning of the great movement for universal brotherhood that is now
passing through the civilized world. Mr. William Short, the secretary of the New York
Peace Society, in speaking of them, truly says that they are the greatest arguments for
peace that the world has ever seen. Their mission is more than to record history; it is to
make history to mould the thought of the generations as everlasting witnesses of the
price of war.
As the founder of this memorial library, and its editor-in-chief, it is my pleasure to
give historical record to Mr. Edward Bailey Eaton, Mr. Herbert My rick, and Mr. J.
Frank Drake, of the Patriot Publishing Company, of Springfield, Mass., owners of the
largest private collection of original Brady-Gardner Civil War negatives in existence, by
whom this work was inaugurated, and to Mr. Egbert Gilliss Handy, president of The
Search-Light Library of New York, through whom it was organized for its present develop
ment by the Review of Reviews Company. These institutions have all co-operated to
realize the national and impartial conception of this work. The result, we hope, is a
more friendly, fair, and intimate picture of America s greatest sorrow and greatest glory
than has perhaps been possible under the conditions that preceded this semi-centennial
To President William Howard Taft, who has extended his autographed message to the
North and the South, the editors take pleasure in recording their deep appreciation; also
to Generals Sickles and Buckner, the oldest surviving generals in the Federal and Con
federate armies, respectively, on this anniversary; to General Frederick Dent Grant and
General G. W. Custis Lee, the sons of the great warriors who led the armies through the
American Crisis; to the Honorable Robert Todd Lincoln, former Secretary of War; to
James W. Cheney, Librarian in the War Department at Washington; to Dr. Edward S.
Holden, Librarian at the United States Military Academy at West Point, for their con
sideration and advice, and to the officers of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Military
Order of the Loyal Legion, the United Confederate Veterans, the Daughters of the Con
federacy, and the other memorial organizations that have shown an appreciation of the
intent of this work. We are especially indebted to Mr. John McElroy, editor of the Na-
tional Tribune; General Bennett H. Young, the historian of the United Confederate Vet
erans; General Grenville M. Dodge; Colonel S. A. Cunningham, founder and editor of the
Confederate Veteran, General Irvine Walker, General William E. Mickle, and to the many
others who, in their understanding and appreciation have rendered valuable assistance
in the realization of its special mission to the American people on this semi-centennial.
This preface should not close without a final word as to the difficulty of the problems
that confronted the military, historical, and other authorities whose contributions have
made the text of THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR, whose names are signed
to their historical contributions throughout these volumes, and the spirit in which, work
ing with the editorial staff of the Review of Reviews, they have met these problems. The
impossibility of deciding finally the difference of opinion in the movements of the Civil
War has been generously recognized. With all personal and partisan arguments have
been set aside in the universal and hearty effort of all concerned to fulfil the obliga
tions of this work. I ask further privilege to extend my gratitude to my personal assist
ants, Mr. Walter R. Bickford, Mr. Arthur Forrest Burns, and Mr. Wallace H. Miller.
And now, as we stand to-day, fellowmen in the great republic that is carrying the
torch in the foreranks of the world s civilization, let us clasp hands across the long-gone
years as reunited Americans. I can close these introductory words with no nobler tribute
than those of the mighty warriors who led the great armies to battle. It was General
Robert E. Lee who, after the war, gave this advice to a Virginia mother, "Abandon all
these animosities and make your sons Americans," and General Ulysses S. Grant, whose
appeal to his countrymen must always be an admonition against war: "Let us have
FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER,
Edit or -in- Chief.
Lincoln s Inauguration.
[A 2] [ 19 ]
THE WAR PHOTOGRAPHER BRADY (WEARING STRAW
HAT) WITH GENERAL BURNSIDE (READING NEWSPA
PER) TAKEN WHILE BURNSIDE WAS IN COMMAND
OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, EARLY IN 1863,
AFTER HIS ILL-FATED ATTACK ON FREDERICKSBURG
THE FLANKING GUN
This remarkably spirited photograph of Battery D, Second U. S.
Artillery, was, according to the photographer s account, taken
just as the battery was loading to engage with the Confederates.
The order, "cannoneers to your posts," had just been given,
and the men, running up, called to the photographer to hurry
his wagon out of the way unless he wished to gain a place for his
name in the list of casualties In June, 1863, the Sixth Corps had
made its third successful crossing of the Rappahannock, as the
advance of Hooker s movement against Lee. Battery D at
once took position with other artillery out in the fields near the
"COOPER S BATTERY" (SEE PAGE 32)
This is another photograph taken under fire and shows us Battery
B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, in action before Petersburg,
1864. Brady, the veteran photographer, obtained permis
sion to take a picture of "Cooper s Battery," in position for
battle. The first attempt provoked the fire of the Confederates,
who supposed that the running forward of the artillerists was
with hostile intent. The Confederate guns frightened Brady s
horse which ran off with his wagon and his assistant, upsetting
and destroying his chemicals. In the picture to the left, Captain
James H. Cooper himself is seen leaning on a sword at the
ruins of the Mansfield house. In the rear of the battery the
veteran Vermont brigade was acting as support. To their rear
was the bank of the river skirted by trees. The grove of white
poplars to the right surrounded the Mansfield house. With
characteristic coolness, some of the troops had already pitched
their dog tents. Better protection was soon afforded by the strong
line of earthworks which was thrown up and occupied by the
Sixth Corps. Battery D was present at the first battle of Bull Run,
where the Confederates there engaged got a taste of its metal on
the Federal left
READY TO OPEN FIRE
Copyright by Review oj Reviews Co.
extreme right. Lieutenant Miller is the second figure from the taken. This Pennsylvania battery suffered greater loss than any
left. Lieutenant Alcorn is next, to the left from Captain Cooper. other volunteer Union battery; its record of casualties includes
Lieutenant James A. Gardner, just behind the prominent figure twenty-one killed and died of wounds, and fifty-two wounded
with the haversack in the right section of the picture, identified convincing testimony of the fact that throughout the war its men
these members almost forty-seven years after the picture was stood bravely to their guns.
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A WASHINGTON BELLE IN CAMP
From Bull Run to Gettysburg the Federal capital was repeatedly threatened by the advances of the
Confederates, and strong camps for the defense of Washington were maintained throughout the war. It
was the smart thing for the ladies of the capital to invade these outlying camps, and they were always
welcomed by the officers weary of continuous guard-duty. Here the camera has caught the willing subject
in handsome Kate Chase Sprague, who became a belle of official society in Washington during the war. She
was the daughter of Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln s Secretary of the Treasury. At this time she was the wife
of Governor William Sprague, of Rhode Island, and was being entertained in camp by General J. J.
Abercrombie, an officer of the regular army, well known in the capital.
Copyright by Review nfjteviews Co.
A HORSE AND RIDER THAT WILL LIVE
Here is an extraordinary photograph of a spirited charger taken half a century ago. This noble beast is
the mount of Lieut. -Col. C. B. Norton, and was photographed at General Fitz John Porter s headquarters.
The rider is Colonel Norton himself. Such clear definition of every feature of man and horse might well be
the envy of modern photography, which does not achieve such depth without fast lenses, focal-plane
shutters, and instantaneous dry plates, which can be developed at leisure. Here the old-time wet-plate
process has preserved every detail. To secure results like this it was necessary to sensitize the plate just
before exposing it, uncap the lens by hand, and develop the negative within five minutes after the exposure.
PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR
By HENRY WYSHAM LANIER
EXTRAORDINARY as the fact seems, the American
Civil War is the only great Avar of which we have an
adequate history in photographs: that is to say, this is the
only conflict of the first magnitude 1 in the world s history that
can he really " illustrated," with a pictorial record which is
indisputably authentic, vividly illuminating, and the final evi
dence in any question of detail.
Here is a much more important historical fact than the
casual reader realizes. The earliest records we have of the
human race are purely pictorial. History, even of the most
shadowy and legendary sort, goes hack hardly more than ten
thousand years. But in recent years there have been recov
ered in certain caves of France scratched and carved bone
weapons and rough W 7 all-paintings which tell us some dra
matic events in the lives of men who lived probably a hundred
thousand years before the earliest of those seven strata of
ancient Troy, which indefatigable archeologists have exposed
to the wondering gaze of the modern world. The picture came
long before the written record; nearly all our knowledge of
ancient Babylonia and Assyria is gleaned from the details left
by some picture-maker. And it is still infinitely more effective
an appeal. How impossible it is for the average person to
get any clear idea of the great struggles which altered the
destinies of nations and which occupy so large a portion of
world history! How can a man to-day really understand the
siege of Troy, the battles of Thermopylae or Salamis, Han
nibal s crossing of the Alps, the famous fight at Tours when
Charles " the Hammer " checked the Saracens, the Norman
1 There have been, of course, only two wars of this description since
1865: the Franco- Prussian War was, for some reason, not followed by
camera men; and the marvellously expert photographers who flocked to
the struggles between Russia and Japan were not given any chance by
the Japanese authorities to make anything like an adequate record.
^he indomitable war photographer
i the very costume which made
im a familiar figure at the first
iattle of Bull Run, from which
e returned precipitately to New
fork after his initial attempt to
ut into practice his scheme for
icturing the war. Brady was a
"ork Irishman by birth and pos
essed of all the active tempera
lent which such an origin implies
Lt Bull Run he was in the thick
f things. Later in the day.
Jrady himself was compelled
o flee, and at nightfall of that
ital Sunday, alone and unarmed,
e lost his way in the woods near
he stream from which the battle
ikes its name. Here he was
jiind by some of the famous corn-
any of New York Fire Depart-
lent Zouaves, who gave him a
word for his defense. Buckling it
n beneath his linen duster, Brady
lade his way to Washington and
hence to New York. In the pic-
ure we see him still proudly wear-
tig the weapon which he was pre-
iared to use for the protection of
imself and his precious negatives.
Copyright by Reriew
BRADY, AFTER BULL RUN
if Reviews Co.
Below is the gallery of A. D.
Lytle a Confederate photogra
pher as it stood on Main Street,
Baton Rouge, in 1864, when in the
employ of the Confederate Secret
Service Lytle trained his camera
upon the Federal army which occu
pied Baton Rouge. It was indeed
dangerous work, as discovery of his
purpose would have visited upon
the photographer the fate of a spy.
Lytle would steal secretly up
the Observation Tower, which had
been built on the ruins of the capi-
tol, and often exposed to rifle shots
from the Federals, would with flag
or lantern signal to the Confederates
at Scott s Bluff, whence the news
was relayed to New Orleans, and
provision made for smuggling the
precious prints through the lines.
Like Brady, Lytle obtained his
photographic supplies from An
thony & Company of New York;
but unlike Cook of Charleston, he
did not have to depend upon con
traband traffic to secure them, but
got them passed on the "orders to
trade" issued quite freely in the
West by the Federal Government.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE GALLERY OF A CONFEDERATE SECRET-SERVICE PHOTOGRAPHER,
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA, 1864
conquest of England, the Hundred Years or Thirty Years
Wars, even our own seven-year struggle for liberty, without
any first-hand picture-aids to start the imagination? Take
the comparatively modern Napoleonic wars where, moreover,
there is an exceptional wealth of paintings, drawings, prints,
and lithographs by contemporary men : in most cases the effect
is simply one of keen disappointment at the painfully evident
fact that most of these w r orthy artists never saw a battle or
So the statement that there have been gathered together
thousands of photographs of scenes on land and water during
those momentous years of 1861 to 1865 means that for our
generation and all succeeding ones, the Civil War is on a basis
different from all others, is practically an open book to old
and young. For when man achieved the photograph he took
almost as important a step forward as when he discovered
how to make fire: he made scenes and events and personalities
immortal. The greatest literary genius might write a volume
without giving you so intimate a comprehension of the strug
gle before Petersburg as do these exact records, made by
adventurous camera-men under incredible difficulties, and hold
ing calmly before your eyes the very Reality itself.
To apply this pictorial principle, let us look at one
remarkable photograph, Cooper s Battery in front of the
Avery house, during the siege of Petersburg, of which \ve
have, by a lucky chance, an account from one of the men in
the scene. The lifelikeness of the picture is beyond praise:
one cannot help living through this tense moment with these
men of long ago, and one s eyes instinctively follow their fixed
gaze toward the lines of the foe. This picture was shown to
Lieutenant James A. Gardner (of Battery B, First Penn
sylvania Light Artillery), who immediately named half a
dozen of the figures, adding details of the most intimate inter
est (see pages 22 and 23) :
1 am, even at this late day, able to pick out and recognize a very
large number of the members of our battery, as shown in this photograph.
Our battery (familiarly known as Cooper s Battery) belonged to the
Fifth Corps, then commanded by Gen. G. K. Warren.
Our corps arrived in front of Petersburg on June 17, 1864, was put
into position on the evening of that day, and engaged the Confederate
batteries on their line near the Avery house. The enemy at that time
Here are two excellent views in which we see the conditions under
which the army photographer worked in the field. The larger
picture is of Barnard, the Government photographer under
Captain O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer of the Military Division of the
Mississippi. Barnard was engaged to take photographs of the
new Federal fortifications being constructed under Captain Poe s
direction at Atlanta, September-October, 1864. Captain Poe
found the old Confederate line of defense of too great extent to
be held by such a force as Sherman intended to leave as garrison
of the town. Consequently, he selected a new line of much
shorter development which passed through the northern part of
the town, making necessary the destruction of many buildings in
that quarter. Barnard is
here at work sensitizing
his plates in a light-proof
tent, making his exposures,
and developing immedi
ately within the tent. His
chemicals and general
supplies were carried in
the wngon showing to the
right. Thus, as the pioneer
corps worked on the forti
fications the entire series
of photographs showing
their progress was made
to be forwarded later to
Washington by Captain
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE PHOTOGRAPHER WITH THE ARMY
Poe, with his official report. In the background we see the
battle-field where began the engagement of July 22, 1 864, known
as the battle of Atlanta, in which General McPherson lost his
life. Thus Brady and all the war photographers worked
right up to the trenches, lugging their cumbersome tents and
apparatus, often running out of supplies or carrying hundreds
of glass plates over rough roads or exposed to possible shells.
To the many chances of failure was added that of being at
any time picked off by some sharpshooter. In the smaller
picture appears a duplicate of Brady s "What-Is-It," being
the dark-room buggy of Photographer Wearn. In the back
ground are the ruins of the State Armory at Columbia, South
RUINS OF STATE ARMORY, COLUMBIA, 1865
Carolina. This was
burned as Sherman s
troops passed through
the city on their famous
march through the Caro-
linas, February, 1865.
The photographer, bring
ing up the rear, has pre
served the result of
Sherman s work, which
is typical of that done
by him all along the line
of march to render use
less to the Confederate ar
mies in the field, the mili
tary resources of the South.
was commanded by General Beauregard. That night the enemy fell back
to their third line, which then occupied the ridge which you see to the
right and front, along where you will notice the chimney ( the houses had
been burnt down). On the night of the 18th we threw up the lunettes
in front of our guns. This position was occupied by us until possibly
about the 23d or 24th of June, when we were taken further to the left.
The position shown in the picture is about six hundred and fifty yards
in front, and to the right of the Avery house, and at or near this point
was built a permanent fort or battery, which was used continuously dur
ing the entire siege of Petersburg.
While occupying this position, Mr. Brady took the photographs,
copies of which you have sent me. The photographs were taken in the
forenoon of June 21, 1864. I know myself, merely from the position
that I occupied at that time, as gunner. After that, I served as ser
geant, first sergeant, and first lieutenant, holding the latter position
at the close of the war. All the officers shown in this picture are dead.
The movement in which we were engaged was the advance of the
Army of the Potomac upon Petersburg, being the beginning of opera
tions in front of that city. On June 18th the division of the Confederates
which was opposite us was that of Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson ; but as the
Army of Northern Virginia, under General Lee, began arriving on the
evening of June 18th, it would be impossible for me to say who occupied
the enemy s lines after that. The enemy s position, which was along on
the ridge to the front, in the picture, where you see the chimney, after
ward became the main line of the Union army. Our lines were advanced
to that point, and at or about where you see the chimney standing, Fort
Morton of the Union line was constructed, and a little farther to the
right was Fort Stedman, on the same ridge ; and about where the battery
now stands, as shown in the picture, was a small fort or works erected,
known as Battery Seventeen.
When engaged in action, our men exhibited the same coolness that
is shown in the picture that is, while loading our guns. If the enemy
is engaging us, as soon as each gun is loaded the cannoneers drop to the
ground and protect themselves as best they can, except the gunners and
the officers, who are expected to be always on the lookout. The gunners
are the corporals who sight and direct the firing of the guns.
In the photograph you will notice a person (in civilian s clothes).
This is Mr. Brady or his assistant, but I think it is Mr. Brady himself.
It is now almost forty-seven years since the photographs were
taken, yet I am able to designate at least fifteen persons of our bat
tery, and point them out. I should have said that Mr. Brady took
picture No. 1 from a point a little to the left, and front, of our battery ;
and the second one was taken a little to the rear, and left, of the battery.
Petersburg lay immediately over the ridge in the front, right over past
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE FIELD DARK ROOM
Here we get an excellent idea of how the business of army photog
raphy, invented by Brady and first exemplified by him at Bull
Run, had become organized toward the close of the war. In the
lower picture we see the outfit with which Samuel A. Cooley fol
lowed the fortunes of the campaigners, and recorded for all time
the stirring events around Savannah at the completion of the
March to the Sea. Cooley was attached to the Tenth Corps,
United States Army, and secured photographs at Jackson
ville, St. Augustine, Beaufort,
and Charleston during the bom
bardment. Here he is in the act
of making an exposure. The
huge camera and plate-holder
seem to eyes of the present day
far too cumbersome to make
possible the wonderful defini
tion and beautiful effects of
light and shade which charac
terize the war-time negatives
that have come down to us
through the vicissitudes of half
a century. Here are Cooley s
two means of transportation.
The wagon fitted to carry the
supply of chemicals, glass plates, and the precious finished negatives
includes a compartment for more leisurely developing. The little
dark-room buggy to the left was used upon occasions when it was
necessary for the army photographer to proceed in light marching
order. In the smaller picture we see again the light-proof devel
oping tent in action before the ramparts of Fort McAllister.
The view is of the exterior of the fort fronting the Savannah
River. A few days before the Confederate guns had frowned
darkly from the parapet at
Sherman s "bummers," who
could see the smoke of the
Federal gunboats waiting to
welcome them just beyond.
With Sherman looking proudly
on, the footsore and hungry
soldiers rushed forward to the
attack, and the Stars and
Stripes were soon floating over
this vast barrier between them
and the sea. The next morning,
Christmas Day, 1864, the gun
boats and transports steamed
up the river and the joyful
THE CIVIL WAR PHOTOGRAPHERS IMPEDIMENTA news was flashed northward.
the man whom you sec sitting there so leisurely on the earthworks
A notice in Humphrey s Journal in 1861 describes vividly
the records of the flight after Bull Run secured by the inde
fatigable Brady. Unfortunately the unique one in which the
reviewer identified " Bull Run " Russell in reverse action is
lost to the world. But we have the portrait of Brady himself
three days later in his famous linen duster, as he returned to
Washington. His story comes from one who had it from his
He [Brady] had watched the chh and flow of the battle on that
Sunday morning in July, 1861, and seen now the success of the green
Federal troops under General McDowell in the field, and now the stub
born defense of the green troops under that General Jackson who thereby
earned the sobriquet of " Stonewall." At last Johnston, who with
Bcauregard and Jackson, was a Confederate commander, strengthened
hy reenforcements, descended upon the rear of the Union troops and
drove them into a retreat which rapidly turned to a rout.
The plucky photographer was forced along with the rest ; and
as night fell he lost his way in the thick woods which were not far from
the little stream that gave the battle its name. He was clad in the linen
duster which was a familiar sight to those who saw him taking his pic
tures during that campaign, and was by no means prepared for a night
in the open. He was unarmed as well, and had nothing with which to
defend himself from any of the victorious Confederates who might hap
pen his way, until one of the famous company of " Fire " zouaves, of
the Union forces, gave him succor in the shape of a broadsword. This
he strapped about his waist, and it was still there when he finally made
his way to Washington three days later. He was a sight to behold after
his wanderings, hut he had come through unscathed as it was his fate to
do so frequently afterwards.
Instances might be multiplied indefinitely, but here is one
more evidence of the quality of this pictorial record. The
same narrator had from Brady a tale of a picture made a year
and a half later, at the battle of Fredericksburg. He says:
Burnside, then in command of the Army of the Potomac, was pre
paring to cross the Rappahannock, and Longstreet and Jackson, com
manding the Confederate forces, were fortifying the hills back of the
right bank of that river. Brady, desiring as usual to be in the thick of
things, undertook to make some pictures from the left bank. He placed
cameras in position and got his men to work, but suddenly found him-
The plucky Brady-Gardner operatives stuck to the Union army in the East,
whether good fortune or ill betided it. Above, two of them are busy with
their primitive apparatus near Bull Run, while Pope s army was in retreat,
just before the second battle on that fateful ground. Below is a photograph
er s portable dark-room, two years later, at Cobb s Hill on the Appomattox.
Near here Grant s army had joined Butler s, and before them Lee s veterans
were making their last stand within the entrenchments at Petersburg.
AT BULL RUN
AT BUTLER S
(Eitril Uar $ * * $
self taking a part very different from that of a non-combatant. In the
bright sunshine his bulky cameras gleamed like guns, and the Confed
erate marksmen thought that a battery was being placed in position.
They promptly opened fire, and Brady found himself the target for a
good many bullets. It was only his phenomenal good luck that allowed
him to escape without injury either to himself and men or to his
It is clearly worth while to study for a few moments this
man Brady, who was so ready to risk his life for the idea by
which he was obsessed. While the war soon developed far
beyond what he or any other one man could possibly have
compassed, so that he is probably directly responsible for only
a fraction of the whole vast collection of pictures in these vol
umes, he may fairly be said to have fathered the movement;
and his daring and success undoubtedly stimulated and in
spired the small army of men all over the war-region, whose
unrelated work has been laboriously gathered together.
Matthew B. Brady was born at Cork, Ireland (not in
New Hampshire, as is generally stated) about 182.3. Arriv
ing in New York as a boy, he got a job in the great estab
lishment of A. T. Stewart, first of the merchant princes of
that day. The youngster s good qualities were so conspicuous
that his large-minded employer made it possible for him to
take a trip abroad at the age of fifteen, under the charge of
S. F. B. Morse, who was then laboring at his epoch-making
development of the telegraph.
Naturally enough, this scientist took his young compan
ion to the laboratory of the already famous Daguerre, whose
arduous experiments in making pictures by sunlight were
just approaching fruition; and the wonderful discovery which
young Brady s receptive eyes then beheld was destined to
determine his whole life-work.
For that very year (1839) Daguerre made his " daguerre
otype " known to the world; and Brady s keen interest was
intensified when, in 1840, on his own side of the ocean, Pro
fessor Draper produced the first photographic portrait the
world had yet seen, a likeness of his sister, which required the
amazingly short exposure of only ninety seconds!
Brady s natural business-sense and his mercantile train
ing showed him the chance for a career which this new inven
tion opened, and it was but a short time before he had a gallery
WASHING THE NEGATIVES
Photographers Headquarters at Cold Harbor, Virginia. In the lull before the fierce engagement which Grant was about to meet
hen- in his persistent pushing forward upon Richmond, the cameraists were engaged in fixing, washing, and storing their negatives.
BEFORE SECOND BULL RUN
AT WORK IN SUMTER, APRIL, 1865
Brady s headquarters with his "What Is It?" preparing for the At last the besiegers were in Charleston, and the Union photog-
strenuous work involved in the oncoming battle. raphers for the first time were securing views of the position.
BRADY S "WHAT IS IT?" AT CULPEPER, VIRGINIA
Copyright by 1 atriot Pub. Co.
on Broadway and was well launched upon the new trade of
furnishing daguerreotype portraits to all comers. He was
successful from the start; in 1851 his work took a prize at the
London World s Fair; about the same time he opened an
office in Washington; in the fifties he brought over Alexander
Gardner, an expert in the new revolutionary wet-plate proc
ess, which gave a negative furnishing many prints instead of
one unduplicatable original; and in the twenty years between
his start and the Civil War he became the fashionable photog
rapher of his day as is evidenced not only by the superb col
lection of notable people whose portraits he gathered together,
but by Brete Harte s classic verse (from " Her Letter ") :
Well, yes if you saw us out driving
Each day in the Park, four-in-hand
If you saw poor dear mamma contriving
To look supernaturally grand,
If you saw papa s picture, as taken
By Brady, and tinted at that,
You d never suspect he sold bacon
And flour at Poverty Flat.
Upon this sunny period of prosperity the Civil War
broke in 1861. Brady had made portraits of scores of the
men who leaped into still greater prominence as leaders in
the terrible struggle, and his vigorous enthusiasm saw in this
fierce drama an opportunity to win ever brighter laurels. His
energy and his acquaintance with men in authority overcame
every obstacle, and he succeeded in interesting President Lin
coln, Secretary Stanton, General Grant, and Allan Pinkerton
to such an extent that he obtained the protection of the Secret
Service, and permits to make photographs at the front.
Everything had to be done at his own expense, but with entire
confidence he equipped his men, and set out himself as well,
giving instructions to guard against breakage by making two
negatives of everything, and infusing into all his own ambition
to astonish the world by this unheard-of feat.
The need for such permits appears in a " home letter "
from E. T. Whitney, a war photographer whose negatives,
unfortunately, have been destroyed. This letter, dated March
13, 1862, states that the day before " all photographing has
a o s
been stopped by general orders from headquarters." Owing
to ignorance of tbis order on the part of the guard at the
bridge, Whitney was allowed to reach the Army of the Poto
mac, where he made application to General McClellan for a
We shall get some more glimpses presently of these ad
venturous souls in action. But, as already hinted, extraordi
nary as w r ere the results of Brady s impetuous vigor, he was
but one of many in the great work of picturing the war.
Three-fourths of the scenes with the Army of the Potomac
were made by Gardner. Thomas G. Roche was an indefatig
able worker in the armies train. Captain A. J. Russell,
detached as official camera-man for the War Department,
obtained many invaluable pictures illustrating the military
railroading and construction work of the Army of the Poto
mac, which were hurried straightway to Secretary Stanton
at Washington. Sam A. Cooley was attached to the Tenth
Army Corps, and recorded the happenings around Savannah,
Fort McAllister, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Beaufort, and
Charleston during the bombardment; George M. Barnard,
tinder the supervision of General O. M. Poe (then Captain in
the Engineer Corps), did yeoman s service around Atlanta.
S. R. Siebert was very busy indeed at Charleston in 1865.
Cook of Charleston, Edwards of New Orleans, and other
unknown men on the Confederate side, working under even
greater difficulties (Cook, for instance, had to secure his chemi
cals from Anthony in New York who also supplied Brady
and smuggle them through) , did their part in the vast labor;
and many another unknow r n, including the makers of the little
cartes de lisite, contributed to the panorama which to-day un
folds itself before the reader.
One most interesting camera-man of unique kind was
A. D. Lytle, of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who made a series
of views (covering three years and several campaigns and
consequently scattered through the present work) for the
specific use of the Confederate Secret Service. That is to say,
he was a " camera spy," and a good one, too. He secured his
chemicals from the same great firm of Anthony & Co., in New
York, but instead of running the blockade with them, they
were supplied on " orders to trade." In many cases, for in
stance, the necessary iodides and bromides masqueraded as
": : *
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
A TRIUMPH OF THE WET-PLATE
It seems almost impossible that this photograph could have been taken before the advent of modern pho
tographic apparatus, yet Mr. Gardner s negative, made almost fifty years ago, might well furnish a striking
exhibit in a modern photographic salon. The view is of Quarles Mill, on the North Anna River, Virginia.
In grassy fields above the mill the tents of the headquarters of Grant and Meade were pitched for a day
or two during the march which culminated in the siege of Petersburg. Among the prisoners brought in
while the army was here in camp was a woman clad in Confederate gray, apparently performing the duties
of a scout. She was captured astride of a bony steed and asserted that she belonged to a battery of artillery.
This wild creature, with her tangled black locks hanging down her neck, became the center of interest to
the idlers of the camp. At these she would occasionally throw stones with considerable accuracy, particu
larly at the negroes, who gave her a wide berth. As the faithful camera indicates, the river current at this
point is strong and rapid. While General Thomas L. Crittenden s division of the Federal Ninth Corps
was crossing the North Anna (June 24, 1864) by fording the mill-dam, many sturdy foot-soldiers as well as
horsemen were swept over the falls. However, the division got across in good fighting shape and formed
a line of battle around the ford on the southern bank just in time to head off a bold Confederate dash for
the same coign of vantage. Crittenden s advance guard was hotly engaged in the woods beyond the mill
and being roughly handled when the rear of the column reached the southern bank.
Qltml Uar *
statement is historically confirmed. Professor Walter L. Flem
ing, of the University of Louisiana, states he has seen many such orders-
to-trade, signed by President Lincoln, but not countersigned by Secretary
quinine. 1 Mr. Ly tie s son relates that his father used to signal IM^ v.
with flag and lantern from the observation tower on the top
of the ruins of the Baton Rouge capitol to Scott s Bluff,
whence the messages were relayed to the Confederates near
New Orleans; but he found this provided such a tempting tar
get for the Federal sharpshooters that he discontinued the
There are contemporary comments on the first crop
of war photographs which confirm several points already
made. Humphrey s Journal in October, 1861, contained the
PHOTOGRAPHS OF WAR SERIES
Among the portraits in Brady s selection, spoken of in our last
number, are those of many leading generals and colonels McClellan,
McDowell, Heintzelman, Burnside, Wood, Corcoran, Slocum, and others.
Of the larger groups, the most effective are those of the army passing
through Fairfax village, the battery of the 1st Rhode Island regiment
at Camp Spmgue, the 71st Regiment [New York] formed in hollow
square at the Navy Yard, the Engineer Corps of the New York Twelfth
at Camp Anderson, Zouaves on the lookout from the belfry of Fairfax
Court House, etc., etc.
Mr. Brady intends to take other photographic scenes of the locali
ties of our army and of battle-scenes, and his collection will undoubtedly
prove to be the most interesting ever yet exhibited. But why should
he monopolize this department? We have plenty of other artists as good
as he is. What a field would there be for Anthony s instantaneous views
and for stereoscopic pictures. Let other artists exhibit a little of Mr.
Brady s enterprise and furnish the public with more views. There are
numerous photographers close by the stirring scenes which are being
daily enacted, and now is the time for them to distinguish themselves.
We have seen how far Brady came from " monopolizing "
the field. And surely the sum total of achievement is triumph
ant enough to share among all who had any hand in it.
And now let us try to get some idea of the problem which
confronted these enthusiasts, and see how they tackled it.
Copyright by Review of keviews (Jo.
A SNAPSHOT IN THE WAR REGION
Another remarkable example of the results achieved by the old collodion process photographers quite
indistinguishable from the instantaneous photographs of the present day. Although taken under the
necessity of removing and replacing the lens cap, this negative has successfully caught the waterfall and
the Federal cavalryman s horse which has been ridden to the stream for a drink. The picture was taken
at Hazel Run, Virginia, above the pontoon bridge constructed for the crossing of the Federal troops. During
the advances and retreats, while the Federal armies were maneuvering for position, the photographers
were frequently at a loss for material. At such times, true to the professional instinct, they kept in prac
tice by making such views as this. Less important from the strictly military viewpoint, these splendid
specimens of landscape photography give us a clear conception of the character of the country over which
the Federal and Confederate armies passed and repassed during the stirring period of the war.
Imagine what it must have meant even to get to the scene
of action with cumbersome tent and apparatus, and a couple
of hundred glass plates whose breakage meant failure; over
unspeakable back-country roads or no roads at all; with the
continual chance of being picked off by some scouting sharp
shooter or captured through some shift of the armies.
The first sight of the queer-looking wagon caused amaze
ment, speculation, derision. What is it?" became so inevi
table a greeting that to this day if one asks a group of soldiers
about war-photographs, they will exclaim simultaneously,
"Oh, yes, the what-is-it wagon!" It became a familiar
sight, yet the novelty of its awkward mystery never quite
Having arrived, and having faced the real perils gener
ally attendant upon reaching the scenes of keenest interest,
our camera adventurer was but through the overture of his
troubles. The most advanced photography of that day was
the wet-plate method, by which the plates had to be coated in
the dark (which meant in this case carrying everywhere a
smothery, light-proof tent), exposed within five minutes, and
developed within five minutes more! For the benefit of ama
teur members of the craft here are some notes from the veteran
photographer, Mr. George G. Rockwood:
First, all the plain glass plates in various sizes, usually 8 x 10,
had to be carefully cleaned and carried in dust-proof boxes. When
ready for action, the plate was carefully coated with " collodion," which
carried in solution the " excitants " bromide and iodide of potassium,
or ammonia, or cadmium. Collodion is made by the solution of gun-
cotton in about equal parts of sulphuric ether and 95 proof alcohol.
The salts above mentioned are then added, making the collodion a vehi
cle for obtaining the sensitive surface on the glass plate. The coating
of plates was a delicate operation even in the ordinary well-organized
studio. After coating the plate with collodion and letting the ether
and alcohol evaporate to just the right degree of " stickiness," it was
lowered carefully into a deep " bath holder " which contained a solution
of nitrate of silver about 60 for quick field-work. This operation
created the sensitive condition of the plate, and had to be done in total
darkness except a subdued yellow light. When properly coated (from
three to five minutes) the plate was put into a "slide" or "holder"
and exposed to the action of the light in the camera. When exposed,
it was returned to the dark-room and developed.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
AMENITIES OF THE CAMP IN 1864
This photograph, taken at Brandy Station, Virginia, is an excellent example of the skill of the war photographers. When we remember
that orthochromatic plates were undreamed of in the days of the Civil War, the color values of this picture are marvelous. The collodion
wet-plate has caught the sheen and texture of the silk dresses worn by the officers wives, whom we see on a visit to a permanent
camp. The entrance to the tent is a fine example of the rustic work with which the Engineer Corps of the various armies amused
themselves during periods which would otherwise be spent in tedious inactivity. The officers quarters received first attention. Thus
an atmosphere of indescribable charm was thrown about the permanent camps to which the wives of the officers came in their brief
visits to the front, and from which they reluctantly returned without seeing anything of the gruesome side of war. A review or a
parade was usually held for their entertainment. In the weary waiting before Petersburg during the siege, the successful consumma
tion of which practically closed the war, the New York engineers, while not engaged in strengthening the Federal fortifications, amused
themselves by constructing a number of rustic buildings of great beauty. One of these was the signal tower toward the left of the
Federal line of investment. Near it a substantial and artistic hospital building was erected, and, to take the place of a demolished
church, a new and better rustic structure sprang into being.
Mr. Rockwood also knew all about Brady s wagon, hav
ing had a similar contrivance made for himself before the war,
for taking pictures in the country. He " used an ordinary
delivery wagon of the period, much like the butcher s cart of
to-day and had a strong step attached at the rear and below
the level of the wagon floor. A door was put on at the back,
carefully hung so as to be light-proof. The door, you under
stand, came down over the step which was boxed in at the
sides, making it a sort of well within the body of the wagon
rather than a true step.
The work of coating or sensitizing the plates and that
of developing them was done from this well, in which there was
just room enough to work. As the operator stood there the
collodion was within reach of his right hand, in a special re
ceptacle. On his left also was the holder of one of the baths.
The chief developing bath was in front, with the tanks of
various liquids stored in front of it again, and the space be
tween it and the floor filled with plates.
With such a wagon on a larger scale, large enough for
men to sleep in front of the dark-room part, the phenomenal
pictures of Brady were made possible. Brady risked his life
many a time in order not to separate from this cumbrous piece
" On exceptional occasions in very cold weather the life
of a wet plate might be extended to nearly an hour on either
side of the exposure, the coating or the development side, but
ordinarily the work had to be done within a very few minutes,
and every minute of delay resulted in loss of brilliancy and
depth in the> negative."
Some vivid glimpses of the war-photographers troubles
come also from Mr. J. Pitcher Spencer, who knew the work
We worked long with one of the foremost of Brady s men, and
here let me doff my hat to the name of M. B. Brady few to-day are
worthy to carry his camera case, even as far as ability from the photo
graphic standpoint goes. I was, in common with the " Cape Codders,"
following the ocean from 1859 to 186-4; I was only home a few months
1862-63 and even then from our boys who came home invalided
we heard of that^grand picture-maker Brady, as they called him.
When I made some views (with the only apparatus then known, the
"wet plate"), there came a large realization of some of the immense
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
DIGGING UNDER FIRE AT DUTCH GAP 1864
Here for a moment the Engineering corps of General Benjamin F. Butler s army paused while the camera of the army photographer
was focussed upon it. In August, 1864, Butler, with his army then bottled up in Bermuda Hundred, began to dig a canal at
Dutch Gap to save a circuit of six miles in the bend of the James River and thus avoid the batteries, torpedoes, and obstructions
which the Confederates had placed to prevent the passage of the Federal Beet up the river toward Richmond. The difficulties of
this engineering feat are here seen plainly in the photograph. It took Butler s men all the rest of the year (1864) to cut through this
canal, exposed as they were to the fire of the Confederate batteries above. One of the last acts of General Butler was an unsuccess
ful effort to blow up the dam at the mouth of this canal, and by thus admitting water to it, render it navigable.
difficulties surmounted by those who made war-pictures. When you
realize that the most sensitive of all the list of chemicals are requisite
to make collodion, which must coat every plate, and that the very
slightest breath might carry enough " poison " across the plate being
coated to make it produce a blank spot instead of some much desired
effect, you may perhaps have a faint idea of the care requisite to
produce a picture. Moreover, it took unceasing care to keep every
bit of the apparatus, as well as each and every chemical, free from any
possible contamination which might affect the picture. Often a breath
of wind, no matter how gentle, spoiled the whole affair.
Often, just as some fine result looked certain, a hot streak of air
would not only spoil the plate, but put the instrument out of com
mission, by curling some part of it out of shape. In face of these, and
hundreds of minor discouragements, the men imbued with vim and force-
fulness by the " Only Brady " kept right along and to-day the world
can enjoy these wonderful views as a result.
Still further details come from an old soldier and photo
graphic expert, Mr. F. M. Rood:
The plate " flowed " with collodion was dipped at once in a bath
of nitrate of silver, in water also iodized, remained there in darkness
three to five minutes ; still in darkness, it was taken out, drained, put
in the dark-holder, exposed, and developed in the dark-tent at once.
The time between flowing the collodion and developing should not ex
ceed eight or ten minutes. The developer was sulphate of iron solu
tion and acetic acid, after which came a slight washing and fixing (to
remove the surplus silver) with solution of cyanide of potassium; and
then a final washing, drying, and varnishing. The surface (wet or
dry), unlike a dry plate, could not be touched. I was all through the
war from 186165, in the Ninety-third New York regiment, whose
pictures you have given. I recognized quite a number of the old com
rades. You have also in your collection a negative of each company
of that regiment.
Fortunately the picture men occasionally immortalized
each other as well as the combatants, so that we have a num
ber of intimate glimpses of their life and methods. In one
the wagon, chemicals and camera are in the very trenches at
Atlanta, and they tell more than pages of description. But,
naturally, they cannot show the arduous labor, the narrow
escapes, the omnipresent obstacles which could be overcome
only by the keenest ardor and determination. The epic of the
war-photographer is still to he written. It would compare
favorably with the story of many battles. And it does not
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
CAMP LIFE OF THE INVADING ARMY
This picture preserves for us the resplendent aspect of the camp of McClellan s Army of the Potomac in
the spring of 1862. On his march from Yorktown toward Richmond, McClellan advanced his supply base
from Cumberland Landing to White House on the Pamunkey. The barren fields on the bank of the river
were converted as if by magic into an immense city of tents stretching away as far as the eye could see,
while mirrored in the river lay the immense fleet of transports convoyed up by gunboats from Fortress
Monroe. Here we see but a small section of this inspiring view. In the foreground, around the mud-spattered
forge, the blankets and knapsacks of the farriers have been thrown carelessly on the ground. Farther on the
patient army mules are tethered around the wagons. In the background, before the camp of the Fifth
New York Volunteers (Duryee s Zouaves), a regiment of infantry is drawn up in columns of companies for
inspection drill. From the 15th to the 19th of May the Army of the Potomac was concentrated between
Cumberland Landing and White House. While in camp an important change was made in the organi
zation of the army. The divisions of Porter and Sykes were united into the Fifth Corps under Porter,
and those of Franklin and Smith into the Sixth Corps under Franklin. On May 19th the movement to
Richmond was begun by the advance of Porter and Franklin to Tunstall s Station.
Ii0i0grapljutg tip QJttril War
require much imagination, after viewing the results obtained
in the face of such conditions, to get a fair measure of these
The story of the way in which these pictures have been
rescued from obscurity is almost as romantic a tale as that of
their making. The net result of Brady s efforts was a col
lection of over seven thousand pictures (two negatives of each
in most cases) ; and the expenditure involved, estimated at
$100,000, ruined him. One set, after undergoing the most
extraordinary vicissitudes, finally passed into the Govern
ment s possession, where it is now held with a prohibition
against its use for commercial purposes. The $25,000 tardily
voted to Mr. Brady by Congress did not retrieve his financial
fortunes, and he died in the nineties, in a New York hospital,
poor and forgotten, save by a few old-time friends.
Brady s own negatives passed in the seventies into the pos
session of Anthony, in default of payment of his bills for
photographic supplies. They were kicked about from pillar
to post for ten years, until John C. Taylor found them in
an attic and bought them; from this they became the back
bone of the Ordway-Rand collection; and in 1895 Brady him
self had no idea what had become of them. Many were broken,
lost, or destroyed by fire. After passing to various other
owners, they were discovered and appreciated by Edward
Bailey Eaton, of Hartford, Connecticut, who created the
immediate train of events that led to their importance as the
nucleus of a collection of many thousand pictures gathered
from all over the country to furnish the material for this work.
From all sorts of sources, from the Atlantic to the Pacific,
from Maine to the Gulf, these hidden treasures have been
drawn. Historical societies, Government and State bureaus,
librarians, private collectors, military and patriotic organiza
tions, old soldiers and their families have recollected, upon
earnest insistence, that they did have such things or once
knew of them. Singly and in groups they have come from
walls, out of archives, safes, old garrets, often seeing the
light of day for the first time in a generation, to join together
once more in a pictorial army which daily grew more irre
sistible as the new arrivals augmented, supplemented, and ex
plained. The superb result is here spread forth and illumi
nated for posterity.
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Apart from all the above considerations, these invaluable
pictures are well worth attention from the standpoint of picto
rial art. We talk a great deal nowadays about the aston
ishing advances of modern art-photography; and it is quite
true that patient investigators have immeasurably increased
the range and flexibility of camera methods and results. We
now manipulate negatives and print to produce any sort of
effect; we print in tint or color, omitting or adding what we
wish; numberless men of artistic capacity are daily showing
how to transmit personal feeling through the intricacies of the
mechanical process. But it is just as true as when the caye-
man scratched on a bone his recollections of mammoth and
reindeer, that the artist will produce work that moves the be
holder, no matter how crude may be his implements. Clearly
there were artists among these Civil War photographers.
Probably this was caused by natural selection. It took
ardor and zest for this particular thing above all others to
keep a man at it in face of the hardships and disheartening
handicaps. In any case, the work speaks for itself. Over and
over one is thrilled by a sympathetic realization that the van
ished man w r ho pointed the camera at some particular scene,
must have felt precisely the same pleasure in a telling com
position of landscape, in a lifelike grouping, in a dramatic
glimpse of a battery in action, in a genre study of a wounded
soldier watched over by a comrade that we feel to-day and
that some seeing eye will respond to generations in the future.
This is the true immortality of art. And when the emotions
thus aroused center about a struggle which determined the
destiny of a great nation, the picture that arouses them takes
its proper place as an important factor in that heritage of the
past which gives us to-day increased stature over all past
ages, just because we add all their experience to our own.
AS I STORY
WITH THE DEFENDERS OF WASHINGTON IN 1862 ;
THE SALLY-PORT AT FORT RICHARDSON
"HISTORY BROUGHT AGAIN INTO THE PRESENT TENSE"
The value of "The Photographic Record as History" is emphasized in the contribution from Mr. Geor/
Haven Putnam on page 60. This photograph of a dramatic scene was taken on a July day after the photo
rapher s own heart clear and sunny. The fort is at the end of Peach Tree Street, Atlanta, to the nor!
of the city. Sherman had just taken possession, and the man at the left is a cavalryman of his force
The mire-caked wheels of the guns show that they have been dragged through miles and miles of mudc
Copyriyht by Recieiv of Renews Co.
CONFEDERATE EARTHWORKS BEFORE ATLANTA, 1864
roads. The delays Sherman had met with in his advance on Atlanta resulting in constant and indecisive
fighting without entrapping Johnston, had brought about a reaction at the North. A large party wished to
end the war. Election Day was approaching. Lincoln was a presidential candidate for the second time.
He had many enemies. But the news of Sherman s capture of Atlanta helped to restore confidence, and
to insure the continuation of the administration pledged to a vigorous prosecution of the war.
;. t */: \>: : ; j-A-
A STRIKING WAR PHOTOGRAPH OF 63
The introduction on page 30, "Photographing the Civil War," remarks on the genius required to record
such vivid action by camera in the days of 61. The use of the instrument had not then become pastime;
it was a pioneer science, requiring absolute knowledge, training, and experience. Only experts like the men
that Brady trained could do such work as this. There were no lightning shutter^, no automatic or universal
focus. In positions of danger and at times when speed and accuracy were required, there was the delicacy
of the old-fashioned wet plate to consider, with all its drawbacks. No wonder people were surprised that
pictures such as this exist; they had grown used to the old woodcut and the often mutilated attempts of
pen and pencil to portray such scenes of action. There are many who never knew that photography was
Copyright by Review of Itcvicws C o.
ARTILLERY "REGULARS" BEFORE CHANCELLORSVILLE
possible in the Civil War. Yet look at this Union battery, taken by the shore of the Rappahannock, just
before the battle of Chancellorsville. Action, movement, portraiture are shown. We can hear the officer
standing in front giving his orders; his figure leaning slightly forward is tense with spoken words of com
mand. The cannoneers, resting or ramming home the charges, are magnificent types of the men who
made the Army of the Potomac the army doomed to suffer, a few days after this picture was taken, its crush
ing repulse by the famous flanking charge of "Stonewall" Jackson; yet the army which kept faith and
ultimately became invincible in the greatest civil war of history. Within sixty days after the Chancellors
ville defeat the troops engaged won a signal triumph over the self-same opponents at Gettysburg.
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD
By GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM
Adjutant and Brevet Major 176th New York Volunteer Infantry
9 r I lIS fifty years since. The words recall the opening sen-
J. tence of Scott s famous romance, " Waverley," and
Scott s reference, like my own, had to do with the strenuous
years of civil war.
To one examining the unique series of photographs which
were secured, during the campaigns of our great war, by the
pluck and persistence of Brady and Gardner, and the nega
tives of which have, almost miraculously, been preserved
through the vicissitudes of half a century, comes, however, the
feeling that these battles and marchings were the events not of
fifty years back, but of yesterday, if not, indeed, things of to
day. These vivid pictures bring past history into the present
tense; the observer sees our citizen soldiers as they camped,
as they marched, and as they fought, and comes to know how
they lived and how they died. There are revealed to the eye
through these lifelike photographs, as if through a vitascope,
the successive scenes of the great life-and-death drama of the
nation s struggle for existence, a struggle which was fought
out through four eventful years, and in which were sacrificed
of the best of manhood of the country, North and South, eight
hundred thousand lives.
In September, 1862, I landed in New York from the
Bremen steamer Hansa, which was then making its first trans
atlantic trip. I had left my German university for the purpose
of enlisting in the Union army, and, with the belief that the
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
CITIZEN SOLDIERS" THE 93 D NEW YORK.
This informal photograph of the Ninety-Third New York Infantry was taken in 1862 just before Antietam.
In it we see the quality of the men who dropped the pursuits of civil life and flocked to form the armies of
the North. Thus, in camp and on the battlefield the camera did its work and now takes us back over the
four terrible years, showing us to the minutest detail how our men marched and lived and fought. The
youth of the troops is strikingly evident in this picture as they stand assembled here with their arms hastily
stacked for the ever-pleasurable experience of having their pictures taken.
war could hardly be prolonged for many further months, I
had secured leave of absence from my university only for the
college year. I have to-day a vivid recollection of the impres
sion made upon the young student by the war atmosphere in
which he found his home city. In coming up from the steam
ship pier, I found myself on Broadway near the office of the
Herald, at that time at the corner of Ann Street. The bulletin
board was surrounded by a crowd of anxious citizens, whose ex
citement was so tense that it expressed itself not in utterance
but in silence. With some difficulty, I made my way near
enough to the building to get a glimpse of the announcement
on the board. The heading was, " A battle is now going on in
Maryland; it is hoped that General McClellan will drive Lee s
army back into the Potomac."
I recall to-day the curious impressiveness of the present
tense, of the report of a battle that was actually " going on."
To one who reads such an announcement, all things seem to
be possible, and as I stood surrounded by men whose pulses
were throbbing Math the keenest of emotions, I felt with them
as if we could almost hear the sound of the cannon on the
Potomac. The contrast was the stronger to one coming from
the quiet lecture-rooms of a distant university to the streets
of a great city excited with twelve months of war, and with the
ever-present doubt as to what the hours of each day might
bring forth. The fight that was then " going on " is known in
history as the battle of Antietam. History tells us that Lee s
army was not pushed into the Potomac. There were two
causes that prevented this result George B. McClellan and
Robert E. Lee. McClellan was a skilled engineer and he knew
how to organize troops, but he never pushed an enemy s army
before him with the energy of a man who meant to win and who
had faith that he could win. It was his habit to feel that he
had made a brilliant success when, having come into touch
with the foe, he had succeeded in withdrawing his own army
without undue loss; and it is fair to say that when the enemy
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was Robert E. Lee, such a successful withdrawal might almost
be considered as a triumph.
A fresh and vivid impression of the scene of the bloody
struggle at Antietam Creek is given in one of the photographs
in this great war series. The plucky photographer has suc
ceeded in securing, from the very edge of the battle-field, a
view of the movements of the troops that are on the charge;
and when, on the further edge of the fields, we actually see the
smoke of the long lines of rifles by which that charge is to be
repulsed, we feel as if the battle w-ere again " going on " before
our eyes, and we find ourselves again infused with mingled
dread and expectation as to the result.
In looking at the photographs, the Union veteran recalls
the fierce charge of Burnside s men for the possession of the
bridge and the sturdy resistance made by the regiments of
Longstreet. He will grieve with the Army of the Potomac
and with the country at the untimely death of the old hero,
General Mansfield ; he will recall the graphic description given
by the poet Holmes of the weary week s search through the
battle-field and the environs for the " body " of his son, the
young captain, who lived to become one of the scholarly mem
bers of the national Supreme Court; and he may share the
disappointment not only of the army, but of the citizens back
of the army, that, notwithstanding his advantages of position,
McClellan should have permitted the Confederate army to
withdraw without molestation, carrying with it its trains, its
artillery, and even its captured prisoners.
Another photograph in the series, which is an example of
special enterprise on the part of Mr. Brady, presents Lincoln
and McClellan in consultation some time after this bloody
and indecisive battle. The pose and the features of the two
men are admirably characteristic. Two weeks have elapsed
since Lee s withdrawal across the river, but the Army of the
Potomac, while rested and fully resupplied, has been held by its
young commander in an inexplicable inaction. Lincoln s per-
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sistent demand for an advance and his reiterated inquiries as
to the grounds for the delay have met with no response. The
President finally comes to the camp for a personal word with
the commander in the field. How the photographer secured
the opportunity of being present at such an interview one
does not know, but that he was there is unmistakable.
These vivid photographs which constitute the great his
toric series bring again into the present tense, for the memories
of the veterans, all of the dramatic scenes of the years of war ;
and even to those who are not veterans, those who have grown
up in years of peace and to whom the campaigns of half a
century back are but historic pages or dim stories, even to them
must come, in looking at these pictures of campaigns, these
vivid episodes of life and death, a clearer realization than could
be secured in any other way of what the four years struggle
meant for their fathers and their grandfathers.
The fine views of Fort Stevens and Fort Lincoln recall
the several periods in which, to the continuing anxieties of the
people s leader, was added immediate apprehension as to the
safety of the national capital. On the 19th of April, 1861, the
Massachusetts Sixth, on its way to the protection of Washing
ton, had been attacked in Baltimore, and connections between
Washington and the North were cut off. A few hundred troops
represented all the forces that the nation had for the moment
been able to place in position for the protection of the capital.
I have stood, as thousands of visitors have stood, in Lin
coln s old study, the windows of which overlook the Potomac;
and I have had recalled to mind the vision of his tall figure
and sad face as he stood looking across the river where the
picket lines of the Virginia troops could be traced by the
smoke, and dreading from morning to morning the approach
of these troops over the Long Bridge. There must have come
to Lincoln during these anxious days the dread that he was to
be the last President of the United States, and that the torch,
representing the life of the nation, that had been transmitted
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
Here the gaunt figure of the Great Emancipator confronted General MoClellan in his headquarters two weeks after Antietam had
checked Lee s invasion of Maryland and had enabled the President to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Brady s camera has
preserved this remarkable occasion, the last time that these two men met each other. "We spent some time on the battlefield and
conversed fully on the state of affairs. He told me that he was satisfied with all that I had done, that he would stand by me. He
parted from me with the utmost cordiality," said General McClellan. The plan to follow up the success of Antietam in the
effort to bring the war to a speedy conclusion must have been the thought uppermost in the mind of the Commander-in-Chief of the
Army as he talked with his most popular General in the tent. A few days later came the order from Washington to "cross the Potomac
and give battle to the enemy or drive him South." McClellan was relieved in the midst of a movement to carry out the order.
to him by the faltering hands of his predecessor was to expire
while he was still responsible for the continuity of the flame.
And it was not only in 1861 that the capital was imperiled.
The anxiety of the President (never for himself, but only for
his country and his responsibilities) was to be renewed in June,
1863, when Lee was in Maryland, and in July, 1864, at the
time of Early s raid. It was during Early s hurried attack
that Lincoln, visiting Fort Stevens, came into direct sight of
the fighting by which Early s men were finally repulsed. For
the President, the war must indeed at this time have been
something in the present tense, something which meant dread
possibilities always impending.
The month of July, 1863, marked the turning point of the
great contest. If the Federal lines had been broken at Gettys
burg, Lee would have been able, in placing his army across the
highways to Baltimore and to Philadelphia, to isolate Washing
ton from the Xorth. The Army of the Potomac would, of
course, have been reconstituted, and Lee wmdd finally have
been driven across the Potomac as he was actually compelled to
retire after the decision of the battle. But such a check to the
efforts of the Xorth, after two years of war for the maintenance
of the nation, would in all probability have secured success for
the efforts of the Confederate sympathizers in Europe and have
brought about recognition and intervention on the part of
France and of England. Such an intervention would have
meant the triumph of the Confederacy and the breaking up of
the great Republic. The value for the cause of the success of
Meade in repelling, with heavy loss, the final assaults of Lee was
further emphasized by a great triumph in the West. On the
very day on which Lee s discomfited army was making its
way back to the Potomac, the troops of General Grant were
placing the Stars and Stripes over the well-defended works of
A beautiful little picture recalls the sharp fight that was
made, on July 2, 1863, for the possession of Little Round
FORT RICHARDSON DRILL AT THE BIG GUNS, 1862 CopyrigM by Review of Reviews Co.
OFFICERS OF THE FIFTY FIFTH NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS
DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON CAMP OF THE FIRST CONNECTICUT HEAVY ARTILLERY
Here we see some of the guardians of the city of Washington, which was threatened in the beginning of the war and subsequently on
occasions when Lincoln, looking from the White House, could see in the distance the smoke from Confederate camp fires. Lincoln
would not consenUto the withdrawal of many of the garrisons about Washington to reinforce McClellan on the Peninsula. There
was little to relieve the tedium of guard duty, and the men spent their time principally at drill and in keeping their arms and ac-
couterments spick and span. The troops in the tents and barracks were always able to present a fine appearance on review. In
sharp contrast was that of their battle-scarred comrades who passed before Lincoln when he visited the front. Foreign military at
taches often visited the forts about Washington. In the center picture we see two of them inspecting a gun.
t0tn0rajilttr Smirfc as
Top. It was the foresight of General Warren that recog
nized the essential importance of this position for the main
tenance of the Union line. After the repulse of Sickles s
Third Corps in the Peach Orchard, Longstreet s men were
actually on their way to take possession of the rocky hill from
which the left and rear of the Union line could have been en
filaded. Xo Union force was for the moment available for the
defense, but Warren, with two or three aides, raised some flags
over the rocks, and the leader of Longstreet s advance, getting
an impression that the position was occupied, delayed a brief
spell for reenforcements.
This momentary respite gave Warren time to bring to
the defense of the hill troops from the nearest command that
was available, a division of the Fifth Corps. A few minutes
later, came the first attack, followed by a series of fierce onsets
that continued through the long summer afternoon. With
some advantages of position, and with the realization that the
control of the hill was absolutely essential for the maintenance
of the line, the Federals held their own; but when darkness
fell, the rocks of Devil s Den and the slopes of the hill were
thickly strewn with dead, the bodies of the Blue and the Gray
lying closely intermingled. A beautiful statue of Warren
now stands on Little Round Top at the point where, almost
single-handed, he placed his fla.g when there were no guns be
hind it. The general is looking out gravely over the slope and
toward the opposite crest, where have been placed, in grim con
trast to the smiling fields of the quiet farm behind, the Con
federate field-guns that mark the position of Longstreet s lines.
The editors have fortunately been able to include with the
great Brady series of army photographs a private collection,
probably unique, of more than four hundred views of the gun
boats on the rivers of the West. Each of these vessels repre
sents a history of its own. One wishes for the imagination of
a Homer which could present with due effectiveness a new
" catalogue of the ships."
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
LITTLE ROUND TOP THE KEY TO GETTYSBURG.
A "slaughter pen" at Gettysburg. On this rocky slope of Little Round Top, Longstreet s men fought
with the Federals in the second day s conflict, July 2, 1803. From boulder to boulder they wormed their
way, to find behind each a soldier waiting for the hand-to-hand struggle which meant the death of one
or the other. After the battle each rock and tree overshadowed a victim. The whole tangled and terrible
field presented a far more appalling appearance than does the picture, which was taken after the wounded
were removed. Little Round Top had been left unprotected by the advance of General Sickles Third Corps.
This break in the Federal line was discovered by General Warren just in time. Hastily procuring a flag,
with but two or three other officers to help him he planted it on the hill, which led the Confederates to
believe the position strongly occupied and delayed Longstreet s advance long enough for troops to be
rushed forward to meet it. The picture tells all too plainly at what sacrifice the height was finally held.
Admiral Farragut, while accepting the armored vessels
as possessing certain advantages and as apparently a necessity
of " modern warfare," had the impatience of the old-fashioned
sailor against any such attempt at protection. lie preferred
for himself the old type of wooden frigate of which his flag
ship, the famous Hartford, was the representative. Why,"
said he, " if a shell strikes the side of the Hartford it goes clean
through. Unless somebody happens to be directly in the path,
there is no damage, excepting a couple of easily plugged holes.
But when a shell makes its way into one of those damned tea
kettles, it can t get out again. It sputters round inside doing
all kinds of mischief." It must be borne in mind, apart from
the natural exaggeration of such an utterance, that Farragut
was speaking half a century ago, in the time of slow-velocity
missiles. His phrase " damned tea-kettles " came, however, to
be the general descriptive term for the ironclads, applied
not only by the men in the ranks but by the naval men
There were assured advantages given by the armor in
time of action against most of the fire that was possible with
the weapons of the day, but for the midsummer climate of
Louisiana, the " tea-kettles " were most abominable abiding
places. During the day, the iron of the decks would get so
hot that the hand could barely rest upon it. At night, sleep
was impossible. The decks were kept wetted down, and the
men lay on them, getting, toward the morning hours when the
hulls had cooled down, such sleep as could be secured.
The progress of the armored transports making their
way up the Red River under fire from the shore was an inter
esting feature of that campaign. The steepness of the banks
on the Red River gave peculiar advantages for such fire, as
it was frequently the case that the guns of the boats could
not be elevated so as to reach the foe s position. It was
difficult to protect the man at the wheel from such plunging
fire, but bales of cotton were often placed around the upper
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE FATEFUL FIELD
No picture has ever been painted to equal this panorama of the very center of the
ground over which surged the struggling troops mid shot and shell during the thickest
of the fighting at Gettysburg. The camera was planted on Little Round Top, and
through its eye we look northward over the valley toward and beyond the little town of
Gettysburg. Across the plain in the middle distance, over the Federal breastworks
near the crest, and up to the very muzzles of the guns on Cemetery Ridge
which were belching forth grape and canister, swept the men in gray under General
Pickett in the last brave but unsuccessful assault that left Meade in possession of the
field on Independence Day, 1863. The daring gallantry, utter coolness, and grim de
termination with which that charge was made have rarely been paralleled in history.
The spirit of complete devotion to the conviction which prompted Pickett and his men
is one of the most precious heritages of a united nation.
works which were sufficient to keep off at least musketry fire.
This improvised armor proved, however, not only insufficient
but a peril when the enterprising Confederate gunners suc
ceeded in discharging from their field-pieces red-hot shot. It
happened more than once (I recall witnessing one such inci
dent) that the cotton was brought into flames by such shot
and it became necessary to run the vessel ashore.
A photograph in the series which presents a picturesque
view of the famous Red River dam recalls some active spring
days in Louisiana. The photograph gives an excellently accu
rate view of a portion of the dam, through the building of
which Admiral Porter s river fleet of eleven " turtles " was
brought safely over the rapids at Alexandria, and the army
of General Banks, repulsed and disappointed but by no means
demoralized, w r as able to make its way back to the Mississippi
with a very much lessened opposition. Through a sudden fall
of the river, the " turtles " had been held above the rapids at
Alexandria. Without the aid of Porter s guns to protect the
flank of the army retreating along the river road, it would
have been necessary to overcome by frontal attacks a series of
breastworks by which this road was blocked.
The energetic Confederate leader, General Taylor, had
managed to cut off all connections with the Mississippi, and,
while \ve were feeding in the town of Alexandria the women
and children whose men folks \vere fighting us from outside,
we had rations sufficient for only about three weeks. The
problem was, within the time at our disposal and with the ma
terial available (in a country in which there was no stone), to
increase the depth of water on the rapids by about twenty-two
inches. The plan submitted by the clever engineer officer,
Lieut.-Colonel Bailey, of the Fourth Wisconsin, was eagerly
accepted by General Banks. Under Bailey s directions, five
wing-dams were constructed, of which the shortest pair, with
the widest aperture for the water, was up-stream, while the
longest pair, with the narrowest passage for the water, was
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WHERE REYNOLDS FELL AT GETTYSBURG.
At this spot Major-General John F. Reynolds met his death. During the first day s fighting this peaceful
cornfield was trampled by the advancing Confederates. The cupola of the seminary on the ridge held
at nightfall by Lee s forces is visible in the distance. The town of Gettysburg lies one mile beyond. Gen
eral Reynolds troops, advancing early in the day, had encountered the Confederates and had been compelled
to fall back. Later, the Federal line by hard fighting had gained considerable advantage on the right. Impa
tient to retrieve the earlier retrograde movement at this point, General Reynolds again advanced his com
mand, shoving back the enemy before it, and his line of skirmishers was thrown out to the cornfield in
the picture. Riding out to it to reconnoiter, General Reynolds fell, pierced by a Confederate bullet, near the
tree at the edge of the road.
placed at the point on the rapids where the increased depth was
required. The water was thrown, as it were, into a funnel,
arid not only was the depth secured, hut the rush downward
helped to carry the vessels in safety across the rocks of the
rapids. As I look at the photograph, I recall the fatiguing
lahor of " house-hreaking," when the troops were put to work,
in details on alternate days, in pulling down the sugar-mills
and in breaking up the iron-work and the bricks.
On the further side of the river, a territory claimed by the
sharpshooters of our opponents, men selected from the West
ern regiments, protected more or less by our skirmish line, are
applying their axes to the shaping of the logs for the crates
from which the dams were constructed. The wood-chopping is
being done under a scattered but active fire, but while hastened
somewhat in speed, it loses none of its precision.
I recall the tall form of the big six-footer, Colonel Bailey,
leading the way into the water where the men had to work in
the swift current at the adjustment of the crates, and calling
out, " Come along, boys; it s only up to your waists."
As in duty bound, I marched after the colonel into the
river, calling upon my command to follow ; but the w r ater which
had not gone very much above the w^aist of the tall colonel,
caught the small adjutant somewhere above the nostrils, with
the result that he was taken down over the rapids. He came
up, with no particular damage, in the pool beyond, but in re
porting for the second time, wet but still ready for service, he
took the liberty of saying to the Wisconsin six-footer, " Colo
nel, that was hardly fair for us little fellows."
After the hot work of tearing down the sugar-mills, the
service in the cool water, although itself arduous enough, was
refreshing. The dams were completed within the necessary
time, and the vessels were brought safely through the rapids
into the deep water below.
The saving of the fleet was one of the most dramatic in
cidents of the war, and the method of operation, as well as the
The army engineers laughed at this wide-
browed, unassuming man when he sug
gested building a dam so as to release
Admiral Porter s fleet imprisoned by low
water above the Falls at Alexandria at the
close of the futile Red River expedition in
1804. Bailey had been a lumberman in
Wisconsin and had there gained the prac
tical experience which taught him that the
plan was feasible. He was Acting Chief
Engineer of the Nineteenth Army Corps at
this time, and obtained permission to go
ahead and build his dam. In the under
taking he had the approval and earnest
support of Admiral Porter, who refused to
consider for a moment the abandonment
of any of his vessels even though the Red
River expedition had been ordered to re
turn and General Banks was chafing at de
lay and sending messages to Porter that his
troops must be got in motion at once.
Bailey pushed on with his work and in
eleven days he succeeded in so raising the
water in the channel that all the Federal
vessels were able to pass down below the
Falls. "Words are inadequate," said Ad
miral Porter, in his report, "to express the
admiration I feel for the ability of Lieut.
Colonel Bailey. This is without doubt the
best engineering feat ever performed. . . .
The highest honors the Government can
bestow on Colonel Bailey can never repay
him for the service he has rendered the
country." For this achievement Bailey
was promoted to colonel, brevetted briga
dier general, voted the thanks of Congress,
and presented with a sword and a purse of
$3,000 by the officers of Porter s fleet. He
settled in Missouri after the war and was a
formidable enemy of the "Bushwhackers"
till he was shot by them on March 21, 1867.
He was born at Salem, Ohio, April 28, 1827.
COLONEL JOSEPH BAILEY IN 1864
THE MAN WHO SAVED THE FLEET
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READY FOR HER BAPTISM
This powerful gunboat, the Lafayette, though accompanying Admiral Porter on the Red River expedition, was not one of those en
trapped at Alexandria. Her heavy draft precluded her being taken above the Falls. Here we see her lying above Vicksburg in the
spring of 1863. She and her sister ship, the Choctaw, were side-wheel steamers altered into casemate ironclads with rams. The
Lafayette had the stronger armament, carrying two 11 -inch Dahlgrens forward, four 9-inch guns in the broadside, and two 24-
pound howitzers, with two 100-pound Parrott guns astern. She and the Choctaw were the most important acquisitions to Porter s
fleet toward the end of 1862. The Lafayette was built and armed for heavy fighting. She got her first taste of it on the night of
April 16, 1863, when Porter took part of his fleet past the Vicksburg batteries to support Grant s crossing of the river in an
advance on Vicksburg from below. The Lafayette, with a barge and a transport lashed to her, held her course with difficulty
through the tornado of shot and shell which poured from the Confederate batteries on the river front in Vicksburg as soon as the
movement was discovered. The Lafayette stood up to this fiery christening and successfully ran the gantlet, as did all the other
vessels save one transport. She was commanded during the Red River expedition by Lieutenant-Commander J. P. Foster.
THE BATTLE WITH THE RIVER
Colonel Bailey s wonderful dam which, according to Admiral Porter, no private company would have completed within
Bailey 8 men did ,t in eleven days and saved a fleet of Union vessels worth *,000,00o" Never was thereTinstance where such
Acuities were overcome so qu ,okly and with so little preparation. The current of the Red River, rushing", a t the r te of nine
"u Irom th" VfiT iT \l SW - ( P aW ;V ,* he W rk f th " S " 1(1 i erS aS faSt aS U Was P^>- The work was commenced v hiking
om the left hank of the river with large trees cross-tied with heavy timber and filled in with brush, briek. and stone We see
the men engaged upon this work at the right of the picture. Coal barges filled with brick and stone were sunk bevond this whUe
he b oilin? sun"^ 7 H * "l" * mf 7 t"? V"*, ^ ^ ^ ^^ In pifiht ^^ Baile - v 8 men workin "^ *~ u r
f_^ br( their necks in water, had backed up the current sufficiently to release three vessels The very next
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THE MEN WHO CAPTURED THE CURRENT
morning two of the barges were swept away. Admiral Porter, jumping on his horse, rode to the upper falls and ordered the Lexing
ton to come down and attempt the passage of the dam. The water was rapidly falling, and as the Lexington, having squeezed
through the passage of the falls, approached the opening in the dam through which a torrent was pouring, a breathless silence seized the
watchers on the shore. In another instant she had plunged to safety, and a deafening cheer rose from thirty thousand throats. Por
ter was afraid that Colonel Bailey would be too disheartened by the accident to the dam to renew work upon it. The other three
vessels were at once ordered to follow the Lexington s example, and came safely through. But Bailey was undaunted and "his noble-
hearted soldiers, seeing their labor swept away in a moment, cheerfully went to work to repair damages, being confident now that
all the gunboats would be finally brought over." Their hopes were realized when the last vessel passed to safety on May 12, 1864.
whole effect of the river scene, are admirably indicated in the
cleverly taken photographs.
A view of Fort McAllister recalls a closing incident of
Sherman s dramatic march from Atlanta to the sea. The vet
erans had for weeks been tramping, with an occasional inter
val of fighting, but with very little opportunity for what the
boys called a square meal. By the time the advance had
reached the line of the coast, the commissary wagons were
practically empty. The soldiers had for days been dependent
upon the scattered supplies that could be picked up by the
foraging parties, and the foragers, working in a country that
had been already exhausted by the demands of the retreating
Confederates, gave hardly enough return, in the form of corn
on the cob or an occasional razor-backed hog, to offset the
" wear and tear of the shoe-leather."
The men in the division of General Hazen, which was the
first command to reach the Savannah River, could see down
the river the smoke of the Yankee gunboats and of the trans
ports which were bringing from New York, under appoint
ment made months back by General Sherman, the much-
needed supplies. But between the boys and the food lay the
grim earthworks of Fort McAllister. Before there could be
any eating, it was necessary to do a little more fighting. The
question came from the commander to General Hazen, " Can
your boys take those works? " and the answer was in substance,
" Ain t we jest obleeged to take them? "
The assault was made under the immediate inspection of
General Sherman, who realized the importance of getting at
once into connection with the fleet, and the general was proper
ly appreciative of the energy with which the task was executed.
"See my Bummers," said Old Sherman with most illigant emotion.
"Ain t their heads as horizontal as the bosom of the ocean?"
The raising of Old Glory over the fort was the signal for
the steaming up-stream of the supply ships, and that evening
aa ijtstorg * *
witnessed for the advance division a glorious banquet, with real
beef and soft bread.
And even this climax was capped when, on the 22d of
December, General Sherman was able to report to President
Lincoln that he had secured for him, or for the nation, a Christ
mas present in the shape of the city of Savannah.
The preponderance of capable military leaders was an im
portant factor in giving to the Southern armies the measure of
success secured by these armies during the first two years; but
even during this earlier period, military capacity developed also
on the side of the North, and by the middle of the war the
\\ \\ \\\%\| balance of leadership ability may be considered as fairly equal.
It may frankly be admitted, however, that no commander of
the North had placed upon him so stupendous a burden as that
which was carried by Lee, as the commander of the Army of
Northern Virginia, through the weary and bloody campaigns of
three years. For the last year of that period, Lee was fighting
with no forces in reserve and with constantly diminishing re
sources. With great engineering skill, with ingenuity in utiliz
ing every possible natural advantage for defense, with initiative
and enterprise in turning defense at most unexpected moments
into attack, with a sublime patience and persistence and with the
devotion and magnificent fighting capacity of the men behind
him, Lee accomplished with his Army of Northern Virginia a
\^\SC1 larger task in proportion to the resources at his command than
has, I believe, ever been accomplished in modern warfare. The
higher we place the ability of the Southern commander and the
fighting capacity of the men behind him, the larger, of course,
becomes the task of the leaders and armies of the North
through whose service the final campaigns were won and the
cause of nationality was maintained.
In going to England in the years immediately succeeding
the war, I used to meet with some sharp criticism from army
men and from others interested in army operations, as to the
time that had been taken by the men of the North to overcome
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LEE WITH HIS SOX, G. W. C. LEE, AND COLONEL TAYLOR
No military leader in any country, not even excepting General Washington himself, ever became so universally beloved as Robert
E. Lee throughout the South before the close of the war. Rising from the nominal position of Superintendent of Fortifications at
Richmond, he became the military adviser of Jefferson Davis and finally the General-in-Chief of the Confederate forces. From the
time that Lee began to drive back McClellan s forces from Richmond in the Seven Days Battles the hopes of the Confederates were
centered in their great general. So hastily arranged was that first and final meeting with Grant to discuss the terms of surrender that
no photograph was obtained of it, but here are preserved for us the commanding figure, keen eyes, and marvelously moulded features
of General Lee as he appeared immediately after that dramatic event. He has just arrived in Richmond from Appomattox, and is
seated in the basement of his Franklin Street residence between his son, Major-General G. W. C. Lee, and his aide, Colonel Walter Ta vlor.
their opponents and to establish their control over the territory
rebellion. Such phrases would be used as : " You had
twenty-two millions against nine millions. You must have
been able to put two muskets into the field against every one of
your opponents. It was absurd that you should have allowed
yourselves to be successfully withstood for four years and that
you should finally have crushed your plucky and skilful oppo
nents only through the brute force of numbers." I recall the
difference of judgment given after the British campaigns of
South Africa as to the difficulties of an invading army.
The large armies that were opposed to the plucky and per
sistent Boers and the people at home came to have a better
understanding of the nature and extent of the task of securing
control over a wild and well-defended territory, the invaders of
which were fighting many miles from their base and with lines
of communication that were easily cut. By the constant cutting
and harassing of the lines of communication, and a clever dispo
sition of lightly equipped and active marching troops who were
often able to crush in detail outlying or separated troops of the
invaders, a force of some forty thousand Boers found it possible
to keep two hundred thousand well-equipped British troops at
bay for nearly two years. The Englishman now understands
that when an army originally comprising a hundred thousand
men has to come into action at a point some hundred of miles
distant from its base, it is not a hundred thousand muskets that
are available, but seventy thousand or sixty thousand. The
other thousands have been used up on the march or have been
left to guard the lines of communication. Without constantly
renewed supplies an army is merely a helpless mass of men.
It is probable, in fact, that the history of modern warfare
gives no example of so complex, extensive, and difficult a mili
tary undertaking as that which was finally brought to a suc
cessful close by the armies of the North, armies which were
contending against some of the best fighting material and the
ablest military leadership that the world has known.
THE SOUTH AND
THE FEDERAL NAVY
THE SOUTH AND
THE WAR RECORDS
With Many Photographs
of 61-65 Taken Inside
the Confederate Lines
THE SOUTHERN FLAG FLOATING OVER SUMTER ON APRIL 16, 1861 SOUTH
CAROLINA TROOPS DRILLING ON THE PARADE, TWO DAYS AFTER FORCING
OUT ANDERSON AND HIS FEDERAL GARRISON THE FLAG IS MOUNTED ON
THE PARAPET TO THE RIGHT OF THE FORMER FLAGSTAFF, WHICH HAS BEEN
SHATTERED IN THE COURSE OF THE BOMBARDMENT FROM CHARLESTON
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THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH
By FRENCH E. CHAD WICK,
Rear-Admiral, United States Navy
Who shall estimate the value to the United States of the services of
its navy which thus isolated the Confederacy, cut it off from communication
with the outside world, and at the same time compelled it to guard every
point against a raid like that which had destroyed the Capitol of the United
States in 1814? Had the Confederacy instead of the United States been
able to exercise dominion over the sea ; had it been able to keep open its
means of communication with the countries of the Old World, to send its
cotton abroad and to bring back the supplies of which it stood so much
in need; had it been able to blockade Portland, Boston, Newport, New
York, the mouth of the Delaware, and the entrance of Chesapeake Bay ;
had it possessed the sea power to prevent the United States from des
patching by water into Virginia its armies and their supplies, it is not too
much to say that such a reversal of conditions would have reversed the
outcome of the Civil War. Hilary A. Herbert, Colonel 8th Alabama Vol
unteers, C.S.A., ex-Secretary of the Navy, in an address, "The Sea and
Sea Power as a Factor in the History of the United States,"" delivered at the
Naval War College, August 10, 1896.
NOW that half a century has passed since the Civil War,
we have come to a point where we can deal calmly with
the philosophy of the great contest without too great disturb
ance of the feeling which came near to wrecking our nation
ality. The actualities of the struggle will be dealt with in the
photographic history. Meanwhile it is not amiss in these pages
to look into the causes of the South s failure to set up a nation
and thus justify Gladstone s surety of Southern success in his
Newcastle speech in 1862.
It has been, as a rule, taken for granted that the South
was worsted in a fair fight in the field. This is so in a moderate
* -s^ -jfaf.
?.= ~9nll7Trrf? l
Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co.
A BLOCKADE RUNNER, THE SWIFTEST CRAFT OF HER DAY
With the regularity of express trains, swift vessels like this one left Nassau and Bermuda and traveled direct for their destination, timed to
arrive in the night. So great were the profits of blockade running that in some cases one successful voyage out and back would more
than repay the owners for the loss of the vessel. Under these circumstances it can be easily seen that men were tempted to take risks
that ordinarily they would avoid.
A CHARLESTON VOLUNTEER COMPANY AT DRILL UNDER THE WALLS OF CASTLE PINCKNEY
In pipe-clayed cross belts and white gloves, with all their accoutrements bright and shining, here we see a volunteer company of young
Confederates standing at "Present Arms" and posing before the camera. The four officers standing in front of the line are Captain
C. E. Chichester, Lieutenant E. John White, Lieutenant B. M. Walpole and Lieutenant R. C. Gilchrist. Gilchrist is curving his Da
mascus scimitar a blade so finely tempered that its point would bend back to form a complete loop.
degree only; for the fight was not wholly a fair one. Differ
ence of forces in the field may be set aside, as the fight being
on the ground of the weaker, any disproportion in numbers was
largely annulled. But the army of the North was lavishly
equipped; there was no want of arms, food, raiment, ammu
nition, or medical care. Everything an army could have the
Federal forces had to overflowing. On the other hand the
Southern army was starved of all necessaries, not to speak of
the luxuries which the abounding North poured forth for its
men in the field. The South was in want of many of these nec
essaries even in the beginning of the war; toward the end it
was in want of all. It was because of this want that it
had to yield. General Joseph E. Johnston, writing General
Beauregard in 1868, said truly: "We, without the means of
purchasing supplies of any kind, or procuring or repairing
arms, could continue this war only as robbers or guerillas."
The Southern army finally melted away and gave up the fight
because it had arrived at the limit of human endurance through
the suffering which came of the absolute want brought by the
Some few historians have recognized and made clear this
fact, notably General Charles Francis Adams, himself a val
iant soldier of the war. Another is Mr. John Christopher
Schwab, professor of political economy in Yale University.
The former, analyzing six reasons for the South s failure,
given by a British sympathizer in Blackwood s Magazine for
July, 1866, says: "We are . . . through elimination brought
down to one factor, the blockade, as the controlling condition
of Union success. In other words that success was made pos
sible by the undisputed naval and maritime superiority of the
North. Cut off from the outer w r orld and all exterior sources
of supply, reduced to a state of inanition by the blockade,
the Confederacy was pounded to death." l The " pounding "
1 Charles Francis Adams, Proceedings, Massachusetts Historical Society,
1905, vol. xix, 224.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE FIRST TASTE OF CAMP LIFE
This rare Confederate photograph preserves for us the amusements of the Alabama soldiers in camp near Mobile on a spring day in
1861. To the left we see a youth bending eagerly over the shoulder of the man who holds the much-prized newspaper in his hands.
To the right a group of youngsters are reading letters from home, while in the background still others are playing the banjo and the
violin to relieve the tedium of this inactive waiting for the glorious battles anticipated in imagination when they enlisted. These
men are clad in the rough costume of home life, and can boast none of the bright new uniforms with shining brass buttons that made
the Federal camps resplendent. Here and there a cap indicates an officer. Yet even these humble accessories were much better
than the same troops could show later on, when the ruddy glow on their faces had given place to the sallowness of disease.
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Here a Confederate photographer has caught the Orleans Cadets, Company A, parading before their encampment at Big Bayou, near
Pensacola, Florida, April 21, 1861. This was the first volunteer company mustered into service from the State of Louisiana. The
Cadets had enlisted on April 11, 1861. Although their uniforms are not such as to make a brilliant display, it was with pride and
confidence for the future that their commander, Captain (afterwards Lieut. Colonel) Charles D. Dreux, watched their maneuvers on
this spring day, little dreaming that in less than three months he would fall in battle, the first but one among army officers to offer
up his life for the Southern cause. The hopes now beating high in the hearts of both officers and men were all to be realized in
deeds of bravery but only at further cost of human life here seen at its flood tide.
" " ~M
pral Nairn ani> tte &outlj * * *
was mainly done by the army; the conditions which permitted
it to be effectively done were mainly established by the navy.
" The blockade," says Mr. Schwab in his " Financial and
Industrial History of the South during the Civil War," " con
stituted the most powerful tool at the command of the Fed
eral Government in its efforts to subdue the South. The
relentless and almost uniformly successful operations of the
navy have been minimized in importance by the at times more
brilliant achievements of the army; but we lean to ascribing
to the navy the larger share in undermining the power of re
sistance on the part of the South. It was the blockade rather
than the ravages of the army that sapped the industrial
strength of the Confederacy."
The South w r as thus beaten by want; and not merely by
force of arms. A nation of well on to 6,000,000 could never
have been conquered on its own ground by even the great
forces the North brought against it but for this failure of re
sources which made it impossible to bring its full fighting
strength into the field.
We know that there was a total of 2,841,906 enlistments
and reenlistments in the army and navy of the North, repre
senting some 1,600,000 three-year enlistments; we shall, how
ever, never know the actual forces of the South on account of
the unfortunate destruction of the Southern records of enlist
ments and levies. That some 1,100,000 men were available is,
of course, patent from the fact that the white population of
the seceding states was 5,600,000, and to these were added
125,000 men, who, as sympathizers, joined the Southern army.
The South fought as men have rarely fought. Its spirit was
the equal of that of any race or time, and if the 325,000 Boers
in South Africa could put 80,000 men into the field, the 5,600,-
000 of the South would have furnished an equal proportion
had there been arms, clothing, food, and the rest of the many
accessories which, besides men, go to make an army. The situ
ation which prevented an accomplishment of such results as
CONFEDERATES ENLISTING AT THE NATCHEZ COURTHOUSE, EARLY IN 1861
This rare Confederate photograph preserves a lively scene that was typical of the war preparations in the South in the spring of 1861.
The fresh recruits are but scantily supplied with arms and accouterments, for only the Federal arsenals in the South could supply
munitions of war. The military population of Mississippi at the opening of the war has been estimated at seventy thousand, and
that of Louisiana at eighty thousand. It is believed that nearly a hundred thousand from each State enlisted in the Southern
armies. The two scenes on this page were duplicated in hundreds of towns throughout the Southland as the war opened.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
RECRUITING AT BATON ROUGE 1862
those in South Africa, and it was impossible in the circum
stances that they could be, was the result of the blockade of
the Southern coast, a force the South was powerless to resist.
What has been said shows how clear was the role of the
navy. The strategic situation was of the simplest; to deprive
the South of its intercourse with Europe and in addition to
cut the Confederacy in twain through the control of the Mis
sissippi. The latter, gained largely by the battles of Farragut,
Porter, Foote, and Davis, was but a part of the great scheme
of blockade, as it cut off the supply of food from Texas and
the shipments of material which entered that State by way of
Matamoras. The question of the military control of Texas
could be left aside so long as its communications were cut, for
in any case the State would finally have to yield with the rest
of the Confederacy. The many thousand troops which would
have been an invaluable reenforcement to the Southern armies
in the East were to remain west of the Mississippi and were to
have no influence in the future events.
The determination to attempt by force to reinstate the
Federal authority over a vast territory, eight hundred miles
from north to south and seventeen hundred from east to
west, defended by such forces as mentioned, was truly a
gigantic proposition, to be measured somewhat by the effort
put forth by Great Britain to subdue the comparatively very
small forces of the South African republic. It was as far from
Washington to Atlanta (which may be considered as the heart
of the Confederacy) as from London to Vienna. The frontier
of the Confederacy, along which operations were to begin, was
fifteen hundred miles in length. Within the Confederacy were
railways which connected Chattanooga with Lynchburg.un Vir
ginia, on the east and with Memphis, on the Mississippi, on the
west ; two north and south lines ran, the one to New Orleans, the
other to Mobile ; Atlanta connected with Chattanooga ; Mobile
and Savannah were in touch with Richmond through the coast
line \vhich passed through Wilmington and Charleston. No
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WAITING FOR THE SMELL OF POWDER CONFEDERATES BEFORE SHILOH
.Some very youthful Louisiana soldiers waiting for their first taste of battle, a few weeks before Shiloh. These are members of the
Washington Artillery of New Orleans. We see them at Camp Louisiana proudly wearing their new boots and their uniforms as yet
unfaded by the sun. Louisiana gave liberally of her sons, who distinguished themselves in the fighting throughout the West. The
Fifth Company of the Washington Artillery took part in the closely contested Battle of Shiloh. The Confederates defeated Sherman s
troops in the early morning, and by night were in possession of all the Federal camps save one. The Washington Artillery served their
guns handsomely and helped materially in forcing the Federals back to the bank of the river. The timely arrival of Buell s army
the next day at Pittsburg Landing enabled Grant to recover from the reverses suffered on that bloody "first day" Sunday, April 6, 18C2.
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part of the South, east of the Mississippi, was very distant
from railway transportation, which for a long period the South
carried on excepting in that portion which ran from Lynch-
burg to Chattanooga through the eastern part of Tennessee,
where the population was in the main sympathetic with the
Thus the South had the great advantage, which it held for
several years, of holding and operating on interior lines. Its
communications were held intact, whereas those of the Federals,
as in the case of Grant s advance by way of the Wilderness, were
often in danger. It was not until Sherman made his great
march to the sea across Georgia, a march which Colonel Hen
derson, the noted English writer on strategy, says " would have
been impossible had not a Federal fleet been ready to receive
him when he reached the Atlantic," that the South felt its com
munications hopelessly involved.
To say that at the outset there was any broad and well-
considered strategic plan at Washington for army action, would
be an error. There was no such thing as a general staff, no
central organization to do the planning of campaigns, such as
now exists. The commanders of Eastern and Western armies
often went their own gait without any effective coordination.
It was not until Grant practically came to supreme military
command that complete coordination was possible.
Four Unionist objectives, however, were clear. The
greatly disaffected border states which had not joined the Con
federacy must be secured and the loyal parts of Virginia and
Tennessee defended; the southern ports blockaded; the great
river which divided the Confederacy into an east and w r est
brought under Federal control, and the army which defended
Richmond overcome. At the end of two years all but the last
of these objectives had been secured, but it was nearly two
years more before the gallant Army of Northern Virginia suc
cumbed through the general misery wrought in the Confed
eracy by the sealing of its ports and the consequent inability of
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OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI S "FIGHTING NINTH."
In this long-lost Confederate photograph we see vividly the simple accoutrements which characterized
many of the Southern regiments during the war. These men of Company B of the Ninth Mississippi
enlisted as the Home Guards of Marshall County, and were mustered into the State service at Holly Springs,
February 16, 1861. Their checked trousers and workday shirts are typical of the simple equipment each
man furnished for himself. The boots worn by Colonel Barry, at the right, were good enough for the
% average Confederate soldier to go through fire to obtain later on in the war. Lacking in the regalia of war
fare, the Ninth Mississippi made a glorious record for itself in Chalmers Brigade at Shiloh, where it
lost its gallant Colonel, William A. Rankin. "Never," said General Bragg, "were troops and commander
more worthy of each other and their State."
the Southerners to hold their own against the ever increasing,
well-fed and well-supplied forces of the North. To quote again
the able Englishman just mentioned, " Judicious indeed was
the policy which, at the very outset of the war, brought the tre
mendous pressure of the sea power to bear against the South,
and had her statesmen possessed the knowledge of what that
pressure meant, they must have realized that Abraham Lincoln
was no ordinary foe. In forcing the Confederates to become
the aggressors, and to fire on the national ensign, he had created
a united North; in establishing a blockade of their coasts he
brought into play a force which, like the mills of God, grinds
slowly, but grinds exceedingly small. It was the command
of the sea which finally told and made certain the success of the
army and the reuniting of the States.
[To the discussion presented above by Admiral Chadwick may be
added the following expression of opinion by one of the foremost military
students of modern Europe: "The cooperation of the United States navy
with their army in producing a decisive effect upon the whole character of
the military operations is akin to what happens with us in nearly every war
in which we engage. An English general has almost always to make his
calculations strictly in accordance with what the navy can do for him. The
operations by which the Federal navy, in conjunction with the army, split
the Confederacy in two and severed the East from the West, must always,
therefore, have for him a profound interest and importance. The great
strategical results obtained by this concentration of military and naval
power, which were as remarkable as the circumstances under which the
successes were gained, deserve our closest study." Field-Marshal^ the
Right Honorable Viscount Wolseley. EDITORS.]
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SUMTER BECOMES A FEDERAL TARGET
The eastern barracks inside Fort Sumter during the Bombardment of Sept. 8, 1863. The guns of the Federal
blockading fleet had now been pounding the fort for many weeks. This but recently re-discovered picture
is the work of G. S. Cook, the Charleston photographer. The view is to the right of the exploding shell
in the picture on page 100. The flag and guns shown in the earlier picture have been swept away. The
upper casemate to the left has been demolished. The lower ones remained intact, however, and continued
; to be used and even armed to the end of the Confederate s defense. The guns here bore on the channel
.nearly opposite Fort Moultrie. The bake oven of the barracks on the chimney of which are a couple of
Confederate soldiers was frequently used for heating solid shot. In one of the lower rooms of the bar
racks, seen to the right, the ruins later fell upon a detachment of sleeping soldiers.
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RECORDS OF THE WAR BETWEEN
By MARCUS J. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, C.S.A.
Agent of the United States War Department for the Collection of
THE war which was carried on in the United States in
1861-5, called " The War of the Rebellion," " The Civil
War," " The War of Secession," and " The War Between
the States," was one of the greatest conflicts of ancient or
modern times. Official reports show that 2,865,028 men were
mustered into the service of the United States. The report
of Provost-Marshal General Fry shows that of these 61,362
were killed in battle, 34,773 died of wounds, 183,287 died of
disease, 306 were accidentally killed, and 267 were executed by
sentence. The Adjutant-General made a report February 7,
1869, showing the total number of deaths to be 303,504.
The Confederate forces are estimated from 600,000 to
1,000,000 men, and ever since the conclusion of the war there
has been no little controversy as to the total number of troops
involved. The losses in the Confederate army have never
been officially reported, but the United States War Depart
ment, which has been assiduously engaged in the collection of
all records of both armies, has many Confederate muster-rolls
on which the casualties are recorded. The tabulation of these
rolls shows that 52,954 Confederate soldiers were killed in
action, 21,570 died of wounds, and 59,297 died of disease. This
does not include the missing muster-rolls, so that to these fig
ures a substantial percentage must be added. Differences in
methods of reporting the strength of commands, the absence
of adequate field-records and the destruction of those actually
f 102 ]
I I I/I/ I/I //I
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SOUTH CAROLINA MEN IX BLUE, SPRING 1861
These officers of the Flying Artillery we see here entering the Confederate service at Sullivan s Island, Charleston Harbor, still wear
ing the blue uniforms of their volunteer organization. It was one of the state militia companies so extensively organized
throughout the South previous to the war. South Carolina was particularly active in this line. After the secession of the
State the Charleston papers were full of notices for various military companies to assemble for drill or for the distribution of arms
and accoutrements. Number 2 of this group is Allen J. Green, then Captain of the Columbia Flying Artillery (later a Major in the
Confederate service). No. 4 is W. K. Bachman, then a 4th Lieutenant, later Captain in the German Volunteers, a state infantry
organization that finally entered the artillery service and achieved renown as Bachman s Battery. No. 3 is Wilmot D. de Saussure;
No. 7 is John Waites, then Lieutenant and later Captain of another company. After 18G3, when the Confederate resources were
waning, the Confederate soldiers were not ashamed to wear the blue clothing brought in by the blockade runners.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
TWO YEARS AFTERWARD
Confederate Uniforms at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. According to a Northern authority, Lee s veterans in 1863 were "the finest
infantry on earth!" In this picture we see three of them taken prisoners at Gettysburg and caught by the camera of a Union
photographer. These battle-stained Confederates had no glittering uniforms to wear; they marched and fought in any garb they were
fortunate enough to secure and were glad to carry with them the blankets which would enable them to snatch some rest at night.
Their shoes perhaps taken in sheer necessity from the dead on the field worn and dusty as we see them, were unquestionably
the envy of many of their less fortunate comrades. Lee could only make his daring invasion of the North in 1863 by severing
his connection with any base of supplies; and, unlike Sherman in his march to the sea, he had no friendly force waiting to receive him
should he prove able to overcome the powerful army that opposed him. "Never," says Eggleston, "anywhere did soldiers give a
better account of themselves. The memory of their heroism is the common heritage of all the people of the great Republic."
nf War Irturmt
made are responsible for considerable lack of information as
to tbe strength and losses of the Confederate army. There
fore, the matter is involved in considerable controversy and
never will be settled satisfactorily; for there is no probability
that further data on this subject will be forthcoming.
The immensity and extent of our great Civil War are
shown by the fact that there were fought 2,261 battles and en
gagements, which took place in the following named States:
In Xew York, 1; Pennsylvania, 9; Maryland, 30; District of
Columbia, 1; West Virginia, 80; Virginia, 519; North Caro
lina, 80; South Carolina, 60; Georgia, 108; Florida, 32;
Alabama, 78; Mississippi, 186; Louisiana, 118; Texas, 14;
Arkansas, 167; Tennessee, 298; Kentucky, 138; Ohio, 3; In
diana, 4 ; Illinois, 1 ; Missouri, 244 ; Minnesota, 6 ; California,
6; Kansas, 7; Oregon, 4; Nevada, 2; Washington Territory,
1; Utah, 1; New Mexico, 19; Nebraska, 2; Colorado, 4; Indian
Territory, 17; Dakota, 11; Arizona, 4; and Idaho, 1.
It soon became evident that the official record of the War
of 1861-5 must be compiled for the purposes of Government
administration, as well as in the interest of history, and this
work was projected near the close of the first administration
of President Lincoln. It has continued during the tenure of
succeeding Presidents, under the direction of the Secretaries
of War, from Edwin M. Stanton, under whom it began, to
Secretary Elihu Root, under whose direction it was completed.
Colonel Robert N. Scott, U.S.A., who was placed in charge of
the work in 1874, prepared a methodical arrangement of the
matter which was continued throughout. Officers of the United
States army were detailed, and former officers of the Confed
erate army were also employed in the work. The chief civilian
expert who continued with the work from its inception was Mr.
Joseph W. Kirkley. The total number of volumes is 70; the
total number of books, 128, many of the volumes containing
several separate parts. The total cost of publication was $2,-
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE LAST TO LAY DOWN ARMS
Recovered from oblivion only after a long and patient search, this is believed to be the last Confederate
war photograph taken. On May 26, 1865, General E. Kirby Smith surrendered the troops in the Trans-
Mississippi Department. Paroled by that capitulation these officers gathered in Shreveport, Louisiana, early
in June to commemorate by means of the camera their long connection with the war. The oldest of them
was but 40. The clothes in which they fought were worn to tatters, but each has donned the dress coat
of an unused uniform carefully saved in some chest in the belief that it was to identify him with a victorious
cause and not as here with a lost one. The names of those standing, from left to right, are : David French
Boyd, Major of Engineers; D. C. Proctor, First Louisiana Engineers; unidentified; and William Freret. The
names of those seated are: Richard M. Venable; H. T. Douglas, Colonel of Engineers; and Octave Hopkins,
First Louisiana Engineers.
0f tlj? liar J8rttu?nt tlj? States *
In view of the distrust with which the South for a while
naturally regarded the efforts made by the Government to pro
cure the records of the Confederacy, the work of the depart
ment to obtain this material at first met with slight success.
In 1878, the writer, a Confederate officer, was appointed
as agent of the War Department for the collection of Confed
erate archives. Through his efforts the attitude of the South
ern people became more cordial, and increased records were the
result. By provision of Congress, certain sets of the volumes
were distributed, and others held for sale at cost.
The history of this official record is mentioned in these
pages as it indicates a wide-spread national desire on the part
of the people of the United States to have a full and impartial
record of the great conflict, which must form, necessarily, the
basis of all history concerned with this era. It is the record of
the struggle as distinguished from personal recollections and
reminiscences, and its fulness and impartial character have
never been questioned. The large number of these volumes
makes them unavailable for general reading, but in the prepa
ration of " The Photographic History of the Civil War " the
editors have not only consulted these official reports, but give
the equally permanent testimony of the photographic nega
tive. Therefore, as a successor to and complement of this Gov
ernment publication, nothing could be more useful or interest
ing than " The Photographic History of the Civil War." The
text does not aim at a statistical record, but is an impartial
narrative supplementing the pictures. Nothing gives so clear
a conception of a person or an event as a picture. The more
intelligent people of the country, North and South, desire the
truth put on record, and all bitter feeling eliminated. This
work, it is believed, will add greatly to that end.
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A CENTRAL STRATEGICAL, POINT THE APPROACH TO RICHMOND VIA
JAMES RIVER, AS IT LOOKED IN WAR-TIME, BLOCKED BY THE CONFEDERATE
RAM "VIRGINIA," AND GUNBOATS "PATRICK HENRY" AND "JAMESTOWN,"
SUNK IN THE CHANNEL TO HOLD THE FEDERAL FLEET FROM RICHMOND
(SEE TWO PAGES FOLLOWING FOR ANOTHER VIEW OF THIS SCENE)
OBSTRUCTIONS RENDERED USELESS
The superior navy of the Federals at the beginning and throughout the war enabled them to gain the advantage of penetrating the
rivers leading into the interior of the Confederacy and thus support the military forees in many telling movements. To this fact
the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson and the ultimate control of the Mississippi by the Union forces gives eloquent testimony.
In the East the regions between Washington and Richmond were traversed by streams, small and large, which made aggressive warfare
difficult. For this reason McClellan chose the James River Peninsula for his first advance upon the Confederate Capital. Far
more dreaded than the advance of the army was the approach of the powerful Monitor and the Galena up the James River, and the
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JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA, NEAR DREWRY S BLUFF. 1862
first thought of the Confederates was to hold this danger in abeyance. Hence the obstructions (shown on the opposite page)
sunk in the bend of the James River near Drewry s Bluff, where a powerful battery known as Fort Darling was hastily but
effectively constructed. These blocked the attempts of the Federals to invest the Confederate capital until Grant s superior strategy
in 186-t rendered them useless by throwing his army across the James in one of his famous flanking movements and advancing
toward Richmond in a new direction. The campaign developing into a siege of Petersburg on the Appornattox, the Federal vessels
confined their activities to the lower James.
THE STRATEGY OF THE CIVIL WAR
By EBEN SWIFT
Lieutenant-Colonel 8th Cavalry, United States Army
But strategy, unfortunately, is a very unpopular science, even among
soldiers, requiring both in practice and in demonstration constant and
careful study of the map, the closest computation of time and space, a
grasp of many factors, and the strictest attention to the various steps in
the problems it presents. At the same time, it is a science which repays
the student, although he may have no direct concern with military affairs ;
for not only will a comprehension of its immutable principles add a new
interest to the records of stirring times and great achievements, but will
make him a more useful citizen. " Stone wall Jackson and the Civil War"
by Lieutenant-Colonel G. F. R. Henderson, C.B.
THE student has great advantage over the actor in war,
particularly when he makes his study after a lapse of
fifty years. His point of view is illuminated then by the stories
as told by both contestants, by the disputes and explanations of
many participants. He also pursues his investigations without
any of the distracting influences of war itself. It may not,
therefore, be entirely fair to take each man s act before the bar
of history and to require him to justify himself to the critics of
a later day. In a larger sense, though, it is right, because past
experience gives the best lessons and guides for the future.
Until we have another war, we shall continue to study the great
conflict of 1861-5, and to read the secrets of our future in its
tale of failure or success.
" Strategy " is a comparatively recent addition to our lan
guage. It is derived from the Greek crrpar^yta, meaning gen
eralship, and has several valuable derivatives, as " strategic "
and " strategist," which make it a more useful word than
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WAR STUDENTS OF TWO CONTINENTS
What an excellent example of open-air group portraiture the work of Gardner s camera! But photography
can add nothing to the fame of these men, gathered together in an idle hour to chat about the strategy of
the war. Seated in the center is Count Zeppelin, of the Prussian Army, later the winner of honors with his
airship and then on a visit to America to observe the Civil W 7 ar. To his left is Lieutenant Rosencranz, a
Swedish officer, on leave of absence, observing the war at close range as General McClellan s personal aide-
de-camp. He successively served Burnside, Hooker and Meade in the same capacity. His brave and
genial disposition made him a universal favorite. The other men are Americans, conspicuous actors as well
as students in the struggle. On the ground, to the left, sits Major Ludlow, who commanded the colored
brigade which, and under his direction, in the face of a continual bombardment, dug Dutch Gap Canal
on the James. The man in the straw hat is Lieut. Colonel Dickinson, Assistant Adjutant General to Hooker,
a position in which he served until the Battle of Gettysburg, w r here he was wounded. Standing is Captain
Ulric Dahlgren, serving at the time on Meade s staff. Even the loss of a leg could not quell his indomitable
spirit, and he subsequently sacrificed his life in an effort to release the Federal prisoners at Libby and
generalship. It means the art of the general and indicates the
time, place, and way to fight battles.
The War of the States was viewed at first with indifference
by foreign military men. For many years past, however, it
has claimed their close attention, because they have come to
realize that new conditions were tested then, and that new in
fluences, which changed the art of the general even from the
respected models of Xapoleon fifty years before, were at work.
Ironclads, entrenchments, railroads, the breech-loader, a new
kind of cavalry were the fresh factors in the problem.
Although hostilities at first began over an area half as
large as Europe, the region of decisive operations was, on ac
count of lack of communication, narrowed to the country be
tween the Atlantic and the Mississippi, about seven hundred
miles in an air-line. The line was unequally divided by the
towering barrier of the Alleghany Mountains, about two hun
dred miles wide, over which communication was difficult. The
eastern section of the country beyond the range was about
one hundred miles wide and the western section was about
four hundred miles wide. In Maryland, northwestern Vir
ginia, Kentucky, and Missouri sentiment was divided between
the Union and the Confederacy. The Mississippi River sep
arated three of the seceding States from the remaining eight.
The immense amount of supplies needed for a great army
caused military operations on a large scale to be confined to
rail and water lines. Of the former, both the Xorth and
South had several routes running east and west for lateral
communication, and the South had several running north
and south in each section, which could be used for lines
of military operations. In respect to water routes, the Xorth
soon demonstrated its complete control of the sea and was
thus able to choose its points of attack, while interior water
routes were available by the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cum
berland, and James rivers. The advantage of the water route
over that by rail was at once utilized by the Northern generals.
In 1861 there arrived the flrst great oppor
tunity to study warfare in the field since the
campaigns of Napoleon, and these young men
of royal blood expected at no distant day to
be the leaders of a war of their own to recover
the lost Bourbon throne of France. The
three distinguished guests of the Army of
the Potomac seated at the farther end of the
camp dinner-table are, from right to left, the
Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillipe,
and his two nephews, the Count de Paris
and the Due de Chartres, sons of the Due
d Orleans. They came to Washington in Sep
tember, 1861, eager to take some part in the
great conflict for the sake of the experience it
would give them. President Lincoln welcomed
them, bestowed upon each the honorary rank
of Captain, and assigned them to the staff of
General McClellan. Officially merely guests
at headquarters, they acted as aides-de-camp
to McClellan, bearing despatches and the like,
frequently under fire. They distinguished
themselves at the battle of Games Mill. The
Prince de Joinville made a painting of that
engagement which became widely published.
A KING S SON IN CAMP
In the lower picture the Count de Paris and
the Due de Chartres are trying their skill at
dominoes after dinner. Captain Leclerc, on
the left, and Captain Mohain, on the right,
are of their party. A Union officer has taken
the place of the Prince de Joinville. It was
to perfect their skill in a greater and grimmer
game that these young men came to America.
At Yorktown they could see the rehabilitated
fortifications of Cornwallis, which men of
their own blood had helped to seize, now am
plified by the latest methods of defensive war
fare. Exposed to the fire of the Napoleon field
pieces imported by the Confederacy, they
could compare their effectiveness with that of
the huge rifled Dahlgrens, the invention of an
American admiral. General McClellan tes
tified that ever in the thick of things they
performed their duties to his entire satisfac
tion. At the close of the Peninsula Cam
paign the royal party returned to France,
but watched the war with great interest to
LEARNING THE GAME
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It was not so vulnerable to attack as the railroad. All navi
gable rivers within the area of operations were used for this
purpose, and McClellan, Burnside, and Grant used the Chesa
peake Bay and its tributaries to carry their base of supplies
close to Richmond. The operations of the Confederates, on
the other hand, were greatly restricted by being confined to
Several natural features which were certain to influence
events to a great extent are to be noticed. In Virginia,
numerous rivers, running parallel to the direct line of advance,
form good lines for defense and also obstacles to an advance.
Several mountain valleys leading north at the eastern ranges
of the Alleghanies gave opportunities for leading large forces
safely into Pennsylvania from Virginia, or vice versa. Within
the mountain district, a railroad from Lynchburg, Virginia,
to Chattanooga, in Tennessee, about four hundred miles long,
gave an opportunity for transferring troops from one section
to the other, while the corresponding distance at the North \vas
three times as great. In the western section, the Tennessee
and Cumberland rivers are separated at one place by a narrow
neck about two miles wide, thus somewhat simplifying the
problem of controlling these two important streams. The
strategic chess-board, then, gave great opportunities to skilful
generalship. The Virginia rivers gave strength to long de
fensive lines, screened marches from east to west, and forced
the Northern generals to seek the flank rather than the front
attack. The Shenandoah valley afforded a safe approach to
Washington from the rear. This was availed of by Lee,
Jackson, and Early to keep many thousand men of the army
of the North in idleness. In the West, the long line defended
by scattered troops was weak at every point and was quite
easily broken by Grant, particularly when the South was
slow in grasping the situation there. The advantage of the
Richmond-Chattanooga railroad was not used by the Confed
erates until too late for success.
There is no mistaking the nationality of these
Military Attaches with their tartans and Dun
dreary whiskers. They were accompanying
the Army of the Potomac on its Peninsula
Campaign. In the center of the group of
Englishmen stands the Prince de Joinville.
From the observations of these men both
France and England were to learn many mili
tary lessons from a new conflict on the soil
over which the soldiers of both nations had
fought in a former generation. The armies
of both North and South were being moved
and maintained in the field in a manner and
upon a scale undreamed of by Napoleon, to
say nothing of Howe and Cornwallis. The
Count de Paris wrote a very comprehensive
and impartial history of the war, and in
1890 revisited America and gathered together
some 200 or more surviving officers of the
Army of the Potomac at a dinner in the old
Hotel Plaza, New York City. Not half the
veterans that were his guests more than two
decades ago are still alive, and the Due him
self joined the majority in 1894.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
WATCHING THE WAR
Here are some English and other foreign mili
tary officers with General Barry and some of
his staff before Yorktown in May, 1862. Eu
ropean military opinion was at first indifferent
to the importance of the conflict as a school
of war. The more progressive, nevertheless,
realized that much was to be learned from it.
The railroad and the telegraph were two un
tried elements in strategy. The ironclad gun
boat and ram introduced serious complica
tions in naval warfare. At first the influence
of Napoleon I was manifest in the field, but
as the struggle proceeded both armies de
veloped distinctly new ideas of their own.
The sight of Sherman maintaining railroad and
telegraphic communications with a base 138
miles away was a new one to the world, while
his cutting loose from any base whatever in his
March to the Sea was only less remarkable than
Lee s invasion of Pennsylvania under similar
conditions, to which was added a superior op
posing force. In these and many other ex
amples the war set the pace for later develop
YORKTOWN EIGHTY YEARS AFTER
Strategy nf 1B61-S5
The strategy, on account of political and other influences,
was not always chosen according to the best military prin
ciples. Such influences always exist, and it is the duty of the
soldier to conform and to make his plan to suit as best he can.
Under the head of policy would come Lee s several inva
sions of the Xorth, undertaken with insufficient forces and too
far from his base of supplies. Numerous causes have been
given for these campaigns, the most plausible of which were
of a political and not of a strategic nature. It was thought
that a victory won on Northern soil might lead to intervention
on the part of foreign nations, or that it would increase the
disaffected element in the North to such an extent that the
South could dictate a peace.
The policy of making military operations conform to the
desire to help Northern sympathizers in eastern Tennessee had
a powerful influence on the entire war. In the spring of 18(52,
it would have taken Buell into eastern Tennessee, instead of to
the assistance of Grant and would have changed the course of
events in the Mississippi valley. Three months later, it was one
of the potent influences that led to the breaking up of Hal-
leek s army at Corinth. It finally caused Buell s relief from
command because of his disapproval. It caused Burnside s
army to be absent from the battle of Chickamauga.
In 1864, the campaigns of Price in Missouri and Hood
in Tennessee are said to have been intended to affect the presi
dential election at the North by giving encouragement to the
party which was claiming that the war was a Federal failure.
If that was not the case might not Hood have done better by
marching in the track of Longstreet through Knoxville,
Tennessee, and Lynchburg, Virginia, to join Lee, while Sher
man was marching to the sea, entirely out of reach?
An unreasonable importance, from a military point of
view, was given to the capital of each government. The cap
ital of the United States had been captured in two wars
without producing more than local effect, but every plan in
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Virginia was contingent upon the safety of Washington, thus
causing the diversion of many thousand soldiers for that single
duty. On the Southern side the correct military decision
would have been to abandon Richmond as soon as Peters
burg was invested, but the Government delayed, for political
reasons, until it was too late, and the defending army surren
dered as a consequence.
In the distribution of troops the Federal authorities were
hampered by the rival claims of the border States, which
thought they required protection. Hence, Ohio sent an army
into West Virginia; Pennsylvania, into the Shenandoah valley;
the national Government concentrated troops for the protec
tion of its capital ; the Western States gathered along the Ohio
River and in Missouri. This great dispersion existed on both
sides and continued more or less till the end of the war. The
advantage it gave was in the protection of the friendly portion
of the population and in the good recruiting ground thus se
cured. The great difficulty of holding troops in service, whose
home country had been overrun, was appreciated by both sides
and exercised a strong influence on the plans of the generals.
These conditions dictated much of the strategy which is sub
ject to criticism, and should not be forgotten.
The policy of furloughing great numbers of soldiers
during the war, as an inducement to reenlist, was probably
unavoidable, but it helped to cause inactivity during many
months and in the case of Sherman s Atlanta campaign it
caused the absence of two of his divisions. Absenteeism is
one of the inevitable consequences of a long war, with troops
untrained in time of peace by modern methods. Lincoln com
plained of it and the generals seemed powerless to limit or
prevent it. Probably the latter are entitled to most of the
blame. It w r as not uncommon for a general to call for reen-
forcements at a time when large numbers of his troops were
The armies were indeed long in getting over the
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE KEY TO WASHINGTON
From Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Harper s Ferry, Virginia, lay the Alleghany Mountains, an almost impassable barrier to the move
ment of armies. Here we see them sloping toward the gap at Harper s Ferry on the Potomac. The approach to this was made easy
from the South by the Shenandoah Valley, the facile and favorite avenue of advance by the Confederates when threatening in
vasion of the enemy s territory. The scene is of the dismantled bridge across Armstrong Run. Driving General Banks forces up
the Valley and forcing him across the Potomac, Jackson saved Richmond from McClellan in 1862. Up the Valley came Lee the follow
ing year, striking terror to the North by the invasion that was only checked at Gettysburg. This eastern gap, provided by nature
in the Alleghanies, became a veritable gateway of terror to the Federals, for through it lay open the path for sudden approach upon
Washington on the part of the Confederates.
characteristics of raw troops, but the generals in their early
movements do not appear much better than the troops. Every
man who had been graduated from West Point was regarded
as a " trained soldier," which was a mistake, because West
Point was a preparatory school, and such men as had studied
the art of high command had done so by themselves. The
trade of the general was new to all, and had to be learned in
the hard school of experience.
In four of the early campaigns in which the Federal
troops were practically unopposed, they marched on an aver
age of less than seven miles per day, while, in case of opposi
tion by a greatly inferior force, the average was down to a
mile a day, as in the Peninsula campaign and the advance on
The plans for the early battles were complicated in the
extreme, perhaps due to the study of Napoleon and his perfect
army opposed by poor generals. Bull Run, Wilson s Creek,
Seven Pines, Glendale, Malvern Hill, Shiloh, Games Mill
w T ere of this kind, and failed. Even at Gettysburg, July 2,
1863, Lee s failure to execute his echelon attacks showed that
his army was not yet ready to perform such a delicate refine
ment of war.
As an example of improvement, however, take Jackson s
march of fourteen miles on a country road and the battle fought
on May 2, 1863, all between daylight and dark of one day.
In battles, also, we notice the fine play of early campaigns
replaced by a savage directness and simplicity at a later period,
in the Wilderness by Lee and at Spottsylvania by Grant.
Thus it was that both leaders had ceased to count on the ineffi
ciency of the enemy. At the beginning of the movement on
Richmond both Lee and Grant seemed reckless in the risks
they took. It was not so earlier.
The earliest form of strategy was the practice of ruse,
stratagem, and surprise, but they have long been considered
as clumsy expedients which are no longer effective against
[ 122 ]
RICHMOND IX RUINS, OCCUPIED BY THE FEDERALS
POLITICAL OBJECTIVES, WASHINGTON
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In these two pictures appear the two capitals that were mistakenly made the goals of the military operations on both sides. The
Confederates threatened Washington at the outset of the war, and realizing the effectiveness of such a move in giving moral rather
than military support to their cause, similar movements were repeated throughout the war. For a like reason "On to Richmond"
was the cry at the North until Grant took command and made the army of Lee and its ultimate reduction to an ineffective state his
controlling purpose. With the investment of Petersburg by the Federals, Lee s proper military move would have been the aban
donment of Richmond and the opposing of Grant along other lines.
It? ^trat^gg nf 1BH1-B5 4- 4- * 4- *
the best troops and commanders. Among instances which are
often classed in this category are Shiloh, Chancellorsville, and
Some forms of strategy have not changed in several
thousand years. Sherman, for instance, crossed the Chatta-
hoochee, which was held by Johnston, in 1864, in the same way
that Alexander crossed the Hydaspes in the year 326 B. c.,
by feinting at one flank and crossing at the other.
The Vicksburg campaign gave great fame to General
Grant and is really one of the most complete and decisive ex
amples in history. In this campaign, he deliberately crossed
the river north of Vicksburg, marched south and crossed again
below Vicksburg. Then, relying on the country for supplies,
he moved to Jackson, forty-five miles east of Vicksburg, where
he interposed between the fractions of the Confederate army
under Pemberton and Johnston. He then turned back again
toward the Mississippi, drove Pemberton into Vicksburg,
established a base of supplies at the North and invested the
city. In this case, it is noticeable that the tendency to rate
localities at too high a value is shown in Pemberton s retreat
ing to Vicksburg, which was quite certain to be surrendered,
instead of joining forces w r ith Johnston to oppose Grant in
The same point is illustrated by the siege of Petersburg.
As soon as Grant s army crossed the James and began this
siege the fate of Richmond was sealed, for Grant had a great
army and numerous means of extending his fortified lines until
they crossed every avenue of approach to Richmond.
Moltke remarked that strategy was nothing more than
common sense, but he acknowledged that it was often difficult
to decide what was common sense and what was not. He
might easily have had our Civil War in his mind. In 1861, the
art of war had been greatly complicated by pedantic study,
principally by officers of the French school, in attempting to
reduce it to an exact science. The true lesson of Napoleon s
A DEFENDER OF THE FEDERAL CAPITAL
AN IDLE GARRISON
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
Only once were the elaborate fortifications about Washington seriously threatened. That was when the Confederate General Jubal
A. Early, with a force of 10,000 men, marched against the Federal capital in July, 1864, with the intention of capturing it. Rein
forcements were rushed to these works and Early retreated. The constant compliance with the clamor at the North that Washington
be strongly defended was a serious strategical mistake. The Army of the Potomac was at first superior in number to Lee s army
of Northern Virginia. It coukl have been made overwhelmingly so at the beginning of the war if the troops around Washington had
been added to it. Grant demonstrated the wisdom of this policy in 1864 by leaving only a few heavy artillery regiments, the "hun
dred days men," and detachments from the Veteran Reserve to defend Washington. He then outnumbered Lee in the field.
campaigns had either been lost or the effect of new conditions
had not been appreciated. It seems rather commonplace to
say at this time that the first thing to do in war is to decide
on your objective, but in the Civil War an incalculable amount
of time was wasted, much treasure expended, and many lives
were lost in a blind search for an objective. By objective is
meant, of course, a point upon which to concentrate the
greatest effort, the gaining of which will mean the success or
failure of the cause.
In 1862, when the hostile armies opposed each other in
front of Washington, McClellan insisted on attacking Rich
mond instead of Johnston s army. His plan resulted in the
transfer of his army to the Peninsula and carried him to within
six miles of Richmond with insignificant loss. For this, great
credit has been claimed and unfavorable comment made on
later campaigns. But McClellan found the undefeated Con
federate army at Richmond, and he was weakened by a vast
army which had been kept back to guard Washington. With
out entering into this great controversy, we may simply say
that to fight the foe as far from Richmond as possible would
now r be considered the correct solution of that problem. It is
well known that Lincoln disapproved of McClellan s plan,
whether by the counsel of wise military advisers or by his own
common sense we know not.
Again, in 1862, when Halleck with much trouble and
skill had collected a great army of one hundred thousand men
at Corinth, the army was dispersed, contrary to his desire, it
appears, and the true objective was lost. The Confederate
leader repaired his losses and soon recovered from his seri
ous defeats. At that time the army could have gone any
where, whether to Vicksburg to open the Mississippi, or to
Chattanooga and even to Richmond. This is the opinion of
those best qualified to know. Burnside, also, in the fall of
1862, marched away from Lee s army when he went to Fred-
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
WHERE GRANT CROSSED THE JAMES.
When Grant at this point crossed the James and, ignoring the water approaches upon
Richmond, proceeded to the investment of Petersburg, Lee was as good as checkmated.
For months Grant s brilliant flanking movements had gained him no advantage over
his opponent, who persistently remaining on the defensive shifted from one impregnable
position to another till at last Grant saw that the railroads were the key to the situation.
With Lee s forces entirely disposed for the defense of Richmond, it was but necessary to
cut off the communications of the Confederate capital in order to force Lee to come forth
and give battle. The investment of Petersburg, successfully prosecuted, would leave
but one railroad in the hands of the Confederates. The crossing of the James near
Wilcox Landing over the bridge, the remains of which appear in the picture, was the
final strategic triumph by which Grant accomplished victory over Lee s army.
So deep-rooted is the idea of choosing a locality as the
objective of a campaign instead of a hostile army, that Rose-
crans campaign, in the summer of 1863, has gone into history
as the " Campaign for Chattanooga," and it has been claimed
by his admirers that the possession of that place was worth
what it cost a heavy defeat at Chickamauga.
In 1864, Grant had authority to lay down a choice of
objective, which he had already announced in 1862. For him
self it was clearly Lee s army, and it was intended to be the
same with other commands as well. General Sherman, how
ever, was not so clear in his manner of execution as was his
chief. His strategy creates a suspicion that it was designed
to force Johnston to retreat and to relinquish territory. There
was an idea that Johnston would not give up Dalton, which
he had strongly fortified, but Sherman s heavy turning move
ment against his rear forced him to retreat without a battle.
The same strategy continued until Atlanta was reached, and
still Johnston s army was undefeated, while Sherman had
weakened his army by guarding a long line of communication.
Judging from this, we are disposed to suspect that Atlanta,
rather than Johnston s army, was Sherman s main objective.
Later, the historic " March to the Sea " introduces a novel
element into the question, for Sherman abandoned Hood s
army as a first objective, and chose Lee s army instead. It
will be remembered that Sherman had difficulty in getting
consent from Grant, who wanted him to ruin Hood s army
first. As it turned out, Sherman marched one thousand miles
and was several hundred miles from Lee at the end of the
campaign. If Lee s army had been his real objective there
were other ways of reaching it: first, by sending his army by
sea north from Savannah, as was suggested by Grant, which
would have taken two months, say until the end of February,
1865; second, by sending the troops by rail, as Schofield was
moved with fifteen thousand men and as Hooker was moved
with twenty-three thousand men, and, third, by marching on
a a aj. -J
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a fe -S
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fe E a
l? ^tratrgy of 1BH1-B5
Lynchburg by the Knoxville road, which would have been
about one-third to one-half the distance actually marched.
Looking upon the war with all the advantage of to-day,
it is not difficult to assume that the hopes of both sides rested
on two great armies, one in the East and one in the West, and
the destruction of either meant the destruction of the other.
This clear estimate seems to have come quite naturally and
easily to only one man during the war, and that man was
Grant. Such a conception clears away a mass of secondary
objectives, such as so-called " strategic points " along the coast
and west of the Mississippi, which consumed hundreds of thou
sands of troops and had only a minor effect on the final issue.
It must be admitted that Grant used some seventy-five thou
sand men on secondary objectives which were not successful,
in 1864, when these men would have had a great effect either
with the armies of Sherman or himself. He probably thought
that an army of one hundred and twenty thousand men was
large enough for his purposes, but he found it was a mistake.
Equally fallacious with the importance given to " strategic
points " was that ascribed to the occupation of territory. The
control of Kentucky and Tennessee was given by Grant s Fort
Donelson campaign, but the injury inflicted on the Confed
erate army by the large capture of men at Donelson and Island
Xumber 10 was the real and vital result. The control of ter
ritory that was not accompanied by the defeat of the foe
often had many disadvantages. Such was the experience of
Grant and Sherman, the former in his first advance on Vicks-
burg, and the latter in the Atlanta campaign.
For the South it was an easier task to decide upon an ob
jective because it was the weaker side and its acts were deter
mined by those of the stronger. The main idea of the strategy
of the Southern generals was to divert attention to side issues,
to induce the opposing general to weaken his forces at de
cisive points. Numerous examples of diversions are afforded
by Jackson s Valley campaign, in 1862, which kept many
WORK OF THE ENGINEERS AND THE CAVALRY
The groat Civil A\ar first introduced the railroad as a strategic factor in military operations. In the upper picture we see the
federal engineers at Yibbard Draw on Long Bridge at Washington busily at work rehabilitating a locomotive for use along the railroad
connections ot the capital with its army. Extemporized wooden structures of that time seem paltry in comparison with the great
steel cranes and derricks which our modern wrecking trains have made familiar. The railroads in control of the North were much
better equipped and guarded than those of the South, yet the bold Confederate Cavalry, under such leaders as Stuart, were ever ready
r raids to cut communications. How thoroughly they did their work whenever they got the chance, the lower picture tells.
AFTER A RAID ON THE ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD
of 1SH1-B5 +
thousand men away from McClellan ; Early s march on Wash
ington, and many cavalry raids.
The result of a study of objectives shows that, with good
troops, and safe, but not brilliant, generals on both sides, the
only way to overthrow the opponent is to attack and defeat
his main army.
The long periods of inactivity in the several armies of the
North seem to have been largely, but not always, due to
the frequent change of commanders. The other causes would
take long to analyze. Lee made six campaigns in fourteen
months, from May, 1862, to July, 1863, a performance un-
equaled in history. But McClellan s army was inactive for
ten months after Bull Run; Rosecrans army for five months
after Murfreesboro, and Grant s army for four months after
Vicksburg, while Grant s army was almost in the same class
during its ten months before Petersburg.
The concentration of scattered forces at decisive points,
which is technically called in the text-book the use of inte
rior lines, and in more homely phrase, " getting there first
with the most men," was often skilfully performed on both
a large and small scale. Thus, Johnston joined Beauregard
at Bull Run in time to win the battle; Jackson alternately
attacked the divided forces of his opponents and neutralized
their greatly superior forces, and finally joined Lee for an
other campaign; Longstreet joined Bragg to win Chicka-
mauga; Ewell joined Breckinridge to defeat Sigel. Many
opportunities were lost, even in the very campaigns mentioned,
as we see them to-day.
The conduct of pursuits confirms the idea that it is the
most difficult operation presented to a general. Johnston after
Bull Run, McClellan after Antietam, Meade after Gettysburg,
Bragg after Chickamauga, Grant after Chattanooga, and Lee
after Fredericksburg practically allowed the defeated enemy
to escape without further injury. Lee s pursuit of McClellan
in the Seven Days Battles on the Peninsula and of Meade in
Cowuriaht bu Review of Reviews Co.
This view of the magazine wharf at City Point in 1864 reveals the immensity of the transportation problem that was solved by the
North in support of its armies in the field. The Federal army in Virginia, unlike the armies of Napoleon, did not forage off the ter
ritory which it occupied. Rail and water transportation made possible the bringing of supplies long distances. Whatever point was
chosen for the army base quickly became a bustling center, rivaling the activity of any great commercial city, and giving employment
to thousands of men whose business it was to unload and forward the arriving stores and ammunition to the army in the field near by.
CITY POINT, VIRGINIA, JULY, 1864 Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
When Grant finally settled down to the siege of Petersburg, and City Point became the army base, the little village was turned tem
porarily into a great town. Winter quarters were built in the form of comfortable cabins for the reserve troops and the garrison,
and ample hospital buildings were provided. The railroad to Petersburg was controlled and operated by the army for the forwarding
of troops and stores. The supply base longest occupied by the Army of the Potomac, City Point, grew up almost in a night. With
the coming of peace the importance of the post vanished, and with it soon after the evidences of its aggrandizement.
the operations of October, 1863, had only partial success. Near
the end of the war Thomas pursuit of Hood, after Nashville,
showed a much higher efficiency than had yet been reached, and
the Appomattox campaign gives the only entirely successful
instance in about one hundred years of military history.
The campaigns of Lee and Jackson were models of their
kind. Napoleon has said that the general who makes no mis
takes never goes to war. The critic of Lee finds it hard to
detect mistakes. No general since Hannibal, and perhaps
Xapoleon, in the last two years of his campaigns, has made
war under greater disadvantages and accomplished so much
with an inferior force. While all great generals before him
inherited a ready-made army, Lee, like Washington, made his
own army. He fought soldiers of the same race and generals
of the same school as himself. His genius was shown in many
ways, but nowhere more than in his ability to calculate chances,
even when he was violating the so-called rules of war. He
used converging columns which met upon the field of battle; he
detached inferior forces against the Federals rear; he divided
his army in the presence of the foe; he uncovered his lines of
retreat and fought battles in that position; he did not hesitate
to throw his last reserve into the fight.
On two occasions he withdrew his army across the Poto
mac River, in good order and without loss, in the presence of
a powerful hostile army. His use of the ground to compen
sate for inferior numbers and to hide his movements from the
Federals shows how clearly he saw the secrets of Napoleon s
generalship, while his battles in the woods were entirely orig
inal and his use of entrenchments was effective. The power
of the modern fire-arm in the hands of his opponents forced
him to accept less decisive results than great soldiers who
preceded him. As with other great soldiers, his best success
was due to the inefficiency of his opponents in the early days.
He was probably the last of the race of generals who, like
Napoleon, dominated the field of war by genius alone. He
[ 134 ]
NEW NECESSITIES OF WARFARE
Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co.
The increased deadlines.? of firearms taught the commanders in the Civil War the habit of greatly strengthening every new position
occupied with earthworks as formidable as possible. The works in the upper picture were thrown up in a night by the Federals near
North Anna River, Virginia, in 1804. It is apparent how they would strengthen the resistance of a small force to larger numbers who
might advance across the open upon the position. In the lower picture we see the salient of " Fort Hell," with its ditch and abattis
and breastworks constructed of gabions, the result of many days work of the soldiers in anticipation of attack. This was one of the
fortifications about Petersburg, where the construction of fieldworks was developed to the highest point of efficiency.
Strategy 0f 1BH1-B5
will be replaced by the safe leader who is never brilliant, but
makes no mistakes and at the same time commands the heaviest
The absence of a broad and comprehensive plan of opera
tions was particularly noticeable on both sides. It never
seemed to have been developed in the Xorth until Grant issued
his orders for a general advance, in 1864. In the South, Long-
street seems to have prepared a strategic plan for the move
ment of all Confederate armies after Chancellorsville, but
this was not approved. The immense area occupied by the
opposing forces, greater than had ever before been occupied
in a single war, may be the excuse for this.
Great fame has come to the various generals who each
made some well-planned maneuver, which forced the foe to
relinquish territory and retreat to a rear position. McClellan
before Manassas, Rosecrans before Shelbyville, and Sherman
before Dalton did all this, but it is a debatable question
whether the final issue was hastened or delayed.
Sherman gained Atlanta with a loss of thirty-two thou
sand men, and Rosecrans gained Chattanooga with a loss of
eighteen thousand men, but the foe was not defeated. On the
other hand, Grant, in his year from the Rapidan to Appomat-
tox accomplished the desired result, but with severe losses, it
After all is said, the subject may be narrowed down to
the statement that Lee, Jackson, and perhaps Johnston han
dled inferior forces with as great skill as any commanders
since Hannibal and Napoleon.
On the other side it was also an American soldier, even
before Sedan and Mukden, who formulated the modern idea
of strategy which has been so closely followed in recent wars
to seek out the foe, get close to him, and fight it out by short-
THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS
(HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS THAT PICTURE BROADLY
THE CAMPAIGNS, FROM BULL RUN TO APPOMATTOX,
CONTINUING THROUGH VOLUME III EACH OF THE
REMAINING SEVEN VOLUMES IS DEVOTED THROUGH
OUT TO A SEPARATE PHASE OF WAR-TIME ACTIVITY.)
VOLUNTEERS ABOUT TO FACE FIRE AT BULL RUN
MCCLELLAN S TROOPS DRILLING NEAR WASHINGTON
THE TURNING POINT OF THE BATTLE
Across this little stream that was destined to mark the center of tin- first, and in many respects the most desperate, battle of the Civil
War, we see what was left of the bridge after the day had ended in a Federal rout (see "Bull Run," page 142). On the farther side
of Bull Run the Confederates under Beauregard had taken their stand with the stream as a contested barrier between them and
McDowell s troops. At daylight of July 21, 1861, Tyler s division advanced to this bridge. It was a day of confusion on both sides.
First, the Confederates were driven back in disorder by the impetuous onslaught of the Federals. These were congratulating them-
I 138 ]
RUINS OF THE STONE BRIDGE BULL RUN, VIRGINIA
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
selves upon a victory, when Johnston s reinforcements from Winchester fell upon the rear of their right, and threw the lines into con
fusion. Back across the field fled the first memorable Federal rout. The little bridge was soon groaning with the weight of the men
struggling to get across it. Finally, in frantic haste, it was destroyed by the Federals to delay the dreaded pursuit. Here Federal
engineers are rebuilding the bridge, in order to forward supplies to the army that is some thirty miles to the south in the wooded
Virginia country, but dependent on communications with the base at Washington.
[ 140 ]
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BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS
had been strife, a bloodless, political strife, for
A forty years between the two great sections of the Ameri
can nation. Xo efforts to reconcile the estranged brethren of
the same household had been successful. The ties that bound
the great sections of the country had severed one by one;
their contention had grown stronger through all these years,
until at last there was nothing left but a final appeal to the
arbitrament of the sword then came the great war, the great
est civil war in the annals of mankind.
For the first time in the nation s history the newly-elected
President had entered the capital city by night and in secret,
in the fear of the assassin s plots. For the first time he had
been inaugurated under a military guard. Then came the
opening shots, and the ruined walls of the noble fort in Charles
ton harbor told the story of the beginnings of the fratricidal
war. The fall of Sumter, on April 14, 1861, had aroused the
Xorth to the imminence of the crisis, revealing the danger that
threatened the Union and calling forth a determination to
preserve it. The same event had unified the South; four addi
tional States cast their lot with the seven which had already
seceded from the Union. Virginia, the Old Dominion, the first
born of the sisterhood of States, swung into the secession col
umn but three days after the fall of Sumter; the next day,
April 18th, she seized the arsenal at Harper s Ferry and on
the 20th the great navy-yard at Norfolk.
Two governments, each representing a different economic
[A complete record of leading events and the various engagements,
giving the troops involved and casualties between January, 1861, and
August, 1862, appears on page 346. THE Knrroits. ]
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE SOUTHERNER OF THE HOUR IX 61.
Born in New Orleans on May 28, 1818, the Southern leader upon whom at
first all eyes were turned, Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, was gradu
ated from the U. S. Military Academy in 1838. Gallant and dashing, he
won the brevets of Captain and Major in the war with Mexico and was
wounded at Chapultepec. Early in 61 he resigned from the army, and
joined the Confederacy, being in command of the Confederate forces in the
firing on Fort Sumter in April. Owing to his forceful personality, he became
a popular and noted leader in the Confederacy. After the Union defeat at
Manassas, he was looked upon as the coming Napoleon. He was confirmed as
Major-General in the Confederate army on July 30, 1861, but he had held the
provisional rank of Brigadier-General since February 20th, before a shot was
fired. After his promotion to Major-General, he commanded the Army of
the Mississippi under General A. S. Johnston, whom he succeeded at Shiloh.
He defended Charleston, S. C., in 1862-3 and afterward commanded the De
partment of North Carolina and Southeastern Virginia. He died at New
Orleans in 1893.
and political idea, now stood where there had been but one the
North, with its powerful industrial organization and wealth;
the South, with its rich agricultural empire. Both were call
ing upon the valor of their sons.
At the nation s capital all was confusion and disorder.
The tramp of infantry and the galloping of horsemen through
the streets could be heard day and night. Throughout the
country anxiety and uncertainty reigned on all sides. Would
the South return to its allegiance, would the Union be divided,
or would there be war? The religious world called unto the
heavens in earnest prayer for peace; but the rushing torrent
of events swept on toward war, to dreadful internecine war.
The first call of the President for troops, for seventy-five
thousand men, was answered with surprising alacrity. Citi
zens left their farms, their workshops, their counting rooms,
and hurried to the nation s capital to take tip arms in defense
of the Union. A similar call by the Southern President was
answered with equal eagerness. Each side believed itself in
the right. Both were profoundly sincere and deeply in earnest.
Both have won the respect of history.
After the fall of Fort Sumter, the two sides spent the
spring months marshaling their forces for the fierce conflict
that was to follow. President Lincoln had called for three-
months volunteers ; at the beginning of July some thirty thou
sand of these men were encamped along the Potomac about
the heights of Arlington. As the weeks passed, the great
Northern public grew impatient at the inaction and demanded
that Sumter be avenged, that a blow be struck for the Union.
The " call to arms " rang through the nation and aroused
the people. No less earnest was the feeling of the South, and
soon two formidable armies were arrayed against each other,
only a hundred miles apart at Washington and at Richmond.
The commander of the United States Army was Lieut.-
General Winfield Scott, whose military career had begun be
fore most of the men of 61 had been born. Aged and infirm,
Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co.
YOUNG SOUTHERNERS AT RICHMOND MAKING LIGHT OF WAR
skylarking before the lens of the Confederate photographer, we see the Boys in Gray just before Bull Run had taught them the meaning
if a battle and elated them with the conviction of their own prowess. The young and confident troops on both sides approached this
Srst severe lesson of the war in the same jocular spirit. There is not a serious face in the picture. The man flourishing the sword
bayonet and the one with the drawn dagger are marking with mock heroics their bravado toward the coming struggle, while the one
with the musket stands debonair as a comic-opera soldier. The pipe-clay cross belt and breast plate, the cock plumes in the "shapo"
of the officer, indicate that the group is of a uniformed military organization already in existence at the beginning of the war. There
was no such paraphernalia in the outfit of Southern troops organized later, when simplicity was the order of the day in camp.
Tj nil Him vlhr Bniimlrrrs IForr Ifirr
he remained in Washington. The immediate command of the
army was entrusted to Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell.
Another Union army, twenty thousand strong, lay at
Martinsburg. Virginia, under the command of Major-General
Patterson, who. like General Scott, was a veteran of the War
of 1812 and of the Mexican War.
Opposite McDowell, at Manassas Junction, about thirty
miles from Washington, lay a Confederate army under Brig
adier-General Beauregard who. three months before, had won
the homage of the South by reducing Fort Sumter. Opposed
to Patterson in the Shenandoah valley was Joseph E. John
ston with a force of nine thousand men. The plans of the
President and General Scott were to send McDowell against
Beauregard. while Patterson was to detain Johnston in the
Valley and prevent him from joining Beauregard. It was con
fidently believed that, if the two Confederate forces could be
kept apart, the " Grand Army " could win a signal victory over
the force at Manassas: and on July 16th. with waving banners
and lively hopes of victory, amid the cheers of the multitude, it
moved out from the banks of the Potomac toward the interior
of Virginia. It was a motley crowd, dressed in the varied
uniforms of the different State militias. The best disciplined
troops were those of the regular army, represented by infan
try, cavalry, and artillery. Even the navy was drawn upon
and a battalion of marines was included in the Union forces.
In addition to the regulars were volunteers from all the Xew
England States, from Xew York and Pennsylvania and from
Ohio. Michigan, and Minnesota, organizations which, in an
swer to the President s call for troops, had volunteered for
three months service. Many were boys in their teens with
the fresh glow of youth on their cheeks, wholly ignorant of
the exhilaration, the fear, the horrors of the battle-field. On
ward through the Virginia plains and uplands they marched to
the strains of martial music. Unused to the rigid discipline
of war, many of the men would drop out of line to gather
. f l_
ONE OF THE FIRST UNION VOLUNTEER REGIMENTS
The First Minnesota, a regiment that fought in the flanking column at Bull Run. On April 14, IStil, the
day after Sumter s surrender, the Federal Government received an offer of a volunteer regiment from Minne
sota, and on April ^9, the First Minnesota was mustered into service by laeutenant W. W. Sanders, U.S.A.
I nder Colonel William O. Gorman the regiment proceeded to Washington in June and. attached to Frank
lin s Brigade. Heint/elman s Division of McDowell s Army, at Bull Run gave an excellent account of itself,
finally retiring from the field in good order. A record for conspicuous bravery was sustained by the First
Minnesota throughout the war. notably its famous charge on the field of Gettysburg. July ?. 18l>S.
The photograph was taken just before the regiment left Fort knelling in 1S(U. In the front line the first from the left is Lieut. Colonel
Stephen Miller, the next is Colonel Gorman. On his left hand is Major Dyke and next to him is Adjutant W. R Leach. Between
the last two and behind them is Captain William Colvill. while at the left hand of Adjutant Loach is Captain Mark Oownie. At
the extreme right of the picture stands General J. R Sanborn with Lieutenant Joinders ^mustering officer" 1 on his right hand, and
on Sanders right is the Honorable Morton S. \Yilkinson. Colvill, as Colonel, led the regiment in its Gettysburg charge.
nil Sun Se Unlunims Jar? Ifltrr
berries or tempting fruits along the roadside, or to refill their
canteens at every fresh stream of water, and frequent halts
were necessary to allow the stragglers to regain their lines.
After a two days march, with " On to Richmond " as
their battle-cry, the army halted at the quiet hamlet of Centre-
ville, twenty-seven miles from Washington and seven miles
from Manassas Junction where lay the waiting Confederate
army of similar composition untrained men and boys. Men
from Virginia, from North and South Carolina, from the
mountains of Tennessee, from Alabama, Mississippi, and
Georgia, even from distant Arkansas, had gathered on the soil
of the Old Dominion State to do battle for the Southern cause.
Between the two armies flowed the stream of Bull Run, destined
to give its name to the first great battle of the impending con
flict. The opposing commanders, McDowell and Beauregard,
had been long-time friends ; twenty-three years before, they had
been graduated in the same class at West Point.
Beauregard knew of the coming of the Federal army.
The news had been conveyed to him by a young man, a former
government clerk at Washington, w r hose sympathies, however,
lay with the cause of the South. He won the confidence of
Beauregard. The latter sent him to the capital city bearing
a paper with two words in cipher, " Trust Bearer." With this
he was to call at a certain house, present it to the lady within,
and wait a reply. Traveling all night, he crossed the Potomac
below Alexandria, and reached the city at dawn, when the
newsboys were calling out in the empty streets the latest intel
ligence of the army. The messenger rang the doorbell at a
house within a stone s throw of the White House and delivered
the scrap of paper to the only one in the city to whom it was
intelligible. She hurriedly gave the youth his breakfast, wrote
in cipher the words, " Order issued for McDowell to march
upon Manassas to-night," and giving him the scrap of paper,
sent him on his way. That night the momentous bit of news
was in the hands of General Beauregard. He instantly wired
Copyright by Review of Renews Co.
EVE OF THE CONFLICT
Stone Church, Centreville, Virginia. Past this little stone church on the night of July 20, 1861, and long into the morning of the twenty-
first marched lines of hurrying troops. Their blue uniforms were new, their muskets bright and polished, and though some faces were
pale their spirits were elated, for after their short training they were going to take part, for the first time, in the great game of war. It
was the first move of the citizen soldier of the North toward actual conflict. Not one knew exactly what lay before him. The men
were mostly from New England and the Middle States. They had left desk and shop and farm and forge, and with the thought in
their minds that the war would last for three months the majority had been mustered in. Only the very wise and farseeing had prophe
sied the immensity of the struggle, and these were regarded as extremists. Their ideas were laughed at. So on they went in long lines
down the road in the darkness of the night, chattering, laughing and talking carelessly, hardly realizing in the contagion of their patri
otic ardor the grim meaning of real war. The battle had been well planned, but who had had the experience, even among the leaders,
to be sure of the details and the absolute carrying out of orders? With the exception of the veterans of the Mexican War, who were
regulars, there was not one who had ever maneuvered a thousand men in the field. A lesson lay before them and it was soon to come.
The surprising battle that opened early in the morning, and whose results spread such consternation through the North, was really
the result of popular clamor. The press and the politicians demanded action, and throughout the South the same confident and reck
less spirit prevailed, the same urging to see something done.
President Davis at Richmond and asked that he be reenforced
by Johnston s army.
As we have seen, General Scott had arranged that
Patterson detain Johnston in the Valley. He had even ad
vised McDowell that " if Johnston joins Beauregard he shall
have Patterson on his heels." But the aged Patterson was
unequal to the task before him. Believing false reports, he
was convinced that Johnston had an army of thirty-five thou
sand men, and instead of marching upon Johnston at Win
chester he led his army to Charlestown, twenty miles in the
opposite direction. Johnston thereupon was free to join Beau-
regard at Manassas, and he promptly proceeded to do so.
McDowell s eager troops had rested at Centreville for
two days. The time for them to test their mettle in a general
engagement was at hand. Sunday, July 21st, w r as selected as ^/^//^
the day on which to offer battle. At half -past two in the
morning the sleeping men were roused for the coming conflict.
Their dream of an easy victory had already received a rude
shock, for on the day after their arrival a skirmish between
two minor divisions of the opposing armies had resulted in
the retreat of the Union forces after nineteen of their number
lay dead upon the plain. The Confederates, too, had suffered
and fifteen of their army were killed. But patriotic enthusiasm
was too ardent to be quenched by such an incident, and eagerly,
in the early dawn of the sultry July morning, they marched
toward the banks of the stream on which they were to offer
their lives in the cause of their country.
The army moved out in three divisions commanded by
Generals Daniel Tyler, David Hunter, and S. P. Heintzel-
man. Among the subordinate officers was Ambrose E. Burn-
side, who, a year and five months later, was to figure in a far
greater and far more disastrous battle, not many miles from
this same spot; and William T. Sherman, who was to achieve
a greater renown in the coming war.
On the Southern side we find equally striking characters.
PRELUDE TO THE COMBAT BLACKBURN S FORD
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This crossing of Bull Run, was on July 18, 1861, the scene of a lively prelude to the first great combat. General Daniel Tyler, com
manding a division of McDowell s army, pushed a reconnaissance to the north hank of the stream near this Ford. Confederates posted on
the opposite bank fired upon Tyler s advance line, driving it back in disorder. Tyler then withdrew "satisfied that the enemy was in
force" at this point. This picture was taken the next year, while Rickett s division of the McDowell Corps was encamped at Manassas.
,jht by Patriot Pub. Co.
A THREE MONTHS REGIMENT THE THIRD CONNECTICUT
The Third Connecticut was present on the field of Bull Run. The men had enlisted in April, 1861, and their time was all but up in
July, for they were three months men. Their drilling had taken place for a short time in their home State and afterward in the
camps around Washington. They were mostly artisans and farmer boys with a sprinkling of mill hands and men of business from
the larger towns. The regiment was attached to Tyler s division, of McDowell s army, and suffered little in the battle. The total
losses, including deaths from sickness, in this regiment, which was mustered out at the end of its service, amounted to five all told.
It goes without saying, however, that many re-enlisted and again went to the front, where they stayed until the conflict ended.
General Joseph E. Johnston was not held by Patterson in
the Valley and with a portion of his army had reached
Manassas on the afternoon of the 20th. In the Indian wars of
Jackson s time Johnston had served his country; like Mc
Dowell and Beauregard, he had battled at the gates of Mexico ;
and like the latter he chose to cast his lot with the fortunes of
the South. There, too, was Longstreet, who after the war was
over, was to spend many years in the service of the country he
was now seeking to divide. Most striking of all was " Stone
wall " Jackson, whose brilliant military career was to astonish
The Union plan for this fateful July day was that Tyler
should lead his division westward by way of the Warrenton
turnpike to a stone bridge that crossed Bull Run, about four
miles from Centreville. At the same time the main army
under Hunter and Heintzelman was to make a detour of sev
eral miles northward through a dense forest to a ford of Bull
Run, known as Sudley s Ford. Here they were to cross the
stream, march down its right bank and, while Tyler guarded
the Stone Bridge, engage the foe on the west side of Bull
Run. The plan of the battle was admirably drawn, but the
march around to Sudley s Ford was slower than had been
expected, and it was ten o clock before the main army reached
the point west of the Stone Bridge. While the Federals were
making their plans to attack the Confederate left wing, Gen
erals Beauregard and Johnston were planning an aggressive
movement against the left wing of the Federal army. They
were to cross Bull Run by fords several miles below the Stone
Bridge and attack the Northern troops on the weaker wing
of the Union force in an effort to rout them before relief could
be sent from the Federal right. The Confederate attack was
planned to take place a few hours later than McDowell had
decided to move. The Southern troops were preparing to
cross the stream when the boom of cannon at the Stone Bridge
told that the Federals had taken the aggressive and that the
Copyright by Patriot fuo. C o.
BULL RUN BATTLEFIELD OF THE MORNING, JULY 21, 1861
Along Bull Run Creek on the morning of July 21st Tyler s division vigorously attacked from the east the Confederates under Longstreet
and Beauregard on the western bank. By this attack McDowell hoped to succeed in falling unexpectedly on the rear of the Confederate
left with the force sent on a detour of some three miles to the north. A charge of fresh troops brought forward by Beauregard in
person in the late afternoon started the panic of the raw Union volunteers. . . . "Men who had fought courageously an hour before,
had become as hares fleeing from pursuing hounds. The confusion was increased and multiplied by the presence among the fugitives
of a multitude of panic-stricken picnickers, Congressmen, civilians of every sort, and lavishly dressed women who had gone out in
carriages and carryalls to see the spectacle of a Federal army walking over the Confederates. The Confederates fed fat for days after
ward upon the provisions that the picnickers abandoned in their flight."
GENERAL BEAUREGARD S HEADQUARTERS
The handsome old colonial mansion known as the McLean House was near Manassas station, not far from Blackburn s Ford, the
scene of a sharp encounter preliminary to the battle of Bull Run. Tyler s division of McDowell s army, finding the Confederates had
retreated from Centreville, attacked near here on the morning of July 18th. A vigorous cannonade opened the action, and a shell
landing in the fireplace of the McLean house deprived General Beauregard of his dinner.
weak Confederate left was in danger of being overwhelmed
by the superior numbers of the Union right wing. Orders
countermanding the command to attack were quickly sent to
the Southerners at the lower fords, and preparations were hur
riedly made to repulse the attack of the Northern force.
Tyler reached the Stone Bridge before six in the morning
and opened fire on a Confederate force under Colonel Evans
on the other side of the run. For some time this was kept up,
and Evans was much puzzled that the Federals did not at
tempt to cross the bridge ; they merely kept up a desultory fire.
The failure of the Union troops to advance led Evans to be
lieve that Tyler s attack was only a feint and that the real
attacking force would approach from some other direction.
This belief was confirmed when he descried a lengthening line
of dust above the tree-tops far in the distance, north of the
Warrenton turnpike. Evans was now convinced (and he was
right) that the main Union army was marching to Sudley s
Ford, three miles above the Stone Bridge, and would reach the
field from that direction. Quickly then he turned about with
six companies of brave South Carolinians and a battalion of
" Louisiana Tigers " and posted them on a plateau overlook
ing the valley of Young s Branch, a small tributary of Bull
Run. Here, not far from the Matthews and Carter houses,
he awaited the coming of the Federals.
His force was stationed overlooking the Sudley and New
market road and an open field through which the Federal
troops would be forced to pass to reach the higher ground
held by the Confederates. Two 6-pound howitzers were
placed to sweep the field of approach, one at each end of
Evans line of defense.
With guns loaded, and howitzers ready to pour their
charges into an advancing force, the Southerners stood and
watched the line of dust that arose above the trees. It moved
slowly to the westward. Then, where the Sudley road turns
to the southward to cross the Sudley Ford, it followed the
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
WHERE A FEDERAL VICTORY SEEMED ASSURED
Sudley Church July 21, 1861. This Methodist Episcopal church stood a half mile south of the ford by which Hunter and Heintzel-
man crossed Bull Run. These troops crossed Cat Harpin Run, seen in the foreground, by the ford at the left, and marched southward
past the church. A mile farther south Burnside s brigade engaged the Confederate troops led by Colonel Evans. As Evans men fell
back, Johnston deemed the situation "critical." The remains at the right of the picture are of the Sudley Sulphur Spring House.
THORNTON S HOUSE BULL RUN JULY 21. 1861
Phis house, which stood some three miles north of the battlefield of the afternoon, marked the northern point of the detour of the
divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman. The Confederate Colonel Evans, who held the extreme left of Beauregard s line, and whose
suspicions had been aroused, marched upstream with half a brigade and confronted the turning column beyond the turnpike. Instead
of deploying a line of battle, Hunter sent successive detached regiments and brigades against it. Evans, heavily reinforced, took up a
new position in the rear.
trend of the highway. It reached the crossing of Bull Run,
and the line of dust faded as the Federals spread into battle-
line behind the expanse of woodland that hid each column from
the other s view.
It was nearing ten o clock. The rays of the summer sun
were beating in sweltering heat upon the waiting troops.
Those who could find shelter beneath the trees moved from
their places into the shade. Heavy banks of storm clouds
were gathering on the horizon, giving promise of relief from
oppressive warmth. A silence settled over the ranks of the
Confederates as they watched the edge of the woodland for
the first appearance of the approaching troops.
Suddenly there was a glimmer of the sunlight reflected
from burnished steel among the trees. Then, in open battle
array, the Federal advance guard, under . the command of
Colonel Burnside, emerged from the wood on a neighboring
hill, and for the first time in the nation s history two hostile
American armies faced each other in battle array. At Fort
Sumter only the stone walls had suffered ; not a drop of human
blood was shed. But here was to be a gigantic conflict, and
thousands of people believed that here on this field on this day
would be decided the fate of the Union and the fate of the
Confederacy. The whole country awaited in breathless ex
pectancy the news of this initial conflict, to become know r n as
the battle of Bull Run.
With little delay the battle opened. The Federals had a
clear advantage in numbers as their outlying forces came up;
but they met with a brave resistance. General Bee, of South
Carolina, with two brigades, crossed a valley to the south of
Evans in the face of a heavy artillery fire to a point within one
hundred yards of the Federal lines. At this short range thou
sands of shots were fired and many brave men and boys were
stretched upon the green. The outcome at this point was un
certain until the Union forces were joined by Heintzelman
with heavy reenforcements and by Sherman with a portion of
HERE "STONEWALL" JACKSON WON HIS NAME
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
ibinson House, Bull Run. "Stonewall" Jackson won his name near this house early in the afternoon of July 21st. Meeting
meral Bee s troops retreating in increasing disorder, he advanced with a battery to the ridge behind the Robinson House and held
e position until Bee s troops had rallied in his rear. "Look at Jackson standing there like a stone wall," was the sentence that gave
th to his historic nickname. It was General Bee who uttered these words, just before he fell, adding, "Rally on the Virginians."
WHERE THE CONFEDERATES WAVERED
enter of Battle of Morning July 21, 1861. North of this house, about a mile, the Confederate Colonel Evans met the columns of
urnside and Porter in their advance south from Sudley Ford. Though reinforced by General Bee, he was driven back at noon to this
ause in the valley near Young s Branch. Here a vigorous Union charge swept the whole battle to the hill south of the stream. General
ee sent for reinforcements, saying that unless he could be supported "all was lost."
Tyler s division. Bee could now do nothing but withdraw,
and in doing so his men fell into great disorder. Cheer after
cheer arose from the ranks of the Union army.
Meanwhile, Generals Beauregard and Johnston had re
mained at the right of their line, near Manassas, nearly four
miles from the scene of action, still determined to press their
attack on the Federal left if the opportunity was offered. As
the morning passed and the sounds of conflict became louder
and extended further to the westward, it became evident to the
Confederate leaders that the Federals were massing all their
strength in an effort to crush the left of the Southern army.
Plans for an aggressive movement were then abandoned, the
commanders withdrawing all their reserve forces from the
positions where they had been held to follow up the Confed
erate attack, and sending them to the support of the small
force that was holding back the Federals. After dispatching
troops to threaten the Union left, Johnston and Beauregard
galloped at full speed to the scene of the battle. They
arrived about noon at the moment when Bee s brigade was
fleeing across the valley from the hail of Federal bullets. As
the frightened men were running in the utmost disorder,
General Bee, seeing Thomas J. Jackson s brigade calmly
waiting the onset, exclaimed to his men, " Look at Jackson;
there he stands like a stone wall! " The expression spread to
the army and to the world, and that invincible soldier has since
been known as " Stonewall " Jackson.
Beauregard and Johnston found it a herculean task to
rally the fleeing men and re-form the lines, but they succeeded
at length; the battle w r as renewed, and from noon till nearly
three o clock it raged with greater fury than before. The fight
was chiefly for the possession of the plateau called the Henry
hill. Up and down the slopes the two armies surged in the
broiling sun. Beauregard, like McDowell on the other side,
led his men in the thickest of the fight. A bursting shell killed
his horse under him and tore the heel from his boot ; he mounted
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE STORM CENTER OF THE BATTLE, BULL RUN, JULY 21, 1861
ear where the ruins of this house (the Henry House) are shown, in the middle of the afternoon, the
w, undisciplined volunteers of both sides surged back and forward with the heroism and determined
>urage of rugged veterans until the arrival of fresh Confederate troops turned the tide, and in the crown-
g hour of Union victory precipitated the flight and contagious panic. The Union batteries commanded
r Ricketts and Griffin had moved across Young s Branch and taken up a position on the Henry Hill.
Dnfederate sharpshooters from bushes, fences and buildings picked off cannoneers and horses. Thirteen
onfederate and eleven Federal guns engaged in a stubborn duel till the Confederate regiments swarmed
om cover and captured the Union position. The City of Washington was now threatened.
another horse and continued the battle. At half -past two the
Confederates had been entirely driven from the plateau, had
been pressed back for a mile and a half, and for the second
time within three or four hours the Union troops raised the
shout of victory.
At three o clock, while McDowell and his men were con
gratulating themselves on having won the battle, a faint cheer
ing was heard from a Confederate army far across the hills.
It grew louder and nearer, and presently the gray lines were
seen marching gallantly back toward the scene of the battle
from which they had been driven. The thrilling cry then
passed through the Union ranks, " Johnston has come, Johns
ton has come! " and there was terror in the cry. They did not
know that Johnston, with two-thirds of his army, had arrived
the day before; but it was true that the remaining third,
twenty-three hundred fresh troops, had reached Manassas at
noon by rail, and after a forced march of three hours, under
the command of Kirby Smith, had just united with the army
of Beauregard. It was this that caused the cheering and de
termined Beauregard to make another attack on the Henry
The Union men had fought valiantly in this, their first
battle, untrained and unused to warfare as they were; they
had braved the hail of lead and of bursting shells; they had
witnessed their comrades, their friends, and neighbors fall at
their feet to rise no more. They nevertheless rejoiced in their
success. But with the long march and the five hours fighting
in the scorching July sun they were weary to exhaustion, and
when they saw the Confederates again approaching, reen-
forced with fresh troops, their courage failed and they began to
retreat down the hill. With waving colors the Confederates
pressed on, opening a volley of musketry on the retreating
Federals, and following it with another and another.
In vain McDowell and his officers attempted to rally his
panic-stricken men and re-form his lines. Only the regulars,
THE LOST CHANCE.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
CONFEDERATE FORTIFICATIONS AT MANASSAS.
Vinter 1861-2. The Confederates did not follow up their success at Bull Run. "Having won the completes! and most conspicuous
ictory of modern times, they set to work to fortify themselves for defence against the enemy they had so disastrously overthrown,
irecisely as if they had been beaten in the fight, and were called upon to defend themselves against aggression at the hands of an
nemy to be feared." It was the lost chance many military writers aver they could have swept on to Washington. The Federals
ully expected them to do so and all was alarm and confusion within the city. The North never quite got over the haunting fear
hat the Confederate army would some day redeem that error and the defenses of the capital were made well nigh impregnable.
THE ROAD THAT CHANGED HANDS TWICE
Phe Orange & Alexandria R. R. Manassas Station. Part of the eastern defenses constructed by the Confederates after "Bull Run"
luring the winter of J861-2. Confederate troops had been withdrawn in March, 1862, as the first move in the spring campaign.
Phis view, taken in A igust, 1862, after the Union occupation of the abandoned works, looks down the road towards Union Mills
ord. At the close of Pope s disastrous campaign against Richmond the railroad again fell into the hands of Lee s army.
about sixteen hundred in number, were subject to the orders
of their superiors, and they made a brave stand against the
oncoming foe while they covered the retreat of the disorganized
mass. On the Henry hill were the two powerful batteries
of Griffin and Ricketts. They had done most valiant service
while the tide of battle ebbed and flowed. But at last their
hour had come. A Confederate regiment, dashing from a
neighboring hill, poured in a deadly volley, cut down the
cannoneers almost to a man, killed their horses, and cap
tured the guns. A few minutes later General Beauregard
rode up to the spot and noticed Captain Ricketts lying on the
ground, desperately wounded. The two men had been friends
in the years gone by. Beauregard, recognizing his old friend,
asked him if he could be of any service. He then sent his own
surgeons to care for the wounded captain and detailed one of
his staff to make him comfortable when he was carried to Rich
mond as a prisoner of war.
There is little more to relate of the battle of Bull Run.
In his report McDowell stated that after providing for the
protection of the retreat from the battlefield by Porter s and
Blenker s volunteer brigades, he took command in person of
the force previously stationed for holding the road back to
Centreville and made such disposition " as would best serve
to check the enemy," at the Centreville ridge. Some hun
dreds of civilians, members of Congress and others, had come
out from Washington to witness a victory for the Grand Army,
and they saw that army scattered in wild flight to escape an
imaginary pursuer. The Confederates made no serious effort
to follow after them, for the routed Federals had destroyed the
Stone Bridge as they passed it in their retreat, and had ob
structed the other avenues of pursuit. As darkness settled over
the field the Confederates returned to their camps.
McDowell made a desperate effort to check and reor
ganize his army at Centreville, but he was powerless. The
troops refused to listen to any commands ; they rushed on and
THE PRINCIPAL FORT AT CENTREVILLE, 1861-2
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
This almost circular fort was constructed in the village of Centreville, Va., by the Confederates during the winter of 1861-2. All
about it on the North can be seen the quarters in which the Confederate troops wintered after their victory at Bull Run. This picture
was taken in March, 1862, when the Federals had occupied the abandoned works. From Centreville McDowell sent a reconnaisance
in force July 18, 1861, under General D. Tyler to feel for the Confederate position. A strong force under Longstreet was encountered
at Blackburn s Ford and a spirited engagement followed. This was the prelude to the battle of July 21st.
THE DUMMY GUNS
Here is another well-built field work of the Confederates at Centreville, Va. We are looking north along the line of the earthworks
east of the town and can see the abandoned Confederate winter quarters on the left. When the Confederates evacuated this line
dummy guns of rough hewn logs were placed in position to deceive the Federals into the belief that the works were still occupied
m force. Centreville did not fall into the hands of the Federals until the Peninsula Campaign caused its abandonment. In the lower
picture we see the dummy guns in position, and in the upper two of them are lying on the ground.
great numbers of them traveled all night, reaching Wash
ington in the morning.
These raw troops had now received their first baptism
of blood and fire. Nearly five hundred of their number were
left dead on the field of battle, and fourteen hundred were
wounded. The captured and missing brought the Federal
loss to nearly three thousand men. The Confederate loss in
killed, wounded, and missing was less than two thousand. The
Federal forces engaged were nearly nineteen thousand, while
the Confederates had more than eighteen thousand men on the
The Confederate victory at Bull Run did the South great
injury in that it led vast numbers to believe the war was over
and that the South had won. Many soldiers went home in
this belief, and for months thereafter it was not easy to recruit
the Southern armies. The North, on the other hand, was
taught a needed lesson was awakened to a sense of the mag
nitude of the task before it.
The first great battle of the American Civil War brought
joy to the Confederacy and grief to the States of the North.
As the Federal troops marched into Washington through a
drenching downpour of rain, on July 22d, the North was
shrouded in gloom. But the defeated army had not lost its
courage. The remnants of the shattered forces were gathered,
and from the fragments a mightier host was to be rallied under
the Stars and Stripes to meet the now victorious foe on future
Copyright by R
AFTER BULL RUN GUARDING THE PRISONERS.
Inside Castle Pinckney, Charleston Harbor, August, 1861. In for the prisoners. Casemate No. 1 was occupied by prisoners
these hitherto unpublished Confederate photographs we see one of from the llth New York Zouaves, who had been recruited almost
the earliest volunteer military organizations of South Carolina and entirely from the New York Fire Department. The smaller
some of the first Federal prisoners taken in the war. The picture is a nearer view of their quarters, over which they have
Charleston Zouave Cadets were
organized in the summer of
1860, and were recruited from
among the patriotic young men
of Charleston. We see in the
picture how very young they
were. The company first went
into active service on Morris
Island, January 1, 1861, and
was there on the 9th when the
guns of the battery turned
back the Star of the West ar
riving with reinforcements for
Sumter. The company was also
stationed on Sullivan s Island
during the bombardment of
Sumter, April 12-13, 1861. Af
ter the first fateful clash at Bull
Run, July 21, 1861, had taught
the North that the war was on
in earnest, a number of Federal
prisoners were brought to
Charleston and placed for safe
keeping in Castle Pinckney, then garrisoned by the Charleston
Zouave Cadets. To break the monotony of guard duty
Captain Chichester, some time in August, engaged a photog
rapher to take some pictures about the fort showing his
men. Gray uniforms with red stripes, red fatigue caps, and
white cross belts were a novelty. The casemates of the fort
had been fitted up with bunks and doors as sleeping quarters
THE PRISONERS HTH NEW YORK ZOUAVES
placed the sign " Hotel de
Zouave." We see them still
wearing the uniform of the bat
tlefield: wide dark-blue trousers
with socks covering the bot
toms, red flannel shirts with the
silver badge of the New York
Fire Department, blue jackets
elaborately trimmed with braid,
red fez caps with blue tassels,
and a blue sash around the
waist. Their regiment, the fa
mous " Ellsworth s Zouaves,"
was posted at Bull Run as a
support forRickett s and Griffin s
Batteries during the fierce
fighting of the afternoon on the
Henry House hill. They gave
way before the charge of the
Confederates, leaving 48 dead
and 7.5 wounded on the field.
About 65 of them were taken
prisoners, some of whom we see
here a month after the battle. The following October the
prisoners were exchanged. At the beginning of the war the
possession of prisoners did not mean as much to the South as
it did later in the struggle, when exchanges became almost
the last resource for recruiting the dwindling ranks. Almost
every Southerner capable of bearing arms had already joined
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Copyright by Re
SCOTT THE FIRST LIEUTENANT-GENERAL AFTER WASHINGTON.
Upon Winfield Scott, hero of the Mexican War, fell the responsibility of directing the Union armies at the outbreak of the Civil W T ar.
Sitting here with his staff in Washington, second in command only to President Lincoln, his fine countenance and bearing betoken
the soldierly qualities which made him one of the first commanders of his age. In active service for half a century, he had never lost
a battle. Born in Petersburg, Virginia, in 178(i, he was now in his seventy-fifth year. On his left in the picture stands Colonel E. D.
Townsend; on his right, Henry Van Rensselaer. General Scott retired on October 31, 18f>l.
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
THE FIRST CLASH WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI
Near here the citizens of St. Louis saw the first blood spilled in Missouri at the outbreak of the War. By
r ol (jovernor Jackson, a camp had been formed in the western suburbs of the city for drilling the militia,
t was named m honor of the Governor, and was in command of General D. M. Frost. Captain Nathaniel
Lyon was in command of the United States troops at the Arsenal in St. Louis. Lyon, on May 10th, marched
nearly five thousand strong, toward Camp Jackson, surrounded it, planted batteries on all the heights over
looking it and set guards with fixed bayonets and muskets at half cock. Meanwhile the inhabitants of
bt. .Louis had gathered in great crowds m the vicinity, hurrying thither in carriages, baggage-wagons, on
horses and afoot. Many of the men had seized their rifles and shotguns and had come too late to the as
sistance of the State troops. Greatly outnumbered by Lyon, General Frost surrendered his command, 089
m all. soners, surrounded by a line of United States soldiers, at half-past five in the afternoon
CAMP JACKSON, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, MAY, 1861
were marched out of camp, on the road leading to St. Louis, and halted. After a short wait the ominous
silence was suddenly broken by shots from the head of the column. Some of Lyon s soldiers had been
pressed and struck by the crowd, and had discharged their pieces. No one was injured. Tranquillity was
apparently restored when volley after volley broke out from the rear ranks, and men, women, and children
were seen running frantically from the scene. It was said that Lyon s troops were attacked with stones
and that two shots were fired at them before they replied. Twenty-eight citizens chiefly bystanders
including women and children were killed. As Lyon, with his prisoners, marched through the city to
the Arsenal, excitement ran high in St. Louis. A clash occurred next day between troops and citizens
and it was many weeks before the uproar over Lyon s seizure quieted down. Meanwhile Camp Jackson
became a drill-ground for Federal troops, as we see it in the picture.
WHERE WESTERN SOLDIERS WERE TRAINED BY GRANT
Here, under Ulysses S. Grant, many a Western raw recruit was whipped into shape for active service. Grant, who served under
, lor and bcott, through the Mexican War, had resigned his commission of captain in 1854 and settled in St. Louis. He was among the
first to offer h,s services to his country in 1861. He went to Springfield, Illinois, and Governor Yates gave him a desk in the Adjutant
general s office. He soon impressed the Governor with his efficiency and was made drill officer at Camp Butler. Many Illinois regi
ments, infantry, artillery, and especially cavalry, were organized and trained at Carnp Butler under the watchful eye of Grant By
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
CAMP BUTLER, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, IN 1862
May, 1861, his usefulness had become so apparent that he was made mustering officer and aide, with the complimentary rank of colonel.
In June he was appointed Colonel of the Seventh District Regiment, then at Camp Yates on the State Fair Grounds at the western
edge of Springfield. On June 28th this regiment became the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, and on July 3d started for northern
Missouri. This photograph was taken in 1862, after Grant had left Camp Butler and was winning laurels for himself as Com
mander of the District and Army of West Tennessee.
MOUNTING ARTILLERY IN FORT DARLING AT CAMP DEFIANCE
REACHING OUT FOR THE RIVER
Lcretarv ff W ne S c erC " T " , ^ SPri " g f 1 ^ ^ ^^ dCT ^-General Swift, who had been ordered by
Umcron to occupy Ca.ro at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and save it from the fate of Sumter,
Tt wt edi< us w K"; ,K Conf ; >de / at 1 !. gUnbbatS comi g P the Mississippi might visit upon it, and thus gain access to the Ohio.
cU^Tn I "T C E f hth> NiDth TCnth E1CVenth and Twdfth IUin is V lunteers * ho > b ^ an the building of
Wracks, cleared parade grounds, mounted guns, and threw up fortifications against the attack which never came. In the upper
UNCOMPLETED EARTHWORKS, CAMP DEFIANCE
DRILL GROUNDS OF THE DKKKNDKHS OF CAIRO, ILL.
pictures the men are at work rushing to completion the unfinished Fort Darling, which was situated to the left of the drill grounds
seen in the lower panorama. In the latter we see one of the innumerable drills with which the troops were kept occupied and tuned
up for the active service before them. Across the Mississippi was the battery at Bird s Point, on the Missouri shore. This and Fort
Darling were occupied by the First and Second Illinois Light Artillery, but their labors were chiefly confined to the prevention of contra
band traffic on the river. The troops at Cairo did not see any campaigning till Grant led them to Paducah, Ky., September 5-6, 1861.
By this brilliant and important victory Grant s fame sprang sud
denly into full and universal recognition. President Lincoln nominated
him major-general of volunteers, and the Senate at once confirmed the
appointment. The whole military service felt the inspiriting event.
Xicolay and Hay, i?i "Life of Lincoln. 1
THE grasp of a great section of western Kentucky and
Tennessee by the Northern armies, the capture of a
stronghold that was thought impregnable, the forced surrender
of a great army, and the bringing into public notice of a new
commander who was destined to outshine all his fellows
these were the achievements of the short, vigorous campaign
of Fort Donelson.
There were two great battle-grounds of the Civil War,
nearly a thousand miles apart Virginia and the valley of
the great river that divides the continent and the two defi
nite objects of the Northern armies during the first half of
the war period were to capture Richmond and to open the
Mississippi. All other movements and engagements were
subordinate to the dramas of these two great theaters, inci
dental and contributory. The South, on the other hand,
except for the early threatening of Washington, the Get
tysburg campaign, the raid of Morgan in Ohio, and the
expeditions of Bragg and Hood into Kentucky and Ten
nessee, was on the defensive from the beginning of the war
to the end.
In the East after the initial engagement at Bull Run
" all was quiet along the Potomac " for some months. Mc-
Clellan had loomed large as the rising hero of the war; but
McClellan did not move with the celerity that was expected
of him; the North became impatient and demanded that
Copyriyht by Review of Iti rit i
CAIRO CITIZENS WHO MAY HAVE RECALLED THIS DAY
With his hands thrust in his pockets stands General Grant, next to General McClernand, who is directly in front of the pillar of the
Cairo post-office. The future military leader had yet his great name to make, for the photograph of this gathering was taken in Sep
tember, 1861, and when, later, the whole world was ringing with his praises the citizens who chanced to be in the group must have
recalled that day with pride. Young Al Sloo, the postmaster s son, leans against the doorway on Grant s right, and next to him is
Bob Jennings; then comes Dr. Taggart, then Thomas, the mason, and Jaques, the butcher. On the extreme right, facing the camera,
is young Bill Thomas. Up in the windows sit George Olmstead and Will Smith. In his shirt sleeves, on General McClernand s left,
is C. C. Davidson. In the group about him are Benjamin Munn, Fred Theobold, John Maxey, and Phil. Howard. Perhaps these
men told their children of the morning that Grant left his headquarters at the St. Charles Hotel and met them here. Who knows?
something be done. But while the public was still waiting there
were two occurrences in the West that riveted the attention
of the nation, sending a thrill of gladness through the North
and a wave of depression over the Southland. These were the
fall of Fort Henry and of Fort Donelson.
After Missouri had been saved to the Union in spite of
the disaster at Wilson s Creek in August, 18(51, a Union army
slowly gathered in southern Illinois. Its purpose was to dis
pute with the Confederates their hold on Kentucky, which had
not seceded, and to regain control of the Mississippi. To
secure the latter end a flank movement was decided upon to
open the mighty river by moving up the Cumberland and
Tennessee the greatest flanking movement in the history of
warfare. It began at Fort Henry and ended at Vicksburg,
covered a year and five months, and cost tens of thousands of
human lives and millions of dollars worth of property but it
Eastern Kentucky, in the early days of 1802, was also
in considerable ferment. Colonel James A. Garfield had
driven the Confederate commander, General Humphrey Mar
shall, and a superior force into the Cumberland Mountains,
after a series of slight encounters, terminating at Paintsville
on the Big Sandy River, on January 10th. But one later
event gave great encouragement to the North. It was the first
substantial victory for the Union arms. General Zollicoffer
held the extreme Confederate right at Cumberland Gap and
he now joined General George B. Crittenden near Mill
Springs in central Kentucky. General Buell, in charge of the
Army of the Ohio, had placed General George H. Thomas
at Lebanon, and the latter promptly moved against this threat
ening Confederate force. A sharp engagement took place at
Logan s Cross Roads near Mill Springs on January 19th. The
Confederate army was utterly routed and Zoliicoffer was
killed. The Union loss was about two hundred and sixty, and
the Confederate over twice that number. It was not a great
[ 180 ]
CAPTAIN CLARK U. LAGOW
WINNING HIS SPURS AT CAIRO.
Few will recognize in this early and
unusual photograph the man who at
Appomattox, wore plain fatigue dress
in striking contrast with the fully
uniformed Lee. Here Grant appears in
his full-dress Brigadier-General s uni
form as he came to Cairo to assume
command of a military district includ
ing southern Illinois, September 4,
1861. Grasping at once the problems
of his new post he began the work
of reorganization, assisted by a well-
chosen staff. Without waiting for per
mission from Fremont, his immediate
superior, Commander of the Department
of the W r est, Grant pushed forward a
BRIGADIER-GENERAL U. S. GRANT
DR. JAMES SIMONS.
force and occupied Paducah, Kentucky,
before the Confederates, approach
ing with the same purpose, could arrive.
Grant was impatient to drive back the
Confederate lines in Kentucky and
Tennessee and began early to importune
Washington to be allowed to "any out
maneuvers. His keen judgment con
vinced him that these must quickly be
made in order to secure the advantage
in this outlying arena of the war.
Captain Rawlins was made Assistant
Adjutant-General by Grant, and lifted
from his shoulders much of the routine
of the post. Captain Lagow and Cap
tain Hillyer were two of the General s
aides-de-camp. Dr. James Simons was
Medical Director of the District.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co
CAPTAIN WILLIAM S. HILLYER
CAPTAIN JOHN A. RAWLINS.
battle, but its effect on the North was most stimulating, and
the people first learned to appreciate the abilities of their great
general, George H. Thomas.
It was now February, 1862. General IT. S. Grant was
in command of the Union forces in western Kentucky and
Tennessee. The opposing commander was Albert Sidney
Johnston, then reputed the ablest general of the South. At
Bowling Green, Kentucky, he had thirty thousand men. Be
lieving, perhaps, that he could not hold Kentucky, he deter
mined to save Tennessee for the South and took his stand at
On February 2d, 1862, General Grant left Cairo with
his army of seventeen thousand men and on transports moved
up the Ohio and the Tennessee to attack Fort Henry. Ac
companying him was Flag-Officer Foote with his fleet of seven
gunboats, four of them ironclads.
Fort Henry was garrisoned by an army of about three
thousand men under the command of General Lloyd Tilghman,
a brave officer who was destined to give his life for the Confed
erate cause, the following year, near Vicksburg. It covered
about three acres and mounted seventeen heavy guns. G rant s
plan of attack was to land his army four miles below the fort,
to move across the country and seize the road leading to Fort
Donelson, while Foote should move up the river with his fleet
and turn his guns on the Confederate batteries.
On February 6th, Foote formed his vessels into two lines,
the ironclads the Cincinnati, the Caronddct, the Essex, and
the St. Louis forming a front rank. Slowly and cautiously
he approached the fort, firing as he went, the guns on the
parapet answering those of the fleet. Several of the Confed
erate guns were disabled. The fleet was yet unhurt when the
first hour had passed. Then a 24-pound shot struck the Essex,
crashed through her side and penetrated her boiler, instantly
killing both her pilots and flooding the vessel from stem to
stern with scalding steam. The Essex, wholly disabled, drifted
THE UNLUCKY ESSEX AFTER FORT HENRY
The thousand-ton ironclad Essex received
the severest punishment at Fort Henry.
Fighting blood surged in the veins of Com
mander W. D. Porter, son of Admiral
David Porter and brother of Admiral
David D. Porter. The gunboat which
he led into action at Fort Henry was
named after the famous Essex which his
father commanded in the War of 1812.
Fifteen of the shots from Fort Henry
struck and told upon the Essex, the last
one penetrating her armor and piercing
her middle boiler. Commander Porter,
standing among his men directing the fight,
was terribly scalded by the escaping steam,
COMMANDER W. D. PORTER
as were twenty-seven others. Wron
ly suspected of disloyalty at the outbra
of the war, Commander Porter s condu
during the struggle gave the lie to su(
calumny. He recovered after Fort Henr,
and was made Commodore in July, 186
Again in command of the Essex he a
tempted unsuccessfully to destroy tl
dread Confederate ram Arkansas at Vick
burg on July 22d. Porter and the Ess(
then joined Farragut s fleet. His shel
helped the Union forces to repulse tl
Confederates at Baton Rouge, August 5tl
and he witnessed the blowing up of tl:
Arkansas the following day. He die
May 1, 1864.
Copyright uy neview uj neviews Co.
THE ESSEX TWO YEARS LATER
down stream, while her companion ships continued their ad
vance and increased their fire.
Presently, a sound exceeding the roar of cannon w r as heard
above the tumult. A great gun in the fort had exploded,
killing or disabling every man who served it. A great 10-inch
columbiad was also destroyed. Tilghman, seeing that he had
no hope of holding the fort, decided to save his army by send
ing it to Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. This he
did, reserving fewer than a hundred men to work the guns.
He then raised the white flag and surrendered the seventy-
eight that remained. Grant had failed to reach the road to
Fort Donelson until the Confederates had escaped. The
Southerners hastened across the country and added their num
bers to the defenders of Donelson and by so doing they de
ferred surrender for ten days.
Fort Donelson was a fortified enclosure of a hundred
acres that crowned a plateau on the Cumberland River. It
was just south of the boundary between Kentucky and Tennes
see and close by the little village of Dover, consisting of a
court-house, a two-story tavern, and a few houses scattered
about. Beneath the bluff and on the river bank were two
powerful batteries commanding the approach to the river.
Outside the fort and stretching far along the ridges that en
closed it were rifle-pits, lines of logs covered with yellow clay.
Farther beyond, the hillsides were covered with felled trees
whose interlacing branches w r ere supposed to render the ap
proach of the foe impossible under fire.
At this moment Donelson was held by eighteen thousand
men under the command of General John B. Floyd, late Sec
retary of War in the cabinet of Buchanan. Next to him were
Gideon J. Pillow and Simon B. Buckner. The Union army
under Grant was divided into three parts under the respective
commands of Charles F. Smith, a veteran of the regular army;
John A. McClernand, an Illinois lawyer and member of Con
gress, and Lew Wallace, the future author of " Ben Hur."
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE GUNBOAT THAT FIRED THE FIRST SHOT AT FORT HENRY
Hero, riding at anchor, lies the flagship
of Foote, which opened the attack on
Fort Henry in the first movement to
break the backbone of the Confederacy,
and won a victory before the arrival
of the army. This gunboat, the Cincinnati,
was one of the seven flat-bottom iron
clads built by Captain Eads at Carondclet,
Missouri, and Mound City, Illinois, during
the latter half of 1861. When Grant finally
obtained permission from General Halleck
to advance the attack upon Fort Henry
on the Tennessee River, near the border of
Kentucky, Flag Officer Foote started up
the river, February 2, 1862, convoying the
transports, loaded with the advance de
tachment of Grant s seventeen thousand
troops. Arriving before Fort Henry on
February 6th, the intrepid naval com
mander at once began the bombardment
with a well-aimed shot from the Cincinnati.
The eleven heavy guns of the fort responded
in chorus, and an iron rain began to fall
with telling effect upon the Cincinnati,
the Essex, the Carondelet, and the St.
Louis, which were steaming forward half a
mile in advance of the rear division of the
squadron. At a range of 1,700 yards the
Cincinnati opened the engagement. After
a little over an hour of heavy firing the
colors on Fort Henry were lowered and
General Tilghman surrendered it to Flag-
Officer Foote. When General Grant ar
rived an hour later, Foote turned over the
fort to him and returned to Cairo with his
With waving banners the divisions of Smith and McCler-
nand marched across country on February 12th, arriving at
noon and encircling the doomed fort ere nightfall. Smith was
stationed on the left and McClernand on the extreme right,
near the village of Dover. This left an open space in the
center, to be filled by Lew Wallace, who arrived with his divi
sion the next day. On the 13th there was a continuous bom
bardment from morning till night, punctuated by the sharp
crack of the sharpshooter s rifle.
The chief action of the day that involved the infantry was
an attempt to capture a battery on a hill, near the center of
the Confederate line of battle, known as Maney s Battery,
commanded by Captain Maney, of Tennessee. This bat
tery had annoyed McClernand greatly, and he delegated his
third brigade to capture it. The charge was led by Colonel
Morrison of Illinois, and a braver one never was made through
out the whole period of the war. The men who made it were
chiefly youths from the farms and workshops of Illinois. With
no apparent thought of danger they sallied forth, determined
at all hazards to capture the battery on the hill, which stood out
in relief against the sky. As they ran up the hill, firing as
they w r ent, their numbers were rapidly thinned by the terrific
cross-fire from this battery and two others on adjoining hills.
Still the survivors pushed on and their deadly fire thinned the
ranks of the men at the battery. At length when they came
within forty yards of the goal a long line of Confederate mus
ketry beside the battery suddenly burst into flame and a storm
of bullets cut down the brave boys of Illinois, with fearful
slaughter. Even then they stood for fifteen minutes, return
ing volley for volley, before retreating. Reaching the foot of
the hill, they rallied under the Stars and Stripes, and returned
to the assault. Even a third time they charged, but the dry
leaves on the ground now caught fire, the smoke stifled
them, and they had to retreat. As they returned down
the hill, Lew Wallace tells us, " their ears and souls were
[ 18G ]
With the shots from the Confederate batteries ringing and bounding off
her iron plates, this gallant gunboat that Foote had chosen for his flag
ship, entered the zone of fire at Fort Donelson. In the confined space
of her smoke-filled gun-deck, the river sailors were loading and firing the
heavy broadsides as fast as the great guns could be run out and aimed
at the frowning line of entrenchments on the river bank. From them
the concentrated hail of iron was poured upon her and the marksman
ship was good. Fifty-nine times was this brave vessel struck. But
her armored sides withstood the heavy shocks although the plating,
dented and bent, bore record of each impact. Nearer and nearer grew
the forts as up the narrow channel the flag-ship led the way, the Louis-
Tillc, the Carondelet, and the Pittsburgh belching their fire at the wooded
heights, as though endeavoring to attract the attention of the Con
federate gunners to themselves and save the flag-ship from receiving
more than her share. Up in the pilot-house the brave man who knew the
channel stood at the wheel, his eyes firmly fixed ahead; and on the
" texas," as the upper deck was called, within speaking distance of him,
stood Foote himself. A great shot, aimed accurately as a minie ball,
struck the frail pilot-house. It was as if the vessel s heart was pierced.
The wheel was swept away from the pilot s hand and the brave river
guide was hurled into the corner, mangled, bleeding and soon to die.
Flag Officer Foote did not escape. He fell badly wounded in the leg
THE FLAG-SHIP ST. LOUIS VIEWED
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
LOUISVILLE A FIGHTER AT
by a fragment of the shell a wound from which he never fully re
covered. Helpless now, the current swept the St. Louis bow around,
arid past her consorts that were still fighting, she drifted down the stream
and out of action; later, in convoy of the Louisville, she returned to
Cairo, leaving the Carondelet and Pittsburgh to escort the transports.
Meanwhile on shore, Grant was earning his first laurels as a soldier in
a big battle. The disabling of the gunboats caused the Confederates
to make the fatal attack that resulted so disastrously for them. Assail
ing Grant s right wing that held a strong position, on the 15th of
February, 19,000 men were hurled against a force 8,000 greater in number.
But the repulse was complete. Shattered they retreated to their works,
and in the morning of the 16th, the Confederate general, Buckner,
surrendered. About 14,000 prisoners were taken. The Federal loss
was nearly 3,000, and that of the Southern cause about 1,000 less. For
the capture of Fort Donelson Grant was made major-general. The
first step to the conquest of the Mississippi had been achieved. In
October, 1862, the river fleet was transferred from the Army to the
Navy Department, and as there was another vessel in the service, bear
ing the same name the St. Louis was renamed the Baron de Kalb. At
Fort Henry, she went into action lashed to the Carondelet on account of
the narrowness of the stream; and later again, the gallant gunboat won
laurels at Island No. 10, Fort Pillow, Memphis, and Vicksburg.
riven with the shrieks of their wounded comrades, upon
whom the flames crept and smothered and charred where
Thus ended the 13th of February. That night the river
gunboats, six in number, four of them ironclads, under the
command of Andrew H. Foote, arrived. Grant had sent them
down the Tennessee to the Ohio and up the Cumberland, to
support his army at Fort Donelson. On the 14th, about three
in the afternoon, Foote steamed with his four ironclads to a
point in the river within four hundred yards of the two power
ful batteries on the river bank under the fort and opened fire
with his cannon while continuing to advance. The reply from
the Confederate batteries was terrific and many of their
shots struck home. In a short time the decks of the vessels
were slippery with human blood. Foote himself was severely
wounded. At length a solid shot struck the pilot house of the
flagship and tore away the pilot wheel. At almost the same
moment another gunboat was disabled. The two vessels, one
of which had been struck fifty-nine times, could no longer be
managed; they turned about with the eddies of the river and
floated down with the current. The others followed.
The Confederates raised a wild shout of joy at this, their
second victory since the coming of the Union army. But what
will be the story of the morrow? With the reenforcements
brought by Foote, Lew Wallace s division, Grant s army was
now swelled to twenty-seven thousand, and in spite of the
initial repulse the Federals felt confident of ultimate victory.
But a dreary night was before them. The springlike weather
had changed. All that fearful night of February 14th there was
a fierce, pitiless wind with driving sleet and snow. Thousands
of the men, weary of the burden of their overcoats and blan
kets during the warm preceding days, had thrown them away.
Now they spent the night lying behind logs or in ditches or
wherever they could find a little protection from the wintry
blasts. General Floyd, knowing that Grant s army was much
THE ADVENTUROUS GUNBOAT CONES TOG A
Lying at anchor in the Ohio River this little wooden gunboat is having the finishing touches put to her equipment while her officers
and men are impatiently waiting for the opportunity to bring her into action. A side-wheel river steamer originally, she was pur-
chased at Cincinnati by Commander John Rodgers in the spring of 1861 and speedily converted into a gunboat. Her boilers and
steam pipes were lowered into the hold and the oaken bulwarks five inches thick which we see were put on her and pierced for guns.
She got her first taste of fighting when, at Lucas Bend, she engaged the land batteries and a Confederate gunboat, September 10, 1861.
She was present at Fort Henry in the second division of the attacking fleet, and also at Fort Donelson.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
A sister-ship of the Conestoga. She was present both at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson.
stronger than his own, decided, after consulting with Pillow
and Euckner, to attack the Union right at dawn on the 15th.
The night was spent in preparing for this, and in the
morning Pillow with ten thousand men fell upon McClernand,
and Buckner soon joined him with an additional force. Toward
noon many of McClernanxTs men ran short of powder and he
was forced to recede from his position. Pillow seems then to
have lost his head. He felt that the whole Union army was
defeated, and though the road to Nashville was open, the
Confederates made no attempt to escape. Just then General
Grant rode upon the scene. He had heen absent all morning
down the river consulting Foote, not knowing that the Con
federates had planned an escape. This moment, says Lew
Wallace, was the crisis in the life of Grant.
Hearing the disastrous news, his face flushed for a mo
ment; he crushed some papers in his hand. Next instant he
was calm, and said in his ordinary tone, to McClernand and
Wallace, " Gentlemen, the position on the right must be re
taken." Then he galloped away to General Smith. In a short
time the Union lines were in motion. General Smith made a
grand assault on the Confederate outworks and rifle-pits.
When his lines hesitated Smith waved his cap on the point of
his sword and rode in front, up the hill, in the hottest fire of the
foe, toward the rifle-pits and they were carried. At the same
moment Lew Wallace was leading his division up another
slope with equal gallantry. Here again the Confederates re
tired, and the road to Nashville was no longer open. Further
more, Smith held a position from which he could shell the fort
on the inside, and nothing was left to the inmates but surrender
or slaughter an the morrow.
A council was held by Floyd, Pillow, and Buckner.
Buckner, who was a master in the art of warfare, declared that
he could not hold his position for half an hour in the morning.
The situation was hopeless. Floyd was under indictment at
Washington for maladministration in the Buchanan cabinet.
The Captured Commanders of Forts Henry
and Donelson. It requires as much moral
courage to decide upon a surrender, even when
odds are overwhelming, as it does physical
bravery, in maintaining a useless fight to the
death. Brigadier-General Tilghman, who com
manded the Confederate Fort Henry on the
Tennessee and General Simon Bolivar Buckner
in command of the Confederate Fort Donelson
a much stronger position on the Cumberland
only a few miles away were men who pos
sessed this kind of courage. Both had
the misfortune to hold untenable positions.
Each displayed generalship and sagacity and
only gave up to the inevitable when holding
out meant nothing but wasted slaughter and
the sacrifice of men who had been called upon
to exert every human effort. Fort Henry, ou
the banks of the Tennessee, was held by a few
thousand men and strongly armed with
twenty guns including one 10-inch Columbiad.
But on the Cth of February it fairly lay in
the possession of the Federals before a shot
had actually been fired, for Grant with 17,000
men had gained the rear of the fortification
after his move from Cairo on the 30th of the
previous month. The actual reduction of the
fort was left to the gunboat flotilla under
Flag Officer Footc, whose heavy bombard
ment began early in the morning. General
Tilghman had seen from the first that the
position could not be held. He was trapped
on all sides, but he would not give way without
a display of resistance. Before the firing be
gan, he had sent off most of the garrison and
maintained the unequal combat with the gun
boats for an hour and a quarter with less than
a hundred men, of whom he lost twenty-one.
Well did this handful serve
the guns on the river bank.
One shot struck the gun
boat Exxex, piercing her
boilers, and wounding and
scalding twenty-eight men.
But at last, enveloped on
all sides, his retreat cut off
the troops who had been
ordered to depart in the
morning , some three
thousand in number, had
reached Fort Donelson,
twelve milesaway General
Tilghman hauled down his
flag, surrendering himself
and eighty-four men as
prisoners of war. Here ws
see him a brave figure of
a man clad in the uniform
of a Southern Colonel.
There was never the slight
est doubt of his courage or
of his proper discretion in
making this surrender. Only
for a short time was he held
a prisoner, when he was
exchanged and welcomed
back with all honor into
the ranks of the Confeder
acy, and given an impor
tant command. He did not,
however, live long to serve
his cause, for shortly after
rejoining the army he was
killed at the battle of
Baker s Creek, Mississippi,
on the 16th of May, 1863.
GENERAL LLOYD TILGIIM.VM.
TWO UNWILLING GUESTS OF
Copyright by Review of K
BUCKNER, THE DEFENDER OF DONELSON
It is not often that on the battlefield ties of
friendship are cemented that last a lifetime,
and especially is this so between conqueror and
conquered. Fort Donelson, that was, in a
measure, a repetition of Fort Henry, saw two
fighting foes become thus united. It was im
possible for the garrison of Fort Donelson to
make its escape after the flotilla of gunboats
had once appeared in the river, although
General Floyd, its senior commander, the
former Secretary of War under President
Buchanan, had withdrawn himself from the
scene tendering the command to General
Pillow, who in his turn, after escaping with
his own brigade, left the desperate situation
to be coped with by General Buckner. Assailed
in the rear by an army that outnumbered the
defenders of the fort by nearly eight thousand
and with the formidable gunboats hammering
his entrenchments from the river, Buckner
decided to cut his way out in a desperate
charge, but being repulsed, saw his men flung
back once more into the fort. There was
nothing for it but to make terms. On Febru
ary 16th, in a note to Grant he asked what
might be granted him. Here, the coming
leader won his nickname of "Unconditional
Surrender" Grant. Buckner was informed
that the Federal army was about to move
upon his works. Hurt and smarting under
his position, he sent back a reply that in a
few short hours he would, perhaps, have been
willing to recall. Yielding to circumstances he
accepted what he bluntly pronounced, "un
generous and unchivalrous terms." But when
the capitulation had taken
place and nearly fifteen
thousand men had surren
dered, a greater number
than ever before laid down
their arms upon the conti
nent, Grant was so generous,
that then and there began
the friendship that grew as
close as if the two men were
brothers of the blood. Most
of the prisoners were pa
roled. Each one was al
lowed to retain his personal
baggage, and the officers to
keep their side arms. Grant
had known Buckner in
the Mexican War, and re
ceived him after the battle
as his guest. For a short
time General Buckner was
kept a prisoner at Fort
Warren until he was ex
changed. But the friend
ship between the two leaders
continued. When General
Grant, after having been
twice President, failed in
his business career. Buckner
sent him a check, trusting
that it might be of use in
his time of trouble. Grant,
shortly before his death,
wrote his old-time comrade
and antagonist requesting
that Buckner do him the
final honors by becoming
one of his pallbearers.
He declared that he must not be taken, and that with his Vir
ginia troops he would escape on two little boats that were to
arrive from Nashville in the morning. He passed the com
mand to Pillow, and Pillow, declaring that he too would
escape, passed it on to Buckner. Floyd and Pillow with their
men made good their escape; so did Colonel Forrest, the cav
alry leader, and his mounted force.
In the early morning Buckner sent a note to Grant offer
ing to capitulate. The answer is well known. Grant de
manded " unconditional surrender," and added, " I propose
to move immediately on your works." Buckner was too good
a soldier to sacrifice his men in needless slaughter. His men
were so worn with eighty-four hours of fighting and watching
that many of them had fallen asleep while standing in battle-
line and under fire. He accepted the " ungenerous and un-
chivalrous terms," as he pronounced them, and surrendered
Fort Donelson and the army, consisting of at least fourteen
thousand men, with all its stores of ammunition. The Union
loss was over twenty-eight hundred men. The Confederate
loss, killed and wounded, was about two thousand.
The capture of Fort Donelson did three things. First,
it opened up the way for the Federal army to penetrate the
heart of the western South and gave it control of Kentucky
and of western Tennessee. Second, it electrified the North
with confident hopes of ultimate success. It was the first great
victory for the North in the war. Bull Run had been a moral
victory to the South, but the vanquished were weakened
scarcely more than the victors. At Donelson, the victors gained
control of an extensive territory and captured a noble army
which could ill be spared by the South and which could not be
replaced. Third, the capture of Donelson forced before the
nation a new man Ulysses S. Grant.
THE PLUCKY LITTLE WOODEN GUNBOAT TYLER ITS FLANKING FIRE
ON THE CONFEDERATE TROOPS CHARGING ACROSS THE RAVINE OF DILL S
BRANCH, CLOSE BY THE RIVER, GREATLY ASSISTED HURLBUT, COMMANDER
OF THE FEDERAL LEFT, IN HOLDING OFF WITHERS* GALLANT ATTACK
i.^4 J ^
kv m <^fea*f
^OP* . / -
THE DEFENDERS OF GRANT S LAST LINE AT SHILOII
These heavy guns when this picture was taken had not been moved from the actual position they held in the afternoon of the battle
of Shiloh, April 6, 1862. In one of the backward movements of Grant s forces in the afternoon of that day General Prentiss, isolated
by the retirement of troops in his flanks, fought till overwhelmed by the Confederates, then surrendered the remnant of his division.
Encouraged by this success General Bragg ordered a last desperate charge in an effort to turn the left of the re-formed Federal line.
Onward swept the Confederates toward a grim line of batteries, which Colonel Webster, of Grant s staff, had ranged along the top of
the bluff from a quarter to a half a mile from Pittsburg Landing. The line of artillery overlooked a deep ravine opening into the
| 1*J4 J
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Copyriiiht by lierirw of Itevir.wx ( <>.
GUNS THAT HELD THEIR GROUND AT PITTSBURG LANDING
Tennessee River. Into this and up its precipitous side General Withers dashed with two brigades. The gunboats Tyler and Lexington
in the river joined with Webster s batteries upon the ridge and a frightful fire was poured into the ranks of the advancing Con
federates. In the face of this, although finding himself unsupported save by Gage s battery, Withers led on his men. The division
that he had expected to reenforce him had been withdrawn by the order of General Beauregard. To his men working their way up
the slope came the order to retire. General Chalmers, of Withers Division, did not get the word. Down in the ravine his men alone
of the whole Confederate army were continuing the battle. Only after nightfall did lie retire.
SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE
No Confederate who fought at Shiloh has ever said that he found
any point on that bloody field easy to assail. Colonel William Preston
Johnston (Son of the Confederate General., Albert Sidney Johnston, killed at
IN the history of America many battles had been fought, but
the greatest of them were skirmishes compared with the
gigantic conflicts of the Old World under Marlborough and
Napoleon. On the field of Shiloh, for the first time, two great
American armies were to engage in a mighty struggle that
would measure up to the most important in the annals of Eu
rope. And the pity of it was that the contestants were brethren
of the same household, not hereditary and unrelenting enemies.
At Fort Donelson the western South was not slain it w r as
only wounded. The chief commander of that part of the coun
try, Albert Sidney Johnston, determined to concentrate the
scattered forces and to make a desperate effort to retrieve the
disaster of Donelson. He had abandoned Bowling Green, had
given up Nashville, and now decided to collect his troops at
Corinth, Mississippi. Next in command to Johnston was Gen
eral Beauregard who fought at Bull Run, and who had come
from Virginia to aid Johnston. There also came Braxton
Bragg, whose name had become famous through the laconic
expression, " A little more grape, Captain Bragg," uttered by
Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista; Leonidas Polk who, though
a graduate of West Point, had entered the church and for
twenty years before the war had been Episcopal bishop of
Louisiana, and John C. Breckinridge, former Vice President
of the United States. The legions of the South were gath
ered at Corinth until, by the 1st of April, 1862, they num
bered forty thousand.
A brilliant Southern leader, whose early
loss was a hard blow to the Confederacy.
Albert Sidney Johnston was a born fighter
with a natural genius for war. A West
Pointer of the ("lass of 26, he had led a
strenuous and adventurous life. In the
early Indian wars, in the border conflicts
in Texas, and in the advance into Mexico,
he had always proved his worth, his
bravery and his knowledge as a soldier.
At the outbreak of the Civil War he had
already been brevetted Hrigadier-General,
and had been commander of the military
district of Utah. An ardent Southerner,
he made his choice, dictated by heart and
conscience, and the Federal authorities
GENERAL A. S. JOHNSTON, C. S. A.
knew the loss they would sustain and the
gain that would be given to the cause of
the Confederacy. In 01 he was as
signed to a district including Kentucky
and Tennessee with the rank of General.
At once he displayed his gifts as an or
ganizer, but Shiloh cut short a career that
would have led him to a high place in fame
and history. The early Confederate suc
cesses of the 6th of April were due to his
leadership. His manner of death and
his way of meeting it attested to his
bravery. Struck by a minie ball, he kept
in the saddle, falling exhausted and dying
from the loss of blood. His death put the
whole South into mourning.
Copyright by Review of Keviewx Co.
CAMP OF THE NINTH MISSISSIPPI
The story of this regiment is told on page 201.
To no one who was close to him in the
stirring scenes of the early conflict in the
West did Grant pay higher tribute than to
this veteran of the Mexican War who was
his Chief of Staff. He was a man to be
relied upon in counsel and in emergency,
a fact that the coming leader recognized
from the very outset. An artillery officer
and engineer, his military training and
practical experience made him a most
valuable executive. He had also the gift
of leading men and inspiring confidence.
Always cool and collected in the face of
danger, and gifted with a personality that
won friends everywhere, the reports of all
of his superiors show the trust and con
fidence that were reposed in him. In
BRIG.-GEN. J. D. WEBSTER
April, 1861, he had taken charge of the
fortifications at Cairo, Illinois. He was
with Grant at Paducah, at Forts Henry
and Donelson, and at Shiloh where he
collected the artillery near the Landing
that repelled the final Confederate attack
on April 6th. He remained Chief of
Staff until October, 1862. On October
14th, he was made a Brigadier-General of
Volunteers, and was appointed superin
tendent of military railroads in the De
partment of Tennessee. Later he was
Chief of Staff to General Sherman, and
again proved his worth when he was with
General Thomas at Hood s defeat before
Nashville in December, 1864. On March
13, 1865, he received the brevet of Major-
General of Volunteers.
Meantime, the Union army had moved southward and was
concentrating at Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennessee River,
an obscure stopping place for boats in southern Tennessee,
and some twenty miles northeast from Corinth. The name
means more now than merely a landing place for river craft.
It was clear that two mighty, hostile forces were drawing to
gether and that ere long there would be a battle of tremen
dous proportions, such as this Western hemisphere had not
General Grant had no idea that the Confederates would
meet him at Pittslmrg Landing. He believed that they would
wait for an attack on their entrenchments at Corinth. The
position his army occupied at the Landing was a kind of quad
rilateral, enclosed on three sides by the river and several small
streams that flow into it. As the early days of April passed
there were ominous rumors of the coming storm; but Grant
was so sure that Johnston would not attack that he spent the
night of the 5th of April at Savannah, some miles down the
It was Saturday night. For two weeks the Union troops
had occupied the undulating tableland that stretched away
from the river at the Landing. There was the sound of the
plashing streams overflowing from recent rains, there were
revelry and mirth around the thousand camp-fires; but there
was no sound to give warning of the coming of forty thou
sand men, who had for two days been drawing nearer with a
steady tread, and during this night were deploying around
the Union camp, only a mile away. There was nothing to
indicate that the inevitable clash of arms was but a few hours
in the future.
At the dawn of day on Sunday, April 6th, magnificent
battle-lines, under the Confederate battle-flag, emerged from
the woods on the neighboring hills within gunshot of the Fed
eral camps. Whether the Union army was really surprised
has been the subject of long controversy, which we need not
[ 198 ]
In the Southern record of the battle of Shiloh, the name of the Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, stands out in red letters. It
was composed of the best blood of the city, the dandies of their day. Here we see the officers of the Fifth Company, in the first year
of the war while uniforms were bright, sword-belts pipe-clayed, and buttons glistening. I nder the command of Captain W. Irving
Hodgson, this company made its name from the very first.
SOUTHERN BOYS IN BATTLE
Here we see plainly shown the extreme youth of some of the enlisted men of the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Not one of
the lads here pictured is within a year of his majority. We hardly realize how young the fighters on both sides were; only their faces
and the records can show it. At Shiloh, with Anderson s brigade of brave fighters, these young cannoneers answered to the call.
Anderson was first in the second line of battle at the beginning. Before the action was twenty minutes old he was at the front; and
with the advance, galloping over the rough ground, came the Washington Artillery.
enter. Certainly, the attack on it was most sudden, and in con
sequence it fought on the defensive and at a disadvantage
throughout the day.
General Hardee s corps, forming the first line of battle,
moved against the outlying division of the Union army, which
was commanded by General Benjamin Prentiss, of West Vir
ginia. Before Prentiss could form his lines Hardee s shells
began bursting around him, but he was soon ready and, though
pressed back for half a mile in the next two or three hours, his
men fought like heroes. Meanwhile the further Confederate
advance under Bragg, Polk, and Breckinridge was extending
all along the line in front of the Federal camps. The second
Federal force to encounter the fury of the oncoming foe was
the division of General W. T. Sherman, which was cut to
pieces and disorganized, but only after it had inflicted frightful
loss on the Confederate army.
General Grant, as we have noted, spent the night at
Savannah, a town nine miles by way of the river from Pitts-
burg Landing. As he sat at breakfast, he heard the distant
boom of cannon and he quickly realized that Johnston s army
had attacked his own at the Landing. Instantly he took a boat
and started for the scene of the conflict. At Crump s Landing,
about half way between the two, General Lew Wallace was
stationed with a division of seven thousand men. As Grant
passed Crump s Landing, he met Wallace and ordered him to
be ready for instant marching when he was called for. When
Grant arrived at Pittsburg Landing, about eight o clock in the
morning, he found a tremendous battle raging, and he spent
the day riding from one division commander to another, giving
directions and cheering them on as best he could.
About two and a half miles from the Landing stood a little
log church among the trees, in which for years the simple
folk of the countryside had been wont to gather for worship
every Sunday morning. But on this fateful Sunday, the
demon of war reigned supreme. The little church was known
Irilnlt It? 3f trsl
as Shiloh to all the country around, and it gave its name to the
great battle that raged near it on that memorable day.
General Prentiss had borne the first onset of the morning.
Pie had been pressed back half a mile. But about nine o clock,
after being reen forced, he made a stand on a wooded spot with
a dense undergrowth, and here he held his ground for eight
long hours, until five in the afternoon, when he and a large
portion of his division were surrounded and compelled to sur
render. Time after time the Confederates rushed upon his
position, but only to be repulsed with fearful slaughter. This
spot came to be known as the " Hornet s Nest." It was not
far from here that the Confederates suffered the irreparable
loss of the day. Their noble commander, Albert Sidney Johns
ton, received his death wound as he was urging his troops to
force back Hurlbut s men. He w 7 as riding in the center of
the fight, cheering his men, when a minie ball cut an artery of
his thigh. The wound was not necessarily fatal. A surgeon
could easily have saved him. But he thought only of victory
and continued in the saddle, raising his voice in encouragement
above the din of battle. Presently his voice became faint, a
deadly pallor blanched his cheek. He was lifted from his
horse, but it was too late. In a few minutes the great com
mander was dead, from loss of blood.
The death of Johnston, in the belief of many, changed the
result at Shiloh and prevented the utter rout or capture of
Grant s army. One of Johnston s subordinates wrote : " Johns
ton s death was a tremendous catastrophe. Sometimes the
hopes of millions of people depend upon one head and one arm.
The West perished with Albert Sidney Johnston and the
Southern country followed." Jefferson Davis afterward de
clared that " the fortunes of a country hung by a single thread
on the life that was yielded on the field of Shiloh."
Beauregard succeeded to the command on the fall of
Johnston and the carnage continued all the day till dark
ness was falling over the valleys and the hills. The final charge
THE BOATS THAT TURNED THE TIDE AT SHILOH
PHOTOGRAPHED A PEW DAYS AFTER THE BATTLE
The assistance rendered by these Tennessee River boats that had been pressed from their peaceful occupa
tions into the service of the army, was of such immense importance as to become a great factor in the turn
ing of the battle tide that saved the Federal cause. General Grant s headquarters in the early morning of
April 6th was some miles from where the fight began. It was at Savannah, on the Tennessee, and as soon
as the cannonade announced the opening of the battle, Grant transferred his headquarters to the Tigress,
which lies between the other vessels in the photograph. The steamer on the right is the Universe, the lar
gest of the transports present. At one o clock General Buell, pushing ahead of his troops, reached the river
bank, and the two leaders held a conference on the upper deck of the Tigress. It was touch and go whether
the troops fighting in the forest, beyond the landing, could hold their ground. The Confederate General
Johnston, in forming his plans, had intended to leave an opening that would tempt the hard-pressed Federal
army to retreat down the river. But, instead, they massed solidly back on Pittsburg Landing, huddled to
gether so closely that brigades, and even regiments, were overlapping. As soon as Buell s hastening troops
came up, the transports were turned into ferry-boats, and all night long they plied across the river loaded
within an inch of their gunwales with the reinforcements. Later, as the picture shows, they brought supplies.
of the evening was made by three Confederate brigades close to
the Landing, in the hope of gaining that important point. But
by means of a battery of many guns on the bluff of Dill s
Branch, aided by the gunboats in the river, the charge was
repulsed. Beauregard then gave orders to desist from further
attack all along his lines, to suspend operations till morning.
When General Bragg heard this he was furious with rage.
He had counted on making an immediate grand assault in the
darkness, believing that he could capture a large part of the
When the messenger informed him of Beauregard s order,
he inquired if he had already delivered it to the other com
manders. " Yes," was the reply. ; If you had not," rejoined
the angry Bragg, " I would not obey it. The battle is lost."
But Bragg s fears were not shared by his compatriots.
Further mention is due the two little wooden gunboats,
Tyler and Lexington, for their share in the great fight. The
Tyler had lain all day opposite the mouth of Dill s Branch
which flowed through a deep, marshy ravine, into the Tennes
see just above the Landing. Her commander, Lieutenant
Gwin, was eager for a part in the battle, and when he saw the
Confederate right pushing its way toward the Landing, he re
ceived permission to open fire. For an hour his guns increased
the difficulties of Jackson s and Chalmers brigades as they
made their way to the surrounding of Prentiss. Later on the
Lexington joined her sister, and the two vessels gave valuable
support to the Union cannon at the edge of the ravine and
to Hurlbut s troops until the contest ended. All that night,
in the downpour of rain, Lieutenant Gwin, at the request of
General Nelson, sent shot crashing through the trees in the
direction where the Confederates had bivouacked. This com
pletely broke the rest of the exhausted troops, and had a de
cided effect upon the next day s result.
Southern hopes were high at the close of this first bloody
day at Shiloh. Whatever of victory there was at the end of the
Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co.
THE UUJNliUATb AT SHllAJti
In the river near Pittsburg Landing, where
the Federal transports lay, were two small
gunboats, and what they did during the
battle of April 6th makes a separate chap
ter in the action. In the early morn
ing they were out of sight, though within
sound of the continuous firing. How the
battle was going, however, was evident.
The masses of the blue-clad troops appeared
through the trees on the river bank, showing
that under the continuous and fierce assaults
they were falling back upon the Landing.
The Tyler, commanded by Lieutenant
Gwin, and afterward the Lexington, com
manded by Lieutenant Shirk, which arrived
at four o clock, strove to keep the Con
federate army from the Landing. After
the surrender of Prentiss, General With
ers set his division in motion to the right
toward this point. Chalmers and Jack
son s brigades marched into the ravine of
Dill s Branch and into the range of the
Federal gunboats and batteries which
silenced Gage s battery, the only one
Withers had, and played havoc with the
Confederate skirmishers. All the rest of
the afternoon, until nightfall, the river
sailors kept up their continuous bombard
ment, and in connection with the field batteries on the bank checked General Withers desperate attempt on the Landing. The daunt
less brigade of Chalmers, whose brave Southerners held their ground near the foot of the ravine and maintained the conflict after the
battle was ended elsewhere, was swept by
the gunboats fire. When Buell s army,
that had been hurrying up to Grant s
assistance, reached the battle-field, Gwin
sent a messenger ashore in the evening to
General Nelson, who had just arrived, and
asked in what manner he could now be of
service. It was pitch dark; except for the
occasional firing of the pickets the armies
were resting after the terrific combat. In
reply to Gwin s inquiry, General Nelson
requested that the gunboats keep on firing
during the night, and that every ten min
utes an 8-inch shell should be launched in
the direction of the Confederate camp.
With great precision Gwin followed out
this course. Through the forest the shells
shrieked and exploded over the exhausted
Confederates, showering branches and
limbs upon them where they slept, and
tearing great gashes in the earth. The re
sult was that they got little rest, and rest
was necessary. Slowly a certain demoral
ization became evident results that bore
fruit in the action that opened on the
morrow. Here we see pictured in the
lower part of the page the captain s gig
and crew near the Lexington, ready to
row their commander out into the stream.
day belonged to the Confederates. They had pressed the
Federals back more than a mile and now occupied their ground
and tents of the night before. They had captured General
Prentiss with some thousands of his men as a result of his brave
stand at the " Hornet s Xest."
But their hopes were mingled with grave fears. General
Van Dorn with an army of twenty thousand men w r as hasten
ing from Arkansas to join the Confederate forces at Shiloh;
but the roads were bad and he was yet far away. On the other
hand, Buell was coming from Nashville to join Grant s army.
Should he arrive during the night, the contest of the next day
would be unequal and the Confederates would risk losing all
that they had gained. Moreover, Beauregard s army, with its
long, muddy march from Corinth and its more than twelve
hours continuous fighting, was w r orn and weary almost to
The Union army was stunned and bleeding, but not dis
abled, at the close of the first day s battle. Caught unawares,
the men had made a noble stand. Though pressed back from
their position and obliged to huddle for the night around the
Landing, while thousands of their comrades had fallen on the
gory field, they had hopes of heavy reenforcements during
the night. And, indeed, early in the evening the cry ran along
the Union lines that Buell s army had come. The advance
guard had arrived late in the afternoon and had assisted Hurl-
but in the closing scene on the bluff of Dill s ravine; others con
tinued to pour in during the night. And, furthermore, Gen
eral Lew Wallace s division, though it had taken a wrong road
from Crump s Landing and had not reached the field in time
for the fighting of the 6th, now at last had arrived. Buell and
Wallace had brought with them twenty-five thousand fresh
troops to be hurled on the Confederates on the morning of the
7th. But Van Dorn had not come. The preponderance of
numbers now was with the Union army.
Everyone knew that the battle was not over, that the issue
[ 200 ]
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A GALLANT REGIMENT FROM THE IIOOSIER STATE
To the Ninth Indiana belongs the banner record, on the Federal side, at bloody Shiloh. It seldom happens to any unit of a fighting
force, while still engaged in action, to receive words of thanks and congratulation while still on the firing-line. Flags have been
decorated with the medal of honor, individuals have been so rewarded for deeds of bravery and prowess, but to the Ninth Regiment
from the Hoosier State fell the unique honor of having the word "well done" given them under fire. General Nelson, on April 7th,
rode up and thanked them, and well was it deserved, for they saved the flank of Ha/en s brigade by stubborn bravery that has hardly
ever been equaled. Posted on the line of a rail fence that offered little or no protection, they held their ground against a force
that outnumbered them two to one able and determined fighters, too, who charged time and again up to the muzzles of their rifles,
only to be beaten back by the steady and continuous volleys. Colonel William B. Ilazen, in command of the Nineteenth Brigade,
two or three times found himself so fiercely assailed that it looked as if the flank would be crumbled in, but the Ninth was there. And
when the cost was footed up, it made a sad hut gallant showing. The Ninth had suffered the heaviest loss in numbers of any regiment
in the Army of the Ohio at that battle. The percentage of officers killed and wounded left many vacancies for promotion; no less
than eight positions there were to fill in the depleted companies. And along that thin rail fence, in the battle, one hundred and seventy
men had been killed or wounded. The Fourth Division, which General Nelson commanded, points with pride to the scroll of Hazen s
Nineteenth Brigade, and first on the list stands the never faltering Ninth. In November it was transferred to the Second Brigade of
the Second Division, Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Cumberland, and at Stone s River it lost one hundred and nine men, all told.
must be decided on the coming day, and the weary thousands
of both sides sank down on the ground in a drenching rain to
get a little rest and to gain a little strength for the desperate
struggle that \vas sure to come on the morrow.
Beauregard rested hopes upon a fresh dispatch announcing
that Buell was delayed and the dreaded junction of two Federal
armies therefore impossible. Meanwhile Grant and Buell were
together in Sherman s camp and it was decided that Buell s
troops should attack Beauregard next morning. One division
of Buell stood to arms all night.
At the break of day on Monday, April 7th, all was astir
in both camps on the field of Shiloh, and the dawn was greeted
with the roar of cannon. The troops that Grant now ad
vanced into the contest were all, except about ten thousand, the
fresh recruits that Wallace and Buell had brought, while the
Confederates had not a single company that had not been on
the ground the day before. Some military historians believe
that Beauregard would have won a signal victory if neither
army had been reenforced during the night. But now under
the changed conditions the Confederates were at a great dis
advantage, and yet they fought for eight long hours with
The deafening roar of the cannon that characterized the
beginning of the day s battle was followed by the rattle of
musketry, so continuous that no ear could distinguish one shot
from another. Nelson s division of Buell s army was the first
to engage the Confederates. Nelson commanded the Federal
left wing, with Hardee and Breckinridge immediately opposed
to him. The Union center was under the command of Gen
erals McCook and Crittenden; the right wing was com
manded by McClernand, with Hurlbut next, while Sherman
and Lew Wallace occupied the extreme right. The Confed
erate left wing was commanded by the doughty Bragg and
next to him was General Polk.
Shiloh Church was again the storm center and in it
THE MOUNTED POLICE OF THE WEST
Stalwart horsemen such as these bore the brunt of keeping order in the turbulent regions fought over by the armies in the West.
The bugle call, "Boots and Saddles!" might summon them to fight, or to watch the movements of the active Confederates, Van Dorn
and Price. It was largely due to their daring and bravery that the Confederate forces were held back from the Mississippi so as not
to embarrass the movements of Grant and the gunboats. Of this unattached cavalry of the Army of the Ohio were the men in the
upper picture Company D, Fourth Kentucky Volunteers, enlisted at Louisville, December, 1861.
OFFICERS OF THE FOURTH KENTUCKY CAVALRY
Copyriu/tt by Review of Reviews Co,
General Beauregard made his headquarters. Hour after hour
the columns in blue and gray surged to and fro, first one then
the other gaining the advantage and presently losing it. At
times the smoke of burning powder enveloped the whole field
and hid both armies from view. The interesting incidents of
this day of blood would fill a volume. General Hindman of the
Southern side had a novel experience. His horse was struck
by a bursting shell and torn to a thousand fragments. The
general, thrown ten feet high, fell to the ground, but leaped
to his feet unhurt and asked for another horse.
Early in the afternoon, Beauregard became convinced that
he was fighting a losing battle and that it would be the part
of prudence to withdraw the army before losing all. He
thereupon sent the members of his staff to the various corps
commanders ordering them to prepare to retreat from the field,
at the same time making a show of resuming the offensive.
The retreat was so skilfully made, the front firing-line being
kept intact, that the Federals did not suspect it for some time.
Some hours before nightfall the fighting had ceased. The
Federals remained in possession of the field and the Confed
erates were wading through the mud on the road to Corinth.
It was a dreary march for the bleeding and battered Con
federate army. An eye-witness described it in the following
I made a detour from the road on which the army w r as
retreating that I might travel faster and get ahead of the main
body. In this ride of twelve miles alongside of the routed
army, I saw more of human agony and woe than I trust I will
ever again be called upon to witness. The retreating host
wound along a narrow and almost impassable road, extending
some seven or eight miles in length. Here was a line of wagons
loaded with wounded, piled in like bags of grain, groaning
and cursing; while the mules plunged on in mud and water
belly-deep, the water sometimes coming into the wagons. Next
came a straggling regiment of infantry, pressing on past the
FEDERALS ADVANCING INTO TENNESSEE 1802
Incessantly, through rain or shine, the work on this bridge over the Elk River, near Pulaski, Tennessee
on the Central Alabama Railroad, went on during the months of June and July. The engineers had be
fore them an enormous task. The Federal General Buell s army was short of supplies and ammunition
and the eompletion of this bridge, and other bridges, was a matter of vital necessity. Supplies had to b<
brought from Nashville. The roads, were heavy with mud and the incessant rains had swollen the streams
making it not only slow but almost impossible for wagon trains to keep in touch with the base. Over the
Central Alabama (Nashville and Decatur Railroad) food and other necessities for the army s very exist-
Copyright by Ren
ENGINEERS AND INFANTRY BUSY AT THE ELK RIVER BRIDGE
encc had to be transported. Among those workers who labored uncomplainingly and whose work bore
fruit, was the First Regiment, Michigan Engineers, that numbered among its enlisted men mechanics and
artisans of the first class. They built this bridge pictured here. Four companies were employed in its
construction, aided by an infantry detail working as laborers. The bridge was 700 feet long, 58 feet high,
and crossed the Elk River at a point where the water was over 20 feet deep. At the right of the picture
three of the engineer officers are consulting together, and to the left a squad of infantry are marching to their
position as bridge guards. Here is the daily business of war to which fighting is the occasional exception.
Ijtlnlj utlp 3Firat (SrattJi lattlj?
wagons; then a stretcher borne on the shoulders of four men,
carrying a wounded officer; then soldiers staggering along,
with an arm broken and hanging down, or other fearful
wounds, which were enough to destroy life. And, to add to
the horrors of the scene, the elements of heaven marshaled
their forces a fitting accompaniment of the tempest of human
desolation and passion which was raging. A cold, drizzling
rain commenced about nightfall, and soon came harder and
faster, then turned to pitiless, blinding hail. This storm raged
with violence for three hours. I passed long wagon trains
filled with wounded and dying soldiers, without even a blanket
to shelter them from the driving sleet and hail, which fell in
stones as large as partridge eggs, until it lay on the ground
two inches deep.
" Some three hundred men died during that awful retreat,
and their bodies were thrown out to make room for others who,
although wounded, had struggled on through the storm, hop
ing to find shelter, rest, and medical care."
Four days after the battle, however, Beauregard reported
to his government, " this army is more confident of ultimate
success than before its encounter with the enemy." Addressing
the soldiers, he said: " You have done your duty. . . . Your
countrymen are proud of your deeds on the bloody field of
Shiloh; confident in the ultimate result of your valor."
The news of these two fearful days at Shiloh was astound
ing to the American people. Xever before on the continent
had there been anything approaching it. Bull Hun was a skir
mish in comparison with this gigantic conflict. The losses on
each side exceeded ten thousand men. General Grant tells us
that after the second day he saw an open field so covered with
dead that it would have been possible to w r alk across it in any
direction stepping on dead bodies, without a foot touching the
ground. American valor was tried to the full on both sides at
Shiloh, and the record shows that it was equal to the test.
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
ISLAND No. 10
CAIRO IX 1862 ON THE EXTREME RIGHT IS THE CHURCH WHERE FLAG-OFFICER
FOOTE PREACHED A SERMON AFTER THE FALL OF FORT HENRY NEXT
HE LED THE GUNBOATS AT ISLAND NO. 10.
NEW MADRID AND ISLAND NO. 10
IT has been truly said that without the American navy, in
significant as it was in the early sixties, the North could
hardly have succeeded in the great war. The blockade was
necessary to success, and without the navy the blockade would
have been impossible. It may further be said that without the
gunboats on the winding rivers of the middle West success in
that quarter would have been equally impossible. It was these
floating fortresses that reduced Fort Henry arid that gave
indispensable aid at Fort Donelson. At Shiloh, when at the
close of the first day s conflict the Confederates made a wild,
impetuous dash on the Union camp, it was the two little
wooden gunboats that aided in preserving the camp from cap
ture or complete demoralization.
We have now to relate a series of operations down the
Mississippi, in which the gunboats were the alpha and omega
and almost all that falls between them. The creator of the
fleet of gunboats with which we now have to deal was that
master-builder, James B. Eads. It was on August 7, 1861,
that Eads signed a contract with the Government to build and
deliver seven ironclads, each one hundred and seventy-five feet
long, fifty-one feet wide, drawing six feet of water, and carry
ing thirteen guns. In a week or two four thousand men were
at work on the contract; sawmills were busy in five States cut
ting the timber; machine shops and iron foundries in several
cities were running day and night. The places of building were
Carondelet, near St. Louis, and Mound City, Illinois.
But the time was too short. The boats were unfinished
at the end of sixty-five days. The Government refused to pay
for them. And the builder, Eads what did he do? He went
ahead and used up his own fortune to finish those gunboats,
Confederate garrison of the battery
on Island No. 10, peering through the
darkness out on the Mississippi,
caught sight of the flicker of flames
from the smoke-stacks of a steamer
proceeding down the river. They
knew at once that the attempt of the
Federal gunboats to pass down to the
support of General Pope s crossing
of the river below had begun. The
men on shore leaped to their guns,
and the crash of cannon and the
rattle of musketry broke forth across
the bosom of the river. Aiming
through the darkness at the luminous
tops of the smoke-stacks the gunners
poured in their vindictive fire, but the
Confederates had elevated their guns
too high and only two of their shots
sped home. The Carondelet, for it
was she, held on her way, and her
commander, Henry Walke, would not
permit his men to send a single
answering shot. Walke had begged
to be the first to take his vessel by
the dreaded batteries on Island No. 10.
In the pilot-house he directed the
daring attempt, catching glimpses of the tortuous channel amid
the fitful lightning of a storm which suddenly descended on
the river and added the reverberations of Heaven to those
of the battery below. At one moment the Carondelet
COMMANDER HENRY WALKE
but hastily backing off, made good
her escape past a dreaded float
ing battery below the Island, which
offered little opposition. She arrived
at New Madrid without a man
having received a single scratch.
The Carondelet and her commander
had made good, and the next morning
lay ready to support the army after
having achieved one of the greatest
feats in the record of the inland navy.
On April 6th, her elated and plucky
crew captured and spiked the guns
of the battery opposite Point Pleasant,
an event which convinced the Con
federates that Island No. 10 must be
evacuated. That very night, en
couraged by the success of the Caron
delet, Commander Thompson, with
the Pittsburgh, ran by the disheartened
gunners on Island No. 10 and joined
Commander Walke. The crossing of
Pope s forces then proceeded, and the
Confederates, in full retreat, were
hemmed in by Paine s division and
surrendered, before dawn of April 8th.
Colonel Cook s troops cut off in their
retreat from Island No. 10, were also compelled to surrender.
The daring of Commander Walke in the face of this great danger
had accomplished the first step in the opening of the Mississippi
since the expedition left Cairo.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE CARONDELET FIRST TO RUN THE GANTLET AT ISLAND NO. 10
Nn. 10 (Swtbflats anb
then handed them over to the Government and waited for his
pay until after they had won their famous victories down the
Their first commander was Andrew H. Foote, who was
called " the Stonewall Jackson of the West." He had won
fame in the waters of the Orient and had spent years in the
suppression of the slave trade. Like " Stonewall " Jackson,
he was a man of deep religious principles. On the Sunday
after the fall of Fort Henry he preached a sermon in a church
at Cairo. The next year the aged admiral lay sick in New
York. His physician dreaded to tell him that his illness would
be fatal, hut did so. Well," answered the admiral, " I am
glad to be done with guns and war."
We must get to our story. Fort Henry and Fort Don-
elson had fallen. General Polk had occupied Columbus,
Kentucky, a powerful stronghold from which one hundred and
fifty cannon pointed over the bluff. But why hold Columbus
in its isolation when Henry and Donelson were lost? So
thought the good bishop-general and he broke camp on Feb
ruary 25, 1862, transferring one hundred and thirty of his big
guns to Island No. 10, and rolling the remainder down the
one hundred and fifty foot embankment into the Mississippi.
That nothing might be left for the foe, he burned eighteen
thousand bushels of corn and five thousand tons of hay, and
when the Federals reached Columbus on March 4th they found
only charred remains.
Island No. 10 was situated at the upper bend of a great
double curve of the Mississippi, about forty miles below Co
lumbus. It had been strongly fortified by General Beaure-
gard, but Beauregard was called to Corinth and Shiloh and he
turned the command over to General Mackall with about seven
thousand men. It was confidently believed by its defenders
that this fortified island would be the final stopping place of
all hostile vessels on the great river, that none could pass it
without being blown out of the water by the powerful batteries.
THE RETREAT DOWN THE RIVER.
The Flag-ship of the Confederate Fleet at
Island No. 10. Below the dreaded battery
at Island No. 10, lay Commodore George
N. Hollins, with his flag-ship, the McRae
and seven other Confederate gunboats,
holding in check the Federal troops chafing
to cross the river and get at the inferior
force of the enemy on the other side.
This opposing fleet was further strength
ened by a powerful floating battery which
could be pushed about by the gunboats
and anchored at the most effective points.
When the Carondelet accomplished her
daring feat of passing Island No. 10 on the
night of April 4th, creeping stealthily by
this boasted battery and cutting it off from
its convoys, the men who manned it cut
loose from their moorings and drifted
down to the protection of Commodore
COMMODORE GEORGE N. HOLLINS,
Hollins vigilant neet. All was at once
activity on board the Confederate vessels.
Commodore Hollins did not court a meet
ing to try conclusions with the powerful
Eads gunboats and the mortar boats,
which he supposed were all making their
way down upon him. The flag at the
masthead of the McRae quickly signaled
the order to weigh anchor, and the Con
federate squadron, dropping slowly down
stream, confined its activities to storming
Pope s batteries on the Missouri shore
below New Madrid. Farragut, threaten
ing New Orleans, had caused the with
drawal of every available Confederate gun
boat from the upper river, and the remain
ing river defense fleet under Commodore
Hollins was not equal to the task of stand
ing up to the determined and aggressive
attempt of the Federals to seize and hold
possession of the upper Mississippi.
Copyright by Review of Renews Co.
. Ifl -
Below this island, a few miles, was the town of New
Madrid on the Missouri shore, held also by the Confederates
and protected by heavy guns behind breastworks.
On the west bank of the river, General John Pope com
manded a Federal army of twenty thousand men. His object
was to capture New Madrid. First he occupied Point Pleas
ant, twelve miles below, erected batteries and cut off supplies
from New Madrid. He then slowly approached the town and
meantime sent to Cairo for siege-guns. They arrived on the
12th of March, and all through the next day the cannonading
was incessant. At night it ceased, and as Pope was about to
renew the attack he discovered that the town had been aban
doned during the night. The Confederates had not even de
layed to destroy the supply stores, and they fell into the hands
of the besiegers, together with all the guns and some thousands
of small arms.
Island No. 10 was now isolated, indeed. Above it the
river was aswarm with Federal gunboats; below it and along
the Missouri shore was Pope s army. Southward was Reelfoot
Lake, and eastward were impenetrable swamps. The only pos
sible way of escape was by a road to the southward between
the river and Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. But the brave
defenders of the island were not ready to give up or to flee.
They determined to remain and dispute the possession of the
river at all hazards. At this time the river was very high. The
whole wooded peninsula made by the great bend was covered
with water. Houses, fences, trees every movable thing had
been swept down the current.
General Pope s great desideratum was to secure boats to
ferry his army across the river that he might capture Island
No. 10. But the threatening cannon on the island forbade, in
language without words, any attempt to pass them. The over
flow of water on the peninsula \vas deep enough to float the
transports, but a dense forest six miles in width prevented any
such passage. At length a novel plan was devised to cut a
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE FLAG-OFFICER S GOOD-BYE
The decks of this staunch gunboat, the Benton, were crowded on the morn
ing of May 9, 1862, by her officers and men waiting solemnly for the ap
pearance of Commodore A. H. Foote. The Benton had been his flag-ship
in the operations around Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow; but the wound he
had received at Fort Donelson continued to undermine his health until
now, supported by Captain Phelps, he feebly made his way on deck to
bid good-bye to his brave and faithful comrades and resign his command
to Captain Charles H. Davis. At sight of him the old tars swung their
hats and burst into loud huzzas, which quickly gave place to moist eyes
and saddened countenances, as Foote, with tears trickling down his cheeks,
addressed to them some simple, heartfelt words of farewell. The men
leaned forward to catch every syllable uttered by the beloved com
mander s failing voice. An hour later the De Roto dropped down to the
Benton. Foote was assisted to the transport s deck by his successor,
Captain Davis, and Captain Phelps. Sitting in a chair on her guards, his
breast filled with emotion, he gazed across the rapidly widening space
separating him forever from the Benton, while the men on her deck con
tinued to look longingly after him, till distance and tears hid each from
the other s sight.
No. 10 dmtboats anft iBatfrrwa
channel through the forest. Six hundred skilled engineers were
in the army and they were soon at work in relays of three hun
dred. After cutting off the trees above the water they cut the
stumps beneath the water and just above the ground by means
of hand-saws attached to pivots. After nineteen days of vig
orous toil a channel was cut through the forest six miles long,
fifty feet wide, and four and a half feet deep. The flat-bot
tomed transports could pass through this channel and they
quickly did so quickly, because the river was falling and the
opportunity would soon pass. They were soon safely lodged
at New Madrid without having come within range of the heavy
guns of Island No. 10.
But the ironclad gunboats what could be done with
them? They drew too much water to be taken through the
newly-made channel. Above the fortified island lay the Eads
fleet, as it should be called (for the patriotic engineer still
owned it in part), restless, eager for a fight. There were the
Benton, the flag-ship, the Carondelet, the St. Louis, the Cin
cinnati, the Pittsburgh, the Mound City, and eleven mortar-
boats. But these vessels could do something: they could shoot,
and they did on March 17th. On that day they trained their
guns on the island; for nine long hours the boom of cannon
was continuous. The results were slight. Beauregard, who
had not yet departed for Corinth, wired to Richmond that
his batteries were not damaged and but one man was killed.
General Pope was sorely in need of a gunboat or two to
silence a number of batteries guarding the Tiptonville road,
on the east side of the river. Could he get possession of that
road the last hope of escape from the island would be lost
and ere long its defenders must surrender. Pope believed it
possible for the gunboats to run the gantlet of the batteries
of Island No. 10. But Foote thought it impossible, in the face
of the mouths of half a hundred cannon that yawned across
the channel. He refused to force anyone to so perilous an
undertaking, and the commanders of the vessels all agreed
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with him that the running of the batteries was too great a risk,
except one Henry Walke, commander of the Carondelet.
" Are you willing to try it with your vessel? " asked Foote,
of Commander Walke, in the presence of the other officers.
" Yes," answered Walke, and it was agreed that the Caron
delet should attempt to run the batteries. The next few days
were spent in preparing the vessel for the ordeal. Chains,
hawsers, and cables were wound around the pilot-house and
other vulnerable parts of the vessel. A coal barge loaded with
coal and hay was lashed to the side where there was no iron
protection for the magazine. The steam escape was led
through the w T heel-house so as to avoid the puffing sound
through the smokestack. The sailors were armed to resist
boarding parties, and sharpshooters were placed on board.
The night of April 4th was chosen for this daring adven
ture. At ten o clock the moon had set and the sky w r as over
cast with dark clouds. The Carondelet began her perilous
journey in total darkness. But presently a terrific thunder
storm swept up the river and the vivid flashes of lightning
rendered it impossible for the gunboat to pass the island
unseen. Presently when near the hostile island the vessel was
discovered. Next moment the heavy guns began to roar, as if
to answer the thunders of the sky ; the flashes from the burning
powder commingled with the vivid lightning, the whole pre
senting a scene of indescribable grandeur.
The Carondelet was saved, chiefly, no doubt, through the
fact that she ran so near the island that the great guns could
not be sufficiently depressed, and they overshot the mark.
About midnight the gunboat reached New Madrid uninjured.
Two nights later the Pittsburgh ran the gantlet of Island
No. 10. The two vessels soon reduced the batteries along the
east bank of the river to silence. Pope s army crossed and occu
pied the Tiptonville road. The Confederate garrison of several
thousand men could only surrender, and this they did, while
the second day s battle was raging at Shiloh April 7, 1862.
x 3 "
H M W O "5
ifitej, ? .. w . t
NEW ORLEANS THE ENTERING
WEDGE WHERE THE NAVY
HELPED THE ARMY
By JAMES BARNES
THE capture of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the
surrender of New Orleans was the first great blow that
the Confederacy received from the south. Coming but two
months after the fall of Fort Donelson, it was the thunderous
stroke on the wedge that started the ensuing separation of
the seceding States into two halves. It was the action that
shortened the war by months, if not by years; and though
performed by the navy alone, its vital connection with the
operations of the army in the West and along the great high
way of the Mississippi was paramount. The military history
of the war could not be written without touching upon it.
The inborn genius of President Lincoln was never more
clearly shown than when, on November 12, 1861, he ordered
a naval expedition to be fitted out for the capture of New
Orleans, the real key to the Mississippi ; and never was clearer
judgment proved than by the appointment of Captain David
G. Farragut to the supreme command as flag-officer. To
his fleet was attached a mortar flotilla under Commander
David D. Porter, and here again was found the right man
for the hour.
All through November, December and early January of
1862, the preparations were hurried without waste of energy.
On the 2d of February, Farragut sailed from Hampton Roads,
with orders to rendezvous at Key AVest, where Porter s mor
tar-boats were to join him. Such vessels as could be spared
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE STEAM FRIGATE BROOKLYN
The Vessel that Followed the Flagship Past the Forts at New Orleans. When David Glasgow Farragut chose the Hartford as the
ship to fly his flag, he picked out a craft that for her type (a steam frigate of the second class) was as fine as could be found in any
navy in the world; and as much could be said for the Brooklyn, the second ship of the center division. She marked the transition
period between sail and steam. Her tall masts were the inheritance of former days; her engines were merely auxiliary factors, for she
could sail with all her canvas set and the proper wind to drive her faster than she could steam under the best conditions. Here we
see her with royal, top-gallant sails, top-sails, and courses clewed up, and her funnel lowered to a level with her bulwarks. In pass
ing the forts at New Orleans, she presented no such appearance her upper yards had been sent down, and with her engines doing
their utmost, her funnel belching smoke, she swept slowly on into the line of fire. The first division, composed of eight vessels under
command of Captain Theodorus Bailey on the Cayuga, was ahead. But every gunner in Fort Jackson and in Fort St. Philip had
been told to "look out for the Hartford and the Brooklyn." It was dark, but the fire-rafts, the soaring shells, and the flames from
the guns afloat and ashore made everything as bright as day. By some mistake, the reports that were first sent to Washington of
the passing of the forts contained an erroneous plan. It was the first or discarded drawing, showing the fleet in two divisions abreast.
This was afterwards changed into the three-division plan in which Captain Bailey with the Cayuga led. It was not until four years
after the closing of the war that this mistake was rectified, and many of the histories and contemporary accounts of the passing of
the forts are entirely in error. The center division was composed of only three vessels, all of them steam frigates of the first class:
the Hartford, flying Farragut s flag, under Commander Wainwright; the Brooklyn, under Captain T. T. Craven, and the Richmond,
under Commander J. Alden. In the first division were also the steam sloops-of-war Pensacola and Mississippi, and they already
had been under fire for twenty minutes when the center division neared Fort Jackson. The flagship (really the ninth in line) steered
in close to the shore, but was obliged to sheer across the stream in an attempt to dodge a fire-raft that was pushed by the Con
federate tug Mosher. It was a daring act performed by a little crew of half a dozen men, and as a deed of desperate courage has
hardly any equal in naval warfare. The Mosher all but succeeded in setting the flag-ship in flames, and was sunk by a well-directed
shot. The Brooklyn, after a slight collision with the Kinco, one of the vessels of Bailey s division, and almost colliding with the hulks
in the obstructions, was hit by the ram Manassas a glancing blow a little more and this would have sunk her, as both her inner
and outer planking were crushed. But, like the flag-ship, she succeeded in passing safely.
from the blockade, whose pinch upon the South Atlantic
ports had already begun to be felt, were detached to aid the
expedition. No such great plans and actions could be carried
on in secrecy. Almost from its incipiency, the object of all this
preparation became known throughout the South. Every
effort was made by the Confederate military commanders to
strengthen the defenses at New Orleans, which consisted of
the formidable forts St. Philip and Jackson that faced one
another, the former on the north bank and the latter on the
south bank of the river below the city. Once these were
passed, New Orleans would fall. Not only were the forts
strengthened, but every effort was made by the Confederates
to gain supremacy afloat; and in this they all but succeeded.
In addition to the formidable obstructions placed in the river,
the iron-clad ram, Manassas, w r as strengthened and further
protected to prepare her for conflict. The Louisiana, then
building at New Orleans, was rushed toward completion. If
she had been ready, perhaps New Orleans would have told a
different story, for she was designed to be the most powerful
ironclad of her day 4,000 tons rating and mounting sixteen
heavy guns, well protected by armor. Up the river, at Mem
phis, the Arkansas was being prepared for active service; and
on the various tributaries were being built several iron-clad
No ship in Farragut s fleet possessed any more powers
of resistance than the old wooden walls of Nelson s time.
Against this attacking fleet were the well-placed guns ashore,
seventy-four in Fort Jackson and fifty-two pieces of ord
nance in Fort St. Philip. The garrisons were made up of
about seven hundred well-trained cannoneers apiece. As
Admiral Porter has observed, " Assuming upon the general
concession of military men that one gun in a fort was equal
to about three afloat, and considering the disadvantage of
a contrary three-and-a-half-knot current to the Federal ves
sels (with additional channel obstructions of fire-rafts and
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
The Third Ship of the Center Division at the Passing of the Forts. There was a current in the Mississippi that had to be taken
into account in estimating the time that Farragut s fleet would be under fire from the forts. The larger vessels were all so slow when
under steam that, taking the rule that "a fleet is no faster than the slowest ship," caused them literally to crawl past the danger
points. The Richmond was the slowest of them all. Just as she neared the passageway through the obstructions her boilers began
to foam, and she could just about stem the current and no more. The vessels of the third division passed her; but at last, with her
bow pointed up the river, she was able to engage Fort Jackson. Opening with her port batteries, she hammered hard at the fort,
and with small loss got by, followed by the little gunboat Sciota that had equal good fortune. When day dawned, the Richmond
crept up to the anchored fleet and reported. It was feared at first that she had been lost or sunk. The battle of New Orleans was
probably the most successful, and certainly the boldest, attempt ever made to match wooden ships against forts at close range. Al
though the Confederate gunboats were inferior to the Federal fleet, they also have to be taken into consideration for their brave and
almost blind assault. If they had been assisted by the unfinished ironclads they might have borne different results, for the Louisiana,
owing to her unfinished condition never entered the fight. She was considered to be more powerful than the Merrimac. Certainly
her armament would prove it, for she mounted two 7-inch rifles, three 9-inch shell guns, four 8-inch smooth-bores, and
seven 100-pounder rifles in all sixteen guns. At the city of New Orleans was an unfinished ironclad that was expected to be even
more powerful than the Louisiana. Only the arrival of Farragut s fleet at this timely hour for the Federal cause prevented her from
being finished. It was believed by her builders and apparently, in view of the immunity of ironclads, with reason that not only
could the Mississippi drive the Federal fleet out of the river, but that she would be able to paralyze the whole of the wooden navy
of the North, and might possibly go so far as to lay the Northern Atlantic cities under contribution. In order to prevent her from
falling into the Federal hands she, like the Louisiana, was set on fire and drifted a wreck down the stream. Commander J. Alden,
of the Richmond, was on the quarterdeck throughout the action and had seen to it that his vessel, like the others, was prepared
in every way to render the chances of success more favorable. Cables were slung over the side to protect her vulnerable parts, sand
bags and coal had been piled up around her engines, hammocks and splinter-nettings were spread and rigged, and as the attempt
to run the forts would be at night, no lights were allowed. Decks and gun-breeches were whitewashed to make them more visible
in the darkness. Farragut s orders had concluded with the following weighty sentence: "I shall expect the most prompt attention
to signals and verbal orders either from myself or the Captain of the fleet, who, it will be understood in all cases, acts by my author
ity." The Richmond lost two men killed and four men wounded in the action.
QDrlratta an& tit? Mutntt
chains), the odds were greatly in favor of the Confederate
The defenders of the old city, Xew Orleans, were confident
that the fleet would never pass. On the 16th of April, the
mortar-boats were in position along what was, owing to the
bend of the river, really the southern bank (one division, on
the first day, was across the river), and in the morning they
opened, each vessel firing at the rate of one shell every ten
minutes. Organized into three divisions, they were anchored
close to the shore, the furthest up stream, only 2,850 yards
from Fort Jackson, and 3,680 from Fort St. Philip. They
were near a stretch of woods and their tall masts they were
mostly schooners were dressed with branches of trees in order
to disguise their position from the Confederate guns. For
almost eight days, at varying intervals even at night, the
twenty boats of this flotilla rained their hail of death and de
struction on the forts. Brave and hardy must have been the
men who stood that terrific bombardment! The commanders
of the Confederate forts bore witness to the demoralization
of both the men and defenses that ensued. Xearly every shell
of the many thousand fired lodged inside the works; maga
zines M-ere threatened, conflagrations started, and destruction
was reaped on all sides. Long after the memorable day of
the 24th of April when the fleet swept past, Colonel Edward
Higgins, the brave defender of Fort Jackson, wrote as follows:
I was obliged to confine the men most rigidly to the
casemates, or we should have lost the best part of the garri
son. A shell, striking the parapet over one of the magazines,
the wall of which was seven feet thick, penetrated five feet
and failed to burst. If that shell had exploded, the work
would have ended.
" Another burst near the magazine door, opening the earth
and burying the sentinel and another man five feet in the
The parapet and interior of the fort were completely
[ 280 ]
David G. Farragut, Who Com
manded the Fleets at New Or
leans. No man ever succeeded
in impressing his own personality
and infusing his confidence and
enthusiasm upon those under his
command better than did David
Glasgow Farragut. In drawing
up the plans and assuming the
responsibility of what seemed to
be a desperate and almost fool
hardy deed, Farragut showed his
genius and courage. His attack
was not a blind rush, trusting to
suddenness for its effect; it was
a well-studied, well-thought-out
plan. Nothing was neglected
"which prudence could suggest,
foresight provide, or skill and
science devise." Farragut was
well aware of the results that
would follow. The control of the
lower Mississippi, if complete,
would have enabled the Confed
erate Government to draw almost
unlimited supplies from the vast
country to the west of the river,
and undoubtedly would have
prolonged the war. The failure
of Farragut s plan and his defeat
would have meant a most crush
ing blow to the North. But in
his trust in his officers and his
own fearless courage there was
small chance of failure. Calm
and collected he went through the
ordeal, and when safe above the
forts he saw Bailey s vessels
waiting, and one by one his other
ships coming up, he knew that
his stupendous undertaking was
DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT
THE MAN WHO DARED
The whole of the North rose in elation at the news of the capture of New Orleans; but the surrender of the city at the mouth of the
river did not mean complete possession. From Vicksburg southward, the long line of the river and the land on either side was yet
in the possession of the Confederates. Baton Rouge and Natchez surrendered on demand. On May 29th, transports carrying the
troops of General Williams came down the river after a reconnaissance at Vicksburg. Farragut was anchored off the town of Baton
Rouge. He reported to Williams that a body of irregular Confederate cavalry had fired into one of his boats, wounding an officer
and two men, and that he had been compelled to open his batteries upon the shore. W illiams at once occupied the town in force.
Copyright iiy Review of Reviews Co.
A FLAGSHIP IN UNFRIENDLY W T ATERS
The Hartford Lying Close to the Levee at Baton Rouge
honeycombed, and the large number of sand bags with which
we were supplied alone saved us from being blown to pieces
a hundred times, our magazine doors being much exposed.
" On the morning of the 24th, when the fleet passed, the
terrible precision with which the formidable vessels hailed down
their tons of bursting shell upon the devoted fort made it
impossible for us to obtain either rapidity or accuracy of fire,
and thus rendered the passage comparatively easy."
Although all the foregoing proves the accuracy and value
of the mortar fire, it alone could not reduce the forts. They
had to be passed to lay the city at the mercy of the fleet. But
there were the obstructions yet to deal with. Twas a brave
deed that was done by the two gunboats, Itasca and Pinola,
which, after great difficulties, broke the great link-chain that,
buoyed by logs and hulks, closed up the channel. General
M. L. Smith, the engineer of the department, in his report,
in referring to the fall of New Orleans, wrote, " While the
obstruction existed, the city was safe ; when it was swept away,
as the defenses then existed, it was in the enemy s power."
By 2 o clock A.M. in the morning of the 24th, the intrepid
Lieutenant Caldwell, who had suggested the expedition of
the two gunboats that had broken up the obstruction, returned
to the fleet after a daring survey of the channel, and the flag
ship hoisted the appointed signal. In two divisions, the fleet
passed through the broken barriers and steamed into the zone
of fire. It was an enfilading fire, as soon the guns of both
forts were brought into play. There is not space here to go
into the details of the naval battle that followed with the
bravely fought Confederate gunboats and the ram Manassas.
That belongs to naval history. There were deeds of prowess
performed by vessels that flew either flag; there were small
separate actions whose relating would make separate stories
in themselves. Amid burning fire-rafts and a continuous roar
from the opposing forts, the first division of the fleet under
the command of Captain Theodorus Bailey held its course,
[ 232 ]
FARRAGUT S FLEET
Coaling Farragut s Fleet at Baton Rouge. If "a ship without a captain is like a man without a soul,"
as runs an old naval saying, a vessel dependent upon steam power with empty bunkers is as a man deprived
of heart-blood, nerves, or muscles; and a few days after New Orleans, Farragut s vessels faced a serious crisis.
Captain A. T. Mahan has summed it up in the following words: "... The maintenance of the coal supply
for a large squadron, five hundred miles up a crooked river in a hostile country, was in itself no small anxiety,
involving as it did carriage of the coal against the current, the provision of convoys to protect the supply
vessels against guerillas, and the employment of pilots, few of whom were to be found, as they naturally
favored the enemy, and had gone away. The river was drawing near the time of lowest water, and the
flag-ship herself got aground under very critical circumstances, having had to take out her coal and shot,
and had even begun on her guns, two of which were out when she floated off." Many of the up-river gun
boats could burn wood, and so, at a pinch and for a short time, could the smaller steamers with Farragut.
But the larger vessels required coal, and at first there was not much of it to be had, although there were
some colliers with the fleet and more were dispatched later. In the two pictures of this page we are shown
scenes along the levee in 186*2, at Baton Rouge, and out in the river, a part of the fleet. The vessel with
sails let down to dry is the sloop-of-war Mississippi; ahead of her and a little inshore, about to drop her
anchor, is one of the smaller steamers that composed the third division of the fleet. Nearby lies a mortar
schooner and a vessel laden with coal. Baton Rouge, where Farragut had hoisted his flag over the arsenal,
was policed by a body of foreigners employed by the municipal authority. The mayor had declared that
the guerilla band. ., \\hir\v had f rnoyed the fleet were beyond his jurisdiction, saying that he was responsible
only for order within ^"x c.cy limits. There was some coal found in the city belonging to private owners,
and the lower picture shows the yards of Messrs. Hill and Markham, who, through the medium of Mr.
Bryan, the Mayor, opened negotiations with Farragut for its sale.
aufr ih? lutmt Nairn
his ship, the Cayuga, leading the van. The second division,
under the fleet s commander, followed. The powerful steam
ram, Manassas, had struck the Kmokli/n, doing some slight
damage. But when the Mississippi turned her wooden prow
upon her, in order to avoid being turned over like a log, the
ram took to the shore, where her crew escaped. Subsequently,
having received two broadsides from the Mississippi, she slid
off the bank and drifted in flames down with the current.
By daybreak nine of the Confederate vessels that had
fought so gallantly and dauntlessly were destroyed. The
forts lay some five miles downstream. The little batteries
that protected the outskirts of the city were silenced. On the
25th, Xew Orleans lay powerless under Farragut s guns. The
dreaded Louisiana was set on fire and blew up with tremen
dous explosion. Another, and still more powerful ironclad,
the Mississippi (not to be confused with the vessel in Farra
gut s fleet of the same name), suffered the same fate. She
had been launched only six days before. On the 27th, Porter,
who was down the river, demanded the surrender of the forts ;
and General Duncan, the Confederate commander-in-chief,
accepted the terms on the 28th. At 2.30 P.M. on that day,
Fort St. Philip and Fort Jackson were formally delivered, and
the United States flag was hoisted over them. On May 1st,
General Butler arrived and the captured city was handed over
to the army. The wedge having been driven home, the open
ing of the Mississippi from the south had begun.
[ 23-1 ]
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
THE CONFEDERATE RAM GENERAL PRICE ACCIDENTALLY STRUCK
BY HER CONSORT "GENERAL BEAUREGARD " AT THE BATTLE OF
MEMPHIS, RUN ASHORE, AND CAPTURED BY THE FEDERALS
FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS
There can be no denying the dash and spirit with which this attack
was made. It was, however, the only service of value performed by this
irregular and undisciplined force. At Memphis, a month later, and at
New Orleans, the fleet proved incapable of meeting an attack and of
mutual support. There were admirable materials in it, but the mistake
of withdrawing them from strict military control and organization was
fatal. On the other hand, although the gunboats engaged fought gal
lantly, the flotilla as an organization had little cause for satisfaction in
the day s work. A. T. Mahan, in "The Gulf and Inland Waters"
The boats I have purchased are illy adapted for the work I shall
require of them ; it is not their sti ength upon which I rely, but upon the
audacity of our attack, for success. Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr., in a letter
to the Secretary of War.
THE Western gunboat flotilla had done wonderful work
in the space of two months, February to April, 1862.
It had captured Fort Henry; it had made possible the taking
of Fort Donelson, with its vast equipment and fourteen thou
sand men; it had secured to General Pope s army the sur
render of Island No. 10 all within the eight weeks. But
there were more strongholds to conquer and the heaviest battle
was still in the future. Fort Pillow with its frowning cannon
lay eighty miles or more below New Madrid, and eighty miles
still farther down the great river was Memphis. Fort Pillow,
and Fort Randolph, just below, must now be attacked in order
to open the river to Vicksburg.
A few days after the surrender of Island No. 10, the gun
boat fleet turned toward Fort Pillow. About this time General
Pope was called with most of his army to Shiloh and Corinth,
as Beauregard had been before, and the gunboats with a small
portion of the land forces were left to fight their way down the
Federal Floating Mortar Battery at
Fort Pillow. There would have been
no engagement at Fort Pillow had it
not been for the continued annoyance
inflicted upon that position by the
curious little craft one of which we
see tied up to the wharf in the lower
picture. Secure in the knowledge
that Beauregard s presence with a
large force at Corinth had precluded
the Federal land attack, General
Villepigue awoke one morning to the
sound of bursting shells which a Fed
eral mortar boat was rapidly dropping
over his ramparts. Every day there
after, Flag-Officer Foote continued to
pay compliments to Fort Pillow by
sending down a mortar boat towed
by a gunboat of the type seen in the
picture. There was nothing for the
Confederates to do but take to their
bomb-proofs, so long as the Federal
gunners continued the bombardment.
At last General Villepigue, chafing
under the damage done to his works,
called urgently upon the Confederate
flotilla to come up and put an end to the mortar boats. Early
on the morning of May 10, 1862, the day after Flag-Officer
Foote went North, leaving Captain Davis in charge of the
Federal flotilla, the Cincinnati towed mortar No. 16 down to
GENERAL J. B. VILLEPIGUE
THE DEFENDER OF FORT PILLOW
the usual position for shelling the
fort, and then tied up to the edge of
the stream to protect her. The
mortar fired her first shot at five
o clock. One hour and a half later
the eight rams of the Confederate
River Defense fleet suddenly and un
expectedly appeared bearing down
upon the Cincinnati. The latter
quickly slipped her moorings, and
opened her bow guns upon the ap
proaching vessels. One of these, the
General Bragg, passed quickly above
the Federal ironclad, turned and
struck her a violent blow on the star
board quarter. After that the Bragg
disappeared down the river, but the
General Price and the Sumter con
tinued the attack. One struck the
Cincinnati again, but the other re
ceived a shot through her boilers from
the Benton, and this ended her part of
the fight. The wounded Cincinnati
was helped to the shore and sunk.
The other Federal ironclad had now
come upon the scene and the melee
became general. The General Van Dorn rammed the Mound
City so severely that she was compelled to run on the
Arkansas shore. After that the Confederate rams returned to
Fort Pillow and the half hour s thrilling fight was over.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co,
BOATS THAT BROUGHT ON THE BATTLE
river alone. For two weeks the fleet bombarded Fort Pillow
at long range. On May 9th, Flag-Officer Foote, whose wound
received at Fort Donelson had not healed, asked to be relieved,
and Captain Charles H. Davis, a man of well-known skill and
bravery, was appointed in his place. The day after the re
tirement of Foote a Confederate fleet, known as the " River
Defense," under the command of Captain J. K. Montgomery,
came up and offered battle. Among them was a powerful
side-wheel steam ram, the General Bragg, which made for the
Cincinnati. The latter opened fire, but the shots could not
drive the antagonist off. Presently the onrushing vessel struck
the Cincinnati on the starboard side and penetrated the shell-
room, rendering the ironclad almost helpless. Before the
wounded vessel could get away she was rammed by two other
Confederate boats, the General Price and the Slimier. Mean
while the Carondelet had come to the rescue of the Cincin
nati, firing as fast as she could load. At last the Sumter was
struck by a 50-pound Dahlgren shot from the Carondelet
and completely disabled. Her steam-chest was penetrated
and the steam instantly poured out upon all parts of her case
mate. The men ran for life, some leaping into the water and
some falling on the deck, victims of the scalding steam. The
General Van Dom, one of the most agile of the Confederate
vessels, partially disabled the Mound City by ramming her
amidships with fearful force.
The smoke of battle had enveloped the whole scene in a
dense cloud. There was a lull in the firing, and when the smoke
cleared away the Confederate fleet was seen drifting slowly
down the stream to Fort Pillow, and the battle was over.
For two or three days after this battle long-range firing
was kept up, the Union fleet lying a mile or more up the river,
the Confederate vessels being huddled under the guns of Fort
On the 4th of June, great clouds of smoke were seen to
arise from the fort, and terrific explosions accompanying
THE VESSEL WITH THE ARMED PROW. THE FEDERAL RAM VINDICATOR
An excellent example of the steam rams as developed from the ideas of Charles Ellet, Jr., adding a new chapter
to the history of naval warfare. As far back as the siege of Sebastopol, in 1854, Charles Ellet being then in
Europe proposed a plan to the Russians to equip their blockaded fleet with rams. The plan was not
adopted, and in 1855 he published a pamphlet outlining his idea and said, in proposing it to the United
States Government, "I hold myself ready to carry it out in all its details whenever the day arrives that the
United States is about to become engaged in a naval contest." It was not until after the appearance of the
Mcrrimac at Hampton Roads and the danger to Foote s fleet on the Mississippi from Confederate rams that
Ellet was given the opportunity to try his various projects and commissioned to equip several rams at
Cincinnati. The project was regarded as a perilous one. Had it not been forEllet s extraordinary personal
influence he would never have been able to obtain crews for his rams, as they were entirely unarmored with
the exception of the pilot-house, but Ellet had reasoned correctly that the danger from collision was im
mensely against the vessel struck, while the danger from shot penetrating a vital part of the approaching ram
he proved was reduced to an unappreciable fraction. He contented himself, therefore, with strengthening the
hulls of the river steamers which he purchased, filling the bows with solid timbers and surrounding the boijers
with a double tier of oak twenty-four inches thick. At Memphis the rams had their first trial and it resulted
in complete vindication of Ellet s theories. It was a vindication, however, which cost Ellet his life. He
was mortally wounded in the fight at Memphis while in command of the Queen of the West.
0rt pilaw anti
told the story. The Confederates were evacuating the place
and destroying their magazines before departing. The next
morning the Federals clambered up the bluff to the site of the
fort and found only smoking ruins. Even the earthen breast
works had been torn to pieces by the fearful powder explosions.
Fort Randolph was likewise abandoned. The great river, while
not yet rolling " unvexed to the sea," was now open as far as
Memphis, whither the River Defense fleet had retreated, some
eighty miles below Fort Pillow, and thither steered the Fed
eral gunboats in search of their recent antagonists.
Down the glassy river the Union fleet glided on June 5th.
The banners were waving. The men were as gay as if they
were going to a picnic. In the evening they came within gun
shot of Memphis and anchored for the night, not far from the
supposed spot where, more than three hundred years before,
De Soto had first cast his eyes on the rolling tide of the
The Federal flotilla on the Mississippi had, some days be
fore, been reenforced by four small steam rams under the com
mand of Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr. Ellet was not by profes
sion a military man, but a distinguished civil engineer. He had
convinced the Government of the value of the steam ram as a
weapon of war, and was given a colonel s commission and au
thority to fit out a fleet of rams. His vessels w^ere not armed.
He cooperated with, but was not under the direction of, Flag-
Officer Davis. His " flag-ship " was the Queen of the West
and the next in importance was the Monarch, commanded by
his younger brother, Alfred W. Ellet.
It was understood by all that a ferocious river-battle was
necessary before the Federals could get control of the city on
the hill. It is true that Memphis was not fortified, but it was
defended by the fleet which the previous month had had its first
taste of warfare at Fort Pillow and now lay at the foot of the
bluffs ready to grapple with the coming foe. The vessels, eight
in number, were not equal to those of the Union fleet. They
[ 240 ]
PILOT W. J. AUSLINTY
PILOT DAVID HEINER
HEROES OF THE WHEEL-HOUSE
PILOT CHARLES ROSS
THE UXARMORED CONNING TOWER
Look into these six keen eyes which knew every current and
eddy, every snag and sandbar of the Mississippi. To the hands
of men like these the commanders of the Federal gunboats
owed the safe conduct of their vessels. No
hearts more fearless nor hands more steady
under fire were brought into the fighting on
either side. Standing silently at the wheel,
their gaze fixed on the familiar countenance
of the river before them, they guided the
gunboats through showers of shell. Peering
into the murky night, they felt their way
through shallow channels past watchful bat
teries whose first shot would be aimed against
the frail and unprotected pilot house.
There was no more dangerous post than the
pilot house of a gunboat, standing as a target
for the gunners, who knew that to disable the
pilot was to render the vessel helpless to drift
hither and yon or to run aground to be riddled
full of holes. After the Inland Fleet passed
Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co.
THE TARGET OF THE
from the control of the army to that of the navy the pilots
of all the gunboats except Ellet s rams were brevetted acting
masters or masters mates and wore the uniform of the
navy. Their services and bravery were fully
recognized by the commanders, and their
intimate knowledge of the river admitted
them to conferences in which the most secret
and difficult naval movements were planned.
A river pilot knew when he could take his
vessel over sandbars and inundated shallows
where soundings would have turned back any
navigating officer of the navy. Such valuable
men were never safe. Even when passing up
and down apparently peaceful reaches of the
river the singing of some sharpshooters
bullet would give sudden warning that along
the banks men were lying in wait for them.
The mortality among the pilots during the war
speaks volumes for the simple heroism of
these silent men.
0rt pllnw attfr iJfemphts * * * *
carried but two guns each, except one, which carried four. It
was therefore a brave thing for Captain Montgomery to lay
down the gage of battle to a fleet far stronger than his own.
But he and his men did not falter. They moved up the swift
current and opened the battle of Memphis, one of the most
hotly contested naval battles ever fought in American waters.
It was the 6th of June, 1862, and one of the most charming
days that Xature ever gives. As the sun rose over the eastern
hills the people of the city gathered along the bluff in thousands,
standing in dark silhouette against the sky, to watch the contest,
and one can imagine how their emotion rose and fell as the tide
of battle ebbed and flowed on the river below.
It was at 5 :00 A.M. that Montgomery moved up the stream
and fired the first gun. At this opening Colonel Ellet sprang
forward on the hurricane deck, waved his hat, and shouted to
his brother: " Round out and follow me. Now is our chance."
The Queen instantly moved toward the Confederate fleet;
the Federal ironclads followed, but already both fleets were en
gaged in a brisk cannonade and the smoke was so dense that the
Queen was soon lost to view. The daring little vessel plunged
on through the waves. She was headed for the General Lovell,
almost in the center of the Confederate line of battle. The
Queen struck her antagonist squarely on the side and cut her
almost in two. The wounded vessel groaned and lurched, and
in a few minutes she sank, with many of her devoted crew,
beneath the dark waters of the river.
Soon after this the Queen was rammed by the General
Beauregard and a little later when the Beauregard and the
General Price were making for the Monarch, the Beauregard
missed her aim and struck her comrade, the General Price., tear
ing off her wheel and putting her out of service. The Queen
fought with desperation and in the melee Colonel Ellet, her
commander, received a pistol shot in the knee. He fell on the
deck and, unable to rise, continued to give orders to his men
while lying prone on his ship. But the Queen was now dis-
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abled, after her crash with the Beauregard, and Ellet ordered
that she he headed for the Arkansas shore.
The next scene in this exciting drama came when the
Beauregard, after disabling the Queen, made for the Monarch
with like design. But the Monarch was the more agile. She
evaded the blow, and dexterously whirling about, struck the
Beauregard on the bow with terrific force, tearing a great hole
beneath the water line. The Beauregard, disabled also by the
gunboats, began to sink and the men on her decks fluttered
handkerchiefs or any white thing at hand in token of surrender.
The Monarch, however, had determined to add one more
to her list of trophies. There was the Little Rebel, the Confed
erate flag-ship, on whose deck Captain Montgomery had stood
with unfaltering courage in the midst of Federal gun-shots.
The Monarch now turned her prow to the Little Rebel and put
on full steam. The latter, conscious of her inability to stand
before the little fighting monster, fled toward the Arkansas
shore. The race was a hot one; the Monarch gained rapidly,
but ere she could strike the Little Rebel, the latter ran aground
in the shallow water. Her commander and her crew leaped
into the water, and they swam to shore and escaped into the
The Monarch then steamed back to the middle of the river
and rounded out her day s work by doing a deed of mercy. The
Beauregard was still above water, but was settling rapidly, and
her faithful crew, knowing that they had done all they could for
the cause for which they fought, were still waving their w 7 hite
flags. The Monarch rescued them and towed the sinking
Beauregard to shallow water, where she sank to her boiler
Four of the Confederate gunboats had now been destroyed
and the remaining four turned down the river and made a des
perate effort to escape. But the Union fleet closed in on them
and three of them turned to the Arkansas shore in the hope that
the crews might make their escape. In the lead was the General
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
A HANGER OF THE RIVER
This little "tinclad" is typical of the so-called Mosquito Fleet, officially known as "Light Drafts," which rendered a magnificent
minor service in the river operations of the navy. Up narrow tributaries and in and out of tortuous and shallow bayous, impassable
for the larger gunboats, these dauntless fighting craft pushed their way, capturing Confederate vessels twice their size, or boldly en
gaging the infantry and even the field-batteries of the enemy, which were always eagerly pressing the shores to annoy the invading
fleet. To Flag-Officer Davis, during his command on the Mississippi, the Federals owed the idea of these light-draft stern-wheel
vessels, most of which were ordinary river steamers purchased and altered to suit the purposes of the navy. Covered to a height of
eleven feet above the water line with railroad iron a half to three-quarters of an inch thick, and with their boilers still further pro
tected, they were able to stand up to the fire of even moderate-sized guns. Many a gun in the Confederate fleets and forts was silenced
by the well-directed fire of the two light bow-rifles with which some of the tinclads were equipped.
J/. JVj/f. Thompson. In a few minutes she had reached the goal
and her officers and men leaped from the deck and ran for the
protection of the woods. A moment later a shell exploded on
her deck, set her on fire and she was hurned to the water s edge.
Closely following the Jeff. Thompson were the Bragg and the
Sumter, and the crews of both escaped in like manner to the
swamps and forests of Arkansas. Of all the eight Confederate
gunboats the General Van Dorn alone evaded her pursuers and
made her escape down the river.
The battle of Memphis, one of the fiercest of its kind on
record, lasted but an hour and a quarter. The Confederate
killed and wounded were never accurately reported. On the
Union side there were four wounded, and with one the wound
proved fatal Colonel Kllet. His shattered knee refused to
heal, and two weeks later, in the arms of his wife and daughter,
the famous engineer breathed his last. His body was carried to
Philadelphia and laid to rest at Laurel Hill, after being given a
state funeral at Independence Hall.
The view of the battle of Memphis from the bluffs, on
which the whole population of the city had gathered, was one
of indescribable grandeur. Every house in the city and for
miles around quivered with the explosions of burning powder.
At times the smoke of the battle was so dense that scarcely a
vessel could be seen by the spectators on the hill; but a con
tinuous roar of artillery arose from the hidden surface of the
river, while the impingement of the vessels crashing together
sounded like a titanic battle of the elements.
There were a few Union sympathisers among the on
lookers, but the great majority of them were Confederates, and
when they saw their ships go down they broke into wails and
lamentations. Sorrowfully they witnessed, before noon of that
day, the Stars and Bars lowered from the City Hall and re
placed by the Stars and Stripes, which floated over Memphis
to the end of the war.
FIGHTING WESTERNERS THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY
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GENERAL C. C. WASHBURN (ORGANIZER OF THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY) AND STAFF
Wisconsin sent ninety thousand of her sons into the struggle, and her infantry and cavalry won records "East" and also in the minor,
but by no means inglorious, operations west of the Mississippi. In Missouri and Arkansas they protected the inhabitants from outlaw
bands and resisted the raids of the Confederates, helping the Union forces on the other side finally to gain possession of the river.
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On July 24th the fleet under Farragut and
the troops that had occupied the position
on the river bank opposite Vieksburg under
the command of General Thomas Williams
went down the river, Farragut proceeding
to New Orleans and Williams once more
to Baton Rouge. The latter had with
drawn from his work of cutting the canal
in front of Vieksburg, and a few days after
his arrival at Baton Rouge the Confederate
General Van Dorn sent General J. C.
Breckinridge to seize the post. On the
morning of August 5, 1862, the Federal
forces were attacked. Williams, who had
with him only about twenty-five hundred
men, soon found that a much larger force
was opposed to him, Breckinridge having
between five and six thousand men. The
brunt of the early morning attack fell upon
the Indiana and Michigan troops, who slow
ly fell back before the fierce rushes of the
bravely led men in gray. At once, Williams
ordered Connecticut, Massachusetts, and
Wisconsin regiments to go to their relief, sending at the same
time two sections of artillery to his right wing. The Federal
gunboats Kalahdin and Kinco opened fire on Breckinridge s lines
at a signal from General Williams, who
indicated their position. For almost two
hours the battle raged fiercely, the firing be
ing at short range and the fighting in some
cases hand-to-hand. The Twenty-first
Indiana regiment having lost all its field
officers, General Williams placed himself at
its head, exposing himself repeatedly, and
refusing all pleadings to go to the rear.
As he was bravely leading his men, he was
killed almost instantly by a bullet that
passed through his chest; and the Federal
forces, concentrating, fell back on the out
skirts of the town. The Confederates, who
had also suffered heavily, fell back also,
retreating to their camp. The action was
a drawn fight, but in the loss of the brave
veteran of the Mexican War who had led
them the land forces of the lower Missis
sippi sustained a severe blow. General
Williams body was sent to New Orleans
on an artillery transport which was sunk
in collision with the Oneida off Donaldson-
ville, Louisiana, a few days after the battle. Baton Rouge
was abandoned by the Federals on August 20th. Breckinridge
had previously retired to Port Hudson.
< <Hiyriyht !>}/ Review of Revieu-x Co.
ILLERY TRANSPORT THAT WAS SI NK OFF DONALDSONVILLE, LOUISIANA, WITH GENERAL
WILLIAMS BODY O\ BOARD. AUGUST. 1862
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
GUNS MARKED GEN. MAGRUDEB, YORKTOWN
IN THE POSITIONS WHERE THEY DEFIED
MCCLELLAN S ARMY A MONTH
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THE SUPERFLUOUS SIEGE
The Mortar Battery that Never Fired a Shot. By his much heralded Peninsula Campaign, McClellan had
planned to end the war in a few days. He landed with his Army of the Potomac at Fortress Monroe, in
April, 1862, intending to sweep up the peninsula between the York and James rivers, seize Richmond at
one stroke, and scatter the routed Confederate army into the Southwest. At Yorktown, lie was opposed
by a line of fortifications that sheltered a force much inferior in strength to his own. For a whole month
McClellan devoted all the energies of his entire army to a systematic siege. Its useless elaboration is well
illustrated by Battery No. 4, one of fifteen batteries planted to the south and southeast of Yorktown. The
ten monster 13-inch siege mortars, the complement of No. 4, had just been placed in position and were almost
ready for action. It was planned to have them drop shells on the Confederate works, a mile and a half
distant. Just a day before this could be done, Yorktown was evacuated, May 4, 1862.
Copyright by Patriot fuu.
THE ELABORATE DEFENSES
Advanced Section, Three Mortars of Union Battery, No. 4. Looking due north and showing the same three
mortars pictured in the preceding views. The photograph shows (1) the stockade built above the excava
tions as a protection from attack by Confederate infantry; (2) the ammunition that would have been used
the next day if the Confederates had not evacuated, and (3) the temporary bridge crossing the narrow
branch that runs into a northern arm of Wormley s Creek at this point. By this bridge communication
was held with the batteries to the west. The heavy stockade was intended to forestall any attempt of the
Confederate infantry to rush the battery. The mortars shown in this photograph are 13-inch sea-coast
mortars and exceeded in weight any guns previously placed in siege batteries. The first of these mortars
was landed at daybreak on April 27th and the whole battery was ready to open bombardment in a week s time.
THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN
A SHATTERED and discomfited army were the hosts
of McDowell when they reached the hanks of the Poto
mac, after that ill-fated July Sunday at Hull Run. Dispirited
by the sting of defeat, this motley and unorganized mass of
men became rather a mob than an army. The transformation
of this chaos of demoralization into the trained, disciplined,
and splendid troops of the Grand Army of the Potomac, was a
problem to challenge the military genius of the century.
Fresh from his victories in the mountains of West Vir
ginia, imbued with the spirit of Carnot, that " military dis
cipline is the glory of the soldier and the strength of armies,"
General George Brinton McClellan began the task of trans
muting the raw and untutored regiments into fighting men
who were to bear the brunt of the conflict, until the victory
should be theirs at Appomattox. Never, since the days of
Baron Steuben at Valley Forge, had the American " citizen
soldier " received such tuition in the art of M r ar. It was a
gigantic attempt; but with the flower of the youth of the
North, the winning personality of a popular and efficient com
mander, in whom lived the enthusiasm of the creator and mas
ter whose soul was in his work all deeply imbued with patri
otism there sprang up as if by magic, in the vacant fields
about the capital city, battalions of infantry, batteries of artil
lery, and squadrons of cavalry.
Washington has become a camp. Day after day the trains
bring from the shops and farms the inexperienced sons of the
Northland. All during the summer and autumn months, the
new recruits continue to march through the streets, with flags
flying and bands playing. They come, two hundred thousand
strong, that the " Young Napoleon " may forge them into a
HOW PICK AND SHOVEL SERVED
Rear Section, Seven Mortars, of Union Battery No. 4. In order to make it impossible for Confederate sharpshooters to pick off the
gunners, the batteries were placed in elaborate excavations. At No. 4 the entire bank of Wormley s Creek was dug away. General
McClellan personally planned the location of some of these batteries for the purpose of silencing the Confederate artillery fire.
Copyright by Review of ttevi
Both Sections of Union Battery No. 4. The heavy barge at the landing transported the ten huge mortars, with their ammunition, all
the way from Fortress Monroe up the York River and Wormley s Creek to the position of the battery. There they were laboriously
set up, and, without firing a shot, were as laboriously removed. On the day of the evacuation the six batteries equipped were in
condition to throw one hundred and seventy-five tons of metal daily into the Confederate defenses around Yorktown.
weapon, which later in the hands of the " Hammerer " will
beat down the veterans of Lee before Richmond.
The autumn days come and go. The frosty nights have
come. The increasing army continues its drill within the de
fenses. There are no indications of the forces moving. As if
by instinct the men begin the construction of log huts for
shelter from the cold of the coming winter.
" All s quiet along the Potomac." The winter months
wear on and Public Opinion is growing restless. Why does
not the army move? " Across the country, thirty miles away,
at Manassas, is the Confederate army, flushed with its July
victory, under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston.
It was the 8th of March, 1862. As the Union army looked
toward Manassas, down along the hori/on line, clouds of
smoke were seen ascending. It was from the burning huts.
The Confederates were abandoning Manassas. Johnston was
evacuating his camp. The next day orders came for the Army
of the Potomac to move. Through the morning mists w y as
heard the bustle of activity. Across the Long Bridge the
troops took up the line of march, the old structure shaking
under the tread of the passing hosts. Filled with the spirit
of action, the men were jubilant at the prospect. But this
buoyancy was of short duration. There was the Virginia mud.
yellow and sticky, into which the feet of man and horse sank
till it was almost impossible to extricate them. Throughout
the day the muddy march continued. At night the bivouac
was made in the oozy slime, and not till the day after, near
evening, were the deserted fortifications of Manassas reached.
McClellan was putting his army to a test.
Next morning the two days return march to Washington
began. The rain fell in sheets and it was a wet and bedraggled
army that sought the defenses of the capital.
The strategic eye of the commander had detected two
routes to the coveted capital of the Confederacy. One lost
many of its possibilities by the Confederate retreat from
OF REVIEWS CO.
"LITTLE MAC" PREPARING FOR THE CAMPAIGN A ROYAL AIDE
A picture taken in the fall of 1861, when McClellan was at the headquarters of General George W. Morell
(who stands at the extreme left), commanding a brigade in Fitz John Porter s Division. Morell was then
stationed on the defenses of Washington at Minor s Hill in Virginia, and General McClellan was engaged
in transforming the raw recruits in the camps near the national capital into the finished soldiers of the Army
of the Potomac. "Little Mac," as they called him, was at this time at the height of his popularity. He
appears in the center between two of his favorite aides-de-camp Lieut. -Cols. A. V. Colburn and N. B.
Sweitzer whom he usually selected, he writes, "when hard riding is required." Farther to the right
stand two distinguished visitors the Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillippe of France, and his
nephew, the Count de Paris, who wears the uniform of McClellan s staff, on which he was to serve through
out the Peninsula Campaign (see page 115). He afterwards wrote a valuable "History of the Cival War."
Manassas. The other was determined on. Soon the Poto
mac will swarm with every description of water craft, It is
to be the prelude to another drama on the military stage. On
the placid river there come canal-boats, flat-bottoms, barges,
three-decked steamers, and transatlantic packets.
On shore, the cities of tents are being deserted. The army
is massing toward the piers of Alexandria. It is a glorious
day of awakening spring, this 17th of March, 1862. From the
heights above Alexandria a beautiful spectacle is seen. Armed
men cover the hillside and the plain; columns of soldiers, with
guns flashing in the sunlight, march and countermarch; thou
sands of horsemen with shining arms fill the meadows to the
right; to the left are many batteries; beyond these, a long line
of marching men stretch from the hills to the streets of Alex
andria; regimental bands play familiar tunes, and flags and
banners are waving over all. It is a magnificent pageant a
far different scene from that, three years hence, when many of
these depleted, war-worn regiments, with tattered flags, will
pass in grand review through the avenues of the capital.
Here upon this assortment of transports, without confu
sion and with the precision of a well-oiled machine, one hun
dred and twenty-one thousand men, with all the equipment for
war, including fourteen thousand horses and mules, forty-four
batteries, wagons, pontoon bridges, and boats are loaded. It
comprises a fleet of four hundred vessels. On board men are
swarming like ants; they unmoor from the landings and lazily
float down the river. The unfinished dome of the Capitol fades
away in the distance. The men gather in little knots and can
but conjecture as to their destination.
Swinton tells us that it was an undertaking which " for
economy and celerity of movement is without a parallel on
record." This vast army with its entire equipage was trans
ferred in about two weeks a distance of two hundred miles
without the loss of a man, from the scene of its preparation at
Washington to the Flanders of the Civil War.
McCLELLAN S HEADQUARTERS BEFORE YORKTOWN
Camp Winfield Scott, near Wormley s Creek. General McClellan was a stickler for neatness. His headquarters were models of
military order. The guard always wore white gloves, even in the active campaign. Here we see the general s chargers with their
grooms, the waiting orderlies and the sentry standing stiffly at support arms. At the left is the guardhouse with stacked muskets.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE TENTED MEADOW
Overlooking the camp from near McClellan s headquarters. Little hardships had these troops seen as yet. Everything was new and
fresh, the horses well fed and fat, the men happy and well sheltered in comfortable tents.
The army had already been divided into four corps,
commanded, respectively, by Generals McDowell, Sunnier,
Heintzelman, and Keyes, but at the last moment McDowell
had been detached by President Lincoln. The van was led by
General Hamilton s division of the Third Corps. On the
afternoon of the second day the first transports entered Chesa
peake Bay. In the shadowy distance, low against the sky-line,
could be descried the faint outlines of the Virginia shore. The
vessels passed toward Hampton Roads where a short time
before had occurred the duel of the ironclads, the Monitor and
Merrimac. To the right was Old Point Comfort, at whose
apex stood the frowning walls of Fortress Monroe.
The first troops landed in a terrible storm of thunder and
lightning. The sea became rough; great billows were break
ing on the beach; cables broke, allowing vessels to grate
against each other or drift helplessly from the docks. The
landing was made in an unpitying storm. Shelter was unavail
able, and there was no abatement of the gale with the night.
Then came the order to march. At the command the
men gathered, and in the darkness, with the incessant rain
beating in their faces, with but the lightning s flash to guide
them, they crossed the bridge toward Hampton. Here, in an
open field, with neither tents nor fire, with water standing in
pools, preparations for the night were made. The following
morning some pitched their tents under the guns of Fortress
Monroe while others found tenting places amid the charred
ruins of the once aristocratic village of Hampton. But the
cold, dreary rains were unceasing. Transport after transport
continued to unload its human freight. Day after day the men
stood shivering about their tents. Wet and cheerless, but pa
tient, they awaited the coming of their magnetic chief.
General McClellan reached Fortress Monroe on April 2d.
The Confederate capital was yet seventy miles away, on the
northern side of the James. The route of approach lay along
the narrow neck of land between the James and the York.
1 i I/I Iff/
/1 1 1//// /,
I////// /// /,
NATURE S AID TO THE DEFENDERS
Confederate magazines at the southeastern end of Yorktown. Tons of powder, shot and shell could be carried
from this fastness in perfect safety to the guns on the heights, behind which the Confederate artillerymen
stood and so long successfully defied the besiegers.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
WHENCE THE DEFENSE WAS DIRECTED
Headquarters of General Magruder in Yorktown. This pre-Revolutionary dwelling was on the mam street,
and here the young commander planned so cleverly the disposition of his 15,000 men not nearly enough to
man the defenses of the city that McClellan, with nearly 100,000, was held in check.
This peninsula, marshy and thickly wooded, is from seven to
fifteen miles in width, cut by smaller streams into which the
tides roll. The task before the army was not an easy one.
Again the splendidly equipped and matchlessly trained
Arm}" of the Potomac was ready to move. Out from the camp
at Hampton, from under the gun-bristling fort, the advance
was made in two divisions along the mud-filled roads of the
Peninsula. The troops marched with the precision of veterans.
It was a bright April day, but the progress made was slow.
Under the weight of unaccustomed burdens in the toilsome
march, the men soon fell out of line and began to straggle.
The warm sun and the wearisome tramp prompted many to
lighten their burdens by throwing away some of their apparel.
Soon the entire route was lined with an endless and reckless
profusion of overcoats, blankets, parade-coats, and shoes.
" Contraband " negroes were reaping a rich harvest, gathering
up the discarded articles. Less than five miles was covered this
first day. That night the rain came again and the soldiers
who had thrown away their clothing found it a night of suffer
ing. The morning march began in the rain. By the time Big
Bethel was reached the water was coming down in torrents.
The roads were cut till they were veritable rivers of mud.
Along this wretched way stumbled and plodded horse and man.
Saturday afternoon, April 5th, the Federal advance
guard on the right, consisting of Porter s division of Heintzel-
man s Third Corps, suddenly came to a river. It was the
Warwick, a sluggish stream, nearly cutting the Peninsula
from Yorktown to the James, a distance of thirteen and a half
miles. Beyond the river was a line of trenches and forts, de
fended by a Confederate army. General Magruder had been
stationed on the Peninsula with about eight thousand men.
At the approach of McClellan reenforcements were hastened
to him. The Union right wing was in front of Yorktown, the
left at Lee s Mills. Now for the first time in the campaign
the Union army found its way disputed. A flash of fire blazed
[ 262 ]
THE COSTLIEST RAMPART EVER BUILT
Confederate Breastworks to the South and Southeast of Yorktown, Reenforced with Cotton. This device was used once before, in
the War of 1812, by the defenders of New Orleans. Before the end of the Civil War, cotton was worth $1.00 a pound, gold. It is
safe to say that no fortification was ever built of material so expensive. These cotton bales were used to protect the gunners serv
ing the 8-inch Columbiad at the parapet. The gun in the center, though of archaic pattern, was deemed worth wrecking by the
Confederates when they evacuated the position to fall back upon Richmond.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
FORTIFICATIONS OF TWO WARS
Earthworks of the Revolution Used in the Civil War. The ditch, dug by Cornwallis in 1781, was deepened by Magruder in 1862.
The higher earthworks to the left are also of Revolutionary origin. The sand-bag ramparts were added by the Confederates as
further protection for guns and gunners, and as coverings to the magazines, one of which shows at the left of the picture.
arktoum Up tit?
from the rifle-pits. It was returned with equal force and here
on the historic soil of Yorktown men of North and South stood
opposed, where eighty-one years before their fathers had stood
together in the making of the Nation.
The defense confronting the Army of the Potomac was a
strong one. Dams, protected by batteries and rifle-trenches,
had been built in the river. Yorktown itself was fortified by a
line of continuous earthworks, while across the York was
Gloucester, also strongly fortified and garrisoned. The force
defending the line comprised eleven thousand men, soon to be
augmented by the army of General Johnston, who was as
signed to the chief command on the Peninsula.
At Lee s Mills General Smith, of Keyes corps, sent
to make a reconnaissance by General McClellan, detected a
seeming weak spot in the fortifications. Here would be
the logical point to break the Confederate line. General
Smith was ordered to send his men across the river. Accord
ingly four companies of " Green Mountain Boys," under
cover of a heavy artillery fire from a battery of eighteen
guns, plunged into the Warwick. The water reached above
the waist-line, but they waded across the stream, emerging
on the other side, and charged the Confederate rifle-pits.
Eight additional companies came to their support. For one
hour the Union troops held the trenches. The Confederates,
after being driven to a redoubt, received reenforcements, re
formed, and made a counter-charge. The Vermont soldiers
were driven back by a galling fire, many being killed or
wounded in recrossing the stream. The attempt to force the
line could not succeed, since the condition of the roads and the
low, boggy land rendered it impossible to use light artillery.
It could not be brought close enough to do effective work.
Preparation for a protracted siege was now begun.
Streams were bridged ; corduroy roads constructed ; a depot of
supplies established. Facing the Confederate works, a paral
lel line extending from before Yorktown to the Warwick, a
RAMPARTS THAT BAFFLED McCLELLAN. (Hasty fortifications of
the Confederates at Yorktown.) It was against such fortifications as
these, which Magruder had hastily reenforced with sand-bags, that
MoClellan spent a month preparing his heavy batteries. Magruder had
far too few soldiers to man his long line of defenses properly, and his
position could have been taken by a single determined attack. This ram
part was occupied by the Confederate general, D. H. Hill, who had been
the first to enter Yorktown in order to prepare it for siege. He was the
last to leave it on the ni;;ht of May 3, 1S62.
WRECKED ORDNANCE. (Gun exploded by the Confederates on
General Hill s rampart, Yorktown.) Although the Confederates aban
doned 200 pieces of ordnance at Yorktown, they were able to render most
of them useless before leaving. Hill succeeded in terrorizing the Federals
with grape-shot, and some of this was left behind. After the evacuation
the ramparts were overrun by Union trophy seekers. The soldier rest
ing his hands upon his musket is one of the Zouaves whose bright and novel
uniforms were so conspicuous early in the war. This spot was directly on
the line of the British fortification of 1781.
ANOTHER VOICELESS GUN. (Confederate ramparts southeast of
Yorktown.) A 32-pounder Navy gun which had been burst, wrecking
its embrasure. The Federal soldier seated on the sand-bags is on guard-duty
to prevent camp-followers from looting the vacant fort.
THE MISSING RIFLE. (Extensive sand-bag fortifications of the Con
federates at Yorktown.) The shells and carriage were left behind by the
Confederates, but the rifled gun to which they belonged was taken along
in the retreat. Such pieces as they could not remove they spiked.
GUNS THE UNION LOST AND RECOVERED. (A two-gun Confed
erate battery in the entrenchments south of Yorktown.) The near gun
is a 32-pounder navy; the far one, a 24-pounder siege-piece. More than
3,000 pieces of naval ordnance fell into the hands of the Confederates
early in the war, through the ill-advised and hasty abandonment of
Norfolk Navy Yard by the Federals. Many of these guns did service
at Yorktown and subsequently on the James River against the Union.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE CONFEDERATE COMMAND OF THE RIVER. (Battery
Magruder, Yorktown.) Looking north up the river, four of the five
8-inch Columbiads composing this section of the battery are visible. The
grape-shot and spherical shells, which had been gathered in quantities to
prevent the Federal fleet from passing up the river, were abandoned on the
hasty retreat of the Confederates, the guns being spiked. The vessels in
the river are transport ships, with the exception of the frigate just off shore.
distance of four miles, was thrown up. Fourteen batteries and
three redoubts, armed with the heaviest ordnance some of the
guns throwing two hundred pounds were put in place.
Surrounding Yorktown were open fields. But the Federal
troops could not remain there because of the shells from the
batteries. The siege lasted less than thirty days and it rained
on twenty of them. Violent thunderstorms rapidly succeeded
one another. The Northern soldier, whether digging trenches,
on the picket line, or standing guard, had to endure the fury of
these storms. At night his bed might be in a pool of water.
Sickness became prevalent, thousands were in the hospitals
and many graves were dug in the marshy lowlands.
At last all was in readiness for the attack. The weather
had cleared. The bombardment of Yorktown was about to
begin. The shells were in position. Batteries capable of
throwing sixty shells a minute were ready to belch forth.
Saturday morning, May 3d, Battery No. 1, opposite
Yorktown, began its cannonading. The army waited in in
tense expectation of the grand spectacle. On Sunday, it was
surmised, the great guns would play upon the works and ere
the set of sun the victorious arms of the North would enter the
historic town and unfurl the Stars and Stripes where the
Father of his Country had placed them four-score years before.
Early Sunday morning a bright light from behind the
Confederate works was seen by the Union pickets. A desul
tory cannonading had continued during the night and toward
morning the firing was at times intense. The Sabbath dawned
fair and warm, but no Southerners were to be seen. The
Union men in the rifle-pits crept up to the very lines where but
yesterday glinted the Confederate guns. The works had been
abandoned. Under the cover of night the defenses had been
evacuated, with masterly skill, as at Manassas. The troops
were even now in full retreat toward Williamsburg.
Soon the Federals were in hot pursuit. General Stone-
man with cavalry and horse artillery followed along the Wil-
AN UNPRECEDENTED SIEGE BATTERY
Federal Battery No. 1 Before Yorktown. Never before had so heavy a siege battery been mounted. It was placed half a mile farther
down the York River than Battery No. 4. From its six Parrott guns, five 100-pounders and one 200-pounder, it could at a single Br
ing drop 700 pounds of shot and shell upon the fortifications and landing at Yorktown, two miles away. It opened up on May 1,
1862, with such telling effect that the evacuation of the town was greatly hastened, occurring two days later. These Parrott guns
were in many cases failures. The reinforcement of the breach was not properly placed to stand the heavy charges and many burst,
killing the artillerymen and wrecking everything in close vicinity. The life of these guns was short.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE PRIDE OF UNION BATTERY NUMBER ONE
A 200-pounder Parrott Gun. This, at the time, mammoth piece of ordnance stood in the center of Battery No. 1, which was located
on the west bank of the York River at the mouth of Wormley s Creek. The range of the battery was upstream toward Yorktown,
and this huge Parrott gun in the very center of the battery was much relied upon by the Federals to do heavy damage. Here we see
how carefully McClellan s engineers did their work. The wickerwork bastions were reinforced by tiers of sand bags. Well-constructed
wooden stands were made for the gunners to facilitate the loading and swabbing. This battery was near the Farenholdt House.
0rktnum Up ilr? fkntnsttla
liamsburg road, which was littered with the debris of a re
treating army. Six miles from Williamsburg the pursuing
cavalrymen came to a sudden halt. The rear guard of the
Confederates had been overtaken. On the brow of the hill, in
full view, was a Southern cavalry regiment, belonging to the
famous brigade of J. E. B. Stuart. A quick passage of arms
resulted. The advancing force pressed close but the re
sistance was stubborn. Stuart s men were covering the retreat
of the main column toward the entrenchments of Williams-
burg, which were reached by four o clock.
Night came upon the marching troops, who all the day
had been trudging the flooded roads of the Peninsula. The
rain had fallen in torrents during the greater part of March.
The cavalry prepared to bivouac in the rain-soaked fields in
front of the Confederate works. All during the evening and
even into the night the forces of Sumner and Hooker, floun
dering in the mud, were arriving on the scene of the next day s
battle. It was a drenched and bedraggled army that slept on
its arms that night.
Early in the morning the troops were again in motion.
The approach to Williamsburg is along a narrow ridge, from
either side of which flow the tributaries of the York and the
James. At the junction of two roads stood the main defense
of the fortified town. It was Fort Magruder with its bas-
tioned front. To its right and left were a dozen redoubts for
the placing of field artillery. In front of its half-mile of
earthen wall ran a ditch full of water. In front of this and to
the right was an open field, made so by the felling of trees, and
beyond were the woods in which the army had bivouacked.
It was scarcely day when the attacking Confederate force
emerged into the edge of the timber-strewn field. At once
there burst from the wooded cover a vigorous fire. It was
answered by the Confederate infantry and every gun in
reach. The Federal troops, creeping through the slashes,
steadily advanced. Heavy shot crashed amid the fallen timber,
SILENT AFTER TWO DAYS WORK
Union Battery No. 1, Two Miles Below Yorktown. This section of the Parrott guns was in the peach orchard of the Farenholdt
House. Never had so heavy a battery been set up before in siege work. McClellan hoped by it to silence the "impregnable" water
batteries of the Confederates by dropping shot and shell upon Yorktown wharf and within the defenses on the bluff. After two
days of action it was rendered useless by the evacuation of Yorktown, and had to be transported up the river after the change of the
The Farenholdt mansion, a handsome old Colonial structure, was just in the rear of this battery, and frt ii its roof the work of
the shells could be clearly observed,
ate fire could reach them.
The good shots were cheered and the men stationed here were in holiday mood no Confeder^
Copyright by Patriot Pub, Co.
THE SCENE OF YORKTOWN S ONLY SURRENDER
Moore s House, about a Mile Southeast of the Town. Near here, in 1781, Cornwallis laid down his arms to Washington and in this
house the terms of the surrender which established the independence of America were drawn up. The damage to the house is the
effect of the Revolutionary guns and not those of McClellan. The guns of Battery No. 1 fired their heavy shells over this house.
Near here also many of the Continentals were buried, and across their graves and the old camp of Cornwallis s beleagured troops the
messengers of destruction hurtled through the air. The Federal fleet was anchored near where the Comte de Grasse s ships lay at
the time of the surrender.
plowing the earth as it struck or, rebounding, tore through
the branches of the wood in the rear. Slowly the Federals
made their way across the field, targets for the Confederate
sharpshooter. Two Union batteries, those of Webber and
Bramhall, advanced to within seven hundred yards of the fort
and began to play upon its walls.
Meanwhile there was seen emerging from a little ravine
on the Union left a swarm of Confederates who opened at
once a terrific fire. Giving their characteristic yell, they
charged upon the Federals, pushing them back until the edge
of the wood was again reached. There the Northerners halted,
making a stand. Fresh troops came to their relief but they
were insufficient. It seemed as if the Federals must give way.
Both armies fought tenaciously. Neither w r ould yield. The
contest grew desperate. The Union brigades were being shat
tered. The last charges were made with ammunition taken
from the cartridge boxes of fallen comrades.
Meanwhile " Fighting Phil " Kearny was hastening with
his regiments over the bottomless roads of the Peninsula.
They came most opportunely, and took the places of Hooker s
tired and hungry men, who retreated in good order, leaving
on the tree-strewn field seventeen hundred of their comrades,
who had gone down before the Confederate fire.
On the York River side there had been no fighting during
the early part of the day. But about noon, General Hancock,
" the Superb," took his men near the river s bank and occu
pied two Confederate redoubts. Planting his batteries in
these new positions, he began throwing shells into Fort Ma-
gruder. This new move of the Federals at once attracted the
attention of the Confederates, and General Jubal A. Early,
with the Fifth and Twenty-third North Carolina and the
Twenty-fourth and Thirty-eighth Virginia regiments, was
sent to intercept Hancock s movements. At the bank of a
small stream, the Carolina regiments under General D. H.
Hill halted to form in line. The intrepid Early did not wait,
THE DOOR TO YORKTOWN
Sallyport in the Center of the Southwestern Line of Entrenchments. This commanded the road leading past Yorktown to Williams-
burg, upon which the Confederates fell back as McClellan advanced after the evacuation. This view looks into the town and toward
the river. The advancing Federals entered the city from the other side. The inhabitants, who had first hidden in their homes, flocked
to the street corners as regiment after regiment swept into the town with colors flying and bands playing. Out through this gate
the detachment marched in pursuit of the retreating Confederates, who made a strong stand at Williamsburg.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE TOWN McCLELLAN THOUGHT WORTH A SIEGE
Near the Center of Yorktown. Far from being the almost impregnable fortified city which McClellan appeared to think it, York-
town was but a small village, to which the occupation by Cornwallis in 1781 had given an exaggerated strategic importance. It con
sisted chiefly of a single street, seen in the picture. Here a group of residents had gathered after the evacuation curious for a sight
of the entering Union troops. A most remarkable thing to be noticed is the unharmed condition of most of the houses. The cas
ualties among noncombatants were almost nothing. The food supply at this time was plentiful, the South as a whole had not begun
to feel the pinch of hunger that it endured so bravely and so unflinchingly during the dark days of 64.
but riding at the head of the Twenty-fourth Virginia, rushed
into the attack. Up across the field the column swept. On
the crest of the hill stood Hancock s men sixteen hundred
strong waiting for the charge. In front of his soldiers, with
drawn sword, stood the man who later would display a similar
courage on the field of Gettysburg. On came the Southerners
rush. The sword of Hancock gleamed in the light. Quick
and decisive came the order to charge, and the trained soldiers,
with the coolness of veterans, hurled themselves upon the Con
federate column. Down by the stream, the gallant McRae of
the Fifth North Carolina, seeing what was happening, dashed
forward to take part in the fight. The Northern musketry
fire sang in the afternoon air. So close did the opposing col
umns come to each other that the bayonets were used with
deadly effect. The slaughter of the Fifth North Carolina regi
ment was appalling. The lines of the South began to waver,
then broke and fled down the hill, leaving over five hundred
men on the bloody field.
Now the sound of battle began to grow fainter in front
of Fort Magruder. The Confederates were falling back be
hind its protecting walls. The Federal troops, wet and weary
and hungry, slept on the field with their fallen comrades, and
Hancock held undisputed sway during the starless night.
But it was not too dark for Longstreet s command to
retreat once more in the direction of Richmond. It was a per
ilous road through the flat, swampy lowlands, with rain falling
at every step of the way as they hastened toward the Chicka-
hominy. The Union troops, too, had reason to remember
this night as one of greatest suffering.
The next morning dawned in all the beauty of early May.
The dead lay half buried in the mud. Many of the wounded
had not yet been taken to the hospitals. But Williamsburg,
the ancient capital of the Old Dominion, soon echoed with the
tread of the hostile army as it swept through its quaint streets
to the sound of martial music.
THE GUNS THAT DID NOT TAKE THE TOWN
Federal Ordnance Ready for Transportation from Yorktown. The artillery thus parked at the rear of the lower wharf was by no means
all that McClellan deemed necessary to overcome the resistance at Yorktown. In the center are the Parrott guns. In the back
ground, at the upper wharf, are the transports ready for the embarkation of the troops. The little mortars in the foreground were
known as coehorns. They could be lifted by half a dozen men and transported by hand to any part of the entrenchments. Their
range was only a few hundred yards, but with small charges they could quite accurately drop shells at almost a stone s throw.
During the siege of Petersburg they were used by both armies. Here we see troops and artillery ready for the forward move. The
Louisiana Tigers had been encamped here before McClellan s army took possession.
LOADING THE TRANSPORTS
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
The Lower Wharf at Yorktown. The steamer Robert Morris ready to depart, waiting for the embarkation of that portion of the Army
of the Potomac which went up the York River to the mouth of the Pamunkey from Yorktown, May 6th, after the evacuation. Already
the dismantling of both the Confederate and the Federal forts had begun. One sees gun-carriages, mortars, and tons of shot and
shell, ready to be taken up the river for the operations against Richmond.
"ON TO RICHMOND!" NEAR CUMBERLAND, VIRGINIA,
u u i j Witl1 Confederate opposition at Yorktown and Williams-
burg broken down, the Army of the Potomac was now ready for the final
rush upon Richmond. The gathering of the Union army of forty thou
sand men at White House, near Cumberland, was felt to be the beginning
of the expected victorious advance. That part of the army not at York-
town and Williamsburg was moved up the Peninsula as fast as the condi
tions of the road would permit. After the affair at Williamsburg the
troops there joined the main army before the advance to the Chiekahom-
my. Here we see but part of that camp the first to be established on
a large scale, in the Peninsula campaign looking north at the bend
ot the Famunkey.
THE FAR-STRETCHING ENCAMPMENT. (Cumberland Landing.)
Ihree Quarters O f a mile from the landing, looking north toward the
nver. ihe distance is obscured by the haze of smoke from thousands
of camp-hres. Every bit of dried wood had been collected and consumed
and standing timber was felled in all directions
WHERE SUPPLIES WERE LANDED AT CUMBERLAND. The
south bank of the Pamunkey, looking northwest across the lower camp
In this bend of the river was gathered the nondescript fleet of transports
steamers, barges, and schooners that conveyed Federal army supplies up
to this point from Fortress Monroe, via York River
HEADQUARTERS UNDER CANVAS. (Cumberland, May, 1862 )
A photograph from a tree-top. Although a long distance from home Mc-
Clellan a army presented in the early days of its march up the Peninsula
mU K KI *K p ? noplv of war The camera caught a cluster of officers tents
probably the headquarters of a division or corps.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
ON THE BANKS OF THE PAMUNKEY. (Looking south from Cum
berland Landing.) The ground here slopes down directly to the river,
supplies for the camps farther up the river were hauled along a well-
traveled road which bisected this stretch of encampment. This road, called
[New Kent Road, was the main highway of the region and led to Richmond.
A VISTA OF THE FEDERAL CAMP. The Army of the Poto
mac waiting for the expected victorious advance on the Confederate
capital. Yorktown had been evacuated on May 4th and Williamsburg
abandoned on May 5th to the Union forces. During the week following,
the divisions of Franklin. Sedgwick, Porter, and Richardson, after some
opposition, gathered on the banks of the Pamunkey, the southern branch
of the York River. Thence they marched toward White House, which
after communication with the divisions that had been fighting at Will
iamsburg, was established became headquarters for the whole army.
This panoramic view shows a part of the encampment.
IDLE DAYS AT CUMBERLAND. The farm-lands occupied by the
impatient, waiting army were soon stripped of fences for firewood. The
men sat idly about, discussing the situation. Everyone expected to be in
Richmond before the end of June, and no one dreamed that the great cam
paign would come to nothing.
WAITING FOR ORDERS TO MOVE. (Cumberland, May, 1862.)
During the ten days of inaction the soldiers rested after their heavy labors
on the elaborate fortifications before Yorktown. The Confederate gen
era!, Magrudcr, had completely deceived McClellan as to the number of
men under his command. The siege delayed the army a month.
THE CITY OF TENTS. The Army of the Potomac encamped in readi
ness for the forward movement on Richmond. These comfortable canvas
houses were transported by the army wagons. The Confederates had no
such complete shelter during the spring of 1862, which was remarkable for
the inclemency of the weather.
HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL McCLELLAN. (White House on
the Pamunkey.) This house, the residence of W. H. F. Lee, son of Gen
eral R. E. Lee, looked east over the river, which flows south at this point.
It was burned in June, 1862, when the Federal army base was changed to
the James River by order of General McClellan.
In May, 1862, the news spread
throughout Richmond that a Federal
fleet of ironclads, led by the dread
Monitor, was advancing up the James
River. Panic at once seized upon the
Confederate capital. The Government
archives were shipped to Columbia,
South Carolina, and every prepara
tion was made to evacuate the city
should the expedition against it suc
ceed in passing up the James. Mean
while the Confederate forces were
working at Drewry s Bluff to estab
lish a battery that would command the
river. Earthworks were thrown up
and guns were hastily gotten into
position seven miles below Richmond.
Sailing vessels were sunk in the
channel; torpedoes were anchored,
and every possible obstruction op
posed to the approaching ironclads.
When the Monitor and the Galena
arrived they did not attempt to run
the gantlet, and Richmond breathed
freely again. These works ultimately
formed Fort Darling.
THE FORT THAT STOPPED A PANIC
In the foreground of the picture we
see what a mass of missiles were
hurled into the fort, at the heads of
the doughty defenders of Richmond.
The Monitor, the Galena, and the gun
boats when Fort Darling opened on
them to dispute the passage of the
river, May 15, 1862 responded with
a rain of projectiles in an effort to
silence the Confederate battery and
make it possible to proceed up the
James. The fort was not silenced,
and the gunboats, thoroughly con
vinced of its strength, did not again
seriously attempt to pass it. Fort
Darling held the water approach to
Richmond until the fall of Petersburg
made it necessary for the Confeder
ates to evacuate their capital. This
picture was taken in April, 1865, after
the fort had been abandoned, and
while it was occupied by the First
Connecticut Heavy Artillery. The
cabin seen in the picture was the quar
ters of the regimental chaplain.
Copyright by Patriot 1 ub. Co.
THE SHOWER OF SHOT AND SHELL
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
A HAVEN FOR THE WOUNDED THE SEVEN PINES FARM-HOUSE SERVING AS A HOSPITAL
FOR HOOKER S DIVISION, SHORTLY AFTER THE BATTLE OF MAY SO-JUNE i, 1862
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FAIR OAKS OR SEVEN PINES
The Confederates, although decidedly successful on their right, had
been, it is true, rudely checked on their left ; but, in the battle considered
as a whole, thev not only had not been beaten, but they had driven their
antagonists from their entrenchments in one part of the field, and they
had guns, small arms, and colors to show as the trophies of their victory.
The net result of the battle, in spite of the captured trophies, was un
doubtedly favorable to the Federal arms. ... It remained for
General McClellan to utili/e the forces at his disposal, to lead his large
army of brave men, all of whom were devoted to him, to the achievement
of the success which it would seem was really at this period of the cam
paign within his grasp. John C. Jiope.s, " 77/6" Story of the Civil I !";,"
Part //, The Campaigns of 1862.
WITH Yorktown and Williamsburg inscribed upon its
victorious banners, the Army of the Potomac took up
again its toilsome march from Cumberland Landing toward
the Confederate capital on the James. Its route lay along the
Pamunkey, a sluggish stream, whose junction with the Mat-
tapony forms the York. Not all the troops, however, were at
Cumberland Landing and McClellan had first to bring up the
remainder of his forces from Yorktown and Williamsburg.
Some came by water up the York, some by land. The march
was a picturesque one, through a magnificent country arrayed
in all the gorgeousness of a Virginia spring, with its meadows
of green set between the wooded hills. Dotted here and there
could be seen the mansions of planters, with their slave quar
ters in the rear. The progress was necessarily slow, for the
roads were next to impassable and the rains still continued at
It was the 10th of May, 1862, when the advanced corps
reached White House, the ancestral home of the Lees. On
[ 282 ]
TWO KEEPERS OF THE
The North expected General Mc-
Clellan to possess himself of this
citadel of the Confederacy in June,
1862, and it seemed likely the ex
pectation would be realized. In
the upper picture we get a near
view of the State House at Rich
mond, part of which was occupied
as a Capitol by the Confederate
Congress during the war. In this
building were stored the records
and archives of the Confederate
Government, many of which were
lost during the hasty retreat of
President Davis and his cabinet
at the evacuation of Richmond,
April, 1865. Below, we see the
city of Richmond from afar, with
the Capitol standing out boldly on
the hill. McClellan was not des
tined to reach this coveted goal,
and it would not have meant the
fall of the Confederacy had he then
done so. When Lincoln entered
the building in 1865, the Con
federacy had been beaten as much
by the blockade as by the opera
tions of Grant and Sherman with
vastly superior forces.
THE GOAL THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE SPIRES OF RICHMOND
Here are the portraits of the two military
leaders who were conspicuous in the Confed
erate attack upon McClellan s camp at Fair
Oaks. General D. H. Hill did most of the fierce
fighting which drove back the Federals on the
first day, and only the timely arrival of Sum-
ner s troops enabled the Federals to hold their
ground. Had they failed they would have
been driven into the morasses of the Chicka-
hominy, retreat across which would have been
difficult as the bridges were partly submerged
by the swollen stream. After General Johnston
was wounded, General G. W. Smith was in
command during the second day s fighting.
GENERAL G. W. SMITH, C. S. A.
GENERAL D. H. HILL, C. S. A.
every side were fields of wheat, and, were it not for the
presence of one hundred thousand men, there was the promise
of a full harvest. It was here that General McClellan took
up his headquarters, a distance of twenty-four miles from
In the Confederate capital a panic had seized the people.
As the retreating army of Johnston sought the environs of
Richmond and news of the invading hosts was brought in, fear
took possession of the inhabitants and many wild rumors were
afloat as to the probable capture of the city. But it was not
a fear that Johnston would not fight. The strategic policy of
the Southern general had been to delay the advance of the
Northern army. Fortunately for him, the rainy weather
proved a powerful ally. The time had now come when he
should change his position from the defensive to the offensive.
The Army of Northern Virginia had been brought to bay, and
it now turned to beat off the invaders and save its capital.
On the historic Peninsula lay two of the greatest and
most splendid armies that had ever confronted each other
on the field of battle. The engagement, now imminent, was
to be the first in that series of contests, between the Army of
the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia, ending
three years thereafter, at Appomattox, when the war-worn
veterans of gray should lay down their arms, in honor, to the
war-worn veterans of blue.
The Union advance was retarded by the condition of
the weather and the roads. Between McClellan s position at
White House and the waiting Confederate army lay the
Chickahominy, an erratic and sluggish stream, that spreads
itself out in wooded swamps and flows around many islands,
forming a valley from half a mile to a mile wide, bordered
by low bluffs. In dry weather it is but a mere brook, but a
moderate shower will cause it to rise quickly and to offer
formidable opposition to any army seeking its passage. The
valley is covered with trees whose tops reach to the level of
[ 284 ]
Copyright uy .Patriot fuo. Co.
FROM CAPTAIN TO BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL
John C. Tidball, Whi) Won His Spurs on the Peninsula. There is hardly a despatch that concerns the doings of the artillery in the
Peninsula Campaign that does not mention the name of the gallant officer we see here leaning against his mud-spattered gun. Tidhall s
battery was the first to try for the position of honor on the artillery firing line and the last to retire. He was a graduate of West
Point, class of 48, and like all West Pointers, was imbued with the slogan and motto of that cradle of soldiers, "Duty, Valor, Patriot
ism." He was appointed captain in 01 and given command of four rifled 10-pounder Parrotts and two 12-pounder smooth
bores. Through the heavy roads he kept his guns well to the fore throughout all of the Peninsula Campaign. For his participation
in the skirmish at New Bridge he was thrice mentioned in despatches. But previous to this he had been reported for gallantry at
Blackburn s Ford in the first battle of Bull Run, his guns being the last of Barry s battery to limber up and retire in order. It was
on the 2. 5d of May that Tidball s guns swept the Confederate troops from New Bridge on the banks of the Chickahominy. His fir
ing was so accurate and his men so well drilled that the discharge of his guns was spoken of as being so rapid as to be almost con
tinuous. At Games Mill Tidball and his guns won laurels. The artillery had begun the battle at about 11 o clock, and it
was their fight until nearly 3 o clock in the afternoon of June 27th, when the fighting became general. The batteries were well in
front and occupied a dangerous position, but despite the vigor of the attack the guns stayed where they were. General Sykes reported
of the artillery this day: "The enemy s attack was frustrated mainly through the services of Captain Reade and Captain Tidball."
Tidball emerged from the action with a brevet of major. He was brevetted lieut. -colonel for gallantry at Antietam on September
17th. At Gettysburg he commanded a brigade of horse artillery which he led in the Wilderness campaign, also, and was brevetted
brigadier-general on August 1, 1861, brevetted major-general for gallant and meritorious services at Fort Stedman and Fort Sedgwick
in the Petersburg campaign, and confirmed as a brigadier-general at the end of the war.
the adjacent highlands, thus forming a screen from either
side. The bridges crossing it had all been destroyed by the
retreating army except the one at Mechanicsville, and it was
not an easy task that awaited the forces of McClellan as they
made their way across the spongy soil.
The van of the Union army reached the Chickahominy
on May 20th. The bridge was gone but the men under Gen
eral Xaglee forded the little river, reaching the plateau beyond,
and made a bold reconnaissance before the Confederate lines.
In the meantime, newly constructed bridges were beginning
to span the Chickahominy, and the Federal army soon was
crossing to the south bank of the river.
General McClellan had been promised reenforcements
from the north. General McDowell with forty thousand men
had started from Fredericksburg to join him north of the
Chickahominy. For this reason, General McClellan had
thrown the right wing of his army on the north of the river
while his left would rest on the south side of the stream. This
position of his army did not escape the eagle eye of the Con
federate general, Joseph E. Johnston, who believed the time
had now come to give battle, and perhaps destroy the small
portion of the Union forces south of the river.
Meanwhile, General " Stonewall " Jackson, in the Shen-
andoah, was making threatening movements in the direction of
Washington, and McDowell s orders to unite with McClellan
The roads in and about Richmond radiate from that city
like the spokes of a wheel. One of these is the Williams-
burg stage-road, crossing the Chickahominy at Bottom s
Bridge, only eleven miles from Richmond. It was along this
road that the Federal corps of Keyes and Heintzelman had
made their way. Their orders were "to go prepared for bat
tle at a moment s notice " and " to bear in mind that the Army
of the Potomac has never been checked."
Parallel to this road, and about a mile to the northward,
[ 28G ]
THE ADVANCE THAT BECAME A RETREAT
Here, almost within sight of the goal (Richmond), we see McClellan s soldiers preparing the way for the passage of the army and its
supplies. The soil along the Chickahominy was so marshy that in order to move the supply trains and artillery from the base at
White House and across the river to the army, corduroy approaches to the bridges had to be built. It was well that the men got this
early practice in road-building. Thanks to the work kept up, McClellan was able to unite the divided wings of the army almost at will.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
"REGULARS" NEAR FAIR OAKS OFFICERS OF McCLELLAN S HORSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE
These trained soldiers lived up to the promise in their firm-set features. Major Hays and five of his Lieutenants and Captains
here Pennington, Tidball, Hain.s, Robertson and Barlow had, by 65, become general officers. From left to right (standing)
are Edm. Pendleton, A. C. M. Pennington, Henry Benson, H. M. Gibson, J. M. Wilson, J. C. Tidball, W. N. Dennison; (sitting)
P. C. Hains, H. C. Gibson, Wm. Hays, J. M. Robertson, J. W. Barlow; (on ground) R. H. Chapin, Robert Clarke, A. C. Vincent.
runs the Richmond and York River Railroad. Seven miles
from Richmond another highway intersects the one from Wil-
liamsburg, known as the Nine Mile road. At the point of this
intersection once grew a clump of seven pines, hence the name
of " Seven Pines," often given to the battle fought on this spot.
A thousand yards beyond the pines were two farmhouses in
a grove of oaks. This was Fair Oaks Farm. Where the
Nine Mile road crossed the railroad was Fair Oaks Station.
Southeast of Seven Pines was White Oak Swamp.
Casey s division of Keyes corps was stationed at Fair Oaks
Farm. A fifth of a mile in front lay his picket line, extend
ing crescent shape, from the swamp to the Chickahominy.
Couch s division of the same corps was at Seven Pines, with
his right wing extending along the Nine Mile road to Fair
Oaks Station. Heintzelman s corps lay to the rear ; Kearney s
division guarded the railroad at Savage s Station and Hook
er s the approaches to -the White Oak Swamp. This formed
three lines of defense. It was a well-wooded region and at
this time was in many places no more than a bog. No sooner
had these positions been taken, than trees were cut to form
abatis, rifle-pits were hastily dug, and redoubts for placing
artillery were constructed. The picket line lay along a dense
growth of woods. Through an opening in the trees, the Con
federate army could be seen in force on the other side of the
The plans of the Confederate general were well matured.
On Friday, May 30th, he gave orders that his army should
be ready to move at daybreak.
That night the " windows of heaven seemed to have been
opened " and the " fountains of the deep broken up." The
storm fell like a deluge. It was the most violent storm that
had swept over that region for a generation. Throughout
the night the tempest raged The thunderbolts rolled with
out cessation. The sky was white with the electric flashes.
The earth was thoroughly drenched. The lowlands became a
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
CUSTER AND HIS CLASSMATE NOW A CONFEDERATE PRISONER
Friends and even relatives who had been enlisted on opposite sides in the great Civil War met each other during its vicissitudes upon
the battle-field. Here, caught by the camera, is one of the many instances. On the left sits Lieutenant J. B. Washington, C. S. A., who
was an aide to General Johnston at Fair Oaks. Beside him sits Lieutenant George A. Custer, of the Fifth U. S. Cavalry, aide on
McClellan s staff, later famous cavalry general and Indian fighter. Both men were W T est Point graduates and had attended the mili
tary academy together. On the morning of May 31, 1862, at Fair Oaks, Lieutenant Washington was captured by some of General
Casey s pickets. Later in the day his former classmate ran across him and a dramatic meeting was thus recorded by the camera.
atr QDaks 3ht ^tgljt nf fttrfptuftd
morass. From mud-soaked beds the soldiers arose the next
morning to battle.
Owing to the storm the Confederates did not move so
early as intended. However, some of the troops were in readi
ness by eight o clock. Hour after hour the forces of Long-
street and Hill awaited the sound of the signal-gun that would
tell them General Huger was in his position to march. Still
they waited. It was near noon before General Hill, weary of
waiting, advanced to the front, preceded by a line of skir
mishers, along the Williamsburg road. The Union pickets
were lying at the edge of the forest. The soldiers in the pits
had been under arms for several hours awaiting the attack.
Suddenly there burst through the woods the soldiers of the
South. A shower of bullets fell beneath the trees and the
Union pickets gave way. On and on came the lines of gray
in close columns. In front of the abatis had been planted a
battery of four guns. General Naglee with four regiments,
the Fifty-sixth and One hundredth New York and Eleventh
Maine and One hundred and fourth Pennsylvania, had gone
forward, and in the open field met the attacking army. The
contest was a stubborn one. Naglee s men charged with their
bayonets and pressed the gray lines back again to the edge
of the woods. Here they were met by a furious fire of mus
ketry and quickly gave way, seeking the cover of the rifle-
pits at Fair Oaks Farm. The Confederate infantrymen came
But again they were held in check. In this position, for
nearly three hours the Federals waged an unequal combat
against three times their number. Then, suddenly a galling
fire plowed in on them from the left. It came from Rains
brigade, which had executed a flank movement. At the same
time the brigade of Rodes rushed toward them. The Federals
saw the hopelessness of the situation. The officers at the bat
teries tried to spike their guns but were killed in the attempt.
Hastily falling back, five guns were left to be turned on them
Over this ground the fiercest fighting
of the two days battle took place, on
May 31, 1862. Some 400 soldiers
were buried here, where they fell, and
their hastily dug graves appear plain
ly in the picture. In the redoubt seen
just beyond the two houses was the
center of the Federal line of battle,
equi-distant, about a mile and a half,
from both Seven Pines and Fair Oaks.
The entrenchments near these farm
dwellings were begun on May 28th by
Casey s Division, 4th Corps. There
was not time to finish them before
the Confederate attack opened the
battle, and the artillery of Casey s
Division was hurriedly placed in po
sition behind the incomplete works.
THE SLAUGHTER FIELD AT FAIR OAKS
THE UNFINISHED REDOUBT
In the smaller picture we see the inside
of the redoubt at the left background
of the picture above. The scene is just
before the battle and picks and shov
els were still busy throwing up the
embankments to strengthen this cen
ter of the Federal defense. Casey s ar
tillery was being hurriedly brought up.
In the background General Sickles
Brigade appears drawn up in line of
battle. When the Confederates first
advanced Casey s artillery did telling
work, handsomely repelling the attack
early in the afternoon of May 31st.
Later in the day Confederate sharp
shooters from vantage points in neigh
boring trees began to pick off the
officers and the gunners and the re
doubt had to be relinquished. The
abandoned guns were turned against
the retreating Federals.
U Patriot Pub. Co.
THE "REDHOT BATTERY
On the afternoon of May 31st, at Fair Oaks, the Confederates were driving the Federal soldiers through the woods in disorder when
this battery (McCarthy s) together with Miller s battery opened up with so continuous and severe a fire that the Federals were able to
make a stand and hold their own for the rest of the day. The guns grew so hot from constant firing that it was only with the greatest
care that they could be swabbed and loaded. These earthworks were thrown up for McCarthy s Battery, Company C, 1st Pennsyl
vania Artillery, near Savage s Station. The soldiers nicknamed it the "Redhot Battery."
air ODak0 3ftt INgltt of
in their retreat. This move was not too soon. In another
minute they would have been entirely surrounded and cap
tured. The gray lines pressed on. The next stand would be
made at Seven Pines, where Couch was stationed. The forces
here had been weakened by sending relief to Casey. The situa
tion of the Federals was growing critical. At the same time
General Longstreet sent reenforcements to General Hill.
Couch was forced out of his position toward the right in the
direction of Fair Oaks Station and was thus separated from
the main body of the army, then in action.
The Confederates pushed strongly against the Federal
center. Heintzelman came to the rescue. The fight waged
was a gallant one. For an hour and a half the lines of blue
and graj r surged back and forth. The Federals were gradu
ally giving way. The left wing, alone, next to the White Oak
Swamp, was holding its own.
At the same time over at Fair Oaks Station whither
Couch had been forced, were new developments. He was
about to strike the Confederate army on its left flank, but just
when the guns were being trained, there burst across the road
the troops of General G. W. Smith, who up to this time had
been inactive. These men were fresh for the fight, superior in
number, and soon overpowered the Northerners. It looked
for a time as if the whole Union army south of the Chickahom-
iny was doomed.
Over at Seven Pines the center of McClellan s army was
about to be routed. Xow it was that General Heintzelman
personally collected about eighteen hundred men, the frag
ments of the broken regiments, and took a decided stand at
the edge of the timber. He was determined not to give way.
But this alone would not nor did not save the day. To the
right of this new line of battle, there was a rise of ground.
From here the woods abruptly sloped to the rear. If this ele
vation were once secured by the Confederates, all would be
lost and rout would be inevitable. The quick eye of General
[ 292 ]
A VETERAN OF THREE WARS
General Silas Casey at Fair Oaks. Three
years before General Lee had left West
Point, Silas Casey had been graduated.
He was fifty-four years old when the war
began. Active service in two exacting
campaigns had aged him in appearance,
but not in efficiency. He had been with
General Worth at Florida in the Seminole
War and under Scott at Mexico and had
fought the Indians on the Pacific Coast.
At Fair Oaks the old veteran s division,
after fighting bravely through the woods,
was driven back, for it received the whole
brunt of the first Confederate attack.
The bravely advancing Confederates had
gained possession of his camp before
supports could reach him.
GENERAL SILAS CASEY
TWO LEADERS OF THE FOREFRONT
In the center of this group sits General
Naglee. At Fair Oaks his troops had rushed
to arms in the dark gloom of that cloudy
day, the 31st of May. The woods before
his forces were filled with sharpshooters,
and back of them, massing on his front,
came overpowering numbers. Fighting
stubbornly, contesting every inch, General
Naglee was driven back to the protection
of McCarthy s battery near Savage s Sta
tion. Twice during the action had Naglee
placed himself personally at the head of his
men in the firing line. General Stoneman
is handing a note to an orderly. Before
the battle of Fair Oaks, he had conducted
the successful raids against the railroad.
At Hanover Court House Stoneman s riders
were opposed to those of the great Stuart.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
GENERAL NAGLEE AND THE CAVALRY GENERAL STONEMAN AT FAIR OAKS
Keyes took in the situation. He was stationed on the left; to
reach the hill would necessitate taking his men between the
battle-lines. The distance was nearly eight hundred yards.
Calling on a single regiment to follow he made a dash for
the position. The Southern troops, divining his intention,
poured a deadly volley into his ranks and likewise attempted
to reach this key to the situation. The Federals gained the
spot just in time. The new line was formed as a heavy mass
of Confederates came upon them. The tremendous Union fire
was too much for the assaulting columns, which were checked.
They had forced the Federal troops back from their entrench
ments a distance of two miles, but they never got farther than
these woods. The river fog now came up as the evening fell
and the Southern troops spent the night in the captured camps,
sleeping on their arms. The Federals fell back toward the
river to an entrenched camp.
Meanwhile at Fair Oaks Station the day was saved,
too, in the nick of time, for the Federals. On the north side
of the Chickahominy were stationed the two divisions of
Sedgwick and Richardson, under command of General Sum-
ner. Scarcely had the battle opened when McClellan at his
headquarters, six miles away, heard the roar and rattle of
artillery. He was sick at the time, but he ordered General
Sumner to be in readiness. At this time there were four
bridges across the river two of them were Bottom s Bridge
and the railroad bridge. To go by either of these would con
sume too much time in case of an emergency. General Sum
ner had himself constructed two more bridges, lying between
the others. The heavy flood of the preceding night, which was
still rising, had swept one of these partially away. In order
to save time, he put his men under arms and marched them
to the end of the upper bridge and there waited throughout
the greater part of the afternoon for orders to cross. Before
them rolled a muddy and swollen stream, above whose flood
was built a rude and unstable structure. From the other side
Not long after this picture
was taken, the names of
most of these men were
mentioned in despatches.
Against Major D. H. Van
Valkenburgh, the gallant
soldier leaning on his saber,
his arm thrust into his coat,
was written, "killed in
action at Fair Oaks." He
helped to make the name of
the First New York Light
Artillery a proud one; and
next to him stands Major
Luther Kieffer. Perhaps the
youngest, who is standing
next, is Adjutant Rumsey,
who by firing his guns so
continuously helped save
the wing of the Second
Army Corps. He was
wounded but recovered.
Next to him, looking
straight at the camera, is
Lieut. -Colonel Henry E.
Turner; and standing near
est to the tent is Major C.
S. Wainright, who won his
spurs at Williamsburg, and
again proved the metal he
was made of at Fair Oaks.
Seated in the camp chair is
Colonel Guilford T. Bailey,
who later died beside his
guns. It rained during the
days that preceded Fair
Oaks. It was the treach
erous River Chickahominy
that helped to baffle the
FIGHTING OFFICERS OF THE FIRST NEW YORK LIGHT
well-laid plans of the Fed
eral commander. Well did
the Confederate leaders
know that with the down
pour then falling the stream
would rise. Not immedi
ately, but within the next
few hours it would gain
strength until at last it
became a sweeping torrent.
All this proved true; only a
part of McClellan s army
had crossed the river when
the Confederates moved to
attack, May 31st. Let the
Prince de Joinville, who
was a spectator, describe
the guns that helped to save
the day. "They are not
those rifled cannon, the
objects of extravagant ad
miration of late, good for
cool firing and long range;
these are the true guns for a
fight 1 12-pound howitzers
(Napoleons), the old pat
tern, throwing round pro
jectiles or heavy charges of
grape and canister. The
simple and rapid discharg
ing of these pieces makes
terrible havoc in the oppos
ing ranks. In vain Johnston
sends against this battery
his best troops those of
South Carolina, the Hamp
ton legion among others, in
vain he rushes on it himself;
nothing can shake the line! "
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
TWENTY-POUND PARROTT RIFLED GUNS OF THE FIRST NEW YORK
could be distinctly heard the roar of battle. The fate of the
day and of the Army of the Potomac rested upon these men
at the end of the bridge.
The possibility of crossing was doubted by everyone,
including the general himself. The bridge had been built of
logs, held together and kept from drifting by the stumps of
trees. Over the river proper it was suspended by ropes at
tached to trees, felled across the stream.
At last the long-expected order to advance came. The
men stepped upon the floating bridge. It swayed to and fro
as the solid column passed over it. Beneath the men
was the angry flood which would engulf all if the bridge
should fall. Gradually the weight pressed it down between
the solid stumps and it w r as made secure till the army had
crossed. Had the passage been delayed another hour the flood
would have rendered it impassable.
Guided by the roar of battle the troops hurried on. The
artillery was left behind in the mud of the Chickahominy.
The steady, rolling fire of musketry and the boom of cannon
told of deadly work in front. It was nearly six o clock before
Sedgwick s column deployed into line in the rear of Fair Oaks
Station. They came not too soon. Just now there was a lull
in the battle. The Confederates were gathering themselves
for a vigorous assault on their opponents flaming front.
Their lines were re-forming. General Joseph E. Johnston
himself had immediate command. President Jefferson Davis
had come out from his capital to witness the contest. Rap
idly the Confederates moved forward. A heavy fusillade
poured from their batteries and muskets. Great rents were
made in the line of blue. It did not waver. The openings w r ere
quickly filled and a scorching fire was sent into the approach
ing columns. Again and again the charge was repeated only
to be repulsed. Then came the order to fix bayonets. Five
regiments Thirty-fourth and Eighty-second New York, Fif
teenth and Twentieth Massachusetts and Seventh Michigan
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
SUMNER IN THE FIELD A GENERAL FULL OF YEARS AND HONORS.
Not many men distinguished in the war could look back upon forty-two years of actual service at the outbreak of hostilities. But
such was the case with General Edwin V. Sumner. He stands above in the Peninsula Campaign, at St. Peter s church, near New Kent
Court House, Virginia, not far from White House Landing. In this sacred edifice George Washington had worshiped. When this
picture was taken Sumner was one year past the age when generals of the present day are deemed too old for service. Commanding
the Second Army Corps in the Peninsula Campaign, he was twice wounded; and again, leading his men at Antietam, once more he was
struck. He fought again at Fredericksburg, but died from the effects of his wounds in March, 1863. The group above from the left,
includes Maj. A. M. Clark, Volunteer A. D. C.; Lieut.-Col. J. H. Taylor, A. G.; Capt. F. N. Clarke, Chief of Artillery; General Sumner;
Lieut.-Col. J. F. Hammond, Medical Director; Captain Pease, Minnesota Volunteers, Chief Commissary; Capt. Gabriel Grant.
air QDaka 3!u
pushed to the front. Into the woods where the Confed
erates had fallen back the charge was made. Driving the
Southern lines back in confusion, these dashing columns saved
the day for the Army of the Potomac.
Xight was now settling over the wooded field. Here and
there flashes of light could be seen among the oaks, indicat
ing a diligent search for the wounded. General Johnston
ordered his troops to sleep on the field. A few minutes later
he was struck by a rifle-ball and almost immediately a shell
hit him, throwing him from his horse, and he was borne off
the field. The first day of the battle was over.
The disability of the Southern commander made it possi
ble for the promotion of a new leader upon whom the fortunes
of the Army of Northern Virginia would soon rest. This was
General Robert E. Lee; although the immediate command for
the next day s contest fell upon General G. W. Smith. Early
Sunday morning the battle was again in progress. The com
mand of Smith, near Fair Oaks Station, advanced down the
railroad, attacking Richardson, whose lines were north of
it and were using the embankment as a fortification. Long-
street s men were south of the railroad. The firing was
heavy all along this line, the opposing forces being not more
than fifty yards from each other. For an hour and a half the
musketry fire was intensely heavy. It was, indeed, a continu
ous roar. The line of gray could not withstand the galling
fire and for the first time that day fell back. But the Union
line had been broken, too. A brief lull ensued. Both sides
were gathering themselves for another onslaught. It was then
that there were heard loud shouts from the east of the railroad.
There, coming through the woods, was a large body of
Federal troops. They were the men of Hooker. They formed
a magnificent body of soldiers and seemed eager for the fray.
Turning in on the Williamsburg road they rapidly deployed
to the right and the left. In front of them was an open field,
with a thick wood on the other side. The Confederates had
AIMING THE GUNS AT FAIR OAKS.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
Here we see the beginning of the lull in the fighting of the
second day at Fair Oaks, which it has been asserted led to a fatal
delay and the ruin of McClellan s Peninsula Campaign. The
first day s battle at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. was decidedly a
Federal reverse which would have developed into a rout had not
Sumner, crossing his troops on
the perilous Grapevine Bridge,
come up in time to rally the
retreating men. Here we
see some of them within
the entrenchments at Fair
Oaks Station on the Rich
mond & York River Rail
road. The order will soon
come to cease firing at the
end of the second day s fight
ing, the result of which was to
drive the Confederates back to
Richmond. McClellan did not
pursue. The heavy rainstorm
on the night of May 30th had
made the movement of artil
lery extremely difficult, and
McClellan waited to complete
the bridges and build entrenchments before advancing.
This delay gave the Confederates time to reorganize their
forces and place them under the new
E. Lee, who while McClellan lay
junction with " Stonewall " Jackson.
inactive effected a
Then during the
Seven Days Battles
Lee steadily drove McClellan
from his position, within four
or five miles of Richmond, to a
new position on the James
River. From this secure and
advantageous water base Mc
Clellan planned a new line
of advance upon the Confeder
ate Capital. In the smaller
picture we see the interior of
the works at Fair Oaks Station,
which were named Fort Sum
ner in honor of the General who
brought up his Second Corps
and saved the day. The camp
of the Second Corps is seen
beyond the fortifications to
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
NEAR FAIR OAKS
in ^igltt nf
posted themselves in this forest and were waiting for their
antagonists. The Federals marched upon the field in double-
quick time; their movements became a run, and they began
firing as they dashed forward. They were met by a withering
fire of field artillery and a wide gap being opened in their
ranks. It immediately filled. They reached the edge of the
woods and as they entered its leafy shadows the tide of battle
rolled in with them. The front line was lost to view in the
forest, except for an occasional gleam of arms from among the
trees. The din and the clash and roar of battle were heard for
miles. Bayonets were brought into use. It was almost a
hand-to-hand combat in the heavy forest and tangled slashings.
The sound of battle gradually subsided, then ceased except for
the intermittent reports of small arms, and the second day s
fight was over.
The Confederate forces withdrew toward Richmond. The
Federal troops could now occupy without molestation the posi
tions they held the previous morning. The forest paths were
strewn with the dead and the dying. Many of the wounded
were compelled to lie under the scorching sun for hours before
help reached them. Every farmhouse became an improvised
hospital where the suffering soldiers lay. Many were placed
upon cars and taken across the Chickahominy. The dead
horses were burned. The dead soldiers, blue and gray, found
sometimes lying within a few feet of each other, were buried
on the field of battle. The two giants had met in their first
great combat and were even now beginning to gird up their
loins for a desperate struggle before the capital of the Con
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
JUNE, 1862 MCCLELLAN S MEN DRILLING WITHIN FIVE MILES OF RICHMOND,
IGNORANT OF JACKSON S MOVEMENTS FROM THE VALLEY, SO SOON TO RESULT
IN THEIR REPULSE RICHARDSON S ENTRENCHMENTS SOUTH OF FORT SUMNER
Copyriqlit t>y Review of Revie
MEN JACKSON COULD AFFORD TO LOSE
These two hundred Confederate soldiers captured the day after "Stonewall" Jaek.son s victory at Front Royal, were an insignificant
reprisal for the damage done to the Federal cause by that dashing and fearless Confederate leader. When Richmond was threatened
both by land and water in May, 18C2, Johnston sent Jackson to create a diversion and alarm the Federal capital. Rushing down
the Valley of the Shenandoah, his forces threatened to cut off and overwhelm those of General Banks, who immediately began a re
treat. It became a race between the two armies down the Valley toward Winchester and Harper s Ferry. Forced marches, sometimes
as long as thirty-five miles a day, were the portion of both during the four weeks in which Jackson led his forces after the retreating
Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co.
CONFEDERATE PRISONERS CAPTURED IN THE SHENANDOAH
Federals, engaging them in six actions and two battles, in all of which he came off victorious. Just after these prisoners were taken,
Banks was driven hack to the Potomac. Once more a panic spread through the North, and both the troops of Banks and McDowell
were held in the vicinity of Washington for its defense. But Jackson s purpose was accomplished. He had held Banks in the Shenan-
doah Valley until McClellan s Peninsula Campaign was well advanced. Then again by forced marches his men disappeared up
the Valley to join Lee in teaching the overcon c dent Union administration that Richmond was not to be won without long and
costly fighting. But a year later the Confederacy lost this astonishing military genius.
THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY
Always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy, if possible, and
when you strike and overcome him, never let up in the pursuit so long as
your men have strength to follow. . . . The other rule is, never fight
against heavy odds, if by any possible maneuvering you can hurl your
own force on only a part, and that the weakest part, of your enemy and
crush it. Such tactics will win every time, and a small army may thus
destroy a large one in detail. "Stonewall" Jaclcnon.
I HE main move of the Union army, for 1862, was to be
McClellan s advance up the Peninsula toward Rich
mond. Everything had been most carefully planned by the
brilliant strategist. With the assistance of McDowell s corps,
he expected in all confidence to be in the Confederate capital
before the spring had closed. But, comprehensively as he had
worked the scheme out, he had neglected a factor in the prob
lem which was destined in the end to bring the whole campaign
to naught. This was the presence of " Stonewall " Jackson
in the Valley of Virginia.
The strategic value to the Confederacy of this broad, shel
tered avenue into Maryland and Pennsylvania w r as great.
Along the northeasterly roads the gray legions could march
in perfect safety upon the rear of Washington so long as the
eastern gaps could be held. No wonder that the Federal au
thorities, however much concerned with other problems of the
war, never removed a vigilant eye from the Valley.
Jackson had taken possession of Winchester, near the
foot of the Valley, in November, 1861. He then had about
ten thousand men. The Confederate army dwindled greatly
during the winter. At the beginning of March there were but
forty-five hundred men. With Banks and his forty thousand
now on Virginia soil at the foot of the Valley, and Fremont s
It is the great good fortune of American hero-lovers that they can gaze here upon
the features of Thomas Jonathan Jackson precisely as that brilliant Lieutenant-
General of the Confederate States Army appeared during his masterly "Valley
Campaign" of 1862. Few photographers dared to approach this man, whose
silence and modesty were as deep as his mastery of warfare. Jackson lived much
to himself. Indeed, his plans were rarely known even to his immediate subordi
nates, and herein lay the secret of those swift and deadly surprises that raised him
to first rank among the world s military figures. Jackson s ability and efficiency
won the utter confidence of his ragged troops; and their marvelous forced
marches, their contempt for privations if under his guidance, put into his hands
a living weapon such as no oth^r leader in the mighty conflict had ever wielded.
army approaching the head, why should the Federal com
mander even think about this insignificant fragment of his foe ?
But the records of war have shown that a small force, guided
by a master mind, sometimes accomplishes more in effective
results than ten times the number under a less active and able
The presence of Banks compelled Jackson to withdraw
to Woodstock, fifty miles south of Winchester. If McClellan
ever experienced any anxiety as to affairs in the Valley, it
seems to have left him now, for he ordered Banks to Manassas
on March 16th to cover Washington, leaving General Shields
and his division of seven thousand men to hold the Valley.
When Jackson heard of the withdrawal, he resolved that, cut
off as he was from taking part in the defense of Richmond, he
would do what he could to prevent any aggrandizement of
McClellan s forces.
Shields hastened to his station at Winchester, and Jack
son, on the 23d of March, massed his troops at Kernstown,
about three miles south of the former place. Deceived as to the
strength of his adversary, he led his weary men to an attack
on Shields right flank about three o clock in the afternoon.
He carried the ridge where the Federals w^ere posted, but the
energy of his troops was spent, and they had to give way to
the reserves of the Union army after three hours of stubborn
contest. The Federal ranks were diminished by six hundred;
the Confederate force by more than seven hundred. Kerns-
town \vas a Union victory; yet never in history did victory
bring such ultimate disaster upon the victors.
At Washington the alarm was intense over Jackson s
audacious attack. Williams division of Banks troops w^as
halted on its way to Manassas and sent back to Winchester.
Mr. Lincoln transferred Blenker s division, nine thousand
strong, to Fremont. These things were done at once, but they
were by no means the most momentous consequence of Kerns-
town. The President began to fear that Jackson s goal was
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
MCDOWELL AND MCCLELLAN TWO UNION LEADERS WHOSE
PLANS "STONEWALL" JACKSON FOILED
In General McClellan s plan for the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, General McDowell, with the First Army
Corps of 37,000 men, was assigned a most important part, that of joining him before Richmond. Lincoln had
reluctantly consented to the plan, fearing sufficient protection was not provided for Washington. By the
battle of Kernstown, March 23d, in the Valley of Virginia, Jackson, though defeated, so alarmed the Ad
ministration that McDowell was ordered to remain at Manassas to protect the capital. The reverse at Kerns-
town was therefore a real triumph for Jackson, but with his small force he had to keep up the game of holding
McDowell, Banks, and Fremont from reenforcing McClellan. If he failed, 80,000 troops might move up to
Richmond from the west while McClellan was approaching from the North. But Jackson, on May 23d and
25th, surprised Banks forces at Front Royal and Winchester, forcing a retreat to the Potomac. At the news
of this event McDowell was ordered not to join McClellan in front of Richmond.
g>ljimauii0alT anft tit? Alarm at Waaljittgtnu
Washington. After consulting six of his generals he became
convinced that McClellan had not arranged proper protection
for the city. Therefore, McDowell and his corps of thirty-
seven thousand men were ordered to remain at Manassas.
The Valley grew to greater importance in the Federal eyes.
Banks was made entirely independent of McClellan and the
defense of this region became his sole task. McClellan, to his
great chagrin, saw his force depleted by forty-six thousand
men. There were now four Union generals in the East oper
ating independently one of the other.
General Ewell with eight thousand troops on the upper
Rappahannock and General Johnson with two brigades were
now ordered to cooperate with Jackson. These reenforce-
ments were badly needed. Schenck and Milroy, of Fremont s
corps, began to threaten Johnson. Banks, with twenty thou
sand, was near Harrisonburg.
The Confederate leader left General Ewell to watch
Banks while he made a dash for Milroy and Schenck. He
fought them at McDowell on May 8th and they fled precipi
tately to rejoin Fremont. The swift-acting Jackson now darted
at Banks, who had fortified himself at Strasburg. Jackson
stopped long enough to be joined by Ewell. He did not attack
Strasburg, but stole across the Massanutten Mountain un
known to Banks, and made for Front Royal, where a strong
Union detachment was stationed under Colonel Kenly. Early
on the afternoon of May 23d, Ewell rushed from the forest.
Kenly and his men fled before them toward Winchester. A
large number were captured by the cavalry before they had
gotten more than four miles away.
Banks at Strasburg realized that Jackson was approach
ing from the rear, the thing he had least expected and had
made no provision for. His fortifications protected his front
alone. There was nothing to be done but retreat to Win
chester. Even that was prevented by the remarkable speed
of Jackson s men, who could march as much as thirty-five
[ .108 ]
miles a day. On May 24th, the Confederates overtook and
struck the receding Union flank near Newtown, inflicting
heavy loss and taking many prisoners. Altogether, three thou
sand of Banks men fell into Jackson s hands.
This exploit was most opportune for the Southern arms.
It caused the final ruin of McClellan s hopes. Banks received
one more attack from E well s division the next day as he
passed through Winchester on his way to the shelter of the
Potomac. He crossed at Williamsport late the same evening
and wrote the President that his losses, though serious enough,
might have been far worse " considering the very great dis
parity of forces engaged, and the long-matured plans of the
enemy, which aimed at nothing less than entire capture of our
force." Mr. Lincoln now rescinded his resolution to send Mc
Dowell to McClellan. Instead, he transferred twenty thou
sand of the former s men to Fremont and informed McClellan
that he was not, after all, to have the aid of McDowell s forty
Fremont was coming from the west; Shields lay in the
other direction, but Jackson was not the man to be trapped.
He managed to hold Fremont while he marched his main
force quickly up the Valley. At Port Republic he drove Car
roll s brigade of Shields division away and took possession
of a bridge which Colonel Carroll had neglected to burn.
Fremont in pursuit was defeated by Ewell at Cross Keys.
Jackson immediately put his force of twelve thousand over the
Shenandoah at Port Republic and burned the bridge. Safe
from the immediate attack by Fremont, he fell upon Tyler
and Carroll, who had not more than three thousand men be
tween them. The Federals made a brave stand, but after
many hours fighting were compelled to retreat. Jackson
emerged through Swift Run Gap on the 17th of June, to assist
in turning the Union right on the Peninsula, and Banks and
Shields, baffled and checkmated at every move, finally withdrew
from the Valley.
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
VIEW ON THE JAMES, THE RIVER TO WHICH McCLELLAN DECIDED TO
SWING HIS BASE ON THE FIRST OF THE SEVEN DAYS, JUNE 26, 1862 NOT
SIX WEEKS BEFORE, THE GUN SHOWN HAD HELPED TO REPEL THE UNION
GUNBOATS THAT ENDEAVORED TO OPEN McCLELLAN s WAY TO RICHMOND
THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES
McClellan s one hope, one purpose, was to march his army out of
the swamps and escape from the ceaseless Confederate assaults to a point
on James River where the resistless fire of the gunboats might protect his
men from further attack and give them a chance to rest. To that end,
he retreated night and day, standing at bay now and then as the hunted
stag does, and fighting desperately for the poor privilege of running away.
And the splendid fighting of his men was a tribute to the skill and
genius with which he had created an effective army out of what he had
described as " regiments cowering upon the banks of the Potomac, some
perfectly raw, others dispirited by recent defeat, others going home."
Out of a demoralized and disorganized mass reenforced by utterly un
trained civilians, McClellan had within a few months created an army
capable of stubbornly contesting every inch of ground even while effecting
a retreat the very thought of which might well have disorganized an army.
George Cary Eggleston, in " The History of the Confederate War."
GENERAL LEE was determined that the operations in
front of Richmond should not degenerate into a siege,
and that the Army of Northern Virginia should no longer be
on the defensive. To this end, early in the summer of 1862,
he proceeded to increase his fighting force so as to make it more
nearly equal in number to that of his antagonist. Every man
who could be spared from other sections of the South was called
to Richmond. Numerous earthworks soon made their appear
ance along the roads and in the fields about the Confederate
capital, giving the city the appearance of a fortified camp.
The new commander in an address to the troops said that the
army had made its last retreat.
Meanwhile, with the spires of Richmond in view, the
Army of the Potomac was acclimating itself to a Virginia
summer. The whole face of the country for weeks had been a
JOHNSTON AND LEE A PHOTOGRAPH OF 18(59.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
These men look enough alike to be brothers. They were so in arras, at West Point, in Mexico and throughout the war. General
Joseph E. Johnston (on the left), who had led the Confederate forces since Bull Run, was wounded at Fair Oaks. That wound gave
Robert E. Lee (on the right) his opportunity to act as leader. After Fair Oaks, Johnston retired from the command of the army
defending Richmond. The new commander immediately grasped the possibilities of the situation which confronted him. The
promptness and completeness with which he blighted McClellan s high hopes of reaching Richmond showed at one stroke that the Con
federacy had found its great general. It was only through much sifting that the North at last picked military leaders that could
rival him in the field.
veritable bog. Now that the sweltering heat of June was com
ing on, the malarious swamps were fountains of disease. The
polluted waters of the sluggish streams soon began to tell on
the health of the men. Malaria and typhoid were prevalent;
the hospitals were crowded, and the death rate was appalling.
Such conditions were not inspiring to either general or
army. McClellan was still hoping for substantial reenforce-
ments. McDowell, with his forty thousand men. had been
promised him, but he was doomed to disappointment from that
source. Yet in the existing state of affairs he dared not be
inactive. South of the Chickahominy, the army was almost
secure from surprise, owing to well-protected rifle-pits flanked
by marshy thickets or covered with felled trees. But the Fed
eral forces were still divided by the fickle stream, and this w r as
a constant source of anxiety to the commander. He proceeded
to transfer all of his men to the Richmond side of the river,
excepting the corps of Franklin and Fitz John Porter. About
the middle of June, General McCall with a force of eleven
thousand men joined the Federal army north of the Chicka
hominy, bringing the entire fighting strength to about one
hundred and five thousand. So long as there remained the
slightest hope of additional soldiers, it w r as impossible to with
draw all of the army from the York side of the Peninsula, and
it remained divided.
That was a brilliant initial stroke of the Confederate gen
eral when he sent his famous cavalry leader, J. E. B. Stuart,
with about twelve hundred Virginia troopers, to encircle the
army of McClellan. Veiling his intentions with the utmost
secrecy, Stuart started June 12, 1802, in the direction of Fred-
ericksburg as if to reenforce " Stonewall " Jackson. The first
night he bivouacked in the pine w^oods of Hanover. No fires
were kindled, and when the morning dawned, his men swung
upon their mounts without the customary bugle-call of " Boots
and Saddles." Turning to the east, he surprised and captured
a Federal picket; swinging around a corner of the road, he
THE FLEET THAT FED THE ARMY
t by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE ABANDONED BASE
White House, Virginia, June 27, 1862. Up the James and the Paraunkey to White House Landing came the steam and sailing vessels
laden with supplies for McClellan s second attempt to reach Richmond. Tons of ammunition and thousands of rations were sent for
ward from here to the army on the Chickahominy in June, 1862. A short month was enough to cause McClellan to again change his
plans, and the army base was moved to the James River. The Richmond and York Railroad was lit up by burning cars along its
course to the Chickahominy. Little was left to the Confederates save the charred ruins of the White House itself.
Saya lj (Htmfrforat? Capital
suddenly came upon a squadron of Union cavalry. The Con
federate yell rent the air and a swift, hold charge by the South
ern troopers swept the foe on.
They had not traveled far when they came again to a
force drawn up in columns of fours, ready to dispute the pas
sage of the road. This time the Federals were about to make
the charge. A squadron of the Confederates moved forward
to meet them. Some Union skirmishers in their effort to get
to the main body of their troops swept into the advancing
Confederates and carried the front ranks of the squadron with
them. These isolated Confederates found themselves in an
extremely perilous position, being gradually forced into the
Federal main body. Before they could extricate themselves,
nearly every one in the unfortunate front rank was shot or
The Southern cavalrymen swept on and presently found
themselves nearing the York River Railroad McClellan s
supply line. As they approached Turistall s Station they
charged down upon it, with their characteristic yell, completely
surprising a company of Federal infantry stationed there.
These at once surrendered. Telegraph wires were cut and a
tree felled across the track to obstruct the road. This had
hardly been done before the shriek of a locomotive was heard.
A train bearing Union troops came thundering along, ap
proaching the station. The engineer, taking in the situation
at a glance, put on a full head of steam and made a rush for
the obstruction, which was easily brushed aside. As the train
went through a cut the Confederates fired upon it, wounding
and killing some of the Federal soldiers in the cars.
Riding all through a moonlit night, the raiders reached
Sycamore Ford of the Chickahominy at break of day. As
usual this erratic stream was overflowing its banks. They
started to ford it, but finding that it would be a long and
wearisome task, a bridge was hastily improvised at another
place where the passage was made with more celerity. Now,
ELLERSOX S MILL WHERE HILL ASSAULTED.
Not until after nightfall of June 26, 1862, did the Confederates of General A. P. Hill s division cease their assaults upon this
position where General McCall s men were strongly entrenched. Time after time the Confederates charged over the ground we see
here at Ellerson s Mill, near Mechanicsville. Till 9 o clock at night they continued to pour volleys at the position, and then at last
withdrew. The victory was of little use to the Federals, for Jackson on the morrow, having executed one of the flanking night
marches at which he was an adept, fell upon the Federal rear at Games Mill.
THE WASTE OF WAR
Railroad trains loaded with tons of food and ammunition were run deliberately at full speed off the embankment shown in the left
foreground. They plunged headlong into the waters of the Pamunkey. This was the readiest means that McClellan could devise
for keeping his immense quantity of stores out of the hands of the Confederates in his hasty change of base from White House to the
James after Games Mill. This was the bridge of the Richmond and York River Railroad, and was destroyed June 28, 1862, to
render the railroad useless to the Confederates.
nm\ Says lj? (Cnufrforair (Eapttal
on the south bank of the river, haste was made for the con
fines of Richmond, where, at dawn of the following day, the
troopers dropped from their saddles, a weary but happy body
Lee thus obtained exact and detailed information of the
position of McClellan s army, and he laid out his campaign
accordingly. Meanwhile his own forces in and about Rich
mond were steadily increasing. He was planning for an army
of nearly one hundred thousand and he now demonstrated his
ability as a strategist. Word had been despatched to Jackson
in the Shenandoah to bring his troops to fall upon the right
w r ing of McClellan s army. At the same time Lee sent Gen
eral Whiting north to make a feint of joining Jackson and
moving upon Washington. The ruse proved eminently suc
cessful. The authorities at Washington were frightened, and
McClellan received no more reenforcements. Jackson now
began a hide-and-seek game among the mountains, and man
aged to have rumors spread of his army being in several places
at the same time, while skilfully veiling his actual movements.
It was not until the 2oth of June that McClellan had
definite knowledge of Jackson s whereabouts. He was then
located at Ashland, north of the Chickahominy, within strik
ing distance of the Army of the Potomac. McClellan w r as
surprised but he was not unprepared. Seven days before
he had arranged for a new base of supplies on the James,
which w r ould now prove useful if he were driven south of the
On the very day he heard of Jackson s arrival at Ashland,
McClellan was pushing his men forward to begin his siege of
Richmond that variety of warfare which his engineering
soul loved so w r ell. His advance guard was within four miles
of the Confederate capital. His strong fortifications were
bristling upon every vantage point, and his fond hope was
that within a few days, at most, his efficient artillery, for
which the Army of the Potomac was famous, would be
THE BRIDGE THAT STOOD
The force under General McCall was stationed by McClellan on June 19, 1862, to observe the Meadow and Mechanicsville bridges
over the Chickahominy which had only partially been destroyed. On the afternoon of June 26th, General A. P. Hill crossed at Meadow
Bridge, driving the Union skirmish-line back to Beaver Dam Creek. The divisions of D. H. Hill and Longstreet had been waiting at
Mechanicsvilie Bridge (shown in this photograph) since 8 A.M. for A. P. Hill to open the way for them to cross. They passed over in
time to bear a decisive part in the Confederate attack at Games Mill on the 27th.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
DOING DOUBLE DUTY
Here are some of McClellan s staff-officers during the strenuous period of the Seven Days Battles. One commonly supposes that a
general s staff has little to do but wear gold lace and transmit orders. But it is their duty to multiply the eyes and ears and thinking
power of the leader. Without them he could not direct the movements of his army. There were so few regular officers of ripe ex
perience that members of the staff were invariably made regimental commanders, and frequently were compelled to divide their time
between leading their troops into action and reporting to and consulting with their superior.
belching forth its sheets of fire and lead into the beleagured
city. In front of the Union encampment, near Fair Oaks, was
a thick entanglement of scrubby pines, vines, and ragged
bushes, full of ponds and marshes. This strip of woodland
was less than five hundred yards wide. Beyond it was an open
field half a mile in width. The Union soldiers pressed through
the thicket to see what was on the other side and met the Con
federate pickets among the trees. The advancing column
drove them back. Upon emerging into the open, the Federal
troops found it filled with rifle-pits, earthworks, and redoubts.
At once they were met with a steady and incessant fire, which
continued from eight in the morning until five in the afternoon.
At times the contest almost reached the magnitude of a battle,
and in the end the Union forces occupied the former position
of their antagonists. This passage of arms, sometimes called
the affair of Oak Grove or the Second Battle of Fair Oaks,
was the prelude to the Seven Days Battles.
The following day, June 26th, had been set by General
" Stonewall " Jackson as the date on which he would join Lee,
and together they would fall upon the right wing of the Army
of the Potomac. The Federals north of the Chickahominy
were under the direct command of General Fitz John Porter.
Defensive preparations had been made on an extensive scale.
Field works, heavily armed with artillery, and rifle-pits, well
manned, covered the roads and open fields and were often con
cealed by timber from the eye of the opposing army. The
extreme right of the Union line lay near Mechanicsville on the
upper Chickahominy. A tributary of this stream from the
north was Beaver Dam Creek, upon whose left bank was a
steep bluff, commanding the valley to the west. This naturally
strong position, now well defended, was almost impregnable
to an attack from the front.
Before sunrise of the appointed day the Confederate
forces were at the Chickahominy bridges, awaiting the ar
rival of Jackson. To reach these some of the regiments had
THE RETROGRADE CROSSING
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
LOWER BRIDGE ON THE CHICKAHOMINY
Woodbury s Bridge on the Chickahominy. Little did General D. F. Woodbury s engineers suspect, when they built this bridge,
early in June, 1862, as a means of communication between the divided wings of McClellan s army on the Chickahominy that it would
be of incalculable service during battle. When the right wing, under General Fitz John Porter, was engaged on the field of Games
Mill against almost the entire army of Lee, across this bridge the division of General Slocum marched from its position in the trenches
in front of Richmond on the south bank of the river to the support of Porter s men. The battle lasted until nightfall and then the
Federal troops moved across this bridge and rejoined the main forces of the Federal army. Woodbury s engineers built several bridges
across the Chickahominy, but among them all the bridge named for their commander proved to be, perhaps, the most serviceable.
lays Stye Glonfrtorat? (Eapttal
marched the greater part of the night. For once Jackson
was behind time. The morning hours came and went. Xoon
passed and Jackson had not arrived. At three o clock, Gen
eral A. P. Hill, growing impatient, decided to put his troops
in motion. Crossing at Meadow Bridge, he marched his men
along the north side of the Chickahominy, and at Mechanics-
ville was joined by the commands of Longstreet and D. H.
Hill. Driving the Union outposts to cover, the Confederates
swept across the low approach to Beaver Dam Creek. A mur
derous fire from the batteries on the cliff poured into their
ranks. Gallantly the attacking columns withstood the deluge
of leaden hail and drew near the creek. A few of the more
aggressive reached the opposite bank but their repulse was
Later in the afternoon relief w r as sent to Hill, who again
attempted to force the Union position at Ellerson s Mill,
where the slope of the west bank came close to the borders of
the little stream. From across the open fields, in full view of
the defenders of the cliff, the Confederates moved down the
slope. They were in range of the Federal batteries, but the
fire was reserved. Every artilleryman was at his post ready
to fire at the word; the soldiers were in the rifle-pits sighting
along the glittering barrels of their muskets with fingers on
the triggers. As the approaching columns reached the stream
they turned with the road that ran parallel to the bank.
From every waiting field-piece the shells came screaming
through the air. Volley after volley of musketry was poured
into the flanks of the marching Southerners. The hillside was
soon covered with the victims of the gallant charge. Twilight
fell upon the warring troops and there were no signs of a ces
sation of the unequal combat. Night fell, and still from the
heights the lurid flames burst in a display of glorious pyro
technics. It was nine o clock when Hill finally drew back his
shattered regiments, to await the coming of the morning. The
Forty-fourth Georgia regiment suffered most in the fight;
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE FIGHT FOR THE WAGON TRAINS
Three times General Magruder led the Confederates against this position on June 29, 1862, and was as
many times repulsed in his attempt to seize the supplies which McClellan was shifting to his new position.
Here we see the peaceful morning of that day. Allen s farmhouse in the foreground stands just back
from the Williamsburg Road, along which the Federal wagon trains were attempting to move toward
Savage s Station. The corps of Sumner and Heintzelman are camped in the background. At dusk of the
same day, after Magruder s attacks, the camp was hastily broken and the troops, to avoid being cut off,
were inarching swiftly and silently toward Savage s Station, leaving behind large quantities of supplies
which fell into the hands of the eager Confederates.
Saga lp (Enttfrforate (Eapiial
three hundred and thirty-five being the dreadful toll, in dead
and wounded, paid for its efforts to break down the Union
position. Dropping back to the rear this ill-fated regiment
attempted to re-form its broken ranks, but its officers were all
among those who had fallen. Both armies now prepared for
another day and a renewal of the conflict.
The action at Beaver Dam Creek convinced McClellan
that Jackson was really approaching with a large force, and
he decided to begin his change of base from the Pamunkey
to the James, leaving Porter and the Fifth Corps still on the
left bank of the Chickahominy, to prevent Jackson s fresh
troops from interrupting this great movement. It \vas, indeed,
a gigantic undertaking, for it involved marching an army of
a hundred thousand men, including cavalry and artillery,
across the marshy peninsula. A train of five thousand heavily
loaded wagons and many siege-guns had to be transported;
nearly three thousand cattle on the hoof had to be driven.
From White House the supplies could be shipped by the York
River Railroad as far as Savage s Station. Thence to the
James, a distance of seventeen miles, they had to be carried
overland along a road intersected by many others from which
a watchful opponent might easily attack. General Casey s
troops, guarding the supplies at White House, were trans
ferred by way of the York and the James to Harrison s Land
ing on the latter river. The transports were loaded with all
the material they could carry. The rest was burned, or put
in cars. These cars, with locomotives attached, were then run
into the river.
On the night of June 26th, McCall s Federal division, at
Beaver Dam Creek, was directed to fall back to the bridges
across the Chickahominy near Gaines Mill and there make
a stand, for the purpose of holding the Confederate army.
During the night the wagon trains and heavy guns were
quietly moved across the river. Just before daylight the oper
ation of removing the troops began. The Confederates were
[ 324 ]
A VAIN RIDE TO SAFETY
During the retreat after Games Mill, McClellan s army was straining every nerve to extricate itself and present a strong front to
Lee before he could strike a telling blow at its untenable position. Wagon trains were struggling across the almost impassable White
Oak Swamp, while the troops were striving to hold Savage s Station to protect the movement. Thither on flat cars were sent the
wounded as we see them in the picture. The rear guard of the Army of the Potomac had hastily provided such field hospital facili
ties as they could. We see the camp near the railroad with the passing wagon trains in the lower picture. But attention to these
wounded men was, perforce, secondary to the necessity of holding the position. Their hopes of relief from their suffering were to be
blighted. Lee was about to fall upon the Federal rear guard at Savage s Station. Instead of to a haven of refuge, these men were
being railroaded toward the field of carnage, where they must of necessity be left by their retreating companions.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE STAND AT SAVAGE S STATION
Here we see part of the encampment to hold which the divisions of Richardson, Sedgwick, Smith, and Franklin fought valiantly when
Magruder and the Confederates fell upon them, June 29, 1862. Along the Richmond & York River Railroad, seen in the picture,
the Confederates rolled a heavy rifled gun, mounted on car-wheels. They turned its deadly fire steadily upon the defenders. The
Federals fought fiercely and managed to hold their ground till nightfall, when hundreds of their bravest soldiers lay on the field
and had to be left alone with their wounded comrades who had arrived on the flat cars.
It? (Ennfrtorate Glaptial
equally alert, for about the same time they opened a heavy fire
on the retreating columns. This march of five miles was a
continuous skirmish; but the Union forces, ably and skilfully
handled, succeeded in reaching their new position on the Chick-
The morning of the new day was becoming hot and sultry
as the men of the Fifth Corps made ready for action in their
new position. The selection of this ground had been well
made; it occupied a series of heights fronted on the west by
a sickle-shaped stream. The battle-lines followed the course
of this creek, in the arc of a circle curving outward in the
direction of the approaching army. The land beyond the
creek was an open country, through which Powhite Creek
meandered sluggishly, and beyond this a wood densely tan
gled with undergrowth. Around the Union position were also
many patches of wooded land affording cover for the troops
and screening the reserves from view.
Porter had learned from deserters and others that Jack
son s forces, united to those of Longstreet and the two Hills,
were advancing with grim determination to annihilate the
Army of the Potomac. He had less than eighteen thousand
men to oppose the fifty thousand Confederates. To protect
the Federals, trees had been felled along a small portion of
their front, out of which barriers protected with rails and
knapsacks were erected. Porter had considerable artillery, but
only a small part of it could be used. It was two o clock, on
June 27th, when General A. P. Hill swung his division into
line for the attack. He was unsupported by the other divisions,
which had not yet arrived, but his columns moved rapidly
toward the Union front. The assault was terrific, but twenty-
six guns threw a hail-storm of lead into his ranks. Under the
cover of this magnificent execution of artillery, the infantry
sent messages of death to the approaching lines of gray.
The Confederate front recoiled from the incessant out
pour of grape, canister, and shell. The heavy cloud of battle
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
A GRIM CAPTURE
The Second and Sixth Corps of the Federal Army repelled a desperate attack of General Magruder at Sav
age Station on June 29th. The next day they disappeared, plunging into the depths of White Oak Swamp,
leaving only the brave medical officers behind, doing what they could to relieve the sufferings of the men
that had to be abandoned. Here we see them at work upon the wounded, who have been gathered from
the field. Nothing but the strict arrest of the stern sergeant Death can save these men from capture, and
when the Confederates occupied Savage s Station on the morning of June 30th, twenty-five hundred sick
and wounded men and their medical attendants became prisoners of war. The Confederate hospital facil
ities were already taxed to their full capacity in caring for Lee s wounded, and most of these men were
confronted on that day with the prospect of lingering for months in the military prisons of the South. The
brave soldiers lying helpless here were wounded at Games Mill on June 27th and removed to the great
field-hospital established at Savage s Station. The photograph was taken just before Sumner and Franklin
withdrew the rear-guard of their columns on the morning of June 30th.
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Saga li? (Ennfrfarat? (Eaptial
reached the crest of a small ridge, one hundred and fifty yards
from the Union line, the batteries in front and on the flank
sent a storm of shell and canister plowing into their already
depleted files. They quickened their pace as they passed down
the slope and across the creek. Not a shot had they fired and
amid the sulphurous atmosphere of battle, with the wing of
death hovering over all, they fixed bayonets and dashed up the
hill into the Federal line. With a shout they plunged through
the felled timber and over the breastworks. The Union line
had been pierced and \vas giving way. It was falling back
toward the Chickahominy bridges, and the retreat was threaten
ing to develop into a general rout. The twilight w-as closing
in and the day was all but lost to the Army of the Potomac.
Now a great shout w r as heard from the direction of the bridge ;
and, pushing through the stragglers at the river bank were seen
the brigades of French and Meagher, detached from Sumner s
corps, coming to the rescue. General Meagher, in his shirt
sleeves, w r as leading his men up the bluff and confronted the
Confederate battle line. This put a stop to the pursuit and
as night was at hand the Southern soldiers withdrew. The
battle of Games Mill, or the Chickahominy, was over.
When Lee came to the banks of the little river the next
morning he found his opponent had crossed over and destroyed
the bridges. The Army of the Potomac was once more united.
During the day the Federal wagon trains were safely passed
over White Oak Swamp and then moved on toward the James
River. Lee did not at first divine McClellan s intention. He
still believed that the Federal general would retreat down
the Peninsula, and hesitated therefore to cross the Chicka
hominy and give up the command of the lower bridges. But
now on the 29th the signs of the movement to the James were
unmistakable. Early on that morning Longstreet and A. P.
Hill were ordered to recross the Chickahominy by the New
Bridge and Huger and Magruder were sent in hot pursuit of
the Federal forces. It was the brave Sumner who covered the
OF McCLELLAN S
MAJOR MEYERS AND LIEUTENANTS STRYKER AND NORTON, 10TH PENN. RESERVES
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
COLONEL A. V. COLBURN, COLONEL D. B. SACKETT, AND GENERAL JOHN SEDGVVICK
Copyriyht by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE MONTH AFTER
THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES
COLONEL JAMES H. CHILDS AND OFFICERS, FOURTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY
march of the retreating army, and as he stood in the open field
near Savage s Station he looked out over the plain and saw
with satisfaction the last of the ambulances and wagons mak
ing their way toward the new haven on the James.
In the morning of that same day he had already held at
bay the forces of Magruder at Allen s Farm. On his way
from Fair Oaks, which he left at daylight, he had halted his
men at what is known as the " Peach Orchard," and from
nine o clock till eleven had resisted a spirited fire of musketry
and artillery. And now as the grim warrior, on this Sunday
afternoon in June, turned his eyes toward the Chickahominy
he saw a great cloud of dust rising on the horizon. It was
raised by the troops of General Magruder who was pressing
close behind the Army of the Potomac. The Southern field-
guns were placed in position. A contrivance, consisting of a
heavy gun mounted on a railroad car and called the " Land
Merrimac," was pushed into position and opened fire upon the
Union forces. The battle began with a fine play of artillery.
For an hour not a musket was fired. The army of blue
remained motionless. Then the mass of gray moved across
the field and from the Union guns the long tongues of flame
darted into the ranks before them. The charge was met with
vigor and soon the battle raged over the entire field. Both
sides stood their ground till darkness again closed the contest,
and nearly eight hundred brave men had fallen in this Sabbath
evening s battle. Before midnight Sumner had withdrawn his
men and was following after the wagon trains.
The Confederates were pursuing McClellan s army in two
columns, Jackson closely following Sumner, while Lorigstreet
was trying to cut off the Union forces by a flank movement.
On the last day of June, at high noon, Jackson reached the
White Oak Swamp. But the bridge was gone. He attempted
to ford the passage, but the Union troops were there to prevent
it. While Jackson was trying to force his way across the
stream, there came to him the sound of a desperate battle being
HEROES OF MALVERN HILL
Brigadier-General J. H. Martindale (seated) and his staff, July 1, 1862. Fitz John Porter s Fifth Corps and Couch s division, Fourth
Corps, bore the brunt of battle at Malvern Hill where the troops of McClellan withstood the terrific attacks of Lee s combined and
superior forces. Fiery "Prince John" Magruder hurled column after column against the left of the Federal line, but every charge
was met and repulsed through the long hot summer afternoon. Martindale s brigade of the Fifth Corps was early called into action,
and its commander, by. the gallant fighting of his troops, won the brevet of Major-Genernl.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE NAVY LENDS A HAND
Officers of the Monitor at Malvern Hill. Glad indeed were the men of the Army of the Potomac as they emerged from their perilous
march across White Oak Swamp to hear the firing of the gunboats on the James. It told them the Confederates had not yet pre
empted the occupation of Malvern Hill, which General Fitz John Porter s Corps was holding. Before the battle opened McClellan
went aboard the Galena to consult with Commodore John Rodgers about a suitable base on the James. The gunboats of the fleet
supported the flanks of the army during the battle and are said to have silenced one of the Confederate batteries.
fought not more than two miles away, but he was powerless
to give aid.
Longstreet and A. P. Hill had come upon the Federal
regiments at Glendale, near the intersection of the Charles
City road, guarding the right flank of the retreat. It was
Longstreet who, about half-past two, made one of his charac
teristic onslaughts on that part of the Union army led by Gen
eral McCall. It was repulsed with heavy loss. Again and
again attacks were made. Each brigade seemed to act on its
own behalf. They hammered here, there, and everywhere. Re
pulsed at one place they charged at another. The Eleventh
Alabama, rushing out from behind a dense wood, charged
across the open field in the face of the Union batteries. The
men had to run a distance of six hundred yards. A heavy and
destructive fire poured into their lines, but on they came, trail
ing their guns. The batteries let loose grape and canister,
while volley after volley of musketry sent its death-dealing
messages among the Southerners. But nothing except death
itself could check their impetuous charge. When two hundred
yards away they raised the Confederate yell and rushed for
Randol s battery.
Pausing for an instant they deliver a volley and attempt
to seize the guns. Bayonets are crossed and men engage
in a hand-to-hand struggle. The contending masses rush to
gether, asking and giving no quarter and struggling like so
many tigers. Darkness is closing on the fearful scene, yet the
fighting continues with unabated ferocity. There are the
shouts of command, the clash and the fury of the battle, the
sulphurous smoke, the flashes of fire streaking through the air,
the yells of defiance, the thrust, the parry, the thud of the
clubbed musket, the hiss of the bullet, the spouting blood, the
death-cry, and beneath all lie the bodies of America s sons,
some in blue and some in gray.
While Lee and his army were held in check by the events
of June 30th at White Oak Swamp and the other battle at
Again we see the transports
and supply schooners at an
chor this time at Harrison s
Landing on the James River.
In about a month, McClellan
had changed the position of
his army twice, shifting his
base from the Pamunkey to
the James. The position he
held on Malvern Hill was
abandoned after the victory
of July 1, 1802, and the
army marched to a new base
farther down the James,
where the heavy losses of
men and supplies during the
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE SECOND ARMY BASE
Seven Days could be made
up without danger and
delay. Harrison s Landing
was the point selected, and
here the army recuperated,
wondering what would be the
next step. Below we see the
historic mansion which did
service as General Porter s
headquarters, one of McClel-
lan s most efficient command
ers. For his services during
the Seven Days he was made
Major-General of Volunteers.
McClellan was his lifelong
il! lillllillliiME. 3 nlilliilii
WESTOVER HOUSE: HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL FITZ JOHN PORTER, HARRISON S LANDING
Glendale or Nelson s Farm, the last of the wagon trains had
arrived safely at Malvern Hill. The contest had hardly closed
and the smoke had scarcely lifted from the blood-soaked field,
when the Union forces were again in motion toward the James.
By noon on July 1st the last division reached the position
where McClellan decided to turn again upon his assailants.
He had not long to wait, for the Confederate columns, led by
Longstreet, were close on his trail, and a march of a few miles
brought them to the Union outposts. They found the Army
of the Potomac admirably situated to give defensive battle.
Malvern Hill, a plateau, a mile and a half long and half as
broad, with its top almost bare of woods, commanded a view of
the country over which the Confederate army must approach.
Along the western face of this plateau there are deep ravines
falling abruptly in the direction of the James River; on the
north and east is a gentle slope to the plain beneath, bordered
by a thick forest. Around the summit of the hill, General Mc
Clellan had placed tier after tier of batteries, arranged like an
amphitheater. Surmounting these on the crest were massed
seven of his heaviest siege-guns. His army surrounded this
hill, its left flank being protected by the gunboats on the river.
The morning and early afternoon were occupied with
many Confederate attacks, sometimes formidable in their na
ture, but Lee planned for no general move until he could
bring up a force that he considered sufficient to attack the
strong Federal position. The Confederate orders were to
advance when the signal, a yell, cheer, or shout from the men
of Armistead s brigade, was given.
Late in the afternoon General D. IT. Hill heard some
shouting, followed by a roar of musketry. Xo other general
seems to have heard it, for Hill made his attack alone. It was
gallantly done, but no army could have withstood the galling
fire of the batteries of the Army of the Potomac as they were
massed upon Malvern Hill. All during the evening, brigade
after brigade tried to force the Union lines. The gunners
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
ON DARING DUTY
Lieut. -Colonel Albert V. Colburn, a favorite Aicle-de-Camp of General McClellan s. Here is the bold
soldier of the Green Mountain State who bore despatches about the fields of battle during the Seven Days.
It was he who was sent galloping across the difficult and dangerous country to make sure that Franklin s
division was retreating from White Oak Swamp, and then to carry orders to Sumner to fall back on Mal-
vern Hill. Such were the tasks that constantly fell to the lot of the despatch bearer. Necessarily a man
of quick and accurate judgment, perilous chances confronted him in his efforts to keep the movements of
widely separated divisions in concert with the plans of the commander. The loss of his life might mean
the loss of a battle; the failure to arrive in the nick of time with despatches might mean disaster for the
army. Only the coolest headed of the officers could be trusted with this vital work in the field.
lays Sit? (Eanfrforat? (Eapital
stood coolly and manfully by their batteries. The Confeder
ates were not able to make concerted efforts, but the battle
waxed hot nevertheless. They were forced to breast one of
the most devastating storms of lead and canister to which an
assaulting army has ever been subjected. The round shot and
grape cut through the branches of the trees and the battle-field
was soon in a cloud of smoke. Column after column of South
ern soldiers rushed up to the death-dealing cannon, only to be
mowed down. The thinned and ragged lines, with a valor born
of desperation, rallied again and again to the charge, but to
no avail. The batteries on the heights still hurled their missiles
of death. The field below was covered with the dead and
wounded of the Southland.
The gunboats in the river made the battle scene more awe-
inspiring with their thunderous cannonading. Their heavy
shells shrieked through the forest, and great limbs were torn
from the trees as they hurtled by in their outburst of fury.
Night was falling. The combatants were no longer dis
tinguishable except by the sheets of flame. It was nine o clock
before the guns ceased their fire, and only an occasional shot
rang out over the bloody field of Malvern Hill.
The courageous though defeated Confederate, looking up
the next day through the drenching rain to where had stood
the embrasured wall with its grim batteries and lines of blue,
that spoke death to so many of his companions-in-arms, saw
only deserted ramparts. The Union army had retreated in
the darkness of the night. But this time no foe harassed
its march. Unmolested, it sought its new camp at Harrison s
Landing, where it remained until August 3d, when, as Presi
dent Lincoln had been convinced of the impracticability of
operating from the James River as a base, orders were issued
by General Halleck for the withdrawal of the Army of the
Potomac from the Peninsula.
The net military result of the Seven Days was a disap
pointment to the South. Although thankful that the siege of
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
AVERELL THE COLONEL WHO BLUFFED AN ARMY.
Colonel W. W. Averell and Staff. This intrepid officer of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry held the Federal
position on Malvern Hill on the morning of July 2, 1862, with only a small guard, while McClellan com
pleted the withdrawal of his army to Harrison s Landing. It was his duty to watch the movements of
the Confederates and hold them back from any attempt to fall upon the retreating trains and troops. A
dense fog in the early morning shut off the forces of A. P. Hill and Longstreet from his view. He had not
a single fieldpiece with which to resist attack. When the mist cleared away, he kept up a great activity
with his cavalry horses, making the Confederates believe that artillery was being brought up. With ap
parent reluctance he agreed to a truce of two hours in which the Confederates might bury the dead they
left on the hillside the day before. Later, with an increased show of unwillingness, he extended the truce
for another two hours. Just before they expired, Frank s Battery arrived to his support, with the news
that the Army of the Potomac was safe. Colonel Averell rejoined it without the loss of a man.
ays Gilt? (Emtfrtorate (Capital
Richmond had been raised, the Southern public believed that
McClellan should not have been allowed to reach the James
River with his army intact.
" That army," Eggleston states, " splendidly organized,
superbly equipped, and strengthened rather than weakened
in morale, lay securely at rest on the James River, within easy
striking distance of Richmond. There was no knowing at
what moment McClellan might hurl it again upon Richmond
or upon that commanding key to Richmond the Petersburg
position. In the hands of a capable commander McClellan s
army would at this time have been a more serious menace than
ever to the Confederate capital, for it now had an absolutely
secure and unassailable base of operations, while its fighting
quality had been improved rather than impaired by its seven
days of battling."
General Lee s own official comment on the military prob
lem involved and the difficulties encountered was: " Under
ordinary circumstances the Federal army should have been
destroyed. Its escape was due to the causes already stated.
Prominent among these is the want of correct and timely in
formation. This fact, attributable chiefly to the character of
the country, enabled General McClellan skilfully to conceal his
retreat and to add much to the obstructions with which nature
had beset the way of our pursuing columns; but regret that
more was not accomplished gives way to gratitude to the Sov
ereign Ruler of the Universe for the results achieved."
Whatever the outcome of the Seven Days Battle another
year was to demonstrate beyond question that the wounding
of General Johnston at Fair Oaks had left the Confederate
army with an even abler commander. On such a field as Chan-
cellorsville was to be shown the brilliancy of Lee as leader, and
his skilful maneuvers leading to the invasion of the North.
And the succeeding volume will tell, on the other hand, how
strong and compact a fighting force had been forged from the
raw militia and volunteers of the North.
OFFICERS OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY
AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS
Within a week of the occupation of Harrison s Landing, McClellan s position had become so strong that the Federal commander no
longer anticipated an attack by the Confederate forces. General Lee saw that his opponent was flanked on each side by a creek and
that approach to his front was commanded by the guns in the entrenchments and those of the Federal navy in the river. Lee there
fore deemed it inexpedient to attack, especially as his troops were in poor condition owing to the incessant marching and fighting of the
Seven Days. Rest was what both armies needed most, and on July 8th the Confederate forces returned to the vicinity of Richmond.
McClellan scoured the country before he was satisfied of the Confederate withdrawal. The Third and Fourth Pennsylvania cavalry
made a reconnaisance to Charles City Court House and beyond, and General Averell reported on July llth that there were no Southern
troops south of the lower Chickahominy. His scouting expeditions extended in the direction of Richmond and up the Chickahominy.
CHARLES CITY COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA, JULY, 1862
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
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IH1LDING WINTER QUARTERS
ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR
ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR
WITH LOSSES ON BOTH SIDES
DECEMBER, 1860 AUGUST, 1862
CHRONOLOGICAL summary and record of historical events, and of
important engagements between the Union and the Confederate
armies, in the Civil War in the United States, showing troops participating,
losses and casualties, collated and compiled by George L. Kilmer from the
official records of the Union and Confederate armies filed in the United
States War Department. Minor engagements are omitted; also some con
cerning which statistics, especially Confederate, are not available.
PRELIMINARY EVENTS FROM THE SECESSION OE SOUTH CAROLINA
TO THE BOMBARDMENT OE FORT SUMTER.
20. Ordinance of Secession adopted by
9. U. S. Steamer Star of the West fired
upon in Charleston harbor by South
10. Florida seceded.
11. Alabama seceded.
19. Georgia seceded.
26. Louisiana seceded.
1. Texas seceded.
4. " Confederate States of America " pro
visionally organized at Montgomery,
9- Jefferson Davis elected provisional Pres
ident of the Confederate States of Amer
18. Jefferson Davis inaugurated President
of the Confederate States at Montgom
4. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President
of the United States at Washington.
12 and 13. Bombardment of Fort Sumter,
S. C. Union 1st U. S. Art. Confed.
S. C. Art. No casualties.
14. Evacuation of Fort Sumter, S. C., by
U. S. Losses : Union 1 killed, 5 wounded
by premature explosion of cannon in
firing a salute to the United States flag.
17. Virginia adopted the ordinance of se
cession, subject to popular vote.
19. Riots in Baltimore, Md. Union 6th
Mass., 27th Pa. Baltimoreans, Citizens
of Baltimore. Losses: Union 4 killed,
36 wounded. Citizens, 12 killed.
23. Co. A 8th U. S. Infantry captured at
San Antonio, Tex., by a company of or
ganized citizen volunteers.
6. Arkansas seceded.
10. Camp Jackson, Mo., occupied by Mo.
militia, seized by Union 1st, 3d, and 1th
Mo. Reserve Corps, 3d Mo. Vols. 639
militiamen taken prisoners.
11 St. Louis, Mo. Collision of Union 5th
Mo., U. S. Reserves, with citizens of St.
Louis. Losses: Union 1 killed. Citizens
20. North Carolina seceded.
24. Col. E. Elmer Ellsworth, llth N. Y.
Vols., killed by a civilian while removing
a Southern flag from the roof of the
Marshall House, Alexandria, Va.
Fort Pickens, guard
ing the entrance to
Pensacola Bay, 1861.
Never was a perilous
position more gallant
ly held than was Fort
Pickens by Lieutenant
A. J. Slemmer and his
little garrison from
January to May, 1861.
A large force of Con
federates were con
stantly menacing the
fort. Slemmer discov
ered a plot to betray
the fort into the hands
of a thousand of them
on the night of April
llth. Attempts to
seize the fort by Con
federates gathered in
force for the purpose
were held off only by
the timely arrival of
gunboats with reen-
forcements from the
North. All the efforts
to take Fort Pickens
failed and it remained
in the hands of the
the war. In the lower
picture we see one of
the powerful Confed
erate batteries at Fort
McRee, which fired on
Pickens from across
Copyright by Reriew of Rerincx Co.
Engagement* 0f ify? (Ettril
1. Fairfax C. H., Va. Union, Co. B 2d U.
S. Cav. Confed., Va. Vols. Losses :
Union 1 killed, 4 wounded. Confed. I
killed, 14 wounded.
3. Philippi, W. Va. Union, 1st W. Va.,
14th and l6th Ohio, 7th and 9th Ind.
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses : Union 2
wounded. Confed. 15 killed, wound
10. Big Bethel, Va. Union, 1st, 2d, 3d,
5th, and 7th N. Y., 4th Mass. Detach
ment of 2d U. S. Artil. Confed., 1st X.
C., Randolph s Battery, Va. Infantry
and Cavalry. Losses: Union 16 killed,
34 wounded. Confed. I killed, 7
13. Romney, W. Va. Union, llth Ind.
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses: Union 1
wounded. Confed. 2 killed, 1 wounded.
17. Vienna, Va. Union, 1st Ohio. Confed.,
1st S. C. Losses: Union 5 killed, 6
wounded. Confed. 6 killed.
Booneville, Mo. Union, 2d Mo. (three
months ) Volunteers, Detachments 1st,
Totten s Battery Mo. Light Artil. Con-
fed., Mo. Militia. Losses: Union 3
killed, 8 wounded. Confed. (*).
Edwards Ferry, Md. Union, 1st Pa.
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses: Union 1
killed, 4 wounded. Confed. 15 killed.
Patterson Creek or Kelley s Island, Va.
Union, llth Ind. Confed., Va. Vols.
Losses: Union 1 killed, 1 wounded.
Confed. 7 killed, 2 wounded.
Mathias Point, Va. Union, Gunboats
Pawnee and Freeborn. Confed., Va.
Vols. Losses: Union 1 killed, 4
2. Falling Waters, Md., also called
Haynesville or Martinsburg, Md. Union,
1st Wis., llth Pa. Confed., Va. Vols.
Losses: Union 8 killed, 15 wounded.
Confed. 31 killed, 50 wounded.
Carthage or Dry Forks, Mo. Union,
3d and 5th Mo., one battery of Mo.
Artil. Confed., Mo. State Guard. Losses :
Union 13 killed, 31 wounded. Confed.
30 killed, 125 wounded, 45 prisoners.
-Newport Xews, Va. Union, 1 Co. 9th
N. Y. Confed., Stanard s Va. , Battery,
La. Battalion, Crescent Rifles, Collins
* No record found.
Cav. Troop. Losses: Union 6 wounded.
Confed. 2 killed, 1 wounded.
6. Middle Creek Fork or Buckhannon, W.
Va. Union, One Co. 3d Ohio. Confed.,
25th Va. Losses: Union 1 killed, 6
wounded. Confed. 7 killed.
7. Great Falls, Md. Losses: Union 2
killed. Confed. 12 killed.
10 Laurel Hill or Bealington, W. Va.
Union, 14th Ohio, 9th Ind. Confed.,
20th Va. Losses: Union 2 killed, 6
10. Monroe Station, Mo. Losses: Union 3
killed. Confed. 4 killed, 20 wounded,
11. Rich Mountain, W. Va. Union, 8th,
10th, and 13th Ind., 19th Ohio. Con-
fed., Gen. Jno. C. Pegram s command.
Losses: Union 11 killed, 35 wounded.
Confed. 60 killed, 1 10 wounded, 100
13 Carrick s Ford, W. Va. Union, Gen.
Geo. B. McClellan s command. Con-
fed., Gen. R. E. Lee s command. Losses:
Union 13 killed, 40 wounded. Confed.
20 killed, 10 wounded, 50 prisoners.
Confed, Gen. R. S. Garnett killed.
16. Millsville or Wentzville, Mo. Losses:
Union 7 killed, 1 wounded. Confed. 7
17. Fulton, Mo. Losses: Union 1 killed, 15
Scarey Creek, W. Va. Losses: Union
9 killed, 38 wounded.
Martinsburg, Mo. Losses: Union 1
killed, 1 wounded.
18. Blackburn s Ford, Va. Union, 1st Mass.,
2d and 3d Mich., 12th N. Y., Detachment
of 2d U. S. Cav., Battery E 3d U. S.
Artil. Confed., 5th, llth N. C., 2d, 3d,
7th S. C., 1st, 7th, llth, 17th, 24th Va.,
7th La., 13th Miss. Losses: Union 19
killed, 38 wounded. Confed. 15 killed,
21 Bull Run or Manassas, Va. Union, 2d
Me., 2d N. H., 2d Vt., 1st, 4th, and 5th
Mass., 1st and 2d R. I., 1st, 2d, and 3d
Conn., 8th, llth, 12th, 13th, 16th, 18th,
27th, 29th, 31st, 32d, 35th, 38th, and
39th N. Y., 2d, 8th, 14th, 69th, 71st, and
79th N. Y. Militia, 27th Pa., 1st, 2d,
and 3d Mich., 1st and 2d Minn., 2d Wis.,
1st and 2d Ohio, Detachments of 2d, 3d,
and 8th U. S. Regulars, Battalion of
Marines, Batteries D, E, G, and M, 2d
MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON AND FAMILY
This Federal major of artillery was summoned on April 11, 1861, to surrender
Fort Sumter and the property of the government whose uniform he wore.
At half-past four the following morning the boom of the first gun from Fort
Johnson in Charleston Harbor notified the breathless, waiting world that
war was on. The flag had been fired on, and hundreds of thousands of lives
were to be sacrificed ere the echoes of the great guns died away at the end of
four years into the sobs of a nation whose best and bravest, North and South,
had strewn the many battlefields. No wonder that the attention of the civil
ized world was focussed on the man who provoked the first blow in the great
est conflict the world has ever known. He was the man who handled the
situation at the breaking point. To him the North looked to preserve the
Federal property in Charleston Harbor, and the honor of the National flag.
The action of the South depended upon his decision. He played the part of
a true soldier, and two days after the first shot was fired he led his little gar
rison of the First United States Artillery out of Sumter with the honors of war.
Engagements 0f tlje QKtrtl War
U. S. Artil., Battery E, 3d Artil., Battery
D, 5th Artil., 2d R. I. Battery, Detach
ments of 1st and 2d Dragoons. Confed.,
6th, 7th, 8th La., 7th, 8th Ga., 1st Ark.,
2d, 3d Tenn., 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th; 7th, 8th
S. C., Hampton s Legion, 5th, 6th, llth
N. C., 1st Md., 2d, llth, 13th, 17th, 18th
Miss., 4th, 5th, 6th Ala., 1st, 2d, 4th,
5th, 7th, 8th, 10th, llth, 13th, 17th, 18th,
19th, 24th, 27th, 28th, 33d, 49th Va., 1st,
30th Va. Cavalry, Harrison s Battalion.
Losses: Union 481 killed, 1,011 wound
ed, 1,210 missing and captured. Confed.
387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing.
Confed. Brig.-Gens. Bee and Bartow
22. Forsyth, Mo. Losses : Union 3 wounded.
Confed. 5 killed, 10 wounded.
24. Blue Mills, Mo. Losses: Union I killed,
26. Lane s Prairie, near Rolla, Mo. Losses:
Union 3 wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 3
27. P ort Fillmore and San Augustine
Springs, N. Mex. 7th U. S. Inft. and
3d U. S. Mounted Rifles, in all 400 men,
captured by Confederates commanded
by Col. John R. Baylor.
2. Dug Springs, Mo. Union, Steele s Bat
talion, 2d U. S. Infantry, Stanley s Cav.
Troop, Totten s Battery. Confed.,
Rains Mo. State Guard. Losses:
Union 4 killed, 37 wounded. Confed.
40 killed, 41 wounded.
5. Athens, Mo. Union, Home Guards,
21st Mo. Vol. Confed. (*). Losses:
Union 3 killed, 8 wounded. Confed. 14
killed, 14 wounded.
Point of Rocks, Md. Union, 28th
N. Y. Confed. (*) Losses: Confed. 3
killed, 2 wounded.
7. Hampton, Va. Union, 20th N. Y.
Losses: Confed. 3 killed, 6 wounded.
8. Lovettsville, Va. Union, 19th N. Y.
Losses : Confed. 1 killed, 5 wounded.
10. Wilson s Creek, Mo., also called Spring
field and Oak Hill. Union, 6th and 10th
Mo. Cav., 2d Kan. Mounted Vols., one
Co. of 1st U. S. Cav., 1st la., 1st Kan.,
1st, 2d, 3d, and 5th Mo., Detachments of
1st and 2d U. S. Regulars, Mo. Home
Guards, 1st Mo. Light Artil., Battery
F 2d U. S. Artil. Confed., 1st, 3d, 4th,
5th Mo.. State Guard, Graves Infantry,
Bledsoe s Battery, Cawthorn s Brigade,
Kelly s Infantry, Brown s Cavalry, Bur-
bridge s Infantry, 1st Cavalry, Hughes ,
Thornton s, Wingo s, Foster s Infantry,
Rives , Campbell s Cavalry, 3d, 4th, 5th
Ark., 1st Cavalry, Woodruff s, Reid s
Battery, 1st, 2d Mounted Riflemen,
South Kansas-Texas Mounted Regiment,
3d La. Losses: Union 223 killed, 721
wounded, 291 missing. Confed. 265
killed, 800 wounded, 30 missing. Union
Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon killed.
Potosi, Mo. Union, Mo. Home
Guards. Losses : Union 1 killed. Con-
fed. 2 killed, 3 wounded.
17. Brunswick, Mo. Union, 5th Mo. Re
serves. Losses : Union I killed, 7
19. Charleston or Bird s Point, Mo.
Losses: Union 1 killed, 6 wounded.
Confed. 40 killed.
20 Hawk s Nest, W. Va. Losses: Union 3
wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 3 wounded.
26. Cross Lanes or Summerville, W. Va.
Losses: Union 5 killed, 40 wounded,
27. Ball s Cross Roads, Va. Losses: Union
1 killed, 2 wounded.
28 and 29. Fort Hatteras, ,N. C. Union, 9th,
20th, and 89th N. Y. and Naval force.
Confed. North Carolina troops under
Col. W. F. Martin. Losses: Union I
killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 5 killed, 51
wounded, 715 prisoners.
31. Munson s Hill, Va. Losses: Union 2
killed, 2 wounded.
1. Bennett s Mills, Mo. Losses: Union 1
killed, 8 wounded.
2. Dallas, Mo. Losses: Union 2 killed.
Dry Wood or Ft. Scott, Mo. Losses:
Union 4 killed, 9 wounded.
10. Carnifex Ferry, W. Va. Union, 9th,
10th, 12th, 13th, 28th, and 47th Ohio.
Confed., Gen. J. B. Floyd s command.
Losses: Union 17 killed, 141 wounded.
11. Lewinsville, Va. Union, 19th Ind., 3d
Vt., 79th N. Y., 1st U. S. Chasseurs,
Griffin s Battery, detachment of Cav
alry. Confed., 13th Va., Rosser s Bat-
* No record found.
THE LAST LETTER
COLONEL EPHRAIM ELMER ELLSWORTH
One of the I A irst to Fall. The shooting of this young patriot profoundly shocked and stirred the Federals at the opening of the
war. Colonel Ellsworth had organized a Zouave regiment in Chicago, and in April, 1861, he organized another from the Fire De
partment in New York City. Colonel Ellsworth, on May 24, 1861, led his Fire Zouaves to Alexandria, Virginia, seized the city, and with
his own hands pulled down a Southern flag floating over the Marshall House. Descending the stairs with the flag in his hand, he
cried, "Behold my trophy!" "Behold mine!" came the reply from the proprietor of the hotel, James T. Jackson, as he emptied
a shotgun into Ellsworth s breast. Jackson was immediately shot dead by Private Brownell.
Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co.
MARSHALL HOUSE. ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA, 1861
tery, detachments of Cavalry. Losses:
Union 6 killed, 8 wounded.
12 and 13. Cheat Mountain, W. Va. Union,
1 3th, 14th, 15th, and 17th Ind., 3d, 6th,
24-th, and 25th Ohio, 2d W. Va. Confed.,
Va. Vols. commanded by Gen. W. W.
Loring. Losses: Union 9 killed, 12
wounded, 60 missing. Confed. (*).
12 to 20. Lexington, Mo. Union, 23d 111.,
8th, 25th, and 27th Mo., 13th and 1 1th
Mo. Home Guards, Berry s and Van
Home s Mo. Cav., 1st 111. Cav. Confed.,
Parsons and Rains Divisions, Bledsoe s,
Churchill s, Guibor s, Kelly s, Kneisley s
and Clark s batteries. Losses: Union 42
killed, 108 wounded, 1,624 missing
and captured. Confed. 25 killed, 75
13. Booneville, Mo. Union, Mo. Home
Guards. Confed., Gen. Price s Mo.
State Guard. Losses: Union 1 killed,
4 wounded. Confed. 12 killed, 30
14. Confederate Privateer Judah destroyed
near Pensacola, Fla., by the U. S. Flag
ship Colorado. Losses: Union 3 killed,
1 5 wounded.
15. Pritchard s Mills, Md., or Darnestown,
Md. Union, detachments 13th Mass.,
28th Pa., 9th N. Y. Battery. Confed*
Losses: Union 1 killed, 3 wounded.
Confed. (estimate) 18 killed, 25 wounded.
17. Morristown, Mo. Union, 5th, 6th, 9th
Kan. Cav., 1st Kan. Battery. Confed.*
Losses: Union 2 killed, 6 wounded.
Confed. 7 killed.
Blue Mills, Mo. Union, 3d la. Con-
fed., Mo. State Guard. Losses: Union
11 killed, 39 wounded. Confed. 12
killed, 63 wounded.
19. Barboursville, Ky. Union, Ky. Home
Guards. Confed., Gen. F. K. Zollicof-
fer s brigade. Losses: Union 1 killed,
1 wounded. Confed. 2 killed, 3
23. Ilomney or Hanging Rock, W. Va.
Union, 4th and 8th Ohio. Confed., 77th
and 114th Va., 1 battery Art. Losses:
Union 3 killed, 50 wounded. Confed.
25. Kanawha Gap, W. Va. Union, 1st Ky.,
34th Ohio. Confed.* Losses: Union 4
killed, 9 wounded. Confed. 20 killed,
25 and 27. Alamosa, near Ft. Craig, N. Mex.
Union, Capt. Mink s Cavalry. Confed.,
Capt. Coopwood s Tex. Scouts. Losses:
Union.* Confed. 2 killed, 8 wounded.
3. Greenbrier, W. Va. Union, 24th, 25th,
and 32d Ohio, 7th, 9th, 13th, 14th, 15th,
and 17th Ind., Battery G, 4th U. S.
Artil., Battery A 1st Mich. Artil. Con-
fed., Va. Vols. of Gen. W. W. Loring s
command. Losses: Union 8 killed, 32
wounded. Confed. 100 killed, 75
9. Santa Rosa, Fla. Union, 6th N. Y., Co.
A 1st U. S. Artil., Co. H 2d U. S. Artil.,
Co. s C and E 3d U. S. Inft. Confed.,
9th and 10th Miss., 1st Ala., 1st Fla. and
5th Ga. Losses: Union 14 killed,- 29
wounded. Confed. 17 killed, 39
wounded, 30 captured.
13. Wet Glaze, or Monday s Hollow, Mo.
Union, 13th 111., 1st Mo. Battalion, Fre
mont Battalion, Mo. Cav. Confed.*
Losses: Confed. 67 killed (estimate).
14. Underwood s Farm (12 miles from
Bird s Point), Mo. Union, 1st 111.
Cav. Confed., 1st Miss. Cav. Losses:
Union 2 killed, 5 wounded. Confed. 1
killed, 2 wounded.
** Big River Bridge, near Potosi, Mo.
Union, 40 men of the 38th 111. Confed.,
2d, 3d Miss. Cav. Losses: Union 1
killed, 6 wounded, 33 captured. Con-
fed. 5 killed, 4 wounded.
16. Bolivar Heights, Va. Union, detach
ments of 28th Pa., 3d Wis. and 6th
Mo. Cavalry. Confed., detachments
commanded by Col. Turner Ashby.
Losses: Union 4 killed, 7 wounded.
17 to 21. Frederiektown and Ironton, Mo.
Union, 21st, 33d, and 38th 111., 8th Wis.,
1st Ind. Cav., Co. A 1st Mo. Light
Artil. Confed., Mo. State Guard.
Losses: Union 7 killed, 41 wounded.
Confed. 200 killed, wounded, and miss
21. Ball s Bluff, also called Edwards Fer
ry, Harrison s Landing, Leesburg, Va.
Union, 15th, 20th Mass., 40th N. Y., 71st
Pa., Battery I, 1st U. S., B, R. I. Artil.
Confed., 13th, 17th, 18th Miss., 8th Va.,
3 co. s Va. Cavalry. Losses: Union
49 killed, 158 wounded, and 714 missing.
* Xo record found.
Copt/right by Review of Reviews Co.
A WESTERN LEADER MAJOR-GENERAL FRANK P. BLAIR, JR., AND STAFF
One of the most interesting characters in Missouri at the outbreak of the war was Frank P. Blair, Jr., of St.
Louis, a Member of Congress. When Governor Jackson refused to obey President Lincoln s proclamation
and call out troops, Mr. Blair immediately raised a regiment of three-months men (the First Missouri Infan
try) which later became the First Missouri Light Artillery. The First Missouri, under Colonel Blair, assisted
Captain Lyon, LL S. A., in the capture of Camp Jackson, May 10, 1801. When, through Blair s influence,
Lyon was made brigadier-general and placed in command of the Federal forces in Missouri, Governor
Jackson and General Sterling Price at once ordered the militia to prepare itself for service on the Southern
side, knowing that Lyon and Blair would quickly attack them. The First Missouri regiment accompanied
General Lyon when he went to Booneville and dispersed over a thousand volunteers who had gathered
there to enlist under the Confederacy, June 17th. This affair at Booneville practically made it impossible
for Missouri to secede from the Union. Colonel Blair was promoted to brigadier-general in August, 1862,
and was made major-general the following November.
(This photograph was taken when General Blair was at the head of the Seventeenth Army Corps in 1864-65. The composition of
his staff was announced November 9, 1864, from Smyrna Camp Ground, Georgia. In the picture the general is seated in the armchair;
on his right is Assistant Inspector-General A. Hickenlooper; on his left Assistant Adjutant-General C. Cadle, Jr. Standing are three
of his aides-de-camp: from right to left, Logan Tompkins, William Henley, and G. R. Steele.)
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Mo., 22d Ind., 1st la. Cav., Detach. 4th
U. S. Cav., 1st Mo. Cav., 2 Batteries of
1st Mo. Lt. Artil. Confed., Rains Divi
sion. Losses : Union 2 killed, 8 wounded.
Confed. 1,300 captured.
20. Drainesville, Va. Union, 1st Rifles, 6th,
9th, 10th and 12th Infty., 1st Artil., 1st
Cav. Pa. Reserves. Confed., 1st Ky.,
10th Ala., 6th S. C., llth Va., Cutt s
Art. Losses: Union 7 killed, 6l wound
ed. Confed. 43 killed, 143 wounded.
28. Sacramento, Ky. Union, 3d Ky. Cav.
Confed., Forrest s Tenn. Cav. Losses :
Union 8 killed, 8 captured. Confed. 2
killed, 3 wounded.
Mt. Zion and Hallsville, Mo. Union,
Birge s Sharpshooters, 3d Mo. Cav.
Confed.* Losses: Union 5 killed,
wounded. Confed. 25
4. Bath, Va. Union, 39th 111. Confed.,
Col. Loring s command. Losses : Union
3 killed, 3 wounded, 8 captured. Confed.
7. Hanging Rock Pass, Va. Union, parts
of the 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th Ohio, 14th Ind.,
detachments of cavalry, Baker s and
Daum s batteries. Confed., Col. Mon
roe s Va. Vols. Losses: Confed. 15
8. Charleston, Mo. Union, 10th la., 20th
111., detachment Tenn. Cav. Confed.*
Losses: Union 8 killed, 16 wounded.
10. Middle Creek, near Paintsville, Ky.
Union, 14th, 22d Ky., 2d Va. Cav., 1st
Ky. Cav., Squadron Ohio Cav.
5th Ky., 29th, 54th Va., Ky.
Rifles, 2 cos. dismounted Cav.
Union 2 killed, 25 wounded.
11 killed, 15 wounded.
19 and 20. Mill Springs, Ky., also called
Logan s Cross Roads, Fishing Creek,
Somerset and Beech Grove. Union, 9th
Ohio, 2d Minn., 4th Ky., 10th Ind., 1st
Ky. Cav. Confed., 17th, 19th, 20th,
25th, 28th, 29th Tenn., 16th Ala., 15th
Miss., Saunder s Cavalry, Bledsoe s Bat
tery. Losses: Union 38 killed, 194
wounded. Confed. 190 killed, 160
wounded. Confed. Gen. F. K. Zolli-
C. Fort Henry, Tenn. Union, Gunboats
Essex, Carondelet, St. Louis, Cincinnati,
Conestoga, Tyler, and Lexington. Con-
fed., 10th, 48th, 51st Tenn., 15th Ark.,
4th Miss., 27th Ala., B. 1st Tenn. Art.
Culbertson s and Grain s Art., Milner s
and Milton s Cavalry. Losses: Union
40 wounded. Confed. 5 killed, 1 1
8. Roanoke Island, N. C. Union, 21st,
23d, 24th, 25th and 27th Mass., 10th
Conn., 9th, 51st, and 53d N. Y., 9th N.
J., 51st Pa., 4th and 5th R. I., U. S.
Gunboats Southfield, Delaware, Stars and
Stripes, Louisiana, Iletzel, Commodore
Perry, Underwriter, Valley City, Com
modore Barney, Hunchback, Ceres,
Putnam, Morse, Lockwood, Seymour,
Granite, Brinker, Whitehead, Shawseen,
Pickett, Pioneer, Hussar, Vidette, Chas
seur. Confed., 2d, 7th, 8th, 17th, 19th,
26th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 33d, 35th, 37th,
46th, 59th N. C., Brem s, Latham s,
Whitehnrst s N. C. Art., Gunboats Sea-
bird, Curlew, Ellis, Beaufort, Raleigh,
Fanny, Forrest. Losses : Union 35
killed, 200 wounded. Confed. 16 killed,
39 wounded, 2,527 taken prisoners.
10. Elizabeth City, or Cobb s Point, N. C.
Union, Gunboats Delaware, Underwriter,
Louisiana, Seymour, Iletzel, Shawseen,
Valley City, Putnam, Commodore Perry,
Ceres, Morse, Whitehead, and Brinker.
Confed., " Mosquito fleet " commanded
by Commodore W. F. Lynch, and com
prising the vessels engaged at Roanoke
Island on the 8th, except the Curlew.
Losses : Union 3 killed.
13. Bloomery Gap, Va. Union, Gen. Lan
der s Brigade. Confed., 31st, 67th,
89th Va. Losses: Union 11 killed, 5
wounded. Confed. 13 killed, 65 miss
14-16. Fort Donelson, or Dover, Tenn.
Union, Gunboats Carondelet, Pittsburgh,
Louisville, St. Louis, Tyler, and Cones-
toga, 17th and 25th Ky., llth, 25th,
31st, and 44th Ind., 2d/ 7th, 12th and
14th Iowa, 1st Neb., 58th and 76th Ohio,
8th and 1 3th Mo., 8th Wis., 8th, 9th, 1 1th,
12th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 28th, 29th, 30th,
31st, 41st, 45th, 46th, 48th, 49th, 57th,
and 58th 111., Batteries B and D 1st 111.
* No record found.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE 10-INCH COLUMBIAD AT FORT WALKER, HILTON HEAD, SOUTH CAROLINA
The Capture of the Confederate forts at Port Royal, South Caro
lina. On the 29th of October, 1801, there sailed from Hampton
Roads the most formidable squadron ever fitted out in American
waters men-of-war commanded by Flag-Officer Samuel F. Du-
Pont in the W abash, and army transports with a force of twelve
thousand men under General Thomas W. Sherman, bound for
Port Royal Harbor, twenty
miles north of the mouth of
the Savannah River. On No
vember 1st, off Hatteras, a
severe gale was encountered and
for a time the fleet was much
scattered, but by the 4th it
was again united at the bar
outside Port Royal Harbor over
which the W abash led the way.
The harbor fortifications which
had been erected by the
Confederates were no small
affairs. Fort Walker on Hilton
Head Island was two miles and
a half across the entrance from
Fort Beauregard. Each had at FERRY ACROSS THE
least twenty guns of different caliber. On November 7th the
Federal fleet attacked in close action. The men on shore were
scarcely able to reply to the terrific broadsides of the main
body of the big fleet as it passed back and forth through
the harbor entrance, while other vessels outside enfiladed
the forts. At the third round of the ships the Confed
erates could be seen leaving
Fort Walker and before half-
past two in the afternoon Com
mander Rodgers had planted the
Federal flag on the ramparts.
Before sunset Fort Beauregard
was likewise deserted. This
victory placed in possession of
the North one of the finest
harbors of the Southern coast.
In the lower picture we see the
ferry over the Coosaw River,
near Port Royal, showing on
the opposite shore the site of
the Confederate batteries seized
and demolished by General I. I.
COOSAW, PORT ROYAL Stevens, January 1, 1862.
0f tl}? (Ettril Har
Art., D and E 2d 111. Artil., four cos.
111. Cav., Birge s Sharpshooters and six
gunboats. Con fed., 2d, 8th Ky., 1st, 3d,
4th, 20th, 26th Miss., 27th Ala., 3d,
10th, 18th, 26th, 30th, 42d, 48th, 49th,
50th, 53d Tenn., 7th Tex., 15th Ark.,
36th, 50th, 51st, 56th Va., Forrest s Cav
alry, 9th Tenn. Battalion Colm s Bat
talion. Losses: Union 500 killed, 2,108
wounded, 224 missing. Con fed. 231
killed, 1,534 wounded, 13,829 prisoners
(estimated). Union Maj.-Gen. John A.
17. Sugar Creek, or Pea Ridge, Ark. Union,
1st, 6th Mo., 3d 111. Cav. Confed., Bow-
en s Mo. Battalion. Losses: Union 13
killed, 15 wounded.
21. Ft. Craig, or Valverde, N. Mex. Union,
1st N. Mex. Cav., 2d Col. Cav., Detach
ments of 1st, 2d, and 5th N. Mex., and
of 5th, 7th, and 10th U. S. Inft., Hill s
and McRae s Batteries. Confed., 2d,
4th, 5th, 7th Tex. Cavalry, Teel s Art.
Losses: Union 62 killed, 140 wounded.
Confed. 36 killed, 150 wounded.
26. Keetsville, Mo. Union, 6th Mo. Cav.
Confed., Ross Texas Rangers. Losses:
Union 2 killed, 1 wounded. Confed. 3
killed, 1 missing.
1. Pittsburg Landing, Tenn. Union, 32d
111. and U. S. Gunboats Lexington and
Tyler. Confed., Gen. Daniel Ruggles
command. Losses: Union 5 killed, 5
wounded. Confed. 20 killed, 200
6, 7, and 8. Pea Ridge, Ark., including
engagements at Bentonville, Leetown,
and Elkhorn Tavern. Union, 25th, 35th,
36th, 37th, 44th, and 59th 111., 2d, 3d,
12th, 15th, 17th, 24th, and Phelps Mo.,
8th, 18th, and 22d Ind., 4th and 9th Iowa,
3d Iowa Cav., 3d and 15th 111. Cav., 1st,
4th, 5th, and 6th Mo. Cav., Batteries B
and F 2d Mo. Light Artil., 2d Ohio Bat
tery, 1st Ind. Battery, Battery A 2d 111.
Artil. Confed., 1st, 2d Mo. State Guard,
Greene s Brigade, 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th,
6th Mo., 4th, 14th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 21st,
22d Ark., 1st, 2d Ark. Mounted Rifles,
3d La., 3 Indian regiments, Wade s, Gui-
bor s, Bledsoe s, Teel s, Clark s, MacDon-
ald s, Hart s, Provence s, Games and
Good s batteries, 1st Mo. Cavalry, Shel-
by s Cavalry, 3d, 4th, 6th, llth Tex.
Cavalry. Losses: Union 203 killed, 972
wounded, 174 missing. Confed. 800 to
1,000 killed and wounded, 200 to 300
missing and captured (estimated).
Union Brig.-Gen. Asboth and Actg.
Brig.-Gen. Carr wounded. Confed.
Brig.-Gen. B. McCulloch and Actg.
Brig.-Gen. James Mclntosh killed.
8. Near Nashville, Tenn. Union, 4th Ohio
Cav. Confed., Morgan s Ky. Cav.
Losses: Union 1 killed, 2 wounded.
Confed. 4 killed, 2 wounded.
Hampton Roads, Va. Union, 20th
Ind., 7th and llth N. Y., Gunboats
Minnesota, Congress, Zouave, and Cum
berland. Confed., Ram Virginia (Merri-
mac}. Losses: Union 261 killed, 108
wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 17 wounded.
Confed. Commodore Buchanan, wounded.
9. Hampton Roads, Va. First battle be
tween iron-clad warships. Union, The
Monitor. Confed., Ram Virginia. Losses:
Union Capt. J. L. Worden, wounded.
14. Jacksborough, Big Creek Gap, Tenn.
Union, 2d E. Tenn. Confed., 1st E.
Tenn. Cav. Losses: Union 2 wounded.
Confed. 5 killed, 15 wounded, 15 miss
11- Paris, Tenn. Union, 1 Battalion 5th
la. Cav., Bulliss Mo. Art. Confed.,
King s Mounted Rifles. Losses: Union
5 killed, 3 wounded. Confed. 10
13-14. New Madrid, Mo. Bombardment
and capture by Gen. Jno. Pope s com
mand. Union, 10th and 16th 111., 27th,
39th, 43d, and 63d Ohio, 3d Mich.
Cav., 1st U. S. Inft., Bissell s Mo. En-
gineers. Confed., 1st Ala., 40th C. S.,
46th, 55th Tenn., Heavy Art. Corps.
Losses: Union 51 wounded. Confed.
14. Newberne, N. C. Union, 51st N. Y., 8th,
10th, and llth Conn., 21st, 23d, 24th,
25th, and 27th Mass., 9th N. J., 51st
Pa., 4th and 5th R. I. Confed., 7th,
26th, 33d, 35th N. C. Losses: Union
91 killed, 466 wounded. Confed. 64
killed, 106 wounded, 413 captured.
16 Pound Gap, Tenn. Union, Detachs. of
22d Ky., 4()th and 42d Ohio Vols., and
1 st Ohio Cav. Confed., 2 1 st Va. Losses :
Confed. 7 killed.
18. Salem, or Spring River, Ark. U
Detachments 6th Mo., 3d la.
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
THE GARDEN OF A SOUTHERN MANSION
Here we see the garden of the manor house of John E. Seabrook on Edisto Island, off the Carolina coast. It is now in possession of
the Federal troops, but the fine old house was unharmed, and the garden, although not in luxuriant bloom, gives an idea of its own
beauty. In the distance are seen the slave quarters, and some of the old plantation servants have mingled with the troops when the
picture was being taken. Observe the little colored boy saluting on the pedestal against which leans a Federal officer.
THE SOUTHERN NAVAL BASE OF THE BLOCKADING SQUADRON OF THE NORTH
The Transformation Wrought at Hilton Head by the Naval Engineers. Hilton Head became the base of supplies and the most im
portant part of the blockade, for it was within a few hours steaming of the ports of entry that the South depended upon in gaining
supplies from the outer world, Savannah, Charleston, and Wilmington. After the Federal occupation it was turned into a busy
place. Colliers were constantly landing and supplies of all kinds being sent out from here to the blockading vessels kept at sea.
Engagements of % (Bttrtl War
Confed* Losses: Union 4 killed, 18
wounded. Confed. 100 killed, wounded,
and missing (estimated).
23. Independence or Little Santa Fe, Mo.
Union, 2d Kan. Cav. Confed., Quan-
trell s Irregulars. Losses: Union 1
killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 7 killed.
33. Winchester or Kearnstown, Va. Union,
1st W. Va., 84th and 1 10th Pa., 5th, 7th,
8th, 29th, 62d, and 67th Ohio, 7th, 13th,
and 14th Ind., 39th 111., 1st Ohio Cav.,
1st Mich. Cav., 1st W. Va. Artil., 1st
Ohio Artil., Co. E 4th U. S. Artil. Con-
fed., 2d, 4th, 5th, 21st, 23d, 27th, 33d,
37th, 42d Va. 1st Va. (Irish) Battalion,
Pleasant s, Chew s, Lanier s Va. bat
teries, 7th Va. Cavalry. Losses: Union
103 killed, 440 wounded, 24 missing.
Confed. 80 killed 342 wounded, 269
26. Humansville, Mo. Union, Battalion Mo.
Cav. Confed., Col. Frazier s command.
Losses: Union 12 wounded. Confed.
15 killed, 20 wounded.
26, 27, and 28. Apache Canon, or Glori-
etta, near Santa Fe, N. Mex. Union,
1st and 2d Colo. Cav. Confed., 2d, 4th,
5th, and 7th Tex. Cavalry, Teel s Art.
Losses : Union 32 killed, 75 wounded, 35
missing. Confed. 36 killed, 60 wounded,
28. Warrensburg, Mo. Union, 1st la. Cav.
Confed., Col. Parker s command. Losses :
Union 1 killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 15
killed and wounded, 15 missing.
5. Warwick and Yorktown Roads, Va.
Union, Advance of 4th Corps, Army of
Potomac, towards Yorktown. Confed.
Gen. ,1. B. Magruder s command.
Losses : Union 3 killed, 12 wounded.
Confed. 1 killed, 10 wounded.
5-May 4. Siege of Yorktown, Va. Union,
Army of Potomac, Gen. Gco. B. Mc-
Clellan. Confed., Army commanded by
Gen. Joseph E. Johnstoi
6 and 7. Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing,
Tenn. Union, Army of Western Tennes
see, commanded by Ma j. -Gen. U. S.
Grant, as follows: 1st Div., Maj.-Gen.
J. A. McClernand; 2d Div., Maj.-Gen.
C. F. Smith; 3d Div., Brig.-Gen. Lew
Wallace; 4th Div., Brig.-Gen. S. A. Hurl-
burt; 5th Div., Brig.-Gen. W. T. Sher
man; 6th Div., Brig.-Gen. B. M. Pren-
tiss. Army of the Ohio commanded by
Maj.-Gen. D. C. Buell, as follows: 2d
Div., Brig.-Gen. A. McD. Cook; 4th
Div., Brig.-Gen. W. Nelson; 5th Div.,
Brig.-Gen. T. L. Crittenden, 21st Brig
ade of the 6th Div., Gunboats Tyler and
Lexington. Confed., Army of the Mis
sissippi, commanded by Gen. Albert Sid
ney Johnston, as follows: 1st Corps,
Maj.-Gen. Leonidas Polk; 2d Corps,
Maj.-Gen. Braxton Bragg; 3d Corps,
Maj.-Gen. Wm. J. Hardee; Reserve
Corps, Brig.-Gen. John C. Breckinridge;
Forrest s, Wharton s and Clanton s Cav
alry. Losses: Union 1,754 killed, 8,408
wounded, 2,885 captured. Confed. 1,728
killed, 8,012 wounded, 959 captured.
Union Brig.-Gen. W. T. Sherman and
W. H. L. Wallace wounded arid B. M.
Prentiss captured. Confed. Gen. A. S.
Johnston and Brig.-Gen. A. H. Gladden
killed; Maj.-Gen. W. S. Cheatham and
Brig.-Gens. C. Clark, B. R. Johnson,
and J. S. Bowen wounded.
7 and 8. Island No. 10, Tenn., captured.
Union, Maj.-Gen. Pope s command and
the Navy, under Flag-officer Foote.
Confed., Brigade of Infantry and Bat
talion Art., commanded by Gen. J. P.
McCown, 7 gunboats, imder Flag-officer
Hollins. Losses: Union 17 killed, 34
wounded, 3 missing. Confed. 30 killed
and wounded. Captured, 2,000 to 5,000
(Union and Confed. estimates).
10 and 11. Ft. Pulaski, Ga., Siege and cap
ture. Union, 6th and 7th Conn., 3d R.
L, 46th and 48th N. Y., 8th Maine, 15th
U. S. Inft., Crew of U. S. S. Wabash.
Confed., 5 companies heavy art., com
manded by Col. C. H. Olmstead. Losses:
Union 1 killed. Confed. 4 wounded, 360
14. Montevallo, Mo. Union, 2 cos. 1st
Iowa Cav. Confed.* Losses: Union 2
killed, 4 wounded. Confed. 22 captured.
16. Whitemarsh or Wilmington Island, Ga.
Union, 8th Mich., Battery of R. I. Light
Artil. Confed., 13th Ga. Losses: Union
10 killed, 35 wounded. Confed. 4 killed,
1 5 wounded.
Lee s Mills, Va. Union, 3d, 4th, and
6th Vt., 3d N. Y. Battery and Battery of
5th U. S. Artil. Confed., Gen. J. B. Ma-
* No record found.
THE CLOSING OF SAVANNAH, APRIL 12, 1862
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
This terrific punishment was inflicted upon the nearest angle of the fort by the thirty-six heavy rifled cannon and the mortars which
the Federals had planted on Big Tybee Island, and by the gunboats which had found a channel enabling them to get in the rear of the
fort. We get a more distant view of the angle in the lower picture. Fort Pulaski had been effectually blockaded since February, 1862,
as a part of the Federal plan to establish supreme authority along the Atlantic coast from Wassaw Sound, below Savannah, north to
Charleston. On April 10, 1862, General Hunter demanded the surrender of Fort Pulaski and when it was refused opened the bom
bardment. For two days the gallant garrison held out and then finding the fort untenable, surrendered. This enabled the Federal
Government effectually to close Savannah against contraband traffic.
FORT PFLASKI AT THE ENTRANCE TO SAVANNAH RIVER
^Engagements 0f tfye (Ettril War
gruder s division, Yorktown garrison.
Losses: Union 35 killed, 129 wounded.
Confed. 20 killed, 75 wounded, 50 cap
17 to 19. Falmouth and Fredericksburg, Va.
Union, Gen. McDowell s Army. Con-
fed., Gen. Field s Brigade. Losses:
Union 7 killed, 16 wounded. Confed.
3 killed, 8 captured.
18 to 28. Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and
the capture of New Orleans, La. Union,
Commodore Farragut s fleet of gun
boats, and mortar boats under Command
er D. D. Porter. Confed., Gen. Mansfield
Lovell s army, fleet of gunboats. Losses :
Union 36 killed, 193 wounded. Confed.
185 killed, 197 wounded, 400 captured.
19. Camden, N. C., also called South Mills.
Union, 9th and 89th N. Y., 21st Mass.,
51st Pa., 6th N. H. Confed., 3d Ga.,
McComas Art., 1 co. Cavalry. Losses:
Union 12 killed, 98 wounded. Confed.
6 killed, 19 wounded.
25. Fort Macon, N. C. Union, U. S. Gun
boats Daylight, State of Georgia, Chip-
pewa, the Bark Gemsbok, and Gen.
Parke s division. Confed., Garrison
commanded by Col. M. J. White.
Losses : Union 1 killed, 1 1 wounded.
Confed. 7 killed, 18 wounded, 150 cap
26. Neosho, Mo. Union, 1st Mo. Cav. Con-
fed., Stand Watie s Cherokee Regiment.
Losses: Union 3 killed, 3 wounded.
Confed. 2 killed, 5 wounded.
In front of Yorktown, Va. Union, 3
companies 1st Mass. Confed* Losses:
Union 4 killed, 12 wounded. Confed.
29. Bridgeport, Ala. Union, 3d Div. Army
of the Ohio. Confed. Leadbetter s Divi
sion. Losses: Confed. 72 killed and
wounded, 350 captured.
to June 10. Siege of Corinth, Miss.
Union, Gen. Halleck s Army. Confed.,
Army commanded by Gen. Beauregard.
1. Camp Creek, W. Va. Union, Co. C., 23d
Ohio. Confed., Detachment 8th Va. Cav.
Losses: Union 1 killed, 21 wounded.
Confed. 1 killed, 12 wounded.
4. Evacuation of Yorktown, Va., by Con
federate Army under Gen. Joseph E.
5. Lebanon, Tenn. Union, 1st, 4th, and
5th Ky. Cav., Detachment of 7th Pa.
Confed., Col. J. H. Morgan s Ky. Cav
alry. Losses: Union 6 killed, 25
wounded. Confed. 66 prisoners.
Lockridge Mills or Dresden, Ky.
Union, 5th Iowa Cav. Confed., 6th
Confederate Cav. Losses: Union 4
killed, 16 wounded, 71 missing.
Williamsburg, Va. Union, 3d and 4th
Corps, Army of the Potomac. Confed.,
Gen. James Longstreet s, Gen. D. Hill s
Division of Gen. Joseph. E. Johnston s
army, J. E. B. Stuart s Cavalry Brigade.
Losses: Union 456 killed, 1,400 wounded,
372 missing. Confed. 1,000 killed,
wounded, and captured.
7. West Point or Eltham s Landing, Va.
Union, 16th, 27th, 31st, and 32d N. Y.,
95th and 96th Pa., 5th Maine, 1st Mass.
ArtiL, Battery D 2d U. S. Artil. Con-
fed., Gen. Wade Hampton s Brigade,
Gen. J. B. Hood s Texan Brigade.
Losses: Union 49 killed, 104 wounded,
41 missing. Confed. 8 killed, 40 wounded.
Somerville Heights, Va. Union, 13th
Ind. Confed. Maj. Wheat s La. Bat
talion. Losses: Union 3 killed, 5
wounded, 21 missing.
8- McDowell or Bull Pasture, Va. Union,
25th, 32d, 75th, and 82d Ohio, 3d W. Va.,
1st W. Va. Cav., 1st Conn. Cav., 1st Ind.
Battery. Confed., 12th Ga., 10th, 21st,
23d, 25th, 31st, 37th, 42d, 44th, 48th,
52d, 58th, Va., 1st Va. (Irish) Battalion.
Losses: Union 28 killed, 225 wounded,
3 missing. Confed. 75 killed, 424
wounded and missing.
9. Elk River, Ala. Union, 1st Ky. Cav.
Confed., Texas Rangers. Losses:
Union 5 killed, 7 wounded. Confed.
-Norfolk, Va. Evacuated by the Con
Farmington, Miss. Union, Gen. Plum-
mer s Brigade, Army of the Missis
sippi. Confed., Gen. Ruggles Division.
Losses: Union 16 killed, 148 wounded,
192 missing. Confed. 8 killed, 189
wounded, 110 missing.
10. Plum Point, near Fort Pillow, Tenn.
Gunboat battle. Union, Gunboats Cin
cinnati, Carondelet, Benton, Pittsburg,
St. Louis, and Mound City. Confed.,
eight rams of the River Defense Fleet.
* No record found.
OHIO SOLDIERS WHO FOUGHT UNDER GARFIELD FOR KENTUCKY
The Forty-second Ohio Infantry was one of the regiments that helped to settle the position of Kentucky in the issue between the
States. A large Southern element was contained within its borders although it had not joined the Confederacy, and in order to ob
tain recruits for their army, and to control the great salt works, lead-mines, and lines of railway, the Confederate authorities sent
General Humphrey Marshall with a small force into eastern Kentucky in November, 1861. General Buell promptly formed a brigade
from the Army of the Ohio, put it in command of James A. Garfield, Colonel of the Forty-second Ohio, with orders to drive General
Marshall from the State. This was accomplished by the engagement at Middle Creek, January 10, 1862. This photograph was
taken in 1861 while the regiment was stationed at Plaquemine, Louisiana.
General John Charles Fremont
(1813-1890). Already a famous
explorer and scientist, the 6rst
presidential candidate of the
Republican party (in 1856),
Fremont, at the outbreak of the
war, hastened home from Eu
rope to take command of the
newly created Western Depart
ment. He was born in Savan
nah, Georgia. His father was a
Frenchman and his mother a
Virginian, and his tempera
ment was characterized by all
the impetuosity of such an
ancestry. Upon his arrival in
St. Louis he found things in
great confusion. The Mis-
sourians were divided in senti
ment and the home guards were
unwilling to reenlist. The U.
S. Treasurer at St. Louis had
$300,000 in his hands, and Fre
mont called upon him for a
portion of it to enable him to
enlist men in the Federal cause.
The Treasurer refused, but
upon Fremont s threatening to
take $100,000 without further
ceremony, the funds were
turned over. With about four
thousand troops, Fremont seized
Cairo, and by various demon
strations checked the aggres
sive attitude of the Confederates
on the Kentucky and Tennes
see borders, and of the South
ern sympathizers in Missouri.
Before he was transferred out
of the West in November, 1861,
Fremont had raised an army of
fifty-six thousand men, and was
already advancing upon an ex
pedition down the Mississippi.
GENERAL FREMONT (ON THE RIGHT) AND
0f % (Ettrii
Losses: Union 4 wounded.
killed, 1 wounded.
Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., occu
pied by Union forces under Gen. Wool.
11. Confederate Ram Virginia destroyed in
Hampton Roads by her commander, to
15. Fort Darling, James River, Va. Union,
Gunboats Galena, Port Royal, Xaitga-
tucli, Monitor, and Aroostook. Confed.
Garrison in Fort Darling. Losses:
Union 12 killed, It wounded. Confed.
7 killed, 8 wounded.
Chalk Bluffs, Mo. Union, 1st Wis.
Cav. Confed., Col. Jeffers command.
Losses: Union 2 killed, 5 wounded.
Confed. 11 killed, 17 wounded.
15, 16, and 18. Princeton, W. Va. Union,
Gen. J. D. Cox s Division. Confed.,
Gen. Humphrey Marshall s command.
Losses: Union 33 killed, 69 wounded,
27 missing. Confed. 2 killed, It
17. In front of Corinth, Miss. Union, Gen.
M. L. Smith s Brigade. Confed., Out
posts of Gen. Beauregard s army.
Losses: Union 10 killed, 31 wounded.
Confed. 12 killed.
19. Searcy Landing, Ark. Union, 17th Mo.,
4th Mo. Cav., 2 cos. 4th la. Cav. Con-
fed.* Losses: Union 15 killed, 32
wounded. Confed. 150 killed, wounded,
23. Lewisburg, Va. Union, 36th, 44th Ohio,
2d W. Va. Cav. Confed. 22d, 45th Va.,
1 battalion 8th Va. Cav., Finney s Bat
talion. Losses: Union 14 killed, 60
wounded. Confed. 40 killed, 66
wounded, 100 captured.
Front Royal, Va. Union, 1st Md.,
Detachments of 29th Pa., Capt. Mapes
Pioneers, 5th X. Y. Cav., and 1st Pa.
Artil. Confed., 1st Md., Wheat s La.
Battalion, 6th, 7th, 8th La. Losses:
Union 32 killed, 122 wounded, 750 miss
23 and 24. Ellerson s Mill, Mechanicsville,
and New Bridge, Va. Union, 33d, 49th,
77th N. Y., 7th Me., 4th Mich., Tid-
ball s Battery. Confed., 8th, 9th, 10th
Ga., part of 1st and 4th Va. Cav., 5th
La., battery La. Art., squadron La. Cav.
Losses: Union 7 killed, 30 wounded.
Confed. 27 killed, 35 wounded, 43 cap
24 to 31. Retreat of Gen. N. P. Banks
command (Union) from Strasburg, Va.,
down the Shenandoah Valley, including
Middletown and Newtown the 24th,
Winchester the 25th, Charlestown the
28th, and Harper s Ferry the 24th to
30th. Confed., Stonewall Jackson s
command, including the troops engaged
at Front Royal the 23d. Losses: Union
62 killed, 243 wounded, 171 missing.
Confed. 68 killed, 329 wounded (in
cludes losses at Front Royal the 23d).
27. Hanover C. H., Va. Union, 12th, 13th,
14th, 17th, 25th, and 44th N. Y., 62d and
83d Pa., 16th Mich., 9th and 22d Mass.,
5th Mass. Artil., 2d Maine Artil., Bat
tery F 5th U. S. Artil., 1st U. S.
Sharpshooters. Confed., Gen. L. O B.
Branch s N. C. Brigade. Losses: Union
53 killed, 314 wounded. Confed. 200
killed and wounded, 730 prisoners.
30. Booneville, Miss. Union, 2d la., 2d
Mich. Cav. Confed.* Losses: Confed.
Corinth, Miss. Evacuation by Con
federate army under Gen. Beauregard.
Occupation by Union troops of Gen.
Halleck s command. End of siege begun
April 29- Losses: (No detailed report
Front Royal, Va. Union, 4th, 8th
Ohio, 14th Ind., detachment 1st R. I.
Cav. Confed., 8th La., 12th Ga., Ash-
by s Va. Cav. Losses : Union 8 killed, 7
wounded. Confed. 1 56 captured.
31 and June 1. Seven Pines and Fair Oaks,
Va. Union, 2d Corps, 3d Corps, and 4th
Corps, Army of the Potomac. Confed.,
Army commanded by Gen. Joseph E.
Johnston, as follows: Gen. James Long-
street s Division; Gen. D. H. Hill s Divi
sion; Gen. Benjamin Huger s Division;
Gen. G. W. Smith s Division. Losses:
Union 790 killed, 3,627 wounded, 617
missing. Confed. 980 killed, 4,719
wounded, 105 missing. Union Brig.-
Gen ls O. O. Howard, Naglee, and Wes-
sells wounded. Confed. Brig.-Gen. Hat-
ton killed, Gen. J. E. Johnston and
Brig.-Gen. Rodes wounded, Brig.-Gen.
3. Legare s Point, S. C.
Mass., 8th Mich., 100th
* No record found.
The Last Struggle for the River.
The fall of Vicksburg was im
minent in July, 1863, and see
ing this the Confederates de
termined to make one last
herculean effort to retain a
hold upon the Mississippi and
prevent the Confederacy from
being divided. General Holmes
collected a force of about nine
thousand Confederates and ad
vanced through Arkansas upon
Fort Curtis, the principal de
fense of Helena. There General
Prentiss opposed him with a
garrison of but 4, 129. In the
early dawn of July 4, 186,3,
Holmes hurled his forces upon
the battlements of Fort Curtis.
He was met with a resistance
entirely beyond his expecta
tions. Not only were the
Confederates mowed down by the fire from the
fort, but the gunboat Tyler lying in the river
enfiladed the columns pouring through the ravines
to support the attack. It was impossible to with
stand the deadly rain of shell and shrapnel, and
the order was given to withdraw. On the field were
left two thousand dead and wounded Confederates.
GENERAL SAMUEL RYAN CURTIS
Most of the dead were buried
by the victorious Federals, and
more than a thousand wounded
were taken prisoners.
Fort Curtis was named for
General Samuel Ryan Curtis,
who assumed command of
the Federal District of South
west Missouri at the close
of 1861. The battle at Pea
Ridge, or Elkhorn, Arkansas,
near the Missouri border,
March, 1862, was a Confed
erate reverse and was followed
by the transfer of the prin
cipal Confederate commands
which fought there to other
fields, leaving Curtis in con
trol. After a stubbornly
contested march across Ar
kansas he arrived on the Mis
sissippi, July 13, 1862, and be
gan to fortify Helena. From
that time it was held by the Federals undisputed
until the attack of General Holmes. The day of
the repulse at Fort Curtis, Vicksburg surrendered
to Grant; Port Hudson, Louisiana, on the east
bank, yielded to Banks five days later, after a siege
of six weeks, and the Mississippi passed forever
from the control of the Confederacy.
From the Meserve Collection.
FORT CURTIS, HELENA, ARKANSAS
24th S. C., Charleston, S. C., Battalion.
Losses: Union 5 wounded. Confed. 17
3 to 5. Fort Pillow, Tenn. Evacuation
by Confederates and occupation by
Union troops commanded by Col. G. A.
5. Tranter s Creek, N. C. Union, 21th
Mass., Co. I 3d N. Y. Cav. Avery s
Battery .Marine Art. Confed.* Losses: 17
Union 7 killed, 11 wounded.
6. Memphis, Tenn. Union, U. S. Gunboats
Benton, Louisville, Carondelet, Cairo,
and St. Louis; and Rams Monarch and
Queen of the West. Confed., River De
fense fleet of 8 gunboats. Losses : Con-
fed. 80 killed and wounded, 100 cap
Harrisonburg, Va. Union, 1st N. J.
Cav., 1st Pa. Rifles, 60th Ohio, 8th W.
Va. Confed., 1st Md. and 58th Va.
Losses: Union 63 missing. Confed. 17
killed, 50 wounded. Confed. Gen. 18
Turner Ashby killed.
8. Cross Keys or Union Church, Va. Union,
8th, 39th, list, 15th, 51th, and 58th
N. Y., 2d, 3d, 5th, and 8th W. Va., 25th, 25
32d, 55th, 60th, 73d, 75th, and 82d Ohio,
1st and 27th Pa., 1st Ohio Battery.
Confed., Winder s, Trimble s, Camp
bell s, Taylor s brigades, 4 Va. batteries
of " Stonewall " Jackson s command.
Losses: Union 125 killed, 500 wounded.
Confed. 42 killed, 230 wounded. Con-
fed. Brig.-Gens. Stuart and Elxey
9. Port Republic, Va. Union, 5th, 7th,
29th, and 66th Ohio, 81th and 110th Pa.,
7th Ind., 1st W. Va., Batteries E 4th
U. S. and A and L 1st Ohio Artil. Con-
fed., Winder s, Campbell s, Fulkerson s, 26
Scott s, El/ey s, Taylor s brigades, 6 Va.
batteries. Losses : Union 67 killed, 361
wounded, 571 missing. Confed. 88
killed, 535 wounded, 34 missing.
10. James Island, S. C. Union, 97th Pa.,
2 cos. 45th Pa., 2 cos. 47th N. Y., Bat
tery E 3d U. S. Art. Confed., 47th Ga.
Losses: Union 3 killed, 19 wounded.
Confed. 17 killed, 30 wounded.
14. Tunstall s Station, Va. Stuart s Va.
Cav. fire into railway train. Losses:
Union 4 killed, 8 wounded.
16. Secessionville or Fort Johnson, James
Island, S. C. Union, 46th, 47th, and
* No record
79th N. Y., 3d R. L, 3d N. H., 45th,
97th, and 100th Pa., 6th and 7th Conn.,
8th Mich., 28th Mass., 1st N. Y. Engi
neers, 1st Conn. Artil., Battery E 3d U. S.
and I 3d R. I. Artil., Co. H 1st Mass.
Cav. Confed., Garrison troops com
manded by Gen. N. G. Evans. Losses :
Union 85 killed, 472 wounded, 138 miss
ing. Confed. 51 killed, 111 wounded.
St. Charles, White River, Ark. Union,
43d and 46th Ind., U. S. Gunboats Lex
ington, Mound City, Conestoga, and St.
Louis. Confed., Gunboats Maurepas and
Pontchartrain, 111 soldiers and sailors
commanded by Lieut. Joseph Fry.
Losses: Union 105 killed, 30 wounded.
Confed. 155 killed, wounded, and cap
and 18. Evacuation of Cumberland Gap,
Tenn., by Confederates of Gen. C. L.
Stevenson s command, and occupation by
Gen. G. W. Morgan s Federal division.
Williamsburg Road, Va. Union, 16th
Mass. Confed.* Losses: Union 17
killed, 28 wounded, 14 captured. Con-
fed. 5 killed, 9 wounded.
Oak Grove, Va., also called Kings
School House and The Orchards. Union,
Hooker s and Kearney s Divisions of the
Third Corps, Palmer s Brigade of the
Fourth Corps, and part of Richardson s
Division of the Second Corps. Confed.,
Armistead s brigade. Losses : Union 5 1
killed, 401 wounded, 6l missing. Con-
fed. 65 killed, 465 wounded, 1 1 missing.
to 29. Vieksburg, Miss. U. S. Fleet, un
der command of Commodore Farragut,
passed the Confederate land batteries,
under the cover of bombardment by Com
modore Porter s fleet of mortar boats.
to July 1. The Seven Days Battles, in
front of Richmond, Va., including en
gagements known as Mechanicsville or
Ellerson s Mills on the 26th, Games
Mills or Cold Harbor on the 27th, Gar-
nett s and Golding s Farms on the 28th,
Peach Orchard and Savage Station on
the 29th, White Oak Swamp, also called
Charles City Cross Roads, Glendale or
Nelson s Farm or Frayser s Farm, New
Market Road on the 30th, and Malvern
Hill or Crew s Farm on July 1st.
Union Army of the Potomac, Maj.-
Gen. Geo. B. McClellan commanding.
Losses: First Corps, Brig.-Gen. Geo. A.
made brigadier-general, and
Governor Jackson, calling for
fifty thousand troops "to repel
the invasion of the State" left
the capital for Booneville,
.June 14th. Lyon followed,
dispersed the militia on the
17th, and other Confederate
troops, under McCulloch, at
Dug Springs, on August 2d.
Meanwhile he had sent Sigel
with twelve hundred men into
southwestern Missouri, and on
July 5th that intrepid leader
These fearless leaders by their prompt and
daring actions at the outbreak of the war
kept Missouri within the Union. Captain
Nathaniel Lyon, U. S. A., a veteran of the
Mexican War, had been on duty in Kansas
during the "free soil" riots and knew what
it was to see a State torn by dissension. At
the outbreak of the w T ar he was in command
of the United States arsenal at St. Louis.
Franz Sigel, a Prussian refugee, had settled
in St. Louis in 1858, and in May, 1861, raised
the Union Third Missouri Infantry and be
came its colonel. Under Lyon he helped
to capture Camp Jackson, St. Louis, where
General Frost was drilling a small body of
volunteer state militia. On June 1, 1861,
the command of the Federal Department of
the West was given to Lyon, who had been
Copyright ijy Patriot Pub. Co.
JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE
fought the battle of Carthage.
Greatly outnumbered, he finally
retreated to Springfield, where
he arrived on July 13th, and w r as
later joined by Lyon. McCul
loch had been joined by Gen
eral Price, and although their
forces now outnumbered his
own five to one, Lyon deter
mined to risk a battle. He
met and attacked the Con
federates at Wilson s Creek,
August 10, 1861, where he
While the Federals were striving to keep the ter
ritory west of the Mississippi in the Union, John
Cabell Breckinridge, who had been the youngest
Vice President of the United States, resigned from
the national Senate in October, 1861, to join the
Confederacy. He formed an encampment at Hazel
Green, Kentucky, and his personality drew many re
cruits to the Southern army in that much-divided
State. President Davis gave him a commission as
brigadier-general in November, 1861, and he was
appointed to the command of a brigade in the Second
Kentucky division under General Buckner. At the
battle of Shiloh Breckinridge commanded the reserve
corps consisting of three brigades, two of which he led
in the struggle on April 6, 1862. General Johnston
placed him south of the Peach Orchard, and he be
came engaged about one o clock in the afternoon.
When the Confederate army retired Breckinridge
formed the rear-guard. After Shiloh Breckinridge
was made major-general and in the break-up of
the vast Western army he w r ent to Louisiana,
where he attempted, but failed, to drive General
Williams from Baton Rouge on August 5th.
Breckinridge took prominent part also at Stone s
River, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, in the Shenan-
doah campaign of 1864, and at Cold Harbor.
McCall s Div. 253 killed, 1,2-10 wound
ed, 1,581 missing.
Second Corps, Maj.-Gen. E. V. Sumner,
187 killed, 1,076 wounded, 818 missing.
Third Corps, Maj.-Gen. S. P. Heintzel-
man, 189 killed, 1,051 wounded, 833
Fourth Corps, Maj.-Gen. E. D. Reyes,
69 killed, 507 wounded, 201 missing.
Fifth Corps, Maj.-Gen. Fitz-John Porter,
620 killed, 2,160 wounded, 1,198 missing.
Sixth, Corps, Maj.-Gen. W. B. Franklin,
245 killed, 1,313 wounded, 1,179 missing.
Cavalry, Brig.-Gen. George Stoneman, 19
killed, 60 wounded, 97 missing.
Engineer Corps, 2 wounded, 21 missing.
Total, 1,73-1 killed, 8,062 wounded,
Confed. Army of Northern Virginia,
Gen. R. E. Lee commanding. Losses:
Maj.-Gen. Huger s Division, 187 killed,
803 wounded, 360 missing.
Maj.-Gen. ,1. B. Magruder s command,
258 killed, 1,195 wounded, 30 missing.
Maj.-Gen. James Longstreet s Division,
763 killed, 3,929 wounded, 239 missing.
Maj.-Gen. A. P. Hill s Division, 619
killed, 3,251 wounded.
Maj.-Gen. T. ,1. Jackson s command, 966
killed, 4,417 wounded, 63 missing.
Maj.-Gen. T. H. Holmes Division, 2
killed, 52 wounded.
Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart s Cavalry, 15
killed, 30 wounded, 60 missing.
Artillery, Brig.-Gen. W. X. Pendleton,
10 killed, 31 wounded.
Total, 2,820 killed, 14,011 wounded, 752
1. Booneville, Miss. Union, 2d la., 2d
Mich. Cav. Confed., Gen. Chalmers Cav.
Losses: Union 45 killed and wounded.
Confed. 17 killed, 65 wounded.
4 to 28. Gen. Morgan s raid in Kentucky.
6. Grand Prairie, near Aberdeen, Ark.
Union, detachment of the 24th Ind.
Confed.* Losses: Union 1 killed, 21
wounded. Confed. 84 killed, wounded,
and missing (estimate).
7. Bayou Cache, also called Cotton Plant,
Round Hill, Hill s Plantation, and Bayou
de View. Union, llth Wis., 33d 111.,
8th Ind., 1st Mo. Light Artil., 1st Ind.
Cav., 5th and 13th 111. Cav. Confed.,
Gen. A. Rust s command. Losses : Union
7 killed, 57 wounded. Confed. 110
killed, 200 wounded.
9. Tompkinsville, Ky. Union, 9th Pa. Cav.
Confed., Morgan s Cav. Losses: Union
4 killed, 6 wounded. Confed. 10 killed
12. Lebanon, Ky. Union, 28th Ky., Le
banon Home Guards. Confed., Col.
John H. Morgan s Kentucky Cav.
Losses: Union 2 killed, 65 prisoners.
13. Murfreesboro , Tenn. Union, 9th Mich.,
3d Minn., 1th Ky. Cav., 7th Pa. Cav., 1st
Ky. Battery. Confed., Gen. X. B. For
rest s Cav. Losses: Union 33 killed, 62
wounded, 800 missing. Confed. 50
killed, 100 wounded.
15. Xear Vicksburg, Miss. Union, Gunboats
Carondelet, Queen of the West, Tyler,
and Essex. Con fed., Ram Arkansas.
Losses: Union 13 killed, 36 wounded.
Confed. 5 killed, 9 wounded.
Fayetteville, Ark. Union, detach
ments of 2d Wis., 3d Mo., 10th 111.,
and Davidson s Battery. Confed., Gen.
Rains command. Losses: Confed. 150
17. Cynthiana, Ky. Union, 18th Ky., 7th
Ky. Cav., Cynthiana, X T ewport, Cincin
nati, and Bracken Co. Home Guards
(Morgan s Raid). Confed., Morgan s
Cav. Losses: Union 17 killed, 34
wounded. Confed. 8 killed, 29 wounded.
18. Memphis, Mo. Union, 2d Mo., llth
Mo. Cav. Opponents, Porter s inde
pendent forces. Losses: Union 83 killed
and wounded. Porter s loss, 23 killed.
21. Hartsville Road, near Gallatin, Tenn.
Union, detachments 2d Ind., 4th, 5th
Ky., 7th Pa. Cav. Confed., Morgan s
Cav. Losses: Union 30 killed, 50
wounded, 75 captured. Confed.*
Xashville Bridge, Tenn. Union, 2d
Ky. Confed., P orrest s Cav. Losses :
Union 3 killed, 97 captured. Confed.*
25. Courtland Bridge and Trinity, Ala.
Union, I Oth Ky., 10th Ind., 31st Ohio.
Confed., Armstrong s Cav. Losses : Union
2 killed, 16 wounded, 138 captured.
Confed. 3 killed, 5 wounded.
28. Moore s Mills, Mo. Union, 9th Mo., 3d
la. Cav., 2d Mo. Cav., 3d Ind. Battery.
Opponents, Porter s independent forces.
Losses: Union 13 killed, 55 wounded.
Porter s loss, 30 killed, 100 wounded.
* Xo record found.
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FORM NO DD 6, 40m, 6 76 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
BERKELEY, CA 94720
GENERAL LIBRARY -U.C. BERKELEY
THE UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA LIBRARY