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Full text of "Mines and mineral resources of the counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus"

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CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU 

FEBBY BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO 

FLETCHER HAMILTON Slate Mineralogist 



Mines and Mineral Resources 

Of the Counties of 

Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, 

Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, 

Stanislaus 



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CONTENTS. 

Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Chapter I, Fresno County. 

Introduction • 3 

Table of Mineral Production 6 

Abrasives (see Volcanic Ash) 

Asbestos 6 

Asphalt 6 

Brick and Clay 7 

Chromitb .9 

Coal 10 

Copper 10 

DiATOMACEOua Earth (see Infusorial Earth) 

Feldspar . 12 

Fuller's Earth 13 

Gem Materials 13 

Gold 14 

Graphite 25 

Gypsum 25 

Infusorial Earth 26 

Lime and Limestone 26 

Magnesitb 26 

Marble 29 

Mineral Water 30 

Natural Gas 35 

Nickel 35 

Petroleum _ 35 

Pumice (see under Volcanic Ash) 

Quicksilver 36 

Stone Industry 39 

Tin 44 

Tungsten 44 

Volcanic Ash 44 

Chapter II, Kern County. 

Introduction 45 

Topography 45 

Streams 46 

Climatic Conditions 46 

Transportation Facilities 48 

Hydroelectric Plants 48 

Table of Mineral Production 48 

Mineral Resources 49 

Antimony 49 

Asbestos 50 

Asphalt 50 

Borax and Potash 61 

Brick and Clay 51 

Cement 52 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Copper 53 

Puller's Earth z* 54 

Gold 55 

Mining Districts 56 

Mines and Prospects 60 

Gypsum 1 89 

Iron 90 

Lime and Limestone 90 

Macadam 93 

Magnesite 93 

Marble 94 

Mineral Springs 94 

Natural Gas 95 

Ornamental Stones 95 

Petroleum ; 96 

Sandstone 96 

Sulphur 96 

Tungsten 96 

Bibliography 97 

Chapter III, Kings County. 

Introduction 99 

Table of Mineral Production 100 

Brick 101 

Chromitb 101 

Fuller's Earth 101 

Gypsum 101 

Mineral Paint 101 

Natural Gas 101 

Petroleum 102 

Quicksilver 102 

Chapter IV, Madera County. 

Introduction 105 

Geology 105 

Geologic Notes — Sierra Nevada Mountains, southwest of Mono Lake 10G 

Resources 109 

Table of Mineral Production 111 

Asbestos 112 

Brick 112 

Cobalt {see under Nickel) 

Copper 112 

Gems 113 

Gold 113 

Iron 128 

The Minaret Iron Deposit 129 

Lead and Silver 132 

Mineral Water 133 

Molybdenite 133 

Nickel and Cobalt 133 

Silver (see under Lead) 

Soapstonb 133 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Stone Industry 133 

Granite 133 

Sand and Gravel 141 

Talc {see Soapstone) • 

Tungsten 142 

Volcanic Ash 142 

Zinc 142 

Chapter V, Mariposa County. 

Introduction 143 

Power 143 

Geology 144 

Asbestos 145 

Barytes 145 

Copper 146 

Gold 149 

Lode Mines 149 

Placer Mines 174 

Granite 174 

Marble - — 175 

Meerschaum 175 

Phosphoretic Zincblendb 176 

Quicksilver 176 

Rock Quarries 176 

Slate r 178 

Chapter VI, Merced County. 

Introduction 179 

Asbestos 179 

Clay 179 

Copper 179 

Gold 180 

Manganese 180 

Water 180 

Chapter VII, San Joaquin County. 

Introduction 181 

Building Materials — Brick and Pottery 181 

Natural Gas 184 

Manganese 195 

Water 197 

Window Glass 199 

Chapter VIII, Stanislaus County. 

Introduction 201 

Building Materials 201 

Red Brick 201 

Gravel 201 

Gold 203 

Magnesia 203 

Manganese _ 204 

Ochre 204 

Quicksilver 206 

Silica 207 

Water 208 

Index 209 



vi 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAOl 

No. 1 power plant of Pacific Light & Power Co. at Cascada 3 

Generators and water wheels, No. 1 power plant, Cascada 4 

Transmission tower, 150,000 volts, Pacific Light & Power Co 5 

Brick elevator and conveyor, Craycroft-Herrold Brick Co 7 

Crude oil burners for brick kiln 8 

Wire brick-cutting" machine, Fresno Brick & Tile Co 9 

Two-stamp mill at Apache mine 14 

Straub patent mill at Contact mine 16 

Arrastra and plant at Providence mine, Temperance Flat 22 

Sketch map of Sunnyside mine 24 

Plant of Fresno Magnesite Co., Piedra ■. 28 

Coallnga Oil Field, looking north from Associated Oil Co., on section 36 34 

Oil loading rack, Crump Siding near Coallnga 34 

Furnace at Pacific Quicksilver mine 36 

Condensers at Pacific Quicksilver mine 37 

Drawing off burned ore, Pacific Quicksilver mine 37 

In the quarry of Academy Granite Co 40 

Block of stone (13,280 pounds) from Academy Granite Co 40 

Loading railroad cars at Kings River quarry 42 

Gravel pit and plant of San Joaquin Rock & Gravel Co 43 

Kern River above Kernville, during flood period 47 

Borel generating plant, Pacific Light & Power Co. 47 

Canal, Pacific Light & Power Co 48 

Cement plant at Monolith, erected by city of Los Angeles 52 

Cove Mining District, looking north 58 

Amalle mine, mill and hoist 58 

Flashlight photo, showing ore in Big Blue mine 62 

Water wheel operating "Marathon" tube mill. Golden Group 69 

Mill at Mojave Consolidated mine 78 

New 100-stamp mill, Yellow Aster mine 88 

Limestone croppings along Ersklne Creek 91 

Summit Lime Company's plant at Tehachapi 92 

Ten- ton Scott fine-ore furnace and condensers. Kings Quicksilver Mining Co., Ltd. 103 

"V" flume for transporting lumber, Madera Sugar Pine Co 110 

Discharging lumber from "V" flume 110 

Section of Enterprise mine 116 

Section of Gambetta mine 117 

Section of Texas Flat mine 125 

Southern end of The Minarets, looking from the west 129 

Portal of tunnel in massive iron ore on Iron Mountain , — 131 

HearBt Memorial Mining Building, University of California 134 

University Library. University of California 134 

Dressing a platform stone (size 21'x6'x2') for the San Francisco City Hall, 

McGilvray Raymond Granite Co 135 

Sculptural carving, McGilvray Raymond Granite Co 135 

Sculptural detail on City Hall, San Francisco 136 

Raymond Granite Company's quarry near Raymond — panoramic view 138 

Upper part of quarry, Raymond Granite Co 139 



ILLUSTRATIONS. Vll 

Pagb 

Wedging out a large block of granite (about 10'x20'x5') 139 

Raymond Granite Company's quarry 140 

Sather Campanile, University of California 141 

Mariposa Commercial A Mining Co. dam and hydroelectric plant on the Merced 

River 144 

El Portal Mining Co. barytes quarry 145 

Remains of what is said to have been the first smelter in California, near Green 

Mountain 146 

Copper dump on Indian Peak copper claims 148 

Colorado gold quartz mine on Long Gulch Creek 153 

Hite gold mine 158 

Mountain King mine, mill and ditch line on Merced River 164 

Ruins of what is said to have been the first mint in California 165 

Ore bins, crushing plant and amalgamating plant of the Number 5 gold mine 166 

Princeton quartz mine plant 168 

Croppings of white marble on the south fork of Merced River 175 

Merced Stone Company's rock quarry at Jasper Point 176 

Ransome-Crummy rock crusher at Exchequer 177 

Roofing slate from quarry of Pacific Slate Co 178 

Slate quarry of Pacific Slate Co 178 

Yosemlte Gold Dredging A Mining Co. dredge at Snelling 180 

Carnegie Brick & Pottery Co. plant at Carnegie 181 

Floor construction of a brick kiln at Carnegie plant 182 

Roberts Island brick plant of San Joaquin Brick Co 183 

Stockton Fire A Enamel Brick Co. plant 183 

Central Natural Gas Co. well 185 

Jackson No. 2 well at Jackson Baths 191 

Gasometer and meter of a natural gas well in Stockton 192 

Winshlp manganese prospect 196 

Stockton Window Glass plant, Stockton 199 

Craycroft brickyard at Modesto 202 

Gold dredge of La Grange Gold Dredging Co. 202 

Manganese croppings on the property of the California Manganese Co 205 

Voyle ochre mine at Knight's Ferryt owned by California Ochre Co. 206 

Croppings of silica, owned by California Silica Co 207 



: : - • • • • ' • 



■ . • • 



• •_ • 



INTRODUCTION. 

The group of counties presented in the chapters herewith covers the 
great San Joaquin Valley section of California, from its junction with 
the Sacramento River to its extreme southern limits (except Tulare 
County, for which the field work is not yet completed). It extends 
into the Coast Range Mountains on the west, to the summit of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains on the east, and into the desert region for a 
short distance south and southeast of the Tehachapi where those two 
mountain systems come together. In this district are found such 
natural wonders as the Yosemite Valley, the Mariposa and General 
Grant Park Big Tree Groves, the Kings River Canyon and the Devil's 
Post Pile. Of mineral and geologic interest, we find the southern end 
of the great Mother Lode Gold Belt ; also the Kern and Fresno County 
oil fields, the two largest petroleum producing districts in California. 
.This branch has already been covered in a special report. In the 
valley sections, of course, agriculture is the dominant industry ; dairy- 
ing also is prominent. Both in the valley and in the mountainous 
sections stock raising is an important industry. 

The valley is traversed north and south by two transcontinental rail- 
road systems, and tapped at its northern end by a third. Several oil 
pipe lines carry the product of the wells to refineries and distributing 
points at tidewater. 

This report represents the results of about three months' field work 
by the several authors, more or less simultaneously in their various 
areas, during the late summer of 1914. We have here endeavored to 
record all of the mineral resources and properties which have been the 
subject of commercial. exploitation, as well as to mention some addi- 
tional occurrences, as yet undeveloped. 

Acknowledgment is here made of assistance rendered by the various 
owners and operatives of properties, both during the field work and in 
the subsequent preparation of this report. 



2ee— 1445fi 



• » 



• ••• 

: - ' • 

• • • • » 






FRESNO COUNTY. 



Fresno County was created April 19, 1856, and up to 1893 included 
the territory now in Madera County. In the early days, Millerton, 
now abandoned, near Friant, was the county seat. It is still among 
the larger counties of the State, having an area of 5977 square miles, 
cr nearly three times that of the State of Delaware. Madera and Merced 



Photo No. SS. No. 1 powtr plant of Pacific Light and Power Company, at 

Caacada (Big Cntt Poit Office), I'reino Count)'. Dam retain* 

water for No. 2 plant. Etc milet below. 

counties are on its north, Mono and Inyo on the east, Tulare and Kings 
on the south, with San Benito, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo adjoin- 
ing it on the west. The San Joaquin River separates Fresno from the 
first named county, and the eastern boundary runs along the summit 
of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Along this line arc numerous peaks 



4 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

exceeding 13,000 feet in elevation above sea-level, among which may be 
mentioned Mt. Abbott, 13,736 feet; Bear Creek Spine, 13,705 feet; 
Mt. Humphreys, 13,972 feet; Mt. Darwin, 13,841 feet; Mt. Powell, 
13,361 feet; Agassiz Needle, 13,882 feet; Mt. Winchell, 13,749 feet; 
North Palisade, 14,254 feet; Middle Palisade, 14,049 feet; Mt. Pinehot, 
13,471 feet, and University Peak, 13,588 feet. At the Kearsarge Pass 
the trail to Independence in Inyo County crosses the divide at an 
elevation of 11,823 feet. The western boundary of the county follows 
along inside of the first line of ridges of the Diablo Range, just 
back from the edge of the San Joaquin Valley. 



Photo No. 09. Gcnenlon and water whecla. No. I power plant. Pacific Light and Power 
Company, Caecada, FreaoB County. 

The main drainage systems of Fresno County are those of the San 
Joaquin and Kings rivers and their branches. Much has been written 
and much more could be written of the wonder and rugged grandeur 
of the Sierran streams, canyons, cliffs, peaks and snowfields, delightful 
camping spots and unexcelled trout fishing — but they are here merely 
mentioned in passing. The streams of the western side of the county 
are only seasonal creeks, being dry in summer and lost sight of in the 
valley fiats, except in times of exceptional winter rains. 

In the valley proper, with water drawn from the San Joaquin and 
Kings River systems (principally the latter), over 400,000 acres of land 
are under irrigation. The various systems serving the county comprise 
some 450 miles of main ditches, with capacity exceeding 6000 cubic feet 
per second; also about 5000 miles of distributing canals. Water is sold 



FRESNO COUNTY. 5 

at the rate of 62£ and 75 cents an acre yearly. The census of 1910 
showed 888 pumping plants in the county, with a capacity of 515,380 
gallons per minute, and the cost varies from $1.50 to $4 per acre. 
The number of pumping plants has increased rapidly since 1910. The 
Hume-Bennett Lumber Company, with a 75-mile flume, utilizing water 
trom the Kings River, transports lumber from its mill at Hume to the 
railroads at Sanger. Its production is approximately 35,000,000 feet 
per year. The Fresno Plume and Lumber Company, with mills of 
an equal capacity at Shaver, ship via a 45-mile flume to Clovis. The 



Photo No. J3. Tranamiaaion tower. lSO.OOO volta. Pacific Light and Powtr Company, near 
Caacada, Frr.no County. 

water discharged from these flumes at their terminals is used for 
irrigation in the valley. 

As to power for mining, industrial and agricultural purposes, this 
territory is well provided. Besides the electric power lines, many 
pumps for irrigating are driven by distillate engines and some by 
crude oil, the proximity of the oil fields at Coalings being an advantage. 
The San Joaquin Light and Power Corporation distributes 40,000 
horsepower in Fresno County, provided by two hydroelectric plants 
in Madera County and a steam plant in Fresno. Its main transmission 
is at 60,000 volts to its substations. In addition this company has 
power plants in Kern County. The Pacific Light and Power Company, 
though it does not distribute any power in Fresno County, has two 



6 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

hydroelectric plants on Big Creek, a branch of the San Joaquin River. 
These two plants are each ultimately to have 60,000-kilowatts capacity, 
one half of which being at present installed and in operation. No. 1 
plant (see photos Nos. 68 and 69) at Cascada (Big Creek post office), 
operates with a static head of 2104 feet (950 pounds per square inch, 
gauge pressure at the water wheels) ; while No. 2 plant, 5 miles below, 
has a 1900-foot head. The power is taken through to Los Angeles by 
a 150,000-volt transmission with aluminum cables on steel towers (see 
photo No. 73). 

The county is traversed by two transcontinental railroad systems — 
the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe. There are six oil pipe lines 
transporting crude oil from and through Fresno County. The Asso- 
ciated Oil Company has two 8-inch lines to Port Costa and a 6-inch 
line to Monterey. The Standard Oil Company has two 8-inch lines to 
Point Richmond, and the Producers Transportation Company has an 
8-inch line to Port Harford. The Shell Oil Company is building an 
8-inch line to Martinez. 

The farm, fruit ■and lumber products of Fresno County at the pres- 
ent time total about $30,000,000 in value annually. Its total mineral 
product for 1913 was valued at $8,438,810. The total recorded mineral 
output of the county to the end of 1913 (see table opposite) is $67,669,- 
637, from which we have deducted $1,375,000 gold and silver yielded 
from 1880-1892 by the territory then in Fresno, but now a part of 
Madera County. This leaves a net value of $66,294,637. The products 
in the order of their value to date are : petroleum, stone industry, cop- 
per, brick, gold, magnesite, mineral water and silver, with asphaltum, 
chrome, clay, coal, gypsum, gems, natural gas, and quicksilver, mak- 
ing up the list, combined under "miscellaneous and unapportioned. 7 ' 
In addition, occurrences are known of asbestos, marble, pumice, lime- 
stone and tungsten, but they are as yet undeveloped. 

ABRASIVES (see Volcanic Ash). 

ASBESTOS. 

J. E. Ellwood of Sanger, reports that he has a deposit of amphibole 
asbestos 30 miles east of Sanger. It is undeveloped. 

Hogue and Phillips Claim, R. L. Hogue, Fresno, and Mr. Phillips, 
Letcher, owners. Some small bunches of asbestos have been taken out 
from this prospect in T. 13 S., R. 23 E., 12 miles north of Sanger. 
Bibl. : Bull. No. 38, p. 262. 

ASPHALT. 

There is no natural asphalt occurring in Fresno County, but the 
manufactured article is obtained from the residue in the refining of 
crude petroleum. In the earlier statistical reports its value was given, 



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FRESNO COUNTY. I 

ut as it is included in the value of the crude oil from which it is 
erived, refined asphalt is not now entered independently; to do bo 
,ould result in a duplication. The California Fresno Oil Company, 
i. Buttner, Fresno, manager, is the only refinery producing asphalt in 
his county. Its output is small. 

BRICK AND CLAY. 

Soger Gravel Pit (see under Stone Industry). 

Craycroft-Herrold Brick Company. C. J. Craycroft, president ; F. J. 
>aycroft, secretary; office, 407 Griffiths-McKenzie Building, Fresno. 



Mtnold Brick Compuri Freano 

The plant of the company is at Crayold siding on the Kerman branch 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 3 miles west of Fresno. Under the 
name of C. J. Craycroft & Son Brick Company, a plant was formerly 
operated about 1 mile south of town. The present plant, which started 
in 1911, has a daily capacity of 50,000, and electric power is used. The 
clay is obtained from a superficial, fiat valley deposit about 5 feet thick. 
It is loosened by pick and shovel and trammed to the mill where it is 
ground and passed througi. p stiff-mud machine. 

The rectangular stream of stiff mud is cut up by a wire cutting brick 
machine (see photo No. 25), from which it passes onto a belt conveyer. 



S MIN£S AND MINER AIi RESOURCES. 

As the conveyer moves slightly faster than the mud stream, the bricks 
are separated so that they can be easily taken up by band and trans- 
ferred to cars and then run to the drying sheds. They are burned in 
field kilne having permanent side walls, and oil-fired (see photo No. 28). 
An electric driven elevator and conveyor is used in charging the 
kilns (see photo No. 27). There are 7 field kilns with a capacity of 



ft-Henolt) Brick 

700,000 each, and one circular kiln for re-pressed brick. From seven to 
ten days are required to burn a kiln. During seven months twenty-five 
to forty men are employed, according to the market demands, and five 
to ten men the balance of the year. The present outlook of the business - 
is quiet. 

Bibl.: Bull. No. 38, p. 242. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 9 

Fresno Brick and Tile Company. P. Dean Prescott, president; E, M. 
Prescott, vice president and manager; James A. Douglas, superintend- 
ent. Office, H and Mono streets, Fresno. The plant is at Mars siding 
on the Southern Pacific, about 1 mile southeast of the city limits. This 
company formerly operated north of town. The clay is loaded by hand 
to side-tipping cars and drawn by horses to the storage bin. After com- 
ing from the brick machine (see photo No. 25), most of the product 
is sun-dried, but some by steam. There are six fit Id kilns, three of which 
have permanent side walls, and are oil-fired (see photo No. 28). Their 



Photo No. 21. Wire brick cutting machine, Freino Brick and Tile Company, Freaao. 

capacity is 600,000 per kiln and seven days are required for burning. ■ 
An average of thirty-five men are employed. 
Bibl.: Bull. No. 38, p. 243. 

CHROMITE. 

Chromite occurs in a serpentine belt near Sentinel in T. 11 S., 
R. 23 E., and running southeasterly into T. 12 S., R. 24 E. The Copper 
King Mines Company, when operating its smelter, used chromite from 
this vicinity. 

Frank Alexander, of San Francisco, has some claims in the north- 
western part of "Watt Valley, from which chromite has been shipped, 
but none recently. 



10 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Victor Roberts, of Coalinga, has a deposit of chromite in Sec. 9, 
T. 22 S., R. 14 E., southwest of Coalinga. There is said to be a large 
deposit of good quality near the center of T. 18 S., R. 13 E., northwest 
of Coalinga. 

Bibl. : R. X, p. 189 ; XIII, p. 49 ; Bull. No. 38, p. 268 ; Min. Res. 
West op Rocky Mountains, 1868, p. 224. 

COAL. 

In the southwest corner of Fresno County are two localities where 
coal occurs, and which were producing in the early nineties. In the 
Coalinga field, the San Joaquin Valley Company, west of Coalinga, was 
the principal producer, and in 1894 was shipping at the rate of 300 
tons of coal per month, principally to Fresno. The other locality, 
known as the Priest Valley field, is near the junction of Fresno with 
San Benito and Monterey counties, and includes the Stone Canyon 
mine in the last named. This coal is semi-bituminous, while that of the 
Coalinga field is a lignite, as is most of the California coal. 

With the rise of the petroleum industry our coal, because of its poor 
quality and its cost of mining, has been relegated to the background; 
in fact, its production has practically ceased entirely. No work has 
been done on the coal beds of Fresno County since 1896. 

Bibl.: R. VII, pp. 148, 172; IX, p. 323; X, p. 186; XI, p. 217; 

XII, pp. 50-54; XIII, p. 53; Bull. 67, pp. 194, 196; U. S. G. S., 

Bull. 398, p. 49. 

COPPER. 

The principal copper district of Fresno County is in the southern 
extension of the " Foothill Copper Belt," of the western edge of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains. The only property here which has made 
any noteworthy yield of copper so far is the Copper King mine, 
described below. Because of the success of this one, a number of claims 
and prospects have been located in its neighborhood, but none of them 
have amounted to anything as yet, and they are all now idle. This dis- 
trict in 1865 made shipments amounting to 1440 tons of copper ore. 

Farther back and near the summit of the main range of the Sierras 
the mineralized belt, which is more prominently known at The Minarets 
in Madera County, passes through Fresno County. In this belt copper 
ore has been found on Mt. Godard at an elevation of 12,000 feet above 
sea level; but owing to its inaccessibility it is undeveloped. Other 
occurrences are noted below. 

Bibl.: R. VIII, p. 209; X, p. 194; XI, p. 217; XII, p. 66; XIII, 
pp. 58, 59; Bull. 50, pp. 277-289; Bull. pp. 17, 40; Min. Res. 
West op Rocky Mts., 1868, p. 174. 

Ackers Claim (see Expositor). 



FRESNO COUNTY. 11 

Black Jack Claim, V. F. Moore, Kingriver, R. P. D., owner. It is in 
Sec. 14, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., west of Trimmer, and located in 1910. 
It is stated that the ore zone is 150 feet wide, carrying 2£ per cent 
copper, with occasional high grade bunches. There is a small tonnage 
of high grade ore on the dump. Assessments only are maintained. 
There are two shafts, 125 and 20 feet, respectively, the former having 
two crosscuts and an 18-foot drift. The vein strikes northwest and dips 
75° NE. The hanging-wall is schist and the footwall granite. 

Copper King Mine (see Hart Copper Company). 

Expositor and Summit Claims. Henry Ackers, Sanger, owner. About 
Sec 10, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., 10 miles south of east from Letcher. 
There are two adits on the Expositor, 100 feet each, and a 60-foot 
shaft, the latter being filled with water when visited. On the Summit 
there is an adit of 140 feet. Both oxidized and sulphide ores occur. 
Assessments only. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 66 ; XIII, p. 58. 

Fresno Copper Mines (one time called Heiskell). Fresno Copper 
Company, Ltd., owner; C. C. Leavitt, manager, 585 Jean street, Oak- 
land. This group of five claims is in Sec. 10, T. 12 S., R. 21 E., 4 
miles east of El Prado on the Southern Pacific Railroad. There is an 
extensive surface equipment, including a smelter with two furnaces of 
200 tons capacity each. The smelter has never been operated, as it 
is stated that about the time it was completed the ore was found to fall 
far short of its expected value. Steam furnished the power for the 
hoist and air compressor, while the pump, lighting plant, sawmill and 
shops were operated by electricity from the San Joaquin Light and 
Power Company. A more detailed description of the property is 
given in Bulletin No. 50. Idle since 1908. 

Bibl.: Bull. No. 50, pp. 279-281. 

Hart Copper Company (formerly Copper King, Ltd.). Truman 
Hart, president; A. W. Anderson, secretary; office, 716 Griffiths- 
McKenzie Building, Fresno. The mine, which is patented, is in Sec. 
3, T. 12 S., R. 23 E., east of Letcher, and the smelter is at Seal Bluff 
Landing on Suisun Bay, Contra Costa County. Under the Copper King 
Company, operation of both the mine and smelter was a failure, but 
the present owners, who bought the property at a court sale, have 
shipped ore to a custom smelter and made a profit above the purchase 
price. No output has been made since early in 1908, but the roads 
and equipment are kept in repair and a watchman is employed. They 
report a fair tonnage of ore blocked out and that it is intended to 
resume shipments when the market and transportation facilities 



12 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

improve. At present it is a 17-mile haul to the railroad. See Bulletin 
No. 50 for a more detailed description. 

Bibl. : R. X, p. 194 ; XII, p. 66 ; XIII, p. 59 ; Bull. 50, pp. 282-286. 

Kenawyer Group. Mrs. V. Kenawyer, owner, Kenawyer via Hume. 
This group of eight claims is in Sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 31 E., near 
the junction of Copper Creek with the South Fork of Kings River; 
elevation 6000 feet. Assessment work is maintained. 

Bibl. : R. XI, p. 217 ; XII, p. 66 ; Bull. No. 50, p. 289. 

Painter Mine. Imperial Copper Mining Company, owner. In Sec. 
33, T. 11 S., R. 21 E., southeast of Friant. Patented. Several hun- 
dred tons of copper ore have been shipped. Idle for years. 

Bibl.: Bull. No. 50, p. 278. 

Pleasant View (see Apache under Gold). 

Uncle Sam Group. W. C. Luce et al., Trimmer, owners. This group 
of eight unpatented claims, located in 1906, is in Sees. 2 and 3, 
T. 12 S., R. 29 E., on Crown Creek, opposite Tehipite Dome, and 59 
miles east of Piedra on the Santa Fe Railroad. It is in an almost 
inaccessible position above Tehipite Valley on the Middle Fork of Kings 
River. Elevation 5500 feet (U. S. 6. S.). Development consists of a 
30-foot shaft with 8 feet of drift, an adit of 50 feet, and some small 
surface cuts. The vein is from a few inches to two feet in width and 
carries azurite, malachite, bornite and magnetite. A large proportion 
of the mineral claimed by the owner to be bornite proved on examination 
to be magnetite. The country reck is schist and slate, but near the 
contact with the granite composing Tehipite Dome. Three men were 
at work this summer (August, 1914). Abundant hydroelectric power 
could be developed.* 

No doubt this high Sierran mineral belt will be developed some 
day, but in its present state of lacking transportation, the writer can 
not see how anything but a high grade free gold proposition could 
be made to pay, much less a copper mine. 

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH (see Infusorial Earth). 

FELDSPAR. 

J. K. Apperson and C. C. Overstreet, of Trimmer, have three claims 
located on a deposit of feldspar in Sec. 34, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., 5 miles 
northeast of Trimmer and 2 miles southwest of the Contact mine. Beryl 
and topaz are stated to be associated with the feldspar. 

*.. •September, 1915. — Luce reports opening up in the shaft, this summer, a body of 
nigh grade ore, and that it is the Intention to ship two or three carloads to the 
smelter before snow closes the trail for the winter. It will be packed, via Dinkey 
Creek, 35 miles to a spur of the San Joaquin and Eastern Railroad near Shaver. 
Specimens of this ore shown us, carry mainly bornite and magnetite with some visible 
free gold. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 13 

FULLER'S EARTH. 

A number of claims have been located in the Kettleman Hills sec- 
tion, southeast of Coalinga, on deposits reported to be fuller's earth. 
As far as we could learn, no practical tests of its value as a filtering 
and decolorizing medium have been made. 

The Walker-Mundy claims, located by I. H. Patterson, A. D. Ewing 
et al., of Fresno, are in Sec. 32, T. 21 S., R. 17 E. Material from 
these claims, on examination in the laboratory of the State Mining 
Bureau, proved to be a volcanic ash, not particularly fine grained. 

At Wahtoke siding on the Piedra branch of the Santa Fe, 5 miles 
north of Reedley, there is a stratum of white material 5 to 10 feet 
thick, said to be fuller's earth. It is exposed in a cut, where earth 
for railroad fills is being taken out with a steam shovel. 

GEM MATERIALS. 

Beryl and Topaz (see note under Feldspar). 

Calif ortiite. "Jade mine." Nat Parker and Prothero Bros., Visalia, 
owners. On the south side of Watt Valley, in Sec. 5, T. 12 S., 
R. 24 E., located in 1909. The product has been marketed through the 
Southwest Turquoise Company, 318 West Fourth street, Los Angeles. 
There is a series of small adjacent veins totaling about 3 feet wide, 
in serpentine, exposed in several surface cuts and a shallow shaft. 
So far as developed the material is more or less fractured. The vein 
strikes southeast and dips northeast, nearly vertical. At present only 
assessment work is done. There is a white garnet associated with this 
californite. Because of occasional bright green spots in the mineral, 
it was thought by some locators to carry nickel, but an analysis made 
in the laboratory of the State Mining Bureau shows no nickel present. 

BibL: Bull. 37, p. 94; Bull. 67, p. 125; U. S. G. S., Bull. 262, 
pp. 72-74; Min. Res. 1902, p. 747; 1911, Pt. 11, p. 1044. 

Hyalite has been found at one or two points in the Sierras in Fresno 
but not exploited. 

Tourmaline. Red and green tourmalines are found in quartz on the 
White Divide, south of Mt. Godard, at an elevation of about 12,000 
feet. A few stones from here have been cut for gems. On Spanish 
Peak, in Sec. 1, T. 12 S., R. 28 E., at an elevation of 9700 feet there 
is a ledge of white quartz in schist, carrying brown garnets and green 
tourmaline. The material on account of being somewhat shattered and 
translucent, is not suitable for gems except occasional small crystals 
of the tourmaline. A mining location had been at one time filed on 
this ledge and a small hole blasted out. 

Vesuvianite (see Californite). 



14 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

GOLD. 

Id the early days and up to as late as 1903 more or less placer 
mining as well as quartz, was carried on in many of the gulches and 
canyons in the foothill region of the Sierras in Fresno County. Among 
these may be mentioned particularly Temperance Flat, Sampson's Flat, 
Big Dry Creek district, and along the San Joaquin River around old 
Fort Miller above Friant (formerly Pollasky). Most of the placers, 
being only superficial, have been worked out. Some of the quartz 
properties have been abandoned, and others consolidated, so that many 
of the names listed in the older reports do not now appear. 



Pbolu No. 34. Iwsmrap mill it Apaeha Mini, Trimmer, Fruno County. 

Alice, Bobby and Cloud Claims. William Terrill, Trimmer, owner. 
On Eagle Peak north of Trimmer. Assessments only. 

Apache (formerly Pleasant View). Wm. Terrill, Trimmer, Dr. 
Powers et al., of Sanger, owners. There are two unpatented claims, 
on the north bank of the Kings River, in Sec. 20, T. 12 S., E. 24 E., 
1 mile south of Trimmer Springs. The ore occurs as an impregnation 
in mica schist at a contact with serpentine. Granite is near-by on the 
west of the schist. The ore is principally basn (pyrrhotite, chalcopy- 
rite and pyrite), carrying some values in copper besides a little free 
gold. A working test at the Selby smelter is stated' to have yielded 



FRESNO COUNTY. 15 

$22.50 per ton, concentrates 10 per cent, assaying $115 per ton. A 
700-foot adit had crosscut the ore zone (August 1, 1914) showing a 
width of 10 feet at a depth of 440 feet. Other developments consist 
of shallow surface workings. Equipment includes a 2-stamp triple- 
discharge mill with a 2|-foot by 10-foot plate, and a 6-foot Prue vanner, 
driven by a 9 horsepower gasoline engine (see photo No. 34) . Water 
is pumped from the Kings River to tanks above the mill. Concentrates 
will be shipped. Four men at work. 

Arkansas, Black Bull cvnd Arrastra Claims. Wm. Terrill et al., Trim- 
mer, owners. On Sycamore Creek, in Sec. 5, T. 12 S., R. 25 E. There 
are two tunnels aggregating 500 feet. Assessments only. 

Bantam Prospect. J. R. Pike, Trimmer, owner. On agricultural pat- 
ented land, in Sec. 24, T. 12 S., R. 24 E. There is an incline shaft 
down 65 feet and a drift south 40 feet with a winze 50 feet. The quartz 
vein between granite walls is from a few inches to 2 feet wide, carrying 
pyrite, chalcopyrite and marcasite. Values are bunchy, said to average 
$4 to $5. 

Benson (see Little May). 

Big Sampson (see Delilah Mining Company). 

Black Jack (see Delilah Mining Company). 

Soger Oravel (see under Stone Industry). 

Brushy Ridge Mining Company. M. Finnegan et al., Dunlap, 
owners. This group of eight claims is between the M. and M. and the 
Dixie Queen, about a mile from Dunlap. Elevation 1800 feet (bar.). 
The present company has had the property since January, 1907. The 
old shaft, down 30 feet, is said to have yielded a pocket of free gold 
ore which was treated in an arrastra. There are two short adits. The 
new incline shaft is down 206 feet, with a crosscut of 50 feet at the 
200-foot level, showing the vein 12 feet wide, assaying $1 per ton. 
Drifting has not yet reached the ore shoot. Country rock is schist. 
Equipment includes a geared hoist with a 9 horsepower gasoline engine, 
6-inch blower and a "bulldozer" pump. 

Richard Burton and Joe Kesterman are working a placer claim on 
Laurel Creek in the NW. J, Sec. 11, T. 10 S., R. 26 E., 4 miles north- 
east of the Dinkey Creek Ranger Station. 

Cloudburst Mining Co. (quartz), on Home Camp Creek near Cas- 
cada (Big Creek P. O.), is maintaining assessments only. J. St. Claire, 
Preston, Idaho, P. Donovan et al., owners. 

Contact Mining and Milling Company (one time known as McDuff 
and McMurty, also Ira Hawk). J. E. Apperson, president; C. C. 



V) MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Overstreet, secretary. Post office, Trimmer. There are three unpat- 
ented claims on unsurveyed land, about Sec. 23, T. 11 S., B. 25 E., 
9 mileB by trail from Trimmer, and 22 miles Dortheast of Piedra. Eleva- 
tion 2750 feet (bar.) at the mill. The mine was first opened up in 1890 
and worked with an arrastra. The present owners have worked it 
since 1894, incorporating in 1914. The ore occurs in a flat-lying vein 



in granite (somewhat decomposed) and carries free gold, also galena 
and pyrite; average value stated to be $21.25 per ton, including a little 
silver. The sulphide ore occurs principally on the west and south, the 
oxidized ore being to the north and east and carrying the gold mostly 
in the ochre along the footwall. The pay shoot varies from 4 inches 
to 2 feet in width. Being a flat deposit all underground work is on 
the vein, including a 110-foot adit and two 60-foot drifts. The ground 



FRESNO COUNTY. 17 

between the latter two will be stoped out, allowing it to cave behind 
the work. A depth of 50 feet below the surface is reached. The ore 
is sledded to the mill about \ mile. 

A Straub patent stamp mill is used (see photo No. 36). This has 
ten 175-pound stamps, operating in a circular mortar, at 115 drops 
per minute, 5^-inch drop, with a 40-mesh, diagonal slot screen, and 
amalgamated plates. It is driven by a 6 h.p. distillate engine. 
The capacity is given at four tons per twenty-four hours. Five men 
were employed (July, 1914). There is another vein \ mile to the 
south, 3 feet wide, strike east, dip 45° S., said to assay $11.60 gold 
and 10 cents silver per ton. There is a tunnel in 90 feet. A cross 
vein carrying no values runs north and south between the two. 

* 

Davis Flat Mine (one time called Little Monitor). Davis Flat Min- 
ing Company, owner. T. Elliott, president. Office, Selma. It is in 
Sec. 1, T. 13 S., R. 26 E., on Sampson Creek about 10 miles north- 
east of Dunlap. The ore is free milling quartz from a series of gash 
veins. Development work consists of a 75-foot adit, with 60-foot winze, 
open cuts and some small stopes and short drifts. Between 400 and 
500 tons of ore have been milled, mostly from the open cuts, said to 
have yielded $12 per ton. There is a 5-stamp mill with 1250-pound 
stamps, but the earlier milling was done with an arrastra. Worked 
intermittently; idle since 1912 except for assessments. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 129 ; XIII, p. 168. 

Delilah Mining Company (includes the Big Sampson, Black Jack, 
Gilkie, and Hercules). W. J. Kyle, president; Earl Covel, secretary. 
Home office, Coalinga. This group of eight claims is in the NE. £, 
Sec. 14, T. 13 S., R. 26 E., 8 miles north of Dunlap, elevation 4700 feet 
(bar.). There is a good road from Dunlap to within 1$ miles. It 
is within the boundaries of the Sequoia National Forest. The timber 
consists of oak, yellow and sugar pine, and water is obtained from 
springs. The principal vein as seen on the surface appears to be 
on the contact between an altered pyroxenite and a schist. Under 
the microscope the pyroxenite shows considerable secondary pyrite 
impregnating the phenocrysts as an alteration product. There are 
several shallow surface cuts, a tunnel in 700 feet and two shafts, 
90 and 50 feet, the latter with a 30-foot drift. Some years ago the 
former owners had a cannon ball mill, also a Huntington. There is a 
9" x 10" x 12" Sullivan compressor, steam driven; and a Leyner- 
Ingersoll water drill is being used. Wood costs $2 per cord, and one 
cord per day (one shift) is consumed. Five men were at work (August, 
1914). The tunnel is being driven to crosscut the vein. 

Bibl.: R. VIII, p. 207; XII, pp. 127, 128; XIII, pp. 165, 166, 
167, 171. 



18 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Dixie Queen Mining Company. John Whitt et al., Visalia, owners. 
This ground is northwest of the Brushy Ridge group, in Sec. 4, T. 14 
S., R. 26 E., near Dunlap. There is no vein but the "ore" is an 
impregnated schist. Reduction equipment consists of a Dodge crusher, 
and a California roller mill (Chilian), driven by a 25 h.p. Fairbanks- 
Morse crude oil engine. There is also a 10"xl2" air compressor. 
Only a limited amount of development work has been done. Idle 
since May, 1914. 

Dodge Placer. John Dodge, owner. This placer mine at Kaiser 
Creek Diggings, in Sec. 4, T. 7 S., R. 25 E., 12 miles due north of 
Cascada (Big Creek post office), has been worked in a small way by the 
owner for several years past. Elevation 5500 feet. (U. S. G. S.) 

Eastwood Prospect, on the J. S. Eastwood ranch, in Sec. 30, T. 12 S., 
R. 25 E., south of Trimmer. J. S. and J. C. Riffe, of Kingriver, 
own an undivided half interest in the mineral ground. There are 
three shafts, 93, 45, and 37 feet, respectively. The first one shows 
the vein 5 feet wide, strike northwest, dip 30° NE. and steeper with 
depth. The footwall is granite and the hanging-wall schist. The 
37-foot shaft shows a 33-inch vein of quartz. No ore has been milled 
as yet. Assays are stated to show $31.40 gold with a little silver and 
an occasional trace of copper. 

Eliza Jane Mine. Owners, Clark-McClurge Company, 716 Griffith- 
McKenzie Building, Fresno; A. W. Anderson, secretary. R. W. Wat- 
son et al., Fresno, care of San Joaquin Light and Power Company, 
have a bond on the property. It is in the Hughes Creek District in 
Sec. 29, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., 4 miles north of Piedra, elevation 1150 
feet (bar.) at tunnel. It was first worked about 1889 by V. Moore. 
The present owners have had it since 1904, having produced about 
$100,000, working at intervals. The ore body is a fissure vein in a hard 
schist, the value being mostly in free gold with some galena and pyrite. 
The vein varies from 16 inches to 3 feet in width, strike about N. 50° 
W., and dip E. nearly vertical. Adjacent to the vein the wall rock 
is schistose, but it grades through fine-grained to a coarse-grained 
gabbro. 

There is a total of over 4000 feet of workings and a depth of 280 
feet below the outcrop is reached in the winze from the main adit which 
is in 500 feet on the vein. The winze is down 145 feet and has drifts 
of 200 feet south at 90 feet ; 60 feet south at 130 feet ; 30 feet south and 
20 feet north at bottom. In the last named the vein is 3 feet wide, 
said to mill $30. Both overhand and underhand stoping has been done. 
A width of 5 feet was stoped, averaging $12 per ton milled, the schist 
assayed $6 per ton. Though idle when visited (July, 1914) the mine 
was being kept unwatered by the watchman, pumps being driven by 



FRESNO COUNTY. 19 

compressed air. There is a 50 h.p. motor for the compressor, a 10 
h.p. motor for the hoist at the winze, and a 15 h.p. motor for the 
Huntington mill. There are three 23-ton cyanide leaching tanks for 
tailings treatment. Power is obtained from the San Joaquin Light 
and Power Company. 

Gilkie (see Delilah Mining Company). 

GUroy Claim. Henry Sullivan, Grabner, owner. This claim is in 
Sec. 17, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., on Temperance Plat, 3£ miles northwest 
of Wellbarn Station on the San Joaquin and Eastern Railroad, eleva- 
tion 1000 feet (U. S. G. S.). It was located in 1896 and only assess- 
ment work done until 1913 when a new ore shoot was struck. The 
country rock is a decomposed granite and the quartz vein carries 
free gold, galena and pyrite, stated to mill $27 per ton in free gold. 
The vein averages 10 inches wide and strikes northeast, dipping 
48° NW. The adit showing the new shoot is in 92 feet on the 
vein with a winze down 45 feet from which ore has been stoped for 
30 feet along the vein. There is a 70-foot winze in the older workings. 
The ore was milled at the John L. mine adjoining, which arrange- 
ment will continue when work is resumed this fall. 

Graveyard and Vulture. Ira F. Hawk, owner. Near Pine Ridge. 
Assessment only. 

Hercules (see Delilah Mining Company). 

Independence Group (Collins). Bert Sides and Bert Ashbrook, 
Kingriver, R. F. D., owners. This group of three parallel claims 
adjoins the Eliza Jane mine on the southeast, in Sec. 29, T. 12 S., 
R. 24 E., 4 miles north of Piedra; elevation 1000 feet (bar.). There 
are three veins, the middle one of which is the extension of the Eliza 
Jane, and like it, Carries free gold, galena and pyrite in quartz. The 
wall rock is the same hard schist, and the vein is from a few inches 
to 2 feet in width. There are three adits, 100, 60 and 40 feet, and 
three shafts, 65, 50 and 45 feet. No stoping has been done as yet, but 
drifting has yielded a small tonnage of ore of which twelve tons 
treated in the Eliza Jane mill in February last, gave $25 per ton on the 
plates. Two men at work. 

Robt Ingelhardt is working a placer claim on Kaiser Creek north 
of Cascada. 

Inyo (see John L.). 

Iowa, a placer property on the San Joaquin River about 6 miles 
above Friant. Idle past eight years. It was worked by ground sluicing, 
using a turbine wheel and six 6-inch centrifugal pumps. 



20 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Jenny Claim, Olof V. Blom et al., Fresno, owners, P. 0. Box 1006. 
It is in NW. i Sec. 16, T. 13 S., R. 27 B., 5 miles northwest of 
Millwood. The quartz vein carries principally arsenopyrite, with 
some pyrite and chalcopyrite, said to assay $15 per ton in gold and 
silver with a little lead and copper. There is one adit of 115 feet; 
another 206 feet with 45 feet of crosscut at the end, and a shaft of 
50 feet. It is proposed to put in a "Blom Patent Boaster and Fume 
Condenser" (U. S. Pat. No. 1098611) this fall to treat the ore, of 
which there is a small tonnage on the dump from development work. 

John L. Mine (one time called Inyo, also Martin; known locally as 
the Sullivan,). John Sullivan and Mrs. Henry Sullivan, Grabner, 
owners. This mine, on Temperance Flat, is in the SE. J, Sec. 17, 
T. 10 S., B. 22 E., 3£ miles northwest of Wellbarn Station on the 
San Joaquin and Eastern, by a fair road. It was located in 1853 
and has been worked more or less regularly ever since — particularly 
the past thirty years, by Henry Sullivan. It is credited with a total 
output to date of over $75,000. 

The vein, which is a fractured quartz, is between a talcose schist 
footwall and granite hanging and strikes northeast with dip 41° NW. 
It is proven for a length of 1500 feet on the surface by cuts and 
shallow shafts. The pay shoot is 12 to 41 inches wide and stated to be 
1000 feet long. The old tunnel was in 1000 feet on the vein but is 
now caved and the new one 105 feet lower is in 600 feet with 200 feet 
of it on the vein. A raise is being driven to connect with the upper 
level. Originally an arrastra was used, and more recently a 1-stamp 
Kendall mill, steam driven. A 2-stamp Hendy mill, 1000-pound 
stamps, and a Frue vanner are to be installed this fall. Two men were 
at work (August, 1914). 

Bibl.: B. VIII, p. 214; X p. 204; XII, p. 129; XIII, pp. 167, 171. 

Kaiser Creek Diggings (see Dodge, also Ingelhardt). 

Keeno and Joseph O. W. D. Coats, Fresno, owner. These are two 
patented claims at Temperance Flat. Idle. 

Bibl. : B. XII, p. 129 ; XIII, pp. 167, 171. 

Laurel Creek Mines (see Burton, Bichter and Wakefield). 

Little May Claim. Lawrence Benson et al., Burrough, owners. 
It is on Sycamore Creek, near Trimmer. The quartz vein carrying 
crystallized gold is in schist. There is a shaft down 40 feet and a 
tunnel in 60 feet. 

Little Monitor (see Davis Flat Mining Company). 

Low Pocket Mine. Owned by a Mr. Pearson, of Portland, Ore. It 
is in Sec. 28, T. 12 S., B. 25 E., southeast of Trimmer. It was so 



FRESNO COUNTY. 21 

named because of a pocket of several thousand dollars having been 
taken out at the surface a few years ago. Two men were at work on 
development this summer. 

M. and M. Mining Company (formerly White Cross). W. A. Mac- 
donald, president; G. A. Parker, secretary. Office, Dunlap. This 
company has a bond on the White Cross owned by Reed Bros., Reedley, 
and has in addition located several other claims on adjoining ground. 
The group is in Sees. 3 and 10, T. 14 S., R. 26 E., 1 mile southwest 
of Dunlap. There are two principal veins, the "White Cross* ' and the 
"Cross" which intersect. The former, which carries most of the 
values, is in schist near a granite contact, the granite being on 
the footwall side. The gold is mostly free, with some pyrite. On the 
300-foot level this vein is stated to show average assays of $26.85 per 
ton for a length of 100 feet, the ore being 6 to 42 inches wide. On the 
same level the Cross vein is 4$ to 5£ feet wide and assays about $3 per 
ton. They have drifted 130 feet on the shoot and 125 feet on the 
Cross vein. The main adit (upper) is in 600 feet with a 150-foot 
vertical winze and a 90-foot crosscut at bottom. A new adit has been 
started to cut the vein 150 below the bottom of the winze. Idle, 
August, 1914, but work is to be resumed this fall. The former operators 
packed ore down by burros and sleds to the creek below (one summer 
about 1894), and put it through a 1 -stamp mill, recovering $15,000. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, p. 208 ; XII, p. 131 ; XIII, p. 170. 

Martin (see John L.). 

McDuff & McMurty (see Contact M. and M. Company). 

Midas Claim. John Anderson, Grabner, and Mrs. E. A. Bonnell, 
Auberry, owners. This claim is at Temperance Flat, adjoining the 
Providence on the southwest. Anderson is working alone, drifting. 
There are two tunnels, 156 and 200 feet. Ten tons of ore recently 
treated by arrastra at the Providence is stated tp have yielded $40 per 
ton. The pay streak is 8 inches wide in a 6-foot vein in granite. 

Oro Fino No. 1 and No. 2. Adjoin Delilah at Sampson Plat. Aban- 
doned. 

Bibl.: R. VIII, p. 207; XII, p. 130; XIII, p. 168. 

T. G. Price has been working a placer claim for several seasons on 
Dinkey Creek, 7 miles below Forest Ranger Station, about Sec. 3, 
T. 11 S., R. 26 E. 

Providence Mine. Logan, Beard & Nelson, of Pine Ridge, owners. 
It is in Sec. 13, T. 10 S., R. 25 E., 2 miles north of west from the 
Dinkey Creek Station of the U. S. Forest Rangers. There is a 10-stamp 
mill on the property. Idle several years, except for assessment work. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 130; XIII, pp. 169, 171. 



22 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Providence Claim (formerly Wide Awake). 0. F. Sloan and Perry 
Tyre, Grabner, owners. It is on Temperance Flat, in SE. J, Sec. 17, 
T. 10 S., B. 22 E., ^ miles northwest of Wellbarn Station on the San 
Joaquin and Eastern. Elevation 850 feet (U. S. G. S.). It was 
located in 1908. The vein is an oehreous quartz in decomposed granite. 
There is a vertical shaft of 50-foot depth, with a 38-foot drift. At 
24 feet below the collar of the shaft is an adit in 200 feet. Wire gold 
shows in the ochre and quartz, the vein being about 8 inches wide. 
Three men were at work and an arrastra in operation (see photo 
No. 80). A 12 h.p. distillate engine furnishes power for the arrastra, 
pump and hoisting. 



Photo No. 80. Arrittra and pUnt it Providence Mine, Tsinptnnce Flit, Frcino Comity. 

H. Rickter is working a placer claim at Cabin Meadow, in Sec. 
14, T. 10 S., R. 26 E., on Laurel Creek, northeast of the Dinkey Creek 
Forest Ranger Station. 

Rico Claim. John Bittern, Trimmer, owner. It is 3 miles north of 
Eagle Peak, north of Trimmer. The vein is reported to be 80 feet 
wide, with 20 feet of free milling ore assaying $10.50. There are 
three adits, 20, 40 and 60 feet. The footwall is stated to be serpentine 
and the hanging, slate. 

Rosa Claim. T. S. and II. Schell and E. Bailey, owners, Hughes 
Creek via Sanger. It is in Sec. 18, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., 6 miles north 
of Piedra. The claim has been located and relocated several times in 
the past thirty years, and by the present owners in 1912. It is stated 
there are two veins at a contact between granite and schist. There 
are two adits, each in about 100 feet, one being a drift. The cross- 
cut has not yet cut the vein. Assessment work only. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 23 

San Joaquin Claim. W. G. Walker, J. B. Baker and Dr. C. H. 
Power, owners; home office, Priant. It is located at Temperance Flat, 
in Sec. 17, T. 10 S., B. 22 B., 4 miles northwest of Wellbarn Station 
on the San Joaquin and Eastern railroad. Elevation 1350 feet 
(U. S. G. S.)« This claim has been worked at intervals for some years, 
and by the present owners since April, 1914. The quartz vein is in 
decomposed granite, carrying free gold with some sulphides; strike 
northeast and dip 20° to 30° NW. The gold is stated to assay $14 
per ounce. There is an incline down 100 feet on the vein and an adit 
below in 40 feet. A raise is being driven to connect the two. A 6 
h.p. distillate engine runs the arrastra, which treats 2 tons of ore 
per twenty-four hours. Distillate costs approximately 14 cents per 
gallon at the mine, 4 cents of which represents the freight from Well- 
barn Station to the mine. Two men were at work. 

San Joaquin Rock and Gravel Co. (See under Stone Industry.) 

John Ship and Mr. Ward have a quartz claim at Sample Meadow, 
about Sec. 18, T. 7 S., B. 26 E., north of Cascada (Big Creek post 
office). Assessments only. 

Sullivan (see John L.). 

Sunny side Group. Sunnyside Gold Mining Company, owner ; Edgar 
Van Meter, president; G. G. Parsons, secretary; L. B. Chenoweth, 
superintendent; office, Land Company Building, Fresno. This group 
is in the old "Sycamore District,' ' now locally called Hughes Creek. 
It is located in Sec. 21, T. 12 S., B. 24 E., 18 miles northeast of 
Sanger and 5 miles north from Piedra Station of the Santa Fe Bail- 
road. Elevation 1250 feet (bar.) at the mill, the mine workings being 
250 feet higher. There are ten unpatented claims, first located over 
thirty years ago, but not much work done until 1903. All the gulches 
below have been placered. 

The vein is flat, with occasional rolls and troughs and a slight dip 
to the south (see sketch map). The country rock is granite, the 
hanging-wall being softer and more decomposed than the footwall. 
There is an impervious clay gouge on the floor, which apparently pre- 
vented the waters, circulating along the fissure, from going into 
the granite below. The vein is from a few inches to 2 feet in width, 
and the gold is principally free, with some pyrite. High values are 
occasionally found in ochreous bunches. In the northern part of the 
area shown in the sketch map, outside of the vein as indicated, no gouge 
or mineralization has been found. The vein does not come to the 
surface on the north side of the hill. The dikes are aplite, and dip 
steeply to the north, the south one being displaced by the vein. Both 



24 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




SECTION near 



SKETCH MAP or SUNNYSIDE MINE 

PHESao CO- 



FRESNO COUNTY. 25 

dikes are faulted by a heavy vein of bull quartz, which strikes north- 
westerly. The drift at "A" is being driven to crosscut the north 
dike and ascertain if the flat vein stops altogether or dips to the north- 
west and goes down steeper. 

In the decomposed granite, which is partly granular in places, they 
use a l|-inch auger with ratchet and pressure drill. From 35 to 50 
feet of holes per man per shift are drilled, and a special low Hercules 
15 per cent powder is employed. In stoping, the ground is allowed 
to cave behind the work. The milling equipment includes a 2-stamp 
Krogh mill, with amalgamated plate 4 feet by 10 feet. Power is 
furnished by a gasoline engine. Six men were at work in July. The 
mine is credited with a total production to date of approximately 
$40,000, of which $17,000 was taken out from a single pocket and 
reduced in the arrastras. 

Temperance Claim. Mrs. W. A. Field, Oakland, owner. This is a 
patented claim at Temperance Flat, northwest of Wellbarn. Idle. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 131 ; XIII, p. 170. 

Vulture (see Graveyard). 

William Wakefield is working a small placer property in Sec. 13, 
T. 10 S., R. 26 E., on a branch of Laurel Creek, 4 miles due east 
from the Dinkey Creek Forest Ranger Station. Elevation 7000 feet 
(U. S. G. S.). 

White Cross (see M. and M. Mining Company). 

Wide Awake (see Providence, Temperance Flat). 

GRAPHITE. 

On the E. D. Kean ranch, in Sec. 12, T. 14 S., R. 24 E., 4 miles 
east; of Squaw Valley post office, there is a deposit of graphitic schist. 
It has more or less quartz with it and is too impure to be of com- 
mercial value. There is also a similar occurrence on the Ruth ranch 
farther east. 

A 15-inch vein of graphite is reported on Sycamore Creek near 
Trimmer, but we have not seen any samples of the material. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 642 ; Bull. 38, p. 280. 

GYPSUM. 

Gypsum is a hydrous calcium sulphate. Its color ranges through 
white, gray, yellow and red to darker shades, according to purity; 
and it is found massive, granular, fibrous and crystalline. Calcium 
sulphate occurring without water of crystallization is the mineral 
anhydrite. The uses of gypsum are many and varied. Calcined, it 

She— 14456 



26 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

is used as plaster of paris, and replaces lime for hardwall plasters. 
It is used as a retarder in the manufacture of Portland cement and 
in the preparation of fertilizers. It is also utilized in the paper, glass, 
dyeing and other industries. As a fertilizer, it is stated to be valuable 
in reclaiming "black alkali" land. 

Coaling a Deposits. There are two deposits near Coalinga, one about 
9 miles to the north and the other at the old San Joaquin Valley coal 
mine in Sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 14 E. At one time a considerable tonnage 
of gypsum was shipped from both these properties, but they have now 
been idle several years. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 323 ; XIII, p. 503 ; Bull. 3, p. 63 ; Bull. 38, p. 283. 

PaoU Mine. A. P. Sheppard, C. S. Pierce et ai, Fresno, owners. 
This deposit is on patented ground in Sec. 13, T. 15 S., R. 12 E., 
about 18 miles southwest of Mendota on the Southern Pacific. It was 
worked for a number of years and a considerable tonnage of gypsum 
shipped ground, for fertilizer purposes. On account of the expensive 
haul to the railroad the property has been idle the past four years. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 323 ; XIII, p. 503 ; Bull. 3, p. 63 ; Bull. 38, p. 283. 

Paul Schuck, of Fresno, has a deposit of gypsum on the west edge 
of T. 14 S., R. 12 E., from which shipments were being made via 
Firebaugh on the Southern Pacific, up to the end of 1913. Idle in 
1914. 

INFUSORIAL EARTH. 

A. P. Sheppard, of Fresno, has a deposit of infusorial earth of good 
qualify in T. 15 S., R. 12 E., southwest of Mendota. 

LIME AND LIMESTONE. 

• 

Limestone occurs in T. 12 S., R. 26, 27 and 29 E., east of Trimmer, 
on the north side of the Kings River, also at Sampson's Flat, south of 
the river and north of Dunlap. Owing to their distance from a railroad 
these deposits are undeveloped. 

Lime was at one time burned in a shaft kiln about J of a mile south 
of Dunlap and near the White Cross mine, but none has been produced 
for several years past. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, p. 208 ; X, p. 185 ; XIII, p. 628 ; Bull. 38, p. 328. 

MAGNESITE. 

Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgC0 8 , color snow-white to 
brown, hardness 3.5 to 4.5, sp. gr. 3.0 to 3.12. It is of frequent occur- 
rence in the serpentine areas of California, particularly in the Coast 
Range, but also in the Sierran section, where the deposits in Fresno 
and Tulare counties are found. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 27 

The industrial uses for magnesite are many and varied, and the 
demand will no doubt increase materially in the next few years, par- 
ticularly now that the Panama Canal gives the California product a 
cheaper entry into the eastern markets. For most purposes magnesite 
is calcined before using. The largest tonnage at the present time is 
used in the manufacture of bricks for the lining of basic Bessemer 
converters, both in steel and copper smelters. It is also employed in 
copper reverberatories, and other special metallurgical furnaces, such 
as for handling bullion, silver slimes, electric smelting, heating, weld- 
ing and melting furnaces, calcium carbide kilns, and in the burning 
zone of rotary kilns in Portland cement plants. 

Not as high a purity of material is necessary in furnace liners, par- 
ticularly for steel, as in some other uses, for in the case of basic 
open hearth steel furnaces, while the magnesite must be free (or at 
least very low) from silica, it can carry a noticeable percentage of iron 
oxide or serpentine without impairing its efficiency. In fact, by some 
it is considered an advantage, as such impurities permit the sintering 
of brick at a lower temperature than is possible with pure magnesite. 
•'Dead-burned" magnesite — that from which all the CO, has been 
expelled — is hard to handle, having little or no plasticity. Its plas- 
ticity is said to be improved by adding partly calcined or caustic 
magnesite. 

Another extensive and expanding field for the employment of mag- 
nesite is in the manufacture of artificial stone, flooring, tiles, wainscot- 
ing, etc. These products are put on the market under various trade 
names, among which may be mentioned : idealite, marbeloid, monolith, 
karbolith, chemolith, etc. The magnesite floors being put in Pullman 
and other steel railroad coaches are of such products. The reaction 
made use of is that a moistened mixture of MgO and MgCl s will form 
a strong cement (known as oxy chloride or Sorel cement). There should 
be an absence of lime, as calcium chloride is hygroscopic and on hydrat- 
ing swells, destroying the usefulness of the material. Soluble silicates 
of the nature of "water glass" are also used with the magnesia. A 
similar magnesia cement is used as a paint, but of course applied thin 
with a brush. "Porcelith" and "Liquid Stone" are two brands pre- 
pared by San Francisco firms from California magnesite. For use on 
wood, where it acts as a fire retardant, it may be mixed still thinner 
and sprayed on. 

In the "sulphite" process of paper manufacture, calcined magnesite 
Is used as a carrier of S0 2 gas in the digester. The uses of the carbonic 
acid gas derived from calcining magnesite are well known, carbonating 
beverages, refrigeration, etc. For these purposes it is liquefied by com- 
pression, to facilitate its transportation. At the present time, how- 
ever, as lime rock is obtained more cheaply and the calcined residue 



28 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

is more readily marketed, no magnesite is being used on the Pacific 
Coast for the manufacture of CO,. There are many other uses which 
will not be detailed here. 

Production of magnesite in Fresno County began in 1904, with 38 
tons reported, and the total recorded yield of the county to the end 
of 1913 has been 5643 tons, valued at $62,295 for the crude material at 
the mines. 

Bibl.: Bull. 38, p. 327; Bull. 67, pp. 92, 93; U. S. G. S., Ball. 355 

and 540, "Cements, Limes and Plasters," E. C. Eckel, 1905, 

pp. 149-167. 



Photo No. 33. Plant of Freuo Magnesite Company, Piedra, Pretoo County, 

Fresno Magnesite Company (one time locally called Bachler). M. P. 
Tarpey, president; A. B. Tarpey, secretary; office, Tarpey post office. 
This group of forty unpatented claims is principally in Sec. 5, T. 
13 S., B. 24 E., £ mile north of Piedra and on the opposite side of the 
river. Piedra is the terminus of the Santa Fe's Reedley -Piedra branch 
line. It was first worked in 1905, and most of the output to date from 
Fresno County has come from this property. The shipping point was 
formerly Sanger, a 15-mile haul, but since Hess' report* the Santa Fe 
branch above mentioned has been built and also an excellent steel 
bridge crossing the Kings River below the mine. The entire product 
has been shipped to the Hawley Pulp and Paper Company at Oregon 
City, Oregon. The haul from mine to rail costs 60^ per ton, and a 
car per day can be loaded with one 4-horse team. 
•n. a g. a, buil ass, p. si. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 29 

The magnesite occurs in a series of fissure veins in serpentine and 
metamorphic ferro-magnesian rocks. The main vein, which is 8 to 10 
feet wide, strike W. of N., dip E. 50°, is developed by adits and 
has been worked by stoping. On the footwall it is more or less mixed 
with waste. The equipment includes a shaft furnace (see photo No. 33), 
fired by crude oil, with a capacity of approximately 25 tons per 
day. When operated, twenty men are employed. There was only a 
watchman on the property when visited (July, 1914). 

Bibl. : Reports X, p. 185 ; XIII, p. 505 ; Bull. 38, p. 328 ; Bull. 67, 
p. 93; U. S. G. S., Bull. 355, pp. 50, 51. 

Magnesite boulders have been noted in the "Big Blue" beds in the 
eastern foothills of the Diablo Range, between Cantua and Salt creeks, 
about 18 miles west of north from Coalinga. "They are not believed 
to represent an accumulation in any commercial quantity, but are men- 
tioned only because they point to the presence of magnesite in the ser- 
pentine area on the west and prove that at least some of the magnesite 
veins originated in or prior to the early Miocene."* 

L. F. Ward of Hopkins and Fourteenth avenue, Oakland, has a group 
of claims on a magnesite vein south of Kings River at Piedra, opposite 
to the mine of the Fresno Magnesite Company, and about f of a mile 
distant south. The vein, about 8 feet wide, has an east-west strike and 
is developed principally by a series of shallow surface cuts, also a short 
tunnel. It is favorably situated for building a gravity tramway to 
land its product at the tracks of the Santa Fe a short distance below 
it. The magnesite appears to be of good quality. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Bull. 355, pp. 50, 51. 

MARBLE 

Ellison Bros., of Fresno, have claims located on a marble deposit on 
Big Creek, near that of the San Joaquin Marble Company, described 
below. 

San Joaquin Marble Company, Emery Wishon et al., Fresno, owners. 
These claims, covering 125 acres, are in Sec. 36, T. 8 S., R. 24 E., on 
the south side of Big Creek, 5 miles below Cascada, the terminus of 
the San Joaquin and Eastern Railroad. Elevation 4000 feet (U. S. 
G. S.) The marble is only 2000 to 3000 feet from the railroad track, 
and 500 feet lower in elevation. There is ample electric power at hand, 
as the deposit is between the two power plants of the Pacific Light and 
Power Company, whose main transmission line passes near-by. Only 
minor development work has been done as yet, but marble of good 

•U. 8. G. S., Bull. 540, p. 609. 



30 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

quality and the following colors is disclosed: white, blue, variegated 
and black. It occurs as a lens in a granite country and runs north- 
westerly, crossing Big Creek. Its limits were not fully determined, 
but it appears to be at least 200 feet wide by \ mile long. 

MINERAL WATER. 

While not generally known as a mineral springs county, Fresno has 
several groups of springs, both hot and cold. They are found both in 
the Coast Range at the western end, and in the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains as well. 

Balsam Orove Springs. This group in Sec. 32, T. 8 S., R. 25 E., 
is in the Sierra National Forest, and the operators, W. H. Thrower 
and Louis S. Budo, have a 10-year lease from the Forest Service for 
resort privileges. The post office is Big Creek. The hotel is J of a 
mile from Carlson Station on the San Joaquin and Eastern, at an 
elevation of 4500 feet (U. S. G. S.). It is in a picturesque and well 
timbered country, there being an abundance of pine, fir, cedar and oak. 
There are three "iron" and one "white sulphur" springs, all cold. No 
water is bottled. The hotel and housekeeping tents will accommo- 
date 120 people. This season, 1914, which was their first, having been 
a successful one, the lessees propose to enlarge their facilities for 1915. 

Blaney Meadows Hot Springs are at the upper end of Blaney Mead- 
ows on the South Fork of the San Joaquin River, in Sec. 14, T. 8 S., 
R. 28 E., elevation 7600 feet (U. S. G. S.). There are four small 
springs with a maximum temperature of 110° F. and a total flow of 
about 40 gallons per minute. Analysis by the United States Geological 
Survey shows the total solids to be 780 parts per million, principally 
sodium chloride. The springs are not utilized except by occasional 
camping parties. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 54. 

There is a carbonated spring at the eastern end of Fish Valley, 11 
miles by trail southward from Soda Spring Flat. It is at the corner of 
the four townships, 4 and 5 S., Rs. 26 and 27 E. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 239. 

Collins Spring (see Millerton). 

Fresno Hot Springs. Kreyenhagen Estate, Coalinga, owner. Emil 
and Chas. Kreyenhagen, executors. These, the oldest commercially 
utilized mineral springs in Fresno County, are in Sec. 34, T. 20 S., 
R. 13 E., 12 miles due west from Coalinga and 18 miles by road. They 
are on a hillside about 100 feet above the creek in Hot Springs Canyon. 
There are five springs, sulphuretted, with temperatures from 88° to 



FRESNO COUNTY. 31 

97° F. A bathhouse and hotel were built some years ago at a cost of 
$11,000, and the property was leased as a resort up to 1914. It has 
been idle this year, owing to the heavy rains of last winter having 
washed out a considerable portion of the road up the canyon. 

Bibl.: E. X, p. 189; XII, p. 333; XIII, p. 510; U. S. G. S., Bull. 
32, p. 204; Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 78; " Mineral Springs 
and Health Resorts op Cal.," Winslow Anderson, 1890, 
p. 135. 

Lower Mineral Hot Springs. James E. Hughes, 630 Mandana boule- 
vard, Oakland, has a lease from the U. S. Forest Service on the meadow 
containing this group of springs. They are on the South Fork of San 
Joaquin River, in Sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 27 E., about 10 miles below 
the Blaney Meadow hot springs. They are reached by trail from 
Cascada and from Shaver, and are used privately and also by occa- 
sional camping parties. There are six springs, the hottest showing 
a temperature of 112° F. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 55. 

Mercey Hot Springs. Mercey Mineral Springs Company, owner. 
F. J. Bourn, president ; M. Nuckolls, secretary. Office, Humboldt Bank 
Building, San Francisco. W. T. Bourn, manager at the springs. 
These springs are on Little Panoche Creek, in Sec. 15, T. 14 S., 
R 10 E., 25 miles southwest of South Dos Palos, and 30 miles from Los 
Banos, which is their post office. Elevation 1200 feet (U. S. G. S.). 
They are located among the barren hills bordering the western edge 
of the San Joaquin Valley, and for many years were used to supply 
sheep watering troughs. There has been a resort there for about fifteen 
years, and the present company has had it since March, 1913. It is 
equipped with a small hotel and a number of tents, accommodating in 
all about sixty people. It is intended to improve the facilities in the 
near future. The main spring has been excavated, forming a reservoir 
about 15 feet square, which is lined with concrete. In the pool the water 
has a temperature of 111° F., while at the bathhouse some 250 feet dis- 
tant the temperature is 108°. The principal constituent is sodium 
chloride, the water being slightly sulphuretted and there is a little excess 
gas at the spring. The water was at one time bottled for sale but not at 
present. The resort is open throughout the year and an automobile 
carries guests between Los Banos and the springs. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 510 ; U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 78. 

Millerton Spring (locally known as Collins). J. D., A. S. and W. G. 
Collins and J. Musick, owners. It is in Sec. 4, T. 11 S., R. 21 E. t 



32 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

on the San Joaquin River, 2 miles northeast of Friant. Elevation 350 
feet. (U. S. G. S.) There is one sulphur water spring issuing from a 
crevice in the granite bedrock near the river's edge. It has been known 
since the placer mining days of 1856, old Fort Miller and Millerton hav- 
ing been less than a mile east of here, but the spring has been used for 
resort purposes only since 1907. The temperature is 71° F. ; the flow 
17,000 gallons per twenty-four hours; and there is a little excess sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas. The spring is walled in by a cement curb and 
the water pumped to a cement tank, then heated for bathhouse use. 
Analysis shows 682 parts per million total solids, principally sodium 
and calcium chlorides, with 5.2 cc. H 2 S per liter. Accommodations 
include eighteen tent cottages and a twenty-room hotel. 

"Sulphur Baths." Santa Rosa Oil and Development Company, 
owner. Charles L. Smith, president; R. Whitehead, managing 
director. Office, 205 First National Bank, Oakland. This well, which 
is in Sec. 12, T. 21 S., R. 14 E., 3 miles southwest of Coalinga, was 
drilled in 1906 for oil but obtained an artesian flow of sulphur water. 
The following figures are from the log of the well : 

1352 to 1360 feet, dark running sand ; 

1409 to 1421 feet, sand and shale (good oil) ; 

1435 to 1430 feet, sand showing oil; 

1440 to 1445 feet, sand and shale carrying oil; 

1570 to 1585 feet, good oil sand ; 

1600 to 1630 feet, oil sand ; 

2057 to 2077 feet, white shell ; 

At 2077 feet, flowing sulphur water. 

The flow was originally 6000 barrels per day, but at present it is 
only 1800 barrels per day. 

The temperature of the water is 118° P. as it issues from the well, 
and it is accompanied by an inflammable gas which is utilized for 
illuminating purposes about the grounds. The water discharges into 
a cement-lined tank 75 feet long by 59 feet wide by 10 feet deep, 
which serves both as a reservoir head for the service pipes and as a 
swimming pool. There are twenty dressing rooms ranged around three 
sides of the pool, part of which is roofed over. The water is piped to 
Coalinga and parts of the oil fields for boiler purposes. It does not 
scale in the boilers as does most of the other waters obtainable in this 
region. The cost of operating is only nominal and the company has 
been paying dividends regularly, being in this respect more fortunate 
than many of the "oil" companies. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 



33 



The following is an analysis of the water from this well, made by 
Smith, Emery & Company, San Francisco, for the Producers' Trans- 
portation Company: 

Feed Water Analysis. 



AnaljBis of solids 



Grains 

per U. S. 

gallon 



Incrustlng solids 



Suspended matter ) 

Silica (8iOs) ) 

Iron oxide and alumina (R*Os) i 

Lime (OaO) ! 

Magnesia (MgO) I 

Soda (NasO) | 

Sulphuric anhydride (80s) , 

Chlorine (CI) _ ; 

Carbon dioxide (combined OOa) — i 

Volatile and organic matter j 



.76 

Nil 

2.61 

1.47 

29.56 

.81 

2.33 

22.72 

9.35 



Total solids 

Alkaline 

Acid 

Hydrogen sulphide (HsS). 



09.60 
Yes 



Suspended matter \ 

Silica ) 

Iron oxide and alumina.— 

Calcium carbonate 

Calcium sulphate 

Calcium chloride (corrosive) 

Magnesium carbonate 

Magnesium chloride (corrosive). 



Grains 

per U. 8. 

gallon 



.70 

Nil 
4.49 

.23 

Nil 
2.75 

Nil 



Total 



Non-lncrusting solids: 

Sodium carbonate - _ 

Magnesium sulphate* — 

Sodium sulphate 

Sodium chloride - 

Volatile and organic matter....... 



8.23 



46.52 

.45 

.68 

3.85 

9.35 



Total 



60.85 



•Note. — Magnesium sulphate forms some scale In presence of calcium carbonate and 
sodium carbonate. 

There is a sulphur spring in Sulphur Meadows, \ mile south of the 
Shaver lumber mills, in Sec. 19, T. 9 S., B. 25 E. It is utilized 
only locally. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 286. 

Three Springs, while not "mineral," are yet worthy of mention. 
They are in Sec. 20, T. 11 S., R. 28 E., on a ridge between the north 
and main forks of Bancheria Creek, and beside the trail from the 
Dinkey Creek Banger Station to Tehipite at the point where the Statum 
Meadow trail branches off. As the name indicates, there are three, 
large .perennial springs within a short distance of each other, having a 
fine flow of clear cold water. They are used as a wayside camping 
spot by parties traveling through that part of the Sierras. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 338. 

Trimmer Springs. Trimmer Estate,. owner; Morris Trimmer, Kings- 
burg, president; Wm. Terrill, renter. This group is in Sec. 18, T. 
12 S., R. 25 E., on the Kings River, 14 miles northeast of Piedra, and 
if of a mile south of Trimmer post office. It was formerly operated as 
a resort, but not since 1911. There are four springs yielding iron, 
magnesia, and sulphur water. All are cold. They are in a picturesque 
region. 



4ek — 14456 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



iatod Oil Company on Section 30. 



Photo No. 114. Oil loading rack. Crump Billing near Coaling*, Fre.no County. 



FRESNO COUNTY. 35, 

NATURAL GAS. 

There is more or less natural gas in nearly all of the oil wells of the 
Coalinga field. At some it is not utilized at all, while at others it is 
collected in gasometers and used for lighting, for fuel under boilers 
and in operating gas engines. The Turner Oil Company manufactures 
gasoline by compression from the gas of its wells at Coalinga. An 
inflammable gas has also been obtained in drilling for water northeast 
of Mendota. 

Bibl.: B. VII, p. 65; X, p. 189; XI, p. 210; XII, p. 348; XIII, p. 
567 ; Bull. 3, p. 20 ; Bull. 19, p. 183 ; Bull. 69 ; U. S. Bureau op 
Mines, Bull. No. 19. 

NICKEL. 

Nickel has been reported from Fresno County, but an analysis made 
in the laboratory of the State Mining Bureau on a sample of the sup- 
posed ore showed it to be californite, a green variety of vesuvianite. 

PETROLEUM. 

The Coalinga field is the only producing oil district in Fresno 
County. Of the total recorded mineral product of $66,294,637 for 
the county to the end of 1913, the sum of $62,130,959, or 94 per cent, 
represents the value of petroleum yielded. Oil production began in 
1890 but was of small amount until 1896. For a time Fresno was the 
premier county of the State in petroleum output, and it now takes 
second place only to Eern, both in point of annual yield and of total 
amount to date. 

The Coalinga district is approximately 50 miles long (north and 
south) by 15 miles wide, covering some 700 square miles on the western 
edge of the San Joaquin Valley and the eastern foothills of the 
Diablo Range. A detailed description of the district will not be entered 
into here as it has recently been covered very thoroughly by B. P. 
McLaughlin and C. A. Waring of the State Mining Bureau in Bulle- 
tin No. 69, "Petroleum Industry of California" (q. v.). 

During 1913 there were. 147 operating companies in the Coalinga 
field, with 1136 completed wells, of which 915 were producing, in an 
area of 22 square miles of proved oil land. The yield for 1913 was 
18,956,965 barrels, valued at $7,927,736 at the wells. 

Bibl.: B. VII, p. 65; X, p. 189; XII, p. 352; XIII, p. 571; Bull. 
No. 3, 15, 19, 31, 32, 69 ; U. S. G. S., Bull. 398. A more extended 
bibliography on petroleum in Fresno County is given in Bull. 
No. 69 of the State Mining Bureau. 

PUMICE (sec under Volcanic Ash). 



36 MINES AND 

QUICKSILVER 

Arambide and Aurecoechea Claims (see Pacific Quicksilver Com- 
pany). 

Archer Mine. Joe Byles, Coalinga, owDer. This claim, located in 
1904, is in Sees. 2 and 3, T. 18 S., R. 13 E., 24 miles northwest of 
Coalinga, and near the Mexican mine. A small amount of quicksilver 
has been produced, using a retort consisting of six 9-inch pipes. It is 
stated that the ore retorted yielded 10 to 20 per cent metal, but that 



Photo No. IDS. Furnace it Pacific Quicktllvcr Hint. Frmno County. 

there is considerable low grade material in sight. The ore carries 
cinnabar and pyrite. The country rocks are serpentine and slate. 
There are five tunnels ranging from 20 to 150 feet in length, and sev- 
eral open cuts. But little more than assessment work is maintained. 

Mercy Group. Mercy Bros., Llanada post office, owners. This 
group of three claims adjoins those of the Pacific Quicksilver Com- 
pany on the northwest. Located about 1904. Development consists 
of several short adits. Assessment only. 

Mexican Mine. Antonio Urrutia et al., Panoche, owners. This group 
of three claims in Sec. 22, T. 18 S., B. 13 E., northwest of Coalinga, 
was originally located in the sixties. Development work consists of 
several adits and some surface cuts. The vein is in sandstone and 



FRESNO COUNTY. 



Photo No. 106. Condaxri tt Pmeifie Quickiilver Mine, Pronto County. 



Into No. 107. Drawing off burned ore, Pacific Quickulvcr Mint. Fraflo County. 



38 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

carries cinnabar associated with silica and oxides of iron, the oxidation 
product of iron sulphides. Only assessment work has been done of 
recent years. 

Bibl. : Bull. 27, pp. 119, 120. 

Pacific Quicksilver Company (includes properties formerly known 
under names of Providential, Arambide and Aurecoechea, Mercy, 
Croxon.) E. Augustus Waldron, president; Alfred C. Eaton, secretary. 
Office, Elks' Building, San Jose. This group includes eighteen claims 
and five mill sites on a branch of Little Panoche Creek, in Sees. 
32 and 33, T. 13 S., R. 10 E., and Sec. 5, T. 14 S., B. 10 E., 25 miles 
southwest of South Dos Palos on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Eleva- 
tion 1600 to 2000 feet (U. S. G. S.). The present company has had 
the property since 1911. The country rock is principally a meta- 
morphic sandstone, and the ore occurs in a series of leached zones with 
quartz and ochre. Relatively little cinnabar can be seen except on 
panning, when the ochreous material is observed to yield a good per- 
centage of concentrate. There is a little pyrite with the cinnabar. 

Formerly the principal work was done on the Providential and 
Oabilan claims, but when visited (September, 1914), the ore supply 
was being drawn from the Arambide from a new shoot uncovered last 
spring. Here the values occur in a series of small veins and stringers 
over a width of 24 feet, striking east of south and dipping about 
60° E. On this claim there is a 100-foot shaft and 400 feet of adits ; and 
on the Aurecoechea 3000 feet of work, including a 150-foot shaft. 

The reduction equipment includes a 24-ton Scott fine ore furnace 
(see photo No. 105), and two "D" retorts with a capacity of 300 
pounds each. They are oil fired. Crude oil costs 88 cents to $1.10 
per barrel delivered at South Dos Palos, plus $1.17 per barrel freight 
to the mine. The furnace is 4 tiles long, 50 tiles high, with a 4-inch 
spacing. The condensers consist of 14 brick chambers and 6 Knox- 
Osborne cast-iron chambers, the latter being connected in between 
No. 2 and No. 3 of the brick series (see photo No. 106). From the mine 
the ore is hauled about £ mile in a bottom dump wagon onto an 
ore bin, from which it is trammed to the jaw crusher (run by a 
small steam engine), then trammed to the furnace. The burned ore 
is drawn off into a side-tipping steel car (see photo No. 107) and 
trammed to the dump. There were seventeen men employed. 

Bibl.: Bull. No. 27, pp. 119, 121; U. S. G. S., Mon. XIII, p. 380; 
Min. Res., 1912, Pt. I, p. 939 ; 1913, Pt. I, p. 204. 

Providential (see Pacific Quicksilver Company). 



FRESNO COUNTY. 39 

STONE INDUSTRY. 

Under this heading for the purpose of simplifying the statistical 
reports, the State Mining Bureau now classifies the following closely 
allied branches of the mineral industry: granite, paving blocks, 
macadam, concrete, rubble and crushed rock of all kinds, sand and 
gravel. In the earlier reports these materials were handled separately, 
but from the standpoint of the producer there is so much overlapping 
that it has been found more satisfactory to group them. 

Academy Oranite Company. J. S. Williams, San Jose, president; 
F. M. Blanchard, Fresno, manager. Office, 215 Griffith-McKenzie 
Building, Fresno. Quarry address, Academy post office. This quarry is 
in Sec. 13, T. 12 S : , R. 22 E., 11 miles northeast of Clovis, on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, and was opened up in 1903. The stone, as 
determined by a microscopic examination of a thin section, is a dark, 
hornblende diorite, but locally called "black granite.' * The color per- 
mits of a fine contrast of polished and unpolished surfaces, which 
makes it excellent for monumental and decorative purposes. It is 
medium grained, and is harder than the lighter granites such as the 
Raymond granite in Madera County. This makes it more expensive 
to cut. 

So far as uncovered, the stone occurs in large, rounded boulders of 
disintegration, the quarry cut being as yet shallow (see photo No. 82). 
The stone at the eastern edge of the property is darker than that on the 
west. Pneumatic tools are used, power being furnished by distillate 
engines. The dressing and polishing is done in the sheds at the quarry, 
except for stone sold in the rough to other dealers. The product is 
hauled by wagon to Clovis (see photo No. 84). The largest block 
shipped weighed 16,800 pounds. Ten men were employed. Stone 
cutters receive $5 per day and quarrymen $3. The year 1913 was not 
a particularly active one, but improvement is reported for 1914. 

Bibl. : Bull. 38, p. 26. 

Soger Oravel Pit. D. and J. R. Boger, Friant, owners. This pit is 
in the SE. J of SE. £, Sec. 7, T. U S., R. 21 E., at Friant, with a 
side track from the Southern Pacific Railroad. Work began here 
in 1900 and waB for several years under lease to the Worswick 
Street Paving Company. The deposit is an old river bench above 
the present San Joaquin River bottoms. There are 7 to 15 feet of 
gravel, underlaid by 3 to 6 feet of clay (said to be suitable for 
pottery) below which are 36 feet of gravel reported to be gold 
bearing. Boger is considering putting in steam shovels after the clay 
is removed, to work the lower gravel for gold. The upper gravel, 
which is fine to medium, is moved by Fresno scrapers to a loading 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



n the quarr; of Academy Granite Company, our Academy, Freano County. 



Photo No. 84. Block of atone (13,280 pouada) from Academy Granite Company, 



FRESNO COUNTY. 41 

pocket and then trammed to the railroad cars. It is not screened at 
present. Only one man was at work in August, though earlier in the 
year a larger force was employed. 

California Road and Street Improvement Company (formerly Wors- 
wick Street Paving Company). R. D. Chittenden, president; P. E. 
Ludvigsen, secretary. Office, 218 Holland Building, Fresno. This pit 
is in Sec. 25, T. 11 S., R. 20 E., at Gravel Station on the Southern 
Pacific, 3 miles west of south from Friant. It has been worked by the 
present company since early in 1913. The gravel bed is on a bench 
above the present level of the San Joaquin River, but lower than the 
Boger gravel above described. The overburden varies from nothing to 
6 feet in depth, and the gravel is about 15 feet deep. Five two-horse 
Fresno scrapers move the material to a pocket, from which it is elevated 
by a belt conveyer to the screening plant driven by a 100 h.p. 
electric motor. Two sizes only are made — sand, and up to 2^-inch ring, 
the oversize being crushed. Some is shipped without screening. There 
is considerable coarse material, consisting of diorite, basalt and various 
porphyritic rocks and some flinty material. The selling price is 
40 cents, 45 cents and 50 cents per ton, f. o. b. Gravel Station. The 
capacity of the plant is 15 carloads (550 tons) per day, with average 
shipments of about ten cars daily. There were eighteen men and a 
foreman employed. 

Doyle, Gill, Doyle & Company. Joseph Gill, manager. This com- 
pany at Clovis operates a small " granite* ' quarry near the Academy 
quarry, 11 miles northeast of Clovis, under lease from N. Musick. The 
stone is the same, black, hornblende diorite occurring as. large rounded 
boulders of disintegration at the surface, but more massive below. At 
the quarry a hand-operated derrick is used, while at the cutting sheds 
at Clovis, pneumatic tools are employed, electricity furnishing the 
power. Four men were at work in the sheds, the quarry being tem- 
porarily idle when visited in August. 

Kings River Quarry. Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, 
owner, leased to the Sharp & Fellows Contracting Company, 533 Cen- 
tral Building, Los Angeles ; John Steigh, superintendent at the quarry. 
The quarry is in Sec. 8, T. 13 S., R. 24 E., on the Kings River at 
Piedra, the terminus of the Santa Fe's branch line from Reedley. 
Elevation 600 feet (bar.). It was opened «p in the latter part of 1910, 
and there is now a quarry face over 100 feet high and 1000 feet wide. 
The rock is a fine-grained, blue-black basalt, partly in process of ser- 
pentinization. It is broken down by bank blasting, using both the 
"coyote hole" method and a drilling rig (air operated) on top of the 
bank. Firing is done by electricity. 



42 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

A steam Bhovel loads the rock onto dump ears, which are drawn 
by a "dinkey" locomotive and discharged directly onto a No, 10 gyra- 
tory crusher. This crusher is driven by a 175 h.p. motor. The 
oversize is reerushed by smaller gyratories. The product is screened 
to four sizes, from f to 2£ inches. Equipment includes besides the 
crushers, belt and bucket elevators, two steam shovels and two dinkey 



Pbota No. M. Lo.diiiK railroad car* at King* River Quarry, Pitdra, Fraano County. 

locomotives. The shovels and locomotives burn oil, while electric 
power for the other parts of the plant is obtained from the San Joaquin 
Light and Power Company. "The capacity is 1500 tons per day and an 
average of forty men are employed. The product is Bold for road metal 
and concrete work and is loaded directly from the bins to the railroad 
cars (see photo No. 32). 

Son Joaquin Rock and Gravel Company. E. A. Forthcamp, presi- 
dent; C. Murray, secretary and manager. Office, 224 Edgerly Build- 



FRESNO COUNTY. 43 

ing, Fresno. The property is owned by A. G. "Wishon and W. E. 
Dnrfy of Fresno, the company operating under a lease. It is in Sec. 
18, T. 11 S., R. 21 E., 1 mile southwest of Friant, with a spur track 
from the Southern Pacific Railroad. This bed of gravel, about 30 
feet thick, forms a bench above the present level of the San Joaquin 
River, being on the same bench as the California Road and Street 
Improvement Company farther south. Elevation about 345 feet 
(S. P.). The overburden averages 2J feet. The plant has been 
enlarged and improved this summer (see photo No. 67). Electric 



Photo No. 67. Qravel pit and plant of San Joaquin Rock and Gravel Company, near Prlant, 

Fresno County. 

power is obtained from the San Joaquin Light and Power Company. 
Fresno scrapers move the material to the belt elevator. It is then 
screened and washed to four sizes, 2-inch to 1-inch; 1-inch to f-inch; 
f-inch to 4,-inch ; sand. The oversize is crushed by a 24" x 13" jaw 
crusher. The motors installed vary from 5 h.p. to 35 h.p. The capa- 
city of the plant is 500 cubic yards per day, and fifteen to twenty men 
are employed, according to demand for the produet.* 

•Since the above 
Gravel Company of S 

plant has been enlarg 

the screens to the bu 

pay the operating expenses of this section o 



44 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Sharp & Fellows (see Kings River quarry). 

Worswick Street Paving Company (see California Road and Street 
Improvement Company). 

TIN. 

Tin ore, occurring with wolframite, is reported by Fred Nobs of Red- 
wood City, in the high Sierran section in eastern Fresno County. The 
exact locality is not stated. 

TUNGSTEN. 

L. H. Rhodes and 0. E. Brown, of Coalinga, report having made loca- 
tions on a deposit of tungsten ore in Sees. 29 or 33, T. 18 S., R. 13 E., 
about 30 miles northwest from Coalinga, near the San Benito County 
line. 

Wm. Terrill of Trimmer has a claim near Trimmer, on a vein carry- 
ing scheelite with some gold values. The vein is stated to be 5 feet 
wide, strike east and west, dip south, with limestone footwall and 
granite hanging. The scheelite makes in bunches on the hanging- 
wall side of the vein. It probably would require concentration. 

VOLCANIC ASH 

Fort Miller Ranch Deposit. McKenzie Estate, owner, Griffith-Mc- 
Kenzie Building, Fresno. On this ranch, 3 miles northeast of Friant. 
there is a deposit of very fine-grained volcanic ash, 40 to 50 feet thick, 
over an area of several acres. It occurs in a number of small hills in 
a basin with a granite rim. Occasional pieces of vesicular pumice are 
found, but not in sufficient quantity to be of commercial value. 



KERN COUNTY. 45 



KERN COUNTY. 

By G. CHESTER BROWN, Field Assistant. 

Field Work in September, 1914. 
Introduction. 

Kern, the leading mineral producing county of California, consist- 
ing of 8100 square miles, was organized in April, 1866. It is the 
third largest county in the State, and is bounded on the north by 
Tulare, Kings, and Inyo, on the south by Los Angeles and Ventura, 
on the east by San Bernardino, and on the west by San Luis Obispo. 
It is characterized by greater variety and contrasts of topography, 
geology, climate, and resources than any other California county. 

This territory embraces the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley, 
thus affording a large area of land for agricultural purposes. 

The wonderful development of the petroleum industry since 1900 
has given Kern County first place as a mineral producer. 

Topography. 

Kern County takes in the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada 
Range, includes a portion of the Coast Range in its western end, and 
to the south and east of the Sierras it encloses a large section of the 
Mojave Desert. The lowest depressions are in its lagoons, where its 
rivers sink in the plains, some 300 feet above the sea level. It rises 
from that to 10,000 feet in the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada, its 
desert region east of the mountains having an elevation of 2751 feet 
at Mojave, and the mountains to the southwest over 6000 feet. 
The Sierra Nevada crosses the county from the north ; Tehachapi Pass, 
3964 feet in height, leading southeasterly ; Tejon Pass, 5285 feet, and 
Canada de las Uvas, about the same, leading southerly. 

Along the northwestern border is the Diablo Range rising to a 
height of from 2000 to 3000 feet. From the junction of the Sierra 
Nevada and the Coast ranges, the San Emigdio mountains project 
20 miles northward into the valley. 

In the central portion of the southern end of the valley are Kern 
and Buena Vista lakes, the first covering an area of 13 square 
miles, and the other 25 square miles, receiving the water of the Kern 
River through a large number of sloughs, creating an extensive delta 
of marsh lands. This section has a drainage by Buena Vista Slough 
to Tulare Lake, 35 miles northwest. By the diversion of the water 
of Kern River and drainage of the basins, the lakes have become prac- 
tically dry and much of their former beds are under cultivation. 

There are in the county numerous mountain valleys of considerable 
extent. Poso Plat, Little Poso, and Linn Valley are beautiful parks 
on Poso Creek, in Greenhorn Mountains, a spur of the Sierra Nevada, 
west of Kern River. Havilah, once the county seat, and a famous 



46 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

mining town, is in a deep valley of Clear Creek, a branch of Kern, 
35 miles northeast of Bakersfield. Tehachapi Valley extends from the 
summit of the Sierra Nevada at Tehachapi Pass southeast along the 
valley of Cameron Creek, into the Mojave Desert, having a length 
of some 8 miles, and from J to 1 mile in width, containing the 
town of the same name and numerous thrifty farms. Southwest of 
these are the similar valleys of the Tejon, Las Uvas, San Emigdio, 
Zapatero, Palita, Castera, and La Siebra. 

Streams. 

Kern River and Poso Creek are the principal streams of the county, 
Kern being the third in magnitude of the rivers flowing from the 
Sierra Nevada south of the Sacramento (see photo No. 1). This river, 
with a catchment area of 2383 square miles, rises among the highest 
peaks of the Sierra Nevada, in the northeastern part of Tulare County, 
having two large forks flowing southwesterly 125 miles. The stream 
carries an average flow of 805 cubic feet per second, with a flood flow 
averaging 2000 second feet. This water flows down a granite channel, 
dropping 8000 feet before entering the valley, and is one of the 
important streams of the State for the generating of hydroelectric 
power. It enters the valley near Bakersfield, then flowing westward 
divides into many channels, forming an extensive delta known as 
Kern Island. 

Thirty large irrigating canals, comprising a total length of over 300 
miles, divert water from this river, and serve some 270,000 acres of 
fertile and productive land. 

Poso Creek has its source in many branches high up in the Green- 
horn Mountains, the lofty spurs of the Sierra, rising in T. 25 S., E. 30 
and 31 E., flowing southerly some 25 miles, then westerly and north- 
westerly until it sinks in the great valley in T. 25 S., R. 23 E., after 
a winding course of 75 miles. It has a watershed of 468 square miles. 

South of Tulare Lake is a region called the " artesian belt,*' which 
is 35 miles long and from 8 to 12 miles wide, running east and west, for 
the most part in the heart of the plains. About 150 wells supply water 
for domestic, stock and irrigation purposes. In the Mountain View 
Colony there is an artesian well which has thrown 450 gallons a minute 
for twenty years. 

Climatio conditions. 

Mining operations can be pursued throughout the entire year, as 
the snowfall, even in the mountainous regions, is not heavy enough to 
interfere with the work. On the plains the rainfall amounts to about 
8 inches per year; the temperature in July or August may reach 
110° F., but the absence of humidity makes work not disagreeable. 



48 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Transportation facilities. 

Two great transcontinental railroads, the Southern Pacific and the 
Santa Fe, pass through the center of the county, in a northerly and 
southerly direction. From Mojave the Southern Pacific owns and 
operates the Nevada and California Railroad, reaching Owens River 
Valley and passing through Nevada to connect with the Southern 
Pacific, Ogden Route. In the main valley a line of the Southern 
Pacific runs from Famosa to the east side. The oil fields are reached by 
branch lines from Bakersfield. Cood wagon roads connect the mining 
districts with the railroads. 



Photo No. 3. Canal, Pacific Light and Power Company. 

Hydroelectric plant*. 

Pacific Light and Power Corporation maintains a power station at 
Borel, on the Kern River, which generates 18,000 horsepower, part of 
which is distributed for mining purposes in tl e vicinity of Hot 
Springs Valley, and the balance transmitted to Los Angeles (see 
photo No. 2). The company also operates a transmission line at 
150,000 volts (the highest in the world) through Kern County, from 
two plants in Fresno, and maintains a substation at Magunden, 4 miles 
east of Bakersfield. 

The intake for the Borel power plant is at Keriville, below the 
mill and powerhouse of the Kern Development Company. The canals 
and tunnels are lined with concrete and have a capacity of 30,000 
miner's inches of water (see photo No. 3). 



i 



49 

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KERN COUNTY. 49 

San Joaquin IAght and Power Corporation maintains a generating 
plant at the mouth of the canyon of the Kern River (1350 kilowatts 
capacity), and a steam plant in Bakersfield (13,500 kilowatts capacity). 
This corporation distributes power in the Kern River, Midway, McKit- 
trick, and Sunset oil fields for the purpose of pumping oil. 

The Bakersfield electric street car system is operated by the San 
Joaquin Light and Power Corporation. 

Southern California Edison Company maintains a generating plant 
on the Kern River of 30,000 horsepower capacity, and from this plant 
current is delivered to Los Angeles, 116 miles distant. In the con- 
struction of this plant, the canal, which is 8§ miles long, consists almost 
entirely of tunnel, with inside measurements of 8 by 9 feet cut 
through solid rock to a point above where the powerhouse is located. 
Another plant on the Kern River, now under construction, will exceed 
30,000 horsepower capacity. A railroad survey has been completed 
to connect with the Southern Pacific Railroad in order that the power 
equipment may be delivered at this powerhouse by rail. Two addi- 
tional power stations are to be constructed at points selected on the 
Kern River, above Kernville. 

Mineral resources. 

Kern County's mineral resources consist of antimony, asphalt, barite, 
borax, brick, cement, clay, copper, fuller's earth, gems, gold, gypsum, 
iron, lead, lime, limestone, magnesite, marble, mineral paint, natural 
gas, petroleum, potash, salt, soapstone, soda, silver, stone industry, 
sulphur, tungsten and molybdenum. 

ANTIMONY. 

Antimony is found on a spur of the mountain bordering San Emig- 
dio Canyon, in Sees. 10 and 15, T. 9 N., R. 21 W., S. B. M., also on 
Erskine Creek, 4 miles south of Hot Springs, in Sec. 23, T. 27 S., 
R. 33 E., M. D. M., and 10 miles west of Koehn in Sees. 5 and 6, 
T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M. D. M. 

The San Emigdio and Tom Moore are the only properties that have 
been worked to any extent. The high cost of transportation and low 
market value of th- product made it impossible to work the ore at a 
profit. 

Antimony Cons< lidated Mines, formerly known as Mojave Anti- 
mony Company, e .nsisting of 80 acres of patented ground, is located in 
Sees. 5 and 6, T 30 S., R. 36 E., M. D. M., about 10 miles west of 
Koehn, and 12 mi '« northeast from Mojave. Owned by Arthur Asher, 
225 S. Los Angelas street, Los Angeles. Ledge is 5 feet wide. Devel- 
oped by means of shallow shafts and open cuts. Idle for several years. 



50 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Rayo, consisting of 40 acres, is located in Sec. 36, T. 26 S., B. 33 E., 
M. D. M., about 6 miles southeast of Isabella and 37 miles north of 
Caliente, the nearest railroad station. Ledge from 3 to 10 feet wide; 
developed slightly by shallow shafts and open cuts. Idle for several 
years. 

San Emigdio, one of the oldest mineral locations in Kern County, is 
owned by the Kern County Land Company, of Bakersfield. The hold- 
ings consist of 80 acres, patented, in Sees. 9 and 10, T. 9 N., R. 21 W., 
S. B. M., about 12 miles southwest of Sunset. The ledge is 11 feet 
wide, strike north and south, dip 68° W., porphyry walls. Workings 
consist of several tunnels from 20 to 600 feet long (caved in a number 
of places). The ore was roasted in an old furnace (dismantled). 
Some of the ore gave returns of 45 per cent antimony and from $4 to 
$16 per ton in silver. Property said to have been worked by the 
padres during missionary period; reopened in 1876 by S. Bouchier. 
Idle for a number of years. 

Bibl. : Reports VIII, p. 680 ; X, p. 225. 

Tom Moore, also known as Erskine Creek, consisting of 10 acres, 
patented in 1882, is located in Sec. 24, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., 
about 36 miles north of Caliente in the Valley View mining district. 
Owned by Orejana Mining Company, of Hayward; C. S. Long, presi- 
dent. Ledge is 3 feet wide, strike north and south, dip 50° E., 
granite-porphyry walls. Workings consist of a number of shafts 
from 40 to 65 feet deep, and open cuts. Some of the ore carried 65 per 
cent antimony and was reduced years ago in an old furnace, now dis- 
mantled. Property idle for several years. 

Bibl. : Report X, p. 237. 

ASBESTOS. 

A serpentine belt cutting Jawbone Canyon carries asbestos in the 
form of chrysotile, being especially noticeable in Sec. 7, T. 30 S., 
R. 36 E., M. D. M. 

Sunshine, consisting of three claims located in 1912 by J. H. Durnal, 
of Tehachapi, is situated in Sec. 7, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M. D. M., 
about 23 miles north of Mojave by wagon road. Ledge is 10 feet wide, 
strike northeast and southwest, dip 40° S., serpentine walls, and 
can be traced on the surface for a distance of 150 feet. Prospect, unde- 
veloped. 

ASPHALT. 

Deposits of natural asphalt are found in the Buena Vista and the 
Sunset oil districts. In recent years refined asphalt only has been used 
commercially because a better grade can be produced for less money 
than the deposits of natural asphalt afford. 

Bibl. : Report XII, pp. 26-28 ; Bull. 3, pp. 41-^53. 



KERN COUNTY. 51 

BORAX AND POTASH. 

The Mojave Desert contains a host of dry lakes and sinks which are 
the source of many salines, especially borax and potash. 

Buckhorn Springs, about 20 miles east of Mojave, in T. 9 N., R. 9 W., 
S. B. M., occupy the south end of a large dry lake, and here are found 
considerable deposits of borates mixed with salt and other salines. 

Indian Springs are situated in T. 26 S., R. 38 E., M. D. M., in the 
west side of the Salt Wells Valley. Borax is present, mixed with salt, 
soda and other salines. Beds have not been exploited. 

Kane Springs, also known as Mesquite, Cane, and Desert Springs, 
are located in T. 30 S., R. 38 E., M. D. M. Deposit discovered in 1873 
by H. J. Lent, who produced some borax of excellent quality here 
years ago, but beds have been idle for some time. The rich borate 
spots cover 3 acres. 

T eagle-Churchill Potash Company owns 5792 acres in T. 25 S., R. 40 
and 41 E., known as China Borax Lake and Salt Wells Lake, which 
were located in 1911. This company consists of E. E. Teagle. C. H. 
Churchill, and associates. It is proposed to drill and pump the deposit 
for treatment to produce borax and potash. Searles Lake is 2 miles 
east. 

Bibl. : Bull. 24, p. 50. The Saline Deposits of California, issued by 
State Mining Bureau. 

BRICK AND CLAY. 

The clay deposits in the vicinity of Bakersfield, the county seat of 
Kern County, furnish excellent material for the manufacture of brick. 

An unusually good grade of pottery clay is obtained from a large 
deposit in Sec. 11, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M., about 5 miles north- 
west of Rosamond Station, which has been worked by the Los Angeles 
Pottery Company. 

Bakersfield Sandstone Brick Company own a clay deposit consisting 
of 10 acres (patented) in Sec. 28, T. 29 S., R. 23 E., M. D. M., in 
East Bakersfield. Home office is Bakersfield. W. S. Tevis, president; 
Jas. Curran, manager. The plant consists of Kommick-Elbring 
grinder, kilns of a daily capacity of 40,000 brick, cars for holding brick 
when drying, buildings, etc. Two classes of brick are manufactured: 
sandstone selling for $15 per 1000 for red, $13 for select and $9 for sec- 
ond grade; clay brick sells for $9 per 1000. Twenty-five men are 
employed. Seme clay is purchased from the East Side Canal Com- 
pany. Oil is used for fuel. 



52 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Kern County Brick Company's holdings consist of 12 acres, patented, 
in See. 21, T. 29 S., B. 28 E., M. D. M., in East Bakersfield. 0. V. 
Paye, of Bakersfield, controls this corporation. The deposit is 25 feet 
thiek and has been worked for twenty years. The plant consists of 
Potts disintegrator, kilns, buildings, etc. Capacity of plant is 37,000 
brick per day, which sell for $8 per 1000 at the yard ; cost of manufac- 
turing about $4 per 1000. Ten men employed. Oil used for fuel, 
costing 40 cents per barrel. 

Los Angeles Pottery Company, also known as the Hamilton deposit, 
owns 40 acres in Sec. 11, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M., some 5 miles 
northwest of Rosamond Station. The deposit covers about 5 acres, the 
clay being plastic, has a smooth, even texture, shows no evidence of 
stratification, and is about 25 feet thick. It varies in color from greenish 
to light gray, and has been used for the manufacture of pottery and 
firebrick. Material has been shipped to the company's plant at Los 
Angeles. Workings consist of a tunnel 200 feet long, and a pit about 
45 feet deep. Idle for several yeara. 

Bibl. : State Mining Bureau Bull. No. 38, p. 212. 



Photo No. 4. Cement pl.nt it Monolith, erected by City of Lot Aniete*, 
CEMENT. 

Los Angeles Aqueduct Plant was constructed by the city of Los 
Angeles to manufacture cement for use in constructing the Owens River 
water supply system. The holdings, consisting of 120 acres, are located 
in Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., at Monolith Station, 3 miles 
east of the town of Tehachapi (see photo No. 4). 



KERN COUNTY. 53 

Limestone was obtained near the plant, and also from the Summit 
quarry. An ample supply of clay was extracted from a pit near the 
works. The plant has a daily capacity of 1250 tons, operated by 
electricity from Pacific Light and Power Corporation. 

COAL. 

Small seams of coal 18 inches wide, in the vicinity of Garlock, T. 28 S., 

R. 38 E., M. D. M., were worked some years ago by the Randsburg Coal 

Company. Three shafts, 80, 145 and 150 feet in depth, were sunk on 

the vein. 

COPPER. 

The copper occurrences are so few and widely separated, as far as 
discovered,' that they can not be identified with any particular belt. 
Copper deposits exist in three localities : Near Woody, north of Rands- 
burg ; on the northern edge of the Mojave Desert ; and on the southeast- 
ern slope of the Sierras, in Sees. 7, 18, 19 and 30, T. 28 S., R. 40 E., 
M. D. M., and in Sees. 12, 13 and 24, T. 28 S., R. 39 E. 

The road from Randsburg to the south fork of the Kern River, 
through Walker's Pass, diagonally crosses copper croppings in T. 27 S., 
R. 38 and 39 E., M. D. M. 

The country rock in the Keyes mining district in Sees. 29 and 31, 
T. 26 and 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., is impregnated with copper car- 
bonates, and a small amount of development work has been done in 
this territory in prospecting for gold. Greenback is the only pro- 
ducing copper mine in the county. 

Copper King, consisting of 40 acres, is located in Sec. 3, T. 27 S., 
R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes mining district, about 6 miles south- 
west of Isabella, in the Sequoia National Forest Reserve. Owner, G. C. 
Hooper. Elevation 5500 feet; vein matter, consisting of country rock 
with copper carbonates, about 10 feet wide, strike northwest and south- 
east, dip 30° N. ; slate footwall and granite hanging. Slightly 
developed with a tunnel 230 feet in length. A little high grade ore 
found, carrying gold values. Prospect. 

Greenback Qroup, the largest copper mine in Kern County, is located 
in Sees. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10, T. 26 S., R. 29 E., in the town of Woody 
and 32 miles northeast of Bakersfield. The holdings, consisting of 2300 
acres (600 patented), are owned by I. Weringer, of Woody. Elevation 
1800 feet; discovered in the early fifties, and surface worked for gold 
values. Located in 1890 by present owner. Six parallel veins about 
600 feet apart ; average width 30 feet ; strike northeast and southwest, 
dip 60° N. ; granite walls. On the Iron Mountain Chief the croppings 
are pronounced. Workings consist of a single-compartment shaft 200 



.. * 



54 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

feet deep, sunk at 45° angle, three levels at 100', 140' and 200'; 
360 feet of drifts ; 100 feet raise. The equipment consists of horse whim, 
ore bin, cars, tools and assay office. Two men employed. Ore recently 
shipped to smelter was hauled in motor trucks to MacFarland, a distance 
of 25 miles, at a cost of $5 per ton. Property produced to date $40,000; 
about 4000 tons of ore on dump and considerable in sight in mine. 
Sulphide at 60-foot depth, runs from 5% to 30% copper and $2 
per ton in gold. Iron Mountain Wonder adjoins Greenback on the 
south. 

Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 297, issued by State Mining Bureau. 

Iron Mountain Wonder consists of 20 acres in Sec. 10, T. 26 S., 
R. 29 E., about £ mile east of Woody. Owners, Hancock and Sorenson, 
of Woody. Two parallel veins about 20 feet wide, strike northeast and 
southwest ; dip 60° N. ; granite walls. Slightly developed with 60-foot 
shaft and 80-foot tunnel; continuation of Greenback lode. Prospect. 
Idle. 

Silverado Mountains, consisting of 40 acres, is located in Sec. 29, 
T. 26 S., R. 33 E., in the Keyes mining district, 1 mile south of Isabella, 
in Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owner, C. L. Warfield. Elevation 3500 
feet. Fissure vein, 3 feet wide, consisting of greenish colored quartz, 
carrying copper carbonates and gold; strike northwest and southeast, 
dip 60° SW. Developed with two tunnels on vein, 210 and 620 feet 
in length. Worked for a time by lessees, who took out some rich 
ore from pockets. Prospect. Idle. 

FULLER'S EARTH. 

Fuller's earth is a soft, friable clay, that is used in fulling wool, in 
deodorizing and clarifying oils, fats, greases, and in the production of 
clay pigments as a basis for color printing on wall papers. It falls 
to powder readily in water, and removes with avidity grease from 
cloth. The shades of color of fuller's earth are fully as great as those 
of other kinds of clay. Most of the earths on the market are light 
brown, gray, buff, or cream color, and a few are almost white. All 
which have been found valuable for bleaching purposes show a distinct 
acid reaction. Fuller's earth, as a rule, is lighter and more porous than 
other clays. The market value ranges from $10 to $15 per ton. 

California Fuller's Earth Company. Packard Estate, Bakersfield, 
owners, control 140 acres (patented) in Sec. 14, T. 27 S., R. 28 E., 
M. D. M., about 18 miles north of Bakersfield. This deposit covers 

* 

many acres and varies in thickness from 15 to 50 feet: A thin layer 
of soil covers this earth, which is first removed and then the material 
is taken out in open pits. Deposit was first worked in 1898 by 



KBBN COUNTY. 55 

H. L. Packard, and the material hauled to Bakersfield, ground, and 
shipped to Kansas City, Mo., for refining animal and vegetable oils. 
Property has not been worked for several years. 
The analysis of the earth shows : 

Silica (SiO,) 54.32% 

Alumina (ALO $ ) 18.88% 

Iron oxide (Fe a O,) d50% 

Lime (CaO) 1.00% 

Magnesia (MgO 3.22% 

Loss on ignition 11.86% 

Alkalies (by difference) 4.21% 

Bibl. : Bull. 38, p. 275, issued by California State Mining Bureau. 
The Eight OH Company, with a small grinding plant at Bakersfield, 
has reported production of fuller's earth from Kern County. 

GOLD. 

The first discovery of gold in Kern County was made by a member 
of Fremont's party in 1851, at Greenhorn Gulch, near the Kern River. 
Here a camp soon sprang up, and it is claimed that some of the placer 
ground yielded $50 to the pan. This territory was known in the early 
days as "Whiskey Flat. 

Jonathan and Keyes, shortly after the Whiskey Flat excitement, 
made the first quartz discovery in Rich Gulch, near the site of the old 
town of Keyesville. The first mine was named the Brother Jonathan, 
an arrastra was built, and as the ore ran over $100 per ton they made 
money. The Mammoth mine near by, was located after the Brother 
Jonathan discovery, and Captain Maltby, the owner, erected a costly 
water power mill, which was a failure, as the mortars leaked out the 
quicksilver that was recklessly thrown in. Colonel Keyes erected the 
first practical wooden stem, hog trough, iron mortar mill, consisting 
of four stamps. The cost of mining and milling was $15 per ton and, 
as the ore ran over $100 per ton, a handsome profit was made. 

In 1861 Rogers and Olds discovered the mines of the Cove district, 
near Kernville, which have produced several millions, and which were 
extensively worked for over twenty-five years. 

The discovery and working of the mines of the Cove district were 
a great incentive to prospecting, and resulted in the finding of the 
Clear Creek quartz mines by Ben Mitchell. The town of Havilah 
was built, and at one time was the county seat of Kern County. 

The discovery of placer gold at Goler, in 1893, led to the develop- 
ment of quartz mines in this section, as the Yellow Aster find soon 
followed, which caused the Rand to be the largest producing district 
in the county. 



56 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mining districts. 

Amalie, also known as- the Agua Caliente mining district, is the name 
used to designate the territory between the most southerly summits 
of Pah Ute range and Caliente Creek. 

The characteristic geological features of the district consist of syenite 
and slate formations traversed by numerous trachytic dikes. The alti- 
tude ranges from 2500 feet on Caliente Creek to 7000 feet in the Pah 
Ute range. 

A good wagon road connects this district with Caliente, a town 
on the Tehachapi branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Amalie, a 
small settlement in the center of the district, is 15 miles east of Caliente. 

Clear Creek, 25 miles north of Caliente, by wagon road, includes 
the territory in T. 28 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M. The formations consist 
of syenite and slates, cut by numerous diorite dikes. The altitude 
ranges from 3000 to 5500 feet. Havilah, a small settlement on Clear 
Creek, is the post office. 

Cove, one of the famous mining districts in the county, is 42 miles 
north of Caliente, by wagon road (see photo No. 5). The natural 
amphitheater occupied by this territory is the characteristic which 
gives it its name. The formations consist of granite and slate, the 
former predominating. Nine lodes can be traced on the surface for a 
considerable distance, as the croppings are very bold. The value of 
the main lode (Sumner) lies in its great size and the vast amount of 
good milling rock which it can furnish; it is over 150 feet wide in 
places. The Nellie Dent and Commonwealth lodes are also of unusual 
width, carrying low grade gold values. The installation of large reduc- 
tion plants will make this district one of the best producers in Kern 
County, as an abundance of water from the Kern River for power pur- 
poses, topography suitable for open-cut mining, and ideal climatic 
conditions afford very cheap mining and milling costs. The altitude 
ranges from 2600 to 5000 feet. 

« 

Green Horn Mountain District includes the territory adjacent to 
the Green Horn Mountains, about 48 miles north of Caliente, by wagon 
road, in T. 26 and 27 S., R. 31 and 32 E. This region adjoins the Keyes 
mining district on the west. The formations consist of granite and slate. 
A limited amount of placer mining is pursued in this section. The alti- 
tude ranges from 3000 to 6500 feet. 

Green Mountain District includes the territory from Piute post office 
to Kelsey Valley on the east dip of Piute Mountain, T. 28 and 29 S., 
R. 34 E. Piute post office is 30 miles northeast of Caliente by wagon 
road. The formations consist of slate and schists, cut by diorite dikes. 
The veins, as a rule, are small but rich ; the ore shoots are short. Pocket 
mining is pursued mainly in this district. The altitude ranges from 
3500 to 8000 feet. 



KERN COUNTY. 57 

Keyes, the oldest mining district in Kern County, includes the terri- 
tory north and west of the old site of Keyesville for a distance of about 
5 miles, in T. 26 S., R. 32 and 33 E. Isabella, the post office, is 37 
miles north of Caliente, by wagon road. Granite is the predominating 
formation. The veins are narrow, but carry good values in gold. The 
Keyes quartz mine has been worked intermittently for sixty-two years. 
Placer mining was extensively pursued here during the fifties. 

Long Tom District, 20 miles northeast of Bakersfield, in T. 27 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M., is known chiefly on account of the Long Tom mine, 
which was a famous producer several years ago. The formations consist 
of diabase and granite. A good wagon road affords an easy means of 
transportation between this district and Bakersfield, the county seat. 
The altitude ranges from 1500 to 2500 feet. 

Mojave District includes the territory in T. 10 and 11 N., R. 11, 12, 
and 13 W., S. B. M. The principal mines are only 3 miles south of 
Mojave, a town on the junction of the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific 
railroads. The formations consist of quartz-porphyry, phonolite and 
granite. The veins are large, with lenses of high grade, so that prac- 
tically all of the ore can be profitably worked with adequate reduc- 
tion plants. The lack of timber is no handicap as the ground stands 
well. The climatic conditions are good, being similar to other sections 
of the Mojave Desert. 

The Pioneer District includes the territory in an easterly and west- 
erly direction between Greenhorn Mountains and the Green Moun- 
tain mining district, and in a northerly and southerly direction 
from Clear Creek to Erskine Creek, in T. 27 and 28 S., R. 32 and 
33 E., M. D. M. The formations consist of granite, porphyry, slate, and 
syenite. Bodfish, the post office, is 32 miles north of Caliente by wagon 
road. Mining operations can be pursued throughout the year. Wood 
and water are abundant. The altitude ranges from 3000 to 8000 feet. 

Rand Mining District comprises the territory in T. 29 and 30 S., 
R. 40 E., M. D. M., Kern County, and T. 29 and 30 S., R. 41 E., 
M. D. M., San Bernardino County. The formations consist of granite, 
andesites, basalt, schists, sandstone, limestone and quartzite. The rocks 
of Rand Mountain are schists, with quartzite and altered limestones. 
The fragmental deposits, such as sand and gravel, cover considerable 
areas, but only a small portion are of economic importance. 

Gold was first discovered in the Goler Wash, 9 miles northwest 
of Randsburg in 1893, and dry washing camps soon sprang up in 
Last Chance and Red Rock canyons, and at Summit Diggings. In 1895 
the Yellow Aster mine was discovered by Singleton, Burcham & 
Mooers, and other quartz discoveries quickly followed. A railroad was 

5ee— 14456 



MINKS AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



£ 



I 



KERN COUNTY. 59 

soon constructed from Kramer, on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Pe 
Railroad, to Johannesburg. A number of mines, after taking out fair 
ores near the surface, were unable to follow them downward owing 
to faulting, pinching of the vein, or impoverishment of the ores 
and have been abandoned. Mines, including placers, have produced 
$10,000,000, of which the Yellow Aster has taken out $6,000,000. 

In the old Stringer District, so named on account of narrowness of 
the veins, some rich ore has been worked. This section is located 
along the southeast side of Rand Mountains, from 1£ to 4 miles south- 
west of Randsburg. The Napoleon is said to have yielded $1,000 per 
foot from a shaft 100 feet deep. The veins in this district are all more 
or less disturbed by faults, having a maximum width of 2 feet (U. S. 
Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 430). The altitude ranges from 3500 to 5000 
feet. 

The Red Dog custom mill, about \ mile southwest of Johannesburg, 
handles ores from the Rand district. This plant is owned by Stan- 
ford Mining and Reduction Company, of Los Angeles, and consists 
of ten stamps, cyanide plant, and one Standard concentrator, operated 
by steam and electricity. 

Tehachapi District includes the territory in T. 32 S., R. 33 and 34 E., 
M. D. M., and T. 11 N., R. 14 and 15 W., S. B. M. The formations 
consist of granite, quartz-porphyry, limestone and basalt. The Pine 
Tree is the only gold mine with any production record. The mining 
industry at the present time is confined to the extraction of limestone. 
The altitude ranges from 3900 to 6000 feet. 

Woody, formerly White River mining district, includes the territory 
in T. 25 and 26 S., R. 29 and 30 E., M. D. M. Woody, the post office, 
is 31 miles northeast of Bakersfield, by wagon road. The formations 
consist of granite, quartz-porphyry and slate. The veins, as a rule, 
are narrow and have been disturbed by faults. Mining has been con- 
fined to shallow workings. Rich ore has been found on the surface, 
and as a result this district was very active some eighteen years ago. 
Placer mining was extensively pursued near Woody during the '50s. 
The altitude ranges from 1800 to 3000 feet. 

Valley View District includes a portion of the territory in T. 27 and 
28 S., R. 33 and 34 E., M. D. M., along Clear and Erskine creeks, 
about 35 miles north of Caliente. The formations consist of granite, 
syenite and slate, cut by numerous diorite dikes. The veins are from 2 
to 8 feet in width, carrying good milling values. An ample supply of 
wood and water is at hand. The mineral resources of this district 
are still undeveloped. The altitude ranges from 3500 to 7500 feet. 



60 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mines and prospects. 

Accident, consisting of 40 acres, is located in Sec. 32, T. 11 N., R. 
12 W., S. B. M., about 3 miles south of Mojave, in the Mojave mining 
district. It is a prospect slightly developed by short tunnels on the 
vein. Owner, G. E. Ashler. 

Amalie, one of the famous old producers of this county, is located 
in Sec. 22, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 18 miles northeast of 
Caliente, in the Amalie mining district (see photo No. 6). The hold- 
ings consist of 180 acres in the Sequoia National Forest Reserve, owned 
by the Provident Mining Company; T. Bowden, president; B. W. 
Marks, secretary; home office, Union Trust building, Los Angeles. 
The vein is narrow, averaging about 10 inches in width, but rich ; strike 
NW. and SE., dip 40° E., quartz-porphyry walls. Pay shoot is about 
180 feet long and 10 inches wide, free milling. Ore carries considerable 
silver below the surface oxides, rich on the surface in free gold. Work- 
ings consist of a vertical shaft 560 feet deep, five levels, raises, stopes 
and drifts, comprising over 5000 feet of work. Mine equipment consists 
of cars, 60 h.p. boiler, steam hoist, five dwellings and assay office. 
Reduction equipment consists of 5-foot Huntington mill, driven by both 
gasoline and steam, three concentrators and 50-ton cyanide plant, leased 
to Barbarossa Mining Company. Property said to have produced 
$600,000. Idle since 1912. Barbarossa mine adjoins the Amalie on 
the north. 

Bibl. : Reports XII, p. 141 ; XIII, p. 605. 

American Golden Eagle, owned by Homer Bros., of Havilah, con- 
sists of 100 acres, in Sees. 2 and 10, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., in 
the Clear Creek mining district, 2 miles south of Havilah, in the Sequoia 
Forest Reserve. Claims formerly owned by American Golden Eagle 
Mining and Milling Company, of Los Angeles, who worked property for 
several years, then abandoned it. Relocated by Homer Brothers. Ore 
free on surface, but base with depth, carrying gold, silver and copper. 
Vein 8 feet wide with quartz-porphyry walls, strike northeast and 
southwest, dip 85° E. Workings consist of 100-foot shaft, 200-foot 
tunnel, drifts and stopes. Small producer. Ore shipped to smelter. 
Claims worked by owners. Adjoins McKidney prospect on the west. 

Anatrosa is a prospect located in Sec. 13, T. 30 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., 
8 miles east of Caliente, in Amalie mining district, and in the Sequoia 
National Forest. Owned by Blodget et al., of Bakersfield. Leased 
to H. Williams. Vein is 30 feet wide, low grade. Small vein of high 
grade ore recently found in granite. Slightly developed with 200-foot 
tunnel and open cuts. 



KERN COUNTY. 61 

Arizona Group, consisting of 80 acres, is a small producer in the Band 
mining district, 5 miles south of Randsburg, owned by Henry Bopp. 
Located in January, 1913. Small vein in schist. Sinking a shaft, at 
present 60 feet deep; gasoline hoist (8 h.p.) is used. Ore hauled to 
Red Dog custom mill. Twenty tons gave returns of $1520. Two men 
employed. 

Baltic, a producer, in the Rand district, is located in Sec. 1, T. 
20 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., 1J miles southeast of Johannesburg. Hold- 
ings consist of 40 acres (patented), owned by the Baltic Mining Com- 
pany, of Randsburg; C. H. Wynn, president; H. R. Wynn, secretary 
and manager. Deposit consists of many small veins in a sheer zone of 
schistose quartz from 100 to 300 feet wide. Country rock is rhyolite and 
porphyry. Ore is free milling. Workings consist of two incline shafts, 
each 250 feet deep, levels, stopes, and 150 feet crosscut. Steam hoist is 
20 h.p. Owners claim an ore reserve of 200,000 tons, assaying $2.50 per 
ton. Reduction equipment consists of 10-stamp Llewellyn mill, Blaker 
crusher (8"xl0"), and 50-ton cyanide plant. Electric power used. 
Twenty men are employed. Adjoining mines are : G. B. on north, Gold 
Coin on south, Placer Gold Company on east and Bismarck on west. 

Barbarossa Group, the largest producer in the Amalie mining district, 
is located in Sec. 29, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 15 miles north- 
east of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. This group, consist- 
ing of 140 acres, is owned by B. G. Parlow, of Loraine. Elevation at 
lower tunnel is 3600 feet. There are seven veins on the claim ; only one 
however, the Barbarossa, has been worked. Strike of this vein is north- 
west and southeast, dip 40° E., average width 4 feet; granite footwall 
and quartz-porphyry hanging. Pay shoot is 200 feet long and 4 feet 
wide, free milling. Workings consist of several tunnels on the vein, 
drifts and stopes. Ore is hauled in wagons to Amalie mill, a distance 
of 1£ miles. Five men are employed. Property produced $4000 in 
June, 1914; total production, $60,000. Croppings on Gasonia claim 
are 1000 feet long and 40 feet wide, and carry some gold values. Pacific 
Light and Power Company's line runs through these claims. 

Beauregard, one of the famous mines of the Cove district, is located in 
Sec. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, 
and f of a mile north of Kernville. Elevation 3000 feet. This property 
consists of one claim (1200 feet long and 200 feet wide), making a 
total area of 6 acres, patented in 1882, and is owned by the Kern 
Development Company. C. S. Long, president; C. C. Hamilton, secre- 
tary; home office, Portland, Me.; local office, Kernville. Located 
in 1861, and acquired by present owners in 1907. There are 
two parallel veins on the claim, averaging 3 feet in width, strike S. 



62 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

75° W., dip vertical; granite walls. Pay shoot is 1200 feet long and 
3 feet wide, and has been worked for this distance. Workings consist 
of seven shafts from 100 to 300 feet deep, three levels, 2300 feet of 
drifts, and six stopes. Ore treated in 10 stamp mill, operated by water 
power from Kern River. Ditch is 2{ miles long. Production to date, 
$600,000. Worked at one time by leasers. Ore is very free and plates 
$35 per ton. Some high grade found at times. Adjoining mines: 
Minnie E. on north and west, Urhana on south and North Extension 
Sumner on east. 

Bella Kufin, formerly known as the Berry, is located in Sec. 25, 
T. 29 S. R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Green Mountain district, about 23 
miles northwest of Caliente. Elevation 3000 feet. Holdings consist 
of 40 acres, in Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 3000 feet- 
Owned by 3. E. Miller ; leased to E. Peterson, Piute post office. Vein 
is 4 feet wide, strike southeast and northwest, dip vertical; granite walls. 
Pay ore occurs in pockets. Workings consist of shaft 120 feet deep, 
short drifts and one slope. Old 12-foot steam arrastra, horse-whim 
and cabin on property. Small producer. Total production about 
$15,000. Prospect. Mentioned in Report XII, p. 142. 



Photo No. 7. Fluhllght photo, ihowins ore In Bit BIim Mia*, 240-fout lcrel. 

Big Blue, owned by the Kern Development Company. C. S. Long, 
president and manager. Was one of California's famous gold pro- 
ducers in the 70s (see photo No. 7). The holdings, consisting of 
12 acres patented in 1872, are located in See. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., 



KERN COUNTY. 63 

M. D. M., in the Cove mining district, about $ mile north of Kern- 
ville, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation 2900 feet. Three 
parallel veins known as East, West and Middle, which have an average 
width of 44 feet, strike N. 20° W., and dip 70° W. West vein pay 
shoot is 1500 feet long and 44 feet wide. Workings consist of four 
shafts, designated as Pierson, Engine, Donkey and Adit, maximum 
depth being 400 feet, five levels, over a mile of drifts, several stopes, 
three tunnels, the adit having a length of 2100 feet, and drains the Big 
Blue at a depth of 270 feet, another the Blue Gouge is 1057 feet long. 
Mine equipment consists of hoist, shops and office. Ore is reduced in 
10-stamp mill on Kern River. Two men working at present. Property- 
has produced $2,000,000. Some of the ore runs over $300 per ton in 
free gold. Adjoining mines : Sumner on north, Oriana and Blue Gouge 
No. 2 on west, Content on south, Juniper on east. 

Bibl. : Reports VIII, p. 315 ; XIII, p. 191. ; U. S. Comm. of Mineral 
Statistics, Raymond, 1875. 

Black Hawk Group, consists of 130 acres, in the Rand district, 2£ 
miles southwest of Johannesburg. Owner, D. A. Blue, of Randsburg. 
Three veins, designated as South, North and Gray Eagle. Work- 
ings consist of four shafts, from 70 to 130 feet deep, and 4000 feet 
of drifts. Country rock is schist. Mine equipment consists of two 
horse-whims, blacksmith shop and cabins. A 5-stamp mill on Black 
Hawk claim constitutes the reduction equipment. Water obtained from 
Randsburg Water Company, through 3 miles of 1-inch pipe. Three men 
employed. Placer deposits on Gray Eagle, One and Two Track 
claims, which owner states runs $6 per ton in free gold and $2.50 in 
tungsten. Small producer. 

Blue Gouge Group, consisting of 350 acres, is located in Sees. 28 
and 33, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove mining district, 2 miles 
north of Kernville in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation 3600 feet. 
Owners, Orejana Mining Company ; C. S. Long, president and manager; 
C. C Hamilton, secretary; home office, Hayward. Eight parallel 
veins on the claims, average width 5 feet (small veins), strike north- 
west and southeast, dip 68° N. ; granite walls. The large lode (east 
vein) is from 100 to 500 feet wide, low grade. Workings consist of 
crosscut tunnel 1057 feet long, shaft 200 feet deep, one stope, and 
several open cuts. High grade ore on the S. F. Belle, from which 
$75,000 in gold has been extracted. The Red Top, Blue Gouge, and 
Lynx claims contact with the Content and Nellie Dent ore bodies, form- 
ing a width of 500 feet of low-grade ore that can be worked as an open 
cut. This, owing to its abrupt elevation and being only 2000 feet from 
the Kern River, could be handled by gravity to a mill conveniently 
located so as to take advantage of the cheap power which is abundant. 



64 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Bright Star, a noted mine of the Qreen Mountain district, located in 
Sec. 10, T. 28 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M., 34 miles northeast of Caliente, 
in Sequoia Forest Reserve, is owned by Mrs. Tracy et al., of San Fran- 
cisco. Elevation at shaft 8400 feet. Holdings consist of 60 acres, 
patented, located some forty-five years ago. The vein has an average 
width of 20 inches, strike northeast and southwest, dip 60° N., slate 
walls. Pay shoot about 120 feet long and 20 inches wide, high grade ore. 
Workings consist of a shaft 540 feet deep, three levels, several thousand 
feet of drifts and stopes. The ore was treated in a 5-foot Huntington 
and 3-stamp mills, now removed from property. The Denver Gold and 
Silver Extraction Company worked the tailings with a 50-ton cyanide 
plant with good results. Production record said to be $600,000. Idle 
for several years. Collar Button, a prospect, adjoins property on west. 

Bright Star, a prospect in the Woody mining district, was a small 
producer a few years ago. It is in Sec. 12, T. 25 S, R. 29 E., 
M. D. M., about 41 miles northeast of Bakersfield. Owner, E. A. James. 
Two parallel veins, having a width of 2 feet, strike E. and W., dip 
30° S. ; short pay shoot. Workings consist of tunnel on vein 600 
feet long, and 800 feet of drifts. Idle. 

Bull Run, another famous producer of the Cove mining district, con- 
sisting of 5.67 acres, patented in 1884, is located in Sec. 28, T. 25 S M 
R. 33 E., M. D. M., about \ mile north of Kernville in the Sequoia 
Forest Reserve. Elevation *2980 feet. Owners, Lady Belle Company; 
Dr. R. P. Schupphaus, president ; C. C. Hamilton, secretary ; home office, 
Portland, Maine; local office, Kernville. Vein is 2 feet wide, strike 
northeast and southwest, dip 70° N. Pay shoot is 900 feet long and 
2 feet wide, free milling, rich sulphurets. Workings consist of main 
shaft 360 feet deep, seven levels, several thousand feet of drifts and 
crosscuts, and one stope 900 feet long. Mine equipment consists of 
hoisting plant, shop and office. Production to date $450,000. In 1893 
J. B. Medina, a former lessee, mined from the north end of this prop- 
erty (at a depth of 80 feet), 100 tons of ore that gave returns of $150 
per ton on the plates and $400 per ton from the concentrates. 

Bibl. : Report VIII, p. 321. 

Caldwell, a prospect, is located in Sec. 18, T. 26 S., R. 33 E., M. D. ML, 
in the Keyes district, about 1£ miles northeast of Isabella, in the 
Sequoia Forest Reserve, comprising 20 acres, owned by A. R. Kies- 
ter. Vein is 6 inches wide, high grade ore. Workings consist of tunnel 
on vein 620 feet long, and short drifts. Formation is granite and slate. 

Chief, prospect, in the Long Tom district, in Sec. 22, T. 27 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M., about 21 miles northeast of Bakersfield, owned by 
D. M. Tressel. Consists of 60 acres, elevation 2100 feet. Small vein in 



KERN COUNTY. 65 

granite. Workings consist of two tunnels on vein, being 120 and 380 
feet in length, and short drifts. A little high grade ore extracted by 
leasers. 

Collar Button, prospect, is located in Sec. 10, T. 28 S., R. 34 E., 
M. D. M., in the Green Mountain district, about 34 miles northeast of 
Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation 8100 feet. Owner, 
W. B. Grant, of Piute post office. Holdings consist of 14 acres. Vein 
is 2 feet wide, in slate. Extent of pay shoot not determined. Shaft 
60 feet deep, shows 2 feet of ore that runs $40 per ton. Bright Star 
adjoins claim on east. 

Commonwealth, owned by the Kern Development Company. C. S. 
Long, president and manager. Consists of 32.4 acres, patented, in Sec. 
15, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove district, about i mile 
north of Kernville in the Sequoia Forest Reserve ; elevation 3000 feet. 
Four parallel veins in slate and granite, average width 4 feet. Only 
slightly developed with shallow shaft and open cuts. Surface ore mills 
$15 per ton. 

Crystal, formerly known as the Bonanza, is a prospect in the Clear 
Creek district, in Sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 31 E., M. D. M., about 22 miles 
north of Caliente in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Holdings consist of 
60 acres, owned by A. R. Cox. Elevation 2500 feet. Vein is 10 inches 
wide, in granite. Slightly developed with 120-foot shaft. Small pocket 
taken out in May, 1914. 

Dead River Channel (placer), consists of 40 acres of placer ground 
in Sec. 17, T. 26 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes mining district, 
about 1£ miles north of Isabella, at an elevation of 2500 feet. Owner, 
C. E. Barton. Course of channel is north and south, depth of gravel 
10 feet. Granite bedrock. Water obtained from Kern River. Small 
producer. 

Deer Hunter, is a prospect in the Amalie district, Sec. 20, T. 30 S., 
R. 34 E., M. D. M., about 18 miles northeast of Caliente, in the 
Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 4100 feet. Owner, M. D. 
Elliott. Holdings consist of 60 acres. Small vein, in granite and schist. 
Slightly developed with short tunnel and drifts. Little high grade 
extracted. 

Double Standard, owned by. the Mojave Mining and Milling Com- 
pany, of Los Angeles; G. E. Benton, president; B. Wagemann, watch- 
man. Consists of 40 acres in Sec. 5, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., in 
the Mojave district, 3 miles south of Mojave. Elevation 2700 feet. 
Vein is 5 feet wide, strike northeast and southwest, dip 40° W. 
Quartz-porphyry walls, ore free milling. Workings consist of shaft 

Gee— 14466 



66 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

200 feet deep, two levels, and 2000 feet of drifts and stopes. Mine 
equipment consists of steam hoist, ears, tools, assay office, dwellings. 
Reduction equipment consists of 5-stamp mill (1100-pound stamps), 
operated by steam power. Idle. Two men employed. Property has 
been a producer. 

Dreadnot, formerly known as Hardtack, consists of 80 acres in Sees. 
11, 12 and 14, T. 25 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., about 40 miles northeast 
of Bakersfield in the Woody mining district. Owners, Blue Mountain 
Mining Company, of San Jose; E. Wolf, president. Two parallel veins 
known as Dreadnot and Grizzly, strike east and west, dip 45° N., 
width 2 feet, free milling. Workings consist of a shaft 220 feet deep, 
three levels, 400 feet of drifts and one stope. Mine equipment consists 
of steam hoist, cars, tools and dwellings. Reduction equipment con- 
sists of 5-stamp mill and two Frue concentrators. Property is idle. 

Bibl. : Report XII, p. 143. 

Early Sunrise, a prospect, owned by the Early Sunrise Mining and 
Milling Company, of Santa Ana; W. W. Holesworth, president; 
W. A. Penrol, secretary. Consists of 60 acres, in Sec. 26, T. 26 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes district, about 3 miles south of Isabella, 
in Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation 3600 feet. Small vein, in 
granite. Slightly developed with short tunnel, 430 feet long, and a 
few hundred feet of drifts. A little high grade found. Idle. 

Eclipse No, 1, a prospect in the Woody mining district. Owned by D. 
Engle et al., is located in Sec. 34, T. 25 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., $ mile 
north of Woody. Elevation 2000 feet. Holdings consist of 20 acres. 
Vein is 1 foot wide, granite walls, ore free milling on the surface, but 
base with depth. Slightly developed with shaft 70 feet deep and a 
tunnel 80 feet long, and short drifts. Ore was worked in a Huntington 
mill (now removed), and gave returns of $40 per ton on plates. Said 
to have produced $20,000. Idle. 

Elephant Oroup, consists of 100 acres, in the Mojave mining district, 
in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., about 5 miles south of Mojave, 
at an elevation of 3900 feet. Owner, D. E. Baker, of Nordhoff; 
B. Fisher, superintendent. The vein is 7 feet wide, 3 feet in bottom of 
shaft, said to run $200 per ton in gold, strike northwest and southeast, 
dip 60° N., granite-porphyry walls. Workings consist of a shaft 
100 feet deep, short drifts, and one stope 120 feet long. Mine equip- 
ment consists of windlass, cars, tools, shop and cabin. Three men 
employed. Ore shipped to Selby's smelter, total cost (smelter charges, 
freight, mining, etc.) is $10 per ton for ore assaying $50 per ton. Small 
producer. 



KERN COUNTY. 67 

EUa Group, a prospect located in May, 1914, in the Amalie mining 
district, in Sec. 29, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., 15 miles northeast of 
Caliente, is owned by Rainey Brothers of Loraine. Group consists of 
40 acres. Elevation 4000 feet. Vein 2 feet wide, runs $40 per ton in 
free gold, granite footwall end rhyolite hanging. Slightly developed 
with shaft 55 feet deep and a short drift. Three owners working. 
Forty tons of ore on dump. 

EUston, formerly known as Producer, is a prospect, in the Clear Creek 
mining district, in Sec. 8, T. 29 S., R. 31 E., M. D. M., 20 miles north 
of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owner, R. E. Ellston. 
Holdings consist of 55 acres, at an elevation of 3200 feet. Pay ore 
occurs in pockets in granite. Slightly developed with shaft 80 feet deep 
and short drifts. Ore worked in 12-foot arrastra, power obtained from 
Clear Creek. Two men employed. Some rich ore extracted. 

Excelsior, prospect, in Mojave mining district, in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., 
R. 12 W., S. B. M., about 3£ miles south of Mojave. Owned by Hunter, 
Clark and Ischinger of Mojave. Holdings consist of 20 acres, at an 
elevation of 2800 feet. Vein 2 feet wide, quartz-porphyry walls. Work- 
ings consist of three shafts on vein, from 60 to 150 feet deep. Idle. 

Exposed Treasure (see Mojave Consolidated). 

Fair View, consists of 80 acres in Sec. 11, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., 
S. B. M., about 4 miles northwest of Rosamond Station. Owners, Pierce 
& Company, of Los Angeles. Elevation 2650 feet. Vein 2 feet wide, 
granite-porphyry walls. Workings consist of shaft 400 feet deep, four 
levels, 1500 feet of drifts and a stope 130 feet long. There is a gasoline 
hoist, and dwellings on the property. Reduction equipment consists 
of 10-stamp mill and 50-ton cyanide plant, operated by steam power. 
Idle since 1911. 

Garnishee, prospect, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 35, T. 26 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes mining district, about 3 miles south of 
Isabella, at an elevation of 3200 feet. Owner, H. Stavert. Vein is 
small, the pay ore occurring in bunches in granite. Workings consist 
of tunnel 460 feet long and 2000 feet of drifts. Some rich ore extracted 
a few years ago. Idle. 

G. B., consisting of 22.5 acres, is located in Sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 41 E., 
M. D. M., 1% miles southwest of Johannesburg, at an elevation of 
3600 feet. Owners, G. B. Mining and Reduction Company of Rands- 
burg. C. G. Illingworth, president; G. L. Caulfield, manager; J. 
MacFarlane, superintendent. The holdings consist of 22.5 acres. The 
deposit consists of a shear zone from 100 to 300 feet wide, containing 
numerous parallel ledges, in .rhyolite. Ledges have a width of from 



68 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

10 to 18 feet, strike N. 10° E., dip 30° to 50° E. Ore is free milling. 
Workings consist of four shafts from 150 to 260 feet deep, two levels, 
1000 feet of drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and a stope 700 feet 
long. Ore reserve 10,000 tons, of a value of $5 per ton. Caving 
system of mining used. Mine equipment consists of 10 h.p gaso- 
line hoist, cars, tools, electric motor for blower, buildings, and elec- 
tric lights in mine. Reduction plant consists of dry crushing mill 
equipped with two crushers, rolls and screens, run by 50 h.p. motor. 
Capacity of mill 60 tons in twenty-four hours; also cyanide plant 
consisting of ten tanks of 8 tons capacity each (experimental 
plant). Electric power costs 12 cents per ton. Total operating cost 
$3 per ton. Six men employed. Worked until 1910 by leasers, who 
extracted some good milling ore. Some of the sulphides run $3000 per 
ton in gold. Adjoining mines, Baltic on south and Yellow Astor on 
west. 

Glen Olive, the largest producer in the Pioneer mining district, con- 
sists of 120 acres in Sec. 33, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., 42 miles 
north of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation at tunnel, 
7500 feet. Owners, A. W. Stetson et al., San Francisco; F. A. Braden, 
superintendent. Two parallel veins, about 200 feet apart, known as 
Bulgarian Troubles and Russian Bear; average width 3 feet; strike 
northwest and southeast, dip N. 15° W. Ore free milling, giving 
returns of $25 per ton on the plates. Pay shoot about 200 feet long. 
Workings consist of two tunnels on vein 200 feet apart and each 700 
feet long, several hundred feet of drifts, crosscut 320 feet long, raises, 
three winzes 100 feet deep, all stoped between tunnels. Mine is 
equipped with cars, 800 feet automatic tramway (use two cars), shops, 
assay office, and dwellings. Reduction equipment consists of 10-stamp 
Hendy mill (1000-pound stamps) driven by gasoline, which costs 12 
cents per gallon. Water obtained from springs. Tailings impounded 
in gulch. Production to date, $500,000. Mine closed down in May, 
1914, on account of general financial conditions, as the crosscut tunnel 
must be extended to cut the vein so as to block out ore. 

Oold Crown Consolidated, formerly known as Gold King Group, con- 
sisting of 46 acres, patented, is located in Sees. 11 and 12, T. 30 S., 
R. 40 E., M. D. M., 2£ miles south of Johannesburg in the Stringer 
mining district, at an elevation of 4000 feet. Owner, H. W. Mauby, 
of Randsburg. Several veins from 5 to 20 feet wide in schist. Worked 
by means of shallow shafts and open cuts. Ore treated at Red Dog 
custom mill. Cost of hauling and milling is $5.50 per ton. Net profit 
per ton $20. Two men employed. Small producer. 



KERN COUNTY. 69 

Golden Group, formerly known as Jack Rabbit, consisting of 100 
acres, is located in Sec. 34, T. 30 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Araalie 
district, 8 miles east Of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Eleva- 
tion 2000 feet. Owner, J. B. Ferris, of Caliente. The deposit is mas- 
sive, the average width of pay ore being 20 feet, low grade, strike 
northwest and southeast, dip 45° N., granite walls. Workings consist 
of shaft 200 feet deep, three levels, 300 feet of drifts and stopes. Reduc- 
tion equipment consists of Marathon tube mill (6 feet long and 3 feet 



Photo No. 8. Wmter wheel operating "Marathon" tube mil], Golden Group. 

diameter), operated by 24-foot overshot water wheel (see photo No. 8). 
Water from Caliente Creek through 10-inch pipe, 1000 feet long. Total 
production to date $5,000. Four men employed. Owner claims large 



Gold Peak, formerly known as the Zada, one of the producers of the 
Amalie mining district, is located in Sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., 14 miles northeast of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. 
Holdings consist of 340 acres, patented. Owned by Gold Peak Mining 
Company, of San Francisco; II. H. Blood, president; F. Kramer, secre- 
tary. Bonded to Conlson Bros., of Los Angeles. Six veins; only one, 



70 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

the Zada, has been worked. Average width 10 feet, strike northwest 
and southeast, dip 40° E., quartz-porphyry walls. Pay shoot 300 feet 
long and 10 feet wide. Ore as a rule is free milling, but one vein carries 
base metals, being rich in sulphides of copper and silver. Workings 
consist of tunnel 450 feet long and several thousand feet of drifts and 
stopes. Mine equipment consists of machine drills, compressor plant, 
cars, ore bins, dwellings and assay office. Reduction plant consists of 
20-stamp Hendy mill and four Prue concentrators, operated with gaso- 
line engine. Idle. Tailings are impounded. Over $100,000 worth of 
ore shipped to smelter before mill was erected. Three men employed. 

Gold State Group, a prospect, is located in Sec. 9, T. 29 S., 
R. 34 E., M. D. M., in the Oreen Mountain district, about 31 miles east 
of Caliente, at an elevation of 7300 feet. Owners, M. J. Errecart et al., 
of Loraine post office. Holdings consist of 100 acres, reached by a 
7-mile trail from Piute post office. Vein is 10 inches wide, granite foot- 
wall and slate hanging. Slightly developed with shaft 80 feet deep, 200 
feet of drifts, and one stope 80 feet long. Reduction plant consists of an 
old 12-foot arrastra, operated by steam power, wood being used as fuel. 
One man employed. Some high grade ore extracted. Total production 
$20,000. 

Good Hope, formerly known as Good Hope and Kenyon, owned by 
Consolidated Mines Company, of Los Angeles; W. H. Herren, presi- 
dent ; S. H. Ellis, secretary ; Robert Lanka, superintendent. Consists of 
156 acres (patented) in Sec. 35, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., 1 mile 
west of Johannesburg in the Rand mining district. Elevation 3550- feet. 
Two veins, Good Hope and Butte, strike east and west, dip 56° S., 
diorite walls, average width 20 inches. Pay shoot 300 feet long and 
20 inches wide. Ore free milling. Workings consist of shaft 300 feet 
deep, five levels, and several thousand feet of drifts, raises, winzes and 
stopes. Mine equipment consists of 15 h.p. gasoline hoist, shop, 
ore bins, and dwellings. Reduction equipment consists of 5-stamp 
Union Iron Works mill, Blake rock crusher, settling tanks, and 30 
h.p. motor, all operated with gasoline costing 25^ per gallon. Water 
obtained from wells at Johannesburg. Tailings impounded to be 
cyanided at some future time. Eleven men employed. Cost (per 
ton) : development $2, mining $2, treatment $1, general 50^, mak- 
ing a total of $5.50. Adjoining mines : Yellow Astor, Big Butte, Little 
Butte and King Solomon. 

Good Luck, a prospect, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 16, T. 27 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M., in the Long Tom mining district, about 21 miles 
northeast of Bakersfield, owned by A. P. Tucker, of Tulare. Ele- 
vation 1750 feet. Vein is small in granite, but rich. Pay shoot short. 
Slightly developed with tunnel 420 feet long, 200 feet of drifts, and a 



KERN COUNTY. 71 

stope 40 feet long. Ore worked in 12-foot arrastra, driven by water 
power from Long Tom Creek. One man working. 

Bibl. : Report XII, p. 191. 

Grace Group, a prospect in the Mojave mining district, consists of 
120 acres in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., ^ miles south of 
Mojave, at an elevation of 3400 feet. Vein is 20 inches wide, strike 
northwest and southeast, dip 60° N., granite-porphyry walls. Slightly 
developed with tunnel 450 feet long. Originally part of Karma group. 
Little high grade ore found. Adjoining mine: Queen Esther on the 
west. 

Grey Eagle, formerly known as Echo, consists of 100 acres, patented, 
in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., 4 miles south of Mojave, in 
the Mojave district, at an elevation of 3500 feet. Owner, A. Asher, of 
Mojave. Vein is 15' wide, strike northwest and southeast, dip 50° 
W., granite-porphyry walls. Pay shoot is 240 feet long and 15 feet 
wide, low grade, with rich ore on f ootwall side ; free milling. Workings 
consist of shaft 350 feet deep, three levels, 3000 feet of drifts and one 
stope 240 feet long. Old steam hoist, assay office and dwellings on the 
property. The former owners, Echo Mining Company, worked the ore 
in a 10-stamp mill which was removed in 1906. Owner claims a pro- 
duction record of $200,000. Idle since 1905. 

Iconoclast, prospect, in the Valley View mining district, in Sec. 25, 
T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 36 miles north of Caliente, consists 
of 60 acres, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, owned by R. E. Porter. 
Elevation 8000 feet. Vein is 2 feet wide, free milling, granite footwall 
and slate hanging. Slightly developed with tunnel on vein 360 feet 
long. A little high grade ore extracted. Ore on dump said to run $30 
per ton. One man employed. 

Bibl. : Report XIII, p. 186. 

Illinois and Golden Bell, prospect, in Pioneer mining district in 
Sec. 16, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 40 miles north of Caliente 
in Sequoia Forest Reserve, owned by J. Peep, of Bodfish P. O. Eleva- 
tion 7800 feet. Holdings consist of 60 acres. Vein is 12 inches wide, 
slate footwall and granite hanging, free milling. Slightly developed 
with tunnel 310 feet long on vein. Worked as a pocket mine and $12,000 
in gold said to have been extracted. 

Indian Queen, a prospect, consisting of 40 acres, is located in Sec. 
15, T. 27 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., 22 miles northeast of Bakersfield, in the 
Long Tom mining district. Owner, R. E. Dosworth, of Tulare. 
Small vein, granite footwall, and diabase hanging. Workings consist 
of tunnel 80 feet long and short drifts. A little rich ore found. 



72 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Jeff Davis, one of the early producers of the Cove mining district 
consists of 5 acres (patented in 1884) in Sec. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., about £ mile north of Kernville, in the Sequoia Forest 
Reserve, at an elevation of 2900 feet. Owners, Lady Belle Company, of 
Portland, Maine; president, Dr. R. C. Schupphaus; secretary, C. C. 
Hamilton; manager, C. S. Long, Kernville. Vein is 12 inches wide, 
granite walls, strike east and west, dip 70° N. Pay shoot is 350 
feet long, and 12 inches wide, free milling ore, high grade. Workings 
consist of shaft 200 feet deep, oife level, several hundred feet of drifts 
and a stope (350' by 3' by 150'). Ore stoped out from the level (150 
feet), to the surface by leasers during the sixties. Production to date, 
$150,000. Adjoining mines: Orejana on south, Lady Belle on west, 
Bull Run on north, Summer on east. 

Jennette, the largest producer in the Green Mountain mining dis- 
trict, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 22, T. 29 S., R, 34 E., M. D. M., 
about 25 miles northeast of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. 
Elevation 8000 feet. Owner, J. Lombard, of Piute post office. The vein 
has an average width of 6 inches, free milling, high grade ore, strike 
northeast and southwest, dip 40° S., granite walls. Workings consist 
of several tunnels on the vein, from 50 to 400 feet long, 2500 feet of 
lrifts and stopes. Reduction equipment consists of 4-stamp mill, oper- 
ated with steam power, wood being used for fuel. Seven men employed. 
Yearly production from $15,000 to $20,000. Ore runs $40 per ton. 
Adjoining mine : Gwinn to west. 

Josephine Group, a consolidation of several old properties in the 
Woody mining district, consists of 150 acres, patented, and 150 acres 
held by location, in Sees. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8, TV 25 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., 
about 5 miles southeast of White River post office. Owner, W. Adams, 
of Corinth, Miss. Elevation 4000 feet. The claims included in this 
group are Josephine, Ballard, Last Chance, Mountain View, Banner, 
Alta, Queen, Vulture (patented), and Missouri, Yankee and Persever- 
ance groups. Six parallel veins, average width 2 feet, strike east and 
west, dip 45° E., quartz-porphyry footwall and slate hanging, free 
milling ore. Main workings are on the Josephin'e and consist of a tun- 
nel 300 feet long, 120-foot crosscut, 1000 feet of drifts and a stope 
80' by 3' by 70'. Several open cuts on other claims. Reduction equip- 
ment consists of a 5-foot Huntington mill run by steam power, wood 
being used for fuel. One man employed. Josephine was a good pro- 
ducer some years ago. 

Bibl. : Reports XIT, p. 145 ; and XIII, p. 191. 

Josephine T. G. Group, consists of 70 acres in the Rand district, 2 
miles southwest of Randsburg, and adjoining the Yellow Aster mine 



KERN COUNTY. 73 

on the southwest. Owner, J. P. Howe, of Randsburg. Elevation 4000 
feet. Deposit consists of quartz fissures in schist. Workings consist 
of several shafts from 20 to 150 feet deep, 400-foot crosscut, and a 
number of open cuts. Ore is free milling and shipped to Red Dog 
custom mill. Total operating cost* including milling, about $20 per 
ton. Equipment consists of 8 h.p. gasoline hoist, skids, buckets, cars 
and tools. Three meii employed. Production to date $11,500. 

Karma, owned by the Karma Mining Company, of San Francisco, R. 
Trost, president, E. L. Wigman, superintendent. Consists of 30 acres 
in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., about 4 miles south of Mojave, 
in the Mojave district, at an elevation of 3200 feet. Two parallel veins, 
average* width 15 feet, strike north and south, dip 60° E., granite- 
porphyry walls. Pay shoot 240 feet long and 15 inches wide. Ore free 
milling, needs fine grinding. Workings consist of a tunnel 1800 feet 
long on vein, shaft 160 feet deep, drifts and stope 240 feet long. Mine 
equipment consists of cars, steam hoist, assay office, shops, ore bins and 
dwellings. Ore reduced in a 20-stamp mill, steam driven. Idle. 
Water obtained from Soledad Pipe Line Company. Three men 
employed. Property only worked to a limited extent since 1904. Said 
to have produced $300,000. Adjoins Double Standard mine on the 
west. 

Kern County Consolidated Oold Mines, formerly known as Gwynne, 
a small producer in the Green Mountain district, is located in Sec. 22, 
T. 29 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M., about 25 miles northeast of Caliente, in 
the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owners, Kern County Consolidated Gold 
Mines Company. F. W. Gwynne, president, J. Ross, superintendent, 
Piute post office. Holdings consist of 40 acres, patented, at an elevation 
of 7500 feet. Vein has an average width of 14 inches, strike northeast 
and southwest, dip 40° S. Short pay shoot, free milling. Workings 
consist of a shaft 300 feet deep, three levels, several hundred feet 
of drifts, stopes and a tunnel on the vein 1500 feet long. Mine equip- 
ment consists of 30 h.p. steam hoist, cars, skip, shop and dwellings. 
The ore is reduced in a 3-stamp Hendy mill (850-pound stamps), 
operated with steam power, wood being used for fuel. Some rich ore 
mined. Five men employed. It adjoins the Jennette mine on the east. 

Keyes, formerly known as the Old Keyes, located in 1852 by Colonel 
Keyes. is one of the famous mines of Kern County. The holdings 
consist of 100 acres in Sec. 26, T. 26 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., in Keyes 
district, about 3 miles southeast of Isabella, in the Sequoia Forest 
Reserve, at an elevation of 3600 feet. Owners, Keyes Mining Company, 
of San Diego. J. L. Hooper, president, Geo. Stavent, superintendent. 
The vein (Keyes) is 2 feet wide, strike northeast and southwest, dip 
70° E., granite walls, free milling, high grade. Workings consist of 



74 MINES AND' MINERAL RESOURCES. 

several thousand feet of tunnels, drifts and stopes. Maximum depth 
about 450 feet. Mine equipment consists of cars, shops, assay office 
and dwellings. Ore is reduced in a new 5-stamp mill (1100-pound 
stamps), operated by distillate, costing about 8$ per gallon. Nine men 
employed. Producer. 

Bibl. : Reports XII, p. 145 ; and XIII, p. 191. U. S. G. S., Mineral 
Resources of U. S. 

KeysvUle Placer, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 36, T. 26 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., about 3 miles southeast of Isabella, in the Sequoia Forest 
Reserve, owned by G. Henschkel. Elevation 3400 feet. Old river 
deposit, worked in winter by ground sluicing. Course of channel 
northwest and southeast, granite bedrock, pay gravel 5 to 10 feet deep, 
easily worked, small producer. 

King Solomon Consolidated Mines Company, consists of 90 acres, in 
Sec. 35, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., J of a mile west of Johannesburg 
in the Rand district. Owners, King Solomon Consolidated Mines Com- 
pany, of Los Angeles. E. Shipsey, president ; J. Shipsey, superintend- 
ent. Elevation 3900 feet. Vein is 3 feet wide, granite footwall and 
porphyry hanging. Pay shoot said to be 1400 feet long, free milling. 
Workings consist of a shaft 520 feet deep, levels every 50 feet, 1400-foot 
drift and stopes. Mine equipment consists of a 20 h.p. West Coast 
hoist, cars and ore bin. Ore is reduced at Red Dog custom mill. Ten 
men employed. Adjoining mines, Butte and Gold Consolidated. 

King Solomon Gold Mining Company, formerly known as the Pleas- 
ant View, the largest producer in the Clear Creek district, is owned by 
the King Solomon Gold Mining Company, of Los Angeles. B. Hohn, 
president; Mrs. J. Hayes, secretary. Leased to C. E. Benton. The 
holdings consist of 100 acres, in Sees. 9 and 10, T. 28 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., about 4 miles east of Havilah, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, 
at an elevation of 6500 feet. The vein is 3 feet wide, strike northeast 
and southwest, dip 60° S., granite walls. Pay shoot 300 feet long, 
free milling. Workings consist of a shaft 300 feet deep, three levels, 
short drifts, and one stope. Mine equipment consists of a steam hoist, 
two 30 h.p. boilers, cars, assay office, shop and dwellings. Ore is 
reduced in a 5-stamp Hendy mill (1000-pound stamps), operated with 
steam power, wood being used for fuel. Six men employed. Said 
to have produced $40,000 since 1912. 

La Cross, a prospect, consists of 20 acres in the Stringer mining dis- 
trict in Sec. 2, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., about 1£ miles south of Randsburg, 
at an elevation of 4000 feet. Owner, H. Putnam, of Los Angeles. Vein 
is small, averaging 6 inches, high grade; albite schist forms the walls. 
Idle on account of litigation. 



KERN COUNTY. 75 

Lady Belle, one of the famous producers of the Cove district, consists 
of two full claims (the Lady Belle and Boston Belle, the former claim 
patented in 1884), located in Sec. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., 
in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, and about £ mile north of Kernville. 
Owners, Lady Belle Company, of Portland, Maine. Dr. R. C. Schupp- 
haus, president; C. S. Long, manager, Kernville. Elevation 3100 
feet. Lady Belle vein has a width of 3 feet, strike east and west, dip 
65° N., granite walls. Pay shoot is 250 feet long and 3 feet wide, 
free milling. Property has been worked since 1861, and at one time 
supported a number of lessees as the ore is high grade and easily mined. 
The workings consist of a shaft 372 feet deep, four levels, several 
thousand feet of drifts and three stopes each 200 feet long. Ore 
reserves 4000 tons, value $35 per ton. The mine equipment consists of 
steam hoist, two Cameron pumps, assay office, ore bins and cars. Ore 
reduced at the 10-stamp mill on Kern River. Total cost of mining and 
milling at present is about $5 per ton. Three men employed. One run 
of 1500 tons of ore gave $40 on the plates. Production to date about 
$500,000. Adjoining mines: Big Hill, Pinnacle, and Penn cut on 
south, Jeff Davis and Bull Run on east, S. F. Belle and Frank on north. 

Lida, also known as the Hamilton, consists of 180 acres in Sec. 11, 
T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M., about 5 miles northwest of Rosamond, at 
an elevation of 2800 feet. Owners, Milwaukee Mining Company, of 
Milwaukee, Wis.; C. H. Watkins, president and manager; Geo. Bert, 
superintendent. The vein is 2 feet wide, granite footwall and slate 
hanging, strike northeast and southwest, dip 25° S., free milling. 
Workings consist of a shaft 320 feet deep, three levels, 2000 feet of 
drifts, and a stope 200 feet long. Mine equipment consists of steam 
hoist, cars, assay office, ore bin, shops and dwellings. Oil is used for 
fuel. A 10-stamp mill (1000-pound stamps), and a 25-ton cyanide 
plant comprise the reduction equipment. Water obtained from springs. 
Six men employed. Property said to have a production record of 
$200,000. Small producer at present. 

Little Angel, formerly known as Warrington, consists of 40 acres, in 
Clear Creek district in Sec. 2, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., in Sequoia 
Forest Reserve, about 30 miles north of Caliente. Owner, S. C. Smith, 
of Havilah post office. Vein is small, but high grade. Short ore shoot 
in granite. Slightly developed with a tunnel 320 feet long on the vein, 
a 60-foot raise and one stope 80 feet long. Small producer some years 
ago. 

Bibl. : Report XIII, p. 192. 

Little Bonanza, a prospect in the Green Mountain mining district, in 
Sec. 35, T. 26 S., R. 32 B., M. D. M., about 5 miles south of Isabella, 



76 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, consists of 20 acres. Elevation 4100 
feet. Owner, A. R. Lucy, of Isabella. Small vein in slate and granite. 
A tunnel 140 feet long on vein and short drifts comprise the develop- 
ment work. Worked as a pocket mine. Adjoins the Mammoth mine 
on the west. 

Bibl. : Report XII, p. 191. 

Little Butte, consists of 60 acres in the Rand district in Sec. 35, 
T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., about 1 mile west of Johannesburg, at an 
elevation of 3600 feet. Owners, Little Butte Mining and Milling Com- 
pany, of Los Angeles ; C. W. Clark, president ; Dr. J. W. Oakley, secre- 
tary ; R. F. Dickinson, superintendent. Vein 4 feet wide, free milling, 
diorite footwall and porphyry hanging. Workings consist of a shaft 
610 feet deep and 3500 feet of drifts. Equipment consists of 25 
h.p. gasoline hoist, skip, cars and 2-stamp mill. Distillate, costing 
20^ per gallon, used for fuel. Ore shipped to Red Dog custom mill. 
Worked since 1907 by lessees. A production record of $150,000 is 
claimed. 

Long Tom, consisting of 120 acres, patented, was the first discovery 
in the Long Tom mining district, and the largest producer. This group 
is located in Sec. 21, T. 27 S., R. 29 E., about 20 miles northeast of 
Bakersfield, at an elevation of 1600 feet. Owner, II. Herschfeld, of 
Bakersfield. The vein has a width of 16 inches, strike northwest 
and southeast, dip 45° N., diabase footwall and granite hanging, free 
milling. Workings consist of a shaft 380 feet deep (sunk at an angle of 
45°), several thousand feet of drifts, and stopes 150 feet long. All 
ore has been stoped from the 300-foot level to the surface. Equipment 
consists of dwellings and 20-stamp mill (850-pound stamps). Idle. 
Property was a noted producer some years ago but is now only worked 
to a limited extent. Some of the old workings are caved. Two men 
employed. 

Bibl. : Report XI, p. 238. 

Mammoth, also known as the Harrison, is the largest mine in the 
Keyes district, and has been in operation over sixty years. This group, 
consisting of 100 acres, is located in Sec. 35, T. 26 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M.. 
about 5 miles south of Isabella, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at 
an elevation of 3900 feet. Owners, Mammoth Mountain Mining Com- 
pany, of Los Angeles; II. M. Russell, president; A. G. Keating, 
manager. The Mammoth vein is 2 feet wide, strike northeast and 
southwest, dip 70° E., slate footwall and granite hanging, free milling 
ore. Workings consist of a tunnel on the vein 700 feet long, and 
several thousand feet of drifts, stopes, and raises. Mine equipment 
consists of cars, shops, assay office and dwellings. The ore is reduced 



KERN COUNTY. 77 

in a 10-stamp mill (1100-pound stamps), driven by electric power 
from the Pacific Light and Power Company. Nine men employed. 
Producer. 

Bibl. : Reports VIII, p. 314; and XIII, p. 193. 

Mascot Group, 5 miles southwest of Randsburg, in the Rand mining 
district, consists of 60 acres. Owned by 6. M. Humphrey, of Rands- 
burg. Elevation, 3000 feet. Small vein of high grade ore in schist, 
free milling. Extent of ore body not determined. A shaft 50 feet 
deep and a short drift constitute the workings. Ore is reduced in Red 
Dog custom mill. Three men employed. Cast of mining and milling, 
about $20 per ton. Ore plates from $50 to $75 per ton. 

McKidney, consisting of 60 acres, in Sec. 9, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., about 28 miles north of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Re- 
serve, is a small producer in the Clear Creek district. Elevation, 4300 
feet. Owner, D. Fergusin, of Havilah post office. Three parallel veins, 
but only one, the McKidney, has been worked. Average width, 2 feet, 
strike northeast and southwest, dip 78° S., syenite footwall and granite 
hanging. Ore free milling and runs from $20 to $100 per ton in 
free gold. Workings consist of a shaft on vein 230 feet deep, two 
levels and 1000 feet of drifts and stopes. Mine equipment consists of 
a gasoline hoist, two engines (10 and 20 h.p.) one Burleigh drill, com- 
pressor plant, tools and dwelling. Three men employed. Adjoining 
mine : American Golden Eagle on the west. 

Bibl.: Report XIII, p. 193. 

Minnehaha, a small producer of the Rand district, consists of 80 acres 
in Sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., about 3 miles west of Johan- 
nesburg, at an elevation of 3800 feet. Owners, E. B. Maginnis et &L, 
of Randsburg. Small vein, high grade ore, milling, $100 per ton. 
Workings consist of four tunnels, each 400 feet long, and four shafts 
each 100 feet deep. Ore reduced in Red Dog custom mill. Three men 
employed. Production to date, $35,000. 

Minnie E. Group, consists of 40 acres, in Sec. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., in the Cove district, about 1 mile north of Kernville, in the 
Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 2950 feet. Owners, Lady 
Belle Company, of Portland, Me.; Dr. A. C. Schupphaus, president; 
C. S. Long, manager, Kernville. Prospect. Undeveloped. 

Minnesota Group, formerly known as King George. A small pro- 
ducer of the Rand mining district, in Sec. 35, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., 
M. D. M., about 3 miles south of Randsburg, at an elevation of 4000 feet. 
Owner, D. Gunderson. Holdings consist of 50 acres located in 1896. 
Small vein in schist. Ore runs $68 per ton in free gold. Workings 



78 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

consist of three shafts, each 100 feet deep and short drifts. Mine equip- 
ment consists of horse-whim, car and dwelling. Ore reduced at Bed 
Dog custom mill. Three men employed. Produced $10,000 to date. 
Adjoins Josephine group on the east. 

Mojave Consolidated Gold Mines, formerly known as Exposed Treas- 
ure, the largest producer in the Mojave mining district, ia located in 
Sec. 32, T. 11 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., about 3J miles south of Mojave, 
on south side of Soledad Bulte. The holdings, consisting of 280 acres, 
patented, and 60 acres held hy location, are owned by the Mojave Con- 
solidated Gold Mines, of Los Angeles; C. B. Campbell, president; W. H. 
Taylor, secretary; C. F. Nourse, superintendent. Property acquired 



Pboto No. a. Mill H Mojave ComoUdited Mine. 

by present owners in 1912. There are sis parallel veins on claims 
known as Mill, Assay Office, Golden Carrier, Yellow Rover, Boston and 
Exposed Treasure. These vcioB vary in width from 100 to 1000 feet, 
strike northwest and southeast, dip 30° E., granite footwall and quartz- 
porphyry hanging. Pay shoots 1500 feet long and 100 feet wide, free 
milling. Workings consist of several shafts on the vein, the deepest 
900 feet, nine levels, over 2 miles of drift, crosscuts and stopes. One 
stope is 900 feet long on Exposed Treasure claim. Several hundred 
thousand tons of ore in sight. Ore showing free gold in bottom of 900- 
foot shaft on Exposed Treasure. Shrinkage stope method of mining 
used. Mine equipment consists of cars, compressor plant, machine 
drills, shops, assay office, ore bins, dwellings, 3J miles of telephone line 
to Mojave, three steam hoists, several mine pumps and two Moreland 



KERN COUNTY. 79 

auto trucks. Reduction equipment consists of 20-stamp mill (1100- 
pound stamps) and a 60-ton cyanide plant (nine sand vats and three 
slime agitators) (see photo No. 9). Crude oil used as fuel. Water 
obtained from Soledad Pipe Line Company. Fifty men employed. 
Daily production, 60 tons. Production record to date about $2,000,000. 

Bibl. : Transactions Am. Inst. Min. Engineers, Vol. XXXVII, 
pp. 168-176 ; XXXVIII, pp. 310-319. 

Monarch Tungsten Gold Mining Company, a prospect in the Rand 
mining district, in Sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., about 1£ miles 
south of Johannesburg, at an elevation of 3800 feet, consists of 50 acres, 
owned by W. A. Wise et al., of Los Angeles. Slightly developed with 
shallow shafts. Ore has not been found in place (gold and tungsten 
float) . Joins Baltic on east. Idle. 

Nellie Dent and Content, consists of 54.3 acres, patented in 1874, in 
Sees. 28 and 33, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., in Cove mining district, about £ mile 
of Kernville, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 
3100 feet. Owners, Kern Development Company of Portland, Maine. 
C. S. Long, president and manager, Kernville. Vein has an aver- 
age width of 130 feet (low grade), between granite walls, strike S. 
27° W., dip 68° W. Pay shoot on surface can be traced for 4200 feet 
by the croppings, free milling. Workings on Nellie Dent claim con- 
sist of a shaft 150 feet deep, a drift 450 feet long and one stope 450 
feet in length, from which $100,000 was extracted. Report by C. W. 
Kempton states 1,000,000 tons of ore in sight on Content claim; also 
that 50 feet of ledge gave returns of $5 per ton in gold, and that deposit 
can be worked by open cut method of mining. Raymond, U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Mineral Statistics, in 1875, stated that "the vein on the Nellie 
Dent mine is 200 feet wide between walls, and carries ore yielding up to 
$10 or $12 per ton." Adjoining mines: Big Blue to north, Arroyo to 
northwest, Lyna and Blue Gouge No. 3 to northeast, and Maverick to 
southwest. 

Old Cowboy, consists of 80 acres in Sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., in Amalie District about 14 miles northeast of Caliente, in the 
Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 2800 feet. Owner, A. E. 
Bryson, of Los Angeles. The vein has an average width of 12 feet, 
quartz-porphyry walls, strike northeast and southwest, dip S. 40° E. 
Pay shoot 230 feet long and 12 feet wide (3 feet paid to ship), free 
milling. Workings consist of tunnel on vein 520 feet long, and sev- 
eral hundred feet of drift and stopes. Worked at times by lessees 
who extracted about $60,000 worth of shipping ore. Idle at present. 
Adjoins Gold Peak mine on west. 



80 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Ophir, consists of 40 acres, patented, in Sec. 11, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., in the Clear Creek district, about 29 miles north of Caliente, in 
the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 4200 feet. Owner, 
J. B. Waters, of Havilah post office. Vein is 4 feet wide, slate walls. 
Development work consists of a tunnel on the vein 420 feet long, 
several shallow shafts, 600 feet of drifts and one stope 130 feet long. 
Ore worked years ago in 5-stamp mill, , which has been removed to the 
King Solomon mine. Owner claims that property produced $90,000. 
Idle. 

Bibl.: Report XIII, p. 194. 

Oro Fino, one of the early producers of the Clear Creek mining 
district, consisting of 60 acres, patented, in Sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., about 30 miles north of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest 
Reserve, is owned by J. A. Bouquet, of San Francisco. The vein is 
4 feet wide, granite walls, strike northeast and southwest, dip 72° 
E. Workings consist of a tunnel on the vein 230 feet long and sev- 
eral hundred feet of drifts and stopes. Ore was milled in the custom 
mill at Havilah, now removed. Property said to have produced 
$100,000. Ore was rich in free gold. 

Bibl. : Report XIII, p. 194. 

Pickwick, a prospect, in Sec. 3, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the 
Pioneer district, about 35 miles north of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest 
Reserve, consists of 80 acres, owned by John Ross of Bodfish. Small 
vein in granite, pay ore found in pockets. Slightly developed with 
a crosscut tunnel 180 feet long, which cuts the vein at a distance of 
155 feet from the portal. Small producer. Worked by owner. 

Pine Tree, also known as American, the only gold mine in the 
Tehachapi district, consists of 190 acres (170 patented and 20 held by 
location), in Sees. 3 and 4, T. 11 N., R. 15 W., S. B. M., about 6 miles 
south of Tehachapi, owned by Geo. Gordon. Elevation 5000 feet. Two 
parallel veins but only one, the Pine Tree, has been worked, 4 feet wide, 
strike northeast and southwest, dip 45° E., granite walls. Pay shoot 
250 feet long and 4 feet wide, free milling. Workings consist of sev- 
eral tunnels on vein (longest 800 feet), and several thousand feet of 
drifts and stopes. Mine equipment consists of cars, shops and dwell- 
ings. Ore was reduced in a 4-foot Huntington mill, wood being used 
for fuel. Produced $250,000 from 1876 to 1907. Idle at present. 

Bibl. : Report XIII, p. 194. 

Piute Consolidated, a prospect, consists of 100 acres, in Valley View 
district, in Sec. 13, T. 28 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M., about 42 miles north 
of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 7500 



KERN COUNTY. 81 

feet. Owner, R. L. Wilson, of Havilah. Vein is 2 feet wide, strike 
northeast and southwest, dip 45° S., granite footwall and quartz- 
porphyry hanging. Pay shoot 150 feet long, free milling. Workings 
consist of a crosscut tunnel 300 feet long, cutting the ore at a distance 
of 150 feet from the portal, short drifts and open cuts. Ore reduced 
in a 4-stamp mill on Clear Creek. Leased by Wilson. Owner in 1913 
saved $2,500 on the plates from 80 tons of ore. 

Phoenix Development Company, formerly known as Valverde, a 
prospect in Sec. 35, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., about £ mile north 
of Johannesburg in Rand district, owned by Mrs. C. A. Burcham, of 
Randsburg. Elevation 3800 feet. Vein is large, but pay ore found 
in small lenses, schist formation. Equipment consists of 5-stamp mill 
and one stamp battery, operated by 15 h.p. gasoline engine, and a small 
friction hoist. Development work consists of shallow shafts and short 
drifts. Property produced $30,000. Idle. 

Pinmore, prospect, formerly known as Croesus, consists of 40 acres, 
in Sec. 26, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., in Rand district, about 1 
mile north of Johannesburg. Owned by Los Angeles Company. 
Small veins in schist. Equipment consists of 15 h.p West Coast gas 
engine, skip and cars. The 10-stamp mill destroyed by fire. Company 
paid $5,000 in dividends in two years. Idle. 

Placer Gold Company (placer), consists of 60 acres in Sec. 1, 
T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., about £ mile south of Johannesburg, in 
the Rand district, at an elevation of 3500 feet. Owners, Placer Gold 
Company, of Los Angeles; E. Dunham, president; H. R. Wynn, 
superintendent. Deposit consists of igneous materials from the sur- 
rounding hills. Worked by sluicing and concentrating on cocoa 
matting, then the coarse is crushed through a Bronze reduction mill 
and then over Cummings concentrating tables, the gold being extracted 
in amalgam barrel and the tungsten shipped to smelter. Water 
obtained from Randsburg Water Company and Santa Fe Railroad. 
Gasoline used for power, costing about 7^ per cubic yard for gravel 
handled. Net profit per cubic yard $1.30. Plant handles 100 cubic 
yards daily. Six men employed. Ground worked from 1898 to 1913 
by "dry wash" method. 

Polar Bear, a prospect, consists of 80 acres, in Sec. 29, T. 27 S., 
R. 33 E., in the Pioneer mining district, about 34 miles north of 
Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Elevation 3200 feet. Small 
veins in granite. Worked for "pockets' ' by G. F. Haskins, the owner. 
One tunnel on vein 210 feet long. Produced $8,000 to date. 

President, a prospect, consists of 20 acres in Sec. 4, T. 27 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes district, about 5 miles south of 



82 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Isabella, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 3200 feet. 
Owner, U. T. Smith. Short pay shoot, granite footwall and granodio- 
rite hanging. Tunnel on vein 465 feet long and 150 feet of drifts. Idle. 

Pyramid, a prospect, in the Stringer mining district, about 5 miles 
northeast of Johannesburg, consists of 40 acres at an elevation of 4000 
feet, owned by B. Ostick, of Randsburg. Small vein in schist. Work- 
ings consist of shaft 200 feet deep and 200 feet of drifts. Hoisting 
done with horse-whim. Property idle. Ostick also owns the Tip Top 
custom mill (5 stamps), near Atolia. 

Queen Esther, one of the famous mines of the Mojave district, con- 
sists of 160 acres in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., 4 miles south 
of Mojave, at an elevation of 3200 feet. Owners, Queen Esther Mining 
and Milling Company, Central Building, Los Angeles; S. W. Mudd, 
president; A. A. Burnard, manager; Gus Colberg, watchman. The 
vein has an average width of 8 feet, strike northwest and southeast, 
dip 40° E., granite-porphyry footwall and quartzite hanging. Pay 
shoot 500 feet long and 8 feet wide, free milling. Underground 
workings consist of several tunnels on the vein, drifts and slopes, 
making in all over 3500 feet of development. Equipment consists of 
cars, steam hoist, shops, office and dwellings. The reduction equip- 
ment consists of a 100-ton Cornish roll mill, and cyanide plant. Water 
obtained from Soledad pipe line. Property discovered in 1894 and 
worked until August, 1910, during which time several hundred thou- 
sand dollars in gold was extracted. Rich ore was shipped from the 
surface. 

Rainbow, a prospect, 5 miles southwest of Johannesburg, in the 
Stringer district, consists of 30 acres, owned by B. Ostick, of Rands- 
burg. Small vein in schist. Workings consist of a tunnel on vein 100 
feet long and shallow shafts. A little ore shipped to his custom mill 
at Atolia. Owner doing assessment work. 

Rand, a prospect in the Clear Creek mining district, consists of 20 
acres in Sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., about 25 miles north 
of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 4500 feet. 
Owner, G. E. Bennett, of Caliente. The vein is 1 foot wide in granite, 
free milling. Workings consist of a tunnel on the vein 500 feet long 
and 400 feet of drifts, ffwo men driving a crosscut tunnel (contract 
work) . 

Rawhide, a prospect, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 28, T. 29 S., 
R. 34 E., M. D. M., in the Oreen Mountain district, about 23 miles 
northeast of Caliente, in Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 7000 
feet. Owner, A. R. Bulong, of Piute post office. Vein is 18 inches wide. 



KERN COUNTY. 83 

strike north and south, dip 30° E., granite walls, free milling ore, high 
grade. Workings consist of a tunnel on the vein 380 feet long and 250 
feet of drifts. Two men employed. Small producer. 

Red Hill, owned by Orejana Mining Company, of Hayward, Cal. ; 
C. S. Long, president and manager; consists of 24 acres (4 acres pat- 
ented), in Sec. 21, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove mining 
district, about £ mile north of Kernville, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, 
at an elevation of 3500 feet. Three parallel and three cross veins, slate 
footwall and granite hanging. Croppings on surface are 125 feet wide 
and carry some values in gold. A short tunnel and several open cuts 
constitute the development work. Adjoining mines : Zadel, Stirrup and 
Queirolo on west, Mystic on north, and northeast extension Sumner on 
south. 

Red ffitt Group, consists of 220 acres in Sees. 16 and 21, T. 25 S., 
R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove district, about 1 mile north of Kern- 
ville, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 3600 feet. 
Owner, Orejana Mining Company, of Hayward; C. S. Long, president 
and manager. Three parallel veins having an average width of 10 feet. 
Lode outcrops for a distance of 8500 feet. Prospect. 

Rose, a prospect, consists of 20 acres, patented, in Sec. 31, T. 26 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Greenhorn Mountain district, about 8 miles 
southeast of Isabella, in Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 6000 
feet. Owner, George King, of Isabella. Vein is 3 feet wide, strike 
northeast and southwest, dip 60° E., slate footwall and granite hanging. 
Workings consist of shaft 140 feet deep, 700 feet of drifts, and a cross- 
cut tunnel 230 feet long. A little high-grade ore found. Idle. 

Royal Bohn, a prospect in the Rand district, consists of 140 acres 
about 5 miles southwest of Randsburg, owned by A. M. Powell. Small 
vein in schist. Ore shipped to Red Dog custom mill. Small producer. 
Some tungsten mined. Three men employed. 

Rustler and San Diego, a prospect adjoining the Yellow Astor mine 
on the west, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., 
about 1 mile west of Randsburg, in the Rand district. Owners, E. B. 
Maginnis and J. T. OTJeary, of Randsburg. Large body of low grade 
ore in schist and rhyolite, but only the high-grade streaks are worked. 
Three short tunnels and shallow shafts constitute the workings. Ore 
shipped to Red Dog custom mill. Two men employed. Small producer. 

Santa Ana Oold Mines, formerly known as Napoleon Consolidated, a 
producer, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 11, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., 
about 2| miles southwest of Randsburg, in the Stringer district, at an 
elevation of 4000 feet. Owner, Santa Ana Gold Mines Company, of 



84 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Los Angeles; P. Layton, president; J. Montgomery, secretary. Small 
vein in schist, high-grade ore, free milling. Workings coasist of several 
shafts from 40 to 300 feet deep. Equipment consists of 15 h.p. Fair- 
banks-Morse gas engine, cars and shop. Distillate used as fuel, cost- 
ing 20$f per gallon. Ore is shipped to Red Dog custom mill. Property 
worked from 1896 to 1903 by the company, but since that time by 
lessees. A production record of $400,000 is claimed. 

Shoestring, a prospect, consists of 20 acres in Sec. 12, T. 27 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Keyes district, about 4 miles south of Isabella, 
in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 2800 feet. Owner, Geo. 
King, of Isabella. Small vein in granite, high-grade ore, free milling. 
Workings consist of a tunnel on vein 430 feet long and 600 feet of 
drifts. Idle. 

Sidney Oroup, a small producer in the Rand mining district, consists 
of 260 acres in T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., at an elevation of 4300 feet. 
Owner, A. C. White, of Randsburg. Several parallel veins in schist. 
Ore is free milling and runs from $10 to $200 per ton in gold. Shipped 
to Red Dog custom mill. Average profit per ton, $35. Workings 
consist of several shafts from 50 to 325 feet deep, 2000 feet of drifts 
and a number of stopes. Equipment consists of two gasoline hoists (18 
h.p. and 50 h.p.), compressor plant, capacity three Ingersoll drills, 
shop and dwellings. Owner employs from three to ten men. Total 
production, $200,000. 

Silver Boy, a prospect adjoining the Queen Esther mine on the east, 
consists of 80 acres in Sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S. B. M., in the 
Mojave district, about 3£ miles south of Mojave, at an elevation of 3000 
feet. Owner, Gus. Colberg, of Mojave. Vein is 4 feet wide, quartzite 
footwall and granite-porphyry hanging. Slightly developed with shaft 
100 feet deep and 200-foot drift. A shipment of 200 tons of ore to 
Selby smelter gave returns of $20 per ton in gold and $10 in silver. 

Southern Cross Oroup, consists of 240 acres in Sees. 3 and 10. 
T. 28 S., R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Clear Creek district, about 29 mite 
north of Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 4200 
feet. Owner, A. Nielson, of Havilah post office. Vein is 20 feet wide, 
granite footwall and syenite hanging, strike northeast and southwest, 
dip 50° S. Ore free milling, low grade. Workings confined to the 
Mountain King claim and consist of a tunnel on the vein 360 feet long, 
500 feet of drifts, and several open cuts. Two men employed. 

Stanford, a prospect adjoining the Sunshine on the southwest, con- 
sists of 75 acres in Sec. 11, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., in Rand district, 
about 4 miles west of Johannesburg, at an elevation of 3800 feet. 
Owner, Sam Montgomery. Small vein in schist. Free milling ore, high 



KERN COUNTY. 85 

grade. "Workings consist of a shaft 425 feet deep and several thousand 
feet of drifts and stopes. Equipment consists of a 12 h.p. gasoline 
hoist, a horse-whim, cars, shop and dwellings. Worked to a limited 
extent by lessees. Small producer. 

Summit Oroup, adjoining the Bright Star mine on the east, consists 
of 120 acres in Sec. 11, T. 28 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M., in the Green 
Mountain district, about 35 miles northeast of Caliente, in the Sequoia 
Forest Reserve. Owner, E. Roble, of Los Angeles. The vein is 2 feet 
wide, slate walls, and is an extension of the Bright Star lead. Work- 
ings consist of a shaft 100 feet deep and 1000 feet of drifts. Ore is 
free milling and runs $50 per ton. Two men employed. Prospect. 

Sumner and North Extension, a famous producer in the pioneer min- 
ing days of Kern County, consists of 18 acres, patented in 1874, in 
Sec. 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove district, about £ mile 
north of Kernville, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 
3000 feet. Owners, Kern Development Company of Portland, Maine, 
C. S. Long, president and manager; C. C. Hamilton, secretary. Local 
office, Kernville. Six veins; three parallel veins have an average 
width of 80 feet, slate footwall and granite hanging, strike N. 20° W., 
dip 70° W. (on Sumner claim). The three cross veins are smaller, 
having a width of 2 feet and are on the North Extension claim. The 
main workings are on the Sumner claim and consist of four shafts 
from 40 to 240 feet deep, three levels at 80', 160' and 240'; 2500 
of drifts and two stopes, one 700 and the other 300 feet long. Ore is 
free milling. Equipment consists of a steam hoist, compressor plant, 
cars and shop. Ore reduced in 10-stamp mill on Kern River. Sumner 
claim has produced $600,000. Adjoining mines : Jeff Davis, Bull Run, 
Frank, and Orejana on the west, Big Blue on the south. North Exten- 
sion Sumner on the north. Raymond in Seventh Annual Report of 
U. S. Commissioner of Mining Statistics, states: "That the Sumner 
produced, in 1874, 5000 tons of ore with an average yield per ton of 
$40, total bullion product $200,000, number of stamps 16, cost of mining 
Per ton $2.50, cost of milling per ton $2, kind of power and amount, 
water, no limit. ' ' 

Bibl. : Report VIII, p. 315. U. S. Commissioner of Mining Statis- 
tics, Seventh Report. 

Sunset, a prospect, consists of 40 acres in Sec. 10, T. 27 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., in the Pioneer district, about 33 miles north of Caliente in 
the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owner, C. E. Pierrel, of Bodfish post office 
Small vein of high grade ore in granite, free milling. Slightly developed 
with tunnel on vein 230 feet long. Worked by owner. 



86 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Sunshine, a prospect, consists of 18 acres, patented, in Sec. 11, 
T. 30 S., R. 40 B., M. D. M., in the Stringer district, about 2£ miles 
southwest of Johannesburg. Owner, T. W. Atkinson, of Randsburg. 
Small vein in schist. A shaft 500 feet deep and numerous drifts and 
stopes comprise the workings. Mine equipment consists of 25 h.p. 
gasoline hoist, air compressor, four machine drills and pumping plant 
to bring water from Johannesburg to the claim. Reduction equip- 
ment consists of a 3-stamp mill and cyanide plant, operated by gasoline. 
Idle. 

Sunrise, a prospect, consists of 20 acres, in Sec. 10, T. 26 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M., in the Woody mining district, about 25 miles east of 
MacParland. Owner, A. W. McRae, of Bakersfield. Vein is 2 feet 
wide, schist footwall and granite hanging. Ore is base, carrying gold 
and copper. Some rich ore found on the surface showing free gold. 
Slightly developed with a shallow shaft and a short tunnel on the vein. 
Idle. 

Tip Top, a prospect, consists of 60 acres, in Sec. 14, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., in the Pioneer district, about 36 miles north of Caliente 
in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owner, C. E. Hayes, of Bakersfield. 
Small vein in granite. Workings consist of a tunnel on the vein 360 
feet long and 200 feet of drifts. Idle. 

Trestle, a prospect, owned by J. Trestle, and leased to the Practical 
Investment Company, of Los Angeles, W. R. Letton, president, is a 
small producer, in the Green Mountain district, in Sec. 18, T. 29 S., 
R. 34 E., M. D. M., about 26 miles northeast of Caliente, in the 
Sequoia Forest Reserve. Holdings consist of 60 acres, at an elevation 
of 7400 feet. Vein is small but high grade, granite walls. Ore is free 
milling. A tunnel on the vein 600 feet long and 200 feet of drifts 
comprise the workings. The ore is reduced in a 16-foot arrastra driven 
by steam power, wood being used for fuel. Four men employed. 

Tropica, formerly known as Big Tree, is owned by the Tropico Mining 
and Milling Company, of Rosamond; V. V. Cochran, president; 
B. Oross, secretary. The holdings consist of 80 acres in Sees. 10, 
11, 14 and 15, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M., about 5 miles northwest of 
Rosamond, at an elevation of 2500 feet. The vein is 2 feet wide, strike 
northeast and southwest, dip 45° S., quartz-porphyry walls. Work- 
ings consist of a shaft 300 feet deep, 2000 feet of drifts and a stope 
160 feet long. Mine equipment consists of a gasoline hoist, cars, shop, 
ore bins and dwellings. Reduction equipment consists of a 10-stamp 
mill, Blake crusher and cyanide plant. Gasoline used for power. Idle. 

Vrbana and Frank, consist of 24 acres, patented in 1882, in Sec. 
28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., in the Cove district, about f of a mile 
north of Kernville in the Sequoia Forest Reserve. Owners, Kern De- 



KERN COUNTY. 87 

velopment Company, of Portland, Maine. C. S. Long, president and 
manager, Kernville. The vein has an average width of 18 inches, 
granite walls, strike S. 75° W., dip 70° N. Pay shoot is 700 feet 
long and 18 inches wide, free milling and high grade. Workings 
consist of five shafts from 50 to 180 feet deep, drifts and stopes. Ore 
milled in 10-stamp mill on Kern River. Production to date $200,000. 
Adjoining mines: Sumner on northeast, Bull Run en southwest, Lady 
Belle on south, and Beauregard on northwest. Rich ore extracted by 
lessees years ago. 

White Star, a prospect, consists of 20 acres in Sec. 11, T. 27 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., in the Pioneer district, about 32 miles north of 
Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 4300 feet. 
Owner, P. A. Braden, of Bodfish post office. Small vein, granite foot- 
wall and syenite hanging. Pay shoot is 40 feet long and 10 inches wide, 
free milling. Slightly developed with a tunnel on the vein 320 feet 
long, 400 feet of drifts and a stope 40 feet long. Reduction equipment 
consists of a 2-stamp mill (1000-pound stamps), steam driven, wood 
being used for fuel. Some rich ore mined. Property said to have 
produced $30,000. Idle. 

Willow (placer), consists of 40 acres, in Sec. 22, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D. M., in the Cove district, about £ of a mile north of Kernville, at 
an elevation of 2700 feet. Owners, Orejana Mining Company, of 
Hayward. C. S. Long, president and manager. River deposit, 
slate and granite bedrock, soft. Pay gravel is about 6 feet deep. 
Extent of deposit not determined. Ditch has a capacity of 300 inches, 
the water being diverted from the Kern River. Worked several years 
ago by ground sluicing. Idle. 

Windy Odd .Mining Company, controlled by John Singleton, of 
Randsburg, owns 90 acres in Sec. 34, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., in 
the Rand district, about £ of a mile west of Johannesburg, at an eleva- 
tion of 3800 feet. Property leased to Pahey Bros. Small vein in 
schist, high grade ore, free milling. Workings consist of a shaft 200' 
deep, drifts and stopes. Equipment consists of a horse-whim, cars, 
shop and dwelling. Ore is shipped to the Red Dog custom mill. Ore 
runs from $40 to $300 per ton. Two men employed. 

Winnie, consists of 20 acres in Sec. 11, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D. M., 
about 3 miles southwest of Johannesburg, in the Stringer district, at 
an elevation of 4000 feet. Owner, C. A. Koehn, of Randsburg. A 
number of small parallel veins in schist. Worked by means of shafts 
from 50 to 250 feet deep. Ore free milling, carrying a small percentage 
of tungsten. Horse-whim, shop and dwelling on the claim. Two men 
employed. Two lessees working a portion of the holdings. Ore 
shipped to Red Dog custom mill. Small producer. 



88 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Yellow Aster, the largest gold producer in southern California, and 
one of the noted mines of the State, is located in Sec. 2, T. 29 S., 
K. 40 E., M. I). M., in the Rand mining district, about 2 miles west of 
Johannesburg. The holdings, consisting of over 600 acres, are owned 
by the Yellow Aster Mining Company, of Los Angeles ; John Singleton, 
president ; Roselle Burcham, secretary. Elevation 5200 feet. The vein 
has an average width of 250 feet, schist hanging-wall, footwall not 
exposed as yet. The country rock consists of granite, porphyry and 
schist. The workings consist of a shaft 750 feet deep, 12 miles of tun- 
nels, 15 miles of raises, winzes and stopes, and a number of open cuts 
Method of mining consists of open cut work, formerly by shaft and 
tunnels. Ore reserve about 5,000,000 tons of $3 rock. Mine equip- 



Photo Ho. ID. Hew I00-»Ump mill, Yellow After Mine. 

ment consists of three 7-ton Porter locomotives, 15 h.p. gas motor, 
machine drills, compressor plant, shops, 130 h.p. gasoline hoist and 
three air hoists. Reduction equipment consists of 130 stamps and 
cyanide plant (see photo No. 10). Steam power costs $12.50 per 
h.p. Electric power system being installed to connect with line of 
Sierra Power Company. Tailings stacked on the dump at present. 
About 500 tons of ore are crushed daily, free milling. Extraction about 
98%. Yearly production $480,000. Production to date (1895-1914) 
over $8,000,000. Total mining and milling costs $1.55 per ton. Water 
is obtained by pumping from two springs, one at Ooler, 7 miles north- 
west of the mine, and another 4 miles northeast; cost about 40 cents 
per 1000 gallons. About 20,000 b. m. feet of timber per month is 
required. Number of men employed 175. Monthly dividends at 
present $5,000. Adjoining mines : Consolidated on the east and 
Maginnea on the west. 



KERN COUNTY. 8iK 

Zenda, a producer, consists of 180 acres in Sec. 30, T. 30 S., R. 33 
E., M. D. M., in the Amalie district, about 12 miles northeast of 
Caliente, in the Sequoia Forest Reserve, at an elevation of 3500 feet. 
Owner, Zenda Mining and Milling Company, of Los Angeles ; Dr. C. W. 
Bryson, president; T. Martin, secretary. Leased to J. Faucet. Vein 
has an average width of 30 feet, granite footwall and quartz-porphyry 
hanging, strike northeast and southwest, dip 40° N. Pay shoot over 
300 feet long and 30 feet wide, free milling. Workings consist of 
a tunnel on the vein 230 feet long and several hundred feet of drifts 
and stopes. Some ore extracted from open cuts. Several hundred 
thousand tons of ore in sight. An automatic tramway (48 buckets 
holding 200 pounds each), f of a mile long, conveys the ore from the 
mine to the mill. Equipment consists of 120 h.p. Fairbanks-Morse gas 
engine, 20 h.p. pump, assay office, small electric plant, and dwellings. 
Reduction equipment consists of 10 stamps, tube mill (4J'xl8'), 
Dorr classifier and thickener, and five cyanide tanks (daily capacity 10 
tons each). New equipment cost the lessee $40,000. The pebbles for 
the tube mill come from San Diego and cost $25 per ton. Gasoline 
used for power. Four men employed. 

GYPSUM. 

Gypsum deposits of varying quality occur for many miles along the 
lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada, reaching from Caliente on the 
south nearly to Porterville on the north. 

In the valley of Cottonwood Creek, 5 miles north of Pampa Station, 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad, the beds are rather extensive, and a 
number of mines have been opened. The gypsum here occurs both as 
a crust on the surface and as interstratified beds. The latter vary in 
thickness from 20 inches to 5 feet, and lie upon a bed of marl. The 
material is sacked and hauled 8 miles to Wade Station, and is used 
for fertilizing purposes. 

U. S. G. S. Bull. 223, p. 121. 

W. A. Fauntleroy mined gypsum several years ago from his property 
in Sees. 21, 27, 28 and 29, T. 29 S., R. 30 E., M. D. M., on both sides of 
Cottonwood Creek. 

Near McKittrick, in Sec. 21, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., a deposit of gypsum 
has been worked by the California Oypsum and Mineral Company. 
This deposit is 2 feet deep, and overlain by 6 inches of soil. 

Abbott and Hickox own a deposit in Sec. 30, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., 
about 2\ miles southwest of McKittrick. Deposit that has been worked 
is about 500 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 12 inches thick. About 5000 
tons have been shipped. The analysis of this gypsite gives an equiva- 
lent of 92.5% of gypsum (hydrous calcium sulphate). 
7eb— -14456 



90 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

There are several small areas in the vicinity of Sunset that carry thin 
deposits of gypsite. Large quantities are also reported in the south- 
eastern part of Kern County. 

Bibl. : Reports X, p. 223 ; XI, p. 233 ; XII, p. 324 ; U. S. G. S. Bull. 
223, p. 121 ; Bull. 413, pp. 16-20. 

IRON. 

Deposits of iron ore occur at Woody, in Sees. 10 and 15, T. 26 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M. ; at foot of Mount Breckenridge in Sec. 4, T. 29 S., 
and near San Emidio in Sec. 17, T. 9 N., R. 21 W., S. B. M. None of 
these deposits have been worked, and their commercial value is doubt- 
ful on account of the cost of transportation. 

Iron Mountain, consists of 80 acres in Sees. 10 and 15, T. 26 S., 
R. 29 E., M. D. M., about 1£ miles south of Woody. Owned by J. 
Werringer of Woody. Deposit is 300 feet wide, consisting of magnetite, 
mica schist walls. A few open cuts constitute the development work. 
Some of the ore contains 70% iron. 

Iron Mountain Nos. 1 and 2, consist of 40 acres at the foot of Mount 
Breckenridge, in Sec. 4, T. 29 S., R. 31 E., M. D. M., about 20 miles 
north of Caliente. Formerly owned by D. Lutz, of Bakersfield. Deposit 
consists of hematite from 10 to 300 feet wide, mica walls, strike north- 
east and southwest, dip 45° W. A few open cuts constitute the 
development work. 

Two to One, located in Sec. 17, T. 19 N., R. 21 W., S. B. M., owned 
by C. R. Merriam, of Bakersfield. Consists of a massive deposit of 
hematite from 50 to 400 feet in width. Slightly developed by means 
of open cuts and short tunnels. 

LIME AND LIMESTONE. 

The lime industry is a large and important one at Tehachapi, on the 
Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads. The industry began several 
years ago by burning lime for local use, and then for shipment to other 
points, until now the Tehachapi lime is known all over southern 
California. 

Limestone outcrops at many points in this area, also at Keene, and 
along Erskine Creek, some 30 miles north of Caliente (see photo No. 11.) 

Jameson Lime Company owns an extensive deposit of limestone in 
the west half of Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 2 miles 
east of Tehachapi. These holdings, consisting of 320 acres, are con- 
trolled by J. W. Jameson, of Taft, and an excellent grade of lime is pro* 
duced. The limestone is in part coarsely crystallized, and blue to white 
in color. The belt is at least 2500 feet wide and several hundred feet 



92 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

thick, with practically no overburden. The deposit has been worked 
for twenty years. Limestone is burned in two modern kilns, having a 
daily capacity of 40 barrels each. Oil is used for fuel, costing 50«! per 
barrel. Plant is operated about six months during the year, ten men 
being employed. 

Bibl. : Bull. No. 38, p. 70. The Structural and Industrial Materials 
of California, issued by California State Mining Bureau, 

Mountain Summit IAme Company, of Los Angeles, owns a large lime- 
stone quarry at Keene Station, 8 miles northwest of Tehachapi, and 
Borne years ago considerable lime was produced. Lime is similar to the 
Tehachapi product. 

Summit Lime Company, formerly known as the Union Lime Com- 
pany, owns 640 acres, patented in Sec. 35, T. 12 K, R. 15 W., 8. B. M., 
about 3 miles south of Tehachapi. F. 0. Wyman, president; W. O. 
North, secretary; C. W. Shoff, superintendent; Home office, 303 Heney 
Building, Los Angeles. Trade name, "Blue Summit Lime." The 



Photo No. 1Z. Summit Lima Company'* Plant at TehacbapL 

limestone occurs in heavy beds, with a strike of N. 75° "W., and varies in 
color from white to light blue. It is all crystallized, in some places 
coarse grained, and elsewhere fine grained. The quarry is 300 feet 
long and 300 feet deep, the rock being conveyed to the kilns by an auto- 
matic tram. The company operates four kilns at the deposit, and four 



KERN COUNTY. 93 

near Tehachapi, in Sec. 21, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M. (see photo 
No. 12). The limestone is hauled from the quarry to the Tehachapi 
plant, 3 miles, with eight-horse teams. Total capacity of the two 
plants is 560 barrels. Oil used for fuel. Output in 1912 was 120,000 
barrels. Fifty men employed. Product sold in southern California and 
in Arizona. 

BibL : Report XIII, p. 628 ; Bull. No. 38, p. 71. 

MACADAM. 

Kern County Rock Quarry, located in Sec. 21, T. 31 S., R. 32 E., 
M. D. M., at Keene Station, is owned by the county of Kern, and com- 
prises an area of 100 acres, patented. The deposit is a rather coarse- 
grained, friable granite, which it is proposed to crush and use as 
macadam on the county roads. Such rock, however, is a poor road- 
making material. A large crushing plant, to be operated by electricity, 
is being installed. Twenty men employed. 

MAGNESITE. 

Bissell Deposit is unique in being the only occurrence of magnesite 
of evidently sedimentary origin that has been reported in the United 
States. These holdings, consisting of 40 acres, are located in Sees. 
11 and 12, T. 10 N., R. 11 W., S. B. M., about J of a mile north of 
Bissell Station, on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, 11 miles 
east of Mojave. Located in 1907 by B. M. Denison et al., of Tehachapi. 
The magnesite occurs in definitely bedded form, interstratified with clay 
and clay shales, the whole having a width of some 300 feet, and can be 
traced for a distance of 2500 feet. The workings. consist of open cuts 
and shallow shafts from 10' to 30' deep.* 

Section at prospect cut near Bissell Station shows : 



Feet 



Inches 



Magnesite 

Olay, thin streak. 

Magnetite 

Olay, thin streak 

Magnesite 

Olay (with thin streak of magnesite). 

Magnesite 

Olay, greenish 

Magnesite 

Olay, greenish 



1 
1 



Totals .. 



2 



2 

6 

8 
8 
S 



3 



(Bull. No. 540, p. 515, U. S. Geol. Surv.) 



•Shipments are being made (May, 1915) to the calcining plant of the Rex Plaster 
Co., at Los Angeles. 



94 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Analyses of samples of magneslte from Blssell. 



Sid — 

AlsOa+Fe*Oa 

CaO 

MgO 

CO« 

Undetermined 

Totals ... 





1 


1 


8 


4 




9.64 
2.46 
4.25 
87.19 
40.70 
5.76 


8.51 
2.94 
8.86 
88.82 
40.12 
6.76 


0.03 
1.40 
1.66 
42.78 
45.78 
2.46 


4.73 
.76 




Traee 




44.20 




cvt 




2.97 








100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 







Theoretically pure magnesite is composed of 47.6% of magnesia 
plus 52.4% of carbon dioxide. 

Bibl. : Bull. No. 540, pp. 512-516, U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Marble occurs near Neenach, on the south slope of the Tehachapi 
range, in Brights Valley, in San Emigdio Canyon, and along Erskine 
Creek. The Neenach deposit is the only one that has been worked. 

Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, owned by the Southern California 
Marble Company, is located in Sec. 2, T. 9 N., R, 17 W., S. B. M., 
near Neenach, on the south slope of the Tehachapi range. The deposit 
consists of a large body of fine-grained marble, consisting of a number 
of beds of various colors, dipping at an angle of 35° into the mountain. 
In the quarry is found white marble with reddish-brown and heavy 
blue veins. This marble has been used in the Stimson Block, Los 
Angeles, in the Spreckels bandstand, Golden Gate Park, Goldberg & 
Bowen's store, Sutter street, San Francisco. Quarry has been idle 
since 1904. 

Bibl.: Report VI, part 1, p. 23; XIII, p. 629; Bull. No. 38, p. 100. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

Kern County has a number of mineral springs, especially along the 
Kern River. No water on the market. 

Bibl. : Water Sup. Pap. No. 338, U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Air Compressor Springs, also known as Hobo, owned by U. S. Govern- 
ment, consist of three springs on the Kern River in Sec. 15, T. 27 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D. M., about 3 miles west of Bodfish post office. Waters 
contain sulphuretted hydrogen ; temperature 140° F. ; said to be good 
for rheumatism. A number of people visit the springs during the sum- 
mer months. No accommodations. 

Delonagha Hot Springs, owned by II. H. Fish, of Bakersfield, consist 
of three springs in Sec. 26, T. 27 S., R. 31 E., M. D. M., about 34 
miles north of Caliente, at an elevation of 2500 feet. Water contains 
iron, sodium and other salts; temperature 116° F. ; said to be good for 
rheumatism. Accommodations for a small number of people. 



KERN COUNTY. 95 

Democrat Springs, owned by D. D. Hill, of Bakersfield, consist of five 
springs in Sec. 5, T. 28 S., R. 31 B., M. D. M., about 35 miles north 
of Bakersfield, at an elevation of 2250 feet. Auto stage conveys guests 
from Bakersfield to the springs. Water contains iron, sodium and other 
salts; temperature 115° P. Several buildings afford accommodations 
for a number of people. 

Kernville Hot Springs, owned by A. Brown Company, of Kernville, 
consist of two springs in Sec. 34, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., on the 
Kern River, 2 miles northeast of Kernville, at an elevation of 2700 feet. 
Water contains iron and salts that are a curative for blood diseases; 
temperature 100° F. No accommodations. 

Koehn Springs consist of five springs in Sec. 8, T. 30 S., R. 38 E., 
M. D. M., about 15 miles west of Randsburg. Water contains borax and 
other salts. Temperature 80° F. 

NeUVs Hot Springs, owned by J. Neill, of Isabella, consist of three 
springs in Sec. 31, T. 26 S., R. 33 E., M. D. M., about 3 miles north 
of Isabella, at an elevation of 2500 feet. Water contains iron, sodium 
chloride, and other salts ; temperature 130° F. ; good for blood diseases. 
Accommodations for a few guests. 

Werringer Sulphur Springs, owned by J. Werringer, of Woody, con- 
sist of six springs in Sec. 3, T. 26 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., about i 
mile south of Woody, at an elevation of 1600 feet. Water contains sul- 
phur and some iron. Accommodations for several people. 

Willow Springs, owned by E. M. Hamilton Estate, consist of twenty- 
three springs in Sec. 13, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M., about 3 miles 
west of Rosamond, at an elevation of 2600 feet. Water contains sodium 
chloride, borates, and other salts. Well known summer resort. Accom- 
modations for a number of guests. 

NATURAL GAS. 

The production of natural gas in 1913 amounted to 7,111,237 M cubic 
feet, valued at $568,899. (For details see Bulletin No. 69, issued by 
California State Mining Bureau.) 

ORNAMENTAL STONES. 

Sapphirine chalcedony is found at Kane Springs, in masses of a deep 
sky-blue color, with the grape-cluster surface characteristic of this 
material. Undeveloped ; extent not determined. 

This stone was highly valued in ancient times and was a favorite mate- 
rial for the carved Babylonian seals, 3000 to 4000 B. C. That used for 
this purpose came from Persia. 

Bibl. : Bull. 37, p. 73. 

Rose quartz and opal reported in Kern County, north of Kernville, 
by J. W. Stockton, of Wasco. 



96 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

PETROLEUM. 

Kern produces more petroleum than any other county in California. 
and over 58% of the total yield of the state. 

Production in 1913 amounted to 58,698,432 barrels, valued at $27,- 
038,474. (For details see Bulletin No. 69, issued by California State 
Mining Bureau.) 

SANDSTONE. 

A large quantity of sandstone is found a few miles south of Tehachapi. 
and in San Emigdio Canyon, the former deposit being worked several 
years ago by the Kern Development Syndicate. 

Kern Development Syndicate Quarry, owned by the Kern Develop- 
ment Syndicate, of Los Angeles, consists of 140 acres in Sec 14, 
T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M., 6 miles south of Tehachapi, and 3 miles 
from Erie Station, on the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads. The 
sandstone is of many colors — green, blue, red, tan and drab. The forma- 
tion lies at an angle of 10°, and varies in thickness from 3 to 30 feet. 
The supply seems to be unlimited. The stone used in the construction 
of the Pasadena library building, and the Date and Fish blocks of Los 
Angeles. Quarry idle. 

Bibl. : Bull. 38, pp. 128 and 370. 

SULPHUR. 

In the Sunset oil district, on the western side of Kern County, there 
are deposits of sulphur which altogether cover an area of several acres. 
Open cuts from 10 to 15 feet deep show that these deposits are made 
up of both high and low grade sulphur ore, the larger part, however, 
consists of drift cemented with sulphur or decomposed rock or earth 
permeated with sulphur. 

Bibl. : Bull. 3, p. 33 ; Bull. 38, p. 372 ; Reports XI, p. 233, and XII, 
p. 410. 

TUNGSTEN. 

Scheelite (CaW0 4 ), the principal tungsten mineral of the State, is 
found in the Amalie, Rand and Stringer districts, where it is usually 
gold bearing. 

Bibl. : Bull. 67, p. 176. 

Black Hawk Group (listed under Gold). 

Gold Crown Consolidated (listed under Gold). 

J. Hodgson, Care American Hotel, Howard St., San Francisco, has a deposit of 
tungsten ore, in the form of hubnerite. It is i mile from the Granite King Mine, 
28 miles west of Randsburg. 

Monarch Tungsten Gold Mining Company (listed under Gold). 

Placer Gold Company (listed under Gold). 

Royal Bohn (listed under Gold). 

Santa Ana Gold Mines (listed under Gold). 

Sunshine (listed under Gold). 

Winnie (listed under Gold). 



KERN COUNTY. 97 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

References — State Mining Bureau Publications. 

Report IV, pages 31, 159, 220. 224, 226, 227, 264, 293, 296, 374, 375, 379. 

Report V, pages 67, 68, 71, 88, 89, 92, 93, 95, 106, 107, 113, 117, 118. 

Report VI, Part I, pages 22, 23, 29, 36, 54-58, 93, 96-97, 105, 111-113, 117, 125, 

136, 137 ; Part II, pages 63, 184. 
Report VII, pages 66-70. 
Report VIII, pages 24, 309-324. 
Report IX, page 46. 
Report X, pages 219-226. 
Report XI, pages 233-239. 

Report XII, pages 26, 28, 141-148, 324, 334, 353, 354, 410, 456-459. 
Report XIII, pages 31, 35, 185, 199, 534, 535, 605-614, 628. 
Bulletin No. 3, pages 21-63. 
Bulletin No. 19, pages 106-131. 
Bulletin No. 24, page 50. 

Bulletin No. 32, pages 12, 13, 17, 19, 34, 35, 51-55, 195-197, 222, 224, 225. 
Bulletin No. 37, pages 52, 101, 106. 
Bulletin No. 38, pages 69-72, 100, 128, 167, 168, 212, 274, 275, 284, 355, 359, 361, 

363, 365, 366, 367, 369, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378. 
Bulletin No. 50, pages 293-297. 
Bulletin No. 67, pages 10. 19. 20, 22, 25, 28, 29, 43, 46, 48, 52, 58, 59, 61, 66, 67, 69, 

72-75, 77, 79, 84, 90, 93, 96, 108, 110, 135, 151, 156, 170, 172, 176, 177, 180, 185, 

193 196 
Bulletin' No. 69, pp. 118, 195, 196, 205, 307, 501. 

References — U. S. Government Publications. 
U. S. Pacific R. R. Report, Executive Document No. 78, Senate 33d Congress. 

Second session, published 1856, page 18; Vol. 5, page 15. 
Geology of California, Vol. I, p. 217, published in 1865. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1882, pages 438-439. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1883-84, page 641. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1885, page 387. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1903, pages 173, 175, 176, 681, 

682,685-687. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1904, pages 165, 166, 171-175, 

718, 719, 723, 724. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1905, pages 163-169, 171-173, 

177. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1906, pages 178-182, 184, 185, 

189 874 875 879. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1907, Part I, pages 189-193, 198, 

199, 209, 210. Part II, pages 409, 410. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of IT. S., 1908, Part I, pages 316, 318-320, 

324-326, 335, 336. Part II, pages 335, 336. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1909 Part I, pages 261, 263-265, 

268, 269, 276, 277. Part II, pages 372-375. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1910, Part I, pages 349, 350, 352. 

354, 358-360, 367, 368. Part II, pages 413. 418-420. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of IT. S., 1911, Part I, pages 465, 466-470, 

474-476, 485, 486. Part II, pages 427-429. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources of U. S., 1912, Part I, pages 262, 571, 572, 

575-578, 581, 584-686, 591, 612-614. Part II, pages 450-452. 
Bulletin No. 18, U. S. Geol. Surv. Irrigation near Bakersfield, Cal. 
Bulletin No. 46, U. S. Geol. Surv. Kern River (Physiography). 
Bulletin No. 46, U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply paper, physical characteristics 

of Kern River, Cal. 
Bulletin No. 213, U. S. Geol. Surv. McKittrick. 
Bulletin No. 223, U. S. Geol. Surv. Page 121. 
Bulletin No. 406, U. S. Geol. Surv. McK it trick-Sunset. 
Bulletin No. 413, U. S. Geol. Surv. Gypsum deposits of Cal., pages 16-20 (pages 

23-47). 
Bulletin No. 430, U. S. Geol. Surv. Gold mining in the Randsburg quadrangle. 
Bulletin No. 471, U. S. Geol. Surv. San Joaquin Valley, south end. 
Bulletin No. 540, U. S. Geol. Surv. Magnesite deposits in California, pp. 512-516. 
Water Supply Paper No. 338, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



8ee— 14456 



KINGS COUNTY. 99 



KINGS COUNTY. 

By WALTER W. BRADLEY, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in September. 1914. 

Kings County was created March 22, 1893, from a part of Tulare, 
and in 1909 extended by annexing a portion of Fresno County, so that 
at the present time its area is 1257 square miles. Its outline approxi- 
mates a right triangle with the vertical side on the east, bounded by 
Tulare County, and the hypothenuse on the northwest, bounded by 
Fresno. Kern County forms the base at the south, while Monterey 
adjoins on the southwest, cutting off the point of the angle. The most 
notable single geographical feature of Kings County is Tulare Lake, 
which has varied in the past from a condition of complete dryness to 
a water area of over 400 square miles. Its present area is between 
30 and 40 square miles. Its water is derived from the Kings River in 
high flood periods, and the reason for such wide variation in superficial 
area is that it lies in a shallow basin with very flat-sloping sides. 

With the exception of the Kettleman and Kreyenhagen Hills and the 
edge of the Diablo Range at its southwest corner, Kings County is 
almost entirely a valley county. For this reason its mineral resources 
are not as prominent as its agricultural interests. The value of the 
total recorded mineral production of the county to the end of 1913, is 
$219,830. To this sum, the following have contributed in the order 
named: Brick, quicksilver, fuller's earth, natural gas, gypsum and 
mineral paint. Occurrences of chromite are known but they are as yet 
undeveloped. 

The southwestern two thirds of the county is lacking in transporta- 
tion facilities, while the northeastern part has both the transcontinental 
line of the Santa Fe and two branch lines of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. 

The Associated Oil, Standard Oil and Independent Producers' Trans- 
portation companies have oil pipe lines passing through the county, 
but no oil has as yet been produced here in commercial quantities. The 
San Joaquin Light and Power Company supplies portions of the county 
with electricity. 



100 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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KINGS COUNTY. •--•"".: ' -• / 101 

- -V:V": ••.••" -'• 
BRICK. •-.;..:• ,:\: '::.-• 

Clinker Brick Company, J. H. Burnett, Hanford, owner. This plant 
has been idle since 1911, and is now partly dismantled. It is at Clinker 
siding on the Santa Fe, 1£ miles south of Hanford. A stiff mud and 
wire-cutting brick machine and three field kilns were used. Power 
was furnished by an oil burning steam plant. All bricks for local 
operations are at present shipped in from points outside of the county. 

Trewhitt Brickyard, Hanford, abandoned. 

Bibl. : Bull. No. 38, p. 243. 

CHROMITE. 

Chromite float has been found in the serpentine area at the southwest 
corner of Kings County, near Parkfield, Monterey County, but the 
deposits are as yet undeveloped. 

PULLER'S EARTH. 

C. E. Boyd of Hanford reports a small production of both fuller's 
earth and gypsum from a group of claims in Sec. 13, T. 24 S., 
R. 17 E., in the edge of the Kreyenhagen Hills northwest of Dudley. 
Two men were at work a part of the year. 

Tulare Lake View Group. Louis and Oscar Couch, R. E. Stevens 
et al., of Hanford, have located this group of five claims in Sees. 26, 
35 and 36, T. 21 S., R. 17 E., in the Kettleman Hills, near the Fresno 
County line, southeast of Coalinga, for "gypsum, fuller's earth apd 
phosphates." Only assessment work has been done so far. 

GYPSUM. 

C. E. Boyd of Hanford reports a small tonnage of gypsum produced 
in 1913, as well as fuller's earth, from his claims in Sec. 13, T. 24 S., 
R 17 E., northwest of Dudley. (See also under Puller's Earth.) 

Tulare Lake View Group (see under fuller's earth). 

MINERAL PAINT. 

C. E. Boyd of Hanford reports having produced a small tonnage 
of mineral paint in connection with fuller's earth and gypsum from 
claims near Dudley, in the southwestern corner of the county. 

NATURAL GAS. 

Natural gas is obtained from a number of artesian wells around the 
eastern side of Tulare Lake, in T. 21 and 22 S., R. 22 E., south of 
Corcoran and west of Angiola; also in T. 20 S., R. 20 E., near Stratton 
(Stratford post office), on the north side of the lake. The gas is found 
at varying depths down to between 1000 and 1100 feet. Some of the 



102 *."• v ■ **iI&JSS AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

wejls yfeiy^ulpfctfr water. The gas is utilized locally, on several of the 
ranches where found, for lighting and heating, and also for operating 
gas engines. Among those having gas wells may be mentioned the 
following : 

Boot Bros, (see E. Workman). 

L. Charles of Hanford, in Sec. 13, T. 22 S., R. 22 E., west of 
Angiola. 

jR. D. Hunter, near Corcoran, has two 2-inch bored wells, 300 to 500 
feet deep, both flowing. 

A. H. Johnson, in Sec. 26, T. 21 S., R. 22 E., 2 miles south of 
Corcoran. 

O. P. Quimby, in Sec. 24, T. 22 S., R. 22 E., west of Angiola. 
W. N. Stratton of Stratford, on his ranch near that place. 

L. D. Tennant, P. O. box 86, Corcoran, in Sec. 14, T. 22 S., R. 22 E., 
west of Angiola. 

Esau Workman (formerly Boot Bros.), in Sec. 25, T. 22 S., R. 22 E., 
west of Angiola. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 567 ; Bull. 3, pp. 20, 68 ; Bull. 19, p. 183. 

PETROLEUM. 

There are a couple of strips of possible oil-producing territory in the 
Kettleman and Kreyenhagen Hills, running through Kings County, 
between the Coalinga district of Fresno County on the northwest and 
the Lost Hills district of Kern County to the southeast. A number of 
companies are drilling in this section, but no production of oil in 
commercial quantities has as yet resulted. For a detailed description of 
the geology and possibilities of this district, see Bulletin No. 69 of the 
State Mining Bureau, "Petroleum Industry of California." 

QUICKSILVER. 

The quicksilver district of Kings County is at its extreme western 
end in the corner formed between Fresno and Monterey counties. It 
is on the eastern edge of Table Mountain which extends northwesterly 
through that part of Monterey and forms a portion of the boundary 
with Kings. Table Mountain is principally of serpentine. Parkfield, 
Monterey County, is the nearest town. 

Dawson Pit. H. Dawson, Lemoore, owner. This is a quicksilver 
prospect on patented land in the NW. i, Sec. 28, T. 23 S., R. 16 E., near 
the Kings Company. Only a small amount of development work has 
been done. 

Bibl. : Bull. No. 27, p. 122, 



KINGS COUNTY. 103 

Fair View Group. G. H. French and J. A. Greenlaw, Parkfield, 
owners. In the SW. i, Sec. 28, T. 23 8., K. 16 E. Assessments only. 
Bibl. : Bull. No. 27, p. 122. 

Francis Claims (see Kings Quicksilver Mining Company). 

Kings Quicksilver Mining Company, Ltd. Wm. Gray, president; 
W. P. Damn, secretary ; office, 520 King street, London, Ontario, Can- 
ada. A. A. Lewis, superintendent at the mine. This property includes 
the Segregation and Summit claims owned by C. F. Francis, under 
bond, besides a number of claims located by members of the company 
on adjoining ground. The group is principally in Sec. 20, T. 23 S., 
K. 16 E., 14 miles by road east of Parkfield and 40 miles north of east 



Photo No. 116. Ten ic 

from San Miguel on the Coast Division of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road. Elevation 3100 feet (bar.) at the lower tunnel. The country 
rocks are serpentine, shale and metamorphic sandstone. The ore values 
occur in a crushed zone, in part as stockworks, carrying cinnabar and 
native mercury with some calcite. In the upper level this zone shows 
about 35 feet wide, with strike southeast and dip 45° to 50° SW., 
and when visited had been drifted on for 70 feet. The upper adit was 
in 700 feet (part crosscut and part drift), with two raises to the surface 
and one winze of 85 feet to the lower adit. The latter has 850 feet of 
work and reaches a depth of 200 feet below the outcrop. Five men 
were at work. Hand drills and augers are used. 



104 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The mine was originally worked about 1902, and again in 1905 and 
1910, during which operations it is credited with a total output valued 
at over $13,000. The reduction equipment consisted of a series of pipe 
retorts. The present company has this year completed a 10-ton Scott 
fine-ore furnace (see photo No. 116), with brick condensers. The 
bricks were burned in a field kiln at the mine. It is intended to install 
concentrators. These and the rock breaker will be driven by a 25 h.p. 
crude oil engine ; and the furnace blower by a 4 h.p. distillate engine. 

Bibl.: Bull. No. 27, p. 122; U. 8. Q. 8., Min. Res. 1902, p. 253; 
1912, Pt. I, p. 939 ; 1913, Pt. I, p. 204. 

Segregation and Summit (see Kings Quicksilver Mining Company). 



MADEBA COUNTY. 105 



MADERA COUNTY. 

By r. p. Mclaughlin and Walter w. bradley, field assistants. 

Field Work in July, 1913, and July, 1914. 

Madera County, which was created March 11, 1893, has an area of 
2112 square miles. It was formed from Fresno County which adjoins 
it on the south and west, the San Joaquin River being the boundary 
line between the two. On the north are Merced and Mariposa counties, 
with Mono on the east. 

Madera County is longest — approximately 100 miles — in a northeast- 
southwesterly direction. The western half is in the San Joaquin Valley 
proper, while the eastern boundary line runs along the summit of the 
divide of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and possesses a number of peaks 
exceeding 12,000 feet in altitude. Among these may be mentioned: 
Mt. Lyell, 13,090 feet; Rodgers Peak, 13,056 feet; Ritter Mountain, 
13,156 feet ; McClure Mountain, 12,500 feet ; Banner Peak, 12,957 feet ; 
and the Minarets, 12,000 to 12,278 feet. The high Sierran section 
abounds in glacial lakes and meadows. The Devil's Post Pile, a knob of 
hexagonal, basaltic columns, which has been designated as a " National 
Monument' ' is in this part of Madera County near Mammoth Pass and 
the head of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. 

Geology. 

A detailed geological survey was not made, but a general description 
can be given, as the relations of the formations are comparatively sim- 
ple. There are several parallel belts running northwesterly across the 
county. 

The western part of the county (the San Joaquin Valley) is nearly 
level and consists of sedimentary and alluvial beds lying nearly hori- 
zontal. These horizontal beds rest on steeply dipping schist which is 
exposed in the westerly foothills forming the eastern margin of the 
San Joaquin Valley. 

The schist belt is 4 or 5 miles wide, its western boundary being the 
eastern edge of the flat floor of the San Joaquin Valley. The eastern 
boundary of the schist is a contact with granite or granodiorite which 
line runs as follows: From the western base of Green Mountain cross- 
ing the Southern Pacific Railroad about 1 mile east of Jesbel to a 
point near Sesame. This zone of schist contains the copper deposits of 
the county. It has been looked upon favorably by some people desir- 
ous of prospecting for oil, but of course no such occurrence is probable 
or even possible. 

The granite occupies a zone from 5 to 10 miles wide, its eastern 
boundary being schist or slate. This line of contact runs southwest 
from Grub Gulch to Coarse Gold and the vicinity of Hildreth. The 



106 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

granite or granodiorite is usually coarse-grained and decomposed for 
a depth of about 20 or 30 feet. Exceptional spots exist where the rock 
is fine-grained and not decomposed to great depth. It is these excep- 
tional spots which furnish the valuable deposits of building stone. 
Dikes are in evidence in various parts of the area standing up as ridges 
40 to 50 feet wide. The dikes observed were of finer texture than the 
surrounding rock and possibly composed of different minerals, as 
muscovite was noted in some of them. 

Schist and slate exist as a belt from 3 to 5 miles wide along Potter 
Ridge. Its eastern boundary is a contact with a large body of granite. 
The contact runs immediately west of Wassamma ("Poison Switch") 
and near Lone Cedar Ranch. Granite dikes, from a few feet to i mile 
wide, cut the slate and schist in many places. This is more fully illus- 
trated with a drawing by W. H. Storms, Report of State Mineralogist, 
XII, 1894, p. 166. This belt of schist and slate carries most of the 
gold bearing veins of the county. Toward the east, into the high Sier- 
ras, most of the rock is granite, with some metamorphic areas near Mt. 
Raymond and around The Minarets. Within the larger granite area, 
occupying the eastern portion of the county, are found smaller areas of 
metamorphic rock, largely quartzite. 

Mt. Raymond, White Chief Mountain and Iron Mountain, T. 5 S., 
R. 22 and 23 E., immediately east of the Mariposa Big Tree grove, are 
composed largely of metamorphic rocks. The most of it is quartzite 
which in some places shows the original bedding very much contorted. 
In most places, however, the rock is massive and cut by numerous frac- 
tures or cleavage planes. Granite and possibly other igneous rocks are 
observed occasionally as though intruded in large masses. South of the 
Big Trees, along the road from Summerdale ("Fish Camp ,, ) to Mt. 
Raymond, basic igneous rock occurs, probably as surface flows similar 
to those observed farther east. 

Considerable prospecting was done in the region some twenty or 
thirty years ago, apparently without favorable results Recently con- 
siderable work has been done in prospecting for iron and copper. 
Specimens of the following minerals were collected in the district: 
sphalerite, pyrrhotite, magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite and 
siderite. 

Geologic notes— Sierra Nevada Mountains, southwest of Mono Lake. 

The following geologic observations were made during a hasty trip 
and are presented as of possible value to future work in the neighbor- 
hood: 

At the head of Bloody Canyon midway between Sardine Lake and 
Walker Lake is a contact of granodiorite and metamorphic rock, the 
latter lying to the west. The red color of the canyon sides seems due to 



MADERA COUNTY. 107 

iron oxide from the weathered metamorphic rocks. Dikes of consider- 
able size cut the granodiorite. 

The metamorphic rock from Mono Pass to Parker Peak are mostly of 
a slaty nature, almost black. They dip steeply and are probably a 
portion of a fold formed at the time of the granite intrusion. All of 
the dips observed by the writer were to the west, but, according to the 
old State Geological Survey, farther north and west the series dips 
toward the east, indicating a synclinal fold. Bedding is distinct and 
singularly regular in strike, especially near Parker Peak, where It is 
N. 25° W. About i mile east of Mono Pass schist and conglomerate 
accompany the slate. Very little quartz float is observed in the 
debris but at Mono Pass there are several old prospect holes all 
apparently idle for many years. Running N. 25° W. for about 
2 miles from the summit of Parker Peak is a particularly noticeable 
light colored bed or dike following the bedding. About 1 mile west of 
Parker Lake, on the north side of the canyon, is a very prominent out- 
crop exposed for several thousand feet and suggesting by its appearance 
a quartz ledge. The western edge of this metamorphic mass is clearly 
exposed in contact with granitic rocks and runs along the following 
southerly line from a point £ mile west of Tioga Pass to a point J mile 
east of Mammoth Peak, thence along the eastern base of Kuna Crest 
near the west shore of Helen Lake and about J mile west of Kuna 
Peak. The entire region is smoothed off by glaciation. Some prospect- 
ing work was done in past years at the foot of the permanent snow 
bank of the slope of Kiop and Parker peaks, evidently without success. 

South of Parker Peak the metamorphic series continues its western 
margin, being near Kiop Crest and extending to the west shore of Gem 
Lake and its eastern margin being somewhere to the east of the ridge 
from Mt. Wood to Agnew Lake. At the south shore of Alger Lake the 
dip is about 45° to the southwest and about 80° to the southwest near 
(Jem Lake. One fourth mile north of Alger Lake is an exposure of 
quartz, about 10 feet wide and 300 feet long, upon which some pros- 
pecting has been done, otherwise but little quartz was seen. 

Prom Gem Lake to Agnew Meadows the metamorphic series con- 
tinues clearly exposed with steep western dip and uniform northwestern 
strike. In this region there are numerous quartz veins conforming to 
the bedding. The North Pork Mining District was formed here in 
1878, and some prospecting work was continued until 1892 when E. B. 
Preston described the district (Report State Mineralogist 1892, p. 218) 
as showing some ten veins on the east side of the Middle Pork of San 
Joaquin River, within a distance of about 3000 feet across the forma- 
tion, having an average width of 45 feet each, the largest being 75 feet 
wide and the smallest 15 feet wide. "An average assay made in the 
State Mining Bureau from a sample of mixed ores from the different 



108 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

veins gave a higher result (than $30) in — silver and (over 17 per cent) 
lead. Some samples from the west side veins showed a yield of 30 per 
cent copper and 27 ounces silver.' ' The report also states that there 
are some nine veins on the west side of the river averaging 30 to 40 feet 
in width, carrying a large percentage of copper. The average sample 
above mentioned was not, it is learned, taken across the entire vein 
widths but only in its mineralized streaks. The district is now entirely 
idle. 

The most easterly exposure of the metamorphic series in this neigh- 
borhood is at the edge of a more recent flow of basic lava which appar- 
ently forms the summit of the ridge bounding Mono and Madera 
counties. This line of contact runs from the south end of Gem Lake 
near the trail for a distance of about 3 miles ; thence gradually toward 
the east and over the summit about 2 miles south of Deadman Pass. The 
western or metamorphic side of the valley is of the usual smooth glacial 
shape while the eastern or lava side is terraced, which brings up the 
question as to age of the lava as compared with the glacier. 

The western margin of the metamorphic series crosses the river 
about $ mile north of Soda Spring and courses about S. 25° E., thence 
the prevailing country rock in a southwesterly direction is granitic 
Occasional patches of basaltic lava lying on the granite, are encountered 
on the trail to Little Jackass Meadow, as follows: One mile south of 
Soda Spring, at the Devil's Post Pile; on the summit between Snow 
Canyon and Stairway Creek ; and an outcrop extends for several miles 
along the eastern bank of the North Fork of San Joaquin River near 
Sheep Crossing. 

Between Devil's Post Pile and Stairway Creek there is a thin mantle 
(possibly 2 feet) of pumice on the granite. Fragments larger than 
£ inch are seldom seen. East and south of Devil's Post Pile for a 
considerable distance granite appears to be the prevailing rock 
although Mammoth Mountain is probably metamorphic. About 2 miles 
southwest from Mammoth Pass are two small craters, readily distin- 
guished in the distance by their shape and color. 

The lava at Devil's Post Pile is described by Preston as being 
glaciated, but also showing pumice cones of very recent date. The 
lava near Sheep Crossing has some glacial drift resting upon it. It 
lies in almost horizontal terraces and the topography several miles 
southwest suggests an extensive flow since cut by canyons. 

In the vicinity of Little Jackass Meadow there Is an extensive 
covering of glacial drift containing mostly granitic, some metamorphic 
and very rarely basaltic boulders. 

One mile west of Little Jackass Meadows is an exposure of metamor- 
phic rock (fine quartzite with a little mica) striking N. 15° W. Sur- 
rounding granite is glaciated. 



MADERA COUNTY. 109 

Prom Little Jackass Meadows to Yosemite Valley, by way of Fer- 
nandez and Merced passes, only granite is seen. 

Resources. 

As will be noted from the Table of Mineral Production (p. Ill) the 
following have yielded commercial quantities to the end of 1913 in 
the order named: gold, granite, copper, silver, brick, stone industry 
(outside of granite for building stone) and lead. In addition to these, 
occurrences are known of asbestos, iron, mineral water, turquoise and 
zinc, though as yet no commercial production of them has been made. 
The iron deposits, which are among the most important in the State, 
will be described later. 

As has already been mentioned, previous to 1893, Madera County 
was a part of Fresno. Of the $1,555,888 gold and the $25,657 silver 
credited to Fresno County in the United States Mint Reports for the 
years 1880 to 1892 inclusive, between 80 and 90 per cent came from 
that portion of its territory in the schist belt between Grub Gulch 
and Hildreth, for which reason, $1,350,000 and $25,000, respectively, 
have been added to the outputs of those two metals, bringing the total 
value of mineral production for Madera County properties to $5,500,677 
to the end of 1913. At the present time, granite is the most important 
mineral product of the county in point of value, followed by copper and 
gold in second and third places, respectively. 

A recent development, which will prove of importance to the mineral 
industry in the future in this section of the State, is the advent of 
hydroelectric power. The San Joaquin Light and Power Corporation 
of Fresno has a reservoir and a 25,000 horsepower plant at Crane 
Valley on the North Fork of the San Joaquin River. Its power lines 
are now serving not only a large part of Madera County, but also 
a considerable area in Fresno, Tulare and Kern counties to the south, 
and Merced, Mariposa, and Stanislaus to the north. 

The canal systems of Madera County, while they serve mainly for 
irrigation purposes, are yet worthy of mention here. The Madera 
Canal and Irrigation Company has more than 100 miles of ditches, 
distributing water principally from the Fresno River, and also from 
the San Joaquin River. In addition to the canals, water for irriga- 
tion is also obtained from artesian wells and by pumping. The Madera 
Sugar Pine Company has a 65-mile "V" flume (see photos No. 24 and 
No. 22), by which the sawed lumber is transported from its mill 
at Sugar Pine to the finishing mill and storage yards at Madera. In 
a busy season 350,000 feet b. m. are thus brought down per day, 
from eleven to twelve hours being required for the lumber to travel 
the 65 miles. The cost is but a fraction of what it would be by teams, 
as there is no railroad into that section. 



MINKS AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Photo No. 24. "V" Plume for trmuporting lumber, Midcra Sugur Pin* Compute, Midi 
County. California. 



Photo No. 22. Discharging lumber from "V" flume. Madera Sugar Pine Company. Mtdcri 



MADERA COUNTY. 



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112 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

ASBESTOS. 

Amphibole asbestos occurs at the Savannah mine, near Grub Gulch, 
stated to be 4 feet wide and traceable over a distance of about 3 miles 
in length. It is undeveloped. The amphibole variety is also found 
at the Baker mine near Coarse Gold. 

BRICK. 

Sunset Brick Company (also known as the Dyer Brickyard). J. A. 
Dyer, Madera, owner; bonded to W. J. Keys. This plant at the south 
edge of town (Madera) is operated only intermittently according to 
demands of the local market. The clay is hauled in dump carts to 
the grinders, and a soft mud brick machine is used. The bricks are 
dried in the sun and burned in field kilns, using oil for fuel. Electric 
power is used, and when operating, from eleven to fifteen men are 
employed. 

Bibliography: Bull. 38, p. 249. 

COBALT (see under Nickel). 

COPPER. 

The foothill copper belt of the eastern side of the San Joaquin Val- 
ley extends in a southeasterly direction through Madera County and 
on into Fresno. It passes to the west of Raymond a few miles, and 
maintains the same characteristics which it shows farther north in 
Mariposa County. During the copper excitement of the early sixties 
the Buchanan mine near the Mariposa line in Sec. 33, T. 8 S., R. 18 E., 
was operated with a small furnace and is credited with having 
shipped 150 tons of copper bars up to 1866. At various times since, 
work has been done on that and a number of other properties in this 
section, but at present only one is yielding any copper — the Daulton. 

Copper ores are also found in the Minarets section of Madera County 
in the high Sierras, but on account of its inaccessibility from trans- 
portation lines no production has as yet been made. 

BibL: R. XI, pp. 218-223, XIII, p. 59, Bull. 50, pp. 269-276; 
Mineral Resources West op Rocky Mountains, 1868, pp. 174- 
213; 1872, p. 47. 

Daulton Mine (formerly the California Copper Company, also Ne 
Plus Ultra). Walter Smith and L. M. Bradford, Madera, owners. 
This property is in Sees. 25 and 35, T. 9 S., R. 18 E., about 1 mile 
from Daulton Station on the Raymond branch of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. It was first worked in the sixties and the ore shipped to 
Swansea, Wales. There have been no changes in the equipment since 
that described in Bulletin 50. There are three shafts, equipped with 



MADERA COUNTY. 113 

steam hoists. The present owners are working in a limited way, with 
four men, and shipping an occasional carload of ore to one or the 
other of the large smelters of the State. 

Bibl. : Bull. 38, pp. 272-275. 

Yosemite Copper Company (see under Iron). 

GEMS. 

Specimens of turquoise have been found at the Taylor ranch on 
the Chowchilla River, north of Madera; garnets at Grub Gulch and 
Fresno Plats ; and andalusite on the Chowchilla River, north of Madera ; 
but no commercial production has ever resulted. 

Bibl. : Bull. 37, pp. 52, 107 ; Bull. 67, pp. 121, 128, 163 ; Geological 
Reconnaissance in California, W. P. Blake, 1858, pp. 304-306. 

GOLD. 

Gold mining is at present not active in Madera County, although 
a great many prospects have been opened during the past thirty years. 
Only three mines (Enterprise, Gambetta, and Texas Flat) have been 
operated extensively of recent years, and are here described. Many 
mines or prospects mentioned in previous reports have lost their 
identity either by abandonment or consolidation. An effort has been 
made to here record all those which have received any appreciable 
attention or development. 

Ably. Idle for many years; Sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 22 E., patented; 
owner, James Ryan. It is reported to have produced considerable 
gold (see Bibliography). Vein strikes N. 10° E., dips 26° NW. 
Incline shaft 725 feet deep. Six levels ran north from 600 to 
900 feet from the shaft and a short distance south. Stoping was 
carried on from all the levels, the vein being from 18 inches to 2 feet 
wide. Ten stamps and four Prue vanners constituted the milling 
equipment with a capacity of 42 to 48 tons per twenty-four hours. 
Reported value of ore is $20, with 2 per cent sulphurets, valued at $200 
per ton. About 30,000 gallons of water were pumped in twenty-four 
hours. 

Bibl.: R. VI, Pt. 2, p. 43; VIII, p. 202; X, p. 194; XII, p. 154; 
XIII, p. 205. 

Ackers. One mile southwest of the Waterloo mine. Owner, Otto 
Ackers. Two-stamp mill run occasionally. 

Baker Oold Mining Company (formerly Babby). T. S. Spaulding, 
Woodland, president; S. H. Baker, 1616 Eleventh street, Sacramento, 
manager. This group of two claims is in Sees. 24 and 30, T. 7 S., 



114 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

B. 20 and 21 E., 3 miles northwest from Coarse Gold; elevation 2300 
feet (U. S. G. S.), on a branch of Cabin Creek. The claims were worked 
by Babby for about twenty years, during the course of which he sank 
several small shafts, one of which is down 70 feet. The gold, which is 
said to assay $19 per ounce, occurs crystallized, in quartz seams in the 
schist. The present company took over the claims in January, 1914, and 
is driving a crosscut tunnel to cut the ledge at 75 feet below the outcrop 
In July it was in 250 feet. 

Balfron (formerly Grand Central, Sunshine and Standard No. 2). 
One mile northeast of Coarse Gold, in Greaser Gulch, SE£, Sec. 32, 
T. 7 S., R. 21 E. ; owner, C. Melvin; unpatented; only assessment 
work done. Located seven years ago, but known and located for 
many years before. Present work on 6 to 12-inch vein opened by about 
200 feet of cuts and shallow adits, with ore bearing considerable free 
gold. Alongside is a 3-foot vein of white quartz striking N. 70° W., 
dipping 70° NE. ; country rock, schist. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 164; XIII, p. 213. 

Bazinet Group (formerly Morrow; includes Eliza Jane, Lawsuit, and 
Delia). Jas. Ryan and Pete Bazinet, owners. Near the Abbey mine at 
Hildreth, Sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. The property has not been 
worked recently and the 5-stamp mill was removed. Vein width from 
12 to 20 feet, and is said to have milled less than $10. A shaft about 
270 feet in depth was sunk and several adits run. 

Bibl. : R. X, p. 195 ; XII, pp. 154, 156, 159 ; XIII, pp. 206, 207, 
210, 211. 

Belle. Southern extension of Lucky Bill claim, Sec. 12 or 13, 
T. 7 S., R. 20 E., unpatented, prospect with shallow surface workings; 
ledge not developed. Owners, O. Bentley et al., Grub Gulch. 

Big Stick. Unpatented claim on Quartz Mountain, near O'Neals; 
no equipment; 30-foot shaft on 2-foot vein; owner, W. H. Larew, 
Madera. 

Boomer. Prospect, unpatented, near Grub Gulch ; two shafts 60 and 
80 feet deep ; owner, Nels Anderson. 

Butterfly. Near Grub Gulch, Sec. 23, T. 7 S., R. 20 E. Three 
unpatented claims (Butterfly, Bumble Bee, and Sunset). Owned by 
Mark Sullivan of Grub Gulch. Discovered in 1883 ; country rock, gran- 
ite and schist; vein 18 inches to 4 feet wide; coarse N. 50° W., dip 
50° NE. Recently several men have been employed on development 
work which is as follows: On the Butterfly claim four adits on 
vein. No. 1, 150 feet long with 200 feet of drifting and a 98-foot winze; 
No. 2, 500 feet long, 100 feet of drifts and 40-foot winze ; No. 3, 160 feet 



MADERA COUNTY. 115 

long; No. 4, 200 feet long. On the Bumble Bee surface cuts. On the 
Contact, adit 300 feet long and 160 feet of drifting. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 155; XIII, p. 206. 

Caledonia. Situated 5 miles east of Grub Gulch. Recently relo- 
cated by 0. B. Allen et al. Discovered 1895. Vein 12 inches wide in 
schist. Adit 350 feet, shaft 30 feet, drifts 40 feet. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 206. 

Canary (Rex). Near Grub Gulch, on Bullion and Rex veins, patented. 
Owner, John Day, Grub Gulch. Bullion vein 3 to 18 inches wide, 
course N. 60° W., in schist; 1400-foot adit on ledge (into Jeff Davis 
claim). About 750 feet from the entrance, crosscut runs north 200 feet 
to the Rex vein upon which there are : 400-foot drift west and 100 feet 
east, besides a 100-foot winze and raise to the surface. A 2-stamp, 
triple discharge mill without concentrators and operated by a gasoline 
engine comprises the equipment. The reason stated for inactivity is 
lack of water. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 206. 

Colorado. Two miles east of Coarse Gold, prospect only slightlv 
developed. Owner, J. P. Lang. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 155; XIII, p. 207. 

Consolidated Four (see Waterloo). 

Contention (see Bazinet). 

Crystal Spring. About 2\ miles northeast of Grub Gulch. Five 
patented claims idle for many years. Owner, Wales L. Palmer, Golden 
State and Miners' Iron Works, San Francisco. Vein 2 feet wide in 
schist. Several old shafts 50 to 175 feet deep. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 155, XIII, p. 207. 

Daisy (formerly Handy Andy). Near Grub Gulch, on same vein as 
Canary, between Rex and Woodland, unpatented. Owner, John Day, 
Grub Gulch. There is a 500-foot cros&out adit and a 30-foot drift. 
Assessment work only. *^ 

Daisy Bell (formerly Greaser Gulch). Near Coarse 0o4d. Adjoins 
Hawkeye on the northwest. Owner, Tom Jones, Jr. DiseoveretfTibCEt 
twenty-five years ago. A shaft has been sunk 100 feet and at one time 
rich rock was worked in an arrastra. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 208. 

Diana. Four miles south of Hildreth; Sec. 18, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., 
No work besides assessment. Several adits from 200 to 400 feet long. 
Owner, John McDonald, Frbnt. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 156; XIII, p. 207. 



116 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Eliza Jane. Prospect, included in Bazinet Group, possibly on exten- 
sion of Bazinet vein. Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. Only work for many 
years is assessment. 

Empire. Three miles southwest of Grub Gulch, patented. Owners, 
Lovely Bros. Narrow vein in granite. Worked part of time by 
arrastra. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 207. 

Enterprise (one time called Fresno Enterprise). Situated in Sec. 
12, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., about 3 miles northeast of Grub Gulch. Com- 
prises 550 acres of patented land, including John W. Cates mine. 
Owner, Madera Enterprise Mines and Land Company, Lou R. Johnston, 
manager. The vein is in the bedding of schist or slate striking N. 35° 
W., dipping 80° NE. It is cut but not displaced by several granitic 
sills 2 to 3 feet thick, lying nearly horizontal. These are said to 
cause a slight enrichment on each side. The vein was discovered in 
1881; development work, as shown on the accompanying sketch, was 
done within a short time after discovery and the property was idle 
until April, 1913. 

• ••• *— 

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fZ/77TTt7f7Tilr^ 



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A 10-stamp mill, which once stood on the property, crushed, from 
June 1, 1881, to June 1, 1882^8,257 tons, yielding $108,420 of bullion, 
assaying $19.05 per ounce, or an average value for the ore of $13.13 
per ton. The present operators have erected a new 10-stamp mill, with 
4-foot plates and no concentrators. A recent run of 1200 tons is stated 
to have recovered $13.65 per ton. Ten men were at work in July. 
Water from the Fresno River furnishes power except in the dry season 
when a gasoline engine is used. A turbine water wheel is used, operat- 
ing under a 34-foot head with 650 cubic feet per minute. The stamps 
operate on a 6-inch drop with 7^-inch discharge and 96 drops p« r 
minute. Screens of 60-mesh are used. Capacity 18 to 24 tons per 
twenty-four hours. High water in January, 1914, took out the dam and 



JNTT. 117 

flume on the river, causing considerable delay before they could be 
restored. There are 1£ miles of ditch and flume. A compressor run- 
ning three drills is the mine equipment. All work is earned on through 
on adit. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 156; XIII, p. 208. 

Europa. Near Raymond. H. G. Kohlo and E. J. Harrah, Raymond, 
owners. Assessment work only maintained. 
Bibl.: R. XIII, p. 207. 

Five Oaks (includes Alpha). Situated 1 mile south of Coarse Gold, 
Sec. 9, T. 8 S., R. 21 E., on what is said to be an extension of the 
Waterloo vein, 3 feet wide, dipping 35° NE. Unpatented. Owner, 
John Quadt, San Francisco, and J. P. McFarland, Coarse Gold. 
Only assessment work has been done for some five years. An adit 
was run about 1000 feet and stoping carried up to the surface, about 
200 feet. Equipment is a steam hoist and a 25-ton Huntington mill. 
Bibl.: R. XII, p. 156; XIII, p. 208. 

flying Dutchman (see Hoboken). 

Freda. Near Grub Gnlch, adjoins the Gambetta. Unpatented. 
Owner, D. Ramsden, Grub Gulch. An adit 40 feet long and two shafts 
20 and 25 feet constitute the development. Small production has been 
made from panning rich ore. 



Qombetta (one time known as Arkansas Traveler). Situated £ mile 
west of Grub Gulch, in Sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 20 E. Owned by the Madera 
Consolidated Mining Company, J. H. Lester, manager. The vein cuts 



118 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

across the bedding of slate or schist and into the adjoining granite 
coursing about N. 45° E., and dipping 78° SE. The accompanying 
sketch shows approximately the extent of old workings, as determined by 
descriptions. Enclosing schist strikes N. 50° W. and dips 40° NE. 
parallel to the contact with granite which lies to the southwest. Exten- 
sion of the course of this vein and that of the Josephine, which strikes 
due east and west and dipping south, would intersect in the granite 
some 400 feet southwest of the new shaft. Croppings of both veins are 
traceable by holes sunk in the granite. The Plying Dutchman vein is 
still farther southwest. 

The (iambetta was diseontinuously operated from 1880 until 1904. 
Ore was crushed in a Huntington mill of 12 tons capacity per twenty- 
four hours. The total production is said to have been $490,000; ore 
averaging $33 per ton, and in 1903 a test run of 400 tons of old stope 
filling recovered $3.98 per ton, and 1700 tons of dump $2.38. Average 
width of vein is 2\ feet. 

In 1910 the present operators sunk a 170-foot incline on the vein 
about 1000 feet southwest of the old shaft, drifted 250 feet southeast, 
partly between granite walls, and 160 feet northwest, and a shoot of 
high grade ore is reported. During the past year they cemented the 
shaft from 100 feet up, and on the 400-foot level have drifted 700 feet 
to get under the newer workings. They have also raised to the levels 
above from No. 2 shaft (the incline). No stoping has as yet been done 
in the new ground on the 400-foot. Except for three leasers driving an 
adit in the upper part of the mine, it has been idle since June 1, 1914. 
It is expected to resume on company account as soon as electric power is 
obtained. 

The mill has at present two 5-foot Huntingtons and two Deister con- 
centrators, giving an hourly capacity of 2£ tons. Water supply from 
the shaft (15,000 gallons per twenty-four hours) is said to be sufficient 
to mill only about 11 tons per day. Two boilers (50 h.p. and 80 
h.p.) furnish power, oil fuel being used at a cost of $1.80 to $2.15 per 
barrel at the mine, depending upon the condition of the road from 
Raymond. It is expected that the San Joaquin Light and Power Com- 
pany will enter the district with a line this year. A Norwalk com- 
pressor runs five 2J-inch drills. 

Bibl.: R. X. pp. 197-198; XIII, p. 208. 

Golden Road (formerly Providence and County View). Possibly the 
north extension of Texas Plat vein. Pour unpatented claims owned by 
C. Melvin, Coarse Gold. Adit 1300 feet long and three shafts 100, 200 
and 300 feet deep. Average width of vein 5 feet. 

Bibl.:R. VIII, p. 213. 



MADERA COUNTY. 119 

Gold Metal and Oold Metal No. 1. Near O 'Neal 's. Mrs. Mary Arci- 
niaga, Gilroy, owner. Assessment work only is done. 

Hanmore (Lignus Asbestos) . At Grub Gulch, unpatented, prospect. 
John Day, Grub Gulch, owner. 

Hanover. Near O'Neal's, unpatented. Owner, George Williams, 
O'Neals. The vein is 20 inches wide and recently has been successfully 
worked in a small way for pockets. There is a 300- foot shaft and numer- 
ous short adits. A 5-stamp mill once stood on the property but was 
recently removed to a nearby claim. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, pp. 204, 205 ; XII, p. 157 ; XIII, p. 208. 

Eawkeye. Two miles northeast of Coarse Gold. Owner, J. P. Lang. 
Little work has been done recently. Two adits were run 250 and 350 
feet long. A 5-stamp mill was at one time on the property, which is 
said to have produced about $25,000 from ore averaging $13 per ton. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 157 ; XIII, p. 208. 

Hazel. It is on the Fresno River near Raymond, and owned by A. C. 
Shaw of Raymond. Assessments only. 

High Orade (formerly Washington). Two miles northeast of Coarse 
Gold in Deadwood Gulch, owner, Dan Long. Prospect on 2-foot quartz 
vein; shaft 26 feet deep. Small amount (20 tons) of ore recently milled 
at Texas Plat mill. 

Hoboken (includes the Flying Dutchman). Situated 2 miles south 
of Grub Gulch (about Sec. 26, T. 7 S., R. 20 E.). Consists of ten 
unpatented claims, including the Flying Dutchman. Owners, Rice and 
Whittlesey, of San Francisco. A shaft and adit develop the ledge which 
is from 4 to 6 feet wide. About thirteen years ago some 400 tons of ore 
are said to have been put through a Bryan mill, at that time located on 
the property, and yielded $12 per ton. Assessment work has been done 
for a considerable time. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, p. 213 ; XII, p. 158 ; XIII, pp. 208, 209. 

J. M. Near Grub Gulch, unpatented claim, between Jeff Davis and 
Mammoth claims. Only workings are surface cuts. Owner, John Day. 
Abandoned. 

Johnny. Near O'Neals, on Quartz Mountain, Sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., 
portion patented. Owners, J. C. Albee and Geo. Lawrenson, who 
began their work about seven years ago. Adit on vein 140 feet, shaft 
90 feet, vein 18 inches to 11 feet wide. An arrastra is on the ground 
and recently a small tonnage of ore was crushed. 

Johnny Bull. Situated 2 miles northeast of Grub Gulch, between 
the Enterprise and Lucky Bill mines. Unpatented claim; owner, 



120 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

J. D. Westfall; discovered 1895. Work consists of a 40-foot shaft 
and adit cutting vein at a depth of 40 feet. At one time a 5-stamp 
mill stood on the ground. It is said that some good ore has been pro- 
duced, particularly a 9-foot incline which gave a total of $600. 

John W. Cates. Portion of Enterprise property. A 60-foot shaft 
was once sunk and ore milled at the Enterprise. 

Josephine. At Grub Gulch, Sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., opposite 
the Gambetta mine, three patented claims. Owner, Risdon Iron Works, 
San Francisco. The mine has been idle and dismantled for many 
years. A 20-stamp mill was once operated. Vein 2\ feet wide, dip 
55° to the south, strike nearly east and west. An incline shaft was 
sunk 555 feet and eight levels were run. A drawing and description 
are in State Mineralogist's Report X (1890), p. 203. It shows two 
shoots pitching east, from which it would appear that above the 325- 
foot level some 36,000 tons of ore were stoped. It is stated that the 
ore averaged about $10 per ton. There was a flow of 72,000 gallons 
of water per twenty-four hours. 

Bibl.: R. VIII, pp. 213, 214; X, pp. 202, 203; XIII, p. 209. 

Lady Ellen. Adjoins the Hoboken on the east. Pour claims, agri- 
cultural patent. The vein is said to be an extension of the Hoboken. 
Years ago considerable surface work was done, the deepest being 60 
feet. Ore was packed to arrastras. It is reported that ore left on the 
dumps assays $12 per ton. The property is under bond to McMicken 
and Rowe, who expect to begin operations. 

Lawsuit (see Bazinet). 

Lingo. Two miles northeast of Coarse Gold, in Swede Gulch; Scott 
Bufford, owner. Over 500 feet of adits have been run. It is reported 
that about ten years ago 200 tons of ore yielded about $12 per ton. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 159 ; XIII, p. 210. 

Little Bullion. Adjoins the Daisy Bell on the northwest; owner, 
David R. Jones. Discovered about twenty-five years ago. A 40-foot 
shaft and surface cuts have been opened. About a year ago 70 tons of 
ore were milled and reported to have yielded $22 per ton. It is near 
Coarse Gold. 

Lucky Bill. Two miles northeast of Grub Gulch, SE. J, Sec. 12. 
T. 7 S., R. 20 E. Two unpatented claims (Syndicate and Safe 
deposit) ; owners, John Morrison et al., Grub Gulch. Discovered 
in 1880, but for the past three years only assessment work has been 
done. Workings consist of a 200-foot shaft and about 200 feet of 
drifting. The ore is in the form of a chimney or kidney, and is said 



MADERA COUNTY. 121 

to be 20 feet wide in the lowest workings. Ore was at one time worked 
in a 2-stamp mill and arrastra near the Enterprise. One run of 1000 
tons is reported to have averaged $16 per ton. There is no machinery 
on the property and workings are full of water. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 210. 

Magnet. Three miles northeast of O'Neals; Sec. 11, T. 9 S., R. 
21 E. ; unpatented claim. Owned for past ten years by R. W. Walker, 
who works it himself a part of each year. There are two adits 
300 and 150 feet long and a shaft 100 feet deep. At one time there 
was a 2-stamp mill on the property. The vein is 2 feet wide and is 
reported to be rich in spots. 

Mammoth (see Woodland). 

Melvin, Mountain Lily, Mary. Near Coarse Gold, lying along the 
west side of and parallel to the Texas Plat property. Unpatented, dis- 
covered about 1899. Owner, C. Melvin. Vein material or stringers 60 
feet wide, striking north and south, spots of good ore. There are six 
shafts from 60 to 240 feet deep and about 300 feet of drifting. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 161; XIII, p. 211. 

McKenzie-Minturn Mine. This is a drift mine on the north bank of 
the San Joaquin River, in Sec. 34, T. 10 S., R. 21 E., 3 miles north- 
east of Priant. Owners, A. H. McEenzie and W. Minturn, 806 Grif- 
tiths-McKenzie Building, Fresno. Both above and below this point on 
the south side of the river and above it on the north side, these placer 
gravels were worked between 1850 and 1860, the camp being known as 
Millerton, the county seat of Fresno County. The present workings 
were commenced in 1904. The ground is patented. The gravel is in 
an ancient river channel with a decomposed granite bedrock. The 
gravel, which is firm but not cemented, is 3 to 6 feet thick, and the bed- 
rock runs about 28 feet below the surface of the ground. The channel 
is 5 to 6 feet higher than high-water mark of the present river, and has 
a different character of gravel, being coarser and made up of different 
rocks. 

The main adit was driven in 700 feet and stoping began at the back 
end, the ground being allowed to cave behind the work. The bedrock 
shows three channels, the one farthest back from the present river 
channel carrying the best values. The gold is coarse, but without nug- 
gets, the largest single piece found weighing only $3.20, and is stated 
to assay better than $19 per ounce. About 200 feet square of the 160 
acres have been worked. The gravel is stated to average around $2 per 
cubic yard. The method of working is to stope out the gravel, fill 
behind with the coarse material and tram out the sand and small stuff 

9ee— 14456 



122 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

to the sluices. Sixteen-foot sluices with Hungarian riffles are used. A 
6-inch centrifugal pump driven by a 40 h.p. distillate engine fur- 
nishes water from the river. Two men are employed (August, 1914). 

McLaughlin and Pearl. Situated between Johnny Bull and Enter- 
prise mines. Two unpatented claims owned by Mrs. G. Wilson, Grub 
Gulch. Discovered about thirty-five years ago. There are several adits 
about 25 feet long, and a shaft 50 feet deep. Two years ago a little ore 
was hauled to Grub Gulch and milled, reported value about $20 per 
ton. 

Millenium. Two miles west of Coarse Gold, about Sec. 1, T. 8 S., 
B. 20 E., unpatented. Owner, S. H. Baker. Discovery was made eight 
years ago and only work is a 40-foot shaft. The vein is reported 6 feet 
wide in granite. Work is to commence shortly. 

Moonlight and Starlight. Three miles north of Enterprise mine near 
Crooks ranch. The starlight adjoins the Mammoth on the east, unpat- 
ented. Owner, Nels Anderson, Grub Gulch. Vein 20 inches wide in 
granite. Shaft 20 feet deep and 75 feet of drifting. A Huntington 
mill once on the property was removed two years ago. 

Morning Star. Near Coarse Gold, in Deadwood Gulch. The land 
is now held under an agricultural patent by a Mr. Lea of Los Angeles. 
No work has been done for many years when several shafts 30 to 60 
feet deep exposed a narrow vein. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 161 ; XIII, p. 211. 

Mountain View. Six miles northeast of O'Neals, Sec. 6, T. 9 S. f 
R 22 E. Five unpatented claims. Owner, John Davis. Only assess- 
ment work has been done for the past ten years. A number of shafts 
have been sunk from 50 to 100 feet in depth, and some drifts run. 
Arrastras and a nearby mill once treated ore reported to have yielded 
$23 per ton. 

Bibl.: R. X, p. 198; XII, p. 161 ; XIII, p. 211. 

Mud Springs (formerly known as Berry, also Wilson). Near 
O'Neals, about Sec. 26, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. Five unpatented claims. 
Owners, W. McKenzie Estate, and Jas. Mussel ; office, Griffiths-McKenzie 
Building, Fresno. Average width of vein less than 2 feet. For the past 
two years the property has been idle, except for assessment work. It 
has been partly developed for more than 300 feet in depth. A Hunt- 
ington mill of 20 tons capacity per day is on the property. It was 
formerly worked by T. Hart and J. Hoxie of Fresno, who took out 
$250,000. Mussel has recently found a new shoot of ore and will reopen 
the mine soon. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 161 ; XIII, p. 211. 



MADERA COUNTY. 123 

New Citizen (and Pure Gold). Near Coarse Gold, in Dead wood 
Gulch, unpatented. Owners, Marrone and MacLain of Fresno. On a 
vein supposed to be the same as the Balfron. Workings are 220-foot 
shaft, 279 feet of drifts and 39-foot crosscut. About ten years ago 200 
tons were sorted and milled, reported yield being $36 per ton. Across 
5 feet of formation it is said the ore will assay $4 per ton. Assessments. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 161 ; XIII, p. 211. 

Old Blue (or Gladiator). Six miles east of Raymond, about Sec. 
33, T. 8 S., R. 20 B. Two unpatented claims. Owner, S. H. Baker, 
1616 Eleventh street, Sacramento. Two veins in the granite, dip S. 
35°. Reported amount of sulphurets 7 per cent. Three shafts 120, 275 
and 150 feet deep and about 175 feet of drifts. Equipment consists of 
a 4 h.p. gasoline hoist. Until very recently from three to eight 
men have been employed in development work. 

Paradise. About 1 mile west of Enterprise mine. Unpatented claim. 
Owner, Wm. Mose. Prospect only, from which owner is reported to 
occasionally obtain a little gold. 

Patton. Two miles east of O'Neals; Sec. 22, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., 
unpatented. Owner, H. G. Patton of O'Neals. Some shallow workings 
have been opened during the past twenty years on an 18-inch vein. At 
one time a small amount of the ore was worked in the Standard mill. 

Paymaster (see Waterloo). 

Pure Gold Mining Company (Florence M). Dr. Topp of Raymond, 
owner. It is in Sec. 20, T 7 S., R. 21 E., about 3 miles north of 
Coarse Gold. Idle. 

Quartz Mountain. Five miles south of Coarse Gold ; Sec. 33, T. 8 S., 
R. 21 E. Several claims, some of which are patented. Owners, McN. 
Fenn, Nels & P. Anderson et al., Madera. Idle for many years. 
Formerly owned by a French company which vacated about 1906. The 
vein is up to 10 feet wide and has yielded some rich pockets. An in- 
cline was sunk for 250 feet, and a 60-stamp mill erected. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, p. 210; XII, p. 162; XIII, p. 212. 

Ragesdale. Seven miles southeast of Hildreth on the San Joaquin 
River, two unpatented claims. Until recently owned by J. W. Rages- 
dale of Taft; present owners, W. G. Walker, Friant, and Dr. Powers, 
Sanger. Several short adits were run and at one time a small mill was 
on the property. The present owners propose to clean out the lower 
adit and drive it ahead, then raise to the upper levels and stope, there 
being 300 feet of backs. 



124 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Savannah. One and a half miles southeast of Grub Gulch, Sees. 
14, 23 and 24, T. 7 S., R. 20 E. Four unpatented claims, owned by 
Maxfield & Lizby, with Mark Sullivan of Grub Gulch, superintendent. 
There are three veins, but most of the work has been done on one which 
is 4 feet wide. On the Savannah No. 1 there is a 260-foot shaft and 
300 feet of drifts. On the Savannah No. 2 there is a 160-foot shaft with 
100 feet of drifts. On the Wide Awake is 120-foot adit and surface cuts. 
On the Joe claim is a 260-foot shaft with 300 feet of drifts, all of which 
are caved, and a new adit 200 feet long with 200 feet of drifts has been 
run below the old works. There is an old 10-stamp mill on the property 
in very poor condition from disuse. Several men have recently been 
employed in development work. 

Bibl. : R. XII, pp. 158, 163 ; XIII, pp. 212, 213. 

Standard. Two miles northeast of O'Neals, Sec. 14, T. 9 S-, 
R. 21 E. Three unpatented claims. Assessment work done for owners 
by H. G. Patton of O'Neals. Operations ceased about eight or ten years 
ago. A 5-stamp mill is located about 2 miles distant on Fine Gold 

_ » 

Creek. Workings consist of a 300-foot shaft and some drifting and 
stoping. The mill was operated for about six months. Width of vein 
4 inches to 4 feet. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 163 ; XIII, p. 213. 

Starbuck (or Pine Gold). Three and one half miles northeast of 
O'Neals. Unpatented. Owner, P. P. Baker. Vein 6 inches wide. 
Shallow surface workings by the owner have furnished ore for occa- 
sional runs by arrastra. 

Bibl: R. XII, p. 164; XIII, p. 213. 

Starlight Oroup (one time called Mammoth). At Grub Gulch. 
Three unpatented claims owned by John Anderson. Recent work has 
been simply assessment. There is an old shaft ; at the 50-foot level is a 
crosscut 150 feet north with drifts 150 feet west and 25 feet east; at 
the 200-foot level is a 50-foot drift west, and at the 340-foot level drifts 
50 feet east and 50 feet west with a crosscut 15 feet north towards the 
hanging-wall. The vein outcrops for 15,000 feet or more, striking N. 
70° W., dipping 45° NE. The width is 20 to 25 feet. About 1896 
a 10-stamp mill was erected by an English company, the mine having 
been developed as above described. Operations continued only a short 
time. 

Bibl. : R. XII, pp. 160, 162 ; XIII, pp. 210, 212. 
Sunshine (see Balfron). 



MADERA COUNTY. 125 

Texas Flat. Situated in Sec. 6, T. 8 S., B. 21 E., 1 mile north- 
west of Coarse Gold. Consists of four patented claims, discovered in 
1853. Owner, Ed. Dickinson, of Kansas City. Under option to Phillip 
Rowe, of Seattle, who has been operating since 1912. Wm. Krohn is 
superintendent. The vein varies in width from 31, to 4 feet, strikes with 
the bedding of enclosing slate, N. 40° E., and dips 30° SE. An adit 
1400 feet along the vein meets the 920-foot incline shaft at a point 
260 feet below the collar. The workings are shown by the accom- 
panying sketch copied from the mine map. The mine has been thor- 
oughly equipped for about ten years. An electric power plant stands 
on the Fresno River about 3 miles distant. Water has 110 feet fall 
and generates 110 horsepower. An electric hoist is stationed at the 
tunnel level of the shaft. The mine is practically dry and water is 



TJTX/75 rt.s9T A///V£T 



ordinarily handled with skips. There is a compressor capable of run- 
ning fonr drills. The mill has 20 stamps (1500 pounds) and 4 Wilfley 
tables. Capacity 120 tons per day. Since 1904 the mill operated four 
or five seasons from November until July when waterpower fails. In 
January of this year (1914) high water iu the Fresno River took out 
their flume and damaged the power house, for which reason the mice is 
at present idle. Operations will be resumed, however, as soon as the 
San Joaquin Light and Power Company gets a line into the district. 

The total production since 1903 is said to be $185,000, the ore averag- 
ing $4 per ton. Amount of concentrates £ per cent, value $98 per ton, 
bullion fineness .555. It is said that ore has been stoped and milled for 
$1.40 per ton. Recent work has been on a footwall ledge at No. 3 level, 
where some ore of $20 to $50 in value is said to have been encountered. 
BibL: R. VIII, p. 212; XII, p. 164; XIII, p. 213. 



126 MIXES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Thrower. Near O'Neal's, Sec. 9, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. Owner, Hayden 
Payne, of O'Neals. The vein is 2 feet wide between granite walls, and 
is said to average $8 per ton with rich spots. A 90-foot shaft has been 
sunk but only assessment work has been done recently. A small tonnage 
of ore is occasionally treated in an arrastra. 

Ten Strike (formerly McLellan). Adjoins Hawkeye on the south- 
east; owner, J. P. Lang. Discovery made about twenty years ago. 
Vein 1 to 5 feet wide. A shaft 60 feet deep and some surface cuts have 
been opened. No ore has been milled. Assessments. 

Topps (see Pure Gold Mining Company). 

Volcano \o. 1 (also called Hildreth). At Hildreth, Sees. 25 and 
26, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. ; patented. Owner, Wm. Dumphrey Estate. The 
vein is about 12 inches wide, and the last work, some twenty years ago, 
opened it to a depth of about 400 feet. This is the only property which 
has been extensively operated in the vicinity. At one time it had a 
steam hoist and Huntington mill and is reported to have produced 
about $100,000 from pockets. 

Bib!.: R. XII, p. 158; XIII, p. 209. 

Washington. Two miles south of Grub Gulch. Two unpatented 
claims; owners, John Anderson et al. The vein is 2 inches to 2 feet 
wide in granite. There are four shafts, 60 to 140 feet deep, and 100 feet 
of drifting. Assessments only at present. 

Bibl. : XII, p. 164 ; XIII, p, 214. 

Waterloo (Paymaster) and Consolidated Four. Pour miles south- 
east of Coarse Gold, Sec. 15, T. 8 S., ft 21 E.; owners, H. A. Erohn 
et al., Coarse Gold. The Waterloo group consists of two patented 
claims, the Paymaster and Alpha No. 2. The Consolidated Pour group 
is composed of four unpatented claims which adjoin the others on the 
northwest, all being in the same line. They are on the north fork 
of Fine Gold Creek, at an elevation of 2300 feet (U. S. G. S.). On the 
Waterloo group two parallel veins 40 feet apart strike northwest and 
southeast and dip 30° NE. Each vein is about 3} feet wide and 
they are reported to average $10 per ton. 

In 1901 an incline shaft was sunk 300 feet; an adit 400 feet long 
runs to the 75-foot level on the southeast side; 45 feet below the adit 
level a drift runs northwest 250 feet; at 90 feet below the adit drifts 
run southeast 150 feet and northwest 200 feet ; 200 feet below the adit 
drifts extend each way for 200 feet. A little stoping was done and 
during six months' milling it is reported that $30,000 was produced. 
Values are principally in free gold, with some galena and pyrite. A 
10-stamp steam-driven mill is on the property, unused for nine yean. 



MADERA COUNTY. 127 

The electric power line of the San Joaquin Light and Power Company 
now (July, 1914) crosses the property near the mill. On the lowest 
level a run of 300 tons is said to have averaged $8.60 per ton. Last 
winter high water exposed a new vein in the creek bank on the Alpha 
No. 2, which has been traced through the full length of both claims. 
It is stated that a Canadian company is now considering a bond on 
the property. The four unpatented claims have been opened by 
several shafts from 10 to 50 feet deep. 

Bibl. : B. XI. p. 216 ; XII, p. 161 ; XIII, p. 211. 

Willow Creek. It is 2£ miles south of O'Neals; unpatented. 
Owner, Chas. O'Neals. Discovered thirty years ago but only assess- 
ment work done for the past ten years. The vein is 6 inches to 5 feet 
wide, said to average $13 per ton by arrastra. A shaft was sunk 60 
feet (now full of water) and 50 feet of drift run, besides a 90-foot 
adit. 

Bibl. : R. XIII, p. 214. 

Woodland (also known as Mammoth). Near Grub Gulch, unpat- 
ented. Owner, John Day. Adjoins the Handy Andy, on the same 
vein as the Daisy, known as the Bullion vein, which is 3 to 4 feet wide. 
An adit 140 feet long and 90 feet of crosscut. Ore said to average 
$5 per ton. Last winter (January, 1914) a new shoot was found, but 
work was stopped by heavy rains causing the ground to cave. It is 
intended to reopen this fall. 

Bibl.: R. XII, p. 160; XIII, p. 210. 

Zebra (U. B. Dam No. 1). Near O'Neals, unpatented. Owner, 
Wm. Rucker, San Jose. Only assessment work has been done for many 
years. The vein is about 18 inches wide, striking northeast and 
southwest and dipping 40° SE. State Mineralogist's Report, 1890, 
page 199, gives the following information: Pour adits on the vein at 
vertical intervals of about 50 feet, their lengths being 640, 460, 510, 
and 583 feet, and a 100-foot shaft near the lowest adit. Considerable 
stoping was done, one shoot being developed for a length of 120 feet, 
and two other shoots partly determined. A Bryant roller mill of 18 
tons capacity was operated for a time, but removed about fifteen years 
ago. Mining and milling is said to have cost $2.10 per ton; and the 
ore to have averaged $15 to $20 per ton. 

Bibl.: R. VIII, p. 210; X, p. 199; XI, p. 216; XIII, p. 214. 

Zulu. Near Coarse Gold. A prospect formerly owned by David 
R. Jones, now abandoned. Work consists of a 30-foot shaft and 60-foot 
drift, besides surface cuts. About 5 years ago 100 tons of ore were 
milled. 



128 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

IRON. 

On the western slope of Mt. Raymond, Sec. 9, T. 5 S., R. 22 E., 
there has been considerable prospecting in recent years for iron. Near 
the summit of the mountain is an adit about 50 feet long, showing irreg- 
ular spots and seams of magnetite and pyrite 2 feet to 3 feet wide. The 
country rock is a siliceous metamorphic showing considerable red iron 
stain and some smaller spots of leached iron ore. Three unpatented 
claims (Bathse, Summit, and Blue Bell) located about twenty years 
ago comprise the property owned by Thomas BUedo, of Fresno Plat. 

In the same locality, but farther south near the base of Mt. Raymond, 
a number of shallow shafts have been sunk by H. A. Krohn of Coarse 
Gold. Geologic conditions are similar to those on the Biledo property, 
except that soil covers a great deal of this land. Some bodies of mag- 
netite and other iron ores are exposed, possibly being in the form of 
lenses as much as 4 or 5 feet thick and 50 to 100 feet long. 

Farther east, about Sees. 14, 15, 22 and 23, T. 5 S., R. 22 E., simi- 
lar geologic conditions prevail and many shallow pits and shafts have 
been sunk by T. 0. Hart of Fresno. 

Yosemite Copper Mines Company. George J. Main, superintendent, 
Hayward. This company has done considerable work at Hogum in 
the vicinity of Iron Creek, Sec. 14, T. 5 S., R. 22 B., and Sec. 7, 
T. 5 S., R. 23 £. The property consists of nine claims and a mill 
site which have been surveyed for patent. Five adits from 40 to 
100 feet in length have been run, besides numerous smaller surface 
workings. On the claims in Sec. 14 six core-drill holes have been 
sunk from 30 to 225 feet. Geologic conditions as described nearer 
Mt. Raymond prevail here except that on this property there is more 
granite or granodiorite. The drill cores are said to show a thickness of 
from 50 to 100 feet of ore, which seems to be principally magnetite, 
white iron sulphide, and pyrite. But little copper stain from sulphide 
or carbonate is seen. It is stated that assays of the entire cores were 
not made. The cores have been preserved. Outcrops near the drill 
holes do not indicate a continuous ore body and lack of evidence as to 
dip prevents definite statements as to extent. 

Some idea of hardness of the rocks may be conveyed by the rates of 
drilling with a Davis Calyx 3|-inch machine using chilled steel shot. 
They are said to have averaged as follows: Granite, 6 to 10 feet per 
day ; ore, 4 to 6 feet ; quartzite, 2 to 3 feet. 

Transportation facilities to the district are poor, the nearest railroad 
point being Raymond, about 30 miles distant. Heavy snowfall prevents 
work for from four to six months a year. There is a fair water supply, 
and excellent timber covers most of the territory. 

Bibl. : R. X, pp. 191-193 ; XI, p. 214; Bull. 38, p. 298. 



MADERA COUNTY. 129 

THE MINARET IRON DEPOSIT. 
By F. B. WEEKS. 

A reconnaissance examination, by the writer, of all reported iron 
deposits in California showed the largest to be in Madera County. This 
iron deposit occurs at the south end of the Minaret range which con- 
stitutes one of the prominent ridges of the Sierra Nevada in the north- 



Tit. A. Bt 

east corner of Madera County. The region is characterized by Alpine 
ruggedness and contains many glacial amphitheaters and lakelets. It 
is drained by the North and Middle Forks of the San Joaquin River 
which have cut canyons 3,000 to 4,000 feet below the general level of 
the Minaret ridge, which separates these streams. Figure A shows the 
topographic features of the country. This photograph was taken from 
10ra— 14456 



130 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

the ridge on the west side of the North Fork looking east to the southern 
end of the Minaret range. The peak at the left of the center of the 
picture is Iron Mountain. 

A mountain wagon road has been constructed from Fresno Flats to 
Jackass Creek and from this point there is a trail used by cattle men 
which crosses the North Fork on a bridge known as Sheep Crossing and 
thence to "77" Corral. From "77" Corral there is a trail leading 
north to Iron Mountain. From the east the deposit may be reached by 
wagon road from the town of Bishop in Owens River Valley to Mam- 
moth, and thence by trail over Mammoth Pass and crossing the Middle 
Fork near the Devil's Post Pile and to "77" Corral. These roads, 
trails and localities are shown on the topographic maps of the U. S. 
Geological Survey of this region and these maps should be in the hands 
of every person going into this country. The only' persons in the 
region are a few prospectors and cattle men in July, August and 
September. The remainder of the year the country is uninhabited. 
The winters are long and severe and the snowfall heavy. 

There is considerable timber in the region but the iron deposit is 
1500 feet or more in elevation above timber line. The North Fork would 
afford water power for any mining or milling operation in this region. 

A preliminary railroad survey was once run through this country 
by way of Mammoth Pass. A railroad from the west would traverse 
a rolling country rising gradually to the east as far as the ridge on the 
west side of North Fork. From this point construction and operation 
of a railroad would meet with the usual difficulties encountered in the 
high Sierras. 

This iron deposit has been known for many years. It has been briefly 
described, usually in exaggerated terms, in various mining papers and 
is mentioned in some of the reports of the California State Mining 
Bureau. It should be remembered that it has only been within a few 
years that the nature and origin of iron deposits of this character have 
been sufficiently understood to expect a reasonable description from 
persons who have personally examined this deposit. 

From "77" Corral up the trail to the foot of Iron Mountain the 
country rock is the grano-diorite characteristic of the high Sierra. 
Upon the southern slope of Iron Mountain, there is a variety of igneous 
rocks, from very acid to basic types, the different types occurring in 
belts having a general N. 30° E. strike. The contact between the iron 
deposit and country rock is usually covered but where observed the line 
of demarkation between them is sharp and distinct. 

However, some large pieces of slide rock show banding of iron with 
both acid and intermediate rocks indicating a probable intermingling 
of materials about the edge of the iron mass. On the northwest side 
of the deposit the contact rock is of light gray color of an acid type 



MADERA COUNTY. 131 

while rocks of an intermediate character are in contact with the iron 
at other points. 

There are no indications of movement at any of the observed con- 
tacts. Fracturing in a northeasterly direction, parallel to the strike 
of the deposit, is strongly developed through the iron mass. Figure 
B shows the portal of a tunnel that is entirely within the iron mass 



Pi*. B. Portal of tunnel in maaaivt Iron ore on Iron Mountain. 
Photo by P. B. Wacka. 

and the fracturing characteristic of the deposit is here strongly 
developed. The fracturing is subsequent to the formation of the ore 
and may be wholly due to shrinkage of the mass prior to its complete 
consolidation. In certain narrow belts of the associated igneous rocks 
schistose structures are developed. No flow structures were observed. 
The slopes of Iron Mountain are eovered with slide material composed 
of the igneous rocks and iron from the deposit. 



132 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The deposit is a mass of iron composed of magnetite in which no 
other material was observed. Its strike is NE.-SW., and its elevation 
about 11,000 feet above sea level. On account of the slide rock no 
accurate determination of the surface extent of the deposit could be 
made. It was estimated to be 2000 feet or more in length, 400 feet in 
average width, and by erosion on the northeast end it was shown to be 
250 feet in depth. On the basis of these estimates there should be 
thirty million tons of iron ore available. Development may show a 
greater amount. * ' 

The general aspect of the iron mass and the enclosing rocks point to 
its origin in the differentiation and segregation of materials within the 
original igneous magma and their consolidation in the form now exposed 
by erosion. An analysis of a sample taken from the face of a tunnel 
gave: Pe, 64.14%; A1 2 8 , 1.52%; CaO MgO, 0.53%; Si0 2 , 8.60%; 
P, 0.72% Cu, none; S, 0.60%. 

The deposit is within the Sierra National Forest Reserve. It was 
reported that the deposit is claimed by parties who have made mineral 
locations. There being no persons in the region at time of examination 
the names of the present locators could not be ascertained. Approx- 
imately 100 feet of underground development work was found within or 
in close proximity to the iron deposit. 

LEAD AND SILVER. , 

Star Mine. Situated near the summit of Mt. Raymond, NE. |, Sec. 
10, T. 5 S., R. 22 E., at an elevation of 9000 feet. About 1888 this 
property was slightly developed, and a concentration plant was erected 
about 1$ miles distant, near the center .of Sec. 16, T. 5 S., R. 22 B. 
An aerial tramway connected the mine and mill. The intention was 
to work the ore for its silver and lead content, but the project was a 
failure after about one year of operation. Very little information is 
to be had. The plant is at present in a very bad state of repair. About 
seven years ago an attempt was made to again work the property. It 
is stated that such ore as was milled contained about 10 per cent of 
concentrates, valued at $40 per ton and occasionally as high as $100. 
H. A. Krohn, of Coarse Gold, is the present owner. 

Bibl. : R. VIII, pp. 215, 216. 

Silver-Lead ores are found in the North Fork Mining district in 
T. 3 and 4 S., R. 25 and 26 E., but little work has been done of recent 
years. 

Bibl. : R. XI, pp. 218-223. 



MADERA COUNTY. 133 

MINERAL WATER. 

There are several soda and sulphur water springs, both cold and hot, 
Aiear Isberg Pass and the Devil's Post Pile in the extreme eastern end 
tff the county. They are not utilized, however, except by occasional 
tamping parties. Of the hot springs, the most important are the "Red 
Meadows Hot Sulphur Springs" at the Devil's Post Pile; temperatures 
£10° to 120° P. 



s 



Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Water Supply Paper No. 338, pp. 55, 238, 239, 
240, 241, 381. 

MOLYBDENITE. 



A small deposit of molybdenite was found near the sawmill of the 
Madera Sugar Pine Company, at Sugar Pine, and some development 
work done. The deposit proved to be too small. It was said to carry 
small values in gold. 

NICKEL AND COBALT. 

H. A. Krohn of Coarse Gold has 80 acres under an agricultural 
patent in Sees. 23 and 26, T. 10 S., R. 19 E., 12 miles northeast of 
Madera. While developing for supposed copper values, a body of 
pyrrhotite ore was opened up, said to assay 7 per cent nickel and 
14 per cent cobalt. Development consists of a 100-foot shaft and a 
short crosscut. No commercial- production has as yet been made. 

SILVER (see Lead and Silver). 

SOAPSTONE. 

Brown Deposit. On the north side of the San Joaquin River, a short 
distance above Priant. Owner, George Brown, Friant. D. Evanger 
and Q. D. Hutchinson, lessees, 3480 Tulare avenue, Fresno. This deposit 
of talcose schist has been known for twenty-five years, but not utilized 
except locally. There is a belt of the material about 400 feet wide, 
striking northwest. Only a small quarry face has been opened up. It 
is not high grade, but can be sawed into blocks several feet across. 

STONE INDUSTRY. 

The well known "Raymond" granite quarries near Raymond, in 
Madera County, not only are and have been for a number of years the 
most important mineral industry of the county, but they are also an 
important factor in the state's production. As has already been noted 
(see Introduction), these deposits of workable building stone are located 
in the western edge of the Sierra foothills. There are two quarries 
about 1 mile apart, on the east side of a small valley, about 2 miles east 
of Raymond, which is the terminus of the Berenda-Raymond branch of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. Both quarries are served by spur tracks 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



121. Hnin Memorial Mining- Buildini, University of California, 



rial Mining Buildini. Un 
Raymond granite (1901). 



ity Library, University of California, Berkeley. Raymond rrenit* 



"™II). C 



136 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

from this branch line. It is now recognized that this stone is not 
excelled by any other building granite found either in thia state or 
elsewhere. It is noted for its beautiful white color, the fineness and 
uniformity of its texture, its weathering qualities, and its freenees in 
working. As to this last named feature, it lends itself readily to all 
classes of fine structural carving. 

Madera County Rock Crusher. The county has a rock crushing 
plant at the McGilvray quarry to utilize waste rock and spalls for road 
material. It ia under the supervision of H. L. Craw, supervisor. Idle 
in 1914. 



Pholo Ho. 128. Sculptural drl.il on City Mall, San Franciaco. Stone {ram WcGirnur 
Raymond Granite Company, Madera County, California. 

McGilvray Raymond Granite Company (formerly McClellan 
Quarry). John D. McGilvray, president; office, 634 Townsend street, 
San Francisco; Alexander McGilvray, superintendent at the quarry. 
Situated in Sec. 27, T. 8 S., R. 19 E. The rock is similar to that 
described in the Knowles quarry, except in the manner of natural 
fracturing. Here, no large exfoliation planes have as yet been exposed ; 
but cross fractures some 20 to 30 feet apart occur, besides occasional 
small dikes. The quarry is a side hill cut worked on about the same 
scale as the other, but covering a smaller area and deeper. Equipment 
includes 6 derricks with oil-burning steam hoists, 2 saw sets, 4 over- 



MADERA COUNTY. 137 

head traveling cranes on two runways, and a locomotive track crane. 
The two compressors are driven by 150 h.p. and 250 h.p. motors, elec- 
tric power being obtained from the line of the San Joaquin Light 
and Power Company, installed this year (February, 1914). Most of 
the work is done with pneumatic tools. 

This summer the quarry has been employing from 250 to 300 men, 
the largest force in its history. This is mainly due to their furnishing 
the stone for the new San Francisco City Hall, the granite contract 
alone for which represents a value of $991,313. The architectural plans 
call for a large amount of fine sculptural detail, and this work is 
practically all done at the quarry sheds. In this department there 
were seventeen carvers working under a special foreman. The majority 
of these artists (fdr ?" artiste" they must be to do such work) are 
Italians and Scotchmen Among- the larger blocks finished are several 
platform pieces for the City Hall; 21' x6 y x 2'. (See photo No. 6.) 

The product has an extensive market, another example being the 
United States Custom House in San Francisco. The four monolithic 
Doric columns at the First National Bank are also from this quarry. 
The largest single piece shipped from this quarry was 14' x 13' 10 // x 2' 
for the top of a mausoleum in Cypress Lawn Cemetery, San Mateo 
County. 

Bibl. : R. XII, p. 384; XIII, p. 620; Bull. 38, p. 32. 

Raymond Granite Company (also known as the Knowles Quarry). 
F. E. Knowles, president; office, Division street and Potrero avenue, 
San Francisco; F. J. Krebs, superintendent at the quarry. Situated 
in Sec. 22, T. 8 S., R. 19 E. Operations have continued since 1888 
with varying activity, there being at present (July, 1914) 175 men 
employed about the entire plant. The company owns some 1700 acres. 
About 5 or 10 acres are free of weathered overburden on a low 
rounded hill (see panoramic photo No. 4A). The rock breaks to exten- 
sive fractures lying nearly parallel to the ground surface and from a 
few inches to 15 or 20 feet apart. Cutting of these immense slabs is 
done principally by wedges with a little powder used occasionally. A 
channeling machine is also employed. (See photos Nos. 1, 2 and "M".) 

The largest single piece reported was 4' x 4' x 40', but much larger 
blocks could doubtless be obtained. The stone is completely dressed 
or carved at the sheds adjoining the quarry, where air-driven machines 
are used. The equipment includes 6 derricks with oil-burning steam 
hoists, 2 sets of saws, and overhead traveling electric cranes (3 large 
and 2 small). Until February of this year oil has been used to gen- 
erate power, since which time the San Joaquin Light and Power Com- 
pany has been furnishing electricity. The steam plant is still main- 
tained as an auxiliary. The stonecutters receive $5 per day for eight 
hours. 



) M1NEH.U. RESOURCES. 



MADERA COUNTY. 



Raymond Qranlte Company, Madera County, CaL Uppar part of quarry. 



140 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Monumental and building stone has been furnished to many large 
structures, among which may be mentioned the San Francisco post 
office, Municipal Auditorium, the U. S. Sub- Treasury Building and the 
Fairmont Hotel; also for buildings at the University of California in 
Berkeley. Of the latter, the most striking example is the Campanile, or 
bell tower, a shaft of 34 feet square base and 305 feet in height to the 
top of the surmounting bronze lantern. On the front of the new U. S. 
Sub-Treasury Building in San Francisco are ten Doric columns about 
4| feet in diameter and 27 feet long, each in three sections. As origin- 



photo "K". Raymond Granite Company'* quarry, Raymond, Madera County, California. 

ally drawn, the specifications called for these columns to be monolithic. 
The change was made because of the greater cost of handling. As has 
already been pointed out even larger monolithic pieces than that can 
be obtained here. We were informed that the cost of cutting would be 
practically the same, but that the necessity of providing heavier equip- 
ment to handle them would have increased the cost $2000 for the ten 
columns in question, or $200 per column. It seems to the writer that 
it would have been money well spent, for the beauty of the building 
would have been enhanced many times. 

Bibl. : R. X, p. 189 ; XII, p. 384 ; XIII, p. 620 ; Bull 38, pp. 30-32. 



MADERA COUNTY. 



* Ml 



1 



Sand and Gravel. 

Primmer Artificial Stone Plant. B. J. Primmer of Madera has a 
plant which is producing concrete pipe and culverts. California cement 
is used with sand and gravel obtained from the Fresno River north of 
Madera. 

Santa Fe Gravel Company (formerly San Joaquin River Rock and 
Gravel Company) . F. Knobloeh and Louis Manuel, owners, 1929 Fresno 
street, Fresno. This gravel pit on the San Joaquin River, in Sec. 32, 
T. 12 S., R. 19 E., is 1 mile north of Herndon station on the Southern 
Pacific railroad, but ships via Knobloeh spur on the Santa Fe. It was 
opened up about 1904. The material is moved by Fresno scrapers to a 
trap over dump cars ; then hauled j mile by mules on a light track to 
the railroad spur. Formerly a dinky locomotive was used. The plant 
has a capacity of 100 tons per day, with six men employed. The pro- 
duet is not screened at the pit. 



142 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

TALC (see Soapstone). 

TUNGSTEN. 

Wolframite occurs in the form of masses and large crystals in a quartz 
vein in andalusite schist, 12 miles north of Raymond. The deposit 
is undeveloped. 

Bibl. : Bull. 67, p. 176. 

VOLCANIC ASH. 

Mineralite Manufacturing Company. G. D. Hutchinson, president, 
M. H. Heitzig, secretary ; office and factory, 3480 Tulare avenue, Fresno. 
This material is an extremely fine, powdery, though somewhat com- 
pacted volcanic ash, the deposit being on the ranch of C. D. Armstrong, 
in Sec. 1, T. 11 S., R. 20 E., 2 miles northwest of Priant. It was first 
worked about 15 years ago in a small way and used for a polish. The 
present lessees incorporated in March, 1914, and have developed the 
deposit to a depth of 20 feet to 30 feet by open cut. They ship the 
material to their plant in Fresno where it is crushed, and bolted through 
a 125-mesh screen. The product is marketed in the form of a polishing 
powder, and as scouring and polishing soaps. At the pit two men are 
employed intermittently. 

ZINC. 

It is stated that zinc is found in some of the ores of the Minarets 
district. It is also found in the North Fork Mining District. 

Bibl. : R. XI, p. 222. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 143 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 

By F. L. LOWELL, Fikld Assistant. 
Field Work In July. 1914. 

Mariposa County might be said to possess more distinctions than any 
other county in California from the fact that not only does the southern 
extremity of the famous "Mother Lode" of the State end in this 
county but also that the famous Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove of 
Big Trees are included in it. 

The county is bounded on the north by Tuolumne County, on the 
southeast by Madera County, and on the west and southwest by Merced 
County. The greater portion of the county is drained by the Merced 
River and its branches with the exception of that portion extending 
from the Mariposa Grant to the south end of the county. While the 
county receives a fair amount of rainfall, yet water is not very abundant 
during the summer and the power used in the prosperous days of 
mining in the county was derived from the then abundant wood fuel. 
Wood as a fuel at the present time is too expensive for working the 
grade of ores that now prevail. 

POWER. 

Some mines along the Merced River develop hydroelectric power from 
the river for their own use and the Mariposa Grant also supplies a 
limited amount of power for lighting purposes and mill power from its 
plant on the Merced River at Bagby. Their lines run from the Merced 
River through the grant to the towns of Mt. Bullion and the county 
seat, Mariposa. The plant consists of a flume 400 feet long by 16 
feet wide and 6 feet deep which carries water under a 34-foot head 
to three Pelton wheels which are 27, 30 and 40 inches in diameter, 
respectively. The plant is capable of developing 600 horsepower and 
the power is generated by two Westinghouse dynamos. 

The Pacific Gas and Electric power line comes from Tuolumne County 
to the Penon Blanco mine and thence through the town of Coulterville 
to the Potosi gold mine owned by the Merced Gold Mining Company. 

A company formerly had a power plant at Exchequer on the Merced 
River, but their plant was washed out during the heavy freshet of the 
winter of 1913. The San Joaquin Power and Light Company, which 
generates power from Merced Falls in Merced County, owns a power 
line which extends as far as the Mt. Gaines mine in the Hornitos 
mining district. This company also uses the Exchequer line for trans- 
mitting power. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



GEOLOGY. 

Mariposa County is about 65 miles long and 35 miles wide. The 
serpentine, amphibolite sehists and metamorphie slate belt comes as 
far south as the Mariposa Grant and south of this estate the granites 
of the eastern portion of the county crowd over toward the west, thus 
ending the so-called "Mother Lode." The "Grant" boundaries appear 
to be well chosen so far as including most of the Mother Lode vein 
south of the Merced River is concerned, for, outside of these boundaries. 
the veins are smaller. 

In the southeastern section of the county there is a limestone belt 
with a northeast and southwest direction which extends for some dis- 
tance through the county. This limestone belt carries copper in con- 
siderable quantities. The formation in the eastern part of the county 
which is taken up by the Yosemite National Park, is mostly of granite 
and heavily timbered. No mineral is reported and no prospecting is 
being done within the boundaries of the National Park. 

Mariposa County had many producing mines at one time but many of 
the larger ones reached a zone of decreased values and ceased operation? 
at this point. On the Mother Lode in other counties, this same lean zone 
has been encountered and, in some cases, it has been pierced and better 
values found below. This advanced prospecting has not been done to 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 145 

any extent in this county, and it remains to be proven whether the 
shoots go down. Some of the mines have very enviable reputations as 
producers from the surface down to the point of abandonment. The 
fuel question has been a drawback to the county of late years. There 
are ores that could be worked at a profit if cheap power could be had. 
Wood coats $2.50 to $4 per cord delivered. 
ASBESTOS. 

Some asbestos of the amphibole variety has been found east of the 
Mariposa Grant, the exact locality not being known. It is impure and 
Dot being worked. 

BARYTES. 

£1 Portal Mining Company, whose office is at 354 Pine street, San 
Francisco, owns considerable barytes (heavy spar) on the north bank 
of the Merced River, about one mile down river from El Portal. 
The plant consists of a bin at the railroad tracks, also a bin at the 
quarry, a surface tram down the hill and two ore cars. No one was 
working in the quarry at the time the plant was visited. A very good 
quality of barium sulphate is produced. - 



S Portal Mining Company'* barn** quarry on the Merced River one mile below El Portal, 
Maripoia County. California. 



146 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

COPPER. 

Copper mining in the county has not reached large proportions and 
the southern end of the eounty is the only place where any work is 
being done and not much even there. Leasers are taking out most of 
the copper that is being shipped. This ore is freighted by wagon to the 
railroad at Raymond in Madera County and shipped to the smelters. 
This county is said to have had the first smelter in the State, the ruins 
of which are still standing not far from Green Mountain. The copper 
belt in this county extends for forty miles and considerable copper ore 
was mined in the early days, hut the industry has dwindled to very 
insignificant proportions. Those properties that are operating at pres- 
ent will be described and a few of the new groups mentioned, but for 
the older and idle properties reference can be found in Bulletin No, 
50, ' ' Copper Resources of California, ' ' issued by this Bureau in 1908. 



r Or™ Mountain in 

Green Mountain Copper Group. This group, which consists of eight 
mineral claims and 26 acres of patented agricultural land, is situated 
in Sec. 3, T. 8 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., about 8 miles by wagon road 
northwest of the railroad at Raymond in Madera County and owned 
by the Legioneer Gold Mining Company and J. B. Pearce. Two of the 
eight claims are patented, namely, the Copper Queen and Buena Vista. 
The Copper Chief, Buster Brown, Cuban Nigger, Flotsom, Jetsam, and 
Amador claims are not patented. The first claims were located in 1861 



MABIPOSA COUNTY. 147 

and have been worked and shut down at various times. The ores con- 
sist of copper oxides and carbonates. There are about 4,000 feet of 
underground works. A gossan capping covers the schist which carries 
the copper ores in the form of replacements. The mine is worked 
through tunnels. At present there is very little equipment on the 
ground with the exception of a horse whim, three ore cars and drill 
steel, also a dwelling house. Three leasers are working at present. 
Fifty-two cars shipped averaged $1,000 per car, but did not carry 
gold values. Assays showed 2 ounces in silver. 

Pocahontas Copper Mine. This property, which consists of 320 acres 
of patented land, is situated in Sec. 14, T. 7 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 
about 16 miles northeast by wagon road from Le Grande in Merced 
County, which is on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The 
property is owned by a stock company called the Pocahontas Mining 
Company, with their home office in San Francisco. The exact date of 
location is not known, but supposed to have been located in the early 
sixties. The mineral bearing formation is gossan, several seams of 
which run through the county, and the ores are principally sulphides 
and carbonates, the carbonates predominating down to about 100 feet 
when the sulphides take principal place. The greatest depth attained 
is by shaft, which is down 300 feet ; 900 feet of drifting has been done, 
and a 200-foot tunnel has been driven on the vein. The mine equip- 
ment consists of a donkey engine, skip, tools, blacksmith shop, assay 
office, timber shed, and dwelling house. All the ore was shipped to the 
Selby Smelting and Lead Company by way of Le Grande. Two 
men are leasing the property now. 

San Jose Copper Group. This group of copper claims, which was 
formerly known as the Cavan Copper Mine, consists of nine claims and 
one mill site all unpatented, and is situated in Sees. 5 and 8, T. 8 S., 
R. 18 B., M. D. M., about 10 miles northwest by wagon road from Ray- 
mond in Madera County. The property is owned by S. L. Pearce. 
These claims were located about fifty years ago and they consist of 170 
acres. The lode is schist carrying replacement copper. The mine is 
worked by a 150-foot shaft. There are sixty-five feet of drifts, also 
a few prospect shafts and a crosscut tunnel. The only equipment con- 
sists of a horse whim, mine bucket and drill steel. The mine is being 
worked by Mr. Pearce, who has shipped seven carloads of ore to the 
Selby Smelting Works. They are said to have averaged $1000 per car. 
The ore carries $2.50 per ton in gold. The costs are $3.50 per ton for 
hauling to the town of Raymond and $2.25 per ton railway charges to 
the smelter. Total costs per ton are $12. A patent has been applied 
for, but not granted on account of litigation with homesteaders. 



148 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. "" 

A group of 26 copper claims located in Sec. 30, T. 5 S., R. 19 E., 
just east of the Mariposa Grant near Mormon Bar in March, 1913, 
has been prospected in some places and bonds have been taken out 
on them, but so far no one has developed them. The ore carrying 
formation is quartz porphyry. 

Another group of copper claims is located in Sees. 19 and 20, T. 
6 S., R. 20 E., M. D. M., and is called the Indian. Peak Group. There 
are fifteen claims in the group and most of the development work has 
been done on the Indian Peak claim. The copper ores which are in 



Copper dump on the property uf the Indian Peak copper claim*, Maripou County, California. 

limestone with granite walla are mostly carbonates and sulphides. This 
limestone belt has a northeast and southwest direction and can be traced 
for some distance through the county. There are two incline shafts, 
each 35 feet deep and both are in ore. There are four tunnels, one 120 
feet long, two 20 feet each, and another 50 feet long. The claims have 
a cabin and blacksmith shop on them. No work is being done at present, 
The Indian Peak claim was located twenty years ago and the other 
claims were located in 1913. 

Another group of copper claims in the Indian Peak district comprises 
seven claims and are owned by Mrs. Emma Chard of Red Bluff. These 
claims are not developed. 



MABIPOSA COUNTY. 149 

A second group of five claims in the same district is owned by J. L. 
Divens, Mrs. B. McKeith, Lee La Valley, and Matt Logan. There is a 
20-foot tunnel on one of the claims and a shaft on another, but very 
little work has been done. 

There is also a copper vein on the Mariposa Grant, in Sec. 18, T. 

5 S., R. 18 E. The strike is northeast. The vein is in slate walls and 
has not been developed. It is about seven feet in width on the surface. 

GOLD (LODE). 

Gold mining in the county has suffered a relapse since the boom days 
notwithstanding the large production of some of the mines. The shut- 
ting down of the larger mines on the Mariposa estate and also those 
of the Merced Gold Mining Company in the Coulterville district, has, 
in a large measure, put a damper on mining, and the fact that cheaper 
power is not always available for working the lower grade ores also 
hampers the industry. While many of the older mines have reached a 
zone of unpayable values, yet there are numerous new properties that 
show promise of developing into mines if the necessary capital and 
energy are forthcoming. Many of these properties will be mentioned in 
the following list: 

Adelaide Quartz Mine. Owned by the estate of Mary P. MacCrellish. 
W. P. Edwards of Alameda, manager. The claim is patented and 
located in Sees. 22 and 23, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 1\ miles by 
wagon road from Kittridge. The vein, which has a northwest strike, is 
between serpentine footwall and slate hanging-wall, and ranges from 

6 to 10 feet in width. About 2500 feet of development work, one tunnel 
and an old incline shaft 150 feet deep. The equipment consists of a 
4-drill Sullivan air compressor, blacksmith shop, and boarding house. 
The mine was bonded, but the bond lapsed July 1, 1914, and is now idle. 

Aden Quartz Mine. Owned by the Aden Mining Company, box 242, 
Vallejo. Very little information could be obtained on this prop- 
erty. There is a crosscut tunnel 300 feet long, 180 feet of drifts, 
and two shafts, one 105 feet and the other 40 feet in depth. Now idle. 

Alice Quartz Mine. Owned by the Mariposa Commercial and Mining 
Company, Alaska Commercial Building, San Francisco. The prop- 
erty consists of two claims located in Sec. 16, T. 5 S., R. 17-E., M. D. M., 
14 miles by wagon road to Merced Falls in a westerly direction. The 
vein of quartz lies between slate walls and averages 3 feet in thickness. 
The development consists of a 200-foot shaft, three levels with 360 feet 
of drifts, a winze 27 feet deep and a 'raise 38 feet long. There is no 
mine equipment on the property and it has not been worked since 1902. 

Anderson Quartz Mine. Owned by the estate of Mary P. MacCrel- 
lish, W. P. Edwards of Alameda, manager. The property consists of 



150 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

one patented claim located in Sec. 23, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., about 
1£ miles by trail north from Kittridge and 5 miles by wagon road 
to Coulterville. The quartz ledge has serpentine footwall and slate 
hanging- wall and measures from 4 to 12 feet in width. The develop- 
ment consists of a 30-foot incline shaft, 3 levels and a tunnel 120 feet 
on the vein. The equipment consists of shaft with rails, one skip, 
25 h.p. motor hoist, one bailing skip and pump. There is also a black- 
smith shop, engine house, bunkhouse, and boarding house. The mine 
has been under bond, but it expired July 1, 1914, and is now idle. 

Artru Mine (pocket). Owned by H. Artru and consists of a fraction 
of a claim 450 feet in length and located in Sec. 27, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 3£ miles by trail from Saxon Creek station on the Yosemite 
Valley Railroad and 20 miles by wagon road to Bagby. The ore body is 
a porphyry dike said to average 20 feet in width and having slate 
hanging-wall and footwall. The development consists of a 75-foot 
shaft, 450 feet of drifts, 4 crosscut tunnels each about 140 feet long 
and several small raises. There is a cabin on the claim and a wheel- 
barrow and drill steel. The gold obtained is of the crystallized variety. 
The mine has been shut down for two years. 

Austin Quartz Mine. Owned by the Austin Group Mining and Mill- 
ing Company, 244 Kearny street, San Francisco. Consists of four 
unpatented claims, located in Sees. 29 and 32, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M.„ 
25J miles by wagon road to Bagby on the Yosemite Valley Railroad. 
The quartz vein is from 6 inches to 4 feet in width and lies between 
porphyry walls. The development consists of two incline shafts each 
120 feet deep, one crosscut 700 feet long and a drift 150 feet long, also 
one stope 60 feet long by 120 feet high. The equipment consists of a 
hoist, blacksmith shop, 10-stamp mill, compressor, one Pindar concen- 
trator, and Challenge feeders. The mine has not been working for the 
past one and one half years. 

Bank of California Quartz Claim. Owned by G. E. Dunbar of 515 
Southwest street, Kalamazoo, Mich. There are two unpatented 
claims, located in Sec. 27, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. The vein of 
quartz averaged 2\ feet in width and has porphyry and slate walls. 
The development consists of a 50-foot shaft, also a 75-foot shaft, which 
is now filled up. Is idle at present. 

Black Log Quartz Claim. Owned by F. N. Clark and Wm. Bush 
of Mariposa. This is a prospect located in Sec. 13, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., and the only development work done consists of an incline 
shaft 70 feet deep. The vein is 8 inches to one foot in width. Only 
assessment work is done. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 151 

Blue Bell Quartz Mine. Owned by Hiram W. Branson and located 
in Sec. 9, T. 4 S., R. 20 E., M. D. M., 10 miles by trail from El Portal, 
near Jerseydale. The property consists of two unpatented claims and 
the vein of quartz lies between porphyry footwall and slate hanging- 
wall and has an average width of 5 feet. The development consists of 
a 145-foot crosscut tunnel and 80 feet of drifts. No equipment outside 
of an iron ore car, drill steel, and blacksmith shop. Mine not working. 

Bogan <fe Baitaille Quartz Mine. Owned by Fred Mebold and con- 
sists of one patented claim located in Sec. 26, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. 
M., 20 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The quartz vein which 
averages about 2£ feet wide has a prophyry footwall and a slate hang- 
ing-wall. The development consists of four adit levels being 60, 100, 
250, and 300 feet long, respectively, and several raises. The equip- 
ment consists of one ore car, mortar and spring pole, and a blacksmith 
shop. The mine is not working at present. 

Bondurant Quartz Mine. Owned by A. L. Adams of 307 Center 
street, Bridgeport, Conn., and consists of 100 acres of patented claims, 
also 700 acres of patented timber land located in Sees. 25 and 36 in 
T. 2 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 13 miles north of Bagby by wagon road. 
The ledges are quartz and there are eight of them. They have slate 
walls and the Bondurant vein is 7 feet wide, the Reynolds 4 to 10 feet, 
and the Louisiana 4 to 15 feet. The development consists of a 412-foot 
incline shaft, 975 feet of drifts, 945-foot crosscut on river level, and 
225-foot crosscut on adit level ; also 150-foot air raise and 20-foot winze. 
The Reynolds shaft is down 125 feet. There are 5 stopes. The equip- 
ment includes a hoist, one Ingersoll-Sargent compressor, 40 h.p. boiler, 
2 machine drills, skip, 2 blacksmith shops, drill steel, compressed 
air pipe, and one Worthington pump. The reduction equipment 
includes a 10-stamp mill (1000-pound stamps), rock crusher, Challenge 
feeders, two 4' x 16' plates, two Union tables, one Dean pump, mill 
engine, two small pumps and one 60 h.p. boiler. Five men were working 
doing development work. Q. H. Gerkin, superintendent. 

Booth Quartz Claim. One claim patented, owned by C. L. Booth of 
Mariposa, and located in Sec. 5, T. 5 S., R. 20 E., M. D. M. The 
strike is northwest and southeast and dips northeast about 45°. There 
are two shafts, 28 and 95 feet deep, and one tunnel 120 feet long. The 
vein varies from a few inches to 18 inches in width. No work is being 
done. 

Bowman Quartz Claim. A pocket claim owned by F. N. Clark of 
Mariposa, located in Sec. 26, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. There are 
several prospect holes and shafts. Nothing being done at present. 



152 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Bull Dog Quartz Claim. Consists of one claim owned by Theodore 
Kokel of Lyons Gulch and situated in Sec. 31, T. 4 S., B. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 25 miles from Bagby on Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein 
of quartz varies from 2 to 4 feet in width and lies between porphyry 
walls. Only assessment work is done each year and there is only a 
windlass on the property. 

Bull Pup Quartz Claim. Consists of one claim owned by Jack Zerney 
of Merced, located in Sec. 31, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 25 miles 
from Bagby by wagon road. The vein is 2 to 4 feet wide in porphyry 
walls and the development consists of an incline shaft 165 feet deep 
and 100 feet of drifts. There is practically no equipment with the 
exception of a windlass and a wooden skip. The claim has been 
relocated from year to year. 

Bunker Hill Quartz Claim. Owned by Charlie Lewis of Hites Cove. 
The claim is located near Hites Cove and is said to have had the first 
quartz mill in the State in 1851. The claim is still unpatented and 
has had considerable development work done on it. The mine was dis- 
covered from quartz brought to the surface in a squirrel hole and was 
formerly called the Squirrel Mine. Still held by possessory rights. 

Busch Quartz Mine. Three unpatented claims owned by L. P. W. 
Busch of Mariposa, located in Sec. 21, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 4$ 
miles south of Briceburg and 22 miles from Bagby by wagon road. The 
vein is 16 feet wide at the surface and 9 feet wide in the bottom of the 
shaft, and the walls are slate. The development consists of a 180-foot 
shaft, 140 feet of drifting, one winze, length unknown, and one crosscut 
67 feet long. There is a blacksmith shop and hoisting shed, also 
windlass, in the way of equipment. Only assessment work is being 
done. 

Busch Quartz Claim. One unpatented claim owned by L. P. W. 
Busch, situated in Sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., east of the Diltz 
mine. The vein which is in porphyry walls is 2 feet wide and has a 
strike of northwest and southeast and dips northeast. Only assessment 
work is being done. 

Champion Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned 
by G. E. Dunbar of Mariposa, and located in Sec. 27, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 22£ miles by wagon road from Bagby. The quartz vein 
averages 4 feet wide and has porphyry footwall and slate hanging-wall. 
Development consists of a shaft 9 feet deep, 188 feet of drifts, 3 levels 
and an air shaft 60 feet to surface. No equipment remains on the 
property. Only assessment work is done. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 153 

Cohen Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by a man 
by the name of Cohen and is situated in See. 33, T. 4 S., R. 18 E. 
The claim was patented in 1912, but has not been worked for some time. 
Very little information could be obtained about the mine. 

Colorado Quartz Mine. Consists of three claims, one of which is 
patented, owned by P. W. Judkins, C. H. Weston and I. L. Dearborn 
of Mariposa and located in Sec. 27, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 22 
miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein is a true fissure vein with 



Colorado Cold Quart* Mine on Long Gulch Creek, Whit lock mining district, MaripoM 
Count]', California. 

slate walls and averages 2 feet in width. The development consists of an 
adit level 500 feet long, an air raise 119 feet long and a second raise 
75 feet long, also a winze 14 feet deep. There is one stope 120 feet long 
and 35 feet high. The equipment consists of a gasoline hoisting engine, 
4 ore cars, drill steel, 10-stamp mill, rock crusher, Challenge feeders, 
two 5' z 10' amalgamating plates, 2 tables, 2 vanners, and a blacksmith 
shop. There is also an assay office, change house, bunkhouse, office, 
storeroom, and dwelling house. There is a surface tramway from the 
mill to the wagon road above. This mine was being developed nt the 
time it was visited. 
11 be— 14466 



154 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Colorado Quartz Claim. Consists of two claims, one of which is 
patented, owned by P. W. Judkins, C. H. Weston and I. L. Dearborn of 
Mariposa and located in Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 30 miles 
by wagon road from Bagby. Fissure vein in slate is 2 to 6 feet wide. 
The development consists of a 500-foot adit level, 140-foot raise to sur- 
face, another 65-foot raise and 13-foot winze. One stope 300 feet long. 
Equipment consists of 3 ore cars, tools and blacksmith shop. There are 
also a Gates rock crusher, 2 Qates tables, 2 vanners, assay office, bunk- 
house, and superintendent's house. There are 5 gas engines all told for 
the plant. The mine is working most of the time. 

Comet Oold Mine. Consists of three unpatented claims owned by 
the Comet Mining and Milling Company of Kansas City, Mo., and 
located in Sec. 22, T. 4 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 15 miles by wagon road 
from the town of Mariposa. The quartz vein averages 2\ feet wide and 
has a granite footwall and slate hanging-wall. The development con- 
sists of two adit levels in which 785 feet of drifts have been run, also 
100 feet of crosscut, two raises, one 40 feet and one 168 feet and one 
winze 45 feet deep. The equipment consists of 3 iron ore cars, drill 
steel, ventilating pipe, 10-stamp mill, Blake rock crusher, Challenge 
feeders, 2 amalgamating plates, 4 / x 12 / Deister tables and clean-up 
frame. There is also a sawmill and 45 h.p: boiler for the same, and 
overshot water wheel for the ventilating fan. The steam is piped 300 
feet in naked pipe to the stamp mill. The buildings include bunkhouse, 
office, residence, storehouse, assay office and cookhouse. The mine was 
not working at the time it was visited, but was being examined. 

Compromise and Eubank Quartz Mine. Consists of 40 acres owned 
by J. A. Plink and R. C. Haywood and located in Sees. 30 and 31, 
T. 2 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 30 miles from the railway. The vein aver- 
ages 2 feet in width between hard slate walls. The development consists 
of a shaft 350 feet deep, 100-foot winze, and three levels each 100 to 
700 feet long. The property has been idle for thirty years and has 
recently been bought by the present owners from P. J. and W. W. 
Billiard. 

Cranberry Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim and a mill 
site owned by A. H. WaTd of 53 Stevenson street, San Francisco, 
located in Sec. 15, T. 3 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., on the Yosemite Valley 
Railroad. The vein is 3 to 6 feet wide, and is a fissure vein in 
slate walls. The development consists of 410 feet of shaft and winze, 
1240 feet of drifts, winze 300 feet deep and a raise 460 feet long. There 
is no equipment on the property at present. It has not been worked 
for twenty years. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 155 

Crown Lead Gold Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
the estate of Mary P. MacCrellish ; W. P. Edwards, manager, of Ala- 
meda, and located in Sees. 26 and 36, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., on 
the Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein is 10 feet and has a serpentine 
footwall and slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a 50-foot 
incline shaft and a 25-foot tunnel. There is no equipment on the 
property and the underground works have caved. The property was 
under bond, but it expired July 1, 1914. 

Crown Peak Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
the estate of Mary P. MacCrellish and located in Sec. 36, T. 3 S., 
R. 16 E., M. D. M., at Kittridge on the Yosemite Valley Railroad. 
There are two veins averaging 7 feet in width and having serpentine 
footwall and slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a 45-foot 
incline shaft and a 50-foot open cut. There is no equipment on the 
property. It was under bond but it expired July 1, 1914. The mine 
has not been worked for many years. 

Diltz Quartz Mine. Consists of two claims, one of which is patented, 
owned by S. J. Harris and wife of Jerseydale, and located in Sec. 
29, T. 4 S., R, 18 E., M. D. M., 3 miles by road and 5 miles by trail to 
Briceburg. The vein is 20 inches wide and has diorite footwall and 
slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a 30-foot drift and 
one adit level, also a 60-foot crosscut and winze 22 feet deep. The 
equipment consists of one small skip, one hand pump, 22 feet of l£-inch 
water pipe, and a blacksmith shop. Some work has been done the past 
summer by the Mariposa Mines Development Company. 

Early Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned by the 
August Revel estate and Eli Revel, and located in Sec. 27, T. 4 S., 
R. 19 E., M. D. M., 6 miles south of North Pork on the Yosemite Valley 
Railroad. The vein is from 3 to 6 feet wide in granite walls. The 
development consists of one adit level 800 feet long, one 40- foot crosscut 
tunnel and one stope 800 feet in length by 150 feet high. Equipment 
consists of a 10-stamp mill run by a 25 h.p. steam engine, one boiler, 
one amalgamating plate, 4 feet by 8 feet. The workings have caved and 
the mine is not working. 

Elizabeth Quartz Mine. Consists of patented claims owned by the 
Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company, Alaska Commercial Build- 
ing, San Francisco, and located in Sec. 5, T. 5 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 
on the Mariposa Grant, 16 miles by wagon road from Merced Falls. 
The vein averages 6 feet in width and has a slate footwall and diabase 
hanging-wall. The development consists of a 100-foot incline shaft and 
100 feet of drifts, also one stope. The equipment consists of hoisting 
engine, one 40 h.p. boiler, ore car and blacksmith shop. This property 
has been worked by leasers only but has been closed since 1911. 



156 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Emma Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned by 
Marcus Shinskie, and located in Sec. 36, T. 3 S., R. 19 E., M. D. m!, 
about five miles from the wagon road to Hites Cove. The vein swells 
and pinches and has a diorite footwall and slate hanging-wall. The 
development consists of a 90-foot tunnel and two other tunnels that 
have caved, also two 50-foot raises and a winze 4 feet deep. There are 
three stopes. There is practically no equipment on the property and 
it is now idle. 

Farmers 9 Hope Quartz Mine. Consists of seven quartz claims (one 
patented), two placer claims, and a mill site owned by G. L. Kennedy 
of Mariposa, and situated in Sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 25 
miles by wagon road from Bagby. There are three veins, one contact 
with mariposite footwall and porphyry hanging-wall. The develop- 
ment consists of two shafts and 1125 feet of drifting, one crosscut 385 
feet long, 440 feet of raises and a 35-foot winze. The equipment con- 
sists of a gasoline hoist, one skip, 5-stamp mill, rock crusher, mill feed, 
one Frue vanner, one amalgamating plate 4' x 10', one 10 h.p. engine 
and one 12 h.p. boiler. The mine is not working at present and is for 
sale. 

Feliciana Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
J. B. Campbell of Mariposa and located in Sees. 12 and 13, T. 4 S., 
R. 18 E., M. D. M., 5 miles southeast of Briceburg by trail. The vein 
is from 2 feet to 6 feet in width and has slate walls. The development 
consists of a 700-foot tunnel, 600 feet of drifts, 400-foot crosscut, two 
winzes— one 40 feet and the other 55 feet deep. There is also a stope 
700 feet long and 650 feet to the surface. The equipment is about all 
gone, only some grinding pans being left. The mine has not been 
worked for thirty years. 

Geary Quartz mine. Consists of one claim, unpatented, owned by 
Mrs. Potter and located in Sec. 30, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 25£ 
miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 3 feet wide and 
has a slate footwall and porphyry hanging-wall. The development con- 
sists of an incline shaft 100 feet deep and 325 feet of drifting. There 
is no equipment on the property and the mine is idle. 

Gray Eagle Quartz Mine. Consists of two unpatented claims owned 
by B. C. Gruby of Couiterville and located in Sec. 30, T. 3 S., R. 17 
E., M. D. M., 3 miles from Bagby by wagon road. The dike of 
porphyry consists of a 133-foot shaft, 355 feet of drifts, 300-foot cross- 
cut tunnel and two stopes — one 60 feet by 40 feet and the other 60 feet 
by 35 feet high. The shaft has a double compartment and there is only 
one ore car and windlass on the ground. Mine is under bond and work 
is supposed to begin on August 1, 1914. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 157 

Golden Gate Group. Consists of three unpatented claims and a 
five-acre mill site owned by Chas. A. Schlaguerty of Mariposa and 
located in Sees. 18 and 19, T. 4 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 7 miles 
by wagon road from Bagby. The vein is from 3 to 6 feet in width 
and has a mariposite footwall and a slate hanging-wall. The develop- 
ment consists of a 210-foot shaft, an adit level 250 feet long, 250-foot 
crosscut and a 20-foot raise. There is only some drill steel and a small 
skip together with a blacksmith shop and a shed over the collar of the 
shaft. The mine is not working at present. 

Greens Gulch Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim, owned 
by the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located in 
Sees. 12 and 13, T. 5 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., on the Mariposa Grant, 
12 miles by wagon foad from Bagby. The vein averages 3 feet in 
width and has slate walls. The development consists of a 300-foot 
shaft, 550-foot adit level, 870 feet of drifting, crosscut 200 feet long and 
about 250 feet of raises. There is one stope 200 feet long and 200 feet 
high. The equipment consists of a hoist, bucket, water skip, 2 machine 
drills, compressor, 2 pumps and an air receiver. The mine is under 
lease at present and power is supplied from the Princeton mine. 

Guadeloupe Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located on the 
Mariposa Grant in Sec. 32, T. 5 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 17 miles by 
wagon road from Bagby. The average width of the vein is 18 inches 
and the walls are granite. The development consists of a 250-foot tun- 
nel, but could not find out what had been done in the way of drifting. 
The mine has no equipment and has not been worked by the company 
for years. Two leasers are now working the property. 

Guest Quartz Mine. Consists of one claim on unpatented farm land 
and is owned by J. W. Guest, located in Sec. 35, T. 4 S., R. 16 E., 
M. D. M. The vein is 2 to 8 inches wide in slate walls. There 
is a shaft 50 feet deep and the equipment consists of a gas engine hoist, 
one ore car, skip and a pump. Only assessment work is done. 

Herman Quartz Mine. Consists of two unpatented claims owned by 
George Herman of Mariposa and located in Sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M. The vein is said to average 10 feet in width and to have 
porphyry walls. The development consists of a tunnel, 210 feet of 
drifts, one shaft 30 feet deep and an air shaft 150 feet deep. Only a 
windlass and bucket comprise the equipment. Only assessment work 
is being done. 

Hite Mine. Consists of one placer and 15 quartz claims owned at 
present by J. S. Spellman of 244 Kearny street, San Francisco, and 
located in Sec. 27, T. 3 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M. The veins average 4 



158 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

feet in width and are in diorite hanging-walls and footwalls. The 
development consists of a shaft 330 feet deep and there are three levels 
and nine adit levels. The total drifting could not be obtained. There 
are some winzes and raises and a stope 800 feet long by 100 feet high. 
Most of the $2,000,000 taken from this mine has been extracted from 
near the surface. The equipment consists of an air hoist, several 
machine drills, air compressor, drill steel, skip, station pump, 10-stamp 



Hlte Gold Mint on the south fork of the Metttd Riser. Xirlpou County, California. 

mill, 3 tables, Challenge feeders, 2 amalgamating plates and a cyanide 
plant, The mine has been closed down since 1882. There are several 
buildings ; in fact, the mine is thoroughly equipped and also has a flume 
500 feet long and takes water from the south fork of the Merced River. 
Idle at present and a caretaker on the property. 

Josephine Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located on the 
Mariposa Grant in Sec. 16, T. 4 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 3 miles by 
wagon road to Bagby. The vein averages 6 feet in width and has slate 
walls. The development consists of a shaft 500 feet deep, 2518 feet of 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 159 

drifts, 710 feet of crosscuts, 400 feet of raises and a stope 500 feet long 
and 200 feet high. 

The equipment consists of three mine cars, compressor, drills, drill 
steel, blacksmith shop, 30 h.p. motor; in fact, a complete mine equip- 
ment with buildings and hydroelectric power from their plant on the 
Merced River. Leasers are now working the mine. This mine is one 
of the largest belonging to this company. 

Kane Quartz Claim. Consists of one unpatented claim, formerly 
called the Mayflower, owned by C. N. Kane of Mariposa and located in 
Sec. 2, T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., between the Mt. Buckingham and 
the Golden Eagle. There are two tunnels, 60 and 140 feet long, respect- 
ively, and a 30-foot winze. There is no equipment. Only assessment 
work is being done. 

Kennedy-Milburn-Allerd Quartz Claims. Consists of three unpat- 
ented claims owned by C. L. Kennedy, W. H. Milburn and Lawrence 
Allerd of Mariposa and located on the south fork of Chowchilla River, 
2 miles east of Indian Peak, one half mile south of Nelson's Cove and 
12 miles from Raymond in Madera County. The vein has a northeast 
and southwest strike and is about 9 feet wide. There is no wagon road 
to the claims and the development consists of a 40-foot adit level. Only 
assessment work is being done. Located in May, 1914. 

Landrum Quartz Mine. Consists of two unpatented claims owned by 
Simeon Landrum and located in Sees. 34 and 35, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 6 miles by trail from Briceburg. The vein averages 2 feet in 
width and has a limestone and talc footwall and a porphyry hanging- 
wall. The development work consists of a shaft 90 feet deep and 825 
feet of drifts. The equipment consists of a gas engine, bucket and 
windlass. There are two cabins and a blacksmith shop. Only assess- 
ment work is being done. 

Little Bear Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented <*laim owned 
by Pete Gordan of Mariposa and located in Sec. 19, T. 4 S., R. 19 E., 
M. D. M., 26 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 2 
feet wide and has a slate footwall and granite hanging-wall. The 
development consists of a 12-foot shaft. There is a cabin on the prop- 
erty, but nothing else. Only assessment work is being done. 

Live Oak Quartz Mine. Consists of three unpatented claims owned 
by George Trede of Briceburg and located in Sec. 16, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., one half mile by trail from Saxon Creek station on the 
Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein is about 20 inches wide and has a 
greenstone footwall and a slate hanging-wall. The development con- 
sists of 4 shafts, 20, 30, 40, and 80 feet deep, respectively, and a crosscut 
tunnel 200 feet long. The equipment consists of one half mile of ditch, 



160 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

16-foot arrastra, 2-stamp mill, Pelton wheel, blacksmith shop, tools, 
boarding house, bunk house and gravity tramway. The mine is not 
working at present. 

London Quartz Mine. Consists of one claim, unpatented, owned by 
Albert Austin and L. E. Austin of Whitlock and located in Sec. 30, 
T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 25£ miles by wagon road from Bagby. The 
vein has an average width of 22 inches and the walls are porphyry. 
The ore is base, carrying copper with the gold values. The develop- 
ment work consists of a 30-foot incline shaft and a 16-foot drift. Only 
a windlass and wheelbarrow comprise the equipment. The owners are 
working at present. 

Long Mary Quartz Mine. Consists of patented land on the Mariposa 
Grant owned by the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and 
located in Sec. 17, T. 5 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 14 miles by wagon road 
from Merced Falls. The vein is 2 feet wide with slate walls. The 
development consists of a 413-foot shaft, 1480 feet of drifts, drain tun- 
nel 263 feet long, and 905 feet of raises. There is one stope 350 feet 
long by 400 feet high. The equipment consists of a hoist, 50 h.p. boiler, 
headsrear, blacksmith shop, 5-stamp mill, rock crusher, Challenge feeder, 
two Union tables and an amalgamating plate. Not working at present. 

Louis Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by the 
Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located in Sec. 11. 
T. 5 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 12 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The 
vein averages 4 feet in width and has slate walls. The development 
consists of a 400-foot shaft, 924 feet of drifts, adit level 350 feet long, 
115-foot crosscut, 150 feet of raises and a 30- foot winze; also a stope 
80 feet long. There is no equipment on the property at the present and 
the property is idle. 

Louisa Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned by 
August Revel and Eli Revel of Sweetwater and located in Sec. 27, T. 
4 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 6 miles by trail from South Fork station on 
the Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein is 4 feet wide between granite 
walls. The development consists of a 16-foot shaft and some trenches 
on the surface. There are also two adit levels 50 and 60 feet long, 
respectively. There is no equipment and only assessment work is being 
done. 

Louise Quartz Mine. Consists of claims owned by the Merced 
Mining Company of Boston, Mass., and located in Sec. 4, T. 3 S., 
R. 16 E., M. D. M., in the Coulterville mining district. There are three 
levels and a vertical shaft 375 feet deep, 850 feet of drifts, 775 feet of 
crosscuts, 150-foot air shaft, 600 feet of winze. This mine has been 
idle for a number of years and not much information could be found 
about it. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 161 

Lovely Rogers Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim and one 
unpatented claim owned by Shimer Brothers of Coulterville and located 
in Sec. 11, T. 3 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 16 miles by road from Bagby. 
The vein is 2 feet wide in slate walls. The development consists of a 
100-foot shaft and 3 adit levels, 400, 300, and 250 feet long, respectively ; 
also a 70-foot crosscut and a winze 80 feet deep. There is one stope 200 
feet long and 80 feet high. There is no equipment. Only develop- 
ment work is being done. 

Malivina Quartz Mine. Consists of one claim belonging to the 
Merced Gold Mining Company of Boston, Mass. The development 
consists of a vertical shaft 1000 feet deep, one incline shaft on 
the vein 875 feet deep, 2287 feet of drifts and 1225 feet of crosscuts. 
The milling is done on the adjoining Potosi mine owned by the same 
company. The equipment consists of a hoisting engine and building 
and head frame. The ore was trammed by mule team to the Potosi 
mill. Idle at present. 

Malone Quartz Mine. Consists of five unpatented claims owned by 
the Oolden Wreath Mining Company of San Francisco and located 
in Sec. 5, T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 28 miles by wagon road from 
Bagby. The vein ranges in width from 3 inches to 1 foot, between 
granite walls. The development consists of a 150-foot shaft, 600 feet of 
drifts, one adit level and a 600-foot crosscut tunnel. There is a stope 
300 feet long, and 90 feet high. The equipment consists of a skip, 20 
h.p. engine, 25 h.p. hoist engine, 80 h.p. boiler, 10-stamp mill, Golden 
State rock crusher, 2 Challenge feeders and 2 amalgamating plates. 
There is a dwelling house, blacksmith shop, boarding house, and bunk- 
house. The mine had just started its plant at the time it was visited. 

Mariposa Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by the 
Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company of San Francisco and 
located in Sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 16 miles from Bagby by 
wagon road. The vein averages 5 feet in width and is in diabase walls. 
The development consists of a 1550-foot shaft, 5757 feet of drifts on the 
8 levels, 800 feet of crosscuts, 1000 feet of raises and about 100 feet of 
winzes. All the ground is stoped from the eighth level to the surface 
with a width of 500 feet. The equipment consists of a reduction plant, 
namely, 5-stamp mill, Challenge feeder, 4' x 12' plate, compressor, hoist, 
one 75 h.p. and one 10 h.p. motor, blacksmith shop, machine shop, tools 
and machine drills. All underground equipment has been removed to 
the surface as the mine is caving. When the mine was visited a roasting 
furnace and cyanide plant was being completed to treat some concen- 
trates lying on the mine. This plant is to be operated by leasers. The 
mine is idle and formerly used to be one of the large producers of the 
county. 

12ee— 14456 



162 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mary Harrison Quartz Mine. Consists of one claim owned by the 
Merced Gold Mining Company of Boston, Mass., and located in 
Sees. 10 and 11, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 9 miles from Pleasant 
Valley by wagon road. The vein averages 2 feet in width and lies 
between slate walls. The development consists of a 1200-foot shaft ; on 
the 12 levels there are 4800 feet of drifts, 700 feet of crosscuts, an 
incline shaft 600 feet deep, 540 feet of winzes and some raises that have 
been stoped out. There are many stopes of various dimensions. The 
equipment consists of a fine boiler house with boilers, engine house and 
hoisting engine, stone office building, storehouse and all kinds of 
machinery parts and hardware, also rock crusher and bins. The ore 
was crushed and hauled by tram over a narrow gauge track to the Potosi 
mill which is owned by the same company. This property, which was 
formerly one of the large producers of the county, has not been worked 
for some years. A caretaker remains on the property. 

Mebold Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned by 
Fred Mebold of Jersey dale and located on Sweetwater Creek, northwest 
of the Sweetwater mine. It has a 50-foot crosscut tunnel and a few 
feet of drifts. The vein is 2 feet wide and in granite walls. Not work- 
ing at present. 

Merced River Quartz Mines. Consists of 13 unpatented claims 
owned by R. A. Keller and the James Burns Company and located 
in Sees. 15, 16 and 22, T. 3 S., B. 16 E., M. D. M., one half mile from the 
Tosemite Valley Railroad. The vein is from 1 to 4 feet in width. The 
development consists of a 100-foot shaft with two levels and 210 feet 
of drifts. Another shaft is 90 feet deep. There is one crosscut 230 
feet long. The equipment consists of a 10-stamp mill which is not 
erected, 2 rock crushers, 25 h.p. gas engine, boarding house, bunk house, 
and dwelling house. Not working at present. 

Mocking Bird Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned 
by J. A. Schroeder and C. J. Schroeder of Mariposa and located in 
Sec. 27, T. 4 S., B. 18 E., M. D. M., 20 miles by wagon road from 
Bagby. The vein averages 3 feet in width, with porphyry footwall 
and slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a 100-foot shaft 
and 100 feet of drifts. Blacksmith shop, drill steel, bucket, windlass 
and cabin complete the equipment. Only in a prospect condition and 
a little work is done each year. 

Monte Cristo Oroup. Consists of four unpatented claims owned by 
P. M. Skilton and L. C. Worthington of Jerseydale and located in 
Sec. 20, T. 4 S., R. 20 E., M. D. M., 13 miles by wagon road and trail 
from the forks of Merced River and 3 miles by trail from the Comet 
mine. The quartz vein averages 6 feet wide, as far as opened up, and 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 163 

carries some arsenic and antimony with the values. There are: 65- 
foot incline shaft and several open cuts in the way of development, 
but there is no equipment outside of a cabin, blacksmith forge, windlass 
and bucket. This property was idle at the time it was visited but an 
examination had been made and the engineer took his report to New 
York to try to sell the property. 

Mountain Belle Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned 
by J. P. Crichton of San Francisco and located in Sec. 25, T. 5 S., 
R. 17 E., M. D. M., 14 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein 
averages 3 feet wide in quartz porphyry walls. The development 
includes a 174-foot incline shaft and 100 feet of drifting on the two 
levels. The equipment consists of a 10 h.p. gasoline engine, an amalga- 
mating plate 4' x 10', one Union concentrator, 15 h.p. gasoline engine 
for the mill drive and a Blake rock crusher. The buildings include a 
boarding house. Nothing has been done on the claim since 1908. 

M t. Buckingham Qroup. Consists of eight quartz claims, 2 mill sites 
and 169 acres of timber land. Twenty acres of the quartz claims are 
patented and the 169 acres of timber are also patented. These claims 
are owned by the Mt. Buckingham Gold Mining Company of Mariposa 
and are located in Sees. 1, 2, 11 and 12, T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 13 
miles from Briceburg by wagon road. There are five contact veins with 
granite footwall and slate hanging-wall and the widths range from 2 
feet to 10 feet. The development consists of a 500-foot crosscut tunnel, 
250-foot raise and 30-foot winze. There are two stopes — one 40 feet 
long by 200 feet high and the other 60 feet long and 200 feet high. The 
equipment consists of three mine cars and hand drill steel. Not work- 
ing but expect to begin soon. J. L. Diven in charge. 

Mt. Gaines Quartz Mine. Consists of 14 claims owned by A. R. 
Maines, 439 Kingsley drive, Los Angeles, and located in Sec. 35, T. 
4 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 14 miles by wagon road from Merced Falls. 
The vein pinches and swells into various widths and lies between diorite 
walls. 

The development consists of an incline shaft 1350 feet long with 11 
levels and 7840 feet of drifts and 250 feet of raises. There are two 
large stopes-— one 340 feet long by 550 feet high and several smaller ones 
of irregular shapes. The equipment consists of a power line from the 
San Joaquin Power and Light Company's line to the property, hoisting 
equipment by air or steam, 2 boilers, one 10-machine compressor, 9 
machine drills, pipe, skip, 5 pumps, including sinking pump, 20-stamp 
mill, rock crusher, Challenge feeders, 4 amalgamating plates and 8 con- 
centrators. There are also blacksmith shop, store room, office, cook 
house, 2 bunk houses, assay office, 4 cabins, transformer house, sulphuret 
house, boiler house, compressor building, 4 cottages and superintendent's 
hmiflp The mine closed down in 1910 and has not worked since. 



164 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mountain King Quartz Mine. Consists of 12 claims owned by the 
Mountain King Mining and Milling Company of 244 Kearny street, San 
Francisco, and located on the north bank of the Merced River on the 
Yosemite Valley Railroad in Sec. 31, T. 3 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. The 
veins of quartz and slate average 5 feet in width and lie between slate 
walls. The development consists of 5 levels with 5200 feet of drifts, 
1550 feet of crosscuts, 70 feet of winzes and 700 feet of raises. There 
is also a stope 200 feet long by 600 feet high. 



Mountain King Mine, mill and ditch line on the Merced River, Marino,. County. California. 

The equipment consists of 10 ore cars, 4 machine drills, drill steel, 
blacksmith shop, timber shed, 34-stamp mill, Blake crusher, 2 amalga- 
mating plates, 2 Challenge feeders, 6 Standard tables, flume 1000 feet 
long, 2 Victor turbines, Rix compressor, Gould triplex pump, office, 
bunk house, cook house, change house, assay office, foreman's office, 
superintendent's office and residence, and surface tramway. Ten 
stamps were working and 26 men were employed and 75 horsepower was 
being developed on the river in their power plant. 

Mt. Ophir Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim located on 
the Mariposa Grant in Sec. 12, T. 5 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., Hnd owned 
by the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company. It is 10 miles by 
wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 5 feet in width and lies 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 165 

between a serpentine foot wall and a slate hanging-wall. The develop- 
ment consists of three adit levels with 1500 feet of drifts, 360 feet of 
raises, 80 feet of crosscuts and 20 feet of winze. There is a stope 200 
feet long and 300 feet high. There is not very much equipment on the 



Kuini of what ii uid to hive been the lint mint in California, at Mount Ophir, on th* 
llaripoia Batata. Fifty-dollar tlugt ware minted hare. 

property other than the track and ore car. The high voltage power 
line from Bagby passes over the property. It was closed down in 1910 
and aome leasing has been done but is idle now. 

Mt. Queen Quartz Claims. Consists of two unpatented claims owned 
by Daniel E. Johnson of Mariposa and located in Sec. 29, T. 4 8., 
R. 18 E., M. D. M., in the Whitlock mining district. The vein averages 
2 feet in width. There are five shafts, three of them being 85 feet, 60 
feet, and 45 feet in depth. There is a cabin and a windlass on the 
claims. The claims are under bond to the Mariposa Mines and Develop- 
ment Company. 

Mountain View Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned 
liy the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located on the 
Mariposa Grant in Sec. 11, T. 5 S., R. 17 E.. M. D. M., 10 miles by 
wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 2{ feet in width and lies 
between slate walls. The development consists of two adit levels with 
500 feet of drifting, 400 feet of crosscuts, 160 feet of raises and one 
stope, 50 feet long and 100 feet high. No equipment except the track. 
The ore was hauled to the Princeton mill by wagon. The mine has 
been closed for about a year. Was worked by leasers. 

Number One Quartz Mine, Consists of one full claim owned by the 
Treasure Gold Mining Company of Hornitos and located in Sees. 34 



166 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and 35, T. 4 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 15 miles by wagon road from Merced 
Falls. The vein averages 3 feet in width with a slate footwall and 
diabase and porphyry hanging-wall. The development consists of a 
360-foot shaft, three levels with 1150 feet of drifts, 130-foot crosscut 
and three stopes. The equipment consists of an electric hoist, 20-h.p. 
motor, skip, 2000 feet of rails, blacksmith shop, 10-stamp mill, 2 com- 
pressors, 2 motors, Challenge feeders, 2 amalgamating plates, 3 
concentrators and a Johnson rock crusher. The buildings include a 
hoist building, assay office, store house, office and several small build- 
ings. Power from the San Joaquin Power and Light Company. The 
mine has just been reopened. 

Number Five Quartz Mine. Consists of two full claims and a half, 
unpatented, and owned by the Nevada Mineral Extraction Company 
of Berkeley, Cal., and located in Sec. 10, T. 5 8., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 
13 miles by wagon road from Merced Falls. The vein of quartz varies 
from 17 to 30 feet in width and has a diorite footwall and a slate schist 
hanging-wall. The development consists of a 260-foot shaft, 110 feet 
of drifts, and a 427-foot crosscut. The equipment consists of an electric 



Ore bini, crmliing plant and amalgamating planl of the Number i Gold Mine, HoroJtoa 
mining dittrict, Muipoaa County, California. 

hoist, Gardner compressor, 35 h.p. motor for compressor, 40 h.p. motor 
for hoist, 2 machine drills, 100 feet of mine rails, bucket, blacksmith 
shop, Cameron sinking pump, duplex Fairbanks pump, Parker Linn ball 
crusher and Parker Linn ball pulverizer, Parker amalgamating machine 
and 3 motors for crushers and grinders. The amalgamating plates are 
treated by chemicals before mercury is used on them. Mine was being 
equipped at time it was visited. The buildings include assay office, 
transformer house, and small buildings. 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 167 

Old Wilcox Quartz Claim. Consists of one unpatented claim owned 
by A. H. Ward of San Francisco and located in Sec. 18, T. 3 S., R. 
19 E., M. D. M., on the north bank of the Merced River. The vein lies 
between a granite footwall and slate hanging-wall. The development 
consists of a shaft that is supposed to be 110 feet deep and a tunnel 
75 to 80 feet long. The claim has not been worked since 1862 and has 
no equipment. 

Original Quartz Mine. Consists of four unpatented claims owned 
by the Original Mining and Milling Company of Merced, Merced 
County, and located in Sec. 21, T. 3 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M. The vein 
averages 2 feet in width between slate walls. The development con- 
sists of a 640-foot shaft, 4 levels with 2053 feet of drifts, 185-foot cross- 
cut, 485 feet of raises, a winze 462 feet deep and three stopes. The 
equipment consists of a hydroelectric plant on the Merced River which 
has a Westinghouse 133 k.w. generator, 100 h.p. Ingersoll Rand air 
compressor, one 30-inch and one 20-inch Pelton wheel, undershot and 
low pressure. The ditch and flume are 3400 feet long and carry 6000 
inches of water at 34-foot head. An electric hoist (30 h.p.), one skip, 
3000 feet of 12-pound mine rails, 1500 feet of 8-inch ventilating pipe, 
2-inch compressed air pipe, 10 machine drills, drill steel, etc., are also 
included in the plant. 

The reduction equipment includes a 10-stamp mill, Blake rock 
crusher, 2 Challenge feeders, two 4' x 6' plates and three Gates van- 
ners. The buildings include an office, 2 bunk houses, dining room, 
change room, assay office, blacksmith shop, concentrate house, 8 small 
residences, and 7 small tent houses. The mine and mill are lighted by 
electricity. About 40 men are employed at present. 

Orra Rica Quartz Mine. Formerly called the Penon Blanco, con- 
sisting of five patented claims owned by J. C. Wilson and associates 
of San Francisco and located in Se-3. 20, T. 2 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 
about 7 miles by wagon road from the town of Coulterville. The vein 
is from 3 to 6 feet in width and has a slate footwall and diorite hang- 
ing-wall. The development consists of a tunnel 2050 feet long and 
some drifts. Very little information was to be had as the mine is in 
litigation and all information was withheld. 

Pine Tree Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim located on 
the Mariposa Grant in Sec. 9, T. 4 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., 3 miles by 
wagon road from Bagby and owned by the Mariposa Commercial and 
Mining Company. The vein averages 10 feet in width and has a slate 
footwall and serpentine hanging-wall. The development consists of a 
380-foot shaft with 4 levels and 400 feet of drifts, 133 feet of crosscuts, 
700 feet. of raises; the pay shoot is stoped for a length of 500 feet and 



168 ' MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

to a height of 500 feet. The equipment consists of a 5-stamp mill 
called the Benton mill located on the Merced River at Bagby, 2 Union 
tables and two 20 h.p. motors. The ore is mined and hauled by wagon 
to Bagby. The mill has a Dodge crusher, Challenge feeder, amalga- 
mating plate 5' x 20'. The mine is now being worked by leasers. 

Potosi Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by the 
Mereed Gold Mining Company of Boston, Mass., and located in 
Sec. 4, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 9 miles by wagon road from Pleasant 
Valley on the Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein is from 3 to 20 
feet wide and has slate walls. The development consists of a shaft 
and 9 levels, 2500 feet of drifts, 2 air shafts, 50 feet of crosscut, 25- 
foot raise and a stope 100 feet long. The equipment is quite exten- 
sive and includes a power line of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
from the Orra Rica quartz mine, 11,433 feet long and a large motor 
not set up. There are also 3000 feet of track, shaft pump, ore cars and 
2 rock crushers, 40-stamp mill, 16 Union Iron Works vanners, eight 
4' x 16' amalgamating plates, Challenge feeders, blacksmith and 
machine shop with complete set of lathes and tools, boiler house and 
4 boilers, compressors, hoisting engine, mill engine and engine for 
rack crusher. There are about 4 miles of narrow gauge track from 
the Mary Harrison mine to the Potosi mill, one 8-ton locomotive, twelve 
3-ton ore cars, transformer bouse, change house, cook house, office : 
assay office, and several small buildings. The shaft was unwatered as 
far as the ninth level in 1912, when work ceased and the mine has been 
idle since. 



of Maripou County. I 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 169 

Princeton Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company of San Francisco, and 
located on the Mariposa Grant in Sec. 18, T. 5 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 
12 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 8 feet wide 
and has slate walls. The development consists of an incline shaft 1660 
feet long with 8 levels, 11,418 feet of drifts, 1827 feet of raises and 1300 
feet of crosscuts. The shoot is stoped from the 1200-foot level to the 
surface. All underground equipment has been removed from below. 
There is a 40-stamp mill, Challenge feeders, amalgamating plates, Union 
tables, machine shop, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, assay office, store, 
saw mill, change house, five 50 h.p. boilers, machine drills and tools, 
powder magazine and transformer house, two 150 h.p. and one 100 h.p. 
compressors, three motors, Snow duplex pump, and a Cameron sinking 
pump. The mine is fully equipped but idle at present. 

Quail Quartz Claims. Consist of four unpatented claims located in 
Sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., in the California mining district, 
9 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 4 feet wide and 
has slate walls. The development consists of a shaft, one adit level, 
600 feet of drifts, 3 raises and a stope 200 feet long by 70 feet high. 
The equipment consists of 900 feet of rails, 3 ore cars, Park and Lacey 
duplex compressor, hoist and blacksmith shop. There are also 10-stamp 
mill, 2 rock crushers, 40 h.p. engine and 50 h.p. Nagle boiler. Not 
working at present. 

Recorder Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented quartz claim 
owned by Prank Armstrong and Isaac Miller of Briceburg and located 
in Sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 22 miles by wagon road from 
Bagby. The vein averages one foot in width and lies between porphyry 
walls. The development consists of one adit level with 200 feet of 
drifting. There is a cabin on the mine. Only assessment work is done. 

Reed Quartz Claim. Consists of a quartz ledge located on 154 acres 
of patented farm land in Sees. 28 and 33, T. 2 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 
and owned by Mrs. J. W. Reed. Only small prospect holes have been 
sunk. 

Revel Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned by 
August Revel and Eli Revel of Sweetwater and located in Sec. 28, 
T. 4 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 6 miles by trail from North Pork station on 
the Yosemite Valley Railroad. 

The vein averages 2 feet in width and lies between granite walls. 
The development consists of a 150-foot shaft, one level with 700 feet of 
drifts, 30-foot crosscut and a stope 800 feet long and 150 feet high. 
There is one ore car and some track on the property. The property is 
not working at present. The drifts have caved. 



170 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Roma Quartz Mine. Owned by the Harris Estate and situated in 
Sec. 14, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. The vein is 2 feet wide and 
there is a 1000-foot tunnel. It closed down 25 years ago and very 
little information could be found about it. 

Royal Group. Consists of six unpatented claims and a fraction 
owned by Tresidder, Bains and Tresidder of Mariposa and located in 
Sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. There are a shaft 75 feet deep, 
200 feet of drifts and a 30-foot winze. The vein ranges from an inch 
to 18 inches in width and lies in porphyrite formation. Only assessment 
work is done. 

Rutherford Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
A. H. Ward of San Francisco and located in Sec. 22, T. 3 S., R. 19 E., 
M. D. M. The vein is 4 feet wide and the development consists of a 
460-foot adit level and an 80- foot raise, also a stope 60 feet long by 80 
feet high. There is no equipment on the property and no work has been 
done for 20 years. 

Ruth Pierce Quartz Mine. Consists of two claims on patented agri- 
cultural land owned by the Hornitos Gold Mining Company of 127 
Montgomery street, San Francisco, and situated in Sec. 13, T. 5 S., 
R. 16 E., M. D. M., 4 miles by wagon road from Hornitos. The vein 
averages about 3 feet in width and the development consists of a 
550-foot shaft, part vertical and part incline, with 6 levels and 2272 
feet of drifts. There is one stope 330 feet long by 375 feet high. The 
equipment consists of a 15 h.p. gasoline hoist, skip, mine track, boiler, 
4-machine compressor, 4 machine drills, blacksmith shop, 10-stamp mill, 
Challenge feeders, two amalgamating plates 5 feet wide by 16 feet long, 
and two Frue vanners. The mine was taken over by the present com- 
pany in May, 1913, and is now being put in shape to develop. 

San Domingo Quartz Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim owned 
by Wm. Zeller of Escalon, near Stockton, and located in Sec. 13, 
T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 29 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The 
vein is 2 feet wide and has a slate footwall and a granite hanging-wall. 
The equipment consists of a 400-foot tunnel, 180-foot air shaft, several 
winzes and some raises. There are 180 feet of mine rails, one ore car, 
drill steel and a blacksmith shop. Only assessment work is being done. 

Schroeder Group. Consists of 4 quartz claims and one placer claim 
owned by J. A. Schroeder, P. W. Judkins and C. H. Weston and located 
in Sec. 16, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 2 miles by trail from Saxon 
Creek station on the Yosemite Valley Railroad. The vein varies from 
a few inches to 3 feet in width, and has porphyry footwall and slate 
hanging-wall. The development consists of an open cut 200 feet long 
and 30 feet deep and 375 feet of drifts. The equipment consists of 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 171 

300 feet of track, 4 ore cars, blacksmith shop, and derrick. This is 
only a prospect and some work is now being done. 

Sierra Rica Quartz Mine. Consists of two claims, one of which is 
patented, owned by M. A. Wilson and J. M. Graham of San Jose, 
located in Sec. 14, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M„ 24 miles by road from 
Bagby. The vein averages 1£ feet in width and has porphyry footwall 
and slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a 300-foot tun- 
nel on one claim and a 100-foot tunnel on the other, one 125-foot raise 
and one 60-foot raise. The equipment consists of 2 mine cars, tools, 
drill steel and a blacksmith shop. There are 4-stamp mill, Challenge 
feeders, rock crusher and one amalgamating plate 4 feet by 8 feet. 
There are two miles of ditch, one boiler and engine, a boarding house 
and two dwellings. Not worked at present. 

Silver Lead Quartz Mine. Consists of three patented claims owned 
by the Mariposa Mining and Milling Company of Carson, City, Nev., 
and located in Sec. 34, T. 4 S., B. 16 B., M. D. M., 12 miles by wagon 
road from Merced Falls. The development consists of a 240-foot shaft 
and 422 feet of drifts. The equipment consists of an air hoist, com- 
pressor, 75 h.p. motor, sinking pump, gas engine, 5-stamp mill, rock 
crusher, Challenge feeder, one 4' x 16' amalgamating plate, 2 concen- 
trators and two small motors — one 10 h.p. and the other 20 h.p. There 
is a boarding house, blacksmith shop, and a barn on the mine. Twelve 
men were being employed at the time the mine was visited. 

Spencer Quartz Mine. Consists of a patented fraction of a claim 
owned by Ada Harris and located in Sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 23 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein averages 
5 feet in width and has a diorite footwall and slate hanging-wall. The 
development consists of a 150-foot shaft, air shaft 150 feet long, 500 
feet of drifts, 220 feet of crosscut, 50-foot winze, and a stope 350 feet 
long and 150 feet high. The equipment consists of one ore car, hand 
pump, drill steel and blacksmith shop. The mine is under bond to 
the Mariposa Mining and Development Company for six months. 

Spread Eagle Quartz Mine. Consists of two unpatented claims 
owned by Nick Mullins of Whitlock and located in Sec. 32, T. 4 S., 
R. 18 E., M. D. M., 19 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein 
averages 2 feet in width and has porphyry walls. The development 
consists of a 210-foot shaft with 2 levels and 1800 feet of drifts. Adit 
level is 1000 feet long. There are one 200-foot crosscut, some winzes 
and raises, also some old stopes. The equipment consists of 2000 feet of 
mine rails, 2 ore cars, hand drills and 2 blacksmith shops. The mine is 
being leased. 

Squirrel Mine (see Bunker Hill) . 



172 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Stockton Creek Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned 
by the Mariposa Commercial and Mining Company and located in 
Sec. 24, T. 5 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. The vein is about 2£ feet wide with 
diabase walls. The development consists of a 135-foot incline shaft 
with 2 levels and 550 feet of drifts and a stope 100 feet long by 70 feet 
high. The equipment includes a hoist, 5 h.p. dynamo, 200 feet of mine 
rails and a blacksmith shop. Not working at present. 

Stud Horse Flat Group. Consists of three unpatented claims and a 
millsite owned by John P. Carroll of Bagby and located in Sec. 35, 
T. 3 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 3 miles from Bagby by trail. The vein is 
from 3 to 6 feet wide and has a slate footwall and porphyry and diorite 
hanging-wall. The development consists of a 150-foot shaft with 2 
levels and 300 feet of drifts, 70 feet of old shafts and 80 feet of tun- 
nels and a stope 250 feet long and 60 feet high. The equipment consists 
of a 5-stamp mill which has not yet been set up. Three men are 
employed sinking. 

Sunshine Group. Consists of five quartz claims and one placer claim 
owned by Mrs. J. L. Divens, 147 Kempton avenue, Oakland, and 
located in Sees. 19 and 20, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M. The veins vary 
from 1 foot to 3 feet in width and have poryhyry footwall and slate 
hanging-wall. The development consists of a 100-foot incline shaft, 
280 feet of drifts, a 100-foot raise and a stope 140 feet long which is 
stoped to the surface. The equipment consists of 380 feet of mine 
rails, two skips, one mine car, drill steel and tools, gasoline hoist, 200- 
ton ore bin, and one Chilian mill. The power is from steam supplied 
from an adjoining mine. The mine is under bond to the Mariposa 
Mines and Development Company and not working at present. 

Sweetwater Quartz Mine. Consists of seven quartz claims owned by 
the Midway Mining and Milling Company and located in Sees. 17 
and 20, T. 4 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., 38 miles by wagon road to Bagby. 
The vein averages 2£ feet wide and has granite walls. The develop- 
ment consists of a 100-foot shaft, 1500 feet of drifts, 240 feet of raises, 
one 6-foot winze, 600-foot crosscut tunnel and four stopes af various 
sizes. The equipment consists of 2300 feet of mine track, 2 iron skips, 
Cameron pump, 1 Blake rock crusher, Cornish rolls, 10-stamp mill, 2 
amalgamating plates 4' x 16', two Johnson vanners, 1 Standard table, 
1 Pindar table, 1 compressor, 2 boilers, 4 machine drills, boarding 
house, blacksmith shop, concentrate house and bunkhouse. The mine 
is bonded to J. L. McAllister and Mrs. E. McKeith and no work is being 
done at present. 

Tyro Quartz Mine. Consists of one patented claim, the owner of 
which is unknown, and located in Sees. 9 and 10, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 173 

M. D. M. The vein is 2 feet wide and has slate walls. The develop- 
ment consists of a 700-foot shaft, with 6 levels and 1370 feet of drifts, 
a 60-fobt raise and a stope 80 feet long by 700 feet high. The equip- 
ment includes 1 skip, Cornish pump, Cameron steam pump, 10-stamp 
mill, rock crusher, 2 Challenge feeders, 2 amalgamating plates, 4' x 12', 
3 Frue vanners, 2 boilers, 8 h.p. each, steam hoisting engine for mill, 
blacksmith shop, caretaker's house and a large oil tank and water tank. 
The mine is idle at present. 

Virginia Quartz Mine. Consists of four claims, one of which is pat- 
ented, owned by the White Gulch Mining Company of 263 Twelfth 
street, Oakland, and located in Sees. 13 and 18, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., 
M. D. M., 8 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein varies 
from a seam to many feet and has a serpentine footwall and diabase 
hanging-wall. The development consists of a 650-foot shaft with four 
levels and 250 feet of drifts, several crosscuts, about 350 feet of raises 
and 250 feet of winzes. There are two stopes — one 100 feet long by 
150 feet high, and the other 100 feet long and 60 feet high. The 
equipment includes about 2000 feet of mine track, 2 ore cars, 700 feet 
of 3-inch compressed air pipe, 300 feet of 2-inch compressed air pipe, a 
Fairbanks-Morse hoist and 35 h.p. motor, 20 cubic foot skip, 200 feet 
of 2-inch pump column, 10-stamp mill, 2 Challenge feeders, Blake 
rock crusher, 2 amalgamating plates and a 50 h.p. gas engine. There 
are also 50 h.p. Ingersoll-Rand compressor, 3 miles of power line, 
blacksmith shop, bunkhouse, timber shed, cookhouse, office, transformer 
house, and superintendent's house. The mine has been operated by 
this company since 1912 and employs 15 men. C. C. Powning, super- 
intendent. 

White Oak Quartz Claim. Consists of one unpatented claim owned 
by A. H. Ward of San Francisco, and located in Sec. 18, T. 3 S., 
R. 19 E., M. D. M. The vein is 2 feet wide and has a granite footwall 
and slate hanging-wall. The development consists of a shallow prospect 
shaft, one tunnel 450 feet long in granite. Has not been worked for 
twenty years. 

Whitlock Group. Consists of three patented claims owned by Dr. 
Gallison and Lizzie Sain and located in Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., 
M. D. M., 18 miles by wagon road from Bagby. The vein is 4 feet 
wide between greenstone walls. The development consists of a shaft 
and four levels and 2115 feet of drifts, winze 140 feet deep and 400 
feet of crosscuts. The Alabama claim has a shaft 300 feet deep. There 
are two stopes — one 150 feet long by 150 feet high, and the other 240 
feet long and 300 feet high. The equipment includes 2000 feet of 
mine rails, 6 ore cars, 3 trucks, 3 air machines and steel, 20-stamp mill, 



174 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

rock crusher, Challenge feeders, air compressor, 50 h.p. hoist engine, 
3 boilers, 4 amalgamating plates, 4 vanners, assay office, blacksmith 
shop, boarding house and superintendent's house. The mine was shut 
down in 1899 and leasers worked it for a time, but it is idle now. 

GOLD (PLACER). 

Placer mining in the county has dwindled to almost nothing and 
what little work is being done is very irregular and depends very n 
extensively on the rainfall. One does not see the long ditch lines in 
this county such as are to be found in other counties, bringing water 
to the placer mines. 

Ah Wai Drift Mine. Consists of one unpatented claim (placer) 
owned by John Hand and W. D. Weston of Mariposa and located in 
Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 25 miles by wagon road from 
Bagby. The gravel is bench gravel with a rough slate bedrock with 
free wash and large boulders. 

The development consists of 2000 feet of bedrock tunnel. The 
equipment consists of 2 miles of ditch, a reservoir 30 feet by 10 feet 
by 4 feet deep, sluice boxes, and pole and Hungarian riffles. There 
are cabin, blacksmith shop, drills and tools and one ore car. Works 
six months during the winter season. 

Schroeder Placer Mine. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
J. A. Schroeder, C. J. Schroeder, P. W. Judkins and C. H. Weston and 
located in Sec. 16, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 20 miles by wagon road 
from Bagby. These are bench diggings and the gravel is medium wash 
with some clay and boulders en a porphyry bedrock. The development 
consists of about 5 acres that have been washed off by ground sluicing 
with a canvas hose. A tunnel 50 feet long is being extended. The equip- 
ment consists of 3 ditch lines, having a total length of 5£ miles, 
1500 feet of 8-inch pipe, sluice boxes and riffles. It is being worked 
each winter. 

The Garden Placer Claim. Consists of one patented claim owned by 
W. D. Weston and located in Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 18 E., M. D. M., 
25 miles by wagon road from Bagby. There are 20 acres of bench 
gravel which is small wash and is worked by ground sluicing during 
three months in the winter. The bedrock is slate. Pole and Hungarian 
riffles are used and the gold is fairly coarse. 

GRANITE. 

Granite abounds in large quantities in Mariposa County of the same 
variety as the famous granite at Raymond in Madera County, but it 
is so far from transportation that it is not able to compete at present 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 175 

with that more favorably situated. A granite property consisting of 
50 acreB of patented land located in Sec. 20, T. 6 S., B. 19 E., 
M. D. M., was located in 1906 by Guido Vignalo but waa deeded to the 
State for taxes. 

It is 15 miles by wagon road from Raymond and the granite is the 
same as that of the Raymond granite but is not being worked. 

MARBLE. 
' There is a very fine marble located in Sec. 2, T. 4 S-, R. 19 E., 
M. D. M., 6 miles southwest of El Portal on the road to Ilites Cove and 
on the south fork of the Merced River. It is owned by F. A. Bondshu, 



d Rivet im Hit» Cote, Maripou 

J. F. Harris, C. P. Pratt and J. W. Pratt of Mariposa. The limestone 
is about 3000 feet wide and stands 600 feet from the river. The marble 
is white with dark streaks through it and takes a fine polish. 

MEERSCHAUM. 

Meerschaum has been found on a copper claim just east of the town 
of Mariposa located in Sec. 30, T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M. D. M., and located 
by Thomas A. Schlagerty of Mariposa. The quantity is not very large 
but the quality is excellent. 



176 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

PHOSPHORETIC ZINCBLENDE. 
The Aposozein Manufacturing Company of 512 Mission street, San 
Francisco, owns 80 acres of grazing land in Sees. 9 and 10, T. 4 S., 
R. 15 E., M. D. M., upon whieh there is a ledge of schist containing 
phosphoretic zincblende whieh is being ground by the Nature Company 
of San Francisco and sold under the name of "Akoz" as a curative for 
various ailments. The rock has the peculiar property of imparting a 
glow when scratched with a knife or piece of steel. 

QUICKSILVER. 
There is a quartz ledge on the Merced River at Horseshoe Bar that 
has a north and south strike and carries crystallized cinnabar on the 
footwall side. It is not in sufficient quantity to be of commercial value 
but merely as a note of interest. See Geological Survey of California 
(Vol. 1) by Whitney for mention of it. 

ROCK QUARRIES. 

Yosemite Rock Quarry, This quarry consists of 80 acres owned by 
the Merced Stone Company and leased by the E. B. & A. L. Stone Com- 
pany, Rialto Building, San Franeisco. The quarry and plant are 



n the Merced River and the Yowmiu 



MARIPOSA COUNTY. 177 

located on the Merced River at Jasper Point in Sec. 19, T. 3 S., R. 16 E., 
M. D. M. The rock is an altered quartzite, very hard and of a jaspery 
nature. The equipment consists of a steam shovel, compressor and air 
drills, three gyratory crushers, screens, bucket conveyors, bins, electric 
motors, power line and transformer house. Power is obtained from the 
San Joaquin Light and Power Company. The capacity of the plant is 
750 tons per ten hours and the rock is sold at from 20 to 30 cents 
per ton on the cars of the Tosemite Valley Railroad. Only a few men 
were at work when the property was visited. 

Yosemite Stone Quarry. This property consists of 40 acres of pat- 
ented land owned by the Ransome-Crummey Company of Oakland and 
located on the Merced River at Exchequer on the Yosemite Valley 



RaiiBome-Ciummty rock cruiher mt Exchequer, on the Merced River end Yoeeraite Valley 
milroid. M.ripoM County, CililornU. 

Railroad. The rock is a fine grained diorite and the dike is about 500 
feet wide between the walls of slate. The equipment consists of an air 
compressor and 5 machine drills, a blacksmith shop, gravity tram, 
two 5-ton ears, 5 Gates gyratory crushers, elevating buckets, 10 motors, 
one 100-ton ore bin, a large crane, office, and superintendent's house. 
Power is supplied by the San Joaquin Light and Power Company and 
20 men are employed at the present time. 



178 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

SLATE. 

Cunningham Slate Quarry. Consists of slate land located in Sees. 
6, 7, 8, and 17, T. 7 S., R. 17 E., M. D. M., and owned by the 
Cunningham Corporation of Planada, Merced County. The quarry 
was leased from Cunningham by D. J. Gonyer for fifteen yeans. The 
quarry is developed and a good quality of roofing slate produced. It is 
not working at present. 

Pacific Slate Quarry. Consists of 50 acres of land located in Sec. 
6, T. 6 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M., 4 miles from Merced Falls and 



Roofing ilatc from quarry of Pacific Slatt Company in Bee. 6, T. S S.. H. IS E.. 

owned by the Pacific Slate Company of Merced, Merced County. The 
slate is quarried and cut into slabs for roofing purposes mostly. None 
is being shipped at present, as there is very little demand. 



e Quarry of Pacific Slate Company of Ifcreed. In Sac. 6, T. 6 S., R. IS E., H. D. M. 



MERCED COUNTY. 179 



MERCED COUNTY. 

By F. L. LOWELL, Field Assistant. 
Field work in September, 1914. 

Merced is, strictly speaking, an agricultural county. Most of its 
1,276,800 acres of land is under cultivation and the question of water 
has long been settled by the introduction of a system of irrigating 
ditches which is augmented by numerous flowing wells. 

There is very little mineral in the county and only one gold mining 
company is operating. The mineral indications are found in the Coast 
Range mountains in the southwestern part of the county adjoining 
Santa Clara County and in the northeastern part adjoining Mariposa 

County. 

ASBESTOS. 

Asbestos is said to occur near the Mariposa County line in 
T. 7 and 8 S., R. 16 E., M. D. M. No work has been done on it and no 
information could be obtained about it. 

CLAY. 

A white clay said to be suitable for the manufacture of pottery when 

mixed with other clay that gives it the required fatty consistency is 

found in the region of Merced Falls, on the land owned by M. Goldman, 

of Merced. It is not being worked although many experiments have 

been made with it to test the quality. Clay also is said to be found in 

T. 5 S., R. 14 E. 

COPPER. 

Copper has been found in the south end of the county but not in 
sufficient quantities to pay commercially. 

Jose Copper Claim, This claim is located in Sec. 4, T. 13 S., 
R. 9 E., M. D. M., about 35 miles from Hollister, San Benito 
County. The ledge proper has not been discovered, but what appears 
to have been a slide from the ore body has been developed by a 500-foot 
tunnel. A small quantity of chalcopyrite running high in gold and 
silver values was found. The claim has been idle for a number of 
years. 

Victor Bonanza Group, This group of copper claims is located in 
Sees. 14, 15, 16, 23, 24 and 25, T. 13 S., R. 9 E., and Sees. 30 and 
31, T. 13 S., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 16 miles from Dos Palos. Native 
copper and chalcopyrite have been found in the croppings. The forma- 
tion is sandstone and porphyry. Practically no development has been 
done. (See " Copper Resources of Calif ornia," Bulletin No. 50.) 



MINES AND MINE RAT, RESOURCES. 



Yoiemitt Gold Dredting >nd Mining Company's dradgc it Sntlling, Merced County. 

GOLD. 

The only gold mining that is being done at present is that at Snell- 
ing on the Merced River where the Yosemite Gold Dredging and 
Mining Company operates a dredge on their 400 acres along the river. 
The gravel is a clean wash and quite free from clay or large boulders. 
The gravel averages 20 feet to bedrock and a total of 24,200 cubic yards 
averaged 16| cents per yard, and working costs 6$ cents per yard. 
The gold is coarse, clean and easy to save. The electric power is sup- 
plied from their own plant on the Merced Eiver which is about 1£ 
miles from the dredge and costs not over lj eents per kilowatt hour. 
(See "Gold Dredging in California," Bulletin No. 57.) 
MANGANESE. 

Briggs Mine. This mine is owned by N. C. Briggs, of Hollister, San 
Benito County, and is located in Sec. 16, T. 13 S., B. 9 E., M. D. M. 
The manganese deposit is claimed to show on the surface over a width 
of 100 to 200 feet. Very little development work has been done. (See 
"Structural and Industrial Materials of California," Bulletin No. 33, 
for Manganese, also U. S. G. S. Bulletin No. 427.) 
WATER. 

As said before, this county is well supplied with water, both from 
wells which reach water at a comparatively short distance from the 
surface, and also from the four irrigating systems whose canals traverse 
the county. Among these four systems is the Crocker and Huffman 
Land and Water Company, which also supplies the eity of Merced with 
municipal water. 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 

SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 



San Joaquin County, of which Stockton is the county seat, has an 
area of 1370 square miles or approximately 926,720 acres. Of this 
acreage 763,048 acres are in farm lands. The population of the county 
was 50,731 in 1910. The county may be classed as agricultural and 
very little mineral is found in commercial quantities to pay for 
working. 

The principal output under a mineral head is natural gas. There is 
also some manganese, clay and indications of coal in the Corral Hollow 
district in the southern end of the county. Water is abundant and is 
obtained from wells and irrigation ditches. The county is bounded on 
the north by Sacramento County, on the northeast by Amador and 
Calaveras counties, on the east and southeast by Stanislaus County, 
on the southwest by Alameda County and on the west by Contra Costa 
County. 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 
Brick and pottery. 

Carnegie Brick and Pottery Company. This company, which owns 
the E. i of Sec. 33, and the W. J of Sec. 34, T. 3 S., R. 4 E., M. D. M., 
has a very extensive plant for the manufacture of brick and terra 



Carnegie Brick and Pottery Company'a Plant at Carnegie, Sin Joaquin County, California. 
Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

cotta on the Tesla line of the Western Pacific Railroad at Carnegie. 
The clay came from the Tesla coal mine in Alameda County and 
was hoisted from the underground workings and conveyed by rail- 
road to the brick plant. The plant includes forty-five brick kilns 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Floor conatfuction of a brick kiln at the Carnegie Brick and Pottery Plant, 8u Joaquin 
County, California. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

and the equipment cost in the neighborhood of half a million dollars. 
It has not been in operation since 1912. The brick and terra cotta 
plant is in San Joaquin County and the mine and pottery plant are in 
Alameda County. 

San Joaquin Brick Company Plant (red brick). This property con- 
sists of sixty acres of clay land on Roberts Island, outside of Stockton, 
and is a consolidation of the San Joaquin Brick Company plant and 
the Roberts Island Brick Company plant, with offices at 33 South El 
Dorado street, Stockton. The clay is dredged from the slough by a 
Marion steam dredger and allowed to weather in the air before it is 
used for making the common red brick. 

The plant consists of 2 kilns, 2 brick machines, 2 brick cutters, one 
40 h.p. motor, one steam shovel on a barge, dry sheds and other 
buildings. Forty men are employed and the plant has a capacity of 
40,000 brick per day with one unit and could produce 80,000 with 
another unit operating. 

Stockton Fire and Enamel Brick Company Plant. The plant is 
located on the outskirts of the city of Stockton near the glass works and 
Jackson baths, and consists of 5 brick kilns, 2 brick pressing machines, 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 



• Inluid Brick Plunt, owned by tlu San 



J«qi 



by tot San Joaquin Brk 

IuId County, California. 



Company oi Stockton, San 



2 cutting machines, pugmill, dry pan, oil tanks, 2 boilers and a steam 
engine. The brick machinery is run by four motors, the power being 
supplied by the Western States Gas and Electric Company. Twenty- 
five men are employed. This company manufactures fire-brick, face 
brick, hand moulded material, and linings. The clay comes from 
Carnegie, lone. Valley Springs and Lincoln. The capacity of the plant 



Stockton Fin 



mpany'a plan 
Calftomta. 



: Stockton, San Joaquin County, 



184 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

is 50,000 brick per day, besides hand moulded material. Red brick 
is not manufactured. The plant has been working two years and is on 
a spur track of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

NATURAL GAS. 

Natural gas has been a very important factor in the fuel question of 
the manufacturing industries of San Joaquin County and, together with 
the cheap water transportation to San Francisco Bay, gives the city of 
Stockton an enviable advantage over other valley cities. Most of the 
natural gas wells of the county that have produced or are producing 
at the present time are located in the vicinity of Stockton. It has been 
stated before that the flow of water with the flow of gas is merely 
"incidental and not the necessary concomitant of gas." I did not 
find this to be altogether correct as in nearly all eases where the flow of 
water has diminished, the gas also has diminished, and at the present 
time some of the wells are being "forced ;" in other words, the gas is 
forced back into the well to create a greater flow of water, as a greater 
flow invariably carries an increased flow of gas. The gas wells at the 
state asylum are kept alive and producing by this method. The wells 
at this institution are becoming filled up with sand and the supply of 
gas is now hardly adequate for their use. The officials consider that a 
natural gas well is a paying investment and' would like to have a new 
well bored for their increasing demand. The first gas well in the 
county was bored, not for gas, in fact it was not known that gas lay in 
the strata below, but was drilled in order to get a flow of artesian water 
that would flow into one of the sloughs, thereby clearing the slough of 
stagnant water and removing objectionable odors. When the water was 
tapped gas also began to flow and the casing was capped and later a 
gasometer was put on the top and the gas was sold to a few customers. 
This company put down one other well and has a franchise from the 
city of Stockton for its pipe mains and supplies about 250 customers, 
but are not extending the business. This company, called the Central 
Natural Gas Company, and the Western States Gas and Electric Com- 
pany, are the only two companies that are marketing the gas. There 
are several other gas wells owned by individuals, the gas from which is 
used locally for fuel and light. 

Central Natural Oas Company. This company owns two gas wells 
located in the town limits oi Stockton. The first well, or No. 1, was 
put down about eighteen years ago at American street and Miner ave- 
nue and went to a depth of about 1400 feet. Began drilling in 1893 
and finished in 1899. The original flow was 32,000 cu. ft. but now flows 
5000 cu. ft. per day. No. 2 well, which is located on Mr. Hoyle Green- 
wood's property at 229 North San Joaquin street, was drilled with a 
rig similar to the Keystone drill, to a total depth of 2838 feet about 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 



185 



seven years ago. The well was started with a 16-inch easing and this 
was reduced to 14, 12, 10 and finally to 6-inch casing at the bottom. 
The original flow was 100,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Analysis of the- Gaa. 











■ — - ■ 


TS.t 

.0 

o.s- 

0.3 
25. S 
0.S6S 

ras 

25.9 


■uSsta 
















































































































Heats of combustion used 
Temperature o( the water a 


j feet. 

or B. T. C. 


ralculatloi 
e,B8 leet 


CXHtX 2,000, CO 343 
■■ liM". Temperature 


it tbe present time 



The flow of gas from the No. 2 well at the present time is from 
30,000 to 40,000 cu. ft. per 24 hours, calculated from the amount sold to 
customers, there being no meter connected. No log has been kept of 



Central Natural Qai Company'i 



ft.r. 



t 229 North San Joaquin 



:, Stockton, San 



the well, but Mr. Greenwood says that strata of sand and gravel were 
encountered from the surface to a depth of 350 feet, also blue clay and 
lava, and from that point down cobblestones were encountered. Gas 
was tapped at the 1200-foot point and was accompanied with water. 
Water always accompanies the gas. 
13ee— 144156 



186 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The No. 1 well has not been producing gas for some time and needs 
to be cleaned out and new casing put in. The company has 250 cus- 
tomers and a franchise for its pipes in the city but is not extending 
its scope of operations. 

The water flowing from the wells is not used for any purpose but 
flows into the sloughs, thereby keeping them free from stagnation. 
N. E. Carpenter is president of the company, 29 North Grant street, 
and Hoyle Greenwood is secretary, 229 North San Joaquin street. 

Clark Gas Well. This well is located at Lincoln and South streets, 
in the city limits of Stockton, and is owned by Mrs. Percival. It was 
bored twenty-five years ago and had a gas flow for some. years but 
has now ceased flowing. 

Court House Oas Well. Located in the yard of the jail in Stockton 
and was started in 1890 and bored to a depth of 1900 feet. The casing 
at the top was 12 inches in diameter. It had a flow of 30,000 cubic 
feet per day, but is now dead. 

Cowam, Oas Well. Located on West Lane road, six miles from Stock- 
ton, and owned by T. C. Cowan. The well was drilled twenty-three 
years ago to a depth of 1160 feet. Enough gas flowed to supply the 
domestic demand for lighting and fuel. The water flowing from 
the well is not used as it is injurious to vegetable life. This well is 
still producing. 

Crown Mills Oas Well. Located at the Crown flour mill and was 
drilled in 1887 to a depth of 1330 feet. It has a 9-inch casing and 
formerly flowed at the rate of 7000 cu. ft., but is now dead. The gas was 
used for lighting the mill and also for fuel in the boiler house. 

Lathrop Oas Well. Located in the town of Lathrop. It was drilled 
in 1888 to a depth of 1420 feet and had 8-inch casing from top to bot- 
tom. The flow of water rose two feet above the collar of the casing 
and was estimated at 300,000 gallons per 24 hours. The well also pro- 
duced 3000 cu. ft. of gas per day, but has been dead for a long period. 

Roberts Island Gas Well. Located on the Kidd ranch on Roberts 
Island. It was drilled about twenty-five years ago and had a small flow 
of gas, but is dead now. 

Salmon Oas Well. Located on Atlanta road just below French 
Camp, i of a mile from Sharp Lane. It was bored about thirty years 
ago and had a small flow of gas, but is dead now. 

St. Agnes College Wells. Located in the grounds of St. Agnes Con- 
vent in Stockton. The two wells were drilled to a depth of 960 and 
1720 feet respectively and had 10-inch casing. They produced 25,000 
cu. ft. of gas per day, which was used for fuel and illuminating purposes 
in the convent. The wells are filled with sand and are dead now. 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 187 

Stockton State Hospital Wells, Nos. 1 and 2. Located at the hospital 
for the insane at Stockton. Well No. 1 was drilled about twefity years 
ago to a depth of 1600 feet with 8-inch casing. It has been dry for 
three years. The temperature of the water was 84° and highly charged 
with magnesia and iron. 

Well No. 2 was drilled at about the same time as well No. 1, with 
16-inch casing at the top. This well is being "forced" at the present 
time to increase the flow of gas. The water is conveyed to a swimming 
pool for the patients' use. The gas is used for cooking purposes about 
the asylum, but the supply is not equal to the demand as the flow is 
not over 900 cu. ft. per day. The well is badly filled with sand. 

Western States Oas and Electric Company Gas Wells. The Western 
States Gas and Electric Company is an incorporated company with its 
home office in San Francisco and doing business in Stockton with its 
local office at 44 North Sutter street. H. M. Byllesby of Chicago is 
president ; Samuel Kahn of Stockton, vice president and general man- 
ager, and Allen L. Chickering of San Francisco, secretary. The com- 
pany owns an extensive gas manufacturing plant and electric plant as 
well as sixteen natural gas wells, five of which have ceased to flow. 
The natural gas is all piped to the central plant and mixed with the 
manufactured gas and then goes to the consumer. The company owns 
most of the natural gas wells now producing. The water flowing from 
their wells is not utilized except in the case of the Jackson No. 2 well, 
which supplies water for the swimming tank of the Jackson baths which 
adjoin. 

Natural Oas Wells owned by Western States Gas and Electric Com- 
pany of Stockton, California : 

Well No. 1. 

Located at Lafayette and Lincoln streets. 
Began drilling in 3892 and finished in 1896. 
Total depth of 1702 feet. 
Twelve and 8-inch casing. 
Not flowing at present. 
Original flow was 15,400 cu. ft. per day. 
Water flow was 200 gallons per minute. 
Well is now dead. 

Well No. 2. 

Formerly owned by the Stockton Natural Gas Company. 

Located at Lafayette and Lincoln streets. 

Began drilling in 1886 and finished in 1888. 

Twelve-inch and 7-inch casing. 

Original flow was 87,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Water flow was 1500 gallons per minute. 

Well is now dead. 



188 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Well No. 3. 

Formerly owned by the Stockton Natural Gas Company. 

Located at Lafayette and Lincoln streets. 

Began drilling in 1888 and finished in 1890. 

Total depth of 1890 feet. 

Twelve-inch and 6-inch casing. 

Original flow was 40,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Flowing now 12,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Temperature of water is 86°. 

CH 4 07.1% 

CO 0.6% 

CO- 0.2% 

() 0.5% 

X 31.6% 

• 

Well No. 4. 

Formerly owned by the Northern Natural Gas Company. 

Located at Grant and Fremont streets. 

Began drilling in 1892 and finished in 1894. 

Total depth of 1720 feet. 

Twelve and 6-inch casing. 

Original flow was 20,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Flows now at rate of 5000 cu. ft. per day. 

Original flow of water was 1800 gallons per minute, but much less 

now. 

Temperature of water is 83° F. 

CH 4 57.9% 

CO 0.6% 

C0 2 0.2% 

O 0.8% 

X 40.5% 

Well No. 5. 

Located at North and Hunter streets. 

Began drilling in 1895 and finished in 1896. 

Total depth of 2071 feet. 

Twelve and 6-inch casing. 

Original flow was 43,300 cu. ft. 

Flow is now 30,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Flow of water is 300 gallons per minute. 

Temperature of water is 86° F. 

cn 4 64.5% 

CO 0.7% 

CO. 0.4% 

O 0.6% 

N 33.8% 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 189 

Well No. 6. 

Located at Anderson and Pilgrim streets. 

Started in 1895 and finished in 1896. 

Total depth of 1810 feet. 

Twelve-inch casing at the top and 7-inch at bottom. 

Original flow was 28,899 cu. ft. per day. 

Flow now 16,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Water flow 800 gallons per minute. 

Temperature of water is 86° F. 

CH 4 67.2% 

CO 0.3% 

CO, 0.4% 

O 0.7% 

N 31.4% 

Well No. 7. 

Located at Miner avenue and Harrison street. 
Started in 1898 and finished in 1900. 
Total depth of 2230 feet. 
Twelve, 10£, 9, and 7^-inch casing. 
Original flow was 72,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Flow now is 35,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Water flow was 1800 gallons per minute. 
Water flow now is 300 gallons per minute. 
Temperature of the water is 93° F. 

CH, 66.0% 

CO 0.9% 

CO, 0.2% 

O 0.6% 

N 32.3% 

Well No. 8. 

Located at El Dorado, between Channel and Miner streets. 

Started in 1904 and finished in 1912. 

Total depth of 3178 feet. 

Sixteen, 14£, 13, 12, 9, 6^-inch casing. 

Formerly flowed 60,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Now flows 39,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Water flow about 504,000 gallons per day. 

Temperature of water, 94° F. 

Well cost about $75,000. 

CH 4 73.5% 

CO 0.6% 

O 0.2% 

N 25.3% 

(See attached sheet of log, page 194.) 



190 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Well No. 9. 

Located at Miner avenue and East street. 
Started in 1902 and finished in 1908. 
Total depth of 2603 feet. 
Sixteen, 14£, 13 and 12-inch casing. 
Formerly flowed 120,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Now flows 85,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Water flow is 720,000 gallons per day. 
Temperature of water is 96° F. 

CH 4 70.8% 

CO 0.5% 

CO, 0.1% 

O 0.3% 

N 28.3% 

(See attached sheet of log, page 195.) 

Well No. 10. 

Formerly belonged to Northern Natural Gas Company. 

Located at Acacia, between San Joaquin and Hunter streets. 

No record of time the well was drilled. 

Total depth, 2006 feet. 

Twelve, 10$, 8$, 7 and 6-inch casing. 

Nq record of original flow. 

One of the oldest wells in this district. 

Well is now dead. 

ch 4 66.0% 

co 1.4% 

CO, 0.4% 

O 0.9% 

N 31.3% 

Citizens No. 1. 

Formerly owned by the Citizens Natural Gas Company. 

Located on Commerce street, between Rose and Vine streets. 

No records of the well to be obtained. 

Water flowed at rate of 800 gallons per minute. 

Well is now dead. 

Citizens No. 2. 

Formerly owned by the Citizens Natural Gas Company. 

Located at North and Addison streets. 

Total depth is 1850 feet. 

Twelve, 10 and 8-inch casing. 

Present flow is 39,000 feet per day. 

Temperature of the water is 86° F. 

CH 4 68.1% 

CO 0.4% 

CO, 0.3% 

O 0.7% 

N — _ 30.5% 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 

Jaokaon No. 1. 

Originally owned by John Jackson. 

Located at San Joaquin and Tenth streets. 

Started in 1894 and finished in 1896. 

Total depth of 1702 feet. 

Twelve and 6-inch casing. 

Originally flowed 30,000 eu. ft. per day, 

Well is now dead. 

Water flow 600 gallons per minute. 

CH, 50.5% 

CO — _ 0.6% 

CO, 0.4% 

O — - 0.4% 

N 39.1% 

(For both Jackson No. 1 and No. 2.) 
Jaokion No. 2. 

Formerly belonged to John Jackson. 

Located at San Joaquin and Tenth streets. 

Started in 1895 and finished in 1898. 

Total depth of 1600 feet. 

Twelve and 7-inch casing. 

Plowing originally 35,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Now flows 6,000 cu. ft. per day. 

Water flow originally 600 gallons per minute. 

Temperature of water 84° P. 



92 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Glaaa Worka Wall No. 1. 
Formerly belonged to Stockton "Window Glass Company. 
Located at San Joaquin and Fourteenth streets. 
Well drilled in about 1904. 
Total depth 2000 feet. 
Twelve and 6-inch casing. 
Flows 16,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Water flow about 250 gallons per minute. 
Temperature of water 92° F. 

CH, — — 60.8% 

CO - 0.7% 

CO, 0.4% 

O 03% 

N 28.8% 



Glaaa Worka Wall No. 2. 

Formerly owned by the Stockton Window Glass Company. 
Located at San Joaquin and Fourteenth streets. 
No record of the date when the well was drilled. Think it was 
drilled about 1904. 
Total depth 2100 feet. 
Twelve and 6-inch casing. 
Flows 7000 cu. ft. per day. 
Water flow about 150 gallons per minute. 
Temperature of water is 90° F. 



BAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 193 
Log of Well No. 7. 

Formation. Feet to feet. 

Adobe s 

Yellow clay _ 3 24 

Blue clay "~ 24 45 

Sand and small stone 45 51 

Blue clay _ _ 51 154 

Cemented blue clay _ _ 154 let 

Coarse sand _ 164 184 

Clay _ 184 190 

Sand, gravel and stone 190 288 

Blue clay _ ._ _ 288 242 

Loose sand _ 242 340 

Blue clay _ 340 854 

Cement sand _ - __ 354 651 

Bine clay _ 651 655 

Loose sand 653 726 

Clay _ 7*6 731 

Sand _ 781 768 

Clay _.._ : 768 786 

Sand and cemented clay _ __ 786 840 

Tough blue clay 840 897 

Hard clay _ 807 915 

Tough clay 915 928 

Hard clay 928 950 

Coarse clay 966 1,076 

Clay — 1,076 1,083 

Sand _ _ 1 ,083 1,115 

Clay 1,115 1,122 

Loose sand _ 1,122 1,174 

Clay _ 1,174 1,212 

Coarse sand and stone _ 1,212 1,274 

8m aU stone ],274 1,290 

Hard clay 1,290 1,348 

Packed sand 1,846 1,854 

Hard clay 1,354 1,382 

Sand and pebbles 1,882 1,386 

Hard clay 1,886 1,488 

Coarse sand 1,486 1,439 

Tough clay _ 1,439 1,452 

Hard clay 1,452 1,517 

Tough clay _ 1,517 1,582 

Hard clay 1,532 1,660 

Sand _ 1,560 1 ,563 

Hard clay 1,563 1,594 

Tough clay _ _ _ 1,594 1.598 

Hard clay 1,598 1,674 

Sand -> 1,674 1,689 

Clay 1,689 1,723 

Loose sand - 1,723 1,738 

Clay 1,788 1,777 

Loose sand — - _ _ 1,777 1,795 

Clay 1,795 1,798 

8and _ 1,798 1,804 

Clay _ _ 1,804 1,811 

Loose sand ,. _ - 1,811 1,818 

Clay 1,818 1 ,868 

Loose sand 1,838 1,883 

Clay _ 1,886 1,961 

Sand - 1,931 1,969 

Clay 1,969 2,053 

Loose sand — 2,053 2,063 

Clay 2,068 2,068 

Loose sand _ 2,068 2,093 

Clay - 2,093 2,193 

Sand 2,198 2,194 

Hard cemented clay _ 2,194 2,206 

Loose sand 2,206 2,213 

Hard cemented clay 2,213 2,222 

Loose sand 2,222 2,280 



14ee— 14456 



194 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Log of Well No. 8. 

Formation. Feet to feet. 

Clay - 25 

Sand _ 25 29 

Clay _ 29 65 

Sand 65 68 

Clay _ , 68 196 

Gravel 196 202. 

Clay _ 202 220 

Gravel 220 232 

Clay - 232 334 

Sand - 334 345 

Clay 345 384 

8and 384 890 

Clay _ 390 440 

Saud - - 440 448 

Clay _ - 448 680 

Sand - 680 700 

Clay - 700 710 

Sand _ 710 728 

Clay 728 760 

Sand - - — 760 768 

Clay _ _ - 768 818 

Sand - 818 826 

Clay - - 82) 973 

Sand - 9~5 932 

Clay _ 982 1,019 

Sand 1.0D 1,030 

Clay - 1.030 1,243 

Gravel -— 1.243 1,253 

Clay 1.253 1.460 

Sand _ - 1 .4*) 1,468 

Clay 1.438 1,616 

Sand 1.610 1.619 

Clay — _ - 1,619 1 ,725 

Sand 1,725 1,738 

Clay _ _ 1,738 1,960 

Sand 1,960 1,970 

Red clay - 1,970 1,980 

Yellow day - - 1,983 2,000 

Blue and white clay - 2,000 2,120 

Sand - 2,120 2,132 

Sticky blue clay 2,132 2,600 

Sand - 2,600 2,607 

Gravel - 2,607 2,648 

Blue clay 2,648 2,700 

Red clay - 2,700 2,790 

Black clay - 2,790 2,800 

Sand - - 2,800 2,845 

Gravel _ - - 2,845 2,880 

Sand 2,880 2,900 

Gravel 2,900 2,907 

Brown clay - 2,9U7 3,060 

Black sand — S.080 8,175 

Blue clay 3 »1 75 3 »178 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 195 
Log of Well No. 9. 

Formation. Feet to feet. 

Adobe 2 

Yellow clay 2 14 

Sand 14 17 

Clay _ 17 82 

Blue clay 82 174 

Yellow clay _ 174 190 

Sand _ 190 220 

Blue clay 220 282 

Black sand _ 232 240 

Blue clay __ 240 445 

Sand _._ _ 445 450 

Blue clay 450 485 

Coarse white sand - _ « 485 492 

Blue clay _ 492 584 

sand _ _ 584 588 

Blue clay _ 588 605 

Sand _ _ 605 614 

Blue clay 614 698 

Sand _ 698 705 

Blue clay 705 1,058 

Coarse sand - «. _ _ 1,056 1,061 

Blue clay 1,061 1,190 

Coarse sand -__i _ _. _ 1,190 1,205 

Hard blue clay •-_ 1,205 1,338 

Cemented sand and stone. ___'_,. 1,838 1,343 

Clay - _ 1,343 1,475 

Cemented sand and stone 1,475 1,483 

Hay __ _ _ 1,483 1 ,609 

Loose sand and stone... .. _ 1,608 1,620 

Clay 1,620 1,860 

Sand and stone j 1,850 1,853 

Sand and clay In thin layers _ 1,853 2,018 

Red, white and blue clay — 2,018 2,025 

sand 2,025 2,082 

Clay "_ 2,032 2,038 

Sand - - _ 2,038 2,044 

Clay 2,044 2,070 

Sand — 2,070 2,176 

Clay 2,176 2,188 

Sand — 2,186 2,196 

Clay and sand In thin layers 2,196 2,500 

Clay 2,500 2,600 

Sand 2,600 2,603 

The first flow of gas was struck at 2025 feet. 

The next flow at 2044 feet, and the third flow at 2176 feet. 

The best flow of gas was struck at 2600 feet. 

This well is the best that the company owns. 

MANGANESE. 

The characteristic occurrences of manganese in California are in the 
form of black oxide associated as layers and pockets with the jasper 
lenses of the Franciscan formation of probable Jurassic age. Man- 
kanite seems to be the most prevalent variety of manganese encountered 
in the Livermore range of hills. • 

Manganese Prospect. This property consists of the SE. £ of Sec. 2, 
T. 4 S., R. 4 E., and about 1£ miles south by road of the branch 

line of the Western Pacific Railroad which runs to the Tesla coal 
mine. The land was formerly owned by J. Caire, who sold it to 
J. Treadwell and it is now in the hands of Frank J. Symmes, trustee, 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



-- _.... ... I\ 4 S., R. « E.. M. D. 1£„ owned by the 

inihip Estate. Photo by Waller W. Bradley. 

491 California street, San Francisco. According to the Tenth Miner- 
alogist Report, about 2000 feet of tunneling has been done and some 
sloping, which have caved. No work has been done on the property 
for eight years. The manganese is in the jasper formation and the 
lenses vary from one to ten feet in width. There are many manganese 
coatings on the cherts in these hills but they are not of sufficient purity 
to be of commercial value. 

Manganese Prospect. In Sec. 11, T. 4 S., R. 4 E., M. D. M., owned 
by the Winship Estate, 354 Pine street, San Francisco, and leased by 
D. P. and F. M. Doak, of the Rialto Building, San Francisco. This 
prospect has been working the last few months and has been developing 
manganese ore. 

(See U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 427, for further refer- 
ence to Manganese of the State.) 



SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 197 

WATER. 

The county is well supplied with subterranean water and water from 
irrigation ditches. Many of the farms of the county rely on their wells 
for irrigating. Care must be exercised in selecting a water well location 
that it is not in close proximity to a gas well. Cases have been 
known where the deeper gas well has contaminated the water well by 
the gas penetrating the water strata and flowing with the water to 
the water well. This is especially likely when the casing of the gas well 
has been worn away thus giving free access to the water strata. 

The principal irrigation district of the county takes its water from 
the Stanislaus River at Knights Ferry in Stanislaus County. This 
water is owned jointly by the South San Joaquin irrigation district 
and the Oakdale irrigation district of Stanislaus County, and irrigates 
137,000 acres of farm land. There are eight miles of main canal, 
lateral canals and a storage reservoir with a capacity of 184,000 acre feet. 

Woodbridge Canal and Irrigation Company. This company takes 
water from the Mokelumne River at the town of Woodbridge, and also 
water from the Calaveras River at the town of Bellota. Thi3 company, 
with its system of canals, irrigates the greater portion of the county 
north and east of Stockton. 

There is another ditch that brings water from Mokelumne River 
in Calaveras County. This ditch enters San Joaquin County at its 
northeast corner and supplies water for that section. It is seen that 
the irrigation problem is thoroughly solved and insures good crops 
at all times. 

Stockton water district. 

The city of Stockton is supplied with water from wells which are 
owned by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The water bearing 
strata are encountered between the depths of 550 feet and 557 feet. 
The logs of the wells are similar to those of the gas wells. The total 
solids held in solution amount to 20.85 grains per gallon and are chiefly 
calcium and magnesium carbonates, a little silica and some alumina. 
The free ammonia present amounts to 0.062 parts per million parts of 
water. The albuminoid ammonia amounts to 0.126 parts per million. 



198 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 199 

Yearly consumption of water by the eity of Stockton. 

— 878,810,112 1903 „ 796,401. 839 

515,675,810 1904 708,797,128 

893 704,028,212 1005 837,814.614 

- 070,037.238 190G 942,683.776 

781.830,337 1907 943.575,767 

930.958,400 1908 1,057,675,182 

981,052,705 1900 „ 1,057,552,130 

.900 016,591.837 1910 1.166.756,023 

648,489,829 1911 1,205,951,517 

902 - 774,989.078 

Costs— $1.50 per foot for drilling 12-inch to 16-inch well to 1000 feet. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

Stockton Window Glass Company Plant. This plant, which is located 
in the suburbs of the city of Stockton, is owned by the "Western States 
Gas and Electric Company of Stockton and was built in 1901. It was 
operated for a time but closed down in 1908. It is on a spur track 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad and has a complete equipment for 
the manufacture of common window glass, chipped glass and fancy 
glass for signs, doors, etc. Oil is used as fuel. The plant was 
formerly owned by the California Trust Company and after being 
in the law courts for some time, was bought by the Western States 
Gas and Eleetric Company in 1911. Capital was not available to put 
it on a good financial footing. The sand is brought from Monterey 
County and is a beach sand. The lime comes from San Francisco, 
soda from Pennsylvania Chemical Company, and salt cake from Point 
Richmond, 




STANISLAUS COUNTY. 201 



STANISLAUS COUNTY. 

By F. L. LOWELL, Field Assistant. 
Field work in September, 1914. 

Stanislaus County, which comprises 951,000 acres of land, extends 
from the eastern foothills of the Coast Range on the southwest and 
runs across the San Joaquin Valley in a northeasterly direction to the 
western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Most of the land is 
under cultivation and very little mineral is found within its boundary. 
In the southwestern part of the county, beginning at Mt. Boardman 
in the Coast Range, some quicksilver, manganese and magnesite are 
found, and a little further east silica, sand and clays are found. The 
central portion of the county is devoted exclusively to farming, fruit 
raising, and stock raising, and no mineral is encountered until the 
northeastern part of the county is reached in the Sierra Nevada foot- 
hills. Gravel from the Stanislaus River at Oakdale is utilized for 
road purposes, and at Knights Ferry, on the Stanislaus River, some 
ochre is shipped each year. The principal mining operations in the 
county are at La Grange, where gold dredging is carried on with 
success. There are five irrigation projects in the county which give an 
ample supply of water for all the land not served by wells. 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 
Red Brick. 

Craycroft Brick Yard. Owned by the Modesto Repressed Brick 
Company and located on a 20-acre piece of land on the outskirts of the 
city of Modesto. The plant was established in 1907 and consists of 
two boilers, brick trays, 700-barrel oil tank and residence. The clay is 
obtained on the ground and is worked up by horse power and molded 
by hand. The brick is sold from $8 to $10 per thousand and is used 
mostly in local building operations. 

Gravel. 

Brichetto Bros. Oravel Pit. This gravel pit is located in the bed of 
the Stanislaus River near Oakdale, in Sees. 10 and 11, T. 2 S., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M. The gravel ranges in size from very fine to coarse boulders 
and is used for road work. 

Dixon Gravel Pit. Owned by Mrs. Dixon, of Oakdale, and located 
in the bed of the Stanislaus River. The gravel is used on the roads and 
for concrete work. 

Dorsey Bros. Gravel Pit. Owned by E. W. and E. S. Dorsey, of 
Oakdale, and located in Sees. 10 and 11, T. 2 S., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 
near Oakdale on the Stanislaus River. There is a road to the gravel 
pit, and the material is sold for road work. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Cold dredge belonging to the La Grunge Gold Dredging Company, at Ln Grunge, on t 



STANISLAUS COUNTY. 203 

Wheeler Gravel Pit. Owned by W. F. Wheeler, of Oakdale, and 
located in Sees. 10 and 11, T. 2 S., R. 10 E., M. D. M., on the Cala- 
veras River. The land is patented. The gravel is used on the roads 
and for concrete work. The gravel is sold at 25 cents per wagon 
load at the pit. 

Clay. 

A good clay suitable for brick is located in Sees. 20 and 21, T. 5 S., 
R. 7 E., M. D. M., and owned by J. J. Cummins and Thomas H. Wolf, 
of San Francisco. The clay is located on a 320-acre piece of patented 
land, about 3J miles northeast of Patterson on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. The clay contains about 60% silica, 24% alumina, 3% iron, 
and a little magnesia. It is not being used at present. 

GOLD. 

There are no gold mines in the county that are being operated at the 
present time. There is a gold dredge owned by the La Orange Gold 
Dredging Company that is operating on the Tuolumne River near La 
Grange. 

La Grange Gold Dredging Company. Owns one dredge on the Tuol- 
umne River, having 7 cubic feet close connected buckets, shaking 
screens, Holmes gold-saving tables, belt tailing conveyor and digs 32 
feet below water level. It works on spuds. The company owns 200 
acres of dredging ground that averages 35 feet deep. The gravel is 
medium coarse and the bedrock is soft. The ground was prospected by 
drills. (See State Mining Bureau Bulletin No. 67, "Gold Dredging in 
Calif ornia.") 

Alto Gold Mine. Owned by the Calif ornia-Calaveras Mining Com- 
pany, of 356 Pine street, San Francisco, and located in the eastern half 
of the Calaveras Grant in the Knights Ferry district. The Calaveras 
Grant consists of 7200 acres of land and is located partly in Calaveras 
County and partly in Stanislaus County. This mine had a vertical 
shaft 400 feet deep, one crosscut 400 feet long, another 200 feet long and 
a glory hole 600 feet long and 400 feet wide. There formerly was a 
40-stamp mill and other equipment, but this has fallen to decay. This 
property has been in litigation since 1908 and information was very 
hard to obtain as the mine has not been working for some time. 

MAGNESIA. 

About 440 acres of land in T. 6 S., R. 6 E., have recently been taken 
up and about 50 acres of this 440 are located as magnesia land. Three 
claims are located on El Puerto Creek, about 15 miles from Patter- 
son on the Southern Pacific Railroad. 



20 i MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

According to analysis the ores are reported to contain 42.1 
magnesia and 0.223% CaO. The ore occurs as stringers in serpentine 
formation. This ore has been recarbonized by exposure to the atmos- 
phere and will require a slight calcining before use. It is soluble in 
hydrochloric acid and the resulting magnesium chloride is serviceable in 
making tile and fire brick. The property is owned by Howard A. 
Broughton and associates, 520 Eialto Building, San Francisco. 

MANGANESE. 

Manganese is now one of the most important minerals in this county 
that is attracting attention at the present time. It is to be found in the 
southwestern part of the county, in the eastern part of the Coast Range 
of mountains between Santa Clara County and Stanislaus County. The 
development work so far has not been very extensive as manganese from 
California has not been in very great demand until recently. 

California Manganese Company Mine. Consists of five unpatented 
claims and 2160 acres of patented land located in Sees. 9, 11, 15, 
21, 22, 27, 28, 33 and 34, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., about 35 miles from Livermore 
by wagon road. Most of this property is in Stanislaus County but a 
little is across the border and in Santa Clara County. The manganese 
is in lenses between sandstone and quartzite and the ores are manganite 
and pyrolusite. The development consists of two tunnels, one 15 feet 
and the other 20 feet long, and open cuts. This property is 25 miles 
from Patterson on the Southern Pacific Railroad and a wagon road is 
contemplated that will connect the mine with this shipping point. 
There is very little mining equipment on the property. 

Manganese Prospect. This is a prospect in Sec. 8, T. 6 S., R. 6 E., 
M. D. M., that has a little trenching done on it. Could not get any 
further information about it. (See U. S. G. S., Bull. No. 427, on man- 
ganese.) 

OCHRE. 

Yellow ochre is mined to a limited extent and a few hundred tons are 
shipped to San Francisco each year. 

Voyle Ochre Mine. Located in Sec. 29, T. 1 S., R, 12 E., M. D. M., 
at Knights Ferry on the Stanislaus River. The mine is on unpatented 
land. A small tunnel 50 feet long has been run into the face of the hill, 
but there is no equipment. About 150 tons of yellow ochre are shipped 
to W. P. Fuller & Company each year. It is owned by the California 
Ochre Mining Company, 126 Mission street, San Francisco. 



STANISLAUS COUNTY. 



MINES AND MINERAL KESOU8CES. 



Voyl. Ochre Mine 11 Knight* Ferry, owned by the Clitornii Ochre Mining Company, of 
San Fruicinco. 

QUICKSILVER. 

Adobe Valley Quicksilver Mine. This was formerly known as the 
Stanislaus Quicksilver mine and is now owned by E. P. Newhall, box 
354, Livermore, and located in Sees. 23 and 24, T. 5 S., R. 5 E., 
M. D. M., about 24 miles from Westley en the Southern Pacific Railroad. 
The property consists of 960 acres of patented land. The development 
consists of a 180-foot double-compartment vertical shaft. The ore is 
said to average 0.8% quicksilver. There is no equipment and the 
mine has been idle for some years. 

Newhall Quicksilver Mine. This was formerly known as the Deer 
Park Quicksilver mine, two thirds of which is owned by E. P. Newhall, 
and located in Sees. 31, 32, T. 5 S., R. 5 E., M. D. M., about 22 miles 
from Patterson. The property consists of eleven claims of 220 acres, 
upon which a little development work has been done, but it has been 
idle for years. 

Phcenix Quicksilver Group. This was formerly known as the Summit 
and Grayson mines, owned by Mrs. Emma Rose, of New York, and 
located in Sees. 20, 21, 22 and 29, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., M. D. M., 24 miles 
from Patterson. There are seven patented claims, four millsites and 



STANISLAUS COUNTY. 207 

160 acres of timber land and also six unpatented claims. The mine is 
being retimbered and opened up by the owners. The Orestimba mine, 
of 2300 aeres of patented land, also belongs to this group (see "The 
Quicksilver Resources of California," issued by the State Mining 
Bureau; also State Mineralogist Reports X and XIII). 

SILICA. 

There is some comparatively pure silica in ledge formation and also 
silica sand in the county suitable for glass manufacture, but at present 
it is a considerable distance from cheap transportation. 



Cropping! of lilici, owned by the California Silica Company, of San Fr»nei»eo. 

California Silica Company. Consists of 40 aeres located in the SE. 
i of See. 4, T. 6 S., R. 6 B., M. D. M., 12 miles up El Puerto Creek 
from the town of Patterson. The analysis of the silica by George 
James Company, gives water 0.8%, iron none, and silica 99.2%. The 
analysis by Smith, Emery & Company gives silica 99.783%, alumina 
0.21% and iron oxide 0.007%. Only assessment work has been done. 
The width of the vein is 5 to 20 feet. 

Silica Sand. Located on a 320-acre patented piece in Sec. 20, 
T. 5 S-, R. 7 E., M. D. M., and owned by J. J. Cummings and Thomas 
Wolf, 2231 Ashby avenue, Berkeley. The sand is said to be 97% to 
99% pure in silica. It is very, fine grained. 



208 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

WATER. 

This county is considered one of the best watered counties of the 
State and is served by five irrigating systems, as well as numerous wells 
sunk by individual farmers. Perhaps as an illustration of the ample 
supply of water that is obtained from wells, that of the city of Oakdale 
might be mentioned. This well is situated in the city limits and is 217 
feet deep. The first. 50 feet is walled up and the remainder of the well 
is cased with 10-inch casing. The well supplies, by pumping, enough 
water for the city 's consumption, both domestic, street sprinkling and a 
swimming pool. Approximately 327,000 gallons are pumped every 
twelve hours during the summer months. 



INDEX. 



Page 
Abbott and Hlckox gypsum deposit. 89 
Abby mine 113 

Abrasives (aee Volcanic ash) 

Academy Granite Co 39, 40 

Accident mine 60 

Ackers claim (aee Expositor) 

mine 113 

Adelaide mine 149 

Aden mine 149 

Adobe Valley quicksilver mine 206 

Agasslz Needle 4 

Agricultural products of Fresno 

County 6 

Agua Caliente district 56 

Ah Wai drift mine 174 

Air Compressor springs 94 

"Akoz" 176 

Alexander, Prank, chromite deposit. 9 

Alice, Babby, & Cloud claims 14 

Alice mine 149 

Alpha mine (aee Five Oaks) 

Alto gold mine 203 

Amalie district 56, 58 

mine 58, 60 

tungsten in 96 

American Golden Eagle mine 60 

American mine (aee Pine Tree) 
Analysis of iron ore from The Min- 
arets 132 

of natural gas at Stockton 

185, 188-192 

of water from Millerton spring. 32 
of water from "Sulphur Baths" 

well 33 

Anatrosa mine 60 

Andaluslte in Madera County 113 

Anderson mine 149-150 

Antelope Valley marble quarry 94 

Antimony Consolidated mines 49 

Antimony in Kern County__46, 48, 49-50 

Apache mine 14-15 

Aposozein Manufacturing Co 176 

Arambide & Aurecoecchea claims 
(aee Pacific) 

Archer mine 36 

Arizona group 61 

Arkansas, Black Bull & Arrastra 

claims 15 

Arkansas Traveler mine (aee Gam- 
be tta) 

Arrastra at Providerice mine 22 

Artesian belt of Kern County 46 

wells, natural gas from 101 

Artru mine 150 

Asbestos in Fresno County 6 

In Kern County 50 

in Madera County 112 

in Mariposa County 145 

Asphalt in Fresno County ^__ 6-7 

in Kern County 48, 50 

Associated Oil Co 6, 34, 99 



Page 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail- 
way 6, 41, 59 

Augers, use of, In drilling.- 25 

Aunt Rosa mine (aee Anatrosa) 

Austin group 150 

Bachler mine (aee Fresno Magnesite) 

Baker Gold Mining Co 113-114 

mine 112 

Bakersfleld Sandstone Brick Co 51 

Balfron group 114 

Balsam Grove Springs 30 

Baltic mine 61 

Bank of California quartz clalrru 150 

Banner Peak 105 

Bantam prospect 15 

Barbarossa group 61 

Barber Chemical Company 145 

Barytes in Mariposa County 145 

Bazinet group 114 

Bear Creek Spine 4 

Beauregard mine 61 

Bella Rufln mine 62 

Belle mine 114 

Benson mine (aee Little May) 

Benton mill 168 

Berry mine (aee Mud Springs) 

Beryl 12 

Bibliography on Kern County 97 

(For Fresno, Madera and Kings 
counties, aee under individual 
mines) 

Big Blue mine 52-53 

Creek power plants 3, 4, 5, 6 

Dry Creek district 14 

Sampson mine (aee Delilah) 

Stick mine 114 

Tree mine (aee Tropico) 

BUedo, Thomas, iron claims 128 

Bissell deposit, magnesite 93 

Black "granite" 39 

Hawk group 63, 96 

Jack claim (aee alao Delilah) 11 

Log claim 150 

Blake, W. P 113 

Blaney Meadows hot springs 30 

"Blom Patent Roaster and Fume 

Condenser" 20 

Blue Bell mine 151 

Gouge group 63 

Mountain Mining Co 66 

Bogan & Batallle mine 151 

Boger gravel pit 7, 15, 39 

Bonanza mine (aee Crystal) 

Bondshu et al. marble deposit 175 

Bondurant mine 151 

Boomer mine 114 

Boot Bros, gas well (aee Workman) 

Booth quartz claim 151 

Borax and potash in Kern County. 4 8, 51 
Borel power plant 47 



210 



INDEX. 



Page 

Bowman claim 151 

Boyd, C. E. f fuller's earth deposit 101 

gypsum deposit 101 

mineral paint deposit 101 

Bradley, Walter W. 

3. 99, 105, 181, 182, 196 

Brlchetto Bros, gravel pit 201 

Brick, cutting machine 9 

elevator 7 

in Fresno County 7-9 

in Kern County 48, 51-52 

In Kings County 100, 101 

in San Joaquin County 181-184 

in Stanislaus County 201, 202 

kilns, crude oil burners in 8 

construction of 182 

Briggs mine 180 

Bright Star mine 64 

Brother Jonathan mine 55 

Brown, G. Chester 45 

Brushy Ridge Mining Co 15 

Buchanan mine 112 

Buckhorn Springs 51 

Buena Vista Lake 45 

oil district, natural asphalt in — 50 
Bullion fineness at Texas Flat mine 125 

Bull Dog claim 152 

Pup claim 152 

Run mine 64 

Bunker Hill claim 152 

Burners, crude oil, in brick kiln — • — 8 
Burton, R., & J. Kesterman placer. 15 

Busch claim 152 

mine 152 

Butterfly mine 114 

Calre, J., manganese deposit 196 

Calaveras Grant 203 

River 197 

Caldwell mine 64 

Caledonia mine 115 

California-Calaveras Mining Co 203 

Copper Co. (see Daulton) 

Fresno Oil Co 7 

Fuller's Earth Co 54 

Gypsum & Mineral Co 89 

Manganese Co. 204, 205 

Ochre Mining Co 204, 206 

Road & Street Improvement Co. 41 

Silica Co. 207 

Trust Co. 199 

Californite 13, 35 

not nickel bearing 35 

Canada de las Uvas 45 

Canal systems in Fresno County 4 

in Kern County 46 

in Madera County 109 

in Merced County 180 

in San Joaquin County 197 

in Stanislaus County 208 

Canary mine 115 

Cane springs (see Kane) 

Carnegie Brick & Pottery Co 181-182 

Carving, sculptural, in granite 

135, 136, 137 



Page 
Cates mine (see John W. Cates) 
Cavan copper mine (see San Jose) 

Cement in Kern County 52 

Central Natural Gas Co 184-185, 190 

Centrifugal pumps used for ground 

sluicing 19 

Chalcedony 95 

Champion mine 152 

Chard, Mrs. Emma, copper claims 148 

Charles, L., gas well 102 

Chief mine 64 

China Borax Lake 51 

Chromlte in Fresno County 6, 9-10 

in Kings County 99, 101 

Cinnabar (see under Quicksilver) 

Clark gas well 186 

Clark -McClurg Company 18 

Clay (see also under Brick) -179, 181, 203 

Clear Creek district 55, 56 

Climatic conditions in Kern County. 46 

Clinker Brick Co 101 

Cloudburst Mining Co , 15 

Coal in Fresno County 6, 10 

In Kern County 48, 53 

Coalinga coal deposits 10 

gypsum deposits 26 

oil field 5, 34, 35 

Cobalt (see under Nickel) 

Cohen mine 153 

Collar Button mine 65 

Collins spring (see Millerton) 

Colorado claim 154 

mine 115, 153 

Comet gold mine 154 

Commonwealth mine 56,65 

Compression of gasoline from nat- 
ural gas 35 

Compromise and Eubank mine 154 

Concentrates, assay value of 

15, 64, 68, 113, 125, 132 

Consolidated Four mine (see Water- 
loo) 

Consolidated Mines Co 70 

Contact Mining & Milling Co 15-17 

Contention mine (see Bazinet) 

Copper, early shipments of 10 

first smelter of, in California 146 

"Foothill Belt" of 10, 146 

in Fresno County 6, 10-12 

in Kern County 48, 53-54 

in Madera County 108, 111. 112 

in Mariposa County 146-149 

King, Ltd. (see Hart Copper Co.) 
King mine (see also Hart Cop- 
per Co.) _-."- 10,53 

King Mines Co. 9 

Cost of hauling from mine to rail — 

28. 147 

of well drilling for water 199 

Costs, operating 

70, 73, 75, 77, 81, 88, 125, 147. 180 

Costs, various 5, 17, 28, 

38, 39, 41. 51, 52, 66, 68, 70. 81, 88. 
89, 92, 118, 137, 140, 145, 147, 180, 199 
Court House gas well 186 



INDEX. 



211 



Page 

Cove district 55, 56, 58 

Cowan gas well 186 

Cranberry mine 154 

Crane Valley power plant 109 

Craycroft brickyard (Modesto) -201, 202 

C. J. & Son Brick Co 7 

-Herrold Brick Co. 7-8 

Crocker- Huffman Land ft Water Co. 180 
Croesus mine (see PInmore) 

Crown Lead gold mine 155 

Mills gas well 186 

Peak mine 155 

Crystal mine 65 

Spring mine 115 

Cummins clay deposit 203 

silica sand deposit 207 

Cunningham slate quarry 178 

Daisy Bell mine 115 

mine 115 

Daulton mine 112 

Davis Flat mine 17 

Dawson Pit quicksilver prospect 102 

Dead River Channel mine 65 

Deer Hunter mine 65 

Park quicksilver mine (see New- 
hall) 

Delilah Mining Co 17 

Delonagha hot springs 94 

Democrat Springs 95 

Denver Gold ft Silver Extraction Co. 64 
Desert Springs (see Kane) 

Devil's Post Pile 105, 108, 133 

Diablo Range — 4, 29, 35, 45, 99 

Diana mine 115 

DIatomaceous earth (see Infusorial) 

Diltz mine 156 

Discovery of gold in Kern County 55 

Dixie Queen Mining Co 18 

Dixon gravel pit 201 

Doak manganese lease 196 

Dodge placer mine 18 

Dorsey Bros, gravel pit 201 

Double Standard mine 65 

Doyle, Gill, Doyle ft Co 41 

Dreadnot mine 66 

Dredging, gold 180, 202, 203 

Drilling, rate of, with calyx core drill 128 

"Dry wash" placers 57, 81 

Dunlap, limestone near 26 

Dyer brickyard (see Sunset Brick Co.) 

Early quartz mine 155 

Sunrise mine 66 

East Side Canal Co 51 

Eastwood prospect 18 

Echo mine (see Gray Eagle) 

Eclipse No. 1 mine 66 

Eight Oil Co 65 

Electric power plants In Fresno 

County 3, 4, 5, 6 

in Kern County 47, 48-49 

in Madera County 109 

in Mariposa County 143 

Elephant group 66 



Page 
Elizabeth mine 155 

Eliza Jane mine (see also Bazinet) 

Ella group 67 

Ellison Bros, marble 29 

Ellston mine 67 

EUwood, J. E., asbestos 6 

El Portal Mining Co 145 

Emma mine 156 

Empire mine 116 

Enterprise mine 113, 116 

Erskine Creek, limestone on 90, 91 

Europa mine 117 

Excelsior mine 67 

Exchequer power plant 143 

rock quarry 177 

Exposed Treasure mine (see Mojave 

Consolidated) 
Expositor ft Summit claims 11 

Fair View group 103 

mine 67 

Farmers' Hope mine 156 

Fauntleroy, W. A., gypsum deposits 89 

Feed water analysis 33 

Feldspar in Fresno County 12 

Feliciana mine 156 

Fine Gold mine (see Starbuck) 

Fish Valley carbonated spring 30 

Five Oaks mine 117 

Floor construction of a circular brick 

kiln 182 

Florence M. mine (see Pure Gold 

Mining Co.) 
Flying Dutchman mine (see Hoboken) 

"Foothill Copper Belt" 10, 112 

early shipments from 112 

Fort Miller district 14 

ranch pumice deposit 44 

Francis claims (see Kings Quick- 
silver) 

Freda mine 117 

Fremont's party, discovery of gold 

by, in Kern County 55 

Fresno Brick ft Tile Co 9 

Copper Mines Co 11 

Fresno County 3-44 

abrasives in (see Volcanic ash) 

agricultural products In 6 

area of 3 

asbestos in 6 

asphalt in 6, 7 

brick and clay In 6, 7-9 

chromite in ^6, 9-10 

coal in 6, 10 

copper in 6, 10-12 

diatomaceous earth in (see In- 
fusorial ) 

electric power plants in 3, 4, 5 

feldspar in 12 

fuller's earth In 13 

gem materials In 6, 13 

gold In 6, 14-25 

granite in 39,40,41 

graphite In 26 

gypsum in 6, 25-26 



212 



INDEX. 



Page 

Fresno County — Continued. 

infusorial earth in 26 

Irrigating canals in 4 

lime and limestone in 26 

Madera County formed from_105, 109 

magneslte in 6. 26-29 

marble in 29 

mineral production of 6 

mineral resources of 6 

mineral water in 6, 30-33 

natural gas in 6, 35 

"nickel" in 35 

petroleum In 6, 34, 35 

pumice in (see under Volcanic 
ash) 

quicksilver in 6. 36-38 

silver in 6 

stone Industry in 6, 39-44 

table of mineral production of — 6 

tin in 44 

tungsten In 44 

volcanic ash In 44 

water resources of 4 

Fresno Enterprise mine (see Enter- 
prise) 

Flume & Lumber Co 5 

Hot Springs 30 

Magnesite Co. 28-29 

River 109 

Fuel oil, cost of —38, 92, 118 

Fuller's earth in Fresno County 13 

In Kern County 48, 54-55 

In Kings County 100, 101 

Fuller, W. P. & Co 204 

Gambetta mine 113, 117-118 

Garden placer 174 

Garnet in Madera County 113 

on Spanish Peaks 13 

white 13 

Garnishee mine 67 

Gas (see Natural gas) 

well records at Stockton 187-195 

Gasoline from natural gas 35 

Gasometer for natural gas 192 

G. B. mine 67-68 

Geary mine 156 

Gem materials in Fresno County 6, 13 

in Kern County 95 

in Madera County 113 

Geology of Kern County gold dis- 
tricts 56-59 

Gllkle mine (see Delilah) 

Gilroy claim 19 

Gladiator mine (see Old Blue) 

Glass sand 199,207 

Glen Olive mine 68 

Gold, assay value of 114, 121 

Crown Consolidated mine 68, 96 

dredging costs 180 

dredging in Merced County 180 

in Stanislaus County 202, 203 

"dry washing" placers 57, 81 

in Fresno County 6, 14-25 

in Kern County 48, 55-89 



Page 
Gold — Continued. 

in Madera County 111,113-127 

in Mariposa County 149-174 

lode mines . 149-173 

placer mines 174 

in Merced County 180 

in Stanislaus County 202, 203 

King group («ee Gold Crown 
Consolidated ) 

Metal ft Gold Metal No. 2 119 

obtained from gravel washing 

plant 43. 

Peak mine 69 

State group 70 

tungsten with 79, 81, 87, 96 

Golden Gate group 157 

Golden group 69 

Road mine 118 

Goler, discovery of gold at 55, 57 

Good Hope mine 70 

Luck mine 70 

Grace group 71 

Grand Central - Sunshine - Standard 
group (see Balfron) 

"Granite," black 39, 41 

Granite in Fresno County 39, 40, 41 

In Madera County 

105, 109, 111, 133-141 

in Mariposa County 174-175 

method of quarrying, at Ray- 
mond 137-139 

sculptural carving in 135, 136, 137 

Grant Rock ft Gravel Co 43 

Graphite in Fresno County 25 

Gravel (see also under Stone In- 
dustry) 

gold from 43, 121 

on Stanislaus River 201, 203 

screening of, for construction 

uses 41, 43 

Graveyard and Vulture claims 19 

Gray Eagle mine 156 

Grayson mine (see Phoenix quick- 
silver) 
Greaser Gulch mine (see Daisy Bell) 

Greenback group 53 

Green Horn Mountain district 56 

Green Mountain Copper group 146-147 

district 56 

Greens Gulch mine 157 

Grey Eagle mine 71 

Grub Gulch district 109 

Guadaloupe mine 157 

Guest mine 157 

Gwynne mine (see Kern County Con- 
solidated) 

Gypsite 89, 90 

Gypsum in Fresno County 6, 25-26 

In Kern County 48, 89-90 

in Kings County 100, 101 

Hamilton clay deposit {see Los An- 
geles Pottery Co.) 
mine (see Lida) 
Handy Andy mine (see Daisy) 



INDEX. 



213 



Page 

Hanmore mine 119 

Harrison mine (see Mammoth) 

Hart, T. G., iron claims 128 

Hauling costs 28,147 

Havilah 45 

discovery of gold at 55 

Hawkeye mine 119 

Hawley Pulp & Paper Co 28 

Hazel mine 119 

Heiskell mine (see Fresno Copper) 
Hercules mine (see Delilah) 

Herman mine 157 

Hess, F. L 28 

High Grade mine 119 

Hildreth district 109 

mine (see Volcano No. 1) 

Hite mine 157-158 

Hites Cove, marble near 175 

Hoboken mine 119 

Hobo Springs (see Air Compressor) 

Hodgson, J., tungsten claim 96 

Hogue & Phillips claim 6 

Hornitos Gold Mining Co 170 

Htibnerite (see under Tungsten) 

Hughes Creek district 18,23 

Hume-Bennett Lumber Co 5 

Hungarian riffles in placer mining 174 

Hunter, R. D., gas wells 102 

Hyalite 13 

Hydroelectric power plants 

3, 4, 5, 6, 47, 48-49, 109, 143 

Iconoclast mine 71 

Illinois and Golden Bell claims 71 

Imperial Copper Mining Co 12 

Independence group 19 

Independent Producers Transporta- 
tion Co. 99 

Indian Peak copper group 148 

district, copper claims in. 14 8, 149 

Queen mine 71 

Springs 51 

Infusorial earth in Fresno County 26 

I n gel hard t, R., placer 19 

Inyo mine (see John L#.) 

Iowa placer mine 19 

Ira Hawk mine (see Contact) 

Iron in Kern Cqunty 90 

in Madera County 109, 128-132 

Iron Mountain 106, 129, 131 

mine 90 

No. 1 and No. 2 mines 90 

Wonder mine 54 

Irrigating canals in Fresno County- 4 

in Kern County 46 

in Madera County 109 

In Merced County 180 

in San Joaquin County 197 

in Stanislaus County 208 

Jack Rabbit mine (see Golden group) 

Jackson Baths 191 

gas wells 191 

"Jade mine" 13 

James, George A. Co 207 

Jameson Lime Company 90-92 



Paqe 

Jasper Point quarry 176 

Jeff Davis mine 72 

Jennette mine 72 

Jenny claim 20 

J. M. mine 119 

Johnny mine 119 

Bull mine 119 

John L. mine 20 

W. Cates mine 120 

Johnson, A. H., gas well 102 

Jonathan and Keyes, discovery of 

gold by at Keyesvllle 55 

Jos6 copper claim 179 

Josephine group 72 

mine (Madera County) 120 

(Mariposa County) 158 

T. G. group 72 

Kaiser Creek Diggings (see Dodge ; 
also Inglehardt) 

Kane mine 159 

Springs 51, 95 

Karma mine 73 

Kean ranch graphite 25 

Keeno and Joseph G. claims 20 

Kenawyer group 12 

Kennedy-MIIburn-Allerd claims 159 

Kenyon mine (see Good Hope) 

Kern County 35, 45-98 

antimony in 46, 48, 49-60 

artesian belt of 46 

asbestos in 50 

asphalt in 48, 50 

bibliography on 97 

bituminous rock 48 

borax and potash in 48, 51 

brick and clay in 48, 51-52 

Brick Company 52 

cement in 52 

climatic conditions in 46 

coal in 48,53 

Consolidated Gold mines 73 

copper in 48, 53-54 

crushed rock in (see also Ma- 
cadam) 48 

fuller's earth in 48, 54-55 

gems in (see Ornamental stones) 

gold in 48, 55-89 

districts 56-59 

geology of 56-59 

mines 60-89 

gypsum in 48, 89-90 

hydroelectric plants in 47, 48-49 

irrigating canals in 46 

iron in 90 

Land Company 60 

lead in 48 

lime and limestone ln__48, 53, 90-93 

macadam in 93 

magnesite in 93-94 

marble in 94 

mineral production of 48 

resources of 49 

springs in 94-96 

mining districts in 56-59 



214 



INDEX. 



Page 

Kern County — Continued. 

natural gas in 48-96 

ornamental stones In 95 

petroleum In 35, 45, 48, 96 

potash in (see under Borax) 

Rock Quarry 93 

rubble in 48 

sandstone in 96 

silver in 48 

streams in 46 

sulphur in 96 

table of mineral production of 48 

topography of 45 

transportation facilities in 48 

tungsten In 48, 79, 81, 87, 96 

water resources of 46 

Kern Development Co.. 61, 62, 65, 79,85, 86 
Development Syndicate quarry- 96 

Island 46 

Lake : 45 

River 45, 46, 47 

Kernville hot springs 95 

Kettleman Hills 99 

fuller's earth In 13 

petroleum In 102 

Keyes district 57 

mine 57, 73 

Keyesville, discovery of gold at 55 

Placer mine 74 

King Qeorge mine (see Minnesota) 

Solomon Consolidated Mines Co. 74 
Gold Mining Co 74 

Kings County 99-104 

brick in 100,101 

chromlte in 99, 101 

fuller's earth in 100. 101 

gypsum in 100, 101 

mineral paint in 100, 101 

mineral production of 100 

mineral resources of 99 

natural gas in__ 100, 101-102 

oil pipe lines in 99 

petroleum in 99, 102 

Quicksilver in 100, 102-104 

transportation facilities in 99 

Kings Quicksilver Mining Co., Ltd. 

103-104 

native mercury in 103 

River 4, 99 

quarry 41-42 

Koehn springs 95 

Kreyenhagen Hills 99 

petroleum in 102 

Krohn, H. A., iron claims 128 

La Cross mine 74 

Lady Belle Company 64, 72, 75, 77 

mine 75 

Ellen mine 120 

La Grange Gold Dredging Co 202, 203 

Landrum mine 159 

Lathrop gas well 186 

Laurel Creek mines (see Burton ; 

Rlchter; Wakefield) 
Lawsuit & Delia mines (see Bazinet) 



Page 

Lead 48, 108, 111, 132 

and silver in Madera County 132 

Legioneer Gold Mining Co 146 

Lida mine 75 

Lignite (see under Coal) 

Lignus Asbestos mine (see Hanmore) 

Lime and limestone in Fresno 

County 26 

in Kern County 90-93 

Lingo mine 120 

Little Angel mine 75 

Bear mine 159 

Bonanza mine 75 

Bullion mine 120 

Butte mine 76 

Jackass Meadows 108 

May claim 20 

Monitor mine (see Davis Flat) 

Live Oak mine 159 

Logs of Stockton gas wells 193-195 

London mine 160 

Long Mary mine 160 

Tom district 57 

mine 57, 76 

Los Angeles aqueduct cement plant. 52 

Pottery Co. 51, 52 

Louisa mine 160 

Louise mine 160 

Louis mine 160 

Lovely Rogers mine 161 

Lowell, F. L 143, 179. 181, 201 

Lower Mineral hot springs 31 

Low Pocket mine 20 

Lucky Bill mine 120 

Lumber transportation by "V" flume 
5, 109, 110 

M. and M. Mining Co.-^ 21 

Madera Canal & Irrigation Co 109 

Consolidated Mining Co 117 

Madera County 3, 5, 6, 105-142 

asbestos in 112 

brick in 111. 112 

canal systems of 109 

cobalt in (see Nickel) 

copper in 108, 111, 112 

crushed rock in (see under Stone 
Industry) 

gems in 113 

geology of 105-109, 130 

gold in 109, 111, 113-127 

granite in (see also under Stone 

industry) 105, 109 

hydroelectric plants in 109 

iron in 109, 128-132 

irrigation canals in 109 

lead and silver in 108. Ill, 132 

lumber flume in 109, 110 

mineral production of 111 

mineral water in 133 

molybdenite in 133 

nickel and cobalt in 133 

resources of 109-111 

Rock Crusher 136 

rubble in (see under Stone In- 
dustry) 



INDEX. 



215 



Paqb 
Madera County — Continued. 

silver in (see also under Lead) 

108, 109, 111 

soapstone in 133 

stone industry in 111, 133-141 

granite 111, 133-141 

sand and gravel 111,141 

table of mineral production of 111 

talc in (see Soapstone) 

tungsten in 142 

volcanic ash in 142 

water resources of 109 

zinc in 142 

Madera Enterprise Mines & Land Co. 116 

Sugar Pine Co 109, 110, 133 

Magnesia in Stanislaus County— 203-204 

Magnesite, analysis of, from Bissell 94 

boulders in "Big Blue" beds.— 29 

in Fresno County 26-29 

In Kern County 93-94 

sedimentary deposit of 93 

uses of 27 

Magnetite at The Minarets 132 

Magnet mine 121 

Malone mine 161 

Malvina mine 161 

Mammoth mine 65,76 

(see also Woodland ; also Star- 
light) 

Manganese in Merced County 180 

in San Joaquin County 195-196 

in Stanislaus County 204, 205 

Map of Sunnyside mine 24 

"Marathon" tube mill 69 

Marble in Fresno County 29 

in Kern County 94 

in Mariposa County 175 

Mariposa Commercial ft Mining Co. 

144. 149, 165, 157, 

158, 160, 161, 164, 165, 167, 169, 172 

Mariposa County 143-178 

asbestos in 145 

barytes in 145 

Big Tree grove in 143 

copper in 146-149 

cost of wood in 145 

electric power plants in 143-144 

fuel supply of 143 

geology of 144 

gold in 149-174 

lode mines 149-174 

placer mines 174 

granite in 174 

limestone in 144 

marble in 175 

meerschaum in 175 

Mother Lode in 143, 144 

phosphoretic zlncblende in 176 

power resources of 143 

quicksilver in 176 

rock quarries in 176-177 

slate in 178 

stone industry in 176-177 

water resources of 143 

Tosemlte Valley In 143 



Page 

Mariposa Grant 143 

copper vein on 149 

Grove of Big Trees 143 

mine 161 

Mines ft Development Co 165, 171 

Mining ft Milling Co 171 

Martin mine (see John L.) 

Mary HarFison mine 162 

Mascot group 77 

McClellan quarry (see McGllvray) 

McClure Mountain 105 

McDuflf ft McMurty mine (see Con- 
tact) 

McKenzle-Mlnturn mine 121 

McGllvray Raymond Granite Co 

__ 135, 136-137 

McKidney mine 77 

McLaughlin and Pearl mine 122 

McLaughlin, R. P 35, 105 

Mebold mine 162 

Meerschaum In Mariposa County 175 

Melvin, Mountain Lily, Mary group. 121 

Merced County 179-180 

agriculture In 179 

asbestos in 179 

clay in 179 

copper in 179 

dredging in (see Gold) 

gold in 180 

manganese In 180 

water resources of 180 

Merced Gold Mining Co._ 149, 160, 162, 168 

River 143, 144, 164 

River Quartz Mines 162 

Stone Company 176-177 

Mercey hot springs 31 

Mercy group 36 

Mesquite springs (see Kane) 

Mexican mine 36 

Midas claim 21 

Middle Palisade 4 

Midway Mining ft Milling Co 172 

Millenium mine 122 

Millerton 3 

spring 31-32 

analysis of water from 32 

Minaret iron deposit 129-132 

Minarets (see The Minarets) 

Mlnerallte Manufacturing Co. 142 

Mineralized belt of high Sierras 10,12 

Mineral paint In Kings County_-100, 101 
Mineral production of Fresno County 6 

of Kern County 48 

of Kings County 100 

of Madera County 111 

Mineral springs (see Mineral water) 

water in Fresno County 6, 30-33 

In Kern County 94-95 

Minnehaha mine 77 

Minnesota group 77 

Minnie B. group 77 

Mocking Bird mine 162 

Modesto Repressed Brick Co 201, 202 



216 



INDEX. 



Page 
Mojave Antimony Co. (aee Anti- 
mony Consolidated) 

Consolidated Gold Mines 78 

Desert 45 

salines in 51 

Mining & Milling Co 65 

mining district 57 

Molybdenite in Madera County 133 

Monarch Tungsten Gold Mining Co._79, 96 

Mono Lake, geology southwest of 106 

Monolith cement plant 52 

Monolithic granite columns 137, 140 

Monte Cristo group 162 

Monterey County, glass sand from 199 

Moonlight and Starlight mine 122 

Mormon Bar, copper claims near 148 

Morning Star mine 122 

Morrow mine (see Bazinet) 

Mother Lode in Mariposa County. 14 3, 144 

Mountain Belle mine 163 

King mine 164 

peaks in Fresno County 4 

in Madera County 105 

Summit Lime Co 92 

View mine 122, 166 

Mt. Abbott 4 

Buckingham group 163 

Darwin 4 

Gaines mine 143, 163 

Godard, copper ore on 10 

Humphreys 4 

Lyell 105 

Ophlr mine 164-165 

Pinchot 4 

Powell 4 

Queen 165 

Raymond 106 

iron deposits on 128 

Winchell '___ 4 

Mud Springs mine 122 

Napoleon Consolidated mine (see 
Santa Ana) 

Napoleon mine 59 

Natura Company 176 

Natural gas, analyses of 185, 188-192 

gasoline from 35 

in Fresno County 6, 32, 35 

in Kern County 48,95 

in Kings County 100, 101-102 

In San Joaquin County_181, 184-195 

Neenach, marble near 94 

Neill's hot springs 95 

Nellie Dent mine 56, 79 

and Content group 79 

Ne Plus Ultra mine (aee Daulton) 

Nevada & California railroad 48 

Mineral Extraction Co 166 

New Citizen mine 123 

Newhall quicksilver mine 206 

Nickel in Fresno County 13, 35 

and cobalt in Madera County 133 

Northern Natural Gas Co 188, 190 

North Fork mining district— 107. 132, 142 
North Palisade 4 



Page 

Number Five mine 166 

One mine 165-166 

Oakdale irrigation district 197, 208 

wells in 208 

Ochre in Stanislaus County 204, 206 

Oil (aee also Petroleum) for fuel 5 

for fuel, cost of 38, 92, 118 

loading rack 34 

pipe lines 6 

wells, number producing at 

Coalinga 35 

Old Blue mine 123 

Cowboy mine 79 

Keyes mine (aee Keyes) 

Wilcox mine 167 

Opal 95 

Open cut mining at Yellow Aster 

mine 87 

Operating costs 

70, 73, 75, 77, 88, 125, 147, 180 

Ophir mine 80 

Orejana Mining Co 50, 63, 83, S7 

Orestlmba quicksilver mine (see 
Phoenix) 

Original mine 167 

Ornamental stones (aee also Gem 

materials) 95 

Oro Fino mine 80 

Oro Fino No. 1 and No. 2 claims 21 

Orra Rica mine 167 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co 143, 197-198 

Light A Power Co 

3, 4, 29, 47, 48, 53, 61, 77 

Quicksilver Co. 36, 37, 38 

cost of oil fuel at 38 

furnace of 36, 37 

slate quarry 178 

Painter mine 12 

Paoll mine 26 

Paradise mine 123 

Parker Peak 107 

Patterson, "magnesia" near 203 

manganese near 204 

silica near 207 

Patton mine 123 

Paymaster mine 123 

Pearce copper mine (see Green 
Mountain ; alao San Jos6) 

Pebbles for tube mill, cost of 89 

Pennsylvania Chemical Co 199 

Pefton Blanco mine 143 

(see alao Orra Rica) 

Petroleum, in Fresno County 6, 34, 35 

in Kern County 35. 45, 48, 96 

in Kings County 99,102 

natural gas accompaying 35 

Phoenix Development Co 81 

Quicksilver group 206-207 

Phosphoretic zlncblende 176 

Pickwick mine 80 

Pierce & Company 67 

Pine Tree mine 69, 80, 167 

PInmore mine 81 

Pioneer district 57 



INDEX. 



217 



Page 

Pipe lines for oil transportation 6 

Piute Consolidated mine 80 

Placer Gold Company 81, 96 

Placer mines (see under Gold) 
Pleasant View mine (see Apache ; 

also King Solomon G. M. Co.) 

Pocahontas copper mine 147 

Polar Bear mine 81 

Pollasky district 14 

Poso Creek 45, 46 

Potosi mine 143. 168 

Pottery clay 51, 52, 179, 181 

Pioneer (see also Electric) 5 

cost of 180 

Practical Investment Co 86 

President mine 81 

Preston, E. B 107, 108 

Price, T. G., placer 21 

Primmer artificial stone plant 141 

Princeton mine 168, 169 

Producer mine (see Ellston) 

Producers Transportation Co 6 

Providence claim 22 

Providence mine (see also Golden 

Road) 21 

Provident Mining Co 60 

Pumice (see under Volcanic ash) 

Pumping plants for irrigation 5 

T*ure Gold mine (see New Citizen) 

Pure Gold Mining Co 128 

Pyramid mine 82 

Quail quartz claims 169 

Quarrying methods at Kings River 
quarry 41, 42 

at Raymond granite quarry_137-139 
Quartz deposit 207 

Mountain mine 123 

Queen Esther mine 82 

Quicksilver furnaces 36, 37, 103 

Quicksilver in Fresno County 6, 36-38 

in Kings County 100, 102-104 

in Mariposa County 176 

Quimby, O. P., gas well . 102 

Ragesdale mine 123 

Railroads (see Transportation facil- 
ities) 

Rainbow mine 82 

Rand district 55, 67 

mine 82 

tungsten in 96 

Randsburg Coal Co : 53 

Water Co. 81 

Ransome-Crummy Company 177 

Rates of drilling with calyx core drill 128 

Rawhide mine 82 

Raymond granite 39, 133-141, 174 

Granite Company 137-141 

Rayo mine 50 

Recorder mine 169 

Red Dog custom mill-.59. 74, 77, 78, 84, 87 

Hill group 83 

mine 83 

Meadows hot sulphur springs J_ 133 

Reed claim 169 

15EE— 14450 



Page 

Revel mine 169 

Rex mine (see Canary) 

Rex Plaster Co 94 

Rhodes, L. H. & Brown, G. E., tung- 
sten deposit 44 

Richter, H., placer 22 

Rico claim 22 

Ritter Mountain 105 

Roberts Island Brick Co 182 

gas well 186 

Roberts, Victor, chromite deposit — 10 
Rock quarries (see also under Ma- 
cadam and under Stone industry) 176 

Rodgers Peak 105 

Rogers and Olds, discovery of gold 

by. In Cove district 56 

Roma mine 170 

Roofing slate 178 

Rosa claim 22 

Rose mine 83 

quartz 95 

Royal Bohn mine 83, 96 

Royal group 170 

Rustler and San Diego mine 83 

Rutherford mine 170 

Ruth Pierce mine 170 

Ruth ranch graphite 25 

Saint Agnes College wells 186 

Salines (see Borax) 

Salmon gas well 186 

Salt Wells Lake 51 

Sampson Flat 14, 26 

Sand and gravel (see under Stone 
industry) 

glass 199, 207 

silica 207 

Sandstone in Kern County 96 

San Domingo mine 170 

San Emigdlo Canyon, antimony in. 49 

mine 49, 50 

sandstone in 96 

San Francisco City Hall, of Ray- 
mond granite 135, 136, 137 

San Joaquin & Eastern railroad 29 

Brick Company 182 

claim 23 

San Joaquin County 181-200 

building materials in 181-184 

brick and pottery 181-184 

irrigation canals in 197 

natural gas in 181, 184-196 

manganese in 195-196 

water resources of 181, 197-199 

window glass in 199 

San Joaquin Light & Power Corpo- 
ration.^, 11, 19, 42, 49, 99, 109, 
118, 125, 127. 137, 143, 166, 176, 177 

Marble Co. 29 

River 3, 109 

River Rock & Gravel Co. (see 
Santa Fe Gravel Co.) 

Rock & Gravel Co 23, 42-43 

gold recovered by 43 

Valley 105 

Valley Coal Co 10, 26 



218 



INDEX. 



Page 

San Jose copper group 147 

Santa Ana Gold Mines Co 83, 96 

Santa Fe Gravel Co 141 

Railroad (see also Atchison, To- 

peka & Santa Fe) 6,48,81,99 

Santa Rosa Oil & Development Co.. 32 

Sapphlrine chalcedony 95 

Sather Campanile, University of 

California 141 

Savannah mine 112, 124 

Scheellte (see under Tungsten) 

Schroeder group 170 

placer mine 174 

Schuck, Paul, gypsum deposit 26 

Screen sizing of gravel 41, 43 

Sculptural carving in granite 

135, 136, 137 

Seal Bluff smelter of Copper King 

mine 11 

Section of Enterprise mine 116 

Gambetta mine 117 

Sunnyside mine 24 

Texas Flat mine — 125 

Sedimentary deposit of magnesite at 

Bissell 93 

Segregation and Summit claims (see 
Kings Quicksilver) 

Selby Smelting and Lead Co 147 

Sharp & Fellows Contracting Co._„ 41 

Shell Oil Co 6 

Sheppard, A. P., infusorial earth de- 
posit 26 

Ship, John ft Ward claim 23 

Shoestring mine , 84 

Sidney group 84 

Sierran mineral belt 10, 12 

Sierra Nevada Mountains In Ma- 
dera County 106 

Sierra Power Co 88 

Rica mine 171 

Silica in Stanislaus County 207 

analysis of 207 

Silverado Mountains mine 54 

Silver Boy mine 84 

Silver in Fresno County 6 

in Kern County 48 

in Madera County 108, 111, 132 

Silver Lead mine 171 

Silver-lead ores 132 

Slate in Mariposa County 178 

Smelter, copper, first in California — 146 

Smith, Emery & Co ,.33, 207 

Soapstone in Madera County 133 

Soledad Pipe Line Co 79 

Southern California Edison Co 49 

California Marble Co 94 

Cross group 84 

Pacific railroad 6, 99 

South San Joaquin irrigation dis- 
trict 197 

Southwest Turquoise Co 13 

Spanish Peak, garnets and tourma- 
line on 13 

Spencer mine 171 

Spread Eagle mine 171 



Paok 
Squirrel mine (see Bunker Hill) 

Standard mine 124 

Oil Co. 6, 99 

Stanford mine 84 

Mining & Milling Co 59 

Stanislaus County 201-208 

building materials in 201-203 

red brick 201 

gravel 201, 203 

clay in 201, 203 

dredging (see Gold) 

gold in 202, 203 

irrigation canals in 201 

magnesia in 203-204 

manganese in 204 

ochre in 204, 206 

quicksilver In 206-207 

silica in 207 

water resources of 208 

Stanislaus Quicksilver mine 206 

River 197 

gravel on 201, 203 

Starbuck mine 124 

Starlight group (see also Moonlight) 124 

Star mine 132 

State Mining Bureau publications — 

97, 106, 

107. 130, 146, 179, 180, 196, 203, 207 

Stockton Creek mine__» 172 

Fire ft Enamel Brick Co 182-184 

J. W. gem deposit 95 

Natural Gas Company 187,188 

natural gas in 184-195 

State Hospital gas wells 187 

water district 197-199 

Window Glass Co 192, 199 

Stone cutters' wages 39.137 

Stone, E. B. & A. L., Company 176 

Stone industry, definition of 39 

(see also under Macadam, Rock 
quarries, Sandstone, etc.) 

In Fresno County 39-44 

in Kern County 93 

in Madera County 111.133-141 

In Mariposa County 176-177 

Storms, W. H 106 

Stratton, W. N., gas well 102 

Straub patent mill 16 

Stringer district 53 

tungsten in 96 

Stud Horse FJat group 172 

Sullivan mine (see John L.) 

"Sulphur Baths" 32-33 

analysis of water from 33 

Sulphur in Kern County 96 

Meadows Spring 33 

Summit group .. 85 

Lime Company 92 

quarry 53, 92 

quicksilver mine (see Phoenix) 

Sumner mine 56 

and North Extension mine 85 

Sunnyside group 23-26 

sketch map and Bection of 24 

Sunrise mine 86 



INDEX. 



219 



Page 

Sunset Brick Company 112 

mine 85 

oil district, natural asphalt in — 50 

Sunshine asbestos claims 50 

group 172 

mine (see also Balfron) 86,96 

Sweetwater mine 172 

Swansea, Wales, shipments of cop- 
per ore to 112 

Sycamore Creek, graphite on 25 

district 23 

Table of mineral production of 

Fresno County 6 

of Kern County 48 

of Kings County 100 

of Madera County 111 

Talc (see under Soapstone) 

Teagle-Churchill Potash Co. 61 

Tehachapi district 59 

limestone in 90 

Pass 45 

Valley 46 

Tehipite Dome, copper claims at 12 

Tejon Pass 45 

Temperance claim 25 

Flat 14 

Tennant, L. D., gas well 102 

Ten Strike mine 126 

Terrill, Wm., tungsten deposit 44 

Tesla coal mine, clay from 181 

Texas Flat mine 113, 125 

section of 125 

The Garden placer mine 174 

The Minarets 10, 105, 106, 129, 142 

copper ores at 112 

iron ore at 129-132 

zinc at 142 

Three Springs 33 

Thrower mine 126 

Tin in Fresno County 44 

Tip Top mine 86 

Tom Moore mine 49, 50 

Topaz 12 

Topps mine (see Pure Gold Mining 
Co.) 

Tourmaline 13 

Transportation facilities — _6, 48, 99, 128 

Treasure Gold Mining Co 165 

Trestle mine 86 

Trewhitt brickyard 101 

Trimmer Springs 33 

Tropico mine 86 

Tulare Lake 45,99 

Lake View group 101 

Tungsten in Fresno County 44 

in Kern County 96 

gold associated with_78, 81, 87, 96 

in Madera County 142 

Tuolumne River, dredging on 203 

Turner Oil Co 35 

Turquoise in Madera County 113 

Two to One mine 90 

Tyro mine 172-173 



Page 

Uncle Sam group— 12 

Union Lime Co. (sec Summit) 
United States Geological Survey 

publications 97, 196, 204 

Mint Reports 109 

Subtreasury Building, granite 

columns in 140 

University of California, buildings 
at, of Raymond granlte__134, 140, 141 

University Peak 4 

Urbana A Frank mine 86-87 

Valley View district 59 

Valverde mine (see Phoenix Develop- 
ment Co.) 
Vesuvianlte {see Californite) 
"V" flumes, transportation of lum- 
ber by 5, 109, 110 

Victor Bonanza group 179 

Virginia mine 173 

Volcanic ash in Fresno County 44 

In Madera County 142 

Volcano No. 1 mine 126 

Voyle ochre mine 204, 206 

Vulture claim .{see Graveyard) 

Wages of stone cutters 39, 137 

Wahtoke, fuller's earth at 13 

Wakefield, Wm., placer 25 

Walker-Mundy claims 13 

Ward, L. F., magnesite deposit 29 

Waring, C. A 35 

Warrington mine (see Little Angel) 
Washington mine (see also High 

Grade) 126 

Waterloo and Consolidated Four 

mines 126 

Water consumption of Stockton 199 

resources of Fresno County 4 

of Kern County 46 

of Madera County 109 

of Mariposa County 143 

of Merced County 180 

of San Joaquin County 

181, 197-199 

of Stanislaus County 201, 208 

Weeks. F. B 129, 131 

Well logs, gas, at Stockton, 193-195 

Wells (see under Natural gas ; also 
Water) 

Werringer sulphur springs 95 

Western Pacific Railroad 181 

States Gas & Electric Co 

183, 184, 187-195, 199 

Wheeler gravel pit 203 

Whiskey Flat district 55 

White Chief Mountain 106 

Cross mine (see M. & M.) 

limestone near 26 

Gulcb Mining Co 173 

Oak claim 173 

Star mine 87 

Whitlock group 173 

Whitney. J. D 176 



220 



INDEX. 



Page 
Wide Awake mine (sec Providence) 

Willow Creek mine 127 

Willow mine 87 

Springs 95 

Wilson mine (see Mud Springs) 

Windy Gold Mining Co 87 

Winnie mine *. 87 

tungsten in 87, 96 

Winship manganese deposit 196 

Wolframite (see under Tungsten) 
Woodbridge Canal & Irrigation Co._ 197 

Woodland mine 127 

Woody district ___ : - 63, 59, 90 

Workman, E., gas well 102 

Worswick Street Paving Co. (see 
California R. & S. Imp. Co.) 



Page 

Yellow Aster mine 55, 57, 59, 88 

Yosemite Copper Mines Co. 113, 128 

Gold Dredging & Mining Co 180 

Rock Quarry 176-177 

Stone Quarry 177 

Valley , 143 

Valley railroad .160, 176, 177 

Zada mine (aee Gold Peak) 

Zebra mine -> 127 

Zenda mine , 89 

Zincblende, phosphoretic 176 

Zinc in Madera County 1 142 

Zulu mine 127 



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