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Full text of "The milliner's guide, a complete handy reference book for the workroom, embraces the professional experience of ages"

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THE 

Milliners' Guide 

A COMPLETE HANDY 
REFERENCE BOOK 

FOR THE WORKROOM 

Embraces the Professional 
Experience of Ages 

How to Tint, Dye, Repair, Refresh aud Renovate Millinery 
Goods of every kind. Mow to turn odds and ends into money 
How to make the Millinery Shop more beautiful and artistic 
Also hundreds of Beauty Hints and Household Helps 



•Q. 



EVERY SUGGESTION AND RECIPE EXAMINED 
PASSED UPON AND COMMENDED BY AN 
EXPERIENCED CORPS OF MILLINERS 



Edited By 
JULIA BOTTOMLEY 

Renjised^ Classified and Compiled by 
EMMA MAXWELL ^URKE 

Copyrighted by 

THE ILLUSTRATED MILLINER CO. 

NEW YORK 



SUBJECTS^ j,^ 

PAGE 

RENOVATING 17 

Hints for Frshening-up Millinery Materials of all 
Descriptions. 

TINTING 21 

Suggestions Permitting the Milliner to Match Color 
Tones Desired by the Customer 

TO REMOVE STAINS 24 

LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING 2,z 

SEWING HINTS 42 

For the Workroom and Home. 

HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING 54 

MISCELLANEOUS 62 

HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME 76 

Cleaning, Polishing, Renovating and Repairing. 

HEALTH AND BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS 92 

BEAUTY RECIPES >//• . J • ^^.^ . • • 108 



)C|,A455553 

4 



JAN 10 191? 



INDEX 



RENOVATING page 

Color. To Restore l8 

Crepe or Silk • • 17 

Felt Hats 18 

Flowers, To Freshen 17 

Hats, Straw 17 

Laces, Old 18 

Ribbons . • • • 19 

Ruchings • • • • 19 

Silks, To Fi eshen 19 

Straws, Black 20 

Velvet Bows 20 

TINTING 

Beaver Hats, To Tint 22 

General Instructions • 21 

Laces, To Tint 22 

TO REMOVE STAINS 

Acid Stains 24 

Blood Stains 24 

Chocolate Stains 24 

Coffee Stains 24 

Color, from Ostrich 24 

Fruit Stains 24 

Fruit, or Wine Stains 24 

Grass Stains 25 

Grease Spot on Parasol 25 

5 



PAGE 

Grease from Wood -. 25 

Grease Stains from Cotton or Linen • • 25 

Grease Stains 26 

Grease Stains from Silks 2^ 

Grease Stains from Silks with Chloroform 26 

Ice Cream Stains 27 

Ink 27 

Iron Mould and Dry Ink Stains • • • 28 

Iron Rust 28 

Medicine Stains 28 

Mildew Stains 29 

Milk Stains 30 

Paint Stains 30 

Rules, General 31 

Scorch Marks 31 

Scorch Marks, from White Material • • 31 

Shoeblacking, from Straw 31 

Stains, from Garments and Materials 31 

Tea and Coffee Stain 32 

Vaseline Stain 32 

LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING 

Cleaning, Dry 41 

Cleaning, Dry Preparation 41 

Curtains, Dry Cleaning 41 

Feathers, To Clean Z2> 

Feathers, To Whiten 2>l 

Feathers, Ostrich, To Clean 2>2> 

Fur or Feathers, To Clean ^(y 

Gloves,, Suede, To Clean 39 

Gloves, Kid, To Clean 40 

6 



PAGE 

Gown, Woolen or Cotton, To Clean 40 

Hat, White Chiffon, To Clean 34 

Hat, White Felt, To Clean 34 

Hat, White Furs, and Knit Shawls 40 

Lace, To Clean 36 

Lace, To Clean and Press 37 

Osprey, To Clean 33 

Parasols, To Clean 39 

Ribbons, To Clean 35 

Stole, Ermine, To Clean 36 

Silk or Cashmere, To Clean 36 

Skirts, Woolen, To Clean 40 

Wings, White, To Clean 34 

Wings, To Clean 33 

SEWING HINTS 
Bag, Tag for Remnants 42 

Ball, of Wool, to Prevent Rolling . • 42 

Bands, To Cut Bias 42 

Belts and Collars, Boning 42 

Belt, To Tighten Machine 49 

Braid, Used for Buttonholing 43 

Braid, Way to 43 

Button Moulds . . 43 

Buttons, In Ripping 44 

Buttonholes, To Make Even 44 

Buttonholes, in Jacket 44 

Gloves, Mending 44 

Hatpin, a Short One, for Sewing Machine 44 

Hems, When Turning in 45 

7 



PAGE 

Hints for Amateurs 45 

Hints, What Not To Do 45 

Hoop, Embroidery, for Darning .... 46 

Ironing Board, Two Ways of Covering 59 

Ironing Blanket, A Useful 60 

Irons, Cleaning and Polishing ...•......•• 60 

Iron Cleaner 60 

Irons, Flat, Enameling 60 

Iron, Smoothing, Look After 61 

Irons, When Heating 61 

Irons, Curling, New Use for 46 

Items, Sewing 46 

Lace, How To Press Black 61 

Laundry Bag, To Make 46 

Mending, A Mode 47 

Monograms, To Utilize Embroidered 47 

Needles, Economy in Machine 48 

Pricking Fingers, To Prevent 48 

Protector, To Make Dress 48 

Shears, Rusty 48 

Scissors, To Sharpen 49 

Seams, When Stitching 49 

Sewing Machine Hints • . . 49 

Sewing Notes 49 

Skirt Facing • 50 

Skirt, To Turn 50 

Stockings, For Darning 50 

Spool-Rack, Excellent 50 

Sweater, A Modern 50 

Table Scarf, Resembling Oriental Work 51 

Taffeta, When Sewing 51 

8 



PAGE 

Tape Needle, A Substitute 5^ 

Tear, To Mend Ugly 51 

Tonic, For Sewing Machines 52 

Threads, To Remove After Ripping 52 

Thread, Twisted and Knotted • • 52 

Thimble Factory • • • • 52 

Trifles Made from Scraps 53 

HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING 

Chiffon, To Wash 54 

Curtains, To Dry 54 

Curtains, To Wash 54 

Embroideries, Bleaching Silk • • • • 55 

Embroideries, Washing Colored 55 

Hats, Pressing Bows on • • ..... 59 

Hats, To Wash Straw 56 

Knitted Garments, Drying 56 

Muslin, Bleaching 56 

Net, Plain or Spotted : 56 

Ribbons, Ironing 61 

Stains, To Prevent 57 

Starch, Laundry Cold 57 

Sweater, White 57 

Veils, Chiffon 58 

Veils, White 58 

Velveteen 58 

Waists, Do Not Starch Shirt 58 

Waists, White, China Silk 58 

Washing Hint 59 

Washing Bamboo 59 

9 



MISCELLANEOUS page 

Adhesives, Millinery I13 

Air, To Purify 62 

Alterations 62 

Basket, Flower, Economy 62 

Basket, Neat Lunch 62 

Blouse, Packing a 62 

Brittania Ware, To Clean 75 

Buttons, To Restore Pearl 63 

Candles, How to Prevent Dripping 75 

Cases, Suit, To Waterproof 63 

Chiffon, To Steam 63 

Crocuses, Winter 64 

Electric Powder 75 

Embroidery Hint 72 

Facings, For Kid Glove 64 

Feathers, Pasting 63 

Fence, To Hide a 64 

Flames, Extinguishing Gasoline 64 

Flowers, To Keep Cut 64 

Gloves, Evening, How to Keep Clean 65 

Gloves, How to Care for 65 

Gloves, Long Ones Cut Off, Short Ones Sewed On 65 

Hat, To Prevent Crushing 65 

Hat, To Bind Felt or Straw 65 

Hat Boxes 66 

Hat, Building, Tips 67 

Hatpin Holder 67 

Hat, To Hold, While Trimming. 68 

10 



PAGE 

Hat, Utility Box 68 

Hat, Waterproof Covering for • • 68 

Handbag, To Renew Leather 68 

Holder, Flower 68 

Knives, Not in Use 69 

Lace, Laying Away 69 

Leather, Use for Old 69 

Leghorn, To Roughen 69 

Mats, Rubber for Plants 69 

Moth Pest 70 

Noisy Nuisances 70 

Papers, Mailing 7 r 

Petticoat, Saving Silk 71 

Silver Powder 75 

Statements ^2 

Suede Restorative 72 

Steam, In Workroom • • ']2 

Steam, Silks and Ribbons "JZ 

Steam, Straw and Braids . • ^z 

Veil, To Hold in Place n 

Veil, Mourning 74 

Veil, Chiffon • 74 

Vases, To W>igh, Tall 74 

Voile, To Take Shine from 71 

Window Glass, To Prevent, from Frosting. 75 

II 



HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME page 

Brass, To Clean Lacquered 76 

Brush, To Clean Carpet Sweeper ^j^y 

Candle Points • • • 76 

Castors, Loose "j^ 

Chairs, Freshening Leather 76 

Chairs, Regilding Gold 77 

Cleanliness, Essential 'j'j 

Clocks, Care of jy 

Closet, A Portable . . 78 

Curtains, To Hang 78 

Dust Catcher, Hygienic • . 79 

Dustless Duster, A Home-made . • 79 

Floors and Woodwork, Care of 80 

Frames, Freshening 80 

Furniture, To Clean . . ♦ 80 

Furniture, How to Clean Upholstered ..•...-. • 80 

Furniture Polishes, Home-made 82 

Glass, To Cut 82 

Many Materials Used • • 82 

Marble Baseboards, Cleaning %Z 

Matting, Care of • 83 

Matting, To Lay Straw, Smooth 84 

Mirrors, Hanging 84 

Mirrors, How to Wash • • • • 84 

Paint, Washing Enamel 79 

Pillows, To Fluff 85 

Polish, Silver • • 85 

Radiators, Covers for 85 

Roller Curtain, To Wind 85 

12 



PAGE 

Rugs, Hints on Buying • • • • 85 

Rugs, Care of • • • • 85 

Rug, To Keep Flat • ■ 86 

Rugs, Return to Rag . . • • • 86 

Rugs, Odd Sizes • - 86 

Screens, Opaque 87 

Seats, For Rocking Chair 87 

Shades, To Make Art Lamp 87 

Shades, To Clean • • 89 

Sleeves, To Keep Up 89 

Sweeping Hints 89 

Tables and Bureau, To Renovate 89 

Toy, A Useful • • 89 

Wall Paper, To Clean 89 

Wall Pockets 90 

Willow Chairs, To Clean 90 

Windows, To Clean 90 

Window, a Dark, How to Utilize 91 

Wood, Restoring Ebonized 91 

HEALTH AND BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS 

Ankles, To Reduce Size of 92 

Bath, Hot 92 

Bed, Day in 92 

Bleach, Face ..••...• • 92 

Burns, To Use in Case of 92 

Colds, Slippery, Elm Tea for 107 

Colds, Flax Seed Tea for 106 

13 



PAGE 

Coiffure, Simple Suggestion for 92 

Corns, To Remove 106 

Complexion Parlors, To Open 103 

Cream, Cold, For Removing Dust 93 

Dandruff, To Cure 97 

Eyes, Dark Circles Under 99 

Eyebrows, Thin 99 

Face, Cleaning the 93 

Feet, Deodorizer to Treat 106 

Freckles, Summer 95 

Gums, Receding 95 

Hands, Care of 95 

Hands, To Soften 95 

Hands, Clean 95 

Hands, Snowy 96 

Hands, Stained • 96 

Hands, Washed in Grease 96 

Hands, To Whiten 96 

Hair, Pulling . . 97 

Hair, To Improve • 97 

Hair, For Stiff 98 

Hair, To Make Wavy, in Winter 98 

Important Little Things 100 

Lips, Chapped 100 

Look as Well as You Can 100 

Massage and Tipping loi 

Nails, Breaking, Treatment for loi 

Nails, File Finger 102 

Neck, Thin, to Improve 102 

14 



BEAUTY RECIPES pack 

Astringent Cream, To Make Ill 

Baldness, Treatment for • no 

Blotched Face, Wash for io8 

Cream, Disappearing • 109 

Cream for Tissue Building 109 

Curls, To Promote 109 

Eczema, Treatment of in 

Eyebrows, To Make Grow in 

Freckles, To Remove 108 

Hair Dye, A Simple no 

Hair, To Prevent Falling no 

Hair Tonic no 

Hair, Shampoo for no 

Hands, Chapped or Rough in 

Ink or Fruit Stains, To Remove 112 

Mouth Wash 112 

Perspiration, To Overcome Odorous 112 

Pimples, To Remove 108 

Rouge Ill 

Teeth, To Beautify 112 

Tooth Powder 112 

Neck, Yellow 103 

Nose Red, To Treat 103 

Nose Wash 103 

Pohsh for Nails 104 

Powder vs. Complexion 104 

Powder on the Face 104 

Perspiration, Excessive 105 

Skin, Improving the 105 

Skin, Oily 105 

15 



PAGE 

Skin, Irritated • • • • • io6 

Scar, For Slight • loo 

Scalp Treatment • • 99 

Shampoo, Dry ....•• • • 99 

Throat, To Fill Hollows . . • • • • • 103 



t6 



IIENO VA TING 

HINTS FOR FRESHENING OUT MILLINERY MATERIALS 
OF ALL ^DESCRIPTIONS 

For Renewing Crepe and Silk 
Steam is the only thing that will positively restore and renew old 
crepe. If you have not a steamer of the improved pattern, resort to 
this old and primitive method which never fails : Place an upturned flat 
iron between two bricks, cover this with a dampened cloth. Place the 
veil on top of it and move it back and forth and from side to side, 
gently and carefully brushing in the meanwhile. Crepe should be 
brushed gently or merely patted lightly. Raising and dropping the 
brush in quick succession is quite sufficient. 

To Freshen Flowers 

Flowers can be dipped into the paint and gasoline dyes and usually 
come out like new, or the petals can be touched up with a small 
camel's-hair brush. 

All flowers whether of silk, muslin, sateen or velvet can be 
made to look as good as new if they are gently shaken over the 
steaming cloth. Aigrettes will straighten and lose their curl un- 
der treatment of this sort, and may later be made to look as good 
as new by the use of the feather curlers. 

To Make Straw Hats Look Fresh 

If you have any badly soiled or faded straw shapes it will be wise 
to buy some of the coloring preparations for renovating hats for sale 
by all jobbers. 

Renewing Straw Hats 

For the faded colored straw hat there are dyes which can be diluted 
in gasoline or water and which, if properly applied to a hat, will give 
the desired color. When a hat cannot be given its original color it 
can be colored black, and black is always practical. To restore the 
natural straw color, clean the hat with lemon juice and sulphur. Wash 
white straw with oxalic acid, which has been diluted with water. A 

17 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

leghorn hat can be cleaned with, water or acid-dampened cornmeal. 
Brush it lightly and place it over burning sulphur to bleach the straw. 
The sulphur may be burned in a can in the bottom of a barrel and 
the hat may be suspended at the top, where it will not scorch. 

Scouring a Felt Hat 
When light felt hats become dirty rub the surface with the finest 
sand paper that can be found. Strange to say, this does not roughen 
the felt and does remove the dirt. 

To Restore Color 

Ammonia is a good color restorer, and colored hats, unless very 
much faded, may be freshened by covering with a cloth wrung out of 
half a pint of hot water, to which a teaspoonful of ammonia has been 
added. 

After this treatment a warm iron is placed over the cloth and 
the brim pressed into shape. 

When the color is too far gone to restore by this process, a tube 
of oil paint and gasoline will form a dye that is simple to apply. 

How to Renovate Old Laces to Look New 

A woman who is clever with her needle can do quite wonderful 
things with old bits of lace, for pieces useless alone, may be turned in- 
to beautiful trimming by taking from them a motif or two. 

Before any sewing is done the lace must be thoroughly cleansed. 

The motif on net that is to be saved, is carefully cut from the 
background, taking great pains not to stretch it. This is then neatly 
sewed on a piece of perfectly smooth musHn that has been previously 
shrunk. The shrinking is most important, otherwise the muslin will 
draw and pull the lace out of shape. Stitches in this work must be 
fine and close, using very thin thread that will rip easily. 

This done, the lace is ready for washing in soapy water, the bath 
being made by putting scraped soap into boiling water to dissolve. 
This makes a jelly, which is put into warm — not hot — water and thor- 
oughly stirred. 

Suds are formed into which the lace is dropped, when it is gently 
and repeatedly squeezed under wat^r. No rubbing or pulling is done. 

i8 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

As soon as the water is soiled a fresh bath must be prepared, repeat- 
ing the cleansing until no more dust remains. Then several rinsing 
waters are used. 

To dry, the muslin must be stretched upon a smooth surface and 
tightly pinned. It will then stay in shape, and just before the last 
dampness is gone it may be ironed, using a warm rather than a hot 
iron, pressed over the muslin background, and gently untacked from 
the background. 

To Renovate Ribbons 

Black ribbons are renovated with a sponging of one-third alcohol 
and two-thirds water; when partly dry, if on under a piece of black 
crinoline with a moderately warm iron. 

Dip colored ribbons into a bowl of naphtha to clean them, remem- 
bering that naphtha is very explosive when exposed to fire or a light. 

Ribbons of good quality will wash if carefully done. There is the 
dry cleaning process for ribbons, using gasoline instead of water. 
This is satisfactory if the soil is only slight, and there will be no ne- 
cessity for ripping the bow to pieces, as ironing is not required when 
the article is washed in this way. 

To Freshen Silks 

Japanese, China, India, and pongee silks are freshened by wash- 
ing in warm soapsuds, rinsing quickly and drying in the shade; roll 
in a sheet when not perfectly dry and then iron on the wrong side. 

Colored silk fades and white silk yellows after washing, but this 
may be avoided by using medium warm soap and water and rinsing 
well; wrap in a large cloth (an old sheet is fine) for half an hour, 
and then iron on the wrong side with a moderate iron, using a bit 
of thin lawn between the iron and silk. Do not let the light and air 
get to it while wet, as this yellow^s and fades the fabric. 

When black silk or satin begins to shine, sponge on the right side 
with a mixture of two parts of gin and one of water, and iron while 
damp on the wrong side. 

Old Ruchings Renewed 
If ruchings are only soiled they may be washed in gasoline and 

10 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

made to look like new, for it does not take out any of the little 
crinkles. They remain as dainty and fluffy as ever. 

Black Straws 

Black straw hats may be made to look like new by brushing over 
with a simple polish made from pulverized black sealing wax and 
alcohol, in the proportions of an ounce of the former to half a pint 
of the latter. This mixture should stand in a warm place, and when 
about the consistency of cream should be used. The bottle containing 
it should be frequently shaken while the contents are dissolving. 

Black Chip 

Black chip needs only wiping with an old soft silk handkerchief 
followed by a light application of pure olive oil. 

To Freshen Velvet Bows 

Velvet bows may be given new life without removing them from 
the hat by using a curling iron. 

It should be made quite hot, then covered loosely with a wet cloth. 
This done, the iron is inserted in the loops, opening the curler as wide 
as the loops demand. The steam will cause the nap to rise, and when 
quite dry every particle of dust can be removed by a velvet brush, so 
the bow will look as good as new. 

A trimmed hat or bonnet that shows signs of crushing should 
be held over steam and the fingers used for adjusting and reshaping 
loops or folds, as found necessary. When perfectly dry an improve- 
ment will be apparent. 



20 



TINTING 



SUGGESTIONS PERMITTING THE MILLINER TO MATCH COLOR 

TONES DESIRED BY THE CUSTOMER 

For tinting laces, malines, chiffons, braids, feathers, felts, 
velvets, silks and satins, covered wires, flowers, almost all millinery 
merchandise, the following articles are required : 

One tin pan. One tube of king's yellow. 

One large china washbowl. One tube of burnt umber. 

One small bristle brush. One tube of sienna. 

One gallon gasoline. One tube of Naples yellow. 

One tube of Prussian blue. One tube of mauve. 

One tube of ivory black. One tube of purple lake. 

One tube of silver white. One tube of geranium lake. 

With the colors here mentioned it is possible to produce all other 
shades and colors. Yet, should one engage extensively in tinting 
many colors it might be well to purchase two or three tubes of the 
various shades of green, particularly one tube of emerald green. 
The manufacturers of all paints have placed on the market such a 
varied and assorted selection of dift'erent tints and colors that it 
is possible to secure almost any shade desired. It is advisable to 
remove the top of the tube and squeeze out a small portion in order 
to ascertain if the paint is fresh. Should it be solid and break off in 
small pieces, do not buy it, as this indicates its not being fresh. Good 
paints in perfect condition flow freely. The gasoline must be kept 
in an air tight can or jug to prevent evaporation. The bristles of 
the brush must be at all times clean and the bowl must be absolutely 
dry. The least drop of water or moisture in the bowl will ruin 
the work and produce poor results. Tinting should never be done 
near a fire or gas light. It should always be done in the open air 
or near an open window. The fumes from the evaporating gasoline 
often produce violent headaches and for this reason the articles 
should be left to dry in the open air or some place other than the 
workroom. 

Red paint or geranium lake and gasoline will tint pink. Prus- 

21 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

sian blue will produce light blue. Black paint makes a gray shade. 
Burnt umber makes a tan. White and brown make brown. Lake and 
white make rose. White and brown make chestnut. White, blue 
and lake make purple. The purple lake may be bought, and if used 
with gasoline will make lavender. White and carmine make pink. 
Indigo and lamp black make lead color. Black and Venetian make 
chocolate color. White and green make bright green. Purple and 
white make French white. Light green and black make dark green. 
White and green make pea green. White and emerald green make 
a brilliant green. Red and yellow make orange. White and yellow 
make straw color. White, blue and black make pearl grey. White, 
lake and vermiUon make flesh color. Umber, white and Venetian make 
drab. White, yellow and Venetian make cream color. Red, blue, black 
and yellow make olive. Yellow, white and a little Venetian make buff. 

General Instructions. 

Always keep the tops of the tubes screwed, in order to prevent 
the paint from becoming dirty, or hard. Use a clean dry cloth to 
wipe the bowl and brush before commencing to tint. Open the tube 
and squeeze a very small amount of the tube paint in the bottom of a 
bowl or pan. Pour out a small quantity of gasoline and use the brush 
for mixing and dissolving the paint thoroughly. If any portion of 
the paint is not completely dissolved, it is liable to' spot the material 
to be tinted. Dip into this solution or preparation a small sample, in 
order to see the exact shade that the dye will produce. Should it be 
too dark, add more gasoline ; should it be too light, add more paint. 
It is well to remember that Prussian blue, burnt umber and black are 
very strong paints and very little of them will be required in order 
to obtain a delicate shade. Sufficient gasoline should be in the bowl 
to cover all of the material to be tinted. 

In addition to the liquid tinting as given in the foregoing articles, 
there is a system of dry tinting that is much used for heavy laces, 
velvets and beaver hats. 

To Tint Laces 

Heavy laces are quickly made a beautiful butter color by rubbing 
the lace thoroughly with yellow ochre dusted over. Powdered paints 
come in many shades and colors. Should the color be too dark it 

22 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

must be mixed with corn starch. Mix the starch and paint until the 
required shade is obtained. Put the powder on a large lid or board. 
Cover the lace completely with the powdered paint. Lift up the lace 
and shake it until most of the paint is shaken out. 

To Tint Beaver Hats 

White beaver hats can be tinted beautifully in light shades with 
this same powdered paint and starch. Of course it is not permanent 
like the liquid, but often answers the purpose. The dry tint is much 
better for beavers than the liquid. Beavers after being tinted should 
be combed with a fine steel comb. 

The dry tinting is only successful when used on something that 
has a nap or rough surface. If used on a white felt shape it should 
be rubbed in with a piece of white velvet. Liquid tinting on white 
felt causes the glue to come to the surface and the hat spots. 



2-^ 



TO REMOVE STAINS 

STAINS OF ANY SORT YIELD TO SCIENTIFIC TREATMENT 

To Remove Acid Stains 

Stains from an acid will usually disappear under a bath of 
alcohol. 

To Remove Blood Stains 

First wet the spot thoroughly with cold water, keeping it wet for 
several hours. Then use hot water, and if the stains still remain it is 
because the iron in the blood has not responded to the water treatment. 
Iron becomes soluble in ammonia, therefore sponge with a weak 
solution of ammonia and water. Should the spots not disappear, then 
consult a professional cleaner. 

When old or set a very thick paste made from starch and water 
should be laid on both sides of the stain and allowed to remain there 
until perfectly dry, when it can be shaken off. 

To Remove Chocolate Stains 

The stains from chocolate are not so easy to remove. Soak in 
lukewarm water, which is to be renewed as occasion requires. 

To Remove Coffee Stains 

Coffee spots should be soaked in cold water until they disappear, 
changing the water as often as it becomes much discolored. 

To Remove Color from Ostrich Feathers 

Wash the feather in warm water, then fill it full of soap and lay 
it in a pan of hot water (not boiling) for about thirty minutes. Take 
it out and you will find that the former color is about all gone ; then re- 
dye the color you wish. 

To Remove Fruit Stains 

When fruit stains are fresh pour boiling water steadily through 
them and they will usually disappear. If the water is hard, borax or 
ammonia in a small quantity should be added to the water. 

Fruit and Wine Stains 

Fruit and wine stains, if dry, should be soaked in cold water, like 

24 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

tea stains. Then stretch the stained fabric over a basin, rub with com- 
mon salt and pour boihng water through the stain. Or it can be rubbed 
with lemon, instead of using boiling water. Repeat, if necessary, and 
if all is not removed let the rest wear out. Some fruit and wine stains, 
especially those of apple and pear, and some clarets, are very difficult 
to remove. If they are boiled gently (after soaking) in some strong 
borax and water, well rinsed, then hung out in the sunshine, or bet- 
ter, left hanging out during a frosty night, the stains will disappear. 
The articles should be dripping wet when hung out. 

To Remove Grass Stains 

Grass stains will yield to the cologne application, though a thor- 
ough bath in alcohol is, perhaps, more certain. 

Kerosene is another liquid that may be applied successfully to grass 
stains, while some recommend covering the spots with a paste made 
from cream of tartar and water. 

This should not be used in the case of colored goods, as the color 
is likely to disappear. 

Grease Spot on a Parasol 

You may get rid of the grease spot by laying on hot French chalk. 
This will dissolve and absorb the grease. Next, the parasol should 
be opened and then thoroughly washed with gasoline and white soap 
all over its surface, more particularly on the soiled places. 

Afterward sponge off with clear gasoline. By going over every 
part of the parasol there will be no danger of spots or streaks and 
gasoline will not harm it. Keep away from fire or artificial light 
during this process. 

To Remove Grease from Wood 

If grease is spilled on the kitchen floor or table do not scrub it 
with hot water, as the natural inclination is to do, for this only soaks 
it in deeper. Instead sprinkle a little soda over the spots, and scrub 
with cold water. In this way the spot does not spread nor soak in, 
and is removed much more quickly. 

To Remove Grease Stains from Cotton or Linen 

A grease stain on cotton or linen will usually yield to the treatment 
of a mixture of Fuller's earth and pipeclay in equal quantities. 

25 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Remove Grease Stains from Silk 

When any greasy substance has been dropped upon silk it can be 
abstracted by mixing French chalk with methylated spirits to the con- 
sistency of cream, laying it upon the stain, then covering with a brown 
paper and pressing with a warm iron. 

On Silk 

French chalk removes grease and does not injure colored silks. 
Scrape a little on the spot, rub it in, let it stand twenty-four hours, 
then brush off and repeat the process if necessary, for grease is often 
hard to remove. 

Grease Stains 

Grease stains will dissolve readily in ether, benzine, gasoline, 
chloroform, kerosene and naphtha, and sometime in turpentine and 
hot alcohol. Most of these solvents are inflammable, and some are 
explosive, hence they should never be used near a light or a fire. 

Ordinary grease or gravy stains on table linen may be removed by 
rubbing in hot water and soap. This should be done before the linen 
is put to soak, or it may be done during the washing. These stains, 
unless well washed out, will appear again when the linen is ironed. 
Grease marks on colored material may be removed by placing the 
stained part over a cloth and rubbing it with benzine, beginning at the 
outer edge of the stain and working towards the center. This prevents 
the stain spreading and forming a wavy mark on the material when 
dry. The cloth placed under the stain absorbs the grease and aids in 
cleaning the fabric. Another method is to place a piece of blotting 
paper over the stain and pass a hot iron over it. The paper absorbs 
the grease and as it gets stained it must be replaced by a fresh piece. 

To Remove Stain with Chloroform from Silk 

First remove as much of the grease spot as you can by the hot 
iron method; that is, place clean blotting paper both above and below 
the stain, then place a warm iron over the paper. The heat will dis- 
solve the grease which the blotting paper will absorb. 

Remove the paper, add a fresh supply under the stain and rub with 
chloroform. 

26 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Remove Ice Cream Stains 

Ice cream stain can be removed by this means, if applied at once : 
Alcohol may be used instead of the methylated spirits if there are 
none of the latter on hand. 

A little cologne would answer if no other liquid were available, 
but water should not be applied. 

A bottle of cologne is a most useful article, for it will take away 
smears if rubbed on as soon as they appear. It can be used alike on 
white or colored fabrics, cotton or woolen, without the slightest injury. 

Ice cream makes a very bad stain, because it has both grease and 
sugar in its make-up. To remove stains of it from silk, sponge the 
stained parts with gasoline or chloroform, placing a pad of absorbent 
cotton or blotting paper under the spots. When dry, sponge with 
tepid water and a good soap, and then rub with a flannel cloth until 
dry. This work must be done away from the flre or artificial light. 

Use plain strong coffee to remove the stains of ice cream or milk 
from black clothing. Dip a cloth in the coffee and rub it over the 
spot. If the coffee is applied as soon as the stain has been made, so 
much the better. 

Removing Ink Stains 

In dyeing and cleaning shops ether is used almost exclusively for 
removing ink from fabrics. It is a powerful cleansing agent, but will 
destroy materials unless they are well rinsed. Ether will remove 
perspiration stains, but should be mixed with ammonia and water. 
One-fourth ether, one-fourth ammonia and one-half water is a good 
mixture. Rinse and place in the sun. 

To Remove Ink Stains 

Ink can be taken from white goods with tomatoes if applied freely. 
Cold milk is good when the stains are fresh, changing the milk as 
often as necessar}^ Fresh butter is even a better solvent. 

If very obstinate and the material will stand hot water, the stain 
should be covered with melted tallow, then washed in the usual way. 

Oxalic acid will remove any very obstinate stains, but can be 
used only on white goods, as it will destroy the color. The crystals 
are dissolved in boiling water and the liquid is applied to the stain. 
A thorough rinsing in clear water afterward is imperative. 

27 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

Iron-Mold and Dry Ink Stains 

Iron-mold and dry ink stains may be removed by placing the stained 
material in a hot solution of salts of sorrel or salt of lemon, and 
leaving it to steep until they disappear; or by placing the stained part 
over a basin and pouring boiling water through to moisten the stain, 
which enables the chemical action to take place more rapidly. Then 
a small quantity of salt of lemons or salts of sorrel should be placed 
on the stain and rubbed firmly in, and boiling water again poured 
through. If the first application does not remove it, the process 
must be repeated. If the iron-mold is due to old iron rust, neither 
of the above-mentioned chemicals may remove it successfully. A 
pinch of oxalic acid, which is a strong chemical, may then have the 
desired effect. It is used in exactly the same manner as salt of 
lemons, but it must be used with great care, as it is injurious to fab- 
rics. 

To remove ink stains from white material before the ink is quite 
dry, sprinkle with salt and rub with half a lemon. Rinse off the acid 
and wash at once. When ink stains are dry, but fresh, they may be 
removed by dipping the stained part in buttermilk, or milk that has 
been boiled; change the milk frequently, then wash the article well. 
To Remove Iron Rust 

Spots of iron rust which are so likely to be found on white dresses 
and aprons may be easily removed in the following way : Place a 
small lump of cream of tartar on the spot of iron rust, and tie up the 
dress goods so as to hold the cream of tartar on the spot. Do the 
same to all the spots of iron rust and put the clothes into the boiler. 
After boiling, the clothes will be perfectly white and free from spots. 

Medicine Stains 

As most medicines, especially tinctures, are soluble in alcohol, 
methylated spirits will often remove the stains from clothes and 
other utensils. When stains contain silver compounds (to this class 
belong paints for warts, the throat and nose), any white fabric on 
which a little compound has been spilt acts like a piece of sensitized 
paper, and at once darkens on exposure to the light. An effective 
method is to soak the stain for some time in a tincture of iodine, 
then treat with a strong solution of hyposulphate of soda; strong 

28 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

ammonia will then complete the process. Medicine stains very often 
yield to alcohol. These stains frequently leave terribly, disfiguring 
discolorations on table and bed linen, and not uncommonly also re- 
sult in iron mould. They should be spread with a paste made of pul- 
verized Fuller's earth and spirits of hartshorn, allowing the applica- 
tion to dry upon the stain, and finally washing out in cold water. If 
necessary, the treatment may then be repeated, but one trial is gen- 
erally sufficient. 

To remove medicine stains from spoons, rub with a soft rag dipped 
in sulphuric acid, wash with soapsuds and polish with a chamois 
skin. 

Iodine is often responsible for stains, and is at once decolorized 
if sponged with strong ammonia. To remove iodine stains from linen, 
soak the stain with sweet milk, occasionally rubbing the spot. Alco- 
hol is also considered good for white materials. Another method is 
to dissolve two drams of hyposulphate of soda in half a tumblerful 
of water. 

Iodine stains come out easily with chloroform, or the cloth may 
be rubbed with gasoline. 

To remove iodine stains, soak the stained part in cold water for 
half an hour, then cover thickly with common soda, and leave for a 
few hours. After the usual washing and boiling the stain will en- 
tirely disappear. 

Mildew 

Mildew usually appears on the fibres of cotton and linen ; it takes 
the form of small round dark spots; in reality it is a vegetable growth, 
or form of fungus, which develops on the fibres of the material. Its 
appearance is due to dampness, and reflects discredit on the work 
of the housekeeper, as the clothes must either have been put away 
damp or kept in a damp cupboard. 

Owing to the nature of mildew, it is difficult to remove. One of 
the simplest remedies is to moisten the stained fabric, rub it thickly 
with soft soap and sprinkle it with common salt. Place the material 
on the grass in the sunshine and keep it moist. Renew the treatment 
each day until the stain disappears. 

A quicker method, and a surer one, is to keep the stained part in 
white material in a solution of bleaching liquor. To prepare the 

29 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

bleaching liquor, put half a pound of chlorinated lime into a basin 
and pour half a gallon of boiling water over it; add two tablespoon- 
fuls of washing soda, and stir to break up all the lumps, and to enable 
the water to extract all the chlorine. Strain carefully to remove all 
the powder and so make the liquid clear. Bottle and keep ready for 
use. 

This liquor is used chiefly for the removal of obstinate organic 
stains, such as dyes, fruit, wine and old tea or coffee stains. But it 
should only be used for fabrics made from vegetable fibres, such as 
linen and cotton, as its application to wool and silk proves fatal to 
the fibres. The solution should never be stronger than one part of 
the liquor to four parts of hot water. 

Milk Stains 

Milk stains usually come away readily enough in the ordinary 
washing process; that is to say, soaking in weak soda water and sub- 
sequent washing with soap. Where, however, the material cannot be 
washed, warm water should be applied locally, followed by weak am- 
monia. 

To Remove Paint Stains 

Rub fresh paint with a rag dipped in spirits of turpentine, and if 
not immediately removed rub the soiled part with both hands, as 
though the fabric were being washed. 

Paint Stains 

The ease or difficulty with which these are removed depends on 
the length of time they have been in the fabric. If done when the 
paint is wet their removal is more easily accomplished than when left 
until dry. To remove wet paint from white material, wash the stain 
with soap and water, then boil in water to which a little kerosene has 
been added; again rub between the hands, using soap and hot water. 

Dry paint on white material can easily be removed by soaking the 
stain in turpentine to soften the medium which hardens it to the fab- 
ric. It should then be rubbed in the turpentine and washed in soap 
and water, finishing with ordinary washing. 

Paint stains that are old and dry may be removed from woolen 
goods with chloroform. First cover the spot with olive oil or butter. 

30 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

When the stain is on a fabric the color of which is apt to be destroyed 
moisten tirst with a Httle oil, then remove with ether. . 

Scorch Marks 

If not too severe scorch marks are most effectually remedied by 
soaking the part in cold water and exposing to the rays of the sun, 
moistening afresh as it dries, until the blemish disappears. 

To remove scorch from linen, put two ounces of Fuller's earth 
into a saucepan, add half an ounce of white soap, the juice of two 
large onions and one cupful of vinegar. Boil together for a few 
minutes, strain into a jar, and keep covered for future use. Spread 
on the scorched parts with a knife, and allow it to dry on. The stain 
will soon disappear. If the garment is scorched with ironing, rub a 
lump of dry starch on the mark. Then sponge it off. Repeat till the 
yellow disappears. 

Scorching of White Material 

Expose the material to the -direct rays of the sun for several hours. 
If there is not time for this, procure some chloride water, dip linen 
rags into this and rub the spots which are scorched. The marks will 
disappear. 

To Remove Shoe Blacking from Straw 

Assuming the blacking to be the ''liquid" polish and containing 
wood alcohol, no doubt a bleach made from oxalic acid dissolved in 
alcohol will cut the stain, and by repeated applications of clear bleach 
the spot may be removed. Place an absorbent cloth under spot and 
then carefully rub with plenty of the alcohol bleach. Don't scour. 

General Rules for Removing Stains and Spots 

Before putting the article to be cleaned into the gasoline bath, 
it should be carefully inspected for grease spots and stains. These the 
gasoline is not pledged to remove. Apply block magnesia or French 
chalk to grease spots, sponge stains with alcohol or ammonia, and be 
sure that the spots are gone before putting the garment into the 
gasoline. 

Stains from Garments and Materials 

Have plenty of gasoline on hand and conduct operations in a room 
without a fire. If you can work out-of-doors so much the better. 

31 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

Such caution would seem unnecessary, but the columns of the daily 
papers furnish too many tales of catastrophes resulting from careless 
use of gasoline to make a warning needless. 

Pour a generous supply of gasoline into the vessel in which you 
wish to do your cleansing and put the soiled articles into it Cover 
and leave it a few minutes and then souse the article up and down in 
the fluid for several minutes. Never rub the goods while in the gaso- 
line, but continue to dip up and down until you can see from the 
dirt gathering in the bottom of the vessel that much of the soil has 
been removed. Hang the garment to dry without wringing or squeez- 
ing it. 

If you are of an economical turn you will pour the gasoline care- 
fully off the dirty sediment in the bottom and put it away to use as 
the first rinsing medium for some less delicate articles. 

Let it stand for ten minutes or so before pouring it off, keeping 
it covered, as it evaporates quickly. Put in a tightly corked bot- 
tle and set in a place away from the fire. 

Sometimes an article is so dirty that it requires a second gasoline 
treatment. In that case use fresh fluid — not that in which it has once 
been dipped. 

To Remove Tea and Coffee Stains 

Put the article to soak in cold water. Should the stain not have 
disappeared after it has soaked an hour, squeeze the water out and 
stretch over a basin. Sprinkle the stain with powdered borax and 
pour boiling water through it. Do not put the stain into the hot 
borax water, as that will set the edge of the mark. The borax may 
not quite remove the stain, but the rest will in time disappear, espe- 
cially if the cloth is dried in the open air. Never soap a tea or coffee 
stain until the article has been soaked in cold water, as soap and hot 
water will turn the stain into a fast dye if it is dry. To remove coffee 
stains from woolen and other materials rub thoroughly with pure 
gasoline. The place should afterwards be well washed with lukewarm 
water, and ironed on the wrong side till dry. 

To Remove Vaseline Stains 

Soak first in cold water and then wash in hot soap suds to which 
washing soda has been added. 

32 



LIQUID AND DRY CLEANING 

Cleaning Ostrich Feathers, Aigrettes and Plumes 

Use a dry pan or bowl. Wash the feathers in gasoHne rubbing 
the flue from the stem to the point of the feather. Throw the dirty 
gasoline out. Clean bowl. Pour in more gasoline. Add two table- 
spoonsful of wheat Mour. Stir until it is the consistency of thin 
paste. Wash feathers, plumes or aigrettes in this solution, being care- 
ful to rub the flues from the stem to the point. Do not rub back and 
forth. Lift the feather from the bowl and dry it by beating it lightly 
over the back of the hand. The gasoline quickly evaporates, the 
heaviest part of the flour falls to the ground and enough remains to 
properly starch the feather. This work must be done near an open 
window. Fumes from the gasoline will produce a violent headache 
if the cleaning is done in a closed room. 

To Clean Feathers 

Feathers may be washed in gasoline in the same manner as other 
articles, but after they are dry they should be held in the steam of 
boiling water and then dried in a hot oven or over a heated radiator. 
This process will restore the curl to the feathers. 
To Whiten Feathers 

Plunge the feathers in naphtha, rinse in second dish of naphtha, 
and dry in the open air. Place in a closed box and expose to the 
strong fumes of sulphur. The box must be airtight or the bleaching 
will not be sufficient. 

To Clean Osprey 

The osprey may be safely washed in warm soapsuds, afterw^ard 
rinsing in warm water two or three times. Faded ospreys may be 
redipped in the paint and gasoline dye. Ostrich feathers come out 
well from the same kind of a bath. 

To Clean Wings 

Wings should be wiped in order to remove dust, then sponged 
with alcohol. 

Note: It is best to send fine Ostrich, aigrette and other plumage 
to professional cleaners, unless by practice you have become ex- 
pert in manipulating them. 

33 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 
Cleaning White Wings 

Wings are much more difficult to clean than are the softer feath- 
ers, such as ostrich and marabou. 

Cover white wings with a cream made from naphtha and French 
chalk, allowing it to dry on for a day, and then remove. 

Dyeing Plumes 

The best way to learn the processes necessary for cleaning, dye- 
ing and curling plumes is to secure a position with an establish- 
ment making this work a specialty. The dyeing of ostrich feath- 
ers is an art and experts get high wages because very few persons 
develop the ability to judge colors and shades in the liquid dye 
that will be the correct colors or shades after the feathers are 
dried. 

Curling is less difficult to learn but requires a deftness or a knack 
that some people can never acquire. 

Ostrich feathers can be recurled without removal from the hat 
by holding over steam until the flues are fluffy again, when they 
may be curled with a blunt knife. 

White Chiffon Hats 

Soiled white chiffon hats respond to a treatment of equal parts 
of magnesia, French chalk and pulverized soap. The hat is covered 
with this mixture, which is left on for twenty-four hours. When 
brushed off, the soiled spots usually come with it. 

Cleaning a White Felt Hat 

Grease spots can be removed with benzine. Soap, water and brush 
will remove ordinary dirt, especially if one has a block to put the hat 
on. For a thorough cleaning, the band, lining, etc., must first be re- 
moved. 

A Simple Process for Cleansing and Pressing Ribbons 
A good-sized empty glass bottle, covered smoothly with soft 
flannel and linen outside, is most valuable to dry the ribbons on. 
There is no need of ironing, and the pieces come from the bath look- 
ing like new. 

34 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

A flat, wide, high bottle is best for this purpose, and a piece of 
flannel rolled around it smoothly and sewed securely makes a founda- 
tion over which cotton must be bound so that any creases in the 
cover will not go into the ribbons. 

The same bottle may be used for years without re-covering. 

It is well to wait until there are a dozen or more narrow pieces 
to be freshened, for it is no more trouble to cleanse a dozen than to 
wash one. They should be put into a bath of soapy, warm water, 
but soap is not to be rubbed directly upon the ribbons. Neither should 
the pieces be nibbed in the hands; instead they are squeezed under 
the water, put through several soap baths and through two rinsings. 

Careful Work Necessary 

Laying them on the bottle requires time, and one should consider 
it a task to be done carefully. Each piece of ribbon should be put 
around and around the bottle, keeping the winding flat and smooth. 
As fast as one is used the next is placed, the new end holding down 
that of the piece previously folded. There may be four or five pieces, 
one on top of the other, but if the quality is good the colors will not 
run. The end of the last piece must be pinned to hold all securely, 
and the bottle should then be placed where drying will be rapid. Direct 
sunlight may fade the colors, so the cylinder should be put near arti- 
ficial heat. When not in use the bottle must be wrapped in paper 
to prevent soiling the covering. 

Wide ribbons are renewed by washing, though in a different man- 
ner, for to prevent their creasing in a bath they must be evenly wet 
with clear water and then patted smooth on a marble washstand or 
other flat surface. The strand must then be washed with soapy water, 
using the finger tips. This scours, without pulling the silk grain. 
When all soil has been removed the ribbon is lifted and rinsed by 
holding flat under a faucet and letting the water run through and 
down without permitting the surface to wrinkle. This done, the wet 
strand is again laid flat and patted gently and thoroughly, that there 
may be no blisters beneath the surface, for they show when the silk 
is dry. 

To Cleanse Ribbons 

Sponge with alcohol and rub over the spot with some clean, white 

35 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

soap. During this process the ribbon must be kept straight. When 
clean rinse in alcohol and place between two towels. Press out with 
a hot iron. 

Directions for Cleaning a Slightly Soiled Ermine Stole 

Hot bran carefully rubbed in and shaken out again will remove 
much of the dirt; so will flour. Be sure the bran or flour is perfectly 
clean, and rub it in carefully. 

To Clean Silk or Cashmere 

In cleaning a very fine material, like cashmere or silk, use some- 
thing less coarse than meal. For easily injured fabrics try block 
magnesia. 

The treatment is a little more tender. Do not rub the silk between 
the hands as the heavier goods. Instead of that rub the block mag- 
nesia into it gently, rubbing the application on both sides of the 
goods. 

Lay it away carefully, where it will be protected from the dust 
and leave it untouched for several days. After it has been well 
shaken and brushed it ought to look as well as though it had been 
through the hands of the professional cleanser. 

An Easy and Economical Way to Clean White Fur or Feathers 

Put into a strong paper bag equal parts of flour and Indian meal 
with one-eighth the quantity of borax. Shake the articles in the bag 
until all soil has disappeared; then remove from the bag and shake 
out the powder. 

White furs can also be cleaned with flour. 

Cleaning Lace 

Lace should always be soaked before washing, and if much soiled 
use boiling water in which a teaspoonful of borax has been dissolved, 
the usual proportions being two cupfuls of water to every teaspoonful 
of borax. Then make a lather with some good soap and hot water. 
Take the lace from the water in which it has been soaked, place it in 
the soap water and squeeze it exactly as if it were a sponge till it is 
clean. This will prevent the lace from being torn, more especially if 
it is of a fine make. Repeat the process, if necessary, in another basin 

36 



4 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

of soapy water. Then rinse in clean, cold water until all the soap is 
removed. If the lace is white a little blue in the rinsing water will 
improve the color. A very little stiffening will prevent ordinary lace 
from soiling quickly, but this must not be enough to keep the fabric 
from falling into soft folds. The water in which rice has been 
boiled is very suitable for this purpose. Wash two tablespoonfuls of 
rice until it is perfectly clean, then put it in a saucepan with one and 
a half pints of water. Boil for four minutes, then allow the lace to 
stand in the water for a minute. Take it out, squeeze tightly, pull 
it into shape, and put it under a heavy weight. If after repeated wash- 
ings the lace has still a soiled look, it may either be bleached in the 
sun or boiled. To boil lace, put it in a jar or preserve pot with cold 
water to cover it, and a little melted soap. Stand the jar in a sauce- 
pan with boiling water to reach fully halfway up the jar, put the lid 
on the pan and boil for two or three hours. 

To dry clean fine white lace, lay it out quite evenly on clean white 
paper, cover it with magnesia, then put another paper on top. Let it 
remain inside the leaves of a book for two or three days, when it 
will look as fresh as new. After being cleaned, if the lace is not in 
use, keep it in blue paper, as this has a preservative influence over its 
whiteness. 

A Simple Method of Pressing and Cleaning Lace 
It is useful to have as many hints as possible concerning the pro- 
cess of cleaning lace, for many women prefer doing this themselves 
rather than to send valuable heirlooms to the cleaners. 

This method of pressing real laces is practised by a Frenchwoman 
who always does up her valuable collection of old laces. The rolled 
lace is wound round a good sized bottle, which is then covered with 
white muslin, carefully tacked on. Put the bottle in a kettle filled 
with cold water in which a good sized piece of white soap is dissolved 
and boil for an hour. Pour off the soiled water and add fresh until 
the water is clear. 

Remove the bottle and rinse repeatedly through cold water. Take 
off the muslin and let the lace dry on the bottle. If the stiffness is 
out the lace is dipped in a little skim milk. It is then put in a damp 
cloth until ready to pin out. 

Z7 



^ THE MILLINERS GUIDE "^S^M 

The pinning out process is most important. A wooden drum 
twelve inches high and twenty-four inches in diameter is covered with 
cotton wadding and white muslin on the circumference of the wood, 
and the cylinder has blue paper put over it, as blue is less trying to the 
eyes than white. 

Take out just enough lace from the cloth to pin it before drymg 
entirely. Pin the heading of lace first in a straight edge, setting the. 
pins closely and at equal distances. Then pin out each picot sepa- 
rately, taking care to keep them in shape and to retwist if they have 
become untwisted. 

If the picots cannot all be pinned before the lace dries, dampen 
them with a wet cloth, as sticking pins into dry parts may tear valu- 
able lace. Use very fine pins for the tiny picots and coarser ones for 
heavier lace. Only a non-rustable pin must be used. 

The lace must stay pinned on the cylinder until dry, when it is 
removed and slipped into blue paper bags to keep clean until the en- 
tire portion to be washed is finished. 

Do not attempt this pinning out when in a hurry, as the work must 
be done carefully and should be finished at one sitting. 

When the lace is fragile and very soiled, before washing on a 
bottle soak for several hours in pure olive oil. 

To Clean Lace 

No. I — Fill a large bottle with cold water and sew around it some 
clean, old white muslin. Tack one end of the lace to the muslin 
and wrap the lace around the bottle smoothly. With a clean sponge 
saturate the lace thoroughly with pure sweet oil. Suspend the bottle 
by means of strings into a wash-bottle. Pour in a strong cold lather 
of white castile soap. Boil this suds until the lace is white and 
clean. Dry the lace, still wrapped about the bottle, in the sun. Re- 
move the lace, and if necessary, press it under a thin piece of muslin 
or cheese cloth. 

No. 2 — Spots in lace may be removed by , scouring gently with a 
brush with a suds made of white soap and warm water. Afterward 
proceed as just directed. Some laces are strong enough to stand gen- 
tle rubbing in the hands. After washing and rinsing them, wrap them 

38 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

about a bottle and allow to remain until thoroughly dry. After re- 
moving them from the bottle pull and smooth with the fingers. 

No. 3 — After washing lace by either of the processes just given, 
let it partially dry. Place a folded blanket covered with clean 
muslin on an ironing board or table. Iron the lace under a thin strip 
of muslin or cheesecloth until it is thoroughly dry. If the figures 
in the pattern are raised on one side, or outlined by a raised thread, 
place this side downward so that the soft pad will prevent the pat- 
tern from being flattened. 

How to Clean Parasols 
Place the parasol in the bathtub and run in enough warm water 
to cover it. Rub it all over with a pure white soap and let it soak 
for a few minutes. Then scrub it well with a small hand-brush, rub- 
bing the soiled places and the creases briskly. Rinse in two or three 
waters. If it is a white parasol, put a little bluing in the last water. 
Open it and hang in the sun until dry. 

To Clean a Parasol 

If the soiled parasol is silk covered, gasoline and naphtha should 
be used; white soap should be cut and mixed with a little warm water 
to make a jelly, then added to the gasoline. 

The parasol should be opened and given a scrubbing, using a nail 
brush for the purpose. When clean rinse in clear gasoline and dry. 

Lace, linen or net will stand the soap and water process. Make a 
warm, strong suds, using only the best white soap and a little borax. 
Scrub as directed for gasoline and rinse thoroughly, first with warm 
water and then with cold. Set out of doors to dry, still open, secured 
in some way to save the sunshade from being carried away by the 
wind. 

If the covering is of chiffon or chiffon cloth, the gasoline method 
should be employed. 

Simple Cleanser for Suede Gloves 

Light suede gloves may be satisfactorily cleaned at home with oat- 
meal. Put the oatmeal in a bowl and the gloves on the hands. Then 

39 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

rub the hands through the meal exactly as if you were washing them 
with soap and water. If any part is especially soiled, scour it thor- 
oughly with a piece of white flannel dipped in the meal. 

Cleaning Kid Gloves 

After the gloves have been cleaned with petrol or benzine, and 
they are quite dry, place them on the hand and stroke firmly with a 
bone saltspoon, beginning at the finger-tips and working down to 
the wrist. This smooths and polishes the kid, and the gloves keep 
clean much longer. 

To Clean Woolen or Cotton Gown 

To cleanse a woolen or cotton gown, shake and brush it well first, 
to insure its being freed from accumulated dust. 

Then put it into a tub and rub it with buckwheat flour which has 
been slightly salted. Have plenty of the flour and rub the dress in 
it as you would in soap water, paying especial attention to the 
dirtiest parts and rubbing them well between your hands with the flour. 

You will be astonished to see how dirty this will be after the 
rubbing process is ended. 

Shake out the garment, empty the tub, put the dress in it again 
and rub in fresh. Cover it with this ; put a cover on the tub and 
leave untouched for three days. 

Take out the dress, shake it again and brush it with a clean brush 
broom until it is entirely free from the flour. 

White Hats, Knit Shawls or Afghans 

In every case flour is to be rubbed well into the material and left 
there for two or three days, the article in cleansing to be kept cov- 
ered so that dust cannot settle upon it. 

At the end of the period of retirement a vigorous brushing and 
shaking must be given and almost always the garment will be found 
satisfactorily clean. In some obstinate cases a second application may 
be necessary, but this is unusual. 

White furs may be cleansed in the same way. 

Cleaning a Woolen Skirt 

For thoroughly cleansing woolen skirts, either black or colored, 

40 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

without the least possible injury, there is nothing better than a wash- 
ing in a soap bark bath. 

Five cents' worth of the bark is sufficient to make the grimiest 
skirt like new, if one is willing to take the trouble. This quantity 
should be put into a gallon of cold water and brought to a boil. Take 
off stove, and use when tepid; use no soap with it; press while slight- 
ly damp. 

Dry Cleaning at Home 

There are ways of practicing dry-cleaning at home by those who 
have more time than money to spend in making their garments pre- 
sentable. The process is simple enough, although it is a little trou- 
blesome, in that it demands care and close attention to details. 

Dry Cleaning Preparation 

A successful way to clean white yokes and cuffs without remov- 
ing them from a waist or dress is to cover them with a mixture of 
two parts white corn-meal and one part powdered borax. Leave this 
on overnight; then brush it off thoroughly. 

Dry Cleaning for Ecru Curtains 

Arabian net or ecru curtains lose their tint in ordinary washing, 
and recoloring is not always satisfactory. Spread a sheet or two on 
the floor and lay the curtains carefully on them. Mix two parts of 
bolted corn-meal with one of salt. Take a clean brush or the hand 
and rub all through the curtains. Hang out of doors for a couple of 
hours and the curtains will be clean and look like new. In this sim- 
ple way they can be cleaned frequentl}^ will never smell of dust or 
smoke and will wear better. 



41 



SEWING HINTS 

FOn THE WORKROOM AND HOME 

Tag Your Piece-Bag 

Here is a sensible method of tagging the contents of a piece- 
bag. On the outside of the bag fasten the largest procurable 
safety-pin. Attach samples to this pin of every remnant that 
goes into the bag. A great amount of time and patience is saved 
by this simple device, for one can see at a glance just what the 
bag contains. 

Prevent Ball of Wool from Rolling 

A good plan to keep the ball of v^ool from rolling v^hen cro- 
cheting or knitting, is to wind so the thread will pull from the 
center; a little care in winding will give much satisfaction. Wind 
over the four fingers a dozen times or so, slip off, wind loosely 
over this at first, then proceed as usual in winding; only keep one 
end open. When finished, the wool or thread should pull out 
from the center. Fasten outside end; no more rolling balls. 

Cutting Bias Bands 

An excellent way to cut and point bias bands is in the follow- 
ing manner: With a ruler and something which will mark the 
cloth — chalk for dark colors and a hard pencil for light are good 
if not used too heavily — mark the bands on the material. Then 
carefully join the two ends of the cloth so that the chalk lines 
exactly meet, only have the first line on one end, meet the second 
on the other, thus forming a spiral. Stitch on the machine; then 
with a needle and thread put a few secure stitches each side of 
the marks to stay the stitching. With sharp scissors begin at 
the place where the first band extends beyond the second, and 
cut round and round, following the chalk line, until the whole 
is cut into one piece all perfectly joined. 

Boning Belts and Collars 

Princess or one-piece wash dresses joined with a belt may be 
boned in the following simple manner: Cut the whalebone or un- 

42 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

covered featherbone to the desired lengths. Now cut linen tape, 
which must be a little wider than the bone, into lengths at least 
two inches more than the strips of bone. At the top and bottom, 
fold over the tape an inch or more and stitch down at each side. 
This makes a sort of envelope or receptacle at top and bottom, 
into which the bone, when slightly curved, will easily slip after 
the tapes have been fastened into the inside of a gown. When 
the dress is to be laundered the bones are removed and reinserted 
after the ironing. 

All wash-collars and wash-belts may be boned after the same 
handy fashion. One set of bones for collars and one for belt? 
will suffice, as it takes but an instant to remove them from one 
and slip into another if the tapes are made uniform on each. An- 
other very great advantage is the fact that the boning never needs 
renewing. 

To Make Sewing Silk Run Evenly 

When the silk thread on the machine runs off the spool too 
fast, and causes it to tighten around the spindle, cut a piece of 
blotting paper or thick cloth, make a hole in the center and slip 
on the spindle before the spool, and 3^ou will have no more trou- 
ble. 

Braid Used for Buttonholing 

An excellent substitute for buttonholing is found in the use 
of the familiar coronation braid. It may be whipped along any 
edge where buttonholing is commonly used. This is suggested 
for garments made of inexpensive material for general use. 

A Simple and Economical Way to Braid 

is to trace the design on tissue paper, then baste to the material 
that is to be braided. Proceed to sew on the braid, sewing 
through both paper and material, until the design has been all 
covered with the braid, after which remove the paper by care- 
fully tearing it off. The paper is a protection to delicate material 
while braiding, although it works equally as well on dark ma- 
terial. 

Button Moulds 
Before covering wooden button-moulds for wash frocks, boil 

43 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

them well in strong soda-water. This will take all the turpentine 
out of the wood and prevent the buttons from discoloring the 
tnaterial when the frock is washed. 

In Ripping Buttons 

off old blouses, etc., string them at once on a bit of strong thread 
and tie together. Next time you want a set of buttons you will 
not have to pick them, out from several hundred others. 

To Make Even Buttonholes 

In making buttonholes in sheer, soft material, a perfectly firm 
straight edge may be made by even a novice in buttonholes if a 
very fine cambric needle is run through the cut from one end 
to the other, so that the needle is directly over the opening; the 
buttonholing is done over the net^dle, then the needle is pulled 
out and inserted again outside of the work, and the second side 
worked over it, the little cross-stitch at the ends being made 
while the needle is not in place. 

To Make a Neat, Firm Buttonhole in a Jacket 

Cut in waste material the length of buttonhole required, meas- 
ure and mark the exact length with thread where the buttonhole 
is to be; stitch quite closely on each side of thread; cut between 
the rows of stitching; stay in the usual way with a few over and 
over stitches at each end, passing the thread along the edges 
between the ends, and work. The stitching prevents the canvas 
interlining from slipping, also the goods from pulling out. 
Mending the Gloves 

Use cotton thread for mending the gloves, as silk thread will 
cut the kid. Do not use the over and over stitch as it always 
shows so plainly. Take a stitch on one side of the seam and 
then a stitch on the opposite side, and draw them together. This 
keeps the regular seam intact and conceals the fact that the glove 
is mended. 

A Short Hatpin Is Useful at Sewing Machine 

With a short hatpin one can guide and place the work. Keep 
the hatpin in the sewing-machine drawer. 

44 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 
Turning in Hems 

When turning in hems on wiry or sheer materials like swiss, 
it is often much easier to take a warm iron and press them down 
by the eye, which is generally accurate for long distances. This 
gives better results in many cases than measuring, as a wiry swiss 
will slip in spite of you when you attempt to measure accurately 
for a deep hem or tuck. 

Hints for Amateurs 

Neatness is always a requisite of good sewing, and besides the 
fact that durability is increased, there is a satisfaction in knowing 
that the inside of a garment need not be withheld from a critical 
eye. Binding the seams is a little thing, but most effectual in the 
attainment of the neatness that marks the careful sewer. 

If it is difficult to adjust binding, the edges of seams can be 
pinked — a method in favor with tailors. There is no fraying of 
the edges, and the bulky line is obviated. 

Hems of heavy material can be successfully and neatly finished 
if the raw edge of just one turn be stitched down underneath a 
pliable tape of the same color. Two rows of stitching are neces- 
sary, but the scheme" is worth a trial. 

If a bias strip be used for binding armholes or seams, it can 
be adjusted easily and evenly if it be creased in the center before 
it is placed on the edge of the seam. 

When cutting very sheer chiffons, batistes or soft materials, it 
is well to draw a thread as a guide line. 

It is better to shrink washable materials before making them 
into garments. A little salt in the water will set the color, and 
it is only necessary to wring out and hang by the selvedge on the 
line. 

What Not To Do 

Do not sew trimmings or buttons on tight beneath. Use very 
fine thread or sewing silk for basting velvet, and to press the 
seams open them, very slightly dampen and run the seam across 
the narrow end of a warm iron standing on the broad end. Do 
not allow the weight of an iron on it. 

45 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

Embroidery Hoops for Darning 
Embroidery hoops are the handiest things to use for darning. 
Draw the material tightly in the same direction of the rent or 
tear and notice the improvement in your work. 

A New Dignity for the Curling Iron 

When further sewing is blocked, for lack of a hot iron to 
press a tiny seam, heat the curling iron, and the work may go 
merrily on. In the winter, when the hot flatiron has been for- 
gotten until needed, the poker thrust into the fire will heat in a 
moment and answer for a short seam. The curling iron will 
often help a person living in a hotel, where hot irons are not so 
easy to have. 

Some Sewing Items 

If you have difficulty in hemming or stitching chiffon, soft 
silks, etc., try laying a piece of thin paper under the goods and 
stitching through this. The paper may then be torn away and 
the goods will not be puckered nor require pressing. 

If you are a poor buttonhole-maker or pressed for time, try 
a machine-made buttonhole. They are neat, quickly made, and 
last as long as if worked by hand. Cut the buttonhole perfectly 
straight, overcast the edges and ends by hand, then stitch all 
around two or three times by machine, and you will have a nice 
buttonhole with very little time and labor. 

Keep a piece of sandpaper in the machine drawer for rough 
or blunted needles; a file, too, will quickl}^ smooth a dull machine 
needle, and scissors may be sharpened on a large needle or the 
stem of a glass (or piece of glass) b}^ opening and shutting 
quickly, as if you were trying to cut the glass. 

A Smart Laundry Bag 

An attractive looking laundry bag that is showy enough for a 
gift or a prize, yet it is easily made, may be cut from a yard and a 
half of cretonne, flowered chintz or denim. 

The full width of the material is used, the ends doubled over 
and the three edges sewed tight on the machine, all but enough 

46 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

space for turning. When turned the rest of the seam is blind- 
stitched together. 

Three inches from the top a ribbon is stitched through the 
two sides of the bag, being sewed on each edge to form a casing 
for a narrow stick, shorter than the width of the material. This 
gives the necessary fullness to the bag and leaves a small frill at 
the top. 

A lengthwise slit is now cut on the right side of the bag, 
slightly below the ribbon casing and as long as is desired for an 
opening. This slit is bound with narrow ribbon the same color as 
the casing. 

Hooks or ribbon loops are added at the upper, back corners 
of the bag to suspend it on the inner door of a closet. 

Such laundry bags can be easily washed by removing the stick. 
Charming ones are made from the rose-covered cretonne bound 
m pink or green wash satin ribbon or colored linen braid. One 
smart looking bag that was also distinctly serviceable was made 
from brown denim, with a casing and binding of brown satin 
ribbon. The monogram of the owner was worked on the front 
below the end of the opening. 

Larger bags can be easily made by increasing the amount of 
material. 

A Mode of Mending 
that comes very handy in case an accident happens to a carpet 
after it is tacked to the floor is this: Find a piece of carpet as 
near like that on the floor as possible, and a little larger than the 
place that needs patching. Make some paste with flour and cold 
water the consistency of cold cream. Paste the side of the patch 
that goes next the carpet, and lay it on just as you want it, then 
with hot sad-irons press until dry; if properly done, one can 
hardly find the patch after a day or two. 

To Utilize Embroidered Monograms 

Take the embroidered initial or monogram from old bolster 
and pillow cases and use them on new slips. Cut letter from old 
slip, leaving a three-inch square around it (letters for bed-linen 
are usually two inches), then cut the material to form an oval 

47 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

leaving a small margin to turn under. Sew to the new slip, then 
outline with embroidery-cotton to conceal stitches. Outline an- 
other row one-fourth of an inch from the first and work eyelets 
at intervals between the rows to form a medallion. The result 
is even prettier than when first embroidered. 

Economy in Machine Needles 

Keep a piece of white soap in the machine drawer, and when 
stitching anything with much dressing in the goods, rub the seams 
with the soap, and you will find you can stitch with ease and with 
no danger of breaking the needle. 

Always keep on hand in the machine drawer a small whet- 
stone, and if your needle becomes dull, sharpen it on the whet- 
stone. You can make it as good as new. 

To Prevent Pricking the Fingers 

One accustomed to doing needlework of any kind is aware 
of the discomfort caused by the needle pricking the finger which 
holds the underside of the cloth. This can be prevented if the 
worker will moisten a small strip of court plaster and stick it 
on the end of the finger. 

Dress Protector 

When the yoke of a night-dress becomes worn, cut off the 
night-dress skirt, take out the sleeves and sew it together across 
the top, leaving a small opening through which the hook of a 
suit-hanger may be slipped, and use it to protect a nice dress 
hanging in the closet. Washed but seldom it will last a long time, 
and will be found more convenient than a bag, as it is so much 
easier to insert the dress without crushing. 

Rusty Shears 
A good pair of shears, carelessly left out-of-doors for some 
time, seemed hopelessly rusty, were scoured with salt moistened 
in scalding vinegar, soaked for a day in kerosene oil, then dried, 
sharpened and vigorously rubbed with a flannel cloth dipped in 
sweet oil; they were restored to their original use and brightness. 

48 



^ 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Sharpen Scissors 

Cut them rapidly on the neck of a small glass bottle, or better 
still, on a ground glass stopper. It trues the edges and makes 
them cut like new. 

Take a fine file and sharpen each blade, being careful to keep 
the same angle as they had at first; file till rough places are all 
taken out. Put a little oil on the edges of the blades and snap 
together. Then wipe off all the oil. 

When Stitching Seams 

When stitching heavy white cotton or linen, rub the seam to 
be stitched with hard white soap, and the needle will not cut the 
material. 

Sewing Machine Hints 

When your sewing machine belt becomes loose, do not stop 
to take it off in order to tighten it. Just drop a little machine oil 
upon it, and you will find the belt tight after a few turns of the 
wheel. One sometimes has trouble because the needle cuts heavy 
cotton or linen goods when stitching. If the seam to be stitched 
is rubbed with hard white soap you will have no more difficulty. 

Sewing Notes 

In sewing on buttons leave them a little loose from the gar- 
ment so that the thread may be wound around in order to insure 
a good fastening. It is a good plan to place a pin between the 
button and the cloth, passing the thread over the pin; then when 
the thread is fastened remove the pin and the button is sufficiently 
loose. 

In padding embroidery use the chain stitch. This is an espe- 
cially good hint for making scalloped edges. 

In making patch work, if you cut your pattern in table oil 
cloth instead in paper, you will find the work much more satis- 
factory. The oilcloth pattern will not slip when cutting and 
there is no danger of snipping off a portion with the scissors. 

Some women use soft wrapping twine to pad buttonholes on 
children's garments. Place this wrapping twine as near the edge 

49 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

as possible and \v(^rk over it. It will not show w^hen the button- 
hole is finished and the buttonholes will be very strong. 

In Facing a Circular or Gored Skirt 

do not cut a bias facing, but take the goods as it is in the piece 
and lay it on the skirt (on the right side), beginning with the 
center of the front. Pin in place, turn over and trim off at edge 
of skirt. Now measure the width you wish your facing to be and 
cut. Follow this plan around the skirt, and you will find that 
you have a nice, smooth facing, with no little plaits or gathers 
and no waste of cloth. Stitch around the bottom, turn on the 
wrong side and turn in and hem or stitch the top of facing, after- 
ward sewing the joinings (which will be selvage if facing has been 
put on correctly) over and over. 

Turning a Dress Skirt 

If a skirt has become faded or soiled, it can often be turned to 
good advantage. First, clean it as thoroughly as possible. Rip one 
seam, turn and baste carefully before ripping another. If there 
are plaits re-fold, following the old creases, making what was form- 
erly the wrong side the right. If the skirt is a good hanging one, 
any home dressmaker can do the work satisfactorily, for it is not 
nearly so difficult a task as to make a new one. One seam at a time 
is a much better way than to rip all the seams apart before beginning 
to baste. 

For Darning Stockings 

Electric light bulbs that are usually thrown aside when burned out 
make an excellent addition to the work basket and can be used in 
darning stockings. They are much lighter than the articles generally 
used for the same purpose. 

An Excellent Spool-Rack 

To keep machine drawers in perfect order, saw a thin board 
to fit the bottom of the drawer, mark it with rings, using a spool, 
and put a peg or nail in the center of each ring. Now each spool is 
in its own place on a nail and the thread does not become tangled. 

The Modern Sweater 

Now that sweaters have become a staple article of dress and are 

SO 



i 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

custom made, big impro\ cnients have developed in their cut (if one may 
so speak of garments built up of stitches) and consequently they have 
a grace and shapeliness unknown to sweaters of former seasons. 

In the new sweaters any stretching of the shoulder seam is avoid- 
ed by a length of strong tape, one end of which is sewed to the 
armhole, the other end to the edge of the neck. This tape simply 
forces the shoulder to keep its shape. 

Seams no longer are overhanded together with the yarn of which 
the sweater is made, but are closely stitched with cotton or silk which 
will never stretch. An excellent idea is to bind the seams with an 
extra strong cotton tape that is machine-stitched in place. 

A Table Scarf Resembling Oriental Work 

On a gaudy red and green small "Brusselette" rug, colored a rich 
cardinal red work a simple cross-stitch pattern across each end with 
yellow, dull-blue and black silkateen, double in the needle. The scarf 
is lined with red silkoline and locks quite expensive, though the origi- 
nal rug cost only forty cents. 

When Sewing Taffeta 

Use a thin, fine needle for sewing taffeta. The blunt end of a 
needle long used is liable to pucker the goods, and the stitches will 
not be even. A heavier' needle may be used in sewing China silk. 

A Substitute for Tape Needle 

A safety-pin miakes the nicest kind of a tape needle for all pur- 
poses. It never catches in the goods, for the edges are round, and it 
never loses the tape for you close the pin as you pin it into the tape 
or ribbon, always using a pin the size of hem or beading. 

To Mend an Ugly Tear 
Sometimes you are unfortunate enough to make an ugly tear in 
a handsome new gown. It may be mended very successfully, and if 
in an inconspicuous place it will not show at all. Lay the tear edge 
to edge, and baste across it, ])eing careful that while the edges meet, 
they do not overlap. Cut a piece of rubber tissue, which may be ob- 
tained at any tailoring shop, to amply cover the tear. Lay the gar- 
ment on the ironing board right side down, place the rubber over the 

51 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

rent, and over the rubber lay a piece of goods of the same material 
as that of the garment to be mended. Keep both rubber and goods 
perfectly smooth, and press out with a hot iron for several minutes. 
Now cut out the basting threads on the right side, and shave off any 
rough edges remaining. When there is no material of the dress on 
hand, a piece of light-weight woolen goods of the same color will 
answer. That the bottoms of men's trousers are held together in 
this way is a good sign that the method is practical and successful. 

A Tonic for Sewing Machines 

After some years' usage every sewing machine is likely to clog up 
with fine dust which the machine oil collects on the bearings. As 
soon as the machine begins to work heavily, take out the shuttle, and 
then give every movable part a generous bath of gasoline. Work 
the foot lever briskly, so that the gasoline may penetrate every part. 
The old oil and caked dust will loosen and fall off in quantities that 
will amaze you. Then open the windows of the sewing-room and let 
the fumes of the gasoline escape. Of course, during this cleaning pro- 
cess, the machinist will take good care that there is no lighted gas, 
lamp or fire in the room. It is a good plan then to let the machine 
stand without the usual lubricating oil until you are ready to use it 
again. A piece of chamois should always be kept on hand to wipe 
off the superfluous oil before beginning to stitch. 

To Remove Threads After Ripping 

After a garment has been ripped it is a tedious job to pick the 
threads from the seams. If you take a piece of coarse cloth — such 
as a piece of toweling — dampen it and rub it over the seams, the 
threads come out readily. 

Thread Twisted and Knotted 
When thread twists and knots as you sew, try stretching the cot- 
ton before beginning to use it. Take from the spool the usual needle- 
ful, and holding each end firmly, stretch the cotton as tightly as pos- 
sible two or three times. 

A Thimble Factory at Islington 

Thimbles were introduced into England by a man named John 

^2 



THE MILLIXIiR'S GUIDE 

Lotting, who came over from Holland about the end of the seven- 
teenth century and established a thimble factory at Islington. 

The word thimble is derived from the Scotch "Thummel" or 
thumb bell, a sort of shield worn on the thumb. 

Trifles Made from Scraps 

A quick and effective method of utilizing small scraps of velvet, 
silk and ribbon is the making of novel pincushions, which can be 
equally well done by either young or old. 

Cut a circle of cardboard three inches across and cover neatly. 
Take a piece of silk, satin or velvet five inches wide and long 
enough to go round circle. Then join same on wrong side up width 
and join neatly to circle, so that both ends be turned out, leaving 
stitching inside. Fill lightly with bran to an inch from the top, 
where run draw thread. Take small doll's head — the penny Japa- 
nese variety is most eft'ective — and place neck in draw string, pull 
same tightly and fasten firmly oft'. The inch of material above thread 
wdll form frill round neck, and ribbon cap tied around or small hat 
made to finish off. This idea can also be carried out in round, square 
or sack cushions. 

Bolster cushions are easily made out of any material from five to 
eight inches long and three to four wide. Join up length, line either 
end with scrap of contrasting colored silk. Draw one end tightly one 
inch and a half down, fill tightly with bran and draw other end up 
the same. Finish with ribbon tied in bow round end, carried loosely 
across and tied round other end, to form loop for hanging on looking 
glass or wall. This idea can be carried out round a piece of circular 
wood or blind roller, small gilt dresser hooks being screwed through 
material to hang keys on. 

Make four sacks three inches in depth, of any contrasting colors, 
fill tightly with bran to inch from top, where dra\v tightly up, leav- 
ing frill. Join together with bows for standing up. If to hang, fas- 
ten each to length of ribbon and tie ends together. 



53 



HINTS FOR WASHING AND IRONING 

To Wash Chiffon 

Chiffon is washed in the same way as mushn, and after rinsing, 
put through very thin clean starch. Be careful not to twist it in any 
way, but enclose it in the folds of a towel, and either beat it between 
the hands until dry or put it through the wringing machine. Do 
not let chiffon lie too long before ironing, but stretch it to its proper 
shape and iron it on the right side with a moderately hot iron. If 
it is a large piece, do not expose too much of it to the air at one 
time, but keep the part you are not ironing covered over to prevent 
its becoming dry. Pull out occasionally while ironing to keep it soft, 
and iron over again. It must on no account be made stiff, but ought 
to fall softly, and just have sufficient stiffness to prevent its looking 
limp. 

Drying Lace Curtains 

The rather trying task of stretching wet lace curtains is much 
more easily accomplished if the frames are stood upon edge in the 
position in wdiich they are usually put to dry, instead of on the floor 
or in a flat position balanced on chairs. Gather the long edge of the 
curtain in the left hand and adjust on the upper row of pins with the 
right, allowing the width of the curtain to hang toward the floor. 
The curtain will net catch on the pins, nor will there be any danger 
of its dragging on the floor, as in the other method. 

To Wash Curtains 

Curtains should first be well shaken to remove dust, then, if white, 
soaked over night in cold water. For washing use rather warm water 
with plenty of soap jelly. Knead and squeeze well, leaving the cur- 
tains in the water a short tin^e. It is usually necessary to wash them 
through at least two soap lathers; they should then be rinsed thorough- 
ly in plenty of warm water, and the white ones boiled for half an 
hour. After boiling, rinse thoroughly in warm water to remove 
all trace of the soap. The curtain should then be drawn 
through hot starch. Allow about two ounces of starch to each cur- 
tain, but if you put one in after another, without adding more starch, 
the last put through will be limp. It is better to starch the curtains 

54 



1 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

when dr}-, as they do not retain much starch, and if they are put 
through while wet the starch has to be made very thick, and then it 
is hable to be lumpy. After starching, place them in a curtain stretch- 
er, if you have one; if not, pin them on a sheet laid on the floor of 
a room and leave until dry. They should not require ironing. If 
they are pulled very straight over a line when wet, and left till dry, 
then mangled, they will do for ordinary use. 

Bleaching Silk Embroidery 

In these days of raking up all of the antiques in the family one 
may come across some lovely old silk or fine linen hand embroidery 
that must be bleached out, but beware of giving it to anyone to do 
for you. 

The pieces are put into cold water, which is thick with pure white 
soap and a drop of bluing. This is allowed to come to a boil. Remove 
the articles at once, rinse through several lukewarm waters, finally 
through a bluing water, and put on the grass while wet to bleach. 

Do not rub or squeeze hard. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat 
the washing and boiling if the pieces are very yellow. When bleached 
put the right side down on the ironing board, smooth edges into 
place and iron under a linen cloth. Do not use too hot an iron, as 
old materials scorch easily. 

If the grass is dusty put pieces on a clean towel. They bleach 
better when flat on the grass, though sometimes they need an after 
rinsing. This was meant originally for white cotton or handkerchief 
linen. 

Bleaching Silk Embroidery 

Wash in distilled water with a little borax. 

Washing Colored Embroideries 

The best way to bleach white goods having colored embroidery 
(such as doilies and other articles which cannot be boiled for fear 
the color will fade) is to wash them and then dry them in the shade. 
Put them in an old pillow-case which has been dipped in very strong 
bluing water and thoroughy dried. Then hang the case, with the 
embroidered articles inside, in the light for several days. They will 
be perfectly w^hite and the colored embroidery will not be one bit 
faded. 

55 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

To Wash Straw Hats 

Straws that are not sized in manufacturing, that is, contain no 
shellac or glue, may be washed with perfect safety. To wash hats 
they should first be thoroughly freed from dust, then cleansed with 
warm soap and water by scrubbing with a fair size nail brush, and 
when dry should be covered with the white of an tgg, beaten to a 
froth. 

Some persons think that a half lemon dipped in salt and vigor- 
ously applied to the hat is the best whitener. This is excellent, but it 
is impossible to brush all the salt out of the straw, and when this 
becomes damp, as it surely will if worn out in the rain, the dust 
gathers and sticks until the last state of the hat is worse than 
the first. 

When soap and water are not practicable five cents' worth of 
oxalic acid may be used with good results. 

Drying Knitted Garments 
Wash the article in warm suds and rinse thoroughly. Then dry 
the garment by placing it in a pan in which a towel has been laid; 
shake it occasionally; when dry, the article will be as light and fluffy 
as new. A knitted garment dried in this way always retains its shape, 
whereas if it were hung up to dry it would stretch. 

To Bleach Muslin 

When muslin has become faded and it is desired to bleach it white, 
chloride of lime put in the boiling water in the proportion of one 
tablespoon of lime to one quart of water will effect the result. 

To Wash Plain and Spotted Net 

Net is washed in exactly the same way as common lace, and also 
stiffened in hot water starch; but as net is so thin, it does not take 
the stiffening readily, and must in consequence be put into fairly 
thick starch. So, for thin nets full boiling water starch is usually 
necessary. The net must then be dried and dampened, and ironed 
on the wrong side. It should be carefully ironed to the width, as 
it has a great tendency to draw to the length, and become stringy in 
appearance. Care must also be taken to keep the edges straight while 
it is being ironed. 

i;6 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Prevent Stains 

Always keep a small bag of white rags tied to the handle of the 
clothes-pin basket. When a fine article is to be hung on the line, 
or is to stay out all night, or if the clothes-pins are rather old and 
there is danger of staining, it is an easy matter to put a bit of white 
muslin under the pin. In this way many a tear as well as many a 
smudge is prevented. 

When the laundry is taken in, the bits of cloth are dropped into 
the baskets with the other articles, and when the clothes are folded, 
the rags are put into the fire, fresh one being used each time. 

Cold Laundry Starch 

To three pints of cold water add one-quarter pound of fine starch, 
two tablespoonfuls of powdered borax, a little liquid bluing and one 
tablespoonful of powdered gum-arabic. Dissolve the gum-arabic in 
a little w^arm water on the stove, and strain through cheese-cloth. 
Put in cans and when needed stir well. It will keep for months. 

Starch the articles in thin boiled starch first, dry before dipping 
in the cold starch, then roll in a towel and let them stand for ten or 
fifteen minutes before ironing. Use a clean ironing sheet and irons, 
and be sure the linen is spotlessly clean, or failure is inevitable. 

Iron on the wrong side first, then rub the right side with a dry 
cloth and iron until dry. 

To Wash a White Sweater 

Dissolve one level tablespoonful of borax and one-fourth of a cake 
of white soap in cold water to cover the sweater generously. Let soak 
an hour, then squeeze it out, but do not wring. Rinse very thoi- 
oughly through several cold waters, then squeeze as dry as possible 
(or put through the wringer), pull it mto shape and dry it. All wool 
flannels and blankets are safely washed thus. 

When drawing threads from linen rub white soap on the cloth and 
the work will be much more easily accomplished. When making 
eyelet embroidery, if a piece of white soap is held under the material 
and the stiletto is allowed to pass into it a much better eyelet can be 
made, as the soap gives a slight stiffness to the cloth. 

57 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Wash Chiffon Veils 

Make a suds of warm water and a good pure white soap, dip the 
veil in and squeeze the veil gently until all the soil has disappeared. 
Do not rub at all. Rinse in several waters and pin out on a flat sur- 
face, over which spread a clean sheet, and just before it is dry iron 
under a clean white cloth. If one does not object to a crepy appear- 
ance, it is not necessary to iron chiffon veils at all. 

To Wash a White Veil 

A white veil can be very successfully washed by immersing it in 
a line in a sheltered place to dry. Where a line is not practicable it 
should be carefully spread out, pinned to a cloth, and left in the open 
air till quite dry. 

A veil should be taken from the hat each time it is worn and 
folded or rolled, and at night should be laid away in tissue paper. 

To Wash Velveteen 

That velveteen may be v/ashed successfully will probably surprise 
many persons. Make a lather of some pure white soap and hot water, 
souse the velveteen up and down in it a number of times, then put 
it in two more hot lathers, and finally rinse thoroughly in clear, warm 
water. About a teaspoonful of salt to a quart of water should be 
used in the washing and rinsing. Do not wring it out, but hang 
it on the line and let it remain until it is half dry. Remove it from 
the line, and iron on the wrong side. The steam will raise the pile 
and make it look like new material. Iron bath towel. 

Do Not Starch Shirt Waists 

When washing white or colored shirt-waists do not starch them. 
After they are dry, dip them in hot water, wring out and roll up tight- 
ly. Let them lie ten or twcrtv m.-'niites; then iron on the wrong side. 
They will look like new. Table linen is nicer when laundered this 
way. 

Washing a White China Silk Waist 

Cut any white soap and mix with hot water until it becomes a 
jelly. Add sufficient warm water to make a strong suds, using a little 
borax if the water is hard. Do not substitute ammonia, for while 
this is a softening agent it is apt to turn white silks yellow. 

S8 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

l^ay the waist in a bath so prepared and squeeze through the hands, 
Hfting up and down in the suds. Rub any soiled places with ihe 
hands, but do not put soap on the silk. 

When clean wring and rinse in clear lukewarm water, then with 
cold. Lay in a dry towel and pat to absorb the moisture, then roll 
in a second dry towel. 

After a short period shake out and spread over a chair or rack in 
the room until the waist is almost dry, then press on the wTong side 
with a warm iron. 

It is said that a teaspoonful of methylated spirits added to the last 
rinsing water will give a gloss to china silk, making it look like new. 

Washing Hint 

Persons doing up their own collars will have experienced the an- 
noyance caused by peg-marks showing when they have been hung out 
to dry on the clothes-line after being washed. To do away with this, 
get a piece of thin string or tape, and thread it through the button- 
holes of each of the articles. Tie each end of the tape or string to 
the line, then they will all dry together. This saves a great deal of 
trouble unpegging, and keeps the collars and ties clean by saving 
handling them so much. To take them in, all you have to do is to 
untie the two ends of string or tape from the line, and carry all in 
together. 

Washing Bamboo 

In washing bamboo furniture, if it is scrubbed with a brush and 
warm water to wdiich a little salt has been added, it will not turn yel- 
low. 

Pressing Bows on Hats 

When bows and loops on a hat become limp and mussed, try 
pressing them from the inside with a heated curling-iron. This is es- 
pecially practical in traveling, as the iron takes up little room. 
Two Ways of Covering an Ironing-Board 

Using an old sheet double it as many times as it will cover the 
board. This will make four or five thicknesses, which are laid 
smoothly and tacked on the board all at once. When the top layer 
becomes soiled, it is cut off and there is the board with a clean 
cover. 

5Q 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

When covering the ironing-board with a blanket or padding, tack 
it along the edges only, so that both sides and the ends are smoothly 
covered. Then make an unbleached ironing-sheet the size of board, 
with large end left open to slip on like a pillow-case. If well fitted, 
both sides of the board can be used; it will look neat and there will 
be no pins or nails to tear hands or clothing. 

Useful Ironing Blanket 
Make an ironing blanket for embroidered articles and laces from 
a square of white outing flannel, and one of Turkish toweling, neatly 
bound together. The Turkish side is used for laces and insertions, 
as the loose threads in ironing are forced up through the lace, while 
the other side is used for embroideries. 

For Cleaning and Polishing Irons 

Saturate a cloth with water, wring partially dry, rubbing soap 
thoroughly on it. Place on several thicknesses of paper. Rub iron 
over it several times, pressing hard, to remove starch and roughness. 
The result is surprising, as it makes the surface of iron perfectly 
clean and smooth. 

This is the best and most economical way of cleaning irons doing 
away with the use of ironing wax or any cleanser for irons. 

A Handy Iron Cleaner 

A very practical little contrivance for use when ironing consists 
of a block of wood about five inches square. Five holes are bored in 
this block and filled with beeswax. These are covered with a piece 
of muslin. The other side of the block is covered with emery-cloth. 
The emery side of the block is used to rub the iron on if the starch 
sticks, and the ^vax side gives the iron smoothness. 

Fiat-Irons 

Old flat-irons become rusty, but a coat of aluminum enamel paint 
made them neat and clean. No more flakes of rust or smudge to drop 
off on white garments when ironing. They can be washed and the 
heat does not affect the enamel, as it is the kind used on radiators. 
One coat is sufficient, and a small can will do for coating a number 
of irons. 

60 



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1 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 
Look After the Smoothing Iron 

After the temper of a smoothing iron is spoiled it will never re- 
tain the heat so well again. Therefore never let irons stand on the 
stove when there is a hot fire unless they are in constant use, and do 
not allow them to become over-heated. 

When Heating Irons 
Turn an old pan or kettle over irons which are being heated and 
they will get hot much quicker. This also keeps the room cooler. 

How to Press Black Lace 

To press black lace, sponge with clear water on the right side until 
quite wet, lay right side down on a black pad, cover with a black 
cloth and press with a hot iron. When this is done it will be found 
that the lace is like new. 

A New Scheme for Ironing Ribbons 

If the ribbon has been washed in gasoline let it get thoroughly 
aired before pressing. If washed in soap and water, roll in a dry 
cloth before pressing. Lay several thicknesses of paper on the iron- 
ing board, then place one end of the ribbon on the paper, with a 
piece of brown or white paper on each side. Now press hard with 
a warm flatiron on the ribbon under the paper, and pull the ribbon 
all under the flatiron. Then reverse the ends. It requires two per- 
sons to successfully press ribbons in this way. The process is very 
simple, and the ribbon will look as good as when new, and will not 
lose its stiffness or look glossy, as those ironed the old way. 



6i 



MISCELLANEOUS 

To Purify the Air 

Oil of lavender sprinkled over a few live coals v^ill purify the 
air and cause an agreeable odor to permeate the rooms. 

Alterations 

February is the month in which to have all curtains, cover-scarfs, 
etc., laundered, mended and put in repair. Also such alterations made 
as are needed in the shov/ room of the retail milliner. Everything 
should be spick and span for the opening of the Spring models which 
should come two weeks before Easter Sunday. 

Flower-Basket Economy 

I used to empty my wire flower baskets each fall and pay a florist 
to refill them in the spring. Now hang them in the cellar in the dark 
before the frost touches them, and water them about once a week. 
When spring comes, putting them for a week or two in the air and 
sun makes them more beautiful than ever. 

Neat Lunch Boxes 
Such convenient, compact tin lunch boxes can now be secured, 
that one's food may be kept not only perfectly clean, but moist until 
the noon hour. And if every employee is instructed to either burn or 
place in the sanitary receptacles provided for such, all the wrappings 
in which food is brought to the store there will be no inducement to 
ants, flies, roaches or insects of any kind to inhabit the work rooms. 

Packing a Blouse 

Much difficulty is often found in packing blouses. If folded in the 
following way, they can lie, closely packed, for a long time without 
looking crushed when taken out to wear. Lay flat on the table, front 
down, and fasten. Then fold back the sleeves, and pin to the blouse 
at the top and at the cuff to keep in position. Now fold back the 
foot of the blouse at the waist-line, and pin to make secure, 

62 



THE MILLINER'S GUILJE 

To Restore Pearl Buttons 

When pearl buttons look blurred they can be restored to their 
former brightness by rubbing with a chamois skin dipped into olive 
oil ; then cover with nail powder and rub with a clean piece of 
chamois. 

Waterproof Suit-Cases 

Straw matting suit cases and shopping bags can be very much im- 
proved in looks and usefulness by a coat of cheap wagon varnish, 
which makes them waterproof. A good wetting will generally spoil 
them, but the varnish causes them to shed water like a duck. This 
should be done once a year. 

To Steam Chiffon 

Chiffons and mousseline de soie should be dipped in warm water, 
dried and then steamed in order to convert them into a material 
similar in appearance to crepe de chine. Silk nets and all kindred 
materials should be similarly treated. Velvets, in steaming, should 
be brushed carefully, in the same direction always, in order to raise 
the pile and eradicate the creases. Buckram frames which have be- 
come limp and crushed will resume their former pristine stiffness and 
rigidity by being properly steamed. Metallic bands, beaded trimmings 
and other hard substances, likewise malines, are about the only articles 
of millinery merchandise not susceptible to a treatment of this kind. 

Knowing what you have in stock, you can readily understand that 
W'ith these few exceptions there are very few articles which cannot be 
beautified by a judicious application of the steaming process. Beaver 
cloths, beaver hats, and felt shapes take on new life and assume a 
freshness wonderful to behold. 

Pasting Feathers 

Those of us who have hats trimmed with the bird wings consist- 
ing of innumerable little feathers something like fishes' scales 
know how these drop off and what an unpleasantly bald appear- 
ance they give to our best hat trimmings. One woman has solved 
the problem by pasting them on as they come off. They were 
black in her case, and, so that the paste she used should not show 

63 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

she pasted them on the back with library paste on which she 
dropped black ink and let it soak in. This same plan can be fol- 
lowed with any color ink to match the feather, even the irridescent 
feathers (as these often are) being usually easy to match. 

Another plan is to use court-plaster, although this is possible 
only with black and white feathers. The plaster must be cut in 
little strips and fastened in back to the cloth foundation, for feath- 
ers of this sort are always what is called ''made," that is, stitched 
on to a backing of fabric in wing form. 

To Hide a Fence 

Plant morning glories along the fence and wind strings up 
and down the fence for them to cling to. Long wire nails driven 
into the fence will support twin or cord. Plant wild sage and 
salvia in front of the morning glories in two hedgerows. Both 
plants are scarlet, though of different shade. The sage is green 
during the summer, turns a pale cerise and finally a most beauti- 
ful red. This combination makes a very handsome fence covering. 

Extinguishing Gasoline Flames 

To extinguish gasoline flames, use milk instead of water. Milk 
forms an emulsion with the oil, whereas water only spreads it. 

To Keep Cut Flowers 

Cut flowers may be kept for a long time by burning their stems 
with a piece of wood or a candle flame. Seal the end with any 
vegetable gum. Place in water as usual. Chrysanthemums may be 
kept in good condition for a long time if treated in this manner. 

Winter Crocuses 

Crocuses may be had in winter if treated like the Japa- 
nese liUes. Put the bulbs in a shallow earthen dish of water 
half filled with pebbles. Keep them in a dark place for a little 
while, and then in the light, but do not set them in the sunlight 
until the flower-buds form, which will be in two or three weeks. 
Kid Glove Facings 

Economical women who have on hand a supply of evening 
gloves of which the finger portions are worn will be interested 

64 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

in the Parisian fancy that just now prevails for giving a brim of 
kid facing to a fur-crowned hat. Wide-brimmed hats, too, are 
treated to a band of kid; but its principal use is upon hat forms 
with the other sort of crowns. 

To Keep Evening Gloves Clean 
To keep evening gloves clean in a street car or train draw a 
pair of loose white silk or lisle gloves over the kid. The outer 
gloves may be easily drawn off and slipped into muff or pocket. 

How to Care for Gloves 

There are right and wrong ways of putting on gloves. The 
right way does not injure them; the wrong way weakens and tears 
the skin or fabric in a very short time. Black kid gloves should 
be kept in paraffin or oiled paper. A black glove is a white skin 
painted. This paint will harden and dry if not properly cared for. 
All gloves should be kept away from salt or damp air as much 
as possible. They should be kept dry, but away from heat. Time 
and great care should be taken in putting them on the first time, 
so that the seams may not be stretched. 

Long Gloves, Cut Off 

Cut off the hand part of long gloves. The arm part is perfectly 
good. Take it to a glove factory, and have a short pair of gloves, 
that match in color, sewed on the arm part, or you can do it your- 
self, using a feather or embroidery stitch. 

To Prevent Crushing a Hat 

A woman may prevent a hat from being crushed by placing it 
upon a tumbler on the closet shelf or in the hat box. By fol- 
lowing this plan the trimming will also be kept fresh under the 
brim. 

To Bind a Felt or Straw Hat 

Measure the brim of hat and cut bias pieces of velvet two and 
a half inches wide; join up to measure three inches less than hat 
brim. Turn in each edge a quarter of an inch, and herringbone 
lightly, taking care that the stitches do not show on right side. 
Snap the velvet over the brim, and it will keep in place without 

6s 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

sewing on. Of course, this applies only to very firm felt or straw 
hats. 

Hat Boxes 

Nowadays attractive beflowered hat boxes may be readily pro- 
cured, and three, or if necessary four — all of the same size and 
design — are bought for the stand. A single box fits into each divi- 
sion. The hat boxes must all be of the size of the largest hat, but 
if there are small hats two may be put into one box by fastening 
cushions to the sides of the box and pinning the hats to these. 

If space is too limited to permit of this hat stand with the 
other necessary furniture, a very acceptable hat box may be made 
in combination with the writing table. A writing desk will not 
do for this purpose, but a writing table is quite as useful and 
comfortable. 

For this purpose a rectangular table is best. It should have 
no drawer and it is necessary that it be a four-legged table. Of 
course a handsome mahogany table or one of other fine wood is 
not usually used for this purpose, but a table is selected which is 
to be enamelled or stained to match the room or which is already 
finished in a conventional way. It should have a shelf quite far 
down from the top, but if there is none one may be put in by a 
carpenter. The ridges are then closed in, the front opening on 
hinges. In this box or closet are kept the hats. The outside is 
enamelled to match the table and the inside is papered or lined 
with cheesecloth or with flowered crepe paper. A cushion is 
tacked to each side of the box, and, if there be room, to the bot- 
tom also, and to these the hats are pinned. 

In order that the table may be comfortable for writing the 
top should come out some distance beyond the legs and the hat 
box. It is necessary to have a fairly good sized table for this, 
but as it is to serve two purposes, the room may usually be spared. 
The top of the table is fitted as a desk and a wall cabinet hanging 
directly over it, quite low down, may be used for the cubbyholes 
so necessary for a complete desk equipment, or a set of small rec- 
tangular boxes covered with flowered paper may be set on the back 
of the desk. 

66 



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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 
Hat Building Tips 

From building the large bows and choux and swathing the 
folds of piece silk and satin to sewing in feathers and flowers, hat 
trimming, in fact, has entered a new phase, and many of the old 
theories on wiring, sewing and trimming have had to undergo 
some modification. The choice of a thread for sewing on the 
trimming is most important, a black hat or one in a dark shade, 
no matter ^vhether it is made of silk, velvet or felt, requiring cob- 
bler's shoe thread in preference to machine thread, however low 
a number may be available. 

A good bow is always the test of a beginner's progress, noth- 
ing being, as a matter of fact, harder than to evolve a large and 
perfectly balanced bow whose loops spring evenly from the cen- 
ter. A professional milliner always in beginning to make a bow 
gives the thread three or four turns round the first loop without 
knotting the thread. When all the loops have been made she cuts 
it ofi about ten inches from the last turn and after threading the 
needle uses the loose end with which to sew the bow to the hat. 
If the ribbon has to be wired the wire should be sewed the full 
length of the loop, no considerations of time suggesting such 
an evasion of trouble as that of attaching the wire simply at the 
base, which causes it to w^ork out of place with wear. 

To bind the border of a hat with wire necessitates the use of 
No. 24 cotton, the stitches being carried slantwise over it, while 
care must be taken to prevent the stitches from being seen on the 
wrong side. 

Hatpin Holder 

To the making of novelties in hatpin holders there surely is no 
end, for the latest is a large rose made from ribbon in a color 
chosen to match other toilet accessories. The center is hollow 
and the rose is set on the top of a small glass vase about six 
inches high. The stem of the glass is concealed by green baby 
ribbon tied into knot, loops, ends, &c., so the effect is of a beauti- 
ful rose standing upright on the table. 

The hatpins are, of course, passed through the hollow centre 
of the flower, the points going to the bottom of the vase. 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

To Hold Hat When Trimming 

When sewing trimming on a hat try fastening the hat firmly 
to your skirts on your knee with a hatpin; then your left hand 
will be free to hold the ribbon, flowers, etc., in place while you sew 
with your right hand. 

Utility Hat Box 

Take a utility hat box and tack to the sides, bottom and lid 
six ordinary kitchen strainers (which can be purchased for five 
cents each); pin hats to the strainers. This keeps the hats in ex- 
cellent condition and does away with the accumulation of the 
ordinary hat boxes. 

Waterproof Cover Will Protect Feathers from Rain 

Fabulous sums have been saved the husbands of this country 
by the means of a Pennsylvanian. This man has devised a cover 
for ladies' hats that will protect the costly plumes and rare birds 
from rain and save them from destruction. The cover is as simple 
as it well could bee. It is nothing more than a circular piece of 
waterproof material, not elastic. The margin of the cover is 
hemmed to form a pocket for a shirring string, and along this 
margin are eyelets, also for the string to pass in and out. The 
whole affair is very light and can be folded up in a small com- 
pass and carried in a pocket or bag without being noticed. 
If a sudden storm springs up the protector can be spread over the 
top of the hat and drawn together underneath the brim with the 
drawing strings, thus encasing the hat in a manner that protects 
it completely. Women need no longer fear to wear their giddiest 
millinery because there is a cloud in the sky. 
To Renew a Handbag 

If you have a black leather handbag that begins to look shabby 
don't throw it away, but give it a coat of liquid shoe dressing, and 
you will find it will look like new, and its usefulness will be nearly 
doubled. 

Flower-Holder 

Flowers look so artistic arranged in a basket that I conceived 
the idea of weaving a rattan basket closely over a glass fish-globe, 

68 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

The result is a beautiful basket, glass lined, the shape of a rose 
bowl, that has a summery look on dining-table or in. living-room. 

Knives 

Knives not in daily use should be well polished and buried in 
a box of sawdust until required for use. 
Laying Lace Away 

When putting delicate lace away it is always better to wrap it 
in blue paper. It is said that chloride of lime is used in bleaching 
the white paper, and that it will injure any article which is kept in 
it for any length of time. 

Use for Old Leather 

One should always save the tops of old shoes, or the gauntlets 
of heavy riding gloves or other pieces of leather. They are excel- 
lent as an interlining for iron holders. 

Do not make the holder too large as it is clumsy to handle. 
Those which are oval in shape are preferable. Cut the covering 
and the interlining the same size and shape, stitch all the thick- 
nesses on the machine, close to the edge of the material, then 
bind with a tape or piece of seam binding. 
To Roughen Leghorn 

It is almost impossible really to injure a good Leghorn hat, 
and by the roughest sort of a process the too well-finished speci- 
men may be brought into the thing you most desire it to be. For 
the present season it should be rough, unfinished, uneven and a 
delightful natural yellow. This is possible if it be scrubbed with 
strong soap, ammonia and a scrubbing brush until all the dressing 
has disappeared. It should be pressed on its wrong side with a hot 
iron, but with a piece of new unbleached muslin between iron and 
hat. After the hat has been properly pressed it should be colored 
a deep yellow with a mixture of oil paint and gasoline. This will 
also tend to roughen it to that delightful texture now so fashion- 
able. 

Rubber Mats for House Plants 

Old hot-water bags, split open and cut into circular pieces, are 
excellent mats for house plants. 

69 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

The Moth Pest 

Probably no other pest works such havoc in millinery goods as 
the moth, unless it be the equally aggravating small fuzzy carpet 
beetle, or Buffalo bug. Though an exceedingly dangerous remedy 
in the hands of a careless person there is nothing more effectual 
than gasoline to use for these ravages. 

Choose a clear bright day when doors and windows can be 
opened so the odor will quickly evaporate and be certain no open 
light or fire is burning about the place. Use an old teapot or long 
spouted oil can, pouring a small stream of the gasoline along 
baseboards, doors and window casings and all crevices where such 
small pests find lodgment. 

A thorough application of gasoline will kill both the creature 
and its eggs, and do no harm to hangings, carpets or furnishings. 

Should an old sofa or upholstered chair be suspected of har- 
boring these pests, place it in an unoccupied room, tightly close 
every window and other opening and burn three or four sulphur 
candles in the room, lighting them all at once. Keep the room as 
nearly air tight as possible for twenty-four hours. 

Frequently a large box can be utilized for this fumigating pro- 
cessi and be eminently satisfactory. Paste strips of thick paper over 
each crack and set the sulphur candles in a tin basin or iron pot 
on the seat of the chair so there will be no danger of a fire. Place 
the lid on and cover with old carpet or tarpaulin to prevent the 
fumes from escaping. 

The woodwork of the chair, if rubbed with a soft old cloth and 
equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine will look as good as new 
after the process. 

Piece goods which are suspected of harboring moth eggs may 
be ironed with a hot iron to kill the animal life. 

Goods should be frequently looked over and every precaution 
taken to prevent these pests from taking up their lodging in store 
or home, for once the festive moth or fuzzy carpet bug estab- 
lishes his residence it is difficult to dispossess him. 

Noisy Nuisances 

Ill-fitting doors and windows represent a happy hunting ground 

70 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

for the disturbing winds. In fact, so annoying does the constant 
rattling of these openings become that many a bad state of 
"nerves" has resulted therefrom without the sufferer realizing the 
cause. 

The noise can be stopped by a small wedge of wood driven in 
at the side of an open window. A door can be prevented from 
rattling if a pad or strip of thick felt be nailed on the edge of the 
sill. 

The annoyance of creaking drawers can be eliminated by rub- 
bing common soap upon the top, sides and bottom of each. Very 
heavy drawers should have trunk rollers placed on them, which 
will roll on the bars on w^hich the drawers now slide. 

Creaking hinges on anything should be well oiled, while the 
grating, irritating noise of a sewing machine can be overcome in 
a similar manner. 

The little noises wear away the patience that is required for 
other things. It is foolish to dissipate energy through the channels of 
irritated nerves when a little time will obviate the nuisances. 

Mailing Papers 

The next time you send newspapers or magazines by mail, if 
they have to be rolled, try the following plan: Lay a heavy thread 
lengthwise of the paper, with a short end hanging out, just before 
you paste the wrapper, and see if the recipient will not thank you 
when she finds how easily the paper is opened. Pulling the ex- 
posed end of the thread tears the entire length of wrapper. 
Saving Silk Petticoats 

A girl who knows says that she keeps her taffeta-silk petticoats 
from splitting by hanging them upside down. Put two ribbon 
loops on the wrong side at the top of the wide ruffle and hang 
the petticoat up by them. When it is possible, buy or make two 
silk petticoats at a time. By wearing them alternately, they will 
last far more than twice as long as one constantly worn. 
To Take the Shine from Voile 

The best way to get rid of the shine on a black voile skirt, perfectly 
good otherwise, is to sponge with warm water, into which a little 
ammonia has been dropped. 

71 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 
An Embroidery Hint 

When making the round holes for eyelet embroidery put a piece 
of soap under the fabric, and allow the stiletto to pierce through it. 
When the stiletto is withdrawn it will, being soapy, impart a slight 
stiffness to the material, which facilitates the making of very even, 
perfect embroidery. 

Strew natural flowers on the cloth to be embroidered, remove 
them one at a time, drawing their outlines, to be filled with silks, 
in natural colors. 

Statements 

It is excellent business to send out statements once a month regu- 
larly to all customers who are indebted to you. It can be clearly under- 
stood that these are not urgent duns if that is necessary, but the 
routine of sending out bills the first of each month should not be 
neglected. 

Suede Restorative 

When the nap on suede shoes or gloves gets packed down or soiled, 
rub the article lightly with sandpaper. This will restore its good 
appearance. 

The Value of Steam in the Workroom 

The discovery of the power of steam was not necessary for the 
use or benefit of the milliners. The force and strength of the vapor 
is but little required. It is only necessary to have a very small amount 
of dry steam to work wonders in the atelier of the millinery estab- 
lishment. Strange as it may seem, the most essential thing in any es- 
tablishment of any pretension is in almost all cases entirely overlooked. 
There is nothing quite so absolutely necessary at all hours of the day 
as that there should be a supply of steam accessible to the help in the 
work room, and there are very few who apparently realize this and 
have at all times, a sufficient supply for ordinary purposes. 

The most primitive methods are employed by the milliners in pro- 
ducing steam and then only in very small and limited quantities. It 
is the prominent feature of renovation and renewal of everything 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

which is used by artistic milliners for freshening up that which is old. 
It is almost beyond comprehension why so few are prepared to have 
upon short notice an adequate supply of that which is undoubtedly the 
most essential necessity known in the millinery world. Thin, dry steam 
is the only thing in the world that will put life and vigor into ostrich 
feathers. It is quite probable that the majority do not know that all 
feathers, before being placed upon the market, are starched just the 
same as a shirt or shirt waist. This starch dressing is affected by 
dampness in the feathers identically the same as any piece of wearing 
apparel. Many articles may be washed, cleaned and starched again, 
but it is not the case with the ostrich feathers. The process of doing 
this is entirely too long and tedious. Take the feather or plume be- 
tween the thumb and forefinger. Shake it gently over a steaming cloth 
and instantly note the improved condition of the ostrich fibre. It 
imparts life, freshness and vigor. Nc feathers, under any circum- 
stances, should ever be curled until they have been first thoroughly 
steamed. This has a tendency to straighten and loosen the flues and 
fibres and make them more plial)le and less liable to be broken off. 
Steam Silks and Ribbons 

All silks, silk ribbons and materials of a similar kind and nature 
should be steamed instead of ironed. The weight and pressure of 
the hot-glazed surface moving back and forth, upon the silk finished 
material or article has a tendency to produce a gloss. This is so 
evident that any one can easily discern that the ribbon has been re- 
freshened and renewed. The use of steam absolutely obviates this 
and leaves no telltale impression upon its surface by which any one 
could discern that the life of the ribbon has been renewed by artificial 
means. It is quite true that if the steam is too wet that the ribbon 
will wrinkle and spot. Great care must be taken to prevent an occur- 
rence of this kind. 

For Straw and Braids 

Straw hats and straw braids that have become brittle and show a 
disposition to be unruly can be better manipulated after a thorough 
treatment of good steaming. 

To Hold Veil in Place 

A number of clever expedients have been devised to hold a veil 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

snugly under the chin without giving it an ugly line. Here is one 
method which saves the veil also and involves hardly any trouble. Get 
the narrowest kind of round elastic, the same color as the veil (paint 
the white elastic with water colors for a colored veil) and whip it 
over the extreme edge of the veil, taking up only a single thread all 
around. Include any cut edges, but afterward pare them off neatly with 
a pair of small scissors. Fasten in back with a tight knot. 

The veil is slightly gathered on the elastic, fits nicely under the 
chin and over hat, and stretches when it is raised. It seems the best 
solution of a vexing problem of dress. 

Mourning Veils 

Beautiful veils for mourning may be made by using black chiffon 
and bordering same with No. 7, 9 or 16 black taffeta ribbon. Each 
corner must be turned in a diagonal or bias outline. Many of the 
wide veils with black borders have two or three narrow strips of rib- 
bon sewed up on the body of the veil in such a manner that the 
chiffon shows between each strip of ribbon and are frequently used 
for second mourning. 

Chiffon Veils 

Chiffon veils and scarfs frequently have edges of narrow Chan- 
tilly lace. Wide ties for little girls' poke bonnets are often seen made 
of this all silk fabric. They should be renewed and restored to their 
former freshness by the use of steam. Great care should be taken in 
ironing chiffons as the hot, smooth surface of the sadiron is apt to 
produce an undesirable gloss. Rain spots and other water marks can 
only be eradicated by washing the material. These damp spots are 
due to the fact that the water destroys the dressing and it then be- 
comes necessary to remove all of it. The reason that hot water must 
be used is that it causes the silk to full up. 

To Weight Tall Vases 
To weight tall vases fill them to a depth of several inches with 
white sand. This is often used in rose jars, and not only weights the 
jar, but helps support heavy-stemmed flowers. It keeps the water pure 
and needs only occasionally to be placed in a pan and baked to render 
it clean and sweet. 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Prevent Candles from Dripping 

Candlelight is one of the prettiest decorations we have, but thc> 
often make such a mess one hesitates to use them. You may avoid 
all this. If you freeze the candles before using, they will never run, 
and burn twice as long. 

To Prevent Window Glass from Frosting 
Apply a very thin coat of glj^cerine on both sides of the glass. 
This will prevent the formation of moisture. 

Silver Powder 
Nitrate of silver and common salt each 30 grains. Cream of 
tartar 3% drams; pulverize finely, mix thoroughly, and bottle for 
use. Unequalled for polishing copper and plated goods. 

To Clean Brittania Ware 

Brittania ware should be washed with a woolen cloth and sweet 
oil, then washed in water and suds and rubbed with soft leather 
and whiting. 

Electric Powder 

Used for polishing gold and silver plated ware, German silver, 
brass, copper, glass, tin, steel, or any material where a brilliant 
luster is required. To 4 pounds of the best quality of whiting 
add % pound cream of tartar and 3 ounces of calcined magnesia. 
Mix thoroughly together. Use the polish dry with a piece of 
chamois skin or Canton flannel previously moistened with alcohol, 
and finish with dry polish. A few moments' rubbing will develop 
a surprising lustre, different from the polish produced by any 
other substance. 



75 



HELPS FOR THE STORE AND HOME 

CLEANING, "POLISHING, RENOVATING 
and REPAIRING 

Brightening Brass 
To clean lacquered brass wash it gently in lukewarm water, rub 
with cloth dipped in equal parts of vinegar and lemon juice and then 
polish with dry leather. 

To Clean Carpet Sweeper Brush 
The brush can be easily removed, and, after combing, a thorough 
washing in good soap-suds, with a subsequent rinsing and standing 
on end to dry, will make the brush as good as new. Try it, and the 
color of the soap-suds will convince you that your rugs were being 
swept with a dirty article. 

Candle Points 

Candles hardened by being kept in the refrigerator, or a cool place, 
will burn longer than others. Keep the wick ''snuffed," as 
did our grandmothers; when you blow a candle out blow up, instead 
of over the light, and the candle will not gutter, but burn evenly next 
time. Church or wake candles cost more, but are made of harder 
material and last longer. 

For a candle economy, shape a cork to fit the candlestick, then 
drive through the center a sharp nail, bringing the pointed end out on 
top. Place the end of the candle on the point of the nail, and you will 
be able to burn all candle ends down "to the very last. 

Loose Castors. 

If annoyed by castors dropping out of any article of furniture, try 
soaking large corks in water to make them pliable, then pounding 
them into the socket. Make a small hole in center of cork and drive 
the castor in it. If the cork is large enough to fill the socket you will 
have no further trouble. 

Freshening Leather Chairs 

Leather chairs will keep in good condition much longer if they are 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

occasionally wiped off with a cloth dipped in a very little sweet oil. 

Remove every particle of dust before using oil and see that it is 
rubbed in until dry, or it acts as a dirt collector. 

Embossed leather may be cleaned with turpentine and polished 
with soft cheesecloth. 

Regilding Gold Chairs 

It will not be necessary to remove the old gilt before applying the 
new. Wipe it off with a rag dipped in warm soap suds, then rub 
dry with a clean rag to leave the surface free from soil or grit when 
the new coat is put on. 

There are a number of gold paints that come for this purpose, 
some very good, others so poor that the article renovated may be 
bright gold when finished, and then turn black within a few days. 

Cleanliness Essential 

Perfect cleanliness will prevent roaches and mice from congregat- 
ing. If every particle of food is cleared away at the close of the 
day's work vermin will not be attracted to the place. Fastidious cus- 
tomers will not be offended by observing traces of these repulsive 
visitors, to say nothing of the comfort of all concerned in the estab- 
lishment, whether in work or salesroom. 

Care of Clocks 

Every clock needs regular care and superintendence if it is to keep 
time accurately. Some one should be made responsible and put in 
charge of the clock to wind and regulate it. 

A clock should be wound, as far as possible, at one stated time, 
and be regulated at fixed periods; its face and hands should occa- 
sionally be delicately dusted. A periodical oiling may also be neces- 
sary, and for this purpose employ the purest oil, purified by a quart 
of limewater to a gallon of oil. Shake this, and allow it to stand 
for a few days and then carefully pour off the pure oil without dis- 
turbing the sediment. The oil should be applied to the works with a 
fine camers-hair brush. 

When a clock does not run continuously, or stops frequently, the 
cause is often due to a lack of oil. This may be remedied by saturat- 
ing a piece of absorbent cotton with kerosene oil and placing it in- 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

side the clock, below the pendulum. When the cotton is removed a 
month or so later it is found to be very dirty. This shows that the 
fumes of the kerosene oil have not only oiled the clock, but have also 
cleaned it. 

A Portable Closet 

If one has not much closet room, or wishes a place to keep clothes 
for a time out of the dust, an excellent portable closet can be made 
in the following manner: Take a two-folder clothes rack and put in 
a corner of the room. Fasten a brass rod across the top in front, 
from one of the uprights to the other; this is to put the curtain on. 
Cut out a piece of stiff pasteboard in triangular shape to fit the top 
and cover with white oil-cloth, binding it around the edges. This can 
be laid upon the top to keep the dust out and is ready to be moved at 
any time. Put screw-hooks along the rods in the inside to hang the 
cloth upon. Enamel all in white. Silkoline or any material can be 
used for the curtain, and can be suspended by rings to the rod, or a 
deep casing can be run in the curtain and the rod run through this. 
This is an excellent way to protect clothes when away on a vacation 
if there is no closet available. 

Hanging Curtains 

To make thin sash or casement curtains hang evenly, make the 
casing for the curtain rod, insert the rod and hang the material from 
the fixtures. Now draw down the window shade as far as you wish 
the curtain to come when finished. With bottom of shade as guide 
the hem may be pinned or basted and the curtain will hang straight. 
This will be found much better than measuring the stuff and hem- 
ming before hanging. 

When hanging curtains that are longer than the usual sill length, 
measure half the width of the window, lay your curtains out on the 
Hoor, put a pleat the full length of the curtain, near the back edge. 
Now put your curtain up over the pole and pin it to get the right 
length; take it down again and baste so that the pole will slip through 
easily. Turn the superfluous length over the back, fold into a three- 
inch hem and stitch in place. Thus you avoid either cutting off the 
curtain or having the extra length hanging unevenly next to the 
window-shade. 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

Hygienic Dust Catcher 

When cleaning upholstered furniture it is often either impossible 
or inconvenient to move it out-of-doors. When this is the case, 
place a damp cloth over the upholstery and use the clothes-beater over 
the cloth, changing it several times during the process. The dust 
will adhere to the cloth and not fill the room. 

A Home-Made Dustless Duster 

Most housekeepers use dry cloths or rags for dusting, and some of 
the dust is wiped in streaks over the furniture, and brushed into the 
air. Why not prepare your dust cloths at a trifling cost so that the 
dust will stick to them, and not get into the air again? Take one part 
raw linseed oil and mix with four parts gasoline, and bottle, taking 
the same precautions as with gasoline alone to guard against fires. 
Take the cloth or rag used for dusting, merely moisten it by pouring 
the mixture on it while wadded together, then open it out and swing 
it a few moments in the open air until the gasoline has evaporated 
out of it, when a slight film of oil will still remain in the cloth, suffi- 
cient to hold the dust firmly on its surface and wipe cleanly and quick- 
ly a varnished surface. If properly prepared no undesirable oil will 
remain on the furniture. 

Washing Enamel Paint 

The beauty of the white paint and enamel that are so deservedly 
popular is dependent upon spotlessness. There are various things 
that will remove spots therefrom, but the following method will leave 
the paint almost better than when new. It works like a charm upon 
painted or enameled metal beds, too, and doubtless upon numerous 
other things : 

Have ready two white cheese-cloth cloths. Put them into hot water 
and then wring out until they are no longer wet, but merely well 
dampened. Upon one of them rub a good white soap. The result 
will be a heavy cream, but not a lather. Rub this upon the soiled 
places until the latter disappears, which will be immediately unless 
the case be a very bad one; then wipe off with the other cloth. The 
secret of success lies in the cream that is not a lather, in the mildness 
of the soap used, and in the dampness instead of the wetness of the 
white cloths. 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

Care of Floors and Woodwork 
Waxed floors should rarely be washed except before rewaxing. 

A hardwood floor can be kept from scratches if the legs of the 
chairs and tables have a bit of felt pasted on the bottom. For this 
old felt hats can be utilized. 

Freshening Frames 

Frames of upholstered furniture will need freshening as much as 
the covering, so if the wood is dirty it should first be washed with 
warm soap and water. This process will not harm any kind of wood. 

After cleansing the wood should be wiped thoroughly dry with 
clean rags and then polished. For this process there are many pre- 
pared polishes, but a mixture of crude oil and turpentine in equal 
quantities is successful. This finisher is applied to the wood with a 
piece of flannel and afterward polished with a soft rag. There may 
be polishes that are more brilliant for the time, but the home-made one 
lasts. It is a cheap preparation also for keeping stained floors in 
condition. Try brightening the wood by rubbing pulverized pumice 
stone lightly over the surface. Apply this with a soft flannel cloth 
which before was moistened with a few drops of crude linseed oil. 
Don't make the mistake of getting refined linseed oil or the result 
will not be satisfactory. When all scratches and spots have disap- 
peared with the rubbing of the pumice wipe off the surface with a 
cheesecloth rag and then work in the raw linseed oil with a flannel 
cloth until the wood takes a polish. The longer it is rubbed the 
brighter the surface will become. This treatment may be given every 
three or four weeks if desired. 

To Clean Furniture 
Upholstered furniture should be taken to the yard and lightly 
beaten. Sweep off all dust and with a small paint brush remove dirt 
from all crevices. If moths get into upholstery remove the cover. 
Beat the hair or jute filling free from dust, put it into a muslin bag 
and bake in the oven to kill moths. This process also lightens the 
material. A soiled silk cover may be cleaned without removing it by 
scrubbing with gasoline. 

How to Clean Upholstered Furniture 

After removing the slip covers the furniture should be taken into 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

the open air, and if of velvet, plush or corduroy, be Hghtly beaten 
with a rattan carpet beater. Tufted furniture requires care in cleans- 
ing, whether flat buttons or silk tufts are used. 

For this cleaning the best implement for removing dust from un- 
der the tufts is a small round paint brush, sufficiently stiff to force 
itself into crevices. It must not be too harsh, or it will injure the 
fabric. 

An English clothes brush is better than a whisk broom for brush- 
ing velvet and silk, because it is made with hair bristles. 

An old silk handkerchief is the best kind of cloth to use on silk 
pieces, for it can be rubbed smoothly over the surface and the 
fingers, wrapped with a bit of the handkerchief, worked into all the 
corners and crevices. 

Spots and soil are apt to come to light after furniture has been 
covered for the summer. These defects generally respond to home 
treatment. For example, if grease caused the stain the warm iron and 
paper method may be applied, afterward rubbing with chloroform or 
ether. These fluids will not harm the most delicate colors or fabrics. 

Velvet, however, must not be subjected to the warm iron, because 
the pile would be crushed if so pressed. Ether generously applied will 
probably remove the stains, but, should it fail, try any of a number 
of good preparations for such purposes that are for sale upon the 
market. 

Blood stains will respond if covered with a paste made from raw 
cornstarch and water and exposed to the sun for a day. Glycerine 
and alcohol in equal quantities are valuable in the removal of fruit 
stains. After applying this mixture clean warm water should be used 
as a rinse. 

In using these remedies it should be borne in mind that rubbing 
roughens the material, so a gentle dabbing of the solvent, with the 
use of a clean cloth, answers the purpose. It is a mistake to spread 
stains by the careless use of home remedies. 

If in the process of removing stains the color becomes affected it 
can generally be restored by touching lightly with chloroform. 

Tapestry coverings may be thoroughly brushed with a fairly stiff 
whisk broom, and if faded or shabby may be freshened by wiping 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

quickly with a clean cloth wrung out of a solution of ammonia, one 
to twenty parts of hot water. 

Home-Made Furniture Polish 

To cleanse one's furniture with special attention to renewing its 
freshness, is sometimes to save money otherwise spent at a cabinet 
maker's. And for this work a most excellent poHsh for any hard 
wood is one composed of one-third each of wood alcohol, vinegar and 
olive oil. An eighth of the quantity of linseed oil added will increase 
its polishing capacities, but this necessitates greater elbow grease to 
prevent stickiness of the wood surface. 

Powdered pumice and olive oil make a splendid cleanser for ma- 
hogany. Especially with an old piece, the beauty and depth of color 
may be entirely dimmed by dust and dirt that has collected through 
the months, if not the years. 

The best way of treating it then is to have a soft bit of cloth — 
cheese cloth is good; wet it with oil and then dip into finely powdered 
pumice. With the pad thus made the wood is rubbed vigorously, re- 
newing the oil or powder as needed, according to the condition of 
the swab. It will rapidly become dirty and must be folded under 
from time to time that the old dirt shall not be rubbed in again. 

To Cut Glass 

Frequently a small piece of glass is needed for some purpose. 
It may be cut out by filling a deep pan or bowl with water; then put 
the hands, glass and scissors completely under the water, and hold 
them there while the cutting is done. Ordinary window glass can be 
cut in any shape desired in this way. 

Many Materials Can Be Utilized 

Few women, perhaps, know that old, soiled or faded chenille cur- 
tains and draperies can be rewoven into handsome reversible rugs, 
but this can be done where the carpets are woven. It requires 
five pounds to make one square yard, which, roughly estimated, is 
usually the weight of one curtain. 

Rugs from old carpets can be woven plain or with borders and 
with fringed ends, as the customer wishes. 

Band borders are placed a few inches above the edge on the ends 

82 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

of rugs. End borders are woven on the extreme edge, and then there 
is a third border effect. This goes around the four sides. There is 
no extra charge for the border decorating the ends of the rugs, but 
if it goes all around them, 25 cents per square yard is added. 

When a fancy rug is desired, the same kind of carpet in two differ- 
ent colors must be sent — to make the border or center, as the case 
may be. If fringe is added fifteen cents extra per running yard will 
be charged. These rugs may be woven in any size — quite an advantage 
over ready-made ones, which come in standard sizes only. 

To calculate how many square yards of rug can be produced from 
an old carpet one must figure as follows: 

Six running yards or eight pounds of Brussels carpet will make one 
square yard of rug. Allowances must be made for worn out and 
threadbare parts. 

When such exist one to three yards more must be added to the 
amount as stated above in order to get a rug of the desired size. 

Pieces as small as one inch wide and twelve inches long can be 
used. Should the length of the old carpet fall short of the amount 
necessary for the reweaving into a rug of desired size, then the quan- 
tity can be made up by the weaver, who charges five cents a pound for 
carpet cuttings, which are usually in stock. 

Another good idea is to send pieces of any kind of carpet with the 
large quantity of the sort desired, because often it may be woven 
or possibly exchanged for a weave that would combine to advantage. 

Carpets may be sent just as they come from the floor, without 
beating or other cleaning, as this is done at the factory. 

Cleaning Marble Baseboards 

To entirely remove stains and discoloration from marble base- 
boards of show cases, tables or floors or mantelpieces, dissolve pow- 
dered whiting in very strong soda water. Apply with flannel and leave 
on to dry for twenty-four hours, when it will be found that all stains 
have disappeared. 

The Care of Matting 

The broom, even the covered one, is not good for matting, and 
neither is the frequent use of the wet cloth. The carpet-sweeper, used 
across the grain, is better; and the vacuum-cleaner is, of course, best 

83 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

of all. But in between the latter two comes the hearth-brush, which 
is a life-preserver to the matting and a labor-saver to the house- 
worker. To go over a matting-covered room with a dustpan and one 
of these brushes is a matter of only a few minutes. These soft hair- 
brushes, thus used, raise little dust; they keep the matting and the 
corners in proper condition, and they do not roughen and injure the 
matting's surface. Another merit is that they may be washed without 
injury if they are quickly dried. 

To Lay a Straw Matting Smoothly 

■ This is a hard thing to do as the cheaper grades are likely to get 
wrinkled and to wear in ridges. When you put the matting down, get 
it as smooth as possible; then, with a pail of hot water, to which a 
cupful of common salt has been added, mop and wash the matting 
as if it were dirty. Use the salt water freely, renewing, often enough 
to keep it hot. Wash with the grain of the matting, and leave it 
quite damp. In drying, the matting will shrink into place. The salt 
toughens the straw and prevents it from breaking. 

Hanging Mirrors 
Milliners possessing mirrors, either oval or oblong, should hang 
them so as to show the hat and not the whole figure. That is, they 
should be placed horizontally on the wall. A customer will often fail 
to buy a hat if she is disappointed in the appearance of her figure as 
reflected in a long mirror. 

How to Wash Mirrors 

Some persons have a difficulty in keeping mirrors in proper con- 
dition, but a soft rag dipped in alcohol and wiped over the glass, that 
is afterward rubbed dry, is all that is necessary when the mirror ap- 
pears dim or spotted. 

For this purpose cheesecloth is best. 

When spots appear at the back of the mirror on the quicksilver, 
it is generally for the reason that the glass is hung where a strong 
sunlight can rest upon it. At first tiny specks no larger than pin 
points make their appearance, then they spread, become larger and 
finally meet in a cloudy effect which cannot be remedied except by 
a repetition of the quicksilvering process. 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

Damp walls are another source of damage to mirrors, for they, 
too, destroy the quicksilver. 

Frames can be kept in good condition by wiping often with a soft 
rag. If the frame is a good quality of gilding it may be washed with 
soap and water when necessary, but the cheaper, ordinary gilt frames 
should never be touched with water. When they begin to blacken a 
rag moistened lightly with turpentine will usually restore the gilding. 

To Fluff Pillows 

Pillows may be fluffed by placing them near an open fire or over 
the radiator or register. 

Silver Polish 

When a gas mantel breaks and the filmy ashes fall apart do not 
throw them away. They make excellent silver polish. One woman 
saves these ashes and sprinkles them over the logs in her gas grate. 
The effect is brilliant when the gas is lighted. 

Radiator Covers 

Make covers for radiators of crash or denim, and save both walls 
and curtains from the dust that is blown into them by the ascending 
heat waves. 

To Wind Up a Curtain Roller 

Using a button hook to wind up a curtain roller, when the spring 
has run down, is a great saving on the fingers. 

Hints on Rug Buying 

A dark rug shows dust and lint and a green rug fades to a dirty 
color, so avoid both. Most good weaves have small patterns, whereas 
cheap fabrics have big bold designs. Tans wear well and some reds 
are lasting. Blue rugs are adapted to bedrooms and red, brown and 
mixed colors to halls. 

Care of Rugs 

Take your rugs in the yard every three or four weeks, if you have 
no vacuum cleaner, and sweep them thoroughly with a broom. This 
will keep the wall-paper and hangings clean, and you won't have to 
breathe the dust which you are sweeping. A good sweeping with the 
carpet sweeper will do in the meantime. 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

To Keep a Rug Flat 

When the edge of a rug persists in ending up, lay over it, on the 
wrong side, a damp cloth, and on this place a moderately hot iron. 
Let it stand for a few minutes and the steam will make the rug lay 
perfectly flat. 

An old corset steel, dress-stay, or piece of stiff wire cat-stitched 
diagonally at the corners, on the wrong side of a much used tapestry 
rug, will keep it from curling up. 

Turned-up Corner o£ Rugs 

Another way to avoid the turned-up corners of rugs is to sew a 
pocket of some cheap material on the underside of each corner; then 
slip in a piece of tin, which you can have cut the exact size at a hard- 
ware store. The corners cannot curl. 

A Return to the Rag Rugs 

Milliners who have accumulated old silks, ribbons discarded from 
hats brought in to trim, etc., have the material from which can be 
made the handsomest rugs, curtains or table covers. 

To prepare these for weaving the material should be cut into strips 
one inch wide, lapping the ends one over the other, and sewing down. 
Next wind into balls. It requires one and one-half pounds to make 
one square yard. 

If the rags are of heavy goods it is wiser to allow two pounds to 
one square yard. The price for weaving rag rugs is usually 35 cents 
a yard if one yard wide. If a wider width is desired the cost is more 
per square yard. 

Odd Sizes in Woven Rugs 

The weaver makes odd sizes, such as the door mat size, i foot by 
6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches. Room rugs begin at 2 feet 3 inches by 
5 feet 3 inches, and range in various prices according to size until they 
measure 12x15 feet, when the cost of weaving is about $20. 

In shipping, old carpets or other material should be tied securely 
with strong rope and a tag attached bearing the name and address of 
the sender. A duplicate tag should be placed inside the carpet. Any 
kind of carpet can be utilized. Those that can be rewoven into revers- 
ible rugs that can be used on both sides are Brussels and ingrain. 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

Carpets that make up on one side only are velvets, moquettes, Axmin- 
sters and Wiltons. 

Smyrna rugs, when not too much worn, can be used by combining 
with carpet and adding chenille. This process is done entirely by hand, 
so an extra charge per square yard is made, but the result is usually 
a beautiful rug. 

Opaque Screens 

The ordinary wire netting for doors and windows offers no pro- 
tection from prying eyes. This can be remedied by giving the outside 
of all screens a coat of thin white paint. Strange as it may seem, the 
paint will not be noticeable, and while those inside may look out 
through the screens, outsiders cannot see into the room. The paint 
should be made as thin as possible with turpentine and applied with a 
broad flat brush. 

Home-Made Seat for a Rocking Chair 
To make a strong and flexible seat for an old rocker, buy a roll of 
carpet-binding to match the chair as nearly as possible. Fasten the 
binding to the back part of the seat frame, close up in the corner, with 
a couple of tacks. Draw it from front to back, having the binding 
very tight and close together, until the entire seat-space is covered. 
Start in the same way at the side, weaving back and forth, bringing 
the binding tightly around the side-pieces each time. Such a seat is 
more comfortable than the perforated wooden ones. 

Inexpensive Ways to Make Art Lamp Shades at Home 
Charmingly dainty lamp shades may be made at small expense, if 
one has any knowledge of working with water colors. Even with 
tracing paper and a pencil decidedly pretty Japanese effects may be 
secured. For a foundation wire frames of various shapes can be pur- 
chased, but if stiff paper is to be used as a covering, the simple, 
straight frames are best. When covering any frame, at the top should 
be tacked a piece of asbestos that is at least two inches deep. This 
will prevent the paper from burning. 

If the paper is to be painted the easiest method will be to cut a 
pattern and lay this on rough white water color paper. When the 
exact size has been determined the stiff paper should be neatly pasted 
at the two edges, and held in place over the frame until it has *'set." 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

White cotton thread and a few stitches are the easiest and firmness 
way of attaching it to the frame at top and bottom. 

This done, the background is ready for decoration. What this 
shall be depends upon the individual skill or desire. Medallions, 
heads set into little backgrounds of color and framed with fine lines 
of gilt and silver are always charming. The frame effect may be 
joined by tying bowknots together at the top, so that little medallions 
seem to be suspended by ribbons of gold or a color. Large birds, such 
as storks, are mostly decorative, and when done in a flight are not 
difficult. Flowers and rural scenes of various kinds may be used. 

It is sometimes possible to find beautiful photographs, and with 
these, unmounted, novel effect can be made. They may be placed on 
the paper in a line or irregularly, cutting out the background. This 
renders the pictures transparent when the light is waning. They should 
be neatly pasted on, first trimming the paper edge in scallops or 
points to make a finished frame. If one does not wish to do this, a 
design may be done with a paint brush in such manner as to simulate 
a frame. One who cannot use brushes will find that gilt and silver 
headings, in the fancy paper departments, are very pretty and not hard 
to put on. These ''frame effects" may become most elaborate by 
pasting on different decorations. 

Still further variety is attained by tracing or drawing figures and 
cutting them out of the frame with a sharp knife. Over the spaces 
thus made thin colored or black paper should be pasted, the edges 
being underneath the shade. When the lamp is lighted these trans- 
parent designs are conspicuously shown. In placing these or any other 
decoration the utmost care should be taken to have the spacing regular 
and in proportion; otherwise the shade will appear lopsided and its 
beauty will be spoiled 

If for any reason you do not wish to finish the top and bottom of 
the shade with a painted or stencilled border, use paper ruches. Those 
of quality thicker than crepe, are made now in white and colors and 
are attached by gluing. Sewing is really the stronger way, as there is 
then no danger that heat will loosen the trimming. 

Shades of crepe tissue paper are not new, but are always pretty. 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Clean Window Shades 

Lay the shades on a clean table and rub with a slice of bread or 
with a handful of oatmeal. 

To Keep Sleeves Up 

A pair of bicycle clips will be found useful to keep the sleeves up. 
Sweeping Hints 

Before sweeping, always wring an old napkin out of water, and pin- 
ning the ends of the linen around your head, make most effectual 
sifter for the dust. The cloth hangs loosely over nose and mouth, 
not interfering with breathing in the least. 

Renovated Tables and Bureaux 

It often happens that the tops of tables and bureaux are badly dis- 
figured. These may be converted into attractive pieces of furniture in 
the following way : Get plain, flat moulding and nail it securely 
around the edge of table or bureau top. Have a plate of glass cut to 
fit into the frame thus formed. Put paper or cloth having a pretty 
pattern beneath the glass. Flowered cretonnes give a very dainty 
effect. Tea-tables of this sort are popular for serving tea on veranda 
or lawn. 

A Useful Toy 

A child's toy carpet sweeper, costing about ten cents, is a great 
convenience in sweeping up threads, crumbs scattered on the rug, or in 
cleaning under tables, cabinets and other furniture too heavy or awk- 
ward for frequent moving. 

To Clean Wall-Paper 

Take one cupful of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoon- 
ful coal oil, one teaspoonful muriatic acid or two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar, one-fourth cupful of ammonia, one-half cupful warm water. 
Place the mixture in a double boiler and stir it constantly until it 
forms a very thick paste. Turn it out on a floured board, and as it is 
worked into a dough, the consistency of bread-dough, add a few drops 
of gasoline, a drop at a time. Keep the mixture in a wet cloth in a 
tin can. To use it pinch off a handful of the dough, rub it lightly over 
the paper, working in the soiled part until the piece is gritty and be- 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

gins to crumble, then change to clean. This amount will clean two 
rooms, including the ceilings. The result is a paper as clean as when 
new. 

Another Way to Clean Wall Paper 

Boil a quart of water. Let it get cold. Boil it up again, when not 
quite boiling shave half a toilet sized cake of pure fine white soap 
into it. As soon as the soap is dissolved and while the water is still 
almost but not quite boiling stir in flour slowly until the whole is a 
thick paste. Let it cool. If the mixture is not now the consistency of 
dough add more flour to make it so. Separate it into pieces convenient 
to handle. Begin at the top of the wall and work down in long parallel 
strokes. As the mixture becomes soiled fold in the dirty part and be- 
gin again with a clean surface. 

Useful Wall Pockets 

The material and size of these are suited to the room in which they 
are hung and the use they are put to. All are finished with a stout fac- 
ing at the top. Attached to this are brass rings that slip over corre- 
sponding hooks on the doors or walls. This prevents tearing the mate- 
rial with nails and makes it easy to take the pockets down to be shak- 
en or washed. Every closet door is furnished with a row of pockets, 
each the right size to contain a pair of shoes. Above this is a row 
for soiled collars, gloves, handkerchiefs, etc. Pockets in the back 
entry hold mittens, rubbers and slippers. This scheme helps to keep 
the house orderly and does away with much tiresome picking-up. 

To Clean Willow Chairs 
Do not use warm water or a strong alkali soap for cleaning willow 
chairs. Dust the chair and scrub it lightly with tepid water containing 
a few drops of kerosene to remove handmarks of grease. Naphtha 
soap will not destroy the varnish. Wipe the suds from the willow or 
wicker and dry the chair in the sun. A solution of oxalic acid and 
water can be used on unvarnished reed or willow furniture and bleach- 
ing properties of the acid will make the articles like new. 

Quick Way o£ Cleaning Windov^s 

The quickest way to clean windows on a bright day is to wet whit- 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

ing with water to the consistency of cream and apply it to the windows 
with a small piece of cloth. 

When quite dry remove the whiting with a larger dry cloth and 
finally polish with old newspapers. 

On a cloud}^ or damp day wipe off the windows with warm dry 
cloths. 

The Dark Window 

A dark window against a dark wall should not be endured. Better 
have a window some place else. Bar that one dark window, and make 
a bookshelf of it. Cover it with a pretty silk curtain and fill it with 
shelves. In many city houses, those placed close together, tenants are 
compelled to have sheet iron shutters. This is for insurance precau- 
tion, of course. But there is no reason why the ugly window, so diffi- 
cult to clean on the outside, should not be made useful inside. 

Restoring Ebonized Wood 

To clean and restore ebonized wood use a mixture of equal parts 
of powdered pumice stone and linseed oil. Rub carefully the way of 
the grain and polish with a dry, soft cloth. 



91 



HEALTH and BEAUTY SUGGESTIONS 

To Reduce the Size of Ankles 

When the legs and ankles are not in proportion reduce the size of 
ankles with this exercise. Standing erect, feet firmly on the floor, 
raise the body slowly until you stand upon the toes; do this ten times 
night and morning. 

Hot Bath 

When haggard from fatigue try the value of a hot bath as a pick- 
up. If a little vinegar or cologne be added the refreshing qualities 
are strengthened. 

A Day in Bed 

When overdone either from work or pleasure try how different 
Hfe will look after a day off in bed. There is little danger of bad 
breakdowns for the person who makes it a habit to have occasional 
let-ups. 

A Face Bleach 

Wash the face in a pint of cider every day for nine days, then 
steam it and the result will be a white skin, all blemishes no deeper 
than the skin gone, even freckles, tan, windburn, etc. 

Warm cider used as a daily wash will remove light freckles; dark- 
er freckles may be taken out with vinegar, but this must be removed 
with warm water, lest the acid burn the skin. Apply cold cream 
after. Some women use a cut lemon from time to time to whiten 
the skin. 

To Use in Case of Burns 

A free application of soft soap to a fresh burn almost instantly re- 
moves the fire from the flesh. If the injury is very severe, as soon 
as the pain ceases apply linseed oil, and then dust over with fine 
flour. When this covering dries hard, repeat the oil and flour dress- 
ing until it cracks and falls off, as it will in a day or two, and a new 
skin will be found to have formed where the skin was burned. 

A Simple Suggestion for Coiffure 
Tying a thin veil over the coiffure, after the locks have been 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

arranged will deepen the natural wave, for the mesh must be pressed 
down closely. It should be put on as a cap, knotting the two ends 
in front at the top of the pompadour. However, care must be taken 
that the hair falls into waves under the restricting cover, and as 
the veil is transparent there is no difficulty in determining this. After 
fifteen minutes or so the veil may be untied and the hair softened by 
running the comb gently through the tresses. 

Cleaning the Face 

After a dusty ride or day in the air cold cream will clean the face 
and neck better than soap and water; rub it on generously, and rub it 
in with the finger tips; wipe off with cheese cloth or absorbent cotton, 
and then with old linen (worn out table napkins are nice for this) 
wet in cologne or Florida water, wipe thoroughly over the face, and 
then use just a trifie of cream to prevent too much dryness, massaging 
it in well, over this dust on powder. 

If possessed of a very greasy skin, rub it with borax prepared with 
water; everyone with an oily skin should keep a bottle prepared of 
filtered water in which powdered borax is thrown, as much as it will 
take up. If of a very oily skin, allow this to dry on, otherwise rinse 
with cool, not cold, water. 

Cold Cream for a Dust Remover 

Vaseline or a good cold cream is the best dust remover, for it 
penetrates all cracks, softening instead of hardening the matter. If 
a fluid soap be used directly afterward the grease is quickly extracted, 
bringing the foreign matter with it. 

In cases of extreme soil mere washing leaves the skin in a dingy 
condition. This is the explanation of many unsightly hands and a 
defect that is easily remedied. 

Among other oily applications as beneficial as vaseline for this 
purpose is sweet almond oil or soft cold cream. The necessary fea- 
ture of these is that the applications must be either liquid or one 
that liquifies quickly or it will not be a dust collector. 

Always in winter before going into the street a thin coating of 
cold cream should be rubbed over the cheeks and chin. The mer- 
est atom on the finger tip may be smoothed over, so that a slight 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

amount of cream covers the whole surface, neutralizing the un- 
happy effects of temperature. After that powder may be dusted 
on. Then when leaving the house the skin should be rubbed with 
an astringent lotion that will remove the dust from the pores, yet 
will not increase the amount of grease. For this lettuce water is 
excellent and can be made at home at any season. 

To prepare this lotion an entire head of the vegetable is separ- 
ated and washed carefully. The leaves are then placed in a new 
agate or porcelain saucepan, and gently warmed, when the natural 
liquid, or juice will begin to be extracted. Warming must be slow, 
and the pulp kept at a high temperature, without simmering, for 
half an hour. The mass must then be strained through cloth, and 
for every teaspoonful of juice thus obtained ten drops of tincture 
of benzoin should be added. The essence may be diluted and made 
more astringent by adding double its quantity of high proof alco 
hoi. 

A liquid balm agrees better than powder with some persons* '^' 
complexions during cold weather. This is made from two drams 
of pure oxide of zinc, one dram each of glycerine and orange 
flower water, five drops of tincture of benzoin and eight drops of 
essence of violets. The zinc is only covered with orange flower 
water and stirred. The glycerine and benzoin are put together, add- 
ing the rest of the orange flower water, the two mixtures then being 
mingled. 

This preparation is shaken before being put on the face evenly, with 
a soft linen cloth. It should not stay on over night. It is harmless 
if washed off before retiring. 

The simpler face powders are the less apt to harm the skin. The 
idea that powders per se are injurious is a mistake, unless they contain 
powerful ingredients. Their possibility for harm lies merely in the 
fact of clogging the pores, and this will roughen and eventually ruin 
the complexion. But if the pores are freed regularly from the impal- 
pable dust and permitted to breathe there will be no trouble. There- 
fore washing at night becomes imperative for those who would have 
their skin soft and smooth. 

04 



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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

The Summer Freckles 

Lemon juice rubbed on and bathing with buttermilk are oM 
remedies potent with some persons, but other skins need more than 
merely gentle treatment, and for these the old-time Dr. Erasmus 
Wilson recommends a preparation of Elderflower ointment, i ounce; 
sulphate of zinc, 20 grains. 

Mix well, rub into the skin at night, wash off in the morning with 
a good soap and hot water and then apply a lotion of suffusion of 
roses, % pint; citric acid, 30 grains. 

This can remain on all day and the treatment repeated until the 
freckles are off or very dim. 

Receding Gums 

Good teeth are requisite for both health and good looks. Go to a 
dentist and have the tartar removed from under and around the gums, 
then use table salt on the gums several times a day. Scrub the teeth 
downward, never crosswise. The teeth should be cleaned before 
breakfast, after each meal and before retiring. 

Care of Hands 

The hands are so much in evidence that they need the best of care, 
and a pretty hand can be made very effectual. Hand exercises from 
the wrist to limber up the wrist are taken; any one who has seen 
Bernhardt's gestures will realize all they convey, their grace and mean- 
ing; the wrist so supple, the hand full of grace. This will only come 
with practice. 

A scouring brush should be used with a mild soap and lukewarm 
water every night, and apply it vigorously, drying the hands thoroughly; 
use a teaspoonful of borax to a basin of water. 

Lemon juice and buttermilk will bleach the hands, and the former, 
or a cut tomato, will remove any ordinary stain. 
To Soften the Hands 

Keep a dish of Indian meal on the toilet stand near the soap 
and rub the meal freely on the hands after soaping them for 
washing. This will cleanse and soften the skin. 

To Clean Hands 

When the temperature is too high the tendency is to dry the skin. 

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THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

Any simple soap may be used, but strong kinds should be avoided. A 
nail brush is necessary, and an inexpensive one will be as cleansing as 
a costly one. 

As soon as the hands are wet they must be lathered, and then the 
brush rubbed over the soap and the palms and backs scrubbed, brushing 
so the skin will not be irritated, yet sufficiently brisk to take out the 
dirt. 

Snowy Hands 

Snowy hands are produced by dipping them in almond oil; let them 
absorb all the oil, and then dip them in French chalk and wear a pair 
of loose old gloves that night. Another plan is to wash the hands in 
peroxide of hydrogen, letting it dry on them, and then rub on cold 
cream and wear old kid gloves. In the morning wash off with lemon 
juice, vinegar or cider, hot water, and then a disappearing cream. 

Stained Hands 

Cream of tartar will remove dye stains from the hands. Rub with 
soap and apply the powder thoroughly. 

Wash Hands in Grease 

It is not enough to wash the hands just before going to luncheon, 
for the prettiest materials in the shops soil the skin, while ledger work 
or typewriting makes the skin grimy after a few moments' work. 

Yet it takes less than five minutes to get them into condition if the 
pot of grease is kept near the washstand and is used in liberal quanti- 
ties, as for instance, a lump the size of an English walnut at each 
cleansing. 

To apply this it is put into the palm of one hand and then the same 
motion as in washing is gone through, special attention being given 
to the finger tips and nails. This takes about half a minute. If no 
other grease is at hand kerosene oil may be used. Indeed machinists 
use petroleum in this form very often to cleanse the hands, and the 
fastidious woman will doubtlss be surprised at its efficacy. Then the 
hands must be dipped into warm, not hot, water. 

To Whiten Hands 

A very good bleaching paste can be used at night, avoiding the 
nails, with a pair of kid gloves worn over it. The paste — rosewater and 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

powdered myrrh, each i oz.; honey, 4 oz., and yellow w^ax, 2 oz. ; 
sufficient glycerine to enable one to spread as a paste. Melt the wax, 
add the myrrh, beating well, and gradually add the honey and rose- 
water. 

Soaking thin hands in warm olive oil for half an hour every day 
will fatten them. Always bathe the hands in warm water before us- 
ing any improver, so as to open up the pores. After an oil soak, wipe 
dry and use prepared chalk as a powder until obliged to wash them 
free from oil. 

To Soften the Hands 

Before retiring take a large pair of gloves and spread mutton tal- 
low inside, also all over the hands. Wear the gloves all night and 
wash the hands with olive oil and white Castile soap in the morning: 
after cleansing the hands with soap rub them well with oatmeal while 
still wet. 

To Cure Dandruff 

Take a thimbleful of powdered refined borax, let it dissolve in 
a teacupful of w^ater; first brush the head well, and then wet a 
brush with the solution and rub the scalp well with it. Do this every 
day for a week and twice a w^eek, until no trace of dandruff is 
found. 

Hair Pulling in Order 

The latest thing in promoting woman's glory crown is systematic 
pulling of the hair. The most scientific pulling, that which is sup- 
posed to give a tingling sense of life to the scalp and promote a luxuri- 
ant growth of hair, must be in steady, even, but rather brisk pulls. 

Take a small strand of hair in hand, pull it firmly but sharply 
enough to make the scalp tingle, but not irritate it. Keep this up all 
over the head until the scalp is glowing and pink. 

Ten minutes of hair-pulling each morning is said to not only 
strengthen the hair, but to give it new luster. 

To Improve Hair 

The best shampoo for oily hair and dry scalp is an egg shampoo, 
made by adding one ounce of cold water to one well beaten egg] rub 
mixture well into the scalp and on the hair, rinse in warm water, then 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

cold water, dry thoroughly, apply the tonic and massage the scalp for 
ten minutes. Each night use the tonic and massage for ten minutes. 

Stiff Hair 

The first remedy for a woman whose hair has begun to be stiff is 
to experiment with slightly oily liquids until she finds one suitable. A 
lotion made from one tablespoonful of glycerine, half a pint of rose 
water, with ten drops of tincture of benzoin added to prevent the 
glycerine becoming rancid, is excellent. 

This mixture should be used after the hair has been made ready for 
dressing by removing all the tangles. This done, one should put about 
half a teaspoonful of the mixture in the palm of the left hand and 
rub the right into it. With both hands the hair is gently rubbed and 
patted smooth from forehead to neck, oiling it, but so slightly that the 
application is not visible. Afterward dressing proceeds in the usual 
way. Occasionally a woman should use a slightly wet brush after the 
oiling. This must not be applied every day or the effect of too much 
water will be drying. 

Another liquid for the same purpose is made from one-quarter of 
an ounce of gum benzoin and four ounces of high proof alcohol. Af- 
ter the gum is dissolved liquid is strained through coarse brown paper 
and two ounces of castor oil and half a dram each of oils of geranium 
and bergamot are added. This is put on by the same process as was 
described above. 

Neither of these is to be regarded as a tonic or used as a substi- 
tute, for they are distinctly dressings, and the manner in which they 
are put on in no way affects the scalp. To feed the scalp it is neces- 
sary that whatever is put on shall be rubbed into the pores. 

How to Make Hair Wavy in Winter 

One hears women say mournfully, and with truth, that just as soon 
as the weather is cold their hair ceases to wave; that it is crinkly in 
summer, but in winter is straight, and this condition prevails, I think, 
because the grease is used on the tresses, for there are few cases where 
hair that is in the least wavy naturally will not be improved by slight 
application of oil. And this truth is proved by the fact that the 
wave in tresses is deeper several weeks after shampooing than when 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

just washed, because the natural oils have gathered, and the texture 
of the hair responds accordingly. 

The scalp is affected in winter precisely as is the complexion; it 
is dried, the degree depending upon the amount of natural grease 
secreted. Warm weather has exactly the opposite effect; it stimulates 
the excretions, and foreign application is unnecessary. 

Scalp Treatment 

For the itching scalp use the following lotion once daily and 
give a deep massage after applying tonic. Once or twice a week 
rub a little yellow vaseline on the scalp: distilled witch hazel, 5 
ounces; corrosive sublimate, lo grains. 

Dry Shampoo 

When the hair is dusty and dull, and you want to clean it 
quickly, just sprinkle through it a little dry shampoo powder made 
by mixing four ounces of orris root with four ounces of therox. 

Then brush the hair thoroughly and not only will it be clean, 
but it will have a rich and glossy lustre that can be given in no 
other way. So little time is required for this dry shampoo that 
it can be done profitably whenever the hair is dressed. 

Therox is excellent for the scalp and gives the hair new life 
and vigor. The regular use of this mixture heightens the natural 
color, while w^ashing the hair with water too often causes it to 
lose color and become dull and brittle. 

Thin Eyebrows 

Eyebrows need a tonic like the hair does sometimes; they should 
arch evenly and be moderately heavy. When they begin to look thin 
try this tonic: Sulphate of quinine, 5 grains; sweet almond oil, i 
ounce. Put on the eyebrows with a finely pointed brush and be care- 
ful that none goes in the eyes. 

Another tonic is to rub a little red vaseline on the eyebrows, fol- 
lowing the desired shape as you smooth them down, and with a little 
brush apply some to the eyelashes. Brush the eyebrows every day. 

Dark Circles Under Eyes 
Dark circles under the eyes are usually caused by some constitu- 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE, 

tional trouble or loss of sleep. The cause must first be removed and 
it is always best to consult a physician, as the trouble is not easily 
reached. Help the physician by massaging each day with good mas- 
sage cream. Begin at the nose and massage gently from the nose 
outward to the corner of the eyes, in a rotary motion. 

For a Slight Scar 

Spirits of camphor, touching the skin with it twice a day, will 
sometimes eradicate the spots left from pimples. The liquid should 
be gently rubbed in. 

Important Little Things 

Red ears are conspicuous, and can be greatly improved by using 
any non-greasy cream or astringent used on the face; then powder 
with French chalk or flour of zinc. In the morning wash the ears 
with water softened with borax and a few drops of lemon juice. 

*'Bite the lips to make them red" is an old saying and bad advice, 
this thickens and chaps the lips; better redden them by pressing firmly 
together. Before going out in the wind or cold lightly rub the lips 
with cold cream or a non-greasy cream used for the face and hands ; 

Moles are removed with strong, and the best, salicylic acid, 
dipping a wooden toothpick in the acid and then applying to the 
mole, but carefully avoid touching the skin around. In a few days 
a scab will form and fall, and the mole with it, or part of it at 
least; in fifteen days use the acid again and more of the mole will 
come off; repeat in fifteen days if necessary and the entire mole 
finally goes. 

For Chapped Lips 

To prevent the chapped lips that so frequently result from the 
high winds try rubbing the lips each time before going out with 
rose water and glycerine, mixed in the proportion of two parts of 
the former to one of the latter. 

Look as Well as You Can 

From earliest childhood such habits as making faces, drawing 
clown the mouth, frowning, squinting, etc., should be corrected; 
such contortions are wrinkle breeders, and no one admires wrin- 
kles; so why court them? A reposeful face is not full of wrinkles. 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

The successful beauty finder is one who perseveres in any treat- 
ment undertaken, who erases wrinkles from her mind, as well as 
her face, and reflects in her eyes an uplifted soul and *'good will 
towards men." : !|#|f|i''''i 

Massage and Tipping 

The old-fashioned idea of massage has been modified, as rub- 
bing may do harm as well as good; if a rubbing is done skilfully 
the operator may rub flesh on; ditto wrinkles if the rubbing is too 
vigorous, or rub them off if the work is done correctly, but we 
are not all skilled operators. 

In massaging the face rub from the centre and across rather 
than lengthwise. The ''tipping" now preferred to massage in many 
cases, is a tapping of the finger tips only on the skin to be treated, 
which gives a tingling sensation that soon proves that the blood 
is rushing up to that spot to improve the circulation and restore 
life where there seemed to be a lack of it. 

One needs short finger nails for "tipping,** and a quick, light 
tap. Used in conjunction with massage this is a very effective 
treatment. 

For Breaking Nails 

The constant use of hard water is fatal on the good appearance 
of the finger nails. This is one of the drawbacks to a filter plant. 

As, however, pure water is the first consideration, women must 
seek means of overcoming minor ills. 

Nails that break easily must be given a course of olive oil. It 
should be rubbed into the finger tips each night. Massage well 
and occasionally give the fingers a bath in hot olive oil. 

If it is not convenient to use the oil, vaseline is a good substi- 
tute. Whenever doing rough work the fingers should be protected 
with gloves. If it is not comfortable to wear them over the whole 
hand, fingers can be cut from old gloves. 

Many girls who do office work, or selling goods over a counter, 
injure their hands unnecessarily by not washing them often, for 
the most amazing amount of damage is done the nails and skin 
by permitting an accumulation of dirt to remain in the pores for 
several hours. 

lOI 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

When cleansing hands so stained, soap and water should not 
be the first application, for nothing but a soft grease will be effec- 
tive. 

The finger tips require several extra strokes. Rinsing must 
be thorough. Drying finishes the cleaning, but is not the simple 
process that- many persons think, and in the manner of doing it 
lies half the secret of having pretty nails. Each finger must be 
taken separately, the towel rubbed down the sides, back and front, 
beginning at the top. 

The common mistake is to begin at the finger base and rub up, 
which simply trains the cuticle down over the nails and thickens 
the tips. Every nail must be wiped individually, commencing at 
the top and pressing gently down to the crescent at the base of 
the nail. 

Only in this way will good shape be preserved. The fact that 
knuckles are not thoroughly dried many times is the explanation 
of redness. They require special attention. 

File the Finger Nails 

To keep the nails in good condition, always file them, never 
use the scissors to cut. Cleanse under the nails with equal parts 
of lemon juice and water. Use an orange wood stick; also keep 
the cuticle around the nails smooth. Polish the nails whenever 
necessary. 

For a Thin Neck 

For this one must take deep breathing exercise ten minutes 
night and morning, but some seem too busy to devote this time, 
and yet wish to improve, and they can wear a shoulder brace that 
will keep them in such a position that they will breathe deeply all 
the time. 

If possible take singing lessons, at least try and get in neck 
exercises for ten minutes every night, letting the head fall forward 
as low as possible, slowly raise and lower the head toward the 
back; repeat on each side and then turn the head around, rolling 
it as much in a circle as can be done; this must be done slowly, 
as it makes one giddy. 

Every night bathe the neck in very hot water, then apply a 

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THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

tissue building cream well rubbed in on neck, chest and shoulders 
for if one of these parts is thin all are. The next morning take 
deep breathing exercises, then wash the cream off in hot water and 
soap, followed by a cold water rub, and use a flesh brush for five 
minutes. 

Do Not Be Discouraged 
Do this for a month and you will be surprised at the result, 
provided you are getting plenty of nourishing food, sleep and out- 
door air at the same time. 

A Yellow Neck 

A yellow neck can be improved by soaking it, after washing 
with warm water, with a soft flannel cloth wet with lemon juice, 
peroxide of hydrogen or simply alcohol; soak the cloth and tie it 
on, renew when dry and rub the neck as well; dilute the peroxide 
with water, about one-fourth, if the skin is very tender. 

Then w^ash with a disappearing cream and finally with warm 
water and soap and then cold water as a dash on the skin to pre- 
vent colds. 

To Fill Hollows in Throat 

Deep breathing before an open window in the early morning, 
clad in a loose gown, w411 help largely to fill the hollows in throat. 
Massage also with a massage cream: cocoa butter, 2 ounces; lano- 
line, 2 ounces; olive oil, 2 ounces. 

A Red Nose 

Do not overeat and wear overtight clothes if you would avoid 
a red nose. Indigestion and cramped circulation can paint a more 
vivid hue than the rouge pot. 

A Nose Wash 

Your nose will improve if you wet it at night and in the morn- 
ing with a mixture of 15 grain iodide of potassium, 7% grains of iodine 
and % pint of distilled water; it should dry on. 

Complexion Parlors 

If you intend opening rooms for manicuring and facial mas- 
sage, the furnishings are important. A front room would be better 

103 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

than a back room, as you require good light. You will want a 
place screened or curtained off for treating the face, a mirror, Mor- 
ris chair for the patient, a clothes tree, small table and a box for 
face powder. For the manicuring, a long narrow table with a 
pretty cushion to rest the hands on, small bowl to soak the fingers 
and bathe the hands in. Manicure instruments, a chair each side 
of the table. A few pretty chairs and pictures, a rug for the floor, 
desk or table, pretty white curtains at the windows, and anything 
that will make the room look dainty and attractive. Then lastly, 
but most important, good creams and face powder. 

Polish for Nails 

An inexpensive and harmless nail polish is made by thoroughly 
mixing together a half ounce of talcum powder, a half ounce of 
powdered starch, a half ounce of pulverized boracic acid and fif- 
teen drops of tincture of carmine. Do not rub the nails until the 
sensitive flesh beneath burns, as this causes them to become dry 
and brittle. 

Powder Versus Complexion 

There are pure powders, if people will only go where they are 
sold. One manufacturer of face powders is noted for the way that 
his powders stick on, as well as their purity. Pure white powder 
can only be used by a clear blond, otherwise the person looks like 
a ghost; flesh powder is more natural, and brunette is for one of 
a decided brunette skin. 

Pink powders are more becoming to any pale complexion, be it 
a blonde or brunette, but too pink is bad, and when this purchase 
has been made and the powder seems like a flush over the face 
it should be toned down by adding some pure white powder and 
thoroughly mixing the two. 

Powder is an artificial aid that should not be detected on the 
face. The young do not need such improvements, and to see rouge 
plentifully applied is repulsive. 

Powder on the Face 

Face powder, a protection when applied with discrimination to 
the complexion, may do much harm during cold weather, because 

104 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

the cold is drying, and powder has the same effect, and the two 
in combination may cause a roughness which only months of treat- 
ment will smooth away. 

Excessive Perspiration 

This affects one mentally by giving only disagreeable feelings 
as w^ell as physically. Sponge off the parts so affected at least 
once a day with boracic acid; use 20 parts of hot water to one of 
acid. Aso dust the face and neck and wherever it is necessary 
with a dry boracic powder. 

Improving the Skin 

In sleeping do not lie on one side more than the other, or bury 
your face in a soft pillow, as this makes wrinkles. Bathe the 
cheeks three times a day in weak ammonia water, in which dissolve 
a piece of alum as large as a hazel nut; this keeps them firm. 

Powder on the face will be used, so why not tell one of a 
good kind? Rice flour, precipitated chalk and arrowroot pow- 
dered. Always wash off at night. 

A lotion that will assist in driving away blackheads can be ap- 
plied to the face a dozen times a day, simply patting it on with an 
old soft linen rag and allow it to dry: Subcarbonate of soda, 36 
grains; distilled water, 8 ounces; essence of roses, 6 drops. 

For an Oily Skin 

Try a diet of green vegetables, fruit and plenty of water; use a 
facial brush for a good face scrub in hot water and soap, followed 
by cold water once a day and every evening when preparing for 
dinner, wipe off your face with witch hazel and a piece of old 
linen. 

Every night put on this lotion: 6 oz. rose water, 2 oz. elder 
flower water, 10 grains tannic acid and % oz. tincture benzoin. 
Wash off in the morning with the facial brush as above. 

To protect the skin from the early Spring winds, rub a little 
cold cream on the face and dust on pure rice powder when obliged 
to be out in the wind; after wash off with warm water, followed by 
a cold rinsing. 

105 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

A chiffon veil worn through the windy season will save the skin 
from tan and roughness. 

No one can tell any person how to keep, assume or increase 
their beauty without trouble; nothing is gained without working 
for or thinking of it, but with time, patience and systematic effort 
any woman may attain wonders. 

If possible go occasionally to a beauty specialist and see how 
she works over you; it will show you how to treat yourself cor- 
rectly. 

For Irritated Skin 

Sometimes pure-looking skins will feel irritated and when 
rubbed grow rough, which state can be relieved by first washing 
with warm water, then apply cold cream or a disappearing cream 
to cleanse thoroughly and rub well in; then rub off and apply this 
mixture: Powdered camphor 2 grams, powdered starch 60 grams, 
oxide of zinc 15 grams; mix well together. 



To Remove Corns 

Salicyclic acid, i dram; trim the corn with a very sharp knife or 
razor blade. Apply the acid; cover with a piece of court plaster. 
In three days remove the plaster and the corn will come with it. 

Soft corns may be cured by wrapping the afflicted toe with a soft 
linen rag which has been saturated with turpentine, night and morn? 
ing. Care should be taken to wear shoes sufficiently wide but not too 
large. 

Deodorizer for the Feet 

No. I — Wash the feet in warm water to which a little hydrochloric 
acid or chloride of lime has been added. 

No. 2 — Bathe the feet often in a strong solution of borax or in a 
common kitchen soda dissolved in water. Change the hosiery every 
day. 

Tea for Cold— Flaxseed 

For the flaxseed tea pour a pint of boiling water over two 
tablespoonsful of unbruised flax seed and a little powdered liquo- 
rice root. Stand the mixture near the stove for four hours, then 

106 



1 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

strain through a piece of old linen. If you do not like the taste 
of the flaxseed add the juice of a lemon. 

This tea has to be made fresh every day, but you'll find it a 
fine drink when you've a bad feverish cough. 

Teas for a Cold — Slippery Elm 

"You hear of a lot of new-fangled cures for colds," said an old 
nurse, "but no one nowadays seems to know about slippery-elm 
tea. I brought up nine children without ever going to a doctor 
to cure them of bad colds 

'Don't know how to make it? All you do is to break the bark 
into bits, pour boiling water over it, cover the pitcher and let 
the tea steep until it is cold. Sweeten to taste and add the juice 
of a lemon. 

''You can take a small cupful every hour until your cold is 
cured and it is just the thing to keep beside the bed at night when 
you are barking your head off. 

"People nowadays laugh at these old granny cures, as they call 
it, but I've not found much to beat slippery-elm tea,' nor flax- 
seed tea, whenever I get a cold.'' 



107 



BEAUTY RECIPES 

To Remove Freckles 

It is claimed that freckles may be removed by any of the fol- 
lowing recipes: 

No. I — Take grated horse-radish and put it in very sour milk; 
let it stand four hours, then wash the face night and morning. 

No. 2 — Rectified spirits i ounce, water 8 ounces, orange-flower 
water V2 ounce (or rose water, i ounce), distilled muriatic acid 
I tablespoonful; mix and use after washing. 

No. 3 — Lemon juice i ounce, powdered borax % dram, sugar 
V2 dram; mix and let stand in a glass bottle for a few days, then 
rub on the face and hands night and morning. Two teaspoonfuls 
of lemon juice equal i ounce. 

The skin should be protected from the direct light of the sun. 
Cold cream should be rubbed into it and powder dusted over it 
before going out into the sunlight. , A wide brimmed hat or a 
parasol are needed for further protection. 

Wash for Blotched Face 

Rose water 3 ounces, sulphate of zinc i dram; mix and wet 
the face; gently dry it and then touch it over with cold cream, 
which also dry off gently. 

To Remove Pimples 

No. I — Barley meal i ounce, powdered bitter almonds i ounce; 
enough honey to make a smooth paste. 

No. 2 — White vinegar 4 ounces, sulphur water 2 ounces, acetated 
liquor of ammonia V2 ounce, liquor of potassa 3 grains, distilled 
water 4 ounces; mix and apply twice a day. 

It is better to consult a physician in case of obstinate pimples. 
A small, red pimple which comes from obstruction of the skin 
and imperfect circulation may sometimes be cured by frequent 
washing in warm water and prolonged friction with coarse towel. 

108 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 
Disappearing Cream 

When the skin seems dry it needs another kind of a cream to the 
above formulas, and the face should be washed but once a day in 
water, using a pure, bland soap and warm water, followed by a cold 
dash of water to prevent colds. 

This is done in the morning and at night, and during the day use 
a disappearing cream, rubbing it in, then wiping it off with a piece of 
old linen; at night, after a "cream wash," do not rub it off; let the 
cream soak in all night. 

The disappearing cream is made as follows : White wax, i ounce ; 
spermacetti, i ounce; almond oil, 4 ounces; rose water, 4 ounces. Use 
as described above. Can be put up by any druggist or at home, remem- 
bering that the more a cream is beaten the smoother it will be. 

Cream for Tissue Building 

Pure spermacetti, % ounce; pure white wax, % ounce; lanoline, 2 
ounces; almond oil, % pound; cocoa butter, % pound. Melt and then 
add Balsam of Peru, i drachm; let it settle, pour off the clear part 
and then put in of orange flower w^ter, 2 fluid drachms and keep on 
stirring until it becomes solid. 

The other cream for building up. the tissues is of spermacetti, % 
ounce; mutton tallow, 5 ounces; lanoline, 5 ounces; cocoanut oil, 4 
ounces; oil of sweet almonds, 4 ounces; tincture of benzoin, i drachm; 
extract of Portugal, 4 ounces; oil of neroli, 20 drops. These creams 
are good; use either one, but use it constantly; do not omit a night 
during the month. If one can take a dessert spoonful three times a 
day of olive oil it helps to nourish the starved tissues. 

For Summer Curls 
To promote the curly appearance of hair and keep it longer in curl, 
moisten the hair with a lotion given below, and as the hair dries the 
curl will become apparent. 

Dr>' salts of tartar, i dram; powdered cochineal, % dram; liquor 
of ammonia, essence of rose, i dram each; glycerine, % oz. ; rectified 
spirit, 1% ozs.; 18 ozs. distilled water. Mix, let it stand for a week 
and stir frequently, then filter. 

109 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

Simple Hair Dye 

Take one-half ounce of mullein flower and steep in water until 
liquid is black; strain and add one-half ounce of genista. Apply to 
the hair with a brush. 

For Falling Hair 

Shampoo the head with green liquid soap and plenty of hot water; 
then apply every day for a month this tonic and shampoo once a week 
with soap and water, until the month is up. Constant use of green 
soap will make the hair too dry. 

Tonic: Tincture cantharides (alcoholic), 4 drachms; tincture capsi- 
cum, I drachm; tincture nux vomica, 4 drachms; cocoa oil, 1V2 ounces; 
eau de cologne, 5 ounces. 

To Prevent Hair from Falling Out 

Hulls of butternuts, 4 ounces; infuse in I quart of water i hour; 
add % ounce of copperas; apply with soft brush every 2 or 3 days. 
The water that potatoes have been boiled in is said to prevent the hair 
from turning gray. 

Treatment for Baldness 

Macerate i dram powdered cantharides in i ounce spirits wine; 
shake frequently during a fortnight and then filter; rub together 10 
parts of this tincture with 90 parts of cold lard; add any perfume. 
Rub well into the head night and morning. 

Hair Tonic 
Tincture of Spanish flies, 3 drams; castor oil, 2 drams; oil of rose- 
mary, I dram; oil of rose geranium, 3 drops; alcohol sufficient to 
make, 4 ounces. Apply to scalp with fingers every 3 days. 

Hair Tonic 

Eau dc cologne, 8 ounces; tincture of cantharides, i ounce; oil of 
lavender, V2 dram; oil of rosemary, % dram. 

Shampoo 

Carbonate of potash, i ounce; water of ammonia, % ounce; alco- 
hol, 4 ounces; water sufficient to make, 8 ounces. Wet the head and 
pour sufficient of the solution on it to make a good lather when 
rubbed. Wash thoroughly and rinse with lukewarm water and dry. 

no 



^1 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 

To Make the Eyebrows Grow 

Sulphate of quinine, 5 grains; alcohol, i ounce; apply after brush- 
ing the eyebrows. 

Treatment of Eczema 

Cleanse the skin with the cleansing cream given below instead of 
soap and water. Apply the eczema cream to face and scalp before 
retiring. 

Cleansing Cream — Oil of sweet almonds, 4 ounces; white wax, i 
ounce; vaseline, i ounce; extract of violet, 2 drams. 

Eczema Cream — Calomel, 5 grains; sulphur, i dram; oil of cade, 
% dram; rose ointment sufficient to make one ounce. 

An Astringent Cream 

A well-recommended astringent cream is made from four ounces 
of mutton tallow, one and a quarter ounces of glycerine, one-half a 
dram of tincture of benzoin, a quarter of a dram of spirits of 
camphor, one-eighth of a dram of powdered alum, one-quarter of a 
dram of Russian isinglass and one-half an ounce of rose water. 

The rose water is warmed in a china cup set in hot water and the 
isinglass is dissolved in it. The mutton tallow, which has previously 
been dried out at gentle heat and added to the glycerine, is then 
blended with the rose water, and the other ingredients are added while 
the mixture is being beaten. This makes a cream which is astringent, 
tightening the skin, without allowing it to become flabby, as oftep 
happens when one is reducing flesh. 

For Chapped or Rough Hands 

No. I — Wash the hands with a mixture of lemon juice, 3 ounces; 
white wine vinegar, 3 ounces; white brand, % pint. 

No. 2 — Make an ointment by melting together 3 drams of gum 
camphor, 3 drams of white beeswax, 2 ounces of olive oil. Apply at 
night and wear gloves. 

Rouge 

Mix vermilion with enough gum tragacanth, dissolved in water, 
to form a thin paste; add a few drops of almond oil, place in rouge 
pot and dry by very gentle heat. 

Ill 



THE MILLINER'S GUIDE 
To Beautify the Teeth and Sweeten the Breath 

Chlorate of lime, i ounce in i pint of soft water, and let it stand 
24 hours; then pour off the clear water and add 40 drops of essence 
of rose. Brush the teeth and rinse the mouth thoroughly with this 
solution. 

A Tooth Powder for Daily Use 
No. I — Borax powder, 2 ounces; precipitate chalk, 4 ounces; 
myrrh, i ounce; iris, i ounce. Mix together. 

No. 2 — Take equal parts of prepared chalk, orris root, carbonate of 
magnesia and mix the powders together. 

Violet Mouth Wash 
After eating rinse the mouth with the following wash : Tincture 
of orris, % pint; spirit of rose, % pint; alcohol, % pint; attar of al- 
monds, 5 drops. Shake the mixture thoroughly. 

To Remove Ink or Fruit Stains 

No. I — Stains may be removed by immersing the hands in water 
slightly acidulated with oxalic acid or a few drops of oil of vitrol; 
or a little pearlash or chloride of lime may be added to water for 
this purpose. Afterward rinse them well in warm clean water 
and do not touch soap for some hours, as any alkaline matter will 
bring back the stains. 

No. 2 — Wash the hands in clear water, wipe them lightly and 
while moist strike a match, closing the hands above it so as to 
catch the smoke; the stains will disappear. 

No. 3 — Rubbing the hands with a slice of raw potato to remove 
vegetable stains. 

No. 4 — Damp the hands first in water, then rub them with tar- 
taric acid as you would with soap ; rinse and rub dry. 

To Overcome Odorous Perspiration 
When bathing put a few drops of ammonia in the water, dry 
the skin well and dust with the following powder: 

Oleate of zinc, % ounce; powdered starch, i ounce; salicylic acid, 
I scruple. 

112 



THE VALUE OF ADHESIVES IN THE 
MILLINER'S WORKROOM 

One of the indispensable requisites in a milliner's workroom is the 
milliner>' adhesive, a factor doubly important since the inauguration 
of a pronounced vogue for smoothly draped fabric hats and for count- 
less trimming ornaments which cannot be sewed must be pasted in 
order to produce the correct effect. It goes without saying that ordi- 
nar>' glue cannot be employed for millinery purposes; but there are 
cements specially prepared for milliners use, which, while possessing 
all the adhesive qualities to be found in the best glues and pastes, do 
not stain or penetrate the fabrics, however delicate in texture and 
coloring. 

Nothing is simpler than the use of these millinery cements. If a 
hat brim is to be covered, cut the covering the required size, allowing 
about one-ihalf inch for folding in, apply a coat of cement to the re- 
verse of fabric as well as a coat to the buckram or willow foundation. 
Permit these to dry. If the goods are of a heavy character, two coats 
should be applied, allowing each to dry separately. When the cement 
has dried out, apply the facing by pressing it down on the buckram, 
rubbing it tight with the hand. No weights are required for holding 
down millinery cement to cause it to hold. With glue this is neces- 
sary, as ordinary glue only sticks while it is wet, and parts must be 
pressed together immediately before the glue sets. This is just oppo- 
site to the use of milliner>^ cement. In addition, glue is usually used 
hot, while millinery cement is always used cold. 

Fancies of every description may be made with the aid of millinery 
cement. Then a vast variety of cockades and pompons and bright 
flowers are also the contributions to the new-found uses for millinery 
cement. In addition to these, new combinations in ribbon effects have 
been produced which are startling in their novelty. What makes all 
these things possible is the fact that millinery cement takes the place 
of sewing. So when two ribbons are faced together not a stitch is 
visible, and if a plume is to be made the maker has the assurance that 
neither ram nor weather can spoil it. 

113 



THE MILLINERS GUIDE 

For wide ribbon bows and other trimming motifs the foundation is 
first cut of willow, crinoline or buckram and finished with flat ribbon 
wire so as to retain its shape, after which two sections of ribbon, 
piece goods or whatever other fabric the motif is covered with are 
pasted to the top and under side of the foundation. This eliminates 
all sewing, saving time and labor. It is necessary to wait for the 
cenient to dry before pressing together foundation and covering. In 
connection with the preparation of fur and feather fancies and trim- 
mings, a foundation of a suitable fabric, such as cretonne, felt or some 
similar soft material, is spread with cement and the feathers or fur 
are laid on this while the cement is wet. The whole article is built 
up and allowed to dry after the feathers or fur have been set in place. 

Millinery glue takes the place of needle and thread for fastening 
fancy braid or guimp on hat crowns or brims, for securely fastening 
the covering of cabochons and for pasting ribbon and lace rosettes 
and cockades on their foundations. There are a thousand different 
uses for it, and in every instance it means a saving of time and a 
considerable economy in work. 



114 



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^1