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Full text of "The mineralogy of Pennsylvania"

8061 '12 W Itfd 
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THE 



Mineralogy of Pennsylvania. 



THE 

MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



TIKIS 



Mineralogy of Pennsylvania, 



BY 



JOHN EYERMAN. 



PART I. 

To he luted n* <t Supplement in connection with Dr. fr^. A. (funth's 
"Preliminary Report on tlir Mineralogy of Pennsylvania,*' 

(1875.) 



BASTON, PA.: 

1889. 



LIST OF JOURNALS QUOTED IN THIS WORK. 



Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Proceedings of the Mineralogical and Geological Section of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

American Chemical Journal. ' 

American Journal of Science. 

Reports of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



1. SILVER. (4)i 

According to Dr. D. B. Brunncr, traces of silver occur in Berks 
countv, at North Reading, in Oley township, and on Cushion 
Mt. 

2. COPPER. (4) 

Native copper is found on Bingham's farm, three miles north- 
east of Monterey Springs, Adams count}*. 

3. SULPHUR, (7) 

Some good sized masses of sulphur were found by me, several 
years ago, at the Ueberroth zine mine, Priedensville, Lehigh Co., 
probably resulting from the dcsulphuration of the sphalerite. 



4. GRAPHITE. (8) 

Graphite occurs, with gneiss and quartz on A.Johnson's farm 
S. E. from Feastcrvillc, Bucks Co., also on the farms of Messrs. 
Fegely, Bechtcl and Himmelreich in the vicinity of Boyertown, 
at Dr. Punk's fish-pond, on Schneck's farm, in Longs warn p twp., 
at Siesholtzville, at Antietam Lake, and in yellow jasper at the 
Kinzi mine, Stony creek, all in Berks Co. I have occasionally 
met with graphite, coating the granite at " Marble Hill," oppo- 
site Kaston and one mile north of Phillipsburg, N. J. 

1 Refers to page in Dr. Genth's Report. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

5. GALEN1TK. (10) 

Galcnite occurs in many localities throughout the State. At 
one mile N. E. of McConnellstown, Huntingdon Co., it is found 
near the contact of the Lewistowti limestone with the underlying 
Onondaga shales. According to Dr. Brim nor, it is occasionally 
found at Fritz Island, Berks Co.. and associated with sphalerite, it 
occurs at Victor Hollow, Georges twp., Fayette Co. 

At the Mill view limestone quarry near Forksvilie, Sullivan 
Co., in small pieces in the upper layer of the limestone At 
Doughty mine, a few miles south of Sunbury, in Northumber- 
land Co., it is found in considerable quantity, associated with 
sphalerite. This mine was unsuccessfully operated, a few years 
ago, by the Susquehanna Mining and Smelting Co. 

At a mine near Espy, Columbia Co., small quantities of galen- 
iteand sphalerite were formerly mined, and small quantities have 
been found near Frystown, York Co. 

6. BOHNITR. (12) 

Small quantities of bornite have been found at -Fritz Island 
mine and at Jones' mine, Berks Co. 

7. SPHALERITF. (14.) 

ft is occasionally found on Turn's farm, Middle Smithh'eld twp., 
Monroe Co. 

It was formerly mined at the New Britain mine, Bucks Co., 
at the Doughty mine near Sunbury, at Victor Hollow, Fayette 
Co., and at the Keystone mines in Sinking 'Valley, Blair Co., at 
Herr's Zinc Mine, three miles north from Lancaster. 

In the Museum of Lafayette College there is a specimen of 
sphalerite with siderite, from Scranton. 

8. CHALCOCITE. (10) 

Some years ago, I observed a single specimen of chalcocite in 
quart/ at the Kcton Whim shaft, near Shannonville. Montgom- 
ery ( -o. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



According to P. Frazer, Jr., chalcocite (in ore; occurs at the 
Big Hill, Cornwall. Also sparingly at Fritz's Island and at 
Jones' Mine, Berks Co. 



9. MILLBRITB. (16) 

Millerite, in capillary crystals, is found in cavities of dolomite 
at the soapstone quarry, at Lafayette, Montgomery Co. (T. D. 
Rand.) 



10. PYRRHOTITE. (17) 

Occurs at Boyertown, Raudenbush mine and Ohlinger dam, 
and a nickeliferous variety at Fritztown, Berks Co. 



11. PYRITE. (19) 

I have seen some remarkably fine stalactical masses of pyrite, 
from a limonite mine near Shimersville, Lehigh Co. 

It occurs with gneiss at Paxon'sfarm, near Feasterville, Bucks 
Co. 

At Breinig's limonite mine, near Breinigsville, Lehigh Co. 

At Cornog's farm, near Cedar Hollow station, Tredyffrin twp., 
Chester Co., imbedded in " bastard " marble. 

At VVhiteland station, Chester Co., with "bastard " marble. 

I have noticed considerable quantities of pyrite at the Wheat- 
field magnetite mine, near Fritztown. Berks Co. 

In Blair Co. pyrite occurs associated with sphalerite and gale- 
nate at the Keystone zinc mines, near Birmingham. 

In York Co. pyrite coated with limonite, two miles from York 
city. 

Dr. Valentine, of Lebanon, has observed radiating pyrite S. 
of the Cornwall banks, Lebanon Co. 



I) MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Pine octahedral crystals occur at Boyertown and at Fritz's 
Island, Berks Co. and globular radiating specimens are found in 
Centre and Windsor townships, (Berks Co.) 

" Cubic crystals, from i to 2 inches in diameter, occur loose 
in the soil near " Fetter's Mill,' East Whiteland twp." 

The finest, best developed and largest crystals of pyrite are 
found at the French Creek mines, at St. Peter's, Warwich twp., 
Chester Co. 

For a detailed crystallographic description of pyrite from this 
locality the reader is referred to Mr. Penfield's admirable article 
" On some curiously developed pyrite crystals from French Creek, 
Delaware (Chester J. E.) Co., Pa." (Am. J. Sci., Vol. 37, March 
1889,) and for a general account of the occurrences, to my paper 
" On the Mineralogy of the French Creek Mines" (N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
Jan. 14th, 1889.) 



12. CHALCOPYRITE. (21) 

Associated with azurite and malachite, chalcopyrite was ob- 
served by me, some years ago, at the so-called " Copper Mine" a 
few miles from Sellersville, Montgomery Co. Also at Boyer- 
town, Berks Co., and at the French Creek Mines, St. Peter's, 
Chester Co.* 



13. MARCAS1TE. (22. 

According to Dr. Brunner, of Reading, this mineral is found 
in Berks Co., at Epplcr's quarry, at Leesport and at Fritz Island. 



14. FLUORITE. (29) 

Fluorite occurs at the Kleckner limestone quarries near Hal- 
lietsville, Lehigh Co. Colors: green, purple and pink. Imper- 

*MiiM>ralo<ry of French ('reck Mines. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. < 

feet octahedral forms were observed. Analyses of purple and 
green varieties by Dr. E. F. Smith 1 resulted : 

Purple Variety. 

Fl 49.20 

Ca 50.87 

trace 



100.07 

Green variety. 

Fl 49.00 

Ca 50.91 

Fe 2 O 3 .trace 



99.91 
Sp. gr. 3.17-3.24. 

Purple fluorite, in perfect octahedra, occurs S. of Emaus, 
Lehigh Co. 

Forming thin films on the limestone it occurs in the Ironton 
R. R. Co.'s quarry at Ironton, Lehigh Co. 

And massive, of a deep purple color, in the limestone near 
the village of Howellville, in Tredyifrin twp., Chester Co. 

In cubes of a deep blue color, in the limestone at Leinbach's 
Hill and at the " Big Dam " S. of Reading; at Brook's quarry, 
N". of Reading; in DeTurk's quarr^, Exeter twp.; at the 
Wheatfield mine in amber colored crystals ; at the Fritz Island 
mine, and as pale, topaz-colored modified cubes, associated with 
calcite, at Fritztown, Berks Co. These latter measuring to f 
of an inch in diameter. 



15. CUPRITE. (30) 

Cuprite occurs sparingly at the Jones Mine and at Boyertown, 
Berks Co. I have been unable to obtain specimens from either 
place. 

1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 272 



8 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

Bright vermilion, earthy incrustations occur at the gneiss 
quarries at Frankford, Philadelphia. 



16. MELACONITE. (31) 

Five or six years ago, I obtained a specimen of melaconite, 
associated with malachite, from Franklintown, Adams Co. 
Also occurs sparingly at Jones' Mine, Berks Co. 



17. CORUNDUM. (31) 

An attempt was made several years ago, at Shimersville, Le- 
high Co., to mine corundum. The result, however, was not a 
financial success, although a considerable quantity of the mineral 
was taken out. I was able to obtain a quantity of fairly well 
developed prisms, some of which measured 8 cm by 3 cm . 

An analysis by Dr. B. F. Smith 1 resulted : 

SiO 2 3.28 

H 2 O.... 1.37 

A1 2 O 3 85.75 

Fe 2 O 3 4.26 

Ti() 2 2.74 

MgO trace 

CaO.. ..1.99 



99.39 
Sp. gr. 3.898. 



18. MENACCANITE. (35) 

Occurs massive at George Hammit's quarries, one mile East 
of Kdge Hill furnace, Montgomery Co. 

In small crystals and granular at the corumdum mine near 
Shimersville, Lehigh Co. 

1 Am. Clteni. Jour.. V. _'::. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 9 

Near Adamstown, Lancaster Co., it is found in large crystals 
in quartz. 

An analysis by Knerr and Brunner 1 resulted : 

SiO 2 0.50 

TiO 2 13.31 

Fe 2 O 3 53.36 

FeO! 32.38 

99.55 
Sp. gr. 4.6. 

Near Texas, Lancaster Co., it occurs massive and has been 
mined as an ore of iron. 

Abundant at the Girard Avenue Bridge tunnel, Fairmount 
Park, Philadelphia. One crystal found by Mr. G-. H. Parker is 
" quite lustrous in appearance and measures of an inch in 
thickness by one inch in width. Its general form is that of an 
almost perfect half-circle, the whole being partly imbedded edge- 
wise in a matrix of quartz." 



19. CHROMITE. (39) 

I am indebted to E. Mortimer Bye, Esq., of Wilmington, Del., 
for the following complete statistics of the chrome production : 

Lancaster Co. TONS. 

1. Wood's Mine, 2 depth 800 200,000 

2. Line Pit | ^ Q 

3. Jenkins' Mine j 

4. Carter's mine 600 

5. Rock Spring Mine, (B 41) ....".. 1,000 

6. Little Horse Shoe Mine 30 

Chester Co. 

7. Scott's Mine, (W. Nottingham) 6,000 

8. Smaller Mines, including " White Barrens," 500 

Delaware Co. 

9. Several small pockets ' . . about 200 

1 Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 413 

2 This mine is said to have netted its owners at least $5,000,000. 



10 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Sand or Stream Chrome. 

10. E. and W. Nottingham, Chester Co. j 

11. And Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. j 

12. Middletown twp., Delaware Co t . . . . 500 

The total production, therefore, has probably been about 
245,000 tons. 

Wood's Mine was opened in 1834 and worked to a depth of 
800 feet, when it exhausted, and in 1881 was stripped and aban- 
doned. Since then the other mines have been abandoned, and 
the United States now receives the majority of its chrome ore 
from the Urals in Russia .and from Turkey in Asia. 

Chromite also occurs on the Williamson property, Delaware 
Co. 

At Radnor and in Upper Providence, Marple and Newtown 
twps., Delaware Co. 

In octahedral crystals at Taylor's qurrry, one mile N. of West 
Chester. 



20. RUTILE. (44) 

Rtitile in quartz occurs near Embreville, Newlin township, 
Chester Co. 



21. PYROLUSITE. (45) 

Associated with limonite, this mineral is found at Ray's hill, 
near Robinsonville, Monroe twp., Bedford Co. 

At Dry Hollow, Huntingdon Co., associated with wad and 
psilomelane. 

On the farm of Jacob Stine, in Upper Milford twp., Lehigh 
Co., two miles S. of Macungie. it occurs mixed with limonite, 
and ut the village of Mountainville, S. of Allentown, it is found 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 11 

in fine crystals coating the interior of the limonite nodules. 
An analysis by Dr. E. F. Smith 1 gave 

SiO 2 9.93 

Fe 2 O 3 4.21 

A1 2 O 3 trace 

MnO 2 82.66 

Mn 3 O 4 3.13 



99.93 

22. TURGITE. (46) 

23. GOTHITE. (48) 

It is unnecessary to give any localities under these two spe- 
cies, both of which are generally associated with limonite, and 
as such they may be found at the several hundred mine openings 
throughout the counties of Northampton, Lehigh and Berks, 
and at the various other limonite mines scattered over the State. 

24. XANTHOSIDERITE. 

This hydrous iron oxide is found at four localities in Berks 
Co., at Flint Hill, Pricetown, Lyons and Fleetwood. 

25. BRUCITE. (51) 

This mineral is found botryoidal and laminar, at Fritz's Island, 
at Ruth's mine, and two miles S, of Sinking Spring, Spring twp., 
Berks Co. 

Analysis of the brucite from Fritz Island (a) and Sinking 
Spring, (b) by Drs. Schoenfield and Smith2 gave 

a. b. 

MgO. 66.78 66.19 

Fe 2 O 3 0.44 1.68 

CaO 1.24 

H 2 O 32.52 31.05 



99.74 100.16 



1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 277. 

2 Ibid V, 281. 



12 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

26. PSILOMELANE. (53) 

I have obtained some beautiful stalactitic specimens from the 
Bennett mine, one mile S. of South Easton. Large botryoidal 
masses of a cobaltifererous variety occur at Wharton's mine, 
three miles from Hellertown, Northampton Co. 

Considerable quantities have been occasionally met with at 
the Ironton Co. Balliet mine, at Tronton, Lehigh Co. 

An analysis by Mr. H. Pemberion, Jr., 1 resulted 

Manganese binoxide , . ... 84.88 

Manganous oxide 3.77 

Oxide of cobalt 1.68 

Oxide of nickel trace 

Baryta trace 

Lime 1.90 

Magnesia 0.79 

Soda 0.19 

Potash 3.50 

Water.. . 4.38 



101.09 

Occurs also at the Dry Hollow mine, Huntingdon Co., asso- 
ciated with wad and pyrolusite. 

In Berks Co. good specimens have been obtained at the Rock- 
land Forgo. 



27. WAD. (53) 

1 have observed some beautiful specimens of dendritic wad. 
coating the limonite, at the Ackerman mine, S. from Glendon, 
Northampton Co. 

Several tons of wad were mined, some years ago, at Great 
Bend, Susquehanna Co. 

It is found in small quantities in Westfall township, Pike Co., 
and in Bethel and Darby townships, Delaware Co. 

1 Second Geological Survey. Vol. PI>, 12. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 13 

Reniform wad, coating Pottsville conglomerate at W ray's Hill 
tunnel, Huntington Co. and at Dry Hollow mine. 

It is also quite abundant at many localities in Venango, Co. 

The following are the localities in Berks Co. : 

Globular, near Birclsboro ; massive, in the old Oley tunnel 
mine; at Lyons, Althouse farm, Maiden Creek ; in mammillary 
concretions near the Morgantown road, J mile below Lancaster 
bridge. 

I have obtained a specimen of dendritic wad from Cornwall, 
Lebanon Co. 

It is also found at Hitner's marble quarries, in Plymouth 
twp., Montgomery Co., and contains a small percentage of cobalt. 

The variety Asbolite occurs at Flouriown, Montgomery Co., 
where it forms an incrustation upon psilomelane. 



28. QUARTZ. (55) 

Sec. I. Crystalline. Five or six years ago I obtained a very 
clear hexagonal crystal, with good faces and termination, at the 
Court House grounds, Easton, Pa. The length is about 6i cm - 
Many smaller crystals were also found, some of them perfectly 
clear. Another good locality in Easton is at the vacant lot at 
Northampton and Twelfth streets. I have also observed fine 
crystals, in groups, at Flint Hill, near Lcithsville, Northampton 
Co. 

Transparent crystals occur on Lee's farm, S. E. of Friedens- 
burg, and in Windsor, Greenwich townships, Berks Co. 
Doubly terminated crystals occur at Noll's mine, Fleetwood, 
Berks Co. In the same county small crystals are found at Fritz 
Island, and at the Crystal Cave. Virginsville. Also near Buffalo 
Run, Patton twp., Centre Co. 

Drusy quartz, in clusters, occurs at the Barren ridge, near 
West Chester, at Birmingham quarries, and at Strode's mill, S. 
of West Chester. 

Sec. II. Amethystine. Crystals of a deep purple color occur 
scattered through the soil from one to one and a half miles S. 
of West Chester. In Pennsbury occur brilliant crystals ; on 



14 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

the farm of W. Painter the crystals are penetrated by needles 
of rutile. Crystals of a good color have been found near Em- 
breeville, Chester Co. 

Sec. III. Smoky. A short time ago I received a remarkably 
clear and well developed crystal 10 cm . in length, said to have 
been found in the vicinity of Hellertown, Northampton County. 
Crystals also occur in Bethel and Upper Darby townships and 
near Glen Riddle, Delaware Co., in Sadsbury, Chester Co., on 
Updegrove's farm in Union, on Berg's farm in Albany, in Wind- 
sor twp., and on Flint Hill, Berks Co. 

Sec. IV. Blue. Blue quartz is found in large masses of a deep 
color, two miles N. of Lionville, Chester Co. ; also at Radnor, 
Delaware Co. 

Sec. V. Milky. This variety is found in Bethel township, Del- 
ware Co., and at Cornwall. Lebanon Co. 

Sec. VI. Ohalcedony. Good specimens are found at Texas, Lan- 
caster Co., at Fleetwood, Friedensburg, Mertztown and Fritz Is- 
land in Berks Co., and near Edgmont, Delaware Co.; at Cornwall, 
Lebanon Co., in mammillary and botryoidal forms, of a pale- 
brown or greenish color. 

Sec. VII. Agate. -In Berks Co. agate occurs at Wernersville, 
Bornegratz's, Gottschall's, Flint Hill and Mertztown. 

Sec. VIII. Agate-jasper. At all the localities given under Sec. 
VII. 

Sec. IX. Hornstone. This variety is found at Fridensburg, 
Berks Co. 

Sec. X. Jasper. Occurs at all the localities given under Sec. 
VII, at Cornwall, Lebanon Co., on the " Barren Ridge," N. from 
West Chester, and at "Rock Springs," near Texas, Lancaster Co. 

2!>. OPAL. (61) 

The variet} T hyalite occurs on gneiss near t lie West Chester turn 
pike, YN^illistown township, Chester Co., and of a beautiful light 
green color, perfectly transparent, on gneiss, at a quarry on Mill 
street, German town. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 15 

30. ENSTATITE. (62) 

There is a specimen of enstatite in the museum of Lafayette 
College, from Newportville, Bucks Co. Also one from Spring 
Mill, Montgomer}^ Co. 

Enstatite from Rose's quarry, opposite Lafayette, Montgomery 
Co. has been analyzed by Mr. H. Trimble 1 who found : 

i. n. 

Silicic acid 53.41 53.32 

Alumina 2.12 2.13 

Ferric oxide 4.66 4.72 

Ferrous oxide 5.71 5.71 

Manganous oxide 0.87 0.38 

Magnesia 32.47 33.72 



99.24 99.98 
Also found in West Nottingham twp., Chester Co. 

31. PYROXENE. (64) 

According to Dr. Brunner, the largest crystals found in Berks 
Co. occur at G-ottschall's farm, in Alsace twp. 

It is abundant in the vicinity of Antietam Lake and at Ranch's 
mine, in Hereford twp.; also at Ohlinger's Dam ; at Eschbach- 
ville, Sparr's mine; Boyertown ; Raudenbush mine, Berks Co., 
and two miles from Hosensack station, Lower Milford twp., 
Lehigh Co. 

Variety a. Sahlite. An analysis of this variety from Seisholtz- 
ville. Berks Co., 1 resulted : 

Silica 49.30 

Ferric oxide 0.53 

Alumina 14.98 

Ferrous oxide 6.02 

Magnesia 8.27 

Lime.. ..21.45 



IGcol. ofPcnn., C6129. 

1 Sydney Castle Geol. of Perm., D p. 6. 



100.55 

_ 



<> MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

It is slso found massive and crystallized at the French Creek 
Mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. Some of these crystals attain a, 
length of 42 mm - 

b. Mussite. This occurs in East Bradford twp , Chester Co. 

c. Augite. In Berks Co. at Babb's tavern and at Ohlingcr mill, 
six miles E. of Reading. 

d. Pyrallolite. At the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester 
Co., massive and occasionally radiating of a light pink color. 

32. ANTHOPHYLLITE. 

Dr. Genth describes this under amphibole (actinolite,) but! pre- 
fer, however, to treat it as a distinct species. It occurs in beau- 
tiful radiations of a yellowish brown color, two miles N. of Media r 
Delaware Co., and at Texas, Lancaster Co. 



33. AMPHIBOLE. (66) 

a. Actinolite.' Ij&st fall, (Oct. 1888) I discovered some fine 
crystals of actinolite associated with tremolite, a few rods N\ W. 
of the Electric R. R. car house, College Hill, Easton. Massive; and 
crystallized it is found at the following localities in the vicinity 
of Easton : Herster's dam H miles W. of the city ; at several talc. 
openings along theBushkill creek ; along the Delaware River and 
at several places along the Chestnut Ridge N. from the city. Near 
the Black Horse tavern, Delaware Co., it occurs glassy, of a deep 
green color, in round crystalline masses and also in broad blades 
of a light green color, and at the Birmingham quarries S. of West 
Chester. 

b. Byssolite. According to Mr. Matters, the superintendent, 
I have now in my possession the finest specimen of hyssnlito 
taken from the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co 
This specimen contains hundreds of perfect needle-like crystals. 
many of which are 4'2 mm in length. 

It also occurs here, disseminated throughout the calcite. and 
for which I have proposed the name " />'//x.W///V i-nlrite" In 



MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 17 

Berks Co. it is found at Jones' mine (C. M. Wheatley), at Ohling- 
er dam, Antietam Lake, Boyertown and in Longswamp twp. 

c. Tremolite. Associated with actinolite it is found at all the 
Easton localities given above. 

d. Asbestus. In short fibre, it occurs at Harman's blacksmith 
shop, Warrington twp., York Co. ; in feldspar on M'Elwee's farm 
four miles S. E. of Dillsburg, and on M. Elicker's farm five miles 
E. of Dillsburg, York Co. 

At Cornwall, Lebanon Co., it is found between the Middle and 
Grassy Hills. 

d. I. Mountain Leather. There is a specimen of this sub-variety 
in the Lafayette College museum from Bowertown, Berks Co. 

d. II. Mountain Cork. Occurs of a mile N. W. of .Radnor 
station, Delaware Co. (Rand.) 



34. BERYL. (70) 

This mineral is found in Ridley and Springfield townships, 
Delaware Co. Dr. Genth mentions a crystal from Chester Co. 
weighing 51 Ibs. Mr. Jefferis informs me that it was found at 
" Beryl Hill," seven miles W. of West Chester. 



35. CHRYSOLITE. (71) 

Associated with picrolite it is found two miles E. of Wakefield, 
Lancaster Co. In Delaware Co. in the townships of Edgemont 
and Middleton. I have noticed this mineral also at Cornwall, 
Lebanon Co., where it occurs in small crystals of a brownish 
color, associated witja magnetite. In Berks Co. it is found at the 
Wheatfield mine, near Fritztown, and at the Fritz Island mine. 



36. PAYALITE. 

This mineral is found 1J miles N. E. of Boyertown, Berks Co. 
and as a furnace product, at the Reading sheet mill. 



18 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

37. GARNET. (72) 

The following localities have been reported to me as "Locali- 
ties for garnets." In no case has the variety been given, and 1 am 
therefore, obliged to place them under this general heading. 
Near Oakford, Bucks Co., at Mathuly mill, near Jenkintown ; 
in Berks Co., on V. Hartman's farm, Alsace twp.; at Bishop's mill, 
Exeter twp.; in Ruscombmanor twp,, near Pricetown ; at Gott- 
schall's mines and at Antietam Lake. 

Var. a. G-rossularite. This variety occurs at Leiperville, Del- 
aware Co. 

b. Almandite. Imperfect crystals are found at Mohr's mine, 
near Shimersville, Upper Milford twp., Lehigh Co. An analysis 
by.J)r. Smith 1 gave : 

SiO 2 ..35.92 

A1 2 O 3 19.18 . 

Fe 2 O 3 4.92 

FeO 29.47 

MnO 4.80 

CaO 2.38 

MgO 1170 



100.37 
Sp. gr. 4.03. 

An analysis 2 of the variety from Chelsea, Bethel twp., Dohi- 
Co., resulted : 

SiO, 41.11 

A1 2 O' 3 21.00 

FejzOs 2.11 

1<Y() 25.8G 

MnO 2.22 

MgO 5.41 

CaO., . l.S!) 



100.20 
Sp. gr. 4.028. 

1 Am. Chem. Jour., V, 276. 
'2 F. A. <;cnth,.lr..r :,, L18. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 19 

Dr. Genth 1 has analyzed the variety from Darby, Delaware 
Co., with the following results : 

SiO 2 35.97 

TiO 2 5.12 

A1 2 O 3 18.72 

Fe- 2 O 8 1.39 

FeO 3042 

MnO 0.42 

MgO 5.08 

CaO.. . 2:79 



99.91 
Sp. gr. 4.186. 

This variety may be identical with the u Titaniferous Garnet" 
described and analyzed by Mr. H. A. Keller 2 . His analysis re- 
sulted as follows : 

Si<) 2 36.92 

TiO 2 1.14 

FeO 27.36 

Fu 2 O 3 3.74 

A1 2 O 3 26.54 

MnO 0.33 

CaO ; 2.76 

MgO 1.66 



100.45 
Sp. gr. 4.25. 

c. Andradite,. Among a number of minerals sent to me for 
examination by Dr. S. G-. Valentine, of Lebanon, I have discov- 
ered this variety of garnet. It occurs in quartzose rock at 
Cornwall, Lebanon Co.; color brownish red. It is also found at 
Spies Church. Alsace twp., Berks Co., and near Hosensack sta- 

1 Geol. of Penna., C 5, 114. 

2 Pruc. M. & G. Soc., Acad. Natl. S<-i , 1K80, 21. 



20 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

tion, Lower Milford twp., Lehigh Co., an analysis of whicb by 
Dr. Smith 1 gave : 

SiO 2 ... 35.25 

Fe 2 O 3 32.17 

FeO 0.92 

CaO 30.80 

MgO trace 



99.14 
Color: yellow. Sp. gr. 5.13. 

38. ZIRCON. (75) 

Small crystals have been found on Jacob Stine's farm in Upper 
Milford, two miles S. of Macungie, Lehigh Co. 

39. VESUV1ANITE. (77) 

This mineral in well developed, terminated prisms of a yellow 
color, occurs sparingly at the Fritz Island mine, Berks Co. 

40. EPJDOTE. (78) 

Associated with molybdenite it is found at Frankford, Phila- 
delphia. Also massive in Berks Co. at the following localities : 
Fleetwood, Boyertown, Pricetown and Hancock, and in crystals 
at Antietam Lake and in Longswamp twp. 

41. ALLANITB. (79) 

Associated with zircon (in quartz) it is found at Yellow 
Springs, Chester Co. 

42. ZOISITE. (80) 

This mineral is found at the Poor-house quarries, Chester Co. ? 
and at Leiperville, Delaware Co. 

1 E. F. Smith, Ain. Chem. Jour., V, 277. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 21 

43. AXINITE.i 

The discovery of this rare mineral in this State is due to Prof. 
F. Prime, Jr., who brought it to the notice of the late Prof. W. 
T. Roepper, whose collection now forms part ot that contained 
in the Museum at Lehigh University, at Bethlehem. The crys- 
tals, of the usual axe-like shape and generally of small size, were 
found in crystalline hornblende at an abandoned ore pit, on a 
farm three miles north of Bethlehem, Northampton County. 



44. BIOTITB. (83; 

This mineral, as a rock-constituent, is found at many localities 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia- Two varieties from the vicinity 
of Forty-fourth street and Baltimore avenue, have been analyzed 
by Dr. G-enth (a) and Mr. F. A. Genth, Jr., (b) 2 . Both varieties 
of a brownish-black color. 

a. b. 

Ignition 2.97 2.07 

Fluorine Not determined. 

Silicic acid 36.02 36.19 

Titanic acid 2.20 1.68 

Alumina 18.95 21.66 

Ferric oxide 3.17 2.64 

Ferrous oxide 16.44 16.96 

Cupric oxide 0.10 trace 

Manganous oxide. . . . 0.67 0.52 

Magnesia 9.39 9.36 

Lithia trace trace 

Soda 0.29 0.45 

Potash.. . 9.25. . . 8.51 



99.45 100.04 

In Berks Co. it occurs near Huff church, a<nd one mile N. E. 
of Pricetown. 

1 On crystals of Axinito from a locality near Bethlehe'm, Pa., etc. B. W. Fra/ier Am J 
Sci., XXIV, I:!'.'. 

2 Gcol. of Penna., (' 6, 181. 



22 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

45. MUSCOVITE. (84) 

Fine specimens, enclosing magnetite, occur at Nottingham, 
Chester Co. In Berks Co. it is found at Ohlinger dam, Oley tun- 
nel mine, Clymer mine and in rhombohedral crystals (?) at Huff 
church. 

46. LEPIDOLITE. 

. 

This mineral, with a number of others, was sent to me for de- 
termination. It is found as a deep incrustation upon the quartz- 
ore rock at the Big Hill, Cornwall, Lebanon Co. Upon exami- 
nation I found it to be lepidolite. 



47. YVERNERITE. (86) 

Crystals inch in length, of a resinous lustre, occur at Fritz 
Island, Berks Co. 



48. CANCRINITE. 

There is a specimen of cancrinite in the Museum of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia with the indefinite label 
" Chester Co., Pa." 

49. ANORITE. 

Occurs with corundum \ mile S. of the Black Horse tavern, in 
Delaware Co. 

50. OLIGOCLASE. (89) 

' 

In Berks Co. it is found at Hill church, at Little dam, at the 
Nestor and Gilbert mines, Washington twp., at Siesholtzville, 

. 



MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 23 

and in Exeter tvvp. The oligoclase from Black Horse tavern 

has been analyzed by Dr. Genth 1 who found : 

Silicic acid 58.22 58.62 

Alumina 22.92 23.55 

Ferric oxide 0.17 0.17 

Magnesia 25 0.46 

Lime 3.02 3.23 

Baryta 2.57 2.54 

Soda 3.68 

Potash 7.06 

Ignition . . 1.59 1.49 



100.80 

Dr. Genth 2 also analyzed the variety, moonstone, from Scho- 
field's farm * mile W. of Elwyn station, Delaware Co.: 

Silicic acid 66.24 

Alumina 20.91 

Ferric oxide trace 

Lime ' 1.61 

Soda 10.14 

Potash 1.12 

Ignition 59 

100.61 

Oligoclase from Van Artsdalen's quarry, Bucks Co., has also 
been analyzed by Dr Genth* who found : 

Ignition 0.23 

Silicic acid 62.58 

Alumina 23.27 

Ferric oxide 0.23 

Magnesia 0.15 

Lime '.'. ... 4.88 

Soda 8.05 

Potash . . 1.04 



100.43 



1 Geol. of Penna., C 5, 116. 

2 Ibid C 104. 

3 Ibid C 6, 104. 



24 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

51. LABRADORITE. (88) 

Is found at Antietam Lake and possibly at Ohlinger dam, 
Berks Co. 

52. ORTHOCLASE. (92) 

This mineral is found at many localities in Delaware and Ches- 
ter Counties, and at Antietam Lake, Ohlinger dam, Huff church, 
Mount Penn and Siesholtzville in Berks Co. The latter has 
been analyzed Dr. W. P. ELeadden 1 and resulted as follows : 

Silica 66.86 

Alumina 18.97 

Ferrous oxide 0.62 

Magnesia trace 

Lime 1.41 

Soda 3.61 

Potash. ..10.04 



101.51 

Dr. Genth and Mr. F. A. Genth, Jr., 2 have analyzed adularia 
and red orthoclase from Upper Avondale, Delaware Co.. with 
the following results : 

a. Red Orthoclase by F. A. Genth, Jr. 

b. Adularia by F. A. Genth. 

a b 

Silicic acid 64.53 65.84 

Alumina 19.64 19.50 

Ferric oxide trace 

Magnesia 0.25 

Lime 0.16 trace 

Soda 1.77. 3.!)3 

Potash 13.62 I0.(l!> 

Baryta 0.08 

Ignition 0.71 0.22. 



100.68 100.26 



i. of I'ciiim.. i). p. <;. 

2<;<'"|. of iVmui.. C f>, 1 is. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 25 

I have observed a very interesting crystalline variety at the 
French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. Here it occurs in 
radiating columnar crystals of light green to light pink color. 
Many of the columnar crystals measure 6 cm in length. 
The following is an analysis by Dr. F. A. Genth, Jr. 1 : 

Ignition 0.67 

SiO 2 ..' 62.68 

Fe 2 O 3 0.23 

A1 2 3 20.90 

CaO 0.15 

Na 2 O None 

K 2 O.. ,.15.99 



Sp. gr. 2.528. 100.62 

53. ALBITB. (91.) 

Albite from Lenni, Delaware Co., has been analyzed by Mr. 
G. M. Lawrence, 2 who found : 

Silicic acid 65.43 

Alumina 20.70 

Magnesia 0.68 

Lime 1.11 

Soda 9.85 

Potash 0.70 

Ignition 1.71 



100.18 

Beautiful colorless crystals are found in red orthoclase at Up- 
per Avondale, Delaware Co., and an analysis by Dr. Genth 3 re- 
sulted . 

Silicic acid ; 68.52 

Alumina 19.44 

Soda 11.42 

Potash . . 0.65 



Sp. gr. 2.604. 100.03 

1 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XXIV, 4:-}. 

2 Geol. of Penim., C ">, IKi. 
:\ Ibid, C 5, 117. 



26 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

These crystals are associated with minute but beautifully 
modified, colorless and slightly greenish crystals of beryl, crys- 
tals of muscovite, black tourmaline and calcite. 

In Berks Co., albite occurs at Siesholtzville, Little Dam, Hill 
church, and in Exeter and Washington twps. A variety from 
S. Dana's place, near Morrisville, Bucks Co., anatyzed by Dr. 
Genth, 1 gave : 

Ignition 0.53 

Silicic acid 67.01 

Alumina 19.44 

Ferric oxide 0.52 

Magnesia 0.24 

Lime 1.71 

Soda 10.48 

Potash . . 3.30 



100.23 
54. TOURMALINE. (95) 

Black tourmaline, in crystals, is found at New Hope, Bucks 
Co., and at Rossville, York Co. In Lehigh Co., in large perfect 
crystals imbedded in feldspar at the Corundum locality, near 
Shimersville ; brown crystals in hornblende, at the Bethlehem 
Iron Go's mine H miles N. W. of Shimersville, and of a brownish- 
black color on Lehigh Mt., 2 miles south of Allentown. 

Dr. Smith 2 has made a partial analysis of the brownish-black 
variety from Lehigh Mt., and finds : 

SiO 2 ................. 39.41 

A1 2 O 3 ................ 19.46 

Fe 2 3 ................ 8.44 

FeO ................. 7.00 

CaO ................ 3.49 

MgO ................ 2.14 



9.00 
Alkalies ............. 

Ignition ............. 2.19 



1 Geol. of Penna.. C 6, 101. 

2 Am. Chern. Jour.. V. 27."i. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 27 

55. GEHLENITE. 

According to Mr. J. S. Diller 1 this mineral, in square prisms, 
occurs in furnace slag near McVille, Armstrong Co. 

56. CYANITE. .101) 

Of a green color, it occurs near the London Grove Meeting 
House, and at a quarry J mile S. of the Poor House quarries, 
Chester Co. 

57. DATOLITE. 

The only occurrence of this mineral in Pennsylvania is at the 
Fritz Island mine S. of Reading. 

58. TITANiTE. (102.) 

Clove-brown crystals are found in magnetite, 1? miles S. of 
Huff's church, Hereford twp., Berks Co., and liver-brown crys- 
tals in the hornblende at Tioga station, Philadelphia. Two 
analyses of the latter by Dr. G-onth 2 gave : 

By Sodium Garb. By Hydrofluoric acid. 

Ign 99 87 

SiO 2 30.60.. - 

TiO 2 37.23 37.02 

A1 2 O 8 0.67 0.47 

FeO 0.90 0.90 

MnO trace trace 

MgO ' 0.24 trace 

CaO.. ..29.50.. ..29.38 



100.13 
Sp. gr. 3.596. 



1 Am. J. Sci., 37, 220. 
2Geol. of Penn., C 6, 130. 



28 .MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

A dark-brown titanite in well defined crystals, is found 2 miles 
from Hosensack station, Lower Milford twp., Lehigh Co., and 
has been analyzed by Messrs. Smith and Kncrr2 with the follow- 
in g results : 

SiO 2 34.S7 

TiO2 41141 

CaO.. .21:75 



100.03 

Sp. irr. 3.45. 

59. STAUROIJTE. (103,) 

On the "Barrens" N. of West Chester it is found in small 
crystals and at Taylor's quarries one mile N. of West Chester. 



60. CHRYSOCOLLA. (104) 

This mineral is found sparingly at the PriU Island'inine, Berks 
County. 

01. NEOLITE. (105) 

I have been able to identify this mineral as occurring at the 
I>ig Hill," Cornwall, Lebanon Co. Color grayish -white ; struc- 
ture radiated. 

62. ANTHOSIDERITE. 
This mineral occurs at the Dry Hollow mine. Huntingdon Co. 

63. PECTOUTE. 

On granite.it is found at the rVankl'ord quarries, Philadelphia, 

and in gray acicular crystals associated with stillnte. on lime- 
stone, it occurs at Ilosensafk station, Lehigh Co. 

1 Am. Clu'in. .Imir.. VI. 11'^. 



MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 29 

An analysis of this latter mineral has been made by Messrs. 
Smith and Knerri with the following result : 

SiO 2 .... ...55.17 

Fe 2 O B 0.80 

CaO. 30.00 

K 2 0.37 

JSfa20 9.02 

H 2 O... . 4.63 



99.99 
Sp. gr. 2.6. 



64. CALAMINE. (106) 

Last summer (1888), I obtained some good crystals of a dark 
brown color on limonite and coating the interior of geodes, from 
an abandoned mine shaft on the land of S. von Steuben, i mile 
W. of Dryland station, Northampton Co. 

At the Keystone Zinc mine, near Birmingham, Blair Co., it is 
found associated with sphalerite and galenite. Several years 
ago I analyzed the calami ne from the Ueberroth mine, Frie- 
densville, Lehigh Co., which I append herewith, as I believe this 
to be the first published analysis of calamine from this old and 
well-known locality. 

Si 2 O 3 '.24.32 

Fe 2 O 3 2.12 

H 2 7.86 

ZnO. . ..65.05 



99.35 



65. APOPHYLLITE. (106) 

Fine crystals of apophyllite are found at the French Creek 
mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co., where th<y occur in large 
groups,, some of which measure two feet square. I have some 

1 E. F. Smith and E. B. Knerr, Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 411. 



30 MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

very perfect crystals which measure 14 mm , and figures like fig. 
387 in Dana are frequently met with. 

An analysis of very pure material afforded me (a) 

a. b. 

SiO 2 51.63 51.88 

CaO 25.42 25.31 

K 2 O 6.27 6.30 

H 2 O., ,.16.58.. ..16.80 



99.90 100.29 

Dr. Smith 1 (b) has also analyzed this mineral and I add his 
results for comparison. 

Mr. B. Sadtler, Jr., 2 gives an analysis of this mineral from Fritz 
Island. Crystals colorless and of pearly lustre. 

H 2 O 16.75 

SiO 2 51.02 

Fe 2 O 3 1.49 

CaO 24.40 

K 2 5.87 

Fl... . 0.40 



99.93 
H. 4 to 4-5, Sp. gr. 2.5. 



66. ALLOPHANE. (107) 

As white, mammillary and stalactical incrustations on limon- 
ite, it found near the village of Ballietsville 7 miles from Allen- 
town, Lehigh Co. An analysis by Dr. Smith 3 afforded : 

H 2 O 40.8(5 

Si()2 21.39 

A1 2 <) 3 35.20 

CaCO 3 (MgCO 3 ) . 1.96 



99.41 



1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., VI. II".. 

2 B F. Sadtler, Jr., Ibid IV, :',.Y7. 

3 E. F. Smith, Ibid V, 272. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 31 

67. MESOLITE. (308) 

No new localities of this zeolite have been reported since the 
publication of Dr. Genth's report. I append herewith an analysis 
of the Fritz Island mineral made by Mr. B. Sadtler, Jr. 1 : 

H 2 16.01 

SiO* ..43.29 

Fe 2 O 3 trace. 

A12Q 3 25.02 

CaO ....12.15 

Na 2 3.40 



99.87 
H. 2-5 to 3. Sp. gr. 2.4. 

68. ANALCITE. 

At Cornwall, Lebanon Co., there occurs a greenish-white min- 
eral in cavities in the magnetite, which I have carefully 
examined and which proves to be analcite. On account of the 
limited quantity of mineral I was unable to make a complete 
quantitative analysis. It is also found at the Flails of the Schuyl- 
kill, near Philadelphia. 

69. CHABAZITE. (108) 

A few small crystals have been found in the quarries at Leiper- 
ville, Delaware Co. According to Mr. Lewis Palmer it occurs in 
red crystals in a hornblendic gniess at Waterville, near Chester, 
and at Upland, Delaware Co. 

Mr. Sadtler 2 gives an analysis of colorless crystals of a vitreous 
lustre, from the Fritz Island mine, Berks Co. : 

H 2 O 20.21 

SiO 2 50.28 

A1 2 3 17.83 

CaO 6.96 

Na 2 O 2.43 

K 2 6 2.40 

Fc 2 O 3 trace 

MgO 0.22 

H. 4. Sp. gr. 2.3. 100.33 

1 B. Sadtler, Jr., Am. Chem. Jour., IV, 356. 

2 B. Sadtler, Jr., Ibid IV, 357. 



32 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

70. STILBITE. (109) 

I have been able to obtain some very good crystals of this 
mineral from St. Peter's, Chester Co., where it occurs very spar- 
ingly, lining cavities and generally associated with calcite. Some 
of the largest crystals measure 35 mm . 

An analysis of some pure material gave me: 

SiO 2 58.00 

A1 2 O 3 ; . .13.40 

Fe 2 O 3 trace 

CaO 7.80 

MgO 1.40 

K 2 O ,1.03 

Na 2 O trace 

H 2 O . . , . 18.30 



99.93 

It is found on gniess at the quarry Forty-ninth and Leiper 
streets, Frankford ; at Ridley, Delaware Co., and in Berks Co., 
at the following localities: Jones' mine, Wheatfield mine, Rau- 
denbush mine, and in radiating crystalline masses S. of Boyer- 
town and at Ohlinger dam. 

In Lehigh Co. it is found in large globular radiating concre- 
tions upon the limestone on the farm of Jacob Schell, near II o- 
sensack station. An analysis by Dr. Smith 1 gave : 

(CaO 9.00)i> 

SiO 2 55.31 

A1 2 O 3 14.88 

Na 2 O 1.66 

H 2 O 18.47 

99.32 
Sp. gr. 2.21. 

1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V, 227. 

2 I have added this quantity, having been omitted by the printer <>!' th<- A. ('. .1. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 33 

Messrs. Brunner and Smithi have analyzed this mineral from 
the VVbeatfield mines, near Fritztown, where it occurs in ra- 
diating, fibrous, pearly white masses upon a trap rock. 

H 2 19.42 

SiO 2 57.49 

A1 2 O 3 13.03 

CaO 8.06 

MgO trace 

Na 2 O.. . 1.36 



99.36 
Sp. 2.2. 



Stilbite from Raudenbush and Fegley's mine, Berks Co., has 
been analyzed with the following results : 





a 


b 


c 


H 2 


18.46 


..18.60. 


18.97 


Si0 2 


58.01 


..58.15. 


57.54 


AJ 2 O 3 .... 


13.75 


..12.47. 


...12.67 


CaO 


7.76 ) 




7.85 






. . 9.82. 




J\J_r\_) 


1 38 j 




1.72 


K 9 O 


0.42 


.. 0.13 


1 09 


Na 2 O . . 


. . trace . . 


. .trace. 


. . trace 



99.78 99.47 99.84 

a and b Raudenbush, by Mr. P. P. Davidson. 2 
c Fegley's Mine, by Messrs. Hoskinson and Brunner. 3 

71. HEULANDITB. (110) 

This zeolite, rather rare in Pennsylvania, is found associated 
with quartz, calcite. hornblende, etc., near Adarnstown, Lancas- 

1 D. B. Brunner and E F. Smith, Am. Chcm* Jour., V, 2 SO. 
2 Am. Chem. Jour., VI, 414. 
3 Jldd VI, 4 M. 



34 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

ter Co. The crystals show the following planes : ooP, (ooPoo), 
P, P, 2 Poo, (2 Poo), (Poo) An analysis by Messrs. Knerr 
and Schoenfeld 1 afforded : 

II 2 O 16.61 

SiO 2 57.68 

A1 2 O 3 17.05 

CaO 6.78 

MgO 0.69 

Kob 1.13 

Nti2C) trace 

Sp. gr. 2.2. 99.94 

72. TALC. (113) 

Large quantities of talc are mined in the counties* of Delaware. 
Chester, Lancaster and Northampton. The so-called "light- 
green variety of serpentine" found near Easton proves, upon 
examination, to be talc. 

73 PYROPHYLLITE. (Ill) 

This mineral is found in the coal slates at the North Mahanoy 
colliery, near Mahanoy City, Schuylkill Co. 

(74.) SRHPENTINE. (113) 

Mr. II. F. Keller- has analyzed two specimens of serpentine 
from Berks Co., with the following results : 

Ruth's Mine. Whcatfield Mine. 

Silicic oxide 42.14 41.46 

Ferrous oxide 2.06 0.99 

Magnesium oxide 41.61 44.68 

Calcium oxide trace 

Water 14.20 14.07 

100.01 101.20 



1 1C. B. KiiemiiHl .}. Schoenfeld, Ibid VI, 412. 

2 Froc. Am. I'hil Soc., XXIII, -12. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 35 

75. CHLOROPAL. 

Dr. Valentine sent me a greenish, earthy mineral, which he 
found associated with the magnetite, at Big Hill, Cornwall, 
Lebanon Co. Upon examination I found it to be chloropal. 

On Lehigh Mt., S. of Allentown, this mineral is found at many 
of the " search " pits dug in searching for limonite. In the 
American Chemical Journal, Vol. V, p. 278, Dr. E. F. Smith 
gives twelve analyses of this mineral, four of which are here 
appended. 

Yellow. Yellowish-green. 

H 2 O 19.61 20.79 

SiO 2 40.20 41.16 

Fe 2 O 3 39.52 30.79 

FeO 0.40 0.21 

P 2 O 5 trace A1 2 O 3 . . 2.05 

MgO 

K 2 O... " 4.54 



99.73 99.54 

Brownish-yellow. Brown. 

H 2 O 19.27 .- . 17.71 

SiO 2 42.37 43.54 

Fe 2 O 3 38.17 39.52 

FeO trace 

P 2 O 5 " 100.77 

MgO " 



99.81 

In Berks Co. it is found in the neighborhood of Longswamp 
church. 



76. GLAUCONITE. (113) 
Lining cavities in feldspar, it is found at the French Creek 



36 . MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. An analysis by Messrs. Knerr 
and Schoenfeld 1 resulted : 



H 2 


. , .. 8.43 


Si0 2 


. . . .52.86 


Al 2 0s 


7.08 


Fe 2 O 8 


. . . . 7.20 


FeO 


. . . . 19.48 


MgO . 


. . . . 2.90 


CaO 


. . . . trace 


K 2 , 


. . 2.23 


Na 2 O 


. . . . trace 



100.18 

Sp. gr. 2:2. 



77. LEIDYITE. 

This mineral of grass-blue or green color in verruciform incrus- 
tations of fine scales and resinous lustre is found at Leiperville, 
Delaware Co. Named after the eminent anatomist Dr. Joseph 
Tjcidy. It lias heen analyzed by Dr. Koenig 2 who found : 

SiO 2 51.41 

A1 2 O 3 16.82 

FeO 8.50 

MgO 3.07 

CaO 3:15 

Hv.O 17.08 

100.03 



78 DKWEYLITK. (117) 

This mineral is found at Ruth's mine, in Berks Co., and at 
Brinton's quarry, S. of West Chester, Chester Co. The former 

1 E. B. Knerr and J. Schoenfold, Am. Chem. .Four., VI, 412 
2G. A. K<rui<:, I'ror. Afad Ntl. Sci , isT.s, si 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 37 

mineral has been analyzed by Messrs. Brunner and Smith 1 with 
the following results : 

H 2 O . .' 19.49 19.03 

SiO 2 45.65 .42.34 

Fe 2 O 3 .. 0.20 1.39 

MgO ...34.38 36.77 

CaO . . ..trace.. ..trace 



99.69 99.53 

Mr. H. F. Keller2 has' analyzed a yellow variety of waxy 
lustre : 

Silicic oxide 39.32 

Ferrous oxide 0.51 

Calcium oxide trace 

Magnesium oxide . 4 ..... .41.14 

Water.. ..18.41 



99.38 



79. GENTHITE. (117) 

There is a very interesting locality for this nickel silicate at a 
few hundred feet N. of the steatite quarry at Lafayette, Mont- 
gomery Co. Hero it occurs on an actinolite rock in thin coat- 
ings, which, under the microscope, show the mammillary and 
stalactitic structure characteristic of the species. 



80. AQUACREPTITE. (122.) 

This mineral is found in partially decomposed gneiss on Lans- 
downc Ave., 1J miles W. of Hestonville, Philadelphia. 

1 D. B. Brunner and E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V, 280. 

2 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XXIII, 41. 



38 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

81. FAHLUNITE. 

In irregular masses of pale green color in orthoclase, this 
mineral occurs at MeKinney's quarry, Kitten house street and 
at Xester & Shelmire's quarry on Wayne street, Germantown. 

82. DAMOURITE. (122.) 

In Berks Co. this mineral is found at the Wheatfield mine, 
Merkle farm, Oley twp., Fox's farm, Rnscombmanor twp., and 
of a yellowish green color at the Rockland Forges. 

83. HISINGBRITE. (128.) 

The variety. Degerwite, is found at the Dry Hollow mine, 
Huntingdon Co. 



in 



84. PENNINITE. (130) 

Kammererite is found at the Wheatfield mine, near Kritztown, 
Berks Co. 



85. RIPIDOLITE. (131) 

This mineral occurs, associated with magnetite, at the Corn- 
wall mines, Lebanon Co., and in Berks Co. at the Fritz Island 
and Jones mines. 

86. PIIILADELPHITE.i 

This vermiculite occurs at three localities in Philadelphia, (a) 
near Wayne station, on the Germantown R. R., (b) at McKin- 
ney's quarry, on Wayne street, and in Germantown. It is found 
in plates of brown color in seams in an altered hornblende. 

1 Proc. M. & G. Soo., Acad. Natl. Sci., 1877-7H, p. 71. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 39 

Analyses by Mr. Haines (a) and the late Prof. H. Carvill 
Lewis (b) gave : 

a. b. 

SiO 2 38.79 35.73 

TiO 2 1.03 

A1 2 O 3 14.78 15.77 

Fe 2 O 3 . .-. 20.30 19.46 

V~ 2 O 3 0.37 

FeO 2.04 2.18 

MnO 0.50 

NiO ) 0.06 

CoO j 

CuO 0.08 

MgO 11.40 11.56 

CaO 1.03 1.46 

Na 2 O 0.77 0.90 

Li 2 O trace 

K 2 O 6.75 6.81 

P 2 O 5 0.11 

Cl trace 

H 2 SO 4 trace 

H 2 O 4.27 4.34 

100.13 300.45 

Sp. gr. (in alcohol) 2.782.96. 

87. COLUMBITE. (137) 

A beautiful doubly-terminated crystal, 1 of an inch in length 
by \ an inch in width, of a black color, was found in 1882 at the 
Mineral Hill locality, Delaware Co. 

88. EUXENITE. 

Last Fall this mineral was sent to me for identification and 
upon examination, I found it to be the very rare mineral, 
euxenite. It is an imperfect crystal about f of an inch in length, 
and of a brownish black color. I have been unable to ascertain 
the exact locality. 



40 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

89. APATITE. (138) 

This lime phosphate is found at Ridley, Delaware Co.. and at 
Ruth's mine in Berks Co. 

90. ERYTHRITE. 

This cobalt arsenate occurs sparingly, generally forming an 
incrustation upon the pyroxene and calcite, at the French Creek 
mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. At the Wheatley lead mines 2 
miles S. of Phoenixville, Chester Co., it is found in veins and in- 
crustations, which, under the microscope, show minute globular 
crystals. The latter locality was discovered by Mr. L. Woolman. 
These two localities are the only ones, so far recorded, in North 
America. 

91. WAVELLITB. (142) 

I have observed this mineral in botryoidal and hemispherical 
masses at the Wheatley lead mines 2? miles S. of Phoenixville, 
Chester Co. It is occasionally found at the Whcatficld mine, 
Berks Co. In beautiful, colorless, radiating nodules, on limonite, 
it is found on the farm of Jacob Stine, in Upper Milford, 
two miles S. of Macungie, Lehigh Co- Dr. Smith 1 has analyzed 
this mineral with the following result : 

A1 2 O 3 36.66 

P 2 O 5 34.14 

H 2 O 28.32 

Fl trace 

Limonite. . . 0.60 



92. DUFRENITE. 

93. CACOXBNITB. 

These two hydrous phosphates are found at the Dry Hollow 
mine, Huntingdon Co. 

1 E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. Jour., V. 273. 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

94. AUTUNITE. (144) 



41 



This uranium-lime phosphate is found on orthoclase at Avon- 
dale, Delaware Co. 

95. BAR1TE. (145) 

This mineral is found at many localities throughout the State. 
In Huntingdon Co on the Broad Top Mountain ; in Franklin 
Co. on Hoving's farm, 3 miles S. E. of and 3 miles N. E. of 
Waynesboro', and in large white cleavable masses at Lancaster 
station ; in Blair Co., associated with galenite and sphalerite, at 
the Keystone zinc mine, near Birmingham; in Fulton Co. at 
Dyson Fraker's farm, near Fort Littleton ; in Berks Co. at Alt. 
^Etna, in Tulpehocken twp. ; in Bedford Co., in small tubular 
crystals at Bridgeport. 

The following analyses of barite were made at the Laboratory 
of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania : 





a. 


(). 


c. 




e. 


Sulphate of baryta 
Sulphate of strontia 
Oxide of iron and alumina 
Oxide of Manganese 
Lime 
Magnesia 
Carbonic acid 


95.22. 
.none. 
0.38. 
0.05. 
0.59. 
0.18 
0.65 


...96.91. 
none. 
... 0.31. 


...97.08.... 
. . . none 
... 0.76.... 


95.91.. 
none. . . 
0.24.. 

0.17 
0.11.. 


..98.65 
. .none 
. . 0.14 

trace 
. . trace 


trace 
, . . . trace 


.... trace 


Water 


0.23 


. ... 0.08. 


. .. 0.32.... 


0.09.. 


.. 0.20 


Silicic Acid 


2.45. 


. 2.35. 


. 1.74.. 


2.80.. 


. 1.11 



99.75 99.65 99.90 99.32 100.10 
a and b near Fort Littleton, Montgomery Co. 
c Sinking Valley, Blair Co. 
d and e near Waynesboro', Franklin Co. 

In Montgomery Co. it occurs at Hitner's marble quarries, in 
Plymouth twp., and at the Ecton mine, near Shannonville. 



96. GYPSUM. (148) 
I have observed gypsum in tabular crystals and massive in the 



42 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

cavities of limestone at Smith's quarry, Bushkill creek, Easton. 
Beautiful hexagonal crystals are found at Jones' mine, at Bush- 
ong's mine, and at Boyertown, Berks Co., and as an efflorescnce 
upon gniess at Darby, Delaware Co. 



97. BPSOMITE. (148) 

In small, colorless, acicular crystals it occurs at Sideling Hill 
tunnel, E. Broad Top R. R.. Huntingdon Co. 



98. ALU^OGEN. (150) 

This hydrous alumina sulphate is found along the banks of a 
small stream in the valley near Mahanoy City, Schuylkill Co. 



99. HALOTRICHITE. 

In fine incrustations on hornblendic gniess on the river drive 
below " Strawberry Mansion," Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. 



100. COPIAPITE. 

This mineral is found at the same locality as alungen (Maha- 
noy City.) 

101. CALCITE. (152) 

This species is very widely distributed throughout the State, 
and on account of its very frequent occurrence it is seldom 
reported. The majority of the localities have already been de- 
scribed by Dr. Genth. Fine crystals, of the scalenohedron vari- 
ety, called dog-tooth spar, occur in Berks Co. at Fritz Island, Big 
Dam and Luckenbill's cave. I have obtained the following va- 
rieties at the French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co.: 

Dog-tooth spar, fine transparent crystals of light yellow color. 

Iceland spar, some of which is equal to that from Rossie, N. Y., 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 43 

and large single rhombohedra quite transparent and of dark 
yellow color. These latter generally occur on the apophyllite. 
Other localities in Berks Co. are Siesholtzville, Shellington, 
Wernersville, Wheatfield mine, Boyertown, and a pink variety 
in blue quartz on Leinbach's hill W. of Reading; and at Adams- 
town, Lancaster Co., associated with heulandite. 



102. DOLOMITE. (154) 

In small rhombs incrusting limestone, this mineral is sometimes 
met with at the Ueberroth zinc mine, Friedensville, Lehigh Co. 



103. MAGNESITE. (158) 

This mineral is found at Spangsville, Earl twp., Berks Co., and 
in chlorite schist mile S. of Paoli, Chester Co. 



104. SIDERITE. (159) 

Siderite as an ore is found at the Barber mine S. of Alburtis, 
Lehigh Co., and has been analyzed by Mr. M'Creath and found 
to contain ; 

Ferrous oxide 45.064 

Ferric oxide 1.553 

Bisulphide of iron 0.457 

Oxide of maganese 1.150 

Alumina , .' 1.643 

Lime 0.644 

Magnesia 1.495 

Carbonic acid 29.330 

Phosphoric acid 0.142 

Sulphuric acid , 0.061 

Water 0.420 

Insoluble residue. . ,.17.575 



99.534 



44 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

In Springfield twp., Montgomery Co., associated with talc and 
magnetite. Near Mechanicsville, Clarion Co., small crystals are 
found coating the interior of geodes. In Berks Co. at the 
Weaver mine in Oley twp., and in fine crystals in the interior of 
nodules of amorphous siderite at Dunbar, Fayette Co. 



105. ARAGONITE. (162) 

Associated with deweylite and serpentine, it is found at Ruth's 
mine; abundantly in small crystals and fibrous stalactites at the 
Crystal cave, Virginsville, and at the Wheatfield mine, Berks 
Co., and very rarely in fine groups of radiating acicular crystals 
at Cornwall, Lebanon Co. In silky snow white masses and fibres 
associated with serpentine, it is found at Sherrer's talc quarry 
on the Delaware road one mile north of Easton. 



106. HYDROMAGNESITE. (164) 

This mineral, associated with brucite, is found at Sinking 
Spring, Spring twp., Berks Co., and at Carter's chrome mine, 
Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. 



107. AURICHALCITE. 

This beautiful mineral is found at Jones' mine and at the Fritz 
Island mine, Berks Co. 



108. MALACHITE. (166) 

This copper carbonate is quite abundant in many localities 
along the Triassic red sandstone belt, which crosses the south 
eastern portion of the State. 

I have a very fine specimen of malachite, with quart/,, which 
was found a number of years ago at Flint Hill, Lower Saucon 
twp., Northampton Co. 

A few months ago I found this mineral as an incrustation upon 



MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 45 

the conglomerate, a short distance from Leithsville, Lower Sau- 
con twp., Northampton County. It was formerly mined at this 
locality and a considerable quantity taken out; however, on ac- 
count of the small percentage of copper (If), it was not a finan- 
cial success, and the mine was abandoned. In York Co. it occurs 
at Altland's mine 2? miles S. W. of Wellsville ; in Adams Co., 
with epidote at BechteFs opening, Hamilton twp. ; at Bonnough- 
ton, at Mills' mine 1$ miles N. E. of Fairhill ; on argillaceous 
sand rock 1 miles S. W. of Fairfield ; on pophyry H miles S. 
E. of D. Snyder's farm, and near Waynesboro ; in Nicholson 
twp., Wyoming Co. ; in Pike Co. small quantities of malachite 
and sphalerite are found in Middle Smithfield twp.; in Berks 
Co., at the Wheatfield mine, near Fritztown, at the " Big Dam," 
3 miles S. of Eeading; at Snydersville in Exeter twp., and near 
Bernsville. Some good specimens have been obtained at the 
French Creek mines, St. Peter's, Chester Co. 



109. AZURITE, (167.) 

At the Upper Salford mine in Montgomery Co., and with chal- 
copyrite and malachite, it is found near Sellersville. Associated 
with native copper and chrysocolla, it is found on Benchoff's 
farm on the Emrnettsburg turnpike, near Fairfield, Adams Co. 



110. RANDITB. 

This hydrous uranium-lime carbonate is found at a quarry in 
Frank ford, Philadelphia, N. E. of Adams street. 



111. LANSFORDITE 1 n. sp. 



This new species, a hydrous magnesium carbonate, was found 
stalactical in an anthracite mine at Lansford, near Tamaqua, 
1 P. A. Genth, Zeit. f. Kryst, XIV, 255. 



46 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Schuylkill Co. The mineral is translucent and resembles paraf- 
fine ; structure crystalline ; lustre, vitreous. 

Hardness 2-5. Sp. gr. 1.54-1.692. 

COMPOSITION. 

CO 2 18.90 

MgO 23.18 

H 2 O.. ..57.79 



99.87 



112. DOPPLERITE. 

This hydro-carbon compound was obtained from an excavation 
near the court-house at Scranton, Lackawanna Co., and is de- 
scribed by Prof. H. C. Lewis in the Proc. Min. Geol. Sec. Acad. 
Natl. Sci., 1880-81, 19. 



ERRATA. 

Page 2, second line under sulphur, for zinc read zinc. 

" 12, second line under pyrite, for " galenate" read galenite. 
" 13, eleventh line from bottom, for Windsor, Greenwich 

read Windsor and Greenwich. 
". 13, first line from bottom, for crystals on read crystals 

and on. 
" 22, second line under lepidolite, for quartzore read quartzoso. 



TABLE 

SHOWING THE AVAILIBILITY OF THE VARIOUS MINERALS AT 
THE PRINCIPAL MINES. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

1 indicates, poor specimens may be obtained from the waste 

dumps. 

2 indicates, fair specimens may be obtained. 

3 indicates, good specimens may be obtained, as the mine is 

in operation. 

Z indicates, the mine produced principally zinc ores. 
SLi Silver-lead ores. Ch chrome ores. Cr corundum. L lead 

ores. I iron ores. Co cobalt. C copper ores. N nickel. 
a indicates the shaft has fallen in. 
b indicates the mine is filled with water. 



lb Bamford mine. Z 1 miles from Landisville, Lancaster Co. 
lb Brookdalc mine. SL 2 miles S. of Phoenixville. 
Sb Carter's mine. Ch Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. 
a Charlestown mine. SLi 3<} miles S. W. of Phoenixville. 
la Chester Co. mine. SLi south of Phcenixvillc. 
3 Cornwall ore banks. 1C Lebanon Co. 
2ab Ecton mine. LZ Shannonville, Montgomery Co. 
1 Elliott's mine. Cr Ncwlin twp., Chester Co. 
3 French Creek mines. 1C Warwick twp., Chester Co. 
2b Fritz Island mine. I south of Readfng. 
3 Gap mine. N C Co. Bart twp., Lancaster Co. 
2b Jones' mine. 1C near Joanna, Berks Co. 
lb Keystone mine. ZL Birmingham, Blair Co. 
la Line Pit. Ch Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. 
lb New Britain mine LZ Bucks Co. 
1 Pequea mine. LZ south of Lancaster. 
ab Pcrkiomen mine. C Shannonville, Montgomery Co. 
lb Phillips' mine. Ch W. Nottingham, Chester Co. 
lb Phoenix mine. SLZ south of Phoenixville. 



48 MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

la Scott's mine. Ch W. Nottingham, Chester Co. 

2 Susquehanna M. & S. Go's mine. ZL Sunbury. 

3 Ueberroth mine. Z Friedensville, Lehigh Co. 
lb Wheatfield mine. I near Fritztown, Berks Co. 
lb Wheatley mine. SLCZ south of Phoenixville. 

lab Wood's mine. GhN Little Britain twp., Lancaster Co. 



INDEX 

TO MINERAL SPECIES, ANALYSES AND COUNTIES. 

Actinolite 16 

Adams Co 3, 8, 45 

Adularia 24 

Agate 14 

Agate-jasper , 14 

Albite 25 

Allanite 20 

Allophane 30 

Almandite 18 

Alunogen 42 

Amethyst 13 

Amphibole 16 

Analcite 31 

Analysis of Albite 25 

Adularia 24 

" Almandite 18 

Allophane 30 

" Andradite 20 

" Apophyllite 30 

Barite '. 41 

Biotite 21 

Brucite 11 

Calainine 29 

Chabazite 31 

Ohloropal 35 

Corundum 8 

" Deweylite 37 

Enstatite 15 

Fluorite 7 

Garnet 18, 19 

" Glauconite 36 

Heulandite 34 

" Lansfordite 46 

Leidyite 36 

Menaccanite 9 

Mesolite 31 

u Moonstone 23 

Oligoclase 23 



Analysis of Orthoclase 24 

Pectolite -j<> 

Philndelphite 39 

PsiJomelane 12 

Sahlite 15 

Serpentine 34 

Siderite 43 

Stilbite...: 33 

Titaniferous garnet 1!) 

Tilanite 27, >' 

Tourmaline 26 

Wavellite 40 

Andradite 19 

Anorthite 22 

Anthophyllite 36 

Anthosiderite 28 

Apatite 40 

Apophyllite 29 

Aqnacreptite 37 

Armstrong Co 27 

Aragonite 44 

Asbestus 17 

Asbolite 13 

Augite 16 

Aurichalcite 44 

Autunite 41 

Axinite 21 

Azurite ... 45 

Barite 41 

Bedford Co '. 10,41 

Berks Co 3,4,5,6,7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 17, 18,19,20,21,22,24, 2<i, 

27, 28,30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 

Beryl 17 

Biotite 21 

Blair Co , 4,5,29,41 

Blue quartz 14 

Bornite 4 

Brucite 11 

Bucks Co 3,4,5,15,23,26 

Byssolite l' 

Byssolitic calcite 1<> 

Calamine 29 

Calcite 42' 

Cacoxenite 40 



Cancrinite 22 

Centre Co 13 

Chabazite , 31 

Chalcedony 14 

Chalcocite 4 

Chalcopyrite 6 

Chester Co..5, 6, 7, 9, 10* 13, 14, 15, 1 6, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 45 

Chlorpoal 35 

Chromite .... 9 

Cbrysocolla 28 

Chrysolite 17 

Clarion Co 44 

Columbia Co 4 

Columbite 39 

Copiatite 42 

Copper 3 

Corundum 8 

Cuprite 7 

Cyanite 27 

Damourite 38 

Datolite 27 

Degeroite 38 

Delaware Co 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39. 40, 41, 42 

Dog-tooth Spar 42 

Dolomite 43 

Dopplerite . 46 

Dnfrenite 40 

Enstatite 15 

Epidote 20 

Epsomite 42 

Erythrite 40 

Euxenite 39 

Fahlunite 38 

Fayalite 17 

FayetteCo 4,44 

Fluorite 6 

Franklin Co 41 

Fulton Co 41 

Galenite 4 

Garnet 18, 19, 20 

Gehlenite 27 

Genthite 37 



Glauconite 35 

Gothite 11 

Graphite 3 

Grossularite 18 

Gypsum 41 



4 

Halotrichite 42 

Heulandite ; .., 33 

Hisingerite 38 

Hornstone 14 

Huntingdon Co 4, 10, 12, 13, 28, 38, 40, 41, 42 

Hyalite 14 

Hydronaagnesite 44 

Iceland Spar 42 

Jasper 14 

Kammererite 3H 

Labradorite 24 

Lackawanna Co 4, 46 

Lancaster Co 4, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 33, 34, 41. 43, 44 

Lebanon Co 5, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 28, 31, 35, 38, 41 

Lehigh Co 3,5,6, 8, 10,11, 12,15,20,26,28,29,30,32,40,43 

Leidyite 36 

Lepidolite 22 

Magnesite 43 

Malachite 44 

Marcasite 6 

Melaconite 8 

Menaccanite < 8 

Mesolite 31 

Milky quartz 14 

Millerite 5 

Monroe Co 4 

Montgomery Co 4, 5, 6, 8, 15, 37, 44, 45 

Mountain cttrk 17 

Mountain leather 17 

Muscovite 22 

Mussite 16 

Neolite 28 

New Jersey 3 

New York... 42 



Northampton Co 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 21, 29, 34, 42, 44, 45 

Northumberland Co 4 

Oligoclase 22 

Opal 14 

Orthoclase i 24 

Pectolite 28 

Penninite 38 

Philadelphia Co 8, 9, 20. 21, 27, 28,31, 32, 37, 38, 42, 45 

Philadelphite 38 

Pike Co 12, 45 

Pottsville conglomerate 13 

Psilomelane 12 

Pyrite 5 

Pyrallolite 16 

Pyrolusite . 10 

Pyrophyllite 34 

Pyrrhotite 5 

Pyroxene 15 

Quartz 13 

Randite..... 45 

Ripidolite 38 

Rutile 10 

tiahlite 15 

Schuylkill Co 42, 46 

Serpentine 34 

Siderite 43 

Silver 3 

Smoky quartz 14 

Sphalerite 4 

Staurolite 28 

Stilbite : 32 

Sullivan Co 4 

Sulphur 3 

Susquehanna Co 12 

Talc 34 

Titanite 27 

Tourmaline 26 

Tremolite 17 

Turgite , 11