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FLETCHER HAMILTON State Mineralogist 

San Francisco 

July, 1915 

Mines and Mineral Resources 


Del Norte County 
Humboldt County 
Mendocino County 



1 9 1 r> 


FLETCHER HAMILTON State Mineralogist 

Mines and Mineral Resources 


Del Norte County 
Humboldt County 
Mendocino County 




By F. L. LOWELL, Field Assistant 





The three counties presented herewith constitute the northernmost 
coast group, being at the northwest corner of the State and bordering 
on the Pacific Ocean. Until quite recently in fact, subsequent to 
writing the body of this report the only transportation connection 
Del Norte and Humboldt counties had with the rest of the world was 
by water, Eureka, Fort Bragg and Crescent City being the principal 
ports. The Northwestern Pacific Railroad has now been completed 
through to Eureka, giving all but the extreme northern section a direct 
rail route to San Francisco. A railroad connection to Crescent City 
is at present under construction from Grant's Pass, Oregon. 

The principal industries of this district are lumbering, dairying and 
agriculture, the mineral output, except for Humbaldt, being as yet 
small. The undeveloped mineral resources, however, are great, the 
exploitation of which is dependent mainly on improved transportation 

Acknowledgment is here made of assistance rendered by the various 
owners of properties, both during the field work and in the subsequent 
preparation of this report. 







Brief Geologic Description of Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino Counties 3 



COAL - 10 



Low Divide Mining District r 11 

Diamond Creek District 14 

Monumental District 14 

French Hill District 15 

Other Districts 16 

GOLD 16 

Placers 16 

Quartz 19 









Horse Mountain District 26 

Mattole Mining District 29 

COAL 29 

GOLD 30 

Placers 31 



IRON 38 


OIL 40 




COAL 45 



GOLD 50 




OIL 54 





Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing method of hauling sands to bins 5 

Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing suction pipe line 6 

Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing revolving screen 6 

Oro Del Norte plant, showing sand skip and track for dumping waste 7 

Oro Del Norte plant, general view 8 

Oro Del Norte plant, showing driftwood line , 9 

Map of Low Divide Mining District 11 

Section of Alta California Mine 12 

Monumental Mine Buildings 20 

Tension curve of Humboldt Bay Cement 23 

Croppings of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 24 

Camp Buildings of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 25 

Mill of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 26 

Horse Mountain Copper Mining District Map 28 

Briceland Estate Gas Well 37 

Map of a portion of Humboldt County, showing oil occurrences 43 


Field Work in August, 1913. 


In discussing the geology of this section of the Coast Ranges, one ?s 
confronted with the similarity of the character of the rocks of the 
different geological ages and the scarcity of fossils by which the differ- 
ent series of stratified rocks may be distinguished. The rocks of the 
different formations have undergone such metamorphism that it is at 
times difficult to detect the change from one series to another. The 
Coast Range has been subject to so much disturbance that the rock 
masses have been crushed and faulted out of their original stratigraphic 

Beginning at the northern boundary of Sonoma County and extending 
north through Mendocino, Humboldt, and Del Norte counties, the geolog- 
ical structure is very regular. The rocks are mostly of Cretaceous age 
and are often very much altered. Serpentine, jaspers and mica slates 
are encountered in large quantities and in a very irregular manner. 
There are but few areas of unaltered strata. 

The general strike of the axis of the Coast Ranges through these three 
counties is northwest and southeast and the preponderance of dip is 
toward the southwest, the crest of the range being nearer the eastern 
slope. The deep valleys have been eroded by the abundance of water 
and the level valleys of some of the watersheds contain strata of Plio- 
cene age. These strata are shallow, and fossils have been noted in Del 
Norte and southern Humboldt counties. The Tertiary rocks are not as 
prevalent as those of the Cretaceous. The latter are to be noted more 
particularly in the oil field region of southwestern Humboldt County. 

The South Fork of the Trinity River takes the same general northwest 
direction as the other rivers of the Coast Range. Trinity River changes 
its direction, flowing nearly west from Weaverville in Trinity County 
to where it joins the South Fork, thence northwest through the moun- 
tains to the coast. The Trinity Mountain range seems to be the joining 
strip uniting the main Sierras and the Coast Range. The rocks in this 
northern section become more crystalline, and the older granites which 
form the nucleus of the Sierras make their appearance. This granite 
outcrops north of Humboldt Bay and thence north to the state line. 

From the junction of the Klamath and Trinity rivers, extending 

; northward to the northern end of Del Norte County, the country is very 

rugged and covered with forests. The rocks resemble those of the 

Sierras and are auriferous and cupriferous. The gravels of the rivers 


also carry *gol&" and platinum values. In this northern region, serpen- 
tine is the principal rock. Peridotite, the parent rock of serpentine, is 
found exposed by erosion on Horse Mountain in northeastern Humboldt 

It might be said that the greater part of the geological formations of 
Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte counties is composed of sedimen- 
tary rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age. There does not appear to be 
a nucleus of igneous rock forming the axis of the range, although granite 
does outcrop in some parts of this section. There are remains of volcanic 
activity in the form of volcanic glass and tuff, and solfataric action is 
still taking place at some of the springs of southern Mendocino County. 

Throughout Mendocino and southern Humboldt counties the Cretace- 
ous sandstones are abundant, being very noticeable at Point Arena and 
in the oil section of southwestern Humboldt. Organic remains are 
absent except in a very few instances. The rocks of this age have been 
altered to a considerable extent and serpentines and mica slates are the 
alteration products. 

In Del Norte County, granite forms the nucleus of the mountain 
ranges and over it is a mantle of metamorphic rocks. In the western 
portion of the country sedimentary rocks prevail. Intrusive serpentine 
carries the copper and chrome iron deposits. Quartz occurs in small 
seams and veins. Copper occurs in lenses of a rich concentration, either 
as free metal or in sulphides. The slates carry many thin seams of 
quartz, sometimes rich in gold, and no doubt the erosion of these forma- 
tions is responsible for the gold concentrated in the streams. 

This serpentine belt continues through Humboldt and Mendocino 
counties. Perhaps the most noticeable occurrence is at Horse Mountain, 
in Humboldt County. There the copper deposits in serpentine are 
encountered again. The country has been eroded so extensively that the 
oMer crystalline diorites protrude through the more recent rock forma- 
tions. Other acid rocks, such as quartzite, outcrop in large masses, 
besides a dike of porphyry which forms a well defined contact with 
serpentine. Not far from Horse Mountain on Willow Creek a large 
body of limestone is exposed, having a northwest strike. It resembles 
that in western Trinity County. Another limestone formation north of 
Humboldt Bay is well exposed. The granite formation also outcrops 

Passing south through Humboldt County and across the redwood 
belt, the later formations of sandstone and shale come in. These carry 
the oil and gas of this section. The formation js very badly broken up 
and seepages of oil, and gas emanations are numerous. This formation 
continues into Mendocino County and is most noticeable on the coast at 
Point Arena. In the southern portion of Mendocino County, the 


amount of alteration by the introduction of magnesian combinations is 
noticeable. This is illustrated by the magnesite deposits and the mineral 
springs of that section. 

Taking the three counties together, one might say that the geology is 
complex, the solution of which will take considerable time and much 
patience to decipher. 


Almost all of the gold bearing gravels of the Smith River basin contain 
black sands which carry some platinum. The beach sands also carry 
values in gold and platinum. In cleaning up the sluice boxes of the 
hydraulic mines after the season's washing, these black sands are 20!- 
lected in large quantities and the platinum and gold content are found 
to vary greatly in their relative proportion to each other. On French 
Hill the platinum forms 5% of the total values. At Antone Kauss' 
mine on Craigh's Creek pieces of coarse platinum worth up to $25 have 
been found. On the Myrtle Creek Mining Company's property the 
black sands are said to assay as high as $3,562 per ton in gold and 

Serpentine is a prominent rock formation in the Smith River basin, 
and being an alteration rock derived from peridotite which carries 
platinum, seems to bear out the theory of platinum deposits in the 
placer gravels. 

Outside of these river gravels and sands the only other black sand 
deposit being worked in the county is on the beach 2 miles south of 
Crescent City. 

Oro Del Norte Company. This company is incorporated for one mil- 
lion shares at a par value of $1 per share. The company owns 255 acres 

Oro Del Norte Black Sands Plant, showing method of hauling sands to bins on incline trestle. 
2 B14456 


Oro Del Norte Black Sands Plant, showing suction pipe line. 

Oro Del Norte Black Sands Plant, showing the revolving screen. 


of patented ranch land along the ocean beach 2 miles south of Crescent 
City. The plant is located just back of the driftwood line and consists 
of a suction pipe, skip conveyer to the plant, a large area of aluminum 
plates having riffles cut in them, a second area of small aluminum plates 
similar to the first, a third metal plate, the composition of which is not 
known, and an electrical equipment for charging the plates and other 
uses about the plant. 

The company uses the Heintz electric flotation process for treating 
the sands for their gold and platinum content. The plant requires 

Oro Del Norte Black Sands Plant, showing sand skip and track for dumping waste. 

twenty-five men when in operation. Three shifts are worked and the 
electric power is developed by a 200 horsepower distillate engine. 
A change from the wood burning system to distillate was being made 
at the time I was at the plant. A larger suction pipe line was also 
being installed. The management claims that the new equipment will 
handle 800 yards of sand every twenty-four hours. 

The suction pipe is 5 inches in diameter and works on the ejector 
principle. The sand is delivered from the pipe line to a revolving 
screen which screens out all driftwood and large wash which is trammed 
to the water's edge and dumped. The sand from the screen falls to a 
bin from which it is drawn off to a 2-cubic yard skip and hauled up the 
incline to the sand bins at the top of the treatment plant. Water is 



mixed with the sand in sufficient quantity to give it flowing properties 
Four thousand gallons of water per minute is sufficient for all purposes 
about the plant, including the suction pipe line. The sand and water 
is allowed to flow over the metal riffle area at the same time an alternat- 
ing current of electricity is passed through the metal plates. These 
plates have a grade of 2 inches to the foot and the magnetic iron which 
composes 30 to 50 per cent of the black sands is charged with electricity 
and repelled, leaving the gold and platinum in a concentrated condi- 
tion. These plates are hosed off every half hour, the concentrates being 
washed into a sump from which they are pumped to a second set of 
aluminum plates of lesser area. These plates are charged with alter- 

Oro Del Norte Black Sands Plant, showing the driftwood line. 

nating current also but they are made more sensitive. The same process 
of elimination goes on here as before and these plates are washed off 
every hour and the concentrates, still further concentrated, go to a 
sump and are pumped over another metal plate, the composition of 
which could not be learned. 

This plate is supposed to remove the gold and platinum from the 
remaining heavy minerals. The precious metals are refined and 
returned as pure gold, platinum, iridium, osmium, etc. 

This plant has cost $125,000, with the new equipment. Theodore "R. 
Heintz, president and general manager ; II. G. Stevenson, vice-president ; 
and F. S. Markey, secretary. The main office is in the Merchants' 
Exchange Building, San Francisco. 


The local demand for building stone and brick is so small in the 
county that this industry has not been developed to any appreciable 
degree. A sandstone suitable for building purposes, and a clay suitable 
for making brick, are found 2 miles east of Crescent City. There is a 
good clay in Elk Valley, and Benjamin Howland is manufacturing 


brick. He supplies the local demand at $14 per thousand. There is also 
a deposit of good pottery clay in Elk Valley, owned by George Turner, 
but it is not developed. 


Small seams of lignite are found in some parts of the county, but the 
one locality which has received most attention is on the beach, about 3 
miles north of Crescent City. There is an outcrop of what appears to 
be a tree partly converted to lignite. This tree can be plainly seen at 
low water. No vein has been found. A shaft was sunk to a vertical 
depth of 138 feet at a distance of 200 feet inland from the beach line, 
but no coal or lignite was encountered. It is reported that borings a 
thousand feet from the shore penetrated a vein that was 3 feet thick. 
Very little information was available about this discovery, and no devel- 
opment has been done. 


Chrome iron is fairly well represented in Del Norte County. There 
are several croppings in the Rattlesnake Mountains extending from the 
Bald Hills to the Klamath River. The deposits are in serpentine and 
are not being developed at this time. The two principal chrome iron 
deposits worked so far in the county are owned by the Tyson Mining 
Company, of Baltimore, Md. 

French Hill Mines. These mines consist of two patented claims situ- 
ated on French Hill, in Sees. 5 and 6, T. 16 N., R. 2 E., H. M., at an 
elevation of 1750 feet. The chromite is in the form of kidneys in serpen- 
tine. The deposit strikes northwest-southeast, and dips 60 NE. It is 
8 feet thick at the point where the development has been done. One 
hundred fifty tons of ore are on the dump, and about 200 tons were 
shipped to Swansea some years ago and proclaimed excellent. 

There is a wagon road 3 miles in length from the county road to the 
property. The mine is owned by the Tyson Mining Company, of Balti- 
more, Md. It has not been worked for some years. 

Low Divide Mines. These mines, consisting of three patented claims, 
are situated on Copper Creek, 1 mile from the old town of Alta, in 
Sees. 33, 34, and 35, T. 18 N., R. 1 E., and about 8 miles east of Smith 
River Corners, at an altitude of 1450 feet. The chromite is in serpen- 
tine. An open cut exposes the vein, which is 14 feet wide. There are 
about 500 tons of ore on the dump. This property is also owned by the 
Tyson Mining Company, of Baltimore, Md., but is not working now. 


Del Norte County has several croppings of copper ore in its northern 
half, which extend easterly into Siskiyou County. The copper belt also 
extends southward along the eastern side of the county and on into 
Humboldt County. 



As far as development in the past is concerned, the most prominent 
districts are Low Divide in the Smith River basin, and the Dr. Bock 
district in the southeastern portion of the county. Many scattering 
prospects are also noted in other parts of the copper belt, such as that 
on Diamond Creek, a tributary of Smith River; Monumental District, 
and also at French Hill. 

The principal formation is serpentine, and the copper values are gen- 
erally found in it or closely associated with it. Intrusive dikes of diorite 
and peridotite are common. The copper lenses appear to be more stable 
where the acid rocks break through and also show a tendency to persist 
in depth. The copper ore that has so far been worked, appears to be 
in lenses of varying sizes and rich in copper glance, cuprite, melaconite, 
malachite, and native copper. The primary ore, chalcopyrite, is not so 
much in evidence in the county. Between the years 1860 and 1870, 
copper ore was shipped from Del Norte to Swansea and also to Germany. 
The excessive cost of transportation and lack of roads throughout the 
county compelled the copper mines to close down until some future time, 
when a smelter will be within reach, or railroads are built into the 


This district is in the Smith River basin and is the oldest copper 
camp in the county. It is situated at the head of Copper Creek, a 
tributary of Rowdy Creek, at an altitude of 1780 feet. Between the 
years 1860 and 1870 there was a prosperous mining town here with 
several hundred inhabitants. There are only two buildings standing at 

Low Divide Mining District, Del Norte County, California. 



the present time, which are occupied by a caretaker of some of the 
properties. There is a wagon road from Smith River Corners, a dis- 
tance of 9 miles, to the properties. 

The formation is serpentine of a coarse texture and the strike of the 
vein on which most of the mines are located is north and south, having 
an easterly dip of from 35 to 65. The vein swells and pinches along 
its length, forming lenses. The ores consist of chalcocite, bornite, chal- 
copyrite and some pyrrhotite. 

Alta Calif ODiia Mine. This mine is owned by the Alta California 
Mining Company, with offices at 519 California street, San Francisco. 
The mine consists of two patented claims and these, taken with the Occi- 


Fifth Level 

Alia. CAliforni^ Mine, Lon' /VxvWe, J_lrl Norte. County, C&l. 

dental group of four claims which immediately join the Alta on the 
south, were bonded to the Salt Lake-California Copper Company, for- 
merly known as the Union Copper Company. 

Between the years 1860 and 1870 the mine was operated through an 
incline shaft 455 feet deep and inclined 63 E. This shaft was served 
by a steam hoist and an air compressor, but no equipment remains. 
Eight hundred ninety-five feet of drifting has been done on the four 
levels. The ore was shipped to Swansea and to Germany. These mines 
have been closed down for many years. The mouth of the shaft has 
caved. From old records it is shown that ores carrying values of 15% 
to 18% copper w T ere taken out. Ore averaging 11% was being taken out 
when the mine closed down. Records of the shipments sent to Swansea 
show returns of $41 to $102 per ton. 

Salt Lake-California Mine. This property was formerly known as the 
Union copper mine, and is owned by the Salt Lake-California Copper 
Company, of Salt Lake City, Utah. It. joins the Alta on the north and 


consists of ten claims. Three of these claims, the Union Nos. 1, 2 and 3, 
are on the extension of the Alta vein. Not far from the Alta north end 
line there is a strong outcrop of gossan carrying sulphides. This gossan 
extends the entire length of the two claims and fraction of 3600 feet. 
This has been exposed in several cuts, and oxides assaying 25% copper 
were found. There is a 60-foot tunnel and another tunnel 300 feet, both 
driven across the formation in an easterly direction. From the latter 
tunnel a drift 100 feet in length was run south and a raise made. A 
third tunnel further north is 450 feet in length and cuts the vein at that 
distance. There is a 100-foot drift south from this" tunnel on the vein. 
A 60-foot winze was sunk from this drift. From the bottom of the winze 
a drift runs south 200 feet; and 17% copper ore was reported. This 
was the last work done before the mine closed down. A north drift runs 
from this same winze and is 240 feet in length. The 450-foot tunnel has 
been extended 200 feet to cut the east vein, but did not reach it. On 
Union No. 3 a vertical shaft 110 feet was sunk on the vein but no drift- 
ing was done. 

There is an adit level on the Big Bonanza claim, running east on an 
east and west vein. This vein is 3 feet wide. This level was extended 
as far as 350 feet, with hopes of cutting the main north and south vein, 
but it was not found. Sixty feet below this adit level on the same claim, 
a 500-foot crosscut tunnel was run to intersect the north and south vein, 
but failed to locate it. Most of the old workings are badly caved. The 
shaft has caved near the surface. Four hundred tons of ore from the 
above 60-foot winze were said to have averaged 18% in copper and 
$1.50 in gold per ton. 

Superior Copper Mine. This mine was formerly known as the Atlantic 
Pacific copper mine, and covers the Mammoth group of fourteen claims 
which join the Union mine on the north. The character of the vein is 
the same as that of the Salt Lake-California mine. 

There are three tunnels on this property: No. 1, a crosscut, cutting 
the west vein ; No. 2 is 150 feet below No. 1, and is also a crosscut, 700 
feet long. At a distance of 150 feet from the portal, a 4-foot vein of 
low-grade ore was cut which averaged about $20 per ton in copper, gold 
and silver. This tunnel failed to cut the main vein. A distance of 250 
feet above No. 1 tunnel, a third tunnel was run a distance of 500 feet, 
and cut a vein which was 2 feet wide. The vein pinched out, however, 
after some ore was shipped from it. The mine has been shut down for 
some years. 

Frank Zaar Copper Mine. This consists of four claims held by loca- 
tion, the names being ''Standard," formerly called Old Hanscom; 
"Nome," formerly the Copper Queen; "Discovery," formerly Lady 
Bell; and "A Beauty," formerly Copper Hill. The gossan is prominent 
on these claims, 4 feet wide with serpentine walls. There is a crosscut 


tunnel on the Standard 500 feet long, which cuts a 4-foot vein carrying 
values in copper, gold and silver. From this tunnel there is a drift run- 
ning southwest 50 feet and a drift northwest 50 feet long, also a winze 
60 feet deep. Six hundred feet below No. 1 tunnel, a second crosscut 
tunnel was run 500 feet to cut the vein deeper but failed to do so. On 
the "Nome" there is a 28-foot vertical shaft on the vein and an open cut 
on an iron dike which is 18 feet wide. On "Discovery" a 50-foot verti- 
cal shaft was sunk. This is now caved. A crosscut tunnel 400-feet long 
failed to cut the vein. On "A Beauty" there is a 40-foot vertical shaft 
sunk on a 6-foot vein which assays 10% copper. Assessment work only 
is being done on these claims. 

Idora Mine. This is only a prospect consisting of three claims situ- 
ated 9 miles northwest from Low Divide, owned by William Ehrman, 
Yarbrough and Bricklin. Development consists of one crosscut tunnel 
45 feet long, but has not reached the vein yet. There is a 30-foot incline 
shaft on the vein which is dipping 45 and is 3 feet wide. Five hundred 
feet along the vein has been stripped on the surface. Only assessment 
work has been done. 

Oriental Copper Claim. There is only one claim held by location, and 
owned by E. R. Jenkins, of Crescent City. It is situated in the Low 
Divide mining district, at an elevation of 1900 feet. It has a 15-foot 
vertical shaft on a 4-foot vein. Only assessment work is being done. 


Cleopatra Copper Claims. These claims are owned by James D. Lacey. 
There were formerly twenty-five claims held by location and known as 
the Dietrick group. Lacey lapsed in assessment work on all of the 
claims except one, which he retains. The claim is in T. 18 N., R. 2 E., 
H. M., at an altitude of 2600 feet, and is close to the California-Oregon 

The claim was located in 1894, and is a contact vein with serpentine 
hanging and porphyry footwall. The strike is north and south and the 
dip 45 E. A 100-foot crosscut tunnel with a 40-foot north drift and a 
south drift of 80 feet. No. 2 crosscut tunnel is 180 feet long, and No. 3 
crosscut tunnel is 130 feet long but did not cut the vein. About 200 tons 
of ore are on the dump but none has been shipped. Work ceased in 1911. 


Hunters Luck Claims. There are six claims in this group, held by 
location since 1907. They are situated in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., at an alti- 
tude of 3100 feet, and owned by J. W. Ehrman and J. N. Britten. The 
vein is on the contact between serpentine hanging and porphyry foot- 
wall. There are two adit levels, the upper of which is 120 feet long. 


The vein as exposed in this level is 8 feet thick. The lower level is 160 
feet long and the vein as exposed is 1 foot wide. The strike of the vein 
is north and south and the dip 50 E. Ehrman lives on the property 
and is doing some development work. The ores are malachite, bornite 
and chalcopyrite. 

Britton No. 1 and No. 2. There are six claims in this group, held by 
location since 1904, situated on Patrick Creek at an elevation of 1950 
feet. The vein is quartz carrying copper and gold, and the walls are 
andesite. There are three crosscuts. The third is 340 feet long. There 
are 120 feet of drifts and a 60-foot winze. The strike of the vein is 
southwest and northeast and dips 45 SE. Only assessment work is 
being done. 

Klondike Group. This group consists of Klondike Nos. 1 and 2, and 
seven others located on Patrick Creek, 1 mile south of Monumental. They 
were located by Luff & Duley, of Crescent City. The vein is quartz 
carrying marcasite and chalcopyrite, and is 4 feet wide. There are three 
tunnels. Only assessment work is being done. 

Lucky Boy and Rosebud. Property is composed of two claims held 
by location, the Lucky Boy since 1901, and the Rosebud since 1902. 
They are situated in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., about J mile west of the county 
road, and are owned by Otto Anderson. The vein is quartz carrying 
marcasite and chalcopyrite. There are three veins on the Lucky Boy, 
all of which have cut the main vein, which is 4 feet wide in the upper 
workings. The strike of the vein is southwest and northeast, and its dip 
is southeast. There are two crosscut tunnels on the Rosebud, each 80 feet 
long. One cuts the vein 17 feet from the portal, and the vein was 17 feet 
wide. The vein is quartz carrying heavy iron sulphides, not much 
copper, and very little gold. Only assessment work is being done. 

Old Crow. Consists of four claims, namely, the Bowman, Morgan 
Nos. 1 and 2, and the Jumper, all held by location since 1910, and situ- 
ated in the Monumental district at an altitude of 2800 feet. They are 
owned by George F. Morgan and Fred Bauman. There is a 2-foot chal- 
copyrite-bearing quartz vein in porphyry. The strike of the vein is 
north and south, and the dip 45 E. There are two crosscut tunnels, 
neither one cutting the vein. Only assessment work is being done. 


There are several copper prospects in this district that should be 
mentioned, namely 

Hen-drix and Howe, consisting of five claims located in 1911, and 
owned by L. T. Hendrix and George W. Howe. 

Hendrix, Howe & McDonald, consisting of five claims located on 
French Hill, located in 1911, and owned by L. T. Hendrix, George W. 
Howe and William McDonald. 


Frank B. Edwards, prospect situated -J mile east and 1 mile south of 
M';iry Adams Station, in T. 17 N., R. 2 E. There is a tunnel 30 to 40 
feet long. The ore is rich glance and carries values in gold and silver. 
Owned by Frank B. Edwards of Crescent City. 


Preston Peak Mine. This group consists of two patented claims, 
namely, the "Hobs" and "Copper Belt," located in 1891; and three 
unpatented claims, namely, the "Mountain King" and two others, 
located in 1891. All are situated in T. 17 N., E. 5 E., at an elevation of 
4400 feet. They are owned by Charles A. Leib, G. W. Young, H. Mathey 
and others, of 20 Broad street, Boston, Mass. The mine is in the Siskiyou 
Forest Reserve, and reached by 5 miles of wagon road and 15 miles of 
trail from Waldo, Oregon. It became involved in legal difficulties and 
closed down in 1901. 

The country rock is diorite and serpentine, and the vein is quartz 
carrying chalcopyrite, pyrite, and values in gold. The ore is in the form 
of a series of lenses, having a strike of about southwest and northeast, 
and stands almost vertical in the serpentine. The surface croppings 
have been proven up for a distance of 200 feet. The mine is opened by 
a crosscut tunnel 315 feet, and at a distance of 235 feet from the portal 
a 48-foot winze in ore all the way. There was also 37 feet of drifting 
done around the ore body, and 400 feet of drifting on the tunnel level 
looking for more ore, but only small kidneys were found. At 650 feet 
below the upper tunnel a second tunnel was run 55 feet in length, but the 
work was stopped. No ore was ever shipped. The mine has not been 
working for some years and the camp buildings have fallen to decay. 

Doctor Rock Group. This group of copper claims, six in all, are 
situated in T. 13 N., R, 3 E., H. M., at the head of Blue Creek, and 
have been held since 1903. The altitude is 4475 feet. The property 
is owned by Mrs. F. C. Marlowe, Cordelius Thompson, A. J. Monroe. 
;>ml F. B. Faucett. The ore is quartz carrying chalcopyrite with slate 
footwall and serpentine hanging-wall. The strike is north and south 
and the dip uncertain. The croppings have been proven up for a dis- 
tance of 800 feet. There is a 10-foot shaft on "Big Strike" claim and 
a 30-foot crosscut tunnel driven to cut this shaft failed of its purpose. 
There is a 37-foot adit level on the Doctor Rock claim. The ore carries 
values in gold and silver besides the copper. No ore was ever shipped 
and only assessment work is being done. 


Almost all the gold produced in the county comes from the placer 
mines of Smith River and its tributaries. The mines are mostly small 
hydraulic properties where one or two small giants are used during 


the winter months. In some instances a common fire hose and nozzle 
is used on the gravel banks and the water, collected from the gulches in 
the rainy season, is stored in small reservoirs and piped to the gravel. 

Aurora Hydraulic Mine. This property consists of two claims of 
40 acres, located on French Hill, in T. 16 N., R. 1 E., at an elevation 
of 1600 feet and held by location since 1907 by Frank Lind, the owner. 
The gravel consists of high benches and the water supply is dependent 
on flood waters from the gulches collected in a small reservoir. A 
6-inch canvas hose and a l|-inch nozzle is used to conduct the water 
and wash the gravel. The gold is coarse. The mine is operated only 
during the winter months when there is plenty of flood water. 

Doctor Young Hydraulic Mine. Consists of four claims adjoining 
J. M. Darnell's mine in the French Hill mining district in Sec. 32, 
T. 17 N., R. 2 E., and owned by Dr. W. S. S. Young. There is 1 mile 
of ditch bringing water under a 50-foot head to one No. 1 giant 
through a 7-inch pipe. Assessment work only is being done. 

Dave Savoy Placer Mine. Consists of two claims in the French Hill 
mining district. The gravel is ground sluiced, the water being col- 
lected in a small reservoir. Owned by Dave Savoy and worked during 
the winter months. 

Elkhorn Hydraulic Mine. The property consists of 2560 acres, 
mostly bonded, located at the mouth of Patrick Creek, in Sec. 16, T. 
17 N., R. 3 E., and controlled by the Smith River Mining Company 
of Tacoma, Wash. The property is held by location since 1903 and is 
at an elevation of 1050 feet. There are 3 miles of flume which brings 
water to three No. 2 giants. There are two camps with accommoda- 
tions for 25 to 30 men. Three men are now putting the flume in con- 
dition to wash this winter. 

French Hill Placer Mine. Situated in the French Hill mining district, 
in Sees. 32 and 33, T. 17 N., R. 2 E., at an elevation of 1800 feet. There 
are nineteen claims, covering 380 acres, held by location since 1898 and 
owned by J. M. Darnell. The property is a bench mine and has 5 miles 
of ditch carrying 500 inches of water from Craigh Creek, and has a 150- 
foot face. Two No. 2 giants are used, and about 5% of the values are 
in platinum. 

George Washington Placer Claims. These claims are situated on 
Monkey Creek adjoining the Elkhorn hydraulic mine, and taken togd her 
with the Monkey Creek mine, make 480 acres of gravel which have been 
bonded to the "Winnie Bob" Mining Company, capitalized for 1,000,000 
shares in the State of Washington. The property is to be equipped willi 
a hydraulic plant soon, but only assessment work is now being 1 done. 


George Cook Placer Mine. This mine consists of five claims located 

3 miles south of Gasquet on the middle fork of Smith River. It has 

4 miles of ditch and one No. 3 giant. The water is brought from Hum- 
boldt Flat watershed. During the winter months 300 to 400 miner's 
inches are obtained. The claims are not patented. Considerable coarse 
gold and some platinum is obtained. 

Kaus Placer Mine. Situated in Craigh Creek mining district in Sec. 1, 
T. 16 N., R. 1 E., and owned by Antone Kaus. Two claims have been 
held by location for the last forty years. The gravel benches are ground- 
sluiced, the w r ater coming through a J mile ditch, giving a 30-foot fall. A 
6-inch pipe and a 6-inch canvas hose bring the water to the gravel. 
A 2-inch nozzle is used. The gold and platinum are coarse, and worked 
during the winter months. 

Myrtle Creek Hydraulic Mine. Situated in the Myrtle Creek mining 
district, in Sees. 3, 4 and 10, T. 16 N., R, 1 E., at an elevation of 260 feet, 
this mine is ow r ned by the Myrtle Creek Placer Mining Company of 
Crescent City. The property consists of eighteen claims, or 360 acres. 
The gravel benches are washed by water taken from a H-mile ditch, 
with a head of 75 feet. Eleven-inch pipe, with one No. 2 and one No. 3 
giant, is used. The gold assays $18.50 to $19 per ounce. The black 
sands carry platinum in considerable quantity. 

Monkey Creek Placer Mine. Situated in the Monkey Creek mining 
district and held by location since 1893, are seven claims owned by J. A. 
liaight and D. Haight. The gravel benches are ground-sluiced, the 
water coming through 1^ miles of ditch from Monkey Creek. The dam 
has collapsed and no work outside of assessment work is now being done. 

Nels Christ ensen Hydraulic Mine. This property is situated 300 
yards from the forks of Smith River and consists of 34 acres of bench 
gravel, held by location since 1885 and owned by Nels Christeusen of 
South Fork. There is a 1^-mile ditch carrying 500 inches of w r ater 
with a 75-foot fall through 9 and 12-inch pipe to a No. 2 giant. 

Oak Flat and East Fork Groups. This property consists of 270 
acres located in the Patrick Creek mining district at an elevation of 
1430 feet, and is owned by a party of eight people (S. F. Raymond, 
D. E. Raymond, A. E. Newman, A. E. Newman, Jr., C. Newman, J. W. 
Ehrman, and Homer White). The mine consists of 270 acres of bench 
and creek gravels. Water is brought from Shelly and Patrick creeks 
through 3 miles of flume and ditch with a head of 650 feet. One No. 2 
giant is used. The ditch is built for 1J miles and the remainder is now 
under construction. 

Walter Crook Hydraulic Mine. This property adjoins Dave Savoy 
on French Hill in the French Hill mining district. It consists of 


three claims owned by Walter Crook and held by location. There is 
1 mile of ditch taking water from Allen Gulch, a tributary of Craigh 
Creek, through a 7-inch pipe to a No. 1 giant. Worked during the 
winter months only. 


The output of gold from Del Norte County is due entirely to the 
placer mines, the production from the quartz mines being nil. Most of 
the ores from the quartz veins of the county are base and require con- 
centration and shipment. The transportation facilities are so poor that 
development of quartz properties is hindered. Only assessment work is 
being done on such prospects at present. 

Black Diamond Gold Quartz Mine. This mine is at an altitude of 
6500 feet, and is nearly on the eastern boundary of the county, about 
8 miles from the Doctor Rock mine. It consists of four claims located 
in T. 14 N., R. 4 E., H. M., and held by location by L. T. Hendrix. The 
vein, w r hich is quartz, has a north and south strike and dips 70 E. 
Trap rock forms the hanging-wall, while the footwall is composed of 
shale. The ore is base and carries gold and silver values. The vein has 
been trenched, but no work further than assessment has been done. 

Hard Luck Mine. This mine consists of six claims situated on Monkey 
Creek in the Monumental mining district and held by location since 1904 
by J. N. Britton, of Waldo, Oregon. The vein is quartz carrying gold 
and arsenical sulphides. The development consists of two crosscut tun- 
nels and 400 feet of drifts. Five tons of ore were shipped to the Selby 
smelter and are said to have assayed $10.40 per ton in gold. Only 
assessment work is being done. 

Monumental Consolidated Quartz Mine. This property consists of 
eight claims of 165.28 acres, located in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., in the Monu- 
mental mining district, held by location since 1901 by the J. 0. B. Gunn 
estate and Davis. The mine is at an elevation of 2560 feet. The vein 
is quartz, carrying specular iron with gold values and some copper. 
There is a 3-compartment vertical shaft 212 feet deep and an incline 
shaft to the 100-foot level from the ether shaft. There is J of a mile 
of drifts, an upraise from the 100-foot level to the surface and a winze 
from the 100-foot level. There are six prospect tunnels from 30 to 40 
feet long. The ore is crushed in a Huntington mill and concentrated 
on a Frue vanner and Fender table, and the concentrates were formerly 
shipped to Selby. Power for the mill is furnished by water under 150- 
foot head through a 6-inch pipe acting on two Pelton wheels. The 
winding engine was run by steam and a Cameron shaft pump used to 
unwater the shaft. The camp consists of a store, bunkhouse, cookhouse, 
office, laboratory and barn, which arc now in charge of a caretaker. 



The mine has been closed down for several years and the camp is a 
convenient stopping place for travelers over the main highway from 
Oregon to Crescent City. 

Ora Anna Quartz Mine. This property consists of one patented 
and three nnpatented claims, owned by the Ora Anna Quartz Mining 
Company of Crescent City. It is situated in T. 16 N., R. 1 E., in the 
Bald Hills mining district, at an elevation of 1400 feet. There are two 
parallel veins between slate hanging-wall and hard porphyry footwall, 
and the vein filling is quartz carrying gold, both free and in the sul- 
phides. The average width of the vein is 6 feet, and the strike is east 

Monumental Mine buildings at Monumental, Del Norte County, California. 

and west, with a dip of 45 to the north. There is a tunnel 300 feet long 
from which a winze 70 feet deep has been sunk. There is an upper 
tunnel 40 feet in length. The equipment amounts to very little and 
one cabin remains on the property. Since 1897 only assessment work 
has been done. 


Quicksilver in small quantities has been found in the northern part 
of the county in T. 18 N., R. 2 E., H. M., and also on Diamond Creek, a 
tributary of Smith River. Poor transportation facilities prevent 



Field Work in September, 1913. 

In former years the black sands of the beach and bluffs of northern 
Humboldt County were successfully worked at Upper and Lower Gold 
Bluffs, Big Lagoon, and Little River. The gold was fine and was saved 
by the use of the Oregon torn and ordinary torn and amalgamating 
plates. After a severe storm on the coast, the fine gold could plainly 
be seen concentrated on the beach in places. After the tide had 
receded, pack mules were taken down and the sand packed away in 
sacks for washing. Many thousands of dollars were taken out in this 
manner but for some reason the gold does not concentrate in paying 
quantities now and this method of collecting the sands has been 
abandoned. At Upper Gold Bluffs, a tunnel through the range of hills 
dividing Prairie Creek and the coast was cut one-half mile in length to 
bring water from Prairie Creek for washing the sands and gravels. The 
locators of these beach claims became involved in litigation with locators 
of the land as timber claims and mining has been abandoned and the 
plant is in ruins. The sands and gravels of Klamath River carry a good 
percentage of black sands having a gold and platinum content and 
some of the hydraulic mines are losing considerable of their values, 
which are carried away in the heavy gray and black sands which 
quickly clog the undercurrent riffles and cause an overflow of concen- 
trates and values. They are desirous of finding a cheap method by 
which these sands can be worked continuously in connection with the 
ordinary hydraulic operations, thereby not only saving the values but 
also saving much lost time used up in clearing the riffles of the trouble- 
some sands. Outside of the black sands encountered in the hydraulic 
diggings, there are no other sands that are being worked in the county 
at the present time. The gold and platinum are too fine and not in suffi- 
cient quantity to pay for working with the appliances available at 


Brick and Tile. There are only two companies in Humboldt County 
who manufacture brick or tile and they are able to supply the local and 
county demand. The Fortuna brickyard at Fortuna formerly owned 
by J. A. Thompson has been closed down and Mr. Thompson is now 
interested in the Eureka Brick and Tile Company of Eureka. 

Eureka Brick and Tile Company. John A. Thompson and John 
Porter own four acres of clay land in the suburbs of the city of Eureka. 
The plant consists of one stiff mud brick and tile machine, one mixing 


machine, one grinding machine, one cut-off machine, one 70 horsepower 
engine, one boiler, one 300-barrel and one 100-barrel oil tank, water 
tank, scrapers and clay cars. Oil is used as fuel and the plant has a 
capacity of 25,000 brick per day. They make tile 3 to 12 inches in size 
and sell their brick at $10 per thousand at the plant. Tiling is sold at 
2 cents per foot for 3-inch size up to 15 cents per foot for 12-inch size. 
This tile is used principally in land drainage. 

Humboldt Clay Manufacturing Company. Lewis H. Hess, president, 
and W. Ernest Dickson, secretary, of Eureka. They own 1J acres 
of clay land adjoining the Eureka Brick and Tile Company in the 
suburbs of Eureka. The plant consists of one American Clay Machin- 
ery Company clay machine, one mixing machine, one disintegrator, one 
re-press, one cutoff machine, one 100 horsepower engine, two boilers, 
one oil tank (500 barrels). They sell the brick at $10 per 1000 at the 
yard and have a capacity of 25,000 brick per day. 

There is an excellent blue clay on Jacoby Creek owned by J. A. Moore 
which is well adapted for the manufacture of brick. Nothing is being 
done with the clay at the present time. 


The only quarries in the county are those being operated for the pur- 
pose of obtaining rock to be used in building the jetty at the mouth of 
Humboldt harbor and for road metal. 

Haw Quarry. This quarry is owned by G. A. Dungan and I. M. 
Long, and is situated in Sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 1 E., Humboldt meridian, 
and 6 miles from Eureka, at an elevation of 150 feet. There are 700 
acres. The rock is a basaltic lava termed tachylite (Lawson). The 
plant consists of one mile of standard gauge railroad which connects 
with Humboldt Bay. There is one locomotive and eleven bottom dump 
cars, one barge, one tow boat, one air compressor, two Sullivan air 
drills, one No. 3 gyratory crusher, one 12-foot screen, drill tools, etc. 
The buildings consist of a cookhouse, blacksmith shop, powder house 
and several smaller buildings. Electricity is purchased at 2 cents per 
kilowatt hour. The capacity is 400 tons per ten hours. The rock is 
hauled by rail one mile to the bay and loaded on barges and tow r ed to 
Eureka. The specific gravity of the rock is 3.169 and contains 42.7 per 
cent silica. The rock is used for road metal and for filling. 

Jacoby Creek Quarry. This quarry is leased by the Pacific Engineer- 
ing and Construction Company of San Francisco, S. L. G. Knox, presi- 
dent. The quarry is 5 miles from Arcata and the equipment consists of 
5 derricks, 90 cars, 3 barges and 1 tug, one 4-drill compressor, 4 com- 
pressed air drills, 1 drill sharpener, 2 hoisting cranes and the necessary 
drill steel. This company has the contract for furnishing the fill for the 
harbor jetty now being built. The rock is a meta-morphic sandstone 



and one quarry is a mica schist. This company is supplying the rock 
for the construction of the jetty at the entrance of Humboldt harbor. 
Isaac Minor Quarry. This quarry consists of granite suitable for 
building purposes and is situated on Warren Creek which is a tributary 
of Mad River in T. 6 N., R. 1 E. Although the rock is suitable for 
building purposes, yet granite used in the county for such purposes as 
monuments is imported from other parts of California. There is so 
little construction going on in the county that requires a good building 
stone that the quarries, or rather the prospective quarries, have not 
been developed. The only rock being used at present is that used for 
road metal and for the federal work on the harbor jetty. 


A cement manufactured from a limestone cropping on Jacoby Creek 
in Sees. 13 and 14, T. 5 N., R. 1 E., on the property of the Bayside 
Lumber Company has been tested and an analysis made by Smith- 
Emery & Company of San Francisco, and the following facts as shown 
by this tension curve, obtained : 

800 /As. 



Tension Curve of 


^. ' 




" ~~* 












fl/,a/ /S /s 




S/'//ca. ^/.37 
fl/uiymumOx/de 649 
Ferric Oxide 2.93 
Calcium Oxide 6 Z.2& tsium Oxide 1 3 
Sulphur Trioxide I 60 

I4da.ys 778. 








S/77/V-fr, Emery and Company. 



2/ ofays 


There is considerable limestone in the county suitable for burning 
for lime and also for fertilizer and smelter ftux. The most accessible 
deposits to Humboldt Bay are on Jacoby Creek in Sees. 13 and 14, 
T. 5 N., R. 1 E., on the property of the Bayside Lumber Company. 
It is 3 miles from the bay and on the railroad. There is also another 



deposit on Jacoby Creek owned by J. A. Moore of Blue Lakes, Hurn- 
boldt County. The analysis by the Miller & Brown Company of San 
Francisco gives the following results: 

Analysis of Limestone from Jacoby Creek. 

Received from State Mining Bureau, 1 piece of rock for analysis. 
Sample found to contain the following : 

Silica, SiO,__ - 1.41% 

Lime, CaO 53.61%, CaO.CO 2 95.74 

Iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 .35 

Alumina A1 2 O 3 .56 

Magnesia M~gO Trace 

Water .01 

Residue from carbonaceous matter .50 

Volatile, CO 2 , H 2 O, etc. = 42.40 per cent. 


There is a large dike of limestone crossing in a northwesterly direc- 
tion from Trinity County to Humboldt County in T. 4 N., R. 5 E., which 
extends northwesterly and passes to the east of Horse Mountain and 
cuts across Willow Creek. This limestone formation has not been 
developed and is a source of immense quantities of good limestone. 

There is also considerable limestone in the southeastern section of the 
county which has not been developed. 


The copper belt of Humboldt County, as far as development to date 
has proved, extends along the eastern part of the county, east of the 
redwood belt and extending from the southern end of Del Norte County 
south for the entire length of Humboldt County and over into the 

Copper Cropp 

property of the Horse Mountain Copper Mine, Humboldt County, 



parts of western Trinity County difficult of access. The copper of 
Humboldt County, like that of Del Norte County, is associated with 
serpentine. There are dikes of quartzite and diorite protruding 
through the serpentine in many instances and also the mother rock of 
serpentine, called peridotite, is encountered in a more or less altered 

The -principal district where copper mining is being done at the 
present time is Horse Mountain, situated in T. 5 and 6 N., B. 4 E. 
The ore on the mountain seems to be of a secondary nature, consisting 

Camp buildings of the Horse Mountain Copper Mining Company, on Horse Mountain, 
Humboldt County, California. 

of bunches of impregnated serpentine close to the surface, in which the 
values run high in copper glance, bornite, native copper, and malachite. 
The general strike of the formation is northwest and southeast, with 
a dip to the northeast. The formation is mostly serpentine, porphyry 
and gabbro, the latter having peridotite closely associated with it, from 
the decomposition of which the serpentine is formed. Chrome iron is 
also encountered in small quantities in the serpentine. 

There are quartz and diorite dikes protruding through these forma- 
tions all seeming to have a northwest and southeasterly direction and 
a northeast dip. 

Next to Horse Mountain, the district where copper development has 
been done to a considerable extent is I\ed Cap Creek. Several Copper 



companies, namely the "Red Cap," "La Perin" have held claims on 
the ridge between Boise and Red Cap creeks and have done considerable 
work. Much rich copper ore has been found in the slides from the hills 
but the ore has never been found in place. No development is being 
done at the present time and the old tunnels have caved in and the 
buildings gone to ruin. 

Nothing in the way of development is being done on Lassen Creek in 
T. 1 S., R. 4 E., or on the Rainbow or Crimson groups, in T. 1 S., R. 1 E., 
in the Mattole mining district. 

Horse Mountain District. 

Horse Mountain Copper Mine. This property consists of ten groups 
of claims, making 70 claims in all. They are unpatented and are situ- 
ated on Horse Mountain in Sees. 33 and 34, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., and 
Sees. 3 and 4, T. 5 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 5000 feet. The prop- 
erty is owned by the Horse Mountain Copper Company, which is a 

Mill of the Horse Mountain Copper Mine, Humboldt County, California. 


stock company. The railroad from Eureka runs to within 25 miles of 
the mine and this distance is covered by a good wagon road. The 
original claims were located by Dave Wilson in 1907. The strike of the 
formation is northwest and southeast and dips about 40 NE. There 
are six crosscut tunnels and one adit level, also some open cuts. There 
is 3000 feet of underground development, mostly drifts and crosscuts. 
Steam supplies the power for the sawmill and two Huntington mills 
(one being 3^ and the other 5 feet). It also furnishes power for a 
Blake ore crusher, two Dodge secondary crushers, one Standard and 
one United concentrating table and two classifiers. Twenty-six men 
are employed underground and on the surface. Some concentrates 
have been shipped to Humboldt Bay but have not reached the smelter. 

The middlings are stored for future treatment. The concentrates 
average 20% copper and the middlings about f % copper. The values 
in gold are about $4 per ton for the concentrates. A 16 h.p. Corliss 
distillate engine furnishes power for ventilating. Two 50 h.p. boilers, 
one 14 h.p. engine, one 20 h.p. engine and one 40 h.p. engine complete 
the power equipment. 

The surface equipment consists of one sawmill with a capacity of 
7000 feet, one blacksmith shop, one timber framing shop, barn, cook- 
house, office, assay office, powder magazines and several bunk houses, 
making 35 buildings in all. Scraps from sawmill used for fuel. 

Humboldt Copper Mine. This mine consists of eight claims or 160 
acres, unpatented ground, which adjoins the Horse Mountain Copper 
mine on the southwest and lies in Sees. 28 and 29, T. 6 N., R. 4 E, 
and Sees. 32 and 33, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 4800 feet. 
A wagon road is 25 miles from Korvel to the mine. The mine is owned 
by the Humboldt Copper Mining Company of Eureka, T. L. Loof- 
bourrow, president, and Kenneth Newett, Jr., secretary. The original 
claims were located in 1905. The country rock is mostly serpentine 
with dikes of porphyritic diorite and granodiorite. The ores consist of 
chalcopyrite, chalcocite, cuprite, and free copper. The strike is north- 
west and southeast and the dip 45 to the northeast. The underground 
workings consist of three crosscut tunnels, 25, 100 and 700 feet, respec- 
tively. There are 750 feet of drifts, 20 feet of winze and 210 feet of 
raise. Assessment work only is being done and no ore has been shipped. 
The surface buildings consist of a cook house, bunk house and black- 
smith shop. 

Sweet Home Copper Mine. This property consists of eight claims of 
160 acres of unpatented land adjoining the Horse Mountain mine 
and lies in Sec. 28, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 4800 feet. The 
property is owned by the Sweet Home Mining Company of Eureka, 
E. P. Shier, president. A wagon road crosses the property and is 
within 1000 feet of the main workings. The ores are the same as those 



Horse Mountain Copper Mining District, Humboldt County, California. 

of the Horse Mountain mine. The strike is east and west and the dip 
45 N. There are four crosscut tunnels and 230 feet of drifts. The 
company is doing assessment work only and some ore has been shipped 
for a test. The ores are chalcocite, bornite, cuprite and native copper. 
The surface equipment consists of a bunk house, cook house and a 
blacksmith shop. 

Ruby Copper Mine. This property consists of thirty-eight claims or 
760 acres of unpatented land situated to the northwest of the Horse 
Mountain Copper mine in Sees. 16, 21 and 28, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at 
an altitude of 4500 feet. These claims are owned by the Ruby Copper 
Mining Company of Eureka, E. A. Walters, president, and Frank W. 


Belcher, secretary. There is a wagon road to the mine. The original 
claims were located in 1907 and consist of the Blind Lead Group and 
the Ruby Group. Serpentine with dikes of porphyritic diorite and 
quartzite makes up the formation and the ores are the same as those 
of the Horse Mountain mine. The strike is northwest and southeast 
with a vertical dip. The 'underground workings consist of a crosscut 
tunnel 510 feet long and 250 feet of drifting. A small 60-foot shaft 
from the surface is also sunk. 

The surface buildings consist of a cook house, bunk house, blacksmith 
shop, and a timber shed. The mine is in a developing stage and the 
ores consist of chalcopyrite, cuprite, chalcocite, and bornite. There are 
also some black oxide ores and some gold values are obtained. 

Mattole Mining District. 

Rainbow Group. This copper prospect, consisting of nineteen claims, 
is located sixty miles south of Eureka in Sees. 19, 30 and 32, T. 1 S., 
R. 1 E., and also in Sees. 12 and 19, T. 1 S., R. 1 W. Several trenches 
have been cut across the vein matter and some carbonate ore has been 
opened up for several hundred feet along the strike of the croppings. 
No work has been done on this group of claims for some time. 

Crimson Group. This group of copper claims, consisting of 80 acres 
of patented land, joins the Rainbow group of mines on the south, and 
is in Sec. 8, T. 2 S., R. 1 E. Several prospect holes have been sunk 
over the 80 acres and carbonate ore has been found. No work has been 
done on the property for some years. 


There are indications of lignite seams in several parts of the county, 
including the following places : 

Maple Creek. 

East branch of north fork of Eel River. 

Near Mrs. Ray's house at Garberville. 

Mad River. 

Van Dusen River, two miles east of Hydesville. 

Crogan Gulch, Maple Creek. 

Buck Mountain Creek, near Garberville. 
Coal is also found at the following places in the county: 

On the east branch of the north fork of Eel River. 

Ten miles from Garberville. 

Jacoby Creek. 

Two miles north of Arcata. 

On the upper Mattole River. 

On Larribee Creek. 

3 B144r>; 


Some of this coal has been burned in a blacksmith forge and found 
to be satisfactory. The seams, however, are not wide and this taken 
together with the cost of transportation and the cheapness of oil fuel, 
prohibits the development of these coal and lignite seams. 


The gold production of Humboldt County is not large, being only 
$31,271 for the year 1912 (California State Mining Bureau Bulletin 65). 
This gold comes from the placer mines in the northeastern part of the 
county, on the Klamath River from the Hoopa Indian Reservation to the 
eastern county line and from the south end of the reservation southward 
along the Trinity River to the east line of the county. There are also 
two quartz mines that are being developed, but without any production 
as yet. One is on Red Cap Creek, which is a tributary of Klamath 
River, and the other is at the headwaters of Willow Creek, which is a 
tributary of Trinity River. 

Red Cap Mine (quartz). Consists of ten quartz and three placer 
claims, all unpatented and owned by a stock company called the Red 
Cap Mining Company of Eureka, Humboldt County. The claims are 
located in Sec. 33, T. 10 N., R. 6 E., on the north fork of Red Cap 
Creek at an elevation of 2640 feet above sea level. These claims have 
been held since 1899. The country rock is porphyry with diorite dikes 
intersecting the formation. There are four veins being worked at the 
present time. The ore in the upper levels is free milling and in the 
lower levels it is a heavy sulphide carrying some copper. The strike is 
northeast and southwest and dips 70 to the northwest. There are three 
tunnels and 280 feet of drifts ; also a 4-foot crosscut tunnel which is the 
lowest working tunnel and is only 45 feet in length. There are 100 feet 
of raises and 30 feet of winze. The mine equipment consists of the usual 
strap iron tunnel track, one ore car, blacksmith shop, hand steel, etc. 
The reduction equipment consists of a Gardner crusher, one Frue 
vanner concentrator, and amalgamating plates. There is also a wire 
aerial tramway from the upper tunnels to the ore bin at the crusher. 
The mine is only developing and no ore is being shipped. 

Bonneyville Quartz Mine. Consists of six claims and a fraction of 
130 acres of unpatented land owned by the Bonneyville Mining Com- 
pany of Eureka, F. E. Peaslack, secretary, and Charles Helwig, presi- 
dent. The claims are located in Sec. 15, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at the head 
of Willow Creek, which is a tributary of Trinity River, and at an 
elevation of 1640 feet. The claims have been held since 1912. The 
country rock is slate and porphyry. The veins are all in slate with the 
exception of one which is a contact vein, the contact being slate and 
porphyry. The strike of the formation is northwest and southeast and 
dips northeast about 30. There are four adit levels with 15, 15, 20 and 


375 feet of drifting done on them respectively. There are two cross- 
cuts, one 15 feet and one 35 feet, 375 feet of track of strap iron, one 
ore car and the necessary drill steel. There are two cabins on the 
property and a road was being built from the county road to the 
property. A water right of 300 inches also belongs to the property. 

Little Klondike Mine. Consists of three placer claims and four 
quartz claims owned by F. Lubbs of Orleans, which adjoin the Red Cap 
mine at the head of Red Cap Creek. The quartz vein has prophyry 
walls and is very irregular in width. It frequently carries high values 
in free gold and in other places traces of copper are found. There is 
one mile of ditch and a cabin on the place. Only assessment work is 
being done. 

Quartz Prospect on Pearch Creek. This prospect is on Pearch Creek, 
2 miles from its mouth and 3 miles from Orleans. It consists of one 
claim on a vein which is 6 to 14 inches in width in schist formation. 
It carries free milling quartz which is crushed with an arrastra which 
is run by water power. The vein is inclined to be pockety and the gold 
is rather light, going $14 to the ounce. This prospect works in winter 


Placer mining in the county is confined to the Klamath and Trinity 
rivers, and the season varies from a few days (as in the case of the high 
gravel banks) to several months during the winter for the lower bars, 
where water can be ditched to the property. 

Allen Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two unpatented claims owned 
by A. II. Allen of Orleans and located in Sec. 15, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., 
at the mouth of Red Cap Creek at an elevation of 460 feet. These 
claims have been held since 1898. They consist of bench gravels on a 
slate bedrock. There are 3.4 miles of ditch, 1000 feet of 11-inch pipe 
and one No. 2 giant served by 400 inches of water under a head of 80 
feet. The gold is saved by block riffles, undercurrent and quicksilver. 
The mine works five months during the winter. The gold mints $17 
per ounce and has platinum associated with it in small amounts. 

Bondo Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two claims of 40 acres. 
formerly known as Croton Bar Mine and Markeson Mine, and owned 
by Morris Bondo of San Diego. The property is located in Sec. 29, 
T. 11 N., R. 6 E., on the Klamath River, 1 miles up the river from 
Orleans. They consist of bench gravels, some of the gravel beiiiir 
rcnionted. The bedrock is rough slate, the strata standing on end. 
Tin -re are one mile of ditch and flume, 1400 feet of 22-inch, 18-inch, 
15-inch and 11-inch pipe, two reservoirs and two No. 2 giants. There are 
800 feet of sluice and the gold is saved by block riffles and quicksilver. 


There are a house, blacksmith shop, barn, powder house and a derrick 
on the property. The gold mints $17.10 per ounce and the gold is 
about the size of wheat. 

Cavanmtgh Mine (hydraulic). Consists of one claim of 20 acres 
owned by C. A. Sample of 1202 I street, Fresno. It is located in Sec. 1. 
T. 9 N., R. 4 E., on the Klamath River, about 3 miles above Weitchpec, 
at an elevation of 550 feet. This claim was located in 1S70 and has 
changed hands several times. The bedrock is an altered schist and 
the course of the channel is east and west. The property has 900 
feet of ditch and brings 300 inches of water from Boulder Creek at a 
head of 90 feet. One No. 1 giant with 11-inch pipe is used. Block 
riffles with quicksilver and no undercurrent. The gold assays $18 
per ounce. There are two houses, one blacksmith shop and a barn on 
the property. Work is done only during the winter months. 

Clover Flat Placer Mine. Consists of 170 acres of patented mineral 
land and 173 acres of unpatented land owned by the Clover Flat Gold 
Mining Company of which F. E. Herrick is president and L. B. Camp- 
ton is secretary. The mine is located in Sees. 17 and 20, T. 7 N., R. 5 E., 
on the Trinity River about one mile north of the village of Willow 
Creek (sometimes called China Flat) at an elevation of 675 feet. 
The claims were located in 1870 and worked most of the time up 
to 1912. The bedrock is slate and the course of the channel is north 
and south. The property has 2J miles of ditch which brings 2500 inches 
of water under a 175-foot pressure. The gravel is heavy wash. Block 
riffles, undercurrent and quicksilver are used for saving the gold. The 
equipment consists of 1000 feet of 22, 18, 15, 13 and 11-inch pipe, Qne 
No. 2 and one No. 3 giant, 400 feet of sluice, one reservoir covering an 
acre of ground and another reservoir a little less than an acre in area. 
A derrick is used for moving large boulders. The gold assays $18 
per ounce. The gravels contain a large percentage of heavy black and 
gray sands, which cause considerable trouble in the riffles and under- 
current by clogging up and causing the gold to flow over. There 
is one third as much platinum as gold content. The mine has shut down 
until such time as some appliances are found for saving the gold and 
platinum contained in the heavy sands. 

Florence Placer Mine. Consists of ooie claim of 20 acres of un- 
patented mineral land owned by J. E. Middlesworth and located in 
Sec. 31, T. 10 N., R, 5 E., on the Klamath River a little over 3 miles 
above Weitchpec, at an elevation of 570 feet. This claim was located 
in 1907 by J. E. Middlesworth, and has been worked ever since during 
the winter months. There is a good road to a point on the river opposite 
the mine. The bedrock is an altered schist. The gravel is a medium 
wash and the course of the channel is northeast and southwest. There 

!!l-MBOU)T COl'NTY. 33' 

are 340 feet of ditch which carries 300 inches of water at a 40-foot pres- 
sure. Split riffles are used in saving the gold. A 7-inch pipe and 
canvas hose are used for conveying the water to a 2^-inch brass nozzle. 
The gold is scaly. It assays $18 per ounce. There is one cabin on 
the property and a pipe shed. 

Klamath River Hydraulic Mine. Consists of fourteen claims or 280 
acres of unpatented mineral land formerly known as the A. D. Miller 
mine and owned by the Klamath River Mining Company. The mine is 
located in Sec. 1, T. 9 N, E. 4 E., and Sec. 6, T. 9 N., R. 5 E., in 
the Weitchpec mining district and about 3 miles north of the village of 
Weitchpec, on the Klamath River. The elevation is 550 feet. These 
claims have been held since 1860. Good roads to the mine from the 
coast, also from Orleans. There are two miles of flume which brings 
1500 inches of water under a pressure of 200 feet. The gravel benches 
have a northeast and southwest direction and the bedrock is an altered 
schist. The gravel is a medium wash and carries no cement gravel. The 
claims were located in 1860. An 18-inch pipe serves a No. 4 giant and 
16-inch pipe for a No. 3 giant. The present company has been operating 
for the past three years. The gold assays $18 per ounce. 

Orcutt Hydraulic Mine. Consists of one claim called the Indian 
Jack and owned by Ira Orcutt and located in Sec. 29, T. 11 N., 
R. 6 E., in the Orleans mining district about 2 miles northeast of the 
town of Orleans. The claim is unpatented and lies at an altitude of 
500 feet. These claims were located in 1891 by Orcutt and have been 
worked every winter since. The bench gravels have a northeast and 
southwest direction and the bedrock is slate. There is a ditch 3 miles 
long that brings 500 inches of water under 150 feet pressure ; 500 feet 
of 11 and 9 inch pipe conducts the water to one No. 2 giant. 

Orleans Bar (hydraulic). Consists of 1300 acres of patented mineral 
land and about 600 acres of unpatented land owned by the California 
Alining and Dredging Syndicate and located in Sec. 1, T. 10 N., 
R. 5 E., Sees. 25 and 36, T. 11 N., R. 5 E., Sees. 30 and 31, T. 11 N., 
R. 6 E., on the Klamath River at the town af Orleans at an altitude of 
376 to 3300 feet above sea level. The years of location of the different 
claims are not given. The gravels are bench gravels, some being high 
benches and other low benches. There is a good road to the property, 
cninpleted during the summer of 1912. The claims are on the Klamath 
Forest Reserve, and the tailings are dumped into the river. There is 
a report on the property made by H. DeC. Richards, E.M. Water 
is brought from Camp Creek, Wilder Creek and other creeks and there 
are 10 miles of flumes and ditches which carry 2000 inches of water that 
can be delivered under a head of 400 feet. The course of the channel 
is northeast and southwest and the bedrock is slate and serpentine. 


The slate is stratified with quartz seams. The mine is equipped with 
reservoirs and also has 3000 feet of 18-inch and 11-inch pipe and four 
giants, namely, one No. 3, two No. 4 and one No. 5. There are two 
sawmills, four blacksmith shops, store, barn and two dwelling houses. 
There is also a machine shop with a complete equipment of tools. 

Block riffles and undercurrent with quicksilver are used. The mine 
has not been working for one year. Thomas M. Logan is president; 
H. DeC. Richards, vice president and general manager; D. F. Hamon, 
secretary, and Dred T. Hale, superintendent. 

Pearch Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two claims, patented, owned 
by P. L. Young and others of Orleans, and located in Sec. 32, T. 11 
N., R. 6 E., about 1 mile northeast of the town of Orleans on the 
southeast bank of the Klamath River at an elevation of 537 feet. 
These claims were located about forty years ago by a man by the name 
of Pearch, and the names of the claims are John A. and Eli Pearch. 
They are on the Klamath Forest Reserve. There is a good road to the 
mine from Orleans. The course of the gravel channel is northeast and 
southwest and the gravel is a heavy wash with a little cement gravel. 
There are 1J miles of ditch and flume which brings 1000 inches of 
water from Pearch Creek under a head of 170 feet. There are two 
reservoirs, 1000 feet of 22, 18, and 15-inch pipe, one No. 3 and one 
No. 4 giant. Eight hundred feet of sluice with block riffles and quick- 
silver are used to save t^e gold. There are two dwelling houses, a barn, 
wagon-house and other small buildings on the property. This mine is 
in operation every winter. 

Red Porphyry Mine (hydraulic). Consists of four and one half 
claims or 90 acres of unpatented mineral land owned by 0. T. Crowe, 
B. F. Hiatt and others, and located in the Willow Creek mining dis- 
trict in Sec. 17, T. 7 N., R. 5 E., about 2 miles north of the village 
of Willow Creek on the west bank of the Trinity River. Claims located 
in 1899. A good road from Eureka crosses the mine. The eleva- 
tion above sea level is 600 feet. The mine is on the Trinity Forest 
Reserve. There are two gravel channels having a north and south 
course, one bench being 900 feet long and the other about 1200 feet 
long. The bedrock is a black slate. Water is brought from Kirkham 
Creek in one mile of ditch and 500 feet of flume ; 500 inches of water, 
under 250-foot head, is used; 470 feet of 11-inch pipe and one No. 2 
giant are used; 240 feet of sluice and 32 feet of undercurrent, block 
riffles and quicksilver are used. There are two buildings and a black- 
smith shop on the property. The mine was not worked very extensively 
up to 1907, but since then it has been worked every winter. The gold is 
fine, assays $18 to $18.25 per ounce and has platinum associated 
with it. 


Rocky Point Mine (hydraulic). Consists of three claims of 60 acres 
located twenty years ago and unpatented. Owned by William Witt- 
more and located in the Orleans mining district in Sec. 21, T. 11 N., 
R. 6 E., at an elevation of 500 feet. There is a wagon road to within 
2 miles of the property, which lies 3 miles northeast of Orleans 
on the southeast bank of the Klamath River. They are in the Klamath 
Forest Reserve. Water is brought from Wittmore Creek by one mile 
of ditch and 300 inches of water at 150-foot pressure is delivered to 
one No. 2 giant by 600 feet of 9-inch pipe. The bedrock is slate and 
serpentine and the bench gravel has a northeast and southwest course. 
There are 200 feet of sluice, and block riffles and quicksilver are used 
for catching the gold. There is one house on the property. The mine 
works during the winter months only. 

Rosalind Placer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two unpatented 
claims owned by Lew Nelson and located in T. 11 N., R. 6 E., on the 
northwest bank of the Klamath River about eight miles from Orleans 
by trail at an altitude of 550 feet. These claims were located about 
twenty years ago and are in the Klamath Forest Reserve. There are 
two benches of gravel, both having a northeast and southwest course, 
and the bedrock is slate. There is -] of a mile of flume, one large 
reservoir and 800 inches of water are brought to the mine under a 
400-foot pressure through 200 feet of 21-inch pipe and 300 feet of 15 
and 11-inch pipe. Two No. 2 giants are used. Block riffles with under- 
current and quicksilver are used for saving the gold. There are one 
house, a blacksmith shop, derrick and a barn on the property. The 
gold is fine and flaky and assays $17 per ounce. A little platinum 
also accompanies the black sands. The mine works only three months 
in the winter. 

Rough and Ready Placer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of 40 acres 
of unpatented mineral placer land, and 80 acres of patented land, 
formerly known as the Rough and Ready Placer and the Sarvorum 
placer groups, the former owned by A. R. Wilder and the latter owned 
by A. R. Wilder, E. F. Wilder, B. H. Wilder, D. Wilder, and N. Wilder. 
They are located in Sees. 1, 2, 11 and 12, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., in the 
Orleans mining district, 3 miles southwest of Orleans on the south- 
east bank of the Klamath River. The Sarvorum group of 80 acres is 
patented, while the remaining is unpatented. The Rough and Ready 
group was located some time in the sixties and the Sarvorum group was 
located in 1894. This property is at an altitude of 500 feet. The 
gravel benches have a northeast and southwest course and the bedrock 
is slate. Water is brought to the property from Boise Creek and tribu- 
taries in 4J miles of ditch and flume, 100 inches being used under 
250-foot head. The gravel is medium wash with large boulders on 


bedrock. There are 1000 feet of 11, 9, and 7-inch pipe, one No. 1 giant, 
200 feet of sluice boxes, one barn, one small sawmill and several 
smaller buildings. The sawmill is run by water power generated by an 
undershot wheel. The gold assays $17 to $17.25 per ounce. Small 
spots of cemented gravel are found on bedrock. There is about 10 per 
cent loss in fine gold. The Rough and Eeady group is about 300 feet 
above the river and the Sarvorum is about 60 feet above. The Sar- 
vorum is used for ranching purposes now. The Rough and Ready is 
worked every winter. 

Salstrom Placer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of five claims, none of 
which are patented. They are located in Sec. 1, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., 
and Sec. 36, T. 11 N., R, 5 E., If miles southeast of the town of Orleans, 
on the northwest bank of the Klamath River, at an altitude of 500 
feet. They consist of gravel benches. The course of the channel 
is east and west. The bedrock is slste and the wash is large with 
large boulders on bedrock. The county road runs through the prop- 
erty. These claims are owned by Jonas Salstrom of Orleans. The 
property is in the Klamath Forest Reserve. Water is brought from 
Crawford Creek in f of a mile of flume; 800 inches under 185-foot 
pressure is delivered in 1500 feet of 24 and 15-inch pipe to one No. 2 
and one No. 3 giant. These claims were located first in 1852 and 
relocated in 1890. One claim was located in 1910. Fourteen hundred 
feet of sluice boxes are used and block riffles with quicksilver are used 
to save the gold. There is a dwelling house, blacksmith shop, tool 
house, sawmill and barn on the place. The sawmill is run by water 
power. A small amount of platinum accompanies the gold. At the 
present time the mine can only work nine weeks during the winter 
months, on account of the scarcity of water. The gold is flaky and 
assays $17 per ounce. 

Thompson Bar (hydraulic). Consists of four unpatented claims 
located in the Weitchpec mining district about halfway between Weitch- 
pec and Orleans, on the northwest bank of the Klamath River, in Sec. 
20, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., at an altitude of 650 feet. They are owned by 
William M. Salsbury, who located them in 1907. The county road 
passes on the opposite side of the river. The mine consists of bench 
gravels on a slate, serpentine and schist bedrock. The course of the 
channel is northeast and southwest. The gravel is small wash witli 
large boulders on bedrock. Water is brought from three small creeks 
south of Red Cap Creek in 2^ miles of ditch and flume under 200 
feet head. Three hundred inches are used. Hungarian riffles and 
quicksilver are used to save the gold. During the last three years no 
work in the way of washing has been done on account of the ditch 
being carried away frequently by the side hill sliding out. Eighty-four 
feet of sluice boxes carry the gravel into the river. The gold is flaky 



and assays $17 per ounce. No platinum contained in the gravel. There 
are 300 feet of 11-inch pipe from the ditch to the No. 2 giant. 

Weitchpec Bar Mine (hydraulic). Consists of one unpatented claim 
of 20 acres located in the Weitchpec mining district at the village by 
that name in Sec. 10, T. 9 N., R. 4 E., at an elevation of 640 feet, 
and owned by J. C. Gist. The county road runs through the property. 
The bench gravels have a northwest and southeast direction and the 
bedrock is an altered schist. The gravel is medium size and loose. Water 
is taken from Weitchpec and Ben creeks and the Klamath River, 300 
inches being brought to the mine in one mile of flume and ditch and 
under 125 feet pressure. There are 250 feet of 15-inch pipe and 1000 
feet of 11-inch pipe, three giants, Nos. 1, 2, 3. One derrick for handling 
boulders, 250 feet of sluice boxes. Block riffles and quicksilver used to 
save the gold. There are a house and a barn on the mine. The gold 
is flaky. The mine works every winter and generally closes down 
the first of June. There is some platinum in the gravels. 

Briceland Estate Gas Well at Briceland, Humboldt County, California. 




As mentioned under oil, a gas suitable for illuminating and fuel 
purposes flows from some of the wells in the oil district of the county. 
There are many instances where gas is escaping from oil seepages, 
but only in two instances is the gas in sufficient quantity to be useful 
for domestic purposes. 

Frank Peters Gas Well. There are three springs on Frank Peters' 
land in the village of Capetown in Sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 3 W. The gas 
is tanked and used in the house for lighting and fuel purposes. 

Briceland Estate Gas Well. A gas well is located on this estate 
at the town of Briceland in Sec. 18, T. 4 S., R. 3 E. The well is 780 
feet deep and has 7f-inch casing. The well is capped and the gas is 
drawn off by a 1-inch pipe for lighting the houses of the town of Brice- 
land, No storage tank is used, consequently the pressure is rather 
low after a few hours' use. 


Graphite of an impure quality is found at Otto Rest on the South 
Fork of Trinity River on the line of the new state highway, also in T. 
10 N., R. 4 E., and a little near the city of Eureka. No development 
has been done. 


Vivianite (phosphate of iron) is found on Maple Creek and also at 
Yager. Hematite boulders in large quantities are found on the ocean 
beach 4 miles south of Centerville. Soft red hematite also occurs on 
James Creek. 2 miles northeast of Arcata. No development is being 
carried on with these deposits. 


At the present writing no mineral water is shipped out of the county, 
although arrangements are being made to place the output of a new 
spring on the market in the near future. There are not many mineral 
springs in Humboldt County. Some years ago a spring was being 
used by the Humboldt Mineral Water Company. It was located at 
Flannigan's mill, 2 miles south of Eureka on the edge of the bay, and 
owned by the Bayside Lumber Company. The waters were bottled for 
local consumption until another firm began to bottle and charge the 
city water for local consumption. 



The waters from the above mentioned spring contained the following 
ingredients : 

Sodium chloride 32.91 

Calcium carbonate 1G.37 

Magnesium carbonate 10.63 

Sodium carbonate : 2.45 

Silica 1.32 

Aluminum .20 

Iron oxide .OG 

Traces of sulphates and organic matter and abundant carbonic acid. 

Felt's Springs. These springs are situated on the side of the moun- 
tain, 1 mile west of Strongs Creek and 5J miles northeast of Fortuna, 
in T. 3 N., R. 1. E., H. M. There are three sulphur springs close 
together, and at one time hotel accommodations could be had at the 

Waters contain the following minerals: 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium carbonate 

Potassium chloride 

Potassium carbonate 

Potassium sulphate 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium chloride 

Magnesium carbonate 


Traces of iron 



laguct Mineral Water. This spring is situated on the water front 
of the city of Eureka on the property of the Pacific Oil and Fuel Com- 
pany. At one time the mineral water bubbled from the mud flats of 
the bay until a bulkhead was put in and the spring piped up to the 
level of the wharf. A pump is now used for securing the water and 
the spring is visited by many of the residents of the city. The Indians 
are supposed to have used the water years ago and the Indian name of 
"lagua," meaning "Good morning," still clings to it. An analysis 
made by Professor "William D. Johnson in 1885, gives the following 
ingredients : 

One TJ. S. gallon 

in grains 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium carbonate 

Sodium bromide 

Potassium sulphate 

Magnesium chloride 

Magnesium sulphate 

Calcium carbonate 

Calcium sulphate 



Ferrous carbonate 

Traces of manganese, boracic acid, iodine and lithium. 














There is carbonic acid gas in small amounts and the water is satu- 
rated with sulphuretted hydrogen. This mineral water is being placed 
on the market in San Francisco by George A. Knight, who owns the 

Cooks Springs. These springs are situated on North Yager Creek, 
35 miles east of Eureka. They are sulphur and iron springs but have 
not been exploited. 

Mountain View Spring. This spring is situated on Mad River, 28 
miles from Eureka, and is a small spring smelling strongly of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. 

Yager Creek Springs. They are located on the headwaters of Yager 
Creek on the ridge between it and Mad River. No improvements have 
been made on the property. 


Oil was known by the white man to exist in the southwestern portion 
of Humboldt County as early as 1860 and by the Indians even before 
this time. Oil was collected from seepages at times and used for sup- 
posed medicinal properties that it possessed. After the collapse of 
the oil boom in the eastern states in 1861 and 1862, people again began 
to make investments in oil. The people of California hoped to find an 
oil field in this State similar to that in Pennsylvania. Samples of oil 
were collected from the different seepages in the county, an oil boom 
started and many locations made. The town of Petrolia was laid out 
and times were good for a while. It was very difficult and expensive 
to transport supplies and machinery to the oil district, as roads were 
few and the steamers made their landing at Eureka and freight had to 
be shipped to the oil district by freight teams. 

The principal oil field extended from the coast line at Capetown 
thence in a southeasterly direction to Garberville, on the south fork of 
Eel River, a distance of about 42 miles in length, and from the Rain- 
bow ridge on the northeast to the Cooskie range on the southwest, a 
distance of 12 miles. This district may be divided into the Bear River 
district, which includes Bear River and its tributaries; the second or 
Lower Mattole River and lower north fork of Mattole River, and the 
third or the Upper Mattole River and upper north fork of Mattole 
River. The fourth district embraces the territory in the vicinity of 
Bricelaud and Garberville. 

In the vicinity of Briceland the general strike of the formation is 
northwest and southeast. In some places the formational series of 
metamorphic gray sandstones and shales contain no fossils but are 
thought to be of Cretaceous age. In other places a series of sandstones 
and shales containing fossils of Neocene age are noted lying 11011- 


conformably on the sandstone and shale of Cretaceous age. The 
Cretaceous rocks are lying at a fairly steep dip and, in places, carry 
pel i oleum and gas. There are numerous seepages of oil throughout 
the district, and oil can be gathered at these places in small quantities. 
Gas also is found escaping through the oil and water in these springs. 

The oil in the Petrolia district is of a dark green color, while that 
of the Briceland district is more reddish in color. Both oils are of a 
paraffine and olefine base with a specific gravity (at 64 F.) of 0.8229, 
which is equal to 39.8 Baume. It had a flash test of 73 F. and a 
fire test of 84 F. and has high burning qualities. The oils contain 
a high percentage of paraffine wax and produce a fairly good quality 
of lubricating oil and a high grade cylinder oil. 

Distillation percentages obtained from Humboldt County oils: 25.1 
per cent engine distillate 50 gravity Baume at 60 F. ; 35.2 per cent 
water white refined oil with fire test of 123 F. ; 7.75 per cent white 
neutral oil at 35.5 gravity Baume at 60 F. ; 29.90 per cent lubricating 
oil of 28 gravity Baume at 60 F. 

Union Well. Drilling for oil in Humboldt County began in the year 
1865 and, according to men familiar with oil development in the county, 
the first well was called the Union and was drilled in that year under 
the auspices of Hon. L. Stanford. This well was drilled in Sec. 30, 
T. 1 S., R. 1 W. (all wells referred to the Humboldt meridian), and 
was 500 feet deep. It is reported to have been a 10 to 15-barrel well. 
The oil had to be pumped. For the log see the seventh report of the 
State Mineralogist. 

Brown and Knowlcs Well This well is situated in Sec. 24, T. 1 S., 
R. 2 W., on the north fork of the Mattole River. It was drilled to a 
depth of 300 feet, but no oil was obtained. No gas or water flowed from 
the well. 

Henderson Well. This well was situated in Sec. 15, T. 1 S., R. 2 W., 
and was drilled to a depth of 500 feet. It was reported as a 10-barrel 
well and had to be pumped. 

McXutt Gulch Well. Situated in Sec. 30, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., and was 
down 300 feet. It was drilled in 1865 and gave only a few barrels. 

Burrows Well. This well was situated in Sec. 5, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., 
and was drilled by the Far West Oil Company in 1892 on Buckeye 
Creek. At a depth of 500 feet, a flow of 5 barrels was obtained. At 
800 feet, the string of tools was lost and the well was abandoned. 

Davis Creek Well. This well is situated in Sec. 13, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., 
and was drilled in the year 1893 by the Far West Oil Company. Drill- 
ing was continued to 800 feet, at which depth the casing was pulled and 
the well abandoned. Whether oil was obtained is not known. 


Mackintosh Well Situated in Sec. 29, T. 1 S., R. 2 E. It was drilled 
in 1902 to a depth of 1700 feet, and the flow is reported to have been 
15 barrels of 45 gravity oil. 

Craig Well. This well is situated in Sec. 30, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., and 
was drilled in 1902 to a depth of 700 feet. Another hole was put down 
to a depth of 800 feet, but the results were not satisfactory. 

Wild Goose Wells. These wells are situated in Sec. 15, T. 1 S., 
R, 2 W., and were drilled in 1901 and 1902, one to a depth of 700 feet 
and the other to 1033 feet. No oil was obtained in the 700-foot well, 
but in the other oil was obtained at a depth of 221 feet. Oil sands 60 
feet thick were passed through, and from these the drill passed into 
black shale. At 300 feet the water was shut off, and at 400 feet a 
small quantity of oil was obtained. The next 40 feet the formation 
was limestone, but a thin oil sand was struck at 441 feet. At 555 feet 
gas was encountered in large quantities sufficient to throw the string 
of tools from the casing. At 775 feet an oil sand yielded a flow of 15 
to 20 barrels. At 1033 the string of tools was lost and the well aban- 
doned. Water is now flowing from the w r ell. 

Humboldt Well. This well is situated in Sec. 6, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., 
and was drilled in 1901 and 1902 to a depth of 2000 feet. The forma- 
tion was black shale all the way. Only a trace of oil was found at 1200 
feet, and the well was abandoned. 

Hoaglin Well. This well is situated in Sec. 2, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., 
and was drilled in 1901 and 1902 by the Mattole Paraffine Company. 
It was drilled to a depth somewhere between 1700 and 1800 feet. Some 
oil at 1600 feet was obtained but the quantity could not be ascertained. 

Reed Well Located in Sec. 14, T. 1 S., R. 2 W., this well was drilled 
in 1901 and 1902 to a depth of 400 feet. Only gas was obtained. The 
company leased considerable land but did very little work. 

Bear River Oil Wells. One well was drilled in Sec. 12, T. 1 N., 
R 3 W., close to the village of Capetown. Three wells were drilled in 
Sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 2 W. The wells were drilled to a depth of a few 
hundred feet, but no oil was obtained, and the works were abandoned. 

Briceland Oil and Land Company's Well. This well is situated 5 
miles southeast of Garberville and was drilled to a depth of 2100 feet. 
Oil sands at 410 feet w r ere encountered carrying a little oil and at 503 
feet the drill entered granite. The remaining 1597 feet of the well 
were drilled in the granite formation. The well was abandoned. 

There are many seepages of oil throughout the region, occurring at 
points of fracture in the formation, some being in the Mattole River 
and a number in the creek beds. The oil is light, and no doubt much 
of it has evaporated. Not being of an asphalt base, the dark stain is 



not so apparent in the discoloration of the sandstone formation at these 
points of seepage. On breaking the sandstone, the odor of petroleum 
is very noticeable. Considering the broken condition of the sandstone 
and shale formations, the amount of oil seeping from the fractures is 
very small compared with other oil fields. The oil sands are rather 
thin so far as proven. This is also true of the oil-bearing shales of the 

The wells drilled heretofore have not been located with any geological 
skill. Most of them have been drilled in close proximity to a fracture 
in the formation where oil was exuding. In other instances money 




FMcKHamilton State Mmrl ofl, M 

RPMcLautfWin OnefofTttroleumDepl 


has been wasted in the drilling operations. The instance of a weli 
being drilled in granite will serve to illustrate this point. 

The dip of the formation is mostly to the northeast, but at Briceland 
there is a section of sandstone having a dip to the southwest. A com- 
pany is now said to be organizing under the direction of Briceland 
people to drill in this formation. Aside from this, there is at present 
no activity in the oil district of the county. Many reasons for the 
failure to continue drilling in this field have been advanced, among 
them being the withdrawal of the land from sale and holding it as 
mineral land subject to entry as such. Taken together with expensive 
transportation and competition with cheap oil from Pennsylvania, 
these two causes are said to have been the reasons for quitting in 1867. 
However true this may be, it remains to be proven that there are wells 
in the district that are capable of producing oil in sufficient quantities 
to pay to work them commercially, even under favorable conditions. 
So far, only small producing wells have been found. 

Bibl.: Keport VII, pp. 195-200; VIII, p. 216; X, 207; XI, 
pp. 227-232; Bull. 19, pp. 161-166; Bull. 69, pp. 444-454. 


There are deposits of red ochre of good quality near Garberville 
and also 8 miles from Ferndale. No development has been done. 



Field Work In October, 1913. 

Brick and tile were manufactured at one time near the coast at the 
town of Mendocino and also at the county seat, Ukiah. Good clay 
deposits are available at these places but the demand for the product 
was not sufficient to make the business a profitable one, consequently the 
yards closed down. All brick and tile are now imported into the 
county from San Rafael by way of the California Northwestern Pacific 


Lignite is found at several localities in the county, where it usually 
occurs in thin seams from a few inches to a foot in thickness. Three 
parallel beds of lignite traverse the county in a direction parallel to 
the coast line. 

The most western bed lies 12 to 25 miles inland from the coast. 
There are croppings of this bed at Dooling's Canyon, Ackerman Creek 
near Ukiah, in Walker Valley 4 miles south of Willits, at the head of 
Ten Mile River, on Mill Creek and also in Humboldt County. This bed 
consists of small seams of coal of good quality but does not occur in 
payable quantities. Some of the coal will coke and some has been used 
in blacksmiths' forges with success. 

The third bed lies 15 to 20 miles still farther inland and contains a 
vein of considerable thickness. The principal outcrop occurs on the 
middle fork of the Eel River near the mouth of Salt Creek and about 
4 miles from the railroad at the forks of South Fork and Middle Fork of 
Eel River. This bed of coal has been traced for a distance of 10 miles, 
7^ miles being on patented land owned by James Flood and 2^ miles on 
patented land owned by W. P. Thomas and associates, of Ukiah. Four 
or 5 miles of the croppings have been proved up, and, as far as devel- 
oped, the vein appears to average about 16 feet in thickness. The bed 
begins in Sec. 9, T. 22 N., R. 13 W., and takes a southeast direction for 
10 miles to Sec. 36, T. 21 N., R. 13 W., cutting across the middle fork of 
Eel River. The croppings on the river opposite Salt Creek have been 
developed to some extent and found to dip 31 northeast. The thick- 
ness at this point is 14 feet, with a seam of whitish slate 3 to 6 


inches thick near the middle. The section of the formation here shows 
the following strata : 

Top stratum not exposed. 

Blue clay shale weathering to small fragments 20 feet 

Coal of good quality and luster 5 feet 6 inches 

Soft white slate containing sulphate and carbonate or lime_ 3 inches 

Coal of dull luster 8 feet 

Sticky blue clay containing minute shells 21 feet 

Some clay containing oyster shells 1 foot 

Soft gray agglomerate containing clay, fragments of serpen- 
tine and sandstone 5 feet G inches 

Soft greenish metamorphic sandstone 30 feet 

Serpentine beneath. 

In a cliff, about 80 feet high which is about 1000 feet up the river, 
a hard greenish metamorphic rock is exposed, the strata of which seem 
to lie conformably upon the coal. About J mile north from the crop- 
pings and about 300 feet above the river several openings in the hill 
have been made and a tunnel said to be 400 feet long has been run 
on the vein in a direction of N. 10 E. About 50 feet of this tunnel is 
still open but the rest has caved. Sixty feet above the mouth of this 
tunnel, an incline shaft has been sunk on the dip of the vein to 
a depth of 30 feet. This shaft is in coal all the way, being 7 feet high, 
with coal exposed in both the roof and floor. 

Below the coal bed and to the west of the workings a hard meta- 
morphic sandstone is exposed but its position and thickness could 
not be judged. A few hundred feet east of these openings, meta- 
morphic rock again occurs and rises in the form of a cliff 400' to 500' 
high, forming a sentinel rock for the surrounding country. It is 
to be noted that the coal occurs in a seam between the beds of highly 
metamorphosed rock without itself having undergone any great change 
in structure or composition. 

Coal also outcrops about 1 mile southeast of the mouth of Salt Creek. 
The underlying stratum here is a white colored rock composed of a 
mass of broken shells and the strike is south 35 east. Still another 
mile up the creek, there is another outcrop on which some prospect 
holes have been sunk to prove up the seam. The coal has been traced 
northwesterly from the river and the same vein is supposed to extend 
into Round Valley. The coal along the Eel River appears to be of the 
Cretaceous age, while the coal of Round Valley appears to belong to 
the Tertiary period. The Round Valley coal is a bright, glistening 
variety with concoidal fracture. It contains little ash and a high per- 
centage of carbons and stands transportation well. 

The coal along this belt is no doubt a valuable asset to the county 
and, now that transportation is within a reasonable distance, it remains 
to be seen if it can be mined and put on the market at a sufficiently low 
cost to compete with the present coals and petroleum. 



Louis FALKENAU, State Assay Office, Safe Deposit Building, Room 16, southeast 
corner California and Montgomery streets. 

No. 14,357. San Francisco, August 2, 1890. 

J. L. FLOOD, Esq., 

Dear Sir : I have made a careful technical analysis of a sample of coal received 
from you marked "Eel River Coal Mine, Mendocino County," and a sample marked 
"Wellington," with the following results : 

Eel River 


Specific gravity __ - __ _. __ _ 


1 300 

Moisture __ _ 

7.9 per cent 

2 4 per cent 

Volatile combustible 

36.2 per cent 

33 45 per cent 

Fixed carbon 

53 5 per cent 

58 6 per cent 

Sulphur __ _- _- 

0.4 per cent 

15 per cent 

Ashes -- - -- - -- -- -- 

2 per cent 

5 4 per cent 

The cokes furnished by the two coals (sample of which I hand you with this 
report) are the same in appearance, but that of the Eel River coal contains 3.6 
per cent of ashes, while that of the Wellington contains 8.4 per cent. 

The Eel River coal weighs 81 pounds per cubic foot and in place; 24.7 cubic feet 
will weigh a ton of 2000 pounds, but to store a ton, about 42 cubic feet will be 

As the sample of Eel River coal is, according to your statement, from the surface 
exposed to extraneous moisture it is to be assumed that the coal at greater depth 
will contain much less moisture. If the Eel River and Wellington are both figured 
to dry coal, their carbon compares as follows : 

Eel River 


Volatile combustion _ _ 

39.73 per cent 

34 42 per cent 

Fixed carbon 

58.19 per cent 

60 04 per cent 

Total carbon _. .. - _. 

97.92 per cent 

94.46 per cent 

From the foregoing I consider sample of Eel River coal as equal to the Welling- 
ton for domestic use and as fuel for steam boilers. 
Yours respectfully, 

(Signed) Louis FALKENAU. 
August 11, 1890. 

Analysis of Two Samples of Coal for Geo. R. Wells, Esq. 



Water - 

6.70 percent 

2.55 per cent 

Volatile carbonaceous matter - - 

52.89 per cent 

62.01 prr cri'i 

Fixed carbon 

38.66 per cent 

29.64 per cent 


1.75 per cent 

5.80 per cent 

Sulphur - 

100.00 per cent 
2.49 percent 

100.00 per cent 
1.81 per cent 

The sulphur is present in the form of sulphates of lime. 

By the combustion of two samples of coal of 1 pound each, the following- 
quantities of water were evaporated: 

Sample 1. 13.86 pounds. Sample 2. 12.8 pounds. 
Both samples form a good soft coke. 




SAN FRANCISCO, December 8, 1870. 

Analysis of coal from vein running through Eel River to Round Valley : 
S. IT. (Hazier. /></. (for the company), 

DEAR SIR: I have made a careful analysis of a specimen of coal received from 
you and have arrived at the following results : 

Specific gravity 1.282 

Volatile combustible substance 40.20 per cent 

Fixed carbon 49.70 per cent 

Moisture 6.70 per cent 

Ashes 3.00 per cent 

Sulphur 0.40 per cent 

Amount of gas evolved, 37 cubic feet for 10 pounds Avd. of the coal. 
The coal burns freely, yields a fire light, and compact and sonorous coke, and its 
ashes are of a reddish-gray color and do not slag. 

The amount of sulphur is so minute that it does not make itself perceptible to the 
smell in burning the coal. 

Respectfully yours, 

L. FALKENAU, State Assayer. 


Copper mining is dormant. There are several prospects where slight 
development has been done, but these workings have caved in and are 
practically abandoned. Among the prospects that have received some 
attention may be mentioned the following : 

Eden Valley Copper Mine. This mine is sometimes called the Deep 
Hole copper mine and is situated in Sec. 13, T. 20 N., R. 12 W., 
M. D. M., in the Eden Valley mining district at an elevation of 2500 
feet. It is owned by W. P. Thomas and associates of Ukiah. There 
are two claims, comprising 40 acres, located in 1900. 

Three or four small veins from four inches to a foot in thickness 
strike northwest southeast and dip 22 northeast. The veins are 
composed of quartz carrying chalcopyrite in one vein and carbonates 
in another. The ore averages about 10 per cent copper. The hanging- 
wall is a soft slate and the footw r all is a quartzite. Two hundred feet 
of the vein has been proven on the surface. There is a 40-foot shaft 
which cuts three veins. No work has been done for the last seven years. 
A cabin, bunkhouse, blacksmith shop, and barn are on the property. 

Native Copper Mine. This is a prospect situated in Lost Valley, 
and at one time owned by C. H. Staut of Ukiah. The only work that 
lias been done consists of trenching. It lias been idle for some years. 
The native copper is disseminated throughout serpentine which is also 
the country rock in this vicinity. 

Salinas Copper Mine. This prospect is also in serpentine formation 
in Lost Valley and the strike is northwest southeast, and the dip 
65 NE. Some sulphide ore was taken out. It was owned at one 
time by C. H. Staut, but has not been worked for some years. 


Red Buck Mine. This property is an extension of the Salinas mine 
and the development work consists of a 35-foot tunnel and a 50-foot 
winze from it, all of which has caved and been abandoned. 

Red Mountain Group. This group consists of four claims situated 
10 miles southeast of Ukiah on the ridge which divides the waters of 
the Russian River and those of Clear Lake and Cache Creek. There 
are two veins, located in 1890 and relocated from time to time. The 
formation is serpentine. One claim is developed by an open cut and 
a crosscut tunnel. Several small bunches of ore have been found in 
the cut showing green carbonates and metallic copper. An adjoining 
claim is developed by two shafts, one 100 feet and the other 50 feet 
deep. In 1896, carbonate ore was taken out above the 50-foot level in 
one shaft, and the shaft was extended to the 100-foot point, but no 
ore was exposed, the bottom being in sandstone and clay. From an 
incline several tons of low grade ore have been taken out. The former 
owners were Huff & Gibson of Ukiah. No work has been done for 
some years. 

Ofjle Copper Mine. This mine is situated in Anderson Valley mining 
district in T. 13 N., R. 12 W., and consists of 2000 acres of patented 
land. It joins the Redwood Copper Queen mine on the north. A 16- 
foot shaft in the center of the claim exposed carbonate ore. Not enough 
work has been done to demonstrate the width of the vein. Gossan 
can be traced through this property for a distance of a mile. Ogle 
Brothers of Ornbaun were the former owners. 

McGimpsey Mine. Situated in Sees. 13, 17 and 18, T. 13 N., 
R. 12 W. The property comprises eight claims in a serpentine forma- 
tion. Considerable copper stain is shown in the open cuts and, in a 
few places, red oxide of copper mixed with oxide of iron is seen. 
The former owner was C. P. McGimpsey of Ukiah. 

rid a Mine. This prospect consists of only one claim and is located 
10 miles northeast of Cloverdale and 4 miles north of the southern 
boundary of Mendocino County. There is a 55-foot open cut across 
the vein material which strikes east and west. It has not been worked 
for years. The ore carries a slight trace of carbonate of copper and 
the .uangue material is mostly iron oxides. The walls are serpentine. 
The former owners were J. C. Caldwell and associates of Ilealdsburg, 
Sonoma County. 

Hedwood Copper Quceu Mine. This properly, consisting of 840 
acres of patented land, located in Sees. 17 and 20, T. 12 N., R, 13 W., 
Al. 1). M. It is iM miles by wagon road from Cloverdale, which is 
the nearest railroad station. The country rock is a highly altered 
sandstone covered with a thick laver of soil. Then; is a heavy growth 


of timber on the land. Gossan croppings appear at several places. 
Development work has shown a mineralized zone 300 feet long, 10 to 
40 feet wide and 125 feet deep, carrying kidneys and lenses of sul- 
phide ore the size of a man's fist and larger. The largest kidney found 
was 75 feet long and six feet thick. The ore is a heavy iron sulphide 
carrying copper up to 8% or 9% and small values in gold and silver. 
During the year 1906, 400 tons of ore were shipped to the Peyton 
Chemical Company plant for treatment. Its high sulphur content and 
the absence of arsenic made it desirable for the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. The company is a San Francisco corporation of which 
E. R. Leach is president, and Claude Mellersh, secretary. 


There is a deposit of chrome iron in Sec. 24, T. 15 N., R. 13 W., 
M. D. M., about one and one half miles west of Ukiah. Very little work 
has been done to develop this deposit. 

Chrome iron has also been found 12 miles north of Willits. 


There is no mining for gold in Mendocino County at the present 
time. In former years there was some development work being done 
on the Boy Edgar and Van Allen mines but only the ever-present 
legends remain telling of good values and lost mines. 

Boy Edgar Mine. This mine was worked some years ago by the 
owner, C. H. Staut of Ukiah, and is reported to have -been rich in free 
gold. The ledge was lost and hunted for by prospectors but has never 
been found. It was supposed to be located somewhere on the trail 
from Ukiah to Lost Valley. C. H. Staut, the former owner, died 
several years ago. 

Van Allen Mine. This property is situated 6 miles west of Ukiah 
at an altitude of one thousand feet. There are two claims named ' ' Car- 
rie" and "Fred." The strike of the formation is northwest and 
southeast and the dip 20 NE. There are five prospect tunnels. The 
one in which the last work was done is a crosscut tunnel 170 feet 
long. This tunnel has cut several stringers of quartz in a hard, tough 
blue glaucophane schist. Only assessment work is being done. Prop- 
erty is owned by William Van Allen of Ukiah. 

There were several other prospects mentioned in the Thirteenth 
Report of the State Mineralogist. These, however, were merely loca- 
tions and the assessment work lapsed soon after the locations were 
made, so they are not mentioned here. 



There is a manganese deposit of considerable magnitude located in 
Sees. 22, 27, 34 and 35, T. 17 N., R. 12 W., M. D. M. Eight claims 
were located by W. P. Thomas, Requa, Taylor, and others in 1912. 
The vein is in quartzose schist and the strike is northwest and south- 
east and the dip 75 to 80 NE. The width varies from 3 feet to 
20 feet. In 1912, one thousand dollars was expended in developing 
the claims and some work has been done every year on the property. 
Four hundred to 500 feet of the vein has been stripped and crosscut 
trenches have been cut for several hundred feet more. 

The claims are 3 miles from the railroad and a wagon road passes 
within a mile and a half of it. The ore is of a high quality as will be 
seen from the accompany inu analyses and no doubt will prove a valu- 
able asset to the county at some future time. 

Cleveland I'TOJH rhj. It is situated 3 or 4 miles from the Thomas 
property in T. 17 N., R. 12 W., and on the same lode. The ore is a 
pyrolusite. No work is being done on the claims. 

Manganese Assays From Property of W. P. Thomas. 

Assay by John Crawford, . chemist, for Noble Electric Steel Com- 
pany, April 4, 1912 : 

Metallic manganese 52.24% 

Dioxide 82.50% 

Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, San Francisco, February 21, 1912 : 

Metallic manganese 54.07% 

Dioxide 85.56% 

Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, December 22, 1911: 

Metallic manganese 56.23% 

Dioxide 88.98% 

Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, August 6, 1912 : 

Metallic manganese 56.67% 

Dioxide 89.70% 

Assay made by Geo. A. James Company, June 22, 1912 : 

Metallic manganese 52.1% 

Dioxide 82.4% 

Dioxide (with water removed) 91.2% 

Assay by Geo. A. James Company, 28 Belden place, San Francisco, 
June 24, 1912 : 

Metallic manganese 54.9% 

Dioxide 86.8% 

Dioxide (with water removed) '. 92. % 



There are croppings of magnesite in Mendocino County, but they 
have not been developed. They occur in serpentine formation like 
most of the other magnesite deposits of California. 

Vassar Magnesite Claims. These claims are located 12 miles north 
of Cloverdale in the southeastern part of the county and within 1J 
miles of the California Northwestern Railroad. These croppings are 
in serpentine and are owned by James Vassar, who owns 1000 acres 
of ranch land on which the croppings occur. No development has been 
done. There is another cropping of magnesite in Mendocino County 
near the northern boundary of Sonoma County. 


There are several mineral springs in Mendocino County, having 
waters of medicinal properties, as well as some that are palatable as 
table waters. Some of the springs have well appointed accommoda- 
tions for guests with excellent transportation equipment for visitors 
making use of them during the summer months. Some of these waters 
compare favorably with the famous waters of European resorts, as 
will be seen from the comparison of their analyses. The climatic condi- 
tions are unsurpassed and the scenery equally as beautiful as at other 
springs of the world. 

Vichy Springs. These famous springs are located 3 miles easterly 
from Ukiah, in Sec. 15, T. 15 N., R. 12 W., and are reached by 
railroad from San Francisco to Ukiah, and thence by stage to the 

The waters belong to the alkalo-carbonated class, are clear and 
sparkling and of an agreeable pungent taste. Their chemical com- 
position and action on the human body are almost identical with the 
noted Ems on the Lahn, and Fachingen of Nassau, Germany, also 
Vichy of Grand Grille, France. 

It will be observed from a chemical analysis made of these waters 
that they are heavily charged with carbonic acid gas and carbonates, 
and that they contain some iron and potassium salts. 


Analytical Comparison of Vichy Springs. 

Solid ingredients in one gallon of 2ol inches In grains 

by Dr. 
ture 93 
degrees F. 

by Broquet. 
ture 105.8 
degrees F. 

ture not 

Ems on 
the Lahn, 
ture 115 
degrees F. 

Sodium chloride __ - _- 

28 60 

32 80 

36 48 

62 16 

Sodium carbonate 

195 52 

208 00 

155 84 

84 24 

Sodium sulphate 


18 32 

1 12 

Sodium phosphate __ 

6 24 


Potassium chloride 


Potassium carbonate _ 



Potassium sulphate _ __ 


3 03 

Magnesium carbonate 


11 04 

10 85 

6 80 

Calcium carbonate 

18 14 

18 48 

16 09 

10 00 

Ferrous carbonate ___ __ - __ 





Strontium carbonate 




Barium carbonate 


Lithium carbonate 

Borates -- _ 


Arsenates __ 







5 92 


2 09 

2 88 


268 45 

311 92 

293 52 


Cubic inches of gases: 
Carbonic acid gas 





California Seltzer Springs. These springs are located in the coast 
range of mountains in southern Mendocino County, twelve miles north 
of Cloverdale, Sonoma County. There is a hotel en the property. The 
waters are carbonated and sparkling, and are quite palatable. An 
analysis by Winslow Anderson, M.D., gives the following: 

per TT. S. 

Sodium chloride 


Sodium bicarbonate 


Magnesium carbonate __ _______ 


Calcium carbonate __ 


Ferrous carbonate 




Organic matter 


Total solids _ 


Temperature, 57. 

Free carbonic acid gas, 18.00 cubic inches. 

Orr's Mineral Springs. These springs are situated 15 miles north- 
west of Ukiah, on the headwaters of Big River, in Sec. 24, T. 16 N., 
R. 14 W., at an altitude of 1000 feet. They are reached by rail from 
San Francisco to Ukiah, thence by stage to the springs. The hot 
sulphur baths are well known. Springs for drinking and bathing pur- 
poses occur, varying in temperature from cold to 107 F. 



Reported Analysis of Orr's Mineral Water. 

per U. S. 


1 917 

Silicate of soda. _ _ _ 


Oxide of lime _. .. 


Carbonate of lime 


Sodium carbonate 


Sodium chloride -- ________ 


There are three springs called the "Cold Sulphur," "Hot Sulphur," 
and "Iron Spring." The "Hot Sulphur" water has a temperature of 
106 F. 

Duncan Springs. The springs are located 1-J miles southwest from 
Hopland Station, in Sec. 25, T. 13 N., R. 12 W. Hopland is on the 
California and Northwestern Railroad and stages connect with trains. 
There are live cold springs on the property, two of which are soda, and 
one a sulphur spring. The other two are called the "Borax" and 
"Duncan" springs, the latter being the principal one. The water from 
this spring is claimed to be similar to the celebrated Bartlett Springs. 

Reported Analysis of Duncan Springs. 


Bicarbonate of magnesia __ _ 


Chloride of magnesia 


Sulphate of magnesia. _ _- . - 


Bicarbonate of lime _ _ 


Silica ._ - 


Bicarbonate of potash 


Bicarbonate of soda _ _, _. _-_-____ . 


Free carbonic acid 




Garby's Springs. These small alkali springs are situated at the base 
of the foothills, one mile west of Ukiah. 

Lane's Springs. These are located in Redwood Valley near Calpella. 
The waters have an alkaline but pleasant taste. 


Some drilling for oil was conducted in the county during the oil 
excitement in the years 1865, 1866, 1867, but no oil in paying quantities 
was obtained. The oil was of excellent quality. Experiments were 
made with the bituminous sandstones to see if oil could be distilled 
from them in payable quantities. The experiments yielded a fair per- 
centage of oil but the cost of production and freight to the consumer 
was too high to be a profitable venture. 


These bituminous sandstones have been developed, mostly in the 
neighborhood of Point Arena. The beds in that region are 20 feet thick 
and yield from 10% to 11% volatile matter. Picked specimens run as 
high as 15% in volatile matter, but the bituminous sandstones as a 
whole are not sufficiently impregnated with petroleum to compete with 
other deposits of the State. 


There are no quarries operating in the county at the present time. 
The best quality of road metal being used in Mendocino comes from 
Petaluma, Sonoma County. The metamorphic rocks of the county are 
not suitable for road building. 



Allen mine 31 

Alta California mine 12 

Aluminum plates, use of, in plat- 
inum recovery 7 

Analysis of coal from Mentlocino 

County 47, 4S 

of Humboldt Ray cement ~'-\ 

of limestone from .Jaeoby Cn'ck i!4 

of manganese ore 51 

of mineral water__ 39, 53, 54 

Anderson, Dr. Winslow 53 

Aivata, coal near 29 

Assay value of .placer sold IX, 31-37 

Auriferous gravels 3 

Aurora, hydraulic mine 17 

I'.ayside Lumber Co 23, 

I '.each sands, gold an:l platinum in 
5, 7, 

Hear River oil wells 

Bituminous sandstones 43, 

I .lack Diamond mine 

sands, gold in 4, 5, 

in Del Norte County 

in Humboldt County 

platinum in 4, 5, 

Bondo mine 

Bonneville quartz mine 

Boy Edgar mine 

I'.riceland Estate gas well 37, 

oil near 

Oil and Land Co. wells 

Brick and tile 21, 22, 

Britton No. 1 and No. 2 claims 

Brown & Knowles oil well 

Burrows oil well 

Building materials in Del Norte 


in Humboldt County 21 

in Mendocino County 

California Seltzer springs 

Vichy springs (see Vichy) 

Cavanaugh mine 



4 '2 


2 1 




Christensen hydraulic mine 18 

Chrome iron in Del Norte County 10 

in Mendocino County 50 

Clays 9, 10, 21, 22, 45 

Cleopatra copper claims 14 

Clover Flat placer mine 32 

Coal in Del Norte County 10 

in Humboldt County 29-30 

in Mendocino County 45-48 

Cook placer mine 18 

Cook's springs 40 

Copper in Del Norte County__3, 4, 10-16 

in Humboldt County 4, 24-29 

in Mendocino County 4, 48-50 


(Yaig oil well 4^ 

Crimson group __26, 29 

Crook plarer mine 18 

Crotmi liar mine (see Bondo) 

Dave Savoy placer mine 17 

Davis Creek oil well 41 

Deep Hole mine (see E len Valley) 

1 )el Norte County 3-20 

black sands in 5-9 

building materials in 9 

chrome iron in 10 

clay in 910 

coal in 10 

copper in 4, 10-16 

Diamond Creek District in 14 

French Hill District in 15 

geology of 3-5 

gold in 16-20 

gold placers in 1619 

gold quartz in 19-20 

iridium in 9 

osmium in 9 

platinum in 4, 5, 7, 9, 17, 18 

pottery clay in 10 

quicksilver in 20 

sandstone in 9 

Distillation percentages obtained 

from Humboldt County oils '_ 41 

Doctor Rock group 11, 16 

Young hydraulic mine 17 

Duncan springs 54 

East Fork group (see Oak Flat) 

Eden Valley copper mine 48 

Edwards, Frank B., prospect 16 

Eel River coal mine 47 

coal on 29, 45, 46, 48 

Elkhorn hydraulic mine 17 

Ems spring, Germany, analysis of_ 53 

Eureka Brick and Tile Co 21, 22 

Fachirigen spring, Germany, analy- 
sis of 53 

Far West Oil Co 41 

Felt's springs 39 

Florence placer mine 32 

Fortuna brickyard 21 

Frank Zaar copper mine 13 

French Hill chrome mines 10 

district 15, 16 

placer mine 17 

platinum in 5, 17 

Garberville, coal near 29 

oil near 40 

Garby's springs 54 

Geologic description of Del Norte, 

Humboldt and Mendocino counties 3-5 




Geology of Del Norte County 3-5 

of Humboldt County 3-5 

of Mendocino County 3-5 

George Cook placer mine 18 

Washington placer claims 17 

Gold in Del Norte County___ __ 16-20 

placer mines 16-19 

quartz mines 19-20 

in Humboldt County 30-37 

placer mines 31-37 

quartz mines _30-31 

in Mendocino County 50 

placer, assay value of 18, 31-37 

platinum with 4, 5, 7, 9, 17, 18 

Grand Grille spring, France, analy- 
sis of 53 


Gravels, auriferous 3, 21 

platinum in 4, 21 

Hard Luck mine 19 

Haw quarry 

Henderson oil well 

Hendrix & Howe claims. 

Hendrix, Howe & McDonald group. 15 

Hoaglin oil well -- 42 

Horse Mountain 

copper district 

copper mine 

Humboldt Bay 

Bay cement 

Clay Manufacturing Co. 
copper mine 

Humboldt County __21-44 

black sands in 

brick and tile in 21 

building materials in 21-24 

cement in 

coal in 29, 30 

copper in _ 24-29 

geology of 3-5 

gold in 21, 30-37 

gold quartz in 30-31 

gold placers in 31-37 

graphite in 

Horse Mountain district in 24-29 

iron in 

limestone in 23-24 

Mattole district in 29 

mineral water in 38-40 

natural gas in 38 

ochre in 44 

oil in 40-44 

oil occurrences in, map of 
petroleum in (see oil) 
placers in (see gold) 

platinum in 21, 31, 32, 34-37 

quarries . in 

sands in (see black sands) 

Humboldt Mineral Water Co 38 

oils, distillation of 41 

oil well 42 

Hunters Luck claims 14 

Hydraulic mines (see gold) 

lagua mineral water 39 

Idora mine 14 

Iridium in Del Norte County 9 

Iron 38 

Jacoby Creek, brick clay on. 

limestone on 


Kauss placer mine 18 

platinum nuggets in 5 

Klamath River, gold and platinum 

in gravels of 21 

hydraulic mine 33 

Klondike group 15 

Lane's springs 54 

Larribee Creek, coal on 29 

Lassen Creek copper claims 26 

Lignite (see coal) 

Limestone in Humboldt County 4, 23-24 

Little Klondike mine 31 

Low Divide chrome mines 10 

mining district 11 

Lucky Boy and Rosebud group 15 

Mackintoch oil well 42 

Mad River, coal on 29 

Magnesite 52 

Manganese ore 51 

analysis of 51 

Maple Creek, coal on 29 

Map of Horse Mountain copper dis- 
trict 28 

Map of oil occurrences in Humboldt 

County 43 

Markeson mine (see Bondo) 

Mattole mining district 29 

river coal on 29 

McGimpsey mine 49 

McNutt Gulch oil well 41 

Mendocino County 4555 

brick and tile in 45 

coal in 45-48 

copper in 48-50 

chrome iron in 50 

geology of 3-5 

gold in 50 

manganese in 51 

magnesite in 52 

mineral water in 52-54 

oil in 54 

quarries in 55 

Mineral water, analysis of 39, 53, 54 

foreign, analysis of 53 

in Humboldt County 38-40 

in Mendocino County 5254 

Minor, Isaac, quarry 23 

Monkey Creek placer mine 18 

Monumental Consolidated mine 19, 20 

district 14, 15 

Mountain View springs 40 




Myrtle Creek Mining Co. . 5 

hydraulic mine 18 

Native Copper mine 48 

Natural gas in Humboldt County 38 
Nels Christensen hydraulic mine 18 

Oak Flat and East Fork groups___ 18 

Ochre 44 

Ogle copper mine 49 

Oil in Humboldt County 3, 4, 40-44 

in Mendocino County 4, 5455 

occurrences in Humboldt 

County, map of 43 

seepages 42, 43 

Old Crow claims 15 

Oro Anna mine 20 

Orcutt hydraulic mine 33 

Oriental copper claim 14 

Orleans Bar mine 33 

Oro Del Norte Company 5-9 

plant of, for electric recovery 

of gold and platinum 5-9 

Orr's mineral springs 5354 

Osmium in Del Norte County 9 

Pacific Engineering and Construc- 
tion Co. 22 

Pearch Creek, gold quartz on 31 

hydraulic mine 34 

Petaluma, road metal from 55 

Peters, Frank, gas well 38 

Petroleum (see oil) 

Petrolia, oil near 40 

Peyton Chemical Co 50 

Pieta mine 49 

Placer mines (see under gold) 

Platinum in Del Norte County 

4, 5, 7, 9, 17, 18 

in Humboldt County 

21, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37 

nuggets of 5 

plant for electric recovery of__ 7 
Point Arena, bituminous sandstones 

at 55 

Pottery clay 10 

Preston Peak mine 16 

Quarries in Humboldt County 22-23 

in Mendocino County 55 

Quartz prospect on Pearch Creek 31 

Quicksilver in Del Norte County__ 20 

Rainbow group 

.26, 29 


Red Buck mine !. 1 ' 4^ 

Cap Creek copper mines 25, 29 

gold on 30 

Cap mine 30 

Mountain group 49 

Porphyry mine 34 

Redwood Copper Queen mine 49-50 

Reed oil well 42 

Rock, Doctor, group 11, 16 

Rock quarries (see quarries) 

Rocky Point mine 35 

Rosalina placer mine 35 

Rough and Ready placer mine 35, 36 

Round Valley, coal in 46, 48 

Ruby copper mine 28 

Salinas copper mine 48 

Salstrom placer mine 36 

Salt Lake-California mine 12, 13 

Sands, black, in Del Norte County_ 5-9 

Sandstone 9 

bituminous 55 

Sarvarum group 35 

Savoy placer mine 17 

Serpentine, copper associated with_ 25 

magnesite in 52 

platinum in 5 

Springs (see mineral water) 

Superior copper mine : 13 

Sweet Home copper mine 27 

Thomas ranch, coal on 45, 46 

manganese on 51 

Thompson Bar mine 36 

Tile (see brick, also clays) 

Trinity River 3 

Tyson Mining Co 10 

Union Copper Co 12 

Union oil well 41 

Van Allen mine 50 

V;issar magnesite claims 52 

Vichy springs 52, 53 

analytical comparison of 53 

Washington placer claims 17 

Weitchpec Bar mine 37 

Wells coal deposit 47 

Wild- Goose oil wells__ 42 

Willow Creek, gold on 30 

Yager Creek springs 40 

Young, Doctor, hydraulic mine 17 

Zaar, Frank, copper mine 13, 14 




7~tO J* 4OCC 

FEB 7 1955 

FEE 2 1955 U! 






*AY21 k 


LD 21-100m-8,'34 

Gay lord Bros. 


Syracuse, N. Y. 
PAT. JAN. 21, 1908