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Full text of "The photographic history of the Civil war"

The Photographic History 
of The Civil War 



In Ten Volumes 




EVIEW OF REVIEWS CO 



PREPARING FOR WAR A CONFEDERATE PHOTOGRAPH OF 61 



Florida Opens the Grim Game of War. On a sandy point at the entrance to Pensacola Bay over two hundred years ago, the Spaniards 
who so long held possession of what is now the Gulf coast of the United States had built a fort. On its site the United States Gov 
ernment had erected a strong fortification called Fort Barrancas. Between this point and a low-lying sandy island directly opposite, 
any vessels going up to Pensacola must pass. On the western end of this island was the strongly built Fort Pic-kens. Early in 1831 
both forts were practically ungarrisoned. This remarkable picture, taken by the New Orleans photographer Edwards, in February, 
1861, belongs to a series hitherto unpublished. Out of the deep shadows of the sally port we look into the glaring sunlight upon one 
of the earliest warlike moves. Here we sec one of the heavy pieces of ordnance that were intended to defend the harbor from foreign 
foes, being shifted preparatory to being mounted on the rampart at Fort Barrancas, which, since January 12th, had been in possession of 
State troops. Fort Pickens, held by a mere handful of men under Lieutenant Slemmer, still flew the Stars and Stripes. But the mo/c 
of State troops under orders from Governor Perry of Florida, in seizing Fort Barrancas and raising the State flag even before the shot that 

aroused the nation at Fort Sumtcr, may well be said to have helped force the crisis that was impending. 
[41 




*ST ** * 



**:**?* 



t mi-Centennial 

Memorial 




A \%x\ 



\ v 

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The Photographic History 
of The Civil War 

In Ten Volumes 

FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER - EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 



ROBERT S. LANIER 

Managing Editor 



Thousands of Scenes Photographed 

1861-G5, with Text by many 

Special Authorities 



NEW YORK 

THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS Co. 

1911 







. v .\ 



The Photographic History 



of The Civil War 




Volume One 
The Opening Battles 



Contributors 

WILLIAM H. TAFT GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM 

President of the United States Major, U. S. V. 

HENRY WYSHAM LANIER MARCUS J. WRIGHT 

Art Editor and Publisher Brigadier-General, C. S. A. 

EBEN SWIFT HENRY W. ELSON 

Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. A. Professor of History, Ohio University 

FRENCH E. CHADWICK JAMES BARNES 

Rear -Admiral, U. S. N. Author of "David G. Farragut " 



New York 

The Review of Reviews Co, 

1911 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY PATRIOT PUBLISHING Co., SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION 
INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN 



Printed in New York, U.S.A. 



THE TROW PRESS 
NEW YORK 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Map BATTLE GROUNDS OF THE CIVIL WAR 2 

Frontispiece PREPARING FOR WAR ... 4 



FOREWORDS 

GREETING . 12 

President Taft 

DEDICATION . 13 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . 14 

The Publishers 

EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY 15 

Francis Trevelyan Miller 



PREFACES 

PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR . . 30 

Henry Wysham Lanier 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AS HISTORY 60 

George Haven Putnam 

THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH 88 

French E. Chadwick 

RECORDS OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 102 

Marcus J. Wright 

THE STRATEGY OF THE CIVIL WAR LEADERS 112 

Eben Swift 

Part I 

THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS 137 

Henry W. Elson 

BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS FACE FIRR 142 

[9] 

228593 



Part II 

PAGE 

DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY . ...... 171 

THE FALL OF FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON . . ITS 

Henry W. Elson 

SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE . ... 100 

Henry W. Elson 

NEW MADRID AND ISLAND NUMBER TEN .... .... 210 

Henry W. Elson 

NEW ORLEANS THE NAVY HELPS THE ARMY .... ... 220 

Jam eft Barnes 

FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS GUNBOATS AND BATTERIES . . . 230 

Henry W. Elson 

Part III 

THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND ... ... 251 

Henry W. Elson 

YORKTOWN UP THE PENINSULA .... ..... 254 

FAIR OAKS IN SIGHT OF RICHMOND . . 282 

THE SHENANDOAH AND THE ALARM AT WASHINGTON . . 304 

SEVEN DAYS THE CONFEDERATE CAPITAL SAVED . . 311 

Part IV 

ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR UP TO JULY, 1802 . . . .345 
George L. Kilmer 

Map THEATER OF CAMPAIGNS IN VIRGINIA ......... 309 



PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS THROUGHOUT THIS VOLUME 
Jamett Hanicx 



[10] 



FOREWORDS 



GREETING FROM PRESIDENT TAFT 



DEDICATION 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY 




THE WHITE HOUSE 

WASHINGTON 



We have reached a point in this country when we can look 
back, not without love, not without intense pride, but without 
partisan passion, to the events of the Civil War. We have 
reached a point, I am glad to say, when the North can admire 
to the full the heroes of the South, and the South admire to 
the full the heroes of the North. There is a monument in 
Quebec that always commended itself to me - a monument to com 
memorate the battle of the Plains of Abraham. On one face 
of that beautiful structure is the name of Montcalm, and on 
the opposite side the name of Wolfe. That always seemed to 
me to be the acme of what we ought to reach in this country; 
and I am glad to say that in my own alma mater, Yale, we have 
established an association for the purpose of erecting within 
her academic precincts a memorial not to the Northern Yale men 
who died, nor to the Southern Yale men who died; but to the 
Yale men who died in the Civil War. 




Betiuateti 

FIFTY YEARS AFTER 

FORT SUMTER 

TO THE MEN IN BLUE AND GRAY 

WHOSE VALOR AND DEVOTION 

HAVE BECOME THE 

PRICELESS HERITAGE 

OF A UNITED 

NATION 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

TO Mr. Francis Trevelyan Miller the publishers of these books must confess an 
obligation quite apart from the usual editorial services. Seldom indeed has it 
been possible to construct the text of such an extended history in accordance with a single 
broad idea. Yet it is true that the contributions throughout the entire ten volumes of the 
PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY are a direct outgrowth of the plan created years ago by Mr. Miller, 
and urged since by him with constant faith in its national importance to emphasize in 
comprehensive form those deeds and words from the mighty struggle that strike universal, 
noble human chords. This was a conception so straightforward and so inspiring that 
the opportunity to give it the present embodiment has become a lasting privilege. 

Readers as well as publishers are also indebted to the collectors, historical societies, 
and others who have furnished hundreds of long-treasured photographs, unwilling that the 
HISTORY should appear without presenting many important scenes of which no actual 
illustrations had ever before been available to the public. Hence the Civil War-time 
photographs in the present work are not only several times as numerous as those in any 
previous publication, but also include many hundreds of scenes that will come as a reve 
lation even to historians and special scholars photographs taken within the lines of the 
Confederate armies and of the hosts in the Mississippi Valley, whose fighting was no less 
momentous than the Eastern battles, but in the nature of things could not be as quickly 
or as fully heralded. With these additions to the "Brady-Gardner" collection the loss 
and rediscovery of which Mr. Henry Wysham Lanier s introductory narrates it is now 
possible for the first time to present comprehensively the men and scenes and types of the 
American epic, in photographs. 

Deep acknowledgment is due the owners of indispensable pictures who have so gen 
erously contributed them for this purpose. Especial mention must be given to: Mrs. W. 
K. Bachman; Mr. William Beer; Mr. James Blair, C. S. A.; Mr. George A. Brackett; Mr. 
Edward Bromley ; Mr. John ( .Browne; Captain Joseph T. Burke, C. S. A.; Captain E. M. 
Colston, C. S. A.; Colonel E. J. Copp, U. S. V.; Colonel S. A. Cunningham, C. S. A.; The 
Daughters of the Confederacy; Mr. Charles Erankel; Mr. Edgar R. Harlan; Colonel ("has. 
R. E. Koch, U. S. V.; Miss Isabel Maury; Mr. F. H. Meserve; The Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion; Colonel John P. Nicholson, U. S. V.; General Harrison Gray Otis, U. S. V.; 
Captain F. A. Roziene, U. S. A.; General G. P. Thruston, U. S. V.; The University of 
South Carolina; The Washington Artillery, and the various State historical departments, 
state and government bureaus, military and patriotic organizations which courteously 
suspended their rules, in order that the photographic treasures in their archives should 
become available for the present record. 

[14] 



EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY 

OX this semi-centennial of the American Civil War -the war of the modern Roses 
in the Western World these volumes are dedicated to the American people in 
tribute to the courage and the valor with which they met one of the greatest crises that a 
nation has ever known a crisis that changed the course of civilization. We look back 
at Napoleon through the glamor of time, without fully realizing that here on our own 
continent are battle-grounds more noble in their purport than all the wars of the ancient 
regimes. The decades have shrouded the first American Revolution in romance, but the 
time has now come when this second American revolution, at the turning point of its 
first half century, is to become an American epic in which nearly three and a half million 
men gathered on the battle-line to offer their lives for principles that were dear to them. 

It is as an American "Battle Abbey" that these pages are opened on this anniversary, 
so that the eyes of the generations may look upon the actual scenes not upon the tar 
nished muskets, the silenced cannon, nor the battle-stained flag, but upon the warriors 
themselves standing on the firing-line in the heroic struggle when the hosts of the North 
and the legions of the South met on the battle-grounds of a nation s ideals, with the destiny 
of a continent hanging in the balance. And what a tribute it is to American character to 
be able to gather about these pages in peace and brotherhood, without malice and without 
dissension, within a generation from the greatest fratricidal tragedy in the annals of man 
kind. The vision is no longer blinded by heart wounds, but as Americans we can see 
only the heroic self-sacrifice of these men who battled for the decision of one of the world s 
greatest problems. 

In this first volume, standing literally before the open door to the "Battle Abbey," in 
which the vision of war is to be revealed in all its reality, I take this privilege to refer 
briefly to a few of the intimate desires that have led to this revelation of THE PHOTO 
GRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. As one stands in the library of the War Department 
at Washington, or before the archives of the American libraries, he feels that the last 
word of evidence must have been recorded. Nearly seven thousand treatises, containing 
varying viewpoints relating to this epoch in our national development, have been written 
so Dr. Herbert Putnam, Librarian at the Congressional Library at Washington, tells 
me; while in my home city of Hartford, which is a typical American community, I find 
nearly two thousand works similar to those that are within the reach of all the American 
people in every part of the country. 

W ith this great inheritance before us, military writers have informed me that they 
cannot understand why the American people have been so little interested in this remarkable 
war. Great generals have told how they led their magnificent armies in battle; military 
tacticians have mapped and recorded the movements of regiments and corps with tech- 
US 1 



nical accuracy, and historians have faithfully discussed the causes and the effects of this 
strange crisis in civilization all of which is a permanent tribute to American scholar 
ship. I have come to the conclusion that the lack of popular interest is because this is 
not a military nation. The great heart of American citizenship knows little of military 
maneuver, which is a science that requires either life-study or tradition to cultivate an 
interest in it. 

The Americans are a peace-loving people, but when once aroused they are a mighty 
moral and physical fighting force. It is not their love for the art of war that has caused 
them to take up arms. It is the impulse of justice that permeates the Western World. 
The American people feel the pulse of life itself; they love the greater emotions that 
cause men to meet danger face to face. Their hearts beat to the martial strain of the 
national anthem "The Star Spangled Banner" and they feel the melody in that old Mar 
seillaise of the Confederacy, "Dixie," for in them they catch mental visions of the sweep 
ing lines under floating banners at the battle-front; they hear the roar of the guns and 
the clatter of cavalry; but more than that they feel again the spirit that leads men to 
throw themselves into the cannon s flame. 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR comes on this anniversary to witness 
a people s valor; to testify in photograph to the true story of how a devoted people whose 
fathers had stood shoulder to shoulder for the ideal of liberty in the American Revolution, 
who had issued to the world the declaration that all men are created politically free and 
equal, who had formulated the Constitution that dethroned mediaeval monarchy and 
founded a new republic to bring new hope to the races of the earth parted at the dividing 
line of a great economic problem and stood arrayed against each other in the greatest 
fratricidal tragedy that the world has ever witnessed, only to be reunited and to stand, 
fifty years later, hand in hand for the betterment of mankind, pledging themselves to 
universal peace and brotherhood. 

This is the American epic that is told in these time-stained photographs an epic 
which in romance and chivalry is more inspiring than that of the olden knighthood; 
brother against brother, father against son, men speaking the same language, living under 
the same flag, offering their lives for that which they believed to be right. No Grecian 
phalanx or Roman legion ever knew truer manhood than in those days on the American 
continent when the Anglo-Saxon met Anglo-Saxon in the decision of a constitutional 
principle that beset their beloved nation. It was more than Napoleonic, for its warriors 
battled for principle rather than conquest, for right rather than power. 

This is the spirit of these volumes, and it seems to me that it must be the spirit of 
every true American. It is the sacred heritage of Anglo-Saxon freedom won at Runny- 
mede. I recall General Gordon, an American who turned the defeat of war into the vic 
tory of citizenship in peace, once saying: "What else could be expected of a people in 
whose veins commingled the blood of the proud cavaliers of England, the blood of those 
devout and resolute men who protested against the grinding exactions of the Stuarts; 
the blood of the stalwart Dissenters and of the heroic Highlanders of Scotland, and of 

[16] 



0f (Html Mar 



the sturdy Presbyterians of Ireland; the blood of those defenders of freedom who came 
from the mountain battlements of Switzerland, whose signal lights summoned her people 
to gather to their breasts the armfuls of spears to make way for liberty. " It was a great 
battle-line of Puritan, of Huguenot, of Protestant, of Catholic, of Teuton, and Celt every 
nation and every religion throwing its sacrifice on the altar of civilization. 

The causes of the American Civil War will always be subject to academic controversy, 
each side arguing conscientiously from its own viewpoint. It is unnecessary to linger in 
these pages over the centuries of economic growth that came to a crisis in the American 
nation. In the light of modern historical understanding it was the inevitable result of a 
sociological system that had come down through the ages before there was a republic on 
the Western continent, and which finally came to a focus through the conflicting interests 
that developed in the upbuilding of American civilization. When Jefferson and Madison 
construed our constitution in one way, and Washington and Hamilton in another, surely 
it is not strange that their descendants should have differed. There is glory enough for 
all for North, for South, for East, for West, on these battle-grounds of a people s tra 
ditions a grander empire than Caesar s legions won for Rome. 

To feel the impulse of both the North and the South is the desire of these volumes. 
When, some years ago, I left the portals of Trinity College, in the old abolition town of 
Hartford, Conn., to enter the halls of Washington and Lee University in historic Lexing 
ton in the hills of Virginia, I felt for the first time as a Northerner, indigenous to the soil, 
what it means to be a Southerner. I, who had bowed my head from childhood to the 
greatness of Grant, looked upon my friends bowing their heads before the mausoleum of 
Lee. I stood with them as they laid the April flowers on the graves of their dead, and I felt 
the heart-beat of the Confederacy. When I returned to my New England home it was 
to lay the laurel and the May flowers on the graves of my dead, and I felt the heart-beat of 
the Republic more than that, I felt the impulse of humanity and the greatness of all men. 

When I now turn these pages I realize what a magnificent thing it is to have lived; 
how wonderful is man and his power to blaze the path for progress ! I am proud that my 
heritage runs back through nearly three hundred years to the men who planted the seed 
of liberty in the New World into which is flowing the blood of the great races of the 
earth; a nation whose sinews are built from the strong men of the ages, and in whose hearts 
beat the impulses that have inspired the centuries a composite of the courage, the per 
severance, and the fortitude of the world s oldest races, commingled into one great throb 
bing body. It is a young race, but its exploits have equalled those of the heroic age in 
the Grecian legends and surpass Leonidas and his three hundred at Thermopylae. 

In full recognition of the masterly works of military authorities that now exist as in 
valuable historical evidence, these volumes present the American Civil War from an en 
tirely original viewpoint. The collection of photographs is in itself a sufficient contribution 
to military and historical record, and the text is designed to present the mental pictures of 
the inspiring pageantry in the war between the Red and the White Roses in America, 
its human impulses, and the ideals that it represents in the heart of humanity. 

[17] 



The military movements of the armies have been exhaustively studied properly to 
stage the great scenes that are herein enacted, but the routine that may burden the memory 
or detract from the broader, martial picture that lies before the reader has been purposely 
avoided. It is the desire to leave impressions rather than statistics; mental visions and 
human inspiration rather than military knowledge, especially as the latter is now so abun 
dant in American literature. In every detail the contradictory evidence of the many 
authorities has been weighed carefully to present the narrative fairly and impartially. It 
is so conflicting regarding numbers in battle and killed and wounded that the Government 
records have been followed, as closely as possible. 

The hand of the historian may falter, or his judgment may fail, but the final record of 
the American Civil War is told in these time-dimmed negatives. The reader may con 
scientiously disagree with the text, but we must all be of one and the same mind when we 
look upon the photographic evidence. It is in these photographs that all Americans can 
meet on the common ground of their beloved traditions. Here we are all united at the 
shrine where our fathers fought Northerners or Southerners and here the generations 
may look upon the undying record of the valor of those who fought to maintain the Union 
and those who fought for independence from it each according to his own interpretation 
of the Constitution that bound them into a great republic of states. 

These photographs are appeals to peace; they are the most convincing evidence of the 
tragedy of war. They bring it before the generations so impressively that one begins to 
understand the meaning of the great movement for universal brotherhood that is now 
passing through the civilized world. Mr. William Short, the secretary of the New York 
Peace Society, in speaking of them, truly says that they are the greatest arguments for 
peace that the world has ever seen. Their mission is more than to record history; it is to 
make history to mould the thought of the generations as everlasting witnesses of the 
price of war. 

As the founder of this memorial library, and its editor-in-chief, it is my pleasure to 
give historical record to Mr. Edward Bailey Eaton, Mr. Herbert My rick, and Mr. J. 
Frank Drake, of the Patriot Publishing Company, of Springfield, Mass., owners of the 
largest private collection of original Brady-Gardner Civil War negatives in existence, by 
whom this work was inaugurated, and to Mr. Egbert Gilliss Handy, president of The 
Search-Light Library of New York, through whom it was organized for its present develop 
ment by the Review of Reviews Company. These institutions have all co-operated to 
realize the national and impartial conception of this work. The result, we hope, is a 
more friendly, fair, and intimate picture of America s greatest sorrow and greatest glory 
than has perhaps been possible under the conditions that preceded this semi-centennial 
anniversary. 

To President William Howard Taft, who has extended his autographed message to the 
North and the South, the editors take pleasure in recording their deep appreciation; also 
to Generals Sickles and Buckner, the oldest surviving generals in the Federal and Con 
federate armies, respectively, on this anniversary; to General Frederick Dent Grant and 

[18] 



Glttrii War 

General G. W. Custis Lee, the sons of the great warriors who led the armies through the 
American Crisis; to the Honorable Robert Todd Lincoln, former Secretary of War; to 
James W. Cheney, Librarian in the War Department at Washington; to Dr. Edward S. 
Holden, Librarian at the United States Military Academy at West Point, for their con 
sideration and advice, and to the officers of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion, the United Confederate Veterans, the Daughters of the Con 
federacy, and the other memorial organizations that have shown an appreciation of the 
intent of this work. We are especially indebted to Mr. John McElroy, editor of the Na- 
tional Tribune; General Bennett H. Young, the historian of the United Confederate Vet 
erans; General Grenville M. Dodge; Colonel S. A. Cunningham, founder and editor of the 
Confederate Veteran, General Irvine Walker, General William E. Mickle, and to the many 
others who, in their understanding and appreciation have rendered valuable assistance 
in the realization of its special mission to the American people on this semi-centennial. 

This preface should not close without a final word as to the difficulty of the problems 
that confronted the military, historical, and other authorities whose contributions have 
made the text of THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR, whose names are signed 
to their historical contributions throughout these volumes, and the spirit in which, work 
ing with the editorial staff of the Review of Reviews, they have met these problems. The 
impossibility of deciding finally the difference of opinion in the movements of the Civil 
War has been generously recognized. With all personal and partisan arguments have 
been set aside in the universal and hearty effort of all concerned to fulfil the obliga 
tions of this work. I ask further privilege to extend my gratitude to my personal assist 
ants, Mr. Walter R. Bickford, Mr. Arthur Forrest Burns, and Mr. Wallace H. Miller. 

And now, as we stand to-day, fellowmen in the great republic that is carrying the 
torch in the foreranks of the world s civilization, let us clasp hands across the long-gone 
years as reunited Americans. I can close these introductory words with no nobler tribute 
than those of the mighty warriors who led the great armies to battle. It was General 
Robert E. Lee who, after the war, gave this advice to a Virginia mother, "Abandon all 
these animosities and make your sons Americans," and General Ulysses S. Grant, whose 
appeal to his countrymen must always be an admonition against war: "Let us have 
peace." 

FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER, 

Edit or -in- Chief. 



HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, 
Fiftieth Anniversary 
Lincoln s Inauguration. 

[A 2] [ 19 ] 



FIRST PREFACE 



PHOTOGRAPHING 

THE 
CIVIL WAR 




THE WAR PHOTOGRAPHER BRADY (WEARING STRAW 
HAT) WITH GENERAL BURNSIDE (READING NEWSPA 
PER) TAKEN WHILE BURNSIDE WAS IN COMMAND 

OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, EARLY IN 1863, 
AFTER HIS ILL-FATED ATTACK ON FREDERICKSBURG 




THE FLANKING GUN 



This remarkably spirited photograph of Battery D, Second U. S. 
Artillery, was, according to the photographer s account, taken 
just as the battery was loading to engage with the Confederates. 
The order, "cannoneers to your posts," had just been given, 
and the men, running up, called to the photographer to hurry 



his wagon out of the way unless he wished to gain a place for his 
name in the list of casualties In June, 1863, the Sixth Corps had 
made its third successful crossing of the Rappahannock, as the 
advance of Hooker s movement against Lee. Battery D at 
once took position with other artillery out in the fields near the 




"COOPER S BATTERY" (SEE PAGE 32) 



This is another photograph taken under fire and shows us Battery 
B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, in action before Petersburg, 
1864. Brady, the veteran photographer, obtained permis 
sion to take a picture of "Cooper s Battery," in position for 
battle. The first attempt provoked the fire of the Confederates, 
[22] 



who supposed that the running forward of the artillerists was 
with hostile intent. The Confederate guns frightened Brady s 
horse which ran off with his wagon and his assistant, upsetting 
and destroying his chemicals. In the picture to the left, Captain 
James H. Cooper himself is seen leaning on a sword at the 




"LOAD!" 



ruins of the Mansfield house. In the rear of the battery the 
veteran Vermont brigade was acting as support. To their rear 
was the bank of the river skirted by trees. The grove of white 
poplars to the right surrounded the Mansfield house. With 
characteristic coolness, some of the troops had already pitched 



their dog tents. Better protection was soon afforded by the strong 
line of earthworks which was thrown up and occupied by the 
Sixth Corps. Battery D was present at the first battle of Bull Run, 
where the Confederates there engaged got a taste of its metal on 
the Federal left 




READY TO OPEN FIRE 



Copyright by Review oj Reviews Co. 



extreme right. Lieutenant Miller is the second figure from the taken. This Pennsylvania battery suffered greater loss than any 

left. Lieutenant Alcorn is next, to the left from Captain Cooper. other volunteer Union battery; its record of casualties includes 

Lieutenant James A. Gardner, just behind the prominent figure twenty-one killed and died of wounds, and fifty-two wounded 

with the haversack in the right section of the picture, identified convincing testimony of the fact that throughout the war its men 

these members almost forty-seven years after the picture was stood bravely to their guns. 



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Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



A WASHINGTON BELLE IN CAMP 



From Bull Run to Gettysburg the Federal capital was repeatedly threatened by the advances of the 
Confederates, and strong camps for the defense of Washington were maintained throughout the war. It 
was the smart thing for the ladies of the capital to invade these outlying camps, and they were always 
welcomed by the officers weary of continuous guard-duty. Here the camera has caught the willing subject 
in handsome Kate Chase Sprague, who became a belle of official society in Washington during the war. She 
was the daughter of Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln s Secretary of the Treasury. At this time she was the wife 
of Governor William Sprague, of Rhode Island, and was being entertained in camp by General J. J. 
Abercrombie, an officer of the regular army, well known in the capital. 

[28] 




Copyright by Review nfjteviews Co. 



A HORSE AND RIDER THAT WILL LIVE 



Here is an extraordinary photograph of a spirited charger taken half a century ago. This noble beast is 
the mount of Lieut. -Col. C. B. Norton, and was photographed at General Fitz John Porter s headquarters. 
The rider is Colonel Norton himself. Such clear definition of every feature of man and horse might well be 
the envy of modern photography, which does not achieve such depth without fast lenses, focal-plane 
shutters, and instantaneous dry plates, which can be developed at leisure. Here the old-time wet-plate 
process has preserved every detail. To secure results like this it was necessary to sensitize the plate just 
before exposing it, uncap the lens by hand, and develop the negative within five minutes after the exposure. 



PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR 

By HENRY WYSHAM LANIER 

EXTRAORDINARY as the fact seems, the American 
Civil War is the only great Avar of which we have an 
adequate history in photographs: that is to say, this is the 
only conflict of the first magnitude 1 in the world s history that 
can he really " illustrated," with a pictorial record which is 
indisputably authentic, vividly illuminating, and the final evi 
dence in any question of detail. 

Here is a much more important historical fact than the 
casual reader realizes. The earliest records we have of the 
human race are purely pictorial. History, even of the most 
shadowy and legendary sort, goes hack hardly more than ten 
thousand years. But in recent years there have been recov 
ered in certain caves of France scratched and carved bone 
weapons and rough W 7 all-paintings which tell us some dra 
matic events in the lives of men who lived probably a hundred 
thousand years before the earliest of those seven strata of 
ancient Troy, which indefatigable archeologists have exposed 
to the wondering gaze of the modern world. The picture came 
long before the written record; nearly all our knowledge of 
ancient Babylonia and Assyria is gleaned from the details left 
by some picture-maker. And it is still infinitely more effective 
an appeal. How impossible it is for the average person to 
get any clear idea of the great struggles which altered the 
destinies of nations and which occupy so large a portion of 
world history! How can a man to-day really understand the 
siege of Troy, the battles of Thermopylae or Salamis, Han 
nibal s crossing of the Alps, the famous fight at Tours when 
Charles " the Hammer " checked the Saracens, the Norman 

1 There have been, of course, only two wars of this description since 
1865: the Franco- Prussian War was, for some reason, not followed by 
camera men; and the marvellously expert photographers who flocked to 
the struggles between Russia and Japan were not given any chance by 
the Japanese authorities to make anything like an adequate record. 

[30] 



^he indomitable war photographer 
i the very costume which made 
im a familiar figure at the first 
iattle of Bull Run, from which 
e returned precipitately to New 
fork after his initial attempt to 
ut into practice his scheme for 
icturing the war. Brady was a 
"ork Irishman by birth and pos 
essed of all the active tempera 
lent which such an origin implies 
Lt Bull Run he was in the thick 
f things. Later in the day. 
Jrady himself was compelled 
o flee, and at nightfall of that 
ital Sunday, alone and unarmed, 
e lost his way in the woods near 
he stream from which the battle 
ikes its name. Here he was 
jiind by some of the famous corn- 
any of New York Fire Depart- 
lent Zouaves, who gave him a 
word for his defense. Buckling it 
n beneath his linen duster, Brady 
lade his way to Washington and 
hence to New York. In the pic- 
ure we see him still proudly wear- 
tig the weapon which he was pre- 
iared to use for the protection of 
imself and his precious negatives. 




Copyright by Reriew 

BRADY, AFTER BULL RUN 



if Reviews Co. 



Below is the gallery of A. D. 
Lytle a Confederate photogra 
pher as it stood on Main Street, 
Baton Rouge, in 1864, when in the 
employ of the Confederate Secret 
Service Lytle trained his camera 
upon the Federal army which occu 
pied Baton Rouge. It was indeed 
dangerous work, as discovery of his 
purpose would have visited upon 
the photographer the fate of a spy. 
Lytle would steal secretly up 
the Observation Tower, which had 
been built on the ruins of the capi- 
tol, and often exposed to rifle shots 
from the Federals, would with flag 
or lantern signal to the Confederates 
at Scott s Bluff, whence the news 
was relayed to New Orleans, and 
provision made for smuggling the 
precious prints through the lines. 
Like Brady, Lytle obtained his 
photographic supplies from An 
thony & Company of New York; 
but unlike Cook of Charleston, he 
did not have to depend upon con 
traband traffic to secure them, but 
got them passed on the "orders to 
trade" issued quite freely in the 
West by the Federal Government. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE GALLERY OF A CONFEDERATE SECRET-SERVICE PHOTOGRAPHER, 
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA, 1864 




ffitutl War 





, 



conquest of England, the Hundred Years or Thirty Years 
Wars, even our own seven-year struggle for liberty, without 
any first-hand picture-aids to start the imagination? Take 
the comparatively modern Napoleonic wars where, moreover, 
there is an exceptional wealth of paintings, drawings, prints, 
and lithographs by contemporary men : in most cases the effect 
is simply one of keen disappointment at the painfully evident 
fact that most of these w r orthy artists never saw a battle or 
a camp. 

So the statement that there have been gathered together 
thousands of photographs of scenes on land and water during 
those momentous years of 1861 to 1865 means that for our 
generation and all succeeding ones, the Civil War is on a basis 
different from all others, is practically an open book to old 
and young. For when man achieved the photograph he took 
almost as important a step forward as when he discovered 
how to make fire: he made scenes and events and personalities 
immortal. The greatest literary genius might write a volume 
without giving you so intimate a comprehension of the strug 
gle before Petersburg as do these exact records, made by 
adventurous camera-men under incredible difficulties, and hold 
ing calmly before your eyes the very Reality itself. 

To apply this pictorial principle, let us look at one 
remarkable photograph, Cooper s Battery in front of the 
Avery house, during the siege of Petersburg, of which \ve 
have, by a lucky chance, an account from one of the men in 
the scene. The lifelikeness of the picture is beyond praise: 
one cannot help living through this tense moment with these 
men of long ago, and one s eyes instinctively follow their fixed 
gaze toward the lines of the foe. This picture was shown to 
Lieutenant James A. Gardner (of Battery B, First Penn 
sylvania Light Artillery), who immediately named half a 
dozen of the figures, adding details of the most intimate inter 
est (see pages 22 and 23) : 

1 am, even at this late day, able to pick out and recognize a very 
large number of the members of our battery, as shown in this photograph. 
Our battery (familiarly known as Cooper s Battery) belonged to the 
Fifth Corps, then commanded by Gen. G. K. Warren. 

Our corps arrived in front of Petersburg on June 17, 1864, was put 
into position on the evening of that day, and engaged the Confederate 
batteries on their line near the Avery house. The enemy at that time 

[32] 



J 




Here are two excellent views in which we see the conditions under 
which the army photographer worked in the field. The larger 
picture is of Barnard, the Government photographer under 
Captain O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer of the Military Division of the 
Mississippi. Barnard was engaged to take photographs of the 
new Federal fortifications being constructed under Captain Poe s 
direction at Atlanta, September-October, 1864. Captain Poe 
found the old Confederate line of defense of too great extent to 
be held by such a force as Sherman intended to leave as garrison 
of the town. Consequently, he selected a new line of much 
shorter development which passed through the northern part of 
the town, making necessary the destruction of many buildings in 
that quarter. Barnard is 
here at work sensitizing 
his plates in a light-proof 
tent, making his exposures, 
and developing immedi 
ately within the tent. His 
chemicals and general 
supplies were carried in 
the wngon showing to the 
right. Thus, as the pioneer 
corps worked on the forti 
fications the entire series 
of photographs showing 
their progress was made 
to be forwarded later to 
Washington by Captain 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHER WITH THE ARMY 

Poe, with his official report. In the background we see the 
battle-field where began the engagement of July 22, 1 864, known 
as the battle of Atlanta, in which General McPherson lost his 
life. Thus Brady and all the war photographers worked 
right up to the trenches, lugging their cumbersome tents and 
apparatus, often running out of supplies or carrying hundreds 
of glass plates over rough roads or exposed to possible shells. 
To the many chances of failure was added that of being at 
any time picked off by some sharpshooter. In the smaller 
picture appears a duplicate of Brady s "What-Is-It," being 
the dark-room buggy of Photographer Wearn. In the back 
ground are the ruins of the State Armory at Columbia, South 




RUINS OF STATE ARMORY, COLUMBIA, 1865 



Carolina. This was 
burned as Sherman s 
troops passed through 
the city on their famous 
march through the Caro- 
linas, February, 1865. 
The photographer, bring 
ing up the rear, has pre 
served the result of 
Sherman s work, which 
is typical of that done 
by him all along the line 
of march to render use 
less to the Confederate ar 
mies in the field, the mili 
tary resources of the South. 




(Ettril Mar 






was commanded by General Beauregard. That night the enemy fell back 
to their third line, which then occupied the ridge which you see to the 
right and front, along where you will notice the chimney ( the houses had 
been burnt down). On the night of the 18th we threw up the lunettes 
in front of our guns. This position was occupied by us until possibly 
about the 23d or 24th of June, when we were taken further to the left. 
The position shown in the picture is about six hundred and fifty yards 
in front, and to the right of the Avery house, and at or near this point 
was built a permanent fort or battery, which was used continuously dur 
ing the entire siege of Petersburg. 

While occupying this position, Mr. Brady took the photographs, 
copies of which you have sent me. The photographs were taken in the 
forenoon of June 21, 1864. I know myself, merely from the position 
that I occupied at that time, as gunner. After that, I served as ser 
geant, first sergeant, and first lieutenant, holding the latter position 
at the close of the war. All the officers shown in this picture are dead. 
The movement in which we were engaged was the advance of the 
Army of the Potomac upon Petersburg, being the beginning of opera 
tions in front of that city. On June 18th the division of the Confederates 
which was opposite us was that of Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson ; but as the 
Army of Northern Virginia, under General Lee, began arriving on the 
evening of June 18th, it would be impossible for me to say who occupied 
the enemy s lines after that. The enemy s position, which was along on 
the ridge to the front, in the picture, where you see the chimney, after 
ward became the main line of the Union army. Our lines were advanced 
to that point, and at or about where you see the chimney standing, Fort 
Morton of the Union line was constructed, and a little farther to the 
right was Fort Stedman, on the same ridge ; and about where the battery 
now stands, as shown in the picture, was a small fort or works erected, 
known as Battery Seventeen. 

When engaged in action, our men exhibited the same coolness that 
is shown in the picture that is, while loading our guns. If the enemy 
is engaging us, as soon as each gun is loaded the cannoneers drop to the 
ground and protect themselves as best they can, except the gunners and 
the officers, who are expected to be always on the lookout. The gunners 
are the corporals who sight and direct the firing of the guns. 

In the photograph you will notice a person (in civilian s clothes). 
This is Mr. Brady or his assistant, but I think it is Mr. Brady himself. 

It is now almost forty-seven years since the photographs were 
taken, yet I am able to designate at least fifteen persons of our bat 
tery, and point them out. I should have said that Mr. Brady took 
picture No. 1 from a point a little to the left, and front, of our battery ; 
and the second one was taken a little to the rear, and left, of the battery. 
Petersburg lay immediately over the ridge in the front, right over past 

[34] 










Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE FIELD DARK ROOM 



Here we get an excellent idea of how the business of army photog 
raphy, invented by Brady and first exemplified by him at Bull 
Run, had become organized toward the close of the war. In the 
lower picture we see the outfit with which Samuel A. Cooley fol 
lowed the fortunes of the campaigners, and recorded for all time 
the stirring events around Savannah at the completion of the 
March to the Sea. Cooley was attached to the Tenth Corps, 
United States Army, and secured photographs at Jackson 
ville, St. Augustine, Beaufort, 
and Charleston during the bom 
bardment. Here he is in the act 
of making an exposure. The 
huge camera and plate-holder 
seem to eyes of the present day 
far too cumbersome to make 
possible the wonderful defini 
tion and beautiful effects of 
light and shade which charac 
terize the war-time negatives 
that have come down to us 
through the vicissitudes of half 
a century. Here are Cooley s 
two means of transportation. 

The wagon fitted to carry the 
[A-S] 



supply of chemicals, glass plates, and the precious finished negatives 
includes a compartment for more leisurely developing. The little 
dark-room buggy to the left was used upon occasions when it was 
necessary for the army photographer to proceed in light marching 
order. In the smaller picture we see again the light-proof devel 
oping tent in action before the ramparts of Fort McAllister. 
The view is of the exterior of the fort fronting the Savannah 
River. A few days before the Confederate guns had frowned 

darkly from the parapet at 
Sherman s "bummers," who 
could see the smoke of the 
Federal gunboats waiting to 
welcome them just beyond. 
With Sherman looking proudly 
on, the footsore and hungry 
soldiers rushed forward to the 
attack, and the Stars and 
Stripes were soon floating over 
this vast barrier between them 
and the sea. The next morning, 
Christmas Day, 1864, the gun 
boats and transports steamed 
up the river and the joyful 
THE CIVIL WAR PHOTOGRAPHERS IMPEDIMENTA news was flashed northward. 





(Etuil Uar 










the man whom you sec sitting there so leisurely on the earthworks 
thrown up. 

A notice in Humphrey s Journal in 1861 describes vividly 
the records of the flight after Bull Run secured by the inde 
fatigable Brady. Unfortunately the unique one in which the 
reviewer identified " Bull Run " Russell in reverse action is 
lost to the world. But we have the portrait of Brady himself 
three days later in his famous linen duster, as he returned to 
Washington. His story comes from one who had it from his 
own lips: 

He [Brady] had watched the chh and flow of the battle on that 
Sunday morning in July, 1861, and seen now the success of the green 
Federal troops under General McDowell in the field, and now the stub 
born defense of the green troops under that General Jackson who thereby 
earned the sobriquet of " Stonewall." At last Johnston, who with 
Bcauregard and Jackson, was a Confederate commander, strengthened 
hy reenforcements, descended upon the rear of the Union troops and 
drove them into a retreat which rapidly turned to a rout. 

The plucky photographer was forced along with the rest ; and 
as night fell he lost his way in the thick woods which were not far from 
the little stream that gave the battle its name. He was clad in the linen 
duster which was a familiar sight to those who saw him taking his pic 
tures during that campaign, and was by no means prepared for a night 
in the open. He was unarmed as well, and had nothing with which to 
defend himself from any of the victorious Confederates who might hap 
pen his way, until one of the famous company of " Fire " zouaves, of 
the Union forces, gave him succor in the shape of a broadsword. This 
he strapped about his waist, and it was still there when he finally made 
his way to Washington three days later. He was a sight to behold after 
his wanderings, hut he had come through unscathed as it was his fate to 
do so frequently afterwards. 

Instances might be multiplied indefinitely, but here is one 
more evidence of the quality of this pictorial record. The 
same narrator had from Brady a tale of a picture made a year 
and a half later, at the battle of Fredericksburg. He says: 

Burnside, then in command of the Army of the Potomac, was pre 
paring to cross the Rappahannock, and Longstreet and Jackson, com 
manding the Confederate forces, were fortifying the hills back of the 
right bank of that river. Brady, desiring as usual to be in the thick of 
things, undertook to make some pictures from the left bank. He placed 
cameras in position and got his men to work, but suddenly found him- 

[36] 



1 



THE CAMERA 

WITH 
THE ARMY 




IN RETREAT 

AND 
ADVANCE 



The plucky Brady-Gardner operatives stuck to the Union army in the East, 
whether good fortune or ill betided it. Above, two of them are busy with 
their primitive apparatus near Bull Run, while Pope s army was in retreat, 
just before the second battle on that fateful ground. Below is a photograph 
er s portable dark-room, two years later, at Cobb s Hill on the Appomattox. 
Near here Grant s army had joined Butler s, and before them Lee s veterans 
were making their last stand within the entrenchments at Petersburg. 



(ABOVE) 

PHOTOGRAPHERS 

AT BULL RUN 

BEFORE THE 

SECOND 

FIGHT 




(BELOW) 

PHOTOGRAPHERS 

AT BUTLER S 

SIGNALING 

TOWER 

1864 



fl 




(Eitril Uar $ * * $ 



K&. 



$ 



N 



self taking a part very different from that of a non-combatant. In the 
bright sunshine his bulky cameras gleamed like guns, and the Confed 
erate marksmen thought that a battery was being placed in position. 
They promptly opened fire, and Brady found himself the target for a 
good many bullets. It was only his phenomenal good luck that allowed 
him to escape without injury either to himself and men or to his 
apparatus. 

It is clearly worth while to study for a few moments this 
man Brady, who was so ready to risk his life for the idea by 
which he was obsessed. While the war soon developed far 
beyond what he or any other one man could possibly have 
compassed, so that he is probably directly responsible for only 
a fraction of the whole vast collection of pictures in these vol 
umes, he may fairly be said to have fathered the movement; 
and his daring and success undoubtedly stimulated and in 
spired the small army of men all over the war-region, whose 
unrelated work has been laboriously gathered together. 

Matthew B. Brady was born at Cork, Ireland (not in 
New Hampshire, as is generally stated) about 182.3. Arriv 
ing in New York as a boy, he got a job in the great estab 
lishment of A. T. Stewart, first of the merchant princes of 
that day. The youngster s good qualities were so conspicuous 
that his large-minded employer made it possible for him to 
take a trip abroad at the age of fifteen, under the charge of 
S. F. B. Morse, who was then laboring at his epoch-making 
development of the telegraph. 

Naturally enough, this scientist took his young compan 
ion to the laboratory of the already famous Daguerre, whose 
arduous experiments in making pictures by sunlight were 
just approaching fruition; and the wonderful discovery which 
young Brady s receptive eyes then beheld was destined to 
determine his whole life-work. 

For that very year (1839) Daguerre made his " daguerre 
otype " known to the world; and Brady s keen interest was 
intensified when, in 1840, on his own side of the ocean, Pro 
fessor Draper produced the first photographic portrait the 
world had yet seen, a likeness of his sister, which required the 
amazingly short exposure of only ninety seconds! 

Brady s natural business-sense and his mercantile train 
ing showed him the chance for a career which this new inven 
tion opened, and it was but a short time before he had a gallery 

[38] 




WASHING THE NEGATIVES 

Photographers Headquarters at Cold Harbor, Virginia. In the lull before the fierce engagement which Grant was about to meet 
hen- in his persistent pushing forward upon Richmond, the cameraists were engaged in fixing, washing, and storing their negatives. 





; 





BEFORE SECOND BULL RUN 



AT WORK IN SUMTER, APRIL, 1865 



Brady s headquarters with his "What Is It?" preparing for the At last the besiegers were in Charleston, and the Union photog- 
strenuous work involved in the oncoming battle. raphers for the first time were securing views of the position. 




BRADY S "WHAT IS IT?" AT CULPEPER, VIRGINIA 



Copyright by 1 atriot Pub. Co. 



\\ 




(ttttril 










86% 



on Broadway and was well launched upon the new trade of 
furnishing daguerreotype portraits to all comers. He was 
successful from the start; in 1851 his work took a prize at the 
London World s Fair; about the same time he opened an 
office in Washington; in the fifties he brought over Alexander 
Gardner, an expert in the new revolutionary wet-plate proc 
ess, which gave a negative furnishing many prints instead of 
one unduplicatable original; and in the twenty years between 
his start and the Civil War he became the fashionable photog 
rapher of his day as is evidenced not only by the superb col 
lection of notable people whose portraits he gathered together, 
but by Brete Harte s classic verse (from " Her Letter ") : 

Well, yes if you saw us out driving 

Each day in the Park, four-in-hand 
If you saw poor dear mamma contriving 

To look supernaturally grand, 
If you saw papa s picture, as taken 

By Brady, and tinted at that, 
You d never suspect he sold bacon 

And flour at Poverty Flat. 

Upon this sunny period of prosperity the Civil War 
broke in 1861. Brady had made portraits of scores of the 
men who leaped into still greater prominence as leaders in 
the terrible struggle, and his vigorous enthusiasm saw in this 
fierce drama an opportunity to win ever brighter laurels. His 
energy and his acquaintance with men in authority overcame 
every obstacle, and he succeeded in interesting President Lin 
coln, Secretary Stanton, General Grant, and Allan Pinkerton 
to such an extent that he obtained the protection of the Secret 
Service, and permits to make photographs at the front. 
Everything had to be done at his own expense, but with entire 
confidence he equipped his men, and set out himself as well, 
giving instructions to guard against breakage by making two 
negatives of everything, and infusing into all his own ambition 
to astonish the world by this unheard-of feat. 

The need for such permits appears in a " home letter " 
from E. T. Whitney, a war photographer whose negatives, 
unfortunately, have been destroyed. This letter, dated March 
13, 1862, states that the day before " all photographing has 

[40] 





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been stopped by general orders from headquarters." Owing 
to ignorance of tbis order on the part of the guard at the 
bridge, Whitney was allowed to reach the Army of the Poto 
mac, where he made application to General McClellan for a 
special pass. 

We shall get some more glimpses presently of these ad 
venturous souls in action. But, as already hinted, extraordi 
nary as w r ere the results of Brady s impetuous vigor, he was 
but one of many in the great work of picturing the war. 
Three-fourths of the scenes with the Army of the Potomac 
were made by Gardner. Thomas G. Roche was an indefatig 
able worker in the armies train. Captain A. J. Russell, 
detached as official camera-man for the War Department, 
obtained many invaluable pictures illustrating the military 
railroading and construction work of the Army of the Poto 
mac, which were hurried straightway to Secretary Stanton 
at Washington. Sam A. Cooley was attached to the Tenth 
Army Corps, and recorded the happenings around Savannah, 
Fort McAllister, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Beaufort, and 
Charleston during the bombardment; George M. Barnard, 
tinder the supervision of General O. M. Poe (then Captain in 
the Engineer Corps), did yeoman s service around Atlanta. 

S. R. Siebert was very busy indeed at Charleston in 1865. 
Cook of Charleston, Edwards of New Orleans, and other 
unknown men on the Confederate side, working under even 
greater difficulties (Cook, for instance, had to secure his chemi 
cals from Anthony in New York who also supplied Brady 
and smuggle them through) , did their part in the vast labor; 
and many another unknow r n, including the makers of the little 
cartes de lisite, contributed to the panorama which to-day un 
folds itself before the reader. 

One most interesting camera-man of unique kind was 
A. D. Lytle, of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who made a series 
of views (covering three years and several campaigns and 
consequently scattered through the present work) for the 
specific use of the Confederate Secret Service. That is to say, 
he was a " camera spy," and a good one, too. He secured his 
chemicals from the same great firm of Anthony & Co., in New 
York, but instead of running the blockade with them, they 
were supplied on " orders to trade." In many cases, for in 
stance, the necessary iodides and bromides masqueraded as 

[42] 



*..* life*. 




": : * 





Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



A TRIUMPH OF THE WET-PLATE 



It seems almost impossible that this photograph could have been taken before the advent of modern pho 
tographic apparatus, yet Mr. Gardner s negative, made almost fifty years ago, might well furnish a striking 
exhibit in a modern photographic salon. The view is of Quarles Mill, on the North Anna River, Virginia. 
In grassy fields above the mill the tents of the headquarters of Grant and Meade were pitched for a day 
or two during the march which culminated in the siege of Petersburg. Among the prisoners brought in 
while the army was here in camp was a woman clad in Confederate gray, apparently performing the duties 
of a scout. She was captured astride of a bony steed and asserted that she belonged to a battery of artillery. 
This wild creature, with her tangled black locks hanging down her neck, became the center of interest to 
the idlers of the camp. At these she would occasionally throw stones with considerable accuracy, particu 
larly at the negroes, who gave her a wide berth. As the faithful camera indicates, the river current at this 
point is strong and rapid. While General Thomas L. Crittenden s division of the Federal Ninth Corps 
was crossing the North Anna (June 24, 1864) by fording the mill-dam, many sturdy foot-soldiers as well as 
horsemen were swept over the falls. However, the division got across in good fighting shape and formed 
a line of battle around the ford on the southern bank just in time to head off a bold Confederate dash for 
the same coign of vantage. Crittenden s advance guard was hotly engaged in the woods beyond the mill 
and being roughly handled when the rear of the column reached the southern bank. 




Qltml Uar * 






statement is historically confirmed. Professor Walter L. Flem 
ing, of the University of Louisiana, states he has seen many such orders- 
to-trade, signed by President Lincoln, but not countersigned by Secretary 
Stanton. 

[44] 



1 



quinine. 1 Mr. Ly tie s son relates that his father used to signal IM^ v. 
with flag and lantern from the observation tower on the top 
of the ruins of the Baton Rouge capitol to Scott s Bluff, 
whence the messages were relayed to the Confederates near 
New Orleans; but he found this provided such a tempting tar 
get for the Federal sharpshooters that he discontinued the 
practice. 

There are contemporary comments on the first crop 
of war photographs which confirm several points already 
made. Humphrey s Journal in October, 1861, contained the 
following : 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF WAR SERIES 



Among the portraits in Brady s selection, spoken of in our last 
number, are those of many leading generals and colonels McClellan, 
McDowell, Heintzelman, Burnside, Wood, Corcoran, Slocum, and others. 
Of the larger groups, the most effective are those of the army passing 
through Fairfax village, the battery of the 1st Rhode Island regiment 
at Camp Spmgue, the 71st Regiment [New York] formed in hollow 
square at the Navy Yard, the Engineer Corps of the New York Twelfth 
at Camp Anderson, Zouaves on the lookout from the belfry of Fairfax 
Court House, etc., etc. 

Mr. Brady intends to take other photographic scenes of the locali 
ties of our army and of battle-scenes, and his collection will undoubtedly 
prove to be the most interesting ever yet exhibited. But why should 
he monopolize this department? We have plenty of other artists as good 
as he is. What a field would there be for Anthony s instantaneous views 
and for stereoscopic pictures. Let other artists exhibit a little of Mr. 
Brady s enterprise and furnish the public with more views. There are 
numerous photographers close by the stirring scenes which are being 
daily enacted, and now is the time for them to distinguish themselves. 

We have seen how far Brady came from " monopolizing " 
the field. And surely the sum total of achievement is triumph 
ant enough to share among all who had any hand in it. 

And now let us try to get some idea of the problem which 
confronted these enthusiasts, and see how they tackled it. 




Copyright by Review of keviews (Jo. 



A SNAPSHOT IN THE WAR REGION 



Another remarkable example of the results achieved by the old collodion process photographers quite 
indistinguishable from the instantaneous photographs of the present day. Although taken under the 
necessity of removing and replacing the lens cap, this negative has successfully caught the waterfall and 
the Federal cavalryman s horse which has been ridden to the stream for a drink. The picture was taken 
at Hazel Run, Virginia, above the pontoon bridge constructed for the crossing of the Federal troops. During 
the advances and retreats, while the Federal armies were maneuvering for position, the photographers 
were frequently at a loss for material. At such times, true to the professional instinct, they kept in prac 
tice by making such views as this. Less important from the strictly military viewpoint, these splendid 
specimens of landscape photography give us a clear conception of the character of the country over which 
the Federal and Confederate armies passed and repassed during the stirring period of the war. 




Oltuil Har 



* <* 



Imagine what it must have meant even to get to the scene 
of action with cumbersome tent and apparatus, and a couple 
of hundred glass plates whose breakage meant failure; over 
unspeakable back-country roads or no roads at all; with the 
continual chance of being picked off by some scouting sharp 
shooter or captured through some shift of the armies. 

The first sight of the queer-looking wagon caused amaze 
ment, speculation, derision. What is it?" became so inevi 
table a greeting that to this day if one asks a group of soldiers 
about war-photographs, they will exclaim simultaneously, 
"Oh, yes, the what-is-it wagon!" It became a familiar 
sight, yet the novelty of its awkward mystery never quite 
wore off. 

Having arrived, and having faced the real perils gener 
ally attendant upon reaching the scenes of keenest interest, 
our camera adventurer was but through the overture of his 
troubles. The most advanced photography of that day was 
the wet-plate method, by which the plates had to be coated in 
the dark (which meant in this case carrying everywhere a 
smothery, light-proof tent), exposed within five minutes, and 
developed within five minutes more! For the benefit of ama 
teur members of the craft here are some notes from the veteran 
photographer, Mr. George G. Rockwood: 

First, all the plain glass plates in various sizes, usually 8 x 10, 
had to be carefully cleaned and carried in dust-proof boxes. When 
ready for action, the plate was carefully coated with " collodion," which 
carried in solution the " excitants " bromide and iodide of potassium, 
or ammonia, or cadmium. Collodion is made by the solution of gun- 
cotton in about equal parts of sulphuric ether and 95 proof alcohol. 
The salts above mentioned are then added, making the collodion a vehi 
cle for obtaining the sensitive surface on the glass plate. The coating 
of plates was a delicate operation even in the ordinary well-organized 
studio. After coating the plate with collodion and letting the ether 
and alcohol evaporate to just the right degree of " stickiness," it was 
lowered carefully into a deep " bath holder " which contained a solution 
of nitrate of silver about 60 for quick field-work. This operation 
created the sensitive condition of the plate, and had to be done in total 
darkness except a subdued yellow light. When properly coated (from 
three to five minutes) the plate was put into a "slide" or "holder" 
and exposed to the action of the light in the camera. When exposed, 
it was returned to the dark-room and developed. 

[46] 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



AMENITIES OF THE CAMP IN 1864 



This photograph, taken at Brandy Station, Virginia, is an excellent example of the skill of the war photographers. When we remember 
that orthochromatic plates were undreamed of in the days of the Civil War, the color values of this picture are marvelous. The collodion 
wet-plate has caught the sheen and texture of the silk dresses worn by the officers wives, whom we see on a visit to a permanent 
camp. The entrance to the tent is a fine example of the rustic work with which the Engineer Corps of the various armies amused 
themselves during periods which would otherwise be spent in tedious inactivity. The officers quarters received first attention. Thus 
an atmosphere of indescribable charm was thrown about the permanent camps to which the wives of the officers came in their brief 
visits to the front, and from which they reluctantly returned without seeing anything of the gruesome side of war. A review or a 
parade was usually held for their entertainment. In the weary waiting before Petersburg during the siege, the successful consumma 
tion of which practically closed the war, the New York engineers, while not engaged in strengthening the Federal fortifications, amused 
themselves by constructing a number of rustic buildings of great beauty. One of these was the signal tower toward the left of the 
Federal line of investment. Near it a substantial and artistic hospital building was erected, and, to take the place of a demolished 
church, a new and better rustic structure sprang into being. 




(Ettril War 





Mr. Rockwood also knew all about Brady s wagon, hav 
ing had a similar contrivance made for himself before the war, 
for taking pictures in the country. He " used an ordinary 
delivery wagon of the period, much like the butcher s cart of 
to-day and had a strong step attached at the rear and below 
the level of the wagon floor. A door was put on at the back, 
carefully hung so as to be light-proof. The door, you under 
stand, came down over the step which was boxed in at the 
sides, making it a sort of well within the body of the wagon 
rather than a true step. 

The work of coating or sensitizing the plates and that 
of developing them was done from this well, in which there was 
just room enough to work. As the operator stood there the 
collodion was within reach of his right hand, in a special re 
ceptacle. On his left also was the holder of one of the baths. 
The chief developing bath was in front, with the tanks of 
various liquids stored in front of it again, and the space be 
tween it and the floor filled with plates. 

With such a wagon on a larger scale, large enough for 
men to sleep in front of the dark-room part, the phenomenal 
pictures of Brady were made possible. Brady risked his life 
many a time in order not to separate from this cumbrous piece 
of impedimenta. 

" On exceptional occasions in very cold weather the life 
of a wet plate might be extended to nearly an hour on either 
side of the exposure, the coating or the development side, but 
ordinarily the work had to be done within a very few minutes, 
and every minute of delay resulted in loss of brilliancy and 
depth in the> negative." 

Some vivid glimpses of the war-photographers troubles 
come also from Mr. J. Pitcher Spencer, who knew the work 
intimately : 

We worked long with one of the foremost of Brady s men, and 
here let me doff my hat to the name of M. B. Brady few to-day are 
worthy to carry his camera case, even as far as ability from the photo 
graphic standpoint goes. I was, in common with the " Cape Codders," 
following the ocean from 1859 to 186-4; I was only home a few months 
1862-63 and even then from our boys who came home invalided 
we heard of that^grand picture-maker Brady, as they called him. 

When I made some views (with the only apparatus then known, the 
"wet plate"), there came a large realization of some of the immense 

[48] 



1 










Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



DIGGING UNDER FIRE AT DUTCH GAP 1864 



Here for a moment the Engineering corps of General Benjamin F. Butler s army paused while the camera of the army photographer 
was focussed upon it. In August, 1864, Butler, with his army then bottled up in Bermuda Hundred, began to dig a canal at 
Dutch Gap to save a circuit of six miles in the bend of the James River and thus avoid the batteries, torpedoes, and obstructions 
which the Confederates had placed to prevent the passage of the Federal Beet up the river toward Richmond. The difficulties of 
this engineering feat are here seen plainly in the photograph. It took Butler s men all the rest of the year (1864) to cut through this 
canal, exposed as they were to the fire of the Confederate batteries above. One of the last acts of General Butler was an unsuccess 
ful effort to blow up the dam at the mouth of this canal, and by thus admitting water to it, render it navigable. 




Qltutl War 







difficulties surmounted by those who made war-pictures. When you 
realize that the most sensitive of all the list of chemicals are requisite 
to make collodion, which must coat every plate, and that the very 
slightest breath might carry enough " poison " across the plate being 
coated to make it produce a blank spot instead of some much desired 
effect, you may perhaps have a faint idea of the care requisite to 
produce a picture. Moreover, it took unceasing care to keep every 
bit of the apparatus, as well as each and every chemical, free from any 
possible contamination which might affect the picture. Often a breath 
of wind, no matter how gentle, spoiled the whole affair. 

Often, just as some fine result looked certain, a hot streak of air 
would not only spoil the plate, but put the instrument out of com 
mission, by curling some part of it out of shape. In face of these, and 
hundreds of minor discouragements, the men imbued with vim and force- 
fulness by the " Only Brady " kept right along and to-day the world 
can enjoy these wonderful views as a result. 

Still further details come from an old soldier and photo 
graphic expert, Mr. F. M. Rood: 

The plate " flowed " with collodion was dipped at once in a bath 
of nitrate of silver, in water also iodized, remained there in darkness 
three to five minutes ; still in darkness, it was taken out, drained, put 
in the dark-holder, exposed, and developed in the dark-tent at once. 
The time between flowing the collodion and developing should not ex 
ceed eight or ten minutes. The developer was sulphate of iron solu 
tion and acetic acid, after which came a slight washing and fixing (to 
remove the surplus silver) with solution of cyanide of potassium; and 
then a final washing, drying, and varnishing. The surface (wet or 
dry), unlike a dry plate, could not be touched. I was all through the 
war from 186165, in the Ninety-third New York regiment, whose 
pictures you have given. I recognized quite a number of the old com 
rades. You have also in your collection a negative of each company 
of that regiment. 

Fortunately the picture men occasionally immortalized 
each other as well as the combatants, so that we have a num 
ber of intimate glimpses of their life and methods. In one 
the wagon, chemicals and camera are in the very trenches at 
Atlanta, and they tell more than pages of description. But, 
naturally, they cannot show the arduous labor, the narrow 
escapes, the omnipresent obstacles which could be overcome 
only by the keenest ardor and determination. The epic of the 
war-photographer is still to he written. It would compare 
favorably with the story of many battles. And it does not 

[50] 








Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



CAMP LIFE OF THE INVADING ARMY 



This picture preserves for us the resplendent aspect of the camp of McClellan s Army of the Potomac in 
the spring of 1862. On his march from Yorktown toward Richmond, McClellan advanced his supply base 
from Cumberland Landing to White House on the Pamunkey. The barren fields on the bank of the river 
were converted as if by magic into an immense city of tents stretching away as far as the eye could see, 
while mirrored in the river lay the immense fleet of transports convoyed up by gunboats from Fortress 
Monroe. Here we see but a small section of this inspiring view. In the foreground, around the mud-spattered 
forge, the blankets and knapsacks of the farriers have been thrown carelessly on the ground. Farther on the 
patient army mules are tethered around the wagons. In the background, before the camp of the Fifth 
New York Volunteers (Duryee s Zouaves), a regiment of infantry is drawn up in columns of companies for 
inspection drill. From the 15th to the 19th of May the Army of the Potomac was concentrated between 
Cumberland Landing and White House. While in camp an important change was made in the organi 
zation of the army. The divisions of Porter and Sykes were united into the Fifth Corps under Porter, 
and those of Franklin and Smith into the Sixth Corps under Franklin. On May 19th the movement to 

Richmond was begun by the advance of Porter and Franklin to Tunstall s Station. 
[A-4] 




Ii0i0grapljutg tip QJttril War 



<$. 



7 



require much imagination, after viewing the results obtained 
in the face of such conditions, to get a fair measure of these 
indomitable workers. 

The story of the way in which these pictures have been 
rescued from obscurity is almost as romantic a tale as that of 
their making. The net result of Brady s efforts was a col 
lection of over seven thousand pictures (two negatives of each 
in most cases) ; and the expenditure involved, estimated at 
$100,000, ruined him. One set, after undergoing the most 
extraordinary vicissitudes, finally passed into the Govern 
ment s possession, where it is now held with a prohibition 
against its use for commercial purposes. The $25,000 tardily 
voted to Mr. Brady by Congress did not retrieve his financial 
fortunes, and he died in the nineties, in a New York hospital, 
poor and forgotten, save by a few old-time friends. 

Brady s own negatives passed in the seventies into the pos 
session of Anthony, in default of payment of his bills for 
photographic supplies. They were kicked about from pillar 
to post for ten years, until John C. Taylor found them in 
an attic and bought them; from this they became the back 
bone of the Ordway-Rand collection; and in 1895 Brady him 
self had no idea what had become of them. Many were broken, 
lost, or destroyed by fire. After passing to various other 
owners, they were discovered and appreciated by Edward 
Bailey Eaton, of Hartford, Connecticut, who created the 
immediate train of events that led to their importance as the 
nucleus of a collection of many thousand pictures gathered 
from all over the country to furnish the material for this work. 

From all sorts of sources, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
from Maine to the Gulf, these hidden treasures have been 
drawn. Historical societies, Government and State bureaus, 
librarians, private collectors, military and patriotic organiza 
tions, old soldiers and their families have recollected, upon 
earnest insistence, that they did have such things or once 
knew of them. Singly and in groups they have come from 
walls, out of archives, safes, old garrets, often seeing the 
light of day for the first time in a generation, to join together 
once more in a pictorial army which daily grew more irre 
sistible as the new arrivals augmented, supplemented, and ex 
plained. The superb result is here spread forth and illumi 
nated for posterity. 

[52] 




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* * 



Apart from all the above considerations, these invaluable 
pictures are well worth attention from the standpoint of picto 
rial art. We talk a great deal nowadays about the aston 
ishing advances of modern art-photography; and it is quite 
true that patient investigators have immeasurably increased 
the range and flexibility of camera methods and results. We 
now manipulate negatives and print to produce any sort of 
effect; we print in tint or color, omitting or adding what we 
wish; numberless men of artistic capacity are daily showing 
how to transmit personal feeling through the intricacies of the 
mechanical process. But it is just as true as when the caye- 
man scratched on a bone his recollections of mammoth and 
reindeer, that the artist will produce work that moves the be 
holder, no matter how crude may be his implements. Clearly 
there were artists among these Civil War photographers. 

Probably this was caused by natural selection. It took 
ardor and zest for this particular thing above all others to 
keep a man at it in face of the hardships and disheartening 
handicaps. In any case, the work speaks for itself. Over and 
over one is thrilled by a sympathetic realization that the van 
ished man w r ho pointed the camera at some particular scene, 
must have felt precisely the same pleasure in a telling com 
position of landscape, in a lifelike grouping, in a dramatic 
glimpse of a battery in action, in a genre study of a wounded 
soldier watched over by a comrade that we feel to-day and 
that some seeing eye will respond to generations in the future. 
This is the true immortality of art. And when the emotions 
thus aroused center about a struggle which determined the 
destiny of a great nation, the picture that arouses them takes 
its proper place as an important factor in that heritage of the 
past which gives us to-day increased stature over all past 
ages, just because we add all their experience to our own. 







SECOND PREFACE 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC 



RECORD 



AS I STORY 





WITH THE DEFENDERS OF WASHINGTON IN 1862 ; 
THE SALLY-PORT AT FORT RICHARDSON 




"HISTORY BROUGHT AGAIN INTO THE PRESENT TENSE" 

The value of "The Photographic Record as History" is emphasized in the contribution from Mr. Geor/ 
Haven Putnam on page 60. This photograph of a dramatic scene was taken on a July day after the photo 
rapher s own heart clear and sunny. The fort is at the end of Peach Tree Street, Atlanta, to the nor! 
of the city. Sherman had just taken possession, and the man at the left is a cavalryman of his force 
The mire-caked wheels of the guns show that they have been dragged through miles and miles of mudc 

[56] 




Copyriyht by Recieiv of Renews Co. 

CONFEDERATE EARTHWORKS BEFORE ATLANTA, 1864 

roads. The delays Sherman had met with in his advance on Atlanta resulting in constant and indecisive 
fighting without entrapping Johnston, had brought about a reaction at the North. A large party wished to 
end the war. Election Day was approaching. Lincoln was a presidential candidate for the second time. 
He had many enemies. But the news of Sherman s capture of Atlanta helped to restore confidence, and 
to insure the continuation of the administration pledged to a vigorous prosecution of the war. 



;. t */: \>: : ; j-A- 




A STRIKING WAR PHOTOGRAPH OF 63 



The introduction on page 30, "Photographing the Civil War," remarks on the genius required to record 
such vivid action by camera in the days of 61. The use of the instrument had not then become pastime; 
it was a pioneer science, requiring absolute knowledge, training, and experience. Only experts like the men 
that Brady trained could do such work as this. There were no lightning shutter^, no automatic or universal 
focus. In positions of danger and at times when speed and accuracy were required, there was the delicacy 
of the old-fashioned wet plate to consider, with all its drawbacks. No wonder people were surprised that 
pictures such as this exist; they had grown used to the old woodcut and the often mutilated attempts of 
pen and pencil to portray such scenes of action. There are many who never knew that photography was 

[58] 




Copyright by Review of Itcvicws C o. 



ARTILLERY "REGULARS" BEFORE CHANCELLORSVILLE 



possible in the Civil War. Yet look at this Union battery, taken by the shore of the Rappahannock, just 
before the battle of Chancellorsville. Action, movement, portraiture are shown. We can hear the officer 
standing in front giving his orders; his figure leaning slightly forward is tense with spoken words of com 
mand. The cannoneers, resting or ramming home the charges, are magnificent types of the men who 
made the Army of the Potomac the army doomed to suffer, a few days after this picture was taken, its crush 
ing repulse by the famous flanking charge of "Stonewall" Jackson; yet the army which kept faith and 
ultimately became invincible in the greatest civil war of history. Within sixty days after the Chancellors 
ville defeat the troops engaged won a signal triumph over the self-same opponents at Gettysburg. 




THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD 
AS HISTORY 

By GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM 

Adjutant and Brevet Major 176th New York Volunteer Infantry 

9 r I lIS fifty years since. The words recall the opening sen- 
J. tence of Scott s famous romance, " Waverley," and 
Scott s reference, like my own, had to do with the strenuous 
years of civil war. 

To one examining the unique series of photographs which 
were secured, during the campaigns of our great war, by the 
pluck and persistence of Brady and Gardner, and the nega 
tives of which have, almost miraculously, been preserved 
through the vicissitudes of half a century, comes, however, the 
feeling that these battles and marchings were the events not of 
fifty years back, but of yesterday, if not, indeed, things of to 
day. These vivid pictures bring past history into the present 
tense; the observer sees our citizen soldiers as they camped, 
as they marched, and as they fought, and comes to know how 
they lived and how they died. There are revealed to the eye 
through these lifelike photographs, as if through a vitascope, 
the successive scenes of the great life-and-death drama of the 
nation s struggle for existence, a struggle which was fought 
out through four eventful years, and in which were sacrificed 
of the best of manhood of the country, North and South, eight 
hundred thousand lives. 

In September, 1862, I landed in New York from the 
Bremen steamer Hansa, which was then making its first trans 
atlantic trip. I had left my German university for the purpose 
of enlisting in the Union army, and, with the belief that the 

[60] 





Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



CITIZEN SOLDIERS" THE 93 D NEW YORK. 



This informal photograph of the Ninety-Third New York Infantry was taken in 1862 just before Antietam. 
In it we see the quality of the men who dropped the pursuits of civil life and flocked to form the armies of 
the North. Thus, in camp and on the battlefield the camera did its work and now takes us back over the 
four terrible years, showing us to the minutest detail how our men marched and lived and fought. The 
youth of the troops is strikingly evident in this picture as they stand assembled here with their arms hastily 
stacked for the ever-pleasurable experience of having their pictures taken. 



war could hardly be prolonged for many further months, I 
had secured leave of absence from my university only for the 
college year. I have to-day a vivid recollection of the impres 
sion made upon the young student by the war atmosphere in 
which he found his home city. In coming up from the steam 
ship pier, I found myself on Broadway near the office of the 
Herald, at that time at the corner of Ann Street. The bulletin 
board was surrounded by a crowd of anxious citizens, whose ex 
citement was so tense that it expressed itself not in utterance 
but in silence. With some difficulty, I made my way near 
enough to the building to get a glimpse of the announcement 
on the board. The heading was, " A battle is now going on in 
Maryland; it is hoped that General McClellan will drive Lee s 
army back into the Potomac." 

I recall to-day the curious impressiveness of the present 
tense, of the report of a battle that was actually " going on." 
To one who reads such an announcement, all things seem to 
be possible, and as I stood surrounded by men whose pulses 
were throbbing Math the keenest of emotions, I felt with them 
as if we could almost hear the sound of the cannon on the 
Potomac. The contrast was the stronger to one coming from 
the quiet lecture-rooms of a distant university to the streets 
of a great city excited with twelve months of war, and with the 
ever-present doubt as to what the hours of each day might 
bring forth. The fight that was then " going on " is known in 
history as the battle of Antietam. History tells us that Lee s 
army was not pushed into the Potomac. There were two 
causes that prevented this result George B. McClellan and 
Robert E. Lee. McClellan was a skilled engineer and he knew 
how to organize troops, but he never pushed an enemy s army 
before him with the energy of a man who meant to win and who 
had faith that he could win. It was his habit to feel that he 
had made a brilliant success when, having come into touch 
with the foe, he had succeeded in withdrawing his own army 
without undue loss; and it is fair to say that when the enemy 

[62] 









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was Robert E. Lee, such a successful withdrawal might almost 
be considered as a triumph. 

A fresh and vivid impression of the scene of the bloody 
struggle at Antietam Creek is given in one of the photographs 
in this great war series. The plucky photographer has suc 
ceeded in securing, from the very edge of the battle-field, a 
view of the movements of the troops that are on the charge; 
and when, on the further edge of the fields, we actually see the 
smoke of the long lines of rifles by which that charge is to be 
repulsed, we feel as if the battle w-ere again " going on " before 
our eyes, and we find ourselves again infused with mingled 
dread and expectation as to the result. 

In looking at the photographs, the Union veteran recalls 
the fierce charge of Burnside s men for the possession of the 
bridge and the sturdy resistance made by the regiments of 
Longstreet. He will grieve with the Army of the Potomac 
and with the country at the untimely death of the old hero, 
General Mansfield ; he will recall the graphic description given 
by the poet Holmes of the weary week s search through the 
battle-field and the environs for the " body " of his son, the 
young captain, who lived to become one of the scholarly mem 
bers of the national Supreme Court; and he may share the 
disappointment not only of the army, but of the citizens back 
of the army, that, notwithstanding his advantages of position, 
McClellan should have permitted the Confederate army to 
withdraw without molestation, carrying with it its trains, its 
artillery, and even its captured prisoners. 

Another photograph in the series, which is an example of 
special enterprise on the part of Mr. Brady, presents Lincoln 
and McClellan in consultation some time after this bloody 
and indecisive battle. The pose and the features of the two 
men are admirably characteristic. Two weeks have elapsed 
since Lee s withdrawal across the river, but the Army of the 
Potomac, while rested and fully resupplied, has been held by its 
young commander in an inexplicable inaction. Lincoln s per- 

[64] 






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sistent demand for an advance and his reiterated inquiries as 
to the grounds for the delay have met with no response. The 
President finally comes to the camp for a personal word with 
the commander in the field. How the photographer secured 
the opportunity of being present at such an interview one 
does not know, but that he was there is unmistakable. 

These vivid photographs which constitute the great his 
toric series bring again into the present tense, for the memories 
of the veterans, all of the dramatic scenes of the years of war ; 
and even to those who are not veterans, those who have grown 
up in years of peace and to whom the campaigns of half a 
century back are but historic pages or dim stories, even to them 
must come, in looking at these pictures of campaigns, these 
vivid episodes of life and death, a clearer realization than could 
be secured in any other way of what the four years struggle 
meant for their fathers and their grandfathers. 

The fine views of Fort Stevens and Fort Lincoln recall 
the several periods in which, to the continuing anxieties of the 
people s leader, was added immediate apprehension as to the 
safety of the national capital. On the 19th of April, 1861, the 
Massachusetts Sixth, on its way to the protection of Washing 
ton, had been attacked in Baltimore, and connections between 
Washington and the North were cut off. A few hundred troops 
represented all the forces that the nation had for the moment 
been able to place in position for the protection of the capital. 

I have stood, as thousands of visitors have stood, in Lin 
coln s old study, the windows of which overlook the Potomac; 
and I have had recalled to mind the vision of his tall figure 
and sad face as he stood looking across the river where the 
picket lines of the Virginia troops could be traced by the 
smoke, and dreading from morning to morning the approach 
of these troops over the Long Bridge. There must have come 
to Lincoln during these anxious days the dread that he was to 
be the last President of the United States, and that the torch, 
representing the life of the nation, that had been transmitted 



06 






THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



Here the gaunt figure of the Great Emancipator confronted General MoClellan in his headquarters two weeks after Antietam had 
checked Lee s invasion of Maryland and had enabled the President to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Brady s camera has 
preserved this remarkable occasion, the last time that these two men met each other. "We spent some time on the battlefield and 
conversed fully on the state of affairs. He told me that he was satisfied with all that I had done, that he would stand by me. He 
parted from me with the utmost cordiality," said General McClellan. The plan to follow up the success of Antietam in the 
effort to bring the war to a speedy conclusion must have been the thought uppermost in the mind of the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army as he talked with his most popular General in the tent. A few days later came the order from Washington to "cross the Potomac 
and give battle to the enemy or drive him South." McClellan was relieved in the midst of a movement to carry out the order. 





; \ 





i 




to him by the faltering hands of his predecessor was to expire 
while he was still responsible for the continuity of the flame. 

And it was not only in 1861 that the capital was imperiled. 
The anxiety of the President (never for himself, but only for 
his country and his responsibilities) was to be renewed in June, 
1863, when Lee was in Maryland, and in July, 1864, at the 
time of Early s raid. It was during Early s hurried attack 
that Lincoln, visiting Fort Stevens, came into direct sight of 
the fighting by which Early s men were finally repulsed. For 
the President, the war must indeed at this time have been 
something in the present tense, something which meant dread 
possibilities always impending. 

The month of July, 1863, marked the turning point of the 
great contest. If the Federal lines had been broken at Gettys 
burg, Lee would have been able, in placing his army across the 
highways to Baltimore and to Philadelphia, to isolate Washing 
ton from the Xorth. The Army of the Potomac would, of 
course, have been reconstituted, and Lee wmdd finally have 
been driven across the Potomac as he was actually compelled to 
retire after the decision of the battle. But such a check to the 
efforts of the Xorth, after two years of war for the maintenance 
of the nation, would in all probability have secured success for 
the efforts of the Confederate sympathizers in Europe and have 
brought about recognition and intervention on the part of 
France and of England. Such an intervention would have 
meant the triumph of the Confederacy and the breaking up of 
the great Republic. The value for the cause of the success of 
Meade in repelling, with heavy loss, the final assaults of Lee was 
further emphasized by a great triumph in the West. On the 
very day on which Lee s discomfited army was making its 
way back to the Potomac, the troops of General Grant were 
placing the Stars and Stripes over the well-defended works of 
Vicksburg. 

A beautiful little picture recalls the sharp fight that was 
made, on July 2, 1863, for the possession of Little Round 

[68] 







FORT RICHARDSON DRILL AT THE BIG GUNS, 1862 CopyrigM by Review of Reviews Co. 




OFFICERS OF THE FIFTY FIFTH NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS 




DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON CAMP OF THE FIRST CONNECTICUT HEAVY ARTILLERY 

Here we see some of the guardians of the city of Washington, which was threatened in the beginning of the war and subsequently on 
occasions when Lincoln, looking from the White House, could see in the distance the smoke from Confederate camp fires. Lincoln 
would not consenUto the withdrawal of many of the garrisons about Washington to reinforce McClellan on the Peninsula. There 
was little to relieve the tedium of guard duty, and the men spent their time principally at drill and in keeping their arms and ac- 
couterments spick and span. The troops in the tents and barracks were always able to present a fine appearance on review. In 
sharp contrast was that of their battle-scarred comrades who passed before Lincoln when he visited the front. Foreign military at 
taches often visited the forts about Washington. In the center picture we see two of them inspecting a gun. 




t0tn0rajilttr Smirfc as 



Top. It was the foresight of General Warren that recog 
nized the essential importance of this position for the main 
tenance of the Union line. After the repulse of Sickles s 
Third Corps in the Peach Orchard, Longstreet s men were 
actually on their way to take possession of the rocky hill from 
which the left and rear of the Union line could have been en 
filaded. Xo Union force was for the moment available for the 
defense, but Warren, with two or three aides, raised some flags 
over the rocks, and the leader of Longstreet s advance, getting 
an impression that the position was occupied, delayed a brief 
spell for reenforcements. 

This momentary respite gave Warren time to bring to 
the defense of the hill troops from the nearest command that 
was available, a division of the Fifth Corps. A few minutes 
later, came the first attack, followed by a series of fierce onsets 
that continued through the long summer afternoon. With 
some advantages of position, and with the realization that the 
control of the hill was absolutely essential for the maintenance 
of the line, the Federals held their own; but when darkness 
fell, the rocks of Devil s Den and the slopes of the hill were 
thickly strewn with dead, the bodies of the Blue and the Gray 
lying closely intermingled. A beautiful statue of Warren 
now stands on Little Round Top at the point where, almost 
single-handed, he placed his fla.g when there were no guns be 
hind it. The general is looking out gravely over the slope and 
toward the opposite crest, where have been placed, in grim con 
trast to the smiling fields of the quiet farm behind, the Con 
federate field-guns that mark the position of Longstreet s lines. 

The editors have fortunately been able to include with the 
great Brady series of army photographs a private collection, 
probably unique, of more than four hundred views of the gun 
boats on the rivers of the West. Each of these vessels repre 
sents a history of its own. One wishes for the imagination of 
a Homer which could present with due effectiveness a new 
" catalogue of the ships." 

[70] 






N 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



LITTLE ROUND TOP THE KEY TO GETTYSBURG. 



A "slaughter pen" at Gettysburg. On this rocky slope of Little Round Top, Longstreet s men fought 
with the Federals in the second day s conflict, July 2, 1803. From boulder to boulder they wormed their 
way, to find behind each a soldier waiting for the hand-to-hand struggle which meant the death of one 
or the other. After the battle each rock and tree overshadowed a victim. The whole tangled and terrible 
field presented a far more appalling appearance than does the picture, which was taken after the wounded 
were removed. Little Round Top had been left unprotected by the advance of General Sickles Third Corps. 
This break in the Federal line was discovered by General Warren just in time. Hastily procuring a flag, 
with but two or three other officers to help him he planted it on the hill, which led the Confederates to 
believe the position strongly occupied and delayed Longstreet s advance long enough for troops to be 
rushed forward to meet it. The picture tells all too plainly at what sacrifice the height was finally held. 




Admiral Farragut, while accepting the armored vessels 
as possessing certain advantages and as apparently a necessity 
of " modern warfare," had the impatience of the old-fashioned 
sailor against any such attempt at protection. lie preferred 
for himself the old type of wooden frigate of which his flag 
ship, the famous Hartford, was the representative. Why," 
said he, " if a shell strikes the side of the Hartford it goes clean 
through. Unless somebody happens to be directly in the path, 
there is no damage, excepting a couple of easily plugged holes. 
But when a shell makes its way into one of those damned tea 
kettles, it can t get out again. It sputters round inside doing 
all kinds of mischief." It must be borne in mind, apart from 
the natural exaggeration of such an utterance, that Farragut 
was speaking half a century ago, in the time of slow-velocity 
missiles. His phrase " damned tea-kettles " came, however, to 
be the general descriptive term for the ironclads, applied 
not only by the men in the ranks but by the naval men 
themselves. 

There were assured advantages given by the armor in 
time of action against most of the fire that was possible with 
the weapons of the day, but for the midsummer climate of 
Louisiana, the " tea-kettles " were most abominable abiding 
places. During the day, the iron of the decks would get so 
hot that the hand could barely rest upon it. At night, sleep 
was impossible. The decks were kept wetted down, and the 
men lay on them, getting, toward the morning hours when the 
hulls had cooled down, such sleep as could be secured. 

The progress of the armored transports making their 
way up the Red River under fire from the shore was an inter 
esting feature of that campaign. The steepness of the banks 
on the Red River gave peculiar advantages for such fire, as 
it was frequently the case that the guns of the boats could 
not be elevated so as to reach the foe s position. It was 
difficult to protect the man at the wheel from such plunging 
fire, but bales of cotton were often placed around the upper 

[72] 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE FATEFUL FIELD 

No picture has ever been painted to equal this panorama of the very center of the 
ground over which surged the struggling troops mid shot and shell during the thickest 
of the fighting at Gettysburg. The camera was planted on Little Round Top, and 
through its eye we look northward over the valley toward and beyond the little town of 
Gettysburg. Across the plain in the middle distance, over the Federal breastworks 
near the crest, and up to the very muzzles of the guns on Cemetery Ridge 
which were belching forth grape and canister, swept the men in gray under General 
Pickett in the last brave but unsuccessful assault that left Meade in possession of the 
field on Independence Day, 1863. The daring gallantry, utter coolness, and grim de 
termination with which that charge was made have rarely been paralleled in history. 
The spirit of complete devotion to the conviction which prompted Pickett and his men 
is one of the most precious heritages of a united nation. 




as Ijtetnrg 



works which were sufficient to keep off at least musketry fire. 
This improvised armor proved, however, not only insufficient 
but a peril when the enterprising Confederate gunners suc 
ceeded in discharging from their field-pieces red-hot shot. It 
happened more than once (I recall witnessing one such inci 
dent) that the cotton was brought into flames by such shot 
and it became necessary to run the vessel ashore. 

A photograph in the series which presents a picturesque 
view of the famous Red River dam recalls some active spring 
days in Louisiana. The photograph gives an excellently accu 
rate view of a portion of the dam, through the building of 
which Admiral Porter s river fleet of eleven " turtles " was 
brought safely over the rapids at Alexandria, and the army 
of General Banks, repulsed and disappointed but by no means 
demoralized, w r as able to make its way back to the Mississippi 
with a very much lessened opposition. Through a sudden fall 
of the river, the " turtles " had been held above the rapids at 
Alexandria. Without the aid of Porter s guns to protect the 
flank of the army retreating along the river road, it would 
have been necessary to overcome by frontal attacks a series of 
breastworks by which this road was blocked. 

The energetic Confederate leader, General Taylor, had 
managed to cut off all connections with the Mississippi, and, 
while \ve were feeding in the town of Alexandria the women 
and children whose men folks \vere fighting us from outside, 
we had rations sufficient for only about three weeks. The 
problem was, within the time at our disposal and with the ma 
terial available (in a country in which there was no stone), to 
increase the depth of water on the rapids by about twenty-two 
inches. The plan submitted by the clever engineer officer, 
Lieut.-Colonel Bailey, of the Fourth Wisconsin, was eagerly 
accepted by General Banks. Under Bailey s directions, five 
wing-dams were constructed, of which the shortest pair, with 
the widest aperture for the water, was up-stream, while the 
longest pair, with the narrowest passage for the water, was 

[74] 




els 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



WHERE REYNOLDS FELL AT GETTYSBURG. 



At this spot Major-General John F. Reynolds met his death. During the first day s fighting this peaceful 
cornfield was trampled by the advancing Confederates. The cupola of the seminary on the ridge held 
at nightfall by Lee s forces is visible in the distance. The town of Gettysburg lies one mile beyond. Gen 
eral Reynolds troops, advancing early in the day, had encountered the Confederates and had been compelled 
to fall back. Later, the Federal line by hard fighting had gained considerable advantage on the right. Impa 
tient to retrieve the earlier retrograde movement at this point, General Reynolds again advanced his com 
mand, shoving back the enemy before it, and his line of skirmishers was thrown out to the cornfield in 
the picture. Riding out to it to reconnoiter, General Reynolds fell, pierced by a Confederate bullet, near the 
tree at the edge of the road. 














placed at the point on the rapids where the increased depth was 
required. The water was thrown, as it were, into a funnel, 
arid not only was the depth secured, hut the rush downward 
helped to carry the vessels in safety across the rocks of the 
rapids. As I look at the photograph, I recall the fatiguing 
lahor of " house-hreaking," when the troops were put to work, 
in details on alternate days, in pulling down the sugar-mills 
and in breaking up the iron-work and the bricks. 

On the further side of the river, a territory claimed by the 
sharpshooters of our opponents, men selected from the West 
ern regiments, protected more or less by our skirmish line, are 
applying their axes to the shaping of the logs for the crates 
from which the dams were constructed. The wood-chopping is 
being done under a scattered but active fire, but while hastened 
somewhat in speed, it loses none of its precision. 

I recall the tall form of the big six-footer, Colonel Bailey, 
leading the way into the water where the men had to work in 
the swift current at the adjustment of the crates, and calling 
out, " Come along, boys; it s only up to your waists." 

As in duty bound, I marched after the colonel into the 
river, calling upon my command to follow ; but the w r ater which 
had not gone very much above the w^aist of the tall colonel, 
caught the small adjutant somewhere above the nostrils, with 
the result that he was taken down over the rapids. He came 
up, with no particular damage, in the pool beyond, but in re 
porting for the second time, wet but still ready for service, he 
took the liberty of saying to the Wisconsin six-footer, " Colo 
nel, that was hardly fair for us little fellows." 

After the hot work of tearing down the sugar-mills, the 
service in the cool water, although itself arduous enough, was 
refreshing. The dams were completed within the necessary 
time, and the vessels were brought safely through the rapids 
into the deep water below. 

The saving of the fleet was one of the most dramatic in 
cidents of the war, and the method of operation, as well as the 

[76] 



tims 






1 




The army engineers laughed at this wide- 
browed, unassuming man when he sug 
gested building a dam so as to release 
Admiral Porter s fleet imprisoned by low 
water above the Falls at Alexandria at the 
close of the futile Red River expedition in 
1804. Bailey had been a lumberman in 
Wisconsin and had there gained the prac 
tical experience which taught him that the 
plan was feasible. He was Acting Chief 
Engineer of the Nineteenth Army Corps at 
this time, and obtained permission to go 
ahead and build his dam. In the under 
taking he had the approval and earnest 
support of Admiral Porter, who refused to 
consider for a moment the abandonment 
of any of his vessels even though the Red 
River expedition had been ordered to re 
turn and General Banks was chafing at de 
lay and sending messages to Porter that his 
troops must be got in motion at once. 




Bailey pushed on with his work and in 
eleven days he succeeded in so raising the 
water in the channel that all the Federal 
vessels were able to pass down below the 
Falls. "Words are inadequate," said Ad 
miral Porter, in his report, "to express the 
admiration I feel for the ability of Lieut. 
Colonel Bailey. This is without doubt the 
best engineering feat ever performed. . . . 
The highest honors the Government can 
bestow on Colonel Bailey can never repay 
him for the service he has rendered the 
country." For this achievement Bailey 
was promoted to colonel, brevetted briga 
dier general, voted the thanks of Congress, 
and presented with a sword and a purse of 
$3,000 by the officers of Porter s fleet. He 
settled in Missouri after the war and was a 
formidable enemy of the "Bushwhackers" 
till he was shot by them on March 21, 1867. 
He was born at Salem, Ohio, April 28, 1827. 



COLONEL JOSEPH BAILEY IN 1864 

THE MAN WHO SAVED THE FLEET 




Copyright by Review of Renews Co. 

READY FOR HER BAPTISM 



This powerful gunboat, the Lafayette, though accompanying Admiral Porter on the Red River expedition, was not one of those en 
trapped at Alexandria. Her heavy draft precluded her being taken above the Falls. Here we see her lying above Vicksburg in the 
spring of 1863. She and her sister ship, the Choctaw, were side-wheel steamers altered into casemate ironclads with rams. The 
Lafayette had the stronger armament, carrying two 11 -inch Dahlgrens forward, four 9-inch guns in the broadside, and two 24- 
pound howitzers, with two 100-pound Parrott guns astern. She and the Choctaw were the most important acquisitions to Porter s 
fleet toward the end of 1862. The Lafayette was built and armed for heavy fighting. She got her first taste of it on the night of 
April 16, 1863, when Porter took part of his fleet past the Vicksburg batteries to support Grant s crossing of the river in an 
advance on Vicksburg from below. The Lafayette, with a barge and a transport lashed to her, held her course with difficulty 
through the tornado of shot and shell which poured from the Confederate batteries on the river front in Vicksburg as soon as the 
movement was discovered. The Lafayette stood up to this fiery christening and successfully ran the gantlet, as did all the other 
vessels save one transport. She was commanded during the Red River expedition by Lieutenant-Commander J. P. Foster. 




THE BATTLE WITH THE RIVER 

Colonel Bailey s wonderful dam which, according to Admiral Porter, no private company would have completed within 
Bailey 8 men did ,t in eleven days and saved a fleet of Union vessels worth *,000,00o" Never was thereTinstance where such 
Acuities were overcome so qu ,okly and with so little preparation. The current of the Red River, rushing", a t the r te of nine 

"u Irom th" VfiT iT \l SW - ( P aW ;V ,* he W rk f th " S " 1(1 i erS aS faSt aS U Was P^>- The work was commenced v hiking 
om the left hank of the river with large trees cross-tied with heavy timber and filled in with brush, briek. and stone We see 
the men engaged upon this work at the right of the picture. Coal barges filled with brick and stone were sunk bevond this whUe 

he b oilin? sun"^ 7 H * "l" * mf 7 t"? V"*, ^ ^ ^ ^^ In pifiht ^^ Baile - v 8 men workin "^ *~ u r 
f_^ br( their necks in water, had backed up the current sufficiently to release three vessels The very next 





Copyright by Renew of Reviews Co. 



THE MEN WHO CAPTURED THE CURRENT 



morning two of the barges were swept away. Admiral Porter, jumping on his horse, rode to the upper falls and ordered the Lexing 
ton to come down and attempt the passage of the dam. The water was rapidly falling, and as the Lexington, having squeezed 
through the passage of the falls, approached the opening in the dam through which a torrent was pouring, a breathless silence seized the 
watchers on the shore. In another instant she had plunged to safety, and a deafening cheer rose from thirty thousand throats. Por 
ter was afraid that Colonel Bailey would be too disheartened by the accident to the dam to renew work upon it. The other three 
vessels were at once ordered to follow the Lexington s example, and came safely through. But Bailey was undaunted and "his noble- 
hearted soldiers, seeing their labor swept away in a moment, cheerfully went to work to repair damages, being confident now that 
all the gunboats would be finally brought over." Their hopes were realized when the last vessel passed to safety on May 12, 1864. 








whole effect of the river scene, are admirably indicated in the 
cleverly taken photographs. 

A view of Fort McAllister recalls a closing incident of 
Sherman s dramatic march from Atlanta to the sea. The vet 
erans had for weeks been tramping, with an occasional inter 
val of fighting, but with very little opportunity for what the 
boys called a square meal. By the time the advance had 
reached the line of the coast, the commissary wagons were 
practically empty. The soldiers had for days been dependent 
upon the scattered supplies that could be picked up by the 
foraging parties, and the foragers, working in a country that 
had been already exhausted by the demands of the retreating 
Confederates, gave hardly enough return, in the form of corn 
on the cob or an occasional razor-backed hog, to offset the 
" wear and tear of the shoe-leather." 

The men in the division of General Hazen, which was the 
first command to reach the Savannah River, could see down 
the river the smoke of the Yankee gunboats and of the trans 
ports which were bringing from New York, under appoint 
ment made months back by General Sherman, the much- 
needed supplies. But between the boys and the food lay the 
grim earthworks of Fort McAllister. Before there could be 
any eating, it was necessary to do a little more fighting. The 
question came from the commander to General Hazen, " Can 
your boys take those works? " and the answer was in substance, 
" Ain t we jest obleeged to take them? " 

The assault was made under the immediate inspection of 
General Sherman, who realized the importance of getting at 
once into connection with the fleet, and the general was proper 
ly appreciative of the energy with which the task was executed. 

"See my Bummers," said Old Sherman with most illigant emotion. 
"Ain t their heads as horizontal as the bosom of the ocean?" 

The raising of Old Glory over the fort was the signal for 
the steaming up-stream of the supply ships, and that evening 

[80] 





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witnessed for the advance division a glorious banquet, with real 
beef and soft bread. 

And even this climax was capped when, on the 22d of 
December, General Sherman was able to report to President 
Lincoln that he had secured for him, or for the nation, a Christ 
mas present in the shape of the city of Savannah. 

The preponderance of capable military leaders was an im 
portant factor in giving to the Southern armies the measure of 
success secured by these armies during the first two years; but 
even during this earlier period, military capacity developed also 
on the side of the North, and by the middle of the war the 
\\ \\ \\\%\| balance of leadership ability may be considered as fairly equal. 
It may frankly be admitted, however, that no commander of 
the North had placed upon him so stupendous a burden as that 
which was carried by Lee, as the commander of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, through the weary and bloody campaigns of 
three years. For the last year of that period, Lee was fighting 
with no forces in reserve and with constantly diminishing re 
sources. With great engineering skill, with ingenuity in utiliz 
ing every possible natural advantage for defense, with initiative 
and enterprise in turning defense at most unexpected moments 
into attack, with a sublime patience and persistence and with the 
devotion and magnificent fighting capacity of the men behind 
him, Lee accomplished with his Army of Northern Virginia a 
\^\SC1 larger task in proportion to the resources at his command than 
has, I believe, ever been accomplished in modern warfare. The 
higher we place the ability of the Southern commander and the 
fighting capacity of the men behind him, the larger, of course, 
becomes the task of the leaders and armies of the North 
through whose service the final campaigns were won and the 
cause of nationality was maintained. 

In going to England in the years immediately succeeding 
the war, I used to meet with some sharp criticism from army 
men and from others interested in army operations, as to the 
time that had been taken by the men of the North to overcome 

[82] 












C opyriyht by Review of Reviews Co 

LEE WITH HIS SOX, G. W. C. LEE, AND COLONEL TAYLOR 



No military leader in any country, not even excepting General Washington himself, ever became so universally beloved as Robert 
E. Lee throughout the South before the close of the war. Rising from the nominal position of Superintendent of Fortifications at 
Richmond, he became the military adviser of Jefferson Davis and finally the General-in-Chief of the Confederate forces. From the 
time that Lee began to drive back McClellan s forces from Richmond in the Seven Days Battles the hopes of the Confederates were 
centered in their great general. So hastily arranged was that first and final meeting with Grant to discuss the terms of surrender that 
no photograph was obtained of it, but here are preserved for us the commanding figure, keen eyes, and marvelously moulded features 
of General Lee as he appeared immediately after that dramatic event. He has just arrived in Richmond from Appomattox, and is 

seated in the basement of his Franklin Street residence between his son, Major-General G. W. C. Lee, and his aide, Colonel Walter Ta vlor. 
[A-6] 



their opponents and to establish their control over the territory 
rebellion. Such phrases would be used as : " You had 



in 



twenty-two millions against nine millions. You must have 
been able to put two muskets into the field against every one of 
your opponents. It was absurd that you should have allowed 
yourselves to be successfully withstood for four years and that 
you should finally have crushed your plucky and skilful oppo 
nents only through the brute force of numbers." I recall the 
difference of judgment given after the British campaigns of 
South Africa as to the difficulties of an invading army. 

The large armies that were opposed to the plucky and per 
sistent Boers and the people at home came to have a better 
understanding of the nature and extent of the task of securing 
control over a wild and well-defended territory, the invaders of 
which were fighting many miles from their base and with lines 
of communication that were easily cut. By the constant cutting 
and harassing of the lines of communication, and a clever dispo 
sition of lightly equipped and active marching troops who were 
often able to crush in detail outlying or separated troops of the 
invaders, a force of some forty thousand Boers found it possible 
to keep two hundred thousand well-equipped British troops at 
bay for nearly two years. The Englishman now understands 
that when an army originally comprising a hundred thousand 
men has to come into action at a point some hundred of miles 
distant from its base, it is not a hundred thousand muskets that 
are available, but seventy thousand or sixty thousand. The 
other thousands have been used up on the march or have been 
left to guard the lines of communication. Without constantly 
renewed supplies an army is merely a helpless mass of men. 

It is probable, in fact, that the history of modern warfare 
gives no example of so complex, extensive, and difficult a mili 
tary undertaking as that which was finally brought to a suc 
cessful close by the armies of the North, armies which were 
contending against some of the best fighting material and the 
ablest military leadership that the world has known. 

[84 





THIKD PREFACE 



THE SOUTH AND 
THE FEDERAL NAVY 



THE SOUTH AND 
THE WAR RECORDS 



With Many Photographs 
of 61-65 Taken Inside 
the Confederate Lines 




THE SOUTHERN FLAG FLOATING OVER SUMTER ON APRIL 16, 1861 SOUTH 

CAROLINA TROOPS DRILLING ON THE PARADE, TWO DAYS AFTER FORCING 

OUT ANDERSON AND HIS FEDERAL GARRISON THE FLAG IS MOUNTED ON 

THE PARAPET TO THE RIGHT OF THE FORMER FLAGSTAFF, WHICH HAS BEEN 
SHATTERED IN THE COURSE OF THE BOMBARDMENT FROM CHARLESTON 



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THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH 

By FRENCH E. CHAD WICK, 

Rear-Admiral, United States Navy 

Who shall estimate the value to the United States of the services of 
its navy which thus isolated the Confederacy, cut it off from communication 
with the outside world, and at the same time compelled it to guard every 
point against a raid like that which had destroyed the Capitol of the United 
States in 1814? Had the Confederacy instead of the United States been 
able to exercise dominion over the sea ; had it been able to keep open its 
means of communication with the countries of the Old World, to send its 
cotton abroad and to bring back the supplies of which it stood so much 
in need; had it been able to blockade Portland, Boston, Newport, New 
York, the mouth of the Delaware, and the entrance of Chesapeake Bay ; 
had it possessed the sea power to prevent the United States from des 
patching by water into Virginia its armies and their supplies, it is not too 
much to say that such a reversal of conditions would have reversed the 
outcome of the Civil War. Hilary A. Herbert, Colonel 8th Alabama Vol 
unteers, C.S.A., ex-Secretary of the Navy, in an address, "The Sea and 
Sea Power as a Factor in the History of the United States,"" delivered at the 
Naval War College, August 10, 1896. 

NOW that half a century has passed since the Civil War, 
we have come to a point where we can deal calmly with 
the philosophy of the great contest without too great disturb 
ance of the feeling which came near to wrecking our nation 
ality. The actualities of the struggle will be dealt with in the 
photographic history. Meanwhile it is not amiss in these pages 
to look into the causes of the South s failure to set up a nation 
and thus justify Gladstone s surety of Southern success in his 
Newcastle speech in 1862. 

It has been, as a rule, taken for granted that the South 
was worsted in a fair fight in the field. This is so in a moderate 

[88] 



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Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co. 

A BLOCKADE RUNNER, THE SWIFTEST CRAFT OF HER DAY 

With the regularity of express trains, swift vessels like this one left Nassau and Bermuda and traveled direct for their destination, timed to 
arrive in the night. So great were the profits of blockade running that in some cases one successful voyage out and back would more 
than repay the owners for the loss of the vessel. Under these circumstances it can be easily seen that men were tempted to take risks 
that ordinarily they would avoid. 




A CHARLESTON VOLUNTEER COMPANY AT DRILL UNDER THE WALLS OF CASTLE PINCKNEY 

In pipe-clayed cross belts and white gloves, with all their accoutrements bright and shining, here we see a volunteer company of young 
Confederates standing at "Present Arms" and posing before the camera. The four officers standing in front of the line are Captain 
C. E. Chichester, Lieutenant E. John White, Lieutenant B. M. Walpole and Lieutenant R. C. Gilchrist. Gilchrist is curving his Da 
mascus scimitar a blade so finely tempered that its point would bend back to form a complete loop. 



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degree only; for the fight was not wholly a fair one. Differ 
ence of forces in the field may be set aside, as the fight being 
on the ground of the weaker, any disproportion in numbers was 
largely annulled. But the army of the North was lavishly 
equipped; there was no want of arms, food, raiment, ammu 
nition, or medical care. Everything an army could have the 
Federal forces had to overflowing. On the other hand the 
Southern army was starved of all necessaries, not to speak of 
the luxuries which the abounding North poured forth for its 
men in the field. The South was in want of many of these nec 
essaries even in the beginning of the war; toward the end it 
was in want of all. It was because of this want that it 
had to yield. General Joseph E. Johnston, writing General 
Beauregard in 1868, said truly: "We, without the means of 
purchasing supplies of any kind, or procuring or repairing 
arms, could continue this war only as robbers or guerillas." 
The Southern army finally melted away and gave up the fight 
because it had arrived at the limit of human endurance through 
the suffering which came of the absolute want brought by the 
blockade. 

Some few historians have recognized and made clear this 
fact, notably General Charles Francis Adams, himself a val 
iant soldier of the war. Another is Mr. John Christopher 
Schwab, professor of political economy in Yale University. 
The former, analyzing six reasons for the South s failure, 
given by a British sympathizer in Blackwood s Magazine for 
July, 1866, says: "We are . . . through elimination brought 
down to one factor, the blockade, as the controlling condition 
of Union success. In other words that success was made pos 
sible by the undisputed naval and maritime superiority of the 
North. Cut off from the outer w r orld and all exterior sources 
of supply, reduced to a state of inanition by the blockade, 
the Confederacy was pounded to death." l The " pounding " 

1 Charles Francis Adams, Proceedings, Massachusetts Historical Society, 
1905, vol. xix, 224. 

[90] 





Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE FIRST TASTE OF CAMP LIFE 

This rare Confederate photograph preserves for us the amusements of the Alabama soldiers in camp near Mobile on a spring day in 
1861. To the left we see a youth bending eagerly over the shoulder of the man who holds the much-prized newspaper in his hands. 
To the right a group of youngsters are reading letters from home, while in the background still others are playing the banjo and the 
violin to relieve the tedium of this inactive waiting for the glorious battles anticipated in imagination when they enlisted. These 
men are clad in the rough costume of home life, and can boast none of the bright new uniforms with shining brass buttons that made 
the Federal camps resplendent. Here and there a cap indicates an officer. Yet even these humble accessories were much better 
than the same troops could show later on, when the ruddy glow on their faces had given place to the sallowness of disease. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



ON PARADE 

Here a Confederate photographer has caught the Orleans Cadets, Company A, parading before their encampment at Big Bayou, near 
Pensacola, Florida, April 21, 1861. This was the first volunteer company mustered into service from the State of Louisiana. The 
Cadets had enlisted on April 11, 1861. Although their uniforms are not such as to make a brilliant display, it was with pride and 
confidence for the future that their commander, Captain (afterwards Lieut. Colonel) Charles D. Dreux, watched their maneuvers on 
this spring day, little dreaming that in less than three months he would fall in battle, the first but one among army officers to offer 
up his life for the Southern cause. The hopes now beating high in the hearts of both officers and men were all to be realized in 
deeds of bravery but only at further cost of human life here seen at its flood tide. 



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was mainly done by the army; the conditions which permitted 
it to be effectively done were mainly established by the navy. 

" The blockade," says Mr. Schwab in his " Financial and 
Industrial History of the South during the Civil War," " con 
stituted the most powerful tool at the command of the Fed 
eral Government in its efforts to subdue the South. The 
relentless and almost uniformly successful operations of the 
navy have been minimized in importance by the at times more 
brilliant achievements of the army; but we lean to ascribing 
to the navy the larger share in undermining the power of re 
sistance on the part of the South. It was the blockade rather 
than the ravages of the army that sapped the industrial 
strength of the Confederacy." 

The South w r as thus beaten by want; and not merely by 
force of arms. A nation of well on to 6,000,000 could never 
have been conquered on its own ground by even the great 
forces the North brought against it but for this failure of re 
sources which made it impossible to bring its full fighting 
strength into the field. 

We know that there was a total of 2,841,906 enlistments 
and reenlistments in the army and navy of the North, repre 
senting some 1,600,000 three-year enlistments; we shall, how 
ever, never know the actual forces of the South on account of 
the unfortunate destruction of the Southern records of enlist 
ments and levies. That some 1,100,000 men were available is, 
of course, patent from the fact that the white population of 
the seceding states was 5,600,000, and to these were added 
125,000 men, who, as sympathizers, joined the Southern army. 
The South fought as men have rarely fought. Its spirit was 
the equal of that of any race or time, and if the 325,000 Boers 
in South Africa could put 80,000 men into the field, the 5,600,- 
000 of the South would have furnished an equal proportion 
had there been arms, clothing, food, and the rest of the many 
accessories which, besides men, go to make an army. The situ 
ation which prevented an accomplishment of such results as 

[92] 




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CONFEDERATES ENLISTING AT THE NATCHEZ COURTHOUSE, EARLY IN 1861 

This rare Confederate photograph preserves a lively scene that was typical of the war preparations in the South in the spring of 1861. 
The fresh recruits are but scantily supplied with arms and accouterments, for only the Federal arsenals in the South could supply 
munitions of war. The military population of Mississippi at the opening of the war has been estimated at seventy thousand, and 
that of Louisiana at eighty thousand. It is believed that nearly a hundred thousand from each State enlisted in the Southern 
armies. The two scenes on this page were duplicated in hundreds of towns throughout the Southland as the war opened. 

Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 




RECRUITING AT BATON ROUGE 1862 



those in South Africa, and it was impossible in the circum 
stances that they could be, was the result of the blockade of 
the Southern coast, a force the South was powerless to resist. 

What has been said shows how clear was the role of the 
navy. The strategic situation was of the simplest; to deprive 
the South of its intercourse with Europe and in addition to 
cut the Confederacy in twain through the control of the Mis 
sissippi. The latter, gained largely by the battles of Farragut, 
Porter, Foote, and Davis, was but a part of the great scheme 
of blockade, as it cut off the supply of food from Texas and 
the shipments of material which entered that State by way of 
Matamoras. The question of the military control of Texas 
could be left aside so long as its communications were cut, for 
in any case the State would finally have to yield with the rest 
of the Confederacy. The many thousand troops which would 
have been an invaluable reenforcement to the Southern armies 
in the East were to remain west of the Mississippi and were to 
have no influence in the future events. 

The determination to attempt by force to reinstate the 
Federal authority over a vast territory, eight hundred miles 
from north to south and seventeen hundred from east to 
west, defended by such forces as mentioned, was truly a 
gigantic proposition, to be measured somewhat by the effort 
put forth by Great Britain to subdue the comparatively very 
small forces of the South African republic. It was as far from 
Washington to Atlanta (which may be considered as the heart 
of the Confederacy) as from London to Vienna. The frontier 
of the Confederacy, along which operations were to begin, was 
fifteen hundred miles in length. Within the Confederacy were 
railways which connected Chattanooga with Lynchburg.un Vir 
ginia, on the east and with Memphis, on the Mississippi, on the 
west ; two north and south lines ran, the one to New Orleans, the 
other to Mobile ; Atlanta connected with Chattanooga ; Mobile 
and Savannah were in touch with Richmond through the coast 
line \vhich passed through Wilmington and Charleston. No 

[94] 






v~\ 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

WAITING FOR THE SMELL OF POWDER CONFEDERATES BEFORE SHILOH 



.Some very youthful Louisiana soldiers waiting for their first taste of battle, a few weeks before Shiloh. These are members of the 
Washington Artillery of New Orleans. We see them at Camp Louisiana proudly wearing their new boots and their uniforms as yet 
unfaded by the sun. Louisiana gave liberally of her sons, who distinguished themselves in the fighting throughout the West. The 
Fifth Company of the Washington Artillery took part in the closely contested Battle of Shiloh. The Confederates defeated Sherman s 
troops in the early morning, and by night were in possession of all the Federal camps save one. The Washington Artillery served their 
guns handsomely and helped materially in forcing the Federals back to the bank of the river. The timely arrival of Buell s army 
the next day at Pittsburg Landing enabled Grant to recover from the reverses suffered on that bloody "first day" Sunday, April 6, 18C2. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 









7 




part of the South, east of the Mississippi, was very distant 
from railway transportation, which for a long period the South 
carried on excepting in that portion which ran from Lynch- 
burg to Chattanooga through the eastern part of Tennessee, 
where the population was in the main sympathetic with the 
Union. 

Thus the South had the great advantage, which it held for 
several years, of holding and operating on interior lines. Its 
communications were held intact, whereas those of the Federals, 
as in the case of Grant s advance by way of the Wilderness, were 
often in danger. It was not until Sherman made his great 
march to the sea across Georgia, a march which Colonel Hen 
derson, the noted English writer on strategy, says " would have 
been impossible had not a Federal fleet been ready to receive 
him when he reached the Atlantic," that the South felt its com 
munications hopelessly involved. 

To say that at the outset there was any broad and well- 
considered strategic plan at Washington for army action, would 
be an error. There was no such thing as a general staff, no 
central organization to do the planning of campaigns, such as 
now exists. The commanders of Eastern and Western armies 
often went their own gait without any effective coordination. 
It was not until Grant practically came to supreme military 
command that complete coordination was possible. 

Four Unionist objectives, however, were clear. The 
greatly disaffected border states which had not joined the Con 
federacy must be secured and the loyal parts of Virginia and 
Tennessee defended; the southern ports blockaded; the great 
river which divided the Confederacy into an east and w r est 
brought under Federal control, and the army which defended 
Richmond overcome. At the end of two years all but the last 
of these objectives had been secured, but it was nearly two 
years more before the gallant Army of Northern Virginia suc 
cumbed through the general misery wrought in the Confed 
eracy by the sealing of its ports and the consequent inability of 

[96] 



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Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI S "FIGHTING NINTH." 

In this long-lost Confederate photograph we see vividly the simple accoutrements which characterized 
many of the Southern regiments during the war. These men of Company B of the Ninth Mississippi 
enlisted as the Home Guards of Marshall County, and were mustered into the State service at Holly Springs, 
February 16, 1861. Their checked trousers and workday shirts are typical of the simple equipment each 
man furnished for himself. The boots worn by Colonel Barry, at the right, were good enough for the 
% average Confederate soldier to go through fire to obtain later on in the war. Lacking in the regalia of war 
fare, the Ninth Mississippi made a glorious record for itself in Chalmers Brigade at Shiloh, where it 
lost its gallant Colonel, William A. Rankin. "Never," said General Bragg, "were troops and commander 
more worthy of each other and their State." 









the Southerners to hold their own against the ever increasing, 
well-fed and well-supplied forces of the North. To quote again 
the able Englishman just mentioned, " Judicious indeed was 
the policy which, at the very outset of the war, brought the tre 
mendous pressure of the sea power to bear against the South, 
and had her statesmen possessed the knowledge of what that 
pressure meant, they must have realized that Abraham Lincoln 
was no ordinary foe. In forcing the Confederates to become 
the aggressors, and to fire on the national ensign, he had created 
a united North; in establishing a blockade of their coasts he 
brought into play a force which, like the mills of God, grinds 
slowly, but grinds exceedingly small. It was the command 
of the sea which finally told and made certain the success of the 
army and the reuniting of the States. 

[To the discussion presented above by Admiral Chadwick may be 
added the following expression of opinion by one of the foremost military 
students of modern Europe: "The cooperation of the United States navy 
with their army in producing a decisive effect upon the whole character of 
the military operations is akin to what happens with us in nearly every war 
in which we engage. An English general has almost always to make his 
calculations strictly in accordance with what the navy can do for him. The 
operations by which the Federal navy, in conjunction with the army, split 
the Confederacy in two and severed the East from the West, must always, 
therefore, have for him a profound interest and importance. The great 
strategical results obtained by this concentration of military and naval 
power, which were as remarkable as the circumstances under which the 
successes were gained, deserve our closest study." Field-Marshal^ the 
Right Honorable Viscount Wolseley. EDITORS.] 



[98] 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



SUMTER BECOMES A FEDERAL TARGET 



The eastern barracks inside Fort Sumter during the Bombardment of Sept. 8, 1863. The guns of the Federal 
blockading fleet had now been pounding the fort for many weeks. This but recently re-discovered picture 
is the work of G. S. Cook, the Charleston photographer. The view is to the right of the exploding shell 
in the picture on page 100. The flag and guns shown in the earlier picture have been swept away. The 
upper casemate to the left has been demolished. The lower ones remained intact, however, and continued 
; to be used and even armed to the end of the Confederate s defense. The guns here bore on the channel 
.nearly opposite Fort Moultrie. The bake oven of the barracks on the chimney of which are a couple of 
Confederate soldiers was frequently used for heating solid shot. In one of the lower rooms of the bar 
racks, seen to the right, the ruins later fell upon a detachment of sleeping soldiers. 
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RECORDS OF THE WAR BETWEEN 
THE STATES 

By MARCUS J. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, C.S.A. 

Agent of the United States War Department for the Collection of 
Military Records 

THE war which was carried on in the United States in 
1861-5, called " The War of the Rebellion," " The Civil 
War," " The War of Secession," and " The War Between 
the States," was one of the greatest conflicts of ancient or 
modern times. Official reports show that 2,865,028 men were 
mustered into the service of the United States. The report 
of Provost-Marshal General Fry shows that of these 61,362 
were killed in battle, 34,773 died of wounds, 183,287 died of 
disease, 306 were accidentally killed, and 267 were executed by 
sentence. The Adjutant-General made a report February 7, 
1869, showing the total number of deaths to be 303,504. 

The Confederate forces are estimated from 600,000 to 
1,000,000 men, and ever since the conclusion of the war there 
has been no little controversy as to the total number of troops 
involved. The losses in the Confederate army have never 
been officially reported, but the United States War Depart 
ment, which has been assiduously engaged in the collection of 
all records of both armies, has many Confederate muster-rolls 
on which the casualties are recorded. The tabulation of these 
rolls shows that 52,954 Confederate soldiers were killed in 
action, 21,570 died of wounds, and 59,297 died of disease. This 
does not include the missing muster-rolls, so that to these fig 
ures a substantial percentage must be added. Differences in 
methods of reporting the strength of commands, the absence 
of adequate field-records and the destruction of those actually 

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SOUTH CAROLINA MEN IX BLUE, SPRING 1861 
These officers of the Flying Artillery we see here entering the Confederate service at Sullivan s Island, Charleston Harbor, still wear 
ing the blue uniforms of their volunteer organization. It was one of the state militia companies so extensively organized 
throughout the South previous to the war. South Carolina was particularly active in this line. After the secession of the 
State the Charleston papers were full of notices for various military companies to assemble for drill or for the distribution of arms 
and accoutrements. Number 2 of this group is Allen J. Green, then Captain of the Columbia Flying Artillery (later a Major in the 
Confederate service). No. 4 is W. K. Bachman, then a 4th Lieutenant, later Captain in the German Volunteers, a state infantry 
organization that finally entered the artillery service and achieved renown as Bachman s Battery. No. 3 is Wilmot D. de Saussure; 
No. 7 is John Waites, then Lieutenant and later Captain of another company. After 18G3, when the Confederate resources were 
waning, the Confederate soldiers were not ashamed to wear the blue clothing brought in by the blockade runners. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



TWO YEARS AFTERWARD 

Confederate Uniforms at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. According to a Northern authority, Lee s veterans in 1863 were "the finest 
infantry on earth!" In this picture we see three of them taken prisoners at Gettysburg and caught by the camera of a Union 
photographer. These battle-stained Confederates had no glittering uniforms to wear; they marched and fought in any garb they were 
fortunate enough to secure and were glad to carry with them the blankets which would enable them to snatch some rest at night. 
Their shoes perhaps taken in sheer necessity from the dead on the field worn and dusty as we see them, were unquestionably 
the envy of many of their less fortunate comrades. Lee could only make his daring invasion of the North in 1863 by severing 
his connection with any base of supplies; and, unlike Sherman in his march to the sea, he had no friendly force waiting to receive him 
should he prove able to overcome the powerful army that opposed him. "Never," says Eggleston, "anywhere did soldiers give a 
better account of themselves. The memory of their heroism is the common heritage of all the people of the great Republic." 




nf War Irturmt 




made are responsible for considerable lack of information as 
to tbe strength and losses of the Confederate army. There 
fore, the matter is involved in considerable controversy and 
never will be settled satisfactorily; for there is no probability 
that further data on this subject will be forthcoming. 

The immensity and extent of our great Civil War are 
shown by the fact that there were fought 2,261 battles and en 
gagements, which took place in the following named States: 
In Xew York, 1; Pennsylvania, 9; Maryland, 30; District of 
Columbia, 1; West Virginia, 80; Virginia, 519; North Caro 
lina, 80; South Carolina, 60; Georgia, 108; Florida, 32; 
Alabama, 78; Mississippi, 186; Louisiana, 118; Texas, 14; 
Arkansas, 167; Tennessee, 298; Kentucky, 138; Ohio, 3; In 
diana, 4 ; Illinois, 1 ; Missouri, 244 ; Minnesota, 6 ; California, 
6; Kansas, 7; Oregon, 4; Nevada, 2; Washington Territory, 
1; Utah, 1; New Mexico, 19; Nebraska, 2; Colorado, 4; Indian 
Territory, 17; Dakota, 11; Arizona, 4; and Idaho, 1. 

It soon became evident that the official record of the War 
of 1861-5 must be compiled for the purposes of Government 
administration, as well as in the interest of history, and this 
work was projected near the close of the first administration 
of President Lincoln. It has continued during the tenure of 
succeeding Presidents, under the direction of the Secretaries 
of War, from Edwin M. Stanton, under whom it began, to 
Secretary Elihu Root, under whose direction it was completed. 
Colonel Robert N. Scott, U.S.A., who was placed in charge of 
the work in 1874, prepared a methodical arrangement of the 
matter which was continued throughout. Officers of the United 
States army were detailed, and former officers of the Confed 
erate army were also employed in the work. The chief civilian 
expert who continued with the work from its inception was Mr. 
Joseph W. Kirkley. The total number of volumes is 70; the 
total number of books, 128, many of the volumes containing 
several separate parts. The total cost of publication was $2,- 
858,514.67. 

[104] 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE LAST TO LAY DOWN ARMS 



Recovered from oblivion only after a long and patient search, this is believed to be the last Confederate 
war photograph taken. On May 26, 1865, General E. Kirby Smith surrendered the troops in the Trans- 
Mississippi Department. Paroled by that capitulation these officers gathered in Shreveport, Louisiana, early 
in June to commemorate by means of the camera their long connection with the war. The oldest of them 
was but 40. The clothes in which they fought were worn to tatters, but each has donned the dress coat 
of an unused uniform carefully saved in some chest in the belief that it was to identify him with a victorious 
cause and not as here with a lost one. The names of those standing, from left to right, are : David French 
Boyd, Major of Engineers; D. C. Proctor, First Louisiana Engineers; unidentified; and William Freret. The 
names of those seated are: Richard M. Venable; H. T. Douglas, Colonel of Engineers; and Octave Hopkins, 
First Louisiana Engineers. 




0f tlj? liar J8rttu?nt tlj? States * 














In view of the distrust with which the South for a while 
naturally regarded the efforts made by the Government to pro 
cure the records of the Confederacy, the work of the depart 
ment to obtain this material at first met with slight success. 

In 1878, the writer, a Confederate officer, was appointed 
as agent of the War Department for the collection of Confed 
erate archives. Through his efforts the attitude of the South 
ern people became more cordial, and increased records were the 
result. By provision of Congress, certain sets of the volumes 
were distributed, and others held for sale at cost. 

The history of this official record is mentioned in these 
pages as it indicates a wide-spread national desire on the part 
of the people of the United States to have a full and impartial 
record of the great conflict, which must form, necessarily, the 
basis of all history concerned with this era. It is the record of 
the struggle as distinguished from personal recollections and 
reminiscences, and its fulness and impartial character have 
never been questioned. The large number of these volumes 
makes them unavailable for general reading, but in the prepa 
ration of " The Photographic History of the Civil War " the 
editors have not only consulted these official reports, but give 
the equally permanent testimony of the photographic nega 
tive. Therefore, as a successor to and complement of this Gov 
ernment publication, nothing could be more useful or interest 
ing than " The Photographic History of the Civil War." The 
text does not aim at a statistical record, but is an impartial 
narrative supplementing the pictures. Nothing gives so clear 
a conception of a person or an event as a picture. The more 
intelligent people of the country, North and South, desire the 
truth put on record, and all bitter feeling eliminated. This 
work, it is believed, will add greatly to that end. 



[106] 



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[ 10.H ] 



E STRATEGY 



WAR -EADERS 





A CENTRAL STRATEGICAL, POINT THE APPROACH TO RICHMOND VIA 

JAMES RIVER, AS IT LOOKED IN WAR-TIME, BLOCKED BY THE CONFEDERATE 
RAM "VIRGINIA," AND GUNBOATS "PATRICK HENRY" AND "JAMESTOWN," 
SUNK IN THE CHANNEL TO HOLD THE FEDERAL FLEET FROM RICHMOND 
(SEE TWO PAGES FOLLOWING FOR ANOTHER VIEW OF THIS SCENE) 




OBSTRUCTIONS RENDERED USELESS 

The superior navy of the Federals at the beginning and throughout the war enabled them to gain the advantage of penetrating the 
rivers leading into the interior of the Confederacy and thus support the military forees in many telling movements. To this fact 
the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson and the ultimate control of the Mississippi by the Union forces gives eloquent testimony. 
In the East the regions between Washington and Richmond were traversed by streams, small and large, which made aggressive warfare 
difficult. For this reason McClellan chose the James River Peninsula for his first advance upon the Confederate Capital. Far 
more dreaded than the advance of the army was the approach of the powerful Monitor and the Galena up the James River, and the 
[110] 




Copyright by Review of Reriewi 



JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA, NEAR DREWRY S BLUFF. 1862 



first thought of the Confederates was to hold this danger in abeyance. Hence the obstructions (shown on the opposite page) 
sunk in the bend of the James River near Drewry s Bluff, where a powerful battery known as Fort Darling was hastily but 
effectively constructed. These blocked the attempts of the Federals to invest the Confederate capital until Grant s superior strategy 
in 186-t rendered them useless by throwing his army across the James in one of his famous flanking movements and advancing 
toward Richmond in a new direction. The campaign developing into a siege of Petersburg on the Appornattox, the Federal vessels 
confined their activities to the lower James. 



THE STRATEGY OF THE CIVIL WAR 





By EBEN SWIFT 

Lieutenant-Colonel 8th Cavalry, United States Army 

But strategy, unfortunately, is a very unpopular science, even among 
soldiers, requiring both in practice and in demonstration constant and 
careful study of the map, the closest computation of time and space, a 
grasp of many factors, and the strictest attention to the various steps in 
the problems it presents. At the same time, it is a science which repays 
the student, although he may have no direct concern with military affairs ; 
for not only will a comprehension of its immutable principles add a new 
interest to the records of stirring times and great achievements, but will 
make him a more useful citizen. " Stone wall Jackson and the Civil War" 
by Lieutenant-Colonel G. F. R. Henderson, C.B. 

THE student has great advantage over the actor in war, 
particularly when he makes his study after a lapse of 
fifty years. His point of view is illuminated then by the stories 
as told by both contestants, by the disputes and explanations of 
many participants. He also pursues his investigations without 
any of the distracting influences of war itself. It may not, 
therefore, be entirely fair to take each man s act before the bar 
of history and to require him to justify himself to the critics of 
a later day. In a larger sense, though, it is right, because past 
experience gives the best lessons and guides for the future. 
Until we have another war, we shall continue to study the great 
conflict of 1861-5, and to read the secrets of our future in its 
tale of failure or success. 

" Strategy " is a comparatively recent addition to our lan 
guage. It is derived from the Greek crrpar^yta, meaning gen 
eralship, and has several valuable derivatives, as " strategic " 
and " strategist," which make it a more useful word than 

[112] 




Copyriglit by Review of Reviews Co* 



WAR STUDENTS OF TWO CONTINENTS 



What an excellent example of open-air group portraiture the work of Gardner s camera! But photography 
can add nothing to the fame of these men, gathered together in an idle hour to chat about the strategy of 
the war. Seated in the center is Count Zeppelin, of the Prussian Army, later the winner of honors with his 
airship and then on a visit to America to observe the Civil W 7 ar. To his left is Lieutenant Rosencranz, a 
Swedish officer, on leave of absence, observing the war at close range as General McClellan s personal aide- 
de-camp. He successively served Burnside, Hooker and Meade in the same capacity. His brave and 
genial disposition made him a universal favorite. The other men are Americans, conspicuous actors as well 
as students in the struggle. On the ground, to the left, sits Major Ludlow, who commanded the colored 
brigade which, and under his direction, in the face of a continual bombardment, dug Dutch Gap Canal 
on the James. The man in the straw hat is Lieut. Colonel Dickinson, Assistant Adjutant General to Hooker, 
a position in which he served until the Battle of Gettysburg, w r here he was wounded. Standing is Captain 
Ulric Dahlgren, serving at the time on Meade s staff. Even the loss of a leg could not quell his indomitable 
spirit, and he subsequently sacrificed his life in an effort to release the Federal prisoners at Libby and 
Belle Isle. 




0f 1BH1-B5 




\\ 



generalship. It means the art of the general and indicates the 
time, place, and way to fight battles. 

The War of the States was viewed at first with indifference 
by foreign military men. For many years past, however, it 
has claimed their close attention, because they have come to 
realize that new conditions were tested then, and that new in 
fluences, which changed the art of the general even from the 
respected models of Xapoleon fifty years before, were at work. 
Ironclads, entrenchments, railroads, the breech-loader, a new 
kind of cavalry were the fresh factors in the problem. 

Although hostilities at first began over an area half as 
large as Europe, the region of decisive operations was, on ac 
count of lack of communication, narrowed to the country be 
tween the Atlantic and the Mississippi, about seven hundred 
miles in an air-line. The line was unequally divided by the 
towering barrier of the Alleghany Mountains, about two hun 
dred miles wide, over which communication was difficult. The 
eastern section of the country beyond the range was about 
one hundred miles wide and the western section was about 
four hundred miles wide. In Maryland, northwestern Vir 
ginia, Kentucky, and Missouri sentiment was divided between 
the Union and the Confederacy. The Mississippi River sep 
arated three of the seceding States from the remaining eight. 

The immense amount of supplies needed for a great army 
caused military operations on a large scale to be confined to 
rail and water lines. Of the former, both the Xorth and 
South had several routes running east and west for lateral 
communication, and the South had several running north 
and south in each section, which could be used for lines 
of military operations. In respect to water routes, the Xorth 
soon demonstrated its complete control of the sea and was 
thus able to choose its points of attack, while interior water 
routes were available by the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cum 
berland, and James rivers. The advantage of the water route 
over that by rail was at once utilized by the Northern generals. 



l/i tff/i 



/ 



/ 




In 1861 there arrived the flrst great oppor 
tunity to study warfare in the field since the 
campaigns of Napoleon, and these young men 
of royal blood expected at no distant day to 
be the leaders of a war of their own to recover 
the lost Bourbon throne of France. The 
three distinguished guests of the Army of 
the Potomac seated at the farther end of the 
camp dinner-table are, from right to left, the 
Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillipe, 
and his two nephews, the Count de Paris 
and the Due de Chartres, sons of the Due 
d Orleans. They came to Washington in Sep 
tember, 1861, eager to take some part in the 
great conflict for the sake of the experience it 
would give them. President Lincoln welcomed 
them, bestowed upon each the honorary rank 
of Captain, and assigned them to the staff of 
General McClellan. Officially merely guests 
at headquarters, they acted as aides-de-camp 
to McClellan, bearing despatches and the like, 
frequently under fire. They distinguished 
themselves at the battle of Games Mill. The 
Prince de Joinville made a painting of that 
engagement which became widely published. 



A KING S SON IN CAMP 



In the lower picture the Count de Paris and 
the Due de Chartres are trying their skill at 
dominoes after dinner. Captain Leclerc, on 
the left, and Captain Mohain, on the right, 
are of their party. A Union officer has taken 
the place of the Prince de Joinville. It was 
to perfect their skill in a greater and grimmer 
game that these young men came to America. 
At Yorktown they could see the rehabilitated 
fortifications of Cornwallis, which men of 
their own blood had helped to seize, now am 
plified by the latest methods of defensive war 
fare. Exposed to the fire of the Napoleon field 
pieces imported by the Confederacy, they 
could compare their effectiveness with that of 
the huge rifled Dahlgrens, the invention of an 
American admiral. General McClellan tes 
tified that ever in the thick of things they 
performed their duties to his entire satisfac 
tion. At the close of the Peninsula Cam 
paign the royal party returned to France, 
but watched the war with great interest to 
its close. 

[A 8] 




LEARNING THE GAME 



Copyriy!it by Patriot Pub. Co. 




1 



0f 1BH1-H5 



* * 



v~\ 



It was not so vulnerable to attack as the railroad. All navi 
gable rivers within the area of operations were used for this 
purpose, and McClellan, Burnside, and Grant used the Chesa 
peake Bay and its tributaries to carry their base of supplies 
close to Richmond. The operations of the Confederates, on 
the other hand, were greatly restricted by being confined to 
railroad lines. 

Several natural features which were certain to influence 
events to a great extent are to be noticed. In Virginia, 
numerous rivers, running parallel to the direct line of advance, 
form good lines for defense and also obstacles to an advance. 
Several mountain valleys leading north at the eastern ranges 
of the Alleghanies gave opportunities for leading large forces 
safely into Pennsylvania from Virginia, or vice versa. Within 
the mountain district, a railroad from Lynchburg, Virginia, 
to Chattanooga, in Tennessee, about four hundred miles long, 
gave an opportunity for transferring troops from one section 
to the other, while the corresponding distance at the North \vas 
three times as great. In the western section, the Tennessee 
and Cumberland rivers are separated at one place by a narrow 
neck about two miles wide, thus somewhat simplifying the 
problem of controlling these two important streams. The 
strategic chess-board, then, gave great opportunities to skilful 
generalship. The Virginia rivers gave strength to long de 
fensive lines, screened marches from east to west, and forced 
the Northern generals to seek the flank rather than the front 
attack. The Shenandoah valley afforded a safe approach to 
Washington from the rear. This was availed of by Lee, 
Jackson, and Early to keep many thousand men of the army 
of the North in idleness. In the West, the long line defended 
by scattered troops was weak at every point and was quite 
easily broken by Grant, particularly when the South was 
slow in grasping the situation there. The advantage of the 
Richmond-Chattanooga railroad was not used by the Confed 
erates until too late for success. 

[116] 



There is no mistaking the nationality of these 
Military Attaches with their tartans and Dun 
dreary whiskers. They were accompanying 
the Army of the Potomac on its Peninsula 
Campaign. In the center of the group of 
Englishmen stands the Prince de Joinville. 
From the observations of these men both 
France and England were to learn many mili 
tary lessons from a new conflict on the soil 
over which the soldiers of both nations had 
fought in a former generation. The armies 
of both North and South were being moved 
and maintained in the field in a manner and 
upon a scale undreamed of by Napoleon, to 
say nothing of Howe and Cornwallis. The 
Count de Paris wrote a very comprehensive 
and impartial history of the war, and in 
1890 revisited America and gathered together 
some 200 or more surviving officers of the 
Army of the Potomac at a dinner in the old 
Hotel Plaza, New York City. Not half the 
veterans that were his guests more than two 
decades ago are still alive, and the Due him 
self joined the majority in 1894. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



WATCHING THE WAR 




Here are some English and other foreign mili 
tary officers with General Barry and some of 
his staff before Yorktown in May, 1862. Eu 
ropean military opinion was at first indifferent 
to the importance of the conflict as a school 
of war. The more progressive, nevertheless, 
realized that much was to be learned from it. 
The railroad and the telegraph were two un 
tried elements in strategy. The ironclad gun 
boat and ram introduced serious complica 
tions in naval warfare. At first the influence 
of Napoleon I was manifest in the field, but 
as the struggle proceeded both armies de 
veloped distinctly new ideas of their own. 
The sight of Sherman maintaining railroad and 
telegraphic communications with a base 138 
miles away was a new one to the world, while 
his cutting loose from any base whatever in his 
March to the Sea was only less remarkable than 
Lee s invasion of Pennsylvania under similar 
conditions, to which was added a superior op 
posing force. In these and many other ex 
amples the war set the pace for later develop 
ment. 



YORKTOWN EIGHTY YEARS AFTER 









Strategy nf 1B61-S5 



<* * 



The strategy, on account of political and other influences, 
was not always chosen according to the best military prin 
ciples. Such influences always exist, and it is the duty of the 
soldier to conform and to make his plan to suit as best he can. 

Under the head of policy would come Lee s several inva 
sions of the Xorth, undertaken with insufficient forces and too 
far from his base of supplies. Numerous causes have been 
given for these campaigns, the most plausible of which were 
of a political and not of a strategic nature. It was thought 
that a victory won on Northern soil might lead to intervention 
on the part of foreign nations, or that it would increase the 
disaffected element in the North to such an extent that the 
South could dictate a peace. 

The policy of making military operations conform to the 
desire to help Northern sympathizers in eastern Tennessee had 
a powerful influence on the entire war. In the spring of 18(52, 
it would have taken Buell into eastern Tennessee, instead of to 
the assistance of Grant and would have changed the course of 
events in the Mississippi valley. Three months later, it was one 
of the potent influences that led to the breaking up of Hal- 
leek s army at Corinth. It finally caused Buell s relief from 
command because of his disapproval. It caused Burnside s 
army to be absent from the battle of Chickamauga. 

In 1864, the campaigns of Price in Missouri and Hood 
in Tennessee are said to have been intended to affect the presi 
dential election at the North by giving encouragement to the 
party which was claiming that the war was a Federal failure. 
If that was not the case might not Hood have done better by 
marching in the track of Longstreet through Knoxville, 
Tennessee, and Lynchburg, Virginia, to join Lee, while Sher 
man was marching to the sea, entirely out of reach? 

An unreasonable importance, from a military point of 
view, was given to the capital of each government. The cap 
ital of the United States had been captured in two wars 
without producing more than local effect, but every plan in 

[118] 



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Virginia was contingent upon the safety of Washington, thus 
causing the diversion of many thousand soldiers for that single 
duty. On the Southern side the correct military decision 
would have been to abandon Richmond as soon as Peters 
burg was invested, but the Government delayed, for political 
reasons, until it was too late, and the defending army surren 
dered as a consequence. 

In the distribution of troops the Federal authorities were 
hampered by the rival claims of the border States, which 
thought they required protection. Hence, Ohio sent an army 
into West Virginia; Pennsylvania, into the Shenandoah valley; 
the national Government concentrated troops for the protec 
tion of its capital ; the Western States gathered along the Ohio 
River and in Missouri. This great dispersion existed on both 
sides and continued more or less till the end of the war. The 
advantage it gave was in the protection of the friendly portion 
of the population and in the good recruiting ground thus se 
cured. The great difficulty of holding troops in service, whose 
home country had been overrun, was appreciated by both sides 
and exercised a strong influence on the plans of the generals. 
These conditions dictated much of the strategy which is sub 
ject to criticism, and should not be forgotten. 

The policy of furloughing great numbers of soldiers 
during the war, as an inducement to reenlist, was probably 
unavoidable, but it helped to cause inactivity during many 
months and in the case of Sherman s Atlanta campaign it 
caused the absence of two of his divisions. Absenteeism is 
one of the inevitable consequences of a long war, with troops 
untrained in time of peace by modern methods. Lincoln com 
plained of it and the generals seemed powerless to limit or 
prevent it. Probably the latter are entitled to most of the 
blame. It w r as not uncommon for a general to call for reen- 
forcements at a time when large numbers of his troops were 
absent. 

The armies were indeed long in getting over the 

[120] 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE KEY TO WASHINGTON 



From Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Harper s Ferry, Virginia, lay the Alleghany Mountains, an almost impassable barrier to the move 
ment of armies. Here we see them sloping toward the gap at Harper s Ferry on the Potomac. The approach to this was made easy 
from the South by the Shenandoah Valley, the facile and favorite avenue of advance by the Confederates when threatening in 
vasion of the enemy s territory. The scene is of the dismantled bridge across Armstrong Run. Driving General Banks forces up 
the Valley and forcing him across the Potomac, Jackson saved Richmond from McClellan in 1862. Up the Valley came Lee the follow 
ing year, striking terror to the North by the invasion that was only checked at Gettysburg. This eastern gap, provided by nature 
in the Alleghanies, became a veritable gateway of terror to the Federals, for through it lay open the path for sudden approach upon 
Washington on the part of the Confederates. 




\ 



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nf 1BH1-H5 



characteristics of raw troops, but the generals in their early 
movements do not appear much better than the troops. Every 
man who had been graduated from West Point was regarded 
as a " trained soldier," which was a mistake, because West 
Point was a preparatory school, and such men as had studied 
the art of high command had done so by themselves. The 
trade of the general was new to all, and had to be learned in 
the hard school of experience. 

In four of the early campaigns in which the Federal 
troops were practically unopposed, they marched on an aver 
age of less than seven miles per day, while, in case of opposi 
tion by a greatly inferior force, the average was down to a 
mile a day, as in the Peninsula campaign and the advance on 
Corinth. 

The plans for the early battles were complicated in the 
extreme, perhaps due to the study of Napoleon and his perfect 
army opposed by poor generals. Bull Run, Wilson s Creek, 
Seven Pines, Glendale, Malvern Hill, Shiloh, Games Mill 
w T ere of this kind, and failed. Even at Gettysburg, July 2, 
1863, Lee s failure to execute his echelon attacks showed that 
his army was not yet ready to perform such a delicate refine 
ment of war. 

As an example of improvement, however, take Jackson s 
march of fourteen miles on a country road and the battle fought 
on May 2, 1863, all between daylight and dark of one day. 
In battles, also, we notice the fine play of early campaigns 
replaced by a savage directness and simplicity at a later period, 
in the Wilderness by Lee and at Spottsylvania by Grant. 
Thus it was that both leaders had ceased to count on the ineffi 
ciency of the enemy. At the beginning of the movement on 
Richmond both Lee and Grant seemed reckless in the risks 
they took. It was not so earlier. 

The earliest form of strategy was the practice of ruse, 
stratagem, and surprise, but they have long been considered 
as clumsy expedients which are no longer effective against 

[ 122 ] 




//" / 

/// 

// // 




RICHMOND IX RUINS, OCCUPIED BY THE FEDERALS 




POLITICAL OBJECTIVES, WASHINGTON 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



In these two pictures appear the two capitals that were mistakenly made the goals of the military operations on both sides. The 
Confederates threatened Washington at the outset of the war, and realizing the effectiveness of such a move in giving moral rather 
than military support to their cause, similar movements were repeated throughout the war. For a like reason "On to Richmond" 
was the cry at the North until Grant took command and made the army of Lee and its ultimate reduction to an ineffective state his 
controlling purpose. With the investment of Petersburg by the Federals, Lee s proper military move would have been the aban 
donment of Richmond and the opposing of Grant along other lines. 



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the best troops and commanders. Among instances which are 
often classed in this category are Shiloh, Chancellorsville, and 
the Wilderness. 

Some forms of strategy have not changed in several 
thousand years. Sherman, for instance, crossed the Chatta- 
hoochee, which was held by Johnston, in 1864, in the same way 
that Alexander crossed the Hydaspes in the year 326 B. c., 
by feinting at one flank and crossing at the other. 

The Vicksburg campaign gave great fame to General 
Grant and is really one of the most complete and decisive ex 
amples in history. In this campaign, he deliberately crossed 
the river north of Vicksburg, marched south and crossed again 
below Vicksburg. Then, relying on the country for supplies, 
he moved to Jackson, forty-five miles east of Vicksburg, where 
he interposed between the fractions of the Confederate army 
under Pemberton and Johnston. He then turned back again 
toward the Mississippi, drove Pemberton into Vicksburg, 
established a base of supplies at the North and invested the 
city. In this case, it is noticeable that the tendency to rate 
localities at too high a value is shown in Pemberton s retreat 
ing to Vicksburg, which was quite certain to be surrendered, 
instead of joining forces w r ith Johnston to oppose Grant in 
the interior. 

The same point is illustrated by the siege of Petersburg. 
As soon as Grant s army crossed the James and began this 
siege the fate of Richmond was sealed, for Grant had a great 
army and numerous means of extending his fortified lines until 
they crossed every avenue of approach to Richmond. 

Moltke remarked that strategy was nothing more than 
common sense, but he acknowledged that it was often difficult 
to decide what was common sense and what was not. He 
might easily have had our Civil War in his mind. In 1861, the 
art of war had been greatly complicated by pedantic study, 
principally by officers of the French school, in attempting to 
reduce it to an exact science. The true lesson of Napoleon s 

[124] 





A DEFENDER OF THE FEDERAL CAPITAL 




AN IDLE GARRISON 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



Only once were the elaborate fortifications about Washington seriously threatened. That was when the Confederate General Jubal 
A. Early, with a force of 10,000 men, marched against the Federal capital in July, 1864, with the intention of capturing it. Rein 
forcements were rushed to these works and Early retreated. The constant compliance with the clamor at the North that Washington 
be strongly defended was a serious strategical mistake. The Army of the Potomac was at first superior in number to Lee s army 
of Northern Virginia. It coukl have been made overwhelmingly so at the beginning of the war if the troops around Washington had 
been added to it. Grant demonstrated the wisdom of this policy in 1864 by leaving only a few heavy artillery regiments, the "hun 
dred days men," and detachments from the Veteran Reserve to defend Washington. He then outnumbered Lee in the field. 




nf 1B61-B5 



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campaigns had either been lost or the effect of new conditions 
had not been appreciated. It seems rather commonplace to 
say at this time that the first thing to do in war is to decide 
on your objective, but in the Civil War an incalculable amount 
of time was wasted, much treasure expended, and many lives 
were lost in a blind search for an objective. By objective is 
meant, of course, a point upon which to concentrate the 
greatest effort, the gaining of which will mean the success or 
failure of the cause. 

In 1862, when the hostile armies opposed each other in 
front of Washington, McClellan insisted on attacking Rich 
mond instead of Johnston s army. His plan resulted in the 
transfer of his army to the Peninsula and carried him to within 
six miles of Richmond with insignificant loss. For this, great 
credit has been claimed and unfavorable comment made on 
later campaigns. But McClellan found the undefeated Con 
federate army at Richmond, and he was weakened by a vast 
army which had been kept back to guard Washington. With 
out entering into this great controversy, we may simply say 
that to fight the foe as far from Richmond as possible would 
now r be considered the correct solution of that problem. It is 
well known that Lincoln disapproved of McClellan s plan, 
whether by the counsel of wise military advisers or by his own 
common sense we know not. 

Again, in 1862, when Halleck with much trouble and 
skill had collected a great army of one hundred thousand men 
at Corinth, the army was dispersed, contrary to his desire, it 
appears, and the true objective was lost. The Confederate 
leader repaired his losses and soon recovered from his seri 
ous defeats. At that time the army could have gone any 
where, whether to Vicksburg to open the Mississippi, or to 
Chattanooga and even to Richmond. This is the opinion of 
those best qualified to know. Burnside, also, in the fall of 
1862, marched away from Lee s army when he went to Fred- 
ericksburg. 

[120] 






m 



..fes. 





Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

WHERE GRANT CROSSED THE JAMES. 

When Grant at this point crossed the James and, ignoring the water approaches upon 
Richmond, proceeded to the investment of Petersburg, Lee was as good as checkmated. 
For months Grant s brilliant flanking movements had gained him no advantage over 
his opponent, who persistently remaining on the defensive shifted from one impregnable 
position to another till at last Grant saw that the railroads were the key to the situation. 
With Lee s forces entirely disposed for the defense of Richmond, it was but necessary to 
cut off the communications of the Confederate capital in order to force Lee to come forth 
and give battle. The investment of Petersburg, successfully prosecuted, would leave 
but one railroad in the hands of the Confederates. The crossing of the James near 
Wilcox Landing over the bridge, the remains of which appear in the picture, was the 
final strategic triumph by which Grant accomplished victory over Lee s army. 




1BB1-B5 







So deep-rooted is the idea of choosing a locality as the 
objective of a campaign instead of a hostile army, that Rose- 
crans campaign, in the summer of 1863, has gone into history 
as the " Campaign for Chattanooga," and it has been claimed 
by his admirers that the possession of that place was worth 
what it cost a heavy defeat at Chickamauga. 

In 1864, Grant had authority to lay down a choice of 
objective, which he had already announced in 1862. For him 
self it was clearly Lee s army, and it was intended to be the 
same with other commands as well. General Sherman, how 
ever, was not so clear in his manner of execution as was his 
chief. His strategy creates a suspicion that it was designed 
to force Johnston to retreat and to relinquish territory. There 
was an idea that Johnston would not give up Dalton, which 
he had strongly fortified, but Sherman s heavy turning move 
ment against his rear forced him to retreat without a battle. 
The same strategy continued until Atlanta was reached, and 
still Johnston s army was undefeated, while Sherman had 
weakened his army by guarding a long line of communication. 
Judging from this, we are disposed to suspect that Atlanta, 
rather than Johnston s army, was Sherman s main objective. 

Later, the historic " March to the Sea " introduces a novel 
element into the question, for Sherman abandoned Hood s 
army as a first objective, and chose Lee s army instead. It 
will be remembered that Sherman had difficulty in getting 
consent from Grant, who wanted him to ruin Hood s army 
first. As it turned out, Sherman marched one thousand miles 
and was several hundred miles from Lee at the end of the 
campaign. If Lee s army had been his real objective there 
were other ways of reaching it: first, by sending his army by 
sea north from Savannah, as was suggested by Grant, which 
would have taken two months, say until the end of February, 
1865; second, by sending the troops by rail, as Schofield was 
moved with fifteen thousand men and as Hooker was moved 
with twenty-three thousand men, and, third, by marching on 

[128] 







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Lynchburg by the Knoxville road, which would have been 
about one-third to one-half the distance actually marched. 

Looking upon the war with all the advantage of to-day, 
it is not difficult to assume that the hopes of both sides rested 
on two great armies, one in the East and one in the West, and 
the destruction of either meant the destruction of the other. 
This clear estimate seems to have come quite naturally and 
easily to only one man during the war, and that man was 
Grant. Such a conception clears away a mass of secondary 
objectives, such as so-called " strategic points " along the coast 
and west of the Mississippi, which consumed hundreds of thou 
sands of troops and had only a minor effect on the final issue. 
It must be admitted that Grant used some seventy-five thou 
sand men on secondary objectives which were not successful, 
in 1864, when these men would have had a great effect either 
with the armies of Sherman or himself. He probably thought 
that an army of one hundred and twenty thousand men was 
large enough for his purposes, but he found it was a mistake. 

Equally fallacious with the importance given to " strategic 
points " was that ascribed to the occupation of territory. The 
control of Kentucky and Tennessee was given by Grant s Fort 
Donelson campaign, but the injury inflicted on the Confed 
erate army by the large capture of men at Donelson and Island 
Xumber 10 was the real and vital result. The control of ter 
ritory that was not accompanied by the defeat of the foe 
often had many disadvantages. Such was the experience of 
Grant and Sherman, the former in his first advance on Vicks- 
burg, and the latter in the Atlanta campaign. 

For the South it was an easier task to decide upon an ob 
jective because it was the weaker side and its acts were deter 
mined by those of the stronger. The main idea of the strategy 
of the Southern generals was to divert attention to side issues, 
to induce the opposing general to weaken his forces at de 
cisive points. Numerous examples of diversions are afforded 
by Jackson s Valley campaign, in 1862, which kept many 





WORK OF THE ENGINEERS AND THE CAVALRY 



The groat Civil A\ar first introduced the railroad as a strategic factor in military operations. In the upper picture we see the 
federal engineers at Yibbard Draw on Long Bridge at Washington busily at work rehabilitating a locomotive for use along the railroad 
connections ot the capital with its army. Extemporized wooden structures of that time seem paltry in comparison with the great 
steel cranes and derricks which our modern wrecking trains have made familiar. The railroads in control of the North were much 
better equipped and guarded than those of the South, yet the bold Confederate Cavalry, under such leaders as Stuart, were ever ready 
r raids to cut communications. How thoroughly they did their work whenever they got the chance, the lower picture tells. 




AFTER A RAID ON THE ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD 







of 1SH1-B5 + 



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thousand men away from McClellan ; Early s march on Wash 
ington, and many cavalry raids. 

The result of a study of objectives shows that, with good 
troops, and safe, but not brilliant, generals on both sides, the 
only way to overthrow the opponent is to attack and defeat 
his main army. 

The long periods of inactivity in the several armies of the 
North seem to have been largely, but not always, due to 
the frequent change of commanders. The other causes would 
take long to analyze. Lee made six campaigns in fourteen 
months, from May, 1862, to July, 1863, a performance un- 
equaled in history. But McClellan s army was inactive for 
ten months after Bull Run; Rosecrans army for five months 
after Murfreesboro, and Grant s army for four months after 
Vicksburg, while Grant s army was almost in the same class 
during its ten months before Petersburg. 

The concentration of scattered forces at decisive points, 
which is technically called in the text-book the use of inte 
rior lines, and in more homely phrase, " getting there first 
with the most men," was often skilfully performed on both 
a large and small scale. Thus, Johnston joined Beauregard 
at Bull Run in time to win the battle; Jackson alternately 
attacked the divided forces of his opponents and neutralized 
their greatly superior forces, and finally joined Lee for an 
other campaign; Longstreet joined Bragg to win Chicka- 
mauga; Ewell joined Breckinridge to defeat Sigel. Many 
opportunities were lost, even in the very campaigns mentioned, 
as we see them to-day. 

The conduct of pursuits confirms the idea that it is the 
most difficult operation presented to a general. Johnston after 
Bull Run, McClellan after Antietam, Meade after Gettysburg, 
Bragg after Chickamauga, Grant after Chattanooga, and Lee 
after Fredericksburg practically allowed the defeated enemy 
to escape without further injury. Lee s pursuit of McClellan 
in the Seven Days Battles on the Peninsula and of Meade in 

[132] 




Cowuriaht bu Review of Reviews Co. 

MILITARY COMMERCE 

This view of the magazine wharf at City Point in 1864 reveals the immensity of the transportation problem that was solved by the 
North in support of its armies in the field. The Federal army in Virginia, unlike the armies of Napoleon, did not forage off the ter 
ritory which it occupied. Rail and water transportation made possible the bringing of supplies long distances. Whatever point was 
chosen for the army base quickly became a bustling center, rivaling the activity of any great commercial city, and giving employment 
to thousands of men whose business it was to unload and forward the arriving stores and ammunition to the army in the field near by. 




CITY POINT, VIRGINIA, JULY, 1864 Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 
When Grant finally settled down to the siege of Petersburg, and City Point became the army base, the little village was turned tem 
porarily into a great town. Winter quarters were built in the form of comfortable cabins for the reserve troops and the garrison, 
and ample hospital buildings were provided. The railroad to Petersburg was controlled and operated by the army for the forwarding 
of troops and stores. The supply base longest occupied by the Army of the Potomac, City Point, grew up almost in a night. With 
the coming of peace the importance of the post vanished, and with it soon after the evidences of its aggrandizement. 




0f 1BB1-H5 



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, 



SHL 



the operations of October, 1863, had only partial success. Near 
the end of the war Thomas pursuit of Hood, after Nashville, 
showed a much higher efficiency than had yet been reached, and 
the Appomattox campaign gives the only entirely successful 
instance in about one hundred years of military history. 

The campaigns of Lee and Jackson were models of their 
kind. Napoleon has said that the general who makes no mis 
takes never goes to war. The critic of Lee finds it hard to 
detect mistakes. No general since Hannibal, and perhaps 
Xapoleon, in the last two years of his campaigns, has made 
war under greater disadvantages and accomplished so much 
with an inferior force. While all great generals before him 
inherited a ready-made army, Lee, like Washington, made his 
own army. He fought soldiers of the same race and generals 
of the same school as himself. His genius was shown in many 
ways, but nowhere more than in his ability to calculate chances, 
even when he was violating the so-called rules of war. He 
used converging columns which met upon the field of battle; he 
detached inferior forces against the Federals rear; he divided 
his army in the presence of the foe; he uncovered his lines of 
retreat and fought battles in that position; he did not hesitate 
to throw his last reserve into the fight. 

On two occasions he withdrew his army across the Poto 
mac River, in good order and without loss, in the presence of 
a powerful hostile army. His use of the ground to compen 
sate for inferior numbers and to hide his movements from the 
Federals shows how clearly he saw the secrets of Napoleon s 
generalship, while his battles in the woods were entirely orig 
inal and his use of entrenchments was effective. The power 
of the modern fire-arm in the hands of his opponents forced 
him to accept less decisive results than great soldiers who 
preceded him. As with other great soldiers, his best success 
was due to the inefficiency of his opponents in the early days. 
He was probably the last of the race of generals who, like 
Napoleon, dominated the field of war by genius alone. He 

[ 134 ] 



n 



-J ^_ 




NEW NECESSITIES OF WARFARE 



Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co. 



The increased deadlines.? of firearms taught the commanders in the Civil War the habit of greatly strengthening every new position 
occupied with earthworks as formidable as possible. The works in the upper picture were thrown up in a night by the Federals near 
North Anna River, Virginia, in 1804. It is apparent how they would strengthen the resistance of a small force to larger numbers who 
might advance across the open upon the position. In the lower picture we see the salient of " Fort Hell," with its ditch and abattis 
and breastworks constructed of gabions, the result of many days work of the soldiers in anticipation of attack. This was one of the 
fortifications about Petersburg, where the construction of fieldworks was developed to the highest point of efficiency. 




Strategy 0f 1BH1-B5 




^ 



will be replaced by the safe leader who is never brilliant, but 
makes no mistakes and at the same time commands the heaviest 
battalions. 

The absence of a broad and comprehensive plan of opera 
tions was particularly noticeable on both sides. It never 
seemed to have been developed in the Xorth until Grant issued 
his orders for a general advance, in 1864. In the South, Long- 
street seems to have prepared a strategic plan for the move 
ment of all Confederate armies after Chancellorsville, but 
this was not approved. The immense area occupied by the 
opposing forces, greater than had ever before been occupied 
in a single war, may be the excuse for this. 

Great fame has come to the various generals who each 
made some well-planned maneuver, which forced the foe to 
relinquish territory and retreat to a rear position. McClellan 
before Manassas, Rosecrans before Shelbyville, and Sherman 
before Dalton did all this, but it is a debatable question 
whether the final issue was hastened or delayed. 

Sherman gained Atlanta with a loss of thirty-two thou 
sand men, and Rosecrans gained Chattanooga with a loss of 
eighteen thousand men, but the foe was not defeated. On the 
other hand, Grant, in his year from the Rapidan to Appomat- 
tox accomplished the desired result, but with severe losses, it 
is true. 

After all is said, the subject may be narrowed down to 
the statement that Lee, Jackson, and perhaps Johnston han 
dled inferior forces with as great skill as any commanders 
since Hannibal and Napoleon. 

On the other side it was also an American soldier, even 
before Sedan and Mukden, who formulated the modern idea 
of strategy which has been so closely followed in recent wars 
to seek out the foe, get close to him, and fight it out by short- 
arm jolts. 



136] 






PART I 



THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS 



BULL RUN 



(HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS THAT PICTURE BROADLY 
THE CAMPAIGNS, FROM BULL RUN TO APPOMATTOX, 
CONTINUING THROUGH VOLUME III EACH OF THE 
REMAINING SEVEN VOLUMES IS DEVOTED THROUGH 
OUT TO A SEPARATE PHASE OF WAR-TIME ACTIVITY.) 




VOLUNTEERS ABOUT TO FACE FIRE AT BULL RUN 
MCCLELLAN S TROOPS DRILLING NEAR WASHINGTON 




THE TURNING POINT OF THE BATTLE 

Across this little stream that was destined to mark the center of tin- first, and in many respects the most desperate, battle of the Civil 
War, we see what was left of the bridge after the day had ended in a Federal rout (see "Bull Run," page 142). On the farther side 
of Bull Run the Confederates under Beauregard had taken their stand with the stream as a contested barrier between them and 
McDowell s troops. At daylight of July 21, 1861, Tyler s division advanced to this bridge. It was a day of confusion on both sides. 
First, the Confederates were driven back in disorder by the impetuous onslaught of the Federals. These were congratulating them- 
I 138 ] 




RUINS OF THE STONE BRIDGE BULL RUN, VIRGINIA 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



selves upon a victory, when Johnston s reinforcements from Winchester fell upon the rear of their right, and threw the lines into con 
fusion. Back across the field fled the first memorable Federal rout. The little bridge was soon groaning with the weight of the men 
struggling to get across it. Finally, in frantic haste, it was destroyed by the Federals to delay the dreaded pursuit. Here Federal 
engineers are rebuilding the bridge, in order to forward supplies to the army that is some thirty miles to the south in the wooded 
Virginia country, but dependent on communications with the base at Washington. 




[ 140 ] 




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BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS 
FACE FIRE 



had been strife, a bloodless, political strife, for 
A forty years between the two great sections of the Ameri 
can nation. Xo efforts to reconcile the estranged brethren of 
the same household had been successful. The ties that bound 
the great sections of the country had severed one by one; 
their contention had grown stronger through all these years, 
until at last there was nothing left but a final appeal to the 
arbitrament of the sword then came the great war, the great 
est civil war in the annals of mankind. 

For the first time in the nation s history the newly-elected 
President had entered the capital city by night and in secret, 
in the fear of the assassin s plots. For the first time he had 
been inaugurated under a military guard. Then came the 
opening shots, and the ruined walls of the noble fort in Charles 
ton harbor told the story of the beginnings of the fratricidal 
war. The fall of Sumter, on April 14, 1861, had aroused the 
Xorth to the imminence of the crisis, revealing the danger that 
threatened the Union and calling forth a determination to 
preserve it. The same event had unified the South; four addi 
tional States cast their lot with the seven which had already 
seceded from the Union. Virginia, the Old Dominion, the first 
born of the sisterhood of States, swung into the secession col 
umn but three days after the fall of Sumter; the next day, 
April 18th, she seized the arsenal at Harper s Ferry and on 
the 20th the great navy-yard at Norfolk. 

Two governments, each representing a different economic 

[A complete record of leading events and the various engagements, 
giving the troops involved and casualties between January, 1861, and 
August, 1862, appears on page 346. THE Knrroits. ] 





Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE SOUTHERNER OF THE HOUR IX 61. 

Born in New Orleans on May 28, 1818, the Southern leader upon whom at 
first all eyes were turned, Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, was gradu 
ated from the U. S. Military Academy in 1838. Gallant and dashing, he 
won the brevets of Captain and Major in the war with Mexico and was 
wounded at Chapultepec. Early in 61 he resigned from the army, and 
joined the Confederacy, being in command of the Confederate forces in the 
firing on Fort Sumter in April. Owing to his forceful personality, he became 
a popular and noted leader in the Confederacy. After the Union defeat at 
Manassas, he was looked upon as the coming Napoleon. He was confirmed as 
Major-General in the Confederate army on July 30, 1861, but he had held the 
provisional rank of Brigadier-General since February 20th, before a shot was 
fired. After his promotion to Major-General, he commanded the Army of 
the Mississippi under General A. S. Johnston, whom he succeeded at Shiloh. 
He defended Charleston, S. C., in 1862-3 and afterward commanded the De 
partment of North Carolina and Southeastern Virginia. He died at New 
Orleans in 1893. 




Hun 



Jar? 



July 
1861 



and political idea, now stood where there had been but one the 
North, with its powerful industrial organization and wealth; 
the South, with its rich agricultural empire. Both were call 
ing upon the valor of their sons. 

At the nation s capital all was confusion and disorder. 
The tramp of infantry and the galloping of horsemen through 
the streets could be heard day and night. Throughout the 
country anxiety and uncertainty reigned on all sides. Would 
the South return to its allegiance, would the Union be divided, 
or would there be war? The religious world called unto the 
heavens in earnest prayer for peace; but the rushing torrent 
of events swept on toward war, to dreadful internecine war. 

The first call of the President for troops, for seventy-five 
thousand men, was answered with surprising alacrity. Citi 
zens left their farms, their workshops, their counting rooms, 
and hurried to the nation s capital to take tip arms in defense 
of the Union. A similar call by the Southern President was 
answered with equal eagerness. Each side believed itself in 
the right. Both were profoundly sincere and deeply in earnest. 
Both have won the respect of history. 

After the fall of Fort Sumter, the two sides spent the 
spring months marshaling their forces for the fierce conflict 
that was to follow. President Lincoln had called for three- 
months volunteers ; at the beginning of July some thirty thou 
sand of these men were encamped along the Potomac about 
the heights of Arlington. As the weeks passed, the great 
Northern public grew impatient at the inaction and demanded 
that Sumter be avenged, that a blow be struck for the Union. 

The " call to arms " rang through the nation and aroused 
the people. No less earnest was the feeling of the South, and 
soon two formidable armies were arrayed against each other, 
only a hundred miles apart at Washington and at Richmond. 

The commander of the United States Army was Lieut.- 
General Winfield Scott, whose military career had begun be 
fore most of the men of 61 had been born. Aged and infirm, 

[144] 




Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co. 

YOUNG SOUTHERNERS AT RICHMOND MAKING LIGHT OF WAR 

skylarking before the lens of the Confederate photographer, we see the Boys in Gray just before Bull Run had taught them the meaning 
if a battle and elated them with the conviction of their own prowess. The young and confident troops on both sides approached this 
Srst severe lesson of the war in the same jocular spirit. There is not a serious face in the picture. The man flourishing the sword 
bayonet and the one with the drawn dagger are marking with mock heroics their bravado toward the coming struggle, while the one 
with the musket stands debonair as a comic-opera soldier. The pipe-clay cross belt and breast plate, the cock plumes in the "shapo" 
of the officer, indicate that the group is of a uniformed military organization already in existence at the beginning of the war. There 
was no such paraphernalia in the outfit of Southern troops organized later, when simplicity was the order of the day in camp. 



*\\ 

Tj nil Him vlhr Bniimlrrrs IForr Ifirr 



Julv 
1861 






he remained in Washington. The immediate command of the 
army was entrusted to Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell. 

Another Union army, twenty thousand strong, lay at 
Martinsburg. Virginia, under the command of Major-General 
Patterson, who. like General Scott, was a veteran of the War 
of 1812 and of the Mexican War. 

Opposite McDowell, at Manassas Junction, about thirty 
miles from Washington, lay a Confederate army under Brig 
adier-General Beauregard who. three months before, had won 
the homage of the South by reducing Fort Sumter. Opposed 
to Patterson in the Shenandoah valley was Joseph E. John 
ston with a force of nine thousand men. The plans of the 
President and General Scott were to send McDowell against 
Beauregard. while Patterson was to detain Johnston in the 
Valley and prevent him from joining Beauregard. It was con 
fidently believed that, if the two Confederate forces could be 
kept apart, the " Grand Army " could win a signal victory over 
the force at Manassas: and on July 16th. with waving banners 
and lively hopes of victory, amid the cheers of the multitude, it 
moved out from the banks of the Potomac toward the interior 
of Virginia. It was a motley crowd, dressed in the varied 
uniforms of the different State militias. The best disciplined 
troops were those of the regular army, represented by infan 
try, cavalry, and artillery. Even the navy was drawn upon 
and a battalion of marines was included in the Union forces. 
In addition to the regulars were volunteers from all the Xew 
England States, from Xew York and Pennsylvania and from 
Ohio. Michigan, and Minnesota, organizations which, in an 
swer to the President s call for troops, had volunteered for 
three months service. Many were boys in their teens with 
the fresh glow of youth on their cheeks, wholly ignorant of 
the exhilaration, the fear, the horrors of the battle-field. On 
ward through the Virginia plains and uplands they marched to 
the strains of martial music. Unused to the rigid discipline 
of war, many of the men would drop out of line to gather 



fefej>< 







! * 







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. f l_ 









ONE OF THE FIRST UNION VOLUNTEER REGIMENTS 

The First Minnesota, a regiment that fought in the flanking column at Bull Run. On April 14, IStil, the 
day after Sumter s surrender, the Federal Government received an offer of a volunteer regiment from Minne 
sota, and on April ^9, the First Minnesota was mustered into service by laeutenant W. W. Sanders, U.S.A. 

I nder Colonel William O. Gorman the regiment proceeded to Washington in June and. attached to Frank 
lin s Brigade. Heint/elman s Division of McDowell s Army, at Bull Run gave an excellent account of itself, 
finally retiring from the field in good order. A record for conspicuous bravery was sustained by the First 
Minnesota throughout the war. notably its famous charge on the field of Gettysburg. July ?. 18l>S. 

The photograph was taken just before the regiment left Fort knelling in 1S(U. In the front line the first from the left is Lieut. Colonel 
Stephen Miller, the next is Colonel Gorman. On his left hand is Major Dyke and next to him is Adjutant W. R Leach. Between 
the last two and behind them is Captain William Colvill. while at the left hand of Adjutant Loach is Captain Mark Oownie. At 
the extreme right of the picture stands General J. R Sanborn with Lieutenant Joinders ^mustering officer" 1 on his right hand, and 
on Sanders right is the Honorable Morton S. \Yilkinson. Colvill, as Colonel, led the regiment in its Gettysburg charge. 

[A-10] 




nil Sun Se Unlunims Jar? Ifltrr 




July 
1861 




~ 





berries or tempting fruits along the roadside, or to refill their 
canteens at every fresh stream of water, and frequent halts 
were necessary to allow the stragglers to regain their lines. 

After a two days march, with " On to Richmond " as 
their battle-cry, the army halted at the quiet hamlet of Centre- 
ville, twenty-seven miles from Washington and seven miles 
from Manassas Junction where lay the waiting Confederate 
army of similar composition untrained men and boys. Men 
from Virginia, from North and South Carolina, from the 
mountains of Tennessee, from Alabama, Mississippi, and 
Georgia, even from distant Arkansas, had gathered on the soil 
of the Old Dominion State to do battle for the Southern cause. 
Between the two armies flowed the stream of Bull Run, destined 
to give its name to the first great battle of the impending con 
flict. The opposing commanders, McDowell and Beauregard, 
had been long-time friends ; twenty-three years before, they had 
been graduated in the same class at West Point. 

Beauregard knew of the coming of the Federal army. 
The news had been conveyed to him by a young man, a former 
government clerk at Washington, w r hose sympathies, however, 
lay with the cause of the South. He won the confidence of 
Beauregard. The latter sent him to the capital city bearing 
a paper with two words in cipher, " Trust Bearer." With this 
he was to call at a certain house, present it to the lady within, 
and wait a reply. Traveling all night, he crossed the Potomac 
below Alexandria, and reached the city at dawn, when the 
newsboys were calling out in the empty streets the latest intel 
ligence of the army. The messenger rang the doorbell at a 
house within a stone s throw of the White House and delivered 
the scrap of paper to the only one in the city to whom it was 
intelligible. She hurriedly gave the youth his breakfast, wrote 
in cipher the words, " Order issued for McDowell to march 
upon Manassas to-night," and giving him the scrap of paper, 
sent him on his way. That night the momentous bit of news 
was in the hands of General Beauregard. He instantly wired 



148 




Copyright by Review of Renews Co. 



EVE OF THE CONFLICT 



Stone Church, Centreville, Virginia. Past this little stone church on the night of July 20, 1861, and long into the morning of the twenty- 
first marched lines of hurrying troops. Their blue uniforms were new, their muskets bright and polished, and though some faces were 
pale their spirits were elated, for after their short training they were going to take part, for the first time, in the great game of war. It 
was the first move of the citizen soldier of the North toward actual conflict. Not one knew exactly what lay before him. The men 
were mostly from New England and the Middle States. They had left desk and shop and farm and forge, and with the thought in 
their minds that the war would last for three months the majority had been mustered in. Only the very wise and farseeing had prophe 
sied the immensity of the struggle, and these were regarded as extremists. Their ideas were laughed at. So on they went in long lines 
down the road in the darkness of the night, chattering, laughing and talking carelessly, hardly realizing in the contagion of their patri 
otic ardor the grim meaning of real war. The battle had been well planned, but who had had the experience, even among the leaders, 
to be sure of the details and the absolute carrying out of orders? With the exception of the veterans of the Mexican War, who were 
regulars, there was not one who had ever maneuvered a thousand men in the field. A lesson lay before them and it was soon to come. 
The surprising battle that opened early in the morning, and whose results spread such consternation through the North, was really 
the result of popular clamor. The press and the politicians demanded action, and throughout the South the same confident and reck 
less spirit prevailed, the same urging to see something done. 



nil Sun 



; 



; 




I 



President Davis at Richmond and asked that he be reenforced 
by Johnston s army. 

As we have seen, General Scott had arranged that 
Patterson detain Johnston in the Valley. He had even ad 
vised McDowell that " if Johnston joins Beauregard he shall 
have Patterson on his heels." But the aged Patterson was 
unequal to the task before him. Believing false reports, he 
was convinced that Johnston had an army of thirty-five thou 
sand men, and instead of marching upon Johnston at Win 
chester he led his army to Charlestown, twenty miles in the 
opposite direction. Johnston thereupon was free to join Beau- 
regard at Manassas, and he promptly proceeded to do so. 

McDowell s eager troops had rested at Centreville for 
two days. The time for them to test their mettle in a general 
engagement was at hand. Sunday, July 21st, w r as selected as ^/^//^ 
the day on which to offer battle. At half -past two in the 
morning the sleeping men were roused for the coming conflict. 
Their dream of an easy victory had already received a rude 
shock, for on the day after their arrival a skirmish between 
two minor divisions of the opposing armies had resulted in 
the retreat of the Union forces after nineteen of their number 
lay dead upon the plain. The Confederates, too, had suffered 
and fifteen of their army were killed. But patriotic enthusiasm 
was too ardent to be quenched by such an incident, and eagerly, 
in the early dawn of the sultry July morning, they marched 
toward the banks of the stream on which they were to offer 
their lives in the cause of their country. 

The army moved out in three divisions commanded by 
Generals Daniel Tyler, David Hunter, and S. P. Heintzel- 
man. Among the subordinate officers was Ambrose E. Burn- 
side, who, a year and five months later, was to figure in a far 
greater and far more disastrous battle, not many miles from 
this same spot; and William T. Sherman, who was to achieve 
a greater renown in the coming war. 

On the Southern side we find equally striking characters. 

[150] 



/ 



/ 
j// 




PRELUDE TO THE COMBAT BLACKBURN S FORD 



Copyright by Renew of Reviews Co. 



This crossing of Bull Run, was on July 18, 1861, the scene of a lively prelude to the first great combat. General Daniel Tyler, com 
manding a division of McDowell s army, pushed a reconnaissance to the north hank of the stream near this Ford. Confederates posted on 
the opposite bank fired upon Tyler s advance line, driving it back in disorder. Tyler then withdrew "satisfied that the enemy was in 
force" at this point. This picture was taken the next year, while Rickett s division of the McDowell Corps was encamped at Manassas. 




,jht by Patriot Pub. Co. 



A THREE MONTHS REGIMENT THE THIRD CONNECTICUT 



The Third Connecticut was present on the field of Bull Run. The men had enlisted in April, 1861, and their time was all but up in 
July, for they were three months men. Their drilling had taken place for a short time in their home State and afterward in the 
camps around Washington. They were mostly artisans and farmer boys with a sprinkling of mill hands and men of business from 
the larger towns. The regiment was attached to Tyler s division, of McDowell s army, and suffered little in the battle. The total 
losses, including deaths from sickness, in this regiment, which was mustered out at the end of its service, amounted to five all told. 
It goes without saying, however, that many re-enlisted and again went to the front, where they stayed until the conflict ended. 




ull Sim 



Holrattma 



* 



1 



General Joseph E. Johnston was not held by Patterson in 
the Valley and with a portion of his army had reached 
Manassas on the afternoon of the 20th. In the Indian wars of 
Jackson s time Johnston had served his country; like Mc 
Dowell and Beauregard, he had battled at the gates of Mexico ; 
and like the latter he chose to cast his lot with the fortunes of 
the South. There, too, was Longstreet, who after the war was 
over, was to spend many years in the service of the country he 
was now seeking to divide. Most striking of all was " Stone 
wall " Jackson, whose brilliant military career was to astonish 
the world. 

The Union plan for this fateful July day was that Tyler 
should lead his division westward by way of the Warrenton 
turnpike to a stone bridge that crossed Bull Run, about four 
miles from Centreville. At the same time the main army 
under Hunter and Heintzelman was to make a detour of sev 
eral miles northward through a dense forest to a ford of Bull 
Run, known as Sudley s Ford. Here they were to cross the 
stream, march down its right bank and, while Tyler guarded 
the Stone Bridge, engage the foe on the west side of Bull 
Run. The plan of the battle was admirably drawn, but the 
march around to Sudley s Ford was slower than had been 
expected, and it was ten o clock before the main army reached 
the point west of the Stone Bridge. While the Federals were 
making their plans to attack the Confederate left wing, Gen 
erals Beauregard and Johnston were planning an aggressive 
movement against the left wing of the Federal army. They 
were to cross Bull Run by fords several miles below the Stone 
Bridge and attack the Northern troops on the weaker wing 
of the Union force in an effort to rout them before relief could 
be sent from the Federal right. The Confederate attack was 
planned to take place a few hours later than McDowell had 
decided to move. The Southern troops were preparing to 
cross the stream when the boom of cannon at the Stone Bridge 
told that the Federals had taken the aggressive and that the 

[152] 



July 
1861 




Copyright by Patriot fuo. C o. 



BULL RUN BATTLEFIELD OF THE MORNING, JULY 21, 1861 



Along Bull Run Creek on the morning of July 21st Tyler s division vigorously attacked from the east the Confederates under Longstreet 
and Beauregard on the western bank. By this attack McDowell hoped to succeed in falling unexpectedly on the rear of the Confederate 
left with the force sent on a detour of some three miles to the north. A charge of fresh troops brought forward by Beauregard in 
person in the late afternoon started the panic of the raw Union volunteers. . . . "Men who had fought courageously an hour before, 
had become as hares fleeing from pursuing hounds. The confusion was increased and multiplied by the presence among the fugitives 
of a multitude of panic-stricken picnickers, Congressmen, civilians of every sort, and lavishly dressed women who had gone out in 
carriages and carryalls to see the spectacle of a Federal army walking over the Confederates. The Confederates fed fat for days after 
ward upon the provisions that the picnickers abandoned in their flight." 




GENERAL BEAUREGARD S HEADQUARTERS 

The handsome old colonial mansion known as the McLean House was near Manassas station, not far from Blackburn s Ford, the 
scene of a sharp encounter preliminary to the battle of Bull Run. Tyler s division of McDowell s army, finding the Confederates had 
retreated from Centreville, attacked near here on the morning of July 18th. A vigorous cannonade opened the action, and a shell 
landing in the fireplace of the McLean house deprived General Beauregard of his dinner. 



ull Sim 









weak Confederate left was in danger of being overwhelmed 
by the superior numbers of the Union right wing. Orders 
countermanding the command to attack were quickly sent to 
the Southerners at the lower fords, and preparations were hur 
riedly made to repulse the attack of the Northern force. 

Tyler reached the Stone Bridge before six in the morning 
and opened fire on a Confederate force under Colonel Evans 
on the other side of the run. For some time this was kept up, 
and Evans was much puzzled that the Federals did not at 
tempt to cross the bridge ; they merely kept up a desultory fire. 
The failure of the Union troops to advance led Evans to be 
lieve that Tyler s attack was only a feint and that the real 
attacking force would approach from some other direction. 
This belief was confirmed when he descried a lengthening line 
of dust above the tree-tops far in the distance, north of the 
Warrenton turnpike. Evans was now convinced (and he was 
right) that the main Union army was marching to Sudley s 
Ford, three miles above the Stone Bridge, and would reach the 
field from that direction. Quickly then he turned about with 
six companies of brave South Carolinians and a battalion of 
" Louisiana Tigers " and posted them on a plateau overlook 
ing the valley of Young s Branch, a small tributary of Bull 
Run. Here, not far from the Matthews and Carter houses, 
he awaited the coming of the Federals. 

His force was stationed overlooking the Sudley and New 
market road and an open field through which the Federal 
troops would be forced to pass to reach the higher ground 
held by the Confederates. Two 6-pound howitzers were 
placed to sweep the field of approach, one at each end of 
Evans line of defense. 

With guns loaded, and howitzers ready to pour their 
charges into an advancing force, the Southerners stood and 
watched the line of dust that arose above the trees. It moved 
slowly to the westward. Then, where the Sudley road turns 
to the southward to cross the Sudley Ford, it followed the 



July 

IcSOl 



" # 







Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



WHERE A FEDERAL VICTORY SEEMED ASSURED 



Sudley Church July 21, 1861. This Methodist Episcopal church stood a half mile south of the ford by which Hunter and Heintzel- 
man crossed Bull Run. These troops crossed Cat Harpin Run, seen in the foreground, by the ford at the left, and marched southward 
past the church. A mile farther south Burnside s brigade engaged the Confederate troops led by Colonel Evans. As Evans men fell 
back, Johnston deemed the situation "critical." The remains at the right of the picture are of the Sudley Sulphur Spring House. 




THORNTON S HOUSE BULL RUN JULY 21. 1861 

Phis house, which stood some three miles north of the battlefield of the afternoon, marked the northern point of the detour of the 
divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman. The Confederate Colonel Evans, who held the extreme left of Beauregard s line, and whose 
suspicions had been aroused, marched upstream with half a brigade and confronted the turning column beyond the turnpike. Instead 
of deploying a line of battle, Hunter sent successive detached regiments and brigades against it. Evans, heavily reinforced, took up a 
new position in the rear. 




ull SUm 







trend of the highway. It reached the crossing of Bull Run, 
and the line of dust faded as the Federals spread into battle- 
line behind the expanse of woodland that hid each column from 
the other s view. 

It was nearing ten o clock. The rays of the summer sun 
were beating in sweltering heat upon the waiting troops. 
Those who could find shelter beneath the trees moved from 
their places into the shade. Heavy banks of storm clouds 
were gathering on the horizon, giving promise of relief from 
oppressive warmth. A silence settled over the ranks of the 
Confederates as they watched the edge of the woodland for 
the first appearance of the approaching troops. 

Suddenly there was a glimmer of the sunlight reflected 
from burnished steel among the trees. Then, in open battle 
array, the Federal advance guard, under . the command of 
Colonel Burnside, emerged from the wood on a neighboring 
hill, and for the first time in the nation s history two hostile 
American armies faced each other in battle array. At Fort 
Sumter only the stone walls had suffered ; not a drop of human 
blood was shed. But here was to be a gigantic conflict, and 
thousands of people believed that here on this field on this day 
would be decided the fate of the Union and the fate of the 
Confederacy. The whole country awaited in breathless ex 
pectancy the news of this initial conflict, to become know r n as 
the battle of Bull Run. 

With little delay the battle opened. The Federals had a 
clear advantage in numbers as their outlying forces came up; 
but they met with a brave resistance. General Bee, of South 
Carolina, with two brigades, crossed a valley to the south of 
Evans in the face of a heavy artillery fire to a point within one 
hundred yards of the Federal lines. At this short range thou 
sands of shots were fired and many brave men and boys were 
stretched upon the green. The outcome at this point was un 
certain until the Union forces were joined by Heintzelman 
with heavy reenforcements and by Sherman with a portion of 



156 




July 
1861 







HERE "STONEWALL" JACKSON WON HIS NAME 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



ibinson House, Bull Run. "Stonewall" Jackson won his name near this house early in the afternoon of July 21st. Meeting 
meral Bee s troops retreating in increasing disorder, he advanced with a battery to the ridge behind the Robinson House and held 
e position until Bee s troops had rallied in his rear. "Look at Jackson standing there like a stone wall," was the sentence that gave 
th to his historic nickname. It was General Bee who uttered these words, just before he fell, adding, "Rally on the Virginians." 




WHERE THE CONFEDERATES WAVERED 

enter of Battle of Morning July 21, 1861. North of this house, about a mile, the Confederate Colonel Evans met the columns of 
urnside and Porter in their advance south from Sudley Ford. Though reinforced by General Bee, he was driven back at noon to this 
ause in the valley near Young s Branch. Here a vigorous Union charge swept the whole battle to the hill south of the stream. General 
ee sent for reinforcements, saying that unless he could be supported "all was lost." 



U Sun 



* $ 



Tyler s division. Bee could now do nothing but withdraw, 
and in doing so his men fell into great disorder. Cheer after 
cheer arose from the ranks of the Union army. 

Meanwhile, Generals Beauregard and Johnston had re 
mained at the right of their line, near Manassas, nearly four 
miles from the scene of action, still determined to press their 
attack on the Federal left if the opportunity was offered. As 
the morning passed and the sounds of conflict became louder 
and extended further to the westward, it became evident to the 
Confederate leaders that the Federals were massing all their 
strength in an effort to crush the left of the Southern army. 
Plans for an aggressive movement were then abandoned, the 
commanders withdrawing all their reserve forces from the 
positions where they had been held to follow up the Confed 
erate attack, and sending them to the support of the small 
force that was holding back the Federals. After dispatching 
troops to threaten the Union left, Johnston and Beauregard 
galloped at full speed to the scene of the battle. They 
arrived about noon at the moment when Bee s brigade was 
fleeing across the valley from the hail of Federal bullets. As 
the frightened men were running in the utmost disorder, 
General Bee, seeing Thomas J. Jackson s brigade calmly 
waiting the onset, exclaimed to his men, " Look at Jackson; 
there he stands like a stone wall! " The expression spread to 
the army and to the world, and that invincible soldier has since 
been known as " Stonewall " Jackson. 

Beauregard and Johnston found it a herculean task to 
rally the fleeing men and re-form the lines, but they succeeded 
at length; the battle w r as renewed, and from noon till nearly 
three o clock it raged with greater fury than before. The fight 
was chiefly for the possession of the plateau called the Henry 
hill. Up and down the slopes the two armies surged in the 
broiling sun. Beauregard, like McDowell on the other side, 
led his men in the thickest of the fight. A bursting shell killed 
his horse under him and tore the heel from his boot ; he mounted 

[158] 




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Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

THE STORM CENTER OF THE BATTLE, BULL RUN, JULY 21, 1861 

ear where the ruins of this house (the Henry House) are shown, in the middle of the afternoon, the 
w, undisciplined volunteers of both sides surged back and forward with the heroism and determined 
>urage of rugged veterans until the arrival of fresh Confederate troops turned the tide, and in the crown- 
g hour of Union victory precipitated the flight and contagious panic. The Union batteries commanded 
r Ricketts and Griffin had moved across Young s Branch and taken up a position on the Henry Hill. 
Dnfederate sharpshooters from bushes, fences and buildings picked off cannoneers and horses. Thirteen 
onfederate and eleven Federal guns engaged in a stubborn duel till the Confederate regiments swarmed 
om cover and captured the Union position. The City of Washington was now threatened. 




Run 



another horse and continued the battle. At half -past two the 
Confederates had been entirely driven from the plateau, had 
been pressed back for a mile and a half, and for the second 
time within three or four hours the Union troops raised the 
shout of victory. 

At three o clock, while McDowell and his men were con 
gratulating themselves on having won the battle, a faint cheer 
ing was heard from a Confederate army far across the hills. 
It grew louder and nearer, and presently the gray lines were 
seen marching gallantly back toward the scene of the battle 
from which they had been driven. The thrilling cry then 
passed through the Union ranks, " Johnston has come, Johns 
ton has come! " and there was terror in the cry. They did not 
know that Johnston, with two-thirds of his army, had arrived 
the day before; but it was true that the remaining third, 
twenty-three hundred fresh troops, had reached Manassas at 
noon by rail, and after a forced march of three hours, under 
the command of Kirby Smith, had just united with the army 
of Beauregard. It was this that caused the cheering and de 
termined Beauregard to make another attack on the Henry 
plateau. 

The Union men had fought valiantly in this, their first 
battle, untrained and unused to warfare as they were; they 
had braved the hail of lead and of bursting shells; they had 
witnessed their comrades, their friends, and neighbors fall at 
their feet to rise no more. They nevertheless rejoiced in their 
success. But with the long march and the five hours fighting 
in the scorching July sun they were weary to exhaustion, and 
when they saw the Confederates again approaching, reen- 
forced with fresh troops, their courage failed and they began to 
retreat down the hill. With waving colors the Confederates 
pressed on, opening a volley of musketry on the retreating 
Federals, and following it with another and another. 

In vain McDowell and his officers attempted to rally his 
panic-stricken men and re-form his lines. Only the regulars, 

160] 




THE LOST CHANCE. 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

CONFEDERATE FORTIFICATIONS AT MANASSAS. 



Vinter 1861-2. The Confederates did not follow up their success at Bull Run. "Having won the completes! and most conspicuous 
ictory of modern times, they set to work to fortify themselves for defence against the enemy they had so disastrously overthrown, 
irecisely as if they had been beaten in the fight, and were called upon to defend themselves against aggression at the hands of an 
nemy to be feared." It was the lost chance many military writers aver they could have swept on to Washington. The Federals 
ully expected them to do so and all was alarm and confusion within the city. The North never quite got over the haunting fear 
hat the Confederate army would some day redeem that error and the defenses of the capital were made well nigh impregnable. 




THE ROAD THAT CHANGED HANDS TWICE 

Phe Orange & Alexandria R. R. Manassas Station. Part of the eastern defenses constructed by the Confederates after "Bull Run" 
luring the winter of J861-2. Confederate troops had been withdrawn in March, 1862, as the first move in the spring campaign. 
Phis view, taken in A igust, 1862, after the Union occupation of the abandoned works, looks down the road towards Union Mills 
ord. At the close of Pope s disastrous campaign against Richmond the railroad again fell into the hands of Lee s army. 



ull 



* 









about sixteen hundred in number, were subject to the orders 
of their superiors, and they made a brave stand against the 
oncoming foe while they covered the retreat of the disorganized 
mass. On the Henry hill were the two powerful batteries 
of Griffin and Ricketts. They had done most valiant service 
while the tide of battle ebbed and flowed. But at last their 
hour had come. A Confederate regiment, dashing from a 
neighboring hill, poured in a deadly volley, cut down the 
cannoneers almost to a man, killed their horses, and cap 
tured the guns. A few minutes later General Beauregard 
rode up to the spot and noticed Captain Ricketts lying on the 
ground, desperately wounded. The two men had been friends 
in the years gone by. Beauregard, recognizing his old friend, 
asked him if he could be of any service. He then sent his own 
surgeons to care for the wounded captain and detailed one of 
his staff to make him comfortable when he was carried to Rich 
mond as a prisoner of war. 

There is little more to relate of the battle of Bull Run. 
In his report McDowell stated that after providing for the 
protection of the retreat from the battlefield by Porter s and 
Blenker s volunteer brigades, he took command in person of 
the force previously stationed for holding the road back to 
Centreville and made such disposition " as would best serve 
to check the enemy," at the Centreville ridge. Some hun 
dreds of civilians, members of Congress and others, had come 
out from Washington to witness a victory for the Grand Army, 
and they saw that army scattered in wild flight to escape an 
imaginary pursuer. The Confederates made no serious effort 
to follow after them, for the routed Federals had destroyed the 
Stone Bridge as they passed it in their retreat, and had ob 
structed the other avenues of pursuit. As darkness settled over 
the field the Confederates returned to their camps. 

McDowell made a desperate effort to check and reor 
ganize his army at Centreville, but he was powerless. The 
troops refused to listen to any commands ; they rushed on and 

[162] 



July 
1861 



^"IHIIIJ 




,Vn^f^ 




THE PRINCIPAL FORT AT CENTREVILLE, 1861-2 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



This almost circular fort was constructed in the village of Centreville, Va., by the Confederates during the winter of 1861-2. All 
about it on the North can be seen the quarters in which the Confederate troops wintered after their victory at Bull Run. This picture 
was taken in March, 1862, when the Federals had occupied the abandoned works. From Centreville McDowell sent a reconnaisance 
in force July 18, 1861, under General D. Tyler to feel for the Confederate position. A strong force under Longstreet was encountered 
at Blackburn s Ford and a spirited engagement followed. This was the prelude to the battle of July 21st. 




THE DUMMY GUNS 



Here is another well-built field work of the Confederates at Centreville, Va. We are looking north along the line of the earthworks 
east of the town and can see the abandoned Confederate winter quarters on the left. When the Confederates evacuated this line 
dummy guns of rough hewn logs were placed in position to deceive the Federals into the belief that the works were still occupied 
m force. Centreville did not fall into the hands of the Federals until the Peninsula Campaign caused its abandonment. In the lower 
picture we see the dummy guns in position, and in the upper two of them are lying on the ground. 
[A 11] 



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Jar? 




great numbers of them traveled all night, reaching Wash 
ington in the morning. 

These raw troops had now received their first baptism 
of blood and fire. Nearly five hundred of their number were 
left dead on the field of battle, and fourteen hundred were 
wounded. The captured and missing brought the Federal 
loss to nearly three thousand men. The Confederate loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing was less than two thousand. The 
Federal forces engaged were nearly nineteen thousand, while 
the Confederates had more than eighteen thousand men on the 
field. 

The Confederate victory at Bull Run did the South great 
injury in that it led vast numbers to believe the war was over 
and that the South had won. Many soldiers went home in 
this belief, and for months thereafter it was not easy to recruit 
the Southern armies. The North, on the other hand, was 
taught a needed lesson was awakened to a sense of the mag 
nitude of the task before it. 

The first great battle of the American Civil War brought 
joy to the Confederacy and grief to the States of the North. 
As the Federal troops marched into Washington through a 
drenching downpour of rain, on July 22d, the North was 
shrouded in gloom. But the defeated army had not lost its 
courage. The remnants of the shattered forces were gathered, 
and from the fragments a mightier host was to be rallied under 
the Stars and Stripes to meet the now victorious foe on future 
battle-grounds. 




JL 




Copyright by R 

AFTER BULL RUN GUARDING THE PRISONERS. 

Inside Castle Pinckney, Charleston Harbor, August, 1861. In for the prisoners. Casemate No. 1 was occupied by prisoners 
these hitherto unpublished Confederate photographs we see one of from the llth New York Zouaves, who had been recruited almost 
the earliest volunteer military organizations of South Carolina and entirely from the New York Fire Department. The smaller 
some of the first Federal prisoners taken in the war. The picture is a nearer view of their quarters, over which they have 



Charleston Zouave Cadets were 
organized in the summer of 
1860, and were recruited from 
among the patriotic young men 
of Charleston. We see in the 
picture how very young they 
were. The company first went 
into active service on Morris 
Island, January 1, 1861, and 
was there on the 9th when the 
guns of the battery turned 
back the Star of the West ar 
riving with reinforcements for 
Sumter. The company was also 
stationed on Sullivan s Island 
during the bombardment of 
Sumter, April 12-13, 1861. Af 
ter the first fateful clash at Bull 
Run, July 21, 1861, had taught 
the North that the war was on 
in earnest, a number of Federal 
prisoners were brought to 
Charleston and placed for safe 
keeping in Castle Pinckney, then garrisoned by the Charleston 
Zouave Cadets. To break the monotony of guard duty 
Captain Chichester, some time in August, engaged a photog 
rapher to take some pictures about the fort showing his 
men. Gray uniforms with red stripes, red fatigue caps, and 
white cross belts were a novelty. The casemates of the fort 
had been fitted up with bunks and doors as sleeping quarters 




THE PRISONERS HTH NEW YORK ZOUAVES 



placed the sign " Hotel de 
Zouave." We see them still 
wearing the uniform of the bat 
tlefield: wide dark-blue trousers 
with socks covering the bot 
toms, red flannel shirts with the 
silver badge of the New York 
Fire Department, blue jackets 
elaborately trimmed with braid, 
red fez caps with blue tassels, 
and a blue sash around the 
waist. Their regiment, the fa 
mous " Ellsworth s Zouaves," 
was posted at Bull Run as a 
support forRickett s and Griffin s 
Batteries during the fierce 
fighting of the afternoon on the 
Henry House hill. They gave 
way before the charge of the 
Confederates, leaving 48 dead 
and 7.5 wounded on the field. 
About 65 of them were taken 
prisoners, some of whom we see 
here a month after the battle. The following October the 
prisoners were exchanged. At the beginning of the war the 
possession of prisoners did not mean as much to the South as 
it did later in the struggle, when exchanges became almost 
the last resource for recruiting the dwindling ranks. Almost 
every Southerner capable of bearing arms had already joined 
the colors. 




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Copyright by Re 

SCOTT THE FIRST LIEUTENANT-GENERAL AFTER WASHINGTON. 

Upon Winfield Scott, hero of the Mexican War, fell the responsibility of directing the Union armies at the outbreak of the Civil W T ar. 
Sitting here with his staff in Washington, second in command only to President Lincoln, his fine countenance and bearing betoken 
the soldierly qualities which made him one of the first commanders of his age. In active service for half a century, he had never lost 
a battle. Born in Petersburg, Virginia, in 178(i, he was now in his seventy-fifth year. On his left in the picture stands Colonel E. D. 
Townsend; on his right, Henry Van Rensselaer. General Scott retired on October 31, 18f>l. 



PART II 
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



FORT HENRY 

AND 
FORT DONELSON 




THE FIRST CLASH WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI 

Near here the citizens of St. Louis saw the first blood spilled in Missouri at the outbreak of the War. By 
r ol (jovernor Jackson, a camp had been formed in the western suburbs of the city for drilling the militia, 
t was named m honor of the Governor, and was in command of General D. M. Frost. Captain Nathaniel 
Lyon was in command of the United States troops at the Arsenal in St. Louis. Lyon, on May 10th, marched 
nearly five thousand strong, toward Camp Jackson, surrounded it, planted batteries on all the heights over 
looking it and set guards with fixed bayonets and muskets at half cock. Meanwhile the inhabitants of 
bt. .Louis had gathered in great crowds m the vicinity, hurrying thither in carriages, baggage-wagons, on 
horses and afoot. Many of the men had seized their rifles and shotguns and had come too late to the as 
sistance of the State troops. Greatly outnumbered by Lyon, General Frost surrendered his command, 089 
m all. soners, surrounded by a line of United States soldiers, at half-past five in the afternoon 




CAMP JACKSON, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, MAY, 1861 

were marched out of camp, on the road leading to St. Louis, and halted. After a short wait the ominous 
silence was suddenly broken by shots from the head of the column. Some of Lyon s soldiers had been 
pressed and struck by the crowd, and had discharged their pieces. No one was injured. Tranquillity was 
apparently restored when volley after volley broke out from the rear ranks, and men, women, and children 
were seen running frantically from the scene. It was said that Lyon s troops were attacked with stones 
and that two shots were fired at them before they replied. Twenty-eight citizens chiefly bystanders 
including women and children were killed. As Lyon, with his prisoners, marched through the city to 
the Arsenal, excitement ran high in St. Louis. A clash occurred next day between troops and citizens 
and it was many weeks before the uproar over Lyon s seizure quieted down. Meanwhile Camp Jackson 
became a drill-ground for Federal troops, as we see it in the picture. 




WHERE WESTERN SOLDIERS WERE TRAINED BY GRANT 

Here, under Ulysses S. Grant, many a Western raw recruit was whipped into shape for active service. Grant, who served under 
, lor and bcott, through the Mexican War, had resigned his commission of captain in 1854 and settled in St. Louis. He was among the 
first to offer h,s services to his country in 1861. He went to Springfield, Illinois, and Governor Yates gave him a desk in the Adjutant 
general s office. He soon impressed the Governor with his efficiency and was made drill officer at Camp Butler. Many Illinois regi 
ments, infantry, artillery, and especially cavalry, were organized and trained at Carnp Butler under the watchful eye of Grant By 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



CAMP BUTLER, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, IN 1862 



May, 1861, his usefulness had become so apparent that he was made mustering officer and aide, with the complimentary rank of colonel. 
In June he was appointed Colonel of the Seventh District Regiment, then at Camp Yates on the State Fair Grounds at the western 
edge of Springfield. On June 28th this regiment became the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, and on July 3d started for northern 
Missouri. This photograph was taken in 1862, after Grant had left Camp Butler and was winning laurels for himself as Com 
mander of the District and Army of West Tennessee. 




MOUNTING ARTILLERY IN FORT DARLING AT CAMP DEFIANCE 




REACHING OUT FOR THE RIVER 



Lcretarv ff W ne S c erC " T " , ^ SPri " g f 1 ^ ^ ^^ dCT ^-General Swift, who had been ordered by 
Umcron to occupy Ca.ro at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and save it from the fate of Sumter, 

Tt wt edi< us w K"; ,K Conf ; >de / at 1 !. gUnbbatS comi g P the Mississippi might visit upon it, and thus gain access to the Ohio. 

cU^Tn I "T C E f hth> NiDth TCnth E1CVenth and Twdfth IUin is V lunteers * ho > b ^ an the building of 

Wracks, cleared parade grounds, mounted guns, and threw up fortifications against the attack which never came. In the upper 




UNCOMPLETED EARTHWORKS, CAMP DEFIANCE 




DRILL GROUNDS OF THE DKKKNDKHS OF CAIRO, ILL. 

pictures the men are at work rushing to completion the unfinished Fort Darling, which was situated to the left of the drill grounds 
seen in the lower panorama. In the latter we see one of the innumerable drills with which the troops were kept occupied and tuned 
up for the active service before them. Across the Mississippi was the battery at Bird s Point, on the Missouri shore. This and Fort 
Darling were occupied by the First and Second Illinois Light Artillery, but their labors were chiefly confined to the prevention of contra 
band traffic on the river. The troops at Cairo did not see any campaigning till Grant led them to Paducah, Ky., September 5-6, 1861. 



I 






By this brilliant and important victory Grant s fame sprang sud 
denly into full and universal recognition. President Lincoln nominated 
him major-general of volunteers, and the Senate at once confirmed the 
appointment. The whole military service felt the inspiriting event. 
Xicolay and Hay, i?i "Life of Lincoln. 1 

THE grasp of a great section of western Kentucky and 
Tennessee by the Northern armies, the capture of a 
stronghold that was thought impregnable, the forced surrender 
of a great army, and the bringing into public notice of a new 
commander who was destined to outshine all his fellows 
these were the achievements of the short, vigorous campaign 
of Fort Donelson. 

There were two great battle-grounds of the Civil War, 
nearly a thousand miles apart Virginia and the valley of 
the great river that divides the continent and the two defi 
nite objects of the Northern armies during the first half of 
the war period were to capture Richmond and to open the 
Mississippi. All other movements and engagements were 
subordinate to the dramas of these two great theaters, inci 
dental and contributory. The South, on the other hand, 
except for the early threatening of Washington, the Get 
tysburg campaign, the raid of Morgan in Ohio, and the 
expeditions of Bragg and Hood into Kentucky and Ten 
nessee, was on the defensive from the beginning of the war 
to the end. 

In the East after the initial engagement at Bull Run 
" all was quiet along the Potomac " for some months. Mc- 
Clellan had loomed large as the rising hero of the war; but 
McClellan did not move with the celerity that was expected 
of him; the North became impatient and demanded that 

[178] 



//./ 



fft. 



. 






POST OFFICE. 




Copyriyht by Review of Iti rit i 

CAIRO CITIZENS WHO MAY HAVE RECALLED THIS DAY 

With his hands thrust in his pockets stands General Grant, next to General McClernand, who is directly in front of the pillar of the 
Cairo post-office. The future military leader had yet his great name to make, for the photograph of this gathering was taken in Sep 
tember, 1861, and when, later, the whole world was ringing with his praises the citizens who chanced to be in the group must have 
recalled that day with pride. Young Al Sloo, the postmaster s son, leans against the doorway on Grant s right, and next to him is 
Bob Jennings; then comes Dr. Taggart, then Thomas, the mason, and Jaques, the butcher. On the extreme right, facing the camera, 
is young Bill Thomas. Up in the windows sit George Olmstead and Will Smith. In his shirt sleeves, on General McClernand s left, 
is C. C. Davidson. In the group about him are Benjamin Munn, Fred Theobold, John Maxey, and Phil. Howard. Perhaps these 
men told their children of the morning that Grant left his headquarters at the St. Charles Hotel and met them here. Who knows? 




nf Suiri 



attb 3Fnri 



something be done. But while the public was still waiting there 
were two occurrences in the West that riveted the attention 
of the nation, sending a thrill of gladness through the North 
and a wave of depression over the Southland. These were the 
fall of Fort Henry and of Fort Donelson. 

After Missouri had been saved to the Union in spite of 
the disaster at Wilson s Creek in August, 18(51, a Union army 
slowly gathered in southern Illinois. Its purpose was to dis 
pute with the Confederates their hold on Kentucky, which had 
not seceded, and to regain control of the Mississippi. To 
secure the latter end a flank movement was decided upon to 
open the mighty river by moving up the Cumberland and 
Tennessee the greatest flanking movement in the history of 
warfare. It began at Fort Henry and ended at Vicksburg, 
covered a year and five months, and cost tens of thousands of 
human lives and millions of dollars worth of property but it 
was successful. 

Eastern Kentucky, in the early days of 1802, was also 
in considerable ferment. Colonel James A. Garfield had 
driven the Confederate commander, General Humphrey Mar 
shall, and a superior force into the Cumberland Mountains, 
after a series of slight encounters, terminating at Paintsville 
on the Big Sandy River, on January 10th. But one later 
event gave great encouragement to the North. It was the first 
substantial victory for the Union arms. General Zollicoffer 
held the extreme Confederate right at Cumberland Gap and 
he now joined General George B. Crittenden near Mill 
Springs in central Kentucky. General Buell, in charge of the 
Army of the Ohio, had placed General George H. Thomas 
at Lebanon, and the latter promptly moved against this threat 
ening Confederate force. A sharp engagement took place at 
Logan s Cross Roads near Mill Springs on January 19th. The 
Confederate army was utterly routed and Zoliicoffer was 
killed. The Union loss was about two hundred and sixty, and 
the Confederate over twice that number. It was not a great 

[ 180 ] 




CAPTAIN CLARK U. LAGOW 

WINNING HIS SPURS AT CAIRO. 

Few will recognize in this early and 
unusual photograph the man who at 
Appomattox, wore plain fatigue dress 
in striking contrast with the fully 
uniformed Lee. Here Grant appears in 
his full-dress Brigadier-General s uni 
form as he came to Cairo to assume 
command of a military district includ 
ing southern Illinois, September 4, 
1861. Grasping at once the problems 
of his new post he began the work 
of reorganization, assisted by a well- 
chosen staff. Without waiting for per 
mission from Fremont, his immediate 
superior, Commander of the Department 
of the W r est, Grant pushed forward a 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL U. S. GRANT 





DR. JAMES SIMONS. 

force and occupied Paducah, Kentucky, 
before the Confederates, approach 
ing with the same purpose, could arrive. 
Grant was impatient to drive back the 
Confederate lines in Kentucky and 
Tennessee and began early to importune 
Washington to be allowed to "any out 
maneuvers. His keen judgment con 
vinced him that these must quickly be 
made in order to secure the advantage 
in this outlying arena of the war. 
Captain Rawlins was made Assistant 
Adjutant-General by Grant, and lifted 
from his shoulders much of the routine 
of the post. Captain Lagow and Cap 
tain Hillyer were two of the General s 
aides-de-camp. Dr. James Simons was 
Medical Director of the District. 



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CAPTAIN WILLIAM S. HILLYER 



CAPTAIN JOHN A. RAWLINS. 








Jail nf 



nrg 



* 



battle, but its effect on the North was most stimulating, and 
the people first learned to appreciate the abilities of their great 
general, George H. Thomas. 

It was now February, 1862. General IT. S. Grant was 
in command of the Union forces in western Kentucky and 
Tennessee. The opposing commander was Albert Sidney 
Johnston, then reputed the ablest general of the South. At 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, he had thirty thousand men. Be 
lieving, perhaps, that he could not hold Kentucky, he deter 
mined to save Tennessee for the South and took his stand at 
Nashville. 

On February 2d, 1862, General Grant left Cairo with 
his army of seventeen thousand men and on transports moved 
up the Ohio and the Tennessee to attack Fort Henry. Ac 
companying him was Flag-Officer Foote with his fleet of seven 
gunboats, four of them ironclads. 

Fort Henry was garrisoned by an army of about three 
thousand men under the command of General Lloyd Tilghman, 
a brave officer who was destined to give his life for the Confed 
erate cause, the following year, near Vicksburg. It covered 
about three acres and mounted seventeen heavy guns. G rant s 
plan of attack was to land his army four miles below the fort, 
to move across the country and seize the road leading to Fort 
Donelson, while Foote should move up the river with his fleet 
and turn his guns on the Confederate batteries. 

On February 6th, Foote formed his vessels into two lines, 
the ironclads the Cincinnati, the Caronddct, the Essex, and 
the St. Louis forming a front rank. Slowly and cautiously 
he approached the fort, firing as he went, the guns on the 
parapet answering those of the fleet. Several of the Confed 
erate guns were disabled. The fleet was yet unhurt when the 
first hour had passed. Then a 24-pound shot struck the Essex, 
crashed through her side and penetrated her boiler, instantly 
killing both her pilots and flooding the vessel from stem to 
stern with scalding steam. The Essex, wholly disabled, drifted 

[182] 






r 





THE UNLUCKY ESSEX AFTER FORT HENRY 



The thousand-ton ironclad Essex received 
the severest punishment at Fort Henry. 
Fighting blood surged in the veins of Com 
mander W. D. Porter, son of Admiral 
David Porter and brother of Admiral 
David D. Porter. The gunboat which 
he led into action at Fort Henry was 
named after the famous Essex which his 
father commanded in the War of 1812. 
Fifteen of the shots from Fort Henry 
struck and told upon the Essex, the last 
one penetrating her armor and piercing 
her middle boiler. Commander Porter, 
standing among his men directing the fight, 
was terribly scalded by the escaping steam, 




COMMANDER W. D. PORTER 



as were twenty-seven others. Wron 
ly suspected of disloyalty at the outbra 
of the war, Commander Porter s condu 
during the struggle gave the lie to su( 
calumny. He recovered after Fort Henr, 
and was made Commodore in July, 186 
Again in command of the Essex he a 
tempted unsuccessfully to destroy tl 
dread Confederate ram Arkansas at Vick 
burg on July 22d. Porter and the Ess( 
then joined Farragut s fleet. His shel 
helped the Union forces to repulse tl 
Confederates at Baton Rouge, August 5tl 
and he witnessed the blowing up of tl: 
Arkansas the following day. He die 
May 1, 1864. 




Copyright uy neview uj neviews Co. 

THE ESSEX TWO YEARS LATER 



atry 






down stream, while her companion ships continued their ad 
vance and increased their fire. 

Presently, a sound exceeding the roar of cannon w r as heard 
above the tumult. A great gun in the fort had exploded, 
killing or disabling every man who served it. A great 10-inch 
columbiad was also destroyed. Tilghman, seeing that he had 
no hope of holding the fort, decided to save his army by send 
ing it to Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. This he 
did, reserving fewer than a hundred men to work the guns. 
He then raised the white flag and surrendered the seventy- 
eight that remained. Grant had failed to reach the road to 
Fort Donelson until the Confederates had escaped. The 
Southerners hastened across the country and added their num 
bers to the defenders of Donelson and by so doing they de 
ferred surrender for ten days. 

Fort Donelson was a fortified enclosure of a hundred 
acres that crowned a plateau on the Cumberland River. It 
was just south of the boundary between Kentucky and Tennes 
see and close by the little village of Dover, consisting of a 
court-house, a two-story tavern, and a few houses scattered 
about. Beneath the bluff and on the river bank were two 
powerful batteries commanding the approach to the river. 
Outside the fort and stretching far along the ridges that en 
closed it were rifle-pits, lines of logs covered with yellow clay. 
Farther beyond, the hillsides were covered with felled trees 
whose interlacing branches w r ere supposed to render the ap 
proach of the foe impossible under fire. 

At this moment Donelson was held by eighteen thousand 
men under the command of General John B. Floyd, late Sec 
retary of War in the cabinet of Buchanan. Next to him were 
Gideon J. Pillow and Simon B. Buckner. The Union army 
under Grant was divided into three parts under the respective 
commands of Charles F. Smith, a veteran of the regular army; 
John A. McClernand, an Illinois lawyer and member of Con 
gress, and Lew Wallace, the future author of " Ben Hur." 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE GUNBOAT THAT FIRED THE FIRST SHOT AT FORT HENRY 



Hero, riding at anchor, lies the flagship 
of Foote, which opened the attack on 
Fort Henry in the first movement to 
break the backbone of the Confederacy, 
and won a victory before the arrival 
of the army. This gunboat, the Cincinnati, 
was one of the seven flat-bottom iron 
clads built by Captain Eads at Carondclet, 
Missouri, and Mound City, Illinois, during 
the latter half of 1861. When Grant finally 
obtained permission from General Halleck 
to advance the attack upon Fort Henry 
on the Tennessee River, near the border of 
Kentucky, Flag Officer Foote started up 
the river, February 2, 1862, convoying the 
transports, loaded with the advance de 
tachment of Grant s seventeen thousand 
troops. Arriving before Fort Henry on 




FLAG-OFFICER FOOTE 



February 6th, the intrepid naval com 
mander at once began the bombardment 
with a well-aimed shot from the Cincinnati. 
The eleven heavy guns of the fort responded 
in chorus, and an iron rain began to fall 
with telling effect upon the Cincinnati, 
the Essex, the Carondelet, and the St. 
Louis, which were steaming forward half a 
mile in advance of the rear division of the 
squadron. At a range of 1,700 yards the 
Cincinnati opened the engagement. After 
a little over an hour of heavy firing the 
colors on Fort Henry were lowered and 
General Tilghman surrendered it to Flag- 
Officer Foote. When General Grant ar 
rived an hour later, Foote turned over the 
fort to him and returned to Cairo with his 
disabled gunboats. 




Jail of 



Feb. 

1862 







With waving banners the divisions of Smith and McCler- 
nand marched across country on February 12th, arriving at 
noon and encircling the doomed fort ere nightfall. Smith was 
stationed on the left and McClernand on the extreme right, 
near the village of Dover. This left an open space in the 
center, to be filled by Lew Wallace, who arrived with his divi 
sion the next day. On the 13th there was a continuous bom 
bardment from morning till night, punctuated by the sharp 
crack of the sharpshooter s rifle. 

The chief action of the day that involved the infantry was 
an attempt to capture a battery on a hill, near the center of 
the Confederate line of battle, known as Maney s Battery, 
commanded by Captain Maney, of Tennessee. This bat 
tery had annoyed McClernand greatly, and he delegated his 
third brigade to capture it. The charge was led by Colonel 
Morrison of Illinois, and a braver one never was made through 
out the whole period of the war. The men who made it were 
chiefly youths from the farms and workshops of Illinois. With 
no apparent thought of danger they sallied forth, determined 
at all hazards to capture the battery on the hill, which stood out 
in relief against the sky. As they ran up the hill, firing as 
they w r ent, their numbers were rapidly thinned by the terrific 
cross-fire from this battery and two others on adjoining hills. 
Still the survivors pushed on and their deadly fire thinned the 
ranks of the men at the battery. At length when they came 
within forty yards of the goal a long line of Confederate mus 
ketry beside the battery suddenly burst into flame and a storm 
of bullets cut down the brave boys of Illinois, with fearful 
slaughter. Even then they stood for fifteen minutes, return 
ing volley for volley, before retreating. Reaching the foot of 
the hill, they rallied under the Stars and Stripes, and returned 
to the assault. Even a third time they charged, but the dry 
leaves on the ground now caught fire, the smoke stifled 
them, and they had to retreat. As they returned down 
the hill, Lew Wallace tells us, " their ears and souls were 

[ 18G ] 



//W 



With the shots from the Confederate batteries ringing and bounding off 
her iron plates, this gallant gunboat that Foote had chosen for his flag 
ship, entered the zone of fire at Fort Donelson. In the confined space 
of her smoke-filled gun-deck, the river sailors were loading and firing the 
heavy broadsides as fast as the great guns could be run out and aimed 
at the frowning line of entrenchments on the river bank. From them 
the concentrated hail of iron was poured upon her and the marksman 
ship was good. Fifty-nine times was this brave vessel struck. But 
her armored sides withstood the heavy shocks although the plating, 
dented and bent, bore record of each impact. Nearer and nearer grew 
the forts as up the narrow channel the flag-ship led the way, the Louis- 
Tillc, the Carondelet, and the Pittsburgh belching their fire at the wooded 
heights, as though endeavoring to attract the attention of the Con 
federate gunners to themselves and save the flag-ship from receiving 
more than her share. Up in the pilot-house the brave man who knew the 
channel stood at the wheel, his eyes firmly fixed ahead; and on the 
" texas," as the upper deck was called, within speaking distance of him, 
stood Foote himself. A great shot, aimed accurately as a minie ball, 
struck the frail pilot-house. It was as if the vessel s heart was pierced. 
The wheel was swept away from the pilot s hand and the brave river 
guide was hurled into the corner, mangled, bleeding and soon to die. 
Flag Officer Foote did not escape. He fell badly wounded in the leg 




THE FLAG-SHIP ST. LOUIS VIEWED 
FROM ASTERN 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 




LOUISVILLE A FIGHTER AT 
THE FORT 



by a fragment of the shell a wound from which he never fully re 
covered. Helpless now, the current swept the St. Louis bow around, 
arid past her consorts that were still fighting, she drifted down the stream 
and out of action; later, in convoy of the Louisville, she returned to 
Cairo, leaving the Carondelet and Pittsburgh to escort the transports. 
Meanwhile on shore, Grant was earning his first laurels as a soldier in 
a big battle. The disabling of the gunboats caused the Confederates 
to make the fatal attack that resulted so disastrously for them. Assail 
ing Grant s right wing that held a strong position, on the 15th of 
February, 19,000 men were hurled against a force 8,000 greater in number. 
But the repulse was complete. Shattered they retreated to their works, 
and in the morning of the 16th, the Confederate general, Buckner, 
surrendered. About 14,000 prisoners were taken. The Federal loss 
was nearly 3,000, and that of the Southern cause about 1,000 less. For 
the capture of Fort Donelson Grant was made major-general. The 
first step to the conquest of the Mississippi had been achieved. In 
October, 1862, the river fleet was transferred from the Army to the 
Navy Department, and as there was another vessel in the service, bear 
ing the same name the St. Louis was renamed the Baron de Kalb. At 
Fort Henry, she went into action lashed to the Carondelet on account of 
the narrowness of the stream; and later again, the gallant gunboat won 
laurels at Island No. 10, Fort Pillow, Memphis, and Vicksburg. 








0f 



Feb. 
1862 



riven with the shrieks of their wounded comrades, upon 
whom the flames crept and smothered and charred where 
they lay." 

Thus ended the 13th of February. That night the river 
gunboats, six in number, four of them ironclads, under the 
command of Andrew H. Foote, arrived. Grant had sent them 
down the Tennessee to the Ohio and up the Cumberland, to 
support his army at Fort Donelson. On the 14th, about three 
in the afternoon, Foote steamed with his four ironclads to a 
point in the river within four hundred yards of the two power 
ful batteries on the river bank under the fort and opened fire 
with his cannon while continuing to advance. The reply from 
the Confederate batteries was terrific and many of their 
shots struck home. In a short time the decks of the vessels 
were slippery with human blood. Foote himself was severely 
wounded. At length a solid shot struck the pilot house of the 
flagship and tore away the pilot wheel. At almost the same 
moment another gunboat was disabled. The two vessels, one 
of which had been struck fifty-nine times, could no longer be 
managed; they turned about with the eddies of the river and 
floated down with the current. The others followed. 

The Confederates raised a wild shout of joy at this, their 
second victory since the coming of the Union army. But what 
will be the story of the morrow? With the reenforcements 
brought by Foote, Lew Wallace s division, Grant s army was 
now swelled to twenty-seven thousand, and in spite of the 
initial repulse the Federals felt confident of ultimate victory. 
But a dreary night was before them. The springlike weather 
had changed. All that fearful night of February 14th there was 
a fierce, pitiless wind with driving sleet and snow. Thousands 
of the men, weary of the burden of their overcoats and blan 
kets during the warm preceding days, had thrown them away. 
Now they spent the night lying behind logs or in ditches or 
wherever they could find a little protection from the wintry 
blasts. General Floyd, knowing that Grant s army was much 

[188] 




THE ADVENTUROUS GUNBOAT CONES TOG A 

Lying at anchor in the Ohio River this little wooden gunboat is having the finishing touches put to her equipment while her officers 
and men are impatiently waiting for the opportunity to bring her into action. A side-wheel river steamer originally, she was pur- 
chased at Cincinnati by Commander John Rodgers in the spring of 1861 and speedily converted into a gunboat. Her boilers and 
steam pipes were lowered into the hold and the oaken bulwarks five inches thick which we see were put on her and pierced for guns. 
She got her first taste of fighting when, at Lucas Bend, she engaged the land batteries and a Confederate gunboat, September 10, 1861. 
She was present at Fort Henry in the second division of the attacking fleet, and also at Fort Donelson. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE TYLER 
A sister-ship of the Conestoga. She was present both at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. 











stronger than his own, decided, after consulting with Pillow 
and Euckner, to attack the Union right at dawn on the 15th. 

The night was spent in preparing for this, and in the 
morning Pillow with ten thousand men fell upon McClernand, 
and Buckner soon joined him with an additional force. Toward 
noon many of McClernanxTs men ran short of powder and he 
was forced to recede from his position. Pillow seems then to 
have lost his head. He felt that the whole Union army was 
defeated, and though the road to Nashville was open, the 
Confederates made no attempt to escape. Just then General 
Grant rode upon the scene. He had heen absent all morning 
down the river consulting Foote, not knowing that the Con 
federates had planned an escape. This moment, says Lew 
Wallace, was the crisis in the life of Grant. 

Hearing the disastrous news, his face flushed for a mo 
ment; he crushed some papers in his hand. Next instant he 
was calm, and said in his ordinary tone, to McClernand and 
Wallace, " Gentlemen, the position on the right must be re 
taken." Then he galloped away to General Smith. In a short 
time the Union lines were in motion. General Smith made a 
grand assault on the Confederate outworks and rifle-pits. 
When his lines hesitated Smith waved his cap on the point of 
his sword and rode in front, up the hill, in the hottest fire of the 
foe, toward the rifle-pits and they were carried. At the same 
moment Lew Wallace was leading his division up another 
slope with equal gallantry. Here again the Confederates re 
tired, and the road to Nashville was no longer open. Further 
more, Smith held a position from which he could shell the fort 
on the inside, and nothing was left to the inmates but surrender 
or slaughter an the morrow. 

A council was held by Floyd, Pillow, and Buckner. 
Buckner, who was a master in the art of warfare, declared that 
he could not hold his position for half an hour in the morning. 
The situation was hopeless. Floyd was under indictment at 
Washington for maladministration in the Buchanan cabinet. 

[190] 



Fill 





The Captured Commanders of Forts Henry 
and Donelson. It requires as much moral 
courage to decide upon a surrender, even when 
odds are overwhelming, as it does physical 
bravery, in maintaining a useless fight to the 
death. Brigadier-General Tilghman, who com 
manded the Confederate Fort Henry on the 
Tennessee and General Simon Bolivar Buckner 
in command of the Confederate Fort Donelson 
a much stronger position on the Cumberland 
only a few miles away were men who pos 
sessed this kind of courage. Both had 
the misfortune to hold untenable positions. 
Each displayed generalship and sagacity and 
only gave up to the inevitable when holding 
out meant nothing but wasted slaughter and 
the sacrifice of men who had been called upon 
to exert every human effort. Fort Henry, ou 
the banks of the Tennessee, was held by a few 
thousand men and strongly armed with 
twenty guns including one 10-inch Columbiad. 
But on the Cth of February it fairly lay in 
the possession of the Federals before a shot 
had actually been fired, for Grant with 17,000 
men had gained the rear of the fortification 
after his move from Cairo on the 30th of the 
previous month. The actual reduction of the 
fort was left to the gunboat flotilla under 
Flag Officer Footc, whose heavy bombard 
ment began early in the morning. General 
Tilghman had seen from the first that the 
position could not be held. He was trapped 
on all sides, but he would not give way without 
a display of resistance. Before the firing be 
gan, he had sent off most of the garrison and 
maintained the unequal combat with the gun 
boats for an hour and a quarter with less than 
a hundred men, of whom he lost twenty-one. 
Well did this handful serve 
the guns on the river bank. 
One shot struck the gun 
boat Exxex, piercing her 
boilers, and wounding and 
scalding twenty-eight men. 
But at last, enveloped on 
all sides, his retreat cut off 
the troops who had been 
ordered to depart in the 
morning , some three 
thousand in number, had 
reached Fort Donelson, 
twelve milesaway General 
Tilghman hauled down his 
flag, surrendering himself 
and eighty-four men as 
prisoners of war. Here ws 
see him a brave figure of 
a man clad in the uniform 
of a Southern Colonel. 
There was never the slight 
est doubt of his courage or 
of his proper discretion in 
making this surrender. Only 
for a short time was he held 
a prisoner, when he was 
exchanged and welcomed 
back with all honor into 
the ranks of the Confeder 
acy, and given an impor 
tant command. He did not, 
however, live long to serve 
his cause, for shortly after 
rejoining the army he was 
killed at the battle of 
Baker s Creek, Mississippi, 
on the 16th of May, 1863. 




GENERAL LLOYD TILGIIM.VM. 

TWO UNWILLING GUESTS OF 
THE NORTH 




Copyright by Review of K 

BUCKNER, THE DEFENDER OF DONELSON 



It is not often that on the battlefield ties of 
friendship are cemented that last a lifetime, 
and especially is this so between conqueror and 
conquered. Fort Donelson, that was, in a 
measure, a repetition of Fort Henry, saw two 
fighting foes become thus united. It was im 
possible for the garrison of Fort Donelson to 
make its escape after the flotilla of gunboats 
had once appeared in the river, although 
General Floyd, its senior commander, the 
former Secretary of War under President 
Buchanan, had withdrawn himself from the 
scene tendering the command to General 
Pillow, who in his turn, after escaping with 
his own brigade, left the desperate situation 
to be coped with by General Buckner. Assailed 
in the rear by an army that outnumbered the 
defenders of the fort by nearly eight thousand 
and with the formidable gunboats hammering 
his entrenchments from the river, Buckner 
decided to cut his way out in a desperate 
charge, but being repulsed, saw his men flung 
back once more into the fort. There was 
nothing for it but to make terms. On Febru 
ary 16th, in a note to Grant he asked what 
might be granted him. Here, the coming 
leader won his nickname of "Unconditional 
Surrender" Grant. Buckner was informed 
that the Federal army was about to move 
upon his works. Hurt and smarting under 
his position, he sent back a reply that in a 
few short hours he would, perhaps, have been 
willing to recall. Yielding to circumstances he 
accepted what he bluntly pronounced, "un 
generous and unchivalrous terms." But when 
the capitulation had taken 
place and nearly fifteen 
thousand men had surren 
dered, a greater number 
than ever before laid down 
their arms upon the conti 
nent, Grant was so generous, 
that then and there began 
the friendship that grew as 
close as if the two men were 
brothers of the blood. Most 
of the prisoners were pa 
roled. Each one was al 
lowed to retain his personal 
baggage, and the officers to 
keep their side arms. Grant 
had known Buckner in 
the Mexican War, and re 
ceived him after the battle 
as his guest. For a short 
time General Buckner was 
kept a prisoner at Fort 
Warren until he was ex 
changed. But the friend 
ship between the two leaders 
continued. When General 
Grant, after having been 
twice President, failed in 
his business career. Buckner 
sent him a check, trusting 
that it might be of use in 
his time of trouble. Grant, 
shortly before his death, 
wrote his old-time comrade 
and antagonist requesting 
that Buckner do him the 
final honors by becoming 
one of his pallbearers. 



tr 







He declared that he must not be taken, and that with his Vir 
ginia troops he would escape on two little boats that were to 
arrive from Nashville in the morning. He passed the com 
mand to Pillow, and Pillow, declaring that he too would 
escape, passed it on to Buckner. Floyd and Pillow with their 
men made good their escape; so did Colonel Forrest, the cav 
alry leader, and his mounted force. 

In the early morning Buckner sent a note to Grant offer 
ing to capitulate. The answer is well known. Grant de 
manded " unconditional surrender," and added, " I propose 
to move immediately on your works." Buckner was too good 
a soldier to sacrifice his men in needless slaughter. His men 
were so worn with eighty-four hours of fighting and watching 
that many of them had fallen asleep while standing in battle- 
line and under fire. He accepted the " ungenerous and un- 
chivalrous terms," as he pronounced them, and surrendered 
Fort Donelson and the army, consisting of at least fourteen 
thousand men, with all its stores of ammunition. The Union 
loss was over twenty-eight hundred men. The Confederate 
loss, killed and wounded, was about two thousand. 

The capture of Fort Donelson did three things. First, 
it opened up the way for the Federal army to penetrate the 
heart of the western South and gave it control of Kentucky 
and of western Tennessee. Second, it electrified the North 
with confident hopes of ultimate success. It was the first great 
victory for the North in the war. Bull Run had been a moral 
victory to the South, but the vanquished were weakened 
scarcely more than the victors. At Donelson, the victors gained 
control of an extensive territory and captured a noble army 
which could ill be spared by the South and which could not be 
replaced. Third, the capture of Donelson forced before the 
nation a new man Ulysses S. Grant. 



192] 



Y 







SHILOH 

THE FIRST 

GRAND BATTLE 




THE PLUCKY LITTLE WOODEN GUNBOAT TYLER ITS FLANKING FIRE 
ON THE CONFEDERATE TROOPS CHARGING ACROSS THE RAVINE OF DILL S 
BRANCH, CLOSE BY THE RIVER, GREATLY ASSISTED HURLBUT, COMMANDER 
OF THE FEDERAL LEFT, IN HOLDING OFF WITHERS* GALLANT ATTACK 



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THE DEFENDERS OF GRANT S LAST LINE AT SHILOII 

These heavy guns when this picture was taken had not been moved from the actual position they held in the afternoon of the battle 
of Shiloh, April 6, 1862. In one of the backward movements of Grant s forces in the afternoon of that day General Prentiss, isolated 
by the retirement of troops in his flanks, fought till overwhelmed by the Confederates, then surrendered the remnant of his division. 
Encouraged by this success General Bragg ordered a last desperate charge in an effort to turn the left of the re-formed Federal line. 
Onward swept the Confederates toward a grim line of batteries, which Colonel Webster, of Grant s staff, had ranged along the top of 
the bluff from a quarter to a half a mile from Pittsburg Landing. The line of artillery overlooked a deep ravine opening into the 

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Copyriiiht by lierirw of Itevir.wx ( <>. 

GUNS THAT HELD THEIR GROUND AT PITTSBURG LANDING 

Tennessee River. Into this and up its precipitous side General Withers dashed with two brigades. The gunboats Tyler and Lexington 
in the river joined with Webster s batteries upon the ridge and a frightful fire was poured into the ranks of the advancing Con 
federates. In the face of this, although finding himself unsupported save by Gage s battery, Withers led on his men. The division 
that he had expected to reenforce him had been withdrawn by the order of General Beauregard. To his men working their way up 
the slope came the order to retire. General Chalmers, of Withers Division, did not get the word. Down in the ravine his men alone 
of the whole Confederate army were continuing the battle. Only after nightfall did lie retire. 
[A 13] 



SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE 

No Confederate who fought at Shiloh has ever said that he found 
any point on that bloody field easy to assail. Colonel William Preston 
Johnston (Son of the Confederate General., Albert Sidney Johnston, killed at 
Shiloli). 

IN the history of America many battles had been fought, but 
the greatest of them were skirmishes compared with the 
gigantic conflicts of the Old World under Marlborough and 
Napoleon. On the field of Shiloh, for the first time, two great 
American armies were to engage in a mighty struggle that 
would measure up to the most important in the annals of Eu 
rope. And the pity of it was that the contestants were brethren 
of the same household, not hereditary and unrelenting enemies. 
At Fort Donelson the western South was not slain it w r as 
only wounded. The chief commander of that part of the coun 
try, Albert Sidney Johnston, determined to concentrate the 
scattered forces and to make a desperate effort to retrieve the 
disaster of Donelson. He had abandoned Bowling Green, had 
given up Nashville, and now decided to collect his troops at 
Corinth, Mississippi. Next in command to Johnston was Gen 
eral Beauregard who fought at Bull Run, and who had come 
from Virginia to aid Johnston. There also came Braxton 
Bragg, whose name had become famous through the laconic 
expression, " A little more grape, Captain Bragg," uttered by 
Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista; Leonidas Polk who, though 
a graduate of West Point, had entered the church and for 
twenty years before the war had been Episcopal bishop of 
Louisiana, and John C. Breckinridge, former Vice President 
of the United States. The legions of the South were gath 
ered at Corinth until, by the 1st of April, 1862, they num 
bered forty thousand. 

[1961 




A brilliant Southern leader, whose early 
loss was a hard blow to the Confederacy. 
Albert Sidney Johnston was a born fighter 
with a natural genius for war. A West 
Pointer of the ("lass of 26, he had led a 
strenuous and adventurous life. In the 
early Indian wars, in the border conflicts 
in Texas, and in the advance into Mexico, 
he had always proved his worth, his 
bravery and his knowledge as a soldier. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War he had 
already been brevetted Hrigadier-General, 
and had been commander of the military 
district of Utah. An ardent Southerner, 
he made his choice, dictated by heart and 
conscience, and the Federal authorities 




GENERAL A. S. JOHNSTON, C. S. A. 



knew the loss they would sustain and the 
gain that would be given to the cause of 
the Confederacy. In 01 he was as 
signed to a district including Kentucky 
and Tennessee with the rank of General. 
At once he displayed his gifts as an or 
ganizer, but Shiloh cut short a career that 
would have led him to a high place in fame 
and history. The early Confederate suc 
cesses of the 6th of April were due to his 
leadership. His manner of death and 
his way of meeting it attested to his 
bravery. Struck by a minie ball, he kept 
in the saddle, falling exhausted and dying 
from the loss of blood. His death put the 
whole South into mourning. 




Copyright by Review of Keviewx Co. 

CAMP OF THE NINTH MISSISSIPPI 

The story of this regiment is told on page 201. 



To no one who was close to him in the 
stirring scenes of the early conflict in the 
West did Grant pay higher tribute than to 
this veteran of the Mexican War who was 
his Chief of Staff. He was a man to be 
relied upon in counsel and in emergency, 
a fact that the coming leader recognized 
from the very outset. An artillery officer 
and engineer, his military training and 
practical experience made him a most 
valuable executive. He had also the gift 
of leading men and inspiring confidence. 
Always cool and collected in the face of 
danger, and gifted with a personality that 
won friends everywhere, the reports of all 
of his superiors show the trust and con 
fidence that were reposed in him. In 




BRIG.-GEN. J. D. WEBSTER 



April, 1861, he had taken charge of the 
fortifications at Cairo, Illinois. He was 
with Grant at Paducah, at Forts Henry 
and Donelson, and at Shiloh where he 
collected the artillery near the Landing 
that repelled the final Confederate attack 
on April 6th. He remained Chief of 
Staff until October, 1862. On October 
14th, he was made a Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, and was appointed superin 
tendent of military railroads in the De 
partment of Tennessee. Later he was 
Chief of Staff to General Sherman, and 
again proved his worth when he was with 
General Thomas at Hood s defeat before 
Nashville in December, 1864. On March 
13, 1865, he received the brevet of Major- 
General of Volunteers. 




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1802 



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Meantime, the Union army had moved southward and was 
concentrating at Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennessee River, 
an obscure stopping place for boats in southern Tennessee, 
and some twenty miles northeast from Corinth. The name 
means more now than merely a landing place for river craft. 
It was clear that two mighty, hostile forces were drawing to 
gether and that ere long there would be a battle of tremen 
dous proportions, such as this Western hemisphere had not 
then known. 

General Grant had no idea that the Confederates would 
meet him at Pittslmrg Landing. He believed that they would 
wait for an attack on their entrenchments at Corinth. The 
position his army occupied at the Landing was a kind of quad 
rilateral, enclosed on three sides by the river and several small 
streams that flow into it. As the early days of April passed 
there were ominous rumors of the coming storm; but Grant 
was so sure that Johnston would not attack that he spent the 
night of the 5th of April at Savannah, some miles down the 
Tennessee River. 

It was Saturday night. For two weeks the Union troops 
had occupied the undulating tableland that stretched away 
from the river at the Landing. There was the sound of the 
plashing streams overflowing from recent rains, there were 
revelry and mirth around the thousand camp-fires; but there 
was no sound to give warning of the coming of forty thou 
sand men, who had for two days been drawing nearer with a 
steady tread, and during this night were deploying around 
the Union camp, only a mile away. There was nothing to 
indicate that the inevitable clash of arms was but a few hours 
in the future. 

At the dawn of day on Sunday, April 6th, magnificent 
battle-lines, under the Confederate battle-flag, emerged from 
the woods on the neighboring hills within gunshot of the Fed 
eral camps. Whether the Union army was really surprised 
has been the subject of long controversy, which we need not 

[ 198 ] 




V 




BRAVE SOUTHERNERS 



SHILOH 



In the Southern record of the battle of Shiloh, the name of the Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, stands out in red letters. It 
was composed of the best blood of the city, the dandies of their day. Here we see the officers of the Fifth Company, in the first year 
of the war while uniforms were bright, sword-belts pipe-clayed, and buttons glistening. I nder the command of Captain W. Irving 
Hodgson, this company made its name from the very first. 




SOUTHERN BOYS IN BATTLE 



Here we see plainly shown the extreme youth of some of the enlisted men of the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Not one of 
the lads here pictured is within a year of his majority. We hardly realize how young the fighters on both sides were; only their faces 
and the records can show it. At Shiloh, with Anderson s brigade of brave fighters, these young cannoneers answered to the call. 
Anderson was first in the second line of battle at the beginning. Before the action was twenty minutes old he was at the front; and 
with the advance, galloping over the rough ground, came the Washington Artillery. 







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April 
1862 








enter. Certainly, the attack on it was most sudden, and in con 
sequence it fought on the defensive and at a disadvantage 
throughout the day. 

General Hardee s corps, forming the first line of battle, 
moved against the outlying division of the Union army, which 
was commanded by General Benjamin Prentiss, of West Vir 
ginia. Before Prentiss could form his lines Hardee s shells 
began bursting around him, but he was soon ready and, though 
pressed back for half a mile in the next two or three hours, his 
men fought like heroes. Meanwhile the further Confederate 
advance under Bragg, Polk, and Breckinridge was extending 
all along the line in front of the Federal camps. The second 
Federal force to encounter the fury of the oncoming foe was 
the division of General W. T. Sherman, which was cut to 
pieces and disorganized, but only after it had inflicted frightful 
loss on the Confederate army. 

General Grant, as we have noted, spent the night at 
Savannah, a town nine miles by way of the river from Pitts- 
burg Landing. As he sat at breakfast, he heard the distant 
boom of cannon and he quickly realized that Johnston s army 
had attacked his own at the Landing. Instantly he took a boat 
and started for the scene of the conflict. At Crump s Landing, 
about half way between the two, General Lew Wallace was 
stationed with a division of seven thousand men. As Grant 
passed Crump s Landing, he met Wallace and ordered him to 
be ready for instant marching when he was called for. When 
Grant arrived at Pittsburg Landing, about eight o clock in the 
morning, he found a tremendous battle raging, and he spent 
the day riding from one division commander to another, giving 
directions and cheering them on as best he could. 

About two and a half miles from the Landing stood a little 
log church among the trees, in which for years the simple 
folk of the countryside had been wont to gather for worship 
every Sunday morning. But on this fateful Sunday, the 
demon of war reigned supreme. The little church was known 

[200] 



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April 
1862 




as Shiloh to all the country around, and it gave its name to the 
great battle that raged near it on that memorable day. 

General Prentiss had borne the first onset of the morning. 
Pie had been pressed back half a mile. But about nine o clock, 
after being reen forced, he made a stand on a wooded spot with 
a dense undergrowth, and here he held his ground for eight 
long hours, until five in the afternoon, when he and a large 
portion of his division were surrounded and compelled to sur 
render. Time after time the Confederates rushed upon his 
position, but only to be repulsed with fearful slaughter. This 
spot came to be known as the " Hornet s Nest." It was not 
far from here that the Confederates suffered the irreparable 
loss of the day. Their noble commander, Albert Sidney Johns 
ton, received his death wound as he was urging his troops to 
force back Hurlbut s men. He w 7 as riding in the center of 
the fight, cheering his men, when a minie ball cut an artery of 
his thigh. The wound was not necessarily fatal. A surgeon 
could easily have saved him. But he thought only of victory 
and continued in the saddle, raising his voice in encouragement 
above the din of battle. Presently his voice became faint, a 
deadly pallor blanched his cheek. He was lifted from his 
horse, but it was too late. In a few minutes the great com 
mander was dead, from loss of blood. 

The death of Johnston, in the belief of many, changed the 
result at Shiloh and prevented the utter rout or capture of 
Grant s army. One of Johnston s subordinates wrote : " Johns 
ton s death was a tremendous catastrophe. Sometimes the 
hopes of millions of people depend upon one head and one arm. 
The West perished with Albert Sidney Johnston and the 
Southern country followed." Jefferson Davis afterward de 
clared that " the fortunes of a country hung by a single thread 
on the life that was yielded on the field of Shiloh." 

Beauregard succeeded to the command on the fall of 
Johnston and the carnage continued all the day till dark 
ness was falling over the valleys and the hills. The final charge 





THE BOATS THAT TURNED THE TIDE AT SHILOH 
PHOTOGRAPHED A PEW DAYS AFTER THE BATTLE 

The assistance rendered by these Tennessee River boats that had been pressed from their peaceful occupa 
tions into the service of the army, was of such immense importance as to become a great factor in the turn 
ing of the battle tide that saved the Federal cause. General Grant s headquarters in the early morning of 
April 6th was some miles from where the fight began. It was at Savannah, on the Tennessee, and as soon 
as the cannonade announced the opening of the battle, Grant transferred his headquarters to the Tigress, 
which lies between the other vessels in the photograph. The steamer on the right is the Universe, the lar 
gest of the transports present. At one o clock General Buell, pushing ahead of his troops, reached the river 
bank, and the two leaders held a conference on the upper deck of the Tigress. It was touch and go whether 
the troops fighting in the forest, beyond the landing, could hold their ground. The Confederate General 
Johnston, in forming his plans, had intended to leave an opening that would tempt the hard-pressed Federal 
army to retreat down the river. But, instead, they massed solidly back on Pittsburg Landing, huddled to 
gether so closely that brigades, and even regiments, were overlapping. As soon as Buell s hastening troops 
came up, the transports were turned into ferry-boats, and all night long they plied across the river loaded 
within an inch of their gunwales with the reinforcements. Later, as the picture shows, they brought supplies. 




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1862 



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of the evening was made by three Confederate brigades close to 
the Landing, in the hope of gaining that important point. But 
by means of a battery of many guns on the bluff of Dill s 
Branch, aided by the gunboats in the river, the charge was 
repulsed. Beauregard then gave orders to desist from further 
attack all along his lines, to suspend operations till morning. 
When General Bragg heard this he was furious with rage. 
He had counted on making an immediate grand assault in the 
darkness, believing that he could capture a large part of the 
Federal army. 

When the messenger informed him of Beauregard s order, 
he inquired if he had already delivered it to the other com 
manders. " Yes," was the reply. ; If you had not," rejoined 
the angry Bragg, " I would not obey it. The battle is lost." 
But Bragg s fears were not shared by his compatriots. 

Further mention is due the two little wooden gunboats, 
Tyler and Lexington, for their share in the great fight. The 
Tyler had lain all day opposite the mouth of Dill s Branch 
which flowed through a deep, marshy ravine, into the Tennes 
see just above the Landing. Her commander, Lieutenant 
Gwin, was eager for a part in the battle, and when he saw the 
Confederate right pushing its way toward the Landing, he re 
ceived permission to open fire. For an hour his guns increased 
the difficulties of Jackson s and Chalmers brigades as they 
made their way to the surrounding of Prentiss. Later on the 
Lexington joined her sister, and the two vessels gave valuable 
support to the Union cannon at the edge of the ravine and 
to Hurlbut s troops until the contest ended. All that night, 
in the downpour of rain, Lieutenant Gwin, at the request of 
General Nelson, sent shot crashing through the trees in the 
direction where the Confederates had bivouacked. This com 
pletely broke the rest of the exhausted troops, and had a de 
cided effect upon the next day s result. 

Southern hopes were high at the close of this first bloody 
day at Shiloh. Whatever of victory there was at the end of the 

[204] 



i 




THE LEXINGTON 



Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co. 



THE UUJNliUATb AT SHllAJti 

In the river near Pittsburg Landing, where 
the Federal transports lay, were two small 
gunboats, and what they did during the 
battle of April 6th makes a separate chap 
ter in the action. In the early morn 
ing they were out of sight, though within 
sound of the continuous firing. How the 
battle was going, however, was evident. 
The masses of the blue-clad troops appeared 
through the trees on the river bank, showing 
that under the continuous and fierce assaults 
they were falling back upon the Landing. 
The Tyler, commanded by Lieutenant 
Gwin, and afterward the Lexington, com 
manded by Lieutenant Shirk, which arrived 
at four o clock, strove to keep the Con 
federate army from the Landing. After 
the surrender of Prentiss, General With 
ers set his division in motion to the right 
toward this point. Chalmers and Jack 
son s brigades marched into the ravine of 
Dill s Branch and into the range of the 
Federal gunboats and batteries which 
silenced Gage s battery, the only one 
Withers had, and played havoc with the 
Confederate skirmishers. All the rest of 
the afternoon, until nightfall, the river 
sailors kept up their continuous bombard 




ment, and in connection with the field batteries on the bank checked General Withers desperate attempt on the Landing. The daunt 
less brigade of Chalmers, whose brave Southerners held their ground near the foot of the ravine and maintained the conflict after the 
battle was ended elsewhere, was swept by 
the gunboats fire. When Buell s army, 
that had been hurrying up to Grant s 
assistance, reached the battle-field, Gwin 
sent a messenger ashore in the evening to 
General Nelson, who had just arrived, and 
asked in what manner he could now be of 
service. It was pitch dark; except for the 
occasional firing of the pickets the armies 
were resting after the terrific combat. In 
reply to Gwin s inquiry, General Nelson 
requested that the gunboats keep on firing 
during the night, and that every ten min 
utes an 8-inch shell should be launched in 
the direction of the Confederate camp. 
With great precision Gwin followed out 
this course. Through the forest the shells 
shrieked and exploded over the exhausted 
Confederates, showering branches and 
limbs upon them where they slept, and 
tearing great gashes in the earth. The re 
sult was that they got little rest, and rest 
was necessary. Slowly a certain demoral 
ization became evident results that bore 
fruit in the action that opened on the 
morrow. Here we see pictured in the 
lower part of the page the captain s gig 
and crew near the Lexington, ready to 
row their commander out into the stream. 





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day belonged to the Confederates. They had pressed the 
Federals back more than a mile and now occupied their ground 
and tents of the night before. They had captured General 
Prentiss with some thousands of his men as a result of his brave 
stand at the " Hornet s Xest." 

But their hopes were mingled with grave fears. General 
Van Dorn with an army of twenty thousand men w r as hasten 
ing from Arkansas to join the Confederate forces at Shiloh; 
but the roads were bad and he was yet far away. On the other 
hand, Buell was coming from Nashville to join Grant s army. 
Should he arrive during the night, the contest of the next day 
would be unequal and the Confederates would risk losing all 
that they had gained. Moreover, Beauregard s army, with its 
long, muddy march from Corinth and its more than twelve 
hours continuous fighting, was w r orn and weary almost to 
exhaustion. 

The Union army was stunned and bleeding, but not dis 
abled, at the close of the first day s battle. Caught unawares, 
the men had made a noble stand. Though pressed back from 
their position and obliged to huddle for the night around the 
Landing, while thousands of their comrades had fallen on the 
gory field, they had hopes of heavy reenforcements during 
the night. And, indeed, early in the evening the cry ran along 
the Union lines that Buell s army had come. The advance 
guard had arrived late in the afternoon and had assisted Hurl- 
but in the closing scene on the bluff of Dill s ravine; others con 
tinued to pour in during the night. And, furthermore, Gen 
eral Lew Wallace s division, though it had taken a wrong road 
from Crump s Landing and had not reached the field in time 
for the fighting of the 6th, now at last had arrived. Buell and 
Wallace had brought with them twenty-five thousand fresh 
troops to be hurled on the Confederates on the morning of the 
7th. But Van Dorn had not come. The preponderance of 
numbers now was with the Union army. 

Everyone knew that the battle was not over, that the issue 

[ 200 ] 



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A GALLANT REGIMENT FROM THE IIOOSIER STATE 



To the Ninth Indiana belongs the banner record, on the Federal side, at bloody Shiloh. It seldom happens to any unit of a fighting 
force, while still engaged in action, to receive words of thanks and congratulation while still on the firing-line. Flags have been 
decorated with the medal of honor, individuals have been so rewarded for deeds of bravery and prowess, but to the Ninth Regiment 
from the Hoosier State fell the unique honor of having the word "well done" given them under fire. General Nelson, on April 7th, 
rode up and thanked them, and well was it deserved, for they saved the flank of Ha/en s brigade by stubborn bravery that has hardly 
ever been equaled. Posted on the line of a rail fence that offered little or no protection, they held their ground against a force 
that outnumbered them two to one able and determined fighters, too, who charged time and again up to the muzzles of their rifles, 
only to be beaten back by the steady and continuous volleys. Colonel William B. Ilazen, in command of the Nineteenth Brigade, 
two or three times found himself so fiercely assailed that it looked as if the flank would be crumbled in, but the Ninth was there. And 
when the cost was footed up, it made a sad hut gallant showing. The Ninth had suffered the heaviest loss in numbers of any regiment 
in the Army of the Ohio at that battle. The percentage of officers killed and wounded left many vacancies for promotion; no less 
than eight positions there were to fill in the depleted companies. And along that thin rail fence, in the battle, one hundred and seventy 
men had been killed or wounded. The Fourth Division, which General Nelson commanded, points with pride to the scroll of Hazen s 
Nineteenth Brigade, and first on the list stands the never faltering Ninth. In November it was transferred to the Second Brigade of 
the Second Division, Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Cumberland, and at Stone s River it lost one hundred and nine men, all told. 




April 










must be decided on the coming day, and the weary thousands 
of both sides sank down on the ground in a drenching rain to 
get a little rest and to gain a little strength for the desperate 
struggle that \vas sure to come on the morrow. 

Beauregard rested hopes upon a fresh dispatch announcing 
that Buell was delayed and the dreaded junction of two Federal 
armies therefore impossible. Meanwhile Grant and Buell were 
together in Sherman s camp and it was decided that Buell s 
troops should attack Beauregard next morning. One division 
of Buell stood to arms all night. 

At the break of day on Monday, April 7th, all was astir 
in both camps on the field of Shiloh, and the dawn was greeted 
with the roar of cannon. The troops that Grant now ad 
vanced into the contest were all, except about ten thousand, the 
fresh recruits that Wallace and Buell had brought, while the 
Confederates had not a single company that had not been on 
the ground the day before. Some military historians believe 
that Beauregard would have won a signal victory if neither 
army had been reenforced during the night. But now under 
the changed conditions the Confederates were at a great dis 
advantage, and yet they fought for eight long hours with 
heroic valor. 

The deafening roar of the cannon that characterized the 
beginning of the day s battle was followed by the rattle of 
musketry, so continuous that no ear could distinguish one shot 
from another. Nelson s division of Buell s army was the first 
to engage the Confederates. Nelson commanded the Federal 
left wing, with Hardee and Breckinridge immediately opposed 
to him. The Union center was under the command of Gen 
erals McCook and Crittenden; the right wing was com 
manded by McClernand, with Hurlbut next, while Sherman 
and Lew Wallace occupied the extreme right. The Confed 
erate left wing was commanded by the doughty Bragg and 
next to him was General Polk. 

Shiloh Church was again the storm center and in it 

[208] 








THE MOUNTED POLICE OF THE WEST 

Stalwart horsemen such as these bore the brunt of keeping order in the turbulent regions fought over by the armies in the West. 
The bugle call, "Boots and Saddles!" might summon them to fight, or to watch the movements of the active Confederates, Van Dorn 
and Price. It was largely due to their daring and bravery that the Confederate forces were held back from the Mississippi so as not 
to embarrass the movements of Grant and the gunboats. Of this unattached cavalry of the Army of the Ohio were the men in the 
upper picture Company D, Fourth Kentucky Volunteers, enlisted at Louisville, December, 1861. 




OFFICERS OF THE FOURTH KENTUCKY CAVALRY 



Copyriu/tt by Review of Reviews Co, 




Sit? 




General Beauregard made his headquarters. Hour after hour 
the columns in blue and gray surged to and fro, first one then 
the other gaining the advantage and presently losing it. At 
times the smoke of burning powder enveloped the whole field 
and hid both armies from view. The interesting incidents of 
this day of blood would fill a volume. General Hindman of the 
Southern side had a novel experience. His horse was struck 
by a bursting shell and torn to a thousand fragments. The 
general, thrown ten feet high, fell to the ground, but leaped 
to his feet unhurt and asked for another horse. 

Early in the afternoon, Beauregard became convinced that 
he was fighting a losing battle and that it would be the part 
of prudence to withdraw the army before losing all. He 
thereupon sent the members of his staff to the various corps 
commanders ordering them to prepare to retreat from the field, 
at the same time making a show of resuming the offensive. 
The retreat was so skilfully made, the front firing-line being 
kept intact, that the Federals did not suspect it for some time. 
Some hours before nightfall the fighting had ceased. The 
Federals remained in possession of the field and the Confed 
erates were wading through the mud on the road to Corinth. 

It was a dreary march for the bleeding and battered Con 
federate army. An eye-witness described it in the following 
language : 

I made a detour from the road on which the army w r as 
retreating that I might travel faster and get ahead of the main 
body. In this ride of twelve miles alongside of the routed 
army, I saw more of human agony and woe than I trust I will 
ever again be called upon to witness. The retreating host 
wound along a narrow and almost impassable road, extending 
some seven or eight miles in length. Here was a line of wagons 
loaded with wounded, piled in like bags of grain, groaning 
and cursing; while the mules plunged on in mud and water 
belly-deep, the water sometimes coming into the wagons. Next 
came a straggling regiment of infantry, pressing on past the 

[210] 



April 
1862 




FEDERALS ADVANCING INTO TENNESSEE 1802 

Incessantly, through rain or shine, the work on this bridge over the Elk River, near Pulaski, Tennessee 
on the Central Alabama Railroad, went on during the months of June and July. The engineers had be 
fore them an enormous task. The Federal General Buell s army was short of supplies and ammunition 
and the eompletion of this bridge, and other bridges, was a matter of vital necessity. Supplies had to b< 
brought from Nashville. The roads, were heavy with mud and the incessant rains had swollen the streams 
making it not only slow but almost impossible for wagon trains to keep in touch with the base. Over the 
Central Alabama (Nashville and Decatur Railroad) food and other necessities for the army s very exist- 

[212] 




Copyright by Ren 

ENGINEERS AND INFANTRY BUSY AT THE ELK RIVER BRIDGE 

encc had to be transported. Among those workers who labored uncomplainingly and whose work bore 
fruit, was the First Regiment, Michigan Engineers, that numbered among its enlisted men mechanics and 
artisans of the first class. They built this bridge pictured here. Four companies were employed in its 
construction, aided by an infantry detail working as laborers. The bridge was 700 feet long, 58 feet high, 
and crossed the Elk River at a point where the water was over 20 feet deep. At the right of the picture 
three of the engineer officers are consulting together, and to the left a squad of infantry are marching to their 
position as bridge guards. Here is the daily business of war to which fighting is the occasional exception. 




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1862 



, 






wagons; then a stretcher borne on the shoulders of four men, 
carrying a wounded officer; then soldiers staggering along, 
with an arm broken and hanging down, or other fearful 
wounds, which were enough to destroy life. And, to add to 
the horrors of the scene, the elements of heaven marshaled 
their forces a fitting accompaniment of the tempest of human 
desolation and passion which was raging. A cold, drizzling 
rain commenced about nightfall, and soon came harder and 
faster, then turned to pitiless, blinding hail. This storm raged 
with violence for three hours. I passed long wagon trains 
filled with wounded and dying soldiers, without even a blanket 
to shelter them from the driving sleet and hail, which fell in 
stones as large as partridge eggs, until it lay on the ground 
two inches deep. 

" Some three hundred men died during that awful retreat, 
and their bodies were thrown out to make room for others who, 
although wounded, had struggled on through the storm, hop 
ing to find shelter, rest, and medical care." 

Four days after the battle, however, Beauregard reported 
to his government, " this army is more confident of ultimate 
success than before its encounter with the enemy." Addressing 
the soldiers, he said: " You have done your duty. . . . Your 
countrymen are proud of your deeds on the bloody field of 
Shiloh; confident in the ultimate result of your valor." 

The news of these two fearful days at Shiloh was astound 
ing to the American people. Xever before on the continent 
had there been anything approaching it. Bull Hun was a skir 
mish in comparison with this gigantic conflict. The losses on 
each side exceeded ten thousand men. General Grant tells us 
that after the second day he saw an open field so covered with 
dead that it would have been possible to w r alk across it in any 
direction stepping on dead bodies, without a foot touching the 
ground. American valor was tried to the full on both sides at 
Shiloh, and the record shows that it was equal to the test. 



*u] 



m /A 



PART II 
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



NEW MADRID 

ISLAND No. 10 

NEW ORLEANS 




CAIRO IX 1862 ON THE EXTREME RIGHT IS THE CHURCH WHERE FLAG-OFFICER 

FOOTE PREACHED A SERMON AFTER THE FALL OF FORT HENRY NEXT 

HE LED THE GUNBOATS AT ISLAND NO. 10. 



NEW MADRID AND ISLAND NO. 10 

IT has been truly said that without the American navy, in 
significant as it was in the early sixties, the North could 
hardly have succeeded in the great war. The blockade was 
necessary to success, and without the navy the blockade would 
have been impossible. It may further be said that without the 
gunboats on the winding rivers of the middle West success in 
that quarter would have been equally impossible. It was these 
floating fortresses that reduced Fort Henry arid that gave 
indispensable aid at Fort Donelson. At Shiloh, when at the 
close of the first day s conflict the Confederates made a wild, 
impetuous dash on the Union camp, it was the two little 
wooden gunboats that aided in preserving the camp from cap 
ture or complete demoralization. 

We have now to relate a series of operations down the 
Mississippi, in which the gunboats were the alpha and omega 
and almost all that falls between them. The creator of the 
fleet of gunboats with which we now have to deal was that 
master-builder, James B. Eads. It was on August 7, 1861, 
that Eads signed a contract with the Government to build and 
deliver seven ironclads, each one hundred and seventy-five feet 
long, fifty-one feet wide, drawing six feet of water, and carry 
ing thirteen guns. In a week or two four thousand men were 
at work on the contract; sawmills were busy in five States cut 
ting the timber; machine shops and iron foundries in several 
cities were running day and night. The places of building were 
Carondelet, near St. Louis, and Mound City, Illinois. 

But the time was too short. The boats were unfinished 
at the end of sixty-five days. The Government refused to pay 
for them. And the builder, Eads what did he do? He went 
ahead and used up his own fortune to finish those gunboats, 

[216] 




Confederate garrison of the battery 

on Island No. 10, peering through the 

darkness out on the Mississippi, 

caught sight of the flicker of flames 

from the smoke-stacks of a steamer 

proceeding down the river. They 

knew at once that the attempt of the 

Federal gunboats to pass down to the 

support of General Pope s crossing 

of the river below had begun. The 

men on shore leaped to their guns, 

and the crash of cannon and the 

rattle of musketry broke forth across 

the bosom of the river. Aiming 

through the darkness at the luminous 

tops of the smoke-stacks the gunners 

poured in their vindictive fire, but the 

Confederates had elevated their guns 

too high and only two of their shots 

sped home. The Carondelet, for it 

was she, held on her way, and her 

commander, Henry Walke, would not 

permit his men to send a single 

answering shot. Walke had begged 

to be the first to take his vessel by 

the dreaded batteries on Island No. 10. 

In the pilot-house he directed the 

daring attempt, catching glimpses of the tortuous channel amid 

the fitful lightning of a storm which suddenly descended on 

the river and added the reverberations of Heaven to those 

of the battery below. At one moment the Carondelet 




COMMANDER HENRY WALKE 



but hastily backing off, made good 
her escape past a dreaded float 
ing battery below the Island, which 
offered little opposition. She arrived 
at New Madrid without a man 
having received a single scratch. 
The Carondelet and her commander 
had made good, and the next morning 
lay ready to support the army after 
having achieved one of the greatest 
feats in the record of the inland navy. 
On April 6th, her elated and plucky 
crew captured and spiked the guns 
of the battery opposite Point Pleasant, 
an event which convinced the Con 
federates that Island No. 10 must be 
evacuated. That very night, en 
couraged by the success of the Caron 
delet, Commander Thompson, with 
the Pittsburgh, ran by the disheartened 
gunners on Island No. 10 and joined 
Commander Walke. The crossing of 
Pope s forces then proceeded, and the 
Confederates, in full retreat, were 
hemmed in by Paine s division and 
surrendered, before dawn of April 8th. 
Colonel Cook s troops cut off in their 

retreat from Island No. 10, were also compelled to surrender. 

The daring of Commander Walke in the face of this great danger 

had accomplished the first step in the opening of the Mississippi 

since the expedition left Cairo. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE CARONDELET FIRST TO RUN THE GANTLET AT ISLAND NO. 10 





Nn. 10 (Swtbflats anb 




then handed them over to the Government and waited for his 
pay until after they had won their famous victories down the 
river. 

Their first commander was Andrew H. Foote, who was 
called " the Stonewall Jackson of the West." He had won 
fame in the waters of the Orient and had spent years in the 
suppression of the slave trade. Like " Stonewall " Jackson, 
he was a man of deep religious principles. On the Sunday 
after the fall of Fort Henry he preached a sermon in a church 
at Cairo. The next year the aged admiral lay sick in New 
York. His physician dreaded to tell him that his illness would 
be fatal, hut did so. Well," answered the admiral, " I am 
glad to be done with guns and war." 

We must get to our story. Fort Henry and Fort Don- 
elson had fallen. General Polk had occupied Columbus, 
Kentucky, a powerful stronghold from which one hundred and 
fifty cannon pointed over the bluff. But why hold Columbus 
in its isolation when Henry and Donelson were lost? So 
thought the good bishop-general and he broke camp on Feb 
ruary 25, 1862, transferring one hundred and thirty of his big 
guns to Island No. 10, and rolling the remainder down the 
one hundred and fifty foot embankment into the Mississippi. 
That nothing might be left for the foe, he burned eighteen 
thousand bushels of corn and five thousand tons of hay, and 
when the Federals reached Columbus on March 4th they found 
only charred remains. 

Island No. 10 was situated at the upper bend of a great 
double curve of the Mississippi, about forty miles below Co 
lumbus. It had been strongly fortified by General Beaure- 
gard, but Beauregard was called to Corinth and Shiloh and he 
turned the command over to General Mackall with about seven 
thousand men. It was confidently believed by its defenders 
that this fortified island would be the final stopping place of 
all hostile vessels on the great river, that none could pass it 
without being blown out of the water by the powerful batteries. 

[218] 




m 



v 






THE RETREAT DOWN THE RIVER. 

The Flag-ship of the Confederate Fleet at 
Island No. 10. Below the dreaded battery 
at Island No. 10, lay Commodore George 
N. Hollins, with his flag-ship, the McRae 
and seven other Confederate gunboats, 
holding in check the Federal troops chafing 
to cross the river and get at the inferior 
force of the enemy on the other side. 
This opposing fleet was further strength 
ened by a powerful floating battery which 
could be pushed about by the gunboats 
and anchored at the most effective points. 
When the Carondelet accomplished her 
daring feat of passing Island No. 10 on the 
night of April 4th, creeping stealthily by 
this boasted battery and cutting it off from 
its convoys, the men who manned it cut 
loose from their moorings and drifted 
down to the protection of Commodore 




COMMODORE GEORGE N. HOLLINS, 

C.S.N. 



Hollins vigilant neet. All was at once 
activity on board the Confederate vessels. 
Commodore Hollins did not court a meet 
ing to try conclusions with the powerful 
Eads gunboats and the mortar boats, 
which he supposed were all making their 
way down upon him. The flag at the 
masthead of the McRae quickly signaled 
the order to weigh anchor, and the Con 
federate squadron, dropping slowly down 
stream, confined its activities to storming 
Pope s batteries on the Missouri shore 
below New Madrid. Farragut, threaten 
ing New Orleans, had caused the with 
drawal of every available Confederate gun 
boat from the upper river, and the remain 
ing river defense fleet under Commodore 
Hollins was not equal to the task of stand 
ing up to the determined and aggressive 
attempt of the Federals to seize and hold 
possession of the upper Mississippi. 




Copyright by Review of Renews Co. 



THE McRAE 




. Ifl - 



Below this island, a few miles, was the town of New 
Madrid on the Missouri shore, held also by the Confederates 
and protected by heavy guns behind breastworks. 

On the west bank of the river, General John Pope com 
manded a Federal army of twenty thousand men. His object 
was to capture New Madrid. First he occupied Point Pleas 
ant, twelve miles below, erected batteries and cut off supplies 
from New Madrid. He then slowly approached the town and 
meantime sent to Cairo for siege-guns. They arrived on the 
12th of March, and all through the next day the cannonading 
was incessant. At night it ceased, and as Pope was about to 
renew the attack he discovered that the town had been aban 
doned during the night. The Confederates had not even de 
layed to destroy the supply stores, and they fell into the hands 
of the besiegers, together with all the guns and some thousands 
of small arms. 

Island No. 10 was now isolated, indeed. Above it the 
river was aswarm with Federal gunboats; below it and along 
the Missouri shore was Pope s army. Southward was Reelfoot 
Lake, and eastward were impenetrable swamps. The only pos 
sible way of escape was by a road to the southward between 
the river and Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. But the brave 
defenders of the island were not ready to give up or to flee. 
They determined to remain and dispute the possession of the 
river at all hazards. At this time the river was very high. The 
whole wooded peninsula made by the great bend was covered 
with water. Houses, fences, trees every movable thing had 
been swept down the current. 

General Pope s great desideratum was to secure boats to 
ferry his army across the river that he might capture Island 
No. 10. But the threatening cannon on the island forbade, in 
language without words, any attempt to pass them. The over 
flow of water on the peninsula \vas deep enough to float the 
transports, but a dense forest six miles in width prevented any 
such passage. At length a novel plan was devised to cut a 

[220] 










Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE FLAG-OFFICER S GOOD-BYE 



The decks of this staunch gunboat, the Benton, were crowded on the morn 
ing of May 9, 1862, by her officers and men waiting solemnly for the ap 
pearance of Commodore A. H. Foote. The Benton had been his flag-ship 
in the operations around Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow; but the wound he 
had received at Fort Donelson continued to undermine his health until 
now, supported by Captain Phelps, he feebly made his way on deck to 
bid good-bye to his brave and faithful comrades and resign his command 
to Captain Charles H. Davis. At sight of him the old tars swung their 
hats and burst into loud huzzas, which quickly gave place to moist eyes 
and saddened countenances, as Foote, with tears trickling down his cheeks, 
addressed to them some simple, heartfelt words of farewell. The men 
leaned forward to catch every syllable uttered by the beloved com 
mander s failing voice. An hour later the De Roto dropped down to the 
Benton. Foote was assisted to the transport s deck by his successor, 
Captain Davis, and Captain Phelps. Sitting in a chair on her guards, his 
breast filled with emotion, he gazed across the rapidly widening space 
separating him forever from the Benton, while the men on her deck con 
tinued to look longingly after him, till distance and tears hid each from 
the other s sight. 




No. 10 dmtboats anft iBatfrrwa 



i 






channel through the forest. Six hundred skilled engineers were 
in the army and they were soon at work in relays of three hun 
dred. After cutting off the trees above the water they cut the 
stumps beneath the water and just above the ground by means 
of hand-saws attached to pivots. After nineteen days of vig 
orous toil a channel was cut through the forest six miles long, 
fifty feet wide, and four and a half feet deep. The flat-bot 
tomed transports could pass through this channel and they 
quickly did so quickly, because the river was falling and the 
opportunity would soon pass. They were soon safely lodged 
at New Madrid without having come within range of the heavy 
guns of Island No. 10. 

But the ironclad gunboats what could be done with 
them? They drew too much water to be taken through the 
newly-made channel. Above the fortified island lay the Eads 
fleet, as it should be called (for the patriotic engineer still 
owned it in part), restless, eager for a fight. There were the 
Benton, the flag-ship, the Carondelet, the St. Louis, the Cin 
cinnati, the Pittsburgh, the Mound City, and eleven mortar- 
boats. But these vessels could do something: they could shoot, 
and they did on March 17th. On that day they trained their 
guns on the island; for nine long hours the boom of cannon 
was continuous. The results were slight. Beauregard, who 
had not yet departed for Corinth, wired to Richmond that 
his batteries were not damaged and but one man was killed. 

General Pope was sorely in need of a gunboat or two to 
silence a number of batteries guarding the Tiptonville road, 
on the east side of the river. Could he get possession of that 
road the last hope of escape from the island would be lost 
and ere long its defenders must surrender. Pope believed it 
possible for the gunboats to run the gantlet of the batteries 
of Island No. 10. But Foote thought it impossible, in the face 
of the mouths of half a hundred cannon that yawned across 
the channel. He refused to force anyone to so perilous an 
undertaking, and the commanders of the vessels all agreed 



March 
1862 




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with him that the running of the batteries was too great a risk, 
except one Henry Walke, commander of the Carondelet. 

" Are you willing to try it with your vessel? " asked Foote, 
of Commander Walke, in the presence of the other officers. 
" Yes," answered Walke, and it was agreed that the Caron 
delet should attempt to run the batteries. The next few days 
were spent in preparing the vessel for the ordeal. Chains, 
hawsers, and cables were wound around the pilot-house and 
other vulnerable parts of the vessel. A coal barge loaded with 
coal and hay was lashed to the side where there was no iron 
protection for the magazine. The steam escape was led 
through the w T heel-house so as to avoid the puffing sound 
through the smokestack. The sailors were armed to resist 
boarding parties, and sharpshooters were placed on board. 

The night of April 4th was chosen for this daring adven 
ture. At ten o clock the moon had set and the sky w r as over 
cast with dark clouds. The Carondelet began her perilous 
journey in total darkness. But presently a terrific thunder 
storm swept up the river and the vivid flashes of lightning 
rendered it impossible for the gunboat to pass the island 
unseen. Presently when near the hostile island the vessel was 
discovered. Next moment the heavy guns began to roar, as if 
to answer the thunders of the sky ; the flashes from the burning 
powder commingled with the vivid lightning, the whole pre 
senting a scene of indescribable grandeur. 

The Carondelet was saved, chiefly, no doubt, through the 
fact that she ran so near the island that the great guns could 
not be sufficiently depressed, and they overshot the mark. 
About midnight the gunboat reached New Madrid uninjured. 

Two nights later the Pittsburgh ran the gantlet of Island 
No. 10. The two vessels soon reduced the batteries along the 
east bank of the river to silence. Pope s army crossed and occu 
pied the Tiptonville road. The Confederate garrison of several 
thousand men could only surrender, and this they did, while 
the second day s battle was raging at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 

[224] 



March 
1862 





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NEW ORLEANS THE ENTERING 

WEDGE WHERE THE NAVY 

HELPED THE ARMY 

By JAMES BARNES 

THE capture of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the 
surrender of New Orleans was the first great blow that 
the Confederacy received from the south. Coming but two 
months after the fall of Fort Donelson, it was the thunderous 
stroke on the wedge that started the ensuing separation of 
the seceding States into two halves. It was the action that 
shortened the war by months, if not by years; and though 
performed by the navy alone, its vital connection with the 
operations of the army in the West and along the great high 
way of the Mississippi was paramount. The military history 
of the war could not be written without touching upon it. 
The inborn genius of President Lincoln was never more 
clearly shown than when, on November 12, 1861, he ordered 
a naval expedition to be fitted out for the capture of New 
Orleans, the real key to the Mississippi ; and never was clearer 
judgment proved than by the appointment of Captain David 
G. Farragut to the supreme command as flag-officer. To 
his fleet was attached a mortar flotilla under Commander 
David D. Porter, and here again was found the right man 
for the hour. 

All through November, December and early January of 
1862, the preparations were hurried without waste of energy. 
On the 2d of February, Farragut sailed from Hampton Roads, 
with orders to rendezvous at Key AVest, where Porter s mor 
tar-boats were to join him. Such vessels as could be spared 

[226] 






Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE STEAM FRIGATE BROOKLYN 



The Vessel that Followed the Flagship Past the Forts at New Orleans. When David Glasgow Farragut chose the Hartford as the 
ship to fly his flag, he picked out a craft that for her type (a steam frigate of the second class) was as fine as could be found in any 
navy in the world; and as much could be said for the Brooklyn, the second ship of the center division. She marked the transition 
period between sail and steam. Her tall masts were the inheritance of former days; her engines were merely auxiliary factors, for she 
could sail with all her canvas set and the proper wind to drive her faster than she could steam under the best conditions. Here we 
see her with royal, top-gallant sails, top-sails, and courses clewed up, and her funnel lowered to a level with her bulwarks. In pass 
ing the forts at New Orleans, she presented no such appearance her upper yards had been sent down, and with her engines doing 
their utmost, her funnel belching smoke, she swept slowly on into the line of fire. The first division, composed of eight vessels under 
command of Captain Theodorus Bailey on the Cayuga, was ahead. But every gunner in Fort Jackson and in Fort St. Philip had 
been told to "look out for the Hartford and the Brooklyn." It was dark, but the fire-rafts, the soaring shells, and the flames from 
the guns afloat and ashore made everything as bright as day. By some mistake, the reports that were first sent to Washington of 
the passing of the forts contained an erroneous plan. It was the first or discarded drawing, showing the fleet in two divisions abreast. 
This was afterwards changed into the three-division plan in which Captain Bailey with the Cayuga led. It was not until four years 
after the closing of the war that this mistake was rectified, and many of the histories and contemporary accounts of the passing of 
the forts are entirely in error. The center division was composed of only three vessels, all of them steam frigates of the first class: 
the Hartford, flying Farragut s flag, under Commander Wainwright; the Brooklyn, under Captain T. T. Craven, and the Richmond, 
under Commander J. Alden. In the first division were also the steam sloops-of-war Pensacola and Mississippi, and they already 
had been under fire for twenty minutes when the center division neared Fort Jackson. The flagship (really the ninth in line) steered 
in close to the shore, but was obliged to sheer across the stream in an attempt to dodge a fire-raft that was pushed by the Con 
federate tug Mosher. It was a daring act performed by a little crew of half a dozen men, and as a deed of desperate courage has 
hardly any equal in naval warfare. The Mosher all but succeeded in setting the flag-ship in flames, and was sunk by a well-directed 
shot. The Brooklyn, after a slight collision with the Kinco, one of the vessels of Bailey s division, and almost colliding with the hulks 
in the obstructions, was hit by the ram Manassas a glancing blow a little more and this would have sunk her, as both her inner 
and outer planking were crushed. But, like the flag-ship, she succeeded in passing safely. 
[A 15] 




GDrlraua 



Ininn 



April 
1862 



from the blockade, whose pinch upon the South Atlantic 
ports had already begun to be felt, were detached to aid the 
expedition. No such great plans and actions could be carried 
on in secrecy. Almost from its incipiency, the object of all this 
preparation became known throughout the South. Every 
effort was made by the Confederate military commanders to 
strengthen the defenses at New Orleans, which consisted of 
the formidable forts St. Philip and Jackson that faced one 
another, the former on the north bank and the latter on the 
south bank of the river below the city. Once these were 
passed, New Orleans would fall. Not only were the forts 
strengthened, but every effort was made by the Confederates 
to gain supremacy afloat; and in this they all but succeeded. 
In addition to the formidable obstructions placed in the river, 
the iron-clad ram, Manassas, w r as strengthened and further 
protected to prepare her for conflict. The Louisiana, then 
building at New Orleans, was rushed toward completion. If 
she had been ready, perhaps New Orleans would have told a 
different story, for she was designed to be the most powerful 
ironclad of her day 4,000 tons rating and mounting sixteen 
heavy guns, well protected by armor. Up the river, at Mem 
phis, the Arkansas was being prepared for active service; and 
on the various tributaries were being built several iron-clad 
vessels. 

No ship in Farragut s fleet possessed any more powers 
of resistance than the old wooden walls of Nelson s time. 
Against this attacking fleet were the well-placed guns ashore, 
seventy-four in Fort Jackson and fifty-two pieces of ord 
nance in Fort St. Philip. The garrisons were made up of 
about seven hundred well-trained cannoneers apiece. As 
Admiral Porter has observed, " Assuming upon the general 
concession of military men that one gun in a fort was equal 
to about three afloat, and considering the disadvantage of 
a contrary three-and-a-half-knot current to the Federal ves 
sels (with additional channel obstructions of fire-rafts and 

[228] 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE RICHMOND 



The Third Ship of the Center Division at the Passing of the Forts. There was a current in the Mississippi that had to be taken 
into account in estimating the time that Farragut s fleet would be under fire from the forts. The larger vessels were all so slow when 
under steam that, taking the rule that "a fleet is no faster than the slowest ship," caused them literally to crawl past the danger 
points. The Richmond was the slowest of them all. Just as she neared the passageway through the obstructions her boilers began 
to foam, and she could just about stem the current and no more. The vessels of the third division passed her; but at last, with her 
bow pointed up the river, she was able to engage Fort Jackson. Opening with her port batteries, she hammered hard at the fort, 
and with small loss got by, followed by the little gunboat Sciota that had equal good fortune. When day dawned, the Richmond 
crept up to the anchored fleet and reported. It was feared at first that she had been lost or sunk. The battle of New Orleans was 
probably the most successful, and certainly the boldest, attempt ever made to match wooden ships against forts at close range. Al 
though the Confederate gunboats were inferior to the Federal fleet, they also have to be taken into consideration for their brave and 
almost blind assault. If they had been assisted by the unfinished ironclads they might have borne different results, for the Louisiana, 
owing to her unfinished condition never entered the fight. She was considered to be more powerful than the Merrimac. Certainly 
her armament would prove it, for she mounted two 7-inch rifles, three 9-inch shell guns, four 8-inch smooth-bores, and 
seven 100-pounder rifles in all sixteen guns. At the city of New Orleans was an unfinished ironclad that was expected to be even 
more powerful than the Louisiana. Only the arrival of Farragut s fleet at this timely hour for the Federal cause prevented her from 
being finished. It was believed by her builders and apparently, in view of the immunity of ironclads, with reason that not only 
could the Mississippi drive the Federal fleet out of the river, but that she would be able to paralyze the whole of the wooden navy 
of the North, and might possibly go so far as to lay the Northern Atlantic cities under contribution. In order to prevent her from 
falling into the Federal hands she, like the Louisiana, was set on fire and drifted a wreck down the stream. Commander J. Alden, 
of the Richmond, was on the quarterdeck throughout the action and had seen to it that his vessel, like the others, was prepared 
in every way to render the chances of success more favorable. Cables were slung over the side to protect her vulnerable parts, sand 
bags and coal had been piled up around her engines, hammocks and splinter-nettings were spread and rigged, and as the attempt 
to run the forts would be at night, no lights were allowed. Decks and gun-breeches were whitewashed to make them more visible 
in the darkness. Farragut s orders had concluded with the following weighty sentence: "I shall expect the most prompt attention 
to signals and verbal orders either from myself or the Captain of the fleet, who, it will be understood in all cases, acts by my author 
ity." The Richmond lost two men killed and four men wounded in the action. 







QDrlratta an& tit? Mutntt 



chains), the odds were greatly in favor of the Confederate 
defenses." 

The defenders of the old city, Xew Orleans, were confident 
that the fleet would never pass. On the 16th of April, the 
mortar-boats were in position along what was, owing to the 
bend of the river, really the southern bank (one division, on 
the first day, was across the river), and in the morning they 
opened, each vessel firing at the rate of one shell every ten 
minutes. Organized into three divisions, they were anchored 
close to the shore, the furthest up stream, only 2,850 yards 
from Fort Jackson, and 3,680 from Fort St. Philip. They 
were near a stretch of woods and their tall masts they were 
mostly schooners were dressed with branches of trees in order 
to disguise their position from the Confederate guns. For 
almost eight days, at varying intervals even at night, the 
twenty boats of this flotilla rained their hail of death and de 
struction on the forts. Brave and hardy must have been the 
men who stood that terrific bombardment! The commanders 
of the Confederate forts bore witness to the demoralization 
of both the men and defenses that ensued. Xearly every shell 
of the many thousand fired lodged inside the works; maga 
zines M-ere threatened, conflagrations started, and destruction 
was reaped on all sides. Long after the memorable day of 
the 24th of April when the fleet swept past, Colonel Edward 
Higgins, the brave defender of Fort Jackson, wrote as follows: 

I was obliged to confine the men most rigidly to the 
casemates, or we should have lost the best part of the garri 
son. A shell, striking the parapet over one of the magazines, 
the wall of which was seven feet thick, penetrated five feet 
and failed to burst. If that shell had exploded, the work 
would have ended. 

" Another burst near the magazine door, opening the earth 
and burying the sentinel and another man five feet in the 
same grave. 

The parapet and interior of the fort were completely 

[ 280 ] 




1 



///// 




David G. Farragut, Who Com 
manded the Fleets at New Or 
leans. No man ever succeeded 
in impressing his own personality 
and infusing his confidence and 
enthusiasm upon those under his 
command better than did David 
Glasgow Farragut. In drawing 
up the plans and assuming the 
responsibility of what seemed to 
be a desperate and almost fool 
hardy deed, Farragut showed his 
genius and courage. His attack 
was not a blind rush, trusting to 
suddenness for its effect; it was 
a well-studied, well-thought-out 
plan. Nothing was neglected 
"which prudence could suggest, 
foresight provide, or skill and 
science devise." Farragut was 
well aware of the results that 




would follow. The control of the 
lower Mississippi, if complete, 
would have enabled the Confed 
erate Government to draw almost 
unlimited supplies from the vast 
country to the west of the river, 
and undoubtedly would have 
prolonged the war. The failure 
of Farragut s plan and his defeat 
would have meant a most crush 
ing blow to the North. But in 
his trust in his officers and his 
own fearless courage there was 
small chance of failure. Calm 
and collected he went through the 
ordeal, and when safe above the 
forts he saw Bailey s vessels 
waiting, and one by one his other 
ships coming up, he knew that 
his stupendous undertaking was 
a success. 



DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT 

THE MAN WHO DARED 



The whole of the North rose in elation at the news of the capture of New Orleans; but the surrender of the city at the mouth of the 
river did not mean complete possession. From Vicksburg southward, the long line of the river and the land on either side was yet 
in the possession of the Confederates. Baton Rouge and Natchez surrendered on demand. On May 29th, transports carrying the 
troops of General Williams came down the river after a reconnaissance at Vicksburg. Farragut was anchored off the town of Baton 
Rouge. He reported to Williams that a body of irregular Confederate cavalry had fired into one of his boats, wounding an officer 
and two men, and that he had been compelled to open his batteries upon the shore. W illiams at once occupied the town in force. 




Copyright iiy Review of Reviews Co. 
A FLAGSHIP IN UNFRIENDLY W T ATERS 

The Hartford Lying Close to the Levee at Baton Rouge 



honeycombed, and the large number of sand bags with which 
we were supplied alone saved us from being blown to pieces 
a hundred times, our magazine doors being much exposed. 

" On the morning of the 24th, when the fleet passed, the 
terrible precision with which the formidable vessels hailed down 
their tons of bursting shell upon the devoted fort made it 
impossible for us to obtain either rapidity or accuracy of fire, 
and thus rendered the passage comparatively easy." 

Although all the foregoing proves the accuracy and value 
of the mortar fire, it alone could not reduce the forts. They 
had to be passed to lay the city at the mercy of the fleet. But 
there were the obstructions yet to deal with. Twas a brave 
deed that was done by the two gunboats, Itasca and Pinola, 
which, after great difficulties, broke the great link-chain that, 
buoyed by logs and hulks, closed up the channel. General 
M. L. Smith, the engineer of the department, in his report, 
in referring to the fall of New Orleans, wrote, " While the 
obstruction existed, the city was safe ; when it was swept away, 
as the defenses then existed, it was in the enemy s power." 

By 2 o clock A.M. in the morning of the 24th, the intrepid 
Lieutenant Caldwell, who had suggested the expedition of 
the two gunboats that had broken up the obstruction, returned 
to the fleet after a daring survey of the channel, and the flag 
ship hoisted the appointed signal. In two divisions, the fleet 
passed through the broken barriers and steamed into the zone 
of fire. It was an enfilading fire, as soon the guns of both 
forts were brought into play. There is not space here to go 
into the details of the naval battle that followed with the 
bravely fought Confederate gunboats and the ram Manassas. 
That belongs to naval history. There were deeds of prowess 
performed by vessels that flew either flag; there were small 
separate actions whose relating would make separate stories 
in themselves. Amid burning fire-rafts and a continuous roar 
from the opposing forts, the first division of the fleet under 
the command of Captain Theodorus Bailey held its course, 

[ 232 ] 





COALING 



FARRAGUT S FLEET 



AFTER 



NEW ORLEANS 



Coaling Farragut s Fleet at Baton Rouge. If "a ship without a captain is like a man without a soul," 
as runs an old naval saying, a vessel dependent upon steam power with empty bunkers is as a man deprived 
of heart-blood, nerves, or muscles; and a few days after New Orleans, Farragut s vessels faced a serious crisis. 
Captain A. T. Mahan has summed it up in the following words: "... The maintenance of the coal supply 
for a large squadron, five hundred miles up a crooked river in a hostile country, was in itself no small anxiety, 
involving as it did carriage of the coal against the current, the provision of convoys to protect the supply 
vessels against guerillas, and the employment of pilots, few of whom were to be found, as they naturally 
favored the enemy, and had gone away. The river was drawing near the time of lowest water, and the 
flag-ship herself got aground under very critical circumstances, having had to take out her coal and shot, 
and had even begun on her guns, two of which were out when she floated off." Many of the up-river gun 
boats could burn wood, and so, at a pinch and for a short time, could the smaller steamers with Farragut. 
But the larger vessels required coal, and at first there was not much of it to be had, although there were 
some colliers with the fleet and more were dispatched later. In the two pictures of this page we are shown 
scenes along the levee in 186*2, at Baton Rouge, and out in the river, a part of the fleet. The vessel with 
sails let down to dry is the sloop-of-war Mississippi; ahead of her and a little inshore, about to drop her 
anchor, is one of the smaller steamers that composed the third division of the fleet. Nearby lies a mortar 
schooner and a vessel laden with coal. Baton Rouge, where Farragut had hoisted his flag over the arsenal, 
was policed by a body of foreigners employed by the municipal authority. The mayor had declared that 
the guerilla band. ., \\hir\v had f rnoyed the fleet were beyond his jurisdiction, saying that he was responsible 
only for order within ^"x c.cy limits. There was some coal found in the city belonging to private owners, 
and the lower picture shows the yards of Messrs. Hill and Markham, who, through the medium of Mr. 
Bryan, the Mayor, opened negotiations with Farragut for its sale. 



THE 



COALING YARD 



AT 





aufr ih? lutmt Nairn 



April 
1862 




; \ 









his ship, the Cayuga, leading the van. The second division, 
under the fleet s commander, followed. The powerful steam 
ram, Manassas, had struck the Kmokli/n, doing some slight 
damage. But when the Mississippi turned her wooden prow 
upon her, in order to avoid being turned over like a log, the 
ram took to the shore, where her crew escaped. Subsequently, 
having received two broadsides from the Mississippi, she slid 
off the bank and drifted in flames down with the current. 

By daybreak nine of the Confederate vessels that had 
fought so gallantly and dauntlessly were destroyed. The 
forts lay some five miles downstream. The little batteries 
that protected the outskirts of the city were silenced. On the 
25th, Xew Orleans lay powerless under Farragut s guns. The 
dreaded Louisiana was set on fire and blew up with tremen 
dous explosion. Another, and still more powerful ironclad, 
the Mississippi (not to be confused with the vessel in Farra 
gut s fleet of the same name), suffered the same fate. She 
had been launched only six days before. On the 27th, Porter, 
who was down the river, demanded the surrender of the forts ; 
and General Duncan, the Confederate commander-in-chief, 
accepted the terms on the 28th. At 2.30 P.M. on that day, 
Fort St. Philip and Fort Jackson were formally delivered, and 
the United States flag was hoisted over them. On May 1st, 
General Butler arrived and the captured city was handed over 
to the army. The wedge having been driven home, the open 
ing of the Mississippi from the south had begun. 



[ 23-1 ] 










PART II 
DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



FORT PILLOW 

AND 
MEMPHIS 




THE CONFEDERATE RAM GENERAL PRICE ACCIDENTALLY STRUCK 

BY HER CONSORT "GENERAL BEAUREGARD " AT THE BATTLE OF 
MEMPHIS, RUN ASHORE, AND CAPTURED BY THE FEDERALS 







FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS 

There can be no denying the dash and spirit with which this attack 
was made. It was, however, the only service of value performed by this 
irregular and undisciplined force. At Memphis, a month later, and at 
New Orleans, the fleet proved incapable of meeting an attack and of 
mutual support. There were admirable materials in it, but the mistake 
of withdrawing them from strict military control and organization was 
fatal. On the other hand, although the gunboats engaged fought gal 
lantly, the flotilla as an organization had little cause for satisfaction in 
the day s work. A. T. Mahan, in "The Gulf and Inland Waters" 

The boats I have purchased are illy adapted for the work I shall 
require of them ; it is not their sti ength upon which I rely, but upon the 
audacity of our attack, for success. Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr., in a letter 
to the Secretary of War. 

THE Western gunboat flotilla had done wonderful work 
in the space of two months, February to April, 1862. 
It had captured Fort Henry; it had made possible the taking 
of Fort Donelson, with its vast equipment and fourteen thou 
sand men; it had secured to General Pope s army the sur 
render of Island No. 10 all within the eight weeks. But 
there were more strongholds to conquer and the heaviest battle 
was still in the future. Fort Pillow with its frowning cannon 
lay eighty miles or more below New Madrid, and eighty miles 
still farther down the great river was Memphis. Fort Pillow, 
and Fort Randolph, just below, must now be attacked in order 
to open the river to Vicksburg. 

A few days after the surrender of Island No. 10, the gun 
boat fleet turned toward Fort Pillow. About this time General 
Pope was called with most of his army to Shiloh and Corinth, 
as Beauregard had been before, and the gunboats with a small 
portion of the land forces were left to fight their way down the 

[236] 




Federal Floating Mortar Battery at 
Fort Pillow. There would have been 
no engagement at Fort Pillow had it 
not been for the continued annoyance 
inflicted upon that position by the 
curious little craft one of which we 
see tied up to the wharf in the lower 
picture. Secure in the knowledge 
that Beauregard s presence with a 
large force at Corinth had precluded 
the Federal land attack, General 
Villepigue awoke one morning to the 
sound of bursting shells which a Fed 
eral mortar boat was rapidly dropping 
over his ramparts. Every day there 
after, Flag-Officer Foote continued to 
pay compliments to Fort Pillow by 
sending down a mortar boat towed 
by a gunboat of the type seen in the 
picture. There was nothing for the 
Confederates to do but take to their 
bomb-proofs, so long as the Federal 
gunners continued the bombardment. 
At last General Villepigue, chafing 
under the damage done to his works, 
called urgently upon the Confederate 

flotilla to come up and put an end to the mortar boats. Early 
on the morning of May 10, 1862, the day after Flag-Officer 
Foote went North, leaving Captain Davis in charge of the 
Federal flotilla, the Cincinnati towed mortar No. 16 down to 




GENERAL J. B. VILLEPIGUE 

THE DEFENDER OF FORT PILLOW 



the usual position for shelling the 
fort, and then tied up to the edge of 
the stream to protect her. The 
mortar fired her first shot at five 
o clock. One hour and a half later 
the eight rams of the Confederate 
River Defense fleet suddenly and un 
expectedly appeared bearing down 
upon the Cincinnati. The latter 
quickly slipped her moorings, and 
opened her bow guns upon the ap 
proaching vessels. One of these, the 
General Bragg, passed quickly above 
the Federal ironclad, turned and 
struck her a violent blow on the star 
board quarter. After that the Bragg 
disappeared down the river, but the 
General Price and the Sumter con 
tinued the attack. One struck the 
Cincinnati again, but the other re 
ceived a shot through her boilers from 
the Benton, and this ended her part of 
the fight. The wounded Cincinnati 
was helped to the shore and sunk. 
The other Federal ironclad had now 
come upon the scene and the melee 

became general. The General Van Dorn rammed the Mound 
City so severely that she was compelled to run on the 
Arkansas shore. After that the Confederate rams returned to 
Fort Pillow and the half hour s thrilling fight was over. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co, 



BOATS THAT BROUGHT ON THE BATTLE 



ort pllmu 



river alone. For two weeks the fleet bombarded Fort Pillow 
at long range. On May 9th, Flag-Officer Foote, whose wound 
received at Fort Donelson had not healed, asked to be relieved, 
and Captain Charles H. Davis, a man of well-known skill and 
bravery, was appointed in his place. The day after the re 
tirement of Foote a Confederate fleet, known as the " River 
Defense," under the command of Captain J. K. Montgomery, 
came up and offered battle. Among them was a powerful 
side-wheel steam ram, the General Bragg, which made for the 
Cincinnati. The latter opened fire, but the shots could not 
drive the antagonist off. Presently the onrushing vessel struck 
the Cincinnati on the starboard side and penetrated the shell- 
room, rendering the ironclad almost helpless. Before the 
wounded vessel could get away she was rammed by two other 
Confederate boats, the General Price and the Slimier. Mean 
while the Carondelet had come to the rescue of the Cincin 
nati, firing as fast as she could load. At last the Sumter was 
struck by a 50-pound Dahlgren shot from the Carondelet 
and completely disabled. Her steam-chest was penetrated 
and the steam instantly poured out upon all parts of her case 
mate. The men ran for life, some leaping into the water and 
some falling on the deck, victims of the scalding steam. The 
General Van Dom, one of the most agile of the Confederate 
vessels, partially disabled the Mound City by ramming her 
amidships with fearful force. 

The smoke of battle had enveloped the whole scene in a 
dense cloud. There was a lull in the firing, and when the smoke 
cleared away the Confederate fleet was seen drifting slowly 
down the stream to Fort Pillow, and the battle was over. 

For two or three days after this battle long-range firing 
was kept up, the Union fleet lying a mile or more up the river, 
the Confederate vessels being huddled under the guns of Fort 
Pillow. 

On the 4th of June, great clouds of smoke were seen to 
arise from the fort, and terrific explosions accompanying 

[238] 



June 
1862 






/A 



"< 




THE VESSEL WITH THE ARMED PROW. THE FEDERAL RAM VINDICATOR 

An excellent example of the steam rams as developed from the ideas of Charles Ellet, Jr., adding a new chapter 
to the history of naval warfare. As far back as the siege of Sebastopol, in 1854, Charles Ellet being then in 
Europe proposed a plan to the Russians to equip their blockaded fleet with rams. The plan was not 
adopted, and in 1855 he published a pamphlet outlining his idea and said, in proposing it to the United 
States Government, "I hold myself ready to carry it out in all its details whenever the day arrives that the 
United States is about to become engaged in a naval contest." It was not until after the appearance of the 
Mcrrimac at Hampton Roads and the danger to Foote s fleet on the Mississippi from Confederate rams that 
Ellet was given the opportunity to try his various projects and commissioned to equip several rams at 
Cincinnati. The project was regarded as a perilous one. Had it not been forEllet s extraordinary personal 
influence he would never have been able to obtain crews for his rams, as they were entirely unarmored with 
the exception of the pilot-house, but Ellet had reasoned correctly that the danger from collision was im 
mensely against the vessel struck, while the danger from shot penetrating a vital part of the approaching ram 
he proved was reduced to an unappreciable fraction. He contented himself, therefore, with strengthening the 
hulls of the river steamers which he purchased, filling the bows with solid timbers and surrounding the boijers 
with a double tier of oak twenty-four inches thick. At Memphis the rams had their first trial and it resulted 
in complete vindication of Ellet s theories. It was a vindication, however, which cost Ellet his life. He 
was mortally wounded in the fight at Memphis while in command of the Queen of the West. 



0rt pilaw anti 



V~\ 



told the story. The Confederates were evacuating the place 
and destroying their magazines before departing. The next 
morning the Federals clambered up the bluff to the site of the 
fort and found only smoking ruins. Even the earthen breast 
works had been torn to pieces by the fearful powder explosions. 
Fort Randolph was likewise abandoned. The great river, while 
not yet rolling " unvexed to the sea," was now open as far as 
Memphis, whither the River Defense fleet had retreated, some 
eighty miles below Fort Pillow, and thither steered the Fed 
eral gunboats in search of their recent antagonists. 

Down the glassy river the Union fleet glided on June 5th. 
The banners were waving. The men were as gay as if they 
were going to a picnic. In the evening they came within gun 
shot of Memphis and anchored for the night, not far from the 
supposed spot where, more than three hundred years before, 
De Soto had first cast his eyes on the rolling tide of the 
Mississippi. 

The Federal flotilla on the Mississippi had, some days be 
fore, been reenforced by four small steam rams under the com 
mand of Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr. Ellet was not by profes 
sion a military man, but a distinguished civil engineer. He had 
convinced the Government of the value of the steam ram as a 
weapon of war, and was given a colonel s commission and au 
thority to fit out a fleet of rams. His vessels w^ere not armed. 
He cooperated with, but was not under the direction of, Flag- 
Officer Davis. His " flag-ship " was the Queen of the West 
and the next in importance was the Monarch, commanded by 
his younger brother, Alfred W. Ellet. 

It was understood by all that a ferocious river-battle was 
necessary before the Federals could get control of the city on 
the hill. It is true that Memphis was not fortified, but it was 
defended by the fleet which the previous month had had its first 
taste of warfare at Fort Pillow and now lay at the foot of the 
bluffs ready to grapple with the coming foe. The vessels, eight 
in number, were not equal to those of the Union fleet. They 

[ 240 ] 



^a 







PILOT W. J. AUSLINTY 



PILOT DAVID HEINER 

HEROES OF THE WHEEL-HOUSE 



PILOT CHARLES ROSS 




THE UXARMORED CONNING TOWER 






Look into these six keen eyes which knew every current and 
eddy, every snag and sandbar of the Mississippi. To the hands 
of men like these the commanders of the Federal gunboats 
owed the safe conduct of their vessels. No 
hearts more fearless nor hands more steady 
under fire were brought into the fighting on 
either side. Standing silently at the wheel, 
their gaze fixed on the familiar countenance 
of the river before them, they guided the 
gunboats through showers of shell. Peering 
into the murky night, they felt their way 
through shallow channels past watchful bat 
teries whose first shot would be aimed against 
the frail and unprotected pilot house. 

There was no more dangerous post than the 
pilot house of a gunboat, standing as a target 
for the gunners, who knew that to disable the 
pilot was to render the vessel helpless to drift 
hither and yon or to run aground to be riddled 
full of holes. After the Inland Fleet passed 





Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE TARGET OF THE 
SHARPSHOOTERS 



from the control of the army to that of the navy the pilots 
of all the gunboats except Ellet s rams were brevetted acting 
masters or masters mates and wore the uniform of the 
navy. Their services and bravery were fully 
recognized by the commanders, and their 
intimate knowledge of the river admitted 
them to conferences in which the most secret 
and difficult naval movements were planned. 
A river pilot knew when he could take his 
vessel over sandbars and inundated shallows 
where soundings would have turned back any 
navigating officer of the navy. Such valuable 
men were never safe. Even when passing up 
and down apparently peaceful reaches of the 
river the singing of some sharpshooters 
bullet would give sudden warning that along 
the banks men were lying in wait for them. 
The mortality among the pilots during the war 
speaks volumes for the simple heroism of 
these silent men. 



2 

r1ff77ffiy//M//ftff//fe. 


0rt pllnw attfr iJfemphts * * * * 


| June 
| 1862 







X*, 



carried but two guns each, except one, which carried four. It 
was therefore a brave thing for Captain Montgomery to lay 
down the gage of battle to a fleet far stronger than his own. 
But he and his men did not falter. They moved up the swift 
current and opened the battle of Memphis, one of the most 
hotly contested naval battles ever fought in American waters. 

It was the 6th of June, 1862, and one of the most charming 
days that Xature ever gives. As the sun rose over the eastern 
hills the people of the city gathered along the bluff in thousands, 
standing in dark silhouette against the sky, to watch the contest, 
and one can imagine how their emotion rose and fell as the tide 
of battle ebbed and flowed on the river below. 

It was at 5 :00 A.M. that Montgomery moved up the stream 
and fired the first gun. At this opening Colonel Ellet sprang 
forward on the hurricane deck, waved his hat, and shouted to 
his brother: " Round out and follow me. Now is our chance." 

The Queen instantly moved toward the Confederate fleet; 
the Federal ironclads followed, but already both fleets were en 
gaged in a brisk cannonade and the smoke was so dense that the 
Queen was soon lost to view. The daring little vessel plunged 
on through the waves. She was headed for the General Lovell, 
almost in the center of the Confederate line of battle. The 
Queen struck her antagonist squarely on the side and cut her 
almost in two. The wounded vessel groaned and lurched, and 
in a few minutes she sank, with many of her devoted crew, 
beneath the dark waters of the river. 

Soon after this the Queen was rammed by the General 
Beauregard and a little later when the Beauregard and the 
General Price were making for the Monarch, the Beauregard 
missed her aim and struck her comrade, the General Price., tear 
ing off her wheel and putting her out of service. The Queen 
fought with desperation and in the melee Colonel Ellet, her 
commander, received a pistol shot in the knee. He fell on the 
deck and, unable to rise, continued to give orders to his men 
while lying prone on his ship. But the Queen was now dis- 

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abled, after her crash with the Beauregard, and Ellet ordered 
that she he headed for the Arkansas shore. 

The next scene in this exciting drama came when the 
Beauregard, after disabling the Queen, made for the Monarch 
with like design. But the Monarch was the more agile. She 
evaded the blow, and dexterously whirling about, struck the 
Beauregard on the bow with terrific force, tearing a great hole 
beneath the water line. The Beauregard, disabled also by the 
gunboats, began to sink and the men on her decks fluttered 
handkerchiefs or any white thing at hand in token of surrender. 

The Monarch, however, had determined to add one more 
to her list of trophies. There was the Little Rebel, the Confed 
erate flag-ship, on whose deck Captain Montgomery had stood 
with unfaltering courage in the midst of Federal gun-shots. 
The Monarch now turned her prow to the Little Rebel and put 
on full steam. The latter, conscious of her inability to stand 
before the little fighting monster, fled toward the Arkansas 
shore. The race was a hot one; the Monarch gained rapidly, 
but ere she could strike the Little Rebel, the latter ran aground 
in the shallow water. Her commander and her crew leaped 
into the water, and they swam to shore and escaped into the 
forest. 

The Monarch then steamed back to the middle of the river 
and rounded out her day s work by doing a deed of mercy. The 
Beauregard was still above water, but was settling rapidly, and 
her faithful crew, knowing that they had done all they could for 
the cause for which they fought, were still waving their w 7 hite 
flags. The Monarch rescued them and towed the sinking 
Beauregard to shallow water, where she sank to her boiler 
deck. 

Four of the Confederate gunboats had now been destroyed 
and the remaining four turned down the river and made a des 
perate effort to escape. But the Union fleet closed in on them 
and three of them turned to the Arkansas shore in the hope that 
the crews might make their escape. In the lead was the General 

[244] 







Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



A HANGER OF THE RIVER 



This little "tinclad" is typical of the so-called Mosquito Fleet, officially known as "Light Drafts," which rendered a magnificent 
minor service in the river operations of the navy. Up narrow tributaries and in and out of tortuous and shallow bayous, impassable 
for the larger gunboats, these dauntless fighting craft pushed their way, capturing Confederate vessels twice their size, or boldly en 
gaging the infantry and even the field-batteries of the enemy, which were always eagerly pressing the shores to annoy the invading 
fleet. To Flag-Officer Davis, during his command on the Mississippi, the Federals owed the idea of these light-draft stern-wheel 
vessels, most of which were ordinary river steamers purchased and altered to suit the purposes of the navy. Covered to a height of 
eleven feet above the water line with railroad iron a half to three-quarters of an inch thick, and with their boilers still further pro 
tected, they were able to stand up to the fire of even moderate-sized guns. Many a gun in the Confederate fleets and forts was silenced 
by the well-directed fire of the two light bow-rifles with which some of the tinclads were equipped. 









> 



^ 



J/. JVj/f. Thompson. In a few minutes she had reached the goal 
and her officers and men leaped from the deck and ran for the 
protection of the woods. A moment later a shell exploded on 
her deck, set her on fire and she was hurned to the water s edge. 
Closely following the Jeff. Thompson were the Bragg and the 
Sumter, and the crews of both escaped in like manner to the 
swamps and forests of Arkansas. Of all the eight Confederate 
gunboats the General Van Dorn alone evaded her pursuers and 
made her escape down the river. 

The battle of Memphis, one of the fiercest of its kind on 
record, lasted but an hour and a quarter. The Confederate 
killed and wounded were never accurately reported. On the 
Union side there were four wounded, and with one the wound 
proved fatal Colonel Kllet. His shattered knee refused to 
heal, and two weeks later, in the arms of his wife and daughter, 
the famous engineer breathed his last. His body was carried to 
Philadelphia and laid to rest at Laurel Hill, after being given a 
state funeral at Independence Hall. 

The view of the battle of Memphis from the bluffs, on 
which the whole population of the city had gathered, was one 
of indescribable grandeur. Every house in the city and for 
miles around quivered with the explosions of burning powder. 
At times the smoke of the battle was so dense that scarcely a 
vessel could be seen by the spectators on the hill; but a con 
tinuous roar of artillery arose from the hidden surface of the 
river, while the impingement of the vessels crashing together 
sounded like a titanic battle of the elements. 

There were a few Union sympathisers among the on 
lookers, but the great majority of them were Confederates, and 
when they saw their ships go down they broke into wails and 
lamentations. Sorrowfully they witnessed, before noon of that 
day, the Stars and Bars lowered from the City Hall and re 
placed by the Stars and Stripes, which floated over Memphis 
to the end of the war. 



/t 



W /A 



[246] 




FIGHTING WESTERNERS THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

GENERAL C. C. WASHBURN (ORGANIZER OF THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY) AND STAFF 

Wisconsin sent ninety thousand of her sons into the struggle, and her infantry and cavalry won records "East" and also in the minor, 
but by no means inglorious, operations west of the Mississippi. In Missouri and Arkansas they protected the inhabitants from outlaw 
bands and resisted the raids of the Confederates, helping the Union forces on the other side finally to gain possession of the river. 




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On July 24th the fleet under Farragut and 
the troops that had occupied the position 
on the river bank opposite Vieksburg under 
the command of General Thomas Williams 
went down the river, Farragut proceeding 
to New Orleans and Williams once more 
to Baton Rouge. The latter had with 
drawn from his work of cutting the canal 
in front of Vieksburg, and a few days after 
his arrival at Baton Rouge the Confederate 
General Van Dorn sent General J. C. 
Breckinridge to seize the post. On the 
morning of August 5, 1862, the Federal 
forces were attacked. Williams, who had 
with him only about twenty-five hundred 
men, soon found that a much larger force 
was opposed to him, Breckinridge having 
between five and six thousand men. The 
brunt of the early morning attack fell upon 
the Indiana and Michigan troops, who slow 
ly fell back before the fierce rushes of the 
bravely led men in gray. At once, Williams 
ordered Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
Wisconsin regiments to go to their relief, sending at the same 
time two sections of artillery to his right wing. The Federal 
gunboats Kalahdin and Kinco opened fire on Breckinridge s lines 




THE FEDERAL 
BATON 



at a signal from General Williams, who 
indicated their position. For almost two 
hours the battle raged fiercely, the firing be 
ing at short range and the fighting in some 
cases hand-to-hand. The Twenty-first 
Indiana regiment having lost all its field 
officers, General Williams placed himself at 
its head, exposing himself repeatedly, and 
refusing all pleadings to go to the rear. 
As he was bravely leading his men, he was 
killed almost instantly by a bullet that 
passed through his chest; and the Federal 
forces, concentrating, fell back on the out 
skirts of the town. The Confederates, who 
had also suffered heavily, fell back also, 
retreating to their camp. The action was 
a drawn fight, but in the loss of the brave 
veteran of the Mexican War who had led 
them the land forces of the lower Missis 
sippi sustained a severe blow. General 
Williams body was sent to New Orleans 
on an artillery transport which was sunk 
in collision with the Oneida off Donaldson- 
ville, Louisiana, a few days after the battle. Baton Rouge 
was abandoned by the Federals on August 20th. Breckinridge 
had previously retired to Port Hudson. 



DEFENDER OF 
ROUGE 




< <Hiyriyht !>}/ Review of Revieu-x Co. 

ILLERY TRANSPORT THAT WAS SI NK OFF DONALDSONVILLE, LOUISIANA, WITH GENERAL 
WILLIAMS BODY O\ BOARD. AUGUST. 1862 



PART III 
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND 



YORKTOWN : 
UP THE 

PENINSULA 




GUNS MARKED GEN. MAGRUDEB, YORKTOWN 

IN THE POSITIONS WHERE THEY DEFIED 

MCCLELLAN S ARMY A MONTH 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co 



THE SUPERFLUOUS SIEGE 



The Mortar Battery that Never Fired a Shot. By his much heralded Peninsula Campaign, McClellan had 
planned to end the war in a few days. He landed with his Army of the Potomac at Fortress Monroe, in 
April, 1862, intending to sweep up the peninsula between the York and James rivers, seize Richmond at 
one stroke, and scatter the routed Confederate army into the Southwest. At Yorktown, lie was opposed 
by a line of fortifications that sheltered a force much inferior in strength to his own. For a whole month 
McClellan devoted all the energies of his entire army to a systematic siege. Its useless elaboration is well 
illustrated by Battery No. 4, one of fifteen batteries planted to the south and southeast of Yorktown. The 
ten monster 13-inch siege mortars, the complement of No. 4, had just been placed in position and were almost 
ready for action. It was planned to have them drop shells on the Confederate works, a mile and a half 
distant. Just a day before this could be done, Yorktown was evacuated, May 4, 1862. 




Copyright by Patriot fuu. 



THE ELABORATE DEFENSES 



Advanced Section, Three Mortars of Union Battery, No. 4. Looking due north and showing the same three 
mortars pictured in the preceding views. The photograph shows (1) the stockade built above the excava 
tions as a protection from attack by Confederate infantry; (2) the ammunition that would have been used 
the next day if the Confederates had not evacuated, and (3) the temporary bridge crossing the narrow 
branch that runs into a northern arm of Wormley s Creek at this point. By this bridge communication 
was held with the batteries to the west. The heavy stockade was intended to forestall any attempt of the 
Confederate infantry to rush the battery. The mortars shown in this photograph are 13-inch sea-coast 
mortars and exceeded in weight any guns previously placed in siege batteries. The first of these mortars 
was landed at daybreak on April 27th and the whole battery was ready to open bombardment in a week s time. 



THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN 

A SHATTERED and discomfited army were the hosts 
of McDowell when they reached the hanks of the Poto 
mac, after that ill-fated July Sunday at Hull Run. Dispirited 
by the sting of defeat, this motley and unorganized mass of 
men became rather a mob than an army. The transformation 
of this chaos of demoralization into the trained, disciplined, 
and splendid troops of the Grand Army of the Potomac, was a 
problem to challenge the military genius of the century. 

Fresh from his victories in the mountains of West Vir 
ginia, imbued with the spirit of Carnot, that " military dis 
cipline is the glory of the soldier and the strength of armies," 
General George Brinton McClellan began the task of trans 
muting the raw and untutored regiments into fighting men 
who were to bear the brunt of the conflict, until the victory 
should be theirs at Appomattox. Never, since the days of 
Baron Steuben at Valley Forge, had the American " citizen 
soldier " received such tuition in the art of M r ar. It was a 
gigantic attempt; but with the flower of the youth of the 
North, the winning personality of a popular and efficient com 
mander, in whom lived the enthusiasm of the creator and mas 
ter whose soul was in his work all deeply imbued with patri 
otism there sprang up as if by magic, in the vacant fields 
about the capital city, battalions of infantry, batteries of artil 
lery, and squadrons of cavalry. 

Washington has become a camp. Day after day the trains 
bring from the shops and farms the inexperienced sons of the 
Northland. All during the summer and autumn months, the 
new recruits continue to march through the streets, with flags 
flying and bands playing. They come, two hundred thousand 
strong, that the " Young Napoleon " may forge them into a 

[254] 



X 





HOW PICK AND SHOVEL SERVED 

Rear Section, Seven Mortars, of Union Battery No. 4. In order to make it impossible for Confederate sharpshooters to pick off the 
gunners, the batteries were placed in elaborate excavations. At No. 4 the entire bank of Wormley s Creek was dug away. General 
McClellan personally planned the location of some of these batteries for the purpose of silencing the Confederate artillery fire. 




Copyright by Review of ttevi 



WASTED TRANSPORTATION 



Both Sections of Union Battery No. 4. The heavy barge at the landing transported the ten huge mortars, with their ammunition, all 
the way from Fortress Monroe up the York River and Wormley s Creek to the position of the battery. There they were laboriously 
set up, and, without firing a shot, were as laboriously removed. On the day of the evacuation the six batteries equipped were in 
condition to throw one hundred and seventy-five tons of metal daily into the Confederate defenses around Yorktown. 




crhtnuin 









weapon, which later in the hands of the " Hammerer " will 
beat down the veterans of Lee before Richmond. 

The autumn days come and go. The frosty nights have 
come. The increasing army continues its drill within the de 
fenses. There are no indications of the forces moving. As if 
by instinct the men begin the construction of log huts for 
shelter from the cold of the coming winter. 

" All s quiet along the Potomac." The winter months 
wear on and Public Opinion is growing restless. Why does 
not the army move? " Across the country, thirty miles away, 
at Manassas, is the Confederate army, flushed with its July 
victory, under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston. 

It was the 8th of March, 1862. As the Union army looked 
toward Manassas, down along the hori/on line, clouds of 
smoke were seen ascending. It was from the burning huts. 
The Confederates were abandoning Manassas. Johnston was 
evacuating his camp. The next day orders came for the Army 
of the Potomac to move. Through the morning mists w y as 
heard the bustle of activity. Across the Long Bridge the 
troops took up the line of march, the old structure shaking 
under the tread of the passing hosts. Filled with the spirit 
of action, the men were jubilant at the prospect. But this 
buoyancy was of short duration. There was the Virginia mud. 
yellow and sticky, into which the feet of man and horse sank 
till it was almost impossible to extricate them. Throughout 
the day the muddy march continued. At night the bivouac 
was made in the oozy slime, and not till the day after, near 
evening, were the deserted fortifications of Manassas reached. 
McClellan was putting his army to a test. 

Next morning the two days return march to Washington 
began. The rain fell in sheets and it was a wet and bedraggled 
army that sought the defenses of the capital. 

The strategic eye of the commander had detected two 
routes to the coveted capital of the Confederacy. One lost 
many of its possibilities by the Confederate retreat from 

[25(5] 



I- 




OF REVIEWS CO. 



"LITTLE MAC" PREPARING FOR THE CAMPAIGN A ROYAL AIDE 



A picture taken in the fall of 1861, when McClellan was at the headquarters of General George W. Morell 
(who stands at the extreme left), commanding a brigade in Fitz John Porter s Division. Morell was then 
stationed on the defenses of Washington at Minor s Hill in Virginia, and General McClellan was engaged 
in transforming the raw recruits in the camps near the national capital into the finished soldiers of the Army 
of the Potomac. "Little Mac," as they called him, was at this time at the height of his popularity. He 
appears in the center between two of his favorite aides-de-camp Lieut. -Cols. A. V. Colburn and N. B. 
Sweitzer whom he usually selected, he writes, "when hard riding is required." Farther to the right 
stand two distinguished visitors the Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillippe of France, and his 
nephew, the Count de Paris, who wears the uniform of McClellan s staff, on which he was to serve through 
out the Peninsula Campaign (see page 115). He afterwards wrote a valuable "History of the Cival War." 







Manassas. The other was determined on. Soon the Poto 
mac will swarm with every description of water craft, It is 
to be the prelude to another drama on the military stage. On 
the placid river there come canal-boats, flat-bottoms, barges, 
three-decked steamers, and transatlantic packets. 

On shore, the cities of tents are being deserted. The army 
is massing toward the piers of Alexandria. It is a glorious 
day of awakening spring, this 17th of March, 1862. From the 
heights above Alexandria a beautiful spectacle is seen. Armed 
men cover the hillside and the plain; columns of soldiers, with 
guns flashing in the sunlight, march and countermarch; thou 
sands of horsemen with shining arms fill the meadows to the 
right; to the left are many batteries; beyond these, a long line 
of marching men stretch from the hills to the streets of Alex 
andria; regimental bands play familiar tunes, and flags and 
banners are waving over all. It is a magnificent pageant a 
far different scene from that, three years hence, when many of 
these depleted, war-worn regiments, with tattered flags, will 
pass in grand review through the avenues of the capital. 

Here upon this assortment of transports, without confu 
sion and with the precision of a well-oiled machine, one hun 
dred and twenty-one thousand men, with all the equipment for 
war, including fourteen thousand horses and mules, forty-four 
batteries, wagons, pontoon bridges, and boats are loaded. It 
comprises a fleet of four hundred vessels. On board men are 
swarming like ants; they unmoor from the landings and lazily 
float down the river. The unfinished dome of the Capitol fades 
away in the distance. The men gather in little knots and can 
but conjecture as to their destination. 

Swinton tells us that it was an undertaking which " for 
economy and celerity of movement is without a parallel on 
record." This vast army with its entire equipage was trans 
ferred in about two weeks a distance of two hundred miles 
without the loss of a man, from the scene of its preparation at 
Washington to the Flanders of the Civil War. 

[258] 




McCLELLAN S HEADQUARTERS BEFORE YORKTOWN 

Camp Winfield Scott, near Wormley s Creek. General McClellan was a stickler for neatness. His headquarters were models of 
military order. The guard always wore white gloves, even in the active campaign. Here we see the general s chargers with their 
grooms, the waiting orderlies and the sentry standing stiffly at support arms. At the left is the guardhouse with stacked muskets. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE TENTED MEADOW 

Overlooking the camp from near McClellan s headquarters. Little hardships had these troops seen as yet. Everything was new and 
fresh, the horses well fed and fat, the men happy and well sheltered in comfortable tents. 

[A-17] 




0rktmtm 






, 







The army had already been divided into four corps, 
commanded, respectively, by Generals McDowell, Sunnier, 
Heintzelman, and Keyes, but at the last moment McDowell 
had been detached by President Lincoln. The van was led by 
General Hamilton s division of the Third Corps. On the 
afternoon of the second day the first transports entered Chesa 
peake Bay. In the shadowy distance, low against the sky-line, 
could be descried the faint outlines of the Virginia shore. The 
vessels passed toward Hampton Roads where a short time 
before had occurred the duel of the ironclads, the Monitor and 
Merrimac. To the right was Old Point Comfort, at whose 
apex stood the frowning walls of Fortress Monroe. 

The first troops landed in a terrible storm of thunder and 
lightning. The sea became rough; great billows were break 
ing on the beach; cables broke, allowing vessels to grate 
against each other or drift helplessly from the docks. The 
landing was made in an unpitying storm. Shelter was unavail 
able, and there was no abatement of the gale with the night. 

Then came the order to march. At the command the 
men gathered, and in the darkness, with the incessant rain 
beating in their faces, with but the lightning s flash to guide 
them, they crossed the bridge toward Hampton. Here, in an 
open field, with neither tents nor fire, with water standing in 
pools, preparations for the night were made. The following 
morning some pitched their tents under the guns of Fortress 
Monroe while others found tenting places amid the charred 
ruins of the once aristocratic village of Hampton. But the 
cold, dreary rains were unceasing. Transport after transport 
continued to unload its human freight. Day after day the men 
stood shivering about their tents. Wet and cheerless, but pa 
tient, they awaited the coming of their magnetic chief. 

General McClellan reached Fortress Monroe on April 2d. 
The Confederate capital was yet seventy miles away, on the 
northern side of the James. The route of approach lay along 
the narrow neck of land between the James and the York. 

[2GO] 



May 
1862 




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NATURE S AID TO THE DEFENDERS 

Confederate magazines at the southeastern end of Yorktown. Tons of powder, shot and shell could be carried 
from this fastness in perfect safety to the guns on the heights, behind which the Confederate artillerymen 
stood and so long successfully defied the besiegers. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



WHENCE THE DEFENSE WAS DIRECTED 



Headquarters of General Magruder in Yorktown. This pre-Revolutionary dwelling was on the mam street, 
and here the young commander planned so cleverly the disposition of his 15,000 men not nearly enough to 
man the defenses of the city that McClellan, with nearly 100,000, was held in check. 



orktnum 



This peninsula, marshy and thickly wooded, is from seven to 
fifteen miles in width, cut by smaller streams into which the 
tides roll. The task before the army was not an easy one. 

Again the splendidly equipped and matchlessly trained 
Arm}" of the Potomac was ready to move. Out from the camp 
at Hampton, from under the gun-bristling fort, the advance 
was made in two divisions along the mud-filled roads of the 
Peninsula. The troops marched with the precision of veterans. 
It was a bright April day, but the progress made was slow. 
Under the weight of unaccustomed burdens in the toilsome 
march, the men soon fell out of line and began to straggle. 
The warm sun and the wearisome tramp prompted many to 
lighten their burdens by throwing away some of their apparel. 
Soon the entire route was lined with an endless and reckless 
profusion of overcoats, blankets, parade-coats, and shoes. 
" Contraband " negroes were reaping a rich harvest, gathering 
up the discarded articles. Less than five miles was covered this 
first day. That night the rain came again and the soldiers 
who had thrown away their clothing found it a night of suffer 
ing. The morning march began in the rain. By the time Big 
Bethel was reached the water was coming down in torrents. 
The roads were cut till they were veritable rivers of mud. 
Along this wretched way stumbled and plodded horse and man. 

Saturday afternoon, April 5th, the Federal advance 
guard on the right, consisting of Porter s division of Heintzel- 
man s Third Corps, suddenly came to a river. It was the 
Warwick, a sluggish stream, nearly cutting the Peninsula 
from Yorktown to the James, a distance of thirteen and a half 
miles. Beyond the river was a line of trenches and forts, de 
fended by a Confederate army. General Magruder had been 
stationed on the Peninsula with about eight thousand men. 
At the approach of McClellan reenforcements were hastened 
to him. The Union right wing was in front of Yorktown, the 
left at Lee s Mills. Now for the first time in the campaign 
the Union army found its way disputed. A flash of fire blazed 

[ 262 ] 




THE COSTLIEST RAMPART EVER BUILT 

Confederate Breastworks to the South and Southeast of Yorktown, Reenforced with Cotton. This device was used once before, in 
the War of 1812, by the defenders of New Orleans. Before the end of the Civil War, cotton was worth $1.00 a pound, gold. It is 
safe to say that no fortification was ever built of material so expensive. These cotton bales were used to protect the gunners serv 
ing the 8-inch Columbiad at the parapet. The gun in the center, though of archaic pattern, was deemed worth wrecking by the 
Confederates when they evacuated the position to fall back upon Richmond. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



FORTIFICATIONS OF TWO WARS 

Earthworks of the Revolution Used in the Civil War. The ditch, dug by Cornwallis in 1781, was deepened by Magruder in 1862. 
The higher earthworks to the left are also of Revolutionary origin. The sand-bag ramparts were added by the Confederates as 
further protection for guns and gunners, and as coverings to the magazines, one of which shows at the left of the picture. 




arktoum Up tit? 















from the rifle-pits. It was returned with equal force and here 
on the historic soil of Yorktown men of North and South stood 
opposed, where eighty-one years before their fathers had stood 
together in the making of the Nation. 

The defense confronting the Army of the Potomac was a 
strong one. Dams, protected by batteries and rifle-trenches, 
had been built in the river. Yorktown itself was fortified by a 
line of continuous earthworks, while across the York was 
Gloucester, also strongly fortified and garrisoned. The force 
defending the line comprised eleven thousand men, soon to be 
augmented by the army of General Johnston, who was as 
signed to the chief command on the Peninsula. 

At Lee s Mills General Smith, of Keyes corps, sent 
to make a reconnaissance by General McClellan, detected a 
seeming weak spot in the fortifications. Here would be 
the logical point to break the Confederate line. General 
Smith was ordered to send his men across the river. Accord 
ingly four companies of " Green Mountain Boys," under 
cover of a heavy artillery fire from a battery of eighteen 
guns, plunged into the Warwick. The water reached above 
the waist-line, but they waded across the stream, emerging 
on the other side, and charged the Confederate rifle-pits. 
Eight additional companies came to their support. For one 
hour the Union troops held the trenches. The Confederates, 
after being driven to a redoubt, received reenforcements, re 
formed, and made a counter-charge. The Vermont soldiers 
were driven back by a galling fire, many being killed or 
wounded in recrossing the stream. The attempt to force the 
line could not succeed, since the condition of the roads and the 
low, boggy land rendered it impossible to use light artillery. 
It could not be brought close enough to do effective work. 

Preparation for a protracted siege was now begun. 
Streams were bridged ; corduroy roads constructed ; a depot of 
supplies established. Facing the Confederate works, a paral 
lel line extending from before Yorktown to the Warwick, a 

[264] 








RAMPARTS THAT BAFFLED McCLELLAN. (Hasty fortifications of 
the Confederates at Yorktown.) It was against such fortifications as 
these, which Magruder had hastily reenforced with sand-bags, that 
MoClellan spent a month preparing his heavy batteries. Magruder had 
far too few soldiers to man his long line of defenses properly, and his 
position could have been taken by a single determined attack. This ram 
part was occupied by the Confederate general, D. H. Hill, who had been 
the first to enter Yorktown in order to prepare it for siege. He was the 
last to leave it on the ni;;ht of May 3, 1S62. 




WRECKED ORDNANCE. (Gun exploded by the Confederates on 
General Hill s rampart, Yorktown.) Although the Confederates aban 
doned 200 pieces of ordnance at Yorktown, they were able to render most 
of them useless before leaving. Hill succeeded in terrorizing the Federals 
with grape-shot, and some of this was left behind. After the evacuation 
the ramparts were overrun by Union trophy seekers. The soldier rest 
ing his hands upon his musket is one of the Zouaves whose bright and novel 
uniforms were so conspicuous early in the war. This spot was directly on 
the line of the British fortification of 1781. 




ANOTHER VOICELESS GUN. (Confederate ramparts southeast of 
Yorktown.) A 32-pounder Navy gun which had been burst, wrecking 
its embrasure. The Federal soldier seated on the sand-bags is on guard-duty 
to prevent camp-followers from looting the vacant fort. 




THE MISSING RIFLE. (Extensive sand-bag fortifications of the Con 
federates at Yorktown.) The shells and carriage were left behind by the 
Confederates, but the rifled gun to which they belonged was taken along 
in the retreat. Such pieces as they could not remove they spiked. 




GUNS THE UNION LOST AND RECOVERED. (A two-gun Confed 
erate battery in the entrenchments south of Yorktown.) The near gun 
is a 32-pounder navy; the far one, a 24-pounder siege-piece. More than 
3,000 pieces of naval ordnance fell into the hands of the Confederates 
early in the war, through the ill-advised and hasty abandonment of 
Norfolk Navy Yard by the Federals. Many of these guns did service 
at Yorktown and subsequently on the James River against the Union. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

THE CONFEDERATE COMMAND OF THE RIVER. (Battery 
Magruder, Yorktown.) Looking north up the river, four of the five 
8-inch Columbiads composing this section of the battery are visible. The 
grape-shot and spherical shells, which had been gathered in quantities to 
prevent the Federal fleet from passing up the river, were abandoned on the 
hasty retreat of the Confederates, the guns being spiked. The vessels in 
the river are transport ships, with the exception of the frigate just off shore. 




0rkt0um 



the 





distance of four miles, was thrown up. Fourteen batteries and 
three redoubts, armed with the heaviest ordnance some of the 
guns throwing two hundred pounds were put in place. 

Surrounding Yorktown were open fields. But the Federal 
troops could not remain there because of the shells from the 
batteries. The siege lasted less than thirty days and it rained 
on twenty of them. Violent thunderstorms rapidly succeeded 
one another. The Northern soldier, whether digging trenches, 
on the picket line, or standing guard, had to endure the fury of 
these storms. At night his bed might be in a pool of water. 
Sickness became prevalent, thousands were in the hospitals 
and many graves were dug in the marshy lowlands. 

At last all was in readiness for the attack. The weather 
had cleared. The bombardment of Yorktown was about to 
begin. The shells were in position. Batteries capable of 
throwing sixty shells a minute were ready to belch forth. 

Saturday morning, May 3d, Battery No. 1, opposite 
Yorktown, began its cannonading. The army waited in in 
tense expectation of the grand spectacle. On Sunday, it was 
surmised, the great guns would play upon the works and ere 
the set of sun the victorious arms of the North would enter the 
historic town and unfurl the Stars and Stripes where the 
Father of his Country had placed them four-score years before. 

Early Sunday morning a bright light from behind the 
Confederate works was seen by the Union pickets. A desul 
tory cannonading had continued during the night and toward 
morning the firing was at times intense. The Sabbath dawned 
fair and warm, but no Southerners were to be seen. The 
Union men in the rifle-pits crept up to the very lines where but 
yesterday glinted the Confederate guns. The works had been 
abandoned. Under the cover of night the defenses had been 
evacuated, with masterly skill, as at Manassas. The troops 
were even now in full retreat toward Williamsburg. 

Soon the Federals were in hot pursuit. General Stone- 
man with cavalry and horse artillery followed along the Wil- 

266] 




V 






AN UNPRECEDENTED SIEGE BATTERY 

Federal Battery No. 1 Before Yorktown. Never before had so heavy a siege battery been mounted. It was placed half a mile farther 
down the York River than Battery No. 4. From its six Parrott guns, five 100-pounders and one 200-pounder, it could at a single Br 
ing drop 700 pounds of shot and shell upon the fortifications and landing at Yorktown, two miles away. It opened up on May 1, 
1862, with such telling effect that the evacuation of the town was greatly hastened, occurring two days later. These Parrott guns 
were in many cases failures. The reinforcement of the breach was not properly placed to stand the heavy charges and many burst, 
killing the artillerymen and wrecking everything in close vicinity. The life of these guns was short. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE PRIDE OF UNION BATTERY NUMBER ONE 



A 200-pounder Parrott Gun. This, at the time, mammoth piece of ordnance stood in the center of Battery No. 1, which was located 
on the west bank of the York River at the mouth of Wormley s Creek. The range of the battery was upstream toward Yorktown, 
and this huge Parrott gun in the very center of the battery was much relied upon by the Federals to do heavy damage. Here we see 
how carefully McClellan s engineers did their work. The wickerwork bastions were reinforced by tiers of sand bags. Well-constructed 
wooden stands were made for the gunners to facilitate the loading and swabbing. This battery was near the Farenholdt House. 




0rktnum Up ilr? fkntnsttla 



May 

1862 






\. 



liamsburg road, which was littered with the debris of a re 
treating army. Six miles from Williamsburg the pursuing 
cavalrymen came to a sudden halt. The rear guard of the 
Confederates had been overtaken. On the brow of the hill, in 
full view, was a Southern cavalry regiment, belonging to the 
famous brigade of J. E. B. Stuart. A quick passage of arms 
resulted. The advancing force pressed close but the re 
sistance was stubborn. Stuart s men were covering the retreat 
of the main column toward the entrenchments of Williams- 
burg, which were reached by four o clock. 

Night came upon the marching troops, who all the day 
had been trudging the flooded roads of the Peninsula. The 
rain had fallen in torrents during the greater part of March. 
The cavalry prepared to bivouac in the rain-soaked fields in 
front of the Confederate works. All during the evening and 
even into the night the forces of Sumner and Hooker, floun 
dering in the mud, were arriving on the scene of the next day s 
battle. It was a drenched and bedraggled army that slept on 
its arms that night. 

Early in the morning the troops were again in motion. 
The approach to Williamsburg is along a narrow ridge, from 
either side of which flow the tributaries of the York and the 
James. At the junction of two roads stood the main defense 
of the fortified town. It was Fort Magruder with its bas- 
tioned front. To its right and left were a dozen redoubts for 
the placing of field artillery. In front of its half-mile of 
earthen wall ran a ditch full of water. In front of this and to 
the right was an open field, made so by the felling of trees, and 
beyond were the woods in which the army had bivouacked. 

It was scarcely day when the attacking Confederate force 
emerged into the edge of the timber-strewn field. At once 
there burst from the wooded cover a vigorous fire. It was 
answered by the Confederate infantry and every gun in 
reach. The Federal troops, creeping through the slashes, 
steadily advanced. Heavy shot crashed amid the fallen timber, 

[208] 





SILENT AFTER TWO DAYS WORK 

Union Battery No. 1, Two Miles Below Yorktown. This section of the Parrott guns was in the peach orchard of the Farenholdt 
House. Never had so heavy a battery been set up before in siege work. McClellan hoped by it to silence the "impregnable" water 
batteries of the Confederates by dropping shot and shell upon Yorktown wharf and within the defenses on the bluff. After two 
days of action it was rendered useless by the evacuation of Yorktown, and had to be transported up the river after the change of the 
The Farenholdt mansion, a handsome old Colonial structure, was just in the rear of this battery, and frt ii its roof the work of 



the shells could be clearly observed, 
ate fire could reach them. 



The good shots were cheered and the men stationed here were in holiday mood no Confeder^ 




Copyright by Patriot Pub, Co. 



THE SCENE OF YORKTOWN S ONLY SURRENDER 



Moore s House, about a Mile Southeast of the Town. Near here, in 1781, Cornwallis laid down his arms to Washington and in this 
house the terms of the surrender which established the independence of America were drawn up. The damage to the house is the 
effect of the Revolutionary guns and not those of McClellan. The guns of Battery No. 1 fired their heavy shells over this house. 
Near here also many of the Continentals were buried, and across their graves and the old camp of Cornwallis s beleagured troops the 
messengers of destruction hurtled through the air. The Federal fleet was anchored near where the Comte de Grasse s ships lay at 
the time of the surrender. 




May 
1862 



L 



plowing the earth as it struck or, rebounding, tore through 
the branches of the wood in the rear. Slowly the Federals 
made their way across the field, targets for the Confederate 
sharpshooter. Two Union batteries, those of Webber and 
Bramhall, advanced to within seven hundred yards of the fort 
and began to play upon its walls. 

Meanwhile there was seen emerging from a little ravine 
on the Union left a swarm of Confederates who opened at 
once a terrific fire. Giving their characteristic yell, they 
charged upon the Federals, pushing them back until the edge 
of the wood was again reached. There the Northerners halted, 
making a stand. Fresh troops came to their relief but they 
were insufficient. It seemed as if the Federals must give way. 
Both armies fought tenaciously. Neither w r ould yield. The 
contest grew desperate. The Union brigades were being shat 
tered. The last charges were made with ammunition taken 
from the cartridge boxes of fallen comrades. 

Meanwhile " Fighting Phil " Kearny was hastening with 
his regiments over the bottomless roads of the Peninsula. 
They came most opportunely, and took the places of Hooker s 
tired and hungry men, who retreated in good order, leaving 
on the tree-strewn field seventeen hundred of their comrades, 
who had gone down before the Confederate fire. 

On the York River side there had been no fighting during 
the early part of the day. But about noon, General Hancock, 
" the Superb," took his men near the river s bank and occu 
pied two Confederate redoubts. Planting his batteries in 
these new positions, he began throwing shells into Fort Ma- 
gruder. This new move of the Federals at once attracted the 
attention of the Confederates, and General Jubal A. Early, 
with the Fifth and Twenty-third North Carolina and the 
Twenty-fourth and Thirty-eighth Virginia regiments, was 
sent to intercept Hancock s movements. At the bank of a 
small stream, the Carolina regiments under General D. H. 
Hill halted to form in line. The intrepid Early did not wait, 

[270] 





THE DOOR TO YORKTOWN 

Sallyport in the Center of the Southwestern Line of Entrenchments. This commanded the road leading past Yorktown to Williams- 
burg, upon which the Confederates fell back as McClellan advanced after the evacuation. This view looks into the town and toward 
the river. The advancing Federals entered the city from the other side. The inhabitants, who had first hidden in their homes, flocked 
to the street corners as regiment after regiment swept into the town with colors flying and bands playing. Out through this gate 
the detachment marched in pursuit of the retreating Confederates, who made a strong stand at Williamsburg. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE TOWN McCLELLAN THOUGHT WORTH A SIEGE 



Near the Center of Yorktown. Far from being the almost impregnable fortified city which McClellan appeared to think it, York- 
town was but a small village, to which the occupation by Cornwallis in 1781 had given an exaggerated strategic importance. It con 
sisted chiefly of a single street, seen in the picture. Here a group of residents had gathered after the evacuation curious for a sight 
of the entering Union troops. A most remarkable thing to be noticed is the unharmed condition of most of the houses. The cas 
ualties among noncombatants were almost nothing. The food supply at this time was plentiful, the South as a whole had not begun 
to feel the pinch of hunger that it endured so bravely and so unflinchingly during the dark days of 64. 




nrktmmt 









y***~i 

i&wnK-t 



but riding at the head of the Twenty-fourth Virginia, rushed 
into the attack. Up across the field the column swept. On 
the crest of the hill stood Hancock s men sixteen hundred 
strong waiting for the charge. In front of his soldiers, with 
drawn sword, stood the man who later would display a similar 
courage on the field of Gettysburg. On came the Southerners 
rush. The sword of Hancock gleamed in the light. Quick 
and decisive came the order to charge, and the trained soldiers, 
with the coolness of veterans, hurled themselves upon the Con 
federate column. Down by the stream, the gallant McRae of 
the Fifth North Carolina, seeing what was happening, dashed 
forward to take part in the fight. The Northern musketry 
fire sang in the afternoon air. So close did the opposing col 
umns come to each other that the bayonets were used with 
deadly effect. The slaughter of the Fifth North Carolina regi 
ment was appalling. The lines of the South began to waver, 
then broke and fled down the hill, leaving over five hundred 
men on the bloody field. 

Now the sound of battle began to grow fainter in front 
of Fort Magruder. The Confederates were falling back be 
hind its protecting walls. The Federal troops, wet and weary 
and hungry, slept on the field with their fallen comrades, and 
Hancock held undisputed sway during the starless night. 

But it was not too dark for Longstreet s command to 
retreat once more in the direction of Richmond. It was a per 
ilous road through the flat, swampy lowlands, with rain falling 
at every step of the way as they hastened toward the Chicka- 
hominy. The Union troops, too, had reason to remember 
this night as one of greatest suffering. 

The next morning dawned in all the beauty of early May. 
The dead lay half buried in the mud. Many of the wounded 
had not yet been taken to the hospitals. But Williamsburg, 
the ancient capital of the Old Dominion, soon echoed with the 
tread of the hostile army as it swept through its quaint streets 
to the sound of martial music. 

[272] 



M 



I 








THE GUNS THAT DID NOT TAKE THE TOWN 

Federal Ordnance Ready for Transportation from Yorktown. The artillery thus parked at the rear of the lower wharf was by no means 
all that McClellan deemed necessary to overcome the resistance at Yorktown. In the center are the Parrott guns. In the back 
ground, at the upper wharf, are the transports ready for the embarkation of the troops. The little mortars in the foreground were 
known as coehorns. They could be lifted by half a dozen men and transported by hand to any part of the entrenchments. Their 
range was only a few hundred yards, but with small charges they could quite accurately drop shells at almost a stone s throw. 
During the siege of Petersburg they were used by both armies. Here we see troops and artillery ready for the forward move. The 
Louisiana Tigers had been encamped here before McClellan s army took possession. 




LOADING THE TRANSPORTS 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



The Lower Wharf at Yorktown. The steamer Robert Morris ready to depart, waiting for the embarkation of that portion of the Army 
of the Potomac which went up the York River to the mouth of the Pamunkey from Yorktown, May 6th, after the evacuation. Already 
the dismantling of both the Confederate and the Federal forts had begun. One sees gun-carriages, mortars, and tons of shot and 
shell, ready to be taken up the river for the operations against Richmond. 




"ON TO RICHMOND!" NEAR CUMBERLAND, VIRGINIA, 
u u i j Witl1 Confederate opposition at Yorktown and Williams- 
burg broken down, the Army of the Potomac was now ready for the final 
rush upon Richmond. The gathering of the Union army of forty thou 
sand men at White House, near Cumberland, was felt to be the beginning 
of the expected victorious advance. That part of the army not at York- 



town and Williamsburg was moved up the Peninsula as fast as the condi 
tions of the road would permit. After the affair at Williamsburg the 
troops there joined the main army before the advance to the Chiekahom- 
my. Here we see but part of that camp the first to be established on 
a large scale, in the Peninsula campaign looking north at the bend 
ot the Famunkey. 




THE FAR-STRETCHING ENCAMPMENT. (Cumberland Landing.) 
Ihree Quarters O f a mile from the landing, looking north toward the 
nver. ihe distance is obscured by the haze of smoke from thousands 
of camp-hres. Every bit of dried wood had been collected and consumed 
and standing timber was felled in all directions 



WHERE SUPPLIES WERE LANDED AT CUMBERLAND. The 
south bank of the Pamunkey, looking northwest across the lower camp 
In this bend of the river was gathered the nondescript fleet of transports 
steamers, barges, and schooners that conveyed Federal army supplies up 
to this point from Fortress Monroe, via York River 




HEADQUARTERS UNDER CANVAS. (Cumberland, May, 1862 ) 
A photograph from a tree-top. Although a long distance from home Mc- 
Clellan a army presented in the early days of its march up the Peninsula 
mU K KI *K p ? noplv of war The camera caught a cluster of officers tents 
probably the headquarters of a division or corps. 

[274] 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 
ON THE BANKS OF THE PAMUNKEY. (Looking south from Cum 
berland Landing.) The ground here slopes down directly to the river, 
supplies for the camps farther up the river were hauled along a well- 
traveled road which bisected this stretch of encampment. This road, called 
[New Kent Road, was the main highway of the region and led to Richmond. 




A VISTA OF THE FEDERAL CAMP. The Army of the Poto 
mac waiting for the expected victorious advance on the Confederate 
capital. Yorktown had been evacuated on May 4th and Williamsburg 
abandoned on May 5th to the Union forces. During the week following, 
the divisions of Franklin. Sedgwick, Porter, and Richardson, after some 



opposition, gathered on the banks of the Pamunkey, the southern branch 
of the York River. Thence they marched toward White House, which 
after communication with the divisions that had been fighting at Will 
iamsburg, was established became headquarters for the whole army. 
This panoramic view shows a part of the encampment. 




IDLE DAYS AT CUMBERLAND. The farm-lands occupied by the 
impatient, waiting army were soon stripped of fences for firewood. The 
men sat idly about, discussing the situation. Everyone expected to be in 
Richmond before the end of June, and no one dreamed that the great cam 
paign would come to nothing. 



WAITING FOR ORDERS TO MOVE. (Cumberland, May, 1862.) 
During the ten days of inaction the soldiers rested after their heavy labors 
on the elaborate fortifications before Yorktown. The Confederate gen 
era!, Magrudcr, had completely deceived McClellan as to the number of 
men under his command. The siege delayed the army a month. 





THE CITY OF TENTS. The Army of the Potomac encamped in readi 
ness for the forward movement on Richmond. These comfortable canvas 
houses were transported by the army wagons. The Confederates had no 
such complete shelter during the spring of 1862, which was remarkable for 
the inclemency of the weather. 

[A 18] 



HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL McCLELLAN. (White House on 
the Pamunkey.) This house, the residence of W. H. F. Lee, son of Gen 
eral R. E. Lee, looked east over the river, which flows south at this point. 
It was burned in June, 1862, when the Federal army base was changed to 
the James River by order of General McClellan. 




In May, 1862, the news spread 
throughout Richmond that a Federal 
fleet of ironclads, led by the dread 
Monitor, was advancing up the James 
River. Panic at once seized upon the 
Confederate capital. The Government 
archives were shipped to Columbia, 
South Carolina, and every prepara 
tion was made to evacuate the city 
should the expedition against it suc 
ceed in passing up the James. Mean 
while the Confederate forces were 
working at Drewry s Bluff to estab 
lish a battery that would command the 
river. Earthworks were thrown up 
and guns were hastily gotten into 
position seven miles below Richmond. 
Sailing vessels were sunk in the 
channel; torpedoes were anchored, 
and every possible obstruction op 
posed to the approaching ironclads. 
When the Monitor and the Galena 
arrived they did not attempt to run 
the gantlet, and Richmond breathed 
freely again. These works ultimately 
formed Fort Darling. 



THE FORT THAT STOPPED A PANIC 



In the foreground of the picture we 
see what a mass of missiles were 
hurled into the fort, at the heads of 
the doughty defenders of Richmond. 
The Monitor, the Galena, and the gun 
boats when Fort Darling opened on 
them to dispute the passage of the 
river, May 15, 1862 responded with 
a rain of projectiles in an effort to 
silence the Confederate battery and 
make it possible to proceed up the 
James. The fort was not silenced, 
and the gunboats, thoroughly con 
vinced of its strength, did not again 
seriously attempt to pass it. Fort 
Darling held the water approach to 
Richmond until the fall of Petersburg 
made it necessary for the Confeder 
ates to evacuate their capital. This 
picture was taken in April, 1865, after 
the fort had been abandoned, and 
while it was occupied by the First 
Connecticut Heavy Artillery. The 
cabin seen in the picture was the quar 
ters of the regimental chaplain. 




Copyright by Patriot 1 ub. Co. 

THE SHOWER OF SHOT AND SHELL 



PART III 
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND 



FAIR 
OAKS 




A HAVEN FOR THE WOUNDED THE SEVEN PINES FARM-HOUSE SERVING AS A HOSPITAL 

FOR HOOKER S DIVISION, SHORTLY AFTER THE BATTLE OF MAY SO-JUNE i, 1862 




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FAIR OAKS OR SEVEN PINES 




The Confederates, although decidedly successful on their right, had 
been, it is true, rudely checked on their left ; but, in the battle considered 
as a whole, thev not only had not been beaten, but they had driven their 
antagonists from their entrenchments in one part of the field, and they 
had guns, small arms, and colors to show as the trophies of their victory. 
The net result of the battle, in spite of the captured trophies, was un 
doubtedly favorable to the Federal arms. ... It remained for 
General McClellan to utili/e the forces at his disposal, to lead his large 
army of brave men, all of whom were devoted to him, to the achievement 
of the success which it would seem was really at this period of the cam 
paign within his grasp. John C. Jiope.s, " 77/6" Story of the Civil I !";," 
Part //, The Campaigns of 1862. 

WITH Yorktown and Williamsburg inscribed upon its 
victorious banners, the Army of the Potomac took up 
again its toilsome march from Cumberland Landing toward 
the Confederate capital on the James. Its route lay along the 
Pamunkey, a sluggish stream, whose junction with the Mat- 
tapony forms the York. Not all the troops, however, were at 
Cumberland Landing and McClellan had first to bring up the 
remainder of his forces from Yorktown and Williamsburg. 
Some came by water up the York, some by land. The march 
was a picturesque one, through a magnificent country arrayed 
in all the gorgeousness of a Virginia spring, with its meadows 
of green set between the wooded hills. Dotted here and there 
could be seen the mansions of planters, with their slave quar 
ters in the rear. The progress was necessarily slow, for the 
roads were next to impassable and the rains still continued at 
intervals. 

It was the 10th of May, 1862, when the advanced corps 
reached White House, the ancestral home of the Lees. On 

[ 282 ] 



TWO KEEPERS OF THE 
GOAL 

The North expected General Mc- 
Clellan to possess himself of this 
citadel of the Confederacy in June, 
1862, and it seemed likely the ex 
pectation would be realized. In 
the upper picture we get a near 
view of the State House at Rich 
mond, part of which was occupied 
as a Capitol by the Confederate 
Congress during the war. In this 
building were stored the records 
and archives of the Confederate 
Government, many of which were 




lost during the hasty retreat of 
President Davis and his cabinet 
at the evacuation of Richmond, 
April, 1865. Below, we see the 
city of Richmond from afar, with 
the Capitol standing out boldly on 
the hill. McClellan was not des 
tined to reach this coveted goal, 
and it would not have meant the 
fall of the Confederacy had he then 
done so. When Lincoln entered 
the building in 1865, the Con 
federacy had been beaten as much 
by the blockade as by the opera 
tions of Grant and Sherman with 
vastly superior forces. 



THE GOAL THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 




THE SPIRES OF RICHMOND 
Here are the portraits of the two military 
leaders who were conspicuous in the Confed 
erate attack upon McClellan s camp at Fair 
Oaks. General D. H. Hill did most of the fierce 
fighting which drove back the Federals on the 
first day, and only the timely arrival of Sum- 
ner s troops enabled the Federals to hold their 
ground. Had they failed they would have 
been driven into the morasses of the Chicka- 
hominy, retreat across which would have been 
difficult as the bridges were partly submerged 
by the swollen stream. After General Johnston 
was wounded, General G. W. Smith was in 
command during the second day s fighting. 




GENERAL G. W. SMITH, C. S. A. 



GENERAL D. H. HILL, C. S. A. 



3Jtt 



Rirfjmmtfc 












every side were fields of wheat, and, were it not for the 
presence of one hundred thousand men, there was the promise 
of a full harvest. It was here that General McClellan took 
up his headquarters, a distance of twenty-four miles from 
Richmond. 

In the Confederate capital a panic had seized the people. 
As the retreating army of Johnston sought the environs of 
Richmond and news of the invading hosts was brought in, fear 
took possession of the inhabitants and many wild rumors were 
afloat as to the probable capture of the city. But it was not 
a fear that Johnston would not fight. The strategic policy of 
the Southern general had been to delay the advance of the 
Northern army. Fortunately for him, the rainy weather 
proved a powerful ally. The time had now come when he 
should change his position from the defensive to the offensive. 
The Army of Northern Virginia had been brought to bay, and 
it now turned to beat off the invaders and save its capital. 

On the historic Peninsula lay two of the greatest and 
most splendid armies that had ever confronted each other 
on the field of battle. The engagement, now imminent, was 
to be the first in that series of contests, between the Army of 
the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia, ending 
three years thereafter, at Appomattox, when the war-worn 
veterans of gray should lay down their arms, in honor, to the 
war-worn veterans of blue. 

The Union advance was retarded by the condition of 
the weather and the roads. Between McClellan s position at 
White House and the waiting Confederate army lay the 
Chickahominy, an erratic and sluggish stream, that spreads 
itself out in wooded swamps and flows around many islands, 
forming a valley from half a mile to a mile wide, bordered 
by low bluffs. In dry weather it is but a mere brook, but a 
moderate shower will cause it to rise quickly and to offer 
formidable opposition to any army seeking its passage. The 
valley is covered with trees whose tops reach to the level of 

[ 284 ] 




I 



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>/ l/t 






^ 



/?** 



\ 










V 



" 












Copyright uy .Patriot fuo. Co. 



FROM CAPTAIN TO BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL 



John C. Tidball, Whi) Won His Spurs on the Peninsula. There is hardly a despatch that concerns the doings of the artillery in the 
Peninsula Campaign that does not mention the name of the gallant officer we see here leaning against his mud-spattered gun. Tidhall s 
battery was the first to try for the position of honor on the artillery firing line and the last to retire. He was a graduate of West 
Point, class of 48, and like all West Pointers, was imbued with the slogan and motto of that cradle of soldiers, "Duty, Valor, Patriot 
ism." He was appointed captain in 01 and given command of four rifled 10-pounder Parrotts and two 12-pounder smooth 
bores. Through the heavy roads he kept his guns well to the fore throughout all of the Peninsula Campaign. For his participation 
in the skirmish at New Bridge he was thrice mentioned in despatches. But previous to this he had been reported for gallantry at 
Blackburn s Ford in the first battle of Bull Run, his guns being the last of Barry s battery to limber up and retire in order. It was 
on the 2. 5d of May that Tidball s guns swept the Confederate troops from New Bridge on the banks of the Chickahominy. His fir 
ing was so accurate and his men so well drilled that the discharge of his guns was spoken of as being so rapid as to be almost con 
tinuous. At Games Mill Tidball and his guns won laurels. The artillery had begun the battle at about 11 o clock, and it 
was their fight until nearly 3 o clock in the afternoon of June 27th, when the fighting became general. The batteries were well in 
front and occupied a dangerous position, but despite the vigor of the attack the guns stayed where they were. General Sykes reported 
of the artillery this day: "The enemy s attack was frustrated mainly through the services of Captain Reade and Captain Tidball." 
Tidball emerged from the action with a brevet of major. He was brevetted lieut. -colonel for gallantry at Antietam on September 
17th. At Gettysburg he commanded a brigade of horse artillery which he led in the Wilderness campaign, also, and was brevetted 
brigadier-general on August 1, 1861, brevetted major-general for gallant and meritorious services at Fort Stedman and Fort Sedgwick 
in the Petersburg campaign, and confirmed as a brigadier-general at the end of the war. 




atr 



the adjacent highlands, thus forming a screen from either 
side. The bridges crossing it had all been destroyed by the 
retreating army except the one at Mechanicsville, and it was 
not an easy task that awaited the forces of McClellan as they 
made their way across the spongy soil. 

The van of the Union army reached the Chickahominy 
on May 20th. The bridge was gone but the men under Gen 
eral Xaglee forded the little river, reaching the plateau beyond, 
and made a bold reconnaissance before the Confederate lines. 
In the meantime, newly constructed bridges were beginning 
to span the Chickahominy, and the Federal army soon was 
crossing to the south bank of the river. 

General McClellan had been promised reenforcements 
from the north. General McDowell with forty thousand men 
had started from Fredericksburg to join him north of the 
Chickahominy. For this reason, General McClellan had 
thrown the right wing of his army on the north of the river 
while his left would rest on the south side of the stream. This 
position of his army did not escape the eagle eye of the Con 
federate general, Joseph E. Johnston, who believed the time 
had now come to give battle, and perhaps destroy the small 
portion of the Union forces south of the river. 

Meanwhile, General " Stonewall " Jackson, in the Shen- 
andoah, was making threatening movements in the direction of 
Washington, and McDowell s orders to unite with McClellan 
were recalled. 

The roads in and about Richmond radiate from that city 
like the spokes of a wheel. One of these is the Williams- 
burg stage-road, crossing the Chickahominy at Bottom s 
Bridge, only eleven miles from Richmond. It was along this 
road that the Federal corps of Keyes and Heintzelman had 
made their way. Their orders were "to go prepared for bat 
tle at a moment s notice " and " to bear in mind that the Army 
of the Potomac has never been checked." 

Parallel to this road, and about a mile to the northward, 

[ 28G ] 




THE ADVANCE THAT BECAME A RETREAT 

Here, almost within sight of the goal (Richmond), we see McClellan s soldiers preparing the way for the passage of the army and its 
supplies. The soil along the Chickahominy was so marshy that in order to move the supply trains and artillery from the base at 
White House and across the river to the army, corduroy approaches to the bridges had to be built. It was well that the men got this 
early practice in road-building. Thanks to the work kept up, McClellan was able to unite the divided wings of the army almost at will. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

"REGULARS" NEAR FAIR OAKS OFFICERS OF McCLELLAN S HORSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE 

These trained soldiers lived up to the promise in their firm-set features. Major Hays and five of his Lieutenants and Captains 
here Pennington, Tidball, Hain.s, Robertson and Barlow had, by 65, become general officers. From left to right (standing) 
are Edm. Pendleton, A. C. M. Pennington, Henry Benson, H. M. Gibson, J. M. Wilson, J. C. Tidball, W. N. Dennison; (sitting) 
P. C. Hains, H. C. Gibson, Wm. Hays, J. M. Robertson, J. W. Barlow; (on ground) R. H. Chapin, Robert Clarke, A. C. Vincent. 




air 



In 



May 
1862 








=65 




!&&.,, 



runs the Richmond and York River Railroad. Seven miles 
from Richmond another highway intersects the one from Wil- 
liamsburg, known as the Nine Mile road. At the point of this 
intersection once grew a clump of seven pines, hence the name 
of " Seven Pines," often given to the battle fought on this spot. 
A thousand yards beyond the pines were two farmhouses in 
a grove of oaks. This was Fair Oaks Farm. Where the 
Nine Mile road crossed the railroad was Fair Oaks Station. 

Southeast of Seven Pines was White Oak Swamp. 
Casey s division of Keyes corps was stationed at Fair Oaks 
Farm. A fifth of a mile in front lay his picket line, extend 
ing crescent shape, from the swamp to the Chickahominy. 
Couch s division of the same corps was at Seven Pines, with 
his right wing extending along the Nine Mile road to Fair 
Oaks Station. Heintzelman s corps lay to the rear ; Kearney s 
division guarded the railroad at Savage s Station and Hook 
er s the approaches to -the White Oak Swamp. This formed 
three lines of defense. It was a well-wooded region and at 
this time was in many places no more than a bog. No sooner 
had these positions been taken, than trees were cut to form 
abatis, rifle-pits were hastily dug, and redoubts for placing 
artillery were constructed. The picket line lay along a dense 
growth of woods. Through an opening in the trees, the Con 
federate army could be seen in force on the other side of the 
clearing. 

The plans of the Confederate general were well matured. 
On Friday, May 30th, he gave orders that his army should 
be ready to move at daybreak. 

That night the " windows of heaven seemed to have been 
opened " and the " fountains of the deep broken up." The 
storm fell like a deluge. It was the most violent storm that 
had swept over that region for a generation. Throughout 
the night the tempest raged The thunderbolts rolled with 
out cessation. The sky was white with the electric flashes. 
The earth was thoroughly drenched. The lowlands became a 

[288] 







Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



CUSTER AND HIS CLASSMATE NOW A CONFEDERATE PRISONER 



Friends and even relatives who had been enlisted on opposite sides in the great Civil War met each other during its vicissitudes upon 
the battle-field. Here, caught by the camera, is one of the many instances. On the left sits Lieutenant J. B. Washington, C. S. A., who 
was an aide to General Johnston at Fair Oaks. Beside him sits Lieutenant George A. Custer, of the Fifth U. S. Cavalry, aide on 
McClellan s staff, later famous cavalry general and Indian fighter. Both men were W T est Point graduates and had attended the mili 
tary academy together. On the morning of May 31, 1862, at Fair Oaks, Lieutenant Washington was captured by some of General 
Casey s pickets. Later in the day his former classmate ran across him and a dramatic meeting was thus recorded by the camera. 




atr QDaks 3ht ^tgljt nf fttrfptuftd 



May 
1862 






morass. From mud-soaked beds the soldiers arose the next 
morning to battle. 

Owing to the storm the Confederates did not move so 
early as intended. However, some of the troops were in readi 
ness by eight o clock. Hour after hour the forces of Long- 
street and Hill awaited the sound of the signal-gun that would 
tell them General Huger was in his position to march. Still 
they waited. It was near noon before General Hill, weary of 
waiting, advanced to the front, preceded by a line of skir 
mishers, along the Williamsburg road. The Union pickets 
were lying at the edge of the forest. The soldiers in the pits 
had been under arms for several hours awaiting the attack. 
Suddenly there burst through the woods the soldiers of the 
South. A shower of bullets fell beneath the trees and the 
Union pickets gave way. On and on came the lines of gray 
in close columns. In front of the abatis had been planted a 
battery of four guns. General Naglee with four regiments, 
the Fifty-sixth and One hundredth New York and Eleventh 
Maine and One hundred and fourth Pennsylvania, had gone 
forward, and in the open field met the attacking army. The 
contest was a stubborn one. Naglee s men charged with their 
bayonets and pressed the gray lines back again to the edge 
of the woods. Here they were met by a furious fire of mus 
ketry and quickly gave way, seeking the cover of the rifle- 
pits at Fair Oaks Farm. The Confederate infantrymen came 
rushing on. 

But again they were held in check. In this position, for 
nearly three hours the Federals waged an unequal combat 
against three times their number. Then, suddenly a galling 
fire plowed in on them from the left. It came from Rains 
brigade, which had executed a flank movement. At the same 
time the brigade of Rodes rushed toward them. The Federals 
saw the hopelessness of the situation. The officers at the bat 
teries tried to spike their guns but were killed in the attempt. 
Hastily falling back, five guns were left to be turned on them 

[290] 




Over this ground the fiercest fighting 
of the two days battle took place, on 
May 31, 1862. Some 400 soldiers 
were buried here, where they fell, and 
their hastily dug graves appear plain 
ly in the picture. In the redoubt seen 
just beyond the two houses was the 
center of the Federal line of battle, 
equi-distant, about a mile and a half, 
from both Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. 
The entrenchments near these farm 
dwellings were begun on May 28th by 
Casey s Division, 4th Corps. There 
was not time to finish them before 
the Confederate attack opened the 
battle, and the artillery of Casey s 
Division was hurriedly placed in po 
sition behind the incomplete works. 



THE SLAUGHTER FIELD AT FAIR OAKS 




THE UNFINISHED REDOUBT 



In the smaller picture we see the inside 
of the redoubt at the left background 
of the picture above. The scene is just 
before the battle and picks and shov 
els were still busy throwing up the 
embankments to strengthen this cen 
ter of the Federal defense. Casey s ar 
tillery was being hurriedly brought up. 
In the background General Sickles 
Brigade appears drawn up in line of 
battle. When the Confederates first 
advanced Casey s artillery did telling 
work, handsomely repelling the attack 
early in the afternoon of May 31st. 
Later in the day Confederate sharp 
shooters from vantage points in neigh 
boring trees began to pick off the 
officers and the gunners and the re 
doubt had to be relinquished. The 
abandoned guns were turned against 
the retreating Federals. 






U Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE "REDHOT BATTERY 



On the afternoon of May 31st, at Fair Oaks, the Confederates were driving the Federal soldiers through the woods in disorder when 
this battery (McCarthy s) together with Miller s battery opened up with so continuous and severe a fire that the Federals were able to 
make a stand and hold their own for the rest of the day. The guns grew so hot from constant firing that it was only with the greatest 
care that they could be swabbed and loaded. These earthworks were thrown up for McCarthy s Battery, Company C, 1st Pennsyl 
vania Artillery, near Savage s Station. The soldiers nicknamed it the "Redhot Battery." 
[A-19] 




air ODak0 3ftt INgltt of 



May 







in their retreat. This move was not too soon. In another 
minute they would have been entirely surrounded and cap 
tured. The gray lines pressed on. The next stand would be 
made at Seven Pines, where Couch was stationed. The forces 
here had been weakened by sending relief to Casey. The situa 
tion of the Federals was growing critical. At the same time 
General Longstreet sent reenforcements to General Hill. 
Couch was forced out of his position toward the right in the 
direction of Fair Oaks Station and was thus separated from 
the main body of the army, then in action. 

The Confederates pushed strongly against the Federal 
center. Heintzelman came to the rescue. The fight waged 
was a gallant one. For an hour and a half the lines of blue 
and graj r surged back and forth. The Federals were gradu 
ally giving way. The left wing, alone, next to the White Oak 
Swamp, was holding its own. 

At the same time over at Fair Oaks Station whither 
Couch had been forced, were new developments. He was 
about to strike the Confederate army on its left flank, but just 
when the guns were being trained, there burst across the road 
the troops of General G. W. Smith, who up to this time had 
been inactive. These men were fresh for the fight, superior in 
number, and soon overpowered the Northerners. It looked 
for a time as if the whole Union army south of the Chickahom- 
iny was doomed. 

Over at Seven Pines the center of McClellan s army was 
about to be routed. Xow it was that General Heintzelman 
personally collected about eighteen hundred men, the frag 
ments of the broken regiments, and took a decided stand at 
the edge of the timber. He was determined not to give way. 
But this alone would not nor did not save the day. To the 
right of this new line of battle, there was a rise of ground. 
From here the woods abruptly sloped to the rear. If this ele 
vation were once secured by the Confederates, all would be 
lost and rout would be inevitable. The quick eye of General 

[ 292 ] 




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A VETERAN OF THREE WARS 

General Silas Casey at Fair Oaks. Three 
years before General Lee had left West 
Point, Silas Casey had been graduated. 
He was fifty-four years old when the war 
began. Active service in two exacting 
campaigns had aged him in appearance, 
but not in efficiency. He had been with 
General Worth at Florida in the Seminole 
War and under Scott at Mexico and had 
fought the Indians on the Pacific Coast. 
At Fair Oaks the old veteran s division, 
after fighting bravely through the woods, 
was driven back, for it received the whole 
brunt of the first Confederate attack. 
The bravely advancing Confederates had 
gained possession of his camp before 
supports could reach him. 




GENERAL SILAS CASEY 



TWO LEADERS OF THE FOREFRONT 

In the center of this group sits General 
Naglee. At Fair Oaks his troops had rushed 
to arms in the dark gloom of that cloudy 
day, the 31st of May. The woods before 
his forces were filled with sharpshooters, 
and back of them, massing on his front, 
came overpowering numbers. Fighting 
stubbornly, contesting every inch, General 
Naglee was driven back to the protection 
of McCarthy s battery near Savage s Sta 
tion. Twice during the action had Naglee 
placed himself personally at the head of his 
men in the firing line. General Stoneman 
is handing a note to an orderly. Before 
the battle of Fair Oaks, he had conducted 
the successful raids against the railroad. 
At Hanover Court House Stoneman s riders 
were opposed to those of the great Stuart. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

GENERAL NAGLEE AND THE CAVALRY GENERAL STONEMAN AT FAIR OAKS 




atr a0 




Keyes took in the situation. He was stationed on the left; to 
reach the hill would necessitate taking his men between the 
battle-lines. The distance was nearly eight hundred yards. 
Calling on a single regiment to follow he made a dash for 
the position. The Southern troops, divining his intention, 
poured a deadly volley into his ranks and likewise attempted 
to reach this key to the situation. The Federals gained the 
spot just in time. The new line was formed as a heavy mass 
of Confederates came upon them. The tremendous Union fire 
was too much for the assaulting columns, which were checked. 
They had forced the Federal troops back from their entrench 
ments a distance of two miles, but they never got farther than 
these woods. The river fog now came up as the evening fell 
and the Southern troops spent the night in the captured camps, 
sleeping on their arms. The Federals fell back toward the 
river to an entrenched camp. 

Meanwhile at Fair Oaks Station the day was saved, 
too, in the nick of time, for the Federals. On the north side 
of the Chickahominy were stationed the two divisions of 
Sedgwick and Richardson, under command of General Sum- 
ner. Scarcely had the battle opened when McClellan at his 
headquarters, six miles away, heard the roar and rattle of 
artillery. He was sick at the time, but he ordered General 
Sumner to be in readiness. At this time there were four 
bridges across the river two of them were Bottom s Bridge 
and the railroad bridge. To go by either of these would con 
sume too much time in case of an emergency. General Sum 
ner had himself constructed two more bridges, lying between 
the others. The heavy flood of the preceding night, which was 
still rising, had swept one of these partially away. In order 
to save time, he put his men under arms and marched them 
to the end of the upper bridge and there waited throughout 
the greater part of the afternoon for orders to cross. Before 
them rolled a muddy and swollen stream, above whose flood 
was built a rude and unstable structure. From the other side 

[294] 



Not long after this picture 
was taken, the names of 
most of these men were 
mentioned in despatches. 
Against Major D. H. Van 
Valkenburgh, the gallant 
soldier leaning on his saber, 
his arm thrust into his coat, 
was written, "killed in 
action at Fair Oaks." He 
helped to make the name of 
the First New York Light 
Artillery a proud one; and 
next to him stands Major 
Luther Kieffer. Perhaps the 
youngest, who is standing 
next, is Adjutant Rumsey, 
who by firing his guns so 
continuously helped save 
the wing of the Second 
Army Corps. He was 
wounded but recovered. 
Next to him, looking 
straight at the camera, is 
Lieut. -Colonel Henry E. 
Turner; and standing near 
est to the tent is Major C. 
S. Wainright, who won his 
spurs at Williamsburg, and 
again proved the metal he 
was made of at Fair Oaks. 
Seated in the camp chair is 
Colonel Guilford T. Bailey, 
who later died beside his 
guns. It rained during the 
days that preceded Fair 
Oaks. It was the treach 
erous River Chickahominy 
that helped to baffle the 




FIGHTING OFFICERS OF THE FIRST NEW YORK LIGHT 
ARTILLERY 



well-laid plans of the Fed 
eral commander. Well did 
the Confederate leaders 
know that with the down 
pour then falling the stream 
would rise. Not immedi 
ately, but within the next 
few hours it would gain 
strength until at last it 
became a sweeping torrent. 
All this proved true; only a 
part of McClellan s army 
had crossed the river when 
the Confederates moved to 
attack, May 31st. Let the 
Prince de Joinville, who 
was a spectator, describe 
the guns that helped to save 
the day. "They are not 
those rifled cannon, the 
objects of extravagant ad 
miration of late, good for 
cool firing and long range; 
these are the true guns for a 
fight 1 12-pound howitzers 
(Napoleons), the old pat 
tern, throwing round pro 
jectiles or heavy charges of 
grape and canister. The 
simple and rapid discharg 
ing of these pieces makes 
terrible havoc in the oppos 
ing ranks. In vain Johnston 
sends against this battery 
his best troops those of 
South Carolina, the Hamp 
ton legion among others, in 
vain he rushes on it himself; 
nothing can shake the line! " 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

TWENTY-POUND PARROTT RIFLED GUNS OF THE FIRST NEW YORK 




of 




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could be distinctly heard the roar of battle. The fate of the 
day and of the Army of the Potomac rested upon these men 
at the end of the bridge. 

The possibility of crossing was doubted by everyone, 
including the general himself. The bridge had been built of 
logs, held together and kept from drifting by the stumps of 
trees. Over the river proper it was suspended by ropes at 
tached to trees, felled across the stream. 

At last the long-expected order to advance came. The 
men stepped upon the floating bridge. It swayed to and fro 
as the solid column passed over it. Beneath the men 
was the angry flood which would engulf all if the bridge 
should fall. Gradually the weight pressed it down between 
the solid stumps and it w r as made secure till the army had 
crossed. Had the passage been delayed another hour the flood 
would have rendered it impassable. 

Guided by the roar of battle the troops hurried on. The 
artillery was left behind in the mud of the Chickahominy. 
The steady, rolling fire of musketry and the boom of cannon 
told of deadly work in front. It was nearly six o clock before 
Sedgwick s column deployed into line in the rear of Fair Oaks 
Station. They came not too soon. Just now there was a lull 
in the battle. The Confederates were gathering themselves 
for a vigorous assault on their opponents flaming front. 
Their lines were re-forming. General Joseph E. Johnston 
himself had immediate command. President Jefferson Davis 
had come out from his capital to witness the contest. Rap 
idly the Confederates moved forward. A heavy fusillade 
poured from their batteries and muskets. Great rents were 
made in the line of blue. It did not waver. The openings w r ere 
quickly filled and a scorching fire was sent into the approach 
ing columns. Again and again the charge was repeated only 
to be repulsed. Then came the order to fix bayonets. Five 
regiments Thirty-fourth and Eighty-second New York, Fif 
teenth and Twentieth Massachusetts and Seventh Michigan 

[296] 



May 

1862 



1 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

SUMNER IN THE FIELD A GENERAL FULL OF YEARS AND HONORS. 

Not many men distinguished in the war could look back upon forty-two years of actual service at the outbreak of hostilities. But 
such was the case with General Edwin V. Sumner. He stands above in the Peninsula Campaign, at St. Peter s church, near New Kent 
Court House, Virginia, not far from White House Landing. In this sacred edifice George Washington had worshiped. When this 
picture was taken Sumner was one year past the age when generals of the present day are deemed too old for service. Commanding 
the Second Army Corps in the Peninsula Campaign, he was twice wounded; and again, leading his men at Antietam, once more he was 
struck. He fought again at Fredericksburg, but died from the effects of his wounds in March, 1863. The group above from the left, 
includes Maj. A. M. Clark, Volunteer A. D. C.; Lieut.-Col. J. H. Taylor, A. G.; Capt. F. N. Clarke, Chief of Artillery; General Sumner; 
Lieut.-Col. J. F. Hammond, Medical Director; Captain Pease, Minnesota Volunteers, Chief Commissary; Capt. Gabriel Grant. 




air QDaka 3!u 



nf 



May 
1862 





pushed to the front. Into the woods where the Confed 
erates had fallen back the charge was made. Driving the 
Southern lines back in confusion, these dashing columns saved 
the day for the Army of the Potomac. 

Xight was now settling over the wooded field. Here and 
there flashes of light could be seen among the oaks, indicat 
ing a diligent search for the wounded. General Johnston 
ordered his troops to sleep on the field. A few minutes later 
he was struck by a rifle-ball and almost immediately a shell 
hit him, throwing him from his horse, and he was borne off 
the field. The first day of the battle was over. 

The disability of the Southern commander made it possi 
ble for the promotion of a new leader upon whom the fortunes 
of the Army of Northern Virginia would soon rest. This was 
General Robert E. Lee; although the immediate command for 
the next day s contest fell upon General G. W. Smith. Early 
Sunday morning the battle was again in progress. The com 
mand of Smith, near Fair Oaks Station, advanced down the 
railroad, attacking Richardson, whose lines were north of 
it and were using the embankment as a fortification. Long- 
street s men were south of the railroad. The firing was 
heavy all along this line, the opposing forces being not more 
than fifty yards from each other. For an hour and a half the 
musketry fire was intensely heavy. It was, indeed, a continu 
ous roar. The line of gray could not withstand the galling 
fire and for the first time that day fell back. But the Union 
line had been broken, too. A brief lull ensued. Both sides 
were gathering themselves for another onslaught. It was then 
that there were heard loud shouts from the east of the railroad. 
There, coming through the woods, was a large body of 
Federal troops. They were the men of Hooker. They formed 
a magnificent body of soldiers and seemed eager for the fray. 
Turning in on the Williamsburg road they rapidly deployed 
to the right and the left. In front of them was an open field, 
with a thick wood on the other side. The Confederates had 

[298] 



JL 





AIMING THE GUNS AT FAIR OAKS. 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



Here we see the beginning of the lull in the fighting of the 
second day at Fair Oaks, which it has been asserted led to a fatal 
delay and the ruin of McClellan s Peninsula Campaign. The 
first day s battle at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. was decidedly a 
Federal reverse which would have developed into a rout had not 
Sumner, crossing his troops on 
the perilous Grapevine Bridge, 
come up in time to rally the 
retreating men. Here we 
see some of them within 
the entrenchments at Fair 
Oaks Station on the Rich 
mond & York River Rail 
road. The order will soon 
come to cease firing at the 
end of the second day s fight 
ing, the result of which was to 
drive the Confederates back to 
Richmond. McClellan did not 
pursue. The heavy rainstorm 
on the night of May 30th had 
made the movement of artil 
lery extremely difficult, and 
McClellan waited to complete 



the bridges and build entrenchments before advancing. 
This delay gave the Confederates time to reorganize their 



forces and place them under the new 
E. Lee, who while McClellan lay 
junction with " Stonewall " Jackson. 




commander, Robert 
inactive effected a 
Then during the 
Seven Days Battles 
Lee steadily drove McClellan 
from his position, within four 
or five miles of Richmond, to a 
new position on the James 
River. From this secure and 
advantageous water base Mc 
Clellan planned a new line 
of advance upon the Confeder 
ate Capital. In the smaller 
picture we see the interior of 
the works at Fair Oaks Station, 
which were named Fort Sum 
ner in honor of the General who 
brought up his Second Corps 
and saved the day. The camp 
of the Second Corps is seen 
beyond the fortifications to 
the right. 



FORT SUMNER, 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 
NEAR FAIR OAKS 




mr 



in ^igltt nf 



^ 






May 

1862 



I 

1 



posted themselves in this forest and were waiting for their 
antagonists. The Federals marched upon the field in double- 
quick time; their movements became a run, and they began 
firing as they dashed forward. They were met by a withering 
fire of field artillery and a wide gap being opened in their 
ranks. It immediately filled. They reached the edge of the 
woods and as they entered its leafy shadows the tide of battle 
rolled in with them. The front line was lost to view in the 
forest, except for an occasional gleam of arms from among the 
trees. The din and the clash and roar of battle were heard for 
miles. Bayonets were brought into use. It was almost a 
hand-to-hand combat in the heavy forest and tangled slashings. 
The sound of battle gradually subsided, then ceased except for 
the intermittent reports of small arms, and the second day s 
fight was over. 

The Confederate forces withdrew toward Richmond. The 
Federal troops could now occupy without molestation the posi 
tions they held the previous morning. The forest paths were 
strewn with the dead and the dying. Many of the wounded 
were compelled to lie under the scorching sun for hours before 
help reached them. Every farmhouse became an improvised 
hospital where the suffering soldiers lay. Many were placed 
upon cars and taken across the Chickahominy. The dead 
horses were burned. The dead soldiers, blue and gray, found 
sometimes lying within a few feet of each other, were buried 
on the field of battle. The two giants had met in their first 
great combat and were even now beginning to gird up their 
loins for a desperate struggle before the capital of the Con 
federacy. 






PART III 
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND 



IN THE 

SHENANDOAH 

VALLEY 




JUNE, 1862 MCCLELLAN S MEN DRILLING WITHIN FIVE MILES OF RICHMOND, 
IGNORANT OF JACKSON S MOVEMENTS FROM THE VALLEY, SO SOON TO RESULT 
IN THEIR REPULSE RICHARDSON S ENTRENCHMENTS SOUTH OF FORT SUMNER 





Copyriqlit t>y Review of Revie 



MEN JACKSON COULD AFFORD TO LOSE 



These two hundred Confederate soldiers captured the day after "Stonewall" Jaek.son s victory at Front Royal, were an insignificant 
reprisal for the damage done to the Federal cause by that dashing and fearless Confederate leader. When Richmond was threatened 
both by land and water in May, 18C2, Johnston sent Jackson to create a diversion and alarm the Federal capital. Rushing down 
the Valley of the Shenandoah, his forces threatened to cut off and overwhelm those of General Banks, who immediately began a re 
treat. It became a race between the two armies down the Valley toward Winchester and Harper s Ferry. Forced marches, sometimes 
as long as thirty-five miles a day, were the portion of both during the four weeks in which Jackson led his forces after the retreating 
[302] 




Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co. 

CONFEDERATE PRISONERS CAPTURED IN THE SHENANDOAH 



Federals, engaging them in six actions and two battles, in all of which he came off victorious. Just after these prisoners were taken, 
Banks was driven hack to the Potomac. Once more a panic spread through the North, and both the troops of Banks and McDowell 
were held in the vicinity of Washington for its defense. But Jackson s purpose was accomplished. He had held Banks in the Shenan- 
doah Valley until McClellan s Peninsula Campaign was well advanced. Then again by forced marches his men disappeared up 
the Valley to join Lee in teaching the overcon c dent Union administration that Richmond was not to be won without long and 
costly fighting. But a year later the Confederacy lost this astonishing military genius. 



THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY 

Always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy, if possible, and 
when you strike and overcome him, never let up in the pursuit so long as 
your men have strength to follow. . . . The other rule is, never fight 
against heavy odds, if by any possible maneuvering you can hurl your 
own force on only a part, and that the weakest part, of your enemy and 
crush it. Such tactics will win every time, and a small army may thus 
destroy a large one in detail. "Stonewall" Jaclcnon. 

I HE main move of the Union army, for 1862, was to be 
McClellan s advance up the Peninsula toward Rich 
mond. Everything had been most carefully planned by the 
brilliant strategist. With the assistance of McDowell s corps, 
he expected in all confidence to be in the Confederate capital 
before the spring had closed. But, comprehensively as he had 
worked the scheme out, he had neglected a factor in the prob 
lem which was destined in the end to bring the whole campaign 
to naught. This was the presence of " Stonewall " Jackson 
in the Valley of Virginia. 

The strategic value to the Confederacy of this broad, shel 
tered avenue into Maryland and Pennsylvania w r as great. 
Along the northeasterly roads the gray legions could march 
in perfect safety upon the rear of Washington so long as the 
eastern gaps could be held. No wonder that the Federal au 
thorities, however much concerned with other problems of the 
war, never removed a vigilant eye from the Valley. 

Jackson had taken possession of Winchester, near the 
foot of the Valley, in November, 1861. He then had about 
ten thousand men. The Confederate army dwindled greatly 
during the winter. At the beginning of March there were but 
forty-five hundred men. With Banks and his forty thousand 
now on Virginia soil at the foot of the Valley, and Fremont s 

[304] 



I 







"STONEWALL" JACKSON 
AT WINCHESTER 

1862 

It is the great good fortune of American hero-lovers that they can gaze here upon 
the features of Thomas Jonathan Jackson precisely as that brilliant Lieutenant- 
General of the Confederate States Army appeared during his masterly "Valley 
Campaign" of 1862. Few photographers dared to approach this man, whose 
silence and modesty were as deep as his mastery of warfare. Jackson lived much 
to himself. Indeed, his plans were rarely known even to his immediate subordi 
nates, and herein lay the secret of those swift and deadly surprises that raised him 
to first rank among the world s military figures. Jackson s ability and efficiency 
won the utter confidence of his ragged troops; and their marvelous forced 
marches, their contempt for privations if under his guidance, put into his hands 
a living weapon such as no oth^r leader in the mighty conflict had ever wielded. 



at 



May 
1862 












army approaching the head, why should the Federal com 
mander even think about this insignificant fragment of his foe ? 
But the records of war have shown that a small force, guided 
by a master mind, sometimes accomplishes more in effective 
results than ten times the number under a less active and able 
commander. 

The presence of Banks compelled Jackson to withdraw 
to Woodstock, fifty miles south of Winchester. If McClellan 
ever experienced any anxiety as to affairs in the Valley, it 
seems to have left him now, for he ordered Banks to Manassas 
on March 16th to cover Washington, leaving General Shields 
and his division of seven thousand men to hold the Valley. 
When Jackson heard of the withdrawal, he resolved that, cut 
off as he was from taking part in the defense of Richmond, he 
would do what he could to prevent any aggrandizement of 
McClellan s forces. 

Shields hastened to his station at Winchester, and Jack 
son, on the 23d of March, massed his troops at Kernstown, 
about three miles south of the former place. Deceived as to the 
strength of his adversary, he led his weary men to an attack 
on Shields right flank about three o clock in the afternoon. 
He carried the ridge where the Federals w^ere posted, but the 
energy of his troops was spent, and they had to give way to 
the reserves of the Union army after three hours of stubborn 
contest. The Federal ranks were diminished by six hundred; 
the Confederate force by more than seven hundred. Kerns- 
town \vas a Union victory; yet never in history did victory 
bring such ultimate disaster upon the victors. 

At Washington the alarm was intense over Jackson s 
audacious attack. Williams division of Banks troops w^as 
halted on its way to Manassas and sent back to Winchester. 
Mr. Lincoln transferred Blenker s division, nine thousand 
strong, to Fremont. These things were done at once, but they 
were by no means the most momentous consequence of Kerns- 
town. The President began to fear that Jackson s goal was 

[306] 



^ 



5ISB 





Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

MCDOWELL AND MCCLELLAN TWO UNION LEADERS WHOSE 
PLANS "STONEWALL" JACKSON FOILED 

In General McClellan s plan for the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, General McDowell, with the First Army 
Corps of 37,000 men, was assigned a most important part, that of joining him before Richmond. Lincoln had 
reluctantly consented to the plan, fearing sufficient protection was not provided for Washington. By the 
battle of Kernstown, March 23d, in the Valley of Virginia, Jackson, though defeated, so alarmed the Ad 
ministration that McDowell was ordered to remain at Manassas to protect the capital. The reverse at Kerns- 
town was therefore a real triumph for Jackson, but with his small force he had to keep up the game of holding 
McDowell, Banks, and Fremont from reenforcing McClellan. If he failed, 80,000 troops might move up to 
Richmond from the west while McClellan was approaching from the North. But Jackson, on May 23d and 
25th, surprised Banks forces at Front Royal and Winchester, forcing a retreat to the Potomac. At the news 
of this event McDowell was ordered not to join McClellan in front of Richmond. 
[A 20] 



g>ljimauii0alT anft tit? Alarm at Waaljittgtnu 






Washington. After consulting six of his generals he became 
convinced that McClellan had not arranged proper protection 
for the city. Therefore, McDowell and his corps of thirty- 
seven thousand men were ordered to remain at Manassas. 
The Valley grew to greater importance in the Federal eyes. 
Banks was made entirely independent of McClellan and the 
defense of this region became his sole task. McClellan, to his 
great chagrin, saw his force depleted by forty-six thousand 
men. There were now four Union generals in the East oper 
ating independently one of the other. 

General Ewell with eight thousand troops on the upper 
Rappahannock and General Johnson with two brigades were 
now ordered to cooperate with Jackson. These reenforce- 
ments were badly needed. Schenck and Milroy, of Fremont s 
corps, began to threaten Johnson. Banks, with twenty thou 
sand, was near Harrisonburg. 

The Confederate leader left General Ewell to watch 
Banks while he made a dash for Milroy and Schenck. He 
fought them at McDowell on May 8th and they fled precipi 
tately to rejoin Fremont. The swift-acting Jackson now darted 
at Banks, who had fortified himself at Strasburg. Jackson 
stopped long enough to be joined by Ewell. He did not attack 
Strasburg, but stole across the Massanutten Mountain un 
known to Banks, and made for Front Royal, where a strong 
Union detachment was stationed under Colonel Kenly. Early 
on the afternoon of May 23d, Ewell rushed from the forest. 
Kenly and his men fled before them toward Winchester. A 
large number were captured by the cavalry before they had 
gotten more than four miles away. 

Banks at Strasburg realized that Jackson was approach 
ing from the rear, the thing he had least expected and had 
made no provision for. His fortifications protected his front 
alone. There was nothing to be done but retreat to Win 
chester. Even that was prevented by the remarkable speed 
of Jackson s men, who could march as much as thirty-five 

[ .108 ] 



May 

1862 







x < 




miles a day. On May 24th, the Confederates overtook and 
struck the receding Union flank near Newtown, inflicting 
heavy loss and taking many prisoners. Altogether, three thou 
sand of Banks men fell into Jackson s hands. 

This exploit was most opportune for the Southern arms. 
It caused the final ruin of McClellan s hopes. Banks received 
one more attack from E well s division the next day as he 
passed through Winchester on his way to the shelter of the 
Potomac. He crossed at Williamsport late the same evening 
and wrote the President that his losses, though serious enough, 
might have been far worse " considering the very great dis 
parity of forces engaged, and the long-matured plans of the 
enemy, which aimed at nothing less than entire capture of our 
force." Mr. Lincoln now rescinded his resolution to send Mc 
Dowell to McClellan. Instead, he transferred twenty thou 
sand of the former s men to Fremont and informed McClellan 
that he was not, after all, to have the aid of McDowell s forty 
thousand men. 

Fremont was coming from the west; Shields lay in the 
other direction, but Jackson was not the man to be trapped. 
He managed to hold Fremont while he marched his main 
force quickly up the Valley. At Port Republic he drove Car 
roll s brigade of Shields division away and took possession 
of a bridge which Colonel Carroll had neglected to burn. 
Fremont in pursuit was defeated by Ewell at Cross Keys. 
Jackson immediately put his force of twelve thousand over the 
Shenandoah at Port Republic and burned the bridge. Safe 
from the immediate attack by Fremont, he fell upon Tyler 
and Carroll, who had not more than three thousand men be 
tween them. The Federals made a brave stand, but after 
many hours fighting were compelled to retreat. Jackson 
emerged through Swift Run Gap on the 17th of June, to assist 
in turning the Union right on the Peninsula, and Banks and 
Shields, baffled and checkmated at every move, finally withdrew 
from the Valley. 

[310] 



I 



// / 

/ 



{// 



PART III 
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND 



THE 

SEVEN DAYS 
BATTLES 




VIEW ON THE JAMES, THE RIVER TO WHICH McCLELLAN DECIDED TO 
SWING HIS BASE ON THE FIRST OF THE SEVEN DAYS, JUNE 26, 1862 NOT 
SIX WEEKS BEFORE, THE GUN SHOWN HAD HELPED TO REPEL THE UNION 
GUNBOATS THAT ENDEAVORED TO OPEN McCLELLAN s WAY TO RICHMOND 



1 



THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES 

McClellan s one hope, one purpose, was to march his army out of 
the swamps and escape from the ceaseless Confederate assaults to a point 
on James River where the resistless fire of the gunboats might protect his 
men from further attack and give them a chance to rest. To that end, 
he retreated night and day, standing at bay now and then as the hunted 
stag does, and fighting desperately for the poor privilege of running away. 

And the splendid fighting of his men was a tribute to the skill and 
genius with which he had created an effective army out of what he had 
described as " regiments cowering upon the banks of the Potomac, some 
perfectly raw, others dispirited by recent defeat, others going home." 
Out of a demoralized and disorganized mass reenforced by utterly un 
trained civilians, McClellan had within a few months created an army 
capable of stubbornly contesting every inch of ground even while effecting 
a retreat the very thought of which might well have disorganized an army. 
George Cary Eggleston, in " The History of the Confederate War." 

GENERAL LEE was determined that the operations in 
front of Richmond should not degenerate into a siege, 
and that the Army of Northern Virginia should no longer be 
on the defensive. To this end, early in the summer of 1862, 
he proceeded to increase his fighting force so as to make it more 
nearly equal in number to that of his antagonist. Every man 
who could be spared from other sections of the South was called 
to Richmond. Numerous earthworks soon made their appear 
ance along the roads and in the fields about the Confederate 
capital, giving the city the appearance of a fortified camp. 
The new commander in an address to the troops said that the 
army had made its last retreat. 

Meanwhile, with the spires of Richmond in view, the 
Army of the Potomac was acclimating itself to a Virginia 
summer. The whole face of the country for weeks had been a 

[312] 



\r\ 




JOHNSTON AND LEE A PHOTOGRAPH OF 18(59. 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



These men look enough alike to be brothers. They were so in arras, at West Point, in Mexico and throughout the war. General 
Joseph E. Johnston (on the left), who had led the Confederate forces since Bull Run, was wounded at Fair Oaks. That wound gave 
Robert E. Lee (on the right) his opportunity to act as leader. After Fair Oaks, Johnston retired from the command of the army 
defending Richmond. The new commander immediately grasped the possibilities of the situation which confronted him. The 
promptness and completeness with which he blighted McClellan s high hopes of reaching Richmond showed at one stroke that the Con 
federacy had found its great general. It was only through much sifting that the North at last picked military leaders that could 
rival him in the field. 







iayH 



Capital 



\ 


June 

1862 



veritable bog. Now that the sweltering heat of June was com 
ing on, the malarious swamps were fountains of disease. The 
polluted waters of the sluggish streams soon began to tell on 
the health of the men. Malaria and typhoid were prevalent; 
the hospitals were crowded, and the death rate was appalling. 

Such conditions were not inspiring to either general or 
army. McClellan was still hoping for substantial reenforce- 
ments. McDowell, with his forty thousand men. had been 
promised him, but he was doomed to disappointment from that 
source. Yet in the existing state of affairs he dared not be 
inactive. South of the Chickahominy, the army was almost 
secure from surprise, owing to well-protected rifle-pits flanked 
by marshy thickets or covered with felled trees. But the Fed 
eral forces were still divided by the fickle stream, and this w r as 
a constant source of anxiety to the commander. He proceeded 
to transfer all of his men to the Richmond side of the river, 
excepting the corps of Franklin and Fitz John Porter. About 
the middle of June, General McCall with a force of eleven 
thousand men joined the Federal army north of the Chicka 
hominy, bringing the entire fighting strength to about one 
hundred and five thousand. So long as there remained the 
slightest hope of additional soldiers, it w r as impossible to with 
draw all of the army from the York side of the Peninsula, and 
it remained divided. 

That was a brilliant initial stroke of the Confederate gen 
eral when he sent his famous cavalry leader, J. E. B. Stuart, 
with about twelve hundred Virginia troopers, to encircle the 
army of McClellan. Veiling his intentions with the utmost 
secrecy, Stuart started June 12, 1802, in the direction of Fred- 
ericksburg as if to reenforce " Stonewall " Jackson. The first 
night he bivouacked in the pine w^oods of Hanover. No fires 
were kindled, and when the morning dawned, his men swung 
upon their mounts without the customary bugle-call of " Boots 
and Saddles." Turning to the east, he surprised and captured 
a Federal picket; swinging around a corner of the road, he 

[314] 




THE FLEET THAT FED THE ARMY 




t by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE ABANDONED BASE 



White House, Virginia, June 27, 1862. Up the James and the Paraunkey to White House Landing came the steam and sailing vessels 
laden with supplies for McClellan s second attempt to reach Richmond. Tons of ammunition and thousands of rations were sent for 
ward from here to the army on the Chickahominy in June, 1862. A short month was enough to cause McClellan to again change his 
plans, and the army base was moved to the James River. The Richmond and York Railroad was lit up by burning cars along its 
course to the Chickahominy. Little was left to the Confederates save the charred ruins of the White House itself. 




Saya lj (Htmfrforat? Capital 



June 
1862 








suddenly came upon a squadron of Union cavalry. The Con 
federate yell rent the air and a swift, hold charge by the South 
ern troopers swept the foe on. 

They had not traveled far when they came again to a 
force drawn up in columns of fours, ready to dispute the pas 
sage of the road. This time the Federals were about to make 
the charge. A squadron of the Confederates moved forward 
to meet them. Some Union skirmishers in their effort to get 
to the main body of their troops swept into the advancing 
Confederates and carried the front ranks of the squadron with 
them. These isolated Confederates found themselves in an 
extremely perilous position, being gradually forced into the 
Federal main body. Before they could extricate themselves, 
nearly every one in the unfortunate front rank was shot or 
cut down. 

The Southern cavalrymen swept on and presently found 
themselves nearing the York River Railroad McClellan s 
supply line. As they approached Turistall s Station they 
charged down upon it, with their characteristic yell, completely 
surprising a company of Federal infantry stationed there. 
These at once surrendered. Telegraph wires were cut and a 
tree felled across the track to obstruct the road. This had 
hardly been done before the shriek of a locomotive was heard. 
A train bearing Union troops came thundering along, ap 
proaching the station. The engineer, taking in the situation 
at a glance, put on a full head of steam and made a rush for 
the obstruction, which was easily brushed aside. As the train 
went through a cut the Confederates fired upon it, wounding 
and killing some of the Federal soldiers in the cars. 

Riding all through a moonlit night, the raiders reached 
Sycamore Ford of the Chickahominy at break of day. As 
usual this erratic stream was overflowing its banks. They 
started to ford it, but finding that it would be a long and 
wearisome task, a bridge was hastily improvised at another 
place where the passage was made with more celerity. Now, 

[316] 








ELLERSOX S MILL WHERE HILL ASSAULTED. 

Not until after nightfall of June 26, 1862, did the Confederates of General A. P. Hill s division cease their assaults upon this 
position where General McCall s men were strongly entrenched. Time after time the Confederates charged over the ground we see 
here at Ellerson s Mill, near Mechanicsville. Till 9 o clock at night they continued to pour volleys at the position, and then at last 
withdrew. The victory was of little use to the Federals, for Jackson on the morrow, having executed one of the flanking night 
marches at which he was an adept, fell upon the Federal rear at Games Mill. 




THE WASTE OF WAR 

Railroad trains loaded with tons of food and ammunition were run deliberately at full speed off the embankment shown in the left 
foreground. They plunged headlong into the waters of the Pamunkey. This was the readiest means that McClellan could devise 
for keeping his immense quantity of stores out of the hands of the Confederates in his hasty change of base from White House to the 
James after Games Mill. This was the bridge of the Richmond and York River Railroad, and was destroyed June 28, 1862, to 
render the railroad useless to the Confederates. 




nm\ Says lj? (Cnufrforair (Eapttal 




JlllR 

1862 



, 



on the south bank of the river, haste was made for the con 
fines of Richmond, where, at dawn of the following day, the 
troopers dropped from their saddles, a weary but happy body 
of cavalry. 

Lee thus obtained exact and detailed information of the 
position of McClellan s army, and he laid out his campaign 
accordingly. Meanwhile his own forces in and about Rich 
mond were steadily increasing. He was planning for an army 
of nearly one hundred thousand and he now demonstrated his 
ability as a strategist. Word had been despatched to Jackson 
in the Shenandoah to bring his troops to fall upon the right 
w r ing of McClellan s army. At the same time Lee sent Gen 
eral Whiting north to make a feint of joining Jackson and 
moving upon Washington. The ruse proved eminently suc 
cessful. The authorities at Washington were frightened, and 
McClellan received no more reenforcements. Jackson now 
began a hide-and-seek game among the mountains, and man 
aged to have rumors spread of his army being in several places 
at the same time, while skilfully veiling his actual movements. 

It was not until the 2oth of June that McClellan had 
definite knowledge of Jackson s whereabouts. He was then 
located at Ashland, north of the Chickahominy, within strik 
ing distance of the Army of the Potomac. McClellan w r as 
surprised but he was not unprepared. Seven days before 
he had arranged for a new base of supplies on the James, 
which w r ould now prove useful if he were driven south of the 
Chickahominy. 

On the very day he heard of Jackson s arrival at Ashland, 
McClellan was pushing his men forward to begin his siege of 
Richmond that variety of warfare which his engineering 
soul loved so w r ell. His advance guard was within four miles 
of the Confederate capital. His strong fortifications were 
bristling upon every vantage point, and his fond hope was 
that within a few days, at most, his efficient artillery, for 
which the Army of the Potomac was famous, would be 

[318] 




M 







THE BRIDGE THAT STOOD 

The force under General McCall was stationed by McClellan on June 19, 1862, to observe the Meadow and Mechanicsville bridges 
over the Chickahominy which had only partially been destroyed. On the afternoon of June 26th, General A. P. Hill crossed at Meadow 
Bridge, driving the Union skirmish-line back to Beaver Dam Creek. The divisions of D. H. Hill and Longstreet had been waiting at 
Mechanicsvilie Bridge (shown in this photograph) since 8 A.M. for A. P. Hill to open the way for them to cross. They passed over in 
time to bear a decisive part in the Confederate attack at Games Mill on the 27th. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

DOING DOUBLE DUTY 

Here are some of McClellan s staff-officers during the strenuous period of the Seven Days Battles. One commonly supposes that a 
general s staff has little to do but wear gold lace and transmit orders. But it is their duty to multiply the eyes and ears and thinking 
power of the leader. Without them he could not direct the movements of his army. There were so few regular officers of ripe ex 
perience that members of the staff were invariably made regimental commanders, and frequently were compelled to divide their time 
between leading their troops into action and reporting to and consulting with their superior. 




iay0 



(Capital 



* 



/ 



belching forth its sheets of fire and lead into the beleagured 
city. In front of the Union encampment, near Fair Oaks, was 
a thick entanglement of scrubby pines, vines, and ragged 
bushes, full of ponds and marshes. This strip of woodland 
was less than five hundred yards wide. Beyond it was an open 
field half a mile in width. The Union soldiers pressed through 
the thicket to see what was on the other side and met the Con 
federate pickets among the trees. The advancing column 
drove them back. Upon emerging into the open, the Federal 
troops found it filled with rifle-pits, earthworks, and redoubts. 
At once they were met with a steady and incessant fire, which 
continued from eight in the morning until five in the afternoon. 
At times the contest almost reached the magnitude of a battle, 
and in the end the Union forces occupied the former position 
of their antagonists. This passage of arms, sometimes called 
the affair of Oak Grove or the Second Battle of Fair Oaks, 
was the prelude to the Seven Days Battles. 

The following day, June 26th, had been set by General 
" Stonewall " Jackson as the date on which he would join Lee, 
and together they would fall upon the right wing of the Army 
of the Potomac. The Federals north of the Chickahominy 
were under the direct command of General Fitz John Porter. 
Defensive preparations had been made on an extensive scale. 
Field works, heavily armed with artillery, and rifle-pits, well 
manned, covered the roads and open fields and were often con 
cealed by timber from the eye of the opposing army. The 
extreme right of the Union line lay near Mechanicsville on the 
upper Chickahominy. A tributary of this stream from the 
north was Beaver Dam Creek, upon whose left bank was a 
steep bluff, commanding the valley to the west. This naturally 
strong position, now well defended, was almost impregnable 
to an attack from the front. 

Before sunrise of the appointed day the Confederate 
forces were at the Chickahominy bridges, awaiting the ar 
rival of Jackson. To reach these some of the regiments had 

[320] 





THE RETROGRADE CROSSING 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



LOWER BRIDGE ON THE CHICKAHOMINY 



Woodbury s Bridge on the Chickahominy. Little did General D. F. Woodbury s engineers suspect, when they built this bridge, 
early in June, 1862, as a means of communication between the divided wings of McClellan s army on the Chickahominy that it would 
be of incalculable service during battle. When the right wing, under General Fitz John Porter, was engaged on the field of Games 
Mill against almost the entire army of Lee, across this bridge the division of General Slocum marched from its position in the trenches 
in front of Richmond on the south bank of the river to the support of Porter s men. The battle lasted until nightfall and then the 
Federal troops moved across this bridge and rejoined the main forces of the Federal army. Woodbury s engineers built several bridges 
across the Chickahominy, but among them all the bridge named for their commander proved to be, perhaps, the most serviceable. 









lays Stye Glonfrtorat? (Eapttal 



marched the greater part of the night. For once Jackson 
was behind time. The morning hours came and went. Xoon 
passed and Jackson had not arrived. At three o clock, Gen 
eral A. P. Hill, growing impatient, decided to put his troops 
in motion. Crossing at Meadow Bridge, he marched his men 
along the north side of the Chickahominy, and at Mechanics- 
ville was joined by the commands of Longstreet and D. H. 
Hill. Driving the Union outposts to cover, the Confederates 
swept across the low approach to Beaver Dam Creek. A mur 
derous fire from the batteries on the cliff poured into their 
ranks. Gallantly the attacking columns withstood the deluge 
of leaden hail and drew near the creek. A few of the more 
aggressive reached the opposite bank but their repulse was 
severe. 

Later in the afternoon relief w r as sent to Hill, who again 
attempted to force the Union position at Ellerson s Mill, 
where the slope of the west bank came close to the borders of 
the little stream. From across the open fields, in full view of 
the defenders of the cliff, the Confederates moved down the 
slope. They were in range of the Federal batteries, but the 
fire was reserved. Every artilleryman was at his post ready 
to fire at the word; the soldiers were in the rifle-pits sighting 
along the glittering barrels of their muskets with fingers on 
the triggers. As the approaching columns reached the stream 
they turned with the road that ran parallel to the bank. 

From every waiting field-piece the shells came screaming 
through the air. Volley after volley of musketry was poured 
into the flanks of the marching Southerners. The hillside was 
soon covered with the victims of the gallant charge. Twilight 
fell upon the warring troops and there were no signs of a ces 
sation of the unequal combat. Night fell, and still from the 
heights the lurid flames burst in a display of glorious pyro 
technics. It was nine o clock when Hill finally drew back his 
shattered regiments, to await the coming of the morning. The 
Forty-fourth Georgia regiment suffered most in the fight; 

[322] 



June 
1862 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



THE FIGHT FOR THE WAGON TRAINS 



Three times General Magruder led the Confederates against this position on June 29, 1862, and was as 
many times repulsed in his attempt to seize the supplies which McClellan was shifting to his new position. 
Here we see the peaceful morning of that day. Allen s farmhouse in the foreground stands just back 
from the Williamsburg Road, along which the Federal wagon trains were attempting to move toward 
Savage s Station. The corps of Sumner and Heintzelman are camped in the background. At dusk of the 
same day, after Magruder s attacks, the camp was hastily broken and the troops, to avoid being cut off, 
were inarching swiftly and silently toward Savage s Station, leaving behind large quantities of supplies 

which fell into the hands of the eager Confederates. 

[A 21] 




Saga lp (Enttfrforate (Eapiial 








three hundred and thirty-five being the dreadful toll, in dead 
and wounded, paid for its efforts to break down the Union 
position. Dropping back to the rear this ill-fated regiment 
attempted to re-form its broken ranks, but its officers were all 
among those who had fallen. Both armies now prepared for 
another day and a renewal of the conflict. 

The action at Beaver Dam Creek convinced McClellan 
that Jackson was really approaching with a large force, and 
he decided to begin his change of base from the Pamunkey 
to the James, leaving Porter and the Fifth Corps still on the 
left bank of the Chickahominy, to prevent Jackson s fresh 
troops from interrupting this great movement. It \vas, indeed, 
a gigantic undertaking, for it involved marching an army of 
a hundred thousand men, including cavalry and artillery, 
across the marshy peninsula. A train of five thousand heavily 
loaded wagons and many siege-guns had to be transported; 
nearly three thousand cattle on the hoof had to be driven. 
From White House the supplies could be shipped by the York 
River Railroad as far as Savage s Station. Thence to the 
James, a distance of seventeen miles, they had to be carried 
overland along a road intersected by many others from which 
a watchful opponent might easily attack. General Casey s 
troops, guarding the supplies at White House, were trans 
ferred by way of the York and the James to Harrison s Land 
ing on the latter river. The transports were loaded with all 
the material they could carry. The rest was burned, or put 
in cars. These cars, with locomotives attached, were then run 
into the river. 

On the night of June 26th, McCall s Federal division, at 
Beaver Dam Creek, was directed to fall back to the bridges 
across the Chickahominy near Gaines Mill and there make 
a stand, for the purpose of holding the Confederate army. 
During the night the wagon trains and heavy guns were 
quietly moved across the river. Just before daylight the oper 
ation of removing the troops began. The Confederates were 

[ 324 ] 





A VAIN RIDE TO SAFETY 

During the retreat after Games Mill, McClellan s army was straining every nerve to extricate itself and present a strong front to 
Lee before he could strike a telling blow at its untenable position. Wagon trains were struggling across the almost impassable White 
Oak Swamp, while the troops were striving to hold Savage s Station to protect the movement. Thither on flat cars were sent the 
wounded as we see them in the picture. The rear guard of the Army of the Potomac had hastily provided such field hospital facili 
ties as they could. We see the camp near the railroad with the passing wagon trains in the lower picture. But attention to these 
wounded men was, perforce, secondary to the necessity of holding the position. Their hopes of relief from their suffering were to be 
blighted. Lee was about to fall upon the Federal rear guard at Savage s Station. Instead of to a haven of refuge, these men were 
being railroaded toward the field of carnage, where they must of necessity be left by their retreating companions. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

THE STAND AT SAVAGE S STATION 

Here we see part of the encampment to hold which the divisions of Richardson, Sedgwick, Smith, and Franklin fought valiantly when 
Magruder and the Confederates fell upon them, June 29, 1862. Along the Richmond & York River Railroad, seen in the picture, 
the Confederates rolled a heavy rifled gun, mounted on car-wheels. They turned its deadly fire steadily upon the defenders. The 
Federals fought fiercely and managed to hold their ground till nightfall, when hundreds of their bravest soldiers lay on the field 
and had to be left alone with their wounded comrades who had arrived on the flat cars. 




It? (Ennfrtorate Glaptial 



June 
1862 



equally alert, for about the same time they opened a heavy fire 
on the retreating columns. This march of five miles was a 
continuous skirmish; but the Union forces, ably and skilfully 
handled, succeeded in reaching their new position on the Chick- 
ahominy heights. 

The morning of the new day was becoming hot and sultry 
as the men of the Fifth Corps made ready for action in their 
new position. The selection of this ground had been well 
made; it occupied a series of heights fronted on the west by 
a sickle-shaped stream. The battle-lines followed the course 
of this creek, in the arc of a circle curving outward in the 
direction of the approaching army. The land beyond the 
creek was an open country, through which Powhite Creek 
meandered sluggishly, and beyond this a wood densely tan 
gled with undergrowth. Around the Union position were also 
many patches of wooded land affording cover for the troops 
and screening the reserves from view. 

Porter had learned from deserters and others that Jack 
son s forces, united to those of Longstreet and the two Hills, 
were advancing with grim determination to annihilate the 
Army of the Potomac. He had less than eighteen thousand 
men to oppose the fifty thousand Confederates. To protect 
the Federals, trees had been felled along a small portion of 
their front, out of which barriers protected with rails and 
knapsacks were erected. Porter had considerable artillery, but 
only a small part of it could be used. It was two o clock, on 
June 27th, when General A. P. Hill swung his division into 
line for the attack. He was unsupported by the other divisions, 
which had not yet arrived, but his columns moved rapidly 
toward the Union front. The assault was terrific, but twenty- 
six guns threw a hail-storm of lead into his ranks. Under the 
cover of this magnificent execution of artillery, the infantry 
sent messages of death to the approaching lines of gray. 

The Confederate front recoiled from the incessant out 
pour of grape, canister, and shell. The heavy cloud of battle 

[326] 



I 



.1 
/ 





Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



A GRIM CAPTURE 



The Second and Sixth Corps of the Federal Army repelled a desperate attack of General Magruder at Sav 
age Station on June 29th. The next day they disappeared, plunging into the depths of White Oak Swamp, 
leaving only the brave medical officers behind, doing what they could to relieve the sufferings of the men 
that had to be abandoned. Here we see them at work upon the wounded, who have been gathered from 
the field. Nothing but the strict arrest of the stern sergeant Death can save these men from capture, and 
when the Confederates occupied Savage s Station on the morning of June 30th, twenty-five hundred sick 
and wounded men and their medical attendants became prisoners of war. The Confederate hospital facil 
ities were already taxed to their full capacity in caring for Lee s wounded, and most of these men were 
confronted on that day with the prospect of lingering for months in the military prisons of the South. The 
brave soldiers lying helpless here were wounded at Games Mill on June 27th and removed to the great 
field-hospital established at Savage s Station. The photograph was taken just before Sumner and Franklin 
withdrew the rear-guard of their columns on the morning of June 30th. 









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reached the crest of a small ridge, one hundred and fifty yards 
from the Union line, the batteries in front and on the flank 
sent a storm of shell and canister plowing into their already 
depleted files. They quickened their pace as they passed down 
the slope and across the creek. Not a shot had they fired and 
amid the sulphurous atmosphere of battle, with the wing of 
death hovering over all, they fixed bayonets and dashed up the 
hill into the Federal line. With a shout they plunged through 
the felled timber and over the breastworks. The Union line 
had been pierced and \vas giving way. It was falling back 
toward the Chickahominy bridges, and the retreat was threaten 
ing to develop into a general rout. The twilight w-as closing 
in and the day was all but lost to the Army of the Potomac. 
Now a great shout w r as heard from the direction of the bridge ; 
and, pushing through the stragglers at the river bank were seen 
the brigades of French and Meagher, detached from Sumner s 
corps, coming to the rescue. General Meagher, in his shirt 
sleeves, w r as leading his men up the bluff and confronted the 
Confederate battle line. This put a stop to the pursuit and 
as night was at hand the Southern soldiers withdrew. The 
battle of Games Mill, or the Chickahominy, was over. 

When Lee came to the banks of the little river the next 
morning he found his opponent had crossed over and destroyed 
the bridges. The Army of the Potomac was once more united. 
During the day the Federal wagon trains were safely passed 
over White Oak Swamp and then moved on toward the James 
River. Lee did not at first divine McClellan s intention. He 
still believed that the Federal general would retreat down 
the Peninsula, and hesitated therefore to cross the Chicka 
hominy and give up the command of the lower bridges. But 
now on the 29th the signs of the movement to the James were 
unmistakable. Early on that morning Longstreet and A. P. 
Hill were ordered to recross the Chickahominy by the New 
Bridge and Huger and Magruder were sent in hot pursuit of 
the Federal forces. It was the brave Sumner who covered the 

[330] 




I 




THREE GROUPS 



OF McCLELLAN S 



FIGHTING OFFICERS 



MAJOR MEYERS AND LIEUTENANTS STRYKER AND NORTON, 10TH PENN. RESERVES 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 




COLONEL A. V. COLBURN, COLONEL D. B. SACKETT, AND GENERAL JOHN SEDGVVICK 

Copyriyht by Patriot Pub. Co. 



PHOTOGRAPHED 



THE MONTH AFTER 



THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES 




COLONEL JAMES H. CHILDS AND OFFICERS, FOURTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY 





Sags 




Gkpttal 




march of the retreating army, and as he stood in the open field 
near Savage s Station he looked out over the plain and saw 
with satisfaction the last of the ambulances and wagons mak 
ing their way toward the new haven on the James. 

In the morning of that same day he had already held at 
bay the forces of Magruder at Allen s Farm. On his way 
from Fair Oaks, which he left at daylight, he had halted his 
men at what is known as the " Peach Orchard," and from 
nine o clock till eleven had resisted a spirited fire of musketry 
and artillery. And now as the grim warrior, on this Sunday 
afternoon in June, turned his eyes toward the Chickahominy 
he saw a great cloud of dust rising on the horizon. It was 
raised by the troops of General Magruder who was pressing 
close behind the Army of the Potomac. The Southern field- 
guns were placed in position. A contrivance, consisting of a 
heavy gun mounted on a railroad car and called the " Land 
Merrimac," was pushed into position and opened fire upon the 
Union forces. The battle began with a fine play of artillery. 
For an hour not a musket was fired. The army of blue 
remained motionless. Then the mass of gray moved across 
the field and from the Union guns the long tongues of flame 
darted into the ranks before them. The charge was met with 
vigor and soon the battle raged over the entire field. Both 
sides stood their ground till darkness again closed the contest, 
and nearly eight hundred brave men had fallen in this Sabbath 
evening s battle. Before midnight Sumner had withdrawn his 
men and was following after the wagon trains. 

The Confederates were pursuing McClellan s army in two 
columns, Jackson closely following Sumner, while Lorigstreet 
was trying to cut off the Union forces by a flank movement. 
On the last day of June, at high noon, Jackson reached the 
White Oak Swamp. But the bridge was gone. He attempted 
to ford the passage, but the Union troops were there to prevent 
it. While Jackson was trying to force his way across the 
stream, there came to him the sound of a desperate battle being 

[332] 







eta 



HEROES OF MALVERN HILL 

Brigadier-General J. H. Martindale (seated) and his staff, July 1, 1862. Fitz John Porter s Fifth Corps and Couch s division, Fourth 
Corps, bore the brunt of battle at Malvern Hill where the troops of McClellan withstood the terrific attacks of Lee s combined and 
superior forces. Fiery "Prince John" Magruder hurled column after column against the left of the Federal line, but every charge 
was met and repulsed through the long hot summer afternoon. Martindale s brigade of the Fifth Corps was early called into action, 
and its commander, by. the gallant fighting of his troops, won the brevet of Major-Genernl. 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

THE NAVY LENDS A HAND 

Officers of the Monitor at Malvern Hill. Glad indeed were the men of the Army of the Potomac as they emerged from their perilous 
march across White Oak Swamp to hear the firing of the gunboats on the James. It told them the Confederates had not yet pre 
empted the occupation of Malvern Hill, which General Fitz John Porter s Corps was holding. Before the battle opened McClellan 
went aboard the Galena to consult with Commodore John Rodgers about a suitable base on the James. The gunboats of the fleet 
supported the flanks of the army during the battle and are said to have silenced one of the Confederate batteries. 




(Capital 




fought not more than two miles away, but he was powerless 
to give aid. 

Longstreet and A. P. Hill had come upon the Federal 
regiments at Glendale, near the intersection of the Charles 
City road, guarding the right flank of the retreat. It was 
Longstreet who, about half-past two, made one of his charac 
teristic onslaughts on that part of the Union army led by Gen 
eral McCall. It was repulsed with heavy loss. Again and 
again attacks were made. Each brigade seemed to act on its 
own behalf. They hammered here, there, and everywhere. Re 
pulsed at one place they charged at another. The Eleventh 
Alabama, rushing out from behind a dense wood, charged 
across the open field in the face of the Union batteries. The 
men had to run a distance of six hundred yards. A heavy and 
destructive fire poured into their lines, but on they came, trail 
ing their guns. The batteries let loose grape and canister, 
while volley after volley of musketry sent its death-dealing 
messages among the Southerners. But nothing except death 
itself could check their impetuous charge. When two hundred 
yards away they raised the Confederate yell and rushed for 
Randol s battery. 

Pausing for an instant they deliver a volley and attempt 
to seize the guns. Bayonets are crossed and men engage 
in a hand-to-hand struggle. The contending masses rush to 
gether, asking and giving no quarter and struggling like so 
many tigers. Darkness is closing on the fearful scene, yet the 
fighting continues with unabated ferocity. There are the 
shouts of command, the clash and the fury of the battle, the 
sulphurous smoke, the flashes of fire streaking through the air, 
the yells of defiance, the thrust, the parry, the thud of the 
clubbed musket, the hiss of the bullet, the spouting blood, the 
death-cry, and beneath all lie the bodies of America s sons, 
some in blue and some in gray. 

While Lee and his army were held in check by the events 
of June 30th at White Oak Swamp and the other battle at 

[334] 



v/, 



Again we see the transports 
and supply schooners at an 
chor this time at Harrison s 
Landing on the James River. 
In about a month, McClellan 
had changed the position of 
his army twice, shifting his 
base from the Pamunkey to 
the James. The position he 
held on Malvern Hill was 
abandoned after the victory 
of July 1, 1802, and the 
army marched to a new base 
farther down the James, 
where the heavy losses of 
men and supplies during the 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

THE SECOND ARMY BASE 



Seven Days could be made 
up without danger and 
delay. Harrison s Landing 
was the point selected, and 
here the army recuperated, 
wondering what would be the 
next step. Below we see the 
historic mansion which did 
service as General Porter s 
headquarters, one of McClel- 
lan s most efficient command 
ers. For his services during 
the Seven Days he was made 
Major-General of Volunteers. 
McClellan was his lifelong 
friend. 



il! lillllillliiME. 3 nlilliilii 




WESTOVER HOUSE: HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL FITZ JOHN PORTER, HARRISON S LANDING 




aga 



(Hapttal 



\ 



Glendale or Nelson s Farm, the last of the wagon trains had 
arrived safely at Malvern Hill. The contest had hardly closed 
and the smoke had scarcely lifted from the blood-soaked field, 
when the Union forces were again in motion toward the James. 
By noon on July 1st the last division reached the position 
where McClellan decided to turn again upon his assailants. 
He had not long to wait, for the Confederate columns, led by 
Longstreet, were close on his trail, and a march of a few miles 
brought them to the Union outposts. They found the Army 
of the Potomac admirably situated to give defensive battle. 
Malvern Hill, a plateau, a mile and a half long and half as 
broad, with its top almost bare of woods, commanded a view of 
the country over which the Confederate army must approach. 
Along the western face of this plateau there are deep ravines 
falling abruptly in the direction of the James River; on the 
north and east is a gentle slope to the plain beneath, bordered 
by a thick forest. Around the summit of the hill, General Mc 
Clellan had placed tier after tier of batteries, arranged like an 
amphitheater. Surmounting these on the crest were massed 
seven of his heaviest siege-guns. His army surrounded this 
hill, its left flank being protected by the gunboats on the river. 

The morning and early afternoon were occupied with 
many Confederate attacks, sometimes formidable in their na 
ture, but Lee planned for no general move until he could 
bring up a force that he considered sufficient to attack the 
strong Federal position. The Confederate orders were to 
advance when the signal, a yell, cheer, or shout from the men 
of Armistead s brigade, was given. 

Late in the afternoon General D. IT. Hill heard some 
shouting, followed by a roar of musketry. Xo other general 
seems to have heard it, for Hill made his attack alone. It was 
gallantly done, but no army could have withstood the galling 
fire of the batteries of the Army of the Potomac as they were 
massed upon Malvern Hill. All during the evening, brigade 
after brigade tried to force the Union lines. The gunners 

[336] 



June 
1862 




Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 



ON DARING DUTY 



Lieut. -Colonel Albert V. Colburn, a favorite Aicle-de-Camp of General McClellan s. Here is the bold 
soldier of the Green Mountain State who bore despatches about the fields of battle during the Seven Days. 
It was he who was sent galloping across the difficult and dangerous country to make sure that Franklin s 
division was retreating from White Oak Swamp, and then to carry orders to Sumner to fall back on Mal- 
vern Hill. Such were the tasks that constantly fell to the lot of the despatch bearer. Necessarily a man 
of quick and accurate judgment, perilous chances confronted him in his efforts to keep the movements of 
widely separated divisions in concert with the plans of the commander. The loss of his life might mean 
the loss of a battle; the failure to arrive in the nick of time with despatches might mean disaster for the 
army. Only the coolest headed of the officers could be trusted with this vital work in the field. 




lays Sit? (Eanfrforat? (Eapital 



Juno 
1862 





stood coolly and manfully by their batteries. The Confeder 
ates were not able to make concerted efforts, but the battle 
waxed hot nevertheless. They were forced to breast one of 
the most devastating storms of lead and canister to which an 
assaulting army has ever been subjected. The round shot and 
grape cut through the branches of the trees and the battle-field 
was soon in a cloud of smoke. Column after column of South 
ern soldiers rushed up to the death-dealing cannon, only to be 
mowed down. The thinned and ragged lines, with a valor born 
of desperation, rallied again and again to the charge, but to 
no avail. The batteries on the heights still hurled their missiles 
of death. The field below was covered with the dead and 
wounded of the Southland. 

The gunboats in the river made the battle scene more awe- 
inspiring with their thunderous cannonading. Their heavy 
shells shrieked through the forest, and great limbs were torn 
from the trees as they hurtled by in their outburst of fury. 

Night was falling. The combatants were no longer dis 
tinguishable except by the sheets of flame. It was nine o clock 
before the guns ceased their fire, and only an occasional shot 
rang out over the bloody field of Malvern Hill. 

The courageous though defeated Confederate, looking up 
the next day through the drenching rain to where had stood 
the embrasured wall with its grim batteries and lines of blue, 
that spoke death to so many of his companions-in-arms, saw 
only deserted ramparts. The Union army had retreated in 
the darkness of the night. But this time no foe harassed 
its march. Unmolested, it sought its new camp at Harrison s 
Landing, where it remained until August 3d, when, as Presi 
dent Lincoln had been convinced of the impracticability of 
operating from the James River as a base, orders were issued 
by General Halleck for the withdrawal of the Army of the 
Potomac from the Peninsula. 

The net military result of the Seven Days was a disap 
pointment to the South. Although thankful that the siege of 



338] 





Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 

AVERELL THE COLONEL WHO BLUFFED AN ARMY. 

Colonel W. W. Averell and Staff. This intrepid officer of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry held the Federal 
position on Malvern Hill on the morning of July 2, 1862, with only a small guard, while McClellan com 
pleted the withdrawal of his army to Harrison s Landing. It was his duty to watch the movements of 
the Confederates and hold them back from any attempt to fall upon the retreating trains and troops. A 
dense fog in the early morning shut off the forces of A. P. Hill and Longstreet from his view. He had not 
a single fieldpiece with which to resist attack. When the mist cleared away, he kept up a great activity 
with his cavalry horses, making the Confederates believe that artillery was being brought up. With ap 
parent reluctance he agreed to a truce of two hours in which the Confederates might bury the dead they 
left on the hillside the day before. Later, with an increased show of unwillingness, he extended the truce 
for another two hours. Just before they expired, Frank s Battery arrived to his support, with the news 
that the Army of the Potomac was safe. Colonel Averell rejoined it without the loss of a man. 




ays Gilt? (Emtfrtorate (Capital 



$ 



June 
1862 






Richmond had been raised, the Southern public believed that 
McClellan should not have been allowed to reach the James 
River with his army intact. 

" That army," Eggleston states, " splendidly organized, 
superbly equipped, and strengthened rather than weakened 
in morale, lay securely at rest on the James River, within easy 
striking distance of Richmond. There was no knowing at 
what moment McClellan might hurl it again upon Richmond 
or upon that commanding key to Richmond the Petersburg 
position. In the hands of a capable commander McClellan s 
army would at this time have been a more serious menace than 
ever to the Confederate capital, for it now had an absolutely 
secure and unassailable base of operations, while its fighting 
quality had been improved rather than impaired by its seven 
days of battling." 

General Lee s own official comment on the military prob 
lem involved and the difficulties encountered was: " Under 
ordinary circumstances the Federal army should have been 
destroyed. Its escape was due to the causes already stated. 
Prominent among these is the want of correct and timely in 
formation. This fact, attributable chiefly to the character of 
the country, enabled General McClellan skilfully to conceal his 
retreat and to add much to the obstructions with which nature 
had beset the way of our pursuing columns; but regret that 
more was not accomplished gives way to gratitude to the Sov 
ereign Ruler of the Universe for the results achieved." 

Whatever the outcome of the Seven Days Battle another 
year was to demonstrate beyond question that the wounding 
of General Johnston at Fair Oaks had left the Confederate 
army with an even abler commander. On such a field as Chan- 
cellorsville was to be shown the brilliancy of Lee as leader, and 
his skilful maneuvers leading to the invasion of the North. 
And the succeeding volume will tell, on the other hand, how 
strong and compact a fighting force had been forged from the 
raw militia and volunteers of the North. 

[340] 



L 





OFFICERS OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY 

AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS 

Within a week of the occupation of Harrison s Landing, McClellan s position had become so strong that the Federal commander no 
longer anticipated an attack by the Confederate forces. General Lee saw that his opponent was flanked on each side by a creek and 
that approach to his front was commanded by the guns in the entrenchments and those of the Federal navy in the river. Lee there 
fore deemed it inexpedient to attack, especially as his troops were in poor condition owing to the incessant marching and fighting of the 
Seven Days. Rest was what both armies needed most, and on July 8th the Confederate forces returned to the vicinity of Richmond. 
McClellan scoured the country before he was satisfied of the Confederate withdrawal. The Third and Fourth Pennsylvania cavalry 
made a reconnaisance to Charles City Court House and beyond, and General Averell reported on July llth that there were no Southern 
troops south of the lower Chickahominy. His scouting expeditions extended in the direction of Richmond and up the Chickahominy. 




CHARLES CITY COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA, JULY, 1862 



Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. 





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IH1LDING WINTER QUARTERS 



VI 



ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR 




ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR 

WITH LOSSES ON BOTH SIDES 

DECEMBER, 1860 AUGUST, 1862 



CHRONOLOGICAL summary and record of historical events, and of 
important engagements between the Union and the Confederate 
armies, in the Civil War in the United States, showing troops participating, 
losses and casualties, collated and compiled by George L. Kilmer from the 
official records of the Union and Confederate armies filed in the United 
States War Department. Minor engagements are omitted; also some con 
cerning which statistics, especially Confederate, are not available. 

PRELIMINARY EVENTS FROM THE SECESSION OE SOUTH CAROLINA 
TO THE BOMBARDMENT OE FORT SUMTER. 



DECEMBER, 1860. 

20. Ordinance of Secession adopted by 
South Carolina. 



JANUARY, 1861. 

9. U. S. Steamer Star of the West fired 
upon in Charleston harbor by South 
Carolina troops. 
Mississippi seceded. 

10. Florida seceded. 

11. Alabama seceded. 

19. Georgia seceded. 

26. Louisiana seceded. 



FEBRUARY, 1861. 

1. Texas seceded. 

4. " Confederate States of America " pro 
visionally organized at Montgomery, 
Ala. 

9- Jefferson Davis elected provisional Pres 
ident of the Confederate States of Amer 
ica. 

18. Jefferson Davis inaugurated President 
of the Confederate States at Montgom 
ery, Ala. 

MARCH, 1861. 

4. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President 
of the United States at Washington. 



APRIL, 1861. 

12 and 13. Bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
S. C. Union 1st U. S. Art. Confed. 
S. C. Art. No casualties. 

14. Evacuation of Fort Sumter, S. C., by 
U. S. Losses : Union 1 killed, 5 wounded 
by premature explosion of cannon in 
firing a salute to the United States flag. 

17. Virginia adopted the ordinance of se 
cession, subject to popular vote. 

19. Riots in Baltimore, Md. Union 6th 
Mass., 27th Pa. Baltimoreans, Citizens 
of Baltimore. Losses: Union 4 killed, 
36 wounded. Citizens, 12 killed. 

23. Co. A 8th U. S. Infantry captured at 
San Antonio, Tex., by a company of or 
ganized citizen volunteers. 

[346] 



MAY, 1861. 

6. Arkansas seceded. 

10. Camp Jackson, Mo., occupied by Mo. 
militia, seized by Union 1st, 3d, and 1th 
Mo. Reserve Corps, 3d Mo. Vols. 639 
militiamen taken prisoners. 

11 St. Louis, Mo. Collision of Union 5th 
Mo., U. S. Reserves, with citizens of St. 
Louis. Losses: Union 1 killed. Citizens 
27 killed. 

20. North Carolina seceded. 

24. Col. E. Elmer Ellsworth, llth N. Y. 
Vols., killed by a civilian while removing 
a Southern flag from the roof of the 
Marshall House, Alexandria, Va. 



THE 

THREATENED 
FORT 

Fort Pickens, guard 
ing the entrance to 
Pensacola Bay, 1861. 
Never was a perilous 
position more gallant 
ly held than was Fort 
Pickens by Lieutenant 
A. J. Slemmer and his 
little garrison from 
January to May, 1861. 
A large force of Con 
federates were con 
stantly menacing the 
fort. Slemmer discov 
ered a plot to betray 
the fort into the hands 
of a thousand of them 




on the night of April 
llth. Attempts to 
seize the fort by Con 
federates gathered in 
force for the purpose 
were held off only by 
the timely arrival of 
gunboats with reen- 
forcements from the 
North. All the efforts 
to take Fort Pickens 
failed and it remained 
in the hands of the 
Federals throughout 
the war. In the lower 
picture we see one of 
the powerful Confed 
erate batteries at Fort 
McRee, which fired on 
Pickens from across 
the channel. 



Copyright by Reriew of Rerincx Co. 




Engagement* 0f ify? (Ettril 



JUNE, 1861. 

1. Fairfax C. H., Va. Union, Co. B 2d U. 
S. Cav. Confed., Va. Vols. Losses : 
Union 1 killed, 4 wounded. Confed. I 
killed, 14 wounded. 

3. Philippi, W. Va. Union, 1st W. Va., 
14th and l6th Ohio, 7th and 9th Ind. 
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses : Union 2 
wounded. Confed. 15 killed, wound 
ed (*). 

10. Big Bethel, Va. Union, 1st, 2d, 3d, 
5th, and 7th N. Y., 4th Mass. Detach 
ment of 2d U. S. Artil. Confed., 1st X. 
C., Randolph s Battery, Va. Infantry 
and Cavalry. Losses: Union 16 killed, 
34 wounded. Confed. I killed, 7 
wounded. 

13. Romney, W. Va. Union, llth Ind. 
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses: Union 1 
wounded. Confed. 2 killed, 1 wounded. 
17. Vienna, Va. Union, 1st Ohio. Confed., 
1st S. C. Losses: Union 5 killed, 6 
wounded. Confed. 6 killed. 
Booneville, Mo. Union, 2d Mo. (three 
months ) Volunteers, Detachments 1st, 
Totten s Battery Mo. Light Artil. Con- 
fed., Mo. Militia. Losses: Union 3 
killed, 8 wounded. Confed. (*). 
Edwards Ferry, Md. Union, 1st Pa. 
Confed., Va. Vols. Losses: Union 1 
killed, 4 wounded. Confed. 15 killed. 
Patterson Creek or Kelley s Island, Va. 
Union, llth Ind. Confed., Va. Vols. 
Losses: Union 1 killed, 1 wounded. 
Confed. 7 killed, 2 wounded. 
Mathias Point, Va. Union, Gunboats 
Pawnee and Freeborn. Confed., Va. 
Vols. Losses: Union 1 killed, 4 
wounded. 

JULY, 1861. 

2. Falling Waters, Md., also called 
Haynesville or Martinsburg, Md. Union, 
1st Wis., llth Pa. Confed., Va. Vols. 
Losses: Union 8 killed, 15 wounded. 
Confed. 31 killed, 50 wounded. 
Carthage or Dry Forks, Mo. Union, 
3d and 5th Mo., one battery of Mo. 
Artil. Confed., Mo. State Guard. Losses : 
Union 13 killed, 31 wounded. Confed. 
30 killed, 125 wounded, 45 prisoners. 
-Newport Xews, Va. Union, 1 Co. 9th 
N. Y. Confed., Stanard s Va. , Battery, 
La. Battalion, Crescent Rifles, Collins 



26. 



27. 



5 



* No record found. 
[348] 



Cav. Troop. Losses: Union 6 wounded. 

Confed. 2 killed, 1 wounded. 
6. Middle Creek Fork or Buckhannon, W. 

Va. Union, One Co. 3d Ohio. Confed., 

25th Va. Losses: Union 1 killed, 6 

wounded. Confed. 7 killed. 
7. Great Falls, Md. Losses: Union 2 

killed. Confed. 12 killed. 
10 Laurel Hill or Bealington, W. Va. 

Union, 14th Ohio, 9th Ind. Confed., 

20th Va. Losses: Union 2 killed, 6 

wounded. 
10. Monroe Station, Mo. Losses: Union 3 

killed. Confed. 4 killed, 20 wounded, 

75 prisoners. 
11. Rich Mountain, W. Va. Union, 8th, 

10th, and 13th Ind., 19th Ohio. Con- 
fed., Gen. Jno. C. Pegram s command. 

Losses: Union 11 killed, 35 wounded. 

Confed. 60 killed, 1 10 wounded, 100 

prisoners. 
13 Carrick s Ford, W. Va. Union, Gen. 

Geo. B. McClellan s command. Con- 
fed., Gen. R. E. Lee s command. Losses: 

Union 13 killed, 40 wounded. Confed. 

20 killed, 10 wounded, 50 prisoners. 

Confed, Gen. R. S. Garnett killed. 
16. Millsville or Wentzville, Mo. Losses: 

Union 7 killed, 1 wounded. Confed. 7 
killed. 

17. Fulton, Mo. Losses: Union 1 killed, 15 
wounded. 

Scarey Creek, W. Va. Losses: Union 
9 killed, 38 wounded. 

Martinsburg, Mo. Losses: Union 1 
killed, 1 wounded. 

18. Blackburn s Ford, Va. Union, 1st Mass., 
2d and 3d Mich., 12th N. Y., Detachment 
of 2d U. S. Cav., Battery E 3d U. S. 
Artil. Confed., 5th, llth N. C., 2d, 3d, 
7th S. C., 1st, 7th, llth, 17th, 24th Va., 
7th La., 13th Miss. Losses: Union 19 
killed, 38 wounded. Confed. 15 killed, 
53 wounded. 

21 Bull Run or Manassas, Va. Union, 2d 
Me., 2d N. H., 2d Vt., 1st, 4th, and 5th 
Mass., 1st and 2d R. I., 1st, 2d, and 3d 
Conn., 8th, llth, 12th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 
27th, 29th, 31st, 32d, 35th, 38th, and 
39th N. Y., 2d, 8th, 14th, 69th, 71st, and 
79th N. Y. Militia, 27th Pa., 1st, 2d, 
and 3d Mich., 1st and 2d Minn., 2d Wis., 
1st and 2d Ohio, Detachments of 2d, 3d, 
and 8th U. S. Regulars, Battalion of 
Marines, Batteries D, E, G, and M, 2d 




MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON AND FAMILY 

This Federal major of artillery was summoned on April 11, 1861, to surrender 
Fort Sumter and the property of the government whose uniform he wore. 
At half-past four the following morning the boom of the first gun from Fort 
Johnson in Charleston Harbor notified the breathless, waiting world that 
war was on. The flag had been fired on, and hundreds of thousands of lives 
were to be sacrificed ere the echoes of the great guns died away at the end of 
four years into the sobs of a nation whose best and bravest, North and South, 
had strewn the many battlefields. No wonder that the attention of the civil 
ized world was focussed on the man who provoked the first blow in the great 
est conflict the world has ever known. He was the man who handled the 
situation at the breaking point. To him the North looked to preserve the 
Federal property in Charleston Harbor, and the honor of the National flag. 
The action of the South depended upon his decision. He played the part of 
a true soldier, and two days after the first shot was fired he led his little gar 
rison of the First United States Artillery out of Sumter with the honors of war. 



Engagements 0f tlje QKtrtl War 



U. S. Artil., Battery E, 3d Artil., Battery 
D, 5th Artil., 2d R. I. Battery, Detach 
ments of 1st and 2d Dragoons. Confed., 
6th, 7th, 8th La., 7th, 8th Ga., 1st Ark., 
2d, 3d Tenn., 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th; 7th, 8th 
S. C., Hampton s Legion, 5th, 6th, llth 
N. C., 1st Md., 2d, llth, 13th, 17th, 18th 
Miss., 4th, 5th, 6th Ala., 1st, 2d, 4th, 
5th, 7th, 8th, 10th, llth, 13th, 17th, 18th, 
19th, 24th, 27th, 28th, 33d, 49th Va., 1st, 
30th Va. Cavalry, Harrison s Battalion. 
Losses: Union 481 killed, 1,011 wound 
ed, 1,210 missing and captured. Confed. 
387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing. 
Confed. Brig.-Gens. Bee and Bartow 
killed. 

22. Forsyth, Mo. Losses : Union 3 wounded. 
Confed. 5 killed, 10 wounded. 

24. Blue Mills, Mo. Losses: Union I killed, 
12 wounded. 

26. Lane s Prairie, near Rolla, Mo. Losses: 
Union 3 wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 3 
wounded. 

27. P ort Fillmore and San Augustine 
Springs, N. Mex. 7th U. S. Inft. and 
3d U. S. Mounted Rifles, in all 400 men, 
captured by Confederates commanded 
by Col. John R. Baylor. 

AUGUST, 1861. 

2. Dug Springs, Mo. Union, Steele s Bat 
talion, 2d U. S. Infantry, Stanley s Cav. 
Troop, Totten s Battery. Confed., 
Rains Mo. State Guard. Losses: 
Union 4 killed, 37 wounded. Confed. 
40 killed, 41 wounded. 

5. Athens, Mo. Union, Home Guards, 
21st Mo. Vol. Confed. (*). Losses: 
Union 3 killed, 8 wounded. Confed. 14 
killed, 14 wounded. 

Point of Rocks, Md. Union, 28th 
N. Y. Confed. (*) Losses: Confed. 3 
killed, 2 wounded. 

7. Hampton, Va. Union, 20th N. Y. 
Losses: Confed. 3 killed, 6 wounded. 

8. Lovettsville, Va. Union, 19th N. Y. 

Losses : Confed. 1 killed, 5 wounded. 
10. Wilson s Creek, Mo., also called Spring 
field and Oak Hill. Union, 6th and 10th 
Mo. Cav., 2d Kan. Mounted Vols., one 
Co. of 1st U. S. Cav., 1st la., 1st Kan., 
1st, 2d, 3d, and 5th Mo., Detachments of 
1st and 2d U. S. Regulars, Mo. Home 
Guards, 1st Mo. Light Artil., Battery 



F 2d U. S. Artil. Confed., 1st, 3d, 4th, 
5th Mo.. State Guard, Graves Infantry, 
Bledsoe s Battery, Cawthorn s Brigade, 
Kelly s Infantry, Brown s Cavalry, Bur- 
bridge s Infantry, 1st Cavalry, Hughes , 
Thornton s, Wingo s, Foster s Infantry, 
Rives , Campbell s Cavalry, 3d, 4th, 5th 
Ark., 1st Cavalry, Woodruff s, Reid s 
Battery, 1st, 2d Mounted Riflemen, 
South Kansas-Texas Mounted Regiment, 
3d La. Losses: Union 223 killed, 721 
wounded, 291 missing. Confed. 265 
killed, 800 wounded, 30 missing. Union 
Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon killed. 
Potosi, Mo. Union, Mo. Home 
Guards. Losses : Union 1 killed. Con- 
fed. 2 killed, 3 wounded. 

17. Brunswick, Mo. Union, 5th Mo. Re 
serves. Losses : Union I killed, 7 
wounded. 

19. Charleston or Bird s Point, Mo. 
Losses: Union 1 killed, 6 wounded. 
Confed. 40 killed. 

20 Hawk s Nest, W. Va. Losses: Union 3 
wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 3 wounded. 

26. Cross Lanes or Summerville, W. Va. 
Losses: Union 5 killed, 40 wounded, 
200 captured. 

27. Ball s Cross Roads, Va. Losses: Union 
1 killed, 2 wounded. 

28 and 29. Fort Hatteras, ,N. C. Union, 9th, 
20th, and 89th N. Y. and Naval force. 
Confed. North Carolina troops under 
Col. W. F. Martin. Losses: Union I 
killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 5 killed, 51 
wounded, 715 prisoners. 

31. Munson s Hill, Va. Losses: Union 2 
killed, 2 wounded. 

SEPTEMBER, 1861. 

1. Bennett s Mills, Mo. Losses: Union 1 

killed, 8 wounded. 

2. Dallas, Mo. Losses: Union 2 killed. 
Dry Wood or Ft. Scott, Mo. Losses: 
Union 4 killed, 9 wounded. 

10. Carnifex Ferry, W. Va. Union, 9th, 
10th, 12th, 13th, 28th, and 47th Ohio. 
Confed., Gen. J. B. Floyd s command. 
Losses: Union 17 killed, 141 wounded. 
Confed. (*). 

11. Lewinsville, Va. Union, 19th Ind., 3d 
Vt., 79th N. Y., 1st U. S. Chasseurs, 
Griffin s Battery, detachment of Cav 
alry. Confed., 13th Va., Rosser s Bat- 



* No record found. 
[350] 





THE LAST LETTER 



COLONEL EPHRAIM ELMER ELLSWORTH 



One of the I A irst to Fall. The shooting of this young patriot profoundly shocked and stirred the Federals at the opening of the 
war. Colonel Ellsworth had organized a Zouave regiment in Chicago, and in April, 1861, he organized another from the Fire De 
partment in New York City. Colonel Ellsworth, on May 24, 1861, led his Fire Zouaves to Alexandria, Virginia, seized the city, and with 
his own hands pulled down a Southern flag floating over the Marshall House. Descending the stairs with the flag in his hand, he 
cried, "Behold my trophy!" "Behold mine!" came the reply from the proprietor of the hotel, James T. Jackson, as he emptied 
a shotgun into Ellsworth s breast. Jackson was immediately shot dead by Private Brownell. 




Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co. 

MARSHALL HOUSE. ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA, 1861 



0f Oltuil 



tery, detachments of Cavalry. Losses: 
Union 6 killed, 8 wounded. 

12 and 13. Cheat Mountain, W. Va. Union, 
1 3th, 14th, 15th, and 17th Ind., 3d, 6th, 
24-th, and 25th Ohio, 2d W. Va. Confed., 
Va. Vols. commanded by Gen. W. W. 
Loring. Losses: Union 9 killed, 12 
wounded, 60 missing. Confed. (*). 

12 to 20. Lexington, Mo. Union, 23d 111., 
8th, 25th, and 27th Mo., 13th and 1 1th 
Mo. Home Guards, Berry s and Van 
Home s Mo. Cav., 1st 111. Cav. Confed., 
Parsons and Rains Divisions, Bledsoe s, 
Churchill s, Guibor s, Kelly s, Kneisley s 
and Clark s batteries. Losses: Union 42 
killed, 108 wounded, 1,624 missing 
and captured. Confed. 25 killed, 75 
wonnded. 

13. Booneville, Mo. Union, Mo. Home 
Guards. Confed., Gen. Price s Mo. 
State Guard. Losses: Union 1 killed, 
4 wounded. Confed. 12 killed, 30 
woundt (1. 

14. Confederate Privateer Judah destroyed 
near Pensacola, Fla., by the U. S. Flag 
ship Colorado. Losses: Union 3 killed, 
1 5 wounded. 

15. Pritchard s Mills, Md., or Darnestown, 
Md. Union, detachments 13th Mass., 
28th Pa., 9th N. Y. Battery. Confed* 
Losses: Union 1 killed, 3 wounded. 
Confed. (estimate) 18 killed, 25 wounded. 

17. Morristown, Mo. Union, 5th, 6th, 9th 
Kan. Cav., 1st Kan. Battery. Confed.* 
Losses: Union 2 killed, 6 wounded. 
Confed. 7 killed. 

Blue Mills, Mo. Union, 3d la. Con- 
fed., Mo. State Guard. Losses: Union 
11 killed, 39 wounded. Confed. 12 
killed, 63 wounded. 

19. Barboursville, Ky. Union, Ky. Home 
Guards. Confed., Gen. F. K. Zollicof- 
fer s brigade. Losses: Union 1 killed, 
1 wounded. Confed. 2 killed, 3 
wounded. 

23. Ilomney or Hanging Rock, W. Va. 
Union, 4th and 8th Ohio. Confed., 77th 
and 114th Va., 1 battery Art. Losses: 
Union 3 killed, 50 wounded. Confed. 
35 killed. 

25. Kanawha Gap, W. Va. Union, 1st Ky., 
34th Ohio. Confed.* Losses: Union 4 
killed, 9 wounded. Confed. 20 killed, 
50 wounded. 



25 and 27. Alamosa, near Ft. Craig, N. Mex. 
Union, Capt. Mink s Cavalry. Confed., 
Capt. Coopwood s Tex. Scouts. Losses: 
Union.* Confed. 2 killed, 8 wounded. 

OCTOBER, 1861. 

3. Greenbrier, W. Va. Union, 24th, 25th, 
and 32d Ohio, 7th, 9th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 
and 17th Ind., Battery G, 4th U. S. 
Artil., Battery A 1st Mich. Artil. Con- 
fed., Va. Vols. of Gen. W. W. Loring s 
command. Losses: Union 8 killed, 32 
wounded. Confed. 100 killed, 75 
wounded. 

9. Santa Rosa, Fla. Union, 6th N. Y., Co. 
A 1st U. S. Artil., Co. H 2d U. S. Artil., 
Co. s C and E 3d U. S. Inft. Confed., 
9th and 10th Miss., 1st Ala., 1st Fla. and 
5th Ga. Losses: Union 14 killed,- 29 
wounded. Confed. 17 killed, 39 
wounded, 30 captured. 

13. Wet Glaze, or Monday s Hollow, Mo. 
Union, 13th 111., 1st Mo. Battalion, Fre 
mont Battalion, Mo. Cav. Confed.* 
Losses: Confed. 67 killed (estimate). 

14. Underwood s Farm (12 miles from 
Bird s Point), Mo. Union, 1st 111. 
Cav. Confed., 1st Miss. Cav. Losses: 
Union 2 killed, 5 wounded. Confed. 1 
killed, 2 wounded. 

** Big River Bridge, near Potosi, Mo. 
Union, 40 men of the 38th 111. Confed., 
2d, 3d Miss. Cav. Losses: Union 1 
killed, 6 wounded, 33 captured. Con- 
fed. 5 killed, 4 wounded. 

16. Bolivar Heights, Va. Union, detach 
ments of 28th Pa., 3d Wis. and 6th 
Mo. Cavalry. Confed., detachments 
commanded by Col. Turner Ashby. 
Losses: Union 4 killed, 7 wounded. 

17 to 21. Frederiektown and Ironton, Mo. 
Union, 21st, 33d, and 38th 111., 8th Wis., 
1st Ind. Cav., Co. A 1st Mo. Light 
Artil. Confed., Mo. State Guard. 
Losses: Union 7 killed, 41 wounded. 
Confed. 200 killed, wounded, and miss 
ing (estimate). 

21. Ball s Bluff, also called Edwards Fer 
ry, Harrison s Landing, Leesburg, Va. 
Union, 15th, 20th Mass., 40th N. Y., 71st 
Pa., Battery I, 1st U. S., B, R. I. Artil. 
Confed., 13th, 17th, 18th Miss., 8th Va., 
3 co. s Va. Cavalry. Losses: Union 
49 killed, 158 wounded, and 714 missing. 



* Xo record found. 




Copt/right by Review of Reviews Co. 

A WESTERN LEADER MAJOR-GENERAL FRANK P. BLAIR, JR., AND STAFF 

One of the most interesting characters in Missouri at the outbreak of the war was Frank P. Blair, Jr., of St. 
Louis, a Member of Congress. When Governor Jackson refused to obey President Lincoln s proclamation 
and call out troops, Mr. Blair immediately raised a regiment of three-months men (the First Missouri Infan 
try) which later became the First Missouri Light Artillery. The First Missouri, under Colonel Blair, assisted 
Captain Lyon, LL S. A., in the capture of Camp Jackson, May 10, 1801. When, through Blair s influence, 
Lyon was made brigadier-general and placed in command of the Federal forces in Missouri, Governor 
Jackson and General Sterling Price at once ordered the militia to prepare itself for service on the Southern 
side, knowing that Lyon and Blair would quickly attack them. The First Missouri regiment accompanied 
General Lyon when he went to Booneville and dispersed over a thousand volunteers who had gathered 
there to enlist under the Confederacy, June 17th. This affair at Booneville practically made it impossible 
for Missouri to secede from the Union. Colonel Blair was promoted to brigadier-general in August, 1862, 
and was made major-general the following November. 

(This photograph was taken when General Blair was at the head of the Seventeenth Army Corps in 1864-65. The composition of 
his staff was announced November 9, 1864, from Smyrna Camp Ground, Georgia. In the picture the general is seated in the armchair; 
on his right is Assistant Inspector-General A. Hickenlooper; on his left Assistant Adjutant-General C. Cadle, Jr. Standing are three 
of his aides-de-camp: from right to left, Logan Tompkins, William Henley, and G. R. Steele.) 



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(ttttril War 



Mo., 22d Ind., 1st la. Cav., Detach. 4th 
U. S. Cav., 1st Mo. Cav., 2 Batteries of 
1st Mo. Lt. Artil. Confed., Rains Divi 
sion. Losses : Union 2 killed, 8 wounded. 
Confed. 1,300 captured. 

20. Drainesville, Va. Union, 1st Rifles, 6th, 
9th, 10th and 12th Infty., 1st Artil., 1st 
Cav. Pa. Reserves. Confed., 1st Ky., 
10th Ala., 6th S. C., llth Va., Cutt s 
Art. Losses: Union 7 killed, 6l wound 
ed. Confed. 43 killed, 143 wounded. 

28. Sacramento, Ky. Union, 3d Ky. Cav. 
Confed., Forrest s Tenn. Cav. Losses : 
Union 8 killed, 8 captured. Confed. 2 
killed, 3 wounded. 

Mt. Zion and Hallsville, Mo. Union, 
Birge s Sharpshooters, 3d Mo. Cav. 
Confed.* Losses: Union 5 killed, 
wounded. Confed. 25 
wounded. 



FEBRUARY, 1862. 



killed, 150 



JANUARY, 1862. 

4. Bath, Va. Union, 39th 111. Confed., 
Col. Loring s command. Losses : Union 

3 killed, 3 wounded, 8 captured. Confed. 

4 wounded. 

7. Hanging Rock Pass, Va. Union, parts 
of the 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th Ohio, 14th Ind., 
detachments of cavalry, Baker s and 
Daum s batteries. Confed., Col. Mon 
roe s Va. Vols. Losses: Confed. 15 
killed. 

8. Charleston, Mo. Union, 10th la., 20th 
111., detachment Tenn. Cav. Confed.* 
Losses: Union 8 killed, 16 wounded. 

10. Middle Creek, near Paintsville, Ky. 
Union, 14th, 22d Ky., 2d Va. Cav., 1st 
Ky. Cav., Squadron Ohio Cav. 
5th Ky., 29th, 54th Va., Ky. 
Rifles, 2 cos. dismounted Cav. 
Union 2 killed, 25 wounded. 
11 killed, 15 wounded. 

19 and 20. Mill Springs, Ky., also called 
Logan s Cross Roads, Fishing Creek, 
Somerset and Beech Grove. Union, 9th 
Ohio, 2d Minn., 4th Ky., 10th Ind., 1st 
Ky. Cav. Confed., 17th, 19th, 20th, 
25th, 28th, 29th Tenn., 16th Ala., 15th 
Miss., Saunder s Cavalry, Bledsoe s Bat 
tery. Losses: Union 38 killed, 194 
wounded. Confed. 190 killed, 160 
wounded. Confed. Gen. F. K. Zolli- 
coffer killed. 



C. Fort Henry, Tenn. Union, Gunboats 
Essex, Carondelet, St. Louis, Cincinnati, 
Conestoga, Tyler, and Lexington. Con- 
fed., 10th, 48th, 51st Tenn., 15th Ark., 
4th Miss., 27th Ala., B. 1st Tenn. Art. 
Culbertson s and Grain s Art., Milner s 
and Milton s Cavalry. Losses: Union 
40 wounded. Confed. 5 killed, 1 1 
wounded. 

8. Roanoke Island, N. C. Union, 21st, 
23d, 24th, 25th and 27th Mass., 10th 
Conn., 9th, 51st, and 53d N. Y., 9th N. 
J., 51st Pa., 4th and 5th R. I., U. S. 
Gunboats Southfield, Delaware, Stars and 
Stripes, Louisiana, Iletzel, Commodore 
Perry, Underwriter, Valley City, Com 
modore Barney, Hunchback, Ceres, 
Putnam, Morse, Lockwood, Seymour, 
Granite, Brinker, Whitehead, Shawseen, 
Pickett, Pioneer, Hussar, Vidette, Chas 
seur. Confed., 2d, 7th, 8th, 17th, 19th, 
26th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 33d, 35th, 37th, 
46th, 59th N. C., Brem s, Latham s, 
Whitehnrst s N. C. Art., Gunboats Sea- 
bird, Curlew, Ellis, Beaufort, Raleigh, 
Fanny, Forrest. Losses : Union 35 
killed, 200 wounded. Confed. 16 killed, 
39 wounded, 2,527 taken prisoners. 

10. Elizabeth City, or Cobb s Point, N. C. 
Union, Gunboats Delaware, Underwriter, 
Louisiana, Seymour, Iletzel, Shawseen, 
Valley City, Putnam, Commodore Perry, 
Ceres, Morse, Whitehead, and Brinker. 
Confed., " Mosquito fleet " commanded 
by Commodore W. F. Lynch, and com 
prising the vessels engaged at Roanoke 
Island on the 8th, except the Curlew. 
Losses : Union 3 killed. 

13. Bloomery Gap, Va. Union, Gen. Lan 
der s Brigade. Confed., 31st, 67th, 
89th Va. Losses: Union 11 killed, 5 
wounded. Confed. 13 killed, 65 miss 
ing. 

14-16. Fort Donelson, or Dover, Tenn. 
Union, Gunboats Carondelet, Pittsburgh, 
Louisville, St. Louis, Tyler, and Cones- 
toga, 17th and 25th Ky., llth, 25th, 
31st, and 44th Ind., 2d/ 7th, 12th and 
14th Iowa, 1st Neb., 58th and 76th Ohio, 
8th and 1 3th Mo., 8th Wis., 8th, 9th, 1 1th, 
12th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 
31st, 41st, 45th, 46th, 48th, 49th, 57th, 
and 58th 111., Batteries B and D 1st 111. 
* No record found. 
[356] 



Confed., 

Mounted 

Losses : 

Confed. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 

THE 10-INCH COLUMBIAD AT FORT WALKER, HILTON HEAD, SOUTH CAROLINA 



The Capture of the Confederate forts at Port Royal, South Caro 
lina. On the 29th of October, 1801, there sailed from Hampton 
Roads the most formidable squadron ever fitted out in American 
waters men-of-war commanded by Flag-Officer Samuel F. Du- 
Pont in the W abash, and army transports with a force of twelve 
thousand men under General Thomas W. Sherman, bound for 
Port Royal Harbor, twenty 
miles north of the mouth of 
the Savannah River. On No 
vember 1st, off Hatteras, a 
severe gale was encountered and 
for a time the fleet was much 
scattered, but by the 4th it 
was again united at the bar 
outside Port Royal Harbor over 
which the W abash led the way. 
The harbor fortifications which 
had been erected by the 
Confederates were no small 
affairs. Fort Walker on Hilton 
Head Island was two miles and 
a half across the entrance from 
Fort Beauregard. Each had at FERRY ACROSS THE 



least twenty guns of different caliber. On November 7th the 
Federal fleet attacked in close action. The men on shore were 
scarcely able to reply to the terrific broadsides of the main 
body of the big fleet as it passed back and forth through 
the harbor entrance, while other vessels outside enfiladed 
the forts. At the third round of the ships the Confed 
erates could be seen leaving 
Fort Walker and before half- 
past two in the afternoon Com 
mander Rodgers had planted the 
Federal flag on the ramparts. 
Before sunset Fort Beauregard 
was likewise deserted. This 
victory placed in possession of 
the North one of the finest 
harbors of the Southern coast. 
In the lower picture we see the 
ferry over the Coosaw River, 
near Port Royal, showing on 
the opposite shore the site of 
the Confederate batteries seized 
and demolished by General I. I. 
COOSAW, PORT ROYAL Stevens, January 1, 1862. 




0f tl}? (Ettril Har 



Art., D and E 2d 111. Artil., four cos. 
111. Cav., Birge s Sharpshooters and six 
gunboats. Con fed., 2d, 8th Ky., 1st, 3d, 
4th, 20th, 26th Miss., 27th Ala., 3d, 
10th, 18th, 26th, 30th, 42d, 48th, 49th, 
50th, 53d Tenn., 7th Tex., 15th Ark., 
36th, 50th, 51st, 56th Va., Forrest s Cav 
alry, 9th Tenn. Battalion Colm s Bat 
talion. Losses: Union 500 killed, 2,108 
wounded, 224 missing. Con fed. 231 
killed, 1,534 wounded, 13,829 prisoners 
(estimated). Union Maj.-Gen. John A. 
Logan wounded. 

17. Sugar Creek, or Pea Ridge, Ark. Union, 
1st, 6th Mo., 3d 111. Cav. Confed., Bow- 
en s Mo. Battalion. Losses: Union 13 
killed, 15 wounded. 

21. Ft. Craig, or Valverde, N. Mex. Union, 
1st N. Mex. Cav., 2d Col. Cav., Detach 
ments of 1st, 2d, and 5th N. Mex., and 
of 5th, 7th, and 10th U. S. Inft., Hill s 
and McRae s Batteries. Confed., 2d, 
4th, 5th, 7th Tex. Cavalry, Teel s Art. 
Losses: Union 62 killed, 140 wounded. 
Confed. 36 killed, 150 wounded. 

26. Keetsville, Mo. Union, 6th Mo. Cav. 
Confed., Ross Texas Rangers. Losses: 
Union 2 killed, 1 wounded. Confed. 3 
killed, 1 missing. 



MARCH, 1862. 

1. Pittsburg Landing, Tenn. Union, 32d 
111. and U. S. Gunboats Lexington and 
Tyler. Confed., Gen. Daniel Ruggles 
command. Losses: Union 5 killed, 5 
wounded. Confed. 20 killed, 200 
wounded. 

6, 7, and 8. Pea Ridge, Ark., including 
engagements at Bentonville, Leetown, 
and Elkhorn Tavern. Union, 25th, 35th, 
36th, 37th, 44th, and 59th 111., 2d, 3d, 
12th, 15th, 17th, 24th, and Phelps Mo., 
8th, 18th, and 22d Ind., 4th and 9th Iowa, 
3d Iowa Cav., 3d and 15th 111. Cav., 1st, 
4th, 5th, and 6th Mo. Cav., Batteries B 
and F 2d Mo. Light Artil., 2d Ohio Bat 
tery, 1st Ind. Battery, Battery A 2d 111. 
Artil. Confed., 1st, 2d Mo. State Guard, 
Greene s Brigade, 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 
6th Mo., 4th, 14th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 21st, 
22d Ark., 1st, 2d Ark. Mounted Rifles, 
3d La., 3 Indian regiments, Wade s, Gui- 
bor s, Bledsoe s, Teel s, Clark s, MacDon- 
ald s, Hart s, Provence s, Games and 
Good s batteries, 1st Mo. Cavalry, Shel- 



[358] 



by s Cavalry, 3d, 4th, 6th, llth Tex. 
Cavalry. Losses: Union 203 killed, 972 
wounded, 174 missing. Confed. 800 to 
1,000 killed and wounded, 200 to 300 
missing and captured (estimated). 
Union Brig.-Gen. Asboth and Actg. 
Brig.-Gen. Carr wounded. Confed. 
Brig.-Gen. B. McCulloch and Actg. 
Brig.-Gen. James Mclntosh killed. 
8. Near Nashville, Tenn. Union, 4th Ohio 
Cav. Confed., Morgan s Ky. Cav. 
Losses: Union 1 killed, 2 wounded. 
Confed. 4 killed, 2 wounded. 
Hampton Roads, Va. Union, 20th 
Ind., 7th and llth N. Y., Gunboats 
Minnesota, Congress, Zouave, and Cum 
berland. Confed., Ram Virginia (Merri- 
mac}. Losses: Union 261 killed, 108 
wounded. Confed. 1 killed, 17 wounded. 
Confed. Commodore Buchanan, wounded. 
9. Hampton Roads, Va. First battle be 
tween iron-clad warships. Union, The 
Monitor. Confed., Ram Virginia. Losses: 
Union Capt. J. L. Worden, wounded. 
14. Jacksborough, Big Creek Gap, Tenn. 
Union, 2d E. Tenn. Confed., 1st E. 
Tenn. Cav. Losses: Union 2 wounded. 
Confed. 5 killed, 15 wounded, 15 miss 
ing. 

11- Paris, Tenn. Union, 1 Battalion 5th 
la. Cav., Bulliss Mo. Art. Confed., 
King s Mounted Rifles. Losses: Union 
5 killed, 3 wounded. Confed. 10 
wounded. 

13-14. New Madrid, Mo. Bombardment 
and capture by Gen. Jno. Pope s com 
mand. Union, 10th and 16th 111., 27th, 
39th, 43d, and 63d Ohio, 3d Mich. 
Cav., 1st U. S. Inft., Bissell s Mo. En- 
gineers. Confed., 1st Ala., 40th C. S., 
46th, 55th Tenn., Heavy Art. Corps. 
Losses: Union 51 wounded. Confed. 
100 wounded. 

14. Newberne, N. C. Union, 51st N. Y., 8th, 
10th, and llth Conn., 21st, 23d, 24th, 
25th, and 27th Mass., 9th N. J., 51st 
Pa., 4th and 5th R. I. Confed., 7th, 
26th, 33d, 35th N. C. Losses: Union 
91 killed, 466 wounded. Confed. 64 
killed, 106 wounded, 413 captured. 
16 Pound Gap, Tenn. Union, Detachs. of 
22d Ky., 4()th and 42d Ohio Vols., and 
1 st Ohio Cav. Confed., 2 1 st Va. Losses : 
Confed. 7 killed. 

18. Salem, or Spring River, Ark. U 
Detachments 6th Mo., 3d la. 



nion, 
Cav. 




Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



THE GARDEN OF A SOUTHERN MANSION 

Here we see the garden of the manor house of John E. Seabrook on Edisto Island, off the Carolina coast. It is now in possession of 
the Federal troops, but the fine old house was unharmed, and the garden, although not in luxuriant bloom, gives an idea of its own 
beauty. In the distance are seen the slave quarters, and some of the old plantation servants have mingled with the troops when the 
picture was being taken. Observe the little colored boy saluting on the pedestal against which leans a Federal officer. 




THE SOUTHERN NAVAL BASE OF THE BLOCKADING SQUADRON OF THE NORTH 

The Transformation Wrought at Hilton Head by the Naval Engineers. Hilton Head became the base of supplies and the most im 
portant part of the blockade, for it was within a few hours steaming of the ports of entry that the South depended upon in gaining 
supplies from the outer world, Savannah, Charleston, and Wilmington. After the Federal occupation it was turned into a busy 
place. Colliers were constantly landing and supplies of all kinds being sent out from here to the blockading vessels kept at sea. 



Engagements of % (Bttrtl War 



Confed* Losses: Union 4 killed, 18 
wounded. Confed. 100 killed, wounded, 
and missing (estimated). 

23. Independence or Little Santa Fe, Mo. 
Union, 2d Kan. Cav. Confed., Quan- 
trell s Irregulars. Losses: Union 1 
killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 7 killed. 

33. Winchester or Kearnstown, Va. Union, 
1st W. Va., 84th and 1 10th Pa., 5th, 7th, 
8th, 29th, 62d, and 67th Ohio, 7th, 13th, 
and 14th Ind., 39th 111., 1st Ohio Cav., 
1st Mich. Cav., 1st W. Va. Artil., 1st 
Ohio Artil., Co. E 4th U. S. Artil. Con- 
fed., 2d, 4th, 5th, 21st, 23d, 27th, 33d, 
37th, 42d Va. 1st Va. (Irish) Battalion, 
Pleasant s, Chew s, Lanier s Va. bat 
teries, 7th Va. Cavalry. Losses: Union 
103 killed, 440 wounded, 24 missing. 
Confed. 80 killed 342 wounded, 269 
prisoners. 

26. Humansville, Mo. Union, Battalion Mo. 
Cav. Confed., Col. Frazier s command. 
Losses: Union 12 wounded. Confed. 
15 killed, 20 wounded. 

26, 27, and 28. Apache Canon, or Glori- 
etta, near Santa Fe, N. Mex. Union, 
1st and 2d Colo. Cav. Confed., 2d, 4th, 
5th, and 7th Tex. Cavalry, Teel s Art. 
Losses : Union 32 killed, 75 wounded, 35 
missing. Confed. 36 killed, 60 wounded, 
93 missing. 

28. Warrensburg, Mo. Union, 1st la. Cav. 
Confed., Col. Parker s command. Losses : 
Union 1 killed, 2 wounded. Confed. 15 
killed and wounded, 15 missing. 

APRIL, 1862. 

5. Warwick and Yorktown Roads, Va. 
Union, Advance of 4th Corps, Army of 
Potomac, towards Yorktown. Confed. 
Gen. ,1. B. Magruder s command. 
Losses : Union 3 killed, 12 wounded. 
Confed. 1 killed, 10 wounded. 

5-May 4. Siege of Yorktown, Va. Union, 
Army of Potomac, Gen. Gco. B. Mc- 
Clellan. Confed., Army commanded by 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnstoi 

6 and 7. Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, 
Tenn. Union, Army of Western Tennes 
see, commanded by Ma j. -Gen. U. S. 
Grant, as follows: 1st Div., Maj.-Gen. 
J. A. McClernand; 2d Div., Maj.-Gen. 
C. F. Smith; 3d Div., Brig.-Gen. Lew 
Wallace; 4th Div., Brig.-Gen. S. A. Hurl- 



burt; 5th Div., Brig.-Gen. W. T. Sher 
man; 6th Div., Brig.-Gen. B. M. Pren- 
tiss. Army of the Ohio commanded by 
Maj.-Gen. D. C. Buell, as follows: 2d 
Div., Brig.-Gen. A. McD. Cook; 4th 
Div., Brig.-Gen. W. Nelson; 5th Div., 
Brig.-Gen. T. L. Crittenden, 21st Brig 
ade of the 6th Div., Gunboats Tyler and 
Lexington. Confed., Army of the Mis 
sissippi, commanded by Gen. Albert Sid 
ney Johnston, as follows: 1st Corps, 
Maj.-Gen. Leonidas Polk; 2d Corps, 
Maj.-Gen. Braxton Bragg; 3d Corps, 
Maj.-Gen. Wm. J. Hardee; Reserve 
Corps, Brig.-Gen. John C. Breckinridge; 
Forrest s, Wharton s and Clanton s Cav 
alry. Losses: Union 1,754 killed, 8,408 
wounded, 2,885 captured. Confed. 1,728 
killed, 8,012 wounded, 959 captured. 
Union Brig.-Gen. W. T. Sherman and 
W. H. L. Wallace wounded arid B. M. 
Prentiss captured. Confed. Gen. A. S. 
Johnston and Brig.-Gen. A. H. Gladden 
killed; Maj.-Gen. W. S. Cheatham and 
Brig.-Gens. C. Clark, B. R. Johnson, 
and J. S. Bowen wounded. 
7 and 8. Island No. 10, Tenn., captured. 
Union, Maj.-Gen. Pope s command and 
the Navy, under Flag-officer Foote. 
Confed., Brigade of Infantry and Bat 
talion Art., commanded by Gen. J. P. 
McCown, 7 gunboats, imder Flag-officer 
Hollins. Losses: Union 17 killed, 34 
wounded, 3 missing. Confed. 30 killed 
and wounded. Captured, 2,000 to 5,000 
(Union and Confed. estimates). 
10 and 11. Ft. Pulaski, Ga., Siege and cap 
ture. Union, 6th and 7th Conn., 3d R. 
L, 46th and 48th N. Y., 8th Maine, 15th 
U. S. Inft., Crew of U. S. S. Wabash. 
Confed., 5 companies heavy art., com 
manded by Col. C. H. Olmstead. Losses: 
Union 1 killed. Confed. 4 wounded, 360 
prisoners. 

14. Montevallo, Mo. Union, 2 cos. 1st 
Iowa Cav. Confed.* Losses: Union 2 
killed, 4 wounded. Confed. 22 captured. 
16. Whitemarsh or Wilmington Island, Ga. 
Union, 8th Mich., Battery of R. I. Light 
Artil. Confed., 13th Ga. Losses: Union 
10 killed, 35 wounded. Confed. 4 killed, 
1 5 wounded. 

Lee s Mills, Va. Union, 3d, 4th, and 
6th Vt., 3d N. Y. Battery and Battery of 
5th U. S. Artil. Confed., Gen. J. B. Ma- 

* No record found. 
[360] 




THE CLOSING OF SAVANNAH, APRIL 12, 1862 



Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. 



This terrific punishment was inflicted upon the nearest angle of the fort by the thirty-six heavy rifled cannon and the mortars which 
the Federals had planted on Big Tybee Island, and by the gunboats which had found a channel enabling them to get in the rear of the 
fort. We get a more distant view of the angle in the lower picture. Fort Pulaski had been effectually blockaded since February, 1862, 
as a part of the Federal plan to establish supreme authority along the Atlantic coast from Wassaw Sound, below Savannah, north to 
Charleston. On April 10, 1862, General Hunter demanded the surrender of Fort Pulaski and when it was refused opened the bom 
bardment. For two days the gallant garrison held out and then finding the fort untenable, surrendered. This enabled the Federal 
Government effectually to close Savannah against contraband traffic. 




FORT PFLASKI AT THE ENTRANCE TO SAVANNAH RIVER 



^Engagements 0f tfye (Ettril War 



gruder s division, Yorktown garrison. 
Losses: Union 35 killed, 129 wounded. 
Confed. 20 killed, 75 wounded, 50 cap 
tured. 

17 to 19. Falmouth and Fredericksburg, Va. 

Union, Gen. McDowell s Army. Con- 
fed., Gen. Field s Brigade. Losses: 
Union 7 killed, 16 wounded. Confed. 
3 killed, 8 captured. 

18 to 28. Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and 

the capture of New Orleans, La. Union, 
Commodore Farragut s fleet of gun 
boats, and mortar boats under Command 
er D. D. Porter. Confed., Gen. Mansfield 
Lovell s army, fleet of gunboats. Losses : 
Union 36 killed, 193 wounded. Confed. 
185 killed, 197 wounded, 400 captured. 

19. Camden, N. C., also called South Mills. 
Union, 9th and 89th N. Y., 21st Mass., 
51st Pa., 6th N. H. Confed., 3d Ga., 
McComas Art., 1 co. Cavalry. Losses: 
Union 12 killed, 98 wounded. Confed. 
6 killed, 19 wounded. 

25. Fort Macon, N. C. Union, U. S. Gun 
boats Daylight, State of Georgia, Chip- 
pewa, the Bark Gemsbok, and Gen. 
Parke s division. Confed., Garrison 
commanded by Col. M. J. White. 
Losses : Union 1 killed, 1 1 wounded. 
Confed. 7 killed, 18 wounded, 150 cap 
tured. 

26. Neosho, Mo. Union, 1st Mo. Cav. Con- 
fed., Stand Watie s Cherokee Regiment. 
Losses: Union 3 killed, 3 wounded. 
Confed. 2 killed, 5 wounded. 
In front of Yorktown, Va. Union, 3 
companies 1st Mass. Confed* Losses: 
Union 4 killed, 12 wounded. Confed. 
14 captured. 

29. Bridgeport, Ala. Union, 3d Div. Army 
of the Ohio. Confed. Leadbetter s Divi 
sion. Losses: Confed. 72 killed and 
wounded, 350 captured. 

to June 10. Siege of Corinth, Miss. 
Union, Gen. Halleck s Army. Confed., 
Army commanded by Gen. Beauregard. 



MAY, 1862. 

1. Camp Creek, W. Va. Union, Co. C., 23d 
Ohio. Confed., Detachment 8th Va. Cav. 
Losses: Union 1 killed, 21 wounded. 
Confed. 1 killed, 12 wounded. 

4. Evacuation of Yorktown, Va., by Con 
federate Army under Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston. 



5. Lebanon, Tenn. Union, 1st, 4th, and 
5th Ky. Cav., Detachment of 7th Pa. 
Confed., Col. J. H. Morgan s Ky. Cav 
alry. Losses: Union 6 killed, 25 
wounded. Confed. 66 prisoners. 
Lockridge Mills or Dresden, Ky. 
Union, 5th Iowa Cav. Confed., 6th 
Confederate Cav. Losses: Union 4 
killed, 16 wounded, 71 missing. 
Williamsburg, Va. Union, 3d and 4th 
Corps, Army of the Potomac. Confed., 
Gen. James Longstreet s, Gen. D. Hill s 
Division of Gen. Joseph. E. Johnston s 
army, J. E. B. Stuart s Cavalry Brigade. 
Losses: Union 456 killed, 1,400 wounded, 
372 missing. Confed. 1,000 killed, 
wounded, and captured. 

7. West Point or Eltham s Landing, Va. 
Union, 16th, 27th, 31st, and 32d N. Y., 
95th and 96th Pa., 5th Maine, 1st Mass. 
ArtiL, Battery D 2d U. S. Artil. Con- 
fed., Gen. Wade Hampton s Brigade, 
Gen. J. B. Hood s Texan Brigade. 
Losses: Union 49 killed, 104 wounded, 
41 missing. Confed. 8 killed, 40 wounded. 
Somerville Heights, Va. Union, 13th 
Ind. Confed. Maj. Wheat s La. Bat 
talion. Losses: Union 3 killed, 5 
wounded, 21 missing. 

8- McDowell or Bull Pasture, Va. Union, 
25th, 32d, 75th, and 82d Ohio, 3d W. Va., 
1st W. Va. Cav., 1st Conn. Cav., 1st Ind. 
Battery. Confed., 12th Ga., 10th, 21st, 
23d, 25th, 31st, 37th, 42d, 44th, 48th, 
52d, 58th, Va., 1st Va. (Irish) Battalion. 
Losses: Union 28 killed, 225 wounded, 
3 missing. Confed. 75 killed, 424 
wounded and missing. 

9. Elk River, Ala. Union, 1st Ky. Cav. 
Confed., Texas Rangers. Losses: 
Union 5 killed, 7 wounded. Confed. 
45 missing. 

-Norfolk, Va. Evacuated by the Con 
federates. 

Farmington, Miss. Union, Gen. Plum- 
mer s Brigade, Army of the Missis 
sippi. Confed., Gen. Ruggles Division. 
Losses: Union 16 killed, 148 wounded, 
192 missing. Confed. 8 killed, 189 
wounded, 110 missing. 

10. Plum Point, near Fort Pillow, Tenn. 
Gunboat battle. Union, Gunboats Cin 
cinnati, Carondelet, Benton, Pittsburg, 
St. Louis, and Mound City. Confed., 
eight rams of the River Defense Fleet. 
* No record found. 
[862] 




OHIO SOLDIERS WHO FOUGHT UNDER GARFIELD FOR KENTUCKY 

The Forty-second Ohio Infantry was one of the regiments that helped to settle the position of Kentucky in the issue between the 
States. A large Southern element was contained within its borders although it had not joined the Confederacy, and in order to ob 
tain recruits for their army, and to control the great salt works, lead-mines, and lines of railway, the Confederate authorities sent 
General Humphrey Marshall with a small force into eastern Kentucky in November, 1861. General Buell promptly formed a brigade 
from the Army of the Ohio, put it in command of James A. Garfield, Colonel of the Forty-second Ohio, with orders to drive General 
Marshall from the State. This was accomplished by the engagement at Middle Creek, January 10, 1862. This photograph was 
taken in 1861 while the regiment was stationed at Plaquemine, Louisiana. 



General John Charles Fremont 
(1813-1890). Already a famous 
explorer and scientist, the 6rst 
presidential candidate of the 
Republican party (in 1856), 
Fremont, at the outbreak of the 
war, hastened home from Eu 
rope to take command of the 
newly created Western Depart 
ment. He was born in Savan 
nah, Georgia. His father was a 
Frenchman and his mother a 
Virginian, and his tempera 
ment was characterized by all 
the impetuosity of such an 
ancestry. Upon his arrival in 
St. Louis he found things in 
great confusion. The Mis- 
sourians were divided in senti 
ment and the home guards were 
unwilling to reenlist. The U. 
S. Treasurer at St. Louis had 




$300,000 in his hands, and Fre 
mont called upon him for a 
portion of it to enable him to 
enlist men in the Federal cause. 
The Treasurer refused, but 
upon Fremont s threatening to 
take $100,000 without further 
ceremony, the funds were 
turned over. With about four 
thousand troops, Fremont seized 
Cairo, and by various demon 
strations checked the aggres 
sive attitude of the Confederates 
on the Kentucky and Tennes 
see borders, and of the South 
ern sympathizers in Missouri. 
Before he was transferred out 
of the West in November, 1861, 
Fremont had raised an army of 
fifty-six thousand men, and was 
already advancing upon an ex 
pedition down the Mississippi. 



GENERAL FREMONT (ON THE RIGHT) AND 
MRS. FREMONT 



0f % (Ettrii 



Losses: Union 4 wounded. 
killed, 1 wounded. 

Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., occu 
pied by Union forces under Gen. Wool. 

11. Confederate Ram Virginia destroyed in 
Hampton Roads by her commander, to 
prevent capture. 

15. Fort Darling, James River, Va. Union, 
Gunboats Galena, Port Royal, Xaitga- 
tucli, Monitor, and Aroostook. Confed. 
Garrison in Fort Darling. Losses: 
Union 12 killed, It wounded. Confed. 
7 killed, 8 wounded. 

Chalk Bluffs, Mo. Union, 1st Wis. 
Cav. Confed., Col. Jeffers command. 
Losses: Union 2 killed, 5 wounded. 
Confed. 11 killed, 17 wounded. 

15, 16, and 18. Princeton, W. Va. Union, 
Gen. J. D. Cox s Division. Confed., 
Gen. Humphrey Marshall s command. 
Losses: Union 33 killed, 69 wounded, 
27 missing. Confed. 2 killed, It 
wounded. 

17. In front of Corinth, Miss. Union, Gen. 
M. L. Smith s Brigade. Confed., Out 
posts of Gen. Beauregard s army. 
Losses: Union 10 killed, 31 wounded. 
Confed. 12 killed. 

19. Searcy Landing, Ark. Union, 17th Mo., 
4th Mo. Cav., 2 cos. 4th la. Cav. Con- 
fed.* Losses: Union 15 killed, 32 
wounded. Confed. 150 killed, wounded, 
and missing. 

23. Lewisburg, Va. Union, 36th, 44th Ohio, 
2d W. Va. Cav. Confed. 22d, 45th Va., 
1 battalion 8th Va. Cav., Finney s Bat 
talion. Losses: Union 14 killed, 60 
wounded. Confed. 40 killed, 66 
wounded, 100 captured. 
Front Royal, Va. Union, 1st Md., 
Detachments of 29th Pa., Capt. Mapes 
Pioneers, 5th X. Y. Cav., and 1st Pa. 
Artil. Confed., 1st Md., Wheat s La. 
Battalion, 6th, 7th, 8th La. Losses: 
Union 32 killed, 122 wounded, 750 miss 
ing. Confed* 

23 and 24. Ellerson s Mill, Mechanicsville, 
and New Bridge, Va. Union, 33d, 49th, 
77th N. Y., 7th Me., 4th Mich., Tid- 
ball s Battery. Confed., 8th, 9th, 10th 
Ga., part of 1st and 4th Va. Cav., 5th 
La., battery La. Art., squadron La. Cav. 
Losses: Union 7 killed, 30 wounded. 
Confed. 27 killed, 35 wounded, 43 cap 
tured. 



24 to 31. Retreat of Gen. N. P. Banks 
command (Union) from Strasburg, Va., 
down the Shenandoah Valley, including 
Middletown and Newtown the 24th, 
Winchester the 25th, Charlestown the 
28th, and Harper s Ferry the 24th to 
30th. Confed., Stonewall Jackson s 
command, including the troops engaged 
at Front Royal the 23d. Losses: Union 
62 killed, 243 wounded, 171 missing. 
Confed. 68 killed, 329 wounded (in 
cludes losses at Front Royal the 23d). 

27. Hanover C. H., Va. Union, 12th, 13th, 
14th, 17th, 25th, and 44th N. Y., 62d and 
83d Pa., 16th Mich., 9th and 22d Mass., 
5th Mass. Artil., 2d Maine Artil., Bat 
tery F 5th U. S. Artil., 1st U. S. 
Sharpshooters. Confed., Gen. L. O B. 
Branch s N. C. Brigade. Losses: Union 
53 killed, 314 wounded. Confed. 200 
killed and wounded, 730 prisoners. 

30. Booneville, Miss. Union, 2d la., 2d 
Mich. Cav. Confed.* Losses: Confed. 
2,000 prisoners. 

Corinth, Miss. Evacuation by Con 
federate army under Gen. Beauregard. 
Occupation by Union troops of Gen. 
Halleck s command. End of siege begun 
April 29- Losses: (No detailed report 
on file.) 

Front Royal, Va. Union, 4th, 8th 
Ohio, 14th Ind., detachment 1st R. I. 
Cav. Confed., 8th La., 12th Ga., Ash- 
by s Va. Cav. Losses : Union 8 killed, 7 
wounded. Confed. 1 56 captured. 

31 and June 1. Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, 
Va. Union, 2d Corps, 3d Corps, and 4th 
Corps, Army of the Potomac. Confed., 
Army commanded by Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston, as follows: Gen. James Long- 
street s Division; Gen. D. H. Hill s Divi 
sion; Gen. Benjamin Huger s Division; 
Gen. G. W. Smith s Division. Losses: 
Union 790 killed, 3,627 wounded, 617 
missing. Confed. 980 killed, 4,719 
wounded, 105 missing. Union Brig.- 
Gen ls O. O. Howard, Naglee, and Wes- 
sells wounded. Confed. Brig.-Gen. Hat- 
ton killed, Gen. J. E. Johnston and 
Brig.-Gen. Rodes wounded, Brig.-Gen. 
Pettigrew captured. 



JUNE, 1862. 

3. Legare s Point, S. C. 
Mass., 8th Mich., 100th 

* No record found. 
[364] 



Union, 28th 
Pa. Confed., 



The Last Struggle for the River. 
The fall of Vicksburg was im 
minent in July, 1863, and see 
ing this the Confederates de 
termined to make one last 
herculean effort to retain a 
hold upon the Mississippi and 
prevent the Confederacy from 
being divided. General Holmes 
collected a force of about nine 
thousand Confederates and ad 
vanced through Arkansas upon 
Fort Curtis, the principal de 
fense of Helena. There General 
Prentiss opposed him with a 
garrison of but 4, 129. In the 
early dawn of July 4, 186,3, 
Holmes hurled his forces upon 
the battlements of Fort Curtis. 
He was met with a resistance 
entirely beyond his expecta 
tions. Not only were the 

Confederates mowed down by the fire from the 
fort, but the gunboat Tyler lying in the river 
enfiladed the columns pouring through the ravines 
to support the attack. It was impossible to with 
stand the deadly rain of shell and shrapnel, and 
the order was given to withdraw. On the field were 
left two thousand dead and wounded Confederates. 




GENERAL SAMUEL RYAN CURTIS 



Most of the dead were buried 
by the victorious Federals, and 
more than a thousand wounded 
were taken prisoners. 

Fort Curtis was named for 
General Samuel Ryan Curtis, 
who assumed command of 
the Federal District of South 
west Missouri at the close 
of 1861. The battle at Pea 
Ridge, or Elkhorn, Arkansas, 
near the Missouri border, 
March, 1862, was a Confed 
erate reverse and was followed 
by the transfer of the prin 
cipal Confederate commands 
which fought there to other 
fields, leaving Curtis in con 
trol. After a stubbornly 
contested march across Ar 
kansas he arrived on the Mis 
sissippi, July 13, 1862, and be 
gan to fortify Helena. From 

that time it was held by the Federals undisputed 
until the attack of General Holmes. The day of 
the repulse at Fort Curtis, Vicksburg surrendered 
to Grant; Port Hudson, Louisiana, on the east 
bank, yielded to Banks five days later, after a siege 
of six weeks, and the Mississippi passed forever 
from the control of the Confederacy. 




From the Meserve Collection. 

FORT CURTIS, HELENA, ARKANSAS 



0f dttril 



24th S. C., Charleston, S. C., Battalion. 
Losses: Union 5 wounded. Confed. 17 
wounded. 

3 to 5. Fort Pillow, Tenn. Evacuation 
by Confederates and occupation by 
Union troops commanded by Col. G. A. 
Fitch. 

5. Tranter s Creek, N. C. Union, 21th 
Mass., Co. I 3d N. Y. Cav. Avery s 
Battery .Marine Art. Confed.* Losses: 17 
Union 7 killed, 11 wounded. 

6. Memphis, Tenn. Union, U. S. Gunboats 
Benton, Louisville, Carondelet, Cairo, 
and St. Louis; and Rams Monarch and 
Queen of the West. Confed., River De 
fense fleet of 8 gunboats. Losses : Con- 
fed. 80 killed and wounded, 100 cap 
tured. 

Harrisonburg, Va. Union, 1st N. J. 
Cav., 1st Pa. Rifles, 60th Ohio, 8th W. 
Va. Confed., 1st Md. and 58th Va. 
Losses: Union 63 missing. Confed. 17 
killed, 50 wounded. Confed. Gen. 18 
Turner Ashby killed. 

8. Cross Keys or Union Church, Va. Union, 
8th, 39th, list, 15th, 51th, and 58th 
N. Y., 2d, 3d, 5th, and 8th W. Va., 25th, 25 
32d, 55th, 60th, 73d, 75th, and 82d Ohio, 
1st and 27th Pa., 1st Ohio Battery. 
Confed., Winder s, Trimble s, Camp 
bell s, Taylor s brigades, 4 Va. batteries 
of " Stonewall " Jackson s command. 
Losses: Union 125 killed, 500 wounded. 
Confed. 42 killed, 230 wounded. Con- 
fed. Brig.-Gens. Stuart and Elxey 
wounded. 26 

9. Port Republic, Va. Union, 5th, 7th, 
29th, and 66th Ohio, 81th and 110th Pa., 
7th Ind., 1st W. Va., Batteries E 4th 
U. S. and A and L 1st Ohio Artil. Con- 
fed., Winder s, Campbell s, Fulkerson s, 26 
Scott s, El/ey s, Taylor s brigades, 6 Va. 
batteries. Losses : Union 67 killed, 361 
wounded, 571 missing. Confed. 88 
killed, 535 wounded, 34 missing. 
10. James Island, S. C. Union, 97th Pa., 
2 cos. 45th Pa., 2 cos. 47th N. Y., Bat 
tery E 3d U. S. Art. Confed., 47th Ga. 
Losses: Union 3 killed, 19 wounded. 
Confed. 17 killed, 30 wounded. 
14. Tunstall s Station, Va. Stuart s Va. 
Cav. fire into railway train. Losses: 
Union 4 killed, 8 wounded. 
16. Secessionville or Fort Johnson, James 
Island, S. C. Union, 46th, 47th, and 

* No record 
[366] 



79th N. Y., 3d R. L, 3d N. H., 45th, 
97th, and 100th Pa., 6th and 7th Conn., 
8th Mich., 28th Mass., 1st N. Y. Engi 
neers, 1st Conn. Artil., Battery E 3d U. S. 
and I 3d R. I. Artil., Co. H 1st Mass. 
Cav. Confed., Garrison troops com 
manded by Gen. N. G. Evans. Losses : 
Union 85 killed, 472 wounded, 138 miss 
ing. Confed. 51 killed, 111 wounded. 

St. Charles, White River, Ark. Union, 
43d and 46th Ind., U. S. Gunboats Lex 
ington, Mound City, Conestoga, and St. 
Louis. Confed., Gunboats Maurepas and 
Pontchartrain, 111 soldiers and sailors 
commanded by Lieut. Joseph Fry. 
Losses: Union 105 killed, 30 wounded. 
Confed. 155 killed, wounded, and cap 
tured. 

and 18. Evacuation of Cumberland Gap, 
Tenn., by Confederates of Gen. C. L. 
Stevenson s command, and occupation by 
Gen. G. W. Morgan s Federal division. 

Williamsburg Road, Va. Union, 16th 
Mass. Confed.* Losses: Union 17 
killed, 28 wounded, 14 captured. Con- 
fed. 5 killed, 9 wounded. 

Oak Grove, Va., also called Kings 
School House and The Orchards. Union, 
Hooker s and Kearney s Divisions of the 
Third Corps, Palmer s Brigade of the 
Fourth Corps, and part of Richardson s 
Division of the Second Corps. Confed., 
Armistead s brigade. Losses : Union 5 1 
killed, 401 wounded, 6l missing. Con- 
fed. 65 killed, 465 wounded, 1 1 missing. 

to 29. Vieksburg, Miss. U. S. Fleet, un 
der command of Commodore Farragut, 
passed the Confederate land batteries, 
under the cover of bombardment by Com 
modore Porter s fleet of mortar boats. 

to July 1. The Seven Days Battles, in 
front of Richmond, Va., including en 
gagements known as Mechanicsville or 
Ellerson s Mills on the 26th, Games 
Mills or Cold Harbor on the 27th, Gar- 
nett s and Golding s Farms on the 28th, 
Peach Orchard and Savage Station on 
the 29th, White Oak Swamp, also called 
Charles City Cross Roads, Glendale or 
Nelson s Farm or Frayser s Farm, New 
Market Road on the 30th, and Malvern 
Hill or Crew s Farm on July 1st. 
Union Army of the Potomac, Maj.- 
Gen. Geo. B. McClellan commanding. 
Losses: First Corps, Brig.-Gen. Geo. A. 

found. 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL 

NATHANIEL LYON 

made brigadier-general, and 
Governor Jackson, calling for 
fifty thousand troops "to repel 
the invasion of the State" left 
the capital for Booneville, 
.June 14th. Lyon followed, 
dispersed the militia on the 
17th, and other Confederate 
troops, under McCulloch, at 
Dug Springs, on August 2d. 
Meanwhile he had sent Sigel 
with twelve hundred men into 
southwestern Missouri, and on 
July 5th that intrepid leader 



These fearless leaders by their prompt and 
daring actions at the outbreak of the war 
kept Missouri within the Union. Captain 
Nathaniel Lyon, U. S. A., a veteran of the 
Mexican War, had been on duty in Kansas 
during the "free soil" riots and knew what 
it was to see a State torn by dissension. At 
the outbreak of the w T ar he was in command 
of the United States arsenal at St. Louis. 
Franz Sigel, a Prussian refugee, had settled 
in St. Louis in 1858, and in May, 1861, raised 
the Union Third Missouri Infantry and be 
came its colonel. Under Lyon he helped 
to capture Camp Jackson, St. Louis, where 
General Frost was drilling a small body of 
volunteer state militia. On June 1, 1861, 
the command of the Federal Department of 
the West was given to Lyon, who had been 




Copyright ijy Patriot Pub. Co. 

MAJOR-GENERAL 
FRANZ SIGEL 




MAJOR-GENERAL 
JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE 



fought the battle of Carthage. 
Greatly outnumbered, he finally 
retreated to Springfield, where 
he arrived on July 13th, and w r as 
later joined by Lyon. McCul 
loch had been joined by Gen 
eral Price, and although their 
forces now outnumbered his 
own five to one, Lyon deter 
mined to risk a battle. He 
met and attacked the Con 
federates at Wilson s Creek, 
August 10, 1861, where he 
was killed. 



While the Federals were striving to keep the ter 
ritory west of the Mississippi in the Union, John 
Cabell Breckinridge, who had been the youngest 
Vice President of the United States, resigned from 
the national Senate in October, 1861, to join the 
Confederacy. He formed an encampment at Hazel 
Green, Kentucky, and his personality drew many re 
cruits to the Southern army in that much-divided 
State. President Davis gave him a commission as 
brigadier-general in November, 1861, and he was 
appointed to the command of a brigade in the Second 
Kentucky division under General Buckner. At the 
battle of Shiloh Breckinridge commanded the reserve 



corps consisting of three brigades, two of which he led 
in the struggle on April 6, 1862. General Johnston 
placed him south of the Peach Orchard, and he be 
came engaged about one o clock in the afternoon. 
When the Confederate army retired Breckinridge 
formed the rear-guard. After Shiloh Breckinridge 
was made major-general and in the break-up of 
the vast Western army he w r ent to Louisiana, 
where he attempted, but failed, to drive General 
Williams from Baton Rouge on August 5th. 
Breckinridge took prominent part also at Stone s 
River, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, in the Shenan- 
doah campaign of 1864, and at Cold Harbor. 



of (Etutl 



McCall s Div. 253 killed, 1,2-10 wound 
ed, 1,581 missing. 

Second Corps, Maj.-Gen. E. V. Sumner, 
187 killed, 1,076 wounded, 818 missing. 
Third Corps, Maj.-Gen. S. P. Heintzel- 
man, 189 killed, 1,051 wounded, 833 
missing. 

Fourth Corps, Maj.-Gen. E. D. Reyes, 
69 killed, 507 wounded, 201 missing. 
Fifth Corps, Maj.-Gen. Fitz-John Porter, 
620 killed, 2,160 wounded, 1,198 missing. 
Sixth, Corps, Maj.-Gen. W. B. Franklin, 
245 killed, 1,313 wounded, 1,179 missing. 
Cavalry, Brig.-Gen. George Stoneman, 19 
killed, 60 wounded, 97 missing. 
Engineer Corps, 2 wounded, 21 missing. 
Total, 1,73-1 killed, 8,062 wounded, 
6,053 missing. 

Confed. Army of Northern Virginia, 
Gen. R. E. Lee commanding. Losses: 
Maj.-Gen. Huger s Division, 187 killed, 
803 wounded, 360 missing. 
Maj.-Gen. ,1. B. Magruder s command, 
258 killed, 1,195 wounded, 30 missing. 
Maj.-Gen. James Longstreet s Division, 
763 killed, 3,929 wounded, 239 missing. 
Maj.-Gen. A. P. Hill s Division, 619 
killed, 3,251 wounded. 
Maj.-Gen. T. ,1. Jackson s command, 966 
killed, 4,417 wounded, 63 missing. 
Maj.-Gen. T. H. Holmes Division, 2 
killed, 52 wounded. 

Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart s Cavalry, 15 
killed, 30 wounded, 60 missing. 
Artillery, Brig.-Gen. W. X. Pendleton, 
10 killed, 31 wounded. 
Total, 2,820 killed, 14,011 wounded, 752 
missing. 

JULY, 1862. 

1. Booneville, Miss. Union, 2d la., 2d 
Mich. Cav. Confed., Gen. Chalmers Cav. 
Losses: Union 45 killed and wounded. 
Confed. 17 killed, 65 wounded. 

4 to 28. Gen. Morgan s raid in Kentucky. 

6. Grand Prairie, near Aberdeen, Ark. 
Union, detachment of the 24th Ind. 
Confed.* Losses: Union 1 killed, 21 
wounded. Confed. 84 killed, wounded, 
and missing (estimate). 

7. Bayou Cache, also called Cotton Plant, 
Round Hill, Hill s Plantation, and Bayou 
de View. Union, llth Wis., 33d 111., 
8th Ind., 1st Mo. Light Artil., 1st Ind. 
Cav., 5th and 13th 111. Cav. Confed., 



Gen. A. Rust s command. Losses : Union 
7 killed, 57 wounded. Confed. 110 
killed, 200 wounded. 

9. Tompkinsville, Ky. Union, 9th Pa. Cav. 
Confed., Morgan s Cav. Losses: Union 
4 killed, 6 wounded. Confed. 10 killed 
and wounded. 

12. Lebanon, Ky. Union, 28th Ky., Le 
banon Home Guards. Confed., Col. 
John H. Morgan s Kentucky Cav. 
Losses: Union 2 killed, 65 prisoners. 

13. Murfreesboro , Tenn. Union, 9th Mich., 
3d Minn., 1th Ky. Cav., 7th Pa. Cav., 1st 
Ky. Battery. Confed., Gen. X. B. For 
rest s Cav. Losses: Union 33 killed, 62 
wounded, 800 missing. Confed. 50 
killed, 100 wounded. 

15. Xear Vicksburg, Miss. Union, Gunboats 
Carondelet, Queen of the West, Tyler, 
and Essex. Con fed., Ram Arkansas. 
Losses: Union 13 killed, 36 wounded. 
Confed. 5 killed, 9 wounded. 
Fayetteville, Ark. Union, detach 
ments of 2d Wis., 3d Mo., 10th 111., 
and Davidson s Battery. Confed., Gen. 
Rains command. Losses: Confed. 150 
captured. 

17. Cynthiana, Ky. Union, 18th Ky., 7th 
Ky. Cav., Cynthiana, X T ewport, Cincin 
nati, and Bracken Co. Home Guards 
(Morgan s Raid). Confed., Morgan s 
Cav. Losses: Union 17 killed, 34 
wounded. Confed. 8 killed, 29 wounded. 

18. Memphis, Mo. Union, 2d Mo., llth 
Mo. Cav. Opponents, Porter s inde 
pendent forces. Losses: Union 83 killed 
and wounded. Porter s loss, 23 killed. 

21. Hartsville Road, near Gallatin, Tenn. 
Union, detachments 2d Ind., 4th, 5th 
Ky., 7th Pa. Cav. Confed., Morgan s 
Cav. Losses: Union 30 killed, 50 
wounded, 75 captured. Confed.* 
Xashville Bridge, Tenn. Union, 2d 
Ky. Confed., P orrest s Cav. Losses : 
Union 3 killed, 97 captured. Confed.* 

25. Courtland Bridge and Trinity, Ala. 
Union, I Oth Ky., 10th Ind., 31st Ohio. 
Confed., Armstrong s Cav. Losses : Union 
2 killed, 16 wounded, 138 captured. 
Confed. 3 killed, 5 wounded. 

28. Moore s Mills, Mo. Union, 9th Mo., 3d 
la. Cav., 2d Mo. Cav., 3d Ind. Battery. 
Opponents, Porter s independent forces. 
Losses: Union 13 killed, 55 wounded. 
Porter s loss, 30 killed, 100 wounded. 



* Xo record found. 
[368] 






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