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no,!H 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LIBRARY OF THE 

MINERALOGICAL 
LABORATORY 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 



Department of 
Mineralogy & Petrography 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 




w 



Abnormal pyrite crystals, French Creek mines, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Natural size. 
The second nnd third rrystals in the left band row are two of Penfield's tyjies. Courtesy of George 
Vaux. Jr 



special PtMication No. i 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



THE 



MINERALOGY 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA 



BT 



SAMUEL G. GORDON 



BRRA TA 
Page 6, lines 18 and 22! SAMPSON 



should read SANSOM, 



Philadelphia 
1922 



Abnormal pyrite crystals. French Creek mines. Chester County, Pennsylvania. Natural size. 
The second nnd third rrystalp in the left hand row are two tit Penfield's tyjics. Courtesy of George 



special PtMication No. i 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



THE 



MINERALOGY 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA 



BT 

SAMUEL G. GORDON 



Philadelphia 
1922 



\ 



/* ^ 



f^ f 



/^/t)0,/-f 






CONTENTS 

PAGB 

I. Introduction 6 

II. Origin and occurrence of minerals 11 

III. General geology of Pennsylvania 23 

IV. Descriptive mineralogy of Pennsylvania 34 

V. Mineral localities of Pennsylvania '. 160 

VI. Bibliography 240 

Index i-iv 



INTRODUCTION 

HisTORicAi^ Outline 

The development of mineralogy in Pennsylvania began while the science was 
yet in its youth. Its inception coincided with the great activity in Europe following 
upon the interesting discoveries of Priestley and Lavoisier, of Klaproth and 
Berzelius, and of Abbe Haiiy. Great enthusiasm was aroused, resulting in a 
pilgrimage to the laboratory of Abbe Haily, in the £cdle des Mines, of several 
residents of Pennsylvania, notably Adam Seybert, Gerard Troost (a Hollander by 
birth), and later, Lardner Vanuxem, and William Keating, who may be regarded 
as the first scientific mineralogists of America. 

On his return to Philadelphia, Adam Seybert brought with him a fine collection 
of minerals. It was extremely difficult at this time to get even such common 
minerals as quartz, hornblende, and feldspar determined, and it is interesting to 
note that in 1803, Benjamin Silliman, the founder of the American Journal of 
Science, journeyed to Philadelphia with the whole collection of Yale College, 
"a half bushel of unlabeled stones in a small box," to have them named by Seybert. 

Somewhat previous to this (1792) the Chemical Society of Philadelphia had 
been organized with the avowed purpose of acquiring information regarding the 
minerals of the United States. The society existed for seventeen years, and was 
succeeded in 1811 by the Columbian Chemical Society, in whose single volume of 
memoirs appeared an analysis of malachite from "Perkioming" by Thomas D. 
Mitchell. 

In 1812, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was organized with 
Dr. Gerard Troost as president. Mineralogically the first accession consisted of 
some artificial crystals prepared by Dr. Troost, but on August 15th the Academy 
acquired by purchase the collection of Adam Seybert, which later formed the sub- 
ject of a number of lectures by Troost. This collection, the oldest extant in Amer- 
ica,, is still kept intact in its original cabinet. In April, 1812, the members of the 
Academy made an excursion to the Perkiomen mines. Their activity is shown 
by the number of mineralogical and crystallographic papers that appeared in the 
early issues of the Journal of the Academy. 

In 1812, Isaac Lea published "An account of the minerals at present known 
to exist in the vicinity of Philadelphia." This was followed by more complete lists 
by Carpenter and Spademan, the results of a vacation trip on horseback into 
Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties. Some time before, however, Adam 
Seybert had published in 1808 "A catalog of some minerals which are found in 
different parts of the United States." 

The mineral collection of the Academy grew rapidly, large numbers of speci- 
mens being presented by its members. In addition, it received the collections of 
Thomas M'Euen, T. B. Wilson, Samuel Ashmead, George W. Carpenter, W. D. 



Abnormal pyrite crystals. French Creek mines. Chester County, Pennsylvania. Natural size. 
The second nnd third riystals in the left hand row are two of Penfield's types. Courtesy of George 
Vaux, Jr 



special Publication No, i 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



THE 



MIN ER ALO G Y 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA 



BT 



SAMUEL G. GORDON 



BRJ^A TA 
Page 6, lines 18 and 22; SAMPSON should 



read SANSOM. 



Philadelphia 
1922 



10 INTRODUCTION 

other details concerning the title of the paper and place of publication will be found 
in the bibliography. 

Acknowledgments 

In conclusion the writer desires to express his appreciation and thanks to those 
who kindly aided in giving information regarding . Pennsylvania minerals: to 
Dr. Edgar T. Wherry for much data, and a critical examination of the manu- 
script; to Mr. tjreorge Vaux, Jr., Mr. Frank J. Keeley, and the various members of 
the Philadelphia Mineralogical Society, notably Mr. Harry W. Trudell, Mr. William 
Knabe, Mr. Frederick Oldach, Mr. Hugh McKinstry, Mr. Hugh Alexander Ford, 
Dr. Alfred C. Hawkins, Mr. John Frankenfield, Mr. Frederick Hilbiber, and Mr. 
John Tallis. The writer is also indebted to Dr. George P. Merrill for an unpub- 
lished analysis of asbestus from Aston, Delaware County; to Mr. H. L. Willig for 
information regarding the minerals of Lancaster Coimty ; to Mr. John Pierce and the 
late Thomas Harvey for data regarding southern Delaware County; and to Mr. 
Bentley R. Morrison for certain data on northern Chester County. 

Phxvadbuhia 
18 January 1921 



special Publication No. i 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



THE 



MIN ER ALO G Y 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA 



BT 

SAMUEL G. GORDON 



Philadelphia 
1922 



12 ORIGIN AND OCCURRBNCB OF MINBRALS 

While many minerals have a particular mode of occurrence, more characteristic 
is their grouping into assemblages. The above classification of mineral assemblages 
has been proposed* (Table I). 

Mineral assemblages may be divided into two distinct classes: those arising 
from magmatic phenomena, — the igneous rocks, pegmatites, hydrothermal deposits 
and fumarolic deposits; and those formed by sedimentary processes, — the sedi- 
mentary rocks. The minerals forming the assemblages may be classified as primary, 
metamorphic, or weathering products. 

Magmatic Phenomena 

A molten magma may be regarded as a solution of silica^s, containing dis- 
solved in it considerable quantities of water and gases, and obeying the physico- 
chemical laws of a solution; the freezing point is lower than that of its constituents 
and the crystallization of the minerals is dependent on their solubility in the magma 
more than upon their temperature of fusion. 

The phenomena exhibited by molten magmas are exceedingly complex, not 
the least interesting being those which cause their differentiation into the various 
igneous rocks.* 

The magma is composed essentially of silicates, with dissolved HjO, COj, F, 
CI, B, S, H, and other volatile substances, to which the term mineralizers or pneu- 
matolytic agents has been applied. The latter term is objectionable, as it is ex- 
tremely doubtful if these gaseous substances exist as such in the magma or in solu- 
tions emanating from it, but are rather dissolved in each. 

The products of the solidification of the bulk of any magma are the igneous 
rocks, composed essentially of anhydrous minerals or those in which a hydroxyl 
radicle is present, such as hornblende, biotite, muscovite, etc. The disposition of 
the volatile constituents is dependent on the depth at which the igneous body 
^lidifies. The mineralizers are far more abundant in the add rocks than in the 
basic ones, and there may also be a difference in the kind present. In deep seated 
bodies such as granites, granodiorites, syenites, etc., there is a gradual concentration 
of the volatile constituents and most of the rare elements in the residual mother 
liquid; this is forced into contraction fissures in the parent body, or into fractures 
in the surrounding rocks, forming pegmatite dikes or veins. 

At lesser depths fractiuring in the crust may permit the heated solutions to 
pass into fisstu'es, where they may form hydrothermal veins. Quite frequently the 

4 Bdgar T. Wherry and Samuel G. Gordon, An arrangenKot of minerab according to their occurrence: 
Troc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila., 67. 426-457, 1916. 

A wealth of data on the subject of the occurrences of minerals will be found in the following works, which 
give many references: 

P. W. Chu-ke, DaU of Geochemistry: U. S. Geol. Surv. Butt. 695, 4th Ed.. 1920. 

Waldemar Lindgren, Mineral Deposits, 2nd Ed., New York, 1919. 

William Harvey Emmons, The enrichment of ore deposits: U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 625, 1917. 

Amadeus W. Grabau, Principles of salt deposition: New York, 1920. 
* A full discussion of differentiation will be found in the following works: 

N. L. Bowen, CrsrstalUzation differentiation in igneous magmas: J. Geol., 27, 393-430, 1919; Deformation 
of crystallising magma: J. Geol., 28, 265-267, 1920; Later stages of the evolution of the igneous rocks: J. Geol. 

Suppl., 23, 1-91, 1915. 

Prank P. Grout, Movements in crysttdlizing magma: J. Geol., 28, 255-264, 1920. 

Joseph P. Iddings, Igneous rocks: New York, 1909. 

A. Harker, Natural History of igneous rocks: New York, 1909. 

R. A. Daly. Igneous rocks and their origin: New York, 1914. 



ORIGIN AND OCCURRBNCB Ol^ MINERALS 13 

solutions may pass into the rock intruded, forming a hydrothermal deposit, with the 
develot)ment of an interesting series of contact minerals. 

Extrusions of lava upon the surface permit the rapid escape of the volatile 
constituents, which may form a series of f umaroUc minerals. 

Cooke* has suggested that the emission of solutions from a cooling magma is 
constant, their escape being governed by accidental movements affording channels 
of flow; and further, that the composition of the solutions depends on the stage 
reached in the crystallization or cooUng of the igneous body at the time of escape. 

In many of the basic or ultrabasic rocks, segregations of magnetite, ilmenite, 
chromite, pyxrhotite, and chalcop3rrite occur. These have been regarded in the past 
by some as early accumulations of the usual accessory minerals through gravitative 
settling at the bottom of the igneous body, and by others as due to immiscibility. 
Recent studies by Tolman and Rogers,^ however, indicate that these magmatic ores 
have been formed at a late magmatic stage as the result of mineralizers, the ore- 
minerals in many cases replacing the silicates. 

Sedimentary Phenomena 

Subjected to the action of water, wind, and ice, the land masses are eroded and 
worn down; the disintegrated particles are rapidly removed by running water, 
which carries also much dissolved material. This disintegration and decomposition 
is the beginning of a series of events resulting in the differentiation of the materials 
into mineral assemblages varying widely in make-up: the sedimentary rocks. 
Briefly, they may be formed mechanically by moving water, ice or the wind; 
chemically; or organically. In some cases certain rocks may be produced in several 
ways: thus, siliceous sediments are formed by mechanical agencies (sandstone, 
etc.), chemically (some flints), or organically (some flints and diatomaceous de- 
posits) . As the products are in most cases identical, they are most simply classified 
chemically, if sight is not lost of their origin. We have then, six groups of sedi- 
ments: A. Siliceous and argillaceous; 6. Calcareous and magnesian; C. Ferrugi- 
nous; D. Saline; £. Phosphatic; and P. Carbonaceous. 

Metamorphism and Weathering 

Under the action of heat, pressure, and magmatic or meteoric solutions, 
striking changes occur in the minerals of the igneous and sedimentary rocks, with 
the development of new assemblages. Much ambiguity exists in the literattu'e 
regarding the processes and their results, as the changes are in many cases complex. 

The following are the chief agents of metamorphism: heat — due to intrusives 
or to deep burial in the crust; pressure — static pressiu-e developed by burial to great 
depth, or dynamic pressure due to earth movements, tangential thrust and the like; 
and solutions — meteoric solutions of surface origin, or magmadc solutions ema- 
nating from cooling igneous masses. One or more of these may operate at a given 
time, but the general types of metamorphism may be described as follows. 

Weathering involves the changes produced by atmospheric agencies; running 
water, ice, the wind, also organic life, etc., from the surface to the level of ground 

• H. C. Cooke, Gabbros of Bast Sooke and Rock Point: Canada Dept. Mines Museum Bull. 30, 1919, p. 48. 

* C. P. Tolman, Jr., and Austin P. Rogers, A study of the magmatic sulfid ores: Leland Stanford Junior 
University Publ., 1916. 



14 ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS 

water. The rocks are disintegrated and decomposed, the more soluble constituents 
are leached out, and only a few minerals stable under surface conditions persist. 
The chief reactions are oxidation, hydration, and carbonation, and solution. 

Hydrometafnorphism, — Meteoric solutions arising at the surface tend to cir- 
culate to shallow depths through joints, fractiures, and solution cavities. Much 
of the material dissolved in the weathering processes may be deposited here. This 
t3^e of metamorphism is perhaps limited to kaolinization, the cementation of sedi- 
ment3, the formation of lead, zinc, celestite, and barite deposits in some limestones, 
and the secondary enrichment of certain sulfide deposits. It is at times difficult to 
consider weathering and hydrometamorphism separately as they tend to operate 
together, as in kaolinization. An interesting case is that of the kaolin deposits 
occurring in the limestone of southern Chester County, Pa. The weathering and 
erosion of the limestone has given rise to solutions rich in CO2, which vigorously 
attacked the pegmatites, with leaching of the alkalies and the production of kaolin. 

Hydrothermal metamorphism, — Greater activity, however, is shown by hydro- 
thermal solutions emanating from cooling igneous bodies, which may effect the 
serpentinization or chloritization of the basic or ultrabasic igneous rocks, the kaolin- 
ization of the more acid rocks, and the formation of zeoUte veins in gabbros, dia- 
bases, and basalts. 

Contact metamorphism is produced by the action of igneous masses upon the 
rocks invaded. The agents are heat produced by the igneous mass, and magmatic 
solutions which may pass into the intruded rock. The chief factors affecting the 
degree and type of metamorphism are: character and composition of igneous rock; 
character and composition of the invaded rock; amount and character of mineral- 
izers, and the ease with which they pass into the invaded rock; and the depth at 
which the intrusion occiurs. Granites, etc., are perhaps influenced least, limestones, 
shales, etc., most. The changes may be great, but even in some limestones the 
effect of a diabase dike may be practically m7, where under other circumstances 
great changes have occurred. 

Dynamo-metamorphism, — It is extremely doubtful if static heat and pressiu^ 
are effective agents in metamorphism. Many sediments have been buried to great 
depths and suffered little change. The question arises as to the relative importance 
of the agents: heat, static and dynamic pressure, and magmatic solutions, in the 
production of the famihar crystalline schists and gneisses. Dynamic pressure or 
stress at great temperatures would perhaps have only the effect of shearing, granu- 
lation, and gliding, or recrystallization in limestones. It seems, therefore, that 
magmatic solutions are necessary, in addition to stress, for the production of the 
schists and gneisses, where much recrystallization occiu-s, mth the production of new 
minerals. Evidence of this lies in the universal presence of intrusive masses in the 
schists and gneisses. A very interesting example is presented by the Ordovician 
phyllites exposed along the Susquehanna River from Bald Friar, Maryland, north- 
ward into Pennsylvania. In the more southern exposures, the phyllites are 
thoroughly injected with pegmatites which are lacking towards the north near 
Peach Bottom, Penna. The effect of the dynamic, movement and the intrusives 
was the production of a contorted and recrystallized phyllite in the southern expo- 
sures; whereas five miles further north the d3mamic movement, in the absence of 
the pegmatites, caused the shearing of the same formation into a slate. 



ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS 



15 




16 ORIGIN AND OCCURRHNCB OP MINERAI^ 

IGNEOUS ROCKS 

The mineralogy of the igneous rocks is rather simple, and forms the chief 
method of classifying them (Table II). They may be grouped into four divisions 
on the basis of mineralogical dissimilarity: the Silicic, Alkalic, Calcic, and Mag- 
nesic; these names however, only indicate the prominence of the respective con- 
stituents, and do not have a strict quantitative significance. Magmatic deposits 
may occtu: in the Calcic and Magnesic rocks, and it is sometimes convenient to 
consider the minerals of these deposits separately. 

SILICIC IGNEOUS ROCKS 
Primary Minerals: 

Silica: quartz, Trisilicates, Jddspars: orthoclase, microdine, albite, oligoclase; Meta- 
silicates, pyroxenes: augite; amphiboles: hornblende; OrthosUicates, micas: muscovite, 
biotite; rare earth silicates: zircon, titanite; Fiuo-phosphate: apatite; Oxides: magnetite, 
ilmenite. 
Dynamic-Metamorphs : (in addition to recrystallization of the above) 

- MetasiUcates, amphiboles: hornblende; Orthosilicates, garnets: almandite; hydroxy-: 
zoisite, epidote, muscovite, chlorite. 

HYDROTHERliAL MBTAMORPHS: 

Silica: quartz, chalcedony, opal; Orthosilicates, hydroxy-: epidote, muscovite, sericite; 
Phosphate, hydroxy-: turquois; Sulfates, hydroxy-: alunite, jarosite. 
Weathbring Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Silica: chalcedony, opal; Silicates, hydrous: vermiculite, kaolinite, chloropal, allophane; 
Hydrous oxides: limonite, wad. 

ALKALIC IGNEOUS ROCKS 

Primary Minbrals: 

Trisilicates, feldspars: orthoclase, microcline, albite, oligoclase, andesine; Metasiiicates: 
leucite; Orthosilicates: nephelite, cancrinite, sodalite, hauynite, noseUte; Metasiiicates, 
pyroxenes: acmite, aegirite; amphiboles: hornblende, arfvedsonite, riebeckite; Ortho- 
silicates, micas: biotite; rare-earth: zircon; Phosphate: apatite; Oxides: magnetite, il- 
menite. 

Hydrothbrmal Mbtamorphs: 

Metasiiicates, hydrous: analcite, natrolite, thomsonite, hydronephelite. 

Wbathbring Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Silica: chalcedony, opal; Orthosilicates, hydroxy-: kaolinite, vermiculite; Hydroxide: 
gibbsite; Hydrous oxides: limonite, bauxite. 

The alkalic igneous rocks are exceedingly rare. No rocks of this type have been 
found in Pennsylvania. 

CALCIC IGNEOUS ROCKS 
Primary Minbrals: 

Trisilicates, feldspars: andesine, labradorite, bytownite, anorthite; Metasiiicates, pyroxenes: 

enstatite, h3rpersthene, diopside, augite ; Orthosilicates: olivine; micas: biotite; Titano-silicate: 

titanite; Phosphate: apatite; Oxides: magnetite, ilmenite, rutile. Sulfides: pyrite, chalcopy- 

rite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite; Element: iron. 
Dynamic-Mbtamorphs : 

Metasiiicates, amphiboles: hornblende; Orthosilicates: wemeiite; hydroxy-: epidote, zoisite, 

chlorite. 
Hydrothbrmal Mbtamorphs: 

Orthosilicates, hydroxy-: epidote, chlorite; boro-: datolite; hydrous: thomsonite, prehnite; 

Metasiiicates, hydroxy-: pectolite; hydrous: analcite, apophyllite, heulandite, stilbite, 

laumontite, chabazite, gmelinite, natrolite, mesolite, scolecite; Carbonates: calcite; SiUca: 

quartz, chalcedony; Elements: copper, silver. 



ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS 17 

W^THBRiNO Products: 

Silica: chalcedony, opal; Hydrous orthosiliccUe: Ic&olimte; Hydrous oxide: limonite. 

Magmatic deposits of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, magnetite, and ilmenite; and hydro- 
thermal concentrations of copper and silver are of great economic importance. Examples 
in Pennsylvania are the nickeliferous pyrrhotite deposit of Gap, Lancaster County, and the 
lean copper deposits in the Precambrian basalts of Franklin and Adams Counties. Zeolites 
are of common occurrence in the Triassic diabase quarries of Adams, Lancaster, Berks, and 
Montgomery Counties. 

MAGNESIC IGNEOUS ROCKS 

Primary Minerals: 

MetasUiccUes, pyroxenes: enstatite, bronzite, hypersthene, diopside, diallage, augite; 
OrthosiliccUes: olivine; Oxides: magnetite, chromite, spinel; Sulfides: pyrrhotite, pentlan- 
dite, chalcopyrite; EUmetUs: diamond, iron, platinum. 

Hydrothbrmal Mbtamorphs: 

Metasilicates, amphiboles: anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite (nephrite, asbestus, smarag- 
dite, etc.), hornblende; hydroxy-: talc; OrthosiliccUes, hydroxy-: chlorite (many varieties), 
serpentine (many varieties including chrysotile asbestus), sepiolite; CarbomUes: caldte, 
dolomite, ankerite, magnesite; Oxides: magnetite; hydroxide: brudte. 

WSATHBRINO Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Silica: quartz, chalcedony, opal; Car6(^na/e5; Amgonitc, zaiBiite; Hydrous silicate: dewey- 
lite, genthite (gamierite) ; Hydrous sulfate: epsomite; hydrous oxide: limonite. 

Magmatic deposits of chromite have been mined in the past in Southern Lancaster 
and Chester Counties, at Wood's mine, the Line Pit, and Scott's mine. At a number of 
localities actinolite and talc have been produced by the dehydration of serpentines by 
intrusive granites or pegmatites (see under Desilicated granitic pegmatites below). 

PEGMATITES 

SILICIC (GRANITIC) PEGMATITES 

Primary Minbrals: 

Silica: quartz; Trisilicates, feldspars: orthodase, microdine, albite, oligodase; Mela- 
silicates, pyroocenes: spodumene; amphiboles: hornblende; mi^c. beryl, ioMtt; Orthosilicates, 
garnets: almandite, spessartite; phenadte; 6ofo-: tourmaline, dumortierite;)7«(^; topaz; 
micas: lepidolite, muscovite, biotite; rare-earth: thorite, zircon, gadolinite, allanite; 
Phosphates: triphylite, lithiophyllite, fluo-: apatite, triplite, amblygonite; rare-earth: 
monazite, xenotime; Columbates, tantalates, etc.: fergusonite, columbite, tantalite, eschynite, 
polycrase, euxenite, samarskite, microlite; Tungstates: wolframite, scheelite; Oxides: 
chrysoberyl, rutile, cassiterite, uraninite, magnetite, ilmenite; Fluorides: cryolite; Car- 
bonates: siderite; Sulfides: molybdenite, bismuthinite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite; 
Elements: gold. 

Wbathbring Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Silica: opal (hjralite); Orthosilicates, hydroxy-: vermiculite, kaolinite, allophane; hydrous: 
tunnophane; Hydrous oxides: limonite, wad, gummite; Phosphates, hydroxy-: autunite, 
torbemite. 

The granitic pegmatites are a familiar type of rock in southeastern Pennsylvania, 
forming intrusive dikes and veins in the various schists and gndsses. 

Abnormal types occur in the meta-peridotite and meta-pjrroxenite areas, due to the 
desilicating action of the serpentine upon the invading pegmatitic solutions. Evidence 
of reaction is to be seen in the zones of vermiculite (altered biotite), actinolite, and talc 
which lie between the abnormal pegmatites and the serpentine. The result of the reaction 
between the serpentine and the pegmatitic solutions was a depletion in the latter of silica, 
alumina, potash, and fluorine used in the production of the contact zones. The abstraction 
of most of this material caused the crystallization of the remainder into these abnormal 
pegmatites, one type of which consists soleb' of albite (albitite), and the other of albite or 
oligodase, with corundum, tourmaline, and margarite (plumasite). Albitites occur 
at Sylmar, Nottingham, and Brinton's quarry, Chester County. Plumasites occur at 



18 ORIGIN AND OCCURRHNCB OP MINERAI^ 

Unionville, Chester County, and at Morgan Station, and Black Horse, Delaware 
County. The mineralogy of the desUicated granitic pegmatites is simple: 

Dbsilicatbd Granitic Pbgmatitss 
Primary: 

TrisUicaUs, feldspars: albite, oligodase, andesine; Metasdicates: beryl; OrtkosilicaUs, 
boro-: tourmaline; micas: muscovite, biotite; margarite; Oxides: corundum, diaspore. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Hydroxy-orihosUicaUs: kaolinite, colerainite, vermiculite. 

The minerals produced in the contact zone have been considered above under 
Magnesia igneous rocks. 

ALKALIC PEGMATITES 
Primary Minerals: 

TrisUicaUs, feldspars: microdine, albite, oligodase; Jlf«to5i/»ca/«5; leudte; Orihcsilicales: 
nephelite, cancrinite, sodalite, noselite; MetasUicates, pyroxenes: augite, acmite, aegirite; 
amphiboles: arfvedsonite, enigmatite; OrthosilicaUs: andradite; horo-: homilite; micas: 
biotite, lepidomelane; Rare-earth silicates; acid: eudidymite; metasilicates: rosenbuschite, 
• livenite, wdhlerite, hiortdahlite, eudialite, catapleiite, melanocerite, leucophanite; oriho- 
silicates: zircon, thorite, schorlomite titanite, astrophyllite, mosandrite, neptunite, benito- 
ite; Phosphates: xenotime; Columbates: polymignite; Oxides: ilmenite. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Hydroxy-orthosiUcates: kaolinite; Hydrous oxides: limonite, bauxite. 

The alkalic pegmatites are exceedingly rare, being limited to a few localities in the 
world, and always associated with the alkalic igneous rocksf rom which they have been 
derived. No Pennsylvania occurrences are known. 

CALCIC PEGMATITES 
Primary Minerals: 

Trisilicates, feldspars: microcline, albite, oligodase, andesine, labradorite; MelasUicates: 

pyroxenes: augite; amphiboles: hornblende; OrthosilicaUs: andradite, wemerite; micas: 

biotite, phlogopite; rare-earth: zircon, titanite; Phosphates: apatite; Carbonates: calcite; 

Fluorides: fluorite; Oxides: rutile, magnetite, ilmenite; Sulfides: molybdenite, pyrite, 

p3rrrhotite; Elements: graphite. 
Weatherino Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Hydroxy-orthosiUcates: kaolinite, vermiculite; Silica: chalcedony, opal; hydrous oxide: 

limonite. 

The calcic pegmatites are quite rare, examples being the apatite-scapolite veins of 

Norway, and the nelsonite dikes of Virginia. 

HTDROTHERlffAL DBPOSITS 

Economically, this group is one of the most important. The minerals may 
be best considered genetically with reference to the most prominent metal present. Con- 
tact deposits are included within this group, although the characteristic "contact" minerals 
formed are considered under the type of rock metamorphosed. Calcareous sediments, etc. 

Non-metallic Minerals (Gangue) 

Primary: 

SiHca: quartz, chalcedony, opal; TrisiUcates, feldspars: orthodase (adularia, valendanite) ; 
MetasiUcates: rhodonite; Carbonates: calcite, dolomite, ankerite, siderite, rhodochrosite; 
Sulfates: barite; Fluorides: fluorite. 

Gold Minerals 

Primary: 

Elements: gold; Tellurides: krennerite (calaverite), petzite, sylvanite; Sulfides: auriferous 

pjrrite. 
Weathering products: 
Elements: gold. 



ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS 19 

Silver Minerals 
Primary: 

Elements: silver; Sulfides: argentite; Tellurides: hessite, petzite, sylvanite; StUfarsenites: 

proustite; Sidfantimonites: stephanite, pyrargyrite, polybasite. 
Hydrombtamorphs: (Secondary enrichment minerals) 

Sulfides: argentite; StUfarsenites: proustite; Sulfantimonites: dyscrasite, stephanite, 

pyrargyrite, polybasite. 
Wjjathering Products: 

Elements: silver, amalgam ; Halides: cerargyrite, embolite, iodyrite. 

Copper Minerals 

Primary: 

Sulfides: chalcopyrite; Arsenides: tennantite, Suljarsenate: enargite; Sulfantimonites: 
tetrahedrite; Sulfbismutites: emplectite. 

Hydrombtamorphs: (Secondary enrichment minerals) 
Sulfides: covellite, chalcocite, bomite. 

Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Halides: nantokite, atacamite; Oxides: cuprite, tenorite, melaconite; Hydroxy-carbonates: 
malachite, azurite, aurichalcite; Hydrous silicate: chrysocoUa; Hydroxy-sulfates: brochan- 
- tite; Hydrous sulfates: chalcanthite, linarite; Hydroxy-phosphates: libethenite, pseudo- 
malachite; Hydroxy-arsenates: olivenite. 

Lead Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: galena; Sulfantimonites: jamesonite, boumonite. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Oxides: minium, massicot, plattnerite; Carbonates: cerussite; Sulfates: anglesite; Chro- 

mates: crocoite; Tungstates: stolzite; Molybdates: wulfenite; Phosphates: p)rromorphite; 

Arsenates: mimetite; Vanadates: vanadinite, descloizite. 

Zinc Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: sphalerite. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Carbonates: smithsonite; hydroxy-: hydrozincite, ^urichalate; Hydroxy-silicates: calamine; 

Hydroxy-phosphates: hopeite, tarbuttite. 

Iron Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: pyrite, chalcopyrite; Oxides: magnetite, hematite; Carbonates: siderite. 
Weathering Products: 

Hydrous oxides: limonite. 

Nickel Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: polydyinite; Arsenides: niccolite, chloanthite; 5«//an/»m(mi^: ullmannite. 
Weathering Products: (in part hydrometamorphs) 

Arsenates: annabergite; Sulfates: morenosite, lindackerite. 

Cobalt Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: linnaeite, carrolite; Arsenides: smaltite; Sulfarsenites: cobaltite, glaucodot. 
Weathering Products: 

Carbonates: spherocobaltite; Arsenates: erythrite. 

Arsenic Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: realgar, orpiment. 
Weathering Products: 

Sulfides: orpiment; oxides: arsenolite; Elements: arsenic. 



20 ORIGIN AND OCCURRBNC9 OP lONBRALS 

AnUmony Minerals 
Primary: 

Elements: antimony; Sulfides: stibnite. 
Wbathbring Products: 

Oxides: senarmontite, stibiconite, cervantite. 

Mercury Minerals 
Primary: 

Sulfides: cinnabar; Selenides: tiemannite» onofrite, coloradoite. 

Hydromstamorphs and W^thsring Products: 

Elements: merciuy, amalgam; Halides: terlinguaite, eglestonite, montroydite, calomel. 

The principal hydrothermal deposits of Pennsylvania are associated with intrusive 
Triassic diabase: the lead and zinc veins of Perkiomen and Phoenixville, and the contact 
magnetite deposits of Cornwall, French Creek, Fritz Island, and Boyertown. 

FUMAROLIC DSPOSirS 

Primary: 

Sulfates, anhydrous: mascagnite, aphthitalite, hydrocyanite, dolerophanite; hydrous: 
epsomite, picromerite, cyanochroite, voltaite; Halides, anhydrous: halite, sylvite, sal- 
ammoniac, hydrophilite, scacchite, cotunnite; Oxides: tenorite, massicot, hematite, 
magnesioferrite; Hydroxides: sassolite; Elements: sulfm-. 

SEDIMBNTS 

SILICEOUS AND ARGILLACEOUS SEDIMENTS 

This group may be most conveniently subdivided as follows: (a) the unmetamor- 
phosed sediments: the sands, gravels, sandstones, conglomerates, and shales; and (b) 
the metamorphosed sediments: slates, para-schists and para-gneisses. 

Unmbtamorfhossd 

(Sands, gravels, sandstones, conglomerates, shales) 
Primary: 

Silica: quartz, chalcedony, opal; TrisiliccUes, feldspars: orthodase^ microdine; Hydroxy- 
orihosiUcates: muscovite, kaolinite, chlorite; Hydrous-oxides: limonite; Carbonates: 
calcite. (Cements: quartz, opal, limonite, caldte). 

Accessory and Segregated Minerals 
Primary: 

Orthosilicates: almandite; zircon, titanite; Phosphates: monazite; Oxides: corundum, 
spind, hematite, magnetite, chromite, rutile, cassiterite, ilmenite; dements: diamond, gold, 
platinum. 

Epigenetic Concentrations 

Primary: 

Sulfides: pyrite, galena, chalcop3rrite, bomite, chalcodte. 

Wbathkring Products: (in part hydrometamorphs) 

Hydroxides: goethite; hydrous oxides: limonite, wad; hydroxy-carbonates: malachite, 
azurite. Phosphates: camotite, wavdlite, strengite, cacoxentie, beraunite; Vanadates: 
volborthite, caldovolborthite. 

The unmetamorphosed sediments may vary greatly in composition. While usually 
mechanically derived, they may in some cases be of chemical or organic origin. The 
character of the mechanically derived sediments depends largdy on circumstances existing 
at the time of formation, and two important groups may be recognized, (a) those formed 
under water, and (b) the suba€rial deposits, such as the familiar red sandstones, conglom- 
erates and shales of the Triassic. The epigenetic concentrations listed above occur 
chiefly in sediments of suba€rial origin, examples being the camotite deposits of Mauch 
Chunk, and the chalcocite occurrences of Bradford and Tioga counties. Perhaps to be in- 



ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF MINERAI^ 21 

duded here are the residual goethite and limonite deposits caused by the weathering of 
the Cambro-Ordovidan shales of Center, Cumberland, York, Lancaster, Berks, Chester, 
and Montgomery counties. 

Mbtamorphossd 

(Slates, para-schists and para-gneisses) 

Dynamic M^amorphs: (also contact metamorphs) 

SUica: quartz; TristHcaies, feldspars: orthoclase, microcline, albite, oligoclase; Meta- 
silicates: hornblende; OrthosUicaUs: almandite; horo-: totu-maline; micas: muscovite, 
biotite; chlorite; oxy-: cyanite, sillimanite, andalusite; zoisite, epidote, statu-olite; zircon, 
titanite; Phosphates: apatite; Oxides: corundum, hematite, rutile, spinel, magnetite, 
ilmenite; Sulfides: pyrite, chalcopyrite; Elements: graphite. 

WsATHSRiNG Products; 

Hydroxy-sUicates: kaolinite, chlorite, vermiculite; Silica: opal; Hydrous oxides: limonite; 
Hydrous sulfates: alunogen, halotrichite, kalinite. 

CALCAREOUS AND MAGNKSIAN SEDIMENTS 

This group includes the limestones, and dolomites. Epigenetic concentrations of 
barite, celestite, galena, and sphalerite occur in Pennsylvania at the following places: 
Franklin County (barite), Blair County (celestite), Friedensville, Lehigh County (sphaler- 
ite), Lancaster County (galena). 

Primary: 

Carbonates: calcite, dolomite, ankerite, siderite, aragonite. Silica: quartz, chalcedony, 
opal; Hydroxy 'Silicates: kaolinite; Elements: graphite. 

Dynamic Mstamorphs: 

Djrnamo-metamorphism may cause recrystallizations of the above minerals, producing 
marbles from the limestone. A few of the minerals listed below may be formed. 

CoNtACT Metamorphs: 

Trisilicates, feldspars: orthoclase; Metasilicates, pyroxenes: diopside, schefferite, augite, 
woUastonite; amphiboles: tremolite, hornblende, edenite; Orthosilicates, garnets: grossul- 
arite, andradite; wemerite, vesuvianite, epidote, zoisite; bora-: danburite, tourmaline; 
fluo-: chondrodite; micas: phlogopite; Fluo-phosphates: apatite; Oxides: corundtmi, 
spinel, magnetite, ilmenite; Sulfides: pyrite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite; Elements: graphite; 
Carbonates: calcite, dolomite. 

Weathering Products: (in part hydrometamorphs) 
Carbonates: calcite, aragonite. 

Epigenetic Concentrations 
Hydrometamorphs : 

Sulfides: pyrite, marcasite, galena, sphalerite; Sulfates: barite, celestite. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Carbonates: cerussite, smithsonite; hydrozincite, aurichalcite; Hydroxy-sUicates: calamine; 
Hydrous .sulfates: goslarite. 

Contact metamorphic minerals are of common occurrence in the limestones at 
Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County; the Avondale-Doe Rim district, Chester County; 
and at the Cornwall, French Creek, and Fritz Island iron mines. 

FERRUGINOUS, MANGANIFEROUS, AND ZINCIFEROUS SEDIMENTS 

Iron Deposits 
Primary: 

Carbonates: siderite; Silica: chalcedony (jasper, chert); Silicates: kaolinite, glauconite; 

Hydroxy-oxides: goethite; Hydrous oxides: limonite; Phosphates: vivianite. 
I>YNAMic Metamorphs: 

Oxides: hematite, magnetite. 

Manganese Deposits 
Pjumary: (?) 
I>YNAMic Metamorphs: 

Metasilicates: schefferite, rhodonite; OrthosUicates: tephroite; spessartite, piedmontite. 



22 ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OP MINERALS 

Hydrothermal Metamorphs: 

Metasilicates: barysilite, ganomalite, hyalotekite; Orthosilicates: trimerite, harstigite, 
melanotekite, caryopilite, ganophyllite; Phosphates, arsenates, etc.: caryinite, ochrolite, 
berzeliite, monimolite, ecdemite, ssmadelphite, fiinkite, arseniopleite, manganstibiite, 
sarkinite; Borates: pinakiolite; Oxides: langbanite, jacobsite, pyrochroite. 

Weathering Products: 

Oxides: psilomelane, wad. 

• 

Iron-Manganese-Zinc Deposits 
Primary: (?) 
Dynamic Metamorphs: 

Metasilicates: schefferite, rhodonite; Orthosilicates: spessartite, tephroite, willemite; 

Oxides: zincite, franklinite, gahnite. 
Hydrothermal Metamorphs: 

Silicates: nasonite, glaucochroite, hancockite, clinohedrite, hodgkinsonite, roeblingite, 

leucophoenicite, bementite; hardystonite, Borates: sussexite; Carbonates: rhodochrosite. 
Weathering Products: (in part Hydrometamorphs) 

Carbonates: smithsonite, hydrozincite; Hydroxy-silicates: calamine; Hydroxides: 

chalcophanite ; Hydrous oxides: limonite. 

While ferruginous deposits of sedimentary origin are well known, the metamorphosed 

manganese and iron-manganese-zinc deposits are exceedingly rare, the former type being 

illustrated by the deposit at Langban, Sweden, and the latter by the deposits at Franklin, 

and Sterling Hill, New Jersey. These deposits are to be regarded genetically, as the result 

of a sequence of unusual circumstances. 

SALINE RESIDUES 
Primary: 

Carbonates: calcite, aragonite, doloniite, strontianite; hydrous: natron, trona; chloro-: 
kainite; Sulfates, anhydrous: anhydrite, celestite, barite, thenardite, glauberite; hydrous: 
mirabilite, kieserite, epsomite, g3rpsum, polyhalite; Borates: boracite, borax, howlite, 
ulexite; Nitrates: soda-niter, niter; Chlorides: halite, sylvite, camallite. 

PHOSPHATIC DEPOSITS 
Primary: 

Phosphates: phosphorite; and a number of indefinite mixtures of phosphates of various 

elements such as guana, osteolite, staffelite, etc. 
Hydrometamorphs : 

Phosphates, normal hydrous: struvite, collophanite, bobierrite, minervite; acid hydroxy-: 

monetite; acid hydrous: stercorite, brushite, martinite, newberryite; Sulfates: mascagnite; 

Carbonates: teschemacherite; Oxalates: oxammite. 

CARBONACEOUS DEPOSITS^ 

Amber Series 

Hydrocarbons, simple: scheerite, ozocerite, fichtelite, hartite, kdnlite; oxygenated: suc- 
cinite, retinite, bathvillite, dysodile, pyroretinite, leucopetrite, geomjrrite, geocerite, 
bombiccite, dopplerite. 

Petroleum Series 

Hydrocarbons: petroleum, asphaltum, elaterite. 

Coal Series 
Primary: 

Hydrocarbons: peat. 
Dynamic Metamorphs: 

Hydrocarbons: lignite, cannel coal, bituminous coal, anthracite. Elements: graphite. 

* Little is known of the genetic history of these substances, with the exception of the coal series. 



Ill 



GENERAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Provinces 
Coastal Plain 



PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS' 

Character 



Geology 



Piedmont Pla- 
teau 



Lowland sloping toward the At- 
lantic. (Extreme eastern edge of 
state only.) 

A moderately elevated sloping up- 
land, above which rise residual mo- 
nadnocks, which have been more 
resistant to erosion. 



Highland 
Province 



Blue Ridge 
Province 



Appalachian 
Ridge and 
Valley Province 

Appalachian 
Plateau 



Low hills; a southern extension of 
the Highlands of northern New 
Jersey, and southern New York. 

Low maturely dissected moun- 
tains, marking the northern ex- 
tension of the Blue Ridge and 
Catoctin Mountains of Maryland 
and Virginia. 

A series of long, parallel, even 
crested ridges, with intervening 
valleys. 

Plateau of moderate to low relief, 
glaciated in the northern part. 



Unconsolidated Cretaceous, Ter- 
tiary, and Quaternary sand, gravel, 
and day, on a basement of gneiss 
and schist. 

Crystalline gneiss, schist, etc., 
and Cambro-Ordovidan quartzite, 
schist, and limestone in the southern 
part. 

Triassic sandstone, shale, con- 
glomerate, and intrusive diabase in 
the northern part. 

Precambrian crystalline gneiss, 
schist, limestone, etc., and Cambro- 
Ordovidan quartzite, limestone, etc. 

Metamorphosed Precambrian vol- 
canic rocks: basalt and rhyolite; 
Cambrian quartzite. 



Highly folded Paleozoic sand- 
stone, quartzite, shale, limestone, 
etc. 

Devonian, Mississippian, Penn- 
sylvanian, and Permian sandstone, 
shale, limestone, fire day, coal, etc. 



GBimRAL GBOLOGY op THE PiBDMONT SOUTH OP THB TriASSIC BBLT>^ 

Ordovician 



Formation 
Octoraro schist 



Character 

Quartz-muscovite schist, with 
pronounced lamination. The 
laminae are bluish or grayish-green, 
with a silvery luster. 

The lower beds are more cal- 
careous and siliceous. 



Minerals 

Chief constituents: quartz, mus- 
covite, orthoclase, chlorite. 

Accessory: plagioclase, biotite, 
tourmaline, apatite, perovskite? 
magnetite, ilmenite, and pyrite 
more or less altered to limonite. 



* Cf. Nevin M. Pennemaxi, Physiographic divisions of the United States: Annals Assoc. Am. Geographers, 
e, 10-98, 1016. 

>* Theodore Rand, Notes on the geology of southeastern Pennsylvania: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila., 44, 
174-202, 1802. 

P. Bascom, Philadelphia and Trenton folios: U. S. Geol. Survey. Geologic folios 162 and 167, 1900. 

Edson S. Bastin. Peldspar deposits of the United SUtes: U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 420, 63-72. 1010. 

B. h. Millet , Graphite deposits of Pennsylvania: Top. & Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep., 6, 1012. 

T. Nelson Dale. Slate in the United States: U. S. Geol. Surv, Bull.. 586, 110-115. 1014. 

Eleonora F. Bliss and Anna I. Jonas. Relation of the Wissahickon gneiss to the Shenandoah limestone 
and Octoraro schist of the Doe Run and Avondale fgion, Chester County, Pennsylvania: U. S. Gtol. Surv. Prof. 
Paper 08-B, 1016. 

The age of the Wissahickon gneiss is in dispute. The work of Rand indicates the formation to be Pale- 
ozoic, and his conclusions are adopted here. The other authors listed above have considered the formation to be 
Precambrian . 



24 



GBNQRAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Peachbottom slate 
member 



Wissahickon mica 
gneiss 



Shenandoah lime- 
stone 



Chiddes formation 



Baltimore gneiss 



Franklin limestone 



Pickering" gneiss 



Granitic pegmatite 



Albitite and Pluma- 
site: (desilicated 
granitic pegma- 
tite) 



Quartz-sericite-chlorite schist, 
sometimes calcareous; and dark 
gray, slightly bluish, slate. 

Quart£-feldspar-mica gneiss or 
schist; silvery gray to greenish, 
medium to coarse-grained. Often 
so thoroughly injected by meta- 
gabbro and pegmatite, as to form an 
injection-gneiss. The folia are usu- 
ally wavy, and the beds show 
minute crumpling and folding. 

Cambro-Ordovician 

A heavily bedded, crystalline, 
white or blue, siliceous and mag- 
nesian limestone, with interbedded 
siliceous or micaceous schist. 

Cambrian 

Massive quartzite, with a conglo- 
meratic base, and siliceous slate, 
seriate schist, or quartz schist. 

A considerable thickness of mica- 
ceous feldspathic material occurs 
interbedded with the quartzite 
west of the Philadelphia district. 

Precambrian 

A light to dark gray, medium 
grained, massive or gneissic rock, 
sometimes pseudo-porphyritic. 

The gneiss is locally very tho- 
roughly injected by gabbro, and 
constitutes a composite formation. 

The gneissic fades shows a fine 
and intensely plicated banding. 

A coarsely crystalline marble, 
usually darkened . in color by the 
presence of silicates. The form- 
ation is often thoroughly injected 
with gabbro. 

The Franklin limestone occurs 
intimately associated with the Pick- 
ering gneiss and may constitute but 
a phase of that formation. 

Graphitic gneiss and quartz- 
schist, variable in composition. 

Igneous Rocks 

Coarse grained quartz-microdine 
rocks, or smoky quartz veins form- 
ing irregidar masses, more or less 
lens-shaped, or dikes. 



Coarse grained rocks occurring as 
intrusive masses in meta-peridotite, 
or at the contact of meta-peridotite 
and Wissahickon gneiss. 



Chief constituents: quartz, mus- 
covite, and chlorite. 

Accessory: andalusite, graphite, 
magnetite, rutile, and zircon. 

Chief constituents: quartz, feld- 
spars, biotite, and muscovite. 

Accessory: garnet, tourmaline, 
sillimanite, zoisite, apatite, zircon, 
and magnetite, and locally: stauro- 
lite, cyanite, or andalusite. 



Chief constituents: caldte and 
dolomite. 

Accessory: quartz, feldspar, phlo- 
gopite, graphite, pyrite, and siderite 



Chief constituents: quartz and 
fddspar. 

Accessory: stretched or broken 
tourmaline aystals, staurolite, apa- 
tite, perovskite? zircon, hematite 
and magnetite. Locally the quart- 
zite may contain geodes lined with 
quartz crystals. 



Chief constituents: quartz, fdd- 
spar, hornblende, and biotite. 

Accessory: epidote, garnet, ti- 
tanite, and zircon. 



Chief constituent: caldte. 

Accessory: orthoclase, oligodase, 
bytownite, pyroxene, amphibole, 
scapolite, phlogopite, apatite, and 
titanite. 



Chief constituents: quartz, fdd- 
spars, hornblende, biotite, caldte 
and much graphite. 



Chief constituents: quartz, mi- 
crodine, albite, oUgodiEise, mus- 
covite biotite, toumudine, garnet, 
and beryl. 

Many rare minerals occur in the 
pegmatites. No regidarity is shown 
in the distribution of the minerals. 

Chief constituents: albite, oligo- 
clase, tourmaline, margarite, mus- 
covite, and corundum. 

Zones of chlorite, talc, chrysotile, 
and vermiculite occur adjacent to 
the veins. 



" F. BMcom, quoted by B. L. Miller , 1. c, 1913. 



GENERAL GEOU)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



25 



Metapyroxenite 
and metaperido- 
tite 



Granite gneiss 



Hornblende gneiss 



Metagabbro 



Gabbro and norite, 
and diorite 



Serpentine, talc, anthophyllite 
and chlorite schists. 

Unaltered pyroxenite is uncom- 
mon in Pennsylvania. 

The metapyroxenites and meta- 
peridotites are genetically connected 
with the gabbros, occurring as 
peripheral masses to the gabbro, or 
as bodies in or near it. 



A medium to coarse grained, light 
colored, gneissic or massive rock. 
Along the contact with Wissahickon 
gneiss an injection gneiss (with a 
porphyritic structure) has been pro- 
duced by the penetration of the, 
magma parallel to planes of fissility. 

Dark colored, medium grained 
gneiss. 



Dark colored, massive to thor- 
oughly schistose dikes in the Balti- 
more and Wissahickon gneisses. 



or 



A medium grained, massive 
more or less schistose rock. 

Typically a hypersthene-augite- 
plagioclase rock. 



The primary minerals are olivine 
and enstatite, with accessory chro- 
mite and magnetite. 

Minerals developed by hydro- 
thermal metamorphism include 
hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, 
asbestus, epidote, talc, chlorite, 
serpentine, and magnetite. 

Quartz (drusy), chalcedony, mag- 
nesite, sepiolite, and deweylite, are 
produced by weathering. 

Chief constituents: quartz, or- 
thodase or microcline, biotite, and 
hornblende. 

Accessory: actinolite, epidote, 
apatite, and titanite. 



Chief constituents: hornblende* 
orthodase, microcline, oligodase* 
biotite, and quartz. 

Accessory: epidote, apatite, and 
titanite. 

Chief constituents: hornblende, 
feldspar (chiefly plagioclase), and 
quartz. 

Accessory: biotite, gaiiiet, actin- 
olite, anthophyllite, zoisite, chlor- 
ite, muscovite, pyrite, and titanite. 

Chief primary constituents: hy- 
persthene, augite, and labradorite, 
with accessory quartz, biotite, or- 
thoclase, titanite, magnetite, apa- 
tite, and pyrrhotite. 

Metamorphic products are actino- 
lite, chlorite, garnet, and serpentine. 

Narrow "reaction rims" of garnet 
occur between the pyroxene and 
labradorite. On the inner margin 
of the rims there may be a zone of 
quartz and hornblende. 



GbnbralOsology op TH9 Triassic Bblt of the Piedmont 

Triassic: Newark Groups* ^ 
Formation Character 

Brunswick shale 



Thickness 
4000-5000' 



Soft red shales, with a few pintle, green, ydlow^^and black 
layers, and some local sandstone layers. Lentipular masses 
of green shale occur locally. Ripple marks, mud cracks, rain 
drop impressions, and glauberite crystal cavities. 

>* Arthur C. Spencer, Magnetite deposits of the Cornwall type in Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Sorv. Bull., 
859, 1008. 

N. H. Darton, Philaddphia and Trenton folios: U. S. Geol. Surv. folios. 162 and 167, 1909. 

Edgar T. Wherry, Contributions to the mineralogy of the Newark group in Pennsylvania: Trans. Wagner 
F^ee Inst. Science, 7, 7-27, 1910. The Newark copper deposits of southeastern Pennsylvania: Bcon. Geol., 3, 
726-738, 1908. Silidfied wood from the Triassic of Pennsylvania: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1912, 866-372; 
Age and correlation of the "New Red" or Newark Group in Pennsylvania: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1912, 
878-379. Glauberite crystal cavities in the Triassic rocks of eastern Pennsylvania: Am. Min., 1, 37-43, 1916. 

George W. Stose and J. Volney Lewis, Triassic igneous rocks in the vidnity of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 
Bun. Geol. Soc. America, 27. 628-644, 1916. 

Anna I. Jonas, The Precambrian and Triassic diabase in eastern Pennsylvania: Bull. Am. Mua. Nat. 
Hist., 87, 178-181, 1917. 

George W. Stose, Glauberite crjrstal cavities in the Tiiassic rocks in the vicinity of Gettsrsburg, Pa.: 
Am. Min., 4. 1-4, 1919. 



26 



GENERAL GEOWXJY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



Formation 

Lockatong forma- 
tion 



Stockton formation 



Formation 
Basalt 



Diabase 



Thickness 
2000-3000' 



3500-4000' 



Triq^sic: Newark Group {^Continued) 

Character 

Hard, dark gray to pmple shales, black and purplish argil- 
lite, dark gray and green flagstone, and some thin layers of 
calcareous shale. Ripple marks, mud cracks, and rain drop 
impressions occur at all horizons. 

Gray to buff, coarse, arkosic conglomerate; yellow mica- 
ceous sandstone or freestone; and soft red argillaceous shale. 
Layers of green, purple, and black shales occur at all horizons. 
Many of the sandstones are crossbedded, and exhibit 
ripple marks, mud cracks, and rain drop impressions. 

Igneous Rocks 

Character 

Extrusive sheets two miles south of Jacksonwald, Berks Coimty, and 
south of BendersviUe, Adams County. Two types occur: 

Dense black basalt, in places vesicular, and having a glassy ground- 
mass. 

Olivine basalt, with abundant olivine. 

Basalt may also develop as a contact fades of diabase. 

Intrusive sheets and dikes. The following types occur: 

(1) Normal augite-labradorite diabase. 

(2) Feldspathic diabase or anorthosite. 

(3) Quartz diabase with abundant quartz. 

(4) Micropegmatite, consisting largely of micrographic quartz and 
orthoclase. 

(5) Aplite. Essentially a quartz-orthoclase rock. 

(6) Hypersthene diabase. 

(7) Olivine diabase, with abundant olivine. The feldspar may occur 
altered to fine scaly (apparently seridtic) aggregates, or kaolin. The 
pjrroxene is often altered to uralitic amphibole, or to serpentine, chlorite, 
and magnetite. Epidote is abundant in places. 

Genetically connected with the diabase are the hydrothermal veins of 
galena and sphalerite of Montgomery and Chester County, and the 
contact deposits of magnetite of the Cornwall type. 



Gbnerai^ Gbology of Lebanon, Berks, Lehigh, and Northampton Counties^* 

Ordovician 
Character 



Formation 
Martinsburg shale 



Nazareth formation 
(Lower Trenton) 

Nisky or Lehigh 
limestone (Black 
River) 



Black shale, with interbedded layers of dark colored sand- 
stone in the middle portion. In the vidnity of Nazareth, 
Bangor, and Slatington, the shale has been metamorphosed 
to slate. Pyrite is common locally. 

T>ray to black shaly limestone (cement rock). Replaced 
toward the west and south by Martinsbiu-g shale. 

Gray to black shaly limestone. An important cement 
rock. 



Thickness 
3000' 



0-500' 



100' 



" Edgar T. Wherry, The early Paleozoic of the Lehigh Valley district, Pennsylvania: Science, 30, 416, 1909. 

Benjamin L. Miller, The mineral pigments of Pennsylvania: Top. & Geol. Surv. Penna., Rep. 4, 1911. 

Frederick B. Peck, Preliminary report on the talc and serpentine of Northampton County and the Portland 
cement materials of the Lehigh district: Top. & Geol. Surv. Penna., Rep. 5, 1911. 

H. N. Eaton, The geology of South Mountain at the junction of Berks Z/Cbanon, and Lancaster Counties, 
Pennsylvania: Jour. Geol., 20, 331-343, 1912. 

Anna I. Jonas, The Precambrian and Triassic diabase of eastern Pennsylvania: Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 37, 173-181, 1917. 

Edgar T. Wherry, Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the Highlands of eastern Pennsylvania: Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Am., 29, 376-392, 1918. 

Samuel G. Gordon, Ordovician basalts and quartz diabases in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania: Proc. 
Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., 72, 354-357, 1920. 



GENBRAI^ GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



27 



Coplay limestone 
(Beekmantovoi) 



Dark bluish-gray, thick bedded dolomitic limestone pas- 
sing upward into thinner beds of mottled magnesian limestone 
with interstratified beds of piu'e limestone. Some shaly 
layers are present. Veins of quartz, calcite, and dolomite 
filling joints are common. 



snrxf 



loOO 



Formation 

Allentown lime- 
stone (Upper C) 



Leithsville or 

Tomstown for- 
mation (Lower 
Middle C) 

Hardyston quartz- 
ite (Lower C) 



Cambrian 

Character 

Massive beds of white to gray dolomite or dolomitic lime- 
stone, with frequent bands of oolitic material, the upper 
stu^ace of which is often covered with the coral-like Crypto- 
zoon proliferum. 

Bufif colored sandy shale and shaly limestone with occa- 
sional strata of compact thick bedded limestone containing 
nodules of black to gray chert. 



Bluish or grayish quartzite, with a coarse conglomerate 
at the bottom. The uppermost member is a fine grained, 
almost jaspery, highly ferruginous quartzite. 

Circulating waters have converted the quartzite along the 
northwest flank of South Mountain into a ferruginous chert, 
chert breccia, or brown iron ore. 



Thickness 
2000' 



1500' 



0^100' 



Formation 
Franklin limestone 



Quartz-mica schist 



Graphitic quartzite 
(Pickering gneiss) 



Basic (amphibolite) 
gneiss 



Basalt 



Quartz diabase 



Precambrian 

Character 

A coarsely crystalline limestone, 
very faintly stratified. The rock 
has been greatly metamorphosed, 
and often has lost its identity. It 
occurs interstratified with the for- 
mations below. 

Quartz-mica schist, quartzite, and 
muscovite schist. Orthoclase has 
been extensively introduced where 
emanations from igneous magmas 
have acted on the rock. The ex- 
treme action of the magma is 
represented by finely banded 
gneisses. 

A bluish-gray quartzite when 
least altered, but feldspar and other 
constituents have been extensively 
introduced by invading magmas. 

Dark colored gneiss. Individual 
bands persist for considerable dis- 
tances, but the gneisses vary rapidly 
across the bands. 

Occurs interbedded with the 
graphitic quartzite, limestone, and 
quartz-mica schist. 



Minerals 

Principal minerals: calcite, diop- 
side, tremolite, biotite, serpentine, 
asbestus, apatite, and titanite. 



Chief constituents: quartz, seri- 
cite, and sillimanite. 

Accessory minerals (locally abun- 
dant): garnet, tourmaline, biotite, 
apatite, zircon, ilmenite, and pyrite. 



Chief constituents: quartz, and 
graphite. 

Accessory: feldspars, garnet, bio- 
tite, zircon, apatite, and pyrite. 

Chief constituents : quartz, horn- 
blende (or biotite or augite), ortho- 
clase and oligoclase. 

Accessory: ilmenite, magnetite, 
and rotmded zircons. 



Ordovician (Igneous Rocks) 



Dark greenish or black amyg- 
daloidal tuffs or breccias, vesicular 
on weathering. 

Dark greenish-black, fine grained 
to porphyritic rock. 



Chief constituents: glass; labra- 
dorite and augite; calcite amyg- 
dules. 

Chief constituents: augite, labra- 
dorite, and magnetite, with inter- 
stitial graphic intergrowths of 
quartz and orthoclase. 



28 



GENERAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Formation 
Pegmatite 

Diabase 



Precambrian (Igneous Rocks) 
Character 



Minerals 



Losee (dioritic) 
gneiss 



Byram (granitic) 
gneiss 

Pochuck (gabbroic) 
gneiss 



Veins and lenses of quartz and 
feldspar rocks are common in the 
various gneisses. 

Dikes cutting the other Pre- 
cambrian rocks. The rock is quite 
dark, and generally fine grain^l. 



A light colored, sometimes white, 
gneiss. 



Light colored, medium to fine 
grained rock. 



A dark, medium to fine grained, 
gabbroic gneiss. 



Principal minerals: quartz, mi- 
crocline, albite, garnet, beryl, tour- 
maline, muscovite, and biotite. 

Chief constituents: aug^ite and 
labradorite, with characteristic ac- 
cessoiy pyrrhotite and quartz. 
Chlorite, uralite, and zoisite, occur 
as alteration products. 

Chief constituents: quartz, oligo- 
clase, diopside, hornblende, and 
biotite, with accessory apatite, 
titanite, zircon, and magnetite. 

Chief constituents: quartz, or- 
thodase and microperthite, biotite, 
epidote, chlorite, and magnetite. 

Chief constituents: feldspar, py- 
roxene (augite generally altered to 
hornblende), and magnetite. 



Formation 
Martinsburg shale 



Chambersburg 
limestone 

Stones River lime- 
stone 



Beekmantown 
limestone 



Formation 

Conococheague 
limestone (Upper 
C) 



General Geology op Frankun, Adams, and Cumberland Cotn«TiEs^* 

Ordovician 

Character 

Black shale with yellowish-green, sandy strata in the up- 
per portion. The lower part is black, carbonaceous and 
fissile. Slaty cleavage is common. 

Thin bedded, fossiliferous limestone with argillaceous 
partings. 

Pure limestone with magnesian layers. Thin beds of 
chert occur in the middle. Caldte veins are common in the 
lower beds. 

Thick bedded, rather pure limestone interbedded with 
magnesian beds and fine grained pink to white marble. 
Beds of odlite, fine conglomerate, chert layers, and quartz 
geodes occur at several horizons. The basal member 
(Stonehenge siliceous limestone member) is a blue limestone, 
with hard siliceous laminae, coarse "edgewise conglomerate," 
and purer fine grained marble. Small rosette dierts occur 
at tiie top. 

Cambrian 

Character 

Thin bedded blue limestone with thin wavy sandstone 
laminae. The base of the formation is marked by siliceous 
beds and conglomerate, with interbedded odlitic limestone, 
dark shaly limestone with red clay partings, and Cryptotoon 
beds. Large sooriaceous cherts are common in the residual 
soil. 



Thickness 
2000' 

100-750' 
675^1050' 

2300' 



Thickness 
1635' 



14 P. Baacom, The aadent volcanic rocks of South Mountafai, Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Surv., Boll, 180» 



1896. 



Charles D. Walcott, The Cambrian rocks of Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Sarv. Bull., 184, 18(M. 

George W. Stose, Mercersbnrg-Chambersburg Polio: U. S. Geol. Surv. folio. 170, 1010. 

George W. Stoae, The copper deposits of South ilountain, in Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 480, 
122-129, 1910. 

Bdgar T. Wherry, The copper d^Kisits of Franklin-Adams Counties, Pennsylvania: J. Frank. Inst., 
171, 161-162, 1911. 



G^NBRAI, GSOtOGY OP PENNSYI.VANIA 



29 



Elbrook formation 
(Middle C) 



Wajrnesboro form- 
ation (Middle C) 



Tomstown lime- 
stone (Lower C) 



Antietam sand- 
stone (Lower C) 

Harpers schist 

(Lower C) 



Weverton sand- 
stone (Lower C) 



Gray to lighUblue shaly limestone and calcareous shale, 
with some green layers and red bands. Beds of ptu-e mas- 
sive limestone occur at the base. Near the middle are 
massive beds of dolomite and quartzitic limestone. 

Gray slabby calcareous sandstone, red and purple shale, 
and minor limestone. Dark blue limestone, dolomite, and 
fine grained white marble occur near the middle. The upper 
shale and sandstone are ripple marked. 

Massive and thin bedded limestone, in part cherty and 
magnesian, with considerable interbedded shale near the 
base. Pure white seridte schist, and a coarse, fetid dolo- 
mite occur near the base. 

Coarse grained, white and bluish gray quartztite, with 
numerous Scolithus tubes. 

Schist, hackly slate, and soft sandstone, with a heavy 
sandstone or quartztite, Scolithus-beauring, (Montalto 
quartz member) near the middle. 

Peldspathic sandstone and puiplish conglomerate con- 
sisting of fragments of Precambrian rhyolite and quartz 
grains. These rocks have sometimes becsi metamorphosed 
to quartz schist. 



3000' 



1000' 



1000' 



500-800' 
2750' 

1250' 



Precambrian (Igneous Rocks) 



Formation 

Quartz porphyry 
(rhyolite) 



Aporhyolite 



Metabasalt 



Character 

Deep red to dark blue, porphy- 
ritic. Occurs as intrusive masses. 



Red, pink, ptui>lish, or bluish 
gray, compact and fine grained 
rocks representing devitrified rhyo- 
lite. 

Fluidal, micropoikilitic, spheruli- 
tic, axiolitic, lithophysal, rhyolitic, 
micropegmatitic, perlitic, taxitic, 
amygdaloidal, and trachitic struc- 
tiu'es characterize the rock. 

Both flow breccia and tuff occur. 
An intense metamorphism of the 
aporhyolites is represented by seri- 
cite schist. 

Green, amygdaloidal, massive, 
schistose, or slaty rocks. Crushed, 
sheared, and veined rocks were 
produced by intense metamorphism. 



Minerals 



Chief constituents: colorless or 
red quartz, and white, pink, or red 
twinned orthoclase phenocrysts in a 
ground-mass of quartz and ortho- 
clase. Secondary piedmontite oc- 
curs through the i>orphyry, and as 
radiating aggregates in veins and 
cavities. 

The aporhyolite consists of feld- 
spars, quartz, and biotite pheno- 
crysts in a groundmass of quartz, 
feldspar, and secondary epidote. 

Amygdules are filled with quartz 
and epidote. 



The original constituents, plagio- 
dase, pyroxene, olivine, and magne- 
tite, have been replaced by actino- 
lite, epidote, and chlorite. The 
amygdules are filled with epidote, 
cuprite, and specular hematite. 
Mineralization has occurred locally 
along epidotized shear zones with 
the deposition of copper. 



30 



GENERAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Formation 
Peridotite 



Genbrai« Geology of the Appala««an Provinces" 
Post-Carboniferous^^ (Igneous Rock) 



Character 

But a single occturence of an ig- 
neous rock is knovoi from the Appa- 
lachian provinces — a peridotite 
dike, intrusive in the Carboniferous 
sediments two and a half miles 
northwest of Masontown, Fayette 
County. 

The average thickness of the dike 
is about 3 feet on the surface, but it 
attains a thickness of 10 feet in the 
WaynesbiU'g coal. 



Minerals 

The rock is composed of pheno- 
crysts of olivine partially altered to 
serpentine, redd[ish-brown biotite, 
and accessory garnet, apatite, mag- 
netite, pnerovslate, and pyrite. 

Inclusions of coke, and of other 
rocks, are numerous. 



Formation 
Greene formation 



Washington form- 
ation 



Formation 

Monongahela form- 
ation 

Conemaugh form- 
ation 

Allegheny forma- 
tion 

Pottsville forma- 
tion 



Formation 

Mauch Chunk for- 
mation 



Permian^"^ 
Character 

Chiefly sandstone and shale, with some interbedded lime- 
stone and minor beds of coal. 

Sandstone, shale, limestone, and coal. 

Pennsylvanian^* 

Character 

Sandstone, shaly sandstone, limestone, and important 
coal beds. 

Sandstone, red shale, limestone, and coal. 
Limestone, sandstone, and coal. 



Sandstone, shale, iron ore, coal, and some limestone and 
fire clay. The basal member is called the Sharon con- 
glomerate. 

Mississippian ^ * 
Character 

Suba€rial deposits of red shale with some sandstone and 
limestone. Two limestone members are included: tibe 
Loyalhanna limestone at the base, and the Greenbrier lime- 
stone. 



Thickness 

700' 
400' 



Thickness 

260-^80' 
700' 

300' 

300' 



Thickness 
180-1000' 



>* The following folios on the region have been issued by the U. S. Geological Survey: Nos. 82, 02, 93, 94, 
102, 110. 115. 121, 123, 125, 133, 134, 144. 146. 160, 170. 172. 174. 176, 177. 178, 179. 180, and 189. 

** J. P. Kemp and J. G. Roes, A peridotite dike in the coal measures of Southwestern Pennsylvania: Anncds 
N. Y. Acad. Sci.. 17. 609-518. 1907. 

Lloyd B. Smith. A peridotite dike in Payette and Greene Counties: Top. & Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep.. 1910- 
1912. 150-155. 1912. 

" John J. Stevenson, Carboniferous of the Appalachian Basin: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 18, 29-178, 1907. 
Ralph W. Stone. Review of general geology of southwestern Pennsylvania in light of recent work: Top. & 
Geol. Surv. Penna., 1906-1908. 120-340. 1918. 

u John J. Stevenson, Carboniferous of the Appalachian Basin: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 15, 37-210. 1904: 
17, 65-228. 1906; 18. 29-178, 1907. 

Ralph W. Stone, Review of general geology of southwestern Pennsylvania in light of recent work: Top. 
& Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep.. 1906-1908, 120-340, 1918. 

Frederick G. Clapp, Limestones of southwestern Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Surv. BuU., 249, 1905. 
1* John J. Stevenson, Carboniferous of the Appalachian Basin: Bull. Geol. Soc. America. 14, 15-96, 1903. 
Joseph Barrell, Origin and signi6cance of the Mauch Chunk shale: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 18, 449-476, 
1907. 



GENERAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



31 



Pocono formation 



Formation 
Catskill formation 



Chemung forma- 
tion 



Brallier shale (Up- 
per Portage) 

Harrell shale 
(Lower Portage) 

Hamilton forma- 
tion 



Marcellus shale 

Qnondago forma- 
tion 

Oriskany formation 



HelderbergM for- 
mation 



Thick-bedded gray sandstone and shale. Three members 
are included: Berea sandstone at the base; Cuyahoga sand- 
stone and shale; and Btu-goon sandstone, at the top. 

Devonian*^ 

Character 

Red arkosic sandstone and shale, with some gray and 
greenish shale, and gray sandstone, (suba€rial deposits). 

Alternating beds of greenish-gray, brown, or purplish 
shale, and thin sandstone members: Pine Ridge sandstone 
at the base, the Allegrippis sandstone, and Saxton con- 
glomerate, respectively, above and below the middle. 

Pine grained, siliceous shale, largely composed of wavy 
and dimpled laminae, with a few sandstone layers. 

Dove colored and black fissile (paper) shale. Black at the 
bottom toward the west (Burket member), and interbedded 
black and dove colored to the east. 

Very dark green shale with thin bluish sandstone layers. 
Dark olive shale in the lower portion. A bed of limestone 
(Tully ?) occurs at the top. 

Black fissile shale. 

Dark shale with limestone layers. 



A coarse thick bedded sandstone (Ridgeley sandstone), 
overlying a thin bedded siliceous limestone (Shriver lime- 
stone). 

Thick bedded gray limestone, with some shale. Some 
parts have much bedded chert. The limestone varies from 
a coarse agglomeration of fossil fragments to a dense fine 
grained subcrystalline rock. Three members are recog- 
nized in Pennsylvania: the Keyser limestone at the base, 
the Coeymans limestone, and the New Scotland limestone. 



1400' 



Thickness 
2600' 

2400-^500' 



1360-1800' 
260' 

80O-1200' 

160' 
50' 

300' 
160' 



Formation 

Tonoloway^ lime- 
stone (Cayugan) 

Wills Creek shale 
(Cayugan) 



McKenzie lime- 
stone (Cayugan) 



Silurian** 
Character 

Laminated, fine grained gray, buff, or cream colored lime- 
stone and calcareous shale. 

Dove colored calcareous, fissile shale, with a little lime- 
stone. The bottom consists of red and green shale, impiu'e 
limestone, and red sandstone (Bloomsbiu'g red member). 

Limestone and shale. 



Thickness 
400' 

600' 
276' 



>• George W. Stose, Mercersburg-Chambersburg folio: U. S. Geol. Sorv. folio, 170. 1010. 
John B. Reeside, Jr., The Helderberg limestone of Central Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 
108-K, 1917. 

Charles Butts, Geologic section of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci., 46, 
523-537, 1918. The Devonian section near Altoona, Pennsylvania: J. Geol., 14, 618-630, 1906. 

*^ The Stormsville is included in this group. In some of the older reports some Helderberg limestone was 
included in the Lewistown. 

** George W. Stose, Mercersburg-Chambersburg folio; and Pawpaw-Hancock folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
folios, 170 and 179, 1910 and 1912. 

Charles Butts, Geologic section of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci., 
(4) 46, 523-537, 1918. 

Charles Schuchert, Silurian formations of southeastern New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania: 
Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 27, 531-554, 1916. The lower Silurian is there collectively called the Shawangunk. 

John B. Reeside, Jr., The Helderberg limestone of Central Pennsylvania: U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 
108K, 1917. 

>* Formerly known as Bossardville or Lewistown limestone. 



32 



GSimRAL GEOLOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



formation 

Clinton formation 
(Niagaran) 



Tuscsu-ora sand- 
stone (Medinian) 



Juniata formation 
(Medinian) 



Silurian (Continued) 
Character 

Grayish, greenish or pink, soft, fissile shale, with heavy 
sandstone and quartzite beds. The uppermost sandstone 
is a hard quartz flagstone (Keefer sandstone). Below this 
is a zone of red sandstone and quartzite, in some places 
ferruginous enough to constitute an iron ore. 

Thick beds of a hard, resistant, granular, white sandstone, 
extensively used for silica brick, and commonly called 
ganister. 

It is a prominent mountain making rock, forming the 
crests of the ridges, and a great talus covering Uie slopes. 

Soft red shale, and cross-bedded sandstone, with some 
conglomerate. 



Thickness 
800' 



400' 



Oswego sandstone Medium thick-bedded gray sandstone. 



400-850' 
.800' 



Formation 

Reedsville shale 
(Upper Ordovi- 
cian) 

Trenton limestone 



Rodman limestone 

Lowville limestone 
Carlim limestone 



Bellfonte dolomite 
(Beekmantown) 

Axeman limestone 
(Beekmantown) 

Nittany dolomite 
(Beekmantown) 



Formation 

Larke dolomite 
(Upper C) 

Mines dolomite 
(Upper C) 

Gatesbiu-g forma- 
tion (Upper C) 



Ordovician** 
Character 

Shale with thin limestone layers, and fissile shale. Thick 
dark sandstone occurs at the top, and black shale with 
graptolites at the bottom. 

Thin black limestone weathering with a gray film on the 
surface. 

Dark crystalline limestone weathering with a rough 
granulated surface. 

Dark, thick bedded, pure limestone. 

Dark, fine grained, limestone, with an argillaceous lime- 
stone member (Lemont member). 

Thick bedded dolomite with much chert. 



Thin bedded blue limestone with dolomite layers. 

Thick bedded, cherty dolomite. 

Cambrian*' 

Character 
Thick bedded, coarse, steely blue dolomite. 



Thickness 
1000' 

320' 

30' 

180' 
180' 

1000' 

100' 

1000' 



Thickness 
250' 

250' 

1750' 



Chert and oolitic dolomite, with much oolitic and platy 
scoriaceous chert, and Cryptozoon beds. 

Thick bedded, steely blue, coarsely crystalline dolomite, 
with Interbedded quartzite layers. Silicified oolites are a 
characteristic feature of the formation. 

A coarse thick bedded, steely blue dolomite occurs at the 
bottom (Stacy dolomite member), and a thin bedded blue 
limestone in the upper part (Ore Hill limestone member). 

«« Victor Zieglei, The sfliceoua oolites of Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci.. (4) 34, 113-127, 1012. 

Charles Butts, Geologic section of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci., 
(4) 46, 623-637, 1918. 

» Victor Ziegler, The siliceous oolites of Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci., (4) 34, 113-127, 1912. 

Charles Butts, Geologic section of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, Central Pennsylvania: Am. J. Sci., 
(4) 46, 523-537. 1918. 



GENBRAI< GEOLOGY OF PENNSYI.VANIA 33 

Warrior limestone Thick and thin bedded blue limestone with thin siliceous 

(Upper C) shaly partings, a few thin quartzite layers, and an occasional 

bed of limestone. Cr3rptozoa are common, and oolite is 
present. 250' 

Pleasant Hill lime- Thick bedded limestone at the top, with argillaceous thin 600' 

stone (Upper C) bedded limestone at the bottom weathering to shale. 

Wajrnesboro forma- Sandstone, conglomerate, and red and greenish shale. 250' 

tion (Middle C) 



IV 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

NATIVE ELEMENTS 



Graphite 


C 


Rhombohedra] 


Sulfur 


S 


Orthorhombic 


Bismuth 


Bi 


Rhombohedral 


Gold 


Au 


Isometric 


SiLVBR 


Ag 


Isometric 


COPPBR 


Cu 


Isometric 


Tin 


Sn 




Platinum 


Ft 


Rhombohedral 



GRAPHITE 

C Rhombohbdral 

Color: iron-black to dark steel-gray. Opaque. Luster: metallic, sometimes dull, 
earthy. Form: foliated, scaly, columnar, radiating, or compact earthy masses; rarely in six- 
sided tabular crystals. Feel greasy. H = 1-2. Sp- gr. =* 2.09-2.23. 

Rhombohedral: c = 1.386, po — 0.924. Cleavage: basal, perfect. 

Composition: C, often impure from the presence of clay.*' 

Localities: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Boyertown, Gabelsville, Jones mine, 
Longswamp, Siesshotzville; Bucks County: Holland, Johnson's mine, Faxon's quarry, and 
Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Avondale, Byers, Chester Springs, Coventryville, 
Charlestown, French Creek mines, Kimberton, Pughtown, Pusey's quarries, Uwchlan, West 
Nantmeal; Lancaster County: Providence township; Lehigh County: Macungie; Montgomery 
County: Conshohocken, Henderson, King of Prussia, Lafayette, Marble Hall, West Consho- 
hocken; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Wissahickon Station; York County: 
Hellam, and New Holland. 

SULFUR 

S Orthorhombic 

Color: straw-yellow to greenish-yeUow or yellowish-brown. Streak: white. Trans- 
parent to translucent. Luster: resinous. Form: pyramidal to tabular crystals; drusy coat- 
ings 'and incrustations. Brittle. H = 1.5-2.5. Sp. gr. = 2.05-2.09. 
Crystallography: Orthorhombic. a:b:c = 0.8138:1:1.9055 

Po:qo:ro = 2.3414:1.9055:1 





1 2 

Figs. 1-2. Sulfur, Wheatley mines (Busz). 



* An old analjrsis exists of graphite from Johnson's mine near Trevose, Bucks County, by (J. Vanuzem, 
Acad. Nat. Sd. PhUa., V, 23, 1825); C 94.40. SiOi 2.60. PeO and MnO 1.40. HsO 0.60. sum 99.00 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 35 

Forms: a (100), & (010), c (001); w (110), t (210), n (Oil), u (103), e (101); w (117), t 
(116), (114), s (113), y (112), :^ (111), d (221), a (313), r (311), g (131). Wheatley mines 
(Fletcher, 1880, 187; Busz, 1889, 620). Cleavage: c imperfect. Fracture: conchoidal, even. 
LocALtriEs: Carbon County: Burning Mine, Summit Hill; Chester County: Wheatley 
mines, (pale yellowish-green p3rramidal crystals with galena and anglesite) ; Montgomery County: 
Barren Hill, and King of Prussia. 

BISMUTH 
Bi Rhombohedral 

Color and streak: silver- white. Luster: metallic. Opaque. Form: foliated and granu- 
lar masses. H=»2.5. Sp. gr. » 9.70-9.83. 

Locality: a specimen in the Rand Collection at Bryn Mawr College is labeled "West 
Sadsbury, Chester County." 

GOLD 
Au Isometric 

Color: yellow. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: flattened grains, scales, and ir- 
regular crystals. Malleable and ductile. H = 2.5-3. Sp. gr. 15.6-19.3. Fracture: hackly. 

Composition: Au, usually alloyed with Ag. 

Localities: Berks County: Reading; Bucks County: New Galena, Rock Hill, and Yard- 
ley; Lancaster County: Gap mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Montgomery County: Dela- 
ware River gravels at Bridesburg, Hendricks Station, and in Franconia township; Philadelphia: 
disseminated in the days beneath the southern part of the city. 

SILVER 

Ag Isometric 

Color: white, often tarnished. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: plates, scales, 
wires, distorted crystals. Ductile, malleable. H = 2.5-3. Sp. gr. =■ 10.1-11.1. Fracture: 
hackly. 

Composition: Ag, with Au. 

Localities: Berks County: Cushion Motmtain, and Reading; Chester County: Wheat- 
ley mines; Montgomery County: Perkiomen mine. 

COPPER 

Cu ISOMBTRIC 

Color: red. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: filiform and arborescent aggregates 
of crystals, often distorted. Ductile and malleable. H = 2.5-3. Sp. gr. » 8.8-8.9. Frac- 
ture: hackly. 

Crystallography: Isometric. Common forms: a (100), d (110), o (111), h (410); twin- 
plane (111). 

Localities: Adams County: Gettysburg, and Hamiltonban; Berks County: Jones Mine; 
Chester County: Wheatley mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Irpnton; Mont- 
gomery County: Ecton mine, Perkiomen mine, and Sumneytown. 

TIN 

Sn Tetragonal 

Color: white. Luster: metallic. Opaque. Form: rounded grains. H = 2. Sp. 

gr. = 7 . 178. 

Locality: Montgomery County: Franconia township, in gravels with gold. It is quite 

possible that the tin came from the pan used in panning the gold. 

PLATINUM 

Pt ISOMBTRIC 

Color: steel-gray. Luster: metallic. Opaque. Form: grains and scales. H » 4.5-5. 
Sp. gr. = 14-19. 

Localities: platinum has been reported as occurring in black shales near Congo, Mont- 
gomery Cotmty; and near Shamokin, Schuylkill County. 



36 



DBSCRIPTIVB MINBRALOGY OP PBNNSYLVANIA 





SULFIDES 




Stibnitb 


SbsSt 


Orthorhombic 


BiSMUTHINlTS 


Bi,S. 


Orthorhombic 


MOLYBDSNITB 


MoSi 


Rhombohedral ? 


Galbna 


PbS 


Isometric 


Chalcocits 


CutS 


Orthorhombic 


Sfhalbritb 


ZnS 


Isometric 


PSNTLANDITB 


(Fe,Ni)S 


Isometric 


COVBLLITB 


CuS 


Rhombohedral 


Grbbnockitb 


CdS 


Hexagonal 


MiLLBRITB 


NiS 


Rhombohedral 


Pyrrhotitb 


FenSn + l 


Orthorhombic 


BORNITB 


Cu*FeS4 


Isometric 


Chalcopyrits 


CuFeSs 


Tetragonal 


Pyrttb 


FeS, 


Isometric 


Gbrsdorfpitb 


NiAsS 


Isometric 


Marcasitb 


FeSs 


Orthorhombic 


LOlXINGITB 


FeAss 


Orthorhombic 


Arsbnopyritb 


FeAsS 


Orthorhombic 



STIBNITE 

SbtSi Orthorhombic 

Color and streak: lead-gray. Luster: metallic, splendent. Opaque. Form: striated 
prismatic crystals, often curved ; in aggregates of acicular crystals. H » 2. Sp. gr . » 4 . 52-4 . 62. 
Composition: SbtSt; Sb 71.4, S 28.6, » 100. 
Locality: Berks County: Fritz Island, with zeolites. 

BISlCXJTHmiTE 
BitSi Orthgrrgiibic 

Color: lead-gray to tin-white, often with a yellow or iridescent tarnish. Opaque. Luster: 
metallic. Form: acicular crystals, or fibrous masses. H » 2. Somewhat sectile. Sp. gr. 
6.4^.6. Cleavage: b perfect; a, m, imperfect. 

Composition: BisSf. Bi 81.2, S 18.8, » 100. 

LocAUTiBS: Delaware County: Avondale; Philadelphia: opposite the old Fairmount Water 
Works, in Fairmount Park. 

MOLYBDENITE 

Hbxagonal 
Color: lead-gray. Streak: bluish-gray on paper, slightly greenish 
on porcelain. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: foliated masses or 
scales; tabular crystals. Eminent basal cleavage. Laminae very flexible. 
Feel greasy. Sectile. H = 1-1.6. Sp. gr. = 4.7-4.8. 

Crsrstallography: Hexagonal; c « 1.54; p« » 1.0267. Forms: 
c (OOOl), (lOll), p (2(Sl), q (3031), m (lOlO); Frankford, Philadelphia 
(Brown, 1896,210). 

Composition: MoSs; Mo 60, S 40, » 100. 
Fig. 3. Molybden- Analyses: A. Upland, Delaware County. Seybert, 1822, 320. B. 

ite Frankford Phil- Valentine Hartman's mine, 1 mile west of Spies Church, Alsace Township, 
adelphia (Brown). Berks County. Wetherill, 1863, 346. C. The same, after deducting 



MoSs 




impurities. 

A 

Mo 69.42 

S 39.68 

SiOi 

FeiOi 

H,0 



B 

66.73 

38.20 

2.28 

3.60 

0.29 



C 
69.33 
40.67 



99.10 100.00 100.00 



DESCRIPTIVK MINERAU)GY OF PENNSYI.VANIA 37 

LocALiTms: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Flint Hill?, and Valentine Hartman's 
mine in Alsace township; Bucks County: Finney's Quarry; Chester County: French Creek mines, 
BrandjTwine Battlefield, and Sylmar, Delaware County: Avondale, Drexel's quarry, Peter Green's 
farm near Upland Station, Franklin Paper Mill, Morton, and Ward's quarry; Lehigh County: Vera 
Cruz; Montgomery County: Paper Mills Station; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: 
Fairmount Park, opposite the Fairmount Water Works, Frankford (in tabular crystals up to 10 
X 5 cm.)f Penn Street quarries, Wayne quarries, and the Rittenhouse quarry in Gerinantown. 

GALENA 

PbSs Isometric 

Color and streak: lead-gray. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: cubic crystals, coarse 
to fine granular, occasionally fibrous. H = 2.5-2.75. Sp. gr. 7.4-7.6. 

Crystallography: Isometric. Common forms: a (100), d (110), and o (111). Cleavage: 
cubic, less often octahedral. 

Composition: PbS. Pb 86.6, S 13.4, » 100. Usually contains some Ag. 

Localities: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh; Blair County: Keystone Zinc mine near 
Birmingham; Bradford County: in the Carboniferous sandstones; Berks County: Fritz Island; 
Bucks County: New Galena; Chester County: Charlestown mine, Morris mine, and Wheatley 
mines (argentiferous) ; Columbia County: Espy mine; Fayette County: Victoria; Huntingdon County: 
McConnellstown; Lancaster County: Bamford, Pequa (argentiferous, with a distinct octahedral 
and cubic cleavage), Salisbury township, and Marietta (in goethite geodes); Lycoming County: 
Bald Eagle Valley, and Roaring Branch of Lycoming Creek; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, 
Perkiomen mine, and Sumneytown; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Northumberland County: 
Sunbury; Philadelphia: Falls of Schuylkill; Pike County: Guymard; Schuylkill County: Pottsville; 
Sullivan County: Forkville; York County: Hellam and York Valley. 

CHALCOCITE 

CusS Orthorhombic 

Color and streak: blackish lead-gray, often tarnished blue. Opaque, dull. Luster: 
metallic. Form: compact, massive or granular; tabular crystals. Brittle. H « 2.5-3. Sp. 
gr. 6.6—6.8. 

Composition: CujS; Cu 79.8, S 20.2, = 100. 

LoCALiTiBs: Bradford County: Carpenter mine near New Albany; Berks County: Fritz 
Island, and Jones mine; Bucks County: Finney's quarry, and Uhlertown; Chester County: Wheat- 
ley mines; Lancaster County: Gap mines; Glenwood Station, and Wood's chrome mine; Lebanon 
County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: South Mountain; Lycoming County: Mtmcy, and Roaring 
Branch of Lycoming Creek; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, and Sumneytown; Northampton 
County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Frankford; Sullivan County: Muncy Valley. 



SPHALERITE 

ZnS ISOMBTRIC 

(Tetrahedral) 

Color: yellow, green, brown, black, or gray. Streak: brownish, light yellow, or white. 
Transi>arent to translucent. Luster: resinous to adamantine. Form: tetrahedral oystals; 
massive, cleavable, granular or compact. Brittle. H = 3.5-4. Sp. gr. 3.9-4.1. 

Crystallography: Isometric, tetrahedral. Common forms: a (100), d (110), o (111), 
o' (ill), m (311). Twin-plane o, composition face usually parallel to o. Crsrstals are frequently 
complex and distorted. Cleavage: dodecahedral. 

Composition: ZnS; Zn 67, S 33, » 100; usually with Fe. Marmatite: ferriferous, contain- 
ing over 10% Fe, dark brown to black. Sp. gr. 3.9-4.05. 

Analyses: A. Cornwall, Lebanon County. Greenish-brown, crystals, sp. gr. 4.033. Genth, 
1882, 401. B. Phoenixville, Chester County. Brown. Smith, 1855, 260. C. Ecton mine, 
Montgomery County. Genth, 1875, 15, analysis by Harry W. Jayne. D. Friedensville, Lehigh 
County. Grayish-white, cryptocrystalline. Genth, 1875, 15, analysis by Jayne. 



DESCRIPTIVB UINBBALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



64.39 


65.04 


66.72 


0.98 








0.78 











2.17 


0.49 


0.32 








33.82 


33,45 


33,13 





0.80 


0,75 


100-29 


101.46 


101,09 



99,88 

LoCAUTiSs: Blair County: Keystone zinc mine near Birmmghani; Bucki Cottnly: New 
Galena; Chester County: French Creek mines (mannatite, black crystals). Jug Hollowmine (pale 
jrellow crystals). Phoenixville Tunnel, and the Wheatley mines (brown, modified and twinned 
dodecabedra) ; Columbia County: Espy mine; Fayette County: Victoria; Lancaster County: Bem- 
ford and East Petersburg; Lebanon County: Cornwall; L^igk County: Friedensville (grayish 
cryptocrystalline masses); Lackawanna County: Scranton; Lyconting County: Roaring Branch 
of Lycoming Creek; Montgomery County: Hcton mine, and Perldomen mine; ffortkumberland 
County: Suabury; Philadelphia: Falls of SdmylkUI (brown, radiating adcular crystals, perhaps 
paramorphous after wurtzite); Pike County: Guymard, and Poxono Island; York County: Emigs- 
ville, Hellam, York Valley, and York, 



PEHTLAHDITE 
(Fe, Ni)S IsouBTiuc 

Color: light bronze-yellow. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form; massive, 
Brittle. H - 3,5-4. Sp. gr. 4.60, Non-magnetic. 

Composition: (Fe,Ni)S. Fe42, Ni22,S36, - 100, 



Fig. 4. Very deeply etched pyrrhotite with light veins of pentlan- 
dite, Gap mine, Lancaster County, X BO. {.CampbOl and Knight.) 

Hg, 5, Very deeply etched pyrrhotite between the grains of which 
occur a mass of chalcopyrite and pentlandite and a silicate. Gap 
mine, Lancaster County, X 60, {Campbdl and Knight.) 

Analyses: Pentlandite; Gap Mine. Lancaster County; Genth. I87S. 13-14, analyzed by 
Heoiy Pemberton, Jr. A. Analysis of non-magnetic portion of pyrrhotite, or about 6% of the 
latter. B. Recalculated analysis. C, Theoretical composition corresponding to 3NiS,2FeS. 



DESCRIPTIVE BflNERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 39 

ABC 

Fe 22.22 FeS....; 26.40 Fe 24.94 

Ni 26.73 NiS 39.96 Ni 39.42 

Mg 2.73 FeO 6.00 S 35.64 

S 23.66 MgO 2.73 

Hornblende 24.81 Insoluble 24.81 



99.06 99.90 100.00 

Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine. 

COVELLITE 

CuS Rroubohbdral 

(Trapezohedral) 
Color: indigo-blue. Streak: lead-gray to black, shining. Opaque. Luster: submetallic, 
subresinous or dull. Form: massive, incrusting; very rarely crystallized. H » 1.&-2. Sp. gr. 
4.59. 

Composition: CuS; Cu 66.4, S 33.6, = 100. 

Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Philadelphia: 
O'Neill's quarry. 

GREENOCKITE 
(Xanthochroite) 
CdS Amorphous 

Color: honey- to orange-yellow. Translucent. Luster: adamantine to resinous. Form: 
coatings, usually on sphalerite. H = 3^.5. Sp. gr. 4.9-6. 
Composition: Cds. Cd 77.7, S 22.3, = 100. 

Localities: Lehigh County: Friedensville, yellow or orange colored coatings on sphalerite; 
Montgomery County: Perkiomenmine: York County: York. 

MILLERITE 

NiS Rroicbohsdral 

Color : brass-yellow, often with a gray iridescent tarnish. Streak : greenish-black. Opaque. 

Luster: metallic. Form:_ thin coatings of a radiated fibrous structure; slender capillary 

crystals. Brittle. H = 3-3.5. Sp. gr. 6.3-5.65. 
Composition: NiS. Ni 64.6, S 35.3, = 100. 
Analyses: Gap Mine, Lancaster Cotmty. Brass yellow, radiating, frequently tarnished 

to chalcocite, Genth, 1862, 195. A. Millerite. B. Millerite partially altered to chalcocite. 

Ni 

Co 

Fe 

Cu 

S 

Gangue 

100.35 100.06 

Localities: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine, pale yellow radiating aggregates; Wood's 
chrome mine, in kammererite; Lackawanna County: Scranton? Lycoming County: Roaring Branch 
of Lycoming Creek? Montgomery County: Ecton mine? and Rose's quarry; Philadelphia: Prince's 
quarry, capillary crystals in dolomite. 

PYRRHOTITE 

FeaSa+i Orthorhombic 

(Pseudohexagonal) 
Color: bronze-yellow to copper-red, tarnished. Streak: dark grasrish-black. Opaque. 
Luster: metallic. Form: massive, granular. Brittle. H = 3.6-4.5. Sp. gr. 4.58-4.64. Magnetic. 



A 


B 


63.08) 
0.68J 


69.96 


0.40 


1.32 


0.87 


4.63 


36.14 


33.60 


0.28 


0.64 



40 DESCRIPTIVE BflNERAWXJY O^ PENNSYUTANIA 

Composition: FcaSn+i. FctSs - Fe 60.4, S. 39.6, = 100. FeuSu - Fe 61.6, S 38.4, 
= 100. 

Analyses: Gap Mine, Lancaster County (see also Pentlandite). A. Rammelsberg, 1864, 
361. B. Boy6, 1852, 219. Analysis of a mixture. 

A B 

Fe 65.82 41.34 

Ni, Co 6.59 4.65 

Cu 1.30 

Pb 0.27 

S (38.59) 24.84 

Silicates 25.46 

Alumina 1.70 

100.00 99.46 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Boyertown, Gottschall's mine in Alsace 
(slightly nickeliferous), and the Raudenbush mihe; Bucks County: Finney's quarry, I^nghorne, 
Faxon's quarry, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: French Creek mines, Byers, and 
Jackson's quarry (New Garden); Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine, and Quarryville; Mont- 
gomery County: Paper Mills Station; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, and Prince's quarry. 

BORNITE 

Cu«FeS4 ISOM9TRIC 

Color: copper-red to pinchbeck-brown, usually with an iridescent tarnish. Streak: pale 

grayish-black. Form: massive, granular or compact. Fracture: conchoidal, uneven. H » 3, 

Brittle. Sp. gr. 5.06-^5.08 for the purest material. 

Composition: Cu^FeSi. Cu 63.33, Fe 11.12, S 25.55, = 100. Analyses and metallo- 

graphic examination usually show admixtures of chalcopyrite, etc., which cause variations from 

the theoretical composition. 

LocALiTi^: Adams County: Gettysbiu-g; Berks County: Fritz Island, Jones mine; Bucks 

County: Finney's quarry; New Galena; Chester County: French Creek mines, Warwick mines; 

Lycoming County: Muncy ; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, Hendricks Station, Perkiomen mine, 

Schwenksville, Sumneytown, and Rose's quarry; Philadelphia: Germantown, Frankford, O'Neill's 

quarry, Prince's quarry, and Rittenhouse quarry; Sullivan County: Muncy Valley. 

CHALCOPYRITE 

CuFeSj TETRAGONAL 

(Sphenoidal) 

Color: brass-yellow, often tarnished purple and iridescent. Streak: greenish-black. 
Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: tetrahedral crystals, rarely prismatic; massive, compact. 
Brittle. H = 3.5-4. Sp. gr. 4.1-4.3. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal, sphenoidal, c, po ~ 1.3933. 
Forms: r (332), a (576)?, c (001), p (111), p' (111), m (110), c (101), and the doubtful forms 
(722) and x (122) probably due to oscillation of a prism and second pyramid respectively. 
Crystals are frequently distorted by striations parallel to the intersections of faces with the + and 
— unit sphenoids. Twins common; twin-plane p (111), composition face p, also -^ p. French 
Creek mines, (Penfield, 1890, 207). 

Composition: CuFeSj. Cu 34.5, Fe 30.5, S 35, = 100. 

Analysis: Wheatley mine, Chester County. Smith, 1855, 249. 

Cu 32.85 

Fe 29.93 

Pb 0.35 

S 36.10 

99.23 



DESCRIPTIVB HINERAUKiy OP PENNSYLVANIA 41 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Boyertown, Pritz. Island, and Jones mines; Bucks County: 
Budnnanville, Bursonville, Fimiey's quarry, Holland, New Galena, and Sellersville; Chester 
County: French Creek mines. Jug Hollow mine. Morris mine, Warwick mines, and Wheatley 
laineaiDeUamire County: Avondale, Peter Green's lami near Upland, Strath Haven Inn; XanoMfer 
County: Gap mine; I^banon County: Cornwall; Lycoming County: Roaring Branch of Lycoming 



Figs. 6-14. Chalcopyrite, French Creek mines, Chester County IPenfietd). 

Creek; Montiomery County: Congo, Bcton mine, Gladwyne. Hendricks Station, Marble Hall, 
Mogeetown. Ogontz, Paper Mills Statbn, Fennsbury Station, Perkiomen mine, Port Kennedy, 
Shaiuline, Shannonville copper mine, Sumneytown; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Pktla- 
Mphia: Fairmoimt Park, Frankford. Germantown. Logan. O'Neill's quarry. Prince's quarry, 
and Wissahickon Valley; York County: Emigsville, New Holland, Sprinjt Grove, Wrightsville. 
York, and York Valley. 



42 



DBSCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



PYMTE 

FeSs ISOMBTRIC 

(Pyiitohedral) 
Color: pale brass-yellow. Streak: greenish or brownish-black. Opaque. Luster: 
metallic, splendent. Form: cubic, p3rritohedral or octahedral cystals; massive, granular. Brittle. 
H - 6-6.6. Sp.gr. 4.95-6.10. 

Crystallography: Isometric, p3aitohedral. Common forms: a (100), d (110), o (111), 
e (210), r(332), ^(321). Travis, (1906, 131) described the following forms from Cornwall, Lebanon 
County; a (100), o (111), e (210), q (331), (11.11.4), (652), (773), p (221), (774). (653), r (332), 
(443), (664), (666), Z (531), 5 (321), (753), (432), i (211), (14.11.8), t (421), (13.7.3), (952), (14.9.3), 
(642), (744), (11.8.6), (15.11.7), (876), (12.11.10). Abnormally developed crystals with tetra- 
gonal or orthorhombic symmetry (probably due to vicinal development) were described from the 
French Creek mines by Penfield, (1889, 209). The forms exhibited were r (332), e (210), s' (231) 
and X (6.12.7) ; r being regarded as an abnormal trigonal trisoctahedron; x has only 8 faces instead 
of 24. Penfield notes the occurrence of the rare combination of a (100) , and x (420) at this locality. 
Combinations of a (100), e (210), n (211), w (481), t (241), and Hi (341) are not uncommon (Wherry 
1920, 116). Nicol (1904, 93) described a spinel twin, from the French Creek mines. 






15 



16 



17 






18 



19 



20 



Figs. 16-20. Pyrite, French Creek mines, Chester County 
{PenfiM). 



Composition: FeS2. Fe 46.6, S 63.4, = 100. Pyrite frequently contains Ni, Co, Th, Cu, 
Ag, and As. 

Analyses: A. French Creek mines, Chester County. Genth, 1890, 114, analysis by Aron 
Hamburger. B. Cornwall, Lebanon County; cupriferous, Dana, 1864, 55, analysis by J. C. 
Booth. Probably an impure specimen. A cobaltiferous pyrite from Cornwall gave Blak^ 
2% Co (Dana, 1868, 63). A nickeliferous pyrite from Cornwall, occurring in granular or porous 
masses gave Genth 4.30 and 4.47% Ni, (Genth, 1876, 20). 



DESCRIPTIVB IHNBRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Fe 44.34 

Ni 0.18 

Co 1.75 

Cu 0.05 

As 0.20 

S 54.08 

100.60 

Type I Type II 






I^. 21-28. Pyrite, Corawall, Lebanon County {Trains). 



44 DBSCRIPnVB MINBRAI^OGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

LocALiTiBs: Adams County: South Mountain; Blair County: Keystone zinc mine near 
Binningham; Berks County: Bemville, Boyertown, Center township, Fritz Island* Jones mine, 
Ruth mine, SiessholtzviUe, Virginville, Windsor township, and Wheatfield mines; Bucks County: 
Finney's quarry, Keelersville, New Galena, Faxon's quarry, Vanartsdalen's quarry, and Wrights- 
town; Chester County: Avondale, Bailey's farm (East Marlboro), Bailey's quarry (West Marlboro), 
Chester Springs, Corundum Hill (Newlin), Doe Run quarries, Bmbreeville, French Creek mines, 
Hopewell mines, Lyndell, Phoenixville Tunnel, Poorhouse quarry, Pusey's quarries; Unionville, 
Warwick mines, and Wheatley mines; Dauphin County: Hummelstown; Delaware County: 
Avondale, Black Horse, Burk's quarry. Cream Valley, Custer's farm (Darby), Darby, Franklin 
Paper Mill, Peter Green's farm near Upland, Leiperville, Lenni, Morton, Moore, Mullen's quar- 
ries; Fayette County: Dunbar; Lancaster County: Boice farm (Texas), Gap mine, and Lancaster; 
Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Breinigsville, Friedensville, and Macungie; Lycoming 
County: Roaring Branch of Lycoming Creek ; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, Gladwyne, Fort 
Washington, Hendricks Station, Huntingdon Valley Station, King of Prussia, Marble Hall, 
Ogontz, Paper Mills Station, Pennsbury Station, Perkiomen mine. West Conshohocken; Northamp- 
ton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Falls of Schuylkill, Frankford, C^- 
mantown, Hestonville, Logan, Overbrook, Prince's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry, Wingohocking 
Creek Valley; Schuylkill County: Pottsville, Raven Run mine; Westmoreland County: Irwin; 
York County: Diilsburg, Emigsville, Hellam, New Holland, Spring Grove, Thomasville, Wrights- 
ville, and York. 

GERSDORFFITE 

NiAsS ISOMBTRIC 

(Pyritohedral) 
Color: silver- white to steel-gray. Streak graidsh-black. Luster metallic. Opaque. 
Form: cubic crystals; cleavage: cubic, perfect. Brittle. H = 6.6. Sp. gr. 6.6-6.2. 
Composition: NiAsS, Ni 35.4, As 46.3, S 19.3, = 100. Fe and Co replace Ni. 
Locality: Chester County: Wheatley mines, small crystals with quartz, galena, and sphale- 
rite. 

MARCASITE 

FeSs Orthorhombic 

Color: pale bronze-yellow. Streak grayish or brownish-black. Luster: metallic. Opaque. 

Form: tabular crystals, stalactites with radiating structure, globular or reniform aggregates. 

H = 6-6.5. Sp. gr. 4.86-4.90. 

Composition: FeSi, Fe 46.6, S 63.4, = 100. 

LocALiTiss: Berks County: Leesport; Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine; Montgomery 

County: Ecton mine, and Perkiomen mine; Philadelphia: Logan. Casts of large crystals occiu: 

at Morgan Station, Delaware County. 

lOllingite 

FeAst Orthorhombic 

Color: silver- white to steel-gray. Streak grayish-black. Luster metallic. Opaque. 
H = 6—5.5. Sp. gr. 7. 

Composition: FeAsj, Fe 27.2, As 72.8. 

Locality: a crystal weighing several ounces was reported to have been found in Bedford 

County." 

ARSENOP7RITE 

peAsS Orthorhombic 

Color: sUver- white. Streak dark grayish-black. Luster metallic. Opaque. Form: 

prismatic crystals, columnar or granular masses. H = 5.6-6. Sp. gr. 5.9-6.2. 
Composition: FeAsS, Fe 34.3, As 46.0, S 19.7, = 100. 
Localities: Berks County: Gickerville; DeUnvare County: Brandywine Summit? MotU" 

gomery County: Ecton mine, Perkiomen mine, and West Conshohocken? 

"The specimen was described by Shepaid (1828, 183) aa a meteoric iron. Genth, (1875. 6> called it 
spiegeleisen. Shepard's analysis, undoubtedly erroneous, follows, Fe 97.44, As 1.66, C 0.40, loss 0.60, - 100. 



D^CRIPnVE MINERAWGY OF PBNNSYLVAmA 



45 



bournonitb 

Tqtrahbdrits 

Tbnnantitb 



SULFOSALTS 

3(Cu2,Pb)S.SbtS, 

4Cu3S.SbsSi 

4Cu2S.AssSs 



Orthorbombic 

Isometric 

Isometric 



BOURNONITB 

d(Cu2,Pb)S.SbsSt Orthorhombic 

Color and streak: steel-gray to iron-black. Luster metallic, brilliant. Opaque, 
short prismatic crystals, granular masses. H » 2.5-3. Sp. gr. 5.7-5.9. 

Composition: with Cu2:Pb = 1:2; Cu 13.0, Pb 42.5, Sb 24.7, S 19.8, = 100. 
Locauty: Chester County: Wheatley mines? 



Form: 



TETRAHEDRITE 



4Cu2S.SbtSt 



Color: flint-gray to iron-black. Luster metallic. Opaque, 
also granular. Brittle. H = 3-4.5. Sp. gr. 4.4-6.1 
Composition: Cu 52.1, Sb 24.8. S 32.1, = 100. 



ISOMBTRIC 

(Tetrahedral) 
Form: tetrahedral crystals. 



Localities: Adams County: Gettysburg; Lancaster County: Bamford? 



4CusS.AstSt 



TENNANTITE 

ISOMBTRIC 

(Tetrahedral) 
Color: flint-gray to iron-black. Opaque. Luster: metallic. Form: massive, granular^ 
compact; tetrahedral crystals. Brittle. H = 3-4.5. Sp. gr. 4.37-4.49. 
Composition: Cu 57.5, As 17, S 25.6, = 100. 
Locality: Lancaster County: Bamford. 



HALIDES 



Sal-ammoniac 


NH4CI 


Isometric 


Fluoritb 


CaF, 


Isometric 


Mbndipitb 


PbaOsCli 


Orthorhombic 



SAL-AMMONIAC 

NH4CI 
Color: white or yellowish. Transparent to translucent. 
e£Borescent crusts. Brittle. H = 1.5-2. Sp. gr. 1.528. 
Composition: NH4CI; NH4 33.7, CI 66.3, = 100. 
Locality: Carbon County: Burning Mine at Summit Hill. 



Isometric 
Luster vitreous. Form: 



FLUORITB 

CaFi ISOMBTRIC 

Colorless, white, yellow, green, blue. Streak: white. Transparent to subtranslucent. 
Sometimes shows a bluish fluorescence. Luster: vitreous, splendent. Form: cubic crystals; 
massive, compact. Brittle. H = 4. Sp. gr. 3.01-3.26. 

Crystallography: Isometric. Common forms: a (100), d (110), (111), e (210), h (410), 
and / (421). Twins common, twin-plane (111), forming penetration twins. Cleavage: octahe- 
dral, perfect. 

Composition: CaFj. Ca 51.1, F 48.9, = 100. 

Analyses: A. Kleckner's limestone quarries, Ballietisville, Lehigh County. Ptu-ple, im- 
perfect octahedrons. E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. J., 5, 272, 1883. B. Kleckner's limestone quarry, 
green variety. Smith, I.e. C. Wheatley mine, Chester County. Colorless crystals. J. Lawrence 
Smith, 1856, 251. D. York, Pa. Light to dark purple. Ehrenfeld, 1890, 281. 



46 



DESCRIPTIVE ftriNBRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



A B C D 

Ca....: 60.87 50.91 50.81 48.76 

Fe208 tr. tr. 

F 49.20 49.00 48.29 51.24 

Ca8(P04)2 tr. 

100.07 99.91 99.10 100.00 

Sp. gr 3.17-^.14 3.16 3.13 

Localities: Berks County: Brook's quarry, De Turk's quarries, east of Poplar Neck, 
Fritz Island, Fritztown, Leinbach's Hill, and Wbeatfield mines; Bucks County: Bycot; Chester 
County: Edward's quarry (Newlin), Howellville, Wheatley mines; Cumberland County: Pine 
Grove; Franklin County: Lancaster Station; Lancaster County: Ephrata, Lancaster, Millersville 
Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Emaus, Omrod; Lycoming County: Roaring Branch 
of Lycoming Creek; Mifflin County: opposite Mt. Union; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, 
Flourtown, Marble Hall, Mogeetown, and Schwenksville; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; 
Philadelphia: Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park, Frankford, Holmesburg, and Wissahickon Valley; 
Pike County: Bushkill; York County: Hellam, Spring Grove, Wrightsville, York Valley. 



BfENDEPITE 

PbsCClj 
Color: white, or yellowish. Opaque. Luster: pearly, 
masses; cleavage: perfect. H = 2.5-^. Sp. gr. 7. 
Composition: Pb 95.8, O 4.4, CI 9.8 = 100. 
Locality: Chester County: Wheatley mines? 



Orthorhombic 
Form: fibrous or columnar 



OXIDES 



Quartz; chalcedony 


SiO, 


Rhombohedral 


Opal 


SiOi.wHjO 


Amorphous 


Cupritb 


CuiO 


Isometric 


Melaconitk 


CuO 


Amorphous? 


Corundum 


A1,0, 


Rhombohedral 


Hematite 


FeaO, 


Rhombohedral 


Ilmenite 


FeTiO, 


Rhombohedral 


Spinel 


MgALO* 


Isometric 


Gahnite 


ZnAls04 


Isometric 


Magnetite 


FeFejO* 


Isometric 


Chromite 


FeCrj04 


Isometric 


Hausmannite 


MnMns04 


Tetragonal 


Crednerite 


CusMn409 


Monodinic 


Braunite 


3Mns08.MnSiOi 


Tetragonal 


RUTILE 


TiO, 


Tetragonal 


OCTAHEDRITE 


TiOj 


Tetragonal 


Brookite 


TiOi 


Orthorhombic 


Pyrolusitb 


MnOi 


Orthorhombic? 


DiASPORE 


HtAliOi 


Orthorhombic 


GOETHITE 


HiFesOi 


Orthorhombic 


Lepidocrocite 


HjFeiO* 


Orthorhombic 


GiBBSlTE 


Al(OH), 


Monoclinic 


Brucite 


Mg(OH), 


Rhombohedral 


LiMONITE 


FesO1.H2O.Aq 


Amorphous 


Psilomelane, wad 


xMnO.yMnOt.zBaO. 






H,0 


Amorphous 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAU)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 47 

QUARTZ 

SiOt Rhombohbdral 

(Trapezohedral) 
Colorless, yellow, red, brown, blue, black. Transparent to opaque. Luster: vitreous, 
sometimes greasy; splendent to nearly dull. Form: hexagonal crystals with pyramidal termina- 
tions; cryptocrystalline; massive. H = 7. Sp. gr. 2.653-2.660. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral, trapezohedral; c = 1.9051; po = 1.2701. Common 
forms: m (lOTO), r (lOTl), z (OlTl), s (2lTl), and x (5161). Habit: usually prismatic; tn faces 
striated horizontally, and terminated by r and e. Frequently in radiated masses or druses. 
Twins: twin-axis c, penetration twins; twin plane ((1122), contact twins. 

Composition: SiOj; Si 46.7, 53.3, = 100. 

Crystalline varieties: 1. Rock crystal: colorless or nearly so. 2. Smoky: smoky-yellow 
to smoky-brown, usually transparent. 3. Amethyst: dear purple or bluish-violet. 4. Citrine: 
yellow and pellucid. 5. Rose: red or pink, commonly massive. 6. Milky: milky-white, opaque. 
7. Sagenitic: containing acicular crystals of rutile. 8. Aventurine: spangled with scales of 
mica, etc. 9. Ferruginous: red or yellow, due to iron oxides. 

Cryptocrystalline varieties: 1. Chalcedony: white, gray, pale brown to dark brown, 
black, or blue. Transparent to translucent. Luster: waxy. Form: mammillary or botryoidal, 
stalactitic. Sp. gr. 2.6-2.64. 2. Carnelian: dear red chalcedony. 3. Chrysoprase: apple- 
green chalcedony. 4. Prase: dull leek-green, translucent. 5. Agate: variegated chalcedony, 
with colors in bands, or clouds, or impurities. Moss-agate is chalcedony with dendritic inclusions 
of manganese oxide. 6. Flint: gray, smoky-brown or brownish-black; luster: subvitreous, 
fracture: conchoidal. 7. Homstone or chert: resembles flint, but more brittle. Includes im- 
piwe flints. 8. Basanite: velvet black; flinty jasper. 9. Jasper: red, brownish, ochre-yellow; 
opaque. 

LocAUTiBs: Colorlessand smoky varieties: Adams County: Franklin Valley, Gettysburg, 
Hamiltonban; Blair County: Bellwood; Berks County: Berg's farm (Albany), Blandon, Crjrstal 
Cave, Esterly, Fleetwood, Flint Hill, Friedensburg, Fritz Island, Great Valley, Green Hill, Jack- 
sonwald, Kirbyville, Lee's farm (Oley), Leinbach's Hill, Pricetown, Reading, Union township, 
and Windsor; Bucks County: Bensalem township, Bristol township, Buckmanville, Buckingham 
Mountain, Falls township, Flushing, Lower Makefidd township, Middletown township. New 
Galena, Newportville, and Woodboiune; Center County: Buffalo Run; Chester County: Avondale 
(crystals up to 12.5 cm. in diameter), Bailey's farm (East Marlboro), Brinton's quarry, Charles- 
town mine, Coatesville, Corundum Hill (drusy, green), Copesville, Devault, Diamond Rock, 
Doe Run quarries. Bast Whitdand, Edward's quarry (Newlin), Hopewdl mines, Marshall's quarry 
(West Goshen), Mendenhall's quarry (Pennsbury), Mullen's farm (Kennett), Osbom Hill, Oxford 
(smoky), Parkesburg, Phoenixville ttmnd, Poorhouse quarry, Pusey's quarries, Sadsbiuyville, 
Swayne's farm (in muscovite), and Toughkenamon; Cumberland County: Kimmd's farm (New 
Kingston), Carlisle; Delaware County: Adele (smoky and ferruginous), Avondale, Black Horse 
(green and ferruginous), Boothwyn (limpid, smoky and milky crystals up to 25 cm. in length, 
often in parallel growths), Bonsall's farm (Middletown), Brandjrwine Summit (yellow), Burmont 
(smoky crystals). Castle Rock (ferruginous and drusy), Chelsea, Gillespie's quarry. Glen Riddle, 
Green's farm, Gradyville (large smoky crystals). The Hunt (drusy, stalactitic), Kellyville (smoky 
crystals), Lansdowne (fine smoky crystals up to 18 X 23 cm.), Lenni (green and ferruginous), 
Moro Phillip's chrome mine (drusy). Mineral Hill (ferruginous), LeiperviUe (colorless and smoky 
crystals), Mullen's quarries. Painter's farm on Dismal Run, Radnor (drusy, stalactitic), Shaw 
and Esrey's quarry in Chester (amethyst and smoky crystals in paralld growths), Sharpless quarry, 
Smedley's quarry, Smedley's iron mine. Trainer (limpid, smoky, and milky crystals), Tyler's 
farm (Middletown, green and ferruginous), Upper Darby (colorless and smoky crystals), Worrall, 
and Yarnall's farm (Edgemont); Fayette County: Dunbar; Franklin County: "dodecahedral" 
crystals; Huntingdon County: Ray's Hill tunnel; Lancaster County: Adamstown, Drumore, Gap 
Hills, Gap mine, Kinzer, New Holland, Pequa mines, Rossmere (crystals up to 6.5 dcm.), Wood's 
chrome mine (drusy) ; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Emaus (ferruginous, jasperized) 
FriedensviUe, Omrod; Luzerne County: Bear Creek; Lycoming County: Roaring Branch of Ly- 
coming Creek; Monroe County: Crystal Hill, Delaware Water Gap, and Broad Mountain; Mont- 
gomery County: Bridgeport, Camp Hill, Congo, Conshohocken (red, aventurine), Ecton mine. 



48 DESCRIPTIVE BaNERAU)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Edge Hill, Henderson, King of Prussia, Marble Hall, Mogeetown, Norristown, Ogontz, Oreland, 
Perkiomen mine, Roslyn Heights, Shainline, Spring Mill, Swedeland, Sumneytown, West Con- 
shohocken; Northampton County: Bingen (ferruginous). Easton, Cr)rstal Spring on Blue Mountain, 
Leithsville, Nazareth (colorless crystals up to 7.5 cm.), Redington (fibrous, cats-eye) ; Philadelphia: 
Chestnut Hill, Cobb's Creek, Pairmotmt Park, Prankford, Germantown, south of Lafayette, 
Logan (large colorless crystals), O'Neill's quarry, Overbrook (large colorless and smoky crystals), 
Tacony Creek, West Philadelphia, Wingohocking Creek Valley (colorless and milky crystals 
up to 30 X 50 cm.)» Wissahickon Station, and Wissahickon Valley; Pike County: Pond Eddy; 
SchuylkiU County: Mahanoy City, Shamokin, and Swatara; Tioga County; York County: Han- 
over, Hellam, Spring Grove, Thomasville, Wrightsville, York Valley, and York. 

Amethyst: Bedford County: East Bedford; Chester County: Brinton's quarry, Charles- 
town township. East Cain, East Marlboro, Entrikin's farm, Glenhall, Jug Hollow mine, Lenape, 
Parkesburg, Pocopson, SadsbwyviUe; Delaware County: Boothwyn, Chadd's Ford, Concord 
township, Copple's farm (Upper Providence), Crozierville, Edgemont, . Glen Mills, Henvi's 
quarry. Hunter's farm (Upper Providence), Marshall's farm near Dismal Run (enclosing 
rutile), McCall's farm (Chester township), Morgan Station, Randolph's farm, Sharpless' farm 
(Nether Providence), Shaw and Esrey's quarry in Chester, Wawa, and Worrall's farm (Marple 
and Upper Providence townships; deep purple crystals, in groups up to 6 X 2b cxcl.)\ Lancaster 
County: Mount Pleasant (Bart), Strasburg; Philadelphia: Falls of Schuylkill, and Tacony Creek; 
York County: New Salem. 

Blue quartz: in areas of Baltimore gneiss or Pickering gneiss. Bucks County: Buck 
Ridge, Finney's quarry, Trevose, Langhome, Morrisville, Neshaminy *Falls, Paxon's quarry, 
and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Chester Springs, and Uwchlan; Montgomery County: 
Huntingdon Valley Station, Paper Mills Station, Willow Grove, and Wsmcote. 

Green quartz: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin); Delaware County: Blue Hill 
(blue and green, doubly terminated crystals, often in radiated aggregates). Black Horse, and 
Tyler's farm (Middletown). 

Chalcedony: Adams County: Gettysburg; Berks County: Blandon, Boyertown, Cushion 
Mountain, Gottschall's mine, Fleetwood, Flint Hill, Friedensburg, Fritz Island, Moselem 
mines, Pricetown, and Wemersville; Bucks County: Durham; Chester County: Corundum 
Hill (Newlin), Hopewell mines, Marshall's quarry (West Goshen), Octoraro Creek, and Willis- 
town; Delaware County: Castle Rock, Marple, and Radnor; Lancaster County: Rock Springs 
Run (camelian and moss-agate). Wood's chrome mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Montgomery 
County: Conshohocken, Ecton mine, Perkiomen mine, and Spring Mill; Northampton County: 
Redington (prase, leek-green). 

Flint, homstone, and basanite. Berks County: Blandon, Boyertown, Friedensburg, and 
Kutztown; Bucks County: Bycot; Montgomery County: Barren Hill, Conshohocken, and Willow 
Grove; Northampton County: Easton; Philadelphia: Wissahickon Valley, and the Schuylkill 
^iver sands and gravels. 

Jasper: Berks County: Blandon, Boyertown, Cushion Mountain, Flint Hill, Gottschall's 
farm (Alsace), Greenwich township, Kinsey Hill, Pricetown, Reading, Topton, and Wemersville; 
Bucks County: Durham, Woodboume; Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin), Marshall's quarry 
(West Goshen); Delaware County: Custer's farm (Darby), The Hunt; Lancaster County: Rock 
Springs Run, and Wood's chrome mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Northampton County: Leiths 
ville. 

Silicified wood*^ occurs in the Triassic at the following localities : Bucks County: one-quarter 
mile southeast of Roelofs Station; one and a half miles north of Woodboume Station; bed of Nesh- 
aminy Creek, one and a half miles west of Newtown; roadside exposures northeast of St. Leonard's 
Station, fields along north bank of Mill Creek near Rocksville (Holland P. O.), fields south and 
southeast of Holland Station, fields east of Churchville Station, fields along ridge just northwest 
of Center Hill and for two miles southwestward, fields one mile southwest of Spring Valley, fields 
one and a half miles south of Doylestown; Montgomery County: along Trenton Cut-off R. R., 
one-quarter mile east of Morganville Station, sand quarry one-half mile northwest of cross-roads 
at Jarrettown, sand quarry one-quarter mile east of cross-roads at Maple Glen; Chester County: 

■Edgar T. Wherry, SUldfied wood from the Triassic of Pennsylvania; Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila., 64, 
86<)-379, 1912. 



DESCRIPTIVB MINBRAUKJY OF PENNSYLVANIA 49 

roadside three-quarters nule northeast of cross-roads at Sheeder, fields one-quarter mile east of 
Coventryville; Lancaster County: fields two miles northwest of Churchtown, P. R. R. cut one-half 
mile southeast of Elizabethtown and in the fields to the east and southwest of the town; in fields 
three miles northeast and one mile north of Bainbridge; Westmoreland County: in Carboniferous 
rocks near Oreensburg; York County: in fields, 2 miles south and southeast of York Haven. 

OPAL 

SiO|.nH20 Amorphous 

Colorless, white, yellow, red, brown, green, gray, or blue. Streak: white. Luster: 

vitreous. Transparent to nearly opaque. Form: small reniform, stalactitic masses. H » 5.5- 

6.5. Sp.gr. 1.^2.3. 

Hjralite : colorless or green, transparent globular concretions. 

Analysis: Cornwall, Lebanon County. Genth, 1875, 61, analysis by William P. Headden. 

SiOi 92.66 

FesOt^AltOt 1 .67 

H,0 6.56 



99.77 



LocALiTZBs: Bucks County: Finney's quarry, and Woodboume; Delavtare County: Avon- 
dale, Black Horse, DrexePs quarry, Gillespie's quarry, Morton, and Springfield. Lebanon County: 
Cornwall; Philadelphia: Branchtown, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park, Frankford (white, yellow, 
and green hyalite, fluorescent), Germantown, Overbrook, Rittenhouse quarry, Wingohocking 
Creek, Wissahickon Valley. 

CUPRITE 

CusO ISOUBTRIC 

(Trapezohedral) 

Color: cochineal-red to crimson. Subtransparent to subtranslucent. Luster: adaman- 
tine to submetallic. Form: octahedral or cubic crystals; capillary needles (chalcotrichite). 
H = 3.6-4. Sp. gr. 6.86-^.16. 

Crystallography: Isometric, trapezohedral. Common forms: a (100), o(lll), d (110). 
Commonly in octahedra or cubes, also in dodecahedra. Cubic crsrstals are often elongated to 
form acicular crystals (chalcotrichite). 

Composition:" CujO. Cu 88.8, O 11.2, = 100. 

LocALtrESs: Adams County: Hamiltonban; Berks County: Boyertown, and Jones mine; 
Chester County: Wheatley mines (chalcotrichite) ; Lancaster County: Glenwood Station; Lebanon 
County: Cornwall (chalcotrichite) ; Montgomery County: Hendricks Station, and Perkiomen mine 
(chalcotrichite); Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Frankford, and O'Neill's 
quarry. 

HYDROCUPRITE 

Color: orange-yellow to orange-red. Amorphous, forming thin rag-like coatings on 
magnetite. The mineral is perhaps a hydrated cuprite with the composition CusO, HtO. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall. 

MELACONITE 

CuO Amorphous? 

Color: black. Luster: dull, earthy. Opaque. Form: massive, pulverulent. Sp. gr. 6. 

Composition: CuO; Cu 79.8, O 20.2, = 100. 

Localities: Bradford County: Carpenter mine (New Albany); Berks County: Jones mine, 
and Gickerville; Chester County: Wheatley mines; Lancaster County: Glenwood Station; Mont- 
gomery County: Perkiomen mine, and Sumne3rtown; York County: Franklintown. 

« An okl analyBb of a mixture by Seybert (1821, 142) is omitted. 



50 DHSCREPnVB MINERAI<OGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

CORUNDUM 

AlsOs Rhombohbdral I 

Color: blue, red, yellow, brown, or gray. Transparent to translucent. Luster: adaman- 
tine to vitreous. Occasionally shows asterism. Form: barrel shaped o^stals; massive. H = 9. 
Sp. gr. 3.95-4.10. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral; c » 1.3636; po ■» 0.9091. Common forms: c (0001), 
a (1120), and v (44§1). Crystals are usually rough and rounded. Prominent parting occurs 
parallel to c (0001) and r (lOTl). 

Composition: AljOs; Al 52.9, O 47.1, = 100. 

Analysis: Shimersville, Lehigh County. E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. J., 6, 276, 1883. 

A1,0, 85.75 

FeiOa 4.26 

CaO 1.99 

MgO tr. 

TiC 2.74 

SiO, 3.28 

H,0 1 .37 

99.39 
Sp.gr 3 .898 

LocALirms: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin; white or brownish-gray cr3rstals 
in albite, tourmaline, and margarite) ; Fremont, Mt. Rocky Meeting House (East Nottingham) ; 
Delaware County: Black Horse (white to brown bipyramidal crystals in the soil) ; Elwjm, Mineral 
Hill, Morgan Station (large bronzy crystals sheathed with margarite), Smedley's iron mine, 
Sycamore Mills, and William's farm (Middletown) ; Lehigh County: Shimersville (rough crystals 
up to 8 X 15 cm. with feldspar and mica) ; Montgomery County: opposite Lafayette (small crystals 
in chlorite schist); Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill. 

HEMATITE 

FesOi Rhombohsdral 

Color: dark steel-gray to iron-black; when earthy, red. Streak: cherry-red to reddish- 
brown. Opaque. Luster: metallic, sometimes dtdl. Form: coltmmar, fibrous, lamellar, 
botryoidal, granular, or massive; crystals are tabular. H = 6.5-6.5. Sp. gr. 4.9-5.3. 

_ Crystallography: Rhombohedral; c = 1.3623; po - 0.9082. Common forms: c (0001), 
r (1011), and m (1010). Penetration twins occur, forming ^<t striae on c, which give rise to a 
distinct parting parallel to r. 

Composition: FejOa; Fe 70, O 30, = 100. 

LocALiTiBs: Adams County: Franklin Valley, Gettysburg, and Hamiltonban; Berks 
County: Lobachsville, and Fritz Island; Bucks County: Dtu-ham, Finney's quarry, Janney, and 
Langhome; Chester County: Chester Springs, CoatesviUe, Conmdtmi Hill (Newlin), French Creek 
mines, Hopewell mines. Jug Hollow mines, London Grove, Pughtown, Springton, Warwick mines, 
Wheatley mines; Dauphin County: Hummelstown; Delaware County: Black Horse; Huntingdon 
County: Wray's Hill tunnel; Zfl««wter C<w»/y; Wood's chrome mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall; 
Lehigh County: Hosensack Station, Shimersville; Montgomery County: Ecton mine. Edge Hill, 
Henderson, Huntingdon Valley Station, Jarrettown, Marble Hall, Perkiomen mine, Sumneytown, 
Willow Grove, Wyncote; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill, 
Germantown, Rittenhouse quarry, Wissahickon Valley; York County: Hellam, New Holland, 
Wrightsville, and York. 

Martitb 

Martite is hematite pseudomorphous after magnetite or p3rrite. Color: black, 
streak: reddish-brown; H = 6-7; Sp. gr. 4.809-4.832. Occurs in octahedral cnrstals, distin. 
guished from magnetite by the streak and lack of pronounced action on the magnetic needle. 

LocALtrms: Bucks County: Morrisville, in Chickies quartzite; Montgomery County. 
Edge Mill; Northampton County: Redington. 



A 


B 


67.64 


63.36 


19.71 


32.38 


21.96 


13.31 


0.67 


0.60 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 5X 

ILMENITE 
PeTiOt Rhohbohbdral 

(Trapezohedral) 
Color: iron-black. Streak: black to brownish-red. Opaque. Luster: submetallic. 
Form: thick tabular crystals, sometimes curved. H = 6-6. Sp. gr. 4.6-6. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral, trapezohedral; c — 1.3846; po = 0.9231. Common 
forms: c (0001), a (ll20), r (lOTl), and m (1010). Habit: thick tabular, crystals often curved. 
Fracture: conchoidal. 

Composition: FeTiOs; Fe 36.8, Ti 31.6, 31.6, = 100. The ratio of Fe:Ti varies widely. 
Synonimi: menaccanite. 

Analyses: A. Girard Avenue Bridge, top of tunnel of Park Drive. Collected in 1904. 
The writer is indebted to Dr. Edgar T. Wherry for this unpublished analysis. B. Near Adamstown, 
Lancaster County. Large crystals in quartz. Smith, 1886, 413; analjrsis by Knerr and Brunner. 

FejOs 

FeO 

TiC 

SiOj 

99.78 99.66 

LocALiTiBs: Bucks County: Neshaminy Falls, Newportville; Chester County: Brinton's 
quarry (Westtown), Brinton's farm (Thombury), Copesville, Corundmn Hill (Newlin), Lewis- 
ville; Delaware County: Avondale, Chester, Custer's farm (Darby), Dickinson's Mill, Franklin 
Paper Mill, Leiperville, Marple, Morgan Station, Morton, Springfield quarry, Strath Haven Inn. 
Worrall's farm (Upper Providence); Lancaster County: Adamstown, Baumgardner, New Holland, 
Rock Springs Run, Texas, and Wood's chrome mine ; Montgomery County: Conshohocken, opposite 
Lafayette, Flat Rock Tunnel, and Paper Mills Station; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; 
Philadelphia: Bridesburg (in Delaware River sands), Fairmount Park (large tabular crystals, 
often curved), Logan, Prince's quarry, Schuylkill River sands and gravels, Tacony Creek, Wingo- 
hocking Creek Valley, and Wissahickon Valley. 

SPINEL 

MgAlt04 ISOMSTRIC 

Color: black, brown, red, yellow, blue, green. Streak: white. Luster: vitreous, splen- 
dent to dull. Transparent to opaque. Form: octahedral cystals. Brittle. H « 8. Sp. gr. 
3.5-4.1. 

Composition: MgAlsOi; MgO 28.2, AlsOs 71.8, » 100. Mg is usually replaced by Fe^^ 
or Mn, and Al by Fe^^' or Cr. 

Varieties: Ceylonite or pleonaste: (Mg,Fe)Als04. Dark green, brown to black; opaque. 
Sp. gr. 3.6-3.6. Picotite: (Mg,Fe) (Al,Fe,Cr)t04. Yellowish- to greenish-brown, translucent 
to nearly opaque. Sp.gr. 4.08. 

Analyses: A. One mile from Unionville, on the Kennett Square road, Chester Cotmty. 
Black, associated with talc, actinolite, chlorite and corundum. Genth, 1873, 370; analysis by 
Koenig. B. Shimersville, Lehigh County. Iron-black. Sp. gr. 4.066. Genth, 1882, 383; 
analysis by George M. Lawrence. 1.47 % SiOt has been deducted from the analysis. C. The 
same, recalculated. 

A B C 

AI1O3 64.61 66.42 

FejOi 4.10 13.17 MgAljOi 26.40 

FeO 10.67 22.96 FeAltOi 48.61 

MgO 13.83 4.94 FeFej04 26.09 

TiO, 2.62 

SiOj 1 .26 

Corundum 16.24 



100.71 100.10 100.00 



52 DESCRIPnVB MINERAI<OGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

I/OCALiTiBs: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin); Lehigh County: Shimersville; 
Northampton County: Redington. 

GAHNITE 
ZnAlfOi IsoicETRic 

Color: dark green. Luster: vitreous, sometimes greasy. Subtransparent to nearly 
opaque. Form: octahedral crystals. H « 7.5-8. Sp. gr. 4.0-4.6. 

Crystallography: Isometric; common forms: o (111)» a (100), and d (110). Habit: 
octahedral. Cleavage: o, indistinct. Fracture: conchoidal, uneven. 

Composition: ZnAlt04; ZnO 44.3, AlsOi 55.7, » 100. Zn may be replaced by Mn or Fe^', 
and Al by Fe^". 

Analysis: John Smedley's quarry, 1/2 mile northeast of Lima, P. O., Middletown township. 
Delaware County. Dark green crystals with musoovite and albite. Genth, 1889, 50. 

AljOi 57.22 

ZnO 38 . 14 

CuO 0.06 

MnO 0.70 

FeO 3.55 

MgO 0.26 

99.93 
Sp.Gr 4.587 

Localities: Delaware County: Chelsea; Smedley's quarry (dark green aystals measuring 
15 mm. in muscovite), Sharpless' quarry near Glen Mills; Chester County: Swasme's farm (Penns- 
bury). 

MAGNETITE 

FeFes04 Isometric 

Color: iron-black; in exceedingly thin plates dark brown, smoky-brown to almost colorless. 
Opaque; in very thin plates, translucent. Luster: metallic and splendent to submetallic and 
dull. Form: octahedral or dodecahedral crystals; massive, laminated, granular; in dendrites 
between plates of muscovite. Strongly magnetic, sometimes showing polarity. Brittle. H » 
5.5-6.5. Sp. gr. 5.168-5.180. 

Crystallography: Isometric; common forms: a (100), d (110), and o (111). Twins not 
uncommon ; twin-plane o. Parting octahedral. Fracture : subconchoidal to uneven. 

Composition: FeFet04; Fe20i 69.0, FeO 31.0, » 100. Sometimes contains Ti. 

LocALiTiBs: Adams County: Cashtown, Gettysburg; Berks County: Blandon, Boyertown, 
Fritz Island, Huff Church, Jones mine (octahedral and dodecahedral crystals), Pricetown, Rau- 
denbush mine, Ruth mine, Siessholtzville, Wheatfield mines; Bucks County: Flushing, Newport- 
ville, and Taylor's Woods; Chester County: Brinton's quarry. Corundum Hill (Newlin), Edward's 
quarry near GoshenviUe (lodestone), French Creek mines (briUiant octahedral cr3rstals), Hopewell 
mines, Pughtown, Springton, Steele's mine, Swajme's farm (Pennsbury: reticulated, dendritic, 
in muscovite), Taylor's quarry, Warwick mines; Columbia County: Espy mine; Dauphin County: 
Hummelstown; Delaware County: Avondale, Castle Rock, The Htmt, Moro Phillip's chrome mine, 
Morton, Worrall, and Williamson School; Lancaster County: Carter's chrome mine, Marticsville, 
Rock Springs Run, and White Rock; Lebanon County: Cornwall (octahedral and dodecahedral 
crystals); Montgomery County: opposite Lafayette; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and 
Redington; Philadelphia: Bridesburg (in Delaware River sands), Frankford, Prince's quarry 
(octahedra in chlorite schists), Wissahickon Valley; York County: DiUsburg. 

CHROMITE 
FeCrtOi Isometric 

Color: iron-black. Opaque. Luster: submetallic to metallic. Form: massive, fine 
granular to compact; small octahedral aystals. Sometimes feebly magnetic. Brittle. H "> 6.5. 
Sp. gr. 4.32-4.67. 

Composition: FeCrj04; CnOi 68.0, FeO 32.0, = 100. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAI<OGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 63 

Analyses: A. Hibbard's farm, Middletown, Delaware County. Crystals. Genth, 1875, 
43. B. Wood's chrome mine, Lancaster County. Massive. Thomas Garrett, Am J. Sd. 
(2) 14, 45-48, 1852. The iron was determined as ferric iron, hence the high summation. C. 
Chester County. Crystals. Isaac Starr, Am. J. Sci., (2) 14, 45-48, 1852. D. Chester County. 
Massive. Seybert, Am. J. Sd., 4, 1822, 321. 

A B C D 

CrjO, 63.36 63.38 60.84 51.56 

AltOi 5.98 0.93 9.72 

FetOs 7.41 38.66 38.95 

FeO 26.64 35.14 

NiO 0.14 2.28 0.10 

CoO tr. 

MnO 0.39 

MgO 6.53 

SiO, 0.62 2.90 

100.45 104.32 101.44 99.32 

Sp. gr 4.780 4.668 

Localities: Chester County: Brinton's quarry, Corrine, Corundum Hill (Newlin), Ed- 
ward's quarry. Elk township, Moro Phillip's chrome mine (West Nottingham), Northbrook, 
Octoraro Creek, Oxford, Scott's chrome mine, Taylor's quarry, Webb's quarry, Willistown; 
Delaware County: Black Horse (Is^rge brilliant octahedra in the sands of Chrome Run on Hib- 
bard's farm). Blue Hill, Elw3m, The Hunt, Mineral Hill, Moro Phillip's chrome mine (Marple), 
Radnor, Williamson School, Worrall; Lancaster County: Wood's chrome mine, and Low's mine; 
Philadelphia: Wissahickon Valley. 

HAUSMANNITE 

MnMnt04 Tetragonal 

Color: brownish-black. Streak brown. Luster: submetallic. Opaque. Form: pyrami- 
dal crystals, granular masses. H » 5-6.5. Sp. gr. 4.8. 
Composition: MnO 31.0, MmOi 69.0, « 100. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall? 

CREDNERITE 

CusMmOt MONOCLINIC 

Color: iron-black to steel-gray. Streak black, brownish. Luster: metallic. Opaque. 
Form: foliated masses. H » 4.5. Sp. gr. 5. 

Composition: CuO 43.0, MmOt 57.0, = 100. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall? (Cobaltiferous.) 

BRAUNITE 
3MnsOs.MnSiOi Tetragonal 

Color: brownish-black to steel-gray. Luster: submetallic. Opaque. Form: pyramidal 
crystals; massive. H = 6-6.5. Sp. gr. 4.75-4.82. 

Composition: MnO 11.7, MnjOi 78.3, SiOi 10.0, = 100. 

Locality: braunite has been reported from Oreland, Montgomery County, but its oc- 
currence there is extremely doubtful. 

RUTILB 

TiOt TETRAGONAL 

Color: red to reddish-brown. Streak: pale brown. Transparent to opaque. Luster: 
metallic adamantine. Form : adcular or prismatic crystals, often twinned ; in reticulating needles. 
H =- 6-6.5. Sp. gr. 4.18-4.25. 

Crsrstallography: Tetragonal; c, po » 0.6442. Common forms: c (001), a (100), m 
(110), e (101), s (111). Habit: prismatic, vertically striated and furrowed; and slender adcular. 
Geniculated twins, twin-plane e, are common. Cleavage: a and m distinct. 



54 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Composition: TiOj; Ti 60.0, O 40.0, « 100. Fe may replace Ti up to 10 %. 

Localities: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir; Bucks County: Knight's quarry, Van- 
artsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Avondale, Bailey's quarry (West Marlboro), Black Horse 
Inn, Brinton's farm (Thombury), Coatesville, Cope's quarry. Corundum Hill (Newlin), Doe 
Run quarries, Edward's quarry (Newlin), Logan's quarry (acicular crystals up to 10 cm. long), 
Nevin's quarry, Octoraro Creek, Pomeroy, Poorhouse quarry (brilliant acicular and prismatic 
crystals on quartz), Pusey's quarries, Sadsbury township between Parkesburg and Christiana 
(large twinned oystals found in the soil). West Sadsbury; Delaware County: Birmingham township 
Concord township. Darby, Edgemont, Morgan Station (small ruby-red crystals on quartz), 
Marshall's and Tyler's farm on Dismal Run (in amethyst), near Peter's mill dam (Aston), Worrall's 
farm (Upper Providence); Lancaster County: Kinzer (acicular crystals in quartz), Pequa mines; 
Montgomery County: Edge Hill (on hematite), Flourtown; Philadelphia: Overbrook (minute 
brilliant ruby-red crystals on quartz). Prince's quarry, Tacony Creek (in amethyst), Wingohocking 
Creek Valley (veins of brilliant red, reddish-brown or black reticulated acicular crystals in quartz), 
Wissahickon Valley. 

OCTAHEDRITE 

TiOi Tbtragonal 

Color: brown. Streak tmcolored. Luster: adamantine. Transparent to nearly opaque 
Form: pyramidal crystals. Brittle. H = 6.6-6. Sp. gr. 3.82-3.95. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal; c, po = 1.7771. Common forms: c (001), m (110), and p 
(111). Cleavage: c and p, perfect. Habit: octahedral, sometimes tabular. 

Composition: Ti02, Ti 60.0, O 40.0, = 100. 

LocALiry: Chester County: Phoenixville tunnel? 

BROOKITE 

TiOs Orthorhombic 

Color: brown, black, reddish and yellowish. Streak: uncolored to gray or yellowish. 
Luster: metallic adamantine to submetallic. Translucent to opaque. Form: prismatic crystals. 
H = 5.6-6. Sp. gr. 3.87-4.01. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a : b : c = 0.8416 : 1 : 0.9444; 

Po.qo: ro = 1.1222: 0.9444:1. 

Common forms: m (100), a (100), b (010), z (112), e (122), c (001). Habit: prismatic. Cleavage: 
m and c, indistinct. 

Composition: Ti02, Ti 60.0, O 40.0, = 100. 

Localities: Chester County: Octoraro Creek placers; Phoenixville Tunnel (crystals on 
quartz); Delaware County: Black Horse; Lancaster County: Carter's chrome mine (iron-black 
prismatic crystals 2 cm. in length). 

PYROLUSITE 

MnOs Orthorhombic? 

Color: iron-black, dark steel-gray to bluish. Streak: black or bluish-black. Luster: 
metallic. Opaque. Form: coltmmar, often divergent; granular, massive; reniform coatings 
or druses. H = 2-2.6; soft, often soiling the fingers. Sp. gr. 4.73-4.86. 

Composition: Mn02; usually contains some water. 

Analysis: Near Mountainville, Lehigh County. Coating the interior of limonite geodes 
E. F. Smith, Am. Chem. J., 6, 277, 1883. 

MnOt 82.66 

Mn,04 3.13 

Fe208 4.21 

AljOi tr. 

SiOj 9.93 

99.93 



DESCRIPTIVE MINBRAIXKJY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



55 



LocALiTiBs: Bedford County: Robinsonville (Wray's Hill); Bradford County: Barclay; 
Berks County: Great Valley iron mines; Chester County: Osbom Hill; Lancaster County: Glenwood 
Station; Lehigh County: PriedensviUe, Ironton, Macungie, Mountainville; Luzerne County: 
Bear Creek; Monroe County: Broad Mountain; Montgomery County: Marble Hall, Oreland, Spring 
Mill; Northampton County: Bingen. 



DIASPORE 



HaAlsO^ 



Orthorhombic 



Color: white, grayish- white, greenish-gray, hair-brown, yellowish, or 
colorless. Transparent to translucent. Luster: brilliant; pearly on cleavage 
faces, elsewhere vitreous. Form: prismatic crystals, sometimes acicular; thin 
scales and foliated masses. Brittle. H = 6.5-7. Sp. gr. 3.3-3.5. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a : b : c = 0.9372 : 1 : 0.6039; 

Po : qo : ro = 0.6444: 0.6039 : 1. 
Forms: h (210), / (120), n (150), b (010), q (232). Habit: prismatic, 
usually thin parallel to b; sometime acicular; faces often rounded, and verti- 
cally striated in the prism zone. Cleavage: b eminent, h less perfect. 
Fracture: conchoidal. 

Composition: HjAl204; AUOt 85.0, H,0 15.0, = 100. 

Analysis: Corundum Hill, Chester County. Dana, 1868, 169; analysis 
by Sharpies. 




AltOs. 
FeaOi. 
SiO,. . 
H,0.. 



80.95 
3.12 
1.53 

14.84 


29 

Fig. 29. Dia- 
spore, Newlin, 
Chester County 
(Dana). 



100.44 



Locality: Chester County: Conmdum Hill (Newlin), white, honey-yellow or greenish- 
yellow laminated masses; brilliant crystals, doubly terminated, up to 5 cm. in length. 



GOETHITE 

H2Fe304 Orthorhombic 

Color: blackish-brown, reddish, yellowish. Streak: dtdl orange-yellow. Opaque. Luster: 
subadamantine, submetallic, silky, or dull. Form: prismatic crystals; bladed and fibrous masses 
often forming geodes. H = 6-5.5. Sp. gr. 4.28 =t. When crystallized in aggregates of thin 
blades and fibres with much adsorbed and capillary HsO it has been called limonite; but all such 
crystallized material is goethite. 

Crystallography:" Orthorhombic; a :b :c = 0.91 : 1 : 0.602; 

Po: qo: r© = 0.660 : 0.602: 1. 

Common: forms: m (110), d (210), b (010), p (111) and e (Oil). Habit: prismatic, vertically 
striated, often flattened into scales or tables. Cleavage: b very perfect. Fracture imeven. 
Pleochroism faint; a = 2.26, fi = 2.394, y = 2.400. 

Composition: H,Fe204; FejOi 89.9, HjO 10.1, = 100; Fe 62.9. 

Analyses: A. Easton, Pa. Posnjak and Merwin, 1919, 316. B. Moselem, Berks County. 
Posnjak and Merwin, 1919, 316. a « 2.14, y = 2.22. "Limonite." C. Bull Bank, Center 
County. "Limonite." Fibrous, pale brown. Genth, 1875, 51. D. Dry Hollow Mine, Hunt- 
ingdon County. "Limonite." Fibrous, dark brown. Genth, 1875, 51. E. Pennsylvania 
bank, Huntingdon County. "Limonite pipe." Genth, 1875, 51. 

««B. Posnjak and H. B. Merwin, The hydrated ferric oxides; Am. J. Sci., (4) 47, 311-348, 1010; see also 
Spencer, Mineralog. Mag., 18 (86), 330, 1010, on turite. 



56 



DBSCRIPnVB MINERAUKJY OF PRNNSYI.VANIA 



FeaOs 82.67 

FeO 

CoO 

Al,Oa 

MnsOs 

CaO 

MgO 

SiOt 

P.05 

CO, 

H,0 

Quartz 



A 


B 


C 


. D 


E 


82.67 


81.15 


81.48 


83.13 


83.74 


1.82 


1.60 






tr. 


0.24 


0.10 


0.49 


0.74 


0.33 


1.24 


0.66 


0.07 


0.16 


0.31 


none 


0.06 1 


> tr. 


tr. 


tr. 


0.12 


0.40 J 


0.09 


0.34 


0.92 


2.26 


3.98 


2.47 


2.67 






0.08 


0.60 


0.14 


1.09 


0.92 








11.68 


12.80 


13.90 


12.92 


12.13 
0.44 



99.78 99.74 100.00 100.00 100.00 



HiO 
FeiO, 



1.25 1.40 1.62 1.38 



1.29 



LocALiTiBs: Goethite ("limonite") occurs as residual weathering deposits of the 
Cambro-ordovician limestones and shales in the Chester, Great, Kishacoquillas, and Nittany 
Valleys.'^ Only localities that have been noted in mineralogical literature are listed here. Berks 
County: southwest of Reading, Salem Church (Alsace, geodes up to 60 dcm.), Moselem mines. 
Sinking Spring, and Udre6 mine; Center County: Nittany Valley; Chester County: Chester Springs, 
Fremont (geodes), Oakland, Oxford, Trimble's mine, and Wheatley mines; Delaware County: 
Castle Rock, Smedley's mine, and Newtown Square; Huntingdon County: near Chester Furnace 
(containing Co) ; Lancaster County: Chestnut Hill, Marietta, and Safe Harbor; Montgomery County: 
Bridgeport, Henderson, Marble Hall, Oreland, Spring Mill; Northampton County: Bingen, South 
Easton; York County: Ore Valley, Margaretta Ftu-nace. 

TxTRGiTB.'* Color: black with a reddish tinge. Streak: red. Luster: submetallic, or 
silky. Opaque. Form: mammillary or botryoidal masses, with a fibrous structtu'e, frequently 
forming a layer on goethite ("limonite"). Sp. gr. ±4.36. 

Composition: variable; turgite is probably a solid solution of goethite and hematite with 
enclosed and adsorbed water. 

Analyses :>' A. Red incrustation on interior of "Umonite" geode, Glendon, Easton, 
Northampton County; Eyerman, 1911, 22. B. Hitner's pit, Montgomery County; Eyerman, 
1911, 22. 



FeaOa. 
MnO. 
SiOa.. 
HjO.. 



A 


B 


86.41 


78.01 


8.60 


3.61 




1.21 


6.06 


17.64 



100.07 100.47 



H,0 
FeiOj 



1.92 



2.00 



Localities: Berks County: Great Valley iron mines, Moselem mines, Mt. Penn, and 
Udre6 mine; Chester County: Chester Springs; Lancaster County: Providence township; Montgom- 
ery County: Henderson, Oreland, Marble Hall, and Spring Mill; Northampton County: Bingen, 
South Easton; York County: Margaretta Furnace, Ore Valley. 

SI Thomas C. Hopkins, Cambro-sUurian Umonite ores in Pennsylvania; Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., XI, 47&-602, 
1900. Descriptions of individual pits are given in the reports of the First and Second Geological Surveys of 
Pennsylvania. 

**B. Posnjak and H. £. Merwin, The hydrated ferric oxides, Am. J. Sci., (4). 47, 311-348, 1010, also 
Spencer, The mineralogical characters of turite, Mineralogical Magazine, 18 (86), 330, 1010 

M An analysis of a mixture by Beck (1012, 6) is omitted. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUKJY OF PENNSYLVANIA 67 

LEPIDOCROCITE »« 

HsFes04 Orthorhombic 

C^lon reddish, often blood-red by transmitted light. Streak: dull orange. Luster: 
imperfect adamantine. Form: thin scales, or scaly to compact bladed aggregates. Sp. gr. 4.09 
=*=0.04. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic: a : b : c » 0.43 : 1 : 0.64; 

Po : qo : To « 1.500 : 0.640 : 1. 
Habit: scales slightly elongated parallel to c. Cleavage (010) perfect; (001) less perfect; (100) 
good. Optical orientation: a = 6, jS = a, 7 = c; 2V = 83*. a = 1.94, =■ 2.20, 7 = 2.61. 
Pleochroism strong; a clear yellow, /3 dark orange-red, 7 darker orange-red. 

Composition: HjFejOi; FejOs 89.9, HjO 10.1, - 100; Fe = 62.9. 

Analysis: Easton, Northampton County. Micaceous, orange-red, on fibrous goethite. 
^Nm " ^-^3^' ^N* * 2.20, 7Na =" 2.516, 7 u= 2.426. Posnjak and Merwin, 1919, 316. 

FeaOi 85.80 

FeO 1.47 

AUO, 

MnjOs tr. 

SiOi 0.91 

CO4 0.90 

H2O 11.02 

100.10 

f^ l.U 

FejOj 

Localities: Berks County: Mt. Penn, Reading, Udre^ mine; Chester County: Chester 
Springs; Lancaster County: Chestnut Hill; Montgomery County: Marble Hall, Oreland, Spring 
Mill; Northampton County: South Easton; York County: Ore Valley. 

GIBBSITB 

Al(OH)j MONOCLINIC 

Color: white, grayish or greenish. Translucent. Luster: c pearly, elsewhere vitreous. 
Form: small tabtdar crystals; mam miliary, stalactitic, incrusting, with usually a fibrous structure. 
H «= 2.5-3.6. Sp. gr. 2.3-2.4. 

Composition: Al(OH)a. Al20t 66.4, HjO 34.6, = 100. 

Analysis:** General Trimble's mine. East Whiteland township, Chester County. Grayish, 
pearly, subtranslucent coating on limonite. Hermann, 1869, 496. 



\ - 



AUOs 63.84 

Fe,0, 

MgO 

SiOi 1.50 

P,Os 0.91 

H2O 33.46 

99.70 

Localities: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin, on corundum); Chester Springs; 
General Trimble's mine (East Whiteland), on wavellite. 

BRUCITE 

Mg(0H)2 Rbobibohedral 

Color: white, grayish, blue, or green. Transparent to translucent. Luster: c pearly, 

M B. Posnjak and H. B. Merwin, The hydrated ferric oxides. Am. J. Sd., (4) 47, 311-348, 1019. 
" Prom preliminary tests Genth (1800, 206) concluded that the mineral from Trimble's mine was a hydrous 
aluminum phosphate. Genth's material was probably a mixture of wayellite and gibbsite. 



58 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



elsewhere waxy to vitreous. Form: broad tabular crystals; foliated or fibrous masses. H « 
2.5. Sp. gr. 2.38-2.4. 

_^ Crystallography: Rhombohedral; c = 1.5208; po = 1.0139. Forms: c (0001), a (1120), 
r'(lOll), p (2021), 8 (0113), e (0112), h (0775), / (0441). Cleavage: c eminent, folia separable 
and flexible. 






30 31 32 

Figs. 30-32. Brudte, Texas, Lancaster County (30, Hessenberg; 
31^2, Dana), 30, Low's mine; 31 and 32, Wood's mine. 

Composition: Mg(OH)i; MgO 69.0, HtO 31.0, = 100. Synonym: texalith. 

Analyses: Wood's Chrome Mine, Lancaster County. A. Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 
456. B. Smith and Brush, 1853, 214. Foliated. C. Smith and Brush, 1853, 214. D. Hermann, 
1861, 368; Low's mine, Lancaster County. 



MgO. 
FeO.. 
MnO. 
FejO,. 
CO,.. 
H,0.. 



A 


B 


C 


D 


67.97 


66.30 


66.25 


68.87 


n. det. 


0.50> 
tr. S 


1.00 




.97 


0.80 


.39 




1 






1.27 


tr. 




30.81 


31.93 


32.75 


30.33 



100.14 100.00 100.00 



100.00 



E. Frite Island, Berks Coimty. Colorless crystals, Genth, 1885, 41. F-G. Fritz Island. 
Brownish-yellow; Genth, 1. c. H. Fritz Island. Crystalline masses. Schoenfeld and Smith, 
1883, 281. I. Two miles south of Sinking Spring, Berks County. Silky fibrous masses. Genth, 
1. c. J. Two miles south of Sinking Spring. Thin colorless laminae. Schoenfeld and Smith, 
1883, 281. 

E F G H I 

MgO 67.64 65.38 64.30 66.78 66.62 



CaO. 

MnO. 

FeiO,. 

AltO,. 

SiO,. . 

COi.. 



0.63 
0.82 



4.04 
0.30 



4.66 
0.04 

0.46 



HsO 30.92 29.70 29.47 



0.11 

0.44 0.75 

2.42 

32.52 29.91 



J 
66.19 

1.68 
1.24 



31.05 



100.01 29.42 98.93 99.74 99.81 100.16 

K. Dehydration tests. Brucite, Wood's mine, Lancaster Co. Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 456. 

H,0 lost at 105* 0. 18 

HjO lost at 250* 0.46 

H,0 lost at 383*-412*, 2 hours 7.57 

H2O lost at 383*-412*, 3 hours more 19 . 37 

H2O lost at 383*-412*, 2 hours more 0. 06 

HiO lost at 498*-527*, 1 hour 0.23 

H2O lost at 498*-527*, 1 hour more none 

H2O lost at full ignition 2.94 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUKJY OF PENNSYI.VANIA 59 

LocAi^iTiQs: Berks County: Fritz Island, Ruth mine; Chester County: Corundum Hill 
(NewUn) ? Lancaster County: Low's mine. Wood's mine, (large tabular crystals often in rosettes, 
and broad foliated masses). 

LIMONITE 
PesOt.HtO.aq. . Amorphous 

Color: dark brown, black, brownish-yellow to ochre-yellow. Streak: yellowish-brown. 
Luster: dull, earthy, or submetallic. Opaque. Form: massive, earthy. H = 5-5.5. Sp. gr. 
3.6-4.0. 

Much fibrous material has been called limonite, but all such crystallized material is goethite, 
limonite including only the amorphous ferric hydrate with adsorbed water. 

Composition: Fe20s.HtO with more or less adsorbed water. Fe ^69.8. Xantho- 
siderite contains much adsorbed water; color: yellow to brownish; form: massive (ochre). Mel- 
anosiderite:" is a black, vitreous to resinous, compact, amorphous mixture of limonite and silica; 
sp. gr. 3.390-3.392. 

Analyses: A. Middletown, Delaware County. Pitch-black. Genth, 1875, 51; 1876, 
215. Sydney Castle, analyst. B. Wheatley mine, Chester County. Liver-brown, compact. 
J. L. Smith, 1855, 251. 

Fe,Oa 

MnaOa 

AhO, 

CoO 

CuO 

PbO 

TiOt 

SiO, 

H,0 

99.42 100.21 

Melanosiderite: impure limonite, Middletown, Delaware County. C. Average of 3 analyses by 
W. H. MelviUe; Cooke, 1875, 451. D. Dried over H,S04 for 24 hours (air-dry, HiO = 15.95). 
Genth, 1876, 216. E. Calculated for mineral dried 2 months, Genth, 1. c. F. Air dry, Genth, 
]. c. G. Calculated for mineral dried 1 month, Genth, 1. c. 

C D B F G 

FeaOi 75.13? 79.53 80.37 73.00 78.25 

A1,0, 4.34) 2.71 2.91 

Mn,Oa 1.08 1.08 0.40 0.43 

CoO 0.39 0.39 0.16 0.17 

SiOi 7.42 7.38 7.47 7.27 7.79 

PiOs 0.26 0.26 tr. tr. 

HjO at 100^ 
HjO above 100 

Ignition 11.48 10.43 17.19 10.45 



A 


B 


74.57 


80.32 


2.58 




1.54 




0.60 






0.94 




1.51 


0.13 




6.90 


3.42 


13.10 


14.02 



r 13.83 



! 



100.72 100.12 100.00 100.73 100.00 
Sp.gr 3.140 3.165 3.186 3.203 3.326 

LocALiTiBS: Bedford County: Robinsonville (Wray's Hill); Berks County: Blandon, 
Fleetwood, Flint Hill, Fritz Island, Lyons (xanthosiderite), Pricetown (xanthosiderite), Reading, 
Salem Church (ochre in goethite geodes), Siessholtzville, Udre6 mine, Wheatfield mines; Bucks 
County: Hilcroft, Newportville, Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Brinton's quarry, Charles- 
town township, Chester Springs, Hallman, General Trimble's mine. Wheatley mines; Delaware 
County: Castle Rock, Adele, The Htmt, Moro Phillip's chrome mine, Smedley's iron mine (mel- 
anosiderite) ; Franklin County: Mercersburg; Lancaster County: Beartown, Chestnut Hill, Quarry- 

" Cooke, 1875, 451; Genth, 1870. 210. 



60 DESCRIPTIVE MINBRAIXKJY OF PENNSYI.VANIA 

viUe; Montgomery County: Ecton mine. Marble Hall, Oreland, Perkiomen mine, Spring Mill; 
Northampton County: South Easton; York County: Margaretta Furnace, Ore Valley. 

Limonite pseudomorphous after pyrite. Berks County: southwest of Reading; Chester 
County: Cedar Hollow, Coatesville, Goshenville, Mill Lane, Pomeroy, Springton, West Sadsbtiry 
toYmshxp\ Delaware County: Boothwyn, near Franklin Paper Mill, Upper Darby; Lancaster County: 
south of Neffsville Ridge near Fruitville, perfect pyritohedra and combinations of cube, octahedron 
and pyritohedron, up to 5 cm. Montgomery County: Flourtown, Henderson, Roslsm Heights, 
Shainline; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Cobb's Creek, Falls of Schuylkill, 
Overbrook, and Rittenhouse quarry; York County: Schump's Hill south of York (cubes up to 
16 cm.), WrightsviUe, and York. 

PSILOMBLANE 

xMnOi.yMn0.z(BaO,KtO).HsO Amorphous 

Color: iron-black to steel-gray. Streak: shining brownish-black. Luster: submetallic, 
dull. Opaque. Form: massive, reniform, botryoidal, stalactitic. H = 5-6. Sp. gr. 3.7-4.7. 

LiTHioPHORiTB. Bluish-black, streak blackish-gray. Luster dull to metallic. Form : fine 
scales, compact, botryoidal. Contains 10-16% AI2O1, 1.2-1.4% LijO, and 12.6-16. % H2O. 

Wad. Dull black, bluish or brownish-black. Form : amorphous and reniform masses, earthy, 
compact, or incrusting. H = 1-3, often soiling the fingers. Sp. gr. 3.0-4.26. Composition: 
hydrated oxides of Mn, with Co, Cu, Fe, and 10 to 20% H2O. Asbolite contains Co; lampadite 
contains Cu. 

Analyses: A. "Psilomelane," Ironton, Lehigh County. Analysis of a mixture of psilo- 
melane and pyrolusite by Henry Pemberton, Jr., Genth, 1876, 217. B. Psilomelane, 1 mile south 
of Hellertown, Northampton County; Wherry, 1916, 608; J. S. Long, analyst. C. Psilomelane, 
Beartown, Lancaster County. Beck, 1912, 6. D. Wad, P. & R. Coal & Iron Co. mine, near 
Alburtis, Lehigh Coimty; Genth, 1876, 64, W. T. Roepper, analyst. 

MnOj 

MnO 

MnjOi 

FesOi 

CoO 

NiO 

MgO 

CaO 

BaO 

Na.0 

K,0 

SiO, 

PiOs 

H,0 

Clay 

101.09 (92.3) 100.00 100.26 

LocAi«iTiBs: Psilomelane: Berks .County: Great Valley iron mines, Green Hill; Center 
County: Nittany Valley; Cumberland County: Mt. Holly Springs; Huntingdon County: Chester 
Ftunace; Lancaster County: Beartown; Lehigh County: Ironton; Luzerne County: Bear Creek; 
Monroe County: Broad Mountain; Montgomery County: Marble Hall, Oreland; Northampton 
County: Hellertown, South Easton; Philadelphia: Holmesburg. 

Wad. Berks County: Clymer mines. Great Valley iron mines, Birdsboro, Lyons, Maiden 
Creek, Oakland; Bucks County: Buckingham Mountain; Chester County: Chester Springs, Osbom 
Hill, Pughtown; Delaware County: Chelsea, and Edgemont; Huntingdon County: Robinsonville 
(Wray's Hill); Lancaster County: Lancaster; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Al- 
burtis, Friedensville; Monroe County: Broad Mountain; Montgomery County: Marble Hall, 
Oreland (asbolite) ; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Frankford, West Philadelphia; Susquehanna 
County: Great Bend. 



A 


B 


C 


D 


84.88 




56.76 




3.77 




31.30 






60.6 




23.64 




4.6 


6.44 


19.29 


1.68 


( 


1.27 




0.79 






0.34 


1.90 








tr. 








0.19 








3.60 










12.0 


1.80 




U. 


3.2 




0.29 


4.38 


22.1 


2.44 


11.04 
46.66 



DESCRIPTIVB MINBRALOCY OF PENNSYLVANIA 





CARBONATES 




Calcite 


CaCO, 


Rhotnbohedral 


DOWJMITB 


CaMe(CO,), 


Rliombohedrat 


Anebkits 


Ca{Mg,Fe)(CO,). 


Rhombohedral 


Maonesite 


MgCO, 




Brsdnnbrite 


(Mg.Pe)CO. 




SiDBRITS 


FeCO, 


Rhombohedral 


RH0DOCBHO3ITE 


MnCO, 




SuiTHSONITE 


ZnCO, 


Rhombohedral 


Aragonitb 


CaCO, 


Orthorhombic 


Strontunitb 


SrCO. 


OrthoThombic 


Cerussits 


PbCO, 




Mai^chits 


Cii.{OH),CO, 


Monoclinic 


AztTKITB 


Cu,(OH),(CO,), 


Monodinic 


HVDROZINCITS 


Zn,(OH),(CO.), 


MoQodinic 


AURICHALCITB 


(Zn,Cu).(OH),(CO,), 


Monodinic 


Nescuehonitb 


MgC0..3H,0 


Orthorhombic 


Lanthanite 


La,(CO,),.9H,0 


Orthorhombic 


HvDROMACNBsira 


Mg.(0H),(C0,),.3H,0 


Monodinic? 


LANSfORSITE 


Mg,(OH),(CO.).,21H^ 


Tridinic 


Zaratite 


Ni,(0H),C0..4H,Q 


Amorphous 


BlSMUTITE 


Bi,CO..H,0? 


Amorphous? 


Randite 


Ca,U,(C0,),.6H,0? 





CALCITE 
CaCOi Rhoubohbdral 

Colorless, white, gray, yellow, green, blue, black. Transparent to opaque. Luster: 
1 subvitreous. Fonn: rhombohedral, scalenohedral, or hexagonal crystals; lamdlar 
(argentine), granular, compact, or stalactitic masses. H ^ 3. Sp. gr. 2.713-2.723. 

CrystaUography: Rhombohedral; c = 0.8543; ps = Om^H. Common forms: m (1010), 
c (0001). a (0112) J (0221), r (1011), M (40ll). v (2131), a (1120), y (3251), i (2134), Twins: 
common, twin plane (0001), (0112), (1011), or (0221). MabiC: rhombohedral, scalenohedrai, 
or prismatic. Cleavage: r highly perfect. Parting parallel to e (0112) due to twinning. 




Figs, 33-35. Calcite, Wheatley mines {Smtlh). 
and 35, with symmetrical eadosures of pyrite. 



i, Endosing fluorite; : 



Composition: CaCO,; CaO 56.0, COj 44.0, - 100. Ca may be replaced by small quanti- 
ties of Mg, Fe, or Mn. 

Analyses; A. De Turk's quarry, Alsace, Berks County. Small pale pink to rose-colored 
rhombohedra. Sp. gr. 2.79. CSenth, 1876, 228; Dr. Hoffmann, analyst. B. "Manganocaldte." 
West Earl townsUp, near Cocalico Creek, Lancaster County. Black, crystalline. Beck, 1012, 6. 



62 DESCRIPTIVE MINERAlrOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

A B 

CaO 44.36 52.89 

MgO 1.51 

MnO 8.20 0.41 

FeO tr. 2.04 

ZnO 0.19 

FeaOs 0.57 

AliOs 0.44 

COi 41.65 41.23 

SiO, 0.82 

Lossand H2O 5.79 



100.00 100.10 

LocALiTiBs: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh; Bedford County: Cumberland Valley; Berks 
County: Crystal Cave, De Turk's quarries, Fritz Island, Fritztown, Great Valley, Greenwich 
township, Jacksonwald, Jones mine, Leinbach's Hill, Luckenbill's Cave, east of Poplar Neck, 
Gickerville, Reading, Ruth mine, Shillington, Birdsboro, Wemersville, Wheatfield mines; Bucks 
County: Edison, Finney's quarry, Grenoble, New Galena, Reeder, Rock Hill, and Vanartsdalen*s 
quarry; Chester County: Avondale, Bailey's farm (East Marlboro), Charlestown mine, Dilworth- 
town, Doe Run quarries, Dowingtown, Edwards' quarry, French Creek mines (colorless, white, 
and green, rhombohedra and scalenohedra, enclosing byssolite), Howellville, Kimberton, Menden- 
hall's quarry, Oakland, Osbom Hill (fetid), Poorhouse quarry, Phillips' quarry, Phoenixville tunnel, 
Taylor's quarry, Warwick mines, Wheatley mines (large prismatic crystals, combinations of prism, 
scalenohedron, and rhombohedron; sometimes in spirally arranged groups; individuals occur with 
a cube of fluorite on the apex, or enclosed within the termination, or with pyrite symmetrically 
arranged on the rhombohedron); Clarion County: Mechanicsville; Columbia County: Espy mine; 
Delaware County: Avondale, Lenni, Ward's quarry (argentine) ; Franklin County: Chambersburg 
(tTSLvertme) ; Huntingdon County: Wray's Hill ttmnel; Lancaster County: Adamstown, Lancaster, 
West Earl (manganocalcite), and Wood's chrome miae; Lebanon County: Cornwall] Lehigh County: 
Catasauqua; Lycoming County: Roaring Branch of Lycoming Creek; Mifflin County: opposite 
Mt. Union (ferrocalcite) ; Montgomery County: Camp Hill, CoUegeville, Conshohocken, Flat Rock 
tunnel, Flourtown, Henderson, Hendricks Station, King of Prussia, Marble Hall, Mogeetown, 
Paper Mills Station, Perkiomen mine, Schwenksville, Spring Mill, Sumnejrtown, Swedeland, 
West Conshohocken; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Germantown, Frank- 
ford, Fairmount Park, O'Neill's quarry, and Rittenhouse quarry; York County: Emigsville, Han- 
over, Hellam, New Holland, Spring Grove, Thomasville, Wrightsville, York, York Valley. 

DOLOMITE 

CaMg(COs)2 Rhombohbdral 

(Tetartohedral) 

Color: white, greenish- white, gray, reddish. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous inclining to pearly. Form: cturved rhombohedra or rhombohedral aggregates; granular 
masses. H = 3.5-i. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.8-2.9. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral, tetartohedral; c = 0.8322; po =» 0.5548. Common 
forms: r (1011), c (0001), and M (4041). Polysynthetic twinning with the twin plane (0221) 
gives rise to twin striations parallel to both the long and short diagonals of the rhombs. Cleavage : 
f perfect. 

Composition: CaMg(C08)2; CaO 30.4, MgO 21.7, COj 47.8, = 100. Fe and Mn may 
replace Ca and Mg. 

Pbnnits. A mixture of dolomite and zaratlte has received the name pennite. The 
mineral occurs as apple-green to whitish crusts of minute hexagonal prisms of dolomite with 
an admixture of zaratite. 

Analyses: A. Texas, Lancaster County. Crystalline masses with mammillary siuiaces 
lining cavities and fissiu-es in serpentine. Garrett, 1853, 334. B. "Pennite." Grayish-white, 
frequently colored green by a small admixture of zaratite, in incrustations of microscopic crystals. 
Genth, 1875, 156. C. "Pennite," Hermann, 1849, 13. 



DI^SCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 63 

A B C 

CaCO, 61.90 62.64 CaO 20.10 

MgCO. 46.86 46.83 MgO 27.02 

FeCOa 1.24 FeO 0.70 

NiO -.... 1.25 

MnO 0.40 

AljOa 0.15 

COi 44.64 

HjO 5.84 



100.00 99.47 100.00 

Localities: Blair County: Bellwood; Berks County: New Galena; Chester County: Avon- 
dale, Cope's quarry, Devault, Downlngtown, Marshall's quarry, Nevin's quarry, Poorhouse quarry, 
Pusey's quarries, Wheatley mines; Lancaster County: Bamford, Carter's chrome mine, Texas, 
Wood's mine ("pennite"); Lehigh County: Friedensville; Lycoming County: Roaring Branch of 
Lycoming Creek; Montgomery County: Camp Hill, Conshohocken, Henderson, King of Prussia, 
opposite Lafayette, Marble Hall, Rose's quarry. Spring Mill, Sumneytown; Northampton County: 
Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry, and Wissahickon Valley; York County: Emigsville, 
Hellam, New Holland, Spring Grove, Thomasville, Wrightsville, York Valley, and York. 

ANKERITE 

Ca(Mg,Fe) (COa) j Rhombohbdral 

Color: white, gray, or reddish, weathering brown. Translucent to subtranslucent. Lus- 
ter: vitreous to pearly. Form: rhombohedral crystals or aggregates of crystals; crystalline 
masses, coarse or fine grantdar. H = 3.5^. Sp. gr. 2.95-^.1. 

Composition: Ca(Mg,Fe)(COa)j. Intermediate between caldte, magnesite, and siderite. 
Analyses: A. Phoenixville Tunnel, Chester Coimty. Transparent and colorless rhombo- 
hedra with a brown superficial coating. Sp. gr. 2.963. Koenig, 1877, 291; R. B. Chipman, 
analyst. B. Wheatley mines, Chester Coimty. Yellowish-white, curved rhombohedral crystals. 
Genth, 1875, 157; W. P. Headden, analyst. C. Doan's Mine, New Galena, Bucks County. 
Edgar T. Wherry, Mineral Collector, 13, 62, 1906. 

A B C 

CaO 28.60 CaCOa 50.72 49.30 (£1'^ 

MgO 13.03 MgCOa 21.98 22.66 . a ^i C 

FeO 14.41 FeCOa..; 27.29 27.63 I t'l ^^^ 

COt 44.56 Insoluble 0.22 0.42 



• 



100.60 100.21 99.90 

LocAUTiBs: Bucks County: New Galena; Chester County: Downingtown, French Creek 
mines, Phoenixville ttmnel (yellowish- white, curved rhombohedra), Wheatley mines; Lancaster 
County: Quarry ville; Montgomery County: Ecton mine, Perkiomen mine; Philadelphia: Prince's 
quarry; York County: New Holland, York. 

MAGNESITE 
MgCOa Rhombohbdrai^ 

(Tetartohedral) 
Color: white, yellowish or grayish-white. Transparent to opaque. Luster: vitreous. 
Form: compact earthy masses, rarely fibrous or crystallized. H = 3.5-4.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 
3.0-^.12. 

Composition: MgCOa; MgO 47.6, COj 62.4, = 100. The earthy variety is often mixed 
with sepiolite, and adheres to the tongue. 

Brbunkbritb. a white, yellowish or brownish ferriferous variety of magnesite: 
(Mg,Fe)COa. Sp. gr. 3-3.2. The mineral becomes brown on exposure. 



64 DESCRIPTIVB MINBRAtOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Analyses- A Goat Hill, West Nottingham, Chester County. ' Gcnth. 1875, 158; John 
H. Campbell, analyst. The analysis shows an admixture of 8.42% of '^P^^^ chiefly s^n- 
tine. B Bremmerite, Prince's quarry, Lafayette, Montgomc^Co. YeUowish-white, vitreous, 
rhombohedral. Imbedded in steatite. Mean of 2 analyses; Leeds, 1870, 63. 

A B 

T^^ 46.96 38.43 

^^ 0.40 3.29 

r*^ tr. 10.39 

^^' 3.50 

Z^Z^"' 47.97 47.96 

S^ -L' 2.46 

H,0 



100.74 100.07 



T ^, . ^ « . , r^^ Hill, Paoh, Scott's chrome mine, 

LocAi^iTies: Chester County: Brmton's quarry, Ck>ar>„jj^' t ^ ^^ n * , tii«^i^ 

J ^ , ^ r^ , "^ ^. . ,» ^M'^ i^ill; Lancaster County: Black 

and Taylor's quarry; Delaware County: Black Horse, Mineral HW^J^^ ^^^^^ 

Barren Springs, Carter's chrome mine. Low's mme, Texas, and Wood'sdM^^ County Chestnut 

Breunnerite: Montgomery County: opposite Lafayette; Northampton^ 
Hill; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry. 

SIDERITE 

FeCOs RHOMBOH9DRAL 

Color: brown. Luster: vitreous. Translucent to subtranslucent. Form: rhomboh^gg. 

often aggregated into druses or botryoidal forms. H = 3.5-4. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.83-^0^^)^ 
_^ Crystallography: Rhombohedral; c — 0.8184; po » 0.5456. Common forms: c (000: 

r (1011), e (0lT2). . 

Composition: FeCO|. PeO 62.1, COt 37.9, -100. y 

Analysis: Dallastown, York County. Gray, massive, slightly crystalline. Genth, 1876, \ 

229; Alfr^ Pearce, analyst. 

FeCO, 77.99 

MnCOt 0.45 

CaCC 1.43 

MgCC 3.53 

AUG, 2.81 

SiOt and quartz 11.56 

HtO, and organic matter 2.23 



100.00 



LocALrriBs: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh; Beaver County: New Brighton; Berks County: 
Bemhards, Weaver mine; Chester County: Doe Run quarries, French Creek mines; five miles 
southwest of Nottingham, UnionviUe, and Wheatley mines; Clarion County: Mechanicsville ; 
Delaware County: Leiperville, Ward's quarry; Fayette County: Dunbar; Lancaster County: Gap 
mine, Pequa mines; Lehigh County: Alburtis; Lackawanna County: Scranton; Lycoming County: 
Roaring Branch of Lycoming Creek; Montgomery County: Spring Mill; Philadelphia: Prince's 
quarry; Schuylkill County: Pottsville; York County: Dallastown, New Holland, York. 



RHODOCHROSITE 

MnCOi Rhombohedral 

Color: red. Streak: white. Luster: vitreous. Translucent. Form: rhombohedral 
cleavage masses, granular or columnar aggregates. H » 3.5-4.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.45-3.60. 
Composition: MnCOr, MnO 61.7, COj 38.3. 
Localities: Chester County: French Creek mines; Lebanon County: Cornwall. 





DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 65 

SMITHSONITE 
ZnCOs Rhoiibohbdral 

Color: white, grayish, greenish, blue, or brown. Streak: white. Subtransparent to 
translucent. Luster: vitreous inclining to pearly. Form: stalactitic, botryoidal, reniform, 
granular or earthy masses; rarely crystallized. H = 5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 4.30-4.45. 

Composition: ZnCd; ZnO 64.8, COj 35.2, = 100. Fe, Mn, Ca, or Mg may replace Zn, 
and rarely Cd is present. 

LocALitlBS: Blair County: Keystone zinc mine near Birmingham; Chester County: Wheat- 
ley mines; Lancaster County: Bamford; Lehigh County: Friedensville; Montgomery County: 
Perkiomen mine; York County: York. 

ARAGONITE 

CaCOa Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, yellow. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: adcular 
crystals; columnar, radiating, stalactitic, incrusting. H » 3.5-4. Sp. gr. 2.93-2.95. 

Crystallography; Orthorhombic; a : b : c = 0.6224 : 1 : 0.7206. 

po : qo : ro = 1.1578:0.7206:1. 
Common forms: m (110), b (010), k (Oil); twin plane m (110). Cleavage: h distinct, m and h 
imperfect. 

Composition: CaCd; CaO 56.0, COj 44.0, =100. 

Analyses: A. Opposite Mt. Union, Mifflin County. White fibrous seams and crusts. 
Genth, 1876, 229. B. Zinciferous. Friedensville, Lehigh County. White and yellowish-white, 
radiating groups of crystals; Genth, 1875, 163; analyst, W. Theo. Roepper. 

A B 

CaCOi te.09 94.20 

SrCO, 0.58 

ZnCOi 4.73 

SiOs, FeiOa, etc 1.00 

Insoluble 0.53 

H,0(bydiff.) 0.33 

100.00 99.46 

LocALiTiBs: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh; Berks County: Crystal Cave, Fritz Island, 
Jones mine, Ruth mine, Wheatfield mines; Chester County: Avondale, Brinton's quarry, Byers, 
French Creek mines; Knickerbocker quarry, Marshall's quarry, Nevin's quarry, Pusey's quarry, 
Tyler's quarry, and the Wheatley mines; Lancaster County: Lancaster, and Wood's chrome mine; 
Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Friedensville (zinciferous); Mifflin County: opposite 
Mt. Union; Montgomery County: Lansdale, Pottstown, Rose's quarry, West Conshohocken; 
Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; York County: New Holland. 

STRONTIANITB 
SrCOs Orthorhombic 

Color: white, gray, yellow, greenish. Streak: white. Transparent to translucent. 
Luster: vitreous, inclining to resinous on fractured surfaces. Form: columnar, fibrous; acicular 
^ crystals. H « 3.6-4. Sp. gr. 3.680-3.714. 

' Composition: SrCOj; SrO 70.1, COj 29.9, = 100. 

' Analysis: Opposite Mt. Union, Mifflin County. White, minute acicular crystals with 

aragonite. Genth, 1876, 229. 

' ■; CaCOs 16.36 

SrCOi 83.15 

MgO 0.38 

SiOj, FejOi, etc 0.50 

r H,0 (by diflf.) 0.61 

w 
w 

J 100.00 

Locality: Mifflin County: opposite Mt. Union, in Lewistown limestone. 



}, 



i 

I 



66 



DESCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



CERUSSITE 

PbCOs Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, gray, blue, grayish-black. Streak uncolored. Transparent to subtrans- 

lucent. Luster: adamantine inclining to vitreous, resinous or pearly. Form: tabular crystals, 

usually twinned; fibrous or reticulated masses. H = 3-^.5. Very brittle. Sp. gr. 6.46-6.574. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a : b : c = 0.6100 : 1 : 0.7230. 

po : qo : ro » 1.1853 : 0.7230 : 1. 
Forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), m (110), r (130), x (012), k (Oil), i (021), v (102), p (HI); 
Wheatley mine, Chester County (Dana, 1892, 286; Rogers, 1902, 136). Twins common, twin 
plane m (110), contact and penetration twins. Simple crystals are usually tabular parallel to b 
(010). Cleavage: m and i distinct, b and x in traces. Fracture: conchoidal. 





m 



r 




36 



37 






6.60. 



39 40 

Figs. 36-40. Cerussite, Wheatley mines (36 and 37, 
Dana; 38-40, Schrauf). 

Composition: PbCOs; PbO 83.5, COj 16.5, = 100. 

Analysis: Wheatley ^iine, Chester County. Transparent, colorless crystals. 

J. L. Smith, 1855, 248. 

PbO 83.76 

CO, 16.38 



Sp. Gr. 



100.14 



LocALtriBs: Blair County: Keystone zinc mine near Birmingham; Bradford County: 
Carpenter mine (New Albany); Berks County: Jones mine; Chester County: Charlestown mine, 
Morris mine, Wheatley mines (colorless, white, yellow, and black crystals, commonly twinned; 
twinned crystals measiu-e up to 5 cm. in breadth, individuals measiu-e up to 3 X 1 .5 cm.) ; Clearfield 
County: Clearfield Creek; Lancaster County: Bamford mine, Pequa mines; Montgomery County: 
Ecton mine, Perkiomen mine. 

MALACHITE 

CUj(OH)jCO» MONOCLINIC 

Color: emerald-green. Translucent to subtranslucent to opaque. Luster: adamantine 
to vitreous. Form: fibrous mammillary or botryoidal stalactites; tufts or rosettes of acicular 
crystals. H = 3.5-4. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.9-4.03. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic; a : b : c = 0.7823 : 1 : 0.4036, /3 « 91"'3'. 

Po : qo : To « 0.5159:0.4035 : 1,m '^ 88*'57'. 
Forms: c (Oai), a (100), 6(010), and m (110). Habit: prismatic. Cleavage: c perfect, b less so. 



DBSCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 67 

Compositioii: CuCO,.Cu(OH),; CuO 71.9, COt 19.9, HjO 8.2, = 100. 

Analysis: WheaUey mines, Chester County. Green, fibrous; Sp. gr. 4.06. Smith, 
1855, 249. An old analysis by Mitchell, 1813, 125, is omitted. This was one of the first analyses 
made by an American chemist, but is of historic interest only. 

CuO-r 71.46 

FejOa 0.12 

COj 19.09 

H,0 9.02 



99.69 



LocALiTiBs:*^ Adams County: Gettysburg, Hamiltonban; Bradford County: Carpenter 
mine (New Albany) ; Berks County: Fritz Island, Jones mine (large fibrous masses, of beautiful 
radiating structure), east of Poplar Neck, Snyderville, and Wheatfield mines; Bucks County: 
BuckmanviUe, Finney's quarry, Holland, KeelersviUe, New Galena, Nockamixon, Sellersville, 
Solebury mine, Uhlertown, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin), 
French Creek mines, and Wheatley mines; Delaware County: Avondale; Lancaster County: Glen- 
wood Station; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Friedensville, and South Mountain; 
Montgomery County: Areola (large masses), Collegeville (traces), Ecton mine, Gilbertville (traces). 
Graters Ford, Henderson, Hendricks Station, Langfield, Lansdale, Lederachsville (traces), 
Marble Hall, Mogeetown, Pennsburg Station (traces), Perkiomen mine, Pottstown, Schwenks- 
ville. Port Kennedy, Shainline (crystals), Shannon ville copper mine, Sumneytown; Northampton 
County: Leithsville; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Frankford, Germantown, O'Neill's quarry. 
Prince's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry; Pike County: Poxono Island; Wyoming County: Nicholson 
township; York County: Franklintown, Wellsville, York Valley. 

AZURITE 

Cui(OH)f(CC)i)f MoNOCtiNic 

Color: azure-blue. Streak: lighter blue. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vi- 
treous. Form: tabular crystals, usually in drusy coatings. H » 3.5-4. Sp. gr. 3.77-^.83. 
Crystallography: Monoclinic; a : b : c » 0.8502 : 1 : 0.8805; ^ »92''24'. 

po :qo :ro = 1.0367: 0.8797 : 1;m = 87**36'. 
Forms: a (100), c (001), m (110), a (101), h (221), p (021). Cleavage: p (021) perfect but inter- 
rupted; c less perfect. 

Composition: 2CuCOi.Cu(OH),; CuO 69.2, COj 25.6, H,0 5.2, » 100. 
Analysis: Wheatley mines, Chester County. Sp. gr. 3.88; Smith, 1855, 250. 

CuO 69.41 

CO2 24.98 

H,0 5.84 



100.23 



Localities: Adams County: Hamiltonban; Berks County: Fritz Island; Bucks County: 
Finney's quarry; Chester County: Wheatley mines (brilliant blue crystals measuring up to 1.75 
cm.); Lancaster County: Glenwood Station, Reinhold's Station; JL^^aium County: Cornwall (druses 
of minute crystals) ; Montgomery County: Ecton mine. Graters Ford, Perkiomen mine, Sumney- 
town. 

HTDROZINCITE 

Znft(OH)«(COs)s Monoclinic 

Color: white, grayish or yellowish. Streak: shining white. Luster: dull, earthy or chalk- 
like. Form: earthy, compact, or fibrous incrustations. H « 2-2.5. Sp. gr. 3.58-^.8. 
Composition: 2ZnCO|.3Zn(OH)2; ZnO 74.14, COj 16.03, HiO 9.83, = 100. 
LocALiTiBs: Lancaster County: Bamford; Lehigh County: Friedensville; Montgomery 
County: Ecton mine; York County: York. 

^ Traces of malchite are of common occurrence in the Triassic red sandstones and shales, (Lsrman, 1898, 
416), and in the CatskiU red shales. 



68 



DESCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



AURICHALCITE 

(Zn,Cu)s(OH)«(COt)i MoNOCLiNic 

Color: pale green. Translucent. Luster: pearly. Form: acicular crystals forming drusy 

incrustations. H » 2. Sp. gr. 3.54-^3.64. 

Composition: 2(Zn,Cu)COi.3(Zn,Cu)(OH)i; ZnO 63.2, CuO 20.8, COj 16.1, H,0 9.9, - 

100. 

Localities: Berks County: Fritz Island, and Jones mine; Lancaster County: Bamford 

(radiating acicular crystab on dolomite) ; York County: York. 




NESQUEHONITE" 
MgCOt.3HsO Orthorhombic 

Colorless, gray or white; transparent to almost opaque. Luster: \'itreous to silky. Form: 
prismatic crystals; fibrous, bladed masses; cryptocrystalline chalk-like pseudomorphs after lans- 
fordite. H « 2.5. Sp. gr. 1.83-1.85. 

Crystallography : Orthorhombic ; 

a : b : c « 0.645 : 1 : 0.4568; 
Po : qo : ro = 0.7082 : 0.4568 : 1. 
Forms: c (001), b (010), m (110), and d (Oil). Habit: prismatic. Pris- 
matic zone deeply striated parallel to the c axis. Cleavage: m perfect, 
cless perfect. Optically-; axial plane parallel to c. Bxm -^c. 
2ELi = 83**55', 2En. « 84"'15', 2Eti =-84**22'. Double refraction strong. 
Composition: MgCOi.3HiO; MgO 29.0, COj 31.4, HaO 39.1, = 100. 
Analyses: Nesquehoning, Carbon County. A. Best crystals. 
B. Altered stalactites (pseudomorphs after lansfordite) ; opaque white, 
radiating, fibrous. Genth and Penfield, 1890, 125. 

Fig. 41. Nesque- ^^ 

honite, Nesquehoning, pQ^ 

Carbon County (Pen- ^q 



7n 



i 



41 



29.22 
30.22 
40.32 



B 

28.23 
28.85 
42.92 



99.76 100.00 

Locality: Carbon County: Nesquehoning; on the walls and roof of the No. 1 Tunnel, ad- 
jacent to the "Fifty-foot Vein" about 2000 feet from the entrance. 

LANTHANITE 

(Lai,Ces) (COi)s. 8HsO Orthorhombic 

Color: delicate pink. Transparent. Luster: pearly or dull. Form: thin tabular four- 
sided plates or beveled tables. H « 2.5-^. Sp. gr. 2.605. 
Crystallography: Orthorhombic; 

a : b : c = 0.9528 : 1 : 0.9023; 
po : qo : ro « 0.9470 : 0.9023 : 1. 
Forms: a (100), c (001), m (110), o (111). Habit: tabular parallel to c (001). 

Analyses: Friedensville, Lehigh County. A. Blake, 1853, 230; analysis by Smith. B. 
Smith, 1854, 378. C. Genth, 1857, 425. 

La»0,, CejOi, etc 

CO2 

H,0 



A 


B 


C 


54.90 


55.03 


54.95 


22.58 


21.95 


21.08 


24.09 


24.21 


(23.97) 



101 . 57 101 . 19 



100.00 



Locality: Lehigh County: J^riedensVille. A mass of delicate pink tabular crystals was 
found in an ochery soil a few feet below the surface in sinking a shaft. The occurrence probably 
represented a weathered erratic boulder of allanite. 

n F. A. Genth and S. L. Penfield, On lansfordite, nesqnebonite, a new mineral, and pMudomorphs of nea* 
qnehOBite after lansfordite. Am. J. ScL, (8) 89, 121-187. 1890. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 



69 



lORHOMBIC 



n 



m 



HYDROMAGNESITE 

Mg4(OH)2(COi)t.3HsO Orthorhombic 

Colorless to white. Luster: vitreous, silky, subpearly, or earthy 
Form : small acicular, tabular or bladed cnrstals, often in tufted aggregates 
amorphous chalky or mealy masses. H =3.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.145-2.18 

Crystallography : Cyrthorhombic : 

a : b : c = 1.0379 : 1 : 0.4662. 
po : qo : ro » 0.4482 : 0.4652 : 1. 
Forms: a (100), m (110), and y (121); Wood's chrome mine, Lancaster 
County, (Dana, 1854, 84). 

Composition: 3MgCOt.Mg(OH)t.3HsO; Mg043.9, COt 36.3, H2O 
19.8 = 100. 

Lancasterite is a mixture of brucite and hydromagnesite described 
by Silliman, Jr., 1850, 216 (see Smith and Brush, 1853, 214). 

Analyses: Wood's mine, Lancaster County. A-D. Radiating 
crystals. Smith and Brush, 1853, 214. E. "Lancasterite" a mixture magne^te, Texas, Lan- 
of foliated brucite and radiated hydromagnesite. Silliman, Jr., 1850, caster County (Smith 
216, mean of 2 analyses by H. Emi. and Brush) . 




42 
Fig. 42. Hydro- 



MgO 42.30 

FeO tr. 

MnO tr. 

CO2 36.74 

H,0 20.96 



B 

44.00 

tr. 

tr. 
36.60 
19.40 



C 
43.20 

tr. 

tr. 
36.69 
20.11 



D 

42.51 

tr. 

tr. 
35.70 
21.79 



E 
50.36 
0.99 

26.96 
21.53 



100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.84 

Localities: Berks County: Ruth mine? Lancaster County: Carter's mine. Low's mine, 
and Wood's chrome mine (druses of acicular crystals and radiated masses) ; Northampton County: 
Chestnut Hill? 

LANSFORDIT£» 
Mg4(OH)j(CO,),.21 H,0 TRicxmic 

Colorless to white. Translucent, resembling paraffin. Ltister: vitreous to waxy. Form: 
stalactites terminated with crystal faces. H » 2.5. Sp. gr. 1.54-1.692. 
Crystallography: Tridinic. 

a : b : c = 0.5493 : 1 : 0.5655; a = 95*»22', fi = 100M5', y = 92*28'. 
po : qc : ro = 1.0259 : 0.4974 : 1; X = 84*^6', m = 79*'28', p = 86**31'. ^ 
Forms: b (010), c (001), m (110), h (150), k (3iq)^M (110), / (iTO),/ (20lhd (021), e (021), P (111), 
y (111), « (312), X (132), w (5.15.1,) (112), n (111), p (131), t (152), q (312), t (10.15.1 1), r (132), 
s (l72). Twins are not uncommon. (Genth and Penfield, 1890, 128; the above measurements 
were made of pseudomorphs of nesquehonite after lansfordite). 

Composition: 3MgCO«.Mg(OH)i.21 H,0; MgO 23.2, COt 19.2, H,0 57.6, = 100. The 
mineral rapidly dehydrates in the air, turning into chalk-white, opaque nesquehonite; it is prob- 
ably possible to preserve them in petroleum oil. 

Analysis: Nesquehoning, Carbon County. Colorless, waxy, translucent crystal-stalactites. 
Sp. gr. 1.54-1.692. Genth, 1888, 255; Frank J. Keeley, analyst. 

MgO 23.18 

CO, 18.90 



HjO lost over H,SO, 20 hours. 
H,0 lost over HiSO, 48 hours. 
HjO lost over HjSO, 1 week. . 

HtOlostatllOX 

H,0 lost at 185*'C 

H,0 lost at red heat 



4.831 

11.70 

26.33 

12.31 

9.76 

9.36 



67.79 



99.87 



» Genth, 1888. 355; Genth and Penfiekl, 1890. 128; see also Pederoy, 1906. 299. 



DESCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PaNNSYLVANIA 




Figs. 43-56. Iiansfordite, Nesquehoning, Carbon County (PenfiM). 



DESCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



71 



Locality: Carbon County: Nesquehoning, on the walls and roof of the No. 1 Tunnel, 
adjacent to the "Fifty-foot Vein," about 2000 feet from the entrance. 

ZARATITE*' 

Nii(OH)4COt.4HsO Amorphous 

Color: emerald-green. Streak paler. Transparent 'to translucent. Luster: vitreous. 

Form: incrusting; massive, compact, stalactitic or mammillary. H = 3-3.25. Brittle. Sp. gr. 

2.67-2.68. 

Composition: NiCO,.2Ni(OH),.4H,0; NiO 50.6, COj 11.7, H,0 28.7, « 100. 

Analyses: Wood's mine, Lancaster County. A. Smith and Brush, 1853, 52. B. Silliman, 

Jr., 1848, 249. An erroneous analysis of a mixture by Garrett, 1853, 333, is omitted. 

A B 

NiO... 66.82 58.81 

MgO 1.68 

COi • 11.63 11.69 

HjO 29.87 29.50 



100.00 100.00 

LocALiTiBs: Chester County: Moro Phillip's chrome mine (West Nottingham); Lancaster 
County: Carter's chrome mine. Low's mine, and Wood's chrome mine. 

BISMUTITE 
BisCOs . 5HsO ? Amorphous ? 

Color: white, greenish or yellow. Luster: vitreous or dull. Subtranslucent to opaque. 
Form: earthy coatings. H «■ 4. Sp. gr. 7. 

Localities: Delaware County: Avondale; Crozer's quarry in Chester. 

randite 

Ca,U,(CO,)i.6HaO? 
Color: canary or lemon-yellow. Translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: incrusta- 
tions of yellow needles. H » 2-3. 

Analyses: South end of quarry at Franlcford, northeast of Adams Street, Philadelphia. 
A. Analysis of 47 mg. of material. Koenig, 1878, 409. This analysis is of a mixture of calcite 
and randite. B. Rand, 1880, 275. Partial analysis of acicular crystals of randite after cal- 
cite was removed by acetic acid. 

A 

CaO 32.50 

Al,(P04)i? 



UtOs 31.63 

HiO ' 6.53 

CO, (by diff.) (29.34) 



B 
16.71 
0.89 
46.71 



100.00 



Locality: Philadelphia: Frankford. 

SILICATES 



0RTH0CLAS9 

Hyalophanb 

MiCROCLINB 

Anorthoclasb 

Albitb 
Oligoclasb 
Andbsinb 
Labradoritb J 
Anorthitb 

««Sillinian, Jr , 1847, 407; 1848, 248. 



i 



Feldspar Group 
KAlSisOs 
(K,,Ba)Al,Si40i, 

KAlSisOi 
(Na,K)AlSi|Oi 

NaAlSiiOs 

fmNaAlSiaOsl 



[ »Ca AlsSisOg j 
CaAljSijOg 



Monoclinic 
Monoclinic 

Tridinic 
Tridinic 

Tridinic 
Tridinic 
Tridinic 
Tridinic 
Tridinic 



72 DBSCRIPnVB MINERALOGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

ORTHOCLASE 

KAlSiiOs MoNOCLiNic 

Colorless, white, pale yellow, flesh-red, gray. Streak: tmcolored. Luster: vitreous, 
on cleavage surface often pearly. Transparent to translucent. - Form: crystals and deavage 
masses. H = 6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.57. 

Crystallography: Monodinic; 

a:b:c = 0.6586:1:0.5664, ^ = 116^3' 
Po:qo:ro -_0.8434: 0.4990 :1, m = 63** 57'. 
Conunon forms: c (001), h (010), x (101), y 001), m (110), x (130), o (TU), n (021). Habit: 
dongated || a axis, c axis, or tabular || h (010). Twinning common: penetration twins, twin axis 
c (Carlsbad law), composition face h (010); twin plane n (021) (Baveno law); twin plane c 
(001) (Manebach law). Cleavage: c perfect, h less so, m imperfect. 

Composition: KAlSi^Og; SiOj 64.7; A1,0« 18.4, K,0 16.9 = 100. 

Varieties: Adularia: colorless crystals. Necronite: deavable, fetid orthodase. Lenni- 
lite or Ddawarite:^^ a dull bluish-green sub-transparent variety from Lenni, Ddaware County; 
Cassinite:^' an intergrowth of orthodase, albite and hyalophane from Blue Hill, Delaware County; 
color: dull bluish-green, semi-transparent, vitreous, laminated. 

Analsrses: A. Adularia, Upper Avondale, Delaware County. Genth, 1883, 393. B. 
Weygadt, Easton, Northampton County. Eyerman, 1904, 46. C. Rocksville, Budcs County. 
Light green crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 3. D. French Creek mines, Chester County. Reddish- 
white to flesh-red, columnar radiating aggregates of deeply striated crystals. Genth, 1885, 44. 
E. Seissholtzville, Berks County. Genth, 1875, 94; Wm. P. Headden, analyst. 



A B C D E 

SiOi 65.84 66.14 62.95 62.68 66.86 

AltO, 19.50 18.96 16.69 20.90 18.97 

Fe,Oi 0.62 1.40 0.23 0.62 

KiO 10.69 10.79 12.44 16.99 10.04 

NajO 3.93 3.00 6.94 none 3.61 

CaO tr. 0.15 1.41 

BaO 0.08 ' 

MgO tr. 

Ignition 0.22 0.40 0.20 0.67 

100.26 99.91 100.62 100.62 101.51 

Sp.gr 2.596 2.597 2.576 2.628 



F G H I J 

SiO, 66.77 63.48 62.95 62.60 64.20 

AltO, 19.21 20.14 19.82 19.97 19.69 

Fe,0,.. 0.26 1.31 0.17 0.12 0.69 

KiO 9.11 9.42 8.67 8.95 9.59 

NaiO 4.88 4.98 4.01 4.31 3.43 

CaO 0.16 0.25 0.19 2.27 

BaO 0.57 3.96 3.71 

SrO tr. 

MgO tr. 0.16 

MnO tr. 

Ignition. 0.20 0.35 0.11 0.19 0.27 

100.16 99.68 99.83 100.04 100.29 

Sp.gr.... 2.619 2.569 

«> Lea (1806, 110) 

^ Lea (1806. 110); Penfield and Sperry (1888. 326). 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAWXJY OP PENNSYLVANIA 73 

F. "Lennilite," "Delawarite." Greenish or grayish-white, with a vitreous or pearly 
luster. Lenni, Delaware County. Genth, 1876, 224. G. "Lennilite." Lenni, Delaware 
County. Eyerman, 1911, 3. H. "Cassinite." An intergrowth of orthoclase, albite and 
hyalophane. Dull bluish-green, semi-transparent cleavage masses. Peniield and Sperry, 
1888, 326. Blue Hill, Delaware County. I. "Cassinite." Average of 3 analyses by Genth, 
1876, 224. Blue Hill, Delaware County. J. "Cassmite." Blue Hill, Delaware County. 
Leeds, 1870, 63. BaO was overlooked. 

Localities:** Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Huff Church, Mt. Penn, Siessholtz- 
ville, Stony Creek Mills; Bucks County: Finney's quarry, Johnson's graphite mine, Vanarts- 
dalen's quarry (necronite); Chester County: Bailey's quarry (necronite), Sylmar, Cope's quarry 
(necronite), Corundum Hill.^ French Creek mines, Fremont, Hopewell mines. Magnesia quarry, 
Mendenhall's quarry (necronite), Kevin's quarry (necronite), Osbom Hill, Sadsburyville, Scott's 
chrome mine, Warwick mines; Delaware County: Avondale (adularia), Blue Hill (cassinite and 
delawarite), Brandywine Summit, Franklin Paper Mill, Lenni (delawarite). Mineral Hill (aventu- 
rine, and delawarite). Sycamore Mills (cassinite), Ward's quarry, and Yamall's farm in Edgemont 
(cassinite); Lancaster County: Pequa mines (adularia), and Quarryville; Montgomery County: 
Gladwjrne (adularia); Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and Redington; Philadelphia: 
Branchtown, Cobb's Creek, Fairmont Park, Hestonville, south of Lafayette, O'Neill's quarry, 
Overbrook (porphyritic crystals in gneiss showing carlsbad twinning). 

MICROCLINE 

KAlSi«0« Triclinic 

Color: fiesh-red, cream-yellow, green, white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous, sometimes pearly on c. Form: crystals and cleavage masses. H — 6-6.5. Brittle. 
Sp. gr. 2.54-2.67. 

Crystallography: Triclinic. Forms: aJlOO), 6 (010), c (001), m (110),M (lT0),/(130), 
z (130). X (101), y (201), h (501), p (111), a (443), g (221), and o OTH). Twinning common, 
like orthoclase, according to the Carlsbad, Baveno, and Manebach laws. Cleavage: c perfect, b 
less so, m and M sometimes distinct. 

Composition: KAlSi^Os; SiOj 64 .7, MtOt 18 .4, KjO 16 .9, = 100. Na is usually present. 
Varieties: Amazonstone, — bright verdigris green. Chesterlite,** — ^white, smooth, feebly lustrous 
crystals from the Poorhouse quarry. West Bradford, Chester County. 

Analyses: A. Upper Avondale, Delaware County; flesh red; Genth, 1882, 393; analysis, 
by Genth, Jr. B. Upper Avondale, Delaware County; white cleavage masses; Genth, 1883, 
393. C. Johnson's quarry, Elam, Delaware Coimty; Eyerman, 1911, 3-4. D. Amazonstone, 
Mineral Hill, Delaware County; Descloizeaux, 1876, 433-465; analysis by Pisani. 

A B C D 

SiO, 64.63 65.03 65.38 64.90 

AI2O1 19.64 19.22 18.92 20.92 

FejOj tr. 0.77 0.28 

K2O 13.62 14.18 12.37 10.95 

NajO 1.77 1.71 1.98 3.95 

CaO 0.16 0.32 

MgO 0.25 

MnO tr. 

PjOs 0.08 

Ignition 0.71 0.13 0.45 0.20 

100.68 100.67 99.87 101.20 
Sp.gr 2.555 2.572 2.571 2.67 

** Some of the occtirrences listed above may be microcline. 

M Dana (1850, 651); Breithaupt (1858, 1); Smith and Brush (1853, 42); Lea (1866, 118); Descloizeaux 
(1876, 433, 461, 463. 465). 



74 DfiscRipnvH icinbraux;y op pbnnsylvania 

B. "Chesterltte/' Poorhoiue quarry » West Bradford, Chester County. Smith and 
Brush, 1853, 42. Sp. gr. 2.513 (B. SOliman, Jr.). P. "Chesterlite." Smith and Brush, 
1853, 42. G. Vanartsdalen's quarry, Budcs County. Dark gray to Uuish, opalescent cleavage 
mastes, distinctly striated; so-called "labradorite." Genth, 1876, 225. H. Vanartsdalen's 
quarry, Bucks County. White crystals. Eyerman, 1011, 3-4. 

E F G H 

SiOj 64.76 65.17 64.93 62.45 

AlfOg 17.60 17.70 18.58 16.22 

FcK)i 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.54 

KiO 14.18 13.86 10.44 14.88 

NaaO 1.75 1.64 3.04 4.95 

CaO 0.65 0.56 1.77 0.52 

MgO 0.30 0.25 0.12 

Ignition 0.65 0.65 1.11 0.91 

100.39 100.33 100.48 100.47 
Sp.gr 2.513 2.497 2.581 

LocAUTiBs: Bucks County: Newportville, Vanartsdalen's quarry (blue, opalescent); 
Chester County: Avondale, Bailey's farm (East Marlboro), Johnson and Patterson's quarry 
(Newlin), Poorhouse quarry (chesterlite), Pusey's quarries, Toughkenamon, and Swayne's 
farm (Pennsbury); Delaware County: Adele, Avondale (pink crystals). Black Horse, Booth- 
wyn (crystals up to 30 cm. in length), Brandywine Summit, Bunting's quarry, Burk's quarry, 
Chelsea, Chester Heights, Crossb3rville, Crozer's quarry, Edgemont, Darby, Evan's farm (Middle- 
town), Gillespie's quarry, Green's farm near Upland, Haverford township, Henvi's quarry, 
Irvittg's quarry, Kellyville, Leiperville, Lenni, Mineral Hill (amazonstone), Morgan Station, 
Morton, Shaw and Esrey's quarry in Chester, Sharpless' farm (Nether Providence), Sharpless' 
quarry, Strath Haven Inn, Sycamore Mills, Trainer, Ward's quarry, and Worrall's farm (Upper 
Providence); Montgomery County: Flat Rock tunnel, Gladwyne, Lafayette, and Wjrncote; 
Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park (large crystals), Falls of Schuyl- 
kill, Frankford, Germantown, Holmesburg, Logan, Manayunk, Overbrook, Rittenhouse quarry, 
Ryers, Shawmont, West Philadelphia, Wingohocking Creek. 



ALBITE 

NaAlSiaOs Triclinic 

Colorless, white, gray, bluish, sometimes with a blue opalescence or play of colors on c 
(moonstone). Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous; on cleavage surfaces often pearly. 
Form: small tabular or prismatic crystals; cleavage masses, lamellar or granular. H » 6-6.5. 
Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.62-2.65. 

Crystallography: Triclinic. 

a:b:c - 0.6187:1:0.5641; a - 93** 42', fi = 116^48'; y = 89M'. 
po:qo:ro - 0.9099:0.5035:1; X = 86°20', m = 63** 12', .r = 89** 11'. 
Common forms: c (001), b (010), m (110), z (110), x (101), and M (lIO). Twins common, 
according to the Carlsbad, Baveno or Manebach laws; Albite law: cwin plane (010), polysynthetic 
giving rise to twin striations on c, rarely absent; Pericline law: twin axis b, polysynthetic, giving 
rise to striations on b. Habit: elongated parallel to the b axis, or tabular parallel to b (010). 
Cleavage: c perfect, b less periect, m imperfect. 

Composition: NaAlSi«Oi; SiOs68.7, AlaOi 19.5, NasO 11.8, » 100. 

Analyses: A. Upper Avondale, Delaware County. Colorless to white crystals. Genth, 
1882, 393. B. Upper Avondale. Albite with oligoclase, cleavage mass. Genth, 1883. 393. 
C. Shaw and Esrey's quarry, Chester. Crystals. Genth, 1875, 92. D. Mineral Hill, Middle- 
town, Delaware County. Penfield and Sperry, 1887, 392, analysis by Sperry. Extinction on 
b 12 ^ rhombic section 12**. E. Mineral Hill, Delaware County. Moonstone. Leeds, 1875, 
25. F. Schofield's farm, ^/t mile west of Elwyn Station, Delaware County. Genth, Second 
Geol. Surv. Penna., C5, 1885, 116. 



DESCRIPTIVE BCINBRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 75 

A B CD E F 

SiOi 68.52 66.22 68.03 66.34 67.70 66.24 

AUOi 19.44 21.44 20.23 20.72 19.98 20.91 

FeiOi 0.20 tr. tx. tr. 

KjO 0.65 1.16 0.09 0.98 1.36 1.12 

Na,0 11.42 9.36 10.81 9.44 8.86 10.14 

CaO 2.07 0.48 1.85 1.47 J .61 

MgO 0.11 

MnO tr. 

Ignition 0.68 0.62 0.38 0.08 0.69 

100.03 100.03 100.26 99.71 99.66 100.61 
Sp.gr 2.694 2.620 2.627 2.59 

G. Lenni, Delaware County. G. M. Lawrence; Second Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep., C5, 
1886, 116. H. S. Dana's farm, near Morrisville, Bucks County. Genth, Second Geol. Surv. 
Penna. Rep., C6, 101, 1881. I. Unionville, Chester County. White "oligodase." Smith and 
Brush, 1863, 211; mean of 2 analyses. J. Unionville, Chester County. Crystalline. Silliman, 
Jr., 1849, 390; analysis by Weld. K. Unionville, Chester County. Crystalline. Boy6 
1841, 190. L. Lancaster County; chrome mine. Grayish- white, granular. Silliman, Jr., 
1849, 390; analysis by Brush. M. "Pennsylvania." Redtenbacker, Pogg. Annal., LII, 49 
(Genth, 1875, 92). 

G H I J K L M 

SiO, 66.43 67.01 64.27 66.85 67.72 66.66 67.20 

AltOs 20.70 19.44 21.21 21.89 20.64 20.79 19.64 

FetOi 0.52 tr. tr. 

K,0 0.70 0.30 1.36 0.16 1.68 

NajO 9.85 10.48 10.94 8.78 10.65 9.36 9.91 

CaO. 1.11 1.71 0.81 1.79 0.78 2.05 1.44 

MgO 0.68 0.24 0.68 0.48 0.34 0.52 0.31 

Ignition 1.71 0.63 1.08 0.48 



* 



100.18 100.23 100.25 100.27 100.19 99.37 100.08 
Sp.gr 2.61 2.612 2.619 

Localities: Berks County: Gilbert's ore pit; opposite Fritz Island, and Siessholtzville; 
Bucks County: Finney's quarry, Morrisville, and Janney; Chester County: Bailey's farm (East 
Marlboro), Copesville, Corundum Hill (Newlin), Fremont, Goat Hill, Minorcus Hill, Mt. Rocky 
Meeting House (East Nottingham); Delaware County: Avondale (colorless or white crystals 
forming druses in pegmatite, with muscovite and beryl). Bain's quarry. Black Horse (moonstone), 
Boothw3m, Darby, Franklin Paper Mills, Glen Mills, Haverford township, Leiperville, Lenni 
(moonstone). Mineral Hill (moonstone), Morton, Shaw and Esrey's quarry, Smedley's quarry. 
Sycamore Mills (moonstone), and Ward's quarry; Montgomery County: Flat Rock tunnel, and 
W3mcote; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Frankford, Germantown, Holmesburg, Logan, 
O'Neill's quarry. Prince's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry, Shawmont, West Philadelphia, and Wingo- 
hocking Creek. 

OLIGOCLASE 

6-3NaAlSi,Og Triclinic 

lCaAl^i,0» l^iCLiNic 

Colorless, white, grajrish, green, reddish; sometimes aventurine (sunstone). Transparent 
to substranslucent. Luster: vitreous to pearly or waxy. Form: commonly massive, deavable 
to compact; rarely in distinct crystals. H = 6-7. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.66-2.67. 

Analyses: A. Frankford, Philadelphia. Pale greenish- white, striated, occurring with 
orthoclase in pegmatites. Genth, 1876, 223. B — C. Lafayette, Montgomery County. Pale 
bluish, with chlorite, talc, garnet, and ilmenite. Genth, 1876, 223. D. Blue Hill, Delaware 
County. White, striated, with cassinite. Genth, 1876, 223. E. Painter's farm, Dismal Run, 
Middletown, Delaware County. Transparent cleavages. Genth, 1875, 90, analysis by R. Haines. 



76 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



SiOj 63.63 

AliO. 22.79 

FcOi 

FeO 0.43 

MnO 

MgO 0.09 

CaO 6.51 

BaO 

K,0 0.75 

Na,0 6.87 

Ignition 0.42 



B 
61.82 
25.52| 

0.47] 



0.04 
0.22 
1.81 

2.40 
8.03 
1.43 



C 
62.55 

25.43 



n. det. 

n. det. 

1.87 



D 
64.51 
21.54 

0.05 



E 
63.54 
22.96 
0.16 



n. det. 
n. det. 
n. det. 



3.31 
0.10 
1.25 
9.37 
0.32 



4.21 

0.59 
8.44 
0.52 



100.45 100.42 
2.658 2.68 



100.49 101.74 
Sp.gr 2.712 2.670 

F. Mineral Hill, Middletown, Delaware County. Desdoizeaux, 1884. 273; analysis 
by Pisani. Extinction: on c 1** 45', on h 6"-^**; 2Hr92**-92^ 48'. G. Black Horse, Middletown, 
Delaware County, Genth, 1882, 384, mean of 2 analyses. H. Black Horse, Middletown, 
Delaware County. Genth, Second Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep., C5, 1885, 116. I— J. Brinton's 
quarry, Chester County- Almost colorless, vitreous. Genth, 1876, 223. 



SiOj 63.20 

A1«0, 23.60 

FejOi 

MnO 

MgO 1.53 

CaO 3.56 

BaO 

SrO 

K,0 0.90 

Na,0 7.30 

Ignition 1 .20 



G 
58.42 
23.14 
0.18 
tr. 
0.35 
3.13 
2.66 
tr. 
7.06 
3.68 
1.54 



H 
58.62 
23.55 
0.17 

0.46 
3.23 
2.54 

7.06 
3.68 
1.49 



I 
61.04 
24.25 
0.07 

0.29 
5.05 



0.58 
7.92 
0.54 



J 
61 .65 

24.13 



0.28 
5.25 



n. det. 
n. det. 
n. det. 



101.29 100.06 100.80 99.74 

Sp.gr 2.64 2.611 2.689 

K. UnionviUe, Chester County. With corundum. Genth, 1882, 384. L. UnionvUle, 
Chester County. Brownish-white. Genth, 1873, 361, analysis by Thomas M. Chatard. M. 
Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County. Genth, Second Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep. C6, 1881, 104. 



SiOt 62.62 

AliO, 22.59 



0.22 

0.18 

1.94 

2.52 

7.41 

Ignition 2.45 



FcOr 

MgO. 

CaO. 

K2O.. 

NaiO. 



L 
59.36 
24.16 
0.61 
0.34 
3.08 
3.78 
7.22 
1.96 



M 
62.68 
23.27 
0.23 
0.15 
4.88 
1.04 
8.05 
0.23 



99.93 100.50 100.43 

Eyerman (1911, 3-4) gives an analysis of "White oUgoclase," Gillespie's Mill, KeUyviUe, 

Delaware County: SiO, 64.53, AUO, 27.36, Fe,0, 1.30, CaO , Na,0 0.20, K,0 5.80. 

Ign. . 69, sum 99 . 88. It is quite evident that this analysis is erroneous. 

LocALirms: Bucks County: Langhome, Faxon's quarry, Woodboume; Chester County: 
Brinton's quarry. Cloud's farm (Kennett), sunstone; Corundum HiU (Newlin), Johnson and 
Patterson's quarry (Newlin), FairviUe (sunstone), Logan's quarry, Mendcnhall's quarry, and 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



77 



Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett), sunstone; Delaware County: Avondale, Black Horse (stmstone)^ 
Blue Hill (white, transparent, striated cleavage masses), Elwyn, Gillespie's quarry, Leiperville, 
Lenni, Mineral Hill (sunstone), Newtown Square, Painter's farm on Dismal Run (yellow, trans- 
parent cleavage masses). Sycamore Mills (sunstone), and Ward's quarry; Monigomery County: 
Lafayette, Paper Mills Station, and Willow Grove; Philadelphia: Germantown, Fairmount 
Park, Frankford, Logan, Prince's quarry, Ryers, Tioga, and Wingohocking Creek. 

LABRADORITE 

INaAlSUOs IVT^xr^rn 

l-3CaAl^i,0, . ' Triclinic 

Color: gray, brown, greenish; sometimes with a brilliant play of colors. Luster; c 

pearly to resinous, elsewhere vitreous to subvitreous. Translucent to subtranslucent. Form: 

massive, deavable granular. H » 5-6. Sp.gr. 2.70-2.72. 

Analyses: A. North side of Devil's Den, Gettysburg, Adams County. Genth, 1876, 

221. B. West side of Round Top, near Gettjrsburg, Adams County. Genth, 1876, 221. 

A B 

SiO, 64.06 63.86 

AljO, 28.81 28.91 

FeO 1.36 1.16 

MgO 0.26 0.22 

CaO 11.05 11.79 

K,0 0.69 0.77 

NaiO 3.36 3.23 

Ignition 0.45 0.76 



99.93 100.69 

LocAirirms: Adams County: Gettysburg; Berks County: Antietam Reservoir? Chester 
County: Copesville, and Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett); Delaware County: Lenni, and Radnor. 



ANORTHITE 

CaAlsSisOs Triclinic 

Color: white, grayish, or reddish. Luster: vitreous. Transparent to translucent. 
Form: massive, deavable, granular or lamellar H = 6-6.6. Sp. gr. 2.74-2.76. 

Composition: CaAlsSisOg; CaO 20.1, AlsO, 36.7, SiOt, 43.2; NasO is usually present 
LocAtiTiBs: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin)? Delaware County: Black Horse? 



SILICATES: PYROXENE GROUP 



Enstatitb 

BRONzrrs 

Hyphrsthhns 

DiOPSIDB 

SALVm 
H9D9NBHRGITS 

DlAU<AG9 

AuGtrs 

wollastonit9 
Pbctolite 



MgSiO, 
(Mg, Fe)SiO, 
(Fe, Mg)SiO, 

CaMg(SiOi), 

Ca(Mg, Fe) (SlO,), 

CaFe(SiO,), 
\ CaMg(SiO,), 
i (Mg, Fe)Al^iO« 
\ CaMg(SiO,), 
<(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe),SiOf 

CaSiOt 

HNaCa,(SiO,), 



Orthorhombic 
Orthorhombic 
Orthorhombic 

Monodinic 
Monodinic 
Monodinic 
Mbnodinic 

Monodinic 

Monodinic 
Monodinic 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF THE PYROXENE GROUP 

Enstatit8-BronziT9-Hypsrstbbnb 
Orthorhombic 
a:b:c » 1.0308:1:0.6886 
Po:qo:ro = 0.5709:0.6885: 1 



78 DESCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

DiopsiDB-AuGiTS Group 

MonocUnic 

a:b:c = 1.0934:1:0.5894; /3 = lOS^^Sl' 

Po:qo:ro - 0.6390:0.5670:1; m = 74*^' 

Common forms: a (100), b (010). m (110), c (001), p (111), o (221), A (3ll), rf (TOl). 

Habit: prismatic. Cleavage: m perfect, parting parallel to c due to twinning. 

WOLLASTONITB 

MonocUnic 
a:b:c = 1.0531:1:0.9676; /3 » 95**30' 
Po:qo:ro = 0.9188:0.9632:1; m « 84*^0' 

PBCTOLIT8 

MonocUnic 
a:b:c - 1.1140:1:0.9864; ^ = 95''20' 
po:qo:ro = 0.8864:0.9821:1; m * 84**40' 

ENSTATITE 

MgSiOt Orthorhombic 

Color: olive-green, brown. Streak: uncolored or grayish. Translucent to nearly opaque. 

Luster: vitreous, somewhat pearly on cleavage faces; often metalloidal (bronzite). Form: 

massive, lamellar or fibrous. H « 6.6. Sp. gr. 3.1-3.3. 
Composition: MgSiOi; SiOs 60, MgO 40, » 100. 

Bronzits 
(Mg,Pe)SiOi. With increase of Pe it passes into hypersthene. Brown, grayish-green 
to olive-green ; luster of cleavage surface adamantine-pearly to submetallic or bronze-like. Form : 
cleavage masses; cleavage: m easy; parting parallel to h. 

Analyses: A-B. Enstatite, Rose's quarry. Lower Merion, Montgomery County. H. 
Trimble, Second Geol. Surv. Penna., C6, 1881, 129. C. Delaware County, "Leiperville." 
Desdoizeaux, 1862, 637, analysis by Pisani (bronzite). D. Castle Rock, Delaware County. 
Genth, 1876, 63-64, analysis by Pedro G. Salom (bronzite). E. Texas, Lancaster County. 
Garrett, 1863, 333 (bronzite). 

A B C D E 

SiOt 53.41 63.32 67.08 66.89 66.45 

AliOi 2.12 2.13 0.28\ 1.13 

FeiO, 4.66 4.72 > 12.06 

PeO 6.71 6.71 6.77/ 9.60 

MnO 0.87 0.38 0.98 

NiO 0.66 

MgO 32.47 33.72 35.59 29.15 31.83 

H,0 0.90 1.22 



99.24 99.98 99.62 98.96 98.99 

LocALiTiBS: Bucks County: Flushing, and Taylor's Woods; Chester County: Brinton's 
quarry (bronzite); Delaware County: Black Horse (enstatite and bronzite). Blue Hill (enstatite 
and bronzite). Concord township. The Hunt (enstatite and bronzite), Mineral Hill, Radnor, 
Rose Tree, Village Green, and Worrall; Lancaster County: Texas, and Wood's chrome mine 
(bronzite); Montgomery County: Rose's quarry; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry. 

HYPERSTHENE 

(Fe, Mg)SiOa Orthorhombic 

Color: brownish or blackish green or grayish black. Streak: gra3rish. Luster: somewhat 
pearly, or metalloidal. Translucent. Form: foliated masses or imbedded grains. H « 5-6. 
Sp. gr. 3.4an3.60. 

Composition: (Fe, Mg)SiOs; Fe : Mg varies from 1 : 3 to 1 : 1, and the PeO content corre- 
spondingly from 16.7 to 31 .0%; AliO» is sometimes present. 

Localities: Bucks County: Feasterville, Finney's quarry, and Langhome; Delaware 
County: Blue Hill, Castle Rock, The Hunt, and Radnor; Montgomery County: Paper Mills 
Station, and Rose's quarry. ' ' 



DBSCRIPTIVE MINBRAUXJY OF PENNSYlrVANIA 79 

DIOPSIDE 

CaMg(SiOa)s Monoclinic 

Color: white, yellowish, grayish-white to pale green, dark green and almost black. Trans- 
parent to opaque. Luster: vitreous. Form: prismatic crystals; granular, massive, columnar, 
lamellar. H = 5-6. Sp. gr. 3.2-i3.38. 

Varieties: Malacolite, — bluish-gray, grajrish-green, whitish, translucent. Mussite, — 
white, and grayish, lamellar masses. Coccolite, — white to pale green to dark-green; granular. 
Pjrrallolite, — an altered pyroxene. 

Sai^itb. Color: grayish-green to deep green and black. Form: crystals; cleavable 
masses, and massive granular. 

Composition: Ca (Mg,Fe)(SiOi)s; intermediate between diopside and hedenbergite. 

DiALLAGB. Color: grayish-green to bright grass-green, or deep green. Form: lamellar 
or thin foliated. H = 4. Sp. gr. 3.2-3.35. 

Composition: CaMg(SiOa)s, with some (Mg, Fe)Al2Si06; with increase of the latter it 
passes into augite. 

AUGITE 
f CaMg(SiO,), 
\ (Mg, Fe)(Al. Fe),SiO. Monocunic 

Color: greenish or brownish-black, pale to dark green. Transparent to opaque. Luster: 
vitreous, inclining to resinous. Form: imbedded crystals; massive, cleavable. H = 5.5. 
Sp. gr. 3.2-3.6. 

Analyses: A. . Diopside ("salite"). Baston, Northampton County. Grasrish-green, 
vitreous to pearly. Eyerman, 1911, 4. B. Diopside ("augite")- Baston, Northampton County, 
Group of greenish prisms. Eyerman, 1911, 4. C. Diopside. Bailey's quarry, Unionville. 
Chester County; apple-green, radiating. Eyerman, 191 1, 4. D. Malacolite. Bailey's quarry. 
Unionville, Chester County. Cleavage mass admixed with dolomite. Genth, 1876, 219. 

A B C D 

SiOi 51.05 53.39 52.56 52.19 

TiOi 1.34 

A1,0, 0.73 0.73 0.86 0.81 

FejO» 1.67 

FeO 0.97 1.30 0.99 

* MgO 23.80 17.98 18.00 17.36 

CaO 24.59 24.30 25.20 26.07 

CO, 1.79 

Ignition 0.14 1.02 1.25 0.73 

100.31 100.06 100.51 99.94 
Sp.gr 3.411 3.229 

E F G H I J 

SiO, 47.80 52.23 51.42 49.30 51.64 51.27 

TiO, 0.21 

AljOi 3.58 1.94 14.98 4.23 10.01 

Fe«Oj 0.53 

FeO :. 14.91 2.45 16.41 6.02 16.04 9.11 

MnO 1.55 0.67 tr. 

CoO 0.06 

CuO 0.07 

MgO 12.65 18.31 9.27 8.27 15.93 13.60 

CaO 23.01 20.00 18.97 21.45 10.05 13.23 

NajO 0.71 0.46 

KjO 0.16 

Ignition 0.48 1.79 1.36 0.72 1.64 

^■^Mi^M^W^n^ ^M^^^i^B^^H^ ' ^mm^m^m^^mm^^ ^^^^m^^m^^m ^m^g^^m^^tm^^ ^^IMi^B^IBaVa^ 

99.77 99.91 100.17 100.55 99.23 98.86 
Sp.gr 3.331 3.187 3.317 3.008 



80 DBSCRIPTIVB MINBRALOGY OF PBNNSYtVANIA 

£. Salite ("diopside"). Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County. Eyerman, 1911, 4. 
P. Diallage. Railroad cut east of Reading, Berks County. Light green crystals. Smith, 
1910, 539. G. Diallage. Gottschall's mine, Berks County. Dark green, slightly submetallic 
bronze luster. Genth, 1876, 219. H. Augite ("salite"). P. & R- Coal & Iron Co. mine, Al- 
burtis, Lehigh County. Genth, 1875, 65; Sydney Castle, analyst. I. Augite. Gettysbtu-g» 
Adams County, north side of Devil's Den. Brown %ntreous. Genth, 1876, 220. J. Augite. 
York Haven, York County. Dark green. Ehrenfeld, 1893, 6. 

Localities: Diopside: Bucks County: Vanartsdalen*s quarry (coccolite) ; Chester County: 
Bailey's quarry (malacoHte, mussite, and coccolite), Bumetfs quarry (mussite), Steele's mine 
(coccoUte); Lebanon County: Cornwall (mussite); Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and 
Redington (coccolite). ** 

Salite: Berks County: Siessholtzville; Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester 
County: Burnett's quarry, French Creek mines; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill. 

Diallage: Berks County: GottschalFs mine (Alsace); Chester County: Corundum Hill 
(NewUn), and French Creek mines. 

Augite: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, and Stony Creek Mills; Bucks County: 
Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Burnett's quarry, Coventryville, French Creek Mines, 
Jackson's quarry (New Garden), and London Grove; Lancaster County: Gap nickel mines? 
Northampton County: Chestnut Hill. 

WOLLASTONITE 

CaSiOa MONOCLINIC 

Color: white, gray, yellow. Subtransparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous, on 
cleavage surfaces pearly. Form: deavable masses; rarely in tabular or short prismatic crystals; 
fibrous. H «= 4.5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.8-2.9. 

Composition: CaSiOj; SiOj 61.7, CaO 48.3, = 100. 

Analysis: Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County. Morton, 1829, 48. 

SiO, 51.50 

CaO 44.10 

FeO 1.00 

Ignition 0.76 

97.35 
Locality: Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's quarry. 

FECTOLITE 

HNaCa2(SiO»)t Monoclinic 

Color: white or grayish. Luster: silky or subvitreous. Subtransparent to opaque. 
Form: compact aggregates of adcular crystals; fibrous masses, radiated to stellate. Distinct 
crystals are rare. Cleavage: a (100), and c (001) perfect. H = 5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.68-2.78. 
Composition: HNaCaa(SiO»)t; SiOs 54.2, CaO 33.8, NagO 9.3, HtO 2.7, » 100. 
Analyses: A. Hosensack Station, Lehigh County. Compact masses of actcular crystals, 
grayish; with stilbite. Smith and Knerr, Am. Chem. J., VT, 411, 1885. B. Rock Hill, Lan- 
caster County. Beck, 1912, 8. 

A B 

SiOi 55.17 51.88 

AliOt 1.42 

'FciQi 0.80 

CaO 30.00 31.50 

KiO 0.37 0.29 

Na«0 9.02 10.79 

H,0 4.63 3.27 

, 99.99 99.15 
Sp.gr 2.6 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUXJY OF PENNSYI.VANIA 



81 



LocALiTiBs: Delaware County: Henvi's quarry; Lancaster County: Rockhill; Lehigh 
County: Hosensack Station; Philadelphia: Prankford, and Rittenhouse quarry. 



SILICATES, AMPHIBOLE GROUP 



Anthophyli^itb 

Trbmouts 

actinolitb 

cummingtonitb 
Hornblende 

Crocidoute 



(Mg, Fe)SiO, 

CaMg,(SiO,)« 

Ca(Mg, Fe),(SiO,)4 

(Fe, Mg)SiO, 

Ca(Mg, Fe),Si40i2 

NasAlsSUOis 

(Mg, Fe),(Al, Fe)tSi20,2 

NaFe(SiO,), 

FeSiOa 



Orthorhombic 
Monoclinic 
Monoclinic 
Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 
Monoclinic 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF AMPHIBOLE GROUP 

Monoclinic amphiboles: a:b:c = 0.5482:1:0.2937; /3 = 104** 58'. 

Po:qo:ro = 0.5357:0.2837:1; m « 75** 2'. 

Common forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), m (110), e (130), r (Oil). Habit: prismatic. 
Cleavage: m highly perfect, a and b sometimes distinct. Parting, due to twinning, parallel to 
a and c sometimes observed. 

ANTHOPHYLLITE 

(Mg, Fe)Si08 Orthorhombic 

Color: brownish-gray, yellowish, brown, or brownish-green, sometimes .metalloidal. 
Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous, sometimes pearly on cleavage faces. Form: 
lamellar or fibrous masses, often radiated. Cleavage: prismatic, perfect; b less so, a sometimes 
distinct. H = 5 . 5-6. Sp. gr. 3.1-3. 2. 

Composition: (Mg. Fe)SiO»; For Mg:Fe = 3:1, SiOj 55.6, FeO 16.6, MgO 27.8, = 100. 
The mineral is frequently altered more or less to talc; most analyses therefore show some water. 
Examination of thin sections of radiating anthophyUite show quite an admixture of talc, chlorite, 
and other minerals. 

Analyses: A. Concord, "Star Rock," Delaware County. "Antholite." Leeds, 1873, 
24. B. Castle Rock, Delaware County. Grayish-white, fibrous, with talc. Genth, 1882, 
395. C. Lafayette, Montgomery County. "Tremolite." Yellowish, greenish, and reddish, 
bladed and fibrous masses. Leeds, 1875, 230. D. Oakford, Bucks County. "Hydrous 
anthophyUite." The mineral apiiears to be a weathered anthophyUite with much adsorbed 
water. The analysis, however, may be erroneous. Eyerman, 1911, 5. 



A 

SiOa 55.12 

AljOs 0.55 

Cr,0, 

FeO 8.20 

MnO 0.33 

NiO 

CaO 0.75 

MgO 31.18 

NajO 1.55 

K,0 1.01 

H,0 (Ign.).. 2.21 



B 
56.88 
2.45 



C 

59.25 
2.45 



D 
54.46 
1.14 



9.20 


6.49 


4.65 


0.28 


1.05 




0.17 








1.57 • 


0.67 


28.50 


28.16 


16.00 


0.18 






0.03 






2.28 




22.73 



100.90 99.97 98.97 99.65 
Sp.gr 3.20 2.983 

LocAUTiEs: Bucks County: Flushing, and Taylor's Woods; Chester County: Brandy- 
wine feldspar quarry (West Nottingham), and Osbom Hill? Delaware County: Blue HUl, Castle 
Rock, Hannum's farm (Concord), The Hunt, Mineral Hill, Moro Phillip's chrome mine, Peter's 
MiU dam (Aston); Lancaster County: Texas; Philadelphia: Bustleton, Prince's quarry, and 
Wissahickon Valley. 



82 DESCRIPTIVE MINBRALOGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

TRBMOLITE 

CaMgt(SiOs)4 MoNOCLiNic 

Color: white to dark gray. Transparent to translucent. Farm: columnar or fibrous 
masses; short and stout prismatic crystals. H = 5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.9-^.1. 

Composition: CaMgi(SiOi)4; SiOj 57.7, MgO 28.9, CaO 13.4, « 100. Fe may replace 
Mg up to 3%, with increase of Fe the mineral passes into actinolite. 

Analyses: A. Tremolite. Old Wolf quarry, Easton, Northampton County. White, 
somewhat fibrous crystals; non-pleochroic, extinction angles up to 20^. Merrill, 1890, 600; 
analysis by Bakins. B. Tremolite. Pusey's quarry, Kennett Square, Chestei County. Silky- 
white, semi-fibrous. Eyerman, 1911, 5. 

A B 

SiOj 58.27 57.16 

AijOt o.as 

FeaOj tr. 

FeO 0.42 

MnO 0.08 

CaO 11.90 14.00 

MgO 25.93 26.08 

KaO 0.42 

Na,0 1.25 

Ignition 1.22 2.50 

99.40 100.16 
Sp.gr 2.998 

LocALiTiBs: Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Avondale, Bailey's 
quarry. Brown's quarry. Cope's quarry, Doe Run quarries, Kennett Square, Logan's quarry, 
Mendenhall's quarry, Nevin's quarry, Poorhouse quarry, Pusey's quarries; Sylmar, and Wilson's 
quarry; Delaware County: Blue Hill, Castle Rock, Concord township, Lenni, Mineral Hill, 
Newtown Square, and Painter's farm on Dismal Run; Montgomery County: Rose's quarry; North- 
ampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Wissahickon Valley. 

ACTINOLITE 

Ca(Mg, Fe)i(Si08)4 Monoclinic 

Color: gra)rish-green to bright green; grasrish when altered. Form: columnar or fibrous; 
massive; long or short bladed crystals, breaking across the prism. Luster: vitreous. Trans- 
parent to subtranslucent. H » 5-6. Sp. gr. 3-3 . 2. 

Varieties, Nephrite — tough, compact, fine-grained, with a splintery fracttu-e. H = 6- 
6.5. Sp. gr. 2.96-^.1. Amphibole asbestus — yellowish, whitish, or grayish, long flexible 
fibers. Luster: silky. Mountain-leather and mountain cork : in thin flexible sheets of interlaced 
fibers. White, gray, or yellowish. Mountain wood : gray to brown, compact, fibrous. 

Analyses of Actinolite: A. Easton, Northampton County. "Nephrite," green, bladed. 
Eyerman, 1911, 5. B. Reservoir quarry, Easton, Northampton County. Grayish-green. Eyer- 
man, 1904, 47. C. Concord, Delaware County. Green, glassy. Seybert, 1821, 331. D. 
Mineral Hill, Delaware County. Green, bladed, Eyerman, 1911, 5. 

A B C D 

SiOi 60.26 54.35 56.23 56.34 

AUO, 2.57 1.67 1.49 

CriOj tr. 

FeO 1.85 2.27 4.30 5.32 

CaO 13.40 13.43 10.67 11.63 

MgO 20.05 28.05 24.00 21.99 

Ignition 2.29 1.25 1.03 3.32 

100.42 99.35 97.90 100.09 
Sp.gr 3.010 2.987 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAW)GY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 83 

Analyses of Asbestus: A. Asbestus, Aston, Delaware County. Analyst, Earl V. Shannon. 
The writer is indebted to Dr. George P. Merrill for this unpublished analysis. B. Asbestus, 
Delaware River quarry, Easton, Northampton County. Eyerman, 1904, 47. 

A B 

SiO, 63.11 65.25 

AljOi tr. 

FeO 3.11" 2.18 

CaO 14.00 12.66 

MgO 23.39" 30.19 

Ignition 6.85 



100.46 100.28 

Localities: Actinolite: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, and Jones mine; Bucks 
County: Flushing, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Brinton's quarry. Cope's quarry, 
Cortmdum Hill (Newlin), Gregg's farm (Kennett), French Creek mines, Osbom Hill, Warwick 
mines, and Willistown; Delaware County: Black Horse, Blue Hill, Bonsall's farm (Middletown), 
Concord township, Lenni, Marple township. Mineral Hill, Peter's Mill dam (Aston), Rockdale, 
Williamson School; Lancaster County: Gap mines, and Pleasant Grove; Montgomery County: 
Gladwyne, and opposite Lafayette; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill (nephrite?). Phila- 
delphia: Bustleton, Fairmount Park, Germantown, Prince's quarry, Wissahickon 'S^Iey. 

Asbestus: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Boyertown (mountain-leather), and Earl- 
ville; Bucks County: Flushing; Chester County: Avondale (mountain-leather), Sylmar, Brin- 
ton's quarry. Corundum HiH (Newlin), Dunlap's quarry, Edward's quarry, Moro Phillips' chrome 
mine, Mt. Rocky Meeting House (East Nottingham), Taylor's quarry, and Willistown; Dela- 
ware County: Blue Hill, Castle Rock, Concord township, Darby, The Hunt, Lenni, Mineral 
Hill, Radnor (asbestus and mountain-cork), Rockdale (formerly mined). Rose Tree (Smedley's 
asbestus pit). Village Green, and Worrall; Lancaster County: Gap mine, and White Rock; Leba- 
non County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: Friedensville (mountain-leather); Montgomery County: 
opposite Lafayette, Rose's quarry; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill (fibrous masses 66 cm. 
in length); Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Prince's quarry, and Wissahickon Valley; York 
County: Emigsville, and York Valley. 

HORNBLENDE 

Ca(Mg, Fe),(SiO,)4 ] 

NatAl2(SiOi)4 \ MoNOCLiNic . 

(Mg, Fe),(Al, Fe)4Si,0i, J 
Color: bright to dark green; black. Translucent to opaque. Luster: vitreous. Form: 
columnar, fibrous, short stout prismatic crystals. H » 6-6. Sp. gr. 3.0&n3.47. 

Byssolite: green, fibrous and acicular; often in matted masses, or enclosed within calcite 
coloring the latter a deep green. 

Analysis: Birmingham Township, Delaware County. Dark green. Sharpies, 1866, 
271. 

SiO, 47.77 

AlaOi 7.69 

FeO 15.41 

MnO 0.26 

CaO 13.16 

MgO 15.28 



99.57 

Byssolite. French Creek mines, Chester County. Goldsmith (1893, 175) published an 
analysis of "asbeferrite :" Sp. gr. 2 . 6, SiO, 48 . 45, Fe,0, 33 . 90, CaO 1 1 . 80, MgO 6 . 23, sum 100 . 38. 
This analysis is undoubtedly erroneous. 

LocAi^iTiBs: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, and Mohrville; Bucks County: Morris- 

M State of oxidation of Pe not determined. 
M Organic matter in part. 



84 DESCRIPTIVB MINBRAUKJY OP PBNNSYI^VANIA 

ville, and Rockhill; Chester County: Burnett's quarry, Copesville, French Creek mines, Hope- 
well mines, Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett), Osbom Hill, Warwick mines, and Webb's Mill; Dela- 
ware County: Bain's quarry. Black Horse, Concordville, Franklin Paper Mill, Gillespie's quarry, 
Lenni, Mineral Hill, Morgan Station, Rockdale, Ward's quarry, and Williamson School; Lan- 
caster County: Adamstown, and Gap mines; Montgomery County: Congo, opposite Lafayette, 
Ogontz, and Paper Mills Station; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Branch- 
town, Bustleton, Fairmount Park, Frankford, Germantown, Logan, O'Neill's quarry, Overbrook, 
Prince's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry, Tioga, West Philadelphia, Wingohocking Creek, and Wissa- 
hickon Valley. 

Byssolite: Berks County: Boyertown, Longswamp township, and Jones mine; Chester 
County: French-Creek mines (bright green acicular crystals and matted masses, or enclosed 
within calcite), Hopewell mines, and Warwick mines; Lebanon County: Cornwall. 

CROCIDOLITE 

Color: lavender-blue to leek-green. Opaque. Luster: silky. Form: fibrous, asbestus- 
like, or massive. H = 4. Sp. gr. 3.20-3,30. 

Composition: NaFe(SiO,)i.FeSiOs; SiOj 49.6. FejO, 22.0, FeO 19.8. Na«0 8.6. = 100. 

Analyses: A-B.; '/i of a mile east of Shanesville, Berks Coimty. Bliss, 1913. 525; 
analyses t>y Edwin De Barr. C. Hill Church, Berks County. McCreath, Second GeoL Surv. 
Penna. Rep., D3. II, 1883, 94. 

A B C 

SiOj 83.30 58.50 51.70 

AUQi 6.00 12.38 17.54 

Fe,0, 5.10 14.32 

FeO 2.90 4.79 9.22 

MnO 3.16 

CaO tr. 0.92 5.06 

MgO 1.20 4.30 8.76 

Na,0 0.30 4.09 

KjO 0.15 0.48 



98.95 102.94 92.28 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Barto, Eshbach, Gabelsville. Gilbert's Ore Pit, Hill Church. 
Little Oley, Shanesville, and near Weist School (Alsace) ; Lehigh County: Limeport. Philadelphia: 
Fairmount Park, and Frankford. 

SILICATES. BERYL GROUP 
Bbryl BeiAlt(SiOi)« Hbxagonai* 

BERYL 

BesAl2(SiOi)6 Hbxagonai. 

Colorless, white, yellow, pale green, light blue; emerald-g^een. Transparent to subtrans- 
lucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: hexagonal prisms; coarse columnar masses. H « 7.5-8. 
Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.63-2.80. 

^Crystallography: Hexagonal; c - 0.8643; po « 0.5762. Common forms: c (0001), 
m (1010), a (1120), p (1011), and s (ll2l). Habit: prismatic, rarely tabular. Cleavage: basal, 
imperfect; parting, prismatic. 

Composition: BeiAlj(SiOi)«; SiOj 67.0. AUOi 19.0. BeO 14.0, «* 100. Be may be re- 
placed by Na, Li, or Cs. 

Analjrses: A. Chester. Delaware County. Yellowish-green. Eyerman, 1911. 5. B. 
Broad Street and Olney Avenue. Philadelphia. Yellowish-green. Eyerman, 1911, 5. C. Smed- 
ley's farm, Middletown, Delaware County. Dark greenish-blue. Es^erman, 1911, 5. 



DBSCRIPTIVE MINBRALOGY OF PBNNSYI.VANIA 85 

ABC 

SiO, 66.00 66.71 66.79 

AliOt 17.60 16.10 15.53 

Fe,0, 4.98 .1.87 1.64 

BeO 10.53 12.90 13.85 

Ignition 0.95 2.08 3.07 

100.06 99.66 99.88 
Sp.gr 2.650 2.691 2.680 

Localities: Chester County: Avondale, Beryl Hill (opaque green crystals up to 51 pounds 
in weight), Brandywine Battle Field, Sylmar, Brinton's quarry. Corundum Hill (Newlin), Em> 
breeviUe, Pugh's farm (East Nottingham), Toughkenamon, Webb's Mill; Delaware County: 
Adele, Avondale (colorless, white, yellow, and green), Boothwyn (green crystals, 7.5 X 30 cm.)» 
Bunting's quarry, Burin's quarry, Castle Rock, Concord township, Custer's farm (Darby), Green's 
farm near Upland, Franklin Paper Mill, Leiperville (blue, green, and yellow, translucent to trans- 
parent cnrstals up to 5 X 30 cm.), Lewis's farm, Llanerch, Mineral Hill (dark greenish-blue), 
Morton, Peter's Mill dam (Aston), Sharpless' quarry near Glen Mills, Shaw and Esrey's quarry 
in Chester, Strath Haven Inn, Trainer (pale green opaque crystals, 6.5 X 30 cm.)> Upper Darby, 
Worrall, Worrall's farm (Marple and Upper Providence), Yamall's farm (Edgemont); Mont- 
gomery County: Flat Rock tunnel; Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount 
Park, Germantown, Logan (white, yellow, green), Overbrook, Ryers, and Shawmont. 

SILICATES, GARNET GROUP 

Grossularitb Ca»Al3(Si04)t Isometric 

Pykope MgtAlt(Si04)t Isometric 

ALMANDrrE FeiAl2(Si04)a Isometric 

Spbssartits MnsAla(Si04)s Isometric 

Andraditb CasFe2(Si04)s Isometric 

uvAROvrm CasCrs(Si04)s Isometric 
Crystallography: Isometric. Common forms: d (110), » (211), and 5 (321). 

GROSSULARITE 

CatAls(Si04)t IsoMBTRic 

Color: white, pale-green, amber, honey-yellow, dnnamon-brown, pale rose-red. Streak: 
white. Luster: vitreous to resinous. Transparent to subtranslucent. Form: dodecahedral 
crystals. H « 6.6-7.5. Sp. gr. 3.55-^3.66. 

Composition: SiOj 40.0, AI2Q1 22.7, CaO 37.3, « 100. Fe" may replace Ca, and Fe™ 
may replace Al. 

Analyses: Deshong's quarry, Leiperville, Delaware County. A. Yellow. Koenig, 
1878, 82. R. B. Chipman, analyst. B. Greenish. Koenig, 1878, 82. R. B. Chipman, ana- 
list. C. Light yellowish-brown. Eyerman, 1911, 6. 

ABC 

SiOi 39.80 39.08 38.74 

AljOi 21.16 23.26 18.70 

FeiO, 3.14 0.80 2.99 

FeO 0.72 0.86 

MnO 1.80 7.60 1.05 

CaO 34.00 28.50 37.77 

MgO tr. 

NatO 0.19 

Ignition none 0.32 0.59 

100.62 100.42 100.03 
Sp.gr 3.637 3.238 3.638 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Fritz Island; Dauphin County: Hummelstown; Delaware 
County: Leiperville (yellow and green, dodecahtdral crystals); Lehigh County: Limeport; 
Philadelphia: Cobb's Creek valley. 



86 DESCRIPTIVB mNBRAU)GY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

ALMANDITE 

Pe»Als(St04)i Isometric 

Color: deep red, brownish-red, black. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vit- 
reous to resinous. Form: dodecahedral or trapezohedral crystals. H » 6.5-7.5. Sp. gr. 

Composition: SiOi 36.2, AltOi 20.6, FeO 43.3, = 100. Fe"' may replace Al, and Mg 

may replace Fe". 

Analyses: A. Peter's Mill dam. Green's Creek, Delaware County. "Pyrope." Deep 

blood-red. Genth, 1855, 20; Chas. A. Kurlbaum, analyst. B. Chelsea, Delaware County. 

Genth, Jr., 1880, 311. C. Darby, Delaware County. Genth, Second Geol. Surv. Penna. 

Rep., C5, 1885, 114. Titaniferous almandite. D. Titaniferous almandite. Darby, Delawaic 

County. Keller, 1882, 54. 

A B C D 

SiOj 40.15 41.11 35.97 36.92 

TiO, 5.12 1.14* 

A1,0» 20.77 21.60 18.72 26.54 

Fe,0, 2.11 1.39 3.74 

FeO 26.66 25.86 30.42 27.36 

MnO 1.85 2.22 0.42 0.33 

MgO 8.08 5.41 5.08 1.66 

CaO 1.83 1.89 2.79 2.76 



99.34 100.20 99.91 100.45 

Sp.gr 4.028 4.186 4.25 

B. Sycamore Mill, Delaware County. Eyerman, 1904, 48. F. Lafayette, Montgomery 

County. Eyerman, 1911, 6. G. Rocksville, Bucks County. Altered, brown. Eyerman, 

1911, 6. H. Mohr's mine, near Shimersville, Lehigh County. Dark red, imperfect crystals. 
Smith, 1883, 276. 

E F G H 

SiOi 36.22 37.03 41.69 35.92 

AlsO» 24.58 19.53 20.19 19.18 

Fe,0, 22.69 4.92 

FeO 30.71 28.71 13.01 29.47 

MnO 8.97 1.51 4.80 

CaO 5.94 1.99 2.38 

MgO 6.90 3.70 

Ignition 0.41 1.09 



100.48 100.03 100.66 100.37 
Sp.gr 3.991 4.091 3.881 4.03 

LocALiTiBs: Bucks County: Eden, Finney's quarry, Hulmeville, Mt. Misery, Newport- 
ville, and Trevose; Chester County: Avondale (crystals measuring 16 cm.). Corundum Hill 
(Newlin), Craig's farm (Pennsbury), Dil worth's farm (Pennsbury), Goshenville, Johnson and 
Patterson's quarry (Newlin), Lewisville, near Logan's quarry; Lower Oxford township; Mar- 
shallton, Minorcus Hill, one mile south of Nottingham, near Taylor's quarry, south of Phillip's 
quarries, Toughkenamon, Unionville; Delaware County: Adele, Avondale, Booth wyn (red do- 
decahedra and trapezohedra, 1 to 6 cm.), Brandy wine Summit, Brookthorpe, Burmont, Castle 
Jlock, Chelsea, Cream Valley, Crozer's quarry in Chester, Darby (jet black, titaniferous), Dickin- 
son's Mill, Drexel's quarry, Folsom (crystals up to 7.5 cm.), Franklin Paper Mill, Gillespie's 
quarry. Glen Riddle, Grassland, Irving's quarry in Chester, Kellyville, LeiperviUe, Llewellyn 
Mills, Lenni, Mineral Hill, Morton, Radnor, Ridleyville, Sharpless' quarry near Glen Mills, 
Shaw and Esrey's quarry in Chester, Smedley's quarry near Lima, Strath Haven Inn, Swarth- 
more, St. Davids, Sycamore Mills, Trainer, Ward's quarry, and Worrall's farm (Marple and 
Upper Providence); Lehigh County: Shimersville; Montgomery County: Barren Hill (a crystal 
measuring 15 cm. was found in digging a well). Flat Rock tunnel, Gladwyne, Ogontz, Paper Mills 
Station, and Wyncote; Philadelphia: Branchtown, Bustleton, Chestnut Hill, Fairmount Park, 



DESCRIPTIVE MINBRAWX;y OF PENNSYLVANIA 87 

Prankford, Germantown, Holmesburg, Logan, Manayunk, Nicetown, Overbrook, Prince's 
quarry, Rittenhouse quarry, Ryers, Shawmont, Tacony Creek, VereeviUe, W&t Philadelphia, 
and Wissahickon Valley. 

SPBSSARTITE 
MnsAl2(Si04)t IsoMBTRic 

Color: dark hyacinth red, sometimes with a tinge of violet; brownish-red. Transparent 
to subtranslucent; opaque. Luster: vitreous or resinous. Form: dodecahedral or trapezo- 
hedral crystals, massive. H « 6.6-7.6. Sp. gr. 4.(V-4.3. 

Composition: SiOj 36.4, AliOs 20.6, MnO 43.0, = 100. Fe^^ replaces Mn, and Fe^^' 
replaces Al. 

Analyses: A. Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. B. Avondale, Delaware County. Robin- 
son, 1887, 261. Each an average of 2 analyses. 

A B 

SiO, 38.24 40.92 

AljO, 19.62 9.24 

FeiO, 2.27 1.13 

FeO 13.60 9.28 

MnO 25.30 38.34 

CaO 0.63 tr. 

99.66 98.91 

Sp.gr 4.23 4.12 

LocAi«iTiBs: Berks County: Bemharts; Chester County: Osbom Hill; Delaware County: 
Avondale (brilliant red crystals up to 6 cm.), Boothwyn, Burk's quarry, and Concord township; 
Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Holmesburg, Germantown, and Roxborough. 

ANDRADITB 

CaiFe2(Si04)s Isombtric 

Color: yellow, green, brownish-red, brownish-yellow, brown, black. Transparent to 
opaque. Luster: vitreous or resinous. Form: dodecahedral or trapezohedral crystals; mas- 
sive, compact. H = 6.6-7.6. Sp. gr. 3.8-3.9. 

Composition: SiOj 36.5, FeiOt 31.6, CaO 33.0, = 100 Al replaces Fe^^'; Fe^^, Mn, 
or Mg may replace the Ca. 

Melanite: black, dull or lustrous. 

Analyses: A. French Creek mines, Chester County. Brownish-gray to ash-gray. 
Genth, 1890, 117. B. French Creek mines, Chester County. Dark brown crystals. Eyer- 
man, 1904, 48. C. Weber's farm, Lower Saucon, Northampton County. Dark brown. Eyer- 
man, 1911, 6. D. Near Hosensack Station, Lehigh County. Yellow. Smith, Am. Chem. 
J., v., 277, 1883. The specific gravity determinations are probably erroneous. 

A B C D 

SiO, 41.42 36.42 35.46 35.26 

A1,0, 18.09 8.61 7.60 

FejO, 10.81 21.04 26.04 32.17 

FeO 0.92 

MnO... 0.88 9.88 1.14 

CaO 26.19 26.67 29.60 30.80 

MgO 0.69 tr. 

COj 1.71 

Ignition 0. 51 

100.20 100.52 99.74 99.14 
Sp.gr 3.390 3.719 3.790 6.06-6.27 

LocALitlBs: Berks County: Bemharts; Bucks County: New Hope; Chester County: 
French Creek mines (crystals measuring 6 cm.), Hopewell mines, Steele's mine, and Warwick 
mines; Lebanon County: Cornwall (brownish-red and brown-olive crystals measuring 2.5 cm.); 
Lehigh County: Hosensack Station; Northampton County: Redington; Warren County: Warren? 
(melanite); York County: DiUsburg. 



88 



DBSCRIPTIVQ lONERAU^GY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



UVAROVITE 

CaiCraCSiOOt Isomstric 

Color: emerald green. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 
dodecahedral dystals, usually small. H « 6.5-7.5. Sp. gr. 3.41-3.52. 

Composition : StOf 35 . 9, CrtOs 30 . 6, CaO 33 . 5, » 100. Al may replace part of the Cr. 
Locality: Lancaster County: Wood's chrome mine. 



OTHER ORTHOSILICATES 



Olivinb 
Fayalite 

DiOPTASB 

Wbrnbritb 

Vbsuvianit« 
Zircon 
Topaz 
Andalusitb 

SlLLDCANITB 

Cyanitb 
Datolitb 
Gadolinitb 
Zoisrrs 

Epidotb 

PiBDMONTlTS 

ALLANrrs 
Axrtam 

PRJBHNIT9 

Chondrodits 
Ilvaits 



i 



{ 



(Mg, Fe),Si04 

FetSi04 

H,Cu,Si04 

mCaiAUSieOtt 

n (NaiAltSiiOiiCl 
Ca«AU(0H.F)(Si04)» 
ZrSiO* 
AlsFtSi04 
AlsSiOi 
AltSiOf 
AlsSiOi 

Ca(B,0H)Si04 
BeJPe(Y0),(Si04)j 
Cat(A10H)Al2(Si04)» 
m Cas(A10H)Alt(Si04)i 
n Ca,(FeOH)Al,(Si04)i 
Ca,(A10H) ( Al,Fe.Mn)r- 

(Si04), 
(Ca,Fe),( AlOH) (Al,Ce,Fe)r- 



Orthorhombic 
Orthorhombic 
Rhombohedral 



Tetragonal 

Tetragonal 

Tetragonal 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Tridinic 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 
Monoclinic 



(Si04). 

HCa,(Fe,Mn)Al.B(Si04)4 
H,Ca,Ali(Si04)i 
Mg,[Mg(F,0H)l,[Si04li 
CaFe,(Fe0H)(Si04)i 



Monoclinic 

Triclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 



ORTHOSILICATES OR METASILICATES 



Calaminb 

Tourmalins 

Staurolits 



HtZnsSiOf 

Ri,Al,(B,OH),Si40ii 

FeAU(OH)(SiO«), 



Orthorhombic 

Rhombohedral 

Orthorhombic 



OLIVINE 

(Mg,Fe)tSi04 Orthorhombic 

Color: olive-green, sometimes brownish. Luster: vitreous. Transparent to trans- 
lucent. Form: imbedded grains. H = 6.5-7. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.27-3.37. 

Analysis: Castle Rock, Delaware County. Grains in peridotite. Genth, 1875, 63-64. 
Pedro G. Salom, analyst. 

SiOj 45.15 

FeO 19.38 

MgO 31.49 

CaO 3.88 

AljOt tr. 



99.90 



Localities: Delaware County: Castle Rock, and Williamson School; Lancaster County: 
Wood's chrome mine; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry? 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 89 

FAYALITE 

FejSiOi Orthorhombic 

Color: light yellow, transparent; becomes dark brown to black and opaque on exposure. 

Luster: resinous, or metalloidal. Form: imbedded grains or minute crystals. H — 6.5. 

Sp. gr. 4. 

Composition: FejSi04; FeO 79.6, SiOj 29.4, = 100. 
Locality: Berks County: Boyertown? 

DIOPTASE 

HsCutSi04 Rhombohedral 

(Tetartohedral) 
Color: emerald-green. Streak: green. Luster: vitreous. Transparent to subtrans- 
lucent. Form: rhombohedral crystals, in indistinct crystalline aggregates. Cleavage, rhom- 
bohedral, perfect. H = 5. Sp. gr. 3. 

Composition: H2CuiSi04; CuO 60.4, SiOi 38.2, HtO 11.4, = 100. 
Locality: Montgomery County: Perkiomen mine? 

WERNERITE 

^ '"^I*!!*^'^. Tetragonal 

n Na4Al«Si90t4Cl 

Color: white, gray, bluish, greenish. Streak: uncolored. Transparent to subtrans- 
lucent. Luster: vitreous to pearly, inclining to resinous. Form: prismatic crystals; massive, 
granular, columnar. H - 5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.66-2.73. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal; c, po ■» 0.440. Common forms: c (001), a (100), m (110), 
and r (111). Habit: prismatic; crystals usually coarse and rough. Cleavage: a and m dis- 
tinct but interrupted. 

Analyses: A. French Creek mines, Chester County. On 400 foot level of the Elizabeth 
mine. White to grayish, striated prismatic crystals, with andradite, magnetite and p3rrite. 
Genth, 1890, 117. B. Mineral Spring quarry, Baston, Northampton County. Byerman, 
1911, 7. C. Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County. Grayish-blue, with graphite. Byerman, 
1911, 7. D. Vanartsdalen's quarry, Bucks County. Greenish- white, translucent, compact. 
Leeds, 1870, 62; 1873, 26. 

A 

SiOj 62.30 

AliO» 23.68 

FetOi 0.68 

FeO 0.39 

CaO 12.36 2.06 16.89 17.69 

MgO 0.05 9.01 1.20 

Na,0 6.29 4.41 3.30 3.06 

K2O 0.77 1.25 1.80 1.40 

COi 2.63 



B 


C 


D 


64.61 


49.01 


47.47 


24.79 


26.77 


27.61 


0.32 




tr. 



CI 2.00 

HtO 1.50 1.76 1.70 1.48 



100.16 100.21 99.86 99.70 
Sp.gr 2.675 2.610 2.689 2.708 

Localities: Berks County: ^titz IsHand; Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester 
County: Bailey's quarry, Copesville, Doe Run quarries, French Creek mines, Kennett Square, 
Nevin's quarry, and Willowdale; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill (pink, prismatic crystals); 
Philadelphia: Frankford, O'Neill's quarry. 

VESnVIANITB 

Ca«Ali(0H,F)(Si04)i Tettiagonal 

Color: brown, green. Subtransparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous, inclining 



90 



DESCRIPnVE MINERAW)GY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 




to resinous. Form: prismatic crystals, massive, columnar, granular. H » 6.5. Brittle. 
Sp. gr. 3.35-3.45. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal; c, po - 0.5372. Common forms: c (001), m (110), p 
(111), a (100). Cleavage: m indistinct. Fracture: subconchoidal, uneven. 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Fritz Island; BUcks County : New Hope; Chester County: 
Doe Run quarries, and Willowdale; Lancaster County: Wood's chrome mine? Lebanon County: 
Cornwall. 

ZIRCON 

ZrSiOi Trtragonai, 

Color: red, reddish-brown. Streak: uncolored. Translucent, subtranslucent, opaque. 
Luster: adamantine. Form: square prismatic crystals with pyramidal terminations. H =7.5. 
Brittle. Sp. gr. 4.68-4.70. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal; c, po = 
0.6403. Common forms: a (100), m (110), 
p (111), u (331), X (131). Habit: prismatic; 
rarely pyramidal. Cleavage: m, />, imperfect. 
Fracture : conchoidal . 

Composition: ZrSi04; SiOs 32.8, ZrOs 
67.2, » 100. A small amount of PeiO» is 
K jy \\ I / // usually present. 

^^rvV::===^ vILa/ Cyrtolite: (Altered zircon). Color: 

^^<\^^ ^Xy^ yellow, red, yellowish-brown, or brownish- 

red. Luster: somewhat adamantine. Form: 
^. ^^ ,-« «. rv, , ,, , ^ , «. ., a combination of w (11) and « (101) resembling 

Fip.57-58. Zircon, Old York Road, Phil- ^ rhombic dodecahedron. The pyramidal faces 
adelphia (rr^(>rf). ^ are curved. H- 5-5.5. Sp. gr. 3 . 85^ . 97. 

Analysis: Pricetown, Berks County. Chocolate brown crystals in magnetite. Wetherill, 
1853, 349. 

SiO, 34.07 

ZrO, 63.50 

Fe»0, 2.02 

H,0 0.50 



( 



i 




100.09 
Sp.gr 4.595 

LocAUTiBs: Berks County: Bemharts, Pricetown, and Trexler mica mine (Alsace); 
Bucks County: Finney's quarry, Neshaminy Falls, Siles, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester 
County: Chester Springs, Copesville, Pughtown, Springton, Octoraro Creek, West Chester 
(Bath Springs), and Willowdale; Delaware County; Avondale (cyrtolite). Blue Hill, Boothwyn 
(cyrtolite), Brandywine Summit, Painter's farm on Dismal Run, and Morgan Station (csrrto- 
lite); Lehigh County: Macungie; Montgomery County: Lafayette, Willow Grove; Northampton 
County: Chestnut Hill (gray or brownish crystals, 5 cm. long) ; Philadelphia: Broad Street and 
Olney Avenue (cyrtolite,) Bridesburg (colorless crystals in Delaware River sands), Comley's 
quarry (Mt. Airy, cyrtolite), Fairmount Park, and in the Schuylkill River sands and gravels. 

TOPAZ 

Al2F2Si04 Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, gray, yellow, greenish, bluish. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: columnar masses; prismatic crystals. H = 8. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.4-3.65. 
Locality: Northampton County: Chestnut Hill? (small cream yellow crystals). 



ANDALUSITE 

AlsSiOi Orthorhombic 

Color: white, pearl gray. Streak: uncolored. Translucent to opaque. Luster: vitreous 
Form: rough square prismatic crystals; massive, columnar. H — 7.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 
3.16-3.20. 




DSSCRIPTIVS MINBRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 91 

CrystaUography : Orthorhombic ; a:b:c = 0,9861 : 1:0.7025. 
p.;qo;ro = 0.7124 :0 7025:1. 

Forms: a (100). h (010), c (OOl). A (210), m (110). t (101), s (011).o(lU),«(l21). Upper 
Providence, Delaware County, (Dana, 1872, 473). Cleavage : m distinct, a less perfect, b in traces. 
Fracture: uneven, subconchoidal. Crystals may 
have a fibrous or radiated stnictm'e. ■, „< ,, 

Composition: AltSiOii SiOi 36.8, AliO: 
63.2. => 100. A small amoiint of FeiO) is usually 
present. 

Localities: Detaman County: Avondale, 
Black Horse, Boothnyn, Franlclin Paper Mills, 
Hunter's farm (Upper Providence), Leiperville, 
Lewis's farm (Nether Providence), Swarthmore, . - - 

opposite Swarthmore College, Worrall's farm in 

Marple and Upper Providence townships (crystals 59 qq 

taamring 6 X 23 m. .nd jroup. up to M pounds „^^ j,,,,,, i„j.,„i„ „pp,, ,,„,,, 

l-vt be,„ found on th» lun. ,n Uppo Provideno. ^^^ Ddnwm Counly (Do,.), 
township). 

snxiHAniTB 

AliSiOi Orthorhombic 

Color: white, gray, grayish-green, grayish-brown. Streak: uncolored. Transparent to 
translucent. Luster: vitreous or silky. Form: fibrous or columnar nm.'ises. often radiated; 
acicular crystals. H -6-7. Sp. gr. 3.23-3.24. 

Crystollography: Orthorhombic; Forms: a (100), b (010), m (110), k (230). Cleavage: 
b very perfect. Fracture: imeven. 

Composition: Al,SiOt; SiO, 36 8, Alid 63.2, - 100. 
Synonyms: fibrolite. bucholzite. 

Analyses: Chester, Delaware County. A. Silliman, Jr., 1840, 388. 
22. C. Thomson, 1828, 41. 

ABC 
34.31 40.0S 46.40 



100.07 99.32 




0,24 


n. dct. 


0,41 


0.22 


n. det. 


0,96 


0.66 


2.05 


1.78 





2,20 





100,95 


99,55 
3,157 


100.13 



92 DBSCRIPnVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

D. Pseudomorphous after corundum; Mineral Hill, Delaware County. Genth, 1873, 
380. E. Paramorphous after andalusite; Darby, Delaware Coimty. Genth, 1875, 100. 
F. TJnionville, Chester County. Least altered "lesleyite." Gcnth, 1873, 389, analysis by 
Koenig. G. TJnionville, Chester County. Least altered "lesleyite." Genth, 1873, 389. 

Localities: Chester County: Kevin's quarry, Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett), and south of 
Phillip's quarries; Delaware County: Black Horse, Brandywine Summit, Chester, Custer's 
farm (Darby), Darby, Green's farm near Upland, Kellyville, Mineral Hill, Morgan Station, Moore^ 
near Peter's Mill dam (Aston), Ridleyville, Tyler's farm (Middletown), West Conshohocken? 
and Worrall's farm (Upper Providence, paramorphous after andalusite) ; Philadelphia: Cobb's 
Creek, Pairmount Park, Frankford, FaUs of Schuylkill, Germantown, Hestonville, West Phila- 
delphia, Wissahickon Station, Wissahickon Valley, and Wingohocking Creek. 

CYANITE 

AltSiOj • Triclinic 

Color: blue, green, gray, white, black. Streak: imcolored. Transparent to translucent. 
Luster: vitreous to pearly. Form: coarsely bladed or adcular masses, or in bladed crystals 
rarely terminated. H » 6-7.26. Sp. gr. 3.66-3.67. 
Crystallography: Triclinic: 

a:b:c = 0.8991:1:0.6968; a = 90** 23', /3 = 100** 18', y = 106** 1'. 
Po:qo:ro = 0.862:0.7132:1; X - 86** 36', m = 79** 10', p - 73** 38'. 
Common forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), M (110), m (110). Cleavage: a very perfect, b less 
so; parting parallel to c (a glide plane). 

Composition: AliSiOt; SiOf 36.8, AhOs 63.2, « 100. 

Analjrses: A. Moore, Delaware County. Light to dark blue. Eyerman, 1911, 7. B. 
Cope's Bridge, Chester County. Grayish-green crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 7. C. Cope's 
Bridge, Chester County. Light green to bluish-green bladed prisms. Eyerman, 1911, 7. 

ABC 

SiOi 38.01 36.63 37.96 

AljOa 60.86 68.66 60.80 

FeiO, 1.16 4.91 1.30 

Ignition 0.61 

100.64 99.19 100.06 
Sp.gr 3.621 3.669 3.600 

Localities: Bucks County: Hulmeville; Chester County: Avondale, south of Bailey's 
farm (East Marlboro), near Bailey's quarry (West Marlboro), Black Horse Inn, near Cope's 
quarry, Copesville, Embreeville, near Logan's quarry, London Grove, Marshallton, Minorcus 
Hill, and Pocopson; Delaware County: Adele, Chelsea, Chester, Custer's farm (Darby township). 
Darby, Dickinson's Mill, Leiperville, Mineral Hill, Moore, Ridle3rville, Trainer, and Ward's 
quarry; Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill, Fairmount Park, Germantown, Logan, Shawmont, 
Vereeville, and Wissahickon Valley. 

DATOLITB 

Ca(B,0H)Si04 Monoclinic 

Color: pale green, gray, yellow. Streak: white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: crystals, druses; massive, granular or compact. H « 6-^6.6. Brittle. 
Sp.gr. 2.^-3.0. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic: a:b:c = 0.6329:1 K). 6346; /3 = 90' 9'. 

po:qo:ro = 1.0026:0.6346:1; m = 89* 61'. 
Common forms: a (100), c (001), m (110), n (111), m» (Oil), c (Tl2), m (T14). Fracture: con- 
choidal; uneven. 

Composition: Ca(B,0H)Si04; SiO» 37.6, BjO. 21.8, CaO 35.0, H,0 6.6, « 100. 

Localities: Berks County: Fritz Island, and Jacksonwald. 

6AD0LINITE 

Be»Fe(YO)i(Si04)i Monocwnic 

Color: black, greenish-black, brown; in thin splinters nearly transparent. Streak: 



DESCRIPTIVE inNERAIXKJY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA , 93 

greenish-gray. Luster: vitreous to greasy. Form: massive; rough crystals. H = 6.5-7. 
Brittle. Sp. gr. 4.(M.5. 

Composition: BeiFe(Y0)s(Si04)r, SiOi 23.9, Y oxides 51.8, FeO 14.3, BeO 10.0, « 100. 

Locality: Philadelphia: Rittenhouse quarry? 

ZOISITE 

Cas(A10H}AL(SiOi)t Orthorhombic 

Color: grasrish- white, gray, yellowish-brown, pink to rose-red (thulite), greenish. Streak: 
uncolored. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous; on cleavage surfaces pearly. 
Form: massive, columnar to compact; rarely in striated prismatic crystals. 

Composition: Caa(A10H)Al2(Si04),; SiO» 39.7, AUO, 33.7, CaO 24.6, H,0 2.0, = 100. 
Al is sometimes replaced by Fe, and with increase of the latter the mineral passes into epidote. 

Varieties: Thulite,^ — rose-red, fragile; sp. gr. 3 . 124. Unionite — white to yellowish- white 
cleavage masses from Unionville, Chester County. (SDliman, Jr., 1849, 384; Smith and Brush, 
1853, 211.) 

Analyses: A. Thulite; Deshong's quarry, Leiperville, Delaware County. Koenig, 
1878, 83. Mean of 2 analyses. B. Thulite; Deshong's quarry, Leiperville, Delaware County. 
Eyermaa, 1911, 8. C. Bath Springs, Chester County. Brown, radiating prismatic crystals. 
Eyerman, 1911, 8. D. "Unionite." Unionville, Chester County. Brush, 1858, 170. E. 
"Unionite." Unionville, Chester County. Silliman, Jr., 1849, 385. F. Lafayette, Mont- 
gomery County. Grayish and brownish crystals and crystalline masses. Oenth, 1875, 81. 

A ^ B C D E F ' 

* SiOj. 40.70 41.72 41.01 40.61 44.15 40.30 



TiO, tr. — '- 

A1,0| 33.30 30.20 30.25 33.44 42.26 28.31 

Fe,0, 2.40 3.19 0.49 5.47 

FeO 0.70 0.18 1.14 

MnO 0.43 tr. 0.47 

CaO 19.70 22.29 24.30 24.13 22.93 

MgO 0.15 tr. tr. tr. 7.36 0.66 



NatO 

H,0,(lgn.) 2.40 2.21 2.62 2.22 

F 



1.73 

3.53 1.86 



99.78 99.79 99.32 100.69 99.13 100.00 
Sp.gr 3.519 3.831 3.299 3.2984 

LocALiTiBs: Chester County: Corundum HiU (Newlin, unionite), Sylmar, French Creek 
mines, Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett), and West Chester (Bath Springs); Delaware County: 
Avondale (thulite), and Leiperville (thulite, rose red to pale pink, with grossularite) ; Phila- 
delphia: Fairmount Park, Germantown, and Prince's quarry. 

EPIDOTB 

nCa,(FeOH) AUCSiOOt 

Color: dark green, greenish-black, yellowish-green to brownish-green. Streak: uncolored, 
grayish. Subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous; on c pearly or resinous. Form: columnar ag- 
gregates; granular masses; prismatic crystals. H = 6-7. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.25-3.6. 

Crystallography: MonocUnic; a:b:c = 1.5807:1:1.8057, /3 = 115** 24'. 

Po:qo:ro = 1.1423:0.6312:1, m » 64* 36'. 
Common forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), u (120), r (101), n (111). Habit: prismatic elongated 
in the direction of the b axis, and terminated at one end only. Cleavage: c perfect, a impoiect. 

Analyses: A. Near Perkasie, Bucks County. Nodular, in Triassic shales. Eyerman, 
1911, 9. B. Kober's copper mine, Sumneytown, Montgomery County. Olive-green. Eyer- 
man, 1911, 9. C. Clark's quarry, Frankford, Philadelphia. Dark oUve-green crystals. Eyer- 
man, 1911, 9. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINBItALOGV OF PENNSYl-VANIA 



SiO, 38.98 40.00 37.77 

AltO, 26.29 22.03 23,20 

FeiO. 8.25 20.24 10.67 

FeO 1.11 0.73 0.82 

MnO 0.13 0,56 0.50 

CaO 23-29 16.10 23.55 

H,0 2.23 1.10 3.23 

99.28 100.76 09.73 

Sp.gr 3,397 3,491 3.401 

Localities: Adams County: Gettysburg, and Hamiltonban; Berks County: Antietam 
Reservoir, Beraharts, Boyertown, Fleetwood, Longswamp Township, and Mt. Penn; Bucks County 
Nev Hope, Perkasie (locally abundant as nodules in sbales metamorphosed by diabase intrusions), 
andReedcr; ChesUr County: AvondaJe, south of Bailey's farm (East Marlboro), Bailey's quarry 
(West Marlboro), Cloud's farm (Keimett), Cope's quarry, Hopewell mines, Kimberton, Marl- 
boro, Mullen's farm (Kennett), Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett), Taylor's quarry, and Warwick 
mines; Delaware County: Avondale, Bain's quarry, Morton; Lancaster County: New Holland; 
Lehigh County: South Mountain; Montgomery County: Hendricks Station, Perkiomenville, 
and Sumneytown; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and Redington; Phiiadelphia: Fair- 
mount Park, Frankford, Germantown, Overbrocdf, Prince's quarry, O'Neill's quarry, Ritten- 
bouse quarry, and Wingobocking Creek. 



PIEDHOlfTITE 

Ca,(AIOH){Al.Mn,Fe),(SiO,), MONOCLtNiC 

Color: reddish- brown, in very thin splinters columbine-red. Streak: reddish. 

to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: fibrous aggregates; sniall prismatic 

H ' 6.5. Fragile. Sp. gr. 3.404. 

Crystatlography: Monoclinic; a:b:c - 1.6100:1:1.8326; = 115* 21'. 
PQ:qo:r. - 1,1383:1.6562:1; ^ = 64° 39'. 

Forms: a (100), 6 (010), <: (001), m (110), « (101). t (T02), r (101), n (111). Habit: [ 

elongated parallel to the b axis; faces usually dull. 

ComposiUon: Ca,(A10H)(Al,Mn,Fe),(SiO.).; with AI:Fe:Mn = 3:2; I. SiO, 33 

14.3, Fe,0. 14.9, Mn,0, 14.7, CaO 20,9, Hrf) 1.7, = 100. 



Opaque 
crystals. 




Figs. 81-62. Piedmontite, Buchanon Valley, Adams County 
(Wiiliams); 61, Piedmontite needles from scheelite, X 120; 62, Micro- 
scopic piedmontite in minute veins with secondary quartz and sur- 
rounded by rims of epidote, X 20. 
Analyses: A. West flank of Pine Mountain, 1 mile north of Cbarmian Station, Adams 
County, Deep carmine spherulitic aggregates of needles with quartz, filling veins in rbyolite. 
Pleochroism intense; X = yellow to orange, Y — amethyst, Z = carmine; Z>Y " X. SOi 



DESCRIPTIVE MINieRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 95 

10% too high due to presence of quartz. Williams, 1893, 54. (R2OJ = rare earths). B. Re- 
calculated after deducting quartz. A determination of SiOs by Hillenbrand on finely pulverized 
material separated by methylene iodide (Sp. gr. 3.32) gave SiOa 40.08%. The microscope still 
showed the presence of some quartz. Williams, 1893, 54. 

A B 

SiO, 47.37 37.37 

AlsO, 18.55 22.07 

CejOi 0.75 0.89 

R2O, 1.28 1.52 

FejOs 4.02 4.78 

Mn,0, 6.85 8.15 

MnO 1.92 2.285 

CaO 15.82 18.825 

MgO 0.25 0.30 

K2O 0.68 0.81 

NajO 0.23 0.27 

H2O 2.08 2.48 

CuO 0.11 0.13 

PbO 0.14 0.17 

100.05 100.05 

Localities: Adams County: in rhyolite and aporyolite in the Buchanon Valley, on Pine 
Mountain, and near Monterey. 

ALLATriTE 

(Ca,Fe),(A10H) (Al,Ce,Fe)j(Si04)3 Monoclinic 

Color: pitch-black, often coated with a brown weathering product. Translucent to 
opaque. Luster: submetallic, pitchy or resinous. Form: massive, imbedded grains, rough 
tabular crystals. H = 5 . 5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3 . 5-4 . 2. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic; a:b:c = 1.5527:1:1.7780; j8 = 124** 00'. 

Po:qo:ro = 1.1451:1.6114:1; m =65^ 00'. 
Common forms: a (100), c (001), m (100), n (HI), n (111), r(lOl), i (102). Habit: tabu- 
lar parallel to a. Cleavage: a, c, in traces. 

Synonym: orthite. 

Analyses: A. East Bradford, Chester County. Black, massive, altered on the surface. 
Engstrom, 1877. B. East Bradford, Chester County. Rammelsberg, 1850, 285. C. Price- 
town, Berks County. Pitch-black, massive. Genth, 1855, 21. Mean of 2 analyses by Peter 
D. Keyser. D. Bethlehem, Lehigh County. Large imperfect crystals, blackish-brown. Genth 
1865, 21 ; average of 2 analyses by Peter D. Keyser. 

A B C D 

SiOa 31.56 31.86 32.89 33.31 

ThOj 0.31 

AhOa 16.77 16.87 12.49 14.34 

FejO, 5.74 3.58 7.33 10.83 

CetO, 18.15 21.27 15.68 13.42 

(Di,La),0, 2.71 2.40 10.10 2.70 

Y2O, 1.65 

FeO 9.08 12.26 9.02 7.20 

MnO 1.15 0.25 

CaO 9.35 10.15 7.12 11.28 

MgO 1.67 1.77 1.23 

NaaO ;.. 0.09 0.41 

K2O 0.37 0.14 1.33 

H2O 2.25 1.11 2.49 3.01 

99.09 101.17 99.37 99.06 
Sp.gr 3.48 3.535 3.831 3.491 



96 



DESCRIPTIV]|$ MINBRALOGV OP PENNSYLVANIA 



Localities: Berks County: Pricetown, and Trexler mica mine (Alsace); Chester County: 
Chester Springs, Comley Hall (East Bradford, black masses coated with a brown weathering 
product). Corundum Hill (Newlin), Minorcus Hill, and Pughtown; Delaware County: Learn, 
and Morton; Northampton County: Lehigh Mountain (large black masses), and Redington; 
Philadelphia: Hoffman's quarry, and McCrea's quarry. 



AXmiTE 

HCa,(Fe,Mn)Al,B(Si04)4 Triclinic 

Color: clove-brown, pearl-gray, honey-yellow, greenish-yellow. Streak: uncolored. 
Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: tabular crystals, with acute-edges. 
H = 6.5-7. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.271-3.294. 
Crystallography: Triclinic. 

a:b:c = 0. 7812:1:0.9771; a = 91** 49', $ =82** 1', y = 102** 38'. 
Po:qo:ro = 1.2810:0 .9916:1; X = 90** 6', m = 97** 46', y = 102** 30'._ 
Forms: / (100), » (010), w (001), u (110), p (^10), * OH), w (130),_f (HI), z (112), e (Til), 
s (201), y (021), c (T31), a (241), d (2ll), n (131), b (021), 6 (132), o (132), ^ (133). Bethlehem, 
Lehigh County (Frazier, 1882, 439-447). Cleavage: v distinct; also m, w. Fracture: con- 
choidal. 






63 



64 



Figs. 63-64. Axinite, Campbell's Hump, North- 
ampton County (Frasier). 



Analyses: Leiper's quarry, Avondale, Delaware Coimty. Wherry, 1915, 511. A. Yellow 
plates. J. E. Whitfield, analyst. B. Determination of BjOa in the above by Wherry. C. 
Theoretical composition (Mn:Fe « 4: 1). D. Mixture of axinite and zoisite. MnO and SiOt 
(probably too low). Analsrsis by Wherry. E. Mixture of axinite and zoisite analyzed by Whit- 
field. F. Theoretical composition of axinite (Mn:Fe = 4: 1) mixed with 20% of zoisite. 

A B C D E F 

SiO, 42.24 42.28 37.41 42.92 41.85 

A1,0, 18.78 17.91 (22.93) 22.64 20.54 

B,0, 3.14 6.04 6.14 5.46 n.det. 5.12 

FeO 3.80 2.49 3.39 3.16 5.19 

MnO 10.12 9.94 3.26 5.19 5.17 

CaO 19.98 19.66 22.47 20.00 20.48 

MgO 1.01 2.68 1.55 

K,0 0.65 n.det. 

H,0 0.57 (1.58) 1.76 n.det. 1.65 



99.64 



100.00 100.00 (95.46) 100.00 



LocALiTiBs: Delaware County: Avondale, yellow plates with thulite; Northampton 
County: Campbell's Hump, colorless to pale brown crystals. 



DRSCRIPTIVB MINRRAUXJY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 97 

PREHNITE 

HsCatAIsCSiOOi Orthorhombic 

Color: green, gray, white. Subtransparent to translucent. Streak uncolored. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: druses of crystals grouped in mammillary, globular or stalactitic forms. H 
= 6-6.5. Brittle. Sp. gr . 2 . 80-2 . 95. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a : b : c = 0.8405:1:1.1207. 

Po:qo:ro = 1.3334:1.1207:1. 
Common forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), m (110), o (061). Cleavage: c distinct. Fracture: 
uneven. 

Composition: HiCa,Al8(Si04)i; SiOi 43.7, Al,Ot 24.8, CaO 27.1, H,0 4.4, * 100. 

Analyses: A. Cornwall, Lebanon Cotmty. White, yellowish, and brownish- white 
crystal aggregates on magnetite. Genth, 1882, 401. B. Rockhill, Bucks County. Light 
green. Eyerman, 1911, 8. 

A B 

SiOj 42.40 42.99 

AliOt 20.88 21.12 

FejOi 6.54 2.85 

MnO tr. 

CaO 27.02 27.97 

MgO tr. 

NaiO, K,0. ... tr. 

HjO 4.01 4.57 



• 



99.85 99.50 
Sp.gr 2.981 

LocAi«iTiBs: Adams County: Marsh Creek; Berks County: Birdsboro, Gickerville, and 
Jacksonwald; Bucks County: Rock Hill: Lebanon County: Cornwall; Philadelphia: Rittenhouse 
quarry. 

CHONDRODITE 

Mg,[Mg(F,OH)l,[SiOj, MoNOCUNic 

Color: yellow, red. Subtransparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: im- 
bedded grains. H =6-6.5. Brittle. Sp. grl 3 . 1-3 . 2. 

Localities: Chester County: Harvey's quarry (Pennsbury) ; Lancaster County: Ephrata? 

ILVAITE 

CaFe2(FeOH) (SiOOs Orthorhombic 

Color: iron-black, or dark grayish-black. Streak: black. Opaque. Luster: sub- 
metallic. Form: columnar, compact, massive. Prismatic crystals with prism face vertically 
striated. 

Composition: CaFe,(FeOH)(Si04)i; SiO, 29.3, Fe,Oi 19.6, FeO 35.2, CaO 13.7, H,0 
2.2, = 100. 

LocALiTi^: Philadelphia: Fairmoimt Park? and Flat Rock? 

CALAMINE 
HsZnsSiOft Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, yellowish, light blue or greenish. Streak: white. Transparent to 
translucent. Luster: Vitreous. Form: druses of minute crystals in botryoidal or sheaf -like 
aggregates. H = 4.5-5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.40-3.50. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic, hemimorphic; a:b:c = 0.7835:1:0.4778. 

Po:qo:ro = 0.6098:0.4778:1. 
Common forms: c (001), b (010) vertically striated; m (110), ♦ (031), / (301), e (Oil), v (121). 
Habit: tabular parallel to b. Cleavage: m perfect. 

Composition: HiZnjSiO*; SiOj 25.0, ZnO 67.5, H,0 7.5, = 100. 

Analyses: A. Ueberroth mine, Friedensville, Lehigh County. Eyerman, 1889, 29. 
B. Wheatley mine, Chester County. Eyerman, 1911, 9-10. 



98 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

A B 

SiOi 24.32 24.27 

FeiO, 2.12 1.96 

ZnO 65.05 65.90 

HjG 7.86 7.80 

99.35 99.93 
Sp.gr 3.409 

Localities: Blair County: Keystone zinc mine near Birmingham; Chester County: 
Wheatley mines, silky tufts and botryoidal masses; Lancaster County: Bamford, and Pequa 
mines; Lehigh County: Priedensville, small crystals in druses and radiating groups; Mont- 
gomery County: Ecton and Perkiomen mines; Northampton County: Dryland Station; North- 
umberland County: Sunbury. 

TOURMALINE 

R^9AU(B,OH)2Si409 Rhombohbdral 

Color: commonly black; brownish-black; blue (indicolite), green, red (rubellite), yellow, 
white, rarely colorless. Streak: uncolored. Transparent to opaque. Luster: vitreous to 
resinous. Form: prismatic crystals; columnar masses of crystals, often radiating. H = 7- 
7.5. Very brittle. Sp. gr. 2.98-3.20. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral, hemimorphic; c = 0.4477, p© = 0.2985. Common 
forms: a (1120), m (1010), r (lOTl), e (0lT2), o (0221), c (0001), t (2131). Habit: prismatic, 
prism faces striated vertically. Cleavage: a, r, 'difficult. Fracture: subconchoidal to uneven. 
Composition: R'iiAU(B,0H)iSi40i»; R' = Fe, Mn, and the alkalies: Na2, Lis^Ki, or the 
alkali earths: Mg, Ca. The tourmalines may be classified chemically into iron tourmaline (deep 
black), alkali tourmaline (red to green), or magnesian tourmaline (yellowish brown, brownish- 
black, colorless). 

Analyses: A. Ball's quarry, Newlin, Chester County. Black crystals. Eyerman, 
1911,10. B. Avondale, Delaware County. Black crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 10. C. Lehigh 
Mountain, 2 miles south of Allentown, Lehigh County. Brownish black. E. F. Smith., Am. 
Chem. J., V, 1883, 275. D. Above Devil's Oven, Bushkill Creek, west of Easton, Northampton 
County. Crystals. Eyerman, 1904, 45-46. E. "Texas, Lancaster Coimty." Black. Ram- 
melsberg, 1850, 478. 

A B C D E 

SiOj 36.85 36.82 39.41 35.57 38.47 

TiOa 1.72 0.69 0.18 

B,0, 10.85 10.60 9.00 10.10 8.48 

AljOt 23.98 31.52 19.46 24.72 34.56 

FejO, 11.58 8.30 8.44 1.17 3.31 

FeO 4.32 2.47 7.00 9.40 

MnO 5.39 0.72 0.09 

CaO 1.96 2.43 3.49 3.42 0.71 

MgO 2.14 8.29 9.11 

NaaO 0.36 0.78 2.10 2.00 

K2O 0.18 1.53 0.40 0.73 

I.ijO tr. 

F n. det. 2.36 

PjO* 0.20 

H20(Ign.) 3.51 3.81 2.19 4.23 3.30 

100.70 99.67 99.58 103.32 

Sp.gr 2.991 3.043 

Localities: Bucks County: Glenlake, Hulmeville, Janney, Morrisville, Neshaminy 
Falls, New Hope, Newportville; Chester County: Atglen, Avondale (black and brown), Bailey's 
farm (East Marlboro, black, brown, yellow, and green), Sylmar, Brinton's farm (Thombiuy), 
Brinton's quarry (Westtown), Coatesville, Corundum Hill (Newlin, black masses, greenish or 
bluish transparent crystals in diaspore and margarite). Doe Run quarries (brown), Edward's 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAW)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



99 



quarry (Newlin), French Creek mines; Johnson and Patterson's quarry (Newlin, large black 
crystals), Kennett Square, Lenape, Lewisville, Logan's quarry (yellow), Marlboro, Minorcus 
Hill, Nevin's quarry (yellow and brown), Osbom Hill, Oxford, Parkesburg, Phillip's quarries 
(brown), Pugh's farm (East Nottingham), Pusey's quarries, and Sadsburyville; Delaware 
County: Adele, Avondale (black prismatic crystals often in sections cemented by quartz, or with 
quartz cores). Black Horse, Boothwyn (black crystals, 10 cm. long). Bunting's quarry, Burk's 
quarry, Crozierville, Custer's farm (Darby), Dickinson's Mill, Franklin Paper Mills, Green's 
farm near Upland, Kellyville, Leiperville (black crystals, 12 X 3 cm., rarely pale green or red), 
Lewis's farm (Nether Providence), Llanerch, Morgan Station (adcular black crystals in milky 
quartz), Morton, Painter's farm on Dismal Run, Rockdale, Shaw and Esrey's quarry in Chester, 
Trainer (brilliant black crystals). Upper Darby, Village Green (acicular black crystals in 
milky quartz). Ward's quarry, Worrall, and Worrall's farm (Marple and Upper Providence); 
Lancaster County: Gap mine, Herrville and Texas (green, in sericite) ; Lehigh County: Moun- 
tainville, and Shimersville; Montgomery County: Conshohocken, Edge Hill, Flourtown, Harpers 
Station, Mogeetown, Ogontz, and Wyncote; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and Reding- 
ton; Philadelphia: Branchtown, Bustleton, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park, Falls of Schuyl- 
kill, Fox Chase, Frankford, Germantown, Logan, Manaytmk, O'Neill's quarry (rubelUte?), 
Overbrook, Rittenhouse quarry, Ryers, Shawmont, Tabor, Tacony Creek, Vereeville, West 
Philadelphia, Wingohocking Creek, and Wissahickon Valley; York County: Rossvilie. 



STAUROLITE 

FeAlA(OH) (SiOc) J ORTHORHOiffiic 

Color: dark reddish-brown to brownish-black. Streak: uncolored or gra3dsh. Trans- 
lucent to opaque. Luster: subvitreous to resinous. Form: prismatic crystals, commonly 
in cruciform twins. H ^ 7-7.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3.65-3.75. 

Crystallography : Orthorhombic : a : b : c = . 6942 : 1 : . 9795. 

Po:qo:ro == 1.4110:0.9795:1. 
Common forms: m (110), 6 (010), c (001), r (101). Habit: prismatic. Twins cruciform: twin 
planes x (032), z (232), or y (230) (rare). 

Localities: Chester County: near Logan's quarry, and near Taylor's quarry; Delaware 
County: Adele, Ardmore, Cream Valley, Dickinson's Mill, Edgemont, Franklin Paper Mills, 
Glen Riddle, Llewellyn Mills, Mineral Hill, Morgan Station, Mullen's quarries, and St. David's; 
Montgomery County: Edge Hill? Philadelphia: Fairmotmt Park, Frankford, Prince's quarry? 
Roxborough, and Wissahickon Valley. 



Apophyllitb 

Heulandite 

Stilbite 

Epidesmine 

Chabazite 

Laumontite 

GiSMONDITE 

Natrolite 
scolecite 

Mesolite 

Thomsonite 
Analcite 



HYDROUS SILICATES 

(H,K)jCaSi20..H,0 

ZEOLITES 

CaAl^i60i6.5H,0 

(Ca,Na,)Al,Si60i«.6H,0 

(Ca,Na2)Al^i60i«.6H,0 

(Ca,Na2) Al,Si40» . 6H,0 

CaAl,Si40i,.4H20 

(K,,Ca)Al,Si«Oio.4H,0 

Na2Al,Si,Oio.2H20 

CasAlsSi<Oio.3HiO 

mNatAlsSiiOio.2HsO 

nCaAlsSisOio.3H20 

CaAl2Si208.2V»H20 

NaAlSi20«.H20 



Tetragonal 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic? 

Orthorhombic 

Rhombohedral 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic? 

Orthorhombic 
Isometric 



APOPHYLLITE 

(H,K)2CaSi206 . H2O Tetragonal 

Colorless, white, grayish, greenish, or yellowish. Transparent. Luster: vitreous, of 
c pearly. Form: squareprismsor tabular crystals, pseudo-cubic; rarely pyramidal. H = 4.5- 
6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.3-2. 4. 



100 



DESCRIPTiyB MINKRAIX>GY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



Crystallography: Tetragonal; c, p« » 1.2515. Common forms: a (100), m (110), r 
(210), y (310), c (001), p (111). Habit: square prismatic, tabular, acute pjrramidal; a is verti- 
cally striated. Cleavage: c highly perfect, m less so. 

Analyses: A. Clark's quarry, Prankford, Philadelphia. Byerman, 1911, 11. B. Mc- 
Kinney's quarry, Germantown, Philadelphia. Byerman, 1911, 11. The mineral was somewhat 
altered. C. French Creek mines, Chester County. Knerr and Schoenfeld, VI, 1885, 413. 
D. French Creek mines, Chester County. Byerman, 1889, 30. B. French Creek mines, 
Chester County. Light salmon-pink. Byerman, 1911, 11. 

A B C D B 

SiOi 52.64 50.12 51.88 51.63 51.71 

FejO, 3.91 0.67 

CaO 25.01 23.78 25.31 25.42 25.02 

Na,0 2.02 0.46 

K,0 5.32 1.07 6.30 6.27 4.34 

H,0 16.74 18.64 16.80 16.58 17.36 

99.71 99.54 100.29 99.90 99.46 
Sp.gr 2.381 2.350 2.421 

F-G. Railroad cut east of Reading (probably Birdsboro) Berks County. Colorless 

to white crystals. Smith, 1910, 538. H. Fritz Island, Berks County. Sadtler, Jr., 1883, 
357. 

F G H 

SiOi 52.03 51.95 51.02 

A1.0, 0.281 

FeiQi tr. J ^^ 1.49 

CaO 25.11 23.68 24.40 

MgO 0.36 

Na,0 0.71 0.34 

KiO 5.13 4.47 5.87 

F 0.40 

H,0 17.43 15.81 16.75 

100.69 99.55 99.93 
Sp.gr 2.399 2.37 2.5 

LocAUTiBs: Berks County: Birdsboro, Fritz Island, and Gickerville; Chester County: 
French Creek mines; colorless, white, yellow or pink, tabular or pyramidal crystals; crjrstals 
measure up to 5 cm., and often occur In quite large groups; Delaware County: Lenni; Philadelphia: 
Frankford, and Rittenhouse quarry. 

STILBITB 

(Ca,Nas) AlsSi«Oi6 . 6HtO Monoclinic? 

Colorless, white, yellow, brown, red. Streak : uncolored. Transparent to translucent. 
Luster: vitreous, b pearly. Form: sheaf -like aggregates of radiating or divergent crystals of 
tabular habit. H « 3.5-4. Sp. gr. 2.094r-2.205. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic?*^ a:b:c = 0.7623:1:1.1940; /3 - 50* 50'. Common 
forms: c (001), b (010), m (110). Crystals are commonly twinned, twin-plane c making them 
pseudo-orthorhombic. Habit: usually tabular parallel to 6. Cleavage: 6 perfect. 

Composition: (Ca,Na,)AliSi«Oi6.6H,0; with Ca:Na, = 6:1, SiOi 57.4, AljOi 16.3, 
CaO 7.7, Na,0 1.4, H,0 17.2, = 100. 

Analyses: A. Frankford, Philadelphia. White, radiating crystals. Genth, 1876, 
226; Walter A. Fellows, analyst. B. McKinney's quarry, Germantown, Philadelphia. White 
radiating crystals. Byerman, 1904, 44. C. French Creek mines. Shaft No. 1, Chester County. 
Crystals, with caldte. Byerman, 1889, 32. D. Railroad cut east of Reading (probably Birds- 

« Lannlz, Zeit. Kryst., 2, 576, 1878; Goldachmidt makes the mineral orthorhombic: 

a: b: c - 0.928 : 1 : 0.766 
p«.q«:r« •- 0.8146:0.706:1. 



DESCRIPTIVE BONERAUKJY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 101 

boro), Berks County. Radiating crystals. Smith, 1910, 539. E. Wheatfield mine, Berks 
County. Pearly white, radiating. Brunner and Smith, 1883, 279-280. 

A B C D E 

SiOi 56.74 55.10 58.00 54.27 57.49 

AlaOt 16.44 14.18 13.40 17.24 13.03 



Fe20i tr. 

CaO 8.29 . 9.40 7.80 7.81 8.06 

MgO 1.40 tr. 

Na«0 0.14 2.70 tr. 1.81 1.36 

KiO 0.06 0.40 1.03 

H,0 18.90 18.60 18.30 19.56 19.42 



100.57 100.38 99.93 100.69 99,36 
Sp.gr 2.197 2.12 2.2 

F.-G. Raudenbush mine, Berks County. Smith, Am. Chem. J., VI, 1885, 414; analysis 
by F. P. Davidson; H. Fegley's mine, Berks County. Hoskinson and Brunner, Am. Chem. 
J., VI, 414, 1885. White, radiating needles. I. Jacob Schell's farm, near Hosensack Station, 
Lehigh County. Radiations. Smith, Am. Chem. J., V, 227, 1883. J. Rockhill, Bucks County. 
Small yellowish- white crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 12. K.-L. York Haven, York County. 
K, white, pearly, radiating. L, altered. Ehrenfeld, 1890, 157; 1893, 4. 

F G H I J K L 

SiOi 58.01 58.15 57.54 55.31 54.83 47.20 52.07 

AljOt 13.75 12.47 12.67 14.88 16.94 19.01 22.11 

CaO 7.761 7.85 9.00 8.61 16.72 12.17 

MgO 1.38J 1.72 

NajO tr. tr. tr. 

K,0 0.42 0.43 1.09 

H,0 18.46 18.60 18.97 







* 




1.66 


1.26 








0.17 


2.39 


tr. 


18.47 


17.63 


15.25 


13.57 



99.78 99.47 99.84 99.32 99.44 100.57 99.92 
Sp.gr 2.21 2.100 1.825 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Birdsboro, Boyertown, Fritz Island, 
Fegley's mine (Maple Grove), Jacksonwald, Jones Mine, Raudenbush mine, Gickerville (color- 
less, white, and yellow, crystals, aggregates), and Wheatfield mines; Bucks County: Rock Hill; 
Chester County: French Creek mines, Knauertown, and Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett); Dela- 
ware County: Avondale, Leiperville, Lenni, and Ward's quarry; Lekigh County: Hosensack 
Station; Montgomery County: Flat Rock tunnel, Perkiomenville, Sumneytown, and West Con- 
shohocken; Philadelpkia: Fairmount Park, Frankford (white, radiating), Germantown, Hoff- 
man's quarry, south of Lafayette, O'Neill's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry, Shawmont, and Wingo- 
hocking Creek; York County: York Haven. 

EPIDBSMINE 

(Ca,Nas) AlsSieOie . 6HtO OrTHORHOMBIC 

Colorless to yellow. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous, b pearly. Form: 

druses of prismatic to tabular crystals, a combination of the three pinacoids: a (100), b (010) 

and c (001). Cleavage: a and b. Sp. gr. 2.16. 

Composition: (Ca,Nat)AUSi<Oi6.6H20, the same as stilbite. 

Locai^ity: Berks County: Gickerville; Montgomery County: Perkiomenville. 

HEULANDITE 
CaAlsSi^Oic . 5HtO Monoclinic 

Color: white, gray, yellow, pale-brown, reddish. Streak: white. Transparent to sub- 
translucent. Luster: vitreous, of b quite pearly. Form: thick tabular crystals, often grouped 
in parallel position. H = 3.5-4. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.18-2.22. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic; a:b:c = 0.4035:1:0.8585; fi = 91* 25'. 

po:qo:ro = 2.1276:0.8582:1; /i =• 88* 36'. 



102 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Common forms: b (010), c (001), m (110), / (201), s (201). Habit: tabular parallel to &. faces 
usually undulating, b often depressed. Cleavage: b perfect. 

Analysis: Near Adamstown, Lancaster County. Knerr and Schoenfeld, Am. Chem. J., 
VI, 1885, 412. Crystals. 

SiO, 57.68 

AljOs 17.05 

CaO 6.78 

MgO 0.69 

K,0 1.13 

NajO tr. 

H,0 16.61 

99.94 
Sp.gr 2.2 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Jacksonwald, and Gickerville; Bucks County: Rockhill; 
Chester County: French Creek mines; Delaware County: Leiperville, and Ward's quarry; Lan- 
caster County: Adamstown; Montgomery County: Plat Rock tunnel; and Perkiomenville ; 
Philadelphia: Pairmount Park, Prankford, south of Lafayette, and Rittenhouse quarry. 

CHABAZITE 

(Ca,Nas) AlsSi40ii . 6H}0 Rhombohedral 

Colorless, white, flesh-red. Streak uncolored. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: rhombohedral crystals, cubic in appearance, and commonly in penetration 
twins. H = 4-5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.08-2.16. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral; c = 1.0860; po = 0.7240. Common forms: r 
(1011) striated, e (0112), s (0221). Commonly in penetration twins, twin axis c. Cleavage: 
r distinct, fracture tmeven. 

Composition: (Ca,Na2) AlsSiiOiz . 6H3O ; Als:Si varies from 1:3 to 1 : 5, HsO increasing 
with SiOi. With Ca:Na2 = 1:1, SiO, 47.2, A1«0, 20.0, CaO 5.5, NajO 6.1, Ha021.2, = 100. 

Analyses: A. Clark's quarry, Prankford, Philadelphia. Yellowish-brown. Eyerman, 
1911, 12. B. Lenni, Delaware County. Eyerman, 1911, 12. C. Railroad cut east of Read- 
ing (probably Birdsboro), Berks County. Smith, 1910, 539. Colorless or white crystals. 
D. Pritz Island, Berks County. Colorless, vitreous crystals, Sadtler, Jr., 1883, 356. E. York 
Haven, York County. Ehrenfeld, 1893, 4. 

A B C D E 

SiO, 49.69 48.61 48.59 50.28 50.69 

AI2O1 18.21 16.15 18.49 17.83 19.46 

PejOi 0.69 3.76 

CaO 7.06 8.00 8.78 6.96 7.28 

MgO 0.05 0.22 



Na,0 3.41 0.40 1.41 2.43 

KjO 0.84 0.29 0.69 2.40 1.38 

H,0 20.19 22.58 22.01 20.21 21.32 



100.09 99.79 100.02 100.33 100.13 
Sp.gr 2.053 2.3 2.18 

I<ocAi«iTiss: Berks County: Birdsboro, Fritz Island (colorless), Gickerville, and Jackson- 
wald; Chester County: Cloud's farm and Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett) ; Delaware County: Avon- 
dale (red), Henvi's quarry (red), Leiperville, Lenni (colorless, white, and red), Morgan Station, 
Trainer, and Water\411e; Montgomery County: Plat Rock tunnel; and Perkiomenville; Phila- 
delphia: Pairmount Park, Prankford, Hoffman's quarry, south of Lafayette, and Rittenhouse 
quarry; York County: York Haven. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 103 

LAUMONTITE 

CaAlsSUds . 4H2O MoNocLiNic 

Color: white, yellow, gray. Stre£lk: uncolored. Transparent to translucent, becoming 
opaque and often pulverulent on exposure. Luster: vitreous, somewhat pearly on cleavage 
faces. Form: small prismatic crystals with acute terminations, in columnar, radiating groups. 
H = 3.5-^. Sp. gr. 2.25-2.36. 

Crystallography. Monoclinic; a:b:c = 1.1451:1:1.1811; j8 = 111° 14', 

Po:qo:ro = 1.0314:1.1009:1; m = 68° 46'. 
Common forms: m (110), terminated by e (201): cleavage: b and w very perfect; a imperfect. 
Fracture : uneven. 

Composition: CaAljSiiOw . 4H,0 ; SiOj 51.1, AljO, 21.7. CaO 11.9, H2O 15.3, = 100. 
In the air laumontite loses one molecule of H2O. 

Analysis: Railroad cut east of Reading (probably Birdsboro), Berks County. Chalk- 
white, vitreous and pearly. >Smith, 1910, 538. 

SiOa 52.12 

AWi 22.20 

CaO 11.89 

Ignition 14.12 

100.33 

Localities: Berks County: Birdsboro, and Gickerville; Delaware County: Lenni, and 
Ward's quarry; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, south of Lafayette, and Rittenhouse quarry. 

GISMONDITE 

(Kj,Ca)AljSi«Oio.4H20 Monocunic 

Colorless to white or gray. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 
pseudo- tetragonal octahedra (due to twinning), faces rough and formed of many individuals. 
H=4.5. Sp.gr. 2.609. 

Analyses: Fritz Island, Berks County. White, translucent, vitreous twinned crystals, 
with calcite. A. Genth, 1875, 110. "Undescribed zeolite." 9.75% calcite deducted, analysis 
recalculated. B. Eyerman, 1904, 48. 

A B 

Si02 43.36 39.53 

AlsOs 28.78 26.38 

CaO 10.95 14.89 

Na20 0.68 0.87 

K2O 1.38 2.22 

H2O 15.52 16.59 

100.67 100.48 
Sp.gr 2.069 

Locality: Berks County: Fritz Island. 

NATROLITE 

Na2Al2Si80io . 2H2O Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, gray, yellow. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous, somewhat 
pearly when fibrous. Form: radiating, fibrous; slender acicular prismatic crystals. H — 5- 
5.5. Sp. gr. 2.20-2.25. 

Crystallography : Orthorhombic ; a : b : c = . 98 1 1 : 1 : . 3523 . 

Po:qo:ro= 0.3591:0.3525:1 
Common forms: m (110) terminated by o (111). Habit: prismatic, pseudo- tetragonal. 
Cleavage: m perfect, b imperfect 



104 DesCRIPTlVE MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

Composttkm: Na«A]iSi«Oi«.2HiO; SiQi 47.4, AkQ. 26.8, NaiO 16.3, H|0 9.5, » 100. 
Analysis: Lcnni, Delaware County. Crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 11. 

SiO, 45.92 

AUG, 28.15 

FeiOi 0.44 

CaO 2.48 

Na,0 12.28 

HsO below 115"* 0.34 

HtO above lid"" 10.90 



100.51 
Sp.gr 2.320 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Birdsboro, and Gickerville; Delaware County: Ldperville, 
Lenni (druses of colorless crystals), Felton's farm (Chester), and Ward's quarry; Montgomery 
County: Sunmeytown, and Perkiomenville; Philadelphia: Painnount Park, Frankford, and Rit- 
cnhouse quarry. 

SCOLBCITB 

CaA]iSuOi«.3HiO Monoclinic 

Colorless, white. TransfMuent to subtransluoent. Luster: vitreous, silky when fibrous. 

Ponn: radiating, fibrous. H « 5-5.5. Sp. gr. 2.16-2.4. 

Composition: CaAlsSitOit.dHsO; SiQi 45.9, AUOk 26.0, CaO 14.3, HsO 13.8, - 100. 
Analysis: Railroad cut east of Reading (probably Birdsboro), Berks County. White. 

silky mass of radiating needles, with caldte. Smith, 1910, 540. 

SiOi 47.04 

AUG, 25.42 

CaO 9.86 

NatO 4.77 

Ignition 13.60 

100.69 
Sp.gr 2.277 

Locautt: Berks County: Birdsboro. 



( 



ICBSOUTB 
m NatAUSisOi«.2HsO ., 

n CaAl.Si.O,o.3H^ Monoclinic 



Colorless, white, grayish, yellowish. Transparent to translucent; opaque when amor- 
phous. I«uster. vitreous, silky when fibrous. Form: fibrous, interlacing, columnar; divergent 
groups or tufts; cryptoerystaUine. H «« 5. Sp. gr. 2.2-2.4. 

Composition: Intermediate in composition between natrolite ahd scoledte. With Nat: 
Ca » 1: 2, SiQi 46.4, AliOt 26.3, CaO 9.6, NaiO 5.3, H|0 12.4, - 100. 

Analysis: Fritz Island, Berks County. Sadtler, Jr., Am. Chem. J., IV, 356, 1883. 

SiOi 43.29 

AUOi 25.02 

FeiOi tr. 

CaO 12.15 

Na,0 3.40 

H,0 16.01 

99.87 
Sp.gr 2.4 

LocAUTiBs: Berks County: Fritz Island, minute white zadiating tufts; Delaware County: 
Ward's quarry, mealy white radiations. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAI.OGY OF PENITOYLVANIA 105 

THOMSONITE 

(Ca,Nai) AljSiiOg . 2HHiO Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, green, reddish. Streak: uncolored. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous, more or less pearly. Form: coltmmar, fibrous; radiated spherical concretions; rarely 
in druses of prismatic crystals. H = 6-6.6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.3-2.4. 

Crystallography : Orthorhombic ; a : b : c =« . 9932 : 1 : 1 . 0066. 

po:qo:ro = 1.0136:1.0066:1. 
Forms: c (001), a (100), h (010), m (110), r (101). Habit: prismatic, prism faces striated verti- 
cally. Cleavage: h perfect, a less so, c in traces. 

Composition: (Ca,Na,)Al,Sii08.2HHjO; with Ca:Na, - 3:1, SiOj 37.0, A1,0, 31.4, 
CaO 12.9, Na,0 4.8, H,0 13.9, = 100. 

Analysis: Fritz Island, Berks County. White, waxy to pearly luster, spherical aggre- 
gations of radiating structure. Genth, 1876, 108. 

SiOj 38.74 

AljO, (31.22) 

CaO 10.77 

NajO 3.32 

K,0 0.45 

HjO 16.60 



100.00 



Localities: Berks County: Birdsboro, and Fritz Island (small spherical aggregations of 
radiated stnictiure) ; Delaware County: Leiperville^ and Lenni (druses of minute colorless crystals, 
with natrolite). 

ANALCITE 
NaAlSiiOs . HiO Isombtric 

Color: white, grayish, yellowish; colorless. Transparent to nearly opaque. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: in trapezohedrons, » (211); massive granular. H = 6-6.6. Brittle^ Sp. 
gr. 2.22-2.29. 

Composition: NaAlSiiOe . H,0 ; SiOj 64.6, A1,0, 23.2, Na,0 14.1, H,0 8.2, = 100. 
LocAurms: Bucks County: Rushland; Lebanon County: Cornwall? Philadelphia: 
Fairmount Park. 

MICA GROUP 

MuscoviTB H2KAl4(Si04)i Monodinic 

EuPHYLLiTB H2(Na,K)Al,(Si04)i? Monoclmic 

BioTiTS (H,K)i(Mg,Fe),(Al,Fe)2(Si04)8 Monodinic 

Phlogopite • [H,K(MgF) l,Mg,Al(Si04)i MonocUnic 

MUSCOVITB 

HsKAl|(Si04)i MoNOCLiNic 

Colorless, gray, brown, pale green, or yellow. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous to pearly or silky. Form: pseudo-orthorhombic or pseudo-hexagonal tabular crystals; 
foliated, plumose, scaly, massive, compact, crsrptocrystalline. H « 2-2.6. Sp. gr. 2.76-2.78. 

Ctystallography : Monodinic :" a : b : c » . 6774 : 1 : 3 . 3 128, /3 = 89 ** 64 '. Common forms : 
M (221), h (010), c (001), and e (023). Twms: twin plane in zone cM normal to c. Cleavage: 
basal, eminent; secondary parallel to 6; thin laminae flexible and dastic. 

Composition: H8KAU(Si04)i; with H:K = 2:1, SiOa 46.2, AljOi 38.6, KjO 11.8, HjO 
4.6, - 100. 

Damourite. Color: white, gray, yellow, reddish. Luster: somewhat pearly or silky. 
Fed unctuous. Form: small scales, fibrous or compact cryptocrystalline. Folia are less elastic 
than muscovite. Fibrous forms are known as sericite. Fuchsite: green; contains Cr. 
Lesleyite (Lea, 1867, 44) is a mixttu-e of damourite and corundum from UnionviUe. 

* Orthorhombic according to Goldschmidt: 

a:b:c - 0.5773:1:3.203 
po:q«:ro ■■ 6.704:3.293:1 



106 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Optic Axial Anglbs 

Muscovite 

Philadelphia greenish-gray, banded 60®-61** Silliman** 

Fairmount Park smoky brown 62° Silliman 

Germantown smoky brown crystals 63° Lewis'^ 

Germantown 64° Lewis 

Germantown crystals in biotite 64° Lewis 

Germantown large silvery plates 67° Lewis 

Palls of Schuylkill in hornblende gneiss 65° Lewis 

Prankford in hornblende gneiss 65° Lewis 

Darby small scales in gneiss 61° Lewis 

Upland pale green 70° Lewis 

Leiperville faint greenish, plicated 70°-71° Silliman 

Morgan Station 60° Lewis 

Poorhouse quarry 64° Lewis 

Pennsbury smoky brown 57° Lewis 

Pennsbury smoky brown, striated 59° Silliman 

Pennsbury brown crystals 69°-70° Silliman 

Pennsbury brownish-green 70° Silliman 

Unionville white 67°-70° SUliman 

Chester County ^ . 70° Lewis 

DamouriU 

Unionville 69°-76° Lewis 

Analyses 

Muscotnte 

A. Easton, Northampton County. Large crystals. Eyerman, 1911, 13. B~C. Swayne's 

farm, Pennsbury, Chester Coimty. Eyerman, 1911, 13. 

A •/ B^ C^ 

SiO, 44.52 43.80 45.18 

A1,0, 34.02 32.45 33.41 

Pe,0, 2.61 5.74 3.06 

PeO 1.14 1.04 1.07 

CaO 0.13 tr. — 

Na,0 3.01 2.00 3.00 

K,0 9.47 9.79 10.50 

P tr. tr. 

H2O 4.72 4.93 4.22 

W^^^H^^^^^^ ^^B^B^B^BBB^B ^^^i^lBm^^-H^ 

99.62 99.75 '100.43 
Sp.gr 2.879 2.890 2.874 

DamouriU 
A. Poorhouse quarry. West Bradford, Chester County. Minute tuft-like aggregates 
on dolomite. Smith and Brush, 1853, 47. B. 2J^ miles south of Blandon, Berks Cotmty. 
Pale green, massive, lamellar. Genth, Jr., 1882, 48. C. Rockland Forges, Berks County. 
Partial analysis by Genth, Jr., 1882, 48. 

ABC 

SiOj 45.60 49.60 

AljG,...^ 34.56 32.11 

FejOj tr. 2.94 

CaO 2.31 

MgO 1.08 tr. 

Na,0 2.35 0.36 0.36 

K2O 8.10 9.53 10.32 

H20,C0j 5.40 4.86 6.60 

99.29 99.40 
• SUUxnan, Jr., 1850, 872. 
M H. Carvill Lewis, 1880. 246-249. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAtOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 107 

D-M. UnionviUe, Chester County. D. Granular; Dana, 1850,357; analysis by Darrach. 
KsO too low. E. White and greenish- white crystals. Mean of several analyses, Sharpies^ 
1869, 319. P. White and greenish- white crystals. Genth, 1873, 386; analysis by Koenig. 
G. White, scaly, radiating, pseudomorphous after conmdum; Genth, 1873, 386. H. Silver- 
gray scales, pseudomorphous after corundum. Genth, 1873, 386. 

D E F G H 

vSi02 46.75 43.66 43.03 45.86 45.57 

AliO, 39.20 38.16 39.06 37.65 34.83 

FeiO, tr. 1.48 0.59 2.94 

MgO 1.02 0.30 0.55 0.83 

CaO 0.39 tr. 0.31 0.40 

Ivi20 tr. tr. tr. 

NaaO 0.58 0.80 0.87 

K,0 6.56 10.81 10.05 10.40 10.16 

H2O 4.90 5.64 5.40 4.74 5.30 

98.82 98.17 99.90 100.90 100.90 
Sp.gr 2.87 2.851 2.843 

I. Greenish-white, pearly, massive. Genth, 1873, 386, analysis by Koenig. J. White, 
fibrous, pseudomorphous after conmdum. Genth, 1873, 386, analysis by Koenig. K. Yellow- 
ish-green, cryptocrystalline, pseudomorphous after corundum, Genth, 1873, 386. h. Yellow- 
ish-green, cryptocrystalline, waxy, pseudomorphous after corundum. Genth, 1873, 386, analysis 
by Chatard. M. "Lesleyite," a mixture of damourite and corundum. UnionviUe, Chester 
County. White. Genth, 18V3, 388. For other analyses of this mixture see Leeds, 1873, 25; 
Genth, 1873, 388; Sharpies, 1869, 319; and Smith, 1869, 255. 

I J K L M 

SiO, 45.73 45.73 46.98 46.60 32.32 

AI2O, 37.10 36.30 36.13 32.39 56,43 

Fe,0, 1.30 0.83 0.61 2.64 0.29 

MgO 0.34 0.54 1.32 2.01 0.38 

CaO tr. 0.74 0.13 tr. 0.32 

LiiO tr. tr. tr. tr. tr. 

"Na,0 0.88 0.68 0.76 0.64 0.32 

KjO 10.60 10.49 10.74 10.39 7.31 

H,0 4.48 6.17 4.77 4.81 4.01 

100.33 100.38 100.44 99.28 101.38 
Sp.gr 2.857 2.832 2.779 2.760 

LocALiTiBs: Berks County: Antietam Reservoir, Clymer mine, and Huff Church; Bucks 
County: Finney's quarry, Hulmeville, Newportville, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: 
Avondale, Bailey's quarry (West Marlboro), Beryl Hill, Sylmar, Brinton's farm (Thombury), 
Brinton's quarry (Westtown), Chester Springs, Copesville, Corundum Hill (Newlin), Embree- 
ville, Johnson and Patterson's quarry (Newlin), Lewisville, Nevin's quarry. New London (large 
sheets, enclosing magnetite), Oxford, Pennsbury (farms of Swayne, Dilworth, Craig, and Mar- 
shall; crystals up to 30 X 46 cm. and weighing 100 pounds; often enclosing quartz, magnetite, 
and hematite) ; south of Phillip's quarries, Pugh's farm (East Nottingham), and Pusey's quarries; 
Delaware County: Avondale, Black Horse, Boothwyn, Brandywine Summit, Bunting's quarry, 
Chelsea, Custer's farm (Darby), Darby, Evan's farm (Middletown), Franklin Paper Mills, Gil- 
lespie's quarry. Hunter's farm (Upper Providence), Irving's quarry, Kelljrville, Knowlton, Lans- 
downe, Leiperville, Morgan, Morton, Peter's Mill dam (Aston), Sharpless' quarry near Glen 
Mills (crystals measuring 25 cm. with inclusions of quartz, magnetite, and gahnite), Sharpless' 
farm (Nether Providence), Shaw and Esrey's quarry in Chester (yellow and greenish aystals), 
Smedley's quarry near Lima, Strath Haven Inn, Sycamore Mills, Upper Darby, and Ward's 
quarry; Lancaster County: Cocalico; Montgomery County: Flat Rock tunnel. King of Prussia, 
and Wyncote; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and Lehigh Mountain; Philadelphia: 



108 DESCRIPTIVE BflNERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Branchtown, Bustleton, Cheltenham, Chestnut Hill, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park, Palls of 
Schuylkill, Pox Chase, Prankford, Germantown, Holmesburg, Logan (greenish crystals measuring 
15 cm.), Manaytmk, Overbrook, Rittenhouse quarry, Ryers, Tabor, Tacony Creek, West Phila- 
delphia, Wingohoddng Creek, and Wissahickon Valley. 

Puchsite: Chester County: Young's farm (West Bradford). 

Damourite: Berks County: Blandon, Green Hill, and Merkle's farm (Oley); Chester 
County: Corundum Hill (Newlin, lesleyite) ; Poorhouse quarry (West Bradford) ; Delaware County: 
Moore, and Ridleyville. 

Pai^unitb 

Color: grayish-green, greenish-brown, to dark green; streak: colorless. Luster: pearly 
or waxy on deavage surfaces. Translucent. Porm: cleavage masses, with a basal cleavage. 
H = 3.5-6. Sp. gr. 2.6-2.8. 

Composition: a hydrous silicate of Al, Pe,^and Mg; an alteration product of iolite. 

Localities: Philadelphia: Rittenhouse quarry? Wayne quarries? (Germantown), and 
Wissahickon Valley? 

EUPHYLLITE 

Hi(Na,K)Al,(Si04)i? Monoojnic 

Colorless, white, grayish, greenish. Transparent to translucent; nearly opaque. Luster: 
of cleavage surfaces pearly, bright. Porm: aggregated laminae, scales, compact masses. Lami- 
nae separable but rather brittle. 2E - 71 ** 30', (SiUiman)**, 36**-37^ (Lewis)."' H = 3 .6-4 .5. 

Sp. gr. 2 .93-3 .008. 

Analyses: Unionville, Chester County. White, micaceous, with corundum in albite. 
A.-D. Smith and Brush, 1853. 200. E-P. Genth, 1876, 127, analyses by Koenig. 

A B C D E P 

SiQ, 40.29 39.64 40.21 40.96 41.45 41.46 

A1,0« 43.00 42.40 41.50 41.40 42.30 42.19 

FeO 1.30 1.60 1.50 1.30 

MgO 0.62 0.70 0.78 0.70 

CaO 1.01 1.00 1.88 1.11 

Na,0 5,16 5.16 4.26 4.26\. ^^ . . . -v 

K,0 3.94 3.94 3.25 3.25P ^"^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ 

H,0 5.00 5.08 5.91 6.23 6.66 8.90 

Corundum ( 2 .27) 

100.32 99.52 99.29 99.21 100.00 100.00 

Earlier analyses by Crooke: SiUiman, Jr., 1849, 382; Emi, Garrett, and Sharpies: Dana, 
1850, 362; have been shown to be erroneous (Smith and Brush, 1853, 209). 
Locality: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlm). 



BIOTITE 

(H,K)i(Mg.Pe),(Al,Pe),(Si04)8 Monocxinic 

Color: green to black, in very thin laminae brownish. Streak: uncolored. Transparent 
to opaque. Luster: splendent, more or less pearly on cleavage faces; submetalUc; lateral faces 
vitreous. Form: disseminated scales, massive aggregations of deavable scales; pseudo-rhombo- 
hedral crystals. Cleavage: basal, highly perfect; parting paraUel to 6, and /a (ill). H = 2.5-5. 
Sp. gr. 2.7-3. L 

•1 SiUiman, Jr., 1849, 381; the mineral may be a mixture of paragonite and margarite (Tschermak, Min.» 
1885, 514; Zeit. Kryat., 2. 46. 1878; 8, 166. 1879) 
•« Lewis, 1880, 249., 



DESCRIPTIVH MINERAWXJY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 109 

Varieties: Lepidomelane: black; opaque, translucent in very thin laminae. Luster 
adamantine inclining to vitreous; pearly. Form: lamellar masses, aggregates of minute scales 
or six-sided tables. H » 3. Sp. gr. 3.0-3.2. Cleavage: basal, eminent; somewhat brittle. 
The mineral contains a high percentage of FesOt. 

Philadblphitb:*' An altered bioUte from Wayne Junction, Philadelphia. Color: brown- 
ish-red; opaque; luster pearly. Form: contorted and wrinkled plates with micaceous structure; 
laminae flexible, inelastic; tough. Feel: greasy. H » 1-^. Sp.gr. 2.80. Optically liiaxial; 
double refraction strong, -. 2H = 31 ''-SO**. 

A number of altered biotites are described under the vermiculites. 

Optic Axial AnglBs 

Darby Deep red 0° Lewis** 

Delaware County Crystal in muscovite 6^ Lewis 

Easton Silver-white 2° Lewis 

Easton Silver-white 1^-2** GraUich" 

Frankford Lepidomelane 0° Lewis 

Wayne Junction Philadelphite 31^-39^ Lewis 

Analyses: A-B. Forty-fourth Street and Baltimore Avenue, Philadelphia. Brownish- 
black. A. Genth. B. Genth Jr. Second GeoL Surv. Penna., C6, 1881, 121. C. "Lepi- 
domelane." Clark's quarry, Frankford, Philadelphia. Black plates. Byerman, 1911, 14. D~ 
E. "Fhiladdphite," altered biotite. Wayne Junction, Philadelphia. Brown plates, seams in 
hornblende gneiss. H. Carvill Lewis, 1880, 313; D. Haines, E. Lewis. Each an average of 
two analyses. F. Easton, Northampton County. Knop, 1887, 603-604. 

A B C^ D E F 

SiO, 36.02 36.19 40.95 38.79 36.73 34.82 

TiOj 2.20 1.68 4.98 1.03 2.00 

AltOi 18.96 21.66 17.44 14.78 16.77 16.91 

Fe,Oi 3.17 2.64 1.38 20.30 19.46 4.19 

VjOi 0.37 

FeO 16.44 16.96 18.48 2.04 2.18 15.96 

MnO 0.67 0.62 tr. 0.60 

NiO,CoO 0.06 

CuO 0.10 tr. 0.08 

MgO 9.39 9.36 3.61 11.40 11.56 13.98 

CaO 1.03 1.46 

LiiO tr. tr. tr. 

NaiO 0.29 0.45 2.60 0.77 0.90 2.49 

KiO 9.25 8.61 6.78 6.75 6.81 7.48 

PjOb 0.11 

HsSOa tr. 

CI tr. 

F n. det. n. det. 

HiO 2.97 2.07 3.05 4.27 4.34 1.79 



99.45 100.04 99.27 100.13 100.36 99.62 
Sp. gr. (in alcohol) 2 .78 - 2 .96 

G-L. Easton, Northampton County. G. Rammelsberg, 1866, 809. H. Silver- 
white. The old "Water Lot," Easton. Eyerman, 1911, 13-14. I. Darker, Easton. Eyer- 
man, 1911, 13-14. J. Light brown. West Chestnut Hill, Easton, Eyerman, 1911, 13-14. 
K. Brown. "Syenite Ridge," Easton. Eyerman, 1911, 13-14. An altered biotite has been 
named Eastonite, and is described below under the vermiculites. 

M Lewis, 1S80, 313-328. 
M Lewis. 1880, 246-247. 
•i Grailich, 1853, 46. 



1 10 DBSCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

y w/ ^ J 

G H I J K 

SiOj 46.74 41.07 40.32 41.12 40.11 

AUOs 35.10 23.34 17.60 17.23 18.03 

FcOi 1.53 4.35 4.30 3.14 5.80 

FeO 4.00 15.01 

CaO 0.89 0.46 

MgO 0.80 23.00 14.40 24.00 24.79 

NajO tr. 1.60 0.42 tr. 

K,0 9.63 6.30 9.50 10.50 

F 1.05 tr. tr. 

H,0 3.36 0.26 3.56 0.25 

102.21 99.92 99.86 99.94 

Sp.gr 2.904 2.712 2.881 

Localities : Berks County: HuflF Church; Bucks County: Finney's quarry, Morris- 
ville, Newportville, and Faxon's quarry; Chester County: Johnson and Patterson's quarry, and 
Marshall's farm (Pennsbury); Delaware County: Adele, Avondale, Boothwyn, Brandsrnrine 
Summit, Chester, Darby, Elam, Gillespie's quarry, Leiperville, Morton, and Ward's quarry; 
Lancaster County: Gap mines; Montgomery County: Lafayette, and Paper Mills Station; North- 
ampton County: Chestnut Hill (silver-white, green, and brown); Philadelphia: Fairmount 
Park, Falls of Schuylkill, Fox Chase, Frankford, Germantown (philadelphite), Holmesburg, 
Logan, Overbrook, O'Neill's quarry, Rittenhouse quarry (philadelphite). West Philadelphia, 
and Wingohocking Creek. 

PHLOGOPITE 

[H,K(MgF) IjMg^l (Si04)8 Monoclinic 

Color: yellowish-brown, brownish-red. Transparent to translucent. Luster: pearly; 
submetallic. Form: disseminated scales, lamellar masses; pseudo-rhombohedral crystals. 
Cleavage : basal, highly perfect ; thin laminae, tough and elastic. H = 2 . 5-3. Sp. gr. 2 . 78-2 . 85. 

Optic Axial Anglbs 

Kennett Square brown, in limestone 15® Lewis** 

Vanartsdalen's reddish-brown 34** Lewis 

Analysis: "Pennsbury, Chester County?" Brown. Neminarz, Min. Mitth., (1) 241-242, 
1874. 

SiO, 44.29 

AUO, 12.12 

Fe,0, 1.40 

FeO 1.44 

MgO 27.86 

LijO tr. 

NaaO 2.16 

K,0 7.06 

F 1.94 

H,0 2.09 

100.36 
Sp. gr 2.779 

LocAUTiBs: Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: Cope's quarry, 
Kennett Square, Nevin's quarry, and Poorhouse quarry; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill. 

MARGARITE GROUP 

Margaritb HsCaAUSijOij Monoclinic 

ChloriTOid Hi(Fe,Mg)AUSi07 Monoclinic? 

» Uwis. 1880. 245-246. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



111 



MARGARITE 

HtCaAlSisOis Monoclinic 

Color: grayish, reddish- white, pink, yellow. Translucent to subtranslucent. Luster: 
pearly; lateral faces vitreous. Form: foliated masses, aggregates of laminae; massive scaly. 
Cleavage: basal, perfect. Laminae rather brittle. H *= 3.5-4.5. Sp. gr. 2.99-3.08. 

Composition: H,CaAlSi«Oi,; SiOj30.2, Alid 51.3, CaO 14.0, HjO 4.5, = 100. 

Synonyms: corundellite,*^ emerylite.** 

Analyses: A-D. "Village Green," Aston Township, Delaware County. Pearly scales 
with a nucleus of bronze-brown corundum. Silliman, Jr., 1849, 379, analyses by W. J. Craw. 
E. Unionville, Chester County. Altered from corundum. Genth, 1882, 390. F. Union- 
ville, Chester County. "Corundellite." Silliman, Jr., 1849, 380, analysis by J. J. Crooke. 



SiOi 32.31 

AUG, 49.24 

Fe,0, 

MgO 0.30 

CaO 10.67 

Li,G 

Na,0 

K,0 



} 



2.22 



H,0, F 5.26 

Corundum 



B 
31.06 
51.20 

0.28 
9.24 

2.97 
6.26 



C 

31.26 
51.60 

0.50 
10.15 

1.22 
5.27 



D 

30.18 
51.40 

0.72 
10.87 

2.77 
4.52 



E 

34.10 

47.38 

0.34 

0.17 

9.20 

tr. 

1.14 

2.34 

4.43 

0.54 



F 
35.71 
53 . 13 



7.27 

0.41 
1.22 
2.30 



99.64 100.04 
2.997 



100.00 100.00 100.00 100.46 
Sp.gr 2.995 

G-H. Unionville, Chester County. G. Cryptocrystalline, frequently coating corundum, 
Genth, 1873, 402. H. White, massive, or granular. Genth, 1873, 402. I. White, faintly 
pinkish, laminated; occurs rarely with granular corundum and totu-maline. Genth, 1873, 402, 
J. White, faintly reddish, scaly, somewhat laminated aggregates with black tourmaline. Genth 
1873, 402; analysis by Koenig. K. Grayish to brownish-white, waxy, cryptocrystalline, with 
particles of unaltered conmdum. Genth, 1873, 402, analysis by Chatard. L. Dana, 1850, 
362, analysis by Craw. M. Dana, 1850, 362, analysis by C. Hartshorne. 



SiO, 32.19 

AljG, 49.62 



FeO 

MgO 

CaO 

LiiO 

Na,0 

K,0 

HjO 

Corundum. 



0.91 
0.41 
7.81 
tr. 
4.78 
0.57 
3.93 



H 
30.45 
60.86 
0.42 
0.37 
12.13 
tr. 
1.72 
0.25 
4.48 
tr. 



I 

30.70 
49.33 
0.39 
0.76 
11.86 
0.36 
0.96 
0.65 
5.91 



J 
31.48 

49.01 
0.52 
0,54 

10.70 

1.34 

3.94 
2.00 

99.53 



K 

31.29 

47.24 

0.85 

0.88 

10.86 

tr. 

2.66 

0.24 

5.92 



L 
29.99 
50.57 

0.62 
11.31 



1.62 
0.85 
5.14 



M 

32.15 

54.28 

tr. 

0.05 

11.36 

n. det. 

n. det. 

n. det. 

0.50 



99.94 100.10 
3.00 



98.34 



100.22 100.68 100.92 
Sp.gr 3 .012 3 .047 

Localities: Chester County: Corundum Hill (Newlin), yellowish-white or pinkish, broad 
foliated masses, fibrous, scaly or cryptocrystalline aggregates. Delaware County: Morgan 
Station, yellowish-white, pearly scales, forming a sheathing over corundum crystals. 



chloritoid 

Hi(Fe,Mg)AliSi07 Monoclinic? 

Color: dark gray, greenish-gray, or black. Streak: uncolored, grayish or slightly greenish. 



» SilUman. 1840. 380. 

H Silliman. 1840, 378; Smith and Brush, 1853, 207. 



112 DESCRIPTIVE MINBRAWXJY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

Luster: of deavage surfaces pearly. Form: disseminated scales or plates; foliated masses. 
Cleavage: basal, laminae brittle. Sp. gr. 6.5. Sp. gr. 3.52-3.57. 

Analysis: Whitestown, Adams County. Dark greenish-black scales in a chloritic (?) 
schist. Genth, 1876, 227. Recalculated for the pure mineral after deducting 6.91% SiOt 
probably present as quartz, and 1 .92% TiOi, most likely present as rutile. 

SiOt 28.19 

AliO, 37.67 

FejOi 3.12 

FeO 22.21 

MnO tr. 

MgO 2.28 

H,0 6.63 

100.00 
Sp.gr 3.197 

LocALiTiBs: Adams County: Center Mills ore bank, Whitestown; Chester County: Co- 
rundum Hill? (Newlin); Lancaster County: Pequa mines (phyllite); Montgomery County: 
Conshohocken (phyllite). 

CHLORITES 

Clinochlors Ht(Mg,Fe)»A]sSieOu Monodinic 

PEnninite H8(Mg,Fe)ftAlsSi«Ou Rhombohedral 

PROCHLORITB 

Thuringite 
Stilpmonelane (Chalcodite) 

CHLORITIC VERMICULITES 

Paintsrite 
Hallits 
Lbnniute 
Pattbrsonite 

ROSBITE 

Leidyite 
Eastonite 

VERMICULITES 

JEPPERISITE 

CLINOCHLORS 

H8(Mg,Fe)»AltSi«Ou Monoclinic 

Color: dark grass-green to olive-green, pale green, yellow, white, rose-red. Streak: 
greenish-white; uncolored. Transparent to translucent. Luster: of deavage surfaces some- 
what pearly. Form: pseudo-hexagonal crystals of tabular habit, often tapering; rosette, fan- 
shaped, or vermicular aggregates; massive, scaly or granular. H -> 2-2.5. Sp. gr. 2.65- 
2.78. 

Crystallography: Monodinic; a:b:c = 0.5773:1:2.2772; /5 - 90** 20' 

Po:qo:ro « 3.9427:2.2772:1; m = 89*40'. 
Forms: c (001), * (Oil), v (132), e (6.6.17), / (7.7.20)^ x (4.0.11), Brinton's quarry, Chester 
County.*' Koksharov*^ lists the following forms from Wood's mine, Lcmcaster County: 
c (001), i (TOl), g (4.0.13), y (205), mo (112), fi (807), b (010), and A (5.0.11). Habit: pseudo- 
hexagonal, often tabular parallel to c, also prismatic, triangular, and pseudo-rhombohedral. 
Pyramidal faces are often striated horizontally and repeated in oscillatory combinations. Twins 
are common; Mica law: twin-plane *^ c in the zone cmo, sometimes as contact twins with the 
composition face c, one part being revolved 60** with reference to the other; in trillings of 3 or 
6 sectors;'^ Penninite law: twin-plane c, contact twins with the composition face c, corresponding 

M Tschermak, 1891, 221 and 240. 
••Koksharov, 1888, 26-35. 
" Cooke, 1867, 203-200. 



DBSCRIPTIVB HINBRALOGY OF PSNNSYLVANIA 








Kbs. 66-73. Clinochlore; 65-66, 68-69. 70-73. West Chester; 67. 71-73. Texas; (65. Dana; 
66-69, 71, Tschermak; 70, Blake; 72-73, Coeke). 



114 DBSCRIPTIVB MINBRAIX)GY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 

faces differing by 180°. Cleavage: c highly perfect; laminae flexible, tough, slightly elastic. 

Optical properties: optically -f, axial plane 1 1 h, rarely -J-b. Dispersion p<i'. Indices" 
a = 1.585, /3 = 1.588, y = 1.596. 2E = 20**-60^ Lancaster County;" 2E = 89** 41', 
Brinton's quarry,** with Zc — 7** 10'. Pleochroism not strong, for green varieties, Lcuicaster 
County:" 

X Z 

Emerald-green Hyacinth-red 

Leek-green Yellowish-green 

Composition: HsMg^AliSi^Ow; Si02 32.5, Al,Os 18.4, MgO 36.1, HjO 13.0, = 100. 
PeO replaces a small part of MgO, and sometimes Cr replaces Al. 

Synon3rms: ripidolite, kotschubeite; some kanunererite (see under penninite) belongs here. 
Analyses: Brinton's quarry, Westtown, Chester County. Dark green crystals, and foli- 
ated masses. A. Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 406. B. Schlaepfer, 1891, 8. C. Neminarz, 
Min. Mitth., 1874, 177. D-E. Craw, 1852, 222-223. 

A 

SiCh 29.87 

AUO, 14.48 

Cr20j 1.56 

FejOs 5.52 

FeO 1.93 

NiO 0.17 



B 


C 


D 


E 


30.11 


31.08 


31.34 


31.78 


18.31 


18.85 


17.47 ' 




1.55 


1.09 


1.69 


[ 22.71 


1.16 


1.55 


3.85 




2.11 


2.33 







MgO 33.06 31.89 33.50 33.44 33.64 

CaO 0.81 

K2O 0.37 

Na«0 1.99 

LijO 0.31 



H3O 13.60 14.14 11.53 12.60 12.60 



100.19 101.94 100.74 100.39 100.73 
Sp.gr 2.4165 

Treated with dry HCl at 383**^12** for 19 hours: (Clarke and Schneider, 1890. 406.) 

MgO removed 13 . 46 

RjOaremoved 4.24 

SiOsremoved 0.92 

Localities: Berks County: Jones mine? Chester County: Black Horse, and Brinton's 
quarry (large crystals in talc) ; Delaware County: Blue Hill, and Village Green; Lancaster County: 
Low's mine, and Wood's chrome mine; Lebanon County: Cornwall? 

PENNINITE 
H8(Mg,Fe)6AlsSi60u Rhombohedral 

Color: green, emerald-green, apple-green, grajrish-green ; pink, rose-red, reddish- violet. 
Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: of cleavage surfaces pearly, of lateral faces vitreous. 
Form: rhombohedral crystals, commonly twinned, habit thick tabular, often tapering; massive, 
scaly, cryptocrystalline. H = 2-2.5. Sp. gr. 2.6-2.85. 

Crystallography: Rhombohedral, hemihedral; a:ci = 1:3.495; po = 2.330. Forms: 
£_(0001), r (1121), 0J4. 0.4.13), y (2025), z (10T3), x (1122), p (1124); also (1126), (2245), (9.9.- 
18.20), and (7.7.14.8); (Lancaster County ).•• Twins according to the Penninite Law, twin- 
plane c, contact twins with the composition face c, corresponding faces differing by 180®. Cleav- 
age: c highly perfect, laminae flexible. 

** A. Mjchel-Levy and Alfred Lacroix, Les Min^raux des Roches, 1888. 
"Tschermak, 1891, 29-207. 

•« Tschermak, 1. c; Lewis (1880, 251) gives 78^ 30' and 82^ for this locality; green plates from Patterson's 
quarry, Newlin, gave 59** 30'. 
** Tschermak, 1. c. 
•• Cooke, 1867, 201-203; Pirsson, 1891, 408. 



DBSCRIPnva MmERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Optical propertMs; optically + (Lancaster County), usually uniaxial. Strongly dichroic, 
» violet, c hyacinth-red." 




Figs. 74-76. Pennioite, Texas, Lancaster County (Pin 



«). 



Composition: The some as dinochlore (see above). Kammererite: peach-blossom red, 
sometimes mixed with clinochlore. Accordinf; to Goldschmidt the mineral is heKagonal-holo- 
hedral. Rhodophyllite " kammererite. Rbodochrome is a compact, scaly variety; usually 
pink or red. 

Analyses: Wood's chrome mine, Lancaster County. A. Pink, scaly. Genth, 1852, 
122; meanoftwoanalyses. B. Hermann, J. prakt.Chem., 53, 22, 1853. C-D. Smith and Brush, 
IS53, 47. E. Pearse, Am. J. Sci., 37, 222, 1S64; greeu, average of two analyses. F. Pearse, 
1864, 222. Reddish-green, average of two analyses. G. Dieffenbach, 1855, 534. An earlier 
analysis of Garrett, 1853, 332, is omitted. 



SiO. 33,20 

Al^ 11,11 

Cr,0, ~ 6.85 

FftO, 1.43 

FeO 

NiO 

MgO 35,54 

CaO 

LiiO 

NaiO 

K,0 

Hrf) 12.95 



15.10 
0.90 
4.06 



33.30 


31,86 


31.31 


33.04 


10,50 


13,75 


12-84 


11-09 


4.67 


2.15 


2.98 


5.91 


1.60 








1-33 





2.31 


2,46 








0-22 


0,45 





36.08 


34-90 


35.02 


34,30 



[o.^l 




0,35 


0,35 





I 


0.28 


0.10 J 














0.10 


12.95 


12,75 


12.64 


13.25 


13-98 


13.20 


12 81 



101.46 100,12 



99.75 100-44 



MONOCUNIC 



Localities: Ddawan County: Moro Phillip's chrome mine, kammererite; ChesUr 
County: Scott's chrome mine (West NotUngbam), kammererite; LancasUr County: Low's mine, 
and Wood's chrome mine: dark green or violet colored crystals, forming druses. 

PROCHLORITE 
J VI H.(Mg, Fe),a,0, 
\ « H.(Mg, Fe),A1^0, 
Color: grass-green, olive-green to blackish-green. Streak: uncolored or greenbh. Trans- 
lucent to opaque. Luster: of cleavage surfaces, feebly pearly. Form: massive, foliated, gran- 
ular, six-sided tables often in divergent groups, fan-shaped or vermicular aggregates. Laminae 
flexible, not elastic. H - 1 - 2. Sp. gr. 2.78 - 2,96. 

Analyses of chlorites: A. Prochlorite. Dana's farm, near Morrisville, Bucks County. 
Genth, Jr., Second Geol. Survey Penna. Rep., C6, 101, 1881. B. Thuringite? Willets. A,dani3 
County. Dark green scales. About 5.26% quartz was deducted from the analysis. Genth, 
1876. 227. C. Rose's quarry. Lower Merion, Montgomery County. Dark green, scaly-granular. 
Obviously a serpentine mixed with some cbloritic mineral. Genth, 1875, 134; analysis by Castle. 



116 DBSCRIPnVS BONBRALOGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

ABC 

SiOf 25.98 22.46 38.80 

AliOi 21.08 22.84 4.54 

FcO, 3.72 2.85 3.97 

FeO 19.96 35.70 3.63 

MnO 0.10 

MgO 18.29 6.11 35.78 

H,0 11.58 9.94 13.40 

100.61 100.00 100.12 

LocAUTiQs: Many writers have become accustomed to calling a chlorite "prochlorite" 
when it cannot be referred to the other members of the group. In many cases chloritic vermic- 
* uiits, and even serpentines have been so called. Some of the chlorites whose localities are listed 
below may be prochlorite» but the absence of any specific data prevents their positive identifica- 
tion, which is extremely difficult owing both to the indefiniteness of the various "species" and 
to the fact that they are generally mixtures. 

Adams County: Hamiltonban, and Littlestown; Berks County: Boyertown, Clymer mine, 
Fritz Island, Raudenbush mine, Ruth mine, Siessholtzville, and Wheatfield mines; Bucks County: 
Finney's quarry, Morrisville, and Taylor's Woods; Chester County: south of Bailey's farm 
(East Marlboro), Corundum Hill, and Poorhouse quarry; Delaware County: Avondale, Black 
Horse, Leiperville, Lenni, Mineral Hill, and Rose Tree; Lancaster County: Drumore township, 
and Gap mine; Lehigh County: South Mountain; Montgomery County: opposite Lafayette; 
Northampton County: Chestnut Hill, and Redington (thuringite?) ; Philadelphia: Fairmount 
Park, and Wissahickon Valley. 

Vbnbrits. Color: green. Form: earthy masses resembling clay, consisting of minute 
transparent scales. 

Composition: probably a mixture of a chlorite and chrysocolla. 

Analysis: Pea green to apple green scales. Hunt, 1876, 328, analysis by G. W. Hawes; 
recalculated after deducting 6.22% sand. 

SiOi 30.73 

AliOs 14.67 

FeiOi 5.35 

FeO 0.29 

CuO 17.58 

MgO 18.55 

H,0 12.83 

100.00 
Locality: Berks County: Jones mine. 

CHALCODITE 

HeCFe, Mg)t(Fe,Al)tSi»0i8? Monoclinic 

Color: yellowish or greenish-bronze. Luster: of cleavage surfaces submetallic or brass- 
like; also pearly to vitreous. Form: foliated plates, sometimes radiated. H ^ 2.76—3. 

Analysis: French Creek mines, Chester County. "Glauconite." Bronze-yellow scales 
in cavities in feldspar. Knerr and Scheenfeld, Am. Chem. J., VI, 1885, 412. 

SiO, 52.86 

AltOi 7.08 

Fe,0, 7.20 

FeO 19.48 

MgO 2.90 

CaO tr. 

KtO 2.23 

NajO tr. 

HjO 8.43 

100.18 
Sp.gr 2.2 



DESCRIPTIVE BiINERAW)GY OF PBNNSYIvVANIA 



117 



I/OCALinss: Chester County: French Creek mines, bronze yellow plates in cavities in feld- 
spar; Montgomery County: Huntingdon Valley Station. 

CBXORITIC VERMICULITES 



PainxbriTB,*' — Color: bright golden yellow; dull gree^n. Translucent. Luster: pearly; or 
dull vitreous. Form: foliated masses, micaceous; laminae flexible, inelastic. 

Analyses: A-B. Painter's farm, Middletown, Delaware County. Bright golden yellow, 
strongly exfoliating before the blowpipe. Occurs in a brownish waxy mixture of plagioclase 
and serpentine. Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 248. 

A B 

SiO,... 34.86 33.95 

TiOi tr.tr. 

A1,0,.* 11.64 12.52 

FejOi 3.78 4.40 

FeO 0.20 0.20 

NiO 0.14 0.23 

MgO 31.32 30.56 

CaO 0.07 none 

HjO - 105** 1.64 1.66 

HjO - 250-300** 1.03 0.69 

HjO - Ign 15.75 16.46 



100.43 



100.47 



Locality: Delaware County: Painter's farm on Dismal Run. 

Haiaitb,'* — Color: green to yellow. Translucent to opaque. Dull. Form: rough six-sided 
prisms or plates. Cleavage : basal, perfect ; laminae flexible, inelastic. The mineral exhibits asterism, 
and shows symmetrically arranged inclusions under the microscope. The optic angle varies in 
different parts of the same section from 0** to 18**. H = 1.5. Sp. gr. 2.368-2 .373. 

Analyses : Three miles south of Oxford, Chester County. A. Dark bluish-green, Clarke and 
Schneider, 1891, 246. B. Green, Cooke, 1873,60; mean of2 analyses by C.E.Munroe. C. Yel- 
low. Cooke, 1873, 60; mean of 2 analyses by C. E. Mtmroe. 



SiO, 

A1,0, 

Fe,Oj 

FeO 

MnO 

NiO 

MgO 30.05 

K2O 

Hi^l05** 2.64 

H,O-250-300** 1 .23 

H,0-redheat 10.91 



A 

35.54 
9.74 
9.07 
0.28 
0.25 
0.16 



B 

35.89 

7.46 

8.78 

1.13 



31.45 
0.46 

14.33 



C 

35.26 

7.58 

9.68 

0.32 



31.51 
0.61 

14.78 



99.87 99.49 99.74 

Locality: Chester County: three miles south of Oxford (East Nottingham). 

LSNNiLiTS,'*^— Color: white, bronze-yellow, dark green. Luster: pearly; or sub-metallic, 
bronze-like, also vitreous, dull. Translucent. Form: foliated masses; micaceous aggregates; 
laminae flexible, inelastic. 

<• Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 247; name given to the mineral by JefFeris. The name has also been given 
to the brownish, waxy mixture of plagioclase and serpentine which forms the matrix of the micaceous mineral. 

M Cooke, 1874, 60; Cooke and Gooch, 1875, 453; Lewis, 1880, 250. The name was given to the mineral 
by Leeds, 1871, 70. 

^•Schrauf, 1882, 350; (incorrectly given lemilith). Clarke and Schneider, 1801, 245. The name has 
also been given to a variety of orthodase (which see) occurring at Lenni. 



118 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Analyses: Lenni, Middletown, Delaware County. A. Silver-white. Clarke and Schnei- 
der, 1891, 245. B. Bronzy-brown, resembling jeflFerisite. Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 245. 
C. Dark green, resembling clinochlore. Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 245. D. Dull green, 
rough crystal plates. Mineral was dried at 100^ until HjO was constant. Mean of 3 analyses. 
Cooke and Gooch, 1875, 454. E. Eyerman, 1911, 15. Analysis is evidently of a mixture. 



A 

SiO, 36.72 

TiO« 0.18 

AliOt 10.06 

FeaOs 5.37 

CrjOs 0.26 

FeO 0.12 

MnO 0.31 

NiO 0.20 

CaO 

BaO 

MgO 29.40 

NatO 

LijO 

K,0 

H2O-105° 6.40 

H,O-250-300'' 2.68 

HjO-red heat 8.69 

100.39 

HtO lost over H2SO4 6 .92 



B 

35.09 
0.58 

12.05 
6.67 
0.46 
0.11 
0.27 
0.20 



tr. 
27.62 



5.70 
1.98 
9.22 

99.95 
5.84 



34.90 
0.10 

10.60 
8.57 
0.23 
0.22 
0.17 
0.19 



D 

38.03 

12.93 
7.02 

0.50 



28.21 29.64 



] 



tr 



4.99 
1.60 
9.88 



> 11.68 



37.53 
0.24 
2.16 
2.61 
0.26 
1.56 
0.51 



5.76 

32.42 
0.03 



0.37 
16.39 



99.66 99.80 99.84 
5.21 



Locality: Dtlaware County: Lenni. 

PaTTBRsoniTE.^^ — Color: bluish-gray. Streak: grayish. Translucent. Luster: pearly, 
inclining to submetallic. Form: aggregates of triangular plates. Cleavage: basal, laminae 
flexible, inelastic. H = 2. Sp. gr. 2.81. 

Analyses: Unionville, Chester County. Micaceous. Genth, 1873, 398. A. Purest. B. 
Nearly pure. Sharpies' (1869, 320) analysis was shown to be erroneous by Brush (Suppl. to 
Dana's System, 1872, 18) and is omitted. 

A B 

SiOj 29.90 29.89 

?:&;;;.:::::::::::::::::::: ^:^} ^-' 

FeO 9.17 9.17 

MgO 17.10 17.53 

LisO tr. tr. 

Na,0 0.58 0.83 

K2O 2.33 2.41 

H2O 11.51 11.60 

101.30 102.30 
Sp.gr 2.810 

Locality: Chester County: Corundun Hill (Newlin). 

RosBiTB. — Color: pale brownish-yellow. Luster: pearly, waxy. Translucent to opaque. 
Form: vermicular aggregates. Soft. Composition: a much altered mica. 



'1 Lea, 1867, 45. The mineral is near thuringite. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 119 

Analysis: West Nottingham, Chester County. Pale brownish-yellow, pearly, soft. A.J. 
Moses (Sch. Mines Quarterly, 12, yj, i8gi), analysis by Genth. 

SiOj 35.38 

AljOi 30.30 

MgO 14.66 

H,0 19.88 



100.22 



Locality: Chester County: an abandoned quarry, one and a half miles northwest of Sylmar. 

Leidyite.'* — Color: greenish-gray, grass-green to olive-green. Streak: white. Luster: 
waxy. Form: micaceous aggregates, films, incrustations; massive. H = 1— 2. B. B. 
intumesces to a light yellowish-green glass. Dissolves readily in cold HCl, with partial gelatin- 
ization. Not soluble after ignition. 

Analysis: Leiperville, Delaware County. Bluish-green to green vermicular incrusta- 
tions of fine scales of resinous luster. Koenig, 1878, 85. 

SiOj 51.41 

A1,0, 16.82 

FeO 8.50 

MgO 3.07 

CaO 3.15 

H,0 17.08 



100.03 



Localities: Delaware County: Leiperville, and Morgan Station? 

Eastonite.^' — Color: silver- white to bright yellowish-green. Luster: pearly; vitreous. 
Transparent to translucent. Form: rough crystals, cleavage masses; scaly aggregates. 
Laminae: flexible, inelastic. Biaxial, small optic angle, optically—, dispersion p <u. Exfoli- 
ates and fuses readily on edges to a glass. 

* 

Analyses: A. Old Wolf Quarry, Chestnut Hill, Easton, Northampton County. "Chloritic 
vermiculite;" bright yellowish-green, in a compact tremolite rock. Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 
250, analysis by Merrill. B. Light green. Chestnut Hill, Easton. Eyerman, 1911, 13-14. 

A B 

SiO, 43.71 42.37 

AljO, 3.59 12.27 

Fe20, 0.90 0.92 

FeO 0.60 

CaO 0.24 

MgO 38.58 30.15 

K3O 2.22 1.95 

Na20 0.13 1.58 

H2Oatl05° 0.46 

H,0 at 250-300° 0.09 ^ 9.99 

H,0 at Ignition 10 . 70 

100.38 100.07 

» Koenig, 1878, 84-85. 

» Eyerman, 1911, 14; "chloritic vermiculite" (Merrill), Clarke and Schneider. 1891, 250. 



120 



DnscRiprrm minbrai,ogy of Pennsylvania 



Locai^ity: Northampton County: Chestnut Hill (Easton). 

Analyses of Other Unnamed Chloritic Vermiculites: A. UnionviUe, Newlin, Chester 
County. Dull green: Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 248. B. Unionville; Fine granular green. 
Leeds, 1873, 25. C-D. Unionville. Olive-green. Genth, 1873, 396. analyses by Chatard. 



SiO, 31.23 

AlaOi 17.52 

CriO, 0.14 

Fe»0, 4.70 

FeO 1.20 

MnO 0.20 

NiO 0.33 

MgO * 31.36 

U2O 

NajO 

HjOatlOS^ 1.08 

H,0 at 250-300** 0.40 

H,0 at Ign 12 . 15 



B 
30.62 
21.73 

0.42 
5.01 



29.69 
0.11 
0.14 



C 
29.43 
22.08 

1.41 
5.64 



28.46 
n.det. 
n.det. 



D 
29.59 
22.18 

1.33 
5.77 



28.54 
n.det. 
n.det. 



> 12.26 12.40 12.40 



100.31 99.98 99.42 99.81 

E. Unionville. Brownish-red, decomposed. Genth, 1873, 394, analysis by Koenig. 
F. Unionville. Yellowish-gray, decomposed. Genth, 1873, 394, analysis by Koenig. G. 
West Chestnut HiU, Easton, Northampton Cotmty. Blue-green, altered. Eyerman, 1911, 5. 
H. West Chestnut Hill, Easton. Light green, altered. Eyerman, 1911, 15. 

E F G H 

SiOi 31.35 32.80 33.96 34.01 

AliO, 21.58 26.07 14.41 15.74 

FeiO, 14.17 9.80 

FeO 3.81 6.70 

MnO 

CaO..., 0.12 0.14 

MgO , 16.67 17.70 34.20 31.20 

• H,0 14.45 13.75 12.60 12.69 



98.22 100.12 99.10 99.48 



J£FF£RISITE7« 



Color: dark yellowish-brown, to light yellow. Luster: pearly on cleavage surfaces. 
Translucent. Form: broad crystals or crystalline plates. Cleavage: basal, eminent; laminae 
flexible, inelastic. H — 1.5. Sp. gr. 2.30. 

Optical properties: Plates are generally twinned. Plane of optic axes coincides with the 
shorter diagonal of the prisms. Double refraction strong, — . Axial angles varies from 10^-27^, 
some plates are apparently uniaxial. Dispersion slight, p <v. 

Composition:^* a hydrated mica: 2(Fe,Mg)0.(Al,Fe)iOs.5 SiOj.6 H2O. 

Analyses: Brinton's quarry, Westtown, Chester County. A. Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 
452. B. Brush, 1861, 370. C. Genth, 1873, 392, analysis by Koenig. D. Genth, 1873, 392, 
analysis by Chatard; FeO from analysis C. 

74 Brush, I86L 369-370; 1866, 248. 

n Cooke, 1874, 35; see also Lewis, 1880, 250. Lewis gives 34^ for brown scales in a chloritic schist at Lafay- 
ette; and 37" for brown scales in a hornblende gneiss in Germantown; for the typical jefferisite from Chester County: 
26" ±. Walker, 1899, 201, remarks that "phlogopite" from Westchester showed an optic angle divergence of 
17", it is probable that the specimen was jefferisite, as this mineral was once distributed as "phlogofMte." 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUKJY OF PBNNSYI.VANIA 



121 



A B C D 

SiOi 34.20 37.10 33.35 34.40 

AliOi 16.58 17.57 17.78 16.63 

FeiO, 7.41 10.54 7.32 8.00 

FeO 1.13 1.26 2.11 2.11 

MgO 20.41 19.65 19.26 19.30 

CaO 0.56 — 

NasO tr. n.det. n.det. 

KjO 0.43 n.det. n.det. 

H,0(lgn.) 21.14 13.76 19.87 19.03 

100.87 100.87 99.69 99.47 

HiO over HjSOi 10.56 Heated for 32 hours with dry HCl at 383-412**: 

H2Oatl05*' MgO removed 3.98 

H,0 at 250-300* 4.20 RjO, removed 1.38 

HtO at red heat 6 . 18 (Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 452) 

H,0 at white heat .20 

Localities: Chester County: Beryl Hill, Corundum Hill (Newlin), and Brinton's quarry 
(large brown crystals) ; Delaware County: Adele, Boothwyn, Mineral Hill, Radnor, and Tyler's 
farm (Middletown) ; Lancaster County: Wood's chrome mine; Philadelphia: O'Neill's quarry, 
and West Philadelphia. 

OTHER HYDROUS SILICATES 

Sbrphntinb HiMgtSiaOt Monodinic 

DswEYLiTS H4Mg4Si|Oit.4H20 Amorphous 

Gbnthite H4MgtNitSi«Ois.4HtO Amorphous 

Talc H2MgtSi40u Monoclinic 

Sbpiolite HiMgsSiiOio Amorphous 

COLBRAINIT9 HiMgiAlSiOs Trigonal 

Nboutb Amorphous 

AQUACIUSPTIT9 Amorphous 

Saponits Amorphous 

Kaolinits H4AltSi209 Monoclinic 

Halloysits HiAliSiiOj + HjO Amorphous 

Pykophyixitb HiAltSifOit Monoclinic? 

Allophanb AliSiOs.5H30 Amorphous 

Uranophanb CaUtSi20ii.6HsO Orthorhombic 

Chrysocolla CuSiOt.2HtO Amorphous 

Chloropal (Pe, Al)tSi|09.5HsO Amorphous 

HisiNGBRiTB Amorphous 

SERPENTINE 
HiMgtSiiOt Monoclinic 

Color: light to dark green, white, brownish-yellow to brownish-red; becomes yellowish- 
gray on exposure. Streak white. Transparent to opaque. Luster: subvitreous, greasy, waxy, 
or earthy. Form: usually massive; sometimes lamellar, or delicately fibrous. H -> 2.5-4. 
Sp. gr. 2.50-2.65. 

Composition: H4MgsSis09; SiOi 44.1, MgO 43.0, H2O 12.9, == 100. PeO replaces some 
MgO; a small amount of NiO is usually present. 

Varieties: Precious or noble: rich oily green, translucent. Bowenite: apple green to 
greenish-white, massive, fine granular, resembling nephrite. H = 5.5-6. Sp. gr. 2.59-2.78. 
Williamsite:^* apple-green, translucent, massive or lamellar. H » 4.5. Sp. gr. 2.59-2.64. 
Picrolite •J'' grayish-green to dark green, columnar or pseudo-fibrous, with a long splintery fracture. 
Antigorite: leek-green, thin lamellar, laminae easily separable into translucent folia; feel smooth. 
H B 2.5. Sp. gr. 2.622. Marmolite: greenish- or bluish-white, luster pearly, thin foliated, 

M Shepard, 1848. 249. 

^ Baltimorite is referable to thia variety. 



122 DESCRIPTIVB MINBRALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

aminae brittle but separable. Sp. gr. 2.41. Retinalite: honey-yellow to light oily green, waxy 
lor resinous luster; massive. Porcellophite: resembling compact lithomarge, with a smooth 
porcelain-like fracture. H = 3.5. Sp. gr. 2.47-2.52. Thermophyllite: light brown to silvery 
white, luster pearly; form: masses of small scales. H » 2.5. Sp. gr. 2.61. Chrysotile (serpentine 
asbestus): greenish- white, light green to olive-green, yellow or brown. Luster: silky. 
Delicately fibrous, fibres easily separable and usually flexible. Sp. gr. 2.219. 

Analyses: A. Williamsite. Low's mine, Lancaster Cotmty. Green, sometimes lami- 
nated. Dana, 1850, 692; analysis by Brush. B. Williamsite. Low's mine. Hermann, 1853, 
31. C-D. Williamsite. Smith and Brush, 1853, 134. E. Slaty serpentine, Low's mine. 
Silliman. Jr., 1849, 134. F. Picrolite. Wood's mine, Lancaster County. Bluish green, Ram- 
melsberg, 1860, 526. G. Picrolite. Wood's mine. Dana, 1850, 692, analysis by Brewer. 

An earlier inaccurate analysis by Shepard (1848, 250) is omitted. 

A B C D E F G 

SiOj 45.02 44.50 41.60 42.60 44.58 43.79 44.25 

AhOj 3.35 0.75 tr. tr. 3.03 4.90 

FeaOi 

FeO 1.39 3.24 1.62) 6.15 2.05 3.67 

NiO 0.90 0.50 0.40) tr. 0.69 

MgO 37.75 39.71 41.11 41.90 34.51 41.03 34.00 

HjO 13.01 12.75 12.70 12.70 12.38 12.47 12.32 



99.13 100.00 99.15 99.22 100.65 99.34 99.83 
Sp.gr 2.60 2.557 

H. Precious. Leslie's farm, Newlin, Chester County. Light green to pale yellow. Eyer- 
man, 1911, 15-16. I. Edward's quarry, Willistown, Chester County. Green to grayish-black. 
Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. J. East Goshen, Chester County. Yellowish. Sharpies, 1866, 272. 
K. Middletown, Delaware County. "Meerschaum." Eyerman, 1911, 15. L. Porcellanous, 
resembling compact lithomarge. Middletown, Delaware County. Dana, 1868, 467, analysis 
by Burton. An old analysis of serpentine ("fahlunite") from Germantown by Nuttall (1822, 23) 
is omitted. 

H I J K L 

SiOf 40.23 36.59 43.89 44.58 44.08 

AliOi 1.01 tr. tr. 0.30 

FesO, 2.43 8.84 

FeO 3.50 1.05 1.38 2.13 1.17 

CaO 0.37 

MgO 41.10 38.85 40.48 39.55 40.87 

NaaO 1.46 

H2O 11.54 13.41 13.45 12.91 13.70 

99.81 100.20 99.20 99.17 100.49 
Sp.gr 2.610 2.48 

M N O P Q R 

SiOi 42.11 42.14 41.46 42.87 39.83 44.21 

AI2O, 0.26 6.39 2.72 

Fe»0» 

FeO 5.47 2.06 0.99 2.35 1.71 0.52 

CaO 0.68 tr. 1.04 0.07 0.26 

MgO 37.80 41.61 44.68 40.40 39.92 40.55 

Na,0 1.11 

H2O 14.13 14.20 14.07 12.98 10.43 12.43 

100.19 100.01 101.20 99.90 99.46 100.69 
Sp.gr 2.659 2.510 2.718 2.363 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 123 

M. Cornwall, Lebanon County. Light green. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. N. Ruth's 
mine, Berks County. Genth, 1885, 42, analysis by Keller. O. Wheatfield mine, Berks 
County. Genth, 1885, 42, analysis by Keller. P. Porcellophite. Delaware River quarry, 
Easton, Northampton County. Green. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. Q. Thermophyllite. Dela- 
ware River quarry, Easton. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. R. Easton. White. Eyerman, 1911, 
15-16. 

S. Delaware River quarry, Easton. Light green. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. T. Delaware 
River quarry, Easton. Dark oily green. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. U. William's Bushkill 
quarry, Easton. Precious. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. V. William's Delaware quarry, Easton. 
Dark oily green. Eyerman, 1911, 11-15. W. Easton. Precious. Thompson, 1828, 49. X. 
Verdolite quarry, Easton. Altered. Eyerman, 1911, 15-16. 

S T U V W X 

SiOa 45.23 44.77 42.44 43.28 41.55 41.68 

AI,0, 1.13 11.33 

FetOg 0.51 0.26 3.90 3.47 

FeO 3.61 4.77 1.69 2.50 0.33 

MnO 0.80 

CaO 0.23 0.23 tr. 

MgO 39.59 45.09 41.45 42.55 40.15 37.75 

H2O 11.60 4.96 12.70 11.44 13.70 4.55 

100.03 100.10 99.90 100.00 99.30 99.91 
Sp.gr 2.517 2.417 2.793 2.487 3.39 

Localities: Berks County: Boyertown, Fritz Island, Jones mine, Ruth mine, Topton, and 
Wheatfield mines; Bticks County: Flushing; Chester County: Sylmar, Brinton's quarry, Corrine 
Corundum Hill (antigorite, picrolite, retinalite), Edward's quarry, French Creek mines. Goat 
Hill (marmolite), Marlboro, Marshall's quarry, McCall's quarry, Northbrook, Scott's chrome 
mine, Taylor's quarry (retinalite, chrysotile), Webb's quarry; Delaware County: Blue Hill 
(chrysotile and picrolite). Castle Rock (chrysotile), Elwyn (chrysotile). The Hunt (retinalite), 
Moro Phillip's chrome mine (chrysotile), Lenni, Radnc»r (chrysotile, marmolite). Rose Tree, and 
Williamson School; Lancaster County: Black Barren Springs, Carter's chrome mine (red). Low's 
mine (picrolite and williamsite). Rock Springs Run (chrysotile), Texas (marmolite), and Wood's 
chrome mine (marmolite, picrolite, and williamsite); Lebanon County: Cornwall; Montgomery 
County: Rose's quarry (antigorite). Northampton County: Chestnut Hill (precious or noble, 
retinalite, marmolite, bowenite, porcellophite, chrysotile, and thermophyllite); Philadelphia: 
Prince's quarry, and Wissahicken Valley ; York County: Spring Grove, and York Valley. 

DEWEYLITE 

H4Mg4SiaOi«.4H20 AMORPHOUS 

Color: white, yellow, brown, reddish or greenish. Translucent. Luster: resinous, 
waxy, greasy. Form: massive, stalactitic or botryoidal coatings, resembling gum arabic or 
resin. Brittle and often much cracked. H = 2-^3.5. Sp. gr. 2.0-2.2. 

Composition; H4Mg4SijOi,.4H20; SiOj 40.2, MgO 36.7, HjO 24.1, = 100. 
Analyses: A. Wood's mine, Lancaster County. BrownLsh, resinous botryoidal masses. 
Dana, 1854, 236, analysis by Brush. B. The Hunt, Delaware Coimty. White, jasper-like, mas- 
sive. Eyerman, 1911, 17. C. Ruth's mine, Berks County. Yellow, waxy. Genth, 1885, 41, 
analysis by Keller. D~E. Ruth's mine, Berks County. Whitish and brownish resinous coatings 
with aragonlte and serpentine. Brunner and Smith, 1883, 280. 

A B C D E 

SiO, 43.15 42.29 39.32 45.65 42.34 

AljOi tr. 

FesO, 1.92 0.20 1.39 

FeO 0.51 

MgO 35.95 39.90 41.14 34.38 36.77 

CaO tr. tr. tr. 

H2O 20.25 16.16 18.41 19.49 19.03 

99.35 100.27 99.38 99.72 99.53 
Sp.gr 2.3 



124 DESCRIPTIVB MINERAI^OGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

Localities: Berks County: Fritz Island, Ruth mine, and Wheatfidd mines; Chester County: 
Brin ton's quarry, Corundum Hill (Newlin), Goat Hill, and Taylor's quarry; Delaware County: 
The Hunt, Mineral Hill, and Radnor; Lancaster County: Carter's mine, and Wood's chrome mine; 
Philadelphia: Prince's quarry. 

GENTHITE" 

H4MgsNi2Si<Oii.4HiO Amorphous 

Color: pale apple green, yellowish. Streak: greenish- white. Opaque to translucent 
Luster: resinous. Form: mammillary or stalactitic coatings. H —3-4. Sp.gr. 2.409. 

Composition: H4MgiNisSi«Oi2.4HsO ; SiOt 34.8, NiO 28.8, MgO 15.5, HsO 20.9, » 100. 
Analyses: A. Apple-green, resinous, mammillary or stalactitic coatings. Woods mine, 
Lancaster County. Genth, 1851, 488. B. "Pimelite;" analysis of an apple-green, micaceous 
mixture, probably of talc and genthite. Radnor, Delaware County. Goldsmith, 1893, 174. 

A B 

SiO, 35.36 45.93 

NiO 30.64 7.69 

FeO 0.24 

MgO 14.60 34.44 

CaO 0.26 

H,0 19.09 11.68 



100.19 99.74 

LocALiTiBS: Delaware County: Radnor; Lancaster County: Low's mine, and Wood's 
chrome mine; Montgomery County: Rose's quarry; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry. 

TALC 

HiMgiSiiOu MoNOCLiNic 

Color : apple green to silvery-white, greenish-gray, dark green ; streak white. Subtranspar- 
ent to translucent. Luster: pearly. Form: foliated masses; granular massive (steatite) » 
compact or cryptocrystalline, slaty ("indurated talc"), rarely in tabular crystals. H «= 1-1.6. 
Sp. gr. 2.7-2.8. 2E = 12** to 15*, Lafayette, Pa. (Lewis"). 

Composition: HsMgtSiiOu: SiOt 63.5, MgO 31.7, H|0 4.8, « 100. NiO is sometimes 
present. 

Analysis: A few htmdred yards, S. S. W. of Castle Rock, Delaware County. "In- 
durated talc." Grayish olive-green, cryptocrystalline, slightly scaly. H - 2. Sp. gr. 2.789. 
Genth, 1882, 394. 

SiO, 62.48 

TiOj tr. 

CrjOi 0.13 

AliOi 0.59 

NiO 0.16 

FeO 4.95 

MgO 27.60 

Ignition 4.81 

Chromite 0.20 



100.92 



LocALiTms: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh? Berks County: Fritz Island, Jones mine, 
and Topton; Chester County: Avondale? Black Horse (indurated), Sylmar, Brinton's quarry. 
Cope's quarry, Corundtun Hill, Embreeville, Marshall's quarry, Marlboro, Scott's chrome mine, 
and Taylor's quarry; Delaware County: Black Horse, Blue Hill, Castle Rock, Chelsea, Lenni, 
Mineral Hill, Moro Phillips chrome mine, Newton Square, Rockdale, Rose Tree, Village Green, 
and Worrall; Lancaster County: Low's mine. Pleasant Grove, and White Rock; Montgomery 

>• Described by Genth (1851, 487) as "nickel-gymnite" (gymaite « deweylite); named genthite by Dana. 
Am. J. Sci., 44. 256, 1867). 
«• Lewis. 1880. 248. 



DESCRIPTIVE minerawx;y of pennsyi^vania 125 

County: opposite Lafayette, and Rose's quarry; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Phila- 
delphia: Bustleton, Prince's quarry,*'* and Wissahickon Valley. 

SEPIOLITE 

H4Mg2Si|Oio Amorphous 

Color: white, gray, faintly yellowish. Opaque. Form: compact masses, earthy or day- 
like. Feel smooth. Dry masses float on water. H = 2-2.6. Sp. gr. 2. Adheres to the tongue. 
Composition. H4MgiSi«Oio; SiOf 60.8, MgO 27.1, HtO 12.1, = 100. The mineral may 
contain a considerable admixture of magnesite. Some hygroscopic water may be present. 

Localities: Chester County: Brinton's quarry, and Goat Hill; Delaware County: Black 
Horse, Elam, The Hunt, Mineral Hill, and Radnor. 

COLERAINITE 
HtMgsAlSiOs Trigonal 

Color: white, to pale pinkish white. Luster: vitreous, or pearly, often dull. Form: 
rosettes of thin trigonal plates, granular or compact masses. H » 2.5-3. Sp. gr. = 2.51. 
Locality: Chester County: Brinton's quarry; and Sylmar. 

NEOLITE 

Color: green or yellow. Luster: silky or earthy. Form: massive, or silky fibrous. 
H = 1-2. Sp. gr. 2.77. 

Composition: a doubtful colloidal hydrous silicate of Al, Fe, and Mg. 

Analysis: Rose's quarry. Lower Merion, Montgomery County. Yellowish or grayish- 
white seams in metaperidotite. Genth, 1875, 106, analysis by Harry W. Jayne. 

SiOs 61.70 

JS::.:.:::::::::::::::::::} «•«» 

MgO 27.95 

H»0 5.00 



101.60 
Localities: Chester County: French Creek mines? Montgomery County: Rose's quarry. 

AQUACREPTITE" 

Color: yellowish-brown. Streak : orange-yellow. Dull. Form: amorphous masses, with 
a flat conchoidal fractture. Brittle. Adheres to the tongue. Falls to pieces in water with a 
crackling noise (hence the name). H » 2.6. Sp. gr. 2.06-2.08. 

Composition: a doubtful colloidal hydrous silicate of Al, Fe, and Mg. 

Analyses: Strode's Mill, East Bradford, Chester Cotmty. Shepsurd, 1868, 256. Analysts: 
A. J.H.Eaton; B. Henry C. Humphrey; C. C. U. Shepard. 

ABC 

SiOf 43.03 41.56 41.00 

AhOa 5.56 6.71 4.00 

Fe,0, 12.30 12.45 13.30 

MgO 19.58 n. det. 17.60 

H,0 17.40 16.00 23.00 



97.87 98.90 

Locality: Chester County: Strode's Mill (East Bradford). Another mineral, probably 
halloysite, possessing the same property of breaking into pieces with a cracking noise, has been 

M Lewis (1880, 248) gave the following optic angles (2B) for talc from this quarry: exfoliating fan-shaped 
crystals 12**40', transparent and foliated Ulc 15^. 
» Shepard, 1808. 256. 



126 



DESCRIPTIVB MINERAUKJY OF PBNNSYI-VANIA 



locally catted aquacreptite. It is found at the following localities: Detavmre Counfy: Upper 
Darby; MoTdgomery County: Marble Hall; PkUadelphia: George's HiU, Overbrook, and West 
Philadelphia. 

SAPOHITE 

Color: white, gray, yellow, or greenish. Luster greasy. Soft like butter. Does not ad- 
here to the tongue. Form: massive. Sp. gr. 2.24-2.30. 
Composition : a colloidal silicate of Mg and Al. 
Locality; Delatvare County: Leiperville? 



77 

Fig. 77. Kaolinite, 

Summit Hill, Carbon 

County (Johnson and 

Blake), 



KAOLINITE 

MONOCLINIC 

Color: white, gray, yellowish. Scales are transparent to 
translucent. Luster: of plates, pearly; of masses, pearly to dull 
earthy. Form: thin pseudo-rhombohedial or pseudo- hexagonal 
scales or plates, sometimes twinned (Mica law) ; usually in clay- 
like masses, compact, friable or mealy. Cleavage: t>asBl, perfect. 
Flexible, inelastitic. Usually unctuous and plastic. H = 2-2.5. 
Sp. gr. 2.6-2.63. 

Composition: H^l^i,0.; SiO, 46,5. Al>0. 39,6. H^ 14.0, 
= 100. The HiO is given off above 330°. 

Synonym: pholerite. 

Analyses: A. Pholerite. Tamaqua, Schuylkill County. Mean 
of two analyses of scales purified by HCl. Genth, 1859, 251. B. 
Pholerite, Summit Hill, Carbon County. Scales purified by HCl. 
Johnson and Blake, 1867. 354. C. Kaolin. Chestnut Hill, Lan- 
caster County. Genth, 1875, 119. D. Kaolin. East Nottingham, 
Chester County. Genth, 1875, 119. 



67,1 


46.34 


20 1 


36.32 


3-9 


0.64 



SiO, 46.90 

AWi 39,60 

Fe-0, 

MgO — - — - 0-7 tr. 

CaO 0.1 0.04 

Narf) 0,17 tr. tr. 

K,0 — 2.2 0.77 

H,0 13.80 14.02 5.9 13,75 

Orthoclase 1 .04 

Quartz ■■ 1 . 10 

100.47 99.76 100.0 100.00 

LocAUTiBs :" BerksCounly: twelve miles north of Douglass ville, Jonesmine, Longswamp, 
Fleetwood, and Mt. Penn; Carbon County: Summit Hill; Chester County: Kennett Square, and 
Toughkenamon ; Detaware County: Brandy wine Summit. Black Horse, Green's farm near Upland, 
Trainer, and Upper Darby; Lancaster County: Chestnut Hill; Montgomery County: West 
Conshohocken ; Philadelphia: Branchtown, Fairmont Park. Germastown. IiOgan, Ryers. West 
Philadelphia, and Wissahickon Station; Schuylkill County: Tamaqua (pholerite), and Potts viUe 
(pholerite), 

HALLOYSITE 
HiAltSiiOi + HiO Amorphous 

Color: white gray, yellow, greenish, bluish, reddish. Translucent to opaque. Luster: 
pearly, waxy, or dull. Form: massive, clay-like or earthy. H = 1-2, Sp. gr, 2,0-2.20. 

Analyses: A. "Cerolite." Corundum Hill (Newlin). Chester County. Yellowish- white, 
•< A number of Iwllojnitc* may be iadudcd in tbc list. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAU)GY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 127 

massive. Smith and Brush, 1853, 211. B. "Sauconite." Priedensville, I^ehigh County. Pale 
yellowish-white clay. Genth, 1875, 120, analysis by W. Theo. Roepper. C. "Sauconite.'* 
Friedensville, Lehigh County. Ochre yellow. Dried one hour at 105** C. Genth, 1875, 120, 
analysis by Roepper. D. "Sauconite." Friedensville, Lehigh County. Pale yellow. Dana, 
1868, 409, analysis by Blake. E. A manganiferous clay. Sampson mine. South Easton, North- 
ampton County. Brownish-pink. Eyerman, 1911, 18. 

A B C D E 

SiO» 44.50 48.94 46.45 41.36 23.23 

A1,0« 25.00 10.66 7.41 8.04 9.71 

FcOa 3.85 14.28 9.55 4.85 

MnO tr. 42.15 

ZnO 26.95 22.86 32.24 

MgO 7.75 \ ^7 1.02 

CaO 2.421 "*" 2.91 

H,0 24 hours over H2SO4. . 1 . 04 



H2O on heating to 212*. ... 8.81 
HaO at red heat 12.54 



^ 7.06 6.73 7.76 17.15 



99.64 99.88 98.70 99.97 100.00 

Localities: Chester County: Bailey's farm in East Marlboro (lithomarge), and Coundnmi 
Hill (NewUn); Delaware County: Boothwyn (lithomarge); Lehigh County: Friedensville (sau- 
conite); Northampton County: South Easton; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry? (lithomarge). 

H2Al2Si40i2 ^ MoNOCLiNic? 

Color: white, gray, greenish, yellowish-brown. Sub transparent to opaque. Luster: 
pearly; dull or bright. Form: foliated, radiated, lamellar, fibrous, compact, cryptocrystalline, 
slaty. Cleavage: basal, eminent. I^aminae flexible, not elastic. Feel: greasy. H ^ 1-2. 
Sp. gr. 2.8-2.9. 

Composition: HaAl2Si40i2; SiOa 66.7, AI2O3 28.3, HiO 5.0, = 100. 

Analyses: A. Cross Creek Colliery, near Drifton, Luzerne County. Genth, 1882, 402. 
B. North Mahanoy Colliery, Mahanoy City, Schuylkill County. Genth, 1879, 280. 

Si02 

Al20a 

Fe208 

MgO 

H2O 



A 


B 


65.77 


66.61 


29.36 


27.63 


0.12 


0.16 




0.10 


4.85 


5.43 


100.10 


99.93 



LocALiTiBs:** Luzerne County: at Drifton and Gowen (white or yellowish white, crypto- 
crystalline, in the Buck Mountain Seam); Philadelphia: Prince's quarry; Schuylkill County: 
Mahanoy City. 

ALLOPHANE 

Al2Si06.5H20 Amorphous 

Colorless, silvery white, pale sky blue, greenish, yellow. Streak: uncolored. Translucent. 

Luster: vitreous, subresinous, pearly; bright. Form: incrusting, mammillary or stalactitic. 

H = 3. Very britUe. Sp. gr. 1.85-1.89. 

Composition: Al2SiOs.5H20; Si02 23 . 8, AUOj 40.6, H2O 35.7, = 100. 

Analysis: Ballietsville, Lehigh County. White mammillary and stalactitic coatings 

on limonite. Smith, 1883, 272. 

s* Pyrophyllite slates occur in Lycoming (Cogan House and Pine townships), and Tioga counties; Abraham 
Meyer. Pyrophyllite slates in northern Pennyslvania, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 45, 1893, 107-200. 



128 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

SiO, 21.39 

AUO, 35.20 

H,0 40.86 

CaMg(CO,), 1.96 

99.41 

Localities: Berks County: Jones mine; Chester County: Chester Springs, and Trimble's 
mine; Delaware County: Avondale, Chelsea (silver-^white, greenish, or bluish mammiUary coat- 
ings on gneiss) ; Franklin Paper Mills; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh County: PriedensviUe, 
and Ironton. 

URANOPHANE 

CaUgSitOii . 6H2O Orthorhombic 

Color: lemon- or straw-yellow. Luster: vitreous, pearly. Form: incnisting, aggregates 
of minute fibrous or adcular crystals ; stellate or radiating. H = 2-3. Sp. gr. 3.81-^3.90. 

Composition: CaUsSiiOii • 6H,0 ; SiO, 13 . 9, UO3 67.0, CaO 6 . 5, H,0 12 . 6, = 100. 

Synonym: uranotile. 

LocAUTiBs: Delaware County: Avondale; Philadelphia: on Broad Street at Olney 
Avenue, and Duncannon Avenue; and McCrea's quarry (Mt. Airy). 

CHRYSOCOLLA 

CuSiOs . 2HjO Amorphous 

Color: green, bluish-green, deep blue. Streak: white. Translucent to opaque. Luster: 
vitreous, shining; earthy. Form: botryoidal, incnisting or filling seams; earthy or opal-like 
masses; cryptocrystalline. Fracture conchoidal. Rather sectile; usually brittle. H =2-4. 
Sp. gr. 2-2.4. 

Composition: CuSi03.2HjO; SiO, 34.3, CuO 45.2, H«0 20.5, = 100. 
LocALiXiBs: Berks County: Birdsboro, Fritz Island, and Jones mine; Bucks County: 
Finney's quarry; Chester County: French Creek mines; Delaware County: Avondale, and Strath 
Haven Inn; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Montf^omery County: Ecton mine, Hendricks Station* 
Marble Hall, Perkiomen mine, Pottstown, and Sumneytown; Philadelphia: Fraokford, German- 
town, Prince's quarry, and Rittenhouse quarry. 

CHLOROPAL 

(Fe, Al),Si,09 . 6H2O Amorphous 

Color: yellow, greenish-yellow to dark green. Opaque, translucent. Luster: vitreous, 

earthy. Form: compact, massive, adheres feebly to the tongue. H = 2.5-4.5. Sp. gr. 

1.727-1.870. 

Composition: Fe^i20».5H,0 ; SiOj 41.9, FcO, 37.2, HjO 20.9, = 100. A1,0, may 

replace FeiOj. 

I Analyses: Near Mountainville, Lehigh Mountain, Lehigh County. Soft, smooth, earthy. 

Sp. gr. 2.033. Smith, 1883, 277-279. A. Yellow. B. Dark yellow. C. Greenish ydlow. 

D. Yellowish green. E. Yellowish green. F. Nearly white. G. Light yellow. H. Brownish 

yellow. I. Brownish yellow. J. Brownish yellow. K. Brown, L. Yellowish brown. 

A B C D E F 

SiOi 40.20 40.81 42.31 41.16 41.41 44.52 

FeiO, 39.52 39.30 38.18 30.79 35.35 11.04 

FcO 0.40 tr. 0.21 . 

AlsOs 2.05 3.04 25.95 

MgO tr. tr. 

K2O tr. 4.54 0.94 

PiOj tr. 

H,0 19.61 19.79 18.65 20.79 20.45 17.65 

99.73 99.90 99.14 99.54 100.25 100.10 



DESCRIPTIVB MINKRAW)GY OF PBNNSYI,VANIA 



129 



G 


H 


I 


J 


K 


L 


42.79 


42.37 


41.35 


41.13 


43.54 


43.00 


39.19 


38.17 
tr. 
tr. 
tr. 


39.09 


38.97 

tr. 
tr. 


39.52 


37.60 


19.09 


19.27 


19.31 


19.31 


17.71 


19.36 



SiO, 

FejOj 39.19 

FeO 

MgO 

PiO* 

H,0 

101.07 99.83 99.75 99.41 100.77 99.86 

Localities: Berks County: Longswamp Church; Lebanon County: Cornwall; Lehigh 
County: Mountainville and Zionsville. 

mSINGSRITE 

Color: brownish-black to black. Streak: yellowish brown. Luster: greasy, vitreous. 
Form: amorphous, compact, incrusting masses. H = 3. Sp.gr. 2.5-5.0. 

Composition: a colloidal Pe silicate, probably a mixture. 

Analysis: Gap Mine, Lancaster County. Black, amorphous. Rand, 1872, 304. 1. 13% 
gangue omitted from analysis. 

SiOi.. 



35.40 

FcO, 27.46 



FeO 

H,0 at 106** . . . . 
HsO at red heat. 



12.53 

14.30 

9.89 

99.58 



Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine. 



TITANO-SILICATR 



TiTANlTB 



MlCROLITS 

Fergusonitb 
coltjmbits 
Samarskits 
euxenite 



CaTiSiOi 

COLUMBATES, TANTALATES 

CajTaaOy 

(Y, Er, Ce) (Cb, Ta)©* 

(Fe, Mn)Cb,0« 

R4(Cb, Ta),OT 

RsCCbO,), . RiCTiOa), . V«H,0 

[R = V.(Y, Ce), Vt(UO. ThO, Fe, Ca)] 



Monoclinic 



Isometric 

Tetragonal 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhomic 

Orthorhombic 



TITANITE 

CaTiSiOe Monoclinic 

Color: Yellow, green, gray, brown, black. Streak: white. Transparent to opaque. 
Luster: adamantine to resinous. Form: wedge-shaped crystals, often twinned. H — 5-5.5. 
Sp. gr, 3.4m3.56. 

Crystallography; Monoclinic; a :b :c = 0.7547 :1 :0.8540; jS = 119*43'. 

Po:qo:ro = 1.1316 : 0.7417 : 1; m = 60**17'. 
Common forms: c (001), m (110), n (111), a (100), x (102), and / (112). Habit: tabular parallel 
to c; prismatic by the extension of tn. Twins common, twin-plane a, contact and cruciform 
penetration twins. Cleavage: m distinct, a and / imperfect. 

Composition: CaTiSiO*; SiOs 30,6, TiO« 40.8, CaO 28.6, = 100. Fe is usually present, 
and sometimes Mn. 

Synonym: sphene. 

Analyses: A-B. Tioga station, Philadelphia. Liver brown crystals in hornblende. 
Genth, Second Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep., C6, 1881, 130. C. Two miles from Hosensack Station. 
Lehigh County. Dark brown crystals. Smith and Knerr, 1885, 412. 



130 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

ABC 

SiO» 30.60 (31.36) 34.87 

TiOj 37.23 37.02 43.41 

A1,0, 0.67 0.47 

FeO 0.90 0.90 

MnO tr. tr. 

MgO 0.24 tr. 

CaO 29.60 29.38 21.75 

Ignition 0.99 0.87 

100.13 (100.00) 100.03 
Sp. gr 3.596 3.45 

Localities: Berks County: two miles north of Jones mine; Dale, and Ranch's mine 
(Huff Church); Bucks County: Neshaminy Falls, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: 
Black Horse, Burnett's quarry. Cloud's farm (Kennett, yellow), Coventryville, London Grove, 
Nevin's quarry, Osbom Hill, Pierce's Paper Mill (Kennett, yellow), and Pughtownj Delaware 
County: Avondale, Boothwyn (yellow and green, transparent crystals up to 2.5 cm.) ; Darby, 
Leiperville, Morton (Mullen's quarries, yellowish green transparent, twinned crystals, from 
2,5 to 8 cm. long); Lehigh County: near Hosensack Station; Montgomery County: Pencoyd; 
Northampton County: Campbell's Hump, and Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Chestnut Hill, 
Fairmount Park, Frankford, Germantown, O'Neill's quarry, Overbrook, Rittenhouse quarry, 
Tioga, Wingohocking Creek, and Wissahickon Valley. 

MICROLITE 

CajTa207 Isometric 

Color: pale yellow to brown. Luster: resinous. Translucent to opaque. Form: oc- 
tahedral crystals, usually very minute. Brittle. H == 5.5. Sp. gr. 5.4-6.1. 

Composition: Ca2Ta207, but containing F many of the rare earth metals. 
Locai«ity: Delaware County: Mineral Hill. 

FERGUSONITE 

(Y, Er, Ce)(Cb, Ta)04 Tetragonal 

Color: brownish black, liver brown, streak: pale brown. Sub translucent to opaque. 
Luster: vitreous or submetallic, externally dull. Form: imbedded grains of masses. Frac- 
ture: subconchoidal. H = 5.5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 5.80-5.84, diminishing to 4.3 when 
much hydra ted. 

Locality : Delaware County: Mineral Hill. 

COLUMBITE 

(Fe, Mn)Cbi06 Orthorhombic 

Color: iron-black, brownish-black; frequently irridescent. Streak: dark red to black. 
Opaque. Luster: submetallic; subresinous. Form: short prismatic crystals, groups of parallel 
individuals; massive. H = 6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 5.3-7.3. 

Crystallography : Orthorhombic ; a : b : c = . 4023 : 1 : . 3580. 

po:qo:ro = 0.8899:0.3580:1. 
Forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), g (110), m (130), z (150), e (201), u (111), n (211), fi (121), and 
(412)? (Genth, 1889, 50; Smith, 1919, 121). Habit: short prismatic; thin tabular parallel 
to b. Twins common, twin-plane e (201), contact type, usually heart-shaped. Cleavage: b 
distinct, a less so. Fractiu-e: subconchoidal to uneven. 

Composition: (Fe, Mn)Cbi06, passing into tantalite (Fe, Mn)Tai06. Fe and Mn vary 
widely, Sn and W usually present. For FeCb,0«, CbiOj 82.7, FeO 17.3, = 100. Where the Fe 
is largely replaced by Mn, the names manganocolumbite or mangano tantalite are given. 

Analyses: Mineral Hill, Middletown, Delaware County. Crystalline mass, iron black; 
brownish-black to reddish-brown on the surface. Sp. gr. 5.262-5.259. Genth, 1889, 52. A. 
Purest. B. Less pure. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAI/)GY OF PENNSYI^VANIA 



131 





78 79 

Figs. 78-79. Columbite; 78, Boothwyn, Delaware County 
(Smith); 79, Mineral Hill, Delaware County (Washingion; Genth). 



A 

CbaOe 76.26 

Tas05 0.83 

SnOa 0.16 

ZrOj 0.67 

WOs? tr. 

UO, 0.18 

CeaOs, etc 0.34 

YaOj, etc 1.78 

FeO 7.65 

MnO 11.29 

MgO 0.07 

CaO 0.66 

Ignition 0.33 



B 

76.64 

0.83 

n.det. 

0.62 



0.18 
0.48 
3.00 
6.95 
10.25 
0.25 
0.66 
n.det. 



100.22 99.76 

Localities: Chester County: Nevin's quarry (London Britain) ; Delaware County: Avon- 
dale, Black Horse, Boothwyn (black prismatic crystals, 4X2 cm.). Mineral Hill (black prismatic 
crystals measuring 2.5-1.5 cm.), and Morton; Philadelphia: On Broad Street, at Duncannon 
Avenue, and at Olney Avenue. 

SAMARSEITE 

R4(Cb, Ta)207 Orthorhombic 

Color: velvet black. Streak: dark reddish -brown. Nearly opaque. Luster: 

resinous, splendent. Form: flattened imbedded grains; rarely in rough crystals 

conchoidal. H = 5-6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 5.6-5.8. 

Composition: R4(Cb,Ta)»07; R = Vs (Y, Ce), 'A (UO, ThO.Fe, Ca). 
Localities: Delaware County: Boothwjrn, and Mineral Hill. 



vitreous to 
Fracture : 



EUXENITE 



Rt(CbO»)i . Rs(Ti08)i . ViH»0 Orthorhoiibic 

Color: brownish-black. Streak: yellowish to reddish-brown. Nearly opaque. 



Luster: 



DBSCRIPTIVS HINBRALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

greasy. Form: massive; prismatic crystals. H^S.S. Brittle. 



brilliant, metallic, 
Sp.gT. 4.60-4.99 

Crystallography; Orthorhombic; a:b:c - 0. 
pii:qg:r» - 



^2ai^ 



Figs. 80-W. Euienitc, Morton, Dela- 
ware County (Lour). 

Forms: a (100), b (010), m (110), <i (201), and /. (Ill); (Johnson's quarry)." Habit: 
prismatic. Cleavage none. Fracture: subconchoidal. 

Composition: R,(CbO,),.R,(TiO,), V.H.O; R = '/.(Y, Er), Vi (UO, ThO, Fe, Ca). 
Other rare earths, and germanium are present. 

LocAUTV: Deiaware County: Morton. 



PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES, EJC. 
Xenotdib 
monazitb 
Apatitb 



Pykomorphitb 

MlMBTITB 

Vavadinitb 

LiBBTHGNtTX 

Descloizitb 

pssudomalachitb 

Vivian iTB 

Ervthutb 

scoroditb 

Strbngite 

Wavbllitb 

csruloolactitb 

Cacoxsnitb 

Bbkaunitb 

torbbrnitb 

AuTUNITB 

Carnotits 



YPO, 

(Ce, La. Di)P04 

(CaF)Ca4(PO.}, 

(CaCl)Ca.(P0.1, 

(PbCl)Pb.(PO.)i 

(PbCI)Pb,(AsO0i 

(PbCl)Pb,(V04). 

Cu,(0H)P04 

(Pb, Zn),(OH)VO, 

Cu,(OH),PO, 

Fe,{PO,),.8H,0 

Co.(AsO,)i.8H^ 

FeAsOt.2H,0 

FeP0,.2H,0 

AI.(QH, F),(POJ,-5Hrf) 

A1.(OH).(PO.)4.7H,0 

Fe4(OH),(PO0,.9H,O 

Fe,(OH),(P04)4.5H,0 

Cu(UO,).(PO.)..8H,0 

CatU0,),<P0,),.8H,0 

(Ca, K,)(U0,),{V0.),.3H,0 



Tetragonal 
Monoclinic 
Hexagonal 



Hexagonal 

Hexagonal 

Hexagonal 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

MooodinicP 

Monoclinic 

Tetragonal 

Orthorhombic 



DBSCRIPTIVB BONBRALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



133 




tn 



XSNOTIME 

YPO4 TETRAGONAL 

Color: yellow or brown. Luster: resinous or vitreous. Opaque. Form: small tetra- 
gonal prismatic crystals resembling zircon. Brittle. H = 4-5. Sp. gr. 4.45-4.56. 

Composition: YPO4; YjOj 61 .4, PaOs 38.6,-100, Y is replaced in part by Br; Ce may 
l>e present. 

LocALiTiBs: Delaware County: Boothwyn; Philadelphia: on Broad Street, at Dtmcannon 
Avenue, and at Olney Avenue. The above determinations were based on measurements of angles 
but the crystal faces were curved, and it is probable that the mineral listed above was cyrtolite.^ 

MOHAZITE 

(Ce, La, Di)P04 Monoclikic 

Color: red, yellowish- to reddish-brown. Subtransparent to 
subtranslucent. Luster : resinous. Form : prismatic or tabular crystals ; 
rolled grains. H = 5-5.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 4.9-5.3. 
Crystallography : Monoclinic ; 

a:b:c = 0.9693: 1:0.9256; ^3 = 103M0'. 
Po:qo:ro = 0.9549:0.8994:1;/* = 7B**20'. 
Forms: a (100), b (010), m (110), e (Oil), w (101), x (101), and v 
(111) (Wherry, 1919, 123). Twins common; twin-plane a. Habit: 
tabular parallel to fl, 01 prismatic. Cleavage: c (parting?), also o. 
Fracture: conchoidal, uneven. 

LocALiTiBS : Delaware County: Boothwyn (brown, translucent pig. 85. M o n a z i t e, 
xa-ystals, often twinned, measuring up to 2.5 X 2.5 X 1 cm. ) , and Morgan Boothwyn, Delaware 
Station. County (Wherry). 

APATITE 

(CaF)Ca4(P04), Hexagonal 

(CaCl)Ca4(P04)» 

Color: green, blue, white, yellow, gray, red, brown. Streak: white. Transparent to 
opaque. Luster: vitreous, subresinous. Form: hexagonal prisms; columnar masses; granular. 
H = 5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 3 . 17-i3 . 23. 

Crystallography: Hexagonal; c = 1.2708; po = 0.8472. Common forms: m (1010), 
c (0001), p (lOTl). Habit long or short prismatic; tabular. Cleavage: c and m imperfect. 
Fracture: conchoidal, uneven. 

Composition: Fluor-apaUte: (CaF)Ca4(P04)j; CaO 55.5, PjOs 42.3, F 3.8, = 101.6. 
Chlor-apatite: (CaCl)Ca4(P04)a; CaO 53.8, PtO» 41.0, CI 6.8, = 101.6. 

Synaayms: asparagus-stone, moroxite. 

Analyses: A. McKinney's quarry, Germantown, Philadelphia. Light green, in pink 




P,0» 41.15 



F 

CI 

CO, 

CaO 

MgO 

FeO 

A1,0, 

FejOa. . . . 
Na,0. . . . 

KjO 

SiO, 

Insoluble. 



3.35 



54.15 



0.10 
0.42 
0.07 
0.33 

0.09 



B 

41.55 
1.95 
0.94 
1.42 

53.97 

tr. 

0.73 



CatPiOg 89.74 



0.25 



FejPjOg. 
CaF,. . . 
CaCU . . 
CaCO,. 
Fe20i. . . 
SiO,. . . . 



99.66 100.81 
Sp.gr 3.166 

■ Edgar T. Wherry, oral commuizication. 



1.14 
4.00 
1.57 
3.22 
0.04 
0.25 

99.96 



134 DESCRIPTIVE MINERAU)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

microcltne. Gyerman, 1911, tS. B. London Grove, Chester County. Asparagus green, 
transparent prismatic crystals, externally coated ivith an opaque yellowish- white material. 
Camot, 1896, 145. C. London Grove, Chester County. B recalculated. Camot. 1896, 145; 
An old analysis by Seybert, 1821, 144, is omitted. 

LocALiTias: Berks County: Jones mine, and Ruth mine; Bucks County: Vanartsdalen's 
quarry; Chester County: Avondale (transparent green crystals and masses); south of Bailey'& 
farm (East Marlboro), Black Horse, Brinton's quarry. Brown's quarry, Copesville, Corunduin 
Hill, Doe Run quarries, Minorcus HiU, Nevin's quarry, and south of Phillips quarries; Sylmar; 
Delaware County: Adele, Avondale, Blue Hill, Boothnyn, Chelsea, Custer's farm (Darby), 
Green's farm (Chester), Franklin Paper Mills. Leiperville, Morgan Station, Morton, Strath Haven 
Inn, Trainer, and Ward's quarry; Montgomery County: Plat Rock tunnel, and Gladwyne; 
Philadrlphia: Bu.fUeton, Chestnut Hill, Cobb's Creek, Fairmount Park, Foi Chase, Prankford, 
Gerinantown, Holmesbutg, Logan. Nicetown, O'Neill's quarry, Overbrook, Prince's quarry, 
Rittenhouse quarry (bluish-green, rough crystals up to 5 X30cm.),Shawmont, West Philadelphia, 
and Wissahickon Valley. 

PYROUORPHITB 

(PbCI)Pb,(PO0, Hexaconai, 

Color: light green to dark olive-green; greenish- yellow; brown. Streak: 
white. Subtransparent to translucent. Luster: resinous. Form: hexagonal 
prisms, often barrel-shaped; parallel groups; adcular, globular, reniform, 
botryoidal; fibrous; granular. H = 3.6-^ Brittle. Sp. gr. 6.5-7, 1, when 
pure; 5.9-6.-5 whencontainingCaO. 

Crystallography: Hexagonal; c — 1 275, pe - 8500. Forms: c 
(0001), m (lOlO), a (U50), x (lOll), y (2021), » (4041), and s (ll2l). 
Cleavage; m, x in traces. Fracture: subconchoidal; uneven. 

Composiuon: (PbCl)Pb,(PO,),; PbO 82.2, P^t 15.7. CI 2.6, - 100.5. 
P may be replaced by As. and Pb by Ca. 
"^ Analyses: A. Whcatley Mine, Chester County. Eycrman, 1911, 19. 

Fig. 86. Pyro- b. WheaUey Mine, Chester County, Green, granular. Genth, 1876, 228. 

morphite, analysis by Henry Pemberton, Jr. 
Wheatley mines 
iDana). 



PbO.. 
CaO,, 
FeO.., 
Cr.0,. 



Pb,Prf>i 

PbCU 

Cr,0, 


... 90,35 
©11 






Quartz 


0.26 
100.47 



LocALiTiBs: Bucks County: New Galena; Chester County: Charlestown mine, Morri* 
mine, and Wheatley mines; Montgomery County: Hcton and Perklomen mines, and Sunmey- 
town; PhUadelphia: Falls of Schuylkill. 

HIHETITE 
(PbCl)Pb,(AsOJ. HaxACoyAi, 

Colorless, pale yellow, orange-yellow. Streak: white. Subtransparent to translucent. 
Luster: resinous. Ponn: hexagonal prisms, acicular, sometimes globular or mammillary. 
H - 3.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 7 .0-7 .25. 

Crystallography: Henagonal: c =■ 1.260, po ■= 0.8400. Forms: c (0001), m (1010), 
b(IISO), *(10ll). Cleavage: « imperfect. Fracture uneven. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 135 

Composition: (PbCl)Pb4(As04)8; PbO 74.9, AS2O5 23.2, CI 2.4, « 100.5. P may re- 
place As, and Ca may replace Pb. 

Analysis: Wheatley Mine, Chester County. Lemon-yellow. Smith, 1855, 248. 

AstOi 23.17 

PsOi 0.14 

CI 2.39 

PbO 67.05 

Pb 6.99 

99.74 
Sp.gr 7.32 

Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines; Montgomery County: Perkiomen mine. 

VANADINITE 

(PbCl)Pb4(V04)j Hexagonal 

Color: ruby-red, yellow and brown. Streak: white or yellowish. Luster: resinous. 
Subtranslucent to opaque. Form : hexagonal prismatic crystals, often in rounded forms or paral- 
lel groups; individual crystals are sometimes cavernous. H — 2.75-3. Sp. gr. 6.66-7.23. 
Composition: PbO 78.7, CI. 2.5, VsOs 19.4, « 100. 
Locality: Chester County: Wheatley mines. 

LIBETHENITE 

Cu2(OH)P04 Orthorhombic 

Color: dark olive-green. Translucent. Luster: resinous. Form: druses of minute 
crystals; also massive, reniform. H = 4. Sp. gr. 3.6-3.8. 
Composition: CuO 66.4, PjOs 29.8, H2O 3.8, = 100. 
Locality: Montgomery County: Perkiomen mine. 

DESCLOIZITE 

(Pb, Zn)f(0H)V04 Orthorhombic 

Color: cherry-red, brownish-red, or brown. Streak: orange, brownish-red, yellowish-gray. 
Transparent to nearly opaque. Luster: greasy. Form: drusy surfaces or stalactitic aggrega- 
tions of minute prismatic or pyramidal crystals. H == 3.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 5 .9-6.2. 

Composition: (Pb, Zn),(0H)V04; with Pb:Zn = 1:1, PbO 55.4, ZnO 19.7, VjOj 22.7, 
HsO 2.2, — 100. Cu is sometimes present, and As may replace V. 

Analysis: Wheatley mine, Chester County. Dark colored crystalline crusts on quartz and 
ferruginous day with wulfenite. Imperfect analysis of a mixture. Smith, 1855, 247. 

A 

V,Os 11.70 

M0O3 20.14 

PbO 65.01 

^t?,'^»« • 1 5.90 

AljOs J 

CuO 1.13 

H,0 2.94 

Sand 2.21 



99.03 

Locality: Chester County: Wheatley mines: dark colored crystalline crusts of minute 
purple crystals. 

PSEUDOMALACHITE 

Cu»(OH)4(P04)a MONOCLINIC 

Color: dark emerald-green, blackish-green. Streak: paler green. Luster: vitreous. 
Form: massive, reniform, botryoidal coatings with a radiating fibrous structure, H — 4.5-^. 
Sp. gr. 3.4-4.4. 



136 DESCRIPTIVE BONBRALOGY OF PENNSYI<VANIA 

Composition: Ciu(OH)4(P04)i; CuO 69.0, PiOj 24.7, HiO 6.3 = 100. 
Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines; Montgomery County: Ecton, and Perkiomen 
mines. 

VIVIANITE 

Fe«(P04)s . 8 H«0 Monoclinic 

Colorless when uialtered; blue or green on exposure. Streak: colorless to bluish-white, 
becoming indigo blue. Transparent to translucent; opaque after exposure. Luster: b pearly, 
elsewhere, vitreous. Form: prismatic crystals, often in stellate groups; fibrous, earthy, en- 
crusting. H = 1.5-2. Sectile. Sp. gr. 2.68-2.68. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic: a :b :c « 0.7498 :1 : 0.7017; fi « 104*26'. 

po :qo :ro = 0.9368 :0.6795 :1; ja = 76^34'. 
Forms: a (100), b (010), m (110), y (310), » (101), ic (111), z (112), r (112), w (101), v (Til). 
Habit: prismatic, prismatic faces vertically striated. Cleavage: ( highly perfect; a in traces. 
Fracture: fibrous, nearly -^c. Flexible in very thin laminae. 

Composition: Fe«(P04)i.8HjO; FeO 43.0, Pi08 28.3, H2O28.7, = 100. . FeO is oxidized 
to Fe208 on exposure to light. 

Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine; colorless or greenish slender prismatic 
crystals. 

ERTTHRITE 

Cos(As04)t . 8 HsO MoNOCtiNic 

Color: peach-red to crimson. Streak: paler. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: 

pearly, vitreous; dull, earthy. Form: pulverulent, incrusting; prismatic crystab; druses. 

H = 1.6-2.6. Sp.gr. 2.948. 

Composition: Coj(As04)«.8HiO; CoO 37.6, AsiO* 38.4, H|0 24.1, = 100. Ni, Fe, or 

Ca may replace Co. 

Localities: Berks County: Gickerville. Chester County: Wheatley mines, and French 

Creek mines. 

SCORODITE 

PeAs04 . 2HtO Orthorhomic 

Color: pale green to brown. Subtransparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 

aggregates of crystals of octahedral habit; also earthy, incrusting. H — 3.6-4. Brittle. Sp. 

gr. 3.1-3.3. 

Co;nposition: FcaOi 34.6, AsiO* 49.8, HjO 16.6, « 100. 
Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine. 

STRENGITE 
FeP04 . 2H|0 Orthorhombic 

Colorless, yellow; peach-blossom red. Streak: yellowish- white. Translucent to trans- 
parent. Form: spherical or botryoidal aggregates with radiating fibrous structure and drusy 
surface; rarely in distinct crystals. H = 3-4. Sp. gr. 2.87. 

Composition: FeP04.2 H,0; Fe«0, 42.7, PjO. 38.0, HtO 19.3, = 100. 
Localities: Cumberland County: Moore's Mill; Lancaster County: Beartown. 

WAVELLITE 

AU(OH, F),(P04)s . 6HtO / Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, yellow, green. Streak: white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous, pearly, or resinous. Form: minute prismatic oystals, usually in radiating aggregates 
or druses; hemispherical or globular aggregates with a radiating structure and oystalline surface. 
H " 3.26HI. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.337, 2.316. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic ;» a :b :c = 0.6620 :1 : 0.4067. 

Po :qo :ro = 0.7366 :0.4067 :1. 

* Ungemach gave for Moore's Mill, Cumberland County; and Wherry, for Hellertown, Northampton 
County: 

a : b : c - 0.5577 : 1 : 0.4057 (Ungemach). 
a : b : c - 0.5640 : 1 : 0.4040 (Wherry). 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUJGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Fonns: a (100). fi (010), m (110), / (430), « (340), t. (320), h (310). i (101).^ (Ill),o(121) 
Habit; priamatic. Cleavage: ^ and A perfect. Fracture; uneven, subconchoidal. 



! ' 
V 

''II 



III 



'mm 



Fig. 87. Wavellite, Moore's Mill, Cumberland County (Ungernack) . 
Fig. 88. Wavellite, Hellertown, Northampton County (Wkerry). 

Analyses; A. General Trimble's mine. East Whiteland, Chester County. Genth, 1867, 
423. Stalactitic variety. B. General Trimble's mine, Chester County. Less pure variety. 
Herauum, 1869, 4B6. C. Hellertown, Northampton County, Adcular crystals on sandstone. 
Wherry, 1918, 380, analysis by Frederick Wynkoop. F too low. a - 1.525, (J = 1.636. 
y " 1.550, all ^ 0.005. D. Jacob Stine's farm, 2 miles south of Macungie, tebjgh County. 
White, colorless radiations on limonite. Smith and Thomas, 1882, 231. E-F. Jacob Stine's 
form. Upper Milford. Lehigh County. Nodular day-like forms accompanying the wavellite; 
E. Light variety. F. Dark variety. Smith, 1883, 274, 



P^, 34.68 32.70 33.4 34.14 19.19 22.52 

P tr. tr. 0.8 tr. 

AljO, 36.67 35.83 36.5 38.66 23.19 39.37 

Fe.0, 3 .08 — - 3 .82 15 .61 - 

MgO. CaO ^— 1 .47 

SiOi 32.42 6.52 

H,0 28.29 28,39 28,6 28,32 19 .37 26.29 

Impurities 0,22 1.1 0,60 

99.86 100.00 100.4 99.72 99.46 100.31 

LessO - F 0.3 

Total 100. 1 

Sp.gr 2.30 2.326 2.5 2.40 

LocAUTisa: Berks County: Blandon; Chtsler County: General Trimble's mine (But 
Whiteland); Cumberland County: Moore's Mill (nodular; white radiations; colorless crystals 



138 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

measuring 1 mm. in diameter) ; Huntingdon County: Sandy Ridge near Orbisonia; Juniata County: 
Ross farm (green, radiating nodules on Oriskany sandstone); Lancaster County: Chestnut Hill; 
Lehigh County: Macungie; Northampton County: Hellertown (small acicular crystals in diver- 
gent groups); Perry County: New Bloomfield (minute crystals in GypidtUa galeata). York 
County: Peachbottom (small grayish-white spherical and radiating aggregates). 

CERULEOLACTITE 

Al6(OH)6(P04)4 . 7HsO ORTHORHOBfBIC 

Color: white to light-blue. Streak white. Translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 
botryoidal aggregates of microscopic crystals of tabular habit in parallel position. H « 5. 
Sp. gr. 2.562-2.593. 

Composition: Al6(OH)e (POOi.THjO; AUO, 39.7, PjOs 36.9, H,0 23.4, = 100. F 
probably replaces (OH), this would account for the high summation in Genth's analysis. 

Analysis: General Trimble's mine. East Whiteland, Chester County. Pale bluish, green- 
ish-blue to sky-blue, cryptocrystalline, botryoidal coatings. Genth, 1875, 143. B. Calculated 
from the analysis. 

P«05 

AI2O, 

CuO 

H,0 

Insoluble 

101.07 100.00 
Locality: Chester County: General Trimble's mine (East Whiteland). 

BERAUNITE 

Fe6(OH)«(P04)4 . 5HjO Monoclinic 

Color: reddish-brown to dark hyacinth-red. Streak: yellow. Translucent. Luster: 
vitreous; pearly. Form*, druses of minute crystals; fibrous, radiating crusts or globules. H = 2. 
Sp. gr. 2.85-2.98. 

Optical Properties:*^ Beraunite from Hellertown: a and /3 = 1.78, 7 = 1.81; Ex- 
tinction straight; elongation parallel to 5,-. 

Composition. Fe«(OH)« (P04)4.5HsO; FcOa 52.8, PjO. 31.3, HjO 15.9, = 100. 

Analyses : Hellertown, Northampton County. Deep brown nodular crusts and flat radia- 
tions. Wherry, 1915, 508. A. by J. S. Long; B. by Louis H. Koch; C-D. by Wherry; E. 
average; F. recalculated analysis. Sp. gr. 2.850-2.920. 

A B 

P2O4 28.10 29.27 

FejOa 42.91 52.65 

MmOa 15.25 3.88 

SiOa 4.02 0.71 

H2O 10.01 13.59 



A 


B 


36.31 


37.04 


38.27 


39.34 


4.25 




21 70 


23.62 


0.54 





C 


D 


E 


F 


28.53 


27.43 


28.33 


28.71 


55.61 
1.80 


57.80 1 
1.66 


> 57.89 


58.69 


0.34 


0.55 


1.41 




13.54 


12.60 


12.43 


12.60 



100.29 100.10 99.82 100.04 100.06 100.00 

Localities: Cumberland County: Moore's Mill, druses of bright red crystals; North- 
ampton County: Hellertown, brown nodular crusts and fiat radiations measuring 1 cm. 

CACOXENITE 

Fe4(OH)6(P04)2 . 9HjO Monoclinic? 

Color: golden-yellow, brownish-yellow. Streak: ochre-yellow. Translucent. Luster: 
silky. Form: radiating tufts of minute prismatic or acicular crystals. H = 3-4. Sp. gr. 
2.4; 3.38. 

Composition: Fe4(OH)e(P04)2.9H20; Fe20« 47.2, P,0. 20.9, H2O 31.9, = 100. 

" Wherry, 1915, 507. 



DlSSCRIPnVB MINBRAIXXJY OP PENNSYLVANIA 139 

Localities: Cumberland County: Moore's Mill (golden yellow aggregates of acicular 
crystals; with beraunite and strengite); Lancaster County: Beartown, and Chestnut Hill; 
Montgomery County: Spring Mill; Northampton County: Hellertown. 

TORBERNITE 

Cu(U02)2(P04)a . 8HjO Tetragonal 

Color: leek-green to emerald-green. Streak: paler. Transparent to subtranslucenl. 
Luster: of c pearly, other faces subadamantine. Form: square tabular crystals, very thin 
plates, foliated, micaceous. Cleavage: c perfect. H = 2-2.5. Laminae brittle. Sp. gr. 3.4- 
3.6. 

Composition. Cu(U02)2(P04)f.8H,0; CuO 8.4, UOj 61.2, PjOe 15.1, H2O 15.3, = 100. 

Localities: Berks County: Trexler mica mine (Alsace); Carbon County: Mauch Chunk? 
Delaware County: Avondale, Crozer's quarry in Chester, and Leiperville; Montgomery County: 
Edge Hill? and Wyncote; Philadelphia: Comley's quarry (Mt. Airy), Fairmoimt Park opposite 
the old Fairmount Water Works, Frankford, McCrea's quarry (Mt. Airy), and Penn Street quarry 
(Germantown). 

AUTUNITE 
Ca(U02)s(P04)2 . 8H2O Orthorhombic 

Color: lemon- to sulphur-yellow. Streak: yellowish. Transparent to translucent. 
Luster: c pearly, other faces subadamantine. Form: thin tabular crystals, nearly square in 
form, foliated aggregates with micaceous structure. Cleavage: c eminent. H = 2-2.5. Lam- 
inae brittle. Sp. gr. 3 . 05-^3 . 19. 

Composition: Ca(U02)2(P04)i.8H20; CaO 6.1, UO3 62.7, PaOs 15.5, H2O 15.7, = 100. 

Localities: Berks County: Trexler mica mine (Alsace); Delaware County: Avondale, 
Bunting's quarry (Bethel), Crozer's quarry in Chester, Dickinson's Mill (Haverford), and Leiper- 
ville; Philadelphia: Broad Street and Olney Avenue, Fairmount Park, and McCrea's quarry 
(Mt. Airy). 

CARNOTITE 

(K2, Ca) (U02)2(V04)8.3H20 Orthorhombic 

Color: yellow. Opaque. Luster: earthy. Form: amorphous to minutely crystalline 
coatings or impregnations. 

Analyses: Mauch Chunk, Carbon County. Bright yellow amorphous to minutely crys- 
talline coatings and impregnations. A. Wherry, 1914, 149; B. Recalculated; C. Wherry, 1912, 
674, analysis by J. S. Long. 

A 

V2O6 9.80 

UO3 31.11 

K2O 3.55 

CaO 0.64 

FejOj 17.68 

H2O 7.13 

Insoluble 29.62 



B 


C 


21.73 


7.2 


68.99 


23.8 


7.86 


(1.6)diff. 


1.42 


1.5 




6.1 




10.5 




49.3 



99.53 100.00 100.0 

Locality: Carbon County: Mauch Chunk, yellow streaks and patches in PottsviUe con- 
glomerate. 

ANTIMONATE 
Bindheimite Amorphous 

NITRATES 

Niter KNOj Orthorhombic 

NiTRICALCITE Ca(N08)2.«H20 

URANATES 

Uraninite UO3 of UO2, ThOj, etc. Isometric 

GuMMiTE (Pb, Ca, Ba)U8SiOi2.5H20 Amorphous 



140 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUXJY OP PENNSYLVANIA 



BINDHEIMITE 



Color: yellow. Luster: usually dull or earthy; also re^nous. 
Form: earthy, incrusting. H = 4. Sp. gr. 4.60-4.76. 

Composition: a hydrous antimonate of lead, probably a colloid. 
Locality: Delaware County: Morton?" 



Opaque to translucent. 



NITER 

KNOs Orthorhombic 

Color and streak : white. Subtransparent. Luster: vitreous. Form: thin crusts, silky 
tufts, of delicate acicular crystals. H = 2. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.09-2.14. 
Composition : KNO3 ; K,0 46.5, NjOj 53.5, « 100. 
Locality: Tioga County: occurs locally as an efflorescence on Pocono sandstone. 

NITROCALCITE 

Ca(NOs)j. «H,0 
Color : white or gray. Form : efflorescent silky tufts and masses. Taste sharp and bitter. 
Localities: Chester County: McNeal's quarry (Doe Rtm); York County: York, and York 



VaUey. 



URANmiTE 



UOi. UO2, THOs, PbO, etc. Isombtric 

Color: velvet-black, brownish. Streak: brownish-black, olive-green. Opaque. Luster: 

submetallic, to greasy, or pitch-like. Form: octahedra, cubo-octahedra; massive, imbedded 

grains, often with an envelope of gummite. Fractiu-e: conchoidal to uneven. H =5.5. 

Brittle. Sp. gr. 9 . 0-9 . 9, crystals ; massive altered varieties : 6.4 and upward. 

Composition: The mineral is considerably altered through radioactive decay, and quite 

frequently in addition by weathering. U0|, UOj, ThOj, PbO, He, metals of the La and Yt 

groups, Ca, Fe and H2O are usually present. 

Localities: Delaware County: Avondale, Crozer's quarry in Chester, near Franklin 

Paper Mills, and Green's farm near Upland ; Lehigh County: Vera Cruz; Philadelphia: Fairmount 

Park opposite the old Fairmount Water Works. 

GUMMITE 
CPb, Ca) UsSiOu . 6H jO Amorphous 

Color: reddish-yellow, orange, red, reddish-brown. Streak: yellow. Feebly translucent, 
l/uster: greasy. Form: rotmded or flattened masses, an alteration product of uraninite, and 
frequently containing an tmaltered core of the latter. H = 2 . 5-3. Sp. gr. 3 . 9-4 , 20. 

Localities: Delaware County: Avondale, Crozer's quarry, Dickinson's Mill (Haverford), 
near Franklin Paper Mills, and Leiperville; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park opposite the old Fair- 
mount Water Works, and McCrea's quarry (Mt. Airy). 



Glauberite 

Barite 

Celestite 

Anglesite 

Anhydrite 

Vauquelinite 

Brochantite 

MiRABILITE 

Gypsum 
Epsomite 
goslarite 
morenosite 



SULFATES 

Na,Ca(S04)i 

BaSOi 

SrSO* 

PbS04 

CaSOi 

2(Pb, Cu)Cr04.(Pb, Cu),(P04)t 

Cu4(OH)«S04 

Na2SO4.10HaO 

CaS04.2H20 

MgS04.7H20 

ZnS04.7H20 

NiS04.7H,0 



Monodinic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 

Orthorhombic 



* Further study of this material indicated the principal constituent to be bismuth and it probably repre< 
sents an impure alteration product of bismuthinite. Edgar T. Wherry, oral communication. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAIX)GY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 



141 



Mbi^antbrits 

BmSBRITB 
CHAJUCANTHfrS 

Kalinits 

Halotrichits 

Aluncxsbn 

Langits 

copiapitb 

Glockbritb 

botryogen 
Uraconite 



FeS04.7H,0 

CoS04.7H,0 

CuS04.6H,0 

KAl(S04)j.l2H,0 

FeAl,(S04)4.24H,0 

Alj(S04)j.l2H20 

Cu4(OH)«S04.H,0 

Fe4(OH),(S04)5.17H,0 

acFeiOi, ySO,, »H,0 
n m 

MgFeFetS40i7.18H,0 



Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Triclinic 

Isometric 

Monoclinic 

Monoclinic 

Orthorhombric 

Monoclinic 

Amorphous 

Monoclinic 



GLAUBERITE 

NajCa(S04)f Monoclinic 

Color: pale yellow or gray. Luster: vitreous. Form: pyramidal or prismatic crystals. 
H = 2.5-3. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.7-2.85. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic; a :b :c = 1.2199 :1 :1.0275; /? = 112**11' 

po :qo :ro = 0.8423 :0.9514 :1; m « 67*49' 
Forms: a (100), c (001), m (110), 5(111). Cleavage: c perfect. 

Composition: Na2Ca(S04)j; CaO 20.1, NajO 22.3, Sd 67.6, = 100. 

Localities: The mineral is only known in Pennsylvania as crystal cavities from which 
the glauberite has been leached, and as casts, in the Triassic shales at the following localities: 
Adams County: Bermudian Churches, Goldenville, and Mummasburg; Bucks County: Mt. 
Eyre, and Steinsburg. 

BARITE 

BaS04 Orthorhoscbic 

Colorless, white, yellow, gray, blue, red, brown. Streak : white. Transparent to opaque. 
Luster: vitreous, inclining to resinous. Form: tabular or prismatic crystals; fibrous, laminated, 
or granular masses. H = 2.5--3.6. Brittle. Sp. gr. 4.3-4.6. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a :b :c « 0.8152 :1 : 1.3136. 

Po :qo :ro = 1.6114 :1.3136 :1. 
Common forms: c (001), m (110), d (102), o (Oil). Habit: tabular parallel to c, prismatic 
parallel to the b or c axis. Cleavage: c, m, perfect; h imperfect. Fracture: uneven. 

Composition: BaS04; BaO 65.7, SOs 34.3, « 100. 

Analyses: McCreath, 1879, 369. A-B. Silas Locke's farm, V« mile northeast of Fort 
Littleton, Fulton County. Bluish-gray, massive granular. C. Col. Galbraith's farm. Sinking 
Valley, Blair County. Reddish-gray. D-E. Christian Shockey's farm, 2Vs miles south of 
Waynesboro, Franklin County. White to bluish-gray, granular and columnar radiating masses. 

A 

BaS04 95.22 

SrS04 none 

J^t:.::::::::.::::::: {«^« 

MnO 0.05 

CaO 0.59 

MgO 0.18 

. COi 0.65 

H,0 0.23 

SiOa 2.45 



B 


C 


D 


E 


96.91 


97.08 


95.91 


98.65 


none 


none 


none 


none 



0.31 0.76 



tr. 
tr. 

0.08 
2.35 



tr. 

0.32 

1.74 



0.24 

0.17 
0.11 

0.09 
2.80 



0.14 

tr. 
tr. 

0.20 
1.11 



99.75 99.65 99.90 99.32 100.10 

Localities: Beaver County: New Brighton; Bedford County: Bridgeport; Berks County: 
Bemville, Mt. Etna, and Heidelberg township (brownish, fetid, columnar and radiating masses) ; 
Blair County: Sinking Valley; Bucks County: Buckingham, Buckmanville, Bushington, and Fin- 



142 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

< 

ney's quarry; Chester County: Jug Hollow mine, Morris mine, and Wheatley mines; Franklin 
County: Guilford Springs, Knepper, Lancaster Station, Roadside, and Waynesboro; Fulton 
County: Fort Littleton; Huntingdon County: Broad Top Mountain, and Sandy Ridge near 
Orbisonia; Montgomery County: Ecton and Perkiomen mines, Marble Hall, and Mogeetown; 
Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry; York County: York Valley. 



CELESTITE 

SrS04 Orthorhombic 

Color: white, light blue, red. Streak: white. Transparent to subtranslucent. Luster: 
vitreous, sometimes pearly. Form: fibrous masses, radiated, granular; tabular or prismatic 
crystals. H = 3-3 . 5. Sp. gr. 3 . 95-3 . 97. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a :b :c -0.7811 :1 : 1.2830. 

Po :qo :ro = 1.6426 : 1.2830 : 1. 
Common forms: a (100), b (010), c (001), m (110), d (101), and o (Oil). Cleavage: c perfect, m 
less so, b distinct. 

Composition; SrS04; SrO 56 . 4, SOs 43 . 6, « 100. 

Analysis: Bellwood, Blair County. Pale grayish-blue, fibrous. Klaproth, 1797, 92. 
The analysis is here inserted because of its historic interest. 

Strontia 42 

Stdphtu-ic acid 58 



100 



Locality: Blair County: Bellwood'* (pale blue fibrous layers); and Williamsburg 
(faintly bltush crystals measuring 2 cm. in length) ; Northampton County: Chestnut Hill? 

ANGLESITE 

PbSOi Orthorhombic 

Colorless, white, yellowish, gray, green-blue. Streak: uncolored. Transparent to Opaque. 
Luster: adamantine, resinous, or vitreous. Form: prismatic or tabular crystals; massive, 
granular. H = 2.75-^. Brittle. Sp. gr. 6.12-6.39. 

Crystallography: Orthorhombic; a :b :c = 0.7852 :1 : 1.2894. 

Po :qo :ro = 1.6421 : 1.2894 : 1. 
Forms:a(100),&(010),c(001);m,M(110),»(120),(i(102),/(104),o(011),«(lll),r(112).ir(212). 
/ (121), y (122), p (324), x (441), Wheatley mines.*' Habit: prismatic, tabular parallel to c, or 
pyramidal. Faces m, and a often vertically striated, d horizontally. Cleavage: c distinct. 
Fracture: conchoidal. 

Composition: PbSOi; PbO 73.6, SOs 26.4, = 100. 

Analysis: Wheatley mine, Chester County. Colorless, transparent crystals. Sp. gr. 
6.35. Smith, 1855,244. 

SO, 

PbO 

SiOa 

100.29 98.83 

• 

Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines (colorless, occasionally black, green or yellow; 
pyramidal, tabular, or prismatic crystals up to half pound in weight, and measuring 13.5X3.5 
cm., in cavities in galena, with limonite, and often sulfur and copper) ; Lancaster County: Pequa 
mines; Montgomery County: Ecton and Perkiomen mines. 

M Bellwood is the type locality for celestite. The mineral was collected by a German traveller, SchQtz, in 
1791. The analysis quoted above was made by Klaproth from this material, who found in it the then newly dis- 
covered element strontium. Werner named the mineral "Coclestin" because of the faintly blue color of the 
mineral. 

M Smith, 1855, 244; Dana, 1854, 420; Lang. 1859, 282, 286, and 292; Dufrenoy. 1856. plate 103, fig. 313. 



A 


B 


26.78 


26.61 


73.31 


73.22 


0.20 





DESCRIPTIVE MINBRAU)GY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



143 





89 



90 





91 



92 




93 




94 






95 



96 



97 





98 99 

Figs. 89-99. Anglesite, Wheatley mines (89-93, 95-97, 99, Lang; 
98, Schrauj; 94, Dana). 



144 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUXJY OF PENNSYLVANIA 






100 



101 





102 



103 





104 



105 




106 




107 




108 

Figs. 100-108. Anglesitc, Wheatley mines; (103, 105-107, Lang; 
101, Sckrauf; 104, Dufrenoy; 100, 102, Dana). 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 145 

ANHYDRTTB 

CaS04 Orthorhohbic 

Color: white, grayish, bluish, or reddish. Streak: grayish- white; Luster: c pearly, a 
greasy, and 6 Vitreous. Transparent to translucent. Form: cleavage masses; granular, fibrous, 
or lamellar; rarely in tabular crystals. Cleavage: parallel to the three pinacoids, perfect. H 
= 3-3.5. Sp. gr. 2.90-2.98. 

Composition: CaS04; CaO 41.2, Sd 68.8, = 100. 
Locauty: Blair County: Bellwood. 

VAnQUELXNITE 

2(Pb, Cu)Cr04. (Pb, Cu),(P04)j Monoclinic 

Color: green or brownish. Luster: adamantine to resinous. Faintly translucent to 
opaque. Form: minute wedge-shaped crystals, usually in mammiUary or botryoidal aggregates. 
H = 2.5-3. Sp.gr. 5.8-6.1. 

Composition: PbO 69.5, CuO 4.9, CrO, 15.0, PtOj 10.6, » 100. 

Locality: Lancaster County: Pequa mines? (minute green crystals with acute termina- 
tions, in radiating aggregates on quartz and galena). 

BROCHANTITE 

CU4(OH)6S04 ORTHORHOliBIC 

Color: emerald or blackish-green. Streak: pale green. Transparent to translucent. 
Luster: vitreous. Form: acicular crystals, drusy crusts, massive, reniform. H « 3.5-^. 
Sp.gr. 3.907. 

Composition: Cu4(OH)6S04; CuO 70.3, SOs, 17.7, HiO 12.0, = 100. 

Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall; dark emerald-green or blackish-green acicular 
crystals and druses. 

MIRABILITE 

Na2S04 . lOHiO MoNOCLiNic 

Color: white. Transparent to opaque. Luster: vitreous. Form: efflorescent crusts. 

Taste cool, then feebly saline and bitter. H = 1 . 5-2. Sp. gr. 1 . 481. 

Composition: Na2S04. IOH2O; Na20 19.3, SOa 24.8, H2O 55 9, « 100. 

Localities: Occurs as efflorescences on Wissahickon gneiss in Delaware County: Chester; 

and Philadelphia: West Philadelphia.". 

GYPSUM 
CaS04.2H20 MoNOCLiNic 

Colorless, white, gray, yellow, blue. Streak: white. Transparent to opaque. Luster: b 
pearly, other faces subvitreotis. Form: prismatic or acicular crystals, often radiating; lamellar 
or granular masses. H = 1.5-2. Sp. gr. 2.314-2.328. 

Crystallography: Monoclinic; a:b:c = 0.6895:1 : 0.4133; /? = 98*58'. 

Po:qo:ro = 0.5994:0.4083:1;/* = 8^02'. 
Common forms: m (110), b (010), I (111), n (111). Twins common, twin-plane a, contact 
twins. Habit: flattened parallel to b, prismatic or acicular parallel to the c axis. Cleavage: 
b eminent; also a, n, and t (lOl). 

Composition: CaS04.2HaO; Ca032.5,SO,46.6, H2O2O.9, = 100. 

Synonym: selenite. 

Localities: Berks County: Jones mine, and North Reading; Bucks County: Finney's 
quarry, and Vanartsdalen's quarry; Chester County: French Creek mines, and Wheatley mines; 
Delaware County: Darby; Lebanon County: Cornwall (acicular crystals, often enclosing copper); 
Northampton County: Chestnut Hill; York County: Spring Grove, and York Valley. 

EPSOMITE 

M gS04 . 7H2O Orthorhohbic 

Color and streak: white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 

*i It is probable that this occurrence of mirabilite was due to blasting powder. 



146 DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OP PENNSYLVANIA 

acicular crystals; fibrous crusts; botryoidal masses. Taste bitter and saline. H « 2.0-2.5. 
Sp. gr. 1.75. 

Composition: MgS04.7H,0; MgO 16.3, SO. 32.5, H,0 51.2, = 100. 

I<ocAi«iTiss: Huntingdon County: Sideling Hill tunnel: Montgomery County: Rose's 
quarry; Philadelphia: Pairmount Park, and Prince's quarry; Westmoreland County: Saltsburg. 

GOSLARIT£ 

ZnS04 . THjO Orthorhombic 

Color: white, yellowish, bluish, reddish. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. 

Form: commonly massive; long acicular crystals. Taste: astringent, metallic, and nauseous. 

H = 2-2.5. Sp.gr. 1.9-2.1. 

Composition : ZnSOt . 7H,0 ; ZnO 28 . 2, SOj 27 . 9, HjO 43 . 9, = 100. Fe may replace Zn. 
Locality: Lehigh County: Friedensville. 

MORENOSITE 

NiSOi . 7H2O Orthorhombic 

Color: apple-green to greenish- white. Streak : white. Luster: vitreous. Form: acicular 

crystals, fibrous, occurring as efflorescent masses. Taste: metallic astringent. H = 2-2.5. 

Sp.gr. 2.004. 

Composition: NiS04.7HaO; NiO 26 . 6, SO, 28 . 5, H2O 44 . 9, = 100. 
Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine. 

MELANTERITE 
FeSOi . 7H2O MoNOCLiNic 

Color: various shades of green to white, yellow on exposure. Streak :uncolored. Sub- 
transparent to tran.slucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: fibrous, stalactitic, massive, pulverulent, 
incrusting. Taste: sweet, astringent, and metallic. H = 2. Brittle. Sp. gr. 1.89-1.90. 
Comi^osition: FeS04.7H20; FeO 25 . 9, SOs 28 . 8, H2O 45 . 3, = 100. 
Locality: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine. 

BIEBERITE 

C0SO4 . 7H2O MONOCLINIC 

Color: flesh- to rose-red. Subtransparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: 
stalactitic crusts. Fragile. Taste astringent. Sp.gr. 1.924. 

Composition: C0SO4.7H2O; CoO 26 . 6, SO, 28 . 5, H2O 44 . 9, = 100. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall; flesh-colored coatings on magnetite. 

CHALCANTHITE 

CUSO4 . 5H2O Triclinic 

Color : deep blue, greenish-blue. Streak : uncolored. Subtransparent to translucent. Lus- 
ter: vitreous. Form: massive, stalactitic, incrusting. Fracture: conchoidal. Taste metallic, 
nauseous. H =2.5. Brittle. Sp. gr. 2.12-2.30. 

Composition: CUSO4.5H2O; CuO 31.8, SO, 32.1, H,0 36.1, = 100. 
Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines? Lancaster County: Gap nickel mines; 
Montgomery County: Rose's quarry; Philadelphia: Prince's quarry. 

KALmiTE 

KA1(S04)8 . I2H2O Isombtric 

Color: white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: vitreous. Form: fibrous, massive, 
or mealy crusts. H = 2-2 . 5. Sp. gr. 1 . 75. 

Composition : KA1(S04)2 . I2H2O ; K2O 9 . 9, AI2O, 10 . 8, SO, 33 . 7, H2O 45 . 6, = 100. 
I<ocALiTiBs: Delaware County: Chester?; Lancaster County: Cully Station. 



DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY OF PENNSYLVANIA 147 

HALOTRICmXE 

FeAhCSOO^ . 24H2O MoNOCLiNic 

Color: yellowish- white. Translucent. Luster: silky. Form: silky-fibrous, incrusting; 

becomes dull and pulverulent on exposure. Taste: inky, astringent. Sp. gr. 1 . 88-2 . 04. 

Composition: FeAl2(S04)4.24HaO; FeO 7.8, AUOs 11.0, SOi 34.5, HaO 46.7, = 100. 
Localities: Carbon County: Lansford; Chester County: Coventryville; Montgomery 

County: Harpers Station, and Pencoyd ; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Falls of Schuylkill, 

Hestonville, and Wissahickon Valley. 

ALUNOGEN 

AlsCSOOs . I8H2O MoNocuNic 

Color: white, or yellowish. Subtranslucent to transparent. Luster: vitreous or silky. 
Form : delicate fibrous masses or crusts. Taste like that of alum. H — 1.. 5-2. Sp. gr. 1 . 6-1 . 8. 
Composition: Ala(S04)3.18H,0; AUOj 15.3, SOj 36.0, H2O 48.7, = 100. 
Analysis: School Lane and Ridge Avenue, Falls of Schuylkill, Philadelphia. Eyerman, 
1911,21. 

SO3 36.11 

AI2O3 15.71 

FeO 2.59 

H2O 45.00 



99.41 



LocALiTiBs: Allegheny County: Pittsburgh; PA«7flki«/pAia; Fairmount Park, Falls of Schuyl- 
kill, Hestonville, and Wissahickon Valley; Schuylkill County: Mahanoy City. 

LANGITK 

Cu4(OH)6S04 . H2O Orthorhobibic 

Color: blue or greenish-blue. Luster: vitreous or silky. Translucent. Form: fibrous 
or lamellar crusts; minute prismatic crystals. H = 2 . 5-3. Sp. gr. 3 . 48-3 . 50. 
Composition: CuO 67.6, SOj 17.0, H2O 15.3, = 100. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall, small bluish-green crystals. 

COPIAPITE 

Fe4(OH)2(S04)6 . I7H2O MoNOCLiNic 

Color: sulfur-yellow, citron-yellow. Translucent. Luster: Pearly. Form: granular 

masses, pseudo-hexagonal scales, incrusting. Taste: astringent, nauseous. H = 2.5. Sp. gr. 

2.103. 

Composition: Fe4(OH)2(S04)5.17H20; Fe2O3 30.6, SOsSS.S, H2O3I.I, = 100. 
Localities: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine; Schuylkill County: Mahanoy City: 

yellow pulverulent masses. 

GLOCKERITE 

«Fe203, ySOs, 2H2O Amorphous 

Color: ochre-yellow, brown. Opaque to subtraiLslucent. Luster: vitreous, or earthy. 
Form: massive, earthy, or stalactitic, incrusting. 

Analyses: A. Ridge Avenue and School Lane, Falls of Schuylkill, Philadelphia. Eyerman, 
191 1, 21. B. Gap mine, Lancaster County. Derived from the alteration of pyrrhotite. Genth, 
1875, 151, analysis by W. Theo. Roepper. 

A B 

SO3 17.83 13.97 

Fe203 60.73 57.01 

H2O 21 .00 28.83 



99.56 99.81 

Localities: Lancaster County: Gap nickel mine; Philadelphia: Fairmount Park, Falls of 
Schuylkill, and Hestonville. 



148 DESCRIPTIVE MINERAUXJY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

II III BOTRYOGEN 

MgFeFe2S40ii . ISHjO Monoclinic 

Color: deep red. Streak: ochre yellow. Luster: vitreous. Translucent. Form: 
small prismatic crystals, usually in botryoidal or reniform aggregates. Taste slightly astringent. 
H « 2-2.5. Sp. gr. 2.04-2.14. 

Composition : MgO 4.4, FeO 7 . 9, FejOa 17 . 4. SO3 34 . 9, HjO 36 . 4, = 100. 
Locality: Lebanon County: Cornwall, deep red crystalline aggregates. 

URACONITE 

Color: lemon-yellow, or orange. Form: amorphous, earthy, or scaly aggregates. 
Composition: a hydrous uranium sulfate. 

Localities: Delaware County: Avondale, Crozer's quarry in Chester, and Leiperville; 
Philadelphia: Fairmount Park opposite the old Fairmotmt Water Works. 

TUNGSTATES. MOLYBDATES 

ScHBSLiTE CaW04 Tetragonal 

vStolzitb • PbWOi Tetragonal 

WuLPBNiTB PbMo04 Tetragonal 

MoLYBDiTB FesMosOu . 7HsO Orthorhombic 

SCHEELITE 

CaW04 Tetragonal 

Color: white, yellow, brown, green. Streak: white. Transparent to translucent. Luster: 
vitreous. Form: massive, granular or columnar; pjrramidal crystals. H = 4.5-5. Brittle. 
Sp.gr. 5.9-6.1. 

Composition: CaWOi; CaO 19.4, WOs 80.6, = 100. 

Analysis: Hoffman's quarry, Frankford, Philadelphia. Crystals in quartz. Eyerman, 
1911,22. 

WOs 78.90 

M0O3 2.39 

CaO 18.11 

100.40 

Localities: Adams County: Buchanan Valley, in spherulitic rhyolitewithpiedmontite; 
Berks County: Jones mine? Philadelphia: Hoffman's quarry. 

STOLZITE 

PbW04 Tetragonal 

Color: green, yellow, brown, red. Streak : uncolored. Translucent. Luster: resinous, 

subadamantine. Form: acute octahedral crystals, drusy aggregates. H = 2.75-3. Brittle. 

Sp. gr. 7.87-«.13. 

Composition; PbW04; PbO 49.0, WO, 51.0, = 100. 

Locality: Chester County: Wheatley mines: yellowish-gray pyramidal crystals on quartz 

or pyromorphite. 

WULFENITE 
PbMo04 Tetragonal 

Color: wax-yellow, orange, bright red. Streak: white. Subtransparent to subtranslucent. 
Luster: resinous to adamantine. Form: square tabular or pyramidal crystals; granular, massive. 
H = 2.75-3. Brittle. Sp. gr. 6.7-7.0. 

Crystallography: Tetragonal, with pyramidal hemihedrism; c, po — 1.5774. Forms: 
c (001), a (100), m (110),/ (320), k (210), n (ill), s (113), e (101), u (102), i9 (1.0. 12), Wheatley 
mines.'* Cleavage: », perfect, c, j, less so. Fracture: subconchoidal. 

Composition: PbMo04; PbO 60.7, MoOs, 39.3 « 100. Ca may replace Pb, and Cr and 
Va may be present. 

•> Smith, 1855, 245; Dana, 1868, 607; Schratif, 1871. 184. Koch, 1882. 403. 



DBSCRIPnVE MINERAUXJY OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 



149 





4 u'^'<^ 

109 . IICJ 

Figs. 109-110. Wulfenite, Wheatley mines {Gooi- 
enough; Dana). 

Analyses: Wheatley Mine, Chester County. A. Red. Groth, 1883, 693, analysis by F. 
Jost. B. Red. Smith, 1855, 248. C. Yellow. Smith, 1865, 248. 

ABC 

MoO, 39.21 37.47 38.68 

CrO, 0.38 

. V,04 1.28 

PbO 60.00 60.30 60.48 

99.69 99.06 99.16 
Sp.gr 6.95 

Localities: Chester County: Wheatley mines; bright yellow or red, tabular or pyramidal 
crystals, with pyromorphite; Lancaster County: Pequa mines; Montgomery County: Ecton and 
Perkiomen mines. 

MOLYBDITE 

Color: straw-yellow. Luster: earthy. Form: earthy pulvendent incrustations. Sp. 
gr. 4.49-4.50. 

Composition: FejOa. 3MoOj. 7H2O. 

Localities: Delaware County: Green's farm near Upland ; Philadelphia: Frankford. 



V 

MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

ADAMS COUNTY" 

Butler Township 

GoLDBNViLLB. Just west of GoldenviUe (Gettysburg 4172). Triassic shales, diabase 
dike and sill. 

Glauheriie crystal cavities: in shale (Stose, 1919, 1). 

Centbr Mills Orb Bank. Triassic shales and diabase. 

Chloritoid: dark greenish-black scales or small plates (Genth, 1876, 226; analysis). 

CUMBBRLAND ToWNSHIP 

Gettysburg. Vicinity of Gettysburg. Triassic shales and diabase. 

Quartz: radiating (Rogers, 1858, II, 689, 692). Magnetite: massive, octahedral crystals 
(Genth, 1875, 38). Hematite: micaceous, iron-black or red; north of Gettysburg (Genth, 1875, 
34). Copper: south of Gettysburg (Genth, 1875, 5). Bomite: south of Gettysburg (Genth, 
1875, 13). Tetrakedrite: in epidote rock just south of Gettysburg, locality exhausted (Sadder; 
Genth, 1875, 24). Malachite: south of Gettysburg (Genth, 1875, 24). Chalcedony: pale blue 
(Genth, 1875, 59). 

Cemetery Hill. Gutters along road leading from the top of Cemetery Hill, and near 
the Soldier's Home, Gettysbuirg. Triassic shales and diabase. 

Epidote: pyramidal crystals (Genth, 1876, 220; Frazer, 1877, 263.) 

Marsh Creek. Marsh Creek, 4 miles west of Gettysburg, Cumberland township. Trias- 
sic shales and diabase ; hydrothermal metamorphic veins. 

Prehnite: (Rogers, 1858, II, 689). 

MuMMASBURG. One and one-half miles southeast of Mummasburg, Cumberland township 
(Fairfield 661 ?). Triassic shales, diabase dike. 

Glauberite crystal cavities: in shale (Stose, 1919, 1). 

Germany Township 

LiTTLESTowN. WiUets, south of Littlestown, Germany township. Chloritic schists 
(metapyroxenite ?) 

Chlorite: (Genth, 1876, 227; analysis). 

Hamiltonban'* Township 

Virgin Copper Mine, 1 mile N. N. E. of Monterey (Fairfield 7881). 

Bingham and National Mines, 2 miles N. E. of Monterey (Fairfield 7954 and 7952). 

Reed Hill Mine, 2 »A miles N. E. of Monterey (Fairfield 7658), on Toms Creek. 

Russell and Bechtel Mines, 4 miles N. N. E. of Monterey (Fairfield 7658 and 7661). 

Snively Mine, */i mile northeast of Mt. Hope (Fairfield 7395). 

Eagle Metallic Mine, on Miney Branch, '/i mile due east of Charmian Station 
(Emmitsburg 1265). 

Headlight Mine, east of Charmian Station (Emmitsburg 1228). 

A number of prospects occur on the lower eastern slope of Jacks Mountain. 

Precambrian basalts, rhyolites, aporhyolites, and rhyolite porphyries; Cambrian quartz- 
ite. Hydrothermal veins occur along shear zones in the altered basalts; epidotization has oc- 
curred in the latter adjacent to the shear zones, with later mineralization forming the hydro- 

** Pyrite crystals in hornstone were reported on South Mountain, 5 miles from Sulphur Springs, by Seybert 

(1808, 157). 

Lamellar hematite resembling ilmenite has been reported by Genth (1875, 38), from this county, but with 

no data as to the exact locality. 

** For descriptions x>t the geology and mineral deposits of the township see Bascom, 1896; Stose, 1910; 
Wherry, 1911, 161-162; and Williams, 1892, 482. 



MINERAI, LOCAUTIES OP PENNSYl,VANIA 151 

thermal veins. Many attempts have beem made to work the veins for copper. The minerals 
also occur in amygdaloldal cavities in basalt and rhyolite. 

Basalt; hydrothermal metamorphs: Epidote: (Silliman, 1822, 256). Chlorite: 
(Bascom, 1896). 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: stained blue and green by copper carbonates, or 
purplish by hematite (Silliman, 1822, 256). HematiU: specular (Wherry, 1911, 151-162). 
Copper: masses of several pounds (Cleaveland, 1816, 450). Cuprite: (Silliman, 1822, 256). 

Weathering products: Malachite: (Silliman, 1822, 256). Azurite: (Silliman, 1822, 256). 

MoNTBRBY. Head of Miney Run, below the Clermont House. Aporhyolite, hydrothermal 
metamorphic veins. 

Piedmontite: (Williams, 1893, 55). 

PiNB Mountain. West flank of Pine Mountain, 1 V2 miles north of Monterey (Fairfield 
7891). Aporhyolite; hydrothermal metamorphic veins. 

Piedmontite: deep carmine-red spherulitic aggregates of needles in rhyolite (Williams, 
1893, 53-55; analysis). 

Franklin Township 

BucHANON Vallby. Buchanon Valley, 2*/* miles north of the Chambersburg turnpike; 
Franklin township (Fairfield 2742.7). Rhyolites. 

Hydrothermal minerals: Quartz: (Williams, 1893, 51). Hematite: (Williams, 1. c). 
ScheeUte: in spherulitic rhyolite (Williams, 1. c). Piedmontite: radiating needles and microscopic 
crystals in scheelite (Williams, 1. c). 

Cashtown. Near Cashtown, Franklin township. Triassic shales and diabase. 

Magnetite: has been mined (Schrader, Stone and Sanford, 1917, 264). 

Latimorb Township 

Bbrmudian Churchbs. Three-quarters of a mile northwest of Bermudian Churches, on 
Bermudian Creek, Latimore township (Carlisle 9799). Triassic shales and diabase. 
GlAuberite crystal cavities: in shale (Stose, 1919, 1). 

ALLEGHENY COUNTY 

Vicinity op Pittsburgh. Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The following minerals 
have been met in coal mines, and in exposures along roads, or along streams. 

Sidertte: (Genth, 1875, 11). Galena: cubes in siderite (Genth, 1875, 11). CalciU: 
veins in limestone (Aigster, 1813, 212). Aragonite: silky, fibrous, crystalline seams and crusts 
(Genth, 1875, 162). Alunogen: efflorescences (Mease, 1807, 409). Steatite? "on the Allegheny 
River, 7 miles from Pittsburgh" (Aigster, 1813, 212). 

BEAVER COUNTY 

Nbw Brighton. Near New Brighton, Pulaski township. Carboniferous sedimentary 
rocks. 

Siderite: (Genth, 1875, 146). Barite: white laminated masses in nodules of argillaceous 
siderite (Genth, 1875, 146). 

BEDFORD COUNTY" 

RoBiNSONviu*^. West side of Wray's Hill, east of Robinsonville, Monroe township. 
Pocono sandstone. 

Residual weathering products: Limonite: (Stevenson, 1882, 211). Pyrolusite: (Ste- 
venson, 1882, 211). 

'* The following minerals have been reported from the county without precise localities: 
Amethyst: Bast Bedford (Schrader, Stone, and Sanford, 1917, 250). Barite: Bridgeport; small tabular 
crystals in Catskill red sandstone (Lewis, 1882, 38). Calcite: Cumberland Valley, 15 miles north of Bedford 
(Seybert, 1808, 263); amber-colored masses. LdUingite: (Leonhard, 1840. 809) described by Shepard, 1828. 
183-186, as a meteoric iron; Genth, 1875, 6, called it spiegeleisen. Shepard's analysis follows: Fe 07.44, As 1.56, 
C 0.40, loss 0.60. - 100. 



152 MINERAI, U)CALITIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 

BERKS COUNTY 

Albany Township 
Quarts: smoky; on Berg's farm (Eyerman, 1889, 14). 

Ai^ACB Township 

TJiBXLBR Mica Minb. Three-quarters of a mile N. E. of McKnight's Gap, and V* mile 
south of school. (Reading 5557). Granitic pegmatite. 

AUanite: large masses (E. T. Wherry, priv. comm.) Zircon: (Wherry, priv. comm.) 
Autunite: (Eyermai^, 1911, 20). TorhemiU: (Eyerman, 1911, 20). 

Valbntinb Hartman's Mine. ^ On the west bank of Antietam Creek, * /< of a mile west of 
Spies Church. (Reading 5647). Granite and pegmatite. 

Molybdenite: plates and scales (Wetherill, 1852, 273; analysis). 

Gottschai^l's Minb. On the west side of a hill on H. S. Gottschall's farm, iVt miles 
N. N. W. of Spies Church. (Reading 5378). Gabbro. 

Garnet: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). Pyroxene, diaUage: dark greenish cleavage masses 
(Genth, 1876, 219; analysis). Pyrrhotite: slightly nickeliferous; disseminated masses 
(Genth, 1876, 219). 

Gottschai^l's farm. One and a half miles N. N. W. of Spies Church. Hardyston 
quartzite. 

Jasper, agate-jasper, and agate: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 401). 

Salsm Church. Ochre pit, Vs mile east of Salem Church; on the south side of a hill. 
(Reading 5341). Cambrian quartzite; residual deposit of limonite and goethite. 

Goethite: occurs in geodes up to 2 feet across. Limonite: ochre filling geodes. 

Wbist School. Small quarry, 'A mile west of Weist school; (Reading 6487). Pre- 
Cambrian gneisses. 

Crocidolite: (E- T. Wherry, priv. comm.) 

Bern Township • 

Lbinbach's Hill. Five miles northwest of Reading. 

Fluorite: deep blue to purple cubes (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). Calcite: pink, in bluish 
quartz (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). Quarts: lilac colored (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). 

Caernarvon Township 

Jones Mine. Three quarters of a mile east of Joanna; or 2 miles northeast of Morgan- 
town. (Honeybrook 2984). Cambro-ordovician limestone, Triassic red sandstones and shales, 
intrusive diabase; hydrothermal deposits of magnetite, replacing the limestone; tactite. 

Limestone; contact metamorphs (tactite): Actinolite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 394). Bys- 
solite: (Wheatley, 1882, 36). Serpentine; retinaltte: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 401). RipidoliU: 
(Genth, 1875. 132). Talc: (Dana, 1868, 777). Graphite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 397). ApatiUf 
small, white crystals in magnetite (Genth, 1875, 139). 

Tactite; weathering products: Kaolintte: contains up to 10% Cu (Genth, 1876, 121). 
Venerite: a green chloritic mixture containing Cu (Hunt, 1876, 325; analysis). AUophane: white, 
blue, mammillary coatings (Genth, 1875, 107). 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary minerals: Copper: crystaUized and arborescent (Cleave- 
land, 1822, 555). PyriU: (Dana, 1850, 653). Chalcopyrite: large tetrahedra, often tarnished 
and coated with malachite (Dana, 1844, 545; Genth, 1875, 21). Chalcocite: granular compact 
(D'lnvilUers, 1883, 396). Bornite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 395). CupHU: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 396). 
Melaconite: (Wheatley, 1882, 36) ; Magnetite: dodecahedral and octahedral crystals (Dana, 1844, 
546). Scheelite: a specimen in Lehigh University is labeled as coming from this locality. 

Hydrothermal deposits: hydrometamorphs: Calcite: (Genth, 1876, 164). Aragonite: 
acicular crystals, fibrous coatings (Dana, 1868, 777). Malachite: green, fibrous and botryoidal 
masses (Dana, 1844, 545). Aurichalcite: (Wheatley, 1882, 36). Cerussite: (Dana, 1850, 663). 
ChrysocoUa: massive, botryoidal or stalactitic coatings, greenish-blue. Dana, 1844, 646; Genth, 
1876, 105). Gypsum: acicular crystals, rare (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). 

M This locality has been variously known as Zion Church or "Reading" (Dana, 1854, 488). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 153 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorphs: StUbite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 402). 

Two miles northeast of Jones Mine : Graphite: (Dana, 1850, 653) . TUaniU: (Dana 1850, 653) . 

CuMRU Township 

Oppositb Fritz Island. Exposure on the east side of Schuylkill River, at the little dam. 
opposite Fritz Island, 2 miles south of Reading. Triassic diabase intrusive. 

Oligoclase or qMU: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 396). 

Furrz Island Minbs.'^ Northern end of Fritz Island in the Schuylkill River, 2 miles south 
of Reading. (Reading 7397). Cambrian sandstone, Cambro-ordovician ("Trenton") limestone, 
Triassic limestone conglomerate; intrusive diabase; hydrothermal deposits of magnetite replac- 
ing the Cambro-ordovician limestone; tactite (hydrothermal contact metamorphosed limestone). 
The mines are abandoned, and practically inaccessible. 

Limestone; contact metamorphs (tactite): Wernetite: resinous white crystals (D'ln- 
villiers, 1883, 492). VesumanUe: yellow and orange crystals (D'Invilliers, 1883, 402; Brun- 
ner and Smith, 1883, 280; Genth, 1875, 73). Grossularite: grayish-green, granular (Genth, 
1875, 73). Serpentine, retinalite: yellowish-brown to dark olive-green (Genth, 1875, 114; 
D'lnvUliers, 1883, 401). Talc: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 401). Chlorite: (Genth, 1875, 133; 
D'Invilliers, 1883, 401). 

Tactite; hydrometamorphs: Qtiartz: small crystals (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Chalce- 
dony: (Eyerman, 1889, 14). Cakite: scalenohedral crystals; granular masses (Genth, 1875, 
154; D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). Brucite:^^ pearly white to yellow, crystals, crystalline masses or 
seams in dolomitic limestone (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395; Genth, 1885, 40; analyses). Fluorite: 
pale yellow cubes, with calcite (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397; Eyerman, 1889, 7). 

Tactite: weathering products: Deweylite: white, yellowish-white or brownish amorphous, 
stalactitic or botryoidal coatings; also pseudomorphs after aragonite? (Genth, 1885, 41 ; analysis). 
Aragonite: acicular crystals, fibrous coatings (Genth, 1875, 162). 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary minerals: Magnetite: octahedral and dodecahedral 
crystals (Genth, 1875, 38; D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). Hematite: micaceous and specular (D'lnvil- 
^ers, 1883, 398). Stihnite: minute dark, lead-gray prismatic crystals, longitudinally striated; 
observed with zeolites by Samuel Tyson (Genth, 1875, 9). Galena: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). 
Pyrite: crystals and masses (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). Bornite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). 
ChalcopyriU: (Genth, 1875, 21). Chalcocite: granular, compact (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). 

. Hydrothermal deposits; hydrometamorphs: Malachite: fibrous, radiating, and botryoidal 
coatings (Genth, 1875, 167; D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). Azurtte: small crystals (Genth, 1875, 168). 
AurichalciU: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 394). Chrysocolla: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). 

Hydrothermal deposits; weathering products : Limonite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorphs : Datolite: minute crystals (D'Invilliers, 1883, 396). 
ApophyUite: colorless to white, tabular or p3rramidal crystals, often in rosettes (Genth, 1875, 
107; Sadtler, 1883, 357; analysis). SUlbite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 402; Brunner and Smith, 
1883, 280). Gismondite? white, translucent, pseudo-tetragonal crystals (Genth, 1885, 42; 
1875, 110; Eyerman, 1911, 12; analyses). ChahaziU: colorless crystals (Genth, 1875, 109; 
analysis; Sadtler, 1883, 356). Thomsonite: small spherical concretions of fine radiated structure, 
white, waxy to peariy (Genth, 1875, 108). Mesolite: minute white tufts of radiating needles 
(Genth, 1875. 108; analysb; Sadtler, 1883, 357). 

Raudbnbush Minq. One mile south of Oakland, just south of Angelica Creek, at the 
base of a trap hill. (Reading 7621). Cambro-ordovician limestone; Triassic diabase intrusive, 
hydrothermal deposits of magnetite replacing the limestone; tactite. 

Pyroxene: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). Chlorite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). Pyrrhotite: 
(D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Magnetite: massive; octahedral crystals. StUbite: radiating crystals in 
hydrothermal metamorphic veins in diabase (Genth, 1875, 109; Smith, 1885, 414, analysis by 
Davidson). 

<* For a description of the workings and geology of the dexx>sits, see Spencer, 1008, 38. 
* It is perhaps more probable that brucite, and possibly fluorite, calcite and quartz, were formed by hydro- 
thermal solutions at a late stage, after the formation of serpentine. 



154 MINERAL LOCAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

CuMRU Township, in General. 

Calcite: occurs at Shillington (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 395). Limonite or goeihite: botryoidal 
and dendritic; pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurs southwest of Reading, near the Lancaster 
Bridge, on S. Slegel's farm (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 398). Wad: mammillary concretions; on the 
Morgantown road, near Oakland (Genth, 1876, 218). 

Center Township 

Hornblende: Henry Ruth's farm at Mohrsville (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 394). Pyrite: nodular, 
radiating (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 399). 

COLEBROOKDALE ToWNSHIP 

BoYERTowN. Railroad cuts on the Colebrookdale Branch, P. & R. Ry., south of Boyer- 
town. Triassic intrusive diabase. 

Pyroxene: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 399). SlUbtte: hydrothermal metamorphic veins in dia- 
base (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 402). 

BoYERTowN Iron Mines. One-quarter mile southwest of Boy er town. (Boyertown 
8135, 8136, 8156). Cambro-ordovician limestones; Triassic red shales and sandstone; intrusive 
diabase; hydrothermal deposits replacing limestone; tactite. 

Limestone; contact metamorphs (tactite): Pyroxene: (Eyerman, 1889, 15). Antphi- 
hole; mountain-leather, byssolite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 394). Epidote: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 396). 
Serpentine: (D'lnvilliers, 188.'?, 401). Chlorite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 395). 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary minerals: Magnetite: octahedral and dodecahedral 
crystals (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 398). Pyrtte: octahedral crystals (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 399). Py- 
rhotite? (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 400). Chalcopyrite: (Eyerman, 1889, 6). Cuprite: (D'InviUiers, 
1883, 396). Agate, agate-jasper, hornstone, flint, and basanite are also reported from this locality 
(D'InviUiers, 1883, 400). 

Fegley's Farm. One and a half miles northeast of Boyertown. 

Graphite: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 397). FayaliU? (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 396). 

Daniel Himmelreich's Farm. Near Boyertown. Graphitic gneiss. 

Graphite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 397). 

Bechtel's Farm. Graphite prospect on side of hUl north of the road, V* mile N. E. of 
Gabelsville. (Boyertown, 5781). Another prospect is fotmd V* mile to the east (Boyertown 
5786). Graphitic gneiss. Graphite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 397). 

Douglass Township 

Little OlEy. Exposures V* mile east of Little Oley. (Boyertown 8186). Triassic 
sandstone, etc. 

CrocidoliU: (Bliss, 1913, 519). 

Earl Township" 

Gabelsville. Exposures IV4 miles northwest of GabelsviUe. (Boyertown 4932) 
Granite gneiss, and meta-gabbro (Precambrian) . 

Crocidolite: (Bliss, 1913, 519), hydrothermal metamorph. 

Shanesville. Exposures 1 V4 miles southeast of Shanesville (Boyertown 4952), and cut of 
the Oley VaUey Electric R. R. '/i miles east of Shanesville (Boyertown 4627). Precambrian 
granite gneiss and meta-gabbro. 

Crocidolite: hydrothermal metamorph (Bliss, 1913, 519; analyses). 

Exeter Township 

Opposite Poplar Neck. Exposures in the railroad cut on the SchuylkiU River, east of 
Poplar Neck, and south of Neversink Mountain. 

Calcite: scalenohedral crystals (D'InvilUers, 1883, 395). Fluorite: deep blue cubes 
(D'InviUiers, 1883, 397; Eyerman, 1889, 7). Malachite: (Eyerman, 1889, 45). 

*• Magnesilet occurs at Spang's iron mine, on Furnace Hill, southwest of Furnace Creek, one mile east of 
Spangsville, (Boyertown, 4814). Amphibole asbestus. at Barlville on the Manatawny (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 394). 
Kaolinite: Twelve miles north of Douglassville (Genth, 1875, 119). • 



MII^RAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 155 

Jacksonwai^d. Exposures along the Antietam Creek, 1 mile south of Jacksonwald. 
Triassic extrusive basalt; hydrothermal minerals in amygdaloidal cavities in the basalt. 

Colette: (Wherry, 1910, 12). Prehnite: (Wherry 1. c). DatoliU: (Wherry 1. c). SiilhiU: 
(Wherry, 1910, 24). Heulandite: (Wherry, 1910, 24). Chabazite: (Wherry, 1910,24). Quartz: 
(Wherry, 1910, 24). 

KiNSEY Hill. ^^^ Exposures along road west of Kinsey Hill, 1 V2 miles south of Jacksonwald. 
Triassic diabase sill. 

Garnet: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 397). Chalcedonic jasper and jasper: (D'Invilliers, 1883 
400). Calcite: pink (D'InviUiers, 1883, 395). 

Snydersvills. 

MalachiU: (Eyerman, 1889, 45). 

Greenwich Township 

Quartz: transparent crystals at Windsor (Eyerman, 1889, 13). Chalcedonic jasper and 
jasper: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). CaUiU: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 395). 

Heidelberg Township 
Barile: brownish, fetid, coliunnar and radiating masses (Genth, 1875, 146). 

Hereford Township 

SiESSHOLTzviLLE. P. & R. Mine, V4 mile east of Siessholtzville. Precambrian gneisses. 

Orthoclase: (Prime, 1875, 6; analysis by Castle). Oligoclase or albite: (D'Invilliers, 
1883, 396). Saltte: (Prime, 1875, 6, analysis by Headden). ProchloriU: (D'Invilliers, 1883; 
399). Magnetite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). Pyrite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). Graphite, 
(D'lnviUiers, 1883,397). Limonite, red ochre: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). 

Rauch's Mine. Three-quarters of a mUe north of Huflf Church, on the western spur. 
of a small hill, west of the road to Siessholtzville. (Boyertown 2564). Precambrian 
gneisses. 

Pyroxene: crystals (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). Titanite: clove-brown crystals in mag- 
netite (Brunner and Smith, 1883, 280). 

HuFP Church. 

Orthoclase: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 396). Muscovite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). Biotite: 
(D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). Magnetite: Jtitaniferous (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). 

Dale. Mines 'A of a mUe north of Dale. (Boyertown 2867, and 2868). Precambrian 
gneisses. 

Titanite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 401). 

LoNGSWAMP Township 

TOPTON. 

Serpentine: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 401). Talc: (D'lnvUliers, 1883, 401). Prochlorite: 
m'Invilliers, 1883, 399). 

Mertztown. 

Chalcedonic jasper and jasper: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400). 

LoNGSWAMP Church. Neighborhood of Longswamp Church, V* mUe S. E. of Longswamp. 
Chloropal: (Eyerman, 1889, 35). 

Fegley's Mine. One mile S. W. of Maple Grove, close to Swope Creek. Precambrian 
gneisses. (Boyertown 2284). 

Stilbite: masses of white radiating needles (Smith, 1885, 414; analysis by Hoskinson and 
Brunner). 

LONGSWAMP Township, in General. 

Graphite: Schmeck's farm (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 3^7). Epidote: on Schmeck's farm south 
of Longswamp, and on Hancock and Wetzel's farm (D'lnvUliers, 1883, 396). Actinolite, bysso- 
lite: (D'Invilliers, 1883,394). Kaolin: Schmeck's farm (D'lnvUliers, 1883, 398). 

100 xhe locality has also been known as "Hartzog's Mill, formerly Bishop's Mill, and Kinzi's Mill. 



156 MINERAL W)CAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Lower Alsacs Township 

MOXJNT Pbnn. 

Orthodase: On the eastern slope (D'Invilliers, 1883, 306). Epidote: on the eastern slope 
(Genth, 1875, 79). Kaolin: on the eastern slope (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). LepidocrocUe: on 
P. D. Wanner's farm (D'lnvilHers, 1883, 397). Turgiie: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 402). 

ESTBRLY. 

Quarts, smoky: on the Boyertown road, 4 miles east of Reading (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400). 

Stony Crsek Mills. 

Augite: (Dlnvilliers, 1883, 399). Orthodase: red, at Ohlinger's Mill, Vs mile east of 
Stony Creek Mills P. O. (D'lnviUiers, 1883. 396). 

Antibtam Rbsbrvoir. Exposures on the west side of the Reservoir, opposite Ohlinger 
Dam, V2 mile north of Stony Creek Mills. (Reading 5835). Precambrian gneisses. 

Orthodase: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 396). LabradoriU: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 396). AugiU: 
(D'lnviUiers. 1883, 399). Hornblende: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 394). AdinoliU: (D'lnvUUers, 
1883, 394). Amphibole asbestus: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 394). Epidote: (D'Invmiers, 1883, 396). 
Garnet: <Eyerman, 1889, 18). Muscovite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). Graphite: (Eyerman, 
1889, 3). MolybdenUe? (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). Pyrrhotite: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 400). RuliUr 
(D'InvUUers 1883, 401). StUbite: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 402). 

Maiden Creek Township 
Wad: on Nathan Althoiise's farm, Maiden Creek (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 402). 

Maxatawny Township 
Lyons. 
Wad: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 402). Xanthosiderite: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 402). 

Muhlenberg Township 
Bbrnharts.*®* 

EpidoU: (Genth, 1876, 220). Garnet; spessartite: massive (Genth, 1875,75); andradite? 
smaU reddish-brown crystals (Genth, 1876, 220). Zircon: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 402). SideriU: 
(Genth, 1876, 159). 

Brook's Quarry. North of Reading. 

FluoriU: smaU purple crystals (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 397). 

Olby Township* 

DeTurk's Quarries. On DeTm-k's farm, Va mile north of GriesmersviUe. (Read- 
ing 6688, and 6921). 

Calcite: pale pink rhombohedra (Genth, 1876, 228). FluoriU: violet granular masses 
(Genth, 1876, 210). 

Weaver Mine. Two miles northeast of Oley Line, and V4 mile west of Livingood School. 
(Reading 6567). 

SidenU: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 401). 

Hunter's Mine. On Kemp's farm, 1 mile south of Friedensburg (Reading 6564). 

Kaolin: (D'InvUUer's, 1883, 398). 

Lee's Farm. Two miles east of Friedensburg, and ^/a of a mUe south of Brumback School. 

Quartz: crystals up to 2 inches in length (Genth, 1875, 56). 

Mbrkle's Farm. One and three-quarters mUes southwest of Friedensbtu-g, and V4 x^^^ 
north of the Weist School; east of Monocacy Creek. 

Damourite: (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 396). 

Friedensburg. 

Quartz: blue, amethystine (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400). Homstone, silicified wood, basanite, 
and chalcedony (Genth. 1876, 218, Eyerman, 1889, 14). 

Ontelaunbe Township 
Marcasite? at Leesport (D'InvUliers, 1883, 398). 

1*1 W. Hartman's farm was east of this place. 



MINERAL W)CAUTIKS OF PENNSYLVANIA 157 

Pbnn Township 

Bernvills. 

PyrUe: radiating nodules, altered on the surface to limonite. Barite: fetid, columnar, 
radiating masses. 

Perry Township 

LucKENBnx's Cave. 

Colette: scalenohedral crystals (D'Invilliers, 1883, 395). 

Pike Township 

Hill Church. Exposures V4 mile east of Hill Church, and 'A mile east of Hill Church 
(Boyertown 4633 and 5416). Precambrian granite gneiss. 

CroddoliU: hydrothermal metamorph (Bliss, 1913, 519). 

Lobachsville. 

HematiU: massive (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). 

Reading 

Gold: in ferruginous quartz, found at 8th and 9th Streets, Reading, and near the suburb 
of Hampden, at the western base of Mount Penn. (Wetherill, 1854, 234; D'Invilliers, 1883, 
397). SUver: traces (D'Invilliers, 1883, 401). Quartz, agate-jasper, jasper: (Dana, 1868, 777; 
Genth, 1876, 60). LepidocrodU: at the hea^ of Walnut street (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). 
LimoniU: North Reading (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). Catcite: North Reading (Genth, 1876, 
228). Gypsum: Bushong's mine, northern part of Reading (D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). 

. Rockland Township 

Flint Hill. One mile south of Bowers Station. Hardyston quartzite. 

Quartz: drusy, milky, blue, pink, ferruginous: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Chalcedonic 
jasper, jasper, agate, flint: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Limonite; ochre: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). 
Xanthosiderite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 402). Molybdenite? (D'lnvilUers, 1883, 399). 

Oley-Hamburg Road. Near Friedensburg. Hardyston quartzite. 

Chalcedony, agate, jasper, flint, basanite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400; Genth, 1875, 59). 

Grbgn Hill.*®* One and three-quarter miles N. E. of Oley Furnace. Cambrian quartz- 
ite and damourite schists. 

Quartz: lilac-colored (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Damourite: pale grayish-green to light 
brown, massive (Genth, Jr., 1882, 47). Psilomelane: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 399). 

Richmond Township 

Fleetwood. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals, at Noll's Mine (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Chalcedony, 
jasper, flint, basanite: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Epidote: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 396). Kaolin: 
.(D'Invilliers, 1883, 398). Limonite, ochre: (D'lnvilUers, 1883, 399). 

KiRBYViLLE. Fields, and roadside gutters, northeast of Kirbyville. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals, colorless (G. W. Geist, priv. comm.) 

MosELEM Mines. One mile northeast of MoUtown (Reading 2261). 

Chalcedony: ooUtic? (D'lnvilUers, 1883, 401). Goethite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 397). 
Turg^: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 402). 

Crystal Cave. Two mUes east of VirginviUe; about 4 nules west of Kutztown. 

Quartz: smaU colorless crystals (Genth, 1875, 56). Calcite: stalactites, often studded 
with aragonite crystals (Genth, 1875, 154). Aragonite: abundant in smaU crystals, forming 
crystalline radiating masses, and fibrous stalactites (Genth, 1875, 162). 

ViRGINVILLE. 

PyriU: globular, radiating (D'lnvUUers, 1883, 399). 

Kutztown. 

Basanite: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 401). 

iM This was the site of Rockland Forges. 



158 MINERAL IvOCALItlES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Robeson Township 

GiCKHRViLLS. Trap quarry on Indian Com Creek, V* mile S. W. of Gickerville. Tri- 
assic intrusive sill of diabase. 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Colette: brilliant golden yellow rhombohedra. PrehniU: 
green, mammillary crystal aggregates. ApophyUite: colorless or white tabular crystals. SiU- 
bite: colorless, white, and yellow; prismatic crystals, usually in sheaf -like aggregates, radiating, 
very abundant. Epidesmine: colorless or yellow prismatic crystals, rarely over 3 mm. in length. 
Hetdandiie: yellow crystals, small. Chabasite: colorless crystals, small. Laumontile: chalk 
white, prismatic crystals, radiating. Natrolite: radiations of white needle-like crystals. Mela- 
conite: massive, black; coated with chrysocolla. Arsenopyrite: massive, disseminated. Ery- 
thrite: coatings on arsenopyrite. 

BiRDSBORO.*°* Trap quarries, at Trap Rock on Hay Creek, one mile south of Birdsboro. 
Triassic intrusive diabase sill. 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Colette: brilliant yellow, rhombohedral and scalendohedral 
crystals. Prehnite: green, mammillary (Smith, 1910, 538). ApophyUite: colorless, or white 
crystals (Smith, 1. c, analysis). Stilbite: thin radiating crystals (Smith 1. c, analysis). Chaba- 
zite: colorless or white rhombohedra (Smith, 1. c, analysis). Loumontite: white, prismatic, 
radiating (Smith, 1. c, analysis). Natrolite: (Smith, 1. c). SeoUcite: masses of silky radiating 
needles, with minute calcite crystals on them (Smith, 1. c, analysis). Thomsonite: minute crys- 
tals on natrolite. 

RUSCOMBMANOR ToWNSHIP 

Pricstown. Farms, Va to 1 mile east of Pricetown.**>* (An old iron mine is situated on a 
hill V4 of a mile E. N. E. of Pricetown, Reading 3881) . Precambrian gneisses. 

Quortz^choleedony^SLTid jasper: (Genth, 1855, 21 ; D'Invilliers, 1883,400). Garnet: (D'ln- 
villiers, 1883, 397). Zireon: in magnetite; chocolate-brown, opaque, prismatic crystals up to 
IVa inches in length, often with rounded terminations (Wetherill, 1852, 273; Genth, 1876, 76; 
D'Invilliers, 1883, 402). Allanite: pitch-black, massive, with zircon and magnetite; often coated 
with a brownish decomposition product (Genth, 1855, 21, analysis; Sanderson Smith, 1855, 188). 
Magnetite: titaniferous; sometimes exhibiting polarity (Genth, 1855, 21; D'Invilliers, 1883, 
401). Xanthosiderite: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 402). 

BoMSGRATz's Farm. Two miles west of Pricetown. Hardy^ton quartzite. 

Quartz: ferruginous and drusy (D'Invilliers, 1883, 400). Chalcedony, agate, and jasper: 
(D'lnvilUers, 1883, 400). 

Udr^B Mine. One mile S. S. W. of Pricetown (Reading 6116). Cambrian sandstone; 
residual deposit of goethite. Mine is abandoned. 

Goethite: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 397). LepidoeroeiU: (D'Invilliers, 1883, 397). Turgite: 
thin layers on goethite, often iridescent (D'Invilliers, 1883, 402). Limonite, oehre: red, yellow 
(D'InviUiers, 1883, 399). 

Clymer Magnetite Mines. On the south flank of Furnace HUl, 1 V» miles south of Price- 
town (Reading 6101, and 6162). 

MuseoviU: (D'lnvilUers, 1883, 399). Chlorite: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 395). Wad: (D'In- 
viUiers, 1883, 402). 

Wernersville. 

CaleiU: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 395). Agate, jasper: (Eyerman, 1889, 14). 

Sinking Spring. 

Goethite: (Genth, 1875, 48). 

Fritztown. 

Calcite: (D'InviUiers, 1883, 396). Fluorite: pale yeUow cubes up to V« of an inch thick 
(D'InviUiers, 1883, 396). 

Quartz: amethystine-blue (D'InviUiers, 1883, 400). Chalcedony, jasper, flint: (D'In- 
viUiers, 1883, 401). Damourite: massive, lamellar, translucent (Genth, Jr., 1882, 47; analysis). 
Magnetite: massive (D'InvUUers, 1883, 398). Limonite: (D'InvUliers, 1883, 398). 

>M This is undoubtedly the locality given by Smith as "Railroad cut east of Reading," although lying 
9 miles southeast of Reading. 

104 Farms of W. Haines, Schroeder, and Mrs. D. Rhodes of Genth. The locality has also been known as 
"Eckhardt's Furnace," and "Reading" (Smith, 1855, 188). 



MINERAL I.OCAI,lTlES OP PENNSYLVANIA 159 

Spring Township 

Cushion Mountain. 

Chalcedonic jasper and jasper: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 400). Silver: traces (Dr. Bnmner: 
Eyerman, 1889, 3). 

Blandon. Old iron prospect, on hill V/% miles S. E. of Blandon (Reading 2863). 

Wavellite: on limonite (Wherry, priv. comm.) 

Fox's Farm. Two and a half miles south of Blandon. Cambrian quartzite and damou- 
rite schists. 

Ruth Mine. Three-eighths of a mile south of Fritztown, close to the road (Wernersville, 
9527). Cambro-ordovician limestone, Triassic red sandstones and shales, intrusive diabase; 
hydrothermal deposits of magnetite replacing the limestone; tactite. Mine (open cut) is aban- 
doned. 

Limestone; contact metamorphs (tactite): Serpentine, relinalite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 
401; Genth, 1885, 42; analysis by Keller). Chlorite: curved hexagonal crystals (D'lnvilliers, 
1883, 399). Apatite? (Eyerman, 1889, 40). 

Tactite; hydrometamorphs: Brucite: silky fibrous masses, or thin colorless laminae 
(Schoenfeld and Smith, 1883, 281; analysis; Genth, 1885, 40; analysis). Hydromagnesite: 
silky white, fibrous (Schoenfeld and Smith, 1883, 281). CalciU: (Genth, 1885, 40). 

Tactite; weathering products: Deweylite: white and brownish resinous coatings (Genth, 
1875,40; Smith, 1883, 280, 2 analyses). AragoniU: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 394). 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary minerals: Pyrite. Magnetite: massive; octahedral 
crystals. 

Whbatpield Minbs. One mile E. S. E. of Fritztown (Wernersville 9537 and 9562) . Cam- 
bro-ordovician limestone, Triassic red sandstones and shales, intrusive diabase; hydrothermal 
deposits of magnetite replacing the limestone; tactite. The mines are abandoned. 

Limestone; contact metamorphs (tactite): Serpentine, retinalite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 
401; Genth, 1885, 42; analysis by Keller). Chlorite: prochlorite, and kammererite? (D'lnvil- 
Uers, 1883,398-399). 

Tactite: hydrometamorphs: Calcite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 395). Fluorite: amber-colored 
crystals (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 397). WavelliU? (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 402). 

Tactite; weathering products: Deweylite: brownish, resinous, coatings. Aragonite: 
(D'lnvilliers, 1883,394).* 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary minerals: Pyrite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 399). Mag- 
netite: massive; octahedral crystals. 

Hydrothermal deposits; weathering products: Limonite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 398). 
Malachite: (Eyerman, 1889, 45). 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorphs: Calcite: crystals (Brunner and Smith, 1883, 279). 
Stilbite: pearly white, radiating, fibrous (Brunner and Smith, 1883, 279; analysis). 

Tulpehocken Township 

Mt. Et^a. 

Barite: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 395). 

Union Township 

Quartz, smoky: on Updegrofif's farm (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 400). Wad: globular, near Birdsboro 
(D'lnvilliers, 1883, 402). 

Washington Township 

Barto. Iron ore pit south of Barto. Granite gneiss and meta-gabbro. 
Crocidolite: hydrothermal metamorph (Bliss, 1913, 519). 
EsHBACH. Hill just southwest of Eshbach. Franklin limestone? 
Pyroxene: (D'lnvilliers, 1883, 399). Garnet: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 397). 
Eshbach. Exposures Vj mile west of Eshbach. (Boyertown 5521). Precambrian gran- 
ite gneiss. 

Crocidolite: hydrothermal metamorph (Bliss, 1913, 519). 



160 MINERAL W)CAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Gilbert's Ore Pit. One and three-quarters miles north of Bechtelsville. (Boyertown 
5274). Precambrian granite gneiss and meta-gabbro. 

Oligodase or albUe: (D'InvilUers, 1883, 396). CrocidolUe: (Bliss, 1913, 519). Also found 
in exposures about V4 tnile west of the pit. 

Spark's Mine. Three-eighths of a mile east of Dale, just south of the ChurchviUe Road 
(Boyertown 5314). 

Pyroxene: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). 

Windsor Township 
Quartz: (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400). PyriU: radiating masses (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 399). 

Great Valley Iron Mines 

The foUowing minerals have been noted in the numerous iron-ore pits in the timestone 
vaUey north of the Reading HiUs. Residual deposits of goethite and Umonite. 

Quartz: drusy, coating goethite (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 400). Caicite: (D'InvUUers, 1883, 
395). C^oe^^i^; fibrous radiating, geodic (D'lnviUiers, 1883, 297). TWr^ite; coatings on goethite, 
often iridescent (Genth, 1875, 47). PyrolusUe: on goethite (Genth, 1875, 46). Psilomelane, 
wad: (Genth, 1875, 53). 

BLAIR COUNTY 

Beu^wood.^*'^ One mUe north of BeUwood Station, on the west branch of the Juniata, at 
the foot of the western slope of Brush Mountain. Helderberg? limestone. 

Quartz: colorless crystals (Dana, 1868, 779). DolomiU: (Dana, 1844, 255). Anhydrite: 
(Dana, 1844, 255). Cdestite: pale blue fibrous layers, of varying thickness up to one inch. 
Specimens were first coUected by Schutz in 1791 ; it was analjrzed by Klaproth'°* and named 
Coelestin by Werner m 1798. 

Keystone Zinc Mines. In the Sinking Valley, Vs n^He southwest of Birmingham. 
Helderberg? limestone; hydrometamorphic deposits. 

Galena: (Genth, 1875, 11). Sphalerite: (Piatt, 1881, 258). Pyrile: (Eyerman, 1889, 5). 
Smithsoniie: granular masses (Genth, 1875, 161). Cerussite: massive (Genth, 1875, 163). 
Calamine: (Genth, 1876, 106). Barite: (Eyerman, 1889, 41). 

Kinch's Farm. In the Sinking VaUey, Va mile southwest of Birmingham. Helderberg? 
limestone. 

BariU: (Piatt, 1883, 272). 

Col. Galbraith's Land. In the Sinking Valley, 2 miles south of Birmingham. Helder- 
berg? limestone. 

Barite: ceUular, reddish-gray (McCreath, 1879, 369; analyses). 

Williamsburg. 

Celestite: prismatic crystals, faint^ bluish, measuring 2 cm. in length. 

BRADFORD COUNTY"^ 

Barclay. In the shingle of Big Schroeder and its side ravines, and on RoUinson Run, 
about 4 miles southwest of Barclay, Barclay township. Pocono sandstone. 

Pyrolusite: masses, residual weathering product. (Piatt, 1878, 124)."* 

Carpenter Mine. Near New Albany, on a small branch of Towanda Creek, Vs iQ^^c north 
of the Penna. R. R. and canal. Gray Devonian shales; hydrometamorphic veins. 

Tenorite: (Weed, 1911, 59). MelaconiU: (Weed, 1911, 59). Chalcocite: (Weed, 1911, 
59). Cerussite: (Weed, 1911, 59). Malacite: (Weed, 1911, 59). 

>« Younsr, 1875, 127, PUtt, 1881, 128. The locality has been variously given as Bald Eagle Mt. ; Baley 
Mountains; Prankstown, Huntingdon County; Logan's Valley; Alexandria; and Raystown. 

iM Klaproth, 1797. 92; see Seybert, 1808, 260. MQgge. 1889, 187, described some material as pseudomor- 
phous after gypsum. * 

I*' Galena occurs in minute quantities associated with pyrite in Carboniferous sandstone (Genth, 1875, 11). 

!*• Wad was reported by Cleaveland (1816, 548) on the East Branch of the Susquehanna, where it enters 
Pennsylvania. 



MINBRAL UX:ALrnBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 161 

BUCKS COUNTY 

BSNSALSM Township 

Trbvosb. Cut on the New York Short Line, P. & R. Ry., about V4 mile east of Trevose 
Sta. Wissahickon gneiss. 

AlmandUe: dodecahedra (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 21). 

Hui^icBvnxB. Abandoned quarry on Neshaminy Creek, opposite Hulmeville, about 
1 Vi miles S. of Langhome Sta., P. & R. Ry. (Trenton 7256). Wissahickon gneiss and granitic 
pegmatite. 

Pegmatite, primary: Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). Alman- 
•dite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, L c). Tourmaline: black crsrstals (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). 
Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 

Taylor's Woods.**' Exposure in Taylor's Woods, south of Neshaminy Creek, I'/i miles 
•east of Neshaminy Falls Sta., P. & R. Ry. (Trenton 7218) . Meta-peridotite and meta-pyroxenite. 

Primary: EnsUUite? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: AnthophyllUe: (Eyerman, 1911, 5; analysis). Chlorite: 
<Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Flushing. Exposures along Rodman's Run, west of Flushing; about 1 Vi miles north of 
•Croydon Sta., P. R. R. (Trenton 7289). Meta-peridotite and pyroxenite. 

Primary: Enstatite: (Eyerman, 1889, 15). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: AntkophyUite? (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). Actinolite: {Boxigt 
and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). Amphihole asbestus: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Serpentine: 
lamellar (Carpenter, 1828, 12). Talc: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Magnetite: octahedra (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

Weathering product: Quartz: drusy; colorless or green (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Buckingham Township 

Bycot. Paxon's quarry, about Va mile S. W. of Bycot Sta., P. & R. Ry. Shenandoah 
(Cambro-ordovidan) limestone. 

Chert, flint: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 9). Also occurs in an abandoned quarry 
about '/« of a mile north of Bycot Station. Fluorite: purple crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Buckingham Mountain. 

Quartz: crystals; occurs at an exposure on the northwest slope of Buckingham Mountain, 
about 1 mile S. W. of Bycot Sta. in Cambrian sandstone. Wad: occurs at an old umber mine, on 
the south slope of Buckingham Mountain at ctu^e of road about Vs mile south of Bycot Station. 

BusHiNGTON. Exposure about Va mile N. E. of Bushington, on the road to Centreville. 
Triassic shales, hydrothermal veins. 

Barite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 9). 

Buckingham. Roadside exposure about 1 mile E. of Buckingham Sta., P. & R. Ry., on 
the road to Pineville. Triassic shales, hydrothermal veins. 

Barile: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 9). 

Bristol Township 

Nbwportville. Exposure above dam and near mill at Newportville, on Neshaminy 
Creek, 2 miles north of Croydon Sta., P. R. R. Wissahickon gneiss and granitic pegmatite. 

Pegmatite, primary: Microcline: cleavage masses (Carpenter, 1828, 12). Muscovite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). 

East op Newportville. 

Quartz: crystals occur in a hillside exposure, 1 mile northeast of Newportville (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1908, 108). Ilmenite: large fragments are abundant in the Pensauken days and 
gravels, V4 mile east of Newportville (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 43). 

>» Oakford of Eyerman (1911, 5). 



162 MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

DoYLESTowN Township 

Edison. Turnpike quarry, V4 mile west of Edison (Bridge Point) about 2 miles sotdh 
of Doylestown. Triassic shales. 

CalcUe: hydrometamorph (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 9). 

Durham Township 

Durham. Jasper quarry near Dm-ham. Cambrian quartzite. 

Chalcedony; jasper: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). Hematite: red, occtu-s near 
Durham (Genth, 1876, 34). 

RocKHiLL Trap Quarry. East of Rockhill Sta., P. & R. Ry. Triassic intrusive diabase. 

Primary: Pyroxene: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Calcite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c.). Prehnite: light green (Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Eyerman, 1911, 8, analysis). 

East Rockhh^l Township 

KsGLSRSViixB. Roadside exposure V/t miles S. W. of Keelersville. Triassic shales. 

PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

JosiAH Diehl's Farm. One-half mile northwest of Rockhill Sta., P. & R. Ry. Triassic 
shales. Gold was reported as occurring in the shales, but the report was later discredited (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII. 1906, 8 and 109). 

Stilbite: small yellowish-white thin tabular crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c. ; Eyerman, 
191 1, 11, analysis), Heulandite? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Rockhill. Cut, V4 ^^^ south of Rockhill Sta., P. & R. Ry. Triassic diabase. 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Prehnite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). Stilbite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Palls Township 

MoRRisviLLB. Quarry on hillside, west of canal, north of the Trenton Bridge. (Trenton 
5732). Cambrian (Chickies) quartzite. Idle. 

Quartz: blue (Seybert, 1808, 156; Benge and Wherry, XVII, 1906,23). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Martite: minute octahedra (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Dana's Farm. Northwest of Morrisville, west of the canal. (Trenton, 6731). Balti- 
more gneiss. 

Albite: crystalline cleavage masses (Hall, 1881, 101, analysis by Genth). Hornblende: 
dark grayish-green (Hall, 1881, 102; analysis by Genth. Biotite: (Hall, 1. c). Chlorite: dark 
green scales (Hall, 1881, 101; analysis by Genth). 

Lower Makepield Township 

Mt. Eyrb. Near Mt. Eyre, southeast of Dolington. Triassic shales and sandstones. 
Glauherite crystal cavities: in shale (Wherry, 1916, 40). 

YardlEy. Farms of George DeCorcy and Henry Haviland, on the P. & R. Ry., 1 mile 
S. W. of Yardley Sta. Triassic shales, sandstones, and conglomerate. 

Gold: traces in conglomerate (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 21). 

' MiDDLETowN Township 

WooDBOURNE. Moon's quarry, about 200 yards north of Woodboume Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Gravel deposit. Inaccessible, being covered by the Trenton Cutofif R. R. embankment. 

Oligoclase: (Hall, 1881, 99; analysis by Genth). Quartz: "cleavable" (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII, 1906, 21). Opal: red; milky and smoky (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Jesse Darrah's Quarry. West of I^anghome, on the road to Feastersville. (Trenton 
4876). Baltimore gneiss and gabbro. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 21). Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Garnet: massive (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Cut on south branch of Trenton Cut-ofif R. R., just east of Neshaminy Creek, about 
IJ^ miles west of Langhome. Baltimore gneiss and gabbro. 



MINERAIv LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 163 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 21). Hypersthene: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Bioiite: brown (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrrhotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
HemaiiU: micaceous (Benge and Wherry, L c). These minerals were also foimd in the cut 
west of the creek in Southampton township. 

Glsnlak^. Quarry in woods, about V* niile S. E. of Glenlake Sta., P. & R. Ry. Cambrian 
(Chickies) quartzite. Idle. 

Tdurmaline: (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). 

Janney. Quarry east of Neshamtny Creek, about V2 mile northwest of Janney Sta., 
P. & R. Ry. Cambrian (Chickies) quartzite, and Baltimore gneiss. (Trenton 7138). 

Albite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 21). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 21). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). 

Edbn. Roadside exposure, ^/z mile northeast of Middletown cross-roads; about 1 mile 
east of Langhome Sta., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Almandite: large crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). 

Mt. Missry. On Neshaminy Creek, about Vs mile southeast of Parkland Sta., P. & R. 
Ry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22); also occurs along road V4 
mile east of the locality. Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

HiLCROFT. Exposure of gravel bank, north of Hilcroft Sta., Doylestown-Bristol Trolley 
line; about 3 miles N. W. of Bristol. Pensauken gravels. 

Linwnite: large masses (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). 

Newportvillk. One-half mile above Newportville, on Neshaminy Creek. Old iron mine. 
Pensauken gravels. 

Magnetite: (Carpenter, 1828, 12). Limonite: occurs V4 nule east of the creek (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). 

Mn^PORD Township 

Stbinsburg. Roadside expostu-es near school, one mile south of Steinsburg. Triassic 
red shales. 

Glauberite crystal cavities: (Wherry, 1916, 37-43). 

New Britain Township 

New Galena. Doan's mine, on north branch of Neshaminy Creek, about 3V2 miles N. 
W. of Doylestown. (Doylestown 7316). There are a number of openings on both sides of the 
creek, all abandoned. Triassic shales; hydrothermal veins. 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: small crystals (Lyman, 1898, 421). Dolomite: 
crystals (Genth, 1875, 156). Ankerite: crystals (Benge and Wherry; XIII, 1906, 9; analysis 
by Wherry: Mineral Collector, 13, 62, 1906.) Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Gold: 
in galena (Dubois and Eckfeldt, 1861, 274). Galena: crystals (Genth, 1875,11). Sphalerite: 
(Eyerman, 1889, 4). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 9). Chalcopyrite: (Lyman, 1898, 
421). Bomite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). 

Hydrothermal veins; hydrometamorphs : Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
9). Pyromorphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

NocKAMixoN Township 

NocKAMixoN. Exposure on east side of road just north of Nockamixon; also at roadside 
exposure just south of Kintnersville. Triassic shales. 

Malachite: traces (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). 

NORTHABiPTON ToWNSHIP 

RusHi«AND. Railroad cut just outside of Lukens and Yerkes quarry, Rushland. Trias- 
sic shales. 

Anakite: Hydrothermal metamorph in a feldspathic shale. (E. T. Wherry, priv. comm.). 

Holland. Hillside exposures about V2 mile southeast of Holland. Baltimore gneiss and 
gabbro. 



164 MINERAL W)CALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

GraphiU: (Benge and Wheny, XIII, 1906, 22). ChalcopyrUe: (Bcnge and Whcny, 
1. c). Malachile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Finney's Quarry. On Mill Creek, east of Roxton; about V4 mile north of Holland. 
Idle. (Trenton 4776). Baltimore gneiss. 

Quarts: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). Orthodase: (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42; 
Eyerman, 1911, 3, analysis). AlbiU: (Vanartsdalen, 1. c). Hypersihene: (Benge and Wherry, 
1906, 109). Bioiite; Upidomdane? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906. 22). Muscovite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). Almandite: red (Vanartsdalen, 1. c; Eyerman, 1911, 6, analysis). 
Chlorite: (Vanartsdalen, 1. c). Zircon: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Crystals of zircon occur in 
a boulder in the creek in front of the quarry. (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42) . Molybdenite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). PyrrkoUU: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). ChaUopyriU: (Vanartsdalen, 1. c). BomiU: (Vanarts- 
dalen, 1. c). Chalcocite: (Vanartsdalen, 1. c). Hematite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 22). Caldte: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). Barite: blue crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22), Asurite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). ChrysocoUa: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). Gyp- 
sum: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). Hyalite: colorless and blue (Benge and Wherry, 
XrV, 1908, 108). 

SoLBBURY Township 

SoLBBURY MiNB. West end of Bowman's Hill, on Pidcock Creek, about 2Vi miles south 
of New Hope. Triassic shales. 

MalachiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). 

Nbw Hopb. Trolley-cut and hillside exposures just south of New Hope, near Dark Hol- 
low Run. Triassic shales, and intrusive diabase. 

Contact metamorphs: Epidote: small, dark green crystals (Rogers, II, 1858, 685). 
Vesuvianite: minute wine-color crystals (Rogers, 1. c). Andradite: yellow crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). Tourmaline: black crystals (Eyerman, 1889, 26). 

RBBdbr. Quarry between Aquetong Creek and P. & R. Ry., about 1 mile west of New 
.Hope. Triassic shales. 

Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). EpidoU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Southampton Township 

Faxon's Quarry. West side of Neshaminy Creek, 2 miles north of Neshaminy Palls Sta., 
P. & R. Ry., Baltimore gneiss and gabbro. Idle. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). OUgodase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Biotite: brown (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Eyer- 
man, 1889, 5). Pyrrhotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

VanartsdalBN*s Quarry. Two miles north of Neshaminy Palls and 'A mile west of 
Neshaminy Creek, on a small run. (Trenton 4788). Abandoned. Pranklin limestone, in- 
truded by gabbro. Tactite. 

Contact metamorphs. Quartz: blue, massive; rarely in crystals (Morton, 1829, 48). 
Orthoclase? necronite: fetid, with black inclusions (Lea, 1866, 112). Microcline: whitish, gray, 
dark blue to black; cleavage masses (Morton, 1829, 48; Rand, 1867, 186; 1871, 300; Genth, 
1875, 94; 1876, 225, analysis; Eyerman, 1911, 3, analysis). Pyroxene: diopside, coccolite, 
saliU, augite, Jassaite: (Morton, 1829, 48; Rogers, II, 1858, 712, Rand, 1867, 185; Genth, 1875, 
65; Eyerman, 1911, 4, analysis of diopside). Amphihole; actinolite, tremolite: (Carpenter, 
1828, 13). WoUastonite: fibrous, translucent, masses (Morton, 1829, 46, analysis). Wernerite: 
massive; greenish- white translucent crystals (Morton, 1829, 48; Rand, 1867, 186; Leeds, 1870, 
62; 1873, 26, analysis; Eyerman, 1911, 7, analysis). Muscovite? green (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 
1875, 85; Rand, 1892, 183). Phlogopite: brown, green, silver-white (Morton, 1829,48; Vanarts- 
dalen, 1902, 186). Apatite: bluish hexagonal crystals and grains (Morton, 1829, 49; Genth, 
1875, 139). Zircon: rarely in brown prismatic crystals (Morton, 1829, 48; Genth, 1875, 76). 
Titanite: brown tabular crystals up to one inch square (Morton, 1829, 49). Rutile: (Rogers, II, 
1858, 712). Graphite: hexagonal plates (Morton, 1829, 49; Genth, 1875, 10). PyriU: octa- 
hedra up to 2 inches thick (Morton, 1829, 49). Pyrrhotite: (Genth, 1875, 17). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 165 

Hydrometamorph: Cakite: crystals (Rand, 1867, 185). 

Weathering products: Limonite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22). Malachite: 
near the spring (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 186). Gypsum: efflorescences resulting from the action of 
oxidizing pyrite on the limestone (Genth, 1875, 148). 

SiLBS. Roadside exposure about V» niile N. W. of Siles P. O. (Scottsville) ; about 1 mile 
N. W. of Neshaminy Falls. Baltimore gneiss. 

Zircon: small crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 22-23). 

Neshahiny Fau^. Exposures of Cambrian sandstone. 

Tourmaline: (Vanartsdalen, 1902, 42). Ilmenite: (Vanartsdalen, 1. c). 

Exposures in a field on the west side of Neshaminy Creek, about 3^ mile north of 
Neshaminy FaUs. Baltimore gneiss. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). Zircon: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1906, 23; Wherry, 1908, 70). Titanite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Johnson's Graphite Mine. About Va niilc north of Trevose Sta., P. & R. Ry. Balti- 
more gneiss. This mine has long been abandoned, and the dumps are well overgrown. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). Orthodase: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Graphite: (Eyerman, 1889, 3). 

Knight's Quarry. About V* mile north of P. & R. Ry., about V2 mile west of Trevose 
Sta. Cambrian (Chickies) quartzite. Idle. (Trenton, 7914). 

Rutile? crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). 

Pbastbrvillb. Exposure at forks of road, V4 mile north of Feasterville. Baltimore gab- 
bro. (Germantown, 6368). 

Hyper sihene: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 23). 

Springfibld Township 

Bursonvillb. Roadside exposure, */i mile S. E. of Bursonville. Triassic red sandstone. 
ChalcopyriU: traces (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). 

TiNicuM Township 

Uhlbrtown. Jacob Tettemer's farm, 1 mile N. W. of Uhlertown, near Upper Tinicum 
Church. Abandoned mine, and roadside exposiu-es. Triassic shales. 

Chakocite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 8). MalachiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Upper Makbpield Township 

BuCKMANviLLB. Old baritc mine on the New Hope-Pineville Road, about 1 mile west of 
Buckmanville. (Trenton 4146?). Triassic shales and intrusive diabase; hydrothermal veins. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). Barite: small tabular crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). ChalcopyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 109). 
Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 10). 

Warwick Township 

Grbnoblb. Quarry at Ross's Mill, about V* mile west of Grenoble Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Triassic shales. 

Cakite: crystals in hydrometamorphic veins (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 10). 

Wbst Rockhill Township 

Sbllbrsvillb. 

Chakopyrite: (Eyerman, 1889,' 46). AzuriU: (Eyerman, 1889, 45). Malachite: (Eyer- 
man, 1889, 45). 

Pbrkasib. Exposures along the Chestnut Hill-AUentown Trolley line, about V/t miles 
N. W. of Perkasie. Triassic shales and intrusive diabase. 

Epidote: nodules, contact metamorph (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). 

Wrightstown Township 

Wrightstown. Washout along creek, Vj niile south of Wrightstown. Triassic shales 
Pyrite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 10). 



166 MINERAL LOCAUTIES OF PBNNSYlrVANIA 

Bucks County in Gbnsral 

Baltimore gneiss areas: Quartz: blue quartz is abundant in the ridge of Baltimore gneiss 
(Buck Ridge) which extends in a northeasterly direction from Southampton, through Middletown 
and Lower Makefield townships. The inclusions in the quartz have been studied by Bilgram and 
Keeley (1903, 700). Graphite: is locally abundant in the Baltimore gneiss (Cleaveland, 1816, 
404). • 

Wissahickon gneiss areas: Almandtte: rough crystals are abundant in the Wissahickon 
gneiss (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 24). 

Chickies quartztite: Tourmaline: small brilliant crystals occur in the belt of Chickies 
quartzite flanking Buck Ridge on the south. Martite: octahedra, of frequent occurrence (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

Triassic shales: Epidote: nodules are locally abundant, notably in Nockamixon town- 
ship, where the shales have been metamorphosed by intrusions of diabase. Malachite: traces of 
malachite are very common in the shales (Lyman, 1898, 416). SUicified wood: the following oc- 
currences of silicified wood in the Triassic are listed by Wherry (1912, 366-^79). 

1. RoSLOFs: DeCourcey's farm, V* mile S. of station. 

2. WooDBOURNB: farms 1 Va mile N. of Station. 

3. Newtown: bed of Neshaminy Creek, 1 Vi miles W. of station. 

4. St. Lbonards: roadside exposure N. E. of station. 

5. Holland: fields S. and S. £. of station, and along the north bank of Mill Creek. 

6. Churchvelle: fields E. of station. 

7. Center Hill: fields along ridge just N. W. of village and for two miles southwestward. 

8. Spring Valley: fields 1 mile southwest of. 

9. Doylbstown: fields 1 Va mile south of the town. 

Triassic diabase : Gold: traces of gold are present in the Rock Hill belt, and in the sand 
formed by its decomposition (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). 

Pensauken gravels: Quartz: rock-crystal, smoky, milky, drusy; chalcedony, flint, 
jasper, agate and basanite have been noted in the Pensauken gravels of Bensalem, Bristol, 
Falls, Lower Makefield, and Middletown townships. 

CARBON COUNTY 

Mauch Chunk. Cut of electric railroad at the eastern termination of Mount Pisgah, 
about */4 of a mile north of Mauch Chunk. Pottsville conglomerate. 

Hydrometamorphs : Carnotite: yellow, scattered streaks and patches in the lower por- 
tion of a coarse grained conglomerate (containing fragments of quartz, with much hornblende and 
biotite), just above the red Mauch Chimk (Mississippian) shale. (Wherry, 1912, 574; 1914, 
147; analyses). TorherniU? (Eyerman, 1911, 23). 

Burning Mine, Sub«mit Hill. 

Kaolinile: (Johnson and Blake, 1867, 354; analysis). Sulfur: minute crystals and 
pulverulent coatings have been met with in several mines (Genth, 1875, 7). It is very probable 
that the material is copiapite. Sal ammoniac: minute dodecahedra, crystalline crusts and fibrous 
masses, white or yellowish-white; frequently colored yellow by ferric chloride (Genth, 1850, 28). 

Nesquehoning. No. 1 Tunnel on Rhume Run, V2 niile south of Nesquehoning. The 
following minerals occur on the roof and sides of the timnel about 2000 feet from the entrance, 
adjacent to the "Fifty Foot Vein.'* Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. 

Lansfordite: white, transparent stalactites with crystalline faces at the extremities. 
Rapidly alter to chalk-white, opaque nesquehonite, so must be kept in petroleum oil (Genth, 1S89, 
255; Genth and Penfield, 1890, 121; Federov, 1909, 299; Cesaro, 1910, 261). Nesquehonite: 
colorless or white; minute prismatic crystals, usually in radiating groups; also pseudomorphous 
after lansfordite (Genth and Penfield, 1890, 121). 

Lanspord. 

Halotrichite: adcular crystals, radiating aggregates. 

CENTER COUNTY 

Quartz: crystals, on Buffalo Run, Patton township (Eyerman, 1889, 13). Goethiie: 
fibrous masses, formerly mined at a number of localities throughout the county, where it occurs 



MINERAL lyOCAUTlES OF PENNSYLVANIA 167 

with limonite and psilomelane, as residual deposits (Genth, 1875, 50). LimoniU: (Genth, 1875, 
60). Psilomelane: (Genth, 1875, 53). 

CHESTER COUNTY 

Birmingham Township* i^" 

PocopSON. Exposures in field northwest of Minshall Painter's house, V4 mile east of 
Pocopson Sta., Wilmington & Northern Br., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss; quartz veins. 

Amethyst: containing rutile (Eyerman, 1889, 14; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 54). 

OsBORN Hill. Abandoned mine*" and exposiu-es on the west slope of Osbom Hill, 2V« 
miles south of Westchester. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid and smoky crystals in the soil (Carpenter, 1828, 4). Orthoclase: crystals 
on the west side of the hill (Jefferis, 1892, 190). AtUhophyllite? (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 
64). Actinolite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Hornblende: acicular, fibrous (Carpenter, 1828, 4). Spes- 
sartite: reddish-brown; massive; minute crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 4). Tourmaline: black 
crystals in quartz (Carpenter, 1828, 4). Titanite: yellow, in massive spessartite (Dana, 1850, 
664). Calcite: fetid (Dana, 1850, 654). Pyrolusite: weathering product on gneiss (McKinstry, 
priv. comm.). Wad: massive, brown; weathering product (Carpenter, 1828, 4). 

Brandywinb Battlhpibld. 

Beryl: in pegmatite (Genth, 1875, 71). 

Charlbstown Township** 2 

CharlBstown Minb. Just west of Pickering Sta., P. R. R. (Phoenixville 6835). Inac- 
cessible. Triassic shales; hydrothermal veins. The same minerals were found at the Buckwater 
mine to the west (Phoenixville 6824). 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). Quartz: 
(Dana, 1868, 777). Galena: (Dana, 1. c). 

Hydrothermal veins; hydrometamorphs: Cerussite: (Dana, I.e.). Pyromorphite: (Dana, 
1. c). 

Db VAULT. Quarries near Devault Sta., P. R. R. Shenandoah limestone; hydrometa- 
morphic veins. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 8). Dolomite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

East Bradpord Township**' 

CoPBSViLLB.**^ Exposures near Copesville, on the Brandy wine Creek, and in the banks, 
gutters, and fields for a mile along the road to West Chester. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Alhiie: white, laminated (Genth, 1875, 91). Cyanite: green, blue, and gray prismatic 
crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 4; Eyerman, 1911, 7, analyses). Muscovite: green (Carpenter, 1828, 
6). Apatite: occm-s in a quarry on the creek road (McKinstry). 

MiNORCUs Hill. Fields on the northwest slope of Minorcus Hill, *A mile northeast of 
Copesville. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite. 

Albite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 28). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
Cyanite: green, blue, gray (Dana, 1850, 654). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). AUanite: 
(Dana, 1854, 488). Apatite: (Dana, 1850, 654). 

Black Horse Inn. Roadside exposures about 75 yards west of the old Black Horse Inn, 
2 miles west of West Chester. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite; and meta-peridotite. 

Wissahickon gneiss: Cyanite: green, blue, and white (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 
220). Rutile: occurs 100 yards east of the Inn (Dana, 1850, 654). Titanite: (Carpenter and 
Spackman, 1826, 220). 

"® Calcite in "A. Darlington's lime quarry;" serpentine and cerolite were reported by Dana (1850, 664; 
1868. 777). 

*" A mine was opened for silver about 1768 (Carpenter) ; According to Jefferis, a manganese mine was opened 
about 1835, and a half ton of wad was taken from a depth of 30 feet. 

1" Amethyst, graphite, and limonite occur in the township (Dana, 1802. 1067; Carpenter, 1828, 10). 

I" Tourmaline, pyrite, graphite, titanite, smoky quartz, and mussite have been reported without definite 
localities. (Carpenter, 1828, 5; Dana. 1850. 654; Genth, 1875, 73; Eyerman, 1889, 16). 

"< The "Buffington's Bridge," and "Cope's Mills" of earlier writers. 



168 MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs : Talc: indurated: green, compact (Carpenter 
and Spackman, 1. c). CUnochlore: large green plates in the roadbed (McKinstry). 

CalBb Cope's Quarry. On the West Chester-Coatesville Trolley Line, between Tay- 
lor's Run and Copeland School House (West Chester 2514). Wissahickon gneiss; Shenandoah 
limestone; meta-pyroxenite occurs near the quarry. 

Wissahickon gneiss : Orthoclase, necronite: bluish or grayish cleavage masses, fetid ; (Car- 
penter, 1828, 5; Genth, 1876, 93). Garnet: (Dana, 1868, 777). AcHnoliU: in quartz (Jeflferis, 
1892, 187). Cyanite: blue; formerly abundant in an old dam breast adjoining the quarry (Jef- 
feris, 1892, 187; Finch, 1828, 18). Epidote: in quartz (Jefferis, 1892, 187). 

Shenandoah limestone; hydrothermal metamorphs: Dolomite? fetid (Dana, 1868, 777). 
Tremolite: glassy, fibrous (Finch, 1. c). Phlogopite: (Finch, 1. c). RutUe: (Finch, 1. c). 

Meta-peridotite ; hydrothermal metamorphs: TaU: (Dana, 1868, 777). ActinoliU: 
in talc (Dana, 1. c.) 

South op Copbsvillb."* Exposures on the Brandywine, 1 mile south of Copcsville. 
Baltimore gneiss. 

Quartz: blue (Lea, 1818, 473). Feldspar: bluish, lamellar (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Horn- 
blende: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 220). Zircon: prismatic crystals in blue quartz (Lea, 
1818, 473 ; Genth, 1875, 77) . Ilmenite: with zircon in blue quartz botdders in the soil (Dana, 1868, 
777; Genth, 1875, 36). Scapolite: occins V* mile to the west (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 
220). 

CoMLEY Hall."* Field northeast of Comley Hall, about 'A of a mile east of Sconnelltown; 
about 1 Va miles southwest of West Chester. Pegmatite veins. (West Chester 2829). 

Allaniie: black masses, coated with a thick brown earthy weathering product; specimens 
weighing a pound have been fotmd near the springhouse (Rammelsberg, 1850, analysis; Dana, 
1868, 777; Genth, 1875, 79). 

Sconnelltown."' Farms south and southwest of Sconnelltown, between Brandjrwine 
Creek and Plum Run. Wissahickon gneiss ; quartz veins; and metaperidotite dikes. 

Amethyst: crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 5; Dana, 1860, 654; 1868, 777). 

Entrikin's Farm. Roadside exposures at the northwest comer of cross-roads, 2 miles 
south of West Chester (West Chester 2919). Wissahickon gneiss; quartz veins. 

Amethyst: crystals measuring an inch (Dana, 1850, 654). 

East Caln Township 

DowNiNGTowN. Quarrics near Downingtown Sta.. P. R. R. Shenandoah limestone. 
Calcite: rhombohedra (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 246). Dolomite: (McKinstry). 
AnkeriU: (Jefferis, 1892, 190). 

East Goshen Township"* 

GosHENviLLE. Fields near the schoolhouse at Goshenville cross-roads. Wissahickon. 
gneiss. 

Almanddte: trapezohedra and dodecahedra (Townsend, 1839, 9; Genth, 1875, 73). Limo- 
nite pseudo Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 44). 

Quarry on Edward's farm,"* iVa miles northeast of Goshenville. (Phoenixville 9947) ; 
Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine: (Sharpies, 1866, 272; Eyerman, 1911, 16; analyses). Amphibole asbestus: 
(Genth, 1875, 69). Magnetite: large masses, often showing polarity (Carpenter, 1828, 10). 
Chromite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 44). 

"• The locality "North of Paper Mills (torn down) ;" and "Near Jeflferis' ford" of earlier writers. McKinstry 
(priv. comm.) gives the locality as: "north of the summer residence of George B. Earnshaw, on hill near the edge 
of the woods." 

iti Formerly Amor Davis' farm; known in the literature as "Hast Bradford." 

lu Includes the farms of Mrs. Freeman's (formerly L. Sharpies'), Mitchell (formerly Dr. Elwyn's); Enderly's 
(formerly Dr. Price's) ; William Gibbons, and Mrs. Foulke's. 

lu Amethyst and jasper have been reported from the township by Townsend (1839, 0). Carpenter (1828, 
10) reported brown garnet from "A. Hoope's farm." 

lit Formerly Gorman's farm. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 169 

East Marlboro Township*'® 

Logan's Quarry. About IV4 miles N. N. E. of Upland. (Coatesville, 6346). Shenan- 
doah limestone. 

Hydrothermal metamorphs : Tremolite: asbestiform (Dana, 1892, 1067). Tourmaline: 
yellow (Dana, 1850, 655). Ruttle: prismatic crystals up to 10 cm. in length; (Dana, 1868, 
777; Genth, 1875,44). 

Nbar Logan's Quarry. Wissahickon gneiss, and pegmatite. 

Oligodase: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 66). Almandite: (Dana, 1868, 777). Siauro- 
lite: (Dana, 1860, 666). CyanUe: blue bladed, in granular quartz (Dana, 1850, 655). 

Thomas Wbbb's Quarry. On Thomas Webb's farm, about Vi mile west of Union ville. 
Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine: (Dana, 1850, 654). Ckromite: massive (Townsend, 1839, 6). 

Near Thomas Webb's Mill, 1 mile south of Unionville. Pegmatite. 

Hornblende: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 222). Beryl: small green prisms (Cleave- 
land, 1822, 343; Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 222). 

WiLLOWDALB.*** Washouts, and sides of a mill race, on the West Branch of Red Clay 
Creek, */a of a mile W. N. W. of Willowdale, and */i of a mile north of Street Road. 

Vesuvianite: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 221). Zircon: brownish-red crystals, 
loose in the gravel and sands in the sides of the mill race (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 221). 
Rutile: crystals (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). Scapolite: tetragonal prisms, was found in a 
lime quarry in the vicinity. (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 221). 

Bailby's Farm.*** One mile southwest of Willowdale, on the West Branch of Red Clay 
Creek. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite; Shenandoah limestone. Small quarries and expostu*es. 
Bailey's lime quarry is situated west of Upland in West Marlborough Township. 

Quartz: fetid (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 222). Orthoclase, necronite: (Carpenter 
and Spackman, 1. c). Microcline; chesterlite: (Dana, 1868, 777). Alhite: (Dana, 1850, 654). 
Pyroxene: white (Dana, 1892, 1067). Tourmaline: black, brown, yeUow, green (Carpenter and 
Spackman, 1826, 222; Dana, 1^850, 654). Calcite: crystals (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). 
Lithomarge: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). 

Farms to thb South op Bah^by's. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid crystals up to 14 inches in circtunference (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 
222). Feldspar: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). CyanUe: green and blue (Carpenter and 
Spackman, 1. c). Epidote: yellowish-green prisms (Carpenter, 1828, 6). Chlorite: (Carpenter 
and Spackman, 1. c). Apatite: crystals (Carpenter and Spackman, L c). Pyrite: modified cubes 
(Carpenter, 1826, 222). 

PusBy's Quarribs. One and a half miles W. S. W. of Willowdale, and about Vt mile S. 
of Street Road. Wissahickon gneiss; Shenandoah limestone. 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 65). Dol- 
omite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Micro- 
dine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tremolite: sUky- white, fibrous masses (Dana, 1860, 
654; Eyerman, 1911, 5, analysis). Tourmaline: (Bengeand Wherry, L c). Muscovite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Rutile: crystals (occurs also in Taylor's quarry to the east of Pusey's, and 
in the surrounding fields) (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Weathering product: Aragonite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Marlboro. Exposures near Marlboro Meeting House. Wissahickon gneiss and pegma- 
tite; metaperidotite. 

Epidote: (Dana, 1850, 664). Tourmaline: acicular, in quartz (Dana, 1. c). Ser- 
pentine: (Dana, 1850, 654). Talc:^^^ foliated, white or green (Carpenter and Spackman, 
1826, 222). 

^^ Cleaveland (1822, 243 and 704) reported amethyst and ilmenite from the township, without specifying 
the localities however. 

1*^ Pusey's Saw Mill of Cari>enter and Spackman; given by them as '/« of a mile south of Street Road. 
*"* John Bailey's farm; Bailey & Bros.' farm of earlier writers. 
in Reported from "A. Marshall's and W. A. Cloud's farms." 



170 MINERAL LOCAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

East Pikbland Township 

KiMBERTON. Quarry west of Kimberton Sta., P. & R. Ry., Franklin limestone. 
Co^tte: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908,7). £/^kiote; (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Hallman. Raby's mine, and Fagley's mine, Vs mile north of Hallman Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Limonite "melanosiderite:*' (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). 

East Nottingham Township 

Near Oxford. 

Quartz: smoky (Genth, 1875, 58). Garnet: (Dana, 1850, 654). Tourmaline: black 
(Genth, 1875, 97). Muscovite: (Eyerman, 1889, 22). KaoliniU: (Genth, 1875, 119; analysis). 
Goethite: (Genth, 1875, 50). Chromite: octahedra (Genth, 1875, 40). 

Amos Pugh's Farm. Two and half miles S. S. E. of Oxford (Elkton 7886). Pegmatite. 

Beryl: greenish-white crystals (Genth, 1875, 71). Tourmaline: columnar, near mill 
(Genth, 1875, 97). Muscovite: globular aggregates of plates (Genth, 1875, 85). 

Mt. Rocky Meeting House. ^** One mile N. W. of Mt. Rocky Meeting House, and three 
miles south of Oxford. Roadside exposures. Meta-peridotite; corundum pegmatite. 

Albite: (Genth, 1875, 32). Corundum: crystals (Genth, 1875, 32). Amphibole asbestus: 
masses 2 feet long (Jefferis, 1892, 189). Hallite: dark bluish-green and yellow; micaceous crystals 
in nests or pockets in serpentine (Leeds, 1871, 70; Cooke, 1874, 59; Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 
245; analyses). 

East Whiteland Township^** 

General Trimble's Mine.^" About 'A of a mile N. W. of Planebrook Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Shenandoah limestone; residual deposits of goethite and limonite. 

Goethite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27). Limonite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
WaveUile: minute colorless prismatic crystals, often in radiating tufts or aggregates; also in white 
yellowish or grayish stalactitic, botryoidal or radiating masses coated with gibbsite. (Genth, 
1857, 423; 1875, 142; Hermann, 1869, 69; analysis). Ceruleolactite: pale bluish, greenish-blue to 
sky blue botryoidal incnistations of microscopic crystals (Genth, 1875, 143; analysis). Gibbsite: 
grayish pearly scales on limonite or wavellite (Dana, 1850, 654; Hermann, 1869, 68; Genth, 1857, 
52; 1890, 199; analyses). Allophane: (Rand, 1867, 404); Gibbsite: (Rand, 1. c.) occur a short 
distance to the southwest. 

Knickerbocker Quarry. About V« mile east of Mill Lane Sta., P. & R. Ry. Shenan- 
doah limestone. 

Aragonite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27). 

Mill Lane. Farms^^^ north of Mill Lane, P. R. R. Shenandoah limestone, and Octoraro 
schist. 

Limonite pseudo pyrile: cubes (Dana, 1868, 778; Jefferis, 1892, 191 ; Eyerman, 1889, 6). 

Elk Township*** 

Lewisville. 

Almandite: trapezohedra and dodecahedra (Genth, 1875, 73). Tourmaline: black (Genth, 
1875, 97). Muscovite: (Genth, 1875, 38). Ilmenite: (Genth, 1875, 36). 

Kennett Township 

Mullen's Farm:**' One-half mile south of Kennett Square. Meta-gabbro. 
Quartz: green (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 69). Epidote: crystals loose in the soil 
(Dana, 1850, 654). 

^^ The old meeting house stood 2 miles E. S. £. of Chrome. 
lu Dana (1868. 778) lists limpid quartz crystals from this township. 
»« "Steamboat," "White Horse" and "Whiteland" of some authors. 

*" Farms of L. Worthington, J. Hartman, Fetter's Mill, etc. Limonite pseudo pjnrite occurs on nearly every 
farm in the township. 

^M Chromite occurs in the serpentine in the western part of the township (Genth, 1875. 40). 
i» Cause's Comer of Dana (1850, 654). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 171 

Kbnnbtt Square. Old lime quarries southwest of Keimett Square. Shenandoah 
limestone. 

Tremolite: (Dana, 1860, 664). Scapolite: (Dana, 1. c.)- Tourmaline: brown (Dana, 1. c.) 
PhlogopiU: (Dana, L c). KaoUnite: (Genth, 1876, 119). 

PiBRCB's Papbr Mill."® One-half mile southeast of Kennett Square, on the East Branch of 
Red Clay Creek. (West Chester 4892-i3). Meta-gabbro. 

Gabbro pegmatites: OUgoclase: stmstone, brilliant (Dana, 1860,664). Labradorite: (Rog- 
ers, 1868, II, 710). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 69). Epidoie: small green 
crystals (Dana, 1860, 664). Zoisile: (Dana, 1. c). Cancriniie? (Eyerman, 1889, 22). Titanite: 
yeUow (Genth, 1876, 102). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: StUbile: (Rogers, 1. c.) Chabazite: small brownish-yellow 
crystals (Dana, 1860, 664). SUlimanite: (McKinstry) occtu's in a road cut V4 mile south of 
Pierce's paper mill in Wissahickon gneiss. 

Cloud's Farm. On a small run of the Hast Branch of Red Clay Creek, 2 miles S. E. 
of Kennett Square. (West Chester 7327) . Meta-gabbro. 

Gabbro pegmatites : OUgoclase: sunstone, brilliant reflections due to microscopic hexagonal 
plates (Lea, 1866, 110; Leeds, 1872, 434; Genth, 1876, 89). EpidoU: (Genth, 1876, 78). Ti- 
taniU: yellow crystals (Dana, 1868, 777). 

Hydrothermal metamorph : Chabazite: reddish rhombohedra (Genth, 1876, 109). 

Gregg's Farm. Two miles southwest of Kennett Square (West Chester 7274). 

Actinolite: (Dana, 1860, 664) 

London Britain Township 

Nsvin's Quarry. One mile S. E. of Landenberg, (Coatesville 9927). Shenandoah 
limestone and pegmatite. Two other quarries lie V/a miles to the southwest. 

Pegmatite: Orihoclase; necronite: (Dana, 1868, 777). Siilimanite: grajrish- white, acicu- 
lar, fibrous (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1876, 99). Muscovite: (Dana, 1860, 654). Columbite: 
black, imperfect crystals, 2 X 1 X V2 inches (Genth, 1876, 137). KaoliniU: (Dana, 1860, 664). 

Limestone; hydrothermal metamorphs: Dolomite: (Genth, 1876, 44). Tremolite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 66). Wemerite: (Dana, 1860, 664). Tourmaline: yellow and brown 
(Dana, 1860, 664). PhlogopiU: (Dana, 1860, 654). Apatite: green crystals (Dana, 1868, 777). 
Rutile: acicular crystals (Dana, 1860, 664; Genth, 1876, 44). Titanite: brown crystals (Genth, 
1876, 102). 

Limestone; weathering product: Aragonite: (Dana, 1860, 664). 

London Grovb Township"* 

AvondalB.*'* Quarries along the P. B. & W. R. R. V* of a mile N. W. of Avondale; Shenan- 
doah limestone; Wissahickon gneiss; and pegmatite. 

Wissahickon gneiss: Cyanite: blue bladed masses (Carpenter, 1828, 9). 

Pegmatite: Quartz: colorless and smoky; crystals up to 6 inches in diameter in the soil 
(Carpenter, 1828, 8). Almandite: dodecahedra up to 6V4 inches in diameter (Carpenter, 1828, 
8). Tourmaline: black terminated crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 9). Muscovite: green (Carpenter, 
1828, 8). 

Limestone; hydrothermal metamorplis: Tremolite: white, radiated masses (Carpenter, 
1828, 8). Amphibole asbestus: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 68). Tourmaline: brown and 
yellow crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 8). Epidote: green crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 9). Talc? 
(Carpenter, 1828, 8). Apatite: bottle green, transparent masses and rough crystals in the soil 
(Seybert, 1821, 144, analysis; Camot, 1896, 146, analysis). Occurs also one mile southwest of 
Chatham (Rogers, 1858, 1, 229). Rutile: striated prismatic crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 8). 

»»o Formerly Lamborn's Mill, 

^'1 Augite, cyanite, titanite and hematite were reported from the vicinity of "Friend's Meeting House, 
London Grove" (Finch, 1828, 18; Genth. 1875, 102; Bruce. 1813, 233, and Carpenter, 1828,9). Genth reported 
apatite from Penn's Meeting House (1875, 138). 

i»> William Jackson's quarry; Mitchener's quarry adjoined it. Pile and Morrison's quarries, and Dr. Alison's 
farm were undoubtedly in this neighborhood. Other old quarries of the neighborhood are Baker's quarry, '/• oi 
a mile N. W. of Baker; Storey's quarries, Va of a mile N. E. of Westgrove; and Bernards' quarry, */t of a mile farther 
north. 



172 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Limestone; hydrometamorphic veins: Calcite: yellow, scalenohedra and rhombohedra 
(Carpenter, 1828, 9). Dolomite: rhombohedra (Carpenter, L c). 

Quarry at the west end of Toughkenamon Hill, just east of Avondale. Cambrian gneiss 
and pegmatite. 

Pegmatite; primary: Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 55). AlmandiU: 
bright red dodecahedra up to 3Vs inches in diameter were formerly abundant (Jefferis, 1882, 58; 
1892, 191). Tourmaline: crystals (Jefferis, 1892, 191). GraphiU: (Jefferis, 1892, 191). 

Penna. Granite Co. Quarry. Three-quarters of a mile northwest of Avondale Sta. 
P. B. &. W. R. R. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite; and Shenandoah limestone. 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 55). AlmandiU: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, L c). 

Lime quarry, nearby. Shenandoah limestone. 

Limestone ; hydrothermal metamorphs : Ampkihole; mountain-leather: (Benge and Wherry 
XV, 1908, 55). Tourmaline: brown (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Limestone; hydrometamorphic veins: Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Aragonite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Wilson's QuXrry. Two miles N. N. E. of Avondale. (Coatesville 6918). Shenandoah 
limestone. 

Tremolite: fibrous, radiated (Carpenter, 1828, 8). 

Lower Oxi'ord Township 
Almandite: trapezohedra and dodecahedra (Genth, 1875, 73). 

New Garden Township 

Toughkenamon. Quarry, Vs "lile north of Toughkenamon Sta., P. B. &. W. R. R. 
Pegmatite. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 55). Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

Phillip's Quarries. On Kennett Square Road, 1 mile west of Kennett Square. Shen- 
andoah limestone. 

Calcite: stalactitic, foliated, fibrous (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 223). Tourmaline: 
brown, translucent crystals (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). 

South op Phillip's Quarry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Carpenter, 1828, 6). Tourmaline: black (Carpenter, I. c). Muscovite: 
(Cari>enter and Spackman, 1826, 223). SiUimanite: grajdsh- white, fibrous (Carpenter, 1. c). 
Apatite: green crystals (Carpenter, 1. c). 

Jackson's Quarry. 

Augite: in gabbro (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 223). Pyrrhotite: (Carpenter and 
Spackman, 1. c). 

Joshua Pusey's Quarry. 

Calcite: arborescent, mammillary, botryoidal (Carpenter, 1828, 7). 

Brown's Quarry. On a small tributary of the East Branch of White Clay Creek, about 
V/i miles S. E. of Landenberg. Shenandoah limestone. 

Tremolite: white, radiating (Carpenter, 1828, 7). Apatite: (Carpenter and Spackman, 
1826, 223). 

New London Township**' 

New London. One mile west of New London. Pegmatite. 
Muscovite: large sheets enclosing magnetite. 

Newlin Township 

Edward's Quarry. Two miles N. N. E. of Upland (Coatesville 6323). Pierce's quarry 
lies a short distance to the northeast (Coatesville 6324). Shenandoah limestone; pegmatite. 

i'> Carpenter (1828, 0) lists tourmaline and sillimanite from "Robert Hudson's farm." 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 1 73 

Quartz: limpid crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Tourmaline: black (Carpenter, 1. c). 
Cakite: crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Fluorite: deep blue cubes and masses (Carpenter, 1. c), 
RutUe: crystals up to four inches in length (Genth, 1875, 44). 

Northwest of Unionville. One and a half miles N. W. of Unionville. 

SideriU: ctu^ed lamellar masses (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 221). Pyrite: large 
cubes (Carpenter and Spackman, 1. c). Almandite: dodecahedra in gneiss (Carpenter and Spack- 
man, L c). 

Corundum Hill.**^ Corundum mines on Corundum Hill, about two miles N. E. of Union- 
ville. (West Chester 1879). Other mines occur about V» niile to the southwest (West Chester 
4218). The mines are abandoned. Meta-peridotite; albite-corundum pegmatites (plumasite) ; 
Wissahickon gneiss. 

Peridotite; primary: Diallage? (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 1875, 66). CkromUe: (Dana, 
1850, 654). 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Actinolite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Amphibole 
ashestus; mountain cork: (Dana, 1850, 654). ProMorite: (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 1873, 
394; analyses; 1875, 134; Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 247, analyses). Dark green to light 
olive-green foliated or scaly masses; druses of minute crystals. Clinochlore: (Blake, 1851, 241). 
Chloritoidf (Dana, 1868, 777). Serpentine; precious , aniigorite, retinalite, picrolite: yellow, light 
green to dark green (Dana, 1854, 654; Rogers, 1858, II, 711 ; Genth, 1875, 115; Benge and Wherry, 
XV, 1908, 45; Eyerman, 1911, 16, analysis). Talc: (Dana, 1850, 654). Magnetite: octahedra 
(Rogers, 1858, II, 711). HematiU: (Dana, 1850, 654). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Deweylite: (Genth, 1875, 91). Quartz: drusy, 
green (Dana, 1850, 654). Chalcedony: camelian, jasper (Dana, 1850, 654; Rogers, 1858, II, 711). 
Limonite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). 

Plumasite; primary: Orthodase? (Dana, 1850, 654). Alhite: granular, white (Silliman, 
Jr., 1849, 389; analysis). Oligodase: yellowish or brownish-white, granular (Smith and Brush, 
1853, 211 ; Dana, 1854, 489; Genth, 1873. 377, analysis; Chatard, 1882, 384, analysis). Anorthite? 
indianite: (Jeflferis, 1892, 88). Margarite: yellowish- white, faintly pink, broad foliated masses, 
fibrous, scaly, fine granular, or cryptocrystalline (Silliman, Jr., 1849, 380; Dana, 1850, 362; 
analyses; Smith and Brush, 1853, 207; Genth, 1873, 399-402, analyses; 1875, 136; 1882, 389, 
analysis). Euphyllite: pearly white, micaceous (Silliman, Jr., 1849, 381, analysis; Dana, 1850, 362, 
analyses; Smith and Brush, 1853, 209). Tourmaline: black, bluish to brownish-green; translucent 
to opaque; massive; small prismatic crystals in diaspore or margarite (Dana, 1850, 654; Silliman, 
Jr., 1849, 381; Lea, 1867, 44; Genth, 1875, 96). Beryl? yellow, rare (Dana, 1850, 654). Alman- 
dite? (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). AUanite? (Dana, 1854, 489). ZoisiU; unionite: white 
to yellowish-white, lamellar (Silliman, Jr., 1849, 384; Smith and Brush, 1853, 211; Brush, 1858, 
69, analy.sis). Muscovite; damourite; lesleyite; white yellowish or reddish; fibrous, lamellar, scaly, 
granular, crjrptocfystalline; pseudomorphous after conmdum (Silliman, Jr., 1850, 397; Dana 
1850, 363; Lea, 1867, 44; Sharpies, 1869, 319; Genth, 1873, 386; 1875, 123; analyses; Smith, 1869, 
254). P alter sonite: bluish-gray, laminated, slightly translucent (Lea, 1867, 44; Sharpies, 1869, 
320, analyses; Genth, 1873, 398, analysis). Corundum: white, brownish-gray, greenish, or blue; 
loose crystals up to 4 inches in length in the soil; granular masses have been found weighing 
several tons; most commonly occurs as gray crystals in white granular albite with black tourmaline 
and margarite (Seal, 1851, 267; Leeds 1873, 25, analysis; Genth, 1873, 362; 1875, 32). Diaspore: 
white, honey-yellow, fawn colored, or greenish; laminated masses; perfect splendent crystals up 
to 2 inches in length. A vein of corundum and margarite 14 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 54 feet 
deep was found 500 feet down the north slope of the hill; on one side of it was a coating of diaspore 
meastuing 3X2 feet and 2 inches thick, well crystallized on the surface, with crystals 2 inches 
long. (Lea, 1867, 44; Brush, 1866, 268; Dana, 1868, 169, analysis; Genth, 1875, 48; Dana, 
1886, 388). Rutile? (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). Spinel: black octahedra (Genth, 
1873, 369, analysis). Umenite: (Dana, 1892, 1067). PyriU: (Dana, 1892, 1067). Apatite: 
(Genth, 1875, 138). 

Plumasite; hydrometamorphs: Brucite: (Dana, 1854, 489). Gibbsite: small grayish - 
white mammillary incrustations on corundum (Seal, 1851, 267). 

Plumasite; weathering products: Jefferisite; culsageeite: large yellowish-green plates 



U4 Farms of John Lesley and J. Patterson of early writers. Commonly known as "Unionville. 



f* 



174 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

(Genth, 1873. 391; 1875, 129; JeflFeris, 1880, 280). Halloysite, "cerolite:" (Smith and Brush, 
1853, 211, analysis. Malachite: stains on corundum (Genth, 1875, 167). 

Other occurrences of corundum, margarite, tourmaline, and euphyllite have been reported 
on farms one mile north of Corundum Hill, and Vs mile south of Corundum Hill (Benge and 
Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). 

Johnson and Pattbrsgn's Quarry. One and a half-miles southwest of Northbrook Sta., 
P. & R. Ry., and about V2 mile S. E. of the corundum mines. Pegmatite. (West Chester 4224). 

Microcline: (Genth, 1875, 93). Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). Al- 
mandite: brownish-red crystals (Genth, 1875, 73). Tourmaline: black prismatic crystals up to 
6 inches in length (Genth, 1875, 96; Eyerman, 1911, 10, analysis). Muscovite: crystals (Genth, 
1875, 85). BioiiU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). 

Beryl Hill. About 1 mile west of Northbrook Sta. and 1 mile south of Glenhall Sta. 
(West Chester 4223), Pegmatite. 

Beryl: bluish-green and yellow, crystals weighing up to 50 pounds (Seal, 1821, 39; Genth, 
1875, 71). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). Vermiculite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Glenhall.'^ Farms south of Glenhall. Wissahickon gneiss, quartz veins. 

Amethyst: crystals in the soil (Carpenter, 1828, 7; Jefferis, 1880, 280; Benge and Wherry, 
XV, 1908, 45). 

Embrbevillb."* 

Beryl: green crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Muscovite: green crystals (Carpenter, 1. c). 
Pyrite: cubes (Carpenter, 1828, 6). . Talc? (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Cyanite: (Eyerman, 1889, 27). 

Pennsbury Township'*' 

Jacob Swayne's Farm. Small abandoned quarry on Swayne's farm, about V2 mile south 
of Fairville. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: perfect crystals up to 6 inches in length (Genth, 1875, 93). Muscovite: 
brownish or greenish crystals measuring up to 12 X 18 inches and weighing a hundred pounds. 
Crystals show inclusions of magnetite, hematite, quartz and garnet; often coloring the plates a 
brilliant red, blue or green. (Silliman, Jr., 1850, 377; Eyerman, 1911, 13, analysis; Rose, 1869, 
190; Dana, 1869, 360; Genth, 1875, 38, 56; Rand, 1880, 276). Magnetite: reticulated dendrites 
in muscovite (Rose, 1869, 190; Dana, 1869, 360; Genth, 1875, 38; Rand, 1880, 276). Quartz: 
microscopic crystals enclosed between plates of muscovite (Genth, 1875, 56; Rand, 1880, 276). 
Gahnite: green crystals in muscovite (E. T. Wherry). 

Fairville. Exposures on west side of road just south of Fairville. Meta-gabbro. 

Oligoclase: suns tone (Dana, 1868, 778). 

DiL worth's Farm. About V2 niile north of Fairville. Abandoned quarry, overgrown. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Muscovite: crystals 6 inches in diameter; occur also in the soil northwest of the house, near 
the woods (Dana, 1850, 654; Jefferis, 1892, 190). Almandite: icositetrahedra (McKinstry). 

Marshall's Farm. Just east of Dilworth's farm. Pegmatite. 

Muscovite: long striated plates (Genth, 1875, 84). Biotite: (Neminarz, 1874, 241, analysis; 
Genth, 1875, 83). 

Craig's Farm. About 1 mile northeast of Fairville. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Muscovite: (Dana, 1868, 778). Almandite: brown crystals up to an inch in diameter, often 
flattened between plates of muscovite: (Dana, 1850, 654; 1868, 778; Genth, 1875, 73). 

Mendenhall's Quarry. About 1 mile southwest of Chadd's Ford. Shenandoah lime- 
stone; Wissahickon gneiss. 

Quarts: fetid (Dana, 1868, 778). Orthoclase; necronite: (Carpenter, 1828, 5). Oligoclase, 
sunstone? (Dana, 1868, 778). Tremolite: white, acicular, radiating (Carpenter, 1828, 220). 
Calcite: crystals, lamellar masses (Carpenter, I. c). 

>» Farms of George Passmore (Carpenter) and W. Hayes (Jefferis). 

»«• "Near William Embrie's Malt House" of Carpenter. The actual locality may be Beryl Hill. Townsend 
(1839. 7) and Carpenter and Spackman (1826, 221) listed prehnite, feldspar, limonite, chalcedony, chromite, 
muscovite, quartz, talc, and tourmaline from the "serpentine ridge." 

>»» Carpenter and Spackman (1826, 220) listed microcline and amethyst crystals from "Twaddle's Tavern." 
Dana (1868, 778) lists agalmatolite without any specific locality. 



MINBRAI. LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 175- 

Harvey's Quarry.*** On the west side of Brandywine Creek, near Brinton's Bridge, about 
iVs miles N. W. of Chadd's Ford. Shenandoah limestone. 

Chondrodite: orange and yellow grains (Finch, 1828, 17; Genth, 1875, 95). 

Caleb Brinton's Quarry. Near Harvey's quarry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 70). 

BtJRNBTT's Quarry. Along the road, about V* mile N. W. of Brinton's quarry. Aban- 
doned and overgrown. Shenandoah limestone. 

Pyroxene; diopside, salite, coccolUe, mussite, and augUe: (Finch, 1828, 17; Genth, 1875, 
65; Carpenter and Spackmaii, 1826, 220). Hornblende: (Finch, 1828, 17). TitaniU: brown 
crystals, an inch long (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 220; Genth, 1875, 102). 

PopcopsoN Township 

NoRTHBROOK. Explosures near Marshall's Mill, about V2 mile northeast of Northbrook 
Sta., P. & R. Ry. Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). Chromite: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 

CoRRiNB. Quarry about 1 mile southwest of Corrine, just south of the West Chester- 
Kennett Square Trolley Line. Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine; picrolite: (Bengeand Wherry, XV, 1908, 45). Chromite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Lenapb. Lane east of Townsend Walter's house, V* mile northwest of Lenape. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: slender black crystals in quartz (McKinstry). 

Truman Lloyd's Farm (formerly Entrikin's) adjoining Walter's farm. Wissahickon 
gneiss, quartz veins. 

Amethyst: crystals in the soil (Dana, 1868, 778). 

PocopsoN. Darlington's farm, about V4 mile west of Pocopson Sta., P. & R. Ry. ; and the 
bed of Pocopson Creek, about V4 mile west of Darlington's farm. Wissahickon gneiss, and quartz 
veins. 

Amethyst: crystals in the soil (Carpenter, 1828, 5; Dana, 1868, 778). Cyanite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XV, 1908, 46). 

Sadsbury Township 

Fields along the south slope of hill in the northern part of Parkesburg, and locally for 7 
miles along the vaUey. Shenandoah limestone; Chickies quartzite, and pegmatite. 

Quartz: milky crystals; amethyst: clusters of small light purple crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
XV, 1908, 26 ; Genth, 1875, 57 ; Dana, 1850, 654) . Rutile: deep red twinned crystals up to a pound 
in weight, in the soil (Townsend, 1839, 7; Dana, 1868, 778; Gratacap, 1912, 94; JeflFeris, 1892, 191). 

Roadside exposures between Parkesburg and Sadsbury ville. Chickies quartzite; peg- 
matite. 

Quartz: milky, amethyst: (Dana, 1850, 654; 1868, 778). Tourmaline: (Dana, 1850, 
654). Epidote: (Dana, 1850, 654). 

Sadsburyvillb. Quarry west of Sadsburyville. 

Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26). Epidote: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

PoMBROY. Cut on P. R. R. northeast of Pomeroy Sta. Chickies quartzite. 

Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26). 

ScHUYi^Kii^L Township 

PHOENixvnxB TuNNBi*. Tunnel of P. & R. Ry. about Vs mile north of Phoenixville 
Sta. Triassic shales; hydrothermal veins. 

Quartz: colorless, milky and smoky (Dana, 1844, 545; Genth, 1875, 58). Calcite: crystals 
(Dana, 1844, 545; Genth, 1875, 153). Ankerite: yellowish-white, curved rhombohedra; crystalline 
or granular masses (Dana, 1844, 545; 1877, 290, analysis). Pyrite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Sphaler- 
ite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Brookite: crystals on quartz (Dana, 1844, 545). Octahedrite? (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 8). 

Morris Minb.^'* One mile south of Phoenixville. (Phoenixville 6652). 

i« "Way's Hill" of Finch. 
11* Chrisman's mine? 



176 MINERAL LOCALITIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Barite: (Dana, 1850, 664; Rand, 1887,404). Chalcopyrite: (Dana, 1. c; Genth, 1875, 21). 
Galena: cubo-octahedra. Cerussite: (Dana, 1. c.)- AnglesiU: (Dana, L c). PyromorphiU: 
(Dana, 1. c). 

Wheatlby Mines. **° One-quarter mile southwest of William's Comer, 2 miles south of 
Phoenixville. (PhoenixviUe 6924). The Chester County mine adjoined it on the west (Phoenix. 
6915); the Montgomery mine to the northwest (Phoenix. 6914); and the Brookdale mine on the 
southwest, distant about V> mile (Phoenix. 6943). Pickering gneiss; Triassic red shales; intrusive 
diabase; hydrothermal veins. 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: colorless to milky crystals; cellular; pseudo- 
morphous after caldte. (Dana, 1850, 654; Rogers, 1868, II, 701; Rand, 1867, 403; Groth, 1900, 
147). Colette: crystals up to eight inches in length, and an inch thick; hexagonal prisms ter- 
minated by rhombohedra were found in slabs of crystals measuring 10 feet square. Scalenohedra 
often occurred arranged spirally, with a cube of fluorite at the apex of each crystal, or enclosed 
within the termination; or with pyrite crystals arranged symmetrically on the rhombohedron. 
(Smith, 1855, 251; Genth, 1875, 153). Dolomite: (Rand, 1867, 403). Ankerite: curved rhombo- 
hedra, or yellowish- white granular masses (Rand, 1867, 403 ; Genth, 1875, 157, analysis). Siderite: 
spherosiderite: (Rogers, 1868, II, 701). Fluorite: colorless to pale yellowish- white; cubes, with 
occasional tetrahedra (Dana, 1854, 489; Smith, 1855, 251, analysis; Genth, 1875, 29). BariU: 
white laminated masses (Dana, 1854, 489; Genth, 1875, 146). Galena; argentiferous: cubes, 
cubo-octahedra, octahedra, massive, fibrous, or granular (Dana, 1850, 654; Smith, 1855, 248; 
Rand, 1867, 402. The lead and silver antimonial sulfuret of Rogers, 1858, II, 701, is probably a 
variety of galena according to Genth, 1875, 11). Sphalerite: pale brown, large modified and 
twinned dodecahedra (Townsend, 1839, 9; Smith, 1855, 250, analysis). Gersdorffite: cubes, 
modified by octahedral or dodecahedral faces; incrustations of small crystals with galena, sphaler- 
ite, quartz, and anglesite (Genth, 1859, 248). PyrUe: (Rogers, 1858, II, 701). Chalcopyrite: 
auriferous; crystals (Dana, 1854, 489; Smith, 1855, 249; analysis; Genth, 1875, 2). Bournonite? 
(Eyerman, 1911, 22). Hematite: micaceous (Genth, 1875, 34). 

Hydrothermal deposits; weathering products: Sulphur: minute pale yellowish-green 
highly modified pyramidal crystals, 1 mm. in size with galena and anglesite (Smith, 1855, 253; 
Genth, 1875, 7; Fletcher, 1880, 187; Busz, 1889, 620). SUver: (Rogers, 1858, II, 701). Copper: 
sheets of arborescent crystals; delicate films on limonite. quartz, or chalcopyrite, or enclosed 
within crystals of anglesite (Smith, 1855, 249; Genth, 1875, 5). Cuprite; chalcotrichite: (Rand, 
1867, 403). Chalcocite: (Genth. 1875, 16), probably a hydrometamorph. Covellite: (Genth, 
1859, 248). Melaconite: pulverulent, massive (Rogers, 1858, II, 701 ; Genth, 1875, 31). GoethiU: 
(Genth, 1875, 48). Limonite: (Smith, 1855, 251, analysis). Aragonite: groups of crystals 
(Genth, 1875, 162). SmithsoniU? silky tufts (Rogers, 1858, II, 701). Cerussite: colorless, 
white, yellow, or black; crystals commonly twinned; sometimes coating anglesite or pseudo- 
morphous after it (Dana, 1850, 654; Blake, 1852, 116; Smith, 1855, 245; Rand, 1867, 403; Genth, 
1875, 163; Rogers, 1902, 133). MalachiU: (Smith, 1855, 249, analysis). AzuriU: crystals up 
to Vs inch across (Smith, 1855, 250, analysis; Genth, 1875, 168). Calamine: white, yellowish or 
bluish; silky tufts or botryoidal masses (Dana, 1854, 489; Smith, 1855, 250; Genth, 1875, 106; 
Eyerman, 1911, 9, analysis. The wavellite reported by Eyerman, 1889, 40, was undoubtedly 
calamine). Pyromorphite: light green to dark green prismatic crystals, often cavernous; colum- 
nar, botryoidal, plumose or granular masses (Dana, 1850, 654; Blake, 1852, 116; Smith, 1855, 
247; Genth, 1875, 139; 1876, 227, analysis; Eyerman, 1911, 19, analysis). Mimetite: colorless, 
yellow, or greenish-yellow crystals similar to pyromorphite, but more commonly modified by 
pyramids; sometimes occurs as a tabular crystal or cap on pjrromorphite (Smith, 1855, 127; 248; 
Genth, 1875, 140). Vanadinite: (Dana, 1854, 489 ; Smith, 1855, 127). Pseudomalachite: (Dana; 
1854, 489). Descloiztte: dark colored crystalline crusts of minute purple crystals (Smith, 1855, 
246, rough analysis; Genth, 1876, 140). Erythrite: rose-pink coatings (Lewis, 1885, 120). Angle- 
site: colorless, occasionally black, green, or yellow, due to inclusions of galena, malachite, or 
limonite; pyramidal, tabular or prismatic crystals up to a half pound in weight and measuring 
572 X IV2 inches (Dana, 1850, 654; Blake, 1852, 116; Dana, 1854, 419; 1868, 623; Smith, 1855, 
244; Lang, 1859; Schrauf, 1871, fig. 52; Genth, 1875, 147). Wulfenite: bright yellow or red. 

1^0 The locality is commonly known as "PhoenixviUe." It is first mentioned by Dana, 1850,654. as "Near 
Kinsey's Mill." The mines are described in detail by Rogers, 1858, II, 698, with a map. 



MINERAL LOCALITIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 177 

tabular or pyramidal crystals (Blake, 1851, 247; 1852, 116; 106; Wetherill, 1852, 56; 119; Smith,. 
1855, 245, analysis; Koch, 1882, 402). Sioltite: yellowish-gray pyramidal crystals on quartz, 
with pyromorphite and wtilfenite, sometimes enclosed within the latter (Rand, 1867, 403). Men^ 
dipUe? (Dana, 1854, 489). Chalcanthite? (Eyerman, 1911, 20). 

Jug Hollow Minb."* On the road to Williams Comer, about 1 V* niiles west of Valley 
Forge. (Norristown 4752). Abandoned and practically inaccessible. Triassic shales; hydro- 
thermal veins. 

Amethyst: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Barite: (Genth, 1875, 146). HematiU: 
(Benge and Wherry, Lc). Chalcopyritr. (Genth, 1875, 14). 5/>Aa/«nte: pale yellow to greenish - 
yellow crystals up to an inch in diameter (Genth, 1875, 14). 

South Coventry Township 

CovBNTRYViLLS. Graphite mine on French Creek, Va mile south of Coventryville. 
Pickering gneiss. (Phoenixville 1976). 

Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 6). Halotrichite: weathering product on gneiss 
(Genth, 1875, 150). 

Small limestone quarry on the south side of French Creek, opposite the graphite mine 
(Phoenixville 1979). Franklin limestone. Abandoned. 

Graphite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Augite: (Dana, 1. c). Zircon: (Dana, 1. c). Titanite: 
(Dana, L c). 

PuGHTowN. Exposures about V* mile southwest of Pughtown, near the junction of 
Beaver and French Creeks. Pickering gneiss. 

GraphiU: (Rogers, 1850, II, 709). Hematite: (Rogers, L c). Wad: (Rogers, 1. c). 

North op Pughtown. 

Graphite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Magnetite: crystals (Dana, 1. c). Zircon: (Dana, 1. c). 
Titanite: (Dana, 1. c). 

South op Pughtown. 

AUaniU: (Genth, 1875, 79). Zircon: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). 

Thornbury Township 

DiLWORTHTowN. Abraham Darlington's quarry, about 1 mile northwest of Dilworth- 
town. Shenandoah limestone. 

CalciU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 54). 

Brinton's Farm. Three-eighths of a mile southeast of Darlington's Comers. (West 
Chester 6121). Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite in a road-cut south of the house. 

Muscovite: plates measuring a foot square, containing acicular crystals of tourmaline 
(Dana, 1868, 778). Tourmaline: in muscovite: (Dana, 1. c). Ilmenite: in the fields (Genth, 
1875, 36). Rutile: in the fields (Dana, 1868, 778). 

Trsdypprin Township 

Diamond Rock. Exposures in woods on the south slope of North Valley Hill, just west of 
the road going south to Paoli, 2 miles southwest of Valley Forge. Chickies quartzite. 

Quartz: crystals (Genth, 1875. 57; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27). 

HowBLLvnxB. Quarry south of Howellville Sta., P. & R. Ry. Shenandoah limestone. 

Calcite: prismatic crystals 2 inches in length. Also occurs in the quarry at Gallagerville. 
Fluorite: purple masses (Jefferis, 1880, 243). 

Cbdar Holu)w. Hill east of Cedar Hollow Station. • 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: cubes (Eyerman, 1889, 5; McKinstry). Crystals occur in the soil 
on nearly every farm in the vicinity (Dana, 1868, 778; Jefferis, 1892, 191). 

Uppbr Uwchlan Township 

UwcHLAN. Exposures V* mile north of Eagle Tavern, Uwchlan (or Windsor; Byers Sta.). 
Pickering gneiss. (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). 

Quartz: blue (Dana, 1868, 778). Graphite: (Dana, 1. c). 

Bybrs. Graphite mines near Byers Sta., P. & R. Ry. Pickering gneiss. 

1^* Or Napoleon mine. 



178 MINBRAIy LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). PyrrhoiiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Aragonite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Valley Township 

CoATESViLLE. Exposures and quarries on Lancaster Turnpike, northwest of Coatesville, 
Chickies quartzite; pegmatite. 

Quartz: amethyst, and smoky (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26). Tourmaline: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c.) Hematite: titaniferous (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 

Southwest of Coatesville. Exposures and washouts along the Valley Road, southwest 
of Coatesville. 

RutUe: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26). 

Hoopman's Farm. One mile northeast of Pomeroy. 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Rand, 1894, 458). 

Waixace Township 

Springton. Roadside exposures at Springton Sta., P. R. R. Pickering gneiss. 

Zircon: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7; Wherry, 1908, 72). 

Excavations north of Springton Station. 

Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry. 1. c). 

One and a half miles west of Springton. 

Zircon: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 



I c). 



Lyndell. Fields 1 mile west of Lyndell Station, P. R. R. Octoraro schist. 
Pyrite: crystals partially altered to limonite (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). 



Warwick Township 

Hopewell Mines. One mile northwest of Warwick Sta. P. & R. Ry. (Honeybrook 3799 
and 3877). Idle. Pickering gneiss; Shenandoah? limestone; Triassic shales; intrusive diabase; 
tactite; hydrothermal deposits replacing the limestone. 

Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 6). Hornblende; byssolite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Andradite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Epidote: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Pyrite: (Jefferis, 1892, 192). Hematite: micaceous (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Mag- 
netite: octahedra (Rogers, 1858, II, 707). Quartz: crystals ; sometimes pseudomorphous (Jefferis, 
1. c). Chalcedony: (Genth, 1875, 59). 

Steele's Mine. On the side of Steele's Hill, about Va mile north of Warwick Sta. 
(Honeybrook 3892). Overgrown. 

CoccoliU: (Dana, 1850, 653). Andradite: (Smith, 1855, 188). Magnetite: octahedra 
(Dana, 1. c). Hematite: micaceous (Dana, 1. c). 

Warwick Mines. Warwick Mines, V« mile southeast of Warwick Sta., just southeast of 
St. Mary's. Triassic conglomerate and diabase; tactite; hydrothermal replacement deposits. 

Orthoclase: (Genth, 1875, 94; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 6). Hornblende; actinoliU, 
byssolite: (Dana, 1868, 778; Genth, 1876, 68). Andradite; melanite: brilliant brownish-black to 
jet black dodecahedra measuring an inch (Dana, 1868, 778; Genth, 1875, 75). Epidote: crystals 
(Rogers, 1858, II, 708). Serpentine: (Rogers, 1858, II, 708). Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Magnetite: dodecahedra (Dana, 1868, 778). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). Chalcopyrite: 
{Benge and Wherry, U c). Bornite: (Genth, 1875, 13). 

French Creek Mines.*** About Vsth mile east of St. Peter's Sta., P. & R. Ry. (Knauer- 
town). The two old shafts were known as the Keim or lower mine, and the Elizabeth, or upper 
mine, from their respective positions on the side of the hill (Phoenixville 1737 and 1761). The 
Crossley pits were about a hundred yards to the east. A large slope was driven in 1918. Picker- 
ing? gneiss; Shenandoah? limestone; Triassic red shales; intrusive diabase; hydrothermal deposits 
replacing the limestone; tactite. 

Minerals of the gneiss: Orthoclase: reddish-white, flesh-red, or light-green; columnar, 

>*s Asbeferrite was reported by Goldsmith, 1893, 174, but the material was undoubtedly byssolite. Eyerman 
<1889, 16) listed pyraUolite. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 179 

radiating aggregates of slender crystals (Genth, 1885, 43, analysis; Eyerman, 1889, 58; Jefferis, 
1892, 192). Augile: (Eyerman, 1889, 58). DiaUage; salile: (Eyerman, 1889, 16). WemeiiU: 
colorless, white, and grayish- white, columnar striated crystals (Genth, 1890, 162, analyses). 
Chalcodite: in cavities in feldspar (Smith, 1885, 412, analysis, "glauconite;" probably the thurin- 
gite of Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 6). GraphiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Molybdenite? 
(Dana, 1854, 489). 

Limestone; contact metamorphs: Colette: colorless, white, dark-yellow, and deep green 
enclosing byssolite (Rogers, 1858, II, 707; Genth, 1875, 153; Eyerman, 1889, 43). Hornblende; 
actinolite; byssolite: light green to greenish-black; radiating; needle-like crystals, or masses of 
needles (resembling mountain-cork), sometimes disseminated in calcite, and coloring it a deep 
green (Dana, 1868, 778; 1850, 654; Eyerman, 1889, 16; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1906, 6). An- 
dradite: brilliant dodecahedra up to 2V« inches in diameter (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 1875, 75; 
Eyerman, 1911, 6, analysis). Tourmaline: black, radiating crystals. Serpentine; metaxite: 
(Dana, 1850, 654). 

Hydrothermal deposits; primary.**' Calcite: colorless crystals up to 2 X V2 inches showing 
the forms m (lOTO), p (2131), and «(0ll2) (striated), Keim mine (Gordon, Am. Min., 3, 164, 1918). 
ApophyUite: colorless, white, light pink; tabular to pyramidal crystals, sometimes in quite large 
slabs; lamellar masses (Smith, 1885, 413, analysis; Eyerman, 1889, 29, 34; 1889, 57; 1904, 43; 
1911, 11; analyses). AnkeriU: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Siderite: (Dana, 1892, 1068). 
Rhodochrosite: (Dana, 1892, 1068). Pyrite: brilliant octahedra measuring 45 mm. ; cubes meastu*- 
ing 28 mm.; rarely in elongated octahedra, or spinel twins in calcite; cobaltiferous (Dana, 1850, 
6&4; Genth, 1875, 20; Eyerman, 1889, 57; 1889, 34; Penfield, 1889, 209; Genth, 1890, 114, analysis; 
Nicol, 1904, 93; Wherry, 1920, 116). Pyrrhotite: massive, rarely in pseudohexagonal crystals, 
of tabular habit, 1 cm. in diameter. Chalcopyrite: single and grouped sphenoids, single crystals 
measuring 30 mm., often tarnished (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 1875, 21; Penfield, 1890, 207). 
Bomite: (Dana, 1868, 778). Sphalerite; marmatite: black dodecahedra measuring an inch, in 
calcite or byssolite. Hematite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Magnetite: foliated masses, or bright octa- 
hedral crystals (Dana, 1854, 489; Genth, 1875, 39; Eyerman, 1889. 59). 

Hydrothermal deposits; hydrometamorphs and weathering products: Aragonite: flos 
ferri; fibrous, stalactitic (Dana, 1850, 654; Genth, 1875, 162). Gypsum: small crystals (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Malachite: (Dana, 1850, 654). Chrysocolla: (Genth, 1875, 105). Ery- 
thrite: coatings on calcite (Eyerman, ,1889, 40). 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorphs: ApophyUite: druses of crystals (Smith, 1. c; 
Eyerman, 1. c). Stilbite: prismatic crystals (Eyerman, 1889, 32; 57; analysis). Heulandite: 
(Oldach; Am. Min., 2, 83, 1917). 

Trap Quarry, V* mile south of St. Peter's Sta. Triassic diabase; hydrothermal meta- 
morphic veins. (Phoenixville 1767). 

ApophyUite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 6). StilbiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

West Bradford Township"* 

Young's Farm. Exposure on Young's farm, on the road to Romansville, 2 miles west of 
Harmony Hill. (West Chester 1298). Octoraro schist. 

Fuchsite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27; Wherry, XIV, 1908, 172; 1915, 465, partial 
analysis). 

Poorhouss Quarry. About Va mile north of Glenhall Sta., P. & R. Ry. (West Chester 
1587). Shenandoah limestone. 

Limestone; hydrothermal metamorphs-. Quartz: crystals 4 X IV2 inches (Carpenter, 1828, 
7). Calcite: scalenohedra (Dana, 1850, 654). Dolomite: crystals (Dana, 1. c). Microcline; 
chesterlite: white to flesh colored crystals (Dana, 1850, 664; Breithaupt, 1858, 1; Smith and 
Brush, 1853, 42; Lea, 1866, 113; Descloizeaux, 1876, 433, 461, 463, 465, analysis). TremoliU: 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27); mountain leather (Rand, 1867, 405). Muscovite; damourite: 
"talc:" minute tuft-like aggregates (Dana, 1850, 654; Smith and Brush, 1853, 47; Genth, 1875, 
124). Phlogopite: (Rogers, 1858, I, 230). ZoisiU? (Dana, 1850, 654). ChloriU: (Benge and 

^** The calcite. apophyllite, and other carbonates listed were introduced at a late stage of the mineralization. 
i«4 Carpenter, 1828, 7, listed epidote crystals from "Smith and McMullin's Farms:" Dana. 1850, 654: ser- 
pentine and chromite from Marshall's Mill. 



180 MINERAL LOCAUTIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Wherry, 1. c). Ruiile: brilliant ruby -red, rarely transparent, striated and terminated prismatic 
or acicular crystals up to an inch in length (Carpenter, 1828, 7; Rand, 1867, 405). Pyrite: 
cubes and cubo-octahedra (Carpenter, 1828, 7). 

Marshallton. Exposures on the road from Copesville to Embreeville, about V» niil^ 
northwest of Marshallton. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 27). Cyanite: also occurs on the Strasburg 
road, west of Marshallton (Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Dana, 1850, 654, also lists scapolite, staurolite> 
and rutile from this vicinity; Carpenter, and Spademan, 1826, 220, reported andalusite). 

Wbst Goshbn Township 

Taylor's Quarry. On Taylor's Run, just northwest of West Chester; and the exposures 
in the vicinity along the serpentine ridge. Meta-peridotite. 

Peridotite; primary: Chromite: octahedra (Finch, 1828, 18; Eyerman, 1889, 18). 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Serpentine: "cerolite,** reiinaUU, chrysotile: 
(Carpenter and Spademan, 1826, 219; Genth, 1876, 62; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 44). Am- 
phibole asbestus (Lea, 1818, 478). Epidote: crystals in serpentine (Dana, 1850, 654; McKinstry). 
Talc: (Finch, 1828, 17). Magnetite: octahedra (Carpenter and Spademan, 1826, 219). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products-. Deweylite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). CakUe: 
veins (Finch, 1828, 18). Aragonite: stellated crystals, columnar or fibrous (Rand, 1867, 404; 
Carpenter and Spademan, 1826, 219; called "acicular carbonate of magnesia" by the early writers). 
Magnesite: crusts (Finch, 1828, 18). 

North of Taylor's House, in the road. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Almandite: crystals (Jefferis, 1892, 187). Staurolite: crystals (Eyerman, 1829, 28). 

Marshall's Quarry. One-half mile west of Femhill Sta. Abandoned. Meta-perido- 
tite. 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Serpentine; retinalite; marmoUte: (JefiPeris, 1892, 
187; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 44). Talc: white or gray, indurated, occurs above the quarry 
on the hillside (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 219). Dolomite: (Jefiferis, 1. c). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Aragonite: small radiated crystals Qefferis, 1. c). 
Quartz: drusy; chalcedony; jasper: yellow, red, and brown, occur on the serpentine ridge, east 
of the quarry (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 219). 

General McCall's Quarry. A few hundred yards east of Marshall's quarry. Meta- 
peridotite. 

Chrysotile: (Jefferis, 1892, 187). 

West Chester.''* In a field opposite Painter's ice house, on East Gay Street, Baltimore 
gneiss. Inaccessible. 

Quartz pseudo. calcite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 44). 

Site of the former West Chester Water Works, northeast of West Chester County Hospital. 
Old quarry. "Bath Springs" or "Bath Woods." Meta-gabbro. (West Chester 2612). 

Zoisite: grayish-brown, radiating columnar masses (Carpenter, 1828, 9; Eyerman, 191 1» 
8; analysis; Genth, 1875, 81; Finch, 1828, 17). Zircon: (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 219). 

West Marlboro Township*** 

Doe Run Quarries. Bernard's Quarry, V* mile south of Doe Run Village (CoatesviUe 
6126); McNeal's quarry, V4 mile west of Doe Run Village (CoatesviUe 3787). Other quarries 
lie north of Springdell. Shenandoah limestone. 

Limestone; hydrothermal metamorphs: Quartz: limpid crystals; sometimes pseudo- 
morphous (Carpenter and Spackman, 1826, 223). TremoUte: white, radiating masses (Carpenter 
and Spackman, 1. c). Wernerite: prisms (Carpentei and Spackman, 1. c). Vesuvianite: reddish- 
brown prisms (Carpenter and Spackman, I.e.). Tourmaline: brown (Carpenter and Spackman, 
1. c). Apatite: yellowish-green crystals (Cari)enter, 1828, 6). Pyrite: cubes (Carpenter, and 
Spackman, 1. c). Ruiile: striated prisms (Carpenter, 1. c). 

Limestone; hydrometamorphs: Calcite: straw-yellow scalenohedra (Carpenter, 1828, 6). 

i« Lea (1866, 112; 1869, 120) listed delawarite. and a black and bluish feldspar, with black acicular inclu- 
sions from "near West Chester." 

»« Townsend (1839, 7) lists chromite from "Joel Swayne's farm." 



MINBRAI, LOCAUTIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 181 

Siderile: rhombs (Carpenter, 1. c.)- NUrocalcUe: adcular crystals were found in a cave in Mc- 
Neal's quarry (Carpenter and Spademan, 1826, 223). 

BAn3Y's Quarry. Three-eighths of a mile west of Upland. Shenandoah limestone. 

Limestone: hydrothermal metamorphs: Pyroxene; ddopside, malacoUte: radiating, apple- 
green (Genth, 1876, 219, analysis; Eyerman, 1911, 4). Mussiie: grayish white columnar masses 
(Genth, 1875, 65). Tremolite: terminated prismatic crystals; white, radiating masses (Carpenter, 
1828, 6). Wemerik: (Dana, 1868, 777). Epidote: yellowish-green crystals (Carpenter, 1828, 6). 
Margarodite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 64). RiMe: striated prisms (Carpenter, 1. c). 
Pyrite: crystals (Carpenter, L c). 

Expostures and fields nearby. Wissahickon gneiss. 

CyaniU: (Dana, 1868, 777). 

West Nantmbal Township 
Graphite: in blue quartz (Townsend, 1839, 8). 

West Nottingham Township"' 

Nottingham. Moro Phillip's chrome mine, one mile S. S. E. of Nottingham. (Havre de 
Grace 9351). Meta-peridotitp. 

Amphihole asbestus: (Genth, 1875, 68). ChromiU: black, massive. ZaraUte: weathering 
product occurring on chromite (Genth, 1875, 166). 

Scott's Chromb Minb. One and a half miles S. W. of Nottingham (Havre de Grace 
9228). Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine; marmolite: thin foliated (Dana, 1850, 654). Penninite; kammererite: pink, 
scaly-fibrous (Dana, 1868, 778; Genth, 1876, 131). Talc: greenish- white foliated masses (Dana, 
1. c). Magnesite: massive, compact, white (Genth, 1875, 157). Chromite: black, massive. 

Black Run Placers. 2 miles southwest of Nottingham. 

Chalcedony: (Genth, 1875, 59). RuUle: (Genth, 1875, 44). BrookUe: (Genth, 1875, 45). 
Chromite: (Genth, 1875, 42). Zircon: (Genth, 1875, 77). 

Sylmar. Exposures one half mile north of Sylmar. Meta-peridotite. 

Tremolite: large crystals in talc. 

Spar Quarries. One and a half miles W. N. W., one and a half, and one and three- 
quarters miles N. W. of Sylmar, south of Black Run (Havre de Grace 9252, 9264, 9246, 9254, 
9266, 9249, 9274). Desilicated granitic pegmatites in meta-peridotite. 

Peridotite: hydrothermal metamorphs: Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 
70; Wherry, 1918, 47). Talc: green foliated masses. Actinolite: green, in talc. Amphibole 
asbestus: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 70). Zoisite: (Wherry, 1918, 47). 

Pegmatite; primary: Albite: white, yellow, and greenish, translucent masses (Dana, 
1850, 654; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 70, "leelite"). Tourmaline: black crystals. Beryl: 
opaque yellow crystals. Muscovite: white, micaceous masses in albite. Apatite: (Wherry, 
1918, 47). Molybdenite: disseminations in albite. 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Colerainite: white, rosettes on albite; massive. Ver- 
miculite; rosette: weathering product, on albite. 

DuNLAp's Quarry. 1 mile N. W. of Sylmar. (Havre de Grace 9282). Meta-peridotite. 

Anthophyllite: fibrous masses. Amphibole asbestus: ligniform masses. 

Fremont. One mile N. E. of Fremont. 

Goelhite: geodes, abundant. 

Exposures two miles S. W. of Fremont. Meta-peridotite and pltmiasite. 

Albite: (Genth, 1875, 32; Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 70, "leelite"). Corundum: 
crystals in albite (Genth, 1875, 32). 

Goat Hiu«. Magnesia quarries east of Goat Hill, one and a half miles S. E. of Lee's Mill 
(Havre de Grace 9178). Meta-peridotite, and plumasite. 

Plumasite: AlbiU: greenish-gray, granular (Dana, 1850, 654, "leelite;" Genth, 1875, 91). 

Meta-peridotite: Serpentine; marmolite: thin foliated (Dana, 1850, 654). Sepiolite; 

1^ Thomas Haines found dark blue corundum in albite in the township, the exact locality being unknown 
(Pennypacker, 1897, 115). Enstatite (Eyerman, 1889, 15), hematite and staurolite have been reported (Car- 
penter. 1828, 9; Jcflferis, 1892, 189). 



182 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

meerschaum: compact, smooth, earthy (Genth, 1875, 112). Magnesite: white, massive, compact 
(Genth, 1875, 158, analysis). Deweylite: brown, massive, weathering product (Dana, 1868, 778; 
Genth, 1875, 117). 

Exposures near the Maryland line. 

Siderite: crystals on goethite. 

West Pikbland Township 

Chbstbr Springs.*** Orner Mine, about 1 mile N. E. of Chester Springs Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Pickering gneiss. 

Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 7). Hematite: (Bcnge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Iron pits at Chester Springs: Steitler's ore bank, V2 mile northwest of the station; and 
Lewis' ore bank, 1 V2 miles northeast on the road to Kimberton. Long abandoned and filled with 
water. Pickering gneiss and pegmatite; residual deposits of goethite. 

Quartz: blue (Seybert, 1808. 156). AUanite: (Lea, 1882, 60). Zircon: (Lea, 1868, 
778; Lea, 1. c). Muscovite: white (Rogers, 1858, 1, 89). Graphite: (Rogers, 1858, 1, 87). PyriU: 
(Rogers, 1. c.)- Hematite: specular at Lewis' bank. Goethite: radiating, fibrous; geodes (Rogers, 
1858, I, 89; Genth, 1875, 48). Lepidocrocite: crystalline coatings on goethite (Genth, 1875, 48). 
Limonite: (Rogers, 1858, 1, 89). TurgiU: on goethite (Genth, 1875, 47). Wad: (Rogers, 1858, 
I, 89). Gibbsite: (Dana, 1868, 778). Allophane: silvery-white, mammillary coatings (JefiFeris, 
1892, 192). 

West Saosbury Township 

Cuts and improvements on the P. R. R. between Christiana and Atglen. Chickies quartz- 
ite, Octoraro schist; pegmatite. 

Bismuth? (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26; a specimen in the Rand Collection, Bryn 
Mawr). Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite pxudo. Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: near Atglen (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Wssttown Township 

Brinton's Quarribs.^^^ About 3 miles south of West Chester, on the Birmingham Road 
(continuation of South New Street, West Chester), southeast of its crossing with the Street Road 
(West Chester 5322). Idle. Meta-peridotite and desilicated granitic pegmatite. 

Peridotite; primary: Brontite: (McKinstry, 1916, 60). Chromite: nodules, crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 54). 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Actinolite: (Dana, 1868, 778). AmphiboU 
asbestus: (Dana, 1868, 778). Serpentine: (Lea, 1818, 478). Clinochlore; ripidolite: crystals in 
talc, 50 yards east of the jefferisite vein; (Blake, 1851, 238; 339; 1852, 222; analyses by Blake, 1. c; 
Neminarz, 1874, 176; Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 406; Schlaepfer, 1891, 8; crystaUography by 
Blake, 1. c; Dana, 1853, 436; 1854, 293; Cooke, 1867, 205; Desdoizeaux, 1868, 637; Bauer, 1869, 
367; Tschermak, 1890, 99; 1891, I, 221-229; Klein, 1894, 770). Tak: green, foliated (Dana, 
1868, 778). Magnetite: veins in serpentine (Blake, 1851, 238). Ilmenite: lumps in serpentine 
(Dana, 1868, 778). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Quartz: drusy (Genth, 1875, 57; amethystine, 
McKinstry, 1920, 37). Aragonite: fibrous, radiating (Smith and Brush, 1883, 215; Genth, 1875, 
162). Deweylite: yellow (Eyerman, 1889, 36). SepioUte: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 64). 
Magnesite: yellowish-white, earthy, compact (Blake, 1851, 339; Genth, 1875, 157). Limonite: 
(McKinstry, 1916, 60). 

Desilicated granitic pegmatite; primary: Amethyst? (JefiFeris, 1892, 189). Oligoclase: 
colorless, striated (Genth, 1875, 90; 1876, 223, analysis). Beryl: green crystals (Genth, 1875, 71). 
Tourmaline: (Jefferis, 1892, 189). Muscovite: (Dana, 1868,778). Apatite: (McKinstry, 1916, 59). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Jefferisite: brownish crystals and masses representing an 
altered biotite (Dana, 1854, 480; Brush, 1861, 369; 1866, 248; Bauer, 1869, 368; Cooke, 1874, 44; 

i« Formerly Yellow Springs. 

"• Commonly known as "West Chester," "Westtown," "Birmingham quarries" or "Ingram's quarry." 
For a general description of the quarries, see McKinstry, 1916. 57). Boy^ (1841. 190) gives an analysis by 
Nuttall of a white feldspar, enclosing corundum, from "three miles south of West Chester." 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 1S3 

Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 452; analyses). Colerainite: white or faintly pinkish, rosettes of 
trigonal scales; also massive. 

WiLLisTowN Township 

WiLLiSTOWN. AciinoliU: (Dana, 1850, 655). Amphibole asbestus: (Dana, 1868, 778). 
ChromiU: (Dana, 1850, 655). Magnetite: (Dana, 1850, 655) ; lodestone occurs 4 V2 miles northeast 
of West Chester (Jefferis, 1892, 187). ChaUedony: brown, botryoidal (Genth, 1875, 59). 

Wbst Chbstbr Turnpikb. 

Hyalite: (Eyerman, 1889, 14). 

Paoli. One-half mile south of Paoli. 

Magnesite: in a chlorite schist (Eyerman, 1889, 43). 

West Whitbland Township"" 

Oakland. Dr. J. P. Thomas' quarry, Va mile N. W. of Oakland Sta. Shenandoah lime- 
stone. 

Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 26). 

South of the quarry. 

Goethite: geodes (Genth, 1875, 50). 

CLARION COUNTY 

Mbchanicsvillb. Steward's Coal Bank; Limestone Township. 

Calcite: in geodes in slaty shales overlying the Kittaning Lower Coal Bed. (Eyerman, 
1889, 44; H. M. Chance, Geology of Clarion County, Sec. Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep. V2, 1880, 
140). Siderite: crystals in geodes (Eyerman, 1. c; Chance, 1. c). 

CLEARFIELD COUNTY 

Clbarfibld Crbbk. 

CerussiU? (Eyerman, 1911, 22). 

COLUMBIA COUNTY 

Espy Minb."* Half way between Espy and Lime Ridge. Lower Helderberg Limestone. 
CalciU: (Cleaveland, 1816, 531). GaUna: (Genth, 1875, 11). Sphalerite: (Cleaveland, 
1. c). Magnetite: (Dana, 1850, 655). 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY"* 

PiNB Grovb. 

Fluorite: violet, in Thomas' quarry (Genth, 1876, 210). 

Kimmbl's Farm. Two miles north of New Kingston, on a small run S. W. of Conodoquinet 
Creek, Silver Spring Township (New Bloomfield 8996). Cambro-ordoviciad (?) limestone. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals; colorless, yellow and smoky; of prismatic or pyramidal 
habit, often in groups of crystals in parallel position. Individual crystals measure 2.5 cm. (Hoi- 
den, 1917, 81). 

Carlislb. One and a half miles N. W. of Carlisle. 

Quartz: smoky, colorless or amethystine doubly-terminated crystals in the soil (Groth, 
1896, 85). 

Moorb's Mill.**' Phosphorus ore mine IV4 miles S. E. of Moore's Mill (about 4 miles 
west of Mount Holly Springs). The mine has been abandoned. The pit lies at the foot of South 

>*^ (Carpenter 1828, 9), listed calcite from Robert's lime quarry, 4 miles north of West Chester. 

»» Undoubtedly the Webb mine of Cleveland. 

lu Genth, 1875, 112, listed talc from "10 miles south of Carlisle: and albite in minute crystals from "Cum- 
berand Co." 

^ For a description of the deposits see Stose, 1907, 474. The locality was called "Cly, York County" by 
Ungemach ; this was the site of the factory of the phosphorus company. According to Stose wavellite also occurs 
at Upper Mill, 1 mile south of Mount Holly Springs. The analyses of the iron ores of Mountain Creek Valley 
indicate that wavellite occurs at most of the old iron banks. 



184 MINERAL W)CALITIES OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

Mountain, about */« of a mile south of Yellow Breeches Creek. Cambrian and Ordovidan 
sedimentary rocks; residual deposits of clay, etc. 

Wavdlite: massive, nodular; radiating masses; prismatic crystals 1 mm. in diameter 
(Eyerman, 1911, 20; Ungemach, 1012, 536), Beraunite; eleonorite: druses of brilliant reddish- 
brown crystals. Cacoxenite: golden-yellow or greenish-yellow aggregates of radiating adcular 
crystals. Sirengite: white waxy concretions of radiating structure, with beraunite and cacoxenite. 

DAUPHIN COUNTY 

HuiCMBLSTowN.^^^ Magnetite mines 2 miles south of Hummelstown, on the east side of 
Waltonville Brook. Triassic sandstones, and hydrothermal deposits. 

Magnetite: massive (Spencer, 1908, 29). Hematite: specular (Genth, 1876, 34). Pyrite: 
(Spencer, 1. c). Grossularite: (Dana, 1850, 665). 

DELAWARE COUNTY 

Aston Township 

Morgan."* Quarry just south of Morgan Sta., P. B. & W. R. R.; west of Chester Creek 
(Chester 5484). Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

MicrocUne: reddish (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 5). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
I.e.). Muscovite: green (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
ApatiU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Chabazite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Leidyite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV. 1907, 5). Magnetite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Marcasite: casts of large crystals (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Zircon; cyrtolite: small crystals (Harold Tomlinson, Mineral 
Collector, V, 1899, 177; Wherry, 1908, 72). Monazite: small crystals (Hamilton, 1899, 377). 

Smith's Farm. ^^* Vi mile south of Morgan Sta. Abandoned corundum pit, and expostures 
along creek bed. (Chester 5454). Wissahickon gneiss; meta-peridotite; conmdum pegmatite 
(plumasite). 

Corundum: large brown crystals, often with a bronzy luster, usually completely sheathed 
by a coating of scaly margarite (Dana, 1850, 665; Genth, 1875, 32; 1882, 388; Hall, 1885, 75). 
Margarite: pearly white, micaceous; occurring as an alteration product on conmdum (Silliman, 
Jr., 1849, 379-380, analyses; Dana, 1850, 362, analysis; Genth, 1875, 137; 1882, 388). SUli- 
manite: small fibres in quartz (Genth, 1875, 99). 

Mbndenhaix's Farm. West of Morgan Sta., and north of the Dutton's Mill Road. 
Many of the minerals were found in exposures along the road. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Amethyst: clusters and isolated crystals. An old and prolific locality was a vein which ran 
across the Dutton's Mill road. (Rand, 1867, 274; Genth, 1875, 57; Dana, 1850, 655; Cardeza, 
1892, 198). Rutile: minute ruby-colored crystals on modified quartz crystals (Cardeza, 1892, 
198). Ilmenite: black tabular crystals measurmg 10 X 4 X 2 cm. (Rand, 1867, 274; Genth, 
1875, 36). SilUmaniU: (Dana, 1850, 655; Rand, 1867, 274). StauroliU: small crystals in quartz 
(Rand, 1. c). Muscovite: crystals (Rand, 1. c); muscovite crystals also occur north of Dutton's 
Mills, on the east side of Chester Creek. Tourmaline: crystals (Dana, 1850, 655). 

JuDGB Tyson's Farm. Va mile west of Morgan Sta., and west of the Dutton's Mill — 
Village Green cross-roads. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: acicular crystals (Cardeza, 1892, 198). 

Vn^i^AGB Grbsn. a short distance south of Village Green on the Marcus Hook Road. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: crystals in milky quartz (Hall, 1885, 75). 

Asbestus Pits, Vi mile southwest of Village Green. Meta-pyroxenite, meta-peridotite. 

Amphihole asbestus: (Dana, 1850, 656; Cardeza, 1892, 198). CUnochlore: (Thomas 
Harvey, priv. comm.). Talc: (Thomas Harvey); talc also occurs on the Marcus Hook road, 
Vi mile north of ViUage Green (Hall, 1885, 75). 

iM Dana, 1850, 655, lists smoky quartz and feldspar from "near Hummelstown." 

iM The localities in the vicinity of Morgan Station were formerly known as "Dutton's Mill," situated west 
of Chester Creek in Middletown Township. 

u« Formerly Isaac Morgan's farm. This was the "Village Green" locality of the early writers. 



MINERAL LOCAUTIES Olf PENNSYLVANIA 185 

Halbbrs9TT's Farm, Vs mile north of Village Green, on the Marcus Hook Road. Meta- 
pyroxenite. . 

EnstaHU: (Cardeza, 1802, 198). Talc: (Hall, 1886, 75). Quartz: drusy (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Rockdale. Exposures at Rockdale, Vs mile south of Glen Riddle Sta., P. B. & W. R. R. 
Meta-pyroxenite; Wissahickon gneiss, and pegmatite. 

ActinoliU: green crystalline masses (Genth, 1875, 67). Hornblende: greenish-black, 
granular (mistaken by the farmers for coal ; Genth, 1875, 60) . Tourmaline: black ; radiated, fibrous 
(Genth, 1875, 07). 

Jacob Sidb'6 Farm, V* mile west of Mount Alvemo Station. (Chester 4628). The old 
asbestus pits have been filled in. Meta-pyroxenite. 

Enstatite: brown cleavage masses. Amphibole asbestus: ligniform masses; also soft, and 
pliable; yellowish-white (Genth, 1875. 68; Merrill, 1806, 284, 201). Occurs also on the farm to the 
North (HaU, 1885, 74). Talc: (Hall, 1885, 75). 

Llswbllyn Mills."' Exi)osures near Llewelljm Mills, about 2 miles west of Mt. Alvemo 
Sta. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Almandite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Staurolite: (Dana, 1. c). 

CroziERVILLB. Exposures on the south side of Chester Creek, '/2 mile west of Crozierville. 
(opposite Lenni). Wissahickon gneiss. 

Amethyst: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1007, 5). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Peter's Mill Dam. On Green's Creek, about 1 mile south of Chester Height's Station, 
P. B. & W. R. R. 

Almandite:^^^ deep blood red, of gem quality; occurs in the soil above the dam and in the 
creek bed (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1875, 74; Lea, 1860, 4, notes on inclusions; Leidy, 1871, 155). 

Exposures in the vicinity. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite; meta-pyroxenite. 

AnikophyUite: (Dana, 1850, 655). ActinoliU: (Dana, 1. c). Beryl: (Dana, 1. c). Silli- 
manite: (Dana, 1. c). Muscovite: crystals (Dana, 1. c). RutUe: capillary crystals in cellular 
quartz (Dana, 1. c). 

Bethel Township 

Chelsea. Old garnet mines on Green's Creek, 1 mile southwest of Chelsea (Chester 4408). 
Abandoned. Baltimore gneiss. 

Almanddte: red, massive (Genth, 1880, 311; Hall, 1885, 113, analysis). Allophane: silvery- 
white, greenish or bluish, mammillary coatings on gneiss (Harvey and Pierce). Wad: black, 
dendritic (Hall, 1885, 81). 

Exposures near the garnet mines. 

Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1007, 6). Talc: (Hall, 1885, 82). 

Larkin's Farm, */* mile southwest of Chelsea, west of a branch of McCay's Run (E. 
branch of Naaman's Creek). Gabbro and pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid, smoky, and milky (Hall, 1885, 81). Microcline: (Hall, 1. c). Almandite: 
brownish-red (Hall, 1. c). Muscovite: crystals (Hall, 1. c). Apatite: (Harvey and Pierce). 
Gahnite: in muscovite (Cardeza, 1802, 107). 

Bunting's Feldspar Quarry. In the eastern comer of Bethel Township, iVi miles 
northwest of Boothwyn. (Chester 4846). Gabbro and pegmatite. 

Microcline: crystals (Harvey and Pierce). Beryl: crystals measuring 10 cm. (Harvey and 
Pierce). Tourmaline: black crystals measuring 3.5 cm. long (Harvey and Pierce). Muscovite: 
green plates (Harvey and Pierce). Autunite: (Harvey and Pierce). 

Birmingham Township"' 

Brandywine Summit. Bullock's quarry, about 1 mile S. W. of Brandywine Summit Sta. 
P. B. & W. R. R. Pegmatite. 

Quartz: yellow crystals (Dana, 1868, 778). Orthoclase; nacrite: (Dana, 1860, 655). 
SilUmanite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Zircon: (Dana, 1850, 655). Arsenopyrite? (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII. 1006, 130). 

w Tyson's MiU (Dana, 1S50, 655). 
>*• Erroneously called pyrope. 

u* Rutile crystals have been reported from th^s township (Dana. 1868, 778). Sharpies, 1866, 271, gave an 
analysis of hornblende from "Birmingham township." 



18G MINERAL LOCALITIES OI^ PENNSYLVANIA 

T. W. Johnson and Son's Quarry, about V/t miles S. W. of Brandsrwine Summit Sta. 
and Vj mile west of Elam P. O. Pegmatite. 

Microdine: cleavage masses (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 130; Eyerman, 1911, 3, 
analysis). KaoliniU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Al- 
mandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: lepidomelane? (Hall, 1885, 79; Eyerman, 1911, 
10; allanite reported from here proved to be biotite). 

Chadd's Ford. Near Twaddle's Paper Mill on the Brandywine, I'/s miles south of 
Chadd's Ford. 

Amethyst: (Dana. 1868, 778; Genth, 1875, 57). 

Chestbr Township 

Irving's Quarry."** South of Ridley Creek, just east of Waterville (Chester 4644). 
Abandoned. Granite and pegmatite. 

Microdine: crystals (Cardeza, 1892, 194). Almandite: fine crystals up to 4 cm. in di- 
ameter (Cardeza, 1. c). Muscovite: crystals in quartz (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Burk's Quarry. Opposite Deshong's quarry; west side of Ridley Creek, 1 mile northeast 
of Chester Sta., B. & O. R. R. (Chester 4884). Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microdine: (Dana, 1850, 655). Beryl: (Dana, I.e.). Tourmaline: black, (Dana, 1. c). 
Spessartite: (Dana, 1. c). Pyrite: (Dana, 1. c). 

Crozbr's Quarry. East side of Chester Creek, about V* mile S. W. of Chester Sta., 
B. & O. R. R. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. Abandoned. 

Microdine: (Genth, 1875, 93). Almandite: trapezohedra (Genth, 1875, 144). Bis- 
mutite: (Genth, 1875, 168). Uraninite: cubo-octahedra, black. Gummiie: (Benge and Wherry, 
XIV, 1907, 25). UraconiU: (Genth, 1875, 152). Autunite: (Genth, 1875, 144). Torhemite: 
crystalline scales (Wherry, 1908, 68). 

Shaw and Esrey's Quarry. North of the B. & O. R. R., about V* mile west of Chester 
Sta. Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz; amethyst and smoky: parallel growths of smoky-purplish crystals on quartz forming 
plates of crystals measuring 30 X 15 X 5 cm. (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1875, 57; Cardeza, 1892, 
195). Alhite: crystal aggregates (Genth, 1875, 92, analysis). Microdine: crystals measuring 
15 X 18 cm. (Seybert, 1808, 257; Cardeza, 1892, 195). Muscovite: yellowish and greenish crystals 
(Genth, 1875, 85). Almandite: large crystals (Seybert, 1808, 158; Genth, 1875, 73). Beryl: 
usually altered; yellowish-green crystals (Mease, 1807, 400; Genth, 1875, 70; Eyerman, 1911, 5, 
analysis). Tourmaline: black (Cardeza, 1892, 195). 

Chester.*" 

Alhite: cleavage masses (Genth, 1875, 91). SiUimanite: (Thomson, 1828, 41; Erdmann 
1842, 22; analyses). Cyanite: found in a boulder of quartz, south of the B. & O. R. R., opposite 
the Pennsylvania Military Academy. Almandite: fine dark red dodecahedra, measuring 2 cm. in 
diameter were found in Mcllvain's quarry. Biotite: (Genth, 1875, 83). Ilmenite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIV, 1907, 25). Mirahilite: white efflorescence on gneiss (Genth, 1875, 148). 

Henvi's Quarry. North of Chester Creek, east of Upland, near the road to Waterville. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Amethyst: in geodes, (near the quarry) (Dana, 1850, 655). Microdine: cleavage masses 
(Genth, 1875, 93). PectoliU: (Cardeza, 1892, 198). Chabazite: red (Palmer, 1882, 38; Cardeza, 
1. c). 

Peter Green's Farm.^** South of Chester Creek, V* mile west of Upland Sta., West 
Chester Br., P. B. & W. R. R. Pits in meadow. (Chester 5763). Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Quartz: amethystine to smoky (Genth, 1875, 58). Microdine: (Smith, 1862, 414; Lea, 
1866, 112). KaoUnite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Beryl: pale green crystals 10 cm. long (Cardeza, 
1892,195). Tourmaline: black (Dana, 1. c). SiUimanite: (Cardeza, 1892, 195), in the vicinity 
of the pits. Apatite: (Rand, 1867, 273). Molybdenite: crystals and foliated masses (Caren- 

iM "BuUen's Lane" of some early authors. 

Ml Brown garnet and tourmaline were found in Little's Quarry, Chester; now filled in and inaccessible (Dana, 

1850. 655). 

ut Smith (1862, 414) terms the locality the "old molybdena mine." Rand (1867, 273) remarks that a mine 
was opened for gold prior to 1848; Cardeza (1892, 105) says a copper mine was opened on the creek shore. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 187 

deffez, 1808, 96; Cleaveland, 1816, 569; Seybert, 1822, 320, analysis). PyriU: (Lea, 1818, 464). 
ChalcopyriU: (Lea, 1818, 463). UraniniU: (observed by Rand; Genth, 1876, 43). MolyhdiU: 
yellowish incrustations on quartz (Genth, 1875, 54). 

Feltgn's Quarry. On Samuel Felton's farm, on Stony Run, '/s of a mile S. W. of Barker 
Sta., B. & O. R. R. (Chester 6982). Wissahickon gneiss. 

NatroliU: altered (Cardeza, 1892, 195). 

McC all's Farm. Exposures on McCall's farm, along road on east side of Chester Creek, 
about V* mile S. E. of Morgan Station. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Amethyst: crystals (Cardeza, 1892, 198). 

John Mullen's Quarries. On the east side of Chester Creek, opposite Bridgewater 
Station, P. B. & W. R. R. Idle. Wissahickon gneiss and metagabbro. (Chester 4498). 

Quartz: (Forwood, 1876, 176). Staurolite? (Forwood, 1. c). Titanite: fine yellowish- 
green twinned crystals, measuring 2.5 to 8 cm. The crystals were found in a loose dark brown 
mica schist, permeated with water, about 10 feet from the surface, associated with loose quartz 
crystals (Forwood, 1876, 176; Rath, 1884, 290-342). PyHte: (Forwood, 1. c). 

Concord Township**' 

Chester Heights. Quarries V2 mile west of Chester Heights Sta., P. B. & W. R. R. 
(Chester 4435). Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 6). 

Hannum's Farm. *** North of Green's Creek, 1 V2 miles west of Chelsea. (Chester 4457). 
Meta-pyroxenite. 

Anthophyllite: "antholite" yellowish-gra^r, broadly bladed or fibrous (Leeds, 1873, 25; 
Cardeza, 1892, 198; Hall, 1885, 78). 

CoNCX)RDViLLE. Exposures on the west branch of Chester Creek, V2 mile north of Con- 
cord ville. 

Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 6). Garnet: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Elam. Exposures V4 mile east of Elam. Meta-peridotite; Wissahickon gneiss. 

Biotite: (Genth, 1875, 83). Sepiolite: grayish-white masses in serpentine (Genth, 
1875, 112). 

Darby Township 

Custer's Farm. On Darby-Folsom Trolley Line, about V* mile west of Ashland Ave., 
Glenolden; on Muckinipallus Creek. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Cyanite: blue and gray bladed masses (Cardeza, 1892, 196). SUlimanite: (Cardeza, 1. c). 
Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Tourma- 
line: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite? (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Magnetite? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Jasper: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Darby. **^ Trolley-cut on Parker Avenue, about V«« mile west of Darby Creek. Pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). AlbiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry south of Chester Pike, just west of Darby Creek. Idle. (Chester 3997). Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Keller, 1882, 54). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). 
Almandite: jet-black, with inclusions of titanite (Keller, 1882, 54, analysis; Hall, 1885, 114, 
analysis by Genth). Asbestus: (Keller, 1. c). Muscovite: (Keller, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and 
Wherry, I.e.). Rutile: (Rand, 1867, 272; Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Titanite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Keller, 1. c). Gypsum: efflorescences on gneiss (Rand, 1880, 253). 

i*> Microcline, muscovite, spessartite, rutile, beryl, amethyst, tremolite and actinolite have been listed from 
the township (Dana. 1868, 778; Seybert, 1807, 405; 1823, 331). 

u* Cardeza (1892, 198) lists enstatite, antholite, and clinochlore from "Singer's farm; clinochlore, asbestus, 
and tourmaline from "Samuel McClellan's farm." 

iM Genth (1875, 99) described grayish, short prismatic crystals of sillimanite paramorphous after andalusite 
which were found in road metal on the Delaware County Turnpike. 

Anhydrite was described by Koenig (1889, 11) as occurring on the diat>ase railroad ballast south of the B. 
A O. Tunnel at Darby. The original source of the material was probably Paterson, N. J. 



188 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

On the Springfield Road, 200 yards from the Darby Bridge; in the vicinity of the Mt. Zion 
Cemetery. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Cyanite: (Cleaveland, 1816, 202; Smith, 1862, 414). 

Kdgbmont Township 

Castle Rock. On the Philadelphia- West Chester Turnpike, just west of Crum Creek. 
Pyroxenite and meta-peridotite. 

Olivine: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 130). EnstaiiU: (Genth, 1876, 62). Hyper- 
sthene: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). AnthophylliU: silky, fibrous (Smith, 1862, 414; Genth, 1882, 
395). Tremolite: white or grayish- white, with talc, a few hundred yards S. S. W. of Castle Rock 
(Hall, 1885, 113, analysis). Talc; indurated, a few hundred yards S. S. W. of Castle Rock 
(Genth, 1882, 394, analysis). Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 190(). 130). Chalcedony: (Eyerman, 1889, 14). 

Alprbd Jai'B's Farm, on Cnun Creek, south of Castle Rock. Peridotite and meta- 
pendotite; Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite. 

EnstatiU: (Cardeza, 1892, 201). Ashestus: (Cardeza, 1. c). Talc.: (Cardcza, 1. c). 
Chrysotile: (Cardeza, 1. c). Quartz: ferruginous, doubly-terminated microscopic crystals in 
honeycomb quartz (Cardeza, I.e.). Goetkite: fibrous masses (Cardeza, I.e.) AlmandiU: (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Beryl: crystals (Cardeza, 1. c). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Edgbmont. 

Staurolite: large brown twinned crystals. Amethyst: (Dana, 1850, 666). Rutile: in 
quartz (Dana, 1. c). Microcline: crystals (Dana, 1. c). Wad: (Dana, 1. c). 

GraoyvillB. Quartz: a deep smoky qtfartz crystal measuring 17.6 X 16 X 16 dcm. was 
found along the road near the Gradyville school house. 

Grbbn's Farm. Two miles S. S. E. of Edgemont; east of Ridley Creek, a short distance 
north of the Upper Providence line. 

RutUe: (Hall, 1886, 40). 

Walkbr Yarnall's Farm. On Ridley Creek, Va mile west of Sycamore MDls. Peg- 
matite. 

Quartz: smoky (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Orthoclase; cassinite: (Cardeza, 1. c). Beryl: 
yellowish-green masses. 

Havbrpord Township 

Dickinson's Mii,l. Cut on Phila. & Western R. R. at Dickinson's Mill on Cobb's Creek, 
about 1 mile south of Ardmore. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

AlmandiU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). StauroliU: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Cyanite: in fields in the vicinity (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Cut on the Phila. & Western R. R., about Vj mile north of City Line Avenue. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 130). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Almandite: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Tourmaline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Gummite 
pseudo. uraninite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Auiunite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Grassland. Exim^siu'cs east of Friend's Meeting House, about 1 mile N. E. of Grassland 
Station, P. R. R. Wissahickon gneiss. 

AlmandiU: (Smith, 1862, 414). StauroliU: (Smith, 1. c). 

Brookthorpe. Cut on the P. R. R. at Brookthorpe Station. 

AlmandiU: in Wissahickon gneiss (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). 

Llanbrch. Quarry at Llanerch Sta., P. R. R. Pegmatite. 

Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

AdblB. Quarry on West Chester Tiunpike at Adele, just east of Darby Creek. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz; smoky: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). Microcline: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Exposures on Darby Creek, just south of West Chester Pike. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 



MINERAL LOCALITIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 189 

AlmandUe: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Beryl: (Benge ancf Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 131). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). 

Exposures*^ on east side of Darby Creek, ^/s mile south of Adele. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Quartz: ferruginous (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). Microcline: (Benge and 
Wherry, L c). Almandite: (Smith, 1862, 416). StauroliU: (Smith, 1862, 414). Cyanite: 
(Smith, 1862, 414). Vermictdite; jefferisite? (Benge and Wherry, L c). Apatite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Limonite: (HaU, 1886, 51). 

Lbbdom's Quarry, about 1 Vs miles south of Adele, on Darby Creek. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). Jeffersite? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Ardmorb. 

Staurolite: (Benge and Wherry. XIV, 1907, 26). 

LowBR Chichbstbr Township 

Trainbr. William Ejrre's farm, on Stony Creek, V4 mile east of Trainer Sta., P. B. & W. 
R. R. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: black (Dana, 1850, 656). 

Johnson's Quarry, on Stony Creek, V* mile east of Trainer Station. Wissahickon gneiss 
and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Cardeza, 1892, 197). 

Wn^LiAM Trainbr' s Farm; on a knoll near the Linwood MiU Dam, about Vs i&ile north of 
Trainer Station. Pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid, smoky, and milky crystals up to 17.6 cm.; most commonly in parallel 
growths of smaller crystals (Harvey and Pierce). Microcline: crystals (Dana, 1850, 655). Beryl: 
pale green opaque crystals measiu-ing 6.6 X 30 cm. in granular quartz boulders plowed up in the 
fields. Also in smaller transparent green etched crystals (Dana, 1850, 655; Cardeza, 1892, 197). 
Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 6). Tourmaline: brilliant black crystals, up to 
10 X 2.5 X 1.5 cm. (Dana, 1860, 655). Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: (Dana, 
1850, 656; Cardeza, 1892, 197). 

Pbnnell's Quarry, on Marcus Hook Creek, */% of a mile south of Trainer Station. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss; gabbro; and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Harvey and Pierce) . Beryl: (Harvey and Pierce). Ckabazite: red emd white 
(Harvey and Pierce). Apatite: (Harvey and Pierce). 

Marplb Township"' 

Moro Phillip's Chromb Mine. On H. H. Battle's farm, about IV2 miles southeast of 
Newtown Square (Chester 2432). Meta-peridotite. 

Peridotite; primary: Chromite: massive (Lea, 1818, 466; Genth, 1876, 43). Magnetite: 
titaniferous, iron-black, massive (Genth, 1875, 39, found near the mine). 

Peridotite: hydrothermal metamorphs: A nthophyllite, "sititholite:" (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII, 1906, 131). Amphibole ashestus: (Cardeza, 1892, 201). Chlorite; penninite, kammererite: 
pink, scaly-fibrous (Genth, 1875, 131). Talc: (Cardeza, I.e.). Serpentine; chrysotile: narrow 
seams (Genth, 1875, 116). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Quartz: amethystine; drusy: (Benge and Wherry, 
I. c). Limonite: (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Worrell."** Exposures in the vicinity of Worrell, on Crum Creek. Wissahickon gneiss; 
pegmatite; meta-peridotite. 

^arte: amethyst and drusy: (Dana, 1850, 655). Beryl: (Dana, 1860, 656). Tourmaline: 
(Dana, 1. c). EnstatiU: Henry Hippie's farm, V4 miles N. N. E. of Worrell (Smith, 1862, 414; 

»* On Borden's farm, formerly Mrs. Pritchett's. 

i** The following minerals have been reported from this township without specific localities: chalcedony, 
agate, cameliun; ilmenite crystals, chromite (Major Jones's farm), actinolite in talc, tremolite, muscovite pseudo. 
andalusite, and chrysotile (Dana. 1868, 779; Genth, 1875. 36. 59; 1862, 203; Smith, 1862, 414; Rand, 1867, 205; 
Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 26). 

M Palmer's Mills. 



190 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Genth, 1875, BST). Amphibole asbestus: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 131). Talc: Smith, 
1862,415). Chromite: (UaXllc). Magnetite; tltBLmferous: (Hall, 1. c). 

Abigail Worrall's Farm. Three-quarters of a mile south of Worrell (Palmer's Mills)^ 
east of Crum Creek. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Andalusite: crystals (Dana, 1850, 655). "» Almandite: (Dana, 1850,655). Beryl: (Dana, 
1. c). Tourmaline: (Dana, 1. c). Amethyst: near the mansion (Cardeza, 1892, 201). 

MiDDLBTOWN T0WNSHIpl'° 

Humphrey Marshall's Farm. Near Dismal Run, Vi mile south of Sycamore Mills. 
Baltimore gneiss; pegmatite. 

Amethyst: crystals (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Rutile: in amethyst crystals (Cardeza, 1. c). 

John TylBr's Farm. One-quarter mile south of Marshall's farm (*/4 of a mile south of 
Sycamore Mills); near Dismal Run. Baltimore gneiss; Wissahickon gneiss, pegmatite. 

Quartz: green and ferruginous (Cardeza, 1892, 199). SUlimanite: (Cardeza, 1. c). Ver- 
miculite: (Cardeza, 1. c). Rutile: crystals (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Painter's Farm. On Dismal Run, V2 mile southwest of Tyler's farm, and 1 mile north 
of Lima. Baltimore gneiss and Wissahickon gneiss. 

Oligoclase: yellowish, transparent cleavage masses (Genth, 1875, 90; analysis; Clarke and 
Schneider, 1891, 247). Tremolite: (Dana, 1892, 1068). Painterite: bright golden yellow, 
micaceous, in a mixture of plagioclase and serpentine (Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 247, analyses). 
Tourmaline: (Dana, 1. c). Zircon: minute brown crystals (Genth, 1875, 58). Quartz: green 
(Genth, 1875. 58). 

SmbdlEy's Iron Mine. On Smedley's farm, */4 of a mile N. E. of Lima, south of the road 
to Sycamore Mills. (Chester 1982). The pits have been plowed over. Residual deposits of 
limonite; meta-peridotite. 

Corundum: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). Quartz: ferruginous (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
152). Limonite; melanosiderite: black, compact masses (Cooke, 1875, 451, analyses; Genth, 
1875, 50; 1876, 215, analysis). Goethite: fibrous masses (Cooke, 1. c; Genth, 1. c). 

George William's Farm. One and a half miles northeast of Lima, at the forks of the 
road. 

Corundum: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). 

John Smedley's Quarry.*'* About Va niile northeast of Lima P. O. Pegmatite. 

Quartz: (Genth, 1889, 50). Alhite: (Genth, 1. c). Almandite: (Genth, I.e.). Muscovite: 
(Genth, 1. c.) Gahnite; dark green crystals, 15 mm. in size, imbedded in muscovite (Genth, 
1889, 50, analysis). 

Wn^LiAM Bonsall's Farm. One-half mile south of Lima. Meta-peridotite. 

Actinolite: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). Quartz: drusy and smoky (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Isaac Evans' Farm. About 1 mile N. W. of Lima, on Rocky Run. Roadside exposures. 

Microcline: (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Muscovite: (Cardeza, 1. c). 

SharplEss' Quarry. About one mile east of Glen Mills Sta., P. B. & W. R. R. (Chester 
1878). Pegmatite. 

Quartz: microscopic crystals in muscovite (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Microcline: crystals 
up to 30 cm. long (Genth, 1875, 93). Garnet: red and green flattened crystals in muscovite 
(Cardeza, 1. c). Beryl: pale green, opaque, altered crystals, up to 45 cm. long. (Cardeza, 
1892, 199). Muscovite: hexagonal crystals 25 cm. with bands of reticulated magnetite, and 

>•> Andalusite is found on all the farms to the north, and those on the west side of Crum Creek in Upper 
Providence Township. 

iTo The following indefinite localities are given by Cardeza (1892, 200-201): Edward Smedley's farm: as- 
bestus, muscovite, talc, and corundum. Walter Green's farm: chromite (Genth, 1875, 42). Rev. Mr. Ross's 
farm: pyrite. Samuel Well's farm: magnetite. Matthew Dobson's farm: rutile. Near the Penna. Institute 
for Feeble Minded: quartz, hypersthene, and stilbite. Samuel Johnson's farm: radiated tourmaline. Charles 
Mill's farm: enstatite, marmolite, asbestus, and clinochlore. George Williamson's farm: corundum. Near 
Media: ilmenite (Genth, 1875, 36). 

171 There is a possibility of a confusion between this locality and Sharpless' quarry below. Genth stated 
the gahnite locality to be John Smedley's quarry, specimens having been presented to him by Cardeza. Sharp- 
less' quarry is the only one listed by Cardeza as a locality for gahnite. 



MINERAL, LOCAUTIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 191 

microscopic quartz crystals, more rarely with gahnite crystals (Hall, 1885, 69; Rand, 1890, 117; 
Cardeza, 1892, 199). Gahnite: small crystals in muscovite (Cardeza, 1892, 199). 

In the Vicinity. 

Quartz: rose (Cardeza, 1892, 199). 

Mineral Hnx.*"* Exposures along the road from Media to Black Horse, just west of 
Ridley Creek; about 1 mile northeast of Elwyn. Wissahickon gneiss. 

SUUmanite: (Genth, 1873, 381). Cyanite: pale bluish crystals (Genth, 1. c). Staurolite: 
brown twinned crystals (Genth, 1. c). 

Crump's Quarry, Minbral Hill; on the grounds of the Pennsylvania Training School 
for Feeble-Minded; V* mile north of the State Road, about 1 mile west of Media. Pyroxenite and 
metaperidotite. 

Enstatite: (Genth, 1876, 62). Actinolite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 151). Tremo- 
lite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Serpentine, retinalUe: 
(Dana, 1850, 665). Talc: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). Chlorite: (Cardeza, 1. c). Vermiculite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Deweylite: yellowish and brownish amorphous masses. Chromite: (Dana, 1860, 
656). Magnesite: (Dana, 1. c). Quartz: ferruginous; weathering product (Dana, 1. c). 

Small Abandoned Feldspar quarry and exposures about Vs tnile north of Crump's 
quarry. Pegmatite, and meta-peridotite. 

Orthoclase; delawarite; aventurine: (Rand, 1867, 274; Descloizeaux, 1868, 663). Micro- 
dine; amazonstone: fine green cleavage masses, rarely in distinct crystals (Dana, 1850, 665; 
Cardeza, 1892, 200; Descloizeaux, 1876, 433, analysis; Lea, 1866, 113, notes on inclusions). Albite; 
moonstone: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). Oligoclase; sunstone: (Dana, 1860, 665; Lea, 1866, 113; 
Descloizeaux. 1884, 272, analysis; Fouque, 1894, 371, 424). AlmandiU: (Dana, 1850, 655). 
Vermiculite: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Columhite: crystals measuring 2.5 X 1 .5cm. (Lewis, 
1882, 61; Genth, 1889, 51, analysis). Microlite: minute grains (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 
109; Wherry, 1908, 70). 

Exposures and stream bed nearby: 

Actinolite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 161). Chromite: octahedra in the sands of the 
stream (Wherry). Corundum: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). 

Exposures southwest of Crump's Quarry. Boulders in the woods, and in the bed and 
banks of stream. Pyroxenite, meta-peridotite, and pegmatite. 

Pyroxenite; primary: Enstatite: (Genth, 1875, 62). Hypersthene: (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII, 1906, 162). Chromite: imperfect crystals (Dana, 1850, 665). 

Pyroxenite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Anthophyllite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Actinolite: 
pale green, yellowish or brownish bladed masses; large boulders were found in the woods near the 
State Road, V2 mile southwest of Crumps quarry. (Dana, 1850, 656; Genth, 1875, 67; Eyerman, 
1911, 5, analysis) ."" Amphibole asbestus: (Dana, 1. c). 

Pegmatite; primary: Orthoclase: pale green (Rand, 1871, 299). Albite; moonstone: 
blue, opalescent (Dana, 1850, 655; Lea, 1866, 111; Leeds, 1873, 25; Penfield and Sperry, 1887, 
392; analyses; Descloizeaux, 1883, 110, 102, 113). Oligoclase: massive, occasionally crystallized; 
aventurine (sunstone); opalescent (moonstone). (Dana, 1860, 655; Smith and Brush, 1863, 46; 
Rand, 1867, 274; 1871, 299; Descloizeaux, 1884, 272, analysis; 1876, 480; Fouque, 1894, 371, 424). 
Beryl: dark greenish-blue crystals (Dana, 1850, 650; Cardeza, 1892, 200; Eyerman, 1911, 5, analy- 
sis). Columbite: (Cardeza, I.e.). Fergusonite: (Cardeza, I.e.). Samarskite: (Benge and Wherry, 
XV, 1908, 109; Wherry, 1908, 70). 

Black Horse. *^' John Smith's farm, at the fork of road V2 mile east of Black Horse. 
Pyroxenite, meta-pyroxenite, and pegmatite (plumasite). 

Pyroxenite; primary: Enstatite: (Cardeza, 1892, 200). 

Pyroxenite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Actinolite: (Cardeza, I. c). Hornblende: (Car- 
deza, 1. c). 

Pegmatite; primary: Albite; moonstone: (Cardeza, 1. c). Oligoclase; sunstone: (Car- 

17* Mineral Hill is a name commonly applied to the serpenine area west of Ridley Creek, and about 1 mile 
west of Media. The name has sometimes been used to include Black Horse and Hlwyn, described below. 

Genth lists corundum as occurring in large brown crystals, altered to margarite from the "northern slope 
of Mineral Hill" (Genth. 1875, 32, 136). 

"* So named from the old Black Horse Inn (now a private residence) situated at the crossing of State Road 
and Edgemont Road, half-way between Lima and Ridley Creek, about 2 miles west of Media. 



192 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

deza, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Cardeza, 1. c). AndalusiU? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 152). 
Columbite: (Cardeza, ]. c). Corundum: crystals (Cardeza, 1. c.)- 
ScHBRz's Farm, just west of Smith's farm. 

Hematite: (Cardeza, 1892, 201). Corundum: (Cardeza, L c). Chromite: (Cardeza, I.e.). 
Quarry on Hillside, about Vs mile northeast of Black Horse. Pegmatite. Abandoned. 

Quartz: green and ferruginous (Goodwin, 1904, 164; Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 152). 
Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry North of State Road, Vs ^^l^ y^tst of Black Horse. Granite gneiss and i)egma- 
tite. (Chester, 4321). 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 162). Microdine: (Benge and Wherry. 
1. c.).' Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Hibbard's Farm, on a small tributary of Chrome Run, */t mile west of Black Horse. 
Meta-peridotite; albite and corundum pegmatite (plumasite). (Chester 4325). 

Meta-peridotite: BronviU: (Cardeza, 1892, 201). Actinolite: (Smith, 1862, 414). 
Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 152). Chlorite: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Talc; 
indtu^ted: (Eyerman, 1911, 17; analysis). Magnesite: stalactitic (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Pegmatite (plumasite) : Albite; moonstone: in the valley of a stream between Black Horse 
and the railroad; (Rand, 1867, 274). Oligoclase; aventurine: sunstone; opalescent: moonstone; 
white to yellowish, translucent (Rand, 1871, 299; Hall, 1885, 116; Eyerman, 1911, 3; analyses). 
Corundum: in albite (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Placers: Chromite: large brilliant octahedra in sands. These sands were worked and 
exhausted. (Rand, 1867, 274; Genth, 1875, 42, analysis). Brookite: rare (Cardeza, 1892, 201). 
Quartz; ferruginous: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Old Corundum pits, about ^/^ mile south of Black Horse, infield on the west side of the road 
to Elwyn (Chester 4334). Albite-corundum pegmatites (plumasite). Meta-peridotite. 

Albite; moonstone: brownish- white, granular (Genth, 1882, 384, analysis). Sillimanite: 
1 ngeries of fibrous and radiating acicular cnrstals, pseudomorphous after corundum, sometimes 
WK ' a core of unaltered conmdiun (Genth, 1873, 380; 1875, 99; analysis). Corundum: white to 
brown slender bip3rramidal crystals, 6 cm. long, often asteriated; in albite, and as loose crystals in 
the so ' and gutters of the roads (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1873, 362, 380). Hyalite: coating 
siUimaiiu? (Genth, 1875, 373). 

Castor Grby's Farm, Vi tnile south of Black Horse, west of the road to Elwyn. 

Anorfhiu? (Eyerman, 1889, 22). Corundum: grayish crystals in the soil and road gutters 
(Hall, 1885. 67: Cardeza, 1892, 200). 

PBn LIP Mullin's Farm, */4 of a mile southeast of Black Horse, east of the road to Elwyn. 

Albite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 153). Corundum: crystals plowed up and col- 
lected after a heavy rain (Cardeza, 1892, 200). 

El ... North of Elwyn Station, and near Ridley Creek. 

Corunaum: crystals in albite (Hall, 1885, 67). 

Pairlamb's Farm, V4 mile west of Elwyn Station. 

Chromite: very brilliant octahedra, rarely modified (Genth, 1875, 42). 

Schofibld's Farm, about Vj niil^ west of Elwyn Station, just west of the road to Black 
Horse. Pegmatite. 

Oligoclase; moonstone: (Hall, 1885, 114). 

Cut en the P. B. & W. R. R. about Vi mile west of Elwyn Station. Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine; chrysolite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 153). 

Williamson School."* Cut on the P. B. & W. R. R., V4 mile west of Williamson School 
Station. Meta-peridotite. 

Olivine: (Genth, 1866, 120). ActinoliU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 163). Horn- 
blende: (Genth, 1866, 120). Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chromite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Magnetite: (Genth, 1866, 120). 

Glbn Riddui. Exposure north of P. B. & W. R. R., just east of Glen Riddle. 

Quartz: smoky (Eyerman, 1889, 14). StauroUte: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 153). 

>*< Benge aod Wherry (XIII, 1000, 163) cite the occurrence of amphibole Mbestus in an abandoned and 
filled in pit, Vt mile south of Williamson School. Thb is probably an error. The old asbestus mines on Side's 
farm were situated 2 miles to the south; west of Mt. Alverno Station. 



MINERAL, LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 193 

Robert Moss' Farm, on Chrome Run, Vt mile southeast of Glen Riddle. Wissahickon 
j^eiss. 

AlmandiU: (Cardeza, 1892. 200). StauroUte: (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Lbnni. Cut on the P. B. & W. R. R., '/a mUe east of Lenni Station. Meia-peridotite, 
and pegmatite. 

Meta-peridotite: ActinolUe: green, bladed masses (Rand, 1867, 274). TremoliU: (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 163). Ashestus: (Hall, 1886, 68). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII, 1906, 163). Serpentine; marmoliU: (Rand, 1867, 274). Chlorite: (Smith, 1862, 414). 
Talc: (Hall, 1886, 69). Quartz: green and ferruginous; weathering product (Cardeza, 1892, 201; 
Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pegmatite: Orthoclase; lennilite or delawarite: green, white, or gray, semi-transparent, 
(Lea, 1866, 110, notes on inclusions; Rand, 1871, 300; Genth, 1876, 224; Eyerman, 1911, 3; Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c. "leelite") Microcline: green (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Albite; moonstone: 
(Hall, 1886, 116, analysis). Oligoclase; sunstone: (Lea, 1866, 112, notes on inclusions). 
Lennilite: deep green, bronze-yellow, and silvery white; aggregates of rough hexagonal plates 
(Rand, 1867, 274; Dana, 1868, 779; Cooke and Gooch, 1875, 453, analyses; Schrauf, 1882, 350, 
analysis; Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 245, analyses). 

Quarry north of P. B. & W. R. R., about ^/t mile west of Lenni Station. Baltimore 
gneiss; hydrothermal metamorphic veins. 

Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 164). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Labradorite: bluish cleavage masses. Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) . Allanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) . Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Hydrothermal metamorphic veins: Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apophyl- 
lite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chabazite: colorless, white, and pink, twinned rhombohedra 
{Genth, 1876, 226; Eyerman, 1911, 12, analysis). Laumontite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Natro- 
Ute: druses of prismatic crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Eyerman, 1911, 11, analysis). Thorn- 
sonite: druses of colorless crystals with natrolite. Stilbite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Wawa. On the road leading from Lima to Wawa. 

Amethyst: (Cardeza, 1892, 201). 

Knowlton.*^* One- half mile south of Knowlton, near Morgan. Wissahickon gneiss • 
and pegmatite. 

Muscovite: crystals (Rand, 1867, 274). 

Nbthbr Providbncb Township 

Franklin Papbr Mill.^^* Exposures along Crum Creek, opposite paper mill, about Vs 
mile north of Baltimore turnpike. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Albite: (Dana, 1892, 1068). Tourmaline: (Dana, 1860, 666). MuscoviU: (Dana. 1860, 
666). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). Allophane: (Dana, 1892, 1068). 

Expostu'es along the west bank of Crum Creek, north of Baltimore ttunpike. Wissahickon 
^eiss and pegmatite. 

Beryl: yellow (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Lbwis' Farm. On a small run, 1 mile southeast of Media. Wissahickon gneiss and ptg- 
matite. 

Beryl: yellow (Cardeza, 1892, 196). Tourmaline: (Cardeza, 1. c). Andalusite: large 
crystals (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Opposite Swarthmore College. Exposures along west bank of Cnun Creek, above P. 
B. & W. R. R. bridge, opposite Swarthmore College. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Cardeza, 1892, 196). Tourmaline: black tapering crystals (Cardeza, 1. €.)• 
Andalusite: (Genth, 1875, 98). 

Avondalb. ^ ^ ' Quarry on west side of Crum Creek, just south of Avondale. (Chester 6616) . 
Abandoned. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

"* The "Dutton's Mill" locality for muscovite. The other minerals were found west of Chester Creek, la 
Aston township. 

m Formerly Lewis' paper mill. 

>n Many of the minerals found in Leiper's quarry (described below under Springfield township) were found 
here. 



194 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 

Sharplbss' Quarry. On the farm of George Sharpless, on a small creek, 1 mile west of 
Avondale; and 3 miles north of Chester. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: doubly terminated crystals measuring 40 X 30 cm. (Cardeza, 1892, 196). 
Muscovite: green crystals (Cardeza, 1. c). Amethyst: a pocket of deep purple cr3rstals, up to 5 cm. 
in diameter, was found in digging a post hole opposite the mansion (Cardeza, 1892, 196). 

WATBRvnxB. 

Chabazite: (Palmer, 1882, 38). 

Crossbyvillb. 

Microcline: (Hall, 1885, 92). 

Nbwtown Township"* 

Nbwtown Squarb.*'* Exposiu'es on West Chester Pike, 1 mile west of Newtown Square. 

Oligoclase; moonstone: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 130). Also found in the fields 
^/i mile east of Newtown Square. 

Wbst Chbstbr Pikb, 'A mile west of Newtown Square, at fork of road. Meta-peridotite. 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Quartz: pseudomorphous after serpentine; 
cavities are filled with colorless, bright yellow and red crystals loose in a mud (Rand, 1887, 1571). 
GoethiU: fibrous masses (Rand, 1887, 1571). 

Outcrop of serpentine, on West Chester pike, 1 mile east of Newtown Square. Meta- 
peridotite. 

Quartz: drusy and stalactitic; weathering product of serpentine (Rand, 1887, 1610; Hall,. 
1885, 35). 

South of Newtown Square, dose to Hunter's Run, and near the southern township line. 
Meta-pyroxenite. 

Tremolite: fibrous masses (Hall, 1885, 36). ^ Talc: (Hall, 1. c). 

Radnor Township"® 

St. David's. Schmidt's farm, 'A mile north of St. David's Sta., P. R. R. Wissahickon 
gneiss. « 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 129). StauroUte: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry on Frank Pennimore's farm, V4 mile north of St. David's Station. Wissahickon 
gneiss. 

Almandite: rounded crystals (Genth, 1875, 73). StauroUte: (Benge and Wherry, XIII^ 
1906, 129). 

Radnor. John Stacker's quarry, about Vt mile northwest of Radnor Station, on the road 
to King of Prussia. Pyroxenite and meta-peridotite. 

Primary minerals: Enstatite: (Rand, 1892, 186). Chromite: (Rand, 1880, 273; 1892, 
186). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Amphibole a^bestus; mountain-cork: (Rand, 1892, 186). 
Serpentine; marmoUte, chrysolite: (Rand, 1. c). 

Weathering products: Vermiculite: (Rand, 1. c). Deweylite: (Rand, 1. c). Sepiolite: 
pseudo. quartz (Rand, 1. c). Genthite; pimelite? (Rand, I.e.). Quar/z; drusy, pseudomorphous 
after serpentine and asbestus (Rand, 1. c). Chalcedony; cachalong: (Rand, 1892, 186). 

Gillingham's Farm, about Vt mile northeast of Radnor Station. Wissahickon gneiss. 

AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 129). 

Cut on P. R. R. about Vs inile east of Radnor Station. Baltimore gneiss and gabbro. 

Labradorite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 129) ; Hypersthene: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 

u* Smith (1862, 414) lists enstatite and tremolite. as occurring "near old lime-kiln on West Chester pike.'* 
Chrysotile, chromite, and hematite are also reported from the township (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907. 26). 

»• Rand (1880. 276) lists muscovite from "Newtown Square." 

iM Elongated pyrite cubes occur in the limestone of the Cream Valley, 1 mile north of Radnor. Almandite 
and StauroUte occur in Wissahickon gneiss in this valley (Rand, 1892, 186). 

The following indefinite localities have been listed: Yellow Springs Road: magnestite and serpentine (Smith, 
1862, 414). Near Morgan's Corner: asbestus (Hall, 1885, 31). Near Friend's Meeting House, Radnor: blue 
quartz, and almandite (Smith, 1862, 414). Near Evan's Schoolhouse: blue quartz (Smith, 1862, 414). West of 
Darby Creek, and south of Pawke's Run: enstatite (Hall, 1885, 31). 



MINERAL LOCAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 195 

Quarry on Rand's farm, 1 mile south of Radnor Station. Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 129). Asbestus: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
PimeliUf (Goldschmidt, 1893, 174). 

The Hunt. Mary Palmer's farm, north of The Hunt Station, P. R. R. Pyroxenite. 

EnstatiU: (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Bronsite: (Cardeza, 1892, 198). Hyper sthene; dia- 
dasiU: (Cardeza, 1892, 198). AnihophylliU, "antholiie:" (Cardeza, 1892, 199; 202). 

Roadside exposures and railroad cut, about Vi niile west of The Hunt Station. Meta- 
peridotite. 

Anthophyllite, *'antholiur (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 129). Amphihole asbestus: 
(Cleaveland, 1822, 624). Serpentine; retinalite, chrysotile: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chlorite; 
kammererite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.). Sepiolite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.). Deweylite: 
(Benge and Wherry, I.e.; Eyerman, 1911, 17, analysis). Ckromite: (Cleaveland, 1822, 624). 
Magnetite: (Cleaveland, 1. c.). Limonite: (Cleaveland,!. c.). Qwarte; drusy, stalactitic (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c.). Jasper: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.). 

Ridley Township 

FoLSOM. Quarry on Stony Creek, at Folsom, just south of Darby-Media Trolley Line. 
Abandoned. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: large crystals up to 7.5 cm. (Cardeza, 1892, 194). 

Moore. Fields in the vicinity of the old White Horse Tavern, on the Philadelphia- 
Chester Turnpike, "/s mile east of Stony Creek, and about '/g mile south of Moore Sta., P. B. & 
W. R. R. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Beryl: prismatic crystals in cyanite: (Genth, 1875, 71). Cyanite: blue radiating bladed 
masses; gray or grayish-black crystals (Lea, 1818, 479); Genth, 1875, 101; Eyerman, 1911, 
7, analysis). Sillimanite: yellowish fibrous masses (Genth, 1876, 99). Damourite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). Pyrite: (Genth, 1875, 101). 

RiDLBYviLLB. Bed and banks of Ridley Run, near Darby Creek, 1 mile south of Moore 
Sta. Wissahickon gneiss, and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Cyanite: colorless and deep blue bladed masses (Lea, 
1818, 479; Dana, 1850, 655; Smith, 1862, 414). Sillimanite: (Dana, I.e.). Damourite: (Dana, 
1, c). 

AvoNDALB. Quarry on east side of Crum Creek, just southeast of Avondale. (Chester 
5612). Granite gneiss, and pegmatite. Abandoned. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). Almandite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: black prisms (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Columbite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Ward's Quarry. East side of Crum Creek, about V« niile southeast of Crum Lynne 
Station, P. B. & W. R. R. (Chester 6446). Idle. Granite gneiss and pegmatite; hydrothermal 
metamorphic veins, in shear zones in the gneiss. 

Pegmatite; primary minerals: Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 183). Micro- 
cline: green and pink (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Albite: greenish crystals. Oligoclase: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry , 1 c). 
Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Cyanite: (Genth, 
1875,101). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Molyb- 
denite: traces. 

Granite gneiss; hydrothermal metamorphs: Calcite; argentine: white pearly, lamellar 
(Gordon, 1916, 55). StUbite: yellowish radiations (Cardeza, 1892, 194). Heulandite: yellow 
tabular crystals (Gordon, 1. c). Natrolite: white, radiating needles. Mesolite: mealy white 
radiations (Gordon, 1. c). Laumontite: white and yellow small prismatic crystals, usually in 
radiating aggregates (Gordon, 1. c). 

LEipBRVILLB.*** Deshong's quarries on the east side of Ridley Creek, about V« "lilc west 
of Leiperville. (Chester 5685). Wissahickon gneiss, granite gneiss, pegmatite^and hydrothermal 
metamorphic veins in shear zones. 

Pegmatite; primary minerals: Quartz: colorless or smoky crystals (Genth, 1875, 109; 

»> Dana (1844, 388; 1850, 655) listed muscovite, tourmaline, andalusite, cyanite, and apatite from "on the 
edge of a wood, near Leiper's Church, Leiperville." 



196 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 184). Micracline: large crystals up to 26 cm. long (Rand, 1867, 
273). Albite: (Dana, 1850, 655; Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Beryl: blue, green, and yellow; translucent to transparent crystals, measuring up to 30 X 5 cm. 
(Dana, 1844, 393; Genth, 1875, 70). Tourmaline: black crystals measuring 12 X 3 cm.; often 
stellate or radiated; rarely pale green and red, in albite (Dana, 1844, 393; Genth, 1875, 97). 
Almandite: red crystals measuring 2.5 cm. Grossularite: yellow, and green, massive, gran- 
ular; dodecahedra; (Koenig, 1878, 81; Eyerman, 1911, 6; analyses). Zoisite; thulite: rose red to 
pale pink; massive, cryptocrystalline; aggregates of small crystals (Koenig, 1878, 83; Eyerman, 
1911,8, analysis). Muscovite: (Silliman, Jr., 1850, 378). Bioft'te: (Benge and Wherry, Lc). 
Apatite: crystals (Dana, 1844, 545). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Pyrite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). TitaniU: (Dana, 1850, 656). 

Pegmatite; hydrometamorphs: Gummite: (Eyerman, 1911, 23). Uraconite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Autunite: (Genth, 1875, 144). Torbemite: minute green scales (Rand, 1867, 273; 
Genth, 1875, 144). 

Hydrothermal metamorphic veins: Stilbite: yellowish-brown, radiating (Genth, 1875, 
109). Heulandite: (Koenig, 1878, 84). Chabazite: (Koenig, 1882, 288). NatroliU: (Dana, 
1860, 655). Thomsonite: radiating aggregates (Koenig, 1882, 288). Chlorite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1907, 184). Saponite? (Rand, 1867, 273). Leidyite: green, waxy, botryoidal 
coatings (Koenig, 1878, 84). Siderite: gra3rish to brownish, granular (Genth, 1875, 100). 

Springpibld Township*'* 

Springfielo Quarry. One-eighth mile north of Saxer Avenue Station, Phila. & Western 
R. R. (Chester 2966). Granite gneiss and pegmatite. Idle. 

Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Opal, hyaliU: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Morton. Johnson's quarry, one-half mile north of Morton, on the road from Morton to 
Marple. Idle. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

MicrocUne: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Albite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tour- 
maline: black (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). AUanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Epidote: (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, Xllt, 1907, 162). Biotife: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). TitaniU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Apatite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Columbite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Euxe- 
nite: (Law and Wherry, 1907, 33). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Ilmenite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Molybdenite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). 
Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Bindheimite? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 
162). Opal, hyalite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). 

Franki^in Paper Mills."' On Cnun Creek, 1 mile E. N. E. of Media. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Staurolite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Apatite: (Ddna, 1. c). 

Exposures on the east bank of Crum Creek, V^ mile northeast of Franklin Paper Mills. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Albite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Beryl: blue, green, yellow (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Andalusite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Roadside exposures on east side of Crum Creek, about ^A mile north of Baltimore turn- 
pike. Meta-gabbro, and pegmatite. 

Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 162). Albite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: yellow (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Al- 
mandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Uraninite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Molybdenite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Gummite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Bain's QimRRV. East of Crum Creek, Vs mile north of Baltimore turnpike. Meta- 
gabbro. 

iM Dana (1850. 655) Usted garnet and beryl from "Pell's Laurel Hill." 

u* Formerly Lewis' paper mills; Seattle's Mill. Por list of minerals occurring west of Crum Creek, see Nether 
Providence Township, above. 



MINERAL LOCAUTIES OF PBNNSYIyVANIA 197 

AlbiU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Epidote: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

SwARtHMORB.*'* Exposures along east bank of Crum Creek, south of Baltimore turnpike. 
Wissahickon gneiss. 

Alntandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Andalusite: good finely modified 
crystals; occurs also Vs mile north of Swarthmore Station (Dana, 1850, 655; Smith, 1862, 
415; Genth, 1875, 98; Hall, 1885, 89). / 

Exposures along Cnun Creek, south of the P. B. & W. R. R. bridge. Wissahickon gneiss. 

AndalusiU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). 

Strath HavBn Inn. Quarry east of Crum Creek, on the Darby-Media Trolley Line, near 
Strath Haven Inn. Abandoned. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. (Chester 5375). 

Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Almandite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Bengeand Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Bengeand Wherry, L c). ApaHte: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: crjrstals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Ckrysocolla: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

AvONDALB. Leiper's quarry at Avondale, on the east side of Crum Creek, */i mile south 
of Darby-Media Trolley Line. (Chester 5378). Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). Orthodase; adularia: colorless 
crystals (Hall, 1885, 118, analysis by Genth). Microdine: pink crystals (Dana, 1850, 655; 
Genth, 1882, 392, analysis; Hall, 1885, 118). AlHU: colorless or white, short stout twinned 
crystals; on microcline, or in miarolitic cavities with white beryl, totumaline, andcalcite (Genth, 
1882,- 392; analysis; Hall, 1885, 117). Oligoclase: (Genth, 1882, 393, analysis; Hall, 1885, 117). 
Beryl: green, yellow; white or colorless modified crystals in miarolitic cavities with albite and 
tourmaline (Genth, 1882, 392). Spessartite: brilliant red crystals, forms (110) and (211), up to 
6 cm. in diameter (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1875, 73; Rath. 1884, 301; Robmson, 1887, 251, anal- 
ysis; Gratacap, 1912, 202). Andalusite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). Epidote: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Zoisite, thulite: pink (Cardeza, 1892, 194). Axinite: yellow plates, 
(Wherry, 1915, 509, analysis). Tourmaline: black prismatic crystals, often in sec- 
tions cemented by quartz, or with quartz cores (Dana, 1850, 655; Eyerman, 1911, 10, analysis). 
Muscovite: crystals (Dana, 1860, 655; Genth, 1882, 392). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Chlorite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Stilhite: yellow (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chabazite: 
red rhombohedra (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Zircon; cyrtolite: minute crystals (Wherry, 1908, 
68). TitaniU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 109). Apatite: crystals (Dana, 1850, 655). 
Uraninite: crystals (Rand. 1867, 273). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). 
Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.)- Molybdenite: minute hexagonal crystals (Benge smd Wherry, 
XIII, 1907, 163). Bismuthinite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Calcite: small scalenohedra, or cleavage masses (Genth, 
1882, 392). 

Pegmatite: weathering products: Opal, hyalite: green, mammillary (Genth, 1875, 61). 
AUophane: green (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 163). Bismutite: (Rand. 1867, 273). Mala- 
chiU: (Cardeza, 1892, 194). Chrysocolla: (Cardeza, 1892, 194). Uranophane: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Gummite: yellow, often with a core of uraninite (Wherry, 1. c). Torbemite: 
green scales (Wherry, 1. c). Autunite: yellow scales (Rand, 1867, 273). Uraconite: (Rand, 1867, 
273). 

Thornbury Township 
Glsn Mnxs. 

Albite: greenish-gray, rarely opalescent (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 91 ; Hall, 1885, 44). 
Amethyst: (Dana, 1868, 779). 

Uppsr Chichester Township 

BooTHWYN. J. B. Okie's farm, about 2 miles north of Boothwyn, east of Chelsea-Booth- 
W3m Road. Gabbro and pegmatite. 

Amethyst: purple crystals measuring 2.5 cm. (Cardeza, 1892, 197). Tourmaline: black 
crystals (Harvey and Pierce). 

Roadside expostu-es on the Chelsea-Boothwyn road. 

u« Pormerly Westdale. 



198 MINERAL U)CAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA • 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 7). 

Thatcher's Farm, iVs mile north of Boothwjm. Gabbro and pegmatite. 

Quartz: a limpid crystal measuring 25 cm. long was found in digging a post-hole in the 
cowyard of the bam (Harvey and Pierce). 

Armstrong's Farm, Vi mile north of Boothwyn, east of the Chelsea Road. Gabbro and 
pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky to amethystine crystals meastuing 5 cm., in parallel growths (Harvey and 
Pierce). Beryl: green crystals measuring 7.5 X 30 cm. (Harvey and Pierce). Tourmaline: 
slender black crystals, 10 cm. long (Harvey and Pierce). Zircon; cyrtolite: small crystals (Harvey 
and Pierce). 

Bbrgdoll's Farm, immediately north of Boothwyn Station, west of Chelsea Road. Gab- 
bro and pegmatite. 

Amethyst: light purple crystals, usually in parallel growths, in the soil. 

Bullock's Quarry, on Marcus Hook Creek, Vi mile east of Boothwyn Sta., B. & O. R. R. 
Pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Harvey and Pierce). Beryl: (Harvey and Pierce). Almandite: (Harvey 
and Pierce). Muscovite: enclosing magnetite (Harvey and Pierce). Apatite: green, massive 
(Harv y and Pierce). Monazite: brown, small crystals in apatite. Columbite: crystals measur- 
ing 4X2 cm. (Harvey and Pierce). 

McCay's Quarry, on E. branch of Naaman's Creek, V4 mile west of Boothwjrn Station. 
Pegmatite. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 7). Microcline: (Benge and Wherry,. 1. c). 
Spessartite? crystals measuring 2.5 cm. (Cardeza, 1892, 197). 

One half mile west of Boothwyn Station. 

Orthoclase: crystals measuring 6 cm. (Harvey and Pierce). Quartz: large groups of crys- 
tals, stained reddish, in parallel position (Harvey and Pierce). 

McCay's Farm. 

Quartz: fine rutilated crystals in the soil (Harvey and Pierce). 

Washout along north side of B. & O. R. R., just west of the E. branch of Naaman's Creek, 
'/s mile S. W. of Boothwyn Station. Gabbro and pegmatite. 

Almandite: red dodecahedra and trapezohedra, single crystals meastu-ing 1 to 6 cm. (Car- 
deza, 1892, 197). Titanite: brilliant green and yellow transparent to translucent crystals measur- 
ing 2.5 cm. in length, (Cardeza, 1892, 197). 

Feldspar pits on the west side of the £. branch of Naaman's Creek, between the B. & O. 
R. R. and the Boothwyn road, about Vj mile S. W. of Boothwyn Station. Abandoned. (Chester 
7235). Pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 7). Microcline: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: red crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
I.e.; Law, 1904, 57). Beryl: yellow and green (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Andalusite? (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Zircon; cyrtolite: brown and yellow, minute crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Wherry, 1908, 72). Apatite: green (Wherry). Monazite: brown, 
translucent crystals, sometimes twinned, measuring up to 2.5 X 2.5 X 1 cm. (Harvey and Pierce; 
Wherry, 1919, 123). Xenotime: minute crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Columbite: crystals 
measuring 3 cm. in length (Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Smith, 1919, 121). Samarskite: (Wherry). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Vermiculite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Lithomarge: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Feldspar quarry, and exposures in the bed of a small stream adjacent to the quarry, on 
the east side of the E. branch of Naaman's Creek, 'A mile S. S. W. of Boothwyn Station, and V* 
mile south of the Boothwyn road (Chester 7239). Abandoned. Other pits are located along 
the hillside to the east, and on the west side of the creek, near the road. Pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 6). Microcline: crystals measuring 
30 cm. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: crystals up to 
7.5 cm. (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Zircon: cyrtolite: 
(Harvey and Pierce). 



MINERAL U)CALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 199 

Gborgb Hblx's Farm, 1 mile southwest of Boothwyn, between the east and middle 
branches of Naaman's Creek. Pegmatite. 

Almandite: black crystals measuring 2 cm. (Harvey and Pierce). 

Uppbr Darby Township*** 

Upper Darby. Cut on the Phila. & Western R. R. about Vs mile S. E. of City Line 
Avenue. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 161). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Exposures along West Chester pike, and in the adjacent field, V« mile west of Upper Darby 
P. O. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. * 

Quartz: colorless to smoky, large crystals (Smith, 1862, 414). Almandite: crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 161). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: 
large sheets (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). KaoliniU: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Aquacreptite? 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: large crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Drexel's Quarry. Just northwest of Garrett Road Station, P. R. R. Granite gneiss 
and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 161). Molybdenite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: weathering product (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Lansdownb. Mahoney's Sand Pit, ^f* mile west of Owen Avenue, and Va niile north of 
Greenwood Avenue, in the northwestern part of Lansdowne. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: fine smoky crystals up to 18 X 23 cm. (Cardeza, 1892, 196; Goodwin, 1909, 15). 
MuscovtU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 161). 

BuRMONT. Mahoney's quarry, on Darby Creek, V4 mile east of Burmont Sta., P. B. & W. 
R. R. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky crystals in the road cuts nearby (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 161). 
Almandite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 161). 

Kbllyvillb. Maher's quarry, ^A mile north of Baltimore Avenue, at fork of road, in 
eastern part of Kellyville. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. Abandoned. 

Quartz: smoky crystals (Smith, 1862, 414). Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1907, 162). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Sillimanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

GnxBSPiB's Quarry. On the north side of Darby Creek, just west of Garrett Road 
trolley bridge. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1907, 162). Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, 
I.e.). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Oligoclase: (Eyerman, 1911, 3, analysis). Hornblende: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: crystals (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: weathering product (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Upper PROvroENCB Township* "^^ 

Bi^uE Hnx.**^ Exposures at Blue Hill cross-roads, about 2Vs miles northwest of Media, 
and 'A mile northeast of Sycamore mills. Meta-peridotite and pegmatite. 

Meta-peridotite: Enstatite, bronzite: (Dana, 1892, 1068). Hypersthene, diaclasite: 
(Dana, I.e.). Anthophyllite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Tremolite: (Smith, 1862, 414). Actinolite: 
(Smith, 1. c). Asbestus: (Dana, 1850, 655). ChloriU; clinochlore: (Dana, 1868, 779; 1892, 1968). 
Serpentine, picrolite; chrysolite, fibrous seams in massive seri)entine (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 
1862, 203; Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 132). Talc: green, foliated (Dana, 1850, 655). Apa- 
tiU: (Dana, 1892, 1068). Chromite: octahedra measuring 5 mm. (Rand, 1867, 275). Zircon: 
(Genth, 1875, 77). Quartz: blue and green, perfect doubly terminated crystals, usually in aggre- 
gate or radiated masses, loose in the soil, rarely in green talc or chlorite; also ferruginous and 
amethystine (Dana, 1850, 655; Smith, 1862, 415; Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

u* Smith (1862, 415) reported garnet from "George Smith's quarry, Upper Darby," and beryl from "Upper 
Darby." Cardeza (1802, 196) listed quartz and microcline from "cutting of the Chester Co. R. R." 

I* Hall (1885, 111) gives an analysis by Genth of a black titaniferous magnetite enclosing rutile from "Mary 
Worral's farm." Smith (1862, 414) lists amethyst, tourmaline, and andalusite from the "Rock House." 

Iff Smith (1862, 415) reports spinel, but Col. WiUcoz (Hall, 1885, 60) considered this an error. 



200 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA ' 

Pegmatite: Orthoclase; delawariU; cassiniU: dull bltiish-green, vitreous, semi-transparent, 
with internal reflections due to minute, but visible hexagonal plates (Lea, 1866, 110; Rand, 1871, 
300; Leeds, 1870, 63, analysis; Genth, 1876, 224, analysis; Penfidd and Sperry, 1888, 326, analysis, 
and optical examination). Oligodase: transparent, white, striated (Genth, 1876, 223, 
analysis). 

Sycamore Mills. ^^^ Roadside exposures just east of Sycamore Mills, on Ridley Creek, 
2 miles northwest of Media. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Genth, 1875, 73). AlmandUe; manganiferous: dark reddish-brown crystals 
measuring 10 cm. (Smith, 1862, 415; Genth, 1875, 73; Eyerman, 1911, 6, analysis; Benge and 
Wherry, XJII, 1906, 132). MuscoviU: plumose (Cardeza, 1892, 199). 

Reese's Farm, on Ridley Creek, just east of Sycamore Mills. Pegmatite. 

Orthoclase; cassiniU: (Cardeza, 1892, 197). Albite: moonstone: (Cardeza, 1. c). Oliga^ 
clase; sunstone: (Smith, 1862, 414; Cardeza, 1. c). Corundum: (Cardeza, 1. c). 

Rose Trbe.^^' Smedley's asbestus mine, Vs Q^i^^ ^^st of Rose Tree, in a field just north of 
the road to Sycamore Mills (Chester 2725). Pyroxenite and meta-pyroxenite. 

Enstatite: brown, cleavage masses. Anikophylite: radiated (Benge and Wherry, XV, 
1908, 108). Asbestus: white, fibrous masses (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 132). Chlorite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

Exposures in bed of a small tributary of Ridley Creek, about V« mile W. S. W. of Rose Tree. 
Pyroxenite; meta-pyroxenite, and meta-peridotite. 

EnstatiU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). AtUhophylliU; "antholiU:" also occurs in 
a quarry on the top of hill V* mile south (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108; XIII, 1906, 132). 
Serpentine: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Talc, pseudomorphous after anthophyllite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

James Worral's Farm. On Crum Creek, 1 mile east of Rose Tree Inn, and V/i miles 
northeast of Media. Wissahickon gneiss, pegmatite, and amethyst veins. 

Amethyst: deep purple crystals, in groups measuring up to 6 X 25 cm. Also found across 
the creek in Marple township. (Rand, 1867, 275; Cardeza, 1892, 199). Microcline: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 132). Beryl: (Cardeza, 1892, 199). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Andalusite: large crystals measuring up to 6 X 23 cm., and, 
in groups weighing up to 60 pounds. Crystals have an irregular cleavage, and some show a fibrous 
or radiating structure indicating paramorphs of sillimanite after andalusite (Rand, 1867, 275; 
Dana, 1844, 545; 1868, 779; 1872, 273; 1892, 497; Genth, 1875, 99). IlmeniU: (Benge and Wherry 
1. c). Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Morgan Hunter's Farm. Just west of Worral's farm. Wissahickon gneiss, pegmatite, 
and amethyst veins. 

Amethyst: deep ptui)le crystals up to 7 pounds (Dana, 1850, 655; Kunz, 1890, 114, plate 6). 
Tremolite; pseudo. andalusite? (Cardeza, 1892, 199). Andalusite: (Cardeza, 1. c). Muscovite: 
pseudo. Andalusite? (Cardeza, 1. c.)- 

Randoi^ph's Farm. Just west of Hunter's farm. Wissahickon gneiss and amethsrst 
veins. 

Amethyst: in the soil, with wad (Cardezza, 1892, 199). 

Copple's Far^. One-half mile east of Media Reservoir. 

Amethyst: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

FAYETTE COUWTYi'* 

Dunbar. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals (Lewis, 1880, 242). Siderite: crystals in massive 
siderite (Lewis, 1. c). Pyrite: minute crystals (Lewis, 1. c.) 
Victoria. 
Galena: (Eyerman, 1899, 4) Sphalerite: (Eyerman, 1. c). . 

>» Formerly Bishop's Mill. 

u> Name from the old Rose Tree Inn on the Providence Road, 1 1/4 miles north of Media. 

iM Aigster (1813, 211) listed "amianthus" from "near Brownsville." 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 201 

FRANKLIN COUNTY^i 

CHAMB9RSBURG. 

Travertine: occurs east of Chambersburg (Rogers, 1868, 1, 259). 

Guilford Springs. Lindsay's farm, »/< mUe northeast of Guilford Springs, just east of 
the Cumberland Valley, R. R. Stones River (Ordovician) limestone; hydrometamorphic veins 
of barite; residual masses in the soil. 

Barite: white, granular masses (Stose, 1909, 18). 

KnbppQR. Stamey's farm, just west of Knepper, Quincy township. Waynesboro for- 
mation (Cambrian). 

BariU: (Stose, 1909, 18). 

Waynesboro. Snobarger's farm, 2 miles northeast of Waynesboro, Washington township. 
Waynesboro formation, and Tomstown limestone (Cambrian) ; hydrometamorphic veins. 

BariU: residual masses in the soil; the source of the masses is exposed in a ledge on the hill 
side. Barite also occurs locally on farms 2^/2 miles south, and 3 miles southeast of Waynesboro. 
(Stose. 1909, 18; Rogers, 1858, I, 258; Frazer, 1880, 262; McCreath, 1879, 369, analyses; 
Eyerman, 1889, 41). 

Roadside. Bonebreake's farm, Vi niile southeast of Roadside, Washington township. 
Klbrook formation; hydrometamorphic veins of barite. 

BariU: (Stose, 1909, 18). 

Lancaster Station. 

FluoriU: pale grayish and pink; imperfect cubes and crystalline masses (Genth, 1876, 210). 
BariU: white, lamellar cleavage masses (Genth, 1876, 228; Lewis, 1882, 38). 

Mercersbttrg. 

LimoniU: (Cleaveland, 1816, 493). 

FULTON COUNTY 

Fort Littleton. Farms Vi n"le northeast, and 1 mile north of Fort Littleton. Hydro- 
metamorphic veins of barite; residual masses in the soil. 

BariU: bluish- white, granular and lamellar masses (Rogers, 1858, I, 414; Stevenson, 
1882, 304; McCreath, 1879, 369; analyses). 

HUNTINGDON COUNTY"' 

Broad Top Mountain. 

BariU: thin coatings on fossil and calamites that occur in the carboniferous shales (Lewis, 
1882, 38). 

Sideling Hill Tunnel. 

EpsomiU: small colorless acicular crystals in greenish Pocono shales in the Sideling Hill 
tunnel of the East Broad Top R. R., in Clay township. 

Sandy Ridge, Orbisonia. Limonite pit, "Chert Bank," on Sandy Ridge, 2 miles south 
of Orbisonia, Cromwell township. Oriskany sandstone. 

BariU: colorless crystals and masses in limonite (Ashbumer, 1878, 271). WavelliU: 
seams of radiating crystals (Ashbumer, 1. c). 

Chester Furnace. Three-quarters of a mile west of the old Chester Furnace (3 miles 
west of Orbisonia, Cromwell township). 

GoeihiU: fibrous, containing Co (Boy6, 1847, 238). Psilomelane: (Genth, 1875. 63). 

Wray's Hill Tunnel. Exposures at Wray's Hill Tunnel, East Broad Top R. R., Todd 
township, Mauch Chunk red shales, and Pottsville conglomerate. 

CalciU: fibrous (Ashbumer, 1878, 271). QuarU: (Ashbumer, 1. c). HematiU: specular 
(Ashbumer, 1. c). Wad: renlform, coating Pottsville conglomerate (Ashbumer, I. c). 

»i Seybert (1808, 153) listed dodecahedral quartz from Franklin County. 

**> The type locality of celestite, Bellwood, is sometimes given as Huntingdon County; Blair County not 
having come into existence until 1846. 

Byerman (1889, 238) listed cacoxenite and dufrenite from Dry Hollow. These minerals were inferred to 
exist from the presence of Mn and P in analyses of goethite (White, 1885, 434). 



202 MINERAI* LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

McCoNNELLSTowN. One mile N. E. of McConnellstown. Walker township. 
Galena: near the contact of Lewistown limestone and the overlying Onondago shales 
(White, 1886. 129). 

JUNIATA COUNTY 

Ross Farm. Ross Farm, on the Tuscarora Valley R. R., 5 miles northeast of Blairs Mills, 
just west of Tuscarora Creek. Abandoned wavellite mine. Oriskany sandstone. 
WavelliU: green radiations on sandstone. 

LANCASTER COUNTY 

Bart Township 

Gap NickBL MinBS.*" One and a half miles north of Bart P. O., (Quarryville 3444). 
Meta-gabbro intrusive in Wissahickon gneiss; magmatic segregations of nickeliferous pyrrhotite 
at the margins of the mass; pegmatite; a dike of Triassic oli vine-diabase outcrops about 1500 feet 
to the southeast. 

Gabbro; primary minerals: Augite? (Mombert, 1869, 608). BioUU? (Genth, 1875, 
69). 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: dark green crystals (Genth, 1875, 69). 
Actinolite: (Dana, 1864, 490). AmphihoU asbestus: (Genth, 1875, 69). Chlorite: (Frazer, 
1880, 78). 

Gabbro; magmatic deposits; primary: Pyrrhotite: nickeliferous, 2.9% Ni (Genth, 1851, 
250; Blake, 1851, 339; Boyle, 1852; Rammelsberg, 1864, 361). Pentlandiie? a small non- 
magnetic portion of the nickeliferous pyrrhotite was analyzed and gave the composition 3NiS 
+ 2FeS. (Genth, 1875, 13; analysis by Pemberton; Campbell and Knight, 1907, 364). 
ChalcopyriU: (Boy6, 1852, 230; Genth, 1875, 21). Arsenopyrite? (Frazer, 1880, 78). Gold: 
traces (Genth, 1875, 5). 

Magmatic deposits; hydrothermal metamorphs: Millerite: veins of radiating coatings or 
concentrically radiated semi-globular masses or tufts; pale brass-yellow, sometimes tarnished on 
the surface to chalcocite. (Genth, 1862, 195; Gramont, 1892, 268, study of spectrum). Pyrite: 
nickeliferous, crystals (Boy6, 1852, 230). Quartz: pseudomorphous after calcite (Genth, 1875, 61). 
Siderite: small rhombohedral and prismatic crystals; spherosiderite. (Rand, 1867, 407; C^enth, 
1875, 160). 

Magmatic deposits; hydrometamorphs: Marcasite? (Rand, 1867, 407; Beck, 1912, 2, 
analysis). Chalcocite: coating millerite, (Genth, 1862, 195). Vivianite: colorless, greenish, or 
blue; slender prismatic crystals 3 cm. long (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 141). 

Magmatic deposits; weathering products: Copper: (Genth, 1875, 5). Scorodite: 
(Rand, 1867, 407). Morenosite: greenish-white incrustations (Rand, 1867, 407; Rogers, 1858, 
11, 709; Genth, 1875, 150). MelarUeHU: stalactitic (Rand, 1867, 407; Rogers, 1858, II, 709; 
Genth, 1875, 149). CopiapiU: (Roepper: Mombert, 1869, 609). GlockeriU: (Genth, 1875, 161, 
analysis by Roepper). Chalcanthite: (Mombert, 1869, 609). Hisingerite? black, amor- 
phous (Rand, 1871, 304, analysis). 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: smoky; abundant east of the smelter ruins, 'A mile north 
of the nickel mines (Beck, 1912, 3). Tourmaline: black (Beck, 1912, 9). 

Mt. Plsasant. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Amethyst: purple, with a smoky tint, occurs in fields, 1 mile northwest of Mt.Pleasant; 
(Beck, 1912, 3). ^ 

Caernarvon Township 

B^ARTOWN. Limonite pits, ^/s mile southwest of Beartown, just north of the P. R. R. 
Cambrian sandstone; residual deposits of goethite and limonite. The mines are abandoned. 
Other pits occur on Welsh Mountain, 2 miles east, and 3 Vs miles E. N. E. of Beartown. 

Limonite: (Beck, 1912, 5). Psilomelane: (Beck, 1912, 5, analysis). Cacoxenite: red- 

iM The deposit was discovered in 1732, when attempts were made to work it for copper. In 1853 
Genth determined the presence of nickel, and the mine became the largest producer of nickel of its day. The 
mines were abandoned in 1893. 



MINERAL LOCALITIBS OK PENNSYLVANIA 203 

dish-yellow and golden-yellow tufts of radiating crystals (Dana, 1892, 1069; Goldsmith, 1893, 175; 
Beck, 1912, 11). StrengUe: grayish-white translucent globules of a radiating structure, with 
cacoxenite (Beck, 1912, 11). 

CoNESTOGA Township 

RocKHnx. 

PectoliU: hydrothermal metamorph in diabase; (Beck, 1912, 8, analysis). Prehnite: 
light green (Beck, 1912, 9). 

Safe Harbor. Limonite pit Vt mi^^ southeast of Safe Harbor; and a half mile west of 
Green Hill School. Three other pits occur along a stream ^/i mile north of ColemanviUe. Shen- 
andoah limestone; residual deposits of goethite. 

Goeihite: geodes (Mombert, 1869, 607). AragoniU? tufts of acicular crystals (Mombert, 
1. c). 

Drumore Township 
Quartz: crystals (Dana, 1868, 779). CkloriU: (Mombert, 1869, 609). 

East Cocawco Township 

Adamstown. 

Quartz: (Smith, 1885, 413). Ilmenite: large crystals in quartz (Smith, 1885, 413, analysis). 
Hornblende: (Smith, 1886, 413). Heulandite: in cavities in trap (Smith, 1886, 413, analysis). 
CalciU: (Smith, 1885, 413). 

Marietta. Limonite pits northeast of Marietta. Shenandoah limestone; residual 
deposits of goethite. 

GoethiU: geodes (J. P. Lesley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 8, 229, 1866). Galena: in 
goethite geodes (Lesley, 1. c). 

East Hempfibld Township 

Bampord. Abandoned zinc mines at Bamford, 6 miles northwest of Lancaster. Ordovi- 
cian limestone; hydrometamorphic veins of galena and sphalerite. 

Galena: small lustrous crystals (Dana, 1854, 490). Sphalerite: (Dana, 1854,490). Tetra- 
hedrite? minute crystals (Eyerman, 1911, 22). Tennaniite: steel-gray, massive (Taylor, 1855, 
412; Genth, 1875, 24). Calamine: minute crystals (Dana, 1854, 490; Genth, 1875, 106). Dolo- 
mite: (Mombert, 1869, 610). Smithsonite: pseudomorphous after dolomite; granular, brownish- 
gray (Taylor, 1856, 427; Genth, 1875, 161). Cerussite: minute crystals on galena (Genth, 1875, 
163). Aurichalcite: acicular crystals (Taylor, 1855, 412). Hydrozincite: white incrustations on 
smithsonite (Genth, 1875, 166). 

Earl Township 
New Holland. 

Quartz: colorless to smoky crystals, 10 cm. long (Genth, 1876, 56, 58). Ilmenite: (Mom- 
bert, 1869, 607; Roepper). Epidote: (Mombert, 1869, 608). 

Eden Township 

QuarryvillE. 

A nkerite: reddish-brown rhombohedra, in cut of P. R. R., east of Quarryville (Beck, 1912, 6) 
Limonite: (Beck, 1912, 5). Orthoclase: (Genth, 1875, 17). Pyrrhotite: plates with orthodase 
(Genth, 1875, 17). 

Ephrata Township 

Glenwood Station.**^ Old copper mine, a short distance north of Glenwood Station, on 
the Conestoga Electric R. R. Triassic shales; hydrometamorphic concentrations. 

Chalcocite: small scattered deposits in Triassic shales (Beck, 1912, 1). Melaconite: 
(Beck, 1912,3). Cuprite: small deep red masses (Beck, 1912,3). Pyrolusite: (Beck, 1912, 4). 
Malachite: coatings (Beck, 1912, 7). AzuriU: coatings (Beck, 1912, 7). 

ut "Keftmstown" of Beck (1912). This town lies 3 miles to the northeast. 



204 MINERAL U)CAUTmS OF PENNSYLVANIA 

EphraTa. Railroad cut 1 mile north of Ephrata, just south of Mohlers Meeting House. 
Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

FluoriU: deep purple cubes (Beck, 1912, 2). Chondrodite? bright orange-yellow to 
brownish-yellow, nearly transparent grains with fluorite. (Beck, 1912, 9). - 

Fulton Township 

LiNB Pit: Low's Minb.** On the Pennsylvania-Maryland Line, about two miles south of 
Texas, and about one northwest of Rock Springs, Md. (Havre de Grace 1632). Other mines in 
the immediate vicinity are the Red Pit on the road one half mile northeast of the Line Pit (Havre 
de Grace 2178); Jenkins mine, on Rock Springs Run, one mile north of Rock Springs, Md., and 
just southwest of Rock Springs Church (Penna.) (Havre de Grace 2184) ; Tyson Rejrnold's mine, 
two miles northeast of Rock Springs, Md., just south of the fork to Wrightsdale (Havre de Grace 
2247) ; and Brown's mine on Soapstone Hill, one and a quarter miles northeast of Texas (Quarry- 
ville 8764). Meta-peridotite; magmatic deposits of chromite. 

Peridotite; primary: Chromite: black, lustrous masses (Dana, 1850, 655). 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Serpentine; williamsite, picrolite: green, bluish- 
green, grasrish, laminated masses (Shepard, 1848, 249; Dana, 1850, 692, 655; Hermann, 1851, 
31; Smith and Brush, 1853, 213; Genth, 1875, 116; 1862, 203; analyses). Talc: gieenish-white 
foliated masses (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1875, 112). Penninite; kammerertte: dark green or 
violet colored crystals, pink or reddish, scaly or fibrous masses (Garrett, 1853, 332; Rand, 1867 » 
407). 

Meta-peridotite; hydrometamorphs: Brucste: pearly white crystals, and laminated 
masses (Dana, 1854, 490; 1868, 178; Brush, 1861, 94). Hydromagnesite: acicular crystals and 
radiated masses, with brucite (Smith and Brush, 1853, 214; Weinschenk, 1897, 568). Magne- 
siU: white, massive (Dana, 1850, 655; Genth, 1875, 157). 

Magmatic deposits; weathering products: Zaratite: emerald-green vitreous coatings 
(Dana, 1850, 655). Genthite: apple-green, mammillary coatings (Genth, 1875, 116). 

Tbxas (LylBS p. O.)"* Boice farm, one and a half miles W. S. W. of Texas, or one and a 
quarter miles north of Pleasant Grove, just east of Pleasant Grove Road. (Havre de Grace 
1315.3) Meta-peridotite and Wissahickon mica schists. 

Pyrite: cubes, cubo-octahedra, and pyritohedra; crystals loose in the soil, or embedded 
in soft chlorite schists. (Dana, 1850, 655). 

Old magnesite quarries, one quarter mile southeast of the above locality; and one and a 
half miles southwest of Texas (Havre de Grace 1316.8). Meta-peridotite. 

Serpentine; marmolite: (Dana, 1850,665). MagnesiU: (Carpenter, 1828, 10; Dana, 1850, 
655; Frazer, 1880, 97). Dolomite: mammillary masses in serpentine (Garrett, 1853, 334). 

Exposures in the vicinity of Texas. Enstatite; bronzite: large masses occur one half mile 
west of Texas. (Garret, 1853, 333, analysis). AnthophylliU: (Dana, 1850, 655). IlmeniU: 
(Eyerman, 1889, 9). 

Pleasant Grovb. Exposures in woods, at base of hill, south of Conowingo Creek, about 
one mile southeast of Pleasant Grove. Granite gneiss, containing xenoliths of talc and 
actinolite. 

Actinolite: green crystals in talc (Carpenter, 1828, 10). Talc: (Carpenter, 1828, 10). 

Rock Springs Run. Exposures in vicinity of, and bed and banks of a small branch empty- 
ing into Rock Springs Run, about one and a quarter miles north of Rock Springs, Md. Meta- 
peridotite. 

Serpentine; chrysolite: (Carpenter, 1828, 10). Magnetite: octahedra in chlorite (Cari)en- 
ter, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Dana, 1850, 655). Chalcedony; carnelian; jasper; moss-agate: (Carpenter 
and Spackman, 1826, 224; Dana, 1850, 655). 

iw This locality and Wood's mine, described below, have been together known as "Texas, Pa." The first 
reference to it was made by Carpenter, 1828, 10, who called it "Joel Jackson's farm." 

>** The granular albite described by Silllman, Jr., 1849, 389, from the vicinity of the chrome mines, undoubt- 
edly occurred in Maryland, one half mile south of the Line Pit, and one half mile west of Rock Springs, Md., on 
the banks of Sweigart's Run. 

Dana (1850, 655) listed "green tourmaline in talc" from Texas, but the exact locality is unknown. A 
specimen is in the possession of Mr. Frank J. Keeley; the matrix of the tourmaline seems to be sericite, and 
not talc. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 205 

Abandoned iron mine, one mile N. N. W. of Rock Springs, Md. Magmatic deposit of 
magnetite; meta-peridotite. 

Magnetite: large masses (Genth, 1875, 39). 

Lancaster 

Pyrite: brilliant cubic crystals are abimdant in the limestone underlying the city; some- 
times occurs altered to limonite (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 19). Wad: coating on sandstone 
in a sand pit in the eastern part of Lancaster (Beck, 1912, 6). Calcite: colorless rhombohedral and 
scalenohedral crystals have been found near the Lancaster Gas Works; exposures south of Lan- 
caster, near the third lock of the old Conestoga canal; and on the farm of George Kendig, about 
300 yards from the south end of the bridge over the Conestoga, at Wabank (Mombert, 1869, 609; 
Beck, 1912, 6). Travertine occurs in Heidig's quarry on the Groffstown road, just beyond the 
end of East Chestnut Street, Lancaster; tufa occurs in considerable masses 200 yards south of 
Gables Park on the Conestoga, south of Lancaster (Mombert, 1869, 610; Beck, 1912, 6). Ara- 
gonite: in caves south of Lancaster (Beck, 1912, 7). Fluorite: purple cubes occtu* in Heidig's 
quarry (Beck, 1912, 2). 

LiTTLB Britain Township 

Wood's Chrome Mine.*'^ In the ox-bow of Octoraro Creek, 'A mile southwest of Lee's 
Mill, and about 5 miles W. N. W. of Sylmar Station, P. B. & W. R. R. Meta-peridotite; magmatic 
deposits of chromite. The mine was worked to a depth of 800 feet. Placer deposits were devel 
oped along the Octoraro Creek. 

Peridotite; primary: Branzite: (Dana, 1868, 779). Olivine? yellowish-green, vitreous 
(Genth, 1866, 120). Chromite: magmatic deposits; black massive (Dana, 1850, 655); Garrett, 
1852, 46, analysis). 

Peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Serpentine; wUliamsite, marmolite, picrolite: 
(Rammelsberg, 1847, 107; 1860, 526; Silliman, 1849, 134; Dana, 1850, 655, 692; Genth, 1862, 
203; 1875, 116; Rand, 1867, 407; analyses). Clinochlore; ripidolite: pale green twinned 
erjrstals, associated with kammererite (Shepard, 1849, 134; Cooke, 1867, 201; Genth, 1875, 131; 
Kokscharov, 1888, 26; Tschermak, 1890, 99; 1, 1891, 182,238,249). Penninile; kammererite: 
dark green or violet crystals, more frequently pink or reddish, scaly fibrous or granular aggregates 
(Dana, 1850, 655; Hermann, 1851, 21; Genth, 1853, 121; Blake, 1852, 117; Smith and Brush, 
1853,47; analyses by: Hermann, 1851, 21; Garrett, 1853, 332; DieflFenbach, 1855, 534; Pearse. 
1864, 222; Genth, 1875, 130; crystallography and optical properties: Cooke, 1867, 201; Dana 
1868, 495; Pirsson, 1891, 408; Tschermak, I, 1891, 238; 249; Descloizeaux, 1868). UvaroviU: 
minute transparent crystals, of very rare occiurence in clinochlore (Shepard, 1866, 216). Vesu- 
vianiU: greenish, yellowish and brownish, columnar crystalline aggregates (Genth, 1875, 178). 
Millerite: small grains and nodules in kammererite (Blake, 1852, 117). 

Meta-peridotite; hydrometamorphs: Brucite: large tabular crystals, groups of crystals, 
rosettes or radiating masses; more frequently in broad foliated silver white, or rose-colored, 
broad foliated masses (Smith and Brush, 1853, 214; Hartmann, 1855, 107; Genth, 1875, 51; 
analyses by Smith and Brush, 1. c; Hermann, 1861, 368; Clarke and Schneider, 1890, 456; crys- 
tallography: Rose, 1860, 178; Brush, 1861, 94; Hermann, 1861, 368; Hessenberg, 1862, 40; 
1869,45; Dana, 1868, 176; Gratacap, 1912, 110). Hydromagnesite: druses of adcular crystals; 
radiated, crystallized seams, with brucite (Smith and Brush, 1853, 214; Dana, 1854, 84; 1892, 
305; Weinschenk, 1897, 570; a mixture of hydromagnesite and brucite was described by Silliman, 
1850, 216, imder the name of lancasterite). Calcite: rhombohedra on chromite (Dana, 1850, 655; 
Genth, 1875, 154). Chalcocite: rarely with chromite (Genth, 1875, 16). 

Meta-peridotite; weathering products: Quartz: druses of minute crystals, often ferrugi- 
nous (Genth, 1875, 57). Chalcedony; hornstone; jasper: (Genth, 1875, 60, 69). Araganite: 
radiating crystals, druses (Rand, 1867, 407). Dolomite: manmiillary incrustations of minute 
crystals, often colored green by small admixttu-es of zaratite (Dana, 1850, 655; Garrett, 1853, 334; 
Genth, 1875, 156; Shepard, 1848, 250; Hermann, 1849, 13, described a mixture of dolomite and 

1*7 Commonly known with Low's mine, as "Texas, Pa." The mine was opened in 1828 by Isaac Tyson. 
Corundum and albite have been reported from the vicinity of the mines (Genth, 1875. 32; Silliman. 1840. 
389; analysis). 



206 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

zaratite under the name pennite). MagnesUe: (Dana, 1850, 655). ZaratiU: emerald-green, 
vitreous coatings on chromite (Silliman, 1847. 407). GenihiU: green, mammillary coatings on 
chromite(Genth, 1851,487; Dana, Am. J. Sci, 44, 1867,256). Vermiculite: (Shepard, 1866,216). 
Deweylite: yellowish, greenish, reddish or brownish, resinous amorphous coatings (Genth, 1852, 
122; Dana, 1854,286; Genth, 1875, 117; Beck, 1912, 10; analyses). 

Chrome sand placers: Chromite: (Dana, 1850, 655; Garrett, 1852, 46, analysis). 11- 
meniU: (Dana, 1868, 779). HematiU? (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 34). 

Carter's Chrobce Mine. About 150 yards east of Wood's Mine. 

Serpentine: massive, red (Rand, 1867, 406). Deweylite: (Rand, 1. c). Dolomite: (Rand, 
I.e.). Magnesite: (Genth, 1875, 167). Hydromagnesite: (Rand, I.e.). Zaratite: (Rand, I.e.). 
Brookite: iron black prismatic cnrstals 2 cm. long (Genth, 1875, 45). Magnetite: minute octahe- 
dra in serpentine (Beck, 1912, 4). 

White Rock. On the Oxford, Lancaster and Southern Ry . , 4 Vs miles southeast of Quarry- 
ville. 

Talc: (Beck, 1912, 10). Chrysolite asbestus: olive-green to greenish-white (Beck, 1912, 10). 
Magnetite: (Beck, 1. c). 

Manheim Township 

East Petersburg. 

SphaUrUe: occurs in a dolomitic limestone, along the railroad, 'A mile south of East 
Petersburg (Beck, 1912, 1). 

RossifERE. 

Quartz: crystals measuring up to 6.5 dcm. have been found in the limestone quarries north 
of Lancaster (Beck, 1912, 2). 

Fruitville. Farm of Jacob Hess, adjoining the Fruitville Schoolhouse, immediately 
south of the NefFsville Ridge. Octoraro schist. 

Limonite: pseudomorphous after pyrite; nearly perfect pyritohedra, often twinned; 
combinations of cube, octahedron and pyritohedron, up to 5 cm. Brownish cubes are common 
in the soil, on most of the farms north of Lancaster. (Beck, 1912, 5). 

Manor Township 

MiLLERSvnxE. One half mile east of MiUersville, on the road leading east from the York 
Furnace Trolley station, and about 500 yards from Conestoga Creek. 

Fluorite: grayish- white masses, in Cambro-ordovician limestone (Beck, 1912, 2). 

Martic Township 

Marticsville. 

Magnetite: small black grains disseminated through milky quartz, at an old mine on 
Pequa Creek, a short distance from Marticsville on the York Furnace Road (Beck, 1912, 4). 
Rawlinsvhxe. 

Cyanite: blue to gray, bladed masses in Wissahickon gneiss (Beck, 1912, 9). 
Cully Station.^" 
Kalinite: efflorescence on Wissahickon gneiss. 

Paradise Township 

KiNZER. 

Quartz: colorless crystals in the soil (Genth, 1875, 56). RutUe: acicular crystals in qiuu*tz 
(Genth, 1875, 44). 

Pequa Township*" 

Baumgardnbr. 

Ilmenite: occurs on farm of Joseph Charles, V/t miles west of Baumgardner's Station, 
P. R. R. (Beck, 1912, 3). 

"• The locality was formerly known as Cully Palls, which were one and a half miles southeast of McCall's 
Ferry. 

^ Cleaveland (1822, 151) listed calcite, in radiating crystals, 6 miles south of Lancaster. Mombert (1869, 
609) listed margarite as occurring near the Pequa mine. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 207 

Hekrvillb. 

Tourmaline: black, granular; in the vicinity of a cave known as Bosler's Hole, on a hill 
just beyond the railroad bridge over Pequa Creek, southeast of Herrville. (Mombert, 1869, 608; 
Beck, 1912, 9). 

Pbqua Mines.*°® On Pequa Creek, 1 Vi miles east of Conestoga ; and V« niile east of Good's 
Crossing on the York Ftunace Trolley Linp. 

Quartz: colorless crystals (Genth, 1876, 66). Aduiaria? (Cleaveland, 1816,268). CMo- 
ritoid, phyllite: small greenish-black scales in a siliceous limestone (Genth, 1876, 136). Rutile: 
in limestone (Genth, 1876, 44). SideriU: (Cleaveland, 1816, 614). Galena: argentiferous; with 
a distinct octahedral and cubic cleavage (Cleaveland, 1816, 614; Dana, 1864, 490; Torrey, Cooke, 
and Brush, 1863, 126-129). CerussUe: (Cleaveland, 1816, 617). Calamine: minute crystals 
(Cleaveland, 1816, 643; Genth, 1876, 106). Anglesite: (Genth, 1876, 147). VauqueliniU: 
green, minute crystals with acute terminations, often in radiated aggregations on quartz and 
galena (Taylor, 1868, 176). Wulfenite: grayish, yellowish- white; tetragonal plates (Genth, 
1876, 146). 

Providence Township 

Graphite: (Beck, 1912, 1). Turgite: (Beck, 1912, 6, analysis). 

Sadsbury Township 
Gap Hills. 
Quartz: smoky (Mombert, 1869, 608: Kevinski). 

Salisbury Township 
Galena: in quartz (Mombert, 1869, 607). 

Strasburg Township 
Amethyst: southeast of Strasburg (Beck, 1912, 3). 

West Cocauco Township 
cocalicx). 

Muscovite: one mile east of Cocalico P.O. (Beck, 1912, 9). 
Reinhold's Station. 

Azurite: small deep blue seams in Triassic shales (Genth, 1876, 229). 
Shoeneck 
Limonite: (Mombert, 1869, 608). Resin? in limonite (Mombert, 1869, 610). 

West Earl Township 
Manganocalcite: black crystalline near Cocalico Creek, (Beck, 1912, 6, analysis). 

West Hemppibld Township 

Chestnut Hill. Limonite pits 1 mile northwest of Chestnut HiU, in valley of a small 
stream southwest of Silver Spring. Other pits are located one mile southeast of Newtown, 
just south of Big Chickies Creek. Chickies quartzite; residual deposits of goethite and limonite. 

Goethite: fibrous, reniform masses; geodes (Mombert, 1869, 607; Genth, 1876, 48). 
Lepidocrocite: druses of minute crystals (Mombert, 1. c; Genth, 1. c). Limonite: brown, ochery 
(Mombert, 1869, 607). KaoHnite: (Genth, 1875, 119, analysis). Wavellite: small globular 
radiating concretions (Mombert, 1869, 609: Haldeman; Genth, 1875, 143). Cacoxenite: (Mom- 
bert, 1869, 609: Haldeman). 

LEBANON COUNTY 

Cornwall.*®* Cornwall iron ore banks, on the south side of the Lebanon Valley, 6 miles 
south of Lebanon. Cambrian sandstone; Cambro-ordovician limestones and limy shales; 

tM The mines were worked for silver prior to the Revolution. 
Ml The deposits are described by Spencer, 1908, 17-28. 

Eyerman (1889, 22, 35) reported olivine, lepidolite, and neolite; but the occurrence of these minerals needs^ 
confirmation. 



208 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Triassic red sandstones and shales; intrusive diabase; tactite; hydrothermal deposits of mag- 
netite and pyrite replacing the limy shales. 

The ore body is one of the largest ever mined ; in addition to iron, copper and gold are recov- 
ered as by-products, but large quantities of cobalt (present in the pyrite) are not recovered, but 
lost in the slag. Sandstone and limestone are quarried on the south side of the pit. 

Calcareous sediments; hydrothermal (contact) metamorphs : Mussiie: minute white crystals 
(Genth, 1875, 65). Asbestus: (Eyerman. 1889, 17). ByssoliU: (Genth, 1875, 68). AndradiU: 
brownish-red and brown-olive dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals, sometimes studded with 
minute pirrite crystals; up to 2.5 cm. in diameter (Eyerman, 1889, 35; Gordon. Am. Min., 2, 
1918, IW). VesmnaniU? imperfect striated crystals (Genth, 1875. 78). Serpentine: light 
green, massive (Dana. 1868, 779; Eyerman, 1911, 16, analysis). RipidoUte: (Eyerman 1889, 35). 
Hydrothermal depos\|ts; primary: Hematite: foliated, micaceous (C^enth, 1875, 34). 
Magnetite: foliated, micaceous masses; octahedral and dodecahedral crystals; lodestone (Sey- 
bert, 1821. 142; Smith. 1855, 188; Genth. 1875, 39). PyriU: cubo-octahedra. modified by 
numerous trigonal trisoctahedral faces; cupriferous and cobaltiferous varieties occur (analysis 
by Blake showed 2% Co), (Seybert. 1821, 142; Dana, 1850, 656; 1854,55; 1868,63; Eyerman. 
1889, 5; Travis, 1906, 131; analyses). Chalcopyrite: large tetrahedral crystals; rarely in small 
prismatic crystals, commonly twinned; sometimes with a tarnish and coated with malachite 
(Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 23). Sphalerite: small greenish crystals, usually twinned, 
often distorted ((3enth. 1882, 4(X), analysis). Prehnite: colorless, white, yellowish or greenish, 
fan-shaped aggregates of small tabular crystals, lining cavities in magnetite, with sphalerite 
(Genth, 1882, 401, analysis). Analcite? in cavities in magnetite (Eyerman, 1889, 35). Fluorite: 
(Dana, 1868, 779). CalcUe: rhombohedral and scalenohedral crystals, sometimes colored pink 
by cobalt ((3enth, 1875, 154). Quarts: drusy; sometimes pseudomorphous after calcite (Dana 
1868, 779; Genth, 1875. 61). 

Hydrothermal deposits; weathering products:*** Chalcedony; jasper: pale brown or green- 
ish, mammillary or botryoidal (Cicnth, 1875, 59; Smith, 1855, 188). Opal: grayish, greenish, 
yellowish- white, vitreous (Genth, 1875.61). AUophane: white and blue mammillary and stalac- 
titic masses (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 107). Chloropal? greenish masses (Eyerman, 1889. 
35). Aragonite: radiating acicular crystals (Eyerman, 1889, 44). Rhodochrosite: globular con- 
cretions in cobaltiferous wad. (Genth, 1875, 161). Gypsum: slender crystals up to 5 cm. in 
length, often with arborescent copper, on magnetite (Cienth, 1875, 148). Copper: small red 
cubic crystals; distorted; usually in arborescent or reticulated sheets covered with minute crys- 
tals (Dana, 1854, 490; Onth. 1875, 4). ChalcociU: (Eyerman, 1889. 5). CopeUite: thin coat- 
ings on magnetite (Genth, 1875, 23). Cuprite: granular masses, rarely in cubic or dodecahedral 
crystals; sometimes in fine crimson-red capillary crystals (chalcotrichite) ; or as thin coatings on 
copper giving it a dull purplish appearance (Seybert, 1821, 142; Dana, 1854, 490; Genth, 1875. 
30). Hydrocuprite: amorphous orange-yellow to red, thin, somewhat rag-like coatings on mag- 
netite (Genth, 1875, 46). MalachUe: fibrous masses (Seybert, 1821, 142; Onth, 1875, 167). 
Azurite: dark azure-blue crystals, measuring 5 mm., usually in crystalline crusts (Dana, 1854, 
490; Genth, 1875, 168). Chrysocolla: blue or green; massive, botryoidal or stalactitic masses 
(Smith, 1855, 188; Genth, 1875, 105). Brochantite: dark emerald-green or blackish-green 
acicular crystals and crusts on magnetite (Genth, 1875, 151). LangiU? small bluish-green crys- 
tals (Genth, 1875, 151). Bieberite: flesh colored incrustations on magnetite (Genth, 1875, 149). 
Botryogen: deep red microscopic crystalline aggregates with covellite and pyrite on magnetite 
(Genth, 1875, 150). Hausmannite: (Dana, 1868, 162). Credmrite? cobaltiferous: a soft, black 
mineral, shining when cut, rarely imbedded in chrysocolla was found to contain MnO, CoO, and 
CuO in the proportions: 70 : 40 : 44 (Genth, 1875, 54,). Wad: cobaltiferous (Genth, 1875, 161) 

LEHIGH COUNTY"' 

LowBR Macungie Township*"* 
Alburtis. Limonite pits in the vicinity of Alburtis. Cambrian quartztite; Cambro- 
ordovician limestone; residual deposits of limonite and goethite. 

*•* Including some hydrometamorphs. 

M* Marcasite was said to occur in large masses in many of the limonite pits; epsomite occurred as efflorescences 

on dolomite (Genth. 1873, 22. 149) • 

M Pyrite has been reported from Macungie (Schrader. Stone, and Sanford, 1917, 265). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 203 

Siderite: (Eyerman, 1889, 43, analysis). Wad: ocherous, cobaltiferous (Roepper; Genth, 
1875, 64). 

LowSR MiLFORD Township 

HosENSACK Station. Farm of Jacob Schell, south of Hosensack Station. Triassic 
shales; intrusive diabase. 

Pectolite: compact grayish masses of acicular crystals (Smith, 1885, 411, analysis). Stil- 
bite: large radiating aggregates of crystals (Smith, 1883, 277, analysis). 

Nbar Hosensack Station. 

Pyroxene: green crystals (Smith, 1885, 412). Titanite: dark brown crystals (Smith, 1885, 
412, analysis).. Andradite: olive-green dodecahedral crystals, with hematite (Smith, 1883, 276, 
analysis). Hematite: specular (Smith, 1883, 276). 

LowBR Saucon Township 

South Mountain. 

EpidoU: yellowish-green crystals in gneiss (Genth, 1875, 79). ChloriU: (Genth, 1875,133). 
Chalcocite: small crystals in Triassic sandstones in the southwestern comer of the township 
(Genth, 1875, 16). Malachite: stains on Triassic rocks (Genth, 1875, 167). 

North Whitehall Township 

OiCROD. Limestone quarries along the Ironton Branch, Lehigh Valley R. R., southwest of 
Omrod Station. 

Quartz: crystals (Smith, 1883, 272). Fluorite: green, purple, and pink (Genth, 1875, 29; 
Smith, 1883, 272, analysis). 

Ironton. Abandoned limonite pit north of Ironton. Filled with water. Cambro-ordo- 
vician limestone; residual deposits of goethite and limonite. 

Copper: minute distorted crystals (Genth, 1875, 5). PsUomelane: stalactitic, botryoidal, 
and reniform masses (Genth, 1875, 217, analysis). Pyrotusite: mixed with psilomelane (Genth, 
1875, 217). Allopkane: white, mammillary coatings (Prime, 1878, 43; Smith, 1883, 272, analy- 
sis). 

Salisbury Township 

mountainvillb. 

Tourmaline: black, on Lehigh Mountain (Smith, 1883, 275, analysis). Chloropal: soft 
yellowish-green, occurs at prospect pits on Lehigh Mountain. Pyrolusite: crystals in goethite 
geodes in limonite pits along the south side of Lehigh Mountain (Smith, 1883, 277, analysis). 

Upper Macungie Township 
BreinigsvillE. Pyrite: in limonite pits (Eyerman, 1889, 5). 

Upper Milford Township 

Emaus. 

Fluorite: deep purple octahedra in a granitic rock on Lehigh Mountain (Smith, 1883, 273: 
Sadtler). 

Vera Cruz. Quarry in granite gneiss, along P. & R. R. R. Vj mile south of Vera Cruz 
Station. Granite gneiss and pegmatite. 

Molybdenite: (Schrader, Stone, and Sanford, 1917, 264). Uraninite: traces (Edgar T. 
Wherry). 

ShimersvillE.*®^ Abandoned iron mine, 1 V4 miles north of Shimersville. Precambrian 
gneisses. 

Tourmaline: black (Smith, 1883, 275). 

Corundum mine, '/« of a mile north of Shimersville. Abandoned. Pegmatite. 

Corundum: large rough barrel-shaped crystals, sometimes asteriated; crystals measure up 
to 15 cm. in length, and 8 cm. in diameter (Smith and Thomas, 1882, 230; Smith, 1883, 275, 
analysis). Spinel: minute black crystals in corundum (Genth, 1882, 382, analysis). Ilmenite: 
(Genth, 1882, 382). Tourmaline: large black crystals (Smith, 1883, 275). 

Abandoned magnetite mine, south of Shimersville. 

» Genth (1876, 65) reported salite, and Eyerman (1889, 5) stalactitic masses of pyrite, from the vicinity- 
of ShimersviDe. 



210 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Almandite: imperfect dodecahedra, with magnetite (Smith, 1883, 276, analysis). 

Macungib. Farm of Jacob Stine, 2 miles south of Macungie. Hardyston quartzite, 
Precambrian gneisses. 

Graphite: (Smith, 1883, 273). Pyrite: minute crystals (Smith, 1. c). Zircon: minute 
brown crystals (Smith, 1883, 273). Wavellite: colorless radiating crystals, V* niile west of the 
zircon locality, on the same farm (Smith and Thomas, 1882, 230; Smith, 1883, 273). PyrolusiU: 
with limonite (Eyerman, 1880, 10). 

Uppbr Saucon Township 

Emaus. Fields 2 miles east of Emaus. Boulders of Hardyston quartzite. 

Quartz: jasperized or ferruginous, minute crystals. 

FribdensvillS.*" Zinc mines in the Saucon Valley, Vi mile N. N. W. of Friedensville. 
Cambro-ordovician limestone ; hydrometamorphic concentrations of sphalerite. 

Quartz: crystals; fetid (Dana, 1850, 656; Genth, 1875, 57, 59). Dolomite: small rhombo- 
hedra (Eyerman, 1889, 43). Ashestus; mountain-leather: (Genth, 1875, 69). Sphalerite: 
grayish and yellowish, fine grained masses; rarely in minute yellow crystals (Genth, 1875, 15, 
analysis; Noelting, 1887, 116). Greenockite: yellow, orange-yellow, or greenish-yellow coatings 
on sphalerite (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 18; Lacroix, 1884, 465). Pyrite: small cubo- 
octahedra, sometimes altered to limonite (Genth, 1875, 20). 

Weathering products. Aragonite; zinciferous: white and yellowish- white radiating crys- 
tals (Genth, 1875, 162, analysis by Roepper). Smithsonite: granular masses; small scalenohe- 
dra (Boy6, 1853, 329; Smith, 1855, 188; Genth, 1875, 161). HydrozinciU: porcelam-like or 
earthy masses; mammillary coatings (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 166). Malachite: (Dana, 
1850, 656). Calamine: small crystals in druses and radiating groups; also granular and mas- 
sive (Dana, 1850, 656; Genth, 1875, 106; Eyerman, 1889, 29, analysis; Groth, 1878, 220). 
Allophane: white botryoidal and stalactitic masses (Dana, 1868, 779; Genth, 1875, 107). Kao- 
Unite, sauconite: yellow, buff, brown, gray and white; amorphous masses (Dana, 1868, 409; 
Genth, 1875, 120; Roepper; analyses). Halloysite: compact, porcelain-like masses (Genth, 
1875, 122). Goslarite: eflRorescenccs of minute white needle-like crystals (Rand, 1867; Genth, 
1875, 149). PyrolusiU: (Dana, 1850, 656). Wad: (Dana, 1850, 656). 

Erratic boulder: Lanthanite: a mass of closely aggregated thin tabular crystals, delicate 
pink in color, was found in an ochery ooil over a bed of calamine. The occurrence probably rep- 
resents a weathered erratic boulder of allanite. (Blake, 1853. 228; 1&58, 245; Smith, 1854, 378; 
analyses) . 

LiMEPORT. 

Crocidolite: occurs as bluish crystalline fibrous coatings in boulders of gneiss, 1 mile east 
of Limeport, and along the roads, and adjacent fields between Limeport and Cooperstown (Genth, 
1875,70; Roepper). Grossularite: white and brownish- white dodecahedral crystals near a trap 
dike (Genth, 1875, 72). 

Whitehall Township 

Catasauqua. 

Calcite: in hollow quills (Genth, 1875, 154). 

LACKAWANNA COUNTY 

SCRANTON. 

Siderite: grayish-brown crystals in argillaceous siderite in carboniferous shales (Genth, 
1875, 160). Sphalerite: with siderite (Eyerman, 1889, 4). Millerite? yellow acicular crystals 
with quartz, in siderite (Genth, 1875, 16). Phytocollite: a hydrocarbon (Dana, 1892, 1069). 

LUZERNE COUNTY"^ 

Bear Creek. 

Pyrolusite: blue to purplish-black, on Broad Mountain, at the head waters of Bear Creek 
(Cleaveland, 1816, 548; Cist, 1821, 38). Psilomelane; wad: (Cleaveland, I.e.; Cist, I.e.). 

M* Eyerman (1889, 3) lists sulfur in large masses, but the material reported was undoubtedly a smelter 

product. 

IP tov Dana (1892, 78) lists massive bornite from "Mahoopeny, near Wilkesbarre." Eyerman (1911. 21) 

considers this an error. 



MINERAI, LOCALtriBS OF PENNSYI^VANIA 211 

Quarts: limpid crystals; on Broad Motintain (Porter, 1824, 233). 
Drifton. 

Pyrophyllite: white, yellowish-white,, cryptocrystalline; occurs in the Buck Mountain seam 
on the Tomhicken basin; at the Cross Creek Colliery (Genth, 1882, 402; analysis). 

GOWBN. 

Pyrophyllite: white and yellowish-white, cryptocrystalline; in the Buck Mountain seam 
(Genth, 1882, 402). 

LYCOMING COUNTY"' 

Roaring Branch of Lycoming Crbsk. 

Quartz: drusy, geodic, in the Upper Catskill formation (Meyer, 1893, 194). Colette: 
(Meyer, I.e.). Dolomite:' {Meyer, I.e.), Sidertte: (Meyer, I.e.). Fluor ite? (Meyer, I. c). Gal- 
ena: (Meyer, 1, c). Sphalerite: (Meyer, 1. c). Pyrite: (Meyer, 1. c). Chalcocite: (Meyer, 1. c). 
Chalcopyrite: (Meyer, 1. c). Millerite? (Meyer, 1. c). 

MUNCY. 

Bomite: of local occurrence in the Catskill sandstone (Genth, 1875, 13). Chalcocite: 
(Genth, 1875, 16). 

Bald Eaglb Valley. 

Galena: in limestone (Cleaveland, 1816, 514). 

MIFFLIN COUNTY 

Opposite Mt. Union. 

Fluorite: in Lewistown limestone (Lewis, 1876, 11). Calcite; Jerrocalcite: (Lewis, 1. c). 
Aragonite: (Lewis, 1. c). Strontianite: acicular crystals (Lewis, 1. c). 

MONROE COUNTY 

Broad Mountain. 

Quartz: limpid crystals (Porter, 1824, 233). Pyrolusite: blue to purplish-black, occurs at 
the head waters of Tobyhannah Creek, and the Lehigh River (Cleaveland, 1816, 548; Cist, 1821, 
38). Psilomelane; wad: (Cleaveland, 1. c. ; Cist, I.e.). 

Crystal Hill. Just west of Stormsville, 7 miles west of Delaware Water Gap; Hamilton 
township. 

Quartz: crystals (Goodwin; Mineral Collector, 10, 5, 1903). 

Delaware Water Gap. Cut on the N. Y., Susquehanna, and Western R. R., on Broad- 
head Creek, North Water Gap ; Smithfield township. 

Quartz: crystals measuring up to 15 X 7 cm. (Goodwin, Mineral Collector, 10, 5, 1903). 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY 

Abington Township'®' 

Harpers Station. Cut on the P. & R. Ry. north of Harpers Station. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Halotrichite: weathering 
product (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Edge Hill. 

Hematite (erroneously called ilmenite) : black, lamellar masses (Genth, 1882, 400; 1875, 
34, analysis). Rutile: minute orange or brownish-yellow grains (Genth, 1882, 399). Zircon: 
yellowish or brownish, more or less rounded, crystals (Genth, 1882, 400). Tourmaline: dark 
brown (Genth, 1882, 400). 

Drown's Farm, near Weldon, on Edge Hill. Chickies quartzite. 

Hematite: (Rand, 1892, 184). Rutile: red, slender crystals on hemantite, (Rand, I. c.) 

HAMMrr's Quarry, just west of Ardsley Station, P. & R. Ry. Chickies quartzite. 

*> (Rogers, 185^, I, 501) listed limpid quartz crystals from the Nittany Valley. The Bald Eagle iron meteor- 
ite, preserved at Bucknell College, Lewisburg, was found on the east side of Bald Eagle Mountain, 7 miles south 
of Williamsport (Owens. 1892, 423) . 

*« Blue quartz was listed by Seybert (1808, 156). 



212 BCINBRAL U>CALITIBS OP PBKNSYI^VANIA 

Hematite: lamellar masses; martite; (Eyennan, 1889, 8; Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). 

Smith's Quarry, east of bridge over P. & R. Ry. at Edge Hill. Chickies quartzite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Hematite and martite: (Dana, 
1868, 779; Rand, 1892, 184). Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Tourmaline: black (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Staurolite? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tarhemite? (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). 

CHBLT9NHAM ToWNSHIP**" 

Ogontz, Quarry at Old York Road and Tacony Creek. Wissahickon gneiss and meta- 
gabbro. (Germantown 8224). 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Al- 
mandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Wyncotb. Weber's quarry, just west of Jenkintown Station, P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). Almandite: brilliant trapezohedra up 
to 3 cm. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Hbacock's Quarry, V4 mile west of Jenkintown Station. Wissahickon gneiss and pegma- 
tite. Abandoned. 

Albite: (Rand, 1892, 182). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). Torber- 
nite: minute green plates (Rand, 1. c). y 

Wilson's Quarry, at west end of bridge over P. & R. Ry. at Edge Hill. Chickies quartzite. 
The same minerals were found in Rhoad's quarry, Vs mile further west. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Douglass Township 

Congo. Yost's farm, Vs mile west of Congo, about 4 miles east of Boyertown. Triassic 
shales. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
Chalcopyrite: auriferous and argentiferous; occurs ^/t mile to the north (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
Platinum? has been reported in black shales in the vicinity. 

GilbqrtvillS. 

Makichite: traces occur in a roadside expostu-e, iVs miles south of Gilbertville, about 3 
miles southeast of Boyertown, in Triassic shales (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). 

Franconia Township 
Gold: in gravels on Voder's farm (Wetherill, 1853, 350). Tin? in gravels (Wetherill, 1. c). 

Prbdbrick Township 

Hbndricks Station. Young's mine on the west side of Perkiomen Creek, */a mile north- 
west of Hendricks Sta., P. & R. Ry. Triassic shales. Idle. 

CalciU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). EpidoU: (Benge and Wherry, 
I. c). Gold? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: 
(Benge and Wherry, I. c). Bomite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) Cuprite: (Bengeand Wherry, 
I.e.) Malachite: (Bengeand Wherry, 1. c). Chrysocolla: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

ScHWBNKSviLLB. Mines on hill north of Mine Run, ^/s mile west of Schwenksville. 
Abandoned. Dumps at mouth of tunnel and around shafts on top of hill. Triassic shales; 
hydrothermal veins. 

Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). Fluorite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Bomite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

LowBR Marion Township 

Pbncoyd. 

Halotrichite: weathering product on Wissahickon gneiss at quarry west of Pencoyd Sta. 
P. & R. Ry. (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 65). Titanite: small crystals in gneiss near West 
Laurel Hill Cemetery (Rand, 1892, 180). 

«>• Eyerman reported almandite from "Mathuly Mill, near Jeokiptown*' (Eyerman, 1880. 18). Berylhas 
also been reported (Benge and Wherry. XTIT. 1906. 91). 



MINERAL U)CAl,ITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 213 

Flat Rock Tunnbl. On the P. & R. Ry. about 1 mile N. W. of West Manayunk Station. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. Most of the minerals were obtained when the tunnel was 
constructed and the adjoining road widened. Dumps occur along river bank. 

MicrocHne: crystals (Rand, 1867, 275). AlhiU: (Rand, Lc). Almandite: (Genth, 1871, 
73). Beryl: (Rand, I.e.). Apatite: yellow prismatic crystals with ilmenite. Muscovite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Calcite: (Genth, 1876, 164). 
StUbite: (Dana, 1860, 666). Heulandite: (Rand, 1867, 276). ChabaziU: (Dana, 1860, 666). 

Gladwynb.*" Eldredge and Steward's quarry, on P. & R. Ry. about Vs mile northwest 
of Gladwyne Station. Wissahickon gneiss. 

MicrocHne: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). Adularia: druses of small crystals. 
Almandite: small dodecahedra are abundant (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Apatite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chakopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Gypsum? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

SoAPSTONB Quarry, V4 mile west of Eldredge and Steward's quarry. 

Genthite? stains on chlorite schists. Actinolite: occurs in boulders on top of hill to the 
north. 

Oppositb I^apayettb. Soapstone quarry on the west side of the Schuylkill River, opposite 
Lafayette; about 'A mile N. W. of Gladwyne Station. Meta-peridotite and meta-pyroxenite. 

Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). Amphibole asbestus: (Rand, 1892, 182). 
Talc: greenish-white, foliated (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chlorite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Dolomite: crystsds and crystalline masses (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Breunnerite: perfect 
crystals in dolomite (Rand, 1892, 181). Corundum: small crystals were found in chlorite schists 
on the hillside above the quarry. Magnetite: small octahedra in chlorite schists (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: perfect tabular crystals measuring 2 cm. 

RosB's Quarry. At forks of road, V4 mile west of Schuylkill River, and */i mile south 
of Woodland Sta., P. & R. Ry. Abandoned. Pyroxenite; and meta-peridotite. 

Primary: Enstatite: cleavage masses (Rand, 1871, 303; Genth, 1875, 62; Hall, 1881, 129, 
analysis by Trimble). Hypersthene: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). 

Hydrothermal metamorphs: Tremolite: (Dana, 1892, 1069). Amphibole absestus. 
(Genth, 1876, 69). Serpentine; antigorite: dark green, slaty (Rand, 1871, 303). Talc: (Dana, 
1892, 1069). Prochlorite: olive-green, scaly masses (Genth, 1875, 133; analysis by Castle). 
DolomiU: (Dana, 1892, 1069). Bormte: (Dana, I.e.). Millerite: (Dana, 1. c). 

Weathering products: Aragonite: (Dana, 1892, 1069). Epsomite: (Benge and Wherry 
XIII, 1906, 66). Neolite? yellow or grayish-white, waxy, ma.ssive, veins in serpentine (Genth, 
1875,106; analysis by Jayne). Genthite: (Dana, 1. c). Chalcanthite: (Dana, 1. c). 

LOWBR POTTSGROVB ToWNSHIP 

PoTTSTOWN. Bleim's mine, about V'a mile northeast of Pottstown, on the road to Ringing 
Rocks. Triassic shales. At several points in the vicinity copper mines have been opened, but 
nothing more than traces of malachite were found. 

MaiachiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). Chrysocolla: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
Aragonite: at roadside exposures nearby (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). 

LowBR Providencb Township 

Arcola. Dr. J. W. Grifl&ths farm, near the mouth of Skippack Creek, east of Areola 
Station, P. & R. Ry. Triassic shales. 

Malachite: large green masses (Lyman, 1898, 420). 

Pbrkiombn Copper Minb. On the north bank of Mine Run, about V« mile northwest 
of Audubon,*" and 1 mile east of Oaks Station, P. & R. Ry. The mines are abandoned, and the 
dumps rather barren. Triassic shales; hydrothermal veins. 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: crystals, stellated, cavernous, and pseudomor- 
phous (Woodhouse, 1808, 133; Seybert, 1808, 164; Wether iU, 1825,316). Ca/cite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). Ankerite: small crystals and crystalline masses (Dana, 1868, 779; 
Genth, 1876, 168). Barite: white, greenish and bluish, transparent; tabular crystals, usually 

til Formerly Rose Glen. 
»" Formerly Shannonville. 



214 MINERAL LOCALlXmS OP PENNSYLVANIA 

in clusters, radiations, or fascicular groups (Mease, 1807, 409; Wetherill, 1825, 315; Genth, 1875, 
46). Galena: massive, granular, crystalline masses; cubes and cubo-octahedra (Cleaveland, 
1816, 514; Wetherill, 1825, 311). Sphalerite: yellow, brown, and black; massive, deavable 
(Mease, 1807, 423 ; Seybert, 1808, 209). Greenockite: (Tomlinson, 1902, 119). PyHU: (Wood- 
house, 1808, 123). Arsenopyrite: large yellowish -white masses (Lea, 1818, 466; Genth, 1875, 
209). Chalcopyrite: (Cleaveland, 1816, 453). Hematite: specular (Cleaveland, 1816, 489). 
Dioptase? Bright green rhombohedra (Tomlinson, 1902, 121). 

Hydrometamorphs: Bornite: large vari-colored masses. Covellite: deep blue crystalline 
masses, rarely in microscopic hexagonal plates; thin coatings on galena (Genth, 1875, 23). Mar- 
casite? (Tomlinson, 1902, 119). 

Weathering products: Chalcedony: botryoidal (Genth, 1876, 218). Silver: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). Copper: massive and dendritic (Cleaveland, 1822, 555). LimoniU: 
(SchaefTer, 1818, 236). Melaconite: massive, pulverulent (Genth, 1875, 31). Cuprite; chalco- 
trichite; brilliant red, translucent, capillary crystals; octahedra (Lea, 1818, 463; Wetherill, 
1825, 313). Smithsonite: white, pale blue, brown; reniform, radiated, drusy, (Cleaveland, 
1822, 658; Wetherill, 1825, 314). Cerussite: (Cleaveland, 1816, 517; Wetherill, 1825, 311). 
Malachite: (Mitchell, 1813, 125, analysis). Azurile: minute dark'blue crystals (Cleaveland, 
1816, 461; Lea, 1818, 462). Calamine: (Cleaveland, 1816, 534). ChrysocoUa: (Dana, 1850, 
656). Pyromorphite: (Godon, 1810, 30; Wetherill, 1825, 313). Mimetite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). LihetheniU: (Genth, 1875, 141). Pseudomalachite: (Rand, 1867, 404). AngUsiU: 
(Lea, 1818, 467; Wetherill, 1825, 312). WtdfeniU: yellow, tabular and pyramidal crystals 
(Cleaveland, 1816, 524; Wetherill, 1825, 313). 

EcTON MiNB. About Vs niile south of the Perkiomen copper mine. Triassic shales and 
hydrothermal veins. The mines are abandoned; dumps occur about the shaft on top of the 
hill, and tunnels at the base of the hill along Mine Run. The Wetherill mine was situated 
Vi mile to the south. 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: crystals, stellated (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906,43). Dolomite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Ankerite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Fluorite? 
(Benge and Wherry, I. c). Barite: (Eyerman, 1889, 41). Galena: argentiferous; granular, 
cleavage masses; cubo-octahedra (Genth, 1875, 11). Sphalerite: yellow, brown, black, crystalline 
masses (Genth, 1875, 14 analysis by Jayne) . Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Arsenopyrite: 
(Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Millerite? (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Hydrometamorphs: Chalcocite: (Eyerman, 1889, 4, 34). Bornite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Covellite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Marcasite? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Weathering products: Chalcedony: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Copper: (Benge and 
Wherry, I.e.). Cuprite: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Ltm(mi>.* (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Cerus- 
site: (Genth, 1875, 163). Hydrozincite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Malachite: (Benge and 
Wherry, I.e.'). Azurite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chrysocolla: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Calamine: greenish-blue, cupriferous; small crystals and botryoidal masses (Genth, 1875, 106). 
Pyromorphite: pale green, botryoidal (Genth, 1875, 106). Pseudomalachite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Anglesite: small colorless crystals (Genth, 1875, 147). Wulfenite: wax-yellow to bright 
orange, tabular crystals (Genth, 1875, 145). 

Shannonville Coppbr Mine. About V* mile east of Audubon. Triassic shales. 

Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 43). Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 

Lower Salpord Township 
Lederachsville . 

Malachite: traces in Triassic shales, in a quarry, 1 Vs miles east of Lederachsville (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). 

MoRELAND Township 

Willow Grove.**' Roadside exposures northwest of Willow Grove. Baltimore gneiss. 
Oligoclase: (Genth, 1875, 77). Zircon: small crystals in quartz in the soil (Lea, 1818, 
470; Genth, 1875, 77). 

<u Troost (1821, 77) described zircon oystals, >/« inch long as occurring on Old York Road, 15 miles from 
Philadelphia. 



MINERAI. U)CAUTIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 215 

Rock exposure on side of hill, north of Edge Hill road, about 1 mile east of Willow Grove. 
Chickies quartzite. Also in the fields and washouts in the vicinity. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Homstone: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). 
Hematite: titaniferous (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Huntington Valley Station. Jarrett's quarry at Huntington Valley Sta., P. & R. Ry. 
Baltimore gneiss. 

Quartz: blue (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Stilpnomelane? (Eyerman, 1911, 15). 

Papsr Mills Station. Hutchinson's quarry, just north of Paper Mills Station, P. & R. 
Ry. Baltimore gneiss and gabbro. 

Quartz: blue, massive and crystallized (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60; XV, 1908, 
108). Oligoclase: green (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Hypersthene: (Benge and Wherry, 
XV, 1908, 108). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Almandite: massive 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Biotite: brown (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). 
Pyrrhotite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Pyrite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 60). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Molybdenite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 60). Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). CalciU: crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

Nbw Hanover Township 
Langpibld. 

Malachite: traces in Triassic shales in exposures on the north side of road near Langfield, 
3 miles east of Gilbertsville. (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). 

NoRRiTON Township 

NORRISTOWN. 

Quartz: (Lea, 1818, 473). 

Perkiomen Township - 
Graters Ford. 
MalachiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 91). Azurite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Plymouth Township 

conshohocken. 

Quartz: aventurine, red (Rand, 1867, 190). Chalcedony; hornstone: (Genth, 1875, 59). 
Tourmaline: fibrous (Rand, I.e.). Phyllite: small greenish-black scales in siliceous limestone 
(Rand, 1. c; Genth, 1875, 135). Ilmenite: in quartz (Rand, 1. c). 

Jacoby's Quarry on Plymouth Creek, about V« mile north of Conshohocken. Shenandoah 
limestone. 

Calcite: (Genth, 1875, 153). 

O'Brien's Quarry, 1 mile north of Conshohocken. Shenandoah limestone. 

Calcite: crystals (Carter, 1886, 19). 

Quarry near Ivy Rock Sta., P. R. R. about 1 mile north of Conshohocken. Shenandoah 
limestone. 

Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 65). Dolomite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1, c). 

MoGEETowN. Exposure on north side of P. R. R. at entrance to a deep abandoned 
quarry ; Vs mile N. W. of Trenton Cut-off bridge. Shenandoah limestone. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 65). Calcite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Fluorite: blue (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Barite: small crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Cut of P. & R. Ry. a short distance southeast of the preceding locality. Pegmatite. 

Quartz: stalactitic(Bengeand Wherry, XIII, 1906, 65). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry 
1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.;. Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Loose rocks along the road from Mogeetown to Springtown, and in the adjacent fields; 
• /i mile north of Chestnut Hill — ^Norristown Trolley line. Chickies quartzite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 111). 



216 MINERAL LOCAUTIES OP PHNNSYLVANIA 

Springpibld Township'" 

Camp Hill. Schlxmme's quarry, Vs mile southeast of Camp Hill Sta., just south of P. 
& R. Ry. Shenandoah limestone. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). Colette: yellow (Benge and 
Wherry, I.e.). Dolomite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Orbland. Iron ore pits about 1 mile southwest of Oreland Sta., P. & R. Ry. Abandoned. 
Some of the minerals have been found in the railroad cut V4 mile south of the station. Shenandoah 
limestone; Pensauken gravels; residual deposits of goethite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). HematiU? micaceous (Carter, 
1886, 19). Goethite: brown, fibrous; geodic (Genth, 1875, 48). Lepidocrocite: minute aystal- 
line coatings on goethite (Genth, 1875, 48). Turgite: coatings on goethite (Genth, 1875, 47). 
Limonite: (Genth, 1875, 48). Braunite? (Carter, 1. c.) Pyrolusite: druses of minute crystals 
(Genth, 1875,46). Psilomelane, wad, asholiU: (Genth, 1875, 46; Lewis, 1880, 243; Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

RosLYN HiSiGHTS. Roslyn Heights Station, P. R. R., about 2 miles northeast of Chest- 
nut Hill, and 1 mile east of Flourtown. 

Quartz: crystals in the soil (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). Lim^mi/^ pseudo. py- 
rite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Flourtown. McCloskey's quarry, about 1 mile S. W. of Flourtown. Shenandoah 
limestone. 

CaUiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). FluoriU: crystals (Rogers, 1858, I, 214). 
Tourmaline: brown (Benge and Wherry, I. c). Rutile: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite 
pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

TowAMBNCiN Township 

Lansdalb. Roadside exposures and quarry, V4 mile northwest of Drake's Crossroads, 
about 2 miles northwest of Lansdale. Triassic shales. 

Malachite: traces (Benge and-Wherry, XIII, 1906, 43). Aragonite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Upper Dublin Township 

Hematite: micaceous, on the road from Jarrettown to Camp Hill (Cleaveland, 1816, 
488; Carter, 1886). 

Upper Hanover Township 

Pennsburg. Cut of P. & R. Ry. V'a mile S. E. of Pennsburg Station. Triassic shales. 

Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
Malachite: traces; also occurs in roadside exposures about V4 mile northeast of the station 
(Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108; XIII, 1906, 41). 

Upper Merion Township 

West Conshohocken. Exposures in northern part of West Conshohocken, on road to 
Bridgeport. Triassic intrusive dike of diabase. 

Stilhite: also found at the continuation of the dike on the east side of the river (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). 

Bullock's Quarry, about V2 mile north of West Conshohocken, on P. & R. Ry. Aban- 
doned. Shenandoah limestone. 

Quartz: crystals (Rand, 1892, 185). Calcite: seams of crystals (Rand, 1867, 190). Ara- 
gonite: (Rand, 1867. 190). SillimaniU? (Carter, 1886, 19). ArsenopyriU? (Benge and Wherry 
XIII, 1906, 66). Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

McVoy's Quarry, about 'A mile north of West Conshohocken, near P. & R. Ry. Shen- 
andoah limestone. 

Calcite: scalenohedra (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). Kaolinite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

SwEDELAND. Quarry about Vs mile west of Swedeland Furnace, and 1 Vs miles south of 
Bridgeport. Shenandoah limestone. Idle. 

tM Bj^ennaii (1889, 44) listed siderite from Springfield township. 



MINERAL LOCAUTIES OP PENNSYl,VANIA 217 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). CalciU: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Bridgeport. Exposures along road paralleling Trenton Cut-off R. R , about */a mile 
west of Schuykill River, just south of Bridgeport. Shenandoah limestone. 

Quartz: crystals in clusters and geodes (Dana, 1850, 656). Goetkite: microscopic crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 67). 

Shainline. Quarry at Shainline, about 1 mile west of Bridgeport, on P. & R. Ry. Shen- 
andoah limestone. 

Quartz: crystals (Carter, 1886). ChalcopyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 67). 
Malachite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

HSNDSRSON. Farm along east side of P. & R. Ry. about V4 mile northeast of Henderson 
Station. Shenandoah limestone. 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: crystals in the soil (Rand, 1892, 186). 

Henderson's Quarry, about */« mile south of Henderson Station. Shenandoah limestone. 
Abandoned. 

Calcite: crystals (Dana, 1860, 656). Dolomite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
66). Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). Malachite: crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 66). Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Cut of P. & R. Ry. west of Henderson Station. Shenandoah limestone. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals; single and in clusters (Genth, 1875, 56). Calcite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 67). Dolomite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hematite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Goethite: geodes and rattle-boxes (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Turgite: 
(Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Limonite pstudo, pyrite: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Graphite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

King op Prussia. Quarry about V2 mile southeast of King of Prussia. Shenandoah 
limestone. 

CalciU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 67). DolomiU: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Muscovite, sericite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Sulfur: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Trenton Cut-off R. R., west of King of Prussia. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals (Carter, 1886, 20). 

Port Kennedy. Abandoned copper mine just east of Port Kennedy. Triassic shales. 

Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 67). Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Uppbr Pottsgrove Township 

Copper: (Cleaveland, 1822, 555). Malachite: traces occur in Triassic shales near Glasgow, 
just northwest of Pottstown, and in roadside exposures Vs mile north of Pottstown City Line 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 40, 41). 

Uppbr Providencb Township 

COLLEGEvn^LE. 

Calcite: crystals in a quarry in Triassic shale, along P. & R. Ry. Vs mile north of 
Collegeville Sta. (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). Malachite: traces in Triassic shales in 
a quarry, V4 mile north of Collegeville (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). 

Upper Salford Township 

sumneytown. 

Malachite: traces occur in Triassic shales, in roadside exposures: at cross-roads iVi miles 
east of Sunneytovm; and 1 mile east of Sumneytown; (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 41). 

Kober's Farm. Abandoned mine 1 mile southeast of Sumneytown. Triassic shales. In- 
trusive diabase; hydrothermal veins. 

Shales; hydrothermal metamorphs: Garnet: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 
Epidote: (Eyerman, 1911, 9, analysis). 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorphs: Stilhite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 
Natrolite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). Calcite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). Copper: (Carter, 1886, 12). Chalcopyrite: (Carter, 1. c). 



218 MINERAI. LOCAUTIES OP PENNSYI.VANIA 

Galena: (Eyerman, 1911, 19). 

Hydrothermal veins; hydrometamorphs : BorniU: (Carter, 1. c). 

Hydrothermal veins; weathering products: MelaconiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
110). Malachite: (Eyerman, 1889, 45). Azurite: (Wheatley, 1882, 36). ChrysocoUa: (Benge 
and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). PyromorphiU: (Eyerman, 1911, 19). 

Karl's Minb. Vi mile south of Sumneytown. Triassic shales; diabase; hydrothermal 
veins. 

Shales; hydrothermal metamorphs: Garnet: yellow (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). 
Epidote: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

Diabase; hydrothermal metamorph: Stilbtte: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 
108). 

Hydrothermal veins; primary: Dolomite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). Choi- 
copyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). HematiU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 108). 

Hydrothermal veins; hydrometamorphs: Chalcocite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 
42). BorniU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). 

Hydrothermal veins; weathering product: Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
42). 

Hbndrick's Station. 

Chalcopyrite: occurs in Triassic shales, in a cut on P. & R. Ry. Vj mile north of Hendrick's 
Station (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 42). Malachite: occurs in Triassic shales in the above 
mentioned railroad cut, and also in exposures along the east bank of Perkiomen Creek, Vt mile 
northeast of Schwenksville and in road cuts in the immediate vicinity (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 42). 

Whitbmarsh Township 

Fort Washington. 

Pyrite: crystals occur in Chickies quartzite in a cut of P. & R. Ry. ^/% mile south of Fort 
Washington Sta. (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 110). 

Barren Hill. 

Almandite: a crystal measuring 12 cm. was found in digging a well at the Barren Hill 
Meeting House (Lea, 181 8, 471 ) . Sulfur: pulverulent or granular in qu^irtz with pyrite (Schaeffer 
1819, 237). Hornstone: at cross-roads (Lea, 1818, 473). 

Lapayettb. 

Small quarry on River Road, about Vj mile north of Lafayette Station, P. & R. Ry. Bal- 
timore gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: light pink (Carter, 1891, 50). Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). 
Graphite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 61). BiotiU: (Carter, 1. c). Zircon: (Cleaveland, 
1822, 298). 

Marble Hall.*" Hitner's iron mines, northeast of Marble Hall. Shenandoah limestone, 
residual deposits of goethite. Abandoned. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge, 1899, 141). HematiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 62). 
GoethiU: geodes (Rand, 1867, 189). LepidocrociU: druses of crystals (Rand, 1. c). Turgite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c; Eyerman, 1911, 22, analysis). LimoniU: (Rand, 1. c). PyrolusiU: 
delicate radiations (Rand, 1. c). Wad: (Rand, 1. c). GraphiU: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 

Hitner's Marble Quarry at Marble Hall, about 3 miles northwest of Chestnut HiU. 
Shenandoah limestone. Abandoned. 

CalciU: scalenohedra (Genth, 1875, 153). DolomiU: (Carter, 1886, 19). Quartz: milky 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 62). FluoriU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). GraphiU: (Benge 
and Wherry, I.e.). PyriU: (Carter. 1886, 19). ChalcopyriU: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Mala- 
chiU: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chrysocolla: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Wad: cobaltiferous 
(Eyerman, 1889, 13). "AquacreptiU:'' Genth, 1875, 122). 

Smaller quarry northeast of Marble Hall. 

BariU: grayish-white, granular masses (Rand, 1867, 188). **• 

One mile southwest of Hitner's iron mine. Octoraro schists. 

>>* Cacoxenite occurs in the vicinity (Rand, 1867, 189). 
»• Called strontianite by Rogers (1858, 1, 215). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 219 

Goetkite: (Dana, 1868, 779). TurgiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 62). LimoniU: 
<Dana, 1. c). Pyrolusite: (Dana, 1. c). Psilomelane; wad: (Dana, 1. c). 

Spring Mill. Pott's quarry, about 1 mile north of Spring Mill, on road to Harmanville. 
Shenandoah limestone. 

Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 62). Dolomite : grayish cleavage 
masses. 

One mile south of Spring Mill. 

Qttarts: drusy (Lea, 1818, 475). Chalcedony, jasper: (Lea, 1. c). 

Limonite pits in the vicinity of Spring Mill and Conshohocken. Many of these have been 
filled in and plowed over. 

Siderite: (Dana, 1850, 656). Goetkite: geodes (Dana, 1. c). Lepidocrocite: druses 
(Dana, 1. c; Genth, 1875, 48). TurgiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 91). LimoniU: 
(Dana, 1868, 780). PyrolusiU: (Genth, 1875, 46). CacoxeniU: very fine specimens were found 
at Colwell's iron furnace, on the northeast bank of the Schuykill River at Conshohocken, which 
undoubtedly came from the immediate vicinity (Dana, 1850, 656; Rand, 1892, 185). 

NORTHAMPTON COUNTY 

Bbthlbhbm Township*" 

Calamine: dark brown crystals, stalactitic, botryoidal, and granular coatings on limonite, 
at an abandoned mine shaft on S. D. von Steuben's farm, V4 mile west of Dryland Station (Eyer- 
man, 1889, 29, 33). 

BusHKiLi. Township 

Quartz: transparent crystals measuring 3 cm. at Crystal Spring, Blue Mountain (Genth, 
1875, 56). 

Porks Township 

Easton. 

Quartz: transparent crystals measuring 9 cm. Pound on the cotut house grounds, and 
near Twelfth and Northampton Streets. (Pinch, 1824, 240; Rogers, 1868, II, 711; Eyerman, 
1889, 13, 34). Flint, homstone: black (Seybert, 1808, 157; Cleaveland, 1816, 225). 

Chestnut Hill*^* Quarries and exposures on Chestnut Hill, north of Easton, from the 
Delaware River to Bushkill Creek. Pre-cambrian gneisses, pegmatite, and hydrothermal meta- 
morphosed limestone. The principal quarry is the Verdolite quarry on the River Road, 1 mile 
north of Easton; other quarries are in the immediate vicinity, and about 2 miles to the southwest, 
east of Bushkill Creek. 

CalciU: white, pink, and red, cleavage masses (Pinch, 1824, 389). StrontiocalciU: 
(Eyerman, 1904, 45). Aragonite: snow white, fibrous masses, intimately mixed with amphibole 
asbestus (Lesley, 1882, 79; Eyerman, 1889, 34). Dolomite: cleavage masses (Pinch, 1. c). 
Breunnerite: (Genth, 1875, 158). Fluorite: (Eyerman, 1911, 23). Barite? (Eyerman, 1904, 
45). Celesite? (Eyerman, 1904, 45). Diopside; coccoliU; salite: grayish-green, green, cleavage 
masses and prismatic crystals (Eyerman, 1911, 4, analyses; Pinch, 1. c). AugiU: green (Pinch, 
1. c; Lesley, 1883, 79). ActinoliU; nephriU: green, greenish- white, radiating, and compact 
(Pinch, 1. c; Rogers, 1858, II, 712; Eyerman, 1904, 43; 1911, 5, analyses). Tremolite: white, 
crystallized (Pinch, 1. c; Dana, 1850, 656; Genth, 1875, 64). Amphibole asbestus » mountain- 
leather: compact, Ugniform; fibrous masses up to 65 cm. in length (Pinch, 1. c; Eyerman, 1904 
45; 1911, 5, analysis). Hornblende: (Pinch, 1. c). WerneriU: pink, prismatic crystals, at the 
Mineral Spring Quarry (Pinch, 1. c; Eyerman, 1911, 7, analysis). EpidoU: dark green, small 
crystals (Pinch, 1. c). Topaz? small cream-yellow crystals, at the northern contact of the ser- 
pentine-talc belt (Eyerman, 1891, 464). PhlogopiU: (Eyerman, 1904, 45). BiotiU: silver- 
white, green, and brown; lamellar masses and crystals measuring 5 cm. (Pinch, 1. c; Rammeb- 
berg, 1866, 809; Knop, 1887, 603; Eyerman, 1904, 46; 1911, 13; Grailich, 1854, 51; Bauer, 1869, 
360). Serpentine; precious or noble; retinaliU, marmoliU, boweniU, porcellophiU, thermophyl- 

tn Genth (1875, 76, 70. 80) lists epidote. allantte. and zircon as occurring */a mile north of Bethlehem. This 
is doubtless an error. 

"• Chromite (Pinch. 1824, 230) and caratite (Eyerman, 1011. 23) have been reported, but their occurrence 
is extremely doubtful and needs confirmation. 



220 MINERAL LOCAUTIBS OP PENNSYLVANIA 

lite and chrysolite: yellow, light to dark oily green, greenish or reddish-white; massive, granular 
(Finch, L c; Thomson, 1828, 48; Smith, 1866. 180; Eyerman, 1904, 47; 1911, 16, 17; MerriU, 

1890, 699). Talc: green and silvery white masses (Pinch, 1. c). Chlorite; prochlorite: light 
to bluish-green, compact, crystalline masses (Pinch, L c; Eyerman, 1904, 46; 1911, 14, analjrses), 
Vermiadite; easUmite: bright yellowish-green, inelastic scales and crystals, with compact tremo- 
lite (Merrill, 1890, 699; Clarke and Schneider, 1891, 249, analysis; Eyerman, 1911, 14). TitaniU: 
(Finch, 1. c). Zircon: clove brown crystals up to 6 cm. in length were formerly found on Chestnut 
Hill, west of the Eaeton-Wind Gap road (Pmch, 1. c; Genth, 1876, 76; Eyerman, 1911, 6; Rogers, 
1858, II. 711; I, 95). Graphite: (Pinch, L c). Molybdenite: (Eyerman, 1911, 21). PyriU: 
cubes and pyritohedra (Finch, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: small sphenoids in talc (Eyerman, 1891, 
464). Chakocite: (Eyerman, 1904, 46). Galena: (Eyerman, 1904, 46). Cuprite: traces 
(Pinch, 1. c). Hematite: micaceous (Finch, 1. c). Magnetite: (Finch, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Finch, 
1. c.). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Eyerman, 1891, 466). Malachite: traces (Pinch, 1. c). Hydro- 
magnesite: snow white coatings, at the southern contact of the serpentine talc belt (Eyerman, 

1891, 464). Gypsum: tabular crystals (Lewis, 1882, 48). 

Pegmatite; primary: Orthoclase: pink crystals (Eyerman, 1891, 466 ; 1904, 43 ; 1911, 
3, analyses). Tourmaline: crystals on Bushkill Creek (Eyerman, 1904, 45). Muscovite: crystals 
(Eyerman, 1911. 13, analysis). 

Hanovsr Township 

Campbbll's Hump."' Iron ore prospect, 3 miles north of Bethlehem. Pre-cambrian meta- 
morphosed limestone, and intrusive gabbro. 

Asbestus: fibrous veins. Axinite: colorless to pale brown crystals up to several cm. in 
length (Prazier, 1882, 439). Titanite: imperfect crystals in the limestone (Genth, 1876, 102). 

LowBR Saucon^ Township 

Lbhigh Mountain. 

AUanite: a mass weighing 100 lbs. was found on South Motmtain, south of Lehigh Uni- 
versity. AUanite is not an uncommon mineral in the gneiss of this district (Genth, 1876, 80). 
Muscovite: (Eyerman, 1891, 465). 

HbllSRTOWN."^ Abandoned iron ore pit, 1 mile south of the center of Hellertown, and 
a quarter mile east of fork of road (Allentown 9147) Cambrian quartzite; Cambro-ordovictan 
limestone; residual deposits of goethite. 

Wavellite: small adcular crystals in divergent groups in brecciated sandstone (Eyerman, 
1911, 20; Wherry, 1918, 379-380; list of forms and analysis). Cacoxenite: yeUow needles and 
radiating spherical aggregates (Wherry, 1915, 508). Beraunite: deep brown nodular crusts 
and flat radiations up to 1 cm. on an iron stained quartzite, in the northeast comer of the pit 
(Wherry, 1915, 607, analysis). Psilomelane: (Wherry, 1915, 508). 

BiNGBN. Limonite pits in the vicinity of Bingen. Cambrian quartzite; residual de- 
posits of goethite. 

Quartz: ferruginous aggregates of small brownish yellow crystals (Genth, 1876, 58). Goeth- 
ite: geodes; fibrous masses. Turgite: (Genth, 1876, 46). Pyrolusite: small crystals in geodes 
(Genth, 1876, 46). 

LBiTHSvnxB. Quartz: crystals on Flint Hill (Eyerman, 1889, 13, 34). Jasper: brown 
(Genth, 1876, 60). Malachite: traces in Triassic rocks (Eyerman, 1889, 33, 34). 

Rbdington. On South Mountain, south of Redington, about 6 miles east of Bethlehem. 
Precambrian gneisses and pegmatite. 

QuariM; fibrous, cats-eye: (Genth, 1876, 58). Chalcedony; prase: leek-green, translucent 
(Genth, 1876, 69). Orthoclase: (Eyerman, 1891, 466). CoccoliU: (Genth, 1876, 80). Epidote: 
greenish-yellow crystals and granular masses (Dana, 1864, 491; Genth, 1876, 97). AUanite: 
black masses, with a yellowish-brown crust due to decomposition; imperfect crystals (Dana, 
1864, 491; Genth, 1866, 21; 1876, 80, analysis). AndradUe: dark brown (Dana, 1864, 491; 

>u A small quarry in the metamorphosed limestone was opened up on the west side of Monocacy Creek, 
southeast of Pine Top. No axinite has been obsenred here, however. 

tn Smoky quartz crystals occur near Hellertown (Eyerman, 1880. 14); zircon crystals. 1 mile east of Heller- 
town (Genth, 1875, 76); and siderite and asbolite, at Wharton's mine, 3 miles from Hellertown (Eyerman, 1889, 
12; 1911. 23). 



MINERAL WX:AUTIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 221 

Byerman, 1911, 6, analysis). Tourmaline: fibrous masses and imperfect crystals (Dana, 1854, 
491;Genth, 1875, 97). Chlorite: dark greenish-black, cryptocrystalline; resembling thmingite 
(Genth, 1875, 97). Zircon: small gray to brownish-black, more or less altered, prismatic crystals, 
rarely 1.5 cm. long (Smith, 1855, 189; Genth, 1875, 76). Magnetite: (Dana, 1854, 49). Spinel: 
black (Dana, 1854, 491). Hematite; martite: (Genth, 1875, 35). 

Upper Nazareth Township 
Nazareth. 

Quartz: transparent crystals up to 7.5 cm. in length, abtmdant in the soil; sometimes 
doubly terminated (Genth, 1875, 56). 

William Township 

South Easton. Limonite pits along the base of Morgan Hill, south of South Easton. 
Pits are located all along the road, V4 mile south of South Easton. Cambro-ordovidan limestone ; 
residual deposits of goethite. 

Goethite: fibrous masses; geodes (Genth, 1875, 48). Lepidocrocite: druses of minute crys- 
tals (Genth, 1875, 48). Turgite: red coatings on the interior of geodes (Eyerman, 1911, 22, 
analysis). Limonite: (Genth, 1875, 48). Psilomelane; wad; asbolite: (Genth, 1875, 48; Eyer- 
man, 1889, 12). Halloysite: (Genth, 1875, 122). Eyerman (1911, 18) gives an analysis of a 
pink clay containing Mn, from the Sampson mine in the triangle of the roads south of South 
Easton. ^ 

NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY 

SuNBURY. Doughty mine, 4 miles south of Sunbtuy, opposite Selinsgrove on the Sus- 
quehanna River. Bossardville (Helderberg) limestone. 

Galena: (White, 1883, 100). SphaleriU: (White, 1. c). Calamine: (Dana, 1844, 265, 
545). 

PERRY COUNTY 

Nbw Bloompibld. 

WaveUite: has been reported to occur as minute crystals in Gypidula galeata (characteristic 
of the early Devonian) on the road between New Bloomfield and Dellville. 

PHILADELPHIA 

1»apayettb. Prince's Soapstone quarry, about V* mile south of Lafayette Sta., P. & R. 
Ry., on the Schuylkill River. Meta-peridotite ; meta-pyroxenite ; meta-gabbro; Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. Idle. 

Peridotite; primary, Enstatite; bronzite: (Leeds, 1875, 229). Olivine: (Benge and 
Wherry, XII, 1905, 169). Pyrrhotite: (Genth, 1875, 17). 

Peridotite and pjo-oxenites, etc. Hydrothermal metamorphs: Anthopkyllite? (Rand, 
1867, 191; Leeds, 1875, 229). Tremolite: bladed masses (Browne, 1831, 519; Leeds, 1875, 229, 
analysis). Actinolite; nephriU? (Rand, 1892, 181; Cleaveland, 1816, 272). Amphibole asbestus: 
(Cleaveland, 1816, 328). Hornblende: dark green, fibrous and radiating (Genth, 1875, 69). 
Epidote? (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). Zoisite: minute indistinct grasrish and brownish 
crystals and crystalline masses with hornblende and albite (Genth, 1875, 81). Chlorite; pro- 
chlorite: foliated, massive: (Mease, 1807, 404; Genth, 1875, 133). Clinochlore: (Benge and 
Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). Talc: silvery-white and green foliated, masses (Mease, 1807, 404; 
Lewis, 1880, 252; HaU, 1881, 128, analysis by Genth). Pyrophyllite? greenish-white, radiating, 
with talc (Genth, 1875, 226). Serpentine: greenish-black, pseudomorphous after olivine (Browne, 
1831, 619; Genth, 1875, 114). Dolomite: grayish-white, cleavage masses; small brilliant hexag- 
onal crystals (Rand, 1867, 191; Genth, 1875, 156; Hall, 1881, 129, analysis by Genth). An- 
keriU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). SideriU? (Dana, 1868, 780). BreunneriU: yellow- 
ish-white, becoming brown on exposure, rhombohedra in talc (Leeds, 1870, 63, analysis). Apa- 
iite: straw-yellow to honey-yellow hexagonal prisms in dolomite (Rand, 1867, 191 ; Genth, 1875, 
139). Barite? (Rand, 1892, 81). PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). Chalcopyrite: 
(Rand, 1867, 191). BomUe: (Rand, 1867, 191). MUleriU: capillary crystals in dolomite 



222 MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

(Rand, 1880, 243). Magnetite: octahedra in chlorite schists (Mease, 1807, 404). Ilmenite: 
rhombohedral crystals (Carter, 1886, 19). Rutile: in dolomite (Rand, 1892, 181). 

Weathering products: DeweyliU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 60). LUhomarge? 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). GenthiU: (Rand, 1892, 181). Limonite: (Benge and 
Wherry, XII, 1905, 159). MalachiU: (Rand, 1892, 181). ChrysocoUa: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1906, 50). ChalcantkiU: efflorescence (Rand, 1867, 191). Epsomite: efflorescence (Rand, 
1867, 191; Eyerman, 1911, 20, analysis). 

Wissahickon gneiss: Almandite: (Genth, 1875, 73). StauroliU: (Cleavdand, 1816, 
203; Genth, 1875. 103). 

Pegmatite; primary: Albite: (Genth, 1875, 91). OligUise: pale bluish (Genth, 1876, 
223, analysis). 

P. R. R. Cut and exposures in woods, in the vicinity of Prince's quarry. Meta-pyroxenite; 
meta-peridotite, and meta-gaboro. 

AciinoliU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). Amphibole asbestus: (Lewis, 1885, 121). 
Hornblende: (Bengeand Wherry, XII, 1906, 50). Serpentine pseudo. olivine: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1906, 159). Talc: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). Magnetite: octahedral crystals, 
often twinned, measuring 1 cm. (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 50). 

Weathering products: Genthite: green coatings on actinolite (Lewis, 1885, 121). Ep- 
somite: efflorescence (Lewis, I. c). 

Rocks in adjacent woods, east of Prince's Quarry. Debris from old excavations. 

Oligoclase? (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 50). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tremolite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry near R. R., about 3^ mile below Lafayette Sta., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss 
and pegmatite. Abandoned. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 61). Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 
1906, 51). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). Almandite: dodecahedral crystals 
are abundant ; better crystals are found in the railroad cut north of the quarry (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 51; Eyerman, 1911, 6, analysis). Stilbtte: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). 
Heulandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 159). Chabazite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
51). Laumontite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 
1905, 51). Chalcopyrile: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 61). Ilmemte: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1906, 51). Goethite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 51). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). Epsomite: efflorescence (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 

169). 

Shawmont. Trolley cut on hillside, and exposures in the vicinity of Shawmont Sta., 

P. R. R. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). AlbiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Beryl: (Browne, 1831, 618; Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Cyanite: (Browne, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Browne, I. c; Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) Stilbite: 
(Browne, 1. c). ApatiU: (Browne, 1. c). 

Flat Rock. Exposures on an island formed by the canal and the Schuylkill River, oppo- 
site Flat Rock Tunnel. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Ilvaite: minute black crystals (Rand, 1867, 181). Siderite? (Rand, 1892, 182). 

RoxBOROUGH. Filtration Plant, Port Royal Avenue, south of Ridge Avenue. Exca- 
vations, inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Spessartite? massive, reddish-brown (Lea, 1818, 472; Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 51). 
StauroliU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Manayunk. Leverington Ave., between Ridge Ave., and Main Street. Expostu'es 
made in street improvements. The same minerals have been found at many other exposures 
in Manayunk. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Wissahickon Station.**' Exposures in the vicinity of Wissahickon Sta., P. &R. Ry. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Ml On "Robinson Hill" of early writers. 



MINERAL LOCALITIBS OP PENNSYLVANIA 223 

Quartz: limpid cnrstals (Carpenter, 1828, 14). SiUimanite: on Ridge Avenue, just below 
Wissahickon Station"* (Vanuxem, 1829, 43; Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). KaoliniU: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 51). Graphite? Carpenter, 1. c). 

Chestnut Hill 

Quartz: smoky (Seybert, 1808, 202). Microdine: (Seyberl, I. c). Almandite: small 
crystals (Seybert, 1. c). Beryl: (Mease, 1807, 400). Tourmaline: black (Seybert, 1. c). Cyanite: 
(Seybert, 1. c). Muscovite: green (Seybert, 1. c); juchsite: (Lea, 1818, 477). Corundum: 
in pegmatite (Seybert, 1808, 202). Hematite: (Lea, 1818, 465). TitaniU: (Dana, 1850, 656). 
ApatiU: (Dana, 1850, 656). 

Wissahickon Valley*** 

Exposures in the vicinity of Bell's Mill Road or Thorp's Lane, and Wissahickon Creek, 
Chestnut Hill. Wissahickon gneiss, pegmatite, meta-peridotite and meta-pyroxenite. 

Wissahickon gneiss: Almandite: (Bengeand Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Staurolite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Ilmenite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). 

PjToxenite and peridotite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Actinolite; nephrite? (Dana, 
1850, 656; Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Tremolite: (Dana, 1850, 656). Amphibole 
•asbestus: (Lea, 1818, 466). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 159). Serpentine: 
(Dana, 1850, 656). Chlorite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Talc: foliated and radiated 
(Lea, 1818, 466) . Dolomite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65) . Fluorite? (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 65). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Magnetite: (Lea, 1818, 
463). Chromite: (Cleaveland, 1816, 508). 

Exposures near Indian Rock, above Rex Avenue Valley, on the Wissahickon, Wissa- 
hickon gneiss. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Exposures in the vicinity of Wise's Mill Road and Wissahickon Drive. **^ Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: clusters of crystals; drusy (Carpenter, 1828, 14). Almandite: (Dana, 1868, 780). 
Staurolite: (Lea, 1818, 472; Rand, 1867, 187). Muscovite: green (Benge and Wherry, XII, 
1905,66). Apatite: pale green prisms (Carpenter and Spackman, 1825, 246). Hematite: (Car- 
penter, 1828, 14). Ilmenite: (Rand, 1867, 187). Rutile: (Carpenter, 1828, 14). 

Small quarry between Thorp's Land and Wise Mill Road. 

Hyalite: (Rand, 1867, 187). Muscovite: green, in the vicinity of the quarry (Rand, 
1867, 187). Apatite: pale brown crystals, near the quarry (Rand, 1. c). 

Devil's Pool, mouth of Cresheim Creek, at Wissahickon creek. Wissahickon gneiss, 
pegmatite; meta-pyroxenite. 

Exposures occur along the path 500 feet to the north, extending for some distance back 
over the hill; and 700 feet to the south of the pool; the minerals are also found in rock exposures 
and boulderj in the creek and woods. 

Wissahickon gneiss: Almandite: (Lea, 1818, 479; Rand, 1892, 182). Staurolite: rough 
brown crystals, often twinned, in schists on top of hill (Lea, 1. c; Rand, 1892, 182). Cyanite: 
at the contact of Wissahickon gneiss and the meta-peridotite dike (I»ea, 1. c; Rand, 1892, 182). 
Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 159). 

Meta-pyroxenite; hydrothermal metamorphs: Anthophyllite: grayish-white, radiating 
masses (Carpenter and Spackman, 1825, 246). Actinolite: green, radiated (Lea, 1818, 479; 
Carpenter, 1825, 45). Chlorite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). Talc: radiated masses 
(Carpenter, 1824, 236; Porter, 1824, 233). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherrj', 1. c.)- 

Exposures 'A mile above Devil's Pool. 

Almandite: (Dana, 1892, 1070). Staurolite: (Dana, 1. c). Muscovite: (Dana, 1. c. 
Apatite: (Dana, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Dana, 1. c ). Hyalite: (Dana, 1. c). 

« 

'** The sillimantte locality is given by Vanuxem as "On the Schuylkill River, back of Robin Hood Tavern, 
on Ridge Road." 

'** Tourmaline occurs near Rittenhouse's paper mill (Carpenter, 1828, 14); and cyanite near Livezly*s Mill 
(Carpenter, 1828, 14). 

««« Megargee's Paper Mill, Wise's Mill, etc. of earlier writers. 



224 MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

Exposures near Crease's Lane and Wissahickon Creek. Wissahickon gneiss, and peg-- 
matite. 

Hornslone: (Rand, 1867, 187). Cyanite: light to deep blue, bladed masses (Mease, 
1807,405; Rand, 1867, 187). StauroliU: (Rand, I. c). Tourmaline: (Rand, I.e.). FaluniU? 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 65). 

Exposures in the vicinity of Gorgas' Lane and Wissahickon Creek. Wissahickon gneiss- 
and pegmatite. 

Hornstone: (Rand, 1867, 187). Cyamte: light to deep blue, bladed masses (Mease, 
1807,405; Genth, 1875, 101). StauroliU: (Rand, I.e.). rottn«a/t««; radiating black crystals- 
(Genth. 1875, 97). FaluniU? (Benge and Wherry. XII, 1905, 66). IlmeniU: below Gorgas' 
Lane (Dana, 1863, 780). TitaniU: (Genth, 1876, 102). 

Weathering products: Alunogen: small silky fibrous incrustations on gneiss (Rand, 
1867, 187; Genth. 1875, 101). HalotrichiU: above Gorgas' Lane (Benge and Wherry, XII, 
1905, 66). 

RiTTSNHOUSB QuARRY,*» west Rittenhouse Lane, between Wissahickon Creek and Wissa- 
hickon Avenue (Germantown, 7678). Meta-gabbro (hornblende gneiss), and pegmatite. 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Microdine: pink 
(Rand, 1867, 187). AlhiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende, byssoliU: (Rand, I.e.; 
Benge and Wherry, 1. c). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). SillimaniU? (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Tourmaline: black crystals (Genth, 1875, 97). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
BioUU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). FaluniU? pale green masses in microcline (Lewis, 1880, 
313). EpidoU: (Genth, 1875, 78). GadoliniU? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). TitaniU: crystals; 
xanthtlane; (Genth, 1875, 102; Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: bluish-green, rough crystals 
up to 5 X 30 cm. (Rand, 1867. 187; 1892, 180; Eyerman, 1911, 18, analysis). PyriU: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). ChakopyriU: (Benge and Wherry, Lc). BorniU: (Rand, I.e.). Molyh- 
deniU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). HematiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: JefferisiU, philadelphiU: (Lewis, 1880, 313). Limo- 
nite pseudo. pyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). MalachiU: (Rand, 1. c). Chrysocolla: 
(Genth, 1875, 105; Rand, 1892, 180). 

Meta-gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: CalciU: pink crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 66). PectpliU? (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). PrehniU: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 
ApophylliU: (Genth, 1875, 107; Eyerman, 1911, 11, analysis). StilhiU: white, radiating crystals 
(Rand, 1837, 187). HeulandiU: small brown crystals (Rand, I. c). ChabaziU: (Benge and 
Wherry L c). NatroliU: (Rand, 1. c). LaumoniU: small white crystals, sometimes colored green 
by Cu (Genth, 1875, 103; Rand, 1892, 180), 

Gabbro; weathering product. Hyalite: blue and green (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
66). 

Exposures on Wissahickon Avenue, west of Rittenhouse Lane, about Vs niile north of 
Rittenhouse quarry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Sillimanite: fibrous masses (Genth, 1875, 98; Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Apa^ 
tiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Falls op Schuyi^kill**® 

Quarries at Ridge Avenue and School Lane. The upper quarry has been filled in and is 
inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss, pegmatite, and quartz veins. 

Pegmatite; primary: Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). SillimaniU: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Mus- 
coviU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). BiotiU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905. 66); 
JeffersiU? altered biotite (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). 

Hydrothermal veins, primary: Amethyst: light purple crystals, were found in the upper 
quarry. PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Galena: small cleavage masses. SpkaU 
eriU: brown, resinous, radiating crystals, probably i)aramorphouj after wurtzite. 

Hydrothermal veins; weathering products: Lffikmite pesudo. />yr»^.- (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 66). PyromorphiU: minute green crystals. 

t» Formerly known as McKinney's quarry. 

s* Quartz crystals, hornblende and asbestus were found at a quarry on Ridge Avenue, below Queen Lane 
now abandoned and partially built over (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 225 

Wissahickon gneiss; weathering products: Alunogen: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 
92; Eyerman, 1911, 21, analysis). HalotrichiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Clock- 
eriU: yellow coatings (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66; Eyerman, 1911, 21. analysis). 

Germ ANTo wN** ' 

Along Wissahickon Avenue. *'' Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky (Carpenter, 1826, 14). AcUnoUte: (Carpenter, 1825, 45). Spessartite: 
brownish-red masses (Carpenter, 1825, 45). MelaniU? (Lea, 1818, 470). Epidote: (Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). Titanite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 66). 

TxTLPEHOCKEN Strbbt, east of Wayne Avenue. Street grading and improvements. 
Inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 67). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
CyaniU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Sillitnantte: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, l.'c). Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, i. c). 

RiTTBNHOUss Lane, east of P. R. R. Street grading. Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 67). 

Exposure along P. R. R . south of Chelten Ave. Sta. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Muscovite: large sheets (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 67). 

McCrea's Quarry, Germantown Avenue and Mermaid Lane, Mt. Airy. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Pegmatite; primary: Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). Oligo- 
clase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and 
Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). AUanite: (Wherry, 
1908. 70). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). BomiU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 
1908, 107). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Gummiie: (Wherry, 1908, 68). Autuniie: (Benge and 
Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Torbemile: small crylstals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 80). Urano- 
phane: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107; Wherry, 1908, 68). 

Comly's Quarry, V^ i^ule east of McCrea's. Mt. Airy. Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Albiie: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Zircon, cyrtolite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 
1908, 107; Wherry, 1908, 72). TorbemiU: green crystalline scales (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 
107; Wherry, 1908, 68). 

Exposures along P. & R. Ry. near Mt. Pleasant Station, Mt. Airy. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). 

Fowler's Quarry, East Johnson Street and P. & R. Ry. north of Walnut Lane Sta. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). AlbiU: (Benge and Wherry. 
l.\.). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Bengeand Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 
L c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Chakopyrite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Penn Street Quarry, Penn St. and Bellfield Avenue. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Pegmatite; primary: Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). AJhite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). Oligodase: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 160). Horn- 
blende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 160). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). 
Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XII. 1905. 89). 

"'The following indefinite localities have been listed: A. C. Peale's farm: beryl (I^a. 1818,472). 
Day's Cave, near residence of William Wister: microline and beryl (Carpenter, 1828, 14). Shoemaker's Lane: 
muscovite enclosing biotite (Lewis. 1880, 278). Rittenhouse Lane: allanite (Wherry, 1008. 70). West Washing- 
ton Lane: tourmaline (Genth. 1875, 97). Eastern Germantown: apatite (Godon, 1810. 30). Germantown: 
apatite, adularia. almandite, beryl, cyanite, falunite, molybdenite, muscovite. sillimanite and spessartite: 
(Carpenter, 1826. 46; Carpenter and Spackman, 1825, 246; Wister. 1810. 31; Genth. 1873. 381; Nttt^Il, 1822, 
22; Seybert. 1808. 256; Koenig. 1887. 38). 

*« Formerly the Roxborough-Germantown township line. 



V Wi 



226 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

SiUimanite: (Benge and Wheny, XII, 1905, 89). Muscovite: (Benge and Wheny. XII, 1905, 89). 
Biotile: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). Apatite: (Benge and Wheny, XII, 1906, 89)- 
Molybdenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). ChdUopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Hyalite: green coatings (Lewis, 1882, 49). CkrysocoUa: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). Torbemite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 89). 

Stbnton Avb., and Bellfield Ave., north of Wister Sta., P. & R. Ry. Exposures and sewer 
excavations. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Hyalite: (Benge and Wheny, XII, 1905, 90). 

Quarry on north side of P. & R. Ry. east of Penn Street. Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss 
and pegmatite. 

Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 90). Hornblende: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Mus- 
covite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, Lc). StUbite: (Benge 
and Wherry, L c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Hematite: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). 
Ckrysocolla: weathering product (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tovbernite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry about Vs °ule N. E. of Fishers Sta., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 92). Tourmaline: black (Benge and Wherry„ 
L c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). 

Quarry at Ruscomb and Uber Streets, east of Fishers Sta. , P. & R. Ry . Idle. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wheny, XII, 1905, 90). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). SiUimanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Logan Strbbt and Germantown Avenue. Street improvements. Inaccessible. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 90). Zoisiie: (Bengeand Wherry, 1. c). Tourma- 
line: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Cut on P. & R. Ry. Vs mile above Wayne Junction. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wheny, XII, 1905, 90). Cyanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry between Stenton Avenue and P. & R. Ry . near Germantown Ave. Wayne Junction 
Inaccessible. Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro). 

Hornblende: (Lewis, 1880, 313). Epidote: (Lewis, 1. c). Biotite; philadelphite: (Lewis,. 
I.e.). Stilbite: (Genth, 1875, 109). Titanite: (Lewis, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Lewis, I.e.). Bom- 
iU: (Rand, 1892, 180). Malachite: weathering product (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
90). 

Waynb Junction Quarry, Roberts and Pulaski Avenues. The same minerals were found 
when the adjacent railroad was cut through. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 90). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
SiUimanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Zoisite: (Benge and Wheny, I.e.). Muscovite: crystals 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: weathering product (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Waynb Quarriss, both side of Wayne Ave., between Wyoming Ave. and Seymour Street. 
Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Orthoclase: (Rand, 1892, 180). Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 90). Albite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Oligodase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Epi- 
dote: (Bengeand Wherry, Lc). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, L c). Biotite: lepidomelane? 
philadelphite: (Benge and Wherry, L c; Rand, 1892, 180). Falunite? pale green masses in micro- 
dine (Lewis, 1882, 51). StUbite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Kaolinite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Molybdenite: 
(Benge and Wheny, L c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wheny, L c). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Bornite: (Benge and Wheny, 1. c). Caldte: pink (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: 
weathering product (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Malachite: weathering product (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 



MINERAL LOCALITIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 227 

Branchtown 

Norwood Cemetery (Magnolia Section) Old York Road and Haines Street. Street grad- 
ing. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Orthoclase: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 90). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Ogontz Avenue (19th Street) between Chelten Ave. and Haines St. Street grading. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Almandite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 91; XIII, 1906, 92). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

East Chelten Ave. and Green Lane (or Godfrey St.). Old quarry and street grading. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: in a street grading at Broad Street and 
Green Lane (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). 

Tabor. Cut on P. & R. Ry. near Tabor Road. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). Tourmaline: (Benge dnd Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Logan*" 

Broad Street between Logan Sta., P. & R. Ry. and Olney Avenue. Street cuts, sewer 
excavations, etc. in part inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). Microdine: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Oligodase: at Broad St. and Clarkson Ave. (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: at Broad St. and Clarkson Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Al- 
mandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: white, yellow and green (Carpenter, 1824, 236; 
Eyerman, 1911, 5, analysis). Sillimanite: on Broad Street at Clarkson Ave., and at Duncannon 
Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Cyanite: on Broad St. at Clarkson Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 
I.e.). Tourmaline: black crystals (Carpenter, 1826,45). Muscovite: greenish crystals measuring 
15 cm. were found on the northwest comer of Broad St. and Olney Avenue (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Zircon; cyrtolite: minute crystals at Broad St. and 
Olney Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Xenoiime: on Broad 
St. at Olney Avenue, and at Duncannon Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Columbite: crystals on 
Broad St. at Olney Ave., and at Duncannon Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Ilmenite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Marcasite: at Broad St. and Duncannon 
Ave. (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Autunite: at Broad 
St. and Olney Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Uranophane: on Broad St. at Olney Ave., and at 
Duncannon Ave. (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Excavations for improvements east of Logan Station, P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss 
and pegmatite. 

Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). Hornblende: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Broad and Cayuga Streets. Grading on Torresdale Boulevard. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Muscovite: large sheets (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). 

NiCETOWN 

Midvale Steel Works. Nicetown Station. Hunting Park Ave. and Twenty-first Street. 
Inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 91). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tioga. Tioga and Twentieth Street. Inaccessible. Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro). 

** Carpenter (1825, 45) reported large limpid quartz crystals occurring in a field between Germantown and 
Old York Road, "5 miles from Philadelphia" (that is, the city line which was then at Spring Garden Street). The 
locality is probably in the valley of Wingohocking Creek, now used as a sewer. The valley is being filled in. 



228 MINERAL LOCAUTIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

Oligocktse: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 01). Hornblende: (Beoge and Wherry, 1. c). 
TitaniU: brown crystals and crystalline masses (HaU, 1881, 130, analysis by Genth). 

BusTLBTON. Exposures one-half mile east of Bustleton. Meta-pyroxenite. 

AnihophylliU: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). AcHnolite: radiating masses (Car- 
penter, 1828, 12). Talc: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Exposures on Pennypack Creek, 1 mile southwest of Bustleton. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Muscovite: (Carpenter, 1828, 13). 

Exposures in woods, V4 mile east of Pennypack Creek, south of P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. , 

Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). AlmandUe: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Cuts on P. & R. Ry. between Bustleton and Pennypack Creek. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 92). ApatiU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). 

Vbrbbviiab"® 

Hillside exposures, 1 mile north of Vereeville. Wissahickon gneiss and pegaiatite. 
AlmandUe: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Cyanite: (Carpenter, 1828, 12). 
Staurolite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Tourmaline: black crystals (Carpenter, 1. c). 

Fox Chass 

Cuts and exposures on P. & R. Ry. between Rhawn Street and Pennypack Creek. Wis- 
sahickon gneiss and pegmatite. The material was dumped at the end of Pennypack bridge. 

Tourmaline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 105). Muscovite: crystals (Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 105) . BioiiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 

Rysrs. Cut on P. & R. Ry. just south of Cottman Street. The material was dumped 
where the two railroads meet below Cheltenham Station. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92) . Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, 
I.e.). AlmandUe: (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: 
(Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Muscovite: (Bengeand Wherry, I.e.). Kaolinite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Chbltbnham 

Exposure opposite Cheltenham Sta., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

MuscoviU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 

ToRRBSDALB. Filtration Plant, Tulip and Tolbut Streets. Construction excavations. 
Inaccessible. Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro). 

Pyroxene: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 105) . A patite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 

HoLMBSBURG. Holmcsburg Granite Co. quarry, Soley Ave. and Welsh Road. Granite 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: pink crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Albite: white crystals 
measuring 3 cm. Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Fluorite: violet coatings (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Exposures on Pennypack Creek, at the mouth of Sandy Run, 1 mile northwest of 
Holmesburg. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

SpessarUte: massive, red (Carpenter, 1828, 12). Apatite: light green crystals in quartz 
(Carpenter, 1828, 13). Psilomelane: coating gneiss (Carpenter, 1828, 12). 

Bridbsburg. Sands and gravels of the Delaware River, just below the mouth of Frank- 
ford Creek. 

Gold: scales (Genth, 1875, 2). Magnetite: grains (Genth, I.e.). llmenite: (Genth, 1. c). 
Zircon: minute colorless crystals (Genth, 1875, 77). 

Frankford 

William's quarry, Penn Street and Little Tacony Creek, west of Frankford Avenue. 
Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro). 

*** This may be the old locality given by the early writers as "Nevil's Academy, near Bustleton." 



MINEKAl, LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 229 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
160). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). CrocidoliU? (Benge and Wherry, 
XII. 1905, 106). Epidote: (Benge and Wherry, XII. 1905, 160). PectoliU: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 106). ApophyUite: (Rand, 1892. 179). StUbite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 
106). Hetdandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). NatroliU: (Benge and Wheriy, XII, 
1905, 160). Fluorite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 160). Magnetite: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 106). 

Weathering product: Wad: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906. 160). 

Barber's Quarry, Church and Leiper Streets, east of Frankford Creek. Abandoned 
and partially filled up. Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: (Dana, 1868, 780). Crocidolite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII. 1905, 106). Epidote: green crystals (Rand, 1871, 301; Genth, 1875, 
78; Lewis, 1880, 243). CalciU: (Rand, 1871, 301). Fluorite: colorless to purple octahedra 
in calcite (Rand, 1871, 301; Genth, 1876, 210). PectoliU: (Eyerman, 1889, 28). ApophyUite: 
colorless to white crystals (Genth, 1875, 107). Stilbite: white, crystals and radiating aggregates 
measuring 3 cm. (Rand, 1867, 186; Genth, 1875, 109; 1876, 225, analysis). Heulandite: (Rand, 
1890, 83). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry. 1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Genth, 1875, 21). Bornite: 
(Genth, 1875. 13). Magnetite: -(Genth, 1875, 38). 

Meta-gabbro; weathering products: Opal, hyalite: white, yellow and green, fluorescent, 
coating fluorite (Rand, 1872, 301 ; Genth, 1875, 61). Cuprite: vermillion-red coatings on bornite 
(Lewis, 1885, 120). MalachiU: (Genth, 1875, 167). ChrysocoUa: (Genth, 1875, 105). 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: smoky (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). Microcline: 
white to pink, with microscopic inclusions of goethite (Rand, 1871 , 300 ; Genth, 1875, 94) . A Ibite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). Oligoclase: greenish-white (Genth, 1867, 223, analysis) 
Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.)- StauroUte? (Benge and Wherry, 1 c). Tourmaline: 
black (Genth, 1875, 97). Muscovite: (Rand. 1890. 23). BiotiU, lepidomelane: (Rand. 1890, 
83). Titanite: small brown crystals (Genth, 1875, 102). Apatite: (Genth, 1875, 138). Molyb- 
denite: hexagonal tabular crystals up to 10 X 5 cm., and foliated masses up to a potmd in weight 
(Rand, 1867, 186; 1892. 178; Genth, 1875. 9; Brown, 1896, 210). 

Pegmatite; weathering products: Molybdite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). 
Randite: lemon-yellow coatings of microscopic acicular crystals at the south end of the quarry 
(Koenig, 1878, 408, analysis; Rand, 1880, 274). 

PETBR's Quarry, across Church Street from Barber's quarry. Inaccessible. Hornblende 
gneiss (meta-gabbro). Hornblende: crystals (Rand, 1892, 179). Epidote: fine crystals up to 
5 cm. in a vein of calcite (Rand, 1. c). Apatite: (Rand, 1. c). Calcite: (Rand, 1. c). Fluorite: 
(Rand, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Rand, 1. c). Bornite: (Rand, I.e.). Opal, hyalite: greenish-yel- 
low coatings due to weathering (Rand, I.e.). ChrysocoUa: weathering product (Rand, 1. c). 

Horrock's Quarry. Unity and Wingohocking Streets. Inaccessible. Hornblende gneiss. 

Microcline: (BengeandWherry, XII, 1905, 106). Oligoclase: greenish (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Randite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). SiUimanite: occurs near the quarry 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarries east of Wingohocking Sta., P. & R. Ry. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

TorberniU: (Wherry, 1908, 68). 

Clar&'s Quarry, Powder Mill Lane, west of Frankford Creek. Hornblende gneiss 
(meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: cleavage masses. Epidote: olive- 
green crystals (Eyerman, 1911, 9, analysis). Pectolite: white, radiating aggregates. Apophyl- 
lite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106; Eyerman, 1911, 11, analysis). StUbite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Chabatite: yellowish-brown (Eyerman. 1911, 12, analysis). Chalcopyrite: Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Chalcocite: (Benge and Wherry, XV, 1908, 107). Bornite: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 106)). 

Meta-gabbro; weathering products: Malachite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 106). 
ChrysocoUa: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pegmatite; primary: Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). Wemerite: 
white, faintly greenish crystals (Wherry, 1907, 37). BiotiU; lepidomelane: (Eyerman, 1911, 14,. 
analysis). Tiianite: brown, twinned crystals. Molybdenite: disseminated masses. 



230 MINERAL LOCALITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Quarry on west side of Frankford Creek, northeast of Juniata P^k, about Wingohocking 
and L Streets. Idle Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). 
Crocidolite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Epidote: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 
1906, 92). Colette: pink (Benge and Wherry, XIII. 1906, 92). StilhiU: brown, red, and yellow 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 106; XIII, 1906, 92). Heulandite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII. 
1906, 92). Chabaziie: yellow crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). PyriU: often al- 
tered to iimonite (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pegmatite: primary: Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). Oligodase: 
green (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). WerneriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906. 92). 
Tourmaline: black (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). BiotiU: (Benge and Wherry, XII. 
1905. 106). ApatiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). TUanUe: brown (Benge and Wherry. 
XIII. 1906, 92). MolyhdeniU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 

Wyoming Avenue, east of Tacony Creek. Street improvements, inaccessible. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: brown crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 106). Muscovite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Tacony Creek Valley 

Hoffman's Quarry, east side of Tacony Creek, north of Fishers Lane. Abandoned. 
Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: green (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 
106). Epidote: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905. 106). CalciU: pink (Benge and Wherry, 
XII. 1905, 106). StilbiU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). Chabazite: red crystals (Benge 
and Wherry. XIII, 1906, 92). 

Pegmatite; primary: Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Oligodase: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906. 92). WernenU? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Tour- 
maline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). Allanite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 
Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, XII. 1905, 106). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 106). 
Scheelite: crystals and masses in quartz (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92; Eyerman, 1911, 22, 
analysis). Hematite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92). 

Washout, and isolated boulders in field northwest of Fishers Lane, between Tacony Creek 
and Wyoming Avenue. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky (MacFeeters, 1902, 83). Amethyst: crystals measuring 2.5 cm., enclosing 
rutile (MacFeeters, 1. c). Microdine: (MacFeeters, 1. c). Hornblende: (MacFeeters, 1. c). 
Biotite: altered (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 92; MacFeeters, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Hematite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Rutile: acicular crystals (Mac- 
Feeters, 1. c). Wad: (MacFeeters, 1. c). 

. Jerry O'Neill's Quarry, on the south side of Tacony Creek, east of P. R. R. bridge; about 
V4 mile north of Wyoming Avenue. Hornblende gneiss (meta-gabbro) and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: greenish cleavage masses. Epidote: 
crystalline masses (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Calcite: pink cleavage masses. Stilbite: yellowish, radiating. Chalcopyrite: small masses. 
Bornite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Covellite: traces. 

Meta-gabbro; weathering products: Vermiculite: brownish micaceous masses. Cu- 
prite: red coatings on chalcopyrite. Malachite: green stains (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: small crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). Or- 
thoclase, adularia: colorless, white, and pink crystals (Benge and Wherry, I.e.). Albite: white 
crystals. Wemerite: white, prismatic crystals. Rubellite? pink crystals in albite, poor. Apa- 
tite: (Benge and Wherry. 1. c). Titanite: brown crystals measuring 2.5 cm. 

Cut on Bustleton Br., P. R. R., between Wyoming Ave. and Fishers Lane. Pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1905, 107). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) . 

Wyoming Avenue and Fishers Lane. Trolley construction, inaccessible. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: rose (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Ilmenite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 



MINERAL IX>CAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 231 

WiNGOHOCKING CrBBK VaLLBY 

Quarry on north side of Wingohocking Creek, V« niile west of Harrowgate Lane. The 
quarry is abandoned; the following minerals were found on the extensive dtunps. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid to milky crystals up to 50 X 30 cm. and weighing 80 pounds; in single 
individuals, or parallel groups. RuHle: veins of brilliant red, reddish-brown or black, reticulated 
acicular crystals, in milky quartz. Ilmenite: black tabular crystals in quartz. Epidote: green, 
radiating crystals in quartz. 

Quarry on south side of Wingohocking Creek, east of Harrowgate Lane. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). MicrocHne: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 107). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). SilUtnanite: (Benge and Whenry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Bengeand Wherry, I. c). Biotite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIV, 1907, 42). 

Quarry on the south side of Wingohocking Creek, west of Harrowgate Lane. Hornblende 
gneiss (meta-gabbro), Wissahickon gneiss, and pegmatite. 

MicrocHne: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 107). Albite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Sttlbite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hyalite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Fairmount Park 

Quarry, near Falls of Schuylkill, south side of ravine below Chamounix Lakes, west of 
P. & R. Ry. Abandoned, and partially walled up to form the lower lake. Hornblende gneiss. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: fibrous masses (Seybert, 1808, 159). 
Asbestus: fibrous with quartz (Lea, 1818, 478). Crocidolite: dark bluish, fibrous (Genth, 1876, 
70; Rand). Epidote: (Genth, 1875, 78). Zoisite:**^ gray and pink, acicular crystals and pearly 
masses. (Lea, 1818, 470; Genth, 1875, 81; Rand, 1887, 1597). Chlorite: green foliated (Mead, 
1822, 54). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Pyrrhotite: (Rand, 1892, 181). Cal- 
ciU: scalenohedra (Rand, 1892, 181). Fluorite: purplish (Lea. 1818, 481). SHlbite: white, 
pearly, radiating (Seybert, 1808, 158). Chabazite: yellow (Genth, 1875, 109). Laumontite: 
(Genth, 1875, 104). AnalciU: (Foote, 1880, 252). 

Meta-gabbro; weathering product: Halotrichtte: efflorescence (Rand, 1892, 181). 

Pegmatite; primary: Quartz: modified crystals (Rand, 1887, 1597). Orthoclase: (Lea, 
1818, 476). Almandite: (Genth, 1875, 73). Tourmaline: black (Genth, 1875, 97). Muscovite: 
(Genth, 1875, 85). Apatite: (Dana, 1892, 1070). Titanite: waxy-yellow and brown crystals 
(Bruce, 1813, 233). 

Cuts along Strawberry Hill Drive, near the east end of Park Trolley Bridge. Wissahickon 
gneiss; hornblende gneiss, and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Groth, 1903, 167). Almandite: (Groth, 1. c). Cyanite: in nodules of 
quartz (Rand, 1896, 484). Sillimanite: in quartz: (Rand, 1. c). Tourmaline: black (Groth, 
1. c). Halotrichite: weathering product (Lewis, 1882, 50). 

Exx)osures along East River Drive, north of Columbia Bridge. Hornblende gneiss. 

AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 40). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c.) 
PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, I. c). Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). StilbiU: (Bengeand 
Wherry, 1. c). Laumontite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Halotrichite: weathering product (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry »»* on north side of P. & R. Ry., about Vs mile east of Columbia bridge. Hornblende 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Gabbro; hydrothermal metamorphs: Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). 
ActinoliU: (Genth, 1875, 68). CalciU: crystals (Genth, 1875, 154). StilbiU: (Leonhard. 1849, 
825). Heulandite: (Rand. 1867, 275). Chabazite: (Groth, 1903, 167). NatroliU: (Benge and 

»i Called rhodonite by Rand. 

>** The quarry was opened to make room and furnish stone for an ice house erected in 1850. Subsequently 
this ice house burnt down, and a larger one was erected in its place. This has also disappeared. 



232 MINERAL U)CALrnES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Wherry, XII, 1905, 141). LaumoniiU: fine yellowish-white, prismatic crystals (Dana, 1844, 
326). 

Weathering products: Epsomiie: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1005, 141). i4/ttffo;«f»; (Groth, 
1. c). Halotrichite: yellowish-white, silky-fibrous coatings (Genth, 1875, 160). GlockerUe: 
brownish, resinous, stalactitic (Genth, 1875, 151). 

Pegmatite; primary. Qwarte: smoky and limpid crystals (Rand, 1867, 276). MicrocUne: 
(Genth, 1875, 93). AlmandiU: (Groth. 1. c). r<mrmaW««: (Groth, 1. c). MuscmU: {Oxo^, 
1. c). IlmeniU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905. 140). PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XIT, 1905, 
141). 

Wissahickon gneiss: StauroliU: (Genth, 1875, 103). SiUimaniU: (Genth, 1876, 98). 

Exposures near the western end of Columbia Bridge. Wissahickon gneiss; hornblende 
gneiss, and pegmatite. 

Almandite: (Dana, 1850, 656). Tourmaline: (Dana, 1. c ) Muscovite: (Dana, 1. c). 
Laumontite: (Dana, 1. c). 

Rockland, just north of Columbia Bridge. 

Microhne: cleavage masses (Groth, 1903, 167). 

Hill west of P. & R. Junction R. R., north of drive going west from Columbia Bridge. 
Exposures in washout. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 1 19). 

Quarry and bluff, south side of Lansdowne Ravine, facing P. & R. Ry. Quarry 
is abandoned; the best specimens were found in the top soil. Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Quartz: smoky (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 119). Microcline: pink crystals measur- 
ing 12 X 25 cm. (Groth, 1903, 168). AlhiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Oligodase: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: altered crystals (Groth, 1903, 168). Almandite: rough crystals measur- 
ing 6 cm. (Groth, 1903, 169). Tourmaline: black (Groth, 1903, 169). Muscovite: (Groth, 1903, 
168). Biotite: in muscovite (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). IlmeniU: black crystals (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). 

Exposures across the railroad from the above. Laumontite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 
XIII, 1906, 93). 

Bluffs along West River Drive, above Girard Avenue Bridge. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Quartz: colorless; amethyst: (Groth, 1903, 169; Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). 
Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, i.e.). AlbiU: (Groth, 1903, 169). Beryl: (Groth, 1903, 169). 
AlmandiU: massive (Groth, 1903, 169). EpidoU: crystals (Groth, 1903, 169); Tourmaline: black 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). IlvaiU? (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). MuscoviU: (Rand, 1867, 
276). BiotiU: rough crystals; enclosed m muscovite (Rand, 1867, 276; Senarmont, 1852, 171). 
TitaniU: yellow and brown (Groth, 1903, 169). StUhiU: (Groth, 1903, 169). ChabaziU: red 
(Groth, 1. c). HeulandiU: (Groth, 1. c). NatroUU: (Groth, 1. c). ApatiU: green (Groth, 
1903, 170). CalciU: rhombohedra (Groth, 1903, 169). PyriU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
119). HematiU: crystals (Groth, 1903, 169). IlmeniU: rough crystals were also found in a 
quarry on the south side of Girard Ave., between 38th and 39th Street (Rand, 1892, 176; Benge 
and Wherry, XII, 1905, 119). AutuniU: yellow crystalline scales (Groth, 1903, 169). Wad: 
coatings on the gravels overlying the schists (Rand, 1867, 276). 

East Rivbr Drive Tunnbl, above Girard Avenue Bridge. The minerals reported were 
found in tunneling the hill, cutting the road, and in excavations on the hill above the tunnel. 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 141). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). MuscoviU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). BiottU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apa^ 
tiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). IlmeniU: fine black tabular crystals, often curved, (Taylor, 
1858, 176; Ford, 1882, 40). Zircon: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 193). 

Exi)08ures along the East River Drive, "^^nssahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

SpessariiU: dark reddish-brown trapezohedra measuring 3 cm. (Robinson, 1887, 251, 
analyses). 



MINERAL LOCAUTIBS OF PENNSYLVANIA 233 

Turtle Rock.*" East River Drive, above Boat House Row, at the base of Lemon Hill 
Wissahickon gneiss; hornblende gneiss, and pegmatite. 

Hornblende: (Rand, 1802, 176). SiUimanite: (Rand, 1867, 276; 1892, 176). ChabazUe: 
red (Rand, 1867, 276). Laumantite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 141). ApatiU: (Rand, 
1867, 276). IlmeniU: (Rand, 1867, 276). 

Rock exposures at the east end of Spring Garden Street Bridge. Pegmatite. 

Tourmaline: black crystals (Lea, 1818, 473). 

Bluffs on the west side of the Schuylkill River, north of Spring Garden Street Bridge, 
opposite the old Fairmount Water Works.*" Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

QuaHz: colorless (Lea. 1818, 470); rose: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 120). Micro- 
dine: crystals (Lea, 1818, 475; Rand, 1871, 300). AlhiU: (Rand, 1892, 176). AlmandiU: 
(Rand, 1892, 176). Beryl: yellow and green, sometimes altered (Lea, 1818, 472; Dana, 1868, 
780; Genth, 1875, 71). Epidote: (Lea, 1818, 470). Tourmaline: black (Seybert, 1808, 169; 
Lea, 1818, 472). Muscovite: smoky brown (Silliman, 1850, 377). Biotiie: (Rand, 1892, 176). 
Bismuthinite: in tourmaline (Genth, 1875, 9). Molybdenite: (Genth, 1875, 9). Pyrite: (Benge 
andWherry, XII, 1905, 120). Chalcopyrite: (Rand, 1892, 176). IlmeniU: black rhombohedral 
crystals (Dana, 1868, 780; Genth, 1875, 36). UraniniU: (Wherry, 1908, 68; Brown). 

Weathering products: Malachite: (Rand, 1892, 176). Kaolinite: (Rand, 1892, 176). 
Gummite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 120). Autunite: yellow crystalline plates (Dana, 
1854, 491; Rand, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, 1855, 286; Lewis, 1882,49). TorberniU: green 
scales (Rand, 1867, 276; Wherry, 1908, 68). Uraconite: (Rand, 1892, 176). Hyalite: (Rand, 
1892, 176). Wad; asboliU: (Rand, 1892, 276). 

Old quarry and P. R. R. cut near 36th Street. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

AlmandiU: brilliant red crystals (Rand, 1892, 177). Wad, asboliie: (Dana, 1892, 
1070) 

George's Hill. Cut on Park Trolley Line, west of 62nd Street Station; exposure of 
quarry on P. & R. Ry. opposite George's Hill. Wissahickon gneiss; hornblende gneiss; and 
pegmatite. 

Hornblende: radiated (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 120). AlmandiU: (Groth, 1903, 
170). EpidoU: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 120, XIII, 1906, 93). ZoisiU, thuliU: 
crystals (Groth, I.e.; Benge and Wherry, 1. c). SiUimaniU: (Rand, 1892, 177; Groth, I.e.). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). '* AquacreptiU:" (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). ChalcopyriU 
(Rand, 1892, 177). MalachiU: (Rand, 1. c). Ckrysocolla: (Rand, 1. c). Wad, asboliU: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

West Philadelphia 

Street improvements at 48th St. and Fairmount Avenue. Inaccessible. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: smoky crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Microdine: (Benge and 
Wherry, XII, 1905, 120). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 120). Tourmaline: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Kaolinite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). Wad: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Haverford Avenue and 51st Street. 

Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 121). 

KiNGSESSiNG Quarry, 45th and Walnut Streets. Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss and 
pegmatite. 

Quartz: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 121). AlmandiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). SiUimaniU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). MuscaviU: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). BiotiU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). '* AquacreptiU:" (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

'** Turtle Rock was a rounded rock exposed in the Schuylkill River at low tide, before the Fairmount dam 
was built. 

*** A number of quarries occupied this site. The largest, immediately on the river bank, was known as Judge 
Peter's quarry. Other quarries were opened on the other side of the railroad and to the southeast. When the 
inclined plane was abandoned, the P. R. R. made a curved cut through the rocks extending from 30th Street to 34th 
Street, and a series of quarries was opened. Subsequently the bluff between the railroad and the river was quarried 
away. The entire area is now occupied by the P. R. R. (Rand, 1867; 1892). 



234 MINERAL UKAUTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Quarry at 44th St. and Baltimcnre Ave Inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 121). Oligoclase: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: enclosmg plates of biotite (Hall, 1881, 131; Lewis, 1882, 311). BiotiU: imperfect 
brownish-black crystals, sometimes interfoliated with muscovite (Hall, 1881, 131; analyses; 
Lewis, 1882, 311). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry at 42nd Street and Woodland Ave. and exposures across creek, about 45th St. 
Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss; pegmatite. 

Alhite: (Rand, 1867, 272). Muscovite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 121). 
Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). '* Aquacreptite:" (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: 
(Rand, 1. c). 

Exposures along the west side of Schulkill River, near Gray's Ferry Bridge. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 121). AUnU: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 
Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Vermiculite: (Benge 
and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Quarry at 50th Street and Hlmwood Ave. Abandoned. Wissahickon gneiss and peg- 
matite. 

Ilmenite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). 

P. B. & W. R. R. cut, J^ mile southwest of Gray's Ferry Road. Wissahickon gneiss. 

MirahUiU:^^ white efflorescence (Rand, 1871, 304; 1892. 175; Genth, 1875, 148). 

Elmwood Ave. between 58th and 60th Streets. River gravels. 

Quartz: blue, and rose; agate (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 121). Blue quartz also 
occurs at Gibson's Point. 

Schuylkill River sands and gravels. 

Ilmenite: (Genth, 1875, 36). Zircon: minute colorless crystals (Genth, 1875, 77). Flint; 
jasper: (Genth, 1875, 60). 

Hbstonvillb 

Quarry at 59th Street and P. R. R. Hestonville. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Ortkoclase: crystals (Genth, 1875, 93). SUlimaniU: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 
139). PynU: (Rand, 1892, 177). 

Weathering products: Alunogen: small silky fibrous coatings, especially developed dur- 
ing dry summer weather (Rand, 1867, 175). Halotrichite: yellowish- white, silky fibrous masses 
(Genth, 1875, 150). Glockerite: brownish, resinous, stalactitic (Genth, 1875, 151). 

OvERBROOK. Exposures on 67th St., between Woodbine and Malvern Avenues, about 
^/i mile west of the Pennsylvania Blind Asylum. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: limpid and smoky crystals up to 30 cm. in length (Lewis, 1905, 69; 1906, 111; 
Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 139). Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Hornblende: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Rutile: minute brilliant 
transparent ruby-red crystals on quartz (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). ''Aguacreptite:" (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Campbell's Quarry, on the west side of East branch of Indian Creek, 3^ mile north 
of Lansdowne Ave. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Microcline: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Epidote: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: crystals (Benge 
and Whenry, XV, 1908, 108). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Chlorite: (Benge 
and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Calcite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Quarry on the east side of the west branch of Indian Creek, just below Great Rock Dam. 
Idle. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Beryl: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry 1. c). 

Exposures on the west side of the west branch of Indian Creek, below Great Rock Dam 
Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

s» Called glauberite by Genth. 



MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 235 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wheny, XIII, 1906, 93). LimonUe: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Wad: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Lansdowns A vsnub and 64th Street. Grading of hill and street cuts. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Orihodase: porphyritic crystals showing carlsbad twinning (Gordon: Am. Min., 2, \\Q, 
1917). Hyalite: coatings on gneiss. 

Quarry, Lansdowne Ave. and 66th Street. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Orihodase: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 139). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c), 
*'Aquacreptite:" (Eyerman, 1889, 37). 

Mullin's Quarry, 65th and Callowhill Streets. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 140). Orihodase: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Pbrna's Quarry, 66th and Vine Streets. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Orihodase: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: 
(Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Titanite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). 

Cobb's Crbbk Vallby 

Exposures along Cobb's Creek, about Vs iiuic south of 63rd and Market Sts. Wissa- 
hickon gneiss. 

Sillimaniie: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). 

Baltimore Ave. between 52nd and 60th Sts. Sewer excavations. Inaccessible. Peg- 
matite. 

Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Quartz: crystals on 58th St. below 
Baltimore Ave., in a sewer excavation (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). 

Billinger's Quarry, Church Lane and Cobb's Creek, about 70th Street. Wissahickon 
gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: etched crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Orihodase: (Benge and 
Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). GrossularUe: 
(Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Sillimanite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Muscovite: (Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Biotite: 
(Benge and Wherry, XIII, 1906, 93). Calcite: crystals (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1906, 140). 
Fluorite: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140). Limonite pseudo. pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 
XII, 1905, 140). HyalUe: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 140; XIII, 1906, 93). 

WiNNEPiELD Quarry, Winnefield and Bryn Mawr Avenues. Wissahickon gneiss. 

Microdine: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 160). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Almandite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Mus- 
covite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Biotite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and 
Wherry, 1. c). 

Central Philadei*phia*'* 

Pennsylvania Avenue, between 21st and 28th Streets. Excavations for the P. & R. Ry. 
Inaccessible. Wissahickon gneiss and pegmatite. 

Quartz: los/^: (Benge and Wherry, XII, 1905, 141). Microdine: crystals (Groth, 1903, 
166). Hornblende: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Beryl: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Almandite: 
(Groth, 1. c). Tourmaline: (Groth, 1. c). Muscovite: (Groth, 1. c). Biotite: (Groth, 1. c). 
Kaolinite: (Groth, 1. c). Apatite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Pyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 
1. c). Chalcopyrite: (Benge and Wherry, 1. c). Molybdenite: (Groth, 1. c). 

Market and 11th Streets. 

Gold: disseminated in the days; found in digging a cellar (Dubois and Eckfeldt, 
1861, 275). 

Cellar of a house at 106 Arch Street. River gravels. 

Quartz: (Genth. Am. Phil. Soc., 11, 439, 1870). Almandite: (Genth, 1. c). Hmenite: 
(Genth, 1. c). Zircon: (Genth, 1. c). 

** The following old reports were made by Browne (1831, 618) : "Mill Dam. upon old Fourth Street:" beryl 
and muffcovite. "State Penitentiary, Coates Street:" beryl, wemerite, apatite. 



236 MINERAL LOCALITIES OP PENNSYLVANIA 

PIKE COUHTY*" 

BUSHKILL. 

Fluorite: in quarries near BushkiU (Genth, 1875, 29). 
Pond Eddy. 

Quartz: slender crystals near Pond Eddy. Shohola township (I. C. White, Sec. Geol. Surv. 
Penna. Rep., G6, 1882, 190). 

GUYMARD. 

sphalerite: in veins in Oneida conglomerate (White, 1. c, page 151). Galena: (White, 
1. c). 

PoxoNo Island. 

Sphalerite: in Catskill sandstone (White, 1. c, page 217). Malachite: green stains (White, 
1. c). 

SCHUYLKILL COUHTY"» 

Mahanoy City. Coal mines in valley northeast of Mahanoy City. Carboniferous 
sedimentary rocks. 

Quartz: crystals (Taylor, 1868, 17$). PyrophyUile: white to yellowish-white, pearly 
seams in coal (Taylor, L c; Genth, 1879, 279). Alunogen; white efflorescence (Reinhold, 1882, 
55). CopiapiU: yellow masses (Reinhold, 1882, 60). 

Tamaqua. 

KaoUnite; pholerite: white and yellowish- white, pearly scales (Genth, 1859, 251, analysis; 
Johnson and Blake, 1867, 354). Also occurs as leathery or ragHke coatings on quartz in coal 
mines on the Mahanoy R. R. (Qenth, 1875, 118). 

POTTSVILLB. 

KaoUnite; pholerite: snow-white, pearly plates (Genth, 1859, 251, analysis). Siderite: 
small rhombohedral crystals with kaolinite and quartz (C^enth, 1875, 160). Galena: in carbon- 
iferous sandstone (Genth, 1875, 11), Pyrite: with galena (Genth, 1875, 11). 

SWATARA. 

Quartz: doubly terminated crystals measuring 3 cm. in the Marshall coal tract, 3 miles 
west of Swatara (Genth, 1876, 218). 
Shamokin. 
Quartz: colorless crystals in coal mines (Genth, 1875, 56). 

SULLIVAN COUHTY 

MUNCY ValLBY. 

Chalcocite: in the Catskill red sandstone (Genth, 1875, 16). Bomite: (Genth, 1875. 13). 

FoRKvnxS. 

Galena: in limestone at the MiUview quarry (Eyerman, 1889, 4). 

SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY 

Grbat Bend. 

Wad: in Catskill sandstone (Eyerman, 1889, 12). 



TIOGA COUNTY 

Quartz: crystals (Seybert, 1808, 153). 

WARREN COUNTY 

Melanite: at Warren ((Senth, 1875, 75). 

**^ Wad has been reported from Westfall township (Eyerman, 1889, 12). 

>M Kunz (1890, 198) lists pjrrite crystals from the Raven Run mine, 6 miles from Mahanoy City. Genth 
(1876, 218), reports large quartz crystals from " Meckel's Forge." 



MINERAL IrOCAUTlES OF PENNSYLVANIA 237 

WESTMORELAND COUNTY 

GR9SNSBXJRG. 

SUicified wood: fossil trees, 7 miles east of Greensburg (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1854, 
64). 

Irwin. 

Pyrite: stalactitic in the Westmoreland Coal Co. mines (Genth, 1875, 20). 

Saltsburg. 

EpsomiU: fibrous crystals with coal on the ICiskiminetas River (M. H. Boy^, Proc. Am. 
Phil. Soc., IV, 247, 1847). 

WYOMING COUNTY 

Malachite: in Catskill sandstone in Nicholson township (Byerman, 1889, 45). 

YORK COUNTY»» 

Carroll Township 

DiLLSBURG. Magnetite mines east of Dillsburg. Triassic shales; intrusive diabase; 
hydrothermal deposits of magnetite. 

Magnetite: (Spencer, 1908, 74r-96). Pyrite: (Spencer, 1. c). Andradite: brown (Genth, 
1876, 220). 

Franklin Township 
Franklintown. 
Melaconite: in Triassic shales (Eyerman, 1889, 8, 34). Malachite: (Eyerman, 1. c). 

Hbllam Township 

WrightsvillB. Beards quarry, northern WrightsviUe. Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

Calcite, Dolomite, Quartz, Fluorite, Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Hematite: (Jandorf, 1912, 89). 

Fields and roadsides at WrightsviUe. 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: large cubes (Wherry). 

Hbllam. Limestone quarries near Hellam: Emig's quarry, on Creitz Creek, 1 mile S. E. 
of Hellam; Stoner's quarry along P. R. R., IV4 miles S. W. of Hellam; and the York Valley 
Lime Co. quarry, on the York turnpike, 1 V4 miles west of Hellam. Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

Calcite, Dolomite, Quartz, Fluor ite. Apatite, Graphite, Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Galena, Sphalerite, 
Hematite, Chlorite: (Jandorf, 1912, 90-93). 

Jackson Township 

Spring Grovb. Alwine's quarry, on the P. R. R,, about }4 niile west of Spring Grove. 
Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

Calcite, Dolomite, Quartz, Fluorite, Serpentine, Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Gypsum: (Jandorf* 
1912, 101). 

Lower Windsor Township 

Margarettb Furnace. Ore banks southeast of, and 2 miles N. W. of Margaretta Fur- 
nace. Cambro-ordovician limestone, etc; residual deposits of goethite and limonite. 
Goethite: (Frazer, 1876, 20). Turgite: (Frazer, 1 c). Limonite: (Frazer, 1. c). 

Manchester Township 

New Holland. Union Stone Co. quarry, '/g mile north of New Holland. Cambro- 
ordovician limestone. 

^^ In an early list, Clemson (1834, 163) reported the following minerals from "York County." quartz, coQo- 
phanite, epidote, wavellite, halloysite, talc, magnetite, hematite, cuprite, malachite, chalcopjrrite, gold, and galena. 
Genth (1875, 58) listed quartz, variety cats-eye, with inclusions of actinolite. Piedmontite (probably epidote) 
was listed by Cleaveland (1816, 300). The Shrewsbury meteorite was found near Shrewsbury, in the township 
of that name (Farrington, 1910. 350). 



238 MINERAL LOCALirmS O? PENNSYLVANIA 

Calcite, Dolomite, Ankerite, Siderite, AragoniU, Quartz, Fluorite, Graphite, Pyrite, Chalco- 
pyrite, Sphalerite, Hematite: (Jandorf, 1912, 97). 

Emigsvillb. Limestone quarry, Vi niile west of EmigsviUe. Cambro-ordovician lime- 
stone. 

Calcite, Dolomite, Quartz, Fluorite, Asbestus, Talc, Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Sphalerite: (Jandorf, 
1912, 96). 

Newberry Township 

York Haven. 

Augite: (Ehrenfeld, 1893, 5; analysis). Stilhite: white, radiating (Ehrenfeld, 1890, 157; 
1893, 4; analyses). Chabatite: (Ehrenfeld, 1893, 4). 

North Codorus Township 

New Salem. 

Amethyst: (Genth, 1875, 57). Hematite: micaceous, black and red (Oenth, 1875, 34). 

Pbachbottom Township**® 

Slate quarries near Peachbottom, on the Susquehanna River. 

WaveUite: small spherical and radiating, grayish-white aggregates (Dana, 1850, 656; 
Genth, 1875, 142). 

Penn Township 

Hanovbr. 

Quartz: smoky crystals (Seybert, 1808, 155). Calcite: crystals in geodes, near Seitzville 
Station, about IV^ miles from Hanover Junction (Frazer, 1876, 98). 

Spring Garden Township 

York. Limestone quarries near York: Schum and Ruhl's quarry, north of P. R. R. 1 Vt 
miles northeast of York. Ebert and Hake's quarry, south of P. R. R., IV4 miles east of York; 
and west of Chanceford Pike, '/s mile S. E. of York. Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

Calcite: rhombohedra, (Ehrenfeld, 1890, 281). Dolomite: (Jandorf, 1. c). Ankerite: 
(Jandorf, 1. c). Siderite: (Jandorf, 1. c). Quartz: (Jandorf, 1. c). Fluorite: purple (Ehren- 
feld, 1890, 281, analysis). Nitrocalcite: (Jandorf, 1. c). Pyrite: (Jandorf, 1. c). Chalcopyrite: 
{Jandorf, 1. c). Hematite: (Jandorf, I. c.)- Malachite: (Jandorf, 1. c). Sphalerite: light yellow 
(Ehrenfeld, 1890, 281; 1893, 5). 

ScHUMp's Hii^i^. One mile south of York. Cambrian quartzite, slaty schists, and 
limestone. 

Limonite pseudo. pyrite: found in the soil, especially along the road running east and west, 
south of the hill. Crystals occur up to 15 cm., but usually from 3 to 10 cm. in diameter (Holden, 
1919, 68). Also occur at Webb's Hill, 37^ miles from York (Shettel, 1887, 7). 

Warrington Township*** 

Tourmaline: at Rossville (Eyerman, 1889, 26). Malachite: at Atland's mine, 2^/t miles 
southwest of Wellsville (Eyerman, 1889. 45). 

West Manchester Township 

York Vallby. Limestone quarries west of York: Burgard's quarry, on a stream, V/a 
miles N. W. of York; York Stone and Supply Co. quarry, V^ mile west of Burgard's quarry; 
three quarries near P. R. R. 2 miles west of York. Cambro-ordovician limestone. 

Calcite, Dolomite, Quartz, Fluorite, Barite, Serpentine, Talc, Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Galena, 
Sphalerite, Malachite, Gypsum, NitrocalciU: (Jandorf, 1912. 95, 98, 101). 

^*^ The following indefinite reports have been made: Rutile: between Essex Hall and the State Line 
(Rogers, 1858, I, 102). Actinolite. asbestus, serpentine, chlorite, ilmenite, and magnetite in a ridge of serpentine, 
5 miles west of the Susquehanna River (Seybert, 1808, 267; Rogers, 1858, I, 172). 

ui Quartr, asbestus. and prasilite have been reported from "near Harman's blacksmith shop, 6 miles south- 
east of DiUsburg*' (Genth, 1876, 218; Frazer, 1876. 114). 



MINERAL LOCALlTmS OF PENNSYLVANIA 23? 

ThomasvillB. Quarry, */< mile south of ThomasviUe. Cambro-ordovician limestone. 
Calcite, DolomiU, Quartz, PyriU: (Jandorf, 1912, 100). 

York Township 

Ore VaixBy. 

Goethite: stalactitic, fibrous masses (Frazer, 1876, 24). LepidocrociU: (Frazer, 1. c.) Tur- 
giU: (Frazer, 1. c). LimoniU: (Frazer, 1. c). 
Dallastown. 
SideriU: gray, massive (Genth. 1876, 228). 



VI 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PENNSYLVANIA MINERALOGY'" 

AlGSTBR, F. 

Contributions of mineralogy. Medical Repository, I, 211-212, 1813. 

ASHBURNl^Rt C. A. 

The Aughwick Valley and East Broad Top District. In: Second Geol. Surv. Penna. Rep. 
F, 1878. 
Bascom, Plorbnce 

The ancient volcanic rocks of South Mountain, Pennsylvania. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 

136, 1896. 
Perido-steatite and diabase. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila. 48, 219-220, 1896. 
Bascom, Fu>rbnc0, W. B. Clark, N. H. Darton, H. B. Kummd, R. D. Salisbury, B. L. 
Miller, G. N. Knapp. 
Philadelphia folio. U. S. Geol. Surv. Polio 162, 1909. 
Baubr, Max 

Untersuchung fiber der Glimmer und verwandte Minerale. Ann. Phys. Chem. 138, 
337-370, 1869. 
Beck, Hsrbbrt H. 

The minerals of Lancaster County. Publication of the Linnaean Society of Lancaster, 1912. 
Bengb, Ei^mbr. 

The occurrence of quartz crystals at Hitner's limonite pits, Marble Hall, Montgomery Co., 
Pa. Mineral Collector, 6, 141-145, 1889. 
Bengb, Elmer, and Edgar T. Wherry 

Directory of the mineral localities in and arotmd Philadelphia. Mineral Collector (ser- 
ially). Philadelphia County: XII, 1905, 1-3, 49-51, 65-67, 89-«l. 105-107, 119-121, 
139,142,15^160; XIII, 1906, 92-93; XIV, 1907,42; XV, 1908, 107-108. Bucks 
County: XIII, 1906, 7-10, 21-24, 109-110; XIV, 1907, 42; XV, 1908, 108. Mont- 
gomery County: Xin, 1906, 41-43, 60-62, 65-67, 91, 110-111; XIV, 1907,42; 
XV, 1908, 108. Delaware County: XIIL 1906, 129-132; 151-154; 1907, 161-163, 
183-184; XIV, 1907, 5-7, 25-27, 43; XV, 1908, 108-109. Chester County: XV, 
1908, 6-8, 26-28, 44-46, 54-56, 69-70, 85-«6, 109. 
BiLGRAM, Hugo, and Frank J. Kebley 

Inclusions in quartz. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 55, 700, 1903. 
Blake, William P. 

Optical and blowpipe examination of the supposed chlorite of Chester Co., Pa. Am. J. 

Sci. 12, 339, 1851. 
On the occurrence of chromate of lead in Pennsylvania. Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 6, 

247, 1851. 
Mineralogical notices. Am. J. Sci. 13, 116, 1852. 
Mineralogical notices. Am. J. Sci. 14, 105, 1852. 
On the occurrence of crystallized carbonate of lanthanum. Am. J. Sci. (2) 16, 228-230, 

1853. 
Lanthanite and allanite in Essex Co., N. J. Am. J. Sci. 26, 245, 1858. 
Bliss, Eleanora F. 

Glaucophane fom eastern Penasylvania. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 32, 517-526, 1913. 

Borden, Henry Clay 

The minerals of the Avondale and Leiperville localities. Mineral Collector, 5, 68-71, 

1898. 

ut Many additional references to geological papers will be found in foot-notes through the text. 



BIBUOGRAPHY O? PENNSYLVANIA MINERAU>GY 241 

Boy6, Martin H. 

On a white crystalline mineral found near West Chester, Pa. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 2, 
190, 1841. 

Brown hematite ore from Chester Ridge, Pa. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 4, 238-239, 1847. 

Analysis of magnetic iron pyrites containing nickel, from Gap Mine, Lancaster County. 
Am. J. Sci. 13, 219, 1852. 
Brbithaupt, August 

Neue Beobachtungen an Felsiten. Berg.- und hutteman. Zeit. 17, 1, 1858. 
Brown, Amos P. 

The crystallization of molybdenite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 48, 210-211, 1896. 
Brown, Amos P., and Frederick Ehrenpeld 

Minerals of Pennsylvania. Top. and Geol. Surv. Penna., Rep. 9, 1913. 
Browne, P. A. 

The rocks found in the vicinity of Philadelphia. Monthly Am. J. Geol. and Nat. Sci. 
I, 517-519, 1831. 
Bruce, Archibau> 

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244 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PENNSYLVANIA MINERALOGY 

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Am. Phil. Soc. 2, 156, 1825. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PENNSYLVANIA MINERALOGY 245 

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GOLDSCBMIDT, VICTOR 

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*** An error, should be Lancaster County 



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See also Levy and Lacroix. 



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"* Of euxentte. 



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A new locality for asbolite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila. 32. 243, 1880. 

Epidote in molybdenite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 32, 243, 1880. 

The optical characters of some micas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. PMla. 32, 244-251, 1880. 

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A new locality for epsomite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 32, 267, 1880. 

Some endosures in mica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Phila. 32, 258, 1880. 

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New localities for barite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 34, 38, 1882. 

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Philaddphia quartz. Mineral Collector, 12, 69-72, 1906; 13, 111, 1906. 

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ta Should be Chester County, 



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INDEX 



Actinotite 82 

Adularia 72 

Agate 47 

Albite 74 

Allanite 96 

Allophane 127 

Almandite 86 

Alunogen 147 

Amazonstone 73 

Amethyst 47 

Amphibole group 81 

Analctte 105 

Andalusite 90 

Andradite 87 

Anglesite 142 

Anhydrite 145 

Ankerite 63 

Anorthite 77 

AnthophylliU 81 

Antigorite 121 

Apatite 138 

-Apophyllite 99 

Aquacreptite 125 

Aragonitr 65 

Argentine 61 

Arsenopyrite 44 

Aabestus 82, 122 

Asparagus-stone 133 

Augite 79 

Aurichalcite 68 

Autunite 139 

A venturine 47 

Avondale, Chester Co 171 

Avondale. Delaware Co 198, 195 197 

Axinite 96 

Azurite 67 

Baltimorite 121 

Bamford 203 

Barite 141 

Basanite 47 

Beartown 202 

BeUwood 160 

Beraunite 138 

Beryl 84 

Bieberite 146 

Bindhdmite 140 

Biotite 108 

Birdsboro 158 

Bismuth 35 

Bbmuthittite 36 

Bismutite 71 

Blende 37 

Blue HiU 199 

Boothw3m 197 

Bomite ^ 

Botryogen 1^ 

Boumonite ^ 45 

Bowenite 121 

Brandywine Summit 185 



Braunite 53 

Breunnerite 63 

Bridgeport 217 

Brinton's quarries 182 

Brochantite 145 

Bronzite 78 

Brookite 54 

Brucite 57 

Byssolite 83 

Cacozenite 188 

Calamine , 97 

Caldte 61 

Campbell's Hump 220 

Camelian 47 

Camotite 139 

Cassinite 72 

CasUe Rock 188 

Celestite 142 

Cerolite 126 

Ceruleolactite 138 

Cerussite 66 

Chabazite 102 

Chalcanthite 146 

Chalcedony 47 

Chalcocite 37 

Cbalcodite 116 

Chalcopyrite 40 

Chelsea 185 

Chert 47 

Chester 186 

Chestertite 73 

Chestnut Hill 219,223 

Chlorite group 112 

Chloritic vermiculites 112, 117 

Chloritoid Ill 

Chloropal 128 

Chondrodite 97 

Chromite 52 

Chrysocolla 128 

Chrysoprase 47 

Chrysotile 122 

atrine 47 

CUnochlore 112 

Colerainite 125 

Columbite 180 

Conshohocken 215 

Copesville 167 

Copiapite 147 

Copper 35 

ComwaU 207 

CorundeUite HI 

Corundum 50 

Corundum Hill 173 

Covellite 39 

Crednerite 53 

CroddoUte 84 

. Cuprite 49 

Cyanite W 



11 



INDEX 



Damourite 105 

Datolite 92 

Delawaritc 72 

Desdoizite 135 

Deweylite 123 

Diallage 79 

Diaspore 55 

Diopside 79 

Dioptase 89 

Dolomite 62 

Easton 219 

Bastonite 119 

Ecton mine 214 

Emerylitc Ill 

Enstatite 78 

Epidesmine 101 

Epidote 94 

Epsomite 145 

Eiythrite 136 

Euphyllite 108 

Euxenite 181 

Pairmount Park 231 

Falunite 108 

Fayalite 89 

Feldspar group 71 

Fergusonite 130 

Finney's quarry 164 

Fleetwood 157 

Flint 47 

Flint Hill 157 

Fluorite 45 

Frankford 228 

French Creek mines 178 

Friedensville 210 

Fritz Island 163 

Fruitville 206 

Fuchsite 105 

Gadolinite 92 

Gahnite 52 

Galena 37 

Gap nickel mines 202 

Garnet group 85 

Genthite 124 

Germantown 225 

GersdorfBte 44 

Gibbsite 57 

GickerviUe 158 

Gismondite 103 

Glauberite 141 

Glockerite 147 

Goethite 55 

Gold 35 

Goslarite 146 

Graphite 34 

Greenockite 39 

Grossularite 85 

Gummite 140 

Gypsum T 145 

Hallite. 117 

HaUoysite 126 

Halotrichite 147 

Hausmannite 53 

Hellertown 220 

Hematite 50 

Henderson 217 

Heulandite 101 



Hisingerite i21> 

Hopewell mines i7g 

Hornblende 83 

Homstone 47 

Hydrocuprite 49 

Hydromagnesite 69 

Hydrozindte 57 

Hypersthene 7g 

Ilmenite , 51 

Ilvaite 97 

Jasper 47 

Jefferisite 120 

Jones mine 159 

Kalinite 146 

Kammererite 114.115 

Kaolinite 126 

Kotschubeite 114 

Labradorite 77 

Lafayette 213, 221 

Lancasterite 69 

Langite 147 

Lansford 166 

Lansfordite 69 

Lanthanite 68 

Laumontite 103 

I^idyite 119 

Leiper's quarry 197 

LeiperviUe 196 

Lenni 193 

LenniUte 72, 117 

Lepidocrocite 57 

Lepidomelane 109 

Lesleyite 10^ 

Libethenitc 135 

Limonite 56, 69 

Line Pit 204 

Lithiophorite 60 

LalUngite 44 

Magnesite 63 

Magnetite 62 

Mahanoy City 236 

Malachite 66 

Marble Hall 218 

Marcasite 44 

Margarite Ill 

Marietta 203 

Marmolite 121 

Martite 50 

Mauch Chunk 166 

Melaconite 49 

Melanosiderite 59 

Melanterite 146 

Menaccanite 16 

Mendipite 46 

Mesolite 104 

Mica group 106 

Microdine 73 

Microlite 130 

Millerite 39 

Mimetite 134 

Mineral HiU 191 

MirabiUte 145 

Molybdenite 36 

Molybdite 149 

Monazite 133 



INDEX 



111 



Moonstone 74 

Moore's Mffl 183 

Morenosite 146 

Morgan 184 

Moro Phillip's mine 189 

Moroxite 133 

Morton 196 

Mountain cork 82 

Mountain leather 82 

Muscovite 106 

NatroUte 103 

Necronite 72 

NeoUte 125 

Nephrite 82 

Nesquehoning 166 

Nesquehonite 68 

New Galena 163 

Niter 140 

Nttrocaldte 140 

Nontronite 128 

Octahedrite 54 

Oligodase 75 

OUvine 88 

Opal 49 

Oreland 216 

Orthite 95 

Orthoclase 72 

Painterite 117 

Pattersonite 118 

Pectolite 80 

Penninite 114 

Pennite 62 

Pentlandite 38 

Pequa mines 207 

Perkiomen mine 213 

PhUadelphite 109 

Phlogopite 110 

Phocnixville 176 

Pholerite 126 

PicroUtc 121 

Piedmontite 94 

Platinum 35 

Poorhouse quarry 179 

Porcellophite 122 

Prase 47 

Prehnite 97 

Prochlorite 115 

Pseudomalachite 136 

Psilomelane 60 

Pyrite 42 

Pyrolusite 54 

Pyromorphite 134 

Pyrophyllite 127 

Pyroxene group 77 

Pyrrhotite 39 

Quartz 47 

Randite 71 

Retinalite 122 

Rhodochrome 115 

Rhodochrosite 64 

Rhodophyllite 116 

RipidoUte 114 

Rock crystal , 47 

Roseite 118 

Roslyn 216 



Rubellite ^ 98 

Rutile 53 

Sal-ammoniac 45 

SaUte 79 

Samarskite 131 

Saponite 126 

Scheelite 148 

Schwenksville 212 

Scoledte 104 

Scorodite 136 

Selenite 145 

SepioUte 125 

Sericite 105 

Serpentine. 121 

Shaw and Esrey's quarry 186 

ShimersviUe 209 

Siderite 64 

Sillimanite 91 

SUver 36 

Smithsonite 65 

Spessartite 87 

Sphalerite 37 

Sphene 129 

Spinel 51 

Staurolite 99 

Steatite 124 

Stibnite 36 

StUbite 100 

Stolzite 148 

Strengite 136 

Strontianite 65 

Sulfur 34 

Sunstone 75 

Swarthmore 193, 197 

Sylmar 181 

Talc 124 

Tennantite 45 

Tetrahedrite 46 

Texas 204 

ThermophyUite 122 

Thomsonite 105 

Thulite 93 

Tin 35 

Titanite 129 

Topaz 90 

Torbernite 139 

Tourmaline 98 

Trainer 189 

Tremolite 82 

Trimble's mine 170 

Turgitc 66 

UnionviUe 173 

Uraconite 148 

Uraninite 140 

Uranophane 128 

Uranotile ^. 128 

Uvarovite 88 

Vanadinite 135 

Vanartsdalen's quarry 164 

Vauquelinite 146 

Venerite 116 

VermicuUtes 112 

Vesuvianite 89 

Vivianite 136 



IV INDEX 

Wad T. 60 Wood's chrome mine 305 

Ward's quarry 196 Wulfenite 148 

Warwick mines 178 

WavelUte 136 Xaathocroite 89 

Wemerite 89 Xenotime 188 

Wheatfield mines 169 

Wheatley mines 176 Zaratlte 71 

WiUiamsite 121 Zeolite group 99 

Wissahickon Valley 228 Zircon 90 

Wollastonite 80 2Soi8ite 93 



_i