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THE 

MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND 



t*H 



THE 

Mineralogy of Scotland 



BY THE LATE 



M?FORSTER HEDDLE, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

BMBRITUS PKUFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, ST. ANDREWS 



EDITED BY 

J. G. GOODCHILD 

H.M. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, F.G.S. 



REPRINTED 
UNDER AUTHORITY OF 

ALEX. THOMS, Esq. 



THE COUNCIL OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUNDEE 



ASSISTED BY 



D. E. I. INNES, M.A., M.C. 



}i 



LECTURER IN GEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS. /A^/'''«V^ 



VOL. L 



ST. ANDREWS 
W. C. HENDERSON k SON, CHURCH STREET, 

1923 
[All Rights Reserved] 



StRViCfci 
DATE.... 



1923, 
V. I 



CLEMENTINA C. 8. THOMS (nee HEDDLE), 

OLDEST AND LOVED DAUGHTER OF THE AUTHOR, 

Wiro, ON THE DEATH OF HKR MOTHER, ASSUMKD THE CHARGE OF HER FATHER'S HOUSE, 

ACTING A mother's PART TO HER P.ROTHERS AND SISTERS 

WITH LARGE-HEARTED GENEROSITY AND UNSELFISH LOVE, AND 

DEVOTED HERSELF TO HER FATHER 

UP TO AND ALL THROUGH HIS LON(} AND LAST PAINFUL ILLNESS 

WITH A TENDER LOVING CARE WHICH NEVER FLAGGED, 

^bls limoit. Of bcv ^atbcf6 is 2)eOicatct) b^ 

h?:r affectionate husband. 



PREFACE 



It is now well on to fifty years since the author of the present work began 
to turn his attention to Mineralogy. During the time that has since 
elapsed he collected an exceptionally large number of specimens from 
almost every known mineral locality in Scotland, and made several 
hundred analyses. In addition, he drew a large number of figures, and 
published various papers containing the results of his investigations 
upon both the Geognosy and the Mineralogy of his native land. The 
present work may be regarded as the outcome of all this labour. Dr. 
Heddle had been engaged in the preparation of The Mineralogy of Scotland 
for so many years that his friends had begun to despair of ever seeing it 
published, but when his health finally gave way and he foresaw that he 
could no longer hope to see the book completed in his own lifetime, he 
made over the manuscript and the figures of crystals to Mr. Thoms, 
expressing the wish, as he did so, that he should get the book published. 

In the case of a posthumous work to be completed and published 
under these circumstances, it was but natural that the family of the 
author should regard it as a point of the first importance that the book 
should appear as nearly as possible in the form in which it is believed the 
author would have completed it himself. Accordingly, as few alterations 
as possible have been made, and but little additional matter has been 
appended, except what appeared to be necessary for the full under- 
standing of the author's meaning. The unfinished sections have been 
completed as much as possible from material left by the author ; and in 
each case where any doubt arose with regard to the author's latest views, 
we have been guided by the information afforded by the Scottish Mineral 
Collection in the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, which was 
arranged under the author's own supervision, with the assistance of the 
Editor. 



Vlli PREFACi:. 

All additional matter supplied by the Editor is enclosed within square 
brackets. 

A comparatively small number of the figures of crystals which have 
been engraved were left in the condition of first sketches. The majority 
of these have been carefully projected, in accordance with Dr. Heddle's 
views, by Mr. Wilbert Goodchild. 

As Dr. Heddle's labours extended over so many years, it has happened 
that he did not employ any particular crystallographic notation consis- 
tently throughout the work. It does not seem to have occurred to him 
that he might not finish the book himself, and it was, possibly, for that 
reason, that he left no clue to either the meaning of his symbols or the 
sources whence his figures of crystals were taken. As far as possible 
these defects have been made good ; and Dr. Heddle's symbols are now 
given with what are believed to be their indexes, which are accompanied 
by the symbols employed by Dana (6th Edition, System of Mineralogy), 
in each case where these differ from those employed by the author. 

The author died before making the final selections of the illustrations, 
and it has therefore been deemed advisable to have these all engraved, 
just as they left his hands, even though some of them appear to have 
been taken from other sources. 

As regards the Scottish Mineral Localities, it is important to remember 
that much of Dr. Heddle's collecting was done before there were many 
railways in Scotland, and also before the Ordnance Survey maps appeared. 
As a consequence, there existed much diversity in the spelling of many 
place-names, and furthermore, many such of great importance as mineral 
localities never found their way on to even the best maps. Dr. Hoddle 
was, therefore, often led to adopt a phonetic spelling for the names of 
some of these. These, and other reasons, have made the task of identifying 
the exact localities whence the minerals were obtained one of considerable 
difficulty. A large number of correspondents in all parts of Scotland, as 
well as the officers of the Geological Survey, have aided in lessenmg this 
difficulty. The chief helper, however, in this as well as in other matters 
connected with the revision of the proof sheets, has been Mr. James 
Currie, who has gone over much of the ground, especially on the west 
coast of Scotland, from which Dr. Heddle collected, and whose extensive 
knowledge of Scottish minerals and their localities has been placed 
unreservedly at our disposal. Fortunately Dr. Heddle traced the course 
(jf his annual wanderings upon a set of the Ordnance Survey maps of 



PREFACE. IX 

Scotland, which maps wore bequeathed to the Scottish Mountaineering 
Club. 

The Editor of the present work has also marked all the known localities 
of Scottish minerals upon a set of the Ordnance maps, from data got from 
the pages of this book, and from numerous other sources. These maps 
are kept for public reference at the Edinbuigh Museum of Science and 
Art. 

In an Appendix references are given to information which has been 
acquired since the manuscript went to the printers. The Editor has 
drawn some maps from data which are chiefly taken from the Gth Edition 
of Dana's System. The methods of construction of these maps is fully 
described by the Editor in a paper published in the Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. 
Edin. tor 1900. He has also drawn up a full Index to Localities, and has 
added other indexes which the reader may find useful. Mr. Thoms has 
compiled the County List. 

Messrs. Macfarlane & Erskine's engravings speak for themselves, and 
it is certain that mineralogists will be grateful to Mr. Wood for the care 
and skill he has bestowed upon the reproduction of Dr. Heddle's delicate 
and artistic drawings of crystals. 

Edinburgh, 30th January 1901. 



MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE 

By Alexander Thoms. 



Matthew Forster Heddle, the second son of the late Robert Heddle, 
Esquire, of Melsetter, in Hoy, Orkney, was born there in the year 1828. 
When the question of his education had to be considered, he was 
sent for that purpose to Edinburgh, the Edinburgh Academy and 
Merchiston both having had him as a pupil at different times. During 
the latter part of that period he was boarded with John Brown (Author 
of Rah and his Friends), of whom he always spoke with kindly feelings. 

He afterwards attended the Edinburgh University, where in 1851 
he graduated as M.D., and subsequently for a short time he practised 
as a Doctor in that City. 

Chemistry and Botany, however, greatly interested him, and he 
took to these with the energy and enthusiasm that was a characteristic of 
the man. 

Before long, however, he lent his Herbarium to a friend for a special 
purpose, but an accident occurred whereby this was utterly ruined. 
Thinking over his loss, he determined to relinquish Botany as a special 
study, and to devote himself to Geology and Mineralogy, which determina- 
tion he never afterwards regretted. 

In 1856 Professor Connel, Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of St. Andrews, being unable from bad health to continue lecturing 
Di. Heddle was appointed his Assistant, on the understanding that he 
was to succeed to the Chair, which he eventually did in 1862, holding 
the Chau until 1880, when he resigned. He was an able and interesting 
Lecturer and Experimenter, and is still remembered by many of his old 
students with respect and affection. 

The summer holidays gave him the leisure, and year after year he 



Xll MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE. 

dovoteHl his time and talents to the study in the field of Geognosy and 
especially the Mineralogy of Scotland, with occasional trips to other 
countries. 

Dr. Heddle's knowledge of Chemistry came to his aid, and enabled 
him to distinguish many doubtful minerals, and to add very considerably 
to the number known. 

Of great physical strength and power of endurance, few parts of 
Scotland and its adjacent Islands,, whethei mountain-tops, valleys, 
railway cuttings, or miaes, where there was any chance of finding rocks 
or minerals, were unvisited and unexplored by him. With hammers up 
to 28 lbs. weight, blasting powder, or dynamite, and wedges, he made 
the rocks give up their hidden treasures, while, on his return to St. 
Andrews, the Chemical Laboratory, Microscope, Polariscope and Gonio- 
meter revealed many a secret. 

For some years Dr. Heddle's attention was more particularly directed 
to Sutherland and the Shetland Islands, and his published geological 
maps of these speak for themselves, having been adopted, with only a few 
changes, by the Authorities of the Geological Survey. 

In 1858 he revised and practically edited Greg and Lettsom's 
Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland, making many original additions 
thereto. He also wTote the article " Mineralogy " for the last edition 
of the Encyclopcedia Britannica. 

Dr. Heddle contributed a number of papers in connection with the 
rocks and minerals of Scotland, his " Chapters on the Mineralogy of 
Scotland," printed in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and " Geognosy of Scotland," printed in the Mineralogical Magazine of 
the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, being the larger. 
An active member of the Scottish Mountaineering Club, few of the 
mountain peaks in Scotland of any pretensions but have been climbed 
by him at one time or other, and some weird but highly interesting stories 
of the Brocken, and kindred phenomena, seen by him on a few of these 
expeditions, when overtaken by mists and states of the atmosphere 
favourable to such, were related by him, either in the shape of Lectures 
to Societies or in private conversation. At an early period, however, he 
conceived the idea of bringing out a book on The Mineralogy of Scotland, 
and among all the other work he undertook, he gradually but steadily 
added to the material for this, in the shape of drawings of forms of crystals, 
analyses, localities, etc. 



MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE. Xlll 

The slitting of Agates, Rocks and Minerals, for specimens and micro - 
scopic slides, which he did actually by thousands, amid all his other work, 
was little less than marvellous. 

Dr. Heddle gradually got together himself a collection of Scotch 
minerals (irrespective of a largo and valuable general collection), now in 
the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, which is generally admitted 
by experts to be the finest collection ever got together of any one country's 
minerals. 

Besides the above, Dr. Heddle made the subject of the formation of 
Agates a special study, and left a separate collection of these — quite 
unique — showing the various phases, peculiarities, and varieties that 
occur. This collection has now beon placed in the Museum of Science and 
Art alongside of his Scotch collection. 

Dr. Heddle was a F.R.S.E., and in 1851 was appointed President of 
the Geological Society of Edinburgh, and in January 1884 this Society 
appointed him as their first Associate. 

In February 1876 the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland elected him as Vice-President, while in 1879 he was elected 
President. He was also a recipient of the Keith Gold Medal for his 
researches upon the Rhombohedral Carbonates and on the Feldspars, an 
honour he valued highly. 

Although a specialist in Mineralogy, Dr. Heddle's sympathies and 
researches were not by any means confined to this subject, and embraced 
not only cognate sciences, such as Chemistry and Geology, but extended 
to other branches of science. 

Dr. Heddle was a man of very high and honourable principles, to 
whom anything mean or dishonourable was abhorrent, and it may safely 
be said of him, that among all the large mass of original work he did, he 
never appropriated the discoveries or work of others, while he never shirked 
stating his convictions, however antagonistic they might be to what had 
])reviously been generally accepted. 

Somewhat quick of temper, he was devoid of malice, and was of a 
genial, kindly and generous disposition, while those who knew him best, 
laiew best his finer qualities and esteemed him most. 

St. Andrews, ^Oih January 1001. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I. 



»^*:t>« — 



Page 

Preface ........... vii 

Memoir of Dr. Heddle - - ....... xi 

Systematic List of Minerals ....... xix 

Alphabetical List of Minerals ....... xxiv 

Scottish Pseudomorphs ---...... xxxvii 

Index of Scottish Pal^osomatic Minerals ..... i 

Scottish Minerals arranged under Counties .... ij 



CLASS I. NATIVE ELEMENTS. 






Sub-Class I. Non-Metals. 


Sub -Class 


III. Metals. 




Page 
Graphite (2) - - - I 


Gold (13) 




Page 
5 


Sub-Class II. Semi-Metals> 


Electrum (13) 
Silver (14) 




9 
9 


Arsenic (8) ... 4 


Copper (15) 




11 


Bismuth (11) ... 4 


Iron (25) - 




12 



CLASS 11. SULPHIDES, ETC.. OF THE SEMI-METALS. 



Sub-Class I. Sulphides, Sele- 


Niccolite (71) - 


25 


nides, Tellurides of the 


Pyrrhotite (74) 


27 


Semi -Metals. 








Stibnite (28) 


14 


Intermediate Division. 




Molybdenite (34) - 


15 


Bornite (78) - 


29 






Chalcopyrite (83) 


30 


Sub -Class II. Sulphides, etc.. 






OF the Metals. 




DiSULPHIDES, ETC. 




MONOSULPHIDES. 




Pyrite (85) 


32 


Argentite (42) 
Galena (45) 
Chalcocite (54) - 
Blende (58) 


16 
16 
20 
21 


Smaltite (87) - 
Gersdorffite (90) 
Marcasite (96) - 
Mispickel (98) - 


34 
35 
35 
36 


Pentlandite (65) - 
Greenockite (68) - 


23 
23 


OXYSULPHIDES. 




Millerite (70) 


24 


Kermesite (107) 


37 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Ortho -Division 
Bonrnonite (13G) - 



CLASS III. SCJLPHO -SALTS. 

Basic Division. 



Page 
37 



Tetrahedrite (148) 



Pagk 
38 



CLASS IV. HALOIDS. 



Anhydrous Chlorides and 
Fluorides. 



Halito (lOG) 



39 



Salmiac (168) 
Fluor (175) 



40 
40 



CLASS v.— OXIDES. 



Sun -Class I. Oxides of Silicon. 


Quartz (210) 


43 


Hyaline Quartz, 


49 


Amethyst, 


49 


Massive Quartz, - 


52 


Crypto -Crystalline Quartz, 


55 


Agate. Variegated Chalce- 




dony. "Scotch Pebbles." 


58 


Agates : Normal Structure, 


58 1 


Abnormal Structures, 


66 


Abnormal Structures in 




the Layers, 


69 


Cracks in Agates, - 


72 


Mocha-Agates, 


73 


Jasp -Agates, 


73 1 


Alterations of Colour, 


75 1 


Jasper, 


82 : 


Tridymite (211), - 


84 ! 


Opal, (212), 


84 


Oxides of the Semi-Metals 


. 


Valentinite (216) - 


85 


Cervantite (221) - 


85 j 


Oxides of Metals. 


i 


Water (223) 


85 


Cuprite (224) 


86 


Melaconite (230) - 


87 



Sesqttioxtdes. 

Sapphire (231) - 
Haematite (232) 
Martite (232a) 
Ilmenite (233) - 
Iserine (233a) 

Compounds of Sesquioxides with 
Protoxides (Spinel Group). 

Picotite (234) - 

Magnetite (237) 

Chromiferous Magnetite (237a) 

Chromite (241) 

Minium (244) - 



Deutoxides. 



Rutile (250) 
Plattnerite (251) 
Pyrolusite (254) 



Hydrous Oxides. 



Turgite (255) - 
Gothite (257) - 
Manganite (258) 
Limonite (259) 
Limnite (260a) 
Brucite (262) - 
Pyroaurite (267) 
Psilomelane (269) 
Wad (269a) 



88 
88 
91 
91 
94 



96 
96 
99 
99 
101 



101 
103 
103 



104 
104 
107 
108 
110 
110 
111 
111 
113 



CLASS VI. OXYGEN SALTS. 



Carbonates. 




Strontianite (280) 


142 


Calcite (270) 


114 


Cerussite (281) - 


143 


Dolomite (271) - 


137 


Phosgenite (286) 


144 


Ankerite (271a) - 


139 


Malachite (288) 


145 


Magnesite (272) - 


139 


Azurite (289) - 


146 


Breunnerite (272a) 


139 


Aurichalcite (290) 


146 


Siderite (273) 


140 


Hydrocerussite (292) 


147 


Sideroplesite (273) 


141 


Hydromagnesite (300) 


147 


Smithsonite (275) - 


141 


Pennite (302) - 


147 


Aragonite (277) - 


141 


Hibbertite (302) 


147 


Witherite (279) 


142 


Zaratite (303) - 


148 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME I 



Fig. Page. 

rortrait of Dr. Heddle, .-...- Frontispiece 

1. Axo-shaped Agate — in two positions, ----- 59 

2. Onyx-Agate. Onyx parallel to fiat side, druse filled with Quartz, - 59 
.3, 4. Varying order of deposition, ------- 60 

5. Celedonite Stalactites, .----.-- 60 

(5. Interlacing Celedonite, the framework, - - - - - 61 

7. First coating of Chalcedony on Celedonite filaments, - - - 61 

8, 9. Varieties of Agate building, ....--- 62 

10. Fortification- Agate, with sectioned stalactites, - - - - 64 

11. Fortification- Agate, --------- 64 

12. Cacholong and Chalcedony Agate, with one tube for all the Cacholong 

layers, -.----.--- 65 

13. Cacholona: and Carnelian Aeate, with two tubes for the Cacholong 



ERR A TUM. 

Plate to face page 112. — Not available. 

Vol. I. 



■lOllllC, 



Stalactitic and Botryoidal masses of Psilomelane Lead Ceo, Hoy, 

Orkney (Plates X. and XI. of Min. Mag. 111.), To face 112 



MAPS IN TEXT, 

(Jnomonogram of Quartz,- ........ To face 43 

CJnomonogram of Calcite (Dana's Symbols), - - - - - ,,114 

Aragonite, -  - - - - - - - - - - ,,141 

Cerussite, ,,, ^ ,,,,,. . ,,144 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Ortho -Division. 
Bonrnonite (130) - 



CLASS III. SCJLPHO-SALTS. 

Basic Division. 



Page 
37 



Tetrahedrite (148) 



Pack 
38 



CLASS IV. HALOIDS. 



Anhydrous Chlorides and 
Fluorides. 



Halite (lOfi) 



39 



Salmiac (168) - 
Fluor (175) 



40 
40 



CLASS v.— OXIDES. 



Sub-Class I. Oxides of Silicon. 

Quartz (210) 

Hyaline Quartz, 
Amethyst, 
Massive Quartz, 
Crypto -Crystalline Quartz, 
Agate. Variegated Chalce- 
dony. "Scotch Pebbles." 
Agates : Normal Structure, 
Abnormal Structures, 
Abnormal Structures in 

the Layers, 
Cracks in Agates, - 
Mocha -Agates, 
Jasp -Agates, 
Alterations of Colour, 
JasDer. 



Sesquioxides. 



43 
49 
49 

52 
55 


Sapphire (231) - - - 88 
Ha-matite (232) - - 88 
Martite (232a) - - 91 
Ilmenite (233) - - - 91 
Iserine (233a) - - 94 


58 
58 


Compounds of Sesquioxides with 
Protoxides (Spinel Group). 


66 

69 
72 
73 
73 


Picotite (234) - - . 96 
Magnetite (237) - - 96 
Chromiferous Magnetite (237a) 99 
Chromite (24D - - 99 
Minium (244) - - - 101 


75 

89 _ 


Deutoxides. 



CLASS VI. OXYGEN SALTS. 



Carbonates. 




Strontianite (280) 


142 


Calcite (270) 


114 


Cerussite (281) - 


143 


Dolomite (271) - 


137 


Phosgenite (286) 


144 


Ankerite (271a) - 


139 


Malachite (288) 


145 


Magnesita (272) - 


139 


Azurite (289) - 


146 


Breunnerite (272a) 


139 


Aurichalcite (290) 


146 


Siderite (273) 


140 


Hydrocerussite (292) 


147 


Sideroplesite (273) 


141 


Hydromagnesite (300) 


147 


Smithsonite (275) - 


141 


Pennite (302) - 


147 


Aragonite (277) - 


141 


Hibbertite (302) 


147 


Witherite (279) 


142 


Zaratite (303) - 


148 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME I. 



Fig. Page. 

Portrait of Dr. Heddle, ...... Frontispiece 

1, Axe-shaped Agate — in two positions, ----- 59 

2. Onyx-Agate. Onyx parallel to iiat side, druse filled with Quartz, - 59 
3, 4. Varying order of deposition, ------- GO 

5. Celedonite Stalactites, -------- 60 

0. Interlacing Celedonite, the framework, - - - - - 61 

7. First coating of Chalcedony on Celedonite filaments, - - - 61 

8, 9. Varieties of Agate building, ....... 62 

10. Fortification-Agate, wath sectioned stalactites, - - - - 64 

11. Fortification- Agate, -----.-.. 64 

12. Cacholong and Chalcedony Agate, with one tube for all the Cacholong 

layers, -----.-... 65 

13. Cacholong and Carnelian Agate, with two tubes for the Cacholong 

and one for the Carnelian layers, ----- 66 
14, 15. Dilation on the tube — the first filled with same material as the centre. 

Quartz ; the second with Cacholong, ----- 67 

16. Onyx Agate, ---.----.- 68 

17. Plynthoid Agate, ......... 68 

18. Wave Onyx, 68 

19, 20, 21. Cross-section of Eyed Agate, .--.... 69 

22. Section of Cacholong Eyes, ------- 69 

23. Cacholong Eyes. Inside skin of an Inky Onyx, - - - 69 

24. Disc-bearing Agate, --....-.. 70 

25. „ „ 71 

26. Discachatae and Oonachatse, - - - - - - - 72 

27. Hsemachatae Ovoids,- - - - - - - - - 72 

28. Haema-Ovoid Rings, ........ 72 

29, 30. Longitudinal and transverse sections of Stalactite structure in Jasp. 

Agate— Ayrshire, ........ 74 

Stalactitic and Botryoidal masses of Psilomelane Lead Ceo, Hoy, 

Orkney (Plates X. and XL of Min. Mag. 111.), To face 112 



MAPS IN TEXT, 

Cnomonogram of Quartz,- ........ To face 43 

(Jnomonogram of Calcite (Dana's Symbols), - - - - - ,,114 

Aragonite, - • - - . . . . . . . . ,,141 

Cerussite, ,.,,.,,,,,. ,,144 



XVIU 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES AT END OF VOLUME. 



PLATE 




I. 


Gold, 


figs. 1, 2 — Silver — Copper — Molybdenite — Argentite — Galena 




fig. L 


II. 


Galena, figs. 2 to 9. 


III. 


a 


„ 10 to 17. 


IV. 


)t 


„ 18 to 25. 


V. 


ff 


fig. 26— Blende, figs. 1 to 7. 


VI. 


Blende, figs. 8, 9— Greenockite, figs. 1, 2— Pyrrhotite, figs. 1, 2— Chalco 




pyrite, figs. I and 2. 


VII. 


Chalcopyrite, figs. 3 to 9 — Pyrites, fig. 1 . 


VIII. 


Pyrites, figs. 2 to 9. 


IX. 


j> 


„ 10 to 17. 


X. 


;> 


„ 18 to 22— Marcasite—Tetrahedrite— Fluorite, fig. 1. 


XI. 


Fluorite, figs. 2 to 9. 


XII. 


„ 10 to 18. 


XIII. 


Quartz, figs„l to 8. 


XIV. 


, 


, „ 9 to 16. 


XV. 


„ „ 17 to 24. 


XVI. 




, „ 25 to 32. 


XVII. 


Haematite— Ilmenite — Magnetite, figs. 1 to 0. 


XVIII. 


Magnetite, figs. 7, 8— Rutile, figs. 1 to .5— Gothite. 


XIX. 


Calcite, figs. 1 to 8. 


XX. 


, 


, „ 9 to 16. 


XXI. 


J 


, „ 17 to 24. 


XXII. 


, 


25 to 32. 


XXIII. 


^ 


„ 33 to 40. 


XXIV. 


J 


„ 41 to 48. 


XXV. 


^ 


„ 49 to 56. 


XXVI. 


^ 


„ 57 to 62. 


XXVII. 


^ 


„ 63 to 69. 


XXVIII. 


^ 


, „ 70 to 76. 


XXIX. 


^ 


„ 77 to 84. 


XXX. 


^ 


„ 85 to 92. 


XXXI. 


^ 


, „ 93 to 100. 


XXXII. 


^ 


, „ 101 to 107. 


XXXIII. 


^ 


„ 108 to 115. 


XXXIV. 


^ 


, „ 116 to 123. 


XXXV. 


^ 


, „ 124 to 131. 


XXXVI. 


1 


, „ 132 to 139. 


XXXVII. 




„ 140 to 147. 


XXXVIII. 


^ 


, „ 148 to 155. 


XXXIX. 


^ 


, „ 156 to 165. 


XL. 


^ 


, „ 166 to 171. 


XLI. 


, 


„ 172 to 179. 


XLII. 


> 


, „ 180 to 187. 


XLIII. 




, „ 188 to 198. 


XLIV. 




, „ 199 to 206. 


XLV. 




„ 207 to 214. 


XLVI. 


^ 


, „ 215 to 219. 


XLVII. 


> 


, „ 220 to 224 — Dolomite — Magnesite — Siderite. 


XLVIII. 


Arag< 


3nite, figs. 1 to 5 — Cerussite, figs. 1 to 3. 


XLIX. 


Cerus 


site, figs. 4 to 11. 


L. 


> 


„ 12 to 19. 


LI. 




„ 20 to 27. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS 

{Those occurring in Scotland being 7narked with an asterisk) 
By J. G. GooDCHiLD. 



?*1. 


Diuinond. 


40. 


Altaite. 


91. 


Corynito. 


*2. 


(Jraphite. 


47. 


Clausthalite. 


92. 


Ullmannito. 


*3. 


Sulphur. 


48. 


Naumannite. 


93. 


Sperrylite. 


4. 


Selensulpliiu-. 


49. 


Berzelianite. 


94. 


Laurite. 


5. 


Selenium. 


50. 


Lehrbachite. 


95. 


Skutteruditc. 


(). 


Selen-Tellurium. 


51. 


Eucairite. 


*90. 


Marcasite. 


7. 


Tellurium. 


52. 


Zorgite. 


97. 


Lollingite. 


*8. 


Arsenic. 


53. 


Crookesite. 


*98. 


Arsenopyrites. 


9. 


Allemontite. 


*54. 


Chalcocite. 


99. 


Safflorite. 


10. 


Antimony. 


55. 


Stromeyerite. 


?*100. 


Rammelsbergite 


11. 


Bismuth. 


50. 


Sternbergite. 


101. 


Glaucodot. 


12. 


Zinc. 


57. 


Acanthite. 


102. 


Alloclasite. 


*13. 


Gold. 


*58. 


Sphalerite. 


103. 


Wolfaeliite. 


*14. 


Silver. 


59. 


Me tacinnabarite . 


104. 


Sylvanite. 


*15. 


Copper. 


00. 


Tiemannite. 


105. 


Krennerite. 


10. 


Mercury. 


01. 


Onofrite. 


100. 


Nagyagite. 


17. 


Amalgam. 


02. 


Coloradoite. 


*107. 


Kermesite. 


?*18. 


Lead. 


03. 


Alabandite. 


108. 


Voltzite. 


19. 


Tin. 


04. 


Oldhamite. 


109. 


Livingstonite. 


20. 


Platinum. 


*05. 


Pentlandite. 


110. 


Guejarite. 


21. 


Iridium. 


00. 


Cinnabar. 


111. 


Chiviatite. 


22. 


Iridosmine. 


07. 


Covellite. 


112. 


Cuprobismutite. 


23. 


Palladium. 


*08. 


Greenockite. 


113. 


Rezbanyite. 


24. 


Allopalladium. 


09. 


Wurtzite. 


114. 


Zinkenite. 


*25. 


Iron. 


*70. 


Millerite. 


115. 


Sartorite. 


20. 


Realgar. 


*71. 


Niccolite. 


110. 


Emplectite. 


27. 


Orpiment. 


72. 


Breithauptite. 


117. 


Chalcostibite. 


*28. 


Stibnite. 


73. 


Troilite. 


118. 


G alenobismutite. 


29. 


Bismuthinite. 


*74. 


Pyrrhotite. 


119. 


Berthierite. 


30. 


Gvianajuatite. 


75. 


Poly dy mite. 


120. 


Matildite. 


31. 


Tetradymite. 


70. 


Beyrichite. 


121. 


Miargyrite. 


32. 


Joseite. 


77. 


Melonite. 


122. 


Plagionte. 


33. 


Wehrlite. 


*78. 


Bomite. 


123. 


Binnite. 


*34. 


Molybdenite. 


79. 


Linnseite. 


124. 


Klaprotholite. 


35. 


Dyscrasite. 


80. 


Daubreelite. 


125. 


Scliirmerite. 


30. 


Horsfordite. 


81. 


Cubanite. 


120. 


Warrenite. 


37. 


Domeykite. 


82. 


Carrollite. 


127. 


Dufrenoysite. 


38. 


Algodonite. 


*83. 


Chalcopyrites. 


128. 


Cosalite. 


39. 


Whitneyite. 


84. 


Stannite. 


129. 


Schai)bachite. 


40. 


Chilenite. 


*85. 


Pyrites. 


130. 


Jamesonite. 


41. 


Stutzite. 


80. 


Hauerite. 


131. 


Kobellite. 


♦42. 


Argentite. 


87. 


Smaltite. 


132. 


Brongniardite. 


43. 


Hessite. 


88. 


Chloantliite. 


133. 


Semseyite. 


44. 


Petzite. 


89. 


Cobaltite. 


134. 


Diaphorite. 


*45. 


Galena. 


*90. 


Gersdorflfite. 


135. 


Freieslebenite. 



VOL. I. 



XX 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS. 



*136. 


Bournonite. 


200. 


Douglasito. 


*262. 


Brucite. 


137. 


Wittichenite. 


201. 


Carnallito. 


263. 


Pyrochroito. 


138. 


Aikinito. 


202. 


Tachydrito. 


264. 


Gibbsite. 


139. 


Boulangerito. 


203. 


Fluellito. 


265. 


Sassolite. 


140. 


Lillianite. 


204. 


Prosopite. 


266. 


Hydrotalcito. 


141. 


Stylotypite. 


205. 


Pachnolite. 


*267. 


Pyroaurito. 


142. 


Guitermanite. 


206. 


Thomsenolite. 


268. 


Chalcophanite. 


143. 


Tapalpite. 


207. 


Gearksutite. 


*269. 


Psilomelane. 


144. 


Pyrargyrite. 


208. 


Ralstonite. 


*270. 


Calcite. 


145. 


Proustite. 


209. 


Yttrocerite. 


*271. 


Dolomite. 


146. 


Pyrostilpnite. 


*210. 


Quartz. 


*271A 


. Ankerite. 


147. 


Rittingerite. 


*210i^ 


. Quartzine. 


*272. 


Magnesito. 


*148. 


Tetrahedrite. 


*211. 


Tridymite. 


*272A 


. Mesitite. 


149. 


Tennantite. 


2UA 


. Asmanite. 


*273. 


Siderite. 


150. 


Jordanite. 


*212. 


Opal. 


274. 


Rhodochrosite. 


151. 


Meneghinite. 


213. 


Arsenolite. 


275. 


Smithsonite. 


152. 


Geoci-onite. 


214. 


Senai-montito. 


276. 


Sphserocobaltite. 


153. 


Stephanite. 


215. 


Claude tite. 


*277. 


Aragonite. 


154. 


Kilbrickenite. 


*216. 


Valentinite. 


278. 


Bromlite. 


155. 


Beegerite. 


217. 


Bismite. 


279. 


Witherite. 


156. 


Polybasite. 


218. 


Tellurite. 


*280. 


Strontianite. 


157. 


Poly argy rite. 


?*219. 


Molybdito. 


*281. 


Cerussite. 


158. 


Enargite. 


220. 


Tungstite. 


282. 


Barytocalcite. 


159. 


Famatinite. 


*221. 


Cervantite. 


283. 


Bismutospharite 


160. 


Xanthoconite. 


222. 


Stibiconite. 


284. 


Parisite. 


161. 


Epiboulangerite. 


*223. 


Water. 


285. 


Bastnasite. 


162. 


Epigenite. 


*224. 


Cuprite. 


?*286. 


Phosgenite. 


163. 


Argyrodite. 


225. 


Periclase. 


287. 


Teschemacherite 


164. 


Calomel. 


226. 


Manganosite. 


*288. 


Malachite. 


165. 


Nantokite. 


227. 


Bunsenite. 


*289. 


Azurite. 


*166. 


Halite. 


228. 


Zincite. 


*290. 


Aurichalcite. 


167. 


Sylvite. 


229. 


Massicot. 


291. 


Hydrozincite. 


*168. 


Sal-ammoniac. 


*230. 


Tenorite. 


*292. 


Hydrocerussite. 


169. 


Cerargyrite. 


*231. 


Corundum. 


293. 


Dawsonite. 


170. 


Embolite. 


*232. 


Haematite. 


294. 


Thermonatrite. 


171. 


Bromyrite. 


*233. 


Ilmenite. 


295. 


Nesquehonite. 


172. 


lodobromite. 


*234. 


Spinel. 


296. 


Natron. 


173. 


lodyrite. 


235. 


Hercynite. 


297. 


Gay-lussite. 


174. 


Hydrophilite. 


236. 


Gahnite. 


298. 


Lanthanite. 


*175. 


Fluor. 


*237. 


Magnetite. 


299. 


Trona. 


176. 


Chloromagnesite . 


238. 


Magnesioferrite. 


*300. 


Hy dromagnesite . 


177. 


Sellaite. 


239. 


Franklinite. 


301. 


Hydrogiobertite. 


178. 


Lawrencite. 


240. 


Jacobsite. 


302. 


Lansfordite. 


179. 


Scacchite. 


*241. 


Chromite. 


*303. 


Zaratite. 


180. 


Cotunnite 


242. 


Chrysoberyl. 


304. 


Remingtonite. 


181. 


Molysite. 


243. 


Hausmannite. 


305. 


Tengerite. 


182. 


Tysonite. 


?*244. 


Minium. 


306. 


Bismutite. 


183. 


Cryolite. 


245. 


Crednerite. 


307. 


Uranothallite. 


184. 


Chiolite. 


246. 


Pseudobrookite. 


308. 


Liebigite. 


185. 


Hieratite. 


247. 


Braunite. 


309. 


Voglite. 


186. 


Matlockite. 


248. 


Cassiterite. 


310. 


Petalite. 


187. 


Mendipite. 


249. 


Polianite. 


311. 


Milarite. 


188. 


Schwar tzem bergite 


*250. 


Rutile. 


312. 


Eudidyraite. 


189. 


Laurionite. 


*251. 


Plattnerite. 


*313. 


Orthoclase. 


190. 


Daviesite. 


252. 


Octahedrite. 


314. 


Hyalophane, 


191. 


Fiedlerite. 


253. 


Brookite. 


*315. 


Microcline. 


192. 


Percy lite. 


*254. 


Pyrolusite. 


*315A 


Anorthoclase. 


?*193. 


Atacamite. 


*255. 


Turgite. 


*316. 


Albite. 


194. 


Daubreeite. 


256. 


Diaspore. 


*317. 


Oligoclase. 


195. 


Nocerite. 


*257. 


Gothite. 


*318. 


Andesine. 


196. 


Fluocerite. 


*258. 


Manganite. 


*319. 


Labradorite. 


197. 


Bischofite. 


*259. 


Limonite. 


*320. 


Anorthite. 


198. 


Kremersite. 


260. 


Xanthosiderite. 


321. 


Leucite. 


199. 


Ery throsiderite . 


261. 


Bauxite. 


322. 


Pollucite. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXI 



*323. 


Enatatite. 


380. 


*324. 


Hypei'sthene. 


*387. 


*325. 


Augite. 


388. 


*32G. 


Acmite (Aegirite). 


389. 


♦327. 


Spodumene. 


390. 


328. 


Jadeite. 


*39]. 


*329. 


Wollaatonite. 


392. 


*330. 


Pectolite. 


*393. 


331. 


Rosenbuschite. 


*394. 


332. 


Lavenite. 


*395. 


333. 


Wohlerite. 


390. 


334. 


Hiortdahlite. 


*397. 


?*335. 


Rhodonite. 


*398. 


*33G. 


Babingtonito, 


*399. 


*337. 


Antliophyllite. 


*400. 


*338. 


Amphibole. 


*401. 


339. 


Glaucophane. 


402. 


*340. 


Riebeckite. 


403. 


*341. 


Crocidolite. 


?*404. 


342. 


Arfvedsonite. 


405. 


?*343. 


J^nigmatite. 


*400. 


*344. 


Beryl. 


*407. 


345. 


Eudialyte. 


408. 


340. 


Catapleiite. 


*409. 


347. 


Cappelenite. 


?*410. 


348. 


Melanocerite. 


*411. 


349. 


Caryocerite. 


412. 


350. 


Tritomite. 


413. 


351. 


Leucophanite. 


414. 


352. 


Meliphanite. 


415. 


*353. 


lolite. 


410. 


354. 


Barysilite. 


417. 


355. 


Ganomalite. 


418. 


35(). 


Hyalotekite. 


419. 


*357. 


Nepheline. 


420. 


*358. 


Eucryptite. 


421. 


359. 


Kaliophilite. 


422. 


300. 


Cancrinite. 


*423. 


301. 


Microsommite. 




*302. 


Sodalite. 


424. 


303. 


Haiiynite. 


425. 


304. 


Noselit*^. 


*420. 


305. 


Lazurite. 


427. 


300. 


Helvite. 


*428. 


307. 


Danalite. 


429. 


308. 


Eulytite. 


430. 


309. 


Zunyite. 


431. 


*370. 


Garnet. 


432. 


371. 


Schorlomite. 


*433. 


372. 


Partschinite. 


*434. 


373. 


Agricolite. 


*435. 


374. 


Monticellite. 


430. 


*375. 


Forsterite. 


437. 


*370. 


Chrysolite, Olivine. 


*438. 


*377. 


Fayalite. 


*439. 


378. 


Knebelite. 


?*440. 


379. 


Tephroite. 


?*441. 


379A. Roepperite. 


*442. 


380. 


Trimerite. 


*443. 


381. 


Willemite. 


444. 


382. 


Phenaeite. 


*445. 


383. 


Dioptase. 


440. 


384. 


Friedelite. 


*447. 


385. 


Pyrosmalite. 


*448. 



Meionite. 

Wornorite. 

Mizzonite. 

Marialite. 

Sarcolito. 

Melilite. 

Gehlenite. 

Vesuvianitc. 

Zircon. 

Thorite. 

Danburite. 

Topaz. 

Andalusite. 

Sillimanite. 

Cyanito. 

Datolite. 

Homilite. 

Euclase. 

Gadolinite. 

Yttrialite. 

Zoisite. 

Epidote. 

Piedmontite. 

Allanito. 

Axinite. 

Prehnite. 

Harstigite. 

Cuspid ine. 

Humite. 

Chondrodite. 

Clinohuinite. 

Ilvaite. 

Ardennite. 

Langbanite. 

Kentrolite. 

Melanotekite. 

Bertrandite. 

Calamine (Hemi- 

morphie. 
Carpholite. 
Cerite. 

Tourmalinte. 
Dumortierie. 
Staurolite. 
Kornerupine. 
Sapphirine. 
Inesite. 
Ganophyllite. 
Okenite. 
Gyrolite. 
Apophyllite. 
Ptilolite. 
Mordenite. 
Heulandite. 
Brewsterite. 
Epistilbite. 
Phillipsite. 
Harmotome. 
St il bite. 
Gismondite. 
Laumontite. 
Laubanita. 
Chabazite. 
G melinite. 



*449. 


Levynito. 


*450. 


Analcito. 


451. 


Faujasito. 


♦452. 


Edingtonite. 


*453. 


Natrolite. 


*454. 


Scolecito. 


*455. 


Mesoliti^ 


*450. 


Thomson ite. 


457. 


Hydronrpholite. 


*458. 


Muscovite. 


459. 


Paragonite. 


400. 


Lepidolite. 


*401. 


Zinnwaldite. 


*402. 


Biotite. 


*4G2A 


Phologopite. 


*4e2B 


Lepidomelano. 


*402C 


Haughtonite. 


463. 


Roseooelite. 


404. 


Margarita. 


465. 


Soybertite. 


4 05 A 


. Xantliophyllite. 


*4eo. 


Chloritoid. 


♦407. 


Ottrelite. 


*408. 


Clinochlore 


*468A 


. Penninite. 


*469. 


Prochlorite. 


470. 


Corundophiiite. 


471. 


Daphnite. 


472. 


Cronstedtite. 


473. 


Thuringite. 


474. 


Stilpnomolane. 


475. 


Strigovite. 


470. 


Diabantite. 


477. 


Aphrosiderite. 


*478. 


Delessite. 


479. 


Rumpfite. 


480. 


Jefferisite. 


*481. 


Serpentine. 


482. 


Deweylite. 


?*483. 


Genthite. 


483A 


. Garnierite. 


*484. 


Talc. 


485. 


Sepiolitc. 


480. 


Connarite. 


487. 


Spadaite. 


*488. 


Saponite. 


*489. 


Celadonite. 


*490. 


Glauconite. 


491. 


Pholidolite. 


*492. 


Kaolinite. 


*493. 


Halloysite. 


494. 


Newtonite. 


495. 


Cimolite. 


496. 


Montmorillonite 


497. 


Pyrophyllite. 


?*498. 


Allophane. 


499. 


Collyrite. 


500. 


Schrotterite. 


501. 


Cenosite. 


502. 


Thaumasite. 


. 503. 


Uranophane. 


♦504. 


Chrysocolla. 


505. 


Cliloropal. 


500. 


Hisingerit«. 



xxu 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS. 



507. 


Bementite. 


569. 


Dihydrite. 


632. 


Euchroito. 


508. 


Caryopilite. 


570. 


Pseudomalachite. 


633. 


Volborthite. 


509. 


Neotocite. 


571. 


Clinoclasite. 


634. 


Cornwallite. 


*510. 


Titanite (Sphene). 


572. 


Chondrarsenite. 


635. 


Tyrolite. 


?*51L 


Keilhauite. 


573. 


Dufrenite. 


636. 


Chalcophyllite. 


512. 


Guarinite. 


574. 


Lazulite. 


637. 


Veszelyite. 


513. 


Tscheffkinite. 


575. 


Tavistockite. 


638. 


Liidlamite. 


514. 


Astrophyllite. 


576. 


Cirrolite. 


*639. 


Wavellite. 


515. 


Johns trupite. 


577. 


Arseniosiderite. 


640. 


Fischerite. 


516. 


Mosaiiflrite. 


578. 


Allactite. 


641. 


Peganite. 


517. 


Rinkite. 


579. 


Synadelphite. 


642. 


Turquois. 


518. 


Perovskite. 


580. 


Flinkite 


643. 


Sphaerite. 


519. 


Dysanalyte. 


581. 


Hematolite. 


644. 


Liskeardite. 


520. 


Pyrochlore. 


582. 


Arseniopleite. 


645. 


Evansite. 


520A 


. Koppite. 


583. 


Manganostibiite . 


646. 


Pharmacosiderite 


521. 


Hatchettolite. 


584. 


Atelestite. 


647. 


Cacoxenite. 


522. 


Microlite. 


585. 


Struvite. 


648. 


Beraunite. 


523. 


Fergusonite. 


586. 


Collophanite. 


649. 


Childrenite. 


524. 


Sipylite. 


587. 


Hopeite. 


650. 


Eosphorite. 


525. 


Columbite. 


588. 


Dickinsonite. 


651. 


Mazapilite. 


526. 


Tantalite. 


589. 


Fillowite. 


652. 


Calcioferrite. 


526A 


. Skogbolite, 


590. 


Roselite. 


653. 


Borickite. 


527. 


Tapiolite. 


591. 


Brandtite. 


654. 


Liroconite. 


?*528. 


Yttrotantalite. 


592. 


Fairfieldite. 


655. 


Chenevixite. 


529. 


Samarskite. 


593. 


Messelite. 


656. 


Chalcosiderite. 


530. 


Annerodite. 


594. 


Reddingite. 


657. 


Goyazite. 


531. 


Hielmite. 


595. 


Picropharmacolite. 


658. 


Plumbogummite . 


532. 


Aeschynite. 


596. 


Trichalcite. 


659. 


Torbernite. 


533. 


Polymignite. 


*597. 


Vivianite. 


660. 


Zeunerite. 


534. 


Euxenite. 


598. 


Symplesite. 


661. 


Autmiite. 


535. 


Polycrase. 


599. 


Bobierrite. 


662. 


Uranospinite. 


536. 


Xenotime. 


600. 


Hoernesite. 


663. 


Uranocircite. 


*537. 


Monazite. 


*601. 


Erythrite. 


664. 


Phosphuranylite . 


538. 


Berzeliite. 


*602. 


Annabergite. 


665. 


Trogerite. 


539. 


Monimolite. 


*602. 


Dudgeonite. 


666. 


Walpurgite. 


540. 


Caryinite. 


603. 


Cabrerite. 


667. 


Rhagite. 


541. 


Carminite. 


604. 


Kottigite. 


668. 


Mixite. 


542. 


Pucherite. 


605. 


Rhabdophanite . 


669. 


Atopite. 


543. 


Triphylite. 


600. 


Churchite. 


670. 


Bindheimite. 


544. 


Lithiophilite. 


607. 


Scorodite. 


671. 


Romeite. 


545. 


Natrophilite. 


608. 


Strengite. 


672. 


Nadorite. 


546. 


Beryllonite. 


609. 


Phosphosiderite, 


673. 


Ecdemite. 


547. 


Herderite. 


610. 


Barrandite. 


674. 


Ochrolite. 


548. 


Hamlinite. 


611. 


Variscite. 


675. 


Trippkeite. 


*549. 


Apatite. 


612. 


Callainite. 


676. 


Dahllite. 


*550. 


Pyromorphite. 


613. 


Zepharovicliite. 


677. 


Diadochite. 


*551. 


Mimetite. 


614. 


Konickite. 


678. 


Pitticite. 


*552. 


Vanadinite. 


615. 


Stercorite. 


679. 


Svanbergite. 


553. 


Wagnerite. 


616. 


Haidingerite. 


680. 


Beudantite. 


554. 


Spodiosite. 


617. 


Pharmacolite. 


681. 


Lindackerite. 


555. 


Triplite. 


618. 


Brushite. 


682. 


Liineburgite. 


556. 


Triploidite. 


619. 


Metabrushite. 


683. 


Soda Nitre. 


557. 


Sarkinite. 


620. 


Martinite. 


684. 


Nitre. 


558. 


Durangite. 


621. 


Newberyite. 


685. 


Nitrocalcito. 


559. 


Amblygonite. 


622. 


Wapplerite. 


686. 


Nitromagnesite. 


560. 


Monetite. 


623. 


Hannayite. 


087. 


Nitrobarite. 


?*561. 


Olivenite. 


624. 


Hureaulite. 


688. 


Gerhardtite. 


562. 


Libethenite. 


625. 


Forbesite. 


689. 


Darapskite. 


563. 


Adamite. 


626. 


Jsoclasite. 


690. 


Nitroglauberite. 


564. 


Descloizite. 


627. 


Hemafibrite. 


691. 


Nordenskioldine. 


565. 


Calciovolborthite. 


628. 


Conichalcite. 


692. 


Jeremejevite. 


566. 


Brackebuschite. 


629. 


Bayldonite. 


693. 


Sussexite. 


567. 


Psittacinite, 


630. 


Tagilite. 


694. 


Lvidwigite. 


?*568. 


Erinite. 


631. 


Leucochalcite. 


695. 


Pinakiolite. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXlll 



696. 


Hambergite. 


749. 


Goslarite. 


800. 


Alunite. 


697. 


Szaibelyite. 


♦750. 


Morenosite. 


801. 


Jarosite. 


698. 


Boracite. 


*751. 


Melanterite. 


802. 


Lowigito. 


699. 


Rhodizite. 


752. 


Mallardite. 


803. 


Ettringite. 


700. 


Warwickite. 


753. 


Pisanite. 


804. 


Quetenite. 


701. 


Howlite. 


754. 


Bieberite. 


805. 


Zincaluminite. 


702. 


Lagonite. 


*755. 


Chalcanthite. 


806. 


Johannite. 


703. 


Larderellite. 


750. 


Syngenite. 


807. 


Uranopilite. 


704. 


Colemanite. 


757. 


Lciweite. 


808. 


Montanite. 


705. 


Pinnoite. 


758. 


Blodite. 


809. 


Emmonsite. 


706. 


Heintzite. 


759. 


Boussingaultite. 


810. 


Durdenite. 


707. 


Borax. 


760. 


Picromerite. 


811. 


Chalcomenite. 


708. 


Ulexite. 


761. 


Cyanochroito. 


812. 


Wolframite. 


709. 


Bechilite. 


762. 


Polyhalite. 


813. 


Hiibnerito. 


710. 


Hydroboracite. 


763. 


Wattevillite. 


814. 


Scheelite. 


711. 


Uraninite. 


*764. 


Kalinite. 


815. 


Cuprotungstite. 


712. 


Gummite. 


765. 


Tschermigite. 


816. 


Powellite. 


713. 


Uranosphserite 


766. 


Mendozite. 


817. 


Stolzite. 


714. 


Mascagnite. 


767. 


Tamarugite. 


*818. 


Wulfenite. 


715. 


Taylorite. 


768. 


Pickeringite. 


*819. 


Reinite. 


716. 


Thenardite. 


*769. 


Halotrichite. 


820. 


Belonesite. 


717. 


Aphthitalite. 


770. 


Apjohnite. 


821. 


Whewellite. 


♦718. 


Glauberite. 


771. 


Dietrichite. 


822. 


Oxammite. 


♦719. 


Barytes. 


772. 


Coquimbite. 


823. 


Humboldtine. 


*720. 


Celestine. 


773. 


Quenstedtite. 


?*824. 


Mellite. 


*721. 


Anglesite. 


774. 


Ihleite. 




Scheererite. 


722. 


Anhydrite. 


775. 


Alunogen, 




*Hatchettite. 


723. 


Zinkosite. 


776. 


Krohnkite. 




*Ozocerite. 


724. 


Hydrocyanite. 


777. 


Ferronatrite. 




*Fichtelite. 


725. 


Crocoite. 


778. 


Romerite. 




Hartite. 


726. 


Phoenicochroite. 


779. 


Langite. 




KonUte. 


*727. 


Vauquelinite. 


780. 


Herrengriindite. 




♦Succinite (True 


728. 


Sulphohalite. 


7 80 A 


. Arnimite. 




Amber). 


729. 


Caracolite. 


781. 


Cyanotrichite 




*Retinite. 


730. 


Kainite. 




(Lettsomite). 




*Torbanite. 


731. 


Connellite. 


782. 


Serpierite. 




♦Bathvillite. 


732. 


Spangolite. 


783. 


Castanite. 




*Middletonite. 


733. 


Hanksite. 


784. 


Copiapite. 




Tasmanite. 


*734. 


Leadhillite. 


785. 


Knoxvillite. 




Dysodile. 


735. 


Misenite. 


786. 


Utahite. ' 




Pyroretinite. 


736. 


Akimian. 


787. 


Amiarantite. 




Leucopetrite. 


*737. 


Lanarkite. 


788. 


Fibroferrite. 




Geomyricite. 


738. 


Dolerophanite. 


789. 


Raimondite. 




Geocerite. 


*739. 


Caledonite. 


790. 


Carphosiderite. 




Bombiccite. 


*740. 


Brochantite. 


791. 


Aluminite. 




Idrialite. 


*741. 


Linarite. 


792. 


Glockerite. 




Rochlederite. 


742. 


Lecontite. 


793. 


Felsobanyite. 




Dopplerite. 


743. 


Mirabilite. 


794. 


Paraluminite- 




*Petroleimi. 


744. 


Kieserite. 


795. 


Cyprusite. 




*Asphaltum. 


745. 


Szmikite. 


796. 


Voltaite. 




*Elaterite. 


*746. 


Gypsum. 


797. 


Metavoltine. 




*Albertite. 


747. 


Ilesite. 


798. 


Botryogen. 




*Clou8tonite. 


*748. 


Epsom ite. 


799. 


Sideronatrite. 




♦Mineral Coal. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS 

{Those occuring in Scotland being marked ivith an asterisk) 
By J. G. GooDCHiLD. 



*341. 


Abriachanite. | 


?*498. 


Allophane. 


530. 


Annerodite. 


447. 


Acadialito. 


509. 


Allophite. 


462B 


. Annite. 


57. 


Acanthite. 


544. 


Alluaudite. 


N. 


Anomalite. 


819. 


Achrematite. 


*370. 


Almandite. 


462. 


Anomite. 


426. 


Achroito. 


510. 


Alshedite, 


*320. 


Anorthite. 


366. 


Achtaragdite. 


278. 


Alstonite. 


*315A 


. Anorthoclase. 


326. 


Acmite. 


46. 


Altaite. 


325. 


Anthocln'oite. 


*338. 


Actinolite. 


*769. 


Alum, Iron. 


*337. 


Anthophyllite. 


563. 


Adamite. 


*764. 


„ Native. 


505. 


Anthosiderite. 


458. 


Adamsite. 


736. 


Alumian. 


H. 


Anthracite. 


N. 


Adelite. 


791. 


Alviminite. 


H. 


Anthracoxenite. 


524. 


Adelpholite. 


212. 


Alumocalcite. 


H. 


Anthraxolite. 


447. 


Adipite. 


800. 


Alumstone. 


*481. 


Antigorite. 


*313. 


Adularia. 


800. 


Alunite. 


509. 


Antillite. 


445. 


vEdelforsite. 


775. 


Alunogen. 


9. 


Antimonal Arsenic 


*326. 


^girine. 


462B 


. Alurgite. 


221. 


,, Ochre. 


?*343. 


yEnigmatite. 


394. 


Alvite. 


144. 


Red Silver 


N. 


Aerinine. 


17. 


Amalgam. 


10. 


Antimony. 


532. 


yEschynite. 


*13. 


Gold. 


9. 


,, Arsenical. 


*458. 


Agalmatolite. 


17. 


,, Silver. 


*28. 


„ Glance. 


*210. 


Agate. 


787. 


Amarantite. 


741. 


Antlerite. 


*210. 


Agate -Jasper. 


315. 


Amazonite. 


N. 


Antochroite. 


306. 


Agnesite. 


*315. 


Amazon-stone. 


175. 


Antozonite. 


373. 


Agricolite. 


*H. 


Amber, Succinite. 


455. 


Antrimolite. 


N. 


Agiiilarite. 


559. 


Amblygonite . 


789. 


Apatelite. 


138. 


Aikinite. 


*324. 


Amblystegite. 


*549. 


Apatite. 


248. 


Ainalite. 


H. 


Ambrite. 


270. 


Aphrite. 


H. 


Ajkite. 


H. 


Ambrosine. 


426. 


Aphrizite. 


391. 


Akermanite. 


470. 


Amesite. 


481. 


Aphrodite. 


63. 


Alabandite. 


*210. 


Amethyst. 


477. 


Aphrosiderite. 


*746. 


Alabaster. 


*338. 


Amianthus. 


717. 


Aphthitalite. 


325. 


Alalite. 


675. 


Ammiolite. 


770. 


Apjohnite. 


118. 


Alaskaite. 


*338. 


Amphibole. 


*370. 


Aplome. 


*H. 


Albertite. 


611. 


Amphithalite. 


*435. 


Apophyllite. 


435. 


Albine 


*450. 


Analcite, Analcime 


509. 


Aquacreptite. 


*316. 


Albite. 


252. 


Anatase. 


344. 


Aquamarine. 


242. 


Alexandrite. 


*398. 


Andalusite. 


*277. 


Aragonite. 


38. 


Algodonite. 


*318. 


Andesine. 


H. 


Aragotite. 


483A. Alipito. 


*318. 


Andesite. 


717. 


Arcanite. 


45. 


Alisonite. 


N. 


Andorite. 


509. 


Arctolite. 


578. 


Allactite. 


370. 


Andradite. 


418. 


Ardennite. 


335. 


Allagite. 


656. 


Andrewsite. 


675. 


Arequipite. 


*409. 


Allanite. 


*721. 


Anglesite. 


342. 


Arfvedsonite. 


9. 


Allemontite. 


722. 


Anhydrite. 


270 


Argentine 


102. 


Alloclasite. 


35. 


Animikite. 


*42. 


Argentite. 


719. 


Allomorpliite. 


*271A 


. Ankerite. 


56. 


Argentopyrite. 


24. 


AUopalladium. 


*602. 


Annabergite. 


163. 


Argyrodite. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXV 



5G. 


Argyropyrite. 


399. 


Bamlite. 


95. 


Bismutosmaltite. 


253. 


Aikansite. 


675. 


Barcenite. 


283. 


Bismutospharito. 


7 80 A. Arnimite. 


509. 


Barettite. 


*H. 


Bitumen. 


708. 


Aromite. 


270. 


Baricalcite. 


N. 


Bixbyite. 


17. 


Arquerite. 


S42A 


L. Barkevikite. 


*230. 


Black Copj^or. 


535. 


Arrhenite. 


83. 


Barnhardtite. 


45. 


Bleischweif. 


35. 


Arsonargentite. 


610. 


Barrandite. 


*58. 


Blende. 


*8. 


Arsenic. 


320. 


Barsowite. 


N. 


Bliabergite. 


9. 


„ Antimonial. 


801. 


Bartliolomite. 


758. 


Blodite. 


*87. 


Arsenical Cobalt. 


430. 


Barylite. 


535. 


Blomstrandite. 


*7l. 


Nickel. 


354. 


Barysilite. 


*210. 


Blood -stone. 


*98. 


,, Pyrites. 


462. 


Barytbiotito. 


*597. 


Blue Iron Earth. 


145. 


Red 


*719. 


Barytes. 


N. 


Blueite. 




Silver. 


282. 


Barytocalcite. 


755. 


Blue Vitriol. 


35. 


Silver. 


*720. 


Barytocelestine. 


599. 


Bobierrite. 


582. 


Arseniopleite. 


233. 


Basanomelan. 


409. 


Bodenite. 


577. 


Arseniosiderite. 


N. 


Basiliite. 


*269. 


Bog Manganese. 


8. 


Arsenolamprite. 


*324. 


Bastite. 


*259. 


„ Ore. 


213. 


Arsenolite. 


285. 


Bastnasite. 


*493. 


Bole. 


98. 


Arsenopyrite. 


462. 


Bastonite. 


N. 


Bol6ite. 


108. 


Arsenotellurite. 


*H. 


Bathvillite. 


108. 


Bolivianite. 


338. 


Asbeferrite. 


374. 


Batrachite. 


29. 


Bolivite. 


*338. 


Asbestus. 


261. 


Bauxite. 


375. 


Boltonite. 


481. 


J, 


629. 


Bayldonite. 


H. 


Bombiccite. 


269. 


Asbolite. 


394. 


Beccarite. 


698. 


Boracite. 


N. 


Ascharite. 


709. 


Bechilite. 


707. 


Borax. 


211. 


Asmanite. 


155. 


Beegerite. 


169. 


Bordosite. 


*549. 


Asparagus -stone. 


210. 


Beekite. 


265. 


Boric Acid. 


504. 


Asperolite. 


820. 


Belonesite. 


653. 


Borickite. 


*H. 


Asphaltum. 


507. 


Bementite. 


*78. 


Bomite. 


462A 


. Aspidolite. 


648. 


Beraunite. 


708. 


Boronatrocalcite. 


325. 


Asteroite. 


H. 


Berengelite. 


798. 


Botryogen. 


N. 


Astochite. 


338. 


Bergamaskite. 


401. 


Botryolite. 


758. 


Astrakanite. 


453. 


Bergmannite. 


139. 


Boulangerite. 


514. 


Astrophyllite. 


479. 


Berlauite. 


751. 


Bourbolite. 


?*193. 


Atacamite. 


645. 


Berlinite. 


136. 


Bournonite. 


584. 


Atelestite. 


N. 


Bernardinite. 


759. 


Boussingaultite. 


193. 


Atelite. 


269. 


Bemonite. 


481. 


Bowenite. 


389. 


Atheriastite. 


473. 


Berthierine. 


*488. 


Bowlingite. 


289. 


Atlasite. , 


119. 


Berthierite. 


566. 


Brackebuschite. 


669. 


Atopite. 


422. 


Bertrandite. 


465. 


Brandisite. 


645. 


Attacolite. 


*344. 


Beryl. 


591. 


Brandtite. 


394. 


Auerbachite. 


546. 


Beryllonite. 


247. 


Braimite. 


395. 


Auerlite. 


49. 


Berzelianite. 


509. 


Bravaisite. 


645. 


Augelite. 


538. 


Berzeliite. 


N. 


Brazilite. 


*325. 


Augite. 


680. 


Beudantite. 


338. 


Breislakite. 


353. 


Auralite. 


407. 


Beustite. 


72. 


Breithauptite. 


*290. 


Aurichalcite. 


76. 


Beyrichite. 


*272. 


Breimnerite. 


236. 


Automolite. 


*509. 


Bhreckite. 


*439. 


Brewsterite. 


661. 


Autunite. 


754. 


Bieberite. 


*N. 


Brewsterlinite. 


458. 


Avalite. 


H. 


Bielzite. 


*740. 


Brochantite. 


506. 


Avasite. 


497. 


Biharite. 


711. 


Broggerite. 


25. 


Awaruite. 


670. 


Bindheimite. 


278. 


Bromlite. 


?*410. 


Axinite. 


123. 


Binnite. 


171. 


Bromyrite. 


394. 


Azorite. 


320. 


Biotine. 


132. 


Bronghiardite. 


*289. 


Aziirite. 


*462. 


Biotite. 


*323. 


Bronzite, 






197. 


Bischofite. 


253. 


Brookite. 


*336. 


Babingtonite. 


217. 


Bismite. 


*H. 


Brown Coal. 


N. 


Baddeleyito, 


11. 


Bismuth. 


**259. 


„ Hematite. 


409. 


Bagrationite. 


13. 


Bismvith-gold. 


*257. 


„ Iron -Ore. 


325. 


Baikalite. 


29. 


Bisniuthinite. 


*271. 


„ Spar. 


H. 


Baikerinite. 


217. 


Bismuth Ochre. 


*262. 


Brucite 


479. 


Baltimorite. 


306. 


Bismutite. 


H. 


Brucknerellite. 


*505. 


Balvraidite. 


430. 


Bismutoferrite. 


*175. 


Bruiachite. 



XXVI 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



618. 


Brushite. 


*489. 


Celadonite. 


N. 


Chondrostibian. 


H. 


Bucaramangite, 


N. 


Celestialite. 


509. 


Chonicrite. 


409. 


Bucklandite. 


*720. 


Celestite, Celestine. 


H. 


Chrismatite. 


227. 


Bunsenite. 


719. 


Celestobarite. 


*320. 


Christianite. 


N. 


Burmite. 


501. 


Cenosite. 


58. 


Christophite. 


770. 


Bushmanite. 


435. 


Centrallassite. 


*325. 


Chrome-diopside. 


173. 


Bustamentite. 


169. 


Cerargyrite. 


*500. 


Chrome Ochre. 


335. 


Bustamite. 


353. 


Cerasite. 


*462. 


Chromglimmer. 


H. 


Byerite. 


425. 


Cerite. 


*241. 


Chromic Iron. 


*338. 


Byssolite. 


481. 


Cerolite. 


*241. 


Chromite. 






*281. 


Cerussite. 


370. 


Chromium Garnet. 


603. 


Cabrerite. 


*221. 


Cervantite. 


241. 


Chrompicotite. 


*212. 


Cacholong. 


234! 


Ceylonite. 


242. 


Chrysoberyl. 


392. 


Cacoclasite. 


*447. 


Chabazite, 


*50l 


Chrysocolla. 


647. 


Cacoxenite. 


*75o. 


Chalcanthite. 


*376. 


Chrysolite. 


*210. 


Cairngorm. 


*210. 


Chalcedony. 


210. 


Chrysopraso. 


*423. 


Calamine, Hemi- 


*54. 


Chalcocite. 


*481. 


Chrysotile. 




morphite. 


474. 


Chalcodite. 


606. 


Churchite. 


105. 


Calaverite. 


811. 


Chalcomenite. 


*495. 


Cimolite, 


719. 


Calcareobarite. 


435. 


Chalcomorphite. 


66. 


Cinnabar. 


720. 


Calciocelestite. 


268. 


Chalcophanite. 


*370. 


Cinnamon -stone. 


652. 


Calcioferrite. 


636. 


Chalcophyllite. 


676. 


Ciplyte. 


395. 


Calciothorite. 


*83. 


Chalcopyrites. 


576. 


Cirrolite. 


565. 


Calciovolborthito. 


81. 


Chalcopyrrhotite. 


*210. 


Citrine. 


*270. 


Calcite. 


656. 


Chalcosiderite . 


158. 


Clarite. 


228. 


Calcozincite. 


117. 


Chalcostibite. 


215. 


Claudetite. 


*270. 


Calc Spar. 


224. 


Chalcotrichite. 


47. 


Clausthalite. 


370. 


Calderite. 


456. 


Chalilite. 


149. 


Clayite. 


*739. 


Caledonite 


*273. 


Chalybite, Siderite. 


*316. 


Cleavelandite. 


612. 


Callainite. 


25. 


Chalypite. 


58. 


Cleiophane. 


164. 


Calomel. 


473. 


Chamosite. 


711. 


Cleveite. 


719. 


Calstronbarite. 


H. 


Chemawinite. 


1. 


Cliftonite. 


*551. 


Campylite. 


655. 


Chenevixite. 


*468. 


Clinochlore. 


325. 


Canaanite. 


550. 


Cherokine. 


571. 


Clinoclasite. 


360. 


Cancrinite. 


*210. 


Chert. 


801. 


Clinocrocite. 


N. 


Canfieldite. 


*289. 


Chessylite. 


416. 


Clinohwnite. 


*H. 


Cannel Coal. 


315. 


Chesterlite. 


801. 


Clinophfeite. 


67. 


Cantonite. 


*398. 


Chiastolite. 


465. 


Clintonite. 


445. 


Caporcianite. 


649. 


Childrenite. 


H. 


Cloustonite. 


347. 


Cappelenite. 


567. 


Chileite. 


450. 


Cluthalite. 


729. 


Caracolite. 


40. 


Chilenite. 


*H. 


Coal Anthracite. 


1. 


Carbonado. 


683. 


Chili Saltpeter. 


H. 


,, BrowTi. 


541. 


Carminite. 


*492. 


China Clay. 


*H. 


„ Cannel. 


201. 


Carnallite. 


184. 


Chiolite. 


*H. 


„ Mineral. 


*210. 


Carnelian. 


111. 


Chiviatite. 


*601. 


Cobalt Bloom. 


498. 


Carolathine. 


323. 


Chladnite. 


89. 


,, Glance. 


424. 


Carpholite. 


88. 


Chloanthite. 


89. 


Cobaltite. 


790. 


Carphosiderite. 


179. 


Chlorallum inite . 


811. 


Cobaltomenite. 


82. 


Carrollite. 


549. 


Chlor-apatite. 


79. 


Cobalt Pyrites. 


540. 


Caryinite. 


N. 


Chloroarsenian. 


173. 


Coccinite. 


349. 


Caryocerite. 


457. 


Chlorastrolite. 


*325. 


Coccolite. 


508. 


Caryopilite. 


*466. 


Chloritoid. 


*96. 


Cockscomb Pyrites 


248. 


Cassiterite. 


176. 


Chloromagnesite. 


645. 


Coeruleolactite. 


783. 


Castanite. 


328. 


Chloromelanite. 


704. 


Colemanite. 


510. 


Castellite. 


505. 


Chloropal. 


586. 


CoUophanite. 


78. 


Castillite. 


*479. 


Chlorophaeite. 


499. 


Collyrite. 


310. 


Castorite. 


353. 


Chlorophyllite. 


370. 


Colophonite. 


N. 


Caswellite. 


234. 


Chlorospinel. 


62. 


Coloradoite. 


346. 


Catapleiite. 


729. 


Chlorothionite. 


525. 


Columbite. 


458. 


Cataspilite. 


712. 


Chlorothorite. 


*212. 


Common Opal. 


*488. 


Cathkinite. 


596. 


Chlorotile. 


*456. 


Comptonite. 


500. 


Catlinite. 


184. 


Chodneffite. 


37. 


Condnrrite. 


242. 


Cat's-Eye. 


572. 


Chondrarsenite. 


628. 


Conichalcite. 


361. 


Cavolinite. 


415. 


Chondrodite. 


486. 


Connarite. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXVll 



731. 


Connellite. 


*393. 


Cyprine. 


200. 


Douglasite. 


460. 


Cookeite. 


795. 


Cyprusite. 


719. 


Dreelite. 


H. 


Copalite. 


394. 


CyrtoUte. 


83. 


Ducktownite. 


784. 


Copiapite. 






♦602. 


Dudgeonite. 


*15. 


Copper. 


676. 


Dahllite. 


480. 


Dudleyite. 


*7r)i. 


Copperas. 


57. 


Daleminzite. 


573. 


Dufrenite. 


*r)4. 


Copper Glance. 


*458. 


Damourite. 


127. 


Dufrenoysite. 


*o()4. 


„ Pitch-blende. 


98. 


Danaite. 


479. 


Dumasite. 


*83. 


„ Pyrites. 


367. 


Danalite. 


427. 


Dumortierite. 


659. 


Copper-Uranite. 


396. 


Danburite. 


768. 


Dumreicherite. 


772. 


Coquimbite. 


338. 


Dannemorite. 


509. 


Duporthite. 


711. 


Coracite. 


471. 


Daphnite. 


558. 


Durangite. 


*3o3. 


Cordierite. 


689. 


Dara )skite. 


810. 


Durdenite. 


634. 


Comwallite. 


*401. 


Datolite. 


141. 


Diirfeldtite. 


675 


Coronguite 


194. 


Daubreeite. 


H. 


Duxite. 


470. 


Corundophilite. 


80. 


Davibreelite. 


519. 


Dysanalyte. 


*231. 


Corundum. 


*.344. 


Davidsonite. 


35. 


Dyscrasite. 


91 


Corynite. 


190. 


Daviesite. 


236. 


Dysluite. 


128. 


Cosalite. 


509. 


Davreuxite. 


H. 


Dysodile. 


459. 


Cossaite. 


361. 


Davyne. 


335. 


Dyssnite. 


343. 


Cossyrite. 


293. 


Dawsonite. 


458. 


Dysyntribite. 


180. 


Cotunnite. 


?*564. 


Dechenite. 






388. 


Couseranite. 


506. 


Degeroite. 


673. 


Ecdemite. 


67. 


Covellite. 


269. 


Delafossite. 


329. 


Edelforsite. 


*N. 


Craigtonite. 


648. 


Delavauxite. 


*338. 


Edenite. 


245. 


Crednerite. 


*478. 


Delessite. 


*452. 


Edingtonite. 


233. 


Crichtonite. 


370. 


Demantoid. 


25. 


Edmonsonite. 


211. 


Cristobalite. 


504. 


Demidovite. 


719. 


Eggonite. 


*453. 


Crocalite. 


N. 


Derbylite. 


570. 


Ehlite. 


*341. 


Crocidolite. 


509. 


Dermatin. 


500. 


Ehrenbergit. 


725. 


Crocoisite. 


483A 


. De Saulesite. 


262. 


Eisenbrucite. 


725. 


Crocoite. 


564. 


Descloizite. 


479. 


Ekmannite. 


286. 


Cromfordite. 


*443. 


Desmine. 


357. 


Elaeolite. 


472. 


Cronstedtite. 


677. 


Destinezite. 


*H. 


Elastic Bitumen 


53. 


Crookesite. 


482. 


Deweylite. 


*H. 


Elaterite. 


N. 


Crossite. 


476. 


Diabantite. 


13. 


Electrum. 


98. 


Crucite. 


*324. 


Diaclasite. 


648. 


Eleonorite. 


183. 


Cryolite. 


677. 


Diadochite. 


N. 


Elfstorpite. 


461. 


Cryophyllite. 


*325. 


Diallage. 


453. 


Ellagite. 


553. 


Cryphiolite. 


274. 


Diallogite. 


*N. 


Ellonite. 


185. 


Cryptohalite. 


?*1. 


Diamond. 


183. 


Elpasolite. 


*537. 


Cryptolite. 


134. 


Diaphorite. 


N. 


Elpidite. 


708. 


Cryptomorphite. 


256. 


Diaspore. 


N. 


Elroquite. 


N. 


Crypto valite. 


338. 


Diastatite. 


170. 


Embolite. 


81. 


Cubanite. 


588. 


Dickinsonite. 


*344. 


Emerald. 


480. 


Culsageeite. 


458. 


Didymite. 


*303. 


Nickel. 


N. 


Cumengeite. 


771. 


Dietrichite. 


231. 


Emery. 


338. 


Cummingtonite. 


N. 


Dietzeite. 


809. 


Emmonsit«. 


*224. 


Cuprite. 


569. 


Dihydrite. 


116. 


Emplectite. 


549. 


Cupro -apatite. 


716. 


Dihydro - thenardite 


158. 


Enargite. 


112. 


Cuprobismutite . 


504. 


Dillenburgite. 


551. 


Endlichite. 


N. 


Cuprocalcite. 


499. 


Dillnite. 


*323. 


Enstatite. 


N. 


Cuprocassiterite. 


27. 


Dimorphite. 


805. 


Enysite. 


564. 


Cuprodescloizite. 


H. 


Dinite. 


*819. 


Eosite. 


N. 


Cuproiodargyrite. 


*325. 


Diopside. 


650. 


Eosphorite. 


754, 


Cupromagnesite. 


383. 


Dioptase. 


509. 


Ephesite. 


45. 


Cuproplumbite. 


388. 


Dipyre. 


161. 


Epiboulangerite. 


815. 


Cupro tungstite. 


*400. 


Disthene. 


479. 


Epichlorite. 


413. 


Cuspidine. 


585. 


Dittmarite. 


N. 


Epididymite. 


*400. 


Cyanite. 


112. 


Dognacskaite. 


*407. 


Epidote. 


504. 


Cyanochalcite. 


738. 


Dolerophanite. 


162. 


Epigenite. 


761. 


Cyanochroite. 


*271. 


Dolomite. 


379. 




781. 


Cyanotrichite. 


37. 


Domeykite. 


585. 


Epigloubite. 


327. 


Cymatolite. 


H. 


Dopplerite. 


479. 


Epiphanite. 



XXVlll 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



549. 


Epiphosphorite. 


505. 


Fettbol. 


H. 


Geocerite. 


457. 


Epispharite. 


788. 


Fibroferrite. 


152. 


Geocronite. 


*440. 


Epistilbite. 


*399. 


Fibrolite. 


H. 


Geomyricite. 


*748. 


Epsomite. 


H. 


Fichtelite. 


688. 


Gerhardtite. 


*748. 


Epsom Salt. 


191. 


Fiedlerite. 


*90. 


Gersdorffite. 


350. 


Erdmannite. 


149. 


Fieldite. 


97. 


Geyerite. 


402. 


j^ 


589. 


Fillowite. 


*212. 


Geyserite. 


N. 


Erilite. 


212 


Fiorite. 


264. 


Gibbsite. 


1*568. 


Erinite. 


212. 


Fire -opal. 


458. 


Gieseckite. 


386. 


Ersbyite. 


640. 


Fischerite. 


*458. 


Gigantolite. 


*78. 


Erubescite. 


*250. 


Fleches d' Amour. 


458. 


Gilbertite. 


795. 


Erusibite. 


580. 


Flinkite. 


506. 


Gillingite. 


*60L 


Erythrite. 


203. 


Fluellite. 


H. 


Gilsonite. 


193. 


Erythrocalcite. 


190. 


Fluocerite. 


509. 


Ginilsite. 


199. 


Erythrosiderite. 


*175. 


Fluor. 


*212. 


Girasol. 


69. 


Erythrozincite. 


549. 


Fluor-apatite. 


444. 


Gismondite. 


407. 


Escherite. 


*175. 


Fluor spar. 


399. 


Glancespar. 


*370. 


Essonite. 


195. 


Fluosiderite. 


505. 


Glasurite. 


803. 


Ettringite. 


N. 


Folgerite. 


*743. 


Glauberite. 


51. 


Eucairite. 


N. 


Footeite. 


*743. 


Glauber Salt. 


632. 


Evichroite. 


625. 


Forbesite. 


101. 


Glaucodot. 


403. 


Euclase. 


212. 


Forcherite. 


387. 


Glaucolite. 


345. 


Eucolite. 


509. 


Forchhammerite. 


*490. 


Glauconite. 


510. 


Eucolite-titanite. 


443. 


Foresite. 


339. 


Glaucophane. 


395. 


Eucrasite. 


*375. 


Forsterite. 


97. 


Glaucopyrite. 


*358. 


Eucryptite. 


N. 


Fouqueite. 


H. 


Glessite. 


345. 


Eudialyte. 


335. 


Fowlerite. 


376. 


Glinkite. 


312. 


Eudidymite. 


N. 


Franckeite. 


648. 


Globosite. 


450. 


Eudnophite. 


519. 


Francolite. 


792. 


Glockerite. 


462. 


Eukamptite. 


708. 


Franklandite. 


*452. 


Glottalite. 


368. 


Eulytite. 


239. 


Franklinite. 


*448. 


Gmelinite. 


253. 


Eumanite. 


149. 


Fredricite. 


*13. 


Gold. 


H. 


Euosmite. 


148. 


Freibergite. 


13. 


,, Amalgam. 


459. 


Euphyllite. 


135. 


Freieslebenite. 


344. 


Goshenite. 


549. 


Eupyrchroite. 


395. 


Freyalite. 


749. 


Goslarite. 


479. 


Euralite. 


384. 


Fried elite. 


*257. 


Gothite. 


564. 


Eusynchite. 


56. 


Frieseite. 


657. 


Goyazite. 


450. 


Eiithallite. 


665. 


Fritzscheite. 


H. 


Grahamite. 


534. 


Euxenite. 


?*458. 


Fuchsite. 


505. 


Graminite. 


645. 


Evanaite. 


N. 


Fuggerite. 


*338. 


Grammatite. 


743. 


Exanthalose. 


*500. 


Fullar's Earth. 


211. 


Granuline. 






*325. 


Funkite. 


104. 


Graphic Telluriu 


*148. 


Fahlerz. 






*2. 


Graphite. 


353. 


Fahlunite. 


389. 


Gabronite. 


N. 


Graphitite. 


592. 


Fairfieldite. 


?*404. 


Gadolinite. 


2. 


Graphitoid. 


N. 


Falkenhaynite . 


236. 


Gahnite. 


479. 


Grastite. 


159. 


Famatinite. 


*455. 


Galactite. 


*148. 


Gray Copper Or 


*453. 


Fargite. 


*45. 


Galena. 


*68. 


Greenokite. 


*456. 


Faroelite. 


*45. 


Galenite. 


*510. 


Greenovite. 


325 


Fassaite. 


118. 


G alenobismutite . 


*428. 


Grenatite. 


451 


Faujasite. 


338. 


Gamsigradite. 


555. 


Griphite. 


750. 


Fauserite. 


355. 


Ganomalite. 


469. 


Grochaviite. 


*377. 


Fayalite. 


N. 


Ganomatite. 


448. 


Groddeckite. 


793. 


Felsobanyite. 


432. 


Ganophyllite. 


509. 


Groppite. 


812. 


Ferberite. 


370. 


Garnet. 


*370. 


Gorssularite. 


523. 


Fergusonite. 


483A 


. Garnierite. 


510. 


Grothite. 


*376 


Ferrite. 


297. 


Gay-lussite. 


75. 


Griinauite. 


270. 


Ferrocalcite. 


207. 


Gearksutite. 


338. 


Griinerite. 


89. 


Ferrocobaltite. 


H. 


Gedanite. 


59. 


Guadalcazaritr . 


526A 


. Ferro-ilmenite. 


33 7 A 


. Gedrite. 


30. 


Guanajuatite. 


777. 


Ferronatrite. 


392. 


Gehlenite. 


585. 


Guanapite. 


583. 


Ferrostibian. 


N. 


Geikielite. 


742. 


Guano vulite. 


810. 


Ferro tellurite. 


?*483. 


Genthite. 


585. 


Guanoxalato. 


233. 


Ferrozincite. 


H. 


Geocerellite. 


512. 


Gu^rinite. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXIX 



?*H. 


Guayaquillite. 


269. 


Heubachite. 


N. 


Hydroniccite. 


110. 


Guejarite. 


♦438. 


Heulandite. 


212. 


Hydrophane. 


142. 


Giiitermanite. 


338. 


Hexagonite. 


174. 


Hydrophilite. 


497. 


Giimbelite. 


*302. 


Hibbortite. 


481. 


Hydrophit«. 


712. 


Gummite. 


327. 


Hiddenite. 


*269. 


Hydroplumbite. 


175. 


Gunnisonite. 


531. 


Hielmite. 


335. 


Hydrorhodonite. 


482. 


(iymnite. 


185. 


Hieratite. 


N. 


Hydrosamarskite. 


*746. 


Gypsum. 


338. 


Hillangsite. 


468A 


. Hydrotalc. 


*434. 


Gyrolite. 


706. 


Hintzeite. 


266. 


Hydrotalcite. 






334. 


Hiortdahlite. 


379. 


Hydrotephroite. 


200. 


Hagemannite. 


H. 


Hircite. 


519. 


Hydrotitanite. 


(UG. 


Haidingerite. 


506. 


Hisingerite. 


291. 


Hydrozincite. 


*1GG. 


Halite. 


270. 


Hislopite. 


458. 


Hygrophilite. 


480. 


Hallite. 


N. 


Hoeferite. 


*324. 


Hypersthene. 


*493. 


Halloysite. 


600. 


Hoemesite. 


430. 


Hypochlorite. 


*7C9. 


Halotrichite. 


H. 


Hofmannite. 


316. 


Hyposclerite. 


696. 


Hambergite. 


787. 


Hohmannite. 


*443. 


Hypostilbite.bite. 


548. 


Hamlinite. 


83. 


Homichlin, 


233. 


Hystatite. 


733. 


Hanksite. 


40a. 


Homilite. 






623. 


Hannayite. 


587. 


Hopeite. 


*223. 


Ice. 


*442. 


Harmotome. 


74. 


Horbachite. 


*270. 


Iceland Spar. 


455. 


Harrington ite. 


*338. 


Hornblende. 


N. 


Iddingsite. 


54. 


Harrisite. 


36. 


Horsfordite. 


*393. 


Idocrase. 


412. 


Harstigite. 


376. 


Hortonolite. 


H. 


Idrialite. 


H. 


Hartite. 


266. 


Hough ite. 


*267. 


Igelstromite. 


*H. 


Hatchettite. 


293. 


Hovite. 


378. 


^j 


521. 


Hatchettolite. 


N. 


Howardite. 


802. 


Ignatievite. 


N. 


Hauchecornite. 


701. 


Howlite. 


774. 


Ihleite. 


86. 


Hauerite. 


166. 


Huantajayite. 


747. 


Ilesite. 


*462. 


Haughtonite. 


45. 


Huaseolite. 


*233. 


Ilmenite. 


243. 


Hausmannite. 


813. 


Hiibnerite. 


250. 


Ilmenorutile. 


N. 


Hautefeuillite. 


325. 


Hudsonite. 


219. 


llsemannite. 


363. 


Haiiynite. 


*479. 


Hullite. 


417. 


Ilvaite. 


447. 


Hay den ite. 


823. 


Humboldtine. 


320. 


Indianite. 


709. 


Hayesine. 


H. 


Huminite. 


426. 


Indicolite. 


210. 


Haytorite. 


414. 


Humite. 


431. 


Inesite. 


325. 


Hectorite. 


35. 


Himtilite. 


*74. 


Inverarite. 


325. 


Hedenbergite. 


624. 


Hureaulite. 


172. 


lodobromite. 


552. 


Hedyphane. 


. 320. 


Huronite. 


173. 


lodyrite. 


706. 


Heintzite. 


500. 


Hverlera. 


*353. 


lolite. 


N. 


Heldburgite. 


*394. 


Hyacinth. 


H. 


lonite. 


H. 


Helenite. 


212. 


Hyalite. 


21. 


Iridium. 


*210. 


Heliotrope. 


314. 


Hyalophane. 


22. 


Iridosmine. 


462B 


. Helvetan. 


376. 


Hyalosiderite. 


241. 


Irite. 


366. 


Helvite. 


356. 


Hyalotekite. 


*25. 


Iron. 


627. 


Hemafibrite. 


264. 


Hydrargillite. 


*241. 


„ Chromic. 


*232. 


Haematite. 


549. 


Hydroapatite. 


*237. 


„ Magnetic. 


581. 


Hematolite 


462. 


Hydrobiotite. 


*25. 


„ Meteoric. 


*423. 


Hemimorphite. 


710. 


Hydroboracite. 


*85. 


„ PjT-ites. 


46. 


Henryite. 


N. 


Hy drobucholzite . 


*233. 


„ Titaniferous 


655. 


Henwoodite. 


N. 


Hydrocalcite. 


*751. 


„ Vitriol. 


66. 


Hepatic Cinnabar. 


310. 


Hydrocastorite. 


*233. 


Iserine. 


235. 


Hercynite. 


*292. 


Hydrocerussite. 


250. 


Iserite. 


547. 


Herderite. 


298. 


Hydroconite. 


626. 


Isoclasite. 


526A 


. Hermannolite. 


224. 


Hydrocuprite. 


N. 


Isopyre. 


780. 


Herrengrundite. 


724. 


Hydrocyanite. 


210. 


Itacolumyte. 


275. 


Herrerite. 


*302. 


Hydrodolomite. 


364. 


Ittnerite. 


447. 


Hersohellite. 


185. 


Hydrofluorite. 


371. 


Ivaarite. 


N. 


Hessenbergite. 


269. 


Hydrof ranklinite . 


458. 


Ivigtite. 


43. 


Hessite. 


301. 


Hj^drogiobert ite . 


526A 


. Ixiolite. 


269. 


Hetaerolite. 


166. 


Hydrohalite. 


H. 


Ixolyte. 


269. 


Heterogenite. 


233. 


Hydroilmenite. 






130. 


Heteromorphite. 


*300. 


Hydromagnesite. 


240. 


Jacobsite. 


544. 


Heterosite. 


457. 


Hydronephelit«. 


328. 


Jadeite. ^ 



XXX 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



70. 


Jaipurite. 


H. 


Koflachite. 


445. 


Leonhardite. 


42. 


Jalpaite. 


338. 


Koksharovite. 


N. 


Leonite. 


130. 


Jamesonite. 


17. 


Kongsbergite. 


*257. 


Lepidokrokite. 


394. 


Jargon. 


*401. 


Konilite. 


460. 


Lepidolite. 


SOL 


Jarosite. 


614 


Koninckite. 


*462E 


. Lipidomelane. 


*210. 


Jasper. 


H. 


Konlite. 


458. 


Lepidomorphite . 


*212. 


Jasp-opal. 


520A 


. Koppite. 


320. 


Lepolite. 


H. 


Jaulingite. 


774. 


Kornelite. 


509. 


Lesley ite. 


480. 


Jefterisite. 


429. 


Kornerupine. 


781. 


Lettsomite. 


325. 


Jeffersonite. 


468. 


Kotschubeite. 


325. 


Leucaugite. 


370. 


Jelletite. 


604. 


Kottigite. 


468. 


Leuchtenbergite 


21L 


Jenzschite. 


313. 


Krablite. 


321. 


Leucite. 


G92. 


Jeremejevite. 


H. 


Krantzite. 


631. 


Lenoochalcite. 


*H. 


Jet. 


236. 


Kreittonnite. 


435. 


Leucocyclite. 


607. 


Jogynaite. 


198. 


Kremersite. 


H. 


Leucopetrite. 


80(i. 


Johannite. 


105. 


Krennerite. 


351. 


Leucophanite. 


45. 


Johnstonite. 


74. 


Kroeberite. 


458. 


Leucophyllite. 


515. 


Johnstrupite. 


776. 


Krohnkite. 


97. 


Leucopyrite. 


506. 


Jolly te. 


762. 


Krugite. 


509. 


Leucotile. 


150. 


Jordanite. 


429. 


Kryptotil. 


492. 


Leverrierite. 


32. 


Joseite. 


N. 


Kulibinite. 


59. 


Leviglianite. 


N. 


Josephinite. 


*504. 


Kupferblau. 


*449. 


Levynite. 


727. 


Jossaite. 


337. 


Kupfferite. 


N. 


Lewisite. 






14. 


Kiistelite. 


562. 


Libethenite. 


338. 


Kaersutite. 


N. 


Kylindrite. 


458. 


Liebenerite. 


730. 


Kainite. 






308. 


Liebigite. 


705. 


Kaliborite. 


*319. 


Labradorite. 


417. 


Lievrite. 


287. 


Kalicine. 


702. 


Lagonite. 


*H. 


Lignite. 


*764. 


Kalinite. 


269. 


Lampadite. 


510. 


Ligurite. 


359. 


Kaliophilite. 


805. 


Lamprophanite . 


140. 


Lillianite. 


360. 


Kalk-cancrinite. 


N. 


Lamprostibian. 


509. 


Lillite. 


N. 


Kallilite. 


*737. 


Lanarkite. 


481. 


Limbachite. 


N. 


Kamarezite. 


419. 


Langbanite. 


288. 


Lime-malachite. 


*468A 


. Kaminererite. 


779. 


T<angite. 


639. 


Lime-wavellite. 


108. 


Kaneite. 


302. 


Lansfordite. 


*260. 


Limnite. 


*492. 


Kaolin. 


298. 


Lanthanite. 


*259. 


Limonite. 


*492. 


Kaolinite. 


365. 


Lapis-Lazuli. 


*741. 


Linarite. 


N. 


Karamsinite. 


703. 


Larderellite. 


681. 


Lindackerite. 


537. 


Kararfveite. 


549. 


Lasurapatite. 


320. 


Lindsay ite. 


217. 


Karelinite. 


*320. 


Latrobite. 


79. 


Linnaeite. 


N. 


Kauaiite. 


446. 


Laubanite. 


654. 


Liroconite. 


500. 


Keffekilite. 


*445. 


Laumontite. 


644. 


Liskeardite. 


N. 


Kehoeite. 


198. 


Laurionite. 


*460. 


Lithia Mica. 


*511. 


Keilhauite. 


94. 


Laurite. 


N. 


Lithidionite. 


420. 


Kentrolite. 


N. 


Lautarite. 


544. 


Lithiophilite. 


*107. 


Kermesite. 


158. 


Lautite. 


269. 


Lithiophorite. 


480. 


Kerrite. 


596. 


Lavendulan. 


*492. 


Lithomarge. 


811. 


Kerstenite. 


332. 


Lavenite. 


109. 


Livingstonite. 


233. 


Kibdelophane. 


325. 


Lavrovite. 


237. 


Lodestone. 


498. 


Kieselaluminite. 


178. 


Lawrencite. 


338. 


Loganite. 


744. 


Kieserite. 


N. 


Lawsonite. 


468A 


»> 


154. 


Kilbrickenite. 


574. 


Lazulite. 


97. 


Lollingite. 


458. 


Killinite. 


313. 


Lazurfeldspar. 


N. 


Lorandite. 


*338. 


Kirwanite. 


365. 


Lazurite. 


N. 


Lossenite. 


284. 


Kischtimite. 


?*18. 


Lead. 


325. 


Lotalite. 


553. 


Kjerulfine. 


734. 


Leadhillite. 


435. 


Louisite. 


124. 


Klaprotholite 


*742. 


Lecontite. 


757. 


Loweite. 


471. 


Klementite. 


510. 


Lederite. 


802. 


Lowigite. 


335. 


Klipsteinite. 


719. 


Leedsite. 


313. 


Loxoclase. 


378. 


Knebelite. 


313. 


Leelite. 


480. 


Lucasite. 


N. 


Knopite. 


50. 


Lehrbachite. 


638. 


Ludlamite. 


785. 


Knoxvillite. 


509. 


Leidyite. 


694. 


Ludwigite. 


131. 


Kobellite. 


480. 


Lennilite. 


270. 


Lumachelle. 


523. 


Kochelite. 


493. 


Lenzinite. 


682. 


Liineburgite. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXXI 



212. 


Lussatite. 


544. 


Melanchlor. 


*34. 


Molybdenite. 


158. 


Luzonite. 


*370. 


Melanite. 


?*219. 


Molybdic Oclne. 


*210. 


Lydian Stoiio. 


348. 


Melanocerite. 


?*219. 


Molybdite. 


458. 


Lythrodes. 


479. 


Melanolite. 


811. 


Molybdomenite. 






211. 


Melanophlogite. 


181. 


Mo ly site. 


3o. 


Macfarlanite. 


500. 


Melanosiderit e. 


♦537. 


Monazite. 


N. 


Mackintoshite. 


N. 


Melanostibian. 


500. 


Monetite. 


480. 


Maconite. 


421. 


Melanotekite. 


539. 


Monimolite. 


238. 


Magnesioferrite. 


193. 


Melanothallite. 


325. 


Monradite. 


272. 


Magnesite. 


*751. 


Melanterite. 


808. 


Montanito. 


*237. 


Magnetic Iron Oio 


*391. 


Melilite. 


374. 


Monticellite. 


20. 


,, Platinium 


500. 


Melinite. 


496. 


Montmorillonitc. 


*74. 


„ Pyrites. 


352. 


Meliphanite. 


430. 


Monzonite. 


*237. 


Magnetite. 


824. 


MelHte. 


♦315. 


Moonstone. 


N. 


Magnetostibian. 


77. 


Meionite. 


♦310. 


,, 


241. 


Magnochromite. 


509. 


Melopsite. 


437. 


Mordenite. 


810. 


Magnolite. 


*233. 


Menaccanite. 


*750. 


Morenosite. 


*288. 


Malachite. 


187. 


Mendipite. 


423. 


Moresnetite. 


*325. 


Malacolite. 


700. 


Mendozite. 


N. 


Morinite. 


394. 


Malacon, 


151. 


Meneghinite. 


210. 


Morion. 


752. 


Mallardite. 


520A 


. Mengite. 


442. 


Morvenite. 


762. 


Mamanite. 


212. 


Menilite. 


510. 


Mosandrite. 


549. 


Manganapatite . 


58. 


Mercurial Blende. 


*210. 


Moss-Agate. 


2G2. 


Manganbr uc it e . 


10. 


Mercury. 


277. 


Mossottite. 


325. 


Manganheden- 


*402. 


Meroxene. 


507. 


Mottramite. 




bergite. 


*272A 


. Mesitite. 


*338. 


Mountain Corlv. 


*258. 


Manganite. 


*450. 


Mesole. 


*338. 


,, Leather. 


237. 


Manganmagnetite. 


449. 


Mesolin. 


*338. 


„ Silk. 


270. 


Manganocalcite. 


*455. 


Mesolite. 


*338. 


„ Wood. 


274. 


>> 


*453. 


Mesotype. 


H. 


Muckite. 


N. 


Manganoferrite. 


593. 


Messelite. 


104. 


Miillerine. 


402. 


Manganophyllite. 


019. 


Metabrushite. 


585. 


Miillerite. 


220. 


Manganosite. 


471. 


Metachlorite. 


212. 


Muller's (ilass. 


583. 


Manganostibiite. 


59. 


Metacinnabarite. 


N. 


Munkforssite. 


330. 


Manganpectolite. 


458. 


Mctaseiicite. 


*313. 


Murchisonite. 


*90. 


Marcasite. 


28. 


Metastibnite. 


409. 


Muromontite. 


335. 


Marceline. 


797. 


Metavoltine. 


N. 


Mursinskite. 


230. 


Marcylite. 


481. 


Metaxoite. 


*458. 


Muscovite. 


404. 


Margarite. 


*25. 


Meteoric Iron. 


325 


Mussite. 


*458. 


Matgarodite. 


220. 


Meymacite. 


288. 


Mysorin. 


389. 


Marialite. 


121. 


Miargyrite. 






N. 


Mariposite. 


*232. 


MicaceouslronOre 


458. 


Nacrite. 


338. 


Marmairolite. 


212. 


MichaeHte. 


072. 


Nadorite. 


58. 


Marmatite. 


*315. 


Microcline. 


509. 


Na>sumite. 


*481. 


Marmolite. 


522. 


MicroHte. 


100. 


Nagyagite. 


N. 


Marshite. 


301. 


Microsommite. 


209. 


Namaqualite. 


020. 


Martinite. 


*H. 


Middletonite. 


165. 


Nantokite. 


100. 


Martinsite. 


550. 


Miesite. 


H. 


Napalite. 


*232. 


Martite. 


320. 


Mikrotin. 


*H. 


Naphtha. 


714. 


Mascagnite. 


311. 


Milarite. 


H. 


Naphthalene. 


319. 


Maskelynite 


*212. 


Milk-opal. 


*453. 


Natrolite. 


400. 


Masonite. 


*70. 


Millerite. 


296. 


Natron. 


N. 


Masrite. 


500. 


Milcschite. 


340. 


Narton-catapleiite 


229. 


Massicot . 


*551. 


Mimetite. 


545. 


Natrophilite. 


120. 


Matildite. 


*H. 


Mineral Coal. 


500. 


Natrophite. 


180. 


Matlockite. 


N. 


Minervite. 


48. 


Naumannite. 


370. 


Matricite. 


9*244. 


Minium. 


*313. 


Necronite. 


N. 


Mauzeliite. 


743. 


Mirabilite. 


509. 


Nefedieffite. 


851. 


Mazapilite. 


082. 


Miriquidite. 


202. 


Nemalite. 


407. 


Medjidite. 


735. 


Misenite. 


376. 


Neochrysolite. 


492. 


Meerschaluminite. 


*98. 


Mispickel. 


430. 


Neocyanite. 


485. 


Meerschaum. 


008. 


Mixite. 


509. 


Neolite. 


380. 


Meionite. 


338. 


Mizzonite. 


509. 


Neotooite. 


*230. 


Melaconite. 


*210. 


Mocha- Stone. 


149. 


Nepaulite. 



XXXll 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



*357. 


Nepheliiie. 


500. 


Oravitzite. 


*05. 


Pentlandite. 


*338. 


Nephrite. 


37. 


Orileyite. 


509. 


Penwithite. 


N. 


Neptuiiite. 


019. 


Ornithite. 


192. 


Percy lite. 


295. 


Nesquehoiiite. 


27. 


Orpiinent. 


225. 


Periclase. 


H. 


Neudorfite. 


*409. 


Orthite. 


310. 


Pericline. 


497. 


Neurolite. 


*313. 


Ortlioclase. 


*37.'3. 


Peridot. 


22. 


Nevyanskite. 


438. 


Oryzite. 


*310. 


Peristerite. 


02 L 


Newberyite. 


04. 


Osbornite. 


518. 


Perovskite. 


N. 


Newboldite. 


330. 


Osmclite. 


509. 


Persbergite. 


G94. 


Newtonite. 


22. 


Osmiridium. 


*313. 


Perthite. 


N. 


Niccochromite. 


549. 


Osteolite. 


310. 


Petalite. 


*7L 


Niccolite. 


*407. 


Ottrelite. 


H. 


Petrolene. 


N. 


Nickel. 


370. 


Ouvarovite. 


*H. 


Petroleum. 


*C02. 


,, Bloom 


585. 


Oxammite. 


790. 


Pettkoite. 


*90. 


,, Glance. 


822. 


,. 


44 


Petzite. 


237. 


„ Oxide. 


4.35. 


Oxhaverite. 


338. 


Phaactinite. 


N. 


Nickel-skutteru- 


450. 


Ozarkite. 


*447. 


Phacolito. 




dite. 


*H. 


Ozocerite. 


017. 


Pharmacolite. 


509. 


Nigrescite. 






040. 


Pharmacosid erite . 


*250. 


Nigrine. 


205. 


Pachnolite. 


324. 


Phiistine. 


084. 


Nitre. 


97. 


Pacite. 


382. 


Phenacite. 


087. 


Nitrobarite. 


480. 


Painterite. 


480. 


Philadelphite. 


085. 


Nitrocalcite. 


335. 


Paisbergite. 


770. 


Phillipite. 


090. 


Nitrogla\iberite. 


N. 


Palagonite. 


*441. 


Phillipsite. 


080. 


Nitromagnesite. 


338. 


Paligorskite. 


*4e2A 


. Phlogopite. 


7n. 


Nivenite. 


230. 


Palladinite. 


720. 


Phosnicochroite. 


195. 


Nocerite. 


23. 


Palladium. 


491. 


Pholidolite. 


529. 


Nohlite. 


704. 


Pandermite 


*280. 


Phosgenite. 


505. 


Nontronite. 


787. 


Paposite. 


585. 


Phosphammite. 


338. 


Noralite. 


233. 


Paracolumbite. 


549. 


Phosphorite. 


09L 


Nordenskioldine . 


313. 


Paradoxite. 


. 009. 


Phosphosiderite. 


338. 


Nordenskiiildite . 


*H. 


Paraffin. 


004. 


Phosphurany lite . 


428. 


Nordmarkite. 


459. 


Paragonite. 


335. 


Photicite. 


N. 


Northupite. 


389. 


Paralogite. 


407. 


Phyllite. 


304. 


Nosean. 


794. 


Paraluminite. 


H. 


Phylloretin. 


304. 


Noselite. 


N. 


Paramelaconite. 


397. 


Physalite. 


483A 


. Noumeite. 


271A 


. Parankerite. 


H. 


Phytocollite. 


550. 


Nussierite. 


443. 


Parastilbite 


H. 


Piauzite. 


387. 


Nuttalite. 


N. 


Parathorite. 


048. 


Picite. 






*338. 


Pargasite. 


708. 


Pickeringite. 


500. 


Ochran. 


284. 


Parisite. 


*234. 


Picotite. 


074. 


Ochrolite. 


N. 


Paroligoclase. 


708. 


Picroallumogene. 


252. 


Octahedrite. 


458. 


Parophite. 


407. 


Picroepidote. 


458. 


Oellacherite. 


372. 


Partschinite. 


*481. 


Picrolite. 


394. 


Oerstedite. 


222. 


Partzite. 


509. 


Picrofluite. 


N. 


Offretite. 


387. 


Passauite. 


770. 


Picromerite. 


*433. 


Okenite. 


211. 


Passyite. 


595. 


Picropharmacolite 


3lU 


Olafite. 


789. 


Pastreite. 


325. 


Picrophyll. 


04. 


Oldhamite. 


819. 


Pateraite. 


509. 


Picrosmine. 


*317. 


Oligoclase. 


479. 


Pattersonite. 


450. 


Picrothomsonite. 


273. 


Oligonite. 


*324. 


Paulite 


337. 


Piddingtonite 


?*50L 


Olivenite. 


N. 


Pearceite. 


408. 


Piedmontite. 


*370. 


Olivine. 


*271. 


Pearl Spar. 


824. 


Pigotite, 


*b25. 


Omphacite. 


324. 


Peckhamite. 


*509. 


Pihlite. 


458. 


Oncophyllite. 


*330. 


Pectolite. 


504. 


Pilarite. 


458. 


Oncosine. 


041. 


Peganite. 


509. 


Pilinite. 


210. 


Onegite. 


209. 


Pelagito. 


*509. 


Pilolite. 


01. 


Onofrite. 


N. 


Pelagosite. 


*483i^ 


L. Pimelite. 


811. 


}) 


509. 


Pelhamine. 


095. 


Pinakiolite. 


387. 


Ontariolite. 


480. 


Pelhamite. 


505. 


Pinguite. 


*210. 


Onyx. 


270. 


Pencatite. 


*458. 


Pinite. 


458. 


Oosite. 


N. 


Penfieldite. 


458. 


Pinitoid. 


*212. 


Opal. 


*408i^ 


L. Penninite. 


705. 


Pinnoite. 


*395. 


Orangite. 


*302. 


Pennite. 


N. 


Pii'ssonite. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXXIU 



753. 


Pisaiiito. 


*4()9. 


Prochlorite. 


16. 


Quicksilver. 


270. 


Pisolite. 


1 85. 


l*roidouit(3. 


509. 


Quincite. 


794. 


PissophaiiiU'. 


204. 


I'rosopite. 


N. 


Quirogitc. 


*272A 


. Pistoinesito. 


325. 


Protheit<\ 






711. 


PiU'liblende. 


4()I. 


Protolithioiiit(\ 


269. 


Habdionito. 


:J2r). 


Pitkarautite. 


505. 


Protonout rouitt;. 


461. 


Kalwnglimnior. 


H. 


Pittasi)halt. 


480. 


Protovermiculitc. 


453. 


Radiolito. 


078. 


Pitticite. 


145. 


l*roustite. 


789. 


Raimondite. 


801. 


Plagiocitrite. 


549. 


* Pseudoapatite. 


208. 


Kalstonite. 


122. 


I'lagionite. 


538. 


J*seudoberzoliite. 


v*100. 


lianunelsbergilo. 


108. 


Plakodin. 


462. 


l*seudobiotite. 


430. 


liamosito. 


on. 


Plaiierite. 


246. 


Pseudobrookite. 


212. 


Randaunito. 


*210. 


Plasma. 


180. 


P.seudo(;otiiiuiitc. 


309. 


Randite. 


20. 


Platinum. 


570. 


Pseudomalachitc. 


357. 


Ranite. 


*2r)i. 


Plattnerite. 


437. 


Pseudonatrolite. 


N. 


Ransatite. 


120. 


Plonargyrite. 


195. 


Pseudonocerina. 


338. 


Raphilite. 


2:u. 


Pleonaste. 


468A 


. Pseudophite. 


232. 


Raphisiderite. 


rny2. 


Pleonectite. 


389. 


Pseudo-Scapolite. 


462. 


Rastolyte. 


582. 


Pleviiasite. 


344. 


Pseudosmaragd. 


N. 


Rathite. 


*500. 


Plinthite. 


543. 


Pseudotriplite. 


*330. 


Ratholite. 


435. 


Plombierite. 


*269. 


Psilomelane. 


496. 


Razoumovskyn. 


*2. 


Plumbago. 


567. 


Psittacinite. 


26. 


Realgar. 


498. 


Plumballophaue. 


342. 


Pterolite. 


492. 


Rectorite. 


229. 


Plumbic Ochre. 


462B 


,, 


594. 


Reddingite. 


*270. 


Plumbocalcite. 


436. 


Ptilolite. 


785. 


Redingtonite. 


24L 


Plumboferrite. 


542. 


Pucherite. 


585. 


Redondite. 


658. 


Plumbogummite. 


*78. 


Purple Copper Ore. 


*54. 


Redruth ite. 


108. 


Plumbomanganite 


397. 


Pycnite. 


483A 


. Refdanskite. 


*292. 


Plumbonacrite. 


458. 


Pycnophyllite. 


H 


Refikite. 


108. 


Plumbostannite . 


509. 


Pyknotrop. 


162. 


Regnolite. 


249. 


Polianite. 


325. 


Pyrallolite. 


270. 


Reichite. 


322. 


PoUucite. 


484. 


,, 


*819. 


Reinite. 


370. 


Polyadelphite. 


144. 


Pyrargyrite. 


304. 


Remingtonite. 


458. 


Polyargite. 


98. 


Pryites, Arsenical. 


484. 


Rensselaerite. 


157. 


Polyargyrite. 


*96. 


„ Cockscomb 


N. 


Resanite. 


557. 


Polyarsenite. 


*83. 


,, Copper. 


*212. 


Resin-opal. 


156. 


Polybasite. 


*85. 


„ Iron. 


509. 


Restormelite. 


535. 


Polycrase. 


*74. 


„ Magnetic, 


481. 


Retinalite. 


75. 


Poly dy mite. 


84. 


„ Tin. 


H. 


Retinellite. 


762. 


Polyhalite. 


*267. 


Pyroaurite. 


H. 


Retinit«. 


509. 


Polyhydrite. 


*520. 


Pyrochlore. 


H. 


Reussinite. 


N. 


Polylite. 


262. 


Pyrochroite. 


113 


Rezbanyite. 


461. 


Polylithionite. 


509. 


Pyroidesine. 


25. 


Rhabdite. 


533. 


Polymignite. 


*254. 


Pyrohisite. 


605. 


Rhabdophanite. 


550 


Polysphaerite 


510. 


Pyromelane. 


*400. 


Rhaetizite . 


149. 


Polytelite. 


*550. 


Pyronorphite. 


667. 


Rhagite. 


481. 


Porcellophite. 


*370. 


Pyrope. 


500. 


Rhodalite. 


13. 


Porpezite. 


N. 


Pyrophanite. 


N. 


Rhodarsenian 


500. 


Portite. 


586. 


Pyrophosphorite. 


13. 


Rhodite. 


H. 


Posepnyte. 


497. 


Pyrophyllite. 


699. 


Rhodizite. 


*764. 


Potash Alum. 


H. 


Pyropissite. 


468A 


. Rhodochrome. 


*458. 


„ Mica. 


H. 


Pyroretinite. 


274. 


Rhodochrosite. 


*484. 


Potstone. 


409. 


Pyrorthite. 


*335. 


Rhodonite. 


816. 


Powellite. 


480. 


Pyrosclerite. 


N. 


Rhodophosphite. 


♦210. 


Prase. 


385. 


Pyrosmalite. 


653. 


Richellite. 


*479. 


Prasilite. 


146. 


Pyrostilpnite. 


155. 


Richmondite. 


*212. 


Precious Opal. 


*325. 


Pyroxene. 


264. 


,, 


270. 


Predazzite. 


522. 


Pyrrhite. 


338. 


Ricliterite. 


*411. 


Prehnite. 


*74. 


Pyrrhotite. 


*340. 


Riebeckite. 


411. 


Prehnitoid. 






517. 


Rinkite. 


388. 


,, 


*210. 


Quartz. 


149. 


Rionite. 


58. 


Pribramite. 


*210A 


. Quartzine. 


♦468. 


Ripidolita 


704. 


Priceite. 


773. 


Quenstedtite. 


388. 


Riponite. 


429. 


Prismatine. 


804. 


Quetenite. 


147. 


Rittingerite. 



XXXIV 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



222. 


Rivotite. 


*746. 


Satin Spar. 


169. 


Silver, Horn. 


H. 


Rochlederite. 


*406. 


Saussurite. 


145. 


„ Light Ruby 


*210. 


Rock Crystal. 


179. 


Scacchite. 


H. 


Simetite. 


*166. 


„ Salt. 


*387. 


Scapolite. 


500. 


Sinopite. 


N. 


Roeblingite. 


500. 


Scarbroite. 


524. 


Sipylite. 


379i^ 


. Roepperite. 


129. 


Schapbachite. 


22. 


Siserskito. 


535. 


Rogersite. 


814. 


Scheelite. 


466. 


SismondLne. 


G7L 


Romeite. 


H. 


Scheererite. 


N. 


Sjogrufvit©. 


778. 


Romerite. 


325. 


Schefferite. 


526i^ 


. Skogbolite. 


463. 


Roscoelite. 


*270. 


Schieferspar. 


95. 


Skutterudite. 


480. 


Roseite. 


*324. 


Schiller Spar. 


457. 


Sloanite. 


590. 


Roselite. 


125. 


Schirmerite. 


87. 


Smaltite. 


33L 


Rosenbuschite. 


669. 


Schneebergite. 


338. 


Smaragdito. 


458. 


Rosite. 


445. 


Schneiderite. 


500. 


Smectite. 


622. 


Rosslerite. 


719. 


Schoarite. 


493. 


>> 


344. 


Rosterite. 


*426. 


Schorl. 


275. 


Smithsonite. 


H. 


Rosthomite. 


371. 


Schorlomite. 


*210. 


Smoky Quartz. 


370. 


Rothoffite. 


H. 


Schraufite. 


N. 


Snarumite. 


483. 


Rottisite. 


25. 


Schreibersite. 


*484. 


Soapstone. 


N. 


Roumanite. 


309. 


Schrockinergite. 


*316. 


Soda Feldspar. 


N. 


Rowlandite. 


500. 


Schrotterite. 


*362. 


Sodalite. 


462. 


Rubellan. 


2. 


Schimgite. 


683. 


Soda Nitre. 


426. 


Rubellite. 


188. 


Schwartzembergite 


459. 


Sodivim Mica. 


*509. 


Rubislite. 


148. 


Schwatzite. 


90. 


Sommarugaite. 


783. 


Rubrite. 


H. 


Scleretinite. 


768. 


Sonomaite. 


231. 


Ruby. 


*454. 


Scolecite. 


487. 


Spadaite. 


234. 


„ Balas. 


607. 


Scorodite. 


441. 


Spangite. 


58. 


„ Blende. 


*407 


Scorza. 


732. 


Spangolite. 


*224. 


,, Copper. 


506. 


Scotiolite. 


*273. 


Spathic Iron. 


145. 


„ Silver. 


456. 


Scoulerite. 


*232. 


Specular Iron. 


234. 


„ Spinel. 


605. 


Scovillite. 


93. 


Sperrylite. 


58. 


„ Zinc. 


447. 


Seebachite. 


370. 


Spessartite. 


H. 


Rumanite. 


309. 


Selbite. 


643. 


Sphserite. 


479. 


Riimpfite 


*746. 


Selenite. 


276. 


Sphserocobaltite. 


523. 


Rutherfordite 


5. 


Selenium. 


273. 


Sphaerosiderite. 


*250. 


Rutile. 


218 


Selenolite. 


*443. 


Sphserostilbite. 






4. 


Selensulphur. 


*58. 


Sphalerite. 


99. 


Safflorite. 


6. 


Selen -Tellurium. 


*510. 


Sphene. 


250. 


Sagerite. 


177. 


Sellaite. 


430. 


Sphenoclase. 


*168. 


Sal -Ammoniac. 


500. 


Sehvynite. 


500. 


Sphragidite. 


*325. 


Salite. 


*212. 


Semi-opal 


*234. 


Spinel. 


466. 


Salmite. 


133. 


Semseyite. 


510. 


Spinthere. 


*166. 


Salt. 


214. 


Senarmontite 


554. 


Spodiosite. 


684. 


Saltpetre. 


485. 


Sepiolite. 


*327. 


Spodumene. 


N. 


Salvadorite. 


*458. 


Sericite. 


549. 


Staffelite. 


529. 


Samarskite. 


*481 


Serpentine. 


H. 


Stanekite. 


498. 


Samoite. 


782. 


Serpierite. 


84. 


Stannite. 


149. 


Sandbergerite. 


465. 


Seybertite. 


698. 


Stassfurtite. 


N. 


Sanguinite. 


*273. 


Siderite. 


*428. 


Staurolite. 


*313. 


Sanidine. 


273. 


Siderodot. 


479. 


Steatargillite. 


*488. 


Saponite 


25. 


Siderolites. 


*484. 


Steatite. 


*231. 


Sapphire. 


799. 


Sideronatrite. 


437. 


Steeleite. 


430. 


Sapphirine. 


462. 


Siderophyllite. 


349. 


Steenstrupine. 


*450. 


Sarate. 


*273. 


Sideroplesite. 


45. 


Steinmannite. 


N. 


Sarawakite. 


H. 


Siegburgite. 


N. 


Stellarite. 


390. 


Sarcolite. 


79. 


Siegenite. 


153. 


Stephanit€». 


555. 


Sarcopside. 


320. 


Sigterite. 


615. 


Stercorite. 


*210. 


Sard. 


30. 


Silaonite^ 


458. 


Sterlingite. 


*210. 


Sardonyx. 


338. 


Silfbergite. 


56. 


Sternbergite. 


557. 


Sarkinite. 


*399. 


Sillimanite. 


222. 


Stetefeldtite. 


115. 


Sartorite. 


*14 


Silver. 


222. 


Stibianite. 


457. 


Sasbachite. 


153 


„ Brittle. 


583. 


Stibiatil. 


265. 


Sassolite. 


144. 


„ Dark Ruby. 


222. 


Stibiconite. 


*270. 


Satin Spar. 


*42. 


„ Glance. 


222. 


Stibioferrite. 



AI>PHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



XXXV 



N. 


Stibiotantalite. 


645. 


Taranakite. 


269. 


Trans vaalite. 


*28. 


Stibnite. 


727. 


Tarapacaite. 


370. 


Trautwinite. 


H43. 


Stilbite. 


45. 


Targionito. 


325. 


Traversellite. 


474. 


Stilpnomelane. 


277. 


Tarnowitzite. 


2. 


Tremenheerite. 


496. 


Stolpenite. 


H. 


Tasmanite. 


♦338. 


Tremolite. 


817. 


Stolzite. 


748. 


Tauriscite. 


590. 


Trichalcite. 


325. 


Strakonitzite. 


575. 


Tavistockito. 


♦211. 


Tridymite. 


335. 


Stratopeite. 


715. 


Taylorito. 


380. 


Trimerite. 


608. 


Strengite. 


675. 


Taznito. 


H. 


Trinkerite. 


475. 


Strigovite. 


750. 


Tecticite. 


543. 


Triphylite. 


389. 


Stroganovite. 


N. 


Telaspyrine. 


555. 


Triphte. 


55. 


Stroineyerite. 


31. 


Telluric Bismuth. 


556. 


Triploidite. 


*280. 


Strontianite. 


218. 


Tellurite. 


212. 


Tripolite. 


270. 


Strontianocalcite. 


7. 


Tellurium. 


675. 


Trippkeite. 


585. 


Struvite. 


305. 


Tengerite. 


350. 


Tritomite.J 


509. 


Stiibelite. 


149. 


Tennantite. 


665. 


Trogerite. ^ 


41. 


Stiitzite. 


230. 


Tenorite. 


73. 


Troilite. 


768. 


Stiivenite. 


379. 


Tephroite. 


645. 


Trolleite. 


141. 


Stylotypite. 


381. 


Tephrowilleuiito. 


299. 


Trona. 


478. 


Subdelessite. 


N. 


Tequezquite. 


381. 


Troostito. 


H. 


Succinellite. 


500. 


Teratolite. 


513. 


Tscheffkinite. 


H. 


Succinite. 


389. 


Teranite. 


316. 


Tschermakite. 


498. 


Sulfatallophan. 


287. 


Teschemachorite . 


765. 


Tschermigite. 


N. 


Sulfoborite. 


435. 


Tesselite. 


*492. 


Tuesite. 


211. 


Sulfuricin. 


31. 


Tetradymite. 


220. 


Tungstite. 


728. 


Sulphohalite. 


N. 


Tetragophosphite. 


♦255. 


Turgite. 


*3. 


Sulphur. 


*148. 


Tetrahedrite. 


642. 


Turquois. 


N. 


Sundtite. 


337. 


Thalackerite. 


* 


Tyreeite. 


*317. 


Sunstone. 


502. 


Thaumasite. 


635. 


Tyrolite. 


*734. 


Susannito. 


716. 


Thenardite. 


182. 


Tysonite. 


693. 


Sussexite. 


294. 


Thermonatrite. 






N. 


Svabite. 


481. 


Thermophyllite. 


233. 


Uddevallite. • 


679. 


Svanbergite. 


821. 


Thiersch! te. 


♦411. 


Uigite. 


N. 


Sychiiodymite. 


270. 


Thinolite. 


H. 


Uintahite. 


104. 


Sylvanite. 


273. 


Thomaite. 


708. 


Ulexite. 


167. 


Sylvite. 


206. 


Thomsenolite. 


92. 


Ullmannite. 


598. 


Symplesite. 


*456. 


Thomsonite. 


N. 


Umangite. 


579. 


Synadelphite. 


*395. 


Thorite. 


807. 


Uraconite. 


756. 


Syngenite. 


712. 


Thorogummite. 


♦338. 


Uralite. 


338. 


Syntagmatito. 


N. 


Thrombolite. 


409. 


Uralorthite. 


324. 


Szaboite. 


406. 


Thuhte. 


711. 


Uraninite. 


697. 


Szaibelyite. 


473. 


Thuringite. 


711. 


Uranniobite. 


745. 


Szmikite. 


60. 


Tiemannite. 


807. 


Uranochalcite. 






N. 


Tilasite. 


663. 


Uranocircite. 


212. 


Tabasheer. 


♦224. 


Tile Ore. 


503. 


Uranophane. 


468A. Tabergite. 


47. 


Tilkerodite. 


807. 


Uranopilite. 


202. 


Tachhydrite. 


19. 


Tin. 


713. 


Uranosphaerite. 


394. 


Tachyaphaltite. 


707. 


Tincalconite. 


662. 


Uranospinite. 


630. 


Tagilite. 


84. 


Tin Pyrites. 


307. 


Uranothallite. 


*484. 


Talc. 


248. 


,, Stone. 


395. 


Uranothorite. 


549. 


Talc -apatite. 


*233. 


Titanic Iron. 


503. 


Uranotil. 


*479. 


Talc-chlorite. 


*510. 


Titanite. 


H. 


Urpethite. 


458. 


Talcite. 


376. 


Titan-olivine. 


786. 


Utahite. 


484. 


Talcoid. 


510. 


Titanomorphite. 


370. 


Uvarovite. 


509. 


Talcosite. 


248. 


Toad's-eye Tin. 






555. 


Talktriplite. 


*434. 


Tobermorite. 


480. 


Vaalite. 


193. 


Tallingite. 


173. 


Tocornalite. 


N. 


Valaite. 


767. 


Tamarugite. 


90. 


Tombazite. 


♦216. 


Valentinite. 


N. 


Tammite. 


*397. 


Topaz. 


N. 


Valleite. 


320. 


Tankite. 


370. 


Topazolite. 


108. 


Valleriite. 


217. 


Tantalic Ochre. 


*H. 


Torbanite. 


217 


Vanadic Ochre 


526. 


Tantalite. 


659. 


Torbernite. 


♦552 


Vanadinite. 


143. 


Tapalpite. 


*481. 


Totaigite. 


567 


Vanadiolite. 


527 


Tapiolite. 


*426 


Tourmaline. 


463 


Vanadium Mic 



VOL I 



XXXVl 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS. 



423. 


Vanuxemite. 


285. 


Weibyeite. 


784. 


Xanthosiderite 


*78. 


Variegated Copper. 


*313. 


Weissigite. 


399. 


Xenolite. 




Ore. 


N. 


Wellsite. 


536. 


Xenotime. 


61L 


Variscite. 


*387. 


Wernerite. 


N. 


Xiphonite. 


269. 


Varvicite. 


791. 


Wertliemanite. 


*435. 


Xonotlite. 


*727. 


Vauquelinite. 


399. 


Westanite. 


435. 


Xylochlore. 


467. 


Venasquite. 


N. 


Whartonite. 


H. 


Xyloretinite, 


509. 


Venerite. 


H. 


Wheelerite. 


509. 


Xylotile. 


480. 


Vermiculite. 


*136. 


Wheel Ore. 






N. 


Vesbine. 


821. 


Whewellite. 


*259. 


Yellow Ochre. 


21L 


Vestan. 


216. 


White Antimony 


108. 


Youngite. 


*393. 


Vesuvianite. 


213. 


„ Arsenic. 


370. 


Yttergarnet. 


637. 


Veszelyite. 


*281. 


White Lead Ore. 


405. 


Yttriahte. 


323. 


Victorite. 


*458. 


„ Mica. 


209. 


Yttrocerite. 


529. 


Vietinghofite. 


*96. 


„ Pyrites. 


712. 


Yttrogummite. 


*376. 


Villarsite. 


39. 


Whitneyite. 


?*528. 


Yttrotantahte. 


325. 


Violan. 


567. 


Wicklowite. 






479. 


Viridite. 


480. 


Willcoxite. 


*303. 


Zaratite. 


*597. 


Vivianite. 


381. 


Willemite. 


613. 


Zepharovichite 


807. 


Voglianite. 


481. 


Williamsite. 


619. 


Zeugite. 


309. 


Voglite. 


N. 


Willyamite. 


660. 


Zeunerite. 


462. 


Voigtite. 


389. 


Wilsonite. 


426. 


Xeuxite. 


633. 


Volborthite. 


458. 


,, 


H. 


Zietrisikite. 


222. 


Volgerite. 


370. 


Wiluite. 


173. 


Zimapanite. 


796. 


Voltaite. 


791. 


Winebergite. 


12. 


Zinc. 


108. 


Voltzite. 


269. 


Winklerite. 


805. 


Zincaluminite. 


722. 


Vulpinite. 


701. 


Winkworthite. 


*58. 


Zinc Blende. 






*407. 


Withamite. 


228. 


Zincite. 


*269. 


Wad. 


279. 


Witherite. 


270. 


Zincocalcite. 


423. 


Wagite. 


137. 


Wittichenite. 


236. 


Zinc-Spinel. 


553. 


Wagnerite. 


333. 


Wohlerite. 


749. 


Zinc Vitriol. 


H. 


Walchowite. 


500. 


Wolchonskoite. 


289. 


Zinkazurite. 


338. 


Waldheimite. 


103. 


Wolfachite. 


114. 


Zinkenite. 


*330. 


Walkerite. 


812. 


Wolfram. 


723. 


Zinkosite. 


666. 


Walpurgite. 


812. 


Wolframite. 


*461. 


Zinnwaldite. 


306. 


Waltherite. 


*329. 


Wollastonite. 


807. 


Zippeite. 


*465A 


. Waluewite. 


H. 


Wollongongite. 


N. 


Zircarbite. 


622. 


Wapplerite. 


779. 


Woodwardite. 


*394. 


Zircon. 


N. 


Wardite. 


399. 


Worthite. 


N. 


Zirkelite. 


740. 


Waringtonite. 


*818. 


Wulfenite. 


264. 


Zirlite. 


126. 


Warrenite. 


H. 


WurtziHte. 


481. 


ZobHtzite. 


700. 


Warwickite. 


69. 


Wurtzite. 


*406. 


Zoisite. 


233. 


Washingtonite. 






457. 


Zonochlorite. 


409. 


Wasite. 


572. 


Xantharsenite. 


52. 


Zorgite. 


*223. 


Water. 


160. 


Xanthoconite. 


369. 


Zunyite. 


763. 


Watte villite. 


*428. 


Xantholite. 


555. 


Zwieselite. 


639. 


Wavellite. 


465A 


. XanthophylHte. 


316. 


Zygadite. 


N. 


Webnerite. 


409. 


Xanthorthite. 






33. 


Wehrlite. 


260. 


Xanthosiderite. 







SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS 

By James Currie, M.A. 



The subjoined list contains all the Pseudomorphs which I have been 
able to trace as occurring, or said to occur, in Scotland. Wherever 
possible, the crystal forms of the original minerals are given, with a note 
(fig.) if there is a figure in the work cited. Similarly, the fact that the 
replacing mineral has been analysed is always noted when this is the 
case. A few occurrences have been communicated to me by Prof. Heddle, 
without his having, so far as I know, published any account of them, 
e.g., Nos. 14, 15, 74, 92, 127, and 182. The original specimens of Nos. 
74 and 182 are in my own collection, as are Nos. 4, 172, and 176. The 
authority of many of the Pseudomorphs is the tickets in the Scottish 
Collection of the Edinburgh Museum, and all occurrences of which an 
example is to be found there are marked in this list by an asterisk (*), 
while a note indicates those of which the British Museum possesses 
specimens. It will be seen that thirteen of these last (Nos. 12, 22, 36-39, 
72, 85, 105, 115-117, and 125) are not represented in the Edinburgh 
Collection. Following this list is an Index of the original, replaced 
Minerals, or, as we may call them (from TraXatos, ancient and o-w/xa, body), 
the Palseosomes of the Scottish Pseudomorphs. 

1. Agalmatolite (?) after Apatite (?) : Dobston, Aberdeenshire: 

Ileddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxx. 440. 

2. Agalmatolite after Oligoclase : Ceannabeinne, Sutherland ; Heddle, 

3Iin. Mag., iv. 215. 

3. Agalmatolite after Oligoclase : Luib Dhaimh, Loch Eireboll, 

Sutherland : Heddle, Min. Mag., iv. 215. 

4. Agalmatolite after Oligoclase : Ceann-a-bharra, Tiree : Currie. 

5. Albite, after Analcime : Old Kilpatrick : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit., 113. 

6. Albite after Analcime : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Greg and Lettsom, 

Min. Brit., 113. 

7. Albite after Analcime : Calton Hill, Edinburgh : Greg and Lettsom, 

Min. Brit, 194. 



XXXVIU SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

8. Albite after Calcite : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Greg and Lettsom, 
Min. Brit., 113. 

This pseudomorphous substance is said by Greg and Lettsom 
[loc. cit.) to have been shown by Heddle to be Albite. Prof. Heddle 
however, in his paper pubUshed the year after the appearance of the 
Mineralogy of Great Britain, gives Analcime as the replacing substance 
in the Calcite pseudomorph from Lang Crag (see No. 18), and Greg 
and Lettsom themselves refer on p. 189 to Analcime after Calcite. 
See, further, Note to No. 25. 
9.* Albite after Heulandite : Bowling : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 

xxvii. 510 — Analysed (Museum Ticket). 
10.*Albite after Laumontite : Old Kilpatrick : Greg and Lettsom, Miri. 
Brit.y 113: — m e (fig.), ecmh ^r (Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. (1859) 
44). 

11. Albite after Laumontite: Lang Crag, Dumbarton: Greg and 

Lettsom, Min. Brit., 113. 

12. Albite after Laumontite : Calton Hill, Edinburgh : Greg and 

Lettsom, Min. Brit., 113. 

A specimen said to be from this locaUty, is in the British 
Museum (Miers). 
13.*Albite after Prehnite (?) : BowUng : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45. 
In Phil. Mag. the locaUty is given as Kilpatrick Hills. 

14. Albite after Prehnite (?) : Boyleston, Barrhead : Heddle. 

15. Albite after Prehnite (?) : Berry Glen, Ayrshire : Heddle. 

16. Albite after Stilbite : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Greg and Lettsom, 

Min. Brit., 194 : — b c m (fig.), b c m/ (fig.), bcmfr (fig.) (Heddle, 

Phil. Mag., xvii. 44) — Analysed. 

It is not clear from Greg and Lettsom's description of " Weis- 
sigite " {Min. Brit., 194) to what pseudomorph they referred Prof. 
Heddle's analysis ; but from the statement on p. 112 (under Albite) 
it is obvious that they were under the impression that it was the 
pseudomorphs after Laumontite (Nos. 10 and 11 supra) that had been 
investigated. Prof. Heddle's statement in the Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edin. (xxvii. 511) proves, however, that he had analysed the Stilbite 
pseudomorphs, and his paper in the Phil Mag. (published a year after 
Greg and Lettsom's volume) shows that while he was then certain 
as to the replacing mineral in the case of the Stilbite pseudomorphs, 
he was only in a position to suggest that the Laumontite pseudo- 
morphs would prove to be the same substance. The former, 
therefore, must have been the specimens analysed, and Greg and 
Lettsom's statement, which has been copied into all the text-books, 
should be corrected. 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. XXXIX 

17.*A]bite after Stilbite : Bowling : Heddle : — 6 c r, b cm r. 

The " Kilpa trick " specimen in the British Museum is no doubt 
from this or the Lang Crag locality. 
18. Analcime after Calcite : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Heddle, Phil. 
Mag., XVII. 44 :-~y (fig.). 

See No. 8. This replacement, like Nos. 27, 87, 112, 113, 118, 
122, and 134, is included by Prof. Miers {Min. Mag., xi. 276) in his 
list of pseudomorphs insufficiently vouched, apparently because the 
localities are not given by Greg and Lettsom. All of these, however, 
are referred to with descriptions and localities in Prof. Heddle 's paper 
on " The Pseudomorphic Minerals found in Scotland," Phil. Mag. 
xvii. (1859) 42. 
19.* Analcime after Calcite : Bowling : Heddle. 

20.* Analcime after Laumontite : Bowling : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 
Brit, 187. 

21. Analcime after Laumontite : Kilpatrick : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit., 189, note. 

Perhaps the same locality as No. 20 : see note to No. 25. 

22. Analcime after Laumontite : Kilmalcolm, Renfrewshire : Miers, 

Min. Mag., xi. 279. 

A specimen from this locaUty is in the British Museum. 

23. Analcime after Prehnite : Paisley : Hall, Min. Dir., 132. 

There is little doubt that this is an error for the converse sub- 
stitution. See No. 105. 

24. Analcime after Stilbite : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Heddle, Phil. 

Mag., xvii. 44 : — h c m. 
25.* Analcime after Stilbite : Bowling : Heddle. 

Considerable uncertainty still exists as to these replacements by 
Albite and Analcime. In the first place it is only in a very few cases 
that the nature of the replacing substance has been determined by 
analysis or even approximately ascertained by the blowpipe. In 
the second place, the Dumbartonshire localities, both for pseudo- 
morphs and for the unaltered minerals, are very unreliable. 
Kilpatrick or Old Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick Hills, Dumbarton or 
Dumbarton Muir, Lang Crag (or Long Craig), Frisky Hall, and 
Bowling are all, except perhaps the last, very vaguely used ; and 
four times out of five in the earlier notices, whichever of these names 
be given, the locality intended to be indicated (or concealed) is 
Bowling Quarry. The only Dumbartonshire localities of any 
importance are Bowling, Lang Crag, Glen Arbuck, Loch Humphrey, 
Old Kilpatrick, and Cochno ; and one of these is generally meant even 
when Stirlingshire localities, like Campsie, Campsie Fells, and Fintry, 



Xl SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

are mentioned. Fortunately the question of the exact locality is of 
little real importance, as the six places mentioned all lie within the 
parish of Old Kilpatrick, within an area of about six miles by two, and 
with but minor differences in the character of the igneous rocks 
whose veins and steam cavities yield the numerous minerals for 
which the locality has been so long celebrated. 
26. Anglesite after Galena : Leadhills : Haidinger, Pogg. Ann. xi. (1828), 
367 (quoted Hintze, Min. i. 501). 

It should be noted that the name Leadhills is not infrequently 
used when Wanlockhead would be the more precise designation of 
the locality. 
27.*Bar3rtes after Analcime : Ratho : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45 : — 

na. See note to No. 18. 
28.*Calamine after Calcite : Leadhills : Heddle : — v, vr. 
29. Calamine after Galena : Wanlockhead : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit, 428. 
30.*Calamine after Vanadinite : Wanlockhead : Greg and Lettsom, 
Min. Brit, 428 :— m c (fig.), (Heddle, Phil Mag., xvii. 47). 

31. Calcite after Galena : Leadhills : Greg and Lettsom, Min. Brit, 43 : 

— a (fig.), (Heddle, Phil Mag., xvii. 46). 

32. Calcite after Leadhillite : Leadhills : Greg and Lettsom, Min. Brit, 399. 

33. Celadonite after Augite : Kilpatrick : Hall, Min. Dir., 132. 

34. Celadonite after Calcite : Kilpatrick Hills ; Heddle, Phil. Mag., 

xvii. 45 : — yc (fig.). 

35. Celestite after Natrolite (?) : Tantallon, Haddingtonshire : Heddle, 

Phil. Mag., xvii. 45. 

36. Cerussite after Anglesite : Leadhills : Hall, Min. Dir., 133. 

In the British Museum. 

37. Cerussite after Galena : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46 : — 

a. In the British Museum. 

38. Cerussite after Lanarkite : Leadhills : Miers, Min. Mag., xi. 264. 

In the British Museum. 

39. Cerussite after Leadhillite : Leadhills : Hall, Min. Dir., 133. 

In the British Museum. The pseudomorph is a mixture of 
Cerussite and Pyromorphite (Miers). 
40.*Cerussite after Pyromorphite : Leadhills : Heddle. 
41.*Cervantite after Stibnite : Hare Hill, Ayrshire : Heddle. 
42.*Cervantite after Stibnite : Glendinning, Dumfriesshire : Hall, Min. 

Dir., 132. 
43. Chalcedony after Dolomite : Melsetter, Hoy : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

iii. 245 and 249 :— r. 

Greg and Lettsom 's Quartz after Dolomite. 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. xU 

44.*Chalcedony after Calcite : Sgtirr Mor, Rum : Heddle :— /. 

Generally casts only. 
Chlorite after Garnet : see Nos. 112 and 113, Prochlorite after 

Garnet. 
45. Chlorophyllite after lolite : Bum of Craig, Cabrach : Heddle, Min. 

Mag., V. 18 — Analysed. 
46.*Chrysocolla after Barytes : Leadhills : Heddle. 
47. ChrysocoUa after Cerussite : Leadhills : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit., 328 i—macibp (fig.) (Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46). 
48.*Chrysocolla after Galena : Leadhills : Greg and Lettsom, Min. Brit., 

328 :- a (Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46). 

Nos. 47 and 48 entered as doubtful by Miers, but without giving 
any reason. 

Damourite after Grenttite : see Muscovite after Staurolite, No. 88. 
49.*Dolomite after Calcite : Kinkell, Fife : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxvii. 498 : — v, d vo c e (fig.) — Analysed. 
50.*Dolomite after Calcite : Kittock's Den, Fife : Heddle. 
51.*Dolomite after Calcite : Leadhills : Heddle. 
52.*Epidote after Garnet : Queen Geo, Hillswick, Shetland : Heddle. 

Only the central portion of the crystals is altered. 

53. Essonite after Epidote (?) : Dahiabo, Glen Gairn : Heddle, Phil 

Mag., xvii. 43. 

54. Essonite after Sphene : Dalnabo, Glen Gairn : Heddle, Min. Scot, ii. 

158 — Analysed. 
55.*Ferrite after Augite : Langbank, Renfrewshire : Heddle. 
56. Ferrite after Olivine : Kilpatrick : Dr. T. Brown (Heddle, Min. Mag., 

V. 28). 
57.*Ferrite after Olivine : Gleniffer, Renfrewshire : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

vii. 134 — a bed e — Analysed. 
58.*Ferrite after Olivine : Talisker, Skye : Heddle. 

" Ferrite " was first discovered by Wallace Young, but its true 
nature was determined by Heddle. 
59.*Galena after Pyromorphite : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 

46 : — m c (fig.). 
60. Gigantolite after lolite : Torry, Kincardineshire : Heddle, Min, 

Mag., V. 17 — Analysed. 
61 .*Hematite after Barytes : Pitfichie, Aberdeenshire : Heddle. 
62.*Hematite after Calcite ; Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 47 :— 

M r (fig.), also v (Museum Edinb.). 
63.*Hematite (Martite) after Magnetite : Bute : Heddle, Min. Mag., v, 

3 ; o — Analysed. 



Xlii SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

64. Hematite after Olivine : Calton Hill, Edinburgh : Tschermak, Wien. 

Akad., xlvi. 483. 
65.*Hematite after Pyrites : Bre Brough, Hoy, Orkney : Heddle, Phil. 

Mag., xvii. 43 :— a o e (%.)• 

So also on Museum Ticket, but Limonite in Min. Mag. 
66.*Hematite after Pyrites : Lamberton, Berwickshire : Goodchild. 
Hematite after Pyrites ; see also Limonite after Pyrites and No. 196. 

67. Hullite after Analcime : Kinkell, Fife : Heddle, Trans. Roy., Soc. 

Edin., xxix. 90 — Analysed. 

68. Ksemmererite after Talc : Hagdale, Unst : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 

42 :— m c (fig.)- 

Apparently merely chrystallised Ksemmererite. 
69.*Kaolin after Pjrrites : Rubislaw, Aberdeenshire : Heddle : — a e. 
70. Kaolin after Orthoclase (?) : Ledbeg, Sutherland : Heddle, Min. 

Mag., V. 294. 
71. *Kaolin after Orthoclase (Sanidine) : Kinkell, Fife : Heddle. 
72. Laumontite after Analcime : Kjlpatrick : Miers, Min. Mag., xi. 282. 

In the British Museum. 
Limnite after Pyrites and Marcasite : see Limonite. 
73.*Limonite after Calcite : Leadhills : Heddle : — v o e. 
74. Limonite after Marcasite : Spindle Rock, Fife : Heddle. 
75.*Limonite after Marcasite : Stromness, Orkne}^ : Heddle, Phil. Mag., 

xvii. 43. '' Cockscomb." 

Like Nos. 77 and 80, erroneously Limnite in Phil. Mag. 
76. Limonite after Pyrites : Colla Firth, Shetland : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

ii. 176. 
77.*Limonite after Pyrites : Vannlip, Hillswick, Shetland : Heddle, 

Min. Mag., iii. 30 :— a e (fig., Phil. Mag.). 
78.*Limonite after PjTites : Sandlodge, Shetland : Heddle. 
79.*Limonite after Pyrites : Laoch, Banffshire : Heddle. 
80.*Limonite after Pjrrites : East Tulloch, Perthshire : Heddle, Phil. 

Mag., xvii. 43 : — a, a e (fig.). 
81 .*Limonite after Pyrites : Fort William : B.N. Peach : — a e. 
82.*Limonite after Pyrites : Kiikconnel, Kirkcudbright : Heddle. 

Hematite after Pyrites, according to Goodchild. 
83.*Limonite after Pjn^ites : Leadhills and Wanlockhead : Heddle : — 

a (Wilson), a o. 

In some of these pseudomorphs after Pyrites the replacing 
mineral seems rather, as pointed out by J. G. Goodchild, to be 
Hematite. The change is often only superficial. 
84.*Magnetite after Pyrites : Errins, near Tarbet, Kintyre : Heddle, 

Phil. Mag., xvii. 47 : — a, a e. 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. xliu 

Miers says {Min. Mag., xi. 277) that this requires confirmation. 

But he gives Hall as the authority, whereas the replacement was 

recorded by Heddle as above. Possibly only Hematite, which at 

least coats the altered crystals (as suggested by Goodchild). 

85. Magnetite after Serpentine (PicroUte) : Scalpay, Harris : Miers, 

Min. Mag., xi. 271. 

In the British Museum. This is described by Heddle as inter- 
stitial, the Magnetite occurring between the fibres of Picrolite. 
86.*Malachite after Galena : Leadhills : Heddle. 

87. Marcasite after Coal : Spindle Rock, Fife : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 
43. 

See note to No. 18. Pyrites in Greg and Lettsom's Min. Brit. 
Martite after Magnetite. See No. 63. 
88.*Minium (?) after Galena: Leadhills: Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46:- a. 
The replacing substance is described as a ferruginous minium : 
it resembles an impure Limonite (as suggested by Goodchild). 
89.*Muscovite (Damourite) after Staurolite : Boharm, Banffshire : 

Heddle. 
90.*Muscovite (Margarodite) after Orthoclase : Cairn Durich, Braemar : 
Heddle. 

Probably, as suggested by »J. G. Goodchild, merely a fragment 
of schist, included in the quartz vein. 
91.*01igoclase (?) after Stilbite : I^ang Crag, Dumbarton : Heddle, Phil. 
Mag., xvi. 44 : — h c m, b c m r (fig.), b c m rf. 

92. Oligoclase (?) after Analcime : Boyleston, Barrhead : Heddle : — n. 

93. Olivine after Sphene : Lairg, Sutherland : Heddle, Min. Mag.y 

V. 189 : — Analysed. 

94. Orthoclase after Laumontite : Kilpatrick : Haidinger : Sitzb. Akad. 

Wien., 1849, Hft. 3 :— Analysed (Bischof). 
95.*Orthoclase after Natrolite : Abergairn, Aberdeenshire : Heddle. 

96. Orthoclase after Prehnite : Kilpatrick : Haidinger (Blum), Pseud. 

4:te Nachtr. 61. 

97. Orthoclase (Erythrite) after Heulandite : Bowling : Heddle, Min. 

Scot, ii, 4. 

98. Orthoclase (Erythrite) after Stilbite : Bowling : Heddle, Min. Scot., 

ii. 4. 

Similar pseudomorphs of Orthoclase (Erythrite) are said to occur 
at Boyleston near Barrhead, Gryfe Tunnel near Greenock, and 
Berry Glen in North Ayrshire (see Heddle, Min. Scot., ii. 4). The 
replacing mineral was analysed by Thomson. 
99.*Pectolite after Analcime : Ratho : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45 : — 
n, n a. Also in the British Museum. 



xliv SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

100.*Pectolite after Scapolite : LendaKoot : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45. 

Prof. Heddle suggested in Phil. Mag., that these crystals were 

Scapolite in substance as well as in form and therefore not pseudo- 

. morphous at all. 

Picrohte after Asbestos and Actinolite : see Serpentine, Nos. 173 

and 174. 

101. Pinite after lolite : Bum of Craig : Cabrach : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

V. 17 : — Analysed. 

102. Plattnerite after Calcite (Plumbocalcite) : Wanlockhead : Wilson 

(Heddle, Min. Scot., i. 103). 

103. Plattnerite after Pyromorphite : Leadhills : Haidinger :— m c. 
104.*Prehnite after Analcime : Kilpatrick : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 

45: — n (fig.); ^^ (fig-)- 

In the British Museum. The Edinburgh Museum Ticket has 
Bowling, which is probably the locality meant. The pseudomorph 
was formerly not uncommon at one part of Bowling Quarry. 
105. Prehnite after Analcime : Hart field, Renfrewshire : Greg and 

Lettsom, Min. Brit., 187 -.—na (fig.). 

In the British Museum. 
106.*Prehnite after Analcime : Boyleston, Barrhead : Heddle :— n. 
107.*Prehnite after Andesine : Dalnabo, Glen Gairn : Heddle, Trans. 

Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 248 — Analysed. 
108.*Prehnite after Barytes : BowHng : Heddle. 
109.*Prehnite after Laumontite : Kilpatrick Hills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., 

xvii. 45 : — m e. 

See note to No. 104, which applies to this pseudomorph. 

110. Prehnite after Natrolite : Isle of May : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 

(1859), 44. 

So in The Shores of Fife, p 29 : in Phil. Mag., the original 
mineral is, probably erroneously, identified as Scoleoite. 

111. Prehnite after Thomsonite (?) : Bowling : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxvii. 511. 
112.*Prochlorite after Garnet: Vannlip, Hillswick, Shetland: Heddle, 
Phil. Mag., xvii. 42 : — d n (fig.)- 
See note to No. 18. 

113. Prochlorite after Garnet : Knock, Ballintuim, Strathardle : Heddle, 

Phil. Mag., xvii. 43 : — d (fig.). 
See note to No. 18. 
Pseudophite after Labradorite : see Serpentine, No. 179. 

114. Pyrites after Aragonite : Yestenaby, Orkney : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

iii. 222. 
Pyrites after Coal : see No. 87, 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. xlv 

115. Pyromorphite after Barytes : licadhills : Miers, Min. Mag., xi. 284. 

In the British Museum. 

116. Pyromorphite after Galena : Leadhills : Miers, Min. Mag., xi. 284. 

In the British Museum. 

117. Pyromorphite after Leadhillite : Leadhills : Miers, Min. Mag., 

xi. 284. 

In the British Museum. The Pseudomorph is a mixture of 
Pjrromorphite and Cerussite (Miers). 
118.*Quartz after Anglesite : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46. 

See note to No. 18. 
119. Quartz after Barytes : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46. 
120.*Quartz after Calcite : Leadhills : Heddle. 
121.*Quartz after Chrysotile : Kilchrenan, Loch Awe : Heddle. 

Quartz after Dolomite : see Chalcedony after Dolomite, No. 43. 
122.*Quartz after Galena : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46 :—a. 

See note to No. 18. 
123.*Quartz after Garnet : Knock Hills : Banffshire : Heddle : d. 
124.*Quartz after Psilomelane : Leadhills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46. 

125. Quartz after Stilbite : Lang Crag, Dumbarton : Heddle, Phil. Mag., 

xvii. 44 :— 6 7n c. 

In the British Museum. 

126. Quartz after Stilbite : Kilpatrick : Greg and Lettsom, Min. Brit., 95. 

127. Quartz aiter Stilbite : Shaws, Greenock : Heddle : bm c. 

See Chalcedony and Sandstone for other Quartz pseudomorphs. 

128. Rhodonite after Sphene : Glen Gaim : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxviii. 309. 

Unconfirmed, and in all probability merely Greenovite. 
129.*Sahlite after Malacolite : Shuiess, Sutherland : Heddle. 

This seems rather to be an example of MalacoUte sheathed by a 
later growth of a more ferriferous Pyroxene. 

130. Sandstone after Salt : Currie, near Edinburgh : Goodchild (Heddle, 

Min. Scot., i. 40) \—a. 

131. Sandstone after Salt : Kildonan, Arran : Goodchild (Heddle, Min. 

Scot., i. 40) ; " hopper-shaped crystals." 
132.*Saponite after Analcime : Kinkell, Fife : Heddle. 
133.*Saponite after Analcime : Ratho : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45 : — 

n, na. 
134.*Saponite after Barytes : Ratho : Heddle. Phil. Mag., xvii. 45. 

See note to No. 18. 
135.*Saponite after Natrolite : Kilpatrick Hills : Heddle, Phil. Mag., 

xvii. 45. 

The specimen in the Edinburgh Museum is from Bowling. 



Xlvi SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

136.*Saponite after Pectolite : Ratho : Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 45 — 

Analysed. 

Also in the British Museum. 

Nos. 133 to 136 are designated Steatite in the Philosophical 
Magazine, and No. 136 is so termed by Miers ; but this is erroneous. 
The complete analysis of the last, and the mode of occurrence of all, 
of them is quite conclusive. 

Saussurite after Anorthite : see Zoisite after Anorthite, No. 201 
Schillerspar after Enstatite : see Serpentine, Nos. 154, 155. 



SERPENTINE PSEUDOMORPHS. 

[a) After Olivine. 
137.*Serpentine after Olivine : Portsoy : Heddle. 

138. Serpentiae after OHvine : Hill of Dun, Dumbarton : Allport, 

Q.J.O.S., XXX. 558. 

139. Serpentine after Olivine : Lochan Strath Dubh Uisge (Loch Garabal) 

Inverarnan : Dakyns and Teall, Q.J.G.S., xlviii. 108. 

140. Serpentine after OUvine : Kirriemuir : Judd Q.J.G.S., xli. 398. 
141.*Serpentine after Olivine : Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire : Judd, Q.J.G.S., 

xU. 399. 
142.*Serpentine after Olivine : Black Dog Rock. Aberdeen : Judd, 
Q.J.G.S., xU. 399. 

143. Serpentine after OUvine : Loch Scye, Caithness : Judd, Q.J.G.S., 

xli. 405. 

144. Serpentine after Olivine : Totag, Loch Duich : Heddle, Ency. Brit. 

(9th edit.), xvi. 415. 

Recorded as Villarsite in the Encyclopcedia. 

(b) After Enstatite. 
145.*Serpentine after Enstatite : Swinna Ness, Unst, Shetland : Heddle. 
146.*Serpentme after Enstatite : Noss, Shetland : Heddle. 

147. Serpentine after Enstatite : Loch Scye. Caithness : Judd, Q.J.G.S., 

xH. 405. 

148. Serpentine after Enstatite : Kirriemuir : Judd, Q.J.G.S., xli. 299. 
149.*Serpentine after Enstatite : Hill of Tombhreac, Aberdeenshire : 

Heddle. 
150.*Serpentine after Enstatite : Green Hill of Strathdon, Aberdeen- 
shire : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 497 ; — Analysed, 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. xlvii 

151.*Serpentine after Enstatite : Balhamie Hill, Ayrshire : Jleddla, Trans. 
Boy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 494 : — Analysed. 

152. Serpentine after Enstatite : Knockdow, Lendalfoot : Heddle, 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxvii. 494. 

153. Serpentine after Enstatite : Byne Hill, Girvan : Heddle, Trans. 

Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 494. 

154. Serpentine after Enstatite (Schiller Spar) : Black Dog Rock, Aber- 

deen : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 500 : — Analysed. 

155. Serpentine after Enstatite (Schiller Spar) ; Belhelvie, Aberdeen- 

shire : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 500. 

(c) After Pyroxene. 
156.*Serpentine after Malacolite : Totag, Loch Duich : Heddle. 
157.*Serpentine after Sahlite : Bally phetrish, Tiree : Heddle, Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 459. 

158. Serpentine after Sahlite : Glenelg : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 

xxviii. 459. 

159. Serpentine after Sahlite : Green Hill of Strathdon : Heddle, Trans. 

Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 497. 

160. Serpentine after Sahlite : Totag, Loch Duich : Heddle, Trans. Roy. 

Soc. Edin., xxviii. 497 : — Analysed. 

161. Serpentine after Diallage : Cross Geo, Unst : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

ii. 22. 

162. Serpentine after Diallage : Swinna Ness, Unst : Heddle, Min. Mag., 

ii. 28. 
163.*Serpentine after Diallage : Bally phetrish, Tiree : Heddle. 
164.*Serpentuie after Diallage : Portsoy : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxviii. 495 : — Analysed. 
165. Serpentine after Augite : Totag, Loch Duich : Heddle, Trans. Roy. 

Soc. Edin., xxviii. 455. 
166.*Serpentine after Augite : Portsoy : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 

xxviii. 493 : — Analysed. 

167. Serpentine after Augite : Loch Bhalumis, Lewis : Heddle, Trans. 

Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 542. 

168. Serpentine after Augite : Rodil, Harris : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxviii. 542. 

169. Serpentine after Augite : Dalnein, Strathdon : Heddle, Trans. Roy. 

Soc. Edin., xxviii. 542. 

170. Serpentuie after Augite : Glen Tilt : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxviii. 542. 
171.*Serpentine after Asbestos : Corriecharmaig, Loch Tay : Heddle, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 534 : — Analysed. 



xlviii SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. 

{d) After Amphibole. 

172. Serpentine after Actinolite : Colla Firth, Shetland : Currie. 

173. Serpentine (PicroHte) after Actinolite : Pundy Geo, Fethaland 

Shetland : Heddle, Min. Mag., ii. 168 :— Analysed. 
174.*Serpentine (Picrolite) after Asbestos : Doos' Geo, Balta, Shetland ; 

Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 530. 
175.*Serpentine after Asbestos : Aith, Fetlar : Heddle. 

The Museum Ticket has " Steatite after Amianthus '' and 
" Steatite after Asbestos," for No. 174 and No. 175 respectively. 

176. Serpentine after Asbestos : Leslie : Heddle, Mhi. Scot., ii, 136. 

177. Serpentine after Asbestos : Leith Hall, Kennethmont, Aberdeen- 

shire : Heddle, Min. Scot., ii. 136. 

(e) After Feldspar. 

178. Serpentine after Labradorite : Portsoy : Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., xxviii. 496 : — Analysed. 

179. Serpentine after Labradorite : Beauty Hill, Aberdeenshire : Heddle, 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. 543 : — Analysed. 

As pointed out by Professor Heddle, the replacing substance in 
this last instance may also be regarded as chemically a massive 
Penninite (Pseudophite), which has been recorded as occurring 
pseudomorphous after Feldspars from other localities. 

(/) After other Minerals. 

180. Serpentine after Chromite : Balta Sound, Unst : Heddle, PhU. Mag., 

xvii. 42 : — o (fig.)- 

181. Serpentine after PectoUte (?) : Aith, Fetlar: Heddle, Min. Mag., 

ii. 129. 

182. Serpentine after WoUastonite : Burn of Boyne : Heddle. 
183.*Siderite after Calcite : Spindle Rock, Fife : Heddle, Shores of Fife, 

33: V. 
Steatite after Analcime, Barytes, Natrolite, and Pectolite : see 
Saponite, Nos. 133 to 136. 

184.*Steatite after Andalusite : Whitehills, Banffshire : Heddle. 
Steatite after Asbestos : see Serpentine, Nos. 174 and 175. 

185.*Steatite after Calcite : Portsoy : Heddle. 

186.*Steatite after Kyanite : Dulnanbridge, Inverness-shire : Heddle. 

187.*Steatite after WoUastonite : Cowhythe, Banffshire : Heddle. 

The name Steatite has been somewhat vaguely used. Sometimes 
the pseudomorphous substance so designated is indubitably Serpen- 
tine : in other instances it is a saponitic mineral. 

188.*Talc after Anthophyllite : Hillswick, Shetland : Heddle. 



SCOTTISH PSEUDOMORPHS. xlix 

189. Talc after Enstatite : Portsoy : Blum, Pseud. 4«« Nachtr., 61. 

190. Tale after Kyanite (?) : Nor Wick, Unst : Heddle, Min. Mag., u 21. 
191.*Talc after Kyanite (?) : OUaberry, Shetland: Heddle, Min. Mag., 

ii. 184. 

As suggested by Prof. Heddle, perhaps Talc after Actinolite. 

192. Talc after Kyanite : Durn Hill, Banffshire : Heddle, Min. Scot., 

ii. 138. 

193. Talc after Tremolite : Cairnie, Aberdeenshire : Heddle, Min. Scot., 

ii. 138. 
194.*Tenorite after Galena : Leadhills : Heddle. 
195.*Turgite after Pyrites : Kerrera : Heddle, Min. Mag., v. 3 : a, a e : — 

Analysed. 

The replacing substance is erroneously called Limnite (a mistake 
for Limonite) in Phil Mag., where the form a e is given. 

196. Turgite after Pyrites : Eilean Fraoch, Kerrera Sound : Heddle, Phil. 

Mag., xvii. 47 : a, a e. 
Limnite in Phil. Mag. 

197. Turgite after Pyrites : Oban (east side of Kerrera Sound) : Heddle, 

Phil. Mag., xvii. 47 : a. 
Hematite in Phil. Mag. 

198. Vanadinite after Calamine : Wanlockhead : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit., 450. 

Given without locality by Greg and Lettsom. As, however, 
Wanlockhead is the only British locality given by them for Vana- 
dinite, the pseudomorph must have occurred there, if it occurred at 
all, which is doubtful. Possibly it is merely an error for the con- 
verse substitution. 

199. Vanadinite after Galena : Wanlockhead : Greg and Lettsom, Min. 

Brit, 410 :—a (Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 47). 
Villarsite after OHvine : see Serpentine, No. 144. 
200.* Wad after Calcite : Leadhills: Heddle, Phil. Mag., xvii. 46: ur 

(fig.)- 
Weissigite after Analcime, &c. : see Albite Nos. 5 and 6. 

201.*Zoisite (Saussurite) after Anorthite : Pinbain, Lendalfoot, Ayr- 
shire : Heddle, Min. Mag., v. 6 : — Analysed. 



INDEX OF SCOTTISH PAL^^OSOMATIC MINERALS. 



ACTINOLITE. Nos. 172, 173. 

Amphibole, 172-177, 193. 

Analcime, 5, 7, 27, 07, 72, 92, 99, 104, 

106, 132, 133. 
Andalusite, 184. 
Andesine, 107. 
Anglesite, 30, 118. 
Anorthite, 201. 
Anthophyllite, 188. 
Apatite, 1. 
Aragonite, 114. 
Asbestos (Amphibole), 114-177. 

„ (Pyroxene), 171. 

Augite, 33, 55, 165-170. 

Barytes, 46, 61, 108, Ho, 119, 134. 

Calamine, 108. 

Calcite, 8, 18, 19, 28, 34, 44, 49-51, 62, 73, 

102, 120, 183, 185, 200. 
Cerussite, 47. 
Chromite, 180. 
Chrysotile, 121. 
Coal, 87. 

DiALLAGE, 161-164. 

Dolomite, 43. 

Enstatite, 145-155, 189. 
Epidote, 53. 

Feldspar, 2-4, 70, 71, 90, 107, 178, 179, 
201. 



Galena, 26, 29, 31, 37, 48, 86, 

122, 194, 199. 
Gamet, 52, 112, 113, 123. 

Heulandite, 9, 97. 

loLiTE, 45, 60, 101. 

Kyanite, 186, 190-192. 

Labradorite, 178, 179. 



116, 



Lanarkite, 38. 

Laumontite, 10-12, 20-22, 94, 109 

Leadhillite, 32, 39, 117. 

Magnetite, 63. 
Malacolite, 129, 156. 
Marcasite, 74, 75. 

Natrolite, 35, 95, 110, 135. 

Oligoclase, 2-4. 
Olivine, 56-58, 64, 137-144. 
Orthoclase, 70, 71, 90. 

Pectolite, 136, 181. 

Picrolite, 85, 

Prehnite, 13-15, 23, 96. 

Psilomelane, 124. 

Pyrites, 65, 66, 69, 76-84, 195, 197. 

Pyromorphite, 40, 59, 103. 

Pyroxene, 33, 55, 129, 156-171. 

Sahlite, 157-160. 

Salt, 130, 131. 

Scapolite, 100. 

Serpentine, 85, 121. 

Sphene, 54, 93, 128. 

Staurolite, 89. 

Stibnite, 41, 42. 

Stilbite, 16, 17, 24, 25, 91, 98, 126-127. 

Talc, 68. 
Thomsonite, 111. 
Tremolite, 193. 

Vanadinite, 30. 

WOLLASTONITE, 182, 187. 

Zeolite, 5-7, 9-12, 16, 17, 20-22, 24, 25, 
27, 35, 67, 72, 91, 92, 94, 95, 97-99, 104- 
106, 109-111, 125-127, 132, 133, 135. 



SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. 



Aberdeenshire. 

Graphite, Molybdenite, Galena, Blende, Pyr^liotite, Chalcopyritos, Pyrites, 
Marcasite, Fluor, Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid ; 6, Massive 
Rock Crystal ; c, Crystallised White and Cairngorm, Amethyst, Pink, Scarlet, 
Dark Red, Salmon Coloured. Yellow, Milk-Quartz, Massive, Rose, Lamellar 
Quartz, Sagenitic Quartz, Iridescent Quartz, Chalcedony, Dendritic Agates, 
Flint, Hornstone, Chert, Dendritic), Sapphire, Hspmatite (var. Specular Iron 
Ore), llmenite, Iserine, Magnetite, Chromite, Rutile, Manganite, J^silomelane, 
Wad, Calcite, (var. Foliated (Schiffer Spar)), Dolomite, Orthoclase, Microcline, 
Graphic Granite, Albite, Oligoclase, Andesine, Labradorite, Anorthite, Latrobit<^, 
Elnstatite (var. Bronzite), Paulit (Hypersthene) (var. Bastite (Schiller S]3ar)), 
Augite (var. Malacolite, Sahlite, Coccolite, Funkite, Augite), Spodumene, Wol- 
lastonite, Amphibole (var. 2, Actinolite ; var. 3, Amianthus (Flexible Asbestos) ; 
var. 4, Asbestos (Rigid Asbestos) ; var. 6, Nephrite ; var. 7, Actinolite and 
Actinolite Slate ; 11., Aluminous (var. 10, Hornblende Proper), Beryl, lolito, 
Garnet (var. 1, Lime-and-Alumina Garnet, Water-Garnet ; var. 2, Grossular ; 
var. 3, Essonite, Cinnaraonstone ; var. 5, Common Garnet), Idocrase, Topaz, 
Andalusite, Fibrolite or Sillimanite, Kyanite or Cyanite, Epidote, Allanite or 
Orthite, Axinite, Prehnite, Tourmaline, Staurolite, Analcime (Cluthalite), Mus- 
covite (var. Margarodite), Agalmatolite, Zinnwaldite, Biotite (var. Haughtonite, 
Lepidom.elane), Penninite ; var. Pseudophite, Chlorite, Serpentine (var. 1, 
Chrysotile ; var. 5, Bastite or Schiller Spar ; var. 7, Common Serpentine), Talc- 
Steatite (var. 1, Foliated Talc ; var. 2, Steatite), Pilolite, Rubislite, Titanite or 
Sphene, Apatite, Barytes. 

Argyllshire. 

Graphite, Silver, Molybdenite, Galena, Blende, Pentlandite, Millerite, Pyrrho- 
tite, Chaloopyrites, Pyrites, Gersdorffite, Marcasite, Bournonite, Fluor, Quartz 
(var. a, Rock Crystal, colourless, pelhicid ; var. c,.White quartz and Cairngorm ; 
var. Amethyst ; var. Yellowish Green, Green ; var. Hacked Quartz ; var. Sag- 
enitic Quartz ; var. Chalcedony ; var. Carnelian ; var. Heliotrope ; var. Agate ; 
var. Chert . var. Basanite-Lydian Stone ; var. Ribbon Jasper), Haematite (var. 
Specvilar Iron Ore), llmenite, Iserine, Magnetite, Rutile, Turgite, Gothite (var. 
2. In acicular Crystals, Needle Ironstone, Fleches d'amour, and Sammeterz), 
Limonite (var. 1, Compact, fibrous), W^ad, Calcite (var. Coloured ; var. Foliated 
(Schiffer Spar ); var. Calc Sinter), Dolomite, Siderite,Strontianite, Malachite, Ortho- 
clase, Microcline, Paulit or Hypersthene, Augite ; (var. Hudsonite ; var. Diallage), 
Pectolite, Amphibole (I., containing little or no i\lumina ; var. 2, Actinoilte ; 
var. 5, Byssolite ; var. (i. Nephrite ; var, 7, Actinolite and Actinolite Slate ; 11., 
Aluminous ; var. 9, Edenite), Garnet (var. 5, Common Garnet ; var. 7, Precious 
Garnet), Topaz, Andalusite, Kyanite or Cyanite, Zoizite, Epidote, Allanite or 
Orthite, Prehnite, Tourmaline, Okenite, Gyrolite, Apophyllite, Heulandite, 
Brewsterite, Harmotome, Stilbite, Laumontite, Chabazite, Analcime (Cluthalite), 
Natrolite (var. Crockalite), Scolecite, Mesolite, Thomsonite (var. Faroelite), 

VOL. I. d 



lii SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. 

Muscovite ; var. Fuchite, Lepidolite, Ripidolite, Penninite, Chlorite, Delessite, 
Talc-Steatite (var. Potstone), Saponite, Pilolite, Titanite or Sphene, Pyromor- 
phite, Barytes, Celestine, Gypsum, Anthracite, Lignite, Mercury doubtful. 

Ayrshire. 

Graphite, Copper, Stibnite, Galena, Chalcocite, Blende, Millerite, Chalcopyrites, 
Kermesite, Fluor, Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid ; var. Ame- 
thyst : var. Flexible Sandstone ; var. Agate ; var. Fortification Agate ; var. 
Onyx Agate ; var. Faulted Agate ; var. Hsemachatse ; var. Stalactitic Agate ; var. 
Moss Agate ; var. Basanite or Lydian Stone, Girasol Opal), Cervantite, Haematite 
(var. Specular Iron Ore ; var. Red Haematite), Chromite, Limonite (var. 2, 
Ocherous or earthly : var. 3, Brown Clay Ironstone), Wad, Calcite (var. Foliated 
(Schiffer Spar)), Dolomite, Albite (var. Perthite), Labradorite, Arorthite, 
Enstatite (var. Bronzite, Paulit or Hypersthene (var. BasLite or Schiller Spar), 
Pyroxene (var. Augitic Glass ; var. Diallage), Pectolite, Amphibole fvar. 
Hydrous Anthrophyllite), Riebeckite, Prehnite, Stilbite, Chabazite, Analcime or 
Cluthalite, Natrolite (var. Crockalite), Biotite, Chlorite, Serpentine (var. 5, 
Bastite or (Schiller Spar)) ; var. 7, Common Serpentine, Saponite, Celadonite, 
(jlauconite, Kaolin, Chonicrite, Vivianite, Barytes, Gypsum, Ozocerite, Anthra- 
cite. 

Banffshire. 

Graphite, Stibnite, Pyrrhotite, Pyrites, Fluor, Quartz (var. c. Crystallised 
White Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. Milk Quartz Massive ; var. Pink ; var. 
Black ; var. Leek-Green, Prase ; var. Fibrous Quartz ; var. Sagenitic Quartz ; 
var. Aventurine ; var. Iron Flint ; var. Onyx ; var. Chert ; var. Jasper, Fer- 
iniginous), Ilmenite, Iserine, Magnetite, Chromite, Rutile, Pyrolusite, Limonite 
(var. Ocherous or earthly), Psilomelane, Calcite, Aragonite, Hydromagnesite, 
Orthoclase, Microcline, Graphic Granite, Andesine, Ijabradorite, Enstatite (var. 
Bronzite), Paulit or Hypersthene (var, Bastite or Schiller Spar), Pyroxene (var. 
Funkite ; var. Augite ; var. Diallage), Wollastonite, Babingtonite, Amphibole 
(L, containing little or no Alunima ; var. 4, Rigid Asbestos ; var. (3, Nephrite ; 
var. 7, Actinolite and Actinolite Slate ; II., Aluminous ; var. 9, Edenite). Beryl, 
Garnet ^var. 3, Essonite, Cinnamon Stone ; var. 5, Common Garnet), Idocrase, 
Topaz, Andalusite, Fibrolite or Sillimanite, Kyanite or Cyanite, Epidote, Allanite 
or Orthite, Tourmaline, Staurolite, Muscovite (var. Margaroclite), Biotite (var. 
Haughtonite), Chlorite, Serpentine (var. 1, Chrysotile ; var. 2, Picrolite ; var. 
3 and 4, Precious ; var. 5, Bastite or Schiller Spar ; var. 7, Common ; var. Ser- 
pentine Marbles), Talc-Steatite (var. 1, Foliated Talc ; var. 2, Steatite), Pilolite, 
Titanite or Sphene, Apatite, Barytes, Celestine. 

Berwickshire. 

Galena, Chalcocite, Chalcopyrite, Tetrahedrite, Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, 
colourless, pellucid ; var. Amethyst ; var. Jasper, Dendritic), Haematite (var. 
Red Haematite), Limonite (var. 3, Brown Clay Ironstone), Dolomite, Malachite, 
Amphibole (I., containing little or no Alumina ; var. 3, Amianthus (Flexible 
Asbestos)) ; IL, Aluminous ; var. 10, Hornblende Proper, Kaolin (var, Tuesite), 
Barytes, Gypsum, Ap. Mercury doubtful. 

Bute and Arran. 

Quartz (var. c. White Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. Amethyst ; var. Yellowish 
Green, Green), Hajmatite (var. Specular Iron Ore, Martite), Magnetite, Calcite 
(var. Coloured), Dolomite (var. Magnesian Marbles), Siderite, Malachite, Micro- 
cline, Albite, Labradorite, Wollastonite, Beryl, Chrysolite or OJivin?, Topaz, 
Epidote, Prehnite, Heulandite, Stilbite, Natrolite, Muscovite, Chlorite, Barytes. 

Caithness-shire. 

Galena, Blende, Marcasite, Fluor, I'silomelane, Calcite, Pyroxene ; var. 
Augitic Glass, Muscovite, Biotite, Titanite or Sphene, Barytes, Petroleum. 



SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. liii 

Cl.ArKMANNANSHIRE. 

Pectolite, Erythrite, AnnaLergite. 

l^UMBARTONSHIRE. 

Blendf, Greonookite, Fluor, Quartz (var. Zoolitic ; var. Iroi\ Flint ; var. AgatP, 
Dendritic), Hrematile (var. Red Haematite), Gothite (var. 1, thin scale -like Cry- 
stals, tabular), Psilomelano, Caloite, Dolomite, Orthoclase, (var. Erythrito), Albite 
(var. Porthit«), Labradorito, Prehnit-e, Apophyllitts Heulandite, Harmotome, 
Stilbite, Laurnoiitite, Chabazite, Anaieime or Cluthalite, Edina;tonito, Natrolite 
(var. Fargito), Mosolite, Thomsonite, Delessito, Saponico, Rarytes, (iypsum, 
Asphalturn. 

Dumfriesshire. 

Stibnite, Galena, Blonde, Ninkolitc, Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Fluor, Quartz 
(Yellow, Hacked Quartz, Sagenitic Quartz, Chalcedony), Valentinite, Cervantite, 
Cuprite, Melaconite, Haematite (var. Red Haematite), Plattnerite, Pyrolusite, 
Limonite, Caleite, Plumbo-Calcite, Dolomite, Magnesite, Smithsonite, Cerussite, 
Azurite, Pyromorphite, Mimetite, Vanadinite, Dechenite, Descloizit«, Rarytes, 
Anglesite, Vauquelinite, Leadliillite, Caledonite, Linarite, (Jypsum, Anthracite. 

Edinburghshire (Midlothian). 

Graphite, Copper, Galena, Blende, Chalcopyrite, Pyrites, Halite, Quartz (var. 
r. Crystallised White Quartz and Cairngorm, Amethyst, Agate, Haemachata?, 
Hornstone, Basanite or Lydian Stone, Jasper, Ferruginous, Dendritic, Ribbon), 
Jserine, Magnetite, Gothite (var. .3, Onegite, acicular ; var. 5, Columnar or 
fibrous), Caleite (var. Pulverulent or Rock Milk ; var. Stalactites), Dolomite, 
Aragonite (var. Satin Spar), Orthoclase (var. Sanidine), Albite, Labradorite, 
Pyroxene (var. Augite ; var. Hudsonite), Wollastonite, Pectolite, Chrysolite, 
or Olivine, Datholite, Epidote, Prehnite, Apophyllite, Phillipsite, Anaieime or 
Cluthalite, Natrolite, Saponite, Glauconite, Apatite, Vivianite, Bartyes, Celestine, 
Gypsum, Ozocerite, Naphtha, Petroleum, Asphaltum, Elaterite, Albertite, An 
thracite. Lignite, Jet. 

Elginshire. 

Galena, Chalcopyrite, Pyrites, Mispickel, Fluor, Quartz (var. Carnelian ; var. 
Flint, Haematite ; var. Earthy), Caleite, Cerussite, Phosgenite, Microcline, Lab- 
radorite, Muscovite, Glauconite, Halloysite, Titanite or Sphene, Pyromorphite, 
Barytes, Celestine, Gypsum. 

Fiteshire. 

Galena, Millerite, Pyrrhotite, Chalcopyrite, Pyrites, Marcasite, Salmiac Fluor, 
Quartz (var. c. Crystallised White and Cairngorm, Amethyst, Salmon-coloured, 
Brown Red, Chalcedony, Carnelian, Cachalong, Plasma, Agate, Onyx Agates, 
Eyed Agates, Pseudo-favilted, Haemachatae, Discoid Agates, Ovoidal Agates, 
Stalactitic Agates, INIoss Agates, Dendritic Agates, Mochas, Hornstone, Chert, 
Basanite or Lydian Stone ; Jasper, Ferruginous, Dentritic, Porcelain), Haematite 
(var. Red Haematite), Iserine, Gothite (var.l, thin scale-like Crystals, tubular ; 
var. 2, in acicular Crystals, Needle Ironstone, Fleches d'amour). Wad, Caleite 
(var. Caleite, Coloured ; var. Caleite, fibrous ; var. Caleite Stalactites ; var. Calc. 
Sinter), Dolomite, Aragonite (var. Satin Spar), Orthoclase (var. Sanidine), Lab- 
radorite, Augite (var. Augitic Glass), Pectolite, Amphibole (IT., Aluminous ; var. 
10, Hornblende Proper), Garnet (var. 4, Pyrope), Chrysolite or Olivine, Datholite, 
Prehnite, Apophyllite, Heulandite, Anaieime or Cluthalite, Natrolite (var. 
Fargite), Seoleeite, Biotite, Delessite, Chlorophnpite (var. HuHite), Talc-Steatite 
[vnr. 2, Steatite], Saponite, Celadonite, Pilolite, Barytes, Celestine, Amber or 
Succinite, Guyaquillite, Petroleum, Elaterite, Anthracite. 



liv SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. 

Forfarshire. 

Galena, Quartz (var. e, Chrystallised White and Cairngorm ; var. Amethyst ; 
var. Scarlet ; var. Red ; var. Dark Red ; var. Zeolibic Quartz ; var. Sard ; var. 
Cachalong ; var. Plasma ; var. Agates, Fortification Agates, Onyx Agates, Eyed 
Agates, Faulted Agates, Brecciated Agates, Hsemachatse, Discoid Agates, Ovoidal 
Agates, Potted Head Agates, Stalactitic Agates, Dendritic Agates, Mochas), 
Ilmenite, Magnetite, Gothite (var. 3, Onegite acicular), Calcite (var. Pellucid 
" Iceland Spar "), Dolomite, Aragonite (var. Satin Spar), Labradorite, Enstatite 
(var. Bronzite), Augite (var. Malacolite), Amphibole (var. Asbestos (Rigid 
Asbestos)), Tourmaline, Stilbite, Analcime or Cluthalite, Natrolite (var. Crocka- 
lite), Muscovite, Serpentine (var. 7), Common Talc-Steatite (var. 1, Foliated Talc), 
Saponite, Celadonite, Pilolite, Barytes, Gypsum. 

Haddingtonshire. 

Chalcocite, Tetrahedrite, Quartz (var. Amethyst ; var. Aventurine, Chal- 
cedony, Carnelian, Agate, Dendritic Agates, Jasp-Agatos, Hornstone, Dendritic), 
Gothite (var. 3, Onegite, acicular ; var. 5, Columiiar or fibrous), Psilomelane, 
Calcite, Siderite, Chrysolite or Olivine, Analcime or Cluthalite, Natrolite, Mus- 
covite, Talc-Steatite (var. 2, Steatite), Saponite, Celestine, Asphaltum. 

Hebrides. 

Graphite, Iron, Galena, Pyrrhotite, Pyrites, Quartz (a. Rock Crystal, colourless, 
pellucid, b. Massive Rock Crystal, c. Crystallised White Quartz and Cairngorm, 
Zeolitic Quartz, Massive Quartz, Snow-white, Milk Quartz, Massive, Blue, Pink, 
Rose, Yellowish Green, Green, Yellow, Chalcedony, Cachalong, Onyx, Plasma, 
Heliotrope, Hornstone, Basanite-Lydian Stone, Girasol Opal), Ilmenite, Iserine, 
Magnetite, Chromite, Pyrolusite, Limonite (var. 1, Compact fibrous ; var. 2, 
Ocherous or earthy), Psilomelane, Calcite (var. Coloured ; var. Fibrous), Dolo- 
mite, Malachite, Orthoclase (var. Sanidine), Microline, Graphic Granite, Albite, 
Oligoclase, Labradorite, Enstatite, Augite (var. Malacolite ; var. Sahlite ; var. 
Coccolite ; var. Augite ; var. Diallagic Augite ; var. Hudsonite), Wollastonite, 
Amphibole (I., containing little or no Alumina ; var. 1, Tremolite ; var. 2, 
Actinolite ; var. 4, Asbestos, Rigid Asbestos ; var. G, Nephrite ; var. 7, Actinolite 
and Actinolite Slate, II., Aluminous; var. 11, Hornblende Slate), Riebeckite, 
Beryl, Nepheline, Garnet (var. 5, Common Garnet ; var. 6, Almandite), Chryso- 
lite or Olivine, Scapolite, Idocrase, Kyanite or Cyanite, Epidote, Allanite or 
Orthite, Tourmaline, Gyrolite, Apophyllite (var. Xonalitite ; var. Tobermorite), 
Epistilbite, Stilbite, Gmelinite, Levyne, Analcime or Cluthalite, Muscovite Biotite 
(var. Haughtonite, Lepidomelane), Penninite, Chlorite, Chlorophoeite, Serpentine 
(var. 3, 4, Precious Serpentine ; var. 7, Common ; var. Serpentine Marbles), 
Talc-Steatite (var. 2, Steatite ; var. Potstone), Saponite, Celadonite, Kaolin (var. 
Fuller's Earth), Pilolite, Titanite or Spliene, Apatite, Gypsum, Wolframite (Dana), 
Naphtha, Petrolium, Lignite. 

Inverness-shire. 

Graphite, Silver, Copper, Stibnite, Molybdenite, Galena, Chalcocite, Pyrrhotite, 
Pyrites, Mispickel, Tetrahedrite, Quartz (var. a, Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid; 
var. b. Massive Rock Crystal ; var. c, Crystallised White Quartz and Cairngorm ; 
var. Amethyst ; var. Red ; var. Snow-white ; var. Milk Quartzic, Massive ; 
var. Leek -green. Prase, Quartz ; var. Sagenitic Quartz ; var. Aventurine ; var. 
Massive Grooved ; var. Hornstone ; var. Chert), Haematite (var. Specular Iron 
Ore), Ilmenite, Wad, Calcite (var. Stalactites), Orthoclase, MicrocUne, Graphic 
Granite, Oligoclase, Andesine, Labradorite, Augite (var. Funkite ; var. Augite ; 
var. Diallage Augite ; var. Diallage), Wollastonite, Pectolite, Amphibloe (I., 
containing little or no Alumina ; var. 2, Actinolite ; var. 3, Amianthus, Flexible 
Asbestus ; var. 5, Byssolite ; II., Aluminous ; var. 8, Actinolitic Hornblende; 
var. 9, Edenite ; var. 11, Hornblende Slate; var. Hydrous Anthophyllite), 
Abriachanite or Crocodilite, Garnet (var. Essonite (Cinnamon Stone) var. 5, 
Common Garnet ; var. (5, Almandite), Scapolite, Kyanite or Cyanite, Zoizite, 



SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. Iv 

Epidote, Allanite or Orthite, Prehuite, Staurolite fvar, " Xantliolite,") Gyrolite, 
Apophyllite, Heulaiulite, 8tilbito, Laumontite, Chabazito, Aiialcime or Cluthalito, 
Natrolite, Seolocito (8kye), Mesolite (Skye, &c'.), Tlioinsotiite (Skye) ; var. 
Faroelite (Skye, Kig^), Muscovite (var. Red Mica), Apilinatolite, Biotite ^var. 
Hauglitonite, Lepidoinelane), Chlorite, Ser{)entiiie (var, 'i. 4, Precious Serjjeiitine ; 
var. 7, Common ; var. Serpentine MarViles), Balvraidit<?, Titanite or Sphene 
Apatite, Celestine. 

KlNCARDTNSHIRE. 

Mispickel, Quartz (var. b. Massive Rock Crystal ; var. c. Crystallised Whito 
Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. Ametliyst • var. Zeolitic Quartz ; var. HeliotroiM* : 
var. Agates ; var. Onyx Agates ; var. Eyed Agates : var. Jasper, Ferruginous, 
Girasol Opal), Magnetite, Limonite (var. 2, Oeherous or eartliy;, Calcite, Ortho- 
clase, Miorocline, Craphic Granite, Beryl, Kyanitc or Cyanite, H]pidote, Prehnito, 
Tourmaline, Heulandite, Stilf)ite. Laumontite, Analcime or Cluthalite, Natrolite, 
Muscovite (var. Margarodite), Biotite (var. Hauglitonite), Chlorite, Delessite, 
Saponite, Celadonite, Pilolite, Apatite. 

Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Graphite, Arsenic, Molybdenite, Galena, Blende, Nickelite, Pyrrhotit<^, Chalco- 
pyrites, Pyrites, Mispickel, Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, |)ellucid ; 
var. Amethyst ; var. Hornstone), Cuprite, Melaconite, HaMnatile (var. Specular 
Iron Ore : var. Red Hjematite), Rmenite, Gothite (var. 1, Thin scale-like Crystals 
tabular), Manganite, Psilomelane, Calcite, Dolomite, Siderite, Aragonite, Mala- 
chite, Azurite, Microcline, Graphic Granite, Amphibole (I., containing little or no 
Alumina ; var. 2, Actinolite ; II., Aluminous ; var. 10, Hornblende Proper), 
Garnet (var. o. Common Garnet), Andalusite, Epidote, Allanite or Orthite, Tour- 
maline, Kaolin (vnr. Lithomarge), Titanite or Sphene, Pyromorphite, Barytes, 
Linarite, Wulfenite, Asplmltum, Anthracite, Platinum (?). 

Lanarkshire. 

Gold, Iron, Galena, Blende, Millerite, Nickelite, Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Quartz 
(var. c, White Quai'tz and Cairngorm ; var. Chalcedony ; var. Hornstone ; var. 
Chert ; var. Basanite or Lydian Stone), Melaconite, Haematite (var. Red Haem- 
atite ; var. Earthy), Plattnerite, Limonite (var. 1, Compact fibrous ; var. 3, 
Brown Clay Ironstone, Limnite), Psilomelane, Wad, Calcite (var. Fibrous), Dolo- 
mite, Siderite, Aragonite, Cerussite, Malachite, Aurichalcite, Hydrocerussite, 
Idocrase, Stilbite, Laumontite, Analcime or Cluthalite, Mesolite, Saponite, Kaolin, 
Chrysocolla, Pilolite, Pyromorphite, Mimetite, Vanadinite, Barytes, Anglesite, 
Vanquelinite, Leadhillite (var, Susannite), Lanarkite, Caledonite, Linarite, 
Gypsum, Eosite (?). 

Linlithgowshire. 

Arsenic, Silver, Galena, Blende, Nickelite, Chalcopyrite, Smaltine, Quartz (var. 
Hornstone), Haematite (var. Earthy), Iserine, Magnetite, Calcite, Dolomite, 
Orthoclase (var. Sanidine), Labradorite, Prehnite, Analcime or Cluthalite, 
Barytes, Ozocerite, Bathvillite, Torbanite, Middletonit<^, Guyaquillite, Naphtha, 
Elaterite, Anthracite. 

Nairnshire, 

Pyrites, Calcite. 

Orkney. 

Copper, Galena, Blende, Marcasite, Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, 
pellucid ; var. Ba})el Quartz, or rather Babel Coirngorm ; var. .Aventurine ; var. 
Iron Flint ; var, Basanite or Lydian Stone ; var. Jasper Dendritic), Haimatito 



Ivi SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. 

(var. Red Haematite ; var. Earthy), Iserine, Gothite (var. 2, In acicular Crystals, 
Needle Ironstone, Fleches d'amour, Sammet ; var, o. Columnar or fibrous), 
Limonite (var. 1, Compact fibrous), Psilomelane, Wad, Calcite, (var. Coloured ; 
(var. Stalactites, Dolomite, Aragonite (var. Satin Spar), Malachite, Azurite, 
Orthoclase, Microcline, Augite, Garnet (var. 5, Common Garnet), Heulandite, 
Analcime or Cluthalite, Celadonite, Titanite or Sphene, in Syenite, Apatite, 
Barytes, Naphtha, Petroleum, Albertite, Cloustonite, Lignite, Peat Jet. 



Peeblesshire. 

Galena, Chalcopyrite, Quartz (var. c. Crystallised White Quartz and Cairngorm ; 
var. Agate ; var. Fortification Agates ; var. Brecciated Agates ; var. Basanite or 
Lydian Stone ; var. Jasper, Ribbon), Wad. 

Perthshibe. 

Graphite, Arsenic, Gold, Silver, Copper, Stibnite, Molybdenite, Galena, Chal- 
cocite. Blende, Pyrrhotite, Bornite, Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Mispickel, Tetra- 
hedrite, Fluor, Quartz (var. c. Crystallised White Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. 
Pink ; var. Zeolitic Quartz ; var. Snow-white ; var. Yellowish -green. Green ; 
var. Yellow, var. Leek -Green, Prase ; var. Sagenitic Quartz ; var. Aventurine ; 
var. Heliotrope ; var. Agate ; var. Fortification Agates ; var. Eyed Agates ; 
var. Discoid Agates ; var, Ovoidal Agates ; var, Stalactitic Agates ; var. Hornstone; 
var. Basanite or Lydian Stone ; Girasol Opal), Haematite (var. Red Haematite), 
Ilmenite, Chromite, Rutile, Gothite (var. 3, Onegite acicular ; var. 5, Columnar or 
fibrous), Limonite (var, 3, Browm Clay Ironstone), Brucite, Calcite (var. Coloured; 
var. Foliated (Schiffer Spar) ; var. Pulverulent, Rock Milk), Dolomite, Siderite, 
Aragonite (Satin Spar), Cerussite, Malachite, Azvirite, Microcline, Albite, Augite 
(var. Sahlite), Amphibole (I., containing little or no Alumina ; var. 1, Tremolite ; 
var, 2, A<;tinolite ; var. 4, Asbestus ; II,, Aluminous ; var, 9, Edenite ; 
var, 10, Hornblende Proper), Beryl, Garnet (var, 5, Common Garnet), Andalusite, 
Kyanite or Cyanite, Datholite, Epidote, Prehnite, Tourmaline, Heulandite, Stil- 
bite, Laumontite, Chabazite, Analcime or Cluthalite, Natrolite (var, Fargite), 
Muscovite (var, Margarodite), Biotite, Ripidolite, Penninite, Chlorite, Serpentine 
(var. 2, Picrolite ; var. 7, Common ; var. Serpentine Marbles), Talc-Steatite (var. 
1, Foliated Talc ; var. 2, Steatite ; var. Potstone), Saponite, Celadonite, Titanite 
or Sphene, Apatite, Barytes. 



Renfrewshire. 

Copper, Greenockite, Millerite, Bornite, Salmiac, Fluor, Quartz (var, c, Cry- 
stallised White Quartz and Cairngorm ; var, Zeolitic Quartz ; var. Chert), Haem- 
atite (var. Specular Iron Ore), Gothite (var, 1, thin scale-like Crystals, tabular ; 
var, 2, In acicular crystals. Needle Ironstone, Flechef d'amour, Sammet ; var, 5, 
Columnar or fibrous). Wad, Calcite (var. Pellucid, " Iceland Spar ; " var. 
Coloured), Dolomite, Aragonite, Malachite, Orthoclase (var, Erythrite), Albite 
(var, Perthite), Pectolite, Chrysolite or Olivine, Datholite, Prehnite, Heulandite, 
Phillipsite, Stilbite, Laumontite, Chabazite, Analcime or Cluthalite, Natrolite, 
Mesolite, Thomsonite, Delessite, Saponite, Celadonite, Barytes, Gypsum, 
Epsomite, Melanterite, Alum, Asphaltum, 

Ross-shire and Cromarty. 

Graphite, Molybdenite, Galena, Pyrrhotite, Bornite, Pyrites, Fluor, Quartz 
(var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid ; var, c, Crystallised White Quartz and 
Cairngorm ; var. Amethyst ; var. Massive Quartz, Snow-white ; var. Purple ; 
var. Leek-green, Prase ; var. Sagenitic Quartz ; var. Fetid Quartz), Haematite 
(var. Specular Iron Ore), Magnetite, Rutile, Psilomelane, Calcite, Malachite, 
Orthoclase, Microcline, Albite (var, Perthite), Augite, Amianthiform (var, Mala- 
colite ; var. Sahlite ; var Coccolite ; var. Funkite), Amphibole (II., Aluminous ; 
var. 11, Hornblende Slate), Beryl, Garnet (var. Easonite^or Cinnamon Stone ; 



SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. Ivii 

var. 5, Common Garnet ; var. 7, Precious Garnet), Zoizite, Epidote, Allanito or 
Orthite, Tourmaline, Stilbite, Analcimo or Cluthalite, Mesolite, Muscovite, 
Agalmatolite, Biotite (var. Lepidomelane), Serpentine (var. Seri>entine Marbles), 
Titanite or Sphene, Apatite, Fichtelite (Dana), Albertite, Anthracite. 



KOXBUROHSHIRE. 

Quartz (var. Leek-green, Prase ; var. Carnelian ; var. Agate ; var. Moss 
Agates ; var. Chert ; var. Jasper-Dendritic ; var. Jasper Ribbon), hi-diiuatiUi 
(var. Specular Iron Ore ; var. Red Haematite), Limonite (var. 3, Firown Clay 
Ironstone), Calcite, Dolomite, Orthoclase (var. Sanidine), Labradorite, Amphibole 
XL, Aluminous ; var. 10, Hornblende Proper), Chrysolite or Olivine, Barytes, 
Gypsum, Anthracite. 



Shetland. 

Graphite, Copper, Iron, Chalcocite, Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Tetrahedrite, Fluor 
Quartz (var. a, Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid ; var. c. Crystallised White 
Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. Amethyst ; var. Purple ; var. Purple-pink ; var. 
Pink ; var. Rose ; var. Agate), Haematite (var. Elba Iron Ore ; var. Specular 
Jron Ore ; var. Red Haematite), Ilmenite, Magnetite, Chromiferous Magnetite, 
Chromite, Rutile, Gothite (var. 4, Feathery Columnar to scaly fibrous ; var. 5, 
Columnar or fibrous), Limonite (var. 3, Brown Clay Ironstone), Brucite, Igel- 
stromite, Psilomelane, Wad, Calcite, Dolomite, Ankerite, Magnesite (var. Brun- 
nerite), Siderite (var. Sideroplesite), Aragonite, Malachite, Azurite, Hydromag- 
nesite, Hibbertite, Zaratite, Orthoclase, Microcline,Albite, Labradorite, Anorthite, 
Enstatite (var. Bronzite), Augite (var. Sahlite ; var. Funkite ; var. Diallage), 
Anthophillite, Amphibole (I., containing little or no Alumina ; var. 1, Tremolite ; 
var. 2, Actinolite ; var. 3, Amianthus (Flexible Asbestos) ; var. 4, Asbestos 
(Rigid Asbestos) ; var. 0, Nephrite ; var. 7, Actinohte and Actinolite Slate, II., 
Aluminous ; var. 10, Hornblende Proper ; var. 11, Hornblende Slate), lolite. 
Garnet (var. 5, Common Garnet), Kyanite or Cyanite, Epidote, Prehnite, Tour- 
maline, Staurolite, Heulandltc, Muscovite (var. Margarodite), Biotite (var, 
Haughtonite, Lepidomelane), Chloritoid, Ripidolite, Penninite, Chlorite, Ser- 
pentine (var. 1, Chrysotile ; var. 2, Picrolite ; var. 3, 4, Precious Serpentine ; 
var. 0, Williamsonite ; var. 7, Common Serpentine), Talc-Steatite (var. 1, 
Foliated Talc : var. Nemalite or fibrous Talc ; var. 2), Steatite (var. Potstone), 
Saponite, Kaolin (var. Nacrite), Pilolite, Titanite or Sphene, Apatite, Barytes, 
Xanthosiderite (?). 



Stirlingshire. 

Bismuth, Silver, Copper, Stibnite ? Argentite, Galena, Chalcocite, Nickelite, 
Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Smaltine, Mispickel, Tetrahedrite, Quartz (var. Amethyst; 
var. Zeolitic Quartz ; var. Agate ; var. Jasper, Dendritic), Chromite, Gcithite 
(var. 2, in acicular Crystals, Needle, Ironstone, Fleches d'amour, Sammet) , Wad, 
Calcite, Malachite, Labradorite, Enstatite (var. Bronzite, Pectolite), Chrysolite 
(var. 2, n ac cular Crystals, Needle, Ironstone, Fleches d'amour, Sammet), Wad, 
or Olivine, Epidote, Prehnite, Apophyllite, Heulandite, Harmotome, Stilbite, 
Laumontite, Chabazite, Analcirae or Cluthalite, Natrolite, Thomsonitc, Talc- 
Steatite (var. 2, Steatite), Titanite or Sphene, Barytes, Gypsum, Aliun, Anthra- 
cite. 



Sutherland. 

Gold, Electrum, Iron Molybdenite, Pyrrhotite, Chalcopyrites, Pyrites, Fluor, 
Quartz (var. a. Rock Crystal, colourless, pellucid ; var. c. Crystallised White 
Quartz and Cairngorm ; var. Aventurine ; var. Jasp-Agates ; var. Flint ; var. 
Chert ; var. Jasper Dendritic), Haematite (var. Specular Iron Ore ; var. Earthy), 
Ilmenite, Iserine, Magnetite, Rutile, Pyrolusite, Gothite (var. 3, Onegite, acicular; 
var. 5, Cplumnar or fibrous), Psilomelane, Calcite, Dolomite (var. Dolomite 



Iviii SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES. 

Magnesian Marbles), Strontianite, Azurite, Orthoclase, Microcline, Graphic 
Granite, Albite (var. Radiated Cleavelandite), Oligoclase, Andesine, Anorthite, 
Augite (var. Amianthiform, Malacolite ; var. Sahlite ; var. Funkite), Babing- 
tonite, Amphibole (I., containing little or no Alumina ; var. 1, Tremolite ; var. 
2, Actinolite ; var. 7, Actinolite and Actiaolite Slate, II., Alurainovis ; var. 8, 
Actinolitic Hornblende ; var. 11, Hornblende Slate, Hydrous Anthrophyllite) , 
Garnet (var. 5, Common Garnet ; var. 6, Almandite), Scapolite, Topaz, An- 
dalusite, Epidote, Allanite or Orthite, Tourmaliiie, Muscovite (var. Margarodite ; 
var. Sericitic Mica, Agalmatolite, Biotite (var. Haughtonite, Lepidomelane), 
Ripidolite, Chlorite, Serpentine (var. Serpentine Marbles), Talc-Steatito (var. 1, 
Foliated Talc ; var. 2, Steatite), Kaolin, Bhreckite or Vreckite, Titanite or Sphene, 
Apatite, Barytes, Lignite. 

WlGTONSHlEE. 

Molybdenite, Galena, Anthracite, Lignite ; var. Peat Jet. 



THE 



MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Class T. NATIVE ELEMENTS. 



Sub-Class I. NON-METALS. 



{Note. — The number preceding the nmne of the Mineral species is that of its place 
in the list oj Scottish Minerals ; the number enclosed in parentheses following the name 
is that adopted for the Mineral species by Dana, in the Qth Edition of his System of 
Mineralogy. Miller^ s s>/mbols are taken from Phillips' Mineralogy, edition of 1852 ; 
and those of Bravais are from GoldschmidV s Index der Crystal If ormen der Mineralien.) 

1. Graphite (2). C. 

Rhombohodral, with rhombohedral faces with angle 85° 29' ; or, 
doubtfully, monoclinic. Generally in curved scaly crystals, or fine- 
granular to compact. Civ., basal. Lustre metallic. Colour black to 
dark steel-grey ; streak black and shining. Very sectile. Flexible in 
thin laminae. Feels greasy. Leaves a mark of its own colour on paper ; 
conducts electricity. Powder adherent and coherent, and so may be 
used for burnishing. Opaque. H=0-5 to 1 ; S.G. 1-8 to 2-3. 

B.B. Per se burns with difficulty. With reagents infusible also, 
but deflagrates with nitre. Insoluble in acids when pure ; when the 
sample is impure, these acids dissolve out certain of the impurities. Comp., 
carbon, sometimes with traces of volatile matters, and, generally, with 
ash — silica, alumina, and iron oxide — from 5 to 40 ]ier cent. 

Occurs in granite, gneiss, mica schist, crystalline limestone, and 
igneous rocks. Not yet found in Scotland in granite. 





C. 


Ash. 


Loss at 
Red Heat 


Loss at 
212° 




1. Strath Farrar, S.G. 2-416 - 

2. Killiemore, Mull, 2-17 

3. Rothiemay, ..... 

4. Bodieba, Cabrach, ... 

5. Craigman, Marchburn (columnar), 1-84, 


75- 
83-56 

65-88 
45-39 

82-82 


20-93 
14-93 
38-12 
40-30 
12-86 


4-07 
-96 
3-80 
5-51 
2-46 




-55 
220 
8-8 
1-86 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



2 NATIVE ELEMENTS. 

The Cabrach Graphite was more completely analysed and yielded : — 

Carbon, 45-39 

Silicia, - - - - - 15* 

Alumina, - - - - - 5*308 

Ferric oxide, .... 2*529 

Ferrous oxide, - - - - 3' 85 

Manganous oxide, - - - 2' 769 

Lime, 2*461 

Magnesia, ----- 8*384 

Volatile at Red heat, - - - 5*509 

„ 212°, - - - 8*8. 

100000 

R-oss-SHiRE. In Strath Farrar, about 22 miles above Beauly, in 
north-east and south-west nearly vertical veins, which widen into irregular 
masses, in brown mica gneiss, with dip of 25°, on the north side of the 
River Beauly — scaly, foliated, and compact. In 1818 five tons were 
extracted, which sold for £93 each ; the cost of raising was £13 per ton. 
It is associated here with felspar, quartz, mica, and garnet. The rock 
near the old workings now shows only scales of Graphite taking the jilace 
of mica — Anal. 1. At f Toulassie, 11 miles north of Mam Soul. One 
mile above Eskadale, on the south side of the River Beauly ; on the 
south side of the river in strings and lumps. One, of a cubic foot, lay 
long at the hall-door of Beauly Castle. " In Strath Conan." 

Inverness-shire. In a vein about 1 mile from the Caledonian Canal, 
near the top of a rocky ravine, about 1100 feet from the water level near 
the head of Loch Lochy on its south-east side. The ravine is on the 
west side of Leacann Doire Bannear. The vein, which is in rotting 
schist, was about 3 feet wide. About two tons were raised in 1825. 
In Glen Urquhart, in the upper quarry of crystalline limestone, in small 
lumps of fine quality, but rarely. " In limestone above Keppoch." 

Mull. Near Pennycross (Earl Compton, 1821), in the estate of 
Killiemore, 2 miles from the head of Loch Scridain ; found near the 
surface, in massive granular lumps — Anal. 2. 

Aberdeenshire. Near Huntly, old mines immediately below the 
bridge over the Deveron, on its south bank, and at its junction with the 
Bogie. " In a ravine near the manse of Strath Don." Immediately 
north of Rothiemay Station, in small scaly lumps in a rotting trap — 
Anal. 3. In the Cabrach, 300 yards below the farm of Bodiebae, near 
the water side, in a vertical vein a few inches thick, scaly, soft, and much 
resembling Rubinglimmer until rubbed — Anal. 4 and 6. 

Banffshire. Was mined formerly immediately to the west and 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 3 

south of the groat Saussurito bed at Portsoy. It was here massive. 
It also occurs near John Legg's Well there, and at Cairney, Drumdelgie, 
and Broadland. 

Ayrshire. At Stair, on the lands of Dalmore, with antimony and 
copper. At Marchburn, between Dalmellington and Cumnock, in the 
Craigman coal-mine. It is compact, scaly, and columnar (Anal. 5), 
6 feet below trap, occurring along with cherry coal. In the banks of the 
Ayr river, of a coarse quality, about 8 miles east of Ayr, near the locality 
whence the Water of Ayr hones are obtained. At Taiglum, in the bed 
of the Ayr. At Hurlford, 2 miles from Kilmarnock. 

Kirkcudbright. At Palnure, near Cairnsmore, Newton Stewart, 
with Mispickel. 

Scale crystals of Graphite imbedded in crystalline limestone, and 
associated with " primitive " limestone minerals, occur at Glen Elg, 
Inverness-shire (Jameson) ; in Aberdeenshire, at Muir and Midstrath, 
Aboyne, with Sahlite, Malacolite, and Sphene ; at Eslie, 4 miles west of 
Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, with Sahlite, Pyrrhotite, Apatite, Sphene, 
and Margarodite ; at Corntulloch, near Loch Kinord, Aberdeenshire, 
with Pyrrhotite, Malacolite, and WoUastonite. 

Replacing mica in schistose rocks, Graphite occurs in Shetland, in 
Fetlar, at the Black Geo, Trista Voe. The bed of the rock is vertical, 
and it is finely plicated. It has a highly metalline lustre. It contains 
also Muscovite and Pyrite. The analysis of its mass is No. 1, and of the 
most highly graphitic portions, No. 2, p. 4. Dr. Fleming erroneously 
thought it alum shale. This bed can be traced, still vertical, through 
Uyea Island, and entering the shore of Unst, on the north side of the 
Uyea Sound. 

Ross -SHIRE. " In a rock at the roadside half-way up the steep road 
from Rosemarkie to Cromarty Road." 

Argyllshire. At Oban, in the belt of rock which lies between the 
town and the drained lake. The Graphite occurs at a depth of 25 feet 
in thin veins, which run south-west. It is very soft — Anal. 3. A brown 
pulverulent cake appears occasionally on the slate rocks near Oban. 

Perthshire. Half a mile south of the Spital of Glen Shee, in the 
banks of a stream on the west side of the road, in a dull black, highly 
contorted schist. This occasionally carries rude but brilliant crystals of 
Graphite, along with Hornblende and Calcite — Anal. 4. On the south- 
west foot of Beinn Gulabin, near Seanna Bhaile, unconvoluted and more 
lustrous. At Craig Arus, the north-west end of above ridge, a large bed 
with felspar veins. West side of the slack of f Cairn Tau, and on the 
west shoulder of that hill, looking to Craggan. In the west corrie of 
Glen Beag, similar to the Glen Shee specimens, but less convoluted and 



I 



4 NATIVE ELEMENTS. 

without definite crystals — Anal. 5. The above graphitic schists for the 
most part soil the fingers. At Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, with Picrolite 
and Chromite. " Near Tyndrum." 

Analyses of Graphitic Schists. 



i 


Ash 


Loss at 
Red Heat. 


Loss at 
212°. 


1. Trista rock, - - - 1210 

2. Do., picked masses, - - 8-646 

3. Oban, S.G. 1-579, - - 1*025 

4. Glen Shee, 2-395, - - . | 14-408 

5. Glen Beag, - - - - | 15-278 


94-706 

85-158 

92-87 

81-991 

81-092 


4-078 

5-075 

5-6 

2-843 

3-01 


-0 
1-121 
•505 

•758 
-62 



Graphite has been vaguely stated to occur in the Braid and Calton 
Hills. [The mineral observed was Anthracite.] 



Sub-Class II. SEMI-METALS. 

2. Arsenic (8). As. Native Arsenic. 

Rhombohedral ; r r 87° 35', but very rarely crystallised. Civ., basal. 
Generally massive, granular, or reticulated and hackly ; or in botryoidal 
investing layers of numberless coats which when recently separated have 
a splendent metallic lustre. Fracture and streak the same, but rapidly 
tarnishing brown-black, the colour of the ordinary surface, which is dull. 
Fracture hackly. H., 3-5 ; G., 5-7 to 5-93. 

When rubbed or heated, gives out a garlic -like odour. B.B., volatilises 
in white fumes, and burns with a blue flame at a red heat. Comp., arsenic, 
generally with a little antimony. 

Occurs in gneiss, the associate of nickel, cobalt, bismuth, and antimony 
ores. 

At the ^ Menimure Burn, Cassencarrie, near Fleet, in Kirkcudbright, 
Niccolite is coated with very minute crystals presenting four faces of a 
dull brown-black colour, and without lustre. These crystals when heated 
volatilise with odour of garlic. They are lustrous when bruised. 

Said to have occurred at Tyndrum in Perthshire. 

At Hilderston Hills, near Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, traces upon 
Kupfernickel. 

3. Bismuth (11). Bi. Native Bismuth. 

Rhombohedral ; r r 87° 40'. Generally crystalline, r, c r. Civ., c, 
perfect and very facile. Also in reticulated forms, arrow-head twins, 
or arborescent. Fracture easy, but falling into the cleavage faces. Soctile. 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 5 

Reddish-white, but often tarnished red, blue, brown, or grey. H., 2*5 ; 
G., 9-6 to 9-8. 

Fusible in candle flame. B.B., volatilises, leaving a citron-yellow 
crust, oxide of bismuth. Sol. in n. acid ; solution is precipitated whit€ 
when poured into water. Comp., bismuth, with traces of arsenic. 

Occurs in veins in gneiss and clay slate, associated with cobalt, silver, 
lead, and tin ores. 

Stirlingshire. At the old mine at Alva, reticulated, associated 
immediately with Erythrite and Native Silver, and near Argentite, 
Smaltite and Chalcopyrite. 

Sub-Class III. METALS. 

4. Gold (13). Au. Native Gold. 

Cubic. Civ., none. Fracture hackly. Crystals small, generally 
elongated and distorted. Capillary, arborescent, and in platos. Fre- 
quently in loose rounded masses, or in small angular grains, among gi-avel 
or clay. Lustre metallic, but frequently dull through attrition, or being 
encrusted by red-brown ochry matter. Colour from pale yellow to orange- 
red. Streak, gold yellow to pale yellow. Malleable, ductile, and sectile ; 
the purest varieties the most so, and the softest. H., 2*5 to 3 ; G.. 15*5 
to 19-5. 

B.B., easily fusible. Soluble only in mixed h. and n. acids, generally 
with separation of white silver chlorides, and soluble the more rapidly the 
less silver is present. Solution yellow, stains the skin purple-red with 
corrosion. Solution precipitated by solution of ferrous sulphate as a 
red-brown j^reciiJitate, which becomes gold yellow with metallic lustre 
after friction. Comp., gold, with more or less silver— from 12 to 2(i per 
cent. ; rarely with iron or copper, under 1 per cent. 

Found in beds or in veins, generally of quartz, in metamorphic 
rocks of a schistose nature. Rarely in diorite and porphyry, and very 
rarely in granite. Its usual associates are earthy Limonite (keels) from 
the decomposition of Pyrite, Haematite, and Magnetite. Occurs also in 
microscopic grains in vein-quartz, from which it may be extracted by 
crushing and amalgamation. 

Localities. — These have been divided into (1) the undoubted ; (2) those 
which have been doubttH:! ; (3) the imj)robable ; and (4) such sm have been 
proved to be false. 

(1) SuTHERLANDSHiRE. In the north-cast of the county in the 
Helmsdale and Brora districts, loose in grains, scales, and nuggets, in 
river gravel, delta, detritus, and strath diift. Only in the streams which 
cut trenches in gneissose rocks, and so probably transported from no 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 



great distance. The adherent associates of the nuggets being quartz and 
broken crystals of felspar, leads to the belief that the matrix had been 
exfiltration veins in the rock. Among the chief localities were — the 
Crask : a small quantity at the head of Clyne-Milton Burn, over flaggy 
gneiss. Strath Brora ; the Blackwater, small scales from drift over 
micaceous schist with interbedded granite ; also at Kilcalmkill. Strath 
UUie, Helmsdale River : flaggy micaceous and gneissose beds traversed 
by granite, very rich washing in river side-pockets above Crask Bridge. 
Kildonan Burn : quartzose and gneissose, with quartz veins enclosed in 
chloritic clay, felspathic rock being present in small amount. The drift 
here is clearly of local origin. It is generally a ferruginous gravel, above 
which is yellow clay, overlain with coarse sand, which contains flexed 
dark earthy lines in section, the whole being covered with thin peat moss. 
(Anal, of small nuggets, 1.) Gold is here found in greatest quantity in 
the lowest part of the alluvium, but occasionally from the wash dirt 
immediately under the turf. Suisgill : flaggy gneissose rocks with much 
felspathic rock interbedded. The more friable felspathic varieties of the 
latter rock are readily disintegrated, forming sometimes a white plastic 
clay, sometimes a gritty sand. Towards the head of the stream this and 
other large-grained friable granitiform rocks become abundant, forming 
slopes of granular grit (Anal. 3, 4, 5 ; 5 was on scale the size of the little 
flnger nail. Allt an Fhionnfhuaraidh : the same rock as Suisgill. A 
half -inch water-rolled pellet contained gold mixed with felspar and quartz. 
Allt Ceann a' Phris : red granitiform rocks with flaggy beds. A small 
nugget 5 dwts., and a good deal of granular gold. The associates of the 
gold at these localities were keels in unusually small quantity, magnetic 
iron sand, variety undetermined, black Rutiles, size of peas, rarely ; 
minute garnets, and Specular Iron. The largest nuggets found in Suther- 
land are one found at Kildonan in 1840, which weighed nearly 1 oz., 
and one found in 1869 at Suisgill, which weighed 2 oz. 17 grains (Plate I. 
fig. 1). 





Gold. 


Silver. 


Iron. 


Silica. 






1. Kildonan, S.G., 15-G12, 


80-34 


19-86 


-12 


tr. 


100-32 




2. Suisgill, 15-799, 


8111 


18-45 




-14 


99-7 


D. Forbes. 


3. „ ... 


81-27 


18-47 




-26 


100-00 


,, 


4. „ 15-698, - 


8111 


18-68 




tr. 


99-79 




5. " Sutherland," - 


79-22 


20-78 






10000 


Makins. 


G. Leadhills, - 


86-60 


12-39 


-35 


•66 


100-00 


Church. 


7. Lang Cleuch, 17-52, - 


87-32 


11-80 


•41 


•22 


99-75 





Perthshire — Loch Tay. At Corriebuie mine, I J miles east of 
Tomnadashan ; in limestone overlying mica slate, at an elevation of 
about 2000 feet, veins carrying quartz and argentiferous galena ; " native 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 7 

gold twice found in breaking ore with the hammer " (Throst). About 
half a mile north-east of Loch Earn Head Station, about 300 feet up the 
north-west shoulder of Mcall nan Uamh, a small quantity, with one 
piece rather lighter than half a sovereign. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, and at Wanlockhead in Dumfriesshire, 
With brown iron ochre, in the Scar Burn, upper waters of Wanlock. 
5§ dwt. to the ton (Wilson). Similarly in a 9-inch vein in Glen Clach 
Burn, nearly 5 dwt. to the ton. In drift, and impacted in crevasses of 
the rock bed of many of the streams of the district ; as in very small pale 
yellow grains in the Glen Clach Burn, and shotty, of almost an orange-red, 
in drift at the Lang Cleuch Burn. Many others of the streams of the 
district yield grains, with occasional nuggets up to 100 or more grains. 
During the reigns of James III., IV., and V. considerable quantities of 
gold were collected in the district, to the value of £200,000 it is said, 
during the reign of the last. The largest nuggets found at or near 
Leadhills are, one of 280 grains from the Windgate Burn, Green Louther. 
The Martin Nugget, which weighs 1 oz 6 dwt. 6 gr. (Plate I. fig. 2), was 
found at Straightsteps Flat ; and Lord Hopetoun has one, weighing 
209 grs., found eighty years ago. There has, in the drift which contains 
the gold in this district, been a settling of the gold to a certain bed, 
possibly through long-continued water soaking. The banks of drift 
have an average arrangement as follows : — 

8 feet of stiff clay with boulders, 

8 feet of sand, 
10 inches of till, 

8 inches of auriferous clay, 
bottom sometimes rock, and sometimes a bed of till, up to 2 feet m 
thickness. 

Ayrshire — Ailsa. The rock of Ailsa has been found by Blackwood 
to contain gold in many parts, but merely in microscopic quantity ; the 
largest particles yet seen being less than five- thousandths of an inch in 
length. 

(2) Sutherland. Kildonan Burn, in an ochry quartz vein about 

1 mile from mouth. In visible specks in the granite of Suisgill. 

Perthshire. Glen Quaich, at Turrich, near Amulree. A nugget 
with a small amount of quartz, stated by Greg, once the owner, to weigh 

2 oz. 1 dwt. ; 1010 grains according to Dr. Porteous. The correctness 
of the locality at which this nugget was said to have been found, some 
sixty years ago, has been questioned, upon the grounds that no other 
gold has been found at the spot, and that nothing is known of the find 
in the district. As Throst, however, writes : "6 miles south of Taymouth 
at Geln Quaich, large quantities of hepatic pyrites are found," the locality 
may be correct. The correctness of the locality assigned to several large 



8 I^ATIVE ELEMENTS. 

specimens of gold quartz — those, namely, said to be from Leadhills — 
has been questioned upon grounds which, in some cases, have some force — 
the largest specimen in the Edinburgh Industrial Museum, termed the 
" Gemmel Specimen," upon the ground that it was found loose, close by 
the side of a public track or road, the day after a barrow full of lumps of 
Australian gold-quartz had been wheeled over it ; also that its gold is of 
Australian, and not Scotch colour. The objections to the locality assigned 
to the " Jameson specimen," also in the Scottish Museum, have not the 
same force, if any ; but the authenticity of the so-called " Wright speci- 
men " in the British Museum is exceedingly doubtful. 

(3) Gold was " said to have been discovered in quantity in Durness, 
Sutherland, by Gilbert de Moravia in 1245." A " large mass of malleable 
gold said to have been got by Captain Nicol from near Tyndrum." 
" Observed by Mr. Tennant accomjjanying cubic pyrites near the Marquiss 
of Breadalbane's shooting-box, 9 miles south of Glencoe." '' Raspe got 
a flake of gold when analysing some ores from Islay, and also silvei." 
At Drumgowan, 2 miles from Dunideer, and in a burn side near New 
Leslie, Aberdeen. At Overhill, Belhelvie. 

(4) Shetland — Unst — Ura, Breiwick. With Ilmcnite sand. 011a- 
berry, at Back, in quartz veins in epidotic syenite. 

East shore of Bute. 

Kincardineshire. North of Finella Hill, at the Birnie Slack. The 
burn sinks from sight at the spot indicated, beneath a mass of quartz 
fragments of great depth. Any gold present must therefore be buried 
beneath this mass. The quartz contains none. 

Minute traces of gold may occur in quartz in many localities ; a thin 
bed which dips towards the sea at Kinnaird Head yielded less than 
12 grains to the ton (Johnson, Matthey, & Co.). 

Stephen Aitkinson's Discoverie and Historic of the Gold Myiies in 
Scotland (Bannatyne Club, 1825), and Cochrane-Patrick's Early Records 
relating to Mining in Scotland, give much information as to numerous 
other localities which can hardly be said to be authenticated. From 
these the following may be considered as having been at their several 
dates at least admitted. 

Between 1538 and 1542 the Crawford Moor working, placed under 
the charge of John Mossman, goldsmith, afforded much gold, of which 
113 ozs. was used for making crowns for James V. and his Queen, for 
enlarging the King's chain and for making a belt for the Queen. 

In 1567 a company, of which Cornelius de Vols was the head, obtained 
a licence from the Regent Murray to work all Scotch mines. They 
employed 120 hands in the Leadhill district alone. One of the workers, 



Native elements. 9 

by name John Gibson, was particularly fortunate in finding nuggets 
of large size, some as big as bird's eggs. The Dutchman, Abraham 
Paterson, or Greybeard, got enough to make " a faire deepe bason," 
of sufficient size to hold an English gallon of liquor within the brim, 
which was presented by the Earl of Morton, one of the company, to the 
King of France. On one occasion. Do Vols sent eight pounds of gold 
to the mint at Edinburgh within thirty days. 

About 1579 Sir Bewis Bulmer got a patent from the king to search 
for gold and silver. He was most successful upon Henderland Moor 
in Ettrick Forest. He presented a porringer made of native Scottish 
gold to Queen Elizabeth. He found two large nuggets, one weighmg 
six ounces of pure gold, and the other more than five ounces. 

In 1G03 George Bowes got a similar patent, but confining him to 
Wanlock Water. There or at Pontshields there was got one piece of 
30 oz. and some " of greatere weight," " and in sondrcy other places 
in bygnes of cherristones and some greatere pieces." 

5. Electnim (13). AugAg. 

Massive. Yellowish-white to pale yellow. G., 125 to 155. Pliny 
gave the name to compounds of gold with silver whenever the proportion 
of the latter was 20 per cent. An alloy of 2 of gold to 1 of silver contains 
21 per cent, of silver, so that the Sutherland gold approaches to electrum. 
A much poorer electrum, however, occurs there. The crushed quartz 
of a vein in the Suisgill Burn yields 39' 2 grains of this to the ton. It contains 
Gold, 28-57. Silver, 7143. 

It was associated with Magnetite, Ilmenite, and apparently metallic 
iron. 

6. Silver (14) Ag. Native Silver. 

Cubic. No cleavage. Fracture hackly. Crystals generally small and 
arranged in a clustered manner. Also filiform, arborescent, and in plates. 
These several forms sometimes project into cavities, but generally ramify 
through the mass of the rock. Lustre metallic. Colour and streak silver 
white ; but the surface is generally stained yellow to black. Malleable, 
ductile, and sectile. H., 25 to 3 ; G., 103 to ll'l. 

B.B., easily fusible. Soluble in n. acid ; on addition of h. acid there 
is a white precipitate, which rapidly passes through blue to black. The 
n. acid solution stains the skin black. Comp., silver, with varying 
proportions of gold, copper, mercury, or other metals. 

Occurs in gneiss, clay slate, Umestone, and igneous rocks. 

Inverness-shire. At Bona, near Abriachan, on Loch Ness. Fill- 



10 NATIVE ELEMENTS. 

form-arborescent, with Native Copper, in a ferruginous gangue in gneiss. 

Perthshire. Glen Esk, at Craigsoales lead mine, very rarely, upon 
crystals of Galena, filamentous. 

Stirlingshire. At Alva, near Bridge of Allan, a mine was worked 
between the years 1710 and 1715, which yielded nearly £50,000 worth 
of silver. The veinstone was in " claystone porphyry" (Andesite). The 
greater part of the ore was the native metal, which ramified through 
a decomposing matrix, largely charged with Erythrite, Malachite, Calcite, 
and Barytes, in skelton crystals, which delineated the axes of an octahedron 
by intersecting chains of minute octahedral crystals (Plate I.)^. These 
were usually very minute ; but the writer saw in an old collection a 
specimen which showed two of these semi-axes, one of which was above 
IJ inches in length. The associated minerals were Argentite, Erythrite, 
Chalcopyrite, and arsenical iron. A still larger sum than what was 
drawn from this mine was sunk in continuing the working unsuccessfully. 
" At Tillicoultry, with ores of lead, copper, and cobalt." 

Argyllshire. Stated to have occurred in a capillary form in veins 
traversing the blue limestone of Islay. Said also to have occurred in 
Mull. 

Linlithgowshire. Was obtained in the year 1606 ; it was first 
found imbedded in a knitted form in Niccolite at the silver-lead mine 
at the north-east foot of Cairn-naple Hill, the highest of the Hilderston 
Hills. Atkinson, in his Gold Mynes, p. 47, thus speaks of the discovery 
of this mine. " It was found by meerc fortune or chance of a collier, 
by name Sandy Maund, a Scotsman, as he sought about the skirts of 
those hills neere to the bourne or water of Hilderstone. He hit upon 
the heavy piece of redd-mettle ; no man ever saw the like. It was raced 
with many small strings, like unto haiers, or thredds. He sought further 
into the ground, and found a peece of brownish sparr stone, and it was 
mosaic. He broke it with is mattocke, and it was white, and glittered 
within like unto small white copper-keese. They said, ' Where hadst 
thou it?' Quoth he, ' At the Silver bourne under the hill called Kerne- 
Popple.' He took it unto Mr Bulmer at the Lead-hill. Mr Bulmer 
did not trust to the first triall, because it proved rich ; but went to it 
againe and againe, and still it proved rich, and wondrous rich. Shortly 
after I was brought thither myself, the myno being sett open. I was 
stricken down into the shaft called God's Blessing, and I brought up 
with me a most admirable peece of the Cacilla stone, parte whereof I 
kept still, and a parte thereof I sent for a token to London. The manner 

'[Dr. Heddlo informed the editor that the specimen from which this remarkable 
figure was drawn is part of the Corse-Glen Collection, which has lately been acquired 
by the Corporation of Glasgow.] 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 11 

how it grow was like unto the haire of a man's head, and the grasso in 
the fielde. And the vaine thereof, out of which I had it, was two inches 
thick, by measure and ruk> ; the mettle thereof was both raalliable and 
thoughe. It was coarse silver, worth 4s. vjd the ounce weight ; not fine 
silver as is made by the art of man. The greatest quantity of silver that 
ever was gotten at God's Blessing was raised and fined out of the red- 
mettle ; and the purest sort thereof contayned in it 24 ounce of fine 
silver upon every hundred weight ; vallewed at vj score pounds starling 
the ton. And much of the same redd-mettle, by the assay, held twelve 
score pounds starling per ton weight. When I wrought on the first 
sorte of redd-metal for My Lord Advocate for Scotland, sundry times 
I refined it, and commonly for the space of three daycs weekly I made 
an hundred pounds starling each day. Until the same redd-metal came 
unto 12 faddomes deepe it remained still good ; from thence into 30 
faddome deepe it proved nought." 

In fact, although below the 12 fathoms the Niccolite was still got in 
quantity it was no longer argentiferous, though " unaltered in colour, 
fashion and heavyness." So long as the Niccolite carried silver the 
profit from the mine was £500 per month. The galena associatcnl with 
the Niccolite was argentiferous to the extent of | oz. to the hundred- 
weight. The Niccolite also occasionally carried native silver in cavities, 
as shown by a letter from Sir William Bowyor to Lord Salisbury of 2nd 
August 1608. He writes : "I spent some tym below in the mynes to 
see whether thes peces were then broken or kept of propos for my Lord 
of Dunbar cominge, which I ensow your Lo. was merlye as then it fell 
out : I allso to satisfye my seallfe braeke a pece belowe and in a hollowe 
of the sam I found a clew of sillver wyer as thoughe it had bin drawne by 
a goldsmithe, which art beinge absolutly perffett as polished silluer." 
The range is now called the Bathgate Hills. 

7. Copper (15). Cu. Native Copper. 

Cubic. Twinned on the face of the octahedron. Crystals generally 
much distortcMl. Often in leaves, arborescent or filiform. No cleavage, 
fracture hackly. Lustre, when freshly exposed, brilliant-metallic, and 
colour golden-yellow to red. Rapidly becomes dull and copper-red. 
Streak copper-red. Sectile. Becomes brittle after prolonged bending. 
H., 2-5 to 3; G., 8-5 to 8-9. 

B.B., fusibility 3, colouring the outer flame green ; but when moistened 
with h. acid, blue. Soluble in n. acid, and in ammonia with access of 
air, forming a deep purple-blue solution. Comp., copper, nearly pure. 

Occurs in many rocks, frequently in serpentine, or in igneous rocks 
associated with zeolites, and especially with Prehnite. 



12 NATIVE ELEMENTS. 

Shetland. In Unst, at the south-west corner of Haroldswick, with 
Malachite, in serpentine. In Mainland, at Sandlodge mine rarely, with 
Malachite. 

Orkneys — Burray Island. Formerly at its west end, in leaves and 
springs, with Galena. 

Inverness-shire. On the shores of Loch Ness at Bona, near Abri- 
achan, along with Native Silver in a ferruginous gangue. 

Perthshire. In Glen Farg. In the upper railway tunnel, with 
earthy Malachite, in Prehnite ; rarely crj^stallised (Plate L). 

Stirlingshire. Formerly at Blair Logic, with Chrysocolla in Barytcs. 
At the north end of Mugdock tunnel, in thin leaves upon the surface 
of Prehnite. 

Edinburgh. In the Calton Hill, below the old Observatory, with 
tlasper and Barytes. 

Renfrewshire. At Boyleston Quarry, near Barrhead. It here 
occurs in four ways : — 1. In delicate leaves and flat lumps, up to seven 
ounces in weight, in rents in a hard, dense band, which crosses the quarry 
from east to west. When the rents are opened up the copper has an 
orange-red to golden colour, and a very high lustre. 2. In distorted but 
very brilliant crystals, which are sprinkled throughout crystals of pellucid 
Calcite, and sometimes throughout the mass of Prehnite. 3. Very rarely 
in cavities in rough crystals. 4. In divergent strings with Calcite and 
Prehnite, which lie between the radiating crystals of the Prehnite and 
communicate to it a rich brown colour. When the Copper protrudes 
above the surface of the Prehnite it is coated with Chrysocolla, or with 
Malachite. It is said to occur also near Neils ton. 

Ayrshire. In thin plates between the beds of the New Red Sandstone 
in the railway tunnel near Mauchline. At Pinbain, north of Lendalfoot, 
in the beach rocks, with tufts of white Pectolite, in Anorthite. 

8. Iron (25). Fe. Native Iron. Meteoric Iron. 

Cubic. In plates or desseminated in grains. Fracture hackly. Civ., 
octahedral. Lustre metallic. Steel grey to iron black. Malleable and 
ductile. Opaque. Strongly magnetic. Streak shining. H., 45 ; G., 7 
to 7-8. 

B.B., infusible. Soluble in h. acid. Precipitates an acidulated 
solution of a copper salt. 

Two kinds : (a) Telluric Iron. Comp., almost pure iron. It some- 
times contains carbon, and also nickel. (6) Meteoric Iron, steel-grey to 
silver white. Comp., iron, with generally nickel, cobalt, copper, and 
associated with imbedded minerals, which are not terrestrial. When 
polished and etched by a mixture of nitric and acetic acids this variety 



NATIVE ELEMENTS. 13 

discloses a structure more complex than can be assigned to a simple cubic 
crystal ; showing a dimmed surface, from which projects a system of 
unaffected and brilliant interlacing figures ; along the edges of which 
the greater part of the nickel is segregated. Many have occluded hydro- 
gen in their pores ; this is set free when they are dissolved in acids. Most 
display x)itted depressions upon their surface, similar to the surface of 
iron which has been subjected to the action of sudden detonators. 

Telluric Iron. 
Shetland — Unst. In the sands of the Dale Burn, a little above 
where it turns to the north. These sands contain a black chromiferous 
Magnetite, the native iron forming the centres of some of the grains. 
These dissolved in acid without residue, and precipitatetl an acidulated 
salt of copper. They were laminable and strongly magnetic. 

SuTHERLANDSHTRE — ToNGUE. On the west slopcs of Ben Bhreac in 
the large boukler of Ben Loyal " syenite " ; with Amazonstone, Thorite, 
Fluorite, and many other minerals, and forming the centres of crystals of 
Magnetite. Almost entirely soluble in h. acid. Suisgill Bum ; in a 
quartz vein in the granite, along with Electrum, Ilmenite, and Magnetite, 
a laminable, magnetic, metallic, iron was obtained from the crushed rock, 
which contained '79 per cent, of carbon with silica. Its source was, 
however, not obvious. 

Hebrides. " In the igneous rocks of the Hebrides " (Buchanan). 

Meteoric Iron. 
Lanarkshire — Leadhills. A single small angular and somewhat 
rounded mass, with a closely crystalline texture. It is extremely hard, 
and on its polished surface shows small triangular figures, more brilliant 
than the rest of the surface. Found by Da Costa, and now in the British 
Museum. 

In the Annuls of Philosophy, vol. xiii., there is the following note 
upon this iron :—" Native Iron, by Mr. H. M. Da Costa, M.W.S. The 
specimen was found associated with galena, and was discovered by the 
workmen from its resisting the blows of a hammer. It was found to be 
composed of Iron 16-5, Silica 1, loss chiefly Sulphur 05." Its meteoric 
origin is thus very problematical. 

Roxburgh — Newstead. A mass 11 J inches in length by 7 inches 
broad, and weighing 32 lbs. 11 oz., was dug up in a garden, in the year 
1819 or 1820. Its specific gravity was 6517. Its analysis yielded— 
Iron 93-51, Nickel 486, Silica 091, Carbon 0-59— Total 99-87. The 
Widmanstatten figures are not well developed. 



14 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

Class II. SULPHIDES, &c., OF THE 
SEMI-METALS. 

Sub-Class I. SULPHIDES, SELENIDES, TELLURIDES OF THE 

SEMI-METALS. 

9. Stibnite (28). Sb.^Sg. 

[Orthorhombic ; a 100, h 010, c 001, ^p 111, m 110, ?/ 101, x 102, s 113, 
V 211.] mm 89° 6', pp' 109° 26', pp" 108° 21 ', p'p" 110° 30', va 114° 45', 
ps 150° 25', ms 115° 40', ca 90°, ax 117° 4', a^fc 135° 36'. 

Lateral planes deeply striated parallel to their intersections. Cleavage 
a, very perfect and brilliant ; m, less perfect ; b and c, still less so. Often 
coarse or fine columnar ; often reticulated, also granular and rarely 
impalpable. Fracture conchoidal, small, and imperfect. Opaque. Lustre 
brilliant-metallic. Lead giey to steel grey ; acquires a black to steel-blue 
tarnish, is often iridescent. Streak, lead-grey. Sectile. Thin laminae 
slightly flexible. H., 2 ; G., 46 to 47. 

In the open tube yields first a sublimate of antimonious acid, and 
then of oxide of antimony, with evolution of sulphurous fumes ; the 
white deposit is non- volatile B.B. On charcoal, fuses easily, spreads out 
with evolution of sulphurous fumes, leaving a white deposit, which, when 
treated in the R. flame, tinges it greenish-blue. Soluble in warm h. acid, 
leaving occasionally a slight deposit of chloride of lead. Decomposed by 
n. acid, leaving oxide of antimony. Decomposed also by caustic potash. 
The solution yields, on the addition of h. acid, a yellowish -red flaky 
precipitate. 

Occurs, sometimes desseminated, in beds, but usually in veins with 
Quartz, Blende, and Barytes. 

Comp., Antimony, 718 ; Sulphur, 28* 2. 

Banffshire. At Maisley, near Keith, radiated and foliated, with 
purple Fluor, in limestone (Cunningham). 

Ayrshire. At Harehill, near New Cumnock, with Cervantite and 
Quartz, in a vein near dolerite. 

Dumfriesshire. At Glendinning, in the parish of Westerkirk, about 
10 miles from Langholm. In a vein 20 inches thick, with Quartz, Calcite, 
and Blende. From 1793 to 1798 yielded 100 tons, which gave 50 per 
cent, of metal, which sold for £8400. 

Doubtful localities for Stibnite are the following : — 

Inverness-shire. At Abriachan, near Bona, with Galena and 
Vitreous Copper (Messrs, Anderson). 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 15 

Argyllshire. In small quantity, with Galena, or possibly an 
antimonial Galena, at Fee Donald (" Antimony mine "), Strontian. 

Perthshire. Near Ben Lawers, on the Marquis of Breadalbane's 
estate (Greg). 

Stirlingshire. At Ballagan Spout, Campsio, in small quantities. 

Ayrshire. At Stair, on the lands of Dalmore, with Copper and 
Graphite. 

Dumfriesshire. In the Glen Grieve vein, Wanlockhead, Antimonial 
Galena, or Jamesonite, is said to occur. 

10. Molybdenite (34). MoS. 

Rhombohedral (?). 

o 111, a Oil, 6 211, a: 120. The faces o smooth, xab smooth, but 
striated parallel to their intersections with o. Set^m to be twins consisting 
of three crystals, sometimes indicattxi by striae and by a composite 
structure on the basal plane. Civ., basal, perfect. Flexible. Not 
elastic. Sectile. H., 1 to 15 ; G., 46 to 49. 

Lead grey. Streak the same on paper ; on porcelain, greenish-grey. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Feels greasy. 

In the open tube gives sulphurous fumes. B.B., infusible, but imparts 
a yellowish -green, " siskin green," colour to the flame. On charcoal the 
pulverised mineral gives in O. flame a strong odour of sulphur, and coats 
the coal with crystals of molybdic acid, which are yellow when hot, but 
white upon cooling ; near the assay the coating is copper red, and if the 
white coating be touched with an intermittent R. flame, it becomes 
azure blue. When powdered, decomposed by n. acid, leaving a white 
or grey residue of molybdic acid. With hot n. and h . acid forms a greenish 
solution ; with boiling s. acid a blue solution. 

Comp., Molybdenum, 59-13 ; Sulphur, 40-87. 

Occurs in early crystalline rocks, as gneiss, granite, syenite. 

Sutherland — Shiness. In limestone contact belt, with Sahlite and 
Sphene (D. and H.). 

Ross-shire. At Inchbae, with Allanite, in porphyritic augen-gneiss. 

Inverness-shire. At Dochfour Burn, with Pyrite, in a granite vein 
(Aitken and H.). About a mile east of this, in " greenstone " boulders, 
with yellow Sphene (Aitken). Glen Elg. With Actinolite, in chlorite 
schist. 

Argyllshire — Glen Creran. Corrie Buidhe, in quartz veins in 
granite, formerly ; in six-sided crystals over one inch in thickness by 
nearly four inches in width (Plate I.). Loch Etive. At Barrs Quarry, 



16 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

7 miles above Bonawe, with Sphene, in granite. Ben Cruachan. At the 
granite quarries, in quartz veins, with Epidote (Stuart Thomson and H.). 

Aberdeenshire. Near Inverurie, at Middleton of Balquhain, in 
gneiss (Nicol). 

Perthshire — Loch Tay. At Tomnadashan, in porphyry, with 
Quartz, hepatic Pyrites, and, rarely, with Molybdic Ochre (Thorst). 
Near Killin. 

Kirkcudbright. At Almorness Head, in granite (Dudgeon). 

Wigtownshire. In the Galloway, Dumfriesshire, and Wigtownshire 
Hills (Greg). 

Sub-Class II. SULPHIDES, &c., OF THE METALS— 
MONOSULPHIDES. 

n. Argentite (42). AggS. 

Cubic, a, 100 ; o. Ill ; rZ, 110 ; n, 211. Crystals often misshapen, 
with curved faces or in linear groups. Also arborescent or in crusts. 
Civ., indistinct. Fracture hackly. Malleable, flexible, and sectile. H., 
2 to 2*5 ; G., 7 to 7-4. Generally dull, but also brilliant metallic ; more 
so on streak. Blackish lead-grey, with brown, black, or sometimes 
iridescent, tarnish. 

In open tubes gives off sulphurous acid. B.B. on charcoal fuses, in O. 
flame intumesces, giving off sulphurous fumes, and leaves a globule of 
silver. Soluble in n. acid, with separation of sulphur. 

Comp., Silver, 87 ; Sulphur, 13. 

Stirlingshire. In the glen between Woodhill and Middlehill, in 
the Ochils. Near Alva^ with Native Silver, Smaltite, Erythrite, and 
Chalcopyrite ; in a veinstone of Barytes and Calcite in claystone porphjrry 
[Andesite lava of Old Red Sandstone age]. The mine was worked from 
1710 to 1715. Fourteen ounces of the ore yielded twelve of silver, and 
for a short period the proceeds of the mine were £4000 a week. In 1767 
Lord Alva presented to the Church of Alva a pair of communion cups, 
upon which the following inscription is engraved — SACRIS IN 
ECCLESIA S. SERVANI APUII ALETH A.D. 1767 EX ARGENTO 
INDIGENA D.D.C. Q. JACOBUS ERSKINE (Plate I.). 

12. Galena (45). PbS. 

Cubic. 0,111; a, 100 ; ^,110; ^.221; m, 311; 7^,211; g, 331. 
Crystals usually the cube, octahedron, and rhombic dodecahedron, rarely 
p and n, and at Leadhills many low faces, both on a and on o. Twin face, 
0. Civ., cubic highly perfect. Fracture conchoidal, but difficult to 
obtain on account of brittleness and perfect cleavage. Sectile. H., 2*5 ; 
G., 7*2 to 76. Lead-grey, with darker tarnish, which is frequently 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 17 

iridescent upon o. Streak, greyish-black. Lustre bright metallic, 
especially on the cleavage faces. 

In open tube gives a subhmate of sulphur and of (sulphate of oxide 
of) lead. Decrepitates on charcoal, which it coats yellow, and after 
sulphur is driven off is reduced to a bead of lead, from which a globule 
of silver may generally be obtained by cupellation. Sol. in n. acid with 
evolution of nitrous acid, and separation of sulphur. 

Comp., Lead, 867 ; Sulphur, 13-3, but usually contains silver from 
1 to 5 parts in 10,000 ; rarely 1 per cent, or more. Sometimes contains 
copper, zinc, or antimony ; rarely selenium. 

Analysis by Thomson, from Durham : — 

Lead, 85-13 ; Iron, 0-50 ; Sulphur, 13*02. 

Occurs also massive, granular, compact, lamellar, " slickensides," and 
pseudomorphic. No external characters serve to distinguish the argenti- 
ferous varieties, though the granular varieties are usually considered the 
most highly so. 

Crystallised galena occurs : — 

Orkney — Rousay. One mile N.E. of Scabra Head, a o, in argillaceous 
sandstone flag (Plate I. fig. 1), with Azurite, Malachite, and Barytes. 
North-west slopes of the Wardhill, a. Hoy, at Selwick, a o. Mainland, 
1 mile west of the Ness, a. Fara, a o (Currie). 

Caithness. Gie-uisg Geo, in a calcite vein in sandstone flag, a o - - 
(Plate II. fig. 2), with Blende, Marcasite, Calcite, and Asphalt. 

Ross -SHIRE. In a burn on road between Jean town and Loch Kish- 
horn, a, with purple Fluor (K. Murchison). 

Inverness-shire. Glen, 2 miles from Struy Bridge, a, in Barytes. 

Argyllshire. At Strontian, in gneiss, a, with Calcite ; with Blende, 
a o, at Corrantee, and with Calcite, a o, at Bellsgrove (Currie). 

Aberdeenshire. At the Pass of Ballater, a, in granite, with Fluor. 

Forfarshire. On the south-west foot of Craig Soales, a, with 
Cerussite. 

Perthshire. At T3nidrum and Clifton mines, o, o a, o d (fig. 3), with 
Chalcopyrite, brown Blende, Barytes, Calcite, and Quartz. 

Fife. At Inverkeithing, Castlandhill, o ; in veins, partly in dolerite 
and partly in Lower Carboniferous sandstone, at the foot of a small hill, 
near a marsh. 

Berwickshire. At the Vaults, IJ miles east of Dunbar, o a, in a 
dolerite dyke in limestone (Adamson). 

Edinburgh. At Little Vantage, west of Balerno, a o m q (fig. 4) ; 
also in cubes and twins, in clay druses in sandstone (Stuart Thomson). 

Linlithgowshire. At the " silver mine," Cairn-naple. a o, imbedded 
in Barytes, with Scleretinite. 

B 



18 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

Stirlingshire. Alva ; above Wester ton, east of Alva, o a (fig. 5), 
also in cubes, in seams of leek-green " steatite," which lie between beds 
of andesitic lava (Old Red). 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, o ; a, o \ a o d (fig. 6) ; o d m (fig. 7) ; 
ao dm (fig. 8) ; oar (fig. 9) ; o a m (Plate III. fig. 10) ; o a d p (fig. 11) ; 
o a dm - (fig. 12) ; o ad - (fig. 13) ; o a dmn (fig. 14) ; o da - (fig. 15) ; 
o da - (fig. 16) ; o da - (fig. 17) ; o am - (Plate IV. fig. 18) ; o a — 
(fig. 19) ; o a ---- (fig. 20) ; o da - (fig. 21) ; oaf — (fig. 22) ; oadmn - 

(fig. 23); a d o mnp (fig. 24); a om^ (fig. 25); oam (Plate V. 

fig. 26). The numerous low faces above depicted on Leadhills specimens 
occur on crystals of one or more j^ounds in weight, and so are beyond the 
sustaining power of an ordinary goniometer. 

Ayrshire. At Dalmellington, a o. 

Kirkcudbright. At Woodhead, near Garryhorn House, Carsphairn : 
a o with fibrous and crystallised Blende, Calcite, Barytes, and Quartz, 
in veins over 2 feet thick. 

In the following records of old veins of Galena, the content of silver 
and other wonders are the statements, for the most part, of interested 
parties, as published at the time. They do not now yield even the lead. 

Orkney. Hoy, at Selwick ; 46 oz. of silver per ton. Also in 
Grsemsay. 

Caithness. In small quantity at Skinnet and Brawl, near Halkirk. 
The Skinnet ore said to yield 5 per cent, of silver. 

Inverness-shire. Glen Nevis, 200 yards from the foot ; two veins. 
In the parish of Kingussie, highly argentiferous. 

Hebrides — Coll. North side of CrossapoU Bay. Islay, 2 miles east 
of Port Ascaig. 

Argyllshire — Appin. Kilbrandon and Kilchattan, with ores of 
Silver, Copper, and Zinc (Raspe). Morven, Glen Sanda property. On 
Ben a Chaisil, with Pyrites and Blende. At Eudha a' Chamais Bhain, 
half a mile north-east of Glen Sanda Castle, in a vein of Mesitine spar, 
with Millerite and Blende. Loch Fyne, south-west of Inverneil, in quartz 
cutting mica schist, with Chalcopyrite and crystallised Chalybite. At 
a rocky point between Lochs Gilp and Fyne, near | Duncarty. Near 
the head of Loch Fyne. At Strontian, in veins which run in gneiss, 
close to its junction with granite, from Corrantee on the west to Bellsgrove 
on the east, associated with Calcite, Strontianite, Harmotome, Brewsterite, 
and Barytes. At Fasslfern, Inverscadle, Ardgour. 

Elginshire. At f Sherriffmile, in sandstone. At DufTus, with Chal- 
cedony and flint, in limestone. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 19 

Aberdeenshire. Glen Gairn, at Corrybog, in two intersecting veins 

in gneiss, with Fluor, Schiefer Spar, and yellow Blende. 

Forfar. In the parishes of Eassio and Nevay, towards the south-east 
corner ; argentiferous. At Loch Lee. Near the village of Glamis ; 
wrought 1781. 

Perthshire. Near Blair Athole and Struan. At t Cairn Droom ; 
wrought many years. Ben Ledi, in a vein about a mile south of the 
stream on the east side, and at an elevation of 1000 feet, in clay slate. 
Yielded 20 oz. of silver per ton. Near the lower top of the hill, in mica 
slate, with Chalcopyrite and Siderite. Loch Tay, at Tomnadashan, " with 
Calcite in scalenohedron macles, Molybdenite, and Fahlerz " (Thorst). 
"' At Corriebuidhe Hill, 3 miles south, in limestone overlying mica slate 
at an elevation of about 2000 feet, about eighteen veins from 3 to 4 fcH)t 
thick, running north and south for about 200 yards. The veins carry 
Quartz with Galena, which yields from 85 to 600 oz. of silver per ton. 
The veins rapidly diminish in width downwards. The Galena is associated 
with Chalcopyrite and Pyrite, Blende, and Dolomite. Native gold was 
twice found in breaking up the ore " (Thorst). At the head of Glen 
Falloch, a vein striking N.N.E., 3 feet thick. In Glen Lyon. " At 
Tyndrum there are two veins — the first, through granular quartz ; the 
other, close to the junction of this with mica-schist. The first follows 
a N.N.E., the other a north-east course. There is also a cross vein. The 
first vein is about 3 feet, the second from 4 to 18 feet, and the last about 
2 feet thick. The first vein contains solid Galena. It also contains 
Blende, Chalcopyrite, rarely cobalt ore, Pyrite, and Ilmenite. The second 
carries Quartz, Blende, and Chalcopyrite. The first may be traced for 
8 miles " (Thorst). 

Fifeshire. Blebo, at -f Myrtown, a vein north-east and south-west ; 
wrought 1748. East Lomond, at Hanging Myre, on the south side of 
the hill, a vein parallel to the above. 

Stirlingshire. At Dunipace, in red crystallised Barytes. 

Midlothian. Midcalder, at Skolie Burn, small crystals, f Black- 
bonny, at side of a fault. East Calder, where limestone abuts against a 
dyke (Stuart Thomson). Pentland Hills, north-east of Lynedale, in 
compact felspar, " argentiferous." 

Linlithgowshire. In the so-called silver mine in the north-east 
foot of Cairn-naple Hill. The mines were worked m 1606, and the galena 
was first discovered, or at least it was first declared to be argentiferous, 
in August 1607. There is no old record of their having been worked after 
1614. Reynolds, 1608, by assay, stated the silver content at 15 oz. 
per ton. It has elsewhere been given at 17 oz. per ton. The mere local 
expense of working this mine for the year 1608-9 was £52,526, and for 



20 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

the succeeding year £11,187. A British Museum Record of the expenses 
of the working before it was taken up by the Lords of the King's Council, 
namely, for the year 1606-7, was that 30 tons had been raised at an outlay 
of £700, and that the profits, chiefly from native silver, were about £500 
a month ! The mine was reopened about the year 1878, a considerable 
sum was sunk in contending with water, an adjoining stream never having 
been properly deflected. In the old records mention is made of five shafts; 
three only of these can be now traced, and one only, the central, was 
opened during the last ill-directed trial. The vein, which has a barytic 
vein-stone, runs about east and west ; it cuts the encrinal limestone, 
which here dips at an angle of about 40° to the north-west, at a depth of 
about 40 fathoms ; the main shaft has been sunk to nearly 80 fathoms. 

Lanarkshire. Leadhills, in many intersecting veins in graywacke ; 
these are continuous with the veins of Wanlockhead. The Leadhills 
veins are associated, in the Susanna vein, with all the Leadhills minerals, 
except Vanadinite and Calamine. The other veins carry few of the rarer 
minerals. There were old veins at Glendorch, Gilkers Cleuch, and Glen- 
douran, Abington. At Cumberhead. 

Ayrshire. Banks of the Afton before it leaves the New Cumnock 
basin. 

Berwickshire. At Abbotrule. 

Peebles. Grieston, near Innerleithen, in a stream south of the slate 
quarry. In the Ljme, above West Linton. 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead mines. The galena here yields from 
5 to 9 oz. of silver per ton. The ore is associated with fewer minerals 
than at Leadhills, but Vanadinite, Calamine, and Blende are here more 
frequent ; Cerussite, Anglesite, and Pjrromorphite also occur frequently. 
Langholm Bridge and Broomholm, with Barytes, in graywacke. Falstone 
in limestone. Roanfell, north side of Liddesdale. 

Kirkcudbright. Minnigaff, at Black Craig mine, 3 miles to the east 
of Newton Stewart, with Dolomite, Pyrite, and Chalcopyrite. Woodend, 
2 miles north of Carsphairn, Pibble mine. 

Wigtown. New Luce ; at Knock Bay, " very rich." 

Slickensided Galena, cavernous crystals with an internal arborescent 
structure, and pseudomorphs of Galena after Pyromorphite, occur at 
Leadhills. 

13 Chalcocite (54). CugS. 

[Orthorhombic ; c, 001 ; p, 111 ; 6, 010 ; d, 021 ; v, 112 ; m, 110.] 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 21 

Crystals have an hexagonal aspect. Twins on m v and (032). Civ., 
m imperfect. Fracture conchoidal or uneven. Sectile. H., 2"5 to 3 ; 
G., 55 to 5'8. Lustre dull-metallic, brighter on streak. Blackish lead- 
grey with a blue, lilac, green, or other tarnish. 

Yields nothing volatile in the closed tube. In open tube gives off 
sulphurous fumes. B.B. colours the flame blue. On charcoal in the 
0. flame boils with spirting and fuses. In the R. flame becomes solid. 
With soda-salt yields a bead of copper. Decomposed by hot nitric acid, 
leaving a deposit of sulphur. 

Comp., Copper, 79-8 ; Sulphur, 20-2. 

Generally massive-granular ; or compact-impalpable. 

Shetland — Fair Isle. At North Naversgill, in a vertical vein of 
greenstone cutting O. R. Sandstone. At the head of Reeva Bay. Both 
massive. 

Inverness-shire. Near Abriachan, Bona, with Galena (Anderson). 

Perthshire. Glenfarg, with ChrysocoUa, Datolite and Prehnite. 
mb p cv d (Christie). 

Stirlingshire. With Barytes and ChrysocoUa at Alva. One mile 
east of Callander in O. R. Conglomerate, with cockscomb Barytes. 

Haddingtonshire. At Faseny Burn, in small veins, with Barytes 
in graywacke ; massive, granular. 

Ayrshire. (Greg.) 

Berwickshire. Near | Keelstone Pool, with Malachite and Barytes. 
At f Crowheel, two veins in graywacke, running north 85° east. In the 
same rock at EUemford. In the channel of Brunta Burn, below Dodds' 
Mill. 

14. Blende (58). ZnS. 
Cubic, and tetrahedral-hemihedral ; [a, 100 ; d, Oil ', o. Ill ; o'. Ill ; 
y (m), 311 ; 13, 225 ; n,2ll; k 311] hemihedral. Twin face o, occasionally 
many times repeated. Characteristic form, d, k 311, dm ; and the same 
twinned. The face of one of the tetrahedra is always highly polished, 
and of the other is drusy or rough. The faces of the cube striated. The 
faces of the trigonal dodecahedron, m, striated parallel to their inter- 
sections with d, and generally conically convex. 

Civ., d very perfect and splendent. Fracture conchoidal. Very 
brittle. H., 3*5 to 4 ; G., 39 to 42. Transparent to opaque. Lustre 
adamantine to resinous. Colourless, white, yellow, red, brown, green, 
black. Streak white to reddish-brown. 

Comp., Zinc, 67 ; Sulphur, 33. In the darker varieties from 1 to 15 
of iron, or to nearly 5 of cadmium in the fibrous varieties. 

In the open tube gives sulphurous fumes, and generally changes 



22 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

colour. B.B. per se decrepitates violently. On charcoal difficultly 
fusible on the edges. In the reducing flame, some varieties give a reddish- 
brown sublimate of cadmium oxide, later on a coating of oxide of zinc ; 
this is yellow while hot, and white when cold. With cobalt solution 
this white coating gives a green colour in the 0. flame. With soda on 
charcoal in the R. flame, gives the characteristic green flame, and is 
reduced. Most varieties, after roasting, give with borax the reaction for 
iron. In powder sol. in strong n. acid, with separation of sulphur. In 
h. acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Orkneys — Mainland. In an old lead mine west of the Point of 
Ness, Stromness. 

Caithness. At Gie-uisg Geo, in a vein of Calcite, which cuts sand- 
stone flag ; twins, d m twins (Plate V. figs. 1 and 2), with Galena, Calcite 
Marcasite, and Asphalt. 

Argyllshire. Strontian, at Corrantee, with Harmotome. Morven, 
Glen Sanda. In a quartz vein in Gneiss on the north slope of Beinn a' 
Chaisil, near the summit, with Galena and Pyrites. In a trap dyke, half 
a mile north of Glen Sanda Castle, with Mesitine Spar, Millerite, and 
Barytes Kilbrandon and Kilchattan, with ores of copper, silver, and 
lead (Raspe). 

Aberdeenshire. Glen Gairn, at Corrybeg lead mine, ond, dm 
(fig. 3), bright yellow. Phosphorescent when heated. With Galena, 
Fluor, Schiefer Spar. 

Perthshire. Tyndrum and Clifton, veins yellow and brown, with 
Galena, Chalcopyrite, Barytes, and Calcite, in quartz veins with felspar ; 
phosphorescent . 

Midlothian. In Granton quarry, reddish-yellow, with Galena, in 
sandstone. Ratho quarry, honey-yellow, transparent, in granular quartz 
veins in Pectolite (Stuart Thomson). 

Linlithgowshire. Bathgate, in seams of coal, o d, oo' a (fig. 4), with 
pink Dolomite, Pyrite and Galena. 

Dumbartonshire. In Bowling quarry, honey-yellow, o o' (fig. 5), 
o' a, in Prehnite, also almost colourless and transparent, with Prasilite 
and Natrolite. 

Ayrshire. Beith, in Dockra quarry, dmo (fig. 6), with Calcite, 
Near Fairlie. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, but not very commonly. Sometimes 
of a black colour, in crystals approaching 2 inches in size, upon crystallised 
Calcite, and forming specimens of great magnificence, a dm o twins 
(fig. 7 and Plate VI. fig. 8) ; also dm a, with Quartz. 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead, in a massive vein in the gray- 
wackes. At Glendinning, with Stibnite. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 



23 



Kirkcudbright. At Lauchentyre copper mines, with Chalcopyrite, 
Barytes, Pitchy Copper ore, and Malachite, oam (fig. 9) (D. and H.). At 
Pibble mine, with Galena, Linarite, and Hemimorphite (D. and H.). 
Carsphairn, near Woodhead, sometimes crystallised, also fibrous, with 
Galena in Calcite. 

15. Pentlandite (65). (FeNi) S. 

Var., Inverarite; 5FeS+NiS. 

Cubic. Civ., octahedral. Massive granular. Fracture uneven, brittle. 
H., 35 to 4 ; G., 46. Light pinchbeck-brown ; streak darker. Not 
magnetic. Lustre metallic. 

P3n'ognostic and chemical characters the same as in Magnetic Pjrrites, 
except that the borax bead becomes black and opaque in consequence of 
the reduction of the nickel, 

Comp., Iron, 42 ; Nickel, 22 ; Sulphur, 36 ; but variously mixed with 
Pyrrhotite, Chalcopyrite, and Pyrite. 

Analyses : a. Creag-an-Iubhair, Forbes ; 6. Creag-an-Iubhair, Rivot ; 
c. Eas a' Chosain Glen, Forbes ; d. Eas a' Chcsain Glen, Rivot. 





a. 


b. 


c. 


d. 


Iron, .... 

Nickel, 

Sulphur, 

Cobalt, - 

Arsenic, 

Insoluble, 


49-49 

11-17 

37-50 

tr. 

1-2 


50- 

13-6 

33-3 

3-i 


50-87 

10-01 

37-99 

1-02 

•04 

-38 


43-76 
14-22 
34-46 

7-35 


Total, 


99-36 


1000 


100-31 


99-79 



Argyllshire. At Eas a' Chosain Glen, 1 mile W.S.W. from Inveraray, 
with Quartz, Pyrite, and Pyrrhotite. At Creag-an-Iubhair, 10| miles 
south-west from Inveraray, west of Loch Fyne, with Chlorite, Chal- 
copyrite, and Gersdorffite. 

Crumbles very rapidly on exposure. 



16. Greenockite (68). Cd S. 

Rhombohedral. Hemimorphic. a (m), OlT, lOTO ; o (c), HI, 0001 ; 
X, 120, lOTl ; i, 231, 10T2 ; z, 13T, 2021 ; t, 6061. Crystals a o 2 and 
azxit holohedral ; all others hemihedral (Plate VI. figs. 1 and 2). 

Civ., a perfect ; o imperfect. H., 3 to 3*5 ; G., 4*8 to 4-9 Transparent 



24 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

to translucent in the lighter -coloured crystals. Opaque in the darker. 
Honey- to orange-yellow ; rarely dark brown. Streak, yellow to reddish- 
yellow. Lustre, adamantine-resinous. 

In the open tube yields sulphurous acid. In the closed tube assumes 
a carmine-red colour, which fades to the original yellow upon cooling. 
B.B. decrepitates, and either alone on charcoal or with soda gives in the 
R. flame a reddish -brown coating. Sol. in warm h. acid with evolution 
of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Comp., Cadmium, 77-7 ; Sulphur, 22- 3. 
Analyses — a, Council ; 6, Thomson : — 

Cadmium. Sulphur. 

a, Bishopton - - 77'30 22-56 

6, Do. - - 77-6 23-4 

Dumbartonshire. Bowling quarry, with Prehnite, a crystal haM 
an inch in diameter, found about 1800 (Brown). Cochno Burn (Thomson). 
Bowling, with Prehnite, 1850 (Heddle) (figs. 1 and 2). 

Renfrewshire. Bishopton railway tunnel, with Prehnite, Natrolite, 
Thomsonite, Galena, Calcite, Harmotome, and Saponite (Lord Greenock). 
Barrhead, at Boyleston quarry, with Prehnite, Natrolite, and ChrysocoUa. 

17. Millerite (70). NiS. 

Rhombohedral. R. 144-8'. 

Civ., r, and parallel to a second rhombohedron of 161° 22'. Opaque. 
Lustre metallic. H., 35 ; G., 526 to 530. Brass-yellow to bronze 
yellow, but often tarnished grey or iridescent. Streak, shining. Brittle. 
Usually either in diverging tufts of crystals or interlacing matted. Rarely 
in acicular coatings. 

In open tube sulphurous fumes. B.B. melts readily into a black 
magnetic globule which boils and sputters. Gives with borax and micro, 
salt a violet bead in O. flame, becoming grey from reduced metal in R. 
flame. Most varieties show with the fluxes also traces of copper, cobalt, 
and iron. Sol. in n.h. acid, giving a green solution. 

Comp., 64-4 Nickel, and 356 Sulphur. 

Argyllshire — Morven. At Rudha a' Chamais Bhain, half a mile 
north of Glen Sanda Castle, in a trap dyke, in tufts of crystals an inch 
in length, with rosettes of brilliant green Morenosite in Mesitine Spar, 
with Barytes, Blende, Galena, Quartz, and Calcite. Near Dunoon, in 
a quartz vein, with Chalybite in chlorite schist (Knapp). 

Fifeshire. In a quarry 1 mile west of Chapel quarry, Kirkcaldy, 
with nailhead Calcite and Chalybite (Young). At Lathalmond, 4 miles 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 25 

north of Dunfermline, in limestone, with Calcite. At Broomhall lime 
quarries with Pearlspar ; specimen in Raith Collection (Sowerby). 

Lanarkshire. North-east of Glasgow, at Blochairn fireclay quarry, 
and in fissures of clay -ironstone balls ; in divergent groups of crystals, 
which traverse cubic crystals of Galena, in fireclay, in Millstone Grit, 
on Garngad Road, leading to Provan Mill (Young). 

Renfrewshire. At PoUokshields, in the Giffnock limestone (J. F. 
Maclaren). 

Ayrshire. At Dockra quarry, 2 miles south-east of Beith, in brilliant 
crystals, sometimes two inches in length, in cavities of Productus, and, 
more generally, in fissures, with finely- crystallised Calcite, Chalcopyrite, 
and Pearlspar (Young). In Trearne limestone quarry, with Calcite 
(Craig). Not infrequent in septarian cavities in clay-ironstone balls 
in the Ayrshire coal fields. 

18. Niccolite (71). NiAs. Copper Nickel. 

Rhombohedral. Form o, HI ; a, OlT ; x, \20. Crystals very rare ; 
generally massive granular, arborescent, and reniform. No cleavage. 
Fracture uneven, with traces of conchoidal. Brittle. H., 5*5 ; G., 7-5 
to 7*7. Pale copper-red, sometimes with a violet tinge. Lustre metallic. 
Tarnishes grey to black and assumes a green skin. Streak, pale brownish- 
black. 

In the open tube evolves arsenious acid with some sulphurous acid, 
the assay becoming yellowish-green. In closed tube a faint crystalline 
deposit of arsenious acid. B.B. on charcoal gives arsenical fumes, and 
fuses to a brittle white globule, which, treated with borax glass, give 
by successive oxidation reactions foi: iron, cobalt, and nickel. Sol. in 
hot n. acid with deposition of arsenious acid. More readily in n.h. acid ; 
the solutions are green. 

Comp., Nickel, 43-9; Arsenic, 56- 1 ; generally some Cobalt. 

Stirlingshire. Campsie, at Ballagan Glen, " in small quantities." 

Linlithgowshire. At the Hilderston Hills. In a vem of Barytes, 
cutting limestone at the east base of Cairn-naple, with Barytes in crystals, 
Native Silver, Annabergite, Erythrite, Blende, Galena, Pyrite, and Brown 
Spar. In a letter of Sir Richard Martyn to the Lords of His Majesty's 
Secret Council, of date Oct. 1608, he seems to refer to Niccolite, when he 
writes — " It is held that there is in y^ Scottish ure, a substance of a matter 
which some call a marquisit, and other some an arsenick, and others a 
sulphurous matter, wch houldith the silver ; y* cannot easily be gathered 
out of the same togeithere, which poisoned matters if they could be dis- 
troyed, and the silver gott cleane out of ye same, it were a good and profit- 



26 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

able service." But the nature and value of the Niccolite was never recog- 
nised during the time this mine was first worked. It was all lost in extract- 
ing from it the filamentous native silver which, to a depth of 12 fathoms, it 
contained. Besides the large quantities thus wasted at the mines, several 
cargoes of this ore were shipped south. 

In a curious volume, entitled Bulmer's Skill, professing to be a personal 
narrative of the good and evil fortune of the author, who had a patent 
from Queen Elizabeth and James VI. of Scotland to work gold and silver 
mines, an attractive account is given of the rich argentiferous lodes of 
Hilderstone in that kingdom, and how " Sandy Maund found a heavy 
piece of red metal descended from a vein where it engendered with spar 
called cacilla." This was taken from under " Burn at Kingapple Hill," 
and was so rich that the purest assayed 24 oz. of fine silver to each hundred- 
weight of rock. Down to 12 fathoms the ore was so good that the owners 
earned a profit of £100 a day ; but it is naively added, " when this mine 
fell to the King it Avas not so rich." This " red metal " undoubtedly 
had been copper nickel. 

Sir Beavys Bulmer or Bilmour was in May 1608 appointed " maister 
and surveyair of the earth works of the late discouerit siluer myne," 
discovered by Sir Thomas Hammilton of Bynnis (Binny), King's Advocate, 
the proprietor. Bulmer, after having been " relieved " of arrears of rents 
and debts for " imposts of sea coales to the extent of £2410, due to Queene 
Elizabeth," received as salary as " maister surveyair " £2552 for the first 
year, and £2160 for the second year. 

During the short period when the mine was worked about 1870 a 
considerable quantity of Niccolite was got, having been used along with 
Barytes to fill up the old drifts. This was all sent to Germany, and was 
called platinum in the neighbourhood of the mines. Only small quantities 
of Annabergite are now (1893) to be found. The ore got between 1870 
and 1873 was incorrectly called " an arsenious sulphuret of nickel," 
instead of a sulphurous arsenuret. It was said to contain " about " 
30 per cent, of nickel, and 2 per cent, of cobalt. 

Mr. Henry Aitken, in vol. vi. of the Transactions of Mining Engineers, 
has given the following information anent the working carried on in 
1870 :— 

" A vertical shaft was sUnk to a depth of over 220 feet. This went 
considerably below the workings of the ancients. The vein lies on a 
whinstone dyke, which runs nearly east and west, with a dip to the south. 
This whin dyke is a branch or arm of a whin dyke to the west, running 
nearly north and south. A little to the east of No. 2 pit the branch whin 
dyke dies out entirely, and is represented in the limestone to the east by 
a small fault or hitch with a little spar in it but no ore. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 27 

" The strata forming the hanging wall of the vein measured vertically 
are : — 

Feet. 
Surface clay stones, - - - - - 18 

Sandstone, - - - - - - - 11 

Fakes, 37 

Whinstone, ....... 16 

Blaes, 11 

Limestone, ....... 64 

Marl, - - - 42 

Marl and whin,- ...... 36 

225 

" Near the bottom of the pit the vein almost entirely vanished. A 
bore-hole was put down to a depth of 360 feet below the bottom of the 
pit, but proved almost nothing except marl. In none of the modern 
working was silver discovered ; the former workers apparently exhausted 
the miae near the surface, and the vein proved unproductive in depth. 
The exploration of the old wastes proved that the former workers had 
worked nearly all out to a depth of about 60 feet, refilling the waste nearly 
entirely with baryta. In this a considerable quantity of nickel ore was 
found, nearly all oxidised to a powder. No silver or galena was found. 
The vein opposite the whinstone was 6 feet wide and consisted entirely 
of baryta. Opposite the blaes it carried baryta, and a very little galena — 
non- argentiferous ; opposite the limestone, baryta and a very little nickel 
ore and galena with a little silver were found. When the vein came to 
the marl it practically disappeared. The whinstone carries stringers of 
spar, but no ore. Various mines and ditches were driven, unproductively. 
A thin vein 60 yards north had a little galena, of no value. There is 
neither in the old or in these recent records evidence of the vein having 
been sufficiently traced laterally in either direction." 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, in small quantity (Brewster's Jour., 
vol. i.). 

Dumfriesshire. Wanlockhead, at West Grove mine, with Arsenic 
(Wilson). 

Kirkcudbright. At Monejrpool Burn, west of the Pibble mine, 
Creetown, with Dudgeonite and Annabergite (Dudgeon). 

19. Pyrrhotite (74). Fe^Sg. Magnetic Pyrites. 

RhombohedraL x[{s), 120, lOTl], 126° 38'; o [(c), 111, 0001]; a 
[(m), Oil, lOTO] ; zl [?]. 

Crystals rare. Sometimes hemihedral. Commonly massive, with 



28 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

conchoidal or uneven fracture, or granular. Civ., o perfect, a less so. 
Brittle. H., 3*5 to 4*5 ; G., 4'4 to 4*7. Colour bronze-yellow to reddish- 
brown, with pinchbeck-brown tarnish. Lustre metallic. Streak, dark 
greyish -black. Magnetic ; always attracted in powder by the magnet ; 
but not always affecting the needle. 

Comp., Iron, 604 ; Sulphur, 396 ; sometimes with Nickel. 

Unchanged in the closed tube. In the open tube gives sulphurous 
acid. B.B. infusible jper se ; but on charcoal in R.F. fuses to a black 
magnetic mass ; in O.F. is converted into red oxide of iron, which with 
fluxes gives often reactions of Nickel and Cobalt. Soluble in h. acid 
with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen, but leaving a residue of sulphur 

Occur generally in the older rocks. In Scotland, very common in the 
older limestones, and in small quantity in rocks of the diorite tjrpe 
As in limestone : — 

In Sutherland. At Shiness, with Sahlite and Pyrites (D. and H.) 
and in the contact rock, with Malacolite, Sphene, Molybdenite, and 
Apatite (D. and H.). Arscaig, Loch Shin (Plate VI. figs. 1 and 2), aoz I 
and hemihedral, with Malacolite, Sahlite, and Actinolite (D. and H.) 

Ross-shire. At Totaig, Loch Duich, rarely, with Serpentine (D. and 
H.). In Malacolite, near Keppoch (H. and Currie). 

Inverness-shire. Glen Urquhart, in the Milltown limestone, with 
Edenite, Zoisite, Sphene, and Biotite. Grantown, at Achnagonalin 
quarry, with Zoisite, Cinnamonstone, Sahlite, and impure Saponite. 
Laggan, Dulnain Bridge, with Zoisite, Pjrrite, Galena, Blende, and Sahlite. 

Hebrides — Harris. Rodil, in limestone, with Malacolite. Tiree, 
rarely. At Ballyphetrish, with Sphene, Sahlite, Malacolite, and Graphite, 
in limestone. 

Banffshire. At Redhythe, with green Talc, white Biotite, and 
Rutile. Limehillock, IJ miles north-east of Grange, with Pyrite, 
Margarodite, and Calcite. 

Aberdeenshire. Between Glen Bucket and Glen Nochty, with 
Margarodite, Rutile, Actinolite, and Pyrite. Deskry, with Graphite and 
Margarodite. Forester Hill, with Sphene, Andesine, Biotite, Talc, 
Chlorite, Augite, Pyrite, and Actinolite ; but rare. Deeside, throughout 
its limestones. As at Muir and at Midstrath, with Malacolite, Sphene, 
Graphite, and Fluor. CorntuUoch, with Malacolite, Graphite, and 
WoUastonite. Crathie, with Idocrase, Wollastonite, Sahlite, Greenovite 
Garnet, Biotite, Fluor, Actionolite, and, rarely, Pyrite. At Leac Ghorm, 
with Idocrase, Garnet, Malacolite, Biotite, and Andesine. Glen Gairn, 
at Delnabo quarry, with Idocrase, Cinnamonstone, Apatite, Prehnite, 
Epidote, Greenovite, Wollastonite, Coccolite, Andesine, Actinolite, Sahlite, 
and rarely Pyrite. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 29 

Perthshire— Glenshee. In the limestone of Glenbeg rarely. Blair 
Athole, at Edintian quarry, south of Tulach Hill, Blair Athole, with 
Ripidolite, Ilmenite, Sphene, and Biotite — Anal. Loch Tay, with 
Malacolite. 

Pyrrhotite of Edintian. 

Sulphur, 38-544 

Iron, 60-33 

Silica, -153 

Carbonate of Lime, - - - 1-538 



100-665 



Forfarshire. Tarfside, on the west shoulder of Craigsoales, with 
Malacolite. 

FiFESHiRE. Kirkcaldy, in Chapel quarry. 

In diorite, it occurs in small specks occasionally, in the rock which 
passes up the country from Portsoy in Banffshire : as near the Old 
Battery, at Craigbuirach, in Glen Bucket, and on the Deskry limestone, 
with Graphite and Talc ; at the last localities, Sphene, Ilmenite, and 
AUanite are rare associates. 

In other rocks Pjn-rhotite occurs : — 

Argyllshire. About a mile east of the mansion-house of 
Ballachulish, near the junction of the granite with mica slate, but in 
the latter with garnets. At Appin, massive (Greg). 

Banffshire. At Portsoy, in clay slate, west of the serpentine, with 
bronzy Biotite. 

Perthshire. On the Cairn well rarely. Tay mouth, in a vein in the 
Sawmill Burn (Allt a' Bhealaich, oi Taymouth Burn), with Pyrite and 
Chalcopyrite. 

Kirkcudbrightshire. In the Galloway Hills (Greg). Palnure, 
Cairnsmore, Newton Stewart, with 4-36 per cent, of Nickel, associated 
with Mis])ickel. 

INTERMEDIATE DIVISION. 

20. Bornite (78). SCugS. Fe^^Sg. Purple Copper, Erubescite. 

Cubic, a 100 ; olll; c^Oll; n2ll. The faces a usually rough or 
curved. Twin face o. Cleavage o, traces. Generally massive. Fracture 
conchoidal to uneven. Streak, greyish-black. H., 3 ; G., 4*9 to 5-1. 
Colour between copper-red and pinchbeck- brown. Acquires generally an 
iridescent tarnish, at first red or brown, ultimately violet and blue. Lustre 
metallic. Structure compact, sometimes granular. Sectile. Slightly 
brittle. 

In the open tube yields sulphurous acid, but no sublimate. In the 
closed tube a very small amount of sulphur. B.B. on charcoal turns 
black, but reddens on cooling ; after long exposure to the R. flame fuses 



30 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 



to a brittle magnetic bead, of a stool-grey colour externally, but greyish- 
red on the fracture. With borax and soda yields a globule of coi:n)er. 
Moistened with h. acid colours the flame blue. Sol. in strong h. acid, 
with separation of sulphur. 

Comp., Copper, 55-57 ; Iron, 16-37 ; Sulphur, 28-06. 

Ross-shire — Loch Carron. Loch Kishorn. In limestone, at the 
Rapal mines, with Malachite and Brochantite (Nicol). 

Perthshire, Birnam Hill clay slate quarry, with Chlorite, in Quartz 
(Peyton). 

Renfrewshire. Gourock, near Drumshantie, with Malacite, in 
sandstone. 



21. Chalcopyrite. (83) Fe^S,. CuS. Copper Pyrites. 

Pjrramidal. Usually with tetrahedral or double tetrahedral habit 
P., 109° 53 pyr., ^p on :p tet., 71-20 ; A.V. 1, 0-98556. 

[c, 001 ; a, 100 ; m, 110 ; w, 301 ; r, 332 ; t, 221 ; p, 111 ; x, 113 ; 
g, 203 ; e, 101 ; h, 302 ; v, 316 ; k, 511 ; d, 114 ; s, 513 ; o=p ; z, 201 ; 
n, 112; ^?]. depnvk are usually hemihedral with inclined faces. 
1. Twin-face a. 2. Twin-face p. 3. Twin-face e. The twins on p often 
many times repeated in parallel arrangement ; those on e repeated 
parallel to the four terminal edges of the pjrramid, producing with a sixth 
individual united by the same law a composite octahedral form. 



w a 


161° 34' 


r c 


115° 34' 


n n' 


132° 19' 


m a 


135° 


tc 


109° 44' 


e e' 


120° 30' 


a a 


90° 


m c 


90° 


e n 


150° 15' 


gc- 


146° 42' 


V c 


152° 33' 


p e 


144° 20' 


e c 


135° 25' 


ka 


164° 07' 


pp' 


109° 53' 


he 


124° 05' 


pa 


125° 03' 


hh' 


108° 18' 


z c 


116° 54' 


r 
e a 


90° 


pz 


140° 54' 


a c 


90° 


dd' 


155° 06' 


zz' 


101° 50' 


a c 


160° 47' 


xx' 


145° 20' 


r r' 


100° 44' 


xc 


155° 05' 


V X 


168° 06' 


it' 


96° 33' 


n c 


145° 08' 


gx 


157° 09' 


e,e 


89° 11' 


pc 


125° 40 


gg' 


134° 19' 


z^z 


126° 12' 



Commonly compact and 
Civ., z perfect. Fracture 



Crystals generally small and misshapen, 
disseminated ; also botryoidal and reniform. 
conchoidal to uneven. H., 3-5 to 4 ; G., 41 to 43. Colour brass yellow, 
often with a gold yellow or iridescent tarnish (peacock copper ore). Streak, 
greenish-black ; p and m often striated. Brittle. Lustre metallic. 

In the closed tube decrepitates, and gives a sublimate of sulphur. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 31 

B.B. on charcoal becomes darker or black, and on cooling red. Melts 
easily and quietly into a brittle, grey, magnetic, globule. Colours glass 
of borax green. After long roasting in R. flame with soda or borax yields 
a bead of copper ; moistened with h. acid colours the flame blue. Sol. in 
n. acid, depositing sulphur, forming a green solution which, with excess 
of ammonia, becomes intensely purplish -blue. 

Comp., Copper, 34-5 ; Iron, 30-5 ; Sulphur, 35. 

Shetland. Mainland at Sandlodge. In a vein of Chalybite, cp xaz 
tetrahedral (Plate VI. fig. 1), and p za k triplet (fig. 2). At Cunningsburgh 
Cliffs (Greg). At Gathsness, Quendale Bay, massive in a vein of Pyrito 
traversing blue quartz (Hibbert). Fair Isle^ at Dunrossness, foliated 
(Greg). 

Sutherland. Lairg, at Ord Hill, in quartz veins in red " syenite," 
with Rock Crystal, very rare, p y, twins (Plate VII. fig. 3), p z (fig. 4), 
pmz (fig. 5), pms CO (fig. 6), and p a. South of Rhiconich, in a vein 
with ChrysocoUa, in Hebridean Gneiss (D. and H.). 

Elgin. At Lossiemouth. 

Argyllshire. Loch Fyne, at St. Catherines. Erins, 3J miles N.N.W. 
of Tarbert, with Chalybite, Gothite, Pseudo-Magnetite, and Byssolite. 
South-west of Inverneil, Cant3n:'e, with Galena and Chalybite, in quartz 
veins, cutting mica slate. In the Kilmartin estate, wrought for many 
years. In Kilbrandon and Kilchattan (Raspe). 

Aberdeenshire. Inverurie, in Dobston quarry, in gneiss, with 
Epidote and Ilmenite. 

Perthshire. Glen Tilt, in the quartz veins which traverse the schist 
(MacCuUoch). Taymouth, in the quartz veins of the hills which form 
Kenmore plantation, with Galena, Pyrite, and blue and green Malachite. 
In an old quarry in Taymouth Park ; also in the Sawmill Burn, with 
Pyrite and Pyrrhotite. At Ardtalanaig, with Blende and Barytes. At 
Tomnadashan, in porphyry vein, with Galena, Fahlerz, Pyrite, and 
Molybdenite. In the banks of the stream above Ardeonaig, with Galena, 
in mica slate. In the veins at Coriie Buidhe Mine, with Galena. In 
Newtyle quarry, with Pyrite and Chlorite. Dunkeld, in a vein on the 
south side of Craigie Barns. Ben Ledi, in the channel of a burn on the 
east side, with Chalybite and Galena, in mica slate. Tyndrum, in Clifton 
mine, with Galena, Blende, Barytes, Calcite, Quartz, and Felspar, in 
Quartz. At Forgandenny, on the banks of the May. At Aberfoil, with 
crystallised Barytes, in a vein thereof on the north-west side of Arndrum 
Hill. 

FiFESHiRE. In Magus Muir limestone quarry, with Aragonite, Quartz, 
and Gothite. 

Stirlingshire. At Alva, with ores of silver, lead, and cobalt. 



32 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

Midlothian. Corstorphine Hill, east quarry, in Prehnite druses, 
j> z (fig. 7). West Calder, at Addiewell, with Barytes and Calcspar on 
Pearlspar, associated with Asphalt and Salt, in a coal pit (Stuart Thomson). 
In Elgin Colliery. 

Linlithgowshire. In veins of Barytes, cutting limestone, on the 
roadside north of North Silver Mine limestone quarry. Hilderston, in 
the Binny estate, Bathgate. 

Peeblesshire. In an old quarry at Stonypath. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, with Quartz, Galena, and Blende ; 
i>Mfig. 7). 

Ayrshire. At Dockra quany, Beith, with Calcite and Milleiite 
(Craig). At Stair, with Stibnite, in lands of Dalmore. 

Berwickshire. Top of Stainishill Hill [? Staneshiel Hill], in Quartz, 
with Galena. 

Dumfriesshire — Wanlockhead. West Grove mine, with Calcite, 
VV (fig- 8). 

Kirkcudbrightshire. Colvend, on the Urr. At Pibble mine, with 
Linarite, Galena, and Pyromorphite (D. and H.). Door of Cairnsmore. 
At Castle Douglas. Gatehouse, at Cally mine. Lauchentyre, with 
Barytes on Quartz, jp p' (fig. 8) (D. and H.). Kings Laggan, with Pitchy 
Copper ore and Malachite (D. and H.). At Kells, in several places with 
Galena. Newton Stewart, at Black Craig mine, with pink Dolomite. 
Palnure, with Pyrrhotite. Balcary, jp z (fig. 7) ; pp s (fig. 9). 

DISULPHIDES, &c. 

22. Pyrite (85). FeS^. 

Cubic. Pentagonal dodecahedron in excess, and so common as to 
give to this form the name Pyritohedron ; striae produced by oscillations 
of it with the cube visible. Crystals often distorted ; t rough. 

[a, 100 ; o, 111 ; e, 120 ; /, 310 ; t, 241 ; s, 231 ; d, Oil ; n, 211 ; 
m, 311 ; g, 320 ; p, 122 ; v, 531 ; z, 543 ; w, 522 ; X, 11.5.2 ; c, 710 ; L, 
10.8.7.] The forms e, /, s, t, g, z, v generally hemihedral, with parallel faces. 
Twins. 1. Twin face o, either single or repeated parallel to each other, 
producing thus forms consisting of combined pyritohedrons, or a cube 
which has striae on each face parallel to its sides, and which meet at an 
angle along the diagonals. 2. Twin face a. 

Also reniform, globular, or stalactitic. Sometimes internally radiated, 
subfibrous. Often massive, or pseudomorphous. 

Civ., a and o both difficult. Brittle. Fracture conchoidal to uneven. 
Opaque. Lustre metallic, upon o splendent. Brass-yellow, rarely gold 
yellow, often brown from decomposition. Rarely tarnished with brilliant 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 33 

colours. Streak groenish-grcy to brownish-black. When broken emits 
the smell of sulphur. Strikes fire with steel. H., 6 to 6-5 ; G., 4-9 to 5-2. 

Heated in closed tubes sulphur sublimes. B.B. on charcoal bums with 
a blue flame, and odour of sulphurous acid. In inner flame fuses to a 
magnetic globule, which gives a bottle-green colour to borax. Sol. in n. 
acid with residue of sulphur. Comp., Iron, 467 ; Sulphur, 53'3. The 
brown or hepatic varieties sometimes show a gold colour when broken. 
Common in rocks of all ages. 

Shetland — Fetlar. At Smithfield, Gruting Voe, with Chlorite, a 
(Plate VII. fig. 1), in mica schist (Dudgeon). 

Sutherland. At Ceannabeinne, imbedded in radiated Actinolite, 
a,ao (Plate VIII. fig. 2), in the Hebridean gneiss. 

Ross-shire. In Strath Farrar, ao ens (Plate VIII. fig. 3), in gneiss, 
with Graphite. Loch Maree^ at Ardlair, in limestone (Plate VIII. fig. 4), 
a on. 

Inverness-shire. On the north-east side of Alsait Hill, near Tomin- 
toul, e,ae (Plate VIII. figs. 5 and 6), with Chlorite, in gneiss. 

Hebrides — Shiant Islands. Eilan Mhuire. In a cave at the neck 
on the north-east end of the island, a, a o, in dolerite with Magnetite, 
Analcime, Nepheline, Labradorite, and Saponite. Skye, in Liassic shales, 
north-east of the Storr Rock, in aggregate crystals (Plate VIII. fig. 7 and 
frontispiece, vol. ii.) (Necker). Jura. In gneiss, on the shore of Small 
Isles harbour. Islay, at the lead mine near Port Askaig, a o (Currie). 

Argyllshire — Morven. Glen Sanda. In a vein in gneiss, on the 
north of Beinn a' Chaisil, efo 522 (w), 421, t (Plate IX. fig. 17), with 
Galena and Blende. Dunoon, in masses of Quartz, with Chlorite, in the 
banks of the Dirty Burn, a foes (Plate X. fig. 18). Strontian, with 
Calcite, a eo, at Bellsgrove, and a o at Corrantee (Currie). 

Elginshire. Ashgrove. In limestone, with Glauconite, and Calcite, 
a e (Plate IX. fig. 10). 

Nairnshire. At Piperhill quarry, in sandstone, with Calcite on 
Blende. Tarnished crystals, and elongated cubes (Plate VIII. figs. 8 
and 9), e (Aitken). 

Banffshire. At Boyndie, with Pilolite, in limestone, a eo (Plate 
IX. fig. 11). At Limehillock, near Grange, with Margarodite, Pj^rhotite, 
and Calcite, ado. 

Aberdeenshire. At the balloch between Glen Bucket and Glen 
Nochty, with Rutile, Pyrrhotite, and Margarodite, a s (Plate IX. fig. 12) ; 
and ao s (Palte IX. fig. 13). Of a bright golden yellow, in plumose scales, 
on Serpentine in Bruntland Park quarry, Belhelvie Hills. 

Perthshire. At Stob Coire Bhuidhe, a, hepatic, with Chlorite. With 
Garnet on Ben Vorlich, and on Stuc a' Chroin in gneiss. Dunkeld, 

c 



34 SULPHIDES, ETC. 

in clay slate in the quarry on the east of the Tay, in large striated cubes 
(Peyton). These have apparently a cubic cleavage, along which portions 
are shifted. Columnar, and corded with Specular Iron, in clay slate, 
Birnman Hill quarries. Loch Tay, Tomnadashan mines, with Molybdenite 
and Fahlerz^ in small, but fine, crystals, feot^aoens,aedot 11.5.2 (Z), 
aons eg d (Plate IX. figs. 14, 15, 16). On Creag na Caillich, near Killin, 
in mica schist, a. One mile north of head of Loch Turret, in gneiss, a o, 
a eo, somewhat hepatic. In the limestone of Athole, in 1-inch cubes 
(MaccuUoch). 

FiFESHiRE. At Chapel quarry, in limestone, eom (Plate X. fig. 19) 
(Jameson Torry). At Crombie Point, in sandstone, a. Elie, at Kincraig, 
in Lower Carboniferous tufa, a, a o. 

Stirlingshire. Above Westerton, Alva, in seams of leek-green 
" Steatite " in basaltic clinkstone [andesite], a. 

Midlothian. West Calder, at Skolie Burn, in fine cubes (Stuart 
Thomson). 

Lanarkshire — Leadhills. Glen Crieve, ao e (Plate X. fig. 20), 
ao e 710 (c) g (Plate X. fig. 21) ; also stalactitic and botryoidal. 

Dumfriesshire — Wanlockhead. West Groove muie, with Calcite, 
ao,ado,aeotp 10.8.7 (L), (Plate X. fig. 22), aeo (Wfison). At Glen- 
dinning (Greg). 

Kirkcudbrightshire. At the Black Craig mine, Newton Stewart, 
with Dolomite, Chalcopyrite, Calcite, and Erythrite, in elongated cubo- 
octahedra (Dudgeon). 

Reniform and globular Pyrite occurs at | Clashgorum, Strontian ; at 
Glen Crieve, Leadhills (Wilson) ; and at Crofthead, Lanarkshire, in clay 
ironstone. Stalactitic at Glen Crieve (Wilson). 

Massive Pyrites was wrought at Quendale, Mainland, Shetland, and 
at Craigthorn Hill, 1 mile east of West Quarter, Stirlingshire, in a vein 
9 inches thick, in trap, near ironstone. 

Hepatic Pyrites occurs in cubes, with Chlorite, in quartz, at Vanlup, 
Hillswick, Shetland, and at Easter Turrerich, Glen Quoich (Doran). 

The Pjnrites which is imbedded in Pentlandite in the wood above 
Inverary Castle, Eas a' Chosain Glen, yielded Forbes : — Iron, 45-73 ; 
Nickel, 1-99 ; Cobalt, 1-24 ; Copper, 118 ; Sulphur, 49-32 ; insol., -06= 
99-52. The sulphur here is insufficient for the metals, so that there may 
be an admixture with Pyrrhotite. Instead of the colour, however, being 
more bronzy, and the lustre duller, the colour approaches to that of 
Chalcopyrite, and the lustre is very high. 

23. Smaltite (87). (Co, Fe, Ni.)As.^. 

Cubic. Generally a o, but also granular, compact, and reticulated. 



SULPHIDES, ETC. 



35 



Clv., octahedral ; also cubic. Fracture uneven. Brittle. Lustre dull 
metallic to shining. H., 5-5 ; G., 6*4 to 7-3. Colour tin white to steel 
grey. Streak, greyish -black. Tarnishes dull on exposure. Brittle. 
Evolves odour of Arsenic when heated, rubbed, or broken. 

Comp., simplest : Cobalt, 28-2 ; Arsenic, 71-8. If cobalt, iron, and 
nickel are present in equal parts : Cobalt, 9-4 ; Nickel, 9-5 ; Iron, 9 ; 
Arsenic, 72*1. In closed tube gives sublimate of metallic arsenic ; in the 
open tube a white sublimate of arsenious acid. B.B. on charcoal gives 
arsenical odour and fuses to a globule, Avhich, with borax, gives, on 
successive additions, reactions for iron, cobalt, and nickel. 

Stirlingshire. At Alva, with Native, Silver, Annabergite, and 
Erythrite. Said formerly to have occurred at Linlithgowshire, in the 
HildQrston Hills : — ? Craig's (old mine N.E.) in Calcite ; worked by 
Capt. Jinks (Greg). 



24. Gersdorflite (90). 



NiS,. 



NiAs. 



Cubic. Crystals usually a o e, a, o. Clv., cubic. Generally granular, 
massive, or lamellar. H., 5-5 ; G., 6 to 6-9. Lustre metallic. Silver 
white to steel grey, but often tarnished grey or greyish -black. Streak, 
greyish -black. Fracture uneven. Brittle. In open tube yields sulphurous 
fumes, and white sublimate of arsenious acid. In closed tube decrepitates 
and gives a yelloAvish -brown sublimate of sulphide of arsenic. B.B. on 
charcoal gives garlic odour and sulphurous fumes, and fuses to a slag, 
which with borax gives first reactions of iron, and, with an increase of 
the flux, of cobalt, and lastly of nickel. Sol. in n. acid, giving a green 
solution with deposition of sulphur and arsenious acid. Comp., varying — 
the formula gives Nickel 35-2, Arsenic 45-4, Sulphur 19-4, but generally 
some Iron and Cobalt. 

Analysis from Creag-an-Iubhair, S.G., 5-49 to 5-65, Forbes, 



As. 


Ni. 


Co. 


Fe. 


Mn. 


Cu. 


Mg. 


S. 


Insol. 


Total. 


34-45 
35-84 


21-59 
23.16 


6-32 
6.64 


13-12 
11-02 


•33 
n.d. 


tr. 


•66 
n.d. 


20-01 
19-75 


2-71 

2-60 


99-19 



Argyllshire. Creag-an-Iubhair, Loch Fjnie. Occurs in a cross 
course vein, 1 to 2 inches in width, intersecting the main lode of Pentlandite 
(Forbes and H.). [St. Catherine's, and Eas a' Chosain Glen.] 

25. Marcasite (96). FeSg. 

Orthorhombic. [M (c), 001 ; r (v), 013 ; I, 101 g (e), OIL] Twin 
face M, rarely g. Crystals tabular, thin-prismatic or pyramidal. Clv., M. 



36 

Fracture uneven. Brittle. H., 6 ; G., 4-65 to 4-88. Bronze yellow to 
greenish -grey, often with brown crust or tarnished in dull colours. Streak, 
greenish- or brownish-grey. B.B., etc., like pyrite. Composition the 
same, rarely with some arsenic. Very prone to decomposition, being 
changed into green vitriol, which may be detected by tlie tongue. When 
triturated, evolves the smell of sulphur. Occurs also stalactitic, 
botryoidal, globular, fibrous, and pseudomorphous. Generally found 
in the newer geological formations, and in coal, marl, and clay. Except 
along with coal it is very rare in Scotland. 

Orkney — Mainland. In an old lead mine west of the Point of Ness, 
Stromness, coating sandstone, with Blende. 

Caithness. At Gie-uisg Geo, in cockscomb forms (Plate X. fig. 1), 
with Galena, Blende, Calcite, and Asphalt. 

Aberdeenshire. North-east of Gairn Bridge, massive, in gneiss 
(Nicol and H.). 

Argyllshire. Jura, shore of Small Isles Bay, with Epidote, in gneiss. 
Strontian, at Corrantee, in cockscomb forms (Currie). 

Sphsero- crystalline in coal rifts (cleat), at Balbirnie, Fife, and elsewhere, 
along with coal. 

26. Mispickel (98). FeSg. FeAs. 

Orthorhombic. [M (m), 110; r {u), 104; s {n), 102; I {q), 101; 
g 111.] Twins, M common, g rarer. Also massive and columnar. Civ., 
M. Fracture uneven, brittle. H., 5-5 to 6 ; G., 6 to 6-2 Silver white to 
steel grey ; rarely tarnished reddish -brown. Streak, black. In closed 
tube yields first a red and then a brown sublimate of sulphide of arsenic ; 
lastly, metallic arsenic. B.B. on charcoal, after the arsenic has been 
volatilised, fuses to a dark magnetic globule, which behaves like magnetic 
pyrites. Sol. in n. or n.h. acid with separation of arsenious acid and some 
sulphur. Comp., Iron 34-3, Arsenic 46-1, Sulphur 19-6, sometimes Silver 
or Gold, or 5 to 9 of Cobalt. 

Generally associated with ores of cobalt, silver, or nickel. More rarely 
per se imbedded in chlorite. 

Inverness-shire. Shore of Loch Ness. In white limestone, with 
" Chondrodite " (Greg). 

Elginshire. Stotfield, Lossiemouth, in cherty rock [Trias]. 

Kincardineshire. Massive in quartz, at Stonehaven (Greg). 

Perthshire. At Lochearnhead, in calcareous schist, with Galena ; 
yielding 6 oz. of gold per ton. At Ardtalanaig, argentiferous, with Pjo-ite, 
Chalcopyrite, Blende, Galena, Malachite, and Fahlerz. With Molybdenite 
at Tomnadashan. 

Stirlingshire. Formerly at Alva, with Erythrite, Black Cobalt, 



SULPHO-SALTS. 37 

Native Silver, and Argentito. At Airthroy, with Fahlerz, in Barytes and 
Calcito (Thomson). 

Kirkcudbright. At Pahiuro, Caimsmore, Newton Stewart. 

OXYSULPHIDES. 

27. Kermesite (107). SbgOg. 2Sb2S3. 

Monoclinic. Crystals usually acicular and diverging. Civ., basal. 
H., 1-15 ; G., 4-5 to 4-6. Semitransparent ; adamantine. Cherry red. 
Streak, brownish -red. Sol. in h. acid. Comp., Antimony 75-3, Sulphur 
19-8, and Oxygen 4-9. 

Ayrshire. Occurs as a pulverulent coating, investing Antimonite, 
and associated with Cervantite, in a quartz vein traversing an eruptive 
rock, at Hare Hill, New Cumnock. 



Class III. SULPHO-SALTS. 

ORTHO-DIVISION. 

28. Bournonite (136). (PbiCu.,)3Sb2S6. [3(Pb,Cu2)S.Sb2S3.] 

Orthorhombic. [a, 100 ; b, 010 ; c, 001 ; m, 110 ; n (o), Oil ; o [n), 
101 ; z, 021 ; x, 102.]. Twins. Twin face m. Cleavage a indistinct ; 6 an 
c less distinct. Fracture conchoidal, uneven. Opaque. Lustre metallic. 
Steel grey, inclining to lead grey or iron black. Streak, similar. Brittle. 
H., 2-5 to 3 ; G., 5-7 to 5-87. Often massive or granular. 

In open tube disengages sulphurous acid, and gives off white fumes, 
which deposit as sublimate of antimony oxide at the upper part of the 
tube, and of antimonite of lead at the lower part. 

B.B. on charcoal decrepitates, fuses for a time, give^ off white fumes, 
and then sets to a black globule, which, on the heat being further urged, 
yields a sublimate of oxide of lead ; and then on the removal of the lead, 
produces a globule of copper. 

Partially soluble in n. acid, forming a blue solution, and leaving a 
residue of sulphur and of oxide of antimony. Partially decomposed by 
n.h. acid, leaving a residue of sulphur, of lead chloride, and of antimonite 
of lead. 

Comp., Lead, 42-4 ; Copper, 13 ; Antimony, 25 ; and Sulphur, 19-6. 

Argyllshire — Morven. — Glen Sanda, at Allt na Meinne, with 
Galena. 



38 SULPHO-SALTS. 

BASIC DIVISION. 

29. Tetrahedrite (148). 4CU2S. SbgSg. 

Cubic and tetrahedral. [a, 100 ; 0, 111 ; (Z, Oil ; /, 310 ; n, 211 ; 
m, 311 ; y [r], 233 ; s, 321] ; o, m, n, y are hemihedral, with inclined taces. 

aa, 90° ; oa, 125° 16' ; dd' , 120° ; 00^, 70° 32' ; od, 144° 44' ; on, 160° 
32'; ad, 135°; nd' , 150°; om, 150° 30'; os, 157° 47'; oy, 169° 49'; 
yd, 135° 27'; an, 144° 41' ; af, 161° 34' ; df, 153° 26' ; as, 143° 18'; 
am, 154° 36'. 

and n striated parallel with their intersections with each other ; 
d sometimes rough ; the smaller of the faces o^ o' very rough. 

Twins. Twin face 0, tetrahedron in a reversed position, and also 
interpenetrating. Cleavage imperfect ; sometimes traces parallel to 
a and d. Fracture conchoidal, uneven. Opaque, in thin splinters 
cherry-red. Lustre metallic. Steel-grey and flint-grey to iron-black. 
Streak, black, sometimes brown or cherry -red, if much zinc is present. 
Brittle. Sometimes massive, granular, or compact. H., 3 to 4 ; G., 4-5 
to 5-2. 

In closed tube all varieties fuse and give a dark red subUmate of 
sulphide of antimony. If mercury is present, a faint dark-grey sublimate 
appears at a low red heat ; and if there is much arsenic a sublimate of 
sulphide of arsenic first appears. 

In the open tube fuses, evolves sulphurous fumes, and deposits a 
white sublimate of antimony. If arsenic is present, a crystalline volatile 
sublimate condenses with the antimony. If mercury is present, it 
condenses in the cold portion of the tube in minute shining globules. 

B.B. on charcoal decrepitates, emits sulphurous acid, and deposits 
a sublimate, which consists of antimonious acid, and sometimes arsenious 
acid, oxide of zinc, or oxide of lead. The arsenic may be detected by the 
odour in the R. flame ; the oxide of zinc becomes green when heated 
with cobalt solution. The roasted residue melts easily with slight 
ebullition into a steel-grey slag, which is usually magnetic, and with borax 
fuses into a grey metallic bead, which with soda yields a globule of copper. 

Directly to determine the presence of small traces of arsenic by the 
odour it is best to fuse the mineral on charcoal with soda. Mercury is 
best directly ascertained by fusing the powdered ore in a close tube with 
three times its weight of dry soda, — the volatilised metal condenses in 
minute globules. Silver may be determined by cupellation. 

The powdered mineral is decomposed by n. acid, with disengagement 
of nitrous fumes, and separation of antimony oxide, arsenious acid, and 
sulpur. The solution has a brownish-green colour. In powder it is 



SULPHO-SALTS — HALOIDS. 39 

also partially decomposed by caustic potash, which dissolves out the 
suli)hides of antimony and arsenic, which are precipitated of an orange -red 
or lemon-yellow colour on the addition of an acid. 

Composition very various, from replacement of the copper by iron, 
zinc, silver, or mercury ; and of the antimony by arsenic or bismuth. 

Shetland. Mainland, at Sandlodge mine, with Chalcopyrito and 
Malachite, in veins in Old Red Sandstone. 

Inverness-shire — Skye. At the Echoing Cliff, north of Quiraing, in 
zeolitic cavities, with Chabazite, Gyrolite, and Plynthite. 

Perthshire. At Tomnadashan on Loch Tay, argentiferous, with, 
Chalcopyrite, Pyrite, Molybdenite, and Galena, in a vein in por]>hyry, 
on (Plate X. fig. 1). 

Stirlingshire. At Airthrey in the Ochil Hills, with Mispickel, in 
veins in dark brown trap tuff. The veinstone being Barytes and Calcite. 
At Blairlogie, with ChrysocoUa, in Barytes. 

Haddingtonshire. At Fasony Burn. 

Berwickshire. On the Whiteadder above Hoardweel, north-east of 
Cockburn Law% with Malachite, in schists [argillites] which alternate 
with graywacke. 

Old reports on the Airthrey ore describe it as light steel-grey, tarnishing 
dull lead-grey. Sometimes tarnished like tempered steel. Hardness that 
of Calcite. Fracture, small grained. Massive. Brittle. Lustre shining 
and metallic, but speedily tarnishing. S.G., 4*878. 

The rough ore yielded — 

Iron, - - - - - 51 

Copper, ... - 19-2 

Arsenic, - - - - 15-7 

Sulphur, .... 14-4 

100-3 (Thomson), 
but was largely contaminated with Pyrite and Mispickel. 

This indicates rather a Tennantite, than a Tetrahedrite (Currie). 



Class IV. HALOIDS. 



ANHYDROUS CHLORIDES AND FLUORIDES. 
30. Halite (166). NaCl. Common Salt. 

Cubic, [a, 100; o. 111; d, 110; e, 210; s, 321.]. Civ., cubic. 
Granular and stalactitic. Transparent or translucent. Colourless, or 



40 HALOIDS. 

white, blue, grey, brown, and yellow. Brittle. Fracture conclioidal. 
Lustre vitreous. Soluble in three parts of water. Taste saline. Slightly 
deliquescent. Thin polished plates transmit heat rays. H., 2; G., 2-2. 

B.B. fuses and slowly sublimes. Colours the flame yellow. Pre- 
cipitates soluble silver salts white. Comp., Sodium, 39"3 ; Chlorine, 60-7. 

Occurs in beds, or as an efflorescence, as a sublimation from volcanoes, 
in solution in spring waters, and in the ocean. 

Edinburghshire. Midcalder, at Pumpherston, in cavities in the 
oil shales, with saline water, associated with fine crystals of Barytes, and 
with Calcite, Pearlspar, and Bitumen (Stuart Thomson). 

[Pseudomorphs of Rock-Salt, sometimes represented by cubic vacuities, 
and sometimes by casts, occur in various formations and localities in Scot- 
land. In the first form they are found in the sediments of the Earn about 
one mile above the Bridge of Earn, in the second they occur near the Poet's 
Glen near Currie, the casts being in sandstone, and as much as an inch 
across. They also occur as hopper-shaped pseudomorphs on the surface 
of some of the New Red Marls, near Kildonan, in the south-east of Arran 
(Goodchild).] 

31. Salmiac (168). NH4CI. Salammoniac. 

Cubic. Octahedral, also stalactitic and as an efflorescence. Colour 
white, yellow, and grey. Fracture and lustre vitreous. Translucent. 
Taste pungent. H., 1-5 to 2 ; G., 1-5 to 1-6. 

B.B. completely volatile in white fumes. When triturated with lime 
evolves a pungent odour. Soluble in less than three times its weight in 
water. Comp., Ammonium, 33-6 ; Chlorine, 66-4. 

Usually occurs in the neighbourhood of volcanoes ; in this country 
in the vicinity of ignited coal seams, as at West Wemyss in Fife, and at 
Hurlet, near Paisley in Renfrewshire. 

32. Fluor (175). CaF. Bruiachite. 

Cubic, [a, 100 ; 0, 111 ; d, Oil ; m, 311 ; n, 211 ; t, 421 ; p, 122 ; 
/, 130 ; k, 250 ; w {v) 731 ; x, 11.5.3.] Civ., octahedral, perfect ; 6^ and a 
traces. Fracture conchoidal, difficult. Usually crystalline, also 
divergent-crystalline, granular, and compact. Brittle. Hemitropes on 
o. Twins parallel to each face of 0. Faces a smooth, or striated parallel 
to ^ or / ; and / rough, the former sometimes made up of small cubes. 
and a sometimes with rectangular cavities. When pure, transparent. 
Of many colours ; in Scotland, colourless, white, honey-yellow, blue, 
purple, violet, emerald-green, sap-green. Colours sometimes disposed 
two or more in layers parallel to faces of a and 0, or the solid angles of a cube 
of one colour are made up by another. The colours differ as thoy are 



HALOIDS. 41 

seen by reflected or by transmitted light. Lustre vitreous. H., 4 ; 
G., 302 to 3-25. 

B.B. decrepitates and fuses to an opaque bead, colouring the flame 
red. Gently heated sometimes phosphoresces with different tints of light. 
Sol. in s. acid, with evolution of fumes of hydrofluoric acid, which corrode 
glass. Not readily decomposed by h. or n. acids. 

Occurs in beds, but generally in veins ; in granite, gneiss, clay slate, 
mica slate ; also in sandstones, in limestones, both crystalline and un- 
crystalline, in porphyry, and in amygdaloid. Frequently the ganguo of 
metallic ores. 

Shetland. Mainland, west shore of Sand wick Bay, Hills wick, pale 
pea-green (Copland). Hillswick promontory at North Quin Geo, o (PI. X. 
fig. 1) violet, in Calcite, with Epidotc, in veins in diorite. Papa Stour, 
at the Ku'ksands, south end, in an amygdaloidal claystone in druses lined 
with Chalcedony, Quartz, Calcite, and Barytes, the Fluor being upper- 
most. It is in pale violet and dark blue cubes (<Tameson). Saponite also is 
associated with it. On the north east shore of Kirkavoe, crystallised 
in druses in the same rock with amethystine Quartz, in cubes, built up 
of alternating layers of colourless and deep purple tints. 

Caithness. At the Ord. At the Burn of Ousdale near a rocky 
gorge over which the stream falls, at a short distance from its mouth ; 
in imbedded concretions in granite ; also in small cubic crystals, and in 
veins of a deep purple (Cunningham). Imbedded in a reticulated manner 
in the granite of the ridge from Culgower to Loth, of a blue colour (Joass.) 

Sutherland. In " syenite " at Lairg (Cunningham). In the 
" syenite " boulder on the west side of Ben Bhreac, Tongue ; with 
Amazonstone, Babingtonite, Orangite, Magnetite, etc. ; of a pale purple. 

Ross-shire. Abriachan granite quarry, in blue cubic crystals, with 
Epidote (Aitken and H.). In large jDurple cubes, with Galena, in a burn 
on the north side of the road between Jeantown and Kishorn (Kenneth 
Murchison). Glen Logan, blue veins in rifts of faulted Hebridian Gneiss, 
with Epidosite, rare. 

Inverness-shire. Near the south-east shore of Loch a Bhruthaich, 
in crystalline greyish -yellow crystals, a o, imbedded in crystalline layers 
in Barytes (Bruiachite) (Aitken). 

Elgin. In New Red Sandstone, in Findrassie quarry, in yellow and 
red cubes, a, aek (Nicol and H.). At Inverugie, in blue and green 
crystals (Gordon). 

Banffshire. In the Burn of Boharm, in purple cubes (Cunningham). 
Quarry of f Ardonato, in purple cubes (Cunningham). Near the Avon, 
2 miles above Gaulrig between Tomintoul and Inchrory, in three burns 
[Allt tri Caochan] which flow into it from the west, about 400 yards from 



42 HALOIDS. 

their mouths, in a band of yellow limestone or calcite which cuts all three. 
The Fluor occurs in rude cubic crystals about 10 inches in the side, im- 
bedded in the calcite. These are of a pale green. Also in crystals an 
inch in size, do (Plate X. fig. 1), a o ; the two last being formed of 
alternate layers of about an eighth of an inch in thickness, of emerald-green 
and deep purple. This Fluor is highly phosphorescent. It is associated 
with Steatite, Ripidolite, and Yellow Sphene. At Maisley quarry near 
Keith, oan (Plate XI. fig. 2), with Stilbite (Cunningham). 

Argyllshire. At Strontian, in granite and the metalliferous veins 
(MacCulloch and Connell). 

Aberdeenshire. At Murdoch's Cairn granite quarry in fine blue 
crystals, o a t (Plate XI. fig. 3), 2^; o, with Albite, Haughtonite, Orthoclase, 
and Quartz. Near Monaltrie House and the Pass of Ballater, in purple 
cubes and green and purple veins, sometimes with galena (Jameson). 
Also in purple and amber-coloured crystals, a, a o, a o d, with unusually 
well -crystallised Orthoclase, and Zinnwaldite, in rents in the granite 
(Thoms). In the hmestone quarry of Muir, Beeside, in deep purple 
octahedra, in a quartzose belt, associated with Malacolite, Graphite, 
Sphene, and Pyrrhotite. Similarly in the quarry at Midstrath. Above 
Kylacreich in violet crystals in yellow limestone. At Crathie limestone 
quarry, with Garnet, Sahlite, Sphene, Pyrrhotite, and WoUastonite. At 
the Corrybeg mines, Abergairn, with Galena, Blende, Schiefer Spar, 
Psilomelane, Manganite, and Steatite. In the Galena vein, red, honey- 
yellow, green and purple — a, a J (Plate XI. fig. 4), ajo (Plate XI. fig. 5), 
ado (Plate XI. fig. 6), am, a dm (Plate XI. fig. 7), admo (Plate XI. 
fig. 8), an (Plate XI. fig. ^),adon (Plate XII. fig. 10), ap (Plate XII. 
fig. 11). Pale yellow cubic crystals of an inch in size have a ridge of 
circumvallation on their d edges. In the intersecting vein, green, yellow, 
violet, and blue-grey — a, o, a o. All the colours are strongly phosphor- 
escent except the yellow. The matrix is a decomposing and highly 
ferruginous gneiss. On the north bank of the Dee, about two miles 
above the last locality (Michie). To the west of Middleton of Balquhain, 
imbedded in loose blocks of radiating Rock-Crystal, in purple and pale 
green isolated octahedra. These blocks were probably transported from 
Brindy Hill. 

Perthshire. At the foot of Beinn a' Ghlo, on the east side of Glen 
Tilt, in pale red cubes (Knox). 

FiFESHiRE. At Glenfarg, in the railway cutting, of a blue-grey colour 
(Adamson). 

Renfrewshire. Gourock quarry, in porphyry (Jameson). Colour- 
less, honey-yellow, pink, emerald -green, and purple. The first three 
colours are rare. The associated minerals are brown Quartz, Calcite. 



Gnomonogpam 

O F 

Quartz. 

(Chiefly Dana's Symbols) 



J. G. GooDC 



W ^ 




K K K 



M^Ka.rl&ne &: ^rsKmc, Edin*' 



HALOIDS — OXIDES. 43 

Pearlspar, and Selenite rarely. The forms are a twinned (Plate XII. 
fig. 12), / (Plate XII. fig. 13), a o (Plate XII. fig. 14), a o, circumvallated 
and tesselated (Plate XII. fig. 15), a/ (Plate XII. fig. 16), afd (Plate XII. 
fig. 17), a Jo. The cubic crystals are also sometimes circumvallated. 
The usual colour is purple, the rarer colours occur only in such cavities 
as contain Calcite. Some of the green crystals are built up with a series 
of minute cubes, the solid angles of which are deficient by a regular 
decrement. Other calcitic druses contain colourless cubic crystaljs with 
layers of green. The purple crystals are usually af. Some octahedral 
crystals are built up of a series of minute cubes. A dark brown mineral 
in radiating groups of minute crystals which resemble Gothite, but which 
is magnetic, is also sometimes associated with the Fluor here. 

Dumbartonshire. At Dumbarton, in perfect cubes, both purple 
and deep green, with Calcite, in cavities of " greenstone " (Greg). 

Ayrshire. In Hillhead limestone quarry (Lower Carboniferous), 
2 miles south-west of Beith, with dog-tooth Calcite, in pale-yellow cubes 
(Young). At Lugton, Dunlop, in Waterland limestone-quarry, in very 
fine yeUow cubes, amx (Plate XII. fig. 18) (Young). 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead. In the High Pirn mine, in large 
muddy white cubes, with implanted Vanadinite (Wilson). 

The specimens which were called " Bruiachite " from Inverness-shire, 



ielded 

Calcium, 


5112 


51-09 


Fluorine, 


48-56 


48-75 


Barium Sulphide, 


•23 


•• 



99-91 (Heddle). 99-84 (Stuart Thomson), 
and are thus simply Fluorite. 



Class V. OXIDES. 
Sub-Class I. OXIDES OF SILICON. 

33. Quartz (210). SiOg. Rock crystal. 

Rhombohedral. (c). 111, 0001 ; a, Oil, 1120 ; ^^ 11 4 7, 5160 ; r, 
100. iOTO ; z, 122, Ton ; s, 142, 1121 ; i (tt). Oil, 1012 ; d, 411, 1012 ; 
P (*), 13 2 2, 5053 ; /, 111, 2021 ; A (/), 5 T T, 2021 ; m (M), 722, 3031 ; 
y (P), 31 T, 4041 ; /, 833, 11.0.TT.2 ; L 13.5.5, 6061 ; h, 433, 7072 ; </> 



44 



OXIDES. 



(*), T3.8.8, 7071 ; p i"^), 7 4 4, Tl.O.lM ; v, 16.5.8, 7181 ; x, 412, 51G1 ; 
y, 10.2.5, 4151 ; 11, 814, 3141 ; t, 4.11.2, 32.53 ; 0, 14.22.7, 7.5.12.5 ; 
fy TO.14.5, 5383 ; e (e), 4 5 2, 2131; w (W), 14.16.7, 7.3.10.3 ; g, 16.17.8, 
8.3.11.3 ; />t, 221, 3141 ; n, 854, 12.1.13.1 ; f, 251, 1122 ; 5 (?), 22.19.2 ; 
rj (?), 11.14.2. 

The forms v, x, y, it, s, t, p, 0, w, q, //, n, are hemiliedral with asymmetric 
faces, occurring in one only of the two zones r' z" b, r" z' b, and in the 
same alternate lunes between b, b", b' . The forms >/, s are also hemihedral 
with asymmetric faces. The faces a, k appear upon the edges of the 
six-sided prism bb", on which v, x, y do not occur. 



bo 


90° 


0' 


hb 


167° 


19' 


gb 


159° 43' 


a 


90° 


0' 


(jib 


173° 


35' 


l^b 


161° 31' 


kb 


8° 


27' 


pb 


175° 


54' 


71 b 


174° 39' 


ba- 


30° 


o' 


vb 


8° 


52' 


s a 


24° 27' 


bb" 


60° 


0' 


xb 


12° 


1' 


(a 


42° 17' 


Cb 


7° 


29' 


yb 


14° 


35' • 


r r' 


85° 45' 


fb 


8° 


9' 


lib 


18° 


29' 


r z' 


46° 16' 


yb 


11° 


8' 


bs' 


37° 


58' 


■i]Z 


63° 5' 


m b 


14° 


42' 


bz" 


66° 


52' 


82 


77° 20' 


lb 


21° 


29' 


br' 


113° 


8' 


hz" 


16° 1' 


Pb 


25° 


17' 


tb 


135° 


5' 


8r 


39° 6' 


rb 


38° 


13' 


bs" 


142° 


2' 


8r' 


46° 55' 


db 


57° 


35' 


Ob 


148° 


22' 


y] r 


49° 29' 


ib 


122° 


25' 


pb 


151° 


37' 


7/r' 


36° 58' 


zb 


141° 


47' 


eb 


154° 


55' 


y] r" 


25° 37' 


lb 


158° 


31' 


w b 


157'' 


34' 







Rarely the rhombohedron (r) alone, with polar edges 94° 15'. More 
frequently in combination with the — rhombohedron (2), forming the 
hexagonal p3T:'amid, with polar edges 133° 44', and with the middle edge 
(or Pm— P) 103° 44'. When this edge is truncated and largely developed, 
the hexagonal prism with hexagonal pyramids, a very common form, is 
produced. The combination of the faces of the pyramids with those of 
the prism often takes place in an oscillatory manner, which produces 
transverse striae on the faces of the prism. In their commoner forms 
the faces of the — r are often distinguishable from the primary r by 
being smaller, and sometimes in having a feebler lustre or less smoothness. 
Many, if not most, of the modifications of these simpler forms are hemi- 
hedral to the rhombohedron (or tetartohedral to the hexagonal prism). 
Planes x, s are very common, but only hemihedrally ; they thus correspond 
to the faces of a double three-sided pyramid. Various rhombohedrons 
replacing the basal edges of the hexagonal pyramid occur. Various 
trapezohedral forms situated obliquely about the angles of the pyramids, 
the planes gyroidal or plagihedral in position, and inclining upward, 
sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left, and being thus right-handed 



OXIDES. 45 

or left-handed ; or occurring on each solid angle, in which case they are 
hemihedral ; or generally only on the alternate solid angles, when they 
are tetartohedral. More rarely, again, they occur right-handed on one solid 
angle, and left-handed on the next. 

T\^'ins, rarely with the axes at an angle of 84° 33'; but frequently with 
the axes parallel, or in juxtaposition in that direction. Frequently in 
individuals interpenetrating each other in the same position. 

Civ., r difficult ; b indistinct. Fracture, perfect conchoidal to splintery. 
Tough, brittle, friable. Transparent to opaque. Lustre vitreous, some- 
times resinous. Colourless when pure ; but even in crystals often various 
shades of yellow, brown, red, green, blue, or black. Streak, white ; 
when impure, slightly coloured. Gives sparks with steel. H., 7 ; G., 
2-5 to 2-8 ; 2-65 when pure. When rubbed in the dark phosphoresces 
with ozonic odour. Phosphorescence seen under water. Exhibits double 
refraction. Polarisation circular, there being a plain coloured central 
space, with therein no cross. The rings of colour encircling this space 
enlarging as the analyser is turned to the right in right-handed quartz, 
or to the left in left-handed. Coloured spirals are seen, which rotate 
to right or left, when the incident light and emergent light are polarised, 
the one circularly, the other j)lain. 

In the coloured variety called Amethyst, the fracture often presents 
numerous delicate, rippled lines, somewhat resembling those seen on the 
palm of the hand, and sometimes intersecting one another as in " engine 
turning." This is due to the crystal being composed of layers which have 
opposite optical properties. When a slice of Amethyst, if of an inter- 
penetrating twin cut at right angles to the vertical axis, is examined in 
the polarising apparatus, the different component portions become visible 
by difference of colours. Moreover, in Amethyst, the section is seen 
to be built up in a tesselated manner by sectors of 60° parallel to the plane 
P., and these sectors are alternately lineated by rippled markings which 
lie parallel to the sides of the adjacent sectors, the alternate light and dark 
bands being due to alternate right- and left-handed layers of the mineral. 
In incorporation twins, again, successive layers of deposition are sometimes 
alternately right- and left-handed, showing a constant oscillation of 
polarity in the course of their formation ; while the twin formation is 
developed by one part being right-handed and the other left. 

The Amethysts obtained in Glen Oban, Loch Morar, and crystals of 
Cairngorm, both display the above structures in perfection. 

Occurs also massive, coarse, of fine granular to flint-like. Sometimes 
fibrous, laminar, mammillary, stalactitic, or in concretionary forms. 

B.B. infusible. With sodium carbonate dissolves with effervescence, 
forming a clear glass. Unacted on with micro, salt. Insol. in all acids 



46 OXIDES. 

except hydrofluoric, heated with which it volatiHses, When pulverised 
sUghtly sol. in solution of potash. Comp., pure silica. Massive varieties 
often contain a little opal. 

a. Rock Crystal. Colourless, pellucid. 

Shetland — Fetlar. At Hestaneness, on the east side of Gruting Bay, 
in mica slate, h (m) r z, the terminal planes circumvallated (Dudgeon). On 
the south shore of Fetlar (Jameson). 

Orkney — Hoy. At the Burn of the Sale, the Bring. In brilliant, 
isolated, doubly-terminated crystals, disposed on the surface ot Gothite, 
b{m)rz (Plate XIII. fig. 1). 

Sutherland. At the Ord Hill, Lairg, in veins of gneiss. With 
Chalcopyrite and Barytes, r zb (m) v s (Plate XIII. fig. 2). 

Ross-shire — Torridon. In veins of the Bad Step, west side of Sgorr 
a' Chadail. In veins in Torridon Sandstone, west side of Liathach ; and 
also at the east end of Loch Torridon, in a cutting, with Prase. 

Inverness-shire. On Creag a' Mhaim, near Clunie, with Chlorite and 
Lepidomelane. 

Hebrides. Eigg, on east side opposite Eilean Chasgaidh Island, in 
druses in basalt over Calcite. Mull, with Epidote, on the south-west spur 
of Ben More, in claystone, r zb (m) x I (f) (PL XIII. fig. 3),r zb (m) x I s, and 
pfr (Currie and H.). South Uist, Loch Bee, in Hebridian Gneiss, s r. 

Aberdeenshire. East of Kinnaird Lighthouse, in veins in gneiss, 
doubly -terminated, p b (m) z (Grant Wilson and H.), usually opaque or 
yellow. 

Argyllshire. Near Ballachulish, in clay slate. Mull of Kintyre, 
at summit of Killellan Hill, and at Wigle, south of Campbeltown ; 
internally capped with Gothite (M'Sporran). At Galdrings, south shore 
of Machrihanish Bay, in druses in basalt, in doubly-terminated crystals, 
r zb (m) (Plate XIII. fig. 6). On the north shore of Holy Loch, in chloritic 
gneiss, r, r zb (m) (Plate XIII. figs. 4 and 5). East slope of Bishops Seat, 
Dunoon, 900 feet from the sea, r, in chlorite schist. 

Ayrshire. At Kaim Hill, I mile east of Fairlie, in " greenstone," 
overlying a quarry of Old Red Conglomerate. Parish of Dunlop, in the 
farms of f Fallhead and Lochridge Hill, on the sides of a dyke of columnar 
basalt. Dockra quarry, near Beith, in limestone, <f) h (Plate XIII. fig. 7) 
(Craig). 

Berwickshire. At Hadden, below Sprouston, on the Tweed, with 
jasper, in limestone of Lower Carbonifeious age. On the Leithen, below 
WilUamslee, in a quartz vein ; similarly in the hill above Priestshope. 



OXIDES. 47 

Kirkcudbright. In the channel of the stream at Ochardton. 

b. Massive Rock Crystal has been found, in Inverness-shire, in veins 
in gneiss in the south face of the Feodain of Sgor na Ciche, at the height 
of 2500 feet. In Aberdeenshire, in the fields of Kilmundy ; near Mintlaw, 
Old Deer ; and at f Knockhill, near Peterhead. Kincardineshire, at 
Birnie Slack, near Fettercairn. In veins in chlorite schist at the south- 
east corner of Jura, and at the north-east comer of Islay (MacCulloch). 

c. Crystallised White Quartz. 

Shetland. Mainland, Sandlodge mine, milk-white, with Limonite 
(D. and H.). 

Hebrides — Mull. Carsaig Arches, in druses in the wakenitic lava 
of Tertiary age, close to other beds carrying zeolites. 

Kincardineshire. At -f Thornyhythe in druses in eruptive rocks. 
Sometimes transparent. At the Pass of The Ladder. Also in specimens 
in which the angles of the pyramid are opaque white quartz, but their 
general substance is clear rock crystal. 

Midlothian. At Craiglockhart, near Edinburgh, r z. In the north 
Ratho quarry, disposed upon Pectolite, in druses in dolerite (Stuart 
Thomson and H.). 

Lanarkshire. Leadhills mines, with Calcites, Barytes, and Blende. 
At t Kiffockside, with Barytes. 

FiFESHiRE. At Chapel quarry, near Raith, often colourless and 
transparent, with Calcite and Pyrite in dolomitised limestone of Lower 
Carboniferous [Yoredale] age. 

Peeblesshire. In a quartz vein which crosses the Leithen below 
Williamslee ; also in a vein in a hill above Priesthope. 

Cairngorm, or Smoky Quartz. 
Sutherlandshire. On the north cliff of Ben Loyal, and in a boulder 
of pegmatite on Ben Bhreac, associated with Amazonstone, Strontianite, 
Specular Iron, Thorite, etc. Near the summit of Quinag, on its east side 
in augen-gneiss, b m {M) r z ex (Plate XIII. fig. 8) (Morrison). 

Hebrides — North Rona. In granitic veins, usually graphic. (Mac- 
Culloch and H.) 

Banffshire. On Cairngorm and some of the adjoining hills. In 
decomposed granitic veins, generally in loose crystals impacted in Kaolin ; 
sometimes with adherent crystals of Orthoclase ; rare associates are Beryl 
and blue Topaz. Occasionally found loose on the surface ; also in the 



48 OXIDES. 

bed of the Avon. The crystals sometimes attain to a weight of 40 ibs. 
or more. 

The following forms have been observed: — Cairngorm — f m r z, 
{*M r z) ; b vm Cr z, {mv M ^r z) \ b x ^ r z, (mx^ rz), PL XIV. fig. 
9; brzxmf, {m r z x M*) ; brxz^f^e, {m r x zi''^ ^ i), br x^z4>f, 
{mrx^z^ M*), PI. XIV. fig. 10. At the foot of Ben a Mhain [Beinn a 
Mheadoin], rzbs,{rzm s), PI. XIV. fig. 12 ; rzb x, (r z m x), PL XIV. fig. 
11; rzbix, (rzMCx), PL XIV. fig. 13; b r z s e x, {mrzsex); 
b r zxm d, {mr z x M d), brzmOt, {mr zx* t). Ben Avon, rzbst, 
{r zm s t) ; r z b m x, [r z m M x) ; r z b x m e, {r z m x M e) ; r zb x /S v, 
[rzmxiv); m \ r z bfm x, {r zm* M x); r zb f, {r z m*); rzb,{rzm); 
r z b /3 X, { r z m i x) ; r z bf x u, {r zm* x u) ; and incorporation-twins of 
r b X, {r mx). The crystals found on the south side of Loch Avon are light 
in colour and very pellucid ; those on the north side are dark brown to 
jet-black [Edin. Museum, r zm^ x, m M r x]. Ben a Mhain, bzr xm^h, 
imzrxM^), PL XIV. fig. 14 ; b r z v s x, {m r z v s x), PL XIV. fig. 15 ; 
brz(f>klqmz, {mrz^ll W M x), PL XIV. fig. 16; bxrvmC, 
{mxrvMC), PL XV. fig. 17; r zmfl cf>, {r z M * l^), PL XV. fig. 18; 
[Edin. Museum, r z b x m X], {r zmx M I) \ r zb Cv, {r zm Cv, r zmf, 
{r z M f) ; mb r z t, {M mr z* t) ; and Loch Avon, {m M T rzi). 

Aberdeenshire. At Sterling Hill quarry, 3 miles south of Peterhead, 
in magnificent doubly- terminated crystals, b r z, {mr z), 6 by 3 inches, 
of a rich brown colour, with Orthoclase, Albite, and, rarely, Muscovite. 
At Murdoch's Cairn, and other quarries in the red granite south of the 
BuUers of Buchan, occasionally in still-larger crystals, associated, in the 
first-named of these quarries, with Albite, Fluor, Talc, Epidote, and 
Lepidomelane. Also at Black hill, and more southerly quarries. In the 
Cabrach, rarely, at the Black Hill, of fine colour. Culblean, Deeside, 
capped by milk-white quartz ; in granite-veins at the head of Queel Burn ; 
and on the foot of the hill between Blairglass Burn and Red Burn (Michie). 
Near the summit of Bennachie, by incorporation-twins, like PL XV. fig. 19, 
with one-half dissolved and roughened, positive to the other. Jet-black, 
on the slopes and corries of Ben a Mhain, and in the east cliffs of Beinn 
a Bhuird, with blue and colourless Topaz, and, rarely, with Amethyst. 
Tilljrfourie, r zy , rzhy, PL XV. fig. 20, with Chlorite. At Craigton 
quarry, Hill of Fare (Currie). 

Forfarshire. Montrose ; at the Blue Hole, Usan, lining the centres 
of agate druses, in andesitic lavas of the Old Red Sandstone. 

Argyllshire. Kintjrre, at Ballivouline HOI, IJ miles north of 
Campbeltown, with Calcite, in limestone (Macdonald) ; also at Balli- 
groggan, Kin tyre, in Lower Carboniferous trap. 



OXIDES. 49 

FiFESHiRE. At Heather Hill, Luthrie, lining blue agates. 

Renfrewshire. At Gouroek, in druses in porphyry [Lower Carbo- 
niferous lava], rarely colourless, with Fluor, Gypsum, Barytes, Gothite, 
and Calcite. 

Buteshire. Arran, in the granite on the east side of Goatfell, with 
Murchisonite and, rarely, Muscovite. Forms : r z b ( x, {r z m ( x), r z b s, 
{rzms), rzbx, {rzmx), rzbmxe, {r z m M x e), Plate XV. fig. 24 ; 
r zbmx s {r zm M x s), Plate XV. fig. 22; r zbv xm, {rzmvx M), 
Plate XV. fig. 23 ; r zbv, {r zmv), r zbfxu, {r zm* x u), Plate XV. 
fig. 21 ; r z b X /3 m , {r z m X i M), Plate XVI. fig. 25. Ben Nuis, r zb, 
{r z m), rzbm, {rzm M), Cir Mhor, r zbf, {rzm*), Plate XVI. fig. 27. 
Am Binnein, r zbf x, {r zm* x), rzbfmXp, {r zm* M li), Plate XVI. 
fig. 26. On Caisteal Abhail, and on the hills near Loch Ranza, r z b m P x, 
(rzmMi x), Plate XVI. fig. 28 ; rzbmxe, {rzmMxi), and inter- 
penetration-twins of rzbms, {r zm M s), and {rzxv). [Figs. 30, 31, 
and 32 of PI. XVI. also represent Scottish crystals of Quartz drawn by 
Dr. Heddle]. 

Many years ago Greg remarked upon the great want of variety 
exhibited in the crystalline forms of Quartz in Britain ; forty years of 
exploitation have not added much to his record ; still, the forms at 
Loch Bee, at Tillyfourie, and at Dockra, are very different from any 
figured by him. Nor can it be said that the forms are intricate or fine, 
Plate XVI. fig. 29 (21 of Des Cloizeaux), drawn from a twin cairngorm 
of the author's, being the most intricate. 

HYALINE QUARTZ. 

A variety of Cairngorm, having much of a claret colour, occurs some- 
what abundantly in the belt of chloritic quartz rock which stretches 
from Fortingal through Ben Lawers and the central Perthshire hills to 
Loch Eck in Argyllshire. This variety, which is never crystallised, and 
has something of colloidal appearance, is frequently pervaded by Chlorite, 
and is the ordinary matrix of Ilmenite and Rutile. It specially occurs 
in the precipices round Lochan a' Chait, Ben Lawers, Creag na Caillich, 
Creag Mhor, specially the Mid Hill of Glen Lochay, and Beinn Bheula 
of Loch Goil. When cut as an ornamental stone this variety surpasses 
ordinary Cairngorm, not only in colour but in brilliancy and pellucidity. 
It occurs also at Quinag, Sutherland (Morrison). In Inverness-shire, at 
Stob a' Choire Mheadhonaiche, near Loch Treig, with Chlorite and 
Ilmenite ; and in Stob Coiro Gaibhre, north of Stob Choire Claurigh, with 
Chlorite and Ilmenite. 

AMETHYST. 

Shetland. Mainland, Northmaven, at The Cannon, Esha Ness, in 
cavities in amygdaloid, with Saponite and Gothite (Dudgeon and H.). 

D 



50 OXIDES. 

Ross-shire. Fannich, 1000 feet up the south slope of Meallan Rairi- 
gidh, brilliant in colour. 

Inverness-shire. Loch Morar. In the Corrie Carr of Lurg Mhor, 
with Garnet in crystals the size of an egg. " Loch Morair, in Glen Oban, 
the eastermost of two streams which descend from Ben Streipe, in crystals 
an inch in thickness " (Joass). The crystals here are usually capped ; 
being alternately purple and colourless ; but their brilliancy is great, 
and the purple has a delicate pink tinge, which is surpassingly beautiful. 

Aberdeenshire. At the south side of Brindy Hill, south of Premnay, 
Amethystine Quartz. In the cliffs of Beinn a Bhuird. 

Kincardineshire. At the Long Gallery, in cavities in trap, coating 
Crocalite. 

Forfarshire. Montrose, in large druses, with rf^l Quartz, at Scurdy 
Ness. Forming the centres of agates at Usan. At Lunan Bay railway 
cutting, and at Craig cutting, in agate druses, with Onyx (Mitchell). 

FiFESHiRE. Near Newburgh, with Chalcedony. In agates, rarely, 
at the Heather Hills, Luthrie. Amethystine Quartz, with Calcite, in 
amygdaloid, near Petty cur. Near Burntisland, in veins and druses in 
greenstone, with small Rock Crystal and Saponite. Kincraig, Elie, 
rarely. 

Argyllshire. South of Campbeltown, near the summit of Killellan 
Hill, and at Wigle, in large and fine specimens (M'Sporran). 

Stirlingshire. Near the road from Campsie Hill to Fintry, and 
at Cathcart Castle. 

Haddingtonshire. North Berwick, opposite the | Sheep Crag, with 
Natrolite and Analcime ; also nearly opposite the Bass Rock. 

Midlothian. At Corstorphine Hill, with Prehnite. At Craiglockhart. 
Formerly on the Calton Hill, at the back of the High School, in trap ; and 
in dolerite in Broughton Street quarry. [In Blackford Hill quarry, and at 
South Queensferry.] 

Renfrewshire. Near Lochwinnoch, at Lin thills and Lairdside, with 
Roch Crystal, Carnelian, and Agates. 

Ayrshire. At Cat burn, in the parish of Largs. On blue Chalcedony, 
400 feet up the west side of Kaim Hill. 

Bute. Arran, on the west side of Goatfell. In Glencloy, on its 
south-west side. Near Ascog, in Bute (Glen). 

Berwickshire. At Wilkiehaugh, with Quartz, Barytes, and Calcite. 
in dolerite and amygdaloid. 

Kirkcudbrightshire. Near the rock Lot's Wife, and not far from 
the cliff Needle's Eye, veins of fibrous Amethyst, with cavities containing 
crystals of the same, and Quartz coated with iron froth (Dudgeon). 



OXIDES. 51 

Other Forms of Crystalline Quartz. 

Pink. — At the Brindy Hill, 2\ miles south of Preranay. On the 
Ladder Road, near Mount Keen, Aberdeenshire. Argyllshire, on 
Beinn Doireann, in a vein 250 feet below the summit on its north-west 
shoulder, and also in veins on its west slope. 

Scarlet. — On the w(wt shoulder of Mount Keen, Aberdeenshire. In 
druses near Ferry Den, Montrose, with Amethyst. 

Red.— On the south slope of Ciste Dhubh, Clunie, Inverness -shire. 
On the slopes at head of Glen Mark. Forfarshire. 

Dark Red. — Near the summit of Craigendarroch, Ballat^r ; and, 
sprinkkxl with red, near Kylacreich Inn, Deeside, Aberdeenshire. 
Coated with a transparent colourless layer, on the Tarf, 2 miles above 
Tarfside. 

Salmon-coloured. — In doubly-terminated crystals, with blue Barytes, 
on Dolomite, in druses in tufa at Kinkell, Fifeshire. On Mount Keen, 
Aberdeenshire . 

Yellow. — Near the Ladder, Mount Keen. Wanlockhead, Dumfries- 
shire. Very rarely on south side of Loch Avon (False Topaz). 

Brown- Red. — Kincraig, near Elie, Fifeshire in tufa, with Barytes 
(Dudgeon and H.). 

Purple. — In a vein at junction at the north-east extremity of Foula, 
Shetland. 

Babel Quartz, or rather Babel Cairngorm, occurs rarely at Sands Geo, 
Walls, Orkney. 

Zeolitic Quartz. Sphsero -radiant structure. More or less stalactitic ; 
often to be tractnl to fibres of a radiating zeolite (Natrolitc). 

Hebrides. Skye, in an old quarry near Stein, Loch Bay, Dun vegan. 
Mull, at the Carsaig Arches, with zeolites, and also in stalactitic groups 
sheathing acute crystals of Calcite, and over a cave of Saponite. Kin- 
cardineshire, near the church of Kinneff, in tufts, with zeolites and 
crystallised Saponite. Forfarshire, in the Craig cutting, with Saponite 
and zeolites (Mitchell). Perthshire, with Gothite, at Corsiehill quarry 
(Lauder Lindsay). Stirlingshire, at the Boquhan Hills, of a blue 
colour, with red Stilbite (Kidston). Dumbartonshire, at Bowling 
quarry, with pink Natrolite (Rose). At Lang Crag, with red Stilbite 
and red Heulandite (Thomson). On the east shore of Loch Humphrey, 
Kilpatrick Hills. Renfrewshire, at Hartfield Moss, with Prehnite. 



52 OXIDES. 

MASSIVE QUARTZ. 

Snow-white. — Massive, granular : — 

Ross-SHTRE. Ben Lair, in a vein, where it passes to hyaline, massive 
Rock Crystal (MacCuUoch). 

Inverness-shire — Kintail. In veins in gneiss, on the west summit 
of Sgurr nan Ceathreamhnan. Perthshire : in a vein between Ben 
lutharn Mhor and the hill to the south-east. In a vein a foot wide on 
the lower eastern peak of Meall Ghaordie. Argyllshire : Beinn 
Doireann, in veins 50 feet below the summit on the south-west side. 
Harris : Roneval, in a vein on the south-east side. 

Milk quartz. — Massive, fracture conchoidal, translucent, somewhat 
opaline ; lustre somewhat greasy. 

Hebrides — North Uist. In a vein below high water on the north- 
east shore of Port nan Long, with blue Quartz. Tiree : CrossapoU, in 
granitic veins, in patches, with Sonnenstein, Agalmatolite, and Haugh- 
tonite. In Creachasdal, east of Tiree, in lumps 2 feet thick, imbedded 
in dark mica gneiss. Inverness-shire, on the top of Braeriach, crys- 
tallised, with banded Chalcedony. Banffshire, in loose lumps, rarely, 
on the west side of Craigbuirach. Aberdeenshire, rarely in granite 
veins in gneiss, at Girdleness lighthouse, opaline. 

Blue. — Hebrides. In Taransay, at the south end in the granite 
veins which strike N.N.W. Harris : in the great vein of Chaipaval, with 
Rose Quartz, Graphic Granite, and green Muscovite (D. and H.). North 
Uist : at Port nan Long, indigo-blue, with milk quartz ; both with 
rhombic cleavage. Greyish-blue, in granitic veins, half a mile north-west 
of the pier at Loch Maddy, somewhat opalescent, with Orthoclase. 
Purplish-blue, at Miabhag, West Loch Roag, Lewis (Currie). 

Purple. — Shetland. Hillswick : at Carneba, with Schorl, red Felspar, 
and Epidote. Ross-shire, west of Garve, in veins in gneiss in the railway 
cutting. At Eaglesham, in a whinstone quarry, with Labradorite. Red- 
purple. — Shetland, Mainland, on the south-east shore of Kirka Ness 
(Hibbert). 

Purple-pink. — Shetland. Hillswick, at North-and South Quin Geo 
(D. and H.), in gneiss. 

Pink. — Shetland. Mainland, Seelie Voe, east shore, with Chlorit<3, 
pellucid (D. and H.). Banffshire, on the south-east branch of the Burn 
of Boharm. Opaque pink, in gneiss in Lewis (MacCuUoch). 

Brown-red. — In veins in gneiss, at Gairloch, Ross-shire, sometimes 
milky (MacCuUoch). Similarly, but transparent, in veins traversing 
granite, on the coast between Loch Inver and Rudha Storr (MacCuUoch). 



OXIDES. 53 

Grey or French Grey. — Opaque, in Glen Tilt, and in North Rona, 
in voins in granite (MacCuUoch). 

Grey -blackish. — At Gairloch and in Beinn Airidh a' Char, in gneiss ; 
varying from very pale grey to very dark blackish-grey (MacCulloch). 

Rose. — Shetland. Mainland, Hillswick, at North and South Quin 
Geo, in a vein with Epidote, somewhat chalccxlonic (D. and H.), Hebrides, 
Harris : in the great dyke of Chaipaval, with Graphic Granite, and green 
Muscovite (D. and H.). In a vein west of Hushinish House, south-east of 
the bifurcation of the road. Hyaline granular in a granite vein south-east 
of Sgurr Ruadh. North Uist, on the north-west side at Hornish Point, 
with Oligoclase. Coll, in loose pieces on the beach near Brcachacha Castle 
(MacCulloch) ; on the north shore of Loch Eatharna, near Arivirig, in 
granitic belts in gneiss ; also loose. Tiree, with Milk Quartz in veins in 
gneiss in Creachasdal Mor. Aberdeenshire — Clova : in three nearly 
parallel veins. The most westerly is near Badenshore moss of GlenlafT 
Hill. This vein, which is of great width, is at the surface bleached nearly 
white. The second in on the south side of the rise between Earlseat Hill 
and Peat Hill. The third is on the north-east slope of Earlseat, Mount 
Keen and Earlseat being in line. On the Craigengell Hill of Cushnie a 
vein runs nearly true north and south between Sockaugh and Tap o' 
North. Found also loose at Black Middens, Glencuie, and banded with 
white on the north side of Glen Kindie, either in the line of these veins or 
east of them. In the Slacks of Glen Carvie, half-way up. Rarely, near 
the limestone of Tillquhilly. In gneiss, as at Poolewe, Glen Logan, and 
Rona. 

Yellowish-green. — Coloured by filamentous and granular Epidote 
(Epidosite). Usually in districts where the rocks have been much crushed, 
or in veins in the Archaen Rocks. 

Green. — Hebrides. Tiree : near Crossapoll, in a granite vein, in 
small patches, with Haughtonite, Agalmatolite, and Sonnenstein. Argyll- 
shire : Beinn Doireann, 50 feet below the summit, on the south-east side, 
in thin veins, along with massive snow-white quartz. Coloured by 
Chlorite, east side of Bishop's Seat, Dunoon. Also in Bute, and on the 
shore of Cowal, sometimes nearly black. On the south-east shore of 
Jura, and north-east of Islay, in veins in Chlorite schist, with crystallised 
Chlorite (Jameson). 

Leek-green — Quartz Prase. — Ross-shire. Torridon, on the south-east 
shore at head of the loch, in anastomosing and branching veins, J of an 
inch wide, which cut Torridon Sandstone, with Rock Crystal. Inverness- 
shire, on I Bulgay Island, within the entrance of Loch Hourn, in veins in 
actinolite schist, light to dark green, with Chalcopyrite (MacCulloch). 
Banffshire : west of the exposure of Serpentine at Portsoy, in nodular 



54 OXIDES. 

veins traversing Chiastolite Slate, with green Kyanito, and Pyrite. 
Perthshire : in Corsiehill quarry, Kinnoull Hill, along with Saponite 
(Lauder Lindsay) . Roxburghshire: atitssouth-east corner, with Rose 
Quartz, in the andesitic lavas of Old Red Sandstone age in the Cheviots 
(Nicol). 

Yellow. — Perthshire, at many spots in the quartzite belt which 
traverses the centre of the country, as in Lude limestone quarry, south- 
east of Carn Tullich, Blair Athole, and westward to Ben Lui. 

Emerald-Green. — Coloured by the Celedonite or Saponite of igneous 
rocks, as at Sgurr Mor, Rum, with Heliotrope. Perth : Kinnoull Hill ; 
Corsiehill ; Ben Lui, east ridge. 

Black — "Morion." — Banffshire. Portsoy, in veins in Chiastolite 
Schist, west of the serpentine bed. Ross-shire : in veins in Beinn 
Airidh a' Char, apparently coloured by Actinolite (MacCuUoch). 

Fibrous Quartz. 
Banffshire. In a bed to the east of the greater mass of Serpentine 
at Portsoy, with crumpled mica. 

Lamellar Quartz. 
Aberdeenshire. In the limestone quarry of Delnabo, Glen Gairn. 

Hacked Quartz. 
Argyllshire : Oban, in veins of phyllite and of graphitic schist. 
Wanlockhead, Dumfriesshire, the cellular structure being filled up with 
Pjrrite (Wilson). 

Sagenitic Quartz {o-ayrivi], a net), 
Containing acicular crystals of other minerals. Rutile, at Creag na 
Caillich, Craig More, Glen Lochy, The Cobbler, and Beinn Bheula. Gothite, 
see under. Tourmaline, Cairngorm. Chlorite, Bishop's Seat, Dunoon. 

Pentrated by Tourmaline, in granitic veins east of Portsoy : Black 
Hill, Cabrach ; Thief's Hollow, Glen Kindy. By Apatite, railway cutting. 
Glen Skioch, Ross-shire. By Staurolite, Burn of Aldernie, Banffshire. 
By Kyanite, Finlarig Castle, Banffshire. By Zoisite, Dulnein, Inver- 
ness-shire (Geikie) ; Mill town, Urquhart. By Beryl, Cairngorm. By 
Stibnite, Glendinning, Dumfriesshire (Dudgeon). By Garnet, summit of 
Ben Resipol, Argyllshire (Rose). Hollow casts of Rutile, in quartz, 
summit of Beinn a' Ghlo, Perthshire. 

AVANTURINE. 

Spangling from imbedded scales, or reflection from fissures. Orkney : 
Mainland, at Birstane Bay, in deep-red sandstone, reddish-brown to yellow 



OXIDES. 55 

(Traill). Sutherland : Ben Hope, at the east shore of Am Gorm Loch ; 
bright-red, from a rose-mica and red Zircons. Inverness-shire : near 
the summit of Ben Eibhinn, south of Moy, on its eastern side, containing 
a bright-red mica. Near the summits of Ben a' Chaisteil and Stob Coire 
an Laoigh, on their west sides, and on the connecting ridge, of a yellow 
colour. Banffshire : on the west side of the Ailnack River, about 3 
miles above its junction with the Avon. Perthshire : in Glen Fernat<>, 
about 2| miles above its opening, on its west side, greyish-blue (Mac- 
CuUoch). Granular quartz, near Dunbar, approaches avanturine. 

Iridescent Quartz. 
Fioni surface- tarnish. Aberdeenshire : Pitfechie Hill, near Mony- 
musk, from Specular Iron. Kirkcudbright : Door of Caimsmorc. 

Flexible Sandstone. 
Ayrshire : at Barskimming. 

Iron Flint, or Ferruginous Quartz. 
Is a structureless admixture of Quartz with red or yellow ochre. Orkney : 
Hoy, rarely, on the hill tops. Banffshire : Lettcrfourie, in quartz-rock. 
Dumbartonshire : Stockymoor, Carbeth (Greg). 

Fetid Quartz. 
Ross-shire : at Poole \\e and Loch Greinord, in veins in gneiss. The 
smell, which resembles that of putrid seaweed, is evolved on friction, 
and diminishes " when the specimen has been so long kept as to lose its 
Avater " (MacCuUoch). 

Other Forms of Quartz. 
Massive quartz having surfaces grooved and highly polished occurs in 
loose blocks of the Torridon Conglomerate, lying east of Inchnadamph ; 
and in situ at Dulnan, Inverness-shire. At the first of these localities 
this seems the result of air-dust friction [Eolian erosion]. 



CRYPTO-CRYSTALLINE QUARTZ. 

Containing generally some Opaline Silica, and, in some varieties, probably 
also Tridymite. 

Chalcedony. 
Hebrides : Skye, Dunvegan Head (Greg). Loch Bracadale, at Orbost 
Bay. Rum : in druses near Heliotrope, Sgurr Mor. Eigg : in the 
" Pitchstone Porphyry " of the Scuir, that in the south side being quite 



56 OXIDES. 

opalescent. On the shore west of Uamh Fhraing, in basalt, in cavities 
apart from others with zeolites. Oighsgeir, south-west of Canna, in the 
South Skerry in large druses in the " pitchstone porphyry," with Olivine. 
Mull : at the Carsaig Arches. Argyllshire : Ardnamurchan, in druses 
on the shore at Maclean's Nose. Aberdeenshire : Cabrach, in the 
banks of the stream, at the farm of the Buck, with Jasper. Fifeshire : 
at the summit of the Binn of Glen Farg, with Moss Agate and red-and- 
white Carnelian. Haddington : at the Leethies, North Berwick, 
opalescent, apparently from decomposition. Lanarkshire : Leadhills, 
loose on Hawkwood. Dumfriesshire : on the Annan, at St. Mungo, 
near Dalton, in " greenstone," with Saponite. 

Carnelian. 
Flesh-red, translucent Chalcedony. Elginshire : at Duffus, in 
limestone, with flint, and Galena. Argyllshire : Kintyre, at the 
Kildalloig shore, with Eyed Cachalong. Fifeshire : at the Tay Bridge. 
In a quarry on the ridge east of Gallow Hill. On Scurr Hill rarely. At 
the summit of the Binn of Glen Farg, with Moss Agate. At the Patent 
Slip cutting, " Ferry-Port-on-Craig " (Partan Craig), with milky Calcite. 
On Foodie Hill, muddy. At Wormit Bay. Near Kinghorn, on the coast, 
in trap, bright-red (Greg). Haddingtonshire: North Berwick, shore 
opposite Craigleith, in Lower Carboniferous lavas. Roxburghshire : 
on a hill nearf Old Saughton, with compact milky Chalcedony (Nicol). 

Sard. 
Orange-brown Chalcedony. Forfarshire : on the shore near Usan 
(Keith). 

Cacholong 
Is chalcedony rendered opaque or milk white, rarely by minute fibres 
of a zeolite (Okenite, Pectolite, or Mesolite), more commonly from an 
admixture with Milk Opal. It seldom occurs alone, but is generally 
found in parallel bands, with translucent, grey Chalcedony, forming 
Onyx ; less frequently, it is similarly interbanded with Carnelian, forming 
the lower layers of Onyx Agates or Sardonyx, and, still more rarely, as 
concentric bands of agates. Forming Onyx, it rarely occurs at the base 
of zeolitic druses at Quirang, Skye : forming Onyx Agates, and agates 
at the " Blue Hole " (Usan), Forfar, and Balmeadowside, Fife. Rarely, 
at the Blue Hole it fills the whole agate. 

Onyx. 

Hebrides : Skye, at Storr, and Quirang, forming the bottom of druses 



I 



OXIDES. 57 

containing zeolites. Rum : at Sgurr Mor, south of the Heliotrope vein. 
At Bagh an Ruadh Mhoil, on the north shore, loose. Banffshire, on the 
south-west slopes of the summit of C-airngorm, brown-reel and white. 
Inverness-shire : summit of Braeriach, muddy-yellow and white, with 
Milk Quartz. 

Plasma. 
Chalcedony stained bright green by uniform admixture with Delessito 
or Celedonite. Lustre, greasy to horny. Hebrides : Rum, at Sgurr 
Mor, very rare, passing into Prase. Fifeshire : Scurr Hill, near Bal- 
nierino, very rarely, in thin veins, and forming the outer portions of some 
agates. Perthshire : Ballindean, rarely, as the first layers of deposit, 
in breccia ted agates. 

Heliotrope. 

Chalcedony stained various shades of green, dark to leek-green, by 
intermixture with Celedonite, and, when sprinkled with red spots, becomes 
Bloodstone; when these, from confluence, become blotches, it is Heliotrope. 

Hebrides : Rum, in the amygdaloidal basalt lava of Creag nan 
Stardean, Sgurr Mor, in amygdules of every size, and also in a vein. 
Every stage of the passage of Chalcedony into Heliotrope is here seen ; 
and sometimes loose pulverulent Celedonite lies in cavities of the stone. 
Rarely it is translucent in thin slices, of a splendid emerald colour and a 
mossy structure. Concentric and undulating bands of white and green 
also show that the mode of formation is similar to that of Agates. In 
many cases the Chalcedony passes through liver-brown and lavender bands 
into Hornstone. In all the Rum specimens small concentrically-zoned 
spheres of Chalybite, decomposed largely into a brown ochre, stud the 
stone. Perthshire : in Kinnoull Hill, with a minute closely -adherent 
spha?ro -radiant structure, which polarises throughout with a black cross 
(MacCulloch). Also loose on the shores of the Tay. Occasionally this 
passes into a rich brown tint. Eigg : " The pitchstone porphyry " of the 
Scuir, upon its south side, contains nodules of Chalcedony which occasion- 
ally passes into Heliotrope and conchoidal Hornstone. Mull : at the 
south end, in trap, and below Gribun (MacCulloch). At the Carsaig 
Arches, on the shore, coarser than that of Rum. Argyllshire : Kintyre 
near Machrihanish Bay, in a vein 2 inches wide, at Galdrings, with much 
blood-red, very fine. 

Nodules [pebbles] of coarse Heliotrope occur in the [Old Red] Con- 
glomerate of Kerrera (MacCulloch). Also in the Old Red Conglomerate 
of Tod Head, Kincardineshire. Ayrshire : In loose nodules [pebbles] 
on the shore near Lendalfoot, a brecciated variety with red and green 
subangular fragments. 



58 OXIDES. 

AGATE. VARIEGATED CHALCEDONY. " SCOTTISH PEBBLES." 

Agates represent various modifications of silica — hydrous or 
anhydrous — together with zeohtic materials, which occupy the former 
vapour -vesicles of [sub -basic, and sometimes of basic] eruptive rocks. 
These materials represent the decomposition-products of the eruptive 
rocks, which have been carried by means of water into these closed cavi- 
ties, from the surrounding rock, by end osmose. Within the vesicles they 
have been deposited in successive layers, through which layers osmotic 
presssure continued to act. After the deposition or the coagulation of 
the material forming the layers was completed, the solvent liquid was 
forced out of the cavity through one, or through many, openings, by the 
entrance of an additional quantity of strong solution, according to the 
ordinary law of endosmose. These oi)enings may be called tubes of 
escape (sec figs. 12-15). 

No absolute line can b(^ drawn to separate a druse more or less 
completely filled by silica from a zeolitic cavity, as the same vesicle may 
contain both siliceous layers and zeolites, and that in varying order of 
superposition. Neither can it be definitely stated which ingredients of 
the rock, by its decomposition, determines the formation of either ; but 
this distinction has to be pointed out in the formation or filling-up of such 
druses, namely, that there is a perfectly definite order in the successive 
deposition of the various zeolitic minerals which fill drusy cavities, while 
there is no definite order whatsoever in the deposition of the various 
forms of silica whose layers form an agate. 

[A splendid series of Scottish agates, illustrating the structural characters 
described in this and tlie following sections, which were collected and ai-ranged by 
the Author, has lately (May 1808) been presented by Mr. Alex. Thorns to the Edin- 
burgh Museum of Science and Art, and is placed in the Collection of Scottish Minerals.] 

AGATES ; NORMAL STRUCTURE. 

Form. 

The form of the vapour-vesicle is determined by the amount of fluidity 
or of viscosity of the fluid rock through which it is ascending ; and also 
by the state of the flow — whether of motion or of rest. If it had little or 
no motion and great fluidity, the vesicle, especially if it be small, is round. 
When the viscosity of the lava Avas so great that the vesicles rose with 
difficulty, while the flow still continued, the vesicles have been drawn 
out into more or less of a rod-shaped form, and often lie horizontally — 
the more -rounded extremity pointing in the direction of the flow. If 
there has been little motion and considerable fluidity the vesicle is pear- 
or baloon-shaped. If some motion and considerable fluidity, it is axe- 
shaped (fig. 1). If rapid motion and considerable fluidity, it is lanceolate. 



OXIDES. 



59 



When very largo there is frequently an elevation in the centre of the floor, 
as in a wine bottle. Agates with a flat underside are almost invariably 
Onyx-agates (fig. 2). The flattening may have resulted from the matrix 
concreting and solidifying at a uniform distance from the underlying 
cooling surface : (as this surface has been ]3robably somewhat sloping, 
the onyx banding, which is invariably horizontal, does not always, 




'^ u *^. '"^^ 






' *««M«^ vjiK >» « .»rX..it.'*0^ 



^^J 
>^i( 

'—}} 




Fig. 1. — Axe-shaped Agate — in Fig. 2. — Onyx- Agate. Onyx parallel to flat side, 
two positions. druse filled with Quartz. 

absolutely accord with the flat surface). When, subsequent to solidification 
a rent has been formed in the rock, the rent may, when not opening to the 
surface, become coated on both sides with Chalcedony, and so form a 
Vein-agate. 



The Layers. 

The substances which form the layers or bands of agate are : — the 
skin, Chalcedony, Carnelian, Cacholong, Girasol-Opal, Wax-Opal — all of 
which are colloids — and hydrated silica ; and Quartz, Amethyst, Cairn- 
gorm — all of which are crystalline, — and anhydrous silica. Jasper rarely 
occurs. 



These several substances may be deposit txl in any order from without 
inwards (figs. 3 and 4) — the hydrated varieties being usually the earlier 
deposited. Clear Chalcedony usually forms the outer layer — after the 
skin ; this is succeeded by milky Chalctxlony, or by Cacholong. Amethyst, 
Quartz, or Carnelian, usually form the centre. When Quartz or Amethyst 
is in quantity, and is the last-deposited layer, an unfilled central cavity 
often remains. When Carnelian fills the centre it is frequently rent. At 
some localities Girasol or Milk- Opal forms the outer zone. 



60 



OXIDES. 



The regular concentric deposition of the layers of an agate is due to 
a considerable and uniform amount of adhesion between the surface of 
each layer and that of the layer previously deposited. When that adhesion 




Fig. 3. — Varying order of deposition. 




Fig. 4. — Varying order of deposition. 



is weak, the layer may be somewhat thickened towards the lower part of 
the cavity, — gravitation in this case operating upon the only partially- 
solidified Chalcedony. 



The Skin. 

The first or outer-deposited layer in the vesicle results from the de- 
composition of the Augite of the rock-matrix. This layer may consist 




Fig. 5. — Celedonite Stalactites. 

of Celedonite, Chlorophseite, or Delessite. If the Labradorite (or the 
Nepheline) in the rock be also altered, the outer layer of the agate may 
consist of either Natrolite or Heulanditc^. 



OXIDES. 61 

The first three of these materials which form the " skin " invariably 
coat every portion of the inner surface of the cavity. 

If the skin be present in unusiial amount it appears in threads, which 
are pendulous from the upper part towards the lower part of the cavity 
(fig. 5). Such threads, upon the after-injection of siliceous solutions, 



u^ 




Fig. 6. — Interlacing Celedonite, Fig. 7. — First coating of Chalcedony 
the framework. on Celedonite filaments. 

determine the formation, and form the centre of, the so-called stalactites. 
When it is in large amount it is deposited as an interlacing net-work of 
fibres. These, upon being sheathed by the ingress of siliceous solutions, 
determine the formation of Moss- Agates (fig. 6). 



Stalactitic- Agates . 
The first layer, or layers, of Chalcedony, invariably coat every part 
of the surface of the Celedonite or skin. In an ordinarily-formed agate 
the surface of these layers is smooth ; but, where the Celedonite invested 
a rough cavity, the Chalcedony subsequently deposited upon it conforms 
to the shape of the surface, and, consequently, is slightly mammillated. 

In such agates as contain pendulous threads of Celedonite, these are 
coated by the Chalcedony to a thickness equal to that on the sides of the 
cavity ; so that pendulous processes of Chalcedony, simulating stalactites 
in appearance, result. 

Should the process of filling of the cavity be completed by any new 
arrangement of parts, the stalactites come to be imbedded in the substance 
of these new arrangements Any difference in the manner in which they 
are so imbedded alters much the aj)pearance of the agate (figs. 7, 8, and 9). 

Moss- Agates. 
In manner identical with that which obtains in the formation of 
stalactitic agates, are moss-agates formed. These may exist as an open 
network of mutually-interlacing tortuous strings of Celedonite or of 



62 



OXIDES. 



Oxide of Iron (those of Mochas are Oxides of Manganese), or the continued 
filling-up of the cavity may unite all into a solid mass. In some localities 
the reticulated filaments of moss-agates have assumed a dendritic or tufted 
arrangement ; they are then generally brown or yellow in colour. 

Structure. 
Like Malachite, Gothite, Hoematito, and many substances depositeni 
from solution upon uneven surfaces, the chalcedonic matter of agates has 



X. \ 



,-^^X 




Fig. 8. — Varieties of Ap;ato building. 

a double structure, the second of which lies more or less at right angles to 
the bounding surfaces of the first. There is a surface-enfolding deposition 




Fig. 9. — Varieties of Agate building. 

in layers, which successively assumes more and more of a mamillated 
appearance ; and a divergent or radiating -acicular structure, which lies 



OXIDES. 63 

more or less at right angles to the first. This incorporated dual structure 
is nearly equally manifest when the agate is cut in a direction which 
cross -sections the layers. 

As the material which forms the acicular structure is much less soluble 
in alkalies than is the general substance of the Chalcedony, and as it is 
anisotropic, it is probably of the nature of Tridi)mite — the general mass of 
the Agat(^ being colloidal, and true Chalcedony. T\w thickness of the laye^rs 
of this latter increases with the amount of impurity in each layer. 

So long as the material depositwl is of the same natures the adhesion 
of the several layers is ])erfect, and the most facile fracture is along the 
fibres of the divergent sj)iculae of the (supposed) Tridymite. 

At the margin of any alteration of material thei'e is much less, some- 
times little or no, adhesion, and but a slight shock is sufficient to detach 
the lavers from each other. 



C A ClIOLONO - Aq A TE . 

The substance Cacholong (Mongolian, kaschtschilon — beautiful stone) 
is usally classed with the Opals, and is of a somewhat-mixed composition — 
one which indicates a small admixture of a zeolite with Opal. 

The Cacholong which forms the white band of Scottish agates consists, 
however, in far the greater number of cases, of a substance which, under 
the microscope, displays a strongly-marked radiating structure {Tridy- 
mite'i) disposed transversely to the bands, and penetrating a magma of 
highly-chromatic Opal. This variety is semi-transparent. 

An opaque milk-white variety seems composed of Chalcedony charged 
with " quartz nectique." This sometimes adheres to the tongue. 

A third very rare variety with a tufted structure may contain a fibrous 
zeolite. 

The Cacholong of white Onyx is Milk-Opal ; the loss of its small 
content of water malces it more or less opaque. 



Carnelian. 

True Carnelian, or red-tinted chalcedony, is exceedingly rare in 
Scotland, the colour of the red -tinted bands of Scottish agates being due 
to a multitude of spots of a ferruginous silicate, which have segregated 
out of a stained chalcedony. These red spots are frequently replaced 
with amazing suddenness, by others of an equally brilliant yellow, or both 
will equally suddenly disappear — the band which carried them appearing 
as if bleached. 



64 



OXIDES. 



Fortification- Agates. 

The mammillated structure which the layers of an agate assume when 
they line rugose surfaces or cavities of very -irregular form increases in 




Fig. 10. — Fortification-Agate, with sectioned stalactites. 

size with every successive layer, so that towards the central parts of an 
agate, sharp, re-entering, but curvilinear, angular folds lie between these 
mammillations. These are due to deposition upon 
irregularities of the cavity, whereby the layers are 
eventually caused to impinge on each other. 
Should one or more of the succeeding layers be 
Cacholong or Sard, these, taking, as it were, a 
cast of such re-entering angles, exhibit, when 
cross-sectioned, salient and retiring angles, and 
resemble the rectilinear parapets of a fortification 

FlO.ll.— Fortitlcation-Agate. (%«. 10 and 11). 




Entrance of Solution. 

That the siliceous solution entered uniformly round the whole surface 
of the druse would seem evident from portions of the skin having been 



OXIDES. 



65 



frequently forced into the cavity throughout its whole periphery, and 
from these having been sheathed in clear Chalcedony upon both sides of 
such portions, forming a False Moss-Agate. This envelopment of the 
intruded skin is either immediate, or the clear Chalcedony is seen to 
invest both the skin and a previously -deposited layer of Chalcedony 
which had, previous to their intrusion, lined the inner surface of the 
disrupted fragments. 

The Tube of Escape. 

The liquid which holds the chalcedonic material in solution is forced, 
by endosmose, through the several layers of Chalcedony, along the 
divergent fibres of Tridymite. After the deposition of its content of 
silica, the liquid is forced out of the cavity by the accession of a new 
supply of chalcedonic solution passing inwards from all sides of the agate. 




Fig. 12. — Cacholong and Chalcedony Agate, with one tube for all the Cacholong layers. 

The now de-silicified medium escapes through one or many tubular 
openings, which may be disposed at any part of the surface-cavity, 
but very rarely near its base. Frequently this opening is linear, with 
a false appearance of being a rent ; and not infrequently a linear projection 
on the surface of the agate follows the course of the opening. This 
opening forms the " tube of escape." 

The thickness of each layer of deposited material invariably diminishes 
as it approaches the " tube of escape." This tube, with the dilatation 
which frequently occurs thereon, is the last portion of the cavity to be 
filled ; and in that portion which passes through the outer, clear, chal- 
cedonic layer, the tube is of microscopic dimensions — almost invisible to 
the eye — and it most frequently remains open (figs. 12 and 13), and may 
become a rent. 



66 OXIDES. 

Dilatation on the Tube of Escape. 

In almost all cases there occurs on the tube of escape a dilatation of 
considerable size. This is situated near the point where the tube reaches 
the earliest deposited layer of Chalcedonj^ It is filled somewhat 




Fig. 13. — Cacholong-and-Carnelian Agate, with two tubes for 
the Cacholong and one for the Carnelian layers. 

posteriorly to the centre of the agate, but generally with the same material 
— Quartz. Occasionally it alone contains Cacholong, and very rarely it 
alone contains Onyx. 

No attempt has been made to explain this dilatation, although prob- 
ably the whole secret of agate-formation is connected with its presence. 
It resembles the congestion which takes jDlace when a moving stream of 
persons is arrested at a narrow exit (figs. 13, 14, and 15). 

ABNORMAL STRUCTURES. 

Onyx. 

The adhesion of the layers of deposit of pure Chalcedony to one 
another is so great that gravitation does not interfere appreciably or 
determine any undue thickness of these layers at the lower part of the 
cavity. The thickness of the layers which form the so-called " stalactites " 
is no greater at their pendulous extremities than elsewhere (figs. 8 and 9). 
In the case of other of the materials which go to the formation of Agates. 
however, there is so much feebler an adhesion both to Chalcedony and to 
each other, that gravitation interferes to a marked extent, so that most of 
the coagulating material is found at the lower part of the cavity, and a 
zonation or parallel banding of Cacholong, Sard, Opal, Quartz, and 
Chalcedony appears — ^forming horizontal layers or bands in the lower 
part, or less frequently so in the greater part of the remaining cavity. 



OXIDES, 



67 



This banded structure, from a resemblance to the human nail, is termed 
Onyx (figs. 2, 4, 8, 9, II, 16, 17, and 18). 

The layers of an Onyx, especially those consisting of Cacholong and 
Opal, are occasionally nearly an inch in thickness ; but, however wide, 




Figs. 14 and 15. — Dilatation on the tube — the first (fig. 14) filled with same material 
as the centre, Quartz ; the second (fig. 15) with Cacholong. 

each separate band is continuous round the whole upper part or '' dome " 
of a cavity, though the bands are there of extreme tenuity (figs. 4 and 16). 
Opal in this acts exceptionally, remaining apparently absolutely as a band 
at the floor of the cavity (fig. 17). In many chalcedonic druses the dome 
remains unfilled. 

Should purer chalcedonic substance succeed the cessation of onyx- 
formation, the upper part of the cavity is again lined with layers of 
uniform width, or a second onyx-structure may appear at the actual 
centre (figs. 3 and 16). 

Onyx-structure is invariably horizontal, and so it discloses the position 
which the agate occupied in a rock. Should an inner, and therefore 
secondary, deposition of Onyx appear, in which the bands lie in a position 
different from the first, it shows that the rock has been tilted before the 
filling of the druse had been completed. No Scottish instance of this 
kind has yet been discovered. 



Plynthoid Onyx. 

During the shrinkage which may be supposed to be associated with, 
or to accompany, the solidification of the chalcedonic matter (and which 
shrinkage in certain cases may account for the easy separability of the 



68 OXIDES. 

layers from one another), it may be seen that, as a general rule, the 
parallel layers which go to form Onyx do not obey the usual law. These 
layers rend vertically, and the material which forms them concretes 






ij 



Fig. 10. — Oynx Agate. 

laterally into, as it were, a series of brick-shaped bodies. The spaces 
intervening between these, if they are mere rents, are subsequently filled 
with Chalcedony ; if they are wide, they are either, at the time of the 
concreting, filled up with Rock Crystal, which has separated from the 
Chalcedony or Cacholong, — or else they are thereafter plugged with 
independently-formed agates of more or less rectangular shape (fig. 17, 
[lower part]). 

Wave Onyx. 

In these the various layers have not, in solidifying, been rent asunder 
by transverse planes of division, but have assumed curvilinear outlines 
at their fringes. Overlying layers have been deposited successively in 



fi/~ 



-^' ^=/L- _ /^ \ 






J 

Fig. 17.— Plynthoid Agate. Fig. 18.- A\ a\ i Oynx. 

the hollows between such fringes, so that this structure, when seen in 
section, presents an appearance similar to that of tumbling waves or of 
hummocky ice (fig. 18). 



OXIDES. 



69 



Eyed Agates. 

Occasionally — but in a very marked manner at certain localities — after 
the deposition of the first thin layers of Chalcedony, some of the succeeding 
layers are not disposed uniformly over the inner surface, but are confined 






Figs. 19, 20, and 21. — Cross-section of Eyed Agate. 



to one or more spots, where a slight roughness, or a thickening of the skin, 
seems to exercise an undue amount of adhesion, or even of attraction, 
upon the material which is being deposited. Around this the succeeding 
layers are, during a brief succession, exclusively deposited — hence assum- 
ing a hemispherical form. Cacholong, or Carnelian, when present, is 
generally seen in these hemispherical layers, alternating with layers of 





Fig. 22. — Section of 
Cacholong Eyes. 



Fig. 23. — Cacholong Eyes. Inside 
Skin of an Inky Onyx. 



Chalcedony ; so that, upon sectioning, an a])pearance like that of an eye 
is disclosed. Such " eyes " occasionally, but rarely, occur on more central 
layers. Not unfrequently they are, to a considerable extent, formed of 
an impure, fibrous Calcite (figs. 10, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23). 



ABNORMAL STRUCTURES IN THE LAYERS. 

That the gelatinous Chalcedony of the layers is not rigidly solidified 
immediately upon its separation from the solvent is shown by the 
concreting at certain spots of substances which may be regarded as 



70 OXIDES. 

having been dissolved in or held in suspension in the Chalcedony solution. 
Through the segregation of these certain isolated — and apparently 
suspended — structures appear in the layers of deposit. Agates exhibiting 
these various structures are termed Discachatse, Oonachatae, and Hsema- 
chatse. 



DlSCACHAT^, OR DiSC-BEARING AgATES. 

The layers of agates very infrequently consist of the jpure material 
of the several varieties of silica of which an agate is built up. Very 



m 

^ ^ 
ۥ 



> 



\ 



\ ^. ^' 



'' % % 



Fig. 24. — Disc- bearing Agate. 

generally there is some admixture — as of Chalcedony with Opal (or vice 
verkd) — of Chalcedony with Cacholong, or of Chalcedony with a ferruginous 
silicate. 

When the amount of such admixture exceeds a certain limit there 
is a concretionary separation of that substance which occurs in smaller 
amount,— and the concretionary forms are characteristic. The clouded 
milky appearance of some chalcedonic layers, due to uniform diffusion of 
Cacholong, is cleared uj) as it were, in some parts of the layer, by that 
substance having been concreted laterally around a spot of roughness, 
or of difference of substance. When this concreting is confined to one 
layer, one or more opaque milk-white discs result (figs. 24 and 25). 



OXIDES. 



71 



OONACHATiE, OR OVOID-BEARING AgATES. 

There are two varieties of tiiese — chalcedonic, and Cacholong. Botli 
result from the concreting of a small portion of one substance which 
has been suspended in, or mixed with, an excess of another. In both 
there is the assumption of an egg-like form, but the structure of these 
is very different. 

Such shapes, when formed of Chalcedony, occur in Milk-Opal, and 
have a fibrous structure, which radiates from the centre uniformly in 
every direction. 

When formed of Cacholong these ovoidal bodies occur in Chalcedony ^ 
and then the form results from the superposition of a system of discs 




Fig. 25. — Disc-beunn<^ Agate. 

{see Discachatoa), one over the other, in successive layers. The pre- 
existence of a disc in a layer of earlier deposition seems to det<3rmme the 
formation of others in superposition. The relative size of these discs 
increases with successive layers, and, thereafter, again diminishes, so 
that a solid opaque ovoid suspended in clear Chalccnlony results. Occasion- 
ally each alternately-succeeding layer is uniformly clear, so that a series 
of opaque white discs, sussessively enlarging and then successively 
diminishing in size, is here presented (fig. 26). 



72 OXIDES. 

H^M ACHATE. 

These are agates, with blood-red discs, or with spots, approaching in 
form more or less to perfect spheres. Such are formed in red-tinted Chal- 
cedony in the manner already described in connection with disc-bearing 
and ovoid-bearing agates. Frequently the ferruginous silicate assumes 
an annular form, which is merely the periphery of a colourless disc (figs. 
26, 27, and 28.) 

H^M A- Ovoid -Agates . 

These result from one abnormal structure being present within another. 
The milky material, segregated apart to form the discs (whose super- 
position in varying size results in an ovoidal structure ol Cacholong), 
contains within itself red colouring-matter, which has separated in each 
disc into a series of rings made up of red discoidal spots. As these rings 
of dots are at the same distance from the circumference of the discs, it 

^■*# ♦'^ 






^ 



Fig. 26. — Discachatae and Fig. 27. — Hsemachatae Fig. 28. — Hsema-Ovoid 

Oonachatse. Ovoids. Rings. 

results that each ovule displays upon longitudinal section either a single 
dot-ring, or a system of red, oval dot-rings, — as well as upon cross section, 
either a single dot-ring, or a system of circular dot-rings (fig. 28). 

Red- or Carnelian Agates are frequently sprinkled throughout with 
lustrous spheres, which resemble drops of yellow oil. As these show no 
varying colours in the polariscope they cannot bo Opal. 

In certain agates the colours and the structure are both due to visible 
impurities. Not infrequently portions of the original lining of the druse 
or cavity, Celedonite, Delessite, or Jasper, have been forced into the 
cavity, so that the layers of chalcedonic substance enfold and envelop them. 
Where brown Jasper has been the intruded substance they have been 
named " Potted Head Agates." 

CRACKS IN AGATES. 

First. — The rock may have been rent^ — dislocated by a lateral shift — 
and re-cemented, so as again to be impervious, before the endosmotic 



OXIDES. 73 

filling of the cavity. In such cases the layers of deposit in the agate 
follow the cracks of the rock, [and are not themselves fractured]. 

Second. — The rock, with included agate, may have been rent with 
dislodgment of parts, and these may have been thereafter re-cemented 
by a new access either of Chalcedony, or of Calcite. 

Again, the rock and its enclosed agate may have been shattered, with 
dislocation and almost inversion of fragments — with extrusion of some — 
or intrusion of the matrix or of Jasper, followed by re -cementation by 
means of clear, vein-like Chalcedony. Very rarely, when the fracture 
occurred before the cavity of the agate was entirely filled, the subsequent 
layers were folded into the rent and thus effected a re -union. 

At certain localities the agates are frequently divided by a straight 
rent, and one portion entirely removed. 

Recent open cracks are probably due to frost. 

MOCHA-AGATES. 

Mochas are agates into which, after a certain stage of consolidation 
of the constituents has been reached, water containing manganesian or 
ferruginous matters in solution has infiltrated between the layers of deposit, 
or, more rarely, into cracks. Upon the evaporation of the water these 
substances have been left behind in an arborescent form. Usually they 
are brown, but they may be red or yellow. The ramifications of the 
moss-like structures may generally be seen to start from actual rents in 
the stone. 

JASP-AGATES. 

Stalactites of Celedonite, or other " skin material," are invested by 
a thick layer of colourless, or by jasperous. Chalcedony. This Chalcedony 
holds, as it were in suspension, multitudes of spheres of Carnelian. This 
structure-within-structure shows that the deposited layers of Chalcc^lony 
do not, immediately after their deposition, concrete into a solid, but, on 
the contrary, allow of motion sufficient for the formation of an independent 
structure within their substance. Anomalous as such an arrangement may 
appear, the structure of these spheres is still more so, as many of them 
show that their colouring matter is disposed so as to simulate the whorls 
of a volute. They thus occasionally present a certain resemblance to 
minute ammonites. Jasp- Agates are usually vein-agat<>s, that is to say, 
they are not formed in vapour cavities, but are deposited in fissures of 
later date than the eruptive rock to whose decomposition their materials 
are due (figs. 29, 30). 



74 OXIDES. 

Stalactitic Jasp- Agate. 

In this, the more-common variety of Jasp-Agate, the stalactites 
which impart the prevailing characteristic are disposed in the same 
nearly-parallel arrangement which is seen in ordinary stalactitic agates — 
being pendulous from the upper part of the vein. In many cases where 
there has been an excess of Celedonite, or of other basement material 



■^^\'^:^"-'^-~,^^ . .;/ .^■^ 



•/ 



:> 









K 



h 



1/ 



c 



O , 



n r 




V 



o 



t 



o 



Figs. 29 and 30. — Longitudinal- and transverse -sections of Stalucite structure in 
Jasp-Agate — Ayrshire. 

of these stalactites, there is a greater or less approach to the structure 
of Moss-Agate. When the fibrillse which determine this structure are 
separated to any great extent, the ordinary agate arrangement of 
successive layers occurs ; even a central mass of Quartz occasionally 
presenting itself. 

When, again, the moss-agat«-structure is unusually close, there is an 
approach to ordinary Jasper. When central vacuities occur in this, the 
parts margining these vacuities are sheathed by a layer of Carnelian — 
the centre being here filled with a manganesian Calcite. 

Brick-shaped Jasp-Agate. 
At the Ayrshire locality which yields Jasp-agate, a prevailing structure 
is that of a Vein-agate which has been cross-rent into brick-shaped 
segments. The rents which intersect these veins are filled with impure 



OXIDES. 75 

manganesian Dolomite, which is the lining material of the veins themselves. 
The coagulating silica which fills these rectangular spaces has thereafter 
concreted so as to line the sides with layers of brilliant red, yellow, pink, 
and white colours — these colours being usually deposited in a system of 
minute spots. Thereafter these brick-shaped structures have themselves 
frequently been rent — these secondary rents being also filled by a dolomitic 
paste. 

True jasper very rarely forms layers in an agate : when it occurs it 
invariably is confined to a small portion of the periphery, being deposited 
somewhat after the manner of an " eye." 

ALTERATIONS OF COLOUR. 

Agates may be naturally or artificially stained. They may also be 
bleached. 

Open cracks frequently form channels for the passage of ferruginous 
waters, which stain agates elsewhere colourless, or for waters charged with 
humus acids, which bleach red-tinted stones. 

The loss of the small amount of water present in Chalcedony transforms 
its translucent structure into one which is white and opaque. The loss of 
the large amount present in Opal renders it also white, opaque, and 
granular {quartz nectique) ; and the subsequent removal of this loose 
powder by water splits up an Onyx into plates of chalcedony, which 
exhibit an ovoidal or micro-mammillated surface. 

The appearance of the commoner varieties of agates may be improved 
by artificial staining. Chalcedony absorbs staining liquids. Cacholong, 
Opal, and Quartz do not. Colourless Chalcedony may be stained dark 
brown by being heated in strong solutions of honey, sugar, treacle, or oil, 
which are afterwards carbonised and rendered black in its pores by the 
action of sulphuric acid. The stain so produced penetrates to about the 
fortieth of an inch. 

Agate Localities. 

Shetlai^d — Mainland. Northmaven, opposite Dore Holm, in 
porphyry. 

Kincardineshire. Dull brown (D. and H.). Near AUardice, 
Arbuthnott. At the pulpit Rock, near Grange Burn, Kinneff. St. 
Cyrus, in interbedded trap [andesite] of Old Red, fine colours, in elongated 
forms. Fenella Den. 

Forfarshire — Montrose. At Ferry Den, thickly studding the 
stones of which the houses are built. Scurdy Ness [The Ness, Montrose]. 
Rich brown, with colourless bands, very irregularly deposited. The 
brown contains much opal. Usan, at the Blue Hole, brilliant inky-blue 



76 OXIDES. 

and white colours ; also wax-yellow — Cerachates. Centres often hollow 
and lined with Quartz or with Amethyst. Rock of St. Skae. Near Ethie 
House. Lunan Bay railway-cutting. At Blackness Hill and East Balgay. 
Panmure Den. 

Perthshire. Gourdie, near Cluny, with the exterior layers envelop- 
ing red Natrolite. Pitroddie Den. Formerly at Kinnoull Hill. At the 
Agate Knowe, Tinkletop, Ballindean, Inchture, of the most delicate tints 
of lilac, flesh-red, and rose, in grey-blue Chalcedony, often with an outer 
layer of milk-white Girasol Opal : the most equisite and delicately-tinted 
agates known. In the Ochils, of red tints. South of Pitkeathly. At the 
Path of Condie, in many fine colours, often red. Rossie Ochil, carnelian- 
red, with grey. 

FiFESHiRE. Luthrie, at the Heather Hill, Carphin, dark-blue to 
almost brown-black, with milk-white bands. Balmeadowside, brown, 
and also a rose blush in a centre of translucent grey ; others with banded 
Cacholong in colourless Chalcedony. Near Balmerino, grey, often with 
brushes of Natrolite in the outer layers. Shore of the Tay (Scroggie). 
At the farm of Middlefield, Cupar, of brilliant yellow and red colours ; 
sometimes enclosing radiating Natrolite. Railway cutting east of Cupar. 
At t Shepherd's Knowe, and at East Lalathan, 3 miles north-west of Leven. 

Stirlingshire. Occasionally in the Campsie Hills, and in rifts in 
the hills near Corrie, Kilsyth. 

Inverness-shire — Arisaig. At Luinga Bheag Island, violet-coloured 
agate, in a N.N.W. dyke. 

Argyllshire — Kintyre. At top of Killellan Hill, 5 miles south of 
Campbeltown, pink. Loose on the shores of Machrihanish Bay and lona. 

Midlothian, f Lonnis Quarry, f Morton's Smiddy, Midcalder. 
Pentland Hills, at Hillend, grey. [Blackford Hill, in veins, in andesite 
of Devonian age, with lavender and violet Chalcedony, Carnelian, and 
vermilion Jasper.] 

Peebleshire. At Carlops, brown, and, rarely, in large specimens, 
of fine red and white. Linhouse, in bed of gravel, banks of Linhouse 
Water, 1 mile from Harburn Station. 

Ayrshire. Along the coast at Dunure, and south of the Heads of 
Ayr. Rarely at Burn Anne, Galston, in magnificent brilliant red-and- 
yellow colours, with milk-white bands ; the same layers of deposit 
changing with extreme abruptness from red to yellow, or losing all colour. 
Also in lavender and purple colours, spotted yellow or red. 

Haddington. At Dunbar (Greg). In the shingle on the beach near 
Dunglass, red and mottled (Greg), and violet (Turton). 

Roxburghshire. At Robert's Linn, in Hobkirk Parish, in whin 
(Nicol). At Thirlestane Hill (Nicol). 



OXIDES. 77 

Fortification Agate 
Occurs in Forfarshire, in the Blue Hole, near Usan. In Perthshire, 
at the Path of Condie. In Ayrshire, at Bum Anne, near Galston. 
Peeblesshire, at Carlops ; in veins, white and grey, with centre of 
Lydian Stone, and transverse threads of n^l Clialcerlony, which cements 
the rents. 

Onyx Agate. 
Occurs in Kincardineshire, at St. Cyrus (Rose), grey and white. At 
Kinnaber Water Works, Waterniouth, North Esk, blue, white, and red. 
Forfarshire, at Scurdy Ness, rarely, brown and white. At the Blue 
Hole, Usan, blue, grey, and white, blue, red and colourk\ss, white wax- 
yellow, and grey. At Lunan Bay railway-cutting, red, blue, and white. 
At FuUerton Den and Fotheringham. At Panmure Den, blood-red and 
white. Ayrshire, at Burn Anne, rarely, yellow, grey, and white. Fife- 
shire, at Middlefield, near Cupar, red, white, and quartzose. Onyx agates 
have never been found at Norman's Law, Carphin, and Balmeadowskle, 
in Fife. 

Eyed Agates. 
Kincardineshire, at St. Cyrus, with Onyx, white and grey colours 
(Rose). Forfarshire, at Scurdy Ness, the eyes being uniformly 
cream-coloured Cacholong, and frequently coalescing to form a mam- 
millated layer of the stone. At the Blue Hole, Usan, and near Ethie 
House, of grey and white, and red, blue, and white colours. Perthshire, 
at Ballindean, the eyes white, with a central red spot. Path of Condie, 
rare. Fifeshire, in the cutting above " Ferry Port-on-Craig " (Partan 
Craig), some of the layers being formed of divergent fibrous Calcite of a 
red colour, and others of Celedonite of different tints. 

Faulted Agates. 
Forfarshire, at the Blue Hole, Usan, Faulted Onyx ; fractured 
and recemented agates, the parts often not displaced. Ayrshire, at 
Burn Anne, Galston. 

Pseudo-Faulted . 
The rock having been faulted with dislocation of portions of the 
cavity before the infiltration of chalcedonic matter. Fifeshire, 
Balmeadowside, Luthrie. 

Brecciated Agates. 
Forfarshire, at Scurdy Ness. Peeblesshire, Carlops. The Forti- 
fication Vein Agate, in parts, much brecciated, the fragments being 
impacted in a matrix of Lydian Stone. 



78 OXIDES. 

H^M ACHATE. 

Blood-red, globular sprinkled, — discoid, — and in bands. The last 
being formed of layers of confluent discs. The first occurs in Forfarshire, 
at the Blue Hole, Usan ; at Roy Quarry, Broughty Ferry, with an outer 
zone of fleches d'amour ; Blackford Hill, Edinburgh ; and Burn Anne, 
Ayrshire. The second, Ballindean, Perthshire ; rarely at Balmerino, Fife. 

Many Scotch agates, especially those from Usan, and from Burn Anne, 
have layers of Cacholong sprinkled with minute red globules ; these 
alternate with pale violet bands, with small red discs, imparting to such 
portions a flesh -red to roseate hue. 

Discoid Agates. 
Forfarshire, at Blue Hole, Usan, white, rarely. Perthshire, at the 
Path of Condie, both red and white. Fifeshire, loose, at Morton, Tents 
Muir, white [bleached by exposure on the sea beach (R. Miln)]. 

OvoiDAL Agates. 
Forfarshire, at the Blue Hole, white. Perthshire, at Path of Condie, 
white, spotted with red. Fifeshire, loose at Morton, Tents Muir, white, 
[from exposure on the sea beach (R. M.)]. 

Potted Head Agates. 
With intruded Celedonite skin, at the Blue Hole, at the Path of 
Condie, at Scurr Hill, Balmerino, and elsewhere. With intruded frag- 
ments of a jasperine or hornstone layer, at the Blue Hole, Usan ; at 
Ballindean, Forfarshire. Path of Condie, Perthshire. 

Stalactitic Agates 
Occur at the Blue Hole, of two varieties. The first with grey stalactites, 
having a central core of Celedonite ; the second in magnificent specimens, 
which have a central core of scarlet jasper, with a sheath of milky Cach- 
olong, sprinkled with red spots ; these stalactites pass through a base of 
Onyx composed of alternate layers of transparent Chalcedony and opaque 
Cacholong. At Balshando, Sidlaws, rarely. Perthshire, at Ballindean, 
in magnificent specimens of variegated and unusual colours, sometimes 
ochre-yellow, diversified with pink, the stalactites exhibiting a beautiful 
structure. Fifeshire, one mile north-east of Norman's Law, in very 
translucent-grey specimens. Middlefield, near Cupar, fiery-red and 
orange-yellow, the core of the stalactites being crystals of Natrolite. 
Jock's Hole, north of Scurr Hill, rarely ; magnificent specimens of red 
Carnelian stalactites passing through milky Chalcedony. Ajrrshire, at 
Bum Anne, stalactites bright-red, sheathed in alternate bands of milk- 
white and" colourless Chalcedony. 

Stalactitic Agates, when cut transversely, are called " piped agates." 



OXIDES. 79 

Moss Agates. 
Fifeshiro, on the west slope of Scurr Hill, Balmerino, in two veins. 
In the lower an open reticulation of dark-green Celedonito crosses through- 
out a rod-and-grey Chalcedony. In the upper and exceedingly-close and 
minutely-anastomosing reticulation of vivid light grc^n pervades a 
Chalcedony of a lively blue. The outer crust contains imbedde<l crystals 
of red H(^ulandite, with brushes of yellow Natrolite. At th(^ summit of 
the Binn of Glen Farg, rarely. At Morton, Tents Muir, loose. At 
Middlefield, near Cupar, rarely, green traversing red Chalcedony. Ayrshire, 
at Burn Anne, close in structure, the " moss " green and red, in blue 
Chalcedony, rarely. Roxburghshire, near Stewartfield, with a brown 
moss. Moss Agate, so close in structure as to simulate Plasma, occurs 
near Parbroath, Luthrie, Fifeshire. Sphseroradiate Moss Agata of a green 
colour, near Scurr Hill and at Kinnoull Hill. 

Dendritic Agates. 

Aberdeenshire. Cabrach, at Redford and the farm of the Buck, 
brown in blue Chalcedony. Forfarshire : in Roy Quarry, Broughty 
Ferry, Reres Hill, and elsewhere in the district, in beautiful specimens, 
which carry yelllow and red jasperine tufts. Fifeshire : in the cutting 
west of Partan Craig. St. Monans. St. Andrews, East Sands, occasion- 
ally, loose, fine. Haddingtonshire : Whittinghame, between Haddington 
and Dunbar (Bairnsfather). 

Mochas. 

Forfarshire, At the Blue Hole, rich brown, very rarely. 

Fifeshire. Heather Hill, Luthrie. Middlefield, bright yellow, fine. 

The habit of Agates, both as regards their form and the successive 
arrangement of the layers of Chalcedonic deposition within them, varies 
in a remarkable manner at different localities, and even in the different 
eruptive rocks at these localities. There may be an occasional well- 
marked variety, but, as a rule, a prevailing habit is conspicuous, at least 
at all the localities which yield Agates in abundance. 

Agates have been, as " pebbles," without sufficient specification as 
to their matrices or character, stated to occur " near the village of f Sartle, 
in Skye, and also near Loch FoUart, in the bed of a rivulet." " On the 
side of a hill near the church of Rothes, white and red." " Below the 
Red Head, Forfarshire." " Along the shore of Peterhead, pebbles of the 
Onyx class." 

Most of the above are probably worn fragments of brilliantly-coloured 
rocks. 



80 OXIDES. 

Jasp-Agate 

Resembles both Dendritic Agate and Moss Agate in the chalcedonic matter 
enveloping a pre-existent structure, which acts as a core to pseudo- 
stalactites. This structure in Jasp-Agate is, however, much larger in 
amount, and as it consists of Jasper, it has its variegated colours. 

Sutherland. About one and a half miles south of Cape Wrath, near 
an outlier of Torridon Conglomerate, in small veins in the Hebridean 
Gneiss, in close association with Actinolite, Ripidolite and Potstone. 
The filamentous net- work is here brown. 

Ayrshire. At Lagg Quarry, Fisherton, Ayr. The mossy or stalactitic 
structure is yellow or brown, it is surrounded by purple Chalcedony, which 
is zoned by layers of pale lavender (Blackwood). On both banks of Bum 
Anne, about one and a half mile from Galston, in veins which are seg- 
mented by Calcitic partings into brick-shaped masses. The chalcedonic 
matter rarely is arranged comformably to the sides of such forms, but 
much more generally is disposed in sheathing layers around pendulous 
" stalactites " of Jasper. The Chalcedony is, for the most part, of its 
usual blue-grey colour, but occasionally it is sprinkled with yellow or red 
spots, and rarely it is bright red. The included Jasper is of yellow, brown, 
green, red, and scarlet tints ; frequently in clouded mixtures of these, and 
the tints are for the most part vivid. The commonest variety, which is 
a mottled mixture of brown, yellow, and a little red, is termed the 
' ' Partridge. ' ' The most select variety is one in which the earliest investing 
sheath of violet Chalcedony contains suspended spheres of red, white, or 
yellow colour. These spheres have a minute opaque Cacholong centre, 
a surrounding mass of radiating Chalcedony, and a peripheral layer of a 
milky tint. A still more inexplicable structure is one which resembles 
fragmented desmids enveloped in alternating layers of Cacholong and 
Chalcedony. Occasionally a true agate structure of the fortification type 
occupies such portions of the stone as contain less of the Jasper. The 
specimens are altogther unrivalled in beauty. 

Haddingtonshire. At Thorntonloch, near Dunglass (Greg), probably 
from a breccia overlying the Silurian greywacke, and inferior to the lowest 
sandstone of the Old Red. 

Flint. 

Sutherlandshire. At Stronchrubie and elsewhere in the Cambrian 
dolomite [Durness Limestone] in large masses, of grey to red colour, and 
of a cherty appearance. Elginshire : at Duffus, with Chalcedony and 
Galena, in limestone. Aberdeenshire : at | Moreseat near Ellon, loose 
[Chalk Flint]. 



OXIDES. 



81 



HORNSTONE. 

Fracture subconchoidal to splintery ; lustre greasy to homy. 

Hebrides : Rum, at Sgurr Mor, brown, blackish -green and lavender, 
banded with Prase. Eigg, in the Scuir, with Chalcedony and Heliotrope. 
Invcrnoss-shiro : on the summit of Braeriach, banded brown. Aberdeen- 
shire : on the Ladder road and west side of the summit of Mount Keen, 
purple. Strath Dee, on the right of the road, near its turn to Glen Tilt, 
in beds, greenish-grey. Perthshire : south west of Ben Vuroch, Blair 
Athole, earthy, banded brown and grey. Fifeshire : west side of Largo 
Law, banded green and wax-grey (Howie). Haddington : at Dunbar. 
Garleton Hills, with Chalcedony, Quartz, and Jasper. At Pencraik, near 
Traprain Law, in claystone, with poq)hyritic slate. At the summit of 
Lucklaw, passing into felspar. Midlothian : Blacldord Hill, brown — 
Anal, L Pentland Hills, with claystone. Linlithgowshire : in an open- 
ing near the old quarry of Kirkton, in imbedded masses in limestone of 
Yoredale age. Lanarkshire : Tinto, in the Kirk Burn, Petrosilex, 
approaching to Hornstone, with imbedded crystals of Hornblende. 
Kirkcudbrightshire : at Barlocco Cave, brecciated (Dudgeon). 





Sp.gr. 


SiOj 


AI,03 


FeO 


Fe^Oa 


MnO 


CaO 


MgO 


K^O 


Na^O 


H^O 


Total. 


1. Chalcedonic Hornstone 

of Blackford Hill, 

2. Green Cliert, Strontlan, 

3. Cambrian Chert, Snioo, 

4. Lydian Stone, Kinkell. 


2-598 
2-032 
2-641 
2-598 


89-692 
89-692 
97-769 
61-2 


-974 
•769 

17-536 


1-373 
1-671 

5-4V6 


1-538 
3-163 


tr. 
•076 
-076 
•9 


2-283 

2-843 

•301 

3-136 


•• 

•153 

2^7 


•54 
•44 


2-271 
2^18 


2-773 

2-005 

•207 

5^889 


99-906 

99-676 

100-044 

99-970 



Chert. 



Impalpable granular ; fracture flat, angular, splintery ; lustre glisten- 
ing. Sutherland : Smoo, snow-white, in a thick bed in Cambrian dolomite, 
on the west side of the Geo — Anal. 3. Inverness-shire : top of Braeriach, 
banded yellow and brown. Banffshire : Cairngorm, greenish-yellow, 
Aberdeenshire : Hill of Fare, rarely, in veins in granite, red. Cabrach- 
Redford, green, pseud omorphous after Calcite. Argyllshire : Strontian, 
Fee Donald, grass green, with Galena — Anal. 2. Lanarkshire : Camilty 
Hill, near Harburn Station, blue-green. Renfrewshire : Cathkin Hills, 
Carmunnock quarry, in green, fragmented layers, with Saponit^e, Calcite, 
and Zeolitic Quartz (Skipskey). Roxburghshire : near Hadden, in 
translucent red veins, with an agate vein in limestone. At Bedrule. 



82 OXIDES. 

Fifeshire. In Lower Carboniferous limestone [Yoredale], wax-brown, 
mottled with yellow, at Kingsbarns, brecciated. 

Basanite. 

Lydian Stone. Touchstone. A velvet-black, flinty stone, with fine 
granular structure, which appears to be either flinty slate, or bituminous 
and carbonaceous shales which have been altered by contact with eru])tive 
rocks ; occasionally derived from these. From flint}^ slate. Orkney : 
Mainland, Stromness, at Point of Ness, in sandstone flag. Hebrides ; 
Skye, at Duntulm Castle, with flinty slate in trap (MacCulloch). Perth- 
shire : at Hallshole, on the Tay, above Stanley, with Hornstone and 
Jasper. Argyllshire : on the south side of Ben Cruachan. 

Frora Shales. Hebrides : Skye, in Stenscholl Burn, Staffln Bay, from 
the alteration of Liassic shales. Fifeshire : near Aberdour, banded at 
contact of dolerite with Lower Carboniferous shales. At Kinkell, in 
masses imbedded in agglomerate — Anal. 4. East of Burntisland, in 
Whinny Hall quarry and in Whinny Hill, from indurated shale. Inch- 
keith, in tufa, interstratified with limestone. Midlothian : near Midcalder 
Station, at Lyden quarry, Belstane, banded brown. Lanarkshire : at 
Earnock Moor quarry, from the alteration of Carboniferous shale, of 
igneous -origin. Skye : in Dolerite on the north side of Talisker Bay 
(Peyton). Midlothian : at the Braid and Moorfoot Hills (Greg). Peebles- 
shire : near Carlops, forming the centre of veins of Fortification Cacholong 
Agate. Ayrshire : at LendaKoot, in interrupted bands, sometimes passing 
into brown, green, and yellow, where the diorite passes into Serpentine. 

JASPER. 

This is compact quartz, rendered opaque and coloured red by silicious 
combinations with Haematite, or yellow and brown by Gothite ; such 
combinations being intermixed in more or less of an arborescent arrange- 
ment with ordinary white Quartz and Chalcedon3^ Varieties are : — 
Common Jasper, or Ferruginous Jasper, Dendritic Jasper, Ribbon Jasper. 
The colours range from bright yellow, bright red, dull red, brown to 
lavender, and, rarely, green ; all of these being occasionally intermingled. 

Ferruginous Jasper. 

Dull, massive, uniform in structure. Ayrshire : at Cuff Hill, near 
Beith. Kincardineshire : Kinneff, north of the Burn of Grange, on the 
shore with hollow pseudomorphs after Barytes. Fifeshire : in a large 
vein midway between Burntisland and Pettycur. Midlothian : Pentland 
Hills, in claystone. Blackford Hill, bright red, in veins. 



OXIDES. 83 

Dendritic Jasper. 

Orkney. North Ronaldshay, in veins in Old Red Sandstone, bright 
yellow, with light-green patches. 

Sutherland. IJ miles south of Cape Wrath, in veins cutting 
Hornblendic Gneiss, which here underlies Torridon Sandstone. Brown 
dendrites in a purple matrix, and approaching to Moss Agato ; associated 
with Hydrous Anthophyllite, Ripidolite, and Steatite. 

Aberdeenshire. Leslie, with Amianthus. Kincardineshire : in 
veins in the south bank of the North Esk at The Bum. Bright red, 
veined with white Quartz (Imrie). 

Forfarshire. Hedder wick, near Montrose. Perthshire: f Kelry, 
near Blairgowrie, mottled yellow ; mossy, near Alyth. 

Fifeshire, near Balvaird. Inchkeith, formerly, green with a dusky 
white line. 

Stirlingshire. Campsie Hills. Chiefly in a rock face in the hill 
above Strathblane ; red and yellow. Kilsyth, in a rift of the hills near 
Corrie ; red and yellow, sometimes penetrated by diverging sheaves of 
zeolite ; associated with Agates, and traces of copper ore, in Barytes. 
Among fragments of basaltic pillars at Kjllearn. 

Midlothian. Formerly below St. Anthony's Chapel. The basis 
usually of a uniform colour, either lavender or dull red, but sometimes in 
bands of these colours ; mottled throughout by minute spheres of an 
iron-ochre with white spots. The usual colours are : — Brown, with white 
spots ; la vender -blue, with white spots ; and red, with white and black 
spots. Sometimes all are blended together. 

Haddington. At Garleton Hills, near East Linton, and at Bangly 
quarry, H miles west of the Hopetoun Monument ; of a dusky to an 
ochre -ye How, with brownish-red mottlings in clusters, in clays tone and 
porphyritic slate. The veins are generally vertical, diminishing much 
in width as they descend, and ramifying minutely. Frequently also 
passmg into Quartz, Chalcedony, and Hornstone, on the one hand, and 
into a dull earthy claystonc on the other. Less fine at Balgone, 3 miles 
south of North Berwick. At Dunglass, loose, near Thomtonloch, in 
yellow brushes imbedded in dull red earthy Jasper. 

Berwickshire. Near the basaltic ridge of f Grindean. 

Dumbartonshire : at Dunglass, mossy and dendritic. 

Roxburghshire : in a rivulet east of Stobs quarry, one of the sources 
of the Slitrig, below Robert's Linn. In a bed, with veins of red Chalcedony 
(Nicol). At Stewartfield, near Jedburgh, on the Jed. In large masses, 
brown, with brilliant red, spotted with white. 



84 OXIDES. 

Ribbon Jasper. 

Midlothian : Craiglockhait Hill, in veins ; the stripes being brilliant 
red, yellow, and white. Argyllshire : at Galdrings, the south corner of 
Macrihanish Bay ; veins in basalt ; stripes brown-red and buff. Rox- 
burghshire : at Robert's Linn. Windburgh, head of the Slitrig (Nicol). 
Peebleshire : at Carlops, south side of the Pentland Hills, in veins of a 
lavender colour, with streaks of red and white crossing one another. 

Porcelain Jasper 

Is baked clay. Fifeshire : Dysart, lavender coloured ; from heat of 
burning coal seam, on coal (Rose). 

[34. Tridymite (211). SiO.,. 

May occur in some rocks of eruptive origin ; and is supposed to be the 
mineral which forms the acicular crystals occurring in agates (see above).] 

35. Opal (212). Si02,wH,0. 

GiRASOL Opal. 

Kincardineshire. At the Blue Hole, Usan, very rarely, of an amber 
colour, in bands of Onyx, occasionally barred with Milk Opal. These 
opal bands are occasionally of such width that stones of very considerable 
size might be cut from them were they not usually much cracked. 

Argyllshire. Campbeltown, at Kilkerran Point, filling small druses, 
of pure milk colour, and perfect fire red by transmitted light. 

Milk Opal. 

Kincardineshire. At the Blue Hole, Usan ; rarely, in bands of 
Onyx, sometimes passing into Wax Opal, deep-red in colour. The bands 
of Onyx, which contain, or consist chiefly of, Cacholong or Opal, are often 
transversely barred with angular blocks of Amethyst, Quartz, or sharp- 
margined cavities filled with Chalcedony in layers of regular agatic 
structure. 

Perthshire, f Peeble Knowe, Ballindean. The outer layer, nearly 
a quarter of an inch thick, of the better class Agates, here consists of 
Milk Opal, with Fire- or Girasol-flash by transmitted light. The same 
layer of Agates and Chalcedonic druses from other localities appears to 
contain some Milk Opal. 

Some of the Ballindean Agates, and also some from Gals ton, in 
Ayrshire, exhibit a beautiful opaline play of colour when cut into thin 
slices. 



OXIDES. 86 

Jasp Opal. 

Skye. In a vein in wackenitic trap, on the coast at the ch'ff foot 
south of the Stack, at TaUsker. 



OXIDES OF THE SEMI-METALS. 
Teroxides. 

36. Valentinite (216). Sb^Og. 

Orthorhomb. Civ., b perfect. Transparent. Adamantine to pearly 
on brachydiagonal. Snow-white ; sometimes tinged peach blossom to 
grey or brown. Streak, white. H., 2-5 to 3 ; G., 5-6. 

B.B. on charcoal fuses easily and gives a white coating. This in R. 
flame colours the outer flame greenish -blue. In closed tube fuses and 
partially sublimes. Sol. in h. acid. Comp., Antimony, 83-56 ; Oxygen, 
16-44. 

Dumfriesshire. At Glendinning mines, in a group of minute acicular 
crystals in a cavity of Stibnite, with Cervantite (Dudgeon). 

37. Cervantite (221). Sb^Og . Sb^Os. 

Orthorhomb. Acicular, generally earthy as a coating. Isabella- 
yellow. Lustre, greasy to dull. Streak, yellowish-white to white. H., 4 
to 5 ; G., 4-1. 

B.B., infusible and unaltered. On charcoal easily reduced. Sol. in 
h. acid. Comp., Antimony, 79-2 ; Oxygen, 20-8. 

Dumfriesshire. At Glendinning, in Stibnite, and sometimes pseudo- 
morphous after the latter (Dudgeon). 

Ayrshire. At Hare Hill near New Cumnock, in fine specimens, 
upon Stibnite (Rose). 

OXIDES OF METALS. 

Anhydrous Oxides. 

suboxides and protoxides. 

Water (223). HgO. Ice, fluid above 32°. 

Hexagonal when solid. In many complex twins in snow crystals. 
Rhombohedric by cleavage in ice. R., 117° 23'. Ice colourless, but in 
bulk pale emerald green. H., 1-5 ; G., -918. Hence 1000 of water= 
1089-5 of ice ; or water expands Jj-th in freezing. Greatest density of 



86 OXIDES. 

water at about 39°-2 ' F. It expands as it approaches 32°, owing probably 
to incipient crystallisation. Colourless when pure, but in bulk bluish - 
green. Standard for specific gravities of solids and liquids : 1 cubic 
inch of water at 60° F. and 30 inches of the barometer weighs 252-458 
grains ; 1 litre weighs 1000 grammes. Natural waters never pure, from 
holding gases and soluble solids in solution. Water of the ocean, from 
saline matters, has G. = 1-027 to 1-0285. Waters of saline lakes contain 
sometimes 26 per cent, of salts and have G., 1-212. 

Besides its vast bulk in the ocean, water occurs in enormous amount 
in the solid form in the earth's crust (as in hydrated salts partly in the 
form of ice). The greater portion of this may be as a base in combination ; 
that portion which can be driven oif by heat may be simply in the form of 
ice. In some cases its presence may determine the assumption of 
crystalline, that is, regular geometric, form, as in the zeolites. The mode 
or quality of its combination in non-crystallisable minerals is little under- 
stood. Igneous rocks, in some districts, are largely converted into 
Saponite. This contains 25 per cent, of water, the greater portion of 
which is driven off below a temperature of 100°, but this is reabsorbed, 
and only to the normal quantity, very speedily upon cooling. 

Water filtering through rocks, sometimes holding oxygen and some- 
times carbonic acid in solution, or at other times soluble salts, is the 
chief agent in the transmutation of rock-masses near the surface, and 
of the transference of certain of their components — as in the cases of 
lime carbonate into caves, chalcedonic compounds into agates, and 
zeolites into amygdaloidal druses. In such situations the operative 
water frequently remains lodged in the cavities. Where such cavities 
lie near to the rock-surface the expansion of the water in becoming ice 
rends the inclosing rock, so that, upon remelting, the water escapes 
through the rents, and air enters to peroxidise the remaining contents. 
Uncombined imprisoned water has been found in Orkney, in stalactite- 
sheathed washed-out trap dykes, north of the Berry Head in Hoy. The 
water is inclosed in deep pools sealed from the air by an upper floor of 
Stalagmite. In the amygdaloidal traps of the Storr, in Skye, and else- 
where in the Hebrides, all zeolitic druses, which have not been rent 
either by freezing of the inclosed water or by the shock of falls from a 
cliff, contain either mobile water or are moist from its being held as in 
a sponge by the downy Mesolite which such cavities usually contain. 

38. Cuprite (224). CugO. 

Cubic. Civ., octahedral. Fracture conchoidal to uneven. Brittle. 
Streak, brownish-red, transparent to opaque ; when transparent, crimson. 



OXIDES. 87 

Lustre, adamantine to metallic ; in impure massive or granular varieties, 
dull earthy ; and colour brick-red or cochineal, often tarnished grey, 
H., 3-5 to 4 ; G., 5-7 to G. 

B.B. on charcoal becomes black, then fuses, and finally gives a globule 
of copper. In the forceps alone colours the flame green ; if moistened 
with h. acid, deep blue. Soluble in acid and in ammonia. The con- 
centrated h. solution, when diluted with water, gives at first a whit© 
precipitate. Comp., 88-9 Copper, 11-1 Oxygen. 

Chalcotrichite consists of cubes so elongated along one axis as to 
become fibrous. Tile ore is a granular, earthy, ferruginous variety. 

Chalcotrichite . 

Kirkcudbright. At Balcary mines, with Pitchy Copper and 
Malachite, very rarely (D. and H.). 

Tile Ore. 

Lanarkshire. Rarely at Leadhills, with ChrysocoUa and Malachite. 

Dumfriesshire. Wanlockhead, in the Bay mine, in minute octahedra, 
with Chalcop3n'ite (Wilson. Kirkcudbright, at Balcary and at Kingslaggan 
mines, with Pitchy Copper and Malachite (D. and H.). [Associated with 
Native Copper and Zeolites in the Old Red Andesitic lava of Glen Farg 
(Craig Christie).] 

39. Melaconite (230). CuO. 

Massive ; pulverulent and earthy. Sometimes in pseudomorphous 
cubic forms. Lustre, of the massive, sub-metallic ; of the earthy, dull. 
Streak shining. Opaque. Colour of massive, iron-grey, of earthy, black. 
Soils the fingers. H., 3 ; G., 6 to 6-3. 

B.B. infusible. Soluble in acids. 

Leadhills (Greg). Loose powder, with intermixed shapeless frag- 
ments of Chalcopyrite, from the decomposition of which it seems to have 
arisen. 

Dumfries — Wanlockhead. Bay vein, with ChrysocoUa (Wilson). 
Massive, and apparently in cubic forms. 

Kirkcudbright. At Balcary, with Malachite (D. and H.). 



88 OXIDES. 

SESQUIOXIDES. 

40. Sapphire (231). AlgOg. 

Hexagonal ; R. 86° 4'. Twins common. Civ., rhombohedral, and 
basal. Excessively tough, and difficultly frangible. H., 9 ; G., 3-9 to 
4*2. Transparent to translucent ; lustre, vitreous, but pearly to metallic 
on basal face. B.B., unchanged. Comp., Alumina, with a little oxide of 
iron. 

Aberdeenshire — Clova, Clashnarae Hill. Occurs imbedded in 
red Andalusite. Crystal Jq of an inch diameter. Hexagonal ; pale blue, 
with dark blue centre and asteriated structure. [Min. Mag., vol. ix. p. 389.] 

41. Haematite (232). Fe^O.^. 

Rhombohedral [o, (c). 111 ; u, 211 ; c, (o), 255 ; r, 100] ; R. 86° 10'. 
Crystals rhombohedric, prismatic, and tabular. Twins on R also on o. 
Civ., rhombohedral, and also parallel to the base. Fracture conchoidal. 
Brittle. Iron black to steel grey ; often iridescent. Streak cherry-red, 
brownish-red to reddish -brown. In thin laminae transparent and blood- 
red. Metallic lustre, brilliant. H., 5-5 to 6-5 ; G., 4-3 to 6-3. Rarely 
feebly magnetic. 

B.B. in inner flame becomes black and magnetic. Very slowly soluble 
in acids. Comp., Iron, 70 ; Oxygen, 30. 

Is subdivided into the following : — 

1. Elba Iron Ore. 

Crystals of rhombohedral type, thick and modified. 

Shetland — Mainland, Hillswick. At Vanlup, oucr (PL XVII.), 
with Specular Iron, Margarodite, Chlorite, and near Kyanite ; in quartz 
veins in mica-schist. The faces u are striated by an oscillation with r, or 
an intermediate face. 

Edinburgh. Salisbury Crags, north quarry. " Flat nail-headed 
crystals," with Quartz, in cavities of Gothite. 

2. Specular or Micaceous-Iron Ore. 

In thin fiat crystals. 

Shetland — Mainland. In a vein which has its north outgoing at 
the junction of the clay slate with the Old Red Sandstone on the west 
shore of Levenwick, and which courses along the east side of the Scous- 
burgh Hill. It enters the clay slate and reappears of very considerable 
thickness at the south-east end of Scousburgh Hill near the Brough. At 
Hoswick, north side of Levenwick (Hay). At the Girths of Quendale 
north of Fitful Head, in a vein in clay slate (Hibbert). At Kleber Geo 
Fethaland, in thin crystalline scales, imbedded in potstone. 



OXIDES. 89 

Sutherland. On the west slope of Foinne Bheinn, 700 feet up, 
with Orthoclase and Haughtonite, in Hebridean Gneiss. 

Ross AND Cromarty. In the burn of Edderton, on the surface of 
botryoidal Hsematite. On the north slopes of the Cromalt Hills, about 
2 miles east of Knockan, u])on quartzite. At Ullapool, near the top of the 
south-east of the Bay, in limestone (Nicol). 

Inverness-shire. At AUt Cuaig Burn, near Dochfour, in granite 
(Aitken Dott). 

Aberdeenshire. At Pitfichie Hill, near Monymusk, in the felspar 
quarry, in twisted brown-black plates, tarnished and tarnishing quartz — 
Anal. 1. S.G., 4-58. 



Fe,0, 


FeO. 


A1,0, 


MnO. 


CaO. 


H,0. 


SiO,. 


Total. 


81-70 


7-74 


4-86 


•08 


•60 


1.18 


3-84 


100 



Anal. 1, .. 81-70 7-74 4-86 •OS •GO 1.18 3-84 100 . Heddle 

Argyllshire. On the south slopes of Am Bodach, Glencoe ; with 
Hornblende, in porphyry. Loch Eck, on the west shore, 1 mile north of 
Bally more, in gneiss. In Islay, at the Mull of Oa. 

Perthshire. Birnam, Dunkeld, in Highland Schists. 

Bute. Micaceous, in clay slate (Greg). 

Renfrewshire. Gourock, at the porphyry quarry, in thin crystals, 
with Calcite, Fluor, and Quartz. 

Roxburghshire. " At Carolside, in Earlston, a dyke in the Leader 
Water contains minute red crystals of Fe.^Og." 

Kirkcudbright. At Auchencairn, upon mammillated Haematite ; 
and at f Auchinleck. 

Ayrshire. [? Auchenlongford] near Muirkirk, at the Pennel Burn, 
Garpel River, upon fine mammillated Hsematite, with Calcite (Wilson). 
Burn Anne, Galston, in red jasper (Brown). 

3. Red Hematite. 

In mammillated and reniform forms, which are internally composed 
of radiating fibres, and which often have a concentric structure from 
intermittent growth of these. The external surface has generally a 
smooth polish and a brownish-red hue. 

Shetland — Papa Stour. At Kirksands, in veins in amygdaloid 
(Fleming). 

Orkney. In Walls, on the east shore of Aith Hope, in hollow 
stalactites, and at Lead Geo in bands with yellow ochre. 

Perthshire — The Ochils. At Ben Cleuch, in narrow veins in trap. 

FiFESHiRE— Kirkcaldy. Near Seafield Tower, with yellow Gothite, 
in a vein traversing rocks of Lower Carboniferous age. 



90 



OXIDES. 



Dumbarton. In Bowling quarry, with Analcime, rarely. 

Lanarkshire. At the Moor of Rawhead. In Jerviswood grounds 
in a quartz vein. Cumberhead at Glenbuck. Leadhills. 

Ayrshire. At the Black Craig, near the summit overlooking the 
castle of Loch Doon, in veins. Muirkirk, at Auchenlongford. 

Roxburghshire. On the Eildon Hills, on the south-west side, near 
Bowden. At Classleypeel, on the Jed, in graywacke. 

Berwickshire. Below Cowdenknowes, in the channel of the Leader 
River, in veins in graywacke. 

Kirkcudbright. Near Burnfoot, almost opposite to that part of 
the peninsula upon which the house of St. Mary's Isle is built, in fine 
specimens. Also upon the west side of Kirkcudbright Bay, in veins, with 
Calcite, in brown-red graywacke. At Auchencaim. 

Dumfriesshire. On Stake Moss, Wanlockhead, in graywa ke. At 
Rerrick (abandoned). 

4. Earthy. 

Compact and ochry " Keels " ; earthy and foliated Reddle. 

Orkney. In Old Red Sandstone, Walls, near Tor Ness (reddle or 
red chalk), in imbedded scale-like patches — Anal. 2. At the Meadow of 
the Kaim, Hoy. With Limonite, in a granular form, in formerly-worked 
veins near the Manse. 

SuTHERLANDSHiRE. In the stream gravel, with gold (Keels). 

Elginshire. At Newtown quarry, in imbedded patches, in sandstone 
(reddle), both yellow (Anal. 3) and bright red (Anal. 4). 

Linlithgowshire. At Uphall. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, in stream gravel, with gold (Keels). At 
Stonelaw, blood-red. 

[Edinburgh. Coating the fragments in the agglomerates of Arthur's 
Seat.] 





SiOa 


AljOs 


Fe^Oa 


FeO 


MnO 


CaO 


Mgo 


K^O 


NajO 


HjO 


Totals 




Anal. 2, 

1! i' 


62-56 
59-21 
55-75 


17-25 
16-09 
17-25 


.i-46 
3 30 
8-26 


2-21 
i-*66 


t,r. 
•38 

•28 


•48 
•52 
-57 


1-62 
2-1 

2-48 


4-68 
5-64 
5-59 


•6 
1-25 
1-4 


6-72 
9-88 
6-55 


99-58 
98- J7 
99-79 


Heddle. 
Hedille. 
Meddle. 



These anlayses show reddle to be of the nature of a decomposed 
micaceous gneiss. 

Dendritic markings of Haematite, simulating plants, occur at a quarry 
at Garths Ness, near Lerwick, Shetland ; and in blanched sandstone, 
in the quarry of Black Hill, above the farmhouse of Cowdenknowes, 
near Dry burgh. 



OXIDES. 91 

41a. Martite (232a). FegOg. 

This is sesquioxide of Iron, apparently pseudoraorphous after Mag- 
netite. It is in octahedrons. Civ., none, or traces of conchoidal fracture. 
Lustre submetallic. Iron black, blue-black, to brownish. Streak reddish- 
brown or purplish. Not Magnetic. H., 6 to 7 ; G., 4-8 to 4-83. 

FegOg FeO MnO CaO SiOg Total. 

97-05 M -2 -95 -77 10007 . Heddle. 

Occurs on the shore of Bute, near Rothesay Bay (Archer). 

42. nmenite (233). (FeTi)203. 

Rhombohedral ; R. 86°. Crystals tabular, and rhombohedral rarely 
in twins. Civ., basal. Fracture conchoidal. Brittle. Powder black to 
brownish-red. Semi -metallic lustre. Iron black to reddish-brown. Rarely 
feebly magnetic. H., 5 to 6 ; G., 4-5 to 5-3. 

B.B. infusible. With microcosmic salt forms, in the inner flame, a 
dull red glass ; this, treated with tin on charcoal, becomes violet-red, 
unless there are only traces of titanium. In fine powder slowly soluble 
in h. acid to a yellow solution, which, after dilution with much water, 
and after long boiling, deposits titanic acid somewhat coloured with iron. 
Finely-powdered it imparts first a blue colour to s. acid, and is very slowly 
soluble. Decomposed by fusion with bisulphates. Comp., Peroxide of 
Iron, with replacement of the iron by Titanium, in proportions varying 
from ^ :l to 5 : 1. 

Occurs in granite, limestones, and, rarely, in diorite, but specially in 
metamorphic rocks, with Chlorite and Kyanite as associat<^s ; has not 
been found in Scotland in igneous rocks proper, i.e., volcanic or trappean 
rocks. 

In Scotland it has been found (1) in exfiltration veins, called '' crocus " 
by the quarrymen, in granite ; (2) in similar veins, sometimes of a 
pegmatic nature, which cut the beds of gneiss and of schists ; (3) in 
quartzose bands, in similar rocks, which bands follow the flexures into 
which the rock has been thrown ; (4) in metamorphic limestones in these 
rocks ; (5) in Chloritic or serpentinous bands in the same ; (6) apparently 
as simply an accessory mineral of the rock mass. 



92 



OXIDES. 





Ti02 


Fe^Oa 


AUOa 


FeO 


MnO 


CaO 


MgO 


SiOa 


Total. 




1. Ben Bhreac: "syenite, 

2. Anguston : granite, 

S.G., 4-908 

3. Hillswick, S.G.,4-916, 

4. Ben ]More. 

5. Crois, S.G., 4-86, 


50-65 

23-67 
20-60 
18-4 
40-4 


9-87 

43-06 
63-55 
55-31 
41-87 


l-'44 


17-78 

29-01 
11-26 
23-86 
15-40 


5- 17 

2-34 
-02 

■2 


3-14 

101 
1-79 
134 
1-46 


11-63 


1-12 

2-07 

1-4 

1-2 

-7 


99-36 

101-16 
100-06 
100-81 
100-03 


Heddle. 

Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 



(1) Sutherland. Tongue, in the vein in the syenitic boulder on Ben 
Bhreac, with Microcline, Magnetite, Sphene, Thorite, Lepidomelane, 
Babingtonite, etc., in small quantity — Anal. 1. Ben Hiel, south-west 
foot, with Chlorite in white Orthoclase. Loose lumps. 

Aberdeen. Anguston quarry, in veins in the granite, with Quartz, 
Microcline, Sphene, AUanite, and Haughtonite. Plates 1 inch in size — 
Anal. 2. 

Kirkcudbright. At Cassencarrie, in quartz veins in red granite, 
with Chlorite and Epidote (D. and H.). 

(2) Shetland — Mainland. At Hills wickness, at Vanlup, with 
Chlorite and Margarodite, near Kyanite, in large foliated crystals, which 
are acutely folded upon themselves, following the contortions of the rock — 
Anal. 3. In thick crystals in quartz, with Kyanite, at the south-east end 
of the Ward of Scousburgh. In the Vee Skerries, with Quartz, Chlorite, 
and Margarodite. 

SuTHERLANDSHiRE. At Clach an Eoin, near the Betty Hill of Farr, 
in quartz veins, with Chlorite, Rutile, Haughtonite, and Garnet. Blue- 
black in colour (D. and H.). Loch Shin, near Achadh a' Phris, with 
Lepidomelane, in quartz veins (D. and H.). Ben Loyal, at the foot of 
Sgor a Chonais-aite, in quartz veins, which cut the schists underlying the 
" syenite " of the hill ; with Chlorite. 

Hebrides. In West Monach Island, in lumps of a brownish colour, 
in veins of Oligoclase, which cut the Hebridean Gneiss. With Epidote, 
Sphene, and Apatite. Similarly on Eternal Island. 

Banffshire. West of Findlater Castle, Cullen, in quartz veins, in 
Chloritic and Margarodite schists. On the north slopes of Alsat Hill, 
near the road 4o Tomintoul, with granular Chlorite, and with Pyrite. 

Aberdeenshire. At Dobston quarry, Blackball, 2 miles west of 
Inverurie, with Apatite, Chlorite, and Biotite. 

Forfarshire. Tarfside, on the north-west side of Cowie Hill, in 
graphic -granite veins in gneiss, with Kyanite and Margarodite. On the 
south-west side of Cowie Hill, with Kyanite. Three miles above the foot 
of Glen Effock, in quartzose veins, with crystallised Chlorite. 

Perthshire. Two miles above the Bridge of Cally, Glen Shen, in 



OXIDES. 93 

quartz veins, with crystallised Epidote and Chlorite. South side of the 
Moor of Rannoch, on the slopes on the eastside of Loch Tulla in the 
corry of Meall Buidhe, with Kyanite and Chlorite. In the corry [?Coire 
Achallater] north of Meall Buidhe, with Kyanite and Chlorite. 

Inverness-shire. In Lochaber. On the north-west slopes of Meall 
Garbh, Loch Treig, with Tourmaline (Cunningham). On the north slopes 
of Meall Cian Dearg of Stob a' Coire Mheadhonaiche, with Chlorite and 
Hyaline Quartz. On the south slopes of the cone of Stob a Coire 
Mheadhonaiche, a crystal (PI. XVII. fig. 1), imbedded in stubby gneiss. 
Stob Coire a Gaibhre, below Claurigh, with Chlorite. Glen Nevis, on the 
north-west slopes of MuUach nan Coirean, with Chlorite in quartz (loose). 

Argyllshire. At Glen Creran, on the south slopes of Fraochaidh, 
with Chlorite, near the top of Beinn Doireann. 

(3) Three great belts of quartz cross central Scotland from north-east 
to south-west. The most southerly of these appears more as a system 
of dense bands or layers which thin off and anastomose with one another 
throughout the gneiss, and are subject to all its flexures. It is best 
developed from Fortingal, stretching W.S.W. to Loch Killisport in 
Argyll. Towards the east it is much stained yellow by decomposing 
pyrite ; passing westward, it is much like loaf-sugar, but here its grains 
coalesce, so that in the smaller rifts it becomes hyaline, and of a purplish- 
brown hue. It then also assumes Chlorite, and, towards the western side 
of the country, has all the characters of a chloritic schist. Its 
quartzose bands are markedly chloritic from Creag an Lochain of Meall 
Tarmachan, Loch Tay, to Ben More of Loch Eck ; and wherever it is so, 
Ilmenite, often associated with Rutile, is to be expected. It is sj^ecially 
found at the following points along this line : — Meall Buidhe, north side 
of Glen Lyon, east of the summit. Creag an Lochain of Meall nan Tarma- 
chan, with scaly and foliated Chlorite. Top of Creag na Caillich, with 
Rutile. East foot of Meall Garbh of Ben Lawers. North side of Mid 
Hill, Killin. North slopes of Craig Mhor, Glen Lochay, with hyaline 
Quartz and Chlorite. North-east side of Stob Luib, 650 feet up, with 
Chlorite. North-east shoulder of Ben More, 300 feet below the summit 
at the foot of a small east and west cliff in fine specimens of a blue-black 
colour, with Chlorite (Macknight) — Anal. 4. Am Binnein, with hyaline 
Quartz, in the small cliffs at the summit where they face the south. Stob 
Garbh, in the south-west corries at the summit. Cruach Ardran, at the 
summit. Meall Dhamh, south-west slopes. Beinn Chabhair, south side, 
with Chlorite and Quartz. Beinn a' Chroin, north-east crags. Beinn a' 
Chaisteal, Glen Falloch, in the corry to the south-east side, with Tourma- 
line, under the summit. In a quarry on the road, one mile east from 
Arrochar, in quartz veins with Chlorite. North-west slopes of Ben Ime, 



94 OXIDES. 

in crystals 3 inches in width, with Chlorite (Glass). Ben Crois, 700 feet 
up the east slope, ia white Quartz veins — Anal. 5 (Plate XVII. fig. 2). 
Ben Arthur, at the east side of the foot of the great square pillar, with 
Rutile and Chlorite, very fine. Beinn an Lochain, east slopes, with 
Rutile. Beinn Bheula, in the great rents at the summit, with crystallised 
Rutile, Quartz, and Schorl. Glen Finnart, on a spur on the north of the 
glen, with fibrous Tourmaline. Clach Beinn, Loch Eck, on its east slopes, 
in Quartz. Towards the upper parts of Glen Massan (Young). In loose 
blocks on the south side of east Loch Tarbert (Hamilton). 

(4) Aberdeenshire. At Foresterhill, Old Meldrum, with Horn- 
blende, Sphene, Orthoclase, Pyrrhotite, and Biotite. 

Perthshire. Near Blair Athole, in the quarry immediately south of 
the village, on the south side of the Garry, with Sphene and crystallised 
Ripidolite. At Edintian, with Ripidolite, Sphene, Biotite, and Pyr- 
rhotite. 

(5) Shetland — Mainland. A1 Kleber Geo, Point of Fethaland, in 
flat blue-black crystals, in a vein of potstone, traversing gneiss (D. and H.). 

Banffshire. In a roadside quarry about 2 miles west of Rothiemay, 
north of the Bin of Huntly, in foliated Talc, with Chrysotile. 

(6) Shetland — Unst. At Urie, minute flakes seem to be incorporated 
in the general mass of the mica schist (D. and H.). 

Argyllshire — Glencoe. A little north of the summit of the Devil's 
Staircase, twisted flakes occur in the brown mica (? Lepidonelane) gneiss. 

43. Iserine (233a). (FeTi).^03 . FegOg. Trappeisen Erz. Magnetic 
Iron Sand. 

Cubic. Possibly pseudomorphous. Generally with rounded edges, 
or in rough grains. Fracture uneven and conchoidal. Lustre metallic 
to dull. Iron black. Brittle. Streak black. Strongly magnetic. H., 
6 to 6-5; G., 4-7 to 5-L 

Chemical characters the same as those of Ilmenite, only reacts for 
more iron, and more easily attacked by acids. 

Often mixed with Magnetite ; hardly to be separated or known when 
occurring as " black sand," except that magnetite is more brittle from 
cleavage. 

Occurs in diorite, basalt, dolerite, gabbro, and many basic volcanic 
rocks ; or in sands formed from their decomposition, when it is generally 
mixed with Magnetite. At some of localities mentioned for sands, may 
bo thus mixed. Analysis only can determine. 



OXIDES. 



96 





TiO, 


Fe,0, 


A1,0, 


FeO 


MnO 


CaO 


MgO 


BiO, 


Totel 




1. Hoy, Orkney, 


18-4 


54-98 


•6 


14-42 




5-6 


•2 


61 


100-30 


Heddle. 


2. Kildoiian. G., 508, - 


80;J 


91-26 












•71 


100 


Forbes. 


3. Sandwood, - 


10()0 


80-88 


•07 


5-96 


•4 


•95 




1-5 


100-36 


Heddle. 


4. St. Andrews, - 


22-9 


22-87 




30-98 


1 


5-94 


1-0 


15-1 


100-39 


Heddle. 


5. Ardross Castle, Fife, 


10 


43-74 




28-01 


•1 


4-4 




7 


99-25 


Heddle. 


6. Klie iNess, 


21-3 


42-67 




21-89 


•7 


4-48 


1-6 


7-5 


l(Mn4 


Heddle. 


7. (Jranton, 


16-1 


39-29 


11-47 




•6 


7-9 


14 


24 


100-76 


Heddle. 


8. Caroline Park, 






















magnetic, - 


19-4 


37-97 




24-33 


•8 


6-5 




10-8 


998 


Heddle. 


9. Caroline Park, 






















non-magnetic, - 


15 


40-73 




18-24 


1 


7 




18-1 


10007 


Heddle. 


10. Almond, 


18 


39-61 


•• 


26-74 


-6 


6-7 


•• 


8-4 


100-05 


Heddle. 



Orkney — Hoy. Occurs as a minutely-divided deep black sand, with 
Martite, below the cliff bank north-east of the manse — Anal. 1. 

Sutherland. Kildonan, in the gravels, with Gold and Rutilos 
(Joass) — Anal. 2. On the west shore of the Lake of Sandwood, and in 
dykes in the Hebridean gneiss, on the north shore of the lake — Anal. 3. 

Hebrides. On the shore of Canna (Clark). Skye, among the sands 
of Talisker Bay (Davison). Mull, Beinn a' Ghraig, Loch Ba ; in small 
lumps imbedded in a pale-coloured acidic trap (" Syenite "). 

Banffshire. Below the bridge over the Deveron, at Macduff, on 
the banks. In the eruptive rock which, from the shore at Portsoy 
(Gabbro), passes up the centre of the county to Morven, everywhere having 
the form of its associated minerals impressed upon it, and nowhere showing 
any trace of crystalline form. As at Craigbuirach and Retanach, with 
Paulite, Enstatite, Labradorite, and Pyrrhotite. In the rock beneath the 
old battery at Portsoy, rarely with Hornblende, Augite, Biotite, and 
Labradorite. 

Aberdeenshire. As a black sand on the road to New Merdrum, 
near Rhynie (?). In a vein near the roadside near Pooldhulie Bridge. 
Forbestown, on the Don, with Hornblende, Biotite, and Labradorite. 
Glenbucket, in the low flanks of Creag an Innean, near Craig Wood, with 
gigantic crystals of Actinolitic Hornblende, Sphene, Labradorite, and 
Biotite. South-east of Tilly duke, and near Badnagoach, on the Deskry, 
with dark Hornblende, Allanite, Sphene, Labradorite, and Biotite. In 
a small cliff near the road side on the west, at the summit level i^assing 
south to Tillykirie and Coldstone, with Hornblende, Labradorite, Allanite, 
and Sphene. 

In passing from north to south this rock assumes more and more the 
aspect of a " Syenite," as seen on the north spur of Morven, where but 
little of the Iserine is seen. Si)hene and Magnetite gradually take its 
place, and the former almost disappears where the rock passes over into 
the granite of Culblean. 



96 OXIDES. 

Aberdeenshire. In several places among the sands of the Don, 
G., 4-49 (Thomson), and at its former mouth, G., 4-77. At the sands of 
Forvie, near the mouth of the Ythan, and in the parishes of Deer ( ? ) and 
Rathen. At the mouth of the stream of the Black Dog (? magnetite). 
In quantities on the road west of Middleton of Balquhain. 

Argyllshire. At Galdrings, Balligroggan, Machrihanish Bay, on the 
shore below igneous rock ; in regular octahedra. May be partly 
magnetite. 

Fifeshire. At the south end of the east sands of St. Andrews, at 
the mouth of a small stream coursing from vesicular trap — Anal. 4. In 
small brilliant jet-black lumps in basalt in tufa at the Rock and Spindle 
Kinkell with Hullite. In basalt, similarly, a little to the north of the 
East Neuk of Fife. In the sands beneath Ardross Castle (Geikie and H.) — 
Anal. 5. In brilliant black, apparently fragmentary chips, in two dykes 
1 mile east of Elie, with Pyrope, Saponite, Sanidine, and Olivine — Anal. 
6. At Ruddon Point, west of Elie, with Olivine and Pyrope. 

Edinburghshire. Imbedded in the trap rocks of Arthur's Seat, 
rarely (Greg). Near the west breakwater of Granton harbour — Anal. 7. 
On the sea shore below Caroline Park, in large quantity ; highly magnetic, 
and showing both regular octahedra and elongated cubes, also cubo- 
octahedral crystals — Anal. 8. The less -magnetic portion is hackly — 
Anal. 9. 

Linlithgowshire. On the sands, a little to both sides of the mouth 
of the Almond. One crystal combination of dodecahedron with octa- 
hedron was seen — Anal. 10. 



COMPOUNDS OF SESQUIOXIDES WITH PROTOXIDES: 
RO R.Og (SPINEL GROUP). 

44. Picotite (234). (Mg,Fe)0.(Al,Cr)203. 

Occurs at a rock-constituent in rocks of ultrabasic composition. 

45. Magnetite (237). FeO,Fe203. 

Cubic. Civ., octahedral ; also sometimes cubic. Faces d usually 
striated, parallel to a. Often compact, and also granular. Fracture 
conchoidal to uneven. Brittle. Lustre metallic, when changing im- 
perfect. Opaque. Iron black to brown. Streak, black. Highly 
magnetic ; often polar, especially the massive varieties. H., 5-5 to 
6-5 ; G., 4-9 to 5-2. 



OXIDES. 



97 



B.B. fuses with great difficulty. In the oxidising flame, loses its 
magnetism. With salts gives reactions of iron. In powder completely 
soluble in h. acid. Comp., Protoxide of iron, 31 ; Peroxide, 69 ; or 
72-4 of Iron and 27-6 of Oxygen. Sometimes with some Titanic Acid. 

Mostly confined to crystalline rocks, and most abundantly in meta- 
morphic rocks. Also found in grains, and in both distorted and skeleton 
crystals in eruj)tive rocks. Sometimes forms beds and large irregular 
masses. In imbedded crystals, and also disseminated in chlorite slate, 
serpentine, limestone, basalt, syenite, and granite. 





FCjOa 


FeO 


MnO. 


AUG, 


CaO 


MgO. 


SiO, 


TiO, 


Total 




1. Pundy Geo. - 

2. ToiiRue boulder, 

3. llispond, G., 5-15, - 

4. Samgobeag, - 

5. llone^al, G., 5-154, 


65-62 
83-48 
63-19 
89-63 
68-1 


32-17 
12-63 
29-59 
4-24 
29-1 


-5 
1-2 
-4 
-3 . 
•5 


-39 
•23 

•-62 


•22 

"9 

162 

2^69 

•17 


•68 
•5 
11 
•9 
•6 


•7 
1-2 
3-9 
1-9 

1 


'•5 


10028 
10014 

99-8 
10016 

9919 


Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 



Shetland — Unst. At North Quin Geo, in brilliant blue-black 
crystals, o d (Plate XVII. fig. 1), with green Talc, fibrous Nemalite, 
Brucite, Magnesito, and Dolomite, in a vem of Serpentine (D. and H.). 
Swinna Ness, d, in a vein of pale green serpentine, striated crystal. At 
Wood Wick, massive with Kyanite and Staurolite. Haaf Gruney, 
granular, massive, in veins of yellow Serpentine, on the south-east shore. 
Fetlar, at Oddsta, the north-west point, o, in massive Chlorite (Hibbert). 
At Aith; Fetlar, on the south shore, in minute a crystals in yellow Precious 
Serpentine. Mainland. At Pundy Geo, on the south shore of Fetha- 
land, in large fine crystals, o, and hemitropes (Plate XVII. fig. 2), in 
granular massive Chlorite (D. and H.) — Anal. 1. Hills wick, at Carnebe, 
0, (Hibbert). At Vanlup, opposite the Drongs, do (Plate XVII. fig. 3), 
d striated. At Sandy Geo (the Carnebie of Hibbert), near Gordi Stack, 
o, each crystal being the central radiant point for fine groups of Ripidolite 
crystals (D. and H.). 

Sutherland, At Cnoc na Stroine, Loch Borrolan, d, " disseminated 
through felspathic granitoid " (Cunningham). In the granite vein in the 
boulder on Ben Bhreac, Tongue, in twins, o t (Plate XVII. fig. 4), and 
simple, 0, sometimes sheathing Native Iron ; with Microcline, Cleavo- 
landite, Ilmenite, Orangite, etc. — Anal. 2. In granitic veins in " syenite," 
on the face of Sgor a Chonais-aite, Ben Loyal, o and d, with Amazonstone, 
Thorite and Topaz. The octahedral crystals show the irregularities of 
surface delmated in PI. XVII. figs. 5 and 6. At Rispond, Loch Eireboll. 
In red graphic -granite, in tetrahedral crystals (PI. XVIII. fig. 7), and in 
lumps the size of the fist, G., 5-15, along with Oligoclase and Haughtonite 

Q 



98 OXIDES. 

— ^Anal. 3. In a coarse Oligoclase-granite, in the cliffs east of Sangobeag, 
d o ; along, occasionally, with Agalmatolite — Anal, 4. There is here a 
manifest passage into Martite. In the dolomitic marble, north-west of 
Ledbeg, with Malacolite and white Biotito. East side of Eilean Bulgach, 
in pegmatite veins (Home). 

Ross-shire. In thin flakes, occasionally, in the mica of the pegmatite 
of Raven's Rock, Strathpeffer ; and, similarly, at Struy Bridge quarry. 

Hebrides — North Ron a. At the north side of the hill ridge, with 
Garnet and Actinolite. (Can this be MacCulloch's " Wolfram " ?) 
Harris, in the great granite vein on the east of Roneval, m flattened 
o crystals (PL XVIII. fig. 8), with Haughtonite and Oligoclase (D. and H.) 
— Anal. 5. At Miabhag, West Loch Roag, Lewis, in graphic granite 
(Currie). Scalpay Island, at Klibberness, beneath the lighthouse, in 
small crystals with Actinolite in the Potstono vein in Serpentine (D. and 
H.). Also near the dolomite vein, so much mixed with Asbestus as to be 
fibrous in structure (Neill). Stromay Island, Sound of Harris, in a coarse 
brown Orthoclase and Microclme vein immediately to the east of the 
great vein of graphic -granite, in coarse crystals and lumps the size of 
goose eggs, with Haughtonite. North Uist, at Suenish Point, in the 
north-west, in minute tarnished cubes, in a hornblendic belt of the 
Hebridean Gneiss. Tiree, in a granitic vein near Crossapoll, with Sonnen- 
stein, Oligoclase, Agalmatolite, and Haughtonite. Skye, in the Coolin 
Hills, in segregated octahedral crystals, and in masses up to 40 lbs. weight 
in veins in Hyperite. Mmgulay, Macphee's Hill, on the south side near 
the summit, in flattened octahedra, in veins of white Quartz in red 
orthoclase -granite. On Berneray, Barra Head, at Mullach a' Lusgan 
with Aj^atite, in Hebridean gneiss. In East Rona, in hemitropes o in 
granite (Greg). In Islay, in white limestone, with Hsematite, at Lossit 
Hill, in small crystals (Greg). Monach Islands, massive, with Oligoclase, 
Sphene, and Ej)idote. Shiant Islands, Eilan Mhuire, in a small cave at 
the neck at the east end. In a very coarse dolerite, o, with Pyrite, Anal- 
cime, Neiiheline, and Saponite. Eigg, " in grains in a greenstone formed 
of glossy felspar and Hornblende " (? both Iserine). 

Banffshire. " In Serpentine, Portsoy " {Chromite, WoUaston). 

Aberdeenshire. Cabrach, 300 yards from Threeburnshead, in 
Serpentine. Middle Coyle Hill, in Serpentine. Afford, at Sylavethy 
quarry, twins, o t, with Dolomite and Uralite. 

Kincardineshire. At Garron Point, formerly (Nicol). 

Forfarshire, f " Little Kilrannoch, Clova, in Serpentine " (Mac- 
CuUoch). At Balloch Carity, with Asbestus. 

Argyllshire. Loch Fyne, o, in chlorite schist. " Near Loch Long " 



OXIDES. 



99 



(Greg). One mile south of 'Meall Mor, west of Erins, Knapdale, in a 
copper mine, in minute octahedra, and in large cubes, apparently pseudo- 
morphous after Pyrite ; with Chalcopyrite, Byssolite, Dolomite, and 
Gothite. 

Dumbartonshire. On Ben Vorlich of Loch Lomond, on the south- 
east slopes of f Cnoc an Each, about a mile from Upper Inveruglas, 
octahedra in rippled mica gneiss (Cadell). 

Edinburghshire. Salisbury Crags, near the south end, minute o 
and a o crystals with Apatite in dolerite. 

Linlithgowshire. Bathgate, at Kirkton quarry, in crystals with 
Quartz and Calcite, in cavities of limestone of Lower Carboniferous 
(Yoredale) age. 

Bute. Along the shore, on both sides of Rothesay, in loose octahedra, 
with Martite. 

45a. Chromiferous Magnetite (237a). 

Traces of Chromium are found in magnetic sands. In the substances 
noted below, its amount is such that they might be used as ores of 
Chromium ; both, however, were commingled with sand grains, from 
which the magnet failed to separate them. 





Fe,03 


Cr^Os 


FeO 


MnO 


Al,03 


CaO 


MgO 


SiO^ 


Total. 




1. Dale, Unst. - 

2. Tresta, Fetlar, 


57-29 
56-69 


9-4 
17-53 


2-1-94 
15-55 


-4 
-6 




1-12 
1-29 


3-*9 


7-2 
51 


100-35 
10066 


Heddle. 
Heddle. 



Shetland. Unst, at the bend to the north of the Dale Burn. Among 
ordinary sands. Blue- black. Not strongly magnetic. Much cleaved 
and hackly. No crystal forms. Sometimes sheathes Native Iron fD. 
and H.). Fetlar, on the shores of the Loch of Tresta, but, according to 
Fleming, it occurs imbedded in small grains in the " primative " limestone 
along with Sphene. From the Dullans, according to Webster. It is 
either in octahedral crystals, or in much rounded grains, with conchoidal 
fracture, jet black colour, and highly lustrous. 

46. Chromite (241). FeO,Cr203. 

Cubic. Civ., octahedral, imperfect ; generally granular, massive, fine, 
or coarse in grain. Opaque. Semimetallic to resinous. Iron black to 
dull brown. Streak, brown. Brittle. Sometimes feebly magnetic. 
Fracture conchoidal to uneven. H., 5-5 to 6-5 ; G., 4-32 to 4-57. 

B.B. in O. flame infusible and unchanged ; in R. flame becomes 
magnetic. With borax and micro salt gives beads red when hot, but 



100 OXIDES. 

on cooling chrome green. The latter colour is heightened on charcoal 
with tin. Fused with nitre, gives yellow solution in water, in which 
Chromium may be detected. Insoluble in acid, but decomposed with 
difficulty by fusion with bisulphates. Comj). varying much : 19 to 37 
Fe, 36 to 64 Cr, to 15 Magnesia, 9 to 23 Alumina. 

Seems to be confined to Serpentinous rocks or their allies. 





FeO. 


MnO. 


Cr^Oa. 


AI2O3. 


CaO. 


MgO. 


SiOa. 


Total. 




1. Unst, Hagdale, 

2. Unst, Buness, - 

3. Askival, llum,- 


17-52 
18-08 
34-11 


-5 
tr. 
-75 


44-56 
48-03 
26-34 


23-74 
16-55 

18-28 


1-29 

-88 

6-38 


16-6] 
14-09 


11-09 

•83 

6-24 


98-70 
100-98 
106-19 


Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 



Shetland — Unst. On the north side of Balta Sound, in a series of 
large nodular masses, which seem to be connected as a vein, though a 
tortuous one, in serpentine (Hibbert). In the large old quarry called 
Hagdale, but situated between Heog and Keen Hills. Here it is an 
enormous mass, 86 feet deep and about 60 feet wide. The ore is for the 
most part black (Anal. 1), and it is associated with Kammererite rarely, 
Aragonite, Emerald Nickel, Pentlandite in specks, and crystallised 
Penninite. Small black octahedra rarely occur here imbedded in a 
foliated green unctuous mineral, perhaps Pennite. In a quarry near 
to the house of Buness, the Chromite is dull brown in colour, rarely in 
imbedded crystals the size of peas. This variety contains Magnesia, 
and is the richest — Anal. 2. It is here associated with crystallised 
Kammererite, Aragonite, and Precious Serpentine. Haaf Gruney, at 
the north-east and south-west ends, massive, granular, of poor quality, 
imbedded in yellow Serpentine. In Fetlar, in the hill of the Vord, in 
grains like gunpowder, throughout the Serpentine, and at Hestaness, 
with Chrysotile (Dudgeon). Mainland. At Quey Firth, about half a 
mile from the south shore, granular (D. and H.). To the north side of 
the entrance of Bixter Voe. East of Kirka Ness. 

Hebrides. Rum, Askival, near the summit, on the north-west front 
a thin vein occurred in a belt of altered Olivine, in augitic rock. It had 
G., 4-163, was jet black, non-magnetic, very lustrous, and very hard. 
It was decomposed with extreme difficulty, both by Fresenius' flux and 
bisulphate of potash, and yielded the unsatisfactory result given in Anal. 3. 

Banffshire. In serpentine, Portsoy (WoUaston). In limestone, 
Portsoy (Greg). 

Aberdeenshire. In the parishes of Kildrummy and Towie (Greg). 
In the parish of Auchindoir, at the Red Craig, north of the Burn of Craig 
and opposite Tombhreac, in rude octahedra, imbedded in rotting Ser- 
pentine, with Pseudo-Enstatite. 



OXIDES. 101 

Perthshire. In Glen Lochay, at Corrycharraaig, in granular veins 
in Picrolite, with Ripidolite (Greg). On the east side of Ben Lui, in talc 
schist. 

Stirlingshire. At Buchanan, in small granular masses disseminated 
in a greenish -white marble (Sir H. Davy). The specimen was in the 
Allan-Greg Collection. 

Ayrshire. With Serpentine, betwecm Craighill and Knockdaw Hill, 

north-west of Colraonell (Macconochie). 

The immense amount of working which has lately been carried out 
on Sobul Hill, Unst — the size of the water-filled quarries, and the quantity 
of the stacked and unsalable ore prove that if Chromite does not pass by 
insensible gradation into Picotite, the average exploiter is at least quite 
unable to discriminate between the two minerals. 

47. Minium (244). 2PbO, PbOg. 

Pulverulent. Dull. Colour bright red, streak orange-yellow. Opaque. 
Fracture earthy to conchoidal. H., 2 to 3 ; G., 4-6. 

B.B. darkens when slightly heated, on cooling resumes its colour. 
At a red heat becomes yellow ; melts easily, and is reduced on charcoal. 
Sol. in h. acid, with evolution of chlorine. Partially sol. in n. acid. 
Comp., Lead, 90-66 ; Oxygen, 9-34. 

Leadhills, exceedingly rarely. 

DEUTOXIDES, ROg. 

48. Rutile (250). TiOg. 

Tetragonal ; c, 001 ; a, 100 ; m, 110 ; /, 310 ; h,2lO; s. Ill ; t, 313 ; 
g, 212 ; z, 321. c, 84° 10 ; pyr., 123° 8'. Combmations of prisms, 
octahedrons, and zirconoids ; the first dominant. Hemitropes common ; 
with axes of the halves, 114° 26'. Civ., m and a perfect ; 5, traces. 
Fracture subconchoidal, uneven. Brittle. Streak, brown. Transparent 
to opaque. Brown-red, hair-brown, red, honey yellow, and black. 
Lustre, adamantine on cleavage faces, dull on others frequently. H., 
6 to 6-5 ; G., 4-18 to 4-3. 

B.B. infusible. With micro, salt a colourless bead, in R. flame, 
violet when cold. With borax a greenish glass in O. flame, dirty violet 
in R. flame. The varieties containing iron with micro, salt, brown-yellow 
or red in R. flame ; but this bead, when treated with tin on charcoal, 
becomes violet. Insoluble in acids until after fusion with an alkali or 
alkalinic carbonate ; solution after addition of tinfoil becomes violet 



102 OXIDES. 

upon concentration. Comp., Titanium, 61 ; Oxygen, 39, generally with 
some ferric oxide. 

Occurs in granite, syenite, gneiss, chiefly in pegmatite bands, 
also in mica schist and in metamorphic lime stones. 

In granite. — Banffshire, imbedded, very rarely, in brown Rock 
Crystal, at Cairngorm. Aberdeenshire, at Torry, in granitoid veins, 
cutting gneiss, along with Orthoclase, Microcline, Finite, Muscovite, 
Davidsonite (Beryl), Epidote, Specular Iron, and Albite. 

In gneiss. — Shetland, at Burra (Fleming). At Vanlup, Hillswick, 
with faces mhl in. margarodite schist, with Kyanite. 

Sutherland. At Achadh a' Phris, Loch Shin, fibrous, with Apatite 
and Sphene. At Achnapearain, in white Quartz, in fine crystals, m ha est 
(Flate XVIII. fig. 1) (D. and H.). At Clach an Eoin, near Betty Hill, in 
crystals, mh s (Flate XVIII. fig. 2), in veins with Ilmenite, Haughtonite, 
and Garnet (D. and H.). To the south of Naver Broch, in white Quartz, 
in long dislocated crystals. At Kildonan, in gravel, in rolled black 
crystals, twins (Flate XVIII. fig. 3), mz e, at Suisgill, mhr (Heathfield). 

Ross-shire. Fannich, in the bed rock of the stream in AUt a Choire 
Mhoir, in thick dark brown crystals. 

Banffshire. Strath Ailnack, 2 miles from its mouth, on the west 
side of the stream, with Chlorite and crystallised Orthoclase. At Freshome, 
on the Engie (Wallace). 

Perthshire . On Beinn a Ghlo ; pulverulent, scaly, and investing, 
in the rifts of the quartz rock (MacCulloch). In massive Quartz, along 
with hollow pseudo-casts of Kyanite, along the summit ridge of Cam nan 
Gabhar. Hills bounding the south-east side of Glen Tilt, crystallised in 
prismatic forms, imbedded in massive Chlorite, associated with Quartz 
veins traversing mica schist (MacCulloch). On An Sgarsoch, in Quartz 
(MacCulloch). 

Associated with Ilmenite, Chlorite, and purple colloidal Quartz, it 
occurs in central Ferth and Argyllshires at the Mid Hill, west from Killin, 
with Quartz and Chlorite, m.aes (Pl. XVIII. fig. 4). Creag Mhor, its 
north side, similarly. At Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, along with 
Graphite and Chromite, in hyaline Quartz (Thorst). At Creag na Caillich, 
both at the summit and at the foot of the cliffs, with white Quartz, Sphene, 
and Chlorite. Also in foliated massive Chlorite. " The crystals appear to 
grow out of this, penetrating the Quartz ; but sometimes accommodating 
themselves to its irregularities " (MacCulloch), mg r (PI. XVIII. fig. 5). 
Near Crianlarich, formerly, in massive, white, horny-looking Quartz, in 
striated crystals, 3 inches to 4 by | thick (Jameson). Similarly with 
Chlorite, south of Loch Tummel (Currie). On the south-east slopes of 



OXIDES. 



103 



Beinn Heasgarnich, near the summit, with Actinolito, Margarodite, 
Chlorite, and Ripidolite. On the Cobbler, at the south-oast foot of the 
great square tower, crystallised, with Ilmenito and Chlorite. On the 
north-west slopes of Ben Ime, with Ilmenite, very rarely. Ben an Lochain, 
on its east lopes. Beinn Bheula, in twins, with Ilmenite and Chlorite, in 
the rock rents at the summit. In Glen Finart, in Quartz veins on the 
north side, with fibrous Tourmaline. 

In limestone. — In both the " syenite " and the limestone of Reay. 
" In Rannoch " (MacCulloch). Banffshire, in the white crystalline 
limestone inland from Redhythe, in bright red crystals, hm s (fig. 4), with 
white and brown Biotite, and pale-green Talc. In the limestone quarries 
at the balloch between Glen Bucket and Glen Nochty, with Pyrrhotite, 
Pyrite, Margarodite, Biotite, and Actinolite. 



49. Plattnerite (251). Pb02 

Rhombohedral. Probably pseudomorphous after Pyromorphite, and 
after Plumbo-Calcite. Civ., none. Fracture uneven to conchoidal. 
Brittle. Opaque. Iron black, velvet black to brown. Streak, rich 
brown, lustrous. Lustre, splendent to submetallic on fracture. In 
mammillated concretions. H., 4-5 to 5 ; G., 9-4, Plattner ; 8-54, Kinch ; 
8-8 to 9-27, Heddle. Comp., Lead, 86-2 ; Oxygen, 13-8. 

B.B. reduced on charcoal. Heated per se gives off oxygen, leaving 
litharge. With h. acid gives off chlorine in the cold ; entirely soluble 
when heated with it. 





Pb. 


0. 


COa and H,0. 


Total. 




, L eadhills, 


86-62 
8601 


13-38 
12-85 


•9b' 


100- 
99-76 


Plattner. 
Kinch. 



Lanarkshire. Leadhills (?). 

Dumfriesshire — Wanlockhead. Belton Grain vein, mth Plumbo- 
Calcite (Wilson). Bay vein, with Calamine (Millar, a miner). 



oo. Pyrolusite (254). MnOg. 

? Orthorhombic. oo P., 93° 40' ; generally radiating fibrous or earthy. 
Civ., P. Fracture uneven ; friable. Opaque. Colour, steel-grey to 
brown-black. Lustre, bright metallic to silky. Soils. Streak, black 
shining. Brittle, and sectile. H., 2 to 2-5 ; G., 4-7 to 5. 



104 OXIDES. 

B.B. infusible, but loses oxygen, and grey varieties become brown. 
In O. flame imparts a violet colour to borax, and a blue-green to soda 
carbonate. Sol. in h. acid, with evolution of chlorine. Comp., Manganese, 
63-3 ; Oxygen, 37-7. 

Sutherland. At the AUt Mor of Invernauld, Rosehall. 

Banffshire. HaK a mile north of Arndilly, near Rothes, with 
Limonite. At the f Laoch mines [or Ironstone mines], near Tomintoul, 
with Psilomelane and Limonite. 

Hebrides. Islay, at the Mull of Oa, in ochreous sandstone, with 
Limonite ; fine. 

Dumfries. Closeburn. " Cavities in the upper limestone (Lower 
Carboniferous), often lined with Black Oxide of Manganese " (? Gothite). 



HYDROUS OXIDES. 

51, Turgite (255). 2Fe203H20. 

Massive, fibrous, earthy. Botryoidal and stalactitic, also as a red 
ochre. Lustre, submetallic to satin-like or to dull. Colour, reddish -black, 
brown, dark or light red. When botryoidal, lustrous. Opaque. H., 5 to 
6 ; G., 5-5. 

B.B., heated in closed tube, flies violently to pieces, and so distinct 
from haematite and limonite. Gives out water ; otherwise like haematite. 
Comp., Ferric oxide, 94.7 ; Water, 5-3. 

FegOg. CaO. SiOg. HgO. Total. 

86-59 -82 7-69 5-56 100-66 Heddle. 

Argyllshire. Island of Kerrera, in red-brown striated cubic crystals 
in clay slate (phyllite). The crystals are invariably hollow, and as un- 
altered Pyrite occurs in the near neighbourhood they must be regarded as 
pseudomorphous after that mineral. Also in the neighbourhood of Oban. 

52. Gothite (257). Fe203,H20. 

Orthorhombic. co P., 94° 53'. Crystals striated ; also scaly, acicular, 
feathery fibrous, columnar radiate, and so reniform and stalactitic, and 
rarely massive granular. Civ., brachydiagonal perfect. Fracture hackly, 
rather tough. Lustre of crystals, adamantine ; of reniform masses, 
sometimes shining sometimes dull ; of fracture, dull or silky to 
glimmering. Colour, light yellow, reddish, reddish -brown, and blackish - 
brown. By transmitted light, blood red. Streak, brownish -yellow to 
ochre-yellow. H., 5 to 5-5 ; G., 3-8 to 4-4. 



OXIDES. 



105 



B.B. in closed tube loses water and becomes red. Without tube, 
rod-brown in O. flame, but in R. flame black and magnetic. Difficultly 
fusible ; with reagents the reactions for iron. In h. acid easily and 
perfectly soluble ; residue of silica. Comp., Ferric oxide, 89-9 ; Water, 
101. 





Fe,03 


A1,0, 


FeO 


MnO 


CuO 


CaO 


MrO 
•74 


SiO, 
fj-9 


H,0 


Total 




1. SaiKllo(lge(G6thite), 


78-O.J 






32 


•6 


•24 


10-8 


99-51 M'Attey. 


2. „ (Lepidocrocite), 


83-20 




•22 


5>43 




•28 


•87 


1-92 


11-44 


100.30 Heddle. 


3. Hoy, Sale Riini, (}., 




















1 


4-13 - 


84-39 


1-29 


•05 


•1 




132 




2 


10-80 


100-01 1 Heddle. 


4. Aclivarasdal, 


88-09 












•30 


2^70 


8-2r. 


100-00 Anderson. 


5. 


88-00 


•34 


•00 










1^78 


8-8 


l(M)-24 


Heddle. 


6. Garleton Hills, - 






















Heddle. 


7. „ G.,3-77 


89-72 














•22 


9-98 


99-92 


Heddle. 


8. Salisbury Crags, G., 
























4-146 - 


79-02 


•• 


7^19 






-28 


•• 


2-07 


10-05 


99-21 


Heddle. 



Varieties — 1. In thin scale-like crystals, tabular through dominance 
of the brachypinacoid ; generally attached by one edge ; transparent 
and blood-red. The original Gothite — Rubinglimmer or Pyrrhosiderite. 

2. In acicular crystals, the main axis dominant, generally capiUary, 
and often radiately grouped. Needle Ironstone, Fitches d' amour. 
Frequently by the older mineralogists called " Spiculae of Titanium," 
" Rutilites," or even " Rutile." This passes into a variety with a 
velvety surface — Sammeterz. 

3. Onegite. This is the last variety, in its acicular form penetrating 
Quartz, and often used as an ornamental stone. 

4. Feathery columnar to scaly fibrous, somewhat in structure like 
plumose mica. Lustre, waxy and tremulous. Lepidocrocite (Xcttis, scale, 
and KpoKls, fibre). 

5. Columnar or fibrous. The fibres grouped radially so as to produce 
the usual reniform, botryoidal, or stalactitic forms. Very similar in 
appearance to Limonite. 

6. Compact, massive or granular. 

Var. 1 . Rubinglimmer is usually confined to cavities in eruptive rocks, 
and to association with z.oolitos ; but it is markedly selective in regard to 
the zeolites whose association it affects. 

Perthshire. In a quarry I mile south-west (? N.W.) of Abernethy ; 
disposed on the surface of rhombs of Calcite and Pearlspar, with Saponite, 
in pale-red scales. 

Dumbartonshire. In Bowling quarry, in the veins which carry 
Analcime and Thomsonite alone, and also in those which carried Harmo- 
tome and Edingtonite alone. Deep-red scales. 



106 OXIDES. 

Renfrewshire. At Kilmalcolm, with Chabazite, Calcite, and 
Stilbite. At Boyleston quarry, near Barrhead, in beautiful dark-red 
rosettes of crystals, adherent in isolated groups to the surfaces of Analcime 
crystals, and lodged throughout the crystals of the scaly Thomsonite there 
found, but avoiding the other zeolites even in the same cavity. Bishopton 
tunnel, rarely, associated with Harmotome. Gourock quarry, with Fluor 
and Quartz. 

Kirkcudbright. At Mabie, in cavities of Haematite, blood-red. 
(? Haematite) (Dudgeon). 

In a granititic vein in a " syenite " boulder on Ben Bhreac, Tongue, 
Sutherland, coating Magnetite. 

Var. 2. 2 and 3 are often associated. That is, acicular crystals 
imbedded in, and shooting through, crystals of Quartz, frequently protrude 
from the surfaces of these crystals. The first of these occurs in Orkney, 
Hoy, at the Bring, mouth of Burn of the Sale, in acicular crystals, in 
massive granular Haematite. 

Clackmannanshire. At Balquharn Hill, Ochils, " fine crj^stals of 
Rutnite in syenitic greenstone " (Macknight). 

Stirlingshire. At Fin try, in rosette groups, with Calcite and 
Amethyst (Kidston and Archibald). 

Argyllshire. At Meall Mor, near Erins, 4 miles north of Tarbert, 
Knapdale, in the copper mine, in the forms d k u, d k u e, in cavities of a 
manganesian Chalybite (Plate XVIII.). 

Renfrewshire. In Gourock quarry, with Fluor, Quartz, Rubin- 
glimmer, etc. 

Var. 3. Shetland — Mainland. Northmaven, at The Cannon, near 
the village of Stenness, in amygdaloidal cavities, imbedded in Rock 
Crystal and Amethystine Quartz, in delicate yellow tufts (D. and H.). 

Caithness. At Isauld Burn, Reay, Achvarasdal, clear Rock-Crystal, 
overlying mammillated Gothite, is penetrated by golden-yellow tufts, 
termed " needles of Titanium." 

Forfarshire. At Lunan Bay railway cutting, Quartz druses, with 
the Quartz pervaded by delicate hairs of lustrous golden-yellow colour. 
Roy quarry, piercing Calcite. Frequent in the Cairngorm of hollow agates, 
as at the Blue Hole, Usan. 

Fifeshire. In Magus Muir limestone quarry, druses lined with Rock 
Crystal, pervaded Avith brushes of acicular, deep brown-coloured, crystals, 
rising in tufts from their surface. At | Rabbit Hill, Luthrie, and several 
other spots, hollow agates, lined with either brown or amethystine Quartz, 
with protruding tufts. 



OXIDES. 107 

Perthshire — Kinnoull Hill. Veins of white Quartz, with brown, 
acicular crystals. 

Haddingtonshire. North Berwick, opposite to f Sheep Crag, in 
both ordinary and amethystine Quartz, in trap druses. 

Argyllshire. In amethystine Quartz, at Auchaleck, 1 mile north- 
west of Campbelton ; golden-yellow, passing to red-brown in 
specimens fit for jewellery (M'Sporran). At Galdrings, near Ballygroggan, 
Machrihanish Bay. 

Edinburghshire — Dunsapie Hill. " Amethystine Quartz, with 
spiculgG of titanium." Penetrating Amethystine Quartz at Arthur's 
Seat. 

Var. 4. Shetland — Mainland. At Sandlodge mine, rarely, associ- 
ated with Psilomelane, witli true Lepidocrocite colour, lustre, and structure 
— Anal. 1. Such specimens as show no Psilomcdane are like Var. 5. 

Var. 5. At the same mine, with Malachite, Chalcopyrite, Siderite, 
etc. — Anal. 2. 

Orkney — Hoy. At the Brmg. In the chasm of the Burn of the Sale, 
in large mammillated specimens, with Rock Crystal. Precisely like 
Limonite — Anal. 3. G., 4-13. 

Caithness. At Achvarasdal, in fine mammillated veins, with crystal- 
lised Barytes, and Rock Crystal — Anals, 4 and 5. 

FiFESHiRE. [In three fault- veins traversing the Yoredale Rocks, on 
the shore a few hundred yards south of] Seafield Tower, Kirkcaldy, 
forming ochre-yellow layers of a fibrous structure, in the centre of veins 
of Haematite. 

Perthshire. In feathery tufts, coating gneiss at " the Queen's View," 
east of Loch Tummel. 

Haddingtonshire. In the Garleton Hills, J mile south-east of the 
Hopetoun Monument, in veins of a mammillated structure, associated 
with red Quartz in grey and red clay slate ; G., 3-7G8 — Anals. 6 and 7. 
Rarely crystallised : often zoned yellow and brown. 

Edinburghshire. In the quarry at the north end of the Salisbury 
Crags [on the upper surface of the dolerite, near Cat Nick], in fine radiating 
stellar specimens, of a purplish-brown colour and steely lustre — Anal. 8. 
G., 4-146. 

Renfrewshire. At Gourock quarry. Rarely, with Fluor, Quartz, etc. 

53. Manganite (258). MngOg, HgO. 

Orthorhombic. a, 100; 6, 010; c, 001; k, 320; w, 110; e, 101. 
Crystals columnar, consisting of combmation of prisms, which are striated 
parallel to their intersections with one another. Often in grouped bundles. 



108 



OXIDES. 



due to partially-interpenetrating twinning upon both the macro- and 
brachy-diagonals. Hemitropes upon the brachydome e. Radiating 
fibrous and crystalline granular. Cleavage a, brachydiagonal very 
perfect ; m perfect. Base and macrodiagonal traces. Opaque. Lustre, 
imperfect metallic. Steel grey to iron black. Streak, brown. Brittle. 
H., 3-5 to 4 ; G., 4-3 to 4-4. 

B.B. in closed tube yields water. Infusible. In 0. flame imparts an 
amethystine colour to borax and micro, salt, which disappears in the R. 
flame. Sol. in h. acid, with evolution of chlorine. Sparingly in s. acid, 
with pink colour. Comp., Manganese peroxide, 89-9 ; Water, 10-1. 

mm', 99° 40' | mc, 90°00' | A; i^, 103° 24' | ee, 122°50' 
Scottish forms, mc, m ck, k e, k c. 

Occurs in veins traversing porphyry or gneiss, associated with Calcite 
and Barytes. 

Aberdeenshire. Formerly at Laverock Braes, near " Grandholm " 
(Granam), north of Persley ; mc,mck,ke, with Baryte, well -crystallised. 
At the Corry Beg lead mine, Glen Gairn, very rarely, with Fluor, on 
extremely minute crystals, k c. 

Kirkcudbright. At Kinharvie, south-west of New Abbey, crystallised 
in Psilomelane (Dudgeon). 

Haddingtonshire. Fenton Tower quarry, near North Berwick ; 
associated with Psilomelane, Varvicite, and pink Saponite, in felsite ; in 
elongated brilliant crystals. 



54. Limonite (259). 2Fe203, 3H2O. 

In reniform, mammillated and stalactitic forms, having a fibrous 
structure ; also concretionary, massive, or earthy. Frequently with a 
black varnish-like exterior, and high lustre on surface. Lustre of interior 
and of surface of reniform masses silky to submetallic, sometimes dull. 
Colour brown, of shades from pale to dark, but none bright. When 
earthy, brownish -yellow and ochre-yellow. Streak, yellowish -brown. 
H., 5 to 5-5 ; G., 3-6 to 4. 

B.B. like Gothite, but some varieties leave a skeleton of silica to both 
fluxes and acids. Comp., Ferric oxide, 85-6 ; Water, 14-4. 





Fe^Os 


FeO 


MnO 


Al,03 


CaO 


MgO 


SiOa 


HaO 


Total 




1. Lead Geo, Hoy, brown 

2. Lead Geo, Hoy, black 
.'{. Laocli, 

4. Laocli, S.G., 8-65, 

5. Garron Point. 


78-79 
82-14 
74-80 
52-09 
36-83 


3-24 

22-22 
4-34 


•15 
•34 

'•8 
•15 


•56 

2-47 
8^22 
4^89 


•47 
•57 

'•*67 
564 


•21 

•67 

•5 

1-92 


3-07 

3-32 

8-97 

•7 

36-62 


14.31 
13-87 
12-66 
14-57 
7-94 


100-59 

100-45 

99-57 

99-77 

98-33 


Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 
Heddle. 



OXIDES. 109 

The following varieties have to bo noted : — 

1. Compact fibrous. 2. Ochreous or earthy ; often impure from 
presence of clay or sand. 3. Brown clay-ironstone. In concretionary 
nodules or compact masses ; having a brownish -yellow streak, and so 
distinguishable from the clay-ironstone of the species Haematite and 
Siderite. Limonite is sometimes oolitic and sometimes pisolitic. 4. Bog 
Iron Ore ; from marshy places, concreted from Chalybeate waters or by 
the action of decomposing organic matters, and often enclosing leaves or 
twigs. 

1. Orkney. Hoy Head, at Lead Geo, of two varieties. The first 
forms a coating upon Psilomelane, and has a reticulated and stalactitic 
surface, of a greenish or ochry tint. Its fibrous surface is purplish-brown ; 
it has a tremulous lustre, and its powder is ochry brown — Anal. 1. The 
second variety has a brilliant glossy black surface ('" Black Ha3matite ") ; 
it is often stalactitic, and occasionally coats sandstone directly. Powder, 
ochre yellow — Anal. 2. In veins cutting flags of the Old Red Sandstone, 
near the manse of Hoy, in mammillated coatings over reddle. 

Hebrides — Islay. Lossit Hill (Greg). 

Argyllshire — Kintyre. At the Largybaan Caves, with Siderite, 
in very fine sj)ecimens. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, and Cumberhead (Greg). 

The second variety may be noticed as occurring at the east side of 
Alsat Hill, in Banffshire, on the west side of the road which passes from 
the Laoch mines to Cock Bridge. The structure here is from massive, 
foliated, to pitch-like, in the richer varieties. It varies much m composi- 
tion at the different pits^Anals. 3 and 4. In Kincardine, at Garron 
Point, the only ore at present seen is a laminated clay-iron ore of an 
ochre- brown colour — Anal. 5. Yellow ochre is found at the north Hill 
of Scullion Gour, at Campsie, and at t Glencart, Dairy, Ayrshire. Columnar 
clay-ironstone occurs in Arran. 

The third variety may be noted — Pea Iron Ore. Shetland, at Papa 
Stour, and near Galston, in Ayrshire. Button Iron Ore, in Perthshire, 
at Glen Quaich, and nodular in Chloritic Quartz, Stob a' Clioin, Loch 
Katrine. Button Ore, in the bed of the Esk, near f Picket Craig, in 
nodules from the size of a bean to that of a golf ball. Lanark, near 
t Edward's Hall, Rawhead Moor. Roxburghshire, in a limestone quarry 
in the hill above Bedrule, west of Jedburgh, with crystallised Calcite and 
Jasper (Nicol). Berwick, at t Atherston Ford. Silicious and massive at 
Macringan's Point, Campbelton Loch, with earthy Malachite (?). 



110 



OXIDES. 



Bog Iron Ore is so universally distributed throughout peat bogs, and 
the iron once extracted therefrom was so inferior, that it does not call for 
notice. 

Pseudomorphs of Limonite after Pyrite, ado, occur at Bre Brough 
Hoy, and also after Pyrite in the Bay Vein, Wanlockhead (Wilson). After 
Marcasite, near an old lead mine at Stromness, Orkney. 

55. Limnite (260a). Fe203,|3H20. 

Massive in veins, or stalactitic ; also as a yellow ochre. Physical and 
chemical characters the same as those of Limonite, but with a pitchy 
lustre and a brown black colour. Brittle. 

Comp., Ferric oxide, 74-8 ; Water, 25-2 ; but sometimes a bog ore, 
and then with phosphoric and organic acids. 

Occurs in narrow veins absolutely per se at the Leadhills. 



56. Brucite (262). MgO, H2O. 

Rhombohedral. R., 82° 22'. Crystals broad tabular. Also foliated 
and botryoidal columnar. Civ., basal, eminent ; folia flexible. Rarely 
fibrous ; fibres flexible and elastic. Nemalite. Lustre, pearly on cleavage 
face ; waxy on others. Translucent. The fibres silky. Colour, white, 
inclining to grey, blue, and green. Streak, white. Sectile. H., 2-5 ; 
G., 2-3 to 2-4. 

B.B. infusible ; emits a brilliant light, and reacts alkaline. With 
cobalt solution gives the violet-red of magnesia. In closed tube gives 
off water, becoming white and friable, sometimes grey. Sol. in acids 
without effervescence. After exposure becomes more or less carbonated 
and dull. 





MgO. 


FeO. 


MnO. 


CuO. 


HjO. 


Total 




1. Swimia Ness, 

3'. ',] ... 
i. „ ... 


66-67 
69-75 
67-98 
67-99 


1-18 

i-57 
-41 


1-57 
-31 


tr. 


30-39 
30-25 
30-96 
30-99 


100 
100 
100-51 
99-70 


Stroineyer. 
Fyfe. 
Tlionipon. 
Heddle. 



Shetland — Unst. At North Cross Geo, Haroldswick, with green 
Talc, Magnesite, Magnetite, and Nemalite (D. and H.), at junction of 
serpentine with gneiss. At Swinna Ness, in veins, chiefly in plates some 
inches each way, rarely in traces of crystals, with Hydromagnesite, in 



OXIDES. 



Ill 



serpentine. Also rarely in botryoidal masses, with a columnar structure. 
This latter structure is disposed i)arallel to the length of the vein. Calcite 
is associated with these specimens. Haaf Grunoy, at the north-east 
extremity, with Chromite and Pyroaurite. 

Nemalite occurs at North Cross Geo, in a veui in which the fibres, 
IJ niches in length, lie transversely. It has a pale green colour (D. and 
H.). A specimen, apparently of Nemalite, from Corrycharmaig, Loch 
Tay, is in the Edinburgh Museum. 

The specimens of " Brucite " from f ArguUy farm, and from the 
serpentine west vem at Portsoy, ai^j^ear to be white Biotite. 

57. Pyroaurite (267). Fc^O^, SH^O.GMgO, H^O+GHaO. 

Hexagonal. In tables and scaly plates. Lustre pearly. Translucent. 
Flexible somewhat. White and gold yellow. H., 2. 

B.B. infusible. Does not agglutinate ; yields water ; becomes 
chocolate- brown and strongly magnetic. Soluble in s. and h. acid. 
Solution in last rich yellow. Comp., Ferric oxide, 23-9 ; Magnesia, 35-8 ; 
Water 40-3. 





Fe,03. 


Mg.O. 


H^O. 


CO,. 


Total. 




1. Haaf Gruney, - 

2. „ 


23-63 
22-45 


36-85 
37-57 


40-02 
39-51 


1-03 


100-50 
100-56 


Heddle. 
Heddle. 



Shetland. At the north-east extremity of Haaf Gruney, with 
Chromite and Brucite in yellow Serpentine, in scaly, tortuous, ])lates 
of a subfibrous or slickenside appearance, silvery white (Igelstromito). 
In an earthy, or, rather, saponitic, form in rents in the Chromite of Hag- 
dale, in Unst. In golden-yellow small crystals in vehis m Chromite and 
Seipentine in the quarries south of Nikka Vord, Unst (Currie). [See 
" Geognosy of Scotland," Min. Mag., vol. ii. pp. 32, 33.] 



58. Psilomelane (269). BaO,MnO)Mn02+3H20,Mn02+3H20. 

Massive and reniform. Botryoidal, stalactitic, and in drops. Struc- 
ture generally subfibrous. Fracture conchoidal. Lustre submetallic. 
Iron black to steel grey. H., 5-5 to 6 ; G., 4 to 4-3. 

B.B. infusible, but loses oxygon and yields water. With fluxes reacts 
for manganese. Soluble in h. acid with evolution of chlorine. Comp., 
somewhat varying, potash takmg the place of baryta. Generally about 
80 per cent, of Manganese oxides. 



112 



OXIDES. 





MnO 


CoO 


AUO, 


MgO 


BaO 


K^O 


NaaO 


SiOj 





HjO 


Total 




1. Hoy Head, 


























fibrous, 


71-87 


1-48 




•1 


14-88 


•5 






6-66 


6-05 


101-48 


Heddle. 


2. Hoy Head 


























massive. 


























vein, 


69-58 


1-99 


1-1 


•2 


14.97 


•25 


•26 


•9 


5-52 


5-69 


100-46 


Heddle. 


3. High Pirn, 


76-31 


•37 


Cu-54 


•01 


3-66 


4^09 


•26 


2-11 


9-09 


4-02 


100-46 


Heddle. 



Shetland. Mainland, Sandlodge mine, in stalacites, underlying 
Limonite. Papa Stour, at the Kirksands, at the furthest east end of 
the west cliff, with Wad, red Heulandite, and Stilbite (D. and H.). 

Orkney. At Hoy Head, in Upper Old Red Sandstone ; at Bre 
Brough, in coralloidal and minutely-columnar masses. At the Lead Geo, 
200 feet over the cliff verge, in magnificent specimens. Stalactitic, 
botryoidal, and fiat, with a subfibrous structure and G. 4-607— Anal. 1. 
Also in loose hemispherical drops, in cavities, with a highly -polished 
surface and blue-black colour. These occasionally show upon their 
surface apparently pseudo-forms after Quartz. When broken, the cavities 
are seen to be lined with Mangan-Sammat-Erz. Near this place there 
is a massive granular vein of a blue-black colour, and conchoidal fracture. 
G., 4-4 — Anal, 2. In the corries of the Meadow of the Kame, in sandstone. 
Walls ; in botryoidal specimens in sandstone, at the Echoing Rock, near 
Tor Ness (Plates XVIIIa. and XVIIIb.). 

Caithness. In Gleann Thorcaill, the head of Sandside Burn, coating 
fine-grained granite. 

Sutherland. Ben Loyal, loose lumps on the ridge between the 
Castle and the top of Sgor a Chonais-aite (Cunningham). Forming the 
cement of a breccia of quartzite near the side of the lake between the tops 
of Ben Fhurain and Meall na larloch. 

Ross -SHIRE — Ben Alligin. 200 feet below the peak of Spidean 
Coir' an Laoigh, on its south-west side, just at the top of the corry. 
Massive and cementing fragmented Torridon Sandstone. 

Hebrides. In basalt of Tertiary age in Rum (Greg). 

Aberdeenshire. With Manganite at Laverock Braes, Grandholm, 
rarely. Abergairn mines, very rarely, with Fluor, Galena, and Blende, 
in Quartz. 

Banffshire. At the Laoch mines near Tomintoul ; with Limonite, 
in considerable quantity. 

Haddington. At Fenton Tower quarry, near North Berwick, with 
Manganite in " felsite." 

Dumbartonshire. At Old Kilpatrick, found in laying the foundations 
of the Established Church (Clacher), botryoidal, and glossy black. 



OXIDES. 113 

LANAHKSHiJtK. Lcculhills, at Bolton Grain vein (Wilson), and at 
VVanlockhcad, Dumfriesshire, at tlu^ High Pirn mine (Anal. 3). with 
Plumbocalcite, V^anadinite, and ChrysocoUa. 

Kirkcudbright. In a vein at Maxwellbank farm (Dudgeon) ; with 
crystallised Manganite, at Kinharvie, south-west of New Abbey (Dudgeon). 

59. Wad (269a). 

Amorphous. Occurs botryoidal, reniform, massive, impalpable gran- 
ular, and investing as a froth-like coating. Lustre imperfect, sometimes 
metallic to dull. Colour, bluish, dull black to brown. Loosely aggre- 
gatwl, feels very light, and soils. Very sectile. Streak, brown, shining. 
Unctuous to the touch. H., 0-5 to 1 ; G., 2-17 to 4-26. 

B.B. in closed tube yields water. Sol. in h. acid, with evolution of 
chlorine. Reacts like Psilomelane. Comp. : the richer varieties approach 
Psilomelane, but the mineral is generally a mixture, sometimes largely 
with Cobalt or with Copper. Is a product of decomposition, often largely 
impure with rock admixture. Dendritic markings on the surface of rock 
rents, or sometimes ramifying throughout their mass, generally consist 
of some such manganesian compound, carried into the rent probably by 
carbonated waters. The brown mochas in agates are of this nature. 

Shetland. Sandlodge, on Siderite and Pyrite. 

Orkney. At Lead Geo, Hoy Head, rarely, coating Psilomelane, and 
passing into it. Analysis : — 

MnO. CoO. MgO. BaO. K,0. Na,0. AljO,. SiO,. O. H,0. Total. 

64-87 to 69-58 1-905 -199 14-97 -247 -259 1-097 -898 5-521 5-688 100-464 

Inverness-shire. At Clunie, in granitic veins, which cut gneiss 
1750 feet up in the cliffs of a stream which descends from the spur on 
the east side of Carn Fuaralach. 

Aberdeenshire In fine botryoidal masses, light brow n and lustrous, 
half a mile west of Sylavethy quarry, Alford. 

Renfrewshire. In Gourock quarry, solidly, plugging druses up to 
6 inches wide, rarely, with acicular Gothite. 

Argyllshire. Dunoon, very im]iure in cavities of Quartz blocks 
in the Dirty [or Balgie] Burn, with Pyrite. The Quartz seemed to have 
come from the Bishop's Seat. This yielded — 

MnO. FcjOj. AljO,. CaO. MgO. K,0. NajO. H,0. Insol. Total. 

38-58 11*83 6-32 2"78 1"01 1-5 1-42 1318 23-21 99-83 Heddle. 

H 



114 CARBONATES. 

FiFESHiRE. At Heather Hill, Luthrie, filling centres of hollow agates, 
of a brown colour. Is an almost pure hydrated oxide of manganese. 

Also " widely diffused. Duns " (Stevenson), and " near Lamancha 
Peebles." 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, in fine specimens, the surfaces of which 
have a structure resembling the convolutions of the brain. 

Blue- black and brown manganesian dendrites occur at an Old Red 
Sandstone quarry west of Melsetter, in South Walls. On the surface of 
granite rents, in Craigton quarry, Hill of Fare, Aberdeenshire. These 
dendrites consisted of — 

AljO,. FesO,. MnO. MgO. KaO. NaaO. 

32-20 38-31 7-46 16-61 4-75 -68 100-01 Heddle. 

Stirlingshire. At Garrel Glen, in white sandstone. 

Also in a quarry to the south of Beith, Ayrshire, and in porphyry on 
Tinto, Lanarkshire. 



Class VI. OXYGEN SALTS. 

I. CARBONATES. 

A. Anhydrous Carbonates. 

60, Calcite (270). CaCog. 

[o (c), 111, 0001 ; a, OlT, 1120 ; b (m), 2TT, lOTO ; f, 725, 3140 ; m (M) 
3TT, 4041 ; r, 100, lOTl ; II, 711. 2023; u, 211, 1014; k, 255; e, 001, 
T012 ; I, T33, 4045; «, T22, TOll ; i, 7.11.11, 6065; </>, 233, 5054; h, 455, 
3032; /, Til, 2021; g, 877, 5052; ^, 544, 3031; x. 433, 7072; v, 755, 
4041 ; s, 322, 5051 ; d, 533, 8081 ; tt, 210, 2113; «, 513, 8443; $, 715, 
4221 ; T, 320, 2.T.3.5 ; 9 , 730, 4.3.7.10; t, 810, 2134; w, 410, 3145; q, 
610, 5167; c (C), 710, 6178; i^ {v), 601, 6175; o-, 50T, 5164; n {K), 
40L 4153; ]), 11.0.3, 11.3.14.8; A, 301, 3142; y, 502, 5273; v, 201, 
2131 ; S, 704, 7.4.TT.3 ; T (Y), 503, 5382 ; y, 302, 3251 ; s, 403, 4371 ; 
/x ( ), 504, 5491 ; ]} ( ), 605, 0.5.TT.1 ; ^ ( ),il3.0.11, 13.11.24.2 ; 9 



Gno mono gram 

O F 

Calcite. 

(Dana's Symbols) 



J G. Goodchicd 




M'Fa.rlajie fcErskiae. Edin'' 



CARBONATES. 115 

( ), 552, 4.3.7.5 ; 6 ( ), 733, 6.4.10.7 ', t { ), 211 2.1.3.1 ; ^ ( ), 955, 
10.4.14.9 ; 6 (B), 5?5, 8.2.10.3 ; x, 212, 3141 ; ^8 (F\ 313, 4261 ; O ( ), 
534, 7294 ; p {R), 423, 5273 ; P { ), 735, 8.4.12.5 ; « ( ), 312, 3251 ; 
y ( ), 523, 5384 ; (6), 524, 2131 ; z (Q), 15 1 9, 10.8.24.5; (2), 447, 
0.11 11.1 ; (*), 559, 0.14.14.1. 

In addition to the foregoing symbols, the following are occasionally 
employed in Dr. Heddle's description of Calcite : — 

{^) [the scalenohedral face in the zone avr e, denoted by this letter 
in figure 26 of Calcite in the Sixth Ed. of Dana] ; G (of Des Cloizeaux), 

13.1.11, 4481, 8P2 ; L, 917, 8.8.16.3 ; e^ 776, 13.0.13.8 ; e\ {k), 114, 5052; 
e ,116,7074; e^, 443, 7075 ;e^, or 5, A;, (*), 559, 14.0.14.1 - 14 R ; e^556, 
Tl.0.1 1.4 ; e^=e^ of Miller ; e^=5 of Miller ; e^, 414, 5381 ; e^^\ 4.4.11, 
5051, -f-5 R ; e^, 944, 13.0.T3.1 + 13 R ; e^. x of Miller ; e^, I of Miller ; 
e^, 665, 11. 0.1 1.7 ; e^, g of Miller ; e^, 522, 7071 ; b^, 530, 3T48 ; d^ 

_ __ 2 U _ _ _ 

706, 7 6.13.1; e^ 6174; e^=(/) of Miller; e ^^ , 11.5.5, 16.0.16.1, (/>)+ 
16 R ; e'^" (a,), + 28 R, 28.0.28.1 ; d^'^^, (0 + R 13, 7.6.T3.1 ; d^, =h 
of Miller, +11 R, 6.5 Tl.l ; 5^, 0, Q, c, of Des Cloizeaux are respectively, 
7T81, 2T31, 3T42, and 8.5.13.3 ; i, of Hauy, 116, 707'1,=e« of Des Q.] 

Rhombohedral, r a r over terminal edge, 105° 5' ; over lateral 
edge, 180° ; o a r, 135° 23'. 

The forms group into five types : — 

1. Rhombohedra. 

2. Scalenohedra. 

3. Regular six-sided pyramids. 

4. Prisms. 

5. Basal plane. 

1. Rhombohedra (two sets). 

First. — Forms whose planes are in the same vertical zone with r-o r m h. 
Of these nineteen are known, and they range from one so obtuse that its 
vertical axis is one-fourth that of r, relatively to the lateral axes (w), 
to one so acute that it is twenty-eight times the length of that of r (w). 
This is termed the Plus series. 

Second — the Minus series. — This is in an inverse position — that is, 
its planes lie in the same zone with e (the inverse rhombohedron to r) — 
zone e efb. Of these thirty -four are known, and they range from a 
vertical axis one-tenth that of r ( ) to one seventeenth times its length ( ). 

The fundamental rhombohedron is uncommon, except in combination ; 
the only common simple forms in the plu^ series being m and u. 



J 16 



CARBONATES. 



In the minus series the inverse form to r is still more uncommon than 
is the primary, but e, which truncates the terminal edges of the primary, 
and which is termed '' nail head," is exceedingly common, both simple 
and in combination, as are also the forms / and d. 

Of common plus rhombohedra we have u, r, m, and of negative, e, /, d. 

Now u truncates the terminal edges of e, 
e ,, ,, ,, r. 



r 

f 

m 



/. 

m, 
a, 



d ,, „ ,,6" a,n acutG phis form. 

The relationship of these forms is further evidenced by the " Structure 
Planes " being situated parallel to three of these : — 

1. The Gleit face, or direction of molecular instability (along which 
direct pressure, by the polar revolution of one or more layers of molecules, 
produces twin laminae of excessive tenuity). This plane is parallel to 
the faces of the form e. 

2. The Cleavage face, or direction of cohesive weakness (along which 
a crystal rends when a disruptive force is applied to it at certain sides). 
This plane is parallel to the faces of the form r. 

3. The Solution plane, or direction of chemical weakness (along which 
water or other solvents act in preference to, and with greater rapidity 
than, along other planes). This plane is parallel to the faces of the form /. 

Rhombohedra may be considered as derivable from hexagonal pyramids 
by a suppression of the alternate planes, and the extension of those 
remaining. The suppression of one set of such planes would produce 
the plus set of such rhombohedra ; the suppression of the other would 
produce the minus set. The fact that these sets alternate, rather than 
coexist, is a strong argument against the crystalline form of calcite being 
referred to the Hexagonal System. 

The two series of rhombohedra, so far as at present known, together 
with the symbols employed to denote them, are as follows :— 

[In the following tables Des Cloizeaux's symbols of the zone faces were 
compiled from the stereographic projection of Calcite in that author's 
Manuel de Mineralogie, Paris, 1874 ; the angles given are from the same 
work. The Bravais symbols, and also Goldschmidt's letters, are from Gold- 
schmidt's Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien, Berlin, 1886. Miller's 
symbols and letters are from Phillips' edition of Brooke and Miller's 
Mineralogy, London, 1852 ; and Dana's letters, and his symbols (given 
in the descriptive part in parentheses), are from the 6th edition of the 
System of Mineralogy, IS92]. 



CARBONATES. 



11 







Phis Series. 




1 






Mi HUH Series. 




M. 




Zone h m r o 




' 


Zone b df i CO. 


(J. 


Da. 


IJr. 


Dfs. 


Allgl«! 

over o. 


Antrle 
over 0. 


Des. 


Hr. 


1)1. 


<;. 


M. 














174° -22 




1.0.1.10 


- i'« 1 


8 
















I68°r>0 


H^ 


1015 


-1 « 




V, 211 


(I. 


".t 


1014 


H- 


IG() -00 


I6li°(«) 
I60°o7 


a^^ 


1014 
7.0.7.20 


-i 


9 






o 


t 


202.-) 


.1=' 


1.58' 2S 


1.-8° 28 


i 
a' 


20-25 


& 


y 






f 


I 


1012 


a^ 


ir)3°'4r) 


lo3°-4.> 


!>' 


1012 


^s-i 


8 


e, on 




a- 


4 


4047 


a-^ 


150°-3r, \ 








1 
J 




II, 711 


h. 


ttH 


2023 


a' 


146-40! 


14G°-40 
141°-43 


4 
e • 


2023 
40-J5 




/, 133 














130°- 12 


e? 


707S 


-I 


^ 




r, 100 

! 




1 K 


loTi 


]) 


130 23 


13.-)° 23 
I3r-.3r) 


e-' 


101 1 

8087 


€,-1 


X 


€, 122 














130°' 11 


e^'' 


0005 


i.-§ 


h- 


.,7.11.11 














129° 02 


e^ 


5054 


</>,-? 


V 


</>, 233 














I27°15 


et 


4043 


A, -I 


1 
















125°-.->8 


e^ 


7075 


11, -i 


TT 
















124° -03 


e^ 


3032 


h-i 


1' 


h, 4.-)5 














12^° -49 


3 

e" 


TT.0.11.7 


~ 7 


« 








 








12l°-.-)8 


e^^' 


13.0.13.8 


-V 


T 
















120°-(\-, 




[^] 


-?W A 


L^] 


i 












110° -52 
114°l.-> 


e 

1 4 

e'=' 


2(i21 
9094 


f-2 


X 


./, ill 


1 
i 












?112°-.->0 


e ' '^ 


9 


-V 








k 


i 


-,052 


! e^ 

1 


112^-4 


112° -04 
110°14 


e" 
e^ 


5052 
lT.0.11.4 


-V 


(t) 


f/, «77 


1 


1 


3 


3031 
14.0.14.;^ 


e^ 


108-40 
!07°'20 ? 


l(8°-40 


e^' 


3031 


^-31{ 


r 


V> r>44 


1 








1 




10G°-09 


e* 


7072 


x-± 


A 


Xi 433 


m, 311 


ni 


J/, 4 


4041 


e=' 


; 104°13 

1 


104°-13 
102° -42 


e' * 


?04! 
9092 


>/-4 

-A 


A 


V 7,-»5 




n. 


,") 


.",051 


eV 


lOP-28 


101° -28 


e- 


5051 


S-b 


^ 


X, 322 




(». 


1 1 


ll.o.TT.^ 


I e^ 


100°-27 
















P- 


() 


()(,(; 1 


e ^ 


90° -30 


99° -30 






-6 








^' 


T, 7 


7<i71 


e- 


9S°14 




n 






















97°13 


e^ 


8081 


.1-8 


11 


f/, 533 








i 


1 




9G° 2.-> 

1 




9091 


-9 


B. 





118 



CARBONATES. 



Plus Series. 


Minus Series. 


Zone h m r 0. 


Zone h dj € e 0. 


M. 


G. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over 0. 


Angle 
over 0. 


Des. 


Br. 


Da. 


G. 


M 




r 


^, 10 


lo.e.To.i 


e^ 


95° -47 


95°-16 


e* 


IT.0.11.1 


2-11 


v 






s 


V, 13 


18.0.13.1 


e^ 


94° -28 
























{ 


K, Haily 

94°-8 


}e* 


n.0.14.1 


*- 14 


<i> 






t 


h 16 

w 


16.0.1(11 
18.0.18.1 


eV 


93° -38 
93^ 13 


• 
93° -25 


eV 


17.0.17.1 


-17 


^ 






u 




19.0.Ti>.l 




















z 


w, 28 


28.0.28.1 


1 u 

e " 


92^-4 















It will be seen that about one-fourth of the minus forms are inverse. 

Forms which bevel the lateral and the terminal edges of the more 
commonly- occurring rhombohedra constitute (since they fall into the same 
zone) a series of scalenohedra. By far the greater number of these fall 
into — 

a. The edge-zone of the Primitive ; 

b. The horizontal diagonal zone of the faces of that form. 

In like manner as rhombohedra may be considered as hemiliedral 
developments of hexagonal pyramids, may scalenohedra be regarded as 
hemihedral developments of di-hexagonal pyramids ; but in scalenohedra 
the occurrence of inverse forms is even rarer than in the case of 
rhombohedra. 



a. Scalenohedra of the first zone : i.e., with planes bevellmg the lateral 
edges of r, and so lying in the zone are. These, when extended to e, 
form a complete pltts series. In Dana's symbols, 1 signifies that they are 
related to the rhombohedron 1 R, — the annexed number signifies or 
indicates the length of the vertical axis as compared with that of 1 R. 

There is also a minus series, whose planes bevel the lateral edges of c 
the inverse rhombohedron to r, and which thus lie in the zone a € a'^, 
— I having the same relation to rhombohedron— 1 R. 



CARBONATES. 
2. SCALENOHEDRA (Zom^ are). 



119 



Zone e a over r. 


Inverse a over € to a. 


M. 


(;. 


Da. 


hv. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 


Angle 
over a. 


DCH. 


Hr. 


I)a. 


O. 


M. 




zz: 






b^ 


50° 13 












T, 320 


z: 
y: 




2135 
3148 


b' 
b^ 


54° -3 
56° -6 














w, 210 








b-' 


59° 18 














?, 730 


x: 
v: 




4.3.7.10 
7. 4. IT. 15 


b-' 
bV 


61° 42 
63° .53 














/, 310 


t: 

a- 




2134 
5279 


b- 
b^ 


64° -54 
66° -30 














v.; 410 


w: 
f: 
e: 




3145 

7.2.9.11 

4156 


b* 

b^ 

b'* 


67°-41 
86° -35 
69°- 18 






• 








7, 610 


a : 




5167 
13.2.13.15 


b« 

[v]b" 


70° -21 














':, 710 


c: 
h: 
a: 




6178 

7189 

8.1.9.10 

9.1.10.11 


b" 
b^ 

[?]b'"' 


71°-5 
71°-37 
72° -27 














• 


(1: 




13.1.14.15 


mb" 


73° -9 














r, HH> 


P 


1 


1011 


p 


74° -55 


74° -55 


e* 


Ton 


€, -1 


X 


€,122 




A: 




11.1.12.10 




















15: 


,n 


17.2.19.15 


d'^ 


8b°-17 
















C: 


i' 


7186 


cH 


91°I3 
















7 = 




19.3.22.16 


















I', 601 


I): 


V, 1^ 


6175 


a« 


94° 1 














<r, 501 


E: 


cr,,^ 


5164 


a- 


97° -57 














//, 401 


V: 

8: 


n l' 

'iV 


4153 
19.5.24.14 


a* 


103° 52 


103° -52 


e^ 


4153 


K-l^ 


0: 




I, 11.0.3 




IT 


11.3 14.8 


d'^' 


106° -34 
















G: 


1^ 


7295 


d^ 


108° -6 


108°. 6 


A 


7595 




A 




A., 301 


H: 


X,i^' 


3142 


iV' 


11 3° -45 


11 3° -45 


Q 


3142 




Q 




^,502 


J: 


1^ 


5273 


d^. 


12l°-33 


121°-33 


P 


5273 


R-1^ 


(3 


h 423 


V, 201 


K: 
L: 
€ : 




2131 
17.9.26.8 
9.5.14 4 


d-' 

1 7 


132° 59 
136° 14 


i;^2°-59 


H 


7-294 




Z 


0, 534 


5,704 


M: 


jV 


7.4.TT.3 


di 


140° -49 














T, 503 


N: 


T,H 


5382 


d-* 


143° -51 
















0: 


l'^' 


8.5.13.3 


cF 


146° -29 


146° -29 


€ 


8.5.13.3. 


43 





120 



CARBONATES. 



Zone e a over r. 

1 


Invei'rie a'* over e to a. 


M. 


(J. 


Da. 


15r. 


I es. 

(1- 


Angle i Angle 
over <i. over a. 


T)es. 


15r. 


Da. 


(i. 


M. , 


y, :m 


P : 


.'/, 1'^ 


3251 


15(»°-14 150° -4 + 


\^ 


7181 










Q: 


1 ^ 


19.13 32.G 


d'^ 


15:i°-30 I 














R: 


1 •' 1 10.7.17.3 


.V 


154° -03 












- 


8 : 




7.5.12.2 
11.S.11>.3 




156° -43 1 














7/ : 


1 - 


23. 17. 40. (i 


















S, 403 


T: 




4371 
0.17.1(12 


d' 
m(H 


158°: 3 














{I, oOi 


U: 


/A, 1" r)4i)i 


(1* 


1 03° -30 














h, 5 


V: 


i^, 1" (5.5.11.1 


<!' 


100°-2S 














— , 13.0.11 


W: 


MM'- 13 : 1.24.2 


(]" 


1(57° .T) 
















X: 


AM-- 


7.0.13 1 


iV 


103° -32 
















T : 


JIU 


17. lo 32.2 




















Y: 


117 


9.8.17.1 




171°13 














a, Oil 


2 


a {■' 


1.1.20 


<li 




Here all tlie forms of the minus series are 
inverse to the positive. 



The relations of the previously-mentioned forms to these scalenohedra 
are : — 

a truncates the lateral edges of all ; 
rhombohedron m truncates the obtuse angle of y ; 

5 

rhombohedron e'' [d] truncates the acute angle of y 

„ Q^ ,, ,, obtuse ,, A. 

e"^ [x] ,, ,, acute „ X 

a^ and a* truncate the terminal edges of r and tt respectively. 
The acute lateral angle of e [of Des Cloizeaux] is truncated by 64, (6174) • 

,, ,, ,, ^ is truncated by el" [? by e''', gf, 877]- 

The acute edge of v is bevelled by a numerous series of faces. 

,, ,, ,, of y ,, ,, by four faces, and its obtuse by two. 
The most-commonly occurring scalenohedra, y, v, and A are represented 
in the inverse series by the \p, B, and Q [of Des Cloizeaux] respectively. 

b. Scalenohedra of the second zone, that is to say, 
with planes bevelling both the lateral and the terminal edges of / 
(e^ DescL), — or in the horizontal diagonal line of r : — zone axfr. In the 

inverse posiition, the zone to e [e^^ Descl.) (the inverse of r). As there is no 



CARBONATES. 



121 



invorse U) rh()nibt)lic'(liun / thoro cannot hv said to 
scalenohodral series. 



be 



any inverse 



M. 


(i. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 


Angle 
ov«r a. 


Des. 


Br. 


1>U. 


(i. 


M. 




r 




f).H8l 




1.56° -46 












A :m 


q: 


f^-i 


42(n 


149° -21 


I41P211) 












X, 212 


P: 


x-'I-' 


7.3.10.2 
3141 


14;}° -30 
1.3.5°I8 














O) «>*v"i 


: 




S. 2. 10.3 
5062 


e., 


127° -.39 
122° -23 














/, rn 


ni: 
i: 


f-'^ 


2021 

l(^ 1.17.9 

819.5 




107° -4.5 
102° -32 
103° -22 




d^ 












i: 




(1T74 


103° -41 
















0: 


K-lH 


r>T()2 


C:t 


1 03° -.52 














^ 9.")r) 


t: 




10.4.14.9 


e, 


103° 14 














;2ii 


C: 




2131 


eg 


102° 25 














6 733 


t): 




(5.4.10 7 


e- 


l(K)°-47 














9o22 


C: 




4.3.7..) 




99° .56 






















97° -20 




e3 


















e4 


93° -20 






















e.i 


9:i°-20 














r IM!) 


P- 


m I 


1011 


y'- 

















With planes having the same relation to ?A?(e^) ; i.e., bevelling the 
lateral and terminal edges ; or, if referred to the fundamental rhombo- 
hedron, replacing its lateral angles. 

Zone arnvf. This replaces the lateral angles of/; and bevels the 
acute angle of rhombohedron r and the transverse diagonal of /. 



M. 


(}. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 








23 2.2.5.12 


X 


106° -.50 




:»■ 




•►.2.II.5 


'V 


I14°14 


0, 534 


c; 




f294 


e 


11 7° -8 




D; 




12.4.16.7 


(i> 


119°-6 


fh 423 


JEi 




5273 


n 


121° 33 


]K 7.35 


If; 




8.4.12.5 


TT 


124° -40 


«,312 


(5; 




3251 


b 


128° -30 


«, 513 


a 


a, S-2 


4483 


X 
a 


131°19 

i;«°-.36 




1b; 


12.8.20.7 


D 


133° -.53 


r, 201 


K- r, 1=' 


2.13.1 


d-' 


132° -.59 


///, .311 


ni M, 4 


4041 


e=' 


1 




^■. i 


5161 


a: 


133° 19 




s; r4-' 


6281 


V 


144° -8 




Si: 


8.4.12.1 


y 


1.55° -39 


a, 101 


q a, »• - 2 


1120 


<P 





122 



CARBONATES. 



With planes having the same relations to d (e") : — 
Zone Si d P y m. 



M. 


G. 


Da. 


Br. 


Ues. 


Angle 
over a. 


«, Oil 




a 


1120 


d} 






3: 




I). T. 10.1 


n 


129" -3 


d, 533 


n 


^/ 


8081 


e^ 






34 




44.(5.50.7 


/^ 


129° -48 




x; 




(5171 


A 


132° 1 




i; 




IT5.4.20.3 


N 


137°-33 


ft 313 


q: 




4261 


«.i 


149° -21 




33 




(5.5.11.2 


V^ 


15o°16 




7 




8.8.1(5.3 


L 


loo°-14 


y, 302 


P: 


V 


3251 


cP 


150° -44 


z, lo.I.ii 


3Bi 




1(5.8.24..") 


z 


145°29 




u: 




24.8.32.7 


12 


137° -48 


m, 311 


m 


M 


4041 


e-' 





With planes having the same relation to e (b') :- 

Zone a t e u- 



M. 


G. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 


ii-i 


q 


a 


1120 


d' 






gi 




7.(5.13.2 


A 


158° -59 




33 




(5.5.11.2 


i> 


155°-16 




ti: 




5492 


P 


15(J° 




69 




13.5.18.5 


q 


141° -59 


b, 312 


(Si; 




3251 


6 

T 


129° -30 
121° -49 


y, 523 


b: 




5384 


7 


11 7° -50 


1, 211 


c; 




2131 


ea 


102° -25 




32 




18.5.23.15 


0- 


88° -07 


e, Oil 


5. 


e 


1012 


1)1 




u, 211 


d. 


M 


1014 


a2 





CARBONATES. 



123 



With planes which truncate the edges of / in the zone b y ^ f \. 



M. 


0. 


Da. 


Bi. 


1>08. 


Angle 
over a. 


6,211 


b 


wt 


1010 


e2 






3i 




6281 


V 


144° 08 




T 




42(51 


\) 


1 490-21 


y, 302 


P: 


// 


3251 


.V 


150^-44 


5,715 


i 


f 


2241 


i 


147°-23 




69 




13.5.18.5 


<i 


1410-50 


0, o24 


e 


e 


2131 


e 


132° -59 


y, Til 


</> 


f- 


2021 


e' 






Q 




3142 


(^ 


11 3° -45 




w 




73.10.5 


X 


11 5° -39 


y, 523 


b: 


r 


5384 


7 




[?]T o03 


N: 


T, H 


5382 


[?]cl^ 


11 7° -50 


K 3(iT 


H: 


A 


3142 


tV' 


11 3° -45 



With planes in the zone b x 6 b r. 



iM. 


a. 


Dca. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 


h, 2n 


q 


m 


lolo 


e2 






39 




30.1.31.1 


B 


123° -8 




3: 




9.1.10.1 


11 


129° -3 




X; 




0.1.7. 1 


X 


1.32°1 


X, 212 


p; 


j; 


3141 




135°- 18 




00 




13.5. IS. 5 


i;r>° 




H): 




12.4.16.7 


(0 


i:u°-49 


^, 524 


e 


e 


2131 





132^59 


«, 312 


(5; 




3251 


« 


128<^-30 


?•, 100 


p- 


A* 


mil 


p 





124 



CORBONATES. 
With planes in the zone b p ^ v. 



M. 


a. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
uver a. 


1), 2n 


b 


VI 


1010 


e'^ 






46 




8.2.10.1 


'I 


13IF-O0 


ft 313 


0: 


fi 


4261 


""h 


149° -21 




W 




73.10.5 


X 


15(^-44 




(l: 




5492 


1^ 


150 


^,715 


^ 


i 


2241 


i 


147° -23 


V, 201 


K: 


V 


2131 


(V-^ 





With planes bevelling the lateral and the terminal edges of x (<^.*) 5 
and bevel] ing the acute edge of scalenohedron «/ (df ) in the zone a y x. 



M. 


G. 


Da. 


Br. 


De.s. 


Angle 
over fi. 


X, 433 


A 


X 


7072 


J 




X, 212 


p: 




3T41 


% 


135°18 




43 




8.5.13.3 


€ 


146^-29 




d: 




5492 


P 


150° 




^ 




7.7.14.3 


r 


151° -50 


y, 302 


P: 


y 


3251 


<i* 


J 50° -44 




53 




12.4.16.3 


m: 


140°S 




^•: 




5161 


X 


133 19 




q- 




7071 


e^ 




rt, Oil 


q 


a 


1120 


(V 





With i-tlanes bevelling the lateral and the terminal edges of rhombo- 
hedron s (e|) ; and bevelling the acute edge of scalenohedron s^ (df.). 
In the zone a /3 s : — 



M 


G. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 


Angle 
over a. 


,s, 322 


s 


.•^ 


5051 


n 
e- 




ft 313 


cj: 


P 


4261 


e, 


149° -21 




g: 




7.6.13.2 


A 


158° -59 


«, 403 


T: 


s 


4371 


,i'> 


158° -53 




3: 


V 


6281 


V 


144 -8 




r. 


e 


10.0.10.1 


e^ 






28 




32. 2. P. 3 


;=^ 


125° -6 




29 




14.4.18.1 


II 


143° -45 1 


a, Oil 


^ 


a 


1120 


(U 





CARBONATES, 



3. Regular Six-Sided Pyramids. 



125 



Of such are known the t<'n following cryHtallograj)hic forniH ; the 
angles given are those over the base : — 



M. 


(i. 


Da. 


Br. 


Des. 






€ 




4481 


(i 


i6;<°-2i 




8 


S 


3361 


8 


ir>7o-55 




y 




8.8.10.3 


I. 


155015 




P 




7.7.14.3 


r 


lolo'iO 


$, T.l.n 


i 


i 


2241 


f 


147°-23 


a, 513 


a 


a 


4483 


a 


i:t2«-36 

119° -20 




A 




2243 


i':i 


97° -26 




X 




7.7.14.12 


s 


89° -43 


TT, 21() 


TT 


TT 


1123 


1,2 


o9°18 



4. Prisms. 

Of such, four are known — the regular six-sided, b, the inverse of this, 
a, and two intermediate prisms, ^ and k. 



5. The Basal Plane, o (c). 111, 0()01. 

260 distinct crystalline faces have bwm measured and described ; 
and as these may be combineil in every way with one another, it follows 
that the possible number of combinations is almost innumerable. More- 
over, as certain of the faces ma}^ be dominant in some cases, and certain 
other faces in others, and as the habit and ai)i)earance of the crystals is 
entirely altered thereby (as from flat tables to acute pyramids), the 
number of apparently diverse forms becomes infinite*. Insurmountable 
mtricacy would thus seem to prevail. The difficulty of the reading of any 
torm IS, however, very materially diminishe<l by the assistance furnished 
in the three following respects : — Firstly, from the frequency of the 
occurrence of certain faces which are recognisable by their physical 
peculiarities. Secondly, from the dominance of certain of the simjiler 
forms. Thirdly, from some part of the crystals showing the position 
of the cleavage faces. 

Thus, the basal plane is often opaque, rough, or milky. The face b is 
frequently dull. That of t is curved. The faces / and w are striated 



126 CARBONATES. 

joarallel to their intersections with e, and a, e, tt, and X are striated parallel 
to their intersections with r. 

The more frequently occurring (and often dominant) faces which 
serve as guides are : — the basal plane ; one. or other of the prism faces ; 
the rhombohedra e, r, f, m ; and the scalenohedra v, t, y. 

Though varying in proportions from flat-tabular to slender-acicular, 
the extreme varieties pass into one another through every variety of 
intermediate form, so that no satisfactory classification based upon form 
alone is possible. Many are of somewhat regular proportions because 
normally so ; but others, which would be either long acicular, or would 
occur in thin sheets, in their full development, occur as forms which are 
short and stout, because abbreviated by an abrupt termination, or by 
some rhombohedral lateral truncation. The following groups may, how- 
ever, be useful for purposes of classification : — 

1. The flat tabular. 

2. The long prismatic. 

3. The rhombohedral. 

4. The scalenohedral. 

Not only from the vast number of faces in Calcite, but also from the 
frequency of its occurrence, the number of geological formations in 
which it is found, and the great variety of its mineral associates, does it 
stand in advance of all other minerals as that to which we are to look for 
information on many points. Among these are — (1.) The relation of the 
faces of crystals to one another. (2.) Their functioning in the develop- 
ment of complex crystals. (3.) The influence which the concomitant 
presence, or the concomitant crystallisation in the mother liquid, of 
other substances may exert in the production of such modifications. 

Sufficiently ample records do not at present exist for the tabulation 
of definite results on any one of these points. As a guide, however, in 
such inquiry, we have the information afforded by the artificial formation 
of Calcite crystals. In such as are formed when no substance but lime 
carbonate itself is present, the primary rhomb dominates in frequency, 
and the modifications which first appear are the faces o and 6, which 
truncate the solid angles of that form, — that is, the protruding parts 
least buttressed by surrounding support ; the lateral angles, those furthest 
removed from the centre of the crystallising force, being most frequently 
removed. 

The proportional number of such modified crystals, however, largely 
increases with the introduction of other substances in solution, even when 
these are not markedly alien to carbonate of lime : while replacements 
of the lateral edges by one or other of the scalenohedra v or y are now 



CARBONATES. 127 

occasionally present ; and lastly, similar bevelling replacements of the 
terminal edges. 

With the simultaneous exist<^nce in solution of larger amounts or of 
more alien substances, a larger number of modified crystals and more 
complex modifications make their appearance ; but so dominant is the 
number of primative rhombohedra, even when formed in a variety of 
ways, that it is clearly indicated as the beginning of the crystallisation and 
the other forms as derived from it. 

So far as observations regarding the natural occurrences of crystals 
of Calcite go, the same laws dominate. The primary rhomb occurs alone 
in rents of limestone ; the simpler modifications appear when bituminous 
matter has been present in the rents. Simple unmodifitMl forms occur in 
such zeolitic cavities as contain only a single species of zeolite ; and certain 
zeolites seem to induce certain special forms. As the number of species of 
zeolites in the cavity increases, the crystals of calcite become progressively 
more and more highly modified. 

That this occurs by progressive change is in some cases chronicled by 
the occurrence of certain forms of calcite within others. Usually the 
imbedded form is crystallographically nearer to the primative ; when 
the central form happens to be the more complex, it would seem to 
indicate that the modifying associates had, during the last stage of crystal 
growth, become smaller in amount or simpler in character. 

Certain crystallographic forms appear to have certain functions in 
reference to the primary form, — ^functions of truncation or of bevelment. 
As the architect, if the estimates of a structure prove too high, removes 
a turret from his design, so nature's forces bevel an edge or truncate an 
angle, if some other mineral, by simultaneously crystallising in the same 
solution, abstracts some of the lime and leaves a supply insufficient for 
the completion of the form which was primarily projects. 

Bevelments and truncations appear to be limitless, but they are, 
through all their perplexing intricacies, nevertheless subject to law. 

The paragenesis of other material causes the primarj^ to be a rare 
form, and one which is almost confined to limestone rocks. The throwing 
off of the molecules most distant from the centre — ^the lateral angles 
(the " turrets " of the building) — results in the formation of the face b, 
the resultant being the hexagonal prism, the most common of all forms 
of calcite. The truncating, again, of the terminal edges of the primary, 
yields the face e, the familiar " nail-head." The bevelling of the lateral 
edges of the primary results in the common "' dog-tooth " scalenohedron 
V. The production of a face which is truncated by the primary gives as 
the lozenge rhombohedron/. The shearing-off of the summit angle affords 



128 CARBONATES. 

the flat termination o. These forms occur in the foregoing order of 
frequency, and the succeeding frequency of occurrence of faces takes place 
by a similarly progressive departure from simplicity 

Twins. 

(1.) Face of union basal. Hemitrope revolution of one-half of a single 
individual being recognised by the terminal faces being in the inverse 
position. 

(2.) Face of union e. The vertical axes of the two halves form an 
angle of 127° 30' with one another. The composition generally so fre- 
quently repeated as to produce lamellae of extreme tenuity (which intersect 
different forms) and appear on the faces of the primary rhombohedron as 
striae. As separation occasionally takes place along these directions of 
molecular inversion, a false cleavage is produced. The colour changes 
effected by these attenuated twin plates in the grains of primary limestones 
is their prominent characteristic. 

(3.) Face of union r. The vertical axes of the two halves or forms are 
inclined at an angle 90° 46' to each other. 

(4.) Face of union /. The vertical axes of the two individuals form 
an angle of 53° 46'. 

There are also polar-parallel arrangements of the plus- and minus- 
primary rhombohedra parallel to the face 6. From the centre of blocks 
of Iceland Spar interpenetrating crystals of these forms occur, simulating 
twins of the primary, with a revolution of 120°. 

Cleavage, r perfect. Fracture conchoidal, obtained with great difficulty, 
but occasionally found in large masses. Lustre vitreous, on curved planes 
resinous ; o sometimes pearly. Faces brightly polished, o, and /, e, and 
}i of the minus rhombohedra often dull. Streak, white, dull. Colourless 
to white. Also, when not absolutely pure, of all tints to brown and black ; 
the tints are frequently brilliant. Transparent to oj)aque when white or 
coloured. 

Double refraction strong. Brittle. H., 2-5 to 3-5. The hardness of 
the lateral planes, and also of some of the others, is markedly higher than 
that of the cleavage plane. Become vitreously electric by pressure. Sp. 
Gr., 2-72 when pure. 

B.B., infusible ; becomes caustic, and shines with great brightness. 

If powdered and exposed to a high temperature under pressure, 
or surrounded with an atmosphere of carbonic acid, it fuses without 
decomposition, and is convertc^d upon the removal of the heat into a 
crystalline mass. 

Soluble in borax and micro, salt, forming an opaque bead. 



CARBONATES. 



129 



Effervesces freely with h. acid. Readily and totally soluble in that 
or in n. acid, without being reduced to powder, and without the aid of 
heat. 

Coinp., Lime, 56 ; carbonic Acid, 44 ; but usually with small ad- 
mixtures of the carbonates of magnesia, iron, manganese, and, rarely, 
zinc. 

Occurs in rocks of every age, but in most of these in cavities or veins 
as a secondary product. 

Analyses : — Heddle, Trails. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxvii. p. 499. 





CaCO,. 


MgCO,. 


FeCO,. 


MnCO,. 


1. Gourock, - 


93-16 


•472 


1-984 


4-276 


2. Tomnadashan, - 


97-763 


-076 


-765 


1119 


3. Rock and Spindle, 


88-08 


4-996 


2-028 


-48 


4. Ruddon Point, - 


94-20 


1-276 


1-628 


1-868 


5. Lochearnhead, - 


86-741 




•598 




1 6. Kintyre, .... 


89-39 


6-396 


2182 


2-032 


7. Kinghorn, Fife, - 


94-20 


1-276 


1-628 


1-868 


8. Abergaim, 


94-23 


1-363 


-556 


2-893 


9. Ashgrove, Elgin, 


95-776 


tr. 


•982 


3-241 



{The symbols - - denote unknown faces.) 

Shetland. Unst, at Swinna Ness, eob (Plate XIX. fig. 1), with 

Brucite, in serpentine. In the Chromite quarries of Sobul Hill, e* eo 
(Plate XIX. fig. 2), with Aragonitc, in serpentine. In the Hagdale 
quarry, fr ; Sandlodge, / (Currie). 

Orkney. Hoy, at Selwick, twins, e b (Plate XIX. fig. 3), e^ ef (Plate 

XIX. fig. 5), in rents in sandstone flag. At Rackwick, e b (Plate XIX. 
fig. 4), bmh (Plate XIX. fig. 6), in veins in blue flag. Walls, at Brims 
Ness, in sandstone flag, m v (Plate XIX. fig. 7), and m r (Plate XIX. 
fig. 8) ; Burn of Summery, y o (Plate XX. fig. 9). In the shore cliffs at 
Orphir. in calcite veins in flag, v y, twins (Plate XX. fig. 10) (Hamilton). 

Caithness. At Gie-uisg Geo, rvaoc yw (Plate XX. fig. 11), with 
Blende, Pyrite, Galena, and Bitumen. At Dirlot, in limestone, b e (Plate 

XX. fig. 12). 

Sutherland. At Heilem, Loch Eireboll, br evp - (Plate XX. fig. 13), 
in Dolomite. Near Culgower, v (Plate XX. fig. 15) ; e (Plate XX. fig. 14); 
V, in septarian veins in the Upper Oolite, with Asphalt (Joass and Gunn) 
(Plate XX. fig. 15). In the limestone of Loch Assynt, e (Plata XX. fig. 14) 
(Joass). 

Ross-shire. At the Burn of Edderton, / (Plate XX. fig. 16), with 
Haematite. 

I 



130 CARBOI^^ATES. 

Hebrides. Skyc, at Talisker,/, m (Plate XXI. fig. 17), colourless and 
honey-yellow, with zeolites (MacCulloch) ; also, r {"i cji) (MacCulloch). Loch 
Bracadale, at Rudha nan Clach, </> and /, honey-yellow and pale brown, 
associated with rock containing large crystals of Olivine, and also with 
Saponite. Sgurr nam Fiadh, (/>, invested with Laumontite, and honey- 
yellow per se. Orbost, at the head of the Loch, </> and e (Plate XXI. fig. 

18). AUt Leith Uillt, Loch Brittle, with Heulandite, e^ m (Plate XXI. 

fig. 19). At Geodha Tuill, Loch Eynort, e^ a (Plate XXI. fig. 20), in veins. 
Near Quiraing, at the " Echoing Rock," (ZJ (Plate XXI. fig. 21), coated 
with Thornsonite ; and (f) with Chabazite and Thomsonite. South-east of 
Quiraing, with Stilbite, d*^ e^ e'^ (Currie) ; with Analcime and Chabazite, 
d^ r t (Plate XXI. fig. 22) (Currie). Mull, Loch Scridain, near Kilfinichen, 

/^ s e* (Plate XXI. fig. 23) ; / eh' s ^ - (Plate XXI. fig. 24) ; h (Plate XXII. 
fig. 25) ; in quartz druses in " wackenitic dolerite " (Rose). Treshnish 
Islands, Bac Mor, with Quartz, v t (Plate XXII. fig. 26) (Carrie). May, 
at the lead mine, south of Port Askaig, e A (Plate XXII. fig. 27 
(Currie). 

Argyllshire. At Strontian, near the junction of the granite with 
the gneiss. With Schieferspar, Blende, and Brewsterite, o a (Plate XXII. 
fig. 28) (Levy). With Schieferspar and Harmotome, in striated yellow 
crystals b^ (Plate XXII. fig. 29) (Levy) ; e ; / ; oavn (Plate XXII. fig. 
30); abnt (Plate XXII. fig. 31) ; beqvai (Greg); vabe-- (Plate 

XXII. fig. 32). Bellsgrove Mine, ao, with Barytes ; ee^, with globular 
Pyrites (Currie). Fee Donald Mine, tabular, oavef, oab G tt (Plate 

XXIII. fig. 33) ; oabriGir (Plate XXIII. fig. 34) ; ob (Plate XXIII. 

fig. 35) ; rhombohedral, e b (Plate XXIII. fig. 36) : a^ aXv 6^e« (Plate 
XXIII. fig. 37) ; efbvynx (Plate XXIII. fig. 38) ; fabd^ijfx (Plate 

XXIII. fig. 39) ; / o e a a - V e^ ^:7 e^ y r i (Plate XXIII. fig. 40) ; oave^ 
(Plate XXIV. fig. 41) ; yo mclosing v (Plate XXIV. fig. 42) ; pyramidal, 

^i'^yfx ^^ (Plate XXIV. fig. 43) ; and many other forms coronetted 
around the periphery of simple crystals, and forming vacuous arrangements. 
Campbelton Loch, in a limestone quarry on the north shore, — (Plate 

XXIV. fig. 44) ; ebXr (Plate XXIV. fig. 45) ;bmv-- (Plate XXIV. fig. 
46) ; r II (Plate XXIV. fig. 47). Machrihanish Bay, at Galdrings, Balli- 
groggan, in druses of Quartz in dense basalt, v twins (Plate XXIV. fig. 48) ; 
fvobCS^ (Plate XXV. fig. 49). At Meall Mor, west of Erins, in the 
copper mines, with Siderite, e b d r (PlaU) XXV. fig. 50). South of the 
Kerrera Ferry, near Oban, in " wackenitic trap," e (Plate XXV. 
fig. 51). 



CARBONATES. 131 

Naiknshire. At Piporhill quarry, with Pyritc, on Blonde, v t b 
(Plato XXV. fig. 52) (Aitkon). 

Elginshire. At Ashgrovo limestone quarry, near Elgin, with Pyrito 
and " Glauconite," v t (Plato XXV. fig. 53) \ xxvj (Plato XXV. fig. 54). 

Banffshire. At Limohillock, near Grange, with Pyrrhotito, Mar- 
garodite, and Pyritos, v, r v. At Boyne limestone quarry, with Mountain 
Paper, b er. At Sandend, in veins in gneiss, kbv B r (Plate XXV. fig. 
55). At Portsoy, at John Legg's Well, in ** clay slate," e « (Plate XXV. 
fig. 56). 

Aberdeenshire. At the Abergairn or Corrybeg mines, with Fluor, 
Blende, and Schieferspar. 

Kincardineshire. At the Long Gallery, near Stonehaven, with 
Heulandite and Analcime. 

Forfarshire. Usan, near Montrose, at " The Blue Hole," in the 
central quartz-lined druses of agates. At the Craig railway cutting, 
rarely, associated with Natrolite, Analcime, Saponite, and Pilolite ; in 
small but brilliant pale wine-yellow crystals. The crystals are of the 
ordinary scalenohedron type, but with the v faces highly modified by a 
number of low but well-defined faces (none of which have been determined), 
and with the edges between the scalene faces and the truncating face h 
emarginated by three forms, which are here somewhat conjecturally 
lettered, v - - e <^ /t^^ Q X 'A ^Plate XXVI. fig. 57); v - - 4^ h I r p Q x^f" 
(Plate XXVI. fig. 58); v - - e cj, h t r p Q x^ (Plate XXVI. fig. 59); 

V ra-ffih-paQxyi^ (Plate XXVI. fig. 60) ; v t p - e fft h p 

Q X y "A/J (Plate XXVI. fig. 61). Broughty Ferry, in Roy quarry, with 
Amethystine Quartz. 

Perthshire. Dogtooth, primary, and nail-head forms, in Athole 
(MacCulloch). Dogtooth, in limestone at Cluny (MacCulloch). At 
Tomnadashan on Loch Tay, in " porphyry," with Pyrites, v r twins (Plate 
XXVI. fig. 62), r. At Callander, in Old Red Sandstone conglomerate, 
in veins, with Chalcocite ; v n /3 ^ ee <fiy - (Plate XXVII. fig. 63) ; the 
same with r. In Glen Farg, in andesites of the Old Red Sandstone, with 
Analcime, vab e* [=s] iy r (Plate XXVII. fig. 64) vab^yr x, both 
twins, in decomposed amygdaloid, with Barytes. Forgandenny, v\a V ] 
etTrf-rU (Plate XXVII. fig. 65). 

FiFESHiRE. In the central druses of agates, in andesitic lavas of the 
Old Red Sandstone, at Heather Hill, Luthrie. At Kinkell, near St. 
Andrews, in Lower Carboniferous agglomerate, with Dolomite, Barytes, 
and pink Quartz, vyabofc (Plate XXVII. fig. 66); be, with pink 
Barytes (Plate XXVII. fig. 67). v inclosed in / (Plate XXVII. fig. 68). 
At Kincraig, near Elie, Avith Barytes and Amethystme Quartz, in Lower 
Carboniferous agglomerate, i; a x a; ^ e^ (Plate XXVII. figs. 69)> Plate 



132 CARBONATES. 

XXVIII. fig. 70); vabxxOycfyteU^^^ (Plate XXVIII. fig. 71 ; 
varXwe^f Bewick (Plate XXVIII. fig. 72). At Bogie quarry, near 
Kirkcaldy (Greg). At Chapel quarry, Raith, with Bitumen and 

Apophyllite, sro (Plate XXVIII. fig. 73) ; fy o, e^ [s]eo (Plate XXVIII. 
fig. 74) (Greg) ; kfro (Plate XXVIII. fig. 75) ; s (*) ro (Plate XXVIII. 
fig. 76) ; e^ [sor^] roy (Plate XXIX. figs. 77, 78). Bhombohedral type, 
long to short. Accuminated, s e^ f o (Plate XXIX. fig. 79); doyf 
(Plate XXIX. fig. 80) ; e* [s or *] 2/ r e t (Plate XXIX. fig. 81) ; short, 

3 3 4 

with low and oscillating faces, f e^ - - (Plate XXIX. fig. 82) ; /e* e^ - - - 

(Plate XXIX. fig. 83); fheirJ^ -- (Plate XXIX. fig. 84). Scalenohedral 
type, Xar Q y h. Pyramidal scalenohedral, hv eef X (PL XXX. fig. 85) ; 
also many other complex forms which are in the Raith Collection. Magus 

SI 

Muir limestone quarry, e^ [s or ^] o y (PI. XXX. fig. 86). At Broomhall, 
with Millerite, in limestone (Sowerby). 

Stirlingshire. At Alva (Greg). At Mugdock Tunnel, with zeolites, 
formed (Plate XXX. fig. 87). 

Dumbartonshire. Kilpatrick, near Cochno House, with red Stilbite, 
yf (Plate XXX. fig. 88). In Bowling quarry per se, v <^ (Plate XXX. fig. 
89); V m t (Plate XXX. fig. 90); e b - (Plate XXX. fig. 91); with Prehnite, 

e* (Plate XXX. fig. 92) ; e^ e^ (Plate XXXI. fig. 93) ; e^ e^ ^ ^ e (Plate 

XXXI. fig. 94) ; e^ -e^ e^ eo- (Plate XXXI. fig. 100) ; ^^ e^ e^ e^ rtir- 

(Plate XXXII. fig. 101) ; ^U^ e^ eobr-tr (Plate XXXI. fig. 95) ; f m 

(Plate XXXI. fig. 96) ; fobe^rnvXir [x] (Plate XXXI. fig. 97) ; with 
Prehnite and Thomsonite, habof- (Plate XXXI. fig. 98); hob if (Plate 
XXXI. fig. 99) ; with Analcime and Prehnite, seg (Plate XXXII. fig. 
102) ; a triplet crystal, vmfrtneQp (Plate XXXII. figs. 103, 104) ; 
with twin Chabasite, vfrm (Plate XXXII. fig. 105). Glen Arbuck, with 
Saponite, Phacolite, Analcime, Stilbite, Heulandite, may (Plate XXXII. 
fig. 106) (2/=715) (Currie). With Saponite and Phacolite (fig. 33a, Dana, 
6th ed., p. 265), v twin ; with the same, fig. 35, Dana {loc. cit.), vfxp. 

Haddingtonshire. " Between Weaklaw and North Berwick, crystal- 
lised, with Quartz, in greenstone." 

Edinburghshire. In amygdaloidal cavities in the Old Red lavas of 

the Pentland Hills, r e^ g e^ (?) (Plate XXXII. fig. 107) (Sowerby). In the 
veins traversing the Lower Carboniferous tuffs of the Calton Hill, with 
Bitumen ; twins, v (Plate XXXIII. fig. 108). In veins in the Dolerite of 
Salisbury Crags, with Prehnite, ?; a: (v ei =:413 = JR') (Plate XXXIII. fig. 
109) ; with Analcime and Prehnite /vtt (Plate XXXIII. fig. 110). Cor- 
storphine Hill, in veins in Dolerite, with Prehnite, m r (Plate XXXIII. 
fig. Ill); f, fro, near Datolite. Ratho, in the great quarry, with 



CARBONATES. 133 

Prasilito, g If (Plato XXXIII. fig. 112); in the Station quarry, /, brown ; 
also evmy a i (Plato XXXIII. fig. 113) ; coating rents in dolcrito, eve, 
twins (Plat© XXXIII. fig. 114). Atldiowoll, near West Caldor, with 
Barytes, Salt, and Petroleum, in Lower Carboniferous sandstone ; in 
twins, vei (Plat© XXXIII. fig. 115). At New Park Station, Braids 
limestone pit, r,r c (Stuart Thomson). At Harburn Head quarry (For- 
rester), in fissures in limestone. At f West quarry. Camps, East Calder. 
Linlithgowshire. At an old working at the Craigs, 1 mile north- 
east of Bathgate, in veins with Galena, Niccolite, and Barytes (Stuart 
Thomson). Bathgate Hills, at South Mine and North Mine limeworks, 
r (Stuart Thomson; eb-- (Plate XXXIV. fig. 116); 66--- (Plat© 
XXXIV. fig. 117) ; aeyCb- (Plate XXXIV. fig. 118). Uphall, in marl 
pits, r, r e (Plate XXXIV. fig. 119) ; refbv (Plat© XXXIV. fig. 120), near 
Forkneuk (Stuart Thomson). Binny Craig, in fissures in dolerit©, in a 

south-west spur of the hiU, / r o (Plate XXXIV. fig. 122) ; f r o e^ (Plat© 

XXXIV. fig. 123) ; froe^a (Plato XXXV. fig. 124). Ecclesmachen, at 
t Canty quarry, in basalt, c b and r (Plate XXXV. fig. 125. f Newbigging 
Craig, near Uphall, coated with Quartz and Gothite, in dolerite, /. Hilder- 
ston Hills, at Cairn-naple, with Copper Nickel, ea v - (Plate XXXV. fig. 
126. Bed of the River Almond, near Blackburn, with asbestiform 
Hornblende and Saponite (Forrester). 

Lanarkshire. North of Glasgow, at the Cadder pits, e a (Plat© 

XXXV. fig. 127). At Craigpark quarry, Dennistoun, in veins in dolerite. 
t>.brtjd\n] (Plate XXXV. fig. 128); e e^ a yn [d^] (Plate XXXV. fig. 
129). At Jackston, " hexahedral and truncated," 6 e (Plate XXXV. fig. 
130. I^adhills, generally from the Susanna mine, rofe (Plate XXXV. 
fig. 131); ve - (Plate XXXVI. fig. 132); v <i>Q - (Plat© XXXVI. fig. 133); 
vfeh (Plate XXXVI. fig. 134) ; d^ e^ (Plate XXXVI. fig. 135) ; vxeht 
(Plate XXXVI. fig. 136) ; vxhem--- (Plate XXXVI. fig. 137) ; a e 
Plate XXXVI. fig. 138) ; a eld (Plate XXXVI. fig. 130) ; ae- (Plat© 

XXXVII. fig. 140); beo (Plat© XXXVII. fig. 141); e^aer (Plate 
XXXVTT. fig. 142); eiaef (Plat© XXXVIL fig. 143), k{'i)e (Plat© 
XXXVII. fig. 144) ; e«~ a e (Plate XXXVIL fig. 145). 

Renfrewshire. At Rashielee quarry, near Erskin©, in dolerit©, 
vreaxy^, twins (PI. XXXVIL fig. 146) (Greg). At Boyleston quarry, 
near Barrhead, with Analcime, Prehnite, Thomsonit©, and Natrolit©. 
In exquisitely -pellucid crystals ; type form, ayTvrmef x (PI- XXXVII 
fig. 147); aSvrmfy (PI. XXXVIII. figs. 148, 149) ; a8vre*fe^Qs; 
aSvme^fo-yrbYive^ (PI. XXXVIII fig. 150) ; a T vm c^r/y - t 
(PI. XXXVIII. fig. 151) ; a sT t^ r 771 e*/7 e^ e^ 6 ei (PI. XXXVIII. 



134 CARBONATES. 



fig. 152) ; a Tf / 7 s - e3 (PL XXXVIII. fig. 153) ; ayrfebve^ (PL 

XXXVIII. fig. 154) ; avr-fe^eiQyS (PL XXXVIII. fig. 155); bcoteryj 

(PL XXXIX. fig. 156) ; with Prehnite and Copper, b e^ r iv t e. Bishop- 
ton, at the railway tunnel, with Prehnite, Harmotome, and Greenockite, 
yiefszB (PL XXXIX. fig. 157) ; CesyS; with Greenockite, Galena, 
and Thomsonite, v r dS (PI. XXXIX. fig. 158) ; with Prehnite, y s (Currie); 
with Greenockite, ?; 5 ; vQh; y v (Currie); with Prehnite and Greenockite, 
vf; V r ; h (Currie). Kilmalcolm, with Stilbite, Chabasite and " Cotton- 
stone," Natrolite : Type e. — e rbvm (Greg) ; erbve^ (PL XXXIX. 
fig. 159) ; r to 77 rbsy^ (PL XXXIX. fig. 160) ; eir bf x/^ x ^i y ^ (PL 

XXXIX. fig. 161) ; ermfx (PL XXXIX. fig. 162) ; ev (PL XXXIX. 
fig. 163). Type g.—e-gmrbys (PL XXXIX. fig. 164); Jabryvm 
(PL XXXIX. fig. 165) ] gamy (PL XL. fig. 166) ; gmay (PL XL. fig. 

167) ; e"^ arx/y (PL XL. fig. 168) ; e^ a b m'C - (PL XL. fig. 169). Type m. 

—m^nb^e^ it (PL XL. fig. 170). Type v.—v o ehr n ; vyo-f^Oir 
(PL XL. fig. 171) ; V y. Gryfle waterworks tunnel, with Analcime ; with 
Thomsonite and Natrolite, y v mr (PL XLI. fig. 172). At Gourock, in 
Lower Carboniferous lavas, with Quartz, Fluor, Dolomite, and Selenite. 
Type v.—v e^ (PL XLI. fig. 173) ; v e^ r \ x (PI- XLI. fig. 174). Type r.— 
rcoXvip ^- (PL XLI. fig. 175) ; r m ^ ^ - - (PL XLI. fig. 176) \ evyxp 

(PL XLI. fig. 177) \rw\vf^l (PL XLI. fig. 178) \rwkvi- 

(PL XLI. fig. 179). 

Ayrshire. Near Beith, at Dockra limestone quarry, with Chalcopy- 

rite, Pyrite, and Millerite, e^ n e (PL XLII. fig. 180) ;m^wbe (PL XLII. 
fig. 181) \m^ivT^b- (PL XLII. fig. 182) ; bmrXncwe (PL XLII. fig. 
183) ; vrznwh (PL XLII. fig. 184). At Lugton quarry, in limestone, 
mvbte, inclosing v crystals of a dark tint (PL XLII. fig. 185) ; mb v Xnr t 

(PL XLII. fig. 186) ; mbe^^'vgte (PL XLII, fig. 187). At Waterland 
quarry, Dunlop, in calcareous clay, er (PL XLIII. figs. 188, 191). Near 

Muirkirk, at Pennel Burn, Garpel, on Haematite, e^ e (PL XLIII. figs. 189, 
192). At Beith, mbvrX (PL XLIII. figs. 190, 193) ; m v y (PL XLIII. 
fig. 194) ; mbyvr^ (PL XLIII. fig. 195) ; ymvrb (PL XLIV. fig. 196). 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead mines, in the following veins : — 
West Grove. Type, rhombohedral, r er w cv Ic (PL XLIV. fig. 197) ; 
rzv (PL XLIV. fig. 198) ; rwXvzir (PL XLIV. fig. 199) ; rwwh 
(PL XLIV. fig. 200) ; r v w/ (PL XLIV. fig. 201) ; a passage suite. Type, 
vrismMic and rhombohedral, e b e^ (PL XLIV. fig. 202) ; e b e^ v (PL 
XLIV. fig. 203) ; ee^'ay (PL XLV. fig. 204) ; e ^ e x <s x (PL XLV. fig. 
205) ; e^ ertb^yrj^ (PL XLV. fig. 206. Type, scalenohedral, v e m 



CARBONATES. 135 

(PI. XLV. fig. 207) ; i; e 9 (PI. XLV. fig. 208) ; x e c* (PI. XLV. fig. 209). 

Glen Grieve. Type, prismatic and rhomboidal, e^ als b (PI. XLV. 
fig. 210). Type, scalenohedral, vet& (PI. XLV. fig. 211): veif (PI. 
XL VI. fig. 212) ; v-^a'^h (PI. XLVI. fig. 213) ; vhirx (PI. XLVI. fig. 
2U);v<f^ei al (PI. XLVI. fig. 215) -bye (PL XLVI. fig. 216) ; 6 x r [«/.] c m; 
(PI. XLVI. fig. 217) ; yxy [y] t, with Pyrites (PI. XLVI. fig. 218). 

Bay Vein. Type, scalenohedral, d^ (PI. XLVI. fig. 219) ; d^ e^ ; dl n 

7 fi 

[of Descloizeaux] ; d"' e^ e*-, d^ d ; vh}c\ [of Goldschmidt=413 4372] 
(PI. XLVII. fig. 220). " Plumbo-calcite.—r ; [Plumbo-calcit©] rab (PI. 
XLVII. fig. 221); ref. 

Bute. Arran, for (PI. XLVII. fig. 224). 

Kirkcudbright. At Mabie, on Hgeraatite, bxr (PL XLVII. fig. 222) 
(Dudgeon). Newton Stewart, at Blackcraig mine, with Dolomite, Pyrite, 
and Chalcopyrite (PL XLVII. fig. 223). 

Roxburghshire. At Larriston, " crystallised in acute pyramids with 
pyrite." At Stobs quarry, " red crystallised." Hill of Bedrule, west of 
Jedburgh, in a limestone quarry, " crystallised," with Jasper and Limonite. 

Pellucid Calcite, — " Iceland Spar " occurs. 

Forfarshire. At Todhead, in a vein which cuts Old Red Gon- 
glomerate. It contains imbedded Laumontite, and is immediately 
associated with Barytes and Pilolite. 

Renfrewshire. Bishop ton, with Prehnite, Natrolite, and Greenockite. 

Goloured Galcites. 

Pink. — Renfrewshire. At Gourock quarry, with Fluor, Selenite, 
and Barytes, in quartzose druses, in " porphyry " [andesite] — Anal. 1. 

Red. — Perthshire. At Tomnadashan, Loch Tay, with Fahlerz, 
Ghalcopyrite, Pyrites, in porph3a*y — Anal. 2. 

Green. — Island of Rum. At Sgurr Mor, in amygdaloid. Goloured 
by Geledonite (Hislopite) (MacGuUoch). 

Fifeshire. At the Rock and Spindle, Kinkell, in a vein in tufa — 
Anal. 3. Goloured by Delessite. 

Bute. Dark green from Ghlorite. 

Brown. — Fifeshire. At Ruddon Point, with Analcmie ; west of 
Kinghorn, in sheafs, in amygdaloid (Grieve) — Anal. 4. 

^/acA;.— Perthshire. Lochearnhead quarry, on the nortli shore, one 
mile east of (Macdonald) — Anal. 5. 

Argyllshire. Gamp bel ton, from the f Largy shore, and two miles 
north of the town (Macdonald) (Anal. 6) ; also on both shores of Gampbel- 
ton Loch, with feeble iridescent colours from fossils^(LucuUitc). 



136 



CARBONATES. 



Orkney, Hoy. At Rackwick. Lustrous, blue, inclining to satin-spar 

in Far a. 

Fibrous Calcite. 

FiFESHiRE. In veins in King Alexander's Cliff, Burntisland. 

Lanark. At Kiffockside. 

EiGG. Among the loose rooks at the northern extremity of Blar Mor 

(Currie). 

Foliated Calcite — Schieferspar. 

Aberdeenshire. At the Abergairn lead mines, with Fluor and 
Blende — Anal. 7. 

Argyllshire. Strontian, at Fee Donald and Bellsgrove lead mines, 
rarely, with Harmotome and Galena (Bournon). 

Perthshire. At Glen Tilt marble quarries (MacCulloch). 

Ayrshire. At Ballantrae (Greg). 

Pulverulent Calcite — Agaric Mineral, Rock Milk. 

Perthshire. In the tunnel at Glen Farg. 

Edinburghshire. Coating Lower Carboniferous sandstone at Salis- 
bury Crags. 

Stalactites. 

Orkney. Hoy, in a cave north of the Berry Head, snow-white. 

Inverness-shire. Skye, at Macallister's Cave [the Spar-cave of 
Strathaird]. 

FiFESHiRE. At Magus Muir limestone quarry. 

Edinburghshire. At Burdiehouse, in limestone, honey-yellow, and 

arborescent. 

Stalagmites. 
Argyllshire. Mull, in [Nuns Cave, near Carsaig). 

Calc Sinter. 
Argyllshire. Oban, in basalt. 
FiFESHiRE. At Starleyburn, coralloidal. 
Plumbo-Calcite. 
The crystallised rhombohedral variety is found with Plattnerite, 
Vanadinite, and Calamine [=Hemimorphite] at the High Pirn vein, 
Wanlockhead. A milky coralloidal variety, and a brown acicular variety 
occur at several of the Wanlockhead veins — Anals. 1, 2, 3. 





CaCOs. 


PbCOg 


MgCOg. 


Wanlockhead (1), 
(2) 
(3) 


97-182 

90-44 

90-406 


2-709 
9-425 
9-468 


tr. 



CARBONATES. 



137 



61. Dolomite (271). CaCoa.MgCOg. 



Rhombohodral ; most frequent form r, in curved and saddle-shaped 
aggregations. Also granular or compact ; often cellular and porous. 
Civ., rhombohedral. H., 3-5 to 4-5 ; G., 2-85 to 2-95. Translucent ; 
vitreous, but often pearly. Colourless or white, but frequently pale red, 
yellow, or even green. B.B. infusible ; but becomes caustic, and of ton 
shows traces of iron and manganese. Fragments effervesce very slightly 
or not at all in cold hydrochloric acid ; the powder is partially soluble 
in cold, wholly in hot, acid. Comp., 54-3 Carbonate of Lime, and 45-7 
Carbonate of Magnesia ; but it generally consists of Carbonate of Lime 
with more than twenty per cent, of Carbonate of Magnesia, and less than 
twenty per cent, of Carbonate of Iron. 

Analyses — Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxvii. p. 495 et seq. : — 





CaCOg. 


MgCO,. 


FeCO,. 


MnCo.,. 


Dolomite — 












North Cross Geo, - 


- (1) 


52-548 


43-772 


1-972 


1-368 


>> 5» 


- (2) 


55-344 


41-911 


2193 


•6 


Ting of Norwick ( ' Ankerite' ) ( 3) 


51-804 


37-998 


7-82 


2-314 


Haaf Grunay, 


- (4) 


53-803 


44-852 


-768 


-083 


Walls, 


- (5) 


62-4 


32-056 


1-74 


4-276 


Scalpay, 


- (6) 


50.244 


43-028 


2-504 


2-896 


Loch Fyne (Young), 


- (7) 










Largybaan, - 


- (8) 


55-80 


36-296 


6-612 


1-264 


Kinkell, 


- (9) 


51-48 


37-42 


7016 


1-928 


>> " " 


- (10) 


50-026 


39- 108 


6-7 


3-736 


Peanes Quarry, Largo 


Law, (11) 


49-076 


39-461 


9-48 


1-153 


Pumpherston (Stuart 
Thomson), 


.)(12) 


52-00 


40-91 


6-61 


.. 


Black Craig Mine, - 


- (13) 


55-08 


37092 


5-716 


1-368 


Dolomitic and other Limestones — 










Ledbeg(H.), 


. 


46.307 


37-632 


1-022 


•368 


„ (Dr. Anderson^, 




91-32 


4-74 






Garbh Eilean (H.), 




92-000 


5-856 




. . 


Largo (H.), - 




49-076 


39-461 


9-48 


1-153 


Tiree(H.), - 




95-94 


1-78 


•576 


1-028 


EireboU (A.), 




51-04 


41-36 






Achmore (A.), 




53-51 


43-20 






Stronchrubie (A.), 


. 


45-79 


48-72 


... 


... 


Knockdhu (A.), - 




41-58 


33-47 


... 


... 


(A), 




53-77 


4101 


... 




Kirkton (A.), 




50-21 


41-22 


... 




» (A.), 




51-33 


41-08 


... 


... 


Durness (A.), 




9001 


6-60 


... 


... 



Shetland. Unst, at North Cross Geo., colourless and transparent, 
with green Talc and Magnetite (D. and H.) — Anals. 1 and 2. Haaf 
Grunay, on the east shore in a vein of saccharoid structure — Anal 4. Main- 



138 CARBONATES. 

land, Fethaland promontory, at Kleber Geo, in cleavable, solid, nodules in 
actynolite slate, pure white and pale green. In the Brethren Rocks, 
crystalline, in limestone (D. and H.). In Greenholm, crystallised, with 
Calcite, in cavities in limestone, r (Plate XL VII. fig. 1) (D. and H.). 

Orkney. In Walls, at Sands Geo, in amygdaloid, with Analcime, 
Barytes, and Calcite, of a pink colour — Anal. 5. 

Sutherland. Near the Cave of Smoo, in cavities in white chert ; 
r, curved. 

Hebrides. Harris, Scalpay Island, near the lighthouse, in a vein 
in Serpentine. This vein consists of curved interlacing crystals, snow- 
white, with Penninite upon one side and Steatite upon the other (D. and 
H.) — Anal. 6. Islay, near Peel, in indurated rock. 

Argyllshire. Loch Fyne, at St. Catherines, r (Young) — Anal. 7. 
Erins, three miles west of, in the copper mine, with Chalcopyrite, Gothite, 
and Byssolite. Mull of Kint5^re, at the Largybaan caves, with Limonite— 
Anal. 8. 

Aberdeenshire. At the Abergairn lead mines, with Fluor, Galena, 
Blende, etc. AKord, at Sylavethy quarry, snow-white, crystallised in 
druses, in [vein in] granite, with fibrous Hornblende. At Tyrebagger, 
Dyce, with Tremolite (Greg). 

Forfarshire. At Balloch Carity, brown, and flesh-coloured, in 
altered sandstone (Lyell). At Prosenhaugh, with Serpentine and Diallage 
(Lyell). At Burnside, in a red indurated rock. 

Perthshire. East of Boothe, on the Tay, a vein of Calcite in 
porph5rry contains Brown Spar and Siderite (Fleming). 

FiPESHiRE. At Kinkell, pink, in a vein with Barytes, Calcite, and 
Rock Crystal — Anal. 9. Also pseudomorphous after Calcite, d o — Anal. 
10. Kirkcaldy, in Chapel quarry. Charlestown, in the limestone quarries. 
To the south-east of Abernethy. Peanes quarry, Largo — Anal. 11. 

Dumbartonshire. On the banks of Loch Lomond, in chlorite schist 
(Greg). 

Midlothian. West Calder, at Addiewell, with ChalcopjTite and 
Barytes (Stuart Thomson). Pumpherston, fibrous, in a vein (Stuart 
Thomson — Anal. 12. Whitburn, pink (Stuart Thomson). 

Linlithgowshire. At Broxburn. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, Wilson's shaft, colourless and pink 
(Wilson and H.). 

Renfrewshire. At Gourock quarry, with Quartz, Fluor, Gothite, 
Wad, Selenite, and Calcite. At Bishopton (Thomson). 

Bute, In fine iridescent curved rhombohedrons (Greg). Near 



CARBONATES. 139 

Ascog, in Millholo quarry ; brown with PyriU^ in chlorite slate (Glen). 

Ayrshire. At Watorland quarry, oast of Bcith, brown, with a 
pavonine lustre, with Calcite (Young). 

Berwickshire. One mile north of Tweedmouth, r, in coal over 
limestone. 

Roxburghshire. At Muirhouse Law, south of Maxton, rose-red, 
in veins with Steatite and crystallised Quartz. 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead. 

Kirkcudbrightshire. Newton Stewart, at Blackcraig mine, in very 
fine lilac crystals (Rose) ; also in brown twins, r (Plate XLVII. fig. 1) 
(Anal. 13) ; and in elongated colourless crystals, with Chalcoi)yrite, 
Pyrites, and Erythrite. 

Magnesian marbles and limestones occur at EireboU, Assynt, lona, 
Tiree ; Dumfries, at Closeburn and Barjarg ; Arran, in a bed at Corrie, 
four feet thick. [See analyses above.] 

02. Ankerite (271a). CaC03.(MgFeMn)C03. 

Rhombohedral ; r. 106° 12'. Usually massive and granular. G., 
2-9 to 8-1. Normal Ankerite is 2CaC03, MgCOa, FeC03=Calcium 
Carbonate, 50-0 ; Magnesium Carbonate, 21*0 ; Iron Carbonate, 29-0. 

Shetland — Unst. Ting of Norwick, west side, associate with 
yellowish Talc, in a vein at the junction of serpentine with mica slate. 
In bluish-grey rhombohedra. S.G., 2-91 ; cleavage angle, 106° 6' (D. 
and H.). [The " Ankerite " from Walls (G. and L.) is merely Dolomite.] 
Analysis : — 

CaCOa. MgCOg. FeCO^. MnCOj. 

Ting of Norwick 51-804 37-908 7-82 2-314 

03. Magnesite (272). MgC03. 

Rhombohedral; 107° 10-30'. Reniform or massive. H.=3-5 ; 
G.=2-85 to 2-95. Subtranslucent or opaque ; streak shining. Snow- white, 
greyish- or yellowish-white, and pale yellow, [o, 111, 0001 ; b, 211, lOTO ; 
a, lOT, 1120 ; n r, 100. lOTO.] 

Occurs, very rarely, in the Bay vein in the form ib oa (Plate XLVII. 
fig. 1). 

04. Breunnerite (272a). MgC03. 

Rhombohedral; R. 107° 10-30'. Granular or columnar. Qv., 
r very perfect. H.=4 to 4-5 ; G.=2-9 to 3-1. Transparent or trans- 
lucent on the edges ; highly vitreous. Colourless, but often yellowish- 
brown or blackish -grey. Comp., essentially carbonate of magnesia, with 



140 CARBONATES. 

51-7 carbonic acid and 48-3 magnesia, but often mixed with 8 to 17 
carbonate of iron or manganese. 

Shetland — Unst. North Cross Geo, in a vein with green Talc, 
Nemalite, Magnetite, and Dolomite. In pale brown rhombohedra. S.G., 
3-095 ; cleavage angle, 106° 50' (D. and H.). Analysis :— 

MgCOg. FeCOg. MnCOg. 

North Cross Geo, Unst, - 91-395 6-784 -780 

65. Siderite (273). FeCOg. 

Rhombohedral ; R. 107°. Chiefly r, often curved, saddle-shaped 
(PL XL VIII. fig. 1), or lenticular. Civ., rhombohedral along R. perfect ; 
brittle. H=3-5 to 4-5 ; G. =3-7 to 3-9. Translucent in various degrees, 
becoming opaque when weathered ; vitreous or pearly. Rarely white, 
generally yellowish-grey or yellowish -brown, changing to red or blackish- 
brown on exposure. B.B. infusible, but becomes black and magnetic ; 
with borax and salt of phosphorus shows reaction for iron ; with soda 
often for manganese. In acids soluble with effervescence. Comp., 
carbonate of iron, with 62-1 protoxide of iron and 37-9 carbonic acid, 
but usually 0-5 to 10, or even 25, protoxide of manganese, 0*2 to 15 
magnesia, and O'l to 2 lime. 

Shetland — Mainland. Aithness Hill, in veins in the banks (Hibbert). 
Sandlodge (Fleming). 

.Perthshire. Ben Ledi, at the lower top and in the channel of the 
stream on the east side, with Chalcopjrrites and Galena. Transparent 
and brown (Macknight). East of t Boothe, on the Tay, with Brown Spar 
in a Calcite vein in porphyry (Fleming). 

Argyllshire. Glencoe, crystallised, in Quartz. Near the head of 
Loch Long, in clear rhombs, in a Quartz vein, with Chlorite in chlorite 
schist (Dalziel). Kin tyre, at Inverneil, crystallised with Chalcopyrite and 
Galena, in a Quartz vein. Morven, Glen Sanda property, at Rudha a 
Chamais Bhain, half a mile north of the castle, in two trap dykes, with 
crystallised Quartz, Calcite, Barytes, Millerite, Blende, and Galena. At 
Erins, north of Loch Tarbert, manganesian, in simple rhombs, with 
Chalcopyrite and Gothite. Mull of Kint3n:'e, at the Largybaan caves, 
in large rhombs, with Limonite. 

Haddington. At the Garleton Hills, in small rhombs, with Gothite. 

Lanarkshire. Rarely in the Glengonnar shaft, Leadhills, in twisted 
rhombs (Plate XLVII. fig. 1). 

Kirkcudbright. At the Pibble mine, with ores of lead and copper 
(D. and H.). 

Arran. Said to occur in a columnar form (Greg). 



Ara^onite. 



J. G. GOODCHILD. 




7T24Z4/. 
O I4I4I»^ 

t 661- 




bcio 



'-if <J> « 



?^ ?l S^ 



b of'oi 



— • ••••• p—m — p-»-<. 



■vtl7 



M'Pa,rl».ne i. Ershina, Edm' 



CARBONATES. 141 

A variety which is possibly Mesetite (272a), a subspecies mtermediate 
between Magnesito, Breunnerite, and Siderite) occurs [in a veinj in 
sandstone, at Strath whellan, near Brodick (Currie). 

Sideroplesite (273) [a calciferous variety of, or a calciferous 

PistomesititeJ. 

Shetland — Mainland. Sandlodge mines. In crystals imbedded in 
Quartz, and specially associated with Chalcopyrite, in the deeper i)art8 
of the mine (Fleming). Analysis : — 

Carbonate of Iron, - - - - - 62*4 

,, of Manganese, ..... 2 

„ of Magnesia, ..... 24-9 

„ of Lime, ---... O-y 

Silica, ........ .g 

100-0 

[Smithsonite (275), ZnCOg, Zmc Carbonate, has not yet bc»en detected 
m Scotland.] 

G6. Aragonite (277). CaCOg. 

Orthorhombic ; [a, 100 ; w, 110 ; b 010 ; p, 111 ; A:, Oil ; x and r, 
012 ; u, 101 ; g^^ i=e^, Descl.] 091 (A) ; m^j [=6rV» Descl.] 991 (a-) ; v, 081 ; 
(, 441 ; ^, 126]. The most common crystals are long-prismatic, short- 
prismatic, or acute-pyramidal. But simple crystals are rare, from the 
great tendency which the mineral exhibits to form twins and compound 
aggregations. Also occurs as columnar, fibrous and in crusts, stalactites, 
and other forms. Civ., brachydiagonal distinct ; fracture conchoidal or 
uneven. H. = 3-5 to 4 ; G.=2-9 to 3 (massive 2-7). Transparent or 
translucent ; vitreous. Colourless, but yellowish- white to brick-red ; 
also light-green, violet-blue, or grey. In the closed tube, before reaching 
a red heat, it swells, and falls down into a white coarse powder, evolving 
a little water. 

Shetland — Unst. Hagdale quarry. In stellar and diverging groups 
of crystals on Chromite, mub \ also myV g^r p k x (Plate XLVIII. fig. 1). 
Nikka Vord Hill similarly, with Kammererite and Hydromagnesit© (D. 
and H.). On a hill north of Uya Sound, in large crystals, in veins in 
Serpentine, with Picotite, also in lustrous fibrous brushes — Anal. . 
Mainland, Colla Firth, on the south shore, in rosette crystals, on pale 
green serpentine (D. and H.). 

[?Inverness-shire.] I The Leys, associated with Bartyes, Calcite, 
and Pyrites. 

Banffshire. Portsoy, in rosette crystals, upon pale-green serpentine, 
very lustrous. 



142 



CARBONATES. 



FiFESHiRE. In Magus Muir limestone quarry, rarely, in fine groups 
of divergent crystals, and in the forms v ^ u ; i' ( x. 

Lanarkshire. On the upper waters of the Daer, Clyde, at Po trail, 
crystallised in veins in Silurian rocks. At Leadhills, in long radiating 
transparent crystals, mkr (Plate XL VIII. fig. 2), and v^X', v^k. 
Also in snow-white stalactitic and coralloidal masses, and in sea-green 
divergent grouj)s resembling Strontianite— Anal. 1 (H., Min. Mag., v. 22). 

Renfrewshire. Occasionally terminates as in Plate XL VIII. figs. 3, 
4, and 5. Near Pollock Castle, in trap. 

Kirkcudbrightshire. In Dirk Hatterick's Cave, in radiated and 
stalactitic shapes, and also in silky fibrous masses (Greg). 

The fibrous variety, which rarely assumes a silky lustre, and is termed 
satin spar, occurs in : — 

Orkney. Island of Fara, in a vein two inches thick (Fleming). 
Hoy, at Rackwick, on the north shore of the bay, in narrow veins. 

Fifeshire. To the east side of the old tower of Seafield. East of 
Elie, of a pink colour, in veins some inches wide, with Barytes (Greg). 
Kincraig, at its western extremity, in similar veins, and of a still-finer 
pink, about high-water mark, in horizontal tufa, near the sand of the 
bay — Anal. 2. Near Crail. Near Lochgelly. On Inchkeith (Currie). 

Forfarshire. In the Craig railway cutting. In veins with Barytes 
and Zeolitic Quartz (Mitchell and H.). 

Perthshire. Along the banks of the Earn, in small veins, with 
rock marl. Glen Tilt, at Gows Bridge, in marble (MacCulloch). 

Midlothian. Midcalder, at Pumpherston, in a vein an inch in 
thickness. 





CaCOg. 


SrCOg. 


FeCOa- 


MgCOg. 


MnCOg. 


Leadhills, - - 
Kincraig, 


96.43 
99-365 


1-73 


•412 


•093 


•028 



[Witherite (279), BaCOg, has not yet been detected in Scotland. 



67. Strontianite (280). SrCOg. 

Orthorhombic. Crystals and twins like Aragonite ; also broad 
columnar and fibrous. Civ., prismatic, along m. H. = 3-5 ; G. =3-6 to 
3*8. Translucent or transparent ; vitreous, or resinous on fracture. 
Colourless, but often light asparagus- or apple-green, more rarely greyish, 
yellowish, or brownish. B.B. fuses in a strong heat only on very thui 



CARBONATES. 



143 



o, 112 



of lime 
X^ 0121 ; 



syonilo '' boiikler, 



edges, iiituraesces in cauliHowor-liko forms, shines brightly, and colours 
the fiame retl ; easily soluble with effervescence m acids. Comp., 30 
Carbonic Acid and 70 Strontia, but ofti>n contains carbonate 
(() to 8). [a, 100 ; c, 001 ; m, 110 ; /, 021 ; ^>, HI 

C 081.1 

SuTHKliLANl). Tongue, Ben Bhreae, in the gieat 
in diverging crystals, which form spherical masses in a cavity in the 
granitic vein, disposed ui)on Rock Crystal and Amazonstono Colour 
nearly white. S.G., 3-447 (1). and H.). Also in the mass of the syenite 
near the granitic vein, in small cavities, which were lined with crystals 
of hornblende and felspar. It occurs in the form of a white powder — 
Anal. 1. 

Argyllshire. At Strontian At Whitesmith, Bellsgrove, and Fee 
Donald mines, with Harmotomo, Calcite, and Galena, rarely with 
Brewstorite. At Whitesmith mine, at Strontian, its associate is Calcite 
and calcareous Barytos Here it is generally green or white Rarely 
in crystals [specimens in the Edinburgh Museum from this mine are 
of the forms caxCmpo', ax^'^o] — Anal. 2. At Bellsgrove its 
associates are Calcite and Harmotome, and here it frequently is brown 
in colour. At Fee Donald mine, Strontian, it is rare, and is associated 
with Barytes. [Fig. 2, Plate XLVIII., represents also Strontianite.] 

Strontianite was discovered by Walker in 1764 ; but he had, in 1761, 
noticed it at Leadhills, on specimens unquestionably brought by miners 
from Strontian. In 1791, Dr. Hope discovered the earth Strontia in 
some of the specimens noticed by Walker. 

Strojnnite, a variety of Strontianite, occurs in veins in the Caithness 
Flags (Middle Old Red Sandstone) at the Point of Ness, Stromness, 
Orkney (Traill). It is a mixture of Strontianite and Barytes. 





1 
SrO. CaO. 


CO,. 


 
The great Boulder at Tongue, Sutherland, (1) 
Whitesmith Mme Strontian, - (2) 


58-846 1 8-629 

i 


32-305 



08. Cerussite (281). PbCO.,. 

Orthorhombic. [N.B. — The sj^mbols and letters employed in the 
following description of Cerussite are those used by Schrauf in his Atlas der 
Crystall-Formen des Mineralreichs. a : 6 : c^l : 0-9988 : 0-8127. a (6), 
100 ; b {a), 010 ; c, 001 ; y, Oil ; e, 021 ; y, 203 ; ;*:, 101 ; k, 201 ; i, 401 ; 



144 CARBONATES. 

V, 601 ; z, 801 ; m, 110 ; r, 310 ; o, 111 ; p, 221 ; s, 421 ; w, 241 ; 8, G51 ; 
/, 350.] Isomorphous with Aragonite and Nitre. Twins common : also 
granular and earthy. Civ., m and i rather distinct ; fracture conch oidal ; 
brittle and easily frangible. H., 3 to 3-5 ; G., 6-4 to 6-6. Transparent 
to translucent ; lustre, adamantine to resinous. Colourless, often whit^ ; 
but also grey, yellow, brown, black ; rarely green, blue, or red. Streak 
white. B.B. decrepitates violently, but is easily fused and reduced ; 
soluble with effervescence in n. acid. Comp., 83-5 Protoxide of Lead, and 
16' 5 Carbonic Acid. 

Elgin. At Stotfield, near Lossiemouth mi (Plate XL VIII. fig. 1) 
with Pyromorphite, Quartz, and Galena (Sowerby). 

Perthshire. Glen Esk, Tarfside, in a mine on the south-west foot 
of Craig Soales, with Galena. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills mines. As in the Susanna mine, 
xki ay m (PI. XLVIII. fig. 2), associated with Leadhillite, Lanarkite, 
etc. ; in the mines of the Leadhills Dod, associated with Linaiite, Leadhill- 
ite and Pyromorphite; in the Glengonnar mines associated with Malachite, 
Linarite, and Caledonite, ckh (PI. XLVIII. fig. 3) ; xap (PI. XLIX. fig. 
4); X cap my or (PI. XLIX. fig. 5) ; acxki zh (PI. XLIX. fig. 6) ; cia 
mp y r (PI XLIX. fig. 7); ckiabmrpw (PI. XLIX. fig. 8) ; cabmp e 
(PI. XLIX. fig. 9) ; cabmpi (PL XLIX. fig. 10) ; cxkivabrpyw 
(PL XLIX. fig. 11) ; c ki ab mp y (P\. L. fig. 12) ; ckabmrivypsor 
(PL L. fig. 13) ; ckiabfmrpyS (PL L. fig. 14). 

Greg gives the following additional forms : — m ap, a p x, mp i x, 
map k, map i, ma ci x, ma ci x k r, map i (6), (r), {k y), {r b), {k r), 
{b x), m a ci y r, ma ci y, cab p y, cab i x y, ma c p i ky, macb p i, 
m a c p s k r, m a c b p r, (k) {i x k), {i x k s o y w), macb p i y, 
m - a p i X y. Hemitropes : — On r, mcopxyka (Plate L. fig. 15) ; 
mp a k (Plate L. fig. 16). Twins : — a b kcm (Plate L. fig. 17) ; a p m 
(Plate L. fig. 18) ; apmki (Plate L fig. 19) ; apmk (Plate LI. fig. 20). 
Leadhill Dod, cam (Plate LI. fig. 21 and fig. 22). Leadhills, a c m (Plate 
LI. fig. 23). 

Dumfriesshire. At Wanlockhead, but not nearly so frequently as 
at Leadhills. Wanlock Dod, my\}v]pa (Plate LI. fig. 24) ; mapik 
(Plate LI. fig. 25) ; mpyki (Plate LI. fig. 26). West Grove, c/[?.r] 
kivztambrpso (Plate LI. fig. 27). 

69. Phosgenite (286). 

This mineral is stated, on the authority of the late Mr. Bryce Wright, 
to have been found in minute crystals in a lead mine at Lossiemouth, 
Elgin, in association with Galena and Quartz. 



Cerussite. 



J. G. G 



OODCHILD. 




HrPu)4ae k Crslane. limr 



CARBONATES. 145 

B. Acid, Basic, and Hydrous Carbonates. 

70. Malachite (288). Cu2(OH)2C03. 

Monoclinic. In general acicular, scaly, radiateil fibrous, in reniform 
or stalactitic masses. Civ., basal and clinodiagonal jx^rfect. H. 3-5 to 4; 
G., 3-6 to 4. Transparent or translucent on the edge ; lustre adamantine, 
vitreous, silky, or dull. Emerald and other shades of green ; streak apple 
green. B.B. fuses and yields metallic copper. Soluble with effervescence 
in h. acid and in ammonia. Comp., 71-8 Copper Piotoxide (=57 '5 of 
Copper), 20 Carbonic Acid, and 8-2 Water. 

Shetland. Mainland, in the Sandlodge mine, in fine acicular crystals 
on a ferruginous gangue (Traill). At Dunrossness, Fair Isle, with 
Chalcocite. 

Orkney. Rousay, near HuUion, with Azurite and Galena, in a 
Barytes vein. 

Ross-shire. Loch Kishom, Loch Carron, at the Rassal mines, with 
Brochantite and Bornite (Nicol). Anal., CuO, 71-86 ; COg, 78-27 ; H^O, 
9-86 (Macadam). 

Hebrides. Skye, at Storr, coating Native Copper, in Faroelite, very 
rarely. 

Argyllshire. Kintyre, at Macringans Point, near Campbelton, 
earthy, coating silicious Limonite. 

Perthshire. Near GrandtuUy, earthy, with Chalcocite and Azurite. 
Glen Farg, earthy, with Native Copper, or Prehnite. 

Stirlingshire. At Airthrie, in dark brown trap tuff.^ In a quarry 
east of Bridge of Allan, earthy, incrusting sandstone. Above Blairlogie 
on Dumyat, with Chalcocite, in a vein of Barytes. 

Renfrewshire. Barrhead, in Boyleston quarry, in small mammilla- 
tions and crystals, on Prehnite, with Native Copper. South of Gourock, 
at Drumshantee, in small mammillations on sandstone ; also with Bornite. 
Inland from Greenock, with slaty Anthracite, in sandstone. In Kaims 
parish, Lochwinnock, in fibrous filaments on Quartz crystallised in 
vesicles of a dyke of Dolerite traversing wacke, with veins of Barytes. 

Lanarkshire. At Leadhills, in mammillations and tufts with 
ChrysocoUa and Cerussite ; it specially occurs in the veins of the Leadhills 
Dod, associated with Leadhillite, Caledonite, Cerussite. and ChrysocoUa : 
also with Susannite and ChrysocoUa alone (Wilson). 

^ The rough ore from this mine waf, stated by Col. Borthwick to yield silver to the 
value of £100 per ton, and gold to the value of £200 ! Three miles to the east of 
Airthrie, upon the Water of Algwharry, within two miles of the head of the wat«r, 
amongst the Ochils, " many great stones full of green and blue veins of copper ore." 

K 



146 CARBONATES. 

Bute. Port Bannatyne, on a hill near the church on the road to 
Etterick Bay, 250 feet up the hill. 

Berwickshire. At Keelstone Pool, with Chalcocite and Barytes. 

Kirkcudbright. Near Castle Douglas, at the Balcary mine, 
Lauchentyre, in pale green fibrous brushes (D. and H.). At Kings 
Laggan mine (D. and H.). At the Pibble mine, south of Cairnsmore 
of Fleet, with Linarite, Chalcop3^ite, etc. (D. and H.). At Barlocco, 
near Orroland, with Azurite, in a vein of Baryte. 

71. Azurite (289). Cu3(OH).2(C03)2. 

Monoclinic. Rarely found well-crystallised in Scotland. Civ., clino- 
domatic, rather perfect ; fracture conchoidal or splintery. H., 3-5 to 4-2; 
G., 3-7 to 3-8. Translucent or opaque ; lustre vitreous. Colour azure 
blue to smalt blue. B.B., etc., the same as Malachite. Corap., 69-1 
Protoxide of Copper, 25-7 Carbonic Acid, 5-2 Water. 

Shetland — Mainland. Hillswick, Grariesum, investing Cyanite, 
pale blue (D. and H.), 

Orkney. Viera, Rousay, in a Barytes vein in Caithness Flagstone, 
in small crj^stals, with Galena, Malachite, Calamine [=Hemimorphite], 
etc. 

Sutherland. In Torridon Sandstone, in the south cliff of Quinag 
(Nicol). 

Ross. North-west of Loch Garbhaig. 

Perthshire. Taymouth Park, in the old quarry, with Malachite 
and Chalcopyrite. Near GrandtuUy, Avith Chalcocite and Malachite. 

LoTHiANS. Coating joints and fissures in Lower Carboniferous 
Sandstone, on the Pentland Hills, above Torduff (Goodchild). 

Kirkcudbrightshire. At Barlocco, near the house of Orroland, 
with Malachite, in a vein of Barytes. 

At Leadhills and Wanlockhead (Greg) ; probably a mistake for 
Linarite. 

72. Aufichalcite (290). (Zn,Cu)5(OH)6(C03)2. 

? Monoclinic. In groups of acicular crystals, forming incrustations. 
Transparent, pearly, and in colour verdigris -green. Comp., 29* 2 Copper 
Protoxide, 44-7 Zinc Oxide, 16-2 Carbonic Acid, 9-9 Water. 

Occurs chiefly in metalliferous veins traversing Silurian and Ordovician 
graywackes in the south-west of Scotland. At Wanlockhead, it occurs as 
small incrusting masses associated with Susannite, Malachite, Leadhillite 
and Hydrocerussite, chiefly at the Susanna mine. Its analysis gave : — 
CuO, 28-402 ; ZnO, 45-67 ; CaO, -22 ; COo, 16-064 ; H.O, 9-981 (H.). 



CARBONATES. 147 

It is also found at Balcary, in Kirkcudbright, associated with Quartz, 
Dolomite, and Pitchy Copper Ore. A globular mineral, referred with 
some doubt to the same species^ is associated with Calcite in a mineral 
vein at Lauchentyre, in the same county. 

73. Hydrocerussite (292). Pb3(OH)„(C03)2?. 

Rhombohedral. Occurs in thin scaly coatings, of a white colour and 
with a pearly lustre, in cavities in galena, associated with Cerussite and 
globular Plumbo-calcite, at Belton Grain mine, Wanlockhead. 

Analysis : — 

PbO. H,0. CO2. 

92-848 2-008 4-764 

= PbO.COj.SPbCHjO. Heddle. 

74. Hydromagnesite (300). Mg4(OH)2(C03)3+3H^O. 

Monoclinic. Crystals small, rare ; also massive. H., 1-5 to 3 ; 
G., 2-14 to 2-18. Vitreous or silky ; colour white. Comp., 36-2 Carbonic 
Acid, 44 Magnesia, 19-8 Water. 

Shetland. Unst, at Swinna Ness, in the veins in Serpentine which 
carry Brucite. It occurs in cavities in the Brucite, in minute shining 
crj^stals which line their sideS; the centres of these cavities being filled 
with a brown powder. The largest crystals were not one-eight of an inch 
in length. The forms appear to be identical with those given in Dana's 
Mineralogy, 6th edition, page 304, and the faces a (100) and y (121) are 
distinctly measurable. It also occasionaUy here coats Brucite in an 
earthy form. Rarely in small rosettes of crystals, one face of which has 
a pearly lustre, upon pale green serpentine, in the quarries south of 
Nikka Vord Hill. Mainland, Colla Firth, on the south shore, similarly 
to the above, also upon pale-green serpentine, rarely (D. and H.). 

Banffshire. At Portsoy, on the verdigris -green serpentine, in 
similar rosettes of crystals vdth one lustrous face, near veins of Precious 
Serpentine, very rarely. 

75. Pennite (302). (CaMg2)C03+H,0. 

Surrounds Chromite and coats with a greenish incrustation shrinkage 
cracks of that mineral, at the Hagdale Quarry, Unst, Shetland (Currie). 

76. Hibbertite (302). (Heddle, Min. Mag., ii. p. 24.) 

A pulverulent lemon-yellow substance, occurring as an incrustation ; 
and associated with Kammererite and Chromite, in the Serpentine of 
Nikka Vord and Hagdale, Unst. 



148 CARBONATES. 

Analysis : — 

CaCOg. FegOg. MnO. MgO. COg. HgO. 

28-459 3-229 -583 26-554 25-442 15-733 

:=^3CaO,CO.,.3(MgO,H20). (Heddle, as above.) 

77. Zaratite (303). Ni3(OH)4C03+4H.20. 

Amorphous, reniform, and incrusting. H., 3 ; G., 2-6 to 2-7. Trans- 
lucent ; vitreous. Colour emerald-green. 

Occurs as an incrustation, chieflA' on, or in association with, Chromite, 
in the Serpentine of Hagdale quarry, Unst, Shetland. A mineral 
doubtfully referred to the same species occurs on Amphibolite schist at 
Erins, Argyllshire, in association with Chalcopyrites. 



PRINTED BY W. C. HENDERSON AND SON, UNIVERSITY PRESS ST. ANDREWS. 



Plate I 



Gold-a3)Fiil. 



(18) Fig. 2. 



Silver- 114 




Copper -115) 



Molvbdemte- 34' 




cS 




Ar^entite-(42) 



Galena- (45) Fig.l, 





.-•Li ITJi 



Plate' II 



Galena- (45) Fi^.2. 



(46)Fi4.a. 








(45)Fi^.4. 



(45) Fi^. 5. 





i45)Fi^.6. 



C45) Fig. 7. 





(46)Fig.8. 



^45)Fi^.9. 





Plate 



Galena (45) Fi^.lO. 



(45)Fi^.ll. 





(45) Fig. 12. 



(45)Fi^l3. 





(45) Fi^.l4. 




(45) Yig. 15. 




(45)Fi^.l6. 



(45) Fig. 17. 




a. 




J 


d 


r 


c 



Plate IV 



Galena ( 45) Fi^. 18. 



(45)Fi^.l9. 





(45) Fi^. 20. 



(45)Fi^.2l. 





(45)Fi^.22. 



(45)Fi^.23. 





(45)Fi^.24. 



(45)Fi^.25. 





Plate V. 



Galena (45)Fi^.26 




Blende (58) Fig. 1, 




(58) Fig. 2. 



(58)Fi^.3, 





f56)Fi55.4. 



(58)Fi^.5. 





(58)Fi^.6. 



(58)Fi^.7. 





Plate VI 



Blende(58)Fi^4 8 




iS8) Fig. 9. 




Greenockite \6Q] Fig. 1. 



(68) Fig. 2. 





Pyrrhotite(74-)Fig.l. 



% 



i ^i 




(74)Fi^. 2. 




Ghalc opyri te (83) Fi ^. 1 




(83) Fig. 2. 




Plate VII 



Ghalcopyrite (83) Fi^. 3. 



'83)Fi^ 4. 





(83)Fi^.5. 




(83)Fii6. 




(83)Fi^.7. 




f83)Fi^.8. 




(83) Fig. 9. 



Pyrites (85) Fi^.l. 




a, a. 



Plate VIII 



P3^rites(85)Fig 2. 



(85jFig. :i 





(85) Fig. 4. 




(85) Fig. 5. 




(85) Fig. 6. 




(85) Fig. 8. 




(85) Fig. 9 




PlaU- IX 



l'\nlcM85.1'ig.lO. 



(85)h^,ll 





(85)1- IP. 12 



(85)Kig 13. 





(85)Fi,^,14. 




.85.Fi^l5. 




(85/ Fig. 16. 



f85)Fip 17. 





M!Fa.rl(tne iErslnne. Edin*" 



Plate X 



Pyrite(85)F.g. 18. 



'85;Fi^l9. 





;85; F.^. 20. 



85 Fi^.21. 





(85) Fi^^. 22. 




Marca8ite(96) 




Tcirahedrite(l48) 



FluoriLe(l75)Fii.l 





M*Farla.ti« A- ErsKine, Edin'' 



Plate XI 



Kluonl,e(l75'Fis. 2. 



175' Ki- 6 





(175) Fi^. 4 



(I75jFi^ 5 



nJJ^ 



. ) r < 



:l75)Fi^. 6. 



(175) Fig 7. 




^ 






i\7S)Fi^.,8 



1 175. Fig y. 





M'Fa-rlaT.e A. Krskine, Edin"" 



IMate XII 




^ 



175; Fi^ 11 




:i75)Fi^.l2. 



175) Fig. 13. 





(l75)Fi^,i4. 



(l75)Fi^ 15 






(175) Fig. 16. 



^1 



(l75)Fi^ 18 




M'FartMie St Erskuw, Edinr 



Plate XIII 



Qiiartz(2IO) JMg.l. 



210 iig 2. 



K 






h 




\ 


b 


/ 




1210) Fi^. 3 




210) Fig 4. 




210) Fig. 5. 



(210) Fig. 6 





(210) Fig. 7. 




i2IO) Fi^. ^ 




HTa.ri(kne A. Crskine Edn' 



Plate XIV. 



Quartz (210) Fi^. 



2IOjFi^.lO. 




u' r 


\ m 


M 


~--\^- \ J 


\ 





(210) Fig. 11 



(2IO)Fi^.lZ 





(2IO)Fi^.l3. 



(210) Fig. 14. 





(210) Fig. 15. 



(210) Fig. 16 





MTFartine k. Er«tan«. Edia"" 



Plate XV 



Quartz (2IO)Fig. 17. 




(2IO)Fi^.l8. 




(210) Fig. 19 




i2IO)Fi^. 2(3. 




(2IO)Fig.21. 




(2IO)Fig. 22. 




(210) Fig. 23. 



(210) Fig. 24 





M*Fax!a.ne 4t. Erskne. iiar 



Plate XVI 



Quartz (210) Fig. 25. 



(210) Fi^. 26. 





(210) Fi^ 27. 



/ 


V 


\\ 


^ 


I 


f 



(210) Fi^, 28. 




(210) Fig 29 




f2IO) Fig. 32 



(210) Fig. 30 



/' 


■AZ\ 


K 


h 


b 


h 



(210) Fig. 31. 





M'Fajlane b. Erskme. Edmf 



\r XVII 



lliciiia lite (232). 



Ilmemte C233)Fi£ 1 





'233 ht^, 2. 



^^^^^^^^ 



Maoii,-l.,lr 237)IU I 



237) Fi 





237)ri{; 8. 



237)rio.4 





;237/Fi6.5. 




l237MMi> t; 




M<F»ri»n,. JfEr 



Plate 



MagneUt.- ^237) I'l^. 7. 




f237)Fi^.8. 




Kiitile 250) Fig. 1, 




250^ ¥i^. 2. 




(250) Fi^. 3. 




(250) Fig. 4 




(250) Fi$. 




Gotliitc (257). 





CalciU'(270)Kig. 1. 





,270) Pig. .3 



Plate XIX 



^^:> 



270; hi^ I 



270: iMa 4 




i270)Fig.5 




(270) Fig. 6 




(270^ Ft o. 7 




(270^ K.u K 




Plate XX 



Galcifce^270)Fig. 9. 




(270) Fig. 11 




'270) Fig 10 




(270)Fi^ 12. 




(270)Fi^. 13 



(270)Fi415 




(270) Fig. 14. 




(270) Fig. 16. 



/ 



McPu-l«^c A Enkine. Edm' 



Plate XXI 



Calcite (270)/ AFi^. 17, 




(270)Fi^.l8. 




(270)Ki^.l9. 



r270)Fi^.20. 





(270) Fig. 22. 



(270) Fi^. 24. 




M*Fui«aetErslaiie £du 



Pl.iw XXII 



(•;Uoitc(270)Fi^,. 25, 



(270^Fi^ 2<i 





(270)Fi^. 27. 



(270U'io.28 





\::^ 



;27o;fi^, 29 



(270)Fi;i^ 30 





(270jFjA 31 




[270il'ig. 82. 




>l'FiLHa.ne i Ei-sVin. Edm'' 



Vfll 



».iK:.tc(270 



(270) f!- ;u 





(270)Fij^. 35 



:270;Fip % 





f270)Fi^,37. 



270. Pi iS. 38. 





(270'Fii^. SB 




f270)ri^ 40. 




M>FuU« jLErtkiac £as' 



Calcite 270/Hg. 41. 



S= 



(270) Fig 42 




>270)I'jg. 4 




(270 Fio.44 




i270)Pi^. 45. 




'270:Fi}S,4.0 




(270) fig, 47 



;270 Fi!> 4a 





M-FuUac & £r«k.ae Utr.' 



Plate XXV 



CalcittW270) / /l\ \ri^.4}3. 




(270)Fi^.51. 




(270)Fij^..50. 



(270) Fig. 52, 




(270) Fa ^,53. 




(270) Fig. 54 




(270)Fi^.55. 




(270)Fi^.56. ^ 




JFurljune t Enkioe. Edic"" 



Plate XXVI 



Calcite ZJO) 



Fi4 57. 




^270; Fig 58 




^270) fig. 59 




^270; ¥i^ 00 



270 Fi^ 6 





270 Fi^ 62 




rY««M>< ».'<>k«t is- 



Plate XXVIl 




M'Faxlaae k Erskine, Zim' 



:'late XXVIJI. 



Calcite(270;Fig. 70 



(270)Fi;6, 73 




M'F«,riane ItEralcme, Idin' 



Plate AXIX 



CalGitc(270)Fi^. 77, 



^270) Pl^ 78. -cr-TI^ 



i 



i270)Fi^79 




(270)FiM.8] 





(270)Fj^.8() 




(270jFi^ 82 




(270) Fi^. 83. . 




(270)Fii 84 




M Ta-rline L EnkirK. Win*" 



Plate XXX 



Calcite 




(270' Fi^ W. 




(270) Fig 89 




«270)Fi4 91. 




iZmA^M 




(270. Fi^. 88. 




(270) Fig 90 



(270) Fi^. 92 




M<F«.rUne i Erakuie. Edii 



Plate XXXI 



Gal cite (270] F]^ 93. 



(270)Fi^..94. 





(270) Fig. 95. 




(270) Fi^. 96. 




(270)Fi^, 97. 



(270)Fi^. 98. 





(270) Fig. 99. 




(270) Fig. 100. 




K'Fa.rUiie A ErsVane, Edm' 



Plate XXXII 



Calcite (270)1*1^.101. 




(270) Fi^. 102. 




(270) Fi^. 103 




270jFi^l04. 



(270) Fi^. 105, 




(270)Fi^.l06 




M'F»4-l«.ne fc ErsVifif 



Plate XXXni 



Calcite(270)fig 




(270) Fi4 109 



(270) Fi^. 110 




(270) Fi^. 112 




'270) Fi4 




(270) Fi^. lis. 




(270) Fig. 114. 




(270) Fig. 115 




MfFa.rl<A« A Xrslcnw, CdiirT 



Plate XXXIV 



Calcite(270)Pig.ll6. 



(270) Fi^. 117. 





(270) Fi^. 118 



(270) Fi^. 119. 





(270) Fi^. 120. 




(270)Fi4.122 





(270) Fig. 123. 




ieFa.rl«J»« fc Kr*ine, SdmT 



Plate XXXV 



Calcite(270)Fi^.l24 




.270; Fi^. 125. 




(270) Fig. 126. 




(270) Fi^. 127. 




(270) Fi^. 128. 




(270) Fi^. 123. 




(270) Fi^. ISO. 



(270) Fig. 131. 




K'.F'arla.'Be k Irskne, Tdtof 



Plate XXXVI 



Calcite (270)Fig, 1S2. 




(270) Fi^. 133. 



(270) Fig. 134. 




(270) Fig. 135. 




(270) Fi^. 136. 




(270) Fi^. 138. 



(270) Fi^. 137. 




(270) Fi^. 139. 




M'F«.rl«.ne I. Er«liine. Edto' 



Plate XXXVII 



Calcite(270)Fi^.l40. 



m)Yiim, 




(2701 Fi^. 142. 




(270) Fi^. 144. 




=rz^ 



/ * 



(270) Fi^. 143. 




(270) Fi^. 145 




(270) Fi^. 146. 



(270) Fi^. 147 





irr»rla,iie i. Ersldne. EdiaT 



Plate XXXVIII 



Galcit€(270)Pi^, 148 




(270) Fi^. 150. 




(270)f 




(270)Fi^. 154^ 




;270)Fig m 




m)Yii 




(270)Fig. 153 




(270)Fi^. 155 




/v 



X'r»rtM. fcErlk»<« KJ..' 



Plate XXXIX. 



Calcibe(270)Fi^. 156. 




(270) Fi^. 157. 



<l'--i.^ 


/.-.. « 


w 




l-t 


4  


./-, 




ipbjl 



(Z70)Fi^. 158. 




(270)Fi^. 160. 




(270)Fi^.l62 




i270)Yii m. 




m)fii 159. 




(Z70)Fi4.161 




(270)Fi^. 163 




(270)Fig. 165 




M;Fa.rla.ne Ik Jtrsldna, Eain? 



Plate XL 



Calcite(270) 




H- 166. 



(270) Fig. 168 




(270)Fig. 167. 




(270)rig. 169 




(270)Fi^. 170 




(270)Fi^. 171 




Mrr»Tl«.n« li Enldae, Itoi' 



Plate XLI, 



Ca]cjtef2/0) /C^\^'i^. 172 



(270)Fig, 174. 




(270)Fig. 176 




m)ng. \ii 




[imvvg m 




(270)Fi4. ]7e5 




(270) Fig. 178 




f270)Fi^. 179 




K'Ta-riaxc *r Krsldu!i Ed;! 



Plate XLII 



Calcite {ZJOy^^n^SFi^. 180 




(270)Fi^. 181 



(270)rig. 183 



(270)Fi^ 185 




(270) R^. 186 





(270)Fi^. 182 




(270)Fi^. 184. 




(270) Fi^. 187. 




M!F»riane &.Er.)d»e. Edit 



Plate XLIII. 



Calcite(270iFi^ 188 



(270)Fi^ 189^ 




i270)Fi^ 190 




(270jFig. 194. 




(270) Fig. 195 




(270jFig. 196 




(270)Fi^. 197. 




(270;Fig. 198. 




M?F»t1m» *Erskme. Edm'^ 



Plate XLI\^. 



Calcitei270;Fig.ie9. 




(270)Fig, 200 



(270)Fi^. 201 




(270) F14. 203. 




(270)Fi^. 205 





(270)FijS. 202 




(270)Fi^. 201^ 




(270)Fi^. 206. 




M!Faj-lflJie «.,Ersl<ine, iim': 



Calcitei270) 




Plate XLV 



Fi^. 207. 



(270)Fi^. 209 




(270)Fig 211. 




(2/0)Fi4.213, 




(270) Fi^. 208 




(270;Fig. 210. 




(270)F]^. 212 




f270)Fi^. 214 




Plci^te XLVl 



Calcite(Z70^Fi^. 215. 



(270)Fig. 216. 




(270jFi^. 217 




(270jFi^. 219. 



(270)Fi^. 219:' I (270)Fi^. 219: 




(270)Fig. 218. 




(270)Fi^. 219: 



M^Faxla-n. t Ersk.ne. Edm'^ 



Plate XLVII 



Calcite(270) m Fi^. 1^20 




(270) Fig, 221. 



(270)Fig. 223. 




(270)Fig. 224. 




Magne8ite(272) 





(270) Fi^. 222 




Dolomite (271) 




Sidente (273) 



M1Fa.rla.ne i. EreVme, ZdmT 



Plate XLVllI 



Ai'?»,^()mt,ef277)Fig. i, 



iW)Yig. 2. 




/^ 


^ 


V 


nrt' 


m' 


171 


\ 


^^:Ci^-.^ 



^XL^ 



(277) Fii eV 



;277)Fi^ 4. 





(277) Fi^. 5, 



Cepussite(28l]Fi^.l. 





(281) Fi^. 2. 



(281) Fig. 3 





KTa-Tla-ne tET-skme. FAr 



Plate XLIX. 



Cerussite(28l)Fi4 ^' 



(28l)Fig. 5. 





y 7 



(281) Fi^. 6. 




(281) Fig. 7 




(28l)Fi^. 8. 






P,-r p 



(28l)Fi^. 9 




(28l)Fig. 10. 



(28l)Fig. ]1 





Plate L 



Cepu8S]te(28l)rj^. 12. 



(28l)Fiil3. 




f"^ 




(281) Fi^. 14. 




^^ 




(281)?!^. 15. 



^ 




^^*\ 




/ ■/ f^ 


^ \ 


l>^^ 


rtv 


vWt 


z-----yM:-:::--. 




u^— >^. A 


^=^ 



(28l)Pi^. 16. 




(281) Fig. 17. 




(28l)Fi^. 18. 





(281) Fi^. 19. 




KTFarlane 4 Erski; 



Plate LI. 



Cerussite(28l)Fi^. 20. 



(281) Fig. 21 





(281) Fig. 22 





(28I)F: 




(28l)Fig 25. 



(28l)Fig. 26 




a 
■m. 



(281) F 




JCFa.rla.ne A. Ersltine, Edm'' 




Q£ 

381 

S3H4 

1923 

v.l 



P&ASci. 



Heddle, Matthew Forster 

The mineralogy of Scotland 



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