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Mineralogy of Pennsylvania.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Mineralogy of Pennsylvania,
To he luted n* <t Supplement in connection with Dr. fr^. A. (funth's
"Preliminary Report on tlir Mineralogy of Pennsylvania,*'
LIST OF JOURNALS QUOTED IN THIS WORK.
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences.
Proceedings of the Mineralogical and Geological Section of the Academy
of Natural Sciences.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.
American Chemical Journal. '
American Journal of Science.
Reports of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
1. SILVER. (4)i
According to Dr. D. B. Brunncr, traces of silver occur in Berks
countv, at North Reading, in Oley township, and on Cushion
2. COPPER. (4)
Native copper is found on Bingham's farm, three miles north-
east of Monterey Springs, Adams count}*.
3. SULPHUR, (7)
Some good sized masses of sulphur were found by me, several
years ago, at the Ueberroth zine mine, Priedensville, Lehigh Co.,
probably resulting from the dcsulphuration of the sphalerite.
4. GRAPHITE. (8)
Graphite occurs, with gneiss and quartz on A.Johnson's farm
S. E. from Feastcrvillc, Bucks Co., also on the farms of Messrs.
Fegely, Bechtcl and Himmelreich in the vicinity of Boyertown,
at Dr. Punk's fish-pond, on Schneck's farm, in Longs warn p twp.,
at Siesholtzville, at Antietam Lake, and in yellow jasper at the
Kinzi mine, Stony creek, all in Berks Co. I have occasionally
met with graphite, coating the granite at " Marble Hill," oppo-
site Kaston and one mile north of Phillipsburg, N. J.
1 Refers to page in Dr. Genth's Report.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
5. GALEN1TK. (10)
Galcnite occurs in many localities throughout the State. At
one mile N. E. of McConnellstown, Huntingdon Co., it is found
near the contact of the Lewistowti limestone with the underlying
Onondaga shales. According to Dr. Brim nor, it is occasionally
found at Fritz Island, Berks Co.. and associated with sphalerite, it
occurs at Victor Hollow, Georges twp., Fayette Co.
At the Mill view limestone quarry near Forksvilie, Sullivan
Co., in small pieces in the upper layer of the limestone At
Doughty mine, a few miles south of Sunbury, in Northumber-
land Co., it is found in considerable quantity, associated with
sphalerite. This mine was unsuccessfully operated, a few years
ago, by the Susquehanna Mining and Smelting Co.
At a mine near Espy, Columbia Co., small quantities of galen-
iteand sphalerite were formerly mined, and small quantities have
been found near Frystown, York Co.
6. BOHNITR. (12)
Small quantities of bornite have been found at -Fritz Island
mine and at Jones' mine, Berks Co.
7. SPHALERITF. (14.)
ft is occasionally found on Turn's farm, Middle Smithh'eld twp.,
It was formerly mined at the New Britain mine, Bucks Co.,
at the Doughty mine near Sunbury, at Victor Hollow, Fayette
Co., and at the Keystone mines in Sinking 'Valley, Blair Co., at
Herr's Zinc Mine, three miles north from Lancaster.
In the Museum of Lafayette College there is a specimen of
sphalerite with siderite, from Scranton.
8. CHALCOCITE. (10)
Some years ago, I observed a single specimen of chalcocite in
quart/ at the Kcton Whim shaft, near Shannonville. Montgom-
ery ( -o.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
According to P. Frazer, Jr., chalcocite (in ore; occurs at the
Big Hill, Cornwall. Also sparingly at Fritz's Island and at
Jones' Mine, Berks Co.
9. MILLBRITB. (16)
Millerite, in capillary crystals, is found in cavities of dolomite
at the soapstone quarry, at Lafayette, Montgomery Co. (T. D.
10. PYRRHOTITE. (17)
Occurs at Boyertown, Raudenbush mine and Ohlinger dam,
and a nickeliferous variety at Fritztown, Berks Co.
11. PYRITE. (19)
I have seen some remarkably fine stalactical masses of pyrite,
from a limonite mine near Shimersville, Lehigh Co.
It occurs with gneiss at Paxon'sfarm, near Feasterville, Bucks
At Breinig's limonite mine, near Breinigsville, Lehigh Co.
At Cornog's farm, near Cedar Hollow station, Tredyffrin twp.,
Chester Co., imbedded in " bastard " marble.
At VVhiteland station, Chester Co., with "bastard " marble.
I have noticed considerable quantities of pyrite at the Wheat-
field magnetite mine, near Fritztown. Berks Co.
In Blair Co. pyrite occurs associated with sphalerite and gale-
nate at the Keystone zinc mines, near Birmingham.
In York Co. pyrite coated with limonite, two miles from York
Dr. Valentine, of Lebanon, has observed radiating pyrite S.
of the Cornwall banks, Lebanon Co.
I) MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Pine octahedral crystals occur at Boyertown and at Fritz's
Island, Berks Co. and globular radiating specimens are found in
Centre and Windsor townships, (Berks Co.)
" Cubic crystals, from i to 2 inches in diameter, occur loose
in the soil near " Fetter's Mill,' East Whiteland twp."
The finest, best developed and largest crystals of pyrite are
found at the French Creek mines, at St. Peter's, Warwich twp.,
For a detailed crystallographic description of pyrite from this
locality the reader is referred to Mr. Penfield's admirable article
" On some curiously developed pyrite crystals from French Creek,
Delaware (Chester J. E.) Co., Pa." (Am. J. Sci., Vol. 37, March
1889,) and for a general account of the occurrences, to my paper
" On the Mineralogy of the French Creek Mines" (N. Y. Acad. Sci.,
Jan. 14th, 1889.)
12. CHALCOPYRITE. (21)
Associated with azurite and malachite, chalcopyrite was ob-
served by me, some years ago, at the so-called " Copper Mine" a
few miles from Sellersville, Montgomery Co. Also at Boyer-
town, Berks Co., and at the French Creek Mines, St. Peter's,
13. MARCAS1TE. (22.
According to Dr. Brunner, of Reading, this mineral is found
in Berks Co., at Epplcr's quarry, at Leesport and at Fritz Island.
14. FLUORITE. (29)
Fluorite occurs at the Kleckner limestone quarries near Hal-
lietsville, Lehigh Co. Colors: green, purple and pink. Imper-
*MiiM>ralo<ry of French ('reck Mines.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. <
feet octahedral forms were observed. Analyses of purple and
green varieties by Dr. E. F. Smith 1 resulted :
Fe 2 O 3 .trace
Sp. gr. 3.17-3.24.
Purple fluorite, in perfect octahedra, occurs S. of Emaus,
Forming thin films on the limestone it occurs in the Ironton
R. R. Co.'s quarry at Ironton, Lehigh Co.
And massive, of a deep purple color, in the limestone near
the village of Howellville, in Tredyifrin twp., Chester Co.
In cubes of a deep blue color, in the limestone at Leinbach's
Hill and at the " Big Dam " S. of Reading; at Brook's quarry,
N". of Reading; in DeTurk's quarr^, Exeter twp.; at the
Wheatfield mine in amber colored crystals ; at the Fritz Island
mine, and as pale, topaz-colored modified cubes, associated with
calcite, at Fritztown, Berks Co. These latter measuring to f
of an inch in diameter.
15. CUPRITE. (30)
Cuprite occurs sparingly at the Jones Mine and at Boyertown,
Berks Co. I have been unable to obtain specimens from either
1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 272
8 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA.
Bright vermilion, earthy incrustations occur at the gneiss
quarries at Frankford, Philadelphia.
16. MELACONITE. (31)
Five or six years ago, I obtained a specimen of melaconite,
associated with malachite, from Franklintown, Adams Co.
Also occurs sparingly at Jones' Mine, Berks Co.
17. CORUNDUM. (31)
An attempt was made several years ago, at Shimersville, Le-
high Co., to mine corundum. The result, however, was not a
financial success, although a considerable quantity of the mineral
was taken out. I was able to obtain a quantity of fairly well
developed prisms, some of which measured 8 cm by 3 cm .
An analysis by Dr. B. F. Smith 1 resulted :
SiO 2 3.28
H 2 O.... 1.37
A1 2 O 3 85.75
Fe 2 O 3 4.26
Ti() 2 2.74
Sp. gr. 3.898.
18. MENACCANITE. (35)
Occurs massive at George Hammit's quarries, one mile East
of Kdge Hill furnace, Montgomery Co.
In small crystals and granular at the corumdum mine near
Shimersville, Lehigh Co.
1 Am. Clteni. Jour.. V. _'::.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 9
Near Adamstown, Lancaster Co., it is found in large crystals
An analysis by Knerr and Brunner 1 resulted :
SiO 2 0.50
TiO 2 13.31
Fe 2 O 3 53.36
Sp. gr. 4.6.
Near Texas, Lancaster Co., it occurs massive and has been
mined as an ore of iron.
Abundant at the Girard Avenue Bridge tunnel, Fairmount
Park, Philadelphia. One crystal found by Mr. G-. H. Parker is
" quite lustrous in appearance and measures of an inch in
thickness by one inch in width. Its general form is that of an
almost perfect half-circle, the whole being partly imbedded edge-
wise in a matrix of quartz."
19. CHROMITE. (39)
I am indebted to E. Mortimer Bye, Esq., of Wilmington, Del.,
for the following complete statistics of the chrome production :
Lancaster Co. TONS.
1. Wood's Mine, 2 depth 800 200,000
2. Line Pit | ^ Q
3. Jenkins' Mine j
4. Carter's mine 600
5. Rock Spring Mine, (B 41) ....".. 1,000
6. Little Horse Shoe Mine 30
7. Scott's Mine, (W. Nottingham) 6,000
8. Smaller Mines, including " White Barrens," 500
9. Several small pockets ' . . about 200
1 Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 413
2 This mine is said to have netted its owners at least $5,000,000.
10 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Sand or Stream Chrome.
10. E. and W. Nottingham, Chester Co. j
11. And Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. j
12. Middletown twp., Delaware Co t . . . . 500
The total production, therefore, has probably been about
Wood's Mine was opened in 1834 and worked to a depth of
800 feet, when it exhausted, and in 1881 was stripped and aban-
doned. Since then the other mines have been abandoned, and
the United States now receives the majority of its chrome ore
from the Urals in Russia .and from Turkey in Asia.
Chromite also occurs on the Williamson property, Delaware
At Radnor and in Upper Providence, Marple and Newtown
twps., Delaware Co.
In octahedral crystals at Taylor's qurrry, one mile N. of West
20. RUTILE. (44)
Rtitile in quartz occurs near Embreville, Newlin township,
21. PYROLUSITE. (45)
Associated with limonite, this mineral is found at Ray's hill,
near Robinsonville, Monroe twp., Bedford Co.
At Dry Hollow, Huntingdon Co., associated with wad and
On the farm of Jacob Stine, in Upper Milford twp., Lehigh
Co., two miles S. of Macungie. it occurs mixed with limonite,
and ut the village of Mountainville, S. of Allentown, it is found
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 11
in fine crystals coating the interior of the limonite nodules.
An analysis by Dr. E. F. Smith 1 gave
SiO 2 9.93
Fe 2 O 3 4.21
A1 2 O 3 trace
MnO 2 82.66
Mn 3 O 4 3.13
22. TURGITE. (46)
23. GOTHITE. (48)
It is unnecessary to give any localities under these two spe-
cies, both of which are generally associated with limonite, and
as such they may be found at the several hundred mine openings
throughout the counties of Northampton, Lehigh and Berks,
and at the various other limonite mines scattered over the State.
This hydrous iron oxide is found at four localities in Berks
Co., at Flint Hill, Pricetown, Lyons and Fleetwood.
25. BRUCITE. (51)
This mineral is found botryoidal and laminar, at Fritz's Island,
at Ruth's mine, and two miles S, of Sinking Spring, Spring twp.,
Analysis of the brucite from Fritz Island (a) and Sinking
Spring, (b) by Drs. Schoenfield and Smith2 gave
MgO. 66.78 66.19
Fe 2 O 3 0.44 1.68
H 2 O 32.52 31.05
1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 277.
2 Ibid V, 281.
12 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
26. PSILOMELANE. (53)
I have obtained some beautiful stalactitic specimens from the
Bennett mine, one mile S. of South Easton. Large botryoidal
masses of a cobaltifererous variety occur at Wharton's mine,
three miles from Hellertown, Northampton Co.
Considerable quantities have been occasionally met with at
the Ironton Co. Balliet mine, at Tronton, Lehigh Co.
An analysis by Mr. H. Pemberion, Jr., 1 resulted
Manganese binoxide , . ... 84.88
Manganous oxide 3.77
Oxide of cobalt 1.68
Oxide of nickel trace
Water.. . 4.38
Occurs also at the Dry Hollow mine, Huntingdon Co., asso-
ciated with wad and pyrolusite.
In Berks Co. good specimens have been obtained at the Rock-
27. WAD. (53)
1 have observed some beautiful specimens of dendritic wad.
coating the limonite, at the Ackerman mine, S. from Glendon,
Several tons of wad were mined, some years ago, at Great
Bend, Susquehanna Co.
It is found in small quantities in Westfall township, Pike Co.,
and in Bethel and Darby townships, Delaware Co.
1 Second Geological Survey. Vol. PI>, 12.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 13
Reniform wad, coating Pottsville conglomerate at W ray's Hill
tunnel, Huntington Co. and at Dry Hollow mine.
It is also quite abundant at many localities in Venango, Co.
The following are the localities in Berks Co. :
Globular, near Birclsboro ; massive, in the old Oley tunnel
mine; at Lyons, Althouse farm, Maiden Creek ; in mammillary
concretions near the Morgantown road, J mile below Lancaster
I have obtained a specimen of dendritic wad from Cornwall,
It is also found at Hitner's marble quarries, in Plymouth
twp., Montgomery Co., and contains a small percentage of cobalt.
The variety Asbolite occurs at Flouriown, Montgomery Co.,
where it forms an incrustation upon psilomelane.
28. QUARTZ. (55)
Sec. I. Crystalline. Five or six years ago I obtained a very
clear hexagonal crystal, with good faces and termination, at the
Court House grounds, Easton, Pa. The length is about 6i cm -
Many smaller crystals were also found, some of them perfectly
clear. Another good locality in Easton is at the vacant lot at
Northampton and Twelfth streets. I have also observed fine
crystals, in groups, at Flint Hill, near Lcithsville, Northampton
Transparent crystals occur on Lee's farm, S. E. of Friedens-
burg, and in Windsor, Greenwich townships, Berks Co.
Doubly terminated crystals occur at Noll's mine, Fleetwood,
Berks Co. In the same county small crystals are found at Fritz
Island, and at the Crystal Cave. Virginsville. Also near Buffalo
Run, Patton twp., Centre Co.
Drusy quartz, in clusters, occurs at the Barren ridge, near
West Chester, at Birmingham quarries, and at Strode's mill, S.
of West Chester.
Sec. II. Amethystine. Crystals of a deep purple color occur
scattered through the soil from one to one and a half miles S.
of West Chester. In Pennsbury occur brilliant crystals ; on
14 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
the farm of W. Painter the crystals are penetrated by needles
of rutile. Crystals of a good color have been found near Em-
breeville, Chester Co.
Sec. III. Smoky. A short time ago I received a remarkably
clear and well developed crystal 10 cm . in length, said to have
been found in the vicinity of Hellertown, Northampton County.
Crystals also occur in Bethel and Upper Darby townships and
near Glen Riddle, Delaware Co., in Sadsbury, Chester Co., on
Updegrove's farm in Union, on Berg's farm in Albany, in Wind-
sor twp., and on Flint Hill, Berks Co.
Sec. IV. Blue. Blue quartz is found in large masses of a deep
color, two miles N. of Lionville, Chester Co. ; also at Radnor,
Sec. V. Milky. This variety is found in Bethel township, Del-
ware Co., and at Cornwall. Lebanon Co.
Sec. VI. Ohalcedony. Good specimens are found at Texas, Lan-
caster Co., at Fleetwood, Friedensburg, Mertztown and Fritz Is-
land in Berks Co., and near Edgmont, Delaware Co.; at Cornwall,
Lebanon Co., in mammillary and botryoidal forms, of a pale-
brown or greenish color.
Sec. VII. Agate. -In Berks Co. agate occurs at Wernersville,
Bornegratz's, Gottschall's, Flint Hill and Mertztown.
Sec. VIII. Agate-jasper. At all the localities given under Sec.
Sec. IX. Hornstone. This variety is found at Fridensburg,
Sec. X. Jasper. Occurs at all the localities given under Sec.
VII, at Cornwall, Lebanon Co., on the " Barren Ridge," N. from
West Chester, and at "Rock Springs," near Texas, Lancaster Co.
2!>. OPAL. (61)
The variet} T hyalite occurs on gneiss near t lie West Chester turn
pike, YN^illistown township, Chester Co., and of a beautiful light
green color, perfectly transparent, on gneiss, at a quarry on Mill
street, German town.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 15
30. ENSTATITE. (62)
There is a specimen of enstatite in the museum of Lafayette
College, from Newportville, Bucks Co. Also one from Spring
Mill, Montgomer}^ Co.
Enstatite from Rose's quarry, opposite Lafayette, Montgomery
Co. has been analyzed by Mr. H. Trimble 1 who found :
Silicic acid 53.41 53.32
Alumina 2.12 2.13
Ferric oxide 4.66 4.72
Ferrous oxide 5.71 5.71
Manganous oxide 0.87 0.38
Magnesia 32.47 33.72
Also found in West Nottingham twp., Chester Co.
31. PYROXENE. (64)
According to Dr. Brunner, the largest crystals found in Berks
Co. occur at G-ottschall's farm, in Alsace twp.
It is abundant in the vicinity of Antietam Lake and at Ranch's
mine, in Hereford twp.; also at Ohlinger's Dam ; at Eschbach-
ville, Sparr's mine; Boyertown ; Raudenbush mine, Berks Co.,
and two miles from Hosensack station, Lower Milford twp.,
Variety a. Sahlite. An analysis of this variety from Seisholtz-
ville. Berks Co., 1 resulted :
Ferric oxide 0.53
Ferrous oxide 6.02
IGcol. ofPcnn., C6129.
1 Sydney Castle Geol. of Perm., D p. 6.
<> MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
It is slso found massive and crystallized at the French Creek
Mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. Some of these crystals attain a,
length of 42 mm -
b. Mussite. This occurs in East Bradford twp , Chester Co.
c. Augite. In Berks Co. at Babb's tavern and at Ohlingcr mill,
six miles E. of Reading.
d. Pyrallolite. At the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester
Co., massive and occasionally radiating of a light pink color.
Dr. Genth describes this under amphibole (actinolite,) but! pre-
fer, however, to treat it as a distinct species. It occurs in beau-
tiful radiations of a yellowish brown color, two miles N. of Media r
Delaware Co., and at Texas, Lancaster Co.
33. AMPHIBOLE. (66)
a. Actinolite.' Ij&st fall, (Oct. 1888) I discovered some fine
crystals of actinolite associated with tremolite, a few rods N\ W.
of the Electric R. R. car house, College Hill, Easton. Massive; and
crystallized it is found at the following localities in the vicinity
of Easton : Herster's dam H miles W. of the city ; at several talc.
openings along theBushkill creek ; along the Delaware River and
at several places along the Chestnut Ridge N. from the city. Near
the Black Horse tavern, Delaware Co., it occurs glassy, of a deep
green color, in round crystalline masses and also in broad blades
of a light green color, and at the Birmingham quarries S. of West
b. Byssolite. According to Mr. Matters, the superintendent,
I have now in my possession the finest specimen of hyssnlito
taken from the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co
This specimen contains hundreds of perfect needle-like crystals.
many of which are 4'2 mm in length.
It also occurs here, disseminated throughout the calcite. and
for which I have proposed the name " />'//x.W///V i-nlrite" In
MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 17
Berks Co. it is found at Jones' mine (C. M. Wheatley), at Ohling-
er dam, Antietam Lake, Boyertown and in Longswamp twp.
c. Tremolite. Associated with actinolite it is found at all the
Easton localities given above.
d. Asbestus. In short fibre, it occurs at Harman's blacksmith
shop, Warrington twp., York Co. ; in feldspar on M'Elwee's farm
four miles S. E. of Dillsburg, and on M. Elicker's farm five miles
E. of Dillsburg, York Co.
At Cornwall, Lebanon Co., it is found between the Middle and
d. I. Mountain Leather. There is a specimen of this sub-variety
in the Lafayette College museum from Bowertown, Berks Co.
d. II. Mountain Cork. Occurs of a mile N. W. of .Radnor
station, Delaware Co. (Rand.)
34. BERYL. (70)
This mineral is found in Ridley and Springfield townships,
Delaware Co. Dr. Genth mentions a crystal from Chester Co.
weighing 51 Ibs. Mr. Jefferis informs me that it was found at
" Beryl Hill," seven miles W. of West Chester.
35. CHRYSOLITE. (71)
Associated with picrolite it is found two miles E. of Wakefield,
Lancaster Co. In Delaware Co. in the townships of Edgemont
and Middleton. I have noticed this mineral also at Cornwall,
Lebanon Co., where it occurs in small crystals of a brownish
color, associated witja magnetite. In Berks Co. it is found at the
Wheatfield mine, near Fritztown, and at the Fritz Island mine.
This mineral is found 1J miles N. E. of Boyertown, Berks Co.
and as a furnace product, at the Reading sheet mill.
18 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
37. GARNET. (72)
The following localities have been reported to me as "Locali-
ties for garnets." In no case has the variety been given, and 1 am
therefore, obliged to place them under this general heading.
Near Oakford, Bucks Co., at Mathuly mill, near Jenkintown ;
in Berks Co., on V. Hartman's farm, Alsace twp.; at Bishop's mill,
Exeter twp.; in Ruscombmanor twp,, near Pricetown ; at Gott-
schall's mines and at Antietam Lake.
Var. a. G-rossularite. This variety occurs at Leiperville, Del-
b. Almandite. Imperfect crystals are found at Mohr's mine,
near Shimersville, Upper Milford twp., Lehigh Co. An analysis
by.J)r. Smith 1 gave :
SiO 2 ..35.92
A1 2 O 3 19.18 .
Fe 2 O 3 4.92
Sp. gr. 4.03.
An analysis 2 of the variety from Chelsea, Bethel twp., Dohi-
Co., resulted :
A1 2 O' 3 21.00
CaO., . l.S!)
Sp. gr. 4.028.
1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 276.
'2 F. A. <;cnth,.lr..r :,, L18.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 19
Dr. Genth 1 has analyzed the variety from Darby, Delaware
Co., with the following results :
SiO 2 35.97
TiO 2 5.12
A1 2 O 3 18.72
Fe- 2 O 8 1.39
CaO.. . 2:79
Sp. gr. 4.186.
This variety may be identical with the u Titaniferous Garnet"
described and analyzed by Mr. H. A. Keller 2 . His analysis re-
sulted as follows :
Si<) 2 36.92
TiO 2 1.14
Fu 2 O 3 3.74
A1 2 O 3 26.54
CaO ; 2.76
Sp. gr. 4.25.
c. Andradite,. Among a number of minerals sent to me for
examination by Dr. S. G-. Valentine, of Lebanon, I have discov-
ered this variety of garnet. It occurs in quartzose rock at
Cornwall, Lebanon Co.; color brownish red. It is also found at
Spies Church. Alsace twp., Berks Co., and near Hosensack sta-
1 Geol. of Penna., C 5, 114.
2 Pruc. M. & G. Soc., Acad. Natl. S<-i , 1K80, 21.
20 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
tion, Lower Milford twp., Lehigh Co., an analysis of whicb by
Dr. Smith 1 gave :
SiO 2 ... 35.25
Fe 2 O 3 32.17
Color: yellow. Sp. gr. 5.13.
38. ZIRCON. (75)
Small crystals have been found on Jacob Stine's farm in Upper
Milford, two miles S. of Macungie, Lehigh Co.
39. VESUV1ANITE. (77)
This mineral in well developed, terminated prisms of a yellow
color, occurs sparingly at the Fritz Island mine, Berks Co.
40. EPJDOTE. (78)
Associated with molybdenite it is found at Frankford, Phila-
delphia. Also massive in Berks Co. at the following localities :
Fleetwood, Boyertown, Pricetown and Hancock, and in crystals
at Antietam Lake and in Longswamp twp.
41. ALLANITB. (79)
Associated with zircon (in quartz) it is found at Yellow
Springs, Chester Co.
42. ZOISITE. (80)
This mineral is found at the Poor-house quarries, Chester Co. ?
and at Leiperville, Delaware Co.
1 E. F. Smith, Ain. Chem. Jour., V, 277.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 21
The discovery of this rare mineral in this State is due to Prof.
F. Prime, Jr., who brought it to the notice of the late Prof. W.
T. Roepper, whose collection now forms part ot that contained
in the Museum at Lehigh University, at Bethlehem. The crys-
tals, of the usual axe-like shape and generally of small size, were
found in crystalline hornblende at an abandoned ore pit, on a
farm three miles north of Bethlehem, Northampton County.
44. BIOTITB. (83;
This mineral, as a rock-constituent, is found at many localities
in the vicinity of Philadelphia- Two varieties from the vicinity
of Forty-fourth street and Baltimore avenue, have been analyzed
by Dr. G-enth (a) and Mr. F. A. Genth, Jr., (b) 2 . Both varieties
of a brownish-black color.
Ignition 2.97 2.07
Fluorine Not determined.
Silicic acid 36.02 36.19
Titanic acid 2.20 1.68
Alumina 18.95 21.66
Ferric oxide 3.17 2.64
Ferrous oxide 16.44 16.96
Cupric oxide 0.10 trace
Manganous oxide. . . . 0.67 0.52
Magnesia 9.39 9.36
Lithia trace trace
Soda 0.29 0.45
Potash.. . 9.25. . . 8.51
In Berks Co. it occurs near Huff church, a<nd one mile N. E.
1 On crystals of Axinito from a locality near Bethlehe'm, Pa., etc. B. W. Fra/ier Am J
Sci., XXIV, I:!'.'.
2 Gcol. of Penna., (' 6, 181.
22 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA.
45. MUSCOVITE. (84)
Fine specimens, enclosing magnetite, occur at Nottingham,
Chester Co. In Berks Co. it is found at Ohlinger dam, Oley tun-
nel mine, Clymer mine and in rhombohedral crystals (?) at Huff
This mineral, with a number of others, was sent to me for de-
termination. It is found as a deep incrustation upon the quartz-
ore rock at the Big Hill, Cornwall, Lebanon Co. Upon exami-
nation I found it to be lepidolite.
47. YVERNERITE. (86)
Crystals inch in length, of a resinous lustre, occur at Fritz
Island, Berks Co.
There is a specimen of cancrinite in the Museum of the Acad-
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia with the indefinite label
" Chester Co., Pa."
Occurs with corundum \ mile S. of the Black Horse tavern, in
50. OLIGOCLASE. (89)
In Berks Co. it is found at Hill church, at Little dam, at the
Nestor and Gilbert mines, Washington twp., at Siesholtzville,
MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 23
and in Exeter tvvp. The oligoclase from Black Horse tavern
has been analyzed by Dr. Genth 1 who found :
Silicic acid 58.22 58.62
Alumina 22.92 23.55
Ferric oxide 0.17 0.17
Magnesia 25 0.46
Lime 3.02 3.23
Baryta 2.57 2.54
Ignition . . 1.59 1.49
Dr. Genth 2 also analyzed the variety, moonstone, from Scho-
field's farm * mile W. of Elwyn station, Delaware Co.:
Silicic acid 66.24
Ferric oxide trace
Lime ' 1.61
Oligoclase from Van Artsdalen's quarry, Bucks Co., has also
been analyzed by Dr Genth* who found :
Silicic acid 62.58
Ferric oxide 0.23
Lime '.'. ... 4.88
Potash . . 1.04
1 Geol. of Penna., C 5, 116.
2 Ibid C 104.
3 Ibid C 6, 104.
24 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
51. LABRADORITE. (88)
Is found at Antietam Lake and possibly at Ohlinger dam,
52. ORTHOCLASE. (92)
This mineral is found at many localities in Delaware and Ches-
ter Counties, and at Antietam Lake, Ohlinger dam, Huff church,
Mount Penn and Siesholtzville in Berks Co. The latter has
been analyzed Dr. W. P. ELeadden 1 and resulted as follows :
Ferrous oxide 0.62
Dr. Genth and Mr. F. A. Genth, Jr., 2 have analyzed adularia
and red orthoclase from Upper Avondale, Delaware Co.. with
the following results :
a. Red Orthoclase by F. A. Genth, Jr.
b. Adularia by F. A. Genth.
Silicic acid 64.53 65.84
Alumina 19.64 19.50
Ferric oxide trace
Lime 0.16 trace
Soda 1.77. 3.!)3
Potash 13.62 I0.(l!>
Ignition 0.71 0.22.
i. of I'ciiim.. i). p. <;.
2<;<'"|. of iVmui.. C f>, 1 is.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 25
I have observed a very interesting crystalline variety at the
French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. Here it occurs in
radiating columnar crystals of light green to light pink color.
Many of the columnar crystals measure 6 cm in length.
The following is an analysis by Dr. F. A. Genth, Jr. 1 :
SiO 2 ..' 62.68
Fe 2 O 3 0.23
A1 2 3 20.90
Na 2 O None
K 2 O.. ,.15.99
Sp. gr. 2.528. 100.62
53. ALBITB. (91.)
Albite from Lenni, Delaware Co., has been analyzed by Mr.
G. M. Lawrence, 2 who found :
Silicic acid 65.43
Beautiful colorless crystals are found in red orthoclase at Up-
per Avondale, Delaware Co., and an analysis by Dr. Genth 3 re-
Silicic acid ; 68.52
Potash . . 0.65
Sp. gr. 2.604. 100.03
1 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XXIV, 4:-}.
2 Geol. of Penim., C ">, IKi.
:\ Ibid, C 5, 117.
26 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
These crystals are associated with minute but beautifully
modified, colorless and slightly greenish crystals of beryl, crys-
tals of muscovite, black tourmaline and calcite.
In Berks Co., albite occurs at Siesholtzville, Little Dam, Hill
church, and in Exeter and Washington twps. A variety from
S. Dana's place, near Morrisville, Bucks Co., anatyzed by Dr.
Genth, 1 gave :
Silicic acid 67.01
Ferric oxide 0.52
Potash . . 3.30
54. TOURMALINE. (95)
Black tourmaline, in crystals, is found at New Hope, Bucks
Co., and at Rossville, York Co. In Lehigh Co., in large perfect
crystals imbedded in feldspar at the Corundum locality, near
Shimersville ; brown crystals in hornblende, at the Bethlehem
Iron Go's mine H miles N. W. of Shimersville, and of a brownish-
black color on Lehigh Mt., 2 miles south of Allentown.
Dr. Smith 2 has made a partial analysis of the brownish-black
variety from Lehigh Mt., and finds :
SiO 2 ................. 39.41
A1 2 O 3 ................ 19.46
Fe 2 3 ................ 8.44
FeO ................. 7.00
CaO ................ 3.49
MgO ................ 2.14
Ignition ............. 2.19
1 Geol. of Penna.. C 6, 101.
2 Am. Chern. Jour.. V. 27."i.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 27
According to Mr. J. S. Diller 1 this mineral, in square prisms,
occurs in furnace slag near McVille, Armstrong Co.
56. CYANITE. .101)
Of a green color, it occurs near the London Grove Meeting
House, and at a quarry J mile S. of the Poor House quarries,
The only occurrence of this mineral in Pennsylvania is at the
Fritz Island mine S. of Reading.
58. TITANiTE. (102.)
Clove-brown crystals are found in magnetite, 1? miles S. of
Huff's church, Hereford twp., Berks Co., and liver-brown crys-
tals in the hornblende at Tioga station, Philadelphia. Two
analyses of the latter by Dr. G-onth 2 gave :
By Sodium Garb. By Hydrofluoric acid.
Ign 99 87
SiO 2 30.60.. -
TiO 2 37.23 37.02
A1 2 O 8 0.67 0.47
FeO 0.90 0.90
MnO trace trace
MgO ' 0.24 trace
CaO.. ..29.50.. ..29.38
Sp. gr. 3.596.
1 Am. J. Sci., 37, 220.
2Geol. of Penn., C 6, 130.
28 .MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
A dark-brown titanite in well defined crystals, is found 2 miles
from Hosensack station, Lower Milford twp., Lehigh Co., and
has been analyzed by Messrs. Smith and Kncrr2 with the follow-
in g results :
SiO 2 34.S7
Sp. irr. 3.45.
59. STAUROIJTE. (103,)
On the "Barrens" N. of West Chester it is found in small
crystals and at Taylor's quarries one mile N. of West Chester.
60. CHRYSOCOLLA. (104)
This mineral is found sparingly at the PriU Island'inine, Berks
01. NEOLITE. (105)
I have been able to identify this mineral as occurring at the
I>ig Hill," Cornwall, Lebanon Co. Color grayish -white ; struc-
This mineral occurs at the Dry Hollow mine. Huntingdon Co.
On granite.it is found at the rVankl'ord quarries, Philadelphia,
and in gray acicular crystals associated with stillnte. on lime-
stone, it occurs at Ilosensafk station, Lehigh Co.
1 Am. Clu'in. .Imir.. VI. 11'^.
MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 29
An analysis of this latter mineral has been made by Messrs.
Smith and Knerri with the following result :
SiO 2 .... ...55.17
Fe 2 O B 0.80
K 2 0.37
H 2 O... . 4.63
Sp. gr. 2.6.
64. CALAMINE. (106)
Last summer (1888), I obtained some good crystals of a dark
brown color on limonite and coating the interior of geodes, from
an abandoned mine shaft on the land of S. von Steuben, i mile
W. of Dryland station, Northampton Co.
At the Keystone Zinc mine, near Birmingham, Blair Co., it is
found associated with sphalerite and galenite. Several years
ago I analyzed the calami ne from the Ueberroth mine, Frie-
densville, Lehigh Co., which I append herewith, as I believe this
to be the first published analysis of calamine from this old and
Si 2 O 3 '.24.32
Fe 2 O 3 2.12
H 2 7.86
ZnO. . ..65.05
65. APOPHYLLITE. (106)
Fine crystals of apophyllite are found at the French Creek
mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co., where th<y occur in large
groups,, some of which measure two feet square. I have some
1 E. F. Smith and E. B. Knerr, Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 411.
30 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA.
very perfect crystals which measure 14 mm , and figures like fig.
387 in Dana are frequently met with.
An analysis of very pure material afforded me (a)
SiO 2 51.63 51.88
CaO 25.42 25.31
K 2 O 6.27 6.30
H 2 O., ,.16.58.. ..16.80
Dr. Smith 1 (b) has also analyzed this mineral and I add his
results for comparison.
Mr. B. Sadtler, Jr., 2 gives an analysis of this mineral from Fritz
Island. Crystals colorless and of pearly lustre.
H 2 O 16.75
SiO 2 51.02
Fe 2 O 3 1.49
K 2 5.87
Fl... . 0.40
H. 4 to 4-5, Sp. gr. 2.5.
66. ALLOPHANE. (107)
As white, mammillary and stalactical incrustations on limon-
ite, it found near the village of Ballietsville 7 miles from Allen-
town, Lehigh Co. An analysis by Dr. Smith 3 afforded :
H 2 O 40.8(5
A1 2 <) 3 35.20
CaCO 3 (MgCO 3 ) . 1.96
1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., VI. II"..
2 B F. Sadtler, Jr., Ibid IV, :',.Y7.
3 E. F. Smith, Ibid V, 272.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 31
67. MESOLITE. (308)
No new localities of this zeolite have been reported since the
publication of Dr. Genth's report. I append herewith an analysis
of the Fritz Island mineral made by Mr. B. Sadtler, Jr. 1 :
H 2 16.01
Fe 2 O 3 trace.
A12Q 3 25.02
Na 2 3.40
H. 2-5 to 3. Sp. gr. 2.4.
At Cornwall, Lebanon Co., there occurs a greenish-white min-
eral in cavities in the magnetite, which I have carefully
examined and which proves to be analcite. On account of the
limited quantity of mineral I was unable to make a complete
quantitative analysis. It is also found at the Flails of the Schuyl-
kill, near Philadelphia.
69. CHABAZITE. (108)
A few small crystals have been found in the quarries at Leiper-
ville, Delaware Co. According to Mr. Lewis Palmer it occurs in
red crystals in a hornblendic gniess at Waterville, near Chester,
and at Upland, Delaware Co.
Mr. Sadtler 2 gives an analysis of colorless crystals of a vitreous
lustre, from the Fritz Island mine, Berks Co. :
H 2 O 20.21
SiO 2 50.28
A1 2 3 17.83
Na 2 O 2.43
K 2 6 2.40
Fc 2 O 3 trace
H. 4. Sp. gr. 2.3. 100.33
1 B. Sadtler, Jr., Am. Chem. Jour., IV, 356.
2 B. Sadtler, Jr., Ibid IV, 357.
32 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
70. STILBITE. (109)
I have been able to obtain some very good crystals of this
mineral from St. Peter's, Chester Co., where it occurs very spar-
ingly, lining cavities and generally associated with calcite. Some
of the largest crystals measure 35 mm .
An analysis of some pure material gave me:
SiO 2 58.00
A1 2 O 3 ; . .13.40
Fe 2 O 3 trace
K 2 O ,1.03
Na 2 O trace
H 2 O . . , . 18.30
It is found on gniess at the quarry Forty-ninth and Leiper
streets, Frankford ; at Ridley, Delaware Co., and in Berks Co.,
at the following localities: Jones' mine, Wheatfield mine, Rau-
denbush mine, and in radiating crystalline masses S. of Boyer-
town and at Ohlinger dam.
In Lehigh Co. it is found in large globular radiating concre-
tions upon the limestone on the farm of Jacob Schell, near II o-
sensack station. An analysis by Dr. Smith 1 gave :
SiO 2 55.31
A1 2 O 3 14.88
Na 2 O 1.66
H 2 O 18.47
Sp. gr. 2.21.
1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V, 227.
2 I have added this quantity, having been omitted by the printer <>!' th<- A. ('. .1.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 33
Messrs. Brunner and Smithi have analyzed this mineral from
the VVbeatfield mines, near Fritztown, where it occurs in ra-
diating, fibrous, pearly white masses upon a trap rock.
H 2 19.42
SiO 2 57.49
A1 2 O 3 13.03
Na 2 O.. . 1.36
Stilbite from Raudenbush and Fegley's mine, Berks Co., has
been analyzed with the following results :
AJ 2 O 3 ....
. . 9.82.
1 38 j
K 9 O
Na 2 O . .
. . trace . .
. . trace
99.78 99.47 99.84
a and b Raudenbush, by Mr. P. P. Davidson. 2
c Fegley's Mine, by Messrs. Hoskinson and Brunner. 3
71. HEULANDITB. (110)
This zeolite, rather rare in Pennsylvania, is found associated
with quartz, calcite. hornblende, etc., near Adarnstown, Lancas-
1 D. B. Brunner and E F. Smith, Am. Chcm* Jour., V, 2 SO.
2 Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 414.
3 Jldd VI, 4 M.
34 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
ter Co. The crystals show the following planes : ooP, (ooPoo),
P, P, 2 Poo, (2 Poo), (Poo) An analysis by Messrs. Knerr
and Schoenfeld 1 afforded :
II 2 O 16.61
SiO 2 57.68
A1 2 O 3 17.05
Sp. gr. 2.2. 99.94
72. TALC. (113)
Large quantities of talc are mined in the counties* of Delaware.
Chester, Lancaster and Northampton. The so-called "light-
green variety of serpentine" found near Easton proves, upon
examination, to be talc.
73 PYROPHYLLITE. (Ill)
This mineral is found in the coal slates at the North Mahanoy
colliery, near Mahanoy City, Schuylkill Co.
(74.) SRHPENTINE. (113)
Mr. II. F. Keller- has analyzed two specimens of serpentine
from Berks Co., with the following results :
Ruth's Mine. Whcatfield Mine.
Silicic oxide 42.14 41.46
Ferrous oxide 2.06 0.99
Magnesium oxide 41.61 44.68
Calcium oxide trace
Water 14.20 14.07
1 1C. B. KiiemiiHl .}. Schoenfeld, Ibid VI, 412.
2 Froc. Am. I'hil Soc., XXIII, -12.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 35
Dr. Valentine sent me a greenish, earthy mineral, which he
found associated with the magnetite, at Big Hill, Cornwall,
Lebanon Co. Upon examination I found it to be chloropal.
On Lehigh Mt., S. of Allentown, this mineral is found at many
of the " search " pits dug in searching for limonite. In the
American Chemical Journal, Vol. V, p. 278, Dr. E. F. Smith
gives twelve analyses of this mineral, four of which are here
H 2 O 19.61 20.79
SiO 2 40.20 41.16
Fe 2 O 3 39.52 30.79
FeO 0.40 0.21
P 2 O 5 trace A1 2 O 3 . . 2.05
K 2 O... " 4.54
H 2 O 19.27 .- . 17.71
SiO 2 42.37 43.54
Fe 2 O 3 38.17 39.52
P 2 O 5 " 100.77
In Berks Co. it is found in the neighborhood of Longswamp
76. GLAUCONITE. (113)
Lining cavities in feldspar, it is found at the French Creek
36 . MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. An analysis by Messrs. Knerr
and Schoenfeld 1 resulted :
. , .. 8.43
. . . .52.86
Al 2 0s
Fe 2 O 8
. . . . 7.20
. . . . 19.48
. . . . 2.90
. . . . trace
K 2 ,
. . 2.23
Na 2 O
. . . . trace
Sp. gr. 2:2.
This mineral of grass-blue or green color in verruciform incrus-
tations of fine scales and resinous lustre is found at Leiperville,
Delaware Co. Named after the eminent anatomist Dr. Joseph
Tjcidy. It lias heen analyzed by Dr. Koenig 2 who found :
SiO 2 51.41
A1 2 O 3 16.82
78 DKWEYLITK. (117)
This mineral is found at Ruth's mine, in Berks Co., and at
Brinton's quarry, S. of West Chester, Chester Co. The former
1 E. B. Knerr and J. Schoenfold, Am. Chem. .Four., VI, 412
2G. A. K<rui<:, I'ror. Afad Ntl. Sci , isT.s, si
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 37
mineral has been analyzed by Messrs. Brunner and Smith 1 with
the following results :
H 2 O . .' 19.49 19.03
SiO 2 45.65 .42.34
Fe 2 O 3 .. 0.20 1.39
MgO ...34.38 36.77
CaO . . ..trace.. ..trace
Mr. H. F. Keller2 has' analyzed a yellow variety of waxy
Silicic oxide 39.32
Ferrous oxide 0.51
Calcium oxide trace
Magnesium oxide . 4 ..... .41.14
79. GENTHITE. (117)
There is a very interesting locality for this nickel silicate at a
few hundred feet N. of the steatite quarry at Lafayette, Mont-
gomery Co. Hero it occurs on an actinolite rock in thin coat-
ings, which, under the microscope, show the mammillary and
stalactitic structure characteristic of the species.
80. AQUACREPTITE. (122.)
This mineral is found in partially decomposed gneiss on Lans-
downc Ave., 1J miles W. of Hestonville, Philadelphia.
1 D. B. Brunner and E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V, 280.
2 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XXIII, 41.
38 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
In irregular masses of pale green color in orthoclase, this
mineral occurs at MeKinney's quarry, Kitten house street and
at Xester & Shelmire's quarry on Wayne street, Germantown.
82. DAMOURITE. (122.)
In Berks Co. this mineral is found at the Wheatfield mine,
Merkle farm, Oley twp., Fox's farm, Rnscombmanor twp., and
of a yellowish green color at the Rockland Forges.
83. HISINGBRITE. (128.)
The variety. Degerwite, is found at the Dry Hollow mine,
84. PENNINITE. (130)
Kammererite is found at the Wheatfield mine, near Kritztown,
85. RIPIDOLITE. (131)
This mineral occurs, associated with magnetite, at the Corn-
wall mines, Lebanon Co., and in Berks Co. at the Fritz Island
and Jones mines.
This vermiculite occurs at three localities in Philadelphia, (a)
near Wayne station, on the Germantown R. R., (b) at McKin-
ney's quarry, on Wayne street, and in Germantown. It is found
in plates of brown color in seams in an altered hornblende.
1 Proc. M. & G. Soo., Acad. Natl. Sci., 1877-7H, p. 71.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 39
Analyses by Mr. Haines (a) and the late Prof. H. Carvill
Lewis (b) gave :
SiO 2 38.79 35.73
TiO 2 1.03
A1 2 O 3 14.78 15.77
Fe 2 O 3 . .-. 20.30 19.46
V~ 2 O 3 0.37
FeO 2.04 2.18
NiO ) 0.06
MgO 11.40 11.56
CaO 1.03 1.46
Na 2 O 0.77 0.90
Li 2 O trace
K 2 O 6.75 6.81
P 2 O 5 0.11
H 2 SO 4 trace
H 2 O 4.27 4.34
Sp. gr. (in alcohol) 2.782.96.
87. COLUMBITE. (137)
A beautiful doubly-terminated crystal, 1 of an inch in length
by \ an inch in width, of a black color, was found in 1882 at the
Mineral Hill locality, Delaware Co.
Last Fall this mineral was sent to me for identification and
upon examination, I found it to be the very rare mineral,
euxenite. It is an imperfect crystal about f of an inch in length,
and of a brownish black color. I have been unable to ascertain
the exact locality.
40 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
89. APATITE. (138)
This lime phosphate is found at Ridley, Delaware Co.. and at
Ruth's mine in Berks Co.
This cobalt arsenate occurs sparingly, generally forming an
incrustation upon the pyroxene and calcite, at the French Creek
mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. At the Wheatley lead mines 2
miles S. of Phoenixville, Chester Co., it is found in veins and in-
crustations, which, under the microscope, show minute globular
crystals. The latter locality was discovered by Mr. L. Woolman.
These two localities are the only ones, so far recorded, in North
91. WAVELLITB. (142)
I have observed this mineral in botryoidal and hemispherical
masses at the Wheatley lead mines 2? miles S. of Phoenixville,
Chester Co. It is occasionally found at the Whcatficld mine,
Berks Co. In beautiful, colorless, radiating nodules, on limonite,
it is found on the farm of Jacob Stine, in Upper Milford,
two miles S. of Macungie, Lehigh Co- Dr. Smith 1 has analyzed
this mineral with the following result :
A1 2 O 3 36.66
P 2 O 5 34.14
H 2 O 28.32
Limonite. . . 0.60
These two hydrous phosphates are found at the Dry Hollow
mine, Huntingdon Co.
1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V. 273.
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
94. AUTUNITE. (144)
This uranium-lime phosphate is found on orthoclase at Avon-
dale, Delaware Co.
95. BAR1TE. (145)
This mineral is found at many localities throughout the State.
In Huntingdon Co on the Broad Top Mountain ; in Franklin
Co. on Hoving's farm, 3 miles S. E. of and 3 miles N. E. of
Waynesboro', and in large white cleavable masses at Lancaster
station ; in Blair Co., associated with galenite and sphalerite, at
the Keystone zinc mine, near Birmingham; in Fulton Co. at
Dyson Fraker's farm, near Fort Littleton ; in Berks Co. at Alt.
^Etna, in Tulpehocken twp. ; in Bedford Co., in small tubular
crystals at Bridgeport.
The following analyses of barite were made at the Laboratory
of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania :
Sulphate of baryta
Sulphate of strontia
Oxide of iron and alumina
Oxide of Manganese
. . . none
none. . .
. . 0.14
. . trace
, . . . trace
. ... 0.08.
. .. 0.32....
99.75 99.65 99.90 99.32 100.10
a and b near Fort Littleton, Montgomery Co.
c Sinking Valley, Blair Co.
d and e near Waynesboro', Franklin Co.
In Montgomery Co. it occurs at Hitner's marble quarries, in
Plymouth twp., and at the Ecton mine, near Shannonville.
96. GYPSUM. (148)
I have observed gypsum in tabular crystals and massive in the
42 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
cavities of limestone at Smith's quarry, Bushkill creek, Easton.
Beautiful hexagonal crystals are found at Jones' mine, at Bush-
ong's mine, and at Boyertown, Berks Co., and as an efflorescnce
upon gniess at Darby, Delaware Co.
97. BPSOMITE. (148)
In small, colorless, acicular crystals it occurs at Sideling Hill
tunnel, E. Broad Top R. R.. Huntingdon Co.
98. ALU^OGEN. (150)
This hydrous alumina sulphate is found along the banks of a
small stream in the valley near Mahanoy City, Schuylkill Co.
In fine incrustations on hornblendic gniess on the river drive
below " Strawberry Mansion," Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.
This mineral is found at the same locality as alungen (Maha-
101. CALCITE. (152)
This species is very widely distributed throughout the State,
and on account of its very frequent occurrence it is seldom
reported. The majority of the localities have already been de-
scribed by Dr. Genth. Fine crystals, of the scalenohedron vari-
ety, called dog-tooth spar, occur in Berks Co. at Fritz Island, Big
Dam and Luckenbill's cave. I have obtained the following va-
rieties at the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co.:
Dog-tooth spar, fine transparent crystals of light yellow color.
Iceland spar, some of which is equal to that from Rossie, N. Y.,
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 43
and large single rhombohedra quite transparent and of dark
yellow color. These latter generally occur on the apophyllite.
Other localities in Berks Co. are Siesholtzville, Shellington,
Wernersville, Wheatfield mine, Boyertown, and a pink variety
in blue quartz on Leinbach's hill W. of Reading; and at Adams-
town, Lancaster Co., associated with heulandite.
102. DOLOMITE. (154)
In small rhombs incrusting limestone, this mineral is sometimes
met with at the Ueberroth zinc mine, Friedensville, Lehigh Co.
103. MAGNESITE. (158)
This mineral is found at Spangsville, Earl twp., Berks Co., and
in chlorite schist mile S. of Paoli, Chester Co.
104. SIDERITE. (159)
Siderite as an ore is found at the Barber mine S. of Alburtis,
Lehigh Co., and has been analyzed by Mr. M'Creath and found
to contain ;
Ferrous oxide 45.064
Ferric oxide 1.553
Bisulphide of iron 0.457
Oxide of maganese 1.150
Alumina , .' 1.643
Carbonic acid 29.330
Phosphoric acid 0.142
Sulphuric acid , 0.061
Insoluble residue. . ,.17.575
44 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
In Springfield twp., Montgomery Co., associated with talc and
magnetite. Near Mechanicsville, Clarion Co., small crystals are
found coating the interior of geodes. In Berks Co. at the
Weaver mine in Oley twp., and in fine crystals in the interior of
nodules of amorphous siderite at Dunbar, Fayette Co.
105. ARAGONITE. (162)
Associated with deweylite and serpentine, it is found at Ruth's
mine; abundantly in small crystals and fibrous stalactites at the
Crystal cave, Virginsville, and at the Wheatfield mine, Berks
Co., and very rarely in fine groups of radiating acicular crystals
at Cornwall, Lebanon Co. In silky snow white masses and fibres
associated with serpentine, it is found at Sherrer's talc quarry
on the Delaware road one mile north of Easton.
106. HYDROMAGNESITE. (164)
This mineral, associated with brucite, is found at Sinking
Spring, Spring twp., Berks Co., and at Carter's chrome mine,
Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co.
This beautiful mineral is found at Jones' mine and at the Fritz
Island mine, Berks Co.
108. MALACHITE. (166)
This copper carbonate is quite abundant in many localities
along the Triassic red sandstone belt, which crosses the south
eastern portion of the State.
I have a very fine specimen of malachite, with quart/,, which
was found a number of years ago at Flint Hill, Lower Saucon
twp., Northampton Co.
A few months ago I found this mineral as an incrustation upon
MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 45
the conglomerate, a short distance from Leithsville, Lower Sau-
con twp., Northampton County. It was formerly mined at this
locality and a considerable quantity taken out; however, on ac-
count of the small percentage of copper (If), it was not a finan-
cial success, and the mine was abandoned. In York Co. it occurs
at Altland's mine 2? miles S. W. of Wellsville ; in Adams Co.,
with epidote at BechteFs opening, Hamilton twp. ; at Bonnough-
ton, at Mills' mine 1$ miles N. E. of Fairhill ; on argillaceous
sand rock 1 miles S. W. of Fairfield ; on pophyry H miles S.
E. of D. Snyder's farm, and near Waynesboro ; in Nicholson
twp., Wyoming Co. ; in Pike Co. small quantities of malachite
and sphalerite are found in Middle Smithfield twp.; in Berks
Co., at the Wheatfield mine, near Fritztown, at the " Big Dam,"
3 miles S. of Eeading; at Snydersville in Exeter twp., and near
Bernsville. Some good specimens have been obtained at the
French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co.
109. AZURITE, (167.)
At the Upper Salford mine in Montgomery Co., and with chal-
copyrite and malachite, it is found near Sellersville. Associated
with native copper and chrysocolla, it is found on Benchoff's
farm on the Emrnettsburg turnpike, near Fairfield, Adams Co.
This hydrous uranium-lime carbonate is found at a quarry in
Frank ford, Philadelphia, N. E. of Adams street.
111. LANSFORDITE 1 n. sp.
This new species, a hydrous magnesium carbonate, was found
stalactical in an anthracite mine at Lansford, near Tamaqua,
1 P. A. Genth, Zeit. f. Kryst, XIV, 255.
46 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Schuylkill Co. The mineral is translucent and resembles paraf-
fine ; structure crystalline ; lustre, vitreous.
Hardness 2-5. Sp. gr. 1.54-1.692.
CO 2 18.90
H 2 O.. ..57.79
This hydro-carbon compound was obtained from an excavation
near the court-house at Scranton, Lackawanna Co., and is de-
scribed by Prof. H. C. Lewis in the Proc. Min. Geol. Sec. Acad.
Natl. Sci., 1880-81, 19.
Page 2, second line under sulphur, for zinc read zinc.
" 12, second line under pyrite, for " galenate" read galenite.
" 13, eleventh line from bottom, for Windsor, Greenwich
read Windsor and Greenwich.
". 13, first line from bottom, for crystals on read crystals
" 22, second line under lepidolite, for quartzore read quartzoso.
SHOWING THE AVAILIBILITY OF THE VARIOUS MINERALS AT
THE PRINCIPAL MINES.
1 indicates, poor specimens may be obtained from the waste
2 indicates, fair specimens may be obtained.
3 indicates, good specimens may be obtained, as the mine is
Z indicates, the mine produced principally zinc ores.
SLi Silver-lead ores. Ch chrome ores. Cr corundum. L lead
ores. I iron ores. Co cobalt. C copper ores. N nickel.
a indicates the shaft has fallen in.
b indicates the mine is filled with water.
lb Bamford mine. Z 1 miles from Landisville, Lancaster Co.
lb Brookdalc mine. SL 2 miles S. of Phoenixville.
Sb Carter's mine. Ch Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co.
a Charlestown mine. SLi 3<} miles S. W. of Phoenixville.
la Chester Co. mine. SLi south of Phcenixvillc.
3 Cornwall ore banks. 1C Lebanon Co.
2ab Ecton mine. LZ Shannonville, Montgomery Co.
1 Elliott's mine. Cr Ncwlin twp., Chester Co.
3 French Creek mines. 1C Warwick twp., Chester Co.
2b Fritz Island mine. I south of Readfng.
3 Gap mine. N C Co. Bart twp., Lancaster Co.
2b Jones' mine. 1C near Joanna, Berks Co.
lb Keystone mine. ZL Birmingham, Blair Co.
la Line Pit. Ch Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co.
lb New Britain mine LZ Bucks Co.
1 Pequea mine. LZ south of Lancaster.
ab Pcrkiomen mine. C Shannonville, Montgomery Co.
lb Phillips' mine. Ch W. Nottingham, Chester Co.
lb Phoenix mine. SLZ south of Phoenixville.
48 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
la Scott's mine. Ch W. Nottingham, Chester Co.
2 Susquehanna M. & S. Go's mine. ZL Sunbury.
3 Ueberroth mine. Z Friedensville, Lehigh Co.
lb Wheatfield mine. I near Fritztown, Berks Co.
lb Wheatley mine. SLCZ south of Phoenixville.
lab Wood's mine. GhN Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co.
TO MINERAL SPECIES, ANALYSES AND COUNTIES.
Adams Co 3, 8, 45
Agate-jasper , 14
Analysis of Albite 25
" Almandite 18
" Andradite 20
" Apophyllite 30
Barite '. 41
" Deweylite 37
Garnet 18, 19
" Glauconite 36
" Lansfordite 46
u Moonstone 23
Analysis of Orthoclase 24
Titaniferous garnet 1!)
Tilanite 27, >'
Armstrong Co 27
Azurite ... 45
Bedford Co '. 10,41
Berks Co 3,4,5,6,7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 17, 18,19,20,21,22,24, 2<i,
27, 28,30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
Blair Co , 4,5,29,41
Blue quartz 14
Bucks Co 3,4,5,15,23,26
Byssolitic calcite 1<>
Centre Co 13
Chabazite , 31
Chester Co..5, 6, 7, 9, 10* 13, 14, 15, 1 6, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 45
Chromite .... 9
Clarion Co 44
Columbia Co 4
Delaware Co 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39. 40, 41, 42
Dog-tooth Spar 42
Dopplerite . 46
Franklin Co 41
Fulton Co 41
Garnet 18, 19, 20
Heulandite ; .., 33
Huntingdon Co 4, 10, 12, 13, 28, 38, 40, 41, 42
Iceland Spar 42
Lackawanna Co 4, 46
Lancaster Co 4, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 33, 34, 41. 43, 44
Lebanon Co 5, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 28, 31, 35, 38, 41
Lehigh Co 3,5,6, 8, 10,11, 12,15,20,26,28,29,30,32,40,43
Menaccanite < 8
Milky quartz 14
Monroe Co 4
Montgomery Co 4, 5, 6, 8, 15, 37, 44, 45
Mountain cttrk 17
Mountain leather 17
New Jersey 3
New York... 42
Northampton Co 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 21, 29, 34, 42, 44, 45
Northumberland Co 4
Orthoclase i 24
Philadelphia Co 8, 9, 20. 21, 27, 28,31, 32, 37, 38, 42, 45
Pike Co 12, 45
Pottsville conglomerate 13
Pyrolusite . 10
Schuylkill Co 42, 46
Smoky quartz 14
Stilbite : 32
Sullivan Co 4
Susquehanna Co 12
Turgite , 11