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Full text of "Mines register; successor to the Mines handbook and the Copper handbook ... describing the non-ferrous metal mining companies in the western hemisphere .."

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The Copper Handbook 



A MANUAL OF THE COPPER INDUSTRY 

OF THE WORLD 



VOL. V 

FOR THB YEAR I9O4 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY 

HORACE J. STEVENS 
Houghton, Michigan, U. S. A. 

1905 



COPYRIGHT 1905 



BY 



HoRACB J. Stevens 



M. A. DONOHUE A COMPANY 
MINTIMAND WNOCRS 

4«7-4t* ocAmoim tTHcrr 

GHICAOO 



86878 G.l^VoM 

AUG 2 2 U05 

ML 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Preface • 9 

Chapter I — History of Copper 13 

Chapter II — Geology of C!opper 21 

Chapter III — Chemistry and Mineralogy of Copper 27 

Chapter IV — ^Metallurgy of Copper. 46 

Chapter V — The Uses of Copper 65 

Chapter VI — Glossary of Mining Terms 72 

Chapter VII — Copper Deposits of the United States .... 97 

Chapter VIII — Copper Deposits of Canada and New- 
foundland 121 

Chapter IX — Copper Deposits of Mexico, Central 

America and the Antilles. 125 

Chapter X — Copper Deposits of South America 130 

Chapter XI — Copper Deposits of Europe 137 

Chapter XII — Copper Deposits of Africa 145 

Chapter XIII — Copper Deposits of Asia 149 

Chapter XIV — Copper Deposits of Australia and 

Oceanica. 153 

Chapter XV — Copper Mines of the World 158 

Chapter XVI — Statistics of Copper 842 

Index 879 



FoUowiDg the text of the book b an advertising section of 100 pages, 
carrying the announcements and cards of nearly two hundred manufact- 
urers, dealers in mining supplies, mining companies, engineers, metallurgists, 
chemists, trade journals, railroads, etc., supplemented by a carefully com- 
piled classified buyers' index. 



PREFACE. 



The present annual edition of the Ck>pper Handbook, which is the fifth, 
b preeented with minted feelings of pride and regret — honest pride in the 
imwywiiyft aiDOunt of hard and steady woric that it has cost, and regret that 
the days had not more hours, in order that more work might have been 
done, and certain shortcomings remedied. As matters stand, the book 
represents a year of hard work, and if the year had been longer, more work 
might have been accomplished. 

Hie two final chapters, which, collectively, include nearly five-sixths 

of the entire book, have been rewritten from beginning to end, and it is a 

wmrce of regret to the author that the limitations imposed by lack of time 

have prevented similar rewriting for every chapter in the book. It was 

fdt, however, that these were the more important chapters of the book, 

and also that they covered the topics, not only of most vital interest, but 

the matters susceptible to the greatest changes within a twelvemonth. A 

great mass of material from thousands of different sources has been sifted, 

and the facts of importance gathered therefrom, and verified, as fully as 

possible. As in previous editions of this book, the author expressly dis; 

claims all pretensions to infallibility, and will thank any reader for corrections. 

The fifteenth chapter of the book contains no less than 3,S49 titles, with 

from two lines to fourteen pages devoted to each, and in a work of this nature, 

where the statements of fact run into the hundreds of thousands, errors are 

inevitable. All that is claimed is that every honest effort has been made 

to verify the assertions given in the book, and that for every statement 

9 



10 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

of fact therein, verification or corroborative evidence of some sort can be 
furnished. 

No other publication dealing with any branch of mining attempts to 
pass upon the honesty and financial responsibility of the companies listed. 
Naturally, an effort to separate the sheep from the goats is fraught with 
many dangers and difficulties, as well as great responsibility, especially in the 
case of a work of this nature, the scope of which is the entire globe. The work 
of passing upon the honesty and responsibility of the various mining com- 
panies has been carried much further this year than in any preceding edition, 
as a consequence of which many more companies are endorsed as honest, 
while a much greater number than before are denounced as unworthy of 
confidence. Very naturally, the men and corporations denounced in former 
editions of the Copper Handbook are not pleased at the unenviable notoriety 
given them in a publication of good standing, circulating throughout tlie 
world, but it may be said, as an evidence of the thoroughness with which 
this work has been done in past editions, that, notwithstanding the many 
threats uttered against the author of this book, ranging from simple threats 
of corporal chastisement to promises of suits for criminal libel, the author 
has yet to be thrashed, and yet to be sued, for any statement contained in 
the past four editions of the work. 

Of the many companies denounced as dishonest or downright fraudulent 
in the last edition of this book, not one has been able to prove its right to a 
better rating than was accorded it, though a number have made attempts 
to secure such ratings, by methods ranging from covert bribery, through 
legal proceedings, down to threat^s of physical violence. Of the many com- 
panies endorsed as honorable in the past four annual editions of the Ck)pper 
Handbook, just one, the American Mining, Milling & Smelting Company, 
has been found dishonest. It is a source of deep regret to the author that 
this utterly putrid concern, domiciled in London, succeeded in 'securing 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 11 

a good rating in Volume IV of this work, but the task of keeping track of 
several thousand corporations, located in all parts of the world, is no small 
one, and the erroneous opinion expressed in the last volume regarding the 
company in question, was given through an error of judgement, and not an 
error of intent. 

The work of preparing the present edition has been greatly facilitated 
by the hearty co-operation of a great number of individuals, firms, corpora- 
tions, societies and governments. Statistics have been furnished freely 
by a great majority of the officials of the various governments of whom 
requests were made. It is hoped that for next year even the Turkish govern- 
ment may be induced to reply to requests for information, though as yet 
the Imperial Minister of Forests and Mines of the Ottoman Empire has not 
been brought to reply to any of the numerous letters written him during the 
past four years. The mining companies have responded more freely and 
fully to requests for information for the present volume than in any preceding 
year, and especial thanks are due a large number of engineers, in all parts 
of the world, for their kindly criticisms, advice and voluntary submission 
of facts of interest. 

Like its predecessors. Volume V of the Copper Handbook has been 
written along systematic lines. Kvery effort has been made to group 
the facts given in logical order, and to avoid needless duplications, 
though, necessarily, the final statistical chapter contains much matter 
previously given, scattered through nearly four thousand descriptions of 
as many different properties. The index has been prepared with care, and 
by its use almost any feature desired may be located easily. The titles of 
the mines and mining companies are not indexed, for the reason that Chap- 
ter XV, giving the mine descriptions, is in full alphabetical order, conse- 
quently self-indexing, thus saving nearly forty pages of double-column 
index that would be required for the mine titles alone. 



12 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

At the rear of the volume will be found a large number of advertisements, 
for which the consideration of the reader is asked. The cost of preparing 
the volume b so great that the enterprise would not be self-sustaining but 
for the advertisements, unless the price were doubled, which, in turn, would 
cut down the circulation of the work, which b now believed to be the largest 
enjoyed by any minihg annual. Instead of scattering the advertising through- 
out the book, where its presence b undesirable, and of doubtful value to the 
advertiser, it has been collected in a single section, at the end of the work. 
Every advertisement has been passed upon, and to the best knowledge of 
the publisher b that of a thoroughly reputable firm. Advertising offei^pd 
from doubtful concerns has been refused, it being intended to kee^^ the adver- 
tbing pages as clean and reliable as the text of the book. 

Horace J. Stevbnb. 

Houghton, Michigan, U. S. A., May 2, 1905. 



The Copper Handbook 



CHAPTER I. 
The History of Copper. 

The diaoovery and utilisation of copper occurred at a period so remote 
that even legendary. accounts are lacking. A semi-authentic narration of 
the facts connected with the discovery of iron on Mount Ida has been handed 
down to us, yet there were copper mines worked on this same mountain 
in Asia Minor before the alleged date of the discovery of iron. The eariier 
history of the useful metal is surrounded by the same myths as cloud the 
atory of mankind in general in days so far remote. There seems good reason 
to think that copper and tin, in the form of bronse, an alloy of these two 
metals, was in general use before the discovery of the process of producing 
iron from its ores. Such was unquestionably the case with the primitive 
peoples of Northern and Western Europe. In Asia Minor, the scene of 
the eariiest civilisation known to archaeologists, many weapons, implements 
and ornaments of bronse have been found in buried cities of seven to eight 
thousand yean of age. On the American continent the aboriginal peoples 
were unacquainted with the use of iron, but the richer and more advanced 
nations had great stores of copper, gold and silver. The latter metals, 
found in profusion in Mexico and Peru, were utilised mainly for ornaments 
and decorative architecture. There being no important tin deposits as 
yet devdoped in the new world, and there being no evidence that tin was 
mined on the North and South American continents before their discovery 
by Europeans, it seems altogether probable that the aboriginal American 
aces were totally unacquainted with bronze and brass. However, copper 
itself was used extensively. It was mined from Lake Superior deposits 
of native metal in very considerable quantities, and was distributed at least 
as far south as Mexico, and to practically all parts of the territoiy now 
constituting the United States. The date at which this mining was done is 
variously estimated at some himdreds to many thousands of years ago. 
The Chippewa Indians were in possession of the southern shore of Lake 
Superior when it was visited bv the first white explorers, the intrepid Jesuit 
missionaries, Rene Mesnard and Claude Alloues, esriy in the Seventeenth cen* 
tuiy; Father Mesnardi the first white man to set foot on the shore of the 



14 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

great fresh water sea, having lost his life a few miles from where the greatest 
copper mines of Lake Superior are now developed. The Chippewas were 
then unacquainted with any of the practical uses of copper, though possessing 
a few small masses of the native metal, saved apparently for the same rea- 
son that impels a child to collect bright colored bits of broken glass. The 
Indians not only made no practical use of copper, but were unacquainted 
with the use of any other metal. As extensive mining operations were 
formerly carried on in the district held by the Chippewas in the middle of 
the Seventeenth century, the last actual mining must have been done at 
least several hundred years earlier, or some oral traditions would have been 
handed down. '^ Whether the mining was done by ancestors of the aboriginal 
tribes discovered in possession of the Lake district by the earliest white 
explorers, or by some antecedent people of higher civilization, is a point 
that archaeologists and ethnologists are still arguing. Whatever may have 
been the derivation or fate of that pre-historic race of copper miners, vaguely 
^ termed "Mound Builders," it is certain that they enjoyed at least a rudi- 
mentary civilization, and were successful metalluiigists, for they possessed 
the art of tempering copper. Weapons for the cha.se and war and domestic 
utensils of good finish and style, and highly tempered, are dug from mounds 
and found in sand dunes along the southern shore of Lake Superior from 
time to time. I' In this connection, it may be observed that many zealous 
metallurgists, mostly of the amateur stripe, are wasting much time in efforts 
to re-discover the " lost art " of tempering copper. Simdry fairly successful 
processes for tempering copper are now known to scientists, but the art, 
even if again brought to its pristine perfection, would be of no great benefit, 
as steel and iron are much cheaper than copper, and far preferable for any 
ordinary use to which tempered copper could be put. 

From the earliest dawn of history, copper and gold seem to have been 
in common use among the more civilized nations, the yellow metal for orna- 
ments and as a medium of exchange, and the ruddier one for weapons and 
implements, usually in the form of an alloy, as brass or bronze. The ancient 
world of Grecian and Roman days poss&ssed considerable stores of copper, 
and mines were regularly worked. There are apparently good reasons for 
believing that the Phcenicians knew of the tin and copper deposits of Britain 
at a period as remote as 1,000 B. C. Spain was the source of the principal 
copper supplies of the Roman empire, although other fields were* also worked 
to some extent. Spain has been furnishing copper to the world for nearly 
three thousand years, and remains one of the principal sources of the world's 
copper supply. 

During the daric period of the middle ages, mining, while not a lost 
art, was certainly not followed as systematically and successfully as during 
the more prosperous and enlightened era of Roman dominion. The world's 
supply of gold and* silver decreased from century to century, OT^'ing to the 
losses from attrition and misplacement not being made good by the quanti- 
ties mined. Iron, being subject to rust, was mined and smelted as required, 
although the production was surprisingly small. It is probable that the 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 15 

United States Steel Corporation now turns out in every working day more 
iron than was produced in all Europe in a full year, at the period of greatest 
darkness during mediseval times. The supply of copper during the middle 
ages must have been very small, but the science of statistics was not then 
in vogue, in a period when a king was called Beauclerc — good clerk — because 
he could wlite his own name without the guiding hand of a monk. 

When Europe awoke from the lethaigy and sodden life of the dark 
ages, in the Fifteenth century, the use of the metals began growing, and 
this growth has continued, with few interruptions, to the present day. The 
tin and copper mines of Cornwall became sources of great wealth to their 
titled owners, and the mining of copper was stimulated in Germany, Nor- 
way and other European countries. In the Eighteenth century copper 
mining was started in the American colonies of Vennont and New Jersey. 
In the Sixteenth century copper was discovered in Mexico and several parts 
of South America, but the Spanish conquistadors were more anxious for 
the gold of the Peruvian Incas, and the silver from San Louis Potosi, than 
for the cheaper metals. 

At the beginning of the Eighteenth century the English- mines, in 
Cornwall, were making much the largest part of the world's copper, and 
even at that date were of such considerable depth and with such extensive 
underground openings that the problem of disposing of the water was of 
the most \atal im|k)rtance. Many good mines were allowed to remain idle, 
solely because the expense of keeping them free of water was greater than 
the profits of operation. The first %team engine was built for a Cornish 
mine, the Wheal Por, by a Captain Savery, very early in the Eighteenth 
century. It was but a partial success, and the plan was improved on by 
Newcomen, who erected a pumping engine at the Wheal Fortune mine, 
ComwaU, in 1720. The Newcomen steam engine was a crude and wasteful 
device, according to the standard of the present day, but it was much more 
effective than hand and horse power, or a water wheel, and was used in 
many of the larger Cornish mines for fifty years or more, until the genius 
of Watt brought forth the modem steam engine — an engine that a century 
and a quarter has been unable to improve upon in essential plan, though 
many and great betterments have been made in details. It should be said, 
however, for Savery and Newcomen, that crude as were their steam engines, 
the pumping plan followed by them was essentially sound, and the Cornish 
pump, first made by Savery nearly two hundred years ago, and improved 
a little later by Newcomen, is still the basic model for the Cornish mine 
pumps, scattered over the habitable world, wherever there are mines. 

The first Watts engine was erected at Chacewater, Cornwall, in 1777, 
and proved a great success. It came none too soon, as the larger mines, 
deepened by reason of the aid given from Newcomen's pumps, were at a 
depth where the first crude engines could no longer give satisfactory results. 

Although steam power was first applied to copper mining nearly two 
centuries ago, it was used only for handling water until after the begin- 
ning of the Nineteenth century. The first application of steam power to 



16 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

other mining uses was in the fint or second decade of the Nineteenth oen^ 
tury, when a hoisting drum was first actuated by steam. 

At the beginning of the Eighteenth century Great Britain was making 
at least three-quarters of the world's copper/ The Cornish mines produced 
4,923 tons of refined copper in 1799, and the Welsh mines of Anglesea made 
nearly 2,000 tons in the same year. The great Mansfeld mine, in Germany, 
made only 372 tons in that year, and only estimates are obtainable for the 
products of other countries. Spain's output was insignificant, and the 
United States made but a few tons. Russia and Japan probably ranked 
next in importance after England as producers, and Austria, Norway, 
Sweden, Italy and several other nations made small contributions to the 
world's copper stock. Australia, South Africa and Canada were then un- 
known as sources of copper supply. It is a notable fact that one hundred 
years ago, the mines of the United States, Spain, Chile, Mexico, Canada, 
South Africa, Australia and Tasmania, which now make about 90 per cent, 
of the woiid's copper, were either totally undeveloped, or else producers of 
but a few tons each, while Great Britain, which made almost 7,000 tons 
of copper in 1799, produced but 550 tons in 1899. 

For the first half of the Nineteenth century. Great Britain maintained 
its position at the head of the world's copper producers, but the latter half 
of the century was a period of ever increasing depression, relieved by only 
occasional years of prosperity for the British copper mines. The invention 
of the Watts engine and its application to pumping machinery enabled 
the mine operators of Cornwall and Anglesea to penetrate to depths there- 
tofore undreamed of. In 1790 the Dolcoath mine in Cornwall was 600 feet 
deep; in 1816 it was down 1,368 feet, and in 1830 the Tresavean mine, also 
of Cornwall, reached the great depth of 1,920 feet. As the mines increased 
in depth rapidly, various improvements became necessary. The old method 
of raising ore in baskets carried up ladders on the backs of men and women 
was replaced by whims, operated first by hand, then by horse power, later 
by water wheels, and eventually by steam. Around these whims were 
coiled the ropes that hoisted ore in wicker baskets. A little later the hempen 
ropes were replaced by wire cables, and the baskets gave way to iron skips 
and cages. In 1842 the first man engine was built, for taking men to and 
from their work in the deep mines. Mine surveying was introduced, and 
machinery employed in the mills, where hand work had been the rule for 
centuries. The Anglesea mines enjoyed great prosperity for the first quarter 
of the century, but gave unmistakable signs of exhaustion a few years later, 
and in the fourth decade ceased to be important factors in the worid's copper 
industry. The smelters of Wales had attained such growth, however, that 
Swansea still remains the seat of one of the greatest and most diversified 
smelting industries of the world. 

It was in the fourth decade of the last century that the competitors 
destined to destroy the English copper mining industry first began com- 
ing to notice. The copper discoveries in the Lake Superior district were 
made at about the same time as copper in workable quantities was found 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 17 

in Australia, but the Australian mines were of slow development, and have 
never grown to be of great importance, while the Lake Superior mines soon 
became the largest of the world. (^ The first actual copper mining at ' 
Lake Superior was done in 1844, and the first product secured was a 
few tons of oxide ore — ^not native copper — ^taken from a fissure vein near 
Copper Harbor, Keweenaw county, by the Piitsburg <& Lake Superior Mining 
Company, which later developed th^ Cliff mine, nearly twenty miles to the ^ 
southwest. The Minnesota mine in Ontonagon cotmty was opened shortly 
after, and since that time the Lake Superior copper industry has enjoyed a 
large and fairly steady growth. '' 

Beginning in the early fifties, the Chilean copper deposits were sys- 
tematically developed and Chile has become one of the world's greatest 
producers. The Tharsis mine in Spain, was re-opened in 1863. It was in 
the sixties that the competition of cheaper copper from richer mines first 
begun to be felt most severely in Cornwall, resulting in the closing of one 
mine after another, until today, the Cornish mines in active operation are 
few in number and their profits trivial. 

The awakening of Japan by Commodore Perry in 1854 was succeeded 
by a period of angry contempt for foreign manners and methods on the 
part of the Japanese, but this was followed by the revolution wherein the 
shogun was deposed and the mikado became the actual instead of the merely 
nominal ruler of the island empire. The introduction of foreign methods 
has been followed by the industrial awakening of Japan, and the Japanese 
mines are now sources of copper supply of great importance, and even greater 
promise. 

In 1866 the Calumet & Hecla was opened and speedily took first rank 
among the copper mines of the world. In 1876 the great Rio Tiano mines 
of Spain were reopened, after a century of idleness. The Moonta and Wall- 
aroo mines were opened in Australia at about the same time as the Calu- 
met &, Hecla, and Tasmanian copper deposits first attracted attention in 
the same decade, though no considerable production was secured until nearly 
twenty years later. 

In 1880 the Butte camp of Montana, now the greatest copper producer 
of any district in the world, was discovered. Butte was originally a placer 
gold camp, and the first Butte copper mine, the Anaconda, was opened for 
silver, and eventually became the largest copper producer of any of the 
worid's mines. In the latter eighties. South Africa developed several good 
mines; the Boleo and other Mexican mines became prominent, and the 
first great mines of Arizona were opened. 

The beneficial influence of the copper industry upon the mining and 
metallurgical methods of the world has been most marked. The first smelting 
was probably done from copper ores. The Bessemer process is used in 
copper refining as well as in the making of steel. Many important advances 
in metallurgical processes have been contributed by copper smelters, and of 
these, the latest, and perhaps the greatest, is electrolytic refining, which 
will be foimd treated of more extensively in the chapter on metallurgy. 



18 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

The United States maintains the lead won some years ago in the pro- 
duction of copper, and continues to supply considerably more than half of all 
the copper mined in the world. The promise of a number of important 
new fields, in Mexico, Canada and elsewhere, is such that the relative pro- 
duction of the United States may show a slight decrease in the near future, 
though the actual productioiT will continue to increase for some time to 
come. Of the various fields of the United States, the Lake Superior dis- 
trict, although the oldest, has made substantial gains for each of the past 
three years, and promises to increase its production, though at a somewhat 
slower rate of gain, for several years to come. The Butte district of Montana 
Is about holding its own. Like the Lake Superior district, Butte is now 
feeling the effects of deep mines and decreased copper percentages in its 
ores, but this has been met by the installation of the most modem and pow- 
erful hoisting, dressing and smelting equipments. Continuance of the 
unfortunate litigation that has been the bane of the Butte camp for some 
years past prevents the operation of many mines to more than a portion 
of their true productive capacity. There is no indication of an end to the 
litigation in Montana, and until some sort of a settlement is reached, Montana 
copper production is not likely to show any material increase or decrease. 

Arizona is gaining ground rapidly, and in time will certainly lead both 
Michigan and Montana in copper production. The Yavapai county field 
has barely held its own in production for several years past, but should show 
an increase from now on. The Gila county mines are also about stationary 
as regards production, but their prospects are improving. Graham and 
Cochise counties both show heavy increases, and will make even greater gains 
in the near future. At present the production of these counties is practi- 
cally equal, but it is probable that Cochise county will make the greater 
gain during the next two or three years, though both are certain to materially 
increase their outputs. There are also copper developments of promise under 
way in Pima, Pinal, Maricopa and other Arizona counties. 

Utah is forging to the front as a producer. The Bingham camp is 
beyond question one of the important copper districts of the world, and 
will eventually make several times the present output. Beaver county 
has had too much booming and not enough mining, but the Cactus will 
become a large producer, and there are other properties of promise that 
will make good mines, when worked as mines and not for stock-jobbing 
purposes. 

Wyoming should become a steady producer in 1 904. The work done here- 
tofore has been mainly of a preliminary nature. The Encampment and adjoin- 
ing districts of Carbon county have a large number of little mining companies, 
many of which must drop out of sight, while the stronger will doubtless 
absorb the weaker and form a number of regularly producing mines. Idaho, 
Washington and Oregon have a niunber of prospects of greater or less promise, 
but are only small producers. California, which has copper in nearly 
every county, has been retrograding in production for several years past, but 
is again increasing its output. Nevada lacks regularly producing mines 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 19 

and Colorado still makes its copper as a by-product from the mining of gold, 
silver, zinc and ,lead ores. New Mexico has not become the large, pro- 
ducer 80 frequently predicted, though possessing copper deposits of more than 
average promise. 

Alaska, from which have come such great tales of cupriferous wealth, 
will become a regular copper producer in 1904, but the metal will be made, 
not from the interior mines, about which so many lies have been told, despite 
their undoubted richness, but from the ores of Prince of Wales Island, on 
which there are several properties that promise to make rich mines. 

In the eastern and southern states the Tennessee Copper Company is the 
only producer of real importance, and the results secured at that property 
prove that profitable mines can be developed in the Appalachians. There is 
more or less work under way in North* Carolina and Virginia, where some 
good mines should be opened in time, and a little work is in progress in Ver- 
mont also. 

In Canada the Boundary district leads in production and importance. 
The development of paying mines on the enormous low-grade deposits of 
this district proves the field of great importance. There are richer ores 
along the Pacific coast, where considerable work is in progress. In eastern 
Canada the Sudbury field is rather quiet, and the production of Quebec, 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is insignificant. Newfoundland remains 
practically stationary so far as production is concerned, but may show an 
increase soon. 

In Mexico there are copper mining developments of vast importance. 
Mexico b now making more copper than any other coimtry except the United 
States, having passed Spain in production. The Greene Consolidated and 
Boleo remans the principal mines, but there are a dozen others of importance, 
in process of development. Sonora, lying just south of Arizona, b an especi- 
ally promising field. 

El Cobre mines, in Cuba, are being reopened by a strong American 
company. These mines were large producers during the Nineteenth Century, 
up to 1868, when wrecked by a revolution. 

The Chilean mines are not gaining in production as rapidly as had been 
hoped. The reopening of the Cerro de Pasco mines of Peru on a modern 
scale 18 the most important mining work now under way in South America. 
Bolivia's production remains practically stationary. Important develop- 
ments are in progress in the Mexicana district of Argentina. The unsettled 
political conditions in Venezuela and Colombia prevent the development 
of properties know to be of great promise. 

The Hispano-Portugese mines show a slight falling off in production, 
due mainly to the partial exhaustion of several old mines that have been 
large and steady producers for many years. The copper resources of Spain 
are so enormous that an increase in output is but a matter of time. German 
copper production shows small change. Italy and Russia continue to 
produce without marked gain. Norway shows a substantial increase, and, 
next to Spain, is perhaps the most promising European copper field. 



20 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

• 

In Asia the copper production is insignificant, outside of Japan, which 
continues to increase its output. The Japanese mine-owners have ex- 
pended large sums in betterments during the past few years, and now 
have better mining and smelting equipments than ever before. China has 
some important copper measures, worked in a smaU way, and in time the 
Chinese empire should become a highly important producer of the red metal. 

In Africa the only producing mines of importance are in Little Nama- 
qualand, Cape Colony, and these are decreasing in output. There are devel- 
opments of the utmost promise under way in the interior of Africa, especiallv 
in Rhodesia, and along the coast of German Southwest Africa. While 
these mines, in a new country, cannot become producing factors of importance 
for some years, they are reasonably certain to take high rank in time. 

In Australasia the Mt. Lyell mine of Tasmania remains the largest 
producer. There is considerable activity, however, in several states of 
Australia, more especially in New South Wales and Queensland. The 
copper resources of Australia are enormous, and if that commonwealth 
can be cured of its crazy socialistic notions, good progress can be made. 

The era of copper manipulation, beginning in 18d9 and ending early 
in 1902, was marked by unnaturally high prices, greatly restricting con- 
sumption, followed by abnormally low figures that caused the speedy absorp- 
tion of the large surplus of metal stored up by reason of unduly high prices. 
The course of the metal market during 1903 was more regular and more free 
from manipulation than since 1898, but the suspicions of purchasens remain 
active. Having suffered from previous interference with the law of supply 
and demand in the copper market, it is but natural that they should fear 
further tactics of the same sort, and weigh the evidence at hand quite closely, 
before making market commitments. 

The best interests of producers and consumers alike will be served 
by a perfectly natural market, in which the level of prices is determined 
by the supplies on hand and the consumptive capacity of purchasers. Copper 
consumers are prone to think that the abnormally high prices of 1899-1901 
were secured solely at their own cost, yet as a matter of fact the producers 
suffered also, to no small extent, from the selfsame inflation. By reason 
of the unduly high prices then ruling, many new mines were opened, to com- 
pete with those already developed, and their competition, brought about 
by the era of high prices, became effectual after prices had dropped sadly. 
Not only this, but the cost of producing copper advanced materially by 
reason of the high market price. Costs were increased, not only through 
higher wages paid workmen, but by reason of a general slackening of vigilance 
in guarding small leaks, it seeming impossible for any corporation to be as 
careful in good times as in an ordinary season. It has taken the better 
mines several years to get back, even partially, to the vantage ground of 
ooflto occupied before the era of boom prices that began in 1898. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 21 



I 



CHAPTER 11. 

The Geology of Copper. 

In this chapter no attempt is made to give more than the merest out- 
line of the geological features of special interest, pertaining to copper. Ge- 
ology is, at best, largely an empirical science. From its very nature it can 
never be made such an exact science as chemistry and mineralogy have al- 
ready become. This is said in no carping spirit of criticism against the 
exponents of scientific geology, for their work is of a highly valuable nature, 
and if the geological dogmas of the present day contain a greater amount 
of assumption in proportion to ascertained and demonstrable fact than 
is found in cognate branches of scientific research, the empirical nature of 
a considerable part of the geology taught at the beginning of the Twentieth 
century is due to the inherent difficulties of the subject, rather than to any 
desire of geologists as a whole to assume more than can be proven. Just 
as a forest of scaffolding is erected around the walls of a great cathedral, 
while building is in process, so a false-work of theory is indispensable in 
geolofpcal research. Behind the great mass of temporary timbering the 
granite walls of truth are rising, slowly but surely, and as they rise, the 
scaffolding that once was necessary becomes useless, and is discarded. 

Rocks are divided into three geological classes, the igneous, sedimentary 
and metamorphic. The igneous rocks, fused by subterranean fires and 
ejected in sheets by volcanic action, or oozing forth from cracks in the earth's 
crust, may be divided into granitic, porphyritic and vitreous forms. The 
sedimentary rocks were deposited by the action of water, usually on beds 
of fonner seas. The dctrital material so deposited formed conglomerate, 
shale, sandstone and limestone strata, and in the case of the three first named, 
the "material for sedimentary beds was necessarily obtained principally 
from the breaking down of the older igneous rocks. Strata of igneous and 
sedimentary rocks frequently alternate in the older geological groups. The 
metamorphic or third class, consists of altered rocks of the igneous and sedi- 
mentary forms, in which the phenomena of crystallization and replacement 
have been brought about subsequent to their deposition. 

The Devonian system of the Paleozoic group was long regarded as the 
home of copper, possibly because of the preponderant importance of Corn- 
wall and Devon as sources of copper supply until the middle of the Nine- 
teenth century. Copper is more widely diffused over the earth in rocks 
of the Permian series of the Devonian system than in any other series of 
rocks, and the Permian strata are of very extensive occurrence. The Jura- 
Trias system of the Mesozoic, or age next younger than the Permian, is also 



22 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

prolific in copper. While the Permian beds show more or less copper in 
most places where outcropping extensively or carefully/ developed, the per- 
centage of copper contained is apt to be small, though the aggregate of 
copper so deposited is past computation, owing to the dissemination of 
the ores through beds that4UB of vast area. 

While native copper is of very frequent occurrence, and is noted 
in most cupriferous districts, the virgin metal is usually an alteration product, 
and of little commercial importance. In the Coro Coro district of Bolivia 
and the Keweenawan district of Lake Superior, native copper is found in 
such quantities as to permit of its extractipn upon an immense scale. The 
Bolivian copper is found in two adjoining conglomerates, composed mainly 
of argillaceous sandstones, and of somewhat uncertain geological age. The 
Lake Superior copper occurs in conglomerate and amygdaloid beds, probably 
of the Azoic group, though the exact geological horizon is still a matter 
of dispute. The native metal is most frequently found in eruptive zones, 
at the various points where it occurs in very considerable quantities, in 
the sedimentary rocks, such as conglomerates and sandstones, or in the 
trappean rocks of igneous origin, and more especially in the metamorphosed 
traps. As an alteration product, native copper may occur in the altered 
or oxy-carbonate zone of any copper ore body. 

The source from which copper came and the manner of its deposition 
are largely matters for conjecture, though certain features bearing on these 
questions are fairly well established. The metal and its ores are in all like- 
lihood of igneous origin, coming to the earth's surface or to its crust with 
the molten magma forced upward from unknown depths. As to the manner 
of its deposition in veins or beds, there are many theories, of which those 
most commonly held may be divided into two classes, the first holding that 
the metal and its ores were deposited in various rock strata and veins from 
BolutionSi while the second set of theories is built upon the primary thesis 
that copper — and other minerals — were deposited by electro-chemical action 
from sea water, in which process the remains of living organisms are pre- 
sumed to have played an important part. Both theses have certain corrob- 
orative evidences, and both have weak spots. It is possible that ore deposits 
have come from both sources. It is certain that the sea holds nearly all 
metals in solution, but, on the whole, the theory of deposition from sub- 
terranean solutions seems the most easily tenable. 

The more common metals are found as component parts of many ordi- 
nary igneous rocks, though in such small quantities that these rocks cannot 
be considered as ores of even the lowest grade. It is possible, and indeed 
probable, in the light of the limited amount of exact knowledge now possessed 
on this point, that subterranean and slightly carbonated surface waters 
percolating through the various rock strata, very few of which are imper- 
vious to water, leached out certain soluble constituents, and that the min- 
erals, so carried in solution, were deposited, usually in crystallized form, 
in the brecciated rocks and in the numerous cracks in the crust and upper 
•trata of the earth. Carbonic acid, oxygen and sulphur have been the princi- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 23 

pal reducing agents, carbonic acid gas in water being a powerful solvent. 
The action and inter-action of these three prime agents, assisted by other 
reagents set free by them, have caused complex reactions, many of which 
have been figured out to theoretical perfection, while not a few supposedly 
xiaturai reactions have the corroborative evidence afforded by synthetical 
chemical experiments that have given the reactions first established the- 
oretically. In the case of the rich iron ores of the Lake Superior district, 
their concentration from leaner ores by purely natural means is no longer 
open to question, except from the ultra-«keptical. 

A third theory, once generally held, but now in disfavor, remains to 
be noted. This is the idea that electrical action caused the deposition of 
the metals. While the theory now finds few adherents, I must venture 
the opinion, at the risk of being considered fossilized, that electrical action 
has played a most important part in the deposition of many metalliferous 
beds. There are really but two sciences, one being mathematics, which is ab- 
stract and perfectable, while the second is the science of the concrete, em- 
bracing all matter and its various manifestations. For convenience, the 
realm of science, an empire vaster than Alexander swayed or Napoleon 
planned, has been divided into so-called sciences and groups of sciences, 
but the boundary lines are merely arbitrary abstractions, and have as little 
physical existence as the equator or the meridians of longitude. Geology 
shades imperceptibly into mineralogy, which in turn merges into chemistry, 
dynamics, optics, and electricity. All sciences are interwoven, and electrici- 
ty, a manifestation of one of the attributes of matter, is an integral part 
of every other concrete science, from geology to biology, affecting alike 
the oiganic and inorganic kingdoms. It is probable that terrestrial mag- 
netism, percolating waters and precipitation from superincumbent seas 
all played a part in the formation of ore deposits, operating under chemical, 
thermo-dynamical and electrical conditions of which we now have merely a 
alight theoretical knowledge. Mother Nature filled the recesses of her myriad 
subterranean treasure-hou.ses with the wealth that man now wrests from 
her by brute strength, and the little craft he has been enabled to acquire 
in the prolonged struggle. 

In connection with the foregoing remarks upon the influence of elec- 
tricity on mineral deposits, it may be remarked that there are puzzling mag- 
netic earth-currents in the Lake Superior native copper districts, these being 
especially marked upon Isle Royalc, where the variation of the magnetic 
needle is remarkable. It is to be hoped that these phenomena will be given 
the careful scientific investigation that their importance warrants, at some not 
distant date. Shortly after the laying of the first Atlantic cable, Ayers 
Stockley, still a resident of the Lake Superior district, performed some highly 
interesting experiments in subterranean telegraphy. His apparatus was 
home-made, but he succeeded in telegraphing for some miles along one of 
the magnetic currents traversing the cupriferous strata of Ontonagon county, 
with the crude but effective instruments of his own devising. 

It is still a matter pf dispute whether maay of the great bodies of 



24 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

chalcopyrite and cupriferous pyrite and p3nThotite are veins or beds. Re- 
cent investigation leads to the belief that many of the deposits formerly 
called beds are in reality entitled to the appellation of veins. 

The great predominance of sulphide ores of copper is a notable fact, 75 per 
cent, of the world's production of the metal coming from ores of this class. 
It is probably safe to assume that all, or practically all, copper ores were 
originally sulphides. Chalcopyrite is generally held to be a product of 
crystallization from fusion. Eventually the upper portions of these chal- 
copyrite and bomite ore bodies were altered, in the case of the older deposits, 
mostly to oxide and carbonate ores. In all likelihood this alteration came 
about from the action of water. The subterranean waters found in all 
rock strata at greater or less depth, are not oxydizing, but the surface 
waters have an affinity for carbonic acid, and, carrying this gas in solution, 
these surface waters, percolating through the rock strata and veins, attack 
the sulphide ores, which gradually yield up sulphur and become carbonates 
and oxides, through chemical reactions induced by carbonic acid. For this 
reason the permanent water level of a mine usually marks the lowest depth 
at which oxide and carbonate ores are found, and below this point the ores 
are nearly always sulphides, with a strong tendencey toward lower per- 
centage of copper and higher percentages of iron, as depth is gained. 

As chalcopyrite and bomite (compound sulphides of copper and iron) 
are overwhelmingly the most common ores of copper, and, below the perma- 
nent water level, practically the only copper ores, the alteration of these 
iron-copper sulphides to oxide and carbonate ores (or sometimes to silicates; 
or the higher sulphides of copper alone) by the action of percolating surface 
waters, charged with carbonic acid, necessarily sets free one atom of iron 
for each atom of copper dissociated from the original chemical union, in 
which one atom each of copper and iron were united with two atoms of 
sulphur. The iron also forms carbonates or oxides, most usually the latter, 
and, in the form of limomte, a hydrated sesquioxide of iron, is carried up- 
ward in the waters, and stains the rock above or near the surface of the orig- 
inal deposit of chalcopyrite. The characteristic rusty-iron stain of limonite 
is a prominent feature of the rock-capping surmounting many of the largest 
copper ore bodies, and this ** gossan " or " iron hat" is a welcome sign of 
copper values below, in nearly every copper-ore mining district of the worid. 
It is not an invariable sign, however, as it is necessarily lacking in many 
places, such as at imbedded deposits having no outcrop, and unaltered 
sulphide ore bodies, also at points where the original capping has been re- 
moved by surface erosion or glaciation. The gossan may also be found 
at many points where copper does not lie beneath, but, as a rule, a capping 
of gossan is a highly favorable sign in a cupriferous district. 

The rich oxide and carbonate ores existing at and near the surface in 
most copper-bearing districts (except in the native copper fields) may safely 
be considered alteration products from the chalcopyrite and bomite ores 
found at greater depths. The silicates, phosphates and other ores are prob- 
ably alteration products also, as are the higher sulphides of copper in which 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 25 

iron is not present, unless as an impurity. In some districts the imaltered 
sulphides extend to the surface, but this is the exception rather than the 
rule. The depths to which the carbonate and oxide ores may extend is 
dependent upon local conditions, and ranges from a few feet to more than 
one thousand feet. As a rule, the oxide and carbonate and richer sulphide 
ores (such as chalcocite) give way to unaltered sulphides of copper and iron 
at the permanent water level. In cases, not so very common, where* th^ 
altered ores exist below the water level, it is presumed that the alteration 
occurred during some antecedent age or ages, when the water level was 
lower, or the rock strata higher. The native copper deposits remain abso- 
lutely unaltered in nature or quantity below the water level, which apparently 
has no effect upon deposits of the \niigin metal. 

In this place, it may not be amiss to insert a few words of warning and 
advice to those lacking extended experience in copper mining.. It is un- 
doubtedly true that a geologist of high scientific attainments may make 
a poor fist at practical mining. Possibly this rule may be considered proven 
by the brilliant exception recently made by Dr. L. L. Hubbard, who stepped 
direct from the position^ of state geologist of Michigan to the general man- 
agement of a corporation owning undeveloped lands, and within a few months 
opened what must become one of the greatest copper mines of the worid 
within the next few years. On the other hand, the practical miner to whom 
is entrusted the development of a new copper mine, may profit greatly by 
bearing in mind a few facts that are not only geological maxims, but proven 
by innumerable practical illustrations. It is certain that copper mines — 
always excepting those producing the native metal — are subject to greater 
changes with depth than mines of any other class. All mines vary more 
or less, in width of productive openings and in the values found therein, 
as depth is gained, but copper ore mines, while varying in width and values 
with depth just like mines of other metals, are subject to a special series of 
variations, an understanding of which is of prime importance to owners and 
managers. In strong veins, where iron-copper sulphid&s are first encountered , 
a continuance of the vein to a considerable depth, with comparatively slight 
alteration, may reasonably be looked for. This does not apply to gash veins, of 
course, as these are invariably shallow, but the experienced miner is not likely 
to long mistake a gash vein for a true fissure. In other cases, where the sur- 
face openings show rich oxides and carbonates, or chrysocoUa and similar 
ores, it should always be borne in mind that these ores cannot prove per- 
manent. They may extend downward for a few score feet only, or possibly 
may hold for many hundreds of feet, but sooner or later they will give way 
at depth to unaltered iron-copper sulphides, as will copper glance or other 
high-grade ores. The oxides and carbonates, from their richness in metal 
and the ease with which they may be smelted, are highly desirable ores, 
and have been the making of many good mines that otherwise would have 
proven failures, through affording profits with which to open more extensive 
bodies of lower grade ore at greater depth, and to build and equip the large 



26 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

and costly smelters required for successful treatment of the iron-copper 
sulphides. 

For the reason that a change at depth is inevitable, it is highly im- 
portant that a new copper mine having high-grade surface ores should prove 
its property before forming a pennanent plan of mining, smelting and finan- 
cial conduct. This can be done in one way only, and that is by probing the 
, ground. The probing may be done by diamond drills, or by sinking shafts. 
Diamond drilling is a wonderful aid in exploring new territory, but at best 
it is only a sort of blind-man's-bufT. As a preliminary measure diamond 
drilling is highly commendable, but for a certainty the shaft or tunnel is 
the thing. Where a mine is already opened on rich copper ores, sinking is 
the proper course. This will determine the extent of the richer ore bodies 
and the nature of the unaltered sulphides. At times highly profitable oxides 
and carbonates are replaced by sulphides of too low grade to work at a profit. 
More frequently the richer ores are replaced at depth by sulphides that 
can l)e profitably worked, provided a sufficiently extensive mechanical and 
metallui^gical equipment is supplied. As a rule, the better a copper mine at 
surface, the better at depth, but there are such important exceptions that 
development is the only safe guide. 

For the reasons set forth in the foregoing paragraphs, it is important 
that the management of a copper ore mine have more than a surface knowl- 
edge of its property before laying out permanent plans. Handsome profits 
may be earned from surface and sub-surface ores, but if these be paid out 
in dividends as quickly as earned, the change in the ore, certain to come 
at some depth, may leave the company with a depleted trea«?ury to face 
the problem of raising large sums for development and equipment. Share- 
holders will pay assessments more readily on a new or developing mine than 
on one that has been a dividend payer. In connection with the advice con- 
tained in the preceding paragraphs, there are sections in the chapter on 
metallui^y of interest to those lacking experience who may be responsible 
for the development of new mines. To the experienced mining men I am 
not offering advice. Such men are always seeking for information to add 
to their already extensive stocks, but they do not hanker for advice. 

The various chapters on the ore deposits of the world will be found 
to contain a great amount of geological matter of a more specific nature 
than given in the preceding pages, and geological data of a still more detailed 
nature \*nll be found in many of the d'*soriptions of mines. In the chapter 
on chemistry and mineralogy there are detailed descriptions of the physical 
and chemical characteristics of the metal and its various ores and minerals, 
of which the principal, from an economical standpoint, are native copp^, 
chalcopyrite, bomite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, tenorite, cuprite and 
chrysocolla. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 



27 



CHAPTER III. 



Chemistry and Mineralogy of Copper. 



In the following pages will be found a list of the ores and alloys of 
copper, with brief descriptions, the detail depending somewhat upon the 
importance or special interest possessed. The native metal itself is included 
in the ILst, which also gives the synonyms of the principal copper ores. 

No attempt has been made to render this chapter exhaustive, despite 
its considerable length. Readers desiring further and more detailed knowl- 
edge of the various ores, including their optical properties, complete pyro- 
gnostics and crystallization, are referred to the standard works on miner- 
alogy. It is believed, however, that the pages appended may prove of 
some assistance to the general reader interested in the subject of copper, 
and possibly wnll interest the scientist as well, because of being the first 
encyclopsedic list of exclusively copper minerals ever published. 

Following is a list of the elements with which copper is found chem- 
ically united in nature. . This list includes 29 of the 77 elements known 
to science at this writing. Following the name of each element is its chem- 
ical symbol and atomic weight, as now figured by the best authorities. 

Element Symbol Atomic weight Element Symbol Atomic weight 



Aluminum 


Al 


27.1 


Nitrogen 


N 


14.04 


Antimony 


Sb 


120. 


Oxygen 





16. 


Arsenic 


As 


75. 


Phosphorus 


P 


31. 


Bismuth 


Bi 


208.3 


Platinum 


Pt 


195. 


Calcium 


Ca 


40.1 


Selenium 


Se 


79.2 


Carbon 


C 


12. 


Silicon 


Si 


28.4 


Chlorine 


a 


35.45 


Silver 


Ag 


107.93 


Cobalt 


Co 


59. 


Sulphur 


S 


32.06 


Copper 


Cu 


63.6 


Tellurium 


Te 


127.5 


Hydrdgen 


H 


1.01 


Tin 


Sn 


119. 


Iron 


Fe 


56. 


Tungsten 


W 


184. 


Lead 


PI 


206.9 


Uranium 


U 


240. 


Manganese 


Mn 


55. 


Vanadium 


V 


51.4 


Nickel 


Ni 


58.7 


Zinc 


Zn 


65.4 


Niobium 


Nb 


93.7 









The elements with which copper unites most frequently are as follows, 
in approximate order of frequency and preference : Sulphur, oxygen, carbon, 
arsenic, antimony, bismuth, silica, chlorine, phosphorus, nitrogen, selenium, 
wolframium (tungsten), uranium, and vanadium. 



28 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

The ores of copper (alone or with other metals). may be divided into the 
following groups- % 

Antimonides Oxides Sulphoarsenites 

Arsenates Oxychlorides Sulphides 

Arsenides Phosphates Sulphates 

Arsenites Selenides Sulphobismuthites 

Carbonates Selenites Tellurides 

Chlorides Silicates Tungstates 

Molybdates Sulphoantimonates Uranates 

Niobates Sulphoantimonites Vanadates 

Nitrates Sulphoarsenates 

An alphabetical list of copper minerals, and alloys, including native 
copper and synonyms, is appended. 

ADAMITE. E^ssentially a hydrous arsenate of zinc, but copper may 
replace the zinc to extent of from a trace to 23.5% cupric oxide. 

AIKINITE. PbCuBiS,. Common names: Needle ore, ocicular bis- 
muth. Copper 11%, bismuth 36.2%, lead 36%, sulphur 16.8%. Ortho- 
rhombic. Crystals embedded; acicular, striated; also massive. Fracture: 
Uneven. Hardness: 2 to 2.5. Gravity: 6.1 to 6.8. Luster: Metallic. Col- 
or: Blackbh lead gray, tarnishing to pale copper red. Opaque. Fuses 
on charcoal. Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence: Ural Mountains of Rus- 
sia, and Gold HUl, North Carolina, U. S. A. 

ALASKATTE. An argentiferous galena-bismuthite in which lead is par- 
tially replaced by silver, 3.25% to 8.75%, and copper 3.5% to 6.1%, with 
traces of zinc, antimony and iron. 

ALGODONTTE. Cu,As. Copper 83.5%, arsenic 16.5%. Occurrence: 
Chile and Lake Superior. 

ALISONITE. A sulphide of lead and copper. Probably 3CU2S, PbS. 

ALUMirtuM BRONZE. An alloy of copper and aluminum. 

AMMIOLITE. Antimonite of copper and mercury. Cupric oxide 
15.5% to 18%. 

AITDREWSITE. A phospho-^ilicate of copper, iron, manganese and 
aluminum. About 11% cupric oxide. 

Axii^lYriE. A bismuthiferous stibio-arsenate of copper, carrying about 
4% iron and 2% zinc. A complex mineral of the tetrahedrite-tendantite 
family. 

ANTDCONIAL COPPER. Chalcostibite. 

ANTLERITE. A basic sulphate of copper with traces of zinc and cal- 
cium; chemical formula uncertain, contains cupric oxide 67% to 68%. 

APHTONITE. A tetrahedrite carrying silver, iron and zinc. 

ARinMITE. 5CuO, 2SO,-|-6H,0. Copper 45.5% to 48%. 

ASPEROLITE. Probably CuSiO,, 3H,0. Same as chrysocolla, except 
in excess of water. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 29 

ATACAMITE. CujClHtO,. Copper 15.9%, cupric oxide 55.8%, chlor- 
ine 16.6%i water 12.7%. Cleavage: Imperfect to perfect. Fracture: Con- 
choidal. Brittle. Httrdness: 3 to 3.5. Gravity: 3.75 to 3.77. Luster: Ad- 
amantine to vitreous. Color: Emerald to blackish green. Streak: Apple- 
gxeen. Transparent to translucent. Occurs as sandy granules in the 
province of Atacama, Clule, where first discovered, also at many other points. 
A valuable ore of copper where found in commercial quantity. 

ATELITE. A hydrated cupreous bi-chloride, 2CuO,Cua,+3H,0. 
From crater of Vesuvius, apparently at pseudomorphs after tenorite, and 
neariy the same as atacamite chemically. 

ATLASITE. A copper chloro-carbonate apparently between atacamite 
and malachite. From Chanareillo, Chile. 

AUiaCHALCITE. 2(ZnCu)C0„ 3(ZnCu)(0H),. A basic carbonate of 
copper and zinc. Carries about 21% cupric oxide. Monoclinic in acicular 
crystals, forming drusy incrustations; also columnar, laminated and granular. 
Hardness: 2. Gravity: 3.5 to 3.6. Luster: Pearly. Color: Pale green to 
sky blue. Streak: Light green to light blue. Translucent. Soluble in 
acids. Occurs in small quantities at numerous points. 

AZTTRITE. 3CuO,2CO,H,0. Common names: Blue carbonate of 
copper, azure copper ore. Monoclinic; also massive to earthy. Cleavage: 
Perfect, but interrupted. Fracture: Conchoidal. Brittle. Hardness: 3.5 
to 4. Gravity : 3.77 to 8.83. Luster : Vitreous. Color : Azure blue. Streak : 
Lighter blue. Transparent to subtranslucent. Soluble in nitric acid. A 
fairly conunon ore of copper. 

BARRHARDTITE. Apparently a chalcopyrite partly altered to chal- 
GocitOy by loss of part of iron content. Assays 47% to 50% copper and 
20% to 22.5% iron. 

BATLDOnixE. A hydrous arsenate of copper and lead, canying about 
26% copper. 

BELL-METAL ORE. Stannite. 

BERZELIAIIITE. A selenide of copper, Cu, Se. Copper 61.6%. Part 
of copper replaced with silver at times. 

BEUDANTITE. A complex and somewhat uncertain arseno-phosphate 
or phospho-arsenate of iron, copper and lead, with sulphates of the metals 
present in varying quantities. Contains 8.5% to 12.3% cupric oxide. 

BINHITE. 3Cu,S, 2AS2S,. Copper 39.2%. Carries also a little lead, 
iron and silver. 

BJELKITE. A cupriferous cosalite. 

BLAHCHED COPPER. An alloy of copper and arsenic. 

BLUESTONB. Sulphate of copper. Blue vitriol. Chalcanthite. 

B0606L0VSKITE. Apparently an impure chrysocolla, canying car- 
bon dioadde. 



30 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BOLEITE. Apparently a variety of percylite carrying chloride of sil- 
ver. Has 14% to 15% copper, 48% to 51% lead and about 9% to 10% 
silver. From Boleo mine, Mexico. 

BORNITE. CujFeS,. Copper 55.5%, Iron 16.4%, sulphur 28.1%. 
Common name : Peacock copper ore. Isometric ; many hexagonal penetration 
twins. Habit, cubic. Massive. Structure : granular or compact. Fracture : 
Small conchoidal, uneven. Brittle. Hardness : 3. Gravity : 4.9 to 5.4. Lus- 
ter: Metallic. Color: Copper red to bluish brown, quickly tarnishing to 
iridescence. Streak: Pale grayish black. Opaque. Soluble in nitric acid 
with separation of sulphur. Occurrence: In most of the important copper 
fields of the world. Uses : The second most important ore of copper. 

BOURNONITE. PbCuSbS,. Copper 13%, lead 42.5%, antimony 
24.7%, sulphur 19.8%. Massive; granular and compact. Crystals, or- 
thorombic. Cleavage: Imperfect. Fracture: Subconchoidal to uneven. 
Rather brittle. Hardness: 2.5 to 3. Gravity: 5.7 to 5.9. Brilliant me- 
tallic luster. Color and Streak: Steel gray, inclining to blackish lead-gray 
or iron black. Opaque. Fuses easily on charcoal. Decomposed by nitric 
acid. Occurrence: Hartz Mountains and Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, 
Carinthia, Cornwall, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Canada, Arkansas, Colorado, etc, 

BRASS. An alloy of copper and zinc, about 2 parts copper to 1 of zinc. 

BROCHANTITE. A basic sulphate of copper. 4CuO,SO„3H,0, 
carrj'ing 70.3% cupric oxide. 

BRONZE An alloy of copper and tin. The varying proportions give 
differing colors and qualities, such as bell-metal, medal bronze, gun-metal, etc. 

CACHEUTAITE. A selenide of lead, copper and silver, with occa- 
sional traces of cobalt and iron, carrying 7% to 36% copper. 

CALCIOVOLBORTHITE. A hydrous vanadate of copper, calcium, 
magnesium and manganese. Copper 30% to 35%. 

CALIDONITE. A basic sulphate of lead and copper. Chemical com- 
position uncertain. Cupric oxide about 10%. 

CANTOIflTE. A dimorphic variety of covellite crystallized in cubes, 
with cubical cleavage. 

CAPILLARY RED OXIDE OF COPPER. Cuprite. 

CARROLLITE. CuS,Co2S,. Copper 20.5%, cobalt 38%, sulphur 
41.5%. Occurrence: Carroll county, Maryland. 

CASTILLITE. A bomite of uncertain formula, carrying approxi- 
mately, copper 41%, zinc 12%, lead 10%, silver 4%, iron 7%. 

CHALCANTUITE. CuSO^+SHjO. Common names: Blue vitriol, 
bluestone, sulphate of copper, (-arries about 25% copper. Triclinic. As 
crystals, also massive, stalactitic and reniform, sometimes with fibrous 
structure. Luster: Vitreous. Color: Sky blue, Subtransparent to trans- 
lucent. Soluble in water. Solution will deposit metallic copper on iron. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 31 

CHALCOCITE. Copper glance. Cu^S. The richest sulphide ore, carry- 
ing copper 79.8%, sulphur 20.2%, also frequently iron or silver in small 
quantities. Orthorhombic : Also massive, with structure granular to com- 
pact and impalpable. Cleavage: Indistinct. Fracture: Conchoidal. Some- 
what brittle. Hardness: 2.5 to 3. Gravity: 5J5 to 5.8. Luster: Metallic. 
Color and Streak : Blackish lead-gray, tarnishing to dull green or blue. Opaque. 
Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence: In nearly all sulphide copper districts 
of the world in small quantities, occasionally in considerable bodies. Uses : 
The richest commercial ore of copper. 

CHALCOPYRITE. CuFeS, (or Cu^,Fe,S,). Copper 34.6%, iron 
30.5%, sulphur 35%. Frequently mixed with pyrrhotite; occasionally 
carries gold or silver. Tetragonal; sphenoidal, often twinning ; also frequently 
massive and compact. Fracture: Uneven. Hardness: 3.5 to 4. Gravity: 
4.1 to 4.3. Luster: Metallic. Color: Brass yellow, often tarnishing to iri- 
descence. Streak: Greenish black. Opaque. Soluble, except sulphur, in 
nitric acid. On being heated yields up a portion of its sulphur. On ex- 
posure to moisture and heat becomes hydrated, and copper and iron change 
readily to sulphates. Occurrence: In ev(!ry copper field of importance. 
The most common ore of cbpper, and the source of nearly 75% of the world's 
supply of the metal. 

CHALCOMENITE. A hydrous selenite of copper. CuSeO|+2H,0. 
Carries about 35% cupric oxide and 48% selenium dioxide. 

CHALCOPHYLLITE. A highly basic arsenate of copper; formula 
given variously — ^simplest is 7CuO,A820j,14H,0. Percentage of cupric 
oxide 44.5% to 53%. 

CHALCOPYRRHOTITE. Fe4CuS,. Copper 13%, iron 48%, sulphur 
38%. Occurrence: Cuba and Sweden. 

CHALCOSEDERITE. CuO, 3Fe,0„ 2P,0„ 8H,0. Cupric oxide about 

8%. 

CHALCOSIIIE. Chalcocite. 

CHALCOSTIBITE. Cu^S, Sb^,. Essentially a sulpho-antimonide of 
copper, carrying about 25% copper, 48% antimony, 26% sulphur, with 1% 
to 2% iron and occasionally a fractional percentage of lead. 

CHALCOTRICHITE. A form of cuprite with capillary or acicular crys- 
tallization. 

CHENEVIXITE. A hydrous arsenate of copper and iron, formula 
uncertain. Cupric oxide about 26.3%. 

CHESST COPPER. Azurite. 

CHILENITE. Probably AgaBi, with copper replacing silver to extent 
of about 7%. 

CHIVIATITE. A sulphide of lead and bismuth in which lead is partly 
replaced by copper to extent of about 2.5%. Occurrence: Chiviato, Peru. 

CHLOAHTHITE. Empirically NiAs,, a diarsenide of nickel. In 
analyses invariably shows cobalt and iron, and frequently traces of copper 



32 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

biBinuth, antimony, lead and silver. The ease with which partial replace- 
ment of the nickel is effected in both chloanthite and smalt vte calls attention 
to the minerals keweenawite and mohawkite, which, though lower m the 
aeries of arsenides, are very properiy described by Dr. Koenig, the discov- 
erer, as compound arsenides/ the formula being written (CuNiCo). The same 
formula might be used to advantage with chloanthite, smaltite and sundry 
other arsenides of protean forms. 

CHLOROTILE. Cu„ As,Ot+6H,0. Carries about 32.5% copper. A 
hydrous arsenate of copper. Orthorhombic ; fibrous and massive. Soft. 
Color: Pale emerald green. Transparent. 

CHRTSOCOLLA. CuSiO,, 2H,0. Carries about 36.1% copper. Com- 
mon name : Mountain green and Mountain blue. Cryptocrystalline, enamel- 
like. Sometimes botiyoidal. Fracture: Conchoidal. Brittle and some- 
what sectile. Hardness: 2 to 4. Gravity: 2 to 2.24. Luster: Vitreous to 
earthy. Color: Mountain green, bluish green, sky blue to turquoise blue. 
Impure varieties, brown to dull black. Streak: White from pure varieties. 
Translucent to opaque. Decomposed by acids without gelatinization. 
Occurrence: Frequently with other ores, especially in upper portions of 
veins. 

CLARITE. Probably a dunorphus form of enaigite. 

CLATITB. A stibio-arsenate of lead, with lead replaced to extent of 
about 8% copper and a trace of silver. 

CUHOCLASITE. 6CuO, As,0t+3H,0. Carries 48% to 50% copper. 
A hydrous arsenate of copper. Cleavage : Highly perfect. Brittle. Hard- 
ness: 2.5 to 3. Gravity: 4.19 to 4.36. Luster: Vitreous to resinous. Color 
and Streak: Bluish-green. Subtransparent to translucent. Soluble in 
nitric acid. Occurrence: Cornwall and Utah. 

CORDURRITE. A soft, black copper ore, found in Cornwall; sup' 
posed to be an alteration product of tennantite. 

COHICHALCITE. An arsenate of copper and calcium, carrying occa^ 
sionaUy sine and vanadium. Cupric oxide about 28% to 32%. 

CONHELLITE. A hydrous sulpho-chlorate of copper, carrying 72.3% 
cupric oxide. 

COPPER. Cu. Native copper. The chemical symbol Cu is an abb^-e- 
viation of cuprum, the Latin word for copper. The metal, native or refined, 
has the following names in the modem languages : kupfer in German ; kopper 
in Swedish; kobber in Non^egian; cobre in Spanish and Portuguese; cui\Te 
in French; rame in Italian. 

Atomic weight, 63.6. Belongs in the first group and is the leader of 
the fifth series of Mendeleefs Periodic System. The group is as follows: 
1. hydrogen; 2. lithium; 3. sodium; 4. potassium; 5. copper; 6. rubidium; 
7. sUver; 8. caesium; 9. unknown (possibly terbium, atomic weight 160); 
10. gold; 11. unknown. The fifth series, of which copper is the basic leader, 
is as follows: 1, copper; 2, zinc; 3, gallium; 4, germanium; 5, arsenic; 6, se- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 33 

lenium; 7, bromine. The three metallic elements falling between series 
four and five in Mendeleef's table, are iron, cobalt and nickel. The fre- 
quency with which these three elements are found associated with copper, 
and the ease with which all four metals replace one another are notable. 
The general resemblance between copper, silver and gold, which form as- 
cending steps in the same group, is readily apparent. Mendeleef's Periodic 
System may not prove the key to unlock the chemical secrets of nature, 
but it may be compared to a single tumbler in a combination lock, which 
has been nearly set in its proper position for opening. 

System of crystallisation, isometric. Tetrahexahedronal forms the 
most common, with much twinning. Crystals often show cavernous faces 
and occasionally elevations. Crystals are often distorted and pass gradu- 
ally through distortions into filiform and arborescent forms. Druses, often 
of considerable size, in Lake Superior native copper mines, notably the 
Central and Phcenix mines in Keweenaw county, afford many curious crys- 
tallizations, filiform and arborescent. Native copper also occurs massive, 
and in granular form, and in laminae. In the Lake Superior mines the 
metal occurs in all observed forms and sizes; in lamellar form, from micro- 
scopic flakes up to sheets of immense size and weight ; in crystals of greatly 
varying form and size ; in grains from microscopic size to considerable nodules, 
and in the various filiform and arborescent shapes in druses. The finest 
particles are grains and exceedingly minute flakes occurring in an upper 
sandstone of the Keweenawan series, while the largest masses, weighing 
upw^ards of 600 tons, have been found in contact and fissure veins in Kewee- 
naw and Ontonagon counties, though the bulk of the copper produced is 
secured from the stratified igneous and sedimentary beds of the Keweenawan 
series. 

Cleavage: None. Fracture: Hackly. Tenacity: Second only to that of 
iron. Perfectly sectile. Highly ductile and malleable, ranking in these 
particulars with the precious metals. Electrical conductivity, 931, as com- 
pared with 1,000 for silver, which possesses the most perfect electrical con- 
ductivity of any known metal or alloy. Conductivity for heat, 898, as 
compared with 1,000 for gold, the most perfect conductor of heat. 

Hardness : 2.5 to 3. Specific gravity, in vacuo, at degrees Centigrade 
(equal to 32^, or freezing point Fahrenheit), when chemically pure and de- 
void of porosity, is 8.945. Specific gravity of ordinary copper of commerce, 
none of which is free from impurities, varies from about 8.75 when cast to 
about 8.95 when, rolled, hammered or drawn, the exact gravity depending 
upon how handled and extent and nature of impurities present. 

Luster: Metallic. Color: Copper-red. Streak: Copper-red, metallic, 
shining. Tarnishes upon exposure of air to brownish red, and is liable to 
form a coating of verdigris or oxide upon long exposure to air. Atmosphere 
laden with moisture and carbonic acid is especially favorable for the forma- 
tion of verdigris. 

Fusibility : Copper is fusible at approximately 2,000^ Fahrenheit, or a 



34 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

trifle less than 1,100^ Centigrade. Color, when fused, sea-g;reen. Copper 
becomes volatile under the high temperature of the electric arc. 

Solubility : Copper is soluble in nitric acid, aqua regia, and strong boiling 
sulphuric acid, also, slowly, in dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, with 
admission of air. When in solution in nitric acid will deposit metallic copper 
on iron immersed therein. 

Affinities : Copper has a greater aflUnity for sulphur than for any other 
element. Also possesses marked affinities for arsenic, antimony, bismuth, 
oxygen and carbon dioxide, and unites with many other elements. 

Alterations: Native copper alters on exposure, especially in damp air, 
to the simpler oxide and carbonate ores, such as cuprite, malachite and 
azurite, and occrsionally, in time, to the more complex ore forms. 

Occurrence: Native copper occurs, usually in small quantities, in most 
of the principal copper-ore producing districts of the world. The native metal 
is mined upon a considerable scale only in Bolivia and Lake Superior, 
U. S. A. The Lake Superior district is notable for producing copper from 
deposits of the native metal almost exclusively. Thu Lake Superior native 
copper carries considerable stiver, but no gold. In districts outside of Lake 
Superior and Bolivia the metal occurs most frequently in connection with 
the oxide and carbonate ores, and occasionally with the more common sul- 
phide ores. 

Impurities: The native copper frequently contains silver, arsenic, 
bismuth, antimony, zinc, iron and mercurj'. Commercial ropp)er, refined 
from ores, may contain any of the elements already named, and also gold, 
lead, selenium and tellurium, the latter two elements in very minute quan- 
tities. 

COPPER GLAHCE. Chalcocite. 

COPPER NICKEL. .Niccolite. 

COPPER PITCHBLENDE. A ferruginous chrysocoUa. 

COPPITE. A tetrahedrite carr>'ing about 13% of iron. 

CORNWALLITE. 5CuO, AsjO^, 3H,0. fupric oxide 58.2%. 

COSALITE. A sulphide of lead and bismuth in which lead is frequently 
displaced by copper to the extent of 1% to 9% and silver 1% to 16%. 

COVELLINE. Covellite. 

COVELLITE. Cupric sulphide. CuS. Copper 66.4%. An alteration 

product from chalcocite and other sulphide copper ores. 

CREDNERITE. CuaMn40,. Cupric oxide 43%, manganese sesqui- 
oxide 57%. Monoclinic; foliated crystalline. Cleavage: Basal, very per- 
fect; less distinct in other directions. Hardness: 4.5. Gravity: 4.9 to 5.1. 
Lyster: Metallic. Color: Iron black to steel gray. Streak: Brownish- 
black. Soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

CROOKESITE. A selenide of copper, silver and thallium, 
(Cu, Tl, Ag)^, carrying 44%, to 46.5% copper, 1.5% to 5% silver and 
16% to 18.5% thaUium. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 36 

CUBAIVITE. CuFeA- Copper 23.3%, iron 41.3%, sulphur 35.3%. 
Also carries silica, and sometimes small percentages of lead and zinc. 

CXJPRIC OXIDE. CuO. Monoxide of copper. One atom of copper 
and one of oxygen, chemically united. 

CUPRITE. Cu,0. Copper 88.8%, oxygen 11.2%. Common names: 
Octahedral copper ore; red glassy copper ore; ruby copper. Isometric; 
commonly in octahedrons ; also massive, granular; sometimes earthy. Cleav- 
age: Interrupted. Fracture: Conchoidal. Brittle. Hardness: 3.5 to 4. 
Gravity : 5.85 to 6:15. Luster: Adamantine to earthy. Color: Light to dark 
red. Streak: Shining brownish red. Subtransparent to subtranslucent. 
Soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Found in most copper districts, 
especially near surface. 

CUPROBISMnTITE. Essentially 3Cu,S, 4Bi^„ in which silver sonic- 
times partly replaces the copper. Carries 7% to 16% copper, with slight 
amounts of silver and iron, and occasionally lead. 

CUPRODESCLOIZITE. A complex hydrous arseno-phospho-vanadate 
of lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Cupric oxide from 6.75% to 
11.21%. 

CUPROPLUMBITE. A sulphide of lead and copper; probably 

CU|S,PbS. Carries about 20% copper. From Chile. 

CUPROSCHEELITE. A tungstate of copper and calcium, caiTying 
silica. Has 3% to 7% cupriQ oxide. 

CUPR0TUN68TITE. Tungstate of copper. CuWO^. Carries about 
30% cupric oxide. 

CUPROUS OXIDE. Cu^O. Two atoms of copper chemically united 
with one atom of oxygen. 

CYANOCHALCITE. A phosphoriferous chrysocoUa. 

CYAlfOCHROITE. CUS04, K^4+6H,0. Hydrous sulphate of copper 
and potash. Carries about 18% cupric oxide. 

CYAlfOTRICHITE. Formula perhaps 4Cu0,Al,03,So,-l-H,O. A hy- 
drous basic sulphate of copper and aluminum. Cupric oxide 47% to 50%. 

DARWnnTE. Whitneyite. 

DELAFOSSITE. An oxide of iron, copper and aluminum, carrying 
about 47.5% monoxide of copper. 

DEMIDOVrrE. A phosphoriferous chrysocolla. 

DIHYDRITE. 5CuO, P,0,-H2H,0. Carries about 55% copper. Mono- 
clinic; massive; fibrous. Cleavage: Imperfect. Fracture: Conchoidal to 
uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 4.5 to 5. Gravity: 4 to 4.4. Luster: Ada- 
mantine. Color: Dark emerald green. Streak: Pale emerald green. Trans- 
lucent. Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence: Germany and the Urals. 

DIOPTASE. HjCuSiO, or (CuO, SiO,, H,0). Cupric oxide 50.4%, 
silica 38.2%, water 11.4%. Common names: Emerald copper; emerald 
malachite. Rhombohedral ; tetartohedral ; also massive. Cleavage : Per- 



86 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

feet. Fracture: Conchoidal to uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 5. Gravity: 
3.28 to 3.35. Luster: Vitreous. Color: Emerald green. Streak: Green. 
Transparent to subtranslucent. Fusible with charcoal and soda. Gela- 
tinises with hydrochloric acid. Occurrence: Siberia, Hungary, Arizona, etc. 

D06NACSKAITE. A sulphide of bismuth and copper, carrying about 
12% copper. From Hungary. 

DOLEROPHARITE. A basic sulphate of copper, probably 2CuO, SO,, 
with 62.27% to 65.2% cupric oxide. A sublimation product from the labora- 
tory of Vesuvius. 

DOMEYKITE. CujAs. Common name: Arsenical copper. Carries 
71.7% copper, 28.3% arsenic. Reniforra and botryoidal; also massive. 
Fracture: Uneven. Hardness: 3 to 3.5. Gra\'ity: 7.2 to 7.75. Luster: 
Metallic. Color: Tin white to steel gray, with iridescent tarnish. Occur- 
rence: Lake Superior, Chile, Mexico and Saxony. 

EHLITE. 5CuO, PaO,+3H,0. Carries about 53% copper. Closely 
related chemically and in physical characteristics to pseudomalachite and 
dihydrite. 

EMERALD COPPER. Dioptase. 

EMPLECTITE. Cu,S, Bi^,. Carries bismuth 62%, copper 19%, 
sulphur 19%, with occasional silver, iron, lead, and silica, also traces of 
tellurium. 

ENARGITE. Cu,As4. Copper 48.3%, arsenic 19.1%, sulphur 32.6%. 
Orthorhombic. Small crystals, also massive; granular and columnar. 
Cleavage: Perfect to indistinct. Fracture: Uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 
3. Gravity: 4.45. Luster: Metallic. Color and Streak: Grayish black to 
iron black. Opaque. Fuses on charcoal. Soluble in aqua regia. Occur-' 
rence : South America, Mexico, Luzon in the Phillipine Islands, also several 
American states. 

EPI6ENITE. Chemical formula uncertain. A sulpho-arsenide of 
copper and iron. Constituents by weight, about: Copper 41%, iron 15%, 
arsenic 12%, sulphur 32%. Orthorhombic. In short prisms, resembling 
arsenopyrite. Fracture: Uneven. Hardness: 3.5. Luster: Metallic. Color: 
Steel gray. Streak: Black, ^luble in nitric acid. Occurrence: Wittichen 
in Baden, Germany. 

ERmiTE. 5CuO, AsjOj. 2H,0. Carries about 47.8% copper. Ma- 
millated concentric crystalline groups; fibrous and rough. Brittle. Hard- 
ness: 4.5 to 5. Gravity: 4.04. Luster: Slightly resinous. Color: Emerald 
green. Streak: Grass green. Subtranslucent to opaque. Soluble in nitric 
acid. Occurrence: Cornwall and Utah. 

ERUBESCITE. Bomite. 

ERYTHROCALCITE. CuCl,+2H,0. Deliquesces on exposui^. From 
crater of Vesuvius. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 37 

EUCAIRITE. A selenide of copper and silver. Cu,Se, Ag,Se. Copper 
25.3%, silver 43.1%, selenium 31.6%. 

EUCHROITE. A complex hydrous arsenate of copper, carrying 47.1% 
cupric oxide. 

FAHLERZ. Tetrahedrite. Gray copper ore. 

FAHLORE. Tetrahedrite. 

FAlfATHflTE. Cu,SbS4, arsenic occasionally replacing the antimony. 
Copper 43.3%, antimony 27.4%, sulphur 29.3%. Orthorhombic ; Isomor- 
phous with enargite; also massive. Fracture: Uneven. Brittle. Hard- 
ness: 3.5. Gravity: 4.57. Gray with copper-red tinge. Streak: Black. 
Opaque. Fusible on charcoal. Decrepitates in closed tube. Occurrence: 
Cerro de Pasco, Peru. 

FESLDITE. A stibio-araenate of copper, having about 37% copper, 
7% zinc, 1.2% iron and traces of gold and silver. 

FOOTEITE. FormuU probably 8Cu(OH)„ CuCl,+4H,0. A hydrous 
chloride of copper. 

FOURKEnTE. Probably a mechanical admixture of galena and 
tetrahedrite. 

FREDERICITE. A tennantite carrying about 6% iron, 3.4% tin, 
2.9% silver and 3.4% lead. 

FREIBERGITE. A tetrahedrite carr>dng 26% to 31% silver, as well 
as small quantities of iron and zinc. 

FRIGIDITE. A tetrahedrite carrying about 8% nickel and 13% iron. 

GERHARBTITE. A basic cupric nitrate. 4CuO. N,Oj, 3H,0. Con- 
tains 66.2% cupric oxide, 22.5% nitrogen pentoxide, and 11.3% water. 

GERMAN SILVER. An rilloy of about 5 parts copper, 2 parts zinc 
and one part nickel. 

GLASBACHITE. Zorgite. 

GRUEHAUITE. A supposedly impure polydiniitc (nickel sulphide) 
carrying 11.5% copper, also bismuth, iron, cobalt and lead. 

GUEJARITE. CuA 2Sb,Sj. Carries about 15.5% copper, 58.5% 
antimony and 25% pulphur. From Andalusia, Spain, found with siderito. 

HEHWOODITE. A phoepho-arsenate of copper, with occas onal alum- 
inum and iron. About 7% cupric oxide. 

HERMESITE. A tetrahedrite carrying mercury. 

HERREKGRUHDITE. CaO, 4CuO, 2S05+6H,0. Carries 50% to 54% 

cupric oxide. 

^ 

HOMICHLIlflTE. Apparently a chalcopyrite partly altered to bomite. 
Carries about 44% copper and 26% iron. 

HORSFORDITE. An antimonide of copper, probably Cu^b. Carries 
about 73%, copper, 27% antimony. Massive. Fracture: Uneven. Brittle. 
Hardness: 4 to q. Gravity: 8.S. Luster: Metallic. Color: Silver white. 



38 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

tarnishing easily. Opaque. Occurrence: In large depositsi near Mitylene, 
Asia Minor. 

HYDROCIANITE. Cupric sulphate. CuSOf. A rare sulphate from 
Vesuvius. Effloresces in the air. • 

nVDIGO COPPER. Covellite. 

JALPAITE. Probably SAgsS, Cu,S, giving about 13% copper. 

JOHANNITE. A hydrous sulphate of uranium and copper, of uncertain 
formula, carrying about 6% cupric oxide, and 67% to 68% uranic trioxide. 

JULIANITE. A tetrahedrite-tennantite carrying less than 1% each of 
silver and iron, with about 52% of copper. 

KEWEENAWITE. (CuNiCo)^s. Carries 39% to 54% copper, 9.7% 
to 20% nickel, 0.9% cobalt. An arsenide of copper, nickel and cobalt, of 
the mohawkite family. No crystals are known. Cleavage: Subconchoidal. 
Fracture: Uneven. Tenacity: Slight. Hardness: 4. Gravity: 7.7. Lus- 
ter: Metallic. Opaque. Color: Pale red, tarnishing to darker red. Solu- 
ble in nitric acid. Occurrence : In the Mohawk mine, Keweenaw county, 
Michigan. Uses: Is smelted, in conjunction with mohawkite. 

KLAPROTHOLITE. 3Cu^S, 2Bi^S,. Carries 24% to 29% copper and 
51.5% to 54% bismuth with 1% to 1.7% iron. 

KROEHNKITE. CUS04, NaSo^ H- ,2H,0. A hydrous sulphate of copper 
and sodium. Carries about 47% cupric oxide. 

LANGITE. A basic sulphate of copper. 4CuO, SO,, 4H,0. Carries 
about 17% cupric oxide. 

LAMPADITE. Cupreous manganese containing 4% to 18% cupric oxide. 

LAVExvD U LAN. A hydrous arsenat« of copper, cobalt and nickel. Con^ 
stituente by weight : About 32% copper, 2.5% CoO, 1 .35% NiO. Amorphous. 
Fracture : Conchoidal. Hardness: 2.5 to 3. Gravity : 3.01. Luster: Greasy 
to vitreous. Color: Lavender blue. Streak: Pale lavender blue. Translu- 
cent. Soluble in warm hydrochloric acid. Occurrence: Saxony and Chile. 

LAXMANNITE. Phosphochromite. 

LEPIDOPHARITE. A cupreous manganese oxide of fibrous and .scaly 
form, from Thuringia. 

LETTSOMITE. Cyanotrichite. 

LEUCOCHALCITE. A hydrous arsenate of copper. In slender needle 
crystals. Color: Greenish white. Cupric oxide 47.2%. 

LIBETHENITE. 4CuO, P,0„ H,0. Carries about 53% copper. Com- 
mon name : Phosphate of copper. Orthorhombic. Fracture : Subconchoidal 
to uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 4. Gravity: 3.^ to 3.8. Luster: Resinous. 
Color and Streak: Olive green. Subtranslucent. Soluble in nitric acid. 
Occurrence: Hungary, Germany, Russia, Bolivia, Chile, Cornwall. 

LIME-MALACHITE. A hydrous carbonate of copper with carbonate 
and sulphate of calcium. 



>. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 39 

LIHARITE. A basic sulphate of copper and lead, PbO, CuO, SO,, H,0. 
contaios about 17% to 20% cupric oxide. 

LiujjACKERITE. a complex hydrous sulpho-arsenate of copper, 
nickel and iron; cupric oxide 36.34%, nickel monoxide 16.15%. 

LXHHAEITE. A sulphide of cobalt in which cobalt is sometimes par- 
tially replaced by nickel, copper and iron, to extent of 1% to 42% nickel, 
2% to 6% iron and 1% to 8% copper. 

LIRCOHITB. Octahedral arsenate of copper. Probably ISCuO, 4A1,0, 
5Ab,Os+55H20. Carries about 28.5% copper. Monoclinic; rarely granu- 
lar. Cleavage: Subconchoidal. Imperfectly sectile. Hardness: 2 to 2.5. 
Gravity: 2.88 to 2.98. Luster: Vitreous. Color and Streak: Sky blue to 
verdigris green. Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence : Cornwall and Hungar}-. 

LUZOlflTE. Apparently a diporphous form of enargite, found in the 
island of Luzon, P. I. 

LYELLITE. An impure variety of langite, containing gypsum and iron. 

MALACHITE. 2C\iO, C0,+2H,0. Green carbonate of copper, the 
most common carbonate. Monoclinic; acicular or prisms. Commonly 
massive or frequently incrustive. Sometimes granular or earthy. Frac- 
ture: Subconchoidal, uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 3.5 to 4. Gravity: 
3.9 to 4.03. Luster of crystals, adamantine to vitreous. Color: Bright 
green. Streak: Green. Opaque to translucent. Soluble in nitric acid. 
Occurrence : In most copper districts. Uses : An important ore of copper 
in certain districts. 

MALmOWSKITE. A tetrahedrite carr>'ing 13% to 16% lead, also 
silver and zinc in small percentages. 

HARCTLITE. An alteration product of copper sulphide, consisting 
of hydrated oxides and sulphides of copper. Found in Arkansas, U. S. A., 
and Peru. 

MATTRAMITE. A vanadate of lead and copper sometimes carrying 
also iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium and calcium oxides. From 19% 
to 21% cupric oxide. 

MELACOlfTTE. Tenorite. 

MELANOCHALCITE. Fonn: Amorphous or cr>'ptocrystallinc. Color: 
Jet black, coffee brown powder. Luster: Vitreous. Hardness: 4. Spe- 
cific gravity : 4.14. Opacity : The fine particles are translucent under high 
power of microscope, light passing through as yellow-brown. Chemical 
characters: Heated in a closed tube los^^s water and carbon dioxide and 
pow^der turns from coffee brown to brown black. With borax gives the 
sky blue color of copper. With salt of phosphorus gives a skeleton of silica 
in the blue glass. Is decomposed by hydrochloric acid, even a 3% solution 
of acid changing a fragment into a white silicious mass retaining the outlines 
of the original fragment, and only cupric chloride being produced. Com- 
position: CuO, 76.88; SiO,, 7.80; CO,, 7.17; H,0, 7.71; MO, .41; FeO3..07. 



40 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

SiO] and CO, replace each other within certain limits. From this fact and 
the behavior of the mineral under dilute hydrochloric acid, it is deduced by 
Dr. Geo. A. Koenig, who identified the mineral, late in 1902, that there exists 
in it a compound orthoacid, H4(Si,C)04, with the hydrogen replaced by 
copper. Viewed in this light melanochalcite represents the basic copper 
salt of the ortho-silico-carbonic acid, the figures of the analysis agreeing 
closely with the formula Cu2(Si,C)04,Cu(HO)2. Occurrence : In the Calumet 
& Arizona mine, Bisbee, Arizona, the mineral always surrounding cuprite 
as a black band and being overlaid in turn by green copper silicate and cop- 
per carbonate. 

MILAHTERITE. (FeCu)S04+ 711,0. A sulphate of iron and copper, 
in which the latter has partly replaced the iron. Carries 10% to 16% cupric 
oxide. 

WXITE. A hydrous basic arsenate of copper and bismuth, of doubtful 
formula. Carries about 44% cupric oxide. 

MOHAWKITE. (CuNiCo),As. An arsenide of copper, nickel and co- 
balt. No natural crystals have been found, but artificial crystals, hexagonal, 
have been produced by synthesis by Dr. G. A. Koenig, the discoverer of 
mohawkite. Constituents by weight: Copper, 63% to 69%; nickel, 3% to 
7%; cobalt, 0.6% to 2%; arsenic, about 28%, with more or less silver re- 
placing copper. Cleavage : Indistinct. Fracture : Uneven. Tenacity : Slight. 
Hardness: 4. Gravity: 8.05. Color: Gray on fresh fractures, tarnishing 
to purple or brassy yellow. Streak: Gray. Opaque. Soluble in nitric 
acid. Occurrence : In a fissure vein, in considerable quantities, at the Mo- 
hawk mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan. 

MOHAWK-WHITlfEYITE. Cu,A8. Carries 83% to 87% copper. Is 
a mere name of convenience for an intimate blending of mohawkite and 
whitneyite, or keweenawite and whitneyite, rather than the name of a dis- 
tinct mineral. Blending is indistinguishable to the eye, but is determined 
chemically. Malleable ; only a little less so than copper. Cleavage : None. 
Fracture: Hackly. Hardness: About 5. Gravity: 8.6. Color: Gray, with 
yellow tinge, tarnishing to coffee brown. Streak: Gray. Opaque. Soluble 
in nitric acid with small residue of gray powdei^ Occurrence : At Mohawk 
mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan. 

MOUNTAIN BLUE. Azurite. 

MOUNTAIN GREEN. Malachite. 

MYSORIN. An impure malachite from Mysore, India. 

NAMAQUALITE. A hydrated oxide of copper, aluminum, manganese, 
calcium and silicon, with 44.75% cupric oxide. From Namaqualand, South 
Africa. 

NANTOKITE. CuCl. A simple chloride of copper. Copper 84.1%, 
chlorine 35.9%. Isometric; granular; massive. Cleavage: Cubic. Fracture: 
Conchoidal. Hardness : 2 to 2.5. Gravity : 3.9. Luster: Adamantine. Col- 
orless to grayish white. Transparent to translucent. Soluble in nitric or 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 41 

« 

hydrochloric acids and in ammonia. Gives off chlorine when struck a sharp 
blow. Oxydises readily on exposure to atmosphere. Occurrence : Carmen 
Bajo mine, Chile. 

HOHLITE. . A frightfully complex niobate of zirconium, uranium, 
yttrium, erbium, cerium, iron, calcium, manganese and copper; latter less 
than 1%. From a feldspar quarry in Nohl, Sweden. 

OCTAHEDRAL COPPER ORE. Cuprite. 

OLIVERITE. 4CuO, As,04,H,0. Carries about 44.8% copper. Com- 
mon name: Olive green copper ore. Orthorhombic ; crystals prismatic, 
acicular; also globular and granular. Fracture: Conchoidal to uneven. 
Brittle. Hardness : 3. Gravity : 4. 1 to 4.4. Luster : Adamantine to vitreous. 
Color: Olive green to blackish green. Subtransparent to opaque. Soluble 
in nitric acid. 

ORH^EYTTE. Probably (Cu,Fe),(As, Sb),. A stibio-domeykite in 
which iron has partly replaced copper; found in Burmah. 

PARAMELACONITE. Apparently a duplex oxide of copper, assaying 
about 85% cuprous oxide and 13% cupric oxide. 

PEACOCK ORE. Bomite. Name sometimes applied to chalcopy rites 
showing iridescent tarnish. 

PELOCONITE. A variety of cupreous manganese. 

PEHTLANDITE. a sulphide of iron and nickel, carrying varying 
amounts of copper in small percentages. 

PERCTLITE. Chemical formula probably PbCuO,H,a,. Copper about 
17%. Hardness: 2.5. Color and Streak: Sky blue. Occurrence : South 
Africa, Mexico, Chile, Bolivia. 

PHILLIPITE. Formula approximately CuSo4,Fe,(S04),+0?H,0. A 
hydrous sulphate of copper and iron. 

PHILLIPSITE. Bomite. 

PHOSPHOCHROMITE. A phospho-chromate of copper and lead, con- 
taining 4.57% to 7.36% cupric oxide. 

PILLARITE. An aluminous chrysocolla. 

PIRITAS FERROCOBRIZAS. Spanish for iron-copper sulphides. 

PISAIHTE. (Fe, Cu)S04+7H,0. An iron 'bulphate in which part of 
the iron has been replaced by copper. 

PLUMBOCnPRITE. Cuproplumbite. 
PLUSH COPPER. Cuprite. 

POLTBASITE. A sulphide of silver and antimony in which copper re- 
places part of the silver. 

PRASINE. A varietal form of ehlite, carrying arsenic, silica and 
alumina. 

PSEUDOLXBETHENITE. A hydrous libethenite. 



42 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

PSEUDOMALACHITE. 6CuO,P,05+3HaO. Games about 56.5% 
copper, 21.2% phosphorous penioxide. Color : Dark emerald green. Greatly 
resembles dih\'drite in chemical composition and characteristics. 

PSITTACIKITE. A phospho-arseno- vanadate of le^d, copper, zinC 
and iron, with occasional cobalt. About 16% to 18% cupric oxide. 

PURPLE COPPER ORE. Bomitc. 

RABDIOIflTE. A hydratcd oXide of iron, manganese, aluminum, cop- 
per and cobalt, with about 14%, of cupric oxide. 

RED GLASSY COPPER ORE. Cuprite. 

REDRUTHITE. Chalcocite. 

REGNOLITE. Cu^AsaS,,. About 33% copper, also silver, iron, zinc 
and trace of lead. Tetrahedral crystals. Associated with sandbergerite, 
which it greatly resembles. Occurrence : Cajaniarca, Peru. 

REZBAlfYITE. Cupriferous cosalite. A sulphide of lead and bismuth, 
carrying 1.5% to 4% cupric oxide, with some silver and a trace of zinc. 
Occumence : Rezbanya, Hungar>'. 

RIONITE. A varietal form of tennantite, carrying antimony, bismuth, 
iron, silver and cobalt. 

RUBY-COPPER. Cuprite. 

RICKARDITE. A telluride of copper. Cu^, Te,. Probably one mole- 
cule of cuprous telluride and two molecules of cupric telluride, (^u,Te 2CuTe. 
Constituents by weight: Copper, 40.51%; tellurium, 59.49%. Massive. 
Fracture: Irregular. Hardness: About af.5. Gravity: 7.54. Color: Brilliant 
purple, rivalling bomite tarnish, even on a fresh fracture, and showing deep 
color when pulverized. Fusible: On charcoal. Soluble: In nitric acid. 
Occurrence : Good Hope mine, Vulcan, Colo., in vein of pyrite carrj'ing native 
sulphur and native tellurium, rickardite occurring as lense-shaped masses 
rather intimately associated ^ith masses of native tellurium, latter being of 
unusual size, sometimes nearly 3 inches. Identified late in 1902 by W. E. 
Ford. Is the first telluride of copper discovered, and shows an interesting 
resemblance to the selenide of copper. 

SANDBERGERITE. A tennantite-tetrahedrite carrying about 2.4% 
iron, 7% to 8% zinc and 3% lead. 

SCHWARTZITE. A tetrahedrite carrj'ing 15% to 17% mercury, with 
small percentages of iron and zinc. 

SERPIERITE. A basic hydrous sulphate of zinc, chemical formula un- 
certain, carrying a small percentage of copper. 

SIEGENITE. The nickeliferous variety of linnaeite, sometimes carrying 
small percentages of copper. 

SMALTITE. Empirically CoAs,, but always found to carry iron, nickel 
and copper as well as cobalt. See chloanthite for further reference to diar- 
senides and arsenides of cop{)or and assm-iated metab. 



THE COPPER HASDBOOK. 43 

SOMERVILLrrE. CuSiO^ 4H,0. Same as chn^socolla except carry- 
ing double the water. 

SPANGOLITE. A highly basic sulphate of aluminum and copper. 
C\i^ AlClSOiQ, 9H,0. Carries about 50.5% cupric oxi'de. 

SPAIIIOLITE. A tetrahedrite carr>'lng mercury. 

SPEISS. An alloy, of copper with arsenic. 

STAimiTE. Perhaps CujS,FeS,SnS, in which the iron is partly re- 
placed by sine. Carries about 29% copper, 25% tin and 23% to 29% sul- 
phur, with iron 6% to 13.5% and zinc 1.7% to 9.7%. 

STIBIODOMEYKITE. CujCAsSb). An antimonial domeykite. No 
natural crvstals have been found ; artificial crystals made by Dr. Koenig are 
hexagonal. Cleavage : None. Fracture : Irregular and uneven. Tenacity : 
Very slight. Brittle. Hardness: 4. Gravity: 8.1. Luster: Metallic. 
Color: Gray, with yellow tinge, like domeykite. Streak: Gray. Opaque. 
Soluble in nitric acid,with small residue of gray powder. Occurrence: At 
Mohawk mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan. 

STROMEYERTTE. Sulphide of silver and copper (Ag, Cu),S, carrying 
al>out 52% silver and 31% to 34% copper. 

STUEBELITE. A complex silici-hydrochlorate of aluminum, iron, 
manganese and copper, found on the island of Lipari, Italy. As determined, 
cArries 15.25% cupric oxide. 

STUDERITE. A varietal form of tetrahedrite carrying arsenic, iron, 
zinc, silver, lead and bismuth, in addition to the antimony, copper and sul- 
phur found in the nominally perfect tetrahedrite. 

STYLOXyPITE. 3(Cu^g,Fe)S, Sb,S,. Copper 28.3%, antimony 
31.3%, silver 8.1%, iron 7.3%, sulphur 25%. Orthorhombic. Fracture: 
Imperfectly conchoidal. Brittle. Hardness: 3. Gravity: 4.8. Luster: 
Metallic. Color: Iron black. Streak: Black. Fusibility: I>ecrepitates and 
fuses readily on charcoal. Occurrence: Copiapo, Chile. 

SUB-OXIDE OF COPPER. Cuprite. 

SYCHNODYMTTE. Essentially (CuNiCo)4S5. A compound sulphide of 
copper, nickel and cobalt. Carries 17% to 19% copper, 35% to 36% 
cobalt and 3.5% to 6% nickel. 

TA6ILITE. 4CuO, P,0,+3H,0. Carries about 49% copper. Mono- 
clinic; also spheroidal concretions with structure fibrous to earthy. Luster: 
Vitreous. Color: Verdigris to emerald green. Sub translucent. Soluble in 
nitric acid. Occurrence : Russia and Chile. 

TALLIN6ITE. Cu,(OH)aCla+4H,0. Chopper about 64%. A hydrated 
copper cholride. Sub-crystalline. Hardness: 3. Gravity: Approximately 
3.5. Color: Greenish blue. Streak: White. Subtranslucent. 

TEHHAIITITE. Gray copper ore. Cu8.\s2S,. Copper 57.5%, arsenic 
17%, sulphur 25%. The many varietal forms of this mineral are brought 
about by the replacement of copper with bismuth, lead, silver, zinc, iron. 



44 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

mercury, nickel, cobalt, tin and platinum. Isometric; tetrahedral, also 
massive; granular, coarse or fine; compact. No cleavage. Fracture: Sub- 
conchoidal. Brittle. Hardness: 3.5 to 4.5. Gravity: 4.4 to 5.1. Luster: 
Metallic. Color and Streak : Flint gray to iron black. Opaque to subtrans- 
luoent in small splinters. Fusibility and Solubility: Same as tetrahedrite. 
Occurrence : At many points. 

TENORTTE. CuO. Cuprous oxide. Common^ names: Black copper; 
black oxide of copper. Copper 79.8%, oxygen 20.2%. Monoclinic; earthy; 
massive, pulverulent. Fracture : Conchoidal to uneven. Hardness : 3 to 4. 
Gravity: 5.8 to 6.25. Luster: Metallic. Color: Steel gray in flakes, dull 
grayish-black when massive. Soluble in nitric and hydrochloric acids. Oc- 
currence: Italy, Tennessee, Lake Superior, etc. 

TETRAHEDRITE. Gray copper ore. Cu,Sb,ST. Greatly variable, 
shading into tennantite. Copper 52.1%, antimony 24.8%, sulphur 23.1%. 
This mineral is of protean form, frequently having a part of its copper 
replaced by iron, silver, mercury, zinc, lead, cobalt, nickel, tin and platinum. 
Isometric; tetrahedral; also massive; granular, coarse to fine; compact. 
No cleavage. Fracture: Subconchoidal to uneven. Brittle. Hardness: 
3.5 to 4.5. Gravity: 4.4 to 5.1. Luster: Brilliant metallic. Color: Flint 
gray to iron black. Streak: Graybh brown to cherr>' red. Opaque in 
quantity: occasionally subtranslucent (cherry-red) in very thin splinters. 
Fusible on charcoal. Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence: Cornwall, Ger-' 
many, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Arizona, Nevada, etc. 

TILE ORE. A mixture of atacamite and cuprite with hematite and 
earthy material. 

TORBERinTE. CuO, 2U0„ P,0„ 8H,0. Uranium mica. A hydrous 
phosphate of copper and uranium, frequently carrying arsenic. Carries 
8% to 9% cupric oxide and 59% to 62% uranic oxide. 

TRICHALCITE. Cu„ AsA+SHjO. Carries about 34% copper. In 
radiated groups, columnar; also in dendritic forms. Hardness: 2.5. Lus- 
ter: Silky. Color: Verdigris green. Soluble in hydrochloric acid. Occur- 
rence: Turginski mine, Russia. 

TRIPPKEITE. An arsenite of copper. ?CuO, As^O,. Found in druses. 

TURQUOISE. A gem stone (hydrous phosphate of aluminum) colored 
by 2% to 8% cupric oxide. 

TYROLITE. 5CuO,As,04,9H,0. Cupric oxide about 50%. 

UMANGITE. A selenide of copper, formula CujSe,. Carries 54% to 
56% copper. 

URANIUM MICA. Torbemite. 

URAKOCHALCITE. A hydrous sulphate of uranium and copper, 
formula undetermined, carrying about 6% to 7% cupric oxide. 

VALLERTTE. A mineral containing copper, sulphur, iron, alumina, 
magnesia and water. Color resembles pyrrhotite. Very soft. Occurrence: 
At Nya Kopparfoerg, Sweden. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 45 

VARIEGATED COPPER ORE. Bomite. 

VAUQUELIHITE. Phosphochromite. 

VELVET COPPER ORE. Cyanotrichite. 

VEHERITE. a hydrous silicate of aluminum, iron (both protoxide and 

■esquioxide), magnesium and copper. As determined carries about 15.25% 
cupric oxide. 

VERDIGRIS. Copper carbonate. Formed from the metal by carbon 
dioxide assisted by moisture in the air. 

VESZELTITE. A hydrous phospho-arsenate of copper and zinc. Per- 
eentage of cupric oxide about 37.4%. 

VOLBORTHITE. A hydrous vanadate of copper, barium and calcium. 
Cupric oxide about 38.4%. 

WARRnVGTONITE. A varietal form of brochantite. 

WHITAEYITE. Cu«As. About 85% copper. Massive; crystallines- 
granular, fiialleable. Hardness: 3.5. Gravity: 8.4 tp 8.6. Luster: Sub- 
metallic. Color: Grayish white, tarnishing to bronze or brownish black. 
Slightly iridescent. Opaque. Soluble in nitric acid. Occurrence : Hough- 
ton county, Lake Superior, Sonora, Mexico, and Chile. 

WuulLERITE. a highly complex hydrated carbo-oxy-arsenate of 
copper, cobalt, nickel and calcium, from Almeria, Spain; carrying about 
15% in cupric oxide. 

WOOD COPPER. OUvenite. 

WrmCHEHITE. Cu,BiS,. Copper 38.4%, bismuth 42.1%/ sulphur 
19.5%. Orthorhombic, qiassive and disseminated, also coarse columnar. 
Fracture: Conchoidal. Hardness: 3.5. Gravity: 5. Color: Steel gray to 
tin-white, tarnishing to palo lead gray. Streak: Black. Decomposes 
easily on charcoal. Soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acids. Occurrence: 
At Wittichen, Baden, Germany. 

WOLFSBERGITE. Chalcostibite. 

WOODWARDITE. A complex sulphate of copper and aluminum, 
carrying 47% to 49% cupric oxide and 13% to 19% sduminum sesquioxide. 

YPOLEDCE. 5CuO, 2P,Oj+5H,0. A hydrous phosphate of copper 
of the pseudomalachite series. 

ZEUNERITE. An arsenate of copper and uranium corresponding to 
the phosphate torbemite. Carries about 7.5% cupric oxide. 

ZmXAZURITE. A mineral from the Sierra Almagrera, Spain. Es- 
sentially a hydrous sulphocarbonate of zinc and copper. 

ZmKEmTE. A sulphide of lead and antimony in which copper or 
silver sometimes replaces lead to a trifling extent. 

ZIPPEITE. A hydrous sulphate of uranium and copper, carrying 
about 5% cupric oxide. 

ZORGITE. .\ selenide of copper and lead, formula variable, giving 4% 
to 15.5% copper and 41% to 60% lead, with traces of silver, iron and mercury. 



46 THE COPPER HAXDBOOK. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Metallurgy of Copper. 

Upon this topic many volumes have been written, all of 4nore or leas 
value, some few dealing with the entire subject, while the majority treAt 
of a portion only. It is manifestly impossible to thoroughly cover the entire 
metallurgy of copper in the limits of a single chapter, yet I have attempted, 
conscientiously, to review the subject, briefly but fairly, giving to each topic 
its just proportion of attention, and to set forth in this chapter a very short 
but connected and logical account of the principal features of the various 
processes of copper reduction. To those desirous of going deeply into the 
matter I can but advise careful perusal of the works of Peters, Eissler, 
Douglas, and others who have written exhaustively of the various branches, 
of the reduction and smelting of copper. 

The metallurgy of copper is divisible into three principal groups, these 
bieng pyro-metallurgy, hydro-metallurgy and electro-metallurgy — the three 
kingdoms of fire, water and electricity. All are more or less closely related 
and interdependent. Copper secured by the various wet processes must 
be refined by fire or electrolysis, or possibly both. The production of com- 
mercial copper by heat alone is possible, and fire is the sole element used 
in the purification of the native copper of the Lake Superior district. Elec- 
trolysis refining is in general use for refining crude coppers containing 
high values in gold and silver, and for freeing the metal from more deleteri- 
ous elements. 

A brief glance at the history of copper production may not be out 
of place. The smelting of copper niust have begun at an early date, as 
copper and bronz« have been found in tombs and disinterred cities of very 
great age. The copper must have been smelted, because the ancients pos- 
sessed no mines of the native metal. The process of smelting was never 
lost and was handed down from generation to generation, from Egyptian 
through Roman to modem times. One of the Swansea smelters dates back 
from the Sixteenth century and was preceded by others of which there 
is little or no record. The Welsh and English were the first to engage in 
copper smelting as an independent industry, the practice from time imme- 
morial having been to smelt the ore at or near the mines. As a result of the 
establishment of independent works that bought ore from many mines, 
the Welsh smelters progressed more rapidly in metallurgical knowledge 
than their competitors and gained great skill in handling refractory ores. 
As a consequence Swansea became the seat of the greatest diversified smelting 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 47 

industry on the globe, and the location of the city being favorable for the 
receipt of ore and matte consigned from foreign countries, the industry 
has flourished for several centuries, but of late years has declined in im- 
portance, owing partly to the tendency toward refining ores as near as pos- 
sible to the mines, which is but a recurrence to the ancient practice. The 
decadence of the Welsh smelting industry has also been aided, beyond 
doubt, by the arbitrary restrictions placed on shippers until very recently. 

The Swansea smelters at the height of their prosperity drove hard bar- 
gains with producers. For a ton, 21 hundredweights were demanded, and 
received. An allowance of 33^ pounds on 3 hundredweights was exacted 
for *' draftee." Allowances were also claimed for moisture. No new 
smelters have been built at Swansea since 1867, though perhaps 75 per cent. 
of the world's copper output was smelted there at a period about the middle 
of the Nineteenth century. The Welsh port still continues as the most im- 
portant independent smelting point of the world, but, for the reason that 
the reduction of ores can now be accomplished more cheaply near the mines 
in most cases, can never regain its lost prestige in the copper trade. 

The first smelters in the United States were probably primitive affairs, 
of small capacity, built late in the Eighteenth century, but the first American 
smelter of which there is an authenitc record was blown in at Taineston, 
Maine, in 1836. The first successful American smelter was built at Balti- 
more in 1845, and became the nucleus of what is now one of the most im- 
portant metallurgical plants of the United States. A year or two later a 
small smelter was built at New Haven, and from this primitive plant dates 
the great copper and brass manfacturing industry of the Naugatuck Valley 
of Connecticut. At about the same period a smelter was erected at Bergen 
Point, New Jersey, the precursor of the present vast works at Perth Amboy 
and other points on the Jersey shore. A smelter was erected at Pittsburg 
in 1848, and about 1850, smelting plants were built at Cleveland, Detroit, 
and Hancock. Smelters were built at Ducktown, Tennessee, in 1854, and 
since that time the process of the copper smelting industry in the United 
States has been steady. 

In Europe there were copper smelters at very early periods in Germany, 
Sweden, Austria and elsewhere. At the beginning of the Eighteenth century 
in addition to an already extensive copper industry in Wales, there were 
nnelters at two points in Cornwall, also* in Yorkshire, Lancashire and Staf- 
fordshire, the last named works remaining in operation until 1890. There 
were also smelters near the principal mining centers of Germany, Austria, 
Hungary, Sweden, Norway, Italy, France and Russia, while in Japan and 
China primitive smelting operations were carried on at a number of points, 
and it is certain, though lacking detailed accounts, that copper was being 
mined and smelted, in a small way, in India, Persia, and other partially 
civilized countries. Copper was also secured to some small extent from the 
refining of the cupriferous silver ores of Bolivia, Chile and Mexico. 

With the opening of many new mines during the fourth and fifth dec- 



48 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ades of the Nineteenth century, when Lake Superior, Chile, South Africa 
and Australia became prominent aa producers; smelters; usually of crude 
pattern, were built at and near the mines, in many of the newer districts. 
The smelting of copper has now become a world-wide industry, and few 
of the leading copper producing coimtries are without laige and well-managed 
works. The margin of profit is now so small, and the cost of transportation 
so great, that the laiger producers are forced to produce at least the cruder 
forms of copper,- ranging from matte to blister copper, at the mines, or near 
them. 

Before treating of the various smelting processes, reference may be 
made to the impurities found in copper, with which the smelter must con- 
tend in his efforts to secure a product of good commercial quality. These im- 
purities vary greatly in number and extent, in the orei^of various districts. 

Bismuth is the worst enemy of copper, and its most insidious foe. It 
is eliminated with difficulty, and one-fiftieth of one per cent, will cause red- 
shortness, while one-twentieth of one per cent, will cause cold-shortness. 
Bismuth] ferous ores of copper are rarely smelted, except when carrying 
large quantities of silver, but bismuth is frequently found in ores where 
it apparently has no business appearing. 

Arsenic, like iron, is found in nearly all brands of commercial copper 
It slightly diminishes electrical co4ductivity, but under one per cent, does 
not seem to affect ductility. 

Lead, next to bismuth and arsenic, is the worst impurity in copper. 
One-half of one per cent, will make the metal cold-short, and one per cent, 
will ruin copper for all purposes except casting, for which use the lead is 
a positive advantage, as it prevents the porosity so frequently found in cast 
copper. 

Antimony, like iron and arsenic, exists in most commercial copper, 
but is usually found in small percentages. It lowers electrical conductivity, 
but under one-half per cent, does not seem to affect ductility. 

Sulphur, frequently found in excess in poorly refined copper, reduces 
conductivity and ductility when present to the extent of one-fourth per 
cent., and one-half per cent, causes cold-shortness. 

Zinc forms an alloy with copper, and in considerable quantities lessens 
ductility, but does not greatly affect electrical conductivity. Zinc is greatly 
disliked by copper smelters, and a penalty is charged for smelting ores high 
in this element. Many otherwise promising copper deposits are un worked 
because of the excess of zinc, which is eliminated with difficulty. In this 
connection attention is directed to the successful work being done at the 
Pride of the West mine, in Arizona, where copper and zinc ores are secured 
separately by successive concentrations. 

Tin, in small quantities, does no particular damage, but materially 
lessens ductility when present to the extent of one per cent, or more. 

Iron is found in practically all copper, except that which is chemically 
pure, in quantities ranging from a trace up to appreciable percentages. It 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 40 

to form an alloy with the copper, and while reducing conductivity 
does not injure the copper otherwise, unless existing in unusual quantities. 

Nickel, in small percentages, is a common impurity. It has apparently 
about the same effect as iron, to which it is related, and beyond a slight reduc- 
tion in conductivity has no apparent bad effect. 

Silicon, even in fractional percentages, causes a marked decrease in 
electrical conductivity, but up to 2 per cent, does not affect ductility. Three 
per cent, causes brittleness, and above 5 per cent, the metal is rendered 
too brittle for any ordinary use. 

Phosphorus, in the minute quantities usually found in copper, has no 
paiticulariy bad effect, but one-half of one per cent, will cause red-shortness. 

Tellurium, even in minute quantities, produces red-shortness and cold- 
aborinew, though not greatly affecting conductivity or ductility. 

Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, may be absorbed by copper at 
a critical pitch of the metal, and produces porosity, though apparently 
having no other effect. This, or other gases, absorbed by the copper when 
in a molten state, are let out as the metal sets, thus producing a more or 
leas porous structure. 

A peculiar feature of cuprous oxide is that it will melt, at red heat, 
without decomposition, and frequently becomes a component of the refined 
metal. Cuprie oxide, in small quantities, has no apparent effect on the 
metal, but in quantities of one-half per cent, or more lowers ductility, though 
not injuring the metal in other respects, even if present in quantities up to 
ten per cent. 

In the various processes of smelting, a variety of semi-metallic com- 
pounds are formed before the metal itself is produced. The first product 
of fusion is known as matte, or regulus. It is difficult to define copper matte, 
because it may contain greatly varying proportions of any of its elements, 
and a considerable variety of elements, of which copper and sulphur are 
necessary, while iron, arsenic, and a long Ifkt of impurities, valuable and 
damaging, are found in greater or less number and percentages in various 
mattes. Matte may contain as little as 15 per cent, of copper, or as much 
as 70 per cent., though usually ranging from 25 or 30 per cent, in the lower 
grades up to 50 or 55 per cent, in the higher. The tendency of modem 
practice is away from the old plan of blowing up the matte to blister copper 
by easy stages. In the most modem plants the matte is blown up to blister 
copper in two or three fusions from the calcined ore. Copper matte is 
variously considered as an i^loy, a chemical compound, or a mechanical 
mixture. It is obviously a semi-metallic product, possessing certain of the 
characteristics of metal, such as malleability, w^hich is quite marked in the 
case of sohie high-grade mattes. 

Blue metal is a high-grade matte, carrying 60 to 65 per cent, copper. 
White metal is a matte mnning 70 to 75 per cent, copper, and pimple metal 
carries 80 to 85 jjer cent, copper. Black copper is impure metallic copper 
carrjring 1 to 5 per cent, sulphur, besides sundry metals and metalloids 



60 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

^as impurities. The name comes from the oxidization of the surface to a 
dull black. Blister copper is the highest grade of unrefined metal, canying 
96 to' 09.5 per cent, copper, with one per cent, or less of sulphur, besides 
varying impurities. Its name comes from the blebs or vesicles in which 
the bubbles of gas from sulphur and other volatile elements are retained, 
as the copper hardens. Blister copper looks well, and is suitable for many 
uses, but is nearly always red-short, though not cold-short. It naturally 
varies considerably, the purer grades being practically a good quality com- 
mercial copper. 

Cement copper is a reddish precipitate, composed of metallic copper 
and sundry impurities, requiring reduction and refining before use, being 
usually brought to blister copper, then refined. Copper bottoms are alloys 
of metallic copper and metals existing in the matte as impurities, formed 
in matting. Their formation leaves the matte purer, and the bottoms are 
resmelted and refined. 

Finished copper is put out under many different names and brands. 
The principal English brands are " best selected," for brass foundries; " tough 
copper," for wire and sheets, and "tile," which is brittle, and suited for 
castings only. "G. M. B." means "ggod merchantable brands," and is 
sometimes stretched and sometimes contracted in meaning, according to 
whether buyers or sellers hold the whip-hand. "Chile bars," are bars of 
blister copper from Chilean smelters, ranging from 95 to 99 per cent, pure, 
and are refined before use. The principal American grades are "Lake," 
a very tough and ductile copper from the Lake Superior native copper mines; 
"electrolytic," produced by electrolysis from blister copper; "standard," 
which means almost anything that is neither very good nor very bad, and 
"casting," which, as its name implies, is suitable for castings only. The 
metal is turned out in a variety of forms, as ingots, molds, cakes, wire-bare, 
anode bare, etc., according to the particular use for which the copper is des- 
tined. 

As most copper ores occur disseminated through gangue-rock, the firet 
process of converaion into metal is one of concentration. By crushing 
the disseminated ore and worthless gangue, the ore, by reason of its greater 
specific gravity, can be separated from the gangue to a considerable extent. 
There are many variations, according to local conditions, but in the main 
the process of concentration is identical. The heavy ore is firet reduced 
to smaller size, then concentrated by gravity, with the aid of water and jig- 
ging. Hand-picking is sometimes resorted to, and there is a dry process 
concentrator, in which air is used instead of water, this being suitable for dis- 
tricts where water is scarce and expensive. The firet crushing is usually 
done with jaw-crushere. Gyratory crushere are sometimes used, and give 
good work, copper ores not being so liable to sliming as softer ores, such as 
galena. The next process of reduction is usually to pass the crushed ore 
through trains of Cornish rolls, for further reduction. Occasionally smaller 
jaw crushere are used, and sometimes rolls are used exclusively for crushing. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 51 

After reduction to desired size the ore is passed over jigs. These are of 
many patterns, but the essential principals are the same in all, the lighter 
gangue being driven off by a combination of movement in the jig and the 
force of running water, the vibration and water jets being so regulated 
as to permit the ore to remain while worthless rock is washed away. No 
matter how carefully this work is done, a Uttle ore is lost, and a little rock 
remains with the concentrated ore. In modem mills the '' fines," or very 
small particles of crushed rock and ore, are passed over patent concentrating 
tables, or the old style round-tables, for the saving of the very minute par- 
ticles. 

In the Lake Superior district, where copper is found native, the processes 
of concentration and smelting differ shghtly from those used elsewhere. 
The metal sometimes occurs as masses weighing from a few poimds up to 
hundreds of tons. The larger masses are cut underground, with long-handled 
chisels, to sizes that can be hoisted, and when on the surface are hand-cobbed 
to separate as much as possible of the adhering gangue, then put directly 
into the furnaces for smelting. The smaller masses are cobbed under steam- 
hammers, and also sent direct to the smelter. The bulk of the ore occurs 
as disseminated particles of small size, scattered through amygdaloid or 
conglomerate rock, in quantities from one-half of one per cent, to 10 per 
cent. This rock is hoisted to the surface as broken, put through one or 
two crushers in a rock-house which is part of the shaft-house, sorted by 
passing over grizzlies, then dumped direct into hopper cars and carried 
to the mill. Ore from the cars is dumped into bins at the top of the mill, 
thence fed by gravity under the stamps, which are very powerful, and actu- 
ated by steam, the feed being regulated by an experienced workman in 
charge. Such stamps', of the most modem design, crush 400 to 550 tons 
each, per working day of 20 hours, the rock being exceedingly refractory. 
From the stamps the crushed rock is fed to jigs, a portion of heavy copper 
being secured direct from the mortar boxes. The jigs are in series, taking 
coarse and fine sands from the stamps. A portion of the coarse sands dis- 
charged as tailings are recrushed and rejigged. The fines, or slimes, are 
passed over slime-tables of various pattenus, those in principal use being 
the old-style Evans round-table, sometimes with two or three decks to save 
floor space, and the Wilfley and Overstrom patent tables, whereon con- 
centration of fine metallic particles is effected by a combination of oscillatory 
motion, water jets, and parallel ridges on the bed of the table. The waste 
sands are washed away by strong currents of water, and piled some distance 
from the mill, while the concentrated metal with its adhering gangue-rock 
called " mineral," is taken to the smelters for reduction. The former practice 
of dressing this mineral to a high percentage of metallic contents is giving 
way to an opposite course, all of the Lake mills now dressing their mineral 
to much lower grades than formerly, it having been found that the cost of 
smelticg mineral, which is about $5 to $7 per ton, renders it more profitable 
to fuse the extra gangue-rock than to lose the large amount of fine copper 



62 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

formerly going away in the slime sands. The mineral produced by the Lake 
mills now ranges from 50 to 85 per cent, metallic copper. Many of the big 
mills make several different grades of mineral, varying in richness as well 
as in size of the nodules of metal. There is more or less hand-picking of 
the coarser grades of mineral for particles of silver, and a small percentage 
of the refined copper turned out is treated electrolytically, to save the silver 
that would otherwise be lost. The Lake copper carries no gold. 

The smelting of Lake copper is done in blast furnaces, often of consid- 
erable size. The crude mineral is charged in the furnaces with fuel, usually 
anthracite coal, though coke is used at a pinch, and limestone for flux. The 
product of the first fusion comes as impure copper and cupreous slags, the 
latter being resmelted. The crude copper is refined by a successive smelting. 
The refined copper always contains more or less silver, with traces of iron, 
arsenic, etc. Conmiercial brands of Lake copper are always less pure, chem- 
ically than high-grade electrolytic copper, but the Lake product pos- 
sesses superior ductility and is especially desirable for wire-drawing and 
similar uses. 

The great bulk of the world's copper supply comes from sulphide ores. 
While leaching processes are employed at many mines, the greater part of 
the sulphide ores is reduced by heat alone, and in such cases it is desirable 
that as much as possible of the sulphur be eliminated before the ore goes 
to the smelter, unless the system of pyritic smelting be employed. To 
accomplish the partial oxidation of the sulphur in sulphide ores, such ores 
are given a preliminary roasting or calcination. This may be accomplished 
by heap-roasting in open air, or by roasting in stall, shaft or kiln furnaces. 
Heap-roasting on a large scale causes the destruction of vegetation for sev- 
eral miles away, because of the fmnes of sulphurous and sulphuric acid 
driven off. 

The processes of heap-roasting, while identical in the main, differ greatly 
in almost every detail of practice. It is perhaps applied most successfully 
at the Rio Tinto mine, where the heaps are of enormous size, and are burned 
\iith a marvelously small amount of carbonaceous fuel. At this mine hand- 
selected rich ores, averaging 8 to 10 per cent, copper, are piled in heaps 
of about 400 tons, and fired with a single cord of wood, such heaps burning 
6 to 9 months each. The lime ordinarily required for roasting an average 
heap is 30 to 90 days, 60 days being perhaps a fair average. The ground 
for a roast^heap cannot be prepared with too much care. Allowance should 
be made for sufficient slope to provide good drainage, and ditches should 
be dug to carry off rain water, and also to divert the drainage of adjacent 
ground, as a large proportion of the metallic values may l^e leached out by 
water in a short time. The ground is usually surfaced with broken rock or 
slag, and given a final top-dressing of clay, well rolled or pounded. Above 
this should be placed a layer of fines, three to six inches deep, to prevent 
baking of clay and its inclusion uith the roasted ores, when the latter are 
removed. On this surface of fines the roast-heap proper is built. There 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 53 

is a first lnyer of wood, much or little according to the nature of the ores, 
and usually more than is really needed. The worst wood available will 
do very well, if care is taken to furnish a little good wood for kindling the fire- 
Channels are provided, so that after the wood has burned out there is draught 
through the heap. Chimneys of boards are built at various points, the 
number of channels and chimneys depending on the size of the heap. In 
American practice a cord of wood is used for an average of 30 to 50 tons of 
ore, the percentage of fuel growing less as the size of the heap is increased. 
The first layer of ore is of coarse lumps, 2 to' 6 inches in size, or even larger, 
surmounted by a layer of " ragging,'' or medium-sized lumps, and topped 
^ith a layer of fines. The greater the percentage of sulphur, the lower the 
height of tne pile. The shape of the heap on the ground may be squaro 
or oblong, usually the latter, to facilitate upbuilding and removal. In a 
roast yard it is necessary to have a considerable number of heaps, so that 
the process may be continous. The heap is fired, after building, and the 
wood gradually kindles the sulphur in the ore which continues to bum for 
many weeks. The success or failure of the process depends mainly upon 
careful handling, the heap requiring a small but steady supply of air, for 
even roasting. Too much air allowed to ent^ the heap will result in matting 
part of the ore. Heap-roasting requires a great deal of hand-labor, and has 
various objectionable features, which restrict its use. 

Ores are also roasted in kilns and in stall and shaft furnaces. A stall 
furnace is merely a perfected form of heap-roasting, wherein brick, stone or 
slag-block walls are built about the roast-heaps, regulating the air currents. 
At times a cover is built above, thus preventing the access of rain-water, 
which would quickly leach out a large part of the copper values. In the 
most modem forms of stalls, paved or grated floors are added, and stalls 
grade into furnaces by the addition of flues and chimneys for the carrying 
off of the roast-gases. 

The fumes of sulphur from roast-heaps are very objectionable, and 
also wasteful. Such fumes can be kept from the air and utilized in the 
making of sulphuric acid, by passing through lead-lined acid chambers, 
in which the acid fumes are taken into solution by water. Shaft-furnaces 
are especially used where the fumes are saved for the manufacture of acid. 
The Gerstenhoefer is perhaps the best-known form of shaft furnace. This 
consists of a vertical shaft with a mechanical device for feeding the charge 
from above, and the fresh, pulverized ore, is intercepted in its downward 
progress by projecting ledges, thus permitting its partial oxidation. Kilu- 
roasting is also employed where sulphurous fumes are saved for acid making, 
the kilns being of shaft-like form. This process has the advantage of per- 
mitting a much more complete desulphurization than is possible in heap 
or stall-roasting. Matte is sometimes heap-roasted, requiring several suc- 
cessive burnings. The practice is of doubtful utility, unless in exceptional 

8. 

The roasting of sulphide copper ores may be reducing or merely oxidis- 



64 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ing in nature. The calcination of copper ores is an apparently simple process 
but in practice requires nice discrimination and great care to secure the 
best results, owing to the varying proportions of copper, sulphur, iron and 
other elements found in the raw ores. The skill and care with which the 
calcining is done greatly affect the costs and success of the future processes 
of reduction. As the combinations of ores and requirements are almost 
innumerable, the practice in one district is usually more or less different 
from that of another, and even mines in the same district do not always 
perform their calcining in a precisely similar manner. Securing the best 
possible results in each case calls for individual treatment by a metallurgist 
skilled in practice as well as in theory — and more especially one skilled in 
practice. 

Calcining may be perfonncd in hand furnaces, but automatic devices 
are more economical, and are in general use in all but the smallest and least 
modem works. Hand reverberatory furnaces with a hearth heated by a 
fireplace separated from the furnace by a bridge-wall with side openings, 
give as good satisfaction as can be secured with hand furnaces. Muffle 
furnaces are sometimes used. These give a very equable heat, but are ex- 
pensive in operation and not* generally used. There are various forms of 
cylinder calciners, among the best of which is the Douglas muffle cylinder 
calciner, with continuous discharge. This has a central flue of tile, which 
takes combustion products direct to the chimney. This is suited for general 
work, but is especially adapted for the economical and cleanly saving of 
sulphurous fumes for the making of acid. Hand-power cylinders are occasion- 
ally found in use, but are as expensive and wasteful as hand-power apparatus 
of any sort, where mechanical means can be found for doing the work. The 
Brueckner automatic intermittent discharge cylinder has a greater diameter 
and shorter length than other varieties of cylinders, and is in more 
general use than the other varieties, as it takes less floojf space and is auto- 
matic and efficient in operation. 

The principal form of calciner is the automatic reverberatory, of which 
there are a number of patented varieties, all of more or less value. These 
consist essentially of stationary reverberatory furnaces, through which 
plows are dragged to rabble the calcining and remove the calcined ore. One 
of the best forms is the turret furnace, in which horizontal revolving plows 
are actuated from a central shaft, while the ore charge is fed automatically 
from hoppers above. The turret furnace is economical of floor space and 
attendance, and may be built double or triple decked, if desired. In cal- 
cining ores a certain amount of copper is volatilized, and carried off with 
the roast gases, but in all modem plants such copper is saved in dust cham- 
bers, where it is deposited and whence it is afterward removed and smelted. 
As flue dust is usuall}- high in arsenic and antimony, volatile elements that 
are highly deleterious to finished copper, flue dust is conamonly smelted by 
itself, though sometimes mixed with matte. 

The fuels used in smelting copper are of considerable variety, and depend 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 55 

somewhat upon availability and price, as well as local requirements. An- 
thracite and bitiuninous coal, coke and charcoal are used. Coke is in most 
general use, while charcoal is usually obtainable at more remote points 
only. Anthracite coal Is a very good fuel for most purposes, but unobtain- 
able at reasonable prices in the majority of districts, while bituminous coal 
is the most objectionable fuel, and, next to charcoal, the least used, though 
there is such a great difference in the nature of soft coal that some varieties 
work well in partial or complete fuel chaiges, while others give most abom- 
inable results. Gas is also used at a few points, and seems suited for rever- 
beratory furnace work. There seems no good reason why petroleum, proper- 
ly sprayed, should not ser\'e the same purpose. The nature of a charge 
l^aoed in a furnace necessarily depends, first, upon the available ores, and 
secondly, upon the nature of the principal ores requiring smelting. In 
practice it is desirable to blend various copper ores, where the necessary 
grades can be secured, rather than to add barren fluxes, but this is, of course, 
a matter depending upon the availability of the ores desired. One of the 
secrets of the success of the big custom smelters is found in their ability to 
mix various ores from different districts so as to lessen or entirely eliminate 
the use of barren limestone or iron ore for fluxing. The use of '^ sweeteners" 
is to be commended, where such ores are obtainable at reasonable prices. 
Ferruginous ores are required for mixture with silicious ores. Local con- 
ditions regulate practice, and the soundest theories must often step aside 
in the presence of prohibitory freight rates; and high freight rates are common 
in many of the greatest copper producing districts of the world. 

Furnaces for the smelting of copper ore are of two classes, the blast 
furnace, which has a powerfully reducing atmosphere, and the reverberatory« 
furnace, where a reflected flame gives a neutral atmosphere. The blast 
furnace is a device so ancient that the date of its invention is unknown. 
In its crudest form it is but an oven in which ore and fuel are placed to- 
gether and air pumped in to aid in reduction. The modem improvements 
on the blast furnace have been in the direction of enlarged capacity and 
details, the central plan remaining the same as a thousand years ago. There 
were blast furnaces for the reduction of copper ores in existence in very 
early days at Eisleben, Germany ; at Roros, Norway ; in Atvidaberg, Swe- 
den; at Perm, Russia, and in other parts of Europe. The development 
of the blast furnace to the present day size and efficiency has been accom- 
plished by a steady succession of little improvements, covering many centuries^ 
rather than by single strides, yet it may be said that blast furnace smelting 
has been improved more in the past thirty years than in the preceding five 
centuries. 

The smelting of copper ore in a blast furnace is the process of reducing the 
metal from its ores or gangues by the use of carbonaceous fuel, usually coke, 
in an oven having a blast of air, which may be drawn direct from the at- 
mosphere, or heated before passing through the tuyeres. This process is 
adapted to the reduction of practically all of the copper ores. In addition 



56 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

to the charge of ore, fuel and fluxing elements are added, the flux being 
cupriferous or barren, as circumstances may dictate. One of the greatest 
improvements of modem days in blast furnace practice has been the invention 
of the water-jacket. This was. devised at the Longfellow mine, Arizona, 
in 1874. The smelter was 800 miles from a railroad, fir»-brick cost one 
dollar each, and were of short life, the ore being highly basic. As it was 
manifestly impossible to make enough copper to pay for the furnace linings, 
the experiment was tried, of using iron sides for the furnace, with hollow 
walls, through which water was circulated. This proved a success, and 
is now in very general use, water- jacketed cupolas being far more common 
at present than those with fire-brick linings. Despite the considerable 
loss of heat resulting from the circulation of water between the inner and 
outer shells, the watei^jacketed cupola has proved itself both efficient and 
economical. Such furnaces are now built with daily capacities of 200 to 300 
tons. The shells are usually circular or oval, with jackets of cast-ixpn, 
wrought-iron or soft steel, and copper is frequently used. 

Reverberatory furnaces are a Welch invention, dating only from 
the last quarter of the Nineteenth century, and after running the gauntlet 
of conservatism have so effectually proven their value that their utility 
is no longer questioned. Keverberatory furnaces are adapted to all classes 
of ore, but are more especially suited for the reduction of sulphides, for which 
purpose they unquestionably lead the old-style blast-furnace. In the re- 
verberatory furnace the flames from a lower grate, on which the fuel is fired, 
are reflected back upon the ore charge, lying on a bed above, thus giving 
a neutral atmosphere. The fore-hearth is brick-lined and movable, and the 
air entering the furnace is frequently preheated. In the best practice five 
to seven tons of ore are smelted per ton of fuel consumed, the larger fur- 
naces giving the higher duty. Furnaces of this pattern having a daily ca- 
pacity of 250 tons are not uncommon, and even larger have been built and 
operated successfully. In the case of sulphide ores it seems certain that 
reverberatory furnaces produce a richer matte from similar chaiges than 
do blast furnaces. 

In the case of oxide and carbonate ores, the smelting is done in the 
same manner as previously described in the treatment of the native copper 
of Lake Superior. With the sulphide ores the process differs. The raw 
ore is roasted, or more frequently calcined, before charging in the furnaces, 
commonly of the reverberatory type. Under the influence of the reverbera- 
tory blast chemical reactions arc set up that lead to the volatilization of a 
considerable portion of the sulphur, also part of the other volatile elements, 
such as arsenic, etc. The product of the first fusion is secured as a low-grade 
matte. If the charge is blown up to more than 50 per cent, at the first 
smelting the slags will probably show too much copper, entailing direct 
losses or resmelting. The old practice was to bring the low-grade matte 
from the first fusion up to blister coppei by successive [smeltings, in easy 
stages, but the modem practice is to bring the matte to high grade by as 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 67 

few fusings as possible, and the former heavy losses in slags have been mini- 
mized by close attention to details. 

The '' direct method " of copper refining consists essentially of the fusion 
of a mixture of raw and calcined matte of about white metal grade, the 
resultant product being blister copper. 

The ''reactor process/' for which much is claimed, and from which 
much is hoped, is a patented system for the production of blister copper 
from mattes of all grades by a single fusion. The essential features of the 
process are the mixture of superheated steam and fine sand with atmos- 
pheric ai^, which mixture is drawn into the furnace through two or more sets 
of tuyeres, striking the surface of the molten charge and setting up a cir- 
cular motion therein^ which keeps the matte free from slag, and exerts both 
an oxidizing and a scorifying process simultaneously. It is claimed that 
gold values present in the chaige will be precipitated in the first matte, and 
that matte ranging in tenor as low as 15 per cent, can be brought up to blister 
copper at a single fusion, in a very short time, and that the blister copper so, 
obtained will range above 99 per cent, in tenor, and prove remarkably free * 
from the impurities present in the matte, which, normally, would be 
expected to appear in considerable quantities in the finished product. It 
is evident that the inventors of this process have a wide field before them, 
if their claims can be fully substantiated in furnace practice. 

The process of conversion first applied to steel making by Bessemer, 
and now in general use in the manufacture of steel, was eventually applied 
to copper smelting, after no little unsuccessful experimenting. The first 
successful plant for the bessemerizing of copper matte was built in Lyons, 
France, in 1881, by Pierre Manhes. This process was adopted shortly after- 
ward at the Parrot mine, Montana, where it was greatly improved over 
the French practice, and from that time its general adoption for the con- 
version of matte into blister copper may be said to date. The process, 
as now in general use, consists of burning out the sulphur and allied impurities 
in the converters, some of which are of very great capacity, having been 
built as large as eighteen tons. This process is completed in one heat, and 
the sulphur in the m^tte is made to work its own destruction under the 
influence of the blast. The process is an economical one, but should be 
foUowed by electrolytic refining to give a pure copper of high conductivity 
and also to save the precious metals usually contained in blister copper. 

The first converters were made of one ton capacity, but now rarely 
run less than ten to fifteen tons in size, in the modem smelters. The crude 
copper is run from the furnace into the converter in some cases, thus saving 
re-heating. Owing to the greater specific gravity of gold and silver the 
precious metals tend toward the bottom of the converter, and can be saved 
to some extent therefrom, but this process is so crude and wasteful that 
the gold and silver are now generally parted by electrolysis in a later opera- 
tion. 

Converters are built of steel, in various sizes, sometimes of great ca- 



6g THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

pacity, up to 15 or 18 tons. The boiler-plate shell is made in three parts, 
strongly bolted together on the flanged parts, and is lined with fire-brick, 
or, more often, tamped gannister, cemented with clay. In the best ar- 
ranged plants the copper is run direct from the cupola well of the melting 
furnace into the converters, thus saving loss of heat. A blast of five to 
fifteen pounds per square inch, furnished by an air compressor, is then blown 
through the molten chaige, the converter blowing ofif into hoods that con- 
nect with flues running to the dust chamber. The number and size of the 
tuyeres through which the blast enters the retort vary with the style and 
size of the converter, which is mounted on trunnions, and provided with 
mechanical power for tilting. More or less copper, volatilized by the blast, 
is driven off, but saved in the dust-chambers, and resmelted as flue dust. 
In the best practice ten to fifteen-ton converters handle full chaiges and 
turn out finished blister copper of better than 99 per cent., in one to one and 
a quarter hours. 

• Pyritic smelting is a process of reduction in which the sulphur in the 
*ore, itself a valuable fuel, is made to work its own destruction. In ordi- 
nary smelting practice the sulphur must be driven off, with great labor and 
trouble, through the employment of carbonaceous fuel. This process is, 
of course, adapted solely to sulphide ores, and apparently to only a portion 
of these, as sufficient silica is required to hold the iron in slag. Whether 
silicious ores might not be added to sulphides deficient in silica is a matter 
for experiment. In practice it is usually found advisable to use a little 
coke to start the process of combustion, but this merely serves as kindling, 
the real fuel being the sulphur in the ore itself, which unites with oxygen 
entering the furnace and passes off as sulphurous fumes, the iron in the 
ore also being partially oxidized at the same time. Sulphide ores occa- 
sionally require the addition of oxide ores to serve as a fluxing agent. The 
first cost of a pyritic smelting plant is less than that of an ordinary smelter 
of the common t3rpe, and, as fuel is the greatest single item of cost in the oper- 
ation of a copper smelter, the cost of operation is materially lower in pyritic 
smelting than with any other process. The cost of calcining is saved, and the 
fuel bill is reduced from 60 to 90 per cent. The atmosphere is neutral, and 
impurities are eliminated more readily than in other smelting. It 
seems the coming process for such ores as it is adapted to, but it must not 
be thought, from the manifest advantages of the system, that it will do 
for all sulphide ore properties. Its adoption should not be decided on in 
the case of a new mine until the best expert advice has been had, and care- 
ful consideration given to every possible factor in the case. 

Pyritic furnaces are charged in two ways. In layer charging the raw 
crushed ore is intimately blended with a small proportion of coke, and fed 
into the top of the furnace, there being gradual heating until the ignition 
of the entire mass. A low-pressure blast is used, resulting in partially 
roasting the ore before it reaches the smelting point. In column charging 
the raw crushed ore is fed into the smelting zone of the furnace, and a strong 



\ 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 59 

hot-blast aids in the process, exercising a bessetnerizing effect. When 
properly operated a furnace worked with a column charging gives matte of 
good grade, with exceptionally clean slags, has a large capacity and effects a 
big saving in fuel. 

The scoria, or worthless waste material from a smelter, accumulates 
in large quantities, and its disposal is a matter of importance. Various plans 
are in use for handling and disposing of the slags. The simplest is to let 
it run outside and care for itself, but this is possible only where there is a 
sharp incline and plenty of waste room, conditions usually lacking. The 
cheapest plan is, probably, to granulate the slag. This is done by running 
the molten slag into a trough conveying a stream of running water. The 
slag granulates instantly and is washed away by the water, and deposited 
by gravity at whatever point desired. It may also be taken out in slag- 
pots, by h{md, horse or mechanical power, or may be run out in gutters, 
while liquid. One valuable use of this material is the making of slag brick, 
which, while not suited to general use, are frequently available about a 
smelter. The chemical composition and physical properties of slag vary 
greatly, according to the nature of the ores and fluxes used in the smelter 
chaiges, but most slags are rich in iron and silica, and make excellent brick for 
certain rough uses. Whether cement might be made from copper slags 
is undetermined. The Illinois Steel Company makes an excellent cement 
from its iron slags, but the excess of iron in copper slags might impair the 
setting qualities of a cement made therefrom. 

The hydro-metallurgy of copper is a special branch of the art, and 
one which has reached its highest development on the Iberian peninsula, 
where its use has resulted in the development of several very large mines, 
which, without its aid, could not be worked at a profit. The use of leach- 
ing processes implies a final blowing up of the product in a blast furnace, 
but in the main the work is accomplished by heap-roasting, leacliing and 
cementation, in the case of sulphide ores. Lixiviation is especially adapted 
to sulphide ores of low grade, but it is not every low grade ore that can be 
handled advantageously by leaching, as it is not adapted to ores containing 
considerable quantities of the ferrous oxide, manganese or lime. The leaner 
oxides and disseminated sulphides having quartz gangues are especially 
suited to lixiviation. The great disadvantage of the process is that it is 
very slow, and locks up enormous quantities of ore, which means a heavy 
investment in unavailable ores and partly finished products, at all times. 

The leaching processes vary, according to the nature of the ores, and 
in minor details, but may be broadly divided into three groups, one for oxide 
ores, one for sulphides, and one for sulphates, the latter receiving the same 
treatment whether produced naturally or artificially. In the case of old 
copper openings, the waters percolating through the sulphide ores gradually 
leach out the metal, which is carried in solution as sulphate of copper, and 
can be easily precipitated upon scrap iron. The mines of the Sierra Morena, 
in Spain and Portugal, have been worked intermittently for at least three 



60 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 



% 



thousand years, and immense piles of low-grade sulphide ores and refuse 
have accumulated. As these weathered, the natural lixiviation was per- 
fected; and all that is needed to save the copper is to deposit scrap iron in 
the path of the leach water. Upon the iron the red metal is deposited, 
while the iron is gradually consimied, and turned into copperas by the free 
sulphuric acid set free from the leach-water. The process of securing copper 
from sulphate solutions is now used at many old mines, resulting in small 
annual production, and is employed in certain districts for saving copper 
from water pumped out of the mines. 

The process of natural cementation is well exemplified at the San Do- 
mingos mine, Portugal. The low-grade sulphide ore is cobbed to three 
or four-inch size, and piled in immense heaps, 15 to 40 feet in height, which 
are provided with valleys for drainage, with brick chimneys at intervals. 
Pipes are laid over the surface of the heap, and water applied copiously 
at inter\'^als. The water draining out of the heap is collected in sluices, 
and the metal carried in solution as copper sulphate is precipitated in metallic 
form on scrap iron. Such heaps may contain a million tons of ore, and re- 
quire eight or ten years for leaching. 

What is called artificial cementation is best exemplified at the Rio Tinto 
mine, in Spain. Broken ore is piled in roast-heaps, called teleras, in quan- 
tities of 1,000 to 1,500 tons to the heap, the ore ranging from one and a half 
to two per cent, in copper. The heaps are fired, burning slowly for three 
to six months, after which the ore, then thoroughly and uniformly roasted, 
is placed in cement tanks which are some five feet deep by one hundred feet 
long, and thirty-five feet wide, and provided with false bottoms of square 
timber. The ore is then leached, the leach water running into settling tanks, 
where the copper is precipitated on pig iron. There are five or six suc- 
cessive leachings, after which the leached ore is taken out, piled in heaps 
called terreros, and weathered again, for releaching. Some idea of the im- 
mensity of the scale on which the Rio Tinto is operated may be gained from 
the fact that the mine has about seven million tons of low-grade ore in terre- 
ros at the present time. 

Ck)pper sulphide ores are converted into sulphates in three ways. The 
first of these is by weathering, which induces a process of natural decom- 
position, as instanced in the case of the San Domingos, previously cited. 
The second method is that of slow-roasting, as just cited in the case of the 
Rio Tinto. The third system, which is employed at the Rio Tinto, and 
other mines, consists of roasting copper sulphides with ferrous sulphate, 
which converts the bulk of the product into copper sulphate. Sulphate 
of iron is freely produced in the cementation of copper, hence is readily 
available at small cost, at the Rio Tinto and other mines producing cement 
copper, in addition to which there is an immense supply of ferrous sulphate 
(copperas) produced in the weathering process preliminary to cementation, 
as the" Rio Tinto and other Huelva ores are chalcopyrite, which is a com- 
pound sulphide of copper and iron. In the chemical reactions attendant 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 61 

upon weathering, large quantities of ferrous sulphate are produced, and 
this, after further oxidation, reacts to free sulphuric acid and basic iron salts, 
the free sulphuric acid attacking the copper and changing it into copper 
sulphate, which is held in solution and may be made into crude commercial 
form by evaporation of the water, or precipitated in. the form of cement 
copper, as is desired. 

Copper sulphides may also be converted into ohlorides by two processes, 
both of which are used in the Hispano-Portuguese cupriferous fields. In 
the first of these processes the sulphide copper ores are treated with ferric 
chloride, or with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid. Decomposition 
is hastened by saturating the ores under treatment with calcium chloride 
(chloride of lime), or sodium chloride (common salt). The second process, 
which 18 quicker, and also gives closer extraction, though the cost of treat- 
ment is higher, consists of roasting the raw sulphide ores with a liberal addi- 
tion of salt. This is known as the dry chloruration process, and is in ex- 
tensive use at the Rio Tinto, where the ores receive an addition of about 
one and three-fourths per cent, common salt, and the mixture is roasted in 
teleras. The chlorurized ore is then leached in vats, as already described, 
and the residuum is placed in terreros for further weathering and ultmately 
a second leaching. A modification of this process is in use at Natrona, 
near Pittsbuig, where residues of Spanish pyrites used in the manufacture 
of add are treated by what is practically the same process, though con- 
ducted somewhat- more expeditiously and expensively. The process is 
also in use at several Canadian and American points, on a small scale. 

The Doetsch leaching process is not in present use, though once em- 
ployed extensively at the Rio Tinto. This system provides for the treat- 
ment of raw sulphide ores, which are mixed dry with about one-half per 
cent, of ferrous sulphate and salt. The ore is broken to half-inch size, and 
with the ferrous sulphate and salt is built up into large heaps having chan- 
nels and chimneys for ventilation. In about two years the weathering 
is completed, and the copper held in solution in the leach water, amounting 
to about 80 per cent, of the assay value, is precipitated on iron. 

The eariier wet process of Langmade was improved by Henderson in 
1860, and remains, with slight modifications, in quite extensive use. It is 
designed for the extraction of copper from the cinders of cupriferous iron- 
copper pyrites remaining after the extraction of the sulphm: used for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

The Hunt & Douglass process is an improvement upon the Doetsch 
leaching process, and while based upon the same general plan, is a modifica- 
tion better adapting the system to the economical work that is now neces- 
sary for the earning of profits in the copper trade. 

The cement copper resulting from the precipitation of copper from 
cuprous sulphate solutions upon scrap iron is a very impure mixture of 
metallic copper with iron, antimony, arsenic, silica, etc., and is washed be- 
fore reduction to blister copper in blast furnaces. 

The principle of electrolysis, or the parting of metals and the redepo- 



62 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

sition of one of them by the aid of a continuous electric current, was dis- 
covered by Faraday in 1839, but was not applied practically to copper refin- 
ing until 1881, when the'Balbach smelting works at Newark, New Jersey, 
put in a small electrolytic plant. Despite the obstacles met with at the start, 
the process gave such promise of success in the perfect separation of copper 
and its allied metals that its introduction was rapid. The process was im- 
proved speedily, and three years after its first use in the United States elec- 
trolytic plants were in operation in Wales, England, France and Grermany. 
For the refining of blister copper it has no competitor, and is now the cheapest 
as well as the most thorough process for the refining of all rough coppers. 

The process of electrolytic refining, producing copper of that name, 
is a step in advance of the old methods that produced copper of merchanta- 
ble grades, though containing considerable impurities, of which gold and 
silver, especially the latter, were the principal. It being evident that the 
precious metals did not add to the value of the copper, but were themselves 
of great value if it were possible to separate them from the copper, vanious 
plans for parting the metals were tried, but none of them were completely 
successful until the perfection of the system of electrolytic refining. 

There are two principal systems of electrolytic refining, with a variety 
of modifications of each. These are known as the series and multiple systems. 
The former has electrodes in series and tanks in series, or, more frequently, 
in multiple series. The multiple system has electrodes in parallel arcs, with 
tanks in series. The series system requires a much greater electromotive 
force than the multiple plan, and the latter is in more general use. There 
are a dozen electrolytic refineries in the United States, and no two of them 
are built or conducted on exactly the same plan, though the main features 
of the work are similar, the modifications being principally in the minor de- 
tails. The success of the entire system hinges upon the fact that under 
electrolytic action metals are dissolved at the negative pole of a battery, 
and redeposited at the positive pole, when free circulation is permitted 
in a favorable solution. Varying electric currents give varying effects, 
and some metals pass over sooner than others, copper being one of the first 
to go over. As the unrefined copper contains a variety of metals in most 
cases, it is important that the electrical current be so regulated that none 
of the other metals pass over at the same time as the copper, or the object 
of the work is defeated. Not only must the current be carefully regulated, 
but the nature and circulation of tfie electrolyte are of prime importance, 
in securing thorough and^ economical practice. 

Connections between dynamos and tanks are made of high-conduc- 
tivity copper, necessarily of laige size to carry the heavy current used, and 
of varying forms in cross-section. The tanks may be of wood or slate. The 
wooden tanks are usually lined with lead, tarred felt, or asphalt, lead being 
preferable. These tanks usually have their tops about flush with the floor, 
to permit easier handling of material, and are terraced in series, thus pro* 
viding for a natural circulation of the electrolyte, which is pumped into 
the upper tanks, and flows thence, by gravity, into the other tanks of the 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 63 

series. Overhead trolleys, running along the galleries and aisles between 
the tanks, provide expeditious means for bringing in the anodes and tak- 
ing out cathodes, which, in a large plant, are constantly being added and 
withdrawn, although the making of a single cathode requires several weeks. 
The anode bars are cast from blister copper, usually running from 98 to 
99.5 per cent. pure. These may be made at the smelter, or cast at the re- 
finery from blister copper p:ielted in a cupola furnace kept running for the 
purpose. Anodes are cast in a variety of forms, but more commonly are 
thin plates with projecting lugs that rest on the top of the sides of the tanks, 
one lug resting on the electrical conductor, while the other is insulated. 

The composition of the electrolyte varies at the different plants, con- 
taining from 5 to 6 parts of sulphuric acid, 15 to 20 parts of bluestone and 
75 to 80 parts clean water. The average composition is 16 to 18 parts blue- 
stone, and 6 parts of acid. The heating of the electrolyte promotes the 
process of decomposition and upbuilding, and produces a smoother depo- 
sition of copper on the cathode. 

The cathode plates are made of strips of rolled copper about one-quarter 
inch in thickness, and of varying sizes and foims. These are made from 
copper sheets, then oiled and coated with fine graphite, to assist in elec- 
trical deposition. The process of refining is necessarily continuous, to secure 
the best results metallurgically and financially, but from two to four weeks 
is the average time required in making an average cathode. Including the 
time required in remelting and in various other uses, it may be said that 
five to six weeks time is required for the making of finished cathodes from 
the rough copper received, though a much shorter time may suffice in some 
plants, under exceptionally favorable circumstances. The rate of progress 
secured depends quite largely upon the purity or impurity of the anodes, 
the process of electrolysis being greatly facilitated and cheapened by com- 
paratively pure anodes. 

As the anodes are torn down and the cathodes built up under the 
steady effect of the powerful electric current, the pure copper, with minute 
traces of the impurities present in the anode, is carried over to the positive 
pole. The great bulk of impurities in the anode are precipitated to the 
bottom of the tank, as sludge, or slimes. A certain infinitesimal amount 
of the impurities present in the anode will find their way into the cathode, 
but not to sufficient extent to injure the product for any commercial use. 
If more than traces of the impurities are carried over, it is because the elec- 
trolyte has become foul, or the current is wrong, or there has been serious 
carelessness somewhere. The chemist at an electrolytic refinery earns his 
fuU salary, for he must be working every minute he is on duty, as frequent 
assays of anodes and cathodes, and at least tri-weekly determinations of 
the electrolyte are required. There are local aberrations peculiar to the 
process which are liable to affect any or every tank, and even individual 
anodes, requiring constant watchfulness from superintendent, electrician 
and chemist. The sludge precipitated to the bottom of the tank may form 
a conducting plate, giving rise to short-circuiting, and should J»e removed 



154 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

before laige accumulations occur. When the electrolyte becomes too foul 
for proper use, it is purified, brought up to the proper standard, and pumped 
back into use again. The slimes at the bottoms of the tanks are siphoned 
or bailed out, taken to the sUme tank, and copper scraps picked out by 
hand, after which the copper remaining therein is dissolved out by a solu- 
tion of two to three parts 66 degree sulphuric acid with one part water. 
The remainder of the precipitate, which may contain gold, silver, tin, lead, 
zinc, antimony, bismuth, etc., is washed, dried, mixed with soda-ash and 
then smelted down to base bullion, from which the gold and silver are parted 
in the usual manner. 

The electrolytic refining of copper has been greatly improved during 
the past decade, and is now in very general use. In 1892 the output of elec- 
trolytic copper was about 25,000 tons. Three years later it was 87,000 tons, 
while in 1898 the output was estimated at 157,000 tons, and for 1902 was 
probably nearly 250,000 tons — a gain of ten-fold in ten years. The process 
is in such general use because it serves a two-fold purpose, saving the gold 
and silver values which had been partially or wholly lost before its adoption, 
while, also producing a product of uniformly high grade. Although Lake 
copper is best suited for certain uses, and there are other excellent brands 
not produced electrolytically, the fact remains that electrolytic copper is 
now the standard of the world, and bids fair to remain such until something 
akin to a revolution in metallurgy shall give us a refining process better or 
cheaper. The cost of refining a ton of crude copper by electrolysis varies 
greatly, ranging from about $10 up to probably nearly $25, with $12 to 
$14 as the average figures. Unlike smelting, which can usually best be 
done near the mine to save excessive freight charges on worthless material, 
electrolytic refining is performed in most cases nearer the consimier than 
the producer. The extra freight paid on the very small percentage of im- 
purities in blister copper is so very small a fraction of the total transporta- 
tion charge that this loss is more than offset by the advantages offered 
by the cheaper labor, cheaper fuel, and better transportation facilities that 
are found along the Atlantic seaboard in the United States, where a consider- 
able amoimt of foreign copper is refined, as well as the bulk of the domestic 
production. 

The possibility of electric smelting h^ long excited the interest of sci- 
entists and practical metallurgists. Various laboratory experiments have 
resulted well, but it is not a matter of record that any electric furnace is 
in successful commercial operation. Claims have recently been made that 
refined copper can be produced direct from mattes, or even from ore, by 
electrol3rsis. These claims remain to be demonstrated. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. . 65 



CHAPTER V. 

The Uses of Copper. 

The Uiree indispensable metals of the present age are iron, copper and 
rinc. The loss of tin, nickel, lead and aluminum would be a severe blow and 
work great hardship, and even were we to be deprived of such apparently in- 
significant metals as antimony, cobalt, manganese and platinum, the in- 
dustrial world would suffer a loss that would entail very disastrous conse- 
quences. The taking away of gold and silver, and that useful thief-taker, 
mercury, which catches most of the world's gold supply, would reduce the 
globe's finances to chaos. Iron and copper, however, are the main pillars 
of the metallic structure, while zinc, in addition to many other virtues, 
possesses the unique quality of being the only electrically negative metal, 
and without it, copper, for electrical purposes, would be like a "pair" of 
scissors with but one blade. 

The uses of copper are many, and great industries are dependent upon 
thb metal, which affords direct employzhent to some hundreds of thousands 
of persons, mostly skilled workman, and annually adds something like 
five hundreds of millions of dollars to the wealth of the world. The Stone 
Ages of humanity were followed by the Bronze Age, in which copper and 
tin were the only metals used, unless the wearing of a few gold and silver 
trinkets could be said to establish the use of those metals. The Age of Iron 
followed that of Bronze, and the Steel Age of the latter half of the Nineteenth 
century is but a later and higher development of the Iron Age, just as the 
polished stone weapons of the Neolithic Age of ethnologists indicate a period 
of adaptation and improvement upon the cruder weapons and implements 
of an earlier day. While iron and steel are not only holding their own, 
but gaining ground in phenomenal strides, another metal has arisen to claim 
at least a portion of the honors of Twentieth century civilization, and copper 
b the foundation of the Electric Age, just as it was the fundamental metal 
in the Age of Bronze, some milleniums ago. 

Of the many uses of copper, electricity is easily the most important. 
From a plaything for philosophers, in the times of Franklin and Volta, elec- 
tricity has become one of the prime factors of the life of the present day, 
and, unless all signs faU, the uses that we consider multifarious, and the in- 
stallations that we deem immense, are but the precursors of yet better and 
greater things, of which we may sometimes dream, and from which unsubstan- 
tial fabric the flash of Genius and the fires of Labor will bring forth the perfect 
fruit, for the use of generations yet unborn. A full enumeration of the elec« 



66 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

trical uaes of copper would require a volume, rather than a few paragraphs in 
a single chapter. The metal is an integral factor in all electrical installations, 
and for the transmission of power, light a^d telegraphic or telephonic impulses, 
is a necessity. The iron wires of pioneer telegraph and telephone lines are 
rapidly giving way to copper strands. Iron is low in electrical conductivity, 
making it an inefficient and costly medium for transmission. It is also sub- 
ject to rust, and its lack of the ductility which is such a prominent character- 
istic of copper, causes iron wires to break from winds and sleets that would 
not injure lines of copper. Iron telegraph and telephone wires are still used 
to a much larger extent than generally imagined, ow^ing to the cheap initial 
outlay, but the cost of maintenance and repairs renders it certain that iron 
must give way, sooner or later, at all points, to copper. 

The electric light was the luxury of great cities two decades ago; now it 
is the necessity of every progressive village of so many as a thousand souls. 
But a quarter century gone, telephones were tt scientific toy to the enlight- 
ened, and something uncanny and dangerous to the ignorant. Today a net' 
work of wires stretches across the American Continent, and Stockholm, upon 
the banks of the Malar, has one 'phone for every family of its population. The 
business man at his desk talks with his broker a thousand miles away. The 
Calumet & Hecla copper mine, one of the world's greatest properties, has tel- 
ephones nearly a mile below the earth's surface. Timbuctoo shall have them 
too, before the century's past, and to the pole that's now our goal, we'll tel- 
ephone at last. 

Only fifteen years ago the electric railway was looked upon by conserva- 
tive persons as a trumpery sort of experiment, scarcely able to deprive the 
long-eared mule of his appointed mission as motive power for the American 
street-car system. But where is the mule to-<lay7 His bones lie whitening 
upon the veldt of South Africa — Britbh South Africa now — and the street 
cars know him no more. 

Electric heating is yet an experiment, but its day will come. Electricity 
must play a more and more important part in the world's manufactures, both as 
a motive power and a reducing agent. In the happy days of the future the 
struggle of coal barons with rebellious workmen will no longer distract a pub- 
lic desirous of fuel for hearth and workshop. In fifty years, or less, the own- 
ers of the waterfalls will be the men on whose devoted heads the vials of wrath 
will be poured out, for they will furnish the heat and power, and will reap the 
reward of great riches, with corresponding unpopularity. Great as has been 
the electrical development of the past two decades — ^and it really began in earn* 
est only a quarter of a century ago — the future assuredly will discount the 
past. Power, heat and light that can be summoned by the turning of a switch, 
or the pressing of a button, will, of a ceitainty, displace the power that comes 
from laborious stoking ; the heat that comes with delay, and much soot and 
smell, and leaves ashes behind; and the light that comes of striking many 
matches, and with the effusion of kerosene that is odoriferous. Electric power 
is already the cheapest form of energy, where waterfalls are used. Electric 
light is growing both better and cheaper. Electric heat, while dear for ordi- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 67 

naiy use, at present, will become cheaper. The use of electricity for power, 
heat and light must become well-nigh universal, in time. 

Next to its electrical uses, copper is most extensively employed in engi- 
neenng; every modem engine has brass oil-cups; brass and copper tubing 
is used in many boilers; brass, gun-metal, bronze and composition copper 
bearings are a necessity. Copper and brass boiler tubes are used in loco- 
motives and other high type boilers, having ability to withstand enormous 
pressures, and being excellent conductors of heat. Copper tubes are used al- 
most exclusively in marine condensers. Until the era of iron vessels, prudent 
ship-owners sheathed the hulls of their craft with copper, which kept the bot- 
toms clean. Within the past few years this practice has been renewed, with 
modem steel steamers, on which it is necessary to plank over the hull below the 
water line, in order to give a backing for the riveting on of the copper sheets. 
The loss in speed, and consequent loss in time and fuel, brought about by bar- 
nacles gathering on iron and steel bottoms, is very great, and the cost of dry- 
docking and scraping, with loss of time entailed thereby, is probably con- 
raderably greater than the expense of wood-sheathing and coppering iron and 
steel vessels below the water line. Eventually some method will be devised 
for the plating of copper directly on the steel bottoms of the boats. 

Copper is used extensively in architecture, as roofing for buildings, either 
in sheets or tile form, and in cornices. For the latter use copper is consid- 
erably more costly than galvanized iron, but its freedom from corrosion, 
and its rich appearance without painting, render it desirable for ornamental 
cornice work on the better class of buildings. Bronze gates and doors for 
churches and public buildiil|gs are highly omamental, and the most desir- 
able that can be made. Bronze grille work is frequently used, and its rich- 
ness, and permanence cause it to be regarded favorably. In builders' hard- 
ware, brass, bronze and copper locks, knobs, escutcheons, butts, bolts, catches 
and drawer pulls are in steadily increasing favor and use, and from the su- 
perior durability and appearance of copper and its alloys, will continue t6 dis- 
place iron in a greater ratio, as the nations increase in wealth and the stand- 
ard of living is rfused. Brass rods for portieres, curtains and stair carpets are 
in favor. Brass pipes and faucets, usually nickeled, are used in the best 
plumbing, for bathrooms and lavatories, on land and sea, and in railroad 
sleeping-ears. Extensive use is now made of brass ro^ in devices for win- 
dow displays and in various mechanisms for exhibiting goods, in retail busi- 
ness places. 

The domestic uses of copper and brass are varied. Brass beds and fur- 
niture attract by their cleanliness, beauty and durability. Brass or cop- 
per lamps, for kerosene oil, are more durable and omamental than those 
of glass and other materials, and also far safer. The consumption of high 
grade brass piping and castings, for gasoliers and electroliers, is enormous, 
and constantly increasing, displacing the crude iron pipes and castings of the 
preceding generation. In the kitchen the brazen kettles of earlier days are 
losing ground. There is no material better fitted for cooking, when carefully 
cleaned, and none that may cause ao much trouble, if neglected. 



68 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

Within the past few years, copper has been used for roofing passenger 
coaches of railroads, with good results. The ideal passenger car of the future 
will have a steel frame, a copper roof, a wooden interior finish with brass fit-- 
tin^, and paper wheels. 

Wherever there are waterworks, brass faucets and valves will be found. 
The consumption of brass for valves is enormous, and for very many uses these 
valves, while very costly in the larger sizes, are economical in the end. 

For more than Iwo thousand years statues have been made of bronze. 
Iron turns to rust, wood decays, and marble is discolored, but bronze retains 
the beauty and finish of the sculptor, and is subject to a slight corrosion only, 
in the course of ages, when buried in the earth. For decorative purposes 
bronze is used for vases, urns and similar ornamental receptacles. 

Copper and its alloys have been employed for coinage from time imme- 
morial. Originally copper was a purely money metal, like gold and silver, 
and each copper coin, unless debased by the shortnsighted cunning of the petty 
tyrant, oligarchy or democracy of the day, represented upon its face merely 
the intrinsic worth of the metal contained. The inherent impossibility of 
keeping three separate metals upon any fixed parity led to the relegation of 
copper to the status of token money, for the same reason that silver coins 
were made merely a token money ^so, by the leading conunercial nations of 
the globe, during the century just passed. The Chinese still give honest val- 
ues in their brass money, and the experience of Europeans, who require a 
coolie with a wheelbarrow to carry around the change for a gold sovereign, 
is typical of what would be the case over the entire world if copper had not 
been eliminated from the list of purely money metals. The annual consump- 
tion of copper for coinage is much greater than would be anticipated by any- 
one who has not given the matter a little investigation. 

The followers of Mars are liberal consumers of copper. The brass cannon, 
BO popular fifty years ago, are now used mainly for firing salutes, ornamenting 
public squares, and trading to the heathen. Notwithstanding the disuse of 
the metal for ordnance, except in small salute-guns for yachts, more copper is 
now used for munitions of war than was ever consumed in the casting of can- 
non. Brass and copper cartridge cases, cold stamped from tough sheets, are 
consumed annually to the extent of hundreds of millions, by the world's ar- 
mies, for machine guns and small arms, and to a scarcely smaller extent by 
hunters. Hundreds of tons of the best tough metal are consumed annually, 
merely to make the brass buttons that decorate the uniforms of the world's ar- 
mies and navies. Brass fittings and buckles for men and horses, brass can- 
teens, drinking cups and cooking utensils, also require much copper. It is 
probable that copper must give way to aluminum for these latter uses, through- 
out the world, as aluminum is lighter and tarnishes less easily. The copper 
exploders, used in every metal mine where modem methods are employed, 
afford another use, apparently trivial, yet which is one of the scores of minor 
demands that in the aggregate foot up thousands of tons annually. 

In the arts and manufactures copper plays a highly important part. The 
great vacuum pans of the sugar factories and refineries are made of copper. 



TttE COPPER HANDBOOK, 60 

There are copper vats in pulp and paper factories. The worms and stills of 
distilleries are of copper, and the copper brewing kettles in which beer b made 
are of immense sise and numbered by thousands. There is scarcely a manu- 
facture that does not make more or less use of copper or brass, in some one or 
DX)re of the processes employed. The works and cases of Yankee clocks, now 
to be found in the most remote comers of the earth, are of brass, as are the gear 
wheels and pinions of watches and other instruments of precision. The man- 
ufacturers of scientific instruments and optical goods are excellent patrons 
of the brass-founder. From him are obtained the alloyed metal that, under 
many forms, as sheets, tubes, rods, wires and castings, make up the bulk of the 
construction of microscopes and telescopes, of surveyor's transits and draught- 
man's protractors, and of the many strange instruments of marvelous com- 
plexity and variety that do human work without the element of human falli- 
bility. 

The textile manufacturers use copper rolls for stamping patterns upon 
calicos and print cloths. Brass platens upon typewriters are used to aid in 
mamfolding. Signs of copper and brass stare at us from every comer of 
crowded city streets. Copper leaf is used by sign writers and in other ways. 
Ccmminuted copper is used for bronzing. 

The uses of copper enumerated in the preceding paragraphs of this chap- 
ter are for the metal and its metallic alloys. There are alloys, such as nickel- 
copper, arsenic-copper, aluminum-copper and others, hitherto unmentioned, 
whkh are used for a variety of special purposes. In addition to the uses of 
copper and its metallic alloys, there are highly important utilities for various 
ores and compounds of the metal. Malachite, when found massive and pure, 
is a semi-precious stone of great beauty and much in demand for table-tops 
and interior architecture. Other ores are ground up for pigments, several 
beautiful shades of green and blue being secured from mixtures having cop- 
per ores as bases. 

The most important copper mineral, for other uses than the production 
of metal therefrom by smelting, is sulphate of copper, the common blue vitriol 
of commerce. This is occasionally found in nature, as chalcanthite, but is 
almost invariably a product of manufacture. This compound is one of the 
most important chemical agents known to science and industry. It is a ne- 
cessity in the electrolytic refining of crude copper. It is a component part of 
all wet batteries, and as such rings our door-bells, transmits our telegrams, 
and is the energizing agent that permits the transmission of the human voice 
over the wires of the telephone. In electro-plating, electrotyping and kin- 
dred industries, it is the prime factor. As an insectide it stands without 
an equal ; dilute solutions of sulphate of copper stayed the ravages of the phyl- 
loxera when the vineyards of France seemed doomed. It is probable that 
not less than one hundred thousand tons of copper sulphate, containing a 
quarter of its weight in metallic copper, is consumed every year in spraying 
the vines and fruit trees of Europe and America, and thus it may be aaid that 
it is to copper that we owe the sparkling wines of France, the peerless American 
apple, and the blushing peach that reaches perfection on every continent. 



70 THE COPPER ttANDBOOR, 

The consumption of sulphate of copper is not confined to viticulture and 
the electrical industries, as it is consumed by the thousands of tons monthly 
in the textile factories, in the chemical industries, and in manufactures of 
lines so varied as to make their mere enumeration fatiguing. 

The question of substitution of other metals is one that comes up peri- 
odically. Aluminum is often mentioned as the metal that is to displace cop- 
per almost entirely. There is little likelihood of such a consummation, un- 
less aluminum can be made at a fraction of its present cost. Al uminum ia 
the most conmion of all metals, being the base of every clay, but it is reduced 
with great difficulty, and at heavy cost, by electrolysis, but it is a useful metal, 
with a distinct sphere of its own. Several of its alloys are of much utility, 
and the pure metal, owing to its lightness, is available in many places where 
steel and copper are less desirable. Aluminum has fair electrical conductivity, 
but is not apt to replace copper to any great extent for electrical uses, unless 
aluminimi goes down and copper goes up in cost. 

In lines other than electrical copper has many substitutes. These come 
into use when the metal is high, and go out when the cost of copper falls. 
Like all other commodities, copper finds its level. High prices encourage 
substitutions and decrease consumption in other ways, while low prices en- 
courage the substitution of copper for other materials in many places. The 
true value of copper is, like the true value of all other conmiodities, the price at 
which enough metal can be produced, at a fair profit, to supply the worid's le- 
gitimate requirements at a reasonable price. An era of high prices stimu- 
lates production and restricts consumption, with an eventual collapse of prices 
and trouble to producers. An era of low prices restricts production, stimu- 
lates aemand and plainly foreshadows future grief for the consumers. 

The era of copper manipulation, beginning in 1899 and ending early in 
1902, was marked by unnaturally high prices, greatly restricting consump- 
tion, followed by abnormally low figures that caused the speedy absorption 
of the laige surplus of metal previously stored up by reason of unduly high 
prices. The course of the metal market during 1903 was more regular and 
more free from manipulation than since 1898, but the suspicions of pur- 
chasers remain active. Having suffered from previous interference with the 
natural law of supply and demand in the copper market, it is but natural 
that they should fear further tactics of the same sort, and weigh the evi- 
dence at hand quite closely, before making market commitments. 

The best interests of producers and consumers alike will be served by 
a perfectly natural market, in which the level of prices is determined by 
the supplies on hand and the consumptive capacity of purchasers. Copper 
consumers are prone to think that the abnormally high prices of 1899-1901 
were secured solely at their own cost, yet as a matter of fact the producers 
suffered also, to no small extent, from the selfsame inflation. By reasoi^ 
of the unduly high prices then ruling many new mines were opened, to com- 
pete with Ihose already developed, and their competition, brought about 
by the era of high prices, became effectual after prices had dropped sadly. 
Not only this, but the cost of producing copper advanced materially by 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 71 

reason of the high market price. Costs were increased, not only through 
higher wages paid workmen, but by reason of a general slackening of vigi- 
lance in guarding small leaks, it seeming impossible for any corporation to 
be as careful in good times as in an ordinary season. It has taken the better 
mines several years to get back, even partially, to the vantage ground of 
costs occupied before the era of boom prices that begun in 1898. 



72 THE COPPER HAXDBOOK. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Glossary of Mining Terms. 

fn this section of the Copper Handbook the glossary , first appearing in 
the 1902 Edition, has been materially amplified, and will be found to give 
nearly all of the terms used in copper mining, i^illing and smelting. 

ACID. An acid rock is one in which bases are combined with acids, 
forming salts. The antithesis of basic. 

ADIT. A tunnel. A mine opening, driven from the surface into a hill or 
mountain, on practically a horizontal plane, only enough rise being allowed 
to proWde for natural drainage and to allow the easy removal of cars bring- 
ing rock from the breast of the working. An adit can be driven only where 
the surface is mountainous or quite hilly. 

ADOBE. Sun-dried brick. 

ADt-BLAST. A violent explosion, caused by the escape of air com' 
pressed by the settling of the upper workings of a deep mine. 

AIR COHPRESSOR. A machine for condensing air to a pressure suf- 
ficient to actuate machinery, when delivered underground or elsewhere at a 
considerable distance. 

AIR-DOORS. Owing to strong currents of air frequently found in the 
depths of mines, it is sometimes necessary to build a little chamber in a drift 
connecting two shafts, with a door at either end, to prevent the strong air 
currents blowing out the lamps and candles of the miners. 

AIR-DRILL. A power drill operated by compressed air. 

AIR-SHAFT. A shaft sunk solely to provide ventilation for deep work- 
ings, or else an old shaft kept open solely to furnish air to the mine. Nature 
pro\'ides a means of ventilating even very deep mines. Two shafts, one of 
which is sunk on slightly higher ground than the other, will provide natural 
ventilation underground as soon as connected by a drift. The longer shaft 
becomes a chimney and the shorter an inverted syphon, down which the air 
is sucked with great force. 

ALKALI. An alkali is a lye — the opposite of an acid. 

ALLOY. Two or more metals united mechanically, but not chemically, 
by fusion. 

ALLUYiuM. Soil or broken rock deposited by the action of water. 

ALTERED. A rock that has undergone changes in its chemical and 
mineralogical structure since its original deposition. 

ALUMINOUS. A rock having aluminum as a base or prominent constit- 
uent element. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 73 

AMALGAM. A union of mercury with other metals, such as gold, silver 
or copper. Mercury will not amalgamate with iron. 

AMALGAMATION. The process of uniting gold, silver or copper with 
mercuiy. The quicksilver is expelled later by heat and recovered for further 
use. 

AMORPHOUS. Without form? 

AMYGDALOID. A trap rock, of igneous origin and frequently of highly 
complex structure, the name coming from the little pits or amygdules of softer 
rock-material foun<f therein. In the Lake Superior copper district the cop- 
per-bearing amygdaloids frequently show the native copper in the amygdules 
left by the leaching out of the softer rock originally contained therein. 

AMTGDALOIDAL. Of the nature of or akin to an amygdaloid. Word 
used in England, in place of amygdaloid. 

AHALTSIS. A complete chemical test of any given substance. 

ANHYDROUS. Devoid of water. 

ANTICLINAL. A fold of* rock-«trata bulging upward, in saddle-shape. 
The reverse, geologically, of synclinal. 

ANTIMONIDE. An ore of any metal or metals chemically united with 
antimony. 

APSX. That part of an ore vein at or nearest surface. Usually re- 
quires opposing experts and several lawsuits to determine. In case of liti- 
gation the apex is usually owned by the litigant having the most money. 

APICSS» Apexes. 

ARASTRA. A Chilean mill. A circular trough, in which broken ore is 
pulverized by a revolving wheel or mill stone. 

ARENACEOUS. Of a sandy nature. 

ARGENTIFEROUS. Silver-bearing. 

ARGILLACEOUS. Of a clayey nature. 

ARROBA. A weight of varying heft. Spanish, 25.36 pounds avoirdu- 
pois. Portuguese, 32.38 pounds. 

ARSENIDE. An ore of any metal, or metals, with which arsenic is chem- 
ically united. 

ARSENOPYRITE. An ore of any metal or metals with which arsenic and 
sulphur are chemically united. 

ASSAY. A chemical test of ore or metal to determine its exact content 
and value in any given metal or metals. 

ASSESSMENT WORK. The amount of work required annually by the 
United States government, from the holders of an unpatented mining claim. 

ATTLE. Cornish term for waste rock. 

AURIFEROUS. Gold-bearing. 

AUXILIARY. An auxiliary engine or machine is one kept in reserve, 
for use when the principal machine is idle for repairs or other reasons. 

AVERAGE PRODUCE. Cornish term for percentage of copper in ore. 

BACK. The roof of rock above any mine opening driven on a horizontal 
plane. 



74 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BAD AIR. Air in which miners cannot work, due to powder fumes, nox- 
H>U8 gases or insufficient ventilation. 

BAL. Cornish name for a mine. 

BALANCE BOB. A counterweight for pump rods. 

BALL HEAD. A steam stamp, so called because invented by a man 
named Ball. 

BALL STAMP. A BaU head. 

BARILLA DE COBRE. Spanish term for native copper, dressed, but 
unsmelted. Equivalent to the '' mineral " of Lake Superior mines. 

BARREL WORK. Copper in small masses, detached from its rock- 
matrices at the rock-house, and shipped in barrels direct to the smelter. 
Small masses, of a size to put in barrels. 

BARROW. A wheelbarrow ; also same as burrow. 

BARTLETT. A Bartlett concentrating table. 

BASALT. A trappean rock. 

BASIC. A rock in which metals are combined with alkalies, such as po- 
tassium, sodium, etc. 

BASIN. A synclinal; a trough in the earth's surface. 

BATTERY. A set of gravity stamps, usually five in number, but some- 
times less. 

BEARING. The bearing of a mineral outcrop is its strike. 

BEATING AWAY. To cut down or stope a mineral body. 

BED. A stratified rock formation. Used in some mineral districts to 
mean veins or lodes lying horizontally, or approximately so. 

BED-ROCK. The solid rock as differentiated from loose or surface rock. 
The ledge. 

BELLS. Signals for lowering and hoisting the bucket, skip or cage in a 
shaft are usually given by bells, the number of strokes indicating the nature 
of the load, the place for landing, etc. 

BIT. A steel drill. A short hollow cylinder of soft steel, used in dia- 
mond driUing. The diamonds are set around the inner and outer edges of the 
bottom of the bit and cut away the most refractory rocks when the bit is ro- 
tated. 

BLACK COPPER. Copper partly smelted, but containing impurities 
requiring refining. 

BLACK JACK. Zinc blende. 

BLAST. To explode dynamite or black powder. Air forced into a fur- 
nace to aid in reducing the ore charge. 

BLASTED. A miner that has been blasted is one who has been injured 
by the txplosion of a charge of dynamite or gunpowder. 

BLASTING. The breaking of rock by means of high explosives inserted 
in holes bored in the rock for the purpose. 

BLENDE. Zinc blende. 

BLIND DRIFT. A drift connected with the other workings of the mine 
at one end only. A cul de sac. 

BLIND LODE. A lode that does not come to surface. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 75 

BLIKD SHAFT. A shaft not comiDg to surface. A winze. 

BLISTER COPPER. Copper of 96% to 99% pure. 

BLOCKHOLE. A hole for explosives drilled in a mass of ore or rock al- 
ready broken from the vein, but too laige to handle. 

BLOCKING OUT. To open the ore in a mine so that it can be won 
merely by sloping. 

BLOSSOM. An outcrop of an ore body altered by weathering. 

BLOWER. A fan used to force idr into a mine. 

BLOWING IN. A furnace or smelter is blown in when charged and the > 
process of ore reduction begun by fire. 

BOILING SHAFT. A sand-shaft in which quicksand and water boil up 
from the bottom. 

BONNET. The cover or roof of a cage. 

BORE HOLE. A drill hole bored for test purposes. 

BORT. A form of crystallized carbon between the diamond and the 
black diamond. 

BORTZ. Bort. 

BOTTOMS. Impure copper formed below the matte, in matting copper 
ores. 

BOULDERS. Detached masses of rock, rounded by attrition, usually 
found at or near the surface, in alluvial deposits lying above stratified rocks. 

BOX CANON. A canyon closed at one end. 

BRANCH. A vein branching off from the main ore body. 

BRATTICE. A screen for the regulation of air currents in a mine 
opening. 

BREAST. The face or working end of a drift, stope or adit. 

BRECCIA. A conglomerate rock, in which angular fragments of rock 
are cemented together. 

BRECCIATED. A rock stratum made up of sharply broken fragments, 
partially or wholly cemented together. 

BROKEN. A vein is broken when lacking clearly defined walls or 
characteristics of regularity. 

BROKEN GROUND. Rock strata where the walls are poorly de- 
fined and the general formation unsettled. 

BROOD. Cornish for waste ore, such as^ mundic or zinc blende, wh^re 
found in connection with copper ores. 

BUCICET. A kibble. An iron or steel bucket used for hoisting in 
a mine. In a vertical shaft a bucket swings free in ascending and descending, 
but in an incline shaft the bucket runs on a skidway of plank or timbers, 
or else rides a trolley cable. 

BUDDLE. A conical table on which ore is dressed. Machine and 
name both growing obsolete. 

BULKHEAD. A wooden or masonry partition walling of! a minQ 
opening. 

BULLION. Refined gold or silver befgre coining. Somet^i^e^ errgae- 
oualy applied to copper. 



76 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BULLION BARS. Unrefined gold and silver secured by melting the 
precious metals precipitated to the bottom of the tank in the electrolytic 
refining of aigentiferous and auriferous copper anodes. 

BUNCH. A pocket exceptionally rich in mineral. 

BUNCHY. An ore body given to considerable variations in width or 
values, or both. 

BURDEN. Overburden. 

BURROW. See rock burrow. 

CABLE. The steel wire rope used in shafts for hoisting buckets, 
skips or cages. 

CAGE. An elevator used in vertical shafts for hoisting mineral and 
for lowering men, timber, etc. 

CAKES. Copper cast in cakes. 

CALCAREOUS. Of a limey nature. 

CALCINE. To drive off sulphur or other volatile constituents of an 
ore by heating. 

CALCITE. Crystals of calcium carbonate. 

CAM. A curved tooth, fixed on a shaft, for lifting the pistons of gravity 
stamps. 

CAMP. A mining town. 

CANON, (pronoimced canyon). A deep gorge with precipitous walls. 

CANYON. A canon. 

CAP. The top piece of a framed set of mine timbers: copper caps 
containing fulminate of mercury, used to explode dynamite in blasting rock. 
The fuse is cut to proper length, one end placed in the cap, and the cap m-^ 
serted in a pasty dynamite cartridge. The free end of the fuse is fired, and 
the explosion follows quickly or tardily, as the fuse is cut long or short. 

CAPPING. The rock or other ground overlying the mineral body of 
a mine. 

CAP-ROCK. Capping. 

CAPTAIN. A man in charge of mining work is termed a captain. The 
imning captain is the executive officer underground. 

CARBONACEOUS. Of a coal-like nature. 

CARBONATE. An ore of any metal or metals with which carbon and 
oxygen are chemically united. 

CARBONIFEROUS. Rocks of the geological ages usually associated 
with coal measures. 

CARGA. A Mexican weight equalling 300 pounds avoirdupois. 

CARTRIDGE. Dynamite put up in cylindrical cases of oiled paper to 
fit the holes bored by the drills. 

CASING. The wooden lining of a shaft ; an iron pipe put down outside 
of a diamond drill hole when passing through soft or broken ground, to 
prevent the hole becoming clogged by matter intruding from outside. 

CASTING COPPER. Refined copper better suited for casting Into 
various forms than for drawing into wires or rolling into sheets. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 77 

CAVE. A natural caning or "vug'' in a rock formation; the partial 
or complete falling-in of a mine. 

CAVniG SYSTEIL A plan of mining, by which the worked out upper 
leveb and surface are allowed to subside gradually as the mine workings are 
deepened. 

CEMEHT COPPER. The impure metal obtained from ores by leaching 
processes. 

CERRO. Spanish for a hill showing rock outcn^^ 

CHAMBER. A large stope. 

CHAPEAU DE PER. French for gossan or iron hat. 

CHARGE. The amount of ore, flux and fuel required for one filling 
of a furnace. 

CHIMNEY. An ore chute. 

CHERT. A coarse flint containing calcium. 

CHILEAll MILL. An arastra. 

CHILE BARS. Ban of Chilean bUster copper, weighing about 200 
pounds each. 

CHLORIDE. The ore of any metal or metab united chemically with 
chlorine. 

CHURlf DRILL. A drill having a churning motion, used for boring 
test-holes, or wells. 

CHUTE. A section of a lode or vein differing by being much richer 
or leaner than the average. 

CLACK. A pump valve. 

CLAIM. Public land staked off and claimed by a prospector or miner, 
^ze of claims varies in different countries. 

CLAY COURSE. A seam of clay between vein and wall. 

CLAY SLATE. An argillaceous slate. 

CLEAH-UP. The cleaning up of accumulated ore or metal in a mill 
or smelter. 

CLEAVAGE. The parting of rock along more or less regular lines of 
least resistance. 

COARSE JIGS. The jigs used to handle the heavier grades of ore or 
metal. 

COARSE METAL. Matte resulting from the first smelting. 

COBBING. Breaking masses of ore into lumps by hand hammers. 

COLLAR. The top of a shaft — the surface timbering of a shaft. 

COMPANY ACCOUNT. Miners and other underground employes work- 
ing on fixed wages per shift or month are usually called " company 'count 
men " to distinguish them from miners working on contract. 

COMPARTMENT. Mining shafts are usually divided into two or more 
compartments, separated by framed timbers and planking. 

CONCENTRATES^ The concentrated ore or metal, after elimination 
of gangue rock. 

CONCENTRATION. The process of separating native metal or ore 
from its gangue of worthless rock. 



78 f THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

CONCENTRATING TABLES. Concentrators. 

m 

CONCENTRATOR. A plant where ores are concentrated; a jig. A 
machine for separating ore or metal from gangue-rock, the process usually 
employing a rocking or oscillating motion, aided by jets of water, whereby the 
worthless gangne is driven off and the heavier mineral retained by specific 
gravity. 

CONDUCTIVITY. Electrical conductivity is measured by the resistance 
offered to the passage of an electrical current. 

CONGLOMERATE. A pudding-stone rock formed by deposition of rock 
particles on old sea-beds, afterward covered by other rock strata. 

CONSTRUCTION ACCOUNT. Many of the Lake Superior copper mines 
summarize their finances so that the cost of operation is divided into two 
classes, one being for general working expenses and the other for construction 
account. The latter includes new buildings and machinery on surface, 
and frequently new mine openings. In effect the construction account 
of a mine is like the stock account of a merchandise firm, and sometimes, 
like charity, "covers a multitude of sins." 

CONTACT VEIN. A mineral body found between two unlike rock 
strata. 

CONTOUR. The outline or configuration of any given tract. 

CONTRACT. Many miners work on contract, agreeing to sink, drift 
or stope at a fixed price per running foot, or per fathom. These are known 
as contract-miners, and are usually the more skilled workmen. 

COPPER ORE. See detailed descriptions of copper ores and copper- 
bearing minerals in chapter on chemistry and mineralogy. 

CORE. A drill core. 

CORNISH PUMP. A form of mine pump actuated by long rods reaching 
from surface down the shafts. 

CORNISH STAMP. A gravity stamp, in which the heads are raised by 
cams and dropped by gravity. 

COST BOOK SYSTEM. A plan of mine operation, used in Cornwall 
only, by which shares are subject to unlimited assessment. A sort of un- 
limited partnership. 

COSTEANING. Developing. Proving an ore body by trenching across 
its outcrop at approximately a right angle. 

COUNTERBALANCE. Hoisting plants are usually worked in counter- 
balance for deep shafts. The weight of the descending cage or skip is used 
to partially offset the weight of the cage or skip ascending. 

COUNTER VEIN. A cross vein, running at approximately right angles 
to the main ore body. 

COUNTRY ROCK. The predominant rock form of the district. 

COURSE. The direction or strike of a mineral body. 

CRAB. A hand winch. 

CREEPING. The movement caused in mines by the pressure of super- 
incumbent and adjacent rock masses. 

CROPPINGS. Outcrops. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 79 

CROSS COURSE. An intersecting vein. 

CROSSCUT. An opening similar to a drift, except that the crosscut 
is sent at approximately right angles to the formation, while a drift follows 
the trend of the lode or vein. 

CRUCIBLE. A vessel of refractory material, used to contain ores and 
metals for assaying or smelting. 

CRUSHER. A rock-crusher. 

CRYSTALLIZED. Having plainly defined crystals. 

CRYSTALS. Geometrical forms, with plane faces, of infinite variety, 
assumed by the majority of minerals. 

CUPOLA. A furnace in a smelter. 

CUPRIFEROUS. Copper-bearing. 

CUTTIIIG DOWN. When a shaft is enlarged, work begins at the top, 
and the work of enlai^ement is called cutting down. 

CWT. A hundredweight, of 112 pounds avoirdupois. 

DAIC. A masonry barrier, built underground, to hold back water. 

DATUM LEVEL. The level (usually sea-level or mean level of nearest 
considerable body of water) from which altitudes are measured in surveys. 

DEAD ROASTING. Sulphide ores are dead roasted when all the sulphur 
possible to drive off by roasting lAs been eliminated. 

DEAD WORK. The opening of new shafts, drifts and winzes, pre- 
liminary to the stoping of the mineral bodies. 

DEBRIS. Broken down rock material. 

DECOMPOSED. Rock or ore broken down by elemental action. 

DECREPITATE. To break into fragments with violence, under the 
blow-pipe or great heat. 

DENUDATION. The uncovering of rock strata by the weathering of 
wind or water, or both. 

DEPOSIT. A term, loosely used, meaning a mineral body. 

DERRICK. A mast, freely rotatable, carrying a boom or yard-arm, 
at the end of which is a sheave wheel. Used in mining mainly for open pit 
work. 

DESSICATION. The drying out of water for any given substance. 

DETRITUS. Debris. Broken down rock. 

DEVELOPMENT WORK. Dead work. 

DIAMOND DRILL. A machine for boring holes in rocks, taking its 
name from the black diamonds or bortz used to form cutting edges on the 
inner and outer edges of the hollow cylindrical bit. 

DIB. The iron block in the mortar, on which the ore is fed for crushing 
under the stamp. 

DIORITE. Greenstone. A crystalline spathic hornblende. 

DIP. The angle at which a lode or vein descends from the earth's 
surface. 

DIP COMPASS. A compass having the needle fixed to swing in a 
vertical plane. 

DIRT. Frequently used to describe the ore broken underground. 



80 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

DISSEMIlf ATED ORE. Ore found scattered through a gangue of 
valueless rock. 

DISTURBED. An ore body is disturbed when lacking defined walls 
and settled character. 

DOLLY. A crude prospecting stamp, set on a spring pole. 

DOLOMITE. Magnesian limestone; carbonate of calcium and mag- 
nesium. 

DONKEY HOIST. A small auxiliary hoisting engine, usually operated 
underground and actuated by compressed air; or else used for preliminary 
work at new shafts or exploring pits. 

DO'WiNCAST. A shaft having a downward air current. 

DRAFTAGE. An arbitrary allowance claimed b^ English smelters to 
cover loss of weight in transport. 

DRESSING. Separating ore from gangue rock by hand or machinery. 

DRESSING FLOOR. A floor or dirt surface where ore is dressed by 
cobbing and other hand work. 

DRIFT. A horizontal opening in a mine, following the direction of 
the lode or vein ; loose alluvial matter, such as sand, pebbles and boulders. 

DRIFT COPPER. Native copper found in alluvium far from its original 
rock matrice, whence carried by glacier§. 

DRIFTING. Opening drifts. Driving. 

DRILL. A steel bar for boring in Tock, having a single sharp cutting 
face, or two cutting faces crossed at right angles. 

DRILL-CORE. As the bit of a diamond drill is hollow, solid, cylindrical 
cores of rock are cut by its operation. These are raised to surface and form 
a valuable permanent record of the strata through which the drill has passed. 

DRILL HOLE. A hole bored by a drill. 

DRIVING. Drifting. 

DROP SHAFT. A shaft, usually of heavy framing, sunk by weight, 
through sand or similar material. 

DRUM. The cylinder of a hoisting engine, around which the cable winds. 

DRUSE. A vug. 

DUCTILE. That which is capable of being extended in length by ten- 
sion. 

DUCTILITY. The capacity of a metal to elongate, when under pull 
from the ends, without cracking or breaking. 

DUMP. A place for dumping rock taken from a mine. An ore-dump 
contains good mineral, and a waste-dump the worthless rock hoisted from 
undei^round. 

DYXE. A fissure in the rock formation, usually transverse, filled 
with igneous matter. When mineralized, dykes are called cross or counter 
veins. 

DYNAMITE. Nitro-glycerinc absorbed by wood pulp, infusorial earth, 
or some similar article to render it safer in use. 

EISENER HUT. German for Iron Hat or Gossan. 

ELECTRIC DRILL. A power drill operated by an electric current. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 81 

ELECTROLYTE. The solution in which electrolytic separation of 
Dietals is carried on. 

ELECTROLYSIS. The separation and redeposition of metals by elec- 
trolytic action. 

ELECTROLYTIC. Term implied to copper means copper gained from 
impure metal hy electrical decomposition and redeposition, whereby the 
copper is taken from an impure bar and redeposited in a pure form 
at the opposite pole of the battery, while other metals are precipitated to 
the bottom of the tank in which this work is done. 

ELVAN. Cornish name for the dyke rocks of Cornwall, usually green- 
stone or porphyry. 

EROSION. The wearing away of surface masses of rock and soil by 
the elements and by glacial action. 

ERUPTIVE. Rock matter supposed to have been deposited in molten 
form by volcanic action. 

ESCARPMENT. A rock wall, nearly or quite vertical. 

EXFOLIATION. The separation of thin leaf-like layere from the main 
body. 

EXPLODERS. Fulminating caps. 

FACE. The breast of a drift. A face of ore is the ore shown at the 
working end of a drift or stope. 

FAHLBAND. A banded crystalline rock, carrying finely disseminated 
sulphide ores. 

FALL OF GROUND. Rock falling from the rooi into a mine opening. 

FALSE SET. A temporary set of timber. 

FAN. A device used to force air into a mine. 

FATHOM. Six feet. In stoping, a fathom is a cube of six feet. 

FAULT. Dislocation of a rock stratum by which continuity is lost. 

FEE. The ownership of land in fee-simple. 

FEE-OWNER. The owner of land in fee-simple. 

FEEDER. A branch ore vein. 

FERRUGINOUS. Carrying iron. 

FILLING. Allowing a mine to fill with water. Occupying old stopes 
or chambeiB with waste rock. 

FINES. The finer ores or metals saved in concentrating processes. 

FINISHER JIGS. The jigs used to save the fine ores or metals in a 
concentrator or stampmill. 

FIRE. The miner's warning cry when a blast is to be set off, is "fire." 

FISSILE. That which may be easily split. 

FISSURE. Rock matter foreign in nature to the walls on either side — 
evidently deposited at a later date geologically, in a crack in the original 
rock. 

FISSURE VEIN. A fissure, containing ore, usually disseminated in a 
worthless gangue differing in nature from the country rock in which the 
fissure occurs. 

FLAKE COPPER. Very fine scales of native copper. 



82 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

FLEET-GEAR. A compensating device for taking up slack and paying 
out rope where a hoisting system is worked in counterbalance. Severid 
turns of the cable are taken around each drum of the hoist, and the bight 
of the cable, is carried to the rear and around a lai^e sheave-wheel lying 
horizontally and traveling on trunnions, allowing the taking up or paying 
out of the cable. 

FLOAT COPPER. Drift copper. 

FLOOR. The floor of a drift or other horizontal mine opening; the 
underlying rock stratum. 

FLOUR COPPER. Very fine native copper that floats on water and 
is very difficult to save in milling. 

FLUCCAlf. A seam of clay, found in ore bodies, or, more frequently, 
between the ore and w^alls of country rock. 

FLUEIAN. Fluccan. 

FLUME. A launder or pipe line for carrying water. 

FLUX. Any mineral or ore used in the furnace to aid in fusing the 
gangue rock and worthless elements, which combine with the flux to form 
dag. 

FOLIATED. Having a laminated structure. 

FOOT. The foot-wall. 

FOOT- WALL. The foot. The stratum of rock underlying an inclined 
mineral lode or vein. 

FORKING. Pumping water from a mine. 

FORMATION, ^term used to imply the general geological conditions 
of a given district. 

FOSSICKING. Extracting metal or ore from old mines or waste bur- 
rows. 

FRACTURE. A break. 

FREE. A metal is free when virgin or native, and not combined chem- 
ically with any other element. 

FREE-MILLING. A metal or ore that is readily separated from its 
accompanying rock by mechanical means. 

FRIABLE. Easily crushed to a powder. 

FURNACBr An oven for the smelting of ore. 

FUSE. A cotton cord with a gunpowder core, so made as to carry 
fire to an explosive placed for use. 

FUSIBLE. That which can be melted. 

FUSION. Melting. Alloying metals while liquid, through heat. 

GABBRO. A rock composed mainly of plagioclase feldspar. 

GAD. A small w^edge or chisel. 

GALLERY. A drift. 

GANGUE. The particles of foreign rock matter adhering to dissem- 
inated ores or native metal ; the gangue rock is mechanically and not chem- 
ically united with the ore or metal. 

GASH VEIN. A shallow fissure vein, usually wide at surface and 
rapidly narrowing to extinction. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK 83 

6E0DE. A hollow nodule of rock. 

GEOLOGY. The science of the earth. 

GIANT POWDER. Dynamite. 

GLACIATION. The erosive effect produced by glaciers. 

GLANCE. Any metallic sulphide showing a bright, shining surface. 

G. IL B. "Good Merchantable Brands" — an English grade of reiined 
eopper. 

GNEISS. A banded, slaty granite. 

GOB. Mud above a mine. Refuse in worked-out openings. 

QOPHERING. Prospecting work confined to digging shallow pits or 
starting adits. Term used from similarity of this work to the crooked little 
holes dug in the soil by gophers. 

GOSSAN. Iron Hat. A rock capping, usually quartzose, showing 
reddish-brown iron stains, from decomposed iron pyrites. Frequently 
found overlying sulphide ores of copper. 

GRADE. The percentage or value, when applied to ore bodies and 
partly refined metals. 

GRANITE. A dense, granular rock, composed of varying aggregates 
of quartz, feldspar and mica. 

GRANULATED. In the form of grains. 

GRASS ROOTS. At surface. 
« GRAVITY STAMP. A stamp, usually set in batteries of five, in which 
the piston is raised by a cam, the stamp crushing the charge in the mortar 
by its weight when allowed to fall. 

GREENSTONE. Diorite, or gabbro. 

GRIZZLY. A grating of heavy iron or steel bars, through which the 
smaller pieces of rock or ore fall. 

GROSS TON. A long ton of 2,240 poimds avoirdupois. 

GROUNDSILL. The bed-piece of a set of mine timbers. 

GUIDES. Perpendicular wooden stringers for guiding cages in ver^ 
tical shafts. 

GUT. To rob. 

HADE. (American). Dip of a vein from the zenith. (English). 
Dip of a vein from the horizon. Take- your choice. 

HALVAN. Cornish for refuse copper ore. 

HANGING. The hanging-wall; the stratum of rock overlying an in- 
clined mineral lode or vein. 

HARDHEAD. A lump of partly smelted ore, carrying high percentages 
of refractory elements, such as iron, antimony and arsenic. 

HAT. The capping of a mineral body. 

HAULAGE PLANT. A mechanical installation for the underground 
tramming of rock, operated by ropes, compressed air or electricity. 

HEAD. Water pressure. 

HEADGEAR* A building, or framework, fitted with sheaves, ovei 
the mouth of a shaft. 



84 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

HEAP-ROASTING. Burning the sulphur out of ores piled in heaps 
with a small amount of wood or other fuel. 

HEAVE. A fault. The rolling out of line of dip by a lode in making 
depth. 

HEAVING. Rolling. 

HECTARE. A metric measure equalling 2.471 acres. 

HOIST. An engine for hoisting, the-rope, as raised, being coiled around 
a drum. 

HOISTER. A hoist. 

HOLE. Any opening in the ground. More especially a hole drilled 
for explosives. 

HOLING THROUGH. A drift or other mine opening is holed through 
when a connection is made between two separate ends working toward each 
other. 

HORIZON. The sky-line, commonly used in the sense of absolutely 
flat, as shown by a spirit level. Geologically, all rock strata of the same 
geological period. 

HORSE. An intrusion of country rock into a mineral body. Sometimes 
synonymous with dyke. 

HORSE- WHIM. A windlass operated by horse-power. 

HUEL. Cornish for mine. Commonly spelled wheal. 

HUNGRY. Nearly or quite barren of mineral value. 

HUNTINGTON MILL. An improved Chilean mill. 

HYDRATED. Containing water of cr^'stallization. 

HYDRO-METALLURGY. The reduction of ores by wet processes. 

HYDROUS. Containing water. 

IGNEOUS. Rocks of volcanic origin. 

IMPREGNATED. Containing ore. Properly used in referring to coun- 
try rock carrying mineral similar to that in the vein. 

IN PLACE. Rock matter in the position where deposited by nature. 

IN SITU. In place. 

INCH. See Miner's Inch. 

INCLINATION. The dip of a vein from the horizon measured in de- 
grees. 

INCLINE SHAFT. A shaft sunk at any angle with the horizon under 
90**. 

INCRUSTATION. A solidified coating, usually crystallized. 

INFILTRATION. The deposition of mineral matter from percolatin;^ 
water. 

INGOT. A mass of metal cast in a peculiarly formed mold; applied 
only to gold, silver or copper. Iron b cast in pigs. 

INTAKE. The opening for water to enter a pipe or flume. 

IRIDESCENT. Showing the colors of the rainbow. 

IRON HAT. Gossan. 

JIG. A machine for concentrating ore or mineral by means of oscillatory 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 85 

or vibratory motion, aided by jets of water, separation of the ore from its 
gangue being effected by the greater specific gravity of the former. 

JIGGER. A crude jig. 

JIGGIHG. Concentrating ore by the uae of a jig. 

JUMPER. A chum drill. 

JUHCnON. The uniting point. 

KEWEEHAWAIf. Pertaining to or of the Keweenaw formation, in 
which the Lake Superior copper mines are opened. 

KIBBLE. A bucket used for hoisting material in a shaft. 

KILLAS. -Clay slate or shale. 

KUfiORAM. A metric weight of 2.2046 pounds. 

KILOMETER. A measure of distance equalling 0.621376 miles. 

SSHBLT. Appearance of rock carrying or promising to cany good 
mineral values. 

LADDER ROAD. A ladderway. 

LADDERWAY. The series of ladders giving ingress and egress to a 
mine shaft; the compartment in which the ladders are. 

LAGGING. Timber, usually of small diameter, placed over the cap- 
timbers of incline shafts and drifts, to prevent damage from falling rock. 

LAMINAE. Thin plates. 

LANDER. The man at the mouth of the shaft, who receives signals 
from below, and attends to the unloading of rock sent up in buckets, skips 
or cages. 

LAUNDER. A wooden flume or sluice, used to convey water, or tail- 
ings held in solution in water. 

LAVA. Rock formed by flows from volcanoes. 
- LEACH.' To dissolve minerals from ore by water. 

LEACHING. Lixiviating ores. . 

LEAD (leed). A mineral body. 

LEDGE. The solid rock where encountered at or nearest surface. 

LEG-PIECE. An upright timber supporting the cap of a timber set. 

LEGS. The side pieces of a set of timber. 

LENSE. An ore body of lenticular form. 

LENTICULAR. Having the shape of a double convex lense. 

LEVEL. A horizontal opening in a mine. Levels are commonly opened 
at stated intervals as depth is gained — usually at 100 feet in modem mining 
practice. The word "level" is frequently used interchangeably with the 
word drift, but is more comprehensive. Both drifts and crosscuts may be 
opened on a level, but a crosscut is not a level. 

LIGNEOUS. Of a woody nature. 

LIMESTONE. Calcium carbonate. 

LuuviAXION. The process of leaching out mineral values from ores. 

LODE. A stratified rock bed carrying mineral values. 

LONG TON. A gross ton of 2,240 pounds avordupoi^^ 

MAGMA. Gangue. Rock material carrying ores^ 



86 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

MALLEABLE. Capable of changing fonn, without breaking, under a 
hammer. 

MAN-CAR. A skip-truck having tiers of circus seats, used for carrying 
miners to and from work in mines operating inclined shafts. 

MAN-ENGINE. An appliance for raising and lowering miners in deep 
inclind shafts. Consists essentially of two long beams, worked in counter- 
balance and having platforms at stated intervals. 

MASS. A solid chunk of native metal. 

MASSIVE. Rock without defined lines of cleavage. 

MAJRICE. The rock surrounding an imbedded object, such as a nugget 
or mass of native copper. 

MATRIX. Matrice. 

MATTE. Regulus. A product between copper ore and blister copper, 
varying greatly in the percentage of metal contained. Is obtained by roasting 
out more or less sulphur from sulphide copper ores. 

MATTING. The process of converting sulphide ores into matte. 

MESA. Spanish for a tableland or plateau. 

MESH. The size of openings in a screen. 

METALLIFEROUS. Carrying metal. 

IfETALLURGY. Science and practice of reducing metals from ores 
and minerals. 

METAMORPHIC. When said of minerals refers to a rock that has 
undergone structural and chemical changes after its original formation. 

METRE. A linear measure equalling 39.37 inches. 

METRIC TON. A weight of 2204.6 pounds avordupois. 

MILLING. Dressing ore m a mill; also running ore in a mine through 
a winze for loading into tram-cars or wheelbarrows on a lower level than the 
one where broken. 

MILL RUN. A test of the mineral contents of rock or ore by actual 
milling. 

MINE. An open pit, or underground opening or openings from which 
mineral values are extracted. 

MINER. In strict construction, the man that does the drilling and 
blasting in a mine. In a broader sense, all men working underground. 

MINERAL. Ore, or rock containing metal. In the Lake Superior 
district the term mineral has a special use, being employed to designate the 
native copper, with its adhering gangue of amygdaloid or conglomerate rock, 
as it comes from the mill, before sending to the smelter. 

MINERAL BELT. The mineralized territory in a given formation or 
district. 

MINERAL DE COBRE. Copper matte. 

MINERALOGY. The science of minerals. 

MINERAL RIGHTS. The ownership of the rights to mine under the 
surface of land. Mineral rights are sometimes reserved in selling the sur- 
face of land, in some districts. 

MINER'S INCH* The amount of water that will flow through an opeu« 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 87 

ing one inch square under a six-inch head, which is 2,274 cubic feet in 24 
hours, or 94^ cubic feet per hour, equal to 665 wine gallons, or 593 imperial 
gallons hourly. 

MISSED HOLE. A drill hole, charged with explosives which fail to be 
set off by the fulminating cap. 

MOIL. A steel bar, like a drill, except that it is sharpened to a point 
instead of having a cutting face. - 

MOLDS. Copper cast in molds. 

MORAINE. A mass of boulders and detrital material marking the 
limits of a former glacier. 

MORTAR. An assayer's mortar in which rock or ore b crushed with 
a pestle; a mortar*box. 

MORTAR BOX. The iron box under the stamps, into which ore or rock 
is fed for crushing. 

MUCKER. A trammer. 

MuniilC. Py rite ; stilphide of iron. 

NATIVE. A virgin metal — not an ore. 

NON-CONFORMABLE. Rock strata evidently not originally associ- 
ated in the position now occupied. 

NUGGET. A lump of native metal. Term usually applied to gold. 

OPEN-CAST. Working & mine as a quarry, without underground 
openings. 

OPEN CUT. A mine worked open-cast. 

ORE. A chemical union of one or more metallic elements with other 
elements, usually non-metallic, of which oxygen, carbon and sulphur are the 
most frequent. For the various ores of copper, see chapter on chemistry 
and mineralogy. 

ORE CAR. A mine car for carrying ore or waste rock. 

ORE DUMP. See Dump. 

ORTHOCLOSE. Silicate of potassium and aluminum. An acid feld- 
spar. 

OUTCROP. The ledge of a lode or vein that is exposed on the surface 
of the earth. 

OUTLIER. An isolated rock or group of rocks lying at a distance from 
the main body, and separated therefrom, on the surface of the earth, by a 
different rock formation. 

OUTPUT. Production. 

OVERBURDEN. Superincumbent material, usually drift or alluvium. 

OVERHAND ST0PIN6. Removing ore in ascending steps. 

OXIDATION. Process of conversion of metals or ores into oxides by 
weathering. 

OXIDE. An ore of any metal or metals chemically united with oxygen. 

OXIDIZED. United with oxygen. Many minerals and most metals 
oiidize with greater or less rapidity when exposed to air or water. 

PARE. Cornish for a gang or shift of miners. 

PARTING. The separation of two or more motals mechanically ad« 



88 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

mixed, by electrolysis, cupellation, use of acids or other chemical or metal- 
lurgical processes. 

PASS. A winze. 

PATENTED. A mining claim is patented when the government exe- 
cutes a deed or patent to the holder. 

PEHTHOUSE. A shed-roof erected in the bottom of a shaft, when sink- 
ing, to protect miners from accidental fall of rock, timber or tools from above. 

PENTICE. An erroneous spelling of penthouse. 

PEROXIDE. The oxide of any metal containing the greatest propor- 
tion of oxygen. 

PERPENDICULAR SHAFT. A shaft sunk vertically. 

PERTENENCIA. One mineral claim in Mexico; area, one hectare, 
or 2,471 acres. 

PETERING. Pinching. 

PETER OUT. To pinch out. 

PETROGRAPHY. The science of rocks. 

PHOSPHATE. An or6 of any metal or metals with which phosphorous 
and oxygen are chemically united. 

PICK. A pick ax. 

PICUL. A Chinese weight of 133^ pounds. 

PILLAR. A section of rock or ore left in place to support shafts or 
roofs. 

PINCHING. The narrowing of a vein. 

PINCHING OUT. The narrowing of a vein to extinction. 

PIT. An opening in the earth's surface, usually shallow. 

PITCH. Synonymous with "dip," but occasionally used to designate 
the angle of decline from the horizon measured along the strike of the lode or 
vein. 

PITCHING. The irregular descent of a vein. 

PLAIN. A flat, champaign country. 

PLANT. The machinery equipment of a mine or reduction works. In 
general use the term includes buildings housing machinery. 

PLAT. The enlargement of a shaft at a level, to give extra space for 
loading and unloading the cage, skip or bucket. 

PLATEAU. A flat table land, similar to a prairie, but at a higher ele- 
vation. 

PLUTONIAN. Volcanic. 

PLUTONIC. Rock strata of volcanic origin overlaid at some time by 
later beds. 

POCKET. Underground, an ore deposit, usually of small extent. On 
surface, a bin at shaft house or mill, in which ore is stored. 

POCKETY. Where a mineral body carries values very irregularly, in 
spots, it is said to be pockety. 

POLL-PICK. A tool having a pick on one end, and a poll, or hammer 
head, on the other. 

POOD. A Russian weight of 36.112 pounds avordupois. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 89 

POPPST-HSAD. Framework over a shaft for a sheave-wheel. 

POWER-DRILL. A' machine for drilling holes in rock, actuated by 
compressed air, steam or electricity. 

PRILL. Cornish for selected ore secured by cobbing. 

PRIMARY. The oldest rock formations. 

PROP. A heavy timber placed with its foot against the floor of a mine 
opening and its top against the roof, to support the rock above. 

PROSPECT. To seek for mineral: a new mining property that has 
not yet earned the right to be called a mine. 

PROSPECTING. Exploratory work for mineral, on property where no 
regular mine has been opened. 

PROSPECTOR. A searcher for mineral. 

PROTOXIDE. The oxide of any metal containing the least proportion 
of oxygen. 

PUDDIHGSTOIIE. A coarse conglomerate showing rounded pebbles. 

PULLEY-STAHD. a temporary tripod or other light frame construc- 
tion, holding a pulley, over which the rope used in hoisting is passed. 

PULP. Wet, concentrated ores. 

PULVERIZE. To crush to a powder. 

PTRRHOTITE. Magnetic iron sulphide. 

PTRITE. Iron disulphide. 

PYRITES. Sulphide ores; pyrite. 

PYROGIIOSnCS. Characteristics of a mineral under the blowpipe. 

QUARRY. An open pit, of varying size, sometimes several acres in 
area, from which stone or ore is mined. 

QUARTER-SECTION. A quarter of a square mile of land; 160 acres 
laid out in a parallelogram, each side of which b one half mile in length. 

QUARTZ. Silica. Dioxide of silicon, frequently containing traces of 
iron and other minerals, and often the gangue of gold and other metals. 

QUARTZITE. An oxide of silicon, with other mineraLs in varying quan- 
tities, partly granular and partly crystalline in structure. 

QUARTZOSE. Rock having much quartz in its composition. 

RAGGING. Combh for rough cobbing; middle sized broken lumps 
of ore. 

RAISE. A shaft or winze that is being opened from below. Some- 
times called upraise or uprise. 

RANGE. A mineral belt, also in many American states a surveyor's 
term for describing and locating lands. The state is surveyed in sections 
(with their subdivisions), towns and ranges. A town (or township) com- 
prises 36 sections and is a square of six miles. Each township receiver a 
double number, one for the town and one for the range. The towns are num- 
bered consecutively from south to north and the ranges are similarly num- 
bered from east to west. 

RAW ORE. Ore before treatment. 

REAMER. A tool like a bit, used to enlarge a hole previously drilled. 

REDUCTION. The separation of metals from their ores. 



90 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

REEF. A stratified mineral-bearing rock formation. 

REFINING. The elimination of impurities from crude metals, or sep- 
aration of metallic alloys obtained in the reduction of ores. 

REFRACTORY. A refractory ore is one that cannot be smelted by ordi- 
nary metallurgical processes. A refractory stamp-rock is one that is pulver- 
ized with unusual difficulty. 

REGULUS. Copper matte. 

RESERVES. Bodies of mineral-bearing ground opened in a mine ahead 
of immediate requirements. 

REVERBERATORY FURNACE. A smelting furnace in which the flame 
from the grate is reflected back on the charge of ore by the roof. . 

RISE. A raise. 

ROASTING. Driving off sulphur and other similar volatile elements 
from ore by heating. When done in a furnace under great heat, the process 
is called calcining. 

ROASTING FURNACE. An oven for the expulsion of sulphur, arsenic 
and other volatile elements from ore. 

ROB. A mine is robbed when its pillars and other supports are removed 
for their mineral values, regardless of the future of the property. Done only 
by unprincipled persons or when the mine is about to be abandoned. 

ROCK. Stone. 

ROCK BURROW. A pile of refuse rock from a mine. 

ROCK CAR. An ore car. 

ROCK-CRUSHER. A machine for reducing rock or ore to smaller sizes. 
Crushers are of two types, the jaw-crusher and the centrifugal. The jaw- 
crusher works as a man cracks nuts with his teeth, the centrifugal operates 
on the plan of a coffee-grinder. 

ROCK-DUMP. The place where worthless rock is piled. 

ROCK-FILLING. Waste rock placed in worked-out stopes as a support 
ft-r the roof. 

ROCK-HOUSE. A building where copper-bearing rock is received and 
put through crushers before shipment to the mill. Is really a preparatory 
mill. Is usually built in connection with a shaft house. 

ROLLING. In its descent, a lode or vein, while fairly constant to a given 
angle on the average, frequently makes depth at irregular angles. This is 
called rolling. 

ROLLS. Heavy steel rollers, worked in pairs like a clothes-wringer, used 
for crushing rock and ore. 

ROOF. The rock above a mine opening. 

ROOM. Similar to a stope ; term usually applied to mines working min- 
eral bodies lying nearly horizontally.* 

ROYALTY. A percentage paid to the fee-owner from mineral values ob- 
tained by the lessee of a mine. 

RULE-OF-THUMB. The guess-work and rough measurement plan of 
mining, in contradistinction to systematic development from data ob- 
tained by careful surveying and engineering. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 61 

RUN. When superincumbent material is coming into mine openings, 
the ground is said to be running. 

SADDLE. An anticlinal. 

SAFETY CAGE. A cage furnished with automatic appliances to stop its 
descent in case the cable breaks. Usually works well in theory. ^ 

SALT. A ch§mical union of an acid with a base. 

SALTHIG. Placing foreign ore in a mine to deceive intending purchas- 
ers or other interested parties. 

SAMPLE. A specimen of ore — usually not the worst to be found in tlu 
mine. 

SAND PUMP. A pump, usually centrifugal, designed to lift water carr>'- 
ing large quantities of coarse tailings. 

SANDS. Tailings from the stamp mills of Lake Superior copper mines. 

SAND SHAFT. A ahaft sunk through sand. 

SAND WHEEL. A large wheel, having buckets on its inner perimeter, 
for elevating water carrying stamp sand. 

SCALE COPPER. Copper in very thin flakes. 

SCHIST. A metamorphic slaty rock of foliated structure. 

SCHISTOSE. Approximating to schist. 

SCORIA. The slaty, porous portion of a lava flow ; slags from copper 
smelters. 

SCRAM. A mine that is being gone through carefully, when apparently 
worked out, for mineral previously overlooked; to scram. 

SCRAMMING. Searching a mine for mineral previously overlooked. 

SCREEN. A grating of perforated metal or woven *wire. 

SEAM. A thin layer of rock or ore. 

SECONDARY. Rock strata of the second period. 

SECTILE. That which may be cut easily. 

SECTION.* A field or district ; also, in the United States of America, a 
square mile of land. 

SECTION POST. A boundary mark set at section comers by surveyors. 

SEDIMENTARY. Rocks formed by deposition from water, as contra- 
dbtinguished from rocks formed by igneous action. 

SELVEGE. Fluccan. 

SET. A framed set of timber used for supporting ground in a mine. 

SHAFT. A downward opening into a mine, with its upper end at surface. 

SHAFT-HOUSE. A building at the mouth of a shaft, where ore or rock 
is landed from below. 

SHALE. An argillaceous slate, of fissile structure. 

SHEAVE. A grooved wheel, notched to carry rope. An open pulley. 

SHIFT. A miner's turn, of eight to ten hours' work; a force of men em- 
ployed on one turn. 

SHIFT-BOSS. A mine boss or under captain in charge of one gang or 
party of miners. 

SHOE. A stampshoe. 

SHOOT. A chute. 



62 TMB COPPEk tlAftbBOOR, 

SHORT TON. A weight of 2,000 pounds avordupois. 

SHOT. A blast of some explosive. 

SHOT COPPER. Small rounded nodules of native copper, somewhat 
resembling small shot in size and shape. 

SHUTE. A chute. 

SILICA. Dioxide of silicon ; quartz. ^ 

SILICATE. An ore of any metal or metals chemically united with silica. 

SILL. The floor-piece of a set of mine timber. 

SIIfKUIG. The process of deepening a sliaft or winze. 

SIKSIIIIO-PIJMP. A pump, usually vertical, secured to a platform, and 
lowered as required, as the shafts are deepened. 

SKIP. An iron box, open at the top, running on four wheels, and 
hauled by a cable, used in incline shafts for hoisting ore and rock and lower- 
ing timber. 

SKIP-ROAD. A track of T-rails spiked to wooden sleepers, on which the 
jskip runs. 

SKIP-WAY. A skip-road. 

SLAG. The vitreous refuse matter from a smelting-fumace. 

SLICnVG. When mine pillars are removed the work is called slicing 
down. 

SLICKElfSIDES. A polished rock surface showing striations produced 
by movement of adjoining rocks under great pressure. 

SLIDE. A dissociation of strata caused by the subsidence of the over- 
lying rock formation. 

SLIMES. Exceedingly small particles of rock and mineral held in solu- 
tion In water, making a slimy mixture. 

SLIME TABLE. A circular revolving table whereon slimes are worked, 
and the minute particles of mineral saved. 

SLIP. A fault where a superincumbent stratum has slid downwards. 

SLUDGE. Mixed rock and water, brought to surface where a diamond 
drill cuts through very soft rock: also, the tailings from a concentrator or 
mill. 

SLXnCE. A wooden flume or launder. 

SMELTER. Works where ores or crude metals are freed from gangue 
or chemically united element^ by heat. 

SMELTING. The reduction of ores and crude metals in furnaces by 
heat, fuel and fluxing meterial being added to the material to be smelted. 

SMELTS. A smelting plant. 

SOAPSTONE. Steatite. 

SOLLAR. .A platform in a shaft. 

SPATHIC. Having a form approximating that of feldspar. 

SPILL. Lagging driven ahead of the regular timbering in treacherous 
ground. 

SPrrZKASTEN. German for a pyramidal box, wherein ores are concen' 
trated and sized by a jet of water fed from below. 

SPOON. A long-handled spoon used to scrape out drill holes. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 93 

SQUARE SETS. A form of mine timbering with mortised and tenoned 
sill, top piece and uprights of equal length, joined at right angles. 

SQUIB. A fuse. 

STACK. The chimney of a furnace; usually employed to designate a 
number of furnaces, when used in the plural. 

STAMP-MILL. A mill for crushing and concentrating minerals. 

STAMP-ROCK. Rock containing fine copper that can be secured by 
stamping. 

SXAMPS. Machines to crush rock or ore by heavy blows. 

STAMP-SHOE. The heavy chilled iron casting attached to the lower 
end of a stamp piston that does the actual crushing of rock in a stamp mill. 

STATION. A chamber in a shaft, cut out for pumps, etc. 

STEAM-HAMMER. A heavy hammer actuated by steam or compressed 
air. 

STEAM-STAMP. A stamp actuated by steam. 

STEATITE. Soapetone. A greasy mineral, having a talc base. 

STEP FAULT. A series of faults, rising like steps. 

STOCKWERK. Country, rock penetrated by nimierous small stringers 
of ore, the entire mass averaging sufficiently rich to permit its mining and 
treatment. 

STOPE. Used interchangeably to designate the excavation above a 
drift, or the pay rock remaining unmined above a drift. 

ST0PIN6. Breaking doiivii (he mass of pay rock or ore above a drift. 
When stoping in an ore body of average width, miners can break rock much 
more quickly and cheaply than when driving the drifts, which are usually 
about 7x7 feet in size. 

STOPIIIG GROUND. Ground in reserve, opened by drifts, and ready 
f <|| breaking down. 

STRATA. The successive rock layers of the earth. 

STRATIFIED. Havipg regular layers of vaiying rock formation. 

STRATUM. A layer or bed of rock. 

STREAK. The color given by a mineral when scratched. 

STRIKE. The horizontal trend of a mineral body, measured by the 
points of the compass. 

STRINGER. A thin seam of ore. 

STRIPPING, (v). Uncovering a lode, vein or bed of mineral, by re- 
moving the superincumbent earth; (n). the drift or alluvial soil overlying an 
ore body. 

STRUCTURE. The form of a mineral, such as granular, crystalline or 
amorphous. 

STUDDLE. A prop in a mine. 

STULL^ The top piece of a set of mine timber. 

SULPHATE. An ore of any metal or metals with which sulphur and 
water are chemically united. 

SULPHIDE. An ore of any metal or metals with which sulphur is chem- 
ically united. Sometimes called a sulphuret. 



94 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

SULPHOANTIMONIDE. An ore of any metal or metals with which 
sulphur and antimony are chemically united. 

SULPHOARSENIDE. An ore of any metal or metals with which sul- 
phur and arsenic are chemically united. 

SULPHURET. A sulphide. Term becoming obsolete. 

SUMP. The bottom of a shaft, where water collects. 

SURFACE CAPTAIN. A mine superintendent whose duties are wholly 
on surface. 

SURFACE RIGHTS. The ownership of the surface of land only, 'where 
mineral rights are reserved. 

SWABSTICK. A stick used to clean out driU-holes. 

SYNCLINAL. A trough formed by rock strata that are low in the center 
and high on the sides. Reverse of an anticlinal. 

TABLE. An ore concentrator, of which there are various forms. 

TAILINGS. Refuse matter from a stamp mill. 

TAMPING. Qosely packing clay or other sticky earth into a drill-hole 
above the cartridges, to give greater force to the blast. 

TAPER OFF. Cornish for stopping work temporarily. 

TELERA. Spanish for a roast-heap of sulphide ore. 

TENSILE STRENGTH. The resistance to breaking or elongation offered 
by metal when under strain from either end. 

TERRERO. Spanish for waste burrows. 

TERTIARY. Rocks of comparatively-recent formation, as time is meas' 
ured by geological periods. 

TEST-PIT. A shallow pit sunk to discover mineral. 

THROW. The vertical displacement of a vein caused by faulting. 

TIMBER. The wooden beams and sticks used for underground sup- 
ports. # 

TIMBER-BOSS. The head timbcrman. 

TIMBERMAN. One who works at timbering a mine. 

TON. See Metric, Long and Short tons. 

TONELADA. Spanish for ton. 

TOSSING. Jigging finely comminuted ore. 

TOWN. See Range for description. 

TRACHYTE. A micaceous hornblende eind feldspar rock. 

TRAM. To load rock or ore in tram-cars and push same to the shaft ; a 
tramway. 

TRAM-CAR. A car running underground on light T-rails, used for car- 
rying rock from the stopes and other workings to the shafts. 

TRAMMERS. Men who load and tram the broken rock underground. 

TRAP. A dense gray^ blue or greenish rock of volcanic origin ; of con- 
siderable variety in different beds, but usually of fcklspathic-augitic nature. 

TRAPPEAN. Pertaining to trap rock. 

TREND. The general direction of a mineral body. 

TRESTLE. A frame-work of timbers, connecting various mine and mill 
buildings on surface, usually carrying tram-tracks, 



THE COPPJSR HANDBOOK. 95 

TRIBUTB. The royalty or percentage paid by workmen to owners for 
the privilege of working a mine. Apt to be a form of grand larceny, at the 
expense of the mine's future. 

TRI^tnOR. One who works a mine on tribute. 

TRIPOD. The three-legged bon frame on which the working parts of a 
power-drill rest. 

TROLLEY-CABLE. A wire rope sometimes used in an incline shaft as a 
guide for the bucket. * 

TROtTBLED. A vein b troubled when disturbed or faulted. 

TSUBO. Japanese measure of six feet square, equalling 36 square feet. 

TUFA. (Calcareous). A porous limestone; (volcanic). Loosely cemented 
ash and scoria from a volcano. 

TURBINE. The most efficient form of water-wheel. 

TUTWORK. Development work. 

UHCONFORICABLE. Rock strata that do not correspond as to bed- 
ding, horizons or .geological age. 

UNDERHAND STOPING. Removing ore in descending steps. 

UNDERLAY. The mineral bodies lying under a given tract, though not 
outcropping on surface. 

UNPATENTED. Mining claims held from the United States Government 
subject to annual assessment work. 

UNSTRATIFIED. Rock forms not bedded in layers. 

un WATER. To free from water; to pump out. 

UPCAST. A shaft ha\dng an upward air current. 

UPRAISE. A raise. 

VAN. To dress ore. 

VANNER. A jig for dressing ore by means of vibratory motion, aided 
by jets of water to carry away gangue-rock. 

VARA. A Spanish- American measure of 33 inches. 

VEIN. A mineral body having defined walls. See contact vein and fis- 
sure vein. 

VEINSTUFF. Ore with its associated gangue. 

VENTILATION. The system of natural or artificial air currents in a 
mine. See aiivshaft. 

VERTICAL. Perpendicular. Upright and downright. 

VERTICAL SHAFT. One sunk at an angle of 90° with the horizon, 
or directly downwards toward the center of the earth. 

VINNEY. Cornish for copper ore with a green coating caused by weath- 
ering. 

VIRGIN. Native metal, as distinguished from ores, which are chemical 
compounds. 

VITREOUS. Of a glassy nature. 

VOLATILE. That which can be driven off as vapor, by heat. 

VUG. A druse. A hollow, or cave, entirely surrounded by rock. Usu- 
ally shows fine crystallizations. 

WALL. Rock of a different formation adjoining a vein or other ore body. 



96 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

WATER DRILL. A power drill in which a current of water runs through 
the bit of the drill, changing the rock dust from the bit into sludge which is 
expelled from the bore-hole by the force of the current. 

WATER JACKETED FURNACE. A smelting furnace p^/^ided with 
an outer jacket, between which and the furnace proper water is circulated. 

WATER LEVEL. The point above which water does not rise when a 
mine is allowed to fill. 

WEATHERED.' Ro^k altered in structure by exposure to air and 
water. ' 

WET PROCESSES. Leaching processes; lixiviation. 

WHEAL. Cornish for mine. Synonymous with bal. 

WHIM. A windlass with a horizontal drum. 

WHIP. A rope and fixed pulley or pulleys, for hobting. 

WILFLEY. A Wilfley concentrating table. 

WHICH. A windlass. 

WINDLASS. A winding device for hoisting from a pit or shaft, by means 
of coiling a rope or cable around a drum. 

WIRE BARS. Refined copper cast into bare for wire drawing. 

WORKINGS. The underground openings of a mine. 

YELLOW COPPER ORE. Chalcopyrite. 

ZINC BLENDE. Sphalerite. Sulphide of 



TtiE COPPEk tiANbBOOK. ft? 



CHAPTER VII. 

Copper Deposits of the United States. 

In this chapter will be found synopses of the principal features of interest, 
scientifically and commercially, of the copper deposits of the United States, 
arranged by states and territories, in alphabetical order. 

ALABAMA. This state possesses deposits of chalcopyrite ore occurring 
as veins in igneous rocks, in Cleburne and Randolph counties. The upper 
portions of at least two of these veins carried good values in oxide and car- 
bonate ores, with some associated gold ?vd silver values, and occasional 
' sheets of native copper. Two mines were worked quite extensively in the 
seventies. These were closed^ when the altered ores were replaced at depth 
by sulphides. There has recently been some revival of interest in Alabama 
copper ores, which, so far as kno\i^, are confined to the northwestern comer 
of the state, and some development work is now under way. 

ALASKA. In giving consideration to the mineral deposits of Alaska, 
it must be borne in mind that this territory is an empire in itself, having 
a greater area than France and Germany combined. The copper deposits, 
known and partially prospected, are scattered over a vast territory, and 
occur under such varying geological and geographical conditions that com- 
ments pertinent to one district might be entirely inapplicable to another. 
Alaskan copper deposits cannot be considered as one district, but as a num- 
ber of separate fields, with all the distinctions implied thereby. 

It may be said, in a general way, that there is much copper in Alaska. 
It may also be said that there are many and able liars in Alaska. There 
is little question that the various placer gold camps of interior Alaska and 
the Yukon have been systematically boomed by an organized claque, to the 
benefit of sundry transportation lines and outfitting firms. Many of the 
press despatches have been of a misleaujig nature, and there are evidences 
that similar systematic promotion of a copper mining boom is being attempt- 
ed. This is not intended to apply to the local newspapers of Alaska, but 
to certain not always veracious correspondents, and to various newspapers 
along the Pacific coast. This criticism will doubtless bring forth warm 
expostulations, and perhaps the author will be accused of attempting to 
deliberately injure a new and promising copper field, though such is not the 
case. There is every likelihood that good copper mines will be opened in 
Alaska. In fact, several now opening are of more than ordinary promise, 
but there has been so much of exaggeration, of misrepresentation and of 
downright lying, about Alaskan copper deposits, that the reported finds of 
mountains of pure copper must be taken cum grano salia. The bogus mine 



J8 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

promoter always finds his most profitable field in a district far from centers 
of population and difficult of access. Ten years ago Arizona was filled with 
wildcat mines and mining fakers of all grades, and they gave that territory 
a very bad reputation aniong investors. This bad state of affairs has been 
greatly ameliorated of late, and while there are still salted mines and mine 
salters in Arizona, the standard of mining and mine promotion has been 
greatly raised in the past few years, as the district has become more accessible 
and better known. Alaska is today where Arizona was ten years ago— a 
terra incognita, where all things are possible, and a country of such mag- 
nificent distances that the natural-bom liar finds opportunities of outdoing 
his own best records. There are fine copper mines awaiting opening in 
Alaska, but there arc also cleverly made bogus gold bricks awaiting pur- 
chasers. The country undoubtedly offers great opportunities to investors 
with the capital, skill and business sense required for successful mining in 
any part of the world, but common business prudence dictates careful 
examination by competent experts before the investment of money. All 
legitimate mining districts court this sort of investigation. 

Copper is reported as occurring at many points in Alaska, prominent 
among which are the valleys of the Copper, White, Chitna and Tanana rivers; 
on Latouche and Prince of Wales islands, along the Mt. St. Elias range; at 
various inland points in the Ketchikan district; on the Scolai range; at 
Sunrise, and elsewhere. Alaska is a hilly and often mountainous country, 
except along the tundra of the Arctic circle, and the valleys of the laige rivens, 
often five to thirty miles in width, are the natural highways for prospectors, 
hence it arises that mineral discoveries are first reported from them, in the 
interior districts. 

The copper fields of the Copper river and its principal tributaries have 
attracted the widest attention, though the most important developments 
are along the coast. The Copper river basin, with the valleys of its tribu- 
tary rivers, is a vast field, and will require many years for even a fairly com- 
plete preliminary examination. This basin is a broad synclinorium, the 
centrid part of which is occupied by the Wrangell Mountains, which are of 
Tertiary age. Copper ores are reported from nnany points along the valley 
of tlie Chitna and between that river and Mt. Wrangell. 

The White river is a tributary of the Yukon, with a generally northerly 
trend. Kletsan creek, a small tributary of the upper W^hite, has excited 
much interest, because of the occurrence of native copper, which has been 
gathered and used by the natives for arrow-heads, bullets and ornaments. 
Scolai Pass is the divide between the head waters of the White and Chitna 
rivers. Mr. James Lindsay, a well-known consulting engineer of Portland, 
Ore., spent the spring and summer of 1902 in Alaska, and made a vexy careful 
examination of the upper White river copper fields. He informs me that 
the much-talked-of Kletsan creek is apparently of little importance as a 
possible future source of copper supply. The native copper occurs in placer 
form only, and has evidently been derived from ancient basaltic dikes inter- 
secting greenstone diorite and carboniferous limestone. The river valley 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 99 

for a hundred miles east from Scolai Pass is covered with volcanic ash, which 
is over 100 feet deep at the international boundary' line on the White river. 
This volcanic ash meets the perpetual snow and ice at an altitude of 6,000 
feet on the mountains, and the cupriferous veins are most effectually hidden 
by the scoria or by the everlasting ice and snow, affording about as discour- 
aging a prospect for exploration as could be found at any point on the globe. 
The United States Geological Survey reports that the largest placer nuggets 
of copper in the Kletsan creek valley weigh eight to ten pounds, and that 
investigation disclosed the original home of the placer copper to be in the 
greenstones, which were tra\'ersed by irregular joints, in which calcke was 
depodted, and these were found to carry copper, the veins so found being 
small and of no commercial value. All of the cupriferous veins were in 
contact with the limestone. In the same neighborhood are trappean amyg- 
daloids carrying amygdules of chalcopyrite. 

Discoveries of native copper, bomite and chalcopyrite are reported 
from the Kotsina river. Near the Kuskulana river a mass of native copper, 
three feet wide and eight feet long, wjeus found. 

On the islands and mainland in the Prince William's Sound district a 
number of promising properties have been opened, one of the most ad- 
vanced being on Latouche Island. The Alaska Central railroad is to run 
from Valdez, at the head of Resurrection Bay, on Prince William's Sound, to 
Rampart, on the Yukon river, near the Arctic circle and international bound- 
ary line. Preliminary surveys have been made and while the exact route of 
the line is not fully determined at all points, the road will run along the 
valley of the Copper river from Copper Center to Mentasta Pass, thence 
northwesterly, crossmg the upper Tanana to the Yukon, a distance of ap- 
proximately 400 miles. This railroad will traverse several promising min- 
eral districts, and its construction seems assured. 

At the present time the most important copper district of Alaska is 
in the vicinity of Ketchikan, in southern Alaska. On Prince of Wales Island 
several mines are being opened on veins of sulphide ore that are apparently 
of good width and permanence, and which carry gold and silver as well as 
fair percentages of copper. This district has the advantage of tide-water, 
giving cheap and fairly rapid communication with the cities of Puget Sound 
and the Pacific coast of the United States. It is quite certain that the first 
regularly producing copper mines of Alaska w^ill be developed here, and 
some of them should become factors in the world's production during the 
present year. 

ARIZONA. Arizona is the third district of the United States and the 
fourth in the world in point of productive capacity. No other copper field 
has 'shown such marked gains in production during the past decade, and 
there is every reason to believe that the output will continue to increase 
for many years to come. 

Arizona has nearly a quarter of the copper mines of the United States. 
Many of them are of very doubtful value; a few are of fully dernon- 
Strnted worthy and a considerable number give promise of becoming both 



100 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

large and profitable producers. The mere fact that a copper mine is located 
iu Arizona should not prejudice opinion for or against it. Some of the best 
and some of the worst mines ever opened are in this territory, and each 
mine should be judged individually, upon its merits. 

There are evidences of rude mining by prehistoric peoples at a num- 
ber of points in the territory, but no traces of smelting, and had the copper 
ores been reduced, the slags, and possibly remnants of the furnaces, could 
hardly have escaped attention in modem days. It seems likely that the 
iron ochres, malachite and azurite were mined in a crude way, for pigments. 
Prehistoric turquoise mines have been found at several points, notably 
in the Dragoon Mountain range. 

The first copper made in Arizona was turned out of an adobe furnace 
at the Longfellow mine, Clifton, in 1873. The nearest railroaSl point was 
800 miles distant at that time. The development of the mineral resources 
of the territory of Arizona has been a remarkable one, during the three 
decades that have since elapsed. 

The copper zone of Arizona, broadly speaking, has a general south- 
easterly and northwesterly trend, and the copper deposits, as a rule, are found 
along the contacts of igneous rocks, such as porphyry and diorite, with 
limestone of the Paleozoic group, mostly of the carboniferous series. The 
general geological conditions of Arizona are much the same as in the adjoining 
Mexican state of Sonora. 

Copper ores are found in n^ore or less profusion in every county of the 
territory. The counties are of princely size, and as the topography ranges 
from hilly to mountainous in most parts, not even the best known districts 
have been developed yet, or even fully prospected. Nearly all of the ores 
of copper are found in Arizona, and native copper is of not uncommon oc- 
currence, especially in the mines at Clifton and Bisbee. The principal 
copper districts are four in number, as follows: Bisbee, in Cochise county, 
only six miles from the Mexican border; Jerome, Yavapai county, in the 
northwestern part of the state ; Clifton, including Morenci, in Graham county, 
north of Bisbee and close to the New Mexican border; Globe, Pinal county, 
not far from the center of the territory. In addition to these four principal 
districts, all of which are considerable producers, in about the order given, 
there are a dozen or more smaller districts, such as the Helvetia, in Pima 
county; the Wickenburg, and others. 

The Bisbee district, of which the town of that name is the center, is really 
a part, geographically, of the great Sonoran copper belt of Mexico. The 
ore deposits occur in carboniferous limestones, bedded in nearly horizontal 
planes, and underlaid by quartzite. The veins are notable for the quantity 
of fluccan along the walls, and are easily mined as a rule. The clay carries 
considerable finely comminuted native copper and masses of native metal 
of respectable size are occasionally encountered. The oxidized zone extends 
to a depth of perhaps 400 feet and is succeeded by unaltered iron-copper sul- 
phides that average excellent values. The oxidized zone is notable for the 
richness and extent of its high-grade carbonate ores. 



T'tiB COPPER HAND600R. 161 

The country rock of the Jerome district is slate, extensively intruded 
by dioritic igneous rocks, slates and diorites having a capping of unconi- 
formable limestones of later age and devoid of copper. There is a limited 
zone of oxidized ores, but the principal dependence is placed upon the un- 
altered disseminated sulphides. These are by no means remarkable for 
their high percentages of copper, but are notable for their great extent and 
the high A'^alues carried in gold and silver. 

The Clifton district has quartzite and limestones superimposed on 
granite, with intrusive igneous rocks of both basic and acid types, the entire 
formation being greatly faulted. Ore occurs in both the eruptive rocks 
and the limestones. It was in this district that the first Arizona copper 
mining was done, three decades ago. There were very extensive deposits 
of rich oxidized ores near the surface, along the contacts between the por- 
phyry and magnesian limestone. These ores were self-fluxing and highly 
profitable but gave out at shallow depth, and, contrary to the usual rule, 
were not succeeded by sulphides. Extensive openings, on the porphyry 
of Humboldt Mountain, have developed enormous beds of low-grade sul- 
phides, during the past ten years, and these are now the mainstay of the 
district, though some carbonate ores are still mined. The leaching process, 
little used in the United States, is employed to advantage in the treatment 
of certain of the low-grade ores of this district. 

The first mining in the Globe district was done in 1876, and was for 
silver. The Old Dominion, the principal producer and a typical mine of 
this field, is opened on a contact vein between a diorite foot and a hanging 
of carboniferous limestone, over the greater part of which there is a trachyte 
capping. The principal ore bodies are in the limestone, and the ores are 
mostly oxidized. A peculiar feature is the presence of a sulphide zone 
which has oxidized ores both above and below. The ores are highly sili- 
cious and require heavy fluxing with iron and lime. The lack of sulphide 
ores, to furnish the iron needed in fluxing, is one of the most serious draw- 
backs of this district. It seems likely that ample bodies of unaltered sul- 
phides will be found at some future time, in or adjacent to this district, 
where operations are fiulher , handicapped by very high freight rates on 
coke and other supplies. 

Political expediency should not be allowed to longer prevent the ad- 
mission of the territory of Arizona into the sisterhood of states. The terri- 
tory has the population, resources and assured future that are necessary 
requisites of statehood, and should no longer be kept in leading strings, 
when both able and willing to conduct its own affairs as an independent 
commonwealth. 

ARKANSAS. Tetrahedrite and tennantite occur in the Kellogg mine, 
Pulaski county, only ten miles north of Little Rock, the capital of the state. 
These are not commonly considered as commercial ores of copper, owing 
to their refractory nature and the highly deleterious effects of both antimony 
and bismuth upon finished copper, even in small amounts. Antimonial 



105 TtiE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

and bismuthiferous ores are rarely worked, unless cfi-i-n^ing considerable 
values in silver, as is the case at Butte, in Algeria, and at other points. 

CALIFORinA. There are few states in the American union more 
richly endowed with copper than California. To give the names of all the 
counties in which copper is mined or found would be nearly equivalent to 
calling the roster of the state, as there are but few in which ores of the metal 
are not found in more or less profusion. 

It may be said, in a general way, that there are two copper belts in the 
state, one following the Coast Range mountains, while the other is found 
in the foothills of the Sierras. Both belts have a north and south trend, 
and extend through practically the entire state. The Sierran belt reaches 
from Oregon on the north, through the counties of Lassen, Plumas, Sierra, 
Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Mariposa, Madera, 
Fresno, Tulare, Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and Riverside, to the 
Lower California line. The Coast Range belt extends from Del Norte to 
San Diego, across the state from north to south. In Kern county there 
is an apparent branching of the Sierran copper range, with an offshoot that 
traverses Inyo and San Bernardino counties, then enters the neighboring 
territory of Arizona, thus establishing a close geological and geographical 
connection between the copper measures of Arizona and California. 

The Califomian copper beds are found iiT close proximity to the gold' 
fields, and much of the copper ore carries considerable values in gold. In 
the northern part of the state the gold and copper veins are apparently 
interwoven. There are ample evidences of intense volcanic action in this 
section, and in Shasta and adjoining counties the copper deposits are almost 
invariably auriferous to a profitable extent. 

The first Califomian copper mining was done in 1S60, at Copperopolis. 
Considerable ore was shipped to New York, Baltimore and Swansea for re- 
duction,* and in 1863-1866 no less than nine small smelters were built in the 
state, copper production reaching nearly 2,000,000 pounds in 1864. The 
great fall in price brought operations to a stop in 1867-68, and almost no 
copper mining was done after that time until 1895, when an English com- 
pany bought the "worthless" Iron Mountain mine in Shasta county, and in 
seven years has made it one of the world's great copper producers. 

Although there are several other districts of promise, Shasta county 
is the source of the principal production, and the scene of the greatest activity 
in the de\'elopment of new mines. This belt is from half a mile to four miles 
wide, with an average width of perhaps less than two miles, and a proven 
length of about twenty miles, though possibly much longer. The belt has 
a crescent form, with the principal developments at the western end. The 
country rock is porphyry, \iith-slate to the west and granite and quartzite 
to the east. The beds occur as mammoth, flat-lying lenses of low-grade 
auriferous sulphide ores of copper, usually capped by massive beds of gossan. 
One considerable body of siiicious ore has been opened by the Mt. Sliasta 
Gold Mines Corporation. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 103 

As a rule the alteration zone of Calif omian copper deposits is compara- 
tively shallow. While the high-grade oxidized ores are found in large 
quantities at surface and for a little depth, the unaltered iron-sulphides 
usually come in at a depth of about one hundred feet, hence the big mines 
of the state will be, like the Mountain, low-grade mines operated on a very 
large scale. 

Next to Shasta the copper producing counties of California rank in 
about the following order of importance : Calaveras, Fresno, San Berdardino, 
Kern, Mariposa, Madera, Merced, Stanislaus, Amador. 

Native copper has been found at Napoleon, Calaveras county; at Co- 
sumnes, Amador county, and elsewhere. 

COLORADO. With the exception of an extensive plateau in the eastern 
part of the st^te, Colorado is heavily mineralized at nearly all points, and while 
gold and silver have been most extensively exploited, copper, iron and the 
other minerals exist in abundance in many parts. Copper ores are found in 
the counties of Boulder, Chaffee, Clear Creek, Custer, Gilpin, Gunnison, 
Hinsdale, Huerfano, Lake, La Plata, Ouray, Park, Pitkin, Rio' Grande, 
San Juan, San Miguel, and Summit. 

The production of refined copper by Colorado mines has run upSnto 
the thousands of tons for some years past, but almost without exception 
this has been secured as a by-product from the smelting of gold, silver and 
lead ores. The sulphide ores predominate and are found at many points. 
At present a number of copper mines are being opened, mainly in San Juan 
county near the New Mexico border, and in the northern part of the state 
near the Wyoming line. 

CONIVECTICUT. There are two copper mines in Connecticut, from 
which ore has been produced occasionally during the past century, these 
being the Newgate at Granby, and the Bristol in the town of that name, 
but both are idle at present. Malachite, bomite, chalcocite and chalcopyrite 
are found at Bristol; cuprite, malachite, chalcocite and bomite arc found 
at Cheshire; chalcopyrite occurs at Middle town, New Britain, Roxbury, 
Bolton, Brookfield, Sunsbury, Litchfield and other points, and native copper 
is found at Farmington in red sandstone. A 200-pound mass of native 
copper was found in alluvium near New Haven. Copper ore was also found 
near Montville in 1902. 

DELAWARE. Chalcopyrite has been found in the quarries of the 
Wilmington Granite Co., on the Brandywine river, near Wilmington, but 
no workable deposits of copper ore are known to exist in this state. 

FLORIDA. No important or workable bodies of copper ore are known 
to exist in this state, but small veins of sulphide ores have been found at 
several difTerent points. 

GEORGIA. Copper ores exist in the counties of Fannin, Lincoln and 
Rabun, and probably in other parts of Georgia. Considerable chalcopyrite 



104 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

is found in Fannin county, at a point only two miles distant from the copper 
mines of Ducktown, Tennessee. At present there is but one active pro- 
ducer of copper in the state, this being the old Sfagruder mine, now owned 
by the Seminole Copper Co., but reopening work is being done at the Canton 
mine, and a small amount of work is under way at other points. 

IDAHO. Although Idaho has never been a large producer of copper, 
the state possesses important deposits of ore at several points, and a large 
amount of development work is now under way. Copper ore is found in the 
counties of Alturas, Brigham, Custer, Idaho, Lemhi, Shoshone and Wash- 
ington, and possibly elsewhere, as the entire state is richly endowed with 
metals, and the exploration and development of its mineral wealth has been 
by no means commensurate with the opportunities. The principal copper 
developments of the present are in Custer, Washington and Lemhi counties. 
The ores are mainly carbonates and sulphides, though other forms occur 
and native copper has been found in the sluice-boxes of the gold mines at 
Murray.. 

There was much interest aroused in the Seven Devils district a few years 
ago, but for some reason that does not seem quite clear, this district with the 
diabolical name has failed to develop any regular copper producers, though 
ore of the best grade has been found. Sooner or later there should be some 
good mines opened in this district. 

The principal copper mining operations of the present are carried on in 
Custer county, by the White Knob company. A vast amount of work has 
been done at this point, and while the ore is of low grade it is hoped that the 
mining may prove profitable, by reason of operating on a great scale. 

The Coeur d'Alene copper district is receiving some attention at present, 
and has a number of promising prospects. Although silver-lead mines have 
been operated for years in this district, it was not until 1898 that any at- 
tempt was made at copper mining. At present there is a considerable activity 
in this field, though none of the copper mines have passed beyond the 
stage of prospects. 

ILLINOIS. Native copper, occurring as drift, in the alluvium, is of rather 
common occurrence in Illinois, but is, of course, of no commercial import- 
ance. The only deposits of copper ore in place known in the state are in Har- 
din and Chittenden counties. Chalcopyrite has been found in fair quantities 
near Rosiclare, Hardin county, and during 1902 considerable copper was 
found, in connection with lead and spar, in Hardin and Chittenden counties, 
and an attempt was made at organizing a company to open a mine. 

KANSAS. The rock strata of Kansas range from carboniferous to ter- 
tiary, but the igneous rocks are lacking, and without them there seems slight 
likelihood of discovering important copptT deposits. A little chalcopyrite 
in tctrahedral crystals h*i.s binm taken from the lead and zinc mines of Galena, 
Cherokee county, in the southwestern comer of the state. 



THE COPPEk ttANDBOOR, i05 

KEHTXJCKT. A little chalcopyrite has been found in Livingston and 
Union counties, but the deposits do not promise to be of any special value 
industrially. 

LOUISIANA. No copper deposits of industrial importance are known 
in this state, but there is an interesting occurrence of chalcopyrite in a peak 
deposit of galena, sphalerite and baryte in halite (rock-salt) on Belle Isle, near 
the mouth of the Atchafalaya river. 

MAINE. Some of the earliest copper mining in America was done in the 
Pine Tree state, and a smelter was built at Taineston previous to 1840. Chal- 
copyrite is found in the lead mines at Lubec, also near Dexter, and in Sul- 
livan, Franklin, Hancock, Topsham, Parsonfield, Whiting and elsewhere. 
Chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bomite, cuprite and tetrahedite occur at Blue Hill. 
There are old copper mines near Calais, on the New Brunswick border, and 
about 1880 there was a local copper boom that led to the opening of mines at 
Blue Hill and Sullivan, in Hancock county, but these did not prove profitable 
or long-lived. 

MARYLAND. Copper mines were worked in this state in colonial days 
and during the first half of the nineteenth century. There are three cuprif- 
erous measures of some little extent, and the copper mines of Mar>'land 
were actually of some importance as producers, until the discovery and ex- 
ploitation of the rich native metal mines of Lake Superior put a quietus on 
copper mining along the Atlantic seaboard. 

The Maryland ores are mainly chalcopyrite and bomite, with occasional 
malachite. Of the three principal districts of the state, the most important 
is in Frederick county, running along the Linganore hills, from New London 
northward to a point beyond Libertytown, the ore occurring in slates and 
limestones. The second district, in Carroll county, is found mainly between 
Sykesville and Finksbuig, with the ore in slates. The third district is in 
Baltimore county, at Bare Hills, where sulphide ores are foimd in hornblende 
gneiss. 

MASSACHUSETTS. There is more or less copper at various points in 
the Old Bay State, and fitful attempts have been made at opening mines, 
but none have resulted from the short-lived operations. A little native cop- 
per is found in some of the triassic sandstone strata, and chalcopyrite 
is found in the lead mines at Southampton, also near Deerfield, at Turn- 
ers Falls, Hatfield, Steriing, Rowe, Leverett, New Marlborough and Russell, 
also chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite at Newburyport. Prof. W. O. Crosby, of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, furnishes me with particulars re- 
garding the new copper prospect opened in western Massachusetts in 1902, a 
description of which will be found under the name of the New England Min- 
ing Co. 

MICHIGAN. While the Keweenawan formation of Lake Superior out- 
crops in Wisconsin and Minnesota to the west, and upon the Canadian shore 



106 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

of Lake Superior as well, the developed and productive mines ot the district 
lie wholly within the limits of the state of Michigan, Copper ores are found in 
the granite lying north of the iron belt in Marquette county, and one mine Is 
being developed thereon, but for all practical purposes tha coppar belt of Mich- 
igan is contained in the three counties of Keweenaw, Houghton and Ontona- 
gon, stretching from east to west, from the point of the Keweenaw peninsula 
along the mainland of the western half of the southern shore of Lake Superior. 
There are also abandoned copper mines on Isle Royale, which is now prac- 
tically uninhabited except in summer. The Keweenawan foimation stretches 
through Gogebic county, and across the Wisconsin line into Minnesota, but 
there never have been any pnxfucing mines west of Ontonagon county. 

The formation carrying the cupriferous lodss and veins of the Lake Su- 
perior district b composed of old lava flows, supplemented by beds of con- 
glomerate formed by the deposition of rocks, broken from adjacent shores, 
upon old sea-beds. This belt of Keweenawan rocks, so called from its pre- 
dominance in the Keweenaw Peninsula, where first noted by early geologists, 
is of considerable extent. It forms a trough, or synclinal, the southern edge 
outcropping on the Keweenaw Peninsula and to the westward along the south- 
ern shore of the lake, and it is with this southern edge that we have to do. 
The other outcrop of the rock strata forming this trough is noted on Isle 
Royale, and on the northern shore of the greater part of ths western half of 
Lake Superior; also on the southern shore of the lake in Douglas county, Wis- 
consin, and again on Michipicoten island and the adjoining northern shore, at 
nearly the extreme eastern end of Lake Superior. The axial line of the syn- 
clinal seems to run somewhat north of east, but there is marked diversity 
in the trend of the southern outcrop where mining is actively prosecuted, the 
strike ranging from nearly due East and West to North 30^ East in the 
Portage Lake district. Broadly speaking. Lake Superior rests in the trough 
of the Keweenawan series. 

Discarding further consideration of the northern outcrop of the series, 
where the dip is to the southward, it may be said that the dip of all of the 
southern outcrop of the Keeweenawan beds is to the northward or northwest- 
ward. The cupriferous strata on the Keweenaw peninsula have sandstone to 
either side. The underlying sandstone, to the east and south, is generally 
held to be unconformable with the traps of the Keweenawan group, and has 
been identified by Dr. L. L. Hubbard as of the Potsdam series. Copper is 
occasionally found in the eastern sandstone, near the point of contact with 
the trap, where evidences of igneous influence are quite plainly discernible; 
and in Ontonagon county fine copper has been found in the overlying sand- 
stone conglomerate of the Porcupine mountains. The western sandstone is 
superimposed upon the Keweenawan beds and is apparently in place. 

The outcrop of the Keweenawan formation, between thejbwo sandstones, 
Lb from two to six miles wide, roughly speaking, and is narrowest where the dip 
of the strata is greatest, and widest where the strata dip least sharply . Toward 
the middle of the Keweenaw peninsula the western sandstone is lost under 
the lake« and at Bete Gris bay the eastern sandstone also plunges beneath 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 107 

Lake Superior, leaving the traps and conglomerates in sole possession of the 
tip of the peninsula for the last ten miles, the waters covering the entire for- 
mation at the end of Keweenaw Point. 

The Keweenawan series consists of three elementarily distinct classes 
of rock, though the subdivisions are numerous. These principal groups are 
the traps, amygdaloids and conglomerates. The two former are old lava 
flows, while conglomerates are composed of broken rock, sand and gravel, ce- 
mented by pressure, and were once seabeds. The traps and amygdaloids are 
in many respects similar, the main difference being in the greater density and 
uniformity of the traps. The copper is found in a chemically pure, or native 
state, in the amygdaloids and conglomerates, and occasionally, to a limited ex- 
tent, in the traps. The theory most commonly held b that the copper was de- 
deposited by precipitation in the cavities in the strata from the waters of a 
sea above. The traps being dense rocks, usually basic, there was little chance 
for the deposition of copper therein. The amygdaloids contained an infinite 
variety of granular and crystalline rock forms, the calcareous and silicious 
portions of which were di&solved quite readily by the waters, presumably 
powerfully impregnated with salts, and in the apertures left by the dissolu- 
tion of the chalky and sandy nodules, the copper was deposited when pre- 
cipitated from the waters above. There is also a theory that the copper is 
purely of igneous origin. 

A cross-section of the formation at any given point would show a large 
number of trap, amygdaloid and conglomerate strata, lying one upon the 
other,^rom south to north. These vary greatly in thickness, but are persist- 
ent both as to length imd depth. There must necessarily be an end to even 
the greatest lava-flow, and owing to inequalities existing on the land-surface 
or sea-bed over which these old flows spread, the stratum may be temporarily 
cut out, to reappear at greater depth, or to the sides of the point of disappear- 
ance. 

Geological observation in the Lake district has been founded very laigely 
on the conglomerates as base-lines, and many conglomerate reefs have been 
identified and traced for considerable distances. This system of geological 
identification is obviously correct, as the conglomerates differ more radically 
from the traps and amygdaloids than do the latter from each other. AU of 
the various strata of traps, amygdaloids and conglomerates vary from each 
other to a greater or less extent, according to their chemical and petrograph- 
ical formation, crystallization, and alterative influences to which they were 
subjected after their original deposition. Some of the traps are blue, others 
greenish in color, with various minerals added to the original diabase, such as 
augite, prehnite, calcite, and others. In addition to the diabase, there are 
felsite and porphyritic rocks, richer in silica. 

Of the conglomerates, many carry copper in minute quantities, but only 
two have been mined, these being the Calumet and Allouez conglomerate 
reefs. Nearly all the amygdaloids carry copper to some extent, but not all 
have it in suflicient quantity to render mining profitable. With the exception 
of three mines working on conglomerates m!i two oi\ veins, all the active 



108 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

mines of the district, including producers and properties in process of develop- 
ment, are opened on amygdaloid lodes. 

In addition to the main portion of the Keweenawan series, which con- 
sists principally of eruptive rocks, a second division, mainly of sedimentary 
rocks, wadTormcd at a later period, and in this second division the Nonesuch 
mine, in the Porcupine Mountains, was opened and found very rich in fine 
copper. The second division of the Keweenawan series was formed mainly 
by the breaking down of the eruptive rocks of the preceding formation, and 
the redeposition of the dctrital rock so secured in the form of conglomerates 
and sandstones. 

The crystalline rocks stand higher than the adjacent strata that had less 
power of resisting the elements and glacial action. These latter have been 
much eroded in ages past, in consequence of which the copper-bearing belt 
forms a ridge rising from 400 to 800 feet above the level of Lake Superior, 
with the sandstone sloping to the water from either side. In many places, 
especially at the crests and escarpments of the igneous strata, the naked rock 
stands out strongly, but the lower portions are covered with drift. In places 
an overburden of 200 or more feet of sand is found surmounting the rock, 
and swamps above the ledge of solid rock are of frequent occurrence. These are 
serious obstacles to the locating of mineral deposits, and also hinder the geo- 
logical exploration of the district. 

The dip of the various strata, copper-bearing and otherwise, varies greatly 
at different points, ranging from 73^ with the horizon at the Baltic, 
to as flat as 25^ at the Arnold. In a general way the dip of the trap 
series is sharpest when the trap belt, as exposed at surface, is narrowest; and 
flattest where the trap formation is widest. In a general way it may also be 
said that the dip of the strata is sharpest nearest the eastern sandstone and 
flattest nearest the western sandstone, an evidence of a folding or pushing 
force exerted from the direction of the eastern or Potsdam sandstone. The 
contact of the eastern sandstone is much tilted from the apparently hori- 
zontal position occupied a little further east, the sandstone standing almost 
vertically at some places where adjoining the eruptive rocks. 

In addition to the copper-bearing amygdaloids and conglomerates, there 
are other sources of copper supply of minor value. The first of these in im- 
portance, judging from the amount of copper produced in the past, is found 
in the fissure veins. These cross the formation at approximately right angles 
and as a rule are nearly vertical in dip. The copper in these was presumably 
deposited in the same manner as the crevices in the amygdaloids and traps 
were filled with the same metal. The second source of copper is in the con- 
tact veins, of which the old Minnesota mine affords much the best example. 
The third source of copper is found in the ores. The Cliff, the first and one 
of the greatest dividend-payers among Michigan copper mines, was opc^ned 
originally as a mine of black oxide of copper. The Calumet & Hecla was 
noted, when first opened in 1866, for the large amount of malachite found in 
the conglomerate near surface but in this instance the carbonate had been 
formed by the action of the elements from the native copper, which replaced 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 10ft 

it at a little depth. Various fissure veins of copper ere have been found, espe- 
cially on Keweenaw Point, well toward the eastern end. 

The existence of native copper on the soutncm shore of Lake Superior 
was first made known to the world by the intrepid Jesuit missionaries of 
France, who visited the unknown inland sea eariy in the Seventeenth cen- 
tury. Native copper was found by other explorers in that and the succeed- 
ing century, and in 1770 one Captain Jonathan Carver^printed a book in Lon- 
don, telling, among other things, of the richness of Lake Superior in copper, 
which had but to be picked up and carried away. This led to the forma- 
tion of a copper mining company in London, and a party of miners sent over, 
from England worked on the banks of the Ontonagon river in the winter of 
1771-72, under the direction of Alexander Henry, an adventurous English- 
man who had turned hunter, trapper and finally miner. A long adit was 
driven in a clay bank; this caved in when the nuns came in the spring, and 
no further attempts were made at mining copper for seventy years. 

In 1830 the southern shore of Lake Superior was first visited by Dr. 
Douglass Houghton, of Detroit, a young scientist combining with his tech- 
nical skill rare and valuable courage and practical knowledge of men and 
matters. Through his indefatigable efforts the upper peninsula of Michigan 
was first surveyed, and the discoveries of Dr. Houghton led to the exploita- 
tion of both the copper and iron measures of the Lake Superior district, now 
among the most valuable and productive mineral fields of the world. The 
first " miners " to reach the Lake Superior copper fields were Jim Paull and 
Nick Hiniclear, two backwoodsmen who came overland from southern Wis- 
consin in midwinter, suffering great hardships, and arrived on the shore of 
the great lake in March, 1843. The federal government opened a landoflice 
at Copper Harbor in the same year, and a number of hardy prospectors begun 
work before navigation was closed by the storms of early fall. More minera, 
most of whom were devoid of practical knowledge, arrived in the following 
year, and as the news of important discoveries became bruited about, the first 
Cornish miners arrived to do real mining. The operations of the first two or 
three years were productive of little but knowledge, secured by mistakes 
that now appear ridiculous. The first copper in any quantity of importance was 
taken from a vein of melaconite in Keweenaw county in 1846; the same com- 
pany opened a fissure vein of native copper a little later, and begun the pay- 
ment of dividends in 1849, since which time there have been dividends paid in 
each successive year by Lake Superior copper mines. But little later than 
the early operations of the Giff company in Keweenaw county were the pio- 
neer operations of the Minnesota company, in Ontonagon county, at the other 
end of the district. Extensive remains of prehistoric mines were found at 
many points, and a number of the best mines of the district have been devel- 
oped on lodes revealed by lines of old pits. 

» In the earlier years of development the profitable mines were opened on 
fissure veins in Keweenaw county, and on the contact veins of Ontonagon 
county. The middle, or Portage Lake district, was held to be of little prom- 
ise, and the attempts made to open paying mines on the stratified beds were 



'I 



110 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

regarded ^nth amused contempt by the successful operators of vein mines, un- 
til at last the Quincy mine made a success of an amygdaloid lode. At present 
all but two of the active mines of the Lake district are opened on stratified 
beds, and of the two remaining mines, one is equipping a mill to treat copper 
from fissure veins in Keweenaw county, and the other is reopening the old con- 
tact vein of the Minnesota mine in Ontonagon county, in addition to devel- 
oping a new mine on an amygdaloid bed. 

MnTNESOTA. The western continuation of the Keweenawan cuprifer- 
ous formation extends from the upper peninsula of Afichigan across northern 
Wisconsin into Minnesota. The Keweenawan rocks are found in Cook, St. 
Louis and Pine counties in the northeastern part of the state and short-lived 
attempts at prospecting have been done in all three counties. Native copper 
and malachite have been found in Chisago county. An occurrence of copper 
of geological interest, though of no commercial importance, was noted in St. 
Louis county in 1900, when the Montana shaft of the Miniiesota Iron Com- 
pany yielded about 100 pounds of native copper, found in sheet form imbedded 
in iron ore, at a depth of about 300 feet. 

MISSOURI. Carbonate and sulphide ores occur at a variety of points in 
this state, and a number of small mines have been opened, though none are 
now working. Native copper and various ores are found in the Stanton mine 
in Franklin county. Malachite, azurite and chalcopyrite occur in the Circle 
Diggings of Cole county, and at the Collins mine in Cooper county. Mala- 
chite has been found in the Cherry Valley mines of Crawford county. A 
little chalcopyrite is found at times with the sphalerite in the zinc mines of the 
Joplin district, in Jasper county. The O'Bannon and Buckeye mines 
at Fredericktown, Madison county, were once worked for copper, and 
while in the Catherine lead mines, near Fredericktown, in October, 
1902, I secured a little chalcopyrite from magnesian limestone carrying dis- 
seminated galena. Chalcopyrite has been found in Jefferson county, and 
Shannon county had a short-lived copper boom in 1901. 

The Cornwall and Swansea copper mines were opened in 1863 on paral- 
lel blanket veins of disseminated chalcopyrite with chert ganguc in a country 
rock of Silurian limestone. The southern half of the state, from the Missis- 
sippi river to the Kansas line, possesses great mineral wealth, and while the 
principal developments will probably be in lead, zinc and iron, the opening of 
a profitable copper mine is by no means impossible, as the southern Missouri 
formation of magnesian limestone of carboniferous age, intruded by granite 
and porphyr}'', is one that has given to the world some of its best copper mines 
in other fields. 

MONTANA. The Butte camp of Silver Bow county is now, and for sev- 
tnil years has been the largest producer of copper of any district in the world, 
(■opper ore is found in the counties of Beaverhead, Cascade, Deer Lodge, 
Granite, Jefferson, Madison, Meagher, Lewis & Clarke, Park, Silver Bow and 
T.ton. A little mining is done outside of Silver Bow county, and in these dis- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. Ill 

tricts the ores are mainly sulphides, usually in association with diorites ap- 
pearing as intrusives in a quartzite country rock of Cambrian age. 

The Butte camp is approximately a rectangle of four by seven miles, but 
the more important mines and principal production are in an area of little 
more than two square miles. From this little spot has come hundreds of 
millions of dollars worth of copper, silver and gold, and under normal cir- 
cumstances the production of this district, small only in area, is not less than 
10,000 tons of refined copper monthly — an amount fifty per cent greater than 
the output of any other cupriferous district of the world. 

Butte was originally a placer gold ca^, but as such was of small im- 
portance and short life. Silver mines were opened later, and these turned 
into copper mines at depth. As early as 1880 the Parrot and Boston & Colo- 
rado mines were making argentiferous matte, and in the following year was 
begun the great development that transformed Butte into the world's great- 
est copper camp within a decade. 

The coimtry rock of the Butte district is granite, of which the Butte gran- 
ite is the elder and the Bluebird an intrusive. The ore bodies are of 
very irregular form, occurring in veins rang^g from mere seams up to 100 
feet in width, with many bulgings and pinchings from point to point, but 
with a general tendency toward greater width at depth. The veins are con- 
siderably faulted and cut by horses of dykerock. The. walls are poorly defined 
in many cases, and this gives rise to the plausible theory that the veins have 
been formed along a series of small fissures marking a line of disturbance, 
rather than from a general faulting, and that these small fissures have been 
greatly enlarged at many pointe by replacement of the original walls. The 
veins are nearly all mineralized and iorm a veritable network underground, 
crossing, interweaving, pinching, enlarging and behaving generally in the 
most erratic manner. The damnable mining laws of the United States are 
peculiarly adapted to the fomentation of mining litigation, and as a conse- 
quence of the physical and scientific impossibility of determining the apices 
of many of the veins, the principal mining intereste of this district have be- 
come entangled in a maze of lawsuits that cannot be settled during the life- 
time of the present generation, unless the litigante can arrive at some imder- 
Btandihg out of court, or the weaker parties be driven te the wall. That the 
mines work and earn good profits after paying the millions spent in litigation 
is strong evidence of the richness of the district. In a camp ]ike Butte, every 
mining claim should carry its title te the side- walls, and not an inch beyond. 
Any other system, and most especially such a cumbersome and dishonest sys- 
tem as furnished by the present federal mining laws, is an incentive to rascal- 
ity, a discouragement to legitimate mining, and a disgrace to the country re- 
sponsible for laws so utterly at variance with common sense and common 
honeisty. 

The gangue of most of the ore bodies is granitic or silicious. A little 
native copper is found in the granite at points. In the case of most mines 
of the district the upper levels carry high values in silver with only a trivial 
amount of copper, the latter averaging on^ per cent, or less. This oxidized :Jone 



112 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

has a depth of 200 to 400 feet as a rule. Below this there is a mediaii zone, 
frequently characterized by veins almost or quite barren of either copper or 
silver values in the upper section, followed by the richer sulphides. This 
middle zone varies greatly in characteristics in different shafts. The third or 
lowest zone is found at about the water level, where the ore becomes unal- 
tered iron sidphides. Unfortunately for the peace of mind of geologists and 
mineralogists, the Never Sweat mine is now producing the extremely rich 
ore chalcocite from its 2,200 foot level. This occurrence does not fit in with 
any of the generally accepted theories of copper deposition, which is bad for 
the theories. Below the permflkent water level the ore bodies, while retain- 
ing full width and strength, give constantly decreasing copper values with 
added depth. The deepest shaft in the Butte district is now down nearly a 
half mile, and, excepting the chalcocite in the Never Sweat, the percentage of 
copper decreases in a fairly steady ratio as depth is gained. The Anaconda, 
which started with 55 per cent ore, is now averaging but a little over 3 per 
cent copper. There are still lower grade deposits of immense area in the dis- 
trict, as at the Modoc mine of the Anaconda and clsewl^ere, and in view of 
the great improvements in metallurgical processes made during the past dec- 
ade, such ores may be used eventually. While Butte is most distinctly work- 
ing into a lower grade camp each year, it must not be inferred that the high 
grade ores are exhausted. All of the big mines have considerable reserves of 
rich ore, other high grade ores are locked up by litigation, and still others are 
being developed every year. 

Mining developments of the past two years in the flat east of the city indi- 
cate that the productive area of the district will be greatly increased, and pos- 
sibly doubled, in the future. While Butte is no longer the high grade camp of 
ten years ago, and at least one of its great mines has probably passed its zenith, 
the district is by no means decadent. It is not likely that any man now 
living will survive to see the last ton of copper made by Butte mines, nor even 
live long enough to draw the last dividend paid by a Butte copper mine. 

NEVADA. The development of silver mines of fabulous richness, coupled 
with political exigencies, brought Nevada into statehood, some forty years 
ago. Beyond working the silver bonanzas along the extreme western edge 
of the state, there was little mining development attempted, though pros- 
pectors brought in reports of rich discoveries' from every county. Lack of 
railroad lines, coupled with a sparse population and mountainous topography, 
discouraged exploration, and for these, and possibly other reasons, Nevada 
has received less attention from the miner than any other of the western min- 
ing states. Of late this old order of things seems to be changing, and better 
times are in store. 

Copp>er ore is reported from the counties of Elko, E^merelda, Eureka, 
Humboldt, Lander, Lincoln, Nye, Storey and White Pine. Mines are now be- 
ing developed, and while operations are upon a rather small scale at most of 
them, promising projxjrties are being opened in several cases. The state is 
Qtill most inade(]uately supplied with railroads^ wagon-roads and people, and 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 113 

thefle drawbacks will deter the development of copper mines until partially 
overcome, but it is probable that the future will see an increasing interest in 
the mining of copper, as well as of gold and other metals, especially as Nevada 
lies between California and Utah, two of the richest mineral states of the 
Union, and the general geological conditions are much the same in these 
states and Arizona as in Nevada. 

HEW HAMPSHIRE. Copper ores are noted at a number of points in this 
state, more especially in Grafton county. There are also deposits of appar- 
ently considerable extent in the Mt. Gaitlner district, near Woodsville, and 
chalcopyrite has been found at other points, including Franconia in the 
White Mountains, where the ore occurs in gneiss. 

NEW JERSEY. The first copper mine in the United States was opened 
in New Jersey, and this, the old Schuyler mine, discovered in 1719, is now be- 
ing worked by the Arlington Copper Company. The Schuyler was worked 
upon what was considered a large scale in those days, and made its owner 
wealthy. Work was suspended when the Revolutionary War begun, and the 
mine has never been steadily worked since that time, although it has been 
operated spasmodically on several occasions. 

Ore deposits of low grade are foimd at a number of points in this state, 
and there is considerable native copper in the vicinity of SomerviUe, Fleming-' 
ton and New Brunswick. There are also old copper mines at Belleville, 
Griggstown and New Brunswick, most of which were small and unsuccessful. 
As the known deposits of ore and native copper in this state are of low grade, 
it is obvious that success can be secured only by the operation of mines upon 
a fairiy large scale. 

NEW MEXICO. Native copper has been found in the Santa Rita mines 
of Grant county, and copper ores are found at many points in the state, hav- 
ing been noted in considerable quantities in the counties of Grant, Lincoln, Rio 
Arriba, Santa Fe, Sierra, Socorro and Taos. General geological conditions 
are favorable to the finding of profitable mines, and there are several prop- 
erties of considerable magnitude and good promise, notably the Aberdeen, at 
Lonisburg, which is a dividend-payer, the Santa Fe, Santa Rita and others. 
There is much prospecting for copper in progress, and a number of mines are 
being opened in the various counties. New Mexico has had a rather poor 
standing among mining men for the past fifteen or twenty years, due to some 
huge failures scored in the territory in early copper mining ventures, but 
thcfle seem to have been the fault of general conditions rather than to have 
come from the lack of ore. The first mining ventures were carried on under 
great disadvantages, and it is unfair to the territory as a whole to condemn it 
because of the failures of a few mines. There are many more failures than 
successes, even in the best copper mining districts of any state or country, and 
in the neighborhood of the greatest successes will nearly always be found 
(he biggest failure^. 



114 TEE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

HEW TOfiK. The Empire State has no copper mines, although copper 
ores have been found at a number of points. Chalcopyrite is found at the An- 
cram and Beckee lead mines in Ccrfumbia county- ; at £ilen\ille and the Red 
Bridge lead mines in Ulster county ; with arsenopyrite near Wurtsboro, Sul- 
livan county ; in Chester, Warren county ; Eastchester, Westchester county ; 
Crown Point, Essex county ; Alexandria and Antwerp, Jefferson county ; Salis- 
bury, Heridmer county, and at Canton, Fowler and the Rossie iron mines in St. 
Lawrence county. Malachite and cuprite occur at Ladentown, Rockland 
county, occuring in thin seams in the trap, and azurite, malachite and chal- 
copyrite have been found near Ossining, Westchester county. 

HORTH CAROLIHA. This is an important state, rich in mineral re- 
sources, and although it has never been a conaderable producer of copper, 
may become such in the future, as its ore measures are of laige extent and de- 
cidedly promising at some points. The state had se vend small coi^ier mines in 
regular operation before the Civil War, and has been a regular though 
small producer of the metal for some years past. In \'iew of the present inter- 
est in copper mining in this state it seems probable that the production will 
be increased by the maki n g of several mines of fjur size. 

So far as can be determined by the limited geological researeh gi\'en 
many of the counties, and the developments to date, the most important cop- 
per measures of the state are contiuned in the coimties of Ashe, Rowan, Per- 
son, Cabarrus and Granville, but copper ores are also found in the counties of 
Alexander, Alleghany, CaldweU, Catawba, Chatham, Qay, I)a 'idson, Gaston, 
Guilford, Jackson, Lincoln, Madison, Mecklenburg, Mitchell.. Montgomery^ 
Moore, Rockingham, Swain, Transylvania, Watauga, AVi'kcs and Yadkin, 
and very possibly in several others as well. The or^^ are mainly sulphides, 
considerable chalcocite being found in Ashe and adjoining counties, but na- 
tive copper has been found at the McCulloch mine in Guilford county, and all 
of the commercial ores of copper are found in the state, as well as a long list of 
the minor ores. The variety of copper minerals noted in North Carolina is 
probably nearly or quite as great as in Arizona. 

The Virgilina district, on the border of Virginia and North Carolina, and 
including the counties of Person and Granville in the latter-named state, has 
sulphide ores occurring in lenses longitudinally, and apparently in series ver- 
tically, as proven by developments to about 300 feet in depth. The Virgilina 
district is in the sub-Piedemont division of the Appalachian belt, and in the 
same division, considerably further south, is found the Gold Hill district, 
where there has been considerable development, and where the ores appar- 
ently hold their full .values to' the greatest depth reached, which is slightly 
under 1,000 feet, the ore running 1 to 10 per cent copper, 2 to 4 ounces silver 
and about $2 p^r ton in gold. The area of the Gold Hill field, as far as deter- 
mined, is about 25 miles in length by one mile in width. The chalcopyrite oc- 
curs in quartz and a decomposed schist. 

OHIO. Native copper nuggets brought down from Lake Superior by 
glacial action are frequently found in the drift in this state, and native copper 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 115 

nuggets and ornaments are taken from the mounds built by a prehistoric race* 
but such occurrences are not of industrial value, and are of but slight geologi- 
cal interest. So far as reported, no trace is found of any copper deposits in 
place in the state. 

OKLAHOMA. Copper ore has been found in small quantities at several 
points in this territor>% but so far as known none of the discoveries are of 
much promise. A little excitement was caused late in 1901 by the finding of 
copper ores in the hills of Wood and Woodward counties, but nothing came 
of the discoveries. 

OREGON. Copper ores are found in a number of districts in this state, 
notably in the counties of Baker, Grant and Josephine. The St. Helens dis- 
trict is regarded as of promise. In Josephine coimty, just north of the Cali- 
fornia line, the copper belt of that state continues into Oregon, general con- 
ditions being similar to those in Del Norte county, California. The Die trick 
district in Josephine county is the scene of some little activity in copper devel- 
opment at present, The ore in this district carries good values in gold and 
silver, as well as high percentages of copper, and the veins are said to be of 
good width. The Burkemont district is in eastern Oregon, and is apparently 
a continuation of the Seven Devils district of western Idaho, which it adjoins. 
There are considerable bodies of low-grade ore in this district, and it is evident 
that profitable mines can be made only by large development and the steady 
production of a large ore tonnage. 

PEimSYLVAllIA. Although copper mining was undertaken .in Penn- 
8>'lvania more than a hundred years ago, the state yet lacks a copper mine. 
The earliest attempt in this line was at the Gap mine, in Lancaster county, 
which was opened as a copper mine in the eighteenth century, and was a fail- 
ure as such, but was reopened as a nickel mine about 1850, and was success- 
fully operated for that metal, with a small incidental production of copper, un- 
til 1893, when the richer mines of the Sudbury district of Ontario brought 
al>out a fall in the price of nickel that closed the Gap. There are copper ores 
at a number of points, mostly in small quantities. Native copper, chalcopy- 
ritc, azurite, malachite, chrysocoUa, cuprite and brochantite are found at 
Cornwall, Lebanon county. The Perkiomen mine in Montgomery shows as 
long a list of copper minerals. In an abandoned lead mine at Schuylkill, Ches- 
ter county, a variety of ores and native copper occur, and chalcopyrite is 
found in the Elizabeth mine at Norwich, in the same county. Native copper 
and cuprite have been found near Gettysburg. Native copper, malachite, 
chr>'socolla, chalcopyrite, cuprite, melaconite and aurichalcite occur at Jones's 
mine, Morgantown, Bucks county, ai)d malachite has been found at New Brit- 
ain in the same county. Oxide, carbonate, sulphide and silicate ores have 
been found in small quantities in the quarries of Frankford, a suburb of Phila- 
delphia. Bomite has been found in York county, and sundry ores are re- 
ported from Montgomery county. A little prospecting for copper has been 
done during 1902 in Pottstown and also at Tunkhannock. 



116 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

RHODE ISLAHD. There are no mines of copper in this litUe state, but 
chalcopyrite ore is found at Portamouth, and malachite, azurite, bomite and 
chalcopyrite occur at Cumberland, idiile malachite, azurite and chalcopyrite 
have been found at Johnston. 

SOXTTH CAROLINA. Chalcopyrite has been found in the Fair Forest 
gold mines, in Union county, but, so far as known, there are no copper deposits 
giving promise of making mines within the limits of the state. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. In the southwest comer of the state of South Da- 
kota, arising from an extensive plain and isolated geologically, is the peculiar 
mountainous region known as the Black Hills. These mountains are a verit- 
able storehouse of nature's mineral wealth, and there are but few metals not 
found here in greater or less profusion. The presence of copper was noted by 
eariy explorers, but in the all-consuming search for gold the other metals 
were neglected until a few years ago. Copper orec are in demand at the local 
smelters for use as fluxes in reducing refractoiy gold ores, being preferable 
to the barren fluxes that would otherwise be necessaiy. Geologically, the 
copper measures of the Black Hills have been compared by several scien- 
tific observers with those of the Ducktown district of Tennessee. The prin- 
cipal mining developments have been made in Pennington county, where 
several copper mines are now being developed. 

TENHESSEE. The proven copper deposits of Tennessee occur in Polk 
county, in the extreme soutlieastem comer of the state, although the dis- 
covery of high-grade copper ore was reported from Lawrence county late 
in 1902. A little native copper is found in the Ducktown mines, but the 
important souree of supply is chalcopyrite. The Ducktown district was 
discovered circa 1840, and as early as 1854 there were two blast furnaces 
in operation at that point. A thriving industry had been buil# up and the 
prosperity of the district seemed assured when the Ci\'il War brought mining 
and smelting to a standstill, and work was not resumed until some years after 
the war, and then in a small way only. A British syndicate did the first 
post-bellum work, and has been followed by a strong American company. 
The copper industry of the Ducktown district seems to be on an assured 
footing again, with every prospect of growth in the future. 

^^ • 

TEXAS. A little native copper is found in Burnet and Llano counties, 

and there arc ores of chalcopyrite in both counties, as well as ai^entiferous 
tetrahedritc in the latter. Carbonate and silicate ores are exposed at a 
number of points along the Brazos river, in the Permian sandstones. Mala- 
chite and azurite,also chalcopyrite and bomite, in a quartz gangue, have been 
found in a prospecting shaft four miles north of Llano, the ores carrying 
0.11 ounces of gold and 2.5 ounces silver per ton. A hand-picked sample 
of tetrahedrite from Babyhead Mountain, Llano county, gave 107.8 ounces 
silver and 6.4% copper. The White Eagle Copper Company, operating in 
Burnet county, has developed a mine by shaft and an open cut. It is prob- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 117 

able. that copper ores will also be found in several other counties of the 
Texas inineral zone. 

UTAH. Copper has long been produced from Utah mines, but until 
quite recentlj^the metal has Been obtained only as a by-product from the 
smelting of gold and silver ores. With the development of the Utah and 
Bingham mines of the West Mountain district of Salt Lake county, a new 
era has been entered upon, and Utah's copper output is increasing rapidly. 
The principal producers are in Salt Lake county, but there are very prom- 
ising properties in process of development in Beaver county, and there are 
also copper ores and occasional exploitations in the counties of Juab, Piute, 
Summit and Tooele. 

The mines of the West Mountidn district are of exceptional promise, and 
are already considerable producers. All of them carry gold and silver in suffi- 
cient quantities to materially reduce the cost of copper production, and greater 
attention is being paid to copper-bearing veins in the older mines, some of 
which are proving valuable. Some of the properties in Beaver county are 
among the most promising to be found anywhere, at a fnmilar stage of devel- 
opment. Utah has long been one of the solid mining states of- the Union, and 
its mines, laiigely developed and owned by local capital, until within the past 
few years, have an enviable record of dividends, Some of the newer copper 
mines of Utah are in a position to make copper so cheaply, owing to the gold 
and silver secured as by-products, that Utah must be included in any possi- 
ble list of the important copper-producing dbtricts of the world. 

VERMOnr. There are deposits of chalcopyrite at South Strafford, 
Veishire, Waterbury, Shrewsbury, Berkshire and Corinth in this state, and 
copper mines have been operated in the past in three districts, at Vershire, 
South Strafford and Berkshire. The Ely mine had a smelter at Vershire circa 
1861-1870, and worked with more or less regularity, but was forced to go 
out of business by the greatly decreased price of copper following the Civil 
War. The Elizabeth mine at South Strafford and the Ely mine at Vershii-e 
are now in the hands of Geoige Westinghousc, of Pittsburg, and a limited 
production was effected in 1901-1902 from the Elizabeth, where about one 
hundred men were worked, while the Ely is being reopened and put in readi- 
ness for production. The other mines are idle. The Vermont ore is chiefly 
chalcopyrite, ranging from 3% to 30% copper, with an average of probably 
S% to 10%. 

VIRGIlflA. Virginia has an auriferous-cupriferous mineral belt, stretch- 
ing from the Picdemont district in Orange county to the North Carolina 
line. Copper ore has been noted in the counties of Buckingham, Carroll, 
Grayson, Fauqyier, Fluvanna, Franklin, Greene, Halifax, Loudoun, Louisa, 
Hontgomeiy, Nelson, Orange, and Polk. There are copper mines of small 
extent in Fauquier and possibly in other counties of the state, but the largest 
mines and principal development arc found in Halifax county. The Vir- 
gilina district lies in both Virginia and North Carolina, the Virginia portion 



118 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

being in the county of Halifax. This district, as developed, is about twenty 
miles long by three miles iiiide, with indications of copper beyond these 
boundaries. The ores are chalcocite and bomite in a quartz gangue, and 
average possibly no more than 3%, though having frequent chutes running 
20% to 30% copper. The ores of this district, as mined, average about one 
dollar gold and six to ten oimces silver per ton, and, with their gangue, run 
from 4 to 10 feet in width. There are fourteen mines in this district, of which 
four are producers, with the others developing or idle. The advantages 
enjoyed by the mines of the Virgilina district are cheap fuel and labor, an 
equable climate and proximity to the Atlantic seaboard, with which there 
is good rail communication. Several strong companies are now operating 
in this field, and it is likely to be heard from in the future as a considerable 
producer, the gold and silver values being sufficient to permit the operation 
of low-grade and narrow ore bodies that would otherwise offer little promise 
of adequate returns. 

WASHINGTON. There are copper deposits in King, Stevens and other 
counties of this state, and a little attention is being paid to copper mining 
at present. None of the mines have yet advanced to a stage where it is possi- 
ble to predict a certain future, but some promising prospects are under de- 
velopment. 

WISCONSIN. There are copper ores in the zinc and lead district of 
southwestern Wisconsin in the vicinity of Shullsburg and Mineral Point, 
and some crude attempts at mining copper have been made at the latter- 
named town. Chalcopyrite and malachite have been found in Sauk county, 
and in 1902 a diamond drill boring north of Osceola gave cores assaying well 
in copper and with small values in gold and silver. 

The northern fold of the Keweenawan trap fonnation extends across 
the Lake Superior shore of northern Wisconsin from Bayfield to the 
Minnesota line, carrying more or less native copper in the mineralized amyg- 
daloids. This formation is described in the article on Michigan. A number 
of small shafts have been sunk on this fold of the Keweenaw formation, in 
Douglas county, but no mines have resulted from the work. The most ex- 
tensive work was done at the Chippewa property, which came to grief finan- 
ciaUy late in 1902. A recent development, which is apparently much the 
most important ever made in the state, is noted in the southern end of Douglas 
county, where the Minong Range Copper Company is sinking two shafts in 
an amygdaloid. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the for- 
mation dips northward at this point, showing that the shafts are on the 
southern fold of the synclinal, this being the fold on which all the profitable 
mines of Lake Superior native copper have been opened, all mines on the 
northern fold having proved failures. Considerable heavy copper has been 
secured in one of these shafts, and the outcome will be awaited with interest, 
as the making of a paying mine at this point would treble the area of the 
possibly profitable zone of the Lake Superior copper field* 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 119 

WYOMING. Although Wyoming is one of the newest copper fields of 
the United States ft is by no means least in promise, and the Grand Encamp- 
ment district has attracted wide attention, as well as the investment of large 
amounts of money. I am indebted midnly to Prof. Henry C. Beeler, state 
geologist, for the facts in the following summary of Wyoming copper deposits 
and prospects. 

The principal cupriferous field of the state is the Grand Encampment 
district, having an estimated area of 2,500 miles, and lying in the southern 
half of Carbon county and the southwestern quarter of .\lbany county. The 
district is divided in two nearly equal parts by the North Platte river, and 
has the Sierra Madrc Mountains to the west and the Medicine Bow range on 
the cast. Encampment is the principal town of the district. While there 
were known to be promising mineral indications, little was accomplished 
until 1898, when gold prospecting begun. This was not especially successful, 
but copper prospects were located soon thereafter, and there has been in* 
creasing interest since then in copper development. 

The general formation of the Sierra Madre is an irregular core of red 
granite, with fine-grained mica-hornblende schists of Algonkian age lying 
thereupon. Both schists and granite are cut at intervals by dykes of diorite 
and associated dyke rocks, the dykes running in apparent conformity with 
the strike and dip of the schists when traversing them. Associated with 
the schists and conformable in strike and dip are huge ledges of quartzite 
and altered schists known locally as lime dykes, the alterative material hav- 
ing been mainly lime, with some silica. Extensive evidences of replacement 
and alteration are frequently noted in the granite and diorite, as well as in 
the schists. 

While the formations in general are fairly mineralized the principal 
ore bodies are found in the contacts between the schists and adjacent rocks, 
especially so in the contacts of schists and quartzite. The outcrops are 
usually of soft spongy limonite carrying some hematite, and often show a 
little quartz in the ore. These outcrops are noted on veins ranging from 
mere stringers to a width of 20 feet or more, and extend to water level, a depth 
of 35 to 100 feet. The iron oxides are usually associated with copper carbonates, 
the percentage of copper being small at surface and increasing with depth. 
A little chalcocite b found in the zone of secondary enrichment, but at or 
about the water level the ores change to chalcopyrite and bomite. Above 
the water level the altered ores are mainly malachite and azurite, with a 
little native copper. In several instances the outcrops are fairly pure specular 
or silicious hematite, associated with white quartz. In the cases where cop* 
per sulphides outcrop the same white quartz is found in association. 

The district has been a producer since 1900, ores shipped assaying 
30% to 49% in carload lots. This necessitated hand-selection and the re- 
jection of the lower-grade ores. The high-grade ores carry $8 to $10 per ton 
in gold and silver. The district has a smelter which handles mainly low- 
grade ores, the product therefrom being shipped as high-grade matte. An 
interesting feature of this district is an aerial tram 16 miles long, in four 



120 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

sectioDB, running from the Ferris-Haggerty mine to the Encampment smelter, 
this being in successful operation. 

The Medicine Bow range on the eastern side of the Encampment dis- 
trict has been prospected for years, mostly for gold, of which little has been 
found. In 1900 the Great Rambler mine, opened and abandoned as a gold 
property, was relocated for copper, and begun shipping pre at once. An 
interesting feature of this property is the finding of platinum in conunercial 
quantities. The general formation of the Medicine Bow range is a gray and 
red granite, flanked more or less irregularly by schists and gneisses, with 
dykes similar to the Encampment district as before described. The Rambler 
is evidently opened in fissures in the black, dioritic granite, but its upper 
workings show alteration conditions similar to those prevailing to the west- 
ward. 

Among the other copper districts of the state is the Laramie Hills, run- 
ning along the southern state line from Laramie through Albany and Con- 
verse coimties to Caspar, Natrona county. The formation is a granite core 
with north and south trend, flanked by schists and succeeding sedimentary 
formations. Copper is found native in red disintegrated granite at Sherman 
Hill, and as sulphide ores in prospects at Hecla, Slate Creek, Cooney Hill and 
to the northward of Laramie Peak. Copper ores have also been found in 
the Big Horn Mountains and in the Wind river districts, under conditions 
resembling those of the Grand Encampment district, though little develop- 
ment has yet been attempted on any discoveries in the two last-named dis- 
tricts. 

The copper properties of the Encampment district are obviously of 
more than average promise, the richness of their ores and the considerable 
values carried in the precious metals enabling owners to develop properties 
from shipments secured near surface. The alteration zone is of shallow 
depth, however, and the ultimate value of the district must be determined 
by the values secured from the unaltered sulphides, on which little work 
has yet been done. The oxidized ores, however, will enable many owners 
to give their mines thorough tests at small cost. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 121 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Copper Deposits of Canada and Newfoundland. 

In this chapter the copper deposits of Canada are treated in detail, 
by provinces, and for geographical convenience, Newfoundland is added, 
although Newfoundland has never become a part of the Dominion of Canada. 

While the metal has been mined for many years in the eastern provinces 
of the dominion, the Canadian copper industry was never of importance 
previous to the exploitation of the great nickel-copper deposits of the Sud- 
bury district, in the niiddle eighties. Since that time the British Columbian 
fields have become prominent as producers, and the copper industry of Canada 
is apparently but in its infancy. The dominion must be included in any 
list of the principal copper producing countries of the future. 

NOVA SCOTIA. Native copper is found in this province in the coim' 
ties of Anni^lis, Cumberland, Digby and elsewhere, while copper ores are 
noted in the county of Anitgonish, near Sidney, and at New Annan, Cape 
Breton, Colchester, Cumberland, Pictou and Sidney. The ores are mainly 
sulphides, and at Briar Island, Digby county, the native copper is found in 
grains in amygdaloidal trap, under circumstances similar to the occurrence 
of the native metal in the Lake Superior copper district. The Cape Breton 
deposits are of chalcopyrite, and carry both gold and silver, the ore having 
a silicious gangue and traversing diorite and felsite rocks. 

Present developments in Nova Scotia are mainly in Cumberland 
and Cape Breton counties. The old Coxheath mines at Coxheath, Cape 
Breton county, are being operated, while other mines are being developed 
at Cape d'Or and Wentworth, in Cumberland county. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. Copper ores are found in this province in the 
counties of Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester and St. John, and native copper 
is found in certain of the older sandstones. There has been a renewal of 
interest in the copper deposits of New Brunswick within the past five years, 
and mines are now being developed at several points. While no striking 
successes have been scored as yet, there are several properties with good 
prospects, and it is hoped that some good mines may result from the work 
now being done. 

QUEBEC. In this province copper ores have been found in the coun- 
ties of Arthabaska, Bagot, Beauce, Brome, Dorchester, Drummond, Levis, 
Lotbiniere, Megantic, Missisquoi, Richmond, Sherbrooke, Shefford and 
Wolfe, and also on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the district 
of Saguenay. Mines have been opened at variou9 time^ and points in ^ev^ral 



122 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

of these counties, but the principal development has been at Capelton, in 
the little county of Sherbrooke, just above the New England border. The 
ores, like those of Ontario, are mostly chalcopyrite, and invariably so where 
found in quantities sufficient to justify the opening of mines. The sulphide 
ores of copper are frequently found in conjunction with py rite and pyrrhotite, 
and are sometimes developed in mines first opened for pyrite destined for 
the manufacture of acids. The principal mines have been opened in lime- 
stone, near the point of contact with serpentine and diorite rocks, the lime- 
stones being more or less closely associated with slates. The Capelton mines 
carry 3 to 4 per cent, copper and 3 to 4 ounces of silver per ton. The 
sulphur from these mines is saved, as far as possible, for the making of acid. 

ONTARIO. There are copper ores in this province at. many different 
points, and at some of them large mines are opened, while in others mines 
are developing, and in still others mining work is confined to the merest 
prospecting. Ontario is a large province, and has a great diversity of to- 
pography and geological conditions, its frontier marching with New York in 
the east and Minnesota on the west. 

Copper is found native at several points, but mainly as sulphide ores, 
and in the Sudbury district the iron-sulphide ores of copper are highly nickcl- 
iferous, so much so that this district furnishes more than half of the nickel 
supply of the world. As a rule the oxide and carbonate ores of the alteration 
zone are missing in Ontario, the unaltered iron sulphides, mainly chalcopy- 
rite, with a little bomite, reaching to sufface with slight traces of change. 

The first copper mining in the province was undertaken at the Bruce 
mines, on the northern shore of Georgian Bay, in 1846, immediately after 
the opening of the first Lake Superior native copper mines of Michigan. 
After many years of idleness these mines are now being reopened. The 
first really important production of the metal after the suspension of work 
at Bruce Mines came from the discovery of the nickel-copper ores of Sudbur>% 
in 1883, and their development. The ores of the Sudbury district are nickcl- 
copper-iron sulphides, occurring in a country rock of diorite. Mines have 
been opened at various points in a district several miles square, in the vicinity 
of Sudbury and Copper Cliflf. This district is a fairly laige and increasing 
producer of copper, but, like all other good districts, has its wild-oats and 
failures, as well as its bonanzas. 

Copper is also found in Lanark county, and in the Nipissing district. 
In the Parry Sound district there are numerous occurrences of the ore, the 
mineralized belt being of considerable area. This district is located along 
Parry Sound, on the east-central part of Georgian Bay. The geology of 
the district is as yet unsettled by the scientists, considerable differences of 
opinion existing among the various observ'ers. The prevailing rock-forms 
of the district are gneisses and schists, and the formation shows marked 
flexion and faulting. There are numerous small quartz veins and frequent 
pegmatite dykes of large size and great persistence. The topography is 
rough and much of the rock is utterly devoid of vegetation or covering of 



TttE COPPER HANDBOOK, li^ 

any sort, the bald knobs alternating with marshes and swales in the lower 
ground. The mineralized zone is apparently about a quarter-mile in width 
with a generally northeasterly and southwesterly trend, and has been pros- 
pected for about twelve miles. The ore occurs as extended and approxi- 
mately paraUel lenses with a general trend in line with the mineral belt, and 
the ore bodies are frequently capped Ti\dth gossan. The ore, as a rule, is 
chalcopyrite, with a little bomite and occasional chalcocite, and is auriferous, 
gold values running $3 to $10 per ton in many cases. Some of the beds are 
nickeliferous also, the nickel running as high as 2.5 per cent, in some instances. 

The district of Algoma, which is very extensive, has copper deposits 
at a number of points, of which the principal, judged by past development, 
is in the Bruce Mines district of Georgian Bay. This field also includes the 
Rock Lake district, sixteen miles distant, where one large mine has been 
opened and a number of smaller properties are developing. The ores are 
chalcopyrite in a gangue of quartz, apparently in true fissure veins giving 
e\'eiy evidence of permanency. In the Goulais Bay district, north of Sault 
Ste. Marie, several promising prospects are in process of development. On 
the northern mainland of Lake Superior, to the eastward of Michipicoten 
Island, there are sulphide ores of which little is known, beyond the fact of 
their existence. On the island itself there are amygdaloid strata carrying 
native copper, this being the easternmost outlier of the Keweenawan forma- 
tion of the western half of Lake Superior. Various attempts at opening 
mines on these beds of native copper have proven unsuccessful. Chalcopy- 
rite, chalcocite and domeykite have also been found on this island, in small 
quantities. 

On the northern shore of Lake Superior, east of Thunder Bay, native 
copper is found on Battle Island and St. Ignace Island in Nepigon Bay, and 
at Pointe-aux-Mines. Chalcocite occurs on Spar Island, and chalcocite and 
malachite are found on Silver Islet. In the Thunder Bay district chalcopy- 
rite occurs at Neebing, and a little development has been made at Black 
Bay and Shebandowan Lake, on native copper in trappean rocks. 

In the Rainy River district sulphide ores have been found at several 
points. 

MANITOBA. The province of Manitoba is an agricultural rather than 
a mining district, but there is a small area of mineral land along the eastern 
boundary, near Lake of the Woods. A vein, running 18 to 20 inches wide, 
occurring as a contact between granite and trap, and traceable for a half- 
mile, has been slightly prospected at Ingolf station, very near the Ontario 
boundaiy. This is a pyrrhotite carrying copper, nickel and traces of gold. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. This Canadian province is a kingdom in both 
area and resources. Its wealth of timber and mineral has been merely 
scratched, and the development of the past decade, while very great, both 
actually and relatively, is but the precursor of a far greater work to be ac- 
complished in the future. 



124 TtiS COPPER HANDBOOK, 

The first mining was on placers, for fjpld, neariy half a century ago. 
When the placers were exhausted the mining industry languished until the 
completion of the Canadian Pacific railroad through to the west coast, when per- 
manent mining began in a small way. The first mines were of gold and silver, 
lead becoming an important product a little later. When the mines of the 
Trail creek and Boundary districts were opened, less than ten years ago, it was 
soon found that many of the mines carried considerable copper values. The 
bulk of the copper production of British Columbia is secured as a by-product 
from mines of gold, silver and lead, but several exclusively copper mines 
have been developed. A peculiarity of British Columbian mines — ^and by 
no means a disadvantageous one — is that the gold and silver mines usually 
carry more or less lead and copper, while the copper mines have appreciable 
values in gold and silver. 

There is more or less copper in practically every mining district into 
which the province is divided, but the mines of the Boundary, Trail and 
Coast divisions lead in output. The relative importance of the various 
districts as producers is shown by the foUoming official table of production 
of refined copper in 1901. 

Districts. Production in Pounds. 

Boundary 14,511,787 

TraU (Rossland) 8,333,446 

Coast 3,115,872 

Nelson 1,599,449 

All othen* 43,192 

From the trivial output from the dbtricts lumped together under the 
caption ''all ulhers," it must not be inferred that they are of no importance. 
Many mines of good promise are found in these districts, but lack of develop- 
ment and adequate transportation lines is responsible for small production. 
British Columbia now has a number of smelters, all new and mostly 
large and modem. Excellent results are being secured at many of these, 
and Wm. Fleet Robertson, provincial mineralogist, estimates that the cost 
of smelting copper has been reduced as low as $1.35 to $1.50 per ton of 
ore. These figures are astounding, and coming from a less eminent and 
accurate source would be received with suspicion. 

HEWFOunDLAND. There are sulphide ores of copper at many points 
in this island, and native copper has been found in place in stratified ar- 
chaic rocks, under conditions resembling those governing in the Lake Su- 
perior district, on Odorin Island in Placentia Bay, and elsewhere. One mass 
of native metal weighing 55 pounds has been found, and the geological hori- 
zon of the district in which these occurrences of the native metal are noted 
is apparently about the same as that of the Keweonawan district of Michigan. 
The first mining in Newfoundland was done in 1802, at the Tilt Cove 
mine, which was reopened in 1887 by the Cape Copper Co., its present owner. 
There are also other copper mines on the Island that have been worked to 
some little extent, among these being the Little Bay, which has reached a 
depth of 1,350 feet, the Lady Pond, Betts Cove, York Harbour and others. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 125 



CHAPTER IX. 

Copper Deposits of Mexico, Central America ai^d 

THE Antilles. 

Under the heading of this chapter are grouped the Latin countries and 
islands of North America. With the exception of Mexico, which is a copper 
field of the first magnitude, and with the possible exception of Cuba, where 
there was once a considerable industry in the mining and smelting of copper 
ores, the developments noted in this chapter are of comparatively little 
importance. 

MEXICO. The Republic of Mexico has made relatively greater strides 
in copper production during the past five years than any other country in the 
world. Not only has there been a most' remarkable relative gtdn, but the 
actual gain in output puts Mexico an exceedingly close second to the United 
States in point of increase. That Mexico wiU soon lead Spain, and rank 
second only to the United States, seems assured. The Boleo has long been 
an important mine, but the copper production of all other Mexican mines 
was but 1,200 tons so recently as 1896. Since that time the Greene, Inguaran, 
Candela, Moctezuma, and other great properties have been developed. Those 
interested in copper will do well to keep an eye on Mexico for the next few 
years. 

Copper in almost every known form is found in some part of the repub- 
lic. The ore measures are extensive and include many different types of 
deposits. Argentiferous copper ores are frequently found in the crystalline 
slates of the Azoic group, a typical example being the district south of Puebla. 
Copper accompanied by hematite is noted in cretaceous beds^of the Mesozoic, 
while in the Cenozoio group copper is found in regular veins in homUendic 
andesitcs of the Pliocene system, also in the stratified beds of sedimentary 
rocks of the upper Miocene and lower Pliocene, the Boleo mine in Lower 
California being an example. 

According to the ofiicial figures furnished by the Minister de Fomento, 
the number of copper mines and cupriferous mines within the boundaries of 
the republic was as follows on July 30, 1899: Mines of copper only, 221, 
with an area of %184 hectares; of copper and lead, 5 mines, with an area 
of 31 hectares; copper and gold, 69 mines with 857 hectares; copper and 
iron, 23 mines with 159 hectares; copper and silver, 192 with 1,637 hectares: 
copper, silver and gold, 55, with 896 hectares; copper, silver and lead, 12, 
with 147 hectares. This gives a total of 577 cupriferous mines, and an 
aiea of 5,911 hectares, out of a total of 8,970 mines of all classes having aa 



126 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

area of 84,557 hectares in the entire republic. Taking into consideration 
the marvelous development of the three and a half years that have elapsed 
since the date of these statistics, it seems probable that the numbei^ of cu- 
priferous mines in the republic is materially larger, unless the process of 
consolidation has absorbed more old mines than would offset the new open- 
ings. According to the summary of S. Chapman, F. S. S., made from the 
Mexican government's Boletin de Estadistica Fiscal— date not given — the 
number of cupriferous mines in the republic is materially greater than the 
figure first quoted. Chapman's summary gives a total of no less than 839 
copper mines of all classes, of which 281 are mines of copper only, the balance 
producing other minergjs as well as copper. 

Nearly every state and territory of the republic has copper mines, the 
roster including the states of Aguascalientcs, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, 
Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacan, 
Morelos, Nueva Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, 
Sonoma, Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas, also the territories of Tepic 
and Baja California, and the Federal District of Mexico.' In point of output 
Sonora easily leads at present, with Lower California a good second. The 
more important developments in the other states are in Chihuahua, Michoa- 
can, Durango, Coahuila, Guerrero and Zacatiecas, though there is considerable 
activity in many of the other states, capital having been poured into Mexican 
copper mines by the tens of millions of dollars during the past five years. 
Under the strong but equable administration of President Diaz, Mexico 
has undeiigone a transformation during the past two decades. There are 
as ample safeguards for life and property as may be found in any part of 
Europe or the United States. The laws are administered constitutionally, 
rather than dictatorially, and the president has surrounded himself by states- 
men of ability and honesty, under whose fostering care Mexico has become 
one of the favorite fields of investment for the surplus capital of Europe and 
America. While many failures have been scored, the percentage of success- 
ful mining investments made in this country of late years is unusually high. 

Mexico has upwards of 300 smelters of all sorts, mostly very crude, but 
with a few of the most modem type and of immense size, notable 
among the latter being the fine plants of the American Smelting and Refining 
Company at Aguascalientcs, Monterey and San Luis Potosi. There are 
also fine reduction plants at the Boleo, Greene Consolidateld, Descubridora 
and other copper mines of the country. 

The Sonoran copper deposits are of the Carboniferous system of the 
Paleozoic group. The principal districts of northern Sonora are La Cananea 
and Nacos. These are but a short distance south of the Arizona line, and 
the geological, geographical and climatological conditions are practically 
the same as in the Bisbee district of Arizona, or, rather, the Bisbee, Nacos 
and Cananea fields are one district, divided by the international boundary 
line, and these fields, considered as one district, have furnished perhaps the 
most important copper mining developments noted on the globe' during the 
past five years. There are other promising districts in Sonora, where devel- 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 127 

opment work is in progress, but they have been overshadowed by the spec- 
tacular rise of the Cananea mines. 

In Lower California there are some 30 copper mines of all classes, mostly 
insignificant, but the Boleo, operated by a French company, is a piroperty 
of the first magnitude. This mine is opened on beds occurring in a formation 
of Tertiary sandstones, conglomerates and tufas. The cupriferous beds, 
tliree in number, of large area, lie upon conglomerates of varying horizons 
and are overlaid by argillaceous tufas, all traversed by fissures. In the 
upper bed, above the water level, the ores are disseminated oxidized ores, 
such as melaconite, cuprite, atacamite, azurite, malachite, crednerite and 
chr>'socolla, all in quantities of conunercial importance. In the second ore 
bed there are peculiar globular concretions of oxide and carbonate ores, called 
boleos, whence the name of the mine. The third bed, in addition to the 
oxide, carbonate, silicate and oxy-manganate ores, also carries sulphides, 
not the ordinaxy iron-sulphides, but chalcocite and covelline, the richest 
ores of copper. The ores are disseminated in irregular niasses, veinlets and 
concretions, in a clayey tufa, with a marked tendency toward concentration 
upon the underlying conglomerates, where the ores occur compact in layers 
of 6 to 10 inches. 

While Michoacan has not yet become a large producer, it has one very 
large property, the Inguaran, in process of development, and other proper- 
ties of promise are also undergoing exploitation. The Ario district of 
Michoacan contains enormous bodies of sulphide ores, occurring quite evenly 
disseminated in granitic rock. It is obvious that these properties must be 
worked upon a very lai|^ scale to prove profitable, but as the Rothschilds 
are furnishing the money for the development of the largest mine, the dis- 
trict vrHl receive the benefit of adequate capital in its development. 

In the state of Coahuila there are several important mining develop- 
ments. The same is true of Zacatccas and Durango. The state of Chiapas 
has some rich gold-copper mines, especially in the neighborhood of Santa 
Fe and Pichu-Calco. In the state of Guerrero there are good copper ore 
bodies, and a newly organized American company is preparing to develop 
mines on a large scale, south of the Balsas river in the districts of Braves 
and Travares, less than 40 miles from Acapulco, which lies on the Pacific 
coast. The claims made for this property are simply staggering, and if they 
did not come from an apparently responsible source, would be laughed at as 
preposterous. 

COSTA RICA. There are outcrops of copper ores at several points in 
the republic, but no attempt has ever been made at opening mines. 

CUBA. Copper ores occur at many points in the eastern part of the 
republic, and the province of Santiago was the scene of the first copper mining 
done in the new world. £1 Cobre mines, situated some thirty miles north of 
the city of Santiago, in the Sierra Madre moimtains, were opened in the Six- 
teenth century and were worked with more or I'uss regularity until 1834, 



128 TtlE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

when the various mines of the district were bought by an English company 
and consolidated. From thence until 1868 the production averaged one 
million dollars in annual value. The richest ore was shipped direct to 
Swansea, while the low-grade ore was discarded and the medium quality re- 
duced to matte for export to the smelters. The mines were opened to tha 
depth of nearly a quarter of a mile and were equipped with excellent machin- 
ery and buildings. In the rebellion of 1868 the torch was applied by insuiv 
gents and the extensive plant entirely burned, since which time the mines 
have been idle, although a little copper has been obtained every year by 
natural cementation. Steps are now being taken for the reopening of these 
mines, which, in view of their past production and profits, are doubtless 
worthy of the great cost that their reopening and equipment will entiul. 
There are also promising copper deposits in the province of Pinar del 
Rio, and elsewhere. 

GUATEMALA. Excellent specimens of sulphide copper ores have been 
found at various points in the republic of Guatemala, but no serious attempts 
have been made at developing these resources, and I am unable to find trace 
of anything worthy the name of a copper mine in the country. 

HAYTI. Copper exists at several points in Hayti, notably in the Hotte 
Mountain range in the southern part of the country. Previous mining 
developments have been of the crudest, but an attempt is now being made, 
under American management, to open regular mines of copper. 

HONDURAS. There is copper ore in nearly every department of the 
little Central American republic of Honduras, but the development of min- 
eral industries is not equal to the possibilities offered, and the only copper 
producer worthy of the name is the Eureka mine, in Orica Basin, department 
of Tegucigalpa, where a small production of gold, silver and copper is effected. 

JAMAICA. Small copper mines were opened at several places in Jamaica 
many years ago, but the ore bodies proved meagre, so far as exploited, and 
the mines, being unprofitable, were soon abandoned. There are indications 
of copper and other metals at many points on the island. 

NICARAGUA. A very limited amount of copper is produced in 'Nica- 
ragua as a by-product from the smelting of silver ores. There are promising 
undeveloped copper ores in the department of Nueva Segovia, the develop- 
ment of which is rendered difficult by a mountainous country and poor 
roads. There are also occurrences of copper ores in the departments of 
Leon, Jinotega and Matagalpa, and in the district of Prinzapulca. 

PORTO RICO. Copper ores occur at several points on this island, but, 
so far as can be ascertained, no serious attempts have ever been made to 
develop mines thereon. 

SAN SALVADOR. There are deposits of copper ore at several points 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 



129 



in the republic of San Salvador, but efforts to secure details regarding them 
have not been rewarded as yet. 

SAHTO DOimVGO. There are copper, gold and silver ores in the San 
Francisco Mountains of the department of San Cristobal, and during the 
year 1900 concessions were issued to Sefior Don Antonia Nascia for copper 
mining at Barrero, San Cristobal, to Sefior Francisco Sezsato for copper 
mining in the same department, and to Sefior Francisco Diaz for copper 
mining. 



130 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 



CHAPTER X. 

Copper Deposits of South America. 

The various copper producing fields of this continent are treated alpha- 
betically, by countries, in the pages of this chapter. The cupriferous mrs- 
ures of South America are of vast extent and great value, though as yet hav- 
ing but comparatively small development, except in Chile. 

ARGENTINA* The Cordilleran copper belt that traverses p#rtion8 of 
Bolivia, Peru and Chile is also found in the Argentine Republic, on the eastern 
slope of the Andes, in the departments of Tucuman, Cordoba, San Juan. La 
Rioja and elsewhere, and several mines, notable among which are the Ro- 
sario, Carmelita and Restauradora, have been developed, but have never 
been extensive producers, owing to the primitive methods used in mining 
and smelting, and the even more primitive means of transport employed, 
thirty mules being required to carry a ton of ore from the mines to the smelter. 
A wire rope tramway discounts mule po\v*er for such uses. Under such ad- 
verse circumstances it is scarcely surprising that Argentina made only 76 
metric tons of copper in 1900. 

A recently discovered copper deposit near Los Morteros assays 40 to 50 
per cent, copper and is said to be well located for economical operation. The 
principal copper developments within the limits of the republic have been in 
the Cerro de Capillitas district, where a mass of fissure veins, forming almost 
a gigantic stockwerk, occur in granite, gneiss and porphyry, with a capping of 
trachyte. The ores developed in this district are tenorite, cuprite, mala- 
chite and azurite, with some bomit^e and occasional ai^entiferous tetrahed- 
rite. It is possible that chalcopyrite vnVL come in at greater depth, but 
the richer ores in the alteration zone are evidently of considerable depth, and 
are both auriferous and ai^entiferous as a rule. An English company now 
owns a number of the best properties of the Cerro de Capillitas district and 
can scarcely miss making a rich mine, if the large sums necessary for roads and 
modem machinery are expended judiciously. 

BRAZIL. The existence of native copper and copper ores in Brazil has 
been known for many years, but until very recently no systematic attempt 
has been made at mining, and no official records kept of discoveries and ope- 
rations. In fact, no information whatever has been obtained from am' of 
the government officials, on the subject of copper deposits. 

A mass of native copper weighing 2,616 pounds was uncovered many 
years ago, in the neighborhood of Bahia, and now reposes in the royal mu- 
seum at Lisbon. Copper ores have been found, from time to time, at various 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 131 

points in Brazil, among the more important localities of occurrence being 
Ouro Preto, Camaquan, Pelotaa and various points in the state of Minas Ger- 
aes, which has long been noted for its large and profitable gold production. 
The only systematic work now under way in the republic is near Lavras, Minas 
Geraes, where a copper deposit found in the spring of 1901 gave assays run- 
ning up to 75 per cent, metallic copper. This is owned by a company recently 
organized in Brussels, and thorough development b promised by the new 
owners. 

BOLIVIA. The Andean copper belt of South America reaches through 
Aigentina, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia, and general geological conditions are 
much the same in the cupriferous districts of all four countries. The exploi- 
tation of Bolivian copper mines has been hampered by lack of cheap and 
efficient transportation, and highly skilled labor is also hard to get and keep. 
All of the copper produced in this country is shipped through the Peruvian 
port of Mollendo. 

The principal and at present the only active Bolivian copper mines are 
in the district of Coro Coro, department of La Paz. In this dbtrict there are 
two dissimilar sedimentary formations, apparently of diflferent geologica 
periods, similar only in ^heir origin and cupriferous nature. The 
older and underlying formation, " Las Vetas, " is an arenaceous conglomerate 
with argillaceous tendencies, having a northeasterly trend. Superimposed 
upon this statum is another conglomerate, " Los Ramos, " having a south- 
westeriy trend. The upper conglomerate is much like t^ lower, but is darker 
in color and mottled with red and whitish particles of gypsum and other min- 
erals not found in the older stratum. In many respects the La Paz field more 
doBely re8emble9the Lake Superior copper district than any other. The coun- 
try rocks are eruptive, mainly dioritic, and the copper is found native, as a 
rule, and only rarely as ores in quantities of commercial importance. Like the 
Calumet and Allouez conglomerates of the Lake Superior district, the Bo- 
livian conglomerates carry the native metal in fine nodules, although masses, 
usually small, but sometimes very large, are occasionally encountered. An- 
other point of Resemblance is the occurrence of silver, always native, 
found associated with the copper, but never alloyed with it. 

Next to La Paz, the most promising and farthest advanced district is that 
of Pacajos, where the output reached 1,000 quintals weekly in June of 1900. 
The same general conditions of labor and transportation govern in this dis- 
trict as in La Paz. 

CHILE. Although Chile led the world in copper production about the 
beginning of the last quarter of the Nineteenth century, that country has lost 
ground as a producer, not only relatively, but actually. There is reason to 
believe, however, that the tide has turned, and the output for 1901 was the 
laigest secured for many years. The secret of the sudden rise of Chile, its ar- 
rested progress, decline and final rejuvenation as a copper producer is found 
in the combination of geological, geographical and mctaUurgical conditions 



132 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

under which the copper industry had its birth, its period of prosperity, it* de* 
cline and its renascence- There is copper ore in every province, and in nearly 
every district of every province of the republic. The ease with which the oxi- 
dized surface ores were secured and smelted gave rise to a laiige industry, but, 
like a fire of kindling wood, while quick and hot the industry was of short life, 
because the altered ores gave way at depth to the low-grade iron-«u]phides. 
These are now being mined in increasing quantities, and the Chilean copper in- 
dustry is more firmly established at present than at the height of its former 
prosperity, even though the annual production be smaller. 

Copper deposits were worked in a limited way before the first white man 
set foot upon the soil of Chile. Under Spanish dominion a little copper was 
produced, but the industry did not begin to expand largely until the achieve- 
ment of independence, about the third decade of the Nineteenth century, 
after which mining flourished greatly. Until 1842 the high-grade oxide 
and carbonate ores were smelted in charcoal furnaces, but in that year the 
first reverberatory furnace was buUt at Coquimbo, by C. Lambert, and 
in 1857 the first blast furnace was built by the same man. The period 
of greattet prosperity of the Chilean copper industry begun about 1850, and 
continued for neariy thirty years, after which there was a period of twenty 
years during which the industry lost groimd slowly but steadily, this depres- 
sion being followed by the beginning of better times, just at the close of the 
century. In 1881 Chile, Spain and the United States, the three greatest pro- 
ducers, made about the same amount of copper each, Chile having a slight lead 
with a trifle more than 41,000 long tons. From that point the output slowly 
declined to about 25,000 tons, fifteen years later. 

Chile has two parallel copper belts, running neariy due north and south, 
and approximately one hundred miles i^art. The principal development 
has been made in the western, or coastal belt, because of the greater ease of 
exploitation and transportation. The country rock of the Chilean cupriferous 
districts is composed mainly of strata of the Permian system, sandstones pie- 
dominating. These have been extensively faulted, twisted, broken and up- 
heaved by eruptive diorites. The general geological conditions are much 
the same as are found in the Mansfeld district of Germany, ^and in the govern- 
ments of Perm and Elizabethpol in Russia. The Cordilleran belt, which lies 
back from the coast some distance in a country about as rugged as can be found 
anywhere, is so difficult of access, in most cases, that but little mining devel- 
opment has been secured, especially in the case of copper ores, on which the 
cost of traiMportation is so great as to preclude operations in any but the most 
favored districts. The two parallel copper-bearing belts stretch from Argen- 
tina on the south, into Peru on the northern boundary. 

Summarizing from Prof. Ch. Vattier's excellent little brochure, " lifineria 
i Metalurjia de Chile, " the principal copper-bearing districts of the country, 
as developed, are as follows, from south to north: 

In the provinces of Santiago and Valpanuso is the mineral center of Las 
Condes, and the rich sulphide mines of Los Elguin, Bronces and Transito, 
with other centers of activity, as at Naltagua, Los Aguirre, Tiltil and Lampa* 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 133 

In the provinoe of Aconcagua are the- well-known mines of Catemu, with the 
Melon group and other leas-known properties. Lying next north comes the 
province of Coquimbo, ranking among the most important as a copper pro- 
ducer. The principal mines are in the departments of Combarbala, lUapel 
and Ovalle, including such first-rate mines as the Panulcillo and others less 
known. The province of Atacama is at present the greatest copper pro- 
ducer of the country. In the department of Vallenar there are numerous 
mines, among which are the Camarones and San Antonio. The department 
of Freirina is the location of the great Carrixal min^, upper and lower, and of 
other important producers. In the 'department of Copiapo are such great 
mines as the Dulcinea, Puquios, Nantojo and Tierra Amarilla. The depart- 
ment of Chafiaral is the site of the great mines of the same name. The prov- 
ince of Antofagasta is among the greatest copper centers of the country', and 
has laige and important mines in the departments of Taltal, where the mine 
Esploradora is located; in the neighborhood of Calama, department of Anto- 
fagasta, and in the department of Tocopilla. 

The Cerro Blanco district is not on the coastal belt, but is located in the 
Cordilleran zone, the mines being opened principally in trachyte. These 
were originally opened for silver, but at the depth of about 600 feet a zone of 
rich copper^ver ore was encountered, and this, in turn, was succeeded at 
greater depth by unaltered iron-sulphides of good average values. The deep- 
est mine of the district is the Agua Amarilla, which has reached a depth ex- 
ceeding 1,500 feet. 

Among the discouraging features of the Chilean copper trade, for the past 
twenty years, have been lack of rulroads, inefficient labor, high wages and 
lessened values of ore bodies in the case of the older and deeper mines. Trans- 
portation facilities have been greatly improved during the past decade, 
the enlightened and progressive government of Chile having fostered rail- 
road building, as well as taking a deep interest in the development of the min- 
eral and other natural resources of the republic. General conditions are im- 
proving, sloiriy but surely, and Chile from now on should show gains in cop- 
per production. The resources of the republic in this mineral are scarcely 
excelled by any country except the United States. 

COLOMBIA. While the republic of Colombia is noted for its produc- 
tion of gold and silver, little attention has been paid to mining for other than 
the precious metals. The existence of copp^ has long been known, but here- 
tofore no attempts have been made at mining in any but the crudest manner, 
though small quantities of the rich oxidized ores near surface have been ex- 
tracced at various points, from time to time. 

Cc^per ores are known to exist in many departments, notable among 
M'hich are Tolima, Rio Blanca, and Cauca. Among the principal deposits 
of Cauca are those of San Lorenzo, Yocoto, Coli, Pichinche and Andagueda. 
The principal mining districts of Colima are those of Anchique, Fiscal and 
Nacoroco, lying southwest of' Natagaima. The International (Colonizing 



144 !riiE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Company, of New York, has extensive concessions in this district, on which 
good bodies of copper ore have been located. 

ECUADOR. While there are no working mines in this republic, the 
existence of copper ores at various points has long been known. One 
of the most recent and most important discoveries was made in 1900 
in the province of Ahuay, about 35 miles from the co9St, where a prom- 
ising deposit of copper ore was discovered, at an elevation of about one mile 
above se^-level. 

PARAGUAY. There are deposits of copper ore in the northern part 
of Paraguay, but details regarding the size, richness and probable value of 
the veins are not obtainable. 

PERU. The rapidly growing copper industry of Peru suffered a rude 
shock in the decline of the metal's market price, and production fell off greatly 
during 1902. The very extensive operations put under way by the Cerro de 
Pasco company will result, within the next few years, in giving to Peru the 
largest and best equipped mining and smelting plant on the South American 
continent, and the example thus set is quite certain to have a highly bene- 
ficial effect on the Peruvian copper industr)' as a whole. 

The Andean copper zone of Ai^entina, Chile and Bolivia is also found 
in Peru, and copper mines have been opened at a number of different points. 
According to the reports of the Minister de Fomento for 1900, there were 104 
copper mines, an equal number of cupriferous silver mines and two mines of 
gold, silver and copper, within the boundaries of the republic. The govern- 
ment now has two surveying parties in the field, especially to delimit the 
copper-bearing districts, but their work will necessarily require a long time 
for completion. Mine owners furnish no reports to the government, and au- 
thenticated facts regarding the copper measures and copper mines of Peru 
are difficult to obtain from any source. 

Peru was once a considerable producer of copper from various districts, 
but the industry fell into decay until late in the Nineteenth century,when 
there was a revival, stimulated by the high price of the metal. A limited 
amount of copper is produced as a by-product in the smelting of cupriferous 
silver ores. The principal mines of the republic are found in the four dis- 
tricts of lea, Yauli, Acari and Cerro de Pasco, with minor properties in the 
districts of Mollendo, Moquega and Huarochiri. 

The lea district was once worked extensively, but was abandoned in 
1892. Its largest mine is the Canza. The ores averaged about 30 per cent, 
copper, the lower grades being rejected. The drawbacks in this district are 
lack of water and good roads. The mines of Yauli, including the adjacent 
district of Morrococha, are located at an elevation of upwards of 13,000 feet 
above sea level. This field was once a considerable copper producer, but work 
was stopped for the same reason as in the lea district. More or less silver b 
still mined, and some high grade copper ore averaging 26 per cent, in tenor is 
stilt being mined. The San Francisco is the principal mine of the Yauli 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 135 

dtstijct. The Acari district in the province of Camana has a number of 
small mines, but there is little activity at present. In the other minor dis- 
tricts conditions are practically the same. 

The Cerro de Pasco district has always been the principal field of Peru- 
vian copper production, and with the work now under way by the American 
company will speedily assume a commanding position, not only in Peru, but 
in all of South America. This district has been worked in a desultory fashion 
for 300 years, but serious development along modem lines was begun as re- 
cently as 1897. The district occupies a basin in the Cordilleras, at an ele- 
vation of 14,000 feet, and is most difficult of access. Unlike the other Peru- 
vian fields, which are arid, there is an excess of water at Cerro de Pasco. The 
ores that have been worked hitherto have ranged in tenor from 25 to 40 per 
cent, copper. The lower grade ores, of which there are large bodies, have re- 
mained imtouched, or were discarded after mining, only the richest ores being 
able to pay for the heavy costs of refining and transportation. The freight 
rate, for transportation on the backs of mules and llamas, is $40 per ton be- 
tween the mines and Oroya, the terminus of the Meiggs railroad running from 
Callao into the Andes. The difficulty of getting out copper and getting in 
machinery and supplies, upon the backs of pack-animals, over the roughest 
of mountain trails, can only be understood by those that have had experi- 
ence. The Cerro de Pasco company has secured control of the old Meiggs 
railroad, one of the engineering marvels of the world, and will continue the 
line to the mines from its present eastern terminus at Oroya.. This extension 
was begun in the spring of 1901, and is proceeding uninterruptedly and suc- 
cessfully, though the problems to be met and overcome are certainly among 
the most stupendous ever attacked by courageous engineers. The expen- 
ditures of the company on the mines and railroad are already esthnated at 
seven millions of dollars, and millions more must be devoted to the completion 
of the work. Fortunately there is no question of the ability of the company 
to raise any amount necessary. 

URUGUAY. There is copper ore in Uruguay, but, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, there are no copper mines, and no serious attempt has ever been made 
at exploiting the copper deposits. 

VENEZUELA. This country was once a considerable producer of copper, 
and is estimated to have made about 65,000 long tons of refined metal in the 
period 1872-1894, in which latter year the mines of the Aroa or Quebrada 
district were closed down. The' principal cupriferous district of Venezuela 
is found on the Narvaez or Bolivar tract, between the Tocuyo river on the 
north and the Yaracuayon the south. This tract extends some 54 miles in an 
approximately east and west direction, comprising 1,150 square miles. These 
lands were granted to one Narvaez by the Spanish crown, in 1508, and in 1802 
passed, by marriage, into the hands of Simon Bolivar, the liberator. This 
tract> on which a number of mines were opened, is now owned by a London 
syndicate. The mines of the Quebrada district, lying on the Aroa river, are 
included in the lands of this extensive estate. The igneous country rocks 



136 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

are of slate and limestone, with various intrusive rocks. Copper is fdund in 
lenticular masses, frequently of considerable sise and unknown depth, the 
series of lenses having a strike nearly north and south. The ores are oxides 
and carbonates at and near surface, followed at slight depth by iron 
sulphides. 

There are traditions that these mines were worked by the Indians be- 
fore the coming of the Spanish. Early in the Nineteenth century, a Balti- 
more company operated several of the mines, and secured about 43,000 tons 
of high-grade carbonate and oxide ores. Later on Venezuelan capitalists took 
the mines and removed about 100,000 tons of high and medium grade ores. 
The Quebrada district will doubtless be given attention at some future time, 
but just at present political conditions in Venezuela are not satisfactory, and 
the enlistment of foreign capital, absolutely necessary for the development of 
the mines, is rendered difficult by the complaints of ill-treatment made by 
European and American moneyed men who have invested large sums in vari- 
ous mining and land enterprises in this republic. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, IS"? 



CHAPTER XL 

Copper Deposits of Europe. 

Brief descriptions of the principal copper measures and developments 
of Europe are given, under the names of the respective countries possessing 
cupriferous deposits and mines, in this chapter, the titles being arranged 
alphabetically. 

AUSTRIA. The total annual production of refined copper by Austria is 
about 2,000,000 pounds. Copper has been mined and smelted for hundreds of 
years, but none of the mines now active are worked on a laige scale, and the 
mining and metalluigical plants are by no means modem in design. 

Copper deposits are found in various parts of the empire, and mines are 
worked in a small way at several points, the principal of which is Kitzbuehel, 
in the Tyrol. There are other Tyrolean mines, all of quite insignificant pro- 
duction, and a few small producers at Salzburg. The Graslitz mine, in Bo- 
hemia, was a veiy laige producer during the middle ages, but was abandoned 
in the Eighteenth century. 

BOSHIA. Copper ores are mined in a small way at several points in 
Bosnia. Ore is mined and smelted at Sinjako, while the ores from other 
points are sent, in limited quantities, to Hungary for reduction. Bosnia and 
Hersegovina, which are under the protection of Austria, are usually lumped 
with the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary in figures of production. The 
output for 1901 was 237 tons of refined copper, made from 4,747 tons of ore, 
of which 1,040 tons were fahlerz. 

BULGARIA. There is ample evidence that mines of copper were worked 
within the present limits of Bulgaria during the days of Roman dominion, 
and posaibly in even earlier times. At Plakalnitza, in the department of 
Vratza, there are considerable slag-piles from ancient smelters, dating from 
a time so remote that no vestiges of the works themselves are to be found, and 
in other departments of the principality there are similar but smaller slag- 
inks and waste-burrows of refuse cbntuning traces of lean ore, the values of 
which have been efiPectually leached out by the rains of two thousand years. 

At Plakalnitza the ore is mainly bomite, with a little malachite and chal- 
copyrite. At Kara Bair, near the port of Bourgos on the Black Sea, chal- 
copyrite is found in considerable profusion, and copper mines were evidently 
worked there at some remote period. At Milkiovtzy in the district of Tm, 
there are small deposits of chalcopyrite, chalcocite and malachite, in a baiytic 
gaogue. There is also chalcopyrite at Belogradchik^ where some work is now 



i3d fHS COPPER HANDBOOK, 

being done. Chalcocite is found at Gornya-Banya and at other points in tlie 
department of Sofia, not far from the ci4)ital city, and in the districts of Sleven 
and Samokof native copper and oxide ores have been found. 

CORSICA. There are a number of old copper mines in Corsica, of which 
one, the Lancone, was once a considerable producer. 

CYPRUS. The Latin word cuprum, from which comes the English word 
copper, was derived from the name of this island, thus attesting its ancience 
as a source of copper. In ages long past there were extensive c<^pqr mines 
on the island, but the production at the present time is trivial, exports for 
1899, the largest for some years, having been but 36 metric tons. One Eng- 
lish corporation is now operating on the island. 

ENGLAND. Copper and tin have been mined in Cornwall and Devon 
from very remote times, possibly for three thousand years. Oxide and car- 
bonate ores occur in the conglomerate^ and sandstones of Cheshire, and these 
were once mined to some extent. Cumberland also had copper mines some 
centuries ago, and the Coldscope was England's most famous copper mine dur- 
ing the Tudor era, working a fabulously laige force of men to get the very mod- 
erate amount of copper that was secured. During the first half of the Nine- 
teenth century Cornwall and Devon were the world's largest producers of 
copper. The importance of England, as a source of copper supply, received 
a check from the development of the richer ores of Chile, and when Lake Su- 
perior, South Africa and Australia entered the field of production, the English 
output began to decline, until it now averages only about a million pounds 
yearly. 

The copper ores of Cornwall and Devon, adjoining counties in the south- 
western part of the island, are found in a clay -slate of the Devonian system 
having frequent bosses and veins of granite, with both slate and granite in- 
truded by a quartz-porphyry. The veins are narrow, three feet being a liberal 
average, and are frequently capped with gossan, this capping being more 
common over the copper veins than above the veins carrying tin stuff. Veins 
of copper seem to favor the slates, while tin takes more kindly to the granite, 
but these observations hold true in a general way only, as there are many ex- 
ceptions to the rule, while tin is frequent in copper mines, and copper is of 
common occurrence in the tin mines, and in places tin and copper alternate 
in occurrence. As a rule the richest portions of a mine are found where the 
veins have the sharpest dip. Native copper, while rarely found in quantities 
of conunercial importance, is by no means uncommon, and is found in serpen- 
tine at the Lizard. One mass of native copper weighing three tons was se- 
cured from a mine near Mullion, Cornwall. The ores of copper are of many 
varieties, most of the more common sorts occurring, while many of the rarer 
copper minerals have been found, from time to time, in these two counties. 

FAROE ISLANDS. Native copper, associated with mesotype, occurs dis- 
seminated in amygdaloid rock in these islands, but no attempt at mining has 
ever been made, so far as known. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 139 

FIHLAIID. Copper ore is found at several points in Finland, but the 
only active mines in the grand duchy are at Pitkaranta, where chalcopyrite 
In sahlite occurs in a granite country rock. These mines have been worked for 
many years and produce about one million pounds of refined copper annually. 

FRAHCB. The wealth of France Is in her fertUe soil, and not in her min- 
erals. Copper ores are found at various points and a number of mines have 
been opened, but none of them ever proved either large or very profitable, 
and at present the production of copper from French mines is insignificant, 
having amounted to only 201 metric tons for the year 1900, the latest figures 
obtainable from the government bureau of mines. There are copper mines in 
the department of Var, Gard and Corse, also in Savoy and in the Basse-Pyr- 
enees near the Spanish frontier. Ai^entiferous copper ore to the extent of 
1,184 tons was exported to England in 1900 from the department of Ariege. 
In the same year 837 tons of iron-copper pyrites were exported to the same 
country, from the department of Corse, and 115 tons of copper ore were mined 
In the department of Gard. 

GERMANY. The copper >mines of Germany rank second in import- 
ance in Europe only to those of Spain and Portugal. The industry .is one of 
conaderable antiquity, and the history of the Mansfeld mines can readily be 
traced back to A. D. 1199, in which year the first copper was mined. The 
Mansfeld district, near Eisleben, in the Southern Harts mountains, is much 
the most Important in the empire. In this district the ore is found in beds of 
the Permian system, resting unconfonnably on crystallised strata of 
Paleozoic rocks. The eldest of the Permian rocks is a sandstone of several 
hundred feet in thickness, superimposed upon which is a second sandstone of 
little depth, upon which, in turn, rests the celebrated " kupferschiefer, " or 
copper-bearing shale, a clayey slate averaging but two or three feet in thick- 
ness, and carrying a disseminated sulphide ore returning an average of about 
2.5 per cent, metallic copper. The upper sandstone lying next below the kup- 
ferschiefer is also copper-bearing to some extent, and Is worked at tlm^. 
The area of the kupferschiefer Is very great, probably nearly 200 square miles, 
and a number of square miles have been worked out and many miles worked 
over in the seven hundred years that the mines have been in operation. The 
Mansfeld district is notable for the possession of coal for fuel and limestone 
for fluxing, in the rocks above the copper-bearing strata, and ore, fuel and flux 
are sometimes mined from the same shaft. 

There are also copper-bearing measures of lesser importance at Goslar, 
in Prussian Saxony ; at Rammelsberg, in Nassau, and still less important ore 
bodies at several other points in the empire. 

HERZEGOVniA. The industrial statistics of this semi-independent little 
country are usually included with those of Bosnia in the figures of the dual 
monarchy of Austria-Hungary, as Bosnia and Herzegovina are under the pro^ 
taction of Austria, since the congress of Berlin in 1878. The joint production 
of copper by Bosniii ftnd Herzegovina re^hed 237 tons in 1901. Operations 



140 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

are carried on in a most primitive manner, at the few points where any cop^ 
per mining is done. 

HUHGARY. The kingdom of Hungary has about a dozen copper smelt- 
ers, all small and none modem in design or practice. Copper is mined at a 
number of different points, the siilphide ores predominating, and the industry 
is one of great antiquity in this country, but has made comparatively little 
progress of late, the production remaining practically stationary. The prin- 
cipal mines are in the vicinity of Rezbanya and Dognacska, though even the 
largest mines are not big producers, and there are a number of small properties 
from which a few hundred tons of ore are extracted annually. 

IRELAND. The copper production of Ireland is insignificant at present, av- 
eraging possibly 20 tons yearly, and is secured by cementation from the waters 
leaching from old mine openings. There are three copper districts in the 
island, these being the Wicklow, Waterford and Cork and Kerry fields. In 
the Avoca valley of Wicklow sulphide ores occur in clay slates, much as in 
Cornwall and Devon. The industry was once important and in 1799 the 
Conncree mines yielded 677 tons of refined copper, which was a big product for 
those days. The 1899 production was 17 tons, obtained by leaching and ce- 
mentation. 

In the vicinity of Knockmahon, in County Waterford, the ores are also 
sulphides in clay slates, and averaged about 10 per cent, copper when worked. 
In 1843 the output of finished copper was upwards of 900 tons. In the south- 
em part of Cork and Kerry large mines were opened during the Eighteenth 
and early Nineteenth centuries, the Mountain and Keallonge mines each being 
more than a quarter mile in depth, while there were other considerable prop- 
erties at Berehaven and Lackamore, and on Ross island. All these have been 
idle for some years. 

ITALY. Copper was mined in Italy previous to the Christian era by the 
Romans, and before their day the metal had been extracted by the Etruscans. 
The industry has had its ebb and flow, but has never been entirely at a stand- 
still, for more than two thousand years. There are a few mines with fairly 
modem equipments, but as a rule the properties are worked upon a some- 
what narrow scale. 

The principal copper districts of Italy are four in number, viz. : Volter- 
rano, Grosseto, Liguria and the western Alpine region. The ores of the Vol- 
terrano district, mainly chalcopyrite, with a little chalcocite, are found in a 
red gabbro known locally as porfido rosso. This district has been the scene 
of copper mining operations from the earliest times of which authenticated 
records remain. 

The Grosseto district is now producing considerable copper from ores oc- 
curring both as contact and fissure veins. The Val Castruccio, Bocchegiano, 
Montecatini and Capanne Vecchie are the principal mines of this district, and 
the principal mining ceiiter V9 Masea Maritima, the Massa Metallifera of Ro« 
DUm days, 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 141 

The Ligurian mines lie-near the coast of the Mediterranean, above Genoa. 
The copper ores are found in stratified azoic rocks, as contact veins lying be- 
tween the diorite or serpentine and the metamorphic rocks, the gangue of the 
sulphide ores being quartzite. 

In the Hedmont district mines were worked in Ron^jin days, and traces 
of old workings are to be seen at many points. The orej occur in stratified 
archaic rocks, no fissure veins being found, and nickel and cobalt are fre- 
quently associated with the copper, the Caicante being a typical example of 
the copper-nickel mines of the district. A little native copper is found in some 
of the Italian mines. In 1000 there were 16 productive mines in the king- 
dom. « 

NORWAY. There are considerable deposits of copper ore in Norway, 
the principal district being near Trondhjem, where the sulphide ores lie in 
schists and slates of the lower Silurian svstem. Ores are also found in Tele- 
marken in a granitic country rock, and copper ore is mined to a greater or less 
extent in the amts of Trondhjem, Stavanager, Nordland and Finmarken, the 
principal mines being in the Sulitjelma and Roros districts and in Stavanager 
and Tromsoe. A number of Norwegian copper mines lie to the northward 
of the Arctic circle. The production of copper from the mines of this king- 
dom is slowly increasing. 

PORTUGAL. Much of what appears under the title of Spain applies to 
the copper deposits of Portugal as well, and to save, needless repetition the 
reader is referred to the article on Spanish copper deposits in this chapter, 
for a general description of the cupriferous measures of the Sierra Morena, of 
which the mines of SanDomingos and Grandola, in Portugal, form the western 
extension. The principal mining fields are the San Domingos, Grandola and 
Aljustral districts, with lesser properties developed in the Algarve and Aveiro 
districts. The San Domingos is much the most important mine of the king- 
dom. 

Owing to the close propinquity of the Spanish and Portuguese copper 
districts, and the operation of mines in both kingdoms by tlie same English ^ 
companies, the outputs of both countries are usually lumped in statistics of 
production. The Portuguese production in 1901 was equivalent to 9,933 met- 
ric tons. 

ROUKAHIA. There are copper deposits, apparently of importance, in 
this country. In the Carpathian Mountains chalcopyrite and carbonate ores 
are found at Valea Choboroasa, these assaying 7 per cent, cupric oxide, with a 
little gold. Samples of ore from Salishtea gave 18 to 32 per cent, cupric oxide 
and 100 grams gold per ton. Carbonate ores have been found in promising 
quantities in the district of Dobroudja, at the towns of Balabancea, Islam- 
Geafer, Carapelit and at Altan-Tepe near Tcheamourli. 

RUSSIA. There are extensive copper-bearing measures in the empire ol 
Russia, those of Siberia bemg separately treated in the chapter on Asiatic cop- 
per deposits. As a rule the copper is found in rocks of the Permian system. 



142 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

the name of which was taken from the heavy outcrops found in the govern- 
ment of Perm, where many of the principal Russian copper mines are located. 

The principal mines of European Russia are in the governments of Perm, 
Elizabethpol, Orenburg, Kutais, Tiflis, Nijni Tagilsk and Viatka. Two of the 
three principal copper producing properties of the empire are in the govern- 
ment of Perm, and these make more than one-half of the Russian production. 
The Bogoslovski works turned out 72,961 poods of finished copper and the 
Rudianski works made 86,473 poods, in 1900. The Kargalinski works, in 
the government of Orenburg, made 18,849 poods in the same year. The gov- 
ernments of Perm and Orenbui^ are in the Ural Mountain region. 

In the Caucasus region are the mines of the governments of Tiflis and 
Kutais. The largest producer is the Dzansulski, in the government of Ku- 
tais, with an output of about 14,000 poods. The Merisski works, in the same 
government, made 4,544 poods in 1900, and the Alverdski and Shamblurg- 
ski works in the government of Tiflis produced 4,490 poods in 1900. The pro- 
duction of refined copper by the mines of the entire Russian empire, in- 
cluding Siberia and Finland, amounted to 7,534 metric tons, in 1899, the lat- 
est year for which official figures are available. 

There are a number of old mines in the empire, of little productive import- 
ance at present, such as the Miednoroudiansk, in the government of Nijni 
Tagilsk, famous for its massive malachite, a single mass weighing 330 tons 
having been taken from this mine in 1836. The Kiadebek, or Kadabenski 
mine, in the Elizabethpol district, is operated by German capital, and is one 
of the most important mines of the empire, though no figures of production, 
other than mere estimates, are available for present use. 

There are about thirty smelting plants for copper operated in the em- 
pire, including those in Siberia. Most of these arc small and antiquated, though 
there are a few that are fairly modem. Judging from the immense extent 
of the copper-bearing measures, and the good grades of ore secured in the 
better mines, there is a future ahead of the Russian copper industry, much 
brighter than might be inferred from the limited development secured in 
th^ centuries that have elapsed since copper was first mined and smelted. 

SCOTLAND. There are deposits of chalcopyrite in Perthshire, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and at several other points in Scotland, but no copper mining 
is done. 

SERVIA. Copper mines have been operated, on a limited scale for 
many centuries in Servia. There are old mines and a few active properties 
at a number of points, but the principal copper producers are in the vicinity 
of Majdanpec. The production of refined copper from Servian mines was 
270 metric tons in 1900. 

SPAIN. The kingdom of Spain possesses great mineral wealth, and 
in the value of its copper and iron measures leads all the other countries of 
Europe. Copper ores are found in Huelva, Alicante, Almeria, Asturias, 
Badajos, Barcelona, Buigos, ('aceres, (-astellon, Corufia, Cuenca, Gerona, 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 143 

Granada, Guadalajara, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, Lerida, Logrono, Madrid, Malaga, 
liinorca, Navanra, Palencia, Santander, Segovia, Sevilla, Taragona, and 
Teniel, and in all of theae copper mines have been opened. Mining is being 
done at present in a number of these provinces, but the preponderating pro- 
duction of the kingdom comes from the mines of Hyeiva. This district is in 
the ^erra Morena of the province of Huelva in southwestern Spain, and 
the cupriferous formation continues into the adjoining kingdom of Portugal. 
This district is said to be some 30 miles wide by 150 in length, extending 
from AznalcoUar in Sevilla to San Domingos in Portugal, but the limits of 
the demonstratedly profitable zone are much more circumscribed. The 
ISerra Morena, or Andevallo cupriferous belt as a whole, is divided into four 
zones. The eastern zone includes the Cerro Muriano and other mines near 
Se\Hlla, while the western zone is in Portugal, with the village of Grandola 
as an approximate center. The northern zone includes th6 principal mines 
of both Spain and Portugal, while the leading mines of the southern zone are 
the Tharsis, Castillo del Buitron, Lagunazo and Las Herrerias. All of these 
zones present the same general characteristics, having lenticular masses of 
ore that parallel the layers of slate and the strike of the veins in the porphyry. 
The ore bodies are of varying size, sometimes of immense dimensions, the 
laigest reaching a length of nearly 4,000 feet and an 'extreme width of 500 
feet. These lenses are usually found at the jimction of slate and porphyry. 
The slates are of the Paleozoic group and probably of the lower Carbonif- 
erous system. Their strike is northwesterly, and dip to the north. These 
slates are of a yellowish tinge at surface, where weathered, but bluish at a 
little depth. The slates have been intruded by porphyry, syenite and dia- 
base, the porphyries occurring in a succession of parallel lenses with the 
same strike as the slates. The ore bodies are also parallel with the slates 
and porphyries, and may be considered true contact veins. 

The ore bodies, below the shallow alteration zone at surface, are formed 
of an intimate mijcture of chalcopyrite and pyrite, giving a disseminated 
sulphide ore of copper averaging 3 to 4 per cent, metal, though considerable 
ore of higher grade is encountered. The ores are slightly argentiferous and 
auriferous, and under the highly perfected processes of extraction now em- 
ployed, the values of the precious metals are quite closely extracted, and 
small as is their percentage this saving amounts in the aggregate to large 
sums, owing to the immense tonnage of ore treated annually. A strong 
tendency is noticed in the lower levels opened in these immense lenses toward 
decreased dimensions and lessened values. 

References to the interesting metallurgical processes employed in the 
Hispano-Portuguese mines will be found in the chapter on metallurgy, and 
more detailed references to the geology of the various important mines will 
be found in the descriptions of the principal mines of Spain and Portugal. 

The first copper mining in the Iberian peninsula was done, in all likeli- 
hood, by the Phcenicians, some 3,000 years ago, and was continued by the 
Carthaginians. The Romans succeeded to the dominion of the peninsula, 
and extensive traces of their work are yet to be found in the Sierra Morena. 



144 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

Ifine timbers, which in all likelihood were put in by Roman workmen nearly 
or quite two thousand years 9%o, are still in place, effectually protected 
from the gnawing tooth of time by the preservative action of the copper 
sulphate with which the mine waters are liberally charged. The modem 
era of Spanish copper production dates from 1860, when the Tharsis mine — 
the Tharsish of the ancients — ^was reopened. The Rio Tinto was reopened 
as recently as 1876. 

SWEDEN. Copper has been mined in Sweden for more than 600 years, 
from the famous mines of Falun. The ore at this point is chalcopyrite oc- 
cuiring in connection with iron pyrites, and is found in lenses of considerable 
size. The Storra Kopparberg mine, near Falun, is the best-known property 
of the district, and furnishes much of the copper, some of the silver and 
most of the gold produced in the kingdom. Copper ores are found in the 
Iftns of Osteiigotland, Malmohus, Orebro, Vestmanlaud and Kopparbeig. 
There are mines in all of these districts, most of which are small 
producers or entirely idle. There are three smelters in Sweden, of which 
the most important is at Atvidabeiig. In addition to the metal produced 
from direct smelting, a little copper is produced at Helsingboi^ by 
superphosphate works which extract the copper from the cupriferous 
iron pyrites residues, producing about 120 tons of cement copper annually. 
About 550 tons of blister copper is turned out from the smelters at Atvida- 
beiig, Falun and Kafvelstorp, the copper production of the kingdom being 
insufficient to supply the domestic demand. 

TURKEY. Extensive copper deposits exist at several points in the 
Balkans, on both the Bulgaiian and Turkish sides of the mountains. The 
present copper production of Turkey is probably 3,000 to 4,000 metric tons 
yearly, of which amount the exports are about 2,500 tons, but these figures 
are estimates, except in the case of exports. Of exports of approxi- 
mately 2,400 metric tons made in 1900, the muies and smelters of Aighana 
Maden sent about 1,400 tons, while about 1,000 tons came from Bakir Maden, 
near Diarbekir, Asiatic Turkty. The mines at Tokat were once considerable 
producers, but have fallen off latterly. Copper has been mined and smelted 
for some centuries near Kharput, and has been produced to a considerable 
extent by the mines of Kalabak, near Mount Ida, from time immemorial, 
having been ancient in the time of Straho, who describes them. The ore at 
this point is chalcopyrite occurring in slates and limestones said to be of the 
Tertiary period. 

WALES. The copper mines of Anglesea were worked by the Romans, 
and possibly by the Phoenicians before them. There were also considerable 
mines in Merionethshire, and up to about 1830 Wales was a considerable 
producer. At present the only copper production is a score of two ton? 
produced yearly as cement copper from the water leaching out of thr c!*? 
Paiys and Mona mines. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 145 



CHAPTER XII. 

Copper Deposits of Africa. 

There are important developments in copper mining at several African 
points, and it is probable that the Dark Continent will become a much lai^r 
producer in the future than it ever has been in the past. The deposits and 
developments of this continent are treated alphabetically. 

ABYSSmiA. The nuneral wealth of Abyssinia is laiigely a matter of 
conjecture, but it is certain that copper exists at various points. The Negus 
Menelik, emperor of Abyssinia, has evidenced progressive tendencies since 
the Italian invasion of his country was repulsed and has encouraged foreign 
capital. It has been stated in pre6s dispatches, published late in 1902, that 
mining and nulroad conceaaons are being revoked, but the news has not 
been confirmed. Abyssinia is a mountainous country, lacking nulroads or 
good wagon roads, and the development of copper mines is apt to await the 
securing of better transportation facilities. 

ALGERIA. Chalcopyrite and antimonial gray copper ore (tetrahedrite) 
are the principal copper ores of Algeria. The gray copper found in Kabyli^ 
is somewhat argentiferous, and occurs in rocks of Jurassic age. The Am 
Baibar mine, in the department of Constantine, near the Tunisian frontier, 
has a rather remarkable lense of sulphide ore averaging 8 to 15 per cent, cop- 
per, absolutely isolated and enclosed in Ligurian schists. The copper la 
associated with galena and zinc blende. Along the Mediterranean coast. In 
the department of Constantine, there are a number of small veins, of no great 
depth, canying sulphide ores, in a gangue of quartz. There are several 
mines of antimonial ores carrying more or less silver in the department of 
Alger, but none of them are worked at present. 

AHGOLA. The existence of sulphide and carbonate ores, in considerable 
abundance, is reported from various points in Angola, but, so far as known, 
none of them have been opened, and no attempts at development are con- 
templated at present. 

ASHANTI. The occurrence of native copper, apparently in dendritic 
fonns, in the country several days' journey back from the Ivory Coast of 
Ashanti, is reported to me by Mr. John Nolan, of Sekondi, Ashanti, who is 
in chaige of diamond drill explorations for gold, conducted by sundry Eng- 
lish corporations. 

BASUTOLAHD. According to Sir Godfrey Lagden there are indications 
of ccpper, tin and iron in Basutoland. 



146 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CAPE COLONY. The copper production of Cope Colony comes ex- 
clusively from Namaqualand, on the west coast, the productive area lying 
in Little Numaqualand, about 90 miles from the Atlantic. All (opper ore 
shipments are made through Port NoUoth, which ranks fourth in exports 
in this colony. There are two large companies operating in this district, 
and the first production was secured in 1852, since which time copper has 
been exported to the value of nearly $60,000,000. 

The ore b chiefly chalcopyrite, returning an average of 17 to 19 per 
cent, in smelting, these figures making it evident that considerable care is 
exercised in selection. The country rock is granitic, and the ore occurs 
in lenses, often of great size. The largest mine \a the Ookiep, which is partly 
exhausted. Little Namaqualand has apparently been a decadent didtrict 
for some years, but recent explorations have shown promising deposits for 
future exploitation. It is now purposed building a new railroad, which 
should prove a considerable stimulus to the development of new mines. 

CONGO FREE STATE. The existence of copper ore deposits, some 
of which are apparently of workable size and richness, has been known for 
years, but no mining worthy of the name has ever been done. The natives 
of the upper Congo dig a little iron and copper ore and smelt them with 
charcoal in pits, for the making of weapons and utensils. At Katanga 
there are several workable deposits, the ore occurring as lenses in schistose 
sandstones. At Mboko-Songo a few small mines have been opened in lime- 
stone. Ore has also been found in Yambingo, at Manyanga, and near the 
western shore of Lake Albert Nyanza. 

FRENCH CONGO. Copper ore exists at several points in this colony 
and at least one mine is now in process of development, in the vicinity of 
Brazzaville. 

GERMAN EAST AFRICA. The existence of copper in this protectorate 
has been reported, from time to time, but, so far as can be ascertained, no 
efforts have ever been made to develop regular mines on any of the deposits 
located. 

GERMAN SOUTHWEST AFRICA. Copper ore has been found in this 
protectorate between the Swakab and Knisib rivers, and a mine is being 
developed at Windhoek by the Damaraland Copper Syndicate, Ltd. 

I 

GERMAN WEST AFRICA. It is reported to the German Colonial 
office that ores of copper, gold, silver and lead have been found in abundance 
at a spot about 400 miles inland from Walfisch Bav. 

GOLD COAST OF AFRICA. The ores of a variety of valuable metals, 
including those of copper, have been found at various points in the interior 
of the Gold Coast of West Africa, but no attempt has been made at devel- 
oping copper mines. 

MADAGASCAR. Very little has been done as yet, either by the French 
government or private capital, for the development of the copper resources 



THE COPPER tiANtoBOOR. i\1 

of the great African island of Madagascar^ although the copper measures 
already known would seem to warrant exploitation, or, at least, careful gov- 
ernment inspection by trained scientists. There are na,tive mines, worked 
in a crude way by the Hovas, at Ambataofaugehana in the district of Am- 
bositra and at Vohinana. In this district there are two mountain caps, 
between which arc extensive micanschists of several miles in length. The 
ore is principally nudachite, averaging 10 to 45 per cent, copper, and has 
sometimes been found carxying higher percentages. These mines are ap- 
parently about worked out. Other native mines are reported . from the 
Betafo country. In this district of Imerinarive in the Cercle de Tsiafahy 
native copper has been found. The metal has also been found in viigin 
form in the district of Vonizongo. The country about Lake Kinkony in 
the Cercle of Mahavavy has long been reported rich in copper. According 
to some rather indefinite reports traces of copper have been discovered re- 
cently in the province of Vohemar. 

MOROCCO. Though only three hours from Europe, Morocco is almost 
as effectively closed to civilization as though it were in the center of the 
Dark Continent. The country is reported to be rich in copper, as well as 
other minerals, but the sciences of statistics, geology and mineralogy have 
yet to be discovered in Morocco. Copper ore is found not far from Tangier, 
and was being mined and smelted, circa 1860, near Tarudant, capital of 
the province of Sus. This seems the latest authentic information to be 
had upon the copper deposits and industry of this kingdom. 

HATAL. Copper ores exist in this colony, but little has been done in 
the way of exploration and no mines have been developed. The value of 
the discoveries made is largely a matter of conjecture. 

UTASSALAIID. The ores of copper, nickel and zinc have been discov- 
ered in Portuguese Nyassaland, but no attempts at mining have yet been 
made in the case of the copper ores. 

RHODESIA. Prospecting for copper has been in progress for several 
years, and while Rhodesia has not gotten to the productive stage, there 
are good indications of payable copper mines being secured in the Loma- 
gundi, Umtali and Victoria districts, and development work is now in progress 
in all of these districts, while copper ores have also been found in the Mel- 
selter district. Several strong British corporations are now at work in dif- 
ferent parts of the colon^r, and thorough tests of the value of Rhodesian 
copper measures are quite certain to be secured. 

Much the most important and most extensive development work is 
under way in the Victoria district, where copper has been found, apparently 
in laige quantities, near the Kufeke river, a short distance north of the Vic- 
toria Falls of the Zambesi river. These falls are of immense height and 
volume, and are to be harnessed by the South Africa Chartered Company, 
which has engaged the services of Sir Douglass Fox and Sir Charles Metcalf 
as expert electrical engineers for devising the works, which, in all likelihood, 



148 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

will be modeled quite cloeely along the lines of the immense electrical power 
installation at Niagara Falls. The plans of the company are drawn upon a 
most ambitious scale, and include the generation of sufficient power to oper- 
ate not only the mines, but also a railroad line from the falls to the mines, 
and possibly also a railroad to the coal fields about 150 miles distant. 

SEIIEGAL. Copper ores occur in the vicinity of the Senegal river, 
but details are lacking. 

SUDAK. The only producing copper mine jn the Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan is the Hofret-el-Nahas, in southwest Kordofan, and this, owing to 
lack of adequate transportation, is worked solely for local consumption, 
mining and smelting being upon a primitive scale. Prospecting is now 
being done in various parts of the Sudan, but no copper has been found as 
yet, though there is thought to be copper in the Suakin district. 

TRANSVAAL. - Copper ore was discovered in this colony near Rusten- 
berg, just previous to the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer war. The discovery 
is said to possess sufficient merit to warrant further attention. 

UGANDA PROTECTORATE. Copper is vaguely reported from 
Uganda, somewhere between Lake Victoria Nyanca and the Nile, but pre- 
cise information as to these discoveries seems lacking. 

ZULULAND. Sulphide and silicate ores of copper have been discov- 
ered near the Insuzi and Umhlatuzi rivers, in the Nkandhla district of Zulu- 
land. Apparently no attempts have been made to prove the possible 
value of these ore bodies, which are some distance from transportation lines. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 140 



CHAPTER XIIL 
Copper Deposits of Asia. 

Afl in the preceding chaptera, the copper deposits of Asia are treated 
alphabetically, by countries. 

AFGHAlflSTAK. The northern part of this country is said by travelers 
and natives to be rich in copper, Owing to the peculiar political position 
of the country, which is a buffer state between British and Russian possessions, 
industrial progress meets with discouraging obstacles. The development 
of modem copper mines demands railroads, and it is not probable that Great 
Britain would look with favoring eyes on railroad construction, as such 
lines would afford an advantage to Russia in case the latter country desired 
to invade India. The Russians, however, are pushing a transcontinental 
railway in the direction of northern Afghanistan, and this may lead, when 
completed, to the development of mineral resources now latent. 

AllNAM. There are deposits of copper ore in the province of Quang- 
Nam, Annam, but detailed information ais to the character and extent of 
the ores has not been secured for the present issue of this work. 

ARABIA. There are deposits of copper ore near the shores of the Red 
Sea in Arabia Petrea, and a number of old mines are found on the slopes of 
Mt. Sinai. These mines, which yield turquoises as well as ore, were evi- 
dently never rich in metal. It is probable that they were the first copper 
mines ever opened, and the date of the first mining is probably as remote 
as 5000 B. C. The nunes were the property of various nations, from time to 
time, and were the cause of various wars between the races coveting them, 
but were held nuunly by the Egyptians. It is probable that after being 
worked for more than three thousand years they were finally abandoned 
before Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt. The scepter of Pepi I, 
a Pharaoh of the ^xth dynasty, now preserved in the British Museum, is 
made of pure copper, and probably came from the mines of Mt. Sinai. The 
ore is chyrsocolla in porphyry, and the ruined furnaces and slag piles found 
near the old adits, still open, show that the ore was smelted at the mines. 
Analyses of the slags do not show the use of fluxes in the reduction of the orea* 

CHIHA. Copper is of quite general occurrence in China, but owing 
to the lack of authentic records accessible to investigators from countries 
of better industrial development, details regarding many of the provinces 
are lacking. Copper mines have been worked fo^ inany Q^^dturies under 



I 



150 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

the most primitive methods of mining and smelting.^ The production of 
the empire is estimated at five million pounds annually, all of which is con- 
sumed in China. 

Among the more important properties are those of the province of 
Yun-Nan, in southern China, where sulphide veins occur in limestone and 
sandstone strata near intrusive igneous rocks. The ore is both auriferous 
and argentiferous. Native metal is also found sparingly, in grains and small 
masses. The principal production of the empire is from this province, esti- 
mated at about 3,000,000 pounds yearly, of w^hich upwards of 2,000,000 
pounds are exported to other provinces. Kwei-Chau, also in southern 
China, produces a limited amount of copper, from ore bodies resembling 
those of Yun-Nan. There are also a few mines operated in primitive man- 
ner, with small production, at San-Kia-Tschang in the province of Ho-Nan, 
and a little mining is done in the pi:ovince of Sze-Chuan. 

The most modem copper mines and smelters arc in Manchuria, and a new 
and well-equipped reduction plant has recently been completed at Kaya. 
With the industrial awakening of China, certain to come during the first 
quarter of the present century, the mineral resources of this vast empire 
will receive adequate attention, and while the immediate future holds out 
no promise of gi^at mines, these will come in time. 

COCHIIf-CHINA. The existence of copper deposits, apparently of 
importance, is known in Cochin-China, but no mines arc worked. 

INDIA. Before the beginning of authenitc history copper was mined 
and smelted in India, the prodtiction being secured along the simplest pos- 
sible lines of digging and reduction. India was a considerable producer of 
the metal during the middle ages, and up to the beginning of the Nineteenth 
century, after which the output fell off slowly. During the Eighteenth 
century India shipped laige quantities of copper to Europe, but the current 
was reversed later. ' The last active copper mining upon a considerable 
scale was done at Baragunda, from 1887 to 1891, but the chalcopyrite ore 
returned only 1 to 3 per cent, copper, and this was insufficient to permit a 
profit. A few tons of copper ore are still mined every year, and there are 
ore measures that will doubtless receive attention at some future time. 

JAPAN. According to carefully-kept Japanese annals, copper was dis- 
covered about the beginning of the Eighth century. Mining and smelting 
were of the most primitive sort, the ore being reduced in clay pits, with 
charcoal for fuel. The first exports, other than to China, were made in 
the Seventeenth century, when Holland had a monopoly of Japanese trade, 
and copper was exported annually to the extent of 700 to 1,200 tons for 
many years. 

After the opening of Japanese ports by Commodore Perry, in 1854, the 
Japanese were quick to realize the advantages of foreign technics and train- 
ing. All (tranches of industry have been revolutionized in the past fifty 
years, and in no trade has greater progress been made than in the mining 



TtiB COPPER HANDBOOK, 161 

tod smelting of copper. Modem hoists and pumps, air compressors and 
poweiMirills, high explosives and other latest aids to mining have been ap- 
plied, and Japan now has several strictly modem smelters. It must not 
be inferred that all Japanese copper mines are well equipped and operated 
in full accordance with the latest practice, for many of the mines are but 
little improved from the methods in vogue two hundred years ago, but the 
bulk of the production is secured under advantageous conditions, with ex- 
cellent machinery, and under the direction of highly-trained engineers and 
metalluigists. Japanese mining men visit all of the important copper-pro^ 
ducing fields of the world, and their practice ranks deservedly high. 

Japanese copper ores are almost exclusively sulphides, and there are 
mines in nearly every province, though half of the 300 copper mines of the 
empire are idle, and there are but fifty mines or so that make fifty tons or 
more of refined metal yearly, while the bulk of the Japanese production comes 
from two groups of mines, the Ashio and the Besshi. Most of the copper 
ores carry silver, usually in quantities of commereial importance, while sev- 
eral mines have gold-copper ores, the gold values running as high as five 
ounces per ton in the selected ores of one mine. A little native copper is 
also found, as well as oxidized ores in limited quantities. 

Acco;xiing to the latest available official figures, of date Jan. 1, 1900, 
the area covered by Japanese copper mines is 54,618,045 tsubo, a tsubo 
equalling 36 square feet, and mines covering 29,114,697 tsubo, or a 
little more than half the total area, were in operation. In addition, there 
were several mines of compound metals, from which a limited amount 
of copper was secured as a by-product. 

The production of refined copper increased from 33,180,250 kin in 1894 to 
40,459,709 kin in 1899, a kin being nearly equal to 1 H pounds avordupois. 

The most prominent figures in the Japanese copper industry are Messrs. 
Ichibei Furukawa of Tokyo, owner of the Ashio group, and Kichizayemon 
Sumitomo of Osaka, proprietor of the Besshi mines. Both have done much 
to modernize copper production in Japan, and to them their country owes 
a debt of gratitude for the breadth of view that led them, though gentle- 
men of the old school, to adopt the most modem improvements in their 
works, thus setting an example of great value as well as providing one of 
the most valuable exports of the empire. 

KOREA. Copper ores are said to abound in this hermit kingdom, but 
details are scanty. A start has been made at gold mining with modem ma- 
chinery and methods, and something will doubtless be done later with some 
of the more promising deposits of copper. 

PERSIA. This country has long been known to be rich in copper, and 
there are mines, so called, in nearly every province, many of them very old. 
The methods of mining and smelting are of the cnidest, and the production 
is necessarily small, being merely sufficient for the limited demands of the 
•ountry itself. Until there are better railroad communications and foreign 



152 THE^ qOPPER HANDBOOK. 

capital can be enlisted in such enterpriaes but little will be heard from the 
copper mines of Persia. 

SOBERIA. Copper deposits have been located at a number of points 
in Siberia, and a little mining has been done in several districts. The only 
mining of any importance now in progress is at Semipalitinsk, where the 
Pavovski mines and smelt'::r8 turn out upwards of a million pounds of refined 
copper annually. The government of Semipalitinsk is rich in mineral re- 
sources, including coal and iron, and a large number of copper mining claims 
were located in 1900 and 1901, on few of which anything of importiemce has 
been done. The Akmolinsk district has received some attention from pros- 
pectors, and upwards of 100 copper claims have been registered in the Kar- 
karalinsk district. The value of these districts, judged by surface indications, 
is said to be considerable, but actual mining will be required to determine the 
true status of the new fields. 

TONQUni. There are copper mines, operated by natives on very crude 
principles, in the provinces of Sontay, Langson and Laokay, and the ores are 
said to be of good grade, although the production is necessarily small, owing 
to lack of modem machinery and methods. 

TURKESTAN. There is one small mine, the Karankubki, in the Tash- 
kent district of Turkestan, and there are other unworked ore bodies, some 
of which are apparently worthy of exploitation. 



THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 153 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Copper Deposits of Australia and Oceanica. 

In this division of the earth the more important copper deposits and 
mines are developed in the commonwealth of Australasia, though there are 
beds of copper ore in New Caledonia and elsewhere that give promise 
of making good mines. The political divisions of Australia, Tasmania and 
New Zealand are first treated, after which references are made to the other 
islands in alphabetical order. 

AUSTRALIA. The first copper shipment from this island continent was 
made in 1843, from South Australia, thus antendating the first production 
of Lake Superior mines by one year. The ores of Australian mines are prin- 
cipally sulphides, though rich carbonates are foimd at the Blinman mine and 
elsewhere, while native copper occurs at many points. The copper produc- 
tion (tf the conmionwealth of Australia comes mainly from Tasmania, New 
South Wales and South Australia following, with 18 or 20 per cent, of the 
total product each, and Western Australia and Qi^eensland bringing up the 
rear. More detailed references to the various states of the commonwealth 
are given under the titles of each, in the following brief articles. 

HEW SOUTH WALES. The Great Cobar mine was opened in 1869, 
and was the first real copper mine of the state, though attempts at copper 
mining w^ere made as early as 1847. A considerable number df copper mines, 
mostly shallow and with small development, have been opened at various 
points, from time to time. The Cobar district, in the western part of the 
state, is much the most important, and the Great Cobar mine produces the 
bulk of the copper output. The country rock of this district is mainly slates 
of the Silurian system, with few eruptive rocks — a rather unusual home 
for copper. There is also a cupriferous district in the central part of the 
state, where eruptive rocks predominate, and there are a number of scat- 
tering mines along the coast. 

QUEENSLAHD. This state was at one time a regular copper producer 
in a small way, but the industry fell upon evil times when the price of copper 
went down in 1889, after which copper production and development were at 
a low ebb until about 1898, when there was a great revival. The older cop- 
per fields were at Peak Downs, Cloncurry and Mt. Perry. At Peak Downs 
native copper was mined from amygdaloid trap, under conditions greatly 
resembling those governing in the Lake Superior copper district. Lack of 
transportation facilities caused the suspension of work. The Australian 



154 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Copper Company was once a considerable producer from the Cloncurry dis- 
trict, but high transportation charges caused the abandonment of that field 
also. 

In the Mt. Perry district there is considerable activity, several strong 
mining companies being now at w^ork. The Queensland railroad affords 
good transport, and there are smelters at the mines. The country rock is 
granite, and the veins are mineralized only for a portion of their width, the 
rich zones of mineralization rarely averaging a foot in width. Ore values 
have disappeared with depth in some cases, but in one instance remain un- 
impaired to a depth of 800 feet. The ores are highly silicious, but it is pur- 
posed using the auriferous and argentiferous gossan for a flux, which 
should kill two birds with one stone. 

The Chillagoe district of the Herberton field has ores in carboniferous 
limestone, the geological conditions being comparable with those of certain 
Arizona districts. The existence of ore deposits without regular walls, 
forming a stockwerk, is a typical feature of this district. Development has 
been hampered by lack of adequate transportation facilities, but this will 
be remedied by the completion of the Chillagoe railroad, an ambitious under^ 
taking designed to aid in the development of the mineral wealth of a lai^^e 
part of Queensland hitherto inaccessible. A big water power at Barron 
Falls is available for use at the Chillagoe mines. 

There is also considerable activity in the Mt. Garnet district, though 
something of a chill has been caused by the drop in the price of copper in 
1901. A number of small mines have been opened in the Stanthorpe dis- 
trict. These are said to be of promise. Undeveloped copper deposits are 
also known to exist in the neighborhood of Rockhampton and Gladstone, 
at Ravenswood, near Cardwell and to the west of Townsville, also, at other 
points on the eastern watershed. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. The Kapunda mine was first opened in 1842, 
a decade before the discovery of gold, and in 1845 the Burra Burra began 
production. Since that time •South Australia has been a regular though 
not altogether steady producer of copper, and it seems probable that the 
present annual output of five to six thousand tons is far less than this state 
is capable of producing. The Moonta was opened in 1863 and later con- 
solidated with the Wallaroo, 10 miles distant. This consolidated property 
is now the chief producer of South Australia. The first smelter was built 
at Port Adelaide in 1851, and the second at Wallaroo ten years later. 

On the Yorke Peninsula, where the Wallaroo and Moonta mines are 
opened, the country rock is porphyr\', and the ores are principally sulphides, 
with oxidized ores, including a considerable percentage of atacamite, in 
the upper parts. A barren zone of 50 to 125 feet lies between the oxidized 
ores and the unaltered sulphides, though the veins continue n^gularly, but 
are filled with gangue rock only. 

In the Kapunda district, 50 miles north of Adelaide, where the first 
mining was done 60 years ago, the ores are oxides and carbonates, with some 



TUB COPPER tiANbbOOR, lAs 

native copper. In the Burra Burra district, about 100 miles northeast 
of Adelaide, the country rock is limestone and shale, with very irregular 
deposits of rich altered ores, more regularity in vein formation being noted 
at considerable depth. Many mines have been opened in South Australia 
during the past 60 years, but only a few of them have been developed in 
more than the most rudimentaiy manner. 

VICTORIA. The existence of copper deposits at various points in 
Victoria has long been a matter of common knowledge, but for some reason 
no serious mining has been done. The most notable field is in the Beech- 
worth district, where outcroppings of copper ore have been found at a num- 
ber of points in an area of about fifty square miles. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA. This state is noted for its lai^ and pro- 
fitable gold mines, but copper mining is not in a very advanced stage, although 
the first mine was opened as long ago as 1855. The total production to date 
is slightly under 15,000 tons, and the current rate of production is less than 
1,000 tons per year, llie principal development is in the Mt. Malcolm 
district, where the ore is matted in water-jacket furnaces at the mines. In 
other districts the ore is hand-dressed for shipment to distant smelters, and 
of course only the richer altered ores can pay for hand-work and high carriage 
charges. 

Other principal cupriferous districts of Western Australia are the West 
Pilbarra, Murchison, Northampton, Mt. Margaret, Phillips River, Ashburton 
and Champion Bay. In the West Pilbarra district the country rock is a 
schistose slate, the copper occurring in a compact intrusive rock of igneous 
origin. The ore, chiefly carbonates and oxides of high grade, is secured 
by quarrying. In the Northampton district, the cupriferous belt is said 
to reach from the Irwin river on the south to the Murchison river on the 
north, and to carry rich copper carbonates, as well as lead ores. The Ash- 
burton is a new district, in which a number of leases have been granted, but 
development work is so slight that little seems known beyond the assured 
existence of copper ore. The Phillips lUver district carries silicious gold 
ores, and ferruginous copper ores, the latter apparently in considerable 
quantities. The ores are miunly malachite and chalcocite, and are of high 
value, average assays running 31.48 per cent, copper, 2.16 oz. silver, and 
0. 15 o». gold per ton. Taken all in all, it may be said that while Western Aus- 
tralia has been but scratched for copper, the results indicate the existence 
of several dbtricta of distinctly above the average promise. The drawbacks 
are scant water supply and lack of railroads, hut these can be overcome by 
a judicious combination of capital, time and skill. 

TASXAHIA. The copper mining industry of this island has had a rapid 
growth. The Mt. Lyell mine begun production in 1896, and a large number 
of new mines were projected in the immediate vicinity. The promoters of 
these properties displayed a most lamentable paucity of imagination, or else 
a strong desire to profit by the name of the first successful mine of the dis- 



168 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 



CHAPTER XV. 



Copper Mines of the World. 



Ab in the two preceding annual editions of this work, the detailed de- 
scriptions of copper mines and companies, given in this chapter, are printed 
in alphabetical order, regardless of location. This plan has some obvious 
disadvantages, but, upon the whole, is found the best of any tried or sug- 
gested, as it renders the work fully self-indexing. In actual practice the 
plan is not so easy to enforce as might be assumed, owing to the large number of 
duplicate names, and for various other reasons. In the case of the Copper 
Kings it was found necessary, in order not to confuse the reader beyond hope 
of recovery, to file in geographical alphabetical order. The definite articles 
have been omitted from all titles in English and German, but could not 
well be omitted from Spanish and French titles. In cases where the Spanish 
or French articles are used, the description has been filed upon the name 
of the mine rather than the article, but in the case of American oi English 
companies having Spanish titles the filing has been done upon the article, 
whether La, Las, Los or El. The plan of indexing followed may strike the 
reader as cumbersome and awkward, but the difficulties encountered in 
dealing with titles in a dozen different languages, each with its own indi- 
vidual idoms, have been by no means inconsiderable. 

AAMDAL COPPER MINES SYNDICATE, LTD. NORWAY. 

Property, the Aamdal mine, at Mo, Bratsbergamt, Norway, sold to 
Tharsis Sulphur & Copper Co., Ltd. 
ABBEY MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 812 Park Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. Mine office: Socorro, Socorro 
Co., N. M. Organized December, 1901, under laws of New Mexico, with 
capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Nelson Weddle, Jr., president; 
Earl A. Wheeler, vice-president; H. A. Spangler, treasurer; F. S. Tewksbury, 
recording secretary ; J. F. Hinckley, financial secretary; Nathan Hall, general 
manager. Lands, 39 claims, area 780 acres, in five groups. The original 
group of 12 claims, known as the Abbey, is 22 miles north of Magdalena, 
Socorro county, shoeing two parallel veins, with about 600' of development 
work, now idle because of heavy inflow of water at depth of lOO', carrying 
ores assaying up to 40% copper and 80 oz. silver per ton. The Washington 
group of 7 claims, 10 miles west of Ilpham, has a 165' shaft. The I^ead group 
of 3 claims shows silver-le»d ores. The Manganese group, near Hincon, 



ABBEY— ADAMS. 159 

shows high-grade manganese ores, unavailable for mining until given rail 
connections now lacking. The Little Baldy group of 6 claims, in the Mag*- 
dalena mountains, 6 miles from Water Canyon, is the site of the company's 
present development work, by a OOC/ tunnel on a vein of 13' to 26' width, 
paralleled by a quartzite dyke of 400^ to 70(y width giving assays of $3 to 
$5 gold per ton. Company is managed by men of good standing. 
ABBOT CREEK GOLD & COPPER MQUlfG CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Office: care of W. J. Brent, Portsmouth, Va. Lands are in Lexington 
county, N. C. Main shaft SO', in vein giving average assay values of $15 
per ton in copper and gold. Has concentrator and mill with Tremain 
stamps and crusher. 
ABERDEEN COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office : 44 New St., New York, N. Y. Mine office : Loidsburg, Grant Co., 
N. M. Capitalization, $1,000,000, shares $25 par. M. F. Nagle, president; 
Frank W. Daniell, general manager. Lands, 52 claims, area 1 ,145 acres, 
in the Virginia district, showing 10 fissure veins, of which 7, averaging 5' 
width, are more or less developed, giving sulphide ore assaying 7% copper, 
10 oz. silver and $2 gold per ton, with considerable lead values, and are 
opened by 8 shafts with about 3,000^ of underground openings. Has steam 
powe/, air compressor and 50-ton concentrator. A small smelter has been 
built on the company's lands by the National Smelting & Refining Company. 
K. Horton Batchelor, secretary of the company has been arrested for em- 
bezzlement. Company paid one dividend of $32,175, which came from 
sale of treasury stock and not from earnings. One John Mapes, of Shamokin, 
Pa., was also connected with the property. Property is considered promis- 
ing if given proper development, adequate capital and honest management, 
but company seems hopelessly mired. 
ACARI COPPER MINING SYNDICATE, LTD. PERU. 

Has idle mines in the Acari district of the province of Camafia, Peru. 
ACCIDENTAL MINING ft MILLING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office : GnMiite, Chaffee Co., Colo. C. Tyron, superintendent. Ores 
carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam power. 
ACME GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. COLORADO. 

• Mine office: Gold Hill, Larimer Co., Colo. Lands, 12 claims, with 165' 
shaft and 200^ tunnel. Has an 8-fltamp mill. 
ADA COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Basin, Jefferson Co., Mont. Organized 1904, under laws 
of Montana. H. L. Frank, president. Property is the Ada mine and sundry 
adjoining claims carrying gold, silver and copper. Employs about 20 men. 
ADAEAI MINE. JAPAN. 

Mine office: Adakai-mura, Yatsuka-gori, Izumo, Japan. Country rocks 
are Tertiary shale and sandstone, alternating. Principal vein strikes N. N. E. 
Ores are bomite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, accompanied by native copper 
and sphalerite, with clay gouge. 
ADAMS COPPER CO. * WYOMING. 

Mine office: Saratoga, Carbon Co., Wyo. W. S. Adams, superintendent. 



160 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ADAMS COPPER MHONG & REDUCTIOll CO. • COLORADO. 

Office: 513 Cooper Blk., Denver, Colo. Capitalization $800,000, shares 
$1 par. Lands, 7 claims, in Larimer Co., Colo. Copper Coin mine has a 
200' shaft, with steam plant, showing about 4' of copper ore assaying $47.50 
per ton in value on the 200^ level. Company b said to be in good shape 
financially. 

ADDIE COPPER MmiNG CO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former address in Denver. 

ADELAIDE STAR MINES, LTD. NEVADA. 

Offices; 33, Renfield St., Glasgow, Scotland. Mine office: Golconda, 
Humboldt Co., Nev. P. Coats, chairman; G. Cuthbert, secretary pro tem; 
Glasgow & Western Exploration Co., Ltd., general managers; Otto Stallman, 
superintendent; J. Farren, mine superintendent. Capital, £350,000. Lands, 
319 acres, including the Adelaide mine in the Humboldt district, and the 
Star mine in White Pine county, also a 170-acre millsite. Owns a 12-mile 
railroad from mines to Golconda. Ores carry copper, gold and silver. Has 
steam power and a reduction plant at Golconda that is said to have cost 
about $200,000. Idle since 1901 and property for sale. 

ADIRONDACK MINE. MONTANA. 

Office and mine: Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Jas. Murray, owner. 
Operated under lease by Conroy & Co. Has steam power. Main shaft 
about 500^ deep. 

ADMIRAL MINE. WYOMING. 

Supposed to be located in vicinity of Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. 

ADMIRAL GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: Sterling, Kansas. Mine office: Tusas, Rio Arriba Co., N. M. 
Organized 1900, under laws of New Mexico, with capitalization $500,000, 
shares $1 par. C. A. Cooper, president; W. M. Bisbee, secretary; Joe. Rat- 
liflf, superintendent. Lands, 5 claims, area 120 acres, in the Bromide dis- 
trict, showing 3 fissure veins of lO' average width, canning sulphide ores, 
and opened by 3 shafts, deepest 130^. Presumably idle. 

ADVENTURE CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 45 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Greeland, Ontonagon 
Co., Mich. Employs 280 men. Organized 1898, under laws of Michigan, 
with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par; $19 paid in. Transfer agent. 
Old Colony Trust Co., Boston ; registrar, American Loan & Trust Co., Boston. 
Isaac. H. Meserve, president; Wm. R. Todd, secretary and treasurer; W. 
A. O. Paul, assistant secretary and treasurer; C. J. Devereaux, Isaac H. Me- 
serve, John Barker, Wm. R. Todd, Jas. L. Bishop and C. D. Hanchette, 
directors; Samuel Brady, superintendent; Richard Cocking, mining captain; 
S. A. Prince, clerk; Allan Ekldyvean, mill superintendent; A. H. Sawyer, 
engineer. 

Official returns to the state of Michigan, as of date, Jan. 1, 1904, dis- 
close the foUowiog figures: * 



ADVENTURE. 161 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $1,800,000.00 

Amount paid in by conveyance of property to company 250,000.00 

Entire amount invested in real estate 250,000.00 

Amount of personal estai^ 152,314.82 

Amount of unsecured or floating debt 45,640.60 

Amount due corporation 21,914.27 

Calls on capital stock have been as follows: $5 on organization; S3, 
June, 1900; $6, June, 1901; $2, October, 1902; $2, June, 1903; $1 in 1904; 
total, $19, or $1,900,000. Production was 1,380,480 lbs. refined copper 
in 1904. 

Lands include the old Adventure and Hilton tracts, in one body to the 
eastward, and the Knowlton tract lying a mile southwest, with total area 
of 1,696.22 acres on the mineral belt, also a niiilsite on Lake Superior. The 
mineral lands are located in Sections 35 and 36, Town 51 North, Range 38 
West, and in Sections 1 and 2 of Town 50 North, Range 39 West. The Toltec 
and part of the Belt lie on the north; Aztec on the east; Toltec and Mass 
on the south, and the Mass on the west of the main tract. The Knowlton 
tract has the Mass to the north and east ; Flint Steel to the south and Michi- 
gan to the west, the Ridge mine of the Mass lying between the two Adventure 
tracts. The village of Greeland lies on the northwestern comer of the 
Adventure's principal tract and the village of Maple Grove, controlled by 
the company, is near the mine. 

The old Adventure mine was opened in 1850, along a line of old pits show- 
ing prehistoric mining. The largest annual production was 116 tons, 1 ,94 1 lbs. 
in 1857. After closed by its owners the old workings were tributed for years, 
with good results, being notably rich in silver. The Hilton, or Ohio mine, 
was opened on the Mass lode in 1863, but never was worked vigorously. The 
Knowlton was opened in 1853. These three old mines made 974 tons, 1,173 
lbs. of refined copper previous to their merging as the Adventure Consolidated. 
The present company began work Nov. 1, 1898, and has opened a large 
mine and equipped it with a surface plant of modem design and great capa- 
city. The Adventure has ajseries of 7 parallel copper-bearing beds in a cross- 
fection of about 1,200^ and these, coupled with the existence of Adventure 
Bluff, a SOO' hill, have caused the opening of the Adventure by adits as well 
as shafts. The "South Range," or ''Evergreen Belt'' of Ontonagon county 
comprises a belt of bedded traps, amygdaloids and conglomerates, 7 of these 
amygdaloids carrying copper on the Adventure tract. These lodes from 
north to south are as follows: 

(1.) Knowlton. This is the bed on which the shafts of the mine are 
opened and apparently is the richest, running from 4' to 28' width, with 
an average of about lO'. It carries epidote, chlorite, prehnite and the mine- 
rals conunonly found associated with these in the Keweenawan series. A 
considerable part of the product is heavy copper. 

(2.) Merchants. About lO' wide, underlying the Knowlton bed at a 
distance of 20^ to dS' ; is a stamp lode, but has produced masses up to 500 



162 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

• 
pounds weight, and is opened by crosscuts, with considerable drifting, but 
is not so good a bed as the Knowlton. 

(3.) Mass. A continuation of the same lode found at the Ridge mine 
of the Mass Consolidated. Averages W width and lies KX/ south of the 
Merchants. Carries no heavy copper and but little stamp-rock. In the 
Hilton, to the east, the Mass lode shows good rock, as it also does in the 
Knowlton to the southwest. 

(4.) North Butler. Lies nearly 10(y south of the Mass, and carries 
some copper, but never has been tested sufficiently to prove its real worth. 

(5.) Butler, or Champio^. Is the most vigorous amygdaloid in the 
property, ranging 12' to 50' in width, with an average of about 20^, and lies 
nearly 200^ south of the North Butler. Ranges in value from very rich to 
absolutely worthless, carrying masses to a considerable extent, but in pro- 
portion to its great width gives but a small amount of stamp-rock, though 
fine stopes are opened occasionally, and always has been noted for its rich- 
ness in silver. This amygaldoid apparently has a felsite base, and chemically 
and mineralogically is unlike the parallel strata on either side. A large amount 
of opening work has been done on this lode, and the present showing is some- 
wliaC encouraging. The Butler next to the Knowlton has the most devel- 
opment of any of the seven parallel beds of the mine. 

(6.) Ogima. Lies about lOCy south of the Butler, and has been but 
little opened on the Adventure, but shows some good stamp-jock. 

(7.) Evergreen. Lies about 25(y south of the foot wall of the Ogima, 
and averages about lO^ width. Has produced considerable copper at ad- 
joining mines. The Evergreen has been tapped by a crosscut from the 
sixth level of No. 3 shaft, showing encouraging copper ground. The Ever- 
green is the best lode at the Mass mine, but has been given little attention at 
the Adventure. 

The cupriferous lodes of the Evergreext belt are notoriously bunchy, 
being exceedingly rich in spots and entirely worthless at other points. The 
strike of the parallel lodes of the Adventure is N. 73° E. on the main tract, 
where operations are now in progress, and the "shafts are sunk at an angle of 
45°. There are 4 tunnels and 4 shafts, latter, except No 1 in the Merchant 
lode, being sunk on the Knowlton lode at 45°, and numbered from west 
to east. No. 1 is a 3-compartment shaft, 7x18' inside of timbers, 765' deep 
and idle. Surface equipment includes a 38x59' steel boiler-house with three 
500-h. p. Burt boilers ; a 59x59' steel engine-house having an Allis-Chalmers 
double-cone duplex direct-acting hoist with 24x60* cylinders, capable of 
raising a 12-ton load from a depth of 5,000' on an incline of 45° at a speed 
of 2,000' per minute, and a 38x65' steel compressor-house, with a 60-drill 
Rand-Corliss air-compressor of high efficiency. No. 1 shaft-house and rock- 
' house are separate buildings, 200' apart. 

No. 2 is a 2-compartment shaft 6x12' inside of timbers and was dis- 
continued at depth of 190' and hoist removed. 

No. 3 is a 3-compartment shaft 7x18' inside of timbers, 865' deep, with 
a 42x84' combination steel shaft-rockhouse 116' high. The 59x59' engine- 



ADVENTURE— AETNA . 163 

house is of wood, with a duplicate of the hoist at No. 1. Thb is the principal 
shaft of the mine. 

No. 4 is a development shaft with temporary equipment, 2,500' east 
of No. 3, and has reached but slight depth. The easterly shafts are showing 
encouraging ground. Crosscuts have been driven fiouth from both shafts 
1 and 2 to intercept the parallel lodes. 

Water for boilers b taken from a stream danmied near No. 1 shaft. The 
mine has a complete electric light and power plant, and a system of electric 
haulage in the Butler tunnel. The principal mine buildings are sheathed 
with steel and painted, and the mine location is an exceptionally handsome 
one. Protection from fire is secured by water mains, fed from a reser- 
voir on Adventure Bluff. The mine is reached by a spur of the Copper 
Range Railroad. 

The stampmill is at Edgemere, on Lake Superior, put in commission 
Sept. 22, 1902. The mill, built and equipped by the Allis-Chalmers Com- 
pany, is 135x217', of steel on stone foundations with 69x72' boiler-house 
and 38x72^ pump-house. Equipment includes 3 Allis-Chalmers heads, fitted 
with Pamall-Krause mortars having 11-16^ openings in discharge screens, 
with two horizontal revolving screens having 5-16^ openings for each head. 
The stamp pistons are automatically rotated, equalizing wear on the shoes. 
From the revolving screens of the heads the crushed rock goes to the separator 
jigs, 24 for each head, or 72 to the mill, thence to 36 finisher jigs. There 
are round slime-tables, 3 Overstrom and 3 Wilfley concentrators and Hunt^ 
ington mills for the raggings. The rock bins have a storage capacity of 
4,500 tons. Coal is delivered from trestles to boilei^rooms by gravity, 
through chutes. The pump b a 16,000,000-gallon Riedler, drawing its sup- 
ply from Lake Superior through a tunnel extending 1,200^ under the bed of 
the lake. Miscellaneous improvements at the millsite include an office, 
smithy, machine shop, dwellings, etc. There b 8' to 12' of clear water ofif- 
shore, permitting the landing of cargoes from scows, in good weather. 

Mr. Brady took charge on April 1, 1904, and the improvement in the 
proepects of the mine since that date has been little short of marvelous. In 
1903 the company lost $80,279 on operating expenses, plus S61,611 expended 
for construction work. At the close of 1904 the property is nearly or quite 
paying all expenses. High water mark in production was reached in June, 
1903, with an output of 155 tons of mineral, after which the product declined 
steadily until April, 1904, when it was but 63 tons. Under Mr. Brady's 
careful and sagacious management the production has increased steadily, 
reaching 120 tons in December, 1904. Not only has the production been 
doubled, but reserves have been increased each month. Two heads at the 
mill are operated, days only. It b too early as yet to say that the Adventure 
is out of the woods, but its prospects are fair, whereas one year ago they 
scarcely could have been worse. 
AETNA MINE. MICHIGAN. 

Address: care of W. K. Prudden, Lansing, Mich. In Keweenaw Co., 
liich. Produced 70 tons, 881 lbs. refined copper, 1863-1873; since idle. 



164 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

AETNA GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. J. A. Kauffman, 
superintendent. Has auriferous and argentiferous copper ores, with small 
steam plant. 
AETNA MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Bonanza, Saguache, Co., Colo. 
AETNA MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: care of R. H. Fehland, Merrill, Wis. Mine office: Riverside, 
Carbon Co., Wyo. Employs 9 men. Julius Thielman, secretary; Roger 
Daniels, superintendent. Organized under laws of Wyoming, with capital- 
ization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 7 claims, area 140 acres, in the 
Upper Plate district, showing 4 veins of 3' to 6' width, as fissures and con- 
tact veins between granite and quartzite, carrying chalcopyrite, bomite 
and chalcocite estimated to average 25% copper, and developed by shaft 
of 200' and tunnels of 125' and 380^. Has a 40-h. p. steam plant. Property 
considered promising, and management honest. 
AFORTUNADA COPPER MINES, LTD. SPAIN. 

# _ 

Offices: 10, Norfolk St., London, W. C, Eng. Mine office: Figueras, 
Gerona, Spain. Hon. J. A. de Grey, chairman. Capitalization, £75,000; 
debentures, £10,000 authorized, £5,300 issued. Lands, 69 hectareas, area 
about 175 acres, leased from Spanish government at annual rental of £8 17s. 
and 2% royalty on gross production. 
AFRICAN & AUSTRALIAN CO., LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: 257, Winchester House, London, E. C, Eng. J. B. Palmer, 
chairman; H. J. Dixon, secretary. Is the third reconstruction of the West 
Australian Mining Co. and Victoria Copper Co., with capitalization £120,000, 
shares 2s. par. Holds a stock interest in the Copper Selection S3mdicate, 
Ltd. 
AFRICAN NOBLE DUKE GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA^ 

Office and mine: P. O. Box 1351, Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. George W. 
Vandermark, president; Joseph Hughes, vice-president. 
AFTERTHOUGHT MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Property sold to Great Western Gold Co. 
AFTON MINING & SMELTING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: Helena, Mont. Organized 1897, under laws of Washington, 
with capitalization $60,000, shares $500 par, $70 paid in. T. J. Davies, 
president; F. M. Dudley, secretary. Lands, 3 claims, area 44 acres, in Colo- 
rado Gulch, Lewis & Clarke county, Montana, showing 3 fissure veins, one 
with an average width of 75', carrying sulphide ore and small quantities 
of oxides and carbonates having an estimated average tenor of 2%. Develop- 
ment is by 4 shallow shafts and a 730' tunnel. Presumably idle. 
AGASSIZ MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 92 State St., Boston, Mass. Letter returned unclaimed from 
former mine office, Ray, Pinal Co., Ariz. Organized 1900, with capitaliza- 
tion $1,250,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 17 claims, also 40 acres of placer 
gold property on the Gila River, near Ray. Idle. 



. A6ATE HARBOR— AHMEEK, 166 

AGATE HARBOR MIirE. MICHIGAN. 

Address : care of John H. Gatiss, owner, E^le River, Mich. Has been 
prospected to some extent, but never was a producer. 
AGORDO MIHE. ITALY. 

A small copper mine in the province of Venetia, Italy. 
AGUA BLANCA MIlfE. IIEXICO. 

Controlled by the Dwight Fumess Co. A partly developed property, 
about ten hours' ride (horseback), northwest of Autlan, Jalisco, Mexico. 
AGUASCALIENTES METAL CO. MEXICO. 

Office and mine: Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. Employs 350 men. 
Dr. Chas. L. Bennett, president ; Kuno Doerr, vice-president ; Victor Hunton, 
secretary; Albert Doerr, general manager. Organized Dec. 31, 1901, under 
laws of Mexico, with capitalization $35,000, Mexican, shares $500 par. Is 
operated as a close corporation. Lands, 50 pertenencias, area about 125 
acres, in the Asientos and Tepezalil districts, showing 5 ore bodies, of which 
3 are being developed, these having average width of 5' and carrying average 
values of 5% copper, 8 oz. silver and 0.2 oz. gold per ton, in oxide, carbonate 
and sulphide ores. The Merced-Orito mine, 8 kilometers, west of Cobre 
Station on the Mexican Union Railway, has shafts of 250^ and 300' and 
the San Simon y Anexas have a 300^ tunnel. Has a 110-h. p. De Laval 
steam turbine, electric hoist and Cameron electric triplex pump, at the 
Merced-Orito. The Mexican Central railroad reaches the mines. Output 
averages 1,250 tons of ore monthly and is sold the Aguascalientes smelter 
of the American Smelting <& Refining Co. Production in 1904 was 
1,000,000 lbs. fine copper, 100,000 oz. silver and 1,500 oz. gold. 
MIHA AGUILA. MEXICO. 

In the Sierra Ponces, Chihuahua, Mexico. White & Duran, operators. 
EUs argentiferous copper ore. 
GEWERKSCHAFT AGNESENHtJTTE. GERMANY. 

Has sundry mines of iron and copper pyrites in Hessen-Nassau, Germany. 
AHMEEK MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 199 Washington St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Kearsarge, 
Keweenaw Co., Mich. Organized 1880, under laws of Michigan, with capital- 
ization $1,250,000, shares $25 par; $17 per share paid in, of which $10 was 
by transfer of property and $7 in cash, last call, $5 per share, having been 
made Feb. 5, 1904. A. S. Bigelow, president ; W. J. Ladd, secretary and 
treasurer; Wm. E. Pamall, superintendent; Wm. J. Uren, assistant super- 
intendent. Lands, 920 acres, lying west and south of the Mohawk. Was 
set off in 1880, by the Seneca company, to work the Kearsarge or Houghton 
conglomerate, and under the management of Capt. John Daniell sunk 2 
shafts in this bed, which averages about 70^ width, with 3 pay-streaks, of 
2^ to 3' width each, aggregating 7' width, each carrying copper in good quan- 
tities, but not payable, o^ing to great width of partially or wholly barren 
rock. Resumed work December 2, 1902, and exchanged 11.188 acres with 
the Allouez in July, 1903, for an equal area, this giving each property a better 
arrangement of lands for development. The Kearsarge lode was located 



166 fHE COPPER tJA^bbdOK. 

by diamond drill in the spring of 1903, and immediately opened by a 137' 
crosscut sent from the bottom of an old IOC vertical shaft. The lode was 
found both wide and strong, canrjring a high grade of stamp-rock and heavy 
copper, fully equal in appearance to almost any other opening on the wonder- 
ful Kearsarge lode. The crosscut also showed finely disseminated copper 
in the footwall for 20' before reaching the lode. Drifting was begun when 
the lode was reached and an incline shaft, known as No. 1, was holed through 
to surface. 

The mine is opened by 2 shafts, 1,450' apart. Owing to the configura- 
tion of the tract, there is no room on the outcrop for further shafts. No. 1, 
the southerly shaft, 589' deep, has drifts opened on the first and third levels, 
with a plat cut for the fourth level. No. 1 has a temporary shaft-rockhouse, 
with one crusher. No. 2 shaft, 455' deep, has a 1,500' hoist with 2-ton skip. 
The machinery plant of the mine is of an exclusively temporary nature 
and will be replaced during 1905-1906, by permanent buildings, boilers, 
hoists, etc. The mine has 6 and 8-drill air compressors, merely adequate 
for present requirements. 

The mine is very rich, as richness goes in the low-grade Lake Superior 
district. No. 1 shaft, which will be cut off by the side lines of the Allouez 
at a depth of slightly less than 3,000', apparently is the richer of the two, 
but No. 2 is by no means a lean shaft. In sinking these shafts concrete haa 
been substituted for wooden sleepers. These were moulded in place upon 
the natural anchorage of rough rock, cores being left for rods to bolt the 
rails to the stringers. This reduces the fire hazard and the concrete ties 
are cheaper than those of wood. It is quite certain, however, tliat the con- 
crete ties will mean considerably heavier wear upon both rails and wheels, 
this being the experience of railroads that use rigid concrete or metal ties. 

Considerable diamond drilling was done early in 1904, and a complete 
geological cross-section of the tract secured thereby. Rock shipments were 
begun from No. 1 shaft on April 21, 1904, to the Tamarack mill, rock sent 
being from accumulated stock piles and from rock broken underground 
in opening work. Shipments from No. 2 were begun about three montlis 
later, and the stock-piles were cleaned up in November. Just before the close 
of 1904 shipments were changed to the Isle Royale mill, as the Tamarack 
no longer had surplus milling facilities. The production secured during 
the last 7 months of 1904, ran 20 to 25 tons of mineral monthly, the rock 
yielding, with very scanty selection, about 30 lbs. mineral per ton, equal 
to about 22 lbs. refined copper. The plan of mining has been changed to 
permit a larger production and instead of ordinary drifts of 7x7' the mine 
now carries drift-stopes 10' to 18' in height and the full width of the lode, 
this furnishing about 4,000 tons of rock monthly, making about 60 tons of 
75% mineral, worth about $13,500, which goes some distance toward paying 
for development work. 

The Ahmeek makes a considerably better showing than the Wolverine 
made, upon the same lode, at a similar stage of development. Beyond 
question the Ahmcck is one of the future great mines of Lake Superior 



AlN-BARBARr-ALASKA. 167 

COMPAGlfiB DES MHIES D'ADI-BARBAIL ALGERIA. 

Offices: 39, Rue Dulong, Paris, France. Mine is in the department of 
Constamtine, Algeria, having several veins of chalcop3rnte assaying 8% to 
15% copper, associated with sphalerite and galena. Idle since 1899. 
AJAZ GROUP. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

On Valdes Island, Nanaimo district, B. C. A prospect from which 30 
tons of ore yielded 25% copper and $6 gold and silver per ton. 
AJAX MINE. MOIVTAHA. 

Mine office: Fox, Beaverhead Co., Mont. Noyes & Morse, owners; W. 
B. Stanchfield, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. 
Has steam power and 5-stamp mill. 
AJAX MnmiG CO. XTTAH. 

Office: Salt Lake City, Utah. Thos. Weir, president; John M. Burt, 
secretary. Property is operated by lessees under contract with management 
of the property. For the year ending Oct. 1, 1904, production was 514 tons 
of silver-lead ore and 3,552 tons of second-class copper ore carrying values 
of $10 to $15 per ton. Main shaft is 1,000^ deep. 
AJO COPPER MOURTAnr MINES CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 237 Crossley Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. Mine office: Gila Bend, 
Maricopa Co., Ariz. Chas. Henderson, president; O. F. Melden, secretary; 
Anthony Bray, superintendent. Capitalization $1,000,000. Holds the Ajo 
mines, including the Shotwell mine in the Ajo Basin, 120 miles south of Tuc- 
son and 170 miles southeast of Yuma, under bond and lease from Thos. Doak 
'&. Son, owners. Property includes antiguas worked by Spaniards and Mex- 
icans and has produced considerable rich copper ore, including native copper, 
shipped to Swansea and San Francisco for reduction. The Shotwell mine 
has a ten-stamp mill and 2 Woodbury concentrators. Property is rich, 
but handicapped by lack of adequate transportation facilities. 
AK-SAR-BEN COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. A. H. Crow, superinten- 
dent. Property has a strong gossan capping of hematite and limonite, and 
an 80^ shaft, with small steam plant. 
ALABASTER CAVE GROUP. CALIFORNIA. 

Owned by Holmes Lime Co., San Francisco, Cal. Lands, 180 acres, 
7 mUes east of Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal. Vein traceable 6 miles, with 
strong gossan outcrop. Ore said to average 4% copper, from pay-streak 
of 3' to 8' in contact vein \2f toW wide, between limestone and slate. 
ALADDIN & CAPE NOME MINES. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Clinton, Missoula Co., Mont. Idle at last accounts. 
ALAMO COPPER COMPANY. ARIZONA. 

Said to have copper claims near Ajo, Arizona, but neither claims nor 
company located. 
ALASKA COPPER & COAL CO. ALASKA. 

Office: 146-45 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Was organized originally 
as Alaska Copper Co., but changed name to present title to avoid confusion 
with Judge MeUen's company of the same name, at Coppermount. Organized 



168 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

under laws of West Virginia, vvith capitalization $3,500,000, shares $10 par. 
Henry O. Havemeyer, Jr., president; Ernest Truslow, secretary and treasurer. 
Property is known officially as the Kennicutt group, but is more com- 
monly known as the Bonanza group, located 180 miles by trail northeast 
of Valdez, Alaska. Although this property is claimed by the Copper River 
company, and also by the Chittna Exploration Co., patents to the 3,000 
acres comprising this tract have been issued by the United States govern-> 
ment to the j^aska Copper & Coal Co., whose title apparently is perfect. 
At last accounts from Alaska, exploratory work was in progress and the 
property was guarded by armed men, acting under instructions to prevent 
all trespassing. 

This property, by common consent of all who have seen it, including 
officials of the United States Geological Survey and other competent obser- 
vers, is one of the most promising to be seen anywhere, and bids fair to make 
an exceptionally rich and large mine. Management of the company is 
excellent. 
ALASKA COPPER CO. PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND, ALASKA. 

Office: 430 Globe Blk., Seattle, Wash. Mine office: Coppermount, 
Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Organized 1900, under laws of Washington, 
with capitalization $5,000,000, shares $25 par. Henjy W. Mellen, president 
and general manager; Chas. R. Reynolds, vice-president and superintendent; 
Frank T. Hunter, secretary and purcliasing agent ; D. D. Stewart, mine super- 
intendent; J. H. Cready, smelter superintendent; Frank B. Seeley, engineer; 
O. Gerle, chemist. Lands, 18 patented claims, area 360 acres, also 18 patented 
millsites, area 80 acres, giving 1^ miles frontage on Copper Harbor, a land- 
locked haven with deep water. Lands are on Copper Mountain, rising to a 
height of 3,600' directly from the harbor. Property is estimated to carry 
20,000,000^ of marketable timber, and actuates all machinery by water- 
power, partially developed by a 22^ steel pipe line of 1,900^ from Reynolds 
creek to the power plant, where there are 2 water-whecds of 300-h. p., total 
available power being estimated at 2,800 h. p. 

Lands carry 3 veins, of which the Brooklyn is 10' to 30' wnde, showing 
chalcopyrite assaying 3% to 34% copper. The New York vein is a contact 
between porphyry and limestone, 10' to 60' wide and 500 tons of selected 
ore therefrom gave smelter returns of 16.9% to 29.06% copper, being the 
richest copper ore ever produced on the Paciiic coast. The principal vein 
is the Indiana, in limestone near a granite intrusion, with extreme width 
of 280', showing an average of above 5% copper and $2 gold per ton, with 
occasional assays running up to 25% copper and $6 gold per ton. Has a 
150' shaft, with tunnels of 200', 430' and 500', showing oxide and carbonate 
ores, with a little native copper near surface, and sulphides at depth, on the 
New York vein. Mining is planned to be done mainly by tunnel, giving 
cheap extraction. Surface plant includes tramway, hoists, air-compressor, 
sawmill, and necessary mine buildings and dwellings. 

A 250- ton Allis-Chalmers furnace is installed and the smelter should 
be blown in about March, 1905, barring accidents. The buildings are planned 



ALASKA— ALBION. m 

for a 600-ton plant and designed with a view to doubling the capacity later 
when desired. 

A large amount of ore, estimated at $250,000 in value, is at the smelter 
awaiting treatment and a considerable production should be secured 
during 1905. The management of the company is excellent, both as to 
honesty and capacity and the mine itself is one of exceptional, promise, bid- 
ding fair to make one of the largest copper producers of the Pacific Coast 
within the next few years. 
ALASKA INDUSTRIAL CO. ALASKA. 

Office: 11. Broadway, New York. Mine office: Sulzer, Prince of Wales 
Island, Alaska. Employs 26 men. Hon. John P. Jones, president ; Robert 
A. Lawrie, vice-president; Wm. Leavitt Haines, secretary; Chas. A. Sulzer, 
general manager; C. B. Ferguson, superintendent; Maj. Henry G. Catlin, 
engineer. Organized 1899, under laws of New Jersey, with capitalization 
$1,000,000, shares $1 par; $600,000 unissued. Company has no liabilities. 
Annual meeting, second Monday in November. Lands, 60 patented claims, 
area 1,200 acres, also 60-acre millsite, 80-acre townsite and miscellaneous 
timber lands, giving total landed area of 2,200 acres. Has 7 wide contact 
veins, between granite and limestone, said to give average assays of 6% 
copper, 3 oz. silver, traces of lead and $3 gold per ton, from oxide, carbonate 
and sulphide ores. Has shafts of 25^, 30^ and 60', with 43 open cuts and 5 
tunnels, longest 210^, on the Jumbo group; tunnels of 29' and 132^ on the 
Green Monster claims, and a 138' tunnel on the Mt. Vesta claim. A water 
power of about 1,000-h. p. is available for development. Has necessary 
mine ' buildings and dwellings, sawmill and a general store, with tidewater 
at the mine. At close of 1904, was completing a combination arial and 
surface tram, and installing an air compressor plant on the Jumbo group. 
Company hopes to be in physical condition to begin regular ore shipments 
by spring of 1905, having developed about 200,000 tons of high-grade chal- 
copyrite. Both management and property considered good. 
ALASKA MmiNG CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Silver City, Juab Co., Utah. 
ALASKA SMELTHIG & REFHIING CO. ALASKA. 

Office: care of Samuel Silverman, general manager, Spokane, Wash. 
Mine office: Coppermount, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Is an auxiliary 
corporation of the Brown-Alaska company. Paul Johnson, smelter super- 
intendent. Has a small but complete smelting plant, erected 1903-1904, 
and plans doing a general custom smelting business. 
ALBERRI GOLD & COPPER CO., LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Albemi, Vancouver Island, B. C. Prop- 
erty is the Thistle group, on Douglass Mountain, showing chalcopyrite assay- 
ing up to 1 oz. gold per ton. Idle at last accounts. 
ALBION COPPER MIlfllfG CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Sunday, Granite Co., Mont., Christian Reichert president; 
James M. Hinkle, secretary. Lands, opened by tunnels, show 3 veins, carry- 
ing copper, gold, silver and lead ores of concentrating grade. 



170 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

ALBION MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office : care of Hatfield & Sons, Salt Lake City, Utah. Property b the 
Albion group in Little Cottonwood Canon, Salt Lake county, which is said 
to have yielded about one mililon dollars worth of ore under former owner- 
ship. Tunnel is being driven to drain old workings and open new ground. 
Has water power. 
ALDA COPPER MINES, LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: Dashwood House, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Cabrales, 
Asturias, Spain. Henry Higgins, chairman; S. T. H. llenwick, secretary. 
Company is in debt and another reorganization is proposed. Property 
includes 7 copper mines, one coal mine, and a 30-ton smelter. Has shipped 
200 tons of 30% gray ore from the Don Fulano mine, which shows a 6' vein. 
ALDA MINING & SMELTING CO., LTD. SPAIN. 

Reorganized as Alda Copper Mines, Ltd. 
SOCIETE MINIERE D'ALDEIRE. SPAIN. 

Mine office: Aldeire, Guadix, Granada, Spain. 
COMPANHIA MINEIRA ALEMTEJANA. PORTUGAL. 

Office: 4, Praca dos Remolares, Lisbon, Portugal. Mine office: Beja, 
Alemtejo, Portugal. Waldemar d'Orey, superintendent. Property is a 
group of old mines in the San Domingos district, showing two ore bodies oc- 
curring in schists, the selected product giving about 25% copper from carbon- 
ate and sulphide ores. Property was discovered and operated by the Romans. 
ALESSANDRO COPPER MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 35 Union St., New Haven, Conn. Mine office: Silver City, 
Grant Co., N. M. Joseph C. Kelly, president; Edw. Parkhurst, secretary; 
Lucius P. Deming, manager. Organized April, 1900, under laws of 
West Virginia, with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. Debentures, 
$100,000 authorized at 6%; issued, $5,000. Lands, 50 claims, area 1,000 
acres, also 5-acre millsite, in the White Signal, Burro and Anderson districts. 
Is developing 9 ore bodies, occurring as lenses, or impregnations in the neigh- 
borhood of porphyry, these giving average assay values of 8% copper and 
5 oz. to 40 oz. silver per ton, principally from carbonate and sulphide ores. 
Has 9 shafts, from 40^ to 225' in depth, also 9 tunnels, from 15' to 400^ in 
length, with total underground openings of 1,300^. Has steam power, 
necessary mine buildings, 50-ton concentrator and leaching plant partly 
built. Idle since early in 1904, but hopes to resume work soon. Company 
said to be free from debt. 
ALGOL MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office : Spenceville, Nevada Co., Cal. Opened circa 1865, reopened 
1899. Has a 50^ vein with Tf to lO' pay-streak, opened by two shafts, each 
120^. Ores are cupnte, malachite and azurite, also native copper and a 
little gold, giving average smelter returns of 20% copper. Has steam power. 
ALGOMA COMMERCIAL CO., LTD. ONTARIO. 

Office: Sault Ste Marie, Ont. C. M. Boss, superintendent. Property 
IS the Elsie, Wilmot and other mines, 4 miles from Sudbury, Algoma, Ontario. 
Is closely allied with the Lake Superior Power Co. 



ALGOMA—ALLIGA TOR. 171 

ALGOMA & CALUMET DEVELOPMENT CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Capitalization $400,000, shares $10 par; $40,000 
issued. Lands are in Algoma, Ontario. 
ALGONQUIN COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office : 177 Broadway, New York. Henry H. Adams, secretary. Organ- 
ized under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000. 
AUCANTE GROUP. COLORADO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Wortman, Lake Co., Colo. • Ores carry 
gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc. Has steam power and 35-ton concen- 
trator. Idle. 
MINA EL ALICANTE. MEXICO. 

Mine office : Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mex. M. Dolores Aguirre y Ca., owners ; 
Vicente Banavides, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and cop- 
per. Employs about 50 men. 
AUCE MINE. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. An old and once highly 
profitable silver producer, which may be reopened for copper values. 
ALICE GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

OfBce: 204 Empire State Bldg., Spokane, Wash. Mine office: Blue 
Creek, Stevens Co., Wash. Oiiganized 1896, under laws of Washington, 
with capitalization $150,000, shares 10c. par. J. F. Nylander, president; 
W. M. Higley, secretary and treasurer; Benj. F. Parker, general manager. 
Lands, 11 claims, area 225 acres, in the Chewelah district, showing 4 fissure 
veins and lenses, latter of considerable dimensions and carrying sulphide 
ores giving good assay values in gold and copper, opened by two 200^ shafts 
and 2 short tunnels. 
MINA DE ALJUSTREL. PORTUGAL. 

Mine office: Aljustrel, Portugal. Owned by a Belgian company. Has 
chaloopyrite, associated with iron pyrites, giving 1% to 7% copper, and 
is a small but steady producer. 
ALLEGHENY MINING CO. .NEW JERSEY. 

Organized 1901, to work old copper mines in Pahaquarry township, 
near Delaware Water Gap, Warren County, New Jersey. 
ALLEN MINE. OREGON. 

Office: care of Chas. d'Autremont, Jr., Duluth, Minn. Mine is located 
on the Rogue River, Oregon, and ore carries good values in gold and silver. 
ALLENDE HERMANOS y CA. SPAIN. 

Mine office: Elizondo, Navaria, Spain. Don Pedro Allende, superin- 
tendent. 
ALLIANCE COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Absorbed by Iconoclast Consolidate Mines Co. 
ALLIGATOR & TIGER LEASING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Red Cliff, Eagle Co., Colo. A co-partnership. A. S. Little, 
manager. Lands, 2 claims, showing massive bomite and chalcopyrite in 
fissure veins, traversing granite, ores assaying 15% copper, 5% lead, 50 oz. 
eilyer and $10 gold per ton. 



172 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

ALL0UE2 mNUVG CO. MICHIGAN- 

Office: 60 State St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: AUouez, Keweenaw 
Co., Mich. Organized 1859, reincorporated 1889, under Michigan laws, with 
capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par, $22.25 paid in. New stock issue 
of 20,000 shares was divided pro rata among shareholders of record, June 
1, 1901. Last assessment, $3 per share, levied 1904. Only $2.75 per share 
remains callable, but capitalization can be increased if necessary, and new 
stock sold, or issued pro rata to shareholders. Annual meeting, second 
Tuesday in March. H. F. Fay, president; Geo. G. Endicott, secretary and 
treasurer; Jas. Chjmoweth, superintendent; H. F. Fay, Godfrey Morse, 
John C. Watson, Stephen R. Dow, Walter L. Frost, H. A. Tucker, Geo. G. 
Endicott and Jas. Chynoweth, directors. 

Official returns to the state of Michigan, as of date Jan. 1, 1904, disclose 
the following figures: 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $1,892,352 . 00 

Entire amount invested in real estate 73,303 . 57 

Amount of personal estate . 89,416 . 32 

Lands are about 3,400 acres all told, of which a compact tract of 640 
acres contains the old AUouez mine proper and the new mine now being 
opened. Areas of 11.188 acres were exchanged between the Allouez and 
Ahmeek, to mutual advantage, in 1903. 

The old mine, opened 1859, is on the Allouez conglonierat-e, a bed under- 
lying the greenstone that is such a noticeable rock stratum in Keweenaw 
county. The conglomerate is 30^ wide in many places, with strike of N. 
39°E, and dip of 38°. Lode averages 0.7% to 1% copper, and is very re- 
fractory under the stamps. There are 3 shafts, deepest about 1,700^. Mining 
was begun actively in 1869, and stopped in 1877, with an exhausted treasury. 
The mine was then leased to Watson & Walls, who made money from it, 
after paying a royalty of one-eighth on gross production. In 1880 the 
company resumed control, to quit once more, financially exhausted, in 1885. 
Watson & Walls took the mine again and once more did well ; the company 
resumed work on its own account for the third time, and again lost money, 
stopping all work in 1892. The old mine has been idle for some years, except 
for exploratory and development work 1898-1900, when a shaft was sunk 
1,200^ on the Osceola lode, and nearly 4,000' of openings secured thereon, 
with indifferent results. The shaft-house at the Osceola shaft has been 
demolished. The stamp-mill, on Hills Creek, has three old-fashioned heads 
and cannot be used for the new mine. The Allouez has made 13,025 tons, 
1,528 lbs. refined copper. 

The present development is on the Kearsarge lode, where a new mine 
is being opened. Thb lode shows extremely well m the North Kearsai^ge^ 
just south of the Allouez, and a half mile to the north on the Ahmeek lands, 
but does not outcrop on the Allouez tract, although underlying the entire 
640 acres, consequently must be opened on the underlay. No. 1 shaft was 
started May 15, 1903, on the extreme southeast comer of the property, and 
should reach the Kearsarge amygdaloid at a depth of approximately 1,40(K 



ALLOUE2—ALMA. 175 

about March 1, 1905. The shaft is sunk at an angle of 80^, changing to 75® 
near the coUar of the shaft, and is planned to take the angle of the lode when 
the bed is cut. The shaft has 3 compartments, with 3-ton skips and hoist 
good for depth of half a mile, and was 1,294' deep at the close of 1904. Owing 
to the exceeding steepness of shaft, only 10® less than vertical, back-rails of 
6x10* timber are set so close to the wheels of the skips that their flanges 
cannot leave the steel rails, the wooden timbers really serving as guides. 
At the change of angle from 80® to about 38® on reaching the lode, a single 
idler with very wide flange will care for the cables passing at either end. 
In order to save pumping charges on surf acS- water entering the mine, a 
gutter has been cut entirely around the shaft, leading to an opening 36' 
long, half winze and half drift, used as a sump from which the water b forked. 
The shaft has a 42x62' steel shaft-rockhouse to have two 18x24' crushers. 

No. 2 shaft, 2,000' northeast of No. 1, was started .late in 1904. Each 
shaft can be sunk to a depth of some 9,500' before reaching the company's 
boundary line. Exceptional progress was made in sinking No. 1 during 
1904, when it was deepened 1,014', which is the record for sinking in the 
Lake Superior district. The depth of the lode is 38® at the North Kear- 
sarge mine, but most unexpectedly is much flatter at the AUouez, hence 
the shaft will cut the lode at a depth of about 1,400', instead of at about 
1,000' as expected. Two drill cores from the lode showed widely divergent 
returns, one being very lean, while the other was phenomenally rich. No 1 
shaft has exceptionally heavy timbering, about 60' of timber and lagging 
being used for each foot of the shaft's length. 

No. 1 shaft has a temporary hoist, but this will be replaced in 1905 by 
a 32x72^ duplex-cylinder Nordberg hoist with an 18' double conical drum. 
Foundations for all mine buildings at No. 1 shaft have been built, and the 
ground filled with about 10' of broken rock, hence superstructures can be 
erected quickly whenever needed. The engine-house is of mine rock, with 
redstone trinmiings. The boiler-house has been extended, and has two 
125-h. p. boilers, with room for 3 more, and has a 120^ self -supported steel 
smoke stack. An old air-compressor from the old mine suffices for present 
requirements, but will be replaced later. 

The mine has a spur-track of the Mineral Range railroad. The Allouez 
can have the use of one head at the Centennial mill when needed, and as 
this will be compounded it can treat up to about 700 tons daily. The Allouez 
should have 12 to 15 drifts under way before the close of 1905, and if these 
are carried as drift-stopes, can supply considerable stamp rock. 

All improvements are of the most substantial nature, and all work is 
planned with an eye to exacting requirements in the future. The Allouez, 
because of the magnificent mines opened on the same lode upon either side, 
cannot be regarded as an experiment, but must be considered an assured 
mine with a great future. 
ALMA COPPER MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Ofiice: Des Moines, la. Mine office: Carbo, Ures,Sonora, Mex. Abner 
Graves, general manager; Nelson D. Graves, superintendent. Lands, 747 



174 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

acres, in the Ures district, showing auriferous, argentiferous and somewhat 
bismuthiferous copper ores, in the forms of malachite, azurite, chrysocolla, 
cuprite and melaconite, assaying up to 37% copper and $13 gold per ton. 
Has gasoline power, 
ALMA GOLD MUHNG CO. COLORADO. 

Office: Idaho Springs, Clear Creek Co., Colo. J. J. May, supt. Ores 
carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power and employs about 20 men. 
ALMA MINE. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Laido, B. C. 
ALMADO & TIRITO CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. MEXICO. 

See Negociacion Minera de Clemente Ybarra. 
SOCIEDAD MINERA DE ALMANZORA. SPAIN. 

Office: care of Don Camilo Bilarge, agent, Javier Sanz, 4, Almeria, Spain. 
Property includes sundry copper mines in Almeria, idle at last accounts. 
ALMEDA MINING CO. OREGON. 

Office: 414 Abington Bldg., Portland, Ore. Mine office: Galice, Jose- 
phine Co., Ore. Employs 12 men. O. M. Crouch, president; R. C. Kinney, 
secretary and treasurer; John F. Wickham, general manager. Organized 
Sept. 17, 1900, under laws of Oregon, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares 
$1 par. Lands, 7 claims, area 140 acres, also 5-acre millsite and 30 acres 
miscellaneous lands, in tlie Galice district, showing a contact vein between 
porphyry and slate said to be 107' wide and traceable 2,300^, giving average 
assays of 3% copper and $4.50 gold per ton, with traces of silver and lead, 
from chalcopynte, developed by 8 tunnels, longest 310', having 970' of under- 
ground openings. Was originally worked to slight depth for free gold, circa 
1860-1870. 
ALMERIA QUICSISILVER & COPPER CO., LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: 17, Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow, Scotland. Mine office: 
Berja, Almeria, Spain. W. D. Gillies, chairman; W. G. Millar, secretary. 
Capital, nominal, £45,000, shares 6s. par; issued, £38,695. Lands, 1,100 
acres, including 4 old mines, carrying ores of quicksilver and copper, in 
process of development. Also has a quicksilver smelter at Cistoras, Granada. 
ALMOLOYA MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 305 Trust Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Baca, Ramal 
de Parral, Chihuahua, Mex. Employs 150 men. Organized 1903, under 
laws of Arizona with capitalization $2,000,000, shares, $1 par. N. O. 
Bagge, president; I. B. Newton, secretary; D. W. Shanks, general man- 
ager; Los Angeles Trust Company, registrar and trustee. Lands, 57 
pertenencias, area 148 acres, near the famous Cigarrero mine, in the Sierra 
de Almoloya, an isolated mountain range on the Parral branch of the Mexican 
Central railroad. Is sinking 3 two-compartment vertical shafts, planned 
for depths of 300', 500' and 1,000' and is driving an 800' tunnel. Ores carry 
gold, silver, lead and copper. Has gasoline and electric power and plans 
installing a new 300-h. p. electric plant. Management considered good and 
property prombiug. 



ALPS—ALTENS. 175 

ALPS imilllG CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Central City, Gilpin Co., Colo. James Williams, superin- 
tendent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power. 
ALSACIA DEVELOPHEUT CO. MEXICO. 

Office: care of Chas. F. Wren, secretary, Bisbee, Ariz. R. L. Whaley, 
president. Lands are in the Ajo mountains, Arizpe district, Sonora, Mexico, 
opened by 2 shafts, with about 1,200' of imderground development showing 
silver copper ores, giving average assays o^ about $25 per ton. Work sus- 
pended August, 1904, owing to wrangle among shareholders. Property 
regarded as promising. 
ALTA-IDAHO GOLD & COPPER MUlIirG CO. IDAHO. 

Office: care of J. M. Nuss, Nescopeck, Pa. 
ALTA-PERUYIAK MIlfllfG & MILLIHG CO. UTAH. 

Office: Springville, Utah. Mine office: Alta, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Or- 
ganized 1904, with capitalization $200,000, shares $1 par. FJ J. McAuliflfe, 
president; T. R. Kelley, secretary and treasurer. Lands, 4 claims, in the 
Little Cottonwood district. 
ALTA-QUINCY MHfE. UTAH. 

Mine office: Alta, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Alexander Colbath, superin- 
tendent. Lands are opposite the Columbus Consolidated, opened by tunnel 
cutting a 25' fissure vein with hanging wall paystreak, averaging 11% copper, 
10 oz. silver and $2.80 gold per ton. 
ALTALTA MIllIlfG CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 145 La Salle St., Chicago, lUs. Mine office: Chloride, Mohave 
Co., Ariz. J. F. McBride, president and manager; A. H. Dryden, superin- 
tendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper, precious metals pre- 
dominating in value. Opened by shaft and has gasoline power. Employs 
10 to 12 men and management contemplates installation of a concentrating 
plant. 

altamout mhiing co. new Mexico. 

Office: care of Capt. L. H. Williams, president, Altamont, 111. Lands, 
showing copper ores, are in the Jarilla district, Otero Co., New Mexico. 
KONIGLICHES HUTTENAMT. ALTENAU. GERMANY. 

Office and works: Altenau in Harz, Germany. Is a custom smelting 
plant, treating ores of copper and other metals from the mines of the Hartz. 
ALTENS KOBBERGRUBER. NORWAY. 

Office: care of Sulitelma Aktiebolag, Helsingborg, Sweden. Mine 
office: Kaafjord, Finmarken, Norway. Otto Witt, general manager; P. W. 
Geoige, mining engineer; Th. Boche-Wiig, concentrating engineer; Sverre 
Falch, chemist; R. Rusten and Gustaf Swensson, mine superintendents. Is 
the northernmost copper mine of the world, being located near North Cape, 
in 70° north latitude. Mining lands, 328 claims, patented, area 340 acres, 
also 60-acre miUsite and 2,000 acres of miscellaneous lands* in the Kaafjord 
district. Property shows about 30 fissure veins of copper and iron pyrites, 
12 of which are more or less developed, these averaging lO' width and 3.000' 
length, carrying sulphide ores averaging about 2% copper. Has 8 tunne^ 



17G THE COPPER HANDBOOK: 

seven crosscut and one in ore, these ranging from 150^ to 2,500^ in length, 
with a total of about 15,000' of underground openings, exposing about 600,000 
tons of ore, with about 100,000 tons blocked out for stoping. Mine was 
opened 1821, closed 1873, and reopened 1895 by present owner. Mine is 300 
miles from a railroad, but only 300 feet from the sea, by which shipments 
are made and received. Equipment includes hoists, air and^diamond drills, 
electric light, etc. Power is supplied by a Pelton wheel fed by a 1,000^ watei^ 
fall. New concentrator has 100 tons daily capacity. Annual production 
is about 30,000 tons of raw ore which is concentrated into 2 grades, first 
averaging 12% copper, and second 4% copper and 50% sulphur. Property 
is energetically managed, with excellent results. 
GEWERKSCHAFT ALTFALTER. GERMANY. 

Mine office : Altwalnau, Hirschberg-Grossalmerode, Hessen-Nassau, Ger^ 
many. Has copper-lead ores, developed by one shaft, and employs about 30 
men. 
ALVERDSKI GROUP. RUSSIA. 

Mine office : Alverdski, Bortschalo, Tiflis, Russia. Said to be owned by 
a French syndicate. ^ Is a new property of considerable promise, with vigorous 
management. Production in 1903 was approximately 2,000,000 lbs. refined 
copper, with promise of a considerable future increase. 
AMADOR CONSOLIDATED MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. MONTANA. 

Office : 507-172 Washington St., Chicago, 111. Mine office : Iron Mountain, 
Missoula Co., Mont. Joseph Sherlaw, president; D. E. Maokinnon, secretary; 
Robt. M. Mahler, treasurer. Organized March 16, 1903, under laws of 
Arizona, with capitalization $10,000,000, shares $5 par, as a reconstruction 
of the Amador Copper dc Gold Mining & Milling Company, to secure addi- 
tional funds necessary for development. Lands, 18 claims, area 355 acres, 
also 2 groups of patented placer-gold claims, area 180 acres, with 5 mill and 
smelter sites and 450 acres miscellaneous lands, showing 5 fissure veins in 
slates and quartzite, of which 3 veins said to be of 40^ to 270' width are under- 
going development, these giving oxide and sulphide ores, mainly chalcopy- 
rite with a little chalcocite, said to assay 3% to 34% copper, 3 oz. to 16 oz. 
silver and $6 gold per ton. Main ore body on the east drift of the 250^ level 
is said to be 1,325' long and 35' wide, with 10' of sulphide smelting ore and 
about 20' of fair sulphide concentrating ore. . Main shaft is 400', with tunnels 
of 187', 512', 632' and 662', estimated by company to show 365,000 tons of 
ore blocked out for stoping. Has a 2-mile flume and pipe-line, delivering 
water at mine under a 210' head. Has an air-compressor, 4 power drills, 2 
hoists and 15 mine buildings and dwellings and a sawmill. Company plans 
building an 8-mile railroad to connect with the Northern Pacific at Iron 
Mountain, 8 miles from the mine. Company lias refused for past 3 years 
to permit anyone but workmen to inspect its mine, hence information as to 
the large ore bodies rests solely upon the stat^'ment of the company and its 
engineers, paid for official reports. Company said to plan building a smelter. 
AMADOR COPPER & GOLD MINING & MILLING CO. MONTANA. 

Heorganizcd, 1903, as Amador Consolidated Mining & Development Co. 



AMALGAMATED, 177 

AMALGAMATED COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Office : 42 Broadway, New York. Organized April 27, 1899, under laws 
of New Jersey, with capitalization $75,000,000, increased in 1901 to 
$155,000,000, shares $100 par. Henry H. Rogers, president; F. O. Addicks, 
\'ice-pre8ident; A. H. Melin, secretary and treasurer; John D. Ryan, managing 
director. Directors are H. H. Rogers, Albert C. Burrage, Wm. Rockefeller, Fred 
P. Olcott, James Stillman, Anson R. Flower, J. D. Ryan and Geo. H. Church. 
Annual meeting, first Monday in June. Registrars, Central Trust Company 
of New York and National Shawmut Bank of Boston ; transfer agents, National 
City Bank of New York and Kidder, Peabody & Co., of Boston. 

The Ajnalgamated is not a mining company, being merely a securities 
holding corporation, with assets consisting of stock in sundry subsidiary 
companies. Stock of the following named corporations is entirely owned 
by the Amalgamated, with the exception of the few founders' shares, re- 
quired to be in the names of directors: Washoe Copper Co., capitalization 
$5,000,000; Colorado Smelting <& Mining Co., capitalization $2,500,000; Dia- 
mond Coal & Coke Co., capitalization $1,500,000; Big Blackfoot Milling Co., 
capitalization $700,000. In the following named corporations the Amalga- 
mated holds from practically the entire issue, as in the case of the Boston 
&, Montana, to a majority interest only, as in the Anaconda: Boston & 
Montana Consolidated Copper & Silver Mining Co., capitalization $3,750,000; 
Parrot Silver & Copper Co., capitalization $2,298,500; Butte & Boston Con- 
solidated Mining Co., capitalization $2,000,000; Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co., capitalization $30,000,000. The Hennesy Mercantile Co., capitalization 
$1,500,000, was sold to D. J. Hennesy in 1904. The stores were inunensely 
profitable, but highly unpopular, and the Amalgamated, with all its faults, 
seems desirous of earning and holding the good will of employes by treating 
them fairly and paying them well. The Amalgamated also b credited with 
owning a controlling interest in the United Metals Selling Co., but in all 
likelihood the control is held by Amalgamated officers, rather than by the 
company, it being the custom of adepts in "high finance," among whom the 
officiab of the Amalgamated stand well to the front, to ''hold out" a few 
"good things ** — and the United Metab Selling Co. pays exceptionally good 
dividends. The Amalgamated is said also to have taken a bond and lease 
on the Indian Queen mine, at $125,000, from the Western Mining Co., in 
December, 1904. People prominently connected with the Amalgamated are 
heavy holders of shares of the Utah Consolidated and Greene Consolidated, 
and the Amalgamated b popularly credited with a hankering to secure control 
of dther or both of these fine mines. 

The Amalgamated had 13,801 shareholders at its annual raeetifig in 
June, 1904, of whom nearly all are residents of Boston and vicinity, where 
investors are supposed to know better. The annual meeting in question, 
by the way, was a howling farce, held at the nominal headquarters in New 
Jersey. Not a single officer was present, a cheap clerk running the pro- 
ceedings. A shareholder who "wanted to know, you know" was not given 
even th^ conifi^eratipn accorded Oliver Twjst when he asked for more, but 



178 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

was ignored. The utterly putrid corporation laws of New Jersey lend them- 
selves most admirably to this sort of finance, and the thrifty citizens of that 
state congratulate themselves upon having no taxes to pay. The big 
corporations with things to conceal are willing to pay for "protection/' just 
as the demi-monde pay hush-money to the police in some towns. 

The company began the payment of regular quarterly dividends of 1.5% 
immediately after its organization, these regular dividends being supple- 
mented by extras of H% quarterly, giving an annual return of 8%, until 
October, 1901, when the extra dividend was dropped, the regular quarterly 
dividends being reduced to 1% in January, 1902, and to }^% in May, 1903, 
or at the rate of 2% yearly, where they have since remained, but the net 
income of the company was more than double the amount in 1904, and the 
first dividend of 1905 was paid on a basis of 4% annually. 

The force employed by the various corporations subsidiary to the Amal- 
gamated is about 13,000 men, mainly at Butte, Anaconda and Great Falls, 
Montana. In addition to its mines, mills and smelters, the Amalgamated 
owns most of th^ daily newspapers in Montana, but the profits of one, the 
leading newspaper of the state, are eaten up by the losses on others of its 
subsidized publications. 

The Amalgamated was formed, six years ago, to acquire control of the 
copper industry of the world. This ambitious plan was modified a little 
later to acquiring control of the American copper industry. After 6 years 
of effort the corporation does not yet control the copper industry of Montana 
alone. Litigation with the Heinze interests, conducted through various 
subsidiary corporations, is protracted and costly. The management of the 
Amalgamated has been guilty of a series of tactical blunders, the greatest 
of which was the maintenance of artificially high prices for copper until 
nearly the close of 1901, followed by an attempt to cut the price of the metal 
in two, failure following both attempts. The management has learned, how- 
ever, by its past errors, and is now conducted along more prudent lines. 
John D. Ryan, the new managing director, is a man of exceptional executive 
ability. This has been proven by the work done during 1904, when distinct 
gains were scored in many directions. The Amalgamated also has the benefit 
of the services of some of the best mining men and metallurgists to be found 
anywhere, in charge of its subsidiary mining corporations. The 1904 produc- 
tion of the mines controlled by the Amalgamated was about 240,000,000 
l!)s., of which the Amalgamated's share was not leas than 180,000,000, made 
nt an average cost of about 9}4 cents, and sold at an average price of about 
13>i cents, giving mining profits of about $7,000,000, a or little better than 
$4.50 per share, in addition to which there were considerable profits from 
various subsidiary industries. 

An alleged expos^ of the Amalgamated has been running as a serial 
in a monthly magazine since August, 1904. This work of fiction, written by 
a Boston broker named Lawson, of more than shady reputation, has been 
accepted as gospel truth by many unsuspicious readers, who imagined that 
they were being given a glimpse behind the scenes. These articles were 



AM AW AM A TED. 179 

notable mainly for two things — i. e., what they promised to tell, and what 
they did not tell. The broker in question was responsible for the very 
shadiest parts in the shady Amalgamated history. He had his share of the 
booty, and now "peaches" because his "pals" will not divide over again. 
'The Copper Handbook has criticised the Amalgamated in very plain language 
since the orgai^ization of the corporation, but it is only justice to the Amal- 
gamated to state that the management of the company, while far from 
perfect, is upon a sounder and fairer basis than ever before. The "exposer" 
of Amalgamated, is the man who did the dirty work that was too stencliful 
for Rogers and his associates. He was paid for it once or twice, but the 
Amalgamated refused to pay three times — hence the "disclosures" of the 
virtuous Lawson — himself the owner of a mining company yclept Trinity, 
compared with which the Amalgamated shines like an electric Ught^along- 
ade a putrescent mackerel. 
AMALGAMATED GOLD & COPPER CO, ARIZONA. 

Dead. A Douglass-Lacey flotation, formerly located at Huron, Yavapai 
county, Arizona, where a SOO' shaft was sunk. 

Douglass, Lacey & Co. have been operating for the past five years or 
so one of the largest and cleverest mining swindles ever known in the United 
States. Sumptuous offices are maintained at 66 Broadway, New York, 
and about forty branch offices have been established in various cities of 
the United States and Canada. A number of honest men have been drawn 
into the scheme by baits of alluring commissions, and have peddled the 
rotten shares of thb firm of stock-jobbers among their friends and neighbors, 
to the loss of their own peace of mind and reputations. The plan of the 
Douglass-Lacey swindle is neat and comprehensive. The firm announced 
that it would operate on the law of averages, and by handling many mines 
the good ones would make up for the failures. Considerable bluffing has 
been done in the way of crude mining operations, but none of the "mines'' 
have proven successful, and none are likely ever to be successful. 

This firm of sharpers begun paying dividends on shares, when no profits 
were earned, for which they should be jailed for the common swindlers that 
they are. Stock in the worthless companies was exchanged for stock in 
equally worthless companies whenever shareholders grew tired, and the 
victims of the conspiracy were tolled along by the "dividends'' paid out of 
the money they had themselves furnished. For the past year — or since the 
last annual issue of the Copper Handbook, exposing the utter rottenness 
of this firm and its promotions — cash dividends have been suspended, and 
"scrip" dividends substituted therefor. It is reported tliat this firm has 
bilked something like 16,000 small investors, in the United States and Canada, 
to the tune of several millions of dollars. 

The manner in which this firm of swindlers has muzzled the financial 
and mining press by the placing of its advertisements is no credit to the 
American trade press. Just two publications have exposed this concern, 
and called a spade a spade. One was the Mining <& Engineering Review 
of San Francisco — to whom all honor — ^and the other was the Copper Hand- 
book. 



IgO THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

GEWERKSCHAFT VER. AMALIA- UND KR0TTENBER6. GERMANY. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Momshausen an der 
Dautphe, Hessen-Nassau, Germany. Adolph Freund, president; Paul Mar- 
cus, engineer; capitalization, 1,400,000 marks. Has cupriferous silver-lead 
ores, opened by one shaft. Presumably idle. 
AMARANTH GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Maxton, Ariz. S. J. Goldie, superintendent. Lands, 14 
claims, including the Stormcloud. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has 
steam power. 
AMAZON GOLD CO. MEXICO. 

Office : 607 Commercial Bldg., St . Louis.Mo. ; Mine office : Chacala, Sinaloa, 
Mex. ; Jas. T. Dugan, president; Edward B. Sowers, manager; J. S. Wil- 
kinson, superintendent; J. E. Arnold, assistant superintendent. Ores carry 
gold, silver and copper. Equipment includes a Bryan mill and 10-ton smelter. 
Company said to plan installation of modem smelter of fair size. Employs 
100 to 125 men. 
AMERICA-BRITANNU UNING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Baring, King Co., Wash. C. Campbell, superintendent, 
at last accounts. • 

'AMERICAN CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 44 East Broad St., Columbus, Ohio. Mine office: Santa F6, 
Santa F^ Co., N. M. Organized 1901, under laws of New Mexico, with 
capitalization $5,000,000, shares $1 par. Adelbert R. Gibson, president 
and general manager; D. A. Walker, vice-president and treasurer; W. B. 
Randall, secretary; E. A. Johnson, receiver. Lands, 32 claims, area 640 
acres. Property is in 5 groups, all in New Mexico. The Atwood group of 
6 claims is in the Shakespeare district of Grant county; the Don Bernardo 
group of 14 claims is in the White Signal district of Grant county; the Sun- 
light group of 4 claims is in the San Andreas district of Socorro county ; the 
El Paso-Rock Island group of 4 claims is in the Gallinas district of Lincoln 
county, and the Copper Age group of 4 claims is in Los Cerrillos district of 
Santa F6 county. Work has been done on all 5 groups, with principal 
operations on the Atwood group. These various properties show 8 fissure 
veins, of which the 3 principal range 4' to liY in width, with estimated average 
values of 12% copper, 5.5 oz. silver and $14 gold per ton, mainly from oxide 
and sulphide ores, with a limited quantity of carbonates. Has 11 shafts 
of 40' to 100', with 3,000' of underground openings and about 60,000 tons 
of ore blocked out for stoping. Has steam power and a 50-ton concentrator. 
Has experimented with various leaching processes for the lixiviation of large 
bodies of low-grade ore. Property is in the hands of a receiver with very 
ugly charges made by shareliolders against Gibson and his associates, who 
are pictured as scoundrels. While charges of shareholders remain to be 
proven, there is no question as to their having a considerable basis of fact. 
AMERICAN CONSOLIDATED MINES CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 23 Postoffice Bldg., Colorado Springs, Colo. Mine office: Twining, 
Taos Co., N. M. Employs 12 men. J. Shumaker, president; C. D. Weimer, 



AMERICAN, 181 

« 

secretary and treasurer; O. H. Stanley, general manager; £. H. Sonther, 
superintendent. Organized November, 1901, under laws of New Mexico, 
with capitalization $3,000,000,- shares $1 par. Lands, 10 claims, area 380 
acres, also a 5-acre millsite and half interest in 380 acres of timber lands, in 
the Rio Hondo and Lake Fork districts. Has secured assays of 3% copper 
and $16 gold per ton from ores cut in 3 tunnels, longest bW, 
AMERICA]! COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 11 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Val Verde, Yavapai Co., 
Ariz. Organized under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $5,000,000, 
shares $1 par. Employs about 100 men. J. K. Bumham, president; A. S. 
Kimberley, secretary and treasurer; Benj. Blanehard, superintendent. Lands, 
20 claims, area 400 acres, including the Iron King mine, in the Big Bug dis- 
trict. Has 7 shafts, deepest lOO', 210', 250^, and 385', with about 5,000^ 
of underground openings, showing a large ore body, estimated to give 350,000 
tons averaging $10 per ton of ore blocked out for stoping. Principal values 
are in gold and silver, with lead and copper as by-products. Has steam 
power and O-stamp mill, stamps being fitted with 1,000-lb. shoes and having 
quadruple discharge, mill having a daily capacity of 40 to 50 tons. Has a 
50-ton cyanide plant and is said to plan building a 500-ton concentrator and 
smelter, to cost $250,000. Has electric light, steam and water power, neces- 
sary mine buildings, dwellings for workmen, store and combination church 
and school building. Company seems well managed and prosperous. 
AMERICAN COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 327 Pine St., Williamsport, Pa. Mine office: Holmes, Albany 
Co., Wyo. Employs 15 to 20 men. Thos. M. B. Hicks, president and treas- 
urer; Otto C. dinger, secretary; LeRoy Scholl, superintendent. Organized 
Aug. 23, 1902, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares 
$1 par. Lands, 5 claims, area 100 acres. In the Douglas Creek division of 
the Encampment district, showing a fissure vein in granite, 20' wide at depth, 
and composed of three distinct layers, first being porphyritic, with widtli 
of 6' to 7' and carrying about 1.5% copper and $7 gold per ton, with some 
ooveUite assaying 60% copper and $20 gold per ton; second layer of 6' to 
7', of jaspelite and diorite, carries decomposed iron ore assaying $20 to $150 
gold per ton; the third layer is brecciated, carrying oxide, carbonate and 
sulphide ores of copper, with quartz gangue. Has a 3-compartment main 
shaft 100' deep, planned to be sunk to 1,000', also other shafts of 50', 60' 
and 160'. Has a 100-h. p. steam equipment, with Norwalk air compressor, 
power drills and necessary mine buildings. Property regarded as promising 
and company is one of the most vigorous in the Wyoming copper field^. 
AMERICAN COPPER MINING CO. NEW JERSEY. 

Office: 20 Broad St., New York. Mine office: Somerville, Somerset 
Co., N. J. Organized 1885, under laws of New York, with capitalization 
$500,000, shares $1 par. Josiah C. Reiff, president; W. S. Chapman, secre- 
tary; Josiah Bond, general manager; John T. Downey, mine superintendent. 
Lands, mining rights to about 1,000 acres and a 50-acre millsite owned in 
fee. Ore occurs as blanket veins between trap and shale, these having an 



182 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

average thickness of 2' and being traceable nearly 4 miles, carrying an esti- 
mated minimum average of 2% to 2.5% copper, with small gold and silver 
values. Native copper occurs at depth, with various oxides and carbonates 
above, in a gfngue of altered shale. Mine is opened by 3 inclines of 155', 
450' and 1,300', also a 500' crosscut drainage tunnel. Has steam power, 
with 30-h. p. hoist, 5-drill Rand air-compressor and drills, tramway and 
necessary mine buildings. The concentrator is of wood and stone, with 
ilaily capacity of 50 tons, having 2.rolls, screens, crushers and 2 Wilfley tables. 
Product, when mine is operated, is turned out as concentrates, shipped to 
smelters on New York harbor. 
AMERICAN COPPER UNING CO. 

Office: 4 Campau Bldg., Detroit Mich. John Baker, president and 
general manager. Location of property, if any, unknown. 
AMERICAN COPPER MINING CO. 

A "snide" concern; former office at 40 Wall St., New York. Possibly 
same company as the one having its office in Detroit. 

AMERICAN COPPER MINING & EXTRACTION CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 828 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Colo. Owned the Gardiner copper 
leaching and precipitating process, in use at the Denver plant of the Union 
Ore Extraction & Reduction Co. ; process since sold to the Commonwealth 
Reduction Co. 

AMERICAN COPPER MINING & SMELTING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

J. R. Kerr & Co., 555-11 Broadway, New York, "fiscal agents" of com- 
pany, removed and left no address behind. Property was advertised as a 
developed mine, shipping ore to smelters, but was not found in New Mexico. 

AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., 
Ariz. Henry B. Hovland, president; Thos. F. Cole, vice-president; Chas. d'Au- 
tremont, Jr., secretary and treasurer. Organized May 2, 1904, under laws of 
Arizona, with capitalization $120,000, shares $10 par, $3 paid in, all issued. 
Lands, 9 claims, lying next east of the Junction Development Co. and Calu- 
met & Pittsburg Mining Co. Management is composed of men prominent 
in the Calumet & Arizona group. No development has been undertaken as 
yet, but the promising results secured at the Junction render it likely that 
attention will be given the American also, before the close of 1905. 

AMERICAN EAGLE COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: probably Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. John Morris, 
manager. Is sinking a shaft and has secured specimens of good copper ore. 

AMERICAN GOLD & COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 401 Henne Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Morristown, 
Maricopa Co., Ariz. A. B. Hall, superintendent; J. J. Hawkins, attorney. 
Capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands, about 100 acres, including 
Fitzhugh Lee, Joe Wheeler and Eddy mines. Has auriferous and argenti- 
ferous copper oi*e, extensively developed, with steam power and 10-stamp 
mill. 



AMEHICAN. 183 

AMERICAN GOLD & COPPER MHONG CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 1431-79 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Jelm, Albany 
Co., Wyo. Albert L. Stone, president; J. C. Essick, secretary; Frank T. 
Wyatt, general superintendent. Capitalization $5,000,000. Lands, 14 
claims, held by location. 
AMERICAN GOLD MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 304-411 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. Mine office: Ouray, Ouray 
Co., Colo. Employs 40 men. W. C. Wrisberg, president and general mana- 
ger; Ernest P. Olshausen, secretary and treasurer; V. A. Laughlin, super- 
intendent; Ed. Wall, mine superintendent. Organized 1889, under laws of 
Colorado, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares $10 par. Has paid dividends 
of $420,000. Lands, 13 patented claims, area 200 acres, including the 
American Nettie and West View mines, also 50-acre millsite, in the Ouray 
district. Country rocks are granite, shale and quartzite. Produces oxide 
and sulphide ores averaging 2% copper, 1% lead, 20 oz. silver and 20 cents 
gold per ton. Has 70,000^ of underground openings, with large amount of 
ore blocked out and in sight. Has steam, electric and water power, with 
40-stamp mill and concentrator, shipping concentrates to the Pueblo smelter. 
AMERICAN GOLD MINING COMPANY NEW MEXICO. 

OF NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 312 Tacoma Bldg., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Nogal, Lincoln 
Co., N. M. A. T. Anderson, president; John Monk, secretary; J. M. Rice, 
manager; M. D. Gaylord, superintendent. Operates the American, Helen, 
Old Abe and other mines, producing gold, silver and lead. Has steam and 
electric power, with a 50-stamp mill and 50-ton cyanide pliint, and employs 
about 50 men. 
AMERICAN-MEXICO MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 1009 Masonic Temple, Chicago, 111. Mine office: VelardeAa, 
Durango, Mex. Organized under laws of South Dakota, with capitalization 
$3,000,000, shares $1 par. Dr. W. S. Phillips, president; W. K. Graham, 
secretary. Lands, something under 10 pertenencias — or less than 25 acres — 
adjoining the Velardena Mining & Smelting Co.'s property, carrying three 
narrow but rich veins, averaging 6^^ to 9^ width only. Also has options on 
other mining lands. The company's mine, known as La Koca or Victoria, 
bought of Carlos Von Brandeis for $60,000, is a good, small mine, but woe- 
fully inadequate to supporting the present top-heavy capitalization. Pro- 
duction is one carload of very rich ore monthly — no more, despite the bluster 
of the sharpers at the head of this company. 

The company has a 60-ton smelter, and is building a new smelter of 
several hundred tons daily capacity, said capacity being sufficient to smelt 
a year's production in 24 hours. Company is paying 2% monthly dividends, 
which it is not earning. 
AMERICAN MINES DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD. 

Office: 506 Oneida Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. P. R. Bailey, president; 
Jas. T. Manning, secretary, treasurer and manager. Claims to own and to 



184 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

be developing copper, gold, zinc, lead and oil properties, but location of 

property, if any, unknown. 

AMERICAN MUfUfG CO. IDAHO. 

Mine office: Weiser, Washington Co., Idaho. Probably idle. 
AMERICAN MINING CO. UTAH. 

Said to have promising claims near Mineral Springs, about 15 miles 
northwest of Death Canyon, in the Deep Creek district, opened by a 180' 
tunnel, from which several smelter shipments of ore of good grade were 
made during 1904. 
AMERICAN MINING, MILLING & SMELTING CO. 

Offices: care of Weston & Co., 10, Coleman St., London, E. C, £ng. 
"James Reid," president and treasurer; "H. Reid," secretary; " W. Matthews," 
general manager. 

No person or publication is infallible, and the assumption of infallibilitv 
has been disclaimed expressly in the past and present editions of the Copper 
Handbook. It is with chagrin, however, that the author admits having 
been ''taken in" by this cheap swindle in the las.t annual edition of this work. 
No other company given a good rating in Volume IV has been found other- 
wise than responsible, and none of the numerous companies denounced ua 
fraudulent have been found otherwise than dishonest. To make such repara- 
tion as is possible to readers for the good rating erroneously but honestly 
given this rotton concern one year ago, it is now stated in the plainest possi- 
ble language, that the American Mining, Milling & Smelting Co. is a rank 
swindle, incorporated under American laws, but feeding upon the gulla- 
bility of the residents of Great Britain, where it is domiciled, under the wing 
of Weston & Co., a more than shady concern in Jjondon. 

The company claims to possess mines in Alaska, Arizona, California, 
Colorado and Mexico. None of these alleged mines liave been located. It 
is possible that the swindlers promoting .these shares attempt to make a 
technical compliance with their assertions by holding worthless mining claims, 
which they call mines — ^but what's the difference? 

This company is a swindle of the most rotten and barefaced sort, and 
every man connected with it is either a fool or a rascal. 
AMERICAN PROSPECTING & DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Lands, somewhere in the 
Mule Mountains, are said to show ore. 
AMERICAN SMELTING & REFINING CO. NORTH & SOUTH AMERICA. 

Office: 71 Broadway, New York. Oi^anized April 4, 1899, under laws of 
New Jersey. Present capitalization is $100,000,000, half common and half 
7% cumulative preference shares. For fiscal year ending April 30, 190^, 
company showed net earnings of $7,905,573, an increase of $328,787 for 
the year, leaving a cash surplus of $4,047,423, with assests of $110,830,387. 
E. W. Nash, president; Danl. Guggenheim, chairman executive committee; 
Barton SeweU, vice-president; Isaac Guggenheim, treasurer; N. Suht, as- 
sistant treasurer; Edw. Brush, secretary; W. E. Moriss, assistant secretary; 
August Raht, mechanical engineer. 



AMERICAN— AMYGDALOID, 186 

On May 1, 1903, the company had plants with an annual capacity for 
smelting 3,720,000 tons of ore, and refining plants capable of handling 340,000 
tons of pig lead and 36,000 tons of blister copper yearly. 

The company owns the following smelters: Qermania Lead Works and 
Hanauer Smelting Works, Salt Lake City, Utah; a copper smelter at Murray, 9 
miles from Salt Lake City, R. D. Rhodes, superintendent, new and modem 
throughout, with 2,000 tons daily capacity, having steam and electric power, 
and employing nearly 1,000 men; United States smelters, at Helena and Great 
Falls, Mont.; National Smelting Co., Chicago; Omaha smelter, at Omaha, 
Neb.; Grant and Globe smelters, Denver, Colo., Franklin Guiterman, manager; 
H. H. Alexander and C H. Livingstone, superintendents; Pueblo Smelting & 
Refining Co., including the Eilers plant, Geo. A. Harsh, superintendent, the 
Philadelphia plant, S. C. Hazelton, superintendent, and the Pueblo plant, 
W. H. Howard, superintendent, all at Pueblo, Colo.; San Juan smelter, Duran- 
go, Colo.; Bi-Metallic smelter, Leadville, Colo.: Pennsylvania lead smelters. 
Salt Lake City, Utah, and Pittsburg, Pa.; Chicago and Aurora smelters, 
Chicago and Aurora, lU., and Leadville, Colo. : Kansas City smelters, Kansas 
City, Mo.; El Paso smelters, F. C. Ektrle, superintendent, El Paso, Texas; 
Guggenheim smelters, Pueblo, Colo., Monterey and Aguascalientes, Mexico, 
latter with 2 new 300-ton convertible furnaces, for use interchangeably on 
lead and copper ores; Guggenheim Refinery, Perth Amboy, N. J.; El Carmen 
smelters. El Carmen, and Sierra Mojada, Chihuahua, Mex.; Velardena smelter, 
Velardena, Durango, Mex.; Playa Blanca smelter, leased from Compaifta 
Minera Huanchaca, Willard. S. Morse, general manager, at Antofagasta, 
Chile. The company is interested extensively in Mexican mines of lead, 
silver and copper, operated to feed its smelters. This b much the largest 
smelting corporation in the world, and is managed with signal ability and 
success. 
AKERICAN ZINC EXTRACTION CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Tucson, Pima Co., Ariz. Lands include the San Xavier 
mine, with ores of silver, lead and copper. Has steam power. Probably 
idle. 
AMPARO MINING CO. MEXICO. 

OflSoe: Philadelphia, Pa. Mine office: Etzatlan, Jalisco, Mex. Cap- 
italization $3,000,000, shares, $1 par. Ferdinand Sustersic, general manager. 
Property is El Cusco, Santo Domingo and adjoining mines, said to have 
small pockets of rich ore carrying gold, silver, lead and copper. Property 
also shows large bodies of low-grade concentrating ore, of which considerable 
has been mined. Company plans installation of large cyanide and concen- 
tration plants. 
AMY C. MINE. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Idaho Springs, Clear Creek Co., Colo. John Owen, owner; 
Geo. Riley, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver lead and copper. Has 
steam power. 
AMYGDALOID MINE. MICHIGAN. 

Office: care of J. F, Carey, Escanaba, Mich. Jjands, 2,240 acres, in 



186 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Keweenaw county, Michigan. Has 6 shafts and 7 levels, and has produced 

770 tons, 180 lbs. of refined copper. Idle since 1874. 

ANACONDA HIIIE. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: San Pedro, Santa F6 Co., N. M. Carruthers & Field, owners 
and managers. Ores carry gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc. Has steam 
power and is said to have a small smelter. 
ANACONDA CONSOLIDATED COPPER MINES AND SMELTING WORKS. 

Sold to Murrin Ck)pper Mines, Ltd. 
ANACONDA COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: 42 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Ck)., 
Mont. Is the second largest copper producer of the world, employing about 
5,000 men, under normal circimistances. Is controlled by the Amalgamated 
Copper Co. Organized June 18, 1895, under laws of Montana, with capi- 
talization $30,000,000, shares $25 par. Henry H. Rogers, vice-president; 
W. H. Dudley, secretary; F. P. Addicks, assistant secretary; John Gillies, 
superintendent; D. W. Brunton, consulting engineer; Geo. D. Case, smelter 
superintendent; W. L. Bull, A. C. Burrage, H. H. Rogers, Wm. Rockefeller, 
W. G. Rockefeller, E. C. Eiogert and W. W. Dixon, directors. Transfer 
agent, National City Bank, of New York. Annual meeting is in May. Stock 
is listed on New York, Boston and London stock exchanges. Dividend cou- 
pons are payable in England by the London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd., 
Princes St., E. C, with warrants to bearer issued in denominations of 5, 
20 and 50 shares. 

Operations for the three preceeding fiscal years ending June 1 are com- 
pared as follows: 

1902. 1903. 1904. 

Gross yield per ton $ 10.66 $ 10.48 $ 10.95 

Cost of mining per ton 3.80 3.49 3.73 

Cost transportation per ton. .15 .15 .15 

Cost of reduction per ton. . . 3 . 32 3 . 39 3 . 82 

Paid for labor 3,860,789 . 00 5,269,005 . 35 4,322,657 . 00 

Machinery and supplies 3,148,705.00 4,311,570.61 3,102,137.00 

Cost of marketing 2,052,105.00 3,207,151 .67 1,929,353.00 

Gross proceeds 10,498,953 . 00 14,597,852 . 14 10,761 ,473 . 00 

Total expenditures 9,209,342 . 00 12,996,652 . 81 9,501 ,597 . 00 

Net proceeds 1,289,611.00 1,601,199.33 1,259,876.00 

Tons of ore treated 984,958 1,392,835 983,001 

Dividends paid in 1904, were 5Q cents each, in May and November, a 
total of $1,200,000 for the year, giving total dividends paid by company to 
end of 1904 of $24,450,000. 

The Anaconda mine was opened in 1880, by J. B. Haggin, Marcus Daly 
and Senator Hearst, for silver. At a depth of about 150' the silver values 
decreased, being replaced by high-grade copper ores, principally chalcocite and 
Lomite. The company's mines at Butte include the Anaconda, Never 
Sweat, St. Lawrence, High Ore, Green Mountain Consolidated, Bell and 
Diamond, which are regularly operated, also the Modoc, Wake-up-Jim and 



AttACO^bA. 18? 

other idle mines, including a number of mining claims of more or less pros- 
pective value, while miscellaneous landed holdings include sundry timber 
lands and coal mines. The country rock, known as the Butte granite, is 
basic, with an intrusive i^cia rock known as the Bluebird granite, a quarts- 
porphyry being the third rock of the series in age, the entire rock mass being 
shattered by fissures carrying argentiferous and auriferous copper ores. 
The ores are mainly sulphide, largely chalcocite and bomite, with some chalco- 
pyrite and a large percentage of enargite, which is an arsenide of copper, 
the ores having a gangue of quartzite and decomposed country rock. The 
oxide and carbonate ores usually found near surface in copper mines are not 
frequent in the Butte district, the granitic country rock being unfavorable 
to their formation. Like the veins of all other known mining fields, the 
Butte ores grow leaner with depth, but the lowest openings show ore bodies 
of great persistence and strength, carrying enormous quantities of dissemi- 
nated orQs running 2% to 6% in copper. Sufiicient medium and low-grade 
ore is developed to enable the Anaconda to produce 75,000,000 pounds or 
more of refined copper annually for many years to come. A considerable 
number of stopcs of high-grade ore remain untouched, but these are not in 
sufficient number to greatly raise the avez:age percentage of the ores remain- 
ing unmined. Ores smelted give an average return of about 65 lbs. of copper 
per short ton, or 3.25% copper, with 3 oz. silver and average values of $1 .75 to 
$2 gold and silver per ton. 

Of the Anaconda company's mines, the Anaconda proper employs 600 
to 800 men, having a 3-compartmcnt 1,800^ main shaft, timbered with 10x10^ 
square sets, with good ventilation and about 30 exits, connected underground 
with the Never Sweat, Bell and St. Lawrence mines. Eight-ton skips are 
swung under double-deck cages worked in counterbalance. The Never Sweat 
has a 2,200^ main shaft, with a 3,000-h. p. hoist, and employs about 500 men. 
The St. Lawrence has a 2,000^ three-compartment main shaft, with 22 exits, 
employing about 700 men, normally. This mine has been on fire since 1890. 
The fire b in an extensive area above the 300^ level, and is fought constantly. 
To prevent or retard its spreading, solid masonry bulkheads are built to cut 
off its progress. A complete fire fighting brigade is kept constantly on duty, 
working regular 8-hour shifts. The mine water of the St. Jjawrence carries 
9 to 13 lbs. copper per ton, and part of the copper contents are precipitated 
underground on scrap-iron in concrete sumps, and the water again leached 
on surface, which it reaches carrying only 2 to 4 lbs. of copper per ton. The 
High Ore mine employs 200 to 300 men, and has a 2,300' three-compartment 
main shaft, the deepest in the camp. This shaft unwaters nearly all of the 
Anaconda mines, having 7 powerful pumps, 3 on the 1,000' level, 2 on the 
1,600^ level and 2 on the 2,300' level, the central station on the lower level 
caring for the water from the Anaconda, Parrot and Washoe mines. The 
water forked from this shaft goes to a big precipitating plant in the gulch 
back of Meaderville. The pumping capacity of the plant is equal to raising 
4,000 gallons of water per minute, from a depth of one-half mile. The main 
sliaft of the Diamond is about 2,000' deep, and employs about 300 men, nor 



188 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

mally. The Mountain Consolidated has a 2,100' main shaft and employs 150 
to 300 men. The Green Mountain has a 2,200^ three-compartment shaft 
and employs about 200 men. The Bell has an 1,800^ main shaft and em- 
ploys 300 to 500 men when fuUy working. The Bufifalo employs a small 
force only. The Modoc, not working, has millions of tons of low-grade ore, 
running 1% to 1.5% in copper, which cannot be worked profitably under 
present conditions. But little sinking has been done in the deeper mines of 
the Anaconda for some years past. 

Electric power is used extensively. The generating plant is at Canyon 
Ferry, 70 miles distant, and the current is wired to the mine with a primary 
voltage of 50,000, reduced to 2,000 volts at the transformer st-ation, just 
outside of Butte, power being distributed to the various shafts and build- 
ings from a main station at the Never Sweat. The principal dynamo is of 
80(V-h. p., and drives a large duplex air-compressor. A three-phase dynamo, 
driven by the Canyon City current, furnishes the motive power for a direct- 
current generator that replaced an extensive underground haulage plant 
actuated by compressed air. Many electric lights are also used underground, 
being employed wherever possible. A large number of minor motors at 
the various buildings of the surface plant are driven electrically, using a 
440-volt current. 

Although title to the reduction plant stands in. the name of the Washoe 
Copper Co., it is described at length in this article on the Anaconda, because 
it treats mainly Anaconda ores and is commonly known as the Anaconda 
smelter. The plant is leased to the Anaconda company for 9 years. This 
monstrous plant occupies a site of 225 acres on Washoe Heights, in the out- 
skirts of the city of Anaconda, 35 miles by rail from the mines, and was 
planned by Frank Klepetko, and built and equipped with the able assistance 
of Messrs. Repath and Gulberg, and the late Messrs. R. G. Collins and Wm. F. 
Evans. Ground was broken May, 1900, and smelting begun February, 1902. 
The plant has an actual capacity of 6,000 tbns of raw ore daily, and has no 
peer in the world. The monstrous size of the plant is shown by the material 
required in its construction, this including 20,000 tons of structural steel, 
50,000 cubic yards of masonry, 25,000,000 feet of lumber and 1,000 car- 
loads of brick, in addition to which 300,000 cubic yards of excavation were 
required. 

The concentrator covers 7 acres and is built on stone foimdations, in 
two parts, each 255x355', connected by a power-house between. Each part 
contains 4 complete sections, and a description of one section gives a de- 
scription of the entire concentrating plant, when multiplied by eight. Each 
section has one 24x24^^ Blake crusher, reducing ore to 3^ size, this passing 
over two sets of trommels for sizing, oversize material going through two 
6x15^ crushers, which reduce it to IJ^*' size. Two belt elevators take the 
material on the main sizing-floor to a series of trommels for coarse-sizing, 
oversize going to coarse jigs, which produce coarse concentrates for the blast 
furnaces. The waste from the coarse jigs goes to two sets of 15x40^ rolls 
for crushing, and is thence elevated and rejigged. In the jigging depart- 



ANACONDA. 189 

ment adl undersize material from the crushers is treated automatically. Each 
jigging section has 36 double Evans jigs, set in three double rows, with Evans 
hydraulic classifiers, making three sizes of concentrates, which go to the 
storage bins, while the middlings go to the middlings department, which 
has two sets of 15x40* rolls, crushing material to about 1 yi" size, which goes 
by belt elevators to 4 sets of trommels, from which the imdersize goes auto- 
matically to 4 hydraulic classifiers which feed 18 double Evans jigs, set in 
a triple row. The process is the same as in the jigging department and the 
concentrates from the middling department are mixed with the concentrates 
fronii the jigging department and go thence to storage bins. The middlings 
are collected in launders and taken by elevators to tlie regrinding depart- 
ment, which has four 5' Huntington mills, 18 double Evans jigs and 4 hy- 
draulic classifiers. The Himtington mills are fed from V-shaped tanks, the 
ground material passing through 1^' screens to hydraulic classifiers, thence 
to the jigSt both concentrates and tailings being carried by water in launders 
and elevators. The' slimes department has 35 Wilfley tables, fed from the 
bottom of V-shaped tanks, concentrates going to storage bins, 24x65(K and 
7(y high, in two sets of upper and lower bins. The concentrator also is 
supplied with sltmi ponds. It is planned to enlarge the concentrator during 
1905. The Anaconda's concentrating ore carries an average of 4% copper, 
1 oz. to 6 oz. silver and 0.01 oz. to 0.02 oz. gold, 16% iron oxide, 17% sulphur 
and 55% silica. The tailings carry an average of 0.8% copper and 90% 
silica. 

The sampling mills, 42x60^ and 5 stories high, are of brick and wood, 
in 2 double sections with a daily capacity of 600 tons each, equipped with 
Bnmton samplers giving a -final sampling of 3.2 pounds from each short 
ton of ore. 

The roasting department \s of steel, on stone foundations, 98x320^, with 
a height of 50^ from ground floor to calcining floor. This building contains 
48 McDougal calcining furnaces, each 28' high and with 6 roasting hearths 
and 3 platforms, hoppeiM^irs delivering concentrates to hoppers with auto- 
matic feeds, each roaster having a daily capacity of about 40 tons. No 
coke IS required except for the preliminary heating, the sulphur furnishing 
all fuel required after the charge is thoroughly ignited. Each furnace has 
an automatic discharge into two storage hoppers, these keeping the calcined 
ores hot until taken out to reverberatory furnaces. The building has sheet 
iron flues that take the fimies into a dust-chamber 40x300^ and 40^ high, 
this having concrete inner walls and a floor of steel hoppers. It is planned 
to increase the roasting department during 1905, by adding 40 new McDougal 
calcineis, an increase of five-sixths over present capacity. 

The power-house of the concentrator plant, 136x150^, standing between 
and connecting the two halves of the concentrator building proper, \a of 
steel, with brick walls, having three 15-ton traveling cranes of 44' span and 
contains al,500-h.p Alfis-Ohalmers engine and two triple expansion 2,000-h.p. 
Nordberg engines, the latter using rope transmission. The boilei^room 
contains ten 300-b. p. Stirling water-tube boilers. The electric machinery 



190 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

consists of two 700-kilowatt 2-phafie Westinghousc peneratore, one 500- 
kilowatt generator and three 125-arc-light generators, the latter furnishing 
light for the city of Anaconda as veil as for the plant. 

The reverberatory furnace building is of steel, 184x518', and contains 
14 furnaces, each 24x54', set in two rows. Each furnace, of 120 tons daily 
capacity, has five charging-hoppers and one coal-hopper, fed from hopper- 
cars, the feeding of both fuel and calcined ore being strictly automatic. The 
matte is drawn off into 20-ton ladle cars and taken to the converter. The 
slag is skinuned into boxes overflowing into running water, and the granu- 
lated slag is washed through launders to the slag-dump. Fumes from the 
reverberatories are taken through imderground flues, one for each row of 
furnaces, to the main flue. It is planned to double the capacity of this 
department during 1905. 

The blast furnace department is a 3-story steel building, 82x200^, the 
first floor carrying the railroad tracks, while the second story is the main 
operating floor, and the third is the charging floor. There are five furnaces, 
each 56x180^ and 40^ high, with a daily capacity of 400 tons each. Cupolas 
are made of cast-iron plates, bolted, with 12 special water-jackets hung from 
steel beams, each furnace having 32 five-inch tuyeres. The chai^ng floor 
has railroad tracks on each side of the furnaces, side-dumping hopper-cars 
being handled by compressed-air locomotives. The charging doors of the 
furnace extend full length, and are opened and closed by compressed-air 
pistons, and all charges fed automatically. In front of each furnace is a 
16' settler, receiving a continuous flow of molten matte and slag, the matte 
being drawn from the bottom into 20-ton ladle cars, and taken thence to 
the converters. The slag overflows into sluices and after granulation by 
water is washed to the slag dumps. Overhead sheet-iron flues carry off 
fumes and smoke into a dust-chamber which is an exact duplicate of that 
in the calcining department. The product of the first fusion is a 44% matte, 
and the slags carry an average of 0.2% copper only. 

The converter building is 137x416', of steel, with two 60-ton electric 
traveling cranes of 60' span each, for handling converters and ladles, and 
two smaller electric traveling cranes for the converting and casting depart- 
ments. There are 2 reverberatory storage furnaces for the receipt of matte 
from blast furnaces, these being available for smelting, if desired. There 
are 8 stands of converters, each converter being 8' in diameter and 13' long 
with eighteen l^i" tuyeres and ball-closing valves. There are devices for 
tilting the shells in stands, and cranes for handling them when out of stands. 
The converters blow off into hoods with flues leading to a dust-chamber 
similar to those already described. The matte is blown up to low-grade 
blister copper, and poured into ladles carried by cranes to three 70-ton casting- 
furnaces, which turn out anodes assaying about 97% copper and 80 oz. 
silver per ton. The anode moulds are on traveling carriages actuated by 
hydraulic power, pigs going automatically to water-cooling tanks, while 
the slag goes to a casting machine and is made into slag-brick. The lining 
department has a full outfit of machinery, largely automatic, for mixing 



ANACONDA, 191 

linini^ for the converters, and these linings are tamped into place by ingenious 
machinery especially devised for the purpose. In 1904 low-grade silicious 
ore was substituted for barren silica in converter linings, effecting a saving 
estimated at $600 per day, or about $180,000 per annum. 

The briquetting department has 2 machines of 100 tons daily capacity 
each, with dryers and conveyers. After briquetting, the flue-dust goes to 
the smelter for reduction. The blister copper is refined electrolytically, 
producing electrolytic copper assaying 99.5% copper, with traces only of 
arsenic and antimony. « 

The power-house of the smelting department, 80x500^, of steel and brick, 
has a 15-ton electric traveling crane of 500^ reach. The boiler-house has 
eighteen 300-h. p. Stirling boilers and about 4,000-h. p. is generated from the 
waste gases of the reverberatory furnaces, effecting an enormous saving in 
fuel costs and stoking charges. There is a Nordberg triple expansion engine 
with capacity to compress 20,000 cubic feet of free air per minute to a pressure 
of 13 pounds per square inch, also 4 Nordberg compound engines direct- 
connected with Connersville blowers having capacity to compress 30,000 
cubic feet of free air per minute, delivered to the blast furnaces at a pressure 
of 2 pounds per square inch. There are also 3 smaller compressors, for 
locomotives and air lifts. The plant is served by compressed air locomo- 
tives, charged at an initial pressure of 900 lbs. to the square inch. 

The smelter formerly discharged into the air about 2 tons of arsenic 
and scores of tons of sulphur daily, causing enormous damage to the ranchers 
in the Deer Lodge valley. The Anaconda company paid damages exceeding 
$150,000 in settling 130 cases, and to obviate depopulating this fertile 
valley erected a new flue and smokestack in 1903. This stack is 300^ high, 
with an inside diameter of 33' 4" at the bottom and 30' at the top, built of 
3,000,000 brick, and 4' 6' thick at the bottom. Connecting the smelter 
and stack is a flue W wide and 36' high, 2,170^ in length, and 5,500' long 
with connections, under which is a tunnel 7' high and 55' wide. The trouble 
from arsenical sulphur fumes while not entirely overcome, has been greatly 
mitigated by the new flue and stock, and incidentally the improvement is 
proving an excellent thing for the company. About 175 tons of flue dust is 
secured daily of which about 60 tons are treated in a newly built arsenic 
refinery, the residue being re-«melted after the extraction of its arsenical 
contents. As the waste fumes from the big stack carry off enough sulphur 
to make about 2,000 tons of H]S04 daily, a sulphuric acid plant may be 
the next addition to the works. 

The big reduction plant treats about 5,500 tons of ore diuly and employs 
about 1,800 men, distributed as follows through ^he various departments: 
Concentrator, 350; reverberatory, 200; calcining, 150; converter, 150; casting, 
60; briquetting, 50; various shops, surface men, etc., 950. 

The copper refinery was closed August, 1903, since which time all re- 
fining has been done on the Atlantic seaboard, by the Baltimore Smelting & 
Refining Co. The Washoe plant saves the Anaconda company upwards 



192 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

of one dollar per ton, in the treatment of its ores, and without it the Anaconda 
could not earn a decent dividend one year in four. 

The Anaconda company operates a coal mine at Belt, Cascade county, 
Montana, F. W. C. Why te, superintendent, which employs about 300 men. 
The company also owns a controlling interest in the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific Railroad, 35 miles in length, and operates a sawmill and other ex- 
tensive enterprises, subsidiary to the mining and smelting of copper, among 
these being a big brickyard at Anaconda, which turns out enormous quanti- 
ties of building, silica and fire-clay bricks for the company's use. Phxluc- 
tion of refined copper for the year ending June 1, 1903 was about 93,500,000 
pounds, produced at a cost of 13.9 cents per pound with gold and silver 
values net, or at a cost of 11 cents per pound, deducting gold and silver values. 
For the calendar year 1904 the production of refined copper was about 
95,000,000 lbs. Net earnings for the year ending June 1, 1904, were only 
$1,259,875, being the smallest for many years and comparing with high- 
water net earnings of $5,365,520 in 1900. 

For many years the Anaconda was the world's largest producer of copper, 
and second largest producer of silver. The Boston & Montana now leads 
Anaconda in copper output and the Greene Consolidated, Rio Tinto and 
Calumet &, Hecla are dangerously close competitors, with every prospect 
that the Copper Queen also will be a rival in 1906. 

The local management of the Anaconda is of the best, but many stock- 
holders are dissatisfied with the financial management, believing that the 
Anaconda is being bled by the Washoe, as the Amalgamated Copper Co. 
owns the Washoe outright, while holding but little more than a majority 
interest in the stock of the Anaconda. 
ANACONDA MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Predecessor of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., and still in existence. 
ANACONDA PROPRIETARY COPPER, GOLD AUSTRALIA. 

& SILVER MINE. 

Succeeded by Melrose Copper Mines. 
ANCHORIA COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: care of H. O. Granberg, secretary-treasurer, Oshkosh, Wis. Mine 
office : Copperton, Wyo. Organized, April, 1901 , with capitalization $1 ,000,000, 
shares, $1 par. Hon. David H. Craig, president. Land, 4 claims, showing 
a 60^ fissure vein carrying cuprite, melaconite and chalcopyrite, with 30* 
pay streak at bottom of 106' two-compartment shaft. Has steam power 
and is working steadily. Property considered promising. 
ANDERSON GROUP. CALIFORNIA. 

In Riverside county, California. Anderson & Co., owners. A group of 
26 claims, with vein 2' to 6' wide, carrying argentiferous copper ore. 
ANDERSON MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Albemi, Vancouver Island, B. C. J. C. Anderson, president. 
Has steam power and limited mining development. Probably idle. 
ANDES COPPER MINING & EXPLORATION CO., LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 4, Sun Court, Comhill, London, E. C, Eng. Wm. B. Brodrick, 



A NOES— A NGLCU)HILIA X. 193 

chairman; W. £. Singer; secretar>'- Capital, nominal, £90,000; issued, 

£6,707. Has mining lands in Tarapacd, Chile. 

SOCIEDAD BEHEFICIADORA D£ MINERALES ANDINA. PERU. 

Mine office: Yauli, Junin, Peru. Has silver-copper ores. 
ANDREWS GROUP. ARIZONA. 

Mine ofifice: Stoddard, Yavapai Co., Ariz. J. J. Canovan, owner. 
MINA AllDUEZA. ARGENTINA. 

Owned by Sociedad Francesca de Minas y Fundicion de Nonogasta. 
ANGANG COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Chirangangueo, Zitacuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Stock issue 
supposedly owned by Arimex Copper Co., a promotion of Thomas W. Lawson, 
of "frenzied finance" notoriety. Has a large body of medium-grade chalcopy- 
rite, with a limited amount of development. Was worked on a veiy limited 
scale when operated and probably is idle. 
ANGEL MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Property has passed to Arizona Gold & Copper Mines Co. 
ANGLO-AMERICAN COPPER MINING COMPANY ONTARIO. 

OF PARRY SOUND, LTD. 

Office: 211 State St., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Parry Sound, Ontario. 
Organized 1900, under laws of Ontario, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares 
$1 par. Isaac Block, president; Jacob Newman, Jr., secretary and treasurer. 
Lands are on Wilcox Island, near Parry Sound, showing veins carrying copper, 
^Iver, gold, cobalt and zinc, rendering ore exceedingly refractory. Com- 
pany estimates average ore values at 20% copper and 10 oz. gold per ton, 
which is either a mistaken statement or worse. Idle. Has one sli&ft, 125' 
deep. Mine could be operated open-cast. 
ANGLO-AMERICAN GOLD & COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office and mine: La Cananea, Sonora, Mex. Organized under laws of 
Arizona and protocolized in Mexico, with capitalization $4,000,000, shares 
$10 par. W. H. Frost, president and general manager; A. F. Krohn, secre- 
tary; A. W. Arbuckle, manager. Lands, 360 pertenencias, area nearly 900 
acres, in two groups. The Graciela group of 200 pertenencias, 28 miles south 
of Cananea, gives average assays of 15.5% copper, 36 oz. silver and $6.75 
gold per ton. The Enriquito group of 160 pertenencias, 6 miles south of 
Cananea, is claimed to be an extension of the Capote ore body of the Greene 
Consolidated, and shows ores assaying 17% to 30% copper. Probably idle. 
ANGLO-AMERICAN GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. 

Office: care of A. B. Wadleigh, secretary, Naco, Ariz. Location of 
property, if any, unknown. 
ANGLO-CHIU CONCESSIONS, LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 58, Lombard St., London, £. C, Eng. Geo. Flamank. secretary. 
Capital, nominal, £15,000. Claimed to have mining concessions in Chile. 
ANGLO-CHILIAN EXPLORATIOlT CO., LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 85, Gracechurch St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Can- 
utiDo, Huasco, Chile, J. M. Drysdale, secretary; li. H. Loram, mine manager. 
Capital, nominal, £20,000; issued £17,000, par £1. 



164 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ANGLO-ITALIAN COPPER SYNDICATE. ITALY. 

Claimed to hold 12,000 acres of copper-bearing land near Genoa, Italy. 
ANGLO-ROUMANIAN FINANCE ft TRADING CO., LTD. ROUMANIA. 

Offices : 31, Walbrook, London, £. C, Eng. Letter returned unclaimed 
from alleged local office. Baia Arama, Mehedintze district, Roumania. 
C. S. Matz, secretary. Capital, issued, £449,112. Lands said to be 20,000 
acres, including copper properties and forests, held on 35-year lease from 
October, 1898. 
ANGLO WESTPHALIAN COPPER CO., LTD. GERMANY. 

Offices: 1-2, Great Winchester St., London, E. C, Eng. Organized, 
Aug. 29, 1904, to acquire copper mining property in province of Westfalen, 
Prussia. 
ANGUS COPPER MINING & MILLING CO. 

Office: 10 North Eighth St., St. Louis, Mo. Gives no reply to repeated 
requests for information. Location of property, if any, unknown. 
ANI GROUP. JAPAN. 

Owned and operated by Furukawa Copper Co. 
MINA LAS ANIMAS. MEXICO. 

Office: care of P. Sandoval y Ca., Nogales, Sonora, Mex. Mine office: 
Santa Ana, Sonora, Mex. Ores carry gold, silver, copper and lead. Main 
Bhaft 400^. Has steam power and 40-ton smelter, employing about 25 men 
at last accounts. 
ANITA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Reorganized, 1903, as Anita Copper Co. 
ANITA COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 19 Congress St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Williams, Coconino 
Co., Ariz. Organized, August, 1903, under laws of Arizona, with capitali- 
zation $5,000,000, shares $5. Employs 20 to 50 men. C. O. Brightman, 
president; Henry L. Nesmith, secretary; Paul Whitin Abbott, treasurer; 
John M. Cameron, superintendent. Beacon Trust Co., Boston, registrar. 
Lands, 50 claims, area 1,000 acres, sur\'eyed for patents, lying on both sides 
of the Bright Angel branch of the Sante Fd railway, also 160-acre millsite 
and 60 acres miscellaneous lands, giving total area of 1,220 acres, all in the 
Francis mining district. Country rocks are carboniferous limestone, sup- 
posedly about 800' in thickness, showing irregular lenses carryii\g three 
known ore bodies, of which one is undergoing development, this giving 
oxide and carbonate ores assaying 8% to 15% copper and 3 to 4 oz. silver 
per ton, with a trace of gold, opened by shafts of 103', 93', 40', 35' and 580', 
and by several hundred feet of short tunnels. Mine has a 10x14^ Fairbanks 
& Morse gasoline hoist, good for depth of 2,000', 12-drill Rand air com- 
pressor and 8 power drills. Smelter, at Williams, 47 miles from mine, with 
all-rail communication, has a 100-ton water-jacket blast furnace, with other 
necessary machinery for a 200-ton smelter. For 1905 company plans to 
develop by drifts and explore by diamond drills. 
ANITA COPPER MINES CO., S. A. MEXICO. 

Controlled by Douglas Copper Co. 



ANITA—ANTOFAGASTA, 195 

AKITA imriNG CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 11 Wall St., New York. Letter returned from mine office: 
Bolados, Jalisco, Mexico. Employs 40 men« Peter J. Quinn, president; 
R. W. Elliott, secretary; Thos. R. Wame, manager. Organized April, 1899, 
under laws of South Dakota, with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. 
Debentures; $35,000 authorized, $10,000 issued, at 6%. Mineral lands, 
20 pertenencias, with 20-acre millsite and 20,000 acres of miscellaneous 
lands, in the BolaAos district. Has 3 shafts, deepest 360', also 3 tunnels, 
longest 600^. Property is an antigua, opened circa 1600, again worked 
1849-1863, and reopened by present company in 1899. Has steam power, 
air-compressor, shops and smelter receiving ore by tram, 4,000^ from the 
mine, having a 40-ton blast furnace and 20-ton reverberatory furnace, turn- 
ing out blister copper said to carry 95% copper, 160 oz. silver and 6 oz. 
gold per ton, which is refined, when made at all, at the Guggenheim plant 
in Aguascalientes. Nearest railroad is the Mexican Central. 140 miles distant. 
Smelter idle and company has been experimenting with a new-fangled 
"reduction process," which the inventor firmly expected would turn raw 
ore into blister copper without fluxes, in ond^heat. Ck)mpany said to con- 
template installing a concentrating plant.. 
AHNA MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Providence, Yavapai Ck)., Ariz. Supposed to be owned by 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. Jas. Gillespie, superintendent, at last accounts. 
Has steam power and 15-8tamp mill. Probably idle. 
ANNANDALE MINE. AUSTRALIA. 

Operated by Blayney Mining & Smelting Company. 
ANNIE MINE. > WYOMING. 

Mine office: Jelm, Albany Co., Wyo. C. W. Brammel, superintendent. 
ANTIETAM MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office :j;^Metcalf, Graham Co., Ariz. Paul F. Crowley, general 
manager. Lands, 3 claims opened by 146' shaft, with drifts showing ore 
body of 15' to 35' width, giving assays of 4% to 10% copper, 7 oz. silver 
and $2 gold per ton, from chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Has shipped con- 
siderable ore in a small way and is a property of much more than average 
promise, being developed without brag or bluster by practical miners. 

CX)MPANIA D£ COBRES DE ANT0FA6ASTA. CHILE. 

Office: Blanco No. 144, Valparaiso, Chile. Mine office: Chiquicamata, 
Antofagasta, Chile. Employs 100 men. Organized September, 1900, 
under laws of Chile, with capitalization £65,000, shares £10 par. Federico 
Lesser, chairman; Edouardo I. I. Sandiford, vice-chairman; Carlos R. Har- 
rison, secretary; Alejandro Muirhead, general manager. Lands are 30 
claims, area 100 hectareas, also 2 kilometres of river frontage for water 
power. Property is served by a branch of the Bolivian Railway. Company 
b devdoping its more important properties and on reaching a depth of 140 
metres with m^n shaft will crosscut 200 metres north and south, and drift 
same distance east and west on the vein. Company's holdings are situated 
in what is considered the most valuable portion of the Chiquicamata district. 



196 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

AO MINE. NEW CALEDONIA. 

Owned and operated by the Caledonia Copper Co., Ltd. 
APACHE COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of L. H. Wilson, fiscal agent, 52 Broadway, New York. 
Capitalization $2,500,000. M. Zulick, president. Lands are in Yuma 
Co., Ariz., about 25 miles east of the Colorado river and^ 100 miles west of 
Congress Junction, Ariz. Property is developed by shafts and tunnels show- 
ing ore with good gold and silver values. Considerable ore has been mined and 
13 on the dumps. Management is considered honest and property valuable, 
if given adequate transportation facilities, or smelter in the neighborhood. 
APACHE MINE. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Spear, Grant Co., N. M. Robt. Anderson, superintendent. 
APACHE & MULTNOMAH MINES. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Nespelim, Wash. F. O. Hudnut, superintendent. Ores 
carry gold, silver, copper and lead. 
APEX COPPER CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 304 Colorado Bldg., Colorado Springs, Colo. Mine office: Hay- 
man, Park Co., Colo. John JC. Vanatta, president; J. J. O'Driscoll, vice- 
president and general manager; W. L. Boatright, secretary; Emil Erickson, 
superintendent. Organized March, 1903, under laws of Colorado, with 
capitalization SI ,000,000, shares 11 par; unissued, $146,000. Ended 1904 
with $4,300 cash on hand and without liabilities. Lands, 9 claims, area 
about 90 acres, in the Lower Tarryall district, showing two nearly vertical 
contact veins between spar and limestone of 3' average width, carrying 
chalcopyrite and bomite assaying 14% to 30% copper, 7 oz. silver and $1.20 
gold per ton, opened by shafts of 210^, 40^ and 72', and by four tunnels of 
lO' to 90^. Has steam power, 7-drill Leyner air compressor and 3 power 
drills. Colorado Midland R. R. is 43^ miles distant. Company plans sink- 
ing a new 4x10^ working shaft to cut the vein at a depth of 250^, using the 
old shaft for ventilation. Management is well regarded. 
APEX MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 22 Sullivan Blk., Seattle, Wash. Mine office; Skykomish, Snoho- 
mish Co., Wash. Abner Griffin, president and general manager. Lands 
10 claims, 6 miles from Berlin, opened by tunnel showing a fair sized ore 
body giving good assays in copper, gold and silver. 
APOLLO CONSOLIDATED GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: New Haven, Conn. Mine office: Republic, Ferry Co., Wash. 
E. J. Delbridge, general manager. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. 
Has steam power and employed about 20 men at last accounts. 
APOLLO COPPER MINING h SMELTING CO. UTAH. 

Office and mine: Frisco, Beaver Co., Utah. Organized 1902, under 
laws of Utah, with capitalization $40,000, shares 10c par. Geo. A. Gilbert, 
president; Matilda Olsen, secretary and treasurer. Probably idle. 
NESTOR ARAIZA. MEXICO. 

Office: TepezaU, Agiiascalientes, Mexico. Said to own find operate 
pundry small copper properties in thftt vicinity. 



AkAKAWA—ARGflANA MADEN. 19? 

ARAKAWA MINE. JAPAN. 

Owned and operated by the Mitsu Bishi Gosshi Kwaisha. 
ARAMO COPPER MINES, LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices; 2, Metal Exchange Bldgs., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: 
Pola de Lena, Asturias, Spain. Organized, July 3, 1897, with capital, nom- 
inal, £40,000. C. W. Aston Key, secretary. Property is the Aramo copper 
and cobalt mines. 
ARBUCKLE & SCHUMAN GROUP. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: care of J. A. Stewart, superintendent, Clifton, Graham 
Co., Arizona. Lands adjoin the Shannon on the east. Five to ten men 
have been employed on development work during the two past years. Group 
ha? about a quarter mile of development work, showing some high-grade 
carbonate and sulphide ores. 
ARCADIAN COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 24 West St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Houghton, Houghton Co., 
Mich. Albert. C. Burrage, president; Chas. D. Biurrage, secretary and treas- 
urer; Nathan F. Leopold, general manager; Robt. H. Shields, agent. Organ- 
ized March 31, 1899, under laws of New Jersey, with capitalization $3,750,000, 
shares $25 par. Lands, about 4,000 acres, including 6 old mines. Was 
extensively opened 1898-1901, and equipped with magnificent buildings and 
machinery, including a 3-stamp mill at Grosse Pointe. Operations proving 
unsatisfactory, all work was suspended early in 1903. Hoists, machinery 
and shaft houses were sold to the Trimountain, mill to the Centennial and 
dwellings to various purchasers. Property has been dismantled completely. 
Company supposed to have a large floating indebtedness. 
ARCTIC CHIEF MINE. YUKON. 

Mine office: White Horse, Yukon, Canada. At close of 1904 was pre- 
paring to install an air compressor and power hoist. Said to have a good 
showing of ore. 
ARDILLA COPPER MINES, LTD. PORTUGAL. 

Offices: 20-21, Lawrence Lane, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Bar- 
ranoos, Alemtcjo, Portugal. Maj. Henry Slane Fleming, chairman, A. L. 
Pulido, mine manager; Wm. Cooper, secretary. Capital, nominal, £120,000; 
issued, £108,080. Lands, 11 concessions, area' 1,331 acres, on the Ardilla 
nver. Company is out of funds, with rather poor prospects. 
ARENILLAS COPPER MINES, LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: 7, Laurence Pountney Hill, Ix)ndon, E. C, Eng. Registered 
Jan. 9, 1903, with authorized capital £255,000. S. S. McNicol, chairman; 
S. A. Hassan, secretary. Lands, 108 hectarcas, including the Nerva mines 
at Arenillas, Spain. 
AR6HANA MADEN MINES. TURKEY. 

Office: care of Imperial Minister of Forests & Mines, Constantinople, 
Turkey. Mine office: Arghana Maden, Turkey. Property is owned and 
operated by the Turkish Crown. Ores average about 12% copper. Mine 
has been operated for nearlv 300 years and is opened by adits. Ore is smelted 
in a primitive manner, with charcoal, which is scarce at the mine, and pro- 



Ids THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

duct, amounting to about 2,500 metric tons annually, is shipped as a 50% to 
60% matte, on camel-back to Tokat, or the coast. Production is hampered 
by lack of transportation facilities. Mine workmen are paid in food, cloth- 
ing and tobacco. 
ARGO COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: care of Canoll & Martin, Helena, Mont. Property is near Canyon 
Ferry, Lewis & Clarke Co., Mont. H. W. Canoll, superintendent. Has a 
small concentrator and ships concentrates of about 25% in copper tenor 
with gold values. Ore is high grade, with iron gangue. 
ARGO MINING, DRAINAGE, TRANSPORTATION COLORADO. 

& TUNNEL CO. 

Succeeded by Argo Tunnel & Mining Co., Ltd. 
ARGO TUNNEL & MINING CO., LTD. COLORADO. 

Offices: 20, Great Winchester St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: 
Idaho Springs, Clear Creek Co., Colo. Capital, nominal, £350,000; £300,000 
issued, fully paid. F. Hargreaves, chainnan; Joseph C. E. Gillham, secretary; 
Lafayette Hanchett, superintendent. Is the second reorganization of the 
Newhouse Tunnel Co. Development Is by a 13,138' tunnel. Ores carry 
gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam and electric power. 
ARGOLIS COPPER MINING SYNDICATE, LTD. GREECE. 

Registered March 1, 1904, with capital, nominal, £3,000, to acquire 
concessions from M. M. Fatrow and Anton Polo for 8,543,993 square metres 
in the Picada district of Epidauros, near Nauplia, Greece. 
ARGYLE MINING CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

Offices: 194, St. Vincent St., Glasgow, Scotland. Mine office: Prescott, 
Yavapai Co., Ariz. A. Mitchell, secretary; Dr. Theodore B. Comstock, 
general manager; W. C. Bashford, local agent. Capital, nominal, £100,000; 
issued, £65,007. Lands, 2 claims, near Huron, Yavapai county, showing 
ore assaying well in copper, gold and silver. 
ARQfEX CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. ARIZONA & MEXICO. 

Office: 85 Ames Bldg., Boston, Mass. Organized under laws of New 
Jersey, with capitalization $5,000,000, shares $25 par. Chas. H. Dickey, 
president; C. D. Burrage, secretary. Property includes the Copper Prince 
group of 30 claims, in the Silver Bell district, Pima Co., Arizona, held through 
the Oxide Copper Co.; seven-eights of the stock of the Table Mountain Copper 
Co., which has 27 claims in the Bunker Hill mining district of Pinal Co., 
Arizona, and nine-tenths of the stock issue of the Angang Copper Co., which 
holds about 400 pcrtcnencias, known as the Chirangangueo mines, near 
Zitacuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Neither of the Arizona properties is of 
apparent value, but the Mexican claims might be of some value if properly 
developed. 
ARIZONA & ARKANSAS LEAD, ZINC ft ARIZONA ft ARKANSAS. 

COPPER MINING CO. 

Office: 208 Tajo Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Gila Bend, Marico- 
pa Co., Ariz. B. E. Lower, president and general manager; Alex. C. Murphy, 
secretary; A. A. Kendrick, superintendent. Organized April, 1900, under 



ARIZONA. 199 

laws of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 parT Lands 9 
cUums, in the Copper Zone Mountains, Eagle Tail district, 45 miles from Gila 
Bend, showing gold and copper ores. Also has lands in Baxter county, 
Arkansas, carrying lead, zinc and copper ores. 
ARIZONA BLUE BELL COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 71 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Mayer, Yavapai CJo. 
Ariz. Organized under laws of Delaware, with capitalization $500,000, 
shares $1 par. C. A. Hamilton, president; M. L. Bouden, secretary and 
treasurer; Ernest A. Haggott, general manager. Lands, 3 claims, area 
60 acres, also 320 acres miscellaneous lands, in the Big Bug district. Has 3 
veins, fissures in Algonkian slates, with quartzite footwall and grano-diorite 
hanging, developed by 6 shafts, deepest 300^, and tunnels of TO' and 75', 
giving assays of 5.85% copper, 2.35 oz. silver and 0.15 oz. gold per ton, from 
cuprite, malachite and chalcopyrite. Estimated by company to have 200,000 
tons of ore blocked out, which probably is much too high, but is said to have 
a very large ore body on the 300' level. 
ARIZONA CENTRAL COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Prescott, Ariz. Mine office: Williams, Coconino Co., Ariz*. J. F. 
Wilson, president; J. M. Elder, secretary; M. Salzman, superintendent. 
ARIZONA-COLORADO COPPER BELT & GOLD ARIZONA. 

MINING ft MILLING CO. 

Office: 248 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Globe, Gila 
Co., Ariz. Hon. R. L. Foree, president and general manager; Frank A. 
Wright, vice-president; Jos. D. W^hitham, secretary and treasurer; Dayton 
B. Wliitham, superintendent and engineer. Organized September, 1001, 
under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 
18 claims, area 370 acres, showing veins ranging from 3' to 100' in width, 
carrying auriferous and argentiferous oxide and carbonate ores of copper 
assaying 8% to 30% copper, 20% to 50% lead, 1 oz. to 200 oz. silver and 
$3 to $30 gold per ton. Has 7 pits and shafts, deepest 165', also several 
tunnels from 10' to 200' in length. Has 100-h. p. steam equipment. Work 
was resumed late in 1904, after some months idleness. 
ARIZONA COMMERCIAL CO. ARIZONA. 

Succeeded, 1904,* by Arizona Commercial Copper Co. 
ARIZONA COMMERCIAL COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 11 Pine St., New York, N. Y. Mine office: Globe, Gila Co., Ariz. 
Organized 1904, under laws of Maine, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares 
$25 par. Of the stock issue, $1,000,000 was given the Arizona Commercial 
Co., for transfer of its property, $1,000,000 was given the Metamora Company 
for its property, and $500,000 was retained in the treasury for working capital. 
N. L. Amster, consulting engineer; W. S. Sultan, superintendent. Lands, 
sundry claims just north of the Old Dominion and adjoining the United 
Globe. Principal development is on tlie Copper Hill claim, which has a 
620* shaft, showing oxide and carbonate ores near si^rface, with an 8' vein 
of medium grade chalcopyrite on the sixth, or bottom level. Mine has about 
4,000' of openings, said to show 200,000 tons of ore blocked out, partly smelt- 



200 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ing ore l^ut mainly of concentrating grade. Mine is connected underground 
with the Gray mine of the Old Dominion, for ventilation and safety. Property 
is considered promising and the new management, which is composed of 
able and experienced copper men, purposes pusliing developments syste- 
matically. 
ARIZONA CONSOLIDATED COPPER MINES, LTD. ARIZONA. 

OfHces : 80, Coleman St. , London, E. C. , Eng. W. W. Macalistcr, secretary. 
Organized June 17, 1899, with capital nominal, £150,000, shares £1 par. 
Lands, sundry claims in the Copper Mountain district of Graham county, 
Arizona. 
ARIZONA CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. DELAWARE. 

Office: 1420 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Organized July, 1904, 
under laws of Delaware, with capitalization $1 ,000,000, shares $1 par, in 
$300,000 preferred and $700,000 common stock. Alfred S. Miller, president; 
James N. Stetson, secretary and treasurer. Lands include the Russell group 
in the Dragoon Mountains, Cochise Co., Arizona, formerly owned by the 
Russell United Copper Co. Development b by a 300' working shaft on 
the Mammoth and a 250^ shaft on the Republic, disclosing large quantities 
of sulphide ore, several thousand tons of which have given smelter returns 
of 12% to 15% copper. Company plans erection of reduction plant or 
smelter during 1905, also construction of a 7-mile railroad from the mines 
to Cochise Station, on the Southern Pacific R. R. Company is in good 
financial condition, without debts, and has sold no stock publicly, working 
capital being provided by the management. Property is one of considerable 
promise, and possesses an energetic and honest management. 
ARIZONA COPPER BUTTE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Minneapolis, Minn. Lands, if any, not located. Perhaps same 
company as the Copper Butte Mines. 
ARIZONA COPPER CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

Offices: 29, St. Andrew Sq., Edinburg, Scotland. Mine office: Clifton, 
Graham Co., Ariz. Employs about 2,000 men. Organized August 5, 1884, 
with capitalization £755,000, of which £736;504 is issued, in 160,000A 58. 
preference shares, £316,530 fully paid preference shares, £316,530 fully 
paid preferred ordinary shares ajid £63,444 fully paid deferred shares. Prof- 
its are divided as follows: 10% cumulative dividends on A preference 
shares; cumulative 7% dividends on preference shares; lO^J non-cumulative 
dividends on preferred ordinary shares; 10% non-cumulative dividends on 
deferred ordinary shares; balance, if any, to be divided pro rata between 
preferred ordinary and deferred ordinary sliarea. Debentures, £183,000 at 
5%. Fiscal year ends Sept. 30th. Company pays large dividends, having 
paid 5s. 6d. Feb. 25, 1903, on preferred and common stock, an interim dividend 
of same amount July 24, 1903 and regular dividend of same amount on Sept. 
30, 1903. In addition to paying large dividends the company has expended 
about £560,000 in reconst met ion of plant, railways, et^*., since 1901. About 
20% of the stock issued is held in the United States. For the year ending 
March 31, 1904, the company earned profits of nearly £150,000, and a divi- 



A HI ZONA. 201 

dend of £107,659 on ordinary shares was paid July, 1904. Sir Wm. John 
Menziee, W. S., chairman; Wm. flxley Miller, C. A., secretary; James Colqu- 
houn, general superintendent; Alex. Veitch, general manager; Geo. Fraser, 
superintendent; Walter A. Moore, mill superintendent; A. T. Thompson, 
clerk. 

Lands, about 4,000 acres, including eight producing mines at Morenci, 
Metcalf, Longfellow, Garfield and Coronado, all in Graham Co., Ariz. The 
ores average about 3.25% copper and production is about 10%, smelting 
ore and 90% concentrating ore. The mines are developed to a depth* of 
about 500^ only and are opened mainly by tunnels, giving cheap extraction. 
Notwitlistanding the comparative shallowness of the properties, a tremend- 
ous amount of ore is developed, the ore reserves being estimated by the 
company's engineer as giving 20 to 25 years supply in sight. This estimate 
is a conservative one. 

The Humboldt mine, which is the largest producer, shows an enormous 
body of low-grade disseminated chalcocite. Extraction from this property 
is partly open-cast, but mainly through tunnels equipped with electric 
lights and electric traction. The haulage system uses the overhead trolley, 
power being furnished by a 146-h. p. Crossley gas engine driving a 100-h. p. 
generator that furnishes a 225-volt current. Electric locomotives of 10-h. p. 
haul 40-ton loads, the line having a single track laid with 35-lb. rails that 
runs 600^ directly into the mountain, with a loop reaching all workings of the 
Humboldt mine. 

Tlie Longfellow mine is the oldest copper producer of Arizona, dating 
from circa 1877. Extensive developments are under way, these including 
a new tunnel driven in from Chase Creek, which will do away with the hoisting 
plant and permit cheaper extraction, while opening the mine to much greater 
depth than heretofore. 

The Metcalf group, 7 miles from Clifton, is worked open-cast and is 
an extensive producer, product being mainly low-grade oxidized ores, which are 
concentrated with the sulphide ores from the Humboldt and Yavapai groups. 
The Coronado group, 9 miles from Clifton, has a new shaft down 400^ and 
is producing considerable high-grade ore. The Clay is a small producer. 

Ore is taken from the different mines by 6 gravity tram-lines to storage 
bins on the Coronado railroad, thence to the reduction plant, at Clifton. 
This was remodeled 1902, and further enlarged in 1904, and now includes 
five concentrators, smelter, acid plant and leaching plant. The concentra- 
tors have a combined daily capacity of about 1,200 tons, and are operated 
by gas and electric power. There is also a 300-ton concentrator at Long- 
fellow, for which power is furnished by three 110-h. p. Crossley gas engines. 
The concentrator puts 6.6 tons of crude ore into one ton of concentrates, 
and Chase Creek has been dammed, to stop the tailings going into the Frisco 
and thence into the Gila river, which caused considerable damage to farmers 
and ranchers, and was a source of annoyance to all concerned. Concentra- 
tor and smelter are connected by a gravity tramway. 

The smelter has a steel frame, slate roof and floor of iron plates laid in 



202 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

m 

cement, being well designed and thoroughly modem. There are six SOO-toi!! 
water jacket furnaces, with blast supplied by No. 7 and No. 9 Root blowers 
operated by a 270-h. p. engine. Gases from the furnace pass through a 48(K 
tunnel and a 300' shaft, discharging 300' above the level of the town. Matte 
of 50% to 55% is charged into the converters by a 10-ton ladle operated by 
a 30-ton electric crane. The conversion plant has 3 stands with six 7-ton 
shells, havhig a daily capacity of 50 tons of 99.5% blister copper. Dis- 
int^ration of slag by running water was tried, but has been discontinued 
and niolten slag again is handled in ladle cars, with a steam locomotive. 
The reduction plant went into conunission in 1901, and is well designed and 
thoroughly modem throughout. The acid plant makes about 3,500 tons 
of sulphuric acid yearly from the fumes of the roasters, the entire product 
being used in the leaching plant, which treats an average of about 250 tons 
of low-grade oxidized ores daily. In connection with the ILxiviation works 
there is a 125-ton bluestone plant, making about 3,000,000 lbs. of cop- 
per yearly. The Arizona has developed the most successful leaching plant 
in the United States, and its management is entitled to great credit therefor. 
The mines and *works use about 2,700 h.- p., supplied almost equally 
from gas, steam and distillate engines. The company operates the Coronado 
railway, of standard gauge for 4 miles from Clifton to Longfellow and of 
36^^ gauge 2.5 miles from I^ongfellow to Metcalf, also the Arizona &. New 
Mexico railway, a standard gauge line running 107 miles from Clifton to 
Ilachita, N. M., where connections are secured with the El Paso & South- 
western. Profits of these lines were £69,173 in 1903. The Coronado railway 
has 30-ton ore cars. 

« 

The miscellaneous enterprises of the company include a well equipped 
foundry and macliinc shop, sawmill, planing mill and 20-ton ice plant, in 
addition to the usual shops. Construction of all buildings is of brick. A 
good library and reading room are maintained for employes. Production 
was 29,200,552 lbs. refined copper in 1904, arid should be about 35,000,000 lbs. 
in 1905.' The property is one of great magnitude, and production can be 
largely increased by enlarging the already extensive plant. The company's 
management is excellent both as to finances, and the physical handling of the 
mines, mills and smelters. Production, 1904, was 32,197,760 lbs. fine coi)pcr. 
ARIZONA COPPER & GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter to company's address at Phoenix, Ariz., returned unclaimed. 
ARIZONA COPPER HILL MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Jackson Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Tucson, Pima Co., 
Ariz. Organized 1900, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, 
shares $1 par. Edwin Scott, president; J. H. Edwards, secretary, Frank J. 
Buck, superintendent. Lands, 4 patented claims, area 65 acres, also 5-acre 
milLsite and 160 acres miscellaneous lands, in the Caiiada del Oro district 
near Oracle, Pinal county, Arizona, said to show a contact vein of 20' to 70* 
width and 4, 817' length, giving estimated average values of 4% copper from 
carbonate and s\ilphide ores. Is opened by shafts of 281' and 350' and a 350* 
tunnel, with about 2,000' of underground openings, showing considerable 
ore. Has steam and gasoline power and lOQ-ton cyanide plant. 



ARIZONA: 203 

ARIZONA COPPER MmiNG CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Tucson. Pima Co., Ariz. B. C. Brechta, superintendent. 
Lands. 20 claims, opened by 400^ tunnel, said to show an 8' vein carrying high 
grade ore. Company said to plan erection of a smelter. 
ARIZONA COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Title changed, 1904, to Copper Butte Mines. 
ARIZONA COPPER PLACER MINING ft MILLING CO. ARIZONA. 

Said to have operated near Quartzite, Yuma county, Arizona. 
ARIZONA COPPER SYNDICATE. 

Former office, 32 Broadway, New York. Organized .under laws of 
West Virginia. Lands were forfeited, and afterwards bought back 
by leading shareholders and deeded back to company, subject to a $7,000 
mortgage, covering back taxes and cash advanced. An effort is being made 
to reorganize under title of Clifton Copper Mines, Ltd. 
ARIZONA COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. ARIZONA. 

An English corporation. Moribund. 
ARIZONA, EASTERN & MONTANA SMELTING & ORE MONTANA. 

PURCHASING CO. 

Company apparently organized solely to sell stock. Dr. R. C. Flower, 
a notorious mining stock swindler, was a promoter. 
ARIZONA GIANT COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 229 Byrne Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Elu^nburg, 
Yuma Co., Ariz. R. M. Furlong, president; H. Franklyn Hiller, secretary 
and treasurer. Capitalization S3 ,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands 320 acres. 
Old management, which sold considerable stock at fancy prices, was ousted 
September, 1903. Former officers withheld books and present management 
wishes an accounting. 
ARIZONA GOLD & COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 30 Broad St., New York. Mine office: Patagonia, Santa Cruz 
Co., Ariz. Organized February, 1900, under laws of Arizona, with capi- 
talization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Debentures, $32,500 first-mortgage 
6% bonds, dated Feb. 1, 1902. Floyd B. Wilson, president; Frederick K. 
Jones, secretary; Col. Geo. W. Crowe, general manager; Harry L. Vaughn 
superintendent. Lands, 7 claims, area 140 acres, in the Tyndall district 
of the Santa Rita mountains, including the Gaelic, Trenton and Salero mines, 
opened by 7 shafts and a tunnel, latter showing a A' vein said to average 3% 
copper, 15% to 20% lead and 10 oz. silver per ton. Has a 50-ton concen- 
trator, built in 1903, and an 80- ton smelter at Patagonia. 
ARIZONA GOLD & COPPER MINES CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 19 Park Row, New York. Mine office: Wickenburg, Maricopa 
Co., Ariz. Geo. A. Sanders, manager; A. A. Pratt, superintendent. Prop- 
erty is the Angel mine. Ores carry gold and copper. Has gasoline power. 
ARIZONA GOLD & COPPER REDUCTION CO. 

An enterprise floated by Theodore Stegner, of Kansas City, Mo., a notor- 
ious promoter of swindling mining companies. 
ARIZONA GOLD MINING & MILLING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned from former mine office, Briggs, Yavapai Co., Arizona, 



204 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

marked "out of business." Claims included the Swallow mine, showing 
auriferous copper ores and equipped with gasoline power and IQ^tamp mill. 
ARIZONA GOLD MIIVING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. Mine office: Wicken- 
burg, Maricopa Co., Ariz. O. H. Perry, president and general manager; 
W. T. Perry, secretary. Employs about 10 men. Ores carry gold and 
copper. Has gasoline power and plans building a small mill. 
ARIZONA & HANCOCK MINING CO. ' ARIZONA. 

Office: Hancock, Mich. Mine office: Globe, Gila Co., Ariz. Organized 
1001, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $250,000, shares $1 par, as 
the Pinto Creek Copper Co. John D. Cuddihy, president; Alfred C. Sieboth, 
vice-president and manager; Henry L. Baer, secretary and treasurer. Lands, 
19 claims, near Globe, opened by a 450^ shaft and 400^ crosscut, showing 
considerable bodies of 3% to 5% ore, main shaft showing stringers of rich 
ore on the 450^ level, and expected to cut the Proctor lode at a depth of about 
725'. Has steam power. Nearest railroad, 2 miles. 
ARIZONA ft HECLA DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Proposed title of company organized later as Pittsburg &, Hecla Devel- 
opment Co. 
ARIZONA-MEXICAN COPPER CO. MEXICO.. 

Office: Phoenix, Ariz. Mine office: Caborca, Sonora, Mex. Employs 
about 40 men. J. E. Hubinger, president; W. E. Defty, vice-president and 
consulting engineer; W. C. Foster, treasurer; C. T. Vincent, superinten- 
dent; J. C. Flores, mine foreman. Organized February 14, 1902, under 
laws of Arizona, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares $10 par; unissued, 
$780,000. Lands, 79 pertenencias, known as La Gran Proveedora de Cobre, 
in the Altar district, 75 miles from the Sonora Railway. Country rock is 
granite, ores carrying an iron and spar gangue. Vein is 228' wide giving 
average assays of 6.7% copper, 12 oz. silver and $2 gold per ton, and is opened 
by shafts of 102' and 200^, and tunnels of 209' and 228'. Development 
work has been well planned and executed, every foot of opening being in 
the ore body. A winze from a 190' drift follows the footwall, entirely in ore, 
with druses of veiy rich carbonates. About 2,500' of underground open- 
ings have been secured, of which 2,300^ are in ore. Extreme depth reached 
is 525'. Gangue of ores being spar and iron, an ideal self-fluxing ore re- 
sults. From the 400' level down some ore bodies assayed 22% to 30% 
copper and as high as 131 oz. silver per ton. Results have been so satis- 
factory that the company, which practically is a close corporation, has de- 
cided to install a 100-ton smelter, which it is hoped to have in blast about 
the close of 1905. Management is good and property gives every indication 
of making a large and successful mine. 
ARLZONA-MICHIGAN MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

A company by this name is said to be operating in the Bradshaw Moun- 
tains, about 14 miles south of Prescott, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 
ARIZONA MINE. WYOMINO. 

Mine office: Hecla, Laramie Co., Wyo. Horace E. Adams, owner. Haa 
9team power, 5-6tamp mill and leaching plant, Orw cany gold wid copper. 



ARIZONA— ARLINGTON. 205 

ARIZONA imriNG CO. NEW IftEXICO. 

Office: 311 Pozzoni Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Mine office: Finos Altos, Grant 
Co., N. M. F. Townsend,. superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver and 
copper. Has gasoline power and employed about 25 men at last accounts. 
ARIZONA MHVING & DEVELOPMENT CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Naco, Sonora, Mexico. Lands, a group of claims about 
8 miles south of Naco, formerly held by the Gold Treasure Mining Co. 
ARIZONA-PACIFIC COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 702 Stevenson Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. Mine office: Florence, 
Pinal Co., Ariz. Organized, March 30, 1903, under laws of Arizona, with 
capitalization S5 ,000,000, shares II par. F. P. Jeffries, president; John 
W. Sharpe, vice-president and general manager; Henry Severin, treasurer; 
Murat W. Hopkins, secretary; £. R. Stafford, superintendent. Lands, 
16 claims, area 330 acres, also an 80-acre smelter site and 160 acres of possible 
oil lands. Property shows sundry minor veins, assaying 3% to 20% copper 
and t5 to $20 gold per ton. A quartz-porphyry dyke, 1,200^ long and about 
500^ in extreme width, with axes east and west, is shattered in every direction, 
and cemented by veins carrying cuprite, melaconite and chalcocite, giving 
estimated average values of 3% copper, 1 oz. silver and $2 gold per ton. 
Has shafts of SO' and 350^, 600^ apart, also tunnels of 260^ and 342^, at same 
distance. Has 2 gasoline hoists, air-compressor, power drills and necessary 
mine buildings. Officers of company are men of good standing and the 
property is regarded as promising, owing to great size of the ore body, though 
the ore is low in tenor, but well adapted to close and economical concentra- 
tion. It is planned to install a small concentrator during 1905. 
ARIZONA X7NI0N CONSOLIDATED GOLD & COPPER UTAH. 

MINING CO. 

Supposed to have an office in Cincinnati, and supposed to have 54 claims 
about 150 miles from Fairfield, Utah, the nearest railroad point. Company's 
literature deals largely in glittering generalities. 
ARIZONA UNITED COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 35 Wall St., New York. £dmund D. Willette, president, at 
last accounts. Apparently moribund. 
ARIZONA UNITED COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 1417 Chemical Bldg., St. 
Louis, Mo. 
ARIZONA &. WEST LAKE COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Bisbee, Ariz. Organized 1903, under laws of Arizona, with 
capitalization $1,000,000. John M. Stanaway, president; J. J. McCarthy, 
superintendent. Lands, 18 claims, 3 miles northwest of Packard, Cochise 
county, Arizona. Had a 65' sliaft early in 1904. 
ARIZPE GOLD & COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Had lands in the Arizpe district of Sonora, Mexico. Company dead, with 
enough charges-of fraud to justify a post mortem. 
ARLINGTON MINE. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from ConconuUy, Okanogan Co., Wash. 



206 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

H. S. Stoolfire, owner. Ores cany gold, silver and copper. Has steam 

power. 

ARLIH6T0N COPPER CO. HEW JERSEY. 

Lands at Ariingtonf N. J., sold Sept. 30, 1903, for debt. 
SUCESION FRANCISCO ARMAHDAIZ. MEXICO. 

Office: Apartado Postal 37, Monterey, N. L., Hex. Mine office: Cer- 
ralvo, Nuevo Le6n, Mex. Ores carry silver, lead and cof^ier. Employs 
50 to 60 men. 

ARMnnas chemical co. vntGnnA. 

Office: 56 Wall St., New York. Mine office: Mineral C^ty, Louisa Co., 
Va. Rowland F. Hill, president; W. Maw, secretary; Alvin P. Maw, general 
manager. Mines cupriferous pyrites. Has steam power, and concentrator. 
SOCIEDAD MINERA LA ARIOSTAD. SPAHf. 

Office* San Antonio, 44, Granada, Spain. Mine office: Albenuelas, 
Granada, Spain. Don Joaquin Marin Robles, president. Property ts the 
Santa Ines mine, carrying copper and cobalt ores. 
ARMSTRONG MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: care of W. Roy, Merced, Gal. Property is a prospect in Indian 
Gulch, Mariposa county, California. 
ARNOLD MINE. MONTANA. 

Office: care of Dr. G. E. Blackburn, owner, Butte, Mont. Mine office: 
EUiston, Powell Co., Mont. Made some shipments of carbonate copper 
ore to smelter at Tacoma, Washington, late in 1901. 
ARNOLD MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 50 State St., Boston, Mass. C. Howard Weston, president; John 
Brooks, secretary and treasurer; Wesdey Clark, superintendent. Organized 
imder laws of Michigan, with capitalization 12,500,000, shares $25 par; issued, 
$1,550,000. Has about 50 cents per share cash in treasmy. Annual meeting, 
second Tuesday in May. Lands 3323 acres, in Town 58 North, Range 
31 West, and Town 58 North, Range 30 West, Keweenaw county, Michigan. 
Lands are in two tracts, comprising the old Copper Falls mine and tlie Arnold 
mine proper, with frontage of about 3 miles on Lake Superior. Property 
lies north of the greenstone. Copper FaUs mine worked, circa 1S50 until 
August 1893, nviking 12.843 tons, 429 pounds fine copper, and pa^Hng di\i- 
dends of $100,000. Product was secured mainly from the Owl Creek fissure 
vein, .\mold mine proper is developed on the .\mold ashbed; opened 1863, 
rei»|)encd ls97, closed 1901. Rock stamped averaged under 0-8*^ copper. 
Has a stamp mill and 2}^ mile narrow gauge railroad, known as Arnold & 
E:i^le Harl)or, n»llin!r stwk of winch luis been sold. No. 1 sliaft of the 
Arnold is alx>ut 1 .OIXK det*p. sunk at anirlo of 26^ with the horizon. Recent 
developments at the Miskwabik property to the south, hold out encourage- 
ment that the Arnold may carr>* the northern exten>K»n of the Kearsarge lode. 
ARPS CLAIMS. CAUFORHIA. 

Fifteen claims, in Town 34 North, Range 3 West, Stiasta county. Call- 
foniia. Have 4 tunnels, aggregating IffitKy, with fair showing of sulphide 



ARPS—ASTOR., 207 

< • 

ore. Letters addressed to putative owners returned unclaimed from Red- 
ding, Cal. 
ARRINO PROPRIETARY COPPER MmiNG CO. WEST AUSTRALIA. 

Office: 17 Queen St., Melbourne, Australia. David Blair, manager. 
Property is in Western Australia, lands showing sandstone beds of Permian 
age, ore occurring as bunches and thin veins following the joints and fissures 
of the sandstone. Ores are mainly oxides and carbonates, with a little sulphide 
ore recently exposed. Sandstone formation, occupying a basin with gneiss 
walls, is about 300' wide by one mile long. Bulk parcels of ores shipped 
have given returns of 3.75% to 26%. Property has rail connections but 
process best adapted to treating ores of such unusual nature and occurrence 
has not been decided upon as yet. 
ARTOLA HERMANOS. CHILE. 

Mine office: Ck>bija, Tocopilla, Chile. Operate the Gatico mine, opened 
1S91. Product, shipped as matte, is equivalent to an annual output of 
1,000 to 2,000 tons of refined copper. 
ERZBER6WERKE ASBECK BRUGGEN UlID GERMANY. 

BRttGER-ROBERT. 

Mine office: Rdnsahl, Westfalen, Germany. Apparently idle. 
ASCOT MINE. QUEBEC. 

Mine office: Capelton, Sherforooke Ck)., Que. Is a prospect undergoing 
development. 
ASHBED MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 50 State St., Boston, Mass. Organized 1880, under laws of 
Michigan, with capitalization $1,000,000. John Brooks, secretary; Wesley 
Clark, superintendenf. Lands, 1,143 acres, in vicinity of Copper Falls, 
Keweenaw county, Michigan. Property idle. Fully described in Vol. II. 
ASmO MINE. JAPAN. 

Owned and operated by Furukawa Copper Co. 
ASHLAND MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Ohio, Gunnison Co., Colo. Carroll M. Carter, superintendent, 
property is the Carter group, carrying gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc 
ores. Has steam power and employed about 20 men, at last accounts. 

COMPANIA MINERA DE ASIENTOS. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. Harry Rab, superintendent. 
Lands include the Nopensada mine, producing copper and silver. Main 
shaft 200*. Has steam and electric power and operates on a considerable scale. 
SOCIETE CIVILE DES MINES DE CUIVRE D'ASPEICH. FRANCE. 

Offices: 3, Rue de Milan, Paris, France. G. Caton, nuinager. Lands 
are in the Baases Pyrenees, France. Idle. 
ASTOR MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Eureka, San Juan Co., Colo. E. C. Condit, superintendent. 
Property includes the Surprise, Mogul and other claims, carrying gold, silver, 
lead and copper. Has steam, water and electric power, and employs about 
25 men. 



206 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

SOCIEDAD IHDUSTRIAL ASTURIAHA. SPAIH. 

Office: Oviedo, Spain. Mine office, Torres, Teruel, Spain. Lands, a 
group of slightly developed claims, near Torres. 

SOCIEDAD IHDUSTRIAL DE ATACAMA. CHILE. 

Office and works: Tierra Anuuilla, Copiap6, Atacama, Chile. Blines 
inchide the Lautaio, at Almolanos, in the San Antonio district of Copiap6, 
and other properties, and the company also has an idle smelter at Caldenu 
In 1903 the smelter at Tierra Amarilla treated 17,526 metric tons oi ore, 
giving average returns of 11^ copper, with considerable gpld values, product 
being shipped as a rich auriferous copper^ matte. 

ATACAMA MIHERAL CO., LTD. CHILE. 

Voluntarily liquidated. 
ATE MIHE. JAPAE. 

Mine office: Komatsu, Kaga, Japan. Works two main vdns, in liparite 
and brecciated tufa, one being a fissure and one a contact vein. These veins 
cross, the intersection giving the richest ore. At a little distance from the 
point of intersection veins thin out and become of poor quality. Ore is chal- 
cop3rrite, with iron pyrites, showing bomite and tenorite in the upper por- 
tions, averaging about 10^ copper. Production for 1900 was 231.484 lbs. 

ATHELSTAE GOLD MDIIFG CO., LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Absoibed, 1904, by Montreal & Boston Consolidated Mining & Smelt- 
ing Go. 

ATHELSTOH & JACKPOT MDiniG CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Absorbed, 1901, by Montreal & Boston Consolidated Mining & Smelt- 
ing Co. 

ATLAETIC MmiHG COMPAHT. MICHIGAK. 

Office: 15 William St., New Yori^. Mine office: Atlantic Mine, Hough- 
ton Co., Mich. £mplo>'s about 700 men. Organized December, 1872. under 
laws of Michigan; reincorporated 1901, for teim of 30 years, and capitalisa- 
tion increased 1902 to $2,500,000. shares $25 par, $9.80 paid in. .\nnual 
meeting, second Tuesday in March, .\mcncan Loan & Trust Co., Boston 
Transfer agent, Boston Safe Deposit & Trust Co., registrar. Jos. £. Gay. 
president; John Stanton, secretar>' and treasurer; preceding officers, John 
R. Stanton. \Vm. C. Stuart, J. Wheeler HaitUey, Wm. A. Paine and Samuel 
L. Smith directors; Frank McM. Stanton, agent; Tliwxlore Dengler superin- 
tendent; F. G. Coggin, mill superintendent; John Stratton, mining captain; 
A. D. Edwards, clerk; John Grijgr, master mecluuiic. 

Official returns to the state of Micliigan, as of date Jan. 1, 1904, disclose 
the following figures: 

Amount of cash paid in on capital stock $280,000 00 

Amount paid in by conveyance of property to company 700,000 00 

Entire amount invested in real cs^tatc 20.349. 60 

Amount of prrwnal estate 344,91 1 . 53 

Floating debt ]00,46S.33 



ATLANTIC. 200 

Gcmiparative figures for four years are as follows: 

1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 

Mineral produced, lbs.. 6,677,965 6,317,645 6,847,270 7,670,660 
Refined copper, lbs. .. . 4,930,149 4,666,889 4,949,366 6,605,598 

Total income $ 800,177 $ 735,677 S 688,200 % 722^86 

Expenses at mine 665,254 673341 535,966 617384 

Smelting and transp'n 6O3II 62,954 62,954 64,667 

Interest 4,199 

Total cost 616,656 636,296 698,910 686,151 

Mining profits 193,621 99,281 136,234 

Land sales 11,600 47,788 25,000 

Construction 114,007 191,143 38,676 10,803 

Balance +79,613 --80,262 —1,598 +150,341 

Dividends 80,000 

Surplus 175,962 95,699 94,101 244,443 

A dividend of 50 cents per share, amounting to (50.000, will be paid 
Feb., 16, 1905. Last previous dividend was $1 per share, amounting to 
$40,000, in 1901. 

The Atlantic mine lies about 2 miles south of Portage Lake and 4 miles 
southwest of Houghton, the 640-acre main tract including the mines known as 
the South Pewabic and Adams before 1872. The Atlantic has the Pacific 
on the north; Isle Royale and undeveloped lands on the east and south, and 
the Pacific and St. Mary's Mineral Land Go. on the west. The Atlantic lands 
are all on the mineral belt, being the south half of Section 4, except the 
southeast quarter of the southeast quarter; the north half of Section 9, and 
the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 10, all in Town 54 
North, Range 34 West. The company also owns all of Section 16, same 
town and range, bought in 1897, on which crosscuts have been sent east and 
west, in search of the Baltic amygdaloid, without success, work having been 
discontinued August, 1903. The cqmpany also owns several thousand acres 
of timber lands, a millsite on Lake Superior and valuable frontage on Portage 
I^ake. 

The mine is opened on an amygdaloid bed of brownish, mottled color, 
iveraging about 15' width, with strike of N. 50° E., and dip of 54*^ to 55** to 
he northwest. The lode is the most westerly worked in Houghton county, 
.nd is known locally as an ashbed, greatly resembling the ashbed of the 
Arnold and adjacent mines, and being in line with the pit)bable southwest- 
erly continuation of the Keweenaw county ashbed. The Atlantic ashbed 
carries the least -copper of any lode now worked successfully, and long has 
been famous for its profits, wrung from rock yielding much less than 1% 
ingot copper. The low percentage of copper carried by the lode is a decidedly 
adverse factor, but the mine, under its present management, has met and 
survived many discouragements, including lean rock, mine fires, costly 
equipment necessitated by deepening shafts, installation of new machinery, 
the construction of a new mil!, and the building of a private railroad required 
for the trafiic of the mine. Among other disadvantages are a wet mine, 



210 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

causing heavy pumping charges, and a treacherous hanging wall, necessita- 
ting the heaviest timbering used in any amygdaloid mine of the Lake Superior 
district. To offset all this are certain maiiced advantages, the ashbed being 
the softest rock mined in the district, requiring less power in drilling, less 
dynamite in breaking, and less steam in stamping, than any other lode, and 
breaking well, while everything is mined from wall to wall. The best of 
the lode is so low in copper that no assorting is attempted. The property 
has an able and economical management, and is often quoted by mining 
men and the technical press as tlie finest example extant of a successful 
' low-grade mine. 

There are 6 shafts, lettered in order from north to south. "A" shaft, 
the northermost, opened in 1897 to develop newly purchased ground, was 
sunk at an angle of 54°, one degree flatter than the other shafts, and is the 
largest in dimensions of any, being 9x20^ inside of timbers, with three com- 
partments, two of which are skipways, the third for men and pipes. Surface 
improvements, completed in 1899, consist of a wooden shaft-rockhouse, 
35x67' on the ground and 84' high, with four rock-crushers. There is a 
38x50^ boiler-house with redstone walls and steel truss roof, and a 48x50^ 
engine-house of the same construction, containing a 26x48' double Corliss 
engine of Allis-Ohalmers make with double conical drum of ICK diameter^ at 
either end and 15' 6' in the center, raising 9-ton skips. The shaft proved 
lean, especially in the north drifts and careful mill tests proving this the 
poorest part of the mine, ''A" shaft was abandoned in 1904. 

''B" shaft is 1377' southwest of "A" with 2 compartments, both having 
skip-tracks. This shaft was 2,200' deep at the close of 1904, showing good 
copper ground. "B" shaft has a fine surface plant, with double conical 
drum Corliss hoist of Allis-Chalmers make, similar in design to the plant at 
"A" shaft, but much larger throughout, the drum being 12' at each end and 
24' A" in diameter at the middle, where there is a cylindrical section 18* 
wide, thence tapering sharply in both directions. The drum has a 22' face 
and weighs 140 tons, all grooves being lathe-turned for 1%" steel cable. 
The hoist is operated in counterbalance and is good for a depth of 4,000', 
11-ton skips being raised at a speed of 3,400' per minute. The hoist operates 
at a steam pressure of 100 pounds to the inch, and is direct-acting and non- 
condensing, with band brakes at either end, set by gravity and instantaneously 
released by steam power. "C" shaft, next southwest was abandoned after 
the fire of 1898. 

"D" shaft, 1,465' southwest of "B", 3,000' in depth, the deepest and 
best shaft of the mine, is 9x18' in size inside of timbers, with three compart- 
ments, two for skips worked in balance. The engine-house is 48x60' of 
redstone with steel tniss roof, housing a Nordberg hoist working in balance 
and calculated to hoist six-ton skips from one mile depth. The boiler-house 
has four 150-h. p. Stirling boilers. This shaft is looking well and gives promise 
of good rock for tlie future, as it commands a large territory, and the bottom 
levels are the richest, and furnish the bulk of the Atlantic's production. 
"E" shaft, 2,440' deep is used for a man-way and pipes only. **F" shaft, 



ATLANTIC. ^n 

478' southwest of "D'' was long a large producer and was 2,146' deep when 
put out of commission in 1902. 

The lower levels of the mine apparently are growing richer. It is planned 
to make an important change in the system of mining by sinking the 
two operating shafts to the boundary lines, then begin extracting the rock 
from the bottom levels and working up. This method will permit the aban- 
donment of all old drifts as soon as stoped, saving greatly in timbering costs. 
Air-blasts are causing some uneasiness. 

The mine's equipment includes a 50-driIl IngersoU-Sergeant air com- 
pressor, machine, carpenter and blacksmith shops, and a sawmilL The 
principal buildings have fire pumps, and there is an efficient volunteer fire 
brigade. The village dependent on the mine has about 500 clwellings, half 
owned by the company, with several churches and one of the best graded 
schools in the state. The management always has taken a personal interest 
in the moral and material welfare of its employes, and Ls rewarded by the con- 
fidence and friendship of its workmen, regardless of nationality or creed. 

The Atlantic railroad, owned by the company, connects mine and miU 
with 9 miles of main line, and a 3-mile branch line runs from the mine to 
the old miUsite on Portage Lake, where there are large coal and merchandise 
wharves for receipt of fuel and supplies. The railroad has 4 Baldwin and 
1 Brooks locomotives, 130 hopper-cars for rock and coal, and 60 flat-cars for 
wood and general freight. The mine is on the main line of the Copper Range 
railroad also. 

The stampmill, built 1894-95, is at Redridge, on Lake Superior, having 
nearly two miles of water frontage, and is 151x234' in size, of wood on stone 
foundations. Water is furnished from a dam, described in the article on 
Baltic. The mill has 6 stamps with 18^ cylinders, of about 400 tons daily 
capacity each. Chilean regrinding miUs are used for the raggings, and round 
tables have been displaced by Overstroms, which efTect an additional, saving 
of very fine copper estimated at $15,000 yearly value. Power is supplied by 
a 14x42*' Reynolds engine of Corliss pattern. There are 7x14x12'' Gardner 
fire pumps in the mill and boiler-house adjoining. A machine shop in the 
mill is supplied with all toob required for repair work and fitting. Adjoin- 
ing the mill is the boiler-house, of wood, on stone walls, 71x101' in size. A 
Green fuel economizer, added in 1899, saves about 12% in coal bills. At the 
millsitc there is a 30x36' frame warehouse, store building, smithy, and a 
nimiber of comfortable dwellings for employes. The mill, like the mine, 
is very efficiently handled. 

Production of refined copper showed a decrease in 1904, due to a trammers' 
strike in June and July. The explorations on Section 16 proved most dis- 
couraging, but recent developments on adjoining properties are of a decidedly 
different tenor. The sixth and seventh levels north of Baltic shaft No. 5, 
next south, are but little more than a quarter mile from the Section 16 line, 
and are showing much better ground than found above. The Superior Cop- 
per Co. has a promising showing on Section 15, and the new Isle Royale shaft 
on Section 11 is exceptionally rich, all of which point strongly toward the 



21^ THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

existence of great mineral values under Section 16. No plans have been 
made for the resumption of explorations on 16, it bein^ felt tliat nothing will 
be lost by allowing the three neighbors to prove their ground by further 
developments. The prospects of the Atlantic never have been brighter than 
at the close of 1904. Production, 1904, was 5,321,859 lbs. fine copper. 
ATLAirnC ft PACIFIC GROUP. WYOMUCG. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Has a 150^ shaft showing 
a 4' vein of fair grade ore about 1,000^ from the line of the Ferris-Hoggarty 
mine of the Penn- Wyoming company. 
ATLAS COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. 

Offices: St. James Sq., Manchester, England. Location of property, if 
any, unknown.' 
ATLAS EXPLORATION ft MINING CO. ARIZONA ft MEXICO. 

Office: Douglas, Ariz. Organized June 14, 1902, under laws of Arizona, 
with capitalization $5,000,000, shares $1 par; issued, $500,000. Annual meet' 
ing, first Tuesday in January. R. O. Johnson, president; N. W. Chase, 
treasurer; D. T. Dunlap, secretary; James Hay, superintendent. Has unde- 
veloped mineral lands, known as the Atlas group, in the Warren district of 
Cochise county, Arizona, and a rather promising prospect about 15 miles 
bouth of Douglas, in the northern part of the Arizpe district of Sonora, Mexico, 
latter showing auriferous copper ore. Idle at last accounts. 
AKTIEBOLAGET ATVIDABERGS KOPPARVERK. SWEDEN. 

Office and mine: Atvidaberg, Ostergothland, Sweden. Organized 1900, 
under laws of Sweden, with capitalization 900,000 kroner, fully paid, shares 
1,000 kroner par. Baron Th. Adelsward, president and general manager; 
Axel Nygren, superintendent; C. A. Rudelius, smelter superintendent. Ore 
is slightly argentiferous chalcopyrite, averaging 2% copper. Has 8 shafts, 
of 300* to 1,400', with about 4,000' of underground openings. Water power 
generates electricity that operates the mines and works. Has a smelter, 
Ht Bersbo, 9 kilometers from mine, with railroad connecting. Has a con- 
centrator and smelter with 3 roasting furnaces, 3 reverberatory furnaces and 
settling tanks for cementation. Production in 1901 was 158,000 kgs. of 
cement copper; 60,959 kgs. of refined copper, and 186 kgs. of silver. A 
new shaft has been sunk recently in promising ground, and production has 
increased durins past two years. 
GEWERKSCHAFT AUGUSTE L GERMANY. 

Mine office : Herschcid bci Barenstein, Westfalen, Germany. Has 1 shaft, 
showing \ci\d and copper ores. 
KUPPERERZBERGWERK AURORA. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Huckelheim, Bavaria, Germany. Apparently idle. 
AURORA lilNING CO. MEXICO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from La Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. Said to 
have done a little prospecting on lands near the Greene Consolidated. 
AUSTRALIAN COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. 

Offices: 2, Royal Exchange Ave., London, E. C, Eng. Formed "to 
acquire mines anywhere in the world." Location of property, if any, un- 
known. 



AUSTRALIAN— AZTEC. 213 

AUSTRALIAN MINING CO., LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: 42, New Broad St., London, E. C, Eng. W. J. C. Cutbill, chair- 
man ; Sir. Samuel Davenport, K. C. M. G., Bumside, Adelaide, South Austra- 
lia, colonial agent; Edgar Collier, secretary. Capital £40,000, shares £2 
par. Is a reorganization of the Australian Mining Co., which paid consider- 
able dividends. Present company is paying annual dividends of Is. per 
share. Lands, about 20,000 acres, in the Reidy Creek district, including 
the TungkiUo mine, leased to the Kitticoola Copper-Gold Co. 
AVENTURERA MINE. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Sabinal, Chihuahua, Mex. Britton Davis, general manager. 
Ore bodies occur irregularly in slate dikes, and carry silver, lead and copper. 
Mine is opened by shafts, equipped with steam power and employed about 
100 men at last accounts. 
AVmO MINES OF MEXICO, LTD. MEXICO. 

Offices: 138, Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E. C, Eng. Mine 
office: A vino, Gabriel, Durango, Mex. Capital, nominal, £1,000,000; issued, 
£978,442; debentures, £18,800. Was reorganized, Feb. 24, 1903, share- 
holders being assessed 2s. 6d. and stock marked 17s. 6d. paid, the a»< 
sessment paying a floating debt of about £50,000 and leaving about £70,000 
for development and equipment. About 50,000 shares are owned in the United 
States. F. L. Gardner, diairman; F. F. Fuller, secretary; W. B. Jeffrey, 
general manager; W. A. Jeffrey, assistant manager; W. J. A. Palmer, mine 
manager. Lands, 252 acres, also a302-acre damsite, 10 miles from a railroad, car- 
lying a very large body of low-grade silicious silver-copper ores and said to have 
2,000,000 tons of ore in sight. Is said to have produced about $60,000,000, 
mainly in silver, in the past. Values are mainly silver and copper, with a 
little lead, highest grade ore being shipped to smelter. Has a 650^ shaft 
showing oxides and a little native copper in the lower levels, also a 600^ 
timnel. Has steam and electric power. A large concentrator built on the 
property was found unsuited to the ore, and under the advice of Prof. Ottakar 
Hoffman was abandoned and replaced by a hyposulphite lixiviation plant 
of 100 tons daily capacity, which is said to be saving 85% of the silver and 
30% of the gold, values. Property employs 800 men. Former management 
spent too much money on surface and not enough in the mine, and also 
made a mistake in the plant devised for treatment. This is a very large, 
low-^rade property, requiring skillful and cautious handling, but with good 
management should make a highly profitable mine, owing to the great 
extent of its ore bodies. At last accounts the mine was said to be producing 
about $30,000 per month, Mexican, which *paid operating expenses. Produc- 
tion, 1903, was 221,403 lbs. fine copper. 
AZTEC mnE. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Mineral Hill, Grant Co., N. M. 
AZTEC COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 136 Hartford Bldg., Chicago, Ills. Mine office: Prescott, Yavapai 
Co., Ariz. E. M. Sanford, attorney; S. J. Goldie, superintend^ut* Lands, 

20 qIauWi showing copper gree. Has steam power, 



214 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

AZTEC COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: care of John C. Watson, treasurer, 68 Devonshire, St., Boston, 
Mass. Lands, 1,534 acres, just east of the Hilton mine of the Adventure 
Consolidated, in Ontonagon county, Michigan. Has produced 353 tons, 863 
lbs. of refined copper, of which 100 tons was secured in a single mass. Idle 
many years. 
AZTEC COPPER MmmG ft SMELTING CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 907 Stephen Girard BIdg., Philadelphia, Pa. Mine office: Rancho 
del Almirez, Jalisco, Mex. Capitalization $300,000. Dr. Pemberton Dudley, 
president; John R. Williams, treasurer; C. D. Lance, secretary. Company 
apparently is more deeply interested in peddling its stock than in developing 
a mine. 
AZTEC GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 18 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Needleton, La Plata 
Co., Colo. Organized 1899, under laws of Maine, with capitalization $2,000,000, 
shares $1 par. David W. Williams, president; Geo. F. Bradstreet, secretary 
and treasurer; W. Z. Kinney, general manager; Josiah Moore, superinten- 
dent. Lands, 40 claims, area 500 acres, showing 2 fissure veins averaging 
2' width and carrying sulphide ores with estimated average value of $18 
per ton in gold, silver, lead and copper, developed by a 960^ tunnel. Has 
gasoline, water and electric power. 
AZURTTE COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Williams, Ariz. Mine office: Willaha, Coconino Co., Ariz. Organ- 
ized under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $1,500,000, shares $1 par. A. 
Tyroler, president; Olaf H. Prysz, secretary; John S. Green, superintendent. 
Lands, 10 claims in the Francis district, on the line of the Santa F6,& Grand 
Canyon R. R., showing promising ore bodies. 
AZURITE COPPER ft GOLD CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Tucson, Ariz. Mine office: Azurite, Pima Co., Ariz. Thos. 
Hughes, superintendent. Has auriferous and argentiferous copper ores, 
with steam power and 70-ton smelter. Lands, 13 claims, showing a large 
body of low-grade ore. Sold to Mineral Hill Cons. Copper Co. 
BABCOCK ft KITTERMAN GROUP. OREGON. 

At Althouse, Josephine Co., Ore. A prospect on which limited develop- 
ment work has shown ore giving good assay values. 
BABY McKEE GOLD MINING CO. OREGON. 

Mine office: Sumpter, Baker Co., Ore. L. G. LiUey, manager. Ores 
carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam power. 
BACHELOR GOLD MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office : Lake City, Hinsdale Co., Colo. C. F. Meek, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has water power and employed 
about 20 men at last accounts. 
BADEN-BADEN GOLD MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 324 Cooper Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Black Hawk, Gil- 
pin Co., Colo. Newell Bros., managers. Has gold-silver-copper ores and 
steam power. 



BADGER— BALAKLALA. 215 

BADGER COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

letter returned unclaimed from Laramie, Wyoming. Organized 1902 
to operate in Albany county, Wyoming. 
BADGER MINE. COLORADO. 

On the Platte river, 12 miles east of Pearl, Larimer county, Colo. Owned 
by Alex. Hilton, et al. Has a limited amount of development work, making 
a fair showing of high-grade ores. 
BADGER STATE MINING ft MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine : Saratoga, Carbon Co., Wyo. Gustave Jensen, president 
and general manager; John H. Davis, vice-president and superintendent; 
C. E. Jensen, treasurer; A. H. McDougal, secretary. Oi^anized December 
26, 1901, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 
par. Lands, 8 claims, area 140 acres, showing 3 fissure veins, averaging 4' 
width, and giving average assays of 50% copper, 50% lead and from a trace 
up to 400 oz. silver per ton, opened by shafts of GO' and 105' and a OO' tunnel. 
BAGDAD GOLD ft COPPER CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: care of Myron H. Wells & Co., 388 Wilcox Bldg., Los Angeles, 
Cal. Mine office: presumably Bagdad, San Bernarduio Co., Cal. Sherman 
Washburn, president; V. L. Carroll, secretary. 
BAHIA EXPLORATION CO. BRAZIL. 

Has sundry claims about 50 miles west of Jaguarar>', Brazil, showing ores 
assaying 2% to 4% copper. 
BALACLAVA COPPER MINING CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Mine office: Broken Hill, N. S. W., Australia. W. O. H. Simoas, super- 
intendent. Has auriferous copper ores and employs about 20^ men. 
BALADE MINE. NEW CALEDONU. 

Address: probably Noumea, New Caledonia. Mine discovered 1884. 
Ores are concentrated up to 17 to 20% copper. Production trivial. 
BALAKLALA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: Mills Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. Mine office: Kcnnett, Shasta 
Co., Cal. Peter L. Kimberly, president; C. A. Malm, vice-president and 
treasurer; C. O. Ellingwood, secretary; W. F. Snyder, general manager; 
Grant Snyder, superintendent. Employs about 40 men. Company suc- 
ceeded the Balaklala Mining Co. Lands, 64 claims, adjoining the Trinity 
mine, formerly under bond to the Mountain Copper Co., but not taken be- 
cause of a defective title since remedied by the courts. Principal develop- 
ment is on El Capitan group, opened by tunnels showing a sulphide ore 
body 60' to lOO' wide on the 400^ level, ore ranging from very poor to very 
good, and claimed to show an average of better than 11% copper, which 
probably is about double the actual average. Property has been extensively 
probed by diamond drills, which have shown several large deposits about 
100' below the body opened by tunnel. Ore occurs in lenses, the largest 
being estimated at 50x500x700' in size. Has steam and electric power, 
with line surveyed for railroad to connect the mine and smelter-site. Com- 
pany plans building a smelter. 



216 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BALD MOUNTAIir MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Has claims near Clear Lake, Skagit county, Washington. A. H. Rogers, 
superintendent, at last accounts. Probably idle. 

BALHANNAH MINE. AUSTRALIA. 

An idle mine at Onkaparinga, South Australia, 14 miles southeast of 
Adelaide. Ores carry copper, zinc, lead, silver, gold and bismuth. Idle 
for many years. 

BALHANNAH COPPER ft GOLD MINE, LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former address. Broad Street House, 
London, £. C, Eng. 

BALKAN COPPER CORPORATION, LTD. • TURKEY. 

Offices: 6, Redcross St., London, £. C, Eng. Sir Owen R. Slacke, 
chairman; Ernest A. Foster, secretary; Mario Krieger, managing director in 
Turkey. Organized Sept. 5, 1899, with capitalization £250,000, shares £1 
par; issued, £220,000. Property is the Yardimly copper mine, area 7,900 
acres, and the Chapzi-Hane mine, area 2,500 acres, in the Rhodope Mount- 
ains, northwest of Constantinople, held on an annual rental of £420 and 
^% royalty on gross earnings. 
BALLA BAfcLA COPPER MINES, LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Reoi^anized as New Balla Balla Copper Mines, Ltd. 
BALLARAT COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Newport, Stevens Co., Wash. Ores carrying gold, copper 
and silver, have been opened by a crosscut tunnel. Probably idle. 
BALLARAT ft LYELL MINES, LTD. TASMANIA. 

Offices: 24, Blomfield House, London Wall, London, E. C, Eng. Her- 
bert Allen, chairman; W. V. Ward, secretary. Is a reorganization of the 
Great Mount Lyell Copper Co., Ltd. Capital, nominal, £250,000. Lands, 
639 acres, held on 21-year lease from 1898, at £170 annual rental. Has 
about 3,000^ of undeiground openings, with narrow veins found at two 
points. 
BALTIC MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 15 William St., New York. Mine office: Baltic, Houghton Co. 
Mich. A large producer, employing about 700 men. Organized December, 
1897, under laws of Michigan, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par, 
$18 paid in. Annual meeting, first Monday in March. John Stanton, presi- 
dent; John R. Stanton, secretary and treasurer; John Stanton, Joseph E. Gay, 
Wm. A. Paine, Samuel L. Smith, and Cameron Currie, directors; Frank McM. 
Stanton, agent; F. W. Denton, superintendent; Martin Trethewey, mining 
captain ; Wm. C. Cole, clerk ; F. O. Coggin, mill superintendent ; W. J. Richards, 
master mechanic. Practically the entire stock issue of the Baltic is owned 
by the Copper Range Consolidated Company. 

Official returns to the state of Michigan, as of date January 1, 1904, dis- 
close the following figures: 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $1,800,000.00 

Amount paid in by conveyance of property to company. . 1,000,000.00 

Entire amount invested in real estate 1,014,751 . 00 



BALTIC. 217 

Amount of personal estate 286,376.32 

Amount of unsecured or floating debt 105,577 . 74 

Production of copper in 1903 10,680,997 lbs. 

Lands, 800 acres, near the Eastern Sandstone of the Keweenawan copper 
belt, about 75 acres Demg on the sandstone and non-mineralized. Holdings 
c emprise all of Section 21 except the southeast quarter, and the west half of 
Section 20, Town 54 North, Range 34 West. Lands are bouiMied on the 
north by the Wheal Kate and Section Sixteen of the Atlantic ; on the east by 
St. Mary's Mineral Land Co., on the south by St. Mary's lands, lands of Hussey, 
Howe & Co. and the Trimountain mine ; on the west by the Trimountam. The 
Baltic is 2)^ miles due south of the Atlantic, and its northermost shaft is 
not quite 4 miles south of No. 10, the southermost shaft of the Huron mine of 
the Isle Royale. To the southward the Trimountain and Champion mines 
are opened on the same lode, which has a strike of N. 63^ £. from Baltic shafts 
2 to 5. To the northeastward of No. 5 there is an extensive fault, not yet 
reached by the north drifts, and the lode is thrown some distance to the east- 
ward. The dip of the lode averages about 73°, the sharpest of any developed 
cupriferous bed in the Lake district. 

The Baltic shafts are numbered from south to north. No. 1, the discovery 
shaft, located between Nos. 2 and 3, was abandoned at a depth of 219', having, 
been sunk at a wrong angle. The average depth of the working shafts is 
about IjlOO'. No. 3 is 1,170' northeast of No. 2, No. 4 is 900' northeast of 
No. 3 and No. 5 is 855' northeast of No. 4. The extreme shafts, 2 and 5, 
are 3,025' apart. There is room at cither end for a new shaft, but No. 6 
would be cut off by the Atlantic boundary at comparatively shallow depth. 
No. 2 has a new engine house and hoist with 24x26' cylinders and 14' drum, 
capable of operating two 2-ton skips, in counterbalance, to a depth of 3,000'. 
The engine house at No. 3 is 38x50', of steel frame with concrete filling. The 
shaft-rockhouse is a 35x71'<with 17x31' wing and is 88' high, of wood sheathed 
with steel, and has a 16x18^^ engine, two 18x24' Blake crushers and rock bins 
with 1,400 tons storage capacity. No. 4 shaft has a Nordberg conical hoist, 
good for a depth of 5,000'. The shaft-rockhouses at Nos. 4 and 5 are prac- 
tically duplicates of that at No. 3, and No. 5 has a duplex Nordbei^ hoist 
good for 1,500' depth. No. 5 shaft is timbered to the seventh level, and the 
north drifts show settled ground on the sixth and t-cvciith levels. 

The Baltic amygdaloid is an exceptionally strong lode, ranging from 15' 
to 60' in width, and is so well mineralized that at most points it must be more 
or less thoroughly beaten away from wall to wall. The great width of the 
stopes has brought about the use of a walling system, by which waste rook is 
buUt into dry-walls along the drifts, thus saving timbering, while giving 
stronger walls than any timber could supply, saving the cost of hoisting lean 
rock. The walling systeqi of the Baltic has been harshly criticised in some 
quarters but has proven a success under actual test. A little melaconite is 
found in narrow fissure veins crossing the lode, these being too small to follow, 
but the black oxide ore mined in the stopes is saved in the milling, carrying 
36% to 40% copper as dressed, and smelts readily with the native copper 



218 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

mineral. The native copper of the Baltic is arsenical, and it is probable that 
a small amount of copper arsenides are mined and milled, as narrow arsenical 
fissure veins occur occasionally in the district south of Portage Lake. While 
the product is arsenical, it makes wire of great tensile strength. The Baltic 
lode, taking its name from the first mine opened upon it, was discovered in 
1882 but was abandoned at shallow depth because a drill-hole pitched at a 
wrong angle ran into the hanging wall. 

The compressor house, between shafts 3 and 4, is 36x58' in size, with con- 
crete foundations, stone walls and steel roof, housing a compressor yniYi capac 
ity to 'reduce 4,000 cubic feet of free air per minute to a pressure of 70 lbs. 
per inch. The mine operates about 45 powei drills. Adjoining is a boiler 
house of similar material, 4dx76', with ^ving 12x62^, having four 250-h. p. 
Stirling water-tube boilers and a 140' self-supporting steel smokestack. TliLs 
boiler plant supplies steam for shafts 3 and 4. Adjoining the boiler house is 
a 360' coal trestle, with storage capacity of 5,000 tons, underneath being a 
5x8' concrete tunnel, through which coal is hauled in tram-cars on a down 
Rrade by an endless cable. There is also a complete electric plant. There 
is a 50x132' combination machine-«hop and smithy, with stone walls and 
steel roof, a 42x72' carpenter shop, a 30x90' miners' changing house, supplied 
with hot and cold water, bath-tubs and lockers, a good office building and 
about 100 well-built dwellings for employea. The mine is on the Painesdale 
branch of the Cbpper Range railroad and is also reached by a branch of the 
Atlantic railroad. 

The stanipmill is at Redridge, on Lake Superior, one half mile west of 
the Atlantic mill, and went into, commission December, 1901. Tlie mill prop- 
er is 175x195', of structural steel on stone foundations, with 4 Nordberg 
stamps having 20x24*^ cylinders and crushing about 500 tons each, daily. 
Foundations for the stamps are very massive, the use of timber having been 
dispensed with, and 90-ton anvil plates set beneath the mortars. Eight 
Wilfley concentrators have displaced finisher jigs and slime tables. A com- 
pound condensing Corliss engine runs the 4 stamps and washing machinery. 
Tlie dischaiige at the mill is 25' above mean water datum, and with the usual 
drop of one in ten provides for the wasting of many millions of tons of tail- 
ings by gravity alone. 

The mill is heat«d by the Coogan <t Strothenke system, air being delivered 
from 4 blowers, after previous heating by passing over steam coils, radiation 
in the coils being insured by the vacuum system. Adjoining the mill is a 
55x90' boiler house, of steel frame an stone foundations, housing five 250-h.p. 
Stirling water-tube boilers, and a Green fuel economizer. Draft is secured 
by a set of duplex fans, driven by the mill engine. Behind the boiler house 
is a 25,000-ton coal storage yard, for the joint use of the Baltic and Atlantic 
mills, coal being brought to the boilers through tunnels, by gra\ity. The 
mill has centrifugal cnisliing rolls and a Huntington mill for regrinding. 

Water for both the Baltic and Atlantic mills is funiit^hcd by a $150,000 
gravity dam across the mouth of Salmon Trout river, built jointly I y the 
Atlantic and Baltic mines. This structure is built of steel and anchored 



MLflC, 219 

by its own weight, irrespective of the holding power of the rock. The plan 
was suggested by J. F. Jackson, of the Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Co., and the 
details inspected and approved by Foster Crowell, who acted as consulting 
engineer during construction of the dam by the Wisconsin Bridge <& Iron Co., 
and Prendergast <Sr Clarkson, the completed work requiring about 1,000,000 
pounds of steel and 8,000 cubic yards of concrete work. The dam impounds 
about 1,250,000,000 gallons of water and at the river's lowest stage can 
furnish water to wash 5,000 tons of rock daily, 300 days each year, effecting 
a saving over pumping of about 2 cents per ton cf rock stamped. The dam 
is anchored in a cement foundation of great strength, and is in five sections, 
with a total length of 475', the central or deepest section being 74' high, 
with wings of 200^ on the west and 350^ on the east, these being in compar- 
atively shallow water and made with cement cores built up from excava- 
tions in bed-rock, buttressed by earth embankments. The five sections 
of the dam proper are all of the same general design, the central section being 
highest, as it is bottomed in the bed of the river, and having a wider and 
heavier concrete base, with a stronger steel bracing. The dam is of steel 
throughout, anchored in a concrete base, with braces between the crest of 
the dam and the extreme foot of the cement base. The following description 
cf the central section will give an idea of the general construction of all five 
parts. The concrete base is 62' wide, built up from rock excavations. The 
resultant of all pressures gives a pressure of 2,626,000 pounds for each steel 
section of 8' width and 74' height. The upper 50' of the dam in this central 
section of 100' is inclined from the water at an angle of 45^, throwing the point 
of overturning within the central third of the concrete base, thus allowing an 
ample margin of safety. The dam is made of plates of best boiler steel, con- 
cave on the water side, 8x16' in size and ^ thick, riveted and caulked water- 
tight and supported by parallel inclined **1" beams 24^ thick for the full depth 
of 50' below the crest of the dam. On the lower section the steel plates are 
each 8x16' and 3-16' thick, concave, riveted and caulked, but resting directly 
against the concrete base. The ''I'' beams of the upper or main section are 
supported by heavy triangular frameworks of inclined steel coliunns and 
stmts. The entire steel structure is anchored to a 2^ steel base-plate at the 
LK>ttom of the concrete by a lai^ number of 1.5', 2^ and 2.5' steel rods, of 
15' to 30' length. Water is taken from the dam about 20' below the crest 
by three 38' riveted steel pipes, one pipe being on the Atlantic and two on 
the Baltic side. There is a system of valves and waste weirs, but the struc- 
ture is of such a nature that it could not be injured were water to flow con- 
tinuously over its crest for an indefinite period. Surmounting this structure 
b a trestle of t^e Copper Range raiilroad, built at the same time but in nowise 
a portion of the dam. The center of the railroad track is 7' above the crest 
of the dam, 10' down-stream. In the central sections the foundations for 
the feet of the trestle are all in the concrete work, elsewhere the northern 
piers for the trestle are separately built. 

The Baltic began production in August, 1899, with one leased stamp at 
the Atlantic, a second stamp being leased one year later. The first stamp in 



i2b W/£ coppEk tiAi^bkooR, 

the Baltic mill was started December 19, 1901, the second in February and the 
third in August, 1902, while the fourth, which began work on Champion 
rock, in 1902, started on Baltic rock upon the completion of the Champion 
miU. Tlie Baltic is fortunate in possessing a strong and well mineralized 
lode, and has been equally fortunate in having an experienced and highly 
capable management during its period of development. The growth of the 
property is best shown by the figures of production. In 1901 the mine made 
2,641,432 lbs. of refined copper; in 1902 the output was 6,285,819 lbs., and 
in 1903 was 10,580,997 lbs. of refined copper secured from a mineral produc- 
tion of 15,267,980 lbs. and was larger in 1904. Mining profits for 1903 were 
$481,447.44 and surplus earnings above all expenditures were $397,629.17. 
The Baltic b one of the best of the newer Lake Superior mines, and has before 
it a long and highly promising life, during which it should return to its ownera 
many millions of dollars in net profits. 
BALTIHOR£ COPPER, SMELTING ft ROLLING CO. liARYLAND. 

Office and w^orks; Baltimore, Md. Does an extensive smelting and 
refining business, mainly on imported mattes and blister copper. 
BALTIMORE ft SONORA GOLD ft COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 909 Maryland Trust Bldg., Baltimore, Md. J. O. Johnston, presi- 
dent; Chester F. Johnston, secretary. Capitalization $5,000,000, shares $10 
par. Lands, 387 acres, in the Arizpe district of Sonora, Mexico, on the 
western slope of the Cananea Mountains, showing large and promising out- 
crops of carbonate and silicate copper ores. 
BALVANERA MINING CO MEXICO. 

Office: 11 Broadway, New York. Herbert T. Beatty, president; Chas. 
W. White, secretary and treasurer. Last heard of company was the arrest 
of the president at the instigation of the secretary, for alleged misappropria- 
tion of funds. 
BANNER GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Chelan, Okanogan Co., Wash. Dr. J. L. Jacobs, president; 
R. W. Eager, secretary. Main tunnel 101'. Has secured ores assaying 18% 
copper and $15 to $33 gold per ton. 
BARAGUNDA MINES. INDIA. 

At Baragunda, Hazaribagh, Bengal, India. Were operated 1887 to 1891, 
turning out about 1,000 tons of copper in five years. Ore occurs as chalcopy- 
rite, running only 1% to 3% copper, in a gangue of micaceous schist. All ore 
mined was carted 24 miles to the smelter at Giridhi. Are perhaps the most 
promising coppef properties now known in India, despite the low-grade of 
ore, and might be worked successfully if given rail facilities, adequate capital 
and good management. 
SUCESION DE BARAZARTE. CHILB. 

Mine office: Paposo, Taltal, Antofagasta, Cliile. Ernesto Gabler, super- 
. intendent. Property includes the Reventon mine, 400^ deep, and the Abun- 
dancia mine, 380^ deep, both opened in 1830, also the Union mine. Haa 
steam power and employed about 50 men at last accounts. 



BARE HILLr-BASSETT. 221 

BARE HILL MINE. MARYLAND. 

Owned by Albert Smyser, York, Pa. An old property at Mt. Washing- 
ton, Baltimore county, Maryland, showing slightly auriferous and aigentifer- 
ous chalcopyrite and bomite. 
BARKIS & JOHKSON CO. PERU. 

A Peruvian firm that has been a considerable shipper of 45% to 50% 
copper matte, presiunably from the mines of the Cerro de Pasco district. 
BAROTSE COPPER CO., LTD. RHODESIA. 

Wound up. Property sold to Rhodesia Copper Co., Ltd. 
BARRANCA COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 120 Liberty St., New York. Mine office: Barranca del Cobre, 
Chihauhua, Mex. H. T. R. Cowell, manager. Operates La Purisima mine, 
producing copper, gold and silver. Main shaft 750^; main tunnel 2, lOO'. 
Has water power, 20-6tamp mill, two 4' Huntington mills and a 60-ton 
smelter, and plans installing a 50-ton lixiviation plant. 
BARSTOW MINES. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Ironton, Ouray Co., Colo. John Geisel, superintendent. 
Property has developed auriferous and aigentiferious copper ores. 
6EWERKSCHAFT BARTHOLOMAUS. GERMANY. 

Office: Diiaseldorf, Germany. Mine office: Wenden bei Olpe, West- 
falen, Germany. Has aigentiferous tetrahedrite and manganiferous spathic 
iron ore. Has a 65-metre shaft and employs 6 men. 
BASIN-COMSTOCK CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office : Cataract, Jefferson Co., Mont. Organized 1904, with capi- 
taliiation $500,000, by Wm. A. Kidney, et al. Holds sundry claims having 
a SW shaft showing stringers of ore, under bond and lease expiring Sep- 
tember, 1905; 
BASIN GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: care of E. R. Holden & Co., 20 Broad St., New York. Mine 
office: Basin, Jefferson Co., Mont. Robt. B. Smith, president; M. L. Hewitt, 
vice-president and general manager; B. Lowinson, secretary and treasurer. 
Lands, 2S0 acres, patented, on which considerable development has been 
secured, tied up by litigation with scant prospects that stockholders will 
save anything out of the wreck. 
BASIN REDUCTION CO. MONTANA. 

Smelter office: Basin, Jefferson Co., Montana. Hra some sort of close 
connection with the Basin & Bay State Mining Co., and is said to have been 
merged therewith under title of La France Copper Co. 
BASIN ft BAY STATE MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Basin, Jefferson Co., Mont. Has a large concentrator, 
leased to the United Copper Co. Is closely connected with the Basin Re* 
duction Co., and it is asserted, though no statement can be secured from 
any interested party, that property of both companies has been merged in 
the La France Copper Co. 
BASSETT MINES, LTD. ENGLAND. 

PQce and mines: Bassett Mines, Redruth, Cornwall, England. Henry 



222 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

■ 

Treinbath, chairman; Richard Rendle, secretary; Wm. James, mine manager. 
Capital, nominal, £120,000, but property is operated on the cost-book plan. 
Is primarily a tin mine, but produces a little copper. Is developed by shafts 
and has steam power and stamps. 
BATCHELDER GROUP. WYOMIIIG; 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Was sinking a shaft at 
last accounts. 
JOHN BATES. BOLIVIA. 

Office and mine: Coro Coro, La Fto, Bolivia. Works a conglomerate 
carrying native copper. Has steam power and employs a small force. 
BATES MnVtNG & SICELTIICG CO. MASSACHUSETTS. 

Office: Gardner, Mass. Mine office: Charlemont, Franklin Co., Mass. 
Organized 1902, under laws of Maine, with capitalization $200,000, shares II 
par. Wm. H. Bates, Jr., president and general manager; Anton Scholz, 
Jr., secretary; J. North, mining captain. Lands about 75 acres, showing 
three 3' fissure veins. Ores are chalcocite, bomite and chalcopyrite, assay- 
ing up to 16% copper and $10 gold per ton. Has one shallow shaft, one 
60' tunnel and an open-cut. 
BATTLE COPPER MINmG CO. WYOMIIfG. 

Office: care of Delaney & Delaney, Colorado Springs, Colo. Mine 
office: Battle, Carbon Co., Wyo. Organized 1898, under laws of Colorado, 
with capitalization $1,500,000, shares $1 par. W. H. Baker, president; 
J. V. Helm, secretary . and treasurer; W. C. Leadbetter, general manager. 
Lands, 3 patented claims, area 54 acres, showing 9 contact veins with average 
estimated width of SO', length 2,000^ and estimated average value of 11% 
copper and $4 to $40 gold per ton. Ore is sulphide. Has 13 shafts, of 
lO' to 213', with steam power, and is on line of aerial tram to the Encamp- 
ment smelter. 
BATTLE LAKE COPPER EXPLORATION CO. WYOMIIfG. 

Office : 25 East Pike's Peak Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo. Perhaps same 
as Battle Copper Mining Co. 
BATTLE LAKE TUNNEL SITE MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office : 703 Chamber of Conunerce, Chicago, His. Mine office : Rambler, 
Carbon Co., Wyo. Employs 25 men. J.W. Brooks, president ; F. P. Armbruster, 
vice-president; H. J. Stegemann, secretary and general manager; J. L. Powell, 
superintendent ; R. G. Legg, consulting engineer. Organized 1900, under laws 
of Wyoming, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 30 claims, 
1 1 patented, area 600 acres, also 80 acres of miscellaneous lands, in the Battle 
Lake district. Country rocks are granite, diorite and quartzite, showing 
sundry veins, of which 5 are being opened, these averaging 4' in width, and 
carrying oxide and carbonate ores above, with sulphides below, latter carry- 
ing main values in chalcopyrite, with considerable bomite, rovellite and chal- 
cocite, gi\nng average assays of 40.7% copper from carload shipments. Mine 
is opened by 500^ working shaft and 3 long tunnels, with a total of about 
3,600' of underground openings. Has a 120-h. p. steam equipment with 
hoist good for depth of l.CXK)' and an 8-drill Nonvalk air compressor, 4 power 



BATTLE LAKE— BEAR GULCH. 22ii 

drills and necessary mine buildings and dwellings. It is reported that the 
mine shows 16' of 32% ore on the 500' level. Company is conservatively 
managed and has ore bodies of altogether exceptional richnesSi and apparently 
of considerable extent. 
BATTLE LAKE & BATTLE CREEK MINIIVG GO. WYOMING. 

Office: care of N. B. Noble, Rice Lake, Wis. Mine office: Battle, Carbon' 
Co., Wyo. Was sinking and crosscutting during 1904. 
BAXTMANN CX)PP£R CO. ARIZONA. 

Office : Prescott, Ariz. Mine office : Dewey, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Employs 
12 men. H. P. Anewalt, president; Jules Baumann, secretary and manager, 
W. S. Goldsworthy, treasurer. Organized Aug. 3, 1901 under laws of Arizona, 
1%-ith capitalization $600,000, shares $1 par. Conunercial Trust Co. of Pres- 
cott, registrar and transfer agent. Annual meeting, first Monday in Decem- 
ber. Lands, 25 claims, area 500 acres, unpatented, in the Agua Fria district. 
Country rocks are quartz-porphyry and slate, principal veins occurring as 
fissures in quartz-porphyr}% with heavy gouge on footwall. Ores are cuprite, 
malachite and azurite above, with clialcopyrite below, giving assays of 14% 
to 40% copper, 2 oz. to 80 oz. silver and from a trace to $35 gold per ton. 
Development is by tunnels of 50^ and 305' and by five shafts, two deepest 
being 208' and 214', with a total of about 2,000^ of underground openings. 
Main vein has been traced two miles on the company's lands, showing pay 
ore wherever opened. Blanagement is thorouglily honest and development 
has been along businesslike lines. Property is well regarded by judges of 
values in its district. 
SOCIEDAD MINERA y FUNDICION DE ARGENTINA. 

BAUSCH y TIANL 

Office, mine and works: Chilecito, Rioja, Argentina. Operates the San 
Pedro, Mercedes and other mines, producing copper, silver and lead. Has 
water and steam power and operates the ''San Miguel" smelter, employing 
several hundred men. 
BAXTER MINE. • CALIFORNIA. 

A prospect near the Bully Hill mine. Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. 
BAY COPPER MINES, LTD. 

Offices: 142, Palmerston House, London, £. C, Eng. John Robertson, 
managing director; W. R. Caldwell-Moore, secretary. Capital, nominal, 
£35,000; issued, £15,007. Location of lands, if any, imknown. 
BAY HORSE COPPER MINING CO. WYOMINO. 

Mine office: Riverside, Carbon Co., Wyo. W. G. Foss, superintendent. 
BEAN COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Biine office: Gila Bend, Pima Co., Ariz. C. C. Bean, manager. Idle. 
BEAR CREEK MININO CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: 18 Naylor-Cox Bldg., Terre Haute, Ind. W. R. McKeen, presi- 
dent; A. W. Wright, managing director; Willard Kidder, treasurer; Henry C. 
Albrecht, secpetary. Property is in Mariposa county, California. 
BEAR GULCH MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: Butte, Mont. Mine office: Twin Bridges, Madison Co., Mont. 



224 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Alex. Johnson, owner; Edson C. Baxter, superintendent. Property is the 
Mountain View group, earryiug auriferous and argentiferous copper ores, 
opened by tunnel. Has steam power and employed 15 men at last accounts. 
BSAR MOUNTAIN MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Colville, Stevens Co., Wash. C. G. Carruthers, superinten- 
dent. Has argentiferous and auriferous copper ore, opened by tunnel. 
BEAR MOUNTAIN TUNNEL & MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Crystal, Gunnison Co., Colo. H. H. Williams, superinten- 
dent. Has aiigentiferous and slightly auriferous copper ores, opened by tun- 
nel. Has water power and employs 10 to 12 men. 
BEATRICE MINING & MILLING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Elliston, Deer Lodge Co., Mont. D. G. Barringer, president; 
A. McNaughton, secretary and general manager; Abner Knapp, superinten- 
dent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper, opened by tunnel. Has steam 
power and plans building a 100-ton concentrator. 
BEAVER CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. UTAH. 

Merged, 1904, in Beavez^Harrison Mining Co. 
BEAVER COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: Encampment, Wyo. Mine office: Downington, Carix>n Co., Wyo. 
Organized under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares 
$1 par. S. H. Scofield, president and general manager; E. H. Parkison, 
secretary and treasurer; W. H. Parkison, superintendent. Lands, 7 patented 
claims, area 120 acres, showing 2 fissure veins, one with width of 40^ carrying 
oxide ores with estimated values of 11.5% copper and $10 gold per ton. Has 
a 900^ tunnel and 225' shaft, with steam power, air compressor, etc. 
BEAVER-HARRISON MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 23 Eagle Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Milford, 
Beaver Co., Utah. Organized, 1904, with capitalization $75,000, shares 5 
cents par. Is a merger of the Beaver Consolidated Mining Co. and the Ben 
Harrison Gold & Copper Mining & Milling Co. J. J. Trenam, president and 
manager: E. H. Jacobs, treasurer; B. L. Corum, secretary. Lands, 21 claims, 
area 385 acres in the Beaver Lake district, one group being near the O. K. 
mine of the Majestic company, showing sundry fissure veins, opened by 2 
shafts of 300^ and 525', showing promising ore bodies assaying 5% to 50% 
copper, and up to 10 oz. silver and $7 gold per ton. Has steam power and 
air compressor with necessary mine buildings. The 525' double<!ompart- 
ment shaft is the deepest in the district and shows a lO' ore body of good 
average vxUue. Property regarded as promising. 
BEAVER LA^ COPPER CO. PENNSYLVANIA. 

Mine office: Bloomsburg, Columbia Co., Pa. Has secured ores assaying 
17% copper. Probabjy idle. 
BEAVER VALLEY COPPER CO. IDAHO. 

Black Bird Copper-Gold Co. intended taking this title in 1903. 
BECKLER RIVER GROUP. WASHINGTON. 

Sold to Apex Mining Company. 



BEDE—BELENS. 225 

BEDE METAL ft CHEMICAL CO., LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: Hebbum-on-Tyne, Eng. General Spanish offices: Manriques, 
9, G6rdoba, Spain. Organized 1871, with capital, fully paid, £115,360, in £10 
shares. Dividends for 1901 and 1902 were 5% each year. Sir Andrew Noble, 
K. C. B., F. R. S., chairman ; W. W. Brown, secretary; Richard E. Carr, general 
mine manager; C. E. Turner, engineer. This company is primarily a manu- 
factiuer of acids and other chemical products, but secures a considerable 
amount of copper from the cinders of Spanish and Norwegian cupriferous 
pyrites. Principal mining property, area 136 hectareas, is Las Herrerias mine, 
at Puebla de Guzmdn, Huelva, Spain, operated under lease from C. & J. 
Sundhcim, this property including 7 mines, in two groups, and employing 
several hundred men. The main ore body is a large, irregular mass ol solid 
cupriferous iron p3rrites in schists, giving average values of 1.5% copper and 
47% sulphur. Main shaft is 235', the principal workings being open-cast 
with two mineral floors, each about 16 meters in height. Has steam power 
and one locomotive. Ore as mined is placed in level-top piles 6 to 8 metres 
high, in open air and these are sprinkled systematically, the leach-water, 
carrying 2% to 2.5% copper, being drawn off through long, narrow channels, 
containing pig iron, and the resulting precipitate, averaging 70% to 80% 
copper, is dried and shipped to the company's works in England for refining. 
Gross production of refined copper to end of 1902 was 3,200 tons. Production 
in 1902 was 560 tons and in 1903 about 400 tons of refined copper. 

The Killingdal Kobbervaerk, of Norway, also is operated by the Bede 
Company. Product is cupriferous iron p3rrites carrying an average of about 
2.5% copper. Production, 1904, was 1,128,960 lbs. from Spain and 654,080 
lbs. from Norway, a total of 1,783,040 lbs. fine copper. 
BELCHER MINIKG CO. WASHINGTOlf. 

Bline office: Keller, Ferry Co., Wash. J. L. Harper, general manager. 
Has a laige body of ore, said to be the greatest in northern Washington, 
developed by three tunneb, of which No. 3, the main tunnel, b about 1,000^ 
in length, showing a large body of medium-grade ore carrying a 2f pa3rstreak 
of very high-grade chalcopyrite on the footwall. Several carloads of ore 
were shipped to the Granby smelter late in 1903, giving net returns of about 
$500 per car. The Washington Smelting & Refining Co. was organized late 
in 1904 to build a smelter to reduce the ores of thb property, which b con- 
sidered one of the most promising in the state. 
BELENE COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 905 Journal Bldg., Chicago, 111. Mine office: El Copete, Sonora, 
Mex. Organized 1901, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $5,000,000, 
shares $5 par. Registered and protocolized in Mexico, June 25, 1902. S. E. 
Hostetter, president ; James Bayues, secretary and treasurer; J. J. Hardwick, 
general manager; Lub Killeen, assistant manager. Lands, 405 acres, in the 
Ures district, showing two very large sulphide ore lenses gi\'ing average assays 
of 12% copper, 8 oz. silver and $10 gold per ton. Has 9 shafts, of 65' to 310^ 
depth, and 3 tunneb, of 40^ to 200^ length, with about 1,500^ of underground 
openings. Plans to install steam and electric power and build a 200-ton 



226 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

smelter when nature of ores below waterline is developed. Smelter of Copete 
Mining Co. is on lands of the Belene. Company was unable to secure needed 
funds for development during 1904, but kept out of debt and hopes to raise 
money needed during 1905. Management is good and property is regard- 
ed as promising. 
SOCIETE ANONYME BEL6E POUR LA RECHERCHE ITALY. 

ET L'EXPLORATION DES MINERAIS. 

Mine office: Massa Maritima, Grosseto, Italy. A Belgian comp>any, 
operating a mine of slightly cupriferous iron pyrites. 
BELL MARE COPPER MINING ft SMELTING CO. NEVADA. 

Merged in the Nevada Bell Copper Mining & Reduction Co. 
BELLE-DOMINION COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Globe, Gila Co., Arizona. Oiganized August, 1904, 
with capitalization $250,000. 
BELLE OF GRANITE MINE. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Granite, Chaffee Co., Colo. B. H. Pelton, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver and copper, developed by shaft. Has steam power. 
BELLE MARSH COPPER MINE. IDAHO. 

A prospect, near Pocatello, Bannock county, Idaho, said to be valuable. 
BELMONT MINING CO. • COLORADO. 

Mine office: Winfield, Chaffee Co., Colo. Jas. Beuell, superintendent. 
Has gold-silver-copper ores, opened by tunnel. 
BELMONT MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office and mine» Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Capitalization is 100,000 
shares of which 95,000 shares are owned by the United Copper Co. Elliott 
H. Wilson, superintendent. Property is in the southeastern part of Butte. 
Upper levels showed good silver-copper ore, but this turned to iron at a 
depth of about 350^. Main shaft is 1,000^, said to show a good body of 
argentiferous copper ore, opened by long drifts from the 400^ level down. 
BELMONT CHEMUNG MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Black Hawk, Gilpin Co., Colo. Wm. Mitchell, superinten- 
dent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power. 
BELT MINES. MICHIGAN. 

Owned by John H. Rice, et al, Houghton, Mich. Mines located in 
Ontonagon Co., Mich. First opened 1848 ; taken over by Belt Mines company, 
Ltd., in 1882, which company, by incompetence and bad management, lost 
about £250,000 in three years, without securing a half mile of underground 
openings. FuLy described in Vol. 11. 
BELTS GAP COPPER MINE. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mine office: care of W. S. Adams, Savanna Creek, Jackson Co., N. C. 
Lands, 1,300 acres, in the Blue Ridge Mountains, canying two veins, appar- 
ently averaging about 50^ width and prospected for about 1,500^ in length. 
Upper vein carries mainly disseminated chalcopyrite; lower vein mainly 
pyrrhotite, with prospect that these veins join at depth. Has 4 short tunnels, 
2 shallow shafts and 20 drill-holes, with indications favoring possession of 
large amount of low to medium grade ore. Assays average about 4.5% 



BELTS GAP— BESSEMER, 227 

copper and $1.60 gold from chalcopyfite. the pyrrhotite showing nickel 

and traces of platinum. Owners plan development upon a considerable 

ecale. 

BEH FRAHKLm GOLD MmiHG CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Bossbuig, Stevens Ck)., Wash. A. A. Anderson, superin- 
tendent. A prospect showing auriferous copper ores. 
BEN HARRISON GOLD ft COPPER MINING ft MILLING CO. UTAH. 

Merged, 1904, in Beavez^Harrison Mining Co. 
BEN HUR COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 710^ South Clark St., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Battle, Carbon 
Co., Wyo. Clias. G. Mason, president; ClifTord M. Miller, secretary and 
treasurer; N. C. Bowen, superintendent. Organized November, 1902, under 
laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares SI par. Lands, 4 
claims, area 60 acres, showing 3 fissure veins, largest 40^ wide and developed 
by a 160^ tunnel, showing sulphide ore. 
BENTON MINES. CALIFORNIA. 

A group of 36 claims, in the White Mountains, 8 miles east of Benton, 
Mono Co., Cal., showing a limited amount of development work. 
BEREHAVEN COPPER MINES, LTD. IRELAND. 

Offices: 19, St. Swithin's Lane, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office : Allihies, 
County Cork, Ireland. W. L. Boyle, chairman; H. T. Adams, secretary. 
Oapital £200,000; debentures, £100,000 authorized, £87,500 issued, at 5%. 
Waa developing at last accounts. 

JOSE BERKARDINO. MEXICO. 

Office and mine: Nombre de Dioe, Durango, Mex. Is a small operator 
of local copper mines. 
BERSBO COPPER WORKS. SWEDEN. 

Office and works, Bersbo, Osteigothland, Sweden. This b the smelting 
plant of the Aktiebolaget Atvidabergs Kopparverk. 
TESTAMENTARU DE NOEL BERTHINI. BOLIVIA. 

Office and mines: Coro Coro, La Paz, Bolivia. Works cupriferous con- 
glomerates, similar to those of the Lake Superior district, copper occurring 
native. Annual production, about 1,200 tons of mineral, averaging 90% fine 
copper, according to American consul at La Paz. Is the second largest 
copper producer of Bolivia. Has steam power and smelter and employs 300 
to 400 men. 
BESA 7 CA. CHILE. 

Office and mine : Chaf&aral, Atacama, Chile. Edouardo P. Tellez, general 
manager Employs about 500 men. Property includes the Andacollo, 
3fanto, Verde and Ironton mines. Has steam power and smelter, shipping 
product as matte, securing an annual production of about 2,500,000 lbs. 
of refined copper. 
BESSEMER IRON ASSOCUTION. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Hanover, Donna Ana Co., N. M, A. E. Dawson, lessee, 

Owiw the Anson S. copper mine, which 19 idle. 



228 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BESSHI MINE. JAPAN. 

Owned and operated by the Sumitomo Copper Co. 
BEST CHANCE MINE. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed froifi former mine office, Beiiin, King Co., 
Wash. 
BETTS COVE MINE. NEWFOUNDLAND. 

At Betts Cove, Newfoundland. Worked 1874-1884; reopened by an 
adit in 1900, but since idle. 
BEULAH^COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office : 113 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. Mine office : Battle, Carbon Co., 
Wyo. Capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Frank S. Morrison, president, 
J. F. Leadbetter, manager. Lands, 13 claims, area 250 acres, developed by 
an 800^ tunnel. Supposed to have been absorbed by United Exploration 
Co. of Boston. 
BIG BUG GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Byrne Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: care of Thos. C. Job, 
Prescott, Yavapai Co., Ariz. J. H. Canovan, president and general manager. 
Lands, 62 acres, in the Big Bug district of Yavapai county. 
BIG COLORADO MINING & MaLING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Gladstone, Colo. C. W. Bloodgood, manager, at last ac- 
counts. Ores carry gold, silver, copper and lead. Has electric and gasoline 
power. 
BIG COPPER CLAIM. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: care of Geo. B. McAulay, owner, Spokane, Wash. Mine office. 
Greenwood, B. C. Lands are in Copper Camp, about six miles from Green- 
wood. Is said to show a large amount of ore of grade above the average 
of the district. 
BIG COTTONWOOD COPPER & GOLD MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office : 305 Auerbach Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office : Brighton, 
Salt Lake Co., Utah. Nicholas Treweek, president; Joseph G. Fariss, secre- 
tary; Will L. Treweek, general manager. Capitalization $1,500,000, shares 
$5 par. Is developing by tunnel and is said to have a fair showing of ore. 
BIG CREEK COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. L. D. Godshall, 
superintendent, at last accounts. 
BIG HORN MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Pearl, Larimer Co., Colo. Has a 50^ shaft on the Copper 
Queen group bottomed in a 5' vein said to assay 20% copper. 
BIG INDEX GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 419 Pioneer Bldg., Seattle, Wash. Mine office: Index, Snohomish 
Co., Wash. Wm. Frankfurt, president; J. C. Rathbun, secretary; A. E. 
Aegerter, superintendent. Organized 1902, under laws of Washington, 
with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 15 claims, area 300 
acres, 4 miles from a railnmd, in the Washington district, opened by a 350^ 
tunnel, showing ores giving average assay values of $20 per ton in gold and 
copper, mainly former. 



Bid iNTEHlOR—blNGHAM, i2d 

BIG INTERIOR MINE. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Albemi, Vancouver Isld., B. C. Property is sundry lands 
in the interior of the island, 5,000' above sea-level, slightly developed and 
showing a strong outcrop of low-grade ore for nearly one mile. 
BIG SHOW SILVER & COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Twin Bridges, Madison Co., Mont. Orjganized under laws 
of Arizona, with capitalization $1,500,000, shares II par. Lands, 4 claims. 
Ores cany gold, silver and copper. 
BIG YANK MINING & MILLING CO. OREGON. 

Office : 414 Abington Bldg., Portland, Ore. Mine office : Galice, Josephine 
Co., Ore. J. C. Mattison, superintendent. Has auriferous and argentiferous 
copper ores, and employed 10 men at last accounts. 
BIGELOW GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 49 Exchange Place, New York. Mine office: Hillsboro, Sierra 
Co., N. M. Organized, 1903. Wm. Buchanan, president and treasurer; 
J. H. Bigelow, secretary. 
BILBAINOS GROUP. SPAIN. 

Office : care of Aznar y Ca., owners, Bilbao, Spain. Mine office : Paimogo, 
Hudva, Spain. Property is the eastward extension of La Romanera group, 
and is considered of promise. 
BELUON DOLLAR QUEEN MINING CO. 

A stock-jobbing scheme promoted by one Mrs. Van Arsdale, n^ Estella 
Tnmnell, alias Mrs. Estella True-Nell, a petticoat grafter of the Cassie Chad- 
wick stamp. 
BINGHAM CONSOLIDATED MINING & SMELTING CO. UTAH. 

Offices: 60 State St., Boston, Mass., and 700 McComick Bldg., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. 
Smelter offiee: Murray, Salt Lake Co , Utah. Organized April 5, 1901, 
under laws of Maine, with capitalization $10,000,000, shares $50 par, non- 
assessable and full paid; issued, $7,500,000. Has an authorized bond issue 
of $1,000,000. Succeeded the Bingham Copper <& Gold Co., orgamzed 1898. 
Edw. L. White, president; Herbert W. Wesson, secretary; O. E. Weller, 
treasurer; Duncan McVichie, manager; Jos. A. Coram, O. P. Posey, John 
W. Weeks, E. L. White, C. K. McComick, W. S. McComick, Peter L Kim- 
beriy, W. F. Hanmaett, L. T. TruU and Wm. Bayly, directors; B. W. Rogers, 
mine superintendent; W. H. Nutting, smelter superintendent; H. G. Heffron, 
purchasing agent and ore buyer. Lands, about 300 acres, in the Bingham 
or West Mountain district, including the Dalton & Lark, Anlelope, Brooklyn, 
Commercial, Miner's Dream, Sampson, Old Hickory, Vemard, Bingham 
and sundry other mines and claims. Company also owns an interest of 
231,500 shares in the Tesora mine, of the Tintic district, and about 190,000 
shares out of 250,000 in the Ekigle & Bluebell property. The Bingham 
properties have a considerable variety of ores, principally sulphides, with 
gold and silver-lead values at and near surface, changing to auriferous and 
argentiferous chalcopyrite at depth, later averaging 2.5% to 3% copper, 
with gold and silver values of about $2 per ton. Some of the ore is rich in 



230 i'HE COPPER HASDBOOK, 

iron, hence desirable for fluxing, as most of the ores of the district are 
highly silicious and deficient in iron. 

The Dal ton & Lark mine has shafts of 850^ and l,15(y, bottom level 
showing ore carrying 7% copper and 60 oz. silver. There also are 4 tunnels, 
one with electric haulage plant. The Mascot tunnel, 6,200^ long, drains the 
Dalton & Lark, and eventually will drain the Brooklyn and Miner's Dream 
mines also. This tunnel, planned both for drainage and mining, will effect 
an ultimate saving of perhaps $1 per ton in piunping and extraction costs. 
The Mascot should cut all the working ore bodies of these mines, several 
hundred feet below present bottom levels, about the close of 1905. The 
Brooklyn mine, 1,600^ deep, shows a strong vein of 20^ to 25' width on the 
three lower levels. 

Tlie Commercial mine has shown marked improvement during 1904, 
and is a valuable property. The ores include considerable auriferous galena, 
also auriferous and argentiferous copper ores carrying values of about $4 per 
ton, with an excess of iron, and valuable chiefly for fluxing purposes. The 
Lead mine opened a new body of 3% to 4% copper ore in 1904. The Samp- 
son mine carries auriferous galena and auriferous and argentiferous chalcopy- 
rite The Tesora, in the Tintic district, has not proven an especially valuable 
acquisition. 

The Eagle & Bluebell mine, at Eureka, controlled through a prepon- 
derant stock ownership, carries good values in gold, silver, lead and copper. 
The main vein is said to show 60^ of workable ore, and the showing on the 
750' level b notably good. Present production of the Eagle & Bluebell Is 
about 75 tons daily, but a new shaft was sunk and fitted with powerful 
machinery in 1904, and the mine's production should be considerably in- 
creased in 1905. The mine of the Fortune Mining & Milling Co., at Bing- 
ham is held under lease from the owners, and is a producer. The various 
mines of the Bingham have several years ore reserves developed, the ores 
ranging from rich to poor. 

The smelter, at Murray, 13 miles from the mine, was blown in January 
31, 1901. The building Lb 150x400^ in size, with steel frame on stone founda- 
tions, steel and cement floors and iron sides and roof, the only wood in the 
structure being the ore-bin partitions. Plant is terraced, allowing the handling 
of material by gravity. There are five 200-ton 42x172^ water-jacket blast 
furnaces, of which 3 are in commission regularly, smelting about 20,000 tons 
of ore monthly. The smelter has both steam and electric power, with a 
1,000-h. p. Rarig blowing-engine, Stiriing water-tube boilers and automatic 
stokers. The pyritic smelting system b used, ores being smelted to low 
grade matte and rcsmelted with silicious sulphides, producing a matte of 
30% to 35% in tenor, which is blown up to blister copper averaging 98.35% 
in tenor and carrying average gold and silver values somewhat greater than 
tlie value of the copper itself. Adjoining the smelter building is a 375' 
dust chamber, with a 200' steel smokestack 12' in diameter. The conver- 
sion plant has six 10-ton shells, 7x10' O'^, with 2 stands. There is also a 
lOG-ton briquetting plant, for flue dast. The construction of a 1,000-ton 



BINGHAM. 231 

sampling mill is said to be under advisement. The Bingham management 
{banned the building of a lead furnace, but the American Smelting & Refining 
Company "viewed with alarm'' this threatened attack upon the highly profita- 
ble lead-smelting monopoly enjoyed in Utah, hence a trade was made by which 
the Bingham abandoned the construction of its proposed lead smelter and sur- 
rendered the lead-smelting contract of the Honerine mine, receiving in ex- 
change profitable smelting contracts with the Utah Copper Co., and the 
Newhouse Mines and Smelters. 

The 1904 production of the Bingham was about 11,500,000 lbs. refined 
copper, of which about 40% came from custom ores. At present about 
20,000 tons of ore are being smelted, of which about 25% are custom ores. 
The company is earning considerable profits, and shareholders are inclined 
to clamor for dividends, which the company could pay if it wished, by 
"standing pat" upon its present properties. It is a question, however, 
whether the present management may not prefer to continue its former 
policy of absorbing or leasing additional mines, a policy which adds to the 
value of the company's holdings, biit precludes the pa3rment of dividends. 
BINGHAM COPPER BOY MININO CO. UTAH. 

Office: 14 West First South St., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine ofiice: 
Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Organized under laws of Utah, 
with capitalization $1,500,000, sliares $1 par. A. Hanauer, Jr., president; 
J. H. Kurd, secretary; W. A. Cooke, treasurer and manager; J. B. Taylor, 
superintendent. Lands, 11 claims,' area 152 acres, in the West Mountain 
and Tooele districts, adjoining the Highland Boy mine of the Utah Consoli- 
dated on the west, showing several veins canying ores of copper, lead, 
silver and gold, some of which have given assays up to $90 per ton. Ore 
on the dump assays 2% to 4.5% copper. Is developing by an SOO' crosscut 
tunnel and a lower tunnel of 2,000^, showing 3 different veins, with nearly 
a mile of underground openings. Also owns the Great Divide group of 33 
claims, area 526 acres, with 1,200^ of underground openings, showing large 
bodies of low-grade ore. Company is said to plan building a concentrator. 
Management considered good and property promising. 
BIBOHAM COPPER-GOLD MXnilfG CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Silver City, Juab Co., Utah. James Creighton, superin- 
tendent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power and a 
100-ton concentrator. 
BIHOHAM ft EASTERN COPPER MXnilfG CO. UTAH. 

Reoiganized, 190d, as Bingham & Eastern Mines Co. 
BIHOHAM & EASTERK MUTES CO. UTAH. 

Office : 42 Church St., New Haven, Conn. Mine office : Bingham Canyon, 
Salt Lake Co., Utah. Is the old Bingham k Eastern Copper Mining Co., 
reorganized with present title in 1903, under laws of New Jersey, with a 
reduction of capital from $1,000,000 to $200,000. Lands include the Jersey 
Blue, 1 X L, Little Cottonwood and other mines, which have been occasional 
shippers since circa 1890, and are opened by a 1,400' tunnel. Property 
is well located and with proper development mi^ht make a mine. 



232 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BINGHAM & EASTERN MINING CO. UTAH. 

Now Bingham & Eastern Mines Company. 
BINGHAM-NEW HAVEN COPPER & GOLD MINING CO. UTAH. 

Oflfice: 703 Malloy Bldg., New Haven, Conn. Mine office: Bingham 
Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Employs 68 men. Louis £. Stoddard, 
president ; Thos. W. Famam, secretary and treasurer; Frank A. Taylor, super- 
intendent; Geo. H. Robinson, consulting engineer. Oiganized October, 
1902, under laws of Utah, with capitalization $2,000,000, shares $5 par. 
lionds, $200,000 authorized, at 6%; issued, $78,250. Lands, 20 claims, area 
about 400 acre^, adjoining the Utah Consolidated, in the West Mountain 
district, including the Zelnora mine, which has been a considerable producer. 
Veins occur as contacts between limestone and quartzite, ores carrying 
copper, gold, silver and lead values. Property is served by the Copper 
Belt Railroad. Company is practically a close corporation and ores are of 
high grade, and are sold on a five-year contract to the Murray works of the 
American Smelting <& Refining Co. Property is well handled and has reached 
a stage of development where a prosperous future seems assured. 
BINGHAM & SALT LAKE MINING CO. UTAH. 

Letter returned unclaimed, from former office, 64 Blast Second St., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 
BINGHAM WEST £)IP TUNNEL CO. UTAH. 

Office: Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Tooele, Tooele Co., Utah. 
Capitalization, $100,000, shares one cent par. F. M. L3rman, president; 
Milando Pratt, secretary ; F. M^ Bishop, treasurer. Lands, circa 520 acres, 
unpatented. Development is by a 375' tunnel, planned to be driven about 
4 miles to cut the ore bodies of various Bingham mines at great depth. Has 
steam power and air compressor. 
BIRD, McCABE & KING. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Corbin, Jeflferson Co., Mont. Are said to hold, by location 
and purchaae, 175 mining claims in the Corbin district, and to have sunk 
three 2-compartment shafts upon claims showing outcrops of boniite and 
chalcopyrite. 
BIRTHDAY COPPER SYNDICATE. TASMANU. 

Owns 510 acres of mineral lands, carrying a fair showing of copper 
ore, near the coast and about 20 miles from Macquarie Heads, Tasmania. 
BISBEE-ARIZONA GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Postoffice Bldg., Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Employs 
12 men. Oiganized Dec. 27, 1902, under laws of Arizona, with capitaliza- 
tion $1,000,000, shares $1 par; unissued, $850,000, M. D. Scribner, president; 
Frank H. Bopp, secretary; Jacob Schmidt, treasurer; M. R. Harlan, general 
manager. Lands, 14 claims, area 280 acres, unpatented, in the Warren 
district, about 7 miles northwest of Bisbee, near the Modem mine, said by 
company to show 7 contact veins between limestone and porphyry, of which 
2 veins averaging 6' width are beng developed, said by company to give 
average assays of 6% copper, 40% lead and 40 oz. silver per ton. Develop- 



BISBEE. 23$ 

ment is by tunnels of 4(K and 7(K and 5 shafts of SO' to 12(K. Company is < 
said to be expending about $2,000 per month in development work. 
BISBEE BELLE COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 401 Laughlin Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Wickenbuig, 
Maricopa Co., Ariz. Organized under laws of Arizona, with capitalization 
$1,250,000. Geo. M. Case, president ; Geo. Van Derwerker, secretary. Lands, 
25 claims, in the Wickenburg district, opened by 4 shafts, deepest 150^, and 
a 600^ tunnel, showing ores giving assays up to 30% copper and $2 gold per 
ton, with traces of silver, also sundry claims in the Warren district, Cochise 
Co., Arizona. 
BISBEE CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. R. L. Samuel, president 
and general manager; Emil Marks, vice-president; F. A. Hess, secretary; 
W. J. Lewis, treasurer. Organized 1902, under laws of Arizona, with cap- 
italization $1,000,000, shares $5 par; unissued, $100,000. Lands, 18 claims, 
area, 360 acres, northwest of the Copper Glance, one-half mile from El Paso 
& Southwestern Ry., in the Warren district, showing a heavy conglomerate 
capping over limestone, opened by a 200' shaft. Has steam power and 54-h. p. 
hoist, good for depth of 1,500^. 
BISBEE COPPER DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of Alfred M., Low, Detroit, Mich. Lands, the Union group, 
area 35.4 acres, in the Warren district, Cochise Co., Arizona, held under 
bond and lease, on which $40,000 has been paid and $238,989.98 remains 
unpaid. Stockholders were engaged in litigation among themselves at 
close of 1904. 
BISBEE GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA* 

Office and mine : care of M. R. Harlan, Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Lands 
adjoin the Modem mine. 
BISBEE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Dissolved, 1904. 
BISBEE QUEEN DEVELOPING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine : care of B. F. Graham <& Co., Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
Organized April 20, 1903, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, 
shares, $5 par. Lands, 27 claims, lying between the Portage Lake & Bisbee 
and Pittsburg & Hecla. No work in progress. Title to lands in dispute, 
but litigation settled in company's favor in 1904. 
BIS^E-QUINCT COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of Southwestern Securities Co., H. W. Hellman Bldg., Los 
Angeles, Cal. Mine office, Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Capitalization, 
$1,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands, sundry claims in the Warren district. 
BISBEE & SUPERIOR DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Dissolved, 1904, with all debts paid. 
BBBEB WEST COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Or- 
ganized Oct. 25, 1899, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $4,000,000, 
shares $1 par. A. S. Robbins, president; Fred. L. Dwight, superintendent; 



2^4 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

James Smith, foreman. Lands, about 440 acres, in the extreme western 
part of the Warren district, opened by shafts of 55(K and 750', with a 
considerable amount of development work showing much water and no ore. 
Company apparently out of funds and property considered too far west of 
the Bisbee mines to be of much promise. 
KUPFERERZ 6EWERKSCHAFT BISMARCK. GERMANY. 

Office and mine: Hanover, Braunschweig, Germany. Organized Nov. 
20, 1899. Property is various iron and copper mines, including the Mor- 
genrothe in Brunswick, and the Rothbart in Prussia, carrying malachite and. 
other copper ores, and iron ore mines near Ruhia, Saxe- Weimar. 
BISMARCK-NUGGET GULCH CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. MONTANA. 
^Office: Stock Exchange Bldg., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Brandon, 
Madison Co., Mont. Louis D. McCall, president. Capitalization, 15,000,000. 
Lands, 17 copper claims and 18 gold claims, in 3 groups, the copper claims 
being on Stone Creek, in the Ruby Mountains. Has a 60-ton concentrator 
and 30-ton smelter. Confines* attention to gold mining, but copper claims 
are said to be promising. 
BISON MOUNTAIN MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Elliston, Deer Lodge Co., Mont. Ores carry gold, silver, 
copper and lead. Has steam power. 
BITTER MOUNTAIN MINING CO. 

Started as a copper mining company, but found no copper. Moribund. 
BITTER ROOT COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Lost its lands through inability to meet bond payments. 
BLACK BUTTE MINING & REDUCTION CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Phoenix, Ariz. Mine office: Castle Creek Hot Springs, Yavapai 
Co., Ariz. Idle. Organized under laws of Arizona, with capitalization 
$750,000, shares $1 par; unissued, $400,000. T. Connell, president and 
treasurer; M. Thompson, secretary; J. C. Dobbins, general manager. Lands, 
5 claims, area 102 acres, held by location, in the Castle Creek district, 26 
miles from Santa F^ Prescott & Phoenix R. R., showing fissure veins in 
shales, 3 veins averaging 8' width showing cuprite, azurite, malachite, chal- 
cocite and atacamite, opened by a 220^ tunnel and 170^ ishaft. Has steam 
power and necessary mine buildings. For 1905 company plans sinking 
shaft to depth of 700^ and drifting on the lOO' level. Development as yet 
is within the leached zone, atacamite being the predominant ore, this occurring 
in a pay-streak of 12* to 18' along the foot-wall and giving average assays of 
34% copper. 
BLACK BAY MINING CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: Willmar, Minn. G. P. Carwand, president; N. B. Carlson, sec- 
retary. Oiganized November 5, 1901, under laws of Arizona, with capitali- 
zation $1,000,000. Lands, 3 crown-granted claims, area 266 acres, also 13 
acres miscellaneous lands, all heavily timbered, in the Thunder Bay district ' 
of Algoma, Ontario. Country rock is trap, showing 7 amygdaloidal cuprif- 
erous beds, claimed by company to average 2% native copper, 1.25 oz. 
silver and $2 gold per ton. 



BLACK BESS— BLACK DIAMOND. 235 

BLACK BESS MIHE. UTAH. 

Located in the Big Ckittonwood district of Utah. Made small shipments 
of copper and lead ores during 1903. 
BLACKBIRD COPPER & GOLD MmiHG CO. IDAHO & UTAH. 

Office: 519 Dooly Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Salmon, 
Lemhi Co., Idaho, and Frisco, Beaver Co., Utah. J. W. Russell, president ; 
D. W. Kimball, secretary and treasurer; Dr. P. A. H. Franklin, manager; 
Geo. S. Fitzwater, superintendent in Idaho; Peter M. McCrea, superintend- 
ent in Utah. Lands, 27 patented claims and sundry locations in Idaho, 
latter having steam power and employing 15 to 20 men and having made 
small smelter shipments returning 17% copper and 18 gold per ton. Utah 
lands are 42 patented claims and 61 claims held by location, total area about 
2,000 acres, adjoining the Cactus mine of the Newhouse company, on which 
a large shaft has been started. Company planned" changing its name to 
Beaver Valley Copper Co. Considerable development has been secured 
and the property is regarded as promising, especially the Utah holdings, on 
which nothing but the compulsory assessment work was done during 1904. 
BLACK CAIIYON COPPER CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

Office: 13 Mills Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. Branch office: 315 Fleming 
Blk., Phoenix, Ariz. Mine office: Blayer, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Dr. O. A. 
Lindstrom, president ; Chas. £. Nathhorst, vice-president and general manager; 
K. M. Lundberg, secretary and treasurer. Organized under laws of Arizona, 
with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $5 par. Lands, 5 claims, area 100 
acres, in the Black Canyon district, showing auriferous and ai^gentiferous 
oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores, and a little native copper, developed 
by a 200^ tunnel and several shallow shafts and open cuts. Property regarded 
as promising. 
BLACK CHIEF MDIE. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: care of Timothy Fell, owner, Dewey, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 
A prospect showing a limited amount of development work. 
BLACK DIAMOND MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. WYOMING. 

Office: care of Perry F. Powers, Cadillac, Mich. 
BLACK COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: ESizabethtown, Colfax Co., N. M. A gold producer only. 
BLACK DIAMOND COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 99 John St., New York. Mine office: Pearce, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
Organized 1898, under laws of West Viiginia, with capitalization S2,000,000 
shares $5 par. E. D. Kennedy, president and general manager; Dr. T. M. 
Sabin, secretary. Lands, 35 claims, area about 500 acres, 6 miles from 
Pearce,' in the Cochise mountains. Ores occur as contact veins between 
limestone and porphyry, with parallel dykes of sandstone and quartzite, 
having a heavy gossan capping, in places 150^ wide. Ores are almost ex- 
clusively sulphide, being mainly chalcopyrite and bornite, with iron and 
silica gangue, estimated to average better than 6% copper, 10 os. silver and 
$1.40 gold per ton, with about 38% of silica. Property was opened originally 
/9f ^vef, p^v^oproept is by 4 tunn?l«> l9Wf?t ^ below crest of the biUi 



236 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

tunnels being connected by winzes. Mine is connected with smelter by a 
lyi mile Leschen aerial tramway having a drop of SOO', with 600 tons daily 
capacity. Has a pumping plant with 4^ pipeline installed at Pearce, this 
having capacity to raise 100,000 gallons daily against a head of 804' in 6 
miles, with a 350,600-gallon storage reservoir at the mine. Property has a 
good steam equipment, including two air-compressors with 15-drill capacity, 
petroleum being used for fuel. Miscellaneous improvements include a 20- 
room hotel, store, schoolhouse and a considerable number of dwellings. A 
200-ton smelter, built 1902, has a 44x120^ Allis-Chalmers rectangular water- 
jacket blast furnace, a SS'^ auxiliary cupola and a 24x36' circular loaster, 
and made a matte carrying about 65% copper, and 150 oz. to 300 oz. silver 
per ton, with small gold values. Ores are self-fluxing, and easily smelted, 
and furnace is claimed to have shown slag losses of only 0.3% copper. Com- 
pany apparently bankAipt and mine and smelter idle. 
BLACK DIAMOND TUNNEL CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: 604 Land Title Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Maxwell Stevenson, 
president; Henry M. Stevenson, secretary. Lands are in the Ainsworth 
district of British Columbia, and company has been driving a continuation 
of the Highlander tunnel, having a total length of about 3,000^, which has 
cut 3 veins of 4' to 13', giving fair assays in silver, lead, copper and gold. 
Officers are men of good standing, but the company's advertising made 
preposterous claims regarding future earnings and immediate dividends. 
Only the excellent local standing of the officers of the company stands in 
the way of denouncing this concern as a stock-jobbing swindle. 
BLACKFOOT COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Succeeded, 1901, by Imperial Montana Copper Mining, Smelting & 
Water Power Co. 
BLACKFOOT MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Property supposed to be in the vicinity of Battle, Carbon Co., Wyo. 
H. M. Shields, superintendent, at last accounts. 
BLACK FOREST GROUP. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Wells, Elko Co., Nev. C. M. Spence, o\yner and manager. 
Ores carry copper, gold, silver and lead. Has water power and a small 
smelter. 
BLACK HILLS COPPER CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

Office: 516 Grant Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Jerome, Yavapai 
Co., Ariz. Idle. R. A. Thomas, president; J. R. Thomas, secretary and 
treasurer^ Ed. Beven, superintendent. Organized July, 18d9, under laws of 
Arizona, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 9 claims, 
area 160 acres, in the Verde district, opened by a 352^ vertical main shaft,* and a 
212' incline shaft, with tunnels of 225', 391', 363' and 1,002'. Has steam 
power, air compressor and necessary mine buildings. Property idle, but 
company b out of debt, and intends remaining so. Lands are located be- 
tween the United Verde and Equator, and are regarded as promising. 
BLACK HILLS COPPER CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Office: Benton Harbor, Mich. Mine office: Rochford, Pennington Co., 



BLACK HILLS— BLACK MOUNTAIN, 237 

S. D. Employs 12 men. Organized June 2, 1900, under laws of South 
Dakota, with capitalization $2,000,000, cfhares $1 par. John E. Barnes, 
president; Geo. M. Thresher, secretary; John Robinson, treasurer; John B. 
Taylor, superintendent. Lands, 27 claims, area 510 acres, in the Horn- 
blend district, showing fissure veins in slate "with heavy gossan capping, 
carrying carbonate and oxide ores. The ore body under development is 
said by company to average 20^ width, and to be more than a mile in length, 
opened by incline shafts of 800^, 4ff and 75', with crosscut tunnels of 65' 
and 300^, giving a total of about 1,200^ of underground openings. Ores 
carry average values of 1.5 to 3% copper, and a cfu>load shipment of car- 
bonate ore gave smelter returns of 16.31% copper. The ore also contains 
small values in gold, silver and nickel. Has steam power with 60-h. p. 
hoist, good for 1,500^, and 4 power drills. Company plans sinking to find 
sulphide ores at depth. Company is considered to have an honest manage- 
ment. 

BLACK HILLS & DULUTH COPPER MIimVG CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Mine office: Custer, Pennington Co., S. D. Capitalization, $3,000,000, 
shares $1 par. F. A. Towner, president; M. J. Bailey, secretary; W. F. 
Hanley, treasurer; W. A. Nelson, superintendent. Lands, 340 acres, 8 
miles northwest of Custer, adjoining the Central Black Hills Copper Co., 
showing promising outcrops of ai^entiferous and auriferous copper ores, 
which have given assays up to 20% copper. Has water power, and is de- 
veloping by means of two shafts. 

BLACK Hn.LS GOLD & COPPER MIinKG CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of R. H. Burmister, general manager, Prescott, Yavapai 
Co., Arizona. Property presumably in Black Hills of Yavapai county. 
BLACK MARIA & SILVER BELLE MINES. IDAHO. 

Mine office: Mineral, Washington Co., Idaho. A. J. Crook, superintend- 
ent at last accounts. Mine opened by tunnel and shaft. Ores carry copper 
and silver. Has steam power and a 20-ton smelter. 

BLACK MOUNTAIN MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 1018 Tribune Bldg., Chicago, His. Mine office: Magdalena, 
Sonora, Mexico. Organized 1904, with capitalization $2,000,000, shares 
$5 par, paid in, $1. Is a reorganization of the Nogales Copper Co., share- 
holders of the Nogales being given one share of the Black Mountain for two 
shares of Nogales. Wm. Z. Stuart, president and treasurer; F. S. Sensen- 
brenner, secretary. 

Lands include sundry copper claims in the Patagonia and Pajorita 
districts of Santa Cruz Co., Ariz., described in Vol. IV, but which will be 
allowed to remain idle for the present, also the Cerro Pricto gold mines, 
38 miles from Magdalena, and connected therewith by a good wagon road. 
Company's lands carry about 11,000^ of the Cerro Prieto vein, which b 3 
miles long and runs 20^ to lOO' in width. Ore body is low-grade gold-bearing 
porphyritic quartz, from which the old mill on the property b said to have se- 
cured returns of about $7 per ton. Mine is opened by tunnels, permitting 
cheap extraction. Company plans erecting a 120-stamp mill, eventually to 



23d THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

I)e increased to 480 stamps, also a cyanide plant for treating the valuable 
tailings previously lost. It is planned to transmit power electrically from 
Magdalena to the mines, equipping the power plant at Magdalena with triple 
expansion engines, tlie location of the plant at that point, on the railroad, 
insuring a regular and econofnical supply of fuel. Pft)perty is one of excep- 
tional promise and management is excellent. 
BLACK PEAK GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Lands, 6 claims, with about 2,00(/ of development work, said to show 
about 5,000 tons of shipping ore, in Sierra county. New Mexico. 
BLACK PRINCE COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office : care of Chas. F. Potter & Co., Minneapolis, Minn. Letters retunied 
unclaimed from former mine office, Pearce, Cochise Co., Ariz. Lands, 7 
claims, area 140 acres. 
BLACK ROCK GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 1133 Stock Exchange Bldg., Chicago. Oxganized under laws 
of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Wm. D. Powell, 
president; Frederick S. Breen, secretary and treasurer; M. W. Breen, fiscal 
manager. Lands, 20 claims, area 400 acres, in 2 groups, in Yavapai Co., 
Ariz., one of these claims lying about four miles from the United Verde and 
the other lying about 20 miles south of the United Verde. Upper group is 
opened by a IdO' two-compartment shaft, said to show a vein of 4' to S' 
width; lower group has shafts of W and 75^. Assa3rs of ore are said to run 
from $15 to $80 per ton. Officers are men of good standing, but campany's 
prospectus contains a number of misleading statements. 
BLACK ROCK MINE. MONTANA. 

Office and mine: care of Hon. W. A. Clark, Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. 
Was formerly an important silver producer, and is being reopened for cop*)er. 
BLACK ROCK MINING CO. ^IRIZONA. 

Mine office: Wickenbuig, Maricopa Co., Ariz. Lands, 9 claims, area 
180 acres, in the Bradshaw Mountains, 17 miles from rail connection at 
Wickenbuig. Country rocks are granite and syenite, showing 4 fissure 
veins, averaging about 30^ width, carrying copper, lead, gold and silver 
with quartz gangue, and also showing porphyritic dykes canying low- 
grade ores. Development is by several shallow sliafts and short tunnels. 
Has gasoline power, and was developing with a small force at last accounts. 
BLACK TIGER COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Capitalization $1,000,000, 
(.hares $1 par. Fennimore Chatterton, president; Bernard McCaffrey, secre- 
tary. Lands, about 103 acres. Officers are men of excellent standing, 
hut the eastern prompters were little hampered by the truth in selling stock. 
BLACK TIGER MINE. . COLORADO. 

Mine office: Red ClifT, Eagle Co., Colo. J. F. Fleming, superintendent. 
Has ores carrying gold, silver and copper, opened by tunnel. 
BLACK WARRIOR COPPER COMPANY, ALMAGAMATED. ARIZONA. 

Office: 1420 (niestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Mine office: Black Warrior, 
Gila Co., Ariz. Ernest L. Tustin, secretary. Capitalization, $2,500,000, 



BLACK WARRIOR— BLAYNEY. 239 

shares $10 par. Lands, 1,500 acres, in 3 groups, the Gold Gulch, Diamond 
H. and Montgomery, latter including the Montana and Dadeville mines, 
adjoining claims opened by tunnels of 1,000^ and 1,200^, with about 3,000^ 
of underground openings shoiiving a vein of 20^ to 60^ width, canying silicious 
ores assaying up to 6% copper. Has a steam plant, burning petroleum. 
Reduction plant includes a 50-ton matting furnace, 100-ton concentrator 
and 300-ton leaching plant, latter having six 50-ton square tanks, each 
*J0x25' and 5' in depth, in a building 62x1 30^. Tanks are heated by steam 
coils, facilitating the lixiviation of copper values. Cruched ore is delivered 
to tanks from a railroad track running above, which is to be replaced by a 
belt conveyor. While this property has large ore bodies, and has expended 
about $500,000 in development, it never became a steady producer and 
property is idle, with a $50,000 suit pending against former president, James 
A. Fleming. Property has been mismanaged, and its actual value, or lack 
of it, can be determined only by the test of operation under a competent 
management. 
BLACK WARRIOR GROUP. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned unclfumed from former mine office, Albemi, Vancouver 
Island, B. C. 'Owned by A. Watson, et al. Slightly developed by tunnel 
and open-cuts. Has secured assays of 15% copper, $3 silver and $2 to $12 
gold per ton. 
BLANCHE COPPER MmHIO CO. WYOMINO. 

Office: 432 Omaha National Bank Bldg., Omaha, Neb. Mine office: 
Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. H. £. Owen, president; Jas. H. Kyner, 
secretary; Arthur H. Crow, general manager. Organized April 2, 1902, 
under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. 
Lands, 5 claims, near the New Rambler, on which a slight amount of de- 
velopment work shows two veins, one of which, 3' to 5' wide, shows auri- 
ferous oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores. Has steam power and em- 
ploys about 10 men. Management is well regarded. 
BLANCHE MINE. NEW MEXICO. 

Office and mine: Organ Donna Ana Co., N. M. Owned by W. H. 
Mackay, Jr. 
BLAND MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Patagonia, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz. Powers, Clark & Heck, 
owners. Was driving a tunnel to develop ores carrying copper, silver and 
gold, at last accounts. Presumably idle. 
BLAYNET MINING & SMELTING CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Mine office: Blayney, N. S. W., Australia. S. Remfry, manager. Cap- 
italization, £100,000. iLands, 50 freehold claims, including the mine vari- 
ously known as the Blayney, Great Blayney and Annandale, reopened in 
1897 by the present owners. Has a 40^ vein, carrying chalcopyrite dissem- 
inated in ande^te, opened by a 300^ shaft. Has steam power and a 50-ton 
smelter with 2 water-jacket furnaces. Produced 418 long tons of copper 
from 18,666 tons of ore smelted in 1901. 



240 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

BLEDSOE GOLD MINING & LEACHING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Kokomo, Summit Co., Colo. Hemy Pomeroy, superintend- 
ent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. 
BLINMAN COPPER MINING CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Office: 107, Queen St., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. J. M. Higgins, 
manager. Operates the Blinman mine, in the Flinders range, South Australia, 
272 miles north of Adelaide. Mine opened 1862, reopened circa 1899. Lands, 
G40 acres. Deepest shaft, 450'. Ore averages 8% copper, as mined, and is 
concentrated to 23% for shipment to smelter, hand-picked ores ranging 30% 
to 40%. District is arid, causing much trouble from inadequate water 
supply. Employs about 75 men. Annual capacity, about 1,250,000 lbs. 
refined copper. 
BLUE ACRE COPPER CO. UTAH. 

Office: 409 Dooly Elk., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Blueacre, 
Beaver Co., Utah. Emplo3r8 about 10 men. Capitalization, 9600,000, 
shares $1 par. Henry M. Crowther, president and general manager; Wallace 
W. Wait, vice-president, secretary and treasurer. Lands, 17 claims, area 
320 acres, in the Beaver Lake district, showing 5 contact and fissure veins, 
of which three of good average width are being developed, these canying 
estimated values of 6% copper, 5 oz. silver and $4 gold per ton from oxide, 
carbonate and sulphide ores, opened by 4 shallow shafts. Property regarded 
as promising, though but slightly developed, and company has secured good 
results for modest expenditures made. 
BLUE BELL COPPER MINING CO. 

Office: 36 Swiss St., Cleveland, Ohio. No replies to repeated requests for 
information and apparently moribund. 
BLUEBELL MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Johnson, Cochise Co., Ariz. Weir & Mitchell, owners; T. K. 
Mitchell, superintendent. A prospect with a limited amount of development 
work. 
BLUE BELL MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: care of J. J. Sullivan, Quincy, Cal. Lands, near Hosslekuss's, 
Plumas county, California. 
BLUE BIRD COPPER-GOLD MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office : care of M. J. True, secretary and general manager, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. Mine office: Milford, Beaver Co., Utah. Lands are near the Hickory 
group of the Majestic company. Main shaft, 276'. Property thought to be 
valuable, but company in financial straits. 
BLUE BIRD MINING & SMELTING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Darrington, Snohomish Co., Wash! Was driving a tunnel, 
with Thos. Parks, superintendent, at last accounts. 
BLUE CREEK COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office; Spokane, Wash. 
BLUE GROUSE CLAIMS. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Lands adjoining the Yreka on the southeast, 



BLUE HILL— BLUE LEDGE, 241 

BLUE HILL COPPER MIIIES. MAINE. 

At Blue Hill, Me. An unsuccessful property. Idle many years. 
BLUE JACKET CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. IDAHO. 

Office: 20 Broad St., New York. Mine office: Decorah, Washington Co., 
Idaho. Property under $250,000 bond to Col. Geo. W. E. Dorsey. 
BLUE JACKET MINE. IDAHO^ 

Mine office: care of Frank E. Johnesse, operator under bond and lease, 
GrangeviUe, Idaho Co., Idaho. Lands, 4 unpatented claims, area 75 acres, 
sho^ving 2 contact veins of great width, assaying 4% copper, 7 oz. silver and 
$4 gold per ton. Ores are oxides near surface and sulphides at depth. Shafts, 
lOO' to 300^ deep, with 1,000^ of underground openings. Has gasoline power. 
BLUE JACKET MINES. IDAHO. 

Office and mine: Decorah, Washington Co., Idaho. Col. Geo. W. E. 
Dorsey, manager; John C. Rogers, superintendent. Property, held under 
$250,000 bond and lease from Blue Jacket Consolidated Copper Co., is 295 
acres, opened by 250^ shaft, which is said to have produced $200,000 in cop- 
per, carload shipments having given smelter returns of 47% copper. 
BLUE JAY MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. Property is 
4 miles north of Redding and 3 miles from Keswick, showing sulphide ores and 
a little native copper, in a 300^ vein traceable 1,000^ and opened by a shallow 
shaft. 
BLUE JAY MINE. NEVADA. 

Mine office : Yerington, Lyon Co., Nev. A. Pugh, superintendent. Open- 
ed by shaft and tunnel. Has steam power. 
BLUE JAY GROUP. UTAH. 

Office: care of John Skewes, owner. Salt Lake City, Utah. Lands are in 
vicinity of Moab, Grand Co., Utah. Main shaft, about lOO', shows ore 
a88a3ring up to 25% copper. 
BLUE JAY MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office: Letcher, Fresno Co., Cal. N. Phillips, superintendent, at 
last accounts. 
BLUE LAKE GOLD & COPPER MINING, WASHINGTON. 

SMELTING & POWER CO. 

Office: 302 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis. Mine office: Conconully, 
Okanogan Co., Wash. C. T. McElroy, secretary and general manager. Has 
6 veins, of 1' to 3' width, giving assays of 3% to 49% copper and $3 to $11 
gold per ton. 
BLUE LEDGE COPPER CO. 

Office : Prescott, Arizona. Organized 1904, with capitalization $4,000,000. 
BLUE LEDGE COPPER CO. OREGON. 

Jjctter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Applegate, Jack- 
son Co., Ore. Ores carry copper, gold and silver. Has steam power. 
BLUE LEDGE MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: care of B. C. Kingsbery, Spokane, Wash. Lands, 13 claims, area 
J260 acres, at the head of Joe Creek, Siskiyou county, California, about 4 



242 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

miles south of the Oregon line, carrying a 2(K contact vein between white and 
black mica-schists, opened by 3 tunnels, longest 80^, showing chalcop3rrite 
and a little native copper, with average assay values of about 4% to 5% 
copper and 8 oz. silver per ton. Supposed to be under bond to Clark and 
Kingsbery, of Spokane, Wash. 
BLUE RIDGE COPPER CO. VIRGINIA. 

Office: 613-145 La Salle St., Chicago, Ills. Mine office: Mauck, Madison 
Co., Va. Organized under laws of Vii^ginia, with capitalization, $500,000, 
shares $5 par. Jacob Lauth, president; Frank L. Race, secretary and treas- 
urer Lands, circa 100 acres, on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains, 10 miles from Norfolk & Western R. R., opened by old pits and a 60^ 
shaft. Lode is said to be a contact vein between granite and metamorphosed 
slate, carrying malachite, azurite, cuprite and native copper. 
BLUB RIDGE COPPER MmiNG CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mine office: Gap Creek, Ashe Co., N. C. Property, 30 miles from nearest 
railroad, is said to show a 12^ fissure vein carrying a considerable variety 
of auriferous copper ores. 
BLUESTONE MINE. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Yerington, Lyon Co., Nev. Reported sold, 1904, to Capt. 
J. R. De La Mar, for $125,000. 
BLUE WING COPPER CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Succeeded by Boston & Carolina Copper Mining Co. 
BLUE WING MINE. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mine office: Baker City, Granville Co., N. C. Property was formely 
held by the Blue Wing Copper Co., and later by the Boston & Carolina Copper 
Mining Co. Never successful, owing to bad management. Has several 
shafts, of lOO' to 317' depth, with 4 levels opened on main shaft, these show- 
ing extensive bodies of disseminated bomite, with gangue of quartz and 
calcite. No stoping has been done below the 150' level. Idle. 
GEWERKSCHAFT BOBERTHALER ERZBERGWERKE. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Kupferberg, Schlesien, Germany. Dr. Kossman, manager. 
Organized June, 1902. Production, 1902, was 80 metric tons refined copper. 
Employs 21 men. 
BOBTAIL MINES CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Minneapolis, Minn. Mine office: Globe, Gila Co., Ariz. V. D. 
Adams, superintendent, at last accounts. Lands, 20 claims, including the 
Little Wonder gold mine and the Bornite group carrying gold, silver and 
copper. Has steam power and 4 stamp mill, employing 15 to 20 men. 
BOCCHEGIANO MINE. ITALY. 

Operated by Societe Anonima delle Miniere di Montecatini. 

KONIGLICHE HtlTTENVERWALTUNG BODENMAIS. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Bodcnmais, Bavaria, Germany. Ores are iron and copper 
pyrites, and products are blue vitriol and copperas. Employs 80 men. 
BOGOSLOVSKI MINES. RUSSIA. 

Office: care of Baron K M Keldt Von Turgensburg, Perm, Russia. 
Mine office: Bogoslovsk, Perm, Riijiia. Property includes 3 mines and 



BOGOSLOVSKI'BOLEO, 243 

Ls one of the largest copper producers of the empire. Ores occur generally 
in contact veins between limestone and intrusive igneous rocks, and include 
oxides, carbonate, chryscolla, etc., in the surface zone, with chalcopyrite 
and bomite in the zone of secondary enrichment, and chalcopyrite in as- 
sociation with iron pyrites and magnetite, with calcareous and quartz gangue, 
at depth. Has a smelter at Bogoslovsk, near the mines, and produces blister 
copper. Latest reported production was 2,634,767 lbs. refined copper in 1899. 
BOHEMIAN RANGE COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: care of Mathew Van Orden, treasurer; Houghton, Mich. ; Thomas 
O. Bennetts, superintendent. Is a S3mdicate, formed to explore a tract of 
960 acres lying about 3^ miles east of the Mistwabik. Surface trenching 
showed several amygdaloid beds, upon one of which a shaft was started late 
in 1904. Employs about 20 men and has good copper at bottom of a 60^ 
shaft. 

BOLANOS MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Officer St. Louis, Mo. Mine office, Bolanos, Jalisco, Mex. W. C. Stith, 
president, C. W. Simmons, treasurer; Juan B. Izabel, general manager. 
Company succeeds the bankrupt Bolanos Mining & Milling Co. Property 
formerly was worked by an English company. Present Qwners plan erection 
of a 150-ton mill. 
COMPAGNIE DU BOLEO. MEXICO. 

Offices: 56, Rue de Provence, Paris, France. American office: 614 
Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. Mine office: Santa Rosalia, Baja Cali- 
fornia, Mex. Employs 1,600 men. E. Puerari, chairman; P. Miribaud, 
adminstrateur-delegue ; Ch. LaForgue, director-general; M. Demarest, 
secretary; W. W. Rose, general mine superintendent. Oi^ganized 1885, 
under laws of France, with capitalization 12,000,000 francs; debentures, 
1,782,000 francs, in bonds of 500f., bearing 4.5% interest. Profits of 
company in 1902 were 1,750,961.08 francs, an increase of 544,705.48 francs 
over 1901 and for 1903 were 5,829,449 francs, from which a dividend of 
2,500,000 francs was paid. Dividends for 1901 and 1902 were 62 francs 50 
centimes for each year. Company is supposed to be controlled by the French 
house of Rothschild. Enjoys, for a period of 20 years, ending Dec. 17, 1912, 
exemption from all federal and local taxes except stamp taxes ; exemption of 
employes from military and civil service, and exemption from customs, 
duties and local dues, and for a term of 50 years, expiring *1942, is exempt 
from export duties on copper produced and import duties on fuel consumed. 
In addition to its own mines the Compagnie du Boleo owns a considerable 
proportion of the stock issue of the Compagnie D'Inguaran. 

Mineral lands are 1 1 groups, including 3 principal groups of mines known 
as the Soledad, Providencia and Purgatorio, also a promising new mine, 
known as I^ Bricas, and 11,920 hcctareas of grazing lands, south of the 
mines. The ore occurs in a formation of Tertiary conglomerates, sand- 
stones and tufas, traversed at certain points by trachyte, the cupriferous 
tufas overlying conglomerates of eruptive rock pebbles, and being surmounted 
by argillaceous tufas, all traversed by fissures. The ores are of great variety, 



244 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

including cuprite, melaconite, azurite, malachite, crednerite, chryaoooUa, 
atacamitc, covellite and chalcocite. There are three cupriferous beds, of 
which the upper averages about 3' in thickness, the middle 2^ to3^, and the 
bottom bed 2^ to 1(K. The middle bed carries oxide and carbonate ores in 
oolitic concretions, known locally as boleos, hence the name of the mine. 
The lowest bed is partly below the water line and carries sulphide ores, 
as well as oxides and carbonates. The ore is diaseminated through the 
tufas in thin, irregular veins with clay gouge, and has a marked concentra- 
tion toward the bottom of each bed, where the ore forms compact layers 
of G^ to 12^. The main workings are 15 metres to 200 metres above sea 
level, the mine being opened by numerous tunneb, and by 7 shafts of the 
following depths: Sombrero, 98 metres; Carmen, 53m.; Purgatorio, 55m.; 
Central, 156m.; Amelia, 48m.; Santa Rita, 86m.; San Juan, 86m. The 
mine is extensively developed, liaving about 125,000 metres of undei^round 
openings in ser\'ice. 

The mine has complete steam and electric plants, generating about 
2,000-h. p. from steam engines, of which 1,500-h. p. is transformed by three- 
phase dynamos for distribution to the various mines, and for the electric 
locomotives used. Ow^ing to the peculiar nature of the mine all drilling is 
done by liand, and the richness of the ore is such that no mechanical concen- 
tration is attempted, hand-sorting being deemed sufficient. The smelting 
plant was rebuilt in 1901 and has eight 150-ton water-jacket furnaces. The 
ore is smelted to a matte of 58% to 65% tenor, and about one-third of the 
matte is reduced to black copper of 89% to 94% in tenor, both matte and 
bars being shipped to Falmouth, England, for refining. German coal is used 
for smelting and coal briquettes for general fuel. The average net copper 
return of ore smelted was 4.29% in 1900, 3.95% in 1901 and 4.38% in 1902. 
Ore is hand-sorted and machine-briquetted, at a cost of only one franc per 
ton, the argillaceous gangue serving as a natural binder. 

The climate is tropical and the country extremely arid. Potable water 
is secured by a pipe-line of 16,074 metres from a reser\'oir on tlie Yaqui 
plateau, with pumps at Santa Aguede and Santa Rita. There is also a con- 
densing plant, with 4 powerful pumps, for the distillation of sea water.^ A 
private railroad of 30 kilometres connects the mines with the smelter at 
Santa Rosalia, the road having 9 locomotives and 120 cars. At Mie port 
of Santa Rosalia, opposite Guaymas, Sonora, is a town of 7,000 people, 
dependent solely *on the mines and smelter. The company has a 340-metre 
jetty, and owns a sailing vessel of 350 tons register. Miscellaneous enter- 
prises include several general stores, a sawmill, four schools and a hospital. 
Wages are $1.25 per day, Mexican, for common labor, with free water and 
medical attendance, but owing to much higher wages being paid on the 
mainland, across the Gulf of California, the Boleo b suffering from a scarcity 
of labor, and is working only 1,600 men, when 3,000 could be employed to 
advantage. A large number of Chinese coolies were employed, in 1903-1904, 
but only a few remained at the mines. Of 500 Japanese imported in 1904, 
only 40 remained at the mine at the close of the year. The production of 



BOLEO—BONA NZA . 245 

refined copper in 1902, was 10,953 metric tons, made from 249,895 tons of 
ore, and for 1903 the production of refined copper was 10,480 metric tons, a 
decrease of 373 tons. Ore mined in 1903 was 230,490 metric tons, with 
average recovery of 4.56% copper, an increase of 0.18% over the preceeding 
year. Production of 1904 was 11,121 metric tons of fine copper. The 
Boleo is a very valuable mine, and well managed, good results being 
secured notwithstanding the many serious drawbacks found in operation. 
BOLINAS COPPER MDffING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Oflfice: 253 Spear St., San Francisco, Cal. T. P. H. Whitelaw, president 
and manager. Owns copper property showing 9 veins, 6^ to 2^ wide, in 
serpentine, 4 miles northeast of Bolinas Bay, Marin Co., Cal., on which 
considerable development work has been done. Ore on the dumps is said to 
carry 5% to 10% copper. Has a good equipment, including concentrator. 
Idle at last accounts and company refuses to furnish any statement! 
BOUVIAV COMPANY. BOLIVIA. 

Organized, circa 1901, by Sir Martin Conway. Holds an important 
mining concession of 10,000 square miles, between the Andes and headwaters 
of the Amazon from the Bolivian government, on the basis of a royalty of 
one-third of net profits. 
BOMPA SYNDICATE. ^ AUSTRALIA. 

Is developing a copper property at Glasford Creek, Gladstone district, 
Queensland, Australia. Showing said to be promising, but district lacks rail- 
way connections, which must be had before successful mining can be done 
upon any considerable. scale. 
BONANZA COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine ofiice: Las Vegas, San Miguel Co., N. M. Chas. N..Petteys, presi- 
dent and manager; Geo. H. Hunter, secretary. Has steam power, crushing 
mill and 25-ton leaching plant. 
BONANZA MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from- former office, Fort Simpson, B. C. 
Lands are in the Cassiar district. Idle. 
BONANZA MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Index, Snohomish Co., Wash. 
BONANZA MINING & SMELTING CO. ' WASHINGTON. 

Office: 81 SuUivan Bldg., Seattle, Wash. Lands are the Ekiison group of 
12 claims, in the Silver Creek district of Snohomish Co., Wash., opened by 
tunnels, with about one-half mile of undei^groimd development, showing 
auriferous copper ore. 
BONANZA MOUNTAIN GOLD MINING CO., LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Grand Forks, B. C. F. H. Knight, superintendent. Has 
low-grade auriferous and argentiferous copper ores. 
BONANZA QUEEN MINING CO., LTD. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Minneapolis, Minn. Mine office: Silverton, Snohomish Co., 
Wash. Richard H. Harehold, superintendent. Lands, 8 claims, showing 4 
veins canying auriferous copper ores. Has about 1,200^ of underground 
openings and employed about 20 men at last accounts. 



246 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BONNER MINE. ONTARIO. 

A group of claims on Michipicoten Island, Algoma, Ontario. 
BONNY BELLE MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Said to have had 2 claims near the Ferris-Haggarty mine, in the En- 
campment district of Wyoming. Company moved office from 100 Washing- 
ton St., Chicago, HI., and left no forwarding address. 
BOODLE MINING SYNDICATE, LTD. COLORADO. 

Offices: 46, St. Mary Axe, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Central 
City, Gilpin Co., Colo. John Peter Reid, chairman ; Chas. Pearson, secretary; 
W. J. Richards, superintendent. Capital, nominal, £15,000; issued, 7,500 
shares, 15s. called up. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Idle. 
BORNTTE COPPER & GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 16 State St., Boston, 
Mass. F. Rockwood Hall, president ; Geo. D. Coleman, secretary and treas- 
urer; W. G. Gates, superintendent. Lands are on Cram Mountain, Maricopa 
county, Arizona. Property is idle and the company makes no attempt to 
pay its bills. 
BORNTTE COPPER & GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: care of C. W. Coffin, president, Banger, Me. Mine office: Dar- 
rington, Snohomish Co., Wash.; Wilbur E. Frank, secretary; C. G. Austin, 
general manager. Lands, 11 claims, in the Stillaguaraish district. Showing 
large and promising outcrops of auriferous and aigentiferous bomite 
and chalcop3rrite. Development is proceeding by tunnel, and a power plant 
is being installed. Management seems vigorous and honest. 
BOSSMO KISGRUBER. NORWAY. 

Mine office: Bossmo in Ranen, Norway. Works ores carrying 0.5% 
and upwards in copper, and up to 50% sulphur, latter element furnishing the 
principal values, of the ores. Production in 1902 was about 24,000 tons of 
cupriferous pyrites. 
BOSTON CONSOLIDATED COPPER & GOLD MINING CO., LTD. UTAH. 

Offices: 3, Great Winchester St., London, E. C, Eng., 146 Devonshire 
St., Boston. Mass., and 608 Dooly Blk., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: 
Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Employs 75 men. John E. Dudley 
Ryder, chairman; E. £. Abercrombie, vice-chairman; Frank A. Schirmer, 
secretary and treasurer; L. Hanchett, general manager; Louis S. Gates, 
superintendent; Samuel Newhouse, managing director, under six-year con- 
tract, or until the mines are on a productive basis, he to then receive a per- 
centage of the net profits. Mr. Newhouse has tendered his resignation, to 
take effect April 15, 1905. Organized May 14, 1898, with capitalization 
£500,000, shares £1 par. Although a British corporation, control is now 
held in the United States and reorganization under an American charter, 
while not yet suggested, is quite certain to come. Lands, 51 claims, area 
349 acres, mainly adjoining the Highland Boy mine of the Utah Consolidated, 
in the Bingham or West Mountain district, title being held through an Ameri- 
can corporation. 

Qoyntry rwks are JiinestOBf f«id quart?itP and ores ^re ^clusjv^y 



BOSTON. 247 

sulphide, mainly bomite And chalcopyrite, averaging about 3.25% copper, 
3 oz. silver and $2 gold per ton. Development is by 5 tunnels, of 500' to 
2, IOC length each, with a total of about 5 miles of underground openings, 
exposing about 2,000,000 tons of ore. While the ore averages but little better 
than 3%, there are considerable quantities of high-grade ore, runniiig up 
to 10% in tenor, with small quantities even richer. Principal tunnels are the 
Work, Peabody and Armstrong No. 1, latter having an electric haulage 
plant, connecting at the mouth of the tunnel, with the Copper Belt railway, 
which makes a rate of 15 cents per ton to the smelter, at Murray. Equip- 
ment includes a good steam plant, lO-drill Rand air compressor, 10 power 
drills, etc. 

Production in 1904 was 47,846 tons, ore being sent to the Bingham 
Fmelter under 2 year contract, calling for 200 tons daUy, of ore not under 
3% copper, with a bonus of 10 cents per unit for excess of iron over silica. 
Ore produced was mined ai an average cost of $2.03 per ton, with gross 
costs of $2.82 per ton. Production of 1904 was 3,223,836 lbs. refined copper. 
Shipments were suspended Oct. 1, owing to difficulty in keeping ore above 
3% in large shipments, and contract has been modified to permit shipment 
of mine-run ore. 

In addition to its developed mine, the Boston Consolidated has about 
150 acres carrying simply enormous quantities of low-grade sulphide ores 
disseminated in porphyry. The- Utah Copper Co. seems to be making a 
success of working precisely similar and adjoining ore, and the Boston Con- 
solidated plans to follow suit. A 117-acre smelter site, with ample water 
supply, adjoining the Utah Consolidated smelter, is held under option, and it 
is planned to build a 500-ton concentrator thereon at a cost of about $125,000. 
The Utah Copper Co. is said to be earning about $1 net per ton from porphyry- 
sulphides averaging under 2% copper per ton. The building of a smelter 
also may be given consideration a little later. 

The Boston Consolidated is a fine property, of great possibilities, and 
is well managed. 
BOSTON GROUP. NEVADA. 

Near Reno, Fremont Co., Nev. Area, 110 acres. Under bond to J. K* 
MiUer, et al., Colorado Springs, Colo., at last accounts. 
BOSTON-ARIZONA MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 46 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Morristown, Maricopa 
Co., Ariz. Employs 4 men. Organized 1901, under laws of Arizona, with 
capitalization $5,000,000, since reduced to $500,000, shares $1 par. Henry 
Livingston Bowdoin, president; T. J. Smith, secretary; W. T. Smith, treasurer 
and general manager. Lands, 10 claims, area 200 acres, in the Vulture 
district, showing 6 fissure veins, of which two average 4f to 20^ width, opened 
by 3 shafts of 20^ to 50^ and an 80' tunnel, showing oxide and carbonate 
ores and giving assays of 1% to 40% copper and $1 to $22 gold per ton, 
with a little silver and galena. 
BOSTON & ARIZONA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. ARIZONA* 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 501-7 Water St., Boston, 
ICass. 



248 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

BOSTON & BRITISH COLUMBIA COPPER CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Lost title to property. Company probably dead. 
BOSTON & BRITISH COLUMBIA MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: 39 Cortlandt St., New York. 
BOSTON & BUTTE MINE. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Gilbert, Yavapai Ck>., 
Ariz. W. H. Burrage, superintendent, at last accounts. A prospect on 
which a limited amount of work has been done. 
BOSTON & CAROLINA COPPER MINING CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mine idle and affairs tied up by litigation. Property was the Blue Wing 
mine. 
BOSTON CLIMAX GOLD-COPPER MINING WASHINGTON. 

& INVESTMENT CO. 

Office: Union Trust Bldg., Providence, R. I. Benj. F. Harrington, 
president and general manager. Lands are about 240 acres in Stevens Co.. 
Wash., on w^hich about $25,000 has been spent in development work. Com- 
pany gives no returns, but Mr. Harrington is a man of good standing. Prop- 
erty probably idle. 
BOSTON-COLBY MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office and mine : care of Joseph Spikerman, Saltese, Missoula Co., Mont. 
Organized September IG, 1903, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. 
Lauds, 7 claims in the St. Regis section of the Cceur d'Alene district of Idaho 
and Montana. 
BOSTON-COLORADO COPPER MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 50 White St., New York. Mine office: Fort Collins, Larimer Co., 
Colo. Edwin M. Keiser, president ; Sanford Stark, vice-president and general 
manager; Roger C. Turner, secretary. Employs 5 to 10 men. Organized 
1899, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, sliares $1 par. 
J^nds, 7 patented claims, area 63 acres, in the Howes Gulch district, showing 
carbonate and sulphide ores giving assa}^ of 7% to 8% copper, 1 oz. silver 
and $2.60 gold per ton, developed by shafts of 40' and 240^ and two 200' 
tunnels. Has steam power and necessary mine buildings. 
BOSTON & COLORADO SMELTING CO. COLORADO. 

Office and works : Boston Bldg., Denver, Colo. C. C. Converse, president ; 
Geo. D. Edmunds, secretary; Harold V. Pearoe, manager. Has an extensive 
smelting plant and refinery, equipped with steam and electric power and 
employing about 200 men. Paid 1Q% dividends until 1898, and thereafter 
6% dividends until 1903, when dividend was passed. 
BOSTON & DENVER CONSOLIDATED COLORADO. 

MINING & MILLING CO. 

Mine office: Black Hawk, Gilpin Co., Colo. 
BOSTON GOLD-COPPER MINING CO. COLORADO. 

A dubious concern, reorganized as Growler Copper Co. 
BOSTON GOLD-COPPER SMELTING CO. COLORADO. 

The smelter of this company, at Leadville, Colo., is under lease for a 
term of 10 years to the Republic Smelting Co. 



BOSTON'IDAHO^BOSTON & MONTANA. 249 

BOSTON-IDAHO Mmm G CO. IDAHO. 

Offices: 306-147 Milk St., Boston, Mass., and 6 First Natl. Bank Bldg., 
Ogden, Utah. Mine office: Nicholia, Lemhi Co., Idaho. Organized Feb- 
ruary, 1902, under laws of Utah, with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. 
R. P. Hunter, president and treasurer; Frank H. Clayton, vice-president and 
eastern manager; Ernest J. Waugh, secretary; O. A. Kennedy, superintend- 
ent. Lands, 8 claims, area 100 acres, in the Spring Mountain district, de- 
veloped by about 1,500^ of underground openings, giving ores assaying 
from a trace to 27.5% copper, 1 oz. to 40 oz. silver, from a trace to 57% lead 
and from a trace to SI .60 gold per ton. Idle at last accounts. 
BOSTON & LAKE SUPERIOR COPPER MINING CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: 31 State St., Boston, Mass. Lands, if any, on northern shore of 
Lake Superior, in Canada. 
BOSTON & MONTANA COPPER & SILVER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: 52 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., 
Mont. Smelter office: Great Falls, Cascade Co., Mont. Organized 1887, 
under laws of Montana, with capitalization $3,750,000, in 150,000 shares of 
$25 par value, full paid and non-assessable. Debentures; authorized and 
issued, $1,000,000 first issue; $500,000 second issue; $600,000 third issue. 
Outstanding, January 1, 1904, $400,000 at 7%. Paid dividends of $5,250,000 
in 1901, $900,000 in 1902, $1,200,000 in 1903 and $9,600,000 in 1904. Total 
dividends to January 1, 1905, $37,925,000. Practically the entire stock 
issue is owned by the Amalgamated Copper Co. Mines and smelter employ 
about 4,000 men. Sidney Chase, president ; John D. Ryan, managing director ; 
F. P. Addicks, secretary and tr^lisurer; Sidney Chase, F. P. Addicks, Frank 
Klepetko, David Hennessey and James Phillips, Jr., directors ;C. W. Goodale, 
general manager; D. W. Brunton, consulting engineer; J. C. Adams, mine 
superintendent; A. E. Wheeler, smelter superintendent. 

The following table gives a summary of operations and results for the 
last two fiscal years ending June 1 

1903 1904 

Tons of ore extracted 907,227 988,866 

Gross yield per ton $ 14.03 $ 12.86 

Costofmining 2,368,982.25 2,921,952.00 

Cost of mining per ton 2. 16 2.90 

Cost of transportation 907,227.00 988,886.00 

Cost of transportation per ton 1.00 1.00 

Cost of reduction 2,767,042.00 2,501,830.98 

Cost of reduction per ton 3 . 05 2 . 53 

Paid for labor 2,824,814.00 2,921,952.00 

Paid for machinery and supplies 2,311,211.00 2,439,428.00 

Paid for marketing, refining and selling 2,634, 180 . 00 1,795,538 . 00 

Gross proceeds 12,730,899.00 12,720,282.00 

Total expenditures 8,677,432.00 8,145,784.00 

Net proceeds 4,053,467.00 4,574,498.00 

Mineral lands are extensive, including in addition to the working mines 



260 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

a large number of fractional claims, and part interests* in various full and 
fractional claims. In addition to mining lands at Butte, and smelter-^ite at 
Great Falls, the company owns coal mines near Sand Ck>ulee, 16 miles from 
Great Falls. The ore bodies of the Boston & Montana are the richest and the 
mine is the best in the Butte district. The ores are notably rich in silver 
and gold, returning an average of 0.025 oz. silver, valued at 1^ cents, with 
silver at 55c per ot. and 14 cent in gold, for each pound of copper produced. 
The mine has been opened to a depth of 1,851', showing excellent ore on the 
bottom levels, and it is altogether probable that values will hold to great 
depth. Frank Klepetko, formerly general manager, advised in 1901 that hoists 
good for a depth of 3,560' be installed. The ore mined gives average returns 
of a little under 5% copper and $1.50 to $1.75 per ton (averaging about 
$1.62 per ton), in gold and silver values. The principal mines of the company 
are the Mountain View, Pennsylvania, Leonard, East Colusa, West Colusa 
Comanche and Moose, the latter a comparatively new property, also the 
Badger, which is leased, and shafts 4 and 5 on the Meader\'ille Flat. The 
Mountain View has a 3-compartment shaft, 1,851' deep, with> 15 exits and 
connections, and on surface has a 115' steel gallows frame and an 18x48' 
Allis hoist, operating 2 double-deck cages, also an Allis air compressor with 
20x42^ steam cylinders and 22x42^ air cylinders. It is intended to give 
the Mountain View a plant good for 3,000' depth. The Pennsylvania has 
a 3-compartment shaft, 1,561' deep, connected underground with the Mount- 
ain View, St. Lawrence and Silver Bow No. 1. Plant includes a 19x48' Allis 
hoist, operating 2 double-deck cages, and an IngersoU-Sergeant air compres- 
sor with 20x30^ steam cylinders and 24^x30^ air cylinders. The Leonard 
has a 3-compartment shaft, 1,129' in depth, with a 19x48' Allis hoist, oper- 
ating 2 double-deck cages, and compound Nordberg compressors with steam 
cylindera of 15', 28', and 42', and air cylinders of 19', 27', 29' and 42', also 
a duplex Risdon compressor with steahi cylinders of 14', 26' and 30' and 
air cylinders of 14' and 30'. The Leonard has shown a marked increase 
in gold values of late. 

The West Colusa ha.s a 3-compartmcnt shaft, 1,442' in depth, with 7 
exits and connections, timl)cred with 10x10' and 12x12' square sets, with a 
60' steel gallows-frame and a 20x60* Nordberg hoist operating 2 single-deck 
cages: The East Colusa has a 3-compartnicnt shaft, 900' deep, w^ith 4 exits 
and a 16x32* Griffith & Wedge hoist. The Moose is a comparatively new 
property, with a 400' shaft only. In addition to the hoists, there are 12x14' 
Risdon sinking engines at the Mountain View, Pennsylvania, and Leonard, and 
a 13x12' Iron Bay hoist at the West Colusa. About 135 power drills arc 
operated. The ore bodies of the various Boston & Mountain mines are very 
extensive, and reserves of smelting grade ore alone are estimated at about 
3,000,000 tons. Tlie mine has some stopes nearly 200' wide, carrying high- 
grade ore, and is opened for several years ahead of any possible productive 
requirements. Tlie ores of the various mines show decreased values at depth, 
like all other mines, and a gradual decline in values may he anticipated 
henceforth, but shareholders need liavc no fear of the mine s future for many 



Boston & Montana. 251 

years to come. About 15% of the mine's product is smelti&g ore, and 85% is 
concentrating ore. In addition to the mines heretofore enumerated, the 
Minnie Healey property is claimed by the Boston & Montana, this mine 
being in litigation. 

Steam power is used exclusively at the mine. The water from the 
MounUdn View and East ^nd West Ck>lusa mines drains to the 1,200' level 
of the Leonard and is forked thence by a duplex station-pump with Nordberg 
steam-end 20^x40^x42^ with 7>^x42^ plungers. The steam-end is fitted 
with Corliss valve and carries a fly wheel. The water^nd was made by the 
company and cast in the Silver Bow foundry, at Butte. Valves are of the pot 
form and the entire water end is phosphor-bronze, and columns are lined with 
wood, thoroughly soaked with oil and coated on the inside with hot tar, to 
withstand the corrosive action of the mine water. Ultimately all of the 
company's mines will be unwatered from this plant, which is capable of 
raising 1,000 gallons per minute against a head of 1,200^. The mine water, 
which carries considerable copper in solution, is leached on reaching surface, 
the copper being precipated on scrap-iron and product turned into bluestone. 

The concentrator and smelter are at Great Falls, 171 miles from the mine, 
with a freight charge of $1 per ton on ore, the high freight rate being offset 
by the advantage of the water-power developed at Great Falls. The con- 
eentrator is second only in size to the monstrous Washoe plant of the Ana- 
conda, and is in 6 sections, each a complete mill in itself, the six having a total 
capacity of 2,700 tons daily. The building is of wood and is equipped with 
six 10x20^ and twelve 5x12^ Blake jaw crushers, 15 Huntington miUs, 18 
rolls, 68 Hartz jigs, 249 Evans jigs, 5 Overstrom concentrators, 6 Wilfley 
concentrators 10 six-foot vanners, 54 f our-f oot .vanners and 30 slime tables. 

The smelter treats 300 to 400 tons of high grade ore and the mill- 
product of about 2,700 tons of concentrating ore daily. The plant has 22 
McDougal calciners, five 500-ton water-jacket blast furnaces, five 175-ton 
reverberatory furnaces and 12 converters of the upright type, each 14'2^x7' 
outside dimensions. Product is blister copper of 99% tenor, carrying 40 oz. 
silver and 0.25 oz. gold per ton. In connection with the smelter there is a 
very laige electrolytic refinery having a daily capacity of 70 tons of refined 
copper cathodes, the gold and silver slimes being reduced and parted in a 
refinery at the plant. The electrolytic plant also has 3 furnaces for melting 
cathodes for casting the refined copper into wire-bars, cakes and ignots. 
The electrolytic copper from this plant is very pure and ranks high in the 
market. A portion of the blister copper from the smelter is sent to the 
Raritan copper works at Perth Amboy, N. J.^ and the plant also does a very 
limited amount of custom smelting. Current for the electrolytic plant is 
carried by solid oveiiapping slabs of copper. Tlie management is said to 
plan increasing the -present capacity of the Gieat Falls reduction plant by 
20% to 25% in the near future. 

Power for the concentrator, smelter and electrolytic refinery is secured 
from the Black Eagle Fails of the Missouri river, tliese having a 42^ effective 
head, and generating 8,700 h. p., except at the lowest stages of water. The 



262 THE COPPER tiAhlDBOOK, 

auxiliary steam plant has 2,400 h. p. in Stirling water-tube boilers, and can 
supply power for the concentrator, blast furnace blowers, electric motors 
and cranes, in periods of low water. 

The Boston and Montana is engaged in unending and apparently un- 
endable litigation with the subsidiary companies of the United Copper Co. 
Several years ago the company was reincorporate4 under laws of New York, 
but an attempt to turn over the assets of the Montana corporation was 
met with local injunctions, whereupon the New York corporation was dis- 
solved. The Boston &. Montana, by reason of sundry injunctions, was 
restrained, until late in 1904, from paying dividends on shares owned by 
the Amalgamated Copper Co., which is practically the sole owner of the 
Boston & Montana. Production of refined copper is not stated by the 
company, but for the year ending June 1, 1903, was approximately 90,750,000 
lbs., produced at a net cost of 9.56c per pound, including gold and silver 
values, or at a cost of 11.18c per pound, exclusive of gold and silver values, 
which amount to about 1^ cents per pound, and for the calendar year, 
1904 was approximately 94,000,000 lbs., at a slightly lower net cost. 

The Boston & Montana now has, and for many years has had, a most 
excellent local management. It was the world's largest copper producer 
in 1904, but will have several vigorous young rivals for first place in the 
near future. 

BOSTON & NEVADA MINING CO. NEVADA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Yerington, Lyon 
Co., Nev. 

BOSTON & NEW MEXICO COPPER CO. NEW MEXIOO. 

Office: 502 Colonial Bldg., Boston, Mass. Oiganized April, 1903, under 
laws of South Dakota, with capitalization $200,000. John E. Kimball, 
president; Andrew Swanson, treasurer; C. J. Arthur, secretary and manager. 
Advertises asking the public to "write for prospectus," but sedulously re- 
frained from sending same to the Copper Handbook, when requested. Has 
stock to sell, of course, but is a rather dubious-looking proposition, con- 
sidered by and large. 

BOSTON & ST. MARY COPPER MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: presumably Great Falls, Mont. Location of lands unknown, 
but probably in Montana. 

BOSTON-ST. PAUL CONSOLIDATED WASHINGTON. 

COPPER MINING CO. 

Office: 712 St. Peter St., St. Paul, Minn. Mine office: Index, Snohom- 
bh Co., Wash. Capitalization $2,000,000, shares $1 par. Wm. H. Baker, 
president; O. S. Derringer, secretary. Lands, 8 claims, adjoining the Ethel. 
Does merely assessment work. 

BOSTON & SEATTLE MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Elliston, Deer Lodge Co., Montana. Lands, 11 claims, 4 
patented, about 12 miles from Elliston, said to show large bodies of low- 
grade ore, which can be worked advantageously only with railroad facilities, 



BOSTON & SEATTLE'-BOSTON <fc TIN TIC. 253 

now lacking, but hoped for. Company plans building a smelter when rail 

connection is secured. 

BOSTON & SEVEN DEVILS COPPER CO. IDAHO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 53 State St., Boston, 
Mass. Lands, near Cuprum, Washington Co., Idaho. Smelter was sold 
for debt, in 1903, and company seems hopelessly insolvent. 
BOSTON-SIERRA MADRE MINE INDUSTRY CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 118-59 Clark St., Chicago, Ills. Mine office: Slater, Routt Co., 
Colo. Employs 6 men. Amos Pettibone, president; Lewis A. Pease, sec- 
retary, treasurer and general manager; Ralph K. Cotton, superintendent. 
Organized 1900, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares 
$1 par. Lands, sundry claims, showing three fissure veins in andesite, 
carrying ores giving average assay values of 10% to 70% lead; 60% zinc; 
8 oz. to 60Q oz. silver; from a trace to 72 oz. gold and small percentages 
of copper. Has several shallow shafts and 160^ main shaft, also a 336^ 
tunnel, with about 1,000^ of underground openings, estimated to show 7,000 
tons of ore. Property b 45 miles from nearest railroad. Has water power 
available. 
BOSTON & SILVERTON MINING &' REDUCTION CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office : Silverton, San Juan Co., Colo. A. A. Lamont, superintend- 
ent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam power and a 
10-stamp mill, employing 20 to 30 men. 
BOSTON TERRACE COPPER MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 631-53 State St., Boston, Mass. H. T. Gerrish, treasurer. Capi- 
talization, $500,000, shares $1 par; $100,000 unissued. Lauds, 11 claims, 
area 220 acres in the Newfoundland dbtrict of Box Elder county, Utah, 
showing about one-half mile of underground openings, including 10 shafts 
of 30^ to 285' depth. Ores have assayed up to 27% copper, 19% lead, 
86 oz. silver and $1.20 gold per ton. 
BOSTON & TEXAS COPPER CO. TEXAS. 

Office: Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass. Lands, near Spalding, Archer 
Co., Texas. Organized 1808, under laws of Arizona, with capitaUzation 
$2,500,000, sliares $10 par. E. M. Low, president; Jas. M. Wheaton, sec- 
retary and treasurer. Idle for some years. 
BOSTON & TEXAS COPPER MINING CO. TEXAS. 

Promoted, in 1898, by Chas. Denison, Hartford Trust Bldg., Hartford, 
Conn. Was advertised as another Calumet & Hecla. Cannot be learned 
that any mining was attempted. 
BOSTON & TINTIC MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 401 D. F. Walker Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: 
Silver City, Juab Co., Utah. Idle. Organized 1899, under laws of Utah, 
with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. Wm. H. Tibbals, president and 
general manager; E. J. Waugh, secretary; R. L. Lyman, treasurer. Lands, 
3 patented claims, area 45 acres, in the Tintic district, opened by a 240^ shaft 
and showing 2 fissure veins of H" average width, 20^ length and 200^ depth, 
with estimated average values of 35% copper, 4% to 53% lead, 14 oz. to 
120 oz. silver and 40 cents to $2 gold per ton. 



254 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BOSTON ft WYOMING COPPER-GOLD CO. WYOMING. 

Office: Custer, Custer Co., S. D. Mine office: Wheatland, Laramie Co., 
Wyo. Employs 4 men. Organized October, 1903, under laws of South 
Dakota, with capitalization $2,000,000, sliares $1 par. W. A. Nelson, presi- 
dent; John I. Hightower, vice-president and general manager; W. E. Benedict, 
secretary; Lands, 6 claims, area 120 acres, known as the Seldom Seen group, 
showing 3 fissure veins in granite-porphyry, • giving assays of 5% to 7% 
copper, 6 oz. silver and S3 gold per ton, from cuprite, chalcocite, bomite and 
chalcopyrite, with sulphide ores predominating. 
BOULDER COPPER MINING CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Office: P. O. Box 118, Custer, S. D. W. A. Nelson, president. Capitali- 
zation $1,000,000, shares SI par. Lands, in Pennington county. South 
Dakota, are said to show gold and copper ores. 
BOULDER MINING ft MILLING CO., LTD. IDAHO. 

Lands, sundry claims in the Alto district of Idaho, showing ores carrying 
gold, silver, lead and copper. 
BOZEMAN COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Office: Bozeman, Montana. Organized August, 1904, with capitaliza- 
tion S100,000. 
BRADFORD COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Patagonia, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz. W. E. Balcom, superin- 
tendent. 
BRADFORD DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA 

Office: 15 Stone Ave., Tucson, Ariz. Mine office: Vail, Pima Co., Ariz. 
F. L. Dwight, president and general manager; Stewart Bradford, secretary 
and treasurer; Wm. Schley, superintendent. Organized Oct. 4, 1903, under 
laws of Arizona, with capitalization S50,000, shares SIO par. Lands, 32 
mineral claims, with total holdings of 1,000 acres, in the Helvetia and Em- 
pire districts, showing ore bodies in limestone near granite and schist con- 
tacts, carrying oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores giving assays up to 17% 
copper, 16 oz. silver, and SIO gold per ton, opened by three W shafts and 
tunnels of 80^, lOO' and 125'. Company is composed of men of good stand- 
ing, capitalization is reasonable, and the showing of mineral values secured 
b very fair for the limited amount of work done. 
BRADSHAW MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 327 New York Life Bldg., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Briggs, 
Yavapai Co., Ariz. Organized 1904, under laws of Arizona, with capitaliza- 
tion S2,000,000, shares SI par. Property is leased to North American Ex- 
ploitation Co. Samuel B. Willey, president; Davis E^aing, secretary and 
treasurer; Frank T. Day, manager; E. W. Fisher, general superintendent; 
Wm. Roberts, superintendent. Lands, 23 claims, area 400 acres, also 40- 
acre millsite, in the Castle Creek district, showing contact veins of 30^ to 
100' width between granite and porphyry, carrying galena, malachite, mel- 
aconite and cuprite, giving assays of 15% copper, 20% to 40% lead, and 
S6 to SIO gold per ton, opened by shafts of 150' and SOO' and tunnels of 
ISC', SO' and 60', fstlfpftted to ^how 6,000 ton* of ore, ^itb 4,000 tons blocked 
pVIt for stopln^, 



MADStJA W— BRAN IFF. 255 

BRADSHAW MINING CO. OREGON. 

The Blue Lfead Copper niine in the Upper Applegate district of Josephine 
county, Oregon, is said to have been bought, 1004, by -a New York mining 
company of this name. 
BRADSHAW MOUNTAIN COPPER MINING ft ARIZONA. 

SMELTING CO. 

Office: 25 Broad St., New York. Mine office: Middelton, Yavapai Co., 
Ariz. Works office: Val Verde, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Organized under laws 
of Arizona, with capitalization $10,000,000, shares $10 par. Has authorized 
an issue of $1,000,000 5-year 6% bonds. John R. Allen, president; Geo. W. 
Middelton, vice-president and manager; H. F. Good, treasurer; G. P. Hum- 
phrey, secretary; R. L. Clarke, mine superintendent; S. £. Bretherton, 
smelter superintendent; Geo. O. Marrs, engineer. Lands, 70 claims, 17 
patented, area 1,400 acres, in the Bradshaw Mountains, 40 miles southeast 
of Prcijcott. Tract covers about 6^ miles of the strike of a very persistent 
copper formation, and lies about midway between Crown King and Mayer. 
Country rocks are porphyry and quartzite, showing five parallel veins of 
lO' to GO' width, carrying malachite, azurite, melaconite, cuprite, chalcopy- 
rite, bomite and chalcocite, with schistose gangue, said to contain average 
values of $12 to $15 per ton in copper, gold and silver. 

Development is by the Copper Link tunnel of SOO', and the Hot Number 
tunnel of 2,400^. Latter is 400^ vertically lower than former, cutting the 
ore body 1,374' below the crest of the mountain, and having a double tram- 
track, laid with 20-lb. steel rails. Mine has about 8,000^ of underground 
openings, exposing a large amount of ore of medium grade. A 4,000^ Blei- 
chert aerial tramway of 2,000 tons daily capacity connects the mouth of the 
Hot Number tunnel with 2,000-ton ore bins at the railway station. Mine 
plant includes two 80-h. p. boilers, 6-drill air compressor, power drills and 
9 miles of air and water-pipe lines. 

The mine was connected with the old 250-ton smelter at Val Verde by 
tail. This smelter, fully described in Vol. IV., was doing remarkably good 
work under the capable management of Mr. Bretherton, until accidentally 
burned Sept. 20, 1904. Tlie plant was insured for $52,000, but its destruc- 
tion proved a severe blow, from which the company has not yet re- 
covered. A new smelter with two 25(X-ton furnaces has been planned, and 
one furnace is about ready for delivery, but the mine was closed do^-n toi^ard 
the end of 1904, and the company is said to be in poor shape financially. 
The management seems to have been honest, but depended largely upon 
the sale of stock, and the loss of the smelter proved a serious setback. The 
property is regarded as a valuable one, and it is to be hoped that the com- 
pany will be able to pull itself together and resume operations. 
BRAGANZA GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Big Bug, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Property is the Henrietta 
mine, carrying gold-copper ores, having steam power and lO-stamp mill. 
NEGOCIACION MINERA D£ 0. y T. BRANIFF y CA. MEXICO. 

Office: Rosales 9, Mexico, D. F. Mine office: Cadereyta, QueretarO| 



266 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Mex. Ores carry silver, copper, lead and zinc. Has steam power and a 5-ton 

smelter, employing about 200 men. 

BRAULIO MADRIGAL TUMBISCATA. MEXICO. 

Mine office : Apatzingan, Michoacan, Mexico. Has steam power equip- 
ment, and is opened by shaft and tunnel. 
6EWERKSCHAFT GRUBE BRICCIUS-STOLLK. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Annaberg, Saxony, Germany. £. R. Poller, manager. 
Has argentiferous and zinciferous copper ores. Presumably idle. 
GEWERKSCHAFT BRIGITTA ERZBERGWERK. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Sennheim, Elsass, Germany. Has lead, copper and zinc 
ores. Presumably idle. • 

BRINDLE PUP MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned from former mine office, Dewey, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 
BRISTOL MINE. CONNECTICUT. 

At Bristol, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Was worked during the last 
decade of the Nineteenth Century. Filled with water and mine machinery 
at bottom of shaft. 
BRISTOL COPPER MINING CO. NEVADA. 

Office: 201 Mining Exchange Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Pioche, 
Lincoln Co., Nev. Capitalization $2,000,000, shares $1 par. Wm. Gelder, 
general manager; H. T. Freudenthal, superintendent. Ores carry copper, 
silver and lead. Is closely allied with the Hillside Copper Mining Company, 
in ownership and management. Has made very small shipments of ore, 
assaying 12% to 30% copper and about 10 oz. silver per ton. Property, 
thought to be valuable, but company in financial straits. 
BRITANNIA COPPER MINE, LTD. 

Offices: 4, Bishopsgate St., London, E. C, Eng. W. E. I^aMerton, secre- 
tary. Capital, nominal, £90,000; issued, £7,000. Location of lands, if any, 
not learned. 
BRITANNIA COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office : P. O. Box 82 1 , Vancouver, B. C. Mine office : Britannia Beach, B. C. 
Capitalization $625,000, sliares $625 par. Edgar Dewdney, president ; Geoigf 
H. Robinson, managing director; Wynn Meredith, consulting electrical engineer. 
Property is a group of 297 acres, lying 4 miles from,- and about 3,500^ above, salt 
water, at Howe Sound, Nanaimo Division, British Columbia, carrying approx- 
imately 8,500^ of the strike of a mammoth mineral zone. This mineralized 
belt, ranging SOO' to 600^ in laidth, consists of a schistose silicious belt im- 
pregnated vfcith iron and copper sulphides. Assays of 13 samples gave an 
average of 3.84% copper, 0.55 oz. silver and about 0.01 gold per ton In 
actual operation the percentage of copper is likely to fall below these figures, 
but the ore body is of immense size, the amount of ore actually exposed 
having been variously estimated at 1,800,000 to 3,000,000 tons, Tuith the 
certainty of far larger amounts at depth. The mine can be worked to advan- 
tage open-cast for many years, as the climate is not unsuited to winter work 
in the open. 

A $300,000 aerial tramway of 2,500 tons daily capacity is nearing com- 



BRITANNIA—BRITISH COLUMBIA. 257 

pletion and 500 h. p. « has been developed from water under an effective 
head of 1,000^. Plant has Canadian Westinghouse 3-phase alternating 
current generators direct-connected with Pelton wheels. There is a 3-mile 
transmission of the electric current, with two 200-kw. 6,600-volt generators. 
At the bay is a 250^ wharf with 90^ L and a 300-ton concentrator is under con- 
struction. 'Company's plans call for an initial daily production of about 
1,000 tons, and mine should become a producer quite early in 1905. 
Property is one of vast possibilities, and management is fully experienced 
and capable. 
BRITAHIIIA HUmiG CO. MONTANA. 

Office: 219 Germania Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. Mine office: Butte, Silver 
Bow Co., Mont. G. R. Nickey, president and general manager; G. R. Best, 
secretary and treasurer; J. A. McLeod, superintendent; Wm. Fisher, engineer. 
Organized Sept. 25, 1892, under laws of Wisconsin, and capitalization in- 
creased Mar. 2, 1898, to $350,000, shares $1 par. Has paid dividends of 
$42,000. Lands, one patented claim, area 13 acres, showing 6 veins, 
of which 3 parallel veins, of 3' to 30^ width, are developed by shikfts 
of lOO', 150, and 400^, with about 5,000^ of underground openings, 
ores giving average values of about $35 per ton, mainly in silver. 
Has steam power. Mine is leased by levels to different tributors, on royalty. 
BRITISH AMERICAN GOLD COPPER CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, Deadwood, S. D. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA AGENCY, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Albemi, Vancouver Island, B. C. D. G. Smith, manager. 
Property includes the Modoc and Kitchener claims, which give a fair showing 
of chalcop3rrite and auriferous quartz. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA CHARTERED CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: Street Railway Chambers, Montreal, Quebec. Mine office: 
Sunmiit, Yale & Cariboo district, B. C. Is conmionly known as the B. C. 
mine. F. S. Parrish, manager. Lands, 8 full claims and 3 fractions, devel- 
oped by about 7,000^ of underground openings. Ores are argentiferous and 
slightly auriferous, averaging about 5.5% copper. Has a 225-h. p. steam 
plant, a 4-drill Rand and a 5-drill Ingersoll-Seigeant air compressors. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA COPPER COMPANY, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: 31 Nassau St., New York. Mine office: Greenwood, B. C. 
Organized 1898, under laws of West Virginia, with capitalization 
$1,250,000, shares $5 par. F. L. Underwood, president; F. L. Som- 
mer, vice-president; R. H. Eggleston, secretary and treasurer; W. H. 
Thomas, managing director; Frederic Keffer, general manager; S. C. 
Holman, mine superintendent; J. £. McAllister, smelter superintendent. 
Lands, 10 crown-granted claims, area 180 acres, also a 60-acre millsite, in 
the Deadwood district, showing 5 ore bodies, of which 3 are being developed, 
one having a width of 80^ to 150^ and length of 1,300^, opened to depth of 
500^ and returning an average of 1.7% copper, 0.4 oz. silver and $1 to $2 
gold per ton. Country rocks are limestone and diabase, veins occurring as 
cpntacts and carrying auriferous and argentiferous chalcopyrite in connection 



258 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

with magnetite, calcite and silicious rocks. Has a 325' two-compartment 
main shaft with three other shafts of about TXXf depth each. Has about 
6,00(y of underground openings, estimated to show about 6,000,000 tons of 
ore, with approximately 3,000,000 tons blocked out for stoping. Mine 
is operated by tunnels of 300^, GOO', SOO' and SOO', connected by upraises with 
the various quarries on the hill above. Main tunnel has a double track, 
with 3-ton cars, and at the mouth is a 24x36' Farrel crusher of 75 tons hourly 
capacity, reducing ore to size passing a 5*^ ring. The mine has a 500-h. p. 
steam equipment, including 2 hoists, one of 20x42^, good for a depth of 1,000^, 
a 10-drill straight-line cross-compound air compressor and a 35-drLll cross- 
compound air-compressor, 25 power drills, Robins belt conveyors and Jeffrey 
bucket elevator. 

The Snowshoe mine, bought 1904, is about a quarter mile from the 
Granby. Ore occurs as fissure replacements, ranging 25' to 200^ in width, 
with an average width of about lOO', and about 1,000^ in proven length. Ore 
occurs as self-fluxing chalcopyrite, occasionally in distinct bodies, but as a 
rule is disseminated in minute particles through a gangue ranging from 
silicious to calcareous, carrying occasional magnetite and specular hematite. 
The Snowshoe mine is opened by shafts of 200^ and '300', and tunnels of 200', 
250', and 600'. Main shaft with 3-comparthients has a 150-h. p. double- 
drum electric hoist raising 2-ton skip>8. Bulk of ore is mined open-cast. 
Average cost of ore mined in 1903, under old company, was $1.10 per ton. 
Tlie British Columbia Copper Co., also owns a three-fourths interest in the 
Emma mine, and operates same. 

The 750-ton smelter, at Greenwood, 2}^ miles from the mine, does a 
general custom business. It has a 45x58' blast-furnace building, with two 
375-ton AUis-Chalmers furnaces, 42x150* at the tuyeres, 2 Connersville 
blowers, 150-h. p. Reynolds-Corliss engine, and 3 100-h. p. boilers, super- 
seded by electric power, brought 25 miles from Cascade. Management 
plans installing 2 new 400-ton furnaces. The dust-flue chamber is 12x620', 
14' high, leading to a 121' brick stack. Slag is handled in 5-ton side-dumping 
pots, hauled by a small steam locomotive. The 45x90' converter building, 
of steel, completed 1904, has two stands \i'ith five 5-ton shells, 84x126*^, 
of trough type, tilted by hydraulic accumulator, shells being handled by a 
40-ton 4-motor electric traveling crane. Matte from the furnaces runs about 
45% copper. The converter department has a 72*' silica mill for linings. 
A briquetting plant is being installed for moulding the flue-dust. The reduc- 
tion plant includes a 3-story 65x79' sampling mill and a 40x81' power-house. 

The company employs about 100 men and 20% of the production se- 
cured is from custom ores. Ore production in 1904 was 211,864 tons, 
and net production was 5,081,743 lbs. refined copper, 118,418 oz. silver 
and 36,403 oz. gold. The property has a good management, and while low 
in grade and requiring careful handling, has an assured future if given 
proper care. 
BRITISH COLUMBU EXPLORATION, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Kamloops, Yale & Cariboo district, B. C. J. Argall, general 



BRITISH COLUMBIA— BRIXLEGG. .259 

manager. Property includes the Iron Mask mine and sundry claims at 
Kamloops, also the Colossus group at Estere Basin, Nanaimo district, where 
about 2,000' of development has been secured. The Iron Mask, opened 
1899, has a 520' main shaft, with nearly a mile of underground development, 
opening a considerable body of auriferous copper ore, mainly of concentrating 
grade, with a fair proportion of smelting ore. Ore carries fair values in copper, 
silver and gold. Smelting ore and concentrates are shipped to the Granby 
smelter for reduction. Equipment includes a $75,000 concentrator, built 
in 1904. Property is conservatively and capably handled. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA ft LAKE SHORE BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

COPPER CO., LTD. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Summit, B. C. 
BRITISH EMPIRE GOLD, COPPER ft DIAMOND SYNDICATE, LTD. 

Apparently a dead one. 
BRITISH GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Said to have property in the Black Hills district, presumably in Penning- 
ton Co., South Dakota. Address of company not secured and no work 
known to be in progress. 
BRITISH GOLD MINES OF MEXICO, LTD. MEXICO. 

Offices: Bush Lane House, Cannon St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine 
office: Torres, Sonora, Mex. Robt. J. Price, chairman; Geo. Thompson, 
secretary; John F. Allan, managing director in Mexico. Capitalization, 
£100,000; issued, £70,080. Lands include the Colorado Ures mine in Sonora, 
and a portion of El Carmen mine, Tlalpujahua, state of Michoacan. Has a 
10-stamp mill and smelter at the Colorado Ures mine. Idle, and lands for 
sale. 
BRITISH ORE CONCENTRATION SYNDICATE, LTD. WALES. 

Office : 1 St. Helen's Place, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office : Beddgelert, 
Wales. Organized, Dec. 21, 1900, with capitalization, £150,000, shares 
£1 par; issued, £85,007. Chas. N. L. Shaw, secretary. Property is the 
British rights to the Elmore oil concentration process and the Sygun, Cribb 
Dhu and Aran mines in North Wales, estimated to show ore reserves of 
480,000 tons of gold-copper ores, equipped with 20-stamp mill and 4-unit 
Ellmore oil concentrator, also an interest in a copper mine in Cornwall. 
BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY. RHODESIA. 

Offices: 2, London Wall Bldgs., London, E. C, Eng. This gigantic cor- 
poration owns sundry copper fields of promise in northern Rhodesia, which, 
as developed to the point of actual mining, are set aside as subsidiary cor- 
porations. 
BRITTON GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Whatcom, Wash. 

K. K. BERG- UND HUTTENVERWALTUNG BRIXLEGG. AUSTRIA. 

Mine office: Brixlegg, Tyrol, Austria. Is an active producer, securing 
considerable silver and a little gold as by-products. Gustav Kroupa, general 
manager; Vincens Svoboda, superintendent and mining engineer; Cayetan 
Hummel^ smelter superintendent; Josef Link, purchasing agent. Mining 



\ 



260 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

» 

lands, about 22}^ hectareas. Ores are exclusively sulphide. Has a smelter at 
Brixlegg, this having blast, reverberatory, refining and anode furnaces and 
electrolytic plant. Annual production is about 225 metric tons of copper, 
600 kilograms silver and 5 kilograms gold. 
BROKEN HILL PROPRIETARY CO., LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: 320, Collins St., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, and 3, Great 
Winchester St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Broken Hill, N. S. W., 
Australia. Daniel W. H. Patterson, chairman Australian board; Frederick 
Dutton, chairman London board; G. D. Delprat, general manager; A. J 
Harwood, mine manager; Francb M. Dickenson, secretary in Melbourne; 
R. J. Seeley, secretary in London; L. A. Williams, agent, Alfred Chambers, 
Adelaide, Australia; R. N. Kirk, agent, Sydney, N. S. W. Capitalisation, 
£384,000, shares Ss. par. Has been a very large dividend-payer since 1891. 
Property is the Broken Hill silver-lead mine, sundry leases of iron ore lands for 
fluxes and lands at Port Pine. Has steam and electric power, 2,000 ton concen- 
trator and extensive leaching works at Port Rrie, employing about 2,500 men. 
Formerly produced copper matte carrying about 300 tons of refined copper 
yearly, but secretary states that under new metallurgical methods the copper 
is lost in saving the silver. 
BROMIDE COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Supposed to have mineral lands near Tres Piedras, Taos Co., N. M. 
BROMIDE COPPER ft GOLD MmiNG CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Has^ claims in the Bromide district, Rio Arriba, Co., N. M. Did con- 
siderable development work in 1902, but apparently idle since. 
BRONZE MONARCH GROUP. WASHINGTON. 

Has a 300^ tunnel, on claims adjoining the Sweden group near Mount 
St. Helens, Skamania county, Washington. Has produced about 1,000 tons 
of sulphide ore carrying gold, silver and copper. 
BROOKLYN COPPER ft GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Auditorium Bldg., Spokane, Wash. Capitalization $100,000. 
M. L. Pershell, president ; C. von Gilsa, secretary. Lands are in the Colville 
Reserve, Washington. Declines to furnish any statement. 
BROOKLYN MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office : Dale, San Bernardino Co., Cal. H. H. Ames, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold and copper. Has gasoline power and 3-stamp mill. 
BROOKLYN MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Silverton, San Juan Co., Colo. T. Manion, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver and copper. . Has steam power and lOnstamp mill. 
BROOKLYN MINING CO. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Contact, Elko Co., Nev. Has gasoline power. 
BROWN-ALASKA COPPER CO. ALASKA. 

Mine office: Coppermount, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Samuel 
Silverman, general manager; Paul Johnson, consulting engineer. Property 
includes the Mamie group and adjoining claims. Ore body on the Mamie is 
about 40^ wide, giving average assays of 6% copper and $1 gold and silver 
per ton. Ore is chiefly chalcop3rrite, associated with pyrrhotite and pyrite. 



BROWN-ALASKA-^BRUNSWICK. 261 

Conmderable mining development has been secured. The reduction plant 
includes a dOxSC sampler, 6(K high; coke and coal sheds 10Qxl4(K; blast 
furnace building dOxTCK, of steel construction, with room for addition of 
converter plant; 40x50^ boiler house; 45x5(K engine house and 4 sets of ore 
bins, 60xl2(y, with capacity of 10,000 tons, plant being so arranged that 
material can be handled automatically. The furnace is 44x160^ at the 
tuyeres, with daily capacity of 400 tons, equipped with mechanical feeders. 
Slag will be handled by 2 locomotives, drawing 5-ton slag-cars. Coke will 
be brought from Ladysmith, B. C, at a cost of about $6 per ton, delivered. 
Plant includes a 250-light electrical equipment. Contracts have been made 
with the Cracker Jack mine to furmsh auriferous quartz for linings, and 
with the Mt. Andrews mine for a daily supply of 100 tons of copper ore. 
This is considered one of the most promising copper properties in Alaska. 
BRUCE COPPER MIIIES, LTD. ONTARIO. 

In voluntary liquidation. L. Abrahams, et al., liquidators, 31, Palmers- 
ton Bldgs., London, E. C, Eng. Property is the old Bruce Mines, on Geoiigian 
Bay, Algoma, Ont., opened in 1846, closed 1876, after producing $3,300,000 
worth of copper. Lands include mineral rights to 20 square miles. Depth, 
neariy 500^ ; ores, sulphide, mainly chalcopyrite in quartz gangue, occurring 
in several parallel veins traversing diabase and running neariy east and west. 
The two principal veins are 3' and 15' wide, gi\dng ore said to average 5% cop- 
per. Plant includes rock crushers, rolls, jigs, hydraulic sizers, round tables. 
Griffin mill and Frue vanners. Concentrator said to have daily capacity of 
400 tons. Property thought to be valuable, but cannot be worked to ad- 
vantage without a smelter' on the ground, or easily accessible. 
BRUCE MINniG CO. IDAHO. 

Biine office: Junction, Lemhi Co., Idaho. A. T. Bruce, general manager. 
Employs 15 to 20 men. Has copper-gold ores, opened by tunnel, and con- 
templates installation of a small smelter. 
BRUCE & CHESSOR MlliniO CO. BOLIVIA. 

Mine office: Oruro, Bolivia. Has steam power and employs about 100 
men. 
BRU6ER y CA. BOLIVU. 

Office and mine : Toledo, La Paz, Bolivia. Are small producers of copper 
and have steam power. 

JOSE GONZALEZ BRUNO. CHILE. 

Mine office: Cojon de Maipd Santiago, Chile. Mines have copper ores, 
carrying cobalt in connection. Properties have steam power and employ 
about 50 men. 
BRUNSWICK CONSOLIDATED GOLD ft COPPER CALIFORNU. 

MINING CO. 

Mine office: Grass Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. Is an old gold producer, 
recently rejuvenated, but cannot be learned that it has any copper property. 
BRUNSWICK MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Tin Cup, Gunnison Co., Colo. Ores carry gold, silver and 
copper. Has steam power and 100-ton concentrator. 



26^ THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BUCHAKAll MINE. CAUFORNLL 

Near the northern boundary of Madera county, California, a little south 
of the Green Mountain mine in Mariposa county, and 5 miles northeast of 
Daulton. Owned by G. A. Pherson. Opened by shafts and tunnels. Vein 
matter, diabase and amphibolite schist, both mineralized. Ores, oxides near 
surface, unaltered sulphides at depth. Shipments made by lessees average 
about 15% copper and $3 gold per ton. Has been a considerable producer 
in the past. 
BUCKEY GROUP. 

Office: care of A. Chas. Smith, P. O. Box 312, Douglas, Ariz. Location 
of lands unknown. 
BUCKEYE CONSOLIDATED GOLD ft NEW MEXICO. 

COPPER MINING CO. 

Former office: 414 Atlas Blk., Salt Lake City, Utah. Dead. 
BUENA VISTA COPPER MINES, LTD. MEXICO. 

Offices: 11, Queen Victoria St., London, E. C, Eng. S. Spencer, chair- 
man; E. T. Stanton, secretary. Capital, nominal, £50,000. Lands, 45 
acres, including the Buena Vista and San Bruno copper mines and the Aurora 
gold mine, near the Boleo mine, in Lower California, Mexico. 
BUENA VISTA COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Solomonville, Graham Co., Ariz. Has a lOO' shaft, showing 
well in ore, and sent a sample shipment of 25% ore to tiie BU Paso smelter in 
November, 1903. 
BUENA VISTA COPPER MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office: Valley Springs, Amador Co., Cal. Property includes the 
Bull Run and Russell mines, carrying sulphide copper ores in schistose diabase. 
Has steam power. 
BUENA VISTA MINING ft MILLING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Washington, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz. F. Cox manager, at last 
accounts. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. 
BUENOS AIRES MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Cusihuir^hic, Chihuahua, Mexico. W. C. Rollins, superin- 
tendent. Lands include La Ix)la and El Murillo mines, carrying ores of 
gold, silver and copper. Has gasoline power, concentrator and 40-ton 
smelter, employing about 50 men. 
MINAS BUENOS AMIGOS y OTRAS. MEXICO. 

Office: care of H. C. Harrison, owner, Apartado Postal, 64, Monterey, 
N. L., Mex. Mine office: Cerralvo, N. L., Mex. Are producers of silver, 
lead and copper, latter as a by-product, and employ about 100 men. 
BUFA MINING, MILLING ft SMELTING CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: 709 Lankersliim Bklg., Ix>s Angeles, Cal. Mine office: La 
Bufa, Sahuaripa, Sonora, Mex. Employs alK)ut 600 men in the dry season 
and 300 in the wet season. Oiganized 1902, under laws of Arizona, with 
capitalization $1,500,000, shares $1 par. Davis Richardson, president; 
Wm, E. Richardson, vice-president ; Baron W. Riley, secretary; L. R. Richard- 
son, treasurer; Frank Ricliardson, superintendent; Arthur A. Lane, mill 



BUFA—BULLWHACKER. 263 

superintendent; P. Quinn, mine superintendent; Edwin M. Clark, engineer 
and metallurgist. Lands, 50 pertenencias, area 123 acres, also a 3-acre millsite 
and 5,000 acres of miscellaneous lands, showing 6 fissure veins, of which 2 
are undergoing development, these averaging 4' width and opened to GOO' 
on an incline, giving average assays of 12% copper, 10% lead and 325 oz. 
silver per ton, from aigentiferous tetrahedrite and sulphide copper ores. 
Has 3 shafts, deepest 470^, with 8,000^ of underground openings and about 
20,000 tons of high-grade ore blocked out for stoping. Has a complete 
steam power equipment, 25-ton concentrator, 10-ton leaching plant, 5-stamp 
mill, 2 roasting furnaces, and 35-ton smelter, with reverberatory furnace 
made of silica brick. Ever3rthing about the furnace, except the iron work 
was made on the ground. The success achieved by this smelter, is a high 
testimonial to the resourcefulness and ability of Mr. Clark, its designer. 
Company began payment of 2.5% semi-annual dividends, January, 1903. 
Production, 1904, was about 1,200,000 lbs. fine copper. 
BUFFALO GROUP. MONTANA* 

Sundry claims in the Scratch Gravel district, northern Montana. Were 
taken under bond by Lake Superior mining men in 1902, but dropped later. 

COMPANIA DEL FERROCARIL y MINAS DEL BUTTRON. SPAIN. 

Mine office: Zalamea la Real, Huelva, Spain. Don Diego Bull, general 
manager. Company is controlled by F. C. Hills & Co., of Londan. Mines 
include the Castillo del Buitron and La Poderosa, area 6 hectarea8,at Zalamea, 
and the Concepcion mine, area 42 hectareas, at Almonaster. Sundry other 
properties are under exploration. Annual production is estimated at about 
1,500,000 lbs. of refined copper. 
BULL DOMINGO MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office : Hecla, Laramie Co., Wyo. John L. Morgan, superintendent, 
at last accounts. Ores carry copper and gold values. 
BULLARD MINE. ARIZONA. 

Lands, 5 claims in Cunningham Pass, Yuma county, Arizona, said to 
give assays of 12% copper and $12 gold per ton. 

BULUON MINING CO., LTD. IDAHO. 

Office: Wallace, Idaho. Organized 1902, under laws of Idaho, with 
capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. B. F. O'Neil, president; James 
H. Taylor, secretary; D. A. McKenzie, general manager. Lands, 4 claims, 
area 80 acres, showing a 12^ fissure vein giving assays of 14% copper, $4 gold 
and 12 oz. silver per ton, from sulphide ore. Shaft, lOO'; tunnels, SO' and 
170^. 

BULLION BECK & CHAMPION MINING CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Eureka, Juab Co., Utah. P. L. Famsworth, manager. 
Secures a limited amount of copper as a by-product from gold-silver-lead- 
copper ores. Has st^am and electric power and concentrator, employing 
about 150 men. 

BULLWHACKER GOLD & COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Promoted by H. B. aiflford & Co.. 10 Wall St., New York. Lands, 



264 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

4 miles east of Prescott, Yavapai county, Arizona. Apparmtly a mere 

stock-jobbing scheme. 

BULLY HILL COPPER lOinHG & SMELTIHG CO. CAUFORHIA. 

Office: Salt Lake City, Utah. Bline office: Delamar, Shasta Co., Cal. 
Employs about 300 men. Oiganissed under laws of New Jersey, with capital- 
ization $2,500,000, shares $25 par. J. R. De La BCar, president; H. P. Per- 
sons, treasurer; John B. Keating, superintendent. Lands, 18 patented 
claims, area 213 acres, in the Pittsbuig district, 25 miles northeast of the 
Mountain Copper mine at Keswick, and in the same geological horizon. 
Also owns the Idaho, Iowa and Columbia claims, bought September, 1903, 
and has under bond the Copper City mine, opened by a 160^ shaft showing 
high-grade ore. The Bully Hill was opened as a gold mine and worked 
the gossan with rather indifferent results until copper ores were developed 
at depth. Bully Hill, with a diameter of about 4,000^ and rising 1,200^ 
above the surrounding country, is composed of eniptive rocks, principally 
rfayolite, with 3 mineral zones having a strike of approximatdy north and 
south, the ore oc^^rring in shear-zones in rhyolite and metardiabase dykes, 
all of superficially slaty structure, the lenses having a day gouge of V to 
30^ on one or both walls. The main lenses have stringers and feeders ranging 
from a few inches to SO' In width, carrying 2% to 30% copper. The principal 
lenses are 20^ to 300^ long, 2^ to 4Xf wide and one has been opened to a depth 
of 672^. The zone of secondary enrichment shows about lO' of bonanza 
ore, the main ore bodies below carrying chalcopyrite associated with pyrite, 
also a little bomite and chalcocite, mth occasional carbonate and oxide 
ores and native copper. The best ore body gives average assays of about 
15% copper, 6 oz. silver, and $8 gold per ton, and shows native copper and 
native silver in considerable quantities on the 670^ level. Principal develop- 
ment is by 3 tunnels, giving a back of 350^. No. 2, the main working tunnel 
has double tracks, and an underground station lOO' square, in No. 3 shaft, 
contains powerful hoisting and pumping machinery. The mine is timbered 
with square sets and operated by steam, water and electric power. 

The smelter, costing about $200,000, is 39x310^ in size, w^ith a 90^ stack, 
and has a daily capacity of 300 tons. The reduction plant is terraced, hand- 
ling all material by gravity, and has roast-stalls in series, with 2 McDougal 
calcining furnaces and two 42x120^ blast furnaces, making matte of 35% to 
50% tenor, which is taken in ladles by a 20-ton electric traveling crane to the 
conversion department, which has 2 stands of converters nith 68x98' five- 
ton sheUs, turning out blister copper of 98% tenor, which is shipped to the 
DeLamar refinery at Chrome, N. J., for electrolytic treatment. The 
smelter has a good machine shop, and a small concentrator has been added 
for experimental work on the low-grade ores, of which the property has 
enormous bodies. Limestone and iron ore for fluxes are obtained on the 
McLeod river, six miles from th^ mine, but lack of suitable ferruginous 
ores for fluxing the high-grade sulphides materially hampers production. 
This ts the second largest copper property of California and b asserted to 
have been highly profitable, though all details as to finances are withheld. 



BUNKER HlLLn-BURRA BURRA. ' 265 

BUHKER HILL MINIIVG ft SICELTING CO. WASHI1I6T0N. 

Office: 714-1123 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Index, Snohomish 
Ck>., Wash. Chas. G. Reiter, pr^ident; John D. Campbell, secretary; Wilbur 
Morris, general manager; V. V. Clark, superintendent and engineer. Organ- 
ized Oct. 24, 1902, under laws of Maine, with capitalization $3,000,000, 
shares $1 par; unissued $569,959. Lands, 18 claims, 8ho\^'ing sundry fissures 
in granite and contacts between granite and diorite, with two ore bodies 
undergoing development, one showing an ore chute 2f to 50^ in width and 
about 300^ in length on the lowest level, this carrying sulphide ores averag- 
ing about $S per ton in value. Has water power hoist, half of an Ingersoll-Ser- 
geant single-stage 12-drill air compressor, necessary mine buildings and is 
served by the Great Northern railway, which passes the mine. Property b 
handled conservatively and is regarded as promising. 
BUNKER HILL-SULLIVAN COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Reorganized as Bunker Hill Mining & Smelting Co. 
BUNKERVILLE MINING CO. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Bunkerv'ille, Lincoln Co., Nev. L. C. Bradley, superintend- 
ent, at last accounts. 
BURLINGTON COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Supposed to have property in the Encampment district of Carbon 
county, Wyoming, but lands not located. 
BURMAH COPPER MINES, LTD. 

A cheap bid for notoriety. The Burmah Agency, Ltd., was registered, 
without articles of association, Nov. 5, 1903, in Ix)ndon, with a nominal 
capital of £100, and at the same time this flatulent concern registered 16 
subsidiary corporations, each with the same magnificent capital of £100, and 
each begining its title with the word Burmah, the ''Burmah Copper Mines, 
Limited,'' being one of the number. 
BURNS MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Darrington, Snohomish Co., Wash. Thos. Parks, superin- 
tendent. Lands include the Myrtle and Justice claims, opened by tunnel. 
BURNS-MOORE MINING & TUNNEL CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Idaho Springs, Clear Creek Co., Colo. John M. Shaller, 
superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has water power. 
BURRA BURRA COPPER MINING CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Office: Eagle Chambers, Adelaide, South Australia. Mine office: Burra 
Burra, Burra Co., So. Australia. Organized 1901, under No Liability Act 
of South Australia, with capitalization £120,000, shares £1 par, 10s. paid 
In; unissued, £24,827. T. B. Gall, chairman; V. Lawrence, secretary and 
treasurer ; Wm. West, general manager; Jas. S. Pryor, superintendent. Lands, 
672 acres freehold, with mineral rights to 11,065 acres of adjoining lands. 
Country rock is argillaceous slate. Mine is opened by five tunnels, of 600^, 
300,' 330^, 420^ and ISO'. Ores in upper levels were cuprite, malachite, 
azurite and native copper, occurring in very rich but irregular bunches, 
lower levels showing bornite and chalcopyrite. Property was opened 1845 
and closed 1877, after making 51,662 long tons of refined copper. Was 



266 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

* 

reopened, 1901, by present company. Ore is shipped to Port Adelaide, 107 
miles^ by rail, for smelting. Fuel used is wood, costing 12s. per cord, and 
soft coal at 30s. per ton. Average grade of ore as how mined is about 2%, 
and production for 1903 was about 100 long tons of refined copper. Work- 
ings below water level were filled with water at last accounts. Has steam 
and electric power and employs about 30 men. 
BURRA6A COPPER CO. AUSTRALUl 

Mine office*. Burraga, County Bathurst, New South Wales, Property 
is about one mile east of the "Lloyd" mine, and was opened in 1877. Pro- 
duction was 570 long tons refined copper in 1898. Ores are sulphide, occur- 
ing in a belt of highly altered rocks, ranging from porphyry to schistose 
slates, and carry 1 to 3 oz. silver per ton. Mine is about 800^ deep. Smelter 
has 3 reverberatory furnaces, using wood for fuel, and product is sent as 
47% matte to Lithgow, for refining. 
BURRO MOUIITAIN COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 402-108 Equitable Bldg., Chicago, His. Mine office: Silver City, 
Grant Co., N. M. Or^nized.1904, with capitalization $50,000. Nathan F. 
Leopold, president; Theodore W. Carter, manager. Lands, about 500 acres, 
in the Burro Mountain district of Grant county, held under lease from the 
Southwestern Copper & Iron Co. Property has been a small producer in the 
past and was taken over by present corporation early in 1904. Has a con- 
centrator in operation, and a 10-ton smelter, emplo3ring about 60 men. 
Management is excellent and property is being developed systematically, 
and on a considerable scale. 
BURTON CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. K. R. Burton, 
superintendent, at last accounts. 
BUSTER MINES SYNDICATE, LTD. ARIZONA. 

Offices: Broad Street House, London, £. C, Eng. J. A. Edmond, 
chairman; J. R. Shearer, secretary. Capital, £15,000; debentures, £1,600, 
at 10%. Property is a three-fifths interest in a copper mine said to be 
located in the Peck mining district of Arizona. 
BUTLER-LIBERAL CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Organized 1903, 
with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. Is a consolidation of the Ben 
Butler and Bingham Mining companies. A. L. Jacobs, general manager; 
D. R. Williams, superintendent. Is shipping ores to the United States 
smelter which give average returns of about 6% copper, 12 oz. silver and 
$1 gold per ton. Declared a dividend of /)ne-half cent per share, amount- 
ing to S2.500. in October. 1903. 
BUTLER MINING ft MILLING CO. UTAH. 

Absorbed, 1904, by Butler-Liberal Consolidated Mining Co. 
BUTTE & ARIZONA COPPER CO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Butte. Silver Bow Co., Montana. 
BUTTE ft BINGHAM COPPER CO. UTAH. 

Mine office : Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co.. Utah. O. Roberts, super^ 
intendent, at last accounts. Presumably idle. 



BUTTE. 267 

BUTTE ft BDrOHAM COPPER imillfG & DEVELOPMENT CO, 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 35 Congress St., Boston, 
Mass. 

BUTTE & BOSTON CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: 52 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., 
Mont. Organized under laws of New York, with capitalization $2,000,000, 
shares $10 par. Debentures, $1,500,000 first mortgage 6% bonds, due April, 
1917. Practically the entire stock issue is owned by the Amalgamated 
Copper Co. Aimual meeting, first Monday in April. James Phillips, Jr., 
president; Wm. G. Rockefeller, secretary and treasurer; John Gillies, superin- 
tendent. Lands, sundry mines and undeveloped claims in Butte, including the 
Silver Bow, Michael Davitt, Blue Jay, East and West Grey Rock and Berke- 
ley mines, also several thousand acred of placer land; also claims the 
Tramway and Snohomish mines, which are in litigation. Silver Bow 
shaft No. 1 is 1,000^ deep, with 3 compartments and a 16x42^ hoist, with an 
800-gallon Riedler pump on the bottom level. Silver Bow No. 3 has a TOO' 
4-compartment main shaft, with a 500-gallon Knowles pump on the 600^ 
level. The East Grey Rock has a 1,600' 3-compartment shaft, with 20x48'' 
hoist and 28-driU Nordbeig air compressor. The Berkeley has a OOO' 3-com- 
partment shaft, with 18x32^ hoist. The Blue Jay has a 2-compartment 
shaft 1,075' deep, sunk at an angle of 72^, with 3 compartments below the 
600' level, and a 16x32* hoist. Ores are lower in copper and richer in silver 
than the average of the district, the blister copper carrying about 100 oz. 
silver per ton. The smelter has 700 tons daily capacity and does more or less 
custom work, the concentrator and smelter being at Meaderville, just east 
of Butte. The company employs 600 to 700 men when working a normal 
force. A dividend of $1 per share was paid January, 1904, last preceding 
dividend having been $3 in October, 1901. Production in 1903 was about 
12,500,000 lbs. refined copper. 

The following table gives comparative figures for the past four fiscal 
years ending June 1: 

1901 1902 1903 1904 

Tons of ore extracted 214,310 189,499 245,333 202,286 

Cost of mining $969,047 $767,754 $801,400 $691,818 

Cost of transportation 41,019 36,523 39,287 34,388 

Total cost of reduction . . . 551,344 404,723 524,361 682,655 

Paid for labor 888,860 709,689 785,705 550,070 

Machinery and supplies... 631,531 462,787 540,056 211,994 

Refining and marketing 199,961 281,935 

Net earnings 586,053 165,617 202,408 96,853 

BUTTE CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. J. Brown Goode, manager; 
E. H. Renisch, superintendent. Lands, 1,050 acres, known as the I^ake Red 
placers, including the Ella mine, having a 700' two-compartment shaft show- 
ing auriferous and aigentiferous copper ore. Property not regarded in Butte 
as well located. 



268 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

BUTTE COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Supposed to be composed of eastern men and to hold bonds on the 
Amazon, Jessie and other claims in the eastern part of Butte, Silver Bow 
county, Montana. Unknown in Butte. Possibly same as Butte Consolidated 
Mining Co. 
BUTTE COPPER MINING ft SMELTING CO. MONTANA. 

Office and mine: care of Patrick Mullins, Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. 
Organized December^ 1903, with capitalization $600,000, shares $1 i>ar. Pat- 
rick Wall, treasurer and manager; Samuel Hall, secretary. Property is the 
Button mine, with 250^ shaft, planned to be sunk to 750^, said to show 2^ of 
chalcocite in bottom of a 50^ winze sunk from the 250^ level. 
BUTTE GOLD, SILVER & COPPER CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Spokane, Wash. Lands are about 25 miles from head of Lake 
Chelan, Washington, shoi^ving 2 veins, one 8' wide, opened by tunnels. 
BUTTE & IOWA MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office : Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. John Hewett, superintendent. 
Property includes the Colorado mine. Has steam power. 
BUTTE MINE & EXPLORATION CO. MONTANA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office and mine, Butte, Silver 
Bow Co., Mont. Property is the Pacific mine, in East Butte, on which about 
$60,000 was expended by former owners, without success. Property under 
attachment by Daly Bank <& Trust Co., to secure an overdraft of $2,337.83, 
at last accounts. 
BUTTE MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. MONTANA. 

Dead. Went broke on the Emma mine, in East Butte, Silver Bow Co., 
Montana. 
BUTTE & MONITOR TUNNEL MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office : care of C. W. Pomeroy, vice-president, 164 La Salle St., Chicago, 
Ills. Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Capitalization $3,500,000. 
Has a 1,500' tunnel. Idle. 
BUTTE REDUCTION CO. MONTANA. 

Office and works : Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Owned by Colusa-Parrot 
M. &, S. Co., and treats the ores of the Original and Stewart mines. Smelter 
was practically rebuilt in 1903, and given new reverberatory furnaces planned 
to convert matte into blister copper without subjection to the Manhes or ordi- 
nary bessemerizing process of conversion. 
BUTTERNUT GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Val Verde, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Cecil G. Feunell, general man- 
ager; S. E. Bretherton, superintendent. Has auriferous and argentiferous 
copper ores, with gasoline power. 
BUTTON GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Minnehaha, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Wm. Button, superintend- 
ent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power and 5-stamp mill. 
MINA EL CABALLO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Indd, Durango, Mexico. Wm. Benton, owner; J. M. De La 
Torre, superintendent. Has steam power and produces silver and copper. 



CABALLO-C ACTUS, 269 

with & force of about 50 men. Said to be under option to Guggenheim Ex- 
ploration Co. 
Mm A CABALLONA. MEXICO. 

In the Arizpe district of Sonora, Mexico, about 15 miles south of Douglas, 
Arizona. Shipped some copper ore carrying gold and silver values to smelters 
at £1 Paso, in 1903. 
CABEZAS DEL PASTO MINES. SPADI. 

Mine office: Puebla de Guzman, Huelva, Spain. Owned by C. & J. 
Sundheim, who have operated the property since 1887. Wm. Guthrie Bowie, 
general manager; Don Jorge Riccken, superintendent. Lands, 6 concessions, 
area 104 hectareas, ifvith about 300 hectareas of adjoining lands, having 12^ 
shafts, deepest 104 metres, with 5,000 to 6,000 metres of underground open- 
ings. Ore developed for immediate mining is estimated at 750,000 tons of 
pjrritic ore, and 1,500,000 tons of cupriferous schists. Lenses apparently 
increase in size at depth. Mine is opened by overhand stoping and dry- 
walling b used in depleted stopes. Ores carry 1.5% to 5% copper, 40% 
to 52% sulphur a;id 40% to 44% iron, and the schists range 0.25% to 30% 
copper. All pyritic ore above 1.5% copper, and all schbts above 10% copper, 
are exported. The lower grade ores are weathered at the mine, to produce 
cement copper, and the leached ore, free of copper, b sent to France for the 
sulphur ' contained. The water from the mines, where 80,000 to 100,000 
cubic metres are in constant storage, carries up to 9 kilograms of copper 
in solution to each cubic metre, most of which b saved by cementation. The 
cement copper b washed and classified, the best quality averaging 98.5% 
copper, which b much the best grade of cement copper produced anywhere. 
Mining by overhand stoping and rock filling is said to prove safer and cheaper 
than open-cast operations. Surface plant includes Robey hoisting and 
pumping engines, and the mine has a tramline of 76 cm. gauge, also an aerial 
tram to the wharves at La Laja, on the river Guadiana. 
CABRALES COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: 18, Walbrook, London, E. C, Eng. R. W. Outram, secretary. 
Capital, nominal, £12,000; issued, £1,207. Lands, if any, in Spain. 
CABRERA MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Velardena, Durango, 
Mexico. 
MINAS 7 FUNDICION DE CACOMA. MEXICO. 

Office and works: AutUn, Jalisco, Mex. Wm. A. Cassib, agent; John 
Bfann, mine superintendent; M. E. Raines, smelter superintendent. Lands, 
5 hours' horseback ride northwest of Autlan, including the Volcancillos, 
Purbima and Palestina mines, carrying auriferous and argentiferous copper 
ores, opened by a 165' shaft and a 160' tunnel. Has steam power and a 
10-ton smelter, employing 50 to 60 men. 
CACOMA MINES & SMELTER CO. MEXICO. 

See Minas y Fundicion de Cacoma. 
CACTUS GROUP. UTAH. 

Owned by Newhouse Mines & Smelter Co. 



270 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CACTUS SMELTING & COPPER CO. UTAH. 

Absorbed by Royal Copper Mining Co., now Newhouse Mines & Smelter 
Company. 
SOCIEDAD ANONIMA MINAS DE CALA. SPAIN. 

Offices: Bilbao, Vizcaya, Spain. Mine office: Cala, Santa Olalla, 
Huelva, Spain. Organized, Aug. 31, 1900, under laws of Spain, with capi- 
talization 15,000,000 pesetas. Conde de Rodas, president; Don Emilio 
Vallejo, secretary. Property is a group of 8 mines, area 346 hectareas at 
Gala, carrying magnetic, iron ore and cupriferous pyrites, and ore bodies 
apparently are extensive. The company is building a 97-kilometre rail- 
road from the mines to San Juan del Aznalfarache, on the Guadalquivir 
river, in the adjoining province of Sevilla. 
CALABASAS COPPER CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

A Douglas Lacey swindle, in Pima county, Arizona. 
CALAVERAS MINING ASSOCIATION. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Alamagordo, N. M. £. A. Hersperder, superintendent. 
Lands include the Black Burro mine, showing sulphide ores of copper and 
lead. 
CALCANTE COPPER & NICKEL MINES. ITALY. 

An idle property near Traves, Torino, Italy, in the western Alps of 
Piedmont. Once a large producer of nickel, cobalt and copper, latter from 
chalcopyrite, found in stratified archaic rocks. 
CALEDONIA COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

A proposed organization to take over the Flint Steel and adjoining 
mines, in Ontonagon county, Michigan. Company not formed. 
CALEDONIA COPPER CO., LTD. NEW CALEDONIA; 

Offices : 79^, Gracechurch St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office : Noumea, 
Diahot district. New Caledonia. Geo. Allan, president; James W. Chenhall, 
consulting engineer; A. J. Lindsay-Simpson, secretary. Lands are about 
4,000 acres, including the Ao and Pilou mines. Direct title is held by Les 
Mines de Cuivre Pilou, Ltd., entire stock issued of which is owned by Cale- 
donia Copper Co., Ltd. Capitalization, £750,000, shares £5 par. Debentures, 
£100,000 authorized; £46,000 issued at 7.5%. The Pilou mine has been 
extensively developed and is cormected by tunnel with the Ao, 2.5 miles 
distant. Main shaft, 240 metres. Ores are carbonates and oxides near 
surface, succeeded at slight depth by argentiferous chalcopyrite and galena. 
Ore is dressed to ienor of 13% to 15% copper, the concentrated ore carrying 
200 to 400 grams of silver per ton from the sulphide ores and 2 to 4 grams 
gold per ton from the oxidized surface ores. Plant includes a 200-ton concen- 
trator.^ Company was promoted by the notorious London & Globe Finance 
Corporation, Ltd., and apparently was robbed before horn. Company in poor 
financial condition and properties, which are regarded as valuable, are idle. 
CALEDONIAN EXPLORATION CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: San Nicolas del Oro, Guerrero, Mex. T. B. C. Murphy, 
superintendent. Property is the Nantzintla mine, carrying ores of gold, 
silver and copper, opened by tunnel. 



CALEDONIAN— CALINNHA. 271 

CALEDONIAN MINING CORPORATION, LTD. NEW CALEDONIA. 

E. Weils, receiver and manager, 66, Coleman St., London, £. C, Eng. 
Property comprises sundry lands carrying ores of copper, silver and lead, 
in New Caledonia. 

COMPANIA MINA DE CALIFORNIA. MEXICO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Cummipa, Sonora, 
Mexico. Organized 1901, with capitalization $1,000,000. Lands, 20 perte- 
nencias. 
CALIFORNIA-AMECA MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Ameca, Jalisco, Mex. 0. W. Whitney, manager. Is 
developing the San Pedro copper mine. 
CALIFORNIA & ARIZONA COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of Pacific States Mining <& Investment Co., a shady bank- 
rupt promotion concern at 326 Post St., San Francisco, Cal. Lands, 7 
claims in the Huachuca Mountains, Cochise Co., Ariz., 17 miles west of Bisbee. 
Cannot be learned that any work is in progress, and stock probably worthless. 
CALIFORNIA COPPER CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: 31 Nassau St., New York. Property b the Ne Plus Ultra and 
adjoining claims, near Daulton, Madera Co., Cal. Has a 100-ton smelter, 
but ores proved refractory and unsuited to economical extraction. Moribund. 
CALIFORNIA COPPER KING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, 218 So. Broadway, Los 
Angeles, Cal. Lands, were 21 claims, in two groufKS, on Pahlen and McCoy 
mountains, lUverside county, California, opened by shafts showing various 
ore bodies, 4' to 40' wide. 
CALIFORNIA GOLD & COPPER CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office: Spenceville, Nevada Co., Cal. C. C. Bitner, president and 
general manager. Has auriferous and argentiferous copper ores, with water 
and electric power, and employed about 20 men at last accounts. 
CALIFORNIA IMPROVEMENT CO. CALIFORNIA. 

See Realty Syndicate. 
CALIFORNIA MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 2 Toltec Bldg., Denver, Colo. Letter returned unclaimed from 
fonner mine office, Rollinsville, Gilpin Co., Colo. Emerson J. Short, president 
and general manager. Has a lOO' shaft said to show a 2' paystreak of argent- 
iferous and auriferous chalcocite assaying 25% to 40% copper. 
CALIFORNIA MINING CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Park City, Summit Co., Utah. S. Levy, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc. Has steam power and a 
50-ton concentrator, employing about 50 men at last accounts. 
CAUFORNIAN COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. CALIFORNIA. 

Absorbed by Fresno Copper Co., Ltd. 
MINA DA CALINNHA. PORTUGAL. 

Office: care of M. Paul Chapuy, manager, Santa Appolonia, Lisbon, Port- 
ugal. Understood to be owned by a French company. Exports cupriferous 
iron pyrites to England in limited quantities. 



272 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CALLETA50 MmiNG & SMELTING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Calabasas, Pima Co., Ariz. C. O'Brien Reddin, general 
manager. Lands, 2 groups, sho\iing 12 veins, from which selected samples 
have given assays of 9% copper, 400 oz. silver and $2.50 gold per ton. 
CALSTOCK TIN & COPPER, LTD. ENGLAND. 

Offices : 16, Place Vendome, Paris, France and 30, Mooigate St., London, 
E. C, Eng. Mine office: Calstock, Cornwall, England. G. Robinson, chair- 
man; C. Fred Thomas, mine manager; John A. Russell, secretary. Oiganized 
May 5, 1900, with capitalization £60,000, shares £1 par; issued, £57J07. 
Property b the Prince of Wales mine, product of which b mainly tin, with a . 
little copper secured as a by-product. Is a small producer of both tin and 
copper ores. 
CALUMET & ALGOMA DEVELOPMENT CO. ONTARIO. 

Succeeded by Hermina Mining Co., Ltd. 
CALUMET & ARIZONA MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office : Calumet, Mich. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Works 
office: Douglas, Cochise Co., Ariz. Employs about 750 men. Oi^nized 
March, 1901, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $2,500,000, sliarea 
$10 par; issued $2,000,000. Annual meeting, second Monday in April. Cbas. 
Briggs, president ; James Hoatson, vice-president ; Gordon R. Campbell, secre- 
tary ; Peter Ruppe, treasurer; preceding officers, Thos. Hoatson, Thos. F. Cole, 
Chester A. Congdon, Chas. d'Autremont, Jr. and Geo. E. Tener, directors; 
Samuel A. Pamall, general manager; James Wood, smelter superintendent; 
Henry B. Paull, clerk; W. £. McKee, master mechanic; H. A. Smith, engineer. 
Merchants & Miners Bank, of Calumet, Mich., registrar. Lands, 11 claims, 
area 160 acres, in the Warren district, adjoining the Copper Queen, also a 
640-acre smelter site at Douglas. 

The company's shafts are in limestone, with occasional porphyritic in- 
trusions and not far distant from a porpliyry contact. Side-line agreements 
have been secured with the Copper Queen, insuring freedom from possible 
litigation and a preserv^ation of the present neighborly relations. The surface 
gives small indications of values, showing but small and infrequent outcrops, 
the existence of the magnificent ore bodies since developed having bc^n 
inferred correctly from the underground developments in the adjoining shafts 
of the Copper Queen and from careful study of the general geological con- 
ditions of the district. Ore occurs in highly irregular bodies, the mine show- 
ing native copper, cuprite, melaconite, azurite, malachite, chalcocite and chal- 
copyrite, usually with a talcose gangue and witli considerable hematite and 
manganese ores, the latter carrying malachite in small disseminated nodules 
and frequently averaging 10% to 18% in copper. The ore, which b prac- 
tically self-fluxing, averages about 2 oz. silver and 0.05 oz. gold per ton, as 
smelted. 

The original mine, so far as yet developed, is on a single claim of 20 acres, 
the Irish Mag, on which a finely timbered 4-compartment vertical shaft of 
1,280^ depth is sunk, in liard limestone tliroughout, except where cutting the 
various ore bodies, rendering it safe from drawing. The mine is opened by 



CALUMET & ARIZONA. 273 

« 

drifts and crosscuts on the 750", 85(K, 950', lOSO", 116(y and 125(y levels. The 
upper levels show exceedingly rich ores, there being whole stopes assaying 
^%> ^% And even 55% in copper, and a considerable body of rich chalco- 
cite was opened on the 750^ level late in 1004. A good ore body has been 
opened recently on the Pride claim, by a drift from the 1250^ level of the 
Irish Mag shaft. An auxiliary double hoist is being installed on the 1,000^ 
level of the Mag shaft. 

The collar of the Oliver shaft b 150^ lower than the Mag and 50^ higher 
than the Lowell shaft 6f the Queen. This shaft, 1,000^ deep, first cut ore 
at 710^ depth, or about SOO' higher than in the Lowell, and rich ore is being 
opened on both of the Senator claims from this shaft. The Oliver plant has 
a double-drum hoist good for 1,500^ depth and a battery of oil-burning boilers. 
This shaft will become a rich producer in 1905. The lower workings show 
rich sulphides, and in order to save the high-grade ores in the upper levels, 
for fluxing and enrichment of the average furnace chaiges, development is 
being pushed more rapidly in the sulphide zone than above, yet practically 
aU of the oxidized ores now smelted come from development work alone. It 
is planned eventually to sink both shafts to a depth of 2,000^, or even more, 
should the ore bodies hold out. The shafts have 4 compartments and make 
very little water, but the mine may become wet at a depth of 1,500^ or more. 
The ground is exceedingly soft, owing to the amount of talcgangue in the ore 
bodies, and requires heavy timbering. Timber is secured from a great dis- 
tance, and to guard against emergencies, large stocks are carried. The Irish 
Mag shaft has developed a mine with ore in sight to run the smelting plant to 
its full capacity for at least 5 or 6 years to come, without another foot of open- 
ing, and this single shaft soon will be reinforced by another, to say nothing of 
the lower levels being opened. The great extent and marvelous richness of 
the Calumet A Arizona's Irish Mag stopes can be comprehended only by 
personal inspection. This I have given, and know that this statement of the 
mine's richness is a very conservative one, despite its possible appearance of 
a contrary nature. 

The surface plant is clustered about the Irish Mag shaft on a steep hill- 
side, graded for the purpose. The shaft has a 78' steel gallows-frame and a 
114' ore bin, with a 20x60^ direct-acting Nordberg hoist capable of raising a 
3-deck cage at ttie. rate of 2,000' per minute from a depth of 1,600'. This 
hoist has raised about 600 tons of ore daily from an average depth of nearly 
1,000', beside caring for men, timber and tools — a record never before made 
by one shaft in Arizona. The plant includes carpenter and machine shops, 
smithy, timbermill for framing mine-sets, office building, warehouse, etc. 
Four 40-h. p. Buffalo vertical engines, direct-connected to 25-kw. 11 5- volt 
Crocker- Wheeler generators furnish electric light and power for the ventilating 
fans. An automatic telephone system has 25 stations underground and on 
surface. A 16-drill air compressor was installed in 1904^ the power-drill equip- 
ment being comparatively small because of the softness of the ore, much of 
which can be bored with a breast-auger. A substantial hospital for mine 
employes was built in 1904 and a model changing house, with hot and cold 



274 TKE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ninning water, tub and shower baths and lockens for 500 men is nearing com- 
pletion. 

To the southward of the Senator claim No. 2 is the Buckeye claim, ^ith 
a 40^ exploring shaft and a few trenches, dating from a former ownership. 
This claim shows a good iron outcrop and a little low-grade carbonate ore. 
The southenmiost claim is the Gibraltar, wedged between the lands of the 
Pittsburg & Duluth and Lake Superior & Pittsburg properties, the Gibraltar 
claim also having shallow exploring shafts and open-cuts showing iron and a 
little low-grade copper ore of promising appearance. The company also owns 
two detached tracts, one being the Wagner and Hope claims, about 2,000^ 
southwest of the Irish Mag, while the other group is the Angel, Old Republican 
and Washington claims, adjoining the old Copper King mine, on the porphyry 
side of Tombstone Canyon. The latter group was secured as a possible mill- 
site, but in view of recent developments at the Junction property, may prove 
to carry workable ore bodies at depth. 

The Calumet & Arizona smelter is 25 miles from the mine, near Douglas, 
ore being transported by the El Paso & Southwestern R. R., which gives a 
very favorable freight rate. The first stack was blown in November 15, 1902, 
tlie second in the spring of 1903, the third in October, and the fourth in 1904, 
while the fifth was under way at the close of the year. The furnaces are of 
300 tons daily capacity each, and but two furnaces were run regulariy in 1904, 
the third being held in reserve. With 5 furnaces in conmiission, early in 
1905, the smelter will have a nominal capacity of 1,500 tons daily, and an 
actual capacity of 1,200 tons, or double the capacity of 1904, as the fifth 
furnace will be held in reserve to replace any one of the others out of blast for 
repairs or any other reason. Biatte b dischaiged by the furnaces into 
tilting wells and taken thence by electric crane to the converters, four in 
number, which turn out 99.2% blister copper carrying small gold and silver 
values. Power is furnished by a 400-h. p. engine and tlie handling of raw 
and finished material is as nearly automatic as possible in every process of 
the work. The power plant includes two Nordberg blowing engines, with 
cross-compound steam ends having 22x42^ cylinders and 48^^ stroke, the blow- 
ing cylinders being 48x48', and maintaining a 12 lb. blast pressure, each 
blower being run by a 400-h. p. steam engine. The smelter power plant 
burns petroleum, and has four 45,000-gallon oil tanks. Water in ample supply 
is secured from artesian wells, of about 450^ average depth, these giving a 
natural overflow without pumping. The company has a 16-room boarding 
house and sundry dwellings for employes at the smelter. Product of the 
smelter is a high-grade blister copper, carrying in 1903 an average of $11.35 
per ton in gold and silver values, which goes by rail to Galveston, thence by 
sea to the works of the Nichols Chemical Co. at New York for electrolytic 
refining. 

Tlie Calumet & Arizona has no ''construction account,'' tliat convenient 
device by which "mining profits" are earned by some companies, when the 
results properly figured would show an actual loss on every pound of metal 
produced. All construction costs at mine and smelter are charged direct 
to operating expenses. 



CALUMET A ARIZONA. 275 

Actual copper production has been 2,066,676 lbs. in 1902; 25,535,857 lbs. 
in 1903, and 31,634,895 lbs. in 1904. For 1905, no prediction can be made 
with safety, but when the Oliver shaft goes into commission, with 4 furnaces 
in blast, if none of the furnaces are lent to auxiliary companies, the Calumet 
& Arizona easily can make between four and five million pounds monthly, 
or from 50,000,000 to 60,000,000 lbs. per year. Tliis will be pretty nearly 
the mine's ultimate capacity for several years to come, because tlie ore cannot 
be raised more rapidly through two shafts, but there is room for one or two 
more shafts, if it should be wished to increase production. 

The Calumet & Arizona has been magnificently handled in every detail. 
It would be difficult to point out any small mistake, and impossible to point 
out any large error in any part of the company's plan of development, finance 
or operation. No other great copper mine ever has been developed so rapidly, 
and none other has become a dividend payer so quickly. Within 13 months 
of its first smelter run the first dividend was paid. In 1903, the dividends 
were $400,000, and in 1904, $1,300,000. The regular quarterly dividend 
rate of $1.50 was supplemented by a 50 cent extra in December, 1904, and 
the 1905 rate will be, in all likelihood, $2 per quarter, or $8 per year. 

The cost of copper made in 1904, probably was about 7 cents per pound, 
ov^ing to charging all improvements direct to operating costs. Cost of 
electrolytic refining, commissions) freight, insurance, assaying, sampling 
and weighing, averaged 2.3 cents per pound in 1903, against which was 
the average credit of .5675 cents per pound for included gold and silver 
values. Net earnings for 1904, probably were nearly $1,750,000, and the 
company probably ended the year with a surplus of between $1,250,000 
and $1,500,000. 

Under the same general and local management as the Calumet & Arizona, 
and with largely the same shareholders, are four other companies, these being 
the Lake Superior & Pittsburg, Pittsburg & Duluth, Calumet & Pittsburg 
and Junction Development Co. The two first named have large ore bodies 
developed and can become producers in 1905, if given smelting facilities. 
A consolidation between these five companies is almost certain to come in 
time. Such a consolidation will give, in the course of a few years, the greatest 
copper mine of the world, in point of production and net profits. 
CALUMET & BISBEE DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Organ- 
ized Oct. 20, 1902, under laws of Arizona, uith capitalization $400,000, 
shares $10 par; 15,000 shares issued and fully paid in. Frank S. Carlton, 
president; Wm. R. Oatcs, secretary; Geo. O. Beehler, manager. Lands, 14 
claims, area 262 acres, in two groups, known as tlie Blair and Denn, at Don 
Luis, adjoining the Lake Superior & Pittsburg. Has a 960^ main sliaft. 
Idle, owing to lack of funds. Fully described in Vol. IV. 
CALUMET & COCHISE DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Out of business. Fully described in Vol. FV. 
CALUMET COPPER CO. COLORADO. 

Office : 409 Tacoma Bldg., Chicago, Ills. Mine office : Turret, Chaffee Co., 



276 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Colo. Hon. Wm. E. Mason, president; David W. Medbury, secretary; Elmer 
E. Briggs, general nianager; G. W. Mendenhall, superintendent. Lands, 3 
claims, known as the Copper King group, on Middle Mountain, showing 
schistose veins in a formation of micaceous granite with porphyry intrusions, 
carrying auriferous and argentiferous copper oxides and sulphides. Develop- 
ment is by incline shafts of 40^ and 85'. 
CALUMET COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Dead. Property sold under foreclosure. 
CALUMET & DULUTH DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Out of business. 
CALUMET & HECLA MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Of&ce: 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass. Mine office: Calumet, Hough- 
ton Co., Mich. Is one of the laigest copper producers of the world, and em- 
ploys about 5,000 men. Organized 1871, under laws of Michigan, as a con- 
solidation of the Hecla, Calumet, Portland and Scott mining companies, and 
reincorporated, 1900, for 30 years. Capitalization (2,500,000, in 100,000 
shares, par $25; $12 paid in. Has paid dividends of $87,850,000 to close of 
1904, or $878.50 per share. Has 3,258 shareholders of record. Fiscal year 
ends April 30; annual meeting b in August. Alexander Agassiz, president; 
T. L. Livermore, vice-president ; Geo. A. Flagg, secretary and treasurer; Alex- 
ander Agassiz, Francis L. Higginson, Francis W. Hunnewell, Quincy A. 
Shaw, Jr., and Jas. N. Wright, directors; James MacNaughton, superintendent; 
Will A. Childs, assistant superintendent; W. M. Gibson, second assistant 
superintendent; J. H. Lathrop, chief clerk; Fred S. Eaton, cashier; £. S. 
Grierson, chief engineer; E. D. Leavitt, consulting mechanical engineer; Jas. 
MiUigan, chief mining captain; W. H. Cake, mill superintendent; Jas. B. 
Cooper, smelter superintendent at Lake Linden; Morris B. Patch, smelter 
superintendent at Buffalo ; Senator Chas. Smith, chief mill and smelter cleric 
at Lake Linden; Geo. M. Kendall, chief clark at Buffalo. 

Official returns to the State oi Michigan, as of date Jan. 1, 1904, disclose 
the foUo^ng figtu-es: 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $ 1,200,000.00 

Entire amount invested in real estate 17,241,851.08 

Amount of personal estate 6,348,941.25 

Amount of unsecured or floating debt 1,019,930.97 

Amount due corporation 2,542,846.37 

Mineral lands are about 2,750 acres, in a compact tract in Sections 11,13, 
14, 15, 22, 23 and 24, Town 56 North, Range 33 West, Houghton county, 
Michigan, also considerable tracts west of the Tamarack mine carrying the 
underlay of the Calumet conglomerate at such stupendous depth that its open- 
ing would require a vertical shaft of about two miles in depth. The lands west 
of the Tamarack were explored in 1904 with diamond drills, in search of a 
supposed cupriferous conc^Iomerate. The Metalline and Dover tracts, area 
200 acres, Ijdng next south of the Tecumseh, were bought 1904, and the 
Tecumseh is supposed to be held under option also. Further purchases of 
mineral lands, both north and south of present holdings, may be made. The 



CALUMET <fc HECLA, 277 

company also owns extensive tracts of timber land in Michigan and Wis- 
consin. 

The Calumet & Hecla mine proper }a opened on the Calumet conglomer- 
ate, which to the north and south has proven unprofitable wherever mined, 
though the underiay of the lode, opened by vertical shafts at the Tamarack 
mine, has given good returns. The conglomerate has an average strike of 
N. 39® £., with average dip to the west of north of 37® 3(y with the horizon. 
The lode has a minimum width of 8' and a maximum of 4(/, with an average 
of about 12^ to 14', giving about 2,400 cubic fathoms of stoping ground, equal 
to about 43,200 tons of stamp-rock, per acre of area. The Osceola amygdaloid, 
outcropping 730^ east of the Calumet conglomerate, has a parallel strike and 
an average dip of about 40®. The Kearsarge amygdaloid, which b very rich 
to the northward, also underlies the Calumet Sc Hecla lands, outcropping some 
distance east of the Osceola lode. The Calumet amygdaloid, lying between 
the conglomerate and the Osceola amygdaloid, has been little opened, but 
might prove payable if developed, as it shows some very rich ground in a 
crosscut on the QOO' level. 

The Calumet & Hecla mine in reality is many mines in one. The Calu- 
met mine at the north, the Hecla in the center and the South Hecla at the 
south form one continuous mine developing the Calumet conglomerate by 
incline shafts. The Red Jacket shafts opens the same lode vertically. The 
Osceola amygdaloid is opened by 6 shafts and the Kearsarge amygdaloid is 
being opened by two new shafts, with more to follow. The mine has 21 
shafts, of which 15 are working, 4 are idle and 2 are permanently abandoned. 
The conglomerate, opened for two miles along its outcrop, has 11 shafts, 8 
being ringle compartment size, which means single hoisting compartments, 
two with double compartments and one 6-compartment vertical shaft. The 
5 Osceola shafts have double compartments each, as have the shafts started 
on the Kearsarge bed. The trap and amygdaloid walls of the conglomerate 
carry considerable copper, especially the footwall bed, and much of the ad- 
hering trap rock formerly rejected is now milled. 

The incline shafts on the conglomerate are worked as two separate mines, 
known as the Hecla and Calumet branches, the South Hecla being a southerly 
continuation of the Hecla branch. The shafts on the outcrops are as follows, 
from north to south: Nos. 6 and 5 Calumet, two compartments each; No. 4 
Calumet, one compartment, with a vertical depth of 4,748' and an actual 
depth of 8,100^ at an angle of 37® 30^, in addition to which there is a winze 
of 190^ from the bottom, giving a total depth of 8,290^ from the collar of the 
shaft to the bottom of the winze ; No. 3 Calumet, abandoned ; No. 2 Calumet, 
with one compartment 7,000^ deep and near the boundary; No. 1 Calumet, 
abandoned; No. 1 Hecla, abandoned; No. 2 Hecla, 4,400^ deep, has reached 
the Tamarack boundary ; No. 3 Hecla, 4,000^ deep, also has reached the Tama^ 
rack boundary; No. 4 Hecla, abaadpned; No. 6 Hecla, one compartment, 
6,200^ deep, with ground to sink 8,500^ ; Nos. 7 and 8 Hecla, one compartment, 
6,300^ deep and can sink to 9,000^ ; Nos. 9 and 10 Hecla, two compartments, 
6,500' deep and can go to 8,100^; No. 11 Hecla, 2,400^ deep, with poor ground 



278 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

at bottom and being gutted from the bdltom up; No. 12 Hecla, at the com- 
pany's south line, 6,700^ deep and bottomed in unprofitable ground. 

Pillars 75' wide are left on either side of every shaft, and when the present 
conglomerate workings are exhausted down to the Tamarack line, the pillars 
will give a product equal to about 18% of all the rock previously mined. 
The mine is opened for about 8 years in advance of immediate requirements, 
possibly too far ahead for such soft ground, and has about 200 miles of shafts, 
drifts, winzes and crosscuts. The quantity of timber used in the mine Ls 
about 30,000,000' annuaUy. Electric pumps are in use on the 48th level of 
No. 7 Hecla and elsewhere, and are said to give satisfaction. Electric under- 
ground haulage is understood to be under consideration and probably could 
be introduced profitably. 

The Red Jacket vertical shaft, 4,920' deep, was started in 1888, and 
cut the lode at a depth of 3,287'. When first bottomed the rock temperature 
in the sump was 87.60® Fahrenheit (31® Centigrade), but after connection was 
secured with No. 4 Calumet the temperature was reduced to between 70® 
and 80® Fahrenheit, exhaust air from the power drills aiding in cooling the 
mine. The Red Jacket shaft waa designed to open a mine unconnected with 
the older workings in order to give reserve stopes in case of a mine fire, but 
the heat and danger were so great that connection was made with the older 
shafts. The conglomerate lode at thb point and depth is not up to its usual 
values being wide but considerably below the Calumet & Hecla average 
content in copper, and during 1903 and 1904 has shown a falling off of about 
15% from former values. It is evident, from the results secured by this 
and the other deep shafts of the district, that while the cupriferous strati- 
fied beds may descend to tremendous depths, the copper values do not hold 
out at depth. The Red Jacket shaft hoists rock from aU the north shafts 
below the 56th level, at which point the conglomerate is intersected. Pro- 
duction b about 1,200 tons daily, or double the former output, the increase 
having been secured by swinging Kimberley skips under the cages. In the 
east compartments of this 6-compartment shaft are two 9-ton Kimberley 
self-dumping skips. The two west compartments have double-deck cages 
for men and material, and the two middle compartments have cylindrical 
steel bailers, which have given good results in freeing the mine of water. 
Electric turbine pumps were tried experimentally in this shaft in 1904, 
with satisfactory results. Iron pillars are used extensively, as supports in 
portions of the crosscuts connecting the shaft with drifts on the lode, and 
also in various incline shafts to support the hanging wall. Iron also is used 
for lagging to some extent, material being mainly scrap, such as worn-out 
slcip-raib, cut to 10' lengths and placed above "I" beams. The Red Jacket 
shaft has 9-ton steel storage bins at its various productive leveb, aiding in 
maintaining the uninterrupted hoisting service that is absolutely necessary 
in a mile-deep shaft raising 1,200 tons of Tock daily, in addition to meeting 
the heavy demands made for handling men, timber and supplies. . The 
cages were fitted with tail-ropes in 1904, these materially modifying the 
unpleasant and even dangerous vibration formerly noted in the hoisting 
cables. 



CALUMET & HECLA. 279 

The Calumet & Hecla owns 200 acres, known as the "five forties/' be- 
tween the Tamarack and the Tamarack Junior mines. These lands carry 
the underlay, of the conglomerate at great depth, and to obviate sinking a 
deep and costly vertical shaft this tract is being opened by a blind shaft, 
which starts 1,500^ east of the Red Jacket vertical, and near the bottom of 
Calumet No. 4, which abuts on the Tamarack boundary line at a depth of 
8,100^. No. 4 has opened some of the best ground of the entire mine, the 
, lode having an extreme width of nearly 40^ at points, and being notably rich 

• from the 3,600' to the 4,500^ level. The blind shaft is being sunk 25' under 
the footwall, at the same angle as the dip of the conglomerate, thus assuring 
solidity of walls without necessitating long and expensive crosscuts to the 

• lode on each level. A '^footwall drift " on the 57th level parallels the regular 
I drift at a distance of 25' in the footwall, between the Red Jacket vertical 

and the blind shaft, thus obviating the confusion almost certain to result 
were the regular drifts given double duty. The blind shaft starts from 
the footwall drift under and parallel with the 57th level, and will be about 
one mile in depth, opening four of the five 40-acre tracts, leaving the fifth 
and last to be opened by sub-shafts from the blind shaft. At the close of 
1904 the blind shaft is 200' deep. Owing to the regular incline shafts being 
sunk on the dip of the lode, while the blind shaft must follow the section 
lines, it will descend diagonally on the dip of the lode giving an average- 
dip of about 22^ only, although the lode dips at 37'' 30'. This flat incline 
will permit the hoisting of rock in tram-cars, which will be hauled through 
the blind-drift and dumped in the steel bins of the Red Jacket shaft for 
hoisting, thus saving transfer at the mouth of the blind shaft. 

Shafts 13 to 17, inclusive, numbered from south to north, are on the 
Kearsarge amygdaloid lode, 730' east of the outcrop of the conglomerate, 
with parallel strike and dip and frequent underground connections by cross- 
cuts. These shafts average 1,400' depth each, and have about 20 miles of 
drifts opened for stoping. The amygdaloid shafts were closed in 1901, 
and remained idle until July 1, 1904, when No. 13, the southernmost was 
reopened and since has supplied rock to the mills. The rock is said to run 
a little under 15 lbs. refined copper per ton. No. 14 is 3,200' north of 13; 
No. 15 is 2,600' next north; No. 16, 1,800' next north and No. 17 is 1,800' 
north of 16. No. 18 is merely a site for another possible shaft at the extreme 
north of the Calumet & Hecla tract, on the Osceola lode. 

The Kearsarge lode is 2,200' east of the Osceola and 2,930' east of the 
Calumet conglomerate, vnih which it is parallel in strike, and practically 
parallel in dip. The work of development was begun August, 1903, and at 
the close of 1904, two permanent shafts are sinking. No. 19, the northern- 
most, is about 1,000' south of the north boundary, with drifting in progress 
on the first and second levels. The openings are satisfactory, * showing 
good stamp rock, carrying probably 18 to 22 lbs., fine copper per ton, with 
reasonable selection, and the footwall is fairly charged with fine copper, 
always a sign of strong and persistent mineralization. This shaft is a new 
departure in Lake mining practice, being "timbered" with steel, brick and 



280 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

m 

concrete. The shaft has 3 compartments, 2 for hoists, and the hangin g 
wall is lined with 3 arches of brick, laid in 3 to 5 courses, thickness being 
increased with depth, supported by two rows of steel "I '' beams, serving also 
as dividers for the shaft. No. 20 shaft, on the Kearsaige, is 2,400^ south 
of 19, with a much similar copper showing and similarly "timbered" with 
brick, concrete and steel. Drifting has begun on the first level. No. 21, 
8,000^ south of 20, is as yet a vertical exploratory shaft only. 

The Calumet & Hecla has suffered severely from underground fires. 
The amygdaloidal trap rock carrying native metal cannot bum, like the 
copper ore mines rich in sulphur, such as the Anaconda, United Verde, Moun- 
tain and others, but the old timbering eventually becomes nearly as inflam- 
mable as so much tinder. The really serious mine fires have been five in 
number, occurring in 1884, in July and November 1887, and on Nov. 30, 
1888, and May 27, 1900. All possible precautions are taken against mino 
fires, these including the partial fire-proofing of all mine timber with cliloride 
of zinc solution, regular sprinkling of all shafts, the maintenance of water- 
pipes and hydrants, fire-hose, chemical engines, an electric system and 18 
telephones at various pump stations from the 8th to the 51st levels inclusive, 
in five different shafts, so distributed as to be most readily accessible from 
all parts of the mines. From the first four fires the Calumet & Hecla suffered 
aggregate losses of several millions of dollars, while a number of lives were 
lost and three valuable shafts were drawn so badly that they were abandoned. 
The fifth and latest fire, in May 1900, severely tested the mine's system 
of fire prevention and extinguishment, the fire breaking out on Sunday 
evening, when the mine was deserted by all but a few employes, and having 
gained great headway before it was discovered and the burning portion of 
the mine shut off by closing the fire-doors. The mine was sealed at surface 
by covering the mouths of the shafts with heav'y timbers and tamping dirt 
tightly into the crevices between. Wherever gas escaped through holes 
in the earth, dirt was tamped in and made solid with water. The fire was 
extinguished in three weeks and the South Hecla portion of the mine continued 
working without interruption. The five serious fires, and sundry smaller 
blazes nipped in their inception, aU have been of mysterious origin, and there 
are grounds for suspecting incendiarism. Great precautions are taken to 
prevent unauthoriz^ persons entering the mine, and permission to go under- 
ground is given only by the president,in writing, each pass being for one trip only. 

As a rule the richer portions of the conglomerate are in the central 
part of the Calumet & Hecla tract, the most notable exception being in No. 
4 Calumet shaft. Nos. 10 and 12, the southermost shafts of the South Hecla, 
are being gutted, pillars being robbed from the bottom upward. Hecla 
shafts 6, 7 and 8 show very good ground. To the north of No. 5 Calumet 
there is a considerable stretch of lean ground up to the north boundary. 

The surface equipment of Calumet & Hecla is the most complete owned 
by any mine. With rare exceptions ever3rthing is duplicated, to prevent 
possible dela3rs or suspension through fire or accident. The carpenter 
shops are of great size and fitted \iith every modem wood-working appliance. 



CALUMET <fc HECLA, 281 

The smithies are larger than may be found elsewhere outside of the works 
of a few of the very largest machinery manufacturers, and are supplied with 
steam-hammers, forges, blowers, emery-wheels, grindstones, etc. The Cal- 
umet smith shop sharpens upwards of fifty tons of steel drills daily, requiring 
the services of a small regiment of drill boys for transport between the shops 
and mines, while forging and general blacksmithing are done at the Hecla 
shops, to which a stone addition of 56x152^ was built in 1903. Upwards of 
one hundred blacksmiths are employed in the various shops. The machine 
shop, 225x25CK, is very complete in equipment, turning out an immense 
variety and quantity of work. The company has a very large brick ware- 
house for general supplies, and special warehouses for steel and iron, paints, 
etc., all having direct coimection with the Hecla &. Torch Lake Railroad, a 
private line operated by the company that connects the mine, mill and 
smelter by some 20 miles of main track, spurs and sidings that reach every 
shaft, shop, warehouse and mill. The road has big locomotives and a large 
equipment of rolling stock. 

The shaft-rockhouses at the incline shafts are of uniform pattern. At 
each the rock b hoisted to the top of the shafthouse, passing thence over 
grizzlies that allow the finer rock to fall through, the lai^ger masses being 
reduced in 24x36' crushers of the jaw type, and going to 18x24' crushers on 
the floor beneath. The crushed rock falls by gravity into storage bins 
whence it is dumped into hopper-cars that take it to the mills, railroad tracks 
running underneath each rockhouse. 

The power plants at the main mine on the Calumet conglomerate, in- 
clude six hoisting plants and four large boiler plants. The hoisting engines 
of the conglomerate mine are among the most powerful in the world, ranging 
from 1,000 to 8,000 h. p. each. Miners are taken in and out of the incline 
shafts by man-cars, these being long trucks having tiers of circus seats, and 
replacing the regular skips when needed, being quickly shifted on or off the 
skip-tracks by powerful cranes. This method has proven the safest, cheapest 
and quickest yet devised for moving men in and out of deep incline shafts. 

At No. 4 Calumet shaft there is a group of the most powerful machinery 
ever built. The brick engine house, 62x146', contains the Corliss engine 
"Superior," of 4,700 h. p., with 40* cylinders and 70x72* stroke; the auxiliary 
engines "Baraga" and "Rockland," of 2,000 and 600 h. p. respectively; two 
Rand air compressors of 25 and 40 drill capacity, and the engine "Mackinac," 
a quadruple-cylinder triple-expansion steel giant of 7,000 h. p., operating 3 
Nordbeiig air compressors with a combined capacity of 500 drills. ' In the old 
Leavitt compressor water was injected into the compression cylinders, while 
the Nordberg machines deliver the compressed and greatly heated air to a 
cylindrical steel cooler 12^ in diameter and 30^ high, into which water is 
sprayed from above and drawn off at the bottom, this cooling the air to 80^ 
Fahrenheit (27® Centigrade). The hoist has four drums, each 8' 6' wide and 
20^ 6' in diameter, operating four different shafts, two of these drums canying 
neariy 2 miles of steel cable each. Power is supplied by batteries of boilers 
in two boiler-houses adjoining, these having a brick chimney 250^ high, 



282 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

with inside diameter of 12^ Q". Locomotives haul the coal into the boiler- 
houses, where it is fed to the grates by automatic stokers. 

The Hecla engine-house is of brick, 47x80' in size, flanked by a large 
boiler-house, and contains the compound hoisting engine "Frontenac" of 
2p000 h. p. and two auxiliary engines of 600 and 900 h. p., also a 30-drill 
l^nd air compressor and a pcilr of water-plunger air compressors with a com- 
bined capacity of 144 drills — the laigest machines of this type ever constructed. 
South of the Hecla plant is the engine house known locally as the ''G. H. &: 
S.," from the initials of its three former engines, the "Gratiot," "Houghton '' 
and "Seneca," of 2,000 h. p. each. The "Gratiot" was remodeled and 
removed to the stamp miUs in 1902, and alterations made on the "Houghton '* 
and "Seneca" enable them to do the work formerly requiring thi^ee engines. 
The Hecla boiler-house has 5 large boilers and a 200' smokestack of 9' 6^^ 
internal diameter. 

The engine house operating Hecla shafts 7 and 8 contains the engines. 
"Hancock" and "Pewabic," each of 2,000 h. p., wliich operate 25' drums by 
spur gearing, and a 5,000 h. p. Leavitt engine for man-cars. A 50x120' 
boiler-house has 10 boilers and a 250' smokestack of 12' G'^ internal diameter. 
The engine house serving shafts 9 and 10 South Hecla contains the engines 
"Detroit" and "Onota," o? 1,000 h. p. each, and the engine house at shafts 
11 and 12 has Lidgeru-ood hoists of similar capacity. 

The Red Jacket shaft has a quadruple hobt of 8,000 h. p. in a 70x220' 
brownstone building, and in an adjoining brownstone building of 70x150', 
with 250' smoke-stack of 12' 6" inside diameter, are ten l,00O-h. p. boilers. 
At the rear of tlie engine house is a 32x412' brownstone annex, floored with 
cement and roofed with slate, in which is carried the fleet-gear. In raising 
ten-ton loads perpendicularly from a depth of one mile the weight of the 
cage and steel cable nearly equals that of the cargo of rock, but with the 
aid of counterbalance the engines can hoist ten-ton loads at a speed of 40 
miles per hour, the regular hoisting time being about 90 seconds for the 
vertical distance of nearly a mile, this including time taken for starting and 
stopping, an achievement no locomotive could duplicate on a horizontal 
plane. The engine operates on the well-known Whiting system, devised by 
S. B. Whiting, formerly general manager of the conipany. To overcome the 
dangerous strain caused by unequal wearing, Walker difl'erential rings were 
placed on the sheaves in 1903, with excellent results, the cables taking 4 
complete turns iround the driving sheaves. The steel combination shaft- 
rockhouse, 100' square and 110' high, is fitted with breakers capal)lc of 
crushing 2,000 tons of rock daily. 

The engine houses on the Osceola lode have steam and air connections 
and the Kearsaige shafts have air connections with the main power plants 
at the conglomerate shafts. No. 13 has a powerful {x^rmanent hoist, and 
similar hoists on the ground for shafts, 14 and 15 are to l)c removed to the 
new electric power plant at l^ke Linden. Shafts 16 and 17 have temporary 
hoist-s only. Shafts 13, 14 and 15 have large stone engine-houses, while 16 
and 17 have temporary engine-houses only. The Osceola shafts are supplied 



(CALUMET & HECLA. 283 

with permanent shaft-rockhouses of the standard Calumet <& Hecla size 
and equipment. No. 19 shaft on the Kearsarge lode has a hoist good for 
2,50(y depth, and is to have permanent stone buildings. 

Among miscellaneous surface improvements is a 74x74' stone building 
housing the electric plant that furnishes light on surface and power to certain 
of the pumps underground. The company has a timber mill that mortises 
and tenons the bed-pieces, legs and stulls of the square sets used underground, 
a laige paint shop, oilhouses, bams, etc., and a private telephone exchange 
with 100 instruments. 

The Calumet & Hecla owns about 1,200 houses, occupied by employes 
at an average rental of 6% interest on actual cost, plus cost of maintenance, 
and upwards of 1,000 dwellings are owned by employes on lands leased from 
the company at low yearly rentals. The company also owns a large hotel 
and a fine stone clubhouse for employes, this containing bath-rooms, bowling 
alleys, etc. A free library of more than 16,000 volumes contains books 
printed in a score of languages, 30 different nationalities being represented 
on the company's payroll. There is also a combination library and clubhouse 
at Lake Linden, for the employes of the stamp mills and smelters. There 
are some 30 churches on Calumet & Hecla lands, occupied by a dozen different 
denominations, and for all these churches sites were donated, and in most 
cases substantial aid has been given in their erection and maintenance, 
entirely regardless of creed. There are also eight schools on the Calumet & 
Hecla lands, most of which were built by the corporation. 

The company maintains a hospital, for employes solely, built in 1898 and 
noted for its complete suigirial and laboratory apparatus. Nearly a dozen 
physicians on the hospital staff are at the call of any employe requiring med- 
ical or surgical attendance In 1877 an aid fund was instituted for employes, 
and is managed by directors chosen by the workmen. This fund pays death 
and disability benefits, enormous sums having been disbursed since the 
formation of the fund, every dollar going to the sick and injured, or to families 
bereaved of their bread-winners by accident or disease. Surplus monies 
accumulated in this fund liave been invested in the company^s shares, bought 
on the open market, and these investments have been highly profitable. 
Disbursements from this fund are $50,000 to $75,000 yearly, and the nominal 
value of the fund at the end of the fiscal year 1904 was $112,498, actual 
value being much greater, as all stock in inventoried at cost price. For the 
maintenance of this fund each employe pays 50 cents monthly and the 
company adds an equal amount. This is not called charity, but certainly 
is practical philanthropy of a noble sort. 

Three systems of waterworks are maintained, two at Calumet and one at 
Lake Linden. One of the former fumbhes water from dams for fire pro- 
tection, and the other pumps potable water 4 miles from Lake Superior, 
against a head of 600^, raising about 4,000,000 gallons daily. At the dam 
and mine there are 7 pumps, with a combined daily capacity of upwards of 
45,000,000 gallons. The I^ake Superior waterworks are to have electric power. 

The company maintains a fire department, modeled on metropolitan 
lines, which affords protection to the mine buildings and location, and also 



284 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

lespondfl to calls from the town of 35,000 souls that has grown up about this 
great mine. 

The stamp mills are located at Lake Linden, four miles from the mine, on 
{I tract of about d88 acres, which has several miles of frontage on Torch Lake. 
There are two wooden mills, the "Calumet" and "Hecla/' each of which orig- 
inally had 11 Leavitt steam stamps, with cylinders 14x21)^^ and 24^" stroke. 
An addition to the southern end of the ''Hecla" mill, completed in 1903, is 
165x308', of steel, built by the American Bridge Co. This has 6 stamps, each 
run by an independent 25-h. p. electric motor, the new mill being thoroughly 
modem and of great capacity. Among the new features are 7 Chilean re- 
grinding miUs, in addition to the old Averley grinders, and enlarged finishei 
jigs. The new plant handles material with about 60% of the wash-water 
formerly required, thus effecting a double saving, inasnjuch as all water' 
used in the mills must first be pumped in, and thereafter raised as sludge in 
the sand-wheels when discharged. 

Upon the completion of the "Hecla" addition, eariy in 1903, the woric of 
rebuilding the old mills was begun. Each mill was divided into two sections, 
for rebuilding one at a time, the new ''Hecla" addition but little more than 
taking the place of the sections under reconstruction. Each section re- 
quires a year for rebuilding, and the remodeling scarcely will be completed 
before 1907. While this work is called rebuilding, it is nothing short of 
building absolutely new mills on the site of the old, the work being done 
piecemeal because it cannot well be done otherwise. Notable features of 
the new construction are the replacing of wood with steel and cement through* 
out, the building of much heavier foundations and considerable additions 
to the wash-room below the stamps and coarse jigs. The rebuilding of the 
southern half of the old Calumet mill was completed in 1904. The new 
section, built by the Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Co., lias a heavy steel frame, 
concrete foundations, cement floors, corrugated iron siding and a Carey 
roof of tarred buriap. The foundations are very massive piles, 20^ apart, 
2 and even 3 tiers having been driven to bed-rock and topped with 
6x12^ timber and a A' 6" bed of concrete. This section has 5 Leavitt stamps, 
Woodbury-Benedict jigs, 4-deck Evans-Rawlins slime tables, Chilean re- 
grinding mills, classifiers and Wilfley concentrators, the latter built in the 
Calumet & Hecla shops by special arrangement with the owners of the patents. 
The mills are to have 220 Wilfleys eventually, these effecting a considerable 
saving of very fine copper formerly lost, and greatly reducing the mill's water 
consumption. Work on the reconstruction of the second section of the Calu- 
met mill was begun 1904, and will be completed May or June, 1905. The 
Robins belt conveyor in the Calumet mill b to be used for carrying barrel 
copper from the heads. 

The mills contain 28 Leavitt heads, but owing to the rebuilding under 
way, only 22 to 23 heads are in place at one time, and allowing for the experi- 
mental work and heads temporarily out of commission, the average is about 
18 effective stamps, which are, treating an average of about 325 tons daily, 
each, of very refractory conglomerate rock, the new stamps exceeding and 
the old falling short of this duty, llie remodeling of the Hecla mill in two 



CALUMET <fc HECLA. 285 

■ectioDS will require until the spring or summer of 1007. Each of the new 
heads has a jig attached direct, with about 5 jig classifiers, these doing all 
€A the classif3ring. The wash portions of the rebuilt mills are to be operated 
by electric power. Two compounded heads, one of Leavitt, and one of 
Nordberg design, will be installed, side by side, and given full tests. President 
Agassis states that the new mills will pay for tnemselvesln one year's working. 
Water for the nulls is supplied by five pumps, of which the pumping 
engine "Michigan" is the most powerful in the world, having a daily capacity 
of 60,000,000 gallons. The daiTy capacity of the engines "Huron" and "On- 
tario" is 20,000,000 gallons each, of the "Erie" 10,000,000 gallons, and an 
I. P. Morris pump can raise 22,000,000 gallons daily. 

As the mills stand on the flat western shore of Torch Lake, at little eleva- 
tion above water-level, tailings speedily filled the shallow lake for some dis- 
tance off shore, and to waste the sands it became necessary to secure a consid- 
erable initial elevation, which is gained by sand-wheels. The material en- 
tering the mills as conglomerate rock leaves as coarse sand, to the esctent 
-^ neariy 6,000 tons daily. The sludge is washed through launders to the 
sand-houses, where it b scooped up by the buckets of the wheels and dumped 
high above into laimders running on trestles far out into the lake, these 
spouting forth miniature Niagaras of brick-red color from their ends. There 
are two wheelhouses, one each for the Hecla and Calumet mills. The Calumet 
wheelhouse has sand-wheels of 4X/ and dO' diameter and the Hecla wheel- 
house, caring for the sands from a much larger mill, has sand-wheels of 40^, 
50^ and 64' diameter,, the latter being housed in a three-story 65x78' steel 
annex 94' high. The old wheelhouses are of wood, iron sheathed. The 
steel in the new aimex to the Hecla wheelhouse weighs 400 tons and the build- 
ing is equipped with a 45-ton Sellers traveling crane. The 64' sand-wheel is 
to appearance a gigantic bicycle wheel, fitted with a spur gearing where the 
rubber tire should be. The complete wheel weighs 500 tons and is mounted 
upon massive concrete masonry. Four 25-ton iron bed-plates support the 
pillars carrying the 21-ton Krupp forged steel axle, which is 27' long and 32^ 
in diameter with a hollow core of 26'' diameter. Radiating from axle to rim 
are 2* steel spokes 32' long. The rim is in 20 segments weighing 10,700 lbs. 
each, the inner perimeter of the wheel having 550 buckets, in pairs, each 3' 
wide and 4' 6' long and holding 100 gallons, giving the wheel a capacity of 
55,000 gallons per revolution. The completed wheel is 10' wide and 64' in 
diameter, driven by gear and pinion, power being furnished by a 700-h. p. 
dynamo. After all parts were delivered in 1002 nearly two years were required 
to build and adjust this monstrous wheel, which went into commission in 1904. 
The electric plant for the mills is just west of the Hecla mill in a steel build- 
ing 45x85' with wing of 45x60'. This has two engines, the "Saginaw" and 
'Gratiot," the latter connected with the generator by rope belting. The 
'Saginaw" is an Allis-Ohalmers twin vertical tandem compound-expansion 
direct-connected engine having cylinders 17x40x48'', with a speed of 05 revolu- 
tions per minute. Each engine drives a 1,000-kilowatt alternating current 
generator furnishing energy for the new Hecla sand-wheel, new Hecla mill, 
electric lights and sundry other uses. 



"( 



286 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

The Calumet & Hecla has entered upon a plan calling for the almost 
complete electrification of its mines, mills and smelters. The plan will 
require several years for completion, and will involve an enormous outlay. 
Ultimately, electric power will be used throughout the property, except for 
certain big hoists and other compounded epgines of high efficiency. The 
central power station will be at Lake Linden, where a 12(y addition is being 
built to the present power plant. The advantage of this location is that 
coal can be delivered alongside from the lai^est vessels plying the great lakes, 
effecting a saving of about 10 cents per ton on transportation charges of coal 
now burned at the mines, and much more in the case of certain isolated 
plants, such as the waterworks plant on Lake Superior, which has no rail 
connection. There also will be the sa\ing in slack resulting from one less 
handling of tlie coal. Some of the present steam installations consume as 
much as 4 lbs. coal per h. p. hour, whereas the new. electric plant will 
require approximately IJ^ lbs. per h. p. hour. There are many other 
economies that will result — as for instance, in labor, the company now em- 
ploying 100 firemen in its various power plants. The new electric plant 
probably will not be completed and in full operation before 1906. The annual 
coal consumption of the property now is about 225,000 tons, and tlie new 
plant will effect a very large saving in fuel and in operating costs. Two new 
3,000-h. p. engines, at amygdaloid shafts 14 and 15, will be used for the new 
plant, these being the engines, Owego and Ontonagon. 

Miscellaneous buildings at the millsite include a 50x100' steel combina- 
tion boiler-house and smithy, machine shop, carpenter shop, paint- shop, 
warehouse, etc. The boilers at the mill plant consume about 500,000 gallons 
of water daily, secured from a reservoir, artesian wells and Torch Lake. 
Trouble from impure water has been solved by the installation of a Jewell 
filtration plant of 500,000 gallons daily capacity, in which the impurities 
originally found in the water arc precipitated by lime. 

The tailings at the Lake Linden mills are the most extensive in the 
world, containing about 30,000,000 tons of stamp sand carrying from about 
0.4% in the newest parts up to nearly or quite 1% copper in the older sec- 
tions. The total amount of copper in these sands is probably almost 200,000 
tons. Experiments at reworking have been made from time to time, with- 
out success. Between the included copper, which necessitates regrinding, 
and the oxidation of the metal, which is rapid, the problem of economical 
extraction is not simple, and yet lacks a solution. 

The Calumet & Hecla has smelting plants at Lake Linden and Buffalo. 
The former works, opened 1887, now cover the major part of a 30-acre tract 
l3ring about a mile south of the mills. There are four furnace buildings, each 
80x1 SCy, a 50x70' blister copper furnace building, warehouse, laboratory 
and assay office, machine shop, boiler-house and three mineral houses with a 
combined storage capacity of 18,000 tons. The mineral comes from the 
mills carrying nearly two-thirds metal to one-third gangue rock, instead of 
three-fourths metal, as some years ago, the dressing of mineral to a lower 
tenor in copper pennitting the saving of much fine copper formerly lost in the 
slimes. Three reverlienUory furnaces were rebuilt to 15 t^ns capacity each, 
in 1904, and the blister copper blast-furnace also was rebuilt. The Calumet 



CALUMET & HECLA, 287 

& Hecla now does custom smelting for the Mohawk and Wolverine mines. 
and the remarkable results secured have effectually refuted the idea, for- 
merly prevalent in some quarters, that the Calumet & Hecla smelter was an 
old-fogy institution. The increased capacity has been found highly economical. 
The new reverberatories have 93' stacks and are top-charged, the mineral 
being thoroughly dried on platforms above the furnaces before charging. 
The largest blast furnace is 40x96' at the tuyeres. The eastern reduction 
plant, known as the Buffalo Smelting Works, is located on the Niagara River, 
at Black Rock, Buffalo, with deep water in front and direct rail connections 
in the yards. The Buffalo plant was established in pursuance of the com- 
pany's policy of duplicating every vital part of the mine, mill and smelter, 
and has grown rapidly, now covering a considerable area. This plant also 
has a 30-ton electrolytic refinery for refining certain grades of mineral carry- 
ing considerable silver values. The Buffalo plant employs about 150 men. 

Sufficient mineral is shipped during the season of lake navigation, April 
to November, to keep the Buffalo works supplied for the entire year. The 
highest grade mineral goes east for smelting, thus saving freight charges. 
The ^company operates a fleet of steel steamers and barges for carrying 
down mineral and bringing back soft coal, the fine steel steamer Geo. A. 
Flagg, of 3,300 tons register, being of this fleet. There is a series of very 
large coal sheds at Lake Linden, one of which has 200,000 tons capacity, the 
old sheds being of wood and the new of steel. There is also a series of docks 
. at the mills and smelts on Torch Lake, all with substantial wharves having 
at least 21' of clear water alongside, frequent dredging being required to 
maintain this depth of clear water, owing to the stamp-sand filling in. Tlie 
wharves were extended 1904, both at Lake Linden and Hubbell. The coal 
wharf has 11 Hunt hoists, and three b2f movable derricks, one of wood and two 
of iron.*' The Calumet & Hecla owns and operates the ship canal connecting 
Torch Lake with the government water>vays on Portage Lake, this canal 
being 21' deep and accommodating the largest vessels plying the great lakes. 
Tolls ranging from 10 cents on soft coal to 50 cents per ton on package freight 
are charged on cargoes entering Torch Lake through the canal. 

A sawmill, at the head of Torch Lake, receives logs by raft and ships 
sawed lumber and timber by a branch of the company's railroad. At the 
mouth of the Sheldrake river, on Whitefish Point, Chippewa county, Mich- 
igan, the company has a mill sawing about 12,000,000 feet of lumber yearly, 
with 8 to 10 years supply of standing timber tributary thereto. The com- 
pany also has a mill at Ashland, Wisconsin, and owns extensive tracts of pine, 
hemlock and hardwood at various points along the southern shore of Lake 
Superior, in addition to which much timber is bought of jobbers. 

Detailed annual statement of production and dividend pa3rments will 
be found in the statistical chapter. The dividends of $87,350,000, paid by 
the Calumet & Hecla to the close of 1904, are the laigest ever disbursed by 
any mining corporation. 

The statistical confusion so frequently noted in figures of Calumet & 
Hecla production is caused by the use of four sets of figures of production 
of refined copper, to say nothing of two sets of figures of output of crude 
mineral (unsmelted copper), and numerous estimates of more or less au- 



288 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

thenticity. The four sets of official figures of annual production are for 
actual output of refined copper, and also quantity of fine copper contained 
in mineral produced, for the calendar year, and also for the company's fiscal 
year. Figures used in this publication are those of actual outputs in refined 
copper by calendar years. The mills treat about 5,750 tons of rock daily, 
securing therefrom an average of about 45 lbs. of fine copper per ton. The 
mineral, or crude copper from the mills, runs only 58% to 60% copper, a 
higher percentage meaning heavy losses in the flour copper that is saved now. 

The cost per ton of rock stamped has been decreased from $6.77 in the 
fiscal year 1900, to $3.51 in the fiscal year 1903. Estimated cost of copper, 
for 1904, is about 7.5 cents per pound. Under the management of James 
MacNaughton, many and vast economies have been effected, without cutting 
w^ages or lopping off a single one of the many philanthropic enterprises for 
which the company so long has been noted. The Calumet & Hecla manage- 
ment speaks by acts rather than words, having no newspaper oigans and 
feeling no need for any. As an employer, a business institution, and a 
money-making enterprise, it ranks with the greatest and best, and its mag- 
nificent past will be repeated in an equally magnificent future. 
CALUMET, HECLA & SONORA MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Erroneous name given Calumet & Sonora Mining Co. 
CALUMET MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 2 Toltec Bldg., Denver, Colo. Letter returned unclaimed from 
fonner mine office, RoUinsville, Boulder Co., Colo. Emerson J. Short, 
president and general manager. Main sliaft, lOO', said to show a 2f pay-streak 
of auriferous and ai^entiferous chalcocite assaying 25% to 40% copper. 
CALUMET MINING ft MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. S. E. Phelps, secretary. 
CALUMET & MONTANA DEVELOPMENT CO. MONTANA. 

Former office: Calumet, Mich. Dead. 
CALUMET & ONTARIO DEVELOPMENT CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Mine office, Massey Station, Algoma, Ont. 
Lands are sundry copper claims near the Hermina mine. 
CALUMET ft PITTSBURG MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Oigan- 
ised December, 1903, under laws of Minnesota, vvith capitalization $2,500,000, 
shares $10 par, fully paid and nonassessable; issued, $2,000,000. An- 
nual meeting, second Monday in April. Succeeded the Calumet ft Pitts- 
buig Development Co. Chas. Briggs, president; James Hoatson, vice-presi- 
dent; Gordon R. Campbell, secretary; Peter Ruppe, treasurer; preceding 
officers, Thomas Hoatson, Thos. F. Cole, Chas. d'Autremont, Jr., and Geo. 
E. Tener, directors; Samuel A. Pamall, general manager. Employs 60 men. 
Company has same officers and local management as the Calumet ft Arizona, 
with mainly the same shareholders,and is closely affiliated with that corporation. 

Lands, 19 patented claims, area about 300 acres, in the Warren district, 
adjoining the Copper Queen, Calumet ft Arizona, Lake Superior ft Pittsburg 
and Junction Development Co. Cost of lands was $937,451.75. 

Development is by the Briggs shaft, about 3,000^ south of the Junction 



CALUMET & PITTSBURO— CALUMET d- TEXAS. 289 

shaft and 3,000' southeast of the Lowell shaft of the Queen, both of which 
are drained by the Briggs shaft, which is 1,050^ deep, and was cut down in 
1904 to 4-conipartment size, with one compartment 5x5', one 5x11' and 
two compartments b'xifQ" each. Shaft has an 8^ air line and two 12^ water 
columns in the pipeway, with a steel gallows-frame on surface. At 910^ the 
shaft cut seams of ore, and at the bottom shows seams of cupriferous man- 
ganese ore, similar to certain deposits of the Calumet & Arizona. The 
southeast drift at the 910^ level shows GOO' of leached ore and soft material, 
and cut the tops of 3 ore bodies of 5' to 17' width, carrying 10% to 20% ore. 
A 200' diamond drill hole has penetrated considerable high-grade ore. The 
Briggs shaft is exceedingly wet, draining a lai^ge part of the Bisbee camp, 
and has 3 pumps, of which 2 are Prescotts, with combined capacity of 2,500 
gallons per minute, at a steam pressure of 150 lbs. per inch, working against 
a head of 1,500'. The Briggs shaft b to be connected with the Junction 
shaft for ventilation. 

A new shaft is said to have been decided on for the Del Norte claim. 
This would be about 2,500' from the Briggs shaft, and practically certain to 
find ore, as the Lowell developments are very favorable up almost to the 
boundary line. The Junction shaft is on the boundary line of the Calumet 
& Pittsbui^, sunk with a view to permitting extraction from both properties. 

The power plant at the Briggs shaft has 7 boilers of which 4 are of 250-h.p. 
each. Petroleum is used for fuel. Geological conditions and developments 
at surrounding properties are such as to predicate the existence of large ore 
bodies at slightly greater depth than has been reached. Company's treasury 
probably is running low, and must be replenished soon, especially in view of 
the very heavy pumping charges. 
CALUMET ft SAULT STE MARIE DEVELOPMEITT CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Mine office: Massey Station, Algoma, Ont. 
Fred Roehra, president; Wm. F. Ashton, superintendent. Has a 100' main 
sliaft said to show a 14' vein carrying auriferous chalcopyrite. 
CALUMET & SONORA MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Officer 610 First Natl. Bank Bldg., Duluth, Minn. Mine office: La 
Cananea, Sonora, Mex. Organized under laws of Minnesota, with capitali- 
zation $300,000, shares $10 par. Marcus L. Fay, president and general 
manager; Walter J. Power, vice-president; Hubert V. Eva, secretarv; Louis 
P. Swanstrom, assistant manager; James A. Dougherty, superintendent. 
Lands, 70 pertenencias, area 173 acres, in 3 adjoining groups, nearest about 5 
miles from La Cananea. Country rocks are mainly limestone and porphyry, 
with good copper outcrops, opened by 4 sliallow shafts. Main shaft shows 
some good ore, but is proving very wet. Officers are men of excellent standing. 
CALUMET ft TEXAS MINING CO. TEXAS. 

Office: Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Mine office: Carlsbad, N. M. Employs 10 
men. Organized May, 1901, under laws of New Mexico, with capitalization 
$250,000, shares $1 par. John H. Shary, president and general manager; 
Wm. Fullerton, secretary; Alfred C. Sieboth, consulting engineer. Lands, 
36 claims, area 720 acres, also 640 acres of oil lands, in the Guadalupe moun- 
tains. El Paso county, Texas, showing an ore body giving assays of 20% cop- 
per, 5% lead and 1 oz. silver per ton, with a trace of gold, from carbonate 



290 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

ores opened by tunnels of W^ 200^, 210' and 328\ Neaiest railroad, the 
Pecos Valley & Northeastern, is 64 miles distant. Test shipments of 23 
tons of ore to El Paso smelter gave returns of 19% to 24% copper. 
CALUMET & WESTERN DEVELOPMENT & MINING CO. 

Office: care of F. S. Carlton, president, Calumet, Mich. John Daniell, 
secretary ; W. B. Anderson, treasurer. Organized 1903, under laws of Arizona, 
with capitalization $6,000,000, shares $1 par, in. 100,000 shares of 7% pre- 
ferred stock and 500,000 shares of common stock. Company is an explora- 
tory, development, promotion, and investment corporation, planned to 
operatic in any section of the United States, Canada or Mexico. Present 
holdings include the Globe zinc mine, near Joplin, Missouri. 
CALUMET ft YAQXn RIVER COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: La Cananea, Sonora, Mex. Organized May, 1903, under laws of 
Arizona, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares $10 par. 
MINA CAL VERDE. MEXICO. 

Office: care of Chas. A. Green, owner, Houghton, Mich. Lands, 17 per- 
tenencias, in the Sierra de las Arrados, district of Bravos, Chihuahua, Mexico, 
showing limestone impregnated with copper stains, carbonates and oxides, 
traversed by a porphyry dike and having a heavy iron capping.^ Idle. 
CABMRIAN CONSOLIDATED MINES, LTD. WALES. 

Offices: Moorgate Station Chambers, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: 
Dolgelly, North Wales. Organized Nov. 14, 1900, with capitalization 
£30,000, par £1 ; issued, £26,667. H. Rosenway, chairman; P. C. Guy, secre- 
tary ; E. G. Woodford, consulting engineer. Lands,' 4,000 acres, canying gold, 
silver and copper, on which a little development has been secured. 
CAMBRIAN COPPER MINING CO., LTD. WALES. 

Liquidated voluntarily, 1903. 
CAMBRIAN MINING & MILLING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office: Placerville, El Dorado Co., Cal. F. Thomas, president; 
I^onard Thomas, general manager; D. R. Roberts, superintendent. Mine 
has 3 parallel veins, averaging 0' to 8' width, with gangue of talcose schist and 
lime, between diorite and serpentine, showing cuprite, malachite and sulphide 
ores, with native copper in tlie alteration zone, ores canying 8% to 16% copper 
and go(xi gold values. Mine luis considerable underground development. 
CAMBRIDGE COPPER MINING CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Formerly operated a mine near Jamestown, Guilford Co., N. C. Dead. 
CAMERON MINES. ARIZONA. 

Now owned by Canyon Copper Co. 
CAMP BIRD EXTENSION MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: Boston Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Ouray, Ouray Co., 
Colo. M. L. Thistle, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and 
copper. Has water and electric power. 

SOCIEDAD ANONIMA COBRES DE CAMPOO. SPAIN. 

Office : Santander, Spain. Mine office : De Soto, Santander, Spain. Don 
Alberto Gutierrez, president; Don Luis Torres Quevedo, secretary. Property 
is a group of copper njines, idle at last accounts. 
CAMP VERA GROUP. CALIFORNIA. 

Lands are in the Morrow district of San Bernardino county, California, 



4 



CAMP VERA— CANADIAN, 291 

Letter addressed to J. W. Rodgere, owner, Barstow, Cal., returned unclaimed. 
mnAS DE CAMPANARIO. SPAIN. 

Office: care of Don Antonio Guijarro Orta, Huelva, Spain. Mine office: 
Valverde del Camino, Huelva, Spain. Property is a group of 6 properties, 
area 87 hectareas, on which iron-K;opper sulphides are being developed. 
CAMPRODBN COPPER SYlfDICATE, LTJ>. SPAIN. 

Offices: 3, Lord St., Liverpool, Eng. Apparently moribund. 
CANADIAN COPPER CO. ONTARIO. 

Office: 12 Wade Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. Mine office: Sudbury, Algoma, 
Ont. This is the world's laigest producer of nickel, and is controlled by the 
International. Nickel Co., through ownership of nearly the entire stock issue. 
A. P. Turner, general manager. The property was discovered in 1882 and 
opened in 1886. Lands are extensive and include the Creighton mine, worked 
open-cast, now the largest producer, Stobie mine in Blezard Twp., 4 miles 
north of Sudbury, the Evans, McArthur 1 and 2, McDonald, Claraf Belle A 
and B, and other mines, in addition to the older and principal workings at 
Copper Cliff, the Copper Cliff mine being opened to the 14th level, presum- 
ably circa ],40(K. Ore is nickeliferous chalcop3rrite with pyrrhotite ganguet 
occurring as irregular lenses in basic igneous rocks, mainly greenstone and 
diorite. Ore is heap-roasted at the Copper Cliff mine and matted at the Sud- 
bury smelter, 3 miles distant. The roast-heaps contain 4,000 to 5,000 tons 
each, roasting requiring three or four months. Latterly a considerable pro- 
portion of green ore b mixed with the roasted ore in smelter chaiges. The 
product of first fusion is a matte of 30% to 35% tenor in combined nickel 
and copper, the second fusion giving an 80% matt€, which is shipped to the 
Orford works at Constable Hook, N. J., and smelted with sulphide of soda, 
by which the separation of the nickel and copper is effected, the resultant 
copper product being refined electrolytically. The ore gives average returns 
of about 2.75% copper and 2.5 nickel. 

Construction of a new smelter was begun at Copper Cliff Apr. 20, 1903, 
but the new plant was partly burned Feb. 19, 1904, after which the Mond 
smelter at the Victoria mines was used until r^uilding of the partly com- 
pleted new plant. The new smelter, of brick and steel throughout, has 
storage bins of 2,000 tons capacity, material being liandled from mines to 
smelter and at the latter by two 80-ton locomotives hauling 50-ton drop- 
bottom dump-cars. The new smelter has two furnaces of 500 tons capacity 
and a converter plant, power being almost exclusively electric, generated by 
a central steam plant, soon to be replaced by electricity from water power. 
The Huronian Company, a subsidiary corporation, is completing a powerful 
electric installation at High Falls, on the Spanish river, 4 miles north of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, with dams estimated to impound water sufficient 
to generate 11,000 horee power, eventually to be doubled. 

In smelting, the company's new' plant has taken many ideas from the 
Tennessee Copper Co. and the Mond Nickel Co. The use of mixed charges 
of raw and roasted ore is a modification of tliii new Tennessee process, while 
the Mond process will be utilized m bessemerizing the matte carrying about 
80% of combined nickel and copper. 

The operations of the company in 1904 were hampered by scarcity of 



* 



292 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

labor, as well as by the burning of the smelter. The average annual produc- 
tion of the Canadian Copper Co. has been 5,000,000 to 7,000,000 lbs. refined 
copper, and 3,500,000 to 6,000,000 lbs. refined nickel for several years past, 
but ^ould be materially greater during 1905. 
CANADIAN MINING ft DEVELOPMENT CO. MONTANA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office. Basin, Jefferson Co., 
Mont. Lands, 10 claims, showing shipping gold, silver, lead and copper ores. 
CANADIAN-AMERICAN MININO CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Lands, on Gribble Island, off the coast of British Columbia. 
CANADIAN SMELTING WORKS. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office and works: Trail, B. C. Owned and operated by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. Is the largest lead-copper reduction plant in Canada, with 
daily capacity of 1,200 tons and employs 350 men. W. H. Aldridge, general 
manager ; J. Labarth, superintendent. Is operated by electrical power brought 
about 30 miles, from the Kootenay river. Line current is 20,000 volts, 
stepped down to 550 volts at the smelter, giving a total of 1,000 h. p., in 
motors divided into 16 units. Smelter treats custom ores exclusively, brought 
from all parts of British Columbia, but principally from the Rossland district. 
Plant includes a 100-ton Gates crusher, 3 Vezin automatic samplers, Jones 
riffle sampler, 24 roast stalls, 19 calciners and three 300-ton copper furnaces, 
with automatic feed. Ore and fluxes are handled in hopper cars, drawn by 
10-h. p. electric locomotives. The first matte contains 10% to 12% copper 
only, which is granulated and roasted in two O'Harra furnaces, after which the 
calcined matte is briquetted and resmelted, averaging 50% in tenor. Works 
include a very complete lead-smelting plant, handling silver-lead-zinc ores, 
and including an experimental electrolytic lead-refinery. In 1904 these 
works treated 163,865 tons of ore, of which 131,130 tons came from the Ross- 
land district, and 4,800 tons were from the United States. Production was 
2,675 tons of gold-copper matte and 6,382 tons of silver>lead bullion. Matte 
was converted to blister copper at the Taooma Smelting Works and at the 
Greenwood works of the British Columbia Copper Co. Management is ex- 
cellent and plant is fully up'to date. 
CANANEA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO., S. A. MEXICO. 

This company, incorporated under Mexican laws, holds direct title to 
the mines of the Greene Consolidated Copper Co., the Greene company 
owning the entire stock issue of the Cananea Consolidated. 
MINA CANDEUL MEXICO. 

A property in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, the owners of which are 
said to be opening a large body of low-grade sulphide ore in a deliberate 
manner. l/ocal conditions supposed to be much the same as at the Inguaran. 
MINA CANDELARIA. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Chacala, Durango, Mex. Owned and managed by P. G. 
Dismukes, T. L. Dismukes and J. S. Wilkinson. Ores are bismuthiferous and 
carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power, Biyan mill and 6-ton 
chlorination plant. 
CANDELARIA MININO CO. MEXICO. 

Office: care of Edwin D. Morgan, president, 100 Broadway, New York. 
Mine office: San Pedro, Chihuahua, Mex. Britton Davis, general manager; 



CANDELARIA'-CANYON, 293 

David B. Smith, superintendent. Is the principal mining company of north- 
em Chihuahua, employing about 1,200 men. Lands, circa 1,700 pertenencias, 
area approximately 4,200 acres, also sundry grazing and miscellaneous lands, 
the mine tract being about ^ mile wide by 5 miles long. Principal develop- 
ment b on the-uorthem portion of mine iract, with the 7W San Pedro shaft, 
700^ Candelaria shaft, 600^ San Nicolas shaft and 500" Congreso shaft. Sun- 
dry other mines, including the Cobriza, have shafts of 175' to 350^ depth, the 
company's mines having a total of about 3,200^ of shaft development, with 
about 25,000^ of underground openings all told. 

Country rocks are porphyry, diorite and limestone, ore bodies being some- 
what erratic. The San Pedro is the oldest mine and has produced the highest 
grade ore. The Candelaria is now the largest and steadiest producer of high- 
grade ore, shipping selected ore of first grade giving average smelter returns 
of approximatdy 20% lead, 8% copper, 10% sine, 400 oz. silver and 0.5 oz. 
gold per ton. The San Nicolas produces silver-lead and copper, latter as 
chalcopyrite. The Congreso mines mainly lead carbonates. The company 
formeriy operated a copper matting furnace at the mines, hauling coke there- 
for 90 miles in wagons from Villa Ahumada on the Mexican Central Railway, 
but later a railroad was built to Judrez, opposite El Paso, where a reduction 
plant, including concentrator and smelter, was built. This plant was sold to 
the Guggenheims, and Candelaria ores now are treated at the Aguascalientes 
works oC the American Smelting &, Refining Co. The Candelaria, which is a 
dividend-payer, has an excellent managiement, both locally and in the east. 
CAHDELARIA MINING & EXPLORATION CO. MEXICO. 

Office: Colorado Springs, Colo. Mine office: Parral, Chihuahua, Mex. 
H. L. Browne, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. 
Main shaft, 150^, also a 175' tunnel. Has steam power, S-stamp mill and 
25-ton cyanide plant. Property thought to be valuable, but idle. 
CANTON COPPER MINE. GEORGIA. 

An old and idle property in Fannin county, Georgia. Main shaft, about 
300^. Ores occur as chalcopyrite impregnations in micaceous schist. 
CANTON COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine :Grandview, Coconino Co., Ariz. Jno. H. Page, president 
and general manager; H. H. Smith, secretary and treasurer; John 
Curran, mine superintendent. Organized 1902, under laws of Arizona, 
with capitalization 1600,000, shares $10 par; unissued, $504,920. Lands, 
10 claims, area 200 acres, also 10-acre millsite, in the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado river. Veins are contacts between limestone and porphyry, giving 
average assays of about 30% copper, from cuprite, melaconite, malachite, 
asurite and chalcopyrite. Property, discovered 1892, was bought by 
present owners from the Last Chance Mining Co., 1902. Produced about 
350,000 pounds of copper in 1904, from about 550 tons of ore smelted. Prop- 
erty apparently is of considerable promise. 
CANYON GOLD & COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Office: Helena, Mont. Canol & Martin, managers; A. W. Martin, su^r- 
intendent. Property is in the vicinity of Canyon Ferry, Lewis &, Clarke 
county, Montana, and is a small shipper of smelting ore averaging about 22% 
copper, with fair gold values. 



294 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

MINA CANZA. PEttU. 

Office and mine: care of A. Gariand y Ca, owners, Canza, lea, Peru. 
An old property and once a considerable producer. Numerous cupriferous 
veins in igneous rocks carry bodies of ore that are oxides and carbonates 
above and sulphides below the water level. Has 3 principal veins, opened 
to depth of 70(y on the Adelaide; 1,00(/ on the Consolador and SKX/ on the 
Tapadita, the latter having been the largest.producer in the past. 
CAP SHEAF COPPER ft GOLD CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

3aid to have copper prospects on Texada Island, British Columbia. 
SOCIETE DELLE CAPANNE VECCHIE £ ITALY. 

POGGIO BINDO. 

Mine office : Massa Maritima, Groeseto, Italy. Property is sundry ancient 
mines, reopened in 1846, since which time they have been small but steady 
producers. Principal vein is 6" to 50^ wide, ore being mainly chalcop3rrite, 
which is sorted into two grades, the first grade of 11% average tenor being 
smelted, while the second grade, carrying about 3% copper only, is heap' 
roasted and leached. 
CAPE BRETON COPPER CO., LTD. 50VA SCOTIA. 

Office: 53 State St., Boston, Mass. Mine office* Coxheath, Cape Breton 
Co., N. S. Capitalization $2,000,000. John C. Watson, president; Isaac P. 
Gragg, secretary ; J. Dorr, treasurer. Property is the old Coxheath mine and 
adjouiing lands, 10 miles from Sidney, Cape Breton, showing several cuprif- 
erous veins, of which the principal one, averaging 10' width, traverses felsite 
and diorite, carrying argentiferous and auriferous chalcopyrite in a silicious 
gangue, ore averaging about 4.5% copper. Company said to have reopen- 
ing of mines under considention. 
CAPE COPPER Cd., LTD. CAPE COLONY, NEWFOUNDLAND A NORWAY. 

.Offices: 9, Queen St. Place, London, E. C, Eng. Mine offices: O'okiep, 
Little Namaqualand, Cape Colony, and Tilt Cove, Newfoundland. Edmund 
A. Pontifex, charman; John Taylor & Sons, managers; Compagnie Francaise 
des Mines d'Or et de 1' Af rique de Sud, 20, Rue Taitbout, Paris, French agents ; 
Percy John Frank, secretary; J. L. Dean, mine manager in South Africa. 
Organized, April 30, 1888, as a reconstruction of the Cape Copper Mining Co., 
organized 1863, with capitalization £750,000, in £150,000 of 6% cumulative 
£2 preference shares and £600,000 in £2 ordinary shares; issued, £600,000. 
Dividend payments in 1901 were £224,250; in 1902 there w^as a net loss of 
£6,494, and in 1903 a net profit of £95,979 and in 1904 a net profit of £183,795. 
Dividends were 13s. in 1901, 5s. in 1903 and 8s. 6d. in 1904. Annual accounts 
arc made up to April 30 at the Cape, and to Aug. 31 in London, and sub- 
mitted in December. Separate accounts are kept for the Tilt Cove property 
in Newfoundland, which is held on a 99-year lease expiring 1989, at an annual 
rental of £4,400, plus one-half of net profits. The East mines of the Tilt 
Cove produce sulphide ores averaging 3% to 3.5% copper with small gold 
and silver values, while the West mines have much smaller ore bodies, averag- 
ing about 11% copper. Company also is interested in sundry Nomvegian 
mines and is entitled to one-half of net profits of the Briton Ferry Chemical 
Sz Manure Co., Ltd., which takes the sulphurous gases given off by the smel- 
ters of the company's works at Briton Ferry, England. 



CAPE—CAPILLITAS. 295 

Principal mines of the company in South Africa are the O'okiep, Naba- 
beep, Narrap and Spektakel. The O'okiep and SpektAkel were opened in 
1852, and the former remains the principal producer, but its ore reserves 
are growing smaller yearly, foreboding the eventual exhaustion of the mine. 
The Nababeep, opened circa 1890, produces about 7% ore. The Narrap is a 
comparatively new property. Ore is matted at the O'okiep smelter to a 
tenor of about 48% and shipped to England via Port Nolloth. The mine 
smelter is thoroughly modem in equipment, but lacks converters. The 
Namaqualand ore bodies are irrregular massive deposits of copper and iron 
pyrites, associated with basic igneous intrusions in the granite and gneiss 
country rocks. At the Spektakel ore occurs in both the granitic and basic 
intrusive rocks, while at the Nababeep the ores are intimately mixed with 
the greenstone, appearing as bunches and veins in the richer portions only. 
Ore is mainly chalcopyrite, with some bornite and chalcocite, intimately 
associated with iron pyrites and showing occasional cuprite and melaconite, 
while a little malachite, azurite and chrysocolla occur near surface, the 
average of the O'okiep ores being very high, while the Nababeep averages 
about. 5% copper only. Production of fine copper for the fiscal year 1904, 
was 2,081 long tons greater than in the preceding year. Production of fine 
copper for year 1904 was 7,675 gross tons, of which the O'okiep made 2,904 
tons, the Nababeep 2,571 tons, and, the Tilt Cove mines 2,200 tons. This 
company is an old and important producer, and is managed with great 
prudence. 
CAPE D'OR COPPER DEVELOPMENT CO. NOVA SCOTIA. 

Mine office: Cape D'Or, Cumberland county, Nova Scotia. 
CAPILLITAS COPPER CO., LTD. ARGENTINA. 

Offices: 6, Princes St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Cerro de Capil- 
litas, Tucuman, Argentina; Works office: Pilciao, Catamarca, Argentina. 
Geo. Grinnell-Milne, chairman; Nicol Brown, vice-chairman; J. G. Tait, 
secretary; J. S. MacArthur, consulting, engineer; A. Stark, mine manager. 
Organized Nov. 25, 1901, with capitalization, £600,000, sliares £1 par, in 
£150,000 cumulative 7% preference sliares, £150,000 cumulative 7% ordinary 
shares and £300,000 deferred shares; issued, £555,000. Lands are extensive, 
including the Capillitas and Atajo groups of mines and the Pilciao and Con- 
stancia smelters, bought for £95,000. Company also has sundry lands 
fairiy timbered. The Capillitas group of about 20 properties, district of An- 
dalgaU, in the eastern part of the province of Catamarca, shows 12 veins. 
Principal developments by the former owners were on the Restauradora, 
Rosalia, Carmelita, La Grande and Ortiz mines. These are being reopened 
by two tunnels under the old workings at La Grande, and by one new tunnel 
in the Restauradora. Ore from development work has averaged about 
15% copper, with good gold and silver values, being bunchy as a nile, but 
very high in grade. The Atajo mines are about 30 miles from the Capillitas, 
and have a smelter with 6 small reverberatory furnaces. 

These mines are much tlie most important in Argentina, and have been 
worked irregularly by local capital since about 1850. One of the principal 
difficulties in operation has been defective means of transport, as the mines 
are located in exceedingly rugged mountains, necessitating the shipment of 



296 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ore to smelters by packmules. The mines are 8,000' above searlevel and 
more than 6,000^ above the temporary smelters and shops at Pilciao. The 
nearest railroad station is Chumbicha, 165 kilometres distant over exceed- 
ingly rough and dusty roads. A traction engine was tried, but stuck in the 
sand. The government has promised to extend the C6rdoba Central rail- 
road to AndalgaU. To cover the worst stretch between the mines and 
smelters a single-line aerial tram has been ordered. This will be 22 
miles in length, and the longest span is to be 2,765^ and in crossing one 
valley the cable will swing 625' above the ground. The plant weighs 
2,000 tons, and is made in sections for convenient packing on muleback. 
This tramway is designed to carry 40 tons of ore houriy, at a speed of 2.5 
metres per second, cars being of 500 kilos capacity. The tram i^ill leave 
a 20-mile j^p between Pilciao and Muschaca, but the permanent smelter, 
with two 50-ton water jacket blast furnaces, b being erected at Muschaca 
Quebrada, where there is plenty of room and water. About 225 h. p. will 
be generated from the Rio AiidalgaU, and transmitted to the new smelter 
site electrically. The old Constaucia smelters, with 2 reverberatory furnaces, 
have been overhauled, and in 1903 shipped 61 tons of matte averaging 62% 
copper, 60 oz. silver and 2 oz. gold per ton. Ores smelted by present com- 
pany have averaged about 23% copper, 20 oz. silver and 15 dwts. gold per 
ton, but the grade undoubtedly will decrease with regular production. A 
considerable force is employed and development is along systematic and 
adequate lines. The property is one of great promise, and the management 
is well regarded. 
CARAHYBA COPPER MINI]fG CO. BRAZIL. 

Mine office: Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brazil. 
CARBON COUNTY GOLD MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Morgan, Carbon Co., Wyo. W. R. West, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam power and 10-stamp mill. 
CARBONATE ft LAURA WNES. COLORADO. 

Mine office: care of Hoffman Bros., owners, Crystal, Gunnison Co., 
Colo. Have gold-silver ores, carrying a little copper. Have water power. 

CARDENAS COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Absorbed by the Anita Consolidated Copper Company of Arizona. 
MINAS CARDENILLO y EL ARMADILLO. MEXICO* 

Mine office: Tuxpan, Tepic, Mexico. Fernando Diaz, owner; A. C. 
Gonzales, manager. Produce silver-copper ores. Have steam power and 
employ 50 to 100 men. 
CARIBOU GOLD & COPPER CO. IDAHO. 

Office: care of P'rank A. Putnam, Gray, Idaho. Organized September, 
1903, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $10 par, to develop claims 65 
miles southeast of Idaho Falls, in Bingham county, Idaho. Said to have 
an 8' vein, traceable 3,000'. 
CARIDAD COPPER MINING CO., LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: 20-21, Lawrence Lane, Ix)ndon, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Lozo- 
yuela, Madrid, Spain. Robert Summerside Simpson, chairman ; Geo. Thomp- 
son, secretary'; II. T. Swallow, mine manager. Organized, Feb. 15, 1899; 



C ARID AD— CARMEN, 297 

capitalization increased, 1901, to £350,000, shares £1 par; issued, £75,492. 
Liuods, 84 hectareas, including the Caridad, San Antonio and Descuido mines. 
Idle at last accounts. 
MmA CARIDAD. SPAIN. 

Office: care of Don Carlos Lacone, agent, Sevilla, Spain. Is developing 
fair-sized bodies of chalcopyrite and iron pyrites. 
CAUSA COPPER ft GOLD MINmG CO. UTAH. 

Office: Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: Mammoth, Juab Co., Utah. 
J. E. Galagher, president; H. S. Joseph, vice-president and general manager; 
Geo. Norman, superintendent. Organized August, 1901, under laws of Utah, 
with capitalization $500,000, shares $1 par. Paid dividends of $30,000 in 
1902. Lands, 7 patented claims, area 60 acres, in theTintic district, showing 
10 fissure veins in limestone, of which 3 are more or less developed, these 
giving returns up to 12% copper, 5 oz. silver and $1 gold per ton. The 
Carisa shaft is 250^ deep and the Spy shaft SOO', and the mine has tunnels of 
SOO' and 8,000^, with about 5 miles of underground openings. Has steam 
power and employs about 40 men, in addition to which portions of the mine 
are worked on lease. Production of refined copper in 1904, supposed to 
have been about 900,000 lbs., as against 660,000 lbs., in 1903. Property 
is energetically managed and new ore bodies of considerable size and 
high grade are being developed. 
CARLISLE COPPER CO. MONTANA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Butte, Silver Bow 
Co., Mont. Organized as successor to the Butte-Anaconda company, which 
did some development on the Carlisle mine in East Butte. 
CARMACK GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Arcade Bldg., Seattle, Wash. Mine office: North Bend, King 
Co., Wash. Organized 1899, with capitalization $500,000, shares 25c par. 
G. W. Carmack, president; L. O. Lane, secretary. Lands, 5 claims, on the 
south fork of Snoqualmie river, 22 miles northeast of North Bend. Has 
375' of openings, showing veins of 12^, 30* and 12', giving fair assay values 
in gold, silver, lead and copper. 
HINAS DE CARMEN. CHILE. 

Mine office: Carmen, Chafiaral, Atacama, Chile. Simon Baldivieso, 
owner; Adriano Fernandez^ manager. Lands, 15 pertenencias, area 36 
hectareas, including the Carmen, Carmela, CardUmen, Mina Nueva, Araucana, 
Quii^azo Locura, Lautaro and other mines, showing two main veins, the 
Veta Manto ranging 4 to 12 metres in width, while the minor vein is 2 to 3 
metres wide. Ores, in successive lenses along the veins, are oxides, car- 
bonates and silicates at and near surface, disseminated throughout the fer- 
n^nous gangue of the lenses. The Carmen mine shows an abundance of 
native copper at an approxixnate vertical depth of 200^. The sulphide zone, 
reached at a vertical depth of about 110 metres, shows rich altered sulphides, 
below which the ore is chalcopyrite, associated with arsenical pyrites, dis- 
seminated in iron pyrites. The Carmen, the principal producer of the group, 
is opened by 2 shafts 190 metres apart, sunk at an angle of 45^ on the vein, 
one being 85 metres and the other 190 metres in depth, both shafts being 
connected by the extensive underground workings. The other mines are 



S9S THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

opened by various shafts, several liaving underground connections \iith the 
Carmen. The mines show reserves of about 75,000 tons of ore, ranging from 
6% to 15% in copper tenor. Mine has good steam power plant, and em* 
ploys about 100 men. Production since 1895 has averaged about 6,000 tons 
of ore, averaging 10% copper, equal to about 1,325,000 lbs. refined copper 
yeariy and by reason of the new plants should be considerably increased 
for the future. 
MINAS EL CARMEN AMPLICION. MEXICO. 

Mine office : Cerralvo, Nuevo Le/^n, Mex. Marciano E. Villaneal, owner 
and manager. Ores are ai^gentiferous copper and lead sulphides. Employ 
about 40 men. 
CARMEN COPPER MINES, LTD. CmLE. 

Offices: St. George's House, Eastcheap, London, E. C, Eng. Mine 
office: Cerro Blanco, Copiap6^ Chile. Alfred Hambley Rowe, chairman; 
John Pye, secretary. Organized June 28, 1900, with capitalization, £125,000, 
shares £1 par.; issued, £75,307. Absorbed the Newfoundland Coppef Co.; 
Ltd., in 1901, thereby securing title to the Little Bay and Lady Pond copper 
mines in Newfoundland, now idle. Chilean property includes the Per- 
severancia mine, at Guanaco, Taltal, the Carmen Ba jo, in the Copiap6 dis- 
trict, the Bella Vista, Aguardos and other mineis in the Coquimbo district. 
Copiap6 properties are idle, but work is in progress in a small way on the 
other properties. 
CARNARVON ASSOCIATED GOLD ft COPPER MINES, LTD. 

~ • Registered (Guernsey) Jan. 31, 1903, with capitalization £10,000^ 
shares 10s. par. 
CARN BREA ft TINCROFT MINES, LTD. ENGLAND. 

Office: Cam Brea, R. S. O., Cornwall, England. Frank Harvey, J. P., 
chairman; T. Forster Brown, consulting engineer; John Trevethan, secre- 
tary; W. T. White, mine manager. Organized May 24, 1900, with capitaliza- 
tion £150,000, shares £1 par; issued, £127,848. Property is tin and copper 
mines at Redruth, Cornwall, formerly making nearly 1,000 tons of copper 
yearly, but present annual production averages about 30,000 lbs. only. 
GEORGE E. CARNE y OTRO. CHILE. 

Own the Buena Vista mine, in the department of Tocapilla, Chile. 
Property opened 1880; idle at last accounts. 
CARNEY MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: Norway, Mich. Mine office: Carney, Menominee Co., Mich. 
Organized 1904, under laws of Michigan, with capitalization $25,000. J. A. 
Carlson, president; J. E. Blomgren, secretary. Has an 88' shaft, showing 
ore at bottom assaying 1% to 3.24% copper. 
CAROLINA COPPER CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Office: 15 Atwater St., West, Detroit, Mich. Mine office: CuUowhee, 
Jackson county, N. C. Idle. Organized 1901, under laws of Michigan, 
with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par, fully paid. Lewis C. Waldo, 
president, treasurer and general manager; Thomas A. Cox, vice-president; 
Hugh M. McCormick, secretary and business manager; John Torel, -mining 
engineer. Lands, 1,500 acres, showing four fissure veins, said to be of 27* 
average width, carrying estimated average values of 3% copper, 4 ot. silver 



CAROLINA-CARIBBEAN, 209 

and $1 gold, ores being mainly sulphide. Property is the old Wayehutta 
mine, opened 1854^ closed 1861, devdoped by a 55' shaft and 200^ tunnel. 
CAROLINA GOLD & COPPER CO. ITORTH CAROLINA. 

Office: Salisbury, N. C. Mine offices: New London, Stanley Co., N. C, 
and Gap Creek, Ashe Co.,N. C. Employs 10 men. Organized, circa 1900, 
under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $1 par. M. M. 
Caldwell, president; £d>vin C. Gregorie, secretary; Richard Eames, Jr., 
treasurer and general manager. Lands, 350 acres, including the Parker 
mine, at New London, ores of which average 7% copper and 5% gold per 
ton, from sulphide ores, with quartz gangue. Has steam power and a 5-ton 
5-stamp mill, emplo>dng 10 men. 
CAROLINA KING MINING CO. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mine office: Virgilina, Va., Organized 1903, to take over property of 
the Copper World Mining Co., and the Danville & Virginia Copper Mining Co. 
Copper World has two shafts, deepest lOO', in a vein of fair width, showing 
chalcocite, also carbonate and oxide ores, assaying 15% to 05% copper. 
CARP LAKE MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: care of H. L. Payne, general manager, Cleveland, Ohio. Lands, 
1,087 acres. Work was begun in 1858. Is opened by shafts and adits. 
Main adit 1,250^. Had a 20-stamp gravity mill at one time. Lode is about 
r wide. Fully described in Vol. II. 
MINAS EL CARPIO. SPAIN. 

Mine -office : Cortegana. Huelva, Spaim Area, 73 hectareas. Have 11 old 
shafts. Ore, cupriferous pyrites. Property was underdevelopment by a French 
exploration company at last accounts. 
CARR MINE & COLORADO CO., LTD. COLORADO. 

Offices: 18, Leadenhall St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Central 
Qty, Gilpin Co., Colo. Geo. Paget Walford, chairman; Walter J. Webb, sec- 
retary; Stephen Hosking, manager. Capital, nominal, £150,000. Ores carry 
gold, silver and copper. Has steam and electric power and a stamp mill. 
SOCIEDAD ANONDCA MINAS DE CARRACEDO. SPAIN. 

Office: Bilbao, Spain. Mine office: VaAes, Palencia, Spain. Property 
was undergoing development at last accounts. 
CARRANZA-LAFONE COPPER MINING & ARGENTINA. 

SMELTING CORPORATION, LTD. 

Offices: 86, Leadenhall St., London, E. C, Eng. E. Learoyd, secretary. 
Organized to secure mines, build a modem smelter and develop electric 
power in the Capillitas district, Rioja, Argentina. Apparently moribund. 
CARRERAS HERMANOS. BOLIVIA. 

Office and mine: Coro Coro, La Paz, Bolivia. Mine is opened on two 
successive strata of cupriferous conglomerates; see article on Bolivia for de- 
tails. Production, about 400 tons of 75% copper mineral yearly. Only native 
copper is mined, and the product, as barillas de cobre, is shipped through Moll- 
endo, Peru, for refining. Employs 150 to 200 men. 
CARIBBEAN MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: Holyoke, Mass. Mine office: Ophir, San Miguel Co., Colo. Chas. 
E. Newton, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Haq 
water power and 20-stamp mill 



300 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

BOCtSDAD D£ MIHAS y FUlfDICIONES DB CARRIZAL. CHILS. 

Offices: 1, Laurence Pouatney Hill, London, E). C, Eng., and Catedral 
2489, Santiago de Chile. Mipe office: Carrizal, Gopiap6, Atacama, Chile. 
Samuel Gonzalez-Julio, chairman; Daniel Gonzalez-Julio, vice-chairman of 
Chilean board; Mark Clegg, chairman, and Herbert J. Page, secretary, of 
London board. L. Tirapegui, secretary, in Santiago; Wm. H. Martin, general 
manager. Organized June, 1808, under laws of Chile, ^ith capital $2,100,000, 
shares $100 par, fully paid and issued. Dividends paid: 1898-99, 72%%; 
1899-1900, 14%; 1900-1901, 6.5%; 1901-1902, 6-5%. Operations for fiscal 
year ending March 31, 1903, showed a loss of $114,840. Lands, 4 groups, in 
various parts of the Carrizal district, province of Atacama, Chile, including 
the C^iaflarcitos mine, in the department of Freirina, opened in 1857, and 
making about 1,800 tons of refined copper yearly; the Bronces, main shaft 
408^, opened 1881, at Jarillas Transito, Vallenaro, Atacama; the Amarilla, 
main shaft 417', opened 1867, at Cerro Blanco, Chanarcillo, Copiap6; the 
Astillas, main shaft 260^, opened 1878, in the Carrizal district, and the Armo- 
nia and Santa Margarita mines, of the famous Carrizal Alto group, at Carrizal 
Alto, Freirina, Atacama. Company has a 100-ton smelter at Chaflarcitos. 
The ores are dressed up to 12 to 15% before taking to the smelter, and the 
product, a matte of 45% to 50% in tenor, b shipped to Wales for refining. 
CARRIZAL SHARE TRUST, LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 1, Laurence Pountney Hill, London, IT. C, Eng. Owns stock in 
the Sociedad de Minas y Fundiciones de Carrizal. 
MINA CARRIZO. MEXICO. 

Office* care of Kent E. Keller & Co., owners, 711 Missouri Trust Bldg., 
St. Louis, Mo. A prospect, about 11 hours' horseback ride west of Autlan, 
Jalisco, Mexico. 
CARTER COPPER CO. VIRGIlflA. 

Name changed, 1903, to ManassafrCtap Copper-Mines. 
GUILLERMO CARVALLO. CHILE. 

Operates the Fundicion de Llallai mine, in the department of Quillota, 
Chile. Mine opened 1900, and makes the equivalent of 500 tons of fine 
copper yearly, shipped as matte. 
CASA GRANDE COPPER & GOLD MUflirG CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Chicago, 111. Mine office: Casa Grande, Pinal Co., Ariz. H. E. 
Bagley, superintendent. Property is the Jack Rabbit mine, carrying gold and 
silver, with small copper values. Has steam power. 
CASA GRANDE MINING & SMELTING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 66 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Casa Grande, Pinal Co., 
Ariz. Organized June 14, 1902, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization 
$5,000,000. F. W. Pope, president ; J. Douglass Taitt, secretary ; H. H. Doug- 
lass, treasurer. Lands, 165 acres, 28 miles south of Casa Grande. Main 
shaft 150^. A mere stock-robbing device, put out with aid of a lying pro- 
spectus by that notorious gang of "mining'' sharpers, Douglass, Lacey & Co. 
CASCADE COPPER CO. WASHINGTON. 

Said to be developing by tunnel on silver-lead ores, in the Horseshoe 
Basin, Washington. 



CASCADE— CASTLE DOME. 301 

CASCADE COPPER MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA* 

Office: Victoria, B. C. Property is on Uchucklesit Harbour, Albemi 
division, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Has an 8' ore body said to 
give average assays of 19.6% to 28.3% copper from chalcopyrite, with about 
$1 .50 in gold and silver per ton. A shipment of 150 tons to a Tacoma smelter, 
in 1904, gave net returns of $22.40 per ton. 
CASCADE COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 1246 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, III. Mine office: Encampment, 
Carbon Co., Wyo. Jas. Barrell, president; H. H. Rand, vice-president; Jas. 
Jay Smith, secretary and treasurer; Hiero B. Herr, general manager. Prop- 
erty is developing. Company declines to give out information as to its work 
and finances, which is a mistake if the company is honest. 
CASCADES COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Capitalisation $1,250,000, 
shares $1 par. John T. Baker, president; W. S. Russell, secretary. Lands, 
15 claims, including the Pasadena and High Five groups about 7 miles from 
Encampment, opened by a lOO' shaft showing a 20^ vein, and a 900^ tunnel, 
cutting two smaller veins. 
CASCADIA MINING & DEVELOPMENT CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 1 Canterbury Bldg., Portland, Ore. Lands, 16 claims, area 
320 acres, including the Polar Star and Minnie Lee groups, on the north 
fork of ihe Toutle river, in the Mt. St. Helens district of Washington. The 
Polar Star shows 32^ of ore, opened by a 35' shaft, and a 600^ tunnel opens 
a 2^ to 5' vein, assaying 10% to 30% copper, 8 os. to 70 oz. silver and $3 
to $11 gold per ton. The Minnie Lee group, 4 miles distant, has about 500^ 
of shaft and tunnels, showing goldnulver-copper ore of concentrating grade. 
CASH MINE CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Oroom Creek, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Harrington Blauvelt, 
general manager. Ores, opened by two shafts, carry gold, copper, silver 
and lead. Has steam power and lO-stamp mill, employing about 40 men. 
CASH MINING & MILLING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Gold Hill, Boulder Co., Colo. S. Z. Hoyle, superintendent. 
Ores cany gold, silver and copper. Has steam power. 
CASHIER GOLD MINING & REDUCTION CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Central City, Gilpin Co., Colo. B. L. Campbell, superin- 
tendent. Lands include the Brooklyn and adjoining claims, showing gold, 
silver and copper ores. Has steam power and employs about 25 men. 
CASTELLANOS y CA. CHILE. 

Operate a small mine in the department of Combarbala, Chile, pro- 
ducing about 75 tons of bars and matte yearly. 
MINA CASTILLO DE BUIIRON. SPAIN. 

Owned by Compafiia del Ferrocaril y Minas del Buitron. 
CASHE dome EXPLORATION ft REDUCTION CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Tucson, Ariz. Capitalization $500,000, shares $10 par. Chas. 
F. Flack, secretary and treasurer; B. L. Worthen, president; Jas. H. Bennett, 
general manager. Lands, 17 claims, aiea 320 acres, 18 miles north of Gila 
City, Yuma county, Arizona, from which occasional small shipments have 
been made to smelters in San Francisco during the past 25 years, these rang ■ 



302 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

ing 37% to 52% copper; 50 to 70 oz. silver and $8 to $20 gold per ton. De- 
velopment is by 10 open cuts, and shallow shafts, deepest only 80^. Property 
shows a wide mineral zone carrying ore bodies in schist, with a porphyry 
contact to the north and quartzite and limestone to the south. Company 
plans sinking a 300' shaft to tap the sulphide zone, and building a small 
smelter. 
CASTREJON HERMANOS. KEXICO. 

Own copper properties in the Huacana district of Ario, Michoacan, Mex. 
CATALINA COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: Bisbee, Ariz. Organized February, 1904, with capitalization 
$500,000, shares $10 par. T. J. Wyatt, J. M. Johnson and D. H. Hobbs, 
directors. Lands are about 30 miles south of La Cananea, in the Arizpe 
district of Sonora, Mexico. 
CATALINA COPPER MINIKG CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 4 State St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Tucson, Pima Co., Ariz. 
Employs 15 men. Chas. H. Rollins, treasurer; Francis M. Hartman, general 
manager. Organized under laws of West Virginia with capitalization 
$600,000, shares $2 par. I^ands, 15 claims, area 300 acres, also a 30-acre 
millsite, in the Old Hat district, property including the Silver Reef mine 
showing numerous contact veins between limestone and quartzite, of which 
one, under development, has 15' average width and is opened to a depth of 
SOO', also by a tunnel, giving average assays of 6% copper and $2 gold per 
ton, mainly from chalcopyrite. Company has worked a small force steadily 
for several years, securing considerable development, but lacks the rail 
communication necessary to permit profitable operation upon a considerable 
scale. Officials well regarded, and property considered promising. 
SOCIETE DES MINES DE CUIVRE DE CATEMOU. CHILE. 

Offices : 50, Blvd. de la Senne, Brussels, Belgium and 50, Blvd. Haussmanu, 
Paris, France. Mine 'office: Nilgue, Putaendo, Chile. Employs 1,200 men. 
Organized June 2, 1899, under laws of Belgium, with capitalization 5,000,000 
francs, shares 500 francs par, divided into 10,000 8% preference shares 
and 35,000 founders' shares of no nominal value. Debentures, 2,500,000 
francs authorized, at 5%; issued, 1,070,000 francs. Achille Adam, president; 
Max Lyon, managing director; Guillaume Waters, secretary; C. H. Macnutt, 
general manager ; A. Golmann, smelter superintendent ; Y. R. Starkey, engineer. 
I«ands, 151 claims, with miscellaneous lands giving total holdings of about 
30,000 acres, in the Putaendo, La Ligua, Melipilla, Los Andes, Quillota 
and Nilgue districts. Mines include El Cobrc de Melon mine, in the Quillota 
distffct, opened 1886; El Nilgue mine, in the department of Putaendo, opened 
1886, and Las Maquinas de Catemd mine, opened 1870, also in the depart- 
ment of Putaendo. Miscellaneous properties include the Mantos mine, 
opened 1820; Salado mine, opened 1841; La Esmerelda mine, opened 1860 
and El Soldado mine, latter all developed by tunnels. Country rock is 
mainly trachyte, showing contact and fissure veins, some 35 ore bodies of 
different nature and sizes being under development, carrying an average 
of 3.5% copper and 2 oz. silver per ton, from carbonate, and oxide ores 
near surface, and chalcop5rrite, bomite and chalcocite at comparatively 
slight depths. Mines were worked many years by the old Chilean methods. 



CATEMOU— CAUCASUS. 303 

but are being developed and operated systematically by the present company. 
Mines, being devdoped mainly by tunnels, are without artificial power 
equipment, but the mills have 225 h. p. and smelters 170 h. p steam plants, 
A 60-ton concentrator was completed late in 1904. The smelter, which is 
one to five miles distant from the various mines, receives ore by carts and 
aerial trams. Smelter has 150 tons daily, having two 75-ton rectangular 
wateivjacket blast furnaces and five cylindrical 57x77^ converter shells. 
New smelter, of greatly increased capacity, was near completion at the close 
of 1904. Blast furnaces turn out matte of 45% copper tenor, which is con* 
verted to 99.5% blister copper, carrying an average of 32 oz. silver per metrid 
ton. Property b served by the Chilean State Railway. Fuel used is bitu* 
minous coal for the mines and concentrator, costing $9 gold per ton, and 
coke costing $16 gold per ton, at the smelter. Production of copper was 
1,345 metric tons in 1903 and about 1,900 tons in 1904. New furnaces are 
36x96^ and 36x120^ water-jackets. Property has an abundance of ore 
averaging about 3.5% copper, and company plans to increase production 
to about 3,000 tons of refined copper yeariy. 

CATARACT COPPER MmiNG CO. MOITTAIIA. 

Office : 390 The Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. Mine office : Cataract, Jefferson 
Co., Mont. Capitalization $2,500,000, shares $5 par. Carl S. Weidinger, 
president; 8. B. Vrooman, vice-president; Marcus L. Hewett, second vice- 
president and general manager; Otis K. Newell,* secretary; O. Beigstrom, 
smelter superintendent. Lands, 22 claims, are in the Cataract district, about 
30 miles from Helena, showing argentiferous and auriferous chalcopyrite, said 
by the company to average 2.29% copper, 19 oz. silver and $7.60 gold per 
ton. Lands include the Buckeye, Gray Eagle, Bullion, Cataract, Yellow 
Gambler, Timbuctoo and Goldbug properties, opened by 4 tunnels, of which 
No. 3 on the Bullion claim has a length of 2,300^, mines having a total of about 
lOfOOO' of underground openings. The Buckeye mine is said to show a vein 
with 4' of shipping ore and 16' of concentrating ore. Property has shipped 
about 4,000 tons of various smdters, securing average returns of nearly $25 
per ton. A 300-ton smelter, guaranteed by company to be in operation July 
1, 1903, was blown in just one year later. This has a 300-ton Colorado Iron 
Works water-jacket blast furnace, with blast heated to 800^ F. in ''U " stove. 
The smelter is 8 miles from Basin, near the mine, and very poorly located for 
econoniical receipt of fuel and fluxes. The mine has laige bodies of low-grade 
ore, and the future of the property seems uncertain. The promoter, M. L. 
Hewett, is said to have made individual profits of $75,000 from the sale of 
the company's stock. 
CATARACT COPPER HIIfING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 1246 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111 Letter returned unclaimed 
from former mine office. Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Organized under 
laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,250,000, shares $1 par. James 
Barrell, vice-president; James Jay Smith, secretary and treasurer. Lands, 
124 acres, developed by several shallow shafts. Company refuses to furnish 
information. 
CAUCASUS COPPER CO., LTD. RUSSIA. 

Offices: 3, Bond Court House, Walbrook, London, E. C, Eng. Mine 



304 THt: COPPER HANDBOOK. 

office: Dzansul, Kutais, Russia. Vivian H. Smith, chairman; John Tripp, 
secretary; J. Stanley James, consulting engineer. Property is 6 groups, 
known as the Dzansul co^^r and silver mines, in the Muigne Gorge, Artoin 
district, government of Kutais, Russian Caucasus. Organized Oct. 4, 1900, 
with capitalization £500,000, shares £1 par. Considerable development 
has been secured and the company estimates 2,000,000 tons of ore in sight 
averaging about 3.5% copper, with small gold and silver values. Ore is 
chalcopyrite with a silicious gangue, said to occur in a manmioth lense 80 
to 150 metres wide and about 300 metres long, opened to a depth of 50 metres, 
with slight development at an adjacent point on an ore body that may or 
may not prove to be a continuation of the main lense. Property, formerly 
known as the Dzansulski Works, made 505,568 lbs. refined copper in 1899, 
under former ownership and produced 1,946,360 lbs. refined copper for 
fiscal year 1904. Operations have proven very disappointing, owing to 
a variety of causes, among which have been peculiar notions of the RussiaD 
authorities and troubles with the reduction of the ore, which slimes badly 
when concentrated, and is so high in siiica and deficient in iron that heav^' 
fluxing is necessary, in a district where fluxing ores are secured under diffi- 
culties. Plant includes a 300-ton smelter and the Wetherill magnetic sep- 
aration process is to be tried. Management is excellent, and property, not- 
withstanding the drawbacks enumerated, is regarded as valuable and likely 
to make a large and profitable mine in time. 
MINA DO CAVEIRA. PORTUOAL. 

Mine office: Grandola, Portugal. Owned by Crookson & Hawkins. A 
new property, in process of development. 
CEDAR FOREST GOLD & COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 534 Bradbury Bldg., Los Angeles, CaL Mine office: Kingman, 
Mohave Co., Ariz. Organized August 27, 1903, under laws of Arizona, with 
capitalization $600,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 9 claims, area 180 acres, near 
headwaters of the Big Sandy river, said to show a 25' vein carrying gold and 
copper. Advertisements of company prove that its promoters either are 
dishonest, or else totally ignorant of copper mining. 
CEDAR VALLEY GOLD & SILVER MmiNG CO. ARIZONA. 

Mipe office : Cedar Valley, Mohave Co., Ariz. Phillip ?. Baker, superin- 
tendent. Lands include the Arnold, Silver Queen and other claims. Ores 
carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power and 15-6tamp mill. 

COMPANIA MHIERA EL CEDRO. MEXICO. 

Mine office Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Vincente Gonzales, 
manager. Has steam power and is a producer of gold and copper, employing 
about 50 men. 
CENTENNIAL MINE. COLORADO. 

Office and mine: Georgetown, Clear Creek Co., Colo. David Kennedy, 
general managers; S. G. Evans, superintendent. Lands, about 1 square 
mile. Has cupriferous gold and silver ores in a 30* paystreak opened in 
1903, assaying up to 24% copper, 5 oz. to 150 oz. silver and 3 oz. to 5 oz. 
gold per ton. Has steam power and employs about 20 men. 
CENTENNIAL BINGHAM MINE. UTAH. 

Succeeded by South Columbus Mining Co. 



CENTENNIAL— EUREKA, 905 

CBNTEHlflAL-EUREKA MmiNG CO. UTAH. 

Offices: 4, Postoffice Sq., Boston, Mass., and 508 Dooly Bldg., Salt Lake 
City, Utah. Mine office: Eureka, Juab Co., Utah. Practically entire stock 
issue is held by United States Mining Co. R. D. Evans, president; F. W. 
Batchelder, secretary and treasurer; A. F. Holden, managing director; C. £. 
Allen, superintendent. Oiganized 1876, under laws of Utah, with capital- 
ization $5,000,000, shares $25 par; issued, $2,500,000. Has paid dividends 
of more than $2,500,000. Ores carry silver, gold, copper and lead. Has 
steam power and concentrator, emplo3ring 150 to 200 men. 
CEHTEHIIIAL COPPER MDIINO CO. MICHI6AK; 

Office: 60 State St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Calumet, Mich. Or- 
ganized 1896, under laws of Michigan, succeeding the Centennial Mining Co., 
with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par; issued, $2,250,000. Last 
assessment was $4, in 1904, making stock $16.77 paid in. Annual meetings 
are in April. H. F. Fay, president; Geo. G. Endicott, secretary and treasurer; 
James Chynoweth, superintendent; preceding officers, John C. Watson, 
Wm. Howell Reed and Stephen R. Dow, directors; John Pentecost, mining 
captain; Alonzo Nicholas, chief clerk; G. A. Goodell, engineer; Alex. G. An- 
drews, master mechanic. 

Official returns to the state of Michigan, as to date Jan. 1, 1904, disclose 
the following figures. 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $1,150,000. 00 

Entire amount invested in real estate 249,457. 01 

Amount of personal estate 137,459 . 96 

Lands, 660 acres, being Section 12, Town 56 North, Range 33 West, also 
a triangular patch of about 20 acres at the southeastern comer of the main 
tract, bought to secure the outcrop of the Kearsarge lode. The first devel- 
opment work was done in 1863, by the Schoolcraft Mining Co., which failed 
to open a paying mine, and was reoiganized, 1876, as the Centennial Mining 
Co., and again reoiganized, 1896 with present title. Expenditures of up- 
wards of $1,500,000 were made, mainly by the old company, in unsuccessful 
efforts to open a paying mine on the northern extension of the Calumet 
conglomerate. Seven shafts, 3 of considerable depth, were sunk on this bed. 
No. 3, the deepest, being bottomed at 3,200^. Work on this lode was suffi- 
ciently extended to fully demonstrate the worthlessness of the Calumet 
conglomerate on Centennial property. The Centennial lands are in the great 
mining oamp of Calumet, and are available for building purposes. Two 
additions have been platted and the lots sold at good prices. Only surface 
rights are sold, mineral being reserved by the company. 

The present management wisely abandoned the conglomerate shafts in 1897, 
after a few months' efforts, and deepened two shallow shafts on the Osceola 
locfe. These are 7x12^ inside of timbers, sunk at angle of 38^ and are 1,050^ 
and 1,150^ in depth respectively. Upon securing the 20-acre tract carrying the 
outcrop of the Kearsarge lode, which underlies the Centennial's entire square 
mile of territory, the work of development was begun in September, 1899. 
Owing to the narrow width of the tract secured from the Osceola company, 
it was necessary to develop in a peculiar manner, by two shafts, "A" and 
B, " which are but 90^ apart at a surface, and continue parallel on the dip 



ti 



306 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

pf the lode until the 13th level, when the Centennial's main tract is reached, 
after which "B'' shaft diveiges from ''A'' at an angle of 15° on the plane of 
the lode, 3(Xy being taken by a curve to secure the diveiigence of 15°. This 
plan of opening gives short drifts untU the shafts enter the main Centennial 
tract, after which length of openings is gained rapidly with depth. At the 
close of 1904 "A" shaft was 2,825' and "B" shaft 1,800' in depth. Each 
s^iaft is 7x18' inside of timbers, with three compartments, and sunk at an 
angle of 39° with the horizon. The overburden is about 100' and the amyg- 
daloid averages 15' to 18' in width. Fair copper values were obtained in 
^he first few levels, after which a comparatively barren zone was penetrated 
until the 14th level was reached, after which came gradual improvement. 
The 25th and leveb below show excellent copper ground, with many good 
stopes. The upper leveb of " A '' shaft, partially caved in by surface seepage, 
have been completely retimbered, and the mine now has nearly 5 miles of 
underground openings. ''A" shaft has 5-ton skips and can be sunk on the 
lode 12,000' before reaching the boundary line. "B" shaft was holed 
through to surface in 1904. ''A" shaft has a 32x72'' Nordberg duplex- 
cylinder hoist with double conical drum, good for 6,000' depth, and "B" 
has an old hoist taken from No. 6 conglomerate shaft, good for 2,000' depth, 
to be replaced later by a Sullivan straight-face duplex hoist with duplex 
cvlinders and 14' drum of 15' 6^ face, good for one mile depth. 

Owing to the close proximity of the shafts, rendered necessary by the 
peculiar conditions that gave the company merely a right-of-way into the 
main tract, but one rockhouse is required, this being at "A" shaft. Tlie com- 
bination shaft-rockhouse at ''A,'' built 1903, b of wood frame, covered with 
corrugated iron, having 3,000-ton rockbins. The rockhouse has 18x24*^ rock- 
crushers and is connected with ''B'' shafthouse, 90' distant, by trestle, with 
mechanical haulage for loaded and empty tram-cars. 

The engine-house is of stone, as is the compressor house, 32x46', which 
has 35-drill Nordberg and 18-drill auxiliary air compressors, and a Dean jet 
condenser in the basement. The boiler-house, 54x58', has four 125-h. p. Burt 
locomotive firebox boilers, and a brick-lined self-supporting steel smokestack 
7' in diameter and 125' high. A 16x46' frame pumphouse with corrugated 
iron roof has a fire-pump, fire-hose and hose-carts. The combination machine 
shop and smithy is 50x108', with redstone walls and steel truss roof, fitted 
with traveling cranes and a full complement of sliop and blacksmithing tools, 
and has a railroad track running from end to end. The carpenter shop is 
36x50' and the warehouse is 30x40' in size. A new office building b 30x40', 
and the miners' change-house b 25x50', with hot and cold waters, lockers^ 
etc. The company also has a large number of substantial dwellings for em- 
ployes and the surface plant b one of the best, both in plan and equipment, 
to be found in a dbtrict where good plants are the rule. The mine b serted 
by the Copper Range and Mineral Range railroads, connecting with the com- 
pany's private rail line. 

The old single-head mill at the mine, having survived its usefulness, was 
sold and dismantled in 1904, and the Arcadian mill, at Grosse Pointe, Portage 
Lake bought in 1904 for a price understood to be $296,(NX), with two years 
time in which to pay for it. The millsite is of 406 acres, \\\i\\ water frontage 



CENTENNIAL— CENTRAL CHILL 307 

cf l^i miles and afUple room to waste all sands, and has a nimiber of good 
dwellings for the use of employes. The mill is 132x124' in size, of 
steel, and has 3 Nordbeig stamps, with foundations in for 3 more heads. 
There is a 15,000,000 gallon Nordberg pump, auxiliary machine shop, smithy, 
etc. The foundations under the heads were found in bad shape, and a neW 
12^ concrete foundation was given one head, which was rebuilt and com- 
pounded, giving it a daily capacity of about 700 tons. The mill has a whait 
running 675' into deep water, end is fitted with modem coal hoists and a good 
coal-shed. The intake of the pump was extended several hundred feet into 
deeper water. 

The mill begun stamping, with the remodeled head, July 5, 1905. The 
stockpiles at the mine were milled, in addition to the rock produced from 
stoping, and the mill has treated an average of nearly 400 tons daily, securing 
therefrom about 10 lbs. fine copper per ton, giving a production of 
only 641,294 lbs. for 1904, from 6 months' work. The operations of the 
past 6 months have shown several things quite plainly, among these being the 
incapacity" of the mine to furnish an ample supply of selected rock. The 
lower levels give rock probably averaging 15 to 20 lbs ingot per ton, but the 
average is sadly reduced by the poor returns from the lean rock of the up- 
per levels. More openings are needed, and a $4 assessment will be levied 
early in 1905. This money is necessary, although the call will be very 
distasteful to shareholders, and only by greatly increasing the underground 
openings, thus permitting a better selection of rock, can the average returns 
be brought up to a profitable point. 
CENTRAL ARIZONA MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office. Williams, Coconino Co., Ariz. Rounseville & Hardesty, 
owners; E M. Hardesty, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. 
Has gasoline power. 
CENTRAL BLACK HILLS COPPER CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Office: 701 New England Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. Mine ofiice: Custer, 
Custer Co., S. D. £. M. Barnes, president and general manager; L. M. Char- 
train, secretary; H. H. Francis, superintendent. Organized July, 1902, 
under laws of South Dakota, w^ith capitalization (1,500,000, shares $1 par. 
Lands, 30 claims, area 600 acres, also a 40-acre millsite and miscellaneous 
lands giving a total area of 720 acres, in the Pennington district, showing sun- 
dry veins, of which two of 18' average width, opened by shafts of 85' and llO' 
and tunnels of 42^ and 225', are contacts between slate and quartzite, giving 
average assays of 6% copper, 2 oz. silver and $4 to $200 gold per ton, from 
azurite, malachite and chalcopyrite. Ore is expected to average about 3% 
copper in actual treatment. Has a 200-h. p. steam plant and power drills, 
concentrator with 2 crushers and 4 jigs and 100-ton leaching plant, planned 
to turn out cement copper. Also has a sawmill. Purposes driving tunnel 
on ledge about 1,200^ and installing a 6-drill air compressor in 1904. Com- 
pany's officials are men of good standing and the property shows large bodies 
of low-grade ore that gives promise of successful treatment by lixiviation. 
CENTRAL CHILI COPPER CO., LTD. CHILE. 

Offices? 15, Angels Court, London, E. E., Eng. Mine office: Panulcillo, 
Ovalle, CoQUimbo, Chile. Eugene A. J.. Goldschmid, chairman; Henry B. 



308 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Greenwood, secretaiy ; Count B. de St. Steine, general manager. Registered Jan. 
11, 1898, as a second reconstruction of the Panulcillo Copper Co., Ltd., with 
capitalization £300,000; issued, £276,248; debentures, £19,298, at 4%. This 
company and its predecessors have worked the Panulcillo mines since 1894. 
Group includes the Panulcillo and San Gregorio, at*Panulcillo, and the Inago- 
table^ Cociuera and Condesa mines at Huamalota Sataqui, Ovalle. The mines 
are all small, except the Panulcillo, which has a 120-ton smelter, employing 
about 650 men and producing about 1,600 tons of refined copper yearly, 
partly from custom ores. Mines are said to show reserves of 250,000 to 
300,000 tons of ore ranging 3% to 7% in copper tenor. Production for 1902 
was 1,571 long tons fine copper, for 1903 was 1,602, and for 1904 was 2,254 
tons. Prospects of company seem improving. 
CENTRAL GOLD & COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Mineral Hill, Donna Ana Co., New Mexico. 
LA GRAN FUNDICION CENTRAL MEXICANA. MEXICO. 

Office and works: Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico. 
CENTRAL MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 15 William St., New York, N. Y. Joseph E. Gay, i)re8ident; 
J. Wheeler Hardley, vice-president; John Stanton, secretary and treasurer; 
F. McM. Stanton, agent. Mine, in Keweenaw county, Michigan, was opened 
1854, on a fissure vein, and closed down 1898, after paying dividends of 
$1,970,000. Diamond drill borings giving a complete cross-section of the 
extensive lands of the company show 3 amygdaloidal beds carrying a little 
copper. An experimental plant, built to rework the extensive tailings of the 
old mill, did not prove commercially successful, and has been abandoned. 
CENTRE STAR MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Rossland, B. C. £. B. Kirby, manager. For year ending 
September 30, 1903, made net earnings of $265,000, of which the sum of 
$195,000 was used in liquidating previous indebtedness. Mining costs 
were only $1.97 per ton, a low record for the Rossland district. For 1904, 
production was 77,892 tons of ore, averaging $7.75 in gross smelter values, 
with average assays of 0.72% copper, 0.35 oz. silver and 0.36 oz. gold per ton. 
Mine is extensively developed, having done 2,701' of new opening work in 
1904. The high-grade ores of upper workings have been almost exhausted^ 
and present ore bodies, while laiige, are low in grade. Ore reserves, Dec. 31, 
1904, are estimated at 50,000 tons, with an average smelter value of $8 per 
ton. 
CENTURY MINE. ONTARIO. 

Office: care of Foster & Black, Sudbury, Ont. Location, Graham Twp., 
Algoma, Ont. Assays give 7% to .13% copper, and from a trace to $26 
gold per ton. 
CERESIER MINE. FRANCE. 

Was the principal copper producer of France, when working, but has 
been idle for some years. 
CERMA DEVELOPMENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Calumet, Mich. Organized, 1903, to develop a group of 47 claims 
in the Huachuca Mountains, Cochise county, Arizona. Probably idle. 



CERRO DE PASCO. 309 

CERRO COPPER CO., LTD. PERU. 

Offices: 1| Laurence Pountney Hill, London, E. C, Eng. Wm. Henry 
Watts, chairman; Herbert J. Page, secretary. Capital, nominal, £101,000. 
Organized to acquire claims in the Cerro de Pasco district of Peru. 
CERRO DE PASCO MmiNG CO. PERU. 

Office: 15 Broad St., New York. Peruvian general office: Lima, Peru. 
Mine office: Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Organized June 6, 1902, under laws of 
New Jersey, with capitalization $10,000,000. Control supposed to be owned 
by Jas. B. Haggin, Pierpont Morgan, H. McK. Twombley and others, of 
New York. Alfred W. McCune, general manager, Lima, Peru; A. E. Welby, 
superintendent of railroad, Oroya, Peru; Jas. MacFarlahe, superintendent 
of mines, Cerro de Pkisco, Peru; Frank Klepetko, consulting engineer. New 
York; C. H. Repath, assistant consulting engineer; W. F. Blackford, chief 
engineer; John J. Case, smelter superintendent. Lands, about one square 
mile, comprise about three-fourths of the rich Cerro de Pasco district, and 
are said to have been acquired at a cost of about $2,650,000. Tract is in a 
compact body, the surface showing many "tajos," caves remaining from 
ancient open-cast workings. The lands lie in a basin, hence tunnelling is 
difficult, the only important opening of this sort being the Rumaillana tun- 
nel. The company also owns extensive coal lands, north of the copper 
mines, the coal being bitiuninous and coking well. 

Silver was discovered at Cerro de Pasco in 1630, and the production of 
the district to the close of the Nineteenth Century is estimated at 450,000,000 
ounces, secured from about 40,000,000 tons of silver and copper ore, nearly 
all extracted by hand labor and carried 3 to 6 miles on the backs of llamas 
to primitive smelters, from whence the silver bullion was transported by llama 
200 miles to Lima, until circa 1870, when the railroad was completed to Oroya. 

The Cerro de Pasco district is located 14,300^ above sea-level, rendering 
physical labor very fatiguing. The population of the town is variously 
estimated at 5,000 to 20,000. The surrounding country is bleak, and all food 
and supplies must be brought in from considerable distances. The year is 
divided into two periods, the wet and dry, the wet season being from Novem- 
ber to April. The summers are not hot, owing to the great elevation, and the 
winters are not cold, owing to the low latitude. Snow and hail fall at any 
time, sunmier or winter, but rarely remain as long as 48 hours, even in 
winter. The fluctuation between mean simmier and winter temperatures 
is about 20^ Fahrenheit, only. 

Authorities disagree hopelessly as to the geology of the district. All 
that can be said with certainty is that in an area approximately one mile 
wide and between one and two miles in length there is ore on nearly every 
claim, proving the Cerro de Ptoco one of the richest mineral deposits of the 
globe. The ores carry gold, silver, copper, cobalt and other metals, values 
being found in two zones, the upper carrying mainly silver, in quantities from 
a few ounces to thousands of ounces per ton, in decomposed quartz. Con- 
aderable gold is found in the upper zone, this running as high as 1 to 2 oz. 
per ton, occurring in rich but erratic chutes. The silver values usually extend 
to a depth of about 100', followed by silver-copper ores and at a little lower 
depth by copper-flil\'er ores. All of the copper ores are more or less argenti- 



310 THE COPPER HANDBOOK 

• 

f^rous, being estimated to average 15 to 35 oz. of silver per ton, and practi 
cally all, of the copper ore is bismuthiferous also, hence highly refractory 
in- reduction. In the past only the richest copper ores have been worked, 
those shipped ranging from 25% to 40% in tenor. Claims advanced that 
t^e ores of the district will average 25% copper are entirly unwarranted, 
as the high-grade ore shipped was carefully hand-selected, owing to excessive 
transportation charges. The copper ores grow leaner with depth, as in other 
districts, and values below the permanent water level, at about 250^, seem 
somewhat uncertain, though indications favor the existence of lai^ge and 
permanent sulphide ore bodies of good grade. In but few cases have any 
oi the old mines been opened to depth of more than 200^, while the great ma- 
jprity are less than lOO' in depth. The company is sinking 5 two-compart- 
qient shafts, and there are 3 drainage tunnels in the district, the only one of 
importance being the Rumaillana, begun by Henry Meiggs in 1887 and dls- 
opntinued at a distance of 1,000' because of his death. Meiggs held a con- 
cession from the Peruvian government for 25% of the gross values extracted 
by mines drained through this tunnel. This concession is now held by a 
company, which has cleaned out the old heading and driven the tunnel to 
length of 1,466'. There is a possibility of litigation between the Cerro de 
Pasco and this corporation in case the latter completes the tunnel. The ore 
in sight in the district was estimated at 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 tons in 
1899. 

There are a few small copper matting furnaces, with a daily capacity of 
perhaps 250 tons, in the Cerro de Pasco district. The company's new smelter, 
9. miles south of the mine, on the main railroad line, is of 1,000 tons daily 
capacity, and is equipped w ith two blowing engines for the converters, each 
capable of compressing 24,000 cubic feet of free air per minute to a pressure 
of 17 lbs. per inch, and to be operated by 1,500-h. p. Nordberg engines, also 
five 350-h. p. blast furnace blowing-engines with capacity to compress 30,000 
cubic feet of free air to a pressure of 2.5 lbs. per inch. For general power 
purposes there will be two 475-h. p. Nordberg engines, direct-connected with 
350-kw. generators. The furnaces and much of the machinery are sup- 
plied by the Allis-Chalmers company, and the boilers, of 4,000 aggregate 
h.p., are of Babcock & Wilcox make. 

The mine is served by the Cerro de Pasco Railway, building by the Cerro de 
Pasco Railway Co., closely affiliated with the Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., 
under a government concession. This line runs about 80 miles from Cerro 
de Pasco southward to Oroya, and is to be extended northward to the com- 
pany's coal mines. Including the main line, spurs and sidings, it wiU have 
about 125 miles of track. The company is said also to have under consider- 
ation the extension of this line past the coal mines, through a very rugged coun- 
try said to be rich in copper and silver. The line will have an average grade 
of 1.5%, with a maximum grade of 3% and will cost upwards of $2,000,000. 
At Oroya connection is made with the Central Railway of Peru, running 130 
miles to Calla6. In this distance the line, which cost $43,000,000, gains 
nearly 3 miles vertical elevation, reaching the highest altitude of any railroad 
on the globe, after surmounting almost incredible obstacles. 



CERRO DE PASCO—CERRO MURIANO, 311 

Wages are 25c. to 50c. per day for natives and $2.50 to $4 per day for 
white labor. The native labor is said to be tractable and fairly efficient. 

Owing to the great distance of this property from other copper centers, 
its magnitude and promise have been somewhat exaggerated, and many 
misleading articles have appeared in print, these being, however, in no wise 
ascribable to the management, which has no stock for sale and does not court 
publicity. The Cerro de Pasco property is one of great size and exceptional 
promise, but there are many and serious obstacles in the way of making 
it a large and successful mine. Some of these difficulties have been overcomei 
while others are in process of elimination, and the balance probably will be 
conquered in the future, as the company has great financial strength and its 
principal shareholders are men of long and successful experience in mining. 
Tlie actual work in aU departments is in the hands of thoroughly competent 
and experienced men. 
SOCIEDAD CERRO DE PASCO. PERU. 

Supposed to be Peru\dan title of the Cerro de Pasco Mining Co, 
CERRO DE PASCO TUNITEL & MINING CO. PERU. 

Office: 45 Wall St., New York. Organized Aug. 8, 1902, under laws of 
Maine, with capitalization $12,000,000, shares $10 par, half in 7% cumulative 
preference shares and half in common shares. A. B. Rawls-Reader, president; 
H. N. Carter, treasurer; E. Rawls-Reader, secretary. Lands, 196 hectareas, 
about lialf in the Yauli district and half in the Acari district, latter 37 miles 
from Lomas. Supposed also to hold an option on the Rumiallana or Meiggs 
drainage tunnel in the Cerro de Pasco district. Company claims to expect 
t) produce about 3,000 tons of ore daily, "when all macliinery is installed." 
CERRO MURIANO MINES, LTD. SPAIN. 

Offices: 6, Queen St. Place, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Man- 
riques 9, C6rdoba, Andalusia, Spain. Employs 100 to 150 men. Wm. 
Frecheville, cliairman; John Taylor & Sons, managers; F. H. Williams, 
secretary; Richard E. Carr, British vice-consul at C6rdoba, superintendent; 
Joseph Tamblyn, mine superintendent. Organized May, 1903, with capital- 
ization £125,000, shares £1 par, 5s. paid. Lands, 314 claims, freehold, 
area 776 acres, 10 miles northeast of C6rdoba, showing sundry old mines, 
which were worked to depth of at least 400' during the Roman era, not- 
withstanding their wetness. Property shows 6 large and several small 
fissure veins in micaceous schists, diorite and quartzite, carrying chalcopy- 
rite and iron pyrites, with a gangue of calcite, quartz, clay and country 
roct.' Veins have widths of 1' to 40', with following lengths: Calavera, 
1,635'; Excelsior, 635'; Lorenzo, 4,575'; Isabel, 5,550'; Cerro Muriano, 8,500'. 
Ore taken from old Roman workings has assayed 28% to 34% copper. Main 
shafts are 300 metres apart, the Santa Victoria having 646' depth and San 
Rafael 574', former shaft cutting the vein at 130 metres and 160 metres, 
ultimately passing through the vein, still in old workings, at 177 to 195 
metres. The San Rafael has crosscuts at depth of 100, 132 and 154 metres, 
each level showing a vein of 5 to 13 metres width, with the better portions 
worked out by the Romans. The San Rafael shaft has been enlarged knd is 
the main pumping shaft. Mines have a 1,'OOO-h.p,' steam plailt, with 2 hoists 
and'a 5-drill Walker air compressor. This 19 one bf the largest and moat 



312 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

interesting of the old Hispano-Roman mines, and was famous before the 
Christian era for the high quality of copper and brass produced from its 
ores, but was entirely idle for some 2,000 years until reopened by the present 
owners. 

CERRO VERDE MHIE. MEXICO. 

Bfine office: San Javier, Sonora, Mex. C. C. Rountree, owner; W. M« 
Kiddie, superintendent. Is developing by shaft and tunnel. 
SUCESION CERVERO. CHILE. 

Office and mine : Petorca, Aconcagua, Chile. Operates the CabUdo mine, 
opened 1886, producing the equivalent of 800 tons refined copper yearly, 
shipped as matte. Also owns the following old mines at Nipa and Coligue; 
Montoya, opened 1855, developed by 900^ tunnel; Castillo, opened by 400^ 
shaft; Quisco, opened by 300^ shaft, and Cuevas, opened by 120^ shaft. Em- 
ployed about 250 men, at last accounts. 

CEIUa UNE. ITALY. 

Near Pisa, in the Volterrano district of Italy. A comparatively new 
mine, with occurrence and nature of ore similar to the Montecatini. Is a 
small producer of copper. 

CHALCHmUITES lONES CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 288 Garside St., Newark, N. J^ Mine office: Chalchihuites, Zac- 
atecas, Mexico. £dw. H. Jones, president; C. C. Hamer, secretary; B. W. 
Farris, general manager. Lands, 192 pertenencias, including the San Nicolas 
mine, carrying oies of gold, silver, copper and lead. Is opened by shaft, 
equipped with steam power and employs about 40 men. 
CHALLEHGE MINE. MICHIGAN. 

Owned by St. Mary's Mineral Land Co. 
CHAMPION COPPER CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 27 State St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Painesdale, Houghton 
Co., Mich. Employs 800 men. Organized December, 1809, under laws of 
Michigan, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $25 par. Entire stock issue 
u owned jointly by Copper Range Consolidated Co. and St. Mary's Mineral 
Land Co. Wm. A. Paine, president; Arthur 0. Stanwood, vice-president; 
Frederic Stanwood, secretary and treasurer; preceding officers, Samuel L. 
Smith, Clias. H. Paine, Geo. P. Gardner and Richard Olney, directors; Dr. 
Lucius L. Hubbard, general manager; R. R. Seeber, engineer; John Broan, 
mining captain; M. J. Harrington, clerk; F. G. Coggin, mill superintendent; 
R. H. Leach, assistant mill superintendent; John Mackay, superintendent 
of motive power; W. E. Campbell, master mechanic. Dividends were 
$300,000 in 1903, and $200,000 in 1904, the company closing the year in 
very strong financial position. The Champion Copper Co., holds $44,000 
stock of the Michigan Smelting Co. 

Official returns to the state of Michigan, as of date Jan. 1, 1904, disclose 
the following figures* 

Amount cash paid in on capital stock $1,475,000.00 

Amount paid in by conveyance of property to company . . 1,025,000.00 

Entire amount invested in real estate i,025,613.94 

Amount of unsecured or floating debt 462,954. 12 

Amount due corporation 11,859.80 



CHAMPION. 313 

Lands, 1,240 acres, consisting of the south half of Section 30; west hiQf 
and north half of northeast quarter and southwest quarter of northeast quarter 
of Section 31, Town 54 North, Range 34 West; southeast quarter of Section 
25 and east half of Section 36, Town 54 North, Range 35 West, practically 
all on the mineral belt. Neighbors of the Champion are the Copper Range 
and Trimountain on the north; lands of St. Mary's company and Hussey, 
Howe & Co. on the east ; Hussey-Howe lands and the Globe property on the 
south, and the Copper Range tract on the west. The tract gives a distance 
of 8,960' on the strike of the lode, and at the present angle of dip the deepest 
shaft can go down 18,950^ before reaching the company's boundary line on 
the west. 

Development was begun in the spring of 1899, under direction of Dr. 
Hubbard, and 3 parallel amygdaloids were uncovered by trenching, one of 
which, the Baltic lode, showed phenomenal copper values. The two amyg- 
daloids paralleling the Baltic lode show copper in sufficient quantities to 
render their future exploration advisable. A fourth amygdaloid, about 15' 
wide, discovered east of the Baltic lode in 1901, carries heavy copper to a 
promising extent, and there also is a fissure vein of arsenical ore, apparently 
algodonite, near "C" shaft. The width of this vein at surface is slight, 
and mineral contents variable, but on the second level the fissure is 2' wide 
and well mineralized. 

The dip of the Baltic lode at the Champion is about 70**, with about the 
same strike as at the Trimountain, rather than the exaggerated easterly 
trend noted at the Baltic mine. The bed runs 13' to 45' and averages 24' 
width, carrying more epidote than at the Trimountain and Baltic. The 
surface of the tract is very hilly, but the overburden in less than is found 
either to the northward or southward. The stretches of lean ground in the 
mine are few, and the lode carries heavy copper in profusion, mostly in barrel 
size, but running up to masses of 10 tons in weight. The mine had 29,132' 
of drifts at the end of 1904. Only about 15% of the rock broken is dis- 
carded, and the rock milled returns about 28 pounds of refined copper per ton. 

The Champion lias four shafts, numbered from north to south, with 
room for four more. Locations of these shafts and depths on Jan, 1, 1905, 
were as follows: "B" shaft, the northermost, is 1,835' south of the Trimoun- 
tain line, with collar 635' ^bove mean water datum of Lake Superior and is 
963' deep; "C" shaft is 1,050' south of "B", 616' above the lake and 886' 
deep; "D" shaft is 1,300' next south, 621' above the lake and 1,012' deep. 
"E" shaft is 1,300' next south, 3,900' north of the boundary line of the 
Globe tract, and is 1,104' deep. "A" is merely a site for a possible 'shaft. 
All four shafts are connected on the upper leveb, with other connections 
driving. The lode has so little poor ground that in all likelihood nearly 
every drift will be driven from end to end of the mine, giving the longest 
average levels ever opened in any Lake Superior property if not in the world. 
The Champion, by virtue of its exceptionally regular values, permitting long 
drifts on every level, is peculiarly adapted to power haulage and the instal- 
lation of underground electric traction is now under consideration. The 
only poor showing made in the mine was at "E" shaft, where the ground 
was disturbed and carried little copper on the second and third levels, but 



314 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

became quite regular and well mineralized on and below the fourth level, 
and at the present depth is showing some of .the very best ground opened 
anywhere in the mine. The mine has some stopes that are phenomenal 
for width and richness, probably carrying as much copper per running foot 
as the best average stopes of the Calumet <& Hecla. 

The shafts have duplicate combination shaft-rockhouses, 40x50' on 
the ground, each with steam liammer for heavy copper, one 12x15^ and two 
18x24'' crushers, engines and storage bins, except that ''D" shaft has three 
of the larger size crushers. Each shaft has a hoist good for 1,500^ depth, 
and at ''D" sliaft a new hoist is being installed, this being a Nordben; with 
24x60^ duplex cylinders and double conical drum, good for a depth of 3,000^. 
Tiie engine house at ''D" is of mine rock with redstone trimmings and the 
boiler-house adjoining has a battery of Burt locomotive firebox boilers. 

The principal mine buildings are of steel and sandstone, located about 
a quarter mile south of ''E'' shaft in the ra\dne across from the point where 
"F" shaft was started, but abandoned because of a treacherous overburden. 
This ravine has been dammed, impounding about 12,000,000 gallons of water 
for boilers, the dam being 30^ from hardpan foundation to crest, with a cement 
core 5' at the bottom and 2' at the top, reinforced by rock. The machine 
shop, 60x144', of sandstone with slate roof, has a traveling crane and trolley 
rail for its entire length and is equipped with a complete line of shop tools, 
power being supplied by a 30-h. p. electric motor. Standing beside the 
machine shop, and also of red sandstone, is the 50x128' smithy, which has a 
trolley rail for handling forgings running the entire length of the shop. Both 
machine shop and smithy have railroad tracks connecting with the Copper 
Range road. The carpenter shop, of wood with iron roof and siding, is 
32x60' in size. 

The main compressor building, at "F" shaft, is of steel, housing a 
100-drill quadruple expansion two-stage Nordbcrg air compressor, with 
capacity to compress 9,120 cubic feet of free air per minute to a pressure 
of 70 lbs per inch. The compressor operates at a steam pressure of 280 lbs. 
and has a regenerative feed-water system. Power is furnished by three 
250-h. p. Geary water-tube boilers. Tlie delay in delivering this big com- 
pressor proved very awkward for the mine, which had grown far past the 
air power then available. At "B" shaft is a 40-drill cross-compound 
two-stage Ingersoll-vSergeant air compressor with vertical receiver intercooler. 
The electric light plant b in the main compressor building. A coal bunker at 
"F" shaft has railroad tracks on trestles, with a tunnel below each trestle, 
coal b^ing drawn, as required, through hatches into hopp>er cars in the tunnel, 
these passing over an inclined track into the boiler-house, saving much 
lat)or in the handling of fuel. There is an automatic telephone system, 
with 30 stations connecting the principal buildings and a numl^er of pump- 
stations underground. The annual coal consumption, at mine and mill, 
is a>)out 20,0(N) tons. 

The company owns a good office building, two miners* changing houses, 
warehouses, stables, three large boarding houses and 244 substantial dwellings. 
The townsite, an unusually attractive one for a mining camp, is called Paines- 
dale, and in addition to the company's buildings has a hotel, schoolhouse and 



CHAMPION. 315 

Aevenil business houses. The Sarah Sai^eant Paine memorial library, a 
handsome red sandstone structure costing $30,000, was erected by Wm. A. 
Paine, president of the company, as a memorial to his mother and is much 
appreciated by the company's employes. The water system, serving the 
mine and town jointly, has a 1,000,000-gallon electric pump at Lake Perreault, 
4^ miles distant, and a 200,000-gallon steel stand-pipe on high ground 
near the mine. 

The stampmUl, at Freda, on Lake Superior, about 2 miles west of Red- 
ridge, is 178x215' in size, of steel and concrete, built by the Wisconsin Bridge 
& Iron Co., with an 88' addition building for 2 more stamps. At present 
there are 4 Nordberg heads, each with a 15' concrete foundation, and the 
wa8lut>oms have cement floors. The mill has 40 Overstrom concentrating 
tables, and Hodge graduated adjustable-speed jigs having plungers to work 
simultaneously or alternately in pairs. All heads were cross-compounded 
in June, 1903, being the first stamps to which the principle was applied, 
and during the summer months of 1903 the heads crushed 42 tons of rock 
for each ton of coal burned — ^a new low record for the district. Regrinding 
of raggings is done by AUis-Chalmers crushing rolls, having one roll in a 
fixed bearing and one with a spring adjustment. Each head has two settling 
tanks, the first 8' square and 3' deep, with "V" bottom, connected by a 
fan-sliaped apron with the second tank 16' square with a ''W bottom. 
Velocity of flow of slimes b 10 feet per second in first and only 1' per second in 
the last tank. Pulp is withdrawn through spigots at the bottom of each 
tank. The mill is to conduct careful experiments in breaking rock by 
crushers and rolls, with a view to lessening the present losses through sliming. 

The mill is heated by hot water from a Green fuel economizer, piped at 
300^ to 350^ Fahrenheit to a steel-clad, chamber, whence heated air is drawn 
into ducts by a blow^er and distributed through the mills, the water being 
pumped back to the economizers and thence fed to the boilers. The steel 
boiler-house has five 250-h. p. Springfield boilers of Scotch type and four 
200-h. p. Stiriing boilers, with Green fuel economizer, Detroit automatic 
stoker and Sturtevant blower. Coal is brought to the boilers by gravity 
tram and reduced to uniform size by a grinder before fed to the grates, while 
ashes are washed into the lake through a launder by jets of water. Exhaust 
steam passes through dry condensers, thence to a hot-well, from which water 
is fed into the boilers at a high temperature. 

The 40x60' steel pumphouse, with truss roof and traveling crane, houses 
a 20,000,000-gallon triple expansion Nordberg pump. Water for the mill 
and boilers comes from Lake Superior through a tunnel 1,020' long, the 
shore end ha\ing a well with bottom 8' lower than the lake level, this being 
the longest tunnel ever driven under Lake Superior. The intake crib has a 
free area of 45 square feet, and with a second crib the tunnel could furnish 
water for 8 to 10 stamps. The water cost was about 1^ cents per ton of 
rock stamped in 1903, somewhat under the average of the district. The 
tailings from the mill average about 0.25% copper only. The mill has a 
private telephone system, machine, carpenter and blacksmith shops, ware- 
houses, fire-pump and water mains with 5 hydrants, and there are about 
20 dwellings for employes at the millsite. 



316 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

The Champion has been admirably handled from its inception, and is 
proving one of the richest and largest among Lake Superior mines. Pro- 
duction was b.egun with one leased stamp in 1902, and the property's steady 
growth is shown by the following figures of production: 4,165,784 lbs. 
fine copper in 1902; 10,564,147 lbs. in 1903, and 12,212,954 lbs. fine copper 
in 1904. But for serious delay in receiving the new compressor and a four 
weeks' strike, the 1904 production would have been laiger, and 1905 will 
show a material gain, while 1906 should show a very laige increase in output. 
The amount of refined copper secured is 27 to 28 lbs. per ton, placing the 
Champion secured only to the Wolverine among the Lake Superior amygda- 
loid mines. Rock shipments, averaging about 1,650 tons per day, will be 
increased to about 2,000 tons, early in 1905. 
CHAMPION COPPER MINniG CO. IDAHO. 

Mine office: Mullan, Shoshone Co., Idaho. Lands, sundry claims on 
Stevens Peak, 4 miles south of Mullan, opened by a fiOO' tunnel on a vein 
ranging up to 25' width, carrying chalcopyrite assaying about 5%, with 
quartz and calcite gangue. 
CHAMPION GOLD ft COPPER MINING CO. 

Office: California Blk., Tacoma, Wash. 
CHAMPLAIN MINING CO. IDAHO. 

Letters returned from former mine office. Doniphan, Blaine Co., Idaho. 
MINA LA CHAPARRITA. SPAIN. 

Mine office: Nerva, Huelva, Spain. A group of 11 old mine openings, 
area 106 hectareas. A little copper is produced by cementation from the 
mine waters. 
CHAPPELL MINE. VIRGINIA. 

Controlled by Howard Mining Co. 
CHARLOTTE ft CONSTANCE MINES. NFW CALEDONIA. 

Mine office: Bonde, New Caledonia. These properties show large out- 
crops and have been described by the French authorities as mountains of 
ore, but it cannot be learned that any serious attempts at development 
have been made. 
CHARM ft COPPERHEAD GROUPS. UTAH. 

In the Drum Mountain district of Utah, sometimes known as the Busby 
ft Clive properties. The Charm group is said to have considerable ore blocked 
out and to carry good values in copper and gold. 
CHARTER OAK COPPER BRITISH COLUMBIA ft WYOMING. 

MINES, LTD. 

Offices: 16, Victoria St., London, S. W., Eng. Mine office: Saratoga, 
Carbon Co., Wyo. Sir H. Seton-Karr, M. P., chairman; T. Toten Willcox, 
secretary; J. B. Hassett, mine manager. Oiiganised June 22, 1898, with 
capitalization £40,000, shares £1 par; issued, £28,957. Lands include two 
properties in British Columbia, also 84 acres and 5-acre millsite in the Upper 
Platte district of Carbon Co., Wyo., latter showing 2 fissure veins averaging 
12^ wide, and carrying oxide and sulphide ores giving assays of 4.5% copper, 
2 oz. silver and $4 gold per ton. Main shaft, 488', with 750^ of underground 
openings. Former development was misdirected, shaft being sunk at right 



CHARTER OAK-^HETICAMP. 317 

angles to the vein. Has steam power. Said to plan resumption of mining 

at the Wyoming properties. ^ 

CHASE CREEK COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Clifton, Graham Co., Ariz. Capitalization $5,000,000. 
Clarence K. McComick, president; H. G. Smith, treasurer; S. S. Campbell, 
manager;!. N. Stevens, superintendent. Lands, 52 claims, area 1,040 acres, 
well located next to producing mines. Development is by a 6x8' tunnel 
of about 600^, on lands adjoining the Longfellow mine. Tunnel cut the 
Longfellow ore body of concentrating grade at a distance of 493', and can 
be driven to obtain a 2,000^ back. Tunnel has a single track, practically 
reaching the Coronado Railroad, which will allow advantageous shipments. 
Management is good and property is regarded as promi ing. 
CHATHAM COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office : Silver City, Grant Co., N. M. J. W. Carter, assignee. Lands 
include the Virginia mine in the Burro Mountains, and a smelter at Sil- 
ver City, blown in May, 1904. 
CHAUTAUQUA MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: Jamestown, N. Y. Mine office: Manvel, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 
CHAVEZ MINE. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office : Riley, Socorro county, New Mexico. A prospect. 
CHELAN COPPER CO. WASHINGTON. 

Said to own the Texas Jack copper claims, in Upper Horseshoe Basin, 
Washington. Vein claimed to be 30^ between walls, in places, w^ith pay- 
streak of about 20^ canying copper and silver values. 
CHELAN TRANSPORTATION ft .SMELTING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Chelan, Chelan Co., Wash. R. D. Johnson, general manager. 
Has an electric line to the Holden mine, and is completing a 300-ton smelter. 
Has contracted to smelt 200 tons daily for the Holden. 
CHENIUS FALLS COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Fairfax, Pierce Co., Wash. Incorporated July, 1902, with 
capitalization $1,000,000, by F. C. Robinson ct al, of Spokane, Wash. Lands, 
2 claims on the Chenius river, about 7 miles from Fairfax. 
CHETICAMP COPPER CO., LTD. NOVA SCOTIA. 

Office: Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mine office: Cheticamp, Cape Breton, 
N. 8. Organized 1904, under laws of Nova Scotia, with capitalization 
$2,000,000, shares $1 par. J. J. Stewart, president; John W. Regan, sec- 
retary-treasurer; W. H. Strachan, auditor. Is the successor of the Eastern 
National Copper Co. Lands, 150 acres, held under government lease expir- 
ing IdSO, also 200 acres of mill and smelter sites, and 200 acres miscellaneous 
lands, including water frontage at Cheticamp Harbor. Country rocks are 
micaceous schists, showing ores carried in a mineralized zone about 375' iq 
width by 1}^ miles in length, carrying estimated average values of 3.5% 
copper; 4oz. to 6 oz. silver and $2 to $4 gold per ton, mainly from 
sulphide ores, with oxides and carbonates near surface. Deepest opening is 
90^ and a laige amount of ore has been exposed. Company plans extensive 
underground development and installation of steam and air power and a 
small trial concentrator during 1905, and also may test ground by diamond 
drill. Management good and property regarded as promising. 



318 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CHEWELAH COPPER CO. WASHINGTON. 

Ottice: care of J. H. Long, president, Spokane, Wash. 8. D. Domer, 
secretary. Said to be developing sundry copper claims, presumably in vicinity 
of Chewelah, Stevens county, Washington. 
CHEWELAH COPPER KING MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine ofRce: Chewelah, Stevens Co., Wash. Has a 1,300' main tunnel, 
with about 3,500^ of underground openings, showing ore assaying $14 to 
$40 per ton, mainly in copper. 
CHIAPAS MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Offices: 35 Queen Victoria St., London, £. C, Eng. Mire office: Teapa, 
Tabasco, Mexico. C. G. Hale, chairman; Don P. Maldonado, managing 
director; Wm. J. Oates, mine manager; G. A. V. Narraway, liquidator. Or- 
ganized April 26, 1889, with capitalization £252,500, shares £1 par; issued, 
£233,061. Preference dividends in arrears since September, 1899, two years 
arrears having been paid in 1903. Lands, about 50 acres, including the 
Santa F^ mine, producing gold, silver and copper. Main shaft, 200^ ; tunnel, 
1,560^. Has water power, 30-stamp mill, 100-ton concentrator and 75-ton 
smelter. Production in 1903 was 168,050 kgs. of copper.^ Is being wound up. 
CmCAGO-ALGOMA NICKEL CO. ^ ONTARIO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Sudbury, Algoma, 
Ont. Lands are opened by shafts, showing cupriferous and nickeliferous 
pyrrhotite. Idle. 
CHICAGO ft ARIZONA MINE. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Dos Cabezos, Cochise 
Co., Aziz. Thos. D. Chattman, president; P. B. Soto, secretary-treasurer. 
Capitalization $200,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 210 acres. Has an ore 
body, apparently of good size, giving assays of $7 to $20 per ton in copper, 
silver and gold. Property said to be under bond to John Brockman. 
CHICAGO-BRinSH COLUMBIA MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Office: Chicago, 111. Mine office: Greenwood, B. C. Organized 1901, 
with capitalization $2,000,000, shares $1 par. Wm. L. Springer, president; 
Nicholas Kuhnen, treasurer; Geo. W. Raithel, secretary; H. H. Shallen- 
berger, manager. Lands, 177 acres, about midway between the Granby and 
British Columbia mines, opened by a 165' 2-compartment vertical shaft, with 
75' of crosscuts, exposing good ore. Has steam power and 6x8^ Jenckes hoist. 
CHICAGO COPPER CO. COLORADO. 

^ Mine office: Salida, ChafTee Co., Colo. Chas. Peck, manager. Lands, 
7 claims, on which development work has shown ore giving good assays. 
CHICAGO COPPER REFINING CO. ILLINOIS. 

Office and works: Blue Island, Cook Co., Ills. Company has a small 
smelter and makes a specialty of refining copper ores rich in gold and silver, 
and also handles copper ores and mattes containing platinum and other rare 
metals. 
CHICAGO ft KOOTENAY MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Ivctter returned unclaimed from Hall, Yale A Cariboo district, B. C. 
CHICAGO-LA SAL GOLD ft COPPER CO. UTAH. 

I-rf^tJer returned unclaimed from former mine office. La Sal, Grand 
county, Utah. 



CHICAGO— CHILL AGOE. 319 

CHICAGO MllfmO ft MILLIlfG CO. UJAH. 

Office: care of Fred T. McGurriii, secre:Ary, Salt Lake City, Utah. Or- 
ganized 1904, with capitalization $150,000, shares $1 par. Thos. Keeley, 
president. Lands, include the Wild Bill group of claims, in Beaver county, 
Utah. 
CHICAGO mCKEL CO. ONTARIO. 

Owns prospects in Drury Twp., Algoma district, near Worthington, 
Ont., showing coppcr-nickel-iron ores. Idle at last accounts. 
CHICAGO ft PATAGONIA COPPER ft GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Nogales, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz. Organized January, 
19(M, with capitalization $250,000 by Joseph Korzeniewski, et al, of 
Chicago. Lands, probably in the Patagonia district. . 
CHICAGO-VENTURE MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Idle. Robt. H. 
Young, president and general manager; S. A. McCoy, secretary and treas- 
urer. Organized 1901, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, 
shares $1 par. Lands, 5 patented claims, area 100 acres, showing 2 fi..sure 
veins in limestone, near a grano-diorite contact, of which one, averaging 
15' width, is developed by shafts of (KK and 200* and tunnels of 50' and 60'. 
CHICAGO ft YELLOW METALS MINE. WASHINGTON. 

Lands, about 20 claims, showing gold copper ores, on the extension 
of the Norway-Sweden-Denmark belt, in the valley of the North Toutle 
river, near Mt. St. Helens, Washington. 
CHILCAT GOLD ft COPPER CO. ALASKA. 

Lands, 168 claims, on Big Salmon river, near Haines Mission, Alaska. 
J. K. CHILD ft CO. BOLIVIA. 

Office and mines: Coro Coro, La Paz, Bolivia. Pirm operates mines of 
native copper in the conglomerate strata of Coro Coro. Annual production 
is about 600 tons of barillas de cobre (unsmelted copper mineral), averaging 
about 80% in copper tenor. Employ about 200 men. 
CHILE COPPER SULPHATE SYNDICATE, LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 101, Leadenhall St., London, E. C, Eng. J. E. G. Hadath, sec- 
retary. Lands are leased to Capaquire Copper Sulphate Co., Ltd. 
SOCIEDAD CmLENA DE FUNDICIONES. CHILE. 

Office: Santiago de Chile. Mines and works office: Tongoy, Ovalle, 
Chile. Operates the Tongoy mine, opened 1860, making about 700 tons of 
refined copper yearly; also the Guayacan mine, opened 1856, and producing 
about 800 tons annually. Has smelting plants at both mines, these buying 
custom ores also, and employs several hundred men. 
SOCIEDAD UNION MINERA CHILENA. CHILE. 

A Chilean company, operating the Condesa and Union mines, at Cobija, 
Tocopilla, Antofagasta, Chile. 
CHILLAGOE BLOCKS. (NO LIABILITY.) AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: 47, Queen St., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Mine office: 
Herberton, Queensland, Australia. W. W. Nicholas, chairman; Thos. RoU- 
oson, secretary; W. L. Archer, mine manager. Capital, nominal, £250,000. 
Property is sundry claims in North Queensland, showing tin and copper ores. 



320 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CHILLAGOE COPPER PROPRIETARY, LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Dissolved December 26, 190^. 
CHILLAGOE RAILWAY ft HONES, LTD. 'AUSTRALIA. 

ReorgiCnized as New Chillagoe Railway & Mines, Ltd. 
CHIPPEWA COPPER MINmG CO. WISCONSIN. 

Reoi^anized as the Corona Copper Mining Co. 
CHIRICAHUA DEVELOPKENT CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: Marquette, Mich. Mine office: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
Oiiganized 1903, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $200,000, shares 
$10 par. Nathan M. Kaufman, president; Samuel R. Kaufman, secretary; 
Jas. H. Knowles, general manager; preceding officers, Thos. F. Cole and 
Wm. G. Rice, directors. Lands, 23 claims, area 460 acres, operated by 
former owner, Capt. Thos. Bums, as a silver mine, until taken over by present 
company, April, 1903. 

Development is by tunnel and shafts. The 750' crosscut tunnel tapped 
the ledge at a depth of 280^ by a 100' winze sunk 700' from the portal. The 
ledge in the tunnel shqws about 50' of leached ore, apparently the apex of 
a good sulphide ore body. The 400' Mars shaft b sunk at an incline, running 
under a heavy gossan capping of 150' to 200' width, passing through lime- 
stone much disturbed and showing leached ore in the upper part, and at the 
bottom considerable chalcopyrite assaying 2% to 4% copper. About 3,000' 
distant from the Mars is the 3-compartment vertical Planet shaft, about 400' 
in depth, and drifting on the fourth level to intercept the ore body en- 
countered in the Mars shaft. Machinery equipment includej two 2,000' 
double-drum Lake Shore hoists, two 150-h. p. boilers, 20-drill air compressor, 
power drills, pumps, etc., with necessary mine buildings. Nearest railroad 
is the El Paso & South westeni, at Rodeo, 16 miles distant, which will build 
to the mine when assured tonnage to warrant construction. The manage- 
ment of this company is composed of experienced and successful mining men, 
and developments are of a very promising nature, geological conditions 
being much the same as at Bisbee, which is the nearest copper camp. 
MINAS LA CHIRIPA y ANEXAS. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Zimipdn, Hidalgo, Mex. Leon Lamaire y Ca., o^iners. 
Ores carry silver, lead and copper. Employ about 100 men. 
CHITTNA EXPLORATION CO. ALASKA. 

A New Jersey corporation, address not learned. Property claimed 
is the Nicholai group of native copper claims, on the head waters of the 
Chittna river. Copper River district, Alaska, about 185 miles inland from 
Valdez, and the Bonanza group, claimed also by the Alaska Copper & Coal 
Co., and the Copper River Mining Co., with property actually held by the 
Alaska Copper & Coal Co. 
CHLORIDE GOLD MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Chloride, Mohave Co., Ariz. L. Hoffman, manager. Ores 
carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power. 
CHOIX CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 43 Exchange PI., New York, N. Y. Business office: 516 Grant 
BIdg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Choix, Sinaloa, Mexico. Idle. 
R. A. Thomas, president; Thos. E. Metcalf, vice-president; J. R. Thomas, 



CHOJX—CIENGUITA. 321 

secretary; J. A. Mackechnte, general maiiager. Organized May, 1905, 
under laws of Mexico, with capitalization $5,000,000, shares SI par; un- 
issued, $1,878,458. Lands, 471 pertenencias, area 1,177.5 acres, also several 
mill and smelter sites in the Choix district of Sinaloa and the Urique district 
of Chihuahua. Shipments of 1,062 tons of ore* December, 1900, to Febru- 
ary, 1902, inclusive, to the Aguascalientes smelters, gave returns ranging from 
19.5% up to 28% copper, with gross values of $127,915.44 and net values 
of $47,940.61. Lands are on both sides of the Fuerte river, and on the 
line of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient R. R., now being built to Topolo- 
bampo, and at present only 30 miles from the mines. Ore bodies are said to 
measure from 50^ to 300^ in width, occurring as contacts between porphyry, 
diorite and limestone. Also has some gold mines, occurring as fissures 
in granite and quartzite. Properties include a number of antiguas and 
when the railroad is completed to the mines, they should be able to produce 
to advantage. Ore shipped 1900 to 1902 was packed on burros to Topolobam- 
po, and sent thence to Guaymas by steam, thence by rail to Nogales and 
El Paso and "thence to the smelters at Aguascalientes, a distance of nearly 
2,000 miles, notwithstanding which a good profit was secuved. Lands are 
owned outright, and the company is free from debt. Property apparently is 
one of much promise. 

COHPAilA MniSRA y BEIIEFICIADORA MEXICO. 

DE METALES DE CHOIX. 

Mine office: Choix, Sinaloa, Mexico. F. A. Mendoza, manager. Oper- 
ates Los Planatos mines, producing copper and silver 
CHOTA NAGPUR MINES. INDIA. 

At Chota Nagpur, Bengal, India. Were worked in very ancient days. 
Ore occurs as chalcopyrite, disseminated in schistose rocks. A local com- 
pany did a little development work on the property, circa 1902-1903. 
CHTASTIE MINE. BULGARIA. 

Office: care of MM. StojanofT, VarbanofT & Co., Plevna, Bulgaria. Mine 
office: Belogradchik, Vidin, Bulgaria. Lands, 250 liectareas, held under 
lease from tlie principality, showing 2 fissures, averaging 2.5' width and 600^ 
length, carrying chalcopyrite assaying 18% copper, 8 oz. silver and 2 dwts. 
gold per ton. Has 3 shafts, deepest 260^ and 15 short tunnels, with about 
5,000 tons of ore in sight. 
CIENGUITA COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: 1303-25 Broad St., New York. Mine office: Minas de Cienguita, 
Sahuaripa, Sonora, Mexico. Employs 300 men. Organized May 8, 1901, 
under laws of Arizona with capitalization $10,000,000, sliares $10 par; 
unissued, $3,586,380. On December 1, 1904, had $23,492.96 cash on hand. 
Geo. Beebe, president and general manager; C. W. Wilhelm, secretary and 
treasurer; Frank Fitz, general superintendent; Jesse Scobey, assistant super- 
intendent. Lands, 937 pertenencias, area 2,347 acres, with 15,000 acres 
of timber lands, in the Sahuaripa district, all fairly watered and timbered. 
Property includes the Mina Real de la Tayapa, a heavy producer in olden 
days, and the Minas Real de las Cienguitas. Country rocks are granite, 
porphyry, diorite and quartzite, ores occurring as contacts between quartzite 



322 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

and granite. Developmeiit is by shafts of 125' and 136', and by IS tunnels 
of 35' ip 1,200' in length, principal tunnels being 400', 450', 500', 800', 1,150' 
and 1,200', giving a total of about 8,000' of underground openings, estimated 
to put 2,000,000 tons of ore iq sight, with 300,000 tons blocked out for stoping. 
Veins are of practically vertical dip and 13 ore bodies have been located, 
5 of which are being developed, these ranging from 3' to 60' in \iidth and 
b^ing traceable up to 3 miles in length, in one case, and opened to depth of 
800* by one tunnel, the veins carrying sulphide ores giving estimated average 
values of 5% copper, 70 oz. silver and $3 gold per ton. Has a 100-h. p. 
steam plant and a 6-drill air compressor at the mine, with 30x60' stone 
machine shop, assay office, store, enginehouse, sawmill, etc., and 120 dwell- 
ings for workmen. 

Smelter is a quarter mile from the principal tunnel, receiving ore 
by tram-car, and has 2 reverberatory furnaces of 70 tons aggregate daily 
capacity. Fuel is wood, costing $3 per cord. Smelter is to have 5 new 
15x57' reverberatory furnaces in 1905, burning wood, of which two are 
planned to be completed in May, after which work on three addftional rever- 
beratories will b6 begun at once. 

Property unquestionably is of value, but is poorly located as to trans- 
portation facilities, and company's estimates of production and profits seem 
unduly optimistic. Mr. Beebe, the president, is a mining man of experi- 
ence and standing, and the other officers are well spoken of in their respect- 
ive communities. The enterprise is regarded as legitimate and having fair 
prospects of success, although, as before stated, too much is claimed for it 

by the officials. 

*** 

COMPANIA MINERA DE LA CIEN6UITA. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Tarachi, Sonora, Mexico. Geo. Greene, manager. Oper- 
ates the Tajo, Chipiona and other mines, opened by tunnels and producing 
gold, silver and copper. 
CINCINNATI CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: care of A. Hanauer, Salt Lake City, Utah. Lands are in Beaver 
county, Utah. Not a producer, and refuses to give any statement. 
CIRCUMSTANCE GOLD ft MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Huron, Yavapai Co., Ariz. J. W. Nelson, superintendent. 
CLAIRE COPPER CO. IDAHO. 

Mine office: Montpelier, Bear Lake Co., Idaho. G. C. Gray, president 
and treasurer; A. D. Young, secretary. Organized Sept. 16, 1902, under 
laws of Idaho, with capitalization $200,000, shares 50c. par ; unissued, $44,000. 
Lands, 3 claims, area 60 acres, in an unorganized mining district of Bear 
Lake county. Veins occur as Assures in sandstone and as contacts between 
limestone and porphyry,, giving ores assaying 4.6% copper, 10 oz. silver 
and about $1 gold, from a 12^ vein carrying cuprite, melaconite, dioptase 
and chrysocolla, opened by tunneb of 100' and 200'. 
CLAIRMONT MINE. MONTANA, 

Mine office : Stevensville, Ravalli Co., Mont. Amos Buck <Sr Co., owners. 
A prospect having a limited amount of development work only. 
CLARA COPPER MINE. UTAH. 

Lands are in vicinity of Thompson's Springs, Grand Co., Utah. Own- 



CLARA— CLEOPA TEA . 323 

ers were said to plan installing a $40,000 leaching plant, using the process of 

the American Metals Extraction Co. 

CLARA ST. DORA COPPER MINIlfG CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: 142 Palmerston Bldgs., London, £. C, England, and Adelaide, 
South Australia. T. J. Chaney, manager. Lands, 160 acres, 32 miles west 
of Hergott Springs, South Australia. Mine is opened mainly by shallow 
shafts and open-cuts showing malachite and chalcocite, occurring as nodules 
in hard limestone and as veins in soft limestone. Has steam power and 
employed about 100 men at last accounts. 
CLARK MINE. MICHIGAN. 

Owned by Edouard A. J. Estivant, Paris, France. Is an old property, 
carrying native copper and pyrolusite. Area, about 2,500 acres, located 
south of Copper Harbor, Keweenaw county, Mich. Opened 1858; idle for 
many years. Total production, 93 tons 1,915 lbs. fine copper. 
CLARK CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Douglas, Cochise Co., Ariz. J. R. Clark, president; 
R. H. Skiles, secretary and treasurer; W. H. Mclvens,. manager. Lands, 10 
claims, about 10 miles east of Douglas, showing veins of 3' to lO' width, 
carrying ores of copper, letuff, silver and gold, assaying up to 8% copper, 
with $30 to $35 gold, silver and lead per ton, opened by GO' shaft. 
KONIGLICHE HUTTENAMT CLAUSTHAL. GERMANY. 

Works office: Clausthal, Hanover, Germany. Herr Bergrat Boltze, 
manager. Property is a silver-copper smelter, operated under state aus- 
pices. 
CLAYTON MINING ft SMELTING CO. IDAHO. 

Mine office: Clayton, Custer Co., Idaho. Lawrence Greene, general 
manager. Lands, 18 claims. Ores carry silver, lead and copper. Has 
water and steam power and a 50-ton smelter, employing about 50 men. 
CLEAR CREEK MINING ft REDUCTION CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Russell Gulch, Gilpin Co., Colo. F. R. Carter, superintend- 
ent. Property is the Saratoga mine, carrying ores oi*gold, silver and copper. 
Has steam and electric power and also owns a pyritic smelt«r at Golden, Colo. 
CLEOPATRA GROUP. OREGON ft CALIFORNIA. 

Sundry claims in Josephine Co., Oregon, and Del Norte Co., California, 
owned by J. S. Crawford and F. H. Osgood, of Seattle. Lands, 45 claims and 
a 40-acre millsite, showing good copper ores and masses of native copper 
weighing up to several hundred pounds. District is isolated and difficult of 
access, but property is regarded as prombing if given rail connection. 
CLEOPATRA COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Jerome, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Organized 1902, under 
laws of Arizona, with capitalization $4,000,000, shares $1 par; stock mainly 
held in Europe. G. W. Hull, president and general manager; H. E. Wilcox, 
secretary. Lands, 13 claims, 11 patented, area about 180 acres, in the Verde 
district, showing 8 fissures and gash veins, of which several are being de- 
veloped, these running 1' to 5' in .width and giving oxide, carbonate and 
sulphide ores assaying 1% to 65% copper, and 1 o*z. to 500 oz. silver, with 
good gold values. Has several shafts, deepest 75', and five tunnels, No. 2 
being 1,350^ long. Has steam power and air compressor. 



324 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

CLEVELAND-ARIZONA COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Supposed to have copper claims near Ajo Basin, Arizona. 
CLIFF MINE. MICHIGAN. 

The oldest mine in the Lake Superior district. Was a considerable 
dividend payer until suspension in 1879. Now owned by Tamarack Mining 
Company. 
CLIFTON-ARIZONA COPPER CO., LTD. ARIZONA. 

Succeeded by Clifton Consolidated Copper Mines of Arizona, Ltd. 
CLIFTON CONSOLIDATED COPPER MINES OF ARIZONA, LTD. ARIZONA. 

Absorbed, 1903, by New England & Clifton Copper Mines of Arizona. 
CLIFTON COPPER CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: Deming, N. M. Mine office: Santa Rita, Grant Co., N. M. Or- 
ganized 1900, with capitalization $500,000, shares $5 par J. L. Bumside, 
president; F. F. Rogers, secretary; M. M. Z. Elliott, superintendent. Lands 
are in the Central district of Grant county, with 5 shafts, deepest 235', show- 
ing an ore body said to be 40^ to 5ff wide and a half-mile long, carrying oxide, 
carbonate and sulphide ores with occasional native copper. Ore is of con- 
centrating grade, with occasional high-grade paystreaks. Mine shows con- 
siderable ore ready for stoping. Has steam hoists and a 65-ton concen- 
trator with 2 Huntington mills, 2 Wilfly tables and 2 Standard concentrators 
Property was in litigation for some time, but a satisfactory settlement was 
reached October, 1903. 
CLIFTON COPPER MINING CO. 

Promoted, 1898, by Julius Leszynsky, of New York. Financial opera- 
tions were not of a sort to appeal to conservative investors. Present address 
of company not learned, and location of lands, if any, unknown. 
CLIFTON COPPER BELT MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 24-«5 West Second South St., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine 
office: Deep Creek, Utah. Clyde H. Wilson, president; Frank L. Wilson, 
secretary, treasurer And general manager. Capitalization $25,000, shares 5c 
par. Has secured assa3rd of 35.5% copper, 9 oz. silver and $1.20 gold per ton. 
CLIFTON TINTO COPPER MINES, LTD. 

Voluntarily wound up, March, 1903. 
CLIMAX MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Granite, Chaffee Co., Colo. B. H. Pelton, president. Prop- 
erty is the Spondulix mine, carrying ores of gold, silver and copper. 
CLIMAX MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Ouray, Ouray, Co., Colo. F. O. Seabury, manager. Prop- 
erty is the Silver Link mine, carrying ores of gold, silver and copper. Has 
steam and gasoline power and employed about 20 men at last accounts. 
CLIMAX MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Baring, King Co., Wash. Frank P. Smith, superintendent. 
Lands, 8 claims, Tiith 200^ tunnel and surface trenches, shoeing bomite and 
chalcopyrite giving good assay values in gold, silver and copper. 
CLUIN COPPER DEVELOPMENT SYNDICATE, LTD. IRELAND. 

Ilegistered Aug. 26, 1904, with capitalization ^10,000, to l^opt an 

agreement with Beretovea Copper Mines, Ltdt 



CLUSTER— COBRIZA . C26 

CLUSTER MnniTG CO. UTAH. 

Mine office : Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Lands are located 
between the Bingham Consolidated and United States mines. Management 
planned to develop property by a l^OOCK tunnel. No recent returns. 
COAHUILA MINING ft SMELTING CO., LTD. MEXICO. 

Office: Apartado 72, Monterey, N. L., Mex. Mine office: Viesca, Coa- 
huila, Mex. Employs about 500 men. G. F Meehah, president; Frank J. 
Llewellyn, vice-president; Walter E. Parker, secretary and general manager; 
F. W. Draper, superintendent. Operates the Santa Maria, Sultana and 
other mines, carrying ores of copper, gold, silver and lead, opened by a TOO' 
main shaft and a 1,000^ main tunnel. Has steam and electric power and a 
250-ton smelter, blown in early in 1903, smelter and mines being connected 
by railroad. Is conducted as a close corporation company, making no 
returns in response to questions. The general manager states that the com- 
pany is increasing its cash surplus. Smelter is said not to have been operated 
regularly. Production in 1903 was 178,865 lbs. refined copper. 
COAST LINE COPPER CO. MEXICO. 

Office: La Calera, Altar, Sonora, Mex. John T. Cave, president; Judson 
A. Elliott, secretar}'; John Henderson, general manager. Oiganized, 1902, 
as successor to the Porvenir de Sonora company. Lands, include a gold 
property, 14 miles from Pozo, in the Ures district, and a copper property, 
formerly a profitable silver producer, in the Altar district. 
COAST RANGE COPPER CO. 

Incorporated January 16, 1903, at Rosebuig, Ore., with capitalization 
$25,000 in 500 shares, par $50, by T. R. Sheridan et al., to transact a general 
mining business. 
COBAR CHESNEY ft GOLD MINING CO. AUSTRALIA. 

Mine office: Cobar, Robinson Co., N. S. W., Australia. Employs about 
100 men. J. Woolcock, manager. Was opened as a gold mine, the outcrop 
carrying no copper, but carbonate ores were found at depth of 155', and at 
250^ depth chalcopyrite coated with melaconite come into the shaft in con- 
siderable quantities. Main shaft is about OOO' in depth, with ore carrying 
3% to 8% copper and about 3 dwts. gold per ton, showing one 35' ore body, 
averaging 3% copper for a length of SW. Has steam power, lO-stamp mill 
and 2&-ton concentrator, ore and concentrates being smelted at the Great 
Cobar works. Produces about 150 tons of refined copper yearly Concen- 
tration process has not proven a success, ores averaging about 3% only. 
COBRE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Same as Del Cobre Consolidated Co. 
COBRE GRANDE COPPER CO. . MEXICO. 

Absorbed by Cananea Cons. Copper Co., now Greene Cons. Copper Co, 

COMPAinA COBRIZA. MEXICO. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Tepezal^, Aguascal- 
ientes, Mex. 
MINA LA COBRIZA. MEXICO. 

Mine office : Matehuala, San Louis Potosi, Mex. Zalasar, Nerezo & Gon- 
zales, owners. Zepuno Zalasar, superintendent. Produces silver, gold and cop- 
per. Mine is opened by tunnels and employed about 100 men at last accounts. 



356 THE COPPER HANDBOOR. 

COMPAilA MINERA COBRIZA y ANEXAS. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Alamos, Soiiora, Mexico. Manuel Salazar y Perron, man- 
ager. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Mine is opened by shafts and 
tunnels. Employed a small force in development work at last accounts. 
COCHISE CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of C. B. James, secretary, treasurer and general manager, 
Scranton, Pa. Mine office: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. Capitalization 
$5,000,000, shares $1 par. Henry Alexander, president; W. C. Hagan, 
vice-president; Howard H. Douglas, consulting engineer; Harry Holburn, 
superintendent. Lands, 17 claims, including 12 claims known as the Davis 
group, bonded for $82,500, which are being paid for at the rate of $5,000 per 
month. The Ainsworth shaft on the Mascot claim is sunk at an incline of 
60°. The Treasure shaft shows a 4' vein gi\ang average assay values of 
$75 to $140 per ton in copper, silver and gold. The Duplex two-compart- 
ment shaft is ISO' in depth. Ores carry high values in copper, gold and 
silver, and also contain heavy percentages of zinc. Company began shipping 
ore to the smelters late in 1904, and is said to plan a 50-ton concentrator. 
Present force is about 25 men, planned to be increased to about 100. 
COCHISE COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. L. C. Shattuck, president; 
8. K. Williams, secretary; Jos. Muheim, superintendent. Capitalization 
$5,000,000, shares $1 par. Lands, 20 claims lying north of and adjoining 
the Copper Queen. Has a 300^ shaft in porphyry, which has cut sundry 
stringers showing argentiferous and auriferous chalcopyrite. Was regarded 
as of little value until Junction Development Co. found ore under the con- 
glomerate claims, but now Ls coasidered very promising. 
COCHISE MINING ft MILLING CO. ARIZONA. 

Reported dead by former officers. 
COCHISE PROSPECTING, MINING ft DEVELOPMENT CO. MEXICO. 

Letters returned unclaimed from former mine office, Bacoachi, Sonora, 
Mex. I. N Gates, president; P. G. Sawyer, manager; Geo. Motz, superin- 
tendent. Lands, sundry claims, including the San Eufraciu, opened to a 
depth of 250^, with a quarter mile of underground openings, giving very 
high assays in gold and silver. Company also has exceptionally promising 
copper claims in the Ajo mountains, Arizpe district, Sonora, giving surface 
showing indicating existence of a 100' veui, from which some very rich 
specimens of copper ore have been secured. 
COCONINO COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 420 Merchants Loan & Trust Bldg., Chicago, 111. Mine office: 
Ryan, Coconino Co., Ariz., via Kanab, Utah; Organized 1901, under laws ot 
New Jersey, with capitalization $6,000,(X)0, shares $10 par. Donald Grant, 
president; L. P. Boyle, secretary; W. S. McCornick, treasurer; E. P. Jennings, 
general manager. Lands, 33 claims, area 660 acres, also 80 acres miscellaneous 
lands, showing blanket veins carrying carbonate ores estimated to average 
10% copper, which are stripped and worked open-cast. Estimated amount 
of ore in sight is 500,000 tons, with 100,000 tons blocked out for stoping. 
Smelter is at Ryan, 7 miles from mine, receiving ore by wagons. Company 
installed a 100-ton leaching plant, using the Neill proress, late in 1902. 



COLDWA TER—COLONIA L. 337 

COLDWATER COPPER MUnNG CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 232 West Cedar St., Kalamazoo, Mich. Mine office: Encamp- 
ment, Wyo. Employs 25 men. Z. L. Baldwin, president; E. S. Drury, 
vice-president; Edwin Gillis, secretary and treasurer; G. T. Keene, general 
manager; Joseph Montague, superintendent. Organized Dec. 11, 1899, 
under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. 
Lands, 5 claims, area about 50 acres, also 20 acres miscellaneous lands, in 
the Pearl district of Larimer county, Colorado. Country rocks are granite 
and diorite, with 3 fissure veins, of which one of 20^ estimated width shows 
oxide and carbonate ores, and native copper, with sulphides at a little depth, 
estimated to carry an average of 10% copper and 8 oz. silver per ton, opened 
by shafts of ISO' and 134' and a 275' crosscut. Property is known as the 
Wolverine mine, bottom of principal shaft showing massive chalcocite and 
a little disseminated chalcopyrite of high average grade. Has steam power. 
Developments are regarded as promising. Property has been leased for 
a 3 to 5 year term to the Wolverine Leasing & Mining Co., composed of 
Coldwater shareholders. 
SOCIEDAD COLECTIVA. CHILE. 

Supposed to operate the Tiltil mine, department of Santiago, Chile. 
COLOMBIA GOLD ft COPPER CO. COLOMBIA. 

Thos. S. Moffat, president and Pooh-Bah. Capitalization, $125,000, 
shares $10 par. Lands, sundry undeveloped government concessions in the 
Republic of Colombia. 
MIHAS COLON, RECOMPENSA y OTRAS. MEXICO. 

Operated by Choix Consolidated Mining Co., Ltd. 
COLONIAL COPPER CO. NOVA SCOTIA ft ONTARIO. 

Office: 32 Broadway, New York. Mine office: Advocate, Cumberland 
Co., N. S. Employs about 125 men. Organized January 19, 1899, under 
laws of West Virginia, with capitalization $5,000,000, shares $1 par. Has 
authorized a $300,000 bond issue to raise working capital. J. A. Hanway, 
president and general manager; H. D. Hanway, secretary; A. Munger, treas- 
urer; S. M. Archibald, superintendent. Lands, about 2,000 acres, showing 
6 contact veins, of which 3 are developed, these having an average width of 
25' and carrying about 2.5% copper. Has 2 vertical and one incline shaft, 
latter 500' in depth. Machinery outfit includes 3 Rand air compressors, 
3 large and 6 small hoists, drills, et<*. Has a 400-ton concentrating mill, 
with Blake crushers, rolls, jigs, tables, screeiis, etc., connected with mine, 
1}^ miles distant, by a 36^ gauge railroad. Nearest railway is 30 miles 
distant, but property is located on the shore of the Bay of Fundy and receives 
all machinery and supplies by water. Company also owns the New Annan 
mine, carrying sulphide ore in lenses, and the Chandos mine in Peterboro 
county, Ontario, latter showing a 4' vein assaying 8% copper, but now idle. 
Begun building a 200-ton concentrator September, 1902. Company seems 
honestly managed, but is suffering from lack of needed funds, the develop- 
ment and equipment of a mine upon a large scale having proved much more 
costly than was anticipated when work was begun. 
COLONIAL COPPER CORPORATION, LTD. AUSTRALIA. 

Offices: Salisbury House, London, E. C, Eng. Works office- Lithgow, 



328 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Robinson Co., N. S. W., Australia. G. Hardie, chairman; C. P. Oswald, 
secretary; J. Wills, mine manager. Registered, March 29, 1899. Capital, 
nominal, £125,000; issued, £102,507. Lands, 245 acres. Idle, and property 
is to let on tribute. 
MINA LA COLORADO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: care of Don Carlos Yanes, owner, San Xavier, Sonora, 
Mex. Was driving a tunnel to develop copper ores, at last accounts. 
COLORADO-BOHEMIA MINING & COLORADO ft OREGON. 

MILLING CO. 

Office: 15 William St., New York, N. Y. Organized under laws of Col- 
orado, with capitalization $1,250,000, shares $1 par. Albert Hawkins, 
president; G.B. Henzer, secretary and treasurer. Lands, sundry gold and 
copper claims in various districts of Oregon and Colorado. 
COLORADO CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: 'Cochctopa, Saguache Co., Colo. Ores carry gold, silver 
and copper. Has steam power and lO-stamp mill, employing about 20 men. 
COLORADO COPPER CO. 

A swindle, set afloat by Wm. F. Wemse & Co., 421 Olive St., St. Louis, 
Mo., notorious promotors of "fake" mining companies. Stock is worthless.^ 
COLORADO COPPER SYNDICATE, LTD. 

Voluntarily wound up, April, 1901-. 
COLORADO MINING ft DEVELOPMENT CO. MONTANA. 

Title changed, 1904, to Wickes-Corbin Copper Mining Go. 
COLORADO ft CONNECTICUT GOLD MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 35 Wall St., New York. Organized 1902, under laws of South 
Dakota, with capitalization $400,000, shares $5 par, non-assessable. Wm. 
Garlick, president ; A. S. Garlick, secretary. Lands, 3 claims, area 21 acres, 
in the Galena district of Hinsdale county, Colorado. Company is prospect- 
ing three 2f fissure veins, giving a88a3rs of 9% to 19% copper, with good silver 
values, from chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and occasional silver-glance. Has a 
50^ shaft and SOO' tunnel. 
COLORADO MINING ft SMELTING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Capitalization $2,500,000. 
Is entirely owned, except founders' shares, by the Amalgamated Copper Co. 
Employs about 500 men. Jas. B. Gallagher, superintendent. Lands in- 
clude the Otisco and Gagnon mines, latter in the western limits of the Butte 
copper zone, ore from which is decidedly zinciferous and richest in silver of 
any Butte copper mine. The Gagnon has a 3-compartment 1,800^ main 
shaft, sunk at an angle of 74°, with an air shaft of the same depth 700^ to 
the westward. Has steam and electric power, with a 22x48' Dickson hoist 
operating 3-ton skips, and a 10-drill Rand air compressor. Mine was closed 
down temporarily in August, 1904 for retimbering the shaft, which was old 
and in bad condition. 

The reduction plant, at Butt«, which also did a general custom business, 
Avas clased late in 1904, but will be held in reserve for emergencies. This 
plait has a concentrator and furnaces with 750 tons daily capacity, but 
lacks converters. Ore now goes to the Butt« & lioston smelter and to the 
Washoe plant at Anaconda. Production of refined copper for 1904 is 
estimated at 6,(X)0,000 lbs. 



COLORADO— COLUMBUS, 329 

The following table gives a summary of operatioDS and results for the 
fiscal years ending June 1, 1903 and 1904: 

1903 1904 

Tons of ore extracted 235,680 206,035 

Gross yield $998,638 $1,616,497 

Cost of extraction 581,126 625,3^ 

Cost of transporUtion 37,693 30,905 

Cost of reduction 336,728 885,285 

Total expenses 955,547 941,665 

Net proceeds 43,090 74,833 

COLORADO RIVER GOLD & COPPER CO. CAUFORNIA. 

Office: 405 Mason Opera House Blk., Ijoa Angeles, Cal. Mine office: 
Mellen, San Bernardino Co., Cal. E. W. Peck, president and general manager; 
Paul C. Thome, secretary; E. S Gannon, treasurer and assistant manager; 
Wip. T. Field, superintendent. Organized July 1, 1901, under laws of 
Arizona, with capitalization $1,500,000, shares $1 par; unissued, $650,000. 
Lands, 10 claims, area 200 acres, in the Monumental district of San Ber- 
nardino county, showing 9 fissure veins or lenses, of which one is of 3^ average 
width, opened by shafts of 50' and lOO' and several short tunnels, returning 
average assays of 7% copper, 2 oz. silver and $13.50 gold per ton, from 
malachite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. 

COLOSSAL GOLD & COPPER CO. UTAH. 

Organized 1902, with capitalization $600,000, by F. F. Brown, Wallace 
W. Wait, et al., at Salt Lake City, Utah, to take over the C. M. C. group of 
claims, in Beaver county, Utah. Apparently idle. 

COLUMBIA COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 919 Chestnut St., St. Louis, Mo. Zach. W. Tinker, president; 
A. L. Steinmeyer, secretary; P. J. Cole, superintendent. Lands, near Globe, 
Gila Co.y Arizona, showing argentiferous and auriferous copper ores, very 
slightly developed. Has steam power. 
COLUMBIA COPPER MDIING CO. ARIZONA. 

Merged in Consolidated King Development & Columbia Copper Co. 
COLUMBIA COPPER MINING CO. UTAH. 

Property sold, 1903, to Ohio Copper Co. 
COLUMBIA RIVER GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Kettle Falls, Stevens Co., Wash. J. M. Fish, superintend' 
ent. Ores carry gold, silver and copper. Has steam power. 
COLUMBUS CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 10 Atlas Blk., Salt Lake Qty, Utah. Mine office: Alta, Salt 
Lake Co., Utah. Emplo3rs about 25 men. Anthony O. Jacobson, president 
and general manager; Clarence K^ McComick, vice-president; Arthur E. 
Snow, secretary and treasurer. Organized, 1902, under laws of Utah; capital- 
ization increased, 1904, to $1,500,000, shares $5 par. Lands, 17 claims, area 275 
acres, on both sides of Little Cottonwood Canyon, mainly on Old Flagstaff 
Hill. Lands show 9 fissure and contact veins, 6 said to average 12^ width, 
and to carry estimated average values of 5% to 25% copper, 18% lead, 
15% zinc, 14 oz silver, and $1 gold per ton. Principal ore bodies are fissures 
and contacts iu limeBtone and quartiitCi with highly mineralized sections 



330 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

ranging 3(y to 100' wide for several hundred feet in distance. Ores are ca^ 
bonates on surface, and sulphidop at depth. Shipping ore runs $10 to $60 
per ton, carrying 5% to 25% copper, 25% to 50% lead, and 10 oz. to 100 oz. 
silver per ton. Concentrating ores are reduced 4 or 5 into 1, and 327 tons 
of concentrates made in 1904 averaged $21.39 in value. Mine is opened by 
4 shallow , shafts and 3 tunnels, longest 900^. The Holland and Columbus 
tunnels are connected by a drift-crosscut on the Braine fissure, giving ventila- 
tion, and the Holland tunnel has electric traction. 

Machinery plant is actuated by electricity. Power is secured from a 
Felton wheel, working under a head of 494', water being delivered through 
4,5(X/ of 20^ and 22^ steel pipe, developing 660 h. p., which is transformed 
into electricity by two 3,000-kw. dynamos and carried to the mine by a 4)^- 
mile transmission line. Foundations are in for another wheel of the same 
size. The mine has a 700' Nordberg compressor, of about 10-drill capacity. 

A lOO-ton concentrator was completed Nov. 1, 1904, but has been unable 
to run, except experimentally, owing to shortage of water, 1904 ha\ing been 
the dryest season known in Utah for many years. Ample water will be 
available in the spring of 1905. The mill was built from the material secured 
out of two old 1 00-ton mills, these being the Tesora mill at Tintic, and the 
Weber-Keanis mill at Park City. Mill has a Gates gyratory crusher, 2 sets 
of r^Usy 3-compartment jigs and 6 Wililey tables. 

An assessment of $56,400 was levied in August, 1904, and another of 
similar size will be levied early in 1905, as additional funds are much 
needed. Management is good and property considered valuable. 
COLUSA-PARROT UNING ft SMELTING CO. MONTANA. 

Office and mine: 10 West Broadway, Butte, Silver Bow Co., Mont. Hon. 
Wm. A. Clark, president; A. H. Wethey, vice-president and general manager; 
Wm. Bickford, secretary. Preceding officers, A. J. Johnston and C. E. Mc- 
Bloom, directors. Organized Nov. 26, 1897, with capitalization |.'i00,000, 
shares $50 par, full paid. Has paid dividends to close of 1904 of $1, •140,000. 
Lands include tlie Colusa-Parrot, East Stewart, West Stewart, Dives, 
Woolman and Home mines. The 2-compartment main shaft on the 
Original is 1,400' in depth. The East Stewart has a 1,300' 3-compartment 
incline shaft, with 120' st^el gallows-frame. Tlie West Stewart has an 
1,100^ shaft, with 120' steel gallows-framc. The Original and West Stewart 
mines have duplicate 32x72^ Nordberg hoists and the Original has two 50- 
drill IngersoU-Seargeant air compressors, operated by two 500-h. p. induction 
motors, taking power from the Canyon Ferry plant. Mines are connected 
underground with adjoining properties. 

The wooden concentrator, at Butte, commonly known as the Butte Re- 
duction Works, was rebuilt 1902, with a daily capacity of 1,000 tons. Tht 
equipment includes one 15x24^ crusher and five Oxld'^ crushers of the Bl&ke 
type; seven 6' Chilean mills; nine 16x30*' rolls; 63 2-compartment jigs of the 
Hartz type, and 56 Wilfley tables. The smelter is IJ^ miles from tlie mines, 
receiving ore by tramway, and is of 500 tons daily capacity. Equipment 
includ«5s 5 Wethey and 2 MacDougal ralciners, two 150-ton blast furnaces, 
and three SO-ton reverberatory funiaces. Product is a matte carrying 55% 
copper, 75 oz. silver and $2 gold per ton, shipped to the Nichob Chemical 



COLUSA-PARROT-^OMMERCE. 331 

Works on Long Island for refining. Production of the Colusa-Parrot was 

19,500,000 lbs. refined copper in 1902, and 20,500,000 lbs. each for 1903 and 

1904. 

COMANCHE MINING & SMELTINO CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 602 Goldsmith Bidg., Milwaukee, Wis. Mine office: Silver 
City, Grant Co., N. M. Organized 1902, under laws of Arizona, with cap- 
italization $5,000,000, shares $1 par. S. S. Curry, president and treasurer; 
Thos. G. Atkinson, vice-president; Chas. J. Laughren, secretary and general 
manager; Henry W. Edwards, superintendent; Victor Viderton, mine 
superintendent. Lands, 38 claims, area 760 acres, including the Pinos ^tos 
mines, bought of the Hearst estate, in the Burro Mountains, 13 miles from 
Silver City. The Burro Mountain group shows 3 lenses and the Pinos Altos 
group 4 fissure veins, carrying cuprite, malachite, azurite and chrysocolla, 
the Burro Mountain group giving average assays of 5% to 8% copper, with- 
out gold or silver values, while the Pinos Altos shows sulphide ores, assaying 3% 
copper, 15 oz. silver and 0.33- oz. gold, per ton. The Burro Mountain ores 
are oxides, carbonates and silicates, with indications of sulphides at the 
present bottom of the mine. 

The Pinos Altos mines are extensively developed and were considerable 
producers for years when ow^ned by the late Senator Hearst. The Gillette 
shaft is 1,000^ deep, and there are 3 other shafts of 400^ to SW depth. The 
Burro Mountain properties scarcely have advanced beyond the stage of 
decidedly promising prospects. The Pinos Altos group has laiige bodies 
of low-grade ore developed, which are expected to yield a fair margin of 
profit when worked with modem facilities upon a large scale. Ore is shipped 
by rail and wagon to the smelter. 

The reduction plant at Silver City was burned June, 1903, throwing 
back the Comanche company about 18 montlis. The rebuilt plant has 
three small blast furnaces and a larger one under construction, also a modem 
reverberatory furnace, with roqsters, etc. Electric power is used and the 
smelter has a machine shop and smithy in connection, also office building and 
dwellings for employes. Total capacity of plant is 200 to 250 tons daily, 
and about 75 tons of custom ore is smelted daily, pending beginning of pro- 
duction by company's own mines. Product is said by company to be blister 
copper averaging 98% copper, 150 o». silver aini 10 oz. gold per ton. The 
works also have a concentrator with magnetic separators for removing zinc, 
excess of which caused suspension of mining at the Pinos Altos. 

In addition to the mines, the Pinos Altos estate includes extensive 
landed holdings, with ranches, orchards, the town of Pinos Altos, a general 
store, etc. The Silver City smelter enjoys a good custom smelting business, 
being favorably located for treating ores from a district of many thousand 
square miles in western New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. Management 
b composed of men of good standing, and Mr. Curry is one of the most ex- 
perienced mining men of Lake Superior, with a record of forty years of clean 
and highly successful mining, while the Pinos Altos is a property of as- 
sured merit and the Burro Mountain group is decidedly promising. 
COMMERCE GOLD & SHAVER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Duncan. Graham Co., Ariz. 



332 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

COMMODORE COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Letter returned unclaimed from xormer mine office. Encampment, 
Carl;K>n Co., Wyo. _ 
COMMODORE MINES, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned from advertised office, Vancouver, B. C. Capitalization 
$750,000. Jas. R. Webster, president; W. H. Pegram, secretary. 
COMSTOCK MINE. . MONTAN/L 

Mine office: Basin, Jefiferson Co., Montana. 
COMSTOCK MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine: P. O. Box 132, Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. Wm. 
Norell, president and general manager; C. B. Beigquist, secretary. Oigan- 
izedOct. 1, 1900, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $1,000,000, 
shares $1 par; unissued, $442,150. Lands, 5 claims, area 103 acres, also a 
20-acre millsite, in the Battle Lake district, showing 4 fissure veins, of which 
2, averaging 16' width and giving assays of 15% copper, 20 oz. silver and 
$3.15 gold per ton, have been cut by a 250^ tunnel. 
COMSTOCK & TASMAN LYELL, CONSOLIDATED. TASMANIA. 

Has lands, partly prospected on the western slope of Mt. Lyell, Montague 
county, Tasmania. 
MINAS LAS CONCAVAS. COSTA RICA. 

An old copper property in Costa Rica, opened in the Eighteenth Centuiy 
or earlier. Now idle. 

COMPANIA MINERA CONCEPCION DEL ORO. MEXICO. 

Mine office: Concepcion del Oro, Zacatecas, Mexico. Organized 1902, 
with capitalization $30,000, shares $30 par. Santiago Chamberlain, presi- 
dent; J. L. Kowalski, secretary and general manager; Santiago Chamberlain, 
Jr., superintendent ; Juan Sanchez, mining captain. Lands, 32 pertenencias, 
area about 80 acres, in the Mazapil district. Vein averages 4', carrying oxide 
ores averaging 30% copper, with gold and silver values. Shaft, 33 metres. 
Ore is shipped 336 miles to smelters at San Luis Potosi. Has gasoline power 
and employs a considerable force. 
OEWEREISCHAFT CONCORDU. GERMANY. 

Mine office: Herdorf, Rheinprovinz, Germany. Is a very small pro- 
ducer of copper ore. 
CONCRETE GOLD MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: 324 Cooper Bldg., Denver, Colo. Mine office: Central City, 
Gilpin Co., Colo. Saml. V. Newell, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, 
lead and copper. Has steam power and employed about 25 men at last accounts. 
CONDON MINE. ^ ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Oracle, Pinal Co., Ariz. T. C. Condon, owner; Geo. E. 
Pletz, superintendent. Has gasoline power. 

COMPANIA MINERA DE CONDORIACO. CHILE. 

Mine office. La Serena, Coquimbo, Chile. Has steam power and 
employs 50 to 75 men. 
COifEJO-COLORADO MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Mine office. OcotUn, Oaxaca, Mex. F B. Morse, manager. Produces 

gold, eilver ftud copper. Min^ is open^ by ehttftJ? and tunnel Hew steam 



CONEJO-COLORADO-^ONSOLIDATED AFRICAN, 33a 

power, 5 stamps, 2 Huntington mills and 30-ton cyanide plant. Employs 

about 100 men. 

CONFEDERATE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of Col. Lee Crandall, Washington, D. C. Theodore Crandall, 
superintendent. Property is the Candelaria group, on Reno Mountain^ 
Maricopa county, Arizona, opened by shafts of SO', 60^ and 64', said to show 
a 12' vein of sulphide ore carrying a 4' paystreak giving assays of 20% 
copper. 
CONGOR GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. 

Office : 506 Auerbach Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. Location of property, 
if any, unknown. 
CONGRESS COPPER MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Red Mountain, Ouray Co., Colo. Geo. H. Foltz, manager. 
Has cupriferous gold and silver ores, opened by shafts and equipped with 
steam power, employing about 25 men. 
CONGRESS GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Spokane, Wash. Joseph Rodow, president; J. Goodrich, sec- 
retary. Lands, about 80 acres, in the Keller district of Ferry county, Wasli- 
ington. Mine is opened by shafts and tunnels, on 2 veins giving good assay 
^'alues in gold, silver and copper, with some nickel. Apparently idle. 
E. P. CONNER CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office and mine: Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. 
CONQUEST CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 426 Postal Telegraph Bldg., New York. Mine office: Newport, 
Stevens Co., Wash. John H. Shaw, president ; J. W. Hays, secretary. Is a 
consolidation of the Conquest Gold & Copper Mining & Milling Co., and the 
American Eagle Mining & Milling Co. Lands, 12 claims, showing 3 veins of 
4' to 8' width, opened by about 2,200^ of tunnels. Ore of good average 
grade has been uncovered in fair quantities, and considerable ore is blocked 
out for stoping. Has good equipment, including steam power, air compressoni, 
etc. Officers stand well and property is of promise. 
CONQUEST GOLD & COPPER MINING & MILLING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Reorganized as Conquest Consolidated Mming Co. 
CONSERVATIVE MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Snohomish, Wash. Mine office: Silverton, Snohomish Co., Wash 
Frank M. Evans, president ; Hugh Kennedy, secretary and manager. Idle. 
CONSOLIDATED AFRICAN COPPER TRUST, LTD. RHODESIA. 

Offices: 8 Old Jewry, London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Bulawayo, 
Rhodesia, South Africa. Dr. Hans Sauer, chairman; H. A Piper, consulting 
engineer; H. G. Sidgreaves, secretary; Cjnril E. Brackenbury, mine manager. 
Organias^ Feb. 17, 1902, with capitalization £600,000, sliares £1 par; issued 
£474,500. Lands, 135 claims, including the Alaska mine, in the Lomagundii 
district of Rhodesia, also sundry valuable gold claims and right to locate all 
copper claims within an area of 1,242 square miles. The Alaska mine, 9(* 
miles northwest of Salisbury and 30 miles from a railroad, shows the second 
largest ancient workings in Rhodesia. The ore bodies have an average width 
of LW and length of 1,700'. Copper ore has been found at depth of 200^ 
to SOO' in numerous diamond drill borings. The company also hasIiOi: 



334 TH£ COPPER EANDBOOK. 

claims in Mozambique, on which copper has been shown. Management, 
both general and local, is excellent, and the property is regarded as possessing 
exceptional promise. 
COKSOLIDATED COPPER CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Former office, Ainsworth, B. C. Dead. 
CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO., LTD. CORSICA & MEXICO. 

Offices: D^ahwood House, London, E. C, Eng. F. Hawdon, chairman; 
S. J. Crouch, secretary; Thos. P. Rowe, manager. Oi^nized June 10, 1899, 
as a reorganization of the New Consolidated Mining Co., Ltd., with capitaliza- 
tion £100.000, shares 10s. par, 9s. 6d. paid in.; issued, £92,500. Lands in- 
clude La Bufa de Charcas claims, carrying copper, silver and lead ores, in 
the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, and sundry adjoining claims; also the 
Lacone copper mines, in Corsica, on which work was suspended several years 
ago. 
CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. OF PARRY SOUND. ONTARIO. 

Office: Duluth, Minn. Propert}', sundry lands in the Parry Sound dis- 
trict of Ontario, including former holdings of the Hattie Belle Gold, Copper 
& Nickel Co. Is asserted to have 4,000,000 tons of ore in sight, claimed -to 
carry net values of SIO to $15 per ton. Idle at last accounts. 
CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. OF VIRGUnA. ^ 

Office: 5 Beekman St., New York. Organized October, 1902, under laws of 
South Dakota, with capitalization $100,000,000. Franklin Bien, president; 
Nathan E. Clark, secretary. Location of company's lansd, if any, unknown. 
Probably a blanket incorporation for some big copper consolidation that was 
not accomplished. 
CONSOLIDATED COPPER MINING CO. IDAHO. 

Succeeded by Ladd Metals Co. 
CONSOLIDATED COPPER MINING, MILLING COLORADO. 

& SMELTING CO. 

Office: 417 Temple Court, Denver, Colo. Mine office: Eldora, Boulder 
Co., Colo. Employs 20 men. Organized 1899, under laws of Colorado, with 
capitalization $3,000,000, shares $1 p^r. J. B. Johnson, president and gen- 
-eral manager; E. W. Kelly, secretary; K. W. Hunt, mine superintendent. 
Lands, 14 claims, area 130 acres, in the Grand Island district, showing 4 con- 
tact veins between granite and phonolite, one with a 'width of about 200^ 
having a 3' to 20' paystreak that gives average assays of 15% copper, 15% 
lead, 40 oz. silver and $20 gold per ton, from bornite and ohalcopyrite. Main 
shaft, 360'; also a 1,350' tunnel, with about 2,500' of underground openings. 
Has a 100-h. p. steam equipment and 3-drill air compressor. 
CONSOUDATED GEM MINES CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Idaho Springs, Clear Creek Co., Colo. W. S. Renshaw, 
manager. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Has steam power and 
10-stamp mill, employing about 50 men. 
CONSOLIDATED GOLD A COPPER CO. ARIZONA. 

A. Douglas-Laccy Swindle. Dead. 
CONSOLIDATED GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 25 Broad St., New York. letter returned unclaimed from 
former mine office, La Sal, Grand Co.. Utah. A. Graham Donnellv, president; 



CONSOLIDATED. 335 

Gid R. Propper, superintendent. Capitalization $20,000,000. Claims to have 
lands in Utali, Montana, Colorado and Oregon. Is grossly over-capitalized, 
and probably moribund. 
CONSOLIDATED GOLD, COPPER WYOMDIG & COLORADO. 

& COAL CO. 

Mine office: care of W. C. Henry, Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. 
J. E. Hedding, president. Lauds, 2 copper claims, area 40 acres, near Pearl, 
Larimer county, Colorado; 6 gold claims, area 98 acres, and 3,595 acres of 
coal lands 15 miles from Waldon, Larimer county, Colorado. Cannot be 
leanied that any mining work is in progress. 
CONSOLIDATBD GOLD & COPPER MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMIKG. 

Supposed to have lands near Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. 
CONSOLIDATED GREEN MOUNTAIN BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

ST. LOUIS MINES, LTD. 

Office: care of Chas. D. dark, treasurer, Peoria, lU. Mine office: Ro8»- 
lahd, B. C. W. L. Lawry, president. Capitalization $3,00p,000, shares 
$1 par. Has a 400^ shaft. Idle. 
CONSOLIDATED JEFFERSON GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. UTAH. 

Organized June, 1902, imder laws of Utah, with capitalization $1,000,000. 
CONSOLIDATED KING DEVELOPMENT & ARIZONA. 

COLUMBIA COPPER MINING CO. 

Office and mines: Jerome, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Organized under laws 
of Arizona, with capitalization $6,000,000, shares $1 par. Geo. W. Hull, 
president; H. E. Wilcox, secretary. Lands, 34 claims, area 400 acres, in the 
Verde district, showing several ore bodies carrying oxide, carbonate and sul- 
phide ores giving fair assay values in copper, gold and silver, opened by a 
400' shaft and several tunnels, longest 1,200'. Has gasoline power and em- 
ployed about 20 men at last accounts. 
CONSOLIDATED LA SAL MINING & SMELTING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Mine office: XJashin, 
Montrose Co., Colo. A reoiganization of the La Sal Copper Mining Co., 
which produced 270,000 oz. silver -and 224 tons refined copper, valued »^ 
$212,286.69, after paying smelting charges, and from, which dividends of 
$24,000 were paid. James N. McBride, general manager. Lands, 10 clairos* 
area 150 acres, opened by 1 shaft and 3 tunnels, having about 5,000' of under- 
ground openings on a 5' vein averaging about 8% copper and up to 134 o - 
silver, with small gold values. Has steam and water power, leaching pl»-^ 
and small smelter. Property regarded as promising. -vrCiO 
CONSOLIDATED MINING ft SMELTING CO. NEW ME»«^ ' 



Mine office: Cerillos, Santa F6 Co., N. M. R. B. Thomas, mai ^^^^ 
J. L. Wells, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead, copper ^"^^^^i,- 
Company works the Tom Paine, Albany and other mines, extenavely ^^^,^t 
oped, well equipped with gasoline and electric power, and ^^^P^^^^^ fU^^o^- 

150 men. Has a 120-ton smelter and secures a little copper as a by-pro^ . 

CONSOLIDATED MINING & SMELTING CO. 

Formerly at Brigham, Box Elder Co., Utah. Dead. 
CONSOLIDATED NICKEL, TIN & COPPER MINES, LTD. EN 

Offices: care of J. C Qzpnne, agent, 5 Court Row, Guernsey, 




336 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

Britain. Organized, Biarch 21, 1903, under laws of Guernsey, with capi- 
talization £60,000, shares £1 par, to carry on copper mining in Cornwall and 
enter into an agreement with the Lerida Copper Mines, Ltd 
COIISOUDATSD STAIILBY MINING & MILLING CO. COLORADO. 

Office: Jacksonville, Ills. Mine office: Idaho Springs, dear Creek Co., 
Colo. John M. Jackson, superintendent. Ores carry gold, silver, lead and 
copper. Has steam and water power, with lO-stamp mill, and employs 
about 40 men. 
CONSOLIDATED UNITED VERDE JUNIOR MINING ARIZONA. 

CORPORATION. 

Office: Old Orchard, Me. Mine office, Jerome, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 
Jas. O. Bradbury, president and general manager. F. A. Sidelinger, secre- 
tary and treasurer. Claims said to show oxide and carbonate ores assaying 
34% to 53% copper and $6 to 429 gold per ton. 

COMPANIA MINERA LA CONSTANCIA. MEXICO. 

Office: Saltillo, Mexico. Mine office: La Esmeralda, Coahuila, Mex. 
Daniel Sada, general manager. Operates the Judrez, Providencia, General 
Escobedo and other mines, producing ores of silver, lead and copper. Main 
«haft, 550^, also a 2,000^ tunnel. Has steam power and is a considerable 
producer, copper output, secured as a by-product, being small. 
CONSTANTINE COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: 76 East Third St., Winona, Minn. Mine office: Encampment, 
Carbon Co., Wyo. W. H. Elmer, president ; John Tonsley, secretary ; Earle 
R. Clemens, treasiu*er; P. J. Winters, superintendent. Organized November, 
1903, under laws of Wyoming, with capitalization $250,000, shares SI par, 
in 150,000 shares preference and 100,000 shares common stock. Lands, 
3 claims, area 60 acres, unpatented. Country rocks are diorite and quartzite. 
Developments include a 22^ shaft and W tunnel. 
CONSTELLATION BONE. ARIZONA. 

Mme office: care of Wm. F. Roberts, owner, Briggs, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 
Ores carry gold and copper values. 
CONSTELLATION MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Mine office: Campo Seco, Calaveras Co., Cal. C. Berger, owner; £. J. 
Berger, superintendent. Has steam power. 
CONSTELLATION GOLD MINES CO. OREGON. 

Mine office: Sumpter, Baker Co., Ore. J. Higgins, superintendent. 
Ores carry gold, silver, lead and copper. Employs 10 to 15 men. 
CONSTITUTION MINE. BRITISH COLUMBU. 

. Mine office: New Albemi, Vancouver Island, B. C. Property is on 
Coos Creek, about 3 miles from New Albemi, and J4 niile from tidewater, 
showing gold-copper ore in a 140^ tunnel. 
MINA CONSUELO. MEXICO. 

Office: care of Dr. A. F. Gavilan, owner, Durango, Mex. Letter re- 
turned unclaimed from former mine office, Yerbaniz, Durango, Mex. Ore;* 
carry copper, silver, gold and lead. 
CONSUMNES MINE. CALIFORNIA. 

Now held by the Rio Viota Gold & Copper Mining Co. 



CONTACT^CONTINENTAL, 337 

COHTACT GROUP. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of A. A. Patterson, Globe, Gila Co., Ariz. A group of 7 
claims, near the Bobtail mine, about 15 miles from Globe. 
CONTEimON MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Silverton, San Juan Co., Colo. G. E. Collins, manager. 
Ores carry gold, silver and copper values. Has steam and water power 
and employs 40 to 50 men. 
CONTINENTAL ALTA MINES. UTAH. 

Owned and operated by the Continental Mines & Smelting Corporation. 
CONTINENTAL COPPER CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Office: Lima, Ohio. Mine office: Hill City, Pennington Co., S. D. Or- 
ganized 1904, under laws of South Dakota, with capitalization $3,000,00(V, 
shares $1 par, to operate the properties of the Dakota Calumet Company 
and the Maloney-Blue Lead Copper Mining Co., through ownership of con- 
trolling stock interests in each. Saml. A. Baxter, president; Otto G. Tague, 
secretary; H. M. Moore, treasurer. 
CONTINENTAL COPPER CO. WYOMING. 

Office: Colorado Springs, Colo. Lands, in vicinity of Battle, Carbon 
county, Wyoming. John M. Harran, president; J. W. Wallwork, secretary. 
CONTINENTAL COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Battle, Carbon Co., Wyo. J. T. Brown, superintendent, 
at last accounts. Property is in the Cow Creek distpct, and is said to show 
a laige body of low-grade ore. 
CONTINENTAL MINES & SMELTING CORPORATION. UTAH. 

Offices: 90 Wall St., New York, and 409 Dooly Bldg., Salt Lake City, 
Utah. Mine office : Alta, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Employs 25 to 75 men, ac- 
cording to season. Henry M. Cjowther, president; G. C. Van Alstyne, sec- 
retary and treasurer; W. G. Scott, superintendent. Organized July, 1903, 
under laws of New York, with capitalization $5,000,000, shares $10 par. 
Has paid 10% dividends on stock issued. Empire State Trust Company, 
88 Wall St., New York, registrar. Lands, 18 claims, area 220 acres, also 
20-acre miUsite, in the Little Cottonwood district. Country rocks are lime- 
stone, porph3rry, granite and quartz^te, said to show about 20 contact veins 
of 1' to 40*, between limestone and porphyry, giving assays of 2% to 35% 
copper, 10^0 ^ 48% lead, 7.5% zinc, 15 to 120 oz. silver and 60c to $5 gold 
per ton, from malachite, azurite and oxide ores of copper, galena, sphalerite, 
etc., estimated to carry average values of about $25 per ton. Has 5 shafts, 
deepest 200^, and 9 tunnels, of SOO' to 2,000', with total underground open- 
ings of 7,682^. A large body of 4% copper ore was cut in 1904. Mine was 
discovered 1864, opened 1870, closed 1892, reopened 1899. Has gasoline 
power. Production of metals to end of 1902 is estimated at $1,000,000. 
Has a 5-mile aerial tram nearing completion, and a 100-ton concentrator 
just finished. Motive power i.*« furnished by water from Little Cottonwood 
Creek, actuating a direct-connected Pelton wheel. 

cohtinental mining go. Wyoming. 

Office: 20 Metropolitan Opera House Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. Mine office: 
Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. A. L. Cox, president; Ker D. Dunlop. 
secretary and treasurer. Organized 1898, under laws of Wyoming, with 



338 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

capitalization $800,000, shares $1 par. J^nds, 7 claims, area 120 acres, 
also 20-acre millsite, in the Battle Lake district. Is developing a 20^ vein 
by 2 tunnels, longest 690'. Mine is served by the aerial tramway of the 
Penn-Wyoming company. 
COONEY MIRE. NEW MEXICO. 

Owned and operated by Mogollon Gold <fe Copper Co. 
COONEY HILL GOLD & COPPER MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: Cheyenne, Wyo. John Brown, secretary. Property supposed 
to be in the Encampment district of Carbon county, Wyoming. 
CO-OPERATIVE MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, Berlin, King Co., Wash. 
CO-OPERATIVE MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. S. E. Phelps, secretary. 
Has a shaft on a fissure vein carrying iron oxides and traversing schists and 
quartzite. 
COPAQUIRE COPPER SULPHATE CO., LTD. CHILE! 

Offices: 101, Leadenhall St., London, E. C, England. Mine office: 
Copaquire, Tarapacd, Chile. Maj. L. Campbell-Johnston, chairman; J. E. G. 
Hadath, secretary; J. G. Green, mine manager; C. R. Enoch, engineer. Or- 
ganized May 19, 1900, with capitalization £494,000; issued, £289,155. Prop- 
erty consists of 13 claims, known as the Huinquintepa property, carrying 
deposits of chalcanthite^ or natural blucstoue, held under contact from the 
Chili Copper Sulphate Syndicate, claimed by company's experts to show 
upwards of 100,000,000 tons of ore valued at about £20,000,000. Develop- 
ment is by 150' shaft, open pits and trenches, amounting to about 1,000^. 

Property has steam power and a lixiviation plant covering about 1 
acre, rated at 500 tons daily capacity, with dehydrator for drying crystals 
of refined bluestone. Has electric light plant, necessary mine buildings 
and a number of stone dwellings, also a 4,000' tramway and various mis- 
cellaneous improvements, all walls and buildings being very massive to 
withstand earthquakes, which are of frequent occurrence in that vicinity. 
Company is short' of cash, but long on faith in its properties. 
EL COPETE COPPER IHNES. MEXICO. 

See Copete Mining Co. 
COPETE & MELCZER MINING CO. ^MEXICO. 

Succeeded by Copete Mining Co. 
COPETE MINING CO. MEXICO. 

Office : 27 William St., New York. Mine office : El Copete, Sonora, Mex. 
Capitalization $5,000,000, shares $5 par. Walter S. Logan, president; 
Myra B. Martin, secretary; Chas. F. Spiakor, superintendent. Prof. Geo. A. 
Treadwell claimed in 1900 to have found 10,000 tons of ore, averaging 10% cop- 
per and $10 to $60 gold per ton, on the dumjw, ready for smelting, and "no trou- 
ble to get millions of tons of similar ore." If tliis be true, it is rather remark- 
able that the ore on the dumps has not been snjolted. As a matter of fact, it 
is not at all probable that Prof. Treadwell found any such amount or value of 
ore. The property has a water system with four miles of pipe, and a large 
traction engine for transportation purposes. Has a small smelter, rated by 
company at 200 tons daily ca parity, which is said to have produced upwards 



COPETE-^OPPER BASIN. 33d 

of $100,000 in a short run. Company has had some internal dissensions, 
but these are thought to have been settled. Company claims that the gold 
values will cover cost of mining and reduction, leaving the copper cost-free, 
which, of course, is not true. Prof. Robt. T. Hill, of the United States 
Geological Survey, a competent and conservative authority, who has ex- 
amined this property states that tlie mine probably is valuable, but em- 
phatically disclaims endorsing the company, which also is the verdict of the 
Copper Handbook. 
COPIAPO MINING CO., LTD. CHILE. 

Offices: 16, Leadcnhall St., London, E. C, Eng. Mine office: Copiap6, 
Atacama, ChiM. A. Holland, chairman; W. T. Holberton, mine manager; 
W. S. Bartlett, secretary. Incorporated June 21, 1836, with capitalization 
£250,000, sliares £2 {>ar. Company has been a considerable dividend payer, 
having disbursed 12s. 1898-1899; 7s. 4d. 1899-1900; 4s. 1900-1901, and Is. 
6d. 1902-1903. Property includes the Descubridora mine, in the Chico 
district, opened 1825, which is 2,700' deep, and is the company's principal 
producer, having raised 10,160 metric tons of ore, averaging about 16.5% 
copper in 1903. The Dulcinea mine, opened 1854, at Puquios, is a 
half mile in depth, and is a considerable producer. Other mines owned and 
operated include the Farellon, Candelaria, Carmen Alto, 225' deep, San 
Francisco, 325' deep, Antonia, Republicana and sundry mines in the Ojancos 
district. Average values of ore are very high, having ranged in the {last 10 
years from 18.13% copper in 1895, down to 13.40% in 1901, with 15.34% 
in 1903. Ore reserves were estimated in 1902 at 19,634 tons at 15%, and 
production for 1902 was 4,594,240 lbs. refined copper. Company also owns 
an estate 15 miles in length near Copiap6, and has an extensive lixiviation 
plant at Puquios. Company is one of the oldest operating in Chile, and is 
also the largest producer and one of the best managed among the Anglo- 
Chilean properties. 
COPPER AGE MINING & SMELTING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Battle, Carbon Co., Wyo. Lands, 12 claims, 2 miles north 
of Battle. Had a 150' shaft, with vein showing a 4' pay-streak carrying 
chalcocite. Probably idle. 
COPPER BAR MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Office: 135 Adams St., Chicago, 111. Mine office: Organ, Donna Ana 
Co., N. M. Oi^ganized 1900, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. 
E. Percy Warner, president; Henry Stephens, secretary and treasurer; C. N. 
Anthony, superintendent. Lands, 8 unpatented claims, area 150 acres, in 
the Organ Mountains, showing two lenses, said to be contacts, between lime- 
stone and porphyry, carrying chrysocolla and carbonate ores averaging 14% 
copper, with small gold and silver values, opened by shafts of 112', 132' and 
177'. 
COPPER BAR MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Saratoga, Carbon Co., Wyo. W. J. Crane, president and 
general manager. Ore body has a 17' gossan capping, and is being opened 
by shaft, with steam power. 
COPPER BASIN GOLD & COPPER MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: 42 Bank of Arizona Bid?., Prescott, Yafapai Co., Ariz. 



340 THE COPPER HANDBOOK, 

Capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Alfred B. Noxon, president and 
secretary; W. W. Munds, superintendent. Lands, 17 claims. Has a 140' 
shaft, and has secured good assay values from auriferous and argentiferous 
copper ores. Has steam power and employs 10 to 15 men. Property con- 
sidered promising. 
COPPER BASIN MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Mine office: Placerville, San Miguel Co., Colo. B. B. Harlan, president, 
Chicago, 111.; Milton Evans, superintendent. Lands, 15 claims, opened by 
shaft. A carload of ore shipped to smelter returned 14% copper and $2.50 
gold per ton. 
COPPER BELLE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Gleeson, Cochise Co., Ariz. Organized 1904, under laws 
of Arizona, with capitalization $1,000,000, as a reconstruction of company 
of same name, bankrupt circa 1904. Peter Quinn, Henry J. Mayer, Eli 
Moneuse and Geo. E. Crawford of New York and Frank H. Hereford, of 
Tucson, directors, none of whom, except Crawford, were identified with 
former management. Wm. Kemp, manager. Lands, 8 claims, in the Tur- 
quoise district, showing considerable development and having ^ 50-ton 
smelter. Ore averages about 7% copper, with, fair gold and silver values, 
and about 30 tons daily are supplied to the Old Dominion smelter at Globe. 
Employs 30 men. Property regarded as valuable. 
COPP]^ BELL MINE. WASHINGTON. 

Owned by Bunker Hill-Sullivan Copper Mining Co. 
COPPER BELL MILL & MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: Milwaukee, Wis. Mine office: Clinton, Missoula Co., Mont. 
W. D. Carrick, vice-president; W. K. Ketcham, superintendent. Organized 

1900, under laws of Washington, with capitalization $2,500,000, shares $1 
par. Lands, 10 claims. Main shaft 212', with tunnels of 200^ on the Clinton 
vein and 560^ on the Granite vein, showing ores carrying gold, silver, lead 
and copper. Has steam power. 

COPPER BELT MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Lands, a group of claims in the Wallace district, Missoula county, Mont. 
COPPER BELT MINING CO. UTAH. 

Office and mine: Marysvale, Piute Co., Utah. Organized March 29, 

1901, under laws of Utah, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $2 par. 
Saul Krotki, president; L. H. Bartholomew, president and general manager; 
Elnor Bartholomew, secretary. Lands, 45 unpatented claims, area 900 
acres, also a 25-acre millsite, showing 4 fissure veins, claimed to have an 
average width of 8' and to give average assay values of 7% copper, 10% 
lead, 40 oz. silver and $5 gold per ton from sulphide ores opened by 4 shafts, 
deepest 450^, and tunnels of 125', 150^ and SOO'. Has steam power. 
COPPER BELT MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Rawlin, Carbon Co., Wyo. Lands, 35 claims, of which 12 
adjoin the Ferris-Haggerty and Osceola mines of the Penn-Wyoming, 23 
claims being in the Rawhide Buttes district, north of Guernsey. 
COPPER BLOSSOM MINE. WYOMING. 

A prospect near Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. 



COPPER BULLr-COPPER BUTTE. 341 

COPPER BULL MSfmO CO. COLORADO. 

Offices: 306 ContiDental Bank Blk., St. Louis, Mo., and L. B. 507, Pueblo, 
Colo. Mine office: Walsenburg, Huerfano Co., Colo. Organized 1901, 
under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $3,000,000, shares $1 par. Chas. 
R. Mason, president; Isaac M. Blason, secretary and treasurer; Chas. O. 
Unfug, general manager; H. S. Mclntyre, supemtendent. Lands, 32 claims, 
area 320 acres, showing five T fissure veins carrying oxide ores with claimed 
values of 10% copper, $80 gold and 2 oz. silver per ton. Has shafts of 202^ 
and 238', and a 464' tunnel. Management considered honest. 
COPPER BULLION MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 224 Byrne Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Pearce, Co- 
chise Co., Ariz. Oiganized 1900, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization 
$1,000,000, shares $1 par. Ezra T. Stimson, president; Percy H. Clark, 
secretary; Chas. M. Renaud, superintendent. Lands, 30 claims, in the 
Turquoise district, showing 3 veins said to average 14' in width, assaying 
9% copper, $4 gold and 7 oz. silver per ton, from carbonate and sulphide 
ores. Has 4 shafts, deepest 210^, and tunnels of 80^ and 900^. Idle. 
COPPER BUTTE MINES. ARIZONA. 

Office: 1007 New York Life Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. Mine office: 
Phoenix, Maricopa Co., Ariz. Organized July 21, 1900, under laws of 
Arizona, under name of Arizona Copper Mountain Mining Co., changed June, 
1904, to present title. Capitalization $6,000,000; shares $10 par. Augustus 
C. Sheldon, president and general manager; Benj. C. Sheldon, secretary; 
Wm. E. Alber, treasurer; preceding officers, Geo. H. Abeel, Geo. W. Wallace 
and Wm. E. Ellis, directors; Allan G. WUson, superintendent. 

Lands, 35 unpatented claims, area nearly 700 acres, in the Mineral 
Creek district of Pinal county, Arizona, reaching to the Gila river, with a 
160-acre smelter site, just west of the river and crossed by the Phoenix & 
Eastern Railway. Country rocks are granite, limestone, and cupriferous 
breccia, latter traced some 7,000^ and of about a quarter mile width, opened 
by shafts of 80^, 80^, 120^, 275', and 465', also by about 20 smaller shafts of 
20' to 50' depth and 5 tunnels, longest 240' and 300'. Ores are oxides and 
carbonates at and near surface and sulphides at sl^ht depth. Average assays 
of 39 samples give 7.39% copper, and ores carry up to $3 per ton in gold 
and silver values. Has steam power and hoist good for 1,000' depth, with 
necessary mine buildings and 3 dwellings. Company plans to deepen the 
2'-compartment main shaft to 800' and drift therefrom about 2,000' in 1905, 
and at earliest possible date to build a 1}^ mile aerial tram and construct a 
250-ton smelter. Company has some excellent men in its directorate and 
the property is one of vast possibilities, but it is entirely improbable that 
anything like the company's estimate of* 8% average copper values can be 
secured under the test of actual production upon a considerable scale. Should 
the ores average half of 8% in copper tenor, the mine, because of the vast 
and almost inexhaustible extent of its ore body, has the potentiality of making 
an exceptionally large and profitable property, 
COPPER BUTTE MINING CO. SOUTH DAKOTA, 

Mioe 9ffic«; Cu@^r, C\»ter Co., 9, Di Hany l^i^Rcjs, euperint^Adent.. 



342 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

COPPER BUTTES CONSOLIDATED MIiniVG ft CALIFORIOA. 

SMELTING CO. 

Office: Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Bagdad, San Bernardino Co., 
Cal. LandSj sundry lead and copper claims, north oC Bagdad. 

COPPER CANON MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office: Abiquiu, Rio Arriba Co., N. M., J. E. Irvine, superin- 
tendent. Property is 100 acres of undeveloped mineral lands. 
COPPER CANYON MINE. BRITISH COLUMBU. 

Claims near the foot of Mt. Sicker, British Columbia. Opened by two 
tunnels, on a 4' vein, showing good ore. Idle. 
COPPER CAVE MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office and mine: care of J. F. Crawford, Saratoga, Carbon Co., Wyo. 
COPPER CENTER GROUP. MEXICO. 

A group of claims near Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico, on wliich some de- 
velopment work iias been done by Dew R. Oliver, of San Francisco, Cal. 
COPPER CENTURY GROUP. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Washington, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz. Geo. A. Lonsberry, 
superintendent. Ores carry copper, zinc, lead and silver. Has gasoline 
power. 
COPPER CHIEF MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Jerome, Yavapai Co., Ariz. Arthur Hendy, 8U|>erintend- 
ent. Lands, about 5 miles south of Jerome, near the Iron King mine of the 
Equator company, show a large body of auriferous and argentiferous copper 
ore. Has steam power and a small leaching plant. Was formerly under 
option to Tharsis Sulphur & Copper Co., Ltd., and in 1904 a ridiculous and 
entirely unfounded story was spread that the property liad l)cen sold to the 
Calumet & Arizona interests for $3,000,000. As a matter of fact the Calu- 
met & Arizona directors who examined the property refused to buy 
it, and refused to recommend it. 
COPPER CHIEF MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Office: 604 Rookery Bldg., Spokane, Wash. Mine office: Dillon, Beaver- 
head Co., Mont. H. A. Fosselman, president; F. M. Longshore, secretary. 
Organized June, 1901, under laws of Washington, with capitalization $375,000, 
shares 25c. par. Lands, 5 claims, area 100 acres, showing a 30' fissure vein 
in granite, opened by shafts of 45', 70', and 135' showing carbonates at surface 
with chalcopyrite and a little chalcocite at depth, giving average assays of 
12.5% copper, 2 oz. to 5 oz. silver and $1.60 to $9 gold per ton. Has steam 
power and necessary mine buildings, and plans erection of a concentrator 
and increase in forces. 
COPPER CHIEF MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Property of compan}', in New Mexico, was forfeited to Jared Rater, who 
organized the Sater Copi>cr Co., protecting shareholders of the Copper Chief 
by giving them new shares to tlie equivalent of their stock in the dead company. 
COPPER CHIEF MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Said to own 4 claims near Mineral City, Washington. 
COPPER CLIFF MINES OF MONTANA, LTD. MONTANA. 

Offices: 727-733, Salisbury House, London, E. C, Eng. Registered 



COPPER CLIFF— COPPER CREEK. 343 

September 11, 1903, with capitalization £2,000,000, for purpose of devel- 
oping mines in Montana. 
COPPER CLIFF MnnNO CO. ARIZONA. 

Property sold to the Cat^ina Mining Ck). 

COPPER CLIFF MUnNG CO. MONTANA. 

Office and mine : Cliff, Powell Co., Mont. W. P. Shipler, superintendent. 

Lands, 4 claims, area 80 acres, showing contact veins of good width, with 

j oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores, said t assay 10% copper and $10 gold 

! per ton. Has tunnels of 300^, 600' and 800', and a 200' shaft. Company 

. plans building a smelter. Employs about 20 men. 

, COPPER CLIFF MINING CO. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Office: 79 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Mine office; Rochford, Penning- 
I ton Co., S. D. Organized 1899, under laws of South Dakota, with capitaliza- 
tion $1,000,000, shares $1 par. B. F. Brazee, president; Clias. A. Fohrman, 
vice-president and general manager; E. W. Eldridge, secretary. Property, 
carrying copper ore and graphite, is opened by 350' tunnel. Company is 
mining graphite and making paint therefrom in Chicago, and may give atten- 
tion later to an 8' vein of low-grade copper ore on the company's lands. 
COPPER COBRE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Out of business. Lands now held by Bradshaw Mountain C. M. & S. Co. 
COPPER COMPANY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 
Offices: 11, Grocers* Hall Ct., London, E. C, Eng. Was formed to 
acquire copper mines in the Kootenai district, British Columbia. Moribund. 
COPPER CONTACT MINE. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Sodaville, E^smerelda Co., Nev. Owned by A. F. Bettles, 
J. D. Thompson and W. R. Smith, of Salt Lake City, Utah. Apparently idle. 
COPPER CORPORATION OF CHILE, LTD. CHILE. 

In voluntary liquidation. J. Peters, St. George's House, Eastcheap, 
London, E. C, Eng., liquidator. Las Animas mines of this company have 
been sold to Las Animas Copper Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd., for £3,000 
cash and £54,500 debentures. 

COPPER CREEK CONSOLIDATED CO. ARIZONA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, Prescott, Yavapai Co., 

Ariz. R. H. Burmister, president; John Roberts, superintendent. 

COPPER CREEK CONSOLS, LTD. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Ashcroft, B. C. Lands, on Criss Creek, 

and difficult of acx^ess, were claimed to show a vein of 3' to 4' width, aasaying 

under 2% copper, and 17 oz. silver per ton. 

COPPER CREEK MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 1016 First National Bank Bldg., Chicago, Ills. Employs 4 men. 
Organized June, 1903, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $2,000,000, 
shares $1 par; unissued, $920,000. M. M. Atwood, president; Frank J. 
Sibley, secretary. L&nds, 21 claims, area 420 acres, also 2 millsites, area 40 
acres, in the Bunker Hill district, Galurio mountains, Graham county, Arizona, 
showing several fissure veins in rhyolite and contact veins between rhyolite 
and porphyry, of which 4 veins are opened by a number of pits and shafts 
of lO' to 230' depth, and 4 tunnels of 50' to 150' length. Ores opened so 
far are mainly cuprite and chalcocite, with small quantities of malachite 



344 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

and chrysocoUa, giving assays of 30% to 45% copper, 30 oz. to 100 oz. silver 
and II to $4 gold per ton. Management plans to deepen shaft No. 1 to 
1,000', continue driving two tunnels and install a steam hoist. 
COPPER CREEK MmUfG CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from Fresno, Fresno Co., Gal. Organized 
1903, to develop sundry copper claims in the mountains east of Fresno. 
COPPER CROWN OF ARIZONA MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 13 South Seventh St., Minneapolis, Minn. Mine office: Pearce, 
Cochise Co., Ariz. Organized 1900, under laws of Arizona, with capitaliza- 
tion $2,000,000, shares $1 par. Thos. W. Stevens, president; C. F. Potter, 
Jr., secretary; Chas. F. Potter, general manager. Lands, 17 claims, area 340 
acres, also a 20-acre millsite and 10-acre smelter site, in the Dragoon Mountains, 
showing 3 veins giving assays of 5% to 40% copper, with small gold and 
silver values, from oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores. Has a 275' shaft 
and two short tunnels, with about 1,000^ of undezground openings. Owing 
to lack of funds, claims were leased Jan. 1, 1905. 
COPPER CROWN MINING CO. MICHIGAN. 

Office: 616 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. Mine office: Matchwood, 
Ontonagon Co., Mich. Employs 8 to 10 men. Organized July 18, 1902, 
under laws of Michigan, with capitalization $2,500,000, sliares $25 par. 
Dr. M. J. Hopkins, president; W. Wollaston Guest, general manager; W. R. 
Hopkins, secretary; J. F. Finnegan, superintendent. Lands, 1,320 acres, 
including the Hamilton group of 400 acres, this being composed of the Ham- 
ilton, Trap Ilock, Essex and Windsor properties, and the Norwich and La- 
fayette mines, all old attempts at copper mines made in the early days of 
Lake Superior development. Openings are a 100' shaft on the Meads vein, 
said to show a little copper, and a tunnel of several hundred feet in length, 
showing nothing in particular. The company puts forth the foUowing claims ; 
'* Five distinct veins of pure native copper ranging from 6' to 10' wide have 
been accurately located. These outcrop on the surface and can be easily 
traced and accurately located. ♦ * ♦ Experts say that beyond a doubt 
the Copper Crown possesses one of the richest ore bodies of viigin copper 
found in the Lake Superior district. Tliat these native copper lodes extend 
for many miles into the earth is not a conjecture but an historical fact." 
Then follows an assay showing 75% metallic copper. Prospectus also says: 
"We court the fullest investigation. ♦ ♦ * Will gladly answer any questions 
and furnish any information that you may desire," nothwithstanding which, 
the company has failed to furnish a report for the Copper Handbook, al- 
though repeatedly requested. The company also claims to have assets of 
$50,000. Tlie managers of the company are either incompetent or dishonest. 
First work was done on a drift boulder in sandstone, and a long tunnel is 
being driven to secure a ''back" of about half the tunnel's length. The 
company is the laughing-stock of the Lake Superior copper district. 
COPPER CROWN OF NOVA SCOTIA MINING CO. NOVA SCOTIA. 

Office: 373 Washington St., Boston, Mass. Oiganized under West 
Virginia laws, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. Samuel K. 
Paige, president; Geo. B. Holden, secretary and treasurer; W. H. Kennan, 
manager. I^nds, near Pictou, N. S.« are claimed to show extensive ore bodies 



COPPER CROWN— COPPER GIANT. 345 

averaging 5% to 6% copper. Has a smelter, with blast furnaces of 300 tons 

and reverberatory furnace of 70 tons daily capacity, located with tidewater 

in front and railroad tracks behind. Fuel and flux are abundant and cheap. 

Company is in litigation, with matters in chaotic and most unpromising 

condition. 

COPPER DUKE MSIE. ARIZONil 

Owned and operated by Tip Top CJopper Co. 
COPPER DUKE MINE. MONTANA. 

Partly developed claims, near Copperopolis, Meagher County, Montana. 
COPPER EAGLE MINING CO. <m£GON. 

Mine office: Merlin, Josephine Co.,. Ore. R. J. Ginn, president; N. P. 
Hansen, secretary; J. C. Mattison, superintendent. Has a fairly wide quartz 
vein, giving assays of 10% to 30% copper, opened by d 300' tunnel and 
plans installing a 50-ton smelter. Elmploys 10 men. 
COPPER ESTATES OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA, LTD. 

Offices: 66, Finsbury Pavement, London, £. C, Eng. Location of 
property, if any, unknown. 
COPPER EXPLORERS, LTD. 

A moribund English corporation. 
COPPER FALLS MINE. MICHIGAN. 

Absorbed, 1898, by Arnold Mining Co. Fully described in Vol. I. 
COPPERFIELD MINES. VERMONT. 

Office: 820 Pennsylvania Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. Mine office: Copper- 
field, Orange Co., Vt. Geo. Wesstinghouse, Pittsbuig, Pa., owner; Geo. J. 
Troop, Jr., general manager; Geo. C. Everett, mill superintendent; Wm. 
Ricker, mine superintendent. Property includes the old Ely and Copper- 
field mines, having a strong ore body carrying low-grade disseminated chalco- 
pyrite. ^Main shaft, 3, TOO', on an incline of 23®, giving a vertical deptli equal 
to about 1,500^. Has a 1,000^ tunnel leading from 300^ level to mill. Has 
a combined mill and smelter, connected with mine by a gravity tram, with 
two water-jacket blast furnaces and one reverberatory furnace and one 
stand of converters installed in 1902, making blister copper of 98% to 99% 
tenor. Property was worked on a considerable scale previous to circa 1860, 
and was reopened by present owner in 1900, and is again idle. 
COPPERFIELD MINING CO. UTAH. 

Letters returned unclaimed from former office, Bingham Canyon, Utah. 
COPPER FIELDS OF NAMAQUALAND, LTD. CAPE COLONY. 

Offices: 10, St. Helen's Place, London, E. C, Eng. A. Crump, chair- 
man; N. A. Eustace, secretary. Lands, 354 acres, in Little Namaqualand, 
Cape Colony, South Africa. 
COPPER GIANT GOLD A COPPER MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office: Encampment, Carbon Co., Wyo. D. Frank Powell, president ;^ 
P. H. Kennedy, secretary. Idle. 
COPPER GIANT MINING CO. 

Office: Spokane, Wash. Wm. H. Ludden, president; L. B. Cornell, 
secretary. Organized 1897, under laws of Washington, with capitalization 
$1,000,000, shares $1 par. Company has 3 claims, with a fair showing of 
ore, but no money. 



346 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

COPPER GLANCE CONSOLIDATED MINE. UTAH. 

Mine office: Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Is driving an 
1,800^ tunnel in McGuire gulch. 
COPPER GLANCE MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine: Bisbee, Cochiae Co., Ariz. S. W. Clawson, president 
and tiieasurer; A. S. Barker, secretary; C. L. Beckwith, general manager. 
Oiganized March, 11K)1, under laws of Arizona, with capitalization $2,500,000, 
sliares $1 par. Annual meeting, March 9. Lands, 24 patented claims, 
area 480 acres, in tlie Warren district, about 9 miles southeast of Bisbee. 
Has shafts of 50', 100', 140' and 560' with tunnels of 75' and 150'. Idle. 
Fully described in Vol IV. 
COPPER GLANCE BONING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Mine office : • Taos, Taos Co., N. M. Idle at last accounts. 
COPPER GLANCE MINING & MILLING CO. COLORADO & WYOMING. 

Office: Sherwood Bldg., Elgin, Ills. Mine offices: Encampment, Car^ 
bon Co., Wyo., and Cashin, Montrose Co., Colo. H. N. Anderson, president; 
N. C. Westerfield, vice-president; C. A. Wetzel, secretary and treasurer; 
L. F. Judd, general manager. Property includes sundry copper claims in 
the Encampment district having a shallow shaft showing ore assaying 20% 
copper, and the Jja Sal mine, in Colorado, one mile from the Utah line, which 
has shipped considerable ore to smelters at Pueblo and Denver. 
COPPER GLOBE MINING CO. UTAH. 

Lands, sundry claims in the southwestern part of Emery county, Utah, 
said to show large bodies of low-grade copper ore. Title in dispute, at last 
accounts, between Dr. C. B. Snyder, of Provo, Utah, and Dr. W. R. Rice, 
of St. George, Utah. 
COPPER-GOLD MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Bossburg, Stevens Co., Wash. S. G. Wilson, superintendent. 
Ores carry copper and silver. 
COPPER-GOLD MINING & MILLING CO. WYOMING. 

Mine office : Hecla, Laramie Co., Wyo. Joseph O. Majors, superintendent. 
COPPER HILL MINE. ALABAMA. 

An idle property, near Stone Hill, Cleburne Co., Ala. Once known as 
the Woods mine. Opened 1870, clased 1879. Had a smelter and worked as 
many as 500 men. Closed owing to exhaustion of high-grade ores. Vein is 
24' wide, mineralized near walls to extent of 3% to 7% copper. Value of 
production secured was about $1,300,000. 
COPPER HILL MINE. CALIFORNU. 

Office: care of W. F. Detert, owner, Jackson, Cal. Mine is on the 
Consumnes river, in Amador Co., Cal. Was opened, circa 1861, and worked 
about 20 years, with considerable production. Vein formation, quartz 
porphyry, is SOO' to 600' wide, with heavy gossan capping. Ore is chalcopy- 
rite, associated with iron pyrites. At close of 1904, a new hoist was being 
installed, and plans were made to resume sinking. 
COPPER HILL MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Sec Arizona Copper Hill Mining Co. 
COPPER HILL MINING CO. NEW MEXICO. 

Dead. Lands sold Novemlwr, 1903, to A. B. Renehan, for $7,600. 



dOPPEk HILL~-<!QPPER KING. 347 

COPPER HILL MINING & MILLING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 50-4 Empire Bldg., Spokane, Wash. Organized 1899, with cap- 
italization $75,000, shares 5c par. F. J. Heller, president; G. O. Nettleton, 
secretary. Lands, 4 claims, area 80 acres, in the Newport district of Stevens 
county, Washington, with rail and water transportation easily accessible. 
Has a 230^ shaft and a 260^ tunnel, showing an 18' vein carrying chalcopyrite 
and pyrrhotite. 
COPPER INDEPENDENT CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Office: 61 Ck>urt St., Boston, Mass. Mine office: Silverton, Snohomish 
Co., Wash. M. V. Little, president; E. P. Crooker, secretary; Arthur W. 
Hawks, general manager. Capitalization $3,000,000, shares $1 par. Also 
has a bond issue. Lands, 2 groups of claims, also several millsites. Has 
5 tunnels, longest 1,200', with several thousand feet of underground devel- 
opment, on a fissure vein in granite. Plant includes a concentrator, 52x133', 
of wood, equipped with crushers, rolls and tables, said to be of 300 tons 
daily capacity. A turbine develops 550 horse power from the Stillaguamish 
river. Officers claimed to be men of good standing, and property said to be 
of considerable promise, but company began selling stock and paying 6% 
dividends simultaneously, which is plain evidence of poor management or 
worse. Companies so promoted usually end in the bankruptcy courts. 
COPPER KING OF ARIZONA. ARIZONA. 

Office: 116 Nassau St., New York. Mine office: Pearce, Cochise Co., 
Ariz., Elisha Boitel, president; Thos F. Gaynor, secretary and treasurer; 
Thos. F. O'Brien, superintendent. Is a reorganization of the Copper King 
of Arizona Mining Co., which was organized in 1895, with capitalization 
$5,000,000, shares $1 par, and peddled stock assiduously, the late B. C. Davis 
and his successor, Gaynor, both making large promises, none of which were 
redeemed. Operations were begun at Bisbee, transferred therefrom to 
Solomon Springs, thence to Barrett, and latterly at Pearce, all in Cochise 
county, Arizona. The new corporation, chartered 1903, under the laws of 
West Virginia by Messrs. Boitel, Hess and Brunton, took over the affairs 
of the Copper King of Arizona Mining Co. Management of the company 
was scandalously bad for many 3'ears, but seems to have improved slightly 
since Mr. Boitel's election to the presidency, but prospects not considered 
good. 
COPPER KING OF ARIZONA MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Again reorganized; now Copper King of Arizona. 
COPPER KING MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Johnson, Cochise Co., Ariz. S. A. D. Upton, owner. A 
prospect having a limited amount of development work. 
COPPER KING MINE. ARIZONA. 

Office and mine : care of Peter Johnson, owner, Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
This is the original property held by the Copper King of Arizona, but was 
abandoned several years ago, and relocated, 1903, by present owner. Has 
a 625' shaft, in porphyry, which has cut a number of small stringers of copper 
ore. Property was generally regarded as worthless, until recently, but 
developments on the Junction property indicate the possibility of consid- 
erable ore bodies underlying the porph)rry, near its junction with the lime- 



^8 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

stone, in the Warren district. Material on dump, taken from shaft, is altered 
and slightly mineralized porphyiy, carrying considerable iron pyrites. 
COPPER KING CLAIMS. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Kamloops, Yale & Cariboo district, B. C. Lands, sundry 
claims 16 miles west of Kamloops, showing ore giving assays of 5% to 20% 
copper, 1 oz. to 6 oz. silver and $10 to $20 gold per ton. Is working a small 
force, and made a carload shipment of slightly auriferous copper ore 
to the Crofton smelter in October, 1903. 
COPPER KING GROUP. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Six claims near the Queen Victoria property, at Beasley, 7 miles west 
of Nelson, B. C. Shows several exposures of sulphide ore. Has gravel 
overburden, rich in float ore. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Mine office: Cameron Lake, Nanaimo district, B. C. Has a lOCK 
tunnel, showing copper ore. 
COPPER KING, LTD. CALIFORNIA. 

An English company that had mining property at Letcher, Fresno Co., 
Cal., which became bankrupt through rottenly extravagant management, 
after squandering money of the confiding shareholders to the tune of up- 
wards of £250,000. Fully described in Vol. III. 
COPPER KING MINE. COLORADO. 

Held by Calumet Copper Co. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Succeeded by Pearl Copper Mining & Smelting Co. 
COPPER KING CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. COLORADO. 

Incor|x>rated April, 1903, by Milo A. Smith, et al, with capitalization 
$300,000, to operate in Jefferson and Clark counties, Colorado. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. IDAHO. 

Office ai.d mine: Shoup, Lemhi Co., Idaho. Is a limited partnership. 
Lands, 11 claims, area 220 acres, also 260 acres miscellaneous lands, in the 
Mackinaw district, showing numerous fissure veins in quarteite, of which 
three, with average width of 10' to 12', are opened by 2 shallow shafts and 
7 tunnels, of which 3 are 300' eacli in length, showing cuprite and malachite 
giving average assays of 7% copper, 1 oz. to 4 oz. silver and $1 to $3 gold per 
ton. 
COPPER KING MINING & MILLING CO., IDAHO. 

Office and mine: Mace, Idaho Co., Idaho. Organized March 22, 1902, 
under laws of Idaho, with capitalization $1,250,000. shares $1 par. P. P. 
Webber, president; Ed. Hearing, vice-president and treasurer; Chas. Mc- 
Kinnis, general manager; Joseph Rogers, superintendent ; J. Le Brice, engineer. 
Lands, 7 claims, area 140 acres, also 10-acre millsite, well timbered, with 
available water power, in the Rapid River division of the Seven Devils district, 
shoeing 2 fissure veins in phonolite, of whicli one of 8' width is opened by a 
265' tunnel, giving assays up to 40% copper, 300 oz. silver and $20 gold 
per ton, from high grade agentiferous bornite, with a considerable amount of 
medium grade chalcopyrite. Is working a small force and plans shipping ore 
to the new plant of the Ladd Metals Co., at Landore. 



COPPER KING— COPPER KNOB, 349 

COPPER KINO MnrafO & SMELTDIO CO. IDAHO. 

Supposed to have claims in the vicinity of MuUan, Shoshone Co., Idaho. 
COPPER KINO CLAIM. MONTANA. 

Office and mine: care of Henr}" & Marshall Smith, owners, Parrot, Madi- 
son Co., Mont. Liands, one claim, 2 miles southeast of Parrot, giving ores 
assaying up to 12.5% copper, 0.85 oz. silver and $2.80 gold per ton. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. MONTANA. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Missoula, Mont. 
COPPER KING MINE. OREGON. 

Supposed to be located in vicinity of Comer, Grant Co., Oregon. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. OREGON. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former office, Pendleton, Ore. Incor- 
porated, August, 1902, with capitalization $1,500,000. 
COPPER KING MINE. SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Claims in the vicinity of Terry, Lawrence Co., S. D. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. UTAH. 

Dead. Lands sold to Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. 
COPPER KING MINE. WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Chewelah, Stevens Co., Wash. A prospect only. 
COPPER KING MINING COT WASHINGTON. 

Mine office: Sumas, Whatcom Co., Wash. R. S. Lambert, supt. 
COPPER KING MINING & MILLING CO. WASHINGTON. 

Oiganized, 1898, under laws of Washington, with Geo. R. Trask, pres- 
ident, and Sam Hanauer, secretary. No trace of company's lands or present 
office found after protracted investigation. 
COPPER KING MINING & MILLING CO. ^ WASHINGTON. 

Office and mine: Vancouver, Clark Co., Wash. Organized January, 
1904, with capitalization $1,000,000, shares $1 par. by J Connors, et al. 
COPPER KING MINING SYNDICATE. WASHINGTON. 

Office: Tacoma, Wash. R. E. McFarlane, president; E. Areith, secre- 
tary and treasurer; D. E. Guiley, superintendent. Capitalized at $10,000,000. 
Lands, 64 claims, in Pieree county, Washington. Company has acquired the 
old Eastlick mine, said to have produced some very high-grade ore, and 
opened by a 130^ crosscut tunnel, with a small amount of drifting. District 
said to be rich, but not easily accessible. 
COPPER KING MINE. WYOMING. 

Mine office: Tie Siding, Carbon Co., Wyo. W. C. Lyride, superintend- 
ent. Said to have been sold to Messrs. Martin & Lambert, of Chicago, for 
$30,000. 
COPPER KING MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Letter returned unclaimed from former mine office, Rawlins, Wyo. 
COPPER KING MINE. YUKON. 

Mine office: Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. Main shaft, 175'. Shipped 
200 tons of high-grade ore to I^y smith smelter in 1904. Property is promis- 
ing but not easily accessible, and rail freights, between mine and smelter, 
are almost prohibitive. 
COPPER KNOB MINING CO. IfORTS CAROLINA, 

M$rg$d to Blue Ridge Copper Mining Co, 



350 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

COPPER BUNES OF TIBET, LTD. 

Offices: 5-6, Great Winchester St., London, E. C, Eng. Capital, nom- 
inal, £100. Location of property, under the promoter's hat. A delicate 
example of British humour, of a certain kind. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT CO. CALIFORNIA. 

J. B. Campbell, president; R. McCourt, superintendent. Lands, 50 
claims, area about 1,000 acres, 35 miles east of Kaweah, Tulare Co., Cal. 
Ores are carbonates and sulphides, carrying 2% to 25% copper. Has a 
limited amount of development work. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING WASHINGTON & BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

& DEVELOPMENT CO. 

Office: 5406 Union Ave., South Tacoma, Wash. Lands are in Wash- 
ington and British Columbia. Capitalization $200,000, shares 10c par. 
S. B. Cowles, president ; Jos. Hutchinson, secretar>' ; B. D. Holcomb, general 
manager; A. T*. Macaulay, superintendent. The property at Ryan, Stevens 
Co., \yash., is idle. .This has 4 claims, area 90 acres, with 3 ore bodies, one 
lens 75' wide being opened by a 300' shaft and 115' tunnel. The June group, 
at Quatsino Sound, B. C, includes 5 claims, area 258 acres, showing an ore 
body said to be lOO' wide, with measured length of 3,000', giving assays of 
6% to 8% copper, 3 oz, silver and $2 gold per ton from chalcopyrite. A 
large amount of ore is shown in surface, and the deposit is worked open-cast. 
A shaft may be sunk later. Ore will be treated by the new smelter of the 
Yreka Copper Company, 7 miles distant. Property is considered promising, 
but was idle at last accounts. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING CO. CALIFORNIA. 

Office: 310 Laughlln Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Mine office: Victor, 
San Bernardino Co., Cal, W. A. Cooper, president; J. S. Longley, secretary; 
J. A. Morlan, manager. Lands, 10 claims, including the Amazon mine, 
showing a 200' gossan outcrop, opened circa 1873, reopened 1901. Main 
shaft, 200', showing sulphide ores assaying 8% to 10% copper, with about 
10,000 tons of ore on the dump. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN MOaNG CO. NEVADA. 

Mine office: Tacoma, Elko Co., Nev. D. Kane, superintendent. Has 
steam power. Probably idle. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING CO. WYOMING. 

Office : care of Dr. C. W. Long, manager, Denver, Colo. Has claims on 
Copper Mountain, 20 miles southeast of Big Horn, Wyo., said to show a 6^^ 
vein of ore, assaying 40% copper, 517 oz. silver and $15 gold per ton. 
COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING & MILLING CO. UTAH. 

Office: 323 D. F. Walker Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. Mine office: 
Milford, Beaver Co., Utah. Lafayette Holbrook, president; Benj. T. Lloyd 
secretary and manager. Capitalization $80,000, sliares, 10c par. Lands, 
6 claims, having opcn-<*uts and shallow shafts of 5' to 60', and a main shaft, of 
peculiar construction, about 250' in depth, showing an iron ore vein of 4' to 
14' width, giving assays of 18% to 28% copper. Shaft is vertical for about 
100'; thence drops 100' at an angle of 75°; thereafter lias 50' sunk at an angle 
of 70°. If present plan of opening be continued, shaft eventually will emerge 
to surface. Has gasoline power. Was under $125,000 bond and lease to 



COPPER MOUNTAIN— COPPER PRINCE. 361 

W. J. Bowring, et al, in 1904. Lessee secured considerable 5% ore from tho 
property, which is regarded as valuable, if properly financed and developed. 
COPPER MOUllTAm MZNIIIG & SMELTING CO. MONTANA. 

Mine office: Corbin, Jefferson Co., Mont. Oi^anized 1904, with cap- 
italization $1,000,000. J. H. McCabe, manager. Lands, about 50 claims, 
area alxiut 1,000 acres, on Copper Mountain, near Corbin. Development is 
by a 200^ shaft, to be sunk 500^ with first drifts opened on 500" level. Shaft 
has encountered numerous stringers of ore assaying 6% copper, with small 
silver values, but larger ore bodies of good grade are confidently anticipated 
at depth. Considerable diamond drill boring is being done also. Company 
is operating on a business-like basis and property is decidedly promising. 
COPPEROPOLIS MINE. ARIZONA. 

Office: care of Dr. J. M. Ford. Phoenix, Ariz. Mine office: Briggs, 
Yavapai Co., Ariz. Emery W. Fisher, superintendent Ores carry copper, 
silver and lead. *Has gasoline power and employed about 20 men at last 
accounts. 
COPPEROPOLIS MINE. MONTANA. 

Own<Kl by Daly Mining Co. 
COPPEROPOLIS COPPER CO. OREGON. 

Office: 503 McKay Bldg., Portland, Ore. Mine office: Comer, Grant 
Co., Ore. Organized 1900, under laws of Oregon, with capitalization $120,000, 
shares 10c par. A. H. Willett, president; W. W. Gibbs, secretary, treasurer 
and general manager. Lands, 2 patented claims, area 40 acres, also 5-acre 
mill-site, showing 4 fissure veins with estimated average values of 12% copper, 
$15 gold and 3 oz. silver per ton, from carbonate and sulphide ores. Has 
tunnels of 75' and 400', with steam, water and electric power, and contem- 
plates installation of a leaching plant. Employs 15 to 20 men. 
COPPEROSITY MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Vekol, Pinal Co., Ariz. E. J. Bonsall, superintendent. 
COPPER OXIDE GROUP. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: care of W. H. Baker, P. O. Box 147, Bisbee, Cochise Co., 
Ariz. A group of 27 claims, located in Tombstone Canyon, about 6 miles 
northwest of Bisl)ee, on which assessment work has shown an iron outcrrjp 
COPPER PLATE & ARIZONA MINING CO. ARIZONA 

A company by this title is said to have been organized just at close of 
1904, by Duluth, Minn., parties, with capitalization $5,000,000, to take over 
the Copper Plate group of claims on Chase Creek, near Clifton, Graham Co., 
Arizona. 

COPPER PRINCE GROUP. ARIZONA. 

A group of claims in the Eureka district of Yavapai county, Arizona. 

COPPER PRINCE MINE. ARIZONA. 

Mine office: Kingman, Mohave Co., Ariz. J. W. Smith, superintendent. 

Has gas power. 

COPPER PRINCE MINING CO. CALIFORNU. 

Office: care of J. C. Ruddock, secretary, Ukiah, Cal. Mine office: Mid- 
dleton. Lake Co., Cal. E. Lobree, president. Lands, 3 claims, opened by 
tunnel and trenches. A vein of 6' to 8' width, in limestone, gives assays of 
5% copper, 1 oz. silver and $3 gold per ton. 



352 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

COPPER PRINCE CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. UTAH. 

Mine office: Alia, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Oi^anized 1904, with capi- 
talization $500,000, shares $1 par. Anthony O. Jacobson, president; C. K. 
McCornick, vice-president; Chas. H. Post, secretary. Lands, 3 groups of 
claims, from which $900,000 worth of ore has been shipped in the past. 
Lands are near the Continental-Alta and Columbus Consolidated. 
COPPER QUEEN CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. ARIZONA. 

Office: 99 John St., New York. Mine office: Bisbee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
Employs about 2,500 men. Is fifth among the world's great copper producers, 
and destined to take a place very near the top within the next few years. 
Organized 1884, under laws of New York, with capitalization $2,000,000, 
shares $1 par. Is a close corporation, said to have but 14 shareholders. 
James Douglas, president; Geo. Notihan, secretary and treasurer; Walter 
Douglas, general manager; S. W. French, assistant manager; S. W. Claw- 
son, mine superintendent; Geo. B. Lee, smelter superintendent; W. F. 
Crane, chief auditor. Has upwards of 1,000 acres of mineral lands, the 
great value of much of the undeveloped territory having been established 
recently by operations of adjoining companies. 

Mine was opened in 1880, on a solid outcrop of oxidized copper, iron and 
manganese, opposite the Copper Queen hotel in Bisbee. This entire ore 
body has been removed, leaving a lai^ artificial cave. The original ore 
body gave average returns of 23% copper and was smelted in a 30* water* 
jacket fumjice with English coke brought via San Francisco, but was ex- 
hausted in three or four years, and the mine had many ups and downs, until 
additional and far larger ore bodies were developed by following seams and 
stringers of ore wherever occurring, these ahnast invariably leading to further 
large and rich ore deposits. The formation of the Copper Queen and other 
mines of the district consists essentially of two dolomitic limestone beds of 
Carboniferous age, the upper white and the lower blue, dipping to the south- 
ward and flanking a granite-porphyry core, with intrusive porphyritic horses. 
Until recently the principal ore bodies have been found at the base of the 
upper limestone bed, which is much broken and interrupted by feldspathic, 
igneous, intrusive rocks that evidently have a considerable bearing upon the 
ore deposits, which occur in pockets, lenses, chimneys, bunches, chutes, veins, 
stringers, seams — in fact in almost every manner possible, the larger bodies 
being connected in most cases by small veins or mere knifeblade seams. Tlie 
limestone and its included ore bodies have a general pitch to the southeast, 
somewhat sharper than the pitch of Tomb.stone Canyon, necessitating deeper 
aiiJ deeper shafts as distance is made toward the southeast. In 1902 exten- 
sive bodies of high-grade ore were found in the underlying limestone strata, 
and developments at the Calumet & Arizona mine proved these underlying ore 
bodies to be persistent to great depth. All of the Copper Queen's deep shafts 
are l>ottomed in disseminated sulphide ores of high grade, consequently the 
depth of the ore bodies, while already proven to be great, is conjectural. The 
mines show numerous beautiful caves lined with calcite, some of these being 
of considerable size and frequently found in close association with good ore 
bodies. The alteration zone is variable and erratic, as rich oxidized ores 
have l)ecn found on the lowest level, \nth chalcocite and bomite occurring 



COPPER QVEEN, ^% 

above azuritc, malachite, cuprite and even considerable bodies of native 
copper. The larger masses of native metal, ranging up to several hundred- 
weights and even tons in weight, have been found mainly, not in the upper 
levels, as might have been expected, but at considerable depth. There is 
much talc and hematite, with frequent occurrences of manganese, in connec- 
tion with ore bodies. Only oxidized ores were worked until about 1893, 
when converters were added to the smelting plant, since which time the fur- 
naces are charged with mixtures of oxide, carbonate and sulphide ores, per- 
haps one-third of the charges being sulphide ores, the ores smelted giving 
average returns of better than 7%. The system of assaying used by the 
mine gives no figures regarding ores richer than 15% and the frequent occur- 
rence of the figures "15+ '' on the assay books of every shaft testifies to 
the wonderful richness of the ore bodies. 

The various shafts of the mine range from 400' to 1,200^ in depth, and 
the mine has nearly 150 miles of underground openings. There are three 
producing shafts, these being the Czar, Holbrook and Spray, with three 
developing shafts, the Lowell, Gardner and Sacramento, and one shaft, the 
White' Tail Deer, under lease, also a number of old and small exploratory 
shafts and pits. The mine is opened ahead for perhaps eight or ten years, 
and since 1902 the bulk of the ore smelted has come from development work 
only, the present ore reserves of this property being among the richest and 
most extensive ever developed. The ores are so soft that securing the mine 
openings is a serious problem, as the entire hill above the mine is creeping, 
and serious crushes can be avoided only by heavy timbering and the exercise 
of great care. Many of the lower stopes are bulkheaded throughout. The 
mine is timbered with square sets of 10x10^ and 12x12^ timber, mainly 
Washington fir, and an average of 30^ of timber, board measure, is required 
for each ton of ore won. All ore is hand-sorted underground after breaking, 
and culls used for filling in worked-out stopes, this material standing remark- 
ably well. That the Copper Queen mine, operated under these numerous 
disadvantages and menaces to life, is one of the safest copper mines in exis- 
tence for underground workmen, is proof of the experience and ability 
of its management. 

The Czar shaft is the oldest of the present workings and the old smelter 
and principal shops are found clustered about this shaft, on a narrow bench 
of ground made by grading the steep hillside. This shaft Ls connected under- 
ground with the Holbrook, Spray and Gardner shafts, and ultimately all six 
shafts will have numerous coimections. The old plant was crowded and 
apparently inadequate, notwithstanding which it earned many millions for 
the Copper Queen company in the past, doing much better work than its 
appearance promised. 

Next southeast of the Czar * is the Holbrook shaft, an old and reliable 
producer carrying very rich ores, and excessively hot in the lower levels. 
Enormous new ore bodies have been discovered and opened, 1903-1904, in 
this shaft, which is now the principal producer of the mine. The shaft is 
500^ deep, with a lOO' winze from the bottom level, and was cut down in 1904 
(rom 4 compartments to 6-compartment size, and is being equipped with a 
new steel gallows-frame, 750-h. p. hoist and a new battery of boilers. 



354 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

Next southeast is the Silver Spray, commonly known as the Spray, the 
newest of the mine's producing shafts. This is 95(y deep and has three com- 
partments, two carrying 3-deck cages for ore cars, with a man-way and pipes 
in the third compartment. The pump station is on the 700' level. This 
shaft shows rich ores from the fourth level to the bottom, the upper woi kings 
carrying mainly clialcocite, which changes to bormte on the fifth level, with 
carbonates, oxides and a continuance of sulphide ores shown on the sixlli 
level, both oxidized and sulphide ores occurring on the seventh, and with 
mainly sulphide ores on the eighth level. The ore bodies are very extensive 
and persistent, but mast erratic in nature, with frequent occurrence of pot* 
phyry dykes. A considerable body of native copper was cut on the 700' 
and agam on the 800' level, thus setting at defiance some deeply cherished 
geological tlieories regarding ore deposition. The Spray has underground 
connection with the Gardner and from the richness and great extent of its 
ore bodies mast become a very heavy producer. This shaft is not far from 
the Irish Mag sliaft of the Calumet & Arizona. 

The Lowell is a property bought in 1901, and the shaft is southeast of the 
Irish Mag shaft of the Calumet & Arizona. The depth is 1,120', and under^ 
ground connection has been secured with the Gardner shaft. No important 
ore bodies have been opened above the 900' level, but very large lenses 
have been developed on both the 1,000' and 1,100' levels, ore being high- 
grade sulphides. This shaft makes about 175,000 gallons of water daily, 
forked by a Prescott pump from a station on the 1,000' level. On surface an 
excellent plant has been installed, and 3,000-ton ore bins built. The Lowell 
became a producer in 1904, and has shipped carloads of ore averaging 55% 
copper, the average being much lower, of course, but remarkably high. 

The Gardner shaft, near the porphyry contact, is an old and shallow 
shaft, cut down, 1903, to 3-compartment size, by upraising. The shaft is 
now 1,100' in depth, and will l>e sunk to at least 1,200'. Immense bodies of 
high-grade sulphide ores, much like those of the Lowell, are being developed. 
Tlie Gardner has a 100' steel gallows-frame, is installing a 75(>-h. p. hoist 
similar to that at the Holbrook, and should become a producer reasonably 
early in 1905. 

The Sacramento is a new shaft, started 1904, and was about 400' deep 
at the close of tlie year. This is a 3-compartment shaft, with hoisting com- 
partments 4'xG'2* in size, and a 5x8' compartment for pump columns, air 
pipes, wires and ladden^'ay. The location is on Sacramento Hill, the key- 
stone of the Bisbee copper deposits, and underground connection will be 
made witli the Lowell as soon as sufficient depth is gained. 

The Wliite Tail Deer shaft is some distance south of the company's 
main workings, and reached by road only by a detour of several miles. Thir 
was opened, circa 1893, by an incline shaft of 100', and a drift was sent to the 
line of the Broken Promise claim, now owned by the Wolverine & Arizona, 
the drift showing good ore, the product being hauled to the smelter by a 
traction engine. The White Tail Deer was leased, 1903, to Birdno Bros. & 
Bogga, and the les-sees have reopened the old incline and are following a vein 
of high-grade ore, while the property also shows a big body of low-grade ore. 



COPPER QUEEN. C55 

Small shipments made by the lessees, in 1904, ranged 12% to 50% in copper 
tenor. 

The Copper Queen has 32 boilers at the mine and smelter, fuel being 
principally Texas and California petroleum, consumption amounting to 
about 13,000 gallons daily. Petroleum has proven cheaper in initial cost 
and cleaner and easier for handling than coal, in addition to which a large 
saving is effected in the number of stokers required. The principal shafts 
have connection, by spur tracks, with the El Paso <& Southwestern Railway, 
also controlled by Phelps, Dodge & Co., and all ore is shipped in steel hopper 
cars to Douglas, the old smelter at the Czar shaft having been dismantled 
1004. Doubtless the two monstrous old slag dumps at Bisbee will be broken 
up and resmelted in time, as they carry considerable copper values that can 
be partially extracted at a profit under the more advanced and economical 
metallur^cal conditions of the present day. 

The Douglas Reduction Works are 28 miles from the mine rnd within a 
mile of the Mexican border. This magnificent new plant was designed as the 
central smelter for the mines of Phelps, Dodge & Co., in Arizona and Mexico, 
these including the Copper Queen at Bisbee, the Detroit at Morenci, the 
United Globe and Old Dominion at Globe, the Moctezuma at Nacosari, Sonora, 
and the Sierra de Cobre at La Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. As these six proper- 
ties produce a great diversity of copper ores, including those of practically 
every grade and character found in the southwest and in northern Mexico, it 
will be possible by means of this central reduction plant to take the fullest 
advantage of the varied nature of the ores to mix the furnace charges. This 
plant also treats custom ores of copper, gold and silver, and the company 
plans to enrich its copper bullion with gold and silver, mainly from Mexican 
ores, but does not intend to invade the lead market. 

The new smelting plant at Douglas is entirely of steel, the principal 
buildings having the following dimensions: furnace building, 150x396'; power 
house, 1 10-250' ; machine shop, 80x204' ; boiler house, 45x208 ' ; boiler shop, 
80x120^, and foundry, 60x80'. The smelter has 5 furnaces, each 42x204* 
with capacity of about 400 tons daily, giving the plant a nominal daily 
capacity of 2,000 tons, in addition to which three 42x120* furnaces from the 
old smelter at Bisbee are being installed in the western end of the new plant. 
Each furnace has a separate settler and separate Connersville blower for 
^last. A standard gauge railroad with dump-cars cares for the slag. The 
dust-chamber is of brick. Molten matte is taken from furnaces to con- 
verters by two 60-ton electric traveling cranes, each having two 15-ton 
auxiliary hoists. There are four stands of converte^rs, with monstrous shells 
of the Copper Queen horizontal barrel type, each 8'xll'6*. Blast for the 
coverters is furnished by 4 air compressors, one for each stand, these being 
cross-compound, duplex condensing Nordberg compressors with 30* cylinders 
and 42* stroke. The converter department b supplied with a silica mill 
and briquetting plant, and at the close of 1904 a 72' steel addition was being 
built, and present equipment and capacity will be doubled. 

The boiler house has six 500-h. p. Stirling water-tube boilers, and a 
Green fuel economizer, with a brick stack 177' high and 13' in diameter, sur- 
mounted by 4 lightning rods. The boilers are arranged to bum either coal 



366 THE COPPER HANDBOOK. 

or petroleum, but the latter is used almost exclusively. The power plant 
is supplied with 13 engines of various sizes, t^^pes and uses, having an aggre- 
gate of 4,000 h. p. The electric plant has four 250- volt 400-kw. direct- 
current electric generators, supplying power for the traveling cranes, motors, 
slag-locomotives and electric lighting. The machine shop is fully equipped 
with modem tools and the boiler shop is designed to turn out work of the 
hea\dest nature, and, if necessary, can repair locomotives. The smithy in 
connection with the boiler shop is also supplied with the best m equipment. 

Adjoining the furnace building is a steel trestle 48' in height and 1,343' 
long, divided into sections with bins for coke, fluxes and silica. Near this 
trestle are three ore pits, each 12' deep, 38' wide and 765' long, lined with 
white tufa from a nearby quarry, with railroad tracks alongside, and having 
10,000 tons capacity each. Ore is dumped into these pits from trains and 
removed as needed by a steam shovel. Much delay was experienced in 
constructing the new works through delay in delivering material, and the 
furnaces were not blown in until 1904. Everything about the plant is 
working satisfactorily, except the mechanical mixing beds, which still give 
some trouble, owing to defects in the dumping device, but this is a com- 
paratively small matter, and will be remedied soon. The new plant was 
designed upon a scale deemed sufficient to provide fully for all possible 
growth for at least 10 years to come, but the growth of the mines was such 
that the new works were crowded with ore from the first day. It was planned 
to operate but 4 of the 5 furnaces, holding one in reserve for repairs, etc , 
but it has been found necessary to keep all 5 in continuous blast. The addi- 
tion of the 3 furnaces from the old Bisbce plant will give some relief, but 
the tremendous growth of the Phelps-Dodge properties, notably the Queen, 
and their even greater possibilities for the future, render it probable that 
even thb great plant, now the second largest copper smelter in the United 
States, will prove inadequate, and will require further additions in the near 
future. 

The El Paso & Southwestern railroad, owned by Phelps, Dodge & Co., 
which serines the Copper Queen mine and smelter, has some 300 miles of 
main line, with considerable trackage in spurs and sidings, and wliile designed 
solely as an outlet for the Phelps-Dodge mines, has developed a previously 
inaccessible district, rich in natural resources, and its business has increased 
in a manner astonishing to even the most optimistic. One result of the 
construction of this line is the building of the new town of Douglas, named 
in deserved honor of Prof. James Douglas, a bustling young metropolis of 
some 7,000 souls, apparently destined to become a strong competitor of 
El Paso as a smelting point for the ores of Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora 
and Chihuahua. 

Among the miscellaneous enterprises of the Copper Queen are a sawmill 
in the Chiricahua mountains and an enormous department store, carrying a 
stock and doing a business that would do credit to any city of ten times 
the population of Bisl>ee. There is, however, no compulsion of employes, 
who are at perfect liberty to buy their goods at any of the numerous inde- 
pendent mercantile establishments. The company maintains a large and 
well equipped hospital, a fine four-story hotel, large library and reading 



dOPPEk QUEEN. §57