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Houghton, Bernard 

The mind of the Indian 
government 



THE MIND OF 
E INDIAN GOVERNMENT 



BY 



BERNARD HOUGHTON, I. C. S. 

(Retired) 
Late of the Burma Commission 




THE INCURABLE VICE 



of a foreign Government is that it responds 
to the suggestion of foreigners and not to 
the suggestion of the people of the land. 
Is any Nation good enough to rule another 
people? Be the Ideals they profess never 
so exalted, you may be very sure that self- 
interest and group suggestion acting on 
their minds will so warp their JudgmcMit 
: that what was begun in benevolence : 

WILL END IN TYRANNY 




GANESH & CO. 
Publishers, Madras 



BOOKS BY PROF. VASWANI 

INDIA ARISEN 

INDIA IN CHAINS 

THE GOSPEL OF FREEDOM 

THE SECRET OF ASIA 

SRI KRISHNA— 'C/jc Saviour of Humanit}) 

MY MOTHERLAND 

THE SPIRIT 8 STRUGGLE OF ISLAM 

KRISHNA'S FLUTE 

APOSTLES OF FREEDOM 

CREATIVE REVOLUTION 

BUILDERS OF TO-MORROW 

The foreign bureaucracy had made of India a 
prison. In place of that prison Indians will build a 

palace Conspicuous amongst these architects 

of our future is Prof. Vaswani. To the excellent 
series of books on public matters published by Messrs. 
Ganesh & Co., he has contributed (The Secret of 
Asia by Prof. Vaswani) a series of essays on Asian 
culture. In this as in his other writings he strikes 
the true note that is of an India built on Indian 
culture, consecrated on pure and selfless ideals, of 
an India taking what is best in western civilisation 
but rejecting its materialism and its greed. 

—Barnard Houghton. 

When Professor Vaswani loomed in the horizon 
of national literature we foretold a permanent place 
for him there. His recent works amply justify our 
prophecy. — Everyman's Review. 

GANESH & CO. Publishers, MADRAS 



^i 



THE MIND OF THE; INDIAN 
GOVERNMENT 



THE MIND OF THE INDIAN 
GOVERNMENT 



By 

BERNARD HOUGHTON, I.C.S. 

(Retired) 
Late of the Burma Commission 



GANESH & CO. MADRAS 

1922 



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THE CAMBRIDGE 
PRESS, MADRAS. 



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CONTENTS 

Page. 

Chapter i 

The Unconscious Mind ... ... l 

Chapter ii 

Group Suggestion in History ... J5 

Chapter hi 

The War-Mind of Simla ... ... 25 



THE MIND OF THE INDIAN 
GOVERNMENT 

Chapter I 

THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

The constant stream of books on 
modern Psychology proves the intense 
interest now felt in this subject. 
Indeed of late years no branch of 
knowledge has made so wonderful a 
leap forward or promises such a revolu- 
tion in human affairs as the Science 
of the Mind. Till nearly the end of 
last century it had lingered merely as 
a preserve of the University Professors 
with their dry-as-dust phraseology and 
their aloofness from the living world 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

•of men. Mr. James, the American, did 
much, by bringing it into touch with 
real life, to rescue it from the shelves 
of the libraries. His " Talks to Teach- 
ers " for instance, is still well worth 
study. But it is from the discovery of 
the Unconscious Mind by the 
Austrian, Freud, that modern psy- 
chology really dates. That discovery 
— probably the greatest since Darwin 
published his doctrine of evolution — 
made as dead as alchemy nearly all that 
had been written before ; it opened out 
vistas absolutely new. Like Columbus, 
Freud had discovered a new world. 

To understand all that this event 
means, we must realise that the 
human mind is divided into two, or 
more properly, into three parts, the 
Conscious, the Fore-Conscious, and 
the Unconscious, of which the latter 
is by far the greatest. In the Con- 
scious mind we know and reason in the 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

present; it is also the seat of the ideas 
we receive from our social surround- 
ings. The Fore-Conscious holds the 
more immediate memories, things 
which we recollect as a matter of 
-course, such as reading, writing, etc. 
The Unconscious contains our memo- 
ries proper, our emotions and all those 
dim racial and egoistic ideas which we 
inherit from our human and half- 
human ancestors. 

The Conscious, actuated by its social 
environment, plays the Censor over 
the more primitive parts of the mind, 
but in sleep this Censorship is in 
abeyance. Hence the great import- 
ance now attached to dreams, through 
which the Unconscious signifies its 
wishes, repressed during our waking 
hours. In very young children or in 
primitive savages the dream relates 
our actual wish. But in all other 
human beings the wish is incorporated, 

3 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT^ 

interwoven as it were, in the events of 
the past day. Moreover it is so 
symbolised that we do not recognise it,, 
because its open expression might 
horrify and awaken the sleeper. The 
symbolism of dreams is now well 
understood ; through dreams are reveal- 
ed and laid bare the childish egoism,, 
the barbarism and the immorality 
which lie buried deep in the uncon- 
scious self. To relate our dreams to 
any one skilled in psycho-analysis is 
in fact to disclose our inmost nature. 
" The man of primitive times lives on. 
unchanged, in our Unconscious." 

Through the new psychology, we gain- 
the key not only to compulsion and 
other neuroses, but to our behaviour 
in every day life and above all to for- 
getfulness. When we experience some 
unpleasant event we try to forget it,, 
that is, we repress it in our uncon- 
scious mind. But there the memory 

4 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

abides. For the Unconscious never 
sleeps and never forgets. The re- 
pressed memory gathers round it all 
memories which are in any way con- 
nected with the event and might 
recall it ; this constellation is called a 
complex. When these complexes are 
numerous, the Unconscious, as it were 
becomes blocked with them, so that 
matters are with difficulty recalled. 
That is what is called a bad memory. 
If the emotions aroused by such 
repressed events are great, they try 
to find expression by displacement 
or symbolism. They may set up 
•mental conflicts giving rise to all kinds 
of " nervous " disorders, but, so well 
disguised are they, that tlie sufferer 
rarely suspects the real source of the 
trouble. Many "nervous" complaints 
have their origin in childhood, parti- 
cularly in the first five years of life. 
Here is no place to discuss how 

5 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

mental disease can be cured and the 
mind generally improved through 
psycho-analysis or self suggestion. 
The reader is referred to the various 
works by Freud, Laj^ Bousfield, 
Baudouin, Adler, Jung, Read and 
others. In addition to the cure of 
mental disease, the new psychology 
has much to teach us in the study 
of behaviour and in the education and 
care of children. 

Still more important is the light it 
sheds in the realm of public affairs. 
Here the cardinal factors to bear in 
mind are, (1) the primitive nature of 
the Unconscious and therefore of our 
emotions, (2) the symbolism and 
rationalisation of tliese emotions and 
the thoughts of the Unconscious in 
order that they may pass the Censor, 
and (3) the fact that man is a gregari- 
ous animal and verj^ sensitive to sug- 
gestion from his group. 

6 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

The first point has already been 
touched on. The Unconscious is 
egoistic, it loves pleasure and hates 
anything irksome and disagreeable. 
Unless tutored by the conscious mind, 
it would spend most of the time in 
fantasies or day-dreams, divorced from 
reality. It is innocent of any social 
taboo or of the restraints which civili- 
sation places on such crimes as murder 
or robbery. Left to itself, it is as 
Freud puts it, the prehistoric man. 
Hence results a continual conflict 
between the Conscious, as representing 
civilisation, and the Unconscious, in 
which the latter frequently, nay 
usually, has its way unknown to the 
former. 

Imapini a King who thinks ho rules 
absolutely, whereas all the while his 
decisions are those of a powerful 
minister who keeps discreetly in the 
background. That is what hai-)pons 

7 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

daily in the mind of men. Not only, 
does the Unconscious symbolise its 
wishes as in dreams, so as to pass the 
Censor, it does more, it rationalises 
them, for the Censor is now wide 
awake and believes he acts by reason. 
He may believe so, but all the time 
the Unconscious is deftly suggesting- 
pretexts or excuses in favour of the 
particular course it desires to follow. 
Thus the cinemas promote fantasies 
or the pleasure-thinking so dear to the 
unconscious ; therefore people say ^ 
they are instructive. Alcohol enables 
us to escape from realities back to the 
omnipotence of childhood, so it is 
" necessary for the system "or " one's 
health requires a little." Imperial 
Nations rule others " for their good," 
in reality to gratify the egotism or the 
greed of the stronger. " They are 
unfit to rule themselves" because our 
childish vanity would be hurt if they 

8 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

were allowed to become our equals. 
The list is endless; have we not 
always a plausible excuse for what we 
wish ? 

The key to political psychology is 
the gregarious nature of man, and this 
thraldom to group suggestion, but the 
importance of this fact has not, in 
spite of the able advocacy of Mr. 
Trotter been yet fully recognised. 
Most psychologists have been medical 
men ; they have been too much pre- 
occupied with the individual to glimpse 
the herd. By gregariousness is meant 
the love of living in groups, whether 
classes or tribes or nations. Man is 
only really happy when he is in the 
company of others of the same class 
or people ; he is ill at ease when alone. 
He thus resembles animals like cattle, 
buffaloes, wild dogs, certain kinds of 
monkeys and deer. This implies vari- 
ous intuitions or unconscious reactions 

9 



\ 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

in the mind. Have you ever noticed 
the behaviour of cattle or buffaloes 
when approached by a tiger ? The head 
at once, as by a hidden impulse, unites 
so as to form a crescent, with the 
leader at the apex ; it advances in 
unison, heads up, horns tossing, in a 
solid phalanx on the foe. There you 
have group suggestion in action. A 
gregarious animal has the following 
characteristics : — 

(1) It is more sensitive to the voice 
of the group than to any other in- 
fluence. 

(2) It is carried away by the 
passions of the group when excited. 

(3) It follows the leader of the group, 
provided he does not think or act very 
differently from the others. 

Jn man the opivion or voice of the 
(jroui) acts not by reason on the Con- 
scious, hut by suggestion on the Uncon- 
scions — a very important distinction. 

10 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

(There are several kinds of suggestion,. 
of which hypnotism is but one.) One 
does not easily realise this fact because 
though herd suggestion acts on the 
emotions in the Unconscious, the latter 
as usual rationalises its promptings. 
For instance, though dress is regulated 
strictly according to group ideas, the 
member of each group believes his or 
her national dress — or in Europe the 
fashion of the moment — to be the most 
beautiful and hygenic. It may not be 
either, but that will not affect the 
opinion of a member of the group 
because he adopts it not by reason but 
through suggestion. He regards it as 
a self-evident truth, which requires no 
agreement. In religion group sugges- 
tion Is king, an absolute king. Take 
the world over and you will find that 
each person believes his own religion 
to be the only true one, though in 99 
cases out of 100 he accepts it because 

11 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

he was brought up in a group pro- 
fessing that particular religion. But 
it is in war that the action of the group 
is seen at its best and worst. At its 
best because it inspires men to do acts 
of immortal heroism, to sacrifice their 
lives for the sake of their nation. At 
its worst, because it dethrones reason 
and reduces millions to the intellectual 
level of the cave-man. In the Great 
War, for instance, each nation firmly 
believed it was acting on the defensive, 
blindly swallowed the particular lies 
its chiefs thought best for their own 
ends, refused to hear any arguments 
of its adversaries, scoffed at the idea 
that they had any, was roused to mad- 
ness by their wickedness and their 
cruelty. Each nation thought that the 
happiness of Europe was bound up with 
its own victory. The atmosphere was 
that of a lunatic asylum. In all that 
hell of passion and welter of blood, 

1^ 



THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND 

where was reason ? Where was justice?' 
Where in fact was our boasted civili- 
sation ? It was the group or nation 
first, foremost and all the time. 
Nothing else mattered. In a flash 
man was back in the Stone Age, tribe 
fighting against savage tribe, no^ 
thought but to hold closely together, 
no aim but to kill without pity and' 
without remorse. 

Even in peace — let alone the veiled 
war known as the Peace of Versailles 
— we can see the working of the war- 
mind. Whenever the cry is raised 
" The Country is in danger " or " The 
interests of our class are threatened," 
the members of the nation or class at 
once sink their internal quarrels, unite 
as one man, and present a solid front 
to the enemy (or supposed enemy), 
exactly like a herd of buffaloes when 
they wind a tiger. 

The sharper the threat to safety or 

13 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

to interests, the more closely does the 
group feeling approximate to the feel- 
ing in a state of war. It is just a 
question of degree ; the principle is the 
same. There is the same refusal to 
hear the adversary's case, the same 
infatuation in the cause of the group, 
the same horror of the foe, the same 
belief that hatred and envy alone 
impels him. Note for example Sir 
E. Craddock's statement on the 6th 
December that the Burmese National- 
ists were actuated by blind hatred 
against the British rule. Indeed, 
as the Moniing Post proves, the 
mental condition of the governing 
classes is, on occasion, not remote 
from paronoia or delusional insanity. 
Everywhere they see plots, every- 
where conspiracy, everywhere hatred ! 



14 



Chapter II 

GROUP SUGGESTION IN 
HISTORY 

" When belief in witchcraft was an 
•article of faith in Europe, that is, was 
received without proof because all 
around believed it, tens of thousands 
of innocent citizens — mostly old 
women — suffered death for this cause 
at the stake or by the hangman's 
noose. Cultured men and dainty 
ladies would go without a (lualni to 
see them burn, so powerful is tlie 
effect of herd suggestion. It was the 
same with heretics, particularly in 
Spain. In Europe in the middle 
ages the Churches occupied much the 

15 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

same place in the thoughts of men 
as nations do now. Because here- 
tics thought for themselves, they 
were believed to threaten the existence 
of the dominant Churches, just as 
people who aspire to liberty are be- 
lieved to threaten the existence of 
Empires. At once the members of 
the Churches became filled with the 
war-mind and inspired with ferocious 
hatred against the heretics. Even if 
the heretics recanted, it did not always 
save their lives. They were impri- 
soned ; they were tortured with the 
ingenuity of devils, they were burnt 
alive. And multitudes of cultured 
men and women used to go to see 
these lournings, which, in Spain, under 
the name of " A.cts of Faith. " became 
quite a popular spectacle. These men 
and women no more doubted that the 
burning of heretics was right and 
proper than Anglo-Indians doubt that 

16 



GROUP SUGGESTION IN HISTORY 

the butchery of Amritsar was right 
and proper. " The Church, or the 
Empire is in danger," where is the 
difference ? 

Personal slavery all civilised men 
now repudiate. We hold it a monstr- 
ous thing that one man should bind 
another and compel him like a bullock 
to work without wages. Yet in 
nations where slavery was a matter of 
custom, the master class never hesi- 
tated to defend it with passion, nay to 
regard it as a self-evident proposition. 
Philosophers from Aristotle down- 
wards, statesmen, bishops and divines, 
great writers, even philanthropists 
have upheld it with the same convic- 
tion as they would the family or 
marriage. When in 1860 Lincoln, 
Americas greatest son, attacked 
slavery, he was denounced by hundreds 
of papers as something between a 
baboon and a monster. At an earlier 

17 
2 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

period Wilberforce in England was 
assailed quite as savagely for advocat- 
ing individual liberty as Mahatma 
Gandhi or Lajpat Rai now are for 
advocating political liberty. 

The people who stood for slavery 
were in their private lives often honest 
and virtuous. They sincerely believed 
that the slaves belonged to an inferior 
race, incapable of working as freemen, 
and that ruin would follow their 
emancipation. But we can now see 
that they were merely rationalising 
the suggestion of their particular 
group. At the bottom it was just 
greed and the love of power which 
urged them on and inspired their emo- 
tions. Their Unconscious tricked 
them as it was tricked many a 
believer in a bad cause, both before and 
since. 

The class war which now rages in 
many countries between the working 

18 



GROUP SUGGESTION IN HISTORY 

man and the bourgeoisie is perhaps 
not so different from the slave ques- 
tion as some would fain have us 
believe. Substitute bourgeoisie for 
masters and workers for slavery, and 
you have in essence the same conflict 
which distracted America sixty years 
ago. The master class is just as angry 
with anyone who helps in the better- 
ment of the workers, just as convinced 
that the present social system is the 
only possible one, just as deaf to argu- 
ment and as ready to believe any tale 
to the detriment of labour. 

In the minor religious persecutions 
which have disgraced for centuries 
nearly every country in Europe, the 
members of the persecuting Church 
have invariably refused to listen to 
what the others might say either for 
freedom of worship or for the truth of 
their particular faith. They have 
been consumed by an anger as fierce 

19 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

as that which recently inflamed Ger- 
many against England or England 
against Germany. The Roman Catho- 
lic Church in the days when it enjoyed 
political power, persecuted consistent- 
ly and persistently members of all 
other beliefs, but, given the same 
power, other Churches too, have 
played the same evil game. Do we 
find members of these persecuting 
groups shocked or protesting at what 
their spiritual leaders did? Not at 
all, they applauded all this iniquity 
quite as heartily as Ando-Indians 
applaud the present political persecu- 
tion. Heretics threatened the empire 
of the Church. That was enough. 
The group passion was aroused and 
blotted out from their hearts every 
spark of justice, every hint of mercy. 
To this day, despite the (juickly wan- 
ing influence of the Churches, differ- 
ences of creed still give rise to prejudice 

20 



•GROUP SUGGESTION IN HISTORY 

and ill-will between one and another 
set of Christians. 

Justasdifferences of religion, accord- 
ing to the intensity of the emotion 
aroused, may beget any evil from the 
most devilish torture down to mere 
dislike, so all national feuds by no 
means confined to overt war. That is 
only their bloodiest fruit. They may 
linger on for decades or centuries with- 
out any definite explosion, merely a 
general atmosphere of enmity and 
prejudice. Take Ireland for example. 
During the centuries in which England 
has misgoverned that island, it has 
suffered many iniquities, from Crom- 
well's policy of Thorough, from the 
barbarous Penal Code and cruel land 
laws, with their tenants-at-will, down 
to the Black-and-Tan horror of last 
year. These iniquities the English at 
home have either ignored or have 
palliated on the flimsiest grounds. 

n 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

Why is this ? Why do people at most 
times quite civilised and humane, 
approve this abominations, nay often 
boast them to the skies ? It is just the 
group suggestion of the nation, which 
makes them regard a conquered people 
exactly as a master regards a slave. If 
the victims of the sword venture to 
ask for even a few crumbs of liberty, 
the whole nation feels itself insulted as 
a Virginia planter would have been by 
a similar request from his field hands. 
It is not that England is a worse sinner 
than other nations, all military powers 
liave done the same. Even in America 
in Imperialism has begotten this vice. 
Thus an American minister declared 
that " we should thrash the Filipinos 
until they understand us " and that 
" every bullet sent, every cannon shot, 
overy flag waved means righteousness." 
Hear in these words the authentic 
voice of Anglo- India. The officials 

22 



GROUP SUGGESTION IN HISTORY 

are now endeavouring to thrash the 
Nationalists "until they understand 
us." 

Nor are Judges and Magistrates 
immune to the subtle passion of group 
suggestion. Again and again in the 
history of England and other countries 
have such men, whilst rigidly impar- 
tial in ordinary cases, whilst believing 
themselves actuated by lofty motives, 
succumbed miserably to the subtle 
urge of class prejudice. For instance 
in Charles's reign, the Judges, who be- 
longed to the Royalist party, gave 
decision after decision in the King's 
favour. When witches or heretics were 
burnt, none so bigotted as those who 
administered justice. What savage 
sentences, too, they imi:)osed on work- 
men in the earlier years of the nine- 
teenth century, and on the Chartists! 
You may to-day see class suggestion 
quite plainly at work in the Courts 

23 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

when Communionists are on trial. Touch 
the class feelings of the judge, and 
justice flees his court. 



24 



<:;hapter III 

THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA 

Though the English have ruled India 
for over a century and a half they have 
as little amalgamated with the 
Indians as the Manchus with the 
■Chinese. Foreigners they are and have 
ever been. Hence English group 
suggestion — a group suggestion quite 
diverse from that of the ruled — holds 
-them in a grip as strong as if they 
lived in England, indeed in a stronger, 
■for a dominant race scattered amongst 
a numerous conquered people is always 
peculiarly liable to panic, and panic, as 
we know, instantly raises group feel- 
ings to boiling point. The group acts 

25 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

as one man and a barbarian at that. 
You may see this in the inhuman 
ferocity with which the Romans re- 
pressed the slave revolt under Sparta- 
cus. You may see it again in many 
incidents in the Southern States before 
the Civil War, and in the Jamacia 
atrocities under Governor Eyre. You 
may see it in the barbarity with which 
the English put down risings in Ire- 
land, barbarities always loudly applaud- 
ed by the English resident in that 
country. In Europe you have the 
intense class feeling of the old aristo- 
cracies in Germany, Austria and 
Russia, a feeling excited to frenzy by 
any effort for freedom, such as the 
French Jacqueries or the Peasants ' 
Revolt in Germany. What is the 
inevitable conclusion from those and a 
liundred other examples?" They prove 
that ivliev a (Jominant class or nation 
lines amonr/sf a suhject people, the 

20 



THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA 

result is to dehumanise them. It is not 
that they are innately cruel ; it is the 
unnatural surroundings in which they 
live which make them cruel. Owing 
to the nature of man's mind these 
surroundings would suffice, on occa- 
sion, to change him from a god to a very 
devil. 

Now the British in India are not 
gods but men. Civilised and tolerant 
and kindly amongst themselves— 
especially when as in the Colonies 
there are no class distinction — once 
influenced by group panic, they revert 
to the barbarian as quickly as any 
other race. Conscious control and 
civilisation vanish and for the time 
being the Unconscious rules them as 
completely as it ruled the men who 
chipped flints or scraped mammoth 
bones in the caves of France. That 
was clearly seen after the Indian 
Mutiny. Throughout India frenzied 

27 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

Anglo-Indians shouted proposals for 
vengeance worthy of a Sioux or an 
Iroquois. The deeds of the Spaniard 
Alva in the Netherlands were held up 
as an example for Englishmen in the 
nineteenth century. General Nichol- 
son strongly urged that the Delhi 
murderers should be, not hanged, but 
.flayed alive. The Viceroy, Lord Cann- 
ing, was attacked with fury because, 
refusing to sate the lust for revenge, 
he took a more statesmanlike course. 
The passionate controversy round the 
Ilbert Bill is another case in point. 
Though the effect of that Bill was and 
could be but slight, since it entrenched 
on the privileges of the ruling class, 
they attacked it as though the end of 
the British raj in India was in sight. 

At every step forward and with 

every movement for self-government 

•India has resounded with the same 

•clamour. The Anglo-Indian Press 

28 



THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA 

and the non-official openly, the 
officials more discreetly, have risen up 
as one man against everj^ measure or 
proposal for a measure which would 
jeopardise their supremacy and place 
the Indians, in the land of their birth, 
on an equality with them. Each of 
these agitations has been marked by 
the same features, the solidarity as in 
a buffalo herd of all white men, the 
urgent calls on the leaders to advance, 
a credulity which accepts blindly 
every rumour, a total refusal to listen 
to the Indian case, and a quick 
ascending note of fear or dislike. 
Everything in favour of the Indian is 
repressed or " forgotten." The 
Government of India has always 
yielded. Why should it not ? It 
belongs to the same group as the other 
white men in India. It is therefore 
responsive to their voice and moved by 
their passions. The incurable vice of 

29 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

a foreign yoveriiment is that it responds 
to the suggestion of foreigners and not 
to the suggestion of the people of the 
land. 

Is any nation good enough to rule 
another people ? Be the ideals they 
profess never so exalted, you may he 
very sure that self-interest and group 
suggestion acting on their minds will 
so warp their judgment that wliat was 
begun in benevolence will end in 
tyranny. They belong to one group ; 
the conquered or another ; the suggest- 
ion, the racial urge in each case is 
different and antagonistic. When Lord 
Reading stated that British rule in 
India rests on British justice he gave 
his case away. Justice there is between 
man and num. but irhen race or 
class interests are in (/twstion, justice 
there cannot be. It is a psychological 
impossibiJify. Who did not smile 
when Mr. Lloyd George, arguing for 

30 



THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA 

the extradition of the Kaiser, affirmed 
that, before a ' tribunal composed of 
men from enemy nations, he would 
have " justice, stern justice ?" Well, 
Indians, when their interests clash 
with those of the ruling class, have 
just as much chance of justice as the 
Kaiser would have had. Not merely 
is the government judge of its own 
case ; it is subject to the all-powerful 
influence of a diiTerent race suggest- 
tion. 

And remember the racial poison 
does not stop with the executive 
officers. If precedents In British and 
other countries teach anything, if 
psychology is other than a vain myth, 
the taint is bound to spread to the 
judicial officers. They may honestly 
believe themselves impartial, and that 
they do not strain the law or the 
evidence against the accused, l)ut deep 
in their unconscious minds the racial 

31 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT' 

bias works. The fiercer the outbreak 
of racial passion, the stronger the 
suggestion in the Unconscious. They 
cannot escape it. 

The present position may be put in 
a nutshell. In spite of docility taught 
in the schools, preached by the govern- 
ment, and enforced by officials, India 
has resolved to be free. The idea of 
liberty, the passion for self-govern- 
ment has penetrated the remotest 
village from Kashmere to Comorin. It 
is not a question of a small party, of 
an intelligentia. It is a question of a 
nation, 300 millions strong. It is their 
will against the will of the foreign 
bureaucracy. The clash has come as 
it was bound to come. The bureau- 
cracy is strengthened and its will for 
power reinforced by racial suggestion 
both from the Anglo-Indians and from 
the governing classes in England. As 
was inevitable the war-mind possesses 

32 



THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA. 

it. To expect it to hearken to argu- 
ment or entreaty is therefore to cry 
for the moon. Once the war-mind 
possesses a class or nation you might 
as well attempt to reason with it as 
attempt to reason with a must 
elephant. The Unconscious has seized 
the reins and the Unconscious of an 
excited class or nation laughs at 
reason, justice and good faith and all 
the ideals of civilization. 

One thing alone it is sensitive — ta 
fear. On the plea of expediency it 
may grant things which it would 
never yield to justice. The suppli- 
cations of Moderates, therefore, will 
however well reasoned, will be refused, 
politely no doubt but none the less 
definitely. But the fear that if it 
pursues in its course of repression and 
political persecution, it may put in 
jeopardy every tie that binds India to 
Great Britain, the dread of a settled 

33 

3 



MIND OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT 

hostility in all the countless hosts of 
India, these may force the Simla 
Government to call a halt. 

The genius of Mahatma Gandhi has 
decided that the movement for Nation- 
al freedom shall be peaceful, and he 
has thus baffled the military party in 
Anglo-India, burning to make use of 
the last inventions in the way of aero- 
planes, machine-guns, rifles and can- 
non. By the very fact, too, of repress- 
ing the natural impulse to violence of 
an oppressed nation, he has strength- 
ened and stabilised the will for free- 
dom. For violence, even if momen- 
tarily successful, brings reaction ; a 
restrained passion by the very nature 
of the restraint becomes as iron and 
granite for strength. Behold, a will 
which never knows defeat. 

On the wise and statesmanlike lines 
adopted let India, then, go forward. Let 
Indians unite still further hand-in- 

34 



THE WAR-MIND OF SIMLA 

hand, let each race, religion join itself 
to others with bands of love, let every 
Indian without exception enlist in the 
national cause, and follow without 
flinching the behests of the national 
leader. So will they form a nation so 
irresistable in strength, so united in 
heart, so firm in their resolve for 
liberty, that the foreign bureaucracy, 
however reluctantly, must yield, and 
yielding unbar the gates which 
tyranny has locked. Then will India 
pass through into the Promised Land, 
like Ireland a Free State, Mistress in 
her own house, an equal nation 
amongst the nations of the earth. 



35 



By James H. Cousins 



Footsleps of Freedom 

A collection of the sketches of the great masters 
of thought such as Edmuntl Burke, John Stuart, 
Mill and others who have valiantly fou2;ht for 
the freedom of the world together with kindred 
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The Renaissance in India 

Ane.Kposirion of the artistic and literary forces 
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Work and Worship 

Essays on Culture and Creative Art 

In ' Work and Worship ' the author shows 
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imposes restraint on the dcFtructive tendencies 
of unchecked growth, and through this restraint 
raises humanity to higher degrees of conscious- 
ness and action. In an analysis of the various 
faculties of humanity through which culture is 
reached, tlv; author sets out by implication the 
basic principles of true cultural education, and 
nakes a strong plea for the arts being given a 
more prominent place in education and life 
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qualities in human beings. Rs 2. 

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In Education and Government by Nripendra 
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The Soul of India (Third Edition). 

A vision of the past arid f uure by Mrs. Sarojini 
Naidu.- A little book in four chapters beautifully 
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The Ethics of Passive Resistance a^. 4. 
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" The war that the peorile of India have declared 
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but necessary incident in freedom's battles, the kill- 
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The Scourge of Christ I 

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I 



To India: 

The Message of the Himalayas 

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The Dawn Over Asia ™ 

Translated from the French by Aurobindo Ghose. 

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To The Nations ■ 

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SIGMIND SAMUEL UBIL\liY