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Mel. Truly, Sir, a fair garden ! here have you governed nature by your art ; 
your ordered ranks of fruitful trees are thankful for your care, and 
for your reward give you of their best 

Hort. You do me too much honour, friend ! {Old Play) 

Insere, Daphni, piros, carpent tua poma nepotes — Vieg. Eel. ix 







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The publication of the twentieth edition is a satisfac- 
tory proof of the successful application of the rules laid 
down in the preceding editions. I am happy to think 
that the work has contributed to the pleasure of many 
by drawing their attention to the fact that fruit trees 
may be cultivated in a smaller space than was formerly 
supposed to be possible, and I hope that with the 
spread of knowledge the pleasure aud profit derived 
from the cultivation of small fruit trees may be ex- 
tended to many cottage gardens in England. 

I may here remark that apples on the Paradise 
stock are especially suited for cottagers. With a good 
selection of trees on this stock, the cottage may compete 
successfully at autumnal shows with the garden of the 
mansion, and in certain situations, well selected, the 
fine varieties of Belgian and French pears — peculiarly 
the property of skilful and wealthy horticulturists — 
will, by attention to the simple rules given in this 
work, be exhibited by the humble but triumphant 


I cannot — and it is not a matter of regret — add 
anything new. Trees do not change their nature, and 
the rules for their cultivation in one year, if sound, 
must be the same in all succeeding years. 

I have endeavoured to point out a method of making 
condensed orchards on a system which I believe to be 
sound, as it is no theory but practice. I can only 
hope that the present edition may deserve the same 
success that has hitherto attended all the previous 

T. Francis Eivers. 

October 1891. 

By Thomas Rivers 

In giving the seventeenth thousand of my little book 
to the public, I trust I may be allowed to express my 
pleasure and gratitude for its success — perfectly un- 
precedented in books devoted to horticulture. The 
reception given to it by those numerous and increasing 
horticultural amateurs who seem to love to devote their 
leisure to the culture of fruit and fruit trees has been 
to me a source of much pleasure. For thirty years and 
more have I watched the growth of this taste in 
England, and more particularly in those who garden 
with their own hands and heads ; it is such men that 
form the true vanguard of fruit culturists, for they 
almost invariably improve on any suggestion given by 
a writer ; and, if I wanted them, I could fill a volume 
with letters from clever amateurs who have given new 
ideas, always suggestive if not always practicable. As 
a prominent but not new feature in this enlarged 
edition, I may refer to the management, and above all 
the protection, of low lateral cordon fruit trees. I 


have also pointed oat more forcibly than in former 
editions the capability of growing choice pears and 
apples on any low cheap walls, and also against walls 
in kitchen gardens not fully furnished with trees — 
in short, in all bare spaces so often found between 
wall trees in old gardens. These methods of culti- 
vating choice pears and the finer kinds of American 
apples are worthy of much more attention than they 
have hitherto received. 

The method of cultivating plums as vertical single 
cordons has been practised here for some few years ; 
it is original, highly worthy of attention, and may be 
made a profitable venture, not only for the amateur 
but for the market gardener. 

The management of those charming structures, 
ground vineries, is in this edition more fully gone into 
than before ; in short, all the modes of culture hitherto 
recommended have been revised and made as perfect as 
practice can make them, for it must be recollected that 
all the modes of culture here recommended have been 
well tested, and no foreign practice recommended till 
found adapted to our wet English climate, the mean 
temperature of which is just about two degrees too 
low for the choice kinds of fruits to ripen without 

mler 1870. 

By Thomas Rivers 

My attention was drawn to the benefits fruit trees derive 
from root-pruning and frequent removal about the year 
1810. I was then a youth, with a most active fruit-appe- 
tite, and if a tree bearing superior fruit could be discovered 
in my father's orchard I was very constant in my visits 
to it. 

In those days there was in the old nursery, first cropped 
with trees by my grandfather about the middle of last 
century, a 'quarter' — i.e., a piece of ground devoted to the 
reception of refuse trees — of such trees as were too small 
or weak for customers ; so that in taking up trees for 
orders during the winter they were left, and, in spring, all 
taken up and transplanted to the ' hospital quarter,' as the 
labourers called it. The trees in this quarter were taken 
up, often annually, and planted nearer together, on the 
same piece of ground. This old nursery consisted of about 
eight acres, the soil of a deep reddish loam, inclining to 
clay, in which fruit trees flourished and grew vigorously. 
I soon found that it was but of little use to look among 
the young free-growing trees for fruit, but among the re- 
fuse trees, and to the 'hospital quarter' I was indebted 
for many a fruit-feast — such Ribston Pippins ! such Golden 
Pippins ! 


When I came to a thinking age, I hecame anxious to 
know why those refuse trees never made strong vigorous 
shoots, like those growing in their own immediate neigh- 
bourhood, and yet nearly always bore good crops of fruit. 
Many years elapsed before I saw 'the reason why,' and 
long afterwards I was advised by a friend, a F.H.S., to 
write a crude, short paper on the subject, and send it to 
be read at a meeting of the Horticultural Society : this 
paper is published in their 'Transactions.' I had then 
practised it several years ; so that I may now claim a 
little attention, if the old adage that ' practice makes per- 
fect ' be worthy of notice. 

This little work is not designed for the gardens and 
gardeners of the wealthy and great, but for those who take 
a personal interest in fruit-tree culture, and who look on 
their garden as a never-failing source of amusement. In 
some few favoured districts, fruit trees, without any extra 
cai*e in planting and after-management, will bear good 
crops, and remain healthy for many years. It is not so in 
gardens with unfavourable soils : and they are greatly in 
the majority. It is to those possessing such, and more 
particularly to the possessors of small gardens, that the 
directions here given may prove of value. The object 
constantly had in view is to make fruit trees healthy and 
fruitful, by keeping their roots near the surface. The root- 
pruning and biennial or occasional removal, so earnestly 
recommended, are the proper means to bring about these 
results, as they place the roots within the influence of the 
sun and air. The ground over the roots of garden trees as 
generally cultivated is dug once or twice a year, so that 
every surface-fibre is destroyed and the larger roots driven 
downwards ; they, consequently, imbibe crude, watery sap, 
which loads to much apparent luxuriance in the trees. 
This, in the end, is fatal to their well-doing, for the 
vigorous shoots made annually are seldom or never ripened 


sufficiently to form blossom -buds. Canker then comes on, 
and although the trees do not die, they rarely give fruit, 
and in a few years become victims of bad culture, existing 
in a sort of living death. 

There is, perhaps, no fruit tree that claims or deserves 
our attention equal to a pear. How delicious is a fine melt- 
ing pear all the winter months ! and to what a lengthened 
period in the spring may they be brought to table ! Till 
lately, Beurre Ranee has been our best spring pear ; but 
this i3 a most uncertain variety, rarely keeping till the end 
of May, and often ripening in January and February. 

The Belgian pears, raised many years since by the late 
Major Esperen, and more recently by Monsieur Gregoire, 
are likely for the present to be the most valuable for pro- 
longing the season of rich melting pears ; and of these 
Josephine de Malines and Bergamotte d'Esperen are espe- 
cially deserving of notice ; they have the excellent quality 
of ripening slowly. But improvement will, I have no 
doubt, yet take place j for pears are so easily raised from 
seed, and so soon brought into bearing by grafting or 
buckling them on the quince stock, that new and valuable 
late pears will soon be as plentiful as new roses. 

In the following pages it will be seen that I strongly 
advocate the culture of pyramidal fruit trees. This is no 
new idea with me. I have paid many visits to the Conti- 
nental gardens during the greater portion of my active life 
in business, and have always admired their pyramidal trees 
when well managed, and I have for many years cultivated 
them for my amusement ; but, owing to a seeming preju- 
dice against them amongst some English gardeners, I was 
for some time deterred from recommending them, for I 
thought that men older than myself must know better ; 
and when I heard some of our market-gardeners and large 
fruit growers in the neighbourhood of London scoff at 
pears grafted on the quince stock as giving fruit of a very 


inferior flavour, I concluded, like an Englishman, that the 
foreigners were very ignorant, and very far behind us in 
the culture of fruit trees. 

It was only by repeated visits to foreign gardens that 
this prejudice was dispelled. I felt convinced that our 
neighbours excelled us in the management of fruit trees 
adapted to the open borders of our gardens. I have there- 
fore endeavoured to make the culture of pyramidal trees 
easy to the uninitiated ; and, having profited largely by 
experience in attending to it with my own hands, I trust 
that my readers will benefit by the result. 

A humid, mild climate seems extremely favourable to 
the well-doing of the pear on the quince stock. Jersey, 
with its moist warm climate, as is well known, produces 
the finest pears in Europe : these are, for the most part, 
from trees on quince stocks. The western coast of Scot- 
land, I have reason to know, is favourable for the culture 
of pear trees on the quince ; and within these very few 
years Ireland has proved remarkably so, more particularly 
in the south, where some of our finest varieties of pears on 
quince stocks are cultivated with perfect success. 



Pyramidal Teak Trees on the Quince Stock . . l 

The Young Pyramid 5 

The Mature Pyramid 8 

Soot-pruning of Pyramidal Pear Trees on 

Quince Stocks ........ 13 

Pyramids for Market Gardens .... 18 

Ornamental Pyramidal Pear Trees on Quince 

Stocks ......... 20 

Pear Trees as Bushes ok the Quince Stock . 20 

Pear Trees on the Quince Stock, trained as Cordons 26 

Cordon Pears on Trellises under Glass . . . . 35 

Horizontal Cordon Pear Trees on Dwarf Walls . 39 

Espalier Pears on Quince Stocks 43 

Pear Trees trained as Single Vertical Cordons . 47 

Diagonal Single Cordons 48 

Pear- Tree Hedge 53 

Pyramids on the Pear Stock 54 

Root-pruning of Fruit Trees 59 

Planting and After-management 61 



Gathering the Fbuit 66 

Keeping Peaks in a Greenhouse 69 

Pyramidal Apple Trees on the Paradise Apple Stock 71 

Apples as Bushes on the Paradise Stock . . . . 79 

Apples as Bushes for Market Gardens .... 83 

Apples and Pears as Single and Double Lateral 

Cordons 87 

Shelter Trenches 96 

Vertical Cordon Apple Trees 97 

Apples as Wall Trees 98 

Pyramidal Apples on the Crab Stock . . . . 100 

Pyramidal Plum Trees 102 

Plum Trees as Bushes 105 

Plum Trees as Cordons 106 

Market Garden Plum Trees 108 

Cherries as Bushes and Pyramids on the Mahaleb 

Stock (Cerasus viahaleb) 109 

Cherries as Single Vertical Cordons . . . . 115 

blgarreau and heart cherries a3 pyramids on the 

Common Cherry Stock 117 

Filberts and Nuts as Standards 120 

Figs as Half Standards or Bushes 121 

Seedling Fruits 123 

The Biennial Eemoyal of Fruit Trees without Root- 
pruning . 125 

Pyramid Orchards 126 

Double Grafting of Fruit Trees 130 

Renovating Old Standard Pear Tbhes . . . . 135 

How to Prepare a Peach Tree Border in Light Soils 136 



A Cheap Method op Protecting Wall Trees . . . 137 

Standard Orchard Trees 139 

Insects peculiar to the Pear 142 

Methods op Planting small Pyramid Trees . . . 145 

Proper Distances for Planting Pit . al and oth or 

Fruit Trees 146 

Miniature Fruit Garden Calend .... 148 


The Ground Vinery . . . . . . . . 151 

Planting and Pruning Vines froji . . . 160 

Cordon Training 164 


Insect Pests, by H. Somers River-: . . . 186 
INDEX 207 




There is no description of fruit trees more interesting 
to cultivate in our gardens than the pyramid — a name 
adopted from the French, the originators of this species 
of culture. The word conical would, perhaps, convey a 
better idea of the shape of such trees ; but as pyramidal 
trees are now familiar things in English gardens, it is 
scarcely worth while to attempt to give a new name to 
these very pretty garden trees. 

For gardens with a moderately deep and fertile 
soil, pears budded on the quince stock will be found 
to make by far the most fruitful and quick-bearing 
trees; indeed, if prepared by one or two removals, 
their roots become a perfect mass of fibres, and their 
stems and branches full of blossom-buds. Trees of 
this description may be planted in the autumn, with 



a certainty of having a crop of fruit the first season 
after planting — always recollecting that a spring frost 
may destroy the blossoms unless the trees are pro- 
tected. It must always be recollected that pears on 
quince stocks are strictly garden trees, and not adapted 
for orchards. 

The most eligible season for planting pyramidal 
pear trees is during the months of November and 
December, but they may be planted even until the 
end of March ; in planting so late, no fruit must be 
expected the first season. Still I ought to say here 
that I have frequently removed pear trees on the 
quince stock in March and April, just as the blossom- 
buds were bursting, and have had fine fruit the same 
season, particularly if sharp frosts occurred in May. 
The buds being retarded, the blossoms opened after 
the usual period, and thus escaped. The experiment 
is quite worth trying in seasons when the buds swell 
very early. 

About ten or fifteen fruit may be permitted to 
ripen the first season ; the following season one to 
two dozen will be as many as the tree ought to be 
allowed to bring to perfection ; increasing the number 
as the tree increases in vigour, always remembering 
that a few full-sized and well-ripened pears are to be 
preferred to a greater number inferior in size and 

The engraving (fig. 1 on the following page) is 
a faithful portrait of a pyramidal tree of the Beurre 


2 ^fe^ 

Fig. 1 

b 2 


de Capiaumont pear budded on the quince ; it was 
about ten years old, and had been root-pruned three 
times. Nothing could be more interesting than this 
tree, only six feet high, laden with fruit of extra- 
ordinary beauty ; for, in this soil, pears on quince 
stocks produce fruit of much greater beauty, and of 
finer flavour, than those on pear stocks. I have, 
however, introduced the figure as much to show its 
imperfection as its beauty ; it will be observed that its 
lower tiers of branches are not sufficiently developed ; 
this was owing to neglect when the tree was young — 
the upper branches were suffered to grow too luxu- 
riantly. Summer pinching in the youth of the tree is 
the only remedy for this defect, if it be not well 
furnished below ; and a severe remedy it is, for all the 
young shoots on the upper tiers, including the leader, 
must be pinched closely in May and June, till the lower 
ones have made young shoots of a sufficient length 
to give uniformity to the tree. This requires much 

Pyramids, bushes, and cordons are the trees best 
adapted for small gardens. To those conversant with 
such matters, I need only point to the very numerous 
instances of rich garden ground entirely ruined by 
being shaded by large spreading standards, or half- 
standard unpruned fruit trees. Now, by cultivating 
pyramidal pears of the quince, apples in the same 
form on the paradise stock, the cherry as pyramids 
and dwarf bushes on the Cerasus Mahaleb, and the 


plum as a pyramidal tree, scarcely any ground will be 
shaded, and more abundant crops and finer fruit will 
be obtained. 


If a young gardener intends to plant, and wishes to 
train up his trees so that they will become quite perfect 
in shape, he should select plants one year old from the 
bud or graft, with single upright stems ; these will, of 
course, have good buds down to the junction of the 
graft with the stock. The first spring a tree of this 
description should be headed down, so as to leave the 
stem about eighteen inches long. If the soil be rich, 
from five to six and seven shoots will be produced ; one 
of these must be made the leader, and, if not inclined to 
be quite perpendicular, it must be fastened to a stake. 
As soon, in summer, as the leading shoot is ten inches 
long, its end must be pinched off; and if it pushes forth 
two or more shoots, pinch off all but one to three leaver, 
leaving the topmost for a leader. The side shoots will, 
in most cases, assume a regular shape; if not, they may 
be this first season tied to slight stakes, to make them 
grow in the proper direction. This is best done by 
bringing down and fastening the end of each shoot to 
a slight stake, so that an open pyramid may be formed 
— for if it is too close and cypress-like, enough air is 
not admitted to the fruit. They may remain unpruned 


till the end of September, when each shoot must be 
shortened to within eight buds of the stem. This will 
leave the tree like the annexed figure (fig. 2), and no 
pruning in winter will be required. 

The second season the tree will make vigorous 
growth ; the side shoots which were stopped last 

Fig. 2 

September will each put forth three, four, or more 
shoots. In June, as soon as these have made seven or 
ten leaves, nip out the terminal buds of all hut the 
leading shoot of each side branch ; this must be left on 
to exhaust the tree of its superabundant sap, till the 


middle or end of September. The perpendicular leader 
must be stopped once or twice ; in short, as soon as 
it has grown ten inches pinch off its top, and if it 
break into two or three shoots pinch them all but the 
leader, as directed for the first season ; in a few years 
most symmetrical trees may be formed. 

• When they have attained the height of six or eight 
feet, and are still in a vigorous state, it will be neces- 
sary to commence root-pruning, to bring them into a 
fruitful state. 

If some of the buds in the stem of a young tree 
prove dormant, so that part of it is bare and without 
a shoot where there should be one, a notch, half an 
inch wide and nearly the same in depth, should be 
cut in the stem just above the dormant bud. If this 
be done in February a young shoot will break out in 
the summer. 1 

These directions are for those who are inclined to 
rear their own pyramids. Time and attention are re- 
quired, but the interest attached to well-trained pyra- 
mids will amply repay the young cultivator. 

1 Bare places in the stems of pyramids, and in the branches of 
esraliers or wall trees, may be budded towards the end of August 
with blossom buds taken from shoots two years old. This is a very 
interesting mode of furnishing a tree with fruit-bearing buds. 



The following figure (fig. 3) is a pyramidal tree 
in its second and third year, and such as it ought to 
be in July before its leading side shoots and leading 
upright shoot are shortened. This, as I have said, is 
best done towards the second or third week in September. 

The shortening must be made at the marks ; all the 

side shoots must be shortened in this manner, as well 
as the leading shoot ; no further pruning will be required 
until the following summer. The spurs a, a, a, are the 
bases of the shoots that have been pinched in June ; these 
will, the following season, form fruit-bearing spurs. 
The best instrument for summer and autumnal pruning 
is a pair of hooked pruning scissors or ' secateurs,' 
which are now sold of all sorts and sizes. 

As the summer pinching of pyramidal pears is the 
most interesting feature in their culture, and perhaps 
the most agreeable of all horticultural occupations, 
I must endeavour to give plain instructions to carry 
it out. 

The first season after the planting, by the 
middle of June, the side buds and branches have put 
forth young shoots : each will give from one to three 
or four. Select that which is most horizontal in its 
growth (it should be on the lower part of the branch, 
as the tree will then be more inclined to spread) for a 
leader to that branch, and pinch off all the others to 


Ki« 3 


six or seven leaves (see fig. 3, a, «, a). From the point 
of pinching, a shoot will again grow, and should be left 
untouched until September. The first pinching forms 
the basis of fruit buds, and if the horizontal branch has 
a good leader it will take off all the superfluous sap, the 
buds will only swell, and the following season they will 
be fruit spurs. The upper shoots of the tree, say to about 
two feet from its top, should be pinched a week before 
the lower shoots ; this gives strength to those on the 
lower part of the tree. 

Fig. 4 is a side branch in June, with its shoots not 
yet pinched; about the middle of the month nip off 
the terminal buds of the laterals when these have made 
from seven to nine leaves, and, in September, stop the 
leading shoot to one-third of its length. 

In spring the peipendicular leader of the preceding 
year's growth will put forth numerous shoots, which 
must be pinched in June in the following manner : 
those nearest the base leave six inches in length, 
gradually decreasing upwards, leaving those next the 
young leading shoots only two inches long. The leader 
of these ready formed pyramids need not be shortened 
in summer as directed for younger trees; it may be 
suffered to grow till the horizontal leaders are shortened 
in September, and then left six or eight inches in 
length ; but if the trees are to be kept to six or seven 
feet in height under root-pruning, this leading shoot 
may be shortened to two inches, or even cut close 
down to its base. For tall pyramids of ten, twelve, 



or fifteen feet, it may be left from eight to ten inches 
in length till the required height be attained ; it may- 
then be cut to within two inches of its base every 

Fig. 4 

I ought here to remark that pear trees differ in 
their habits to an extraordinary degree ; some make 
shoots most robust and vigorous ; others under pre- 
cisely the same treatment are very delicate and 
slender. In the final shortening in September this 


must be attended to ; those that are very vigorous 
must not have their shoots pruned so closely as those 
that are less so ; indeed, almost every variety will 
require some little modification in pruning, of which 
experience is by far the best teacher. It will, I think, 
suffice if I give the following directions for shortening 
the leaders of the side shoots, and the perpendicular 
leaders : — All those that are very robust, such as 
Beurre d'Amanlis, Conseiller de la Cour, Beurre Diel, 
&c, shorten to eight or ten inches, according to the 
vigour of the individual tree ; those of medium vigour, 
such as Louise Bonne of Jersey, Marie Louise, and 
Beurre d'Aremberg, to six inches ; those that are deli- 
cate and slender in the growth, like Winter Nelis, to 
four inches ; but I must repeat that regard must be 
had to the vigour of the tree. If the soil be rich, the 
trees vigorous and not root-pruned, the shoots may be 
left the maximum length ; if, on the contrary, they be 
root-pruned, and not inclined to vigorous growth, they 
must be pruned more closely. As a modification of 
pinching which sometimes induces excessive growth in 
non-fruiting trees, and in humid climates, I have found 
that stripping the leaves from the shoots to be operated 
upon has the same effect as pinching, without disturb- 
ing the flow of the sap. 

If pyramidal fruit trees, either of pears, apples, 
plums, or cherries, are biennially removed, or even 
thoroughly root-pruned without actually removing 
them, summer pinching becomes the most simple of 


all operations. The cultivator has only to look over 
his trees during June (penknife in hand), and pinch 
the terminal bud of every shoot on the lateral or side 
branches ; the buds below the point of pinching will 
develop into fruit spurs, the shoots which push again 
from the terminals may, if the growth is not well 
balanced, be stopped in August, but all pruning should 
be deferred until the end of September. 

It is possible that in some soils and climates, with 
a non-ripening power, summer pinching may be carried 
to an excess. It is difficult to lay down a hard and 
fast rule. As a matter of fact, in favourable fruit- 
growing districts — and it is hardly worth while to plant 
in any other — summer pinching with certain modifica- 
tions will be found to give good results. The first 
pinching in June is really the most important, as it 
provides the fruit buds for the following year in the 
most convenient part of the tree — i.e. near the stem. 
If the leading shoot be shortened in September, the 
supplementary shoots produced by the first pinching 
may either be pruned or left until October. 


Before entering on the subject of root-pruning of pear 
trees on quince stocks, I must premise that handsome 
and fertile pyramids, more particularly of some free- 


bearing varieties, may be reared without this annual or 
biennial operation. I must impress upon my readers 
that my principal object is to make trees fit for small 
gardens, and to instruct those who are not blessed with 
large gardens how to keep the trees perfectly under 
control ; and this can best be done by annual, or at 
least biennial, attention to the roots, for if a tree be 
suffered to grow three or more years and then be root- 
pruned, it will receive a check if the spring be dry, 
and the crop of fruit for one season will be jeopardised. 
Therefore, those who are disinclined to the annual 
operation, and yet wish to confine the growth of their 
trees within limited bounds by root-pruning say once 
in two years, should only operate upon half their trees 
one season ; they will thus have the remaining half in 
an unchecked bearing state ; and those who have ample 
room and space may prune their pyramids in summer, 
and suffer them to grow to a height of fifteen or twenty 
feet without pruning their roots. In rich soils, where 
the trees grow freely, they may be root-pruned annually 
with great advantage. 

The following summary will, perhaps, convey my 
ideas respecting the management of pyramids and 
bushes when cultivated as garden trees : — In small 
gardens with rich soil either root-prune or remove all 
the trees annually, early in November. In larger 
gardens perform the same operation biennially at the 
same season. For very large gardens with a dry good 
subsoil, in which all kinds of fruit trees grow without 


any tendency to canker, and when large trees are 
desired, neither remove nor root-prune. 

Pyramidal pear trees on the quince stock, tvhere the 
fruit garden is small, the soil rich, and when the real 
gardening artist feels pleasure in keeping them in 
a healthy and fruitful state by perfect control over the 
roots, should be annually operated upon as follows : — A 
trench should be dug round the tree about eighteen 
inches from its stem every autumn, just after the fruit 
is gathered, if the soil be sufficiently moist — if not it 
will be better to wait till the usual autumnal rains have 
fallen ; the roots should then be carefully examined, 
and those inclined to be of perpendicular growth cut 
with the spade, which must be introduced quite under 
the tree to meet on all sides, so that no root can possibly 
escape amputation. All the horizontal roots should be 
shortened with a knife to within a circle of eighteen 
inches from the stem, 1 and all brought as near to the sur- 
face as possible, filling in the trench with compost for the 
roots to rest on. The trench may then be filled with 
the compost (well-rotted dung from an old hot-bed, and 
good turfy loam, equal parts, will answer exceedingly 
well) ; the surface should then be covered with some 
half-rotted dung, and the roots left till the following 
autumn brings its annual care. It may be found that 
after a few years of root-pruning the circumferential 

1 If they have not spread to this extent the first season, or even 
the second, they need not be pruned, but merely brought near to 
the surface and spread out. 


mass of fibres will have become too much crowded with 
small roots ; in such cases thiu out some of the roots, 
shortening them at nine inches or one foot from the 
stem. This will cause them to give out fibres, so that 
the entire circle of three feet or more round the tree will 
be full of fibrous roots near the surface, waiting with 
open mouths for the nourishment annually given to 
them by surface dressings and liquid manure. 

The gardener who does not mind extra trouble will 
feel a real pleasure in every operation that tends to 
make his trees perfect in fruitfulness and symmetry. 
The annual root-pruning may, however, be irksome to 
the amateur ; nor is it always required in the south of 
England, except for small gardens and in rich moist 
soils in which pear trees are inclined to grow too 
vigorously. In the cool moist summers of the northern 
counties, annual root-pruning is quite necessary to 
make the trees produce well-ripened wood. In other 
cases, if the trees are summer-pruned, biennial root- 
pruning will be sufficient to check over-luxuriance in 

The following will be found a good selection of 
varieties for pyramidal trees on quince stocks. They 
may be planted in rows six feet apart, or a square may 
be allotted to them, giving each plant six feet, which 
will be found amply sufficient for root-pruned trees. 
Some few esteemed sorts of pears do not grow well on 
quince stocks, unless ' double-grafted ' — i.e., some free- 
growing sort is budded on the quince, and after having 


been suffered to grow for one or two seasons, the sort 
not so free-growing is budded or grafted on it. For 
varieties, 1 placed in order of their ripening, the following 
list may be safely recommended : — 

Summer Doyenne 
Clapp's Favourite 
Beurre Giffard 
Bon Chretien 
Beurre d'Amanlis 
Summer Beurre" d'Aremberg 
Madame Treyve . 
Beurre Superfm 
Louise Bonne of Jersey 
Fondante d'Automne . 
Gansel's Bergamot 
Marie Louise 
Conseiller de la Cour . 
Baronne de Mello 
Pitmaston Duchess 
Emile d'Heyst . 
Doyenne de Cornice 
Beurre d'Anjou . 
Josephine de Malines 

Aug. Sept. 
Sept. Oct. 
Sept. Oct. 
Oct. Nov. 
Oct. Nov. 
Oct. Nov. 
Oct. Nov. 
Oct. Nov. 
Nov. Dec. 

1 All the varieties recommended for pyramids may also be 
planted as espaliers to train to rails in the usual mode. 



First, a good climate must be selected somewhere 
south of the Trent, the site sheltered from the north 
and east and north-west by hedges, evergreens, or walls ; 
also a favourable soil, which, however, by care and 
culture, may be made of secondary importance ; a loam 
eighteen or twenty inches deep, on a dry stony subsoil, 
is perhaps the most favourable, but a clayey loam resting 
on clay or on sand will do very well. If required, 
draining must be practised, so that clays, loams, or sands 
must be dry. 

When a rich deep fertile soil is chosen there will 
be nothing required but opening the holes and planting 
the trees ; but if the soil be shallow, say less than'twelve 
inches of staple, it should be stirred to a depth of twenty 
inches, leaving the stirred subsoil in situ. The soil is 
thus far prepared for planting, which will be best done 
in October or November. The trees should be planted six 
feet apart row from row, and the same distance tree from 
tree in the row. After the trees are planted, the soil 
within a circle of three feet round the stem of each tree 
should be trodden firmly ; a small portion (the tenth of 
a barrowful) of litter or manure placed round each tree 
(or if the soil is rich this may be omitted), and the work 
is done. For some four or five years the centre of the 
space between the rows of trees may be cropped with 
light vegetable crops, such as onions, &c. ; this culti- 


vated space must be confined to a width of two feet ; 
the remaining space next the trees must not be touched 
with anything but the hoe to kill the weeds, and when 
the intermediate cropping has covered the entire surface 
of the ground, it must remain firm, the only culture 
besides the hoe being an occasional surface-dressing of 
manure. This system of hard soil and occasional sur- 
face-manuring is the sum/mum bonum, the last step 
towards perfect market garden fruit culture — except 
gooseberries, currants, and raspberries, which require 
other treatment. The quantity of manure required for 
a surface-dressing is five bushels to twenty-five square 

The rough and ready pruning necessary for market 
garden pyramidal pears is as follows : — Towards the 
middle (the end, if the season be late) of June all the 
terminal buds of the side shoots must be nipped off, 
and towards the end of September the trees are again 
gone over, and the leading shoots stopped ; this is all 
the pruning required, unless the amateur market gar- 
dener pleases to amuse himself in winter by removing 
a crowded shoot or shortening a spur. The varieties 
best adapted for this mode of pear culture are few, as 
there are but few sorts popular in the markets. Our 
first and best is Louise Bonne, requiring, however, a 
warm climate and good soil ; Williams' Bon Chretien, 
Beurre d'Amanlis, Doyenne de Cornice, Souvenir du 
Congres, Marie Louise, Marie Louise d'Uccle, Fertility 
(very hardy), Durondeau, and Beacon. 

e 2 



There are some very few varieties of pears the trees 
of which may be made highly ornamental even on a 
well-dressed lawn, as they grow freely and form natu- 
rally beautiful cypress-like trees; at the same time 
their fruit is of first-rate quality. Such are Summer 
Beurre d'Aremberg, Baronne de Mello, Fondante d'Au- 
tomne, White Doyenne, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Passe 
Colmar, Zephirin Gregoire, Olivier de Serres, Souvenir 
du Congres, Delices d'Hardenpont, Doyenne du Cornice, 
Bergamotte d'Esperen, Marie Louise, Conseiller de la 
Cour, Fertility, Durondeau, Emile d'Heyst, Marie 


This mode of cultivating pear trees has struck me as 
being eligible, from having observed that the fruit 7 of 
some of the large heavy varieties, such as Beurre 
Diel and Beurre d'Amanlis, is very liable to be blown 
off pyramids by even moderate autumnal gales. The 
trees also of these and several other fine sorts of pears 
are difficult to train in the pyramidal form ; they are 


diffuse in their growth, and, with summer pinching, 
soon form nice prolific bushes, of which the following 
figure (fig. 5), from nature, will give some idea. The 
pruning of these bushes is a simple matter. As they 
are likely to throw out many shoots, and so fill up the 
centre of the bush, thus impeding the circulation of 

light and air, I go over the branches in June and thin 
out those which are growing too thickly, the final 
pruning being left until the end of September. If the 
bushes are fruitful the pruning should be deferred until 
the fruit is gathered, and the summer thinning only 


Bushes are admirably adapted for gardens exposed 
to winds, and if removed biennially they may be grown 
in the smallest of gardens with great advantage. This 
biennial removal or lifting should be performed as 
follows : — A trench should be opened round the tree 
the width of a spade, and from twelve to fifteen inches 
deep ; the tree should then be raised with its ball of 
earth attached to its root intact. If the soil be light 
and rich, and the tree inclined to grow vigorously, 
making annual shoots of more than one foot in length, 
it may be replanted without any fresh compost. Rotten 
manure, loam, and sand, equal parts with the addition 
of lime, chalk, or gypsum where the soil is known to 
be deficient in lime, form also an excellent compost ; in 
planting, one wheelbarrowful to a tree will be enough. 
In London suburban gardens, for which these trees are 
peculiarly adapted, no compost need be given to the 
trees in replanting, for the soil is generally rich. Bush 
trees offer two very great advantages : they are easily 
protected from spring frosts when in blossom by cover- 
ing them with tiffany, and they may be planted from 
three to five feet apart with great facility, so as to be 
eligible for very small gardens. 

In large gardens, large bushes may be desirable. 
In such cases the leading shoots on each branch may 
be pinched, as recommended for pyramids (page 8), 
but instead of pinching them to three leaves they may 
be suffered to make ten leaves, and then pinch the 


terminal bud. The trees will, if treated in this manner, 
soon become large, compact, and fruitful. 

The following varieties are well adapted for bush 
culture, as they are diffuse in their growth and diffi- 
cult to form into compact pyramids, although they 
may be made into spreading and prolific conical trees. 
It ought, however, to be mentioned that sorts, such as 
Louise Bonne of Jersey, which form handsome pyramids, 
make very pretty compact bushes by cutting out the 
central branch to within three feet of the ground, so 
that pyramids may be easily formed into bushes. I 
may add that these bush trees produce the very finest 
fruit, from their being so near the heat and moisture- 
giving surface of the earth. 

In situations near the sea-coast, exposed to sea 
breezes, small fruit gardens may be formed by en- 
closing a square piece of ground with a beech hedge 
or wooden fence, and planting it with bush trees. A 
piece of ground 500 square feet will be large enough 
to cultivate 30 trees at 4 feet apart in it, or 25 trees at 
5 feet apart. Many a sea-side cottage may thus have 
its fruit garden. 


Summer Doyenne . . . July. 

Beurre Giffard .... August. 

Beacon ..... August. 

Clapp's Favourite . . . August. 



Bon Chretien, Williams 

' . . September 

Summer Beurre d'Aremberg . September 

Beurre d'Amanlis 

Sept. Oct. 

Dr. Hogg . 


Madame Treyve . 

. September. 

Souvenir du Congres . 

. Sept. Oct. 

Louise Bonne of Jersey 

. October. 

Fondante d'Automne . 

. October. 



Beurre Hardy 

. October. 

Gansel's Bergamot 


Marie Louise 

. Oct. Nov. 

Baronne de Mello 


Doyenne de Cornice 

. Nov. Dec. 

Durandeau . 

. Nov. Dec. 

Beurre Diel 

. December. 

Beurre d'Anjou . 

. December. 

Winter Nelis 

. December. 

Josephine de Malines 


Bergamotte d'Esperen 


Olivier de Serres . 

. February. 

Catillac (baking). 


Uvedale St. Germain ( 

Daking) . — 

Leon le Clerc de Laval (baking) 

Pyramid pears may be grown and fruited in defiance 
of spring frosts, by subjecting the trees to constant 
removal. Under this treatment the roots become very 
fibrous and may be annually removed. The trees so 


treated should be lifted in December, and then placed 
under a north wall until the end of March ; they may 
then be returned to their fruiting places. The period 
of blossoming being thus retarded, a crop may be 
expected even in very inclement seasons. 



The French gardeners employ the term ' cordon ' for the 
branch of a fruit tree on which the shoots have been 
pinched in, so as to form a succession of blossom-buds. 
The term as used by them is expressive, and lately an 
interesting work has been published by the Rev. T. C. 
Brehaut, of Guernsey, on this mode of training, under 
the title of ' Cordon Training of Fruit Trees.' There 
are various forms of cordon training, but I will begin 
with the five-branched vertical cordon commonly called 
' upright trained trees.' This method of training 
originated here in April 1849, and was brought about 
from the necessity of planting a number of new pears 
on a boarded fence in a limited space ; the horizontal 
method of training was quite inapplicable, and a modi- 
fication of this system came to hand, viz., to plant 
horizontal espaliers, and to make them perpendicular. 
The following figure (fig. 6) is one of my five-branched 
vertical cordon pear trees. 

The shoots a, a, should be eight inches from the 
central shoot, and those marked I>, h, the same distance 



from those marked a, a. This tree, with five branches, 
will thus occupy thirty-two inches — say three feet of 
wall room ; a tree with seven branches will require 
four feet, but as some space ought to be allowed for 
the spurs on the outside branches, say five feet. If 
the wall be of a moderate height, eight feet for instance, 

Fig. 6 — a five-branched vertical cordon pear tree 

a tree with seven branches will produce quite enough 
fruit of one sort. This method offers a strong contrast 
to espaliers on pear stocks, planted in the usual manner 
twenty-four feet apart and trained horizontally ; nearly 
five trees for one will give so many additional chances 
to the pear cultivator ; the single tree may fail, or its 


fruit may become imperfect, owing to an adverse 
season ; but out of his five trees he will in every season 
stand a good chance of having some good pears. A 
few words will suffice for their management : summer 
pinching of the lateral shoots to five leaves as recom- 
mended for pyramids (p. 5), and root-pruning or 
biennial removal — these operations, like Dr. Sangrado's 
bleeding and warm water, will do all. 

Five- or seven-branched vertical cordon trees, not 
only of pears but of cherries on the Mahaleb stock, 
of plums, of American apples on the Paradise stock, 
and peach and apricot trees, may be planted against 
walls in gardens, if of a moderate height, to great 
advantage. As so much variety may be had in a small 
space, let the reader imagine himself to have a brick 
wall with a southern aspect, 20 feet long, and 8 or 10 
feet high. According to old practice this would afford 
space for one tree ; but with branched vertical cordon 
training, I repeat, five trees may be cultivated, and 
thus give five chances to one. 

If this kind of tree on the quince stock cannot be 
procured, those that are trained horizontally, with five 
or seven branches, may be planted against the wall 
or fence destined for them, and their young shoots be 
made to curve gently, until they are perpendicular ; 
the young shoots of pear trees are very pliable, and 
will easily bend to the required shape. The lower 
part of each shoot in such cases must be fastened 
to the wall with shreds and nails in the usual way, 


and the remaining part trained into an upright posi- 
tion. If they are more than two feet, each of these 
shoots must then be shortened to this length. These 
shortened branches will, in May, each put forth two or 
three shoots. As soon as they have made eight or ten 
leaves, pinch all but one on each branch to five leaves, 
leaving the topmost one to each shoot. You will thus, 
if your tree be five-branched, have five young leading 
shoots, which should be carefully regulated during 
the summer so that no particular shoot should take 
precedence. This proportion must be maintained by 
occasional pinching or leaf-stripping. Your tree will 
soon reach the top of the wall, and every bud in the five 
branches will be perfect, either a blossom-bud or one in 
embryo. When this happens, commence root-pruning, 
unless the trees have ceased to grow vigorously and are 
bearing well — if so, leave their roots untouched. The 
directions for root-pruning are given in treating of pyra- 
midal trees (p. 14) ; these may be followed exactly, and, 
if so, the trees will be kept in a stationary bearing state. 
It must be recollected that the spurs on ' the branches 
will often put forth shoots even while bearing fruit ; 
these must be left unpruned until the autumn. In treat- 
ing of the cultivation of the foregoing, I assume that 
trained trees of from three to four years are planted : 
the training and preparation of young trees would be 
tedious and time-consuming. 

If larger trees are wished for, in order to give more 
fruit of each sort, trees with nine upright branches may 



be planted seven feet apart, or trees with eleven upright 
branches, nine feet apart. Trees, however, can seldom 
be purchased with shoots so numerous ; young trees 
must therefore be planted, and cut back annually for two 

Fig. 7 

or three years, till the proper number of perpendicular 
shoots are supplied. It may happen that trained trees 
with five or seven branches cannot be procured, perhaps 
trees with only three shoots, two horizontal and one 
leading shoot ; in such cases they must be cut back, 


leaving five buds to each shoot, and the young shoots 
in June trained as required. 

Pyramidal trees cut flat on the side to be placed 
next the wall, and planted against walls or fences, will 
give almost a certain crop. Their shoots must be 
pinched, and trained so as to form a handsome semi- 
pyramidal tree, which when it has reached the top of 
the wall must be subjected to biennial root-pruning ; 
but this will only be necessary if the tree is too vigo- 
rous, so as to keep it in a stationary fruitful state. 
On the preceding page I give a figure (fig. 7) of a 
young pyramid planted against a south-east fence. 

It will, I trust, be seen how economical of space 
are these methods of training pears to walls ; and 
nothing in fruit culture is more interesting than a 
wall of upright five-branched cordons or of pyramids 
full of fruit. Let us only consider that a wall 100 feet 
long will accommodate five trees on the pear stock, 
trained in the usual horizontal mode ; the same wall 
will give ' ample room and verge enough ' to twenty-five 
trees on the quince stock, trained perpendicularly ; if 
their young shoots (all but the leaders) are pinched 
in June, no root-pruning will be needed. They are 
also invaluable for planting against walls between old 
trees, where there are bare spaces, for they soon fill up 
such vacancies, and bear abundance of fine fruit. A 
selection of varieties for wall trees will not here be out 
of place : — 




Madame Treyve 
Souvenir du Congres 
Brown Beurre 
Van Mons (Leon le 

Glou Morceau 
Emile d'Heyst 

For East and South-east Walls 

Beurre Bachelier 
Passe Colmar 

Josephine de Malines 
Monarch (Knight's) 
Marie Benoist 
Bergamotte d'Esperen 

For West and North-ivest Walls 

Bon Chretien, Williams' 
Clapp's Favourite 
Beurre d'Amanlis 
Conseiller de la Cour 
Delices d'Hardenpont 

Marie Louise d'Uccle 
Beurre d'Aremberg 
Easter Beurre 
Passe Crassanne 
Beurre Diel 

For South and South-west Walls 

Beurre Superfin 
Louise Bonne of Jersey 
Gansel's Bergamot ' 
Marie Louise 
Beurre Bosc 

Van Mons (Leon le 

Fondante d'Automne 
Glou Morceau 
Duchesse d'Ansrouleme 

1 It is not generally known that this fine variety, proverbially a 
shy bearer, becomes, when double-grafted on the quince stock, one 
of the most abundant bearers. 


Doyenne du Cornice 
Beurre d'Anjou 
Beurre Ranee 

Olivier de Serres 
Bergamotte d'Bsperen 
Easter Beurre 

The above varieties grafted on pear stocks are 
equally adapted for their several aspects. In shallow, 
gravelly, or chalky soils, pears on pear stocks are to be 
preferred for walls. 

It is almost useless to plant dessert pears against 
north or north-east walls, as the fruit, unless in very 
warm seasons, is generally deficient in flavour. The 
only varieties that offer the least chance of success — and 
that only in a warm climate with a dry soil — are Marie 
Louise, Jargonelle, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Beurre 
Superfin. It is far better to plant against such aspects 
baking or stewing pears, such as Catillac, Bellissime 
d'Hiver, and Leon le Clerc de Laval : the Vicar of 
Winkfield is also a good north- wall pear — it bears well 
and stews well. In the north the finer sorts of pears 
must be cultivated on south walls. 

It may seem theoretical to recommend pears on the 
quince stock for pyramidal trees in the north of 
England and in cold soils and situations, but my ex- 
perience in some very cold and clayey soils in this 
neighbourhood enables me to feel sanguine as to the 
result, for I have observed that in some of the pear 
gardens of France many sorts are often too ripe. 

Now this is just the tendency we require. In our 


cold and moist climate most certainly pears will not get 
too ripe, more especially in the north of England and 
Scotland. Some years since I received a letter from a 
correspondent living in a hilly part of Derbyshire, from 
which I give an extract : — ' I have tried Beurre Diel, 
Beurre de Capiaumont, Marie Louise, and Williams' 
Bon Chretien, on pear stocks, all of which bear well as 
standards, but their fruit does not come to perfection, 
always remaining quite hard till it decays at the core. 
I have placed the fruit in a hot-house, but have never 
succeeded in ripening it. Williams' Bon Chretien we 
can only use for stewing.' This seems to show that 
cold, hilly situations are not favourable to the cultiva- 
tion of pears as standards. I have recommended some 
pears on quince stocks, and have heard of a favourable 




This system of pear-growing, which, I believe, will be 
the system of the future, from the extreme simplicity 
and economy with which it can be constructed and 

^ / WM/w/my''//-'///, 
Fig. 8 

adapted to all positions, was introduced some years 
since by Mr. Bellenden Ker for the purpose of growing 

Fig. 9 

peaches and nectarines on a trellis protected by 
movable glass lights. 

Although the trellis does not give sufficient heat 

D 2 


and protection for the cultivation of peaches, it is ad- 
mirably adapted for pears, apples, and plums. Fig. 8 
is a section of the trellis, and fig. 9 is a front view of 
a pear tree trained to it in the upright method. The 
fruit grown on these trellises is remarkably fine, rival- 
ling the best specimens of wall pears, owing to the 
trellis being near enough to the ground for the fruit 
to reap the benefit of the radiation of heat from the 

The lights should remain over the trees until the 
beginning of July, and then be removed, suffering the 
fruit to ripen fully exposed to the sun and air. It 
seems that the glass over the fruit in its young state 
serves to develop its growth in a remarkable manner, 
for rarely is a spot seen on pears grown on these . 
trellises ; they have a clear, beautiful appearance, much 
like those grown in the warmer parts of France. I 
ought to add that in cool climates, such as the north 
of England and Scotland, the lights may be suffered to 
remain over the trees till the beginning or middle of 
August. This will hasten the ripening of the fruit, 
but it should be exposed to the air in early autumn for 
some weeks before it is gathered, unless the climate be 
particularly cold and stormy, or it may suffer in flavour. 
Pears ripened under glass are apt to suffer in this re- 
spect. I have, however, quite recently received the 
following communication from a clever fruit-cultivator 
living in Ireland : — ' Let no one persuade you that 
pears grown in a well ventilated orchard-house are not 


equal to those outside ; I can give strong evidence to 
the contrary. In my house there was a small Louise 
Bonne on the quince stock, in an 11-inch pot; it bore 
twenty-three splendid pears, as far superior to the same 
fruit grown in the open air as it was possible to be. 
They were not, I admit, high-coloured, but they at- 
tained a richness and flavour that I thought Louise 
Bonne did not possess.' 

The pear trellis, of which the section and front view 
(figs. 8 and 9) will give a correct idea, is of the most 
simple description. A row of larch or oak posts must 
be driven into the ground six feet apart, and another row 
in front ; on these should be nailed plates, three inches 
by two, and then bars, three inches by one, placed 
flatwise from front plates to back three feet apart ; 
across these common tiling laths should be nailed six 
inches asunder. This will form the trellis as seen in 
fig. 9. The supports for the lights are formed in the 
same manner by a row of posts at the back and the 
same for the front, on which are nailed plates of the 
same dimensions as those for the trellis ; a crosspiece 
should be nailed to front and back plates at each end, 
to keep the supports for the lights from giving way. 
The structure with the lights, when resting on the 
back and front plates, has exactly the appearance of a 
large garden frame without back, front, or ends. 
Under the lights the trellis is formed with a sharp 
slope upwards to the back : for unless the front of the 
trellis is within six inches of the ground it will be 


difficult to bend the trees to the required position. By 
this simple contrivance, pears, and even peaches and 
nectarines in warm gardens, may be grown in any 
corner of the garden, with a south or south-western 
exposure — for it is scarcely necessary to add that the 
lights should slope to the south or south-west, so as to 
have all the sun heat possible. 

The most eligible dimensions for a trellis I find from 
experience to be as follows : — 

Glass Lights 

Eight feet long, three feet wide. 

Height from ground at back, three feet six inches. 

Height from ground at front, one foot six inches. 


Height from ground at back, two feet six inches. 
Height from ground at foot, six inches. 
Distance from glass lights, one foot. 

The front border should be raised to a level with the 
front of trellis ; this will leave twelve inches between 
the front ends of the lights and the surface of the front 
border, which will be quite enough for ventilation. 
Indeed, the draught in windy weather is inclined to be 
too sharp ; I find, therefore, furze or other evergreen 
branches, placed along the front between the glass and 
the border, and a mat nailed at the back, excellent 
checks to excessive ventilation in cold, frosty weather. 
They may remain there till the beginning or end of 


June, the latter if the weather be cold and stormy. The 
lights are fastened to the plate, back and front, by a 
hook and eye ; they are thus easily removed to prune 
the trees and gather the fruit. 

In the Appendix is given a diagram of a trellis re- 
cently made. Workers in iron, if applied to, would no 
doubt design a light iron trellis, which would probably 
have a more elegant look than the plan detailed here. 


These four-inch walls should have a nine-inch founda- 
tion of four courses of brickwork in the ground, and 
should be carried up to four feet above the surface (it 
is scarcely safe to build them of great height), with 
nine-inch piers fifteen feet apart. The coping for them 
is made of boiling coal tar mixed with lime and sand 
to the consistence of mortar, which is placed on the top 
of the wail thus ^^ so as to carry off the water. This 
is a most cheap and efficacious covering — it can scarcely 
be called a coping, as it does not project over the edge 
of the wall. A coping of Portland cement is even better, 
as it holds the wall together. 

The very best lime should be used. I have found 
the grey Dorking lime excellent, but any kind of lime 
made from limestone will answer well : that made from 



chalk in this country is not strong enough. Their cost, 
as I learn from my bricklayer, is about six shillings 
a yard in length ; thus a wall of the above height, 
twenty yards long, should cost £§} In places where 
bricks are cheap they may be built for less ; if they are 
dear and at a distance, their carriage will add to the 
expense. My walls are six feet apart, and stand end- 
wise, north-east and south-west ; so that one side of 
each wall has a south-east aspect, the other a north- 
west ; on the former may be grown the late-keeping 
pears, on the latter the earlier sorts that ripen from 
October till the end of November. We thus have one 
excellent aspect, the south-east ; and one tolerably good, 
the north-west ; so that no wall space is lost. 

The pear trees for these dwarf walls should be 
grafted on quince stocks trained horizontally, pruned by 
summer pinching as directed for five-branched vertical 

1 This estimate was made some years since ; the price of labour 
has increased since it was given. 


cordons (p. 27). They may be planted five feet apart 
at first, and when their branches meet they should be 
interlaced, as in fig. 10, and if necessary — i.e. if the 
shoots be long enough — they may be trained over the 
stems, so that the wall is completely furnished with 
bearing branches. At the end of five or six years 
every alternate tree may be removed, leaving the per- 
manent trees ten feet apart. I advise planting thus 
thickly because I know from experience that the 
temporary trees will fill the walls, will bear a good 
quantity of fruit, and look more satisfactory than if 
they are planted thinly. When removed they may be 
planted out for espaliers, or fresh walls built for them. 

If, owing to the soil being rich, the trees are in- 
clined to grow vigorously and not bear, they should be 
lifted biennially, or root-pruned ; but pears on quince 
stocks will be sure to bear abundantly. 

The dwarf walls, when covered with well-trained 
trees, have a neat and charming effect, and the trees 
may be easily protected by sticking branches of ever- 
greens in the ground and letting them rest against the 
wall, or by cheap glass lights, in lieu of shutters, 
placed against the walls, and suffered to remain so as 
to cover the trees till the fruit is fully formed, or till 
the first week in June, when all fear of damage from 
frost is over. 

Where two or more walls are built, or a square 
piece of ground devoted to them, a cross wall or walls 
should be built at the north-east end, to prevent the 


sharp current of wind from the north-east, which would 
blow up the intervals between the walls with great 
violence. It is surprising what a quantity of fruit may- 
be grown on a small space of ground with the aid of 
these walls. Peaches, nectarines, and apricots may be 
grown on the south-east aspect, but the trees must be 
kept in check by biennial removal. They seem to me 
more particularly suited to suburban, or what are 
commonly called cockney, gardens. How pleasant to 
be able to have a brick wall twenty yards long for £6, 
or ten yards long for £3 ; and how delightful to be able 
to grow one's own ' wall-fruit ' ! On a wall ten yards 
long, five peach and nectarine trees may be trained, and 
many dozens of fruit produced annually. These dwarf 
walls for the cultivation of peaches, nectarines, and 
apricots must, however, differ from those for pear trees, 
and be built so as to give a south or south-west aspect 
for the front, a north or north-east for the back. The 
latter may be planted with Morello cherries. To carry 
out the cultivation of the above-meutioned trees on 
dwarf walls, it is absolutely necessary to take them up 
biennially in November and replant them in the same 
place. 1 They will not require any compost to their 
roots, for peach, nectarine, and apricot trees are gene- 
rally by far too vigorous in their growth. In some of 
the London suburban gardens the soil is so rich that 

1 It is a prudent practice, in all cases of biennial removal, to 
remove half the number of trees in alternate years, for in dry 
seasons those recently removed may be too much checked in their 
growth to bear a crop of fruit the first season after removal. 


annual removal, particularly with apricots, may be found 
to be quite necessary. In country gardens, where the 
soil is poor, a dressing of manure on the surface over 
the roots two inches deep will be of service. 

A matter of great consequence in peach-tree culture 
on walls is to keep the surface of the soil solid ; if, 
therefore, the trees grow too vigorously, so as to require 
removal, say in October, the soil, after the tree is planted, 
should, after becoming dry, be rammed with a wooden 
rammer, so as to be as solid as a common garden path. 
In spring this hard surface should be covered with a 
slight coat of thoroughly decayed manure, which will 
be all the culture required. 


Pears on the quince may be cultivated as horizontal 
espaliers or cordons by the sides of walks, or trained to 
lofty walls with much advantage, as less space is required. 
Horizontal espaliers or wall trees on the pear stock, 
trained to walls of the usual height, i.e. from ten to 
twelve feet, require to be planted twenty feet apart, 
while those on the quince may be planted only ten feet 
apart; this, in a small garden, will allow of much 
greater variety of sorts to supply the table at different 
seasons. With these the same high culture, if perfec- 
tion be wished for, must be followed : the trees carefully 


planted, so that the junction of the graft with the stock 
is even with the surface of the mould formed as directed 
for pyramids. The pruning of wall pear trees has always 
been a subject of controversy with gardeners, as they 
are inclined to grow too vigorously. If it be thought 
desirable to have trees of large growth, so as to cover a 
high wall, and yet be highly fertile, it is much better to 
root-prune than to prune the branches. With such 
trees it need not be done so severely ; biennial root- 
pruning will be quite sufficient, commencing at eighteen 
inches from the wall after the tree has had two seasons' 
growth, cutting off the ends of all the roots at that dis- 
tance from the wall, and increasing it by sis inches at 
eveiy biennial pruning, till a distance of six feet from 
the wall is reached. When this is the case the roots 
must be confined to the border of that width by digging 
a trench biennially, and cutting off all the ends of the 
roots at that distance from the wall. 

I may, perhaps, make this more plain by saying that 
a tree planted in November 1890 should have its roots 
shortened eighteen inches in November 1892, to twenty- 
four inches in 1894, to thirty inches in 1896, to three 
feet in 1897, and so on, leaving sis inches biennially 
till, say, a distance of six feet from the wall is reached in 
1899. This border, six feet wide, will then be full of 
fibrous roots. 1 It should never be dug or cropped, but 

1 If the wall to which the trees are trained be twelve feet and 
upwards in height, the border should be eight, and even ten, feet in 
width. Wide and shallow fruit-tree borders are much to be pre- 
ferred to those that are deep and narrow. 


annually have a surface-dressing of manure about two 
inches in thickness ; and, as I have before said, have a 
trench dug biennially eighteen inches deep, six feet from 
the wall, and the end of every protruding root cut off. 
If this method be followed, and summer terminal 
pinching of the leading branches be practised, the 
pruning will be simplified. The first shoots in June 
should be stopped as soon as seven leaves are produced, 
and the remainder of the pruning left until October, 
with the exception of occasionally removing shoots which 
are too crowded. The branches of the horizontal-trained 
trees will then form cordons issuing from one main stem ; 
and this form of training, with all due deference to our 
Gallic neighbours, has been practised here for many 
years, although we did not give it a popular name. 

In forming borders for wall pear trees on quince 
stocks, biennially root-pruned, the soil should be well 
stirred with the fork to a depth of eighteen inches, and 
if it be poor, a good dressing of rotten manure or leaf 
mould should be mixed with it. Lime rubbish or gyp- 
sum is a necessary compost. Pears on quince stocks are 
much better adapted for this mode of culture than those 
on pear stocks. If the latter be planted, the border, six 
feet wide, should have a thick layer of concrete at bottom, 
to prevent the roots striking downwards ; or it would be 
good practice to place, eighteen inches deep under each 
tree, a flat piece of stone three feet in diameter ; this 
would force the roots to take a horizontal direction, and 
facilitate the operation of root-pruning. 


For fine specimens of wall pear trees grafted on the 
quince, I may refer to those on the west wall of the 
Koyal Horticultural Society's Gardens at Chiswick. 
These are now more that forty years old, and are pictures 
of health and fertility, thus at once settling the question 
respecting the early decay of pear trees grafted on the 
quince ; for it has been often, very often, urged as an 
objection to the use of the quince stock, that pears 
grafted on it are, although prolific, but very short-lived. 
I have seen trees in France more than fifty years old, 
and those above referred to may be adduced to confute 
this error. 



This is, perhaps, the most simple of all methods for 
economising space, and is in reality a very primitive 
form. Plant either one- or two-year-old trees, three 
feet apart, in quincunx or rows. If the trees are weak, 
and cannot make an upright growth without assistance, 
fasten them to a stake. Prune, when planted, about 
three or four buds from the top, and leave them for the 
first year without further pruning until October, when 
the summer shoots of the trees must be pruned to the 
lowest wood bud nearest the stem ; the pruning is then 
complete for the first year. The second year the trees 
will produce lateral shoots from all parts of the main 
stem. In June, pinch the terminal bud of all these 
shoots when they have arrived at six to seven leaves, 
and prune no more until the end of September, when 
the leaf begins to fall. 

For small gardens, where the cultivator wishes for 
a large collection of pears in a small place, this — which 
is, in fact, the cordon system applied to single-stemmed 
trees — is much to be recommended. 

Fig. 20 is a single cordon apple tree from a speci- 


men growing here (single cordon pear trees require the 
same culture), and will, perhaps, give the reader a 
correct idea of the adaptability of these compact trees 
for small gardens ; they may be planted two feet apart. 


The diagonal single cordon is the most simple of all 
the methods supported by various writers on training. 
It consists merely of planting a dwarf tree with one 
shoot about 18 to 20 inches apart at an angle of 45° 
(fig. 11). The first year after planting, the side shoots 
should be pinched in June to five leaves, and pruned 
again in October to three buds from the base. This 
pruning includes the second growth from the first 
pruning. If the tree, as it often does, produces bloom 
spurs, do not prune them, as the tree will not be 
injured by precocity in fruiting. The third and fourth 
years will require the same treatment — that is, pinch in 
June and then refrain from any other pruning until 
October ; the trees will look a little ragged and untidy, 
but this will be remedied by the late pruning. Diagonal 
cordons of pears, plums, cherries, apples, and apricots 
may be cultivated with success when trained against 
walls with south-west and all other aspects, except 
north or north-east. 

There is perhaps no wall-fruit tree so likely to be 



largely benefited by single diagonal training as the 
apricot. Every gardener knows the wretched dis- 
appointment often felt in summer by large and ap- 
parently healthy branches of their apricot trees dying 
off suddenly, and leaving them without any remedy — 
for the gap made cannot be filled, owing to the rigidity 
of the remaining branches. There is, therefore, no 

Fig. 11 

remedy for this failure of apricot trees when trained'to 
walls in the usual manner ; but there is a sure method 
of avoiding it — simple enough : it is by planting single 
diagonal cordon trees, which may be maiden trees with 
a single stem, or trees in a bearing state from the 
nursery. In planting, if the tree is slender, it is usual 
to keep the stem of the stock as nearly upright as 



possible ; but as the graft is often too stiff to bend 
readily, the tree may be planted slopingly. 

Single diagonal apricot trees require a south or 
south-west aspect, and should be planted eighteen to 
twenty inches apart, and every shoot pinched in during 
the summer, as directed for cordon pear trees (p. 48), 
and the same directions as to reducing and thinning 
out the fruit spurs in winter are necessary. The 
leading shoot need not, as a general rule, be shortened 
till it reaches the top of the wall, as the shoot of an 
apricot tree is generally so robust and full of buds. A 
single diagonal apricot tree, sloped to an angle of 45° 
or so, will, when it reaches the top of a wall ten feet 
in height, be a cordon fifteen feet in length. A wall 
twenty feet long will thus give space enough for ten 
or twelve trees, which in the course of two or three 
years will bear large quantities of fruit. One most 
important advantage, I repeat, is held out by this mode 
of culture : no unseemly gaps need be seen, owing to 
the death of branches, as in the present mode ; for 
whenever a tree dies — a very uncommon event — it may 
be at once replaced. The expense of ten trees instead 
of one maybe urged by the planter, costing 15s. instead 
of 7s. 6d. for one well-trained tree. I have only to 
remark that when the system is fully carried out the 
demand will be met by a much cheaper supply, and it 
must be recollected that it gives a tenfold advantage 
over the old method of training. 

Above all, it does away with the tiresome annual 


necessity of ' laying in ' shoots, and pruning and nailing 
in winter; if not tied to wires fixed to the wall the 
diagonal cordon can be fastened by three or four shreds, 
care being taken that the shreds are not lurking-places 
for insects. 

Peaches and nectarines trained as diagonal cordons 
against walls with a south or south-west aspect are 
worthy of a trial, but only in the warmer parts of 

The system of single diagonal training is so simple 
that one feels assured of its being widely spread among 
amateur gardeners, who seem likely to lead the sound 
gardening taste of England. It must, however, be 
recollected that, although such trees trained against a 
wire fence are pleasant to look at, they require protection 
from spring frost, our great enemy. 

The making of these wire fences for diagonal 
cordons is very simple. Straining posts of oak, five 
inches by two and a half, are placed firmly in the 
ground, twenty feet apart ; between these, at six feet 
apart, are the perforated, flat, slight iron bars used to 
support wire fences : the wire may be stout iron wire 
the thickness of whipcord, which should be painted 
with coal-tar and lime, or if galvanised no painting 
will be required. The lowest wire is eighteen inches 
from the surface of the soil, and the other wires are 
one foot apart, as high as required ; but six, seven, 
or eight feet will be found high enough. Fig. 11 will 
give an idea of diagonal cordon training on a wire 

E 2 


fence. My trees, planted from fifteen to eighteen 
inches apart, are models of beauty, far surpassing 
espalier training, and giving more fruit in the same 
space. For boundary fences in the kitchen garden I 
know of nothing more desirable or more economical 
than a diagonal cordon fence covered with trees full of 

The double trellis is made precisely in the same 
manner as the single trellis, but the addition of hori- 
zontal iron bars, fastened to the straining posts, one 
foot in length, gives the power of placing two rows of 
wires instead of one, thus economising space, and by 
using the same straining posts the means of gaining 
twice the produce is afforded ; the additional expense 
being the iron strainers and the wires. 

In cultivating pears or any other fruit trees on 
trellises, I recommend digging a trench parallel to the 
trees, about eighteen inches from the stem, and from 
one foot to eighteen inches in depth. This should be 
filled with rotten manure and loam, and should be 
used as a permanent root border, an alternate parallel 
trench being dug to supply the fresh and to receive the 
used-up soil. It will, I think, be understood that this 
system will provide fresh food for the roots of the trees, 
and will also form a modified system of root-pruning ; 
the roots will be found to grow luxuriantly and will not 
travel far. The soil taken from the trellis trench will 
serve again in alternate years, as it will have had a 
fallow, and if the surface is dressed with manure and 


lime, it will be in all respects equal to virgin soil. 
Care must be taken to make the trellis trench firm and 
solid, as the roots of trees dislike a loose soil. 

I may here suggest that prisoners could make pro- 
tecting mats for fruit trees at a cheap rate. These may 
be light, strong, and durable. The material of which 
they are made will be thick enough to prevent damage 
from the severe frosts in April and May, months when 
the blossoms or the young fruit suffer most. 


A FEW years since, when visiting a friend at Fontenay- 
aux-Roses, near Paris, I was much struck with a hedge 
formed of pear-trees on the quince stock. He smiled 
when he told me his method of cultivation and pruning, 
the latter being simply clipping his hedge in July with 
the garden shears, 1 and thinning out the spurs in 
winter when they become crowded. When my friend 
paid me a visit, I inquired, with some interest, about his 
pear-tree hedge. He assured me that it was perfectly 
healthy, and generally gave him large crops of fruit. 
The sorts proper to form a hedge are Louise Bonne of 
Jersey, Beurre d'Amanlis, Beurre Hardy, Conseiller de 
la Cour, Beurre d'Aremberg, Beurre Superfin, and 

1 An English cultivator would employ pruning scissors to 
shorten the shoots, and thus make his hedge look as if cared for. 


Doyenne du Cornice. These are all free growers on the 
quince stock, and if planted in a favourable soil and 
climate would soon form a fruitful hedge. They should 
be planted about thirty inches apart, and in masses, 
i.e. planting, say, ten of each sort together. A hedge 
may be formed, varying more in its aspect by planting 
one or two trees of each sort in succession — this is a 
mere matter of taste. A pear-tree hedge when in full 
bloom has a very agreeable look, and when full of fruit 
is very profitable. 


There are some dry, warm, shallow soils, more parti- 
cularly those resting on chalk or gravel, which are un- 
favourable to the pear on the quince stock ; it is difficult 
to make them flourish unless great care is taken in 
mulching the surface, and giving them abundance of 
water and liquid manure in summer. In such soils 
pyramids on the pear stock may be cultivated with but 
little trouble. 

To those who wish to train them as they should 
grow, one-year-old grafted plants may be selected, 
which may be managed as directed for young pyramids 
on the quince stock. If trees of mature growth are 
planted, they will require the treatment recommended 
for pyramids on the quince stock, but as they are more 
vigorous in growth excessive summer pinching must be 


avoided. The strong laterals should have the terminal 
bud nipped in June and the rest of the pruning com- 
pleted in September. There is no occasion, however, 
to make a mound up to the junction of the graft with 
the stock, as the pear does not really emit roots. Annual 
root-pruning is almost indispensable to pyramids on 
pear stocks in small gardens, and it will much facili- 
tate this operation if each tree be planted on a small 
mound ; the roots are then so easily brought to the 
surface. This annual operation, which should be done 
in November, may be dispensed with in soils not rich, 
if the trees be lifted biennially in that month and re- 
planted, merely pruning off the ends of any long roots. 
Annual surface manuring, as recommended for pyramids 
on the quince, is also necessary, if the trees be root- 
pruned or biennially removed. 

Trees of the usual size and quality may be planted, 
and suffered to remain two years undisturbed, unless 
the soil be rich and they make vigorous shoots (say 
eighteen inches in length) the first season after plant- 
ing, in which case operations may then commence the 
first season. Thus, supposing a tree to be planted in 
November or December, it may remain untouched 
two years from that period ; and then as early in 
autumn as possible a circumferential trench, twelve 
inches deep, should be dug, and every root cut with 
the knife and brought near to the surface, and the 
spade introduced under the trees so as to completely 
intercept every perpendicular root. 


The treddle spade used in this part of Hertford- 
shire is a very eligible instrument for this purpose, as 
the edge is steeled and very sharp. The following 
year, the third from planting, a trench may be again 
opened at fifteen inches from the stem, so as not to 
injure the fibrous roots of the preceding summer's 
growth, and the knife and spade again used to cut all 
the spreading and perpendicular roots that are getting 
out of bounds. The fourth year the same operation 
may be repeated at eighteen inches from the stem ; 
and in all subsequent root-pruning this distance from 
the stem must be kept. This will leave enough un- 
disturbed earth round each tree to sustain as much 
fruit as ought to grow, for the object is to obtain a 
small prolific tree. 

I find that in the course of years a perfect mass of 
fibrous roots is formed, which only requires the annual 
or biennial operation (the former if the tree be very 
vigorous) of a trench being dug, and the ball of earth 
heaved down to ascertain whether any large feeders 
are making their escape from it, and to cut them off. 
But it must be borne in mind that this soil will in a 
few years be exhausted ; to remedy which a shallow 
trench should be made round the tree about eighteen 
inches from the stem : this should be filled in with a 
dressing of night soil and burnt earth in December or 
January. This manure is raw and powerful and very 
unsavoury, but it will not come into contact with any 
active roots until it has lost its pungency. Other liquid 


manures are equally useful, but the above is easily 
obtained and applied. I must firmly impress upon 
the reader the strong necessity of applying lime or 
chalk to soils deficient in this deposit ; I believe that 
many so-called exhausted borders require only the 
addition of lime in some form or other to renovate 
decaying trees. 

Gas lime after an exposure to the air, superphos- 
phate, gypsum, lime rubbish, or chalk will all be found 
to act beneficially. 

There is no absolute necessity for liquid manuring 
in the winter, as common dung may be laid round each 
tree in autumn, and suffered to be washed in by the 
rains in winter and drawn in by the worms. The 
great end to attain seems (to use an agricultural phrase) 
to be able to ' feed at home ' ; that is, to give the mass 
of spongioles enough nutriment in a small space. A 
tree will then make shoots from eight to ten inches 
Jong in one season (for such ought to be the maxi- 
mum of growth), and at the same time be able to 
produce abundance of blossom-buds and fruit. On 
trees of many varieties the former will be in too 
great abundance ; removing a portion in early spring, 
cutting them out with a sharp knife so as to leave 
each fruit-spur about three inches apart, is excellent 

I have not yet mentioned the possibility of root- 
pruning fruit trees of twenty or thirty years' growth 
with advantage. Irregular amputation of the roots 


of too vigorous fruit trees is, I am aware, an old 
practice ; but the regular and annual or biennial 
pruning of them, so as to keep a tree full of youth and 
vigour in a stationary and prolific state, has not, that I 
am aware of, been recommended by any known author, 
although it may have been practised. In urging its 
applicability to trees of twenty or thirty years' growth, 
I must recommend caution : the circular trench should 
not be nearer the stem of a standard tree than three 
feet, or, if it be a wall tree, four feet, and only two- 
thirds of the roots should be pruned the first season, 
leaving one-third to support the tree, so that it cannot 
be blown on one side by the wind, and these of course 
must be left where they will best give this support. 
The following season half the remaining roots may be 
cut, or, if the tree be inclined to vigour, all of them ; 
but if it gives symptoms of being checked too much, 
they may, on the contrary, remain undisturbed for one, 
or even two seasons. If, as is often the case in pear, 
trees, the roots are nearly all perpendicular, the tree 
must be supported with stakes for one or two years 
after complete root-pruning. 

The following extract from a letter received from the 
late C. Koach Smith, Esq., the archaeologist, is interest- 
ing, as showing the prompt effects of root-pruning of 
trees : — ' I have only been a horticulturist for three 
years ; I took to two very beautiful old pear trees, 
which must have cost no end of nailing, cuttiug, and 
staking. On inquiry, I found that one (a Summer 


Bon Chretien) had never produced more than one pea/r 
annually ; the other upon a north wall had never given 
a single pear. I could get no aid from anyone what to 
do with those trees, and no book then accessible helped 
me. I reflected on the natural habit of the pear tree, 
and coming to the conclusion that the cause of barren- 
ness was exuberance of roots, I resolved to cut them. 
Before the leaves had fallen, a friend sent me " The 
Eetired Gardener," an old book translated from the 
French. In it I found an account of some experiments 
made in England which fortified me in the resolution 
I had taken. The first year the Summer Bon Chretien 1 
produced nine fruit. I pruned the roots more closely, 
and this year (1859), in spite of the ungenial spring, I 
saved fifty-nine pears. The other tree yielded thirty- 
six, but of so vile a quality that I have re-grafted the 
tree. A large plum treated in the same way produced 
the season after being root-pruned 2,000 fruit.' 

It will not, perhaps, be out of place here to 
enumerate a few of the advantages of systematic root- 
pruning and removing or lifting of pear, apple, and 
plum trees, and of growing them as pyramidal trees 
and bushes. 

Firstly. Their eligibility for small gardens, even 
the smallest. 

Secondly. The facility of thinning the blossom- 
buds, and in some varieties, such as Gansel's Bergamot 

1 This is one of our oldest varieties, and remarkable for being a 
very shy bearer. 


and other shy-bearing sorts, of setting the blossoms and 
of thinning and gathering the fruit. 

Thirdly. Their making the gardener independent of 
the natural soil of his garden, as a few barrowfuls of rich 
mould with annual manure on the surface will support 
a tree for many, very many years, thus placing bad 
soils nearly on a level with those the most favourable. 

Fourthly. The capability of removing trees of fifteen 
or twenty years' growth with as much facility as fur- 
niture. To tenants this will indeed be a boon, for 
perhaps one of the greatest annoyances a tenant is 
subject to is that of being obliged to leave behind him 
trees that he has nurtured with the utmost care. 

Probably in judicious root-pruning and annual 
manuring on the surface, so as to keep our fruit trees 
full of short, well-ripened, fruitful shoots, we are all 

Root-pruning was practised with success in a garden 
near where for some years a healthy peach tree was 
never seen, as the subsoil is a cold white clay, full of 
chalk stones. This change was brought about by 
biennially pruning the roots of the trees early in 
autumn, as soon as the fruit was gathered ; in some 
cases lifting the trees and supplying their roots with 
a dressing of leaf-mould, sand, and rotten manure, equal 
parts. Powdered charcoal, or the ashes of burnt turf 
and rotten manure, also make an excellent root-dressing 
for cold heavy soils ; but if the soil be dry and poor, 
and unfavourable to the peach and nectarine, loam and 


rotten manure is the best dressing for the roots, and 
also for the surface. 


Pyramidal pear trees of from three to five years old 
on the quince stock, root-pruned, and full of blossom - 
buds, may be purchased. Trees of this description 
should, if possible, be planted before Christmas ; but if 
the soil be very tenacious, the holes may be opened in 
the autumn, and the trees planted in February; the 
soil will be mellowed and benefited by the frosts of 
winter. 1 

Pear trees grafted on the quince stock offer a 
curious anomaly ; for if they are removed quite late 
in spring — say towards the end of March, when their 
blossom-buds are just on the point of bursting — they 
will bear a fine, and often an abundant, crop of fruit. 
This is sometimes owing to the blossoms being retarded, 
and thus escaping the spring frosts ; but it has so often 
occurred here when no frosts have visited us that I 

1 The roots of pear trees on the quince stock, and, indeed, of all 
root-pruned trees, are very fibrous. In planting, it is good practice 
to give each tree two shovelfuls of fine earth or mould rather dry — 
to place it on the roots and shake the tree, so that the mould is 
mixed with the mass of fibrous roots. Before the soil is all filled in, 
three or four gallons of water should be poured in, so as to wash the 
earth into every crevice. The roots should not be crammed into a 
small hole. A tree with its roots eighteen inches in diameter will 
require a hole 2^ feet in diameter, and so on in proportion. 


notice it — in fact, no trees bear late removal so well as 
pears on quince stocks. 

In planting pear trees on the quince stock, it is quite 
necessary that the stock should be covered up to its 
junction with the graft. This joining of the graft to 
the stock is generally very evident, even to the most 
ignorant in gardening matters ; it usually assumes the 
form as given in fig. 12, a. 

Fig. 12.— a, Junction of the graft with the stock, b, the point 
up to which the stock should be covered. 

If the soil be not excessively wet, the tree may be 
placed in a hole, say three feet in diameter and eighteen 
inches deep, in the usual way, so that the upper roots are 
slightly above the level of the surface, as the tree will 
always settle down two or three inches the first season 
after planting. Some light compost should be filled in, 
and the tree well shaken, so that it is thoroughly mingled 
with its roots. The compost must then be trodden 
down ; and so far the planting is finished. The earth 
should then be placed round the stem, and formed into 
a mound, which should cover the stock up to, but not 
above, the junction of the graft with the stock, in order 


to encourage it to emit roots into the surface soil, and to 
keep it (the stock) from becoming hard and ' bark-bound.' 

As the mounds will subside by the heavy rains of 
winter, presuming that the trees have been planted in 
autumn, fresh compost of the same nature must be 
added in spring, and every succeeding autumn. A 
quarter of a peck of soot, strewed on the surface in a 
circle three feet in diameter round each tree in March, 
is an excellent stimulant. The great object in the 
culture of the pear on the quince stock is to encourage 
the growth of its very fibrous roots at the surface, so 
that they may feel the full influence of the sun and air. 
The slight mounds recommended may be made orna- 
mental, if required, by placing pieces of rock or flint 
on them, which will also prevent the birds scratching 
at them for worms ; but the stones selected must not be 
very large and heavy — they should be about the size 
and weight of a brick. In light friable soils, the mounds 
may be from three to four inches above the surface of 
the surrounding soil ; in heavy retentive wet soils, from 
sis to eight inches will not be found too high. 

In soils of a light dry nature the pear on the quince 
requires careful culture ; the surface round the tree 
should be covered during June, July, and August with 
short litter, 1 or manure, and in dry weather give the 

1 A clerical amateur has informed me that this mulching or 
placing half -rotten manure one or two inches deep on the surface in 
a circle from two to three feet in diameter and one and a half 
inches deep, according to the size of the tree, will prevent pears 


trees a drenching once a week with guano water (about 
one pound to ten gallons) and equal parts of soot, which 
must be well stirred before it is used. Each tree should 
have ten gallons poured gradually into the soil ; by this 
method the finest fruit may be produced ; and as it is 
very probable that ere many years elapse exhibitions of 
pears will become very popular, this will be the mode to 
procure fine specimens to show for prizes. I must also 
here repeat that lime rubbish or chalk should be applied 
to soils deficient in calcareous deposit ; I think that all 
fruit trees would be benefited by a biennial dressing of 
superphospate. Gas lime after an exposure of a month 
or two may be advantageously mixed with the surface- 
dressing of manure. Gypsum dissolved in water is a 
very efficient fertiliser. 

Our oldest gardening authors have said that ' pears 
engrafted on the quince stocks give their fairest fruit ' ; 
and they are correct. It has been asserted that the 
fruit is liable to be gritty and deficient in flavour. I 
can only say that from my trees growing on a cold 
clayey soil, I have tasted fruit of Marie Louise, Louis 
Bonne of Jersey, and others, all that could, be wished 
for in size and flavour. 

In the course of my experience, and since the above 
recommendation to plant on mounds was written, I have 
found it good practice in very dry soils to plant pear 
trees on the quince stock with the junction of the graft 
just level with the surface, so as not to require mounds 
round their stems. The first season they should have 



some manure on the surface, laid in a circle round the 
stem ; and the second year a shallow basin, two feet in 
diameter and four inches deep, should be dug round the 
stem, and filled with some manure about half-rotten. 

FlG. 13. — Bush pear tree in the garden of J. Meadows, Esq., 
Wexford. Photographed September 13, 1872. This tree, 
worked on the quince stock, is now 22 years old, 5 feet 
high, 3 feet through the centre, and 100 inches in circum- 
ference It bears abundantly every year, and, a few days 
after this photograph was taken, 189 handsome pears 
were gathered from it. 

This basin thus filled will keep moist even in the most 
dry and hot weather, and will become full of fibrous 
roots. This is also an excellent method of renovating 
pear trees that have exhausted themselves by bearing 



too abundantly or that appear unhealthy by their leaves 
turning yellow. In such cases, when the trees are of 
advanced growth, a basin of the same depth, but three 
or more feet in diameter, should be formed and filled 
with manure ; in all cases for this purpose this should 
be but slightly decomposed. 


The fruit of pears, more particularly those on quince 
stocks, should not be suffered to ripen on the tree, 
the summer and autumn varieties should be gathered 
before they are quite ripe, and left to ripen in the fruit 
room. 1 The late pears should be gathered before the 
leaves take their autumnal tints ; if suffered to remain 
too long on the trees they frequently never ripen, 
but continue hard till they rot. In most seasons, 
from the beginning to the end of October is a good 
time, but much depends on soil and climate. The 
following passage from that very excellent work, 
Downing's ' Fruit Trees of America,' is appropriate to 
this subject : — 

' The pear is a peculiar fruit in one respect, which 
should always be kept in mind, viz., that most varieties 
are much finer in flavour if incited from the tree, and 

1 Pears that ripen in September and October should not be 
gathered all at one time, but at intervals of a week or so, making, 
say, three gatherings ; their season is thus much prolonged. 


ripened in the house, than if allowed to become fully 
matured on the tree. There are a few exceptions to 
this rule, but they are very few. And, on the other 
hand, we know a great many varieties, which are only 
second or third-rate when ripened on the tree, but possess 
the highest and richest flavour if gathered at the proper 
time, and allowed to mature in the house. This proper 
season is easily known, first by the ripening of a few 
full-grown, but worm-eaten specimens, which fall soonest 
from the tree ; and, secondly, by the change of colour, 
and the readiness of the stalk to part from the branch 
on gently raising the fruit. The fruit should then be 
gathered, or so much of the crop as appears sufficiently 
matured, and spread out on shelves in the fruit room, 
or upon the floor of the garret. Here it will gradually 
assume its full colour and become deliciously melting 
and luscious. Many sorts which if suffered to ripen in 
the sun or open air are rather dry, when ripened within 
doors are most abundantly melting and juicy. They 
will also last for a considerably longer period, if ripened 
in this way, maturing gradually as wanted for use, and 
being thus beyond the risk of loss or injury by violent 
storms or high winds. 

' Winter dessert pears should be allowed to hang on 
the tree as long as possible, till the nights become frosty. 1 
They should then be wrapped separately in paper, 

1 I feel compelled to differ from Mr. D. in this respect, for in 
the autumn of 1855, I suffered many pears to hang on the trees till 
the end of October, and they never ripened. I believe the first week 
in October to be the best period to gather winter pears in. 

f 2 


packed in kegs, barrels, or small boxes, and placed in a 
cool dry room, free from frost. Some varieties, as the 
Beurre d'Aremberg, will ripen finely with no other care 
than placing them in barrels in the cellar, like apples. 
But most kinds of the finer winter dessert pears should 
be brought into a warm apartment for a couple of weeks 
before their usual season of maturity. They should be 
kept covered, to prevent shrivelling. Many sorts that 
are comparatively tough if ripened in a cold apartment, 
become very melting, buttery, and juicy, when allowed 
to mature in a room kept at a temperature of 60 or 70 

The following is from Mr. Glass's ' Gardening Book,' 
as given in the ' Gardener's Chronicle ' : — 


'Get some unglazecl jars — garden pots will do; make 
them perfectly clean, if they have ever been used. The 
best way is to half burn or bake them over again. 

1 Gather your pears very carefully, so as not to rub 
off the bloom or break the stalk. On no account knock 
them about so as to bruise them. Put them on a dry 
sweet shelf, to sweat. When this sweating is over, rub 
them dry with a soft cloth, as tenderly as if you were 
dry-rubbing a baby. 

' As soon as they are quite dry, put them, one over 
the other, into the jars or garden pots, without any sort 
of packing ; close up the mouth of the jar loosely, or of 
the garden-pot, by whelming the pan or placing a piece 


of slate over it, and stow them away in a darkish closet 
where they cannot get the frost. 

' Open the jars now and then, to see how they are 
getting on. 

{ Do not put more than one sort in the same jar if 
you can help it. Mind — the warmer they are kept, the 
faster they will ripen.' 


Pears may be kept in a greenhouse, in great perfection, 
all the autumn. 

The greenhouse in which this experiment was tried 
is a lean-to house with a south-west aspect, twelve feet 
wide, with a path in the centre, a bench in front of 
common slates laid on wooden bars. The pears were 
laid on the front bench, the glass over them shaded till 
the end of November, and the house ventilated; in 
severe frosts the temperature was kept just above 
freezing. The autumn and early winter pears under 
this treatment ripened slowly, and were of excellent 

After all, I think there is no better material for 
preserving pears plump and sound than dry burnt 
earth ; this never turns musty, never ferments, but 
seems to remain under all circumstances perfectly inno- 


My own fruit room, in which the fruit keeps very 
successfully, is a span roof thatched building with a 
walk down the centre and benches on either side ; 
the fruit is placed on bars of wood about one inch apart. 
Pears and apples keep well until their extreme limit of 

Winter and very late pears will ripen well when 
taken from the fruit room and placed in a warmer 

If the fruit is exposed to the sun under glass when 
gathered it will keep better than if stored immediately 
after picking. The exposure to the sun completes the 
process of ripening, and the late pears are much im- 
proved in flavour by this treatment. 



Apples as pyramids on the Paradise stock are objects 
of great beauty and utility. This stock, like the quince, 
is remarkable for its tendency to emit numerous fibrous 
roots near the surface, and for contracting the growth 
of the graft, causing it to become fruitful at a very 
early stage. On the Continent there are two varieties 
of the apple under this denomination, viz., the Doucin, 
and the Pomme de Paradis ; these are called Paradise 
stocks in England, but on the Continent the first and 
last are used for distinct purposes — the first for 
pyramids, the latter for dwarf bushes. 

The Doucin stock is probably the same as that 
called ' Dutch Creeper,' or ' Dutch Paradise,' by Miller, 
in his Dictionary, folio edition of 1759. It puts forth 
abundance of fibrous roots near the surface of the soil, 
and is not inclined to root deeply into it like the crab. 
Apples grafted on this stock are more vigorous than 
when grafted on the French Paradise stock, and less so 
than those on the crab ; it is, therefore, well adapted for 
garden trees, for they are easily lifted, their roots thus 


kept to the surface, and the tree consequently kept free 
from canker. There is another surface-rooting apple 
also well adapted for stocks, the Burr Knot. This, like 
the Doucin, will strike root, if stout cuttings, two or 
three years old, are planted two-thirds of their length 
in a moist soil ; it is a large, handsome, and very 
good culinary apple. At Ware Park in Hertfordshire, 
this is called Byde's Walking-stick Apple, owing to 
Mr. Byde, the former proprietor of the place, often 
planting branches with his own hand, which soon 
formed nice bearing trees. 

Among apples raised from seed, some will occasion- 
ally be found with this surface-rooting nature ; and 
this is, I suspect, the reason why the Doucin stock, 
under the name of the Paradise, in the English 
nurseries, differs from the stock used as Doucins in 
France ; there are also several varieties cultivated there, 
some of which are unfitted for our climate. 

There are three varieties of the French Paradise, 
all making very dwarf trees; then come three Dutch 
Paradise, all much alike, but slightly more vigorous 
than the French sorts ; next to them are two English 
Paradise, both of them from old English nurseries — 
they have much resemblance to the French Doucin 
stock, but are better, swelling with the graft. The 
Creeping Paradise is probably that mentioned by 
Miller, in the last century, since it is very remarkable 
for putting forth suckers from the roots, objectionable, 
but not common with the apple tribe. The Nonesuch 


Paradise stock, raised here from that very old apple the 
Nonesuch of Queen Bess's time, is quite sui generis, 
for it has downy leaves and a knotted stem, but is 
wonderfully fertile. The Broad-leaved Paradise, also 
raised from seed here, is the best variety of the Doucin 
stock. The Miniature and Pigmy Paradise, both raised 
from seed here, have the dwarf habit of the French 

The Pommier de Paradis, or the French Paradise, 
seems identical with the ' dwarf apple of Armenia,' 
referred to in the ' Journal of the Horticultural Society,' 
part ii. vol. iii. p. 115. It is exceedingly dwarf in its 
habit, and too tender for this climate, unless in very 
warm and rich soils. Out of 2,000 imported in 1845, 
more than half died the first season, and two-thirds of 
the remainder the following. They were planted in 
fine fertile loam, favourable to the growth of apples, and 
on which the Doucin, planted the same season, grew 
with the greatest vigour. The same result attended an 
importation in 1866. I have potted some plants, and 
owing, as I suppose, to the roots being warmed through 
the pots by exposure to the sun, they make very nice 
little fruitful bushes — in fact, real miniature apple trees, 
bearing fruit when only nine inches in height ; to have 
healthy fertile trees, I should recommend them to be 
gradually shifted into fifteen-inch pots. The citizen 
may thus have his apple orchard on the leads of his 

The Nonesuch and Broad-leaved Paradise stocks, 


before mentioned as my seedlings, are most deserving 
of our attention as stocks for forming fruitful healthy 
pyramids and bushes, the culture of which is very 
simple. Grafted trees of one, two, or three years' 
growth, with straight leading stems, well furnished 
with buds and branches to the junction with the stock, 
should be planted. No manure should be placed to 
their roots, but some light friable mould should be 
shaken into them, the earth filled in, trodden down, and 
two or three shovelfuls of half-rotten manure laid on the 
surface round each tree. This surface-dressing may be 
given with advantage every succeeding autumn. If the 
soil be very wet and retentive, it will be better to plant 
the trees in small mounds ; and if symptoms of canker 
make their appearance, their roots should be examined 
annually in the autumn, as recommended in root-prun- 
ing of pears on the quince stock, introducing the spade 
directly under the roots, so as to prevent any entering 
deeply into the soil, and bringing all as nearly to the 
surface as possible, filling in the trench with light friable 
compost ; or the tree may be lifted and replanted, which 
will be found more efficient. 

If the soil be unfavourable, and apt to induce a 
too vigorous growth in apple trees, followed by canker, 
the roots should be annually root-pruned, or the trees 
lifted — i.e. taken up and replanted. If, however, 
the trees make shoots of only moderate vigour, and are 
healthy and fruitful, their roots may remain undis- 
turbed ; pinching their shoots in summer, as directed 


for pyramidal pears, p. 10, and training them in a 
proper direction, is all that they will want. Pyramids 
on the Paradise stock may be planted six feet apart in 
confined gardens ; six feet will give them abundance 
of room ; but if, owing to the soil being of an extra 
fertility, they are found to require more, the trees, if 
they have been root-pruned, may be removed, almost 
without receiving a check, even if they are twenty years 
old. This is a great comfort to the amateur gardener 
who amuses himself with improving his garden ; for 
how often does a favourite fruit tree, which cannot be 
removed, prevent some projected improvement ! 

Apples differ greatly in their habits of growth ; 
some are inclined to grow close and compact, like a 
cypress — these are the proper sorts for pyramids ; 
others, horizontally and crooked — these should be 
grown as bushes; others again are slender and thin 
in their growth, so that, to form a good pyramid of 
these slender-growing varieties, it is necessary to begin 
the first year with a young tree, and to pinch the 
leader as soon as it is six inches long. If by any 
neglect the lower part of the pyramid be not furnished 
with shoots, but have dormant buds, or buds with only 
two or three leaves attached, a notch must be cut, 
about half an inch in width, just above the bud from 
which a shoot is required. The notch must be cut 
through the outer and inner bark, and alburnum, or 
first layer of wood ; and if the shoot or stem be young 
— say from two to four inches in girth — it may be cut 


round half its circumference. If this be done in spring 
or summer, the following season a shoot will generally 
make its appearance ; sometimes even the first season, 
if the stem or branch be notched early in spring. This 
method of producing shoots from dormant buds may 
be applied with advantage to all kinds of fruit trees, 
except the peach and nectarine, which are not often 
inclined to break from a dormant bud. 

Varieties of apples, inclined to be compact and close 
in their growth, form very handsome pyramids ; but 
they are apt to be unfruitful, as air enough is not ad- 
mitted to the interior of the tree. This may be easily 
amended by bringing the lateral shoots down to a hori- 
zontal position for a year or two, and fastening the end of 
each shoot to a st ake ; an open pyramidal shape will thus 
be attained, which the tree will keep. Other varieties 
put forth their laterals horizontally, and some are even 
pendulous. The leading perpendicular shoot of varieties 
of this description should be supported by a stake, till 
the tree is of mature age. Iron rods, about the size of 
small curtain-rods, are the most eligible ; these, if 
painted with coal-tar and lime, sifted and mixed with 
it to the consistence of very thick paint, put on boiling 
hot, are permanent. 

Apple trees in confined gardens near large towns 
are often infested with 'American blight,' aphis lani- 
gera ; this makes its appearance on the trees generally 
towards the middle of summer, like patches of cotton- 
wool. There are many remedies given for this pest ; 


the most efficacious I have yet found is soft soap dis- 
solved in soft water, two pounds to the gallon, or the 
Gishurst compound, sold by Price's Candle Company, 
one pound to the gallon, and applied with an old 
painter's brush. Where this pest shows itself, the 
branches should be painted in the autumn, after the 
fall of the leaf, with paraffin, care being taken to rub 
this well into the angles of the branches. 

Here let me impress upon the lover of his garden, 
living anywhere within the reach of smoke, the neces- 
sity of using the syringe ; its efficacy is not half appre- 
ciated by garden amateurs. As soon as the leaves of 
his fruit trees are fully expanded, every morning and 
every evening, in dry weather, should the attentive 
gardener dash on the water with an unsparing hand — 
not with a plaything, but with the perforated common 
syringe, such as a practical gardener would use, capable 
of pouring a sharp stream on the plant, and of dis- 
lodging all the dust or soot that may have accumulated 
in twelve hours. For apple and pear trees in pots, or 
in small city gardens, this syringing is absolutely 

Pinching the shoots of pyramidal apple trees, and, 
indeed, exactly the same method of managing the trees 
as given for pyramidal pears on the quince stock, may 
be followed with a certainty of success ; and the pro- 
prietor of a very small garden may thus raise apple 
trees which will be sure to give him much gratification. 
To have fine fruit the clusters should be thinned in 



June ; and small trees should not be overburdened, for 
they are often inclined, like young pear trees on the 
quince stock, to bear too many fruit when in a very 
young state : the constitution of the tree then receives 
a shock which it will take two or three seasons to 
recover. For varieties with large fruit, one on each 
fruit-bearing spur will be enough ; if a small sort, from 
two to three will be sufficient. 

There are so many really good apples that it is 
difficult to make a selection ; the following sorts will 
not disappoint the planter ; but fifty varieties in addi- 
tion, quite equal in quality, could be selected. 

Dessert apples, placed in the order of their 

Mr. Gladstone 

Red Joannetting or 

Devonshire Quarrenden 
Kerry Pippin 

Summer Golden Pippin 
Williams's Favourite 
Pine Golden Pippin 
Warwickshire Pippin 
Ribston Pippin 

Cox's Orange Pippin 

Braddick's Nonpareil 
Duke of Devonshire 
Mannington's Pearmain 
Scarlet Golden Pippin 
Russet Syke House 
Lord Burghley 
Allen's Everlasting 


Kitchen apples 

Lord Grosvenor 
Keswick Codlin 
Duchess of Oldenburg 
Golden Spire 
Warner's King 
Stirling Castle 
Cox's Pomona 
Echlinville Pippin 

Blenheim Orange 
Small's Admirable 

Peasgood's Nonesuch 
Bramley's Seedling 
Prince Albert 
Tower of Glamis 
Betty Geeson 
Mere de Menage 
Duinmelow's Seedling 
Northern Greening 

Striped Beefing 


There are some varieties of apples that do not form, 
even with care, well-shaped pyramids ; such sorts may 
be qualified as bushes when grafted on the Paradise 
stock, and are then excellently well adapted for small 
gardens. I have, indeed, reason to think that a great 
change may be brought about in suburban fruit culture 
by these bush trees. I have shown, in pages 20 to 25, 
how bush pears on quince stocks may be cultivated. 
Pears are, however, a luxury ; apples and plums are 
necessaries for the families of countless thousands 



living near London. Apple bushes, always very pretty 
and productive trees, may be planted six feet apart, 
row from row, and four feet apart in the rows. If two 
or three years old when planted, they will begin to 
bear even the first season after planting. They should 
be kept from the attacks of the green aphis in summer 

Fig. 14 

by dressing the young shoots with quassia mixture, 
given in a note to page 115, and from the woolly aphis 
by Gishurst Compound, fir-tree oil, or paraffin, mentioned 
in page 77. The principal feature in this culture is 
summer pinching, which must regularly be attended to, 
once in June, and once at the end of September ; this is 
done by pinching or cutting off the terminal bud of 


every shoot as soon as it has made five or six leaves, 
leaving from four to five full-sized ones. After September 
no more pruning is necessary until the winter. The 
final or winter pruning should be done in October at 
the close of the growth ; if deferred until November the 
wood is liable to injury from frost. Some varieties of 
the apple have their leaves very thickly placed on the 
shoots ; with them it is better not to count the leaves, 
but to leave the shoots from three and a half to four 
inches in length. If the soil be rich and the trees in- 
clined to grow too vigorously, they may be removed 
biennially, as recommended for bush pears, by digging 
a circular trench one foot from the stem of the tree, and 
then introducing the spade under its roots, heaving it up 
so as to detach them all from the soil, and then filling iD 
the earth dug from the trench and treading it gently on 
to the roots. The following sorts are well adapted for 
this bush culture, but the upright varieties recommended 
for pyramids form nice compact bushes. 1 


Mr. Gladstone .... July, Aug. 

Irish Peach .... August 

Kerry Pippin .... Aug. Sept. 

Devonshire Quarrenden . . September 

1 These dwarf bushes are liable to be gnawed by rabbits and 
hares in exposed gardens. The best of all preventives is to paint 
them with soot and milk, well mixed, or, still better, make a fence 
of galvanised wire netting round the garden in which they are. 




Wyken or Warwickshire Pippin Sept. Oct. 

King of the Pippins . . . Oct. Nov. 

Blenheim Orange . . . Nov. Dec. 

Ribston Pippin .... Nov. Dec. Jan. 

Cox's Orange .... Nov. Dec. Jan. 

Braddick's Nonpareil . . Dec. Jan. 

Mannington's Pearmain . . Jan. Feb. Mar. 


Lord Grosvenor 
Keswick Codlin 
Golden Spire 
Duchess of Oldenburg 
Ecklinville Seedling . 
Warner's King. 
Stirling Castle . 
Northern Greening . 
Tower of Glarumis . 
Dumrnelow's Seedling 

Aug. Sept. 
Aug. Sept. 
Aug. Sept. 
Aug. Sept. 
Sept. Oct. 
Sept. Oct. Nov. 
Dec. Jan. Feb. 
Jan. Feb. 
Feb. Mar. Apr. 

There is no mode of apple culture more interesting 
than bush culture. On page 84 I annex a sketch of a 
plantation of Cox's Orange [Pippin (fig. 15), of one 
hundred trees ; they were planted in the spring of 1862. 
They bore a fine crop in 1863 of most beautiful fruit, 
and in 1864 gave a crop almost too abundant. I have 
been obliged to move this small orchard. 



In a well-ordered fruit garden every kind of fruit 
should have its department, every kind should have its 
allotment — apples on the Paradise stock, ditto on the 
crab stock, pears on the quince stock, the same on 
the pear stock. Morello cherries as pyramids on the 
Mahaleb stock — the best of all methods for their culture 
— and the various kinds of the Duke cherries on the 
same kind of stock. Heart and Bigarreau cherries on 
the common cherry stock, plums as bushes, pyramids, 
or half standards, should all be separated. 

I have been led into these remarks on market garden 
fruit-tree culture by my own experience, and especially 
into a consideration of the great improvement that may 
be made in the culture of apples on the English Paradise 
stock. On referring to page 82, the reader will find 
that I allude to my plantation of Cox's Orange Pippin 
apple trees on the Paradise stock (see fig. 15) ; these 
trees in the season of 1864 — the third of their growth, 
and the fourth of their age — gave an average of a quarter 
of a peck from each tree. Some of the kinds likely to 
sell best in the markets, and which are most productive, 
are the following : — Lady Sudeley, Cox's Orange Pippin, 
King of the Pippins, Ribstone Pippin, Worcester Pear- 
main, Sturmer Pippin, Scarlet Nonpareil, Blenheim 
Orange, Yellow Ingestrie, and Dutch Mignonne ; these 

G 2 



are dessert apples. The following are valuable kitchen 
apples, and abundant bearers : — Lord Grosvenor, New 


Hawthornden, Stirling Castle, Cox's Pomona, Keswick 
Codlin, Dunimelow's Seedling, Golden Spire, Norfolk 
Bearer, and Duchess of Oldenburg. Such large 


varieties as Bedfordshire Foundling, Blenheim Orange, 
and Warner's King should have more space, be planted 
twelve feet apart, and a row of black currants or goose- 
berries planted between the rows, as some years will 
elapse before the apple trees take entire possession of 
the ground. One sort of apple, the Manx Codlin, grows 
so slowly and produces so abundantly that the plan- 
tation need not be more than six feet in the rows, and 
may be planted four feet plant from plant ; with annual 
manuring large quantities may be obtained ; the variety 
is very handsome and marketable, but it has the defect, 
in my soil at least, of producing fruit of irregular size. 
The proper method of planting and managing these 
bush apple trees is exactly that recommended for bush 
pear trees on quince stocks. 

The land for these orchards should be thoroughly 
well cleaned before planting, and if wet and heavy 
should be drained. It is not necessary to trench, holes 
opened for the trees will answer ; this should be done a 
month before planting ; well rotted manure should be 
mixed with the soil previous to planting. 

It will be seen that what I propose is in reality a 
Nursery Orchard, which may be made to furnish fruit 
and trees for a considerable number of years. To fully 
comprehend this we must suppose a rood of ground 
planted as I have described. In the course of eight 
or ten years half of these may be removed to a fresh 
plantation, in which they may be planted six feet 
apart. With proper summer pruning they will last for 


many years. The great advantages reaped by the 
planter is the constant productiveness of his trees ; from 
the second year after planting they will be always ' pay- 
ing their way.' 

The unprejudiced fruit cultivator will quickly find 
out the great advantage of this mode of apple and pear 
cultivation, and those who wish to cultivate apples and 
pears for market purposes may, with a sound prospect of 
success, if the soil and climate are favourable, plant 
apples on the English Paradise stock, and pears on the 
quince stock, either as pyramids or bushes, four and sis 
feet apart, row from row, the former distance for dwarf 
prolific sorts, the latter for robust growers. This dis- 
tance will admit of crops of black or red currants and 
gooseberries in the centre between each row for several 
years, until the orchard trees — which must be under 
summer pruning — cover the ground. 

In the usual old-fashioned mode, Standard apple 
trees are planted in orchards at 20 feet apart, or 108 
trees to the acre ; if the soil be good and the trees 
properly planted, and the planter a healthy middle-aged 
man, he may hope, at the end of his threescore and ten, 
to see his trees commence to bear, and may die with the 
reflection that he has left a valuable orchard as a legacy 
to his children, but has not had much enjoyment of it 
during his life. 

Plantations made at four feet apart may in the course 
of a few years be brought to a permanent distance for 
pyramidal trees, that of twelve feet apart; the tries 


originally planted being removed to another plantation. 
They may be safely moved at two or even three years 
after planting, the removal being performed as early in 
October as practicable. 


A tree grafted on the Paradise or Doucin stock, with a 
single shoot, is planted in a sloping position, and the 
shoot trained along a wire, about ten or twelve inches 
from the surface. (Fig 16.) 

To carry out this method of training, oak posts, 
about three inches in diameter and two feet in length, 

Fig. 16 

should be sharpened at one end and driven into the 
ground, so that they stand one foot above the surface ; 
they may be from thirty to forty yards distant from each 

From these a piece of galvanised or common iron 
wire — if the latter, it should be painted — about the 
thickness of whipcord, should be strained and sup- 


ported nine inches from the ground, at intervals of six 
feet, by iron pins eighteen inches long, the size of a 
small curtain rod, or smaller, flattened at top, and 
pierced with a hole to allow the wire to pass through ; 
these should be stuck into the ground, so as to stand on 
a level with the straining posts. The trees should be 
planted six feet apart, and when the top of one tree 
reaches to another the young shoot may be grafted on 
to the base of the next, so as to form a continuous 
cordon. This is best done by merely taking off a slip 
of bark, two inches long, from the under part of the 
young shoot, and a corresponding piece of bark from 
the upper part of the stem of the tree to which it is to 
be united, so that they fit tolerably well. They should 
then be firmly bound with bast, and a bunch of moss 
— a handful — as firmly bound over the union ; the 
binding as well as the moss may remain on till the 
autumn. The trees do not grow so rapidly as common 
grafts, so that the ligatures will not cut into the bark. 

The terminals of every side shoot of these cordons 
should be pinched when five leaves have been made. It 
will of course occur to the reader that the spurs would 
soon make the tree a thick and clumsy cordon ; to pre- 
vent this, every shoot should be reduced in winter 
to three eyes. The fruit, from being near the earth, 
and thus profiting largely by radiation, will be very 

As these low cordons are very apt to be injured in 
winter by severe frost, if snow is suffered to lie under 


them, which by resisting radiation gives great intensity 
to frost just above its surface, it is necessary either to 
carefully remove the snow, to bank it up so as to 


completely cover the cordons, or to thatch them with a 
covering of evergreen branches, such as furze, or of firs ; 
fern would also be a safe protection — better than all are 
wooden ridges made of f -inch boards, so as to cover two 


or three rows of trees. For pear trees there should be 
boards on one side and glass on the other ; they would 
then do to protect the blossom in spring, and bring on 
the fruit if placed on bricks as directed for ground 

The double or two-branched lateral cordon (see 
fig. 17), which is a great improvement on the French 
single cordon, requires the same train- 
ing, pinching-in, and management. This 
improved lateral cordon does not require 
a wire to support its branches ; a kind of 
hook, something after a shepherd's crook, 
may be used with advantage, thus : — the 
branch is introduced at a and is supported by the crook ; 
the point in the ground must be barbed. 

The quadruple lateral cordon is a tree well adapted 
for the edging of the borders of the kitchen garden ; 
it is merely the double cordon repeated, and we must 
suppose the two branches of the double cordon to be 
trained nine inches from the surface of the ground, and 
above them, at about nine inches distance, two other 
branches in the same direction ; this will give the quad- 
ruple cordon (fig. 18), or low espalier edging trees, 
occupying no more space than the single cordon, and 
giving double its produce. The stem of the short crook 
for single or double cordons should be 20 inches long ; 
that of the longer one, for quadruple cordons, should be 
28 inches long. 

The great change in fruit culture that may be 


brought about by training these double lateral cordons 
under glass ridges is obvious enough. The figure (19) 
will give some faint idea of the advantages of this new 
system of culture — they are endless ; for not only can 
peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, apples, and pears be 
rescued from spring frosts, but their fruit be ripened in 
great perfection. There is no doubt but that in some of 
our cold and cloudy places in the north of England and 
Scotland, where even the Eibston Pippin will not 
ripen, it may be brought to perfection under the glass 
fruit ridge. 

The figure (19) gives but one tree trained to one 
wire ; two rows of wire may, however, be trained under 
one glass ridge, which should be three feet six inches 
wide at base, and the wires ten inches asunder. It is 
quite possible that this method of training to galvanised 
wires may, in some situations, be better adapted to vine 
culture than allowing the vines to rest on slates or 

I now, by permission, copy the description of my 
new glass fruit ridge from my article in the ' Gardener's 
Chronicle' for April 8, 1865, from which I have also 
derived the plate kindly lent to me : — 

1 There are no cross bars, but merely a frame three 
feet wide at the base. On the top bar a is a groove 
half an inch deep ; in the bottom bar b is a groove 
a quarter of an inch deep ; ! in the bars c and d are 

1 An improvement on this is to have a rebate at bottom instead 
of a groove ; the glass is more easily fitted in. 


grooves half an inch deep. The pieces of glass, which 
should be cut so as to fit, are pushed into the upper 
groove, and let fall into the lower one ; when all are 
fitted in, the two end pieces are pushed inwards, so as 
to drive all of them into close contact. A little putty- 
is required at the bottom to prevent water lodging, and 
some at each end to keep the pieces from moving 
laterally, e, e, are the straining posts of oak, four 
inches square ; /, the upright pieces of wire stuck in the 
ground, flattened and perforated at top to pass the wire 
through and support it ; </, the wire.' 

Such, then, is the description of the barless glass 
fruit ridge, which I think calculated to have a greater 
effect on domestic gardening, and contribute more to 
the refinement and comfort of a very large class of 
people than all the crystal palaces ever invented. 

For ventilation and other particulars I refer my 
readers to the description of the ground vinery, p. 151 ; 
and for the method of placing the wires, to p. 93. 

I must caution those who wish to grow fruit under 
glass fruit ridges, in small confined gardens, to be 
careful as to ventilation. A single row of bricks, with 
apertures of four inches, will not be enough; there 
should be two rows of bricks, one over the other, and 
consequently two rows of apertures. Peach, nectarine, 
and apricot trees should be planted twenty-one feet 
apart; but they grow rapidly, and would probably 
require occasional removing. 

It will thus be seen that to commence glass fruit 


ridge culture, three seven-foot lengths should be pre- 
pared, and in the centre of the twenty-one feet occupied 
by the ridge, two peach or nectarine trees may be 
planted. They will soon form lateral cordons of great 
fertility, will require pinching in June and little atten- 
tion afterwards. I must not omit to state the great 
advantage this mode of fruit culture gives as to protec- 
tion from spring frosts when the trees are in bloom, or 
when the fruit is young. Espaliers, pyramids, and wall 
trees are difficult to protect, but mats two or three thick 
can be piled on the ridge with great facility, and loose 
straw or hay, the best protectors possible from frost, 
can be strewed over them thickly. 

I have had the pleasure of seeing all my anticipa- 
tions fully realised ; the cordon pear-trees have produced 
fruit, large, and with the fine clear rinds we see on 
those grown in the warm parts of France — perfectly 
beautiful and of fine flavour. The cordon peach-trees 
have produced fruit, large, and of the finest flavour. 
Strawberries planted between the trees temporarily until 
they fully occupy the room under the ridge, have 
ripened a fortnight earlier than those in the open air 
and have been of excellent quality. I have therefore 
no hesitation in recommending this mode of fruit 
culture to all amateurs who have gardens without walls 
or orchard houses. 



The following is a very simple and inexpensive manner 
of providing shelter for the cultivation of cordon trees : 
Open a trench as for celery about three feet wide and 
two deep ; bank the soil on both sides of the trench ; 
after settling the banks will be about one foot high, the 
trench with the banks therefore from the base to the 
top will be about three feet : in this trench plant the 
double horizontal cordons. The parallel banks will form 
the support of the protection against spring frosts, con- 
sisting either of straw hurdles or stakes laid across and 
covered with mats or any material stout enough to resist 
frost, as cheap and simple protection is thus provided, 
and the shelter of the trench will give a climate in which 
fruit may be grown equal to that from walls. Drainage 
will be necessary to take off the water after excessive 
rain ; but this can never be a serious evil, and if the 
trenches can be made on an incline, the water will run 
off quickly. If the sides are lined with slates the heat 
will be increased, but this extra expense is hardly 
necessary, as the heat will be sufficient without. I need 
scarcely point out that all sorts of fruit requiring shelter 
can be grown in these trenches. 



In pages 47 and 48 will be found the method of train- 
ing vertical cordon pear trees. This may be applied to 
apples on the English Paradise stock with great success, 
and very charming fruitful trees they make. They 
should not be allowed to grow above eight feet in 
height, to which they will reach in the course of four or 
five years. I annex a figure of one of these trees, three 
years old, and full of fruit (fig. 20). 

I have, at this period (1885), a plantation of vertical 
cordon apple trees which have now been planted several 
years ; the trees are six feet apart 
row from row, and three feet in 
the rows ; when in full fruit they 
are very interesting. I do not fol- 
low the close summer pinching 
recommended by Dubreuil and 
others ; in fact, I abstain entirely 
from summer pruning, and I be- 
lieve with good results, as the fruit 
is always large and finely coloured ; 
in October every tree is closely 
pruned — that is, all the summer -|l_-. v . 

shoots are cut back to three eyes, '^^^ji^^y?'' 7 ^'/- 
On this plot, about sixty square FlG 2 o 

poles, I have 672 apple trees of 
430 sorts planted for specimens. As the apple crop is 


sometimes injured by spring frosts, I have an equal 
number of gooseberries trained as pyramids between 
every row of apple trees ; these produce large crops of 
fruit every year, thus providing for a possible failure of 
the apple crop. This plantation thus contains 1,344 
trees ; the outlay upon it consists of a shallow digging 
in November and 16 tons of manure, with two hoeings 
during the summer. For the last four years I have had 
continual crops. An amateur will hardly require so large 
a plantation, but he may with perfect confidence alter- 
nate the apples or pears with gooseberries and currants. 


We have been so accustomed to think of, and treat the 
apple tree as hardy, and perfectly adapted to our insular 
climate, that the culture of superior varieties as wall 
trees has been neglected, except in the extreme north of 
our island, where the climate is not very favourable 
even to the culture of the Ribston Pippin as an orchard 

The varieties most worthy of cultivation against 
walls in England, even in our most favoured counties 
with regard to climate, are mostly of American origin, 
the continental varieties, with but very few exceptions, 
not being remarkable for goodness of quality. 

The best methods of cultivation are — 


1. To have the trees trained as espaliers to low 
walls as directed for pear trees, the trees to be under 
summer pinching as given at p. 8. 2. To plant five- 
branched upright cordons in the spaces so often found 
between wall trees in old gardens. 3. To plant single 
vertical cordons against walls between established wall 
trees. Single vertical cordon apple trees, grafted on 
the English Paradise stock, and planted against walls 
10 or 12 feet high, the trees well managed by sum- 
mer and winter pruning, become amazingly prolific, 
and bear the finest of fruit. 4. To train at the foot 
of a wall the single lateral cordons (fig. 16), or the 
double lateral cordons (fig. 17); if the space next the 
wall and under the trees be paved with tiles or slates, 
the size and quality of the fruit will be improved. I 
ought here to mention that double or two-branched 
lateral cordon trees are to be preferred ; they may be 
grown at the foot of walls, but not more than 9 inches 
from them ; the tile-paving is quite necessary, as is also 
protection in spring from frosts. This is most effectually 
done by lean-to barless lights in place of the glass span 
ridge (fig. 19) divided into two; these most convenient 
lean-to lights should be 2 feet 4 inches wide, including 
the top and bottom bars, and 7 feet long ; two hooks 
should be fixed to the top bar, and two eyes in the wall, 
so that the lights are made safe from the effects of the 
wind. The lower bar should rest on bricks (they should 
be two deep), as with ground vineries. These lean-to 
lights will be found a most useful invention ; they form 

H 2 


so fine a climate against brick walls, that I see no 
reason why low 4-inch brick walls should not be built 
by market-gardeners, and lean-to lights of increased 
size employed for early crops ; the climate they give is 
perfect, so efficient is the low admission of cool air in 
between the bricks, and the exit of the heated air at 
the top between the upper bar and the wall, an interstice 
of about two inches. 

The vaiieties of apples most worthy of wall culture 
are the Newtown Pippin, Cox's Orange, Ribston Pippin, 
Washington, Melon, Northern Spy, King of Tompkins 
County, and the New Zealand apple, Prince Bismarck. 

The French apple, Calville Blanche, is also of high 
excellence, cultivated as a wall or orchard-house tree ; 
and in cool climates, our fine English apples, the Cox's 
Orange and Eibston Pippin, are quite worthy of a 
place against a wall with a southern aspect, and espe- 
cially Cox's Orange Pippin. 

I have transplanted trees of Cox's Orange Pippin 
grafted on the Nonesuch Paradise twelve years old 
which had never been removed or root-pruned ; these 
trees survived the removal and are now again in full 
fruit bearing. 


In soils light and poor, the apple on the Paradise stock 
is, unless carefully manured on the surface, apt to 


become stunted and unhealthy. In such soils, and also 
in those of a very tenacious nature, pyramids on the 
crab stock may be planted with great advantage. They 
are also well adapted for large gardens where large 
quantities are required, as the trees may be made to 
form handsome pyramids, from twelve to fifteen feet in 

Carefully watch the trees, for there is one thing 
most essential to their full success as pyramids — they 
must either be lifted or taken up biennially early in 
November, and replanted in the manner recommended 
for bush pear trees, or root-pruned biennially, ope- 
rating upon the trees alternately. Or the following 
system may be adopted : neither remove nor root-prune 
any tree that continues to grow with moderation, does 
not canker, and bears well ; but any tree that makes 
shoots from eighteen inches to three feet in length, 
remove once in two, three, or four years till its vigorous 
habit is reduced. 

As these crab stock trees grow freely, summer 
pinching or shortening the young shoots with a pen- 
knife, as recommended in page 81, must be attended to; 
and then, in the most unfavourable apple-tree soils, 
healthy and most prolific pyramids may be formed. 
Any of the varieties recommended in pages 81 and 82 
will succeed well as pyramids on the crab stock. 

If managed as I have directed, fine trees may be 
formed not only of the robust-growing kinds, but even 
of the old Nonpareil, Golden Pippin, Golden Reinette, 


Hawthornden, Ribston Pippin, and several others, all 
more or less inclined to canker. I have a row of Non- 
pareils and Ribston Pippins planted in the coldest and 
most unfavourable soil I could find ; yet, owing to their 
being biennially removed, they are entirely free from 

The vigorous growth of Standard apples, when 
planted in orchards in the usual way, is well known, 
and also their tendency to canker after a few years ot 
luxuriant growth. Pyramids on the crab without occa- 
sional removal or root-pruning would, in like manner, 
grow most freely ; and, even if subjected to summer 
pinching, would soon become a mass of entangled, 
barren, cankered shoots. 


The plum, if planted in a rich garden soil, rapidly 
forms a pyramid of large growth — it, in fact, can 
scarcely be managed by summer pinching. It becomes 
crowded with young shoots and leaves, and the shorten- 
ing of its strong horizontal branches at the end of 
summer is apt to bring on the gum ; it is a tree, how- 
ever, with most manageable roots, for they are always 
near the surface. I must, therefore, again recommend 
summer pinching at the terminal bud, as directed for 
pears, p. 8, annual or biennial root-pruning, and sur- 
face dressing, in preference to any other mode of cul- 
ture. The root-pruning of the plum is performed as 


follows : — Open a circular trench eighteen inches deep 
round the tree, eighteen inches from its stem, and cut 
off every root and fibre with a sharp knife. When the 
roots are so pruned, introduce a spade under one side of 
the tree, and heave it over, so as not to leave a single 
tap-root; fill in your mould, give a top dressing of 
manure, and it is finished. The diameter of your cir- 
cular trench must be slowly increased as years roll on ; 
for you must, each year, prune to within one and a half 
or two inches of the stumps of the former year. Your 
circular mass of fibrous roots will thus slowly increase, 
your tree will make short and well-ripened shoots, and 
bear abundantly. From very recent experience, I have 
found that removing trees annually, if the soil be rich 
— biennially, and adding some rich compost, if it be 
poor — without root-pruning ^ will keep plum trees in a 
healthy and fertile state. For further particulars on 
this head, see pages 16 and 56. 

Pyramidal plum trees are most beautiful trees both 
when in flower and fruit. Their rich purple or golden 
crop has an admirable effect on a well-managed pyramid. 
No stock has yet been found to cramp the energies of 
the plum tree. Experiments on the sloe have been tried 
here, and prove that this stock does dwarf the tree to a 
certain extent. My tree on the sloe is some years old, 
and is dwarf and prolific. The first year after grafting 
vigorous growth was made ; but this is a very common 
occurrence with stock that ultimately make very prolific 
trees ; it is so with the pear on the quince, the apple on 
the Paradise, and the cherry on the Mahaleb. The green- 



gage seems to grow more freely on the sloe than any- 
other sort. I have a fine vigorous bush, now about fifteen 
years old, growing in the white marly clay, with chalk- 
stones, peculiar to some part of Essex and Hertford- 
shire. The sloe seems to delight in this soil so inimical 
to most kinds of fruit trees. My greengage plum is 
almost vigorous in its growth ; and what appears strange 
is, that the stock seems to keep pace with the graft 
— there is scarcely any swelling at the junction. The 
root of the tree has not been touched, and it appears to 
have gone deeply into the solid white clay. The plum 
on the sloe is easily arrested in its growth by root- 
pruning. The following sorts are well adapted for 
pyramids and walls with west, north-west, or south-east 


In season from July to the end of October. Placed in the 
order of their ripening. 

Early Favourite 

Early Transparent Gage 

De Montfort 

Oullins' Golden Gage 

Denniston's Superb 





Transparent Gage 

Purple Gage 
Guthrie's Late Green 
Bryanstone Gage 
Eeine Claude de Bavay 
Heine Claude de Comte 


Late Transparent 
Coe's Golden Drop 
Grand Duke 



In season from July to the end of October. Placed in the 

order of their ripening 

Early Prolific 


The Czar 


Early Orleans 




Prince Engelbert 


Belle de Louvain 



Cox's Emperor 

Autumn Compote 

Pond's Seedling 

Late Black Orleans 



The roots of no fruit tree are so easily kept within 
bounds as the plum. In rich soils they bear annual 
removal with but a slight check ; but in most soils 
biennial removal will keep them in a perfectly fruitful 
state under bush culture. This is absolutely necessary ; 
and if the soil be poor, some thoroughly rotted manure 
(about half a bushel to each tree) may be mixed with 
the soil in replanting. As with pear trees, the best 
season for lifting or removing them is the end of October 
or beginning of November. Plum bushes have the 
advantage of being easily protected by a square of light, 
cheap calico, tiffany, or any light material thrown over 


them while in blossom, and a crop of fruit thus insured. 
All the varieties recommended for pyramids may be cul- 
tivated as bushes, and for suburban gardens they should 
be subjected to exactly the same treatment as recom- 
mended for apple bushes, page 81. 1 


The plum forms a most prolific lateral double cordon 
and gives very fine fruit, when pruned and trained after 
the fashion of pear trees. Owing, however, to the fruit 
often receiving injury from heavy rains, it is almost in- 
dispensable to have a space under each tree paved with 
tiles, and it is a work of necessity to protect the trees 
from spring frosts, for they (the trees) come into blossom 
so early, owing to their receiving the reflected heat fi'om 
the soil in early spring, that seldom or never does the 
young fruit survive the month of April. One of the 
best modes of protection is that of the ridges of glass 
described on page 93, for if placed on bricks they may 
remain over the trees till the commencement of the first 
week in June — here a period of rejoicing, for not till 
then are we safe from the fruitgrower s scourge — a 
severe spring frost. There is a method of cultivating a 

1 The plum is apt to produce very strong succulent shoots at 
irregular intervals ; this growth should be stopped as soon as per- 
ceived by very close pinching. 


few kinds of plums as vertical cordons practised here 
which is likely to be popular ; it is simply selecting the 
proper sorts, and then planting them in ground not too 
rich — say a calcareous sandy loam, and then pinching, 
in June, all the young shoots, and trusting to this to 
retain the growth of the trees, without either root- 
pruning or removal. 

The varieties adapted to this mode of culture are 
as yet but few — viz., The Czar, Oullins' Golden Gage, 
Early Prolific, Victoria, Sultan, Cluster Damson, and 
Monarch. Of the latter kind upwards of 1,000 trees 
are planted here for fruit bearers ; they are now fruitful 
and profitable trees. In the course of time there will 
doubtless be many kinds of plums adapted to this mode 
of culture, for here we have many seedling plums all 
raised from choice varieties, and likely to give kinds as 
well adapted to our climate as is the Early Rivers or 
Early Prolific, the hardiest plum known, but yet only 
the first removed by seed from one of the most tender 
French varieties, Precoce de Tours plum. 

Vertical cordon plums should be planted from four 
to five feet apart, row from row, and the same distance 
tree from tree; the former distance will allow of 2,700 
trees per acre, the latter 1,700, and as far as I can see 
many years will elapse before they will require thinning, 
and they will bear many bushels of fruit per acre. 



Plums, like pears, open up a rich field to tlie amateur 
market gardener, for it is found that they are so easily 
made into articles of exportation, by jam and bottling, 
that the demand is limitless. 

The same method of culture as given for pyramidal 
pears on the quince stock (p. 10) is at once the most 
simple and beneficial. 

The trees may be planted six feet apart, row from 
row, and six feet apart in the rows ; for a few years the 
centre of the spaces between the rows may be cropped 
with dwarf bashes of currants and gooseberries. I grow 
strawberries, but onion or other light crops of vegetables 
may be grown. As soon as the trees have made suffi- 
cient growth to shade the ground, which may be in five 
or six years, more or less, the ground should have a 
dressing of manure, and be left undug ; the hoe only, to 
kill the weeds, should be employed. The following kinds 
will be found the best for this mode of culture : — 
Early Prolific, The Czar, Sultan, Victoria, Monarch, 
Pond's Seedling, Cluster Damson, Autumn Compote, 
and Grand Duke. The second sort named is so pyra- 
midal in its growth that it will last many years without 
being crowded. 

The Autumn Compote and Victoria, two very hardy 
useful plums, may be planted six feet apart as directed, 
but their stems will require a stake to each to support 


them for some three or four years, or till they become 
stout enough to stand without support. 

Damsons are remarkably fertile and do not require 
pruning , in fact, the best treatment is to leave them 
alone, as a very acute boy denned the proper course of 
doing his duty to his neighbour. The best sorts for 
planting are the Cluster or Crittenden Damson, the 
Prune or Shropshire, and the Common; the white 
Damson is a garden tree which makes a delicious 
preserve but is not a market sort. The Bullace, re- 
quiring the same treatment as the Damson, makes a 
very productive pyramid. 


This stock has long been known in our shrubberies as 
the ' perfumed cherry ' ; its wood when burned emits 
a most agreeable perfume. In France it is called ' Bois 
de Ste. Lucie,' and it has been used there for dwarf 
cherries for very many years. My attention was called 
to it in France some twenty or more years ago, since 
which I have used it extensively, annually increasing 
my culture. Its great recommendation is, that cherries 
grafted on it will nourish in soils unfavourable to them 
on the common cherry stock, such as strong white clay 


or soils with a chalky subsoil. Although the trees grow 
most vigorously the first two or three seasons, yet, after 
that period, and especially if root-pruned, they form 
dwarf prolific bushes, so as easily to be covered with a 
net, or, what is better, with muslin or tiffany, which 
will protect the blossoms from frost in spring, and the 
fruit more effectually from birds and wasps in summer ; 
thus giving us what is certainly most rare, cherries 
fully ripe, aud prolonging their season till September. 
These dwarf bushes may be planted from five to six 
feet apart, and their branches pruned so that seven, or 
nine, or more, come out from the centre of the plant, 
like a well-managed gooseberry bush. These branches 
will, in May or June, put forth, as in the horizontal 
shoots of pyramidal pear, several shoots at their ex- 
tremities, all of which must be pinched off to five leaves, 
leaving the leading shoots untouched to the middle or 
end of September, when they must be shortened, and 
the pruning for the year is finished. 

The Morello and Duke cherries — the most eligible 
for this bush culture — may have their leading shoots 
shortened to eight leaves. If, however, the space be 
confined in which they are planted, this length may 
be reduced, for by biennial root-pruning, the trees may 
be kept exceedingly dwarf. The aim is to form the 
tree into a round bush, not too much crowded with 
shoots. Towards the end of September, 1 or, in fact, as 

1 This early autumnal root-pruning- will be found very advan- 
tageous, the now of sap is checked, so that the shoots are well 


soon as the autumnal rains have sufficiently penetrated 
the soil, a trench may be dug round the tree, exactly 
the same as recommended for root-pruning of pears, the 
spade introduced under the tree to cut all perpendicular 
roots, and all the spreading roots shortened with the 
knife, and brought near to the surface, previously 
filling in the trench with some light friable soil for 
them to rest on, and spreading them regularly round 
the tree, as near to the surface as possible ; then cover- 
ing them with the soil that was taken out of the 
trench. No dung or manure of any kind is required, 
as this stock seems to flourish in the poorest soils. 
Some short litter or half-decayed leaves will, however, 
be of much benefit placed on the surface round the 

I have thus far given their culture for small gar- 
dens ; but those who have more space may dispense 
with the root-pruning, and allow their cherry trees to 
make large bushes, which may be planted eight feet 
apart and pinched regularly in the summer, and 
managed as directed for pear trees (p. 10). The 
leading shoot from each branch in such cases must 
be left longer, and shortened to twelve or more 

The most charming of all pyramids are the varieties 
of the Duke and Morello cherries on the Mahaleb ; 
these by summer pinching, as practised for pyramidal 

ripened, and the roots soon emit fresh fibres to feed the tree the 
following season. 


pears, become in two or three years the most delight- 
ful fruit trees ever seen, for in spring they are perfect 
nosegays of flowers, and in summer clusters of fruit 
— if spared by spring frosts. 

The common Morello cherry on the Mahaleb stock, 
cultivated as a pyramid, forms one of the most prolific 
of trees; but as birds carry off the fruit when only 
half ripe, each pyramid should have a net placed over 
it, and tied round the stem of the tree at bottom. 
Any garden, however small, may grow enough of this 
useful sort by planting a few pyramids, lifting and 
replanting, or root-pruning them biennially, and pinch- 
ing in every shoot to five leaves (as soon as it has 
made seven) in June. The Kentish cherry, also a 
most useful culinary sort, may be cultivated as a 
pyramid with great success. A French variety grown 
near Paris in large quantities, and known as the 
' Cerise Aigre Hative,' which may be Englished by 
calling it the Early Sour Cherry, is a useful kind for 
the kitchen. By the side of the ' Rive Droite ' Railway, 
between Suresnes and Puteaux, on the left, there are 
large plots of dwarf trees, about the size of large goose- 
berry bushes, and some very low trees, all covered (as 
they appear from the railway carriage) with bright red 
flowers. These are cherry bushes — literally masses of 
fruit, of the above variety. I find, however, that it is 
not equal to the Kentish in flavour or size in England. 

I need scarcely add that the culture of all the 
Duke tribe of cherries by summer-pruned pyramids, 


From a photograph, August 1862 

Fig. 21 


biennially removed, is most satisfactory ; it is, perhaps, 
more easily performed than root-pruning, and the trees 
soon form perfect pictures. As far as my experience has 
gone, cherries on the Mahaleb are much more fruitful 
when ' oft removed ' ; the most eligible mode is to 
remove only half the trees in one season, and the re- 
mainder the following season. It will much facilitate 
the operation on their roots if the trees be planted on 
small mounds. 

In forming plantations of pyramidal and dwarf 
cherries on the Mahaleb stock, it is necessary to 
arrange them with a little care. The two groups, 
those of the habit of the Morello tribe, and those of the 
compact habit of the May Duke, should be planted in 
separate rows. Bigarreau and Heart cherries are too 
short-lived in many kinds of soil, when grafted on this 
stock, and unless double-grafted on the Morello cherry 
it is not to be recommended. 

The following arrangement will assist the planter : — 

Section I. — The May Duke Tribe 

Royal Duke 
Empress Eugenie 

May Duke 

Section II. — Tlie Morello Tribe 
Late Duke Morello 

Cherries grafted on the Cerasus Mahaleb are 
eminently adapted for espaliers, or for walls, as they 
occupy less space and are very fertile. They may 


be planted twelve feet apart, whereas espaliers on 
the cherry stock require to be eighteen or twenty feet 
apart. For potting, for forcing, cherries on this 
stock are highly eligible, as they grow slowly and 
bear abundantly. 1 


The varieties best adapted for this very interesting 
mode of culture are those of the Duke tribe, such as 
the May Duke, Archduke, Empress Eugenie, Royal 
Duke, and the Morello. Young pyramidal trees, three 
feet apart, should be planted in rows, and their side 
shoots pruned into within two inches of their stems. 
They require the same summer pinching as that recom- 
mended for vertical cordon pears, p. 48, and should not 
be allowed to exceed eight or ten feet in height. Nothing 
can be more charming than these cordon cherry trees, 
with their bright ripe fruit hanging close to the stem, 
and shining through the net that protects them from 
the birds. The best protection, both from birds and 
wasps, is, however, Haythorn's netting, or coarse muslin, 

1 Cherry trees are often infested in summer with the black aphis. 
The best remedy is a mixture made by boiling four ounces of quassia 
chips in a gallon of soft water for ten minutes, and dissolving in it 
four ounces of soft soap at the time of application. It should be 
stirred, and the trees syringed with it twice or thrice. The day 
following they should be syringed with pure water. 

i 2 


formed into a narrow bottomless bag, which should be 
let down gently over the tree, so as to leave the leading 
shoot out, and tied at the bottom and top ; Duke 
cherries may be thus preserved till August. I may 
mention here, that with these cherry cordon trees, root- 
pruning or removal is seldom required, their vital 
force is so reduced by the pruning of the young shoots ; 
but if a rich soil gives too much vigour, it may be 

The Bigarreau and Heart, or Guigne cherries, are 
too vigorous for this mode of culture when grafted or 
budded, as they generally are, on the common cherry 
stock. The new mode of culture by double grafting, 
i.e. by grafting on Morello cherry trees that have been 
previously grafted on the Mahaleb, will make them 
most prolific cordons. (See page 133.) 

I must add a piece of very necessary advice : all 
vertical cordon trees, whether pears, apples, cherries or 
plums, should be supported by a slight iron rod, about 
the size of a goosequill, which should be painted ; this 
should stand six to seven feet above the surface, and be 
inserted ten to twelve inches in the ground, and the 
tree attached loosely to it by two or three bands of 
sheet lead or some soft metal. 



The Bigarreau and the Heart cherries (or, as the 
French call thein, Guignes) do not succeed so well on 
the Cerasus Mahaleb as they do on the common cherry ; 
they grow most rapidly for two or three years, and then 
are apt to become diseased. 

The stock raised from the small black and red wild 
cherries is the proper one for this race, except they are 

Pyramidal cherry trees may be bought ready-made 
or formed by purchasing young trees one year old from 
the bud, and training them up in the same way as 
directed for pyramidal pears (pages 5 and 6), with this 
variation — pears, it is well known, may be grown as 
pyramids successfully, with or without root-pruning or 
biennial removal ; but cherries on common cherry stocks 
will grow so rapidly, in spite of summer pinching, that 
biennial removal is a work of necessity. In the course 
of a few years, pyramidal cherry trees thus treated 
become pictures of beauty. In France they generally 
fail, and become full of dead stumps and gum, owing 
to their trusting entirely to pruning their trees severely 
in summer and winter, without attending to their roots ; 
the trees thus being full of vigour make strong shoots, 
only to be pinched and cut off. We must ' manage 
these things better' in England. 


The mode of operation in removing pyramidal 
cherries is the same as that recommended for pears 
and apples, &c. It will be found, however, that more 
labour is required, for in two years the cherry on the 
common stock, like the apple on the crab, makes a 
vigorous attempt to lay hold of its parent earth. The 
second year the tree may be lifted by digging a trench 
round its stem, one foot distant and 16 inches deep. 
The fourth year this trench must be 18 inches from the 
stem, and 20 inches deep ; the sixth year it should be 
two feet from the stem, and two feet deep. This distance 
and depth need not be departed from if the trees are 
required to be only fair-sized pyramids ; the straggling 
roots beyond this circumference should be biennially 
pruned off with the knife. The tree managed thus will 
soon be in a mature fruitful state, and its roots a mass 
of fibres, so that when removed it will, like the rhodo- 
dendron, receive only a healthy check. 

Pyramidal Bigarreau and Heart cherries, cultivated 
after the method above given, may be planted in small 
grass orchards, with pyramidal pears on pear stocks, 
pyramidal apples on crab stocks, and pyramidal plums. 
A charming orchard in miniature may thus be formed. 
Cattle and sheep must, of course, be excluded, and a 
wire fence, enclosing a space from three to four feet in 
diameter, should be round each tree. This space must 
be kept free from grass and weeds. 

The following varieties form handsome pyramidal 
trees, and bear fruit of the finest quality : — 


Early Eivers 
Bigarreau Jaboulay 
Bohemian Bigarreau 
Large Black Bigarreau 
Early Black Bigarreau 
Late Purple Guigne 

Early Red Bigarreau 
Bigarreau Napoleon 
Black Tartarian or Bed- 
ford Prolific 
Governor Wood 

At the risk of repetition, and writing from my own 
experience, I must say that no gardening operation 
can be more agreeable than paying daily attention to 
a plantation of pyramids. From the end of May to 
the end of July — those beautiful months of our short 
summer — there are always shoots to watch, to pinch, to 
direct, fruit to thin, and a host of pleasant operations, 
so winning to one who loves his garden and every tree 
and plant in it. 

I may here mention that the small Alberge apricot, 
raised from the stone, and producing small high- 
flavoured fruit, and also the Breda apricot, make very 
beautiful pyramids if lifted or planted biennially. In 
the southern counties of England, in a favourable 
season, they will ripen their fruit and produce good 
crops. The large Portugal quince is also very prolific 
as a pyramidal tree. Some trees only two years old 
have borne fine fruit here. This is the finest of all the 
quinces, and in the south of Eurojae it grows to an 
enormous size. The Medlar will also form a handsome 
and productive pyramid, and, ' last, but not least ' in 


the estimation of the lover of soft fruits, the currant. 
A near neighbour — an ingenious gardener — attaches 
much value, and with reason, to his pyramidal currant 
trees ; for his table is supplied abundantly with their 
fruit till late in autumn. The leading shoots of his 
trees are fastened to iron rods ; they form nice pyramids 
of about five feet in height; and by the clever con- 
trivance of slipping a bag made of tiffany over every 
tree as soon as the fruit is ripe, fastening it securely to 
the bottom, wasps, and birds, and flies, and all the ills 
that beset ripe currants are excluded. 


Filberts, as commonly cultivated, except in the Kentish 
gardens, form straggling bushes, and are some years 
before they commence to bear. To correct this, some 
twenty years since I had them grafted by inarching on 
stems of the hazel-nut raised from Spanish nuts, as 
they were vigorous growers and formed stout stems. I 
have found these grafted trees answer admirably, and 
come quickly into bearing, forming nice garden trees. 

As soon as the nut trees designed for stocks have 
made stout stems about four feet high, they should be 
grafted by inarching at that height with choice kinds of 
nuts, such as the red and white filberts and the Cosford 
nut — an excellent nut — and, the best of all, the Lambert 


Filbert or Kentish Cob and its varieties. The purple- 
leaved filbert, generally planted as an ornamental shrub, 
may also be grafted ; it gives nuts equal to the common 
filbert, and forms a nice ornamental standard. 

Standard nuts require but little culture ; they soon 
form round heads, and bear profusely. Care must be 
taken to destroy all suckers from the stem and root. 

The only pruning required is, in the winter, to thin 
out the crowded shoots, and shorten to half their length 
those that are inclined to be vigorous — that is, those 
that are more than nine inches in length. The short 
spray-like shoots must not be shortened, as they are the 

Standard nuts planted in rich garden soils soon make 
trees too large for small gardens. If, therefore, they are 
found to grow too vigorously, they should be lifted and 
planted biennially in November. 


There is, perhaps, no fruit tree that disappoints the 
amateur fruit grower so much as the fig. If planted in 
the open borders of the garden, it soon grows into an 
enormous fruitless bush or tree, and if placed against 
a wall, unless a very large space can be given to it, bat 
little fruit must be expected. 

It may, however, be made eligible for small gardens, 


where the climate is sufficiently warm to ripen its fruit, 
such as the gardens near London, and those in the 
eastern and southern counties. Fruitfulness and mode- 
rate growth are brought on by the following method. 
Trees should be procured of the Angelique, Brown 
Turkey, White Marseilles, and Early Violet Figs — these 
are the only kinds that bear freely, and ripen their fruit 
well ; such trees should be low or half standards, or 
dwarfs with a clear stem (not bushes branching from the 
ground). The former should have a stem three feet 
high, and the latter from one foot to eighteen inches ; 
in each case the tree should have a nice rounded head. 
Trees thus selected should be planted in a sunny 
situation, and require only the following simple mode of 
treatment. They, we will assume, were planted in 
March or April. They will make a tolerably vigorous 
growth, and must be pruned by pinching off the top of 
every shoot as soon as it has made six leaves, leaving 
five. The stem must be kept quite clear from young 
shoots. By the autumn nice round-headed trees will be 
formed, and about the end of October they should be 
taken up (their leaves cut off if they have not fallen) and 
placed in a cellar — no matter if dark, but a light dry 
cellar would be preferable — some earth should be placed 
over their roots, and there they may remain till the 
first week in May, when they should be planted out, 
and the same routine of culture followed. They will 
bear one good crop of fruit in a season and ripen it in 
September. This annual removal brings on great stm- 


diness of growth in the tree, and the roots become so 
fibrous as to hold a large quantity of earth, which 
should not be shaken from them when they go into their 
annual winter abode. Fine trees thus treated are 
grown in the garden of the Duke of Altenburg, in 
Central Germany, their stems as stout as a man's leg, 
and their heads full of fruit ; and fig-trees, taken up in 
October, and placed in the orchard-house during the 
winter — their roots in the soil — will give a crop of very 
rich, well-ripened fruit : fresh soil must be given to 
lifted trees. 


Although raising fruits is, like art, very slow in results, 
and the reward precarious, the pleasure of contributing 
to the general good is worth waiting for. For many 
years I have never ceased to sow seed of fruits of good 
quality in the hope of prolonging or advancing the 
season of sorts that are recognised by all to be the best 
of their class. I cannot say that up to the present my 
hopes have been fulfilled, but still there is always a 
chance of success. 

The Transparent Gage, of whose origin I know 
nothing except that it belongs, though widely differing, 
to the family of the gages, appears capable of repro- 
ducing itself from seed; of this sort I have obtained 
the Early Transparent, the Late Transparent, and the 


Golden Transparent, the three seedlings and the original 
lasting from August to October ; these are in no wise 
inferior in flavour to the prototype, the greengage, and, 
indeed, excel it in size and beauty. The Early Prolific, 
& seedling from the Precoce de Tours, also exhibits a 
tendency to reproduce itself. I have raised many seed- 
lings from this variety which differ little from the 
parent. The Late Prolific is almost identical, but ripens 
three weeks later. The ' Curlew,' raised from the 
' Diamond,' is alike in colour and size, but is exceed- 
ingly good for the table as well as the kitchen, and 
ripens from ten to twelve days earlier. The ' Monarch,' 
a seedling from the ' Autumn Compote,' in no way 
resembles the parent, being very large, of a deep purple 
colour, and round rather than oval. The ' Grand Duke,' 
also a seedling from the ' Autumn Compote,' is oval 
and very large, deep purple in colour, and ripens from 
two to three weeks after the original. 

Certain races of pears are inclined to reproduction, 
the Louise Beurre of Jersey belonging to this class ; 
the seedlings Magnate and Princess both originated 
from this variety, of which they continue the special 
characteristics — the Magnate ripening in November, 
and the Princess in December, both bearing strong 
evidence of their origin. The Beurre de Capiaumont 
is wildly erratic, the Beurre d'Aremberg is tolerably 
persistent, and the Passe Colmar produces seedlings 
which hardly vary save in season. There is one im- 
portant rule to follow in raising seedlings, and that is to 


sow seeds only from the finest and best developed 
fruits of the highest quality. If certain fruits can be 
raised which will ripen consecutively through the season, 
the task of making a choice will be much simplified to 
the amateur, and the grower will be relieved from a 
very troublesome business, i.e. that of knowing what to 


All trees that are inclined to make very fibrous roots, 
such as plums, pears, or quince stocks, and apples on 
Paradise stocks, may be lifted — i.e. removed biennially 
or occasionally, if their growth is not too vigorous, as 
above described — with equal or greater facility than 
root-pruning them. The effect is the same; they 
make short well- ripened shoots, and bear abundantly. 
Apples on Paradise stocks, cultivated as dwarf bushes 
or as pyramids, if lifted every year, and a shovelful or 
two of compost given to them, form delightful little 
trees. 1 The most delicate sorts of apples, such as 
Golden Pippins and Nonpareils, may thus be cultivated 
in the most unfavourable soils ; and Roses, more par- 
ticularly Bourbon Roses, on short stems, and Hybrid 
Perpetuals, removed annually in the autumn, giving to 

1 In moist retentive soils the fruit-spurs of small trees become 
covered with moss ; some powerful lime sprinkled over them will 
destroy it ; this is best done in foggy weather in winter. 


each tree a shovelful of rich compost, and not pruning 
their shoots till April, will bloom delightfully all the 
autumn, never dropping their leaves towards the end of 
summer, and not becoming, as is too often the case, 
blighted and blossomless. 

If the soil be very rich, so as to induce the trees 
planted in it to make a growth of eighteen inches in 
one season, they may be removed annually till this 
vigorous growth ceases. If the trees make an annual 
growth only of ten to twelve inches, the trees may be 
removed biennially or occasionally ; and I may add that 
in soils in which trees grow slowly, root-pruning is more 
advantageous than removal, as less check is given to 


A fair return ought to be made from an acre planted 
with pyramid trees, but, like everything that is really 
worth having, the realisation of profit must necessarily 
be slow. Supposing that it is intended to plant an 
acre of ground as a pyramidal orchard, I should recom- 
mend the planter to mark off a quarter acre, and to 
prepare this for the first plantation. If possible, 
trench the ground to about twenty-four inches ; if you 
can persuade the labourer to do this honestly, so much 
the better ; but many workmen will throw the soil loose 
and high, giving the digging an appearance of depth, 


which exists more in the workman than in his work, 
as the absolute depth measured from the unbroken 
surface to the lowest trench may not be really more 
than eighteen inches, a great saving in a day's digging ! 
Good work, from 22 to 24 inches, will probably cost 
Is. 4c£. to Is. Qd. per perch ; but much of course depends 
on the quality of the soil. If the subsoil is wet and 
heavy, draining is essential. Before breaking the 
ground, dress with about fifteen tons of good manure. 
This work should be done early in September, and the 
ground should be ready to plant the second week in 
October, so that the plants may bear the advantage of 
the warmth in the soil which has been stored up during 
the summer. They will commence to root immediately 
they are planted, and by the end of March of the 
ensuing year — nearly six months — the roots will have 
already made a good basis for the summer's growth. I 
assume that the remainder of the acre will not be used 
for stock, and that the orchard will not require fencing ; 
but it will be evident that, if the orchard is fenced, it 
will be much cheaper to enclose by a single fence than 
as in ordinary orchards. To fence every individual tree 
is an expensive and unsatisfactory process, as usually 
before the standards have made growth enough to stand 
alone, the fencing rots. The next question is the 
number of trees to be planted ; I assume that the ulti- 
mate distance of each tree will be twelve feet apart. I 
should therefore begin by planting two-year-old trees 
at four feet apart. After two years' growth a second 


quarter acre should be prepared, and a third of the trees 
removed from the first plantation. In three years the 
trees ought to have made growth enough to pay for 
planting the entire acre. Three years must be the 
limit of time allowed for the last transplanting, and it 
must be done as early in October as possible, and the 
trees should be taken up carefully. Some men in 
drawing trees are apt to chop the roots ; this should be 
strictly forbidden, and the master will have to look at 
the trees before any damage is concealed by the earth. 
Every care also must be taken that the trees are solidly 
planted, as the wind, after the ground is loosened by 
frost, will break the young roots that are made during 
the winter. After frost every tree must be firmly set 
by a strong and willing labourer. 

I have assumed, in the foregoing description of a 
condensed orchard, that the trees planted will be either 
plums or apples, as these are generally more profitable 
than pears or cherries ; but I have found that land may 
be economised by planting alternately with plums, a 
row of pears on the quince stock, or apples on the 
Paradise. The pear and the apple on these stocks do 
not grow with the same vigour as the plum. If a 
mixed orchard is desired, the rows must be made at 
six feet, and the trees planted three feet apart in the 
rows, with a view to their future removal ; for an orchard 
of pears on the quince, or of apples on the Paradise, 
the ultimate distance of six feet will be sufficient for 
many years t and if the trees are found to be close, one 


year's preparation by lifting, preceding the transplanta- 
tion, will ensure their safe removal to a new orchard. 
A mixed plantation will, I think, be found to answer 
very well. As large pears fetch the highest price, they 
will be the most profitable to plant, and the plum trees 
will shelter the fruit from the effects of the autumnal 

There remains the question of the best method of 
cropping the surface of the soil not occupied, and this 
I am unable to answer. In the neighbourhood of a 
town or of easy carriage, I think strawberries would 
pay best. Black and red currants, or gooseberries ; bring 
the most profit, but with these crops the land must be 
highly manured, or the trees will suffer. In the non- 
bearing years of the pyramid trees some return of course 
ought to be made. 

It is evident that great allowance for spring frosts 
must be made in planting orchards. Care should be 
taken to select a locality not liable to excessive frosts. 
The soil must not be heavy or wet, and should be well 
drained. Above all, a valley should be avoided, espe- 
cially if a river runs through. Frosts are invariably 
more severe near the water than on a hill. If a crop 
can be reasonably expected five years out of seven, a 
fruit orchard of trees six and twelve feet apart will 
yield a good return for the outlay. An orchard from 
which crops of fruit were taken every year would 
probably soon be exhausted, as the trees, unless very 
highly farmed, would probably overbear themselves. It 


is, however, a consummation never attained in this 
country. In other countries the balance seems to be 
kept up, if not by spring frosts, by other destructive 
agencies, such as excessive droughts. Some years since, 
in travelling in the Touraine during June, I noticed 
that the apple trees by the side of the railway for some 
twenty miles or more were entirely stripped of their 
foliage by caterpillars. 

The cost of the preparation of the ground will be 
much reduced by opening trenches in the lines in which 
the trees are planted ; if these are sis feet apart a great 
saving will be made. A trench will probably not cost 
more than opening holes for each tree. 

The trench should be two feet wide, the first spit 
thrown out, and the second spit of soil dug and left in 
its place. 

The intervening soil can be cultivated with the 
plough the first year, but spade husbandry must be 
used after the trees have made a fair growth. 


I have not been able to find this mode of culture 
likely to be so beneficial to fruit gardens in England, 
alluded to by the many authors of works on fruit trees ; 
it may be ' as old as the hills,' and have no claim to 
originality, but few so-called new ideas have. I can 


only therefore state how it originated here some twenty 
or twenty-five years since. I am not aware that it has 
been practised by the clever fruit-tree cultivators of 
France and Belgium ; if so, it has been recently copied 
from English practice ; but I never remember having 
seen it carried out. It may be described in a very few 
words. A double-grafted pear tree is formed by select- 
ing a variety that grows very freely when budded or 
grafted on the quince, and re-grafting it — i.e. grafting 
the graft with a kind that refuses to unite kindly with 
the quince stock. 

Its history, briefly told, is as follows : — All those 
who are skilful cultivators will know that when budding 
and grafting pears on the quince stock, some varieties 
did not grow freely on that stock, particularly the 
Jargonelle, Gansel's Bergamot, and the Autumn Ber- 
gamot, the Seckle, the Marie Louise, Knight's Monarch, 
and some others. Now, as the second and last-mentioned 
are notorious for their shy bearing qualities while the 
trees are young, even when root pruned or frequently 
removed, I felt anxious to see them flourishing on the 
quince stock, which invariably makes pear trees fertile ; 
but few grafts of these sorts out of scores would survive 
on the quince, and when they did unite they were very 
short-lived. This induced me to look narrowly into the 
habits of pear trees on the quince stock, and I found 
that some sorts form a most perfect union with the 
stock, and seemed most enduring. I therefore had some 
thrifty trees, two years old from the bud, grafted with 

K 2 


Gansel's Bergamot ; the grafts flourished, and became 
so prolific that when three or four years old, they each 
bore from, three to four dozen of fruit — a most unusual 
thing with that fine variety. This settled the question 
as to the fertility given by double grafting ; which since 
this experiment has become here an extensive branch 
of culture. The cultivator has something to learn, for 
there are many pears of the finest quality, but of a 
delicate and infertile habit, that may be much improved 
by double grafting. 

Our garden culture of cherries is, as yet, rude and 
imperfect ; and espaliers of the Bigarreau and Guigne 
or Heart tribe are planted and trained along the sides 
of the garden walks, giving abundance of shoots and 
leaves, but very little fruit (which the birds appro- 
priate), and, in the course of time, give out gum — owing 
to their having been unmercifully pruned — and die full 
of years and barren shoots, having given much trouble 
to the gardener. I have pointed out how cherries 
may be cultivated in gardens as pyramids, <xc, and 
have alluded to fertility in the Bigarreau and Heart 
tribe being promoted by double grafting ; this mode of 
culture is also interesting as leading to success in soils 
that seem unfavourable to cherries under some circum- 

Cherries grafted on the Mahaleb are described in 
pp. 109 to 114; they affect calcareous soils, and, as far 
as I can learn, do not succeed so well in the sandstone 
formations, and where iron abounds in the soil ; in such 


situations double-grafted trees should be planted, 
formed in this way — the common Morello cherry should 
be budded on the Mahaleb stock, and after two years it 
should be grafted with some kind of Bigarreau, Heart, 
or Guigne cherry; it will form a small or moderate- 
sized tree, and bear abundantly. In cultivating cherry 
trees in soils inimical to their well-doing, abundance of 
chalk or lime rubbish should be mixed with the earth 
to the depth of two feet. 

Double grafting of apples is of very inferior im- 
portance as compared with the same operation on pears 
or cherries, for our English Paradise stocks give the 
most perfect health and fertility in nearly all soils. 
Still there may be some peculiar positions where the 
soils are very light and poor, in which strong, robust 
sorts of the crab stock are required to make healthy 
fruitful trees. In such cases it is better to graft such 
sorts as the Hawthornden, Manx Codlin, and Small's 
Admirable on thrifty crab stocks, and when two years 
old re-graft them with choice dessert kinds ; all double 
grafting is best done when the first graft is two years 
old. It is to be regretted that English cultivators, 
more particularly nurserymen, have not turned their 
attention to the benefit choice fruit trees derive from 
having the proper kind of stock selected for them, or 
from being double grafted. Mr. George Lindley, an old 
author, seems to have turned his attention to fruit tree 
stocks more than any other nurseryman of his day ; still 
he knew only those gi-own by the nurserymen of his 


day, a very imperfect list. It is but a few years since 
that the common fruit-bearing quince, raised from layers 
— a most unfit stock — was sold for stocks for pears, and 
Mussell, White Pear Plum, Brompton, Brussels, and 
' Commoners ' (i.e. common plum stocks) are still the 
plum stocks propagated for sale ; all except the first and 
the last are of inferior quality and are surpassed by the 
White Magnum Bonum and the Black Damask Plum, 
which suit Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, and all kinds 
of plums. 

There are some free-growing kinds of apricots which, 
when budded on the plum, and the young apricot 
budded with a peach or nectarine, produce the most 
favourable effects on the peach tree, the union being 
perfect and the duration of it much lengthened. There 
are also one or two kinds of plums which, being budded 
on a wild kind of plum, form, when budded with the 
peach or nectarine, a most favourable stock, giving 
hardiness and fertility to the trees. We are still very 
backward in our knowledge of the effects of stocks on 
fruits ; the subject requires much time and research, 
and no rushing to conclusions like some of our writers, 
who write on everything, and nothing well, only be- 
cause they have not the necessary patience to master a 
few subjects thoroughly. 



Old pear trees which have ceased to bear any but under- 
sized fruit are often an eyesore ; still the owner may be 
unwilling to resort to the heroic remedy of cutting 
them down. My remedy is not so trenchant, and, 
instead of destruction, will restore them to health and 
vigour; it is simply to head the branches down to 
within three or four feet of the main stem. From 
these stumps will be at once produced young shoots 
in abundance, and in three years they will be thickly 
covered with fruit spurs, and the tree will be in 
condition to bear fruit from young wood no longer 
distorted and small, but fine in size and quality. I 
do not speak from theory, but from practice, as I have 
operated on trees which I thought hopeless, which have 
now robust young heads on old trunks. The old 
bearing wood of fruit trees appears to become too con- 
stricted and dense to allow the sap to flow freely, hence 
the inferiority of the fruit. 

The vine, after seven or eight years of spur-pruning, 
produces small branches, which gradually lessen ; the 
same treatment should be applied by cutting away the 
old stem, and rearing a young rod from the base. 

Apples and plums do not bear this treatment so 
happily as the pear. 



In our southern counties, where light sandy soils 
abound, the difficulty of making peach and nectarine 
trees trained to walls nourish is well known ; in spring 
they are liable to the curl and the attacks of aphides, 
in summer they are infested with the red spider, so 
that the trees are weakened, and rarely give good 
fruit; they seem, indeed, to detest light soils. The 
following method of preparing borders for them in such 
soils may be well known, but I have not seen it de- 
scribed by any gardening author. The idea has come 
to me from observing peach trees trained to walls 
refuse to do well in the light sandy soil forming a part 
of my nursery, except near paths, and to grow and do 
well for years in the stiff tenacious loam forming 
another part. My bearing trees in pots, for which I 
use tenacious loam and dung, rammed down with a 
wooden pestle, also bear and nourish almost beyond 
belief; and so I am induced to recommend that in 
light soils the peach tree border should be made as 
follows : — To a wall of moderate height, say nine or 
ten feet, a border six feet wide, and to a wall twelve 
feet high, one eight feet wide should be marked out. 
If the soil be poor and exhausted by cropping, or if 
it be an old garden, a dressing of rotten dung l and 

1 If the border be new or rich with manure, a dressing of the 
loam or clay only, four inches in thickness, will be suthcient. 


tenacious loam, or clay, equal parts, five inches in 
tluckness, should be spread over the surface of the 
border ; it should then be stirred to two feet in depth, 
and the loarn and dung well mixed with the soil. The 
trees may be planted during the winter ; and in March, 
in dry weather, the border all over its surface should 
be thoroughly rammed down with a wooden rammer, 
so as to make it like a well-trodden path ; some light, 
half-rotten manure, say from one to two inches in 
depth, may then be spread over it, and the operation 
is complete. This border must never be stirred, except 
with the hoe to destroy weeds, and, of course, never 
cropped ; every succeeding spring, in dry weather, the 
ramming and dressing must be repeated, as the soil 
is always much loosened by frost. If this method be 
followed, peaches and nectarines may be made to 
flourish in our dry southern counties, where they have 
hitherto brought nothing but disappointment. 

The two grand essentials for peach culture are stiff 
loam, or a very firm soil, and a sunny climate. 


At Twyford Lodge, near East Grinstead, Sussex, the 
seat of R. Trotter, Esq., is a wall 75 feet long, covered 
with peaches and nectarines, which, for several years, 
had given no fruit ; some years ago, the gardener, Mr. 


Murrell, asked my advice about protecting it with 
glass ; and acting upon it with his own adaptation, has 
succeeded, every season since its erection, in securing 
fine crops of fruit of superior flavour. The following 
is a description of this simple structure : — 

At the top of the wall, which is 12 feet high, is 
nailed a plate for the ends of the rafters to rest on ; 
4 feet 6 inches from the wall is a row of posts, 6 inches 
by 4 (these should be of oak), 6 feet apart, and 3 feet 
6 inches in height from the ground ; on these is nailed 
a plate to receive the lower ends of the rafters ; the 
latter are 8 feet long, 3 inches by 1^, and 20 inches 
asunder; and the glass employed is 16-oz. sheet, 20 
inches by 12. Every fourth square of glass at the top 
next the wall is fixed into a slight frame of wood with 
a hinge at the top of each, and made to open all at 
once by a line running on a wheel ; the front is of 
f -inch deal boards nailed to the posts, one of which, one 
foot wide, near the top, is on hinges, forming a drop 
shutter the whole length of the front. Now comes 
the management by which red spider, the deadly foe 
of the peach tree, is discomfited ; and let me quote 
Mr. Murrell : — 

' All these ventilators, back and front, I leave open 
day and night after May, except in very wet and rough 
weather. The first season I had the red spider (it was 
in the walls), but the fruit was of the highest flavour; 
the second season the fruit was very fine, and the 
spiders never came, I believe owing entirely to my 


syringing the trees twice a day, morning and afternoon, 
and leaving all the ventilators open ; besides this the 
boards have shrunk, so that there are wide crevices, 
and the place is always airy. I thank you for your 
hints about giving plenty of air : the trees are admired 
by all who see them.' 

The roof, it will be seen, is fixed, and the whole 
structure a fixture ; the trees can be pruned and nailed 
under shelter, and a crop of fruit always ensured. How 
superior, then, is this to all the temporary protectors for 
walls so often recommended ! 


Although in this little work I profess to confine myself 
to the culture of garden fruit trees, I feel that a few 
words as to my method of planting trees in an orchard 
under grass may not be out of place, for very frequently 
a villa residence may have a piece of pasture land 
attached to it favourable to the growth of orchard trees, 
and quite necessary as a convenient place for the cow or 
the horse or horses. The common practice is to open 
large holes in the turf, three feet in diameter and from 
two to three feet deep, and in the centre to plant a 
tree. In rich deep loamy soils trees often succeed when 
planted in this manner, and as often fail, the hole 
becoming in wet seasons a pond. 


Orchard trees, as a general rule, should be planted 
twenty-four feet apart, row from row, and they are for 
the most part planted twenty-four feet apart in the rows, 
so as to stand that distance apart over the whole orchard. 
I now propose that the rows should be twenty-four feet 
apart, but the trees twelve feet apart in the rows, so as 
to allow of one-third more trees to the acre. Instead 
of digging large holes, slips four feet wide, six feet in 
length, should be marked out on the turf, so that the 
centre of each is twenty-four feet apart ; each slip 
should then be trenched, or, as it is often called, 
' double-dug,' to a depth of two feet, keeping the turf 
at the surface of the trench and leaving the subsoil in 
situ. A row of trees should be planted in the centre of 
each slip, twelve feet apart, and after the lapse of some 
fifteen or twenty years every alternate tree should be 
either removed and replanted or grubbed up. As such 
large standard trees would require much care in trans- 
planting, and even then probably not succeed, the latter 
may prove the more economic mode. By thus planting 
more trees than required for a permanent orchard, a 
great advantage is reaped, for the temporary trees will, 
if the land is good, bear a large quantity of fruit, and 
amply repay their cost, which is trifling ; for whereas 
95 trees are required to plant one acre twenty-four 
feet apart, by the above method 142 may be planted. 
I have mentioned from fifteen to twenty years as the 
probable time when the temporary trees may be re- 
moved ; as this depends entirely upon the quality of 


the soil and the progress they have made, a more cer- 
tain rule to lay down is, that as soon as the outside 
roots of the trees touch each other the temporary trees 
should be removed. I need scarcely write the usual 
directions as to the trees being fenced round if horses 
and cows are turned into the orchard — that the trees 
should have stems at least six feet in height, and the 
lower branches should be taken off as soon as they 
become depressed enough for cattle to browse on them. 
One direction I feel, however, bound to give : a circle 
from three to four feet in diameter round each tree 
should be kept clear of grass and weeds for at least 
five years from the time of planting ; after that period 
grass may be allowed to cover all the surface as in old 

In preparing the slips by trenching, if the subsoil 
be poor and stony, it should not be brought to the 
surface but be merely turned over with the spade, and 
some manure mixed with it, replacing the turf and 
keeping the loose mould on the surface. If the soil be 
wet, drains four feet deep should be made twenty-four 
feet apart, one in the centre of the space between each 
row of trees ; they should be made by careful work- 
men, and filled in with bushes if drain pipes are not at 
hand ; before the drain is closed, it should be left open 
for the examination of the master and carefully proved. 
The soils best adapted for orchard trees are, first, loams 
with a subsoil of lime-stone ; second, loams resting on 
a dry stony subsoil; third, loams resting on clay — 


these should be drained. Light sandy loams, with a 
subsoil of sand, chalk, and gravel, are not adapted for 
standard orchard trees unless the staple of loam is from 
two to three feet thick. 


The young fruits as soon as formed are pierced by a 
small weevil (Rhynchites), and an egg deposited which 
causes the fruit to swell to a size altogether dispro- 
portionate, and after the lapse of a month to fall to the 
ground ; there is no remedy for this other than the imr 
mediate destruction of the fruit, which can be at once 
detected by its abnormal size. 

Another pest common to the pear and apple adheres 
to the bark of the tree, forming a thick layer ; this is the 
pear-tree kermes. As weakly trees only are attacked, 
the best remedy is probably to root out the tree to 
prevent the extension of the insect ; when noticed, if the 
tree is not sacrificed, the bark should be scrubbed with 
a hard brush and then washed with soft soap and quassia. 

The slugworm — a small, black, shiny caterpillar — 
makes its appearance in August, September, and the 
early part of October ; the tree should be dusted with 
quick-lime as soon as noticed, and the dose repeated 
when necessary. 

The pear-tree oyster scale, a small insect formed on 


the bark, should be rubbed off by a hard brush with 
soap and water and sand. 

For the numerous caterpillars and larvae which 
attack the pear tree there is one very simple and 
practical remedy, viz. the finger and thumb. The 
' aphis;' which is a common pest to all fruit trees, must 
be very narrowly watched in the spring as soon as the 
young leaves are developed, and should be treated with 
the following mixture : — Boil four ounces of quassia 
chips in a gallon of soft water until the bitter principle 
has been extracted, the time required being from 
twenty-five to thirty minutes ; in this mixture dissolve 
at the time of application four ounces of soft soap to the 
gallon, and apply hot if possible (up to 150° will not 
hurt the tree) ; but if it is inconvenient to use hot 
water, cold will answer the purpose. If trees have been 
severely attacked by aphis they should be washed during 
the winter with the above mixture. 

The American blight (Aphis lanigerct) is peculiar to 
the apple, and is destroyed by the above mixture. On 
the branches of two years and upwards an application 
of petroleum and milk will be useful, but the bark must 
be quite sound at the time of application. Vinegar is 
very destructive to this insect, probably the more adul- 
terated the better ; it is easy to apply and to obtain. 

If the aphis descends to the roots, soot should be 

The pear is often attacked by a disease which has 
the effect of rendering the bark rough and scaly, pre- 


senting almost the appearance of canker ; a slight 
examination will, however, determine whether the 
disease is deeper than the bark. W ashing the parts 
affected with a mixture of soot, lime, and sulphur will 
remove the roughness and restore the tree to health ; 
if the above materials are mixed with skim milk the 
mixture is more enduring ; the disease often shows itself 
after severe frost, and probably arises from a rupture of 
the cells. 

A bright orange spot will often make its appearance 
on the leaves. During the summer the leaves thus 
affected must be at once removed and burnt ; if left on 
the tree the spot will develop in several nipple-like 
protuberances, which will burst and scatter spores for 
future germination, and the whole tree, bark, and leaves 
will be attacked, and ultimately destroyed. 


In heavy, cold, and wet soils horse manure should 
be forked lightly into the ground in the autumn and 
spring ; when the soil is light and sandy, cow-dung 
should be mixed with it. Kiln dust mixed with night 
soil is an excellent surface-dressing, and soot should 
be given liberally, particularly where a deficiency of 
colouring is observed in the fruit. In all non-calcareous 
soils, chalk, lime, gypsum, and phosphate of lime should 
be freely used ; the absence of lime in soils is often the 
cause of failure ; all plants contain lime, and it must 
therefore be supplied when non-existent. 



In most cases it is only necessary to open holes, but 
in stiff and cold clay soils the bottom of the hole 
opened should be filled in with gravel or brick rubble, 
and the tree planted on a mound ; but in ordinary well- 
drained soils it is sufficient to open holes for the trees 
in accordance with their size ; the bottom of the hole 
should be convex, so that the water does not settle in 
the middle. The holes should be opened some three 
weeks before planting, and the best soil reserved for 
the roots; at the time of opening the holes mix the 
soil with good rotten dung, and chalk or lime if 
necessary. If the weather is very dry at the time of 
planting, the trees should be watered during the 
operation, but it is very seldom indeed that the weather 
during our autumn requires this treatment. The soil 
should be lightly and firmly pressed round the roots, 
which should be carefully laid out radiating from the 
stem, so as to form ultimately a secure support for the 
trees, no matter from which quarter the wind blows. If 
the trees are slender fasten them to a stout stake, which 
they will need until they are firmly established. 

Another method of growing small pyramid trees 
(that is, from seven to eight feet high) in soils naturally 
bad, can be employed with perfectly good results, and 
makes the fruit-tree amateur independent of soil. Plant 
the trees in large pots, No. 6 or No. 4, which have been 
perforated at the sides (this will be done by the potter 



if so ordered), and pot the trees with soil prepared for 
them. When planted, fill in a space of one foot or 
more round the outside of the pot for the roots to feed 
on when the soil of the pot is exhausted ; every autumn 
clear away this and fill in with fresh soil, increasing 
the bulk, at the same time cut off every root close to 
the pot that has passed outside ; this is another form of 
root-pruning, but it provides an absolute independence 
of soil. The trees will not make a strong growth, but 
they will be fruitful and will require little or no pruning ; 
stout boxes, with holes or chinks for the emission of 
roots, will answer, but they are not of course so durable 
as the pots. 


Pyramidal pear trees and bushes on quince stocks to 
be cultivated as root-pruned trees for small gardens, 
four feet apart. 

The same, in larger gardens, not root-pruned, six 
feet apart. 

Pyramidal pear trees on the pear stock, root-pruned, 
six feet apart. 

The same, roots not pruned, eight or ten feet— the 
latter if the soil be very rich. 

Horizontal espalier pear trees on the quince stock, 
for rails or walls, ten feet apart. 

Upright espaliers on the quince stock, for rails or 
walls, four to six feet apart. 


Horizontal espaliers on the pear stock, for rails or 
walls, twenty feet apart. 

Pyramidal plum trees, six feet apart. 

Espalier plum trees, twenty feet apart. 

Pyramidal and bush apple trees on the Paradise stock, 
root-pruned, for small gardens, three to four feet apart 

The same, roots not pruned, six feet apart. 

Espalier apple trees on the Paradise stock, fifteen 
feet apart. 

The same on the crab stock, twenty feet apart. 

Peaches and nectarines, for walls, fifteen to twenty 
feet apart. 

Apricots for walls, twenty feet apart. 

Apricots, plums, cherries, and apples, as single 
diagonal cordons, eighteen inches to two feet apart. 

Cherries, as bushes and pyramids on the Mahaleb 
stock, root-pruned, for small gardens, four feet apart. 

The same, roots not pruned, six feet apart. 

Pyramidal cherries, on the common cherry stock, 
six feet apart. 

Espalier cherry trees, for rails or walls, fifteen to 
twenty feet apart. 

Vertical or diagonal single cordons of apples and 
pears, eighteen inches to two feet apart. 

Proper distances for trees against dwarf walls, an- 
nually or biennially removed (see pp. 39 to 42) are for — 

Pears on quince stocks, five feet apart. 

Peaches, nectarines, apricots, and plums, five feet apart. 

Cherries and apples, five feet apart. 



January. — In mild weather, planting, root-pruning, 
lifting, and replanting may be carried on. Some soils 
encourage the growth of moss on the branches of trees ; 
lime may be sprinkled on them, or they may be painted 
with lime and soot formed into a thin paint with water. 

February. — If the weather be mild, trees may still 
be planted without fear ; the truth is, the modern 
system of growing fruit trees on dwarfing stocks, and 
removing them occasionally, makes them safe to plant 
very late or very early. 

March. — Towards the middle of the month protect- 
ing to retard the blossom-buds is good practice. 
Planting of prepared or oft-removed trees may still 
be safely practised. 

April. — Protecting should still be attended to. 

Planting of pears on quince stocks with the buds 
on the point of expansion (see p. 61) may be tried as 
an experiment ; here they often bear the finest fruit. 

June. — Summer pinching must be strictly attended 
to; the young fruit in clusters should be thinned, 


removing from pears and apples about half their 

July. — The very early kind of pears should be 
gathered before they are quite ripe. 

August. — Early ripening pears — viz., sorts that ripen 
in September — may be gathered, unless the season be 

September. — Shortening the shoots may be done ; 
gathering of early pears before fully ripe to be attended 
to. Towards the end gather apples and pears that 
ripen before Christmas. 

October. — Towards the middle of the month planting 
may be commenced ; and if the rain has penetrated 
sufficiently, root-pruning may be done ; also lifting and 
replanting (see p. 14). About the middle gather late 

November. — Planting, root-pruning, lifting, and re- 
planting may still be safely carried on. 

December. — All the operations of last month may 
still be practised if they have been forgotten or 

Always bear in mind that a vigorous-growing tree 
that does not bear fruit requires being lifted and 
replanted — even annually — till it becomes fruitful, and 
that a tree that bears well and makes annual shoots 
under twelve inches in length, requires neither root- 
pruning nor removal, but merely summer pinching of 
its shoots to about half their length. 

The following extract from a letter is interesting, as 


an indication or the sorts of pears which succeed at 
Jedburgh : — 

' And now for some account of your pears ; I pro- 
cured a maiden plant of Beurre d'Amanlis, which, in 
1875, growing in the midst of my seedling fir beds, had 
reached the height of eight feet. This bush, seven and 
a half feet in diameter, produced 820 pears, which 
weighed ten stone seven pounds ; very fine fruit. 

' You published some years since a note specifying 
the success of Beurre Hardy pear at Kelso ; a year 
before the specimens were sent to you, I grafted a plant, 
filling a portion of a low wall, only seven feet high by 
sixteen feet in length ; in 1875 my grafts of the Beurre 
Hardy produced 500 large pears, weighing eight stone. 
From Conseiller de la Cour I have had crops of most 
delicious fruit. It is really a grand pear.' 

Canker. — In a lecture delivered at Birmingham by 
Mr. Edmund Tonks, he proposes the following ingre- 
dients as an effective application for the cure of this 
disease : 


Superphosphate of lime . . .35 

Nitrate of potash . . . .21 

Nitrate of soda . . . . .28 

Sulphate of lime . . . . .28 

in the proportion of a quarter of a pound to the square 
yard applied in the autumn and spring. To my know- 
ledge this dressing has had an extraordinary effect in 
some cases, and has restored diseased trees to good health. 



The ' Curate's Vinery,' described in the tenth edition, 
was contrived by Dr. S. Newington, of Ticehurst, and 
consisted of a ridge of glass placed over a furrow lined 
with slates, so that the bunches of grapes were suspended 
in the furrow, and in warm seasons ripened well. One 
objection to the furrow was its liability to be filled with 
water in wet weather, in low situations and heavy soils. 
I therefore sought to remedy this, and one day, about 
the end of June, 1860, I found myself looking into my 
original ' Curate's Vinery,' and admiring the vines then 
in blossom, although those within a few yards of it 
growing in the opeu air were scarcely in full leaf. I 
pictured to myself the bunches of grapes suspended 
from the vines in the warm, moist atmosphere of the 
trench lined with slates. My thoughts then reverted to 
my boyish, grape-loving days, when in an old vineyard, 
planted by my grandfather, I always looked for some 
ripe grapes about the end of September ; and I vividly 
remembered that I always found the best and ripest 


bunches with the largest berries lying on the ground, 
and if the season were dry and warm, they were free 
from dirt and delicious, and so I gradually travelled in 
thought from bunches of grapes lying on the ground to 
the same lying on slates. 

The idea was new, and I commenced at once to put 
it into practice by building a ' Curate's Vinery ' on a 
new plan. 

I therefore placed two rows of bricks endwise 
(leaving four inches between each brick for ventilation) 
on a nice level piece of sandy ground, and then paved 
between them with large slates (' duchesses ') placed 
crosswise. I am, however, inclined to think that tiles 
may be preferable to slates ; absorption of heat is 
greater and radiation slower. On the bricks I placed 
two of the ridges of glass, as given in the foregoing 
figure, each seven feet long, and thus formed my 
vinery, fourteen feet in length. The vine lies in the 
centre of the vinery, and is pegged down through the 
spaces between the slates. One vine will in the course 
of two years fill a vinery of this length ; but to reap 
the fruits of my project quickly, I planted two vines, 
one in the centre, the other at the north-east end — for 
these structures should stand north-east and south-west. 
One of these vines, which had been growing in a pot in 
the open air, was just beginning to show its fruit-buds 
— it was quite the last of June — its fruit ripened early 
in October, and were fully coloured and good in spite 
of the cloudy cold autumn. My black Hamburgh 


grapes in my ground vineries were fully ripe by the 
first week in October. I therefore feel well assured 
that grapes lying on a floor of slates such as I have 
described will ripen from two to three weeks earlier 
than in vineries of this description with a furrow, and 
as early as grapes in a common cold vinery. Black 
Hamburghs, and other kinds of grapes not requiring 
fire heat, may thus be grown in any small garden at a 
trifling expense. I am, indeed, disposed to hope that 
the Frontignans, and nearly all but the Muscats, may 
be ripened by this method, so intense is the heat of the 
slated floor on a sunny day in July. 

Some persons may think that the heat would be 
scorching, and that the leaves and grapes would alike 
become frizzled ; but few gardeners know the extreme 
heat a bunch of grapes can bear. I remember a lady 
friend, who had resided some time at Smyrna, telling 
me that one afternoon at the end of the summer, when 
the grapes were ripening, she was sitting in her 
drawing-room and admiring some large bunches of 
grapes hanging on a vine which was growing against a 
wall in the full sunshine. Knowing the danger of going 
into the open air without a parasol, she rushed out, 
cut a bunch of grapes, and returned to her seat in the 
shady room. The bunch of grapes was so hot that she 
was obliged to shift it from hand to hand. I observed 
in the hot weather we had in July, 1859, one or two 
branches of Muscat grapes nearly touching the chimney 
of a stove in which a fire was kept up every morning, 


gradually turning into raisins. I felt some of them 
when the sun was shining on them ; they were not 
burning hot, but next to it. I allowed them to dry 
into raisins, and very fine they were, but not better 
than the finest imported from Spain. 

With respect to the superior ripening power of 
slates or tiles placed on the surface of the earth, I was 
much interested in once hearing a travelled friend say 
that when he was at Paros, he observed many vines 
trained up the marble rocks peculiar to the island ; 
and in all cases the grapes lying on the surface, which 
was almost a continuous mass of rock, were ripe, while 
those a few feet from it, on the same vine, some of the 
branches of which were trained up the wall-like rocks, 
were quite green. In telling me this, he said he was 
never more impressed with the ripening power of the 
earth's surface. 

I have, in giving the figure and description of the 
ground vinery, adapted for one vine, the width of it 
being 2 feet 6 inches only. If this width be increased 
to 3 feet 6 inches, two vines can be trained under the 
same roof 14 inches apart, and thus at a trifling ad- 
ditional cost double produce can be obtained. 

Cultivators will think of red spider making his 
home in such (for him) a happy, hot place; but he 
may be made so uncomfortable by keeping flowers of 
sulphur strewed over the slates till near the ripening 
season, that no inconvenience need be apprehended. 
It will be perceived that the ventilation is all lateral, 


and on the same principle as that of my orchard- 
houses; nothing can be more perfect. In the figure 
it will be seen I have left a small aperture under the 
apex of the roof for the escape of rarefied air. In very- 
hot weather this may be useful, but in my slate-floored 
ground vineries I have not done this, and yet the 
ventilation is perfect. I have not yet ascertained in 
what manner the heated air escapes. The ventilating 
apertures are all on the surface of the soil, and at the 
same level ; but I suppose it stoops to get out, having 
no other mode of egress. 


No. 1,/or a single vine in centre 

Width at base ..... 30 inches. 
Slope of roof . . . . .20 inches. 
Depth in centre . . . .16 inches. 

No. 2, for two vines 14 inches apart 

Width at base ..... 42 inches. 
Slope of roof . . . . .28 inches. 

Depth in centre . . . .20 inches. 

These dimensions need not be arbitrary, for ground 
vineries of larger dimensions may be made with every 
chance of success, and Hamburgh grapes grown in 
Bedfordshire instead of cucumbers ; for no part of 
England can be more favourable to grape culture 
than the fertile, sandy districts of a portion of that 


county. We have heard of forty acres of cucumbers 
being grown for pickling, and one day we may hear 
of forty acres of grapes in ground vineries in some 
favourable locality. To form a vinery (p. 152, fig. 22), 
described above as No. 1, two seven-feet lengths are 
required ; these I find from experience are better made 
of wood than iron, which is heavy and expensive ; they 
are now made three feet wide at base. Their size may 
also be increased to 3 feet 6 inches, as described under 
No. 2, but they must then be placed on a wall two 
bricks in height, leaving apertures, four or five inches 
wide and six inches deep, for ventilation ; this increase 
of ventilation is absolutely necessary with No. 2. The 
glass used should be 21-oz.,as 16-oz. is too slight. As 
the vines in ground vineries often put forth their young 
shoots early in May, and are apt to be injured by a 
severe May frost, it is good practice to keep some refuse 
ha}' strewed over the glass when there is any chance 
of frost in that month, or to cover the ridges with 

In gardens where these glass ridge roofs are not 
wanted for vines, or fruit-tree culture, they will be 
found most useful. They may be placed on any warm 
border on bricks ; and early peas, French beans, and 
many other early vegetables requiring protection from 
spring frosts, be grown under them with advantage. 
For the cultivation of the early strawberries they are 
invaluable, as they not only hasten the ripening period, 
but protect the fruit from heavy summer showers, often 


so injurious to the crop, and also from birds. Straw- 
berry plants, to be cultivated in ground vineries, should 
be planted early in autumn in narrow beds of two or 
three rows, the plants close together in the rows, so as 
to take full advantage of the glass-covered space. The 
rows should be 9 inches apart, and the plants in the 
row the same distance from each other ; the beds should 
be made every season on a fresh piece of rich soil ; and 
as much fruit as can possibly be grown in such a limited 
space must be the aim of the cultivator. If the ridges 
are devoted to strawberries only, much care is required 
in their culture, the runners should be carefully removed, 
and the glass ridges taken off after the fruit is gathered, 
and not replaced till November ; the plants will require 
water and surface manure during the summer. In all 
cases the ridges should be placed on bricks, with spaces 
between them. Ventilation is then secured ; and even 
cauliflower plants in winter will do well without the 
constant attention to ' giving air,' so necessary in the 
old garden frame culture. Lettuces, for early salads, 
succeed admirably in these structures ; they should be 
planted in October. In gardens that are confined and 
very warm, I repeat it may be necessary to have a small 
opening left at the top, at a in the figure, just under 
the ridge, to let oat the heated air, and two rows of 
bricks instead of one ; but my vineries stand in a very 
exposed place, and do not require it. 

On p. 153 I have given a diagram of a new plan 
of ground vineries; it is exceedingly simple; gas-piping 


and a few oak posts support the lights, which are hooked 
on, and can be taken off and stored when not required. 
The same principle, i.e. the gas-piping and the lights 
with hooks, will make a very cheap and efficient glass 
coping for walls. 


The most preferable seasons for planting vines from 
pots are in October and November or in March, the 
latter to be preferred, and if vines can be placed in a 
cold vinery or under a garden frame till their young 
shoots are two inches long, they had better be planted 
in April, as they seem to start with greater freedom 
when their young shoots have commenced to grow. The 
mode of planting as practised here is simply to mark 
out a piece of ground 3 feet square at the end of 
fig. 22, and to dig it 2 feet deep, mixing with the soil, 
in digging, a coat of manure from four to five inches 
thick, placed on the surface before digging ; the vine 
should not be planted under the glass, but outside, at 
one end ; it should at once be pegged down with two or 
three hooked pegs thrust into the earth through the 
interstices between the slates in the centre of the floor. 
If vines from the open ground are selected, they should 
be planted early in March, and cut down to two eyes ; 
if strong vines from pots are planted, they should have 


their roots carefully divided and spread out ; to do this 
the ball of earth should be squeezed between the hands 
so as to loosen it thoroughly, and after planting, water 
should be given, the earth filled in, and after about ten 
days the soil round the vine should be trodden firmly. 
The vine from a pot, if strong and from seven to nine feet 
in length, should be shortened down to three feet, or, say, 
to eleven or twelve buds, not counting the buds within 
nine inches of the ground ; every bud will show a bunch of 
fruit ; all but three or four bunches should be removed, 
and every side shoot except one should be shortened as 
soon as it has made, say, five leaves : the one to be ex- 
cepted is the leading shoot, which, if the vine is growing 
tolerably well, may be suffered, even the first season, to 
grow from four to five feet before it is stopped : this leader 
may require being stopped a second time the first season 
if it is in a vigorous state. In the autumn (mind this 
is the first season) the young leading shoot may be cut 
down to about twelve eyes, or within three feet of the 
old wood, i.e. the shoot left on the vine when planted ; 
the latter will be furnished with spurs, and each of these 
must be shortened in the autumn to two eyes ; the time 
for pruning is towards the end of October. After the 
fruit is gathered, and at this time only, the ridges may 
be removed from the vine, and remain off for a fort- 
night. The pruning in succeeding years is very simple ; 
you have merely to shorten the leader to three or four 
feet, or less, and the spurs to two eyes, annually in 



During the winter, if the vineries are standing in 
an exposed situation, they should be secured from the 
wind by driving a few stakes down on each side. 

In spring, if the vines put forth their young shoots 
in April, they are apt to be killed by a spring frost, as 
is too often the case with the vines of France ; this can, 
however, be easily averted in ground vineries, either by 
keeping constantly a covering of hay or straw on the 
glass when the weather is cold, and frost likely, or by 
covering the ridges with the small mats which are ao 
convenient and so cheap, whenever the thermometer 
declines to 40° at 7 p.m. 

There are still more ills to guard against in ground 
vinery culture, for mice and birds, as rats often do in 
common vineries, attempt to have too large a share of 
the fruit; they enter by the interstices between the 
bricks and devour and spoil many bunches ; thrushes 
are particularly vigilant in looking after grapes, and 
may be trapped ; but both they and the mice may be 
kept out by galvanised iron netting six inches wide, 
placed along the whole length of the vineries. 

I have but little to add to my description of the 
management of ground vineries : their uses are endless, 
for not only are the finest of pears grown in them, but 
peaches, apricots, plums, and strawberries may be culti- 
vated with great success ; and then as winter quarters 
for bedding plants they are excellent. For this pur- 
pose the bricks should be removed in severe weather, 
and the glass ridges thickly covered with straw ; they 


are then perfectly frost-proof; in mild weather in 
winter the ventilating bricks may be replaced, and the 
straw removed till frost again occurs. 

With respect to the most preferable dimensions for 
these structures — the size No. 1, thirty inches wide at 
base, will suffice for one vine in the centre for ten years 
or so; but as I perceive my old vines to be a little 
straitened for room, I advise a width of three feet 
at the base, and No. 2, for two vines or two cordons, 
of three feet ten inches, instead of three feet six 

In these more roomy structures the vines may be 
trained to stout galvanised iron wires, supported with 
iron rods flattened at top and perforated, so that the 
wire passes easily through ; these wires should be about 
one foot from the surface of the slates, and the suspended 
bunches, partially resting on them, will ripen admirably. 
I ought to add, that a friend with much gardening 
experience finds his strawberries ripen ten days earlier 
than those in the open air, and his melons, planted on 
new, fresh, fermenting manure, in a trench, are free 
from red spider, and produce fine fruit. It is the con- 
stant ventilation, night and day, and the heavy dew, 
the result of arrested radiation, that seems to baffle this 
tiresome plague ; for although my vines are never 
watered or syringed, they are always vigorous and free 
from red spider. The most eligible varieties of grapes 
for ground vineries are, the Black Hamburgh, Buckland 
Sweetwater, Royal Muscadine, Early Smyrna Fron- 

M 2 


tignan, Trentham Black, Early Saumur Frontignan, 
and Esperione. 

Any suburban garden ten yards square, if in a sunny 
situation, may have one or two of these vineries, and 
the owner or occupier may grow his own black Ham- 
burgh grapes, known by most of the Londoners as ' hot- 
house grapes.' I ought to mention that the improved 
ground vinery, with gas-pipe ridge, so that the side 
opens and gives access to the interior, is the best of all. 


By T. Francis Rivebs. Extracted, by permission, from the 
' Journal of Horticulture,' Nos. 356-57, 1868. 

The introduction of the system of training fruit trees, 
called by the French cordon training, leads me to sup- 
pose that a few outlines of description may not be 
unacceptable. This system of training is remarkable 
for simplicity, and I propose to give the necessary 
directions in as few words as possible. 

The preparation of the ground is so well understood 
that it is not necessary to say much on this point. To 
form the oblique cordon orchard, a trench should be dug, 
about two feet wide, the first ^spit of soil being thrown 
out as if for a celery trench ; the under spit should then 
be broken up and left with the top soil, a good propor- 
tion of well decomposed manure must be mixed, and 


the ground is ready for planting. The trench should, 
if possible, be made a fortnight before planting, in 
order that the soil may be thoroughly pulverised. If 
there is any deficiency of lime in the soil, it is as well 
to add lime rubbish or chalk. For horizontal double 
cordons a trench is not necessary ; holes should be dug 
about two feet in diameter, and the soil mixed with 
good compost. The double-cordon trees should be from 
twelve to fifteen feet apart ; the horizontal single cor- 
dons six to eight feet. 

Fig. 24 represents a double horizontal cordon. This 
may be made by cutting down a dwarf maiden tree to 
within four or six buds of the base, the two topmost 
buds of which must be selected to form the cordons. 
The highest on the stem are the most eligible ; but the 
operator can, of course, select the two shoots which are 
most convenient for his training wire, and they should 
be as nearly as possible opposite. When sufficiently 
advanced in growth to be flexible, they should be care- 
fully bent down and fastened to short sticks, unless the 
training wires are used. As the whole energies of the 
tree are directed into these shoots, they will make rapid 
growth, and as they advance fresh sticks and fresh 
tying will be necessary. As any lateral or upright 
shoots are put forth they must be stopped at three or 
four leaves from their bases. The first year few of 
these will be made, but the tree will most probably, if 
there is a favourable growth, be studded with fruit buds. 
In November, or, indeed, any month from November to 


March, the tips of the main shoots should be shortened 
three or four buds from the ends, and, unless a few- 
lateral shoots have been left, which should be removed, 
the pruning for the second year will be accomplished. 

The second year each cordon or branch will produce 
many lateral shoots, and as these are successively pro- 
duced they should be pinched. The first pinching must 
be done when the shoot has formed five or six leaves, 
and, as a general rule, three leaves from the leaflets 
should be the stopping point. This primary shoot will 
form the bloom buds, and the shoot made from the ter- 
minal bud must be stopped in the same manner as 
the first. Discontinue pinching after June. By this 
time the cordon will be thickly studded with wood and 
fruit spurs ; to thin out and regulate these will form a 
pleasant winter morning's work ; the final pruning 
must therefore be deferred until October or November. 

The tree after the second year will assume the 
appearance of a cordon — i.e. a thick rope of closely 
studded shoots, and the pruning must be left to the 
judgment of the operator. Many shoots must be re- 
moved ; and as the size and strength of the tree must 
regulate the number of fruit-bearing spurs, a sufficient 
number of these being left, the operator should prune 
all others to wood-buds, in order to produce, year by 
year, an alternate succession of fruit-bearing wood. 

Fig. 25 is a half-standard double horizontal cordon. 
This is very useful for low walls in gardens ; where 
the border is occupied by flowers or other plants, the 


part of the wall exposed to the sun may thus be used. 
A standard cordon with a stem six feet high may also 
be used for the top of the wall, the main surface being 
occupied by other trees. A cordon fringe, or cornice, 
will be found exceedingly ornamental, and may be 
carried the entire length of a wall, the standards being 
planted at intervals of twenty feet or more. 

Many other forms of cordon training will, doubtless, 
be discovered as the system becomes better known. 

Single horizontal cordons (fig. 26) require the 
same pruning as the double, but the dwarf maiden tree 
does not absolutely require the cutting-back necessary 
for double cordons. The tree may be planted in a 
slanting position against the training wire, and the 
shoot tied down. The first year after planting, most 
of the buds will break and produce shoots ; these must 
be treated in the same manner as the double horizontal 
cordons. If a single cordon is required for a special 
height, the shoot should be shortened to the height 
required, and a single horizontal shoot selected to form 
the cordon. 

Single oblique or diagonal cordons may be planted 
to training wires by the sides of walks, or in rows in 
the garden devoted to their cultivation. The space 
given up to them will yield an ample and quick return 
in fruit. They may be planted 1^ ft. apart, and if the 
cultivator does not object to wait a year, dwarf maiden 
trees are the best to plant, as they may be bought 
cheaply. The trees should be planted upright, and the 



shoots, which are generally very flexible, should be bent 
to an angle of about 45°. It is not necessary for the 

angle to be quite exact, but, as a general rule, this 
angle may be adopted. If the shoots are not flexible 
enough to bend, plant the tree in a slanting position. 


The principle of pruning given for double horizontal 
cordons must be followed in the cultivation of single 
oblique cordons. They will the first year after planting 
be found covered with bloom-spurs. Single oblique 

Fig. 27. — A photograph of Doyenne du Cornice. 

cordons in rich and fertile soils will probably require 
root-pruning as well as spur-pruning, and, if necessary, 
this should be done every second year. The tree 
should not be taken up, but the spade pushed down at 
a sufficient distance from the stem to avoid injury to 


the main roots, and the tree gently heaved. If a tap 
root has been made it should be cut. The proper time 
to perform this operation is near the end of October 
and any time afterwards to the middle or end of 
February; but it is better done in October and 
November, as many fresh roots will be formed after the 
operation, even during what are called the dead months 
of the year. 

Single oblique cordons may be carried to the height 
of ten or twelve feet ; in fact, there is no limit, except 
the will of the planter. A fresh string of wire may 
be added annually as the cordons increase in length. 
They may also be limited to the height of four or five 

Fig. 27 is from a photograph of an upright-trained 
tree, with five vertical cordons springing from a common 
base. Trees may be purchased already trained in this 
form, but the double horizontal cordon may at pleasure 
be changed into this form by selecting strong shoots 
at regular intervals, fastening them to stout stakes, 
and summer pinching them as practised for oblique 

Fig. 28 is a fan cordon, and the advantage of the 
simple method of summer pinching will at once be seen. 
Instead of a wall being perforated all over with nails 
few only are required to fasten the shoots selected for 
cordons. This form may consist of five, seven, or more 
cordon branches. The symmetry of the tree should be 
the point most strictly attended to, a symmetrical tree 



Fxg. 28 


being more pleasing to the eye than one irregularly- 
shaped. The same method of pruning is required as 
for oblique cordons. 

Fan cordons can be managed by an unscientific 
gardener, but to produce one well-shaped on the usual 
plan requires a skilful and practised hand. It is pos- 
sible that in the northern and westerly districts peach 
and nectarine trees will produce too many unripened 
spurs, but probably by attention and strict thinning 
this difficulty will be surmounted. It is not yet suffi- 
ciently known that apricot fan-shaped trained trees 
may be made, by the most simple management of cordon 
training, most prolific and easily managed wall trees. 
The method is this : as soon as the tree has formed a 
perfect-shaped tree, no more shortening of shoots or 
' laying in ' of young should be practised, but every 
branch should be made into a cordon by summer pinch- 
ing, i.e. nipping off early in June every side shoot to 
four or five leaves, leaving the end of the cordon shoot 
untouched till, say, February, when, if it be more than 
30 inches in length, it may be shortened to 20 or 24 
inches. Peaches, nectarines, and all other kinds of 
wall fruits may be grown after this cordon system, and 
if the walls be not veiy extensive, much room may be 
saved by adopting the five-branched upright cordon 
(fig. 27, p. 171). 

With peaches and nectarines in rich soils it may 
be necessaiy to leave one shoot on each branch as an 
exhauster — an unpruned shoot — or to lift the tree 


once in three or four years. I should add that the 
exhauster should be cut down in winter to three or four 

Fig. 29 is a double oblique cordon, formed by 
cutting down the dwarf tree to two buds, and proceed- 
ing as for oblique cordons. 

Fig. 29 

Fig. 30 represents a compound horizontal cordon. 
This should have a central shoot and branches trained 
from it as nearly opposite as possible. This system 
has long been used for pears and apples, but not so 
generally for stone fruits. It is well adapted for 



peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries, and plums. 
All of these may be trained as compound horizontal 
cordons in the colder climate of Yorkshire. 

A very skilful cultivator of fruit in Yorkshire has 
trained cordon peaches and nectarines with complete 
success, and to counteract the tendency of these fruit 
trees to produce much unripened wood, when under 


cordon training, he leaves on every horizontal branch 
an upright shoot which he calls an exhauster. This 
shoot forms an outlet for the superfluous energy of the 

Fig. 31 

tree ; and the fruit spurs, being deprived of the 
superabundance of the vital fluid, do not break into 
growth. This theory will be found to be very sound 
practice, and should be used wherever there is a ten- 



dency on' the [part of the tree to produce many un- 
ripened spurs. This mode of training for the pear 
and apple is already well known ; and when applied 
to peach and nectarine trees, the only deviation from 
established practice will be to treat every horizontal 
branch as a cordon, and to practise summer pinching 
instead of allowing gross upright shoots to be made. 

Fig. 31 is a single vertical cordon in a pot ; and if an 
orchard house or glass shed is available, these will be 
found very useful and interesting trees. Pear, apple, 
cherry, and plum trees may be potted into 10- or 12-inch 
pots, and moved into a glass shed, or, indeed, any shed 
open to the sun, while in bloom, and kept under 
cover until all danger from spring frost is past. They 
should then be removed to a border prepared for them — 
the warmer and more sheltered the better. The pots 
must be plunged to within one or two inches of the rim, 
stable litter partly decomposed and spread over the pots 
and the soil ; as the trees will require watering they 
should be placed near water. One-year-old dwarf trees 
may be bought at a cheap rate and potted. The fruit 
will be produced in the second year after potting. The 
soil for the trees should consist of good, strong, cal- 
careous loam mixed with a third of its bulk of decom- 
posed manure. An old cucumber or melon bed may be 
used ; or, if not convenient, stable manure thrown up 
and fermented for some time will answer very well. 
The soil must in all cases be made very firm and solid 
in the pot. The border or bed for their summer 


quarters should be six feet wide ; this will take four rows 
of trees. This distance is perhaps the most convenient 
for pruning and watering, but it may be increased or 
diminished at the will of the cultivator. 

Under this system trees which appear to be walking- 
sticks in the winter will become wonderfully fertile ; 
and if protection in spring can be afforded, the crop 
is almost certain. As it is possible and probable that 
during the summer some of the roots will have passed 
through the bottom of the pots into the soil beneath, 
it will be necessary, after the fruit is gathered and the 
trees are at rest, to detach them from their anchorage 
by taking up the pots and cutting off all the roots that 
protrude through the drainage hole of the pot. As this 
operation will break up the summer quarters of the 
trees, there will be no necessity to replace them at the 
distance requisite for their summer cultivation. They 
may be much more closely packed for their winter 
quarters, plunging them as mentioned before, and 
during winter covering the pots thickly with straw or 
stable litter. In this position they may be left without 
any further care or attention until the returning spring 
urges them again into fresh activity and fruitfulness. 

The Compound Trellis. See diagram, p. 180. 

The end posts A A, 3^ by 5 inches of oak, 5 feet 
6 inches out of ground, and 3 feet in ground, with blocks 
2 feet long, b, and brace C to take the strain, with four 
rows of No. 13 galvanised wire strained by Raidisseurs, 
the first 14 inches from grouud, and 1 foot apart. 

v 2 








f Ui 




The top No. 7 strand wire is 4 inches from top, strained 
by screw. 

At each end post a brace, 3 by 4 inches, is fixed, 5 feet 
6 inches up and 5 feet from post, with intermediate stays 
of iron, E, T 3 g- inch by 1 inch ; in these there are six rows 
of No. 1 3 wire, 1 foot apart, and strained the same way 
as the upright wires. 

Middle tier, H, of posts, 7 feet 6 inches out of ground, 
and 3 feet in ground with stiff brace, are fixed about 35 
feet apart, with five rows of No. 13 wire, first row 1 foot 
4 inches from ground, three others 1 foot apart, and one 
between them and top strand, which is No. 7, and fixed 
4 feet from top of post. 

Length 156 feet, width 16 feet. 

The plan of the compound trellis will, I hope, be 
understood by my readers. The two diagonal trellises 
D D and the outer trellises A A should be planted with 
upright cordon trees (see fig. 31). The centre trellis H 
may be planted with fan-trained trees, either plums or 
cherries, or, in favourable climates, with peaches, nec- 
tarines, and apricots. Plant fan-trained trees on the 
centre trellis, because they may be planted at some 
distance apart, 20 feet ; the diagonal and the outer trel- 
lises plant with plums, pears on the quince stock, and 
apples on the Paradise stock. 

The main object of a trellis of this kind is, of course, 
to afford protection during the spring, and this, I think, 
may be given in various ways. The stout wire on the 
top of the posts is intended to support either mats or 


canvas ; as the protection is for a time only, mats will 
probably be the cheapest. If the protection is intended 
to last for some years, painted canvas will answer. As 
protectors for the outer rows of trees, I think straw mats, 
or hurdles covered with straw, will be the most eco- 

For market purposes I should recommend planting 
Pitmaston Duchess, Doyenne du Cornice, Louise Bonne 
of Jersey, Souvenir du Congres, Durondeau, and pos- 
sibly other large sorts of pears ; with good cultivation 
profitable results may be realised, the first outlay not 
being very considerable. 

The following is an extract from the Standard : — 
1 The paper which Mr. Barsley read last evening at 
the meeting of the Society of Arts upon the cultivation 
of fruits is worthy of the most serious attention. The 
annual value of the fruits imported into this country is 
£6,000,000, and of this £2,000,000 is for apples and 
other hardy fruits which we could grow with advantage 
here. There is no crop more profitable than fruits, and 
apple and pear trees, if not planted too closely, admit of 
vegetables being grown beneath them, so that their 
produce may be regarded as almost pure profit. And 
yet only some 40,000 acres of land are used for market 
gardens throughout the country. Mr. Barsley pointed 
out that the railway embankments of England repre- 
sent about 200 square miles, some of which are admir- 
ably adapted for fruit culture. Allowing only a third 
as suitable, it would yet double the present area of 


orchards. The lecturer urged that landowners could do 
nothing more profitable than plant fruit trees, for these 
Boon begin to pay a fair return upon the outlay, and 
continue to increase in value until they attain a maxi- 
mum, at which they will remain for many years. Fruit in 
summer is at once wholesome and refreshing, and the 
promotion of fruit culture would have a value even as 
a temperance measure. The large sums paid for hardy 
fruits, like those paid for foreign eggs and fowls, which 
could be equally well and very profitably grown in this 
country, are so much absolutely lost to the country. The 
subject is one which we hope to see further ventilated 
at agricultural and farmers' meetings, for it is one of 
real and national importance.' 


I HAVE for many years consumed much fruitless time in 
the painful and tedious process of watching and waiting 
for the fruits of seedling pears, whose fruition will con- 
sume a good fifteen years of a man's life, hoping against 
hope, as tree after tree was condemned to the axe ; but 
that my reward would come in good time I never 
doubted, and my perseverance has been rewarded by 
the success of the ' Conference ' pear, which I submitted 
to the severe and practical criticism of the Committee of 
the National Pear Congress of October 1885, the name of 


1 Conference ' being given by the Committee as a 
memento of the meeting, being one of the few seedling 
English pears exhibited at this remarkable gathering- 
It is singular that it was raised from the baking pear 
' Leon le Clerc de Laval,' a few pips of which I planted in 
idleness, my condemned seedlings being raised from pears 
of the highest excellence. ' Conference ' is large and of 
excellent quality, and will always be readily identified 
by the peculiar salmon colour of the flesh. I may hope 
that for a century to come it will be one of the Standard 
English pears. 

c Parrot,' another of my seedlings, raised from the 
Gansel's late Bergamot, was, in the opinion of the 
Committee, destined to become a very popular pear ; the 
fruit is bergamot-shaped, of a brilliant colour, of fine 
quality, and of excessive fertility ; no other pear of the 
same class was to be found among the numerous exhibits. 

The Committee of the Pear Congress held at the 
Eoyal Horticultural Society's Gardens, Chiswick, during 
October 1885, selected the following new pears for 
classification and introduction among the sorts already 
well known ; all are of the highest quality for excellence 
of flavour, size, and hardiness ; they grow equally well on 
the pear or quince stock, and are specially adapted for 
walls, pyramids, bushes, or cordons : — 

Beurre Giffard ..... August 
Clapp's Favourite .... August 
Summer Beurre d'Aremberg (Rivers) . September 



Madame Treyve 
Beurre Dumont 
Pitmaston Duchess . 
President d'Osmanville 
Madame Andre Leroy 
Conference (Rivers) 
Emile d'Heyst . 
Beurre d'Anjou 
Marie Benoist . 
Beurre de Jonghe 
Passe Crassanne 
Duchesse de Bordeaux 
Olivier de Serres 
Nouvelle Fulvie 


Oct. Nov. 

Oct. Nov. 

Oct. Nov. 

Oct. Nov. 

Oct. Nov. 


Nov. Dec. 
Jan. Feb. 
Jan. Feb. 
Feb. March 

The following were selected and recommended by 
the Committee for the ' Orchard ' or for the ' Market 
Garden ' : — 

. Aug. Sept. 
. Sept. Oct. 

Beacon (Rivers) 
Fertility (Rivers) 
Souvenir du Congres 
Marie Louise d'Uccle 
Conference (Rivers) . 

Sept. Oct. 




All these are hardy, very fertile, and of good flavour 
and brilliant colour ; and grow well either on the pear or 
quince stock as standards, pyramids, or bushes. 



By H. Somees Rivers] 

The following insects are the most injurious to fruit 
trees, though some parts of the country, particularly 
those with a heavy clay soil, seem to be almost wholly 
free from their attacks. 

I. Coleoptera (Beetles). 

The June Bug (Pliyllopertha horticola) occasionally, 
when in great abundance, does much damage to the 
fruit trees, devouring their blossoms and leaves. The 
larva, a fat whitish grub, with the last segment of its 
body larger than the rest, lives underground, where it 
feeds on the roots of grasses and strawberries. The 
perfect insect is about half an inch long, and has 
reddish-brown elytra and dark-green head and thorax. 

The Green Rose Chafer (Cetonia auratct). The 
larva of this species is like the last, only larger, and has 
the same food. The pupa is enclosed in a large cocoon, 
covered on the outside with pellets of earth. The beetle 
is about an inch long, of a beautiful metallic green, with 
whitish spots and streaks running across the elytra, and 
looking like cracks. It attacks the strawberry blossom, 


mating off the anthers, and thus rendering the flowers 
abortive. Being a large species, this and the last-named 
beetle may be easily seen on the flowers and picked off 
by hand ; or they may be caught with a bag net whilst 
flying. If the grubs are numerous, the soil should be 
turned over and hand-picked. A tame rook or seagull 
is the best remedy for those at the roots of the plants. 

The weevils of the species Rhynchites, small metallic 
blue and copper-coloured beetles, pierce the tops of the 
shoots of various fruit trees, and lay their eggs in the 
hole, thus stopping the growth of the shoots. R. 
cupreus lays its eggs in the young plums, and then 
gnaws round the stem, so that the larva feeds in the 
blighted fruit. 

The family of the Otiorhynchidae contain three ex- 
ceedingly destructive insects : 

The Black Vine Weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is 
four or five lines in length, of a dull black colour. 

The Clay-coloured Weevil (0. picipes), rather smaller 
than the preceding species, is of a reddish-brown colour, 
mottled with ashy scales. 

The Red-legged Weevil (0. tenebricosus) is pitchy 
black and rather shining, with bright chestnut legs. 

None of the species have wings, their wing-cases 
being soldered together. Their bodies are egg-shaped 
and convex, their beaks short. 

The larvas — legless, whitish, hairy maggots — live on 
the roots of the food plant of their parents, and are to 
be found from about August to the following spring. 


The beetles seem to be almost universal feeders, attacking 
vines, apricots, nectarines, peaches, raspberries, straw- 
berries, and nuts, also vegetables. They feed on the 
shoots, leaves, buds, and bark. The two first-named do 
great damage, especially to vines in hot-houses, of which 
they eat off the shoots, whilst their larvag attack the 
roots. These weevils are night-feeders, hiding away by 
day, so that all holes, clods of earth, rubbish, &c, should 
be examined carefully ; as they are the same colour as 
the soil, they are rather difficult to see. A very good 
plan is to provide them with places to hide under, in 
the shape of pieces of slate, sacking, wood, &c. When 
found they should be killed at once, either by dropping 
into boiling water or by the finger and thumb. 

Another weevil which does a good deal of harm, 
especially in the cider counties, is the Apple-blossom 
Weevil (Anthonomus pomorun). The female attacks 
the unopened flower-buds of the apple, in which she 
makes a hole with her beak and lays a single egg, closing 
the opening after the operation. The bud grows, and 
the petals are of their normal colour ; but, instead of 
opening, as the other blossoms, under the influence of 
the spring sun, it remains closed, and after a little time 
the petals wither and turn brown, the little, wrinkled, 
white maggot having eaten the anthers, pistil, and ovary 
of the flower. The larva turns to a rust-coloured pupa 
inside the withered bud. The beetle is reddish-brown ; 
on the elytra is a V-shaped white mark on a pitchy- 
coloured patch. The bark of the infested trees should 


be kept clean, and all the useless rough pieces removed. 
All rubbish, &c, round them should be cleared away, so 
as to give the beetles no hiding places. Shaking the 
trees over sheets spread below is a good remedy, as the 
beetles fall to theground when frightened. Bandsof cloth, 
plastered over with a mixture of tar and cart-grease 
and tied round the trunks of the trees in April and May, 
will catch the female as she is going up to lay her eggs. 

The Nut Weevil (Balaninus nucum) is a very small, 
brownish beetle, easily recognised by its long and 
slender beak. The female pierces the soft young nut- 
shell by means of this beak, and lays an egg in the 
hole ; this hatches into a small, fat, white grub with a 
much wrinkled skin, which feeds on the kernel. The 
nut usually falls to the ground early, and the grub, 
when full-fed, gnaws a hole through the shell, buries 
itself in the ground, and turns to a whitish-coloured 
pupa. Nuts falling before their proper time should be 
collected and burnt before the grub has escaped. The 
beetle is to be seen about the nut bushes in the beginning 
of the summer. The pupa may be killed by stirring 
the surface soil under the trees, which exposes some of 
them to the weather and buries others too deep for them 
to be able to get up to the surface again. 

The Shot-borer (Xyleboms dispar) is a small beetle, 
one-eighth of an inch long, of a pitchy-brown colour, 
with a cylindrical body and a very large thorax, which 
has done much injury to fruit trees on the Continent 
and in America by boring its tunnels into the stems so 


as to interfere with the passage of the sap, and clear 
out some of the central pith. It is rare in this country. 
A good preventative to their attacks is said to be soft 
soap, reduced to the consistence of thick paint by the 
addition of a strong solution of washing soda in water, 
and applied to the bark on a warm morning, so as to 
allow it to dry well. 

II. Hymenoptera (Bees, Ants, Sawflies, &c). 

The Gooseberry and Currant Sawfly (Nematus ribesii) 
is of a yellow or orange colour, the head and thorax 
being marked with black. The four wings are trans- 
parent and iridescent, the fore ones measuring about 
half an inch across, from tip to tip. The female fly 
first appears about April, and lays her eggs along the 
midrib and large veins of the gooseberry and currant 
leaves. The larva is bluish-green with black dots, the 
segment behind the head and the last but one a deep 
yellow, the head and last segment black. They may be 
seen clasping the edges of the leaves with their forelegs, 
while the last half of their bodies is turned up in the 
air. They do great damage to the leafage, and often 
cause much loss. When full-fed they crawl down the 
stems of the bushes and turn to pupa? underground. 
There are several broods during the summer, the late 
ones remain in the larval state underground in their 
cocoons through the winter, and turn to pupas and then 
to perfect insects the following spring. The caterpillars 
on the bushes should be hand-picked as soon as seen. 
The bushes may also be dusted with flowers of sulphur. 


soot, &c, while the dew is on the leaves, so that the dust 
sticks on well. The ground under the bushes should 
be dressed with gas lime before forking it over in the 
spring, or the surface soil may be removed in the autumn, 
and buried in a hole dug for the purpose. It should 
be replaced by the soil from the hole and manure. 

The Slugworm is the larva of the Pear Sawfly 
(Selandria atrct), also known as Tenthredo cerasi, 
Eriocampa limacina. It is a lumpy, blackish grub, 
about half an inch long, largest towards the head end, 
and covered with a black slime which exudes from its 
skin. It devours the upper surface of the leaves of the 
pear and cherry, leaving the veins and lower skin, which 
causes them to turn brown and fall. They emit a 
sickening odour when in large numbers. At their last 
moult, they cast their black skin and become buff- 
coloured and wrinkled. The larvae turn to pupae in the 
autumn, pass the winter underground in that state, and 
appear as sawflies about July. 

These are stout-bodied, shining, black little flies ; 
their front wings, measuring about half an inch from 
tip to tip, are membranous, netted, and often stained 
with black. The larvae should be dusted with quick- 
lime or gas lime, a second application closely following 
the first, as they are able to throw off the first by ex- 
uding their slime. The trees may also be syringed 
with strong soapsuds, tobacco water, &c, and cleansed 
with pure water afterwards, or the larvae may be hand- 
picked. The ground under the trees may be treated 


for these pupas in the same way as for the gooseberry 
sawfly. The sawfly may be caught by shaking the trees 
over a sheet. 

Wasps (Vespa vulgaris) cause no little damage by 
eating the plums, pears, apples, &c. Their nests 
should be found, tar poured down the hole, and a spit 
of earth put over the mouth, after dark when they 
are all at home. The combs should be dug out about a 
day or so afterwards and destroyed. 

Ants climb up peach and nectarine trees when in 
bloom, and eat off the anthers of the flowers. A broad 
band of chalk, renewed at intervals, drawn round the 
stem of the tree, stops them from getting up, as the 
crumbling chalk affords them no foothold. 

III. Lepidoptera (Moths). 

The Currant Clearwing (Sesia tipuliformis). The 
larvae of this moth live inside the shoots of the currant, 
feeding on the pith and thus injuring them, and causing 
the leaves to die. They are whitish, with a darker 
dorsal line, and a pale-brown head. The perfect 
insect much resembles a gnat. The span of the wings 
is under an inch. Both wings are transparent, and 
tinged with yellow towards the margin, which is black; 
there is a central orange-black spot on the forewings. 
The head is black, the thorax black with a yellow 
stripe on each side, and abdomen black with three 
yellowish rings. It is to be seen in June. Withered 
shoots, noticed on the bushes in the summer, should be 
cut off and burnt, if the larva? or their galleries have 


been found by the examination of one or two of them. 
All the winter prunings should also be burnt. 

The Wood Leopard (Zeusera cescidi). The larva of 
this and the following moth feed in the trunks of many 
trees, including the apple, pear, plum, and walnut, 
boring large holes into them, and often killing the 
tree. The best method of killing them is to thrust 
a strong wire up the hole, and if the end has wet 
whitish matter on it when drawn out again, the larva 
has been reached. Paraffin oil, tobacco water, &c, 
may be injected up the holes with a sharp-nozzled 
syringe. The brown pupas found in cocoons, made of 
little bits of wood, at the mouths of the holes in May, 
June, and July, should be destroyed. The full-grown 
larva of the present insect is about an inch and a half 
long, yellow, with raised shining black spots. There 
is a black horny plate on the segment behind the head, 
and a black patch on the anal segment. The moth is 
large and sluggish, and may be found on palings and 
trunks of trees. Its wings have a span of two to two 
and three-quarter inches, and are semi-transparent, 
white with numerous blue-black spots, which are less 
distinct on the hind wings. The thorax is white, 
spotted with black, and the abdomen grey. 

The Goat Moth (Cossus lignijoerclci). The remarks 
on the damage done by the larva of the last species 
apply also to the larva of this. It is about three 
inches long when full grown, and is a sort of dirty 
yellowish or flesh colour, with a broad dark reddish 



stripe along its back. The moth measures between 
three and four inches across the fore wings, which are 
pale brown mottled with whitish, and marked with 
short, irregular, wavy, transverse lines. The hind wings 
are of a pale smoky colour, with similar but indistinct 
markings. The thorax is grey, marked across with 
darker, and the abdomen alternately ringed with brown 
and grey. It is found, from June to September, in the 
same places as the wood leopard. 

The Figure of 8 Moth (Diloba caerulocephala). 
The larva of this moth, called the ' Bluehead,' feeds on 
the leaves of the plum, apple, &c. It is about two inches 
long when full fed, smoky green above, and yellowish- 
green below, with a yellow interrupted dorsal stripe, 
and a yellow stripe on each side below the spiracles ; 
head blue, spotted with black, as are all the segments 
of the body. They spin cocoons formed of bits of 
bark, &c, in which they turn to reddish-brown pupae, 
on the twigs and stems of the trees. The moth comes 
out about September. The fore wings measure about 
an inch and a quarter across, and are greyish-brown, 
with two small white kidney-shaped spots in the 
middle of each, resembling the figure 8. The hind 
wings are brownish. The caterpillars easily drop off 
the trees, so that shaking them over sheets and col- 
lecting those that fall] is the best method of destroying 
them. They may also be sprayed with Paris green, &c. 

The Buff-tip Moth (Pygcera bucephala). The larva 
of this species sometimes does serious damage to the 


foliage of the nut, feeding also on the lime, elm, &c. 
It is about an inch and three-quarters long when full 
grown, yellow, with a black head and black lines, com- 
posed of short marks, running from head to tail. There 
is a transverse orange band on each segment, and there 
are scattered silky hairs over the whole larva. The 
brown pupa is to be found at the foot of the food tree, 
either just below the ground or amongst the fallen 
leaves. The fore wings of the moth have a span of over 
two inches, and are purplish-grey, with rusty-coloured 
and black markings, the tip with a pale ochreous or 
buff patch ; the hind wings are yellowish-white. The 
best ways of destroying the larva are to shake it down 
and hand-pick it. 

The Lackey Moth (Gasteropacha neustria). The 
brightly-coloured larvas of this species are injurious to 
the foliage of the apple and also other fruit trees. 
They are about an inch and a half long when full fed, 
bluish-grey, with two black eyelike spots on the head, 
two black spots with a scarlet space between them on 
the next segment, and three scarlet or orange stripes 
along each side of the body, the two lowest being 
divided by a blue stripe. It is hairy, the hairs being dark 
brown above, and golden brown towards the legs. When, 
about May, they first come out of the eggs, which are 
fixed in bands round the twigs of the food tree, and 
pass through the winter, the larvae are small, black, 
and hairy, and spin large web nests on the trees, in 
which they live together, going out from them to feed. 

o 2 


They disperse before they become full fed, and after- 
wards spin a cocoon of moderately firm texture, inter- 
mixed with a sulphur-coloured powder. The moth 
appears about August. Its fore wings measure about 
an inch and a half from tip to tip. The colour varies 
from pale ochreous to sandy red. The fore wings have 
two transverse brown streaks across the middle, between 
which the colouring is sometimes somewhat darker. 
The nests should be cut from the trees when the larvas 
are in them, on a wet day or early in the morning, and 
destroyed immediately. 

The Gold-tail Moth (Porthesia auriflua) is a satiny 
white moth, with a brownish-black spot on each of the 
fore wings, and a yellow tuft of hair at the extremity 
of its abdomen. It measures a little over an inch 
across the wings. It is found in August. The larva 
feeds on the leaves of the apple, &c, and is occasionally 
very abundant. It is black with a whitish dorsal 
stripe, interrupted by small humps on the fifth, sixth, 
and twelfth segments ; the reddish line along each side 
of this stripe has a row of white dots along it, and 
there is another reddish line above the legs. It occurs 
in May and June. It is destroyed by hand-picking 
and washes, like the other orchard larvas. 

The Magpie or Currant Moth (Abraxas grossu- 
lariata). The larva of this moth, called a ' looper,' from 
the loop which it makes with its body when walking, 
sometimes appears in great numbers on the leaves of 
the gooseberry and currant, and nearly strips the 


bushes of them. It is cream-coloured, with black spots 
all over, and two large black dorsal spots on each 
segment ; there is a reddish-orange stripe along each 
side over the spiracles ; the whole of the second segment 
and the under side of the third and fourth, and of the 
four last segments, is also reddish-orange. It is hatched 
in August or September, feeds for a little while, and 
then passes through the winter, either sheltered under 
the leaves on the ground, or spins some leaves together 
and hangs in them from the twigs, to which they are 
attached by silk threads. It appears again with the 
new leaves, and it is then that it does most damage 
About June they spin a slight transparent cocoon, 
attached to the twigs of the bushes, or to palings, &c, 
in which they change to yellow pupge, which afterwards 
become shining black with orange-coloured rings. The 
moth appears in July and August ; it has a very 
sluggish flight, frequently flying by day, and may 
be easily captured. The wings measure about two 
inches across, and are white with several rows of black 
spots. The fore wings have an orange blotch at the 
base, and a slender orange band beyond the middle 
The head is black, the thorax orange, with a large 
black spot in the middle, and the abdomen orange, 
with five rows of black spots. The markings are very 
variable. The fallen leaves should be removed from be- 
low the bushes in the winter, and burnt, a thin film of 
the surface soil being also skimmed up with them ; the 
bushes should be also examined for those which have 


spun the leaves up. The caterpillars may be destroyed 
in the spring by hand-picking and dusting the leaves 
with quicklime, soot, &c, when the dew is on them, so 
as the powder sticks. In the winter, the ground under 
the bushes should be dressed with gas lime. 

The V Moth (Halia wavarict). The looper cater- 
pillar of this moth is pale green with black spots, and 
four wavy yellowish-white lines on the back, and a 
yellow line over the spiracles. It is found on currant 
and gooseberry bushes in May, and not unfrequently 
strips these of their leaves. The moth is a little over 
an inch across the wings, pale grey with a faint violet 
tinge ; the fore wings have a black V-like mark near 
the centre. It is found in July. The same remedies 
may be employed as for the magpie moth. 

The Winter Moth (Gheimatobia brumatcu) is perhaps 
the best known and most injurious of our insect pests. 
The male moth measures a little over an inch across 
the fore wings, which are greyish-brown, with several 
indistinct, wavy, darker transverse lines ; the hind 
wings are greyish-white. The female is incapable of 
flight, having only very short rudimentary wings, which 
are dusky-grey, with two transverse lines on the fore, 
and one on the hind wings. Her legs are long, and 
her abdomen very large, giving her the appearance of a 
spider. Her supply of eggs runs up to about 250. 
She appears about the end of October, and creeps up 
the stems of the trees to lay her eggs on the buds or 
twigs, and particularly in the crevices of the bark. 


The batches of eggs look rather like patches of greyish 
mould. The larvas vary, being sometimes green, 
sometimes brown, striped with whitish along the back. 
They attack everything : buds, flowers, foliage, and 
growing fruit, and, when in great numbers, leave the 
tree brown and scorched-looking. They are full fed 
about the end of May or beginning of June, and 
turn to pupee below the surface of the ground at the 
foot of the trees. The fact of the female having such 
a lot of eggs shows the great importance of preventing 
her from laying them ; this is done by 'sticky-banding' 
the trees. A strip of cloth or brown paper is tied 
closely round the trunks of the trees, and some sticky 
substance smeared on it. Cart-grease mixed with 
equal proportions of Stockholm tar is perhaps the best. 
The bands must be examined frequently, and the cap- 
tured insects removed. They should be renewed when 
necessary, and should be begun in good time. The 
caterpillars may be syringed with various washes, such 
as dilute solutions of soft soap, quassia chips, paraffin, 
&c, when they are young and have not protected 
themselves by drawing the leaves together. When 
they are nearly full fed, they may be shaken down on 
to sheets spread below. Gas lime forked a few inches 
into the soil between the end of June and October will 
destroy the pupee. These remedies also apply to the 
Mottled Umber moth, the description of which follows. 
The Mottled Umber (Hijbernia defoliaria). The 
male of this moth measures about an inch and three- 


quarters across the fore wings, which are pale ochreous 
with dark-brown transverse bands; there is a dark 
spot in the middle of each wing. The hind wings are 
paler, and, like the fore, are sprinkled over with small 
dots. The female is entirely apterous, dark brown, 
with two dark spots on each segment. They appear 
about October. The looper larva is reddish-brown on 
the back, bordered by a narrow black stripe on each 
side, and bright yellow below. It is very injurious to 
the various fruit trees. 

The March Moth (Anisopteryx Aescularia) is another 
moth with an apterous female, whose larva is injurious 
to fruit trees. The female is brown, with an anal tuft 
of hair. The male measures an inch and a half across 
the wings. These are fuscous, with various darker or 
paler transverse bands and lines ; the hind wings are 
lighter, with a zigzagged line across them. They 
appear in March, and lay their eggs in bands round the 
twigs. The larva is green, marbled with darker, a 
white line along each side, and a pale spiracular line. 
Where practicable, the ends of the twigs should be 
examined in March, and the bands of eggs destroyed. 
The female may be caught by sticky-banding the trees. 

The Codlin Moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). The 
larva of this little moth lives in the inside of apples 
and pears, chiefly the former, causing them to fall 
prematurely, when they are known as ' worm-eaten.' 
The moth lays an egg in the eye of the newly-formed 
fruit, from which the grub hatches, and eats its way 


into the apple. It passes by the core, and makes for 
the stem end, where it bores a hole out of which to 
throw its excrement ; this done, it turns back again 
and gets to the core, where it feeds on the pips, and 
thus causes the apple to fall. After this has happened, 
the grub leaves the apple and crawls up a neighbouring 
tree, where, having found a convenient place in the 
rough bark, &c, it spins a cocoon. It is a whitish, 
hairy grub, about half an inch long, with a black head, 
and eight spots on each segment. It remains in the 
larval state for several weeks, and then changes to a 
pupa, which passes through the winter. The moth 
measures about half an inch across the wings, which 
are grey, with numerous darker transverse lines ; at the 
bottom corner is a brownish-red spot, with paler mark- 
ings on it, and edged with coppery. All the fallen 
apples should be collected at once and destroyed. An 
artificial resting-place may be made for the grub to 
change to a pupa, by tying bands of cloth, paper, &c, 
round the tree trunks, undoing and examining them 
from time to time. 

The Red Plum Grub is the larva of Garpocapsa fune- 
brana, an allied species to the last. The grub is pale 
red, with a black head ; the second segment is yellowish- 
brown. It goes to work in the same way as the last, 
causing the plum to drop prematurely. The same 
remedies may also be applied to it as to the last. The 
moth is smaller than the codlin moth, measuring only 
half an inch across the fore wings. These are grey, 


clouded with smoky grey ; at the bottom angle is an 
indistinct spot edged with shining pale grey, and with 
four black dots in it. 

The Small Ermine (Hyponomeida padelhis). The 
larva3 of this little moth are exceedingly destructive to 
the foliage of various fruit trees. They are about half 
an inch long, of a dirty grey colour, changing to dirty 
yellow when full grown, with black spots; they live 
gregariously, spinning webs, from which they go out to 
feed. When full fed they change to pupas inside their 
web, spinning a slight cocoon. The moth appears 
in July. It measures about three-quarters of an inch, 
or under, across the fore wings, which are white tinged 
with grey, sometimes quite grey, with three rows of 
black dots ; the hind wings are lead colour, with long 
fringes. The colours are very variable. The nests 
should be cut off when the larvas or pupas are inside, 
and destroyed. The trees and nests may also be 
syringed with soft soap, mixed as thickly as practicable, 
and a little paraffin added. 

The Pear-blister Moth (Lyonetia Clerckella). The 
larvas of this minute moth attack the leaves of the 
pear, sometimes also of the apple and cherry, in the 
inside of which they live, making mines, which appear 
as long, serpentine, blister-like lines and patches. The 
larva is pale green, with a rusty black-coloured head. 
There are two broods of them in the year — one from the 
end of May till the end of July, and another in Sep- 
tember and October. They go down to the ground 


when full fed, and turn to pupse under the clods of earth 
and amongst the fallen leaves. The perfect insect from 
the first brood appears from June to August, and from the 
second in November. Some of these last appear to 
hybernate and come out again in April. The fore 
wings measure only one third of an inch across, and 
are whitish, with a longitudinal fuscous blotch beyond 
the middle, and a deep black spot on the apex. Some- 
times the fore wings are suffused with a bronzy colour, 
concealing nearly all the markings. All leaves and 
rubbish should be carefully raked up from below the 
trees and burnt, in order to destroy the pupa). The 
leaves where the mines are observed should be picked 
off and destroyed with the grubs in them. 

IV. Homoptera (Aphides, Scale Insects, &c). 

The different aphides are too variable in colour and 
form to describe without entering minutely into the 
subject. We have chiefly to deal with the apple (A. 
malt), the plum (A. pruni), and the cherry aphis 
(A. cerasi), the two first being chiefly greenish and the 
last black, and are known as the green fly and the black 
fly. They pierce the leaves and shoots of the trees 
with their beaks, and do much damage by drawing-off 
the sap, whilst they exude a sweet gummy matter, 
known as ' Honeydew,' which falls on the other leaves 
and makes them dirty and unhealthy. The best way 
to deal with them is with washes of soft soap and 
quassia, tobacco water, &c. ; the shoots may either be 
brushed with a painter's brush dipped in the mixtures 


or else syringed with them. The primings should 
always be carefully destroyed. 

The American Blight, Woolly Aphis (Schizoneura 
lanigera), infests the apple, and may be recognised by 
the white cottony or woolly-looking growth on the 
insect,, whence one of its names. This aphis is chiefly 
to be found in neglected orchards, where it collects in 
the cracks in the bark, See, of the trees. The washes of 
soap recommended for the other aphides may also be 
used successfully for this species. 

The Mussel Scale (Myt/tta&pispomorii/nb), so called from 
its resemblance to a minute mussel scale, attacks many 
different kinds of trees, but particularly the apple. The 
scales are not the insects themselves, but a covering by 
which the female, a whitish grublike insect, is sheltered, 
and under which she lays her eggs and then dies. The 
male is a minute two-winged fly. The young ones 
which hatch from these eggs are very small, flat, and 
whitish. They have eyes, antennae or feelers, a rostra 
or beak, and six legs, and run about actively for a short 
time before they settle down, fix themselves on to the 
bark, and after a time change to pupse. They 
damage the young shoots by inserting their rostra 
and sucking away the sap, also injuring the cells of the 
shoot. The scales should be removed by lathering the 
shoots with soft soap and then scraping them with a 
blunt knife. It is best done in the spring, as then the 
larvae are also killed. 

The Oyster Scale (Dia&pis ostreevformis) is another 


little brown scale, taking its name from the resemblance 
to a miniature oyster shell. It attacks the pear, and 
Bhould be destroyed in the same way as the mussel scale. 

The Orange-tree Scale (Lecanium hesperidum) should 
be treated in the same manner. 

The White Woolly Currant Scale (Pulvinaria ribesice) 
has only been lately observed in England, though 
common on the Continent. The scale itself is dark- 
greyish brown. It exudes a white woolly matter, which 
forms a nest for its eggs. The larvae are orange- 
coloured, and, like those of the other scales, run about on 
the plants for a little time hfifr.™ -~ L ' 1 * 


pours oi legs, two 

. — .,ig lorwards and two backwards. Its colour 
varies from yellowish white to reddish. It is very 
injurious to the leaves of the plum and other fruit trees, 
spinning a white and shiny web on the under side, and 
making them assume a yellowish, marbled appearance 
on the upper surface. Hot dry weather seems to be 
most favourable to them ; therefore the trees should be 


little brown scale, taking its name from the resemblance 
to a miniature oyster shell. It attacks the pear, and 
Bhould be destroyed in the same way as the mussel scale. 

The Orange-tree Scale (Lecanium hesperiduni) should 
be treated in the same manner. 

The White Woolly Currant Scale (Pulvinaria ribesice) 
has only been lately observed in England, though 
common on the Continent. The scale itself is dark- 
greyish brown. It exudes a white woolly matter, which 
forms a nest for its eggs. The larvse are orange- 
coloured, and, like those of the other scales, run about on 
the plants for a little time before settling down. They 
attack the black, white, and red currants, the injury 
arising from the same causes as that done by the other 
scale insects. The same remedy may be employed as 
for the mussel scale. 

Having now come to the end of our list of insects, 
mention must be made of two injurious little animals 
belonging to the order of the Acarina or Mites, of the 
class Arachnida. 

The Red Spider (Tetranychus telarius) is an ex- 
ceedingly small oval mite, with four pairs of legs, two 
pointing forwards and two backwards. Its colour 
varies from yellowish white to reddish. It is very 
injurious to the leaves of the plum and other fruit trees, 
spinning a white and shiny web on the under side, and 
making them assume a yellowish, marbled appearance 
on the upper surface. Hot dry weather seems to be 
most favourable to them ; therefore the trees should be 


well syringed with water, which operation also renders 
them more healthy. The best wash for syringing or 
brushing the infested leaves is made by taking four 
ounces of sulphuret of lime, and two ounces of soft soap 
to a gallon of water ; the first two ingredients must be 
well mixed, and then the water gradually added, the 
mixture being stirred all the time, when a uniform fluid 
is obtained. It should be used warm. 

The Currant-gall Mite (Phytoptus ribis). These mi- 
croscopic mites lodge in lai'ge numbers in the leaf buds of 
the black currant and cause them to swell, giving rise to 
an abortive growth of the bud, or sometimes destroying it 
altogether. The mite is long and cylindrical in shape, 
with the skin transversely wrinkled and with several 
large bristles : the four legs are placed under the fore 
part of the body. When it has once established itself 
it is extremely difficult to eradicate. Attacked shoots 
should be cut off and burnt. The bushes should be 
pruned closely in the autumn and the prunings burnt. 
In very bad cases the bushes should be rooted up and 

In conclusion I may say that insectivorous birds, such 
as the warblers and tits, are of great service in de- 
stroying these pests, killing them where we should often 
be unable to reach them, and should be encouraged as 
much as possible. 

Note. — A receipt for a quassia wash will be found 
at p. 143. 



Apple, American blight, cure 
for, 76 

— as wall trees, 98 

— burr knot stock, 72 

— bushes on paradise stock, 79 

— bushes for a market garden, 


— dormant beds, to notch, 75 

— double lateral cordon, 92 

— doucin stock, 71 

— in pots, 73 

— pommier de paradis, 73 

— pyramid, summer pinching 

of, 77 

— pyramidal, on crab, 100 

— quadruple cordon, 92 

— root-pruning of, 74 

— selection of sorts, 78, 79, 81, 


— summer pinching of bushes, 


— single lateral cordons, 87 

— to keep hares from, (iwte) 81 

— vertical cordon, 97 
Apricot, pyramidal, 119 

Canker, 150 

Cherry, as bushes, 109 

— biennial removal of, 117 

— cure for aphis, (note) 115 

Cherry, double - grafting of, 

— on the common stock, 116 

— on the mahaleb stock, 109 

— pruning of, 112 

— pyramidal, 113 

— selection of sorts, 114, 119 

— summer pinching of, 111 

— vertical cordons, 115 
Cordon training, 164 
Currant, pyramidal, 119 

Diagonal single cordons, 48 
Double grafting of fruit trees, 

Dwarf walls, proper distance 

for trees, 40 

Figs, as half-standards and 

bushes, 121 
Filberts, as standards, 120 
Fruit trees, advantages of root 

pruning of, 59 

— biennial removal of, 125 

— distances to plant, 146 

Glass fruit ridge, 91 
Ground vinery, 151-160 

Insect pests, 186 



Market garden bush apple 

trees, 83 
Medlar, pyramidal, 119 
Moss on trees, to destroy, 

(note) 125 

Old fruit-trees, root-pruning 
of, 57 

Peach border, how to prepare, 

— on dwarf walls, 42 
Pear, as a hedge, 53 

— as bushes on the quince 

stock, 20 

— biennial root-pruning on 

wall trees, 44 

— budding with fruit buds 5 

(note) 7 

— dormant buds, to notch, 7 

— double-grafted, (note) 32 

— espalier on quince stocks, 


— for dwarf walls, 40 

— gathering the fruit, 66 

— keeping fruit in a green- 

house, 69 

— mature pyramid, 8 

— number of fruit on, 2 

— ornamental pyramids of, 


— planting, 61 

— proper time to plant, 2 

— protecting wall trees, 137 


Pear, pruning, 5-13 

— pyramid on the pear stock, 


— root-pruning of, on the pear 

stock, 56 

— root-pruning on quince, 13 

— semi-pyramids for walls, 32 

— shortening leading shoots, 


— sorts for bushes, 23 

— pyramids, 17 

— sorts for upright cordons, 32 

— summer pinching, 8 

— top-dressing, 56 

— to store for winter, 68 

— under glass, 35 

— upright cordon training, 28 

— upright cordons for trellises, 


— upright cordons for walls, 


— young pyramid, 5 
Plum, as bushes, 105 
— - as cordons, 106 

— on sloe, 103 

— pyramidal, 102 

— selection of sorts, 104 
Pyramidal fruit trees, summer 

pinching of, 9-11 

— planting, (note) 61 

Standard orchard trees, 139 
Strawberries in ground vinery, 

Spollisicoode & Co. Printers, New-street Square, London. 

The following Publications, sold also by Messrs. LONG- 
MANS & CO., 39 Paternoster Row, can be had per 
post from THOMAS RIVERS & SON, Sawbridge- 
worth, at the following rates:— 



Edited and arranged by T. FRANCIS RIVERS. 

Containing the History and Culture of Roses, with Descriptions of a 
few Select Varieties, Culture of Roses in Pots, &c. 







Edited and arranged by T. FRANCIS RIVERS. 

With Hints for the Cultivation of the Pear grafted on the Quince 

Stock ; the Cherry on the Cerasus Mahaleb, or Perfumed Cherry ; and 

the Apple on the Paradise Stock. 

is. ; post-free, is. 3d. 







3d. post-free. 





The Nurseries extend over more than 100 acres of 
land exclusively devoted to the cultivation of Fruit 
Trees and Roses, the soil being eminently adapted for 
this purpose. The climate produces a hardy constitution 
in all Fruit Trees and Roses, and they will bear removal 
to any part of the United Kingdom without injury. 

The Nurseries are near the Harlow and Sawb ridge - 
worth Stations on the Great Eastern Railway. 

The Orchard Houses contain Specimen Trees on Fruit 
during the greater part of the Summer. 


The follouing varieties of Fruits have been raised from 
seed by Mr. RIVERS, and can be recommended by him 
for cultivation. A full description of each sort is given 
in the Catalogue of Fruits by Messrs. RIVERS & SONS, 
Sawbridgeworth, which can be had on application, post- 
free for 3d. 



Summer Beurr^d'Arem 

Dr. Hogg. 



St. Swithin's. 







Albert Victor, 







Improved Downton. 

Lord Napier. 



Pine Apple. 

Rivers' Orange. 


Stan wick Elruge, 


White Rivers. 



Alexandra Noblesse. 

Crimson Galande. 
Dr. Hogg. 
Early Alfred. 
Early Beatrice. 
Early Leopold. 
Early Louise. 
Early Rivers. 
Early Victoria. 


Golden Eagle. 


Lady Palmerston. 

Large Early Mignonne. 



Princess of Wales. 

Rivers' Early York. 

Sea Eagle. 

The Nectarine Peach. 



Autumn Compote. 

Blue Prolific. 



Early Transparent Gage. 

Red Transparent Gage. 

Early Favourite. 

Early Rivers. 

Grand Duke. 


Late Transparent Gage 
Golden Transparent 

Late Prolific. 
Late Rivers. 

Rivers' Early Damson. 
The Czar. 

"Books DATE 


NOV 24 194 


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