A COMPLETE HANDY
FOR THE WORKROOM
Embraces the Professional
Experience of Ages
How to Tint, Dye, Repair, Refresh aud Renovate Millinery
Goods of every kind. Mow to turn odds and ends into money
How to make the Millinery Shop more beautiful and artistic
Also hundreds of Beauty Hints and Household Helps
EVERY SUGGESTION AND RECIPE EXAMINED
PASSED UPON AND COMMENDED BY AN
EXPERIENCED CORPS OF MILLINERS
Renjised^ Classified and Compiled by
EMMA MAXWELL ^URKE
THE ILLUSTRATED MILLINER CO.
Hints for Frshening-up Millinery Materials of all
Suggestions Permitting the Milliner to Match Color
Tones Desired by the Customer
TO REMOVE STAINS 24
LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING 2,z
SEWING HINTS 42
For the Workroom and Home.
HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING 54
HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME 76
Cleaning, Polishing, Renovating and Repairing.
HEALTH AND BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS 92
BEAUTY RECIPES >//• . J • ^^.^ . • • 108
JAN 10 191?
Color. To Restore l8
Crepe or Silk • • 17
Felt Hats 18
Flowers, To Freshen 17
Hats, Straw 17
Laces, Old 18
Ribbons . • • • 19
Ruchings • • • • 19
Silks, To Fi eshen 19
Straws, Black 20
Velvet Bows 20
Beaver Hats, To Tint 22
General Instructions • 21
Laces, To Tint 22
TO REMOVE STAINS
Acid Stains 24
Blood Stains 24
Chocolate Stains 24
Coffee Stains 24
Color, from Ostrich 24
Fruit Stains 24
Fruit, or Wine Stains 24
Grass Stains 25
Grease Spot on Parasol 25
Grease from Wood -. 25
Grease Stains from Cotton or Linen • • 25
Grease Stains 26
Grease Stains from Silks 2^
Grease Stains from Silks with Chloroform 26
Ice Cream Stains 27
Iron Mould and Dry Ink Stains • • • 28
Iron Rust 28
Medicine Stains 28
Mildew Stains 29
Milk Stains 30
Paint Stains 30
Rules, General 31
Scorch Marks 31
Scorch Marks, from White Material • • 31
Shoeblacking, from Straw 31
Stains, from Garments and Materials 31
Tea and Coffee Stain 32
Vaseline Stain 32
LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING
Cleaning, Dry 41
Cleaning, Dry Preparation 41
Curtains, Dry Cleaning 41
Feathers, To Clean Z2>
Feathers, To Whiten 2>l
Feathers, Ostrich, To Clean 2>2>
Fur or Feathers, To Clean ^(y
Gloves,, Suede, To Clean 39
Gloves, Kid, To Clean 40
Gown, Woolen or Cotton, To Clean 40
Hat, White Chiffon, To Clean 34
Hat, White Felt, To Clean 34
Hat, White Furs, and Knit Shawls 40
Lace, To Clean 36
Lace, To Clean and Press 37
Osprey, To Clean 33
Parasols, To Clean 39
Ribbons, To Clean 35
Stole, Ermine, To Clean 36
Silk or Cashmere, To Clean 36
Skirts, Woolen, To Clean 40
Wings, White, To Clean 34
Wings, To Clean 33
Bag, Tag for Remnants 42
Ball, of Wool, to Prevent Rolling . • 42
Bands, To Cut Bias 42
Belts and Collars, Boning 42
Belt, To Tighten Machine 49
Braid, Used for Buttonholing 43
Braid, Way to 43
Button Moulds . . 43
Buttons, In Ripping 44
Buttonholes, To Make Even 44
Buttonholes, in Jacket 44
Gloves, Mending 44
Hatpin, a Short One, for Sewing Machine 44
Hems, When Turning in 45
Hints for Amateurs 45
Hints, What Not To Do 45
Hoop, Embroidery, for Darning .... 46
Ironing Board, Two Ways of Covering 59
Ironing Blanket, A Useful 60
Irons, Cleaning and Polishing ...•......•• 60
Iron Cleaner 60
Irons, Flat, Enameling 60
Iron, Smoothing, Look After 61
Irons, When Heating 61
Irons, Curling, New Use for 46
Items, Sewing 46
Lace, How To Press Black 61
Laundry Bag, To Make 46
Mending, A Mode 47
Monograms, To Utilize Embroidered 47
Needles, Economy in Machine 48
Pricking Fingers, To Prevent 48
Protector, To Make Dress 48
Shears, Rusty 48
Scissors, To Sharpen 49
Seams, When Stitching 49
Sewing Machine Hints • . . 49
Sewing Notes 49
Skirt Facing • 50
Skirt, To Turn 50
Stockings, For Darning 50
Spool-Rack, Excellent 50
Sweater, A Modern 50
Table Scarf, Resembling Oriental Work 51
Taffeta, When Sewing 51
Tape Needle, A Substitute 5^
Tear, To Mend Ugly 51
Tonic, For Sewing Machines 52
Threads, To Remove After Ripping 52
Thread, Twisted and Knotted • • 52
Thimble Factory • • • • 52
Trifles Made from Scraps 53
HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING
Chiffon, To Wash 54
Curtains, To Dry 54
Curtains, To Wash 54
Embroideries, Bleaching Silk • • • • 55
Embroideries, Washing Colored 55
Hats, Pressing Bows on • • ..... 59
Hats, To Wash Straw 56
Knitted Garments, Drying 56
Muslin, Bleaching 56
Net, Plain or Spotted : 56
Ribbons, Ironing 61
Stains, To Prevent 57
Starch, Laundry Cold 57
Sweater, White 57
Veils, Chiffon 58
Veils, White 58
Waists, Do Not Starch Shirt 58
Waists, White, China Silk 58
Washing Hint 59
Washing Bamboo 59
Adhesives, Millinery I13
Air, To Purify 62
Basket, Flower, Economy 62
Basket, Neat Lunch 62
Blouse, Packing a 62
Brittania Ware, To Clean 75
Buttons, To Restore Pearl 63
Candles, How to Prevent Dripping 75
Cases, Suit, To Waterproof 63
Chiffon, To Steam 63
Crocuses, Winter 64
Electric Powder 75
Embroidery Hint 72
Facings, For Kid Glove 64
Feathers, Pasting 63
Fence, To Hide a 64
Flames, Extinguishing Gasoline 64
Flowers, To Keep Cut 64
Gloves, Evening, How to Keep Clean 65
Gloves, How to Care for 65
Gloves, Long Ones Cut Off, Short Ones Sewed On 65
Hat, To Prevent Crushing 65
Hat, To Bind Felt or Straw 65
Hat Boxes 66
Hat, Building, Tips 67
Hatpin Holder 67
Hat, To Hold, While Trimming. 68
Hat, Utility Box 68
Hat, Waterproof Covering for • • 68
Handbag, To Renew Leather 68
Holder, Flower 68
Knives, Not in Use 69
Lace, Laying Away 69
Leather, Use for Old 69
Leghorn, To Roughen 69
Mats, Rubber for Plants 69
Moth Pest 70
Noisy Nuisances 70
Papers, Mailing 7 r
Petticoat, Saving Silk 71
Silver Powder 75
Suede Restorative 72
Steam, In Workroom • • ']2
Steam, Silks and Ribbons "JZ
Steam, Straw and Braids . • ^z
Veil, To Hold in Place n
Veil, Mourning 74
Veil, Chiffon • 74
Vases, To W>igh, Tall 74
Voile, To Take Shine from 71
Window Glass, To Prevent, from Frosting. 75
HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME page
Brass, To Clean Lacquered 76
Brush, To Clean Carpet Sweeper ^j^y
Candle Points • • • 76
Castors, Loose "j^
Chairs, Freshening Leather 76
Chairs, Regilding Gold 77
Cleanliness, Essential 'j'j
Clocks, Care of jy
Closet, A Portable . . 78
Curtains, To Hang 78
Dust Catcher, Hygienic • . 79
Dustless Duster, A Home-made . • 79
Floors and Woodwork, Care of 80
Frames, Freshening 80
Furniture, To Clean . . ♦ 80
Furniture, How to Clean Upholstered ..•...-. • 80
Furniture Polishes, Home-made 82
Glass, To Cut 82
Many Materials Used • • 82
Marble Baseboards, Cleaning %Z
Matting, Care of • 83
Matting, To Lay Straw, Smooth 84
Mirrors, Hanging 84
Mirrors, How to Wash • • • • 84
Paint, Washing Enamel 79
Pillows, To Fluff 85
Polish, Silver • • 85
Radiators, Covers for 85
Roller Curtain, To Wind 85
Rugs, Hints on Buying • • • • 85
Rugs, Care of • • • • 85
Rug, To Keep Flat • ■ 86
Rugs, Return to Rag . . • • • 86
Rugs, Odd Sizes • - 86
Screens, Opaque 87
Seats, For Rocking Chair 87
Shades, To Make Art Lamp 87
Shades, To Clean • • 89
Sleeves, To Keep Up 89
Sweeping Hints 89
Tables and Bureau, To Renovate 89
Toy, A Useful • • 89
Wall Paper, To Clean 89
Wall Pockets 90
Willow Chairs, To Clean 90
Windows, To Clean 90
Window, a Dark, How to Utilize 91
Wood, Restoring Ebonized 91
HEALTH AND BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS
Ankles, To Reduce Size of 92
Bath, Hot 92
Bed, Day in 92
Bleach, Face ..••...• • 92
Burns, To Use in Case of 92
Colds, Slippery, Elm Tea for 107
Colds, Flax Seed Tea for 106
Coiffure, Simple Suggestion for 92
Corns, To Remove 106
Complexion Parlors, To Open 103
Cream, Cold, For Removing Dust 93
Dandruff, To Cure 97
Eyes, Dark Circles Under 99
Eyebrows, Thin 99
Face, Cleaning the 93
Feet, Deodorizer to Treat 106
Freckles, Summer 95
Gums, Receding 95
Hands, Care of 95
Hands, To Soften 95
Hands, Clean 95
Hands, Snowy 96
Hands, Stained • 96
Hands, Washed in Grease 96
Hands, To Whiten 96
Hair, Pulling . . 97
Hair, To Improve • 97
Hair, For Stiff 98
Hair, To Make Wavy, in Winter 98
Important Little Things 100
Lips, Chapped 100
Look as Well as You Can 100
Massage and Tipping loi
Nails, Breaking, Treatment for loi
Nails, File Finger 102
Neck, Thin, to Improve 102
BEAUTY RECIPES pack
Astringent Cream, To Make Ill
Baldness, Treatment for • no
Blotched Face, Wash for io8
Cream, Disappearing • 109
Cream for Tissue Building 109
Curls, To Promote 109
Eczema, Treatment of in
Eyebrows, To Make Grow in
Freckles, To Remove 108
Hair Dye, A Simple no
Hair, To Prevent Falling no
Hair Tonic no
Hair, Shampoo for no
Hands, Chapped or Rough in
Ink or Fruit Stains, To Remove 112
Mouth Wash 112
Perspiration, To Overcome Odorous 112
Pimples, To Remove 108
Teeth, To Beautify 112
Tooth Powder 112
Neck, Yellow 103
Nose Red, To Treat 103
Nose Wash 103
Pohsh for Nails 104
Powder vs. Complexion 104
Powder on the Face 104
Perspiration, Excessive 105
Skin, Improving the 105
Skin, Oily 105
Skin, Irritated • • • • • io6
Scar, For Slight • loo
Scalp Treatment • • 99
Shampoo, Dry ....•• • • 99
Throat, To Fill Hollows . . • • • • • 103
IIENO VA TING
HINTS FOR FRESHENING OUT MILLINERY MATERIALS
OF ALL ^DESCRIPTIONS
For Renewing Crepe and Silk
Steam is the only thing that will positively restore and renew old
crepe. If you have not a steamer of the improved pattern, resort to
this old and primitive method which never fails : Place an upturned flat
iron between two bricks, cover this with a dampened cloth. Place the
veil on top of it and move it back and forth and from side to side,
gently and carefully brushing in the meanwhile. Crepe should be
brushed gently or merely patted lightly. Raising and dropping the
brush in quick succession is quite sufficient.
To Freshen Flowers
Flowers can be dipped into the paint and gasoline dyes and usually
come out like new, or the petals can be touched up with a small
All flowers whether of silk, muslin, sateen or velvet can be
made to look as good as new if they are gently shaken over the
steaming cloth. Aigrettes will straighten and lose their curl un-
der treatment of this sort, and may later be made to look as good
as new by the use of the feather curlers.
To Make Straw Hats Look Fresh
If you have any badly soiled or faded straw shapes it will be wise
to buy some of the coloring preparations for renovating hats for sale
by all jobbers.
Renewing Straw Hats
For the faded colored straw hat there are dyes which can be diluted
in gasoline or water and which, if properly applied to a hat, will give
the desired color. When a hat cannot be given its original color it
can be colored black, and black is always practical. To restore the
natural straw color, clean the hat with lemon juice and sulphur. Wash
white straw with oxalic acid, which has been diluted with water. A
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
leghorn hat can be cleaned with, water or acid-dampened cornmeal.
Brush it lightly and place it over burning sulphur to bleach the straw.
The sulphur may be burned in a can in the bottom of a barrel and
the hat may be suspended at the top, where it will not scorch.
Scouring a Felt Hat
When light felt hats become dirty rub the surface with the finest
sand paper that can be found. Strange to say, this does not roughen
the felt and does remove the dirt.
To Restore Color
Ammonia is a good color restorer, and colored hats, unless very
much faded, may be freshened by covering with a cloth wrung out of
half a pint of hot water, to which a teaspoonful of ammonia has been
After this treatment a warm iron is placed over the cloth and
the brim pressed into shape.
When the color is too far gone to restore by this process, a tube
of oil paint and gasoline will form a dye that is simple to apply.
How to Renovate Old Laces to Look New
A woman who is clever with her needle can do quite wonderful
things with old bits of lace, for pieces useless alone, may be turned in-
to beautiful trimming by taking from them a motif or two.
Before any sewing is done the lace must be thoroughly cleansed.
The motif on net that is to be saved, is carefully cut from the
background, taking great pains not to stretch it. This is then neatly
sewed on a piece of perfectly smooth musHn that has been previously
shrunk. The shrinking is most important, otherwise the muslin will
draw and pull the lace out of shape. Stitches in this work must be
fine and close, using very thin thread that will rip easily.
This done, the lace is ready for washing in soapy water, the bath
being made by putting scraped soap into boiling water to dissolve.
This makes a jelly, which is put into warm — not hot — water and thor-
Suds are formed into which the lace is dropped, when it is gently
and repeatedly squeezed under wat^r. No rubbing or pulling is done.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
As soon as the water is soiled a fresh bath must be prepared, repeat-
ing the cleansing until no more dust remains. Then several rinsing
waters are used.
To dry, the muslin must be stretched upon a smooth surface and
tightly pinned. It will then stay in shape, and just before the last
dampness is gone it may be ironed, using a warm rather than a hot
iron, pressed over the muslin background, and gently untacked from
To Renovate Ribbons
Black ribbons are renovated with a sponging of one-third alcohol
and two-thirds water; when partly dry, if on under a piece of black
crinoline with a moderately warm iron.
Dip colored ribbons into a bowl of naphtha to clean them, remem-
bering that naphtha is very explosive when exposed to fire or a light.
Ribbons of good quality will wash if carefully done. There is the
dry cleaning process for ribbons, using gasoline instead of water.
This is satisfactory if the soil is only slight, and there will be no ne-
cessity for ripping the bow to pieces, as ironing is not required when
the article is washed in this way.
To Freshen Silks
Japanese, China, India, and pongee silks are freshened by wash-
ing in warm soapsuds, rinsing quickly and drying in the shade; roll
in a sheet when not perfectly dry and then iron on the wrong side.
Colored silk fades and white silk yellows after washing, but this
may be avoided by using medium warm soap and water and rinsing
well; wrap in a large cloth (an old sheet is fine) for half an hour,
and then iron on the wrong side with a moderate iron, using a bit
of thin lawn between the iron and silk. Do not let the light and air
get to it while wet, as this yellow^s and fades the fabric.
When black silk or satin begins to shine, sponge on the right side
with a mixture of two parts of gin and one of water, and iron while
damp on the wrong side.
Old Ruchings Renewed
If ruchings are only soiled they may be washed in gasoline and
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
made to look like new, for it does not take out any of the little
crinkles. They remain as dainty and fluffy as ever.
Black straw hats may be made to look like new by brushing over
with a simple polish made from pulverized black sealing wax and
alcohol, in the proportions of an ounce of the former to half a pint
of the latter. This mixture should stand in a warm place, and when
about the consistency of cream should be used. The bottle containing
it should be frequently shaken while the contents are dissolving.
Black chip needs only wiping with an old soft silk handkerchief
followed by a light application of pure olive oil.
To Freshen Velvet Bows
Velvet bows may be given new life without removing them from
the hat by using a curling iron.
It should be made quite hot, then covered loosely with a wet cloth.
This done, the iron is inserted in the loops, opening the curler as wide
as the loops demand. The steam will cause the nap to rise, and when
quite dry every particle of dust can be removed by a velvet brush, so
the bow will look as good as new.
A trimmed hat or bonnet that shows signs of crushing should
be held over steam and the fingers used for adjusting and reshaping
loops or folds, as found necessary. When perfectly dry an improve-
ment will be apparent.
SUGGESTIONS PERMITTING THE MILLINER TO MATCH COLOR
TONES DESIRED BY THE CUSTOMER
For tinting laces, malines, chiffons, braids, feathers, felts,
velvets, silks and satins, covered wires, flowers, almost all millinery
merchandise, the following articles are required :
One tin pan. One tube of king's yellow.
One large china washbowl. One tube of burnt umber.
One small bristle brush. One tube of sienna.
One gallon gasoline. One tube of Naples yellow.
One tube of Prussian blue. One tube of mauve.
One tube of ivory black. One tube of purple lake.
One tube of silver white. One tube of geranium lake.
With the colors here mentioned it is possible to produce all other
shades and colors. Yet, should one engage extensively in tinting
many colors it might be well to purchase two or three tubes of the
various shades of green, particularly one tube of emerald green.
The manufacturers of all paints have placed on the market such a
varied and assorted selection of dift'erent tints and colors that it
is possible to secure almost any shade desired. It is advisable to
remove the top of the tube and squeeze out a small portion in order
to ascertain if the paint is fresh. Should it be solid and break off in
small pieces, do not buy it, as this indicates its not being fresh. Good
paints in perfect condition flow freely. The gasoline must be kept
in an air tight can or jug to prevent evaporation. The bristles of
the brush must be at all times clean and the bowl must be absolutely
dry. The least drop of water or moisture in the bowl will ruin
the work and produce poor results. Tinting should never be done
near a fire or gas light. It should always be done in the open air
or near an open window. The fumes from the evaporating gasoline
often produce violent headaches and for this reason the articles
should be left to dry in the open air or some place other than the
Red paint or geranium lake and gasoline will tint pink. Prus-
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
sian blue will produce light blue. Black paint makes a gray shade.
Burnt umber makes a tan. White and brown make brown. Lake and
white make rose. White and brown make chestnut. White, blue
and lake make purple. The purple lake may be bought, and if used
with gasoline will make lavender. White and carmine make pink.
Indigo and lamp black make lead color. Black and Venetian make
chocolate color. White and green make bright green. Purple and
white make French white. Light green and black make dark green.
White and green make pea green. White and emerald green make
a brilliant green. Red and yellow make orange. White and yellow
make straw color. White, blue and black make pearl grey. White,
lake and vermiUon make flesh color. Umber, white and Venetian make
drab. White, yellow and Venetian make cream color. Red, blue, black
and yellow make olive. Yellow, white and a little Venetian make buff.
Always keep the tops of the tubes screwed, in order to prevent
the paint from becoming dirty, or hard. Use a clean dry cloth to
wipe the bowl and brush before commencing to tint. Open the tube
and squeeze a very small amount of the tube paint in the bottom of a
bowl or pan. Pour out a small quantity of gasoline and use the brush
for mixing and dissolving the paint thoroughly. If any portion of
the paint is not completely dissolved, it is liable to' spot the material
to be tinted. Dip into this solution or preparation a small sample, in
order to see the exact shade that the dye will produce. Should it be
too dark, add more gasoline ; should it be too light, add more paint.
It is well to remember that Prussian blue, burnt umber and black are
very strong paints and very little of them will be required in order
to obtain a delicate shade. Sufficient gasoline should be in the bowl
to cover all of the material to be tinted.
In addition to the liquid tinting as given in the foregoing articles,
there is a system of dry tinting that is much used for heavy laces,
velvets and beaver hats.
To Tint Laces
Heavy laces are quickly made a beautiful butter color by rubbing
the lace thoroughly with yellow ochre dusted over. Powdered paints
come in many shades and colors. Should the color be too dark it
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
must be mixed with corn starch. Mix the starch and paint until the
required shade is obtained. Put the powder on a large lid or board.
Cover the lace completely with the powdered paint. Lift up the lace
and shake it until most of the paint is shaken out.
To Tint Beaver Hats
White beaver hats can be tinted beautifully in light shades with
this same powdered paint and starch. Of course it is not permanent
like the liquid, but often answers the purpose. The dry tint is much
better for beavers than the liquid. Beavers after being tinted should
be combed with a fine steel comb.
The dry tinting is only successful when used on something that
has a nap or rough surface. If used on a white felt shape it should
be rubbed in with a piece of white velvet. Liquid tinting on white
felt causes the glue to come to the surface and the hat spots.
TO REMOVE STAINS
STAINS OF ANY SORT YIELD TO SCIENTIFIC TREATMENT
To Remove Acid Stains
Stains from an acid will usually disappear under a bath of
To Remove Blood Stains
First wet the spot thoroughly with cold water, keeping it wet for
several hours. Then use hot water, and if the stains still remain it is
because the iron in the blood has not responded to the water treatment.
Iron becomes soluble in ammonia, therefore sponge with a weak
solution of ammonia and water. Should the spots not disappear, then
consult a professional cleaner.
When old or set a very thick paste made from starch and water
should be laid on both sides of the stain and allowed to remain there
until perfectly dry, when it can be shaken off.
To Remove Chocolate Stains
The stains from chocolate are not so easy to remove. Soak in
lukewarm water, which is to be renewed as occasion requires.
To Remove Coffee Stains
Coffee spots should be soaked in cold water until they disappear,
changing the water as often as it becomes much discolored.
To Remove Color from Ostrich Feathers
Wash the feather in warm water, then fill it full of soap and lay
it in a pan of hot water (not boiling) for about thirty minutes. Take
it out and you will find that the former color is about all gone ; then re-
dye the color you wish.
To Remove Fruit Stains
When fruit stains are fresh pour boiling water steadily through
them and they will usually disappear. If the water is hard, borax or
ammonia in a small quantity should be added to the water.
Fruit and Wine Stains
Fruit and wine stains, if dry, should be soaked in cold water, like
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
tea stains. Then stretch the stained fabric over a basin, rub with com-
mon salt and pour boihng water through the stain. Or it can be rubbed
with lemon, instead of using boiling water. Repeat, if necessary, and
if all is not removed let the rest wear out. Some fruit and wine stains,
especially those of apple and pear, and some clarets, are very difficult
to remove. If they are boiled gently (after soaking) in some strong
borax and water, well rinsed, then hung out in the sunshine, or bet-
ter, left hanging out during a frosty night, the stains will disappear.
The articles should be dripping wet when hung out.
To Remove Grass Stains
Grass stains will yield to the cologne application, though a thor-
ough bath in alcohol is, perhaps, more certain.
Kerosene is another liquid that may be applied successfully to grass
stains, while some recommend covering the spots with a paste made
from cream of tartar and water.
This should not be used in the case of colored goods, as the color
is likely to disappear.
Grease Spot on a Parasol
You may get rid of the grease spot by laying on hot French chalk.
This will dissolve and absorb the grease. Next, the parasol should
be opened and then thoroughly washed with gasoline and white soap
all over its surface, more particularly on the soiled places.
Afterward sponge off with clear gasoline. By going over every
part of the parasol there will be no danger of spots or streaks and
gasoline will not harm it. Keep away from fire or artificial light
during this process.
To Remove Grease from Wood
If grease is spilled on the kitchen floor or table do not scrub it
with hot water, as the natural inclination is to do, for this only soaks
it in deeper. Instead sprinkle a little soda over the spots, and scrub
with cold water. In this way the spot does not spread nor soak in,
and is removed much more quickly.
To Remove Grease Stains from Cotton or Linen
A grease stain on cotton or linen will usually yield to the treatment
of a mixture of Fuller's earth and pipeclay in equal quantities.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Remove Grease Stains from Silk
When any greasy substance has been dropped upon silk it can be
abstracted by mixing French chalk with methylated spirits to the con-
sistency of cream, laying it upon the stain, then covering with a brown
paper and pressing with a warm iron.
French chalk removes grease and does not injure colored silks.
Scrape a little on the spot, rub it in, let it stand twenty-four hours,
then brush off and repeat the process if necessary, for grease is often
hard to remove.
Grease stains will dissolve readily in ether, benzine, gasoline,
chloroform, kerosene and naphtha, and sometime in turpentine and
hot alcohol. Most of these solvents are inflammable, and some are
explosive, hence they should never be used near a light or a fire.
Ordinary grease or gravy stains on table linen may be removed by
rubbing in hot water and soap. This should be done before the linen
is put to soak, or it may be done during the washing. These stains,
unless well washed out, will appear again when the linen is ironed.
Grease marks on colored material may be removed by placing the
stained part over a cloth and rubbing it with benzine, beginning at the
outer edge of the stain and working towards the center. This prevents
the stain spreading and forming a wavy mark on the material when
dry. The cloth placed under the stain absorbs the grease and aids in
cleaning the fabric. Another method is to place a piece of blotting
paper over the stain and pass a hot iron over it. The paper absorbs
the grease and as it gets stained it must be replaced by a fresh piece.
To Remove Stain with Chloroform from Silk
First remove as much of the grease spot as you can by the hot
iron method; that is, place clean blotting paper both above and below
the stain, then place a warm iron over the paper. The heat will dis-
solve the grease which the blotting paper will absorb.
Remove the paper, add a fresh supply under the stain and rub with
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Remove Ice Cream Stains
Ice cream stain can be removed by this means, if applied at once :
Alcohol may be used instead of the methylated spirits if there are
none of the latter on hand.
A little cologne would answer if no other liquid were available,
but water should not be applied.
A bottle of cologne is a most useful article, for it will take away
smears if rubbed on as soon as they appear. It can be used alike on
white or colored fabrics, cotton or woolen, without the slightest injury.
Ice cream makes a very bad stain, because it has both grease and
sugar in its make-up. To remove stains of it from silk, sponge the
stained parts with gasoline or chloroform, placing a pad of absorbent
cotton or blotting paper under the spots. When dry, sponge with
tepid water and a good soap, and then rub with a flannel cloth until
dry. This work must be done away from the flre or artificial light.
Use plain strong coffee to remove the stains of ice cream or milk
from black clothing. Dip a cloth in the coffee and rub it over the
spot. If the coffee is applied as soon as the stain has been made, so
much the better.
Removing Ink Stains
In dyeing and cleaning shops ether is used almost exclusively for
removing ink from fabrics. It is a powerful cleansing agent, but will
destroy materials unless they are well rinsed. Ether will remove
perspiration stains, but should be mixed with ammonia and water.
One-fourth ether, one-fourth ammonia and one-half water is a good
mixture. Rinse and place in the sun.
To Remove Ink Stains
Ink can be taken from white goods with tomatoes if applied freely.
Cold milk is good when the stains are fresh, changing the milk as
often as necessar}^ Fresh butter is even a better solvent.
If very obstinate and the material will stand hot water, the stain
should be covered with melted tallow, then washed in the usual way.
Oxalic acid will remove any very obstinate stains, but can be
used only on white goods, as it will destroy the color. The crystals
are dissolved in boiling water and the liquid is applied to the stain.
A thorough rinsing in clear water afterward is imperative.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Iron-Mold and Dry Ink Stains
Iron-mold and dry ink stains may be removed by placing the stained
material in a hot solution of salts of sorrel or salt of lemon, and
leaving it to steep until they disappear; or by placing the stained part
over a basin and pouring boiling water through to moisten the stain,
which enables the chemical action to take place more rapidly. Then
a small quantity of salt of lemons or salts of sorrel should be placed
on the stain and rubbed firmly in, and boiling water again poured
through. If the first application does not remove it, the process
must be repeated. If the iron-mold is due to old iron rust, neither
of the above-mentioned chemicals may remove it successfully. A
pinch of oxalic acid, which is a strong chemical, may then have the
desired effect. It is used in exactly the same manner as salt of
lemons, but it must be used with great care, as it is injurious to fab-
To remove ink stains from white material before the ink is quite
dry, sprinkle with salt and rub with half a lemon. Rinse off the acid
and wash at once. When ink stains are dry, but fresh, they may be
removed by dipping the stained part in buttermilk, or milk that has
been boiled; change the milk frequently, then wash the article well.
To Remove Iron Rust
Spots of iron rust which are so likely to be found on white dresses
and aprons may be easily removed in the following way : Place a
small lump of cream of tartar on the spot of iron rust, and tie up the
dress goods so as to hold the cream of tartar on the spot. Do the
same to all the spots of iron rust and put the clothes into the boiler.
After boiling, the clothes will be perfectly white and free from spots.
As most medicines, especially tinctures, are soluble in alcohol,
methylated spirits will often remove the stains from clothes and
other utensils. When stains contain silver compounds (to this class
belong paints for warts, the throat and nose), any white fabric on
which a little compound has been spilt acts like a piece of sensitized
paper, and at once darkens on exposure to the light. An effective
method is to soak the stain for some time in a tincture of iodine,
then treat with a strong solution of hyposulphate of soda; strong
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
ammonia will then complete the process. Medicine stains very often
yield to alcohol. These stains frequently leave terribly, disfiguring
discolorations on table and bed linen, and not uncommonly also re-
sult in iron mould. They should be spread with a paste made of pul-
verized Fuller's earth and spirits of hartshorn, allowing the applica-
tion to dry upon the stain, and finally washing out in cold water. If
necessary, the treatment may then be repeated, but one trial is gen-
To remove medicine stains from spoons, rub with a soft rag dipped
in sulphuric acid, wash with soapsuds and polish with a chamois
Iodine is often responsible for stains, and is at once decolorized
if sponged with strong ammonia. To remove iodine stains from linen,
soak the stain with sweet milk, occasionally rubbing the spot. Alco-
hol is also considered good for white materials. Another method is
to dissolve two drams of hyposulphate of soda in half a tumblerful
Iodine stains come out easily with chloroform, or the cloth may
be rubbed with gasoline.
To remove iodine stains, soak the stained part in cold water for
half an hour, then cover thickly with common soda, and leave for a
few hours. After the usual washing and boiling the stain will en-
Mildew usually appears on the fibres of cotton and linen ; it takes
the form of small round dark spots; in reality it is a vegetable growth,
or form of fungus, which develops on the fibres of the material. Its
appearance is due to dampness, and reflects discredit on the work
of the housekeeper, as the clothes must either have been put away
damp or kept in a damp cupboard.
Owing to the nature of mildew, it is difficult to remove. One of
the simplest remedies is to moisten the stained fabric, rub it thickly
with soft soap and sprinkle it with common salt. Place the material
on the grass in the sunshine and keep it moist. Renew the treatment
each day until the stain disappears.
A quicker method, and a surer one, is to keep the stained part in
white material in a solution of bleaching liquor. To prepare the
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
bleaching liquor, put half a pound of chlorinated lime into a basin
and pour half a gallon of boiling water over it; add two tablespoon-
fuls of washing soda, and stir to break up all the lumps, and to enable
the water to extract all the chlorine. Strain carefully to remove all
the powder and so make the liquid clear. Bottle and keep ready for
This liquor is used chiefly for the removal of obstinate organic
stains, such as dyes, fruit, wine and old tea or coffee stains. But it
should only be used for fabrics made from vegetable fibres, such as
linen and cotton, as its application to wool and silk proves fatal to
the fibres. The solution should never be stronger than one part of
the liquor to four parts of hot water.
Milk stains usually come away readily enough in the ordinary
washing process; that is to say, soaking in weak soda water and sub-
sequent washing with soap. Where, however, the material cannot be
washed, warm water should be applied locally, followed by weak am-
To Remove Paint Stains
Rub fresh paint with a rag dipped in spirits of turpentine, and if
not immediately removed rub the soiled part with both hands, as
though the fabric were being washed.
The ease or difficulty with which these are removed depends on
the length of time they have been in the fabric. If done when the
paint is wet their removal is more easily accomplished than when left
until dry. To remove wet paint from white material, wash the stain
with soap and water, then boil in water to which a little kerosene has
been added; again rub between the hands, using soap and hot water.
Dry paint on white material can easily be removed by soaking the
stain in turpentine to soften the medium which hardens it to the fab-
ric. It should then be rubbed in the turpentine and washed in soap
and water, finishing with ordinary washing.
Paint stains that are old and dry may be removed from woolen
goods with chloroform. First cover the spot with olive oil or butter.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
When the stain is on a fabric the color of which is apt to be destroyed
moisten tirst with a Httle oil, then remove with ether. .
If not too severe scorch marks are most effectually remedied by
soaking the part in cold water and exposing to the rays of the sun,
moistening afresh as it dries, until the blemish disappears.
To remove scorch from linen, put two ounces of Fuller's earth
into a saucepan, add half an ounce of white soap, the juice of two
large onions and one cupful of vinegar. Boil together for a few
minutes, strain into a jar, and keep covered for future use. Spread
on the scorched parts with a knife, and allow it to dry on. The stain
will soon disappear. If the garment is scorched with ironing, rub a
lump of dry starch on the mark. Then sponge it off. Repeat till the
Scorching of White Material
Expose the material to the -direct rays of the sun for several hours.
If there is not time for this, procure some chloride water, dip linen
rags into this and rub the spots which are scorched. The marks will
To Remove Shoe Blacking from Straw
Assuming the blacking to be the ''liquid" polish and containing
wood alcohol, no doubt a bleach made from oxalic acid dissolved in
alcohol will cut the stain, and by repeated applications of clear bleach
the spot may be removed. Place an absorbent cloth under spot and
then carefully rub with plenty of the alcohol bleach. Don't scour.
General Rules for Removing Stains and Spots
Before putting the article to be cleaned into the gasoline bath,
it should be carefully inspected for grease spots and stains. These the
gasoline is not pledged to remove. Apply block magnesia or French
chalk to grease spots, sponge stains with alcohol or ammonia, and be
sure that the spots are gone before putting the garment into the
Stains from Garments and Materials
Have plenty of gasoline on hand and conduct operations in a room
without a fire. If you can work out-of-doors so much the better.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Such caution would seem unnecessary, but the columns of the daily
papers furnish too many tales of catastrophes resulting from careless
use of gasoline to make a warning needless.
Pour a generous supply of gasoline into the vessel in which you
wish to do your cleansing and put the soiled articles into it Cover
and leave it a few minutes and then souse the article up and down in
the fluid for several minutes. Never rub the goods while in the gaso-
line, but continue to dip up and down until you can see from the
dirt gathering in the bottom of the vessel that much of the soil has
been removed. Hang the garment to dry without wringing or squeez-
If you are of an economical turn you will pour the gasoline care-
fully off the dirty sediment in the bottom and put it away to use as
the first rinsing medium for some less delicate articles.
Let it stand for ten minutes or so before pouring it off, keeping
it covered, as it evaporates quickly. Put in a tightly corked bot-
tle and set in a place away from the fire.
Sometimes an article is so dirty that it requires a second gasoline
treatment. In that case use fresh fluid — not that in which it has once
To Remove Tea and Coffee Stains
Put the article to soak in cold water. Should the stain not have
disappeared after it has soaked an hour, squeeze the water out and
stretch over a basin. Sprinkle the stain with powdered borax and
pour boiling water through it. Do not put the stain into the hot
borax water, as that will set the edge of the mark. The borax may
not quite remove the stain, but the rest will in time disappear, espe-
cially if the cloth is dried in the open air. Never soap a tea or coffee
stain until the article has been soaked in cold water, as soap and hot
water will turn the stain into a fast dye if it is dry. To remove coffee
stains from woolen and other materials rub thoroughly with pure
gasoline. The place should afterwards be well washed with lukewarm
water, and ironed on the wrong side till dry.
To Remove Vaseline Stains
Soak first in cold water and then wash in hot soap suds to which
washing soda has been added.
LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING
Cleaning Ostrich Feathers, Aigrettes and Plumes
Use a dry pan or bowl. Wash the feathers in gasoHne rubbing
the flue from the stem to the point of the feather. Throw the dirty
gasoline out. Clean bowl. Pour in more gasoline. Add two table-
spoonsful of wheat Mour. Stir until it is the consistency of thin
paste. Wash feathers, plumes or aigrettes in this solution, being care-
ful to rub the flues from the stem to the point. Do not rub back and
forth. Lift the feather from the bowl and dry it by beating it lightly
over the back of the hand. The gasoline quickly evaporates, the
heaviest part of the flour falls to the ground and enough remains to
properly starch the feather. This work must be done near an open
window. Fumes from the gasoline will produce a violent headache
if the cleaning is done in a closed room.
To Clean Feathers
Feathers may be washed in gasoline in the same manner as other
articles, but after they are dry they should be held in the steam of
boiling water and then dried in a hot oven or over a heated radiator.
This process will restore the curl to the feathers.
To Whiten Feathers
Plunge the feathers in naphtha, rinse in second dish of naphtha,
and dry in the open air. Place in a closed box and expose to the
strong fumes of sulphur. The box must be airtight or the bleaching
will not be sufficient.
To Clean Osprey
The osprey may be safely washed in warm soapsuds, afterw^ard
rinsing in warm water two or three times. Faded ospreys may be
redipped in the paint and gasoline dye. Ostrich feathers come out
well from the same kind of a bath.
To Clean Wings
Wings should be wiped in order to remove dust, then sponged
Note: It is best to send fine Ostrich, aigrette and other plumage
to professional cleaners, unless by practice you have become ex-
pert in manipulating them.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Cleaning White Wings
Wings are much more difficult to clean than are the softer feath-
ers, such as ostrich and marabou.
Cover white wings with a cream made from naphtha and French
chalk, allowing it to dry on for a day, and then remove.
The best way to learn the processes necessary for cleaning, dye-
ing and curling plumes is to secure a position with an establish-
ment making this work a specialty. The dyeing of ostrich feath-
ers is an art and experts get high wages because very few persons
develop the ability to judge colors and shades in the liquid dye
that will be the correct colors or shades after the feathers are
Curling is less difficult to learn but requires a deftness or a knack
that some people can never acquire.
Ostrich feathers can be recurled without removal from the hat
by holding over steam until the flues are fluffy again, when they
may be curled with a blunt knife.
White Chiffon Hats
Soiled white chiffon hats respond to a treatment of equal parts
of magnesia, French chalk and pulverized soap. The hat is covered
with this mixture, which is left on for twenty-four hours. When
brushed off, the soiled spots usually come with it.
Cleaning a White Felt Hat
Grease spots can be removed with benzine. Soap, water and brush
will remove ordinary dirt, especially if one has a block to put the hat
on. For a thorough cleaning, the band, lining, etc., must first be re-
A Simple Process for Cleansing and Pressing Ribbons
A good-sized empty glass bottle, covered smoothly with soft
flannel and linen outside, is most valuable to dry the ribbons on.
There is no need of ironing, and the pieces come from the bath look-
ing like new.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
A flat, wide, high bottle is best for this purpose, and a piece of
flannel rolled around it smoothly and sewed securely makes a founda-
tion over which cotton must be bound so that any creases in the
cover will not go into the ribbons.
The same bottle may be used for years without re-covering.
It is well to wait until there are a dozen or more narrow pieces
to be freshened, for it is no more trouble to cleanse a dozen than to
wash one. They should be put into a bath of soapy, warm water,
but soap is not to be rubbed directly upon the ribbons. Neither should
the pieces be nibbed in the hands; instead they are squeezed under
the water, put through several soap baths and through two rinsings.
Careful Work Necessary
Laying them on the bottle requires time, and one should consider
it a task to be done carefully. Each piece of ribbon should be put
around and around the bottle, keeping the winding flat and smooth.
As fast as one is used the next is placed, the new end holding down
that of the piece previously folded. There may be four or five pieces,
one on top of the other, but if the quality is good the colors will not
run. The end of the last piece must be pinned to hold all securely,
and the bottle should then be placed where drying will be rapid. Direct
sunlight may fade the colors, so the cylinder should be put near arti-
ficial heat. When not in use the bottle must be wrapped in paper
to prevent soiling the covering.
Wide ribbons are renewed by washing, though in a different man-
ner, for to prevent their creasing in a bath they must be evenly wet
with clear water and then patted smooth on a marble washstand or
other flat surface. The strand must then be washed with soapy water,
using the finger tips. This scours, without pulling the silk grain.
When all soil has been removed the ribbon is lifted and rinsed by
holding flat under a faucet and letting the water run through and
down without permitting the surface to wrinkle. This done, the wet
strand is again laid flat and patted gently and thoroughly, that there
may be no blisters beneath the surface, for they show when the silk
To Cleanse Ribbons
Sponge with alcohol and rub over the spot with some clean, white
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
soap. During this process the ribbon must be kept straight. When
clean rinse in alcohol and place between two towels. Press out with
a hot iron.
Directions for Cleaning a Slightly Soiled Ermine Stole
Hot bran carefully rubbed in and shaken out again will remove
much of the dirt; so will flour. Be sure the bran or flour is perfectly
clean, and rub it in carefully.
To Clean Silk or Cashmere
In cleaning a very fine material, like cashmere or silk, use some-
thing less coarse than meal. For easily injured fabrics try block
The treatment is a little more tender. Do not rub the silk between
the hands as the heavier goods. Instead of that rub the block mag-
nesia into it gently, rubbing the application on both sides of the
Lay it away carefully, where it will be protected from the dust
and leave it untouched for several days. After it has been well
shaken and brushed it ought to look as well as though it had been
through the hands of the professional cleanser.
An Easy and Economical Way to Clean White Fur or Feathers
Put into a strong paper bag equal parts of flour and Indian meal
with one-eighth the quantity of borax. Shake the articles in the bag
until all soil has disappeared; then remove from the bag and shake
out the powder.
White furs can also be cleaned with flour.
Lace should always be soaked before washing, and if much soiled
use boiling water in which a teaspoonful of borax has been dissolved,
the usual proportions being two cupfuls of water to every teaspoonful
of borax. Then make a lather with some good soap and hot water.
Take the lace from the water in which it has been soaked, place it in
the soap water and squeeze it exactly as if it were a sponge till it is
clean. This will prevent the lace from being torn, more especially if
it is of a fine make. Repeat the process, if necessary, in another basin
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
of soapy water. Then rinse in clean, cold water until all the soap is
removed. If the lace is white a little blue in the rinsing water will
improve the color. A very little stiffening will prevent ordinary lace
from soiling quickly, but this must not be enough to keep the fabric
from falling into soft folds. The water in which rice has been
boiled is very suitable for this purpose. Wash two tablespoonfuls of
rice until it is perfectly clean, then put it in a saucepan with one and
a half pints of water. Boil for four minutes, then allow the lace to
stand in the water for a minute. Take it out, squeeze tightly, pull
it into shape, and put it under a heavy weight. If after repeated wash-
ings the lace has still a soiled look, it may either be bleached in the
sun or boiled. To boil lace, put it in a jar or preserve pot with cold
water to cover it, and a little melted soap. Stand the jar in a sauce-
pan with boiling water to reach fully halfway up the jar, put the lid
on the pan and boil for two or three hours.
To dry clean fine white lace, lay it out quite evenly on clean white
paper, cover it with magnesia, then put another paper on top. Let it
remain inside the leaves of a book for two or three days, when it
will look as fresh as new. After being cleaned, if the lace is not in
use, keep it in blue paper, as this has a preservative influence over its
A Simple Method of Pressing and Cleaning Lace
It is useful to have as many hints as possible concerning the pro-
cess of cleaning lace, for many women prefer doing this themselves
rather than to send valuable heirlooms to the cleaners.
This method of pressing real laces is practised by a Frenchwoman
who always does up her valuable collection of old laces. The rolled
lace is wound round a good sized bottle, which is then covered with
white muslin, carefully tacked on. Put the bottle in a kettle filled
with cold water in which a good sized piece of white soap is dissolved
and boil for an hour. Pour off the soiled water and add fresh until
the water is clear.
Remove the bottle and rinse repeatedly through cold water. Take
off the muslin and let the lace dry on the bottle. If the stiffness is
out the lace is dipped in a little skim milk. It is then put in a damp
cloth until ready to pin out.
^ THE MILLINERS GUIDE "^S^M
The pinning out process is most important. A wooden drum
twelve inches high and twenty-four inches in diameter is covered with
cotton wadding and white muslin on the circumference of the wood,
and the cylinder has blue paper put over it, as blue is less trying to the
eyes than white.
Take out just enough lace from the cloth to pin it before drymg
entirely. Pin the heading of lace first in a straight edge, setting the.
pins closely and at equal distances. Then pin out each picot sepa-
rately, taking care to keep them in shape and to retwist if they have
If the picots cannot all be pinned before the lace dries, dampen
them with a wet cloth, as sticking pins into dry parts may tear valu-
able lace. Use very fine pins for the tiny picots and coarser ones for
heavier lace. Only a non-rustable pin must be used.
The lace must stay pinned on the cylinder until dry, when it is
removed and slipped into blue paper bags to keep clean until the en-
tire portion to be washed is finished.
Do not attempt this pinning out when in a hurry, as the work must
be done carefully and should be finished at one sitting.
When the lace is fragile and very soiled, before washing on a
bottle soak for several hours in pure olive oil.
To Clean Lace
No. I — Fill a large bottle with cold water and sew around it some
clean, old white muslin. Tack one end of the lace to the muslin
and wrap the lace around the bottle smoothly. With a clean sponge
saturate the lace thoroughly with pure sweet oil. Suspend the bottle
by means of strings into a wash-bottle. Pour in a strong cold lather
of white castile soap. Boil this suds until the lace is white and
clean. Dry the lace, still wrapped about the bottle, in the sun. Re-
move the lace, and if necessary, press it under a thin piece of muslin
or cheese cloth.
No. 2 — Spots in lace may be removed by , scouring gently with a
brush with a suds made of white soap and warm water. Afterward
proceed as just directed. Some laces are strong enough to stand gen-
tle rubbing in the hands. After washing and rinsing them, wrap them
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
about a bottle and allow to remain until thoroughly dry. After re-
moving them from the bottle pull and smooth with the fingers.
No. 3 — After washing lace by either of the processes just given,
let it partially dry. Place a folded blanket covered with clean
muslin on an ironing board or table. Iron the lace under a thin strip
of muslin or cheesecloth until it is thoroughly dry. If the figures
in the pattern are raised on one side, or outlined by a raised thread,
place this side downward so that the soft pad will prevent the pat-
tern from being flattened.
How to Clean Parasols
Place the parasol in the bathtub and run in enough warm water
to cover it. Rub it all over with a pure white soap and let it soak
for a few minutes. Then scrub it well with a small hand-brush, rub-
bing the soiled places and the creases briskly. Rinse in two or three
waters. If it is a white parasol, put a little bluing in the last water.
Open it and hang in the sun until dry.
To Clean a Parasol
If the soiled parasol is silk covered, gasoline and naphtha should
be used; white soap should be cut and mixed with a little warm water
to make a jelly, then added to the gasoline.
The parasol should be opened and given a scrubbing, using a nail
brush for the purpose. When clean rinse in clear gasoline and dry.
Lace, linen or net will stand the soap and water process. Make a
warm, strong suds, using only the best white soap and a little borax.
Scrub as directed for gasoline and rinse thoroughly, first with warm
water and then with cold. Set out of doors to dry, still open, secured
in some way to save the sunshade from being carried away by the
If the covering is of chiffon or chiffon cloth, the gasoline method
should be employed.
Simple Cleanser for Suede Gloves
Light suede gloves may be satisfactorily cleaned at home with oat-
meal. Put the oatmeal in a bowl and the gloves on the hands. Then
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
rub the hands through the meal exactly as if you were washing them
with soap and water. If any part is especially soiled, scour it thor-
oughly with a piece of white flannel dipped in the meal.
Cleaning Kid Gloves
After the gloves have been cleaned with petrol or benzine, and
they are quite dry, place them on the hand and stroke firmly with a
bone saltspoon, beginning at the finger-tips and working down to
the wrist. This smooths and polishes the kid, and the gloves keep
clean much longer.
To Clean Woolen or Cotton Gown
To cleanse a woolen or cotton gown, shake and brush it well first,
to insure its being freed from accumulated dust.
Then put it into a tub and rub it with buckwheat flour which has
been slightly salted. Have plenty of the flour and rub the dress in
it as you would in soap water, paying especial attention to the
dirtiest parts and rubbing them well between your hands with the flour.
You will be astonished to see how dirty this will be after the
rubbing process is ended.
Shake out the garment, empty the tub, put the dress in it again
and rub in fresh. Cover it with this ; put a cover on the tub and
leave untouched for three days.
Take out the dress, shake it again and brush it with a clean brush
broom until it is entirely free from the flour.
White Hats, Knit Shawls or Afghans
In every case flour is to be rubbed well into the material and left
there for two or three days, the article in cleansing to be kept cov-
ered so that dust cannot settle upon it.
At the end of the period of retirement a vigorous brushing and
shaking must be given and almost always the garment will be found
satisfactorily clean. In some obstinate cases a second application may
be necessary, but this is unusual.
White furs may be cleansed in the same way.
Cleaning a Woolen Skirt
For thoroughly cleansing woolen skirts, either black or colored,
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
without the least possible injury, there is nothing better than a wash-
ing in a soap bark bath.
Five cents' worth of the bark is sufficient to make the grimiest
skirt like new, if one is willing to take the trouble. This quantity
should be put into a gallon of cold water and brought to a boil. Take
off stove, and use when tepid; use no soap with it; press while slight-
Dry Cleaning at Home
There are ways of practicing dry-cleaning at home by those who
have more time than money to spend in making their garments pre-
sentable. The process is simple enough, although it is a little trou-
blesome, in that it demands care and close attention to details.
Dry Cleaning Preparation
A successful way to clean white yokes and cuffs without remov-
ing them from a waist or dress is to cover them with a mixture of
two parts white corn-meal and one part powdered borax. Leave this
on overnight; then brush it off thoroughly.
Dry Cleaning for Ecru Curtains
Arabian net or ecru curtains lose their tint in ordinary washing,
and recoloring is not always satisfactory. Spread a sheet or two on
the floor and lay the curtains carefully on them. Mix two parts of
bolted corn-meal with one of salt. Take a clean brush or the hand
and rub all through the curtains. Hang out of doors for a couple of
hours and the curtains will be clean and look like new. In this sim-
ple way they can be cleaned frequentl}^ will never smell of dust or
smoke and will wear better.
FOn THE WORKROOM AND HOME
Tag Your Piece-Bag
Here is a sensible method of tagging the contents of a piece-
bag. On the outside of the bag fasten the largest procurable
safety-pin. Attach samples to this pin of every remnant that
goes into the bag. A great amount of time and patience is saved
by this simple device, for one can see at a glance just what the
Prevent Ball of Wool from Rolling
A good plan to keep the ball of v^ool from rolling v^hen cro-
cheting or knitting, is to wind so the thread will pull from the
center; a little care in winding will give much satisfaction. Wind
over the four fingers a dozen times or so, slip off, wind loosely
over this at first, then proceed as usual in winding; only keep one
end open. When finished, the wool or thread should pull out
from the center. Fasten outside end; no more rolling balls.
Cutting Bias Bands
An excellent way to cut and point bias bands is in the follow-
ing manner: With a ruler and something which will mark the
cloth — chalk for dark colors and a hard pencil for light are good
if not used too heavily — mark the bands on the material. Then
carefully join the two ends of the cloth so that the chalk lines
exactly meet, only have the first line on one end, meet the second
on the other, thus forming a spiral. Stitch on the machine; then
with a needle and thread put a few secure stitches each side of
the marks to stay the stitching. With sharp scissors begin at
the place where the first band extends beyond the second, and
cut round and round, following the chalk line, until the whole
is cut into one piece all perfectly joined.
Boning Belts and Collars
Princess or one-piece wash dresses joined with a belt may be
boned in the following simple manner: Cut the whalebone or un-
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
covered featherbone to the desired lengths. Now cut linen tape,
which must be a little wider than the bone, into lengths at least
two inches more than the strips of bone. At the top and bottom,
fold over the tape an inch or more and stitch down at each side.
This makes a sort of envelope or receptacle at top and bottom,
into which the bone, when slightly curved, will easily slip after
the tapes have been fastened into the inside of a gown. When
the dress is to be laundered the bones are removed and reinserted
after the ironing.
All wash-collars and wash-belts may be boned after the same
handy fashion. One set of bones for collars and one for belt?
will suffice, as it takes but an instant to remove them from one
and slip into another if the tapes are made uniform on each. An-
other very great advantage is the fact that the boning never needs
To Make Sewing Silk Run Evenly
When the silk thread on the machine runs off the spool too
fast, and causes it to tighten around the spindle, cut a piece of
blotting paper or thick cloth, make a hole in the center and slip
on the spindle before the spool, and 3^ou will have no more trou-
Braid Used for Buttonholing
An excellent substitute for buttonholing is found in the use
of the familiar coronation braid. It may be whipped along any
edge where buttonholing is commonly used. This is suggested
for garments made of inexpensive material for general use.
A Simple and Economical Way to Braid
is to trace the design on tissue paper, then baste to the material
that is to be braided. Proceed to sew on the braid, sewing
through both paper and material, until the design has been all
covered with the braid, after which remove the paper by care-
fully tearing it off. The paper is a protection to delicate material
while braiding, although it works equally as well on dark ma-
Before covering wooden button-moulds for wash frocks, boil
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
them well in strong soda-water. This will take all the turpentine
out of the wood and prevent the buttons from discoloring the
tnaterial when the frock is washed.
In Ripping Buttons
off old blouses, etc., string them at once on a bit of strong thread
and tie together. Next time you want a set of buttons you will
not have to pick them, out from several hundred others.
To Make Even Buttonholes
In making buttonholes in sheer, soft material, a perfectly firm
straight edge may be made by even a novice in buttonholes if a
very fine cambric needle is run through the cut from one end
to the other, so that the needle is directly over the opening; the
buttonholing is done over the net^dle, then the needle is pulled
out and inserted again outside of the work, and the second side
worked over it, the little cross-stitch at the ends being made
while the needle is not in place.
To Make a Neat, Firm Buttonhole in a Jacket
Cut in waste material the length of buttonhole required, meas-
ure and mark the exact length with thread where the buttonhole
is to be; stitch quite closely on each side of thread; cut between
the rows of stitching; stay in the usual way with a few over and
over stitches at each end, passing the thread along the edges
between the ends, and work. The stitching prevents the canvas
interlining from slipping, also the goods from pulling out.
Mending the Gloves
Use cotton thread for mending the gloves, as silk thread will
cut the kid. Do not use the over and over stitch as it always
shows so plainly. Take a stitch on one side of the seam and
then a stitch on the opposite side, and draw them together. This
keeps the regular seam intact and conceals the fact that the glove
A Short Hatpin Is Useful at Sewing Machine
With a short hatpin one can guide and place the work. Keep
the hatpin in the sewing-machine drawer.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Turning in Hems
When turning in hems on wiry or sheer materials like swiss,
it is often much easier to take a warm iron and press them down
by the eye, which is generally accurate for long distances. This
gives better results in many cases than measuring, as a wiry swiss
will slip in spite of you when you attempt to measure accurately
for a deep hem or tuck.
Hints for Amateurs
Neatness is always a requisite of good sewing, and besides the
fact that durability is increased, there is a satisfaction in knowing
that the inside of a garment need not be withheld from a critical
eye. Binding the seams is a little thing, but most effectual in the
attainment of the neatness that marks the careful sewer.
If it is difficult to adjust binding, the edges of seams can be
pinked — a method in favor with tailors. There is no fraying of
the edges, and the bulky line is obviated.
Hems of heavy material can be successfully and neatly finished
if the raw edge of just one turn be stitched down underneath a
pliable tape of the same color. Two rows of stitching are neces-
sary, but the scheme" is worth a trial.
If a bias strip be used for binding armholes or seams, it can
be adjusted easily and evenly if it be creased in the center before
it is placed on the edge of the seam.
When cutting very sheer chiffons, batistes or soft materials, it
is well to draw a thread as a guide line.
It is better to shrink washable materials before making them
into garments. A little salt in the water will set the color, and
it is only necessary to wring out and hang by the selvedge on the
What Not To Do
Do not sew trimmings or buttons on tight beneath. Use very
fine thread or sewing silk for basting velvet, and to press the
seams open them, very slightly dampen and run the seam across
the narrow end of a warm iron standing on the broad end. Do
not allow the weight of an iron on it.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Embroidery Hoops for Darning
Embroidery hoops are the handiest things to use for darning.
Draw the material tightly in the same direction of the rent or
tear and notice the improvement in your work.
A New Dignity for the Curling Iron
When further sewing is blocked, for lack of a hot iron to
press a tiny seam, heat the curling iron, and the work may go
merrily on. In the winter, when the hot flatiron has been for-
gotten until needed, the poker thrust into the fire will heat in a
moment and answer for a short seam. The curling iron will
often help a person living in a hotel, where hot irons are not so
easy to have.
Some Sewing Items
If you have difficulty in hemming or stitching chiffon, soft
silks, etc., try laying a piece of thin paper under the goods and
stitching through this. The paper may then be torn away and
the goods will not be puckered nor require pressing.
If you are a poor buttonhole-maker or pressed for time, try
a machine-made buttonhole. They are neat, quickly made, and
last as long as if worked by hand. Cut the buttonhole perfectly
straight, overcast the edges and ends by hand, then stitch all
around two or three times by machine, and you will have a nice
buttonhole with very little time and labor.
Keep a piece of sandpaper in the machine drawer for rough
or blunted needles; a file, too, will quickl}^ smooth a dull machine
needle, and scissors may be sharpened on a large needle or the
stem of a glass (or piece of glass) b}^ opening and shutting
quickly, as if you were trying to cut the glass.
A Smart Laundry Bag
An attractive looking laundry bag that is showy enough for a
gift or a prize, yet it is easily made, may be cut from a yard and a
half of cretonne, flowered chintz or denim.
The full width of the material is used, the ends doubled over
and the three edges sewed tight on the machine, all but enough
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
space for turning. When turned the rest of the seam is blind-
Three inches from the top a ribbon is stitched through the
two sides of the bag, being sewed on each edge to form a casing
for a narrow stick, shorter than the width of the material. This
gives the necessary fullness to the bag and leaves a small frill at
A lengthwise slit is now cut on the right side of the bag,
slightly below the ribbon casing and as long as is desired for an
opening. This slit is bound with narrow ribbon the same color as
Hooks or ribbon loops are added at the upper, back corners
of the bag to suspend it on the inner door of a closet.
Such laundry bags can be easily washed by removing the stick.
Charming ones are made from the rose-covered cretonne bound
m pink or green wash satin ribbon or colored linen braid. One
smart looking bag that was also distinctly serviceable was made
from brown denim, with a casing and binding of brown satin
ribbon. The monogram of the owner was worked on the front
below the end of the opening.
Larger bags can be easily made by increasing the amount of
A Mode of Mending
that comes very handy in case an accident happens to a carpet
after it is tacked to the floor is this: Find a piece of carpet as
near like that on the floor as possible, and a little larger than the
place that needs patching. Make some paste with flour and cold
water the consistency of cold cream. Paste the side of the patch
that goes next the carpet, and lay it on just as you want it, then
with hot sad-irons press until dry; if properly done, one can
hardly find the patch after a day or two.
To Utilize Embroidered Monograms
Take the embroidered initial or monogram from old bolster
and pillow cases and use them on new slips. Cut letter from old
slip, leaving a three-inch square around it (letters for bed-linen
are usually two inches), then cut the material to form an oval
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
leaving a small margin to turn under. Sew to the new slip, then
outline with embroidery-cotton to conceal stitches. Outline an-
other row one-fourth of an inch from the first and work eyelets
at intervals between the rows to form a medallion. The result
is even prettier than when first embroidered.
Economy in Machine Needles
Keep a piece of white soap in the machine drawer, and when
stitching anything with much dressing in the goods, rub the seams
with the soap, and you will find you can stitch with ease and with
no danger of breaking the needle.
Always keep on hand in the machine drawer a small whet-
stone, and if your needle becomes dull, sharpen it on the whet-
stone. You can make it as good as new.
To Prevent Pricking the Fingers
One accustomed to doing needlework of any kind is aware
of the discomfort caused by the needle pricking the finger which
holds the underside of the cloth. This can be prevented if the
worker will moisten a small strip of court plaster and stick it
on the end of the finger.
When the yoke of a night-dress becomes worn, cut off the
night-dress skirt, take out the sleeves and sew it together across
the top, leaving a small opening through which the hook of a
suit-hanger may be slipped, and use it to protect a nice dress
hanging in the closet. Washed but seldom it will last a long time,
and will be found more convenient than a bag, as it is so much
easier to insert the dress without crushing.
A good pair of shears, carelessly left out-of-doors for some
time, seemed hopelessly rusty, were scoured with salt moistened
in scalding vinegar, soaked for a day in kerosene oil, then dried,
sharpened and vigorously rubbed with a flannel cloth dipped in
sweet oil; they were restored to their original use and brightness.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Sharpen Scissors
Cut them rapidly on the neck of a small glass bottle, or better
still, on a ground glass stopper. It trues the edges and makes
them cut like new.
Take a fine file and sharpen each blade, being careful to keep
the same angle as they had at first; file till rough places are all
taken out. Put a little oil on the edges of the blades and snap
together. Then wipe off all the oil.
When Stitching Seams
When stitching heavy white cotton or linen, rub the seam to
be stitched with hard white soap, and the needle will not cut the
Sewing Machine Hints
When your sewing machine belt becomes loose, do not stop
to take it off in order to tighten it. Just drop a little machine oil
upon it, and you will find the belt tight after a few turns of the
wheel. One sometimes has trouble because the needle cuts heavy
cotton or linen goods when stitching. If the seam to be stitched
is rubbed with hard white soap you will have no more difficulty.
In sewing on buttons leave them a little loose from the gar-
ment so that the thread may be wound around in order to insure
a good fastening. It is a good plan to place a pin between the
button and the cloth, passing the thread over the pin; then when
the thread is fastened remove the pin and the button is sufficiently
In padding embroidery use the chain stitch. This is an espe-
cially good hint for making scalloped edges.
In making patch work, if you cut your pattern in table oil
cloth instead in paper, you will find the work much more satis-
factory. The oilcloth pattern will not slip when cutting and
there is no danger of snipping off a portion with the scissors.
Some women use soft wrapping twine to pad buttonholes on
children's garments. Place this wrapping twine as near the edge
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
as possible and \v(^rk over it. It will not show w^hen the button-
hole is finished and the buttonholes will be very strong.
In Facing a Circular or Gored Skirt
do not cut a bias facing, but take the goods as it is in the piece
and lay it on the skirt (on the right side), beginning with the
center of the front. Pin in place, turn over and trim off at edge
of skirt. Now measure the width you wish your facing to be and
cut. Follow this plan around the skirt, and you will find that
you have a nice, smooth facing, with no little plaits or gathers
and no waste of cloth. Stitch around the bottom, turn on the
wrong side and turn in and hem or stitch the top of facing, after-
ward sewing the joinings (which will be selvage if facing has been
put on correctly) over and over.
Turning a Dress Skirt
If a skirt has become faded or soiled, it can often be turned to
good advantage. First, clean it as thoroughly as possible. Rip one
seam, turn and baste carefully before ripping another. If there
are plaits re-fold, following the old creases, making what was form-
erly the wrong side the right. If the skirt is a good hanging one,
any home dressmaker can do the work satisfactorily, for it is not
nearly so difficult a task as to make a new one. One seam at a time
is a much better way than to rip all the seams apart before beginning
For Darning Stockings
Electric light bulbs that are usually thrown aside when burned out
make an excellent addition to the work basket and can be used in
darning stockings. They are much lighter than the articles generally
used for the same purpose.
An Excellent Spool-Rack
To keep machine drawers in perfect order, saw a thin board
to fit the bottom of the drawer, mark it with rings, using a spool,
and put a peg or nail in the center of each ring. Now each spool is
in its own place on a nail and the thread does not become tangled.
The Modern Sweater
Now that sweaters have become a staple article of dress and are
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
custom made, big impro\ cnients have developed in their cut (if one may
so speak of garments built up of stitches) and consequently they have
a grace and shapeliness unknown to sweaters of former seasons.
In the new sweaters any stretching of the shoulder seam is avoid-
ed by a length of strong tape, one end of which is sewed to the
armhole, the other end to the edge of the neck. This tape simply
forces the shoulder to keep its shape.
Seams no longer are overhanded together with the yarn of which
the sweater is made, but are closely stitched with cotton or silk which
will never stretch. An excellent idea is to bind the seams with an
extra strong cotton tape that is machine-stitched in place.
A Table Scarf Resembling Oriental Work
On a gaudy red and green small "Brusselette" rug, colored a rich
cardinal red work a simple cross-stitch pattern across each end with
yellow, dull-blue and black silkateen, double in the needle. The scarf
is lined with red silkoline and locks quite expensive, though the origi-
nal rug cost only forty cents.
When Sewing Taffeta
Use a thin, fine needle for sewing taffeta. The blunt end of a
needle long used is liable to pucker the goods, and the stitches will
not be even. A heavier' needle may be used in sewing China silk.
A Substitute for Tape Needle
A safety-pin miakes the nicest kind of a tape needle for all pur-
poses. It never catches in the goods, for the edges are round, and it
never loses the tape for you close the pin as you pin it into the tape
or ribbon, always using a pin the size of hem or beading.
To Mend an Ugly Tear
Sometimes you are unfortunate enough to make an ugly tear in
a handsome new gown. It may be mended very successfully, and if
in an inconspicuous place it will not show at all. Lay the tear edge
to edge, and baste across it, ])eing careful that while the edges meet,
they do not overlap. Cut a piece of rubber tissue, which may be ob-
tained at any tailoring shop, to amply cover the tear. Lay the gar-
ment on the ironing board right side down, place the rubber over the
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
rent, and over the rubber lay a piece of goods of the same material
as that of the garment to be mended. Keep both rubber and goods
perfectly smooth, and press out with a hot iron for several minutes.
Now cut out the basting threads on the right side, and shave off any
rough edges remaining. When there is no material of the dress on
hand, a piece of light-weight woolen goods of the same color will
answer. That the bottoms of men's trousers are held together in
this way is a good sign that the method is practical and successful.
A Tonic for Sewing Machines
After some years' usage every sewing machine is likely to clog up
with fine dust which the machine oil collects on the bearings. As
soon as the machine begins to work heavily, take out the shuttle, and
then give every movable part a generous bath of gasoline. Work
the foot lever briskly, so that the gasoline may penetrate every part.
The old oil and caked dust will loosen and fall off in quantities that
will amaze you. Then open the windows of the sewing-room and let
the fumes of the gasoline escape. Of course, during this cleaning pro-
cess, the machinist will take good care that there is no lighted gas,
lamp or fire in the room. It is a good plan then to let the machine
stand without the usual lubricating oil until you are ready to use it
again. A piece of chamois should always be kept on hand to wipe
off the superfluous oil before beginning to stitch.
To Remove Threads After Ripping
After a garment has been ripped it is a tedious job to pick the
threads from the seams. If you take a piece of coarse cloth — such
as a piece of toweling — dampen it and rub it over the seams, the
threads come out readily.
Thread Twisted and Knotted
When thread twists and knots as you sew, try stretching the cot-
ton before beginning to use it. Take from the spool the usual needle-
ful, and holding each end firmly, stretch the cotton as tightly as pos-
sible two or three times.
A Thimble Factory at Islington
Thimbles were introduced into England by a man named John
THE MILLIXIiR'S GUIDE
Lotting, who came over from Holland about the end of the seven-
teenth century and established a thimble factory at Islington.
The word thimble is derived from the Scotch "Thummel" or
thumb bell, a sort of shield worn on the thumb.
Trifles Made from Scraps
A quick and effective method of utilizing small scraps of velvet,
silk and ribbon is the making of novel pincushions, which can be
equally well done by either young or old.
Cut a circle of cardboard three inches across and cover neatly.
Take a piece of silk, satin or velvet five inches wide and long
enough to go round circle. Then join same on wrong side up width
and join neatly to circle, so that both ends be turned out, leaving
stitching inside. Fill lightly with bran to an inch from the top,
where run draw thread. Take small doll's head — the penny Japa-
nese variety is most eft'ective — and place neck in draw string, pull
same tightly and fasten firmly oft'. The inch of material above thread
wdll form frill round neck, and ribbon cap tied around or small hat
made to finish off. This idea can also be carried out in round, square
or sack cushions.
Bolster cushions are easily made out of any material from five to
eight inches long and three to four wide. Join up length, line either
end with scrap of contrasting colored silk. Draw one end tightly one
inch and a half down, fill tightly with bran and draw other end up
the same. Finish with ribbon tied in bow round end, carried loosely
across and tied round other end, to form loop for hanging on looking
glass or wall. This idea can be carried out round a piece of circular
wood or blind roller, small gilt dresser hooks being screwed through
material to hang keys on.
Make four sacks three inches in depth, of any contrasting colors,
fill tightly with bran to inch from top, where dra\v tightly up, leav-
ing frill. Join together with bows for standing up. If to hang, fas-
ten each to length of ribbon and tie ends together.
HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING
To Wash Chiffon
Chiffon is washed in the same way as mushn, and after rinsing,
put through very thin clean starch. Be careful not to twist it in any
way, but enclose it in the folds of a towel, and either beat it between
the hands until dry or put it through the wringing machine. Do
not let chiffon lie too long before ironing, but stretch it to its proper
shape and iron it on the right side with a moderately hot iron. If
it is a large piece, do not expose too much of it to the air at one
time, but keep the part you are not ironing covered over to prevent
its becoming dry. Pull out occasionally while ironing to keep it soft,
and iron over again. It must on no account be made stiff, but ought
to fall softly, and just have sufficient stiffness to prevent its looking
Drying Lace Curtains
The rather trying task of stretching wet lace curtains is much
more easily accomplished if the frames are stood upon edge in the
position in wdiich they are usually put to dry, instead of on the floor
or in a flat position balanced on chairs. Gather the long edge of the
curtain in the left hand and adjust on the upper row of pins with the
right, allowing the width of the curtain to hang toward the floor.
The curtain will net catch on the pins, nor will there be any danger
of its dragging on the floor, as in the other method.
To Wash Curtains
Curtains should first be well shaken to remove dust, then, if white,
soaked over night in cold water. For washing use rather warm water
with plenty of soap jelly. Knead and squeeze well, leaving the cur-
tains in the water a short tin^e. It is usually necessary to wash them
through at least two soap lathers; they should then be rinsed thorough-
ly in plenty of warm water, and the white ones boiled for half an
hour. After boiling, rinse thoroughly in warm water to remove
all trace of the soap. The curtain should then be drawn
through hot starch. Allow about two ounces of starch to each cur-
tain, but if you put one in after another, without adding more starch,
the last put through will be limp. It is better to starch the curtains
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
when dr}-, as they do not retain much starch, and if they are put
through while wet the starch has to be made very thick, and then it
is hable to be lumpy. After starching, place them in a curtain stretch-
er, if you have one; if not, pin them on a sheet laid on the floor of
a room and leave until dry. They should not require ironing. If
they are pulled very straight over a line when wet, and left till dry,
then mangled, they will do for ordinary use.
Bleaching Silk Embroidery
In these days of raking up all of the antiques in the family one
may come across some lovely old silk or fine linen hand embroidery
that must be bleached out, but beware of giving it to anyone to do
The pieces are put into cold water, which is thick with pure white
soap and a drop of bluing. This is allowed to come to a boil. Remove
the articles at once, rinse through several lukewarm waters, finally
through a bluing water, and put on the grass while wet to bleach.
Do not rub or squeeze hard. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat
the washing and boiling if the pieces are very yellow. When bleached
put the right side down on the ironing board, smooth edges into
place and iron under a linen cloth. Do not use too hot an iron, as
old materials scorch easily.
If the grass is dusty put pieces on a clean towel. They bleach
better when flat on the grass, though sometimes they need an after
rinsing. This was meant originally for white cotton or handkerchief
Bleaching Silk Embroidery
Wash in distilled water with a little borax.
Washing Colored Embroideries
The best way to bleach white goods having colored embroidery
(such as doilies and other articles which cannot be boiled for fear
the color will fade) is to wash them and then dry them in the shade.
Put them in an old pillow-case which has been dipped in very strong
bluing water and thoroughy dried. Then hang the case, with the
embroidered articles inside, in the light for several days. They will
be perfectly w^hite and the colored embroidery will not be one bit
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
To Wash Straw Hats
Straws that are not sized in manufacturing, that is, contain no
shellac or glue, may be washed with perfect safety. To wash hats
they should first be thoroughly freed from dust, then cleansed with
warm soap and water by scrubbing with a fair size nail brush, and
when dry should be covered with the white of an tgg, beaten to a
Some persons think that a half lemon dipped in salt and vigor-
ously applied to the hat is the best whitener. This is excellent, but it
is impossible to brush all the salt out of the straw, and when this
becomes damp, as it surely will if worn out in the rain, the dust
gathers and sticks until the last state of the hat is worse than
When soap and water are not practicable five cents' worth of
oxalic acid may be used with good results.
Drying Knitted Garments
Wash the article in warm suds and rinse thoroughly. Then dry
the garment by placing it in a pan in which a towel has been laid;
shake it occasionally; when dry, the article will be as light and fluffy
as new. A knitted garment dried in this way always retains its shape,
whereas if it were hung up to dry it would stretch.
To Bleach Muslin
When muslin has become faded and it is desired to bleach it white,
chloride of lime put in the boiling water in the proportion of one
tablespoon of lime to one quart of water will effect the result.
To Wash Plain and Spotted Net
Net is washed in exactly the same way as common lace, and also
stiffened in hot water starch; but as net is so thin, it does not take
the stiffening readily, and must in consequence be put into fairly
thick starch. So, for thin nets full boiling water starch is usually
necessary. The net must then be dried and dampened, and ironed
on the wrong side. It should be carefully ironed to the width, as
it has a great tendency to draw to the length, and become stringy in
appearance. Care must also be taken to keep the edges straight while
it is being ironed.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Prevent Stains
Always keep a small bag of white rags tied to the handle of the
clothes-pin basket. When a fine article is to be hung on the line,
or is to stay out all night, or if the clothes-pins are rather old and
there is danger of staining, it is an easy matter to put a bit of white
muslin under the pin. In this way many a tear as well as many a
smudge is prevented.
When the laundry is taken in, the bits of cloth are dropped into
the baskets with the other articles, and when the clothes are folded,
the rags are put into the fire, fresh one being used each time.
Cold Laundry Starch
To three pints of cold water add one-quarter pound of fine starch,
two tablespoonfuls of powdered borax, a little liquid bluing and one
tablespoonful of powdered gum-arabic. Dissolve the gum-arabic in
a little w^arm water on the stove, and strain through cheese-cloth.
Put in cans and when needed stir well. It will keep for months.
Starch the articles in thin boiled starch first, dry before dipping
in the cold starch, then roll in a towel and let them stand for ten or
fifteen minutes before ironing. Use a clean ironing sheet and irons,
and be sure the linen is spotlessly clean, or failure is inevitable.
Iron on the wrong side first, then rub the right side with a dry
cloth and iron until dry.
To Wash a White Sweater
Dissolve one level tablespoonful of borax and one-fourth of a cake
of white soap in cold water to cover the sweater generously. Let soak
an hour, then squeeze it out, but do not wring. Rinse very thoi-
oughly through several cold waters, then squeeze as dry as possible
(or put through the wringer), pull it mto shape and dry it. All wool
flannels and blankets are safely washed thus.
When drawing threads from linen rub white soap on the cloth and
the work will be much more easily accomplished. When making
eyelet embroidery, if a piece of white soap is held under the material
and the stiletto is allowed to pass into it a much better eyelet can be
made, as the soap gives a slight stiffness to the cloth.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Wash Chiffon Veils
Make a suds of warm water and a good pure white soap, dip the
veil in and squeeze the veil gently until all the soil has disappeared.
Do not rub at all. Rinse in several waters and pin out on a flat sur-
face, over which spread a clean sheet, and just before it is dry iron
under a clean white cloth. If one does not object to a crepy appear-
ance, it is not necessary to iron chiffon veils at all.
To Wash a White Veil
A white veil can be very successfully washed by immersing it in
a line in a sheltered place to dry. Where a line is not practicable it
should be carefully spread out, pinned to a cloth, and left in the open
air till quite dry.
A veil should be taken from the hat each time it is worn and
folded or rolled, and at night should be laid away in tissue paper.
To Wash Velveteen
That velveteen may be v/ashed successfully will probably surprise
many persons. Make a lather of some pure white soap and hot water,
souse the velveteen up and down in it a number of times, then put
it in two more hot lathers, and finally rinse thoroughly in clear, warm
water. About a teaspoonful of salt to a quart of water should be
used in the washing and rinsing. Do not wring it out, but hang
it on the line and let it remain until it is half dry. Remove it from
the line, and iron on the wrong side. The steam will raise the pile
and make it look like new material. Iron bath towel.
Do Not Starch Shirt Waists
When washing white or colored shirt-waists do not starch them.
After they are dry, dip them in hot water, wring out and roll up tight-
ly. Let them lie ten or twcrtv m.-'niites; then iron on the wrong side.
They will look like new. Table linen is nicer when laundered this
Washing a White China Silk Waist
Cut any white soap and mix with hot water until it becomes a
jelly. Add sufficient warm water to make a strong suds, using a little
borax if the water is hard. Do not substitute ammonia, for while
this is a softening agent it is apt to turn white silks yellow.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
l^ay the waist in a bath so prepared and squeeze through the hands,
Hfting up and down in the suds. Rub any soiled places with ihe
hands, but do not put soap on the silk.
When clean wring and rinse in clear lukewarm water, then with
cold. Lay in a dry towel and pat to absorb the moisture, then roll
in a second dry towel.
After a short period shake out and spread over a chair or rack in
the room until the waist is almost dry, then press on the wTong side
with a warm iron.
It is said that a teaspoonful of methylated spirits added to the last
rinsing water will give a gloss to china silk, making it look like new.
Persons doing up their own collars will have experienced the an-
noyance caused by peg-marks showing when they have been hung out
to dry on the clothes-line after being washed. To do away with this,
get a piece of thin string or tape, and thread it through the button-
holes of each of the articles. Tie each end of the tape or string to
the line, then they will all dry together. This saves a great deal of
trouble unpegging, and keeps the collars and ties clean by saving
handling them so much. To take them in, all you have to do is to
untie the two ends of string or tape from the line, and carry all in
In washing bamboo furniture, if it is scrubbed with a brush and
warm water to wdiich a little salt has been added, it will not turn yel-
Pressing Bows on Hats
When bows and loops on a hat become limp and mussed, try
pressing them from the inside with a heated curling-iron. This is es-
pecially practical in traveling, as the iron takes up little room.
Two Ways of Covering an Ironing-Board
Using an old sheet double it as many times as it will cover the
board. This will make four or five thicknesses, which are laid
smoothly and tacked on the board all at once. When the top layer
becomes soiled, it is cut off and there is the board with a clean
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
When covering the ironing-board with a blanket or padding, tack
it along the edges only, so that both sides and the ends are smoothly
covered. Then make an unbleached ironing-sheet the size of board,
with large end left open to slip on like a pillow-case. If well fitted,
both sides of the board can be used; it will look neat and there will
be no pins or nails to tear hands or clothing.
Useful Ironing Blanket
Make an ironing blanket for embroidered articles and laces from
a square of white outing flannel, and one of Turkish toweling, neatly
bound together. The Turkish side is used for laces and insertions,
as the loose threads in ironing are forced up through the lace, while
the other side is used for embroideries.
For Cleaning and Polishing Irons
Saturate a cloth with water, wring partially dry, rubbing soap
thoroughly on it. Place on several thicknesses of paper. Rub iron
over it several times, pressing hard, to remove starch and roughness.
The result is surprising, as it makes the surface of iron perfectly
clean and smooth.
This is the best and most economical way of cleaning irons doing
away with the use of ironing wax or any cleanser for irons.
A Handy Iron Cleaner
A very practical little contrivance for use when ironing consists
of a block of wood about five inches square. Five holes are bored in
this block and filled with beeswax. These are covered with a piece
of muslin. The other side of the block is covered with emery-cloth.
The emery side of the block is used to rub the iron on if the starch
sticks, and the ^vax side gives the iron smoothness.
Old flat-irons become rusty, but a coat of aluminum enamel paint
made them neat and clean. No more flakes of rust or smudge to drop
off on white garments when ironing. They can be washed and the
heat does not affect the enamel, as it is the kind used on radiators.
One coat is sufficient, and a small can will do for coating a number
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Look After the Smoothing Iron
After the temper of a smoothing iron is spoiled it will never re-
tain the heat so well again. Therefore never let irons stand on the
stove when there is a hot fire unless they are in constant use, and do
not allow them to become over-heated.
When Heating Irons
Turn an old pan or kettle over irons which are being heated and
they will get hot much quicker. This also keeps the room cooler.
How to Press Black Lace
To press black lace, sponge with clear water on the right side until
quite wet, lay right side down on a black pad, cover with a black
cloth and press with a hot iron. When this is done it will be found
that the lace is like new.
A New Scheme for Ironing Ribbons
If the ribbon has been washed in gasoline let it get thoroughly
aired before pressing. If washed in soap and water, roll in a dry
cloth before pressing. Lay several thicknesses of paper on the iron-
ing board, then place one end of the ribbon on the paper, with a
piece of brown or white paper on each side. Now press hard with
a warm flatiron on the ribbon under the paper, and pull the ribbon
all under the flatiron. Then reverse the ends. It requires two per-
sons to successfully press ribbons in this way. The process is very
simple, and the ribbon will look as good as when new, and will not
lose its stiffness or look glossy, as those ironed the old way.
To Purify the Air
Oil of lavender sprinkled over a few live coals v^ill purify the
air and cause an agreeable odor to permeate the rooms.
February is the month in which to have all curtains, cover-scarfs,
etc., laundered, mended and put in repair. Also such alterations made
as are needed in the shov/ room of the retail milliner. Everything
should be spick and span for the opening of the Spring models which
should come two weeks before Easter Sunday.
I used to empty my wire flower baskets each fall and pay a florist
to refill them in the spring. Now hang them in the cellar in the dark
before the frost touches them, and water them about once a week.
When spring comes, putting them for a week or two in the air and
sun makes them more beautiful than ever.
Neat Lunch Boxes
Such convenient, compact tin lunch boxes can now be secured,
that one's food may be kept not only perfectly clean, but moist until
the noon hour. And if every employee is instructed to either burn or
place in the sanitary receptacles provided for such, all the wrappings
in which food is brought to the store there will be no inducement to
ants, flies, roaches or insects of any kind to inhabit the work rooms.
Packing a Blouse
Much difficulty is often found in packing blouses. If folded in the
following way, they can lie, closely packed, for a long time without
looking crushed when taken out to wear. Lay flat on the table, front
down, and fasten. Then fold back the sleeves, and pin to the blouse
at the top and at the cuff to keep in position. Now fold back the
foot of the blouse at the waist-line, and pin to make secure,
THE MILLINER'S GUILJE
To Restore Pearl Buttons
When pearl buttons look blurred they can be restored to their
former brightness by rubbing with a chamois skin dipped into olive
oil ; then cover with nail powder and rub with a clean piece of
Straw matting suit cases and shopping bags can be very much im-
proved in looks and usefulness by a coat of cheap wagon varnish,
which makes them waterproof. A good wetting will generally spoil
them, but the varnish causes them to shed water like a duck. This
should be done once a year.
To Steam Chiffon
Chiffons and mousseline de soie should be dipped in warm water,
dried and then steamed in order to convert them into a material
similar in appearance to crepe de chine. Silk nets and all kindred
materials should be similarly treated. Velvets, in steaming, should
be brushed carefully, in the same direction always, in order to raise
the pile and eradicate the creases. Buckram frames which have be-
come limp and crushed will resume their former pristine stiffness and
rigidity by being properly steamed. Metallic bands, beaded trimmings
and other hard substances, likewise malines, are about the only articles
of millinery merchandise not susceptible to a treatment of this kind.
Knowing what you have in stock, you can readily understand that
W'ith these few exceptions there are very few articles which cannot be
beautified by a judicious application of the steaming process. Beaver
cloths, beaver hats, and felt shapes take on new life and assume a
freshness wonderful to behold.
Those of us who have hats trimmed with the bird wings consist-
ing of innumerable little feathers something like fishes' scales
know how these drop off and what an unpleasantly bald appear-
ance they give to our best hat trimmings. One woman has solved
the problem by pasting them on as they come off. They were
black in her case, and, so that the paste she used should not show
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
she pasted them on the back with library paste on which she
dropped black ink and let it soak in. This same plan can be fol-
lowed with any color ink to match the feather, even the irridescent
feathers (as these often are) being usually easy to match.
Another plan is to use court-plaster, although this is possible
only with black and white feathers. The plaster must be cut in
little strips and fastened in back to the cloth foundation, for feath-
ers of this sort are always what is called ''made," that is, stitched
on to a backing of fabric in wing form.
To Hide a Fence
Plant morning glories along the fence and wind strings up
and down the fence for them to cling to. Long wire nails driven
into the fence will support twin or cord. Plant wild sage and
salvia in front of the morning glories in two hedgerows. Both
plants are scarlet, though of different shade. The sage is green
during the summer, turns a pale cerise and finally a most beauti-
ful red. This combination makes a very handsome fence covering.
Extinguishing Gasoline Flames
To extinguish gasoline flames, use milk instead of water. Milk
forms an emulsion with the oil, whereas water only spreads it.
To Keep Cut Flowers
Cut flowers may be kept for a long time by burning their stems
with a piece of wood or a candle flame. Seal the end with any
vegetable gum. Place in water as usual. Chrysanthemums may be
kept in good condition for a long time if treated in this manner.
Crocuses may be had in winter if treated like the Japa-
nese liUes. Put the bulbs in a shallow earthen dish of water
half filled with pebbles. Keep them in a dark place for a little
while, and then in the light, but do not set them in the sunlight
until the flower-buds form, which will be in two or three weeks.
Kid Glove Facings
Economical women who have on hand a supply of evening
gloves of which the finger portions are worn will be interested
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
in the Parisian fancy that just now prevails for giving a brim of
kid facing to a fur-crowned hat. Wide-brimmed hats, too, are
treated to a band of kid; but its principal use is upon hat forms
with the other sort of crowns.
To Keep Evening Gloves Clean
To keep evening gloves clean in a street car or train draw a
pair of loose white silk or lisle gloves over the kid. The outer
gloves may be easily drawn off and slipped into muff or pocket.
How to Care for Gloves
There are right and wrong ways of putting on gloves. The
right way does not injure them; the wrong way weakens and tears
the skin or fabric in a very short time. Black kid gloves should
be kept in paraffin or oiled paper. A black glove is a white skin
painted. This paint will harden and dry if not properly cared for.
All gloves should be kept away from salt or damp air as much
as possible. They should be kept dry, but away from heat. Time
and great care should be taken in putting them on the first time,
so that the seams may not be stretched.
Long Gloves, Cut Off
Cut off the hand part of long gloves. The arm part is perfectly
good. Take it to a glove factory, and have a short pair of gloves,
that match in color, sewed on the arm part, or you can do it your-
self, using a feather or embroidery stitch.
To Prevent Crushing a Hat
A woman may prevent a hat from being crushed by placing it
upon a tumbler on the closet shelf or in the hat box. By fol-
lowing this plan the trimming will also be kept fresh under the
To Bind a Felt or Straw Hat
Measure the brim of hat and cut bias pieces of velvet two and
a half inches wide; join up to measure three inches less than hat
brim. Turn in each edge a quarter of an inch, and herringbone
lightly, taking care that the stitches do not show on right side.
Snap the velvet over the brim, and it will keep in place without
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
sewing on. Of course, this applies only to very firm felt or straw
Nowadays attractive beflowered hat boxes may be readily pro-
cured, and three, or if necessary four — all of the same size and
design — are bought for the stand. A single box fits into each divi-
sion. The hat boxes must all be of the size of the largest hat, but
if there are small hats two may be put into one box by fastening
cushions to the sides of the box and pinning the hats to these.
If space is too limited to permit of this hat stand with the
other necessary furniture, a very acceptable hat box may be made
in combination with the writing table. A writing desk will not
do for this purpose, but a writing table is quite as useful and
For this purpose a rectangular table is best. It should have
no drawer and it is necessary that it be a four-legged table. Of
course a handsome mahogany table or one of other fine wood is
not usually used for this purpose, but a table is selected which is
to be enamelled or stained to match the room or which is already
finished in a conventional way. It should have a shelf quite far
down from the top, but if there is none one may be put in by a
carpenter. The ridges are then closed in, the front opening on
hinges. In this box or closet are kept the hats. The outside is
enamelled to match the table and the inside is papered or lined
with cheesecloth or with flowered crepe paper. A cushion is
tacked to each side of the box, and, if there be room, to the bot-
tom also, and to these the hats are pinned.
In order that the table may be comfortable for writing the
top should come out some distance beyond the legs and the hat
box. It is necessary to have a fairly good sized table for this,
but as it is to serve two purposes, the room may usually be spared.
The top of the table is fitted as a desk and a wall cabinet hanging
directly over it, quite low down, may be used for the cubbyholes
so necessary for a complete desk equipment, or a set of small rec-
tangular boxes covered with flowered paper may be set on the back
of the desk.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Hat Building Tips
From building the large bows and choux and swathing the
folds of piece silk and satin to sewing in feathers and flowers, hat
trimming, in fact, has entered a new phase, and many of the old
theories on wiring, sewing and trimming have had to undergo
some modification. The choice of a thread for sewing on the
trimming is most important, a black hat or one in a dark shade,
no matter ^vhether it is made of silk, velvet or felt, requiring cob-
bler's shoe thread in preference to machine thread, however low
a number may be available.
A good bow is always the test of a beginner's progress, noth-
ing being, as a matter of fact, harder than to evolve a large and
perfectly balanced bow whose loops spring evenly from the cen-
ter. A professional milliner always in beginning to make a bow
gives the thread three or four turns round the first loop without
knotting the thread. When all the loops have been made she cuts
it ofi about ten inches from the last turn and after threading the
needle uses the loose end with which to sew the bow to the hat.
If the ribbon has to be wired the wire should be sewed the full
length of the loop, no considerations of time suggesting such
an evasion of trouble as that of attaching the wire simply at the
base, which causes it to w^ork out of place with wear.
To bind the border of a hat with wire necessitates the use of
No. 24 cotton, the stitches being carried slantwise over it, while
care must be taken to prevent the stitches from being seen on the
To the making of novelties in hatpin holders there surely is no
end, for the latest is a large rose made from ribbon in a color
chosen to match other toilet accessories. The center is hollow
and the rose is set on the top of a small glass vase about six
inches high. The stem of the glass is concealed by green baby
ribbon tied into knot, loops, ends, &c., so the effect is of a beauti-
ful rose standing upright on the table.
The hatpins are, of course, passed through the hollow centre
of the flower, the points going to the bottom of the vase.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
To Hold Hat When Trimming
When sewing trimming on a hat try fastening the hat firmly
to your skirts on your knee with a hatpin; then your left hand
will be free to hold the ribbon, flowers, etc., in place while you sew
with your right hand.
Utility Hat Box
Take a utility hat box and tack to the sides, bottom and lid
six ordinary kitchen strainers (which can be purchased for five
cents each); pin hats to the strainers. This keeps the hats in ex-
cellent condition and does away with the accumulation of the
ordinary hat boxes.
Waterproof Cover Will Protect Feathers from Rain
Fabulous sums have been saved the husbands of this country
by the means of a Pennsylvanian. This man has devised a cover
for ladies' hats that will protect the costly plumes and rare birds
from rain and save them from destruction. The cover is as simple
as it well could bee. It is nothing more than a circular piece of
waterproof material, not elastic. The margin of the cover is
hemmed to form a pocket for a shirring string, and along this
margin are eyelets, also for the string to pass in and out. The
whole affair is very light and can be folded up in a small com-
pass and carried in a pocket or bag without being noticed.
If a sudden storm springs up the protector can be spread over the
top of the hat and drawn together underneath the brim with the
drawing strings, thus encasing the hat in a manner that protects
it completely. Women need no longer fear to wear their giddiest
millinery because there is a cloud in the sky.
To Renew a Handbag
If you have a black leather handbag that begins to look shabby
don't throw it away, but give it a coat of liquid shoe dressing, and
you will find it will look like new, and its usefulness will be nearly
Flowers look so artistic arranged in a basket that I conceived
the idea of weaving a rattan basket closely over a glass fish-globe,
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
The result is a beautiful basket, glass lined, the shape of a rose
bowl, that has a summery look on dining-table or in. living-room.
Knives not in daily use should be well polished and buried in
a box of sawdust until required for use.
Laying Lace Away
When putting delicate lace away it is always better to wrap it
in blue paper. It is said that chloride of lime is used in bleaching
the white paper, and that it will injure any article which is kept in
it for any length of time.
Use for Old Leather
One should always save the tops of old shoes, or the gauntlets
of heavy riding gloves or other pieces of leather. They are excel-
lent as an interlining for iron holders.
Do not make the holder too large as it is clumsy to handle.
Those which are oval in shape are preferable. Cut the covering
and the interlining the same size and shape, stitch all the thick-
nesses on the machine, close to the edge of the material, then
bind with a tape or piece of seam binding.
To Roughen Leghorn
It is almost impossible really to injure a good Leghorn hat,
and by the roughest sort of a process the too well-finished speci-
men may be brought into the thing you most desire it to be. For
the present season it should be rough, unfinished, uneven and a
delightful natural yellow. This is possible if it be scrubbed with
strong soap, ammonia and a scrubbing brush until all the dressing
has disappeared. It should be pressed on its wrong side with a hot
iron, but with a piece of new unbleached muslin between iron and
hat. After the hat has been properly pressed it should be colored
a deep yellow with a mixture of oil paint and gasoline. This will
also tend to roughen it to that delightful texture now so fashion-
Rubber Mats for House Plants
Old hot-water bags, split open and cut into circular pieces, are
excellent mats for house plants.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
The Moth Pest
Probably no other pest works such havoc in millinery goods as
the moth, unless it be the equally aggravating small fuzzy carpet
beetle, or Buffalo bug. Though an exceedingly dangerous remedy
in the hands of a careless person there is nothing more effectual
than gasoline to use for these ravages.
Choose a clear bright day when doors and windows can be
opened so the odor will quickly evaporate and be certain no open
light or fire is burning about the place. Use an old teapot or long
spouted oil can, pouring a small stream of the gasoline along
baseboards, doors and window casings and all crevices where such
small pests find lodgment.
A thorough application of gasoline will kill both the creature
and its eggs, and do no harm to hangings, carpets or furnishings.
Should an old sofa or upholstered chair be suspected of har-
boring these pests, place it in an unoccupied room, tightly close
every window and other opening and burn three or four sulphur
candles in the room, lighting them all at once. Keep the room as
nearly air tight as possible for twenty-four hours.
Frequently a large box can be utilized for this fumigating pro-
cessi and be eminently satisfactory. Paste strips of thick paper over
each crack and set the sulphur candles in a tin basin or iron pot
on the seat of the chair so there will be no danger of a fire. Place
the lid on and cover with old carpet or tarpaulin to prevent the
fumes from escaping.
The woodwork of the chair, if rubbed with a soft old cloth and
equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine will look as good as new
after the process.
Piece goods which are suspected of harboring moth eggs may
be ironed with a hot iron to kill the animal life.
Goods should be frequently looked over and every precaution
taken to prevent these pests from taking up their lodging in store
or home, for once the festive moth or fuzzy carpet bug estab-
lishes his residence it is difficult to dispossess him.
Ill-fitting doors and windows represent a happy hunting ground
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
for the disturbing winds. In fact, so annoying does the constant
rattling of these openings become that many a bad state of
"nerves" has resulted therefrom without the sufferer realizing the
The noise can be stopped by a small wedge of wood driven in
at the side of an open window. A door can be prevented from
rattling if a pad or strip of thick felt be nailed on the edge of the
The annoyance of creaking drawers can be eliminated by rub-
bing common soap upon the top, sides and bottom of each. Very
heavy drawers should have trunk rollers placed on them, which
will roll on the bars on w^hich the drawers now slide.
Creaking hinges on anything should be well oiled, while the
grating, irritating noise of a sewing machine can be overcome in
a similar manner.
The little noises wear away the patience that is required for
other things. It is foolish to dissipate energy through the channels of
irritated nerves when a little time will obviate the nuisances.
The next time you send newspapers or magazines by mail, if
they have to be rolled, try the following plan: Lay a heavy thread
lengthwise of the paper, with a short end hanging out, just before
you paste the wrapper, and see if the recipient will not thank you
when she finds how easily the paper is opened. Pulling the ex-
posed end of the thread tears the entire length of wrapper.
Saving Silk Petticoats
A girl who knows says that she keeps her taffeta-silk petticoats
from splitting by hanging them upside down. Put two ribbon
loops on the wrong side at the top of the wide ruffle and hang
the petticoat up by them. When it is possible, buy or make two
silk petticoats at a time. By wearing them alternately, they will
last far more than twice as long as one constantly worn.
To Take the Shine from Voile
The best way to get rid of the shine on a black voile skirt, perfectly
good otherwise, is to sponge with warm water, into which a little
ammonia has been dropped.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
An Embroidery Hint
When making the round holes for eyelet embroidery put a piece
of soap under the fabric, and allow the stiletto to pierce through it.
When the stiletto is withdrawn it will, being soapy, impart a slight
stiffness to the material, which facilitates the making of very even,
Strew natural flowers on the cloth to be embroidered, remove
them one at a time, drawing their outlines, to be filled with silks,
in natural colors.
It is excellent business to send out statements once a month regu-
larly to all customers who are indebted to you. It can be clearly under-
stood that these are not urgent duns if that is necessary, but the
routine of sending out bills the first of each month should not be
When the nap on suede shoes or gloves gets packed down or soiled,
rub the article lightly with sandpaper. This will restore its good
The Value of Steam in the Workroom
The discovery of the power of steam was not necessary for the
use or benefit of the milliners. The force and strength of the vapor
is but little required. It is only necessary to have a very small amount
of dry steam to work wonders in the atelier of the millinery estab-
lishment. Strange as it may seem, the most essential thing in any es-
tablishment of any pretension is in almost all cases entirely overlooked.
There is nothing quite so absolutely necessary at all hours of the day
as that there should be a supply of steam accessible to the help in the
work room, and there are very few who apparently realize this and
have at all times, a sufficient supply for ordinary purposes.
The most primitive methods are employed by the milliners in pro-
ducing steam and then only in very small and limited quantities. It
is the prominent feature of renovation and renewal of everything
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
which is used by artistic milliners for freshening up that which is old.
It is almost beyond comprehension why so few are prepared to have
upon short notice an adequate supply of that which is undoubtedly the
most essential necessity known in the millinery world. Thin, dry steam
is the only thing in the world that will put life and vigor into ostrich
feathers. It is quite probable that the majority do not know that all
feathers, before being placed upon the market, are starched just the
same as a shirt or shirt waist. This starch dressing is affected by
dampness in the feathers identically the same as any piece of wearing
apparel. Many articles may be washed, cleaned and starched again,
but it is not the case with the ostrich feathers. The process of doing
this is entirely too long and tedious. Take the feather or plume be-
tween the thumb and forefinger. Shake it gently over a steaming cloth
and instantly note the improved condition of the ostrich fibre. It
imparts life, freshness and vigor. Nc feathers, under any circum-
stances, should ever be curled until they have been first thoroughly
steamed. This has a tendency to straighten and loosen the flues and
fibres and make them more plial)le and less liable to be broken off.
Steam Silks and Ribbons
All silks, silk ribbons and materials of a similar kind and nature
should be steamed instead of ironed. The weight and pressure of
the hot-glazed surface moving back and forth, upon the silk finished
material or article has a tendency to produce a gloss. This is so
evident that any one can easily discern that the ribbon has been re-
freshened and renewed. The use of steam absolutely obviates this
and leaves no telltale impression upon its surface by which any one
could discern that the life of the ribbon has been renewed by artificial
means. It is quite true that if the steam is too wet that the ribbon
will wrinkle and spot. Great care must be taken to prevent an occur-
rence of this kind.
For Straw and Braids
Straw hats and straw braids that have become brittle and show a
disposition to be unruly can be better manipulated after a thorough
treatment of good steaming.
To Hold Veil in Place
A number of clever expedients have been devised to hold a veil
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
snugly under the chin without giving it an ugly line. Here is one
method which saves the veil also and involves hardly any trouble. Get
the narrowest kind of round elastic, the same color as the veil (paint
the white elastic with water colors for a colored veil) and whip it
over the extreme edge of the veil, taking up only a single thread all
around. Include any cut edges, but afterward pare them off neatly with
a pair of small scissors. Fasten in back with a tight knot.
The veil is slightly gathered on the elastic, fits nicely under the
chin and over hat, and stretches when it is raised. It seems the best
solution of a vexing problem of dress.
Beautiful veils for mourning may be made by using black chiffon
and bordering same with No. 7, 9 or 16 black taffeta ribbon. Each
corner must be turned in a diagonal or bias outline. Many of the
wide veils with black borders have two or three narrow strips of rib-
bon sewed up on the body of the veil in such a manner that the
chiffon shows between each strip of ribbon and are frequently used
for second mourning.
Chiffon veils and scarfs frequently have edges of narrow Chan-
tilly lace. Wide ties for little girls' poke bonnets are often seen made
of this all silk fabric. They should be renewed and restored to their
former freshness by the use of steam. Great care should be taken in
ironing chiffons as the hot, smooth surface of the sadiron is apt to
produce an undesirable gloss. Rain spots and other water marks can
only be eradicated by washing the material. These damp spots are
due to the fact that the water destroys the dressing and it then be-
comes necessary to remove all of it. The reason that hot water must
be used is that it causes the silk to full up.
To Weight Tall Vases
To weight tall vases fill them to a depth of several inches with
white sand. This is often used in rose jars, and not only weights the
jar, but helps support heavy-stemmed flowers. It keeps the water pure
and needs only occasionally to be placed in a pan and baked to render
it clean and sweet.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Prevent Candles from Dripping
Candlelight is one of the prettiest decorations we have, but thc>
often make such a mess one hesitates to use them. You may avoid
all this. If you freeze the candles before using, they will never run,
and burn twice as long.
To Prevent Window Glass from Frosting
Apply a very thin coat of glj^cerine on both sides of the glass.
This will prevent the formation of moisture.
Nitrate of silver and common salt each 30 grains. Cream of
tartar 3% drams; pulverize finely, mix thoroughly, and bottle for
use. Unequalled for polishing copper and plated goods.
To Clean Brittania Ware
Brittania ware should be washed with a woolen cloth and sweet
oil, then washed in water and suds and rubbed with soft leather
Used for polishing gold and silver plated ware, German silver,
brass, copper, glass, tin, steel, or any material where a brilliant
luster is required. To 4 pounds of the best quality of whiting
add % pound cream of tartar and 3 ounces of calcined magnesia.
Mix thoroughly together. Use the polish dry with a piece of
chamois skin or Canton flannel previously moistened with alcohol,
and finish with dry polish. A few moments' rubbing will develop
a surprising lustre, different from the polish produced by any
HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME
CLEANING, "POLISHING, RENOVATING
To clean lacquered brass wash it gently in lukewarm water, rub
with cloth dipped in equal parts of vinegar and lemon juice and then
polish with dry leather.
To Clean Carpet Sweeper Brush
The brush can be easily removed, and, after combing, a thorough
washing in good soap-suds, with a subsequent rinsing and standing
on end to dry, will make the brush as good as new. Try it, and the
color of the soap-suds will convince you that your rugs were being
swept with a dirty article.
Candles hardened by being kept in the refrigerator, or a cool place,
will burn longer than others. Keep the wick ''snuffed," as
did our grandmothers; when you blow a candle out blow up, instead
of over the light, and the candle will not gutter, but burn evenly next
time. Church or wake candles cost more, but are made of harder
material and last longer.
For a candle economy, shape a cork to fit the candlestick, then
drive through the center a sharp nail, bringing the pointed end out on
top. Place the end of the candle on the point of the nail, and you will
be able to burn all candle ends down "to the very last.
If annoyed by castors dropping out of any article of furniture, try
soaking large corks in water to make them pliable, then pounding
them into the socket. Make a small hole in center of cork and drive
the castor in it. If the cork is large enough to fill the socket you will
have no further trouble.
Freshening Leather Chairs
Leather chairs will keep in good condition much longer if they are
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
occasionally wiped off with a cloth dipped in a very little sweet oil.
Remove every particle of dust before using oil and see that it is
rubbed in until dry, or it acts as a dirt collector.
Embossed leather may be cleaned with turpentine and polished
with soft cheesecloth.
Regilding Gold Chairs
It will not be necessary to remove the old gilt before applying the
new. Wipe it off with a rag dipped in warm soap suds, then rub
dry with a clean rag to leave the surface free from soil or grit when
the new coat is put on.
There are a number of gold paints that come for this purpose,
some very good, others so poor that the article renovated may be
bright gold when finished, and then turn black within a few days.
Perfect cleanliness will prevent roaches and mice from congregat-
ing. If every particle of food is cleared away at the close of the
day's work vermin will not be attracted to the place. Fastidious cus-
tomers will not be offended by observing traces of these repulsive
visitors, to say nothing of the comfort of all concerned in the estab-
lishment, whether in work or salesroom.
Care of Clocks
Every clock needs regular care and superintendence if it is to keep
time accurately. Some one should be made responsible and put in
charge of the clock to wind and regulate it.
A clock should be wound, as far as possible, at one stated time,
and be regulated at fixed periods; its face and hands should occa-
sionally be delicately dusted. A periodical oiling may also be neces-
sary, and for this purpose employ the purest oil, purified by a quart
of limewater to a gallon of oil. Shake this, and allow it to stand
for a few days and then carefully pour off the pure oil without dis-
turbing the sediment. The oil should be applied to the works with a
fine camers-hair brush.
When a clock does not run continuously, or stops frequently, the
cause is often due to a lack of oil. This may be remedied by saturat-
ing a piece of absorbent cotton with kerosene oil and placing it in-
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
side the clock, below the pendulum. When the cotton is removed a
month or so later it is found to be very dirty. This shows that the
fumes of the kerosene oil have not only oiled the clock, but have also
A Portable Closet
If one has not much closet room, or wishes a place to keep clothes
for a time out of the dust, an excellent portable closet can be made
in the following manner: Take a two-folder clothes rack and put in
a corner of the room. Fasten a brass rod across the top in front,
from one of the uprights to the other; this is to put the curtain on.
Cut out a piece of stiff pasteboard in triangular shape to fit the top
and cover with white oil-cloth, binding it around the edges. This can
be laid upon the top to keep the dust out and is ready to be moved at
any time. Put screw-hooks along the rods in the inside to hang the
cloth upon. Enamel all in white. Silkoline or any material can be
used for the curtain, and can be suspended by rings to the rod, or a
deep casing can be run in the curtain and the rod run through this.
This is an excellent way to protect clothes when away on a vacation
if there is no closet available.
To make thin sash or casement curtains hang evenly, make the
casing for the curtain rod, insert the rod and hang the material from
the fixtures. Now draw down the window shade as far as you wish
the curtain to come when finished. With bottom of shade as guide
the hem may be pinned or basted and the curtain will hang straight.
This will be found much better than measuring the stuff and hem-
ming before hanging.
When hanging curtains that are longer than the usual sill length,
measure half the width of the window, lay your curtains out on the
Hoor, put a pleat the full length of the curtain, near the back edge.
Now put your curtain up over the pole and pin it to get the right
length; take it down again and baste so that the pole will slip through
easily. Turn the superfluous length over the back, fold into a three-
inch hem and stitch in place. Thus you avoid either cutting off the
curtain or having the extra length hanging unevenly next to the
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Hygienic Dust Catcher
When cleaning upholstered furniture it is often either impossible
or inconvenient to move it out-of-doors. When this is the case,
place a damp cloth over the upholstery and use the clothes-beater over
the cloth, changing it several times during the process. The dust
will adhere to the cloth and not fill the room.
A Home-Made Dustless Duster
Most housekeepers use dry cloths or rags for dusting, and some of
the dust is wiped in streaks over the furniture, and brushed into the
air. Why not prepare your dust cloths at a trifling cost so that the
dust will stick to them, and not get into the air again? Take one part
raw linseed oil and mix with four parts gasoline, and bottle, taking
the same precautions as with gasoline alone to guard against fires.
Take the cloth or rag used for dusting, merely moisten it by pouring
the mixture on it while wadded together, then open it out and swing
it a few moments in the open air until the gasoline has evaporated
out of it, when a slight film of oil will still remain in the cloth, suffi-
cient to hold the dust firmly on its surface and wipe cleanly and quick-
ly a varnished surface. If properly prepared no undesirable oil will
remain on the furniture.
Washing Enamel Paint
The beauty of the white paint and enamel that are so deservedly
popular is dependent upon spotlessness. There are various things
that will remove spots therefrom, but the following method will leave
the paint almost better than when new. It works like a charm upon
painted or enameled metal beds, too, and doubtless upon numerous
other things :
Have ready two white cheese-cloth cloths. Put them into hot water
and then wring out until they are no longer wet, but merely well
dampened. Upon one of them rub a good white soap. The result
will be a heavy cream, but not a lather. Rub this upon the soiled
places until the latter disappears, which will be immediately unless
the case be a very bad one; then wipe off with the other cloth. The
secret of success lies in the cream that is not a lather, in the mildness
of the soap used, and in the dampness instead of the wetness of the
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
Care of Floors and Woodwork
Waxed floors should rarely be washed except before rewaxing.
A hardwood floor can be kept from scratches if the legs of the
chairs and tables have a bit of felt pasted on the bottom. For this
old felt hats can be utilized.
Frames of upholstered furniture will need freshening as much as
the covering, so if the wood is dirty it should first be washed with
warm soap and water. This process will not harm any kind of wood.
After cleansing the wood should be wiped thoroughly dry with
clean rags and then polished. For this process there are many pre-
pared polishes, but a mixture of crude oil and turpentine in equal
quantities is successful. This finisher is applied to the wood with a
piece of flannel and afterward polished with a soft rag. There may
be polishes that are more brilliant for the time, but the home-made one
lasts. It is a cheap preparation also for keeping stained floors in
condition. Try brightening the wood by rubbing pulverized pumice
stone lightly over the surface. Apply this with a soft flannel cloth
which before was moistened with a few drops of crude linseed oil.
Don't make the mistake of getting refined linseed oil or the result
will not be satisfactory. When all scratches and spots have disap-
peared with the rubbing of the pumice wipe off the surface with a
cheesecloth rag and then work in the raw linseed oil with a flannel
cloth until the wood takes a polish. The longer it is rubbed the
brighter the surface will become. This treatment may be given every
three or four weeks if desired.
To Clean Furniture
Upholstered furniture should be taken to the yard and lightly
beaten. Sweep off all dust and with a small paint brush remove dirt
from all crevices. If moths get into upholstery remove the cover.
Beat the hair or jute filling free from dust, put it into a muslin bag
and bake in the oven to kill moths. This process also lightens the
material. A soiled silk cover may be cleaned without removing it by
scrubbing with gasoline.
How to Clean Upholstered Furniture
After removing the slip covers the furniture should be taken into
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
the open air, and if of velvet, plush or corduroy, be Hghtly beaten
with a rattan carpet beater. Tufted furniture requires care in cleans-
ing, whether flat buttons or silk tufts are used.
For this cleaning the best implement for removing dust from un-
der the tufts is a small round paint brush, sufficiently stiff to force
itself into crevices. It must not be too harsh, or it will injure the
An English clothes brush is better than a whisk broom for brush-
ing velvet and silk, because it is made with hair bristles.
An old silk handkerchief is the best kind of cloth to use on silk
pieces, for it can be rubbed smoothly over the surface and the
fingers, wrapped with a bit of the handkerchief, worked into all the
corners and crevices.
Spots and soil are apt to come to light after furniture has been
covered for the summer. These defects generally respond to home
treatment. For example, if grease caused the stain the warm iron and
paper method may be applied, afterward rubbing with chloroform or
ether. These fluids will not harm the most delicate colors or fabrics.
Velvet, however, must not be subjected to the warm iron, because
the pile would be crushed if so pressed. Ether generously applied will
probably remove the stains, but, should it fail, try any of a number
of good preparations for such purposes that are for sale upon the
Blood stains will respond if covered with a paste made from raw
cornstarch and water and exposed to the sun for a day. Glycerine
and alcohol in equal quantities are valuable in the removal of fruit
stains. After applying this mixture clean warm water should be used
as a rinse.
In using these remedies it should be borne in mind that rubbing
roughens the material, so a gentle dabbing of the solvent, with the
use of a clean cloth, answers the purpose. It is a mistake to spread
stains by the careless use of home remedies.
If in the process of removing stains the color becomes affected it
can generally be restored by touching lightly with chloroform.
Tapestry coverings may be thoroughly brushed with a fairly stiff
whisk broom, and if faded or shabby may be freshened by wiping
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
quickly with a clean cloth wrung out of a solution of ammonia, one
to twenty parts of hot water.
Home-Made Furniture Polish
To cleanse one's furniture with special attention to renewing its
freshness, is sometimes to save money otherwise spent at a cabinet
maker's. And for this work a most excellent poHsh for any hard
wood is one composed of one-third each of wood alcohol, vinegar and
olive oil. An eighth of the quantity of linseed oil added will increase
its polishing capacities, but this necessitates greater elbow grease to
prevent stickiness of the wood surface.
Powdered pumice and olive oil make a splendid cleanser for ma-
hogany. Especially with an old piece, the beauty and depth of color
may be entirely dimmed by dust and dirt that has collected through
the months, if not the years.
The best way of treating it then is to have a soft bit of cloth —
cheese cloth is good; wet it with oil and then dip into finely powdered
pumice. With the pad thus made the wood is rubbed vigorously, re-
newing the oil or powder as needed, according to the condition of
the swab. It will rapidly become dirty and must be folded under
from time to time that the old dirt shall not be rubbed in again.
To Cut Glass
Frequently a small piece of glass is needed for some purpose.
It may be cut out by filling a deep pan or bowl with water; then put
the hands, glass and scissors completely under the water, and hold
them there while the cutting is done. Ordinary window glass can be
cut in any shape desired in this way.
Many Materials Can Be Utilized
Few women, perhaps, know that old, soiled or faded chenille cur-
tains and draperies can be rewoven into handsome reversible rugs,
but this can be done where the carpets are woven. It requires
five pounds to make one square yard, which, roughly estimated, is
usually the weight of one curtain.
Rugs from old carpets can be woven plain or with borders and
with fringed ends, as the customer wishes.
Band borders are placed a few inches above the edge on the ends
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
of rugs. End borders are woven on the extreme edge, and then there
is a third border effect. This goes around the four sides. There is
no extra charge for the border decorating the ends of the rugs, but
if it goes all around them, 25 cents per square yard is added.
When a fancy rug is desired, the same kind of carpet in two differ-
ent colors must be sent — to make the border or center, as the case
may be. If fringe is added fifteen cents extra per running yard will
be charged. These rugs may be woven in any size — quite an advantage
over ready-made ones, which come in standard sizes only.
To calculate how many square yards of rug can be produced from
an old carpet one must figure as follows:
Six running yards or eight pounds of Brussels carpet will make one
square yard of rug. Allowances must be made for worn out and
When such exist one to three yards more must be added to the
amount as stated above in order to get a rug of the desired size.
Pieces as small as one inch wide and twelve inches long can be
used. Should the length of the old carpet fall short of the amount
necessary for the reweaving into a rug of desired size, then the quan-
tity can be made up by the weaver, who charges five cents a pound for
carpet cuttings, which are usually in stock.
Another good idea is to send pieces of any kind of carpet with the
large quantity of the sort desired, because often it may be woven
or possibly exchanged for a weave that would combine to advantage.
Carpets may be sent just as they come from the floor, without
beating or other cleaning, as this is done at the factory.
Cleaning Marble Baseboards
To entirely remove stains and discoloration from marble base-
boards of show cases, tables or floors or mantelpieces, dissolve pow-
dered whiting in very strong soda water. Apply with flannel and leave
on to dry for twenty-four hours, when it will be found that all stains
The Care of Matting
The broom, even the covered one, is not good for matting, and
neither is the frequent use of the wet cloth. The carpet-sweeper, used
across the grain, is better; and the vacuum-cleaner is, of course, best
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
of all. But in between the latter two comes the hearth-brush, which
is a life-preserver to the matting and a labor-saver to the house-
worker. To go over a matting-covered room with a dustpan and one
of these brushes is a matter of only a few minutes. These soft hair-
brushes, thus used, raise little dust; they keep the matting and the
corners in proper condition, and they do not roughen and injure the
matting's surface. Another merit is that they may be washed without
injury if they are quickly dried.
To Lay a Straw Matting Smoothly
■ This is a hard thing to do as the cheaper grades are likely to get
wrinkled and to wear in ridges. When you put the matting down, get
it as smooth as possible; then, with a pail of hot water, to which a
cupful of common salt has been added, mop and wash the matting
as if it were dirty. Use the salt water freely, renewing, often enough
to keep it hot. Wash with the grain of the matting, and leave it
quite damp. In drying, the matting will shrink into place. The salt
toughens the straw and prevents it from breaking.
Milliners possessing mirrors, either oval or oblong, should hang
them so as to show the hat and not the whole figure. That is, they
should be placed horizontally on the wall. A customer will often fail
to buy a hat if she is disappointed in the appearance of her figure as
reflected in a long mirror.
How to Wash Mirrors
Some persons have a difficulty in keeping mirrors in proper con-
dition, but a soft rag dipped in alcohol and wiped over the glass, that
is afterward rubbed dry, is all that is necessary when the mirror ap-
pears dim or spotted.
For this purpose cheesecloth is best.
When spots appear at the back of the mirror on the quicksilver,
it is generally for the reason that the glass is hung where a strong
sunlight can rest upon it. At first tiny specks no larger than pin
points make their appearance, then they spread, become larger and
finally meet in a cloudy effect which cannot be remedied except by
a repetition of the quicksilvering process.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Damp walls are another source of damage to mirrors, for they,
too, destroy the quicksilver.
Frames can be kept in good condition by wiping often with a soft
rag. If the frame is a good quality of gilding it may be washed with
soap and water when necessary, but the cheaper, ordinary gilt frames
should never be touched with water. When they begin to blacken a
rag moistened lightly with turpentine will usually restore the gilding.
To Fluff Pillows
Pillows may be fluffed by placing them near an open fire or over
the radiator or register.
When a gas mantel breaks and the filmy ashes fall apart do not
throw them away. They make excellent silver polish. One woman
saves these ashes and sprinkles them over the logs in her gas grate.
The effect is brilliant when the gas is lighted.
Make covers for radiators of crash or denim, and save both walls
and curtains from the dust that is blown into them by the ascending
To Wind Up a Curtain Roller
Using a button hook to wind up a curtain roller, when the spring
has run down, is a great saving on the fingers.
Hints on Rug Buying
A dark rug shows dust and lint and a green rug fades to a dirty
color, so avoid both. Most good weaves have small patterns, whereas
cheap fabrics have big bold designs. Tans wear well and some reds
are lasting. Blue rugs are adapted to bedrooms and red, brown and
mixed colors to halls.
Care of Rugs
Take your rugs in the yard every three or four weeks, if you have
no vacuum cleaner, and sweep them thoroughly with a broom. This
will keep the wall-paper and hangings clean, and you won't have to
breathe the dust which you are sweeping. A good sweeping with the
carpet sweeper will do in the meantime.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
To Keep a Rug Flat
When the edge of a rug persists in ending up, lay over it, on the
wrong side, a damp cloth, and on this place a moderately hot iron.
Let it stand for a few minutes and the steam will make the rug lay
An old corset steel, dress-stay, or piece of stiff wire cat-stitched
diagonally at the corners, on the wrong side of a much used tapestry
rug, will keep it from curling up.
Turned-up Corner o£ Rugs
Another way to avoid the turned-up corners of rugs is to sew a
pocket of some cheap material on the underside of each corner; then
slip in a piece of tin, which you can have cut the exact size at a hard-
ware store. The corners cannot curl.
A Return to the Rag Rugs
Milliners who have accumulated old silks, ribbons discarded from
hats brought in to trim, etc., have the material from which can be
made the handsomest rugs, curtains or table covers.
To prepare these for weaving the material should be cut into strips
one inch wide, lapping the ends one over the other, and sewing down.
Next wind into balls. It requires one and one-half pounds to make
one square yard.
If the rags are of heavy goods it is wiser to allow two pounds to
one square yard. The price for weaving rag rugs is usually 35 cents
a yard if one yard wide. If a wider width is desired the cost is more
per square yard.
Odd Sizes in Woven Rugs
The weaver makes odd sizes, such as the door mat size, i foot by
6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches. Room rugs begin at 2 feet 3 inches by
5 feet 3 inches, and range in various prices according to size until they
measure 12x15 feet, when the cost of weaving is about $20.
In shipping, old carpets or other material should be tied securely
with strong rope and a tag attached bearing the name and address of
the sender. A duplicate tag should be placed inside the carpet. Any
kind of carpet can be utilized. Those that can be rewoven into revers-
ible rugs that can be used on both sides are Brussels and ingrain.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Carpets that make up on one side only are velvets, moquettes, Axmin-
sters and Wiltons.
Smyrna rugs, when not too much worn, can be used by combining
with carpet and adding chenille. This process is done entirely by hand,
so an extra charge per square yard is made, but the result is usually
a beautiful rug.
The ordinary wire netting for doors and windows offers no pro-
tection from prying eyes. This can be remedied by giving the outside
of all screens a coat of thin white paint. Strange as it may seem, the
paint will not be noticeable, and while those inside may look out
through the screens, outsiders cannot see into the room. The paint
should be made as thin as possible with turpentine and applied with a
broad flat brush.
Home-Made Seat for a Rocking Chair
To make a strong and flexible seat for an old rocker, buy a roll of
carpet-binding to match the chair as nearly as possible. Fasten the
binding to the back part of the seat frame, close up in the corner, with
a couple of tacks. Draw it from front to back, having the binding
very tight and close together, until the entire seat-space is covered.
Start in the same way at the side, weaving back and forth, bringing
the binding tightly around the side-pieces each time. Such a seat is
more comfortable than the perforated wooden ones.
Inexpensive Ways to Make Art Lamp Shades at Home
Charmingly dainty lamp shades may be made at small expense, if
one has any knowledge of working with water colors. Even with
tracing paper and a pencil decidedly pretty Japanese effects may be
secured. For a foundation wire frames of various shapes can be pur-
chased, but if stiff paper is to be used as a covering, the simple,
straight frames are best. When covering any frame, at the top should
be tacked a piece of asbestos that is at least two inches deep. This
will prevent the paper from burning.
If the paper is to be painted the easiest method will be to cut a
pattern and lay this on rough white water color paper. When the
exact size has been determined the stiff paper should be neatly pasted
at the two edges, and held in place over the frame until it has *'set."
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
White cotton thread and a few stitches are the easiest and firmness
way of attaching it to the frame at top and bottom.
This done, the background is ready for decoration. What this
shall be depends upon the individual skill or desire. Medallions,
heads set into little backgrounds of color and framed with fine lines
of gilt and silver are always charming. The frame effect may be
joined by tying bowknots together at the top, so that little medallions
seem to be suspended by ribbons of gold or a color. Large birds, such
as storks, are mostly decorative, and when done in a flight are not
difficult. Flowers and rural scenes of various kinds may be used.
It is sometimes possible to find beautiful photographs, and with
these, unmounted, novel effect can be made. They may be placed on
the paper in a line or irregularly, cutting out the background. This
renders the pictures transparent when the light is waning. They should
be neatly pasted on, first trimming the paper edge in scallops or
points to make a finished frame. If one does not wish to do this, a
design may be done with a paint brush in such manner as to simulate
a frame. One who cannot use brushes will find that gilt and silver
headings, in the fancy paper departments, are very pretty and not hard
to put on. These ''frame effects" may become most elaborate by
pasting on different decorations.
Still further variety is attained by tracing or drawing figures and
cutting them out of the frame with a sharp knife. Over the spaces
thus made thin colored or black paper should be pasted, the edges
being underneath the shade. When the lamp is lighted these trans-
parent designs are conspicuously shown. In placing these or any other
decoration the utmost care should be taken to have the spacing regular
and in proportion; otherwise the shade will appear lopsided and its
beauty will be spoiled
If for any reason you do not wish to finish the top and bottom of
the shade with a painted or stencilled border, use paper ruches. Those
of quality thicker than crepe, are made now in white and colors and
are attached by gluing. Sewing is really the stronger way, as there is
then no danger that heat will loosen the trimming.
Shades of crepe tissue paper are not new, but are always pretty.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Clean Window Shades
Lay the shades on a clean table and rub with a slice of bread or
with a handful of oatmeal.
To Keep Sleeves Up
A pair of bicycle clips will be found useful to keep the sleeves up.
Before sweeping, always wring an old napkin out of water, and pin-
ning the ends of the linen around your head, make most effectual
sifter for the dust. The cloth hangs loosely over nose and mouth,
not interfering with breathing in the least.
Renovated Tables and Bureaux
It often happens that the tops of tables and bureaux are badly dis-
figured. These may be converted into attractive pieces of furniture in
the following way : Get plain, flat moulding and nail it securely
around the edge of table or bureau top. Have a plate of glass cut to
fit into the frame thus formed. Put paper or cloth having a pretty
pattern beneath the glass. Flowered cretonnes give a very dainty
effect. Tea-tables of this sort are popular for serving tea on veranda
A Useful Toy
A child's toy carpet sweeper, costing about ten cents, is a great
convenience in sweeping up threads, crumbs scattered on the rug, or in
cleaning under tables, cabinets and other furniture too heavy or awk-
ward for frequent moving.
To Clean Wall-Paper
Take one cupful of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoon-
ful coal oil, one teaspoonful muriatic acid or two tablespoonfuls of
vinegar, one-fourth cupful of ammonia, one-half cupful warm water.
Place the mixture in a double boiler and stir it constantly until it
forms a very thick paste. Turn it out on a floured board, and as it is
worked into a dough, the consistency of bread-dough, add a few drops
of gasoline, a drop at a time. Keep the mixture in a wet cloth in a
tin can. To use it pinch off a handful of the dough, rub it lightly over
the paper, working in the soiled part until the piece is gritty and be-
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
gins to crumble, then change to clean. This amount will clean two
rooms, including the ceilings. The result is a paper as clean as when
Another Way to Clean Wall Paper
Boil a quart of water. Let it get cold. Boil it up again, when not
quite boiling shave half a toilet sized cake of pure fine white soap
into it. As soon as the soap is dissolved and while the water is still
almost but not quite boiling stir in flour slowly until the whole is a
thick paste. Let it cool. If the mixture is not now the consistency of
dough add more flour to make it so. Separate it into pieces convenient
to handle. Begin at the top of the wall and work down in long parallel
strokes. As the mixture becomes soiled fold in the dirty part and be-
gin again with a clean surface.
Useful Wall Pockets
The material and size of these are suited to the room in which they
are hung and the use they are put to. All are finished with a stout fac-
ing at the top. Attached to this are brass rings that slip over corre-
sponding hooks on the doors or walls. This prevents tearing the mate-
rial with nails and makes it easy to take the pockets down to be shak-
en or washed. Every closet door is furnished with a row of pockets,
each the right size to contain a pair of shoes. Above this is a row
for soiled collars, gloves, handkerchiefs, etc. Pockets in the back
entry hold mittens, rubbers and slippers. This scheme helps to keep
the house orderly and does away with much tiresome picking-up.
To Clean Willow Chairs
Do not use warm water or a strong alkali soap for cleaning willow
chairs. Dust the chair and scrub it lightly with tepid water containing
a few drops of kerosene to remove handmarks of grease. Naphtha
soap will not destroy the varnish. Wipe the suds from the willow or
wicker and dry the chair in the sun. A solution of oxalic acid and
water can be used on unvarnished reed or willow furniture and bleach-
ing properties of the acid will make the articles like new.
Quick Way o£ Cleaning Windov^s
The quickest way to clean windows on a bright day is to wet whit-
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
ing with water to the consistency of cream and apply it to the windows
with a small piece of cloth.
When quite dry remove the whiting with a larger dry cloth and
finally polish with old newspapers.
On a cloud}^ or damp day wipe off the windows with warm dry
The Dark Window
A dark window against a dark wall should not be endured. Better
have a window some place else. Bar that one dark window, and make
a bookshelf of it. Cover it with a pretty silk curtain and fill it with
shelves. In many city houses, those placed close together, tenants are
compelled to have sheet iron shutters. This is for insurance precau-
tion, of course. But there is no reason why the ugly window, so diffi-
cult to clean on the outside, should not be made useful inside.
Restoring Ebonized Wood
To clean and restore ebonized wood use a mixture of equal parts
of powdered pumice stone and linseed oil. Rub carefully the way of
the grain and polish with a dry, soft cloth.
HEALTH and BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS
To Reduce the Size of Ankles
When the legs and ankles are not in proportion reduce the size of
ankles with this exercise. Standing erect, feet firmly on the floor,
raise the body slowly until you stand upon the toes; do this ten times
night and morning.
When haggard from fatigue try the value of a hot bath as a pick-
up. If a little vinegar or cologne be added the refreshing qualities
A Day in Bed
When overdone either from work or pleasure try how different
Hfe will look after a day off in bed. There is little danger of bad
breakdowns for the person who makes it a habit to have occasional
A Face Bleach
Wash the face in a pint of cider every day for nine days, then
steam it and the result will be a white skin, all blemishes no deeper
than the skin gone, even freckles, tan, windburn, etc.
Warm cider used as a daily wash will remove light freckles; dark-
er freckles may be taken out with vinegar, but this must be removed
with warm water, lest the acid burn the skin. Apply cold cream
after. Some women use a cut lemon from time to time to whiten
To Use in Case of Burns
A free application of soft soap to a fresh burn almost instantly re-
moves the fire from the flesh. If the injury is very severe, as soon
as the pain ceases apply linseed oil, and then dust over with fine
flour. When this covering dries hard, repeat the oil and flour dress-
ing until it cracks and falls off, as it will in a day or two, and a new
skin will be found to have formed where the skin was burned.
A Simple Suggestion for Coiffure
Tying a thin veil over the coiffure, after the locks have been
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
arranged will deepen the natural wave, for the mesh must be pressed
down closely. It should be put on as a cap, knotting the two ends
in front at the top of the pompadour. However, care must be taken
that the hair falls into waves under the restricting cover, and as
the veil is transparent there is no difficulty in determining this. After
fifteen minutes or so the veil may be untied and the hair softened by
running the comb gently through the tresses.
Cleaning the Face
After a dusty ride or day in the air cold cream will clean the face
and neck better than soap and water; rub it on generously, and rub it
in with the finger tips; wipe off with cheese cloth or absorbent cotton,
and then with old linen (worn out table napkins are nice for this)
wet in cologne or Florida water, wipe thoroughly over the face, and
then use just a trifie of cream to prevent too much dryness, massaging
it in well, over this dust on powder.
If possessed of a very greasy skin, rub it with borax prepared with
water; everyone with an oily skin should keep a bottle prepared of
filtered water in which powdered borax is thrown, as much as it will
take up. If of a very oily skin, allow this to dry on, otherwise rinse
with cool, not cold, water.
Cold Cream for a Dust Remover
Vaseline or a good cold cream is the best dust remover, for it
penetrates all cracks, softening instead of hardening the matter. If
a fluid soap be used directly afterward the grease is quickly extracted,
bringing the foreign matter with it.
In cases of extreme soil mere washing leaves the skin in a dingy
condition. This is the explanation of many unsightly hands and a
defect that is easily remedied.
Among other oily applications as beneficial as vaseline for this
purpose is sweet almond oil or soft cold cream. The necessary fea-
ture of these is that the applications must be either liquid or one
that liquifies quickly or it will not be a dust collector.
Always in winter before going into the street a thin coating of
cold cream should be rubbed over the cheeks and chin. The mer-
est atom on the finger tip may be smoothed over, so that a slight
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
amount of cream covers the whole surface, neutralizing the un-
happy effects of temperature. After that powder may be dusted
on. Then when leaving the house the skin should be rubbed with
an astringent lotion that will remove the dust from the pores, yet
will not increase the amount of grease. For this lettuce water is
excellent and can be made at home at any season.
To prepare this lotion an entire head of the vegetable is separ-
ated and washed carefully. The leaves are then placed in a new
agate or porcelain saucepan, and gently warmed, when the natural
liquid, or juice will begin to be extracted. Warming must be slow,
and the pulp kept at a high temperature, without simmering, for
half an hour. The mass must then be strained through cloth, and
for every teaspoonful of juice thus obtained ten drops of tincture
of benzoin should be added. The essence may be diluted and made
more astringent by adding double its quantity of high proof alco
A liquid balm agrees better than powder with some persons* '^'
complexions during cold weather. This is made from two drams
of pure oxide of zinc, one dram each of glycerine and orange
flower water, five drops of tincture of benzoin and eight drops of
essence of violets. The zinc is only covered with orange flower
water and stirred. The glycerine and benzoin are put together, add-
ing the rest of the orange flower water, the two mixtures then being
This preparation is shaken before being put on the face evenly, with
a soft linen cloth. It should not stay on over night. It is harmless
if washed off before retiring.
The simpler face powders are the less apt to harm the skin. The
idea that powders per se are injurious is a mistake, unless they contain
powerful ingredients. Their possibility for harm lies merely in the
fact of clogging the pores, and this will roughen and eventually ruin
the complexion. But if the pores are freed regularly from the impal-
pable dust and permitted to breathe there will be no trouble. There-
fore washing at night becomes imperative for those who would have
their skin soft and smooth.
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The Summer Freckles
Lemon juice rubbed on and bathing with buttermilk are oM
remedies potent with some persons, but other skins need more than
merely gentle treatment, and for these the old-time Dr. Erasmus
Wilson recommends a preparation of Elderflower ointment, i ounce;
sulphate of zinc, 20 grains.
Mix well, rub into the skin at night, wash off in the morning with
a good soap and hot water and then apply a lotion of suffusion of
roses, % pint; citric acid, 30 grains.
This can remain on all day and the treatment repeated until the
freckles are off or very dim.
Good teeth are requisite for both health and good looks. Go to a
dentist and have the tartar removed from under and around the gums,
then use table salt on the gums several times a day. Scrub the teeth
downward, never crosswise. The teeth should be cleaned before
breakfast, after each meal and before retiring.
Care of Hands
The hands are so much in evidence that they need the best of care,
and a pretty hand can be made very effectual. Hand exercises from
the wrist to limber up the wrist are taken; any one who has seen
Bernhardt's gestures will realize all they convey, their grace and mean-
ing; the wrist so supple, the hand full of grace. This will only come
A scouring brush should be used with a mild soap and lukewarm
water every night, and apply it vigorously, drying the hands thoroughly;
use a teaspoonful of borax to a basin of water.
Lemon juice and buttermilk will bleach the hands, and the former,
or a cut tomato, will remove any ordinary stain.
To Soften the Hands
Keep a dish of Indian meal on the toilet stand near the soap
and rub the meal freely on the hands after soaping them for
washing. This will cleanse and soften the skin.
To Clean Hands
When the temperature is too high the tendency is to dry the skin.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Any simple soap may be used, but strong kinds should be avoided. A
nail brush is necessary, and an inexpensive one will be as cleansing as
a costly one.
As soon as the hands are wet they must be lathered, and then the
brush rubbed over the soap and the palms and backs scrubbed, brushing
so the skin will not be irritated, yet sufficiently brisk to take out the
Snowy hands are produced by dipping them in almond oil; let them
absorb all the oil, and then dip them in French chalk and wear a pair
of loose old gloves that night. Another plan is to wash the hands in
peroxide of hydrogen, letting it dry on them, and then rub on cold
cream and wear old kid gloves. In the morning wash off with lemon
juice, vinegar or cider, hot water, and then a disappearing cream.
Cream of tartar will remove dye stains from the hands. Rub with
soap and apply the powder thoroughly.
Wash Hands in Grease
It is not enough to wash the hands just before going to luncheon,
for the prettiest materials in the shops soil the skin, while ledger work
or typewriting makes the skin grimy after a few moments' work.
Yet it takes less than five minutes to get them into condition if the
pot of grease is kept near the washstand and is used in liberal quanti-
ties, as for instance, a lump the size of an English walnut at each
To apply this it is put into the palm of one hand and then the same
motion as in washing is gone through, special attention being given
to the finger tips and nails. This takes about half a minute. If no
other grease is at hand kerosene oil may be used. Indeed machinists
use petroleum in this form very often to cleanse the hands, and the
fastidious woman will doubtlss be surprised at its efficacy. Then the
hands must be dipped into warm, not hot, water.
To Whiten Hands
A very good bleaching paste can be used at night, avoiding the
nails, with a pair of kid gloves worn over it. The paste — rosewater and
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
powdered myrrh, each i oz.; honey, 4 oz., and yellow w^ax, 2 oz. ;
sufficient glycerine to enable one to spread as a paste. Melt the wax,
add the myrrh, beating well, and gradually add the honey and rose-
Soaking thin hands in warm olive oil for half an hour every day
will fatten them. Always bathe the hands in warm water before us-
ing any improver, so as to open up the pores. After an oil soak, wipe
dry and use prepared chalk as a powder until obliged to wash them
free from oil.
To Soften the Hands
Before retiring take a large pair of gloves and spread mutton tal-
low inside, also all over the hands. Wear the gloves all night and
wash the hands with olive oil and white Castile soap in the morning:
after cleansing the hands with soap rub them well with oatmeal while
To Cure Dandruff
Take a thimbleful of powdered refined borax, let it dissolve in
a teacupful of w^ater; first brush the head well, and then wet a
brush with the solution and rub the scalp well with it. Do this every
day for a week and twice a w^eek, until no trace of dandruff is
Hair Pulling in Order
The latest thing in promoting woman's glory crown is systematic
pulling of the hair. The most scientific pulling, that which is sup-
posed to give a tingling sense of life to the scalp and promote a luxuri-
ant growth of hair, must be in steady, even, but rather brisk pulls.
Take a small strand of hair in hand, pull it firmly but sharply
enough to make the scalp tingle, but not irritate it. Keep this up all
over the head until the scalp is glowing and pink.
Ten minutes of hair-pulling each morning is said to not only
strengthen the hair, but to give it new luster.
To Improve Hair
The best shampoo for oily hair and dry scalp is an egg shampoo,
made by adding one ounce of cold water to one well beaten egg] rub
mixture well into the scalp and on the hair, rinse in warm water, then
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
cold water, dry thoroughly, apply the tonic and massage the scalp for
ten minutes. Each night use the tonic and massage for ten minutes.
The first remedy for a woman whose hair has begun to be stiff is
to experiment with slightly oily liquids until she finds one suitable. A
lotion made from one tablespoonful of glycerine, half a pint of rose
water, with ten drops of tincture of benzoin added to prevent the
glycerine becoming rancid, is excellent.
This mixture should be used after the hair has been made ready for
dressing by removing all the tangles. This done, one should put about
half a teaspoonful of the mixture in the palm of the left hand and
rub the right into it. With both hands the hair is gently rubbed and
patted smooth from forehead to neck, oiling it, but so slightly that the
application is not visible. Afterward dressing proceeds in the usual
way. Occasionally a woman should use a slightly wet brush after the
oiling. This must not be applied every day or the effect of too much
water will be drying.
Another liquid for the same purpose is made from one-quarter of
an ounce of gum benzoin and four ounces of high proof alcohol. Af-
ter the gum is dissolved liquid is strained through coarse brown paper
and two ounces of castor oil and half a dram each of oils of geranium
and bergamot are added. This is put on by the same process as was
Neither of these is to be regarded as a tonic or used as a substi-
tute, for they are distinctly dressings, and the manner in which they
are put on in no way affects the scalp. To feed the scalp it is neces-
sary that whatever is put on shall be rubbed into the pores.
How to Make Hair Wavy in Winter
One hears women say mournfully, and with truth, that just as soon
as the weather is cold their hair ceases to wave; that it is crinkly in
summer, but in winter is straight, and this condition prevails, I think,
because the grease is used on the tresses, for there are few cases where
hair that is in the least wavy naturally will not be improved by slight
application of oil. And this truth is proved by the fact that the
wave in tresses is deeper several weeks after shampooing than when
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
just washed, because the natural oils have gathered, and the texture
of the hair responds accordingly.
The scalp is affected in winter precisely as is the complexion; it
is dried, the degree depending upon the amount of natural grease
secreted. Warm weather has exactly the opposite effect; it stimulates
the excretions, and foreign application is unnecessary.
For the itching scalp use the following lotion once daily and
give a deep massage after applying tonic. Once or twice a week
rub a little yellow vaseline on the scalp: distilled witch hazel, 5
ounces; corrosive sublimate, lo grains.
When the hair is dusty and dull, and you want to clean it
quickly, just sprinkle through it a little dry shampoo powder made
by mixing four ounces of orris root with four ounces of therox.
Then brush the hair thoroughly and not only will it be clean,
but it will have a rich and glossy lustre that can be given in no
other way. So little time is required for this dry shampoo that
it can be done profitably whenever the hair is dressed.
Therox is excellent for the scalp and gives the hair new life
and vigor. The regular use of this mixture heightens the natural
color, while w^ashing the hair with water too often causes it to
lose color and become dull and brittle.
Eyebrows need a tonic like the hair does sometimes; they should
arch evenly and be moderately heavy. When they begin to look thin
try this tonic: Sulphate of quinine, 5 grains; sweet almond oil, i
ounce. Put on the eyebrows with a finely pointed brush and be care-
ful that none goes in the eyes.
Another tonic is to rub a little red vaseline on the eyebrows, fol-
lowing the desired shape as you smooth them down, and with a little
brush apply some to the eyelashes. Brush the eyebrows every day.
Dark Circles Under Eyes
Dark circles under the eyes are usually caused by some constitu-
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE,
tional trouble or loss of sleep. The cause must first be removed and
it is always best to consult a physician, as the trouble is not easily
reached. Help the physician by massaging each day with good mas-
sage cream. Begin at the nose and massage gently from the nose
outward to the corner of the eyes, in a rotary motion.
For a Slight Scar
Spirits of camphor, touching the skin with it twice a day, will
sometimes eradicate the spots left from pimples. The liquid should
be gently rubbed in.
Important Little Things
Red ears are conspicuous, and can be greatly improved by using
any non-greasy cream or astringent used on the face; then powder
with French chalk or flour of zinc. In the morning wash the ears
with water softened with borax and a few drops of lemon juice.
*'Bite the lips to make them red" is an old saying and bad advice,
this thickens and chaps the lips; better redden them by pressing firmly
together. Before going out in the wind or cold lightly rub the lips
with cold cream or a non-greasy cream used for the face and hands ;
Moles are removed with strong, and the best, salicylic acid,
dipping a wooden toothpick in the acid and then applying to the
mole, but carefully avoid touching the skin around. In a few days
a scab will form and fall, and the mole with it, or part of it at
least; in fifteen days use the acid again and more of the mole will
come off; repeat in fifteen days if necessary and the entire mole
For Chapped Lips
To prevent the chapped lips that so frequently result from the
high winds try rubbing the lips each time before going out with
rose water and glycerine, mixed in the proportion of two parts of
the former to one of the latter.
Look as Well as You Can
From earliest childhood such habits as making faces, drawing
clown the mouth, frowning, squinting, etc., should be corrected;
such contortions are wrinkle breeders, and no one admires wrin-
kles; so why court them? A reposeful face is not full of wrinkles.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
The successful beauty finder is one who perseveres in any treat-
ment undertaken, who erases wrinkles from her mind, as well as
her face, and reflects in her eyes an uplifted soul and *'good will
towards men." : !|#|f|i''''i
Massage and Tipping
The old-fashioned idea of massage has been modified, as rub-
bing may do harm as well as good; if a rubbing is done skilfully
the operator may rub flesh on; ditto wrinkles if the rubbing is too
vigorous, or rub them off if the work is done correctly, but we
are not all skilled operators.
In massaging the face rub from the centre and across rather
than lengthwise. The ''tipping" now preferred to massage in many
cases, is a tapping of the finger tips only on the skin to be treated,
which gives a tingling sensation that soon proves that the blood
is rushing up to that spot to improve the circulation and restore
life where there seemed to be a lack of it.
One needs short finger nails for "tipping,** and a quick, light
tap. Used in conjunction with massage this is a very effective
For Breaking Nails
The constant use of hard water is fatal on the good appearance
of the finger nails. This is one of the drawbacks to a filter plant.
As, however, pure water is the first consideration, women must
seek means of overcoming minor ills.
Nails that break easily must be given a course of olive oil. It
should be rubbed into the finger tips each night. Massage well
and occasionally give the fingers a bath in hot olive oil.
If it is not convenient to use the oil, vaseline is a good substi-
tute. Whenever doing rough work the fingers should be protected
with gloves. If it is not comfortable to wear them over the whole
hand, fingers can be cut from old gloves.
Many girls who do office work, or selling goods over a counter,
injure their hands unnecessarily by not washing them often, for
the most amazing amount of damage is done the nails and skin
by permitting an accumulation of dirt to remain in the pores for
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
When cleansing hands so stained, soap and water should not
be the first application, for nothing but a soft grease will be effec-
The finger tips require several extra strokes. Rinsing must
be thorough. Drying finishes the cleaning, but is not the simple
process that- many persons think, and in the manner of doing it
lies half the secret of having pretty nails. Each finger must be
taken separately, the towel rubbed down the sides, back and front,
beginning at the top.
The common mistake is to begin at the finger base and rub up,
which simply trains the cuticle down over the nails and thickens
the tips. Every nail must be wiped individually, commencing at
the top and pressing gently down to the crescent at the base of
Only in this way will good shape be preserved. The fact that
knuckles are not thoroughly dried many times is the explanation
of redness. They require special attention.
File the Finger Nails
To keep the nails in good condition, always file them, never
use the scissors to cut. Cleanse under the nails with equal parts
of lemon juice and water. Use an orange wood stick; also keep
the cuticle around the nails smooth. Polish the nails whenever
For a Thin Neck
For this one must take deep breathing exercise ten minutes
night and morning, but some seem too busy to devote this time,
and yet wish to improve, and they can wear a shoulder brace that
will keep them in such a position that they will breathe deeply all
If possible take singing lessons, at least try and get in neck
exercises for ten minutes every night, letting the head fall forward
as low as possible, slowly raise and lower the head toward the
back; repeat on each side and then turn the head around, rolling
it as much in a circle as can be done; this must be done slowly,
as it makes one giddy.
Every night bathe the neck in very hot water, then apply a
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
tissue building cream well rubbed in on neck, chest and shoulders
for if one of these parts is thin all are. The next morning take
deep breathing exercises, then wash the cream off in hot water and
soap, followed by a cold water rub, and use a flesh brush for five
Do Not Be Discouraged
Do this for a month and you will be surprised at the result,
provided you are getting plenty of nourishing food, sleep and out-
door air at the same time.
A Yellow Neck
A yellow neck can be improved by soaking it, after washing
with warm water, with a soft flannel cloth wet with lemon juice,
peroxide of hydrogen or simply alcohol; soak the cloth and tie it
on, renew when dry and rub the neck as well; dilute the peroxide
with water, about one-fourth, if the skin is very tender.
Then w^ash with a disappearing cream and finally with warm
water and soap and then cold water as a dash on the skin to pre-
To Fill Hollows in Throat
Deep breathing before an open window in the early morning,
clad in a loose gown, w411 help largely to fill the hollows in throat.
Massage also with a massage cream: cocoa butter, 2 ounces; lano-
line, 2 ounces; olive oil, 2 ounces.
A Red Nose
Do not overeat and wear overtight clothes if you would avoid
a red nose. Indigestion and cramped circulation can paint a more
vivid hue than the rouge pot.
A Nose Wash
Your nose will improve if you wet it at night and in the morn-
ing with a mixture of 15 grain iodide of potassium, 7% grains of iodine
and % pint of distilled water; it should dry on.
If you intend opening rooms for manicuring and facial mas-
sage, the furnishings are important. A front room would be better
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
than a back room, as you require good light. You will want a
place screened or curtained off for treating the face, a mirror, Mor-
ris chair for the patient, a clothes tree, small table and a box for
face powder. For the manicuring, a long narrow table with a
pretty cushion to rest the hands on, small bowl to soak the fingers
and bathe the hands in. Manicure instruments, a chair each side
of the table. A few pretty chairs and pictures, a rug for the floor,
desk or table, pretty white curtains at the windows, and anything
that will make the room look dainty and attractive. Then lastly,
but most important, good creams and face powder.
Polish for Nails
An inexpensive and harmless nail polish is made by thoroughly
mixing together a half ounce of talcum powder, a half ounce of
powdered starch, a half ounce of pulverized boracic acid and fif-
teen drops of tincture of carmine. Do not rub the nails until the
sensitive flesh beneath burns, as this causes them to become dry
Powder Versus Complexion
There are pure powders, if people will only go where they are
sold. One manufacturer of face powders is noted for the way that
his powders stick on, as well as their purity. Pure white powder
can only be used by a clear blond, otherwise the person looks like
a ghost; flesh powder is more natural, and brunette is for one of
a decided brunette skin.
Pink powders are more becoming to any pale complexion, be it
a blonde or brunette, but too pink is bad, and when this purchase
has been made and the powder seems like a flush over the face
it should be toned down by adding some pure white powder and
thoroughly mixing the two.
Powder is an artificial aid that should not be detected on the
face. The young do not need such improvements, and to see rouge
plentifully applied is repulsive.
Powder on the Face
Face powder, a protection when applied with discrimination to
the complexion, may do much harm during cold weather, because
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
the cold is drying, and powder has the same effect, and the two
in combination may cause a roughness which only months of treat-
ment will smooth away.
This affects one mentally by giving only disagreeable feelings
as w^ell as physically. Sponge off the parts so affected at least
once a day with boracic acid; use 20 parts of hot water to one of
acid. Aso dust the face and neck and wherever it is necessary
with a dry boracic powder.
Improving the Skin
In sleeping do not lie on one side more than the other, or bury
your face in a soft pillow, as this makes wrinkles. Bathe the
cheeks three times a day in weak ammonia water, in which dissolve
a piece of alum as large as a hazel nut; this keeps them firm.
Powder on the face will be used, so why not tell one of a
good kind? Rice flour, precipitated chalk and arrowroot pow-
dered. Always wash off at night.
A lotion that will assist in driving away blackheads can be ap-
plied to the face a dozen times a day, simply patting it on with an
old soft linen rag and allow it to dry: Subcarbonate of soda, 36
grains; distilled water, 8 ounces; essence of roses, 6 drops.
For an Oily Skin
Try a diet of green vegetables, fruit and plenty of water; use a
facial brush for a good face scrub in hot water and soap, followed
by cold water once a day and every evening when preparing for
dinner, wipe off your face with witch hazel and a piece of old
Every night put on this lotion: 6 oz. rose water, 2 oz. elder
flower water, 10 grains tannic acid and % oz. tincture benzoin.
Wash off in the morning with the facial brush as above.
To protect the skin from the early Spring winds, rub a little
cold cream on the face and dust on pure rice powder when obliged
to be out in the wind; after wash off with warm water, followed by
a cold rinsing.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
A chiffon veil worn through the windy season will save the skin
from tan and roughness.
No one can tell any person how to keep, assume or increase
their beauty without trouble; nothing is gained without working
for or thinking of it, but with time, patience and systematic effort
any woman may attain wonders.
If possible go occasionally to a beauty specialist and see how
she works over you; it will show you how to treat yourself cor-
For Irritated Skin
Sometimes pure-looking skins will feel irritated and when
rubbed grow rough, which state can be relieved by first washing
with warm water, then apply cold cream or a disappearing cream
to cleanse thoroughly and rub well in; then rub off and apply this
mixture: Powdered camphor 2 grams, powdered starch 60 grams,
oxide of zinc 15 grams; mix well together.
To Remove Corns
Salicyclic acid, i dram; trim the corn with a very sharp knife or
razor blade. Apply the acid; cover with a piece of court plaster.
In three days remove the plaster and the corn will come with it.
Soft corns may be cured by wrapping the afflicted toe with a soft
linen rag which has been saturated with turpentine, night and morn?
ing. Care should be taken to wear shoes sufficiently wide but not too
Deodorizer for the Feet
No. I — Wash the feet in warm water to which a little hydrochloric
acid or chloride of lime has been added.
No. 2 — Bathe the feet often in a strong solution of borax or in a
common kitchen soda dissolved in water. Change the hosiery every
Tea for Cold— Flaxseed
For the flaxseed tea pour a pint of boiling water over two
tablespoonsful of unbruised flax seed and a little powdered liquo-
rice root. Stand the mixture near the stove for four hours, then
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
strain through a piece of old linen. If you do not like the taste
of the flaxseed add the juice of a lemon.
This tea has to be made fresh every day, but you'll find it a
fine drink when you've a bad feverish cough.
Teas for a Cold — Slippery Elm
"You hear of a lot of new-fangled cures for colds," said an old
nurse, "but no one nowadays seems to know about slippery-elm
tea. I brought up nine children without ever going to a doctor
to cure them of bad colds
'Don't know how to make it? All you do is to break the bark
into bits, pour boiling water over it, cover the pitcher and let
the tea steep until it is cold. Sweeten to taste and add the juice
of a lemon.
''You can take a small cupful every hour until your cold is
cured and it is just the thing to keep beside the bed at night when
you are barking your head off.
"People nowadays laugh at these old granny cures, as they call
it, but I've not found much to beat slippery-elm tea,' nor flax-
seed tea, whenever I get a cold.''
To Remove Freckles
It is claimed that freckles may be removed by any of the fol-
No. I — Take grated horse-radish and put it in very sour milk;
let it stand four hours, then wash the face night and morning.
No. 2 — Rectified spirits i ounce, water 8 ounces, orange-flower
water V2 ounce (or rose water, i ounce), distilled muriatic acid
I tablespoonful; mix and use after washing.
No. 3 — Lemon juice i ounce, powdered borax % dram, sugar
V2 dram; mix and let stand in a glass bottle for a few days, then
rub on the face and hands night and morning. Two teaspoonfuls
of lemon juice equal i ounce.
The skin should be protected from the direct light of the sun.
Cold cream should be rubbed into it and powder dusted over it
before going out into the sunlight. , A wide brimmed hat or a
parasol are needed for further protection.
Wash for Blotched Face
Rose water 3 ounces, sulphate of zinc i dram; mix and wet
the face; gently dry it and then touch it over with cold cream,
which also dry off gently.
To Remove Pimples
No. I — Barley meal i ounce, powdered bitter almonds i ounce;
enough honey to make a smooth paste.
No. 2 — White vinegar 4 ounces, sulphur water 2 ounces, acetated
liquor of ammonia V2 ounce, liquor of potassa 3 grains, distilled
water 4 ounces; mix and apply twice a day.
It is better to consult a physician in case of obstinate pimples.
A small, red pimple which comes from obstruction of the skin
and imperfect circulation may sometimes be cured by frequent
washing in warm water and prolonged friction with coarse towel.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
When the skin seems dry it needs another kind of a cream to the
above formulas, and the face should be washed but once a day in
water, using a pure, bland soap and warm water, followed by a cold
dash of water to prevent colds.
This is done in the morning and at night, and during the day use
a disappearing cream, rubbing it in, then wiping it off with a piece of
old linen; at night, after a "cream wash," do not rub it off; let the
cream soak in all night.
The disappearing cream is made as follows : White wax, i ounce ;
spermacetti, i ounce; almond oil, 4 ounces; rose water, 4 ounces. Use
as described above. Can be put up by any druggist or at home, remem-
bering that the more a cream is beaten the smoother it will be.
Cream for Tissue Building
Pure spermacetti, % ounce; pure white wax, % ounce; lanoline, 2
ounces; almond oil, % pound; cocoa butter, % pound. Melt and then
add Balsam of Peru, i drachm; let it settle, pour off the clear part
and then put in of orange flower w^ter, 2 fluid drachms and keep on
stirring until it becomes solid.
The other cream for building up. the tissues is of spermacetti, %
ounce; mutton tallow, 5 ounces; lanoline, 5 ounces; cocoanut oil, 4
ounces; oil of sweet almonds, 4 ounces; tincture of benzoin, i drachm;
extract of Portugal, 4 ounces; oil of neroli, 20 drops. These creams
are good; use either one, but use it constantly; do not omit a night
during the month. If one can take a dessert spoonful three times a
day of olive oil it helps to nourish the starved tissues.
For Summer Curls
To promote the curly appearance of hair and keep it longer in curl,
moisten the hair with a lotion given below, and as the hair dries the
curl will become apparent.
Dr>' salts of tartar, i dram; powdered cochineal, % dram; liquor
of ammonia, essence of rose, i dram each; glycerine, % oz. ; rectified
spirit, 1% ozs.; 18 ozs. distilled water. Mix, let it stand for a week
and stir frequently, then filter.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
Simple Hair Dye
Take one-half ounce of mullein flower and steep in water until
liquid is black; strain and add one-half ounce of genista. Apply to
the hair with a brush.
For Falling Hair
Shampoo the head with green liquid soap and plenty of hot water;
then apply every day for a month this tonic and shampoo once a week
with soap and water, until the month is up. Constant use of green
soap will make the hair too dry.
Tonic: Tincture cantharides (alcoholic), 4 drachms; tincture capsi-
cum, I drachm; tincture nux vomica, 4 drachms; cocoa oil, 1V2 ounces;
eau de cologne, 5 ounces.
To Prevent Hair from Falling Out
Hulls of butternuts, 4 ounces; infuse in I quart of water i hour;
add % ounce of copperas; apply with soft brush every 2 or 3 days.
The water that potatoes have been boiled in is said to prevent the hair
from turning gray.
Treatment for Baldness
Macerate i dram powdered cantharides in i ounce spirits wine;
shake frequently during a fortnight and then filter; rub together 10
parts of this tincture with 90 parts of cold lard; add any perfume.
Rub well into the head night and morning.
Tincture of Spanish flies, 3 drams; castor oil, 2 drams; oil of rose-
mary, I dram; oil of rose geranium, 3 drops; alcohol sufficient to
make, 4 ounces. Apply to scalp with fingers every 3 days.
Eau dc cologne, 8 ounces; tincture of cantharides, i ounce; oil of
lavender, V2 dram; oil of rosemary, % dram.
Carbonate of potash, i ounce; water of ammonia, % ounce; alco-
hol, 4 ounces; water sufficient to make, 8 ounces. Wet the head and
pour sufficient of the solution on it to make a good lather when
rubbed. Wash thoroughly and rinse with lukewarm water and dry.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Make the Eyebrows Grow
Sulphate of quinine, 5 grains; alcohol, i ounce; apply after brush-
ing the eyebrows.
Treatment of Eczema
Cleanse the skin with the cleansing cream given below instead of
soap and water. Apply the eczema cream to face and scalp before
Cleansing Cream — Oil of sweet almonds, 4 ounces; white wax, i
ounce; vaseline, i ounce; extract of violet, 2 drams.
Eczema Cream — Calomel, 5 grains; sulphur, i dram; oil of cade,
% dram; rose ointment sufficient to make one ounce.
An Astringent Cream
A well-recommended astringent cream is made from four ounces
of mutton tallow, one and a quarter ounces of glycerine, one-half a
dram of tincture of benzoin, a quarter of a dram of spirits of
camphor, one-eighth of a dram of powdered alum, one-quarter of a
dram of Russian isinglass and one-half an ounce of rose water.
The rose water is warmed in a china cup set in hot water and the
isinglass is dissolved in it. The mutton tallow, which has previously
been dried out at gentle heat and added to the glycerine, is then
blended with the rose water, and the other ingredients are added while
the mixture is being beaten. This makes a cream which is astringent,
tightening the skin, without allowing it to become flabby, as oftep
happens when one is reducing flesh.
For Chapped or Rough Hands
No. I — Wash the hands with a mixture of lemon juice, 3 ounces;
white wine vinegar, 3 ounces; white brand, % pint.
No. 2 — Make an ointment by melting together 3 drams of gum
camphor, 3 drams of white beeswax, 2 ounces of olive oil. Apply at
night and wear gloves.
Mix vermilion with enough gum tragacanth, dissolved in water,
to form a thin paste; add a few drops of almond oil, place in rouge
pot and dry by very gentle heat.
THE MILLINER'S GUIDE
To Beautify the Teeth and Sweeten the Breath
Chlorate of lime, i ounce in i pint of soft water, and let it stand
24 hours; then pour off the clear water and add 40 drops of essence
of rose. Brush the teeth and rinse the mouth thoroughly with this
A Tooth Powder for Daily Use
No. I — Borax powder, 2 ounces; precipitate chalk, 4 ounces;
myrrh, i ounce; iris, i ounce. Mix together.
No. 2 — Take equal parts of prepared chalk, orris root, carbonate of
magnesia and mix the powders together.
Violet Mouth Wash
After eating rinse the mouth with the following wash : Tincture
of orris, % pint; spirit of rose, % pint; alcohol, % pint; attar of al-
monds, 5 drops. Shake the mixture thoroughly.
To Remove Ink or Fruit Stains
No. I — Stains may be removed by immersing the hands in water
slightly acidulated with oxalic acid or a few drops of oil of vitrol;
or a little pearlash or chloride of lime may be added to water for
this purpose. Afterward rinse them well in warm clean water
and do not touch soap for some hours, as any alkaline matter will
bring back the stains.
No. 2 — Wash the hands in clear water, wipe them lightly and
while moist strike a match, closing the hands above it so as to
catch the smoke; the stains will disappear.
No. 3 — Rubbing the hands with a slice of raw potato to remove
No. 4 — Damp the hands first in water, then rub them with tar-
taric acid as you would with soap ; rinse and rub dry.
To Overcome Odorous Perspiration
When bathing put a few drops of ammonia in the water, dry
the skin well and dust with the following powder:
Oleate of zinc, % ounce; powdered starch, i ounce; salicylic acid,
THE VALUE OF ADHESIVES IN THE
One of the indispensable requisites in a milliner's workroom is the
milliner>' adhesive, a factor doubly important since the inauguration
of a pronounced vogue for smoothly draped fabric hats and for count-
less trimming ornaments which cannot be sewed must be pasted in
order to produce the correct effect. It goes without saying that ordi-
nar>' glue cannot be employed for millinery purposes; but there are
cements specially prepared for milliners use, which, while possessing
all the adhesive qualities to be found in the best glues and pastes, do
not stain or penetrate the fabrics, however delicate in texture and
Nothing is simpler than the use of these millinery cements. If a
hat brim is to be covered, cut the covering the required size, allowing
about one-ihalf inch for folding in, apply a coat of cement to the re-
verse of fabric as well as a coat to the buckram or willow foundation.
Permit these to dry. If the goods are of a heavy character, two coats
should be applied, allowing each to dry separately. When the cement
has dried out, apply the facing by pressing it down on the buckram,
rubbing it tight with the hand. No weights are required for holding
down millinery cement to cause it to hold. With glue this is neces-
sary, as ordinary glue only sticks while it is wet, and parts must be
pressed together immediately before the glue sets. This is just oppo-
site to the use of milliner>^ cement. In addition, glue is usually used
hot, while millinery cement is always used cold.
Fancies of every description may be made with the aid of millinery
cement. Then a vast variety of cockades and pompons and bright
flowers are also the contributions to the new-found uses for millinery
cement. In addition to these, new combinations in ribbon effects have
been produced which are startling in their novelty. What makes all
these things possible is the fact that millinery cement takes the place
of sewing. So when two ribbons are faced together not a stitch is
visible, and if a plume is to be made the maker has the assurance that
neither ram nor weather can spoil it.
THE MILLINERS GUIDE
For wide ribbon bows and other trimming motifs the foundation is
first cut of willow, crinoline or buckram and finished with flat ribbon
wire so as to retain its shape, after which two sections of ribbon,
piece goods or whatever other fabric the motif is covered with are
pasted to the top and under side of the foundation. This eliminates
all sewing, saving time and labor. It is necessary to wait for the
cenient to dry before pressing together foundation and covering. In
connection with the preparation of fur and feather fancies and trim-
mings, a foundation of a suitable fabric, such as cretonne, felt or some
similar soft material, is spread with cement and the feathers or fur
are laid on this while the cement is wet. The whole article is built
up and allowed to dry after the feathers or fur have been set in place.
Millinery glue takes the place of needle and thread for fastening
fancy braid or guimp on hat crowns or brims, for securely fastening
the covering of cabochons and for pasting ribbon and lace rosettes
and cockades on their foundations. There are a thousand different
uses for it, and in every instance it means a saving of time and a
considerable economy in work.
Every MILLINER Should
Have This Book
Practical Millinery Lessons is a complete handy
reference book compiled to aid the Milliner in
MILLINER Y LESSONS
contains more than 100 illustrations and is in itself a
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Practical Millinery Lessons is the official text-book in
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THE ILLUSTRATED MILLINER
656 BROADWAY, NEW YORK
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The oldest and most extensive manufacturers in the United States
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Three out of four dealers making a real success out of the
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Explicit dimensions for making all hats, careful descriptions
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The New York Fashion Letter in THE ILLUSTRATED
MILLINER is a clear, concise digest of fashions of the
Our Paris correspondent naturally has access to all of the
finest ateliers and reports new features and developments a
month ahead of other magaziness. Every month we produce
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Our * 'Lessons for Beginners" and **The Copyist'' assist
materially in developing apprentices.
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